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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Reclamation of strip mine overburden through tree planting Lowenberger, Frederick John 1973

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RECLAMATION OF STRIP MINE OVERBURDEN THROUGH TREE PLANTING "by FREDERICK JOHN LOWENBERGER B.S.F., University of British Columbia, 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF FORESTRY in the Department of Forestry We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MARCH, 1973 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia , I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r re ference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copy ing or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of F o r e s t r y The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada i i i ABSTRACT K a i s e r Resources L i m i t e d i s e x t r a c t i n g c o a l from a major s t r i p min ing o p e r a t i o n near Sparwood, B . C . I n s p i t e of the recogn ized economic b e n e f i t s which accrue from t h i s mine, s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n must he g iven to i t s p o t e n t i a l d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s . Problem areas i n c l u d e a c c e l e r a t e d e r o s i o n , water p o l l u t i o n , danger of s l i d e s and a b a r r e n landscape i n and around the mine. A r e c l a m a t i o n program has been i n i t i a t e d t o minimize these problems. I t i n c l u d e s land-use p l a n n i n g , p h y s i c a l a l t e r a t i o n of topography, revegeta-t i o n and subsequent t e n d i n g of r e c l a i m e d l a n d . T h i s t h e s i s i s r e l a t e d t o the r e v e g e t a t i o n aspect of the above program i n t h a t i t i n v e s t i g a t e s the f e a s i b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g and growing c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s on overburden. Development of p l a n t a t i o n s on these mine wastes f i t s w e l l i n t o the o v e r a l l r e c l a m a t i o n p l a n as seventy percent of the area t o be r e c l a i m e d i s b e s t s u i t e d t o growing t r e e s . I n a d d i t i o n , . t r e e s p r o v i d e a s u i t a b l e l ong- te rm means of m i n i m i z i n g e r o s i o n and p o l l u t i o n . F i e l d work c a r r i e d out t o prov ide necessary data i n c l u d e d the e s t ab l i shment o f s p r i n g and f a l l r e p l i c a t i o n s of ten sample p l o t s on mined s i t e s around M i c h e l and N a t a l . One p l o t was a l s o set out on a s m a l l i n a c t i v e a rea a t the h i g h e l e v a t i o n mine s i t e on Harmer Ridge . The p l o t s were s i t u a t e d and des igned so t h a t the e f f e c t s o f s i t e , e l e v a t i o n , spec ies c h o i c e , type of p l a n t i n g and t ime of p l a n t i n g on s u r v i v a l and growth c o u l d be s t u d i e d . P l a n t i n g was c a r r i e d out d u r i n g September 1970 and May 1971-The f i n a l c o l l e c t i o n of da ta took p l ace d u r i n g May 1972. i v R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t r e e s a r e s u i t a b l e f o r u s e i n t h e r e v e g e t a t i o n o f t h e r e s i d u a l s o f t h e K a i s e r m i n e . A n a l y s i s r e v e a l s s p r i n g p l a n t i n g s u r v i v a l t o b e m u c h h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o b t a i n e d f r o m f a l l p l a n t i n g . T r e e s g r o w n i n t h e o r g a n i c s o i l p l u g p r o t o t y p e c o n t a i n e r s h o w b e t t e r s u r v i v a l a n d g r o w t h t h a n d o b a r e - r o o t s e e d l i n g s o r s t o c k g r o w n i n p l a s t i c b u l l e t s . T h e o p t i m u m a g e o f p l a n t i n g s t o c k a p p e a r s t o b e t w o y e a r s . T r e e s w e r e s u c c e s s f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d o v e r a w i d e r a n g e o f e l e v a t i o n s . O f t h e t h r e e s p e c i e s p l a n t e d , D o u g l a s - f i r , , l o & g e p o l e p i n e a n d E n g e l m a n n s