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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A management plan for the rehabilitation of surface mined coal lands in the east Kootenay, British Columbia Dick, John Howard 1979

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A MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE REHABILITATION OF SURFACE MINED COAL LANDS IN THE EAST KOOTENAY, BRITISH COLUMBIA BY JOHN HOWARD DICK B.Sc. University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Forestry) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, December, 1978 © JOHN HOWARD DICK I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of' t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of-B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I' agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purpose may be granted, by t h e Head o f my Department o r h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my v / r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f F o r e s t r y The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia V a n c o u v e r , B.C. V6T 1W5 Date Dfcc.16 1976. ABSTRACT The c o n c e p t o f t h i s t h e s i s was d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g t h e a u t h o r ' s two y e a r s o f work w i t h t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f Min e s and P e t r o l e u m Resources as a R e c l a m a t i o n I n s p e c t o r . D u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d (1973-75) one o f t h e a u t h o r ' s major d u t i e s was t o r e v i e w r e c l a m a t i o n p l a n s p r e p a r e d by m i n i n g companies, p u r s u a n t t o S e c t i o n 8 o f t h e Coal Mines Regulation Act3 as a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e i t h e r s u r f a c e m i n i n g p e r m i t s o r p e r m i t e x t e n s i o n s . The q u a l i t y o f t h e s e r e p o r t s v a r i e d g r e a t l y , w i t h few b e i n g r e a l l y c o m p r e h e n s i v e . No u n i f o r m s t a n d a r d o f r e c l a m a t i o n r e p o r t was a c h i e v e d by i n d u s t r y o r , perhaps even more i m p o r t a n t , demanded by t h e M i n i s t r y . R e c l a m a t i o n programmes on many m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s were s u f f e r i n g from an o b v i o u s l a c k o f management p l a n n i n g . Work was b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n w i t h o u t c l e a r o b j e c t -i v e s , and no a p p a r e n t a t t e m p t was b e i n g made t o d e v e l o p an o n g o i n g p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The a u t h o r contends t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e i m p l i c i t i n t h e t e r m "management p l a n n i n g " : 1. A s t a t e d management p e r i o d ; 2. An i n i t i a l c o l l e c t i o n o f f a c t s and a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a r e a t o be managed; 3. An a n a l y s i s o f t h e f a c t s and an a s s e s s -ment o f management o p t i o n s ; i i i 4 . The d e s i g n a t i o n o f management o b j e c t i v e s ; 5 . The d e s i g n o f a programme t o accomplish the o b j e c t i v e s ; and 6. A r e c o r d o f r e s u l t s and a c o l l e c t i o n o f f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n by i n v e n t o r y and r e s e a r c h t o be used i n f o r m u l a t i n g the p l a n f o r the next management p e r i o d . He f u r t h e r e x p l a i n s t h a t , by i n t e n t , S e c t i o n 8 o f the Coal Mine's Regulation Act would appear a t p r e s e n t t o r e q u i r e most o f these elements o f a management pro c e s s i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f a r e c l a m a t i o n r e p o r t . The o b j e c t o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o develop and i l l u s t r a t e a management p l a n format t h a t r e f l e c t s the continuous p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s o u t l i n e d above. As a b a s i s f o r the p l a n the ex p e r i e n c e and i n f o r m a t i o n gained by the author a t K a i s e r Resources L t d . ' s mining o p e r a t i o n i n Sparwood d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1971-1973 are summarized and i n t e r p r e t e d , and management p r e s c r i p t i o n s formed from t h a t s y n t h e s i s . The t h e s i s i s w r i t t e n as though i t were a management p l a n prepared i n e a r l y 19 75 f o r the management p e r i o d 1975-1978. In summary, the format o f the p l a n i s e s s e n t i a l l y as f o l l o w s : 1. An i n i t i a l c o l l e c t i o n o f f a c t s and d e s c r i p t i o n o f the are a t o be managed. T h i s p o r t i o n o f the p l a n c o n s i s t s o f two c h a p t e r s ; a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the b i o p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the mining a r e a , and a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the mining environment i v t o be r e c l a i m e d . The b i o p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n i n c l u d e s t o p o g r a p h y , d r a i n a g e , b e d r o c k and s u r f i c i a l g e o l o g y , s o i l s , c l i m a t e , v e g e t a t i o n and f a u n a . The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e m i n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t d e a l s w i t h t h e h i s t o r y o f c o a l m i n i n g i n t h e E a s t Kootenay, t h e t e n u r e o f t h e m i n i n g a r e a , and t h e l o c a t i o n , e x t e n t and n a t u r e o f m i n i n g , m i l l i n g and e x p l o r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s . 2. An assessment o f Management O p t i o n s . Two i t e m s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be i m p o r t a n t i n a s s e s s i n g r e c l a m a t i o n management o p t i o n s ; t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t o f t h e m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n , and t h e l e g a l r e s p o n -s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e m i n i n g company f o r r e c l a m a t i o n . B a s i c a l l y , r e c l a m a t i o n i s u n d e r t a k e n i n o r d e r t o m i t i g a t e some o f t h e a d v e r s e e f f e c t s o f m i n i n g on t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e major i m p a c t s o f m i n i n g , c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h o s e t h a t can be m i t i g a t e d by r e c l a m a t i o n , i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f management o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s c h a p t e r o f t h e p l a n c o n t a i n s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f l a n d c a p a b i l i t y f o r f o r e s t r y , a g r i c u l t u r e , w i l d l i f e and r e c r e a t i o n , and a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i m p a c t o f m i n i n g on l a n d c a p a b i l i t y , w a t e r q u a l i t y and t h e f i s h e r y r e s o u r c e . The second c h a p t e r o f t h i s p o r t i o n o f th e p l a n d e a l s w i t h t h e l e g i s l a t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework f o r r e c l a m a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The Coal Mines Regulation Act c u r r e n t l y s t a t e s t h a t V r e c l a m a t i o n must be c a r r i e d o u t t o a l e v e l s a t i s f a c t o r y t o t h e M i n i s t e r , w i t h o u t d e f i n i n g what t h a t l e v e l i s . T h i s c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s p r e s e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e A c t , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s f o r r e c l a m a t i o n e n f o r c e -ment, and s p e c u l a t e s on t h e form t h a t e v e n t u a l r e c l a m a t i o n s t a n d a r d s m i g h t t a k e . 3 . The d e s i g n a t i o n o f management o b j e c t i v e s . Management o b j e c t i v e s a r e d e f i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s o f t h e m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n and on t h e l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r r e c l a m a t i o n . F o r t h e K a i s e r R e s o u r c e s L t d . o p e r a t i o n t h e o v e r a l l r e c l a m a t i o n management o b j e c t i v e s a r e d e f i n e d a s : i . To r e - e s t a b l i s h w a t e r s h e d v a l u e s , by e i t h e r m e c h a n i c a l means o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g v e g e t a t i o n c o v e r , as soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r t h e c e s s a t i o n o f m i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s on any p a r t i c u l a r p a r c e l o f l a n d . i i . To a c c o m p l i s h w a t e r s h e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n a manner t h a t i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e p o t e n t i a l prime s u r f a c e use o f t h e l a n d and c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p o s t - m i n i n g s i t e c o n d i t i o n s . On t h e b a s i s o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f b o t h t h e m i n i n g e n v i r o n -ment and l a n d c a p a b i l i t y , two l a n d use o b j e c t i v e s a r e p r o p o s e d : a . To p r o v i d e f o o d and, u l t i m a t e l y , c o v e r f o r mule d e e r , Rocky M o u n t a i n e l k and moose t h r o u g h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a p p r o p r i a t e p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s . v i b. To r e - e s t a b l i s h aesthetic values on a l l disturbed lands and, where possible, to -enhance opportunities f o r outdoor recreation. 4 . The design of a programme to accomplish the objectives. This section of the plan consists of a discussion of the major constraints to successful reclamation and a d e s c r i p t i o n of the various components of the reclamation programme. The most s i g n i f i c a n t constraints to reclamation on the Kaiser Resources Ltd. operation are considered to be, i n decreasing order of importance: surface i n s t a b i l i t y , s o i l temperature, s o i l compaction, s o i l chemistry, and increasing elevation. Seven components of the reclamation programme are described - species s e l e c t i o n , seed c o l l e c t i o n , plant propagation, s i t e preparation, seeding, planting, and tending. In each case, past experience, including cost information, i s summarized, and major pre s c r i p t i o n s proposed f o r the coming management period. 5. Assessment of Results. The assessment programme r e l a t e s to the management objectives, and focuses p r i m a r i l y on watershed and w i l d l i f e habitat parameters. Parameters to be measured r e l a t e to water q u a l i t y , protective cover, species composition, the degree of ungulate use, forage quantity and forage q u a l i t y . v i i The management p l a n t h u s p r e p a r e d p r o v i d e s t h e frame-work f o r t h e two f i n a l s t e p s i n t h e management p r o c e s s f o r any p a r t i c u l a r management p e r i o d ; t h e s u b d i v i s i o n o f t h e a r e a f o r management p u r p o s e s , and t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f o p e r a t i o n a l p l a n s . The management a r e a i s d i v i d e d , p r i m a r i l y f o r r e c o r d k e e p i n g , i n t o compartments, w h i c h a r e permanent unit's b ased on t o p o g r a p h y , a c c e s s o r m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s , and sub-compartments, w h i c h a r e tem p o r a r y s u b d i v i s i o n s o f compartments based on t r e a t m e n t . Each compartment s h o u l d be s u b j e c t t o a s p e c i f i c l a n d - u s e o b j e c t i v e . Sub-compartments may be combined o r f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d i n th e l i g h t o f f u t u r e o p e r a t i o n s . The l a s t s t e p i n t h e p r o c e s s i s t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a n n u a l o p e r a t i o n a l p l a n s . These o u t l i n e , f o r each y e a r o f t h e management p e r i o d , t h e s p e c i f i c o p e r a t i o n s t o be u n d e r t a k e n and t h e p r o j e c t e d c o s t s o f e a c h . O p e r a t i o n a l p l a n s become t h e b a s i s f o r t h e development o f a n n u a l b u d g e t s . v i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Ch a p t e r Page I INTRODUCTION 1 I I . A DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA . ... 3 2 . 1 L o c a t i o n 8 2 . 2 Topography and D r a i n a g e 1 0 2 . 3 Geology and S o i l s 2 1 2 . 4 C l i m a t e 3 1 2 . 5 V e g e t a t i o n 3 6 2 . 6 W i l d l i f e and F.ish 4 5 2 . 7 Map and A i r p h o t o R e f e r e n c e s 5 1 I I I THE KAISER RESOURCES LTD. OPERATION 5 2 3 . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 5 2 3 . 2 A H i s t o r y o f C o a l M i n i n g I n The E a s t Kootenay 5 4 3 . 3 Land Tenure 6 4 3 . 4 N a t u r e and E x t e n t o f M i n i n g O p e r a t i o n s 7 1 3 . 4 . 1 G l o s s a r y o f M i n i n g Terms .... 7 1 3 . 4 . 2 S u r f a c e M i n i n g 7 7 3 . 4 . 3 Underground M i n i n g 9 5 3 . 4 . 4 Supplementary O p e r a t i o n s .... 1 0 2 3 . 4 . 4 . 1 P r e p a r a t i o n P l a n t s . 1 0 4 3 . 4 . 4 . 2 A c c e s s and H a u l Roads 1 0 6 3 . 4 . 4 . 3 O f f i c e and Maintenance S t r u c t u r e s I l l 3 . 4 . 5 A T a b u l a r Summary o f Land D i s t u r b a n c e s A s s o c i a t e d . W i t h t h e M i n i n g O p e r a t i o n . I l l 3 . 5 N a t u r e and E x t e n t o f E x p l o r a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s I l l i x Chapter Page _ IV ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT. 125 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 125 4.2 Mining O p e r a t i o n 126 4.2.1 Land Use H i s t o r y 126 4.2.2. Land C a p a b i l i t y and Impact by Resource 127 4.2.2.1 F o r e s t r y 127 4.2.2.2 Ungulates 128 4.2.2.3 A g r i c u l t u r e 129 4.2.2.4 R e c r e a t i o n 129 4.2.2.5 Land C a p a b i l i t y A n a l y s i s and Ta b u l a r Summary Of Land D i s -turbance by C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s .. 130 4.2.2.6 Impact on Water and the F i s h e r y Resource 130 4.3 E x p l o r a t i o n O p e r a t i o n s 134 4.3.1 W i l d l i f e 134 4.3.2 R e c r e a t i o n .137 4.3.3 Water and the F i s h e r y Resource 138 4.4 Environmental Impact M a t r i x 139 V THE LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR RECLAMATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA .141 5.1 The C o a l Mines R e g u l a t i o n A c t 141 5.2 Standards o f Reclamation 153 VI THE RECLAMATION PROGRAMME 162 6.1 O b j e c t i v e s o f Reclamation 162 6.1.1 G e n e r a l Statement 162 6.1.2 Land-Use O b j e c t i v e s 163 X Chapter Page 6.2 C o n s t r a i n t s t o Reclamation 164 6.2.1 S u r f a c e I n s t a b i l i t y I 6 4 6.2.2 S o i l Temperature 1 6 7 6.2.3 S o i l Compaction 1 6 9 6.2.4 S o i l Chemistry . ... 171 6.2.5 E l e v a t i o n 1 1 6 6.3 S p e c i e s S e l e c t i o n 178 6.4 Seed C o l l e c t i o n 192 6.5 P l a n t P r o p a g a t i o n •••• 197 6.6 S i t e P r e p a r a t i o n .. 216 6.7 Seeding Methods 2 2 5 6.8 P l a n t i n g 2 3 6 6.9 Tending 2 4 0 6.9.1 I r r i g a t i o n 2 4 0 6.9.2 F e r t i l i z a t i o n . .... 241 6.10 T o t a l Reclamation C o s t s 2 4 2 6.11 Reclamation o f E x p l o r a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s . 2 4 4 6.12 Assessment o f R e s u l t s 2^3 VI I CONCLUSION 265 BIBLIOGRAPHY.. . ... . 267 APPENDICES 281 x i LIST OF TABLES Ta b l e Page 1 Average D a i l y Rates of Flow f o r the E l k and F o r d i n g R i v e r s and M i c h e l Creek f o r the P e r i o d 1970-73 19 2 Average Monthly Sediment Loads f o r the E l k and F o r d i n g R i v e r s and M i c h e l Creek f o r the P e r i o d 1970-73 20 3 Summary o f C l i m a t i c Data f o r the E l k V a l l e y Weather S t a t i o n f o r the P e r i o d 1969-74 33 4 Summary o f C l i m a t i c Data f o r the Harmer Ridge Weather S t a t i o n f o r the P e r i o d 1971-74 34 5 Animal-Use o f the Major Winter Ranges i n the F e r n i e and Upper E l k C o a l B a s i n s . 48 6 C o a l Produced at Mines i n the F e r n i e C o a l B a s i n From 189 8-19 74 58 7 D e t a i l s o f the Outcrop S u r f a c e Mines i n the V i c i n i t y o f N a t a l . . . 80 8 A n a l y s i s o f S p o i l M a t e r i a l s From S i x Outcrop Mines 86 9 Areas, E l e v a t i o n s and Aspects o f Mining D i s t u r b a n c e s on Harmer Ridge 96 10 A n a l y s i s o f S p o i l M a t e r i a l s from Harmer Ridge S u r f a c e Mines 97 11 D e t a i l s o f the Areas o f D i s t u r b a n c e A s s o c i a t e d With Underground Mining From 1969-1975 ...... 103 12 D e t a i l s o f the Areas D i s t u r b e d by P r e p a r a t i o n P l a n t O p e r a t i o n s to the End o f 1975 108 x i i T able Page 13 A n a l y s i s of Refuse and D i s t u r b e d S o i l s A s s o c i a t e d With P r e p a r a t i o n P l a n t s 109 14 Area D i s t u r b e d by Access and Haul Roads 110 15 D e t a i l s o f the Area Occupied by O f f i c e s and Maintenance S t r u c t u r e s 112 16 . T o t a l Area o f D i s t u r b a n c e A s s o c i a t e d With Mining and Processin'g t o the End o f 1975 113 17 D i s t u r b a n c e s A s s o c i a t e d With E x p l o r a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s 1969-74 119 18 P o t e n t i a l Prime S u r f a c e Uses o f the K a i s e r Resources L t d . Mining Area 131 19 Environmental Impact M a t r i x f o r the K a i s e r Resources L t d . M i n i n g and E x p l o r a t i o n O p e r a t i o n s 140 20 Organic Matter, pH, S o l u b l e S a l t s and A v a i l a b l e N u t r i e n t s f o r S i x Types o f Mine Waste on the K a i s e r Resources L t d . o p e r a t i o n 172 21 Grass and Legume Mixtures Used i n the Reclamation Programme During the P e r i o d 1971-1975 179 22 Suggested Seed Mixtures f o r the K a i s e r Resources L t d . Mining Area 1976-1978 181 23 Suggested Commercial Grass Species f o r Reclamation T e s t i n g 183 24 Suggested Commercial Legume Species f o r Reclamation T e s t i n g 183 25 Ground Cover and P l a n t Height f o r F i f t e e n S p e c i e s o f Grasses Sown i n T r i a l P l o t s a t an E l e v a t i o n o f 2100 m 185 26 N a t i v e Trees and Shrubs Being Considered f o r Reclamation P l a n t i n g 190 x i i i T a ble Page-27 E x o t i c Trees and Shrubs Being C o n s i d e r e d f o r Reclamation P l a n t i n g 191 28 F r u i t and Seed C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f N a t i v e Trees And Shrubs 193 29 Seed C o l l e c t i o n Data f o r F i f t e e n Deciduous Tree and Shrub Species 195 30 Recommended P r o p a g a t i o n Treatments f o r Thirty-S p e c i e s o f N a t i v e Trees and Shrubs 202 31 Labour Costs (man days) Per Month F o r Normal Nursery Tasks 210 32 A n a l y s i s o f I r r i g a t i o n Waters Used i n the K a i s e r Resources L t d . Nursery 213 33 R e s l o p i n g Costs For Seven Small Outcrop Mines And a Refuse Bank 224 34 Average Costs Per Hectare F o r Seeding and Harrowing O p e r a t i o n s 234 35 T o t a l Reclamation Costs and Costs by O p e r a t i o n F o r E i g h t e e n S i t e s 243 36 P r o t e c t i v e Cover Measurements by Slope and Aspect f o r Three Reclamation S i t e s 256 37 Pe r c e n t F o l i a g e Cover by Spe c i e s f o r the E r i c k s o n and M c G i l l i v r a y S u r f a c e Mines 258 38 Accumulated P e l l e t Groups From Seeded and Unseeded Mined Areas, and A d j a c e n t N a t u r a l Areas on the M c G i l l i v r a y and E r i c k s o n S u r f a c e Mines 260 39 A e r i a l S t a n d i n g Crop (kg/ha Measured i n J u l y / August 1975) o f T h i r t e e n R e v e g e t a t i o n S p e c i e s on E i g h t Reclamation Areas 262 4 0 Forage S t a n d i n g Crop Data o f Some Range Types F l o r i s t i c a l l y S i m i l a r t o Those Found A d j a c e n t t o the E i g h t Reclamation Areas 263 x i v LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1 The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between S o i l pH and E l e v a t i o n on the K a i s e r Resources L t d . Mi n i n g P r o p e r t y . 29 2 Raw C o a l P r o d u c t i o n From the F e r n i e C o a l B a s i n 1898-1975 61 3 A Schematic C r o s s - S e c t i o n o f an Outcrop C o a l Mine 81 4 3 - P i t , N a t a l Ridge. An Example o f an Outcrop Mine 81 5 C o a l M i n i n g By the Bench Method on Harmer I .. 83 6 Harmer I and I I P i t s . Bench M i n i n g 84 7 A d i t 29. Bench M i n i n g 84 8 P r o f i l e s o f Three Harmer Knob Overburden Dumps: (a) 6610 1 Dump 89 (b) 6 700* Dump 90 (c) 6790' Dump 91 9 A e r i a l Views o f the Main Harmer Ridge Over-burden Dumps: (a) Harmer I and I I Dumps ••• 92 (b) Camp 8 Dumps 92 .(c) A d i t 29 Dumps 93 10 P r o f i l e o f the E l k v i e w Coarse Waste Banks .... 107 11 A e r i a l View o f an E x p l o r a t i o n O p e r a t i o n Showing Roads, Trenches and Cross-Cuts 115 12 A e r i a l View o f P r e p a r a t i o n s f o r an A d i t S i t e . 117 13 An A d i t During M i n i n g 118 X V F i g u r e Page 14 Cutbank on a Contour E x p l o r a t i o n Road 135 15 Review Process F o r C o a l Developments 152 16 E r o s i o n G u l l i e s on the Face o f the Harmer Knob Dumps 168 17 Species T r i a l on Harmer Ridge 1972 and 1975 . 184 18 ' The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Seed Costs and the Qu a n t i t y o f Seed C o l l e c t e d 196 19 Black Cottonwood Propagated From Hardwood C u t t i n g s i n Nursery Beds 205 20 P l a n t s R a i s e d From Softwood and Evergreen C u t t i n g s .. . 206 21 K a i s e r Resources L t d . ' s Nursery 209 22 R e s l o p i n g o f the M c G i l l i v r a y S u r f a c e Mine 218 23 O r i g i n a l P r o f i l e s and P r o j e c t e d P r o f i l e s A f t e r R e -Sloping o f the Harmer Knob Overburden Dumps: (a) 6610' Dump 220 (b) 6700' Dump . 221 (c) 6790' Dump 222 24 The Hydroseeder i n O p e r a t i o n 228 25 Heavy, A r t i c u l a t e d Harrows 232 26 M c G i l l i v r a y S u r f a c e Mine 245 27 E r i c k s o n S u r f a c e Mine 246 28 T a i l i n g s Lagoon A 246 29 E l k v i e w Conveyor Right-Of-Way 247 x v i LIST OF MAPS Page 1. The F e r n i e C o a l B a s i n and V i c i n i t y (1:250,000 Base Map) (a) Centres o f M i n i n g and E x p l o r a t i o n A c t i v i t y 9 (b) Major Land Forms 11 (c) Major Drainage Systems 16 (d) Major V e g e t a t i o n ( B i o g e o c l i m a t i c ) Zones ••• 37 (e) Major Ungulate Winter Ranges 47 (f) P r o p e r t y S t a t u s o f the F e r n i e C o a l B a s i n as o f 1974 .. 70 2. The A c t i v e Mining Area (1:50,000 Base Map) (a) Slope C l a s s e s 14 (b) Drainage 1 17 (c) Geology 24 (d) P l a n t Communities 39 (e) L o c a t i o n o f M i n i n g and M i l l i n g O p e r a t i o n s . 79 (f) Land C a p a b i l i t y For F o r e s t r y 127 (g) Land C a p a b i l i t y For W i l d l i f e (Ungulates) .. 128 (h) Land C a p a b i l i t y For A g r i c u l t u r e 129 (i) Land C a p a b i l i t y F o r R e c r e a t i o n 130 (j) Land C a p a b i l i t y A n a l y s i s ....132 x v i i LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix Page I G u i d e l i n e s For C o a l Development 281 II. Streamflow and Sediment.. Loads f o r the E l k and F o r d i n g R i v e r s and M i c h e l Creek. 1970-73 283 I I I Summaries o f Annual C l i m a t i c • D a t a F o r the E l k V a l l e y (1969-1974) and Harmer Ridge (1971-1974) Weather S t a t i o n s . 288 IV S p e c i e s L i s t s f o r the Major P l a n t Communities on the M i n i n g Area 299 V Fauna o f the F e r n i e and Upper E l k C o a l B a s i n s . 309 VI Map and A e r i a l Photography References f o r the K a i s e r Resources L t d . mining and E x p l o r a t i o n Areas 313 VII A n a l y t i c a l Methods Used i n S o i l A n a l y s i s By the S o i l s L a b o r a t o r y , M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Kelowna 318 V I I I Photographs o f Poor E x p l o r a t i o n P r a c t i c e s Commonly Encountered i n the F e r n i e C o a l B a s i n 321 IX Reclamation G u i d e l i n e s f o r E x p l o r a t i o n ....... 326 X D i r e c t i v e : E x p l o r a t i o n o f C o a l P r o p e r t i e s C o a l E x p l o r a t i o n Form 7-8 Su r f a c e Work Permit 328 x v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I w i s h t o thank the f o l l o w i n g p e o p l e and o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r c o n t r i b u t i n g towards t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s : Dr. J.V. T h i r g o o d , F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y , U.B.C. f o r h i s p a t i e n c e and encouragement as s u p e r v i s i n g p r o f e s s o r ; K a i s e r Resources L t d . f o r g i v i n g me t h e o p p o r t -u n i t y t h r o u g h employment i n t h e company t o f o r m u l a t e many o f t h e i d e a s and c o l l e c t much o f t h e d a t a on w h i c h t h i s t h e s i s i s bas e d ; To my co-workers a t K a i s e r R e s o u r c e s L t d . , Mr. A.W. M i l l i g a n and Mr. R. Ber d u s c o whose day-to-day h e l p and t h o u g h t f u l d i s c u s s i o n c o n t r i b u t e d much t o what I have w r i t t e n ; and To my w i f e , Mary, f o r h e r encouragement and f o r t h e many hours o f t y p i n g and p r o o f - r e a d i n g . To Ms Judy P i t c h e r , f o r h e r t h o r o u g h and h i g h l y p r o f e s s i o n a l t y p i n g o f t h e f i n a l copy. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In 1968 the Kaiser Steel Corporation of Oakland, C a l i f o r n i a , announced plans for developing extensive coal deposits i n the Fernie Coal Basin through a wholly owned subsidiary company to be known as Kaiser Coal Ltd. ( l a t e r renamed Kaiser Resources Lt d . ) . Though a few open-pit metal mines were already operating i n the province, notably those of Bethlehem Copper Corporation Ltd. i n the Highland Valley and of Craigmont Mines Ltd. near M e r r i t t , t h i s new development was to be surface mining on a considerably larger scale. To meet the i n i t i a l contract of approximately 6 m i l l i o n tons of clean coal annually, over 800 hectares of mountain land were to be stripped and mined during the f i r s t f i f t e e n years of operation. A d d i t i o n a l l y , Kaiser Coal Ltd. acquired mining rig h t s to a selected two-thirds of 44,440 hectares of crown-granted Coal lands i n the v i c i n i t y of the mine. The storm of controversy surrounding t h i s move to e s t a b l i s h the largest surface mine i n Western Canada, spurred by the spectre of Appalachia and an extremely anta-g o n i s t i c news media, was almost unprecedented i n the h i s t o r y 2 o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e use i n B.C. I t i s f a i r t o say t h a t t h i s c o n f l i c t , more than any o t h e r f a c t o r , prompted the enactment o f the p r o v i n c i a l mine r e c l a m a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n ; s p e c i f i c a l l y , S e c t i o n 8 o f the Coal Mines Regulation Act 1969, and S e c t i o n 11 o f the Mines Regulation Act. The most important p r o v i s i o n o f both A c t s i s t h a t b e f o r e mining commences, a r e c l a m a t i o n programme r e p o r t must be f i l e d w i t h the M i n i s t e r o f Mines and Petroleum Resources as an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a s u r f a c e work per m i t . The f i r s t t h r e e s u b s e c t i o n s o f S e c t i o n 8 o f the C o a l Mine R e g u l a t i o n A c t r e a d as f o l l o w s : * (1) I t i s the duty o f every owner, agent, o r manager o f a mine t o i n s t i t u t e and c a r r y out a programme f o r the p r o t e c t i o n and r e c l a m a t i o n o f the s u r f a c e o f the l a n d and watercourses a f f e c t e d thereby, and, on the d i s c o n t i n u a n c e o r abandonment o f a mine, to undertake and com-p l e t e the programme t o leav e the l a n d and water-c o u r s e s i n a c o n d i t i o n s a t i s f a c t o r y ; and such . a programme s h a l l be submitted t o and approved by the m i n i s t e r as h e r e i n a f t e r p r o v i d e d . ( 2 ) The owner, agent, o r manager s h a l l f i l e w i t h the m i n i s t e r a r e p o r t i n such a form and c o n t a i n i n g such i n f o r m a t i o n as the m i n i s t e r s h a l l p r o s c r i b e b e f o r e commencing (a) e x p l o r a t o r y work a t a mine • • ° . (b) p r e p a r a t o r y work f o r p r o -d u c t i o n from a mine. (3) The r e p o r t s h a l l i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : 3 (a) A map showing the l o c a t i o n and e x t e n t o f the mine, and the l o c a t i o n o f any l a k e s , streams, and i n h a b i t e d p l a c e s i n the v i c i n i t y ; (b) P a r t i c u l a r s o f the nature o f the mine and the e x t e n t o f the ar e a t o be occup-i e d d u r i n g the probable d u r a t i o n o f the mining o p e r a t i o n ; (c) P a r t i c u l a r s o f the nature and p r e s e n t uses o f the l a n d to be used; (d) A programme f o r r e c l a m a t i o n and con-s e r v a t i o n o f the l a n d d u r i n g , and on the d i s c o n t i n u a n c e or abandonment o f , the mining o p e r a t i o n , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o : (i ) the l o c a t i o n o f the l a n d , ( i i ) the e f f e c t o f the programme on l i v e s t o c k o r w i l d l i f e , water-c o u r s e s , farms, i n h a b i t e d p l a c e s i n the v i c i n i t y o f the mine, and the appearance o f the s i t e o f the mine, and ( i i i ) the p o t e n t i a l use o f the l a n d , h a v i n g r e g a r d t o i t s b e s t and f u l l e s t use, and i t s importance f o r e x i s t i n g and f u t u r e timber, g r a z i n g , water, r e c r e a t i o n , w i l d l i f e o r m i n e r a l use. The s u r f a c e work permit granted on the b a s i s o f t h i s r e p o r t i s f o r a three y e a r p e r i o d , and a t the end o f t h i s time another r e p o r t must be prepared as an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a permit e x t e n s i o n . C l e a r l y , the r e p o r t as o u t l i n e d i n the A c t has a l l o f the elements o f a c l a s s i c a l l a n d management p l a n as d e f i n e d , i n a f o r e s t r y c o n t e x t , by Osmaston (1968): 4 1. A s p e c i f i e d management p e r i o d . 2 . I n i t i a l c o l l e c t i o n o f f a c t s and a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the area t o be managed. 3 . A n a l y s i s o f the f a c t s and an assessment of management o p t i o n s . 4 . D e s i g n a t i o n o f management o b j e c t i v e s . 5 . Design o f a programme to accomplish the o b j e c t i v e s . 6 . Record o f r e s u l t s , c o l l e c t i o n o f f a c t s by i n v e n t o r y and r e s e a r c h t o be used i n form-u l a t i n g the p l a n f o r the next management p e r i o d . During the two ye a r s i n which I worked f o r the Reclam-a t i o n S e c t i o n o f the Department o f Mines and Petroleum Resources, one o f my main d u t i e s was to review r e c l a m a t i o n programme r e p o r t s . The q u a l i t y o f these r e p o r t s v a r i e d g r e a t l y . Some documents have been very comprehensive, o t h e r s very much the r e v e r s e . A n o t a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s t h a t w h i l e i n many i n s t a n c e s the e n g i n e e r i n g a s p e c t s , i . e . the mining method, waste d i s p o s a l systems, macro sl o p e s t a b i l i t y , and f a c i l i t i e s d e s i g n , are d e a l t w i t h i n c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l , the ec o l o g y o f the mine area and the a c t u a l process by which the s i t e i s t o be r e v e g e t a t e d are t r e a t e d much more l i g h t l y . O f t e n t h e r e has been l i t t l e more than a d e c l a r a t i o n o f i n t e n t t h a t the area s h a l l be r e c l a i m e d . I t i s obvious from a review o f the r e p o r t s prepared t o date t h a t no uniform s t a n d a r d has been e i t h e r a c h i e v e d , o r , perhaps more important, demanded by the 5 Department o f Mines and Petroleum Resources. The reclam-a t i o n programmes on many mining o p e r a t i o n s are s u f f e r i n g from an obvious l a c k o f management p l a n n i n g . Work i s b e i n g undertaken without c l e a r o b j e c t i v e s , and no attempt has been made to develop the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r which the A c t so c l e a r l y c a l l s . In 1975, i n the l i g h t o f proposed c o a l developments i n both the E a s t Kootenay and the Peace R i v e r areas, the Environment and Land Use Committee, a C a b i n e t Committee o f the B r i t i s h Columbia government, s a n c t i o n e d the p r e p a r a t i o n o f a s e t o f g u i d e l i n e s f o r c o a l development. The p r e p a r a t i o n o f these g u i d e l i n e s was t o be c o o r d i n a t e d by the E.L.U.C. S e c r e t a r i a t , the e x e c u t i v e arm of the C a b i n e t Committee, and the o b j e c t i v e was to s e t standards f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n o f environmental impact assessments o f c o a l mine develop-ments. . A l l a s p e c t s o f development,.both on and o f f s i t e , and the impacts on both the b i o - p h y s i c a l and the s o c i o -economic environments were t o be c o n s i d e r e d . The most r e c e n t d r a f t o f these g u i d e l i n e s i s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s r e p o r t as Appendix I . The " G u i d e l i n e s f o r C o a l Development" are a welcome and l o n g overdue step towards the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f c o a l mine development i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . I f e n f o r c e d by the Environment and Land Use Committee, they can p r o v i d e a framework f o r the c o l l e c t i o n o f b a s e l i n e d a t a , promote 6 the o r d e r l y i n i t i a l development o f mine p r o j e c t s , and e s t a b l i s h a b a s i s f o r m i t i g a t i o n and compensation f o r impacts on o t h e r r e s o u r c e s . They do not, however, i n s t i t u t e an ongoing management process f o r r e c l a m a t i o n and e n v i r o n -mental c o n t r o l over the l i f e o f the mine. In terms o f r e c l a m a t i o n , o n l y S e c t i o n 8, o f the Coal Mines Regulation Act makes p r o v i s i o n f o r t h i s p r o c e s s through the requirement o f a r e c l a m a t i o n r e p o r t each time the p e r m i t a u t h o r i z i n g s u r f a c e work i s renewed. My i n t e n t i o n i n t h i s t h e s i s i s to develop a management p l a n format t h a t r e f l e c t s t h i s continuous p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . In s p e c i f i c terms, I w i l l attempt t o produce both the framework f o r the c u r r e n t management p l a n and a system f o r c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f the data n e c e s s a r y f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n o f subsequent p l a n s . As a b a s i s f o r the p l a n , the e x p e r i e n c e and i n f o r m a t i o n gained a t K a i s e r Resources L t d . ' s o p e r a t i o n i n Sparwood d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1970-19 74 i s i n t e r p r e t e d and summarized, and management p r e s c r i p t i o n s formulated from t h a t s y n t h e s i s . Much i n f o r m a t i o n e x i s t s t h a t was generated subsequent to my departure from the company i n 1973, and I have no access t o most o f t h i s . In any case, i t was not my i n t e n t i o n to produce the d e f i n i t i v e management s t a t e -ment f o r the K a i s e r Resources L t d . r e c l a m a t i o n programme. Rather, as f a r as t h i s t h e s i s i s concerned, i t i s the p r o c e s s o f management p l a n development t h a t i s important; 7 the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d h e r e i n i s merely t h e - v e h i c l e by which t h a t p r o c e s s i s i l l u s t r a t e d . The p l a n i s w r i t t e n f o r the 3-year management p e r i o d 1975-78. As such, i t summarized p a s t management i n f o r m a t i o n and proposes g e n e r a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s . f o r the coming management p e r i o d . I have t r i e d , f o r the most p a r t , to w r i t e i t as though i t was p r e p a r e d i n e a r l y 1975, w i t h o u t b e n e f i t of h i n d -s i g h t . The one e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s i s the i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e d i n the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d "Assessment o f R e s u l t s " (6.12). During the w r i t i n g of the t h e s i s , q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on the success o f some o f the r e c l a m a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d became a v a i l a b l e . I d e c i d e d t o add t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n because i t i l l u s t r a t e d many of the assessment procedures t h a t I wished to propose. Some r e f e r e n c e s are more r e c e n t . t h a n 1975, however, these e i t h e r c i t e the f i n a l p u b l i c a t i o n o f papers t h a t e x i s t e d i n d r a f t form i n 19 75, o r are c o n f i r m a t i o n s o f i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d e a r l i e r i n p e r s o n a l communications. Some s e c t i o n s o f the p l a n w i l l , i n r e t r o s p e c t , appear dated. Many o f the judgements and statements i n Chapter V on the l e g a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework f o r r e c l a m a t i o n , f o r example; are no l o n g e r v a l i d . They are, however, o f v a l u e as an h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e a g a i n s t which to measure subsequent p r o g r e s s . 8 CHAPTER I I A DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA 2.1 L o c a t i o n K a i s e r Resources L t d . ' s c o a l p r o p e r t i e s are l o c a t e d i n the extreme s o u t h e a s t e r n p o r t i o n o f the p r o v i n c e between l a t i t u d e s 49°15' and 50°08' N, and l o n g i t u d e s 114°41' and 115°00' W (see Map l a ) . The major governmental a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u b d i v i s i o n s i n which the p r o p e r t y l i e s are as f o l l o w s : Resource Region: Kootenay ( A d m i n i s t r a t i v e C e n t r e : Nelson) Land D i s t r i c t : Kootenay ( A d m i n i s t r a t i v e C entre: Nelson) Land Recording D i s t r i c t : F e r n i e (Land Commissioner: F e r n i e ) Land R e g i s t r a t i o n D i s t r i c t : Nelson (Land R e g i s t r y O f f i c e : Nelson) Mining D i v i s i o n : F o r t S t e e l (Mining Recorder: Cranbrook) Mining D i s t r i c t : E a s t Kootenay ( D i s t r i c t Mines I n s p e c t o r : F e r n i e ) E l e c t o r a l D i s t r i c t : Kootenay F o r e s t D i s t r i c t : Nelson ( D i s t r i c t F o r e s t e r : Nelson) 115'00' 114*45 114*30' 50*00'-L E G E N b IM'45' S c a l e 1^50,000 C E N T R E S OF MINING ANb E X P L O R A T I O N A C T I V I T Y Exploration operations. O Underqround minesTl _ • , \ Sao, Map for details Mm Surface minee> _J M A P 1 .a . Source :-MT.S.S&e-t J 10 R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t : E a s t Kootenay (R.D. O f f i c e : Cranbrook) Water D i s t r i c t : F e r n i e ( D i s t r i c t E n g i n e e r : Cranbrook) ( P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l E n g i n e e r : Cranbrook) (Water Recorder: F e r n i e ) F i s h and W i l d l i f e S u b d i v i s i o n s : Region 4 Management U n i t 23 (Regional O f f i c e : Nelson) The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and r e s i d e n t i a l c e n t r e f o r the mining o p e r a t i o n i s the m u n i c i p a l i t y o f Sparwood, s i t u a t e d on the southern t r a n s - p r o v i n c i a l highway (No. 3) 19 k i l o m e t r e s by road from the B . C . - A l b e r t a Border, and 80 k i l o m e t r e s due n o r t h o f the i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary. Map l a shows the areas which have been mined by the company, both s u r f a c e and underground, and the major c e n t r e s o f e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t y . 2.2 Topography and Drainage T h i s p a r t o f the E a s t Kootenay i s dominated by two major l a n d forms; the F e r n i e B a s i n , and the F r o n t Ranges o f the Rocky Mountain System (Holland, 1964). (See Map l b ) . The F e r n i e B a s i n i s an a r e a o f s o f t , sandy and s h a l y Mesozoic rocks l y i n g between the E l k R i v e r and the ranges o f the C o n t i n e n t a l D i v i d e . I t i s approximately 104 km. i n l e n g t h and a maximum o f 24 km. i n width a t the south end. Both the e a s t e r n and western boundaries o f the B a s i n are f a u l t c o n t r o l l e d . In the south, the F e r n i e B a s i n comprises a t r i a n g l e o f l a n d bounded by the E l k R i v e r on the west, L E S E N b 115*00' 1H445' MAJOR U N D FORMS Scale 1;250,OOO Major units I. Fernie Be\sin. I . Front Removes. HI. Border Ranges. JLT.a.Galtori Range. K.b.McvcDonaldl tar^c, I.C Cle\rk ftewje. S u b - u n i t s . 31 Park Ranges. Y Kootenay Ranges H Rocky Flountcxin Trench. MAP l b . Source :-NT.S.8ZG$J L&ndform interpretations from Holland (I9fe4-)-12 Lodgepole Creek and the upper t r i b u t a r i e s o f the F l a t h e a d R i v e r i n the south, and M i c h e l Creek on the n o r t h and e a s t . North o f M i c h e l Creek, the B a s i n narrows and becomes, l a r g e l y , the E l k R i v e r v a l l e y and a s e r i e s o f low, f l a n k i n g r i d g e s to the e a s t ; N a t a l Ridge, Harmer Ridge, F o r d i n g Mountain and the G r e e n h i l l s Range. The g e n e r a l a s p e c t o f the B a s i n i s one o f moderate r e l i e f , i n which g e n t l y r o l l i n g uplands descend by more abrupt s l o p e s to the l e v e l s o f the E l k and F o r d i n g R i v e r s , and M i c h e l Creek. The maximum e l e v a t i o n reached i n the F e r n i e B a s i n i s approximately 2260 m. w i t h the m a j o r i t y o f the upland a r e a l y i n g between 1680 and 2135 m. The F r o n t Ranges form the e a s t e r n , western and n o r t h e r n boundaries o f the F e r n i e B a s i n , and c o n s i s t o f a number o f n o r t h - s o u t h l o n g i t u d i n a l r i d g e s . These ranges were formed when lim e s t o n e s and o t h e r P a l e o z o i c r o c k s were t h r u s t from west t o e a s t over younger Mesozoic f o r m a t i o n s . A number o f s o u t h w e s t e r l y d i p p i n g f a u l t s s eparate these limestone formations i n t o d i s t i n c t b l o c k s and subsequent e r o s i o n and g l a c i a l a c t i o n have produced the numerous p a r a l l e l r i d g e s which c o n s t i t u t e the F r o n t Ranges. Because o f t h e i r s o u t h w e s t e r l y d i p , the limestone s t r a t a o f these r i d g e s t y p i c a l l y erode t o form 30 t o 40 degree s l o p e s f a c i n g westward and steep s c a r p s l o p e s f a c i n g eastward. To the e a s t of the F e r n i e B a s i n the F r o n t Ranges comprise the 13 High Rock Range o f the c o n t i n e n t a l d i v i d e , t h e - W i s u k i t s a k Range, E r i k s o n Ridge and the F l a t h e a d Range. On the west f l a n k o f the B a s i n , the F r o n t Ranges c o n s i s t o f a s e r i e s o f m o u n t a i n s , the most prominent o f which are Mt. Peck, Mt. K u l e s k i , Hosmer Mountain, the Three S i s t e r s , and the L i z a r d Range. The h e i g h t s o f the F r o n t Range mountains vary between 2440 and 3050 m., w i t h those t o the west o f the F e r n i e B a s i n b e i n g g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r than those t o the e a s t . To date, a l l o f K a i s e r Resources' a c t i v i t i e s , except f o r t h r e e e x p l o r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s , have been c o n f i n e d t o areas o f the F e r n i e B a s i n . The main a s p e c t s o f these areas are n o r t h - e a s t and south-west. The a c t i v e mining area i s c o n t a i n e d w h o l l y w i t h i n the B a s i n and the topography conforms to the g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n p r e v i o u s l y g i v e n ; g e n t l y t o moderately r o l l i n g upland, steep v a l l e y w a l l s , and f l a t a l l u v i a l p l a i n s . Map 2a shows the topography o f the mining area as a f u n c t i o n o f s l o p e c l a s s . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a n d a r e a by sl o p e c l a s s i s as f o l l o w s : Slope C l a s s Area (ha.) P e r c e n t o f T o t a l F l a t t o g e n t l y r o l l i n g (0-15°) 7085 41 % Moderately s l o p i n g (16-25°) 7485 43 % S t e e p l y s l o p i n g (26-35°) 2480 14 % Very s t e e p l y s l o p i n g (35°+) 400 2 % TOTAL 17440 100 49°50-49°45'-/+49o50/ 49o40'+i ^49°45' 4S°4Q 114*50' LEGENb Scale 1^ 50000 OLOPL ON THE MlNING A R E A m 0-15° FTl 16-25' MAP ^ . a . Source-NXS. 8£10$l5 15 The drainage system o f K a i s e r Resources c o a l p r o p e r t i e s i s almost e n t i r e l y t r i b u t a r y t o the E l k R i v e r , which i n t u r n flows i n t o the Kootenay R i v e r south o f Waldo. The o n l y e x c e p t i o n to t h i s i s a s m a l l area l o c a t e d i n the upper watershed o f the F l a t h e a d R i v e r . V i r t u a l l y a l l o f the major water courses are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f a u l t s , and u n d e r l a i n by e a s i l y e r o d i b l e Mesozoic s h a l e s and sandstones. Map l c i l l u s t r a t e s the drainge system o f the whole c o a l a r e a , and Map 2b the d e t a i l e d drainage o f the mining a r e a . In each case, average stream g r a d i e n t s between v a r i o u s p o i n t s on the drainage system are shown. H y d r o l o g i c data f o r the area are a v a i l a b l e from f o u r s t a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d by the Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch o f Environment Canada. These s t a t i o n s were s e t up i n 1970 a t the request o f the p r o v i n c i a l P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch. In the same year, K a i s e r Resources L t d . began an e x t e n s i v e m o n i t o r i n g programme o f both s u r f a c e and ground water q u a l i t y on the mining a r e a , as r e q u i r e d under the terms o f v a r i o u s w a t e r . l i c e n c e s and p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p e r m i t s . Average d i s c h a r g e r a t e s and l e v e l s o f suspended s o l i d s , over the f o u r years f o r which data are a v a i l a b l e from Environment Canada, are shown i n T a b l e s 1 and 2 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Annual data appears i n Appendix I and the l o c a t i o n o f the f o u r s t a t i o n s i s shown on Map l c . These data i n d i c a t e t h a t peak streamflow u s u a l l y o c c u r s between mid-May and mid-June. The magnitude o f the s p r i n g f r e s h e t i s extremely 115°00' 114°45 1f4°30' 114°50' E > R A I N A G E O F T H E M I N I N G A R E A ~ Streams draining areas of mining disturbance. • 26%* Average stream gradient between points. MAP 2.b. S o u r c e - N.T.S. 8£JO$l5 18 v a r i a b l e and depends on the depth o f snowpack, the r a t e o f snowmelt, and s e a s o n a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n . Lowest flows appear t o occur i n January and e a r l y February. As might be expected, annual v a r i a t i o n s i n sediment l o a d c l o s e l y f o l l o w s e a s o n a l p a t t e r n s o f streamflow, w i t h one e x c e p t i o n . While peak sediment loads c o i n c i d e w i t h the p e r i o d s o f h i g h e s t r u n o f f i n mid-May to mid-June, times o f lowest sediment y i e l d s appear t o be l a t e summer and f a l l , p o s s i b l y because t h i s i s the p e r i o d o f lowest p r e c i p i t a t i o n . Changes i n flow regime and water q u a l i t y o f t e n r e f l e c t changes i n l a n d use p a t t e r n s , and, i n a mining c o n t e x t , can be used t o measure the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f m i t i g a t i o n programmes such as r e c l a m a t i o n and e r o s i o n c o n t r o l . However, an a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e o f the e f f e c t s o f mining and e x p l o r a t i o n on s u r f a c e r u n o f f p a t t e r n s and sediment loads can be o b t a i n e d o n l y through long-term h y d r o l o g i c and c l i m a t i c m o n i t o r i n g . The e x i s t i n g sampling network, c o n s i s t i n g o f 2 f o u r s t a t i o n s on a watershed o f 3100 km i s completely inadequate t o monitor an a r e a as complex as the F e r n i e C o a l B a s i n . In a d d i t i o n , sampling commenced two years a f t e r the f i r s t open p i t development on Hamer Ridge, and f o u r years a f t e r the b e g i n n i n g o f i n t e n s i v e c o a l e x p l o r a t i o n i n the F e r n i e and Upper E l k C o a l B a s i n s . Thus no b a s e l i n e data e x i s t . While n o t h i n g can be done about the l a c k of b a s e l i n e d a t a , K a i s e r Resources L t d . should expand the water sampling network on i t s own lands as soon as p o s s i b l e . Table 1 Average Daily Rates of Flow (m /sec.) For The Period 1970-1973 Location of Station Fording River above confluence with Elk River Michel Creek below Natal Elk River near Natal Elk River at Fernie Watershed Size Average Daily Rates of Flow (m /sec.) (Km2) Jan Feb Mar A p r i l May June July - Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec (m3/se^O Maximum Recorded Minimum Recorded Flow Rate Flow Rate (m3/sec.) 620 640 1870 3130 1.8 1.6 1.6 2.5 20.6 35.2 9.5 4.8 3.6 3.2 2.4 1.9 79.3 (June 9/71) 1.0 (Jan 7, 1970) 1.9 1.9 2:2 4.0 37.0 40.5 9.6 3.9 3.3 3.1 3.1 2.2 109.3 (May 13/71) 1.1 (Feb 14, 1970) 6.1 5.6 7.2 9.3 64.5 117.8 51.4 26.3 16.6 12.6 9.5 7.0 291.8 (June 2/72) 3.9 (Jan 8, 1970) 12.4 13.6 17.2 26.8 135.5 209.3 82.0 42.4 27.0 21.4 20.2 14.1 507.1 (June 3/72) 6.8 (Jan 6, 1971) N.B. Neither s t a t i o n 1 nor 2 were operating during 1972 the year of peak run-off during this period. Table 2 Average Monthly Sediment Load (Metric tonnes) For The Period 1970-1973 Location of St a t i o n Watershed Size (Km2) Average Monthly Sediment Load (Tonnes) Maximum Recorded Flow Rate Daily Jan Feb Mar A p r i l May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec L o a d  (tonnes) Minimum Recorded Daily Load (tonnes) Fording River above confluence 620 with Elk River Michel Creek below Natal 640 Elk River near Natal 1,870 Elk River at Fernie 40.9 29.5 34.2 126.2 4,119.6 807.0 117.9 63.5 62.0 62.4 31.2 10.5 943.3 0 (May 26/70) (Nov 19/73 168.1 159.5 290.9 1,271.1 15,879.8 5,448.1 184.7 414.0 145.0 125.2 73.7 44.2 4,018 0 (May 26/70) (Oct 6/73) 147.1 90.6 209.2 375.8 21,758.0 48,552.6 9,545.8 394.7 227.6 248.5 184.6 136.1 10,158 0 (June 19/72) (Nov 4/72) 497.8 779.4 2,364.5 4,451.6 121,109.9 110,751.0 12,415.9 708.6 534.8 684.8 1,014.8 331.5 55,871 0 (May 31/72) (Aug 9/72) N.B. Neither s t a t i o n 1 nor 2 were operating during 1972, a year when, during peak run-off, sediment loads were from 2 to 8 times higher than i n other years. to o 21 2.3 Geology and S o i l s Bedrock Geology The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s summarized from Newmarch (1953) and P r i c e (1962). The F e r n i e B a s i n i s a broad d o u b l y - p l u n g i n g , complex, s y n c l i n a l f o l d i n rock s t r a t a o f the J u r a s s i c and Cretaceous p e r i o d s . The e a s t e r n and western boundaries o f the B a s i n are f a u l t - c o n t r o l l e d , and the rocks which form the p e r i p h e r y are the P a l e o z o i c l i m e -stones, d o l o m i t e s , q u a r t z i t e s and sandstones of the F r o n t Ranges o f the Rocky Mountains. • The F e r n i e B a s i n i s one o f t h r e e " b a s i n s " t h a t form a b e l t o f c o a l - b e a r i n g lands running approximately 160 km. northward from the i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary. These t h r e e areas are g e n e r a l l y d e s i g n a t e d the F l a t h e a d R i v e r , the Crowsnest, and the Upper E l k c o a l f i e l d s . These c o a l measures and the a s s o c i a t e d , s o f t , Mesozoic rocks have been p r o t e c t e d from e r o s i o n by the l o n g 11 s t r u c t u r a l troughs" i n which they o c c u r . W i t h i n the F e r n i e B a s i n the main s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t s o f i n t e r e s t a r e , from the top down, the B l a i r m o r e , the Kootenay, and the E l k Formations. The Kootenay i s the c o a l -b e a r i n g f o r m a t i o n and i s f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e "members"; the E l k , the C o a l - b e a r i n g , and the Moose Mountain. The Blairmore Formation i s a Lower Cretaceous statum composed Of l i g h t c o l o u r e d f e l d s p a t h i c sandstones, v a r i -22 c o l o u r e d (green, maroon, y e l l o w and grey) s i l t s t o n e s and "mudstones, and conglomerate. I t s lower l i m i t i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be a 12 m. t h i c k band o f n o n - f e l d s p a t h i c conglomerate which d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t from the E l k Member o f the Kootenay Formation. The Kootenay Formation i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d to be Upper J u r a s s i c or Lower Cretaceous i n age, attempts to date i t more p r e c i s e l y b e i n g i n c o n c l u s i v e . The Elk Member i s the uppermost and i s composed o f c h e r t y conglomerates, coarse g r a i n e d sandstones, and grey to b l a c k c a l c a r e o u s s h a l e s . Because o f t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n i t o f t e n forms p r e -dominant c l i f f s where exposed. The Coal-bearing Member i s composed o f grey to b l a c k carbonaceous s h a l e s , f i n e t o medium, g r a i n e d sandstones, a few bands o f pebble conglomerate and a v a r y i n g number o f c o a l seams. Sandstones and conglomerate make up about t h i r y per c e n t o f the f o r m a t i o n w i t h the balance e i t h e r c o a l o r s h a l e . The C o a l - b e a r i n g Member v a r i e s i n t h i c k n e s s from 560 m. to 1100 m. (at Michel) and c o n t a i n s as many as 24 workable c o a l seams. The c o a l i s low to medium v o l a t i l e bituminous w i t h moderate to s t r o n g c o k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and an extremely low sulphur content (0.3 - 0.5%). The c h e m i c a l and p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f the c o a l s v a r y w i t h the l o c a t i o n o f the seam. In g e n e r a l , seam widths and ash c o n t e n t i n c r e a s e , and v o l a t i l i t y and coking c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s decrease, going p r o g r e s s i v e l y 23 downward i n sequence. The most w i d e l y accepted e s t i m a t e o f r e s e r v e s f o r the F e r n i e C o a l B a s i n as a whole, u s i n g o n l y seams 1 m. o r g r e a t e r i n t h i c k n e s s and a maximum cover o f 760 m., i s 8.2 b i l l i o n l o n g tons o f c o k i n g and non-coking c o a l . A massive b a s a l sandstone known as the Moose Mountain Member forms the lower l i m i t o f the Kootenay Formation. I t i s v e r y d i s t i n c t i v e and, because i t outcrops q u i t e commonly, has been used as an i n d i c a t i o n of the p o s i t i o n o f the Kootenay Formation d u r i n g p r e l i m i n a r y g e o l o g i c a l mapping. The Fernie Formation i s o f J u r a s s i c age and marine i n o r i g i n . I t i s composed o f grey to b l a c k c a l c a r e o u s s h a l e s w i t h some i n t e r b e d d e d l i m e s t o n e , s i l t s t o n e and f i n e g r a i n e d sandstone. Map 2c shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f these v a r i o u s rock s t r a t a on the mining a r e a . -S u r f i c i a l Geology The s u r f i c i a l geology o f the E a s t Kootenay i s complex and, as y e t , very i n c o m p l e t e l y s t u d i e d . The g l a c i a l and p o s t - g l a c i a l h i s t o r y o f the r e g i o n has r e s u l t e d i n a wide range o f s u r f i c i a l d e p o s i t s , the d i s t r i b u t i o n and p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of which have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on a l l phases o f the mining o p e r a t i o n , and on the l o c a t i o n o f access c o r r i d o r s and r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . Given t h i s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o understand why a complete mapping of d e p o s i t s 114°50' 49°5<4 49°45'4 49°50' ro y-49°45' 43°4-' LEGENb 114°5D' B E D R O C K GEQi.ncY 1. Pleistocene ^ r e c e n t ; t i l l , gravel, s a n d , si I t . 2 . Upper Blairm ore • mud 4 si It-stone, foldspathic Sc\ndsfn 3. Lower Blairmore^non-fcldspathic coh3lomeratc. 4. Kootenay j Coal^ s^ndstoti^ siltstone^oncjJomerate. 5 . f e r n i c s s h a l e , siLtstone^airirJstone/Umestofte. _ 6 . 5 p r a ^ R i v e r ) s i l t y s h a l e , dolor™tic Siltstone. Scale 1-50,000 7. Rocky Mtn j (ju&rtaitiCjdolomih'c Kcalcareous S^stone,do[omite. |^8. Rundlfc Qroupjlrmestohtt. ~ dolom'it^ red shale, siltstone, breccia. K * _ MAP 2.c. o N G(zoloc]vj jrom Price (i96<>). Source.-N.T.S. 8£J04l5 25 and the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e i r e n g i n e e r i n g a n d ' p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s was not undertaken p r i o r t o mining development. I n d i c a t i o n s are t h a t a complete s u r f i c i a l geology study o f the E l k V a l l e y may be completed i n e a r l y 1978 by the Resource A n a l y s i s U n i t o f the Environment and Land Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t as p a r t o f a b i o p h y s i c a l l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n study. However, as w i l l be noted l a t e r i n t h i s paper, a h i g h p r i c e has a l r e a d y been p a i d f o r t h i s n e g l e c t . The d i s c u s s i o n t h a t f o l l o w s i s taken l a r g e l y from K e l l y and Sprout (1956) and H a r r i s o n (1974). Except f o r the peaks o f the F r o n t Ranges, the e n t i r e a r e a was g l a c i a t e d . T i l l on the uplands i s t h i n and d i s c o n t i n u o u s and these areas are dominated by exposed bedrock and, c o l l u v i u m . The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t t i l l d e p o s i t s a t e l e v a t i o n s over 1700 m. are i n g u l l i e s and d e p r e s s i o n s . Most o f the a b l a t i o n t i l l i s found a t middle e l e v a t i o n s on the s i d e s o f the v a l l e y , and d i s t i n c t i v e dark grey t i l l which o c c u r s i n g u l l i e s and stream channels around 1500 m. on the e a s t e r n s l o p e s o f the E l k V a l l e y and i n the M i c h e l V a l l e y , has been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r numerous minor road f a i l u r e s . D uring g l a c i a t i o n , i c e flowed south down the E l k V a l l e y and pushed a s i d e tongue up the M i c h e l V a l l e y to approximately the j u n c t i o n o f M i c h e l and Alexander Creeks. A g l a c i e r o r i g i n a t i n g i n the F l a t h e a d and T a y l o r Ranges 26 flowed northward down the M i c h e l V a l l e y t o meet the E l k V a l l e y i c e i n the v i c i n i t y o f M c G i l l i v r a y . As the g l a c i e r s began t o r e t r e a t , a p r o - g l a c i a l l a k e was formed between the tongue and the Crowsnest Pass. Along the Alexander Creek v a l l e y to the Pass t h i s l a k e was f i l l e d w i t h sand, g r a v e l and s i l t , and these m a t e r i a l s form t e r r a c e s some 60 m. t h i c k above the p r e s e n t creek bed and Highway 3. As the i c e r e t r e a t e d f u r t h e r down the M i c h e l V a l l e y i t l e f t a s e r i e s o f moraines a c r o s s the v a l l e y which were sub-s e q u e n t l y covered by l a c u s t r i n e s i l t s and sands t o a depth o f approximately 30 m.. These lake sediments now form con-spicuous benches between M i c h e l and Loop and can be seen as t y p i c a l v a r v e d d e p o s i t s i n road c u t s . i n the v i c i n i t y o f the E r i k s o n s u r f a c e mine. Between M i c h e l and Sparwood, the r e t r e a t o f the g l a c i e r was accompanied by the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f kame t e r r a c e s between the i c e mass and the steep v a l l e y w a l l s . These g r a v e l d e p o s i t s were exposed d u r i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the main Harmer h a u l road and the h i g h l y u n s t a b l e cut-banks t h a t r e s u l t e d n e c e s s i t a t e almost c o n t i n u a l maintenance t o keep the i n s i d e road d i t c h e s c l e a r . As the g l a c i e r s d i s a p p e a r e d from the E l k V a l l e y , a dam, perhaps formed by i c e remaining i n the canyon a t E l k o , caused the form a t i o n o f a p o s t - g l a c i a l l a k e which s t r e t c h e d t o n o r t h o f E l k f o r d . S i l t s and c l a y s d e p o s i t e d i n t h i s l a k e 27 have caused numerous problems i n r o a d and r a i l " c o n s t r u c t i o n and i n r e s i d e n t i a l h o u s i n g developments i n both F e r n i e and Sparwood. A f t e r the drainage o f the p o s t - g l a c i a l l a k e the major r i v e r s and c r e e k s r e - e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r channels by c u t t i n g down through the g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s . The m a t e r i a l s eroded by the r i v e r s were s o r t e d , the f i n e sediments were c a r r i e d away, and the sand, g r a v e l and stones remained t o form the f l o o d p l a i n and the g r a v e l l y t e r r a c e s t h a t now c h a r a c t e r i z e the v a l l e y bottom topography. A number o f a l l u v i a l fans have been formed where secondary streams e n t e r the main v a l l e y s and where t h e r e are abrupt changes i n stream or r i v e r g r a d i e n t . As might be expected, these d e p o s i t s vary from coarse t e x t u r e d g r a v e l s a t the apex o f the fan t o sands and s i l t s a t the edge. S o i l s E x c e p t i n the v a l l e y bottoms, the s o i l s o f the E a s t Kootenay are not w e l l s t u d i e d . Only two surveys have been completed; an i n t e n s i v e study o f the lowland a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s o f the Upper Kootenay and E l k R i v e r V a l l e y s by K e l l y and Sprout (1956) and a broad r e c o n n a i s s a n c e survey by Canada Land I n v e n t o r y s t a f f d u r i n g the Land C a p a b i l i t y Mapping programme (1966-1969). I f the b i o p h y s i c a l l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a l l u d e d t o i n the l a s t s e c t i o n i s undertaken, 2 8 f a r more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the s o i l s o f the study area w i l l be a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the next two y e a r s . G e n e r a l l y the s o i l s o f the E a s t Kootenay r e g i o n are y o u t h f u l and s o i l p r o c e s s e s have o n l y weakly m o d i f i e d the v a r i o u s s o i l p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s . Because o f t h i s and the r a t h e r complex g l a c i a l and p o s t - g l a c i a l h i s t o r y , c o n s i d e r a b l e s o i l v a r i a b i l i t y e x i s t s . An i n t e r e s t i n g example o f t h i s v a r i a b i l i t y i s s o i l r e a c t i o n , a f a c t o r which has c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f e c t on the c h o i c e o f s p e c i e s f o r r e c l a m a t i o n . F i g u r e 1 shows s o i l pH, determined on 44 samples c o l l e c t e d on the mine s i t e , as a f u n c t i o n o f a l t i t u d e . As can be seen, a s t r o n g i n v e r s e c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s between s o i l pH and a l t i t u d e . Between 1000 m. and 1370 m. e l e v a t i o n s o i l s are weakly t o moderately a l k a l i n e , between 1370 m. and 1500 m. c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n e x i s t s and above 1500 m. s o i l s are weakly t o moderately a c i d . T h i s may be p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n e d by h i g h e r r a t e s o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n and, t h e r e f o r e , h e a v i e r l e a c h i n g a t upper e l e v a t i o n s , however, another e x p l a n a t i o n must not be d i s c o u n t e d . As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , 1500 m. i s approximately the upper l i m i t o f g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s i n the a r e a . Above t h i s e l e v a t i o n s o i l s are l a r g e l y d e r i v e d in s i t u from c o l l u v i u m and bedrock. G l a c i a l t i l l and g l a c i a l l a c u s t r i n e d e p o s i t s p r o b a b l y c o n t a i n much m a t e r i a l d e r i v e d from g l a c i a l e r o s i o n o f the p a l e o z o i c l i m e s t o n e s and dolomite which surround the 3.0T l.lh&relationship between soil pH and alevation on the Kaiser Resources Ltd. mining property. 8.0 4 701 - 6.0+ O 5.0 f 4.0 1000 • • • 1500 Elevation (m) 2000 3 0 F e r n i e B a s i n . S o i l s d e v e l o p i n g from such d e p o s i t s c o u l d be expected t o have a much h i g h e r base s t a t u s than those d e r i v e d from the weakly o r non-calcareous s t r a t a o f the Kootenay and E l k f o r m a t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g broad s o i l a s s o c i a t i o n s are p r e s e n t on the study area (Wittneben 1 9 6 9 ) : Landform, V e g e t a t i o n or Parent M a t e r i a l  1; V a l l e y bottoms, coarse t e x t u r e d a l l u v i u m 2. V a l l e y bottoms and lower e l e v -a t i o n s , f i n e t e x t u r e d g l a c i o -l a c u s t r i n e d e p o s i t s 3. Middle and lower e l e v a t i o n s , t i l l p a r e n t m a t e r i a l 4. Middle e l e v a t i o n s , g l a c i o -l a c u s t r i n e m a t e r i a l s 5 . Middle e l e v a t i o n s on South or Southwest a s p e c t s ( g r a s s / shrub communities) High e l e v a t i o n s ( 1 5 0 0 m.+) S o i l Type - D y s t r i c and E u t r i c B r u n i s o l s - Bisequa Gray-brown L u v i s o l s D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l s M i n i and O r t h i c , Humo-Ferric Podzols Gray-brown L u v i s o l s E u t r i c B r u n i s o l s (more r a r e l y ) Dark brown o r Dark-gray Chernozems M i n i and Ortho Humo-F e r r i c P o d z o l s , A l p i n e D y s t r i c B r u n o s o l s , a l t e r -n a t i n g w i t h exposed bedrock and Regosols on u n s t a b l e c o l l u v i u m Mapping o f s o i l and landform d e p o s i t s o f the F l a t h e a d , F e r n i e and Upper E l k C o a l Basins a t a s c a l e o f 1 : 5 0 , 0 0 0 i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g done by the Resource A n a l y s i s U n i t o f the Environment and Land Use S e c r e t a r i a t . P r e l i m i n a r y manuscript 31 . map s h e e t s o f t h e K.R.L. c o a l l a n d s s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e i n June o r J u l y o f 1978. 2.4 C l i m a t e The E a s t Kootenay R e g i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p r o b a b l y c o n t a i n s more c l i m a t i c v a r i a t i o n t h a n any a r e a o f s i m i l a r s i z e i n Canada. As an example o f t h i s v a r i a t i o n , f i v e c l i m a t i c p a r a m e t e r s a r e c o n t r a s t e d f o r Sparwood, F e r n i e and E l k o i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e : A n n u a l Temperature (°C) F r o s t S t a t i o n P r e c i p i t a t i o n Mean A n n u a l Mean W i n t e r Mean Summer Cm. F r e e P e r i o d Sparwood 57.9 3.8 - 7.2 14.8 80 days' F e r n i e 104.1 4.4 - 6.6 14.9 101 days E l k o 51.0 5.0 - 7.2 16.1 95 days C l i m a t i c p a t t e r n s i n the Region are i n f l u e n c e d by three main types of a i r masses: maritime t r o p i c a l , maritime p a c i f i c , and c o n t i n e n t a l a r c t i c ( M a r s h a l l , 1969). The maritime t r o p i c a l a i r masses a r i s e i n the P a c i f i c Ocean a t l a t i t u d e s 30-35°N. T h i s type o f system a r r i v e s i n the E a s t Kootenay somewhat c o o l e d by i t s passage over the North P a c i f i c and u s u a l l y " r i d i n g " on a c o o l marine stratum. Because o f t h i s , and the tendency f o r t h i s a i r mass t o r i d e over c o o l e r c o n t i n e n t a l a i r , 32 i t seldom reaches the s u r f a c e . Maritime P a c i f i c a i r o r i g i n a t e s i n the G u l f o f A l a s k a as a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f p o l a r c o n t i n e n t a l a i r which, through a lo n g passage over the North P a c i f i c , a c q u i r e s marine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Occurrances o f t h i s type o f weather system are common i n the Kootenays, p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the w i n t e r months, and r e s u l t i n most o f the annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n . C o n t i n e n t a l A r c t i c a i r i n f l u e n c e s the study a r e a o n l y i n f r e q u e n t l y because the ranges o f the c o n t i n e n t a l d i v i d e form a b a r r i e r t o i t s westward spread. O c c a s i o n a l l y , however, " p o l a r outbreaks" o c c u r , and tongues o f c o l d a i r flow westward through the main r i v e r v a l l e y s . These outbreaks b r i n g e x c e p t i o n a l l y low minimum temperatures o f -35°C o r l e s s . On the mining area t h e " c l i m a t e can be c l a s s i f i e d , a f t e r Koppen, as c o n t x n e n t a l sub-humid (Dfb) a t lower e l e v a t i o n s , and c o n t i n e n t a l c o l d humid (Dfc) a t h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s . Two weather s t a t i o n s have been e s t a b l i s h e d on the mining a r e a , one a t the r e c l a m a t i o n o f f i c e / n u r s e r y complex i n the E l k V a l l e y a t an e l e v a t i o n o f 1125 m. and one a t the e n g i n e e r i n g o f f i c e on Harmer Ridge a t an e l e v a t i o n o f 1920 m. Data from the two s t a t i o n s are summarized i n T a b l e s 3 and 4, and annual data i s shown i n Appendix I I I . A t lower e l e v a t i o n s , p r e c i p i t a t i o n o c c u r s i n the form o f r a i n i n a l l months o f the ye a r , and i n the form o f snow i n a l l but the t h r e e summer months. Approximately 33 TABLE Weather Summary for the Year(s): 1969-1974 Station: Natal-Kaiser Resources Month Temp °C P r e c i p i t a t i o n (cm) Means Extremes Max. Min. Ave. Max. Min. Rain Snow Total January -6.5 -15.- -10.8 9.4 -35.6 2.7 91.8 11.9 February 1.9 • - 9.9 - 4.0 12.8 -31.7 1.6 35.0 5.1 March 4.2 - 6.7 - 1.2 14.4 -27.2 2.5 22.2 4.7 A p r i l 9.8 - 2.1 3.8 20.0 -11.7 3.8 16.0 5.4 May 16.5 0.1 8.3 28.9 - 7.2 3.0 2.5 3.3 June 20.8 5.8 13.3 32.8 - 2.2 5.3 - 5.3 July 24.8 6.4 15.4 34.4 - 2.2 3.7 - 3.7 August 24.9 6.3 15.6 34.4 - 2.8 2.1 - 2.1 September 17.1 2.0 9.6 30.6 - 7.2 2.6 3.5 2.9 October 10.5 - 1.6 4.4 21.7 -19.4 1.1 7-1 1.8 November 2.9 - 6.2 - 1.7 10.0 -30.0 2.6 33.0 5.9 December - 2.0 -11.4 - 6.7 10.0 -35.6 1.5 43.8 5.8 Mean monthly temperature ("C): - 3.8 Mean monthly temperature for January: - -10.8 Mean monthly temperature for July: - 15.4 Months above 10 C: -o J Months above 5 C: - 5 Months below 0 C: - 5 Frost free days (period): - 8 0 d a y s Total annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n (cm): - 57.9 Annual snowfall (cm): - 254.9 Seasonal occurrence of p r e c i p i t a t i o n : -Wet Season Winter (39%) Wettest Month January Dry Season F a l l (18%) Dryest Month October 34 TABLE Weather Summary for the Year(s): 1971-1974 Station: Natal - Harmer Ridge Month Temp °C P r e c i p i t a t i o n (cm) Means Extremes Max. Min. Ave. Max. Min. . Rain Snow Total January- - 9.6 - 16.8 -13.2 2.7 -33.9 141.2 14.1 February - 4.5 • - 11.8 - 8.2 5.0 -28.9 - 79.6 8.0 March - 1.0 - 9.5 - 5.2 7.8 -24.4 trace 58.8 5.9 A p r i l 2.0 - 6.4 - 2.2 9.4 -18.9 trace 62.1 6.2 May 7.9 - 0.6 3.6 21.1 -10.5 1.2 27.6 4.0 June 14.1 4.4 9.2 26.7 - 2.8 4.2 8.5 5.0 July 17.3 6.3 11.8 26.1 - 1.7 6.1 1.6 6.3 August 18.9 8.0 13.4 30.0 - 1.1 4.2 2.8 4.5 September 9.7 0.8 5.2 23.3 -11.7 2.6 30.1 5.6 October 5.4 - 3.1 •1.2 16.7 -22.2 0.6 42.7 4.7 November - 3.4 - 9.1 - 6.2 5.6 -22.2 - 116.8 11.7 December - 7.3 - 13.2 - 10.2 1.7 -32.8 — 112.3 11.2 Mean monthly temperature ("c): - 0 Mean monthly temperature for January: - - 1 3 , 2 Mean monthly temperature for July: - 11.8 Months above 10 C: - 2 Months above 5 C: - 4 Months below 0 C: - 6 Frost free days (period): - 61 days Total annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n (cm): - 87.4 Annual snowfall (cm): - 683.1 Seasonal occurrence of p r e c i p i t a t i o n : -Wet Season Winter (38% of ppt.) Wettest Month January Dry Season Summer (18% of ppt.) Dryest Month May ) 35 f o r t y - f o u r per cen t o f the annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n f a l l s as snow. H e a v i e s t p r e c i p i t a t i o n o c c u r s from l a t e f a l l , through w i n t e r t o e a r l y s p r i n g . The d r i e s t p e r i o d s are i n l a t e . s p r i n g ( m i d - A p r i l t o the end o f May) and from mid-summer to e a r l y f a l l . U s u a l l y a s h o r t p e r i o d o f f a i r l y i n t e n s i v e r a i n f a l l o ccurs i n June and e a r l y J u l y . A t h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s , snow occurs i n a l l months o f the year and accounts f o r approximately s e v e n t y - e i g h t per cent o f the annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n . P r e c i p i t a t i o n i s h e a v i e s t from November t o February, and i s r e l a t i v e l y e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the r e s t o f the y e a r . Mean monthly, and extreme maximum temperatures are i n v a r i a b l y h i g h e r a t lower e l e v a t i o n s . Extreme minimum temperatures are o f t e n lower i n the v a l l e y bottoms f o r two reasons, f i r s t because o f temperature i n v e r s i o n s t h a t commonly form d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f s t i l l a i r , and second, d u r i n g out-breaks o f p o l a r c o n t i n e n t a l a i r , the c o l d a i r tends t o con c e n t r a t e and flow a t low e l e v a t i o n s i n the v a l l e y s . Average F r o s t f r e e p e r i o d s f o r the v a l l e y bottom and Harmer Ridge are 80 and 61 days r e s p e c t i v e l y . Growing season f o r hardy p e r e n n i a l p l a n t s , d e f i n e d as those months w i t h a mean temperature o f 5° c e n t i g r a d e o r h i g h e r , averages 5 months f o r the E l k V a l l e y and 4 months f o r Harmer Ridge. 36 P r e v a i l i n g wind d i r e c t i o n s a t Sparwood are from the southeast down the M i c h e l V a l l e y and from the southwest up the E l k V a l l e y . Two anemometers have been i n s t a l l e d by the Company, one a t Sparwood and the o t h e r a t M i c h e l , as p a r t of the a i r q u a l i t y m o n i t o r i n g programme. Data from these s t a t i o n s are not a v a i l a b l e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s t h e s i s . 2.5 V e g e t a t i o n W i t h i n a 50 km. r a d i u s o f Sparwood, are r e p r e s e n t e d f i v e o f the e l e v e n b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zones d e s c r i b e d f o r B r i t i s h Columbia by K r a j i n a (1964); s p e c i f i c a l l y , the Ponderosa Pine-Bunchgrass zone, the I n t e r i o r D o u g l a s - f i r zone, the I n t e r i o r Western Hemlock zone, the Engelmann Spruce -Subalpine F i r zone and the A l p i n e Tundra zone (See Map l d ) . At E l k o , 48 km. southwest o f Sparwood on Highway No. 3, the p l a n t community i s t y p i c a l o f the wet 1 subzone o f the Ponderosa Pine - Bunchgrass zone. T h i s zone oc c u r s i n the Rocky Mountain Trench south o f a l i n e from Wardner t o E l k o . Zonal and sub-zonal p l a n t i n d i c a t o r s i n c l u d e ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), D o u g l a s - f i r (Pseudotsuga menziesii), b i t t e r b r u s h (Purshia t r i d e n t a t a ) , r a b b i t bush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) and f r i n g e d sage (Artemisia f r i g i d a ) . 115°00' 114°45 50°00' 49'45' 49°30< LEGEND 1HTF45' Scale 1-2SP0 11*30' B IOGEOCLIMATIC Z ONES* OF T H E F ERNIE COAL BASIN 1. Ponderosa Pine - Buncngrefte> Zone. 2. Interior Western Hemlock Zone. 3. Interior Douglas-fir Zone. 4. Enqeltnc,wi Spruce -Subalpme F i r Zone. 5 . A l p i n e "TundrcX a n d R o c k . -* After Krajina (1964) MAP id. S o u r c e :-NT.S.8£G$J 38 N o r t h e a s t o f E l k o , a l o n g the E l k R i v e r v a l l e y , the v e g e t a t i o n changes very a b r u p t l y to the dry sub-zone o f the I n t e r i o r Western Hemlock zone. Zonal and subzonal p l a n t i n d i c a t o r s t h a t occur commonly i n the v i c i n i t y o f F e r n i e and M o r r i s s e y i n c l u d e western red cedar (Thuja plicata) , western white pine (Pinus monticola), western l a r c h (Larix occidentalis), western yew (Taxus brevifolia), bunchberry (Cornus canadensis), and b l a c k hawthorn {Crataegus douglasii). Between F e r n i e and Sparwood, i n response to d e c r e a s i n g p r e c i p i t a t i o n , t h e r e i s a g r a d u a l t r a n s i t i o n from the d r y sub-zone o f the I n t e r i o r Western Hemlock zone to the wet sub-zone o f the I n t e r i o r D o u g l a s - f i r zone. Throughout the area t h e r e i s a t r a n s i t i o n t o the E n g e l -mann Spruce - Subalpine F i r zone above 1375 m. e l e v a t i o n , and to the A l p i n e Tundra zone above 2125 m. Two b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zones occur on the K a i s e r Resources L t d . mining are a ; the I n t e r i o r D o u g l a s - f i r zone a t e l e v a t i o n s from 1125 m. t o approximately 1525 m., and the Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine F i r zone from approximately 1525 m. t o 2100 m. W i t h i n these two zones are e i g h t c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e p l a n t communities which r e f l e c t both p h y s i o -g r a p h i c i n f l u e n c e s and v a r i a t i o n s i n s u c c e s s i o n a l h i s t o r y . In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s these e i g h t communities w i l l be b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d . D e t a i l e d s p e c i e s l i s t s appear i n Appendix IV, and the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the communities on the mining area i s shown on Map 2d. 114°50' 49°5<4 49°45' 49840'-r y-49°45' LEGENb Scale 1:50,000 V E G E T A T I O N T Y P E S O F T H E MINING A R E A * 1.Sub-alpine, f o r e s t parklanci. Z.Sub-alpine,dosed canopy climax forest 3.6ub-alpine,even-agecl serai forest. ' 4.Low eievation,all-ag2d mixed forest. 5. Low elevation ;even-aged Serai forest. 6. Valley-bottom, floodptain communities. 7. Physiographic sub-climax Shrub/ herb communities. M c \ P Z d Estimated distribution in the absence of logging i mining. 49°50' Co 43°40' Source . -NTS . 8£JO$/5 40 A. Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine F i r Zone (1) Open Subalpine F o r e s t "Parkland" T h i s i s a shrub, herb and s t u n t e d c o n i f e r community o f r i c h s p e c i e s d i v e r s i t y o c c u r r i n g on h i g h e l e v a t i o n r i d g e tops and u n c o n s o l i d a t e d c o l l u v i a l d e p o s i t s . T y p i c a l s o i l types are a l p i n e d y s t r i c b r u n i s o l s , r e g o s o l s and l o c a l i z e d areas o f wet o r g a n i c s . The t r e e component o f t h i s community c o n s i s t s o f s u b a l p i n e f i r (Abies lasioaarpa) , white bark p i n e (Pinus albicaulis), and lodg e p o l e pine (Pinus contorta var l a t i f o l i a ) . Under denser canopy the u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n i s dominated by white rhododendron (Rhododendron albiflorum) and f a l s e a z a l e a (Menziesia ferruginea). Areas o f more open canopy, and s m a l l meadows support an a r r a y of shrubs ( p r i m a r i l y Vaooinium spp), sedges, gra s s e s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y Poa spp) and f o r b s . K i n n i k i n n i k ( Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) , S c o u l e r ' s penstemon (Penstemon frutioosus var scouleri) and common j u n i p e r (Juniperus communis v a r communis) are the main s p e c i e s o c c u r r i n g on u n c o n s o l i d a t e d c o l l u v i u m . (2) Closed-canopy Subalpine Climax F o r e s t The t r a n s i t i o n t o t h i s f o r e s t type o c c u r s between e l e v a t i o n s o f 1525-1675 m. on w e s t e r l y and s o u t h e r l y a s p e c t s and 1375-1525 m. on n o r t h e r l y and e a s t e r l y a s p e c t s . The major s o i l types of the c l o s e d s u b a l p i n e f o r e s t are m i n i and o r t h i c h u m o - f e r r i c p o d z o l s , a l p i n e d y s t r i c b r u n i s o l s , and r e g o s o l s . T h i s community i s dominated by s u b a l p i n e f i r 41 (Abies lasiocarpa) and Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii). Lodgepole p i n e , whitebark p i n e and a l p i n e l a r c h (Larix l y a l l i i ) are p r e s e n t as s c a t t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l s . Of i n t e r -e s t i n g , though very r a r e , o c c u r r e n c e i s mountain hemlock (Tsuga mevtensiana). T h i s may be the most e a s t e r l y d i s -t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s s p e c i e s i n B.C. White rhododendron and f a l s e a z a l e a are the main un d e r s t o r y s p e c i e s except i n stream courses where S i t k a a l d e r (Alnus sinuata) forms t h i c k e t s . F orbs, grasses and o t h e r shrubs are r e s t r i c t e d t o areas o f open canopy and the s p e c i e s tend t o be s i m i l a r t o those o c c u r r i n g i n the "parkland" type. (3) F i r e - i n d u c e d , Evenaged S e r a i F o r e s t S e r a i l o d g e p o l e p i n e stands o c c u r commonly i n the Crowsnest area as a r e s u l t o f widespread f i r e s d u r i n g the 19 30's. A t a l l e l e v a t i o n s the stands are densely stocked, u s u a l l y i n the range o f 1500-2000 stems per ha. F o r the purposes o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , a d i s t i n c t i o n w i l l be made between those l o d g e p o l e p i n e stands i n the s u b a l p i n e and those a t lower e l e v a t i o n s on the b a s i s o f un d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n . In the s u b a l p i n e , the un d e r s t o r y o f these stands i s dominated by grouseberry (Vaccinium scoparium) almost to the e x c l u s i o n o f o t h e r s p e c i e s . The o n l y other* common s p e c i e s are S i t k a a l d e r i n the stream courses and s c a t t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l s o f s t i c k y c u r r e n t (Ribes viscosissimum) and 42 b r o a d l e a f a r n i c a (Arnica l a t i f o l i a ) . • . B. I n t e r i o r D o u g l a s - f i r Zone (1) A l l - a g e d , Mixed F o r e s t T h i s v e g e t a t i o n type o c c u r s , f o r the most p a r t , on w e s t e r l y , n o r t h e r l y and e a s t e r l y a s p e c t s . These areas were prob a b l y burned by the same f i r e s t h a t c r e a t e d the lodg e p o l e pine stands but, because o f the c o o l e r , m o i s t e r a s p e c t , r e g e n e r a t e d t o a mixed f o r e s t r a t h e r than pure l o d g e p o l e p i n e . The most common s o i l types are d y s t r i c b r u n i s o l s on d r i e r s i t e s and m i n i h u m o f e r r i c p o d z o l s on the m o i s t e r n o r t h e r l y a s p e c t s . D o u g l a s - f i r (Pseudotsuga menziesii) v e t e r a n s o f 100+ years occur throughout the area e i t h e r as s c a t t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l s o r i n s m a l l stands where topography has g i v e n them some p r o t e c t i o n from f i r e . The younger t r e e growth i s dominated by D o u g l a s - f i r , western l a r c h (Larix occidentalis), and t r e m b l i n g aspen (Populus trem-uloides) . Paper b i r c h (Betula papyrifera) and Rocky Mountain j u n i p e r (Juniperus scopulorum) are common throughout t h i s type, and b l a c k C o t t o n w o o d (Populus trichocarpa) i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h water courses and seepage s i t e s . T h i s v e g e t a t i o n type supports a r i c h u n d e r s t o r y because of the openness o f the canopy. Twenty-one s p e c i e s o f shrub, n i n e s p e c i e s o f gras s and twenty-three f o r b s have been i d e n t i f i e d . 43 (2) F i r e - i n d u c e d , Evenaged S e r a i F o r e s t Lodgepole p i n e f o r e s t s a t low e l e v a t i o n s d i f f e r from those i n the s u b a l p i n e p r i m a r i l y i n u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n . The shrubs t h a t are most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h i s type are squashberry (Viburnum edule) and f a l s e box (Paehistima myrsinites). The dominant ground v e g e t a t i o n i s p i n e g r a s s (Calamagrostis rubesoens), w i t h w i l d strawberry (Fragaria virginiana), h e a r t l e a f e d a r n i c a (Arnica cordifolia) , and p r i n c e ' s p i n e (Chimaphilia' umbellata) a l s o common. (3) V a l l e y - b o t t o m , F l o o d - p l a i n Communities on F l u v i a l D e p o s i t s The v e g e t a t i o n o f r i v e r f l o o d p l a i n s i n t h i s area i s a mosaic o f meadows, shrub t h i c k e t s , and mixed deciduous and c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t s . ' The most common t r e e s p e c i e s o f the v a l l e y bottom are b l a c k cottonwood, t r e m b l i n g aspen and white spruce (Picea glauca). Columbia hawthorn (Crataegus columbiana), white clematus (Clematus l i n g u s t i f o l i a ) , s i l v e r b e r r y (Elaeagnus commutata), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), t h r e e s p e c i e s o f r o s e , and waxberry (Symphori-carpos albus) are the common shrub s p e c i e s on d r i e r s i t e s . Sandbar w i l l o w s (4 s p e c i e s ) and r e d o s i e r dogwood (Cornus stolonifera) are the main s p e c i e s on areas o f annual f l o o d i n g . The grass and f o r b component o f t h i s v e g e t a t i o n type i s v ery d i v e r s e and r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r study. 44 C. V e g e t a t i o n Communities That Occur Throughout The Range o f E l e v a t i o n s on the M i n i n g Area ~ (1) South and Southwest Aspect, P h y s i o g r a p h i c Sub-Climax Shrub/Herb Community These communities are found throughout the r e g i o n on steep south and southwest f a c i n g s l o p e s t h a t are e i t h e r too dry o r too u n s t a b l e t o support t r e e growth. On the mining area' these shrub meadows occur on the western s l o p e s o f N a t a l and Harmer Ridges. The composition o f these communities appears t o be q u i t e v a r i a b l e depending upon e l e v a t i o n , a s p e c t , p a r e n t m a t e r i a l and a v a i l a b l e m o i s t u r e . In view o f the c r i t i c a l , importance o f these areas t o w i n t e r i n g w i l d l i f e (see s e c t i o n 2.6) more study and f u r t h e r s u b d i v i s i o n o f t h i s type i s r e q u i r e d . (2) P l a n t Communities—Developed on Areas o f I n d u s t r i a l D i s t u r b a n c e The study o f these communities has s i g n i f i c a n t a p p l i c a t i o n t o the s e l e c t i o n o f n a t i v e s p e c i e s f o r r e c l a m a t i o n . F i v e t r e e s p e c i e s , twelve shrubs, two g r a s s e s , t w e n t y - f i v e f o r b s and a h o r s e t a i l (Equisitum sp.) have been found growing on areas of deep s o i l d i s t u r b a n c e s . F u r t h e r study o f d i s t u r b e d areas i s r e q u i r e d , and s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n on such areas must be r e l a t e d t o environmental f a c t o r s such as e l e v a t i o n , s l o p e , a s p e c t , and s o i l m a t e r i a l b e f o r e any r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s can be made on the s u i t a b i l i t y o f these s p e c i e s f o r r e c l a m a t i o n . 45 The main value o f v e g e t a t i o n s t u d i e s i n a r e c l a m a t i o n programme i s to p r o v i d e b a s e l i n e i n f o r m a t i o n a g a i n s t which to assess the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of r e v e g e t a t i o n measures. In o r d e r to p r o v i d e meaningful b a s e l i n e data, permanent p l o t s must be e s t a b l i s h e d on which t o measure parameters such as s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n , ground and f o l i a g e cover, biomass p r o d u c t i o n and c h e m i c a l c o n t e n t . These s t u d i e s must be s u f f i c i e n t l y long-term as to e s t a b l i s h the magnitude o f n a t u r a l v a r i a b i l i t y due t o c l i m a t i c and pedogenic f l u c t u a t i o n s . Sample p l o t s must be l o c a t e d i n v e g e t a t i o n u n i t s o f s u f f i c i e n t s i z e (> 5 ha.) t h a t they are r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e over a 20 y e a r p e r i o d . 2.6 W i l d l i f e and F i s h Because o f i t s v a r i a t i o n i n landforms and v e g e t a t i o n , the E a s t Kootenay supports perhaps the g r e a t e s t d i v e r s i t y o f w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The F e r n i e and Upper E l k c o a l b a s i n s f a l l w i t h i n the ranges o f f o r t y - n i n e s p e c i e s and s u b - s p e c i e s o f mammals (Cowan and Guiguet, 1965). T h i s t o t a l i n c l u d e s t h r e e s p e c i e s of shrew, t h r e e s p e c i e s o f b a t s , two s p e c i e s o f the o r d e r Lagomorpha (hares and p i k a s ) , n i n e t e e n s p e c i e s o f r o d e n t s , s i x s p e c i e s o f ungulates, and f o u r t e e n s p e c i e s o f c a r n i v o r e s (see Appendix V ) . In terms o f d i s t r i b u t i o n and h a b i t a t u t i l i z a t i o n , the most i n t e n s i v e l y s t u d i e d component o f t h i s w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e i s the l a r g e u n g u l a t e s ; Rocky Mountain e l k , moose, mule deer, 46 w h i t e - t a i l e d deer, Rocky Mountain b i g h o r n sheep, and mountain goat. A v a i l a b l e w i n t e r range i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be the s i n g l e most important h a b i t a t f a c t o r l i m i t i n g ungulate numbers i n the Northern Rocky Mountains ( S t e l f o x and Taber, 1969). Demarchi (1967) e s t i m a t e s t h a t summer range exceeds the amount o f t e n a b l e w i n t e r range by a r a t i o o f 10:1 w i t h i n the E l k R i v e r watershed. Winter ranges are c o n f i n e d t o r i p a r i a n h a b i t a t s along the major water c o u r s e s , and to s o u t h e r l y a s p e c t s where wind and temperature moderate snow depth. These l a t e r areas tend t o remain i n s e r a i and subclimax herb/shrub communities f o r l o n g p e r i o d s f o l l o w i n g f i r e o r o t h e r forms o f d i s t u r b a n c e , and thus produce s i g n i f i c a n t q u a n t i t i e s o f a v a i l a b l e forage f o r u n g u l a t e s . Major w i n t e r ranges w i t h i n the E a s t Kootenay c o a l a r e a have been i d e n t i f i e d through a s e r i e s o f a e r i a l surveys conducted between 1962 and 1968. The r e s u l t s o f these s t u d i e s have been summarized i n two p u b l i c a t i o n s by the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch (Demarchi, 1967 and 1968). These w i n t e r ranges are shown on Map l e and the average number o f animals observed over the p e r i o d 1962 t o 1975 are shown i n T a b l e 5. W i t h i n the K a i s e r Resources L t d . c o a l p r o p e r t i e s , the most s i g n i f i c a n t w i n t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f animals occur on the f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : 1. Immediately to the n o r t h o f Harmer Ridge t h e r e o c c u r s an a r e a o f f l a t t o g e n t l y . 115*00 \HTJ in>*> Scale 1*50,000 MAJOR UNGULATE WINTER RANGES Clc\SS 1. Lands with no significant limitations to the production of ungulates. Class 2. tands with very slight limitatiohs to the production of tmgu.ld.tes. Class "3. Lands with slight limitations to the production of ungulates. b=deer Rocky Mtn. elk M = Moose S = Rocky Mtn. bighorn sheep. Jv^p ^ Capability, interpretations generalized from B.C. Land Inventory. Source:-NT.5.8^G*J. Table 5 Animal-Use of the Major Winter Ranges In the Fernie and Upper Elk Coal Basins. Observed on Late Winter C l a s s i f i e d Counts During the Period 1966-1975* Number of Animals By Species „ r I T J . n ' Elk Sheep Deer Moose Name of Winter Range —*• Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Grave P r a i r i e 92 17 - _ 8 3 4 0 Sheep Mountain 48 3 41 14 14 11 - -Sparwood/Hosmer Ridge 77 4 - - 2 0 10 0 Natal Ridge 82 5 - - 39 1 - -McGillivray Ridge 15 6 - - - - - -Ewan Creek North 41 5 40 11 - - - -South 47 2 119 57 - - - - • Chauncey Creek 31 2 - .- - 2 0 Tod Hunter Creek 57 21 29 22 - - 2 0 Lyne Mountain 48 11 76 N/A - - - -Coal Creek 74 13 - - 2 0 1 0 Riparian Ranges Elk River: Fernie-Sparwood 61 13 - - 5 0 19 2 Elk River: Sparwood North 49 9 - - 18 3 32 8 Fording River 35 19 • - - . - - 16 1 Michel Creek 3 0 - - - - - . - .-*N.B. C l a s s i f i e d winter counts can not be considered a t o t a l population inventory. F l i g h t s are normally cone only one day a year and the number of animals seen varies with the severity of the winter , the experience of the observers, and the weather at the time of observation. 49 r o l l i n g topography bounded by L i n e Creek i n the n o r t h , the E l k R i v e r on the west and Grave Lake on the e a s t . T h i s area supports an aspen/ mixed f o r e s t community w i t h a r i c h shrub and herb u n d e r s t o r y , and i s u t i l i z e d p r i m a r i l y by mule deer and Rocky Mountain e l k . 2. The south and w e s t e r l y a s p e c t s o f N a t a l , Sparwood, F e r n i e and M c G i l l i v r a y Ridges support f i r e - i n d u c e d , sub-climax herb/shrub communities . t h a t r e c e i v e heavy use by mule deer and Rocky Mountain e l k . 3. The r i p a r i a n h a b i t a t i n the E l k , F o r d i n g , M i c h e l , Alexander and E r i k s o n V a l l e y bottoms are u t i l i z e d p r i m a r i l y by moose and Rocky Mountain e l k . One of the main c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f moose i n the area o c c u r s on the e a s t bank o f the E l k R i v e r a l o n g the base o f the Green-h i l l s Range. S c a t t e r e d groups o f w h i t e - t a i l e d deer use the E l k R i v e r f l o o d p l a i n from E l k o t o a few m i l e s n o r t h of Sparwood. 