p r u c e , l o d g e p o l e p i n e d i d b e s t b e t w e e n e l e v a t i o n s o f 3500 t o 5000 f e e t . A b o v e 5000 f e e t E n g e l m a n n s p r u c e g a v e s u p e r i o r r e s u l t s . H i g h m o r t a l i t y o c c u r r e d o n c o m p a c t e d s i t e s a n d s o u t h f a c i n g s l o p e s . S u c c e s s f u l r e f o r e s t a t i o n o f c o m p a c t e d a r e a s w i l l r e q u i r e s o m e f o r m o f s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n t o t a k e p l a c e p r i o r t o p l a n t i n g . P l a n t s o t h e r t h a n t r e e s , s u c h a s s h r u b s a n d g r a s s e s , s h o u l d b e u s e d t o r e g e n e r a t e s o u t h s l o p e s . S u c c e s s f u l p l a n t a t i o n e s t a b l i s h m e n t w i l l b e d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e c o n t r o l o f b o t h e r o s i o n a n d a c c i d e n t a l d a m a g e . P r o p e r p l a n n i n g a t t h e h i g h e s t t m a n a g e m e n t l e v e l w i l l b e r e q u i r e d t o m i n i m i z e a c c i d e n t a l d a m a g e w h i l e a v a r i e t y o f s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s w i l l h a v e t o b e u t i l i z e d t o c o n t r o l e r o s i o n . F u r t h e r s t u d i e s o f r e c l a m a t i o n p r o b l e m s a r e s t i l l r e q u i r e d t o e n s u r e s u c c e s s f u l l o n g - t e r m r e s u l t s . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r e t h e r e f o r e s u g g e s t e d . V T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S P a g e T I T L E P A G E i A B S T R A C T i i i T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S . ; v L I S T O F T A B L E S v i i L I S T OF F I G U R E S v i i i L I S T OF A P P E N D I C E S i x A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S x C H A P T E R 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 1.1 T h e K a i s e r S c e n e 1 1.2 E n v i r o n m e n t a l E f f e c t s o f t h e M i n e k 1.3 T h e S c o p e o f R e c l a m a t i o n 5 l.k- K a i s e r R e s o u r c e s R e c l a m a t i o n P l a n 5 1.5 R e s e a r c h O b j e c t i v e s 7 1.6 T h e U s e o f T r e e s 7 C H A P T E R 2 T H E S T U D Y A R E A 9 C H A P T E R 3 P L O T L A Y O U T A N D E S T A B L I S H M E N T 12 C H A P T E R k S T O C K P L A N T E D 16 C H A P T E R 5 R E S U L T S 19 5.1 L o w E l e v a t i o n R e s u l t s . . . 19 5.1.1 S u r v i v a l R a t e s 19 5 .1 .1 .1 S p r i n g P l a n t i n g R e s u l t s 2 2 v i Page 5 .1 .1 .1 .1 S p e c i e s / C o n t a i n e r Combinat ion Comparisons 22 5 .1 .1 .1 .2 S i t e Comparisons 23 5 .1 .1 .2 F a l l P l a n t i n g R e s u l t s 25 5.1.2 Growth Rates 25 5 .1 .2 .1 S p r i n g P l a n t i n g R e s u l t s 26 5 .1 .2 .2 F a l l P l a n t i n g R e s u l t s 27 5.1.3 V i g o u r 28 5.2 H igh A l t i t u d e R e s u l t s 28 5.3 A n i m a l Damage 29 5.k I n d u s t r i a l Damage 30 5.5 E r o s i o n 31 CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 33 6.1 P l a n t i n g Season D i f f e r e n c e s 33 6.2 Species Comparison 35 6.3 Comparison of P l a n t i n g Methods 38 G.h S i t e Comparison ho 6.5 A n i m a l Damage hi 6.6 A c c i d e n t a l D e s t r u c t i o n hi 6.7 E r o s i o n C o n t r o l ^3 CHAPTER 7 FUTURE COURSE OF ACTION h-5 CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS h6 BIBLIOGRAPHY 48 APPENDICES 51 v i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page I - P o t e n t i a l Prime Surface Use o f the K a i s e r Resources L i m i t e d M i n i n g Areas 6 I I - C l i m a t i c Data f o r Spar-wood, B.C 9 I I I - S u r v i v a l R e s u l t s from P l o t s 1 t o 10 20 IV - S p r i n g P l a n t i n g S u r v i v a l Rates 22 V - S i t e S u r v i v a l Rates f o r S p r i n g P l a n t i n g 2k V I - Average Growth A f t e r One Growing Season 26 V I I - Growth Rate Ranking f o r S p r i n g P l a n t i n g 27 V I I I - High E l e v a t i o n T r i a l R e s u l t s 28 IX - Browsing Occurrence 30 X - P l o t s Damaged Through I n d u s t r i a l A c t i v i t y 30 X I - P l o t Damage Due t o E r o s i o n 31 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES F igure Page 1 Map of the p r o j e c t area 10 2 E s t ab l i shment o f the f a l l p l a n t i n g r e p l i c a t i o n 15 3 The p l a s t i c b u l l e t and s tyrofoam p l u g c o n t a i n e r s . . . . 17 k- Sheet e r o s i o n r e s u l t s a t P l o t 6 32 5 F r o s t heaving 3^ i x LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix Page I - D e s c r i p t i o n of P l o t S i t e s 51 I I - E x p e r i m e n t a l Des ign 55 I I I - O r i g i n a l S e e d l i n g Height s 58 IV - F i n a l P l o t R e s u l t s 8 l V - S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s 105 V I - Root Development . . . . • 115 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS S e v e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s cooperated i n the development o f t h i s p r o j e c t . P a r t i c u l a r mention should be g i v e n t o : - Mr . J . M . K inghorn and Mr. E . Van Eerden of the P a c i f i c Research Centre i n V i c t o r i a who s u p p l i e d a l l c o n t a i n e r p l a n t i n g s tock f o r the s tudy. - Mr . E.W. Robinson of the B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t S e r v i c e who p r o v i d e d the Engelmann spruce b a r e - r o o t p l a n t i n g s tock . - Mr . J . D i c k of K a i s e r Resources L i m i t e d who p r o v i d e d a work f o r c e t o e s t a b l i s h the o u t p l a n t i n g t r i a l s and has ma inta ined these t r i a l s t o the present t ime . - D r . J . W o r r a l l , Dr . J . V . Th i rgood and Dr . P . G . Haddock of the F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia who ac ted as f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s . 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 The K a i s e r Scene The K a i s e r Resources L i m i t e d c o a l mine i s o n l y one of s e v e r a l l a rge mines which have been developed i n B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g the past f i v e years and which i n c l u d e , f o r example, s i t e s i n the H i g h l a n d V a l l e y and the Utah mine near P o r t Hardy. The K a i s e r mine i s unique , however, i n t h a t no other has. appeared on the scene w i t h more c o n t r o v e r s y . R e a c t i o n t o the announcement t h a t t h i s l a r g e s t r i p mine, l o c a t e d i n the Crow's Nest r e g i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia R o c k i e s , was t o be e s t a b l i s h e d was b o t h s w i f t and c r i t i c a l . P u b l i c concern over the development was h i g h and i t s tone was r e f l e c t e d i n head l ine s i n l o c a l newspapers such as "The Land i s Raped f o r C o a l " (The Vancouver Sun 19^9) and " K a i s e r ' s S t r i p Mine Opera t ion A w f u l t o Behold" (The Vancouver Sun 1970). Some of the c r i t i c i s m of t h i s development was undoubtedly due t o a n t i - c o r p o r a t e f e e l i n g s which are s t rong i n t h i s p r o v i n c e and t o the f a c t t h a t the K a i s e r conglomerate of companies i s p r i n c i p a l l y owned and c o n t r o l l e d by an American c o r p o r a t i o n . However, a l a r g e amount of concern was a l s o generated by conservat ion-minded c i t i z e n s who e n v i s i o n e d l a r g e s c a l e e r o s i o n and water p o l l u t i o n problems and the r e s u l t i n g severe e f f e c t s on f i s h and w i l d l i f e and the l o c a l community. T h e i r f e e l i n g was t h a t the mine ' s management s t a f f c o u l d not be t r u s t e d i n the p r o t e c t i o n of env i ronmenta l 2 v a l u e s . T h i s f e e l i n g was c r y s t a l l i z e d i n a news r e l e a s e of the B r i t i s h Columbia W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n (1969) which s a i d i n p a r t : " . . . . T h e b l i g h t e d a rea o f N a t a l - M i c h e l i s a good commentary on the s o c i a l consc ience the min ing i n d u s t r y has d i s p l a y e d i n the pas t when l e f t to i t s own d e v i c e s . . . . " A t t h i s t ime the towns of M i c h e l and N a t a l were s i t u a