4. A number o f c r i t i c a l w i n t e r ranges f o r e l k and b i g h o r n sheep are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f i v e w e s t e r l y f l o w i n g t r i b u t a r i e s o f the F o r d i n g R i v e r . S p e c i f i c a l l y these areas are the a l p i n e and g r a s s l a n d ranges on the s o u t h - f a c i n g s l o p e s o f I 50 Grace, Ewin, Tod Hunter, Chauncey, Kilmarnock, Clode and H e n r i e t t a Creeks. The area between Grace and Ewin Creeks, a p o r t i o n of which i s o c c u p i e d by K.R.L. c o a l l i c e n c e 6746 (see Map I f ) i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be the most important a l p i n e w i n t e r range f o r Rocky Mountain b i g h o r n sheep i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Demarchi, 1968) . K.R.L. c o a l l i c e n c e s 6743, 6744 and 6747 c o n t a i n p o r t i o n s o f a g r a s s l a n d and open f o r e s t range, a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Ewin and Tod Hunter Creeks, t h a t i s used by both e l k and b i g h o r n sheep. These g r a s s l a n d s e x h i b i t chernozemic s o i l development as a r e s u l t o f p e r i o d i c f i r e s , and can be c o n s i d e r e d unique to the area (Wright, 1967). The b o t a n i c a l d i v e r s i t y i n the mining a r e a p r o v i d e s a wide a r r a y o f a v i a n h a b i t a t s , and a v a r i e t y o f b i r d s p e c i e s i s l i k e l y t o be p r e s e n t e i t h e r as b r e e d i n g o r migrant p o p u l a t i o n s . No comprehensive study o f the b i r d s o f the E l k R i v e r drainage has y e t been made, however, a p r e l i m i n a r y s p e c i e s l i s t has been compiled from r e c o r d s o f the B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Museum (Campbell per. comm.) and t h i s i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix V. The major f i s h s p e c i e s i n the E l k R i v e r system are Yellowstone c u t t h r o a t t r o u t , D o l l y Varden, and Rocky Mountain w h i t e f i s h . D o l l y Varden and Rocky Mountain w h i t e f i s h are found i n the lower reaches o f the E l k R i v e r and M i c h e l 51 Creek, w h i l e c u t t h r o a t t r o u t occupy the upper r e a c h e s o f b o t h s t r e a m s , the F o r d i n g R i v e r and a l l o f t h e major t r i b u t a r i e s i n t h e system. Rainbow t r o u t and kokanee, n e i t h e r o f w h i c h i s n a t i v e t o the E l k R i v e r d r a i n a g e , have been i n t r o d u c e d t o Grave Lake. V i r t u a l l y no s t u d i e s have been c a r r i e d o u t t o d e t e r m i n e e i t h e r f i s h e r y p o p u l a t i o n s o r i m p o r t a n t h a b i t a t i n t h e E l k R i v e r system. I n v i e w o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t s p o r t f i s h r e c r e a t i o n a f f o r d e d t o employees o f t h e m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e a r e a , K a i s e r Resources L t d . c o u l d w e l l a f f o r d t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h i n a s t r e a m s u r v e y programme t o d e t e r m i n e b o t h t h e p r e s e n t s t a t u s o f t h e r e s o u r c e and t h e e f f e c t s on i t o f m i n i n g and e x p l o r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n . t o t h e s p o r t f i s h p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , s i x s p e c i e s o f c o a r s e f i s h i n h a b i t streams and l a k e s i n t h e a r e a . A l i s t o f a l l s p e c i e s i d e n t i f i e d from t h e a r e a i s i n c l u d e d i n A ppendix V. 2.7 Map and A i r p h o t o R e f e r e n c e s Map and a i r p h o t o r e f e r e n c e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x V I . E x c e p t where n o t e d , the maps and p h o t o s a r e f o r t h e whole c o a l p r o p e r t y . No c e n t r a l r e g i s t r y o f a e r i a l p h o tography e x i s t s f o r B r i t i s h C olumbia and, as a r e s u l t , p h o tography by p r i v a t e f i r m s i s d i f f i c u l t t o l o c a t e . A i r p h o t o r e f e r e n c e s a r e , t h e r e f o r e , o f government photography o n l y . 52 CHAPTER I I I THE KAISER RESOURCES LTD. OPERATION 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n In 1966 the K a i s e r S t e e l C o r p o r a t i o n o f Oakland, C a l i f o r n i a , began t o c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f d e v e l o p i n g c o a l r e s o u r c e s i n the E a s t Kootenay a r e a t o produce m e t a l -l u r g i c a l c o k i n g c o a l f o r s a l e t o the Japanese s t e e l i n d u s t r y . An approach to K a i s e r S t e e l by Crowsnest I n d u s t r i e s L t d . , a long e s t a b l i s h e d c o a l and lumber producer i n the are a , t o s e l l c o a l , r e s u l t e d i n n e g o t i a t i o n s by which K a i s e r a c q u i r e d mining r i g h t s t o a s e l e c t e d t w o - t h i r d s o f C.N.I.'s 44550 ha. o f crown-granted c o a l l a n d s . In a d d i t i o n , the r i g h t s t o a number o f crown c o a l l i c e n c e s were a l s o o b t a i n e d . On J u l y 31, 1967, the K a i s e r C o a l Company was i n c o r p o r a t e d as a w h o l l y owned s u b s i d i a r y o f the K a i s e r S t e e l C o r p o r a t i o n . In 1969 the name was changed t o K a i s e r Resources L t d . t o r e f l e c t a broader i n t e r e s t i n res o u r c e development. Today the company i s one o f the major producers o f m e t a l l u r g i c a l c o a l i n Canada. Almost a l l o f t h i s c o a l p r o d u c t i o n i s s o l d , under long-term c o n t r a c t w i t h the M i t s u b i s h i C o r p o r a t i o n , t o supply the Japanese s t e e l i n d u s t r y . 53 I n i t i a l c o n t r a c t s c a l l e d f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of-6,000,000 long tons per year, however, i n 1973 the terms were r e n e g o t i a t e d to 4,500,000 long tons per year, p l u s o r minus 5 per cent a t the buyer's o p t i o n . The p r i c e o f m e t a l -l u r g i c a l c o a l has r i s e n d r a m a t i c a l l y over the p a s t f i v e years w i t h the most r e c e n t and l a r g e s t i n c r e a s e c o i n c i d i n g w i t h what i s now commonly r e f e r r e d t o as the "energy c r i s i s " . The f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e the s e l l i n g p r i c e t o the n e a r e s t d o l l a r s i n c e 1970: 1970 - 12.00; 1972 -18.00; 1974 - 27.00; and 1976 - 52.00. In a d d i t i o n to m e t a l l u r g i c a l coa"l, the company a l s o produces s m a l l e r q u a n t i t i e s o f thermal c o a l , coke, and by-products such as c o a l t a r . The thermal c o a l i s s o l d under s h o r t - t e r m c o n t r a c t s to power u t i l i t i e s i n E a s t e r n Canada and Europe. Coke made a t M i c h e l s u p p l i e s a s m a l l domestic and U.S. market. Of the t o t a l raw c o a l mined by K.R.L., approximately 85 per c e n t i s produced by s u r f a c e mining. The remainder i s e x t r a c t e d i n underground o p e r a t i o n s , mainly by the h y d r a u l i c method. The raw m e t a l l u r g i c a l c o a l i s c l e a n e d o n - s i t e i n a p r e p a r a t i o n p l a n t complex t o reduce "ash content" t o the 9.5 per c e n t s p e c i f i e d i n the c o n t r a c t s . The average y i e l d o f c l e a n c o a l from raw c o a l i s 76 per cent. The c l e a n c o a l i s loaded i n t o " u n i t " t r a i n s o f 88 c a r s and t r a n s p o r t e d 54 1100 r a i l km. to bulk loading f a c i l i t i e s at the deep-water port of Westshore Terminals Ltd. at Roberts Bank. This company i s a wholly-owned subsidiary of Kaiser Resources Ltd. The port has the capacity to stockpile up to one m i l l i o n tons of coal, and to accommodate ships of up to 150,000 tons. The operations of Kaiser Resources and Westshore Terminals employ approximately 1,950 people d i r e c t l y . 3.2 A History of Coal Mining i n the East Kootenay The following section i s based on h i s t o r i c a l sketches by Rickard (1942) and Newmarch (195 3), and the annual reports of the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources. There appears to be some disagreement about who was the f i r s t European to discover coal i n the Crowsnest area, however, the existence of these coal deposits seems to have been known since Europeans f i r s t entered the region. According to Rickard, the f i r s t man to prospect the Fernie Basin was a Michael P h i l l i p p s who investigated outcrops on Morrissey and Coal Creeks during the summers of 1873 and 1874. He c a r r i e d news of the extent 'of these coal deposits back to Fort Steele, however, because of a lack of transportation to the area, l i t t l e i n t e r e s t was taken i n e i t h e r his reports or those of the Geological Survey of Canada from 1880-1883 which substantiated his findings. 5 5 In 1887 W i l l i a m F e r n i e , an e x p e r i e n c e d miner, began to pr o s p e c t i n the b a s i n . He was soon a b l e t o i n t e r e s t C o l o n e l James Baker and A r t h u r Fenwick i n f i n a n c i n g a f u r t h e r e i g h t years o f work. As a r e s u l t o f the f i n d i n g s , a s y n d i c a t e was formed i n V i c t o r i a which o b t a i n e d both a c h a r t e r t o b u i l d a r a i l w a y and a gr a n t o f lands s u r r o u n d i n g the c o a l p r o s p e c t s . In 1897 the Crowsnest Pass C o a l Company was i n c o r p o r a t e d and a c q u i r e d a major i n t e r e s t i n the Fernie-Baker-Fenwick s y n d i c a t e . I n i t i a l p r o d u c t i o n began i n the same year from a mine on C o a l Creek worked by twenty miners r e c r u i t e d from Cape Breton. In the f o l l o w i n g year a branch l i n e was con-s t r u c t e d by the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway from F o r t McLeod t o F e r n i e . In 1899, the Crowsnest Pass C o a l Company l i n k e d C o a l Creek and F e r n i e and, t h e r e a f t e r , development o f the Co a l Creek C o l l i e r i e s p r o g r e s s e d r a p i d l y . By 1903, s i x mines had been opened and developed by the Company i n the Coa l Creek V a l l e y . In 1901 the Great Northern Railway Company a c q u i r e d a s u b s t a n t i a l i n t e r e s t i n the Crowsnest Pass C o a l Company and f i n a n c e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r a i l l i n e from Gateway i n Montana through E l k o and F e r n i e t o M i c h e l . T h i s l i n e , connected w i t h the Great Northern main l i n e p r o v i d e d an important new market f o r E a s t Kootenay c o a l . 56 Concurrent w i t h the s t a r t o f p r o d u c t i o n from the C o a l Creek mines, the Company undertook developments a t both M i c h e l and M o r r i s s e y . The mines a t M o r r i s s e y ( e i g h t i n a l l ) ran from 1902 to 1909 under the name o f the Carbonado C o l l i e r y , a lthough e n t i r e l y owned by the Company. A s e r i e s o f e x p l o s i o n s from 1904 onward caused the deaths o f s c o r e s o f miners and f i n a l l y r e s u l t e d i n the d e c i s i o n t h a t the seams were too dangerous to work. The Carbonado C o l l i e r y ceased p r o d u c t i o n i n 1909. The M i c h e l C o l l i e r y was brought i n t o p r o d u c t i o n i n 1898, and i s the o n l y mine t o have been worked c o n t i n u o u s l y to the p r e s e n t . In 1911 a seventh mine was opened i n C o a l Creek and i t proved to be the l a r g e s t producer t o . t h a t date. In 1913 the output o f the C o a l Creek mines was 924,200 tons, a r e c o r d annual p r o d u c t i o n t h a t was unsurpassed u n t i l 1941. The C o a l Creek c o l l i e r i e s were worked c o n t i n u o u s l y u n t i l 1958 when they were f i n a l l y c l o s e d . U n t i l 1968 t h e r e were o n l y two o p e r a t i o n s i n the F e r n i e C o a l B a s i n t h a t were not owned by the Crowsnest Pass C o a l Company. In 1906 the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway a c q u i r e d s i x square m i l e s (15.5 sq. km.) o f c o a l lands on the western edge o f the B a s i n 13 km. n o r t h o f F e r n i e , and opened the Hosmer mines. S u r f a c e f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d e d both an e x t e n s i v e p r e p a r a t i o n p l a n t and a l a r g e b a t t e r y o f coke ovens. The l a t t e r may s t i l l be seen from Highway 3 a s h o r t d i s t a n c e 57 n o r t h of the Hosmer b r i d g e . Many sharp f o l d s , and e x t e n s i v e f a u l t i n g c o m p l i c a t e d mining and the c o l l i e r y was shut down i n 1914. At C o r b i n , southeast of M i c h e l , a c o l l i e r y began producing i n 1908. T h i s mine was s e r v e d by a 22.5 km. branch r a i l w a y which j o i n e d the C.P.R. l i n e a t Loop S t a t i o n . T h i s was the s i t e o f the Region's f i r s t s u r f a c e mine which was opened i n 1913. Though i t c o u l d not be operated d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f deep snow, the open p i t c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the output o f the mine from 1913 to 1920 and a g a i n from 1926 to 1935. In 1935 a v i o l e n t s t r i k e c u l m i n a t e d i n an i n c i d e n t i n which a b u l l d o z e r , b e i n g used to r e s t r a i n an angry crowd of miners and t h e i r wives, went out o f c o n t r o l and s e v e r e l y i n j u r e d a number o f p e o p l e . The mine was c l o s e d and the r a i l l i n e was d i s m a n t l e d . The s u r f a c e mine was reopened f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d from 1943 to 1948 and then l a y dormant u n t i l 1974 when Byron Creek C o l l i e r i e s , a C o l e -man-based f i r m , resumed mining o f thermal c o a l f o r s a l e to E a s t e r n Canada. The years between 1898 and 1968 have been a very u n s t a b l e p e r i o d f o r the E a s t Kootenay c o a l i n d u s t r y . Table 6 and F i g u r e 2 show gross c o a l p r o d u c t i o n from the mines o f the F e r n i e C o a l B a s i n from 1898 to 1975. In the f i r s t two decades of t h i s c e n t u r y , p r o d u c t i o n exceeded one m i l l i o n s h o r t tons i n 1909, 1910, 1912, 1913, and 1914, but d e c l i n e d i n the l a t e r y e ars of the F i r s t World War. P r o d u c t i o n h i t lows Table 6 Coal Produced at Mines In the Fernie Coal Basin 1898 - 1974 (Gross Output In Short Tons)* Crowsnest Pass Coal Company Year Michel Coal Creek Morrissey/Carbonado Corbin C o l l i e r y Hosmer C o l l i e r y . Kaiser Resources Fording Coal T o t a l 1898 _ 11,148 _ _ 11,148 1899 438 114,922 - - - _ _ 115,498 1900 11,162 220,457 - . - - - 231,619 1901 52,763 372,114 - - - - - 424,877 1902 127,515 267,429 46,292 - - - _ 441,236 1903 263,589 241,686 155,400 - - - ' - 660,675 1904 263,486 387,409 91,311 - - - - 742,207 1905 346,646 476,552 108,566 - - - _ 931,764 1906 306,317 478,008 22,578 - No Records - - 806,903 1907 396,175 585,517 246 - No Records - - 981,938 1908 461,647 493,924 26,072 4,604 2,942 - _ 989,189 1909 437,318 452,565 36,161 68,123 67,562 - - 1,061,729 1910 512,491 697,272 •- 142,073 177,098 - - 1,528,934 1911 128,110 231,343 - 91,524 44,127 - • - 495,104 1912 284,325 780,466 - 136,935 210,832 - - 1,412,558 1913 242,171 924,207 • - 81,523 243,631 - - 1,491,532 1914 225,236 646,575 ' 83,229 114,764 - 1,069,804 1915 311,499 573,332 - 70,049 - _ - 954,880 1916 273,413 637,427 • - 77,302 - - _ 988,142 1917 142,380 362,388 - 113,193 - - - 617,961 1918 231,181 450,759 - 138,868 - - - 820,808 1919 193,612 342,934 - 89,317 - - - 625,863 1920 296,343 483,597 169,136 - - - 949,076 1921 311,697 463,146 • - ' 76,083 - - - . 850,926 1922 242,668 326,672 ' - 51,545 - - - 620,885 1923 289,440 485,897 - 54,058 - - - 829,395 1924 165,541 109,788 - 31,011 - - • - 306,340 1925 360,119 519,829 - 77,069 - - - 957,017 1926 407,450 409,981 - 132,831 - _ 950,262 1927 399,500 471,191 - 145,731 - - - 1,016,422 1928 402,693 518,261 - 200,752 - - - 1,131,706 Year Michel Crowsnest Pass Coal Company Coal Creek Morrissey/Carbonado Corbin C o l l i e r y Hosmer C o l l i e r y Kaiser Resources Fording Coal T o t a l 1929 383,200 421,460 - 188,450 - - - 993,110 1930 297,429 235,493 - 239,021 ; - - - 771,943 1931 277,217 175,513 - 288,067 - - - 740,797 1932 240,022 104,024 - 314,375 - - - 658,421 1933 231,382 60,339 - 243,277 - - - 534,998 1934 327,070 102,596 - 273,267 _ - - 702,933 1935 347,489 97,304 - 11,170 - - - 455,963 1936 424,436 102,642 - - - - - 527,078 1937 389,616 124,617 - - - • - 514,233 1938 367,732 118,424 - - • - - 486,156 1939 513,613 115,780 - . - - - - 629,393 1940 730,862 138,839 - - - - - 869,701 1941 953,389 195,791 - - - - 1,149,180 1942 972,250 201,189 - - - • - - 1,173,439 1943 772,264 226,754 - 39,762 - - - 1,038,780 1944 728,665 340,952 - ; 185,528 - - 1,255,145 1945 660,494 313,510 - - - . - 974,004 1946 649,256 315,640 - 1,294 - • - 966,190 1947 848,712 354,349 - 98,856 - - - 1,301,917 1948 844,690 293,857 ' - 150,638 . - - - 1,289,185 1949 899,677 338,899 • - • - - - 1,238,576 1950 808,696 304,943 - - - - - 1,138,389 1951 851,458 312,860 • - - - - - 1,249,501 1952 888,856 303,235 - - - - 1,197,549 1953 817,076 306,462 - • - - - - • 1,236,997 1954 757,373 281,315 - - - - - 1,169,788 1955 824,623 308,720 . - - - - - 1,164,438 1956 888,952 299,182 - - - - - 1,302,584 1957 647,330 237,162 - - - - - 994,635 1958 644,263 16,235 - - - - - 691,642 1959 569,221 • - - • - - - 597,540 1960 672,705 - - - - - - 672,705 Year Michel Crowsnest Pass Coal Company Coal Creek Morrissey/Carbonado Corbin C o l l i e r y Hosmer C o l l i e r y Kaiser Resources Fording Coal T o t a l 1961 878 ,064 - - - - - • - 878,064 1962 823,785 - - - - - - 823,785 1963 882,803 - - - - - 882,803 1964 979,235 - - - - - - 979,235 1965 923,256 - - - - - - 923,256 1966 1,058,679 - - - - - - 1,058,679 1967 946,224 - - - • - - - 946,224 1968 731,419 - - - - 365,710 - 1,097,129 1969 - - - - - 1,084,940 - 1,084,940 1970 - - - ' - - 3,480,631 - 3,480,631 1971 - - - - - 5,602,000 - 4,602,000 1972 - - - - 6,307,285 2,659,418 8,966,703 1973 - - ' • - 7,002,659 3,793,571 10,796,230 1974 - - 248,000 - 7,601,200 2,777,600 10,626,800 1975 - - - ' 427,984 8,639,538 3,935,426 13,002,948 35,540,427 2 0 , 2 5 7 , 8 8 2 486,626 4,744,644 860 ,956 40,083,963 13,166,015 115,140,500 * Metric Conversion:- 1 short ton = 0.9072 metric tonnes 41. I3T 12. + 11 + § 1 0 J = 9 E 8 E o -CT O c a o 7 + 6+ v. o o C F i g u r e2.R a w Coal Production f r o m t h e Fcmic Coal B a s i n 1598-1975 L , I P r o p o r t i o n f r o m s u r f a c e , m i n e s . P r o p o r t i o n f r o m u n d e r g r o u n d mines. 1 — : — 1 P e r i o d s o f p r o d u c t i o n o f s p e c i f i c s u r f a c e m i n e s . Fording Harmtr Ridg<z v B a l m c r l O i — 35trip K b S t r i p s i -A S o u t h C o r b i n B a l d j E r i c k s o n B r e a k d o w n o f production f i g u r e s s u r f a c e a n d u n d e r g r o u n d n o t a r a i l d b l c - f o r t h i s p e r i o d . Y e a r 1950 I960 1970 I960 Source: Annual Reports, bept. of M i n e s 4 P t t r o l . R e s o u r c e s . 6 2 i n the mid 1920*s because o f the c o n v e r s i o n o f • G r e a t Northern Railway locomotives to o i l , through the 1930's because o f the Great D e p r e s s i o n , and from 1958 to 1961 d u r i n g a minor w o r l d r e c e s s i o n . Maximum p r o d u c t i o n p e r i o d s , between 1915 and 196 8, o c c u r r e d i n the l a t e 1920's and from 1941 t o 1956. From 1962 onwards, i n c r e a s i n g demands f o r m e t a l l u r g i c a l c o a l generated renewed i n t e r e s t i n c o a l e x p l o r a t i o n i n the F e r n i e and upper E l k C o a l B a s i n s . T h i s i n t e n s i v e e x p l o r a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n the opening o f the K a i s e r Resources L t d . mine . i n 1969, and the F o r d i n g C o a l L t d . mine i n 1972. Raw c o a l p r o d u c t i o n has i n c r e a s e d from 1,084,940 s h o r t tons i n 1969 t o 13,002,948 s h o r t tons i n 1975. The s t a t i s t i c t h a t b e s t i l l u s t r a t e s the magnitude o f t h i s dramatic i n c r e a s e i s t h a t 4 7 per c e n t o f a l l the c o a l produced from the E a s t Kootenay has been mined s i n c e 1969. Four new mines are c u r r e n t l y b e i n g proposed f o r the a r e a : open p i t mines on Cabin Creek i n the F l a t h e a d V a l l e y by R i o T i n t o Mines L t d . ; on L i n e Creek by Crowsnest I n d u s t r i e s L t d . ; and i n the upper E l k V a l l e y by E l k o M i n i n g L t d . , a Canadian company owned by a consortium o f European s t e e l m i l l s ; and an underground h y d r a u l i c mine on Hosmer and Wheeler Ridges by K a i s e r Resources L t d . No h i s t o r y o f mining i n the area would be complete w i t h o u t a b r i e f mention o f the d i s a s t e r s , both n a t u r a l and 6 3 man caused, t h a t have plagued the area s i n c e the e a r l y y ears o f s e t t l e m e n t . In 1908 a bush f i r e b l a z e d out o f c o n t r o l and c o m p l e t e l y d e s t r o y e d the town o f F e r n i e , l e a v i n g a t l e a s t 13 people dead and more than 3,000 homeless. Mine d i s a s t e r s have o c c u r r e d With d e p r e s s i n g frequency through the y e a r s : May 22, 1902 - 128 men k i l l e d i n the C o a l Creek Number 2 C o l l i e r y ; October 14, 1903 - 4 k i l l e d a t M o r r i s s e y ; November 18, 1904 - 14 k i l l e d a t M o r r i s s e y ; January 8, 1904 -7 k i l l e d a t M i c h e l ; August 8, 1916 - 12 k i l l e d a t M o r r i s s e y . The l a t e s t o f many deadly e x p l o s i o n s o c c u r r e d on A p r i l 3, 1967 i n the Balmer North Mine a t M i c h e l l e a v i n g 15 men dead and 40 s e r i o u s l y i n j u r e d . Q u i t e a p a r t from the d i s a s t e r s , the mines of the Crowsnest have taken the l i v e s and the h e a l t h o f men through r e l e n t l e s s , g r i n d i n g a t t r i t i o n . Whether t r u e or not, i t i s commonly b e l i e v e d by the r e s i d e n t s , o f the area t h a t a death or s e r i o u s i n j u r y has o c c u r r e d f o r each day t h a t the mines have o p e r a t e d . The unsavory r e p u t a t i o n of underground c o a l mining s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t s the recuitment of p e r s o n n e l , even t o r e l a t i v e l y s a f e techniques such as h y d r a u l i c mining, and makes s u r f a c e mining f a r more a c c e p t a b l e to the l o c a l r e s i d e n t than t o the more e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y conscious urban d w e l l e r . 64 3.3 Land Tenure K a i s e r Resources L t d . has a c q u i r e d e i t h e r the c o a l r i g h t s , o r the o p t i o n to e x p l o r e on three types o f l a n d i n the Crowsnest a r e a : (1) Land owned i n fee by Crowsnest I n d u s t r i e s L t d . Between 1889 and 1903, 249,034.15 ac r e s (100,858.83 ha.) o f l a n d were a l i e n a t e d to become, e v e n t u a l l y , the p r o p e r t y o f the Crowsnest Pass C o a l Company. T h i s l a n d was a c q u i r e d i n the form o f crown grants and as "subsidy l a n d s " under the Railway Aid Act of 1890. A h i s t o r i c a l o u t l i n e of these a c q u i s i t i o n s i s as f o l l o w s : (a) F r e e h o l d Lands (Crown grants) Area Year D e s c r i p t i o n Acres Hectares 1889 The B r i t i s h Columbia Government 2,409 975.6 crown gran t e d t o E. Bray and o t h e r s l o t s 81 to 86, Group 1, Kootenay D i s t r i c t . These l o t s were l o c a t e d on M a r t i n Creek. In the same year E. Bray e.t al deeded these l o t s t o the Crows-n e s t C o a l and M i n e r a l Company. 1890 The B r i t i s h Columbia Govern- 7,800 3159 ment crown gran t e d to the Crows-n e s t C o a l and M i n t e r a l Co. l o t s 151 t o 157, Group 1, Kootenay 65 Area Year D e s c r i p t i o n Acres Hectares D i s t r i c t on M a r t i n and M i c h e l Creeks; and l o t s 158 t o 171, Group 1, Kootenay D i s t r i c t on C o a l Creek and M o r r i s s e y Ridge. 189 3 Crowsnest C o a l and M i n e r a l Co. conveys these 26 l o t s t o the B.C. C o a l , Petroleum and M i n e r a l Co. 1897 B.C. C o a l , Petroleum and M i n e r a l Co. deeded lands t o the Kootenay C o a l Co. 189 7 Corporate name o f the Kootenay Co. changed t o the Crowsnest Pass C o a l Company L t d . TOTAL 10,209.00 4134.6 (b) Subsidy Lands (Railway A c t grants) Area Year. D e s c r i p t i o n A cres Hectares 1888 E. Bray and o t h e r s were i n c o r -p o r a t e d as the Crowsnest and Kootenay Lake Railway. T h i s company was gra n t e d a r i g h t o f . way i n the Crowsnest Pass 99 f e e t (30 m) wide, p l u s such lands as were necessary f o r s t a t i o n , s i d i n g and t e r m i n a l purposes. 66 Area Year D e s c r i p t i o n A cres Hectares 1890 Railway A i d A c t o f 1890 granted the company 20,000 ac r e s (8100 ha.) per m i l e o f r a i l c o n s t r u c t e d , w i t h a 20 m i l e (32 km.) front a g e on the r i g h t o f way. 1891 Company changed i t s name to the B r i t i s h Columbia Southern Railway Co. C o n t r o l l i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h i s company u l t i m a t e l y becomes the same as t h a t i n the Kootenay C o a l Co. 1897 F e d e r a l government granted a c h a r t e r t o the C.P.R. f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r a i l r o a d through the Crowsnest Pass a t a subs i d y o f $11,000.00 per m i l e , and w i t h the c o n d i t i o n t h a t , i f the C.P.R. o b t a i n e d l a n d e i t h e r through agreement w i t h another company o r w i t h the B r i t i s h Columbia govern-ment, 50,000 ac r e s (20,250 ha.) would be r e t a i n e d by the F e d e r a l Crown. 1897 An agreement between the C.P.R., the B.C. Southern Railway, and the Kootenay C o a l Company r e s u l t e d i n 67 Area Year D e s c r i p t i o n Acres Hectares the f o l l o w i n g d i s p o s i t i o n s of l a n d by the B.C. Southern Railway: + 250,000 acres (101,250 ha.) t o the Crowsnest Pass C o a l Company, and 3480 acres (1410 ha.) t o the C.P.R. In o r d e r t o comply w i t h the terms o f the C.P.R. c h a r t e r 50,000 acres (20,250 ha.) were conveyed by the B.C.S.R. to the F e d e r a l Crown. The l o t s t h a t were deeded to the C o a l Company were l o t s 4588 and 4589, Group 1, 227,838.95 92274.73 Kootenay D i s t r i c t . However, the C.P.R. lands and 5,000 a c r e s (2025 ha.) of the F e d e r a l Crown lands were c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n these l o t s . To compensate f o r t h i s the B.C.S.R. conveyed a f u r t h e r 10,000 10,000 4050 ac r e s (4050 ha.) on Lodgepole Ridge t o the C o a l Company. These lands have subsequently been known as the " D e f i c i e n c y B l o c k " . 1900 The F e r n i e townsite b l o c k was con-veyed to the C o a l Company by the B.C.S.R. t o " f a c i l i t a t e the former's b u s i n e s s " . 614.7 249.0 68 _ . .. Area Year D e s c r i p t x o n , E Acres Hectares 1903 The M o r r i s s e y townsite b l o c k was conveyed under the same terms as the F e r n i e t o w n s i t e . 371.5 150.5 TOTAL 238,825.15 96724.18 Thus, by the end of 190 3 the Crowsnest Pass C o a l Company had a c q u i r e d the f o l l o w i n g lands as a r e s u l t of s t a t u t e s , agreements and f r e e h o l d g r a n t s : Acres Hectares 1. Crown grants 10,209.00 4134.60 2. Railway A c t grants from B.C.S.R. 227,838.95 92274.73 3. D e f i c i e n c y b l o c k 10,000.00 4050.00 4. F e r n i e townsite 614.70 249.00 5. M o r r i s s e y townsite 371.50 150.50 249,034.15 100,858.87 The e x t e n t o f these h o l d i n g s i s shown i n Map l f . S i n c e 1903, p a r c e l s o f Company l a n d have been s o l d around F e r n i e , N a t a l , Cokato (south o f F e r n i e ) , M i c h e l , and M i c h e l P r a i r i e , p r i m a r i l y f o r r e s i d e n t i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes. The t o t a l area d i s p o s e d o f i n t h i s way, mainly through the Crows-n e s t Pass E l e c t r i c L i g h t and Power Co. L t d . , was approximately 3900 ac r e s (1580 h a . ) , l e a v i n g the Company w i t h h o l d i n g s 69 o f about 245,135 a c r e s (99,280 ha.) i n the m i d - s i x t i e s when the name o f the c o r p o r a t i o n was changed t o Crows-n e s t I n d u s t r i e s L t d . Of t h i s t o t a l , approximately 110,000 acr e s (44,550 ha.) are c o a l - b e a r i n g . (See Map l f ) . In 1967, K a i s e r Resources L t d . took o p t i o n on the c o a l r i g h t s t o a s e l e c t e d 68,000 a c r e s (27,540 ha.) o f these c o a l b e a r i n g l a n d s . Under the terms o f the agreement, K.R.L. committed i t s e l f t o making t h i s s e l e c t i o n by 1976. Map l f shows the boundary o f the c o a l lands p r e s e n t l y b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d by the Company. (2) Dominion Government C o a l Lands K a i s e r Resources L t d . has a c q u i r e d , through n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h the f e d e r a l government, p r o s p e c t i n g r i g h t s over 5,000 a c r e s (2,025 ha.) o f the c o a l lands deeded t o the f e d e r a l crown i n 1897. T h i s area i s l o c a t e d on Sparwood Ridge between Olsen and M c G i l l i v r a y . (See Map l f ) . (3) C o a l L i c e n c e s C o a l l i c e n c e s are granted by the p r o v i n c i a l government under the p r o v i s i o n s of the Coal Aot 1974. The l i c e n c e e i s g i v e n the r i g h t s t o e x p l o r e f o r and develop c o a l p r o p e r t i e s , but not g i v e n s u r f a c e r i g h t s o r p e r m i s s i o n t o mine c o a l except i n those q u a n t i t i e s r e q u i r e d f o r the purpose o f t e s t i n g . K.R.L. has a c q u i r e d l i c e n c e s i n t h r e e areas shown on Map l f ; near the c o n f l u e n c e o f Ewen and Todhunter Creeks (4 l i c e n c e s ) , a d j a c e n t to the D e f i c i e n c y Block on Lodgepole Creek, and west o f Hosmer. T h i s l a t t e r a r e a i s the 3480 acre (1,410 ha.) c o a l b l o c k conveyed to the 115*00 H4°45 50*00' 49*45' 49*30i L E S E N b 115*00' 114*45' Scale 1^ 50,000 K A I S E R R E S O U R C E S L T D , P R O P E R T Y S T A T U S l 1 Crows Nest Industries Ltd. Crown-granted lands. 114*30' All II Ml 1 liLLLU 1 Portion of C.N.I.Ltd. lands under K.R.L. option. Provincial Government coal licences. Dominion (Federal) Government Coal Block. M A P 1. f . Source:- NTS. 8ZG $ J 71 Canadian P a c i f i c Railway i n 1897, and was the s i t e o f t h e i r Hosmer c o a l o p e r a t i o n from 1906 t o 1914. Upon t e r m i n a t i o n o f a c t i v e mining, the r a i l w a y l e t the p a r c e l r e v e r t to the P r o v i n c e . 3.4 Nature and E x t e n t o f M i n i n g O p e r a t i o n s 3.4.1 A G l o s s a r y o f C o a l M i n i n g Terms These terms are used i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s o f t h i s t h e s i s and a b r i e f d e f i n i t i o n i s i n c l u d e d here f o r the b e n e f i t o f those r e a d e r s u n f a m i l i a r w i t h c o a l mining. A d i t ~ A s m a l l s h a f t o r t u n n e l d r i v e n d u r i n g e x p l o r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s to o b t a i n large-volume c o a l samples f o r the t e s t i n g o f c h e m i c a l and p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . Angle o f Repose - P h y s i c a l - The g r e a t e s t angle t o the h o r i z o n t a l t h a t any l o o s e o r f r i a b l e s o l i d m a t e r i a l w i l l s t a n d w ithout s l i d i n g ; B i o l o g i c a l - The s l o p e angle above which s u r f a c e s o i l movement pre v e n t s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an e f f e c t i v e v e g e t a t i o n c o ver. A n t i c l i n e - A f o l d or f o l d system i n rock s t r a t a i n the form o f an a r c . Area Mining - S t r i p mining t h a t i s c a r r i e d out, u s u a l l y u s i n g d r a g l i n e equipment, i n l e v e l t o g e n t l y r o l l i n g top'ography on r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e t r a c t s . 72 Aspect - The d i r e c t i o n towards which a sl o p e f a c e s . Exposure. B a c k f i l l - The o p e r a t i o n o f r e f i l l i n g an e x c a v a t i o n . Bank - A mound o f p r e p a r a t i o n p l a n t coarse r e f u s e . Bench - The s u r f a c e o f a l e v e l , excavated area on which equipment can move o r o p e r a t e . A working r o a d o r base below a h i g h w a l l as i n contour mining f o r c o a l . Bench M i n i n g - A type o f s t r i p mining used t o r e c o v e r c o a l l y i n g i n beds p a r a l l e l t o the s u r f a c e on moderate t o s t e e p l y s l o p i n g ground. The over-burden i s removed i n a s e r i e s o f benches c o n s t r u c t e d p a r a l l e l t o the s t r i k e o f the seam. (See F i g u r e s 5, 6 and 7 ) . Berm - A p i l e o f coarse m a t e r i a l p l a c e d along the o u t s i d e edge o f a bench e i t h e r t o c o n t r o l water flow o r f o r equipment s a f e t y . A p i l e o f coarse m a t e r i a l p l a c e d a l o n g the bottom o f a s p o i l dump o r a waste bank e i t h e r t o c o n t r o l r u n o f f o r t o s t a b i l i z e the m a t e r i a l . Breaker - A machine t h a t crushes the mined c o a l t o a s p e c i f i e d s i z e p r i o r t o i t s passage through the p r e p a r a t i o n p l a n t . Contour M i n i n g - See out c r o p mining. 73 Dip - The angle t h a t an i n c l i n e d c o a l seam makes w i t h the h o r i z o n t a l . (See a l s o " s t r i k e " ) D i s t u r b e d Land - Land on which e x c a v a t i o n has o c c u r r e d or upon which overburden has been d e p o s i t e d . D r a g l i n e - An e x c a v a t i n g machine t h a t u t i l i z e s a bucket o p e r a t e d and suspended by means o f two l i n e s o r c a b l e s ; one o f which h o i s t s or lowers the bucket from a boom; the o t h e r , from which the name i s d e r i v e d , a l l o w s the bucket t o swing out o r t o be dragged toward the machine f o r l o a d i n g . F o o t w a l l - The s u r f a c e l e f t a f t e r the removal o f the c o a l , and formed by the rock stratum which l a y s d i r e c t l y beneath the c o a l seam. Haul Road - Road from the p i t t o a t i p p l e , overburden dump or the p r e p a r a t i o n p l a n t used f o r t r a n s p o r t i n g mined m a t e r i a l by t r u c k . H i g h w a l l - The unexcavated face o f exposed overburden and . c o a l on the u p h i l l s i d e o f an o u t c r o p or contour mine e x c a v a t i o n . Outcrop - C o a l which appears a t or near the s u r f a c e ; the i n t e r s e c t i o n o f a c o a l seam w i t h the s u r f a c e . Outcrop M i n i n g - The s u r f a c e mining o f a c o a l seam t h a t o u t -crops or approaches the s u r f a c e a t approximately the same e l e v a t i o n i n steep or mountainous Country.(See F i g u r e s 3 and 4) 74 Outslope - The exposed area s l o p i n g away from a bench c u t s e c t i o n . Overburden - The e a r t h , rock and o t h e r m a t e r i a l s which l i e above the c o a l . Overburden Dump - An area on which overburden and o t h e r excavated s p o i l i s d e p o s i t e d , u s u a l l y by down-h i l l dumping i n s u r f a c e mines on mountainous x t e r r a i n . O x i d i z e d C o a l - C o a l a t the o u t c r o p o f a seam or near the s u r f a c e . I t has l o s t i t s c o k i n g p r o p e r t i e s due t o p a r t i a l o x i d a t i o n but may be used f o r thermal g e n e r a t i o n . P r e p a r a t i o n P l a n t - A p l a n t complex i n which the raw c o a l i s c l e a n e d t o the r e q u i r e d grade ( u s u a l l y by t h e removal o f i m p u r i t i e s such as rock, carbonaceous s h a l e s and high-ash c o a l s ) and d r i e d t o a s p e c i f i e d moisture c o n t e n t . Refuse - The s o l i d waste generated from a p r e p a r a t i o n p l a n t . U s u a l l y composed o f a coarse f r a c t i o n d i s p o s e d o f by t r u c k s and dumped i n banks, and a f i n e f r a c t i o n ( t a i l i n g s ) d i s p o s e d o f h y d r a u l i c a l l y i n t o s e t t l i n g lagoons. S c a l p i n g - The removal o f v e g e t a t i o n and o r g a n i c s o i l h o r i z o n s p r i o r t o mining and overburden dumping. 75 Seam - A stratum o r bed o f c o a l . Seam C r o s s c u t - An e x p l o r a t i o n technique used i n areas o f m u l t i p l e c o a l seams. E x c a v a t i o n s are made pe r -p e n d i c u l a r to and j o i n i n g one o r more seam t r a c e s t o l o c a t e the p o s i t i o n o f i n t e r m e d i a t e c o a l seams. Seam T r e n c h i n g o r Seam T r a c i n g - An e x p l o r a t i o n technique i n which a dozer i s used t o l o c a t e a c o a l seam by e x c a v a t i n g the o u t c r o p . In areas o f m u l t i p l e c o a l seams only, the main seams are tren c h e d and the o t h e r s are l o c a t e d by c r o s s - c u t t i n g . Slope S t a b i l i t y - Macro - The r e s i s t a n c e o f any i n c l i n e d s u r f a c e t o f a i l u r e by s l i d i n g o r c o l l a p s i n g ; M i c r o - the r e s i s t a n c e o f m a t e r i a l s on the s u r f a c e o f a s l o p e t o movement by e i t h e r the f o r c e o f g r a v i t y o r o v e r l a n d waterflow. S p o i l - The overburden o r non-coal m a t e r i a l removed i n g a i n i n g access t o the c o a l seam i n s u r f a c e mining. S p o i l Dump - See overburden dump. S t r i p M i n i n g - Refers t o a procedure o f mining which e n t a i l s the complete removal o f a l l m a t e r i a l from over the product t o be mined i n a s e r i e s o f rows o r s t r i p s , i . e . area and bench mining are two s p e c i f i c types o f s t r i p mine. 76 S t r i k e - The d i r e c t i o n i n which a h o r i z o n t a l ' l i n e can be drawn on a c o a l or rock stratum. Used t o d e s c r i b e the g e n e r a l t r e n d or run o f c o a l seams, i . e . , i n the E a s t Kootenay the g e n e r a l s t r i k e i s n o r t h - s o u t h . The f o l l o w i n g diagram shows the d i s t i n c t i o n between s t r i k e and d i p . S t r i p p i n g R a t i o - The u n i t amount o f overburden t h a t must be removed to g a i n access t o a s i m i l a r u n i t amount o f c o a l . Subsidence - The s u r f a c e d e p r e s s i o n over an underground mine t h a t has been c r e a t e d by subsurface c a v i n g . Surface M i n i n g - A mining method whereby the o v e r l y i n g m a t e r i a l s are removed t o expose the c o a l f o r e x t r a c t i o n , i . e . s t r i p and contour mines are two s p e c i f i c types o f s u r f a c e mines. S y n c l i n e - A f o l d o f rock s t r a t a t h a t i s convex downwards. T a i l i n g s - F i n e r e f u s e from a m i l l i n g o p e r a t i o n t h a t i s u s u a l l y deposted from a water medium. 77 T a i l i n g s Lagoon o r Empoundment - A dyked o r da'mmed are a t o which a t a i l i n g s s l u r r y i s t r a n s p o r t e d . The s o l i d t a i l i n g s s e t t l e out and the water i s decanted t o be used a g a i n i n the m i l l i n g p r o c e s s . T e s t P i t - A s m a l l open p i t excavated d u r i n g e x p l o r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s f o r the c o l l e c t i o n o f bulk c o a l samples f o r t e s t i n g . T i p p l e - The p l a c e where c o a l i s o f f - l o a d e d from a h a u l -v e h i c l e , u s u a l l y a t the p r e p a r a t i o n p l a n t . Waste - See r e f u s e . 3.4.2 S u r f a c e M i n i n g S u r f a c e c o a l mining began i n the N a t a l area i n 1947 w i t h the opening o f the E r i c k s o n P i t on the south end o f N a t a l Ridge. Between 1947 and 1969 Crowsnest I n d u s t r i e s L t d . o p e r a t e d t e n s m a l l s u r f a c e mines, some o f which were c o n t i n u e d f o r a s h o r t time by K a i s e r Resources L t d . a f t e r i t s purchase o f the p r o p e r t i e s . P r o d u c t i o n from these mines was h i g h l y v a r i a b l e and ranged between 10 and 25 per cent o f annual p r o d u c t i o n d u r i n g the years i n which they o p e r a t e d . Because o f the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by the s i z e o f equipment a t t h a t time, most o f these s u r f a c e mines were o f t h e "contour" t y p e . In t h i s mining method the e x c a v a t i o n o f c o a l commences where the c o a l "outcrops" on a h i l l s i d e , and c o n t i n u e s i n t o the h i l l u n t i l the s t r i p p i n g 78 r a t i o becomes so. l a r g e as to make f u r t h e r mining u n p r o f i t a b l e . Waste m a t e r i a l s are c a r r i e d t o the l i p o f the bench and dumped d o w n h i l l . In some cases l a r g e h o r i z o n t a l augers are used t o r e c o v e r f u r t h e r c o a l from the unexcavated p o r t i o n o f the seam. A schematic c r o s s s e c t i o n o f a completed o u t c r o p mine i s shown i n F i g u r e 3 and a p h o t o g r a p h i c example i n F i g u r e 4. D e t a i l s o f the ten outcrop p i t s are shown i n T a b l e 7, and t h e i r l o c a t i o n i s shown i n Map 2e. H i g h w a l l s l o p e s vary from 35 t o 45 degrees depending on the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : 1. h e i g h t o f w a l l 2 . type o f rock composing the w a l l 3. presence of seepage water 4. o r i e n t a t i o n o f w a l l s l o p e • r e l a t i v e t o the d i p o f the rock s t r a t a The working bench i s covered w i t h v a r y i n g amounts o f s p o i l m a t e r i a l and u s u a l l y h e a v i l y compacted due t o the a c t i o n o f mining equipment. Waste dumps from contour mines seldom exceed a s l o p e d i s t a n c e o f 60 metres, and dump p r o f i l e s depend, to a l a r g e e x t e n t , on the topography o f the o r i g i n a l ground s u r f a c e . In moderately s l o p i n g topography, s p o i l s are u s u a l l y d e p o s i t e d i n a s e r i e s o f g e n t l y r o l l i n g mounds. In s t e e p l y s l o p i n g topography where dumping has o c c u r r e d d o w n h i l l from the l i p o f the working bench, dumps u s u a l l y form a continuous +49°50 / LEGENb "— ScaU 1:50,000 L OCATION OF MINING A N D MILLING OPERATIONS. Contour Mines. Coarse Refuse Banks. EI3lailings Lagoon. BIS Bench mine pit. Underground mine portal. bench mine overburden dump. n A P Z.&. Oo 49°40' Source-N . T . S . 8 £ I 0 $ I 5 Table 7 Details of the Outcrop Surface Mines i n the Natal V i c i n i t y Area (ha.) Aspect Elevation Range (m) Period of Operation Raw Coal - Production (Short Tons) Erickson 16.5 Natal Ridge SW 1250 - 1465 1947-1949 ' + 700,000 Baldy P i t s 56.5 Harmer Ridge W 1370-1525 1949-1967 1,502,950 A South 22.5 Sparwood Ridge NE 1520-1700 1962-1965 365,037 C & D P i t s 9.5 Natal Ridge SW 1680-1740 1965-1967 64,550 7 A & B P i t s 17.5 Harmer Ridge s 1525-1650 1966-1970 495,840 3 P i t 14.0 Natal Ridge SW 1525-1680 1967-1970 204,430 Balmer 10-4 35.0* Sparwood Ridge NW 1280-1495 1967-1969 No Figures Available Balnier 10-7 7.0 Sparwood Ridge W 1370-1465 1969-1973 No Figures Available M c G i l l i v r a y 10.5 Mc G i l l i v r a y Ridge W 1370-1495 1969-1970 58,770 TOTAL 189.0 *Includes 14 hectares of +From Annual Reports of s l i d e area, the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources. Production records incomplete for the years 1969-1973. f F i g u r e 4. 3 - P i t , N a t a l Ridge. An example o f an outcrop mine. 8 2 concave slope with slope angles of 3 5 u + i n the upper section, 2 5 - 3 5 ° i n the middle sections, and gradually l e v e l l i n g to the o r i g i n a l surface slope i n the lower section. Because of g r a v i t a t i o n a l sorting during dumping, the top of the ^dump i s generally composed of fine material, and the s p o i l gets progressively coarser i n the lower portions. An "apron" of large rocks usually forms at the toe of the dump. Sp o i l samples have been c o l l e c t e d from s i x of these older surface mines and analyzed at the S o i l s Laboratory, B.C. Department of Agr i c u l t u r e , Kelowna. The r e s u l t s of these analyses are shown i n Table 8 . Large scale surface mining began i n 1 9 6 9 with the development of the Harmer, Dry Creek, Adit 2 9 and Camp 8 p i t s on Harmer Ridge (see Map 2e). The mining method used i n these p i t s , known as the "bench" or "terrace" method (Dubnie, 1 9 7 2 ) , d i f f e r s s u b s t a n t i a l l y from the e a r l i e r outcrop technique (see Figures 5 , 6 , and 7 ) . The coal seam on Harmer Ridge i s approximately 1 5 m. thick, and consists of a s y n c l i n a l f o l d dipping at between 2 0 ° and 3 5 ° . The dip of the coal i s approximately p a r a l l e l to the surface and thus the overburden thickness i s r e l a t i v e l y constant, averaging approximately 8 5 m. Mining s t a r t s at the highest point of the p i t and the overburden i s removed i n benches 4 5 m. wide and at 2 0 m. i n t e r v a l s . The overburden 8 3 FIGURE 5 Coal mining bij the. bench method on Harmer I (After bubnie 1972) K W b u r d e n drilled <wd blasted. 2. Shattered overburden excavated shoveU trucked to dump. 3. C o a l d u g a n d l o a d e d by f r o n t - e n d loader. 84 F i g u r e 7. A d i t 29. Bench mining. 85 i s s h a t t e r e d by b l a s t i n g , excavated by 25 c u b i c y a r d (19 mJ) s h o v e l s , and t r a n s p o r t e d by 200 ton t r u c k s beyond the p i t l i m i t s f o r d i s p o s a l . The o v e r a l l o v e r b u r d e n - t o - c o a l r a t i o 3 i s 5 bank c u b i c yards (3.8 m ) o f rock to 1 s h o r t ton o f c o a l o r , on a tonnage b a s i s , 11:1.