t e d near a coke-p r o d u c i n g p l a n t which gave o f f , and s t i l l does, tremendous q u a n t i t i e s of dense b l a c k smoke. S e t t l i n g ash and soot gave these towns the most d i r t y and drab appearance of any i n B r i t i s h Columbia . Ba lanced aga in s t the env i ronmenta l o u t c r y was the concern of bo th the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments about the g e n e r a l l y depressed economy of the Eas t Kootenays . I t was e v i d e n t t o these governments t h a t the K a i s e r p r o j e c t would make Eas t Kootenay c o a l p r o f i t a b l e . T h i s would be a s i g n i f i c a n t turnaround from a s i t u a t i o n i n which the f e d e r a l government p a i d out an average $2.8 m i l l i o n a n n u a l l y t o s u b s i d i z e c o a l shipments from the area (Lang.1970). I n a d d i t i o n , K a i s e r o f f i c i a l s e s t imated t h a t , w i t h the p r o d u c t i o n o f h m i l l i o n tons of c o a l a n n u a l l y , the mine would create s e v e r a l hundred new jobs and would generate t o a l l l e v e l s of government a t o t a l of about $9° m i l l i o n i n taxes each year (Ashby 1971). A l t h o u g h n e i t h e r employment nor t a x a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s are a v a i l a b l e from the area be fore t h i s development began, i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t these f i g u r e s represent c o n s i d e r a b l e inc rea se s f o r the r e g i o n . Based on these s t a t i s t i c s , the economic u p l i f t to the area c o u l d be p r o j e c t e d t o be extremely b e n e f i c i a l and i n f a c t i t has been d r a m a t i c a l l y so. The o l d communities o f M i c h e l and N a t a l are b e i n g demolished and the area surrounding these towns i t e s i s b e i n g p l a n t e d w i t h grass and t r e e s . 3 Sparwood, a new community about one m i l e west o f the o l d t o w n s i t e s , has been e s t a b l i s h e d and i s growing at a r a p i d r a t e . The economic f u t u r e of the area now appears t o be o p t i m i s t i c f o r an i n d e f i n i t e but long p e r i o d of t ime . Few people doubt • the economic advantages of the p r o j e c t . Many, however, are s t i l l concerned about the harmful env i ronmenta l e f f e c t s t h i s development c o u l d generate . They p o i n t out t h a t p r o j e c t e d economic advan-tages were the so le Ibas.e.'s f o r the i n i t i a t i o n of the p r o j e c t and t h a t the env i ronmenta l e f f e c t s emanating from i t were not s t u d i e d and are s t i l l not f u l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d . The reasons f o r t h i s concern are g e n e r a l l y v a l i d . T h i s l a r g e s t r i p mine i s a p ioneer i n the sense t h a t i t i s one of the f i r s t mines t o be i 2 operated on such l a r g e scale-1- i n h i g h e l e v a t i o n mountainous t e r r a i n . The mine r e s i d u a l s , the m a j o r i t y of which w i l l be l o n g , s l i d e - l i k e s lopes o f c o a l seam overburden, w i l l generate r e c l a m a t i o n problems probably w i t h o u t p a r a l l e l anywhere e l s e i n the w o r l d . Many o f these problems have yet t o be i d e n t i f i e d or thoroughly i n v e s t i g a t e d . It appears t h a t r e c l a m a t i o n of these overburden s lopes w i l l be a l ong- te rm, expensive and d i f f i c u l t t a sk . 1 Approx imate ly 1500 acres w i l l be d i s t u r b e d i n the p e r i o d 1969 t o 1972, ( K a i s e r Resources L i m i t e d 1972). 2 The new mine o f K a i s e r Resources L i m i t e d , l o c a t e d on Harmer R idge , approx imate ly f o u r m i l e s from Sparwood, i s s i t u a t e d between e l e v a t i o n s of 5000 t o 7000 f e e t . k 1.2 Env i ronmenta l E f f e c t s of the Mine The u n d e s i r a b l e e f f e c t s t h a t mining can have on environment have been w e l l documented here and i n other p a r t s of the w o r l d and those t h a t p e r t a i n t o t h i s mine c o u l d i n c l u d e : 1) The topographic scar c rea ted at the mine s i t e (Brooks 1966 and 1967). Although the new mine i s p r e s e n t l y i n v i s i b l e t o p u b l i c v iew, f u t u r e development n o r t h , up the E l k R i v e r , w i l l undoubtedly b r i n g i t i n t o s i g h t . T h i s may have a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on a e s t h e t i c and r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e s . 2) A c c e l e r a t e d water r u n - o f f and e r o s i o n . E r o s i o n r a t e s a t the mine s i t e o f e i g h t t imes those exper ienced i n und i s turbed areas can p o s s i b l y be expected ( H i l l 1969a). T h i s can cause changes i n nearby stream fauna w i t h some of these fauna a c t u a l l y d i s a p p e a r i n g ( C u r t i s 1969). S i l t a t i o n of streams can occur and can a f f e c t sources of food and e l i m i n a t e breed ing s i t e s f o r f i s h ( C u r t i s 1969). Water t u r b i d i t y can a l s o increa se thus decrea s ing r e c r e a t i o n a l va lues and l o w e r i n g water q u a l i t y (Draskov ic 1969, U . S . F o r e s t S e r v i c e 1971). 3) Unstable s o i l s and the p o t e n t i a l hazard t o human l i f e from unexpected l a n d movement. A s l i d e , which o r i g i n a t e d i n an o l d mine dump, occurred November 2k} I968 near Sparwood and b u r i e d a s e c t i o n of highway. Two people d r i v i n g a long the highway were k i l l e d when t h e i r car was s t r u c k and crushed d u r i n g the course of the s l i d e . The new mine w i l l c rea te d i s t u r b e d areas w i t h a s i m i l a r hazard f o r any u n d e r l y i n g f u t u r e development. k) Temporary or permanent l o s s of p r o d u c t i o n of the n a t u r a l resource l o c a t e d i n the mine area (U.S . F o r e s t S e r v i c e 1971). I n the case of 5 the K a i s e r Resources mine i t i s l a r g e l y a f o r e s t resource t h a t i s to be a f f e c t e d by t h i s mining a c t i v i t y . 1.3 The Scope of Rec lamat ion Rec lamat ion has been b r o a d l y d e f i n e d as any process t h a t promotes s o i l c o n s e r v a t i o n and the p r o d u c t i v e use of d i s t u r b e d l a n d (Peter son and E t t e r 1970). For the purposes o f t h i s paper t h i s d e f i n i t i o n w i l l f u r t h e r be broadened to i n c l u d e any process t h a t ame l io ra te s or e l i m i n a t e s the four p o i n t s l i s t e d above as p o s s i b l e u n d e s i r a b l e e f f e c t s of the K a i s e r Resources mine. Rec lamat ion i s a m u l t i - s t a g e o p e r a t i o n . I t i n v o l v e s not o n l y r e -p l a n t i n g of d i s t u r b e d s i t e s but a l s o land-use p l a n n i n g , p h y s i c a l opera t ions t o achieve a s u i t a b l e topography and subsequent t e n d i n g and management of r e c l a i m e d l a n d t h e r e a f t e r (Peter son and E t t e r 1970). 1.h K a i s e r Resources Rec lamat ion P l a n The K a i s e r r e c l a m a t i o n p l a n i n c o r p o r a t e s a l l the v a r i o u s o b j e c t i v e s and stages d e s c r i b e d i n the above s e c t i o n . The g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e of t h i s program i s the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l l y d i s t u r b e d lands i n the N a t a l a rea and i n c l u d e s those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h both past and present mining a c t i v i t y (D ick 1972). Land-use p l a n n i n g has been e s t a b l i s h e d and i s based on the Canada Land Inventory Land C a p a b i l i t y A n a l y s i s . U s i n g t h i s a n a l y s i s as a base, the p r o j e c t e d prime use of lands t o be d i s t u r b e d d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1969 t o 1972 has been determined. These uses , as e x t r a c t e d from the K a i s e r Resources p l a n ( l 9 7 l ) , are set out i n Table 1 below. 