- Over the s h o r t term the annual development r a t i o i s approximately 6.7 bank c u b i c yards*(5.1 m^) t o one ton o f c o a l . T h i s means t h a t , u n t i l 1981, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 m i l l i o n bank c u b i c yards (30.6 m i l l i o n 3 m ) o f s p o i l must be removed each year to a c h i e v e the annual p r o d u c t i o n r a t e o f 6 m i l l i o n s h o r t tons of raw c o a l ( L i v i n g s t o n e , 19 75). As c o a l i s uncovered on each bench by the s h o v e l s , b u l l d o z e r s a r e used to push the remaining overburden from the s u r f a c e o f the seam. These dozers work p a r a l l e l t o the s t r i k e o f the seam and have b l a d e s t h a t are f i t t e d w i t h h y d r a u l i c s l o p e r s t h a t a l l o w the o p e r a t o r to vary the angle o f the b l a d e a c c o r d i n g to the d i p o f the c o a l . These same dozers a r e used e v e n t u a l l y t o c l e a n the c o a l o f f the f o o t -w a l l . The c o a l i s mined w i t h f r o n t - e n d l o a d e r s and h a u l e d i n 100 ton t r u c k s to a c e n t r a l breaker s t a t i o n where i t i s reduced i n s i z e t o p i e c e s 10 cm. i n diameter or l e s s b e f o r e b e i n g t r a n s p o r t e d by b e l t conveyor through a 4,390 m. t u n n e l to the raw c o a l s i l o s o f the p r e p a r a t i o n p l a n t . A v a r i a t i o n o f t h i s mining technique was employed between 1970 and 1973 on the Harmer I p i t . Shovels were *A bank c u b i c y a r d r e f e r s to excavated m a t e r i a l and accounts f o r the i n c r e a s e i n volume due to e x c a v a t i o n . Table 8 Analysis* Of Spoils From Six Outcrop Mines Soluble Available Nutrients Mine S i t e S o i l Texture • O.M. Per Cent pH Salts (p.p.m.) (Mmhos/cm) P K Ca Mg Baldy P i t 1 Coal/shale - 7.0 0.19 4 64 2250 300+ 2 Coal/shale - 6.3 0.18 32 182 2100 300+ C 4 D P i t s 1 Loam 15.0 5.8 0.16 134+ 305 1000 102 2 Loam 3.1 5.5 0.13 134+ 261 600 100 3 Loam 4.2 6.2 0.14 134+ 215 400 94 7A & 7B P i t s 1 Coal/shale -• 6.9 1.20 9 •54 1000 270 2 Loam 11.3 ".6.5 0.45 8 95 1900 300+ 3 P i t 1 Loam 8.0 6.2 0.22 134+ 368 1200 250 2 Loam 20.0 6.8 0.35 9 95 2250 300+ 3 Loam 7.2 6.0 0.17 134+ 178 750 134 4 S i l t loam 9.0 6.0 0.18 92 195 1350 190 Balmer 10-4 1 Sandy clay 9.0 7.6 0.42 42 130 1650 300 2 Sandy clay 14.0 6.6 0.25 53 116 1200 246 Balmer 10-7 1 Sandy clay 3.1 6.1 0.10 134 289 850 135 2 Clay loam 2.6 6.1 0.13 65 325 1500 250 Analysis by the B.C. Department of Agr i c u l t u r e , S o i l s Laboratory, Kelowna. For a d e s c r i p t i o n of a n a l y t i c a l methods see Appendix VII. 87 used t o c o n s t r u c t working benches, and a 54 c u b i c y a r d 3 (41 m ) mobile d r a g l i n e was then used t o uncover the c o a l seam. The overburden thus removed was dumped on the ex-cavated f o o t w a l l immediately above the working bench. T h i s method proved t o be uneconomic and the d r a g l i n e was not used a f t e r the Harmer I p i t was completed. The s l o p e o f the f o o t w a l l w i l l d i f f e r between p i t s depending upon the d i p o f the c o a l seam, and the f o o t w a l l s w i l l r e c e i v e v a r y i n g amounts o f s p o i l . On Harmer I, where the d r a g l i n e was used, the e n t i r e f o o t w a l l i s covered w i t h l o o s e m a t e r i a l , w h i l e on the s h o v e l p i t s o n l y those areas l e v e l enough t o p e r m i t access by t r u c k w i l l r e c e i v e s p o i l . T h i s w i l l determine, t o a g r e a t e x t e n t , the area o f p i t t h a t can e v e n t u a l l y be r e c l a i m e d . S p o i l i s t r u c k e d from the p i t area a l o n g h a u l roads t h a t l e a v e the p i t s a t , o r s l i g h t l y below, the l e v e l o f each working bench. Each s u c c e s s i v e dumping p l a t f o r m w i l l t r a v e r s e the e x i s t i n g dump s l o p e t o c r e a t e , u l t i m a t e l y , a s p o i l dump t e r r a c e d a t approximately 20 m. i n t e r v a l s . Overburden from the Harmer II p i t i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g p l a c e d on t h e Harmer I f o o t w a l l and, to date, two s p o i l t e r r a c e s have been c o n s t r u c t e d . The o n l y e x c e p t i o n s to t h i s g e n e r a l s p o i l d i s p o s a l system are the dumps a t Harmer Knob and Camp 8, and the extreme n o r t h - e a s t e r n p o r t i o n o f the Harmer I dumps. In the case o f Harmer Knob, s p o i l was t i p p e d down the n o r t h face o f Harmer Ridge 8 8 from t h r e e dumping p l a t f o r m s a t 27 m. v e r t i c a l i n t e r v a l s . T h i s has r e s u l t e d i n t h r e e contiguous dumps w i t h unbroken s l o p e s o f 230, 260 and 290 metre s l o p e l e n g t h s r e s p e c t i v e l y . P r o f i l e s o f these t h r e e dumps are shown i n F i g u r e s 8 a, b, and c. The Camp 8 mine comprises two adj a c e n t p i t s and the s p o i l from both i s t r a n s p o r t e d a l o n g a h a u l road t o the dumping a r e a a few hundred yards away (see F i g u r e 9b). T h i s dump i s b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d by d o w n h i l l t i p p i n g from a s i n g l e dump p l a t f o r m and t h e r e f o r e w i l l not be t e r r a c e d . S i n c e t h i s dump i s s t i l l a c t i v e a p r o f i l e has not y e t been prepared f o r i t , however, the u l t i m a t e c o n f i g u r a t i o n w i l l be s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f the l o n g e s t Harmer Knob dump. The o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n was t o c o n s t r u c t the Harmer I dump system i n a s e r i e s o f t e r r a c e s , however, the s p o i l would not stand a t the angle a n t i c i p a t e d and, t h e r e f o r e , the m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e from the Harmer I p i t was i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r t e r r a c i n g . P r e s e n t p l a n s are t o use m a t e r i a l from the lower l e v e l s o f the Harmer I I p i t f o r t e r r a c e c o n s t r u c t i o n , however, i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t s p o i l w i l l be a v a i l a b l e i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t i e s t o a l l o w t e r r a c i n g o f the e n t i r e dump system. The n o r t h - e a s t e r n p o r t i o n o f these dumps i s l i k e l y t o r e t a i n a p r o f i l e s i m i l a r t o the l a r g e s t dump on Harmer Knob (see F i g u r e 9 a ) . Very l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was p a i d d u r i n g the f i r s t s i x years o f mining development e i t h e r t o dump s t a b i l i t y o r Figures 6a , b $ c . Profiles of three Harmer Knob overburden dump Figures S^b^c. Profiles .of three Harmer Knob over burden dumps, Figures S^byC. Profiles ojihree Harmer Knob Overburden clumps. 100 m. • ^ ; >• Fig. 8 c. Harmer Knob 6790' Dump. 92 F i g u r e 9. A e r i a l views o f the main Harmer Ridge over-burden dumps. F i g u r e 9. Cont'd. 93 94 t o u l t i m a t e r e c l a m a t i o n . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h e r e were no i n v e s t i g a t i o n s u n d e r t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f o r i g i n a l s u r f i c i a l m a t e r i a l s as f o u n d a t i o n s f o r s p o i l dumps, and as a r e s u l t a t l e a s t e i g h t major e a r t h f a i l u r e s have o c c u r r e d (see F i g u r e s 9 a, b, and c ) ; two r e s u l t i n g i n d e a t h s , and a t l e a s t one o t h e r i n a s e r i o u s i n j u r y . These dump f a i l u r e s , and some p r e l i m i n a r y e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o s t s o f r e s l o p i n g t h e Harmer Knob dumps, appear t o have l e d t o a r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f dumping p r o c e d u r e s . D u r i n g t h e n e x t t h r e e - y e a r p l a n n i n g p e r i o d , from 1976-1978 i n c l u s i v e , t h e company i n t e n d s t o u n d e r t a k e a r e s e a r c h and p l a n n i n g s t u d y on dump s t a b i l i t y , and t o c a r r y o u t t h e f o l l o w i n g o p e r a t i o n s t o enhance e v e n t u a l r e c l a m a t i o n : 1. Wherever p o s s i b l e , t o b a c k - f i l l dormant p i t s . 2. To c o n s t r u c t a l l f u t u r e dumps i n a s e r i e s o f "wrap-around" t e r r a c e s . 3. Each t e r r a c e w i l l be r e s l o p e d p r i o r t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e n e x t l o w e r t e r r a c e . T h i s w i l l l e a d t o added s t a b i l i t y t h r o u g h u n w e i g h t i n g t h e c r e s t and l o a d i n g t h e t o e o f t h e dump, and w i l l g r e a t l y reduce t h e amount o f r e s l o p i n g r e q u i r e d p r i o r t o r e c l a m a t i o n . 95 The l o c a t i o n o f the v a r i o u s p i t s and dump systems on Harmer Ridge are shown on Map 2e. D e t a i l s o f the v a r i o u s mining f e a t u r e s are shown i n Table 9, and chemical a n a l y s e s o f s p o i l m a t e r i a l s appear i n T a b l e 10. 3.4.3 Underground Mining The underground mines o f the M i c h e l C o l l i e r y are the o n l y c o a l o p e r a t i o n s i n the p r o v i n c e t o have been worked c o n t i n u o u s l y from the end o f the l a s t c e n t u r y . P r o d u c t i o n from the c o l l i e r y has been i n excess o f 41 m i l l i o n tons from 1899 t o the p r e s e n t . A t o t a l o f s i x c o n v e n t i o n a l underground mines have ope r a t e d a t M i c h e l employing room and p i l l a r , m o d i f i e d l o n g w a l l , and c a v i n g t e c h n i q u e s . Only one o f these mines was i n o p e r a t i o n a t the time t h a t K a i s e r Resources L t d . o b t a i n e d the c o a l p r o p e r t i e s o f Crows-n e s t I n d u s t r i e s L t d . T h i s mine, known as the Balmer North, commenced o p e r a t i o n s i n the l a t e 1950's and has used the room and p i l l a r method t o e x p l o i t a c o a l seam t h a t averages approximately 3.5 m. i n t h i c k n e s s . The o n l y s u r f a c e f a c i l i t i e s d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s mine are the p o r t a l and l o a d i n g a r e a , the c o a l conveyor and t i p p l e , and the v e n t i l a t i o n f a n s . The l o c a t i o n s o f these f a c i l i t i e s are shown on Map 2e, and Table 11 shows the t o t a l s u r f a c e d i s t u r b a n c e from t h i s mine t o the end o f 1975. I n d i c a t i o n s are t h a t t h i s o p e r a t i o n w i l l be g r a d u a l l y phased-out over the next few y e a r s , and t h a t subsequently a l l underground Table 9 Area, Elevations and Aspects of the Areas of Mining Disturbance on Harmer Ridge to the End of 1975 Name of Feature Mined Area (ha.) Spoiled Other Total Elevation Range (Metres) Aspect Harmer Knob 18 Harmer I and I I 168 Dry Creek 14 Adit 29 136 Camp 8 43 Dragline Pad Coal Stockpiles Adit 29 S l i d e Harmer Knob S l i d e Haul Roads.• -Tota l 379 23 130 13 131 64 361 8 6 30 6 61 111 41 298 27 267 107 8 6 30 6 61 851 1770 1615 1555 1650 1680 2045 1740 1465 1680 2105 2045 1650 2045 1860 1650 1860 N m & sw NE Pit-SW, Dump NE&SE NE Level N/A NE NNW N/A N.B.: A l l areas are planimetric and do not account for slope distances. * S p o i l from thi s s l i d e reached the Elk River i n the form of mudflows v i a a narrow stream course. .•• Includes only those roads beyond the Harmer Maintenance Complex which run over otherwise undisturbed land. Table 10 Analysis of S p o i l Materials from Harmer Ridge Surface Mines Area and Sample* S o i l Texture O.M. Per Cent pH Soluble Salts (Mmhos/cm) P Available (P-P K Nutrients .m.) Ca Mg Harmer Complex 1 Sandy clay 2.2 5.1 0.13 110 150 200 41 2 S i l t loam 7.4 5.0 0.10 134- 182 300 66 3 Loam 2.8 5.3 0.11 134- 200 200 65 4 S i l t loam 4.0 5.8 0.24 42 : o 800 180 5 Clay 2.3 5.9 0.12 22 87 950 300 Dry Creek 1 Loam 3.7 5.7 0.16 134- 150 300 41 2 Clay 17.0 5.5 0.14 36 70 1450 195 3 Clay 14.0 5.7 0.18 33 64 2350 212 Adit 29 1 Loam 5.2 5.7 0.16 83 60 1050 175 2 S i l t loam 4.0 6.4 0.17 129 92 1200 300+ 3 S i l t loam 4.8 5.8 0.26 80 850 300+ Camp 8 1 Loam 2.6 5.3 0.12 .134 70 250 52 2 Loam 11.0 6.6 0.21 41 83 1600 300+ * Analysis by B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , S o i l s Laboratory, Kelowna. For a description of a n a l y t i c a l methods see Appendix VII. 9 8 production w i l l be by hydraulic mining. The most recent underground operation at Michel i s the Hydraulic Mine located on the southern side of Michel Creek opposite the northern boundary of the Natal townsite ~ (see Map 2e). Hydraulic mining i s a technique developed i n Japan and modified under licence by Kaiser Resources Ltd. to e x p l o i t mountain coal seams. This method i s presently being suggested as an a l t e r n a t i v e to surface mining i n the Rocky Mountain coal b e l t because i t approaches the coal recovery rate of surface methods with comparable production costs and much lower l e v e l s of environmental disturbance. I t i s , therefore, of value to include here a b r i e f description of the technique, a discussion of the conditions under which i t can be used, and i t s advantages and disadvantages. Much of the material i n the following sections has been taken from a pu b l i c a t i o n by Grimley (19 74) . B a s i c a l l y the method employs a stream of water under very high pressure directed by a nozzle or monitor onto the coal seam. The water cuts the coal and conveys i t into a loading and s i z i n g machine c a l l e d a feeder-breaker. With the coal s i z e d and mixed i t i s then conveyed by flume i n a water medium out of the mine to a de-watering plant. The water i s fed back into the process. During mine development, conventional underground equipment i s used to excavate main-line roadways and, at 9 9 r i g h t angles t o these, a s e r i e s o f " s u b - l e v e l " s h a f t s . The h y d r a u l i c monitor i s s e t up a t the end of each s u c c e s s i v e " s u b - l e v e l " s h a f t and the c o a l i s excavated as the monitor g r a d u a l l y " r e t r e a t s " down the s u b - l e v e l towards the main-l i n e roadway. The r e s u l t i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o the normal c a v i n g technique except t h a t the c o a l i s excavated by water r a t h e r than by b l a s t i n g . The p r i n c i p a l requirements o f the technique a r e : 1. The d i p o f the seam must be no l e s s than seven degrees. 2 . An adequate supply o f water must be a v a i l a b l e . 3. The r o o f and f l o o r o f the c o a l seam must be rea s o n a b l y s t r o n g t o minimize c o n t a m i n a t i o n . 4 . The c o a l must be s o f t and f r i a b l e , and c o n t a i n few hard bands. 5. The c o a l seam must be as t h i c k as p o s s i b l e . H y d r a u l i c mining has the f o l l o w i n g advantages over con-v e n t i o n a l underground t e c h n i q u e s : (a) S a f e t y Thus f a r , h y d r a u l i c mining has e x p e r i e n c e d v e r y low a c c i d e n t r a t e s . There are b a s i c a l l y t h r e e reasons f o r t h i s : 1. S i n c e t h e r e i s no e l e c t r i c i t y o r moving p a r t s i n the e x c a v a t i n g area the chance o f a spark o c c u r r i n g i s v e r y much reduced. 100 T h i s i s a g r e a t advantage i n an area long t r o u b l e d w i t h methane and c o a l dust e x p l o s i o n s . 2. As the c u t t i n g u n i t i s water, no dry c o a l dust i s produced. T h i s reduces the p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o a l dust e x p l o s i o n s and s i m p l i f i e s the v e n t i l a t i o n system. 3. The most dangerous p l a c e i n a c o n v e n t i o n a l mine i s the c o a l face i t s e l f . In the h y d r a u l i c technique the o p e r a t o r s o f the monitor and f e e d e r - b r e a k e r are s i t u a t e d i n the supported s u b - l e v e l some 10-30 m. from the face a r e a . (b) P r o d u c t i v i t y W i t h i n areas i n which c o n d i t i o n s are amenable t o the h y d r a u l i c t e c h n i q u e , p r o d u c t i v i t y p e r man s h i f t i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than f o r c o n v e n t i o n a l underground systems. W i t h i n the K.R.L. mine, p r o d u c t i v i t y has averaged 500 tons per man s h i f t ( i n c l u d i n g development) compared to an average o f 120 tons f o r c o n v e n t i o n a l mines (James p e r . comm.). (c) A d a p t a b i l i t y S t e e p l y p i t c h i n g or u n d u l a t i n g seams are r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y accommodated by t h i s system s i n c e , u n l i k e the b e l t conveyors of c o n v e n t i o n a l mines, flumes do not r e q u i r e s t r a i g h t passageways. Development can thus f o l l o w the seam a t a s e t g r a d i e n t w i t h v e r y l i t t l e premining i n f o r m a t i o n . 101 (d) V e n t i l a t i o n One o f the main problems o f underground mining i s t o p r o v i d e adequate q u a n t i t i e s o f a i r t o workers a t the f a c e , f r e e o f noxious o r flamable gases and w i t h p e r m i s s a b l e l e v e l s o f c o a l dust. In h y d r a u l i c mines, a i r passes down the s u b - l e v e l and reaches the miners without p i c k i n g up contaminants from equipment and b e f o r e f l o w i n g through the p r o d u c t i o n a r e a . A f t e r p a s s i n g the o p e r a t i n g face i t i s r e t u r n e d t o e x i t a i r f l u e s through the mined o r "gob" a r e a . In a d d i t i o n , as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, l e v e l s o f c o a l dust are n a t u r a l l y lower because water i s used f o r e x c a v a t i o n . (e) C o a l Recovery In the c o n v e n t i o n a l mining o f t h i c k c o a l seams a q u a n t i t y o f c o a l must be l e f t b e h i n d as " p i l l a r s " t o support the r o o f o f the s h a f t . By u s i n g a h y d r a u l i c monitor t o c u t and move the c o a l t h e r e i s no need f o r e i t h e r miners or machines t o t r a v e l i n t o unsupported o r p o o r l y supported areas. Mining can, t h e r e f o r e , c o n t i n u e i n a working a r e a u n t i l e i t h e r a l l the c o a l i s taken or the r o o f caves. (f) E l i m i n a t i o n o f Nuisance Water Most c o a l mines have problems w i t h seepage water i n s h a f t s and roadways. Pumping i s c o s t l y and time consuming. In a h y d r a u l i c mine, roadways can simply be designed t o d r a i n i n t o the flumes and nuisance water 102 removed from the mine w i t h the c o a l s l u r r y and used i n the mining p r o c e s s . Disadvantages of the h y d r a u l i c technique are as f o l l o w s : (a) In seams t h a t are i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h rock or i m p u r i t i e s , s e l e c t i v e mining of the c o a l i s d i f f i c u l t . I f the hardness of the rock forming the f l o o r and r o o f o f the seam i s not s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t than t h a t o f the c o a l , e x c e s s i v e l e v e l s o f ' i m p u r i t i e s i n the mined c o a l can r e s u l t i n h i g h p r o c e s s i n g c o s t s . (b) The mined c o a l , even a f t e r dewatering, has a h i g h e r moisture content than t h a t produced by o t h e r under-ground mining methods. T h i s can r e s u l t i n c o n s i d e r a b l e h a n d l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the w i n t e r , and n e c e s s i t a t e s d r y i n g . (c) The technique i s very d i f f i c u l t t o apply to l e v e l o r g e n t l y s l o p i n g , and t h i n seams f o r reasons a l r e a d y e x p l a i n e d . Table 11 shows d e t a i l s o f the l a n d d i s t u r b a n c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the H y d r a u l i c Mine to the end o f 1975. 3.4.4 Supplementary O p e r a t i o n s Many p a s t s t u d i e s o f the impact o f c o a l mining on l a n d based r e s o u r c e s have c o n c e n t r a t e d on d i s t u r b a n c e s r e s u l t i n g from the mining o p e r a t i o n i t s e l f . A p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s f i l m produced by the Mining A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia c a l l e d 103 Table 11 D e t a i l s of the Areas of Disturbance Associated With Underground Mining 1969-1975 Mine Feature Area E l e v a t i o n Aspect (ha) ( m.) Balmer - F a c i l i t i e s ( p o r t a l , loading area, North fan coal conveyor and t i p p l e ) - Disturbed by construction 1.6 1155-1215 1.2 1155-1215 SW sw Hydraulic -Dewatering Plant Mine - F a c i l i t i e s - Disturbed by construction Mines - P o r t a l s and loading areas - Surface flumes - Disturbed by construction 5.3 9.3 1125 1125 3.2 1215-1550 2.0 1125-1305 6.5 1125-1305 NE NE NE NE TOTAL 29.1 104 Miners With Green Thumbs s t a t e d i n 1969 t h a t the m i n e r a l and c o a l wealth o f the p r o v i n c e was produced from a 2 d i s t u r b e d area o f j u s t 18 km (1815 h a . ) , and K a i s e r Resources L t d . had i n d i c a t e d i n many p u b l i c a t i o n s t h a t i t s mining o p e r a t i o n would d i s t u r b o n l y s l i g h t l y more than 2 8.5 km (approximately 810 h a . ) . These f i g u r e s i g n o r e the c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t u r b a n c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f a c i l i t i e s supplementary t o the mining o p e r a t i o n , which o f t e n equals o r surpasses the area o f mining d i s t u r b a n c e . 3.4.4.1 P r e p a r a t i o n P l a n t s The o r i g i n a l p r e p a r a t i o n p l a n t f o r the M i c h e l C o l l i e r y was l o c a t e d a t the f a c i l i t y ' s complex a d j a c e n t t o the M i c h e l townsite and operated-from 1938 to 1968. In 1969 the E l k v i e w P r e p a r a t i o n P l a n t was c o n s t r u c t e d and, t h e r e a f t e r , the M i c h e l P l a n t was used i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the p r o d u c t i o n of coke. Coke i s produced a t M i c h e l i n h o r i z o n t a l Curran-Knowles bye-product ovens, o f which t h e r e are 4 b a t t e r i e s t o t a l l i n g 52 ovens. These ovens have a c a p a c i t y t o t r e a t 245,000 tons o f c l e a n c o a l per year to produce 180,000 tons o f coke. The o n l y s a l e a b l e bye-product o f t h i s p r o c e s s i s c o a l t a r which i s s o l d p e r i o d i c a l l y t o the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway f o r making c r e o s o t e . The E l k v i e w P r e p a r a t i o n P l a n t i s l o c a t e d on the e a s t bank of the E l k R i v e r approximately two m i l e s n o r t h - e a s t o f Sparwood. C o a l i s d e l i v e r e d t o f o u r , 2000-ton raw c o a l 105 s i l o s a t the P l a n t by an 2,590 m. conveyor b e l t o r i g i n a t i n g a t the b reaker s t a t i o n i n the Harmer P i t . The conveyor passes through Harmer Ridge i n a 1,465 m. t u n n e l . From the raw c o a l s i l o s the c o a l i s conveyed t o the wash p l a n t where i t i s screened i n t o t h r e e s i z e ranges:. 20 mm. and g r e a t e r , 0.5-20 mm., and l e s s than 0.5 mm. These s i z e ranges are s e p a r a t e d from rock and o t h e r i m p u r i t i e s on the b a s i s o f d e n s i t y by heavy media v e s s e l s , heavy media c y c l o n e s , and by a combination o f water c y c l o n e s and f l o t -a t i o n , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The c o a l l a r g e r than 20 mm. i n s i z e i s conveyed d i r e c t l y t o f o u r , 15,000 ton c l e a n c o a l s i l o s f o r s t orage and l o a d i n g i n t o u n i t t r a i n s . The f i n e r c o a l f r a c t i o n s are d i v e r t e d t o a thermal -dryer b e f o r e e n t e r i n g the s i l o s . The waste generated by t h i s system i s e s s e n t i a l l y o f two t y p e s , a f i n e f r a c t i o n and a coarse f r a c t i o n . The f i n e f r a c t i o n has a p a r t i c l e s i z e o f l e s s than .5 mm. and i s composed o f carbonaceous s h a l e s , c l a y p a r t i c l e s and h i g h -ash c o a l s . I t i s removed from the p l a n t i n a water s l u r r y and t r a n s p o r t e d by pipe t o s e t t l i n g lagoons. The water i s decanted from the lagoons and r e t u r n e d t o the p l a n t p r o c e s s . Four such lagoons have been c o n s t r u c t e d t o date and are shown on Map 2e. A, B, and C lagoons are now dormant and D lagoon w i l l be used u n t i l the e a r l y 1980's. The coarse r e f u s e i s composed o f coarse rock and s h a l e , 106 and high ash coals and has a size range from 0.5 mm. -101.6 mm. Within t h i s size range approximately 59 per cent by volume i s less than 9.5 mm. and 41 per cent i s greater, though t h i s r a t i o i s subject to some f l u c t u a t i o n . This coarse refuse i s c o l l e c t e d from the wash-plant by pan-scrapers and deposited i n a waste-bank area d i r e c t l y north of the plant s i t e . This waste bank w i l l be constructed i n a series of 6 m. wide benches at v e r t i c a l i n t e r v a l s of 15 m. Slope angle between benches w i l l be approximately 35 degrees. Figure 10 shows the approximate configuration of t h i s bank system, and the anticipated schedule of dumping. Table 12 shows d e t a i l s of the areas disturbed by preparation plant operations to the end of 1975 and Table 13 shows the r e s u l t s of chemical analysis of refuse materials and some s o i l s disturbed by construction a c t i v i t i e s . Map 2e shows the location of the preparation plants and associated f a c i l i t i e s . 3.4.4.2 Access and Haul Roads A t o t a l of 60.2 km. of access and haul roads service various portions of the operation and t h e i r l o c a t i o n i s shown on Map 2e. Table 14 gives d e t a i l s of those roads outside the areas disturbed by mining operations. The areas given for cut and f i l l slopes are estimates only based on sample measurements of road bank widths. E a r t h . -J VTTT Elk Relocated — N 10331 r«3 road. ? 1 9 7 3 1972 Original ground Refuse area B i-old lojyi*^  rooi. Refuse area *A" El. 1235" m . El. 1160-m. I U H 5 -wi. Figure 10. Profile of E l k v i e w M B C o u r s e W a s t e - B a n k s . Scale 1 - 3 2 0 0 108 Table 12 De t a i l s of the Areas Disturbed by Preparation Plant Operations to the End of 1975 Plant Feature Area E l e v a t i o n Aspect (ha) (m.) - T i p p l e , Coke ovens, breeze d r i e r , 14 1160 and f i n e s plant - Refuse d i s p o s a l areas - Michel Bank 9 1160 -- Michel-South Bank 4 1190 NE - Natal Bank 3 1145 -- S e t t l i n g ponds 1 1160 — - F a c i l i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g warehouses, 20 1100-1495 SW shops, o f f i c e s , waste r e s e r v o i r s - Area disturbed by construction 51 1100-1495 . SW - Coarse refuse banks 29 1130-1280 SW - Fine refuse lagoons A 4.5 1115 -B 6 1115 -C 17 1115 -D 44 1115 -- R a i l Spurs: To Preparation Plant 35 1145-1235 SW - Coal loading c i r c u i t 3 1115-1130 -Michel Elkview TOTAL 240.5 Table 13 Anal y s i s * of Refuse and Disturbed S o i l s Associated With Preparation Plants Available Nutrients (p.p.m.) Feature S o i l Texture Organic Matter % pH Soluble Salts (Mmhos/cm) P K Ca Mg Elkview Refuse Lagoons - - 7.1 1.71 6.0 14.5 701 39 Coarse Refuse Banks Elkview - - 6.5 0.6 27.5 46 150 55 Michel South - - 7.3 ; 0.67 39 64 700 73 Michel - - 7.6 0.49 41 50 700 90 - - 7.2 2.00 41 53 1050 62 Natal - . .- 7.6 0.70 22 32 300 70 - . 7.1 0.24 15 145 700 115 Elkview Construction S i t e SC 2.5 8.0 0.35 2.5 87 3050 300 + Railway Embankment SC 2.5 8.1 . 0.54 4 64 2300 300 Analysis by the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , S o i l s Laboratory, Kelowna. For a description of a n a l y t i c a l methods, see Appendix VIII. Table 14 Area Disturbed By Access and Haul Roads Length Road Width Area of Road Surface Area of Road Banks Road Designation ( k m > ) ( m > ) ( h a - ) (ha.) Harmer Haul Road 11.7 8.5 10 130 Preparation Plant Roads 11.9 6.7 8 61 Hydraulic Mine Roads 6.1 5.5 3 69 Michel Plant Roads 1.8 5.5 1 1 Balmer North Mine Roads 2.9 6.7 2 3 P i t Access Roads -10-7 P i t 4.3 5.5 - 2 6 -3 S t r i p 7.2 5.5 . 4 9 - Harmer Ridge -Camp 8 2.1 15.2 3 30 -A d i t 29 0.8 15.2 1 11 -Harmer I 1.8 15.2 3 25 -Harmer I I . 3.5 15.2 5 51 -Dry Creek 3.2 15.2 ^5 . 47 443 I l l 3.4.4.3 O f f i c e s and Maintenance S t r u c t u r e s The main company o f f i c e , and t h e r e c l a m a t i o n o f f i c e and n u r s e r y a r e l o c a t e d on th e E l k V a l l e y Road n o r t h o f Sparwood a c r o s s M i c h e l C reek. M a j o r maintenance com-p l e x e s a r e l o c a t e d a t M i c h e l and on Harmer Ri d g e . T a b l e i5 g i v e s d e t a i l s o f th e a r e a s o c c u p i e d by t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s and t h e i r l o c a t i o n i s shown on Map 2e. 3.4.5 T a b u l a r Summary o f Land D i s t u r b a n c e s A s s o c i a t e d W i t h t h e M i n i n g O p e r a t i o n The t o t a l a c r e a g e d i s t u r b e d by a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m i n i n g and p r o c e s s i n g t o t h e end o f 1975 i s shown i n T a b l e 16. A l l o f t h e s e o p e r a t i o n s a r e a u t h o r i z e d under S e c t i o n 8 o f t h e C o a l Mines R e g u l a t i o n A c t by S u r f a c e Work P e r m i t No. 2, f i r s t i s s u e d on May 9, 1970 and renewed i n 1973. The r e c l a m a t i o n bond c o v e r i n g d i s t u r b a n c e s t o t h e end o f 1975 was $300,000.00 o r $166 p e r h e c t a r e ($67.00 p e r a c r e ) . 3.5 N a t u r e and E x t e n t o f E x p l o r a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s I n 1968 K a i s e r R esources L t d . a c q u i r e d m i n i n g r i g h t s t o a s e l e c t e d t w o - t h i r d s o f Crowsnest I n d u s t r i e s ' 110,000 a c r e s (44,550 ha.) o f c o a l l a n d s . Under t h e terms o f t h i s agreement, K.R.L. committed i t s e l f t o making t h i s s e l e c t i o n by 1976. D u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1968 t o 1975, K.R.L. c a r r i e d o u t one o f th e most a m b i t i o u s and e x t e n s i v e c o a l e x p l o r a t i o n 112 Table 15 Details of the Area Occupied by Officers And Maintenance Structures T r = 0 , . „ ^ „ Area Elevation Aspect reatu^e (ha.) (m.) Main Office - Including Reclamation Facilities 2 1115 Michel Office Complex • 12 1160 Harmer Ridge Complex 17 1905 TOTAL 31 Table 16 T o t a l Area of Disturbance Associated With Mining and Processing to the End of 1975 Feature Area by Type of Disturbance (ha) F a c i l i t i e s P i t s S p o i l Dumps Refuse Banks Refuse Lagoons Construction Disturbance Road and R a i l Surface Banks T o t a l Contour Mines - 33 133 Bench Mines 6 379 395 Underground Mines 21 - -Preparation Plants 34 Access and Haul Roads -O f f i c e and Maintenance Structures 31 TOTAL 92 412 528 46 72 9 8 51 46 72 68 20 9 47 76 40 29 443 512 166 849 29 241 490 31 1,806 114 programmes e v e r u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e E a s t Kootenay c o a l b e l t . The main c e n t r e s o f a c t i v i t y i n t h i s programme have been the f o l l o w i n g : (a) The s o u t h e r n p a r t o f t h e G r e e n h i l l s Range i n t h e E l k and F o r d i n g R i v e r w a t e r s h e d . (b) The B u r n t H i l l s a r e a o f t h e W i s u k i t s a k Range i n t h e F o r d i n g R i v e r w a t e r s h e d . (c) The s o u t h - e a s t e r n s l o p e s o f Harmer Ridge i n t h e E r i c k s o n ' C r e e k w a t e r s h e d . (d) Sparwood Ridge i n t h e E l k R i v e r and M i c h e l Creek w a t e r s h e d s . (e) The M a r t e n - L e a c h - M i c h e l Creek w a t e r s h e d from C o a l Creek pass t o M c G i l l i v r a y . ( f ) F l a t h e a d Ridge i n t h e L o d g e p o l e Creek w a t e r s h e d . W i t h i n t h e s e s i x main a r e a s t h e r e a r e e l e v e n d i s t i n c t e x p l o r a t i o n s , t h e l o c a t i o n s o f w h i c h a r e shown i n Map l a . Each e x p l o r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n i s s e r v i c e d by an a c c e s s r o a d t h i r t y f e e t (9 m.) w i d e , and from t h i s main r o a d a network o f t r e n c h e s o r se c o n d a r y r o a d s i s c o n s t r u c t e d t o f i n d and t r a c e t h e c o a l seams. I n a r e a s o f m u l t i p l e c o a l seams o n l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t are t r e n c h e d , and t h e l o c a t i o n s o f t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e seams a r e e s t a b l i s h e d by " c r o s s c u t s " a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e t r e n c h seams ( F i g u r e 11). Once t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f a seam i s e s t a b l i s h e d by t r e n c h i n g , l a r g e 115 F i g u r e 11. A e r i a l view o f an e x p l o r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n showing roads, trenches and c r o s s - c u t s . 116 volumes o f c o a l are o b t a i n e d f o r q u a l i t y t e s t i n g through the e x c a v a t i o n o f e i t h e r t e s t p i t s o r s m a l l underground s h a f t s c a l l e d a d i t s ( F i g u r e s 12 and 13). T a b l e 17 shows the e x t e n t o f d i s t u r b a n c e from e x p l o r -a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s t o the end o f 19 75 f o r each of the nine o p e r a t i o n s and by the type o f e x p l o r a t i o n work. T h i s e x p l o r a t i o n programme i s a u t h o r i z e d , under S e c t i o n 8 o f the Coa l Mines R e g u l a t i o n A c t , by S u r f a c e Work Permit No. 80. The r e c l a m a t i o n bond c o v e r i n g d i s t u r b a n c e s to the end o f 1975 i s $35,000.00 or $15.00 per acre ($37.00 per h a . ) . The areas g i v e n i n Table 17 are e s t i m a t e s o n l y s i n c e no attempt has ev e r been made to e s t a b l i s h a c c u r a t e measure-ments o f the a r e a d i s t u r b e d by the programme. The es t i m a t e s have been c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g parameters from a F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch p u b l i c a t i o n by Stanla k e and Stan-lake (1975). In p r e l i m i n a r y work on K.R.L.'s e x p l o r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s they found t h a t e x p l o r a t i o n roads d i s t u r b approximately 2.75 ha. per km. on south and west f a c i n g s l o p e s t h a t exceed 30° (ungulate w i n t e r r a n g e s ) , and approximately 1.5 ha. per km. on areas t h a t are e i t h e r t r e e d or o f more moderate topography. A d i t s and d r i l l s i t e s were found t o occupy 0.12-0.2 ha. and 0.04 ha. r e s p e c t i v e l y . During the years 1969-1972 t h e r e was very l i t t l e p r e - p l a n n i n g o f e x p l o r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s , and l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n e i t h e r o f moderating the adverse environmental 117 F i g u r e 12. A e r i a l view of p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r an a d i t s i t e . F i g u r e 13. An a d i t d u r i n g m i n i n g . Table 17 Disturbances Associated With Exploration A c t i v i t i e s 1969-1974 Area By Type Of A c t i v i t y (ha) Roads Seam Tracing Cross Cutting Adits D r i l l Sites Total Greenhills 82 52 4 2 1 141 Burnt* H i l l s 17 25 2 - 44 Sparwood Ridge 58 111 7 - - 176 Erickson Creek 67 13 ' 4 - - 84 McGillivray Ridge 12 1 1 - 14 Tent Mountain 31 3 4 - - 38 Carbon Creek 14 3 1 - - 18 Marten Ridge 141 18 8 2 1 170 Coal Creek Pass 49 1 28 - - 78 Mt. Taylor 47 1 2 2 1 53 Flathead Ridge 93 2 12 2 - 109 TOTAL 611 230 73 8 3 925 NB This i s an estimate only based on "Report of Exploration Work on Coal Licences" forms on record at the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources. No accurate determination of the area disturbed as a resu l t of t h i s programme has ever been attempted. 120 e f f e c t s o f e x p l o r a t i o n o r o f p l a n n i n g f o r e v e n t u a l r e c l a m -a t i o n . Poor c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance p r a c t i c e s have p r o b a b l y l e d t o s e v e r e s e a s o n a l d e g r a d a t i o n o f w a t e r q u a l i t y t h r o u g h o u t t h e E l k R i v e r d r a i n a g e . A ppendix V I I I c o n t a i n s p hotographs t h a t i l l u s t r a t e many o f t h e poor p r a c t i c e s t h a t have c h a r a c t e r i z e d c o a l e x p l o r a t i o n i n t h e E a s t Kootenay. There i s some e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t much o f t h e e x p l o r a t i o n d i s t u r b a n c e has been u n n e c e s s a r y , and c o u l d have been a v o i d e d t h r o u g h a b e t t e r p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I n 1972 t h e w r i t e r and two o f K.R.L.'s e x p l o r a t i o n g e o l o g i s t s u ndertook a s t u d y t o compare t h e e x t e n t o f d i s t u r b a n c e on two o f t h e n i n e e x p l o r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s : t h e Mt. T a y l o r A r e a , where the main a c c e s s r o a d was* c o n s t r u c t e d and p r e l i m i n a r y g e o l o g i c a l mapping was c o m p l e t e d th e f i r s t s e a s o n , and seam t r a c i n g and s e c o n d a r y r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n were c a r r i e d o u t / under c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n by a g e o l o g i s t , i n t h e second y e a r , a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e - p l a n n i n g ; and t h e M a r t e n Ridge a r e a , r e s p r e s e n t a t i v e o f most o f t h e programme, where no p r e l i m i n a r y mapping o r p r e - p l a n n i n g were done and s u p e r -v i s i o n was m i n i m a l . I n t h i s s t u d y a number o f a s s u m p t i o n s were made: 1. That th e a r e a s were comparable. ( T h i s i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s , however, two f a c t o r s were known; f i r s t , t h a t t h e Mt. T a y l o r a r e a was more g e o l o g i c a l l y complex i n t h a t 121 there was s u b s t a n t i a l l y more f o l d i n g and f a u l t i n g ; and second, t h a t the Marten Ridge ar e a c o n t a i n e d seven c o a l seams w h i l e Mt. T a y l o r had o n l y t h r e e . I t was/assumed t h a t these two f a c t o r s c a n c e l l e d one another.) A road was c o n s i d e r e d unnecessary where i t gave access t o o t h e r than c o a l - b e a r i n g f o r m a t i o n s , o r where, by changing the l o c a t i o n , a much s h o r t e r a c c e p t a b l e a c c e s s t o c o a l -b e a r i n g areas c o u l d be p r o v i d e d . A t r e n c h was c o n s i d e r e d unnecessary where i t s f u n c t i o n was d u p l i c a t e d by roads or ot h e r t r e n c h e s , o r where i t was l o c a t e d i n a non-c o a l b e a r i n g area and c o u l d have been e l i m i n a t e d by e i t h e r p r e l i m i n a r y mapping o r c l o s e r s u p e r v i s i o n . A t r e n c h was c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y even i f i t d i d not uncover c o a l , where i t was excavated f o r a s p e c i f i c reason, o r where i t p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t c o u l d not be gained from o t h e r roads and t r e n c h e s . 122 The r e s u l t s of t h i s study were as follows: Marten Ridge Mt. Taylor Access roads outside the coal bearing formation (a) Necessary 13,375 m. (b) Unnecessary 6,130 m. 5,870 m. Access roads wi t h i n the coal bearing formation (a) Necessary (b) Unnecessary 8,245 m. 440 m. 8,135 m. 3. Trenching outside the coal bearing formation (a) Necessary (b) Unnecessary 4. Trenching within the coal bearing formation (a) Necessary (b) Unnecessary 5. Acreage of coal bearing area 6. Density of roads and trenches wi t h i n the coal bearing area None 1,025 m. 1,115 m. 3,390 m. 113 ha. None None 1,855 m. 116 m./ha. 209 ha. 47 m./ha. Some o f the more s i g n i f i c a n t o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h i s study-were : 1. A l a r g e p o r t i o n o f the road.network on Marten Ridge judged unnecessary gave access t o non-coal b e a r i n g areas t h a t c o u l d have been excluded by p r e l i m i n a r y mapping. 2 . Some trenches were judged unnecessary because access roads- c o n s t r u c t e d l a t e r d u p l i c a t e d 123 t h e i r f u n c t i o n . One v e r y l o n g t r e n c h would not have been excavated i f the g e o l o g i s t s c o u l d have been g i v e n time to analyze the r e s u l t s o f o t h e r work b e f o r e i t was excavated. 3. Over one k i l o m e t r e o f t r e n c h o u t s i d e the c o a l -b e a r i n g f o r m t i o n on Marten Ridge was t o t a l l y u s e l e s s and c o u l d have been avoided by p r e -l i m i n a r y mapping. E x p l o r a t i o n p e r s o n n e l e s t i m a t e t h a t the c o s t o f t r e n c h i n g and secondary road c o n s t r u c t i o n i s $4.90 per metre. I f the i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from t h i s study i s c o r r e c t , $54,030.00 were wasted i n unnecessary work on Marten Ridge i n e x p l o r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s a l o n e . If. we assume c o n s e r v a t i v e r e c l a m a t i o n c o s t s o f $490.00 per h e c t a r e , a f u r t h e r $15,010.00 would be r e q u i r e d t o r e h a b i l i t a t e unnecessary d i s t u r b a n c e s . I t i s apparent then t h a t the Company i t s e l f has p a i d a heavy p r i c e f o r the l a c k o f an e f f e c t i v e e x p l o r a t i o n p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . In 1973, because o f i t s concern about the environmental e f f e c t s of the e x p l o r a t i o n programme, the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch f o r m a l l y o b j e c t e d through the Reclamation Land Use A d v i s o r y Committee (see S e c t i o n 5.1) t o the annual renewal o f Surface Work Permit No. 80 u n t i l an environmental impact statement had been prepared and a programme of environmental p r o t e c t i o n had been i n s t i t u t e d . B.C. Research c a r r i e d out 124 the e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact statement, and among the recommen-d a t i o n s made were: 1. That a s i t e - s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s be s e t up f o r any f u t u r e e x p l o r a t i o n programmes. In such a pr o c e s s the g e o l o g i s t s and r e c l a m a t i o n b i o l o g i s t s would work t o g e t h e r as e q u a l s on a p l a n n i n g team. 2. T h a t f u t u r e e x p l o r a t i o n works conform t o a s e t o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n g u i d e l i n e s . As an example, the f i r s t d r a f t o f a s e t of such g u i d e l i n e s , then b e i n g produced by the Department o f Mines and Petroleum Resources, was appended t o the study r e p o r t . 3.. T h a t f a r g r e a t e r o n - s i t e s u p e r v i s i o n o f con-s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y be p r o v i d e d i n o r d e r t o minimize environmental d e g r a d a t i o n and t o f a c i l i t a t e e v e n t u a l r e c l a m a t i o n . In December o f 1973 the Department o f Mines and Petroleum Resources p u b l i s h e d , Reclamation Guidelines for Exploration (McDonald and Dick , 1973), a copy o f which i s a t t a c h e d as Appendix IX. Compliance w i t h these g u i d e l i n e s has been made a c o n d i t i o n o f a l l s u r f a c e workrpermits f o r c o a l e x p l o r a t i o n . 125 CHAPTER IV ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n A major r e s o u r c e development such as c o a l mining and p r o c e s s i n g w i l l i n v a r i a b l y have a wide a r r a y o f impacts on both the n a t u r a l environment and l o c a l socio-economic c o n d i t i o n s . Many o f these impacts are beyond the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s . The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be l i m i t e d t o those a s p e c t s o f environmental impact which may be m i t i g a t e d i n p a r t o r i n whole through a programme o f la n d r e c l a m a t i o n . In 19 76 the Environment and Land Use Committee imposed G u i d e l i n e s f o r C o a l Development (see Appendix 1) on a l l new mining v e n t u r e s . These G u i d e l i n e s make p r o v i s i o n f o r an e x t e n s i v e f o u r - s t a g e , impact assessment and p l a n n i n g process r e l a t e d to the e f f e c t o f the development on both the b i o p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e base and the l o c a l community i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . T h i s assessment p r o c e s s was not made r e t r o - a c t i v e t o i n c l u d e e x i s t i n g mining o p e r a t i o n s and, thus, K a i s e r Resources L t d . was n e i t h e r o b l i g e d by law, nor d i d i t undertake v o l u n t a r i l y , t o prepare a " h i n d s i g h t " environmental impact assessment. The w r i t e r has, simply, 126 not had the r e s o u r c e s to undertake such a study and, consequently, the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n s o f impact are n e c e s s a r i l y both c u r s o r y and, t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , s p e c u l a t i v e . 4.2 The Mining O p e r a t i o n 4.2.1 Land Use H i s t o r y The main i n f l u e n c e on s e t t l e m e n t h i s t o r y i n the N a t a l area has been c o a l mining. As noted i n S e c t i o n 3.2 above, mining development began a t the M i c h e l C o l l i e r y i n 189 8. The t o w n s i t e s o f M i c h e l and N a t a l were e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1900 and 1908 r e s p e c t i v e l y . S i n c e t h a t time, t h i s p o r t i o n of • the M i c h e l Creek v a l l e y has been c o n t i n u o u s l y o c c u p i e d by mining a c t i v i t i e s . In 1955, the new community o f Sparwood was e s t a b l i s h e d i n an attempt to s i t e new r e s i d e n t i a l development away from the dust o f the c o a l p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t and from the smoke and soot of the coke ovens. F o r e s t r y has a l s o p l a y e d an important r o l e i n the commerce o f the area, and N a t a l was the s i t e o f Crowsnest I n d u s t r i e s L t d . ' s major sawmill u n t i l 1969, when the o p e r a t i o n was moved to E l k o . Most o f the commercial timber i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f N a t a l was h a r v e s t e d p r i o r t o the development o f K a i s e r Resources L t d . ' s mining o p e r a t i o n . H a r v e s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s , are now c o n f i n e d to areas n o r t h o f Sparwood, and the timber i s t r u c k e d by road to the E l k o sawmill. 114°50' 49°50 49°45' M-49045' LEGEIMb , ' Scale 1:50,000 LANb CAPABILITY FOR FORESTRY 1. P r o d u c t i v i t y a v e r a g e s 7 m 3 / h a . / a n n u m (o r c S £ IP ( B . C . L l . c l a s s e s 1,2 £ 3 ) . Productivity averages 4 mV^ a/annum r o r <?_$ IP £ alF (B.CLI. classes 4 4 5 ) . i. Productivity averages 1.5 m 3 /na . /ar inum {or e 5 , b , alF, IP (B.C.LI, classes 6$7). > - pMn«»l m f\ v i * crtKnr>/> 10 = 1n^/i^nnl o riiKi/7 A I f-" = m i n i m a f i y MAP z.f. z 3 <zS = E ge ann spruce, IP lodgepole p ne, dAF alp ne r} Doug las--fir. Capability interpretations generalized -from B.C. Und Inventory. 4 9 ° 5 0 ' 49°40' Source.-N.T .S. 8 £ I O $ l 5 127a Small farming o p e r a t i o n s have developed i n the E l k V a l l e y n o r t h o f Sparwood, however, these are o f a m a r g i n a l nature due, p r i m a r i l y , t o c l i m a t i c l i m i t a t i o n s . Most o f those engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e have a l s o been employed i n e i t h e r the mines o r the l o g g i n g i n d u s t r y , and farming i s a p a r t - t i m e o c c u p a t i o n . The r e s u l t s o f the 19 71 census, p u b l i s h e d by S t a t i s t i c s Canada i n d i c a t e o n l y 5 people who l i s t e d a g r i c u l t u r e as t h e i r primary employment i n the Sparwood a r e a . R e c r e a t i o n has been an important l a n d use i n the ar e a . F i s h i n g and h u n t i n g are the main r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s . Grave Lake, immediately n o r t h o f the mining o p e r a t i o n , i s a p o p u l a r c e n t r e f o r b o a t i n g , camping and r e c r e a t i o n a l c o t t a g e - s i t e development. 4.2.2 Land C a p a b i l i t y and Impact by Resource 4.2.2.1 F o r e s t r y Land c a p a b i l i t y f o r f o r e s t r y i s shown on Map 2f. Of the lands most s u i t e d t o f o r e s t p r o d u c t i o n , mining and m i l l i n g a c t i v i t i e s t o the end o f 1975 have d i s t u r b e d the f o l l o w i n g a r e a : 3 C l a s s 1-3 (average p r o d u c t i v i t y 7 m per ha. per annum) 490 ha. 3 C l a s s 4 (average p r o d u c t i v i t y 4 m per ha. per annum) 56 ha. 3 C l a s s 5 (average p r o d u c t i v i t y 3 m per ha. per annum) 596 ha. 114°50' 49°50 43°45' 7 > 4 9 ° 5 0 ' 1 H W LEGENb „ n , ~ Scale 1-50,000 LANb CAPABIL ITY FOR U N G U L A T E S Class 1. Lands w i t h n o s i g n i f i c a n t l i m i t a t i o n s t o t h e production o [ ungulates. Cla\55 2. Lands withvervj s l i g h t limitations t o t h e production of u n g u l a t e s . Clo.5S 3 . Lands w i t h s l i g h t l i m i t a t i o n s t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n of ungulates. Class 4. Laoids w i t h m o d e r a t e l i m i t a t i o n s t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f u n q u l a t e s . b 11 Important winter ranges on which animals from sut-roundinq areas depend- M A D ? n deer E- Rocko, Htn. oik II-Moose 5 - RocMMtn. bighorn sheep. r M M K  L'3 Capability interpretations generalized from B.C. Land Inventory ro Co 49°40' Source:-N.T.S. 8£JO$l5 128a T h i s r e p r e s e n t s an a n n u a l i n c r e m e n t l o s s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 5,442 m (1,920 c u n i t s ) . As d i s c u s s e d i n p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s o f t h i s t h e s i s , because o f t h e n a t u r e o f s u r f i c i a l d e p o s i t s i n t h e a r e a , m i n i n g s p o i l s on t h e most p r o d u c t i v e low e l e v a t i o n s i t e s t e n d t o range from n e u t r a l t o m o d e r a t e l y a l k a l i n e . Such s i t e s a r e u n l i k e l y t o s u p p o r t c o n i f e r o u s r e g e n e r a t i o n f o r many decades. 