6 Table I - P o t e n t i a l Prime Surface Use of the K a i s e r Resources L i m i t e d M i n i n g Areas Land-Use T o t a l Area Percent o f Area C a p a b i l i t y ( acres ) t o be D i s t u r b e d High Y i e l d F o r e s t r y ^53 30 Moderate Y i e l d F o r e s t r y 2k 2 Low Y i e l d F o r e s t r y 566 38 E x t e n s i v e R e c r e a t i o n -^20 28 Prime B i g Game Range 28 2 T o t a l 1^91 100 1 High Y i e l d F o r e s t r y - Land p r o d u c t i v i t y of from 71 t o 130 c u b i c feeit per acre per annum. Moderate Y i e l d F o r e s t r y - Land p r o d u c t i v i t y o f from 51 t o 70 cub ic f e e t per acre per annum. Low Y i e l d F o r e s t r y - Land p r o d u c t i v i t y of from 31 t o 50 cub ic f e e t per acre per annum. E x t e n s i v e R e c r e a t i o n - Areas w i t h a c a p a b i l i t y f o r a l i m i t e d range of ex tens ive r e c r e a t i o n p u r s u i t s and s m a l l , s i t e - s p e c i f i c a t t r a c t i o n s w i t h l i m i t a t i o n s of c l i m a t e or topography. Prime B i g Game Range - Lands t h a t are important w i n t e r concen-t r a t i o n ranges f o r w i l d ungulates (deer , moose, e l k , sheep or goat) t h a t summer over a widespread a rea . These w i n t e r areas a l s o have c a p a b i l i t y f o r summer p r o d u c t i o n . Operat ions t o achieve s u i t a b l e topography, e s p e c i a l l y a t the new mine s i t e , are s t i l l i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l s tages . T h e i r need, however, i s c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z e d i n order t o s t a b i l i z e s o i l s , channe l r u n - o f f and prevent e r o s i o n and p lans f o r t h e i r implemehtationhhavebbeenmrnade. Most work on the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of p l a n t cover has been done at lower e l e v a t i o n s as there i s p r e s e n t l y almost no i n a c t i v e d i s t u r b e d area a t the new mine s i t e which can be revegeta ted . Some exper imenta t ion at t h i s h i g h e l e v a t i o n , however, has been c a r r i e d out and most r e s u l t s have been encouraging. 7 1.5 Research O b j e c t i v e s T h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t f i t s i n t o the o v e r a l l r e c l a m a t i o n p l a n f o r the mine*' i n t h a t i t i s an attempt t o r e - e s t a b l i s h c o n i f e r s on areas d i s t u r b e d d u r i n g m i n i n g . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the o b j e c t i v e s of the p r o j e c t are t o : 1) Test the f e a s i b i l i t y of p l a n t i n g t r e e s eed l ing s on overburden l o c a t e d over a wide range of e l e v a t i o n s and s i t e s . 2) Determine the bes t spec ies t o p l a n t . 3) Study the e f f e c t of type of p l a n t i n g , t ime of p l a n t i n g and s i t e on s e e d l i n g e s t ab l i shment , growth and v i g o u r . k) I d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c problems i n r e c l a m a t i o n of overburden. 5) O f f e r s o l u t i o n s and ideas as to how these problems can be s o l v e d and as t o how a s u c c e s s f u l r e c l a m a t i o n program can be exped i ted . 1.6 The Use of Trees S e v e r a l t imes d u r i n g the course of t h i s experiment the q u e s t i o n has a r i s e n as t o why t r e e s shou ld be used as a means of r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g p l a n t cover on mined s i t e s . I n e v i t a b l y the q u e s t i o n of why not use grasses or other types o f p l a n t s , which w i l l green over and b i n d an area ag a in s t e r o s i o n i n a r e l a t i v e l y shor t t ime p e r i o d , was a l s o asked. Of ten i n i t i a l p l a n t i n g s of grasses and other p l a n t s are r e q u i r e d t o c o n t r o l e r o s i o n . However, as o u t l i n e d i n a recent d e t a i l e d study o f r e c l a m a t i o n i n A l b e r t a (Peter son and E t t e r 1970): 8 Advance p l a n n i n g e l i m i n a t e s as a so le o b j e c t i v e the r a p i d e s t ab l i shment of green c o v e r ; i n s t e a d , the i n i t i a l p l a n t i n g s are cons idered as on ly a f i r s t s tep i n s o i l c o n s e r v a t i o n . Subsequent v e g e t a t i v e management i s u s u a l l y necessary t o achieve the p r o -j e c t e d l a n d u s e . . . . " As seventy percent of the l a n d area t o be d i s t u r b e d by the mine, as c l a s s i f i e d i n Table I , has a p r imary va lue f o r growing f o r e s t s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t the e s tab l i shment of t r e e s w i l l be r e q u i r e d to achieve the p r o j e c t e d l a n d use f o r the m a j o r i t y of the area d i s t u r b e d by t h i s mine. I n a d d i t i o n , i t has been found i n other areas t h a t t r ee s are v a l -uable i n m i n i m i z i n g long- te rm e r o s i o n and c o n t r o l l i n g water p o l l u t i o n . I n V i r g i n i a , f o r example, the use of t r e e s was found t o be the b e s t reveg-e t a t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e f o r l ong- te rm e r o s i o n c o n t r o l on steep s lopes ( H i l l 1969b) and a w e l l s tocked f o r e s t was found t o be the most e f f i c i e n t cover f o r reduc ing r u n o f f , e r o s i o n and sed imenta t ion i n stream channels and r e s e r v o i r s ( P o t t e r , Wietzman and Tr imble 1951). A Canadian study has shown t h a t t r e e s w i l l be s t revegetate rocky areas (Murray 1971) and i n B r i t i s h Columbia a study has shown t h a t grass does not r e t a r d e r o s i o n as w e l l as t r e e s ( K e l l e r 1965). CHAPTER 2 THE STUDY AREA The s tudy area i s s i t u a t e d i n the southeast corner o f B r i t i s h Columbia near the town of Sparwood. I t s l o c a t i o n and surroundings are i l l u s t r a t e d on the map set out i n F i g u r e 1. E l e v a t i o n v a r i e s from 36OO f e e t above sea l e v e l a t Sparwood t o 7000 f e e t a t the new mine s i t e on Harmer Ridge . C l i m a t i c da ta ( D i c k 1972) ob ta ined at Sparwood are l i s t e d below i n Table I I . Table I I - C l i m a t i c Data f o r Sparwood, B.C.-'" Mean annua l temperature Mean temperature - January - J u l y 39 °F 12°F 63 °F Mean annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n Wettes t month - January Dryes t month - August 19.1 inches k.3 t o 4 .7 inches 0 t o 0.9 inches 1 The Sparwood weather s t a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1969 and the data presented represent s o n l y a two year average. 10 T f f m i T P 1 - M n n n f " h h a n r n i p p t , a r p . t 11 L o c a l c l i m a t e v a r i e s w i t h e l e v a t i o n . The mean temperature o f the new mine s i t e , a l though unknown, i s undoubtedly c o o l e r than t h a t at Sparwood as snow melt a t the mine i s not complete u n t i l l a t e June or e a r l y J u l y w h i l e snow i s t o t a l l y gone around Sparwood by mid May. I n f o r m a t i o n from the nearby F o r d i n g C o a l L i m i t e d mine, l o c a t e d at 5^00 t o 7500 f e e t , i n d i c a t e s p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s h e a v i e r a t h igher e l e v a t i o n s . Average annual r a i n f a l l at t h i s mine i s 33 inches (Gard iner 1972) compared t o o n l y 19 inches a t Sparwood. Rowe's f o r e s t r e g i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (1959) a l s o r e f l e c t s e l e v a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s . Areas i n the r e g i o n below 2500 f e e t are c h a r a c t e r i z e d as Montane, those between 2500 t o -^000 f e e t are c l a s s i f i e d as Columbia and h igher areas are c a t e g o r i z e d as S u b - a l p i n e . 12 CHAPTER 3 PLOT LAYOUT AND ESTABLISHMENT T h i s experiment i s composed of e leven p l o t s d i v i d e d i n t o two d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r i e s . P l o t s 1 t o 10 are l o c a t e d at e l e v a t i o n s r ang ing from 3700 t o it-900 f e e t and are s i t u a t e d on the abandoned wastes of o l d mines. P l o t 11 i s l o c a t e d at 6800 f e e t and i s s i t u a t e d at the new mine s i t e on Harmer Ridge . P l o t l o c a t i o n s are shown i n F i g u r e 1. D e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of p l o t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s presented i n Appendix 1. A l t h o u g h p l o t s 1 t o 10 are much lower than the