4.2.2.2 U n g u l a t e s The s o u t h - w e s t e r l y s l o p e s o f N a t a l , Harmer and M c G i l l i v r a y R idges and t h e E l k R i v e r f l o o d p l a i n are i m p o r t a n t u n g u l a t e w i n t e r ranges (see Map 2 g ) . M i n i n g and m i l l i n g o p e r a t i o n s t o d a t e have d e s t r o y e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 355 ha. o f c l a s s 2W and 3W i n t h i s h a b i t a t . The p r e c i s e e f f e c t o f t h i s l o s s on t h e p o p u l a t i o n s o f mule deer and e l k t h a t use t h i s range i s d i f f i c u l t t o q u a n t i f y s i n c e l i t t l e i s known about t h e degree o f h a b i t a t u t i l i z a t i o n . I t i s n o t e w o r t h y , however, t h a t t h e F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch was r e c e n t l y awarded $1.8 m i l l i o n from the B.C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y i n compensation f o r the l o s s o f 285 ha. o f c l a s s 1 and 2 w i n t e r range r e s u l t i n g from t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a h y d r o - e l e c t r i c dam on t h e Pend d ' O r e l l e R i v e r . T h i s award was based on the d e s t r u c t i o n o f h a b i t a t r a t h e r t h a n on an a t t e m p t t o e s t i m a t e l o s s o f a n i m a l s . An unknown f a c t o r a t the p r e s e n t time i s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e a c t i v i t y o f humans and machines on t h e b e h a v i o u r and 114°50' 49°50-t 49°45'4 J 9 4 0 + +49°50' y-49°45' LEGENb l " "'7 Scale 1:50,000 LAND CAPABILITY FOR AGRICULTURE 1. Widest range of agricultural crops. (6.C.LI. classes Z. 1 Reduced range of crops caused by a number of limiting 3 . j factors (topography ,stoniness;moisture deficiency) (o.C.tJ.classes 3$4). 4. Permanent pasture only (B.C.L.l. c l a s s 5 M * n o L 5. No a^ricu It ural capability. CD.C.LI . classes 647 ) . UAH CM 49°4fl' C a p a b i l i t y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s g e n e r a l i z e d -from B.C. L a n d I n v e n t o r y . Source.- NJ.S. 8£J0$/5 129o, c o n d i t i o n o f w i n t e r i n g u n g u l a t e s . I t i s recommended t h a t K a i s e r Resources L t d . fund a study t o c l o s e l y monitor the deer and e l k p o p u l a t i o n s t h a t w i n t e r on the mining p r o p e r t y i n an attempt t o determine these e f f e c t s . A f i r e a r m s c l o s u r e , o s t e n s i b l y f o r s a f e t y reasons, has been i n e f f e c t on the mining p r o p e r t y s i n c e 1969. Given t h e d i r e c t l o s s o f h a b i t a t and the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t some p o r t i o n s o f the ungulate w i n t e r range are not b e i n g used because o f human a c t i v i t y , i t may be d e s i r a b l e t o r e i n t r o d u c e some c o n t r o l l e d h u n t i n g a c t i v i t y i n o r d e r t o keep t h e number o f w i n t e r i n g animals c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the rem a i n i n g h a b i t a t u n t i l the mining areas are r e h a b i l i t a t e d . 4.2.2.3 A g r i c u l t u r e The p o t e n t i a l l y a r a b l e l a n d on the mining p r o p e r t y l i e s a t t h e j u n c t i o n o f M i c h e l Creek and the E l k R i v e r (see Map 2h). Approximately 110 ha. o f C l a s s 5, and 2 ha. o f a C l a s s 4-5 complex have been d i s t u r b e d by o f f i c e c o n s t r u c t i o n and p r e p a r a t i o n p l a n t o p e r a t i o n s . The a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y o f these lands i s s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d by c l i m a t e and t h e i r l o s s t o mining cannot be c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t i n e i t h e r a r e g i o n a l o r a p r o v i n c i a l c o n t e x t . 4.2.2.4 R e c r e a t i o n Land c a p a b i l i t y f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n f o r the v i c i n i t y o f the mining p r o p e r t y i s shown on Map 2 i . In g e n e r a l the a r e a has a moderately low to low c a p a b i l i t y 114°50' 4 9 ° 5 0 . 4.135! 49°45' Settling^ 'Vondi'"* •49°50' 2n 'ark I I* -49°45' O 0 0 9 -49°40' •4S°4fl' 'BjCf 4 1 —tayaBlANb CAPARIIITY rnP R r r P i : i m n H Scale 1=50,000 Classes S u b - s c r i p t s I Moderate recreational Capability(B.C.LI.clc6s4). A - A n g l i n g . 0-Upland wildlife. 2. Moderately low recreational Capability (8.C.L. I. class 5)/ : E~ Interesting vegetation. P- Cultural landscape. 3. Low recreational Capability (&.CLI. class 6). H~ Historic s i te . Q-Undscape variety. K ~ Suitable for camping. V-Superior view. M A Q O j lM"5trWm-basedrecreation. ' Capability interpralations generalized from B.C.Lwd Inventory. S o u r c e . —NTS. 8£lO$ l 5 130a f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . No i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e on the e x t e n t to which the area was used f o r r e c r e a t i o n p r i o r t o mining. The major adverse r e c r e a t i o n a l impacts p r o b a b l y r e l a t e t o the l o s s o f h u n t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y on N a t a l and Harmer Ridges, and o f f i s h i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s on Harmer and E r i c k s o n Creeks. 4.2.2.5 Land C a p a b i l i t y A n a l y s i s and T a b u l a r Summary o f Land Dis t u r b a n c e by P o t e n t i a l Prime Sur f a c e Use The Canada Land Inventory, Land C a p a b i l i t y A n a l y s i s i s an attempt to determine the land's p o t e n t i a l prime s u r f a c e use through the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l c a p a b i l i t y maps. The Land C a p a b i l i t y A n a l y s i s f o r the mining p r o p e r t y i s shown on Map 2j and T a b l e 18 shows the area o f d i s t u r b a n c e by p o t e n t i a l prime s u r f a c e use. 4.2.2.6 Impact on Water and the F i s h e r y Resource O b v i o u s l y , any development t h a t r e s u l t s i n the deep d i s t u r b a n c e o f over 1,800 ha. o f l a n d i n an area o f h i g h l y e r o d i b l e , s h a l e - d e r i v e d s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l s has the p o t e n t i a l to degrade water q u a l i t y s e v e r e l y , a t l e a s t s e a s o n a l l y , i n l o c a l stream and r i v e r systems. In o r d e r to m i t i g a t e t h i s impact, K a i s e r Resources L t d . has b u i l t one s e t t l i n g pond on each o f the two streams which d r a i n the Harmer Ridge mining area; Harmer and E r i c k s o n Creeks. The f i r s t o f these dams was c o n s t r u c t e d i n 1971 on Harmer Creek. The r e s e r v o i r was designed f o r a 15 year l i f e , Table 18 Po t e n t i a l Prime Surface Uses* Of The Kaiser Resources Ltd. Mining Area P o t e n t i a l Prime Surface Use Area By Type of Disturbance (ha.) Contour Mines Bench Mines Underground Mines Preparation Plants Access and Haul O f f i c e and T o t a l Roads Maintenance F a c i l i t i e s High Y i e l d Forestry 41 266 8 25 147 - 487 Moderate Y i e l d Forestry 15 10 - - 31 - 56 Low Y i e l d Forestry 12 384 - - 183 17 596 Extensive Recreation • - 178 1 - 21 - 200 Prime Ungulate Range 98 11 20 107 108 12 356 Moderate Cap a b i l i t y A g r i c u l t u r e - - - - 109 - 2 111 TOTAL 166 849 29 241 490 31 1806 From Canada Land Inventory, Land Cap a b i l i t y Analysis, East Kootenay Area. Pr o d u c t i v i t y of from 5.0 to 9.0 m /ha/annum Prod u c t i v i t y of from 3.5 5o 4.9 m^/ha/annum Prod u c t i v i t y of from 2 to 3.4 m^/ha/annum Areas with a c a p a b i l i t y for a li m i t e d range of extensive recreation pursuits Lands that are important winter concentration ranges for w i l d ungulates (deer, moose, elk , sheep or goats) that summer over a widespread area. Moderate Capability A g r i c u l t u r e : Lands where a g r i c u l t u r e i s r e s t r i c t e d to a narrow range of cultivated f i e l d crops under i r r i g a t i o n . High Y i e l d Forestry: Moderate Y i e l d Forestry: Low Y i e l d Forestry: Extensive Recreation: Prime Ungulate Range: i14°50' 49 ° 5 0 ' I 4 9 ° 4 5 ' + 4 9 o 5 0 ' 4^9^ 45 49°40' LEGENb 114*50' L A N D CAPABIL ITY A N A L Y S I S Scale 1^ 50,000 1. High capability ungulate range. 2. Moderate capability ungulate ranae. 3. High yield forestry. 4. Moderate yield forestry. 5-Limited yield forestry. 6. Moderate recreation. 7. Extensive recreation. 8. Highlands. 9. High capability agriculture. 10. Moderate capability agriculture. Interpretation from Canada Land Inventory, Land Capability Analysis for the East Kootenay Area. HAP Z.J. S o u r c e . - N X S . 8 £ 1 0 $ I 5 132a however, the c a l c u l a t i o n s unaccountably i g n o r e d the con-t r i b u t i o n o f bed-load t o se d i m e n t a t i o n . A c c e l e r a t e d i n -f i l l i n g o f the r e s e r v o i r has reduced water r e t e n t i o n time and thus the e f f i c i e n c y o f the s e t t l i n g pond i n d e a l i n g with suspended s o l i d s . I t i s probable t h a t the r e s e r v o i r w i l l r e q u i r e dredging i n a few years time. The e f f e c t o f t h i s dredging on water q u a l i t y i n Harmer Creek and the E l k R i v e r i s unknown but as the o p e r a t i o n would pro b a b l y be c a r r i e d out a t low-flow d u r i n g the summer months, the e f f e c t i s l i k e l y t o be sev e r e . The E r i c k s o n s e t t l i n g pond was c o n s t r u c t e d i n 1972-73. During r e s e r v o i r c l e a r i n g , f i n e a l l u v i a l and o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l s were removed from the site-, e xposing a l a r g e , coarse t e x t u r e d g r a v e l f a n d e p o s i t . E r i c k s o n Creek now flows underground through t h i s d e p o s i t and emerges t o the s u r f a c e f u r t h e r down the v a l l e y . The g r a v e l d e p o s i t p r e s e n t l y a c t s as a l a r g e f i l t e r and, a t l e a s t i n p a r t , p r o t e c t s downstream water v a l u e s . Even i f the two s e t t l i n g ponds had worked as they y/ere i n t e n d e d t o , they would i n t e r c e p t sediment from o n l y about h a l f o f the are a d i s t u r b e d by mining o p e r a t i o n s . Runoff waters from d i s t u r b a n c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h most of the t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n network, a p o r t i o n o f the n o r t h e r l y p a r t o f the Harmer Ridge o p e r a t i o n , a l l o f the contour mines, and both p r e p a r a t i o n p l a n t s d r a i n d i r e c t l y i n t o e i t h e r M i c h e l Creek 133 or the E l k R i v e r . Standards of housekeeping on most o f these o p e r a t i o n s have been minimal, and government agencies such as the Department o f Mines and Petroleum Resources and the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch have been r e l u c t a n t to e n f o r c e b e t t e r standards o f sediment c o n t r o l . In 1971 the f a i l u r e o f the Harmer Knob waste dump r e s u l t e d i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f s a t u r a t e d t i l l m a t e r i a l f l o w i n g down S i x M i l e Creek d i r e c t l y i n t o the E l k R i v e r . T h i s creek s t i l l t r a n s p o r t s c o n s i d e r a b l e q u a n t i t i e s o f s o i l m a t e r i a l d u r i n g s p r i n g f r e s h e t . The Company p r e s e n t l y m a i n t a i n s a programme o f water q u a l i t y sampling, of both s u r f a c e and ground water a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the mining o p e r a t i o n . Data from t h i s programme i s u n a v a i l a b l e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s t h e s i s . J.E. H a r r i s o n , a G e o l o g i s t w i t h the T e r r a i n S c i e n c e s D i v i s i o n o f the G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada, has c a r r i e d out sampling o f s u r f a c e waters, water empounded i n s t r i p p i t s , and flows from underground mines i n the area as p a r t o f an e v a l u a t i o n o f environmental problems r e l a t e d t o Rocky Mountain c o a l development. In a r e p o r t o f p r e l i m i n a r y data (1977), he concludes t h a t the impact o f c o a l mining on water q u a l i t y i s t o i n c r e a s e t o t a l d i s s o l v e d s o l i d s , t o t a l a l k a l i n i t y , t o t a l hardness, i r o n , and sulphate c o n t e n t . In a d d i t i o n , c h e m i c a l oxygen demand may be v e r y h i g h under c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , and sampling r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t 134 suspended s o l i d s r e p r e s e n t a s e r i o u s t h r e a t t o water q u a l i t y . The e f f e c t o f t h i s d e t e r i o r a t i o n of water q u a l i t y on b e n t h i c organisms and r e s i d e n t f i s h p o p u l a t i o n s i s unknown, but i t i s l i k e l y t h a t the e f f e c t s have been severe, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the s m a l l e r streams and probably even i n M i c h e l Creek. 4.3 E x p l o r a t i o n O p e r a t i o n s 4.3.1 W i l d l i f e The p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s o f e x p l o r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s on w i l d l i f e are t w o f o l d ; f i r s t , the d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f h a b i t a t through p h y s i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e , and second, the e f f e c t s o f i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s , and thus o f human a c t i v i t y , on the animals themselves. Approximately 12 per c e n t o f the e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out d u r i n g the programme have taken p l a c e on c l a s s 2 and 3 ungulate w i n t e r ranges. T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a t o t a l h a b i t a t l o s s o f approximately 110 ha. spread over e l e v e n d i s t i n c t e x p l o r a t i o n a r e a s . The e f f e c t o f t h i s h a b i t a t l o s s has p r o b a b l y been minor except, perhaps, i n l o c a l i z e d areas such as F l a t h e a d Ridge, G r e e n h i l l s and Burnt H i l l s . A major concern of w i l d l i f e managers has been the e f f e c t . on ungulate m i g r a t i o n o f contour roads l o c a t e d on w i n t e r ranges. I t was thought t h a t steep cutbanks (see F i g u r e 14) 135 Figure 14. Cutbank on a contour e x p l o r a t i o n road. 136 c o u l d s e r i o u s l y impede v e r t i c a l m i g r a t i o n p a t t e r n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n w i n t e r when the roads d r i f t e d f u l l o f snow. In a study which i n c l u d e d the K a i s e r e x p l o r a t i o n a r e a s , S t a n l a k e , S t a n l a k e and Eastman (1977) concluded t h a t , except f o r the o c c a s i o n a l steep or overhung cutbank, e x p l o r a t i o n roads posed no s e r i o u s b a r r i e r s t o animal movements. Where p a r t i c u l a r l y steep cutbanks i n t e r s e c t e d an e s t a b l i s h e d m i g r a t i o n t r a i l , the animals simply detoured around the bank and r e j o i n e d the t r a i l downslope. . Probably of more consequence than h a b i t a t d e s t r u c t i o n though f a r more d i f f i c u l t t o q u a n t i f y , i s the e f f e c t o f i n c r e a s e d access on w i l d l i f e . Leege and Hickey (1977), i n a study o f e l k h a b i t a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n Idaho, found t h a t e l k use of c l e a r c u t s , where e x c e l l e n t forage was abundant, was lower than i n mature b r u s h f i e l d s , where forage q u a n t i t y was lower. They concluded t h a t "human a c t i v i t y v i a l o g g i n g roads i s s u f f i c i e n t t o prevent e l k from u t i l i z i n g the abundant forage a v a i l a b l e i n c l e a r c u t s . " The p r o l i f e r a t i o n of a c c e s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y hear c e n t r e s o f p o p u l a t i o n , can l e a d t o o v e r - h u n t i n g . Mountain goat, b i g h o r n sheep and g r i z z l y bear appear p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e t o o v e r - e x p l o i t a t i o n , and s m a l l d i s c r e t e p o p u l a t i o n s can be exterminated i n a very s h o r t time, o f t e n b e f o r e the w i l d l i f e manager i s aware o f a problem. 137 Perhaps t h e g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l i m p a ct o f e x p l o r a t i o n r o a d systems i s t h e a c c e s s t h e y p r o v i d e f o r snow-machines d u r i n g w i n t e r , and t h e a t t e n d a n t harassment, a l b e i t u n i n -t e n t i o n a l , o f u n g u l a t e s on w i n t e r r a n g e s . W i t h i n t h e E l k V a l l e y s u i t a b l e w i n t e r ranges appear t o be t h e main f a c t o r l i m i t i n g u n g u l a t e numbers (Demarchi, 1967). Energy demands a r e e x t r e m e l y h i g h d u r i n g w i n t e r and f o r a g e i s o f r e l a t i v e l y low q u a l i t y . D i s t u r b a n c e by man and machine may cause f l i g h t r e a c t i o n s , t h u s w a s t i n g v i t a l energy r e s e r v e s , o r , i f p r o l o n g e d , t h e abandonment o f p o r t i o n s o f t h e w i n t e r r a n g e . Though i t has y e t t o be p r o v e d , i t i s n o t i n c o n -c e i v a b l e t h a t t h i s w ould r e s u l t i n b o t h i n c r e a s e d w i n t e r m o r t a l i t y and d e c r e a s e d s p r i n g n a t a l i t y . The b e s t method o f m i t i g a t i n g t h e s e i m p a c t s , w o u l d be a programme o f a c c e s s p l a n n i n g w h i c h w o u l d i n c l u d e b o t h t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f new r o a d b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t i e s , and t h e c o n t r o l o f a c c e s s on e x i s t i n g r o a d systems. Such a programme would r e q u i r e t h e c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n o f K a i s e r R e sources L t d . , Crowsnest I n d u s t r i e s L t d . , t h e B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , t h e B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h , and l o c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l g r o u p s . 4.3.2 R e c r e a t i o n The e f f e c t o f e x p l o r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s on r e c r e a t i o n a l use i s a m a t t e r o f c o n j e c t u r e . U l t i m a t e l y i t i s a q u e s t i o n o f w e i g h i n g t h e p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c c e s s a g a i n s t 138 i n t a n g i b l e v a l u e s such as a e s t h e t i c s , p r i v a c y and the s e r e n i t y t h a t accompanies a " w i l d e r n e s s " r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , and unmeasured v a l u e s such as the d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f the f i s h and w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e . Because such judgements are l a r g e l y a q u e s t i o n o f p e r s o n a l v a l u e s and p e r c e p t i o n s , the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f impact r e q u i r e s a study of r e c r e a t i o n a l user a t t i t u d e s . No such study has y e t been undertaken. 4.3.3 Water and the F i s h e r y Resource Of a l l i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s , p o o r l y planned secondary roads are the major sources o f water t u r b i d i t y (Packer, 1967; Dyrness, 1967). Roads i n c i s e deeply i n t o the s o i l mantle, i n t e r s e c t i n g the n a t u r a l drainage networks and opening up subsurface seepage f l o w s . A t the same time they expose l a r g e areas o f raw m i n e r a l s o i l on both road s u r f a c e s and c u t / f i l l s l o p e s t o the e f f e c t s o f r a i n and s u r f a c e r u n o f f . In a r e p o r t t o the C a b i n e t Committee on C o a l Development e n t i t l e d , Coal In British Columbia: A Technical Appraisal (197 6), an i n t e r a g e n c y c o a l task group s t a t e d : Before 1971, l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was given t o s o i l e r o s i o n , water q u a l i t y , and f i s h e r i e s i n c o a l e x p l o r a t i o n work, and t h i s i n a t t e n t i o n r e s u l t e d i n c o n s i d e r a b l e damage. In f a c t , as noted elsewhere i n t h i s t h e s i s , i t i s almost c e r t a i n t h a t poor e x p l o r a t i o n p r a c t i c e s have l e d to a severe s e a s o n a l d e g r a d a t i o n o f water q u a l i t y throughout the E l k R i v e r 139 dr a i n a g e . While the exact magnitude o f the l o s s o f water q u a l i t y and the f i s h e r y r e s o u r c e w i l l never be known because o f a l a c k o f b a s e l i n e data, i t pro b a b l y r e p r e s e n t s the s i n g l e g r e a t e s t environmental impact r e s u l t i n g from e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . Because o f the slow pace o f r e -cla m a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and the i n h e r e n t i n s t a b i l i t y o f rock and s o i l m a t e r i a l s i n the F e r n i e B a s i n , t h i s adverse impact i s l i k e l y to p e r s i s t f o r decades. A secondary impact o f e x p l o r a t i o n i s the i n c r e a s e d f i s h i n g p r e s s u r e r e s u l t i n g from b e t t e r road a c c e s s . R e s i d e n t r i v e r c u t t h r o a t t r o u t f i s h e r i e s i n the Rocky Mountains o f both B.C. and A l b e r t a have been o v e r f i s h e d wherever easy access i s p r o v i d e d . Seasonal and a l t e r n a t e year f i s h e r y c l o s u r e s attempted i n A l b e r t a have done l i t t l e t o r e s t o r e e i t h e r the p o p u l a t i o n s o r the former h i g h q u a l i t y f i s h i n g (Ringstad p e r. comm.). Exploration access roads have s u b j e c t e d many p o r t i o n s o f the M i c h e l Creek watershed t o heavy f i s h i n g p r e s s u r e by both r e s i d e n t and t o u r i s t a n g l e r s . 4.4 Environmental Impact M a t r i x A s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f both the environmental impact, and the f e a s i b i l i t y o f m i t i g a t i o n through r e c l a m a t i o n , o f v a r i o u s components o f the K a i s e r Resources L t d . o p e r a t i o n i s shown i n m a t r i x form i n Table 19. •on 141 CHAPTER V THE LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR RECLAMATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 5.1 The Coal Mines Regulation Act The l e g i s l a t i o n which provides for the reclamation of coal mines i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s Section 8 of the Coal Mines Regulation Act 1969, C. 3, s. 1. Section 8 was incorporated into the Act on A p r i l 2, 196 9 and o r i g i n a l l y applied only to surface mines. The section has been amended three times: on A p r i l 23, 1971 i t was applied to exploration operations; on August 24, 19 72 i t was applied to surface disturbances associated with underground mines; and on June 26th, 19 75 the maximum reclamation bond was increased from $500. per acre (1,235 per ha.) to $1,000. per acre (2,470 per ha.). As a statement of p o l i c y , Section 8 begins: I t i s the duty of every owner, agent or manager of a mine to i n s t i t u t e and carry out a programme for the protection and reclamation of the surface of the land and watercourses affected thereby, and, on discontinuance or abandonment of a mine, to undertake and complete the programme to leave the land and watercourses i n a condition s a t i s f a c t o r y to the Minister • * • • B r i e f l y the Act provides for the following: 142 A r e p o r t to be submitted t o the M i n i s t e r o f Mines and Petroleum r e s o u r c e s p r i o r to the commencement o f o p e r a t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g : (a) A map showing, the l o c a t i o n and e x t e n t o f the mine o r e x p l o r a t i o n , and the l o c a t i o n o f l a k e s , streams, and i n h a b i t e d p l a c e s i n the v i c i n i t y . (b) P a r t i c u l a r s o f the nature o f mining o r e x p l o r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g , i n the case o f p r o d u c i n g mines, the a n t i c i p a t e d area t o be o c c u p i e d d u r i n g the l i f e t i m e o f the mine. (c) P a r t i c u l a r s of the nature o f mining or e x p l o r a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g , i n the case o f p r o d u c i n g mines, the a n t i c i p a t e d area to be o c c u p i e d d u r i n g the l i f e t i m e o f the mine. (d) P a r t i c u l a r s of the nature and p r e s e n t uses o f the l a n d to be used. (e) A programme f o r l a n d r e c l a m a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o : ( i ) the l o c a t i o n o f the l a n d , ( i i ) the e f f e c t o f the programme on l i v e s t o c k , w i l d l i f e , watercourses, farms and i n h a b i t e d p l a c e s i n the v i c i n i t y o f the mine, and the appearance of the m i n e s i t e , 143 ( i i i ) the p o t e n t i a l use o f the l a n d , h a v i n g r e g a r d t o i t s b e s t and f u l l e s t use, and i t s importance f o r e x i s t i n g and f u t u r e timber, g r a z i n g , water, r e c r e a t i o n , w i l d l i f e and mining. The company s h a l l g i v e n o t i c e of the submission o f the r e p o r t i n the E.C. Gazette and i n l o c a l newspapers d e s i g n a t e d by the M i n i s t e r . The M i n i s t e r must c o n s i d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s and a d v i c e from o t h e r government departments, and, b e f o r e e x e r c i s i n g any powers under t h i s s e c t i o n o f the a c t , s h a l l o b t a i n a p p r o v a l o f the programme f o r r e c l a m a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n from the M i n i s t e r s o f Lands, F o r e s t s and Water Resources; A g r i c u l t u r e ; and R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n . W i t h i n t h i r t y days a f t e r p u b l i c a t i o n o f n o t i c e , and a f t e r h e a r i n g any p u b l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from t h a t n o t i c e , the M i n i s t e r may (a) approve (b) r e j e c t or (c) r e v i s e and then approve the r e p o r t . I f the M i n i s t e r approves the r e p o r t he then submits i t to the L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i l f o r f i n a l government s a n c t i o n . A f t e r r e c e i v i n g the a p p r o v a l o f the L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i l , the M i n i s t e r s h a l l i s s u e a 144 permit a u t h o r i z i n g the commencement o r continuance o f work, s u b j e c t to compliance w i t h the approved programme and such terms and c o n d i t i o n s as he s h a l l p r e s c r i b e . The M i n i s t e r s h a l l r e q u i r e as a c o n d i t i o n o f the i s s u a n c e of a permit, t h a t the o p e r a t o r o f a mine d e p o s i t w i t h the M i n i s t e r o f Finance s e c u r i t y i n such form and amount as the L i e u t e n a n t Governor-i n - C o u n c i l p r e s c r i b e s . In s e t t i n g t h i s bond, the nature of the l a n d to be r e c l a i m e d w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d , however, the sum s h a l l not exceed $1,000.00 per acre ($2,470 per ha.) o f l a n d d i s t u r b e d . T h i s s e c u r i t y s h a l l be h e l d pending s a t i s f a c t o r y completion o f the r e c l a m a t i o n programme. I f the programme i s not c a r r i e d out t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f the M i n i s t e r , a l l or p a r t o f the s e c u r i t y may be a p p l i e d towards the c o s t o f r e c l a m a t i o n . During the l i f e o f the mine the o p e r a t o r s h a l l c a r r y out continuous and p r o g r e s s i v e r e c l a m a t i o n . A person i s g u i l t y of an o f f e n c e a g a i n s t t h i s A c t who: (a) f a i l s t o comply w i t h , o r contravenes t h i s s e c t i o n , (b) c a r r i e s on p r o d u c t i o n from a mine o r e x p l o r a t i o n works without h o l d i n g a v a l i d p ermit under t h i s s e c t i o n , 145 o r (c) f a i l s t o comply w i t h o r contravenes the terms and c o n d i t i o n s o f the permit. 9. Any person c o n v i c t e d o f an o f f e n c e a g a i n s t the A c t i s l i a b l e t o a. f i n e not exceeding $1,000.00 f o r each o f f e n c e . I f w r i t t e n n o t i c e o f an o f f e n c e i s g i v e n t o an o p e r a t o r by the i n s p e c t o r , the o p e r a t o r i s l i a b l e t o a f u r t h e r f i n e , not exceeding $1,000.00 and not l e s s than $100.00 f o r each day t h a t the o f f e n c e was committed a f t e r r e c e i p t o f the n o t i c e . 10. In a d d i t i o n t o the p e n a l i t i e s d e s c r i b e d above, i f an o f f e n c e i s r e p e a t e d a f t e r n o t i c e from the M i n i s t e r , the M i n i s t e r may -cancel the permit and or d e r the c l o s u r e o f the mine. The r e c l a m a t i o n r e p o r t , as o u t l i n e d i n the A c t , i s p r e s e n t l y r e q u i r e d o n l y f o r pr o d u c i n g mines. In 1972 the Department o f Mines and Petroleum Resources p u b l i s h e d a D i r e c t i v e : Exploration of Coal Properties i n which the f u l l p r o v i s i o n s o f S e c t i o n 8, i n c l u d i n g the r e c l a m a t i o n r e p o r t , were a p p l i e d t o e x p l o r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s . However, t h i s d i r e c t i v e was n e i t h e r f o l l o w e d by e x p l o r a t i o n o p e r a t o r s , nor e n f o r c e d by the Department and i t was r e p l a c e d i n 197 3 by Coal Exploration Form 7-8 i n o r d e r t o s t a n d a r d i z e r e p o r t i n procedure. T h i s form i s meant not o n l y to s a t i s f y the requirement f o r a r e c l a m a t i o n r e p o r t under S e c t i o n 8, but 146 a l s o t o serve as the n o t i c e o f commencement o f o p e r a t i o n s r e q u i r e d under S e c t i o n 7. Copies o f the o r i g i n a l 1972 d i r e c t i v e and o f Form 7-8 are shown i n Appendix X. The p r o v i s i o n s f o r both review o f the r e c l a m a t i o n r e p o r t s by o t h e r Departments, and a p p r o v a l from the M i n i s t e r s s p e c i f i e d i n the Act have been accommodated by the c r e a t i o n o f a s t a n d i n g committee known as the Reclamation Land U^e A d v i s o r y Committee. T h i s committee i s composed o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, Land Management Branch, Water Resources S e r v i c e , Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Range D i v i s i o n o f the F o r e s t S e r v i c e , Department o f Mines and Petroleum Resources and i t must review and approve r e c l a m a t i o n r e p o r t s p r i o r t o submission t o the L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i l . S u r f a c e Work Permits f o r both e x p l o r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s and p r o d u c i n g mines are granted f o r a p e r i o d of t h r e e y e a r s . In the case o f e x p l o r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s , however, works covered by the Permit must be a p p l i e d f o r a n n u a l l y u s i n g Form 7-8. An example o f a Surface Work Permit i s shown i n Appendix X. The most common terms and c o n d i t i o n s p r e s c r i b e d i n such permits are: 1. T o p s o i l s t r i p p e d from the s u r f a c e s h a l l be conserved, as f e a s i b l e , f o r p o s s i b l e usage i n the r e c l a m a t i o n o f d i s t u r b e d areas. 2. The p e r m i t t e e s h a l l r e p o r t t o the C h i e f I n s p e c t o r o f Mines on the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and r e s e a r c h on r e c l a m a t i o n c a r r i e d out 147 d u r i n g the c a l e n d a r year, showing the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d therefrom. Such r e p o r t i s to be submitted by January 31st next f o l l o w i n g the end o f the c a l e n d a r y e a r . 3. At the same time t h a t the (annual) r e p o r t i s submitted . . . the p e r m i t t e e s h a l l submit d e t a i l e d p l a n s o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and r e s e a r c h on r e c l a m a t i o n t h a t w i l l be c a r r i e d out d u r i n g the next c a l e n d a r year. The u s u a l c o n d i t i o n o f Sur f a c e Work Permits f o r e x p l o r a t i o n i s t h a t a c t i v i t i e s s h a l l conform t o the r e c l a m a t i o n guide-l i n e s f o r e x p l o r a t i o n compiled by McDonald and Dick (1973). Though the maximum bond allowed by the A c t was $500.00 per acre ($1,235 per ha.) u n t i l 1975 when i t was r a i s e d t o $1,000.00 ($2,470 per ha.) a c t u a l bonds have averaged $130.00 per acre ($320 per ha.) and have never exceeded $200.00 ($495.00 per h a . ) . T h i s token bond may w e l l be i n c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f the Act which would seem to c a l l f o r a sum s u f f i c i e n t t o be used f o r r e c l a m a t i o n should the company d e f a u l t . Annual r e c l a m a t i o n r e p o r t s i n d i c a t e average c o s t s o f $300.00 to $500.00 per acre ($740 to $1,235 per ha.) f o r t o t a l r e c l a m a t i o n under c o n d i t i o n s of moderate topo-graphy, and i n excess o f $1,500.00 per acre ($3,700 per ha.) i n mountainous t e r r a i n where c o n s i d e r a b l e e a r t h moving must be done t o achieve s u r f a c e s t a b i l i t y . In essence, the approach taken i n f o r m u l a t i n g both the r e c l a m a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n , and the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedure f o r review and l i c e n c i n g has been to a v o i d s e t t i n g f i r m 148 r e g u l a t i o n s u n t i l i n v e s t i g a t i o n and r e s e a r c h has been under-taken by each mining company t o determine what must be done to adequately r e c l a i m mined l a n d s . In r e c o g n i t i o n o f the v a r i e d geographic and environmental c o n d i t i o n s t h a t p r e v a i l a c r o s s the p r o v i n c e , the onus has been p l a c e d on the mining i n d u s t r y t o develop r e c l a m a t i o n technology, w h i l e the Department o f Mines and Petroleum Resources has r e t a i n e d o n l y an i n s p e c t i o n f u n c t i o n . In r e t r o s p e c t , a f t e r f o u r y e ars o f c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h r e c l a m a t i o n both i n i n d u s t r y and government, I can o n l y conclude t h a t t h i s approach has f a i l e d . P r o p o s a l s and r e p o r t s o f a c t i v i t i e s submitted under the p r o v i s i o n s o f the A c t have v a r i e d g r e a t l y , and no uniform standards have been e i t h e r a c h i e v e d by the i n d u s t r y o r demanded by the Department. As noted i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s t h e s i s , a common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f r e p o r t s i s t h a t , w h i l e i n many i n s t a n c e s the e n g i n e e r i n g aspects o f mining, f a c i l i t i e s c o n s t r u c t i o n and waste d i s p o s a l are t r e a t e d i n c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l , the ec o l o g y o f the mine area, and the a c t u a l p r o c e s s by which the s i t e i s t o be r e c l a i m e d are t r e a t e d much more l i g h t l y . O f t e n there has been l i t t l e more than a d e c l a r a t i o n o f i n t e n t , y e t c l e a r l y the r e c l a m a t i o n p r o p o s a l s are the core o f the r e p o r t . Much o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s f a i l u r e must be borne by the I n s p e c t i o n and E n g i n e e r i n g D i v i s i o n , the agency w i t h i n the Department o f Mines and Petroleum Resources 149 d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e c l a m a t i o n . There has been a n o t i c e a b l e r e l u c t a n c e on the p a r t o f the D i v i s i o n to r e j e c t r e p o r t s which are c l e a r l y below standard, and the l e v e l o f s u p e r v i s i o n has been inadequate. S t a f f l e v e l s commen-s u r a t e w i t h the task o f r e c l a m a t i o n i n s p e c t i o n and e x t e n s i o n have never been p r o v i d e d ; f o r t h r e e o f the f i r s t f i v e years a f t e r enactment o f the l e g i s l a t i o n o n l y one man s t a f f e d the r e c l a m a t i o n s e c t i o n , and t o t a l p e r s o n n e l a t no time d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d exceeded two permanent and two s e a s o n a l . The Department has c l e a r l y been unable t o make the necessary adjustments o r r e o r i e n t a t i o n t o accommodate i t s new environmental r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The Reclamation Land Use A d v i s o r y Committee has g e n e r a l l y f a i l e d to p r o v i d e the nece s s a r y balance i n the process f o r t h r e e reasons: 1. The terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r the committee have never been c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d and the term " a d v i s o r y " i n the committee's name adds f u r t h e r t o the ambiguity. The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n has changed so o f t e n t h a t few members were aware u n t i l r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t l y t h a t permits may not be i s s u e d w i t h o u t the a p p r o v a l o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e M i n i s t e r s . 2. The annual r e p o r t s o f r e c l a m a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , which o f t e n p r o v i d e a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f a company's progress than the r e c l a m a t i o n 150 r e p o r t s , have never been reviewed on a formal b a s i s by the committee. 3. While the committee reviews and approves r e c l a m a t i o n r e p o r t s , f i n a l a p p r o v a l o f the a c t u a l r e c l a m a t i o n , p r i o r t o the r e t u r n of bond, i s s o l e l y a t the d i s c r e t i o n o f the M i n i s t e r o f Mines and Petroleum Resources. No formal procedure e x i s t s f o r the i n s p e c t i o n and a p p r o v a l o f r e c l a i m e d areas by o t h e r departments o f government. In 19 75, the obvious i n a b i l i t y o f the Department o f Mines and Petroleum Resources to d e a l adequately w i t h the e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f mine development, and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f seven new c o a l mines opening i n the p r o v i n c e by 1980, r e s u l t e d i n a d e c i s i o n by the Environment and Land Use Committee t o have a s e t o f i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y g u i d e l i n e s f o r c o a l development prepared. The o b j e c t i v e was to ensure t h a t an i n t e g r a t e d review and p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s would be undertaken p r i o r t o any d e c i s i o n s on mine development. In a d d i t i o n t o the environmental e f f e c t s o f development, these g u i d e l i n e s were to cover two aspects which had not p r e v i o u s l y been c o n s i d e r e d i n mining l e g i s l a t i o n ; f i r s t , the environmental impact o f o f f - s i t e developments such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r s and f a c i l i t i e s , power t r a n s m i s s i o n c o r r i d o r s , r e s i d e n t i a l developments and 151 s h i p p i n g t e r m i n a l s ; and second, the s o c i a l and economic i m p l i c a t i o n s o f development to e x i s t i n g urban and r u r a l communities i n the a r e a . The p r e p a r a t i o n o f these g u i d e l i n e s was t o be co-o r d i n a t e d by the Environment and Land Use S e c r e t a r i a t , the e x e c u t i v e arm o f the m i n i s t e r i a l committee, and the review process e s t a b l i s h e d by the g u i d e l i n e s was t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d by a s t e e r i n g committee comprised o f the E.L.U.C. S e c r e t a r i a t , the Department o f Economic Development, and the Department o f Mines and Petroleum Resources. These g u i d e l i n e s were f i n a l l y completed i n March 1976 and a copy i s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s t h e s i s as Appendix I . The review p r o c e s s c o n s i s t s o f the f i v e - s t e p procedure shown i n F i g u r e 15. While these g u i d e l i n e s are a long-overdue step towards the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f c o a l development i n B.C., they have two s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s : 1. They do not, a t p r e s e n t , have any l e g i s l a t i v e base, and are c o n s i d e r e d " g u i d e l i n e s " i n the l i t e r a l sense. T h e i r implementation i s dependent upon both a number o f p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s , and the w i l l i n g n e s s o f the v a r i o u s r e s p o n s i b l e agencies to e n f o r c e t h e s e . Presumably i f an agency r e f u s e d t o co-o perate i n the p r o c e s s , the g u i d e l i n e s c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d as r e g u l a t i o n s o f the CO o c n o CD 3 d < H o § (D 3 r r ir> Q) 3 H r fD M H -3 (D 01 H i O H O O o o fD $ H ! n o o m 3 C cn fD (D 3 . r t PROSPECTUS Initial outline of coal reserves and exploration, minesite, and offsite development proposals, including the mining properties the reserves (location, type, amount, recoverable, devel-oped, etc.) .: forecast production by phase estimated labour force by phase exploration and mining pro-grams and areas influenced. Review Process STAGE I: PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT 1. Preliminary outline of development program impacts related to exploration mine development mine reclamation coal processing power development transportation community development regional economy. 2. Analysis of existing data to identify data gaps related to existing envi-ronment and the community. 3. Design and implementation of en-vironmental monitoring programs to fill data gaps. This to be done by contact with appropriate agencies. 4 . Preliminary identification of prob-lems warranting assessment and alternative solutions to be explored. STAGE III: OPERATIONAL PLANS AND APPROVAL APPLICATIONS 1. Preparation of detailed plans of action for managing identified environmental impacts meeting community and social development requirements of selected alternatives. 2. Application for necessary permits: Mines and Petroleum Resources Pollution Control Branch Water Rights Lands Service Municipal Affairs Highways Forest Service. 3 . Design of monitoring programs for construction and operation. Review Process STAGE II: DETAILED ASSESSMENT 1. Detailed outline of development program related to exploration mine development mine reclamation coal processing power development transportation community development. 2. Site specific impact assessments for all elements of the development program on natural environment terrestrial resources, including land capability water and aquatic resources air resources, including noise lev-els. 3. Alternative proposals for managing identified environmental impacts and meeting identified community and social development require-ments. 4 . A statement of alternatives pre-ferred by developer with supporting reasons. Approval by Cabinet STAGE IV Implementation of continuing monitoring programs. 153 Environment and Land Use A c t , however, so f a r t h i s has n o t been done. 2. W h i l e t h e g u i d e l i n e s e s t a b l i s h a p r o c e s s f o r a s s e s s i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t , t h e y l a c k t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n t o e i t h e r l i m i t e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r a d a t i o n o r s e t s t a n d a r d s f o r m i t i g a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s . I n terms o f r e c l a m a t i o n , o n l y t h e Department o f Mines and P e t r o l e u m Resources has t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n t o s e t s t a n d a r d s and, as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n , i t has y e t t o a d d r e s s t h i s s u b j e c t i n any m e a n i n g f u l way. 5.2 S t a n d a r d s o f R e c l a m a t i o n I t i s t h e d u t y o f e v e r y owner, agen t , o r manager o f a s u r f a c e mine t o i n s t i t u t e and c a r r y o u t a programme f o r the p r o t e c t i o n and r e c l a m a t i o n o f t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e l a n d and w a t e r c o u r s e s a f f e c t e d t h e r e b y , and, on the d i s c o n t i n u a n c e o r abandonment o f a s u r f a c e mine, t o u n d e r t a k e and complete the programme t o l e a v e t h e l a n d and w a t e r c o u r s e s in a condition s a t i s f a c t o r y to the minister . . . S u b s e c t i o n (1) o f S e c t i o n 8, C o a l Mines R e g u l a t i o n A c t I n 1969 t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e r e c l a m a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n was c r i t i c i z e d by b o t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s and the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y f o r i t s vagueness as t o what c o n s t i t u t e d adequate r e c l a m a t i o n . On the one hand, e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s f e l t t h a t t h e vagueness would n o t g u a r a n t e e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n , w h i l e on t h e o t h e r hand, mine p l a n n e r s c o m p l a i n e d 154 t h a t p l a n n i n g and budgeting f o r r e c l a m a t i o n was i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t c l e a r o b j e c t i v e s . Nine years a f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the l e g i s l a t i o n r e c l a m a t i o n standards have s t i l l not been s e t , and the Department o f Mines and Petroleum Resources has y e t to i n i t i a t e the type o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t h a t c o u l d produce e f f e c t i v e , q u a n t i t a t i v e standards. The Department appears to r e c o g n i z e the n e c e s s i t y o f standards but has y e t t o s u p p l y the Reclamation S e c t i o n w i t h the s t a f f t o c a r r y out the necessary s t u d i e s . B.C. probably has g r e a t e r environmental d i v e r s i t y than any o t h e r p o l i t i c a l u n i t i n North America, and b l a n k e t standards f o r the whole p r o v i n c e w i l l prove unworkable. S p e c i f i c r e g u l a t i o n s w i l l have t o be s e t f o r each b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zone and p o s s i b l y f u r t h e r r e f i n e d f o r each mine s i t e . To do t h i s the Department w i l l r e q u i r e r e g i o n a l l y - b a s e d s t a f f w i t h both e c o l o g i c a l / l a n d - u s e e x p e r t i s e , and p r a c t i c a l r e c l a m a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e . The l a c k o f d e f i n i t i v e r e c l a m a t i o n standards has probably been the s i n g l e g r e a t e s t impediment to the development o f r e c l a m a t i o n technology i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . Management o f any k i n d i s i m p o s s i b l e without c l e a r o b j e c t i v e s , and r e c l a m a t i o n i s no e x c e p t i o n . U n t i l such time as r e c l a m a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s are e s t a b l i s h e d , i t i s n ecessary t h a t each company s p e c u l a t e on the form t h a t standards may e v e n t u a l l y take, and p l a n r e c l a m a t i o n 155 programmes a c c o r d i n g l y . My i n t e n t i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s t o review the approaches to r e c l a m a t i o n standards taken by s t a t e and f e d e r a l governments i n the U.S.A., to d i s c u s s t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s , and to propose c r i t e r i a f o r standards i n B.C. American r e g u l a t i o n s were chosen f o r t h i s d i s c u s s i o n because environmental c o n d i t i o n s , mining techniques and p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s are p r o b a b l y c l o s e r t o the B r i t i s h Columbian s i t u a t i o n than are those o f any oth e r country. G e n e r a l l y , standards i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s have been based on s l o p e l i m i t a t i o n s , v e g e t a t i v e cover, o r a combination o f the two. The f o l l o w i n g are examples o f each type o f l e g i s l a t i o n : (a) Standards Based on Slope L i m i t a t i o n Slope l i m i t a t i o n s have been imposed e i t h e r as the maximum slope t h a t may be l e f t when mining o p e r a t i o n s cease, o r as the maximum s l o p e t h a t may be mined. The Mined Land C o n s e r v a t i o n and Reclamation A c t (1968) o f the S t a t e o f Kansas i s an example o f a r e g u l a t i o n imposing slope r e s t r i c t i o n s a f t e r mining. T h i s A c t r e q u i r e s the land t o be s l o p e d to a r o l l i n g t e r r a i n w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e drainage f o r a l l p o r t i o n s o f the permit area. Grading s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r the l a n d are as f o l l o w s : 156 (i) Maximum a l l o w a b l e s l o p e : 25 o ( i i ) Maximum s l o p e l e n g t h s : Average Slope Maximum Unterrac e d Slope Length (m.) 4-8~ 8-15° 15-25° No l i m i t 90 m. 45 m. 25 m. The U.S. Co a l Mine S u r f a c e P r o t e c t i o n A c t , a F e d e r a l s t a t u t e , i s an example o f the type o f r e g u l a t i o n which l i m i t s the s l o p e t h a t can be mined. In t h i s A c t , overburden dumps may be c o n s t r u c t e d on s l o p e s g r e a t e r than 14^. Even more r e s t r i c t i v e i s the c o n t r o v e r s i a l B i l l S. 425-Surface M i n i n g L e g i s l a t i o n which f i r s t passed the U.S. Senate on October 9th, 1973 and has subsequently been vetoed twice by the P r e s i d e n t . T h i s B i l l a p p l i e s t o metal, phosphate, and c o a l mines and c o n t a i n s p r o v i s i o n s f o r sl o p e l i m i t a t i o n s on both f i n a l contours and the areas t h a t may be mined. The r e t u r n o f the l a n d t o i t s o r i g i n a l contour i s c i t e d as a p r e l i m i n a r y o b j e c t i v e o f r e c l a m a t i o n , and i n a d d i t i o n , the B i l l c a l l s f o r an immediate, country-wide study o f s l o p e l i m i t a t i o n s . P r o v i s i o n i s made t o ban mining on areas t h a t the S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r declares* " u n s u i t a b l e f o r mining" o r where, i n h i s o p i n i o n , " f u l l " r e c l a m a t i o n cannot be a c h i e v e d . Grounds f o r such a ban removal i s banned on s l o p e s g r e a t e r than 20 , and no waste o 157 i n c l u d e e x c e s s i v e s l o p e and areas o f " c r i t i c a l environmental concern". (b) Standards Based on V e g e t a t i o n Cover The r e c l a m a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s o f the West V i r g i n i a S u r f a c e M i n i n g A c t 1967 c o n t a i n some r e s t r i c t i o n s on s l o p e , however, the main r e c l a m a t i o n c r i t e r i a are i n the form o f standards f o r v e g e t a t i o n cover as f o l l o w s : i . Standards f o r p e r e n n i a l g r a s s e s and legumes. Ground cover s h a l l be a t l e a s t 80%. Bare •-< areas s h a l l not exceed h a c r e , nor t o t a l more than 20% o f the area seeded. i i . Standards f o r woody p l a n t s . A minimum s u r v i v a l o f 600 t r e e s and/or shrubs per acre i s r e q u i r e d . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f p l a n t s s h a l l be g e n e r a l l y uniform, w i t h no areas l a r g e r than % acre o f substandard s t o c k i n g . i i i . Standards f o r mixtures o f woody p l a n t s and grasses and legumes.  Ground cover o f gras s e s and legumes s h a l l be a t l e a s t 50% and a minimum s u r v i v a l o f 360 t r e e s and/or shrubs per acre i s r e q u i r e d . Bare areas s h a l l not exceed h acre i n s i z e nor t o t a l more than 30% o f the area seeded o r p l a n t e d . Though American r e c l a m a t i o n s t a t u t e s c o n t a i n many good f e a t u r e s , the g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n i s t h a t they have been h a s t i l y prepared t o s a t i s f y an i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c demand f o r c o n t r o l s on s u r f a c e mining. Some o f the F e d e r a l and State r e g u l a t i o n s have been c r i t i c i z e d by both i n d u s t r y and environmental groups as b e i n g so i n f l e x i b l e t h a t good r e c l a m a t i o n i s f r u s t r a t e d , and u n n e c e s s a r i l y c o s t l y t o the 157a mining o p e r a t o r w ithout a c h i e v i n g the d e s i r e d o b j e c t i v e o f environmental p r o t e c t i o n because l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s are not taken i n t o account. In p a r t i c u l a r , the standard r e q u i r i n g r e g r a d i n g to o r i g i n a l contour has been a t t a c k e d on the grounds t h a t a t l e a s t p a r t i a l r e t e n t i o n o f t e r r a c e d dump systems on s l o p i n g ground w i l l much more e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r o l s u r f a c e r u n - o f f and s o i l e r o s i o n . In a B r i t i s h Columbian c o n t e x t , the b l a n k e t slope or v e g e t a t i o n standards t h a t are common i n many s t a t e r e g u l a t i o n s are o f l i t t l e v a lue because o f the r e l a t i v e l y more complex nature o f our s o i l s , c l i m a t e , and topography. Sur f a c e s t a b i l i t y , w h i l e h e a v i l y dependent on s l o p e , i s i n f l u e n c e d by a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r f a c t o r s and thus slope design c r i t e r i a . must be s i t e s p e c i f i c . L i k e w i s e , l e v e l s o f n a t u r a l ground cover are dependent upon a number o f environmental v a r i a b l e s and v e g e t a t i o n standards must take t h i s i n t o account. The f o r m u l a t i o n o f d e f i n i t i v e r e c l a m a t i o n standards f o r the p r o v i n c e , or even f o r c o a l mining i n the E a s t Kootenay, i s a number o f years away, and w i l l r e q u i r e a s e r i o u s and w e l l planned study programme i n v o l v i n g the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f government and i n d u s t r y . However, the c r i t e r i a on which these standards should be based are a l r e a d y apparent and can be used i n a s u b j e c t i v e way t o e s t a b l i s h o b j e c t i v e s f o r r e c l a m a t i o n p l a n n i n g . B r i e f l y these c r i t e r i a are as f o l l o w s : 158 (a) Reclamation Land-Use O b j e c t i v e s S e c t i o n 8 o f the C o a l Mines R e g u l a t i o n Act p r o v i d e s f o r the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i n the r e c l a m a t i o n r e p o r t : A programme f o r r e c l a m a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n o f the l a n d . . . on the d i s c o n t i n u a n c e or abandonment of the mining o p e r a t i o n w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o . . . the p o t e n t i a l use o f the l a n d , having regard to i t s b e s t and f u l l e s t use . . . The i n t e n t o f the l e g i s l a t i o n would seem t o be t h a t mined l a n d w i l l be r e t u r n e d to the b e s t p o t e n t i a l land-use c o n s i s t e n t w i t h l o c a l s i t e c o n d i t i o n s . I t i s important t h a t land-use o b j e c t i v e s be s e t b e f o r e r e c l a m a t i o n i s attempted because these w i l l determine both the f i n a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f the l a n d and the s p e c i e s mixtures used i n r e v e g e t a t i o n . Land use o b j e c t i v e s may vary from simply the r e s t o r a t i o n o f watershed v a l u e s on areas where the p o t e n t i a l f o r o t h e r r e s o u r c e s i s low; through the e s t a b l i s h -ment or r e s t o r a t i o n o f w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t , range f o r domestic animals, commercial f o r e s t s , or a g r i c u l t u r e ; t o the p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l , r e s i d e n t i a l , or i n d u s t r i a l f a c i l i t i e s , on mines i n an urban environment. There are, however, two i m p l i c a t i o n s o f land-use o b j e c t i v e s which must be accepted by both the p u b l i c and the mining i n d u s t r y , and these a r e : i . Some f e a t u r e s o f the mining environment, e.g. the p i t i t s e l f , are unreclaimable 159 and t h e r e f o r e defy the s e t t i n g o f r e c l a m a t i o n s t a n d a r d s . The l o s s o f t h i s l a n d i s , presumably, a s o c i a l c o s t t h a t the p u b l i c accepted when mining was allowed to proceed, however, the mining o p e r a t o r s h o u l d accept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o compensate f o r t h i s l o s s by r e s t o r i n g o t h e r areas t o g r e a t e r p r o d u c t i v i t y o r a high e r use than e x i s t e d b e f o r e mining, i i . Where i t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t a l a n d area be r e t u r n e d t o a use s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r than the premining c o n d i t i o n , i n excess o f t h a t n e c e s s a r y t o compensate f o r unr e c l a i m a b l e a r e a s , the mining o p e r a t o r cannot be expected t o bear the f u l l c o s t , (b) S u r f a c e Drainage C o n t r o l Reclamation i s , i n l a r g e p a r t , the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a watershed, and p r o v i s i o n f o r permanent s u r f a c e drainage c o n t r o l i s as important as r e v e g e t a t i o n . Slope and drainage d e s i g n can be judged on a r e l a t i v e l y s u b j e c t i v e b a s i s but the t r u e measure i s r e f l e c t e d i n the regime and q u a l i t y o f s u r f a c e water o r i g i n a t i n g from the mine s i t e . For t h i s reason i t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t a comprehensive water m o n i t o r i n g programme be e s t a b l i s h e d below the mining area to assess stream c o n d i t i o n s p r i o r t o mining, d u r i n g mining, and throughout the r e c l a m a t i o n / r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o c e s s . In the 160 case o f e s t a b l i s h e d mines where b a s e l i n e data has not been c o l l e c t e d , h y d r o l o g i c i n f o r m a t i o n should be c o l l e c t e d from a comparable u n d i s t u r b e d watershed. (c) V e g e t a t i o n Cover T o t a l v e g e t a t i o n cover, measured as ground and f o l i a g e cover, i s a gross measure o f both e r o s i o n c o n t r o l and r e c l a m a t i o n s u c c e s s . Standards o f v e g e t a t i o n cover must be r e l a t e d to the degree o f cover t h a t e x i s t e d on the s i t e p r i o r t o mining, o r where mining i s a l r e a d y underway, on comparable areas a d j a c e n t t o the mine. (d) E c o l o g i c a l S t a b i l i t y The s t a b i l i t y o f a man-made v e g e t a t i o n type i s a f u n c t i o n o f the k i n d s o f s p e c i e s p r e s e n t , s p e c i e s d i v e r s i t y , and the number o f i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t s per u n i t area. The o b j e c t i v e i n r e c l a m a t i o n should be t o use n a t i v e o r adapted e x o t i c s p e c i e s capable o f growing on d i s t u r b e d s o i l s , and to e s t a b l i s h as many o f these s p e c i e s and as many i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t s as the area i s capable o f s u p p o r t i n g . L i k e ground cover, s p e c i e s d i v e r s i t y i s a l s o dependent on a number of s i t e - s p e c i f i c environmental f a c t o r s . Standards o f d i v e r s i t y must be r e l a t e d t o v e g e t a t i o n types n a t i v e to the mine s i t e . Judgement o f the s u i t a b i l i t y o f the s p e c i e s used i n r e c l a m a t i o n w i l l be, to a l a r g e e x t e n t , s u b j e c t i v e . 161 (e) P l a n t V i g o u r Before the r e t u r n o f a r e c l a m a t i o n bond to a mining o p e r a t o r , i t must be e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the v e g e t a t i o n community i s i n a h e a l t h y s t a t e and s e l f p e r p e t u a t i n g . P l a n t h e a l t h , o r v i g o u r , may be measured i n the " f o l l o w i n g ways; biomass p r o d u c t i o n , i n c r e a s e s i n ground and f o l i a g e cover, chemical composition, and the p r o d u c t i o n o f v i a b l e seeds. As w i t h ground cover and d i v e r s i t y , p l a n t v i g o u r w i l l have to be r e l a t e d t o n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n a d j a c e n t to the mine, both t o e s t a b l i s h n a t u r a l l e v e l s o f p l a n t v i g o u r , and to separate changes i n p l a n t v i g o u r due, f o r example to n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n c y on a mined s i t e from those due to normal c l i m a t i c f l u c t u a t i o n s . The assessment o f land-use o b j e c t i v e s i s e s s e n t i a l l y s u b j e c t i v e , and u l t i m a t e l y w i l l be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the Reclamation Land-Use A d v i s o r y Committee. The assessment o f s u r f a c e drainage c o n t r o l , v e g e t a t i o n cover, e c o l o g i c a l s t a b i l i t y and p l a n t v i g o u r i s , i n l a r g e p a r t , o b j e c t i v e , and w i l l r e q u i r e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a comprehensive, continuous m o n i t o r i n g programme by the mining company. 162 CHAPTER VI THE RECLAMATION PROGRAMME 6.1 O b j e c t i v e s o f Reclamation 6.1.1 General Statement The b a s i c o b j e c t i v e o f K a i s e r Resources Lt d . ' s r e c l a m a t i o n programme i s the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f a l l i n d u s t r i a l l y d i s t u r b e d lands i n the N a t a l area a s s o c i a t e d w i t h both p a s t and p r e s e n t mining a c t i v i t y , and o f a l l e x p l o r a t i o n areas d i s t u r b e d by the Company's e x p l o r a t i o n programme. In o r d e r to understand t h i s o b j e c t i v e i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o make a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between r e c l a m a t i o n or r e h a b i l -i t a t i o n , two terms which are synonymous, and r e s t o r a t i o n . The former terms imply a p r o c e s s t h a t r e t u r n s the l a n d to a form and p r o d u c t i v i t y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s t a t e d land-use o b j e c t i v e s ; i n c l u d i n g a s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g v e g e t a t i o n cover, and a s t a b l e e c o l o g i c a l s t a t e t h a t does not c o n t r i b u t e s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o environmental d e t e r i o r a t i o n and i s compatible w i t h s u r r o u n d i n g a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . The l a t t e r term i m p l i e s a p r o c e s s by which mined l a n d i s r e t u r n e d to i t s pre-mining c o n d i t i o n . Reclamation o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e g i v e n good mine p l a n n i n g , and a w e l l designed 163 r e c l a m a t i o n programme. R e s t o r a t i o n i s beyond the scope o f p r e s e n t technology and may never be p o s s i b l e given the nature o f mountain c o a l mining. 6.1.2 Land Use O b j e c t i v e s The r e c l a m a t i o n o f d i s t u r b e d lands on the K.R.L. c o a l p r o p e r t y w i l l have two main g o a l s : 1. To r e - e s t a b l i s h watershed v a l u e s by e i t h e r mechanical means or the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s e l f s u s t a i n i n g v e g e t a t i o n cover as soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r the c e s s a t i o n of mining a c t i v i t i e s on any p a r t i c u l a r p a r c e l o f l a n d . 2. To accomplish watershed r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n a manner t h a t i s compatible w i t h the p o t e n t i a l prime s u r f a c e use o f the l a n d and c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p o s t - m i n i n g s i t e c o n d i t i o n s . As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter IV, the main l a n d uses p r i o r t o mining were f o r e s t r y , m a r g i n a l a g r i c u l t u r e , and r e c r e a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the area p r o v i d e d important w i n t e r and summer range f o r w i l d u n g u l a t e s . Because o f c l i m a t i c c o n s t r a i n t s , a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n has never been s i g n i f i c a n t even i n a l o c a l c ontext and thus a g r i c u l t u r e w i l l not be c o n s i d e r e d as a v i a b l e land-use o b j e c t i v e i n r e c l a m a t i o n . The most p r o d u c t i v e f o r e s t s i t e s i n the area occur a t e l e v a t i o n s below 1,525 m. , however, the c a l c a r e o u s nature of the parent m a t e r i a l s at these e l e v a t i o n s w i l l p r o b a b l y p r e c l u d e the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s i n a r e c l a m a t i o n programme except on the most l i g h t l y d i s t u r b e d a r e a s . There-f o r e , the main land-use o b j e c t i v e s i n the r e c l a m a t i o n p r o -gramme c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the primary g o a l of watershed 164 s t a b i l i z a t i o n , w i l l be: • 1. To p r o v i d e food and, u l t i m a t e l y , cover f o r mule deer, Rocky Mountain e l k and moose through the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a p p r o p r i a t e p l a n t communities. 2. To r e - e s t a b l i s h a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s on a l l d i s t u r b e d lands and, vrhere p o s s i b l e , to enhance o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n . 6.2 C o n s t r a i n t s To Reclamation Very l i t t l e q u a n t i t a t i v e work has been undertaken i n B r i t i s h Columbia on the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g p l a n t growth on s p o i l and r e f u s e m a t e r i a l s . However, v i s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n s o f the success o f both n a t u r a l p l a n t , i n v a s i o n and r e c l a m a t i o n i n the E a s t Kootenay i n d i c a t e t h a t the main c o n s t r a i n t s t o the r e c l a m a t i o n o f d i s t u r b a n c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o a l mining are s u r f a c e i n s t a b i l i t y , e x c e s s i v e l y h i g h s o i l temperatures, s o i l compaction and, to a l e s s e r e x t e n t , both s o i l c h e m i s t r y , and i n c r e a s i n g e l e v a t i o n . 6.2.1 S u r f a c e I n s t a b i l i t y The occurrence o f major e a r t h s l i d e s i n overburden dumps on both the K a i s e r Resources (see F i g u r e s 9 a , b, and c) and the F o r d i n g C o a l o p e r a t i o n s are evidence of the e x i s t e n c e o f i n s t a b i l i t y i n the e n g i n e e r i n g context of deep-sea t e d f a i l u r e s . However, even when dumps have reached 1 6 5 m a c r o - s t a b i l i t y , or where they have been so designed, the agencies o f s u r f a c e i n s t a b i l i t y - r a i n drop impact and o v e r l a n d water-flow - can e f f e c t i v e l y prevent p l a n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t . Two f a i r l y comprehensive e c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s , B r i e r l y ( 1 9 5 6 ) and H a l l ( 1 9 5 7 ) , have been c a r r i e d out on s p o i l dumps and r e f u s e banks i n Great B r i t a i n . Both s t u d i e s concluded t h a t s u r f a c e i n s t a b i l i t y was the most important f a c t o r l i m i t i n g p l a n t c o l o n i z a t i o n . B r i e r l y found v e g e t a t i o n e s t a b l i s h m e n t t o be most s e v e r e l y hampered on steep p i l e s comprised o f e i t h e r f i n e g l a c i a l m a t e r i a l s , o r s t r u c t u r e l e s s m a t e r i a l s such as o x i d i z e d c o a l and s h a l e . A s h l e y ( 1 9 5 0 ) i n P e n n s y l v a n i a found t h a t o v e r l a n d movement o f weathered s h a l e p a r t i c l e s on s t e e p ungraded mine s p o i l s prevented p l a n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t f o r 2 5 years a f t e r mining. In p e r s o n a l communication, H.R. Green o f the A l b e r t a Research C o u n c i l has s t a t e d t h a t s t u d i e s by h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n have i n d i c a t e d t h a t l o n g dump o u t s l o p e s s t a n d i n g a t the angle o f repose i n the Northern Rockies of A l b e r t a remain s u r f a c e a c t i v e f o r 3 0 years o r more. H a r r i s o n ( 1 9 7 4 ) has attempted crude measurements o f s u r f a c e movement on c o a l dumps i n t h e E a s t Kootenay. The degree o f movement was expressed as the amount o f m a t e r i a l (gms.) t h a t would pass a c r o s s an imaginary l i n e one metre long a l i g n e d w i t h the s t r i k e o f the s l o p e i n a 2 4 hour p e r i o d . He found t h a t f o r c o a l s p o i l s o f sand and p e b b l e - s i z e d m a t e r i a l the s o i l 166 movement a t d i f f e r e n t s l o p e s was as f o l l o w s : Slope (°) S o i l Movement (gms/day/metre) 28 30 35 160 37 1600 He concluded t h a t , f o r overburden m a t e r i a l s i n the E a s t Kootenay, the maximum angle a t which v e g e t a t i o n can be e s t a b l i s h e d (the " b i o l o g i c a l Angle o f Repose") l i e s between 25° and 30°; 7° - 12° l e s s than the p h y s i c a l angle o f repose. Probably the most comprehensive r e c l a m a t i o n study a v a i l a b l e , and the one which most c l o s e l y approaches the E a s t Kootenay c o a l mine s i t u a t i o n , was c a r r i e d out by the U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e a t the r e q u e s t o f the phosphate mining companies o f the Rocky Mountain Region o f Idaho and Montana (Sehultz and Ditmer, 1971). Among the recommendations and c o n c l u s i o n s a r i s i n g from t h i s study were: 1. Growth and s u r v i v a l o f t r e e s and shrubs on 33° (65%) s l o p e s are s e v e r e l y impaired by s u r f a c e i n s t a b i l i t y . Such s l o p e s should be avoided wherever p o s s i b l e , and dumps e i t h e r designed or r e s l o p e d to 22° - 27° (40% - 50%) . 2. Contour t e r r a c i n g i s recommended where slope angle cannot be f l a t t e n e d t o 22°. T e r r a c e s 167 s h o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d a t 7.5 - 15 m. - v e r t i c a l i n t e r v a l s w i t h check dams a t 30 m. i n t e r v a l s a l o n g the t e r r a c e . Both t e r r a c e s and c r o s s dykes s h o u l d be designed f o r storage o f peak r u n o f f . On the K a i s e r Resources L t d . mining o p e r a t i o n , as wit h o t h e r mountain c o a l mines i n B.C., s u r f a c e i n s t a b i l i t y i s l i k e l y t o be the s i n g l e most important f a c t o r l i m i t i n g v e g e t a t i o n e s t a b l i s h m e n t on d i s t u r b e d s l o p e s s t e e p e r than 25° ( F i g u r e s 16a and b ) . Some form o f s l o p e moderation i s e s s e n t i a l i f r e c l a m a t i o n i s t o be s u c c e s s f u l . A l o c a l i z e d problem o f s t a b i l i t y i n v o l v e s s p o i l s and waste m a t e r i a l s t h a t c o n t a i n c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o p o r t i o n s o f f i n e o x i d i z e d c o a l o r carbonaceous s h a l e s . These m a t e r i a l s , because o f t h e i r dark c o l o u r , absorb heat and s u r f a c e dry very q u i c k l y . Once dry, the low s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y and l a c k o f i n t e r n a l cohesion l e a d s t o severe wind e r o s i o n . T h i s problem i s acute on t a i l i n g s lagoons where the f l a t s u r f a c e s f u r t h e r aggravate the s i t u a t i o n . The o n l y s o l u t i o n appears to be to keep these m a t e r i a l s moist u n t i l a v e g e t a t i o n cover i s s u f f i c i e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d to c o n t r o l wind e r o s i o n . 6.2.2 S o i l Temperature H a r r i s o n (1974) has found, i n s t u d i e s i n the Crows-n e s t area, t h a t s o i l temperature v a r i e s w i t h aspect, e l e v a t i o n , s l o p e , and s p o i l type. Highest temperatures were 168 F i g u r e 16. E r o s i o n g u l l i e s on the face o f the Harmer Knob Dumps. 169 r e c o r d e d a t lower e l e v a t i o n s (1,070 - 1,525 m.), on s o u t h e r l y a s p e c t s s l o p i n g a t 26°, and on dark c o l o u r e d - s p o i l . The maximum temperature r e c o r d e d i n the top 2 cm. was 70° C; approximately 20°C above the thermal death p o i n t f o r p l a n t t i s s u e s . L a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s on a f i n e c o a l s p o i l w i t h a 30 per c e n t ash content " r e v e a l a thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y e q u i v a l e n t to l o o s e snow and a s p e c i f i c heat c l o s e to the v a l u e o f i r o n . " C o o l e r temperatures were recorded w i t h i n c r e a s i n g e l e v a t i o n , l i g h t e r c o l o u r e d s p o i l s , d e c r e a s i n g s l o p e , and o t h e r than s o u t h e r l y a s p e c t s . Of the f o u r f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g temperature c o n t r o l , m a t e r i a l type and a s p e c t appear t o be the most important. Reclamation programmes i n the E a s t Kootenay c o a l b e l t must s t r e s s the d i s p o s a l of b l a c k s p o i l s or r e f u s e on c o o l e r a s p e c t s , the c r e a t i o n of m i c r o - r e l i e f on s o u t h e r l y s l o p e s , and, i n extreme cases, i r r i g a t i o n u n t i l a v e g e t a t i o n c over i s f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d . 6.2.3 S o i l Compaction Much o f the e x i s t i n g q u a n t i t a t i v e data on the e f f e c t s o f s o i l compaction on p l a n t growth r e l a t e s to s i t e d i s t u r b a n c e d u r i n g l o g g i n g . A number o f s t u d i e s have concluded t h a t s o i l compaction r e s u l t i n g from l o g g i n g leads to s e r i o u s s o i l e r o s i o n by d e c r e a s i n g s o i l p e r m e a b i l i t y and has s e r i o u s e f f e c t s on subsequent s e e d l i n g growth and s u r v i v a l . S t e i n b r e n n e r and G e s s e l (1955-1) r e p o r t e d t h a t t r a c t o r 170 l o g g i n g r e s u l t e d i n a 93 per cent decrease i n s k i d road p e r m e a b i l i t y , w h i l e T a c k l e (1962) found s k i d road s o i l s to have an i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e o n l y 4.1 per cent o f ad j a c e n t u n d i s t u r b e d s o i l s . Three s t u d i e s , S t e i n b r e n n e r and G e s s e l (1955-2), F o i l (1965) and Youngberg (1959), found both s t o c k i n g and growth o f s e e d l i n g s t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower on compacted areas than on u n d i s t u r b e d s o i l . Youngberg a t t r i b u t e d t h i s t o poor s o i l a e r a t i o n , mechanical r o o t impedance, reduced o r g a n i c matter, reduced n i t r o g e n a v a i l a b i l i t y and moisture s t r e s s due to reduced i n f i l -t r a t i o n . S i m i l a r q u a n t i t a t i v e data are not a v a i l a b l e f o r mining o p e r a t i o n s , however, the degree o f compaction on h a u l roads, dumping p l a t f o r m s , and s e r v i c e areas i s l i k e l y t o be even g r e a t e r than t h a t found on l o g g i n g s k i d roads because o f the much l a r g e r equipment and the l o n g e r p e r i o d o f use. Such s i t e s w i l l not o n l y be d i f f i c u l t t o revegetate but, by . c o l l e c t i n g and c o n c e n t r a t i n g r u n - o f f water, w i l l l e a d t o i n s t a b i l i t y and e r o s i o n o f down-slope a r e a s . Jones (per.comm.) i n a study on the Baldy s u r f a c e mine o f the e f f e c t s o f sl o p e and a s p e c t on v e g e t a t i o n s u r v i v a l , found t h a t both v e g e t a t i o n cover o f grass e s and s u r v i v a l o f c o n i f e r o u s s e e d l i n g s were very low on the f l a t o r g e n t l y s l o p i n g dump t e r r a c e s . He a t t r i b u t e d t h i s t o s o i l compaction d u r i n g dump c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s c o n d i t i o n has p e r s i s t e d f o r 171 approximately 20 y e a r s , s i n c e t h i s p o r t i o n o f "the Baldy s u r f a c e mine was mined i n the eary 1950's. The extreme s o i l compaction o c c u r r i n g on haul roads, dump p l a t f o r m s and s e r v i c e areas w i l l o n l y be a l l e v i a t e d by r i p p i n g t o a depth o f 1 m. w i t h a l a r g e b u l l d o z e r . Some s o i l compaction o c c u r s d u r i n g r e s l o p i n g o p e r a t i o n s but t h i s i s seldom s e r i o u s and can be overcome by harrowing p r i o r t o seeding. 6.2.4 S o i l Chemistry D u r i n g the years 19 71-1975 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o i l samples were c o l l e c t e d from the v a r i o u s types o f waste m a t e r i a l s on the K a i s e r mining p r o p e r t y . These samples were submitted to the S o i l A n a l y s i s L a b o r a t o r y , F i e l d Crops Branch, B.C. M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r a standar d a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l a n a l y s i s . In a l l , f o r t y - t w o samples have been c o l l e c t e d and the r e s u l t s o f chemical analyses are shown i n Table 20. In the d i s c u s s i o n s below g e n e r a l value r a t i n g s are give n a c c o r d i n g t o the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s : (a) R e l a t i v e v a l u e s o f pH (from Dawson and K e l l y , 1965) Moderately a l k a l i n e M i l d l y a l k a l i n e N e u t r a l 8.0 9.0 7.3 8.0 6.5 7.3 S l i g h t l y a c i d Moderately a c i d S t r o n g l y a c i d 6.0 6.5 5.5 6.0 4.5 5.5 Table 20 Organic Matter, pH, Soluble Salts and Av a i l a b l e Nutrients For Six Types of Mine Waste On The Kaiser Resources L t d . Operation Type of Waste M a t e r i a l S o i l Texture No. of Organic Matter % PH Soluble S a l t s (mmhos/cm) Available Nutrients (ppm) Samples P K Ca MR Overburden: 3500-5000* E l e v a t i o n Loams 6 6.7+4.6 6.0+0.3 0.16+0.03 122.5+28.2 275. ,3+71.1 908+405.5 155+74.5 Clays 3 8.915.5 6.810.8 0.26+0.16 76.2 +50.4 178. .5+95.9 1233.51401.2 227."+84.0 S i l t s 1 9.0 6.0 0.18 92.0 195 1350 190 Overburden: 5 0 0 0 ' + E l e v a t i o n Clays 4 8.9+7.7 5.610.34 0.14+0.02 30.7 ± 7.3 92. .8+39.4 1237.5+902.2 187.1+107.7 Loams 9 5.1+2.6 5.7+0.51 0.17+0.06 101.3 +40.3 106. .1156.4 727.51497.7 164.41113.4 Oxidized Coal and Shale S p o i l - 5 - 6.710.3 0.47+0.42 7.8 ± 2.6 98. .1+50.8 1900+523.15 2 9 4 . 0 1 13.4 Coarse Coal Refuse - 6 - 7.3+0.42 0.7810.61 31.2 ± 1 1 . 1 65, .1+40.5 600+324.1 77.6+ 21.7 Fine Coal R e f u s e 1 - Unknown - 7.1 1.71 6.3 14, .5 701.0 39.0 Sites Disturbed by F a c i l i t i e s Construction: V a l l e y Bottoms Sandy clays 2 2.510.40 8.510.07 0.45+0.13 3.3+1.1 75 .5+16.3 2 6 7 5 . 0 1 5 3 0 . 1 300+ 1. Courtesy of D.L. Lavkulich, Department of S o i l Science, Faculty of A g r i c u l t u r e , U.B.C. A l l other analyses were done by the S o i l s Laboratory, F i e l d Crops Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of A g r i c u l t u r e . ro 173 (b) R e l a t i v e v a l u e s o f a v a i l a b l e n u t r i e n t s (Neufeld, p e r . comm.) Element R e l a t i v e Value (ppm) Low Medium High Magnesium Phosphorous Potassium 15 75 25 16 - 40 4 l 4 76 - 125 126^ 26 - 50 5 1 ^ o These are very g e n e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and the a c t u a l v a l u e s can v a r y depending on the type o f v e g e t a t i o n and the management regime. 1. S o i l R e a c t i o n In g e n e r a l , overburden on the mining p r o p e r t y v a r i e s from s l i g h t l y a c i d t o m i l d l y a l k a l i n e below 1,525 m. e l e v a t i o n , and from s t r o n g l y a c i d t o s l i g h t l y a c i d above 1,525 m. e l e v a t i o n . Refuse m a t e r i a l s vary from n e u t r a l to m i l d l y a c i d . C l a y s exposed d u r i n g road and f a c i l i t i e s c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the Elk v i e w area show the h i g h e s t pH value r e c o r d e d and can be r a t e d as moderately a l k a l i n e . 2. S o l u b l e S a l t s An e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y value o f 3 - 4 mmhos/cm. i s u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o i n d i c a t e a l e v e l o f s o l u b l e s a l t s h i g h enough t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h p l a n t growth. Only one sample c o n t a i n e d a value o f t h i s l e v e l o r hi g h e r and t h a t sample i s not i n c l u d e d i n Table 20. In a s e t o f anal y s e s done i n 1969, one sample from the M i c h e l E a s t r e f u s e dump showed an e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y value o f 174 28.00 mmhos/cm. and a pH o f 2.5. T h i s anomaly was e x p l a i n e d when i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway had r e g u l a r l y used t h i s area t o di s p o s e o f sweepings from r a i l c a r s t r a n s p o r t i n g s u l p h u r from the n a t u r a l gas f i e l d s o f Southern A l b e r t a . 3. A v a i l a b l e Phosphorus Phosphorus v a l u e s are medium t o hig h f o r a l l m a t e r i a l s except those c o n t a i n i n g l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f o x i d i z e d c o a l and s h a l e (both f i n e r e f u s e and c e r t a i n mine s p o i l s ) and the sandy c l a y s i n the E l k v i e w a r e a . In the l a t e r case, the low a v a i l a b i l i t y o f phosphorus may w e l l be due s o l e l y t o h i g h pH v a l u e s . 4. A v a i l a b l e Potassium Potassium v a l u e s are h i g h l y v a r i a b l e . L e v e l s are c l e a r l y adequate o n l y i n the overburden m a t e r i a l s below 1,525 m. e l e v a t i o n . A v a i l a b l e potassium i n f i n e c o a l r e f u s e i s extremely low and would appear t o be l i m i t i n g . 5. A v a i l a b l e Magnesium Magnesium l e v e l s are adequate i n a l l m a t e r i a l s except the h i g h e l e v a t i o n s p o i l s and the r e f u s e m a t e r i a l s . 6. A v a i l a b l e N i t r o g e n The M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e does not norm a l l y i n c l u d e a n i t r o g e n t e s t i n a standar d a g r i c u l t u r e a n a l y s i s . F e r t i l i z e r recommendations f o r n i t r o g e n are normally based on f i e l d t r i a l s , however, n i t r o g e n i s assumed t o be 175 r e q u i r e d on a l l s i t e s . While the s t a n d a r d a g r i c u l t u r a l a n a l y s e s are s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s , they do not p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n to e v a l u a t e the p o t e n t i a l f o r long-term p l a n t growth o f mine s p o i l s and r e f u s e . Dr. L. L a v k u l i c h of the F a c u l t y o f A g r i c u l t u r e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia has undertaken a comprehensive a n a l y s i s of mine wastes i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The s o i l parameters measured i n h i s a n a l y ses are as f o l l o w s ( L a v k u l i c h , per. comm.): pH; % o r g a n i c matter; c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y ; c a t i o n s a t u r a t i o n , " % n i t r o g e n ; % sulphur; a v a i l a b l e phosphorus, c a l c i u m , magnesium, potassium, copper, o z i n c , i r o n and manganese, t o t a l e l e m e n t a l a n a l y s i s ; - c a l c i u m , magnesium, sodium, potassium, i r o n , manganese, aluminium, s i l i c o n , cadmium, c o b a l t , cromium, copper, molibdinium, n i c k e l , l e a d , t i t a n i u m and z i n c , e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y and s o l u b l e s a l t s : c a l c i u m , magnesium, solium, potassium, and carbonate and s u l p h u r i c i o n s , p h y s i c a l data on t e x t u r e , p a r t i c l e d e n s i t y and water r e t e n t i o n 176 The Kaiser mining property has been included i n t h i s study, and i t i s recommended that any further programmes of s o i l analysis be designed on the basis of a thorough assessment of Dr. Lavkulich"s r e s u l t s . 6.2.5 Elevation In the course of my work with both Kaiser Resources Ltd. and the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, I have had many discussions with professional colleagues, student groups and conservation organizations about the reclamation of mined-lands i n the Rocky Mountain coal b e l t . In my experience, more concern has been expressed about "high" elevation as the most important factor l i m i t i n g e f f e c t i v e reclamation than for any other environmental factor. Very l i t t l e work has been undertaken i n the Rocky Mountains on the e f f e c t of increasing elevation on reclamation success. While species sown i n t e s t plots at 2,100 m. on the Kaiser mining property (see Section 6.3 below) have grown well over fiv e seasons, t h i s does not demonstrate that a permanent plant community can be established. In the l i g h t of these comments I am aware that the following statement i s , to a large degree, speculative, however, i n my opinion, given a wise choice of species and the range of elevations encountered on the Kaiser mining property, elevation per se i s not an important factor i n reclamation success. 177 As p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 2.4 above, extreme minimum w i n t e r temperatures d u r i n g the months o f November to March are i n v a r i a b l y lower i n the v a l l e y bottoms than on Harmer Ridge. The g r e a t e r snow depths a t h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s p r o v i d e added p r o t e c t i o n to o v e r w i n t e r i n g v e g e t a t i o n s i n c e snow depth a t lower e l e v a t i o n s tends t o be l i m i t e d by wind a c t i o n . Growing season and the f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d on Harmer Ridge are not s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t than those i n the v a l l e y bottom, b e i n g 80 per cent and 75 per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y . In a d d i t i o n , p r e c i p i t a t i o n d u r i n g the months May to September i s 50 per cent h i g h e r on Harmer Ridge, and e v a p o - t r a n s p i r a t i o n p r o b a b l y much lower. Casual o b s e r v a t i o n s over a two year p e r i o d r e v e a l e d s u b s t a n t i a l s o i l moisture w i t h i n 1 cm. o f the s o i l s u r f a c e through the summer months on a l l but the c o a r s e s t s o i l t y p e s . For these reasons, i t i s my o p i n i o n t h a t the s u b - a l p i n e areas on Harmer and N a t a l Ridges are f a r more h o s p i t a b l e s i t e s f o r p l a n t growth than the s o u t h e r l y aspects a t lower e l e v a t i o n s . The main r e v e g e t a t i o n problems at h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s w i l l p robably occur on those areas o f n o r t h e r l y and e a s t e r l y a s p e c t where snowpack p e r s i s t s w e l l i n t o the growing season. On Harmer Ridge such areas are v e r y l i m i t e d i n e x t e n t and prob a b l y d i d not support a s u b s t a n t i a l v e g e t a t i o n cover under n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s p r i o r t o mining. These l i m i t e d 178 areas w i l l r e q u i r e s t a b i l i z a t i o n by m e c h a n i c a l methods r a t h e r than by r e v e g e t a t i o n . Needle i c e a c t i o n , f r o s t t h r u s t i n g and s o l i f l u c t i o n , noted by v a r i o u s authors as problems i n h i g h e l e v a t i o n r e v e g e t a t i o n (Brink, 1964; m Gradwell, 1954; Ward, 1974) have not been observed on any o f the areas seeded on Harmer Ridge. 6.3 S p e c i e s S e l e c t i o n 6.3.1 Grasses and Forbs Because o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f seed c o l l e c t i o n , the use o f n a t i v e grasses and f o r b s on a l a r g e s c a l e i s , as y e t , i m p r a c t i c a l . In 1970 a d v i c e on mixtures o f domestic grasses and legumes was sought from a number o f agencies i n c l u d i n g the F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r a l S c i e n c e s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, the B.C. Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , and Bucker-f i e l d ' s L t d . On the b a s i s of recommendations o b t a i n e d from these o r g a n i z a t i o n s , three seed mixtures were formulated which were subsequently used from 1970-75 i n c l u s i v e . These mixtures are shown i n Table 21. In g e n e r a l , mixture i has been used a t e l e v a t i o n s over 1,500 m. w h i l e a l l three mixtures have been used r a t h e r i n d i s c r i m i n a n t l y a t lower e l e v a t i o n s . During the l a s t two years the need f o r more s i t e -s p e c i f i c seed p r e s c r i p t i o n s has been r e c o g n i z e d . Table 22 179 Table 21 Grass and Legume* Mixtures Used In The Reclamation Programme (1971-75) i Kentucky bluegrass var nugget 15 % Creeping red fescue 15 % Slender wheatgrass 10 % Crested wheatgrass 10 % Timothy 10 % Smooth brome 10 % Red top 5 % Sanfoin 10 % Mixed sweet clover 5 % Birdsfoot t r e f o i l 5 % A l s i k e clover 5 % i i Kentucky bluegrass 15 % Timothy 10 % Smooth brome 30 % A l s i k e clover 15 % Crested wheatgrass var nordan 30 % i i i Canada bluegrass 15 % Red top 10 % Perennial ryegrass 30 % Yellow sweet clover 25 % Crested wheatgrass var nordan 20 % * For s c i e n t i f i c names see Table 23. 180 shows the recommended seed mixtures f o r the next management p e r i o d f o r v a r i o u s combinations o f e l e v a t i o n and asp e c t . These mixtures are based on the r e s u l t s o f K a i s e r Resources L t d . ' s r e c l a m a t i o n assessment programme, on i n f o r m a t i o n from r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s ( E l l i o t t and B o l t o n , 1972; Berg, 1974; H a f f e n r i c h t e r et al 1968; and Anderson, 1975), and on i n s p e c t i o n f i e l d notes compiled by the w r i t e r as Reclamation I n s p e c t o r , B.C. Department o f Mines and Petroleum Resources. D e s p i t e some i n i t i a l s uccesses i n o p e r a t i o n a l seeding u s i n g b r o a d l y based seed m i x t u r e s , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l y more a t t e n t i o n must be p a i d t o long-term s p e c i e s t e s t i n g . L i t t l e i s known about e i t h e r the p e r s i s t e n c e o r the a b i l i t y t o reproduce o f common, commercially-a v a i l a b l e g r a s s e s and legumes a t h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s . I t i s q u i t e c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t v i g o r o u s , s h o r t - l i v e d p e r e n n i a l s w i t h i n a seed mix may out-compete l o n g - l i v e d , b e t t e r adapted s p e c i e s which are slow t o e s t a b l i s h , p a r t i c u l a r l y g i v e n the hig h se e d i n g r a t e s common i n re c l a m a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s . For t h i s reason a s e r i e s o f long-term s p e c i e s t r i a l s has been proposed f o r the K a i s e r Resources L t d . mining area i n which s p e c i e s w i l l be p l a n t e d s i n g l y i n meter-square p l o t s over the range o f aspects, e l e v a t i o n s and s p o i l types o c c u r r i n g t h e r e . L i s t s of grass and legume s p e c i e s t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s t r i a l p l o t programme 181 Table 22 Suggested Seed Mixtures* For The Kaiser Resources Ltd. Mining Area 1976-78 (a) Southerly Aspects at Elevations of 1,050 - 1,680 m. Intermediate wheatgrass Pubescent wheatgrass Crested wheatgrass Smooth brome Hard fescue A l f a l f a Sweet clover (mixed) -5 % (b) Northerly Aspects at Elevations of 1,050 - 1,680 m. 20 % 20 % 15 % 15 % 10 % 15 % Intermediate wheatgrass Smooth brome Canada bluegrass Creeping red fescue 20 % 20 % 10 Z 10 % Red top 10 % Timothy 10 % A l f a l f a 10 % White dutch clover 5 % Sweet clover (mixed) 5 % (c) Alpine and Sub-alpine areas. A l l aspects, at elevations over 1,680 m. Meadow f o x t a i l 20 % Smooth brome (vars Baylor or Manchar) 20 % Pubescent wheatgrass 10 % Slender wheatgrass Timothy Creeping red fescue (var Erica) Orchardgrass (var Chinook) 5 % Kentucky bluegrass (var Sydsport) 5 % Red top White clover 10 % 5 % 5 % 5 % 10 % Birdsfoot t r e f o i l J '° * For s c i e n t i f i c names see Table 23. 182 are shown i n Table 2 3 and Table 24 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The f i r s t such t r i a l was e s t a b l i s h e d on Harmer Ridge at an e l e v a t i o n o f 6,900 f e e t i n 1972 (Figure 17). Measurements of ground cover and p l a n t h e i g h t f o r each o f the three years sub-sequent t o sowing are shown i n T a b l e 25. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h should be undertaken to determine the f e a s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g n a t i v e f o r b s and grasses i n the programme. Should the long-term t r i a l s o f commercial s p e c i e show t h a t they n e i t h e r p e r s i s t nor produce v i a b l e seeds on c e r t a i n p o r t i o n s o f the mining a r e a , then they can be c o n s i d e r e d o n l y as. temporary nurse crops and s o i l c o n d i t i o n e r s , and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f n a t i v e s p e c i e s w i l l have to be encouraged. While s m a l l e r d i s t u r b e d areas may seed n a t u r a l l y , an 800 h e c t a r e s u r f a c e mine o b v i o u s l y p r e s e n t s a formidable problem i n n a t u r a l seed d i s p e r s a l . A number of mining companies i n e a s t e r n Montana are u s i n g mini-combine h a r v e s t e r s t o o b t a i n seed from n a t i v e ranges (Pendergast, per. comm.). I t i s suggested t h a t i n v e s t i g a t i o n be undertaken d u r i n g the p r e s e n t management p e r i o d to determine the v i a b i l i t y o f n a t i v e f o r b and grass seed, the p e r i o d i c i t y of seed c r o p s , and methods o f c o l l e c t i n g seed i n b u l k . 183 Table 23 Suggested Commercial Grass Species For Reclamation Testing Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. Crested wheatgrass A. elongation (Host) Beauv. T a l l wheatgrass A. intermedium (Host) Beauv. Intermediate wheatgrass A. .riparium Streambank wheatgrass A. trachycaulum Link (Malte) Slender wheatgrass A. trichophomtm (Link) Richt. Pubescent wheatgrass Agrostis alba L. Red top Alopeauris pratensis L. Meadow f o x t a i l A. arundinaoeae Creeping f o x t a i l Bromus inermis Leys Smooth brome Bronrus spp. Polar brome Daotylis glomerata L. Orchardgrass Festuca arundinaoeae Schreb. T a l l fescue F. rubra L. Creeping red fescue F. rubra L. var aommutata Gaud. Chewings fescue F. ovina L. var durisoula Hard fescue Lolium penenne L. Perennial ryegrass Phleum pratense L. Timothy Poa compressa L. Canada bluegrass P. pratense L. Kentucky bluegrass Table 24 Suggested Commercial Legume Species For Reclamation Testing Lotus corniculatus L. Birdsfoot t r e f o i l Medioago sativa L. A l f a l f a Melitotus alba Desr. White sweet clover M. officinalis (L.) Lam. Yellow sweet clover Trifolium hybridum L. Tetra a l s i k e •T. pratense L. Red clover T. repens L. White clover 1 8 4 F i g u r e 17. S p e c i e s t r i a l on Harmer Ridge. 1975 Table 25 Ground Cover and Plant Height For F i f t e e n Species of Grasses Sown i n T r i a l Plots at an E l e v a t i o n of 2,100 m. Species Ground Cover Percentage Average Plant Height (cm.) 1972 1973 1974 1972 1973 1974 Crested wheatgrass var Nordan (Source No. 1) 39 30 5 4.6 10.2 38.1 Crested wheatgrass var Nordan (Source No. 2) 29 40 50 3.8 12.7 55.9 T a l l wheatgrass (Source No. 1) 34 19 25 6.1 11.4 61.0 T a l l wheatgrass (Source No. 2) 40 64 5 4.6 7.9 45.7 Pubescent wheatgrass 72 75 75 5.8 13.2 61.0 Red top (Source No. 1) 59 85 60 4.6 10.2 40.6 Red top (Source No. 2) 75 85 80 3.3 8.9 35.6 Meadow f o x t a i l 83 95 90 4.8 16.3 61.0 Smooth brome var Manchar 85 90 70 7.1 12.7 30.5 Smooth brome var Baylor 44 50 90 8.1 11.7 35.6 Polar brome 58 80 75 6.1 15.7 40.6 Orchardgrass var Chinook 87 70 85 5.6 12.7 30.5 T a l l fescue 33 15 2 3.6 5.1 25.4 Creeping red fescue var Dawson 58 70 60 3.0 5.1 20.3 Creeping red fescue var E r i c a 42 60 80 . 1.9 7.6 17.8 Creeping red fescue var Reptans 43 60 60 1.9 8.9 22.9 Chewings fescue var H i g h l i g h t 44 70 60 1.3 3.8 15.2 Perennial ryegrass var Norlea 49 25 40 3.0 5.1 17.8 Timothy var As t r a 43 50 15 1.3 5.1 17.8 Timothy var Sport creeping 41 55 55 1.3 2.5 17.8 Timothy var Climax 41 55 55 3.0 8.9 25.4 Canada bluegrass 4 12 10 0.8 2.5 15.2 Canada bluegrass var Canon 12 15 25 1.0 3.8 15.2 Kentucky bluegrass var Primo 60 55 55 2.0 3.8 15.2 Kentucky bluegrass var Sydsport 65 . 80 85 2.3 2.5 15.2 Kentucky bluegrass (Source No. 1) 12 15 10 1.3 3.8 10.2 Kentucky bluegrass (Source No. 2) 5 20 20 1.3 3.8 10.2 Kentucky bluegrass var Nugget 2 • 3 5 1.3 1.3 10.2 186 6.3.2 Trees and Shrubs I t i s Kaiser Resources Ltd.'s p o l i c y to use indigenous tree and shrub species of l o c a l provenance wherever possible i n the reclamation programme. Though t h i s may i n i t i a l l y involve greater expense and e f f o r t than the purchase of exotic planting stock, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n seed procurement and research on seed treatments, the end r e s u l t i s planting stock completely adapted to l o c a l c l i m a t i c conditions. Exotic species w i l l not be t o t a l l y excluded from the reclamation programme since they have two d i s t i n c t advantages over native species; f i r s t , seed i s often available i n quantity from commercial seed dealers, and second, methods of propagation are usually well established. However, exotics w i l l be used with d i s c r e t i o n and only a f t e r thorough t e s t i n g to ensure that they are adaptable to l o c a l s i t e conditions and do not have the capacity to become undesirable weed species. In general, the following c r i t e r i a , ranked i n order of importance, w i l l be used as a basis for the selection of woody plant species: 1. native or naturalized, 2. e a s i l y reproduceable i n large quantities, 3. a b i l i t y to regenerate on and s t a b i l i z e disturbed land, 4 . nitrogen f i x i n g a b i l i t y , 187 5. h i g h value f o r a s p e c i f i c land-use o b j e c t i v e , 6. proven e f f e c t i v e i n r e c l a m a t i o n work elsewhere. On the mining area t h e r e are a number o f b i o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s which must be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the c h o i c e o f a s p e c i e s mix f o r the r e v e g e t a t i o n o f any p a r t i c u l a r s i t e : 1. E c o l o g i c a l S u c c e s s i o n E c o l o g i c a l s u c c e s s i o n i s the o r d e r l y p r o c e s s o f v e g e t a t i o n a l change t h a t o c c u r s on a g i v e n s i t e f o l l o w i n g a major d i s t u r b a n c e ( i . e . f i r e , l o g g i n g , mining, d i s e a s e o r i n s e c t o u t b r e a k s ) . T y p i c a l l y s u c c e s s i o n begins w i t h p i o n e e r v e g e t a t i o n and moves through a s e r i e s o f more mature communities u n t i l a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e community i s e v o l v e d which i s i n e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h l o c a l s i t e c o n d i t i o n s . The f i n a l o r mature community i s c a l l e d the c l i m a x . In any p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l i t y , p i o n e e r v e g e t a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y more t o l e r a n t o f adverse con-d i t i o n s such as poor n u t r i t i o n and moisture s t r e s s , w h i l e c l i m a x communities e s t a b l i s h o n l y a f t e r these c o n d i t i o n s have been m o d i f i e d through e c o l o g i c a l s u c c e s s i o n . For r e c l a m a t i o n purposes, s p e c i e s should be s e l e c t e d e i t h e r from d i s t u r b e d areas i n the e a r l y stages o f p i o n e e r v e g e t a t i o n , o r from areas o f p h y s i o g r a p h i c sub-climax where s o i l and m i c r o c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s prevent the development of the common z o n a l c l i m a x . In the N a t a l v i c i n i t y , areas of p a s t 188 d i s t u r b a n c e i n c l u d e o l d i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s , l o g g i n g c l e a r -c u t s , abandoned e x p l o r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s , and some of the e a r l y s u r f a c e mines. The sub-climax grass/shrub communities on s o u t h e r l y a s p e c t s i n the area p r o v i d e a v a r i e t y o f hardy, d r o u g h t - t o l e r a n t and, i n many i n s t a n c e s , n i t r o g e n -f i x i n g s p e c i e s t h a t have s i g n i f i c a n t p o t e n t i a l i n a r e c l a m a t i o n programme. 2. Climate and Topography V a r i a t i o n s o f c l i m a t e and topography can a f f e c t the a d a p t a b i l i t y o f even n a t i v e s p e c i e s , and t h i s i s a p a r t -i c u l a r l y important c o n s i d e r a t i o n on the K a i s e r Resources L t d . o p e r a t i o n where mining a c t i v i t i e s span an a l t i t u d i n a l range o f more than 1,070 m. I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t good re c o r d s be kept d u r i n g the c o l l e c t i o n o f r e p r o d u c t i v e m a t e r i a l , and t h a t p l a n t i n g stock be used w i t h i n ± 150 m. o f the e l e v a t i o n from which the seeds or cuttings.were c o l l e c t e d . 3. S o i l s and Geology The c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t s t h a t o c c u r r e d on many p o r t i o n s o f N a t a l and Harmer Ridges p r i o r t o mining were a r e f l e c t i o n o f s o i l p r ocesses t h a t took p l a c e over thousands of y e a r s . As d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s t h e s i s , d e p o s i t s o f c a l c a r e o u s g l a c i a l d r i f t , p r o b a b l y o r i g i n a t i n g from the F r o n t Ranges o f the Rocky Mountains, occur throughout the area a t e l e v a t i o n s below 1,680 m. C o n i f e r s , b e i n g " a c i d - l o v i n g " , 189 invaded these areas o n l y a f t e r the upper s o i l h o r i z o n s had been g r a d u a l l y a c i d i f i e d by e a r l y s u c c e s s i o n a l communities. Thus the presence o f g l a c i a l d r i f t s p o i l m a t e r i a l w i l l , i n most cases, p r e c l u d e the use of c o n i f e r s i n r e c l a m a t i o n . At h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s , s o i l appears to have been d e r i v e d in situ from the n e u t r a l and a c i d i c rocks o f the F e r n i e B a s i n . Here, c o n i f e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y lodgepole and whitebark p i n e , appear to be important components o f p i o n e e r v e g e t a t i o n and can be used i n the r e c l a m a t i o n of such s i t e s . As a g e n e r a l r u l e deciduous t r e e s and shrubs w i l l be used f o r the r e c l a m a t i o n o f s i t e s below 1,680 m. C o n i f e r s w i l l be used i n the p l a n t i n g programme a t lower e l e v a t i o n s o n l y on n o r t h e r l y a s p e c t s where o r g a n i c s o i l h o r i z o n s are l a r g e l y i n t a c t . A t e l e v a t i o n s i n excess of 1,680 m. a mixture of c o n i f e r o u s and deciduous s p e c i e s w i l l be used. Table 26 l i s t s the n a t i v e t r e e s and shrubs p r e s e n t l y b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d i n the r e c l a m a t i o n programme, t h e i r growth h a b i t , the zone i n which they w i l l be used, and the prime va l u e of each. Table 27 l i s t s the e x o t i c t r e e s and shrubs under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . For the most p a r t these are e i t h e r n a t u r a l i z e d i n the N a t a l area or are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o n a t i v e s p e c i e s i n the a r e a . Table 26 Native Trees and Shrubs Considered For Reclamation Planting Species Name S c i e n t i f i c Common Growth Habit Zone* Uses Trees Abies lasiocarpa Betula papyrifera Larix occidentalis Picea engelmanii Pinus albicaulus Pinus aontovta Pseutotsuga menziesii Populus tremuloides Populus triohooarpa Shrubs Acer glabrum var douglasii Alnus sinuata Alnus tenuifolia Amelanohier alnifolia Arotostaphlos uva-ursi Artemisia frigida Ceanothus velutinus Cornus stolonifera Crataegus douglasii Elaeagnus commutata Juniperus co-munis Mahonia repens Menziesia ferruginea Penstemon davidsonii var menziesii Prunus vinginiana Ribes oeroeum Rosa spp. Salix spp. Sambuous glauca Shepherdia canadensis Spirea lucida Symphoricarpos albus Vacciniwn vitis-idaeas Subalpine f i r Paper birch Western larch Engelmann spruce Whitebark pine Lodgepole pine Douglas f i r Trembling aspen Black Cottonwood Coniferous Deciduous Coniferous Coniferous Coniferous Coniferous Coniferous Deciduous Deciduous tree tree tree tree tree tree tree tree tree ESSF IDF IDF ESSF ESSF ESSF IDF ESSF IDF -6 IDF & IDF S A e s t h e t i c s , w i l d l i f e cover A e s t h e t i c s , w i l d l i f e food A e s t h e t i c s , w i l d l i f e cover A e s t h e t i c s . w i l d l i f e cover A e s t h e t i c s , w i l d l i f e cover A e s t h e t i c s . w i l d l i f e cover A e s t h e t i c s . w i l d l i f e cover Ground c o v e r , w i l d l i f e food Ground cover.moderate w i l d l i f e food Douglas maple Large shrub IDF - S Prime w i l d l i f e food Sitka alder Small shrub ESSF Nitrogen f i x a t i o n Thinleaf alder Shrub IDF Nitrogen f i x a t i o n Saskatoon Shrub IDF - S Prime w i l d l i f e food Kinnikinnik T r a i l i n g evergreen shrub ESSF & IDS-S Ground c o v e r , w i l d l i f e food Fringed sage Small woody perennial IDF - S Ground cover Sticky l a u r e l Evergreen shrub IDF - S Nitrogen f i x a t i o n , w i l d food Red-osier dogwood Thicket-forming shrub IDF Grd cover,prime wild.food Hqwthorn Large shrub IDF A e s t h e t i c s , w i l d l i f e food Silverberry Thicket-forming shrub IDF Nitrogen f i x a t i o n Common juniper Evergreen shrub IDF - S A e s t h e t i c s , w i l d l i f e food Oregon grape Evergreen shrub IDF - S Ground cover, wild, food False azalea Small shrub ESSF Ground cover Menzies penstemon Small evergreen shrub IDF - S Ground cover Chokecherry Large shrub IDF - S Ground cover,wild, food Sticky currant Small shrub IDF - ESSF Ground cover, wild, food Wild rose Small, thick-forming shrub IDF - S Ground cover, wild, food Willow Shrub EFFS - IDF Aesthetics, w i l d l i f e food 31ueberry elder Large shrub IDF Prime w i l d l i f e food Soopolallie Shrub ESSF - IDF-S Aesthetics, n i t r o . f i x a t i o n F l a t top spirea Small woody perennial IDF - S Ground cover, wild, food Snowberry Small thicket-forming shrub IDF - S Ground cover Mountain b i l l b e r r y Low-growing shrub ESSF Ground cover, wild, food * IDF = Interior Douglas-fir Zone IDF - S = Southerly aspects, I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir Zone ESSF = Engelmann spruce - Subalpine-fir Zone 1 Table 27 Exotic Trees and Shrubs Being Considered For Reclamation Planting Species Names S c i e n t i f i c Common Growth Habit Zone* Uses Trees Acer negundo Manitoba maple Medium sized tree IDF A e s t h e t i c s . w i l d l i f e and cover food Pioea glauaa White spruce Coniferous tree IDF Aesthetics, cover Pinus mugo var mugus Tyolian pine Small coniferous tree ESSF A e s t h e t i c s , w i l d l i f e cover Pinus mugo var pumilo Swiss pine Small coniferous tree ESSF A e s t h e t i c s , w i l d l i f e cover Sorbus auouparia European mountain ash Medium sized tree IDF A e s t h e t i c s . w i l d l i f e food Shrubs Alnus glutinosa European alder Large shrub IDF Nitrogen f i x a t i o n Caragana arborescens Siberian pea shrub Large shrub IDF - S Nitrogen f i x a t i o n Cotoneaster aoutifolia Cotoneaster Small shrub IDF - S W i l d l i f e food, ground cover Elaeagnus angustifolia Russian o l i v e Small shrub IDF - S Nitrogen f i x a t i o n Lonioera tartarioa Tartarian honey suckle Small shrub IDF - s Ground cover Prunus pennsylvanioa Pincherry Large shrub IDF - s W i l d l i f e food Shepherdia argentea Buffaloberry Small shrub IDF - s Nitrogen f i x a t i o n * IDF IDF - S ESSF = I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir Zone - Southerly aspects, I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir Zone = Engelmann spruce - Subalpine-fir Zone 192 6.4 Seed C o l l e c t i o n Seed demand f o r a r e c l a m a t i o n programme o f t h i s s i z e w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , and s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t i e s o f seed can be c o l l e c t e d by h a n d - s t r i p p i n g f r u i t s from bushes o r f e l l e d t r e e s . Table 28 g i v e s the time o f c o l l e c t i o n and the i n t e r v a l between good seed years f o r a number of n a t i v e t r e e s and shrubs. Of the s p e c i e s l i s t e d , o n l y s t i c k y l a u r e l (Ceanothus velutinus) r e q u i r e s s p e c i a l c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . I f the seed pod c l u s t e r s are removed from the bush prematurely, the seeds w i l l not r i p e n . The recommended c o l l e c t i o n method i s t o t i e c l o t h o r paper bags over the c l u s t e r s and a l l o w the c a p s u l e s t o d e h i s c e n a t u r a l l y . Though t h i s might appear time consuming i t does u l t i m a t e l y save c o n s i d e r a b l e expense i n seed e x t r a c t i o n and c l e a n i n g . The t e c h n i q u e s o f seed e x t r a c t i o n and c l e a n i n g vary, depending on the type o f f r u i t . Dry f r u i t can be e i t h e r crushed by hand between b r i c k s and the seeds screened out, or spread out i n the sun or a warm room and the capsules allowed to d e h i s c e . Pulpy f r u i t s may be macerated e i t h e r by hand, i f s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s are i n v o l v e d , or i n a commercial b l e n d e r . I f the b l e n d e r i s used, the seeds are b a r e l y covered w i t h water, and the machine i s run f o r 15 - 45 seconds. In each case, the macerated f r u i t i s added t o an e q u a l volume of water, the sound seeds are Table 28 F r u i t and Seed Char a c t e r i s t i c s of Native Trees and Shrubs Species In t e r v a l Between Time of Kg. of Seed Per No. of Seeds Per Kg. Seed Crops C o l l e c t i o n 100 kg. of f r u i t High Low Average Remarks Subalpine f i r 2 - 3 yrs Sept N/A 53,600 41,500 47,600 Paper b i r c h 2 yrs Aug/Sept N/A 9,084,600 1,345,050 3,042,900 Engelmann spruce 2 - 6 yrs Aug/Sept N/A . 710,000 152,100 297,700 Whitebark pine 3 - 5 yrs Sept/Oct N/A 6,600 4,900 5,700 Lodgepole pine Yearly Aug/Sept N/A 251,400 174,200 207,300 Cones p e r s i s t on the tree for many years Douglas-fir 3 - 1 1 yrs July/Aug N/A 117,500 62,800 97,600 Douglas-maple 1 - 3 yrs Aug/Oct Seeds not separated 44,800 17,200 29,600 F r u i t tends to p e r s i s t f o r some time i n the autumn Alder Yearly Aug/Sept 29 N/A N/A 1,488,400 Seeds should not be allowed to dry below 10% m.c. Saskatoon 1 - 3 yrs July/Aug 4 - 2 2 * 250,900 80,000 180,800 •Certain f r u i t c o l l e c t i o n s have yielded a large portion of unviable seeds Kinnikinnik 1 - 5 yrs July/Aug N/A 83,600 59,100 71,400 Sticky l a u r e l 1 - 3 yrs July/Aug N/A 335,200 135,400 207,300 Seed pods w i l l not ripen i f removed too ear l y . Cloth or paper bags should be t i e d over seed pod c l u s t e r s before seeds are shed. Red-osier dogwood 1 - 2 yrs July/Aug 44 58,900 30,400 40,800 Hawthorn 1 - 3 yrs July/Aug 2 2 - 3 3 52,300 47,400 49,800 Si l v e r b e r r y 1 - 2 yrs Aug/Sept 20 - 65* , 10,100 5,900 8,400 F r u i t often p e r s i s t s on the tree through winter. *Highly v a r i a b l e depending upon time of seed c o l l e c t i o n Common juniper Irregular Aug/Oct 35 120,200 56,100 80,500 F r u i t p e r s i s t s on the tree for 2 years Oregon grape 1 - 3 yrs June/July N/A 156,600 119,100 136,700 Menzies penstemon N/A July/Aug 35 N/A N/A 1,000,000+ Choke cherry 1 - 2 yrs July/Aug 40 - 55 18,500 6,000 10,000 Wild rose 1 - 2 yrs July/Aug 40 132,300 66,150 N/A Some difference may e x i s t among the three species of rose Sticky current 2 - 3 yrs Aug/Sept 9 - 1 8 749,700 441,000 595,400 Blueberry elder Annual Aug/Sept 9 - 13 591,100 258,000 452,000 LP Soo p o l a l l i e Annual June/Aug* 26 147,700 39,700 90,400 * This species covers a very wide e l e v a t i o n a l range which a f f e c t s ripening dates. Waxberry Annual Aug/Sept 7 249,200 119,100 167,600 F r u i t p e r s i s t s on the bush over winter. N/A = information not a v a i l a b l e . 194 allowed to s e t t l e t o the bottom o f the c o n t a i n e r , and the pulp and empty seeds are then s t r a i n e d o f f . C o n i f e r seeds p r e s e n t s p e c i a l problems i n e x t r a c t i o n , u s u a l l y i n v o l v i n g k i l n d r y i n g and s e p a r a t i o n from the cones i n a screen drum. T h i s i s b e s t done by a q u a l i f i e d seed d e a l e r . Table 28 i n d i c a t e s expected y i e l d o f seed i n kg. per 100 kg. o f f r u i t , and both the average and extremes o f number o f seeds per kg. f o r 25 n a t i v e t r e e s and shrubs. Seed o f most s p e c i e s s h o u l d be a i r d r i e d f o r a few days, and then s t o r e d i n e i t h e r polythene o r c l o t h bags i n the f r e e z i n g compartment o f a r e f r i g e r a t o r u n t i l used. A seed c o l l e c t i o n programme was i n i t i a t e d i n 19 71 and to date has i n c l u d e d 5 s p e c i e s o f c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s and 15 s p e c i e s o f deciduous t r e e s and shrubs. The c o s t of seed c o l l e c t i o n and c l e a n i n g f o r the p e r i o d 1971-74 i s shown i n Table 29. I t should be noted t h a t t h i s was an e x p e r i m e n t a l programme and t h e r e f o r e much o f the c o s t data are probably i n f l a t e d , however, i t does p r o v i d e an i n t e r e s t i n g comparison of the r e l a t i v e c o s t s o f d i f f e r e n t . s p e c i e s . One o f the major sources o f c o s t v a r i a t i o n was the amount o f seed c o l l e c t e d a t any one time. F i g u r e 18 shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o s t o f c l e a n i n g and c o l l e c t i o n of seed, and the amount o f seed c o l l e c t e d . The g e n e r a l t r e n d i s f o r l a r g e r seed l o t s t o show a much lower u n i t c o s t than s m a l l seed l o t s . Table 29 Seed C o l l e c t i o n Data. For F i f t e e n Deciduous Tree And Shrub Species 1971-73 Cost of C o l l e c t i o n Cost of Cleaning Total Cost Amount of F r u i t Amount o f Seed No. of Seeds Tot a l Cost per kg. of seed per kg. of seed per kg. of seed per kg. of seed Collected Per Kg. per 1 ,000 Man Days $ Man Days $ Man Days $ (kg.) (kg. ) see ( $ ds ) Blueberry El d e r 3.42 104.70 1.21 37.15 4.63 141.85 56.4 15. 2 266,800 0. 53 Choke cherry 0.40 12.15 0.66 20.25 1.06 32.40 11.5 73. 9 12,800 2. 54 Hawthorn 0.97 29.70 1.57 48.00 2.54 77.70 21.4 18. 3 44,100 1. 77 Manitoba maple 0.64 19.75 * * 0.64 19.75 * 6. 6 26,000 0. 75 Menzies penstemon 2.78 84.90 * * 2.78 84.90 13.5 1. 6 2,425,500 0. 04 Mountain ash 2.38 72.95 4.81 147.25 7.19 220.20 28.7 17. 2 286,650 0. 77 Red os i e r dogwood 1.74 53.15 0.71 21.60 2.45 74.75 11.0 45. 5 41,200 1. 81 Saskatoon 1.94 59.45 1.54 47.30 3.50 106.75 20.5 15. 0 180,800 0. 59 Caragana 1.10 33.80 0.79 24.30 1.90 58.10 11.2 21. 8 37,500 1. 55 Soo p o l a l l i e 11.91 364.80 1.54 47.30 13.45 412.10 10.0 3. 7 90,400 4. 56 Wild rose 1.41 41.90 1.15 35.15 2.51 77.05 12.1 51. 9 99,200 0. 78 Paper b i r c h 1.76 54.30 * * 1.76 54.30 • * 7. 7 3,042,900 0. 02 Douglas maple 1.76 53.50 * * 1.72 53.05 * 48. 1 40,100 1. 32 Thinleaf alder 1.41 43.20 1.79 54.70 3.20 97.90 N/A 14. 3 1,488,400 0. 06 Sil v e r b e r r y 1.01 31.05 0.64 19.60 1.65 50.65 6.0 15. 9 7,500 6. 75 F r u i t and seeds not separated. N.B. Average labour cost was $30.64 per day. Fig 1 8 . ' H i e Relationship Between Seed Costs and the Quantitvj Seeds Collected. 3 5 Q T % 3 0 0 f • i E 5 0 t ^ 2 0 0 f sr . o J 1 5 0 u ' t o o o 1 0 0 1 5 0 • • BlueWrrvj cider — Wild r o s e Mcnzi<zs penstemon • . Saskatoon _ _ paper- Birch •+ + Hawthorn + + Caragana + + Red-osier dogwood + +• 3)OUQIQS maple +•*—-—--+ Choice c h e r n j 2 5 4 A m o u n t of s e e d c o l l e c t e d ( k g s ) 6 197 The i m p l i c a t i o n s of F i g u r e 18 are o b v i o u s . Once seed s t o c k s have been b u i l t up t o a working l e v e l , new c o l l e c t i o n s s h ould be made i n volume and o n l y i n good seed y e a r s . One a s p e c t o f the seed programme t h a t has i n the p a s t been n e g l e c t e d i s t h a t o f documentation and t e s t i n g . Though r e c o r d s c o n c e r n i n g seed c o l l e c t i o n have been kept, they are not w e l l o r g a n i z e d . No d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f seed character-, i s t i c s such as p u r i t y and germination percentage has y e t been undertaken. U n t i l such parameters are measured, the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the q u a n t i t i e s o f seed r e q u i r e d f o r annual nursery sowings remains l a r g e l y a matter of guess work. During the p r e s e n t management p e r i o d a l l seed s t o c k s w i l l be f u l l y documented and annual seed t e s t i n g w i l l be c a r r i e d out. I n f o r m a t i o n f o r each seed l o t w i l l be recorded on the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e s t a n d a r d forms. 6.5 P l a n t P r o p a g a t i o n 6.5.1 Sexual P r o p a g a t i o n The seed o f most temperate s p e c i e s i s dormant a t the time o f r i p e n i n g i n l a t e summer o r e a r l y f a l l . There e x i s t two types o f dormancy; embryo dormancy and seed coat dormancy, and seeds may e x h i b i t e i t h e r or both types. Embryo dormancy i s the most common type and here the seed embryo must undergo p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes, which occur o n l y under moist c o n d i t i o n s a t temperatures s l i g h t l y above 198 RECORD OF SEED STOCK AND DISPOSAL Sp e c i e s : Common Name: Seed Stock No.: Storage Compartment No.: I f seeds purchased: S u p p l i e r P.0. No.: Date Received: Q u a n t i t y Received: Cost Per Lb.: O r i g i n o f Seed: I f Seeds C o l l e c t e d : L o c a t i o n : N a t i o n a l Topog. G r i d Ref.: K a i s e r 1:12,000 G i r d Ref.: L a t i t u d e and Longitude: E l e v a t i o n : A s s o c i a t e d Species i n Stand: Date o f C o l l e c t i o n : Method o f C o l l e c t i o n : Number o f t r e e s / s h r u b s c o l l e c t e d from: Age o f t r e e s c o l l e c t e d from ( i f a p p l i c a b l e ) : No. o f bushels o f cones/pds o f f r u i t c o l l e c t e d : Method of e x t r a c t i o n : Q u a n t i t y o f seed o b t a i n e d : Cost per l b . o f seed: C o l l e c t i o n E x t r a c t i o n and C l e a n i n g T o t a l per l b . 199 RECORD OF SEED STOCK AND DISPOSAL Seed A n a l y s i s D e t a i l s o f dormancy-breaking treatment: L a b o r a t o r y T e s t s : J T e s t No. Date P u r i t y % Germ. % No. pure s e e d / l b . ( . 0 0 0 ) No. V i a b l e S eed/lb. ( . 0 0 0 ) Empty Seed Seed % M o i s t u r e Content % 200 RECORD OF SEED STOCK AND DISPOSAL A l l o c a t i o n s : Date Al l o c a t e d to: Debit Balance 201 f r e e z i n g (2-5°C), b e f o r e i t can germinate. The time p e r i o d n ecessary f o r these changes i s u s u a l l y 3-6 weeks. Embryo dormancy i s a mechanism t o ensure t h a t seeds do not germinate i n the autumn o n l y t o be k i l l e d by f r o s t s . Seed c o a t dormancy u s u a l l y o c c u r s i n s p e c i e s whose f r u i t i s eaten by animals and b i r d s . The seed c o a t i s t h i c k , and impermeable t o water. T h i s s e r v e s t o p r o t e c t the seed w h i l e i t passes through the animal's d i g e s t i v e t r a c t . The a c t i o n o f the d i g e s t i v e j u i c e s , and subsequent weathering on the ground, breaks down the i m p e r m e a b i l i t y and a l l o w s the seed t o absorb water and germinate. The most common methods o f b r e a k i n g embryo dormancy are e i t h e r t o sow seeds out-doors i n the autumn and a l l o w dormancy to be broken n a t u r a l l y , o r t o soak seeds o v e r n i g h t i n water and then s t o r e i n the cooling compartment o f a r e f r i g e r a t o r f o r 1-6 months. Seed c o a t dormancy may be broken by a c i d treatment, mechanical s c a r i f i c a t i o n , warm s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o r soaking i n n e a r - b o i l i n g water. Where both types of dormancy are present, seed coat dormancy must be broken first. T a b l e 30 g i v e s i n f o r m a t i o n on types o f dormancy, and the recommended seed treatments f o r the 30 s p e c i e s o f n a t i v e t r e e s and shrubs recommended f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the r e c l a m a t i o n programme. "TABLE: 3 0 . Propagation t e c h n i q u e s f o r t h i r t y species of n a t i v e t r e e s a n d s h r u b s . Spa cies "TticeS of Dormancy" Sgedcoat I' Embryo S e x u a l Propagation T r e a t m e n t f o r t S e i c k w t Ilormanci) G o l d Stratification Duration Temperature Vegetative Propagation Stem Cuttings* T y p e S e a s o n O t h e r ' R e m a r k s T r e e ? I Subalpine \\r Paper birch W e s t e r n l a r c h ' E n q z l m a n n S p r u c e W h i t c b a r k p i n e L o d G c p o l e j / i n e . D o u a l a s - H r l - ' c m b l i n g a s p e n B l a c k c c t t o n w o o d S h ' u b t w e e d y I o r b s . D o u g l a s m a p l e 5 i [ k a * l h m ( e a f a l d e r M o u n t a i n b i l b e r r y S a s k a t o o n K i n n i k m n i k F r i r . a e d s a q e S t i c k y l a i r d . R e d - o s i e r d o g w o o d H a w t h o r n o i l v e r b e r r y C o m m o n j u n i p e r O r e g o n q r a p e S t i c k y c u r r a n t M e n z i e * p e n s l t m o n C h o k a c h « r r u W i l d r o s e W i l l o w B l u e b e r r y e l d e r S o o p o l a l l i e . R o t - t o p s p i r a a W a x b e r r y N o N o No No No NO No No No Y e s Mo N o ( ? ) Y e s Yas N o Y e s N o Y e s Y e s N o N o No Yes No Y e s Y e s N o Yea Y e s Y e s Y e s Y e s Y e s Y e s Y e s No No Y e s S e t remarks Y e s Y e s Y e s Y e s Y e s Y e s ' Y e s Y e s Y e s ' N o . Y e s Y e s o e s Y e s HQ Y e s N o n e . N o n e None N o n e N o n e N o n e N o n e , N o n e N o n e W S f o r 180daus N o n e None HiS04 3-5hrs.W5-IZi)4»)5| Soakinwater@90°C N o n e H 2 S 0 4 0.5-3hrs. None WS'Sor 45-90 days. 3 N o n e N o n e N o n e W S f o r 60-90days N o n e 60-90d&ys@20°C. H l 5 0 - a f o r 20-30mm. None 60 days @ 20°C 6 - 8 w e e k s 60-70 d a y s 3 0 - 6 0 daus 30-60dzvjs' 90-1Z0daus 30-50da.u5 3 0 - 6 0 d a y s ! 160 d a y s -1 6 0 d a y s 60-90days 60-90daus 60-90cW 8 0 - 1 2 0 d a ^ 6 0 ' d a y s QD+daus 190 days 60-120days 12D-160dav)S 90-IZOdays 90+dayS 60 days 180 days 2-5" C 5 " G 5°C 5 ° G 5°C 5°C 5'C 2 - 5 ' C 2-5°C Z-b'C 5°C Z-5°C 5°C 5°C 5 " C ? r c 2-5°C 5°C 5°C IU3 H l n Autumn ( 3 in Summari — — H Autumn E Autumn H H Autumn H in fvulut«n & In Summer Autumn Autumn E E H E Autumn Autumn Autumn Autumn m s H in AUfamn 5 m Sumner H in Autumn S In Sumtner as above Autumn S u * R P d R 5u_e_R S a 5 u F a l l s o w i n g p o s s i b l e . S e e d v i a b i l i t y v a r i e s Between 254 40%. F a l l Sowinq p o s s i b l e . B r o a d c a s t Szzdsicovcr l i q h t l u . Q i v e . l i g h t s h a d e f o r I s t y e a r . S e e d v i a b i l i t y = 1 5 - 2 0 " % . F a l l s o w i n g p o s s i b l e . S o w s e e d s 0.6 d m . d e e p . A s . a b o v e . F o i l s o w i n q possible. 5 o w s e e d s 1.25 c m . d e e p . F a l l s o w i n g p o s s i b l e . S o w s e e d s o . b c m . d e e p . F a l l s o w i n q p o s s i b l e . S o w s e e d s 0 . 6 c m . d z i p . \ C a t k i n - b e a r i n g b r a n c h e s c a n b e h u n g i n e n c l o s e d n u r s e r y J b e d s u n t i l s e e d s a r e s h e d . B e d s m u s t b e k e p t m o i s t . F o r l u f a l l s o w i n q i n a m u l c h e d b e d a l s o practical. S o w s e e d 0.6 Cm. deep @ 135-270 s e e d s per ma. r H o s t r a t i f i c a t i o n r e q d . unless s e e d d r y s b e l o w 10%m.c. S o w Seed 0.3-0.6 cm. d e e p in s p r i n g . S o w s e e d s 0.6cm. d e e p i n r o w s ©75 p e r m . H a l f - s h a d e s e e d l i n g s l y e a r . C u t t i n g s b e s t m e t h o d . S e e d t r e a t m e n t s too l i m e c o n s u m i n g . S o w seeds 0.3-0.Gem.deep in an acid plantinq m e d i u m CpH 6 . 5 ) F a l l Sowing possible. S o w seed 0.&-|.25cWde£p. F a l l s o w i n g p o s s i b l e . S o w s e e d s I.O-20cm.deep @ l80-270seeds p e r m 1 i n m u l c h e d b e d s . S o i l s p l a s h a n i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e of m o r t a l i t y S a e d s m a y h e . s o w n i n s p r i n g f o r g c r m i n a t i o n the followingspring E a r l y f a l l s o w i n g p o s s i b l e . S o w s e e d s o.s-0.6 c m . d e e p . n g possible. Sow seeds 1.0cm. 'deep® _ E i t h e r w a r m s t r a t i f y a n d Sow in f a l l Or f o l l y stratify and SOOJ in spring.Sow seeds 0.6-1-8cm. deep. S e e d i n g a s w i t h c o t t o n w o o d K aspen may b e . possible S o w seeds 0.6cm. d e e p @ 550seeds p e r mr F a l l sowing after acid t r e a t m e n t possible. S o w o.6cmdeep@35o/mz Seed g e r m i n a t e s at low t e m p e r a t u r e s . Sow in l a t e f a l l or s p r i n g S o w seeds 0.6cm. deep @ 350 seeds p e r N.B. A dash (,-") under treatment indicates that it i s not applicable to that species. A blank Space under treatment indicates that Its effect-iveness is unknown. t W S = W a r m s t r a t i f i c a t i o n a t t e m p e r a t u r e s v a r y ' m q b e t w e e n Z0£27°G. * I t ' H a r d w o o d C u t t i n g s . S = S o f t w o o d c u t t i n g s . E = E v e r g r e e n c a t l i n g s . S u . " 1 S u c k e r s . P a = P l a n t d i v i s i o n . R - R o o t c u t t i n g s . S o u r c e s ; O r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h a t K.R.L. U .5.D.A. Forest S e r v i c e (1946). 203 6.5.2 V e g e t a t i v e Propagation Many p l a n t s have the a b i l i t y t o reproduce themselves e i t h e r by growing r o o t s from p o r t i o n s o f a branch or stem, or by sending up stems from p o r t i o n s o f the r o o t system. Such s p e c i e s can be e a s i l y propagated i n q u a n t i t y a t r e l a t i v e l y low c o s t . Table 30 i n d i c a t e s the most s u c c e s s f u l techniques o f v e g e t a t i v e p r o p a g a t i o n f o r 20 s p e c i e s o f n a t i v e t r e e s and shrubs. Stem and r o o t c u t t i n g s are the two most p r o m i s i n g methods o f v e g e t a t i v e p r o p a g a t i o n f o r a simple n u r s e r y o p e r a t i o n . The common techniques used are as f o l l o w s : 1. Stem C u t t i n g s Stem c u t t i n g s f a l l i n t o t h r e e g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s , a l l o f which have been used w i t h some success i n the r e c l a m a t i o n programme: (a) Hardwood C u t t i n g s These are taken i n autumn o r e a r l y s p r i n g from dormant shoots o f the p a s t season's growth. The shoots are c u t i n t o 15-20 cm. l e n g t h s , w i t h the lower cut about 0.5 cm. below a bud and the upper about 1.5 cm. above a bud. I f c u t t i n g s are taken i n the f a l l a f t e r l e a f drop, they can be bundled i n batches o f 50 or 100, kept a t warm temperatures f o r a few weeks u n t i l the c u t ends form c a l l u s t i s s u e , and then s t o r e d o u t s i d e i n m o i s t sand u n t i l s p r i n g . They can be p l a n t e d i n the n u r s e r y as soon as the ground 204 can be worked i n the s p r i n g (Figure 19). C u t t i n g s taken i n the s p r i n g can be p l a n t e d d i r e c t l y i n t o n u r s e r y beds, though t h i s method i s u s u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l o n l y w i t h v e r y e a s i l y propagated s p e c i e s such as b l a c k cottonwood. (b) Softwood C u t t i n g s Softwood c u t t i n g s are l e a f y s l i p s o f c u r r e n t season's growth, e i t h e r s t r i p p e d o r c l i p p e d from the branches o f the p l a n t i n mid-summer. They w i l l v a r y i n l e n g t h from 10-15 cm. and sho u l d have a l l but the top few l e a v e s s t r i p p e d o f f p r i o r t o p l a n t i n g . The presence o f l e a v e s s t i m u l a t e s r o o t i n g , but the c u t t i n g must be p r o t e c t e d from d e s i c c a t i o n e i t h e r i n a p a r t i a l l y shaded c o l d frame, or under an automatic m i s t i n g system i n a greenhouse (Figure 20). (c) Evergreen C u t t i n g s E vergreen c u t t i n g s are commonly used i n the pr o p a g a t i o n o f e i t h e r c o n i f e r o u s s p e c i e s o f the f a m i l y Cupressaoeae ( i . e . Common j u n i p e r ) o r b r o a d - l e a f evergreens such as s t i c k y l a u r e l and K i n n i k i n n i k (Figure 20). They are e s s e n t i a l l y t r e a t e d the same way as softwood c u t t i n g s except t h a t they are prepared and p l a n t e d i n e a r l y f a l l a f t e r the f i r s t f r o s t i n s t e a d o f mid-summer. Rooting g e n e r a l l y o c c u r s the f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g u n l e s s e l e c t r i c h e a t i n g w i res are p l a c e d i n the r o o t i n g medium, i n which case r o o t i n g b egins immediately. I f a greenhouse i s used Figure 19. Black cottonwood propagated from hardwood cuttings i n nursery beds. 206 207 f o r the p r o p a g a t i o n o f evergreen c u t t i n g s the a i r temperature should be m a i n t a i n e d s l i g h t l y above f r e e z i n g throughout the w i n t e r . M i s t i n g systems a r e , o f course, not used. Rooting mediums are u s u a l l y mixtures o f peat and e i t h e r sand o r h o r t i c u l t u r a l grade v e r m i c u l i t e . Rooting o f a l l t h r e e types of c u t t i n g s i s g e n e r a l l y improved by wounding the base and t r e a t i n g the wounded areas w i t h a p r e p a r a t i o n o f r o o t i n g hormone. Hormone.preparations are s o l d as powders i n v a r y i n g s t r e n g t h s under the t r a d e names "Rootone" and " S e r a d i x " . 2. Root C u t t i n g s Many t r e e s and shrubs have the a b i l i t y to send up stems or "suckers" from shallow, h o r i z o n t a l r o o t systems. To propagate such s p e c i e s , s e c t i o n s o f r o o t are dug up and c u t away from the main p l a n t . V e r t i c a l or "tap" r o o t s should not be used, s i n c e these are d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n and u s u a l l y y i e l d r a t h e r poor r e s u l t s . Young r o o t s are p r e f e r a b l e f o r c u t t i n g s and about p e n c i l t h i c k n e s s (7.5 mm. i n diameter) i s adequate, though t h i s w i l l o b v i o u s l y vary w i t h s p e c i e s . The r o o t s are c u t i n t o 5-8 cm. s e c t i o n s and these are p l a n t e d 2-5 cm. deep i n a moist, w e l l a e r a t e d r o o t i n g medium. C u t t i n g s may be p l a n t e d e i t h e r v e r t i c a l l y or h o r i z o n t a l l y , however, i f the former method i s chosen, care must be taken to ensure t h a t the end which was n e a r e s t the parent p l a n t i s upper-most f o r i t i s o n l y from t h i s s u r f a c e t h a t the new stem w i l l a r i s e . 208 6.5.3 P r o p a g a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s P l a n t p r o p a g a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s a r e l o c a t e d on the e a s t bank o f t h e E l k R i v e r i m m e d i a t e l y upstream from t h e E l k P r a i r i e b r i d g e . The complex i n c l u d e s a 0.8 ha. n u r s e r y ( F i g u r e 21) and a f i b r e - g l a s s greenhouse. 1. N u r s e r y The n u r s e r y was c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e s p r i n g and summer o f 19 70 w i t h t h e i n i t i a l o b j e c t i v e o f p r o d u c i n g p l a n t i n g s t o c k , m a i n l y c o n i f e r o u s , f o r t h e 1972 p l a n t i n g season. S e v e r a l m i s t a k e s were made b o t h i n t h e s i t i n g o f t h e n u r s e r y and i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f n u r s e r y beds t h a t s e v e r e l y hamper p r o p e r n u r s e r y management. These were as f o l l o w s : a. Because o f t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f t h e E l k R i v e r a t t h i s p o i n t , t h e n u r s e r y i s s i t e d on a t e r r a c e a t t h e base o f a n o r t h - w e s t f a c i n g s l o p e . P r e -v a i l i n g w inds i n t h i s a r e a a r e from t h e s o u t h - e a s t and s o u t h , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t t h e n u r s e r y s i t e becomes an a r e a o f snow a c c u m u l a t i o n . The n o r t h e r l y a s p e c t r e t a r d s snow m e l t i n t h e s p r i n g and t h e e a s t e r n h a l f o f t h e n u r s e r y i s o f t e n snow . c o v e r e d u n t i l e a r l y A p r i l . T h i s d e l a y s b o t h t h e l i f t i n g o f mature s e e d l i n g s , and t h e p l a n t i n g , o f seeds and c u t t i n g s . b. The s o i l on w h i c h t h e n u r s e r y i s s i t u a t e d , d e s i g n a t e d t h e M i c h e l sandy loam ( K e l l y and 209 F i g u r e 21. K a i s e r Resources L t d . ' s n u r s e r y . 209a Sprout, 1956), i s one of the few a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the E l k V a l l e y without a s u b s t a n t i a l a c i d i c s u r f a c e h o r i z o n . The pH o f the A h o r i z o n i s d e s c r i b e d by K e l l y and Sprout and l a t e r confirmed i n t e s t s c a r r i e d out by the Reclamation Department, as r a n g i n g from 7.5 t o 7.7. Over h a l f the n u r s e r y was sown i n 1970 t o t h r e e s p e c i e s o f c o n i f e r : l odgepole p i n e , D o u g l a s - f i r and white spruce. D e s p i t e attempts t o a c i d i f y the n u r s e r y beds w i t h peat moss and f l o w e r s o f sulphur, subsequent s u r v i v a l and growth was very poor, c. Raised, wooden n u r s e r y beds were c o n s t r u c t e d on h a l f o f the n u r s e r y . The sideboards were f i r m l y s t a ked t o the ground which e f f e c t i v e l y prevented u n d e r c u t t i n g o f the beds. Moreover, the beds were p l a c e d too c l o s e t o g e t h e r to a l l o w the passage o f machinery, thus n e c e s s i t a t i n g manual c u l t i v a t i o n and weeding. C o n i f e r o u s p l a n t i n g stock i n the n u r s e r y has g r a d u a l l y been phased out and i n f u t u r e t h i s s i t e w i l l be used e n t i r e l y f o r the p r o d u c t i o n o f b r o a d - l e a f e d t r e e s and shrubs. The n u r s e r y has a c a p a c i t y o f approximately 300,000-500,000 p l a n t s , depending upon s p e c i e s and s p a c i n g . Table 31 shows the e s t i m a t e d number o f man-days used each month f o r normal n u r s e r y t a s k s . These e s t i m a t e s are d e r i v e d from Table 31 Labour Costs (Man Days) Per Month For Normal Nursery Tasks Operation Jan Feb Mar A p r i l May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec T o t a l L i f t i n g and preparation of mature seedlings — - 60 48 _ _ _ _ _ _ - 108 Preparation of nursery beds - - - 10 22 6 - - - - - - 38 Transplanting seedings - - - 45 139 - - - - - - 184 Planting cuttings - - - 30 8 - - - ' - - - 38 Sowing beds - - - - - 8 - - - 5 - - 13 Weeding - - - - 8 68 32 56 - . - - • - 164 Thinning beds - - - - - 3 - - 3 - - 6 Tending I r r i g a t i o n - - - 1 2 1 3 - - - - 7 C o l l e c t i o n and preparation of cuttings - 5 - - - - - - - 13 26 - 44 General Maintenance - • - 6 - - - 31 1 5 - - - 43 Total Monthly - 5 66 58 106 234 64 60 8 18 26 - 645 211 a c t u a l r e c o r d e d work on the n u r s e r y from May 1971 to A p r i l 1973. I t should be noted t h a t t h i s was a p e r i o d o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and development, and f o r t h i s reason these e s t i m a t e s are not s t r i c t l y a p p l i c a b l e t o a n u r s e r y w i t h an e s t a b l i s h e d r o u t i n e . They do, however, i n d i c a t e the s e a s o n a l p a t t e r n o f work on a s m a l l n u r s e r y . U s i n g c o s t data c o l l e c t e d on the K a i s e r n u r s e r y f o r the p e r i o d May 1971 - A p r i l 1973, and making some broad assumptions on l i k e l y p r o d u c t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c a l c u l a t e a rough c o s t per u n i t o f p r o d u c t i o n i n 1974 d o l l a r s : - Annual s e e d l i n g p r o d u c t i o n = 215,000 assuming: average n u r s e r y c a p a c i t y i s 350,000 80,000 p l a n t s are produced a n n u a l l y as 1 + 0 stock 135,000 p l a n t s are produced a n n u a l l y as 1 + 1 or 2 + 0 stock - Annual n u r s e r y c o s t s = $24,885 ( i n 1974 $) - l a b o u r : 645 man days § $35.00 = 22,575.00 - m a t e r i a l s : = 1,860.00 - maintenance: = 200.00 - o u t s i d e s e r v i c e s : = 250.00 24,885.00 T h e r e f o r e , annual c o s t p e r thousand s e e d l i n g s i s approximately $116.00 a t 19 74 r a t e s . 212 The p r e s e n t n u r s e r y i s too s m a l l to support e i t h e r an expanded p l a n t i n g programme, or p r e s e n t p r o d u c t i o n l e v e l s i f r o t a t i o n a l f a l l o w i n g i s undertaken. There i s a l s o the p o s s i b i l i t y o f s a l e s o f p l a n t i n g s t o c k to o t h e r mining companies i n the southern p o r t i o n o f the p r o v i n c e . For these reasons, a second n u r s e r y s i t e , approximately 6.5 ha. i n e x t e n t , w i l l be developed d u r i n g the coming management p e r i o d . ' C r i t e r i a used f o r the s e l e c t i o n o f a n u r s e r y s i t e w i l l i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : (a) S o i l and Drainage a loamy sand o f good drainage c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; s i l t y and c l a y e y s o i l s t o be avoided; pH 4.5-6. T h i s range w i l l a l l o w f o r g r e a t e r c h o i c e o f s p e c i e s than the p r e s e n t n u r s e r y a f f o r d s . - Not l e s s than 1.5 m. s o i l depth f r e e o f impeded d r a i n g e . Water t a b l e a t l e a s t 1 m. below ground a t all. times o f the y e a r . (b) Water Supply Water sources must be capable o f p r o v i d i n g 50,500 l i t r e s per ha. per day d u r i n g the dry summer months. - I d e a l l y i r r i g a t i o n water f o r n u r s e r i e s should be pH 7.0 or lower, however, i n the E a s t Kootenay 213 both surface and groundwater i s highly a l k a l i n e (see Table 32) . This i s not considered a serious problem i n s o i l s with good drainage c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s since r a i n f a l l and snowmelt probably provide adequate leaching, (c) Topography s i t e should be l e v e l , or have a uniform slope not greater than 6°. areas of snow accumulation and f r o s t pockets should be avoided. Table 32 Analysis of I r r i g a t i o n Waters Used i n the Kaiser Nursery ' Elk River Water Ground Water pH 8.0 7.8 Salts (Mmhos./cm) 0.30 (Low) 0.40 (Medium) Potassium (ppm.) 1.0 1.0 Calcium (ppm.) 48.0 60.0 Magnesium (pp.m) 13.0 18.0 Sodium (ppm.) 4.0 (Low) 9.0 (Low) 2. Greenhouse In the spring of 19 71, Kaiser Resources Ltd. purchased and i n s t a l l e d an Ickes-Braum f i b r e g l a s s greenhouse measuring 15 m. by 8.5 m. I t i s equipped with a f u l l y automatic misting system c o n t r o l l e d by a r t i f i c i a l "leaves" positioned on the planting benches. The water system on each bench 214 has an i n j e c t o r system which may be used to introduce water soluble f e r t i l i z e r s into the i r r i g a t i o n water. The greenhouse was o r i g i n a l l y s i t e d near the coal preparation plant and, though used i n t e r m i t t e n t l y during 1971, was not f u l l y operational u n t i l the spring of 1972. I t was used i n that year for the production of coniferous stock i n styro-block containers. During the spring of 1972 the Company decided that the land on which the greenhouse and the o f f i c e complex were s i t e d would be required for a fine-refuse lagoon. The o f f i c e and the greenhouse were moved to the e x i s t i n g nursery s i t e near the Elk River Bridge. Substantial damage was done to the greenhouse during the move, and extensive delays were encountered i n the re-construction of f a c i l i t i e s . The greenhouse was not f u l l y usable again u n t i l the summer of 1975. For t h i s reason, no costs of greenhouse operations are a v a i l a b l e . Considerable d i f f i c u l t i e s were encountered during the springs of 1971 and 1972 i n attempts to r a i s e coniferous container stock i n the greenhouse due to the high a l k a l i n i t y of the i r r i g a t i o n water. Each year, within a few months of sowing, the pH of the potting mixture had r i s e n to le v e l s of 6.5 to 7.5 and s o i l conductivity was from two to four times the acceptable l e v e l of 300 micromhos (Van Eerden, personal communication). Various methods were used i n an attempt to moderate t h i s s i t u a t i o n ; the use of 215 h i g h l y a c i d peat moss (pH 4.5) i n the p o t t i n g medium, a p p l i c a t i o n s o f .05 Normal s u l p h u r i c a c i d i n the i r r i g a t i o n water, and e x c e s s i v e l e a c h i n g ; however, none of these proved s u c c e s s f u l . D o u g l a s - f i r appeared to be the s p e c i e s most s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d by h i g h a l k a l i n i t y and s a l i n i t y , w i t h western l a r c h and Engelmann spruce e x h i b i t i n g v a r y i n g degrees o f t o l e r a n c e . In 19 75 the Company i n s t a l l e d a r e v e r s e osmosis water p u r i f i e r w i t h a c a p a c i t y o f 1365 l i t r e s per day. Subsequent e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s has s o l v e d the problem, and a c c e p t a b l e s e e d l i n g s can be grown wi t h adequate f e r t i l i z a t i o n . During the coming management p e r i o d a regime w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d t o use the greenhouse t o f u l l c a p a c i t y . In most years i t should be p o s s i b l e t o achieve three pro-d u c t i o n r o t a t i o n s per year a c c o r d i n g t o the f o l l o w i n g annual schedule: Deciduous softwood, cuttings. Mai inUntxnce. 216 Sowing o f c o n i f e r o u s seed w i l l commence i n mid-March o f each year and t h i s stock w i l l be c a r r i e d i n the greenhouse u n t i l l a t e June or e a r l y J u l y , a f t e r which i t i s t r a n s f e r r e d to a l a t h house. Deciduous softwood c u t t i n g s are c o l l e c t e d and p l a n t e d i n l a t e June and e a r l y J u l y and h e l d u n t i l e a r l y September when they are t r a n s f e r r e d t o the lathhouse f o r h a r d e n i n g - o f f . A s h o r t p e r i o d i n September-October i s r e s e r v e d f o r greenhouse maintenance and f u m i g a t i o n . Dormant evergreen c u t t i n g s are c o l l e c t e d i n l a t e October and r o o t e d throughout the w i n t e r w i t h the a i d o f s o i l -warming c a b l e s . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d the a i r temperature i n the greenhouse i s main t a i n e d a t approximately 5° C to p revent the c u t t i n g s from b r e a k i n g dormancy. 6.6 S i t e P r e p a r a t i o n S i t e p r e p a r a t i o n t o r e - e s t a b l i s h s u r f a c e s t a b i l i t y i s one o f the most important phases o f the r e c l a m a t i o n process and, on both r e f u s e and overburden dumps, w i l l undoubtedly be the key to s u c c e s s f u l r e v e g e t a t i o n . O b s e r v a t i o n s on the K a i s e r Resources L t d . o p e r a t i o n , and a review o f r e c l a m a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e , • i n d i c a t e t h a t s l o p e s over 30-35° are u n r e c l a i m a b l e i f they exceed 15 iru i n l e n g t h . Among the recommendations and c o n c l u s i o n s a r i s i n g from the study o f r e c l a m a t i o n on phosphate mines i n the Rocky Mountain r e g i o n o f Idaho and Montana 217 (Sehultz and Ditmer, 19 71) a r e : 1. Growth and s u r v i v a l o f t r e e s and shrubs on 33° (65%) s l o p e s are s e v e r e l y impaired by s u r f a c e i n s t a b i l i t y . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f dumps a t angles o f over 30° s h o u l d be avoided wherever p o s s i b l e , and s l o p e s e i t h e r designed or r e - c o n t o u r e d t o between 22 and 27° (40-50%). 2. Contour t e r r a c i n g i s recommended where sl o p e angles cannot be f l a t t e n e d t o 22 o T e r r a c e s s h o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d a t 25-100 f o o t (7-30 m.) i n t e r v a l s , depending on the degree o f s l o p e , w i t h check dams a t 100 f o o t (30 m.) i n t e r v a l s a l o n g the t e r r a c e . Both t e r r a c e s and check dams should be designed f o r storage o f peak r u n o f f . Two main p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t the degree of r e s l o p i n g p o s s i b l e on r e f u s e and overburden dumps: f i r s t , the c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f the dump i t s e l f , and second, the topo-graphy and the nature o f the area d i r e c t l y below the dump. Pas t r e s l o p i n g o p e r a t i o n s on some o f the s m a l l e r contour s u r f a c e mines a t lower e l e v a t i o n s , e.g. M c G i l l i v r a y ( F i g u r e 22) and 7A and B P i t s , and the r e f u s e dumps i n the M i c h e l V a l l e y have been aimed a t c o n t o u r i n g the waste m a t e r i a l s t o b l e n d w i t h the surrounding landscape. Where 218 219 resloping has not been possible, as was the case with the o l d refuse dumps on the edge of Michel Creek, p a r t i a l slope s t a b i l i t y has been achieved with the use of jute netting. With the overburden dumps on Harmer Ridge, however, the constraints are such that i t i s u n l i k e l y that the f i n a l slope can be reduced to les s than 25°, and portions of the dumps w i l l have to be l e f t at over 30°. As slope angle increases, s t a b i l i t y can be ensured only by reducing the distance between contour terraces. U n t i l experience dictates otherwise the following ad hoo guidelines w i l l be used: Slope Angle V e r t i c a l Interval Between Terraces 24 - 27° 25 - 30 m. 27 - 30° 15 - 25 m. 30+ 7.5 - 15 m. In each slope class the minimum contour i n t e r v a l w i l l be used for highly erodible substances such as oxidized coal and f i n e l y weathered shale, and the maximum contour i n t e r -v a l w i l l be used for less erodible s p o i l s such as g l a c i a l t i l l and those containing a high proportion of coarse rock. Because of the many variables involved, i t i s es s e n t i a l that each dump system be treated as a separate e n t i t y , and that s i t e preparation operations be designed on t h i s basis. An example of the type of design that w i l l be required during resloping i s shown i n Figure 23a, b, and c. Fig. 2o.&.HARMER KNOB 6610'DUMP Original configuration — Proposed r e s l o p i n g mw////// 100 m. Constant slope of 24° Assumes d% expansion of r e w o r k e d material . to N> o ze>° .23b.HARMER KNOB 6700" DUMP Original configuration Proposed resloping minimum 1 0 0 m. Assumes 8% expansion of reworked material. 24° •u/ Fig. 23.c. H A R M E R K N O B 6790" DUMP Original configuration Proposed resloping >»n»i/»i>in 1 0 0 m. _ ^ A s s u m e s 8% expan-sion of r e w o r k e d m a t e r i a l 223 These f i g u r e s show i n i t i a l and p r o j e c t e d dump p r o f i l e s f o r the t h r e e Harmer Knob dumps d e s c r i b e d i n S e c t i o n 3.4.2 above. Roadways, dumping p l a t f o r m s , and maintenance areas become h i g h l y compacted d u r i n g the o p e r a t i o n a l phase of mining. Compaction a l s o o c c u r s , though to a l e s s e r e x t e n t , d u r i n g c o n t o u r i n g and r e s l o p i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y where g l a c i a l t i l l m a t e r i a l s are reworked when mo i s t . Such areas w i l l be r i p p e d w i t h a dozer to a depth o f 1 m. and harrowed b e f o r e seeding and p l a n t i n g . R e s l o p i n g o p e r a t i o n s t o date have been l i m i t e d almost e n t i r e l y t o p r e p a r a t i o n p l a n t r e f u s e p i l e s , and t o the s m a l l outcrop mines a t lower e l e v a t i o n s . The o n l y e x c e p t i o n i s an e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s l o p i n g begun i n 1972 on the Harmer Knob overburden dump. T h i s experiment was t e r m i n a t e d i n 1974 when i t appeared l i k e l y t h a t the Harmer Knob mine would be reopened f o r the p r o d u c t i o n o f thermal c o a l . Computer s i m u l a t i o n s based on data c o l l e c t e d from t h i s e x p e r i m e n t a l work es t i m a t e t h a t the f i n a l c o s t of r e s l o p i n g these dumps w i l l be approximately $3950 (6.3 D8 machine days) per h e c t a r e ( H a r r i s o n , 1975; p e r s o n a l communication). R e s l o p i n g o p e r a t i o n s were c a r r i e d out on seven out-crop mines and one r e f u s e p i l e d u r i n g the p e r i o d 19 71-75. G e n e r a l l y these o p e r a t i o n s i n v o l v e d r e d u c i n g the slope angle o f waste m a t e r i a l s from i n excess o f 33° to 25°, 224 minor terracing, and b a c k - f i l l i n g of the p i t . Machine days and costs i n 1974 d o l l a r s for each of these areas i s presented i n Table 33. Table 33 Resloping Costs For Seven Small Outcrop Mines And A Refuse Bank Area (ha.) Total No. of Machine Days Cost Per Hectare* Preparation Plant Refuse P i l e 7.0 19.5 $ 726 Baldy 1 and 2 Surface Mines 6.0 16.5 696 7 A Surface Mine 4.0 10.0 632 Mc G i l l i v r a y Surface Mine 10.5 43.0 1045 Erickson Surface Mine 12.0 38.0 800 C Seam Surface Mine 5.5 18.0 813 Lower C. Seam Surface Mine 2.5 7.0 736 D Seam Surface Mine 1.5 4.0 842 49.0 156.0 815 * Assuming 19 74 owning and operating costs for a D8 Dozer of $256 per machine day. The only experience to date i n ri p p i n g to a l l e v i a t e surface compaction has been work done on the former Michel Townsite. The old houses were demolished, and the r e s u l t i n g refuse burned and buried during ±970 and the early Spring of 1971. The demolition operations caused considerable s o i l compaction which necessitated ri p p i n g before seeding and planting could be accomplished. The area treated 225 t o t a l l e d 6.5 ha. and r e q u i r e d 1.8 machine days-work. Cost per ha. was $72. a t 1974 machine r a t e s . In i n t e r p r e t i n g t h i s c o s t , i t should be noted t h a t the s o i l s i n t h i s area are g r a v e l l y a l l u v i u m and p r o b a b l y not s u b j e c t to the degree o f compaction one would f i n d i n t i l l m a t e r i a l s , however, the r i p p e r blade was c o n s t a n t l y f o u l i n g on b u r i e d wood and metal r e f u s e which reduced o p e r a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y c o n s i d e r a b l y . 6.7 Seeding Four methods o f a p p l y i n g grass and legume seeds have been used s i n c e the i n c e p t i o n o f the r e c l a m a t i o n programme i n 19 70. During the f i r s t two y e a r s , seed was e i t h e r b r o a d c a s t , u s i n g hand-operated seeders or h e l i c o p t e r , o r a p p l i e d w i t h a hydroseeder. Because o f the f a i l u r e o f b r o a d c a s t s e e d i n g , and the expense o f hydroseeding, there has been a tendency i n subsequent years to use a m o d i f i e d a g r i c u l t u r a l technique o f seeding and harrowing wherever the t e r r a i n i s moderate enough to a l l o w access by machinery. 6.7.1 A e r i a l Seeding The o n l y e x p e r i e n c e w i t h a e r i a l seeding i n t h i s r e c l a m a t i o n programme o c c u r r e d i n 1970 when 55 ha. were t r e a t e d w i t h a h e l i c o p t e r c h a r t e r e d from an a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n s u l t a n t i n C a l g a r y . The areas seeded were a number o f s i t e s d i s t u r b e d d u r i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s , and 226 the s l i d e area r e s u l t i n g from the f a i l u r e o f the waste dumps of the Balmer 10-4 s u r f a c e mine. The c o s t o f t h i s seeding was as f o l l o w s : Seed: 4495 Kgs. @ $1.08 = 4,851.00 (82 kg/ha) F e r r y i n g Time: 4 hrs @ 150.00 = 900.00 Seeding Time: $49.99 per ha. = 2,700.00 Labour (Loading seed hopper) 2 man days § 2 9 . 0 0 = 58.00 T o t a l 8,509.00 Cost per ha. 154.00 I t should be noted t h a t t h i s c o s t does not i n c l u d e f e r t i l -i z a t i o n . Had f e r t i l i z e r been a p p l i e d a t 495 kg. per h e c t a r e , and the same per h e c t a r e a p p l i c a t i o n c o s t assumed, the t o t a l c o s t would have been approximately $230.00 per h e c t a r e . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s o p e r a t i o n were h i g h l y v a r i a b l e . A good growth o f g r a s s and legumes was e s t a b l i s h e d on moderately s l o p i n g areas d i s t u r b e d d u r i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the c o a l p r e p a r a t i o n complex, p a r t i c u l a r l y where o r g a n i c s o i l h o r i z o n s were l a r g e l y i n t a c t . The seeding o f s l o p e s i n excess o f 25-30°, steep cutbanks, and the Balmer 10-4 s l i d e r e s u l t e d i n t o t a l f a i l u r e . 6.7.2 Hand Seeding E i g h t s i t e s , t o t a l l i n g 46 h e c t a r e s , were seeded manually i n 1970 and the e a r l y S p r i n g o f 1971 u s i n g hand-operated "Cyclone" seeders. The average c o s t per h e c t a r e o f these o p e r a t i o n s was as f o l l o w s : 227 Labour .36 man days @ 29.00 = $10.40 Seed 25 kg. @ 0.88 per lb.. = 22.00 F e r t i l i z e r 90 kg. @ $0.11 per kg. = 10.00 T o t a l 42.40 T o t a l c o s t per h e c t a r e f o r the e i g h t s l o p e s ranged from $99-121. The r e s u l t s o f these o p e r a t i o n s c l o s e l y approximated those o f a e r i a l seeding: r e a s o n a b l e ground cover achieved on l i g h t l y d i s t u r b e d areas o f moderate s l o p e ; t o t a l f a i l u r e on more severe s i t e s . The use o f hand seedi n g alone has been s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d i n subsequent y e a r s . 6.7.3 Hydroseeding A 1500 g a l l o n (6825 l i t r e ) c a p a c i t y hydroseeder was purchased by the Company i n 1970. I n i t i a l p l a n s were to use t h i s machine f o r a wide a r r a y o f s e e d i n g o p e r a t i o n s , however, i n view o f the h i g h c o s t o f t h i s technique i t has been l i m i t e d almost e n t i r e l y t o the treatment o f road embankments. The technique o f hydroseeding c o n s i s t s o f the a p p l i c a t i o n o f seed, f e r t i l i z e r and a f i b r o u s m a t e r i a l , such as peat moss or wood pu l p , i n a water s l u r r y ( F i gure 24). The machine owned by K a i s e r Resources L t d . i s manufactured by the Bowie C o r p o r a t i o n and c o n s i s t s o f a 1500 g a l l o n (6825 l i t r e ) tank mounted on a 10 ton Ford t r u c k . The water tank c o n t a i n s an i n t e r n a l a g i t a t o r t o mix the s l u r r y , and the s l u r r y i s a p p l i e d by means o f a h y d r a u l i c 228 F i g u r e 24. The Hydroseeder i n o p e r a t i o n . 4L. 229 monitor mounted on top o f the tank a t the r e a r o f the machine. The maximum seedin g range i n d i c a t e d i n the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r the machine i s 45 m. a t sea l e v e l . E f f e c t i v e seeding range a t Sparwood seldom exceeds 25-30 m. due t o a combination o f e l e v a t i o n and wind c o n d i t i o n s . Normally, the s l u r r y mixture c o n t a i n s 25 kg. o f seed, 90 kg. o f f e r t i l i z e r , and 270 kg. o f peat moss, however, the p r o p o r t i o n s o f seed and peat moss are o f t e n v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o l o c a l s i t e c o n d i t i o n s . Under i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s , a 1500 g a l l o n (6825 l i t r e ) l o a d o f s l u r r y would t r e a t 0.6 h e c t a r e s , however, i n p r a c t i c e the average area covered has been c l o s e r t o 0.3 h e c t a r e s . In a s s e s s i n g the c o s t o f hydro s e e d i n g i t i s u s e f u l t o make a d i s t i n c t i o n between the i n i t i a l treatment o f d i s t u r b e d a r e a s , and the re- t r e a t m e n t o r "beating-up" of p r e v i o u s seedings. During the years 19 70-19 72 i n c l u s i v e , the m a j o r i t y o f the areas hydro-seeded were o f the former type. Costs o f these o p e r a t i o n s are summarized on the f o l l o w i n g page. From 19 72 onwards an i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f the annual hydroseeding o p e r a t i o n has c o n s i s t e d o f the re-treatment of s m a l l p o r t i o n s o f areas seeded i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s . A summary o f the c o s t o f t h i s a c t i v i t y i n 19 72, the o n l y year f o r which c o s t s are r e t r i e v a b l e , i s shown on the f o l l o w i n g page. A c o s t break-down f o r the p e r i o d 1973-75 I n i t i a l Seeding Costs Labour V e h i c l e Year Man Days Cost $ Machine Days Cost $ Seed $ Peat Moss F e r t i l i z e r T o t a l Area Cost Per Treated Hectare (ha,) 1970 51 1479 25.5 1785 2380 1683 1275 8602 33 260.00 1971 38 1216 19.0 1330 2000 1670 875 7091 23 308.00 1972 20 720 10.0 700 1500 686 345 3951 13 304.00 Reseeding Costs 1972 13.5 486 6.75 472.50 575 336 165 2035 10.3 197.60 Labour Costs: 1970 -.29. 00 per man day; 1971 - 32.00 per man day; 1972 - 36.00 per man day, Seed Costs: 1970 - $0. 88 per kg.; 1971 . - $1. 10 per kg. ; 1972 - $1.32 per kg. Peat Moss: $.073 per kg. F e r t i l i z e r : $0.11 per kg. t o o V e h i c l e Cost: $70.00 per machine day. 231 i s not a v a i l a b l e , however, per h e c t a r e c o s t s averaged $186.70. Hydroseeding has g e n e r a l l y , been a very e f f e c t i v e r e c l a m a t i o n t e c hnique. The major f a i l u r e s e x p e r i e n c e d have been on e i t h e r u n s t a b l e s l o p e s or h i g h l y compacted ground. 6.7.4 Seeding and Harrowing S i n c e 19 71 a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the s t a n d a r d a g r i c u l t u r a l s e e d i n g and harrowing has been used on a l l areas a c c e s s i b l e t o machinery. On f l a t o r g e n t l y s l o p i n g ground w i t h l i g h t t e x t u r e d s o i l s , a 4-wheel d r i v e , 35 horse power t r a c t o r and l i g h t - w e i g h t , farm ("diamond") harrows are used. On moderate to s t e e p l y s l o p i n g l a n d , rocky a r e a s , or h e a v i l y compacted s o i l s , a D8 dozer and a s e t of heavy, a r t i c u l a t e d , ground-breaking harrows (Figure 25) have proven most e f f e c t i v e . On s l o p i n g ground, the harrowing must be done a t r i g h t angles t o the s l o p e . The maximum angle a t which t h i s can be accomplished i s approximately 26°. Seed i s spread p r i o r t o harrowing e i t h e r by a t r u c k or tractor-mounted, mechanized hopper, o r manually u s i n g c y c l o n e seeders. The l a t t e r method has'proven most s a t i s f a c t o r y g i v e n the uneven topography o f most r e c l a m a t i o n p r o j e c t s . Tractor-mounted hoppers have been used very e f f i c i e n t l y i n s e e d i n g t a i l i n g s lagoons and d i s t u r b e d i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s . The average s e e d i n g r a t e used has been F i g u r e 25. Heavy, a r t i c u l a t e d harrows. 233 has been approximately 56 kg. per h e c t a r e . Average c o s t s per h e c t a r e f o r the years 1971-73 f o r seeding and harrowing o p e r a t i o n s are shown i n Table 34. I t i s apparent from t h i s t a b l e t h a t the seeding techniques v a r i e d somewhat between y e a r s . In 19 71, o p e r a t i o n s were c o n f i n e d t o the o l d M i c h e l townsite i n the v a l l e y bottom. The ground had been r i p p e d t o break s u r f a c e compaction p r i o r t o seeding. Because the s i t e s were l e v e l , seed was a p p l i e d w i t h a mechanical hopper and the e n t i r e area was harrowed wit h the 35 h.p. t r a c t o r and "diamond" harrows. In 1972, o f the three areas t r e a t e d , one was a s u r f a c e mine and one was a coarse r e f u s e dump. In these ar e a s , steep s l o p e s or rocky ground made machine seedi n g i m p o s s i b l e and a l l seed was spread manually. S i t e c o n d i t i o n s on about o n e - t h i r d o f the area were too severe t o a l l o w harrowing by t r a c t o r , and a D8 dozer was used. In 19 73 the m a j o r i t y o f o p e r a t i o n s were on contour s u r f a c e mines. A l l s e e d i n g was manual, and a l l harrowing was c a r r i e d out w i t h a D8 dozer and heavy a r t i c u l a t e d harrows. I t i s worthy o f note t h a t though tech n i q u e s used d u r i n g the three years v a r i e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y , there was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t o t a l c o s t per h e c t a r e , i f c o s t s are a d j u s t e d t o 1972 r a t e s . A d j u s t e d per h e c t a r e c o s t s f o r the three years are 193.90, 189.70 and 201.05 r e s p e c t i v e l y -a range o f o n l y ± 3 per cent o f the average c o s t . Table 34 Average Costs Per Hectare For Seeding And Harrowing Operations Year Seeding Costs per ha. Harrowing Costs per ha • Average T o t a l Cost Per Hectare Area Treated (ha.) Labour Machinery Seed $ F e r t i l i z e r $ Labour Tractor D8 Dozer Man Days Cost $ Machine Days Cost $ Man Days Cost $ Machine Days Cost $ Machine Days Cost $ 1971 0.42 13.45 0.42 17.70 68.60 24.70 0.69 22.15 0.69 29.15 - - 162.55 44 1972 1.26 42.85 - 83.00 24.70 0.42 14.80 0.37 15.8: 0.02 8.50 189.70 89 1973 1.98 71.15 - 86.45 24.70 0.12 4.95 - 0.12 30.60 217.85 203 Labour Costs: Machine operator: - 1971 - $32.00 per day, 1972 - $36.00 per day, 1973 - $40.00 per day. Labourer (handseeding): - 1972 - $34.00 per day, 1973 - $36.00 per day. Seed Costs: 1971 - $1.10 per kg., 1972 - $1.32 per kg., 1973 - $1.54. F e r t i l i z e r : $0.11 per kg. Equipment Costs: Tractor: $42.00 per machine day. D8 Dozer: $248.00 per machine day. to 235 The major reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t the u n i t - c o s t o f harrowing by D8 dozer i s o n l y 70 per cent o f t h a t f o r the t r a c t o r . The D8 dozer i s able to t r e a t s i x times the area a t o n l y 3.6 times the c o s t , per u n i t o f time. Seeding and harrowing has proved to be the most e f f e c t i v e o f the f o u r seeding methods, and c o n s i s t e n t l y good r e s u l t s have been o b t a i n e d over a wide range o f sit.2 c o n d i t i o n s . 6.7.5 A Comparison o f Methods No q u a n t i t a t i v e assessment o f the r e s u l t s o f v a r i o u s seeding methods under v a r i o u s s i t e c o n d i t i o n s has y e t been c a r r i e d out. However, the f o u r b a s i c methods can be s u b j e c t i v e l y ranked i n o r d e r o f decreasing e f f e c t i v e n e s s as f o l l o w s : Method Seeding and F e r t i l i z i n g Cost Per Hectare (1972 Rates) Seeding and Harrowing 189.70 Hydroseeding 314.90 Handseeding 135.85 A e r i a l Seeding ( i n c l u d i n g f e r t i l i z a t i o n and assuming 10% annual i n f l a t i o n r a t e) 276.65 Experience thus f a r i n the programme i n d i c a t e s t h a t except i n the most l i g h t l y d i s t u r b e d a r e a s , b r o a d c a s t seeding, whether by hand o r a i r , must be r e p e a t e d two to three times 236 to achieve the degree o f v e g e t a t i v e cover from a s i n g l e s e e d i n g and harrowing. Given these comparisons, the f o l l o w i n g u s e - p r e s c r i p t i o n s w i l l apply t o seedin g o p e r a t i o n s d u r i n g the next management p e r i o d : Seeding and Harrowing - W i l l be used wherever p o s s i b l e Hydroseeding Handseeding A e r i a l Seeding W i l l be c o n f i n e d t o slo p e s g r e a t e r than 25° and l e s s than 30 m. i n l e n g t h t h a t are a c c e s s i b l e by road W i l l be used o n l y on l i g h t l y d i s t u r b e d areas or s i t e s i n a c c e s s i b l e t o equipment W i l l be.used o n l y on l i g h t l y d i s t u r b e d areas o r s i t e s i n a c c e s s i b l e t o equipment, where seeding time i s a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r . 6.8 P l a n t i n g The f i r s t p l a n t i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n the programme were c a r r i e d out i n the autumn o f 19 70 and the s p r i n g o f 19 71 by a r e c l a m a t i o n c o n t r a c t o r based a t F o r t S t e e l e near Cranbrook. S i x areas t o t a l l i n g 220 ha. were p l a n t e d a t a spac i n g of 2 x 2 m. A c t u a l p l a n t d e n s i t y v a r i e d from 2225 - 2965 s e e d l i n g s per h e c t a r e . P l a n t i n g stock was 237 b a r e - r o o t e d and predominantly 3 + 0 D o u g l a s - f i r , though s m a l l e r q u a n t i t i e s o f 3 + 0 paper b i r c h , 2 + 3 b l u e spruce, 2 + 3 D o u g l a s - f i r and 2 + 2 Scots p i n e were a l s o used. The c o n t r a c t p r i c e f o r the s i x areas averaged $840 per ha. and v a r i e d from $805 - 915 per ha., depending upon topography and s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . S u r v i v a l counts d u r i n g 1971 r e v e a l e d very h i g h s e e d l i n g m o r t a l i t y on southern aspects - 50-60 per cent f o r s p r i n g p l a n t i n g s and i n excess o f 75 per cent f o r autumn p l a n t i n g s . The d i f f e r e n c e i n s u r v i v a l between s p r i n g and f a l l p l a n t e d s t o c k i s p r o b a b l y r e l a t e d t o the very l i g h t snow cover on these a s p e c t s . Because o f the a c t i o n of wind, a h i g h angle o f s o l a r i n t e r c e p t i o n and the dark c o l o u r o f the s p o i l , snow depth on s o u t h e r l y s l o p e s seldom exceeds a few cms. For much o f the w i n t e r the f o l i a g e o f the s e e d l i n g i s t o t a l l y exposed and t h i s i n e v i t a b l y leads t o moisture l o s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y on sunny days i n l a t e w i n t e r . The r o o t systems o f f a l l p l a n t e d s e e d l i n g s are probably completely f r o z e n and unable t o r e p l a c e l o s t m oisture, r e s u l t i n g i n d e s i c c a t i o n and death. In 1970 a p l a n t i n g experiment was i n i t i a t e d i n co-o p e r a t i o n w i t h the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Three types of p l a n t i n g stock ( b a r e - r o o t , " s t y r o b l o c k " and " b u l l e t " ) o f t h r e e s p e c i e s (Douglasr-f i r , lodgepole p i n e and Engelmann spruce) were p l a n t e d i n both the f a l l o f 1970 and the 238 spring of 1971. The experiment was r e p l i c a t e d on eleven d i f f e r e n t s i t e s ranging i n elevation from 1130 m. to 2075 m. and i n slope from 0 - 18°. Of the eleven s i t e s , two were north facing, two were west facing, four were south facing, one was east facing and two were on l e v e l ground. The f i n a l assessment of t h i s experiment was i n the spring of 1972 and the r e s u l t s , presented by Lowenberger (1973), were as follows: 1. Survival of spring planted seedling was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than that for f a l l p lanting. 2. Lodgepole pine had better s u r v i v a l and growth rates than the other two species. 3. Growth and s u r v i v a l of styroblock seedlings was superior to the other two types of planting stock. Poorest r e s u l t s were obtained with b u l l e t seedlings. 4. Survival and growth was poor for a l l combinations of planting stock, species, and planting season on south facing slopes, on compacted ground and at elevations below 1220 m. As a r e s u l t of these studies, f a l l planting was abandoned i n 19 71 and no further planting was done on d i r e c t southerly aspects. In 1972 the previous practice of planting at 2 x 2 m. spacing was discontinued and planting 239 crews were i n s t r u c t e d t o s e l e c t p l a n t i n g s i t e s on the b a s i s o f f a v o u r a b l e micro-topography. Even on an area of g e n e r a l l y s o u t h e r l y a s p e c t , t o p o g r a p h i c v a r i a t i o n i s such t h a t a l l aspects are p r e s e n t . In a d d i t i o n , t r e e s are p l a n t e d i n the shade o f rocks and hummocks, and i n d e p r e s s i o n s where r u n o f f waters c o l l e c t . The number o f t r e e s p l a n t e d per acre under t h i s technique w i l l o b v i o u s l y vary depending on the nature o f the s i t e . For example, the average number of t r e e s per h e c t a r e f o r the 19 72, 19 73 and 1974 p l a n t i n g programmes were 1830, 1160 and 900 r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n i t i a l assessments o f these p l a n t i n g s i n d i c a t e s u r v i v a l r a t e s o f between 65 and 85 per c e n t . Thus, i n c o n t r a s t to the o r i g i n a l p l a n t i n g t e c h n i q u e , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t the same member o f v i g o r o u s t r e e s per u n i t area can be o b t a i n e d from between 30 and 60 per c e n t o f the number o f s e e d l i n g s . In 19 72, 3 + 0 D o u g l a s - f i r was purchased from a l o c a l n u r s e r y a t a c o s t o f $35.00 per thousand. In 1973 and 19 74 the Company n u r s e r y p r o v i d e d p l a n t i n g stock f o r the e n t i r e programme. The main s p e c i e s and ages used d u r i n g these years were 1 + 0 b l a c k cottonwood, 2 + 0 Manitoba maple, 3 + 0 European white b i r c h , 3 + 0 D o u g l a s - f i r and 3 + 0 lodgepole p i n e . I f p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s f o r Company-r a i s e d stock are assumed a t $110 per thousand, (see S e c t i o n 6.5.3) p l a n t i n g c o s t s f o r the three years were as f o l l o w s : 240 Cost Per Hectare Area Planted (ha.) Labour Seedlings Year Man Days Cost No. Per Ha. Cost Total Cost Per Ha. 1972 29.4 5.2 175 .40 1830 64.20 239.60 1973 42.1 3.7 119.40 1160 127.70 247.10 1974 77.0 2.7 103.10 900 99.20 202.30 6.9 Tending 6.9.1 I r r i g a t i o n Fine refuse lagoons are composed almost e n t i r e l y of carbonaceous shales and high-ash coals. These materials, being very dark i n colour, surface-dry very quickly and t h e i r low density, f r i a b l e texture and lack of i n t e r n a l cohesion makes them extremely susceptible to wind erosion. For t h i s reason, attempts to seed the A and B fine refuse lagoons during the early spring of 1972 resulted i n t o t a l f a i l u r e . During the summer of.1972 an i r r i g a t i o n system was rented and used for four months on the B lagoon. The system consisted of a mainline l a i d down the centre of the lagoon and two sets of l a t e r a l s . The l a t e r a l l i n e s were moved by hand once or twice d a i l y so that each area of the lagoon was i r r i g a t e d every second or t h i r d day during dry weather. Total cost per hectare for the four months was $647, comprising $417 for equipment r e n t a l and $230 241 (6.9 man days) f o r the l a b o u r o f moving p i p e s . -The r e f u s e lagoons, l o c a t e d i n the E l k V a l l e y c l o s e t o r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , are s u b j e c t both t o the a i r p o l l u t i o n by-laws o f the D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Sparwood and to p u b l i c p r e s s u r e . I r r i g a t i o n i s a v e r y e f f e c t i v e method o f dust abatement w h i l e v e g e t a t i o n i s becoming e s t a b l i s h e d and, thus, a p o r t i o n o f the c o s t can be j u s t i f i e d on the b a s i s o f i t s p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l f u n c t i o n . 6.9.2 F e r t i l i z a t i o n Supplementary f e r t i l i z a t i o n i s c a r r i e d out a n n u a l l y on a l l seeded and p l a n t e d a r e a s . Standard p r a c t i c e i s the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a b a l a n c e d f e r t i l i z e r such as 14.14.7 a t 225 kg. per ha. u s i n g e i t h e r "Cyclone" hand-seeders o r the hydroseeder. The c o s t o f a p p l i c a t i o n has ranged from an average o f $43.95 per ha. i n 1972 when 40.5 ha. were t r e a t e d , to $56.80 per ha. i n 19 74 when 54 ha. were t r e a t e d . Labour c o s t s have averaged between 0.6 and 0.8 o f a man day per ha. The p e r i o d over which supplementary f e r t i l i z a t i o n w i l l be r e q u i r e d on v a r i o u s s p o i l types i s unknown. Pre s e n t p r a c t i c e i s to permanently d i s c o n t i n u e f e r t i l i z a t i o n a f t e r t h r e e years u n l e s s p l a n t s show obvious s i g n s of n u t r i t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c i e s . One o f the major aspects o f the assessment programme (see S e c t i o n 6.12) w i l l be t o monitor both p l a n t p r o d u c t i v i t y and c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n i n order to determine 242 i f t h e n u t r i e n t s t a t u s o f a s i t e i s s u f f i c i e h t "to s u p p o r t a permanent v e g e t a t i o n c o v e r . 6.10 T o t a l R e c l a m a t i o n C o s t s T o t a l c o s t s p e r h e c t a r e o f r e c l a m a t i o n , and c o s t p e r h e c t a r e by t r e a t m e n t f o r e i g h t e e n s i t e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 35. The i n c l u s i o n o f t h e s e s i t e s i n t h e t a b l e does n o t i m p l y t h a t t h e y a r e f u l l y r e c l a i m e d . The judgement o f whether o r n o t a s i t e i s r e c l a i m e d w i l l be made by t h e assessment programme d e s c r i b e d below. These s i t e s have, however, r e c e i v e d t h e complete p r o c e s s o f r e c l a m a t i o n t r e a t m e n t s and a r e now i n t h e " t e n d i n g s t a g e " . No f u r t h e r work w i l l be done on t h e s e s i t e s , e x c e p t s u p p l e m e n t a r y , f e r t i l i z a t i o n f o r t h r e e y e a r s , u n l e s s t h e y f a i l i n t h e assessment p r o c e s s t o meet r e c l a m a t i o n s t a n d a r d s . Two t h i n g s must be k e p t i n mind when i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e t a b l e : 1. Where o n l y a p o r t i o n o f a s i t e r e c e i v e d a p a r t i c u l a r t r e a t m e n t , the p e r - h e c t a r e c o s t i s r e l a t e d o n l y t o the t r e a t e d a r e a , i . e . average c o s t p e r ha. o f r e s l o p i n g on t h e 7A s u r f a c e mine i s $632.00 based on work done on 4 h e c t a r e s . When computing t o t a l c o s t p e r ha. f o r t h e s i t e , a l l c o s t s a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e t o t a l a r e a , i . e . t o t a l c o s t o f r e s l o p i n g on t h e 7A s u r f a c e mine Table 35 To t a l Reclamation Coat and Cost by Operation f o r Eighteen Sites T o t a l Area Type and Name of Area Treated (ha.) Cost per ha. f o r various operations ($) T o t a l Cost Year of Resloping Ripping Seeding* Planting I r r i g a t i o n F e r t i l i z a t i o n ° f A 1 1 ° P e " t i o n s Treatment per ha. ($) Contour Mines 7A 9.8 632 (4.0) - 183 (H) 118 (5.9) - 128 640 1972 7B 5.3 54 (M) 225 (2.3) - 109 388 1972 Baldy 1 and 2 6.1 696 - 175 (H) 365 - 133 1371 1972,73474 Baldy 4 15.0 - - 170 (M) 326 (9.1) - 74 496 1972 McGilli v r a y 10.5 1045 - 225 (H) 188 - 47 1504 1972&73 Erickson 16.6 1800 (12.1) - 163 (H) 200 (12.2) - 62 958 1973&74 C Seam 5.8 813 - 207 (H) 452 - 57 1529 1973S74 Lower C Seam 2.4 736 - 202 (H) 245 - 82 1265 1973 D Seam 1.6 842 - 160 (HO 326 - . 54 1383 1973&74 Average cost per ha. by operation 795 - 170 272 • _ •; ; 84 1060 Town and I n d u s t r i a l S i t e s Elkview Preparation Plant 14.8 - - 156 (A) 840 - 185 1180 1970 Michel Townsite A 1.8 - 89 183 (H) 279 ' - 126 677 1971 Michel Townsite B 1.2 - 67 170 (H) 232 - 148 618 1971 Michel Townsite C 3.5 - 67 165 (H) 235 - 119 617 1971 Hydraulic Mine S i t e 3.7 - 140 138 (H) - . _ 163 442 1971 Elkview Conveyor 5.5 - ' _ ^ 8 9 (M) 203 ; - . 104 395 1972 Average cost per ha. by operation . ' 91 151 358 : . ' ' ' - 1 4 1 655 Refuse Banks Michel Preparation Plant 6.9 726 - 237-(H&Hy) 195 - 128 1287 1972&73 Refuse Lagoons A Lagoon 4.5 - 212 (H) 156 - 42 410 1973&74 B Lagoon 5.7 - 165 (H) 131 647 124 1065 1972&73 Average cost per ha. by operation 188 143 647 84 736 244 i s $2528.00 (4 ha. x $632 .00). Thus the r e s l o p i n g component o f the t o t a l c o s t per h e c t a r e i s $258 ($2528.00 T 9.8 h e c t a r e s ) . 2„ Average c o s t s f o r each o p e r a t i o n are based o n l y \ on the s p e c i f i c area t r e a t e d i n t h a t o p e r a t i o n . Thus the average c o s t per ha. f o r i r r i g a t i o n i s $647.00, based on the one lagoon t h a t was i r r i g a t e d Average t o t a l c o s t o f a l l o p e r a t i o n s , on the o t h e r hand, i s based ori the t o t a l area s u b j e c t to r e c l a m a t i o n . Views o f some o f the areas i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e 35 are shown i n F i g u r e s 26-29. 6.11 Reclamation o f E x p l o r a t i o n O p e r a t i o n s The nature and h i s t o r y o f K a i s e r Resources L t d . ' s e x p l o r a t i o n programme has been d e s c r i b e d i n S e c t i o n 3.5 above. In summary: During the years 196 8-75, the Company c a r r i e d out one o f the most ambitious and e x t e n s i v e c o a l e x p l o r a t i o n programmes ever undertaken i n the E a s t Kootenay c o a l b e l t . During the years 1969-72 there was very l i t t l e p r e p l a n n i n g o f e x p l o r a t i o n e i t h e r f o r o p e r a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y or e v e n t u a l r e c l a m a t i o n , and minimal c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the adverse environmental e f f e c t s o f poor e x p l o r a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . In 1973 the Department o f Mines and Petroleum Resources r e f u s e d to renew the Company's Surf a c e Work Permit c o v e r i n g 245 Some areas which have received a f u l l range of reclamation operations. • Figure 28. T a i l i n g s lagoon A. F i g u r e 29. E l k v i e w conveyor r i g h t - o f - w a y . 248 e x p l o r a t i o n u n t i l an e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s t a t e m e n t had been p r e p a r e d , and a programme o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n had been i n s t i t u t e d . B.C. R e s e a r c h c a r r i e d o u t t h e s t u d y , w h i c h i n c l u d e d an assessment o f a l l p a s t e x p l o r a t i o n and an e n v i r o n m e n t a l s e n s i t i v i t y r a t i n g f o r a l l s i x main c e n t r e s o f e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e p o r t recommended t h a t : 1. A s i t e - s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s be s e t up f o r a l l f u t u r e e x p l o r a t i o n programmes i n w h i c h t h e c o a l g e o l o g i s t and t h e r e c l a m a t i o n b i o l o g i s t work t o g e t h e r as e q u a l s . 2. G r e a t e r o n - s i t e s u p e r v i s i o n be p r o v i d e d i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r a d a t i o n , and t o f a c i l i t a t e e v e n t u a l r e c l a m a t i o n . 3. F u t u r e work s h o u l d conform t o " R e c l a m a t i o n G u i d e l i n e s f o r E x p l o r a t i o n " p r o d u c e d by t h e Department o f Mines and P e t r o l e u m Resources (see A p p e n d i x I V ) . The c o n c e p t t h a t r e c l a m a t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y b e g i n s w i t h o p e r a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g appears w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , a t l e a s t i n r e g a r d t o e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , w i t h b o t h Company management p e r s o n n e l and t h e • E x p l o r a t i o n Department. The f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e has been used f o r e x p l o r a t i o n p l a n n i n g i n 1974 and 19 75 and w i l l c o n t i n u e t h r o u g h o u t the coming management p e r i o d : 249 Each e x p l o r a t i o n area i s a s s i g n e d to a g e o l o g i s t , whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t i s t o ensure t h a t e n v i r o n -m e n t a l l y compatible p r a c t i c e s are employed. The g e o l o g i s t p r e p a r e s a p r e l i m i n a r y working p l a n , w i t h o p e r a t i o n s mapped a t a s c a l e o f 1:24,000. The p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n i s then reviewed w i t h the r e c l a m a t i o n b i o l o g i s t who may suggest amendments and w i l l note areas o f env i r o n m e n t a l s e n s i t i v i t y r e q u i r i n g more d e t a i l e d p l a n n i n g . T h i s d e t a i l e d p l a n n i n g w i l l then be c a r r i e d out and mapped a t a s c a l e o f 1:4800. Before c o n s t r u c t i o n b e g i n s , the l o c a t i o n o f a l l proposed a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be d e l i n e a t e d on the ground and a f i n a l o n - s i t e i n s p e c t i o n c a r r i e d out by b i o l o g i s t and g e o l o g i s t t o g e t h e r . The r e c l a m a t i o n b i o l o g i s t has the a u t h o r i t y t o stop any work which he f e e l s i s n o t up t o the r e q u i r e d standard, and t o i n s i s t on c o r r e c t i v e measures. During the p e r i o d o f a c t i v e e x p l o r a t i o n , adverse environmental e f f e c t s w i l l be m i t i g a t e d by s t r i c t adherence t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance p r e s c r i p t i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n "Reclamation G u i d e l i n e s For E x p l o r a t i o n " (Appendix I X ) . Reclamation w i l l be undertaken o n l y when the g e o l o g i s t i n charge o f a g i v e n a r e a d e c l a r e s i t t o be permanently dormant and u n l i k e l y t o be mined. Both the B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e and Crowsnest I n d u s t r i e s Co. L t d . have i n d i c a t e d 250 t h e i r d e s i r e t h a t the main e x p l o r a t i o n r o a d s on l a n d under t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n become permanent f i r e a c c e s s r o a d s . The s e l e c t i o n o f t h e s e permanent a c c e s s r o a d s w i l l be made j o i n t l y by K a i s e r Resources L t d . , Crowsnest I n d u s t r i e s Co. L t d . , t h e B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , and t h e B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h . D r a i n a g e c o n t r o l w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e s e r o a d s , and c u t / f i l l s l o p e s s t a b i l i z e d but t h e r o a d s u r f a c e s w i l l n o t be r e v e g e t a t e d . Once s t a b i l i z a t i o n measures a r e X c o m p l e t e d t h e s e f i r e a c c e s s r o a d s w i l l be f o r m a l l y c o n s i g n e d t o t h e p e r t i n e n t agency. Secondary r o a d s n o t s e l e c t e d f o r permanent a c c e s s w i l l be t o t a l l y r e v e g e t a t e d . D e t a i l s o f t h i s r o a d r e c l a m a t i o n programme a r e as f o l l o w s : A. Measures t o C o n t r o l E r o s i o n and Sediment Flow on a l l Roads. 1. Treatment o f Road S u r f a c e s The o b j e c t o f d r a i n a g e s t r u c t u r e s on r o a d s u r f a c e s i s t o p r e v e n t t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n and f l o w o f r u n o f f w a t e r a l o n g t h e r o a d s u r f a c e . The two most common methods a r e : (a) C r o s s D r a i n s The s p a c i n g o f c r o s s d r a i n s w i l l v a r y depending upon s o i l t y p e , a s p e c t , r o a d grade and t h e s t e e p n e s s o f t h e s l o p e above t h e r o a d . 251 (b) Outsloping A l l roads b u i l t on the contour or on near l e v e l grade w i l l be outsloped except where deep f i l l s e x i s t . 2. Treatment of Cut and F i l l Slopes (a) Cut and f i l l slopes w i l l be s t a b i l i z e d mechanically with windrows of brush and logs and then revegetated with shrubs and grass. (b) Berms w i l l be constructed on road edges above f i l l slopes to d i v e r t water onto more stable areas. Where t h i s i s not possible, downspouts w i l l be b u i l t the length of the f i l l slope. B. Treatment of Secondary Roads 1. A l l secondary roads w i l l be ditched at t h e i r junction with permanent f i r e access roads to prevent vehicular access. 2. A l l stream channels w i l l be restored by the removal of culverts and bridges. 3. A l l road surfaces w i l l be revegetated a f t e r s i t e preparation to break surface compaction. Trenches and t e s t p i t s w i l l be b a c k f i l l e d p r i o r to revegetation wherever possible. Where b a c k f i l l i n g i s not p r a c t i c a l , the area w i l l be resloped. Surface runoff w i l l 252 be d i v e r t e d around p i t s and t r e n c h e s by i n t e r c e p t o r d i t c h e s . Cut banks r e s u l t i n g from d r i l l s i t e s and a d i t s w i l l be b a c k - f i l l e d as f a r as p o s s i b l e , and the waste m a t e r i a l below the p l a t f o r m r e s l o p e d t o a maximum o f 20°. Surface r u n o f f w i l l be d i v e r t e d around such s i t e s by i n t e r c e p t o r d i t c h e s . A-j a r e s u l t o f the i n d i s c r i m i n a t e e x p l o r a t i o n p r a c t i c e s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d the programmes from 1969 to 1972, many areas o f extreme i n s t a b i l i t y have been c r e a t e d t h a t are not amenable t o c o n v e n t i o n a l r e c l a m a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . S t a b i l i z a t i o n o f such areas w i l l , o f n e c e s s i t y , r e q u i r e s i t e - s p e c i f i c d e s i g n and treatment. Spe c i e s mixtures f o r e x p l o r a t i o n areas w i l l be the same as those p r e s c r i b e d f o r the r e c l a m a t i o n o f mine s i t e s (see T a b l e 22, S e c t i o n 6.3.1); however, e x p l o r a t i o n s i t e s w i l l r e c e i v e an a d d i t i o n a l 20.pounds per acre o f sweet c l o v e r as a temporary nurse crop and s o i l s t a b i l i z e r . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t the n u r s e r i e s w i l l be a b l e to p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t p l a n t i n g s t o c k f o r e x p l o r a t i o n s i t e s g i v e n the geographic and e l e v a t i o n a l d i v e r s i t y o f these o p e r a t i o n s . I t i s recommended t h a t t r e e s and shrubs be t r a n s p l a n t e d from a d j a c e n t u n d i s t u r b e d areas e i t h e r i n e a r l y s p r i n g o r l a t e f a l l . Very l i t t l e r e c l a m a t i o n has been accomplished to date on e x p l o r a t i o n a r e a s . I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t e x p l o r a t i o n 253 r e c l a m a t i o n w i l l comprise a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f the r e c l a m a t i o n programme d u r i n g the coming management p e r i o d . 6.12 Assessment o f R e s u l t s The o b j e c t i v e s o f a management e n t e r p r i s e r e p r e s e n t the d e s i r e d end r e s u l t o f a g i v e n programme and, as such, must be formulated i n such a way t h a t they are measurable. One o f the most important components o f any management programme i s a s y s t e m a t i c approach t o e v a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the programme i n terms o f i t s s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s . In S e c t i o n 6.1 the o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s r e c l a m a t i o n programme were s t a t e d as: 1. To r e - e s t a b l i s h watershed v a l u e s as soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r the c e s s a t i o n o f mining a c t i v i t i e s on any s p e c i f i c a r e a , and 2. To accomplish watershed r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n a manner t h a t i s compatible w i t h the p o t e n t i a l prime s u r f a c e use o f the l a n d , and c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p o s t - m i n i n g s i t e c o n d i t i o n s . F o r reasons p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , the most important s u r f a c e - u s e o b j e c t i v e on a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f the K a i s e r mining p r o p e r t y i s the p r o v i s i o n . o f food and cover f o r w i l d l i f e , p a r t i c u l a r l y mule deer, Rocky mountain e l k , and moose. On ar e a s where the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f w i l d l i f e 2 5 4 habitat i s not p r a c t i c a l , the major surface-use objective w i l l be to create a v i s u a l l y - p l e a s i n g landscape. The evaluation of t h i s reclamation programme w i l l focus p r i m a r i l y on watershed and w i l d l i f e habitat parameters. (a) Watershed Restoration Within the context of a reclamation programme the most pertinent watershed parameters are thoce r e l a t i n g to water q u a l i t y and protective cover. As noted elsewhere i n t h i s t h e s i s , l i t t l e baseline information on water q u a l i t y e x i s t s for the Fernie Basin, p a r t i c u l a r l y for the smaller watersheds on which reclamation assessment programmes would be c a r r i e d out. I t should be possible, however, to monitor any improvement i n water q u a l i t y on reclaimed watersheds. The parameters to be measured would include pH, dissolved oxygen, colour, t u r b i d i t y (Jackson T u r b i d i t y U n i t s ) , suspended s o l i d s ( n o n - f i l t e r a b l e residue) and dissolved s o l i d s ( f i l t e r a b l e residue) (Harrison, 1977). Such a programme could be c a r r i e d out by Kaiser Resources Ltd.'s P o l l u t i o n Control Section as an extension of the e x i s t i n g water q u a l i t y sampling programme. The second component of watershed s t a b i l i t y i s protective cover. Protective cover i s defined by G i f f o r d and Hawkins (19 76) as follows: 255 Protective cover i s the f r a c t i o n (per cent) of plant and/or l i t t e r cover on an a e r i a l basis. Occasionally t h i s d e f i n i t i o n includes small rocks. We assume that plant, l i t t e r , and rock cover are desirable from the standpoint of water-shed protection. Other terms used . . . such as cover density, density, ground cover, and vegetation density a l l r e f e r to protective cover as defined above. Since 19 74, s t a f f of the Reclamation Department have been measuring protective cover on reclaimed s i t e s . The method used has been the point frame sampling technique reviewed by Hutchings and Pase (1962) . In using t h i s technique, protective cover i s further subdivided into ground cover, defined as the proportion of s o i l surface occupied by vegetation, l i t t e r or small rocks; and f o l i a g e cover, defined as the proportion of the s o i l surface covered by the v e r t i c a l p r o j e c t i o n of herbage at a s p e c i f i e d stage i n annual plant growth. Using the point frame sampling technique i t i s possible to determine the species com-po s i t i o n of both ground and fo l i a g e cover. A summary of 1974 protective cover measurements i s shown i n Table 36. Thus f a r , sampling has been l i m i t e d to disturbed s i t e s treated i n the reclamation programme. Information i s required on natural l e v e l s of protective cover on comparable undisturbed s i t e s as a standard against which reclamation success can be judged. Table 36 Pr o t e c t i v e Cover Measurements by Slope and Aspect f o r Three Reclamation S i t e s (a) Ground Cover (%) Aspect Slope Class By S i t e Michel Refuse Dump M c G i l l i v r a y Surface Mine Erickson Surface Mine 0 - 15° 15 - 30° 0 - 15° 15 - 30° 0 - 15° 15 - 30°