present mine, t h e i r r e s u l t s w i l l be o f va lue i n r e c l a i m i n g overburden at the new mine s i t e , as the lower e x t r e m i t i e s of the new overburden s lopes w i l l be a t these lower e l e v a t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , s o i l s t a b i l i z a t i o n and v a r i o u s o ther problems encountered i n these p l o t s w i l l be common t o d i s t u r b e d areas a t the h igher e l e v a t i o n s . P l o t 11 was e s t a b l i s h e d p r i m a r i l y to t e s t the f e a s i b i l i t y o f r e -f o r e s t a t i o n a t h i g h e l e v a t i o n s . F u r t h e r p l o t s were not e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h i s l o c a l i t y as ve ry l i t t l e abandoned overburden was a v a i l a b l e a t the new mine s i t e a t the t ime of the f i r s t o u t p l a n t i n g s . S p r i n g and f a l l r e p l i c a t i o n s of a l l p l o t s were e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the purpose of s t u d y i n g seasonal v a r i a t i o n s . Species p l a n t e d and compared i n c l u d e D o u g l a s - f i r (Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i v a r . g l auca ( B e i s s n . ) F r a n c o ) , 13 Engelmann spruce ( P i c e a engelmanni i P a r r y ) and lodgepole p ine (P inus  c o n t o r t a var l a t i f o l i a Enge lm. ) . Both b a r e - r o o t and c o n t a i n e r s tock -were used. The c o n t a i n e r s used i n c l u d e the p l a s t i c b u l l e t and s t y r o -foam p l u g . These are d e s c r i b e d l a t e r i n the t e x t on page 17. P l o t s 1 t o 10 r e p l i c a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g the per iods 28 t o 31 September 197O and 16 t o 18 May 1971. These p l o t s were l a i d out i n a randomized complete b l o c k des ign i n which randomiza t ion was c o n f i n e d to the sequence of t reatments w i t h i n b l o c k s . The d e t a i l s of t h i s e x p e r i m e n t a l de s ign are set out i n Appendix II. Seven treatments were set out i n each r e p l i c a t i o n i n each p l o t as f o l l o w s : 1) one year o l d lodgepole p ine i n p l u g s . 2) one year o l d lodgepole p ine i n b u l l e t s . 3) one year o l d Engelmann spruce i n plugs."'" k) one year o l d Engelmann spruce i n b u l l e t s . 5) one year o l d D o u g l a s - f i r i n p l u g s . 6) one year o l d D o u g l a s - f i r i n b u l l e t s . 7) three year o l d b a r e - r o o t D o u g l a s - f i r . P l o t 11 r e p l i c a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d on 31 September 1970 and 9 J u l y 1971. The l a t e date f o r the s p r i n g r e p l i c a t i o n was made necessary by the f a c t t h a t snow d i d not melt o f f the area u n t i l t h a t t ime . Even at t h i s l a t e date i t snowed h e a v i l y a t the p l a n t i n g s i t e on the day s p r i n g p l a n t i n g was c a r r i e d out . 1 The f a l l r e p l i c a t i o n of P l o t 5 does not i n c l u d e the spruce p l u g due t o an o v e r s i g h t a t the t ime of e s t ab l i shment . Ik Three treatments were set out i n the f a l l r e p l i c a t i o n . They were: 1) one year o l d Engelmann spruce i n p l u g s . 2) one year o l d Engelmann spruce i n " b u l l e t s . 3) two year o l d Engelmann spruce h a r e - r o o t s tock . F u r t h e r spec ies were not e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h i s t ime on t h i s p l o t as h i g h e l e v a t i o n provenances were not a v a i l a b l e . Due to the l a t e date of e s t a b l i s h i n g the s p r i n g r e p l i c a t i o n the b.are-root spruce a v a i l a b l e had d e t e r i o r a t e d t o the p o i n t t h a t i t was i n unp lantab le c o n d i t i o n . There fore , i t was dec ided t o p l a n t lodgepole p ine from a lower e l e v a t i o n a l provenance. As a r e s u l t , t reatments e s t a b l i s h e d i n the s p r i n g r e p l i c a t i o n of P l o t 11 were : 1) one year o l d Engelmann spruce i n p l u g s . 2) one year o l d Engelmann spruce i n b u l l e t s . 3) one year o l d lodgeps le p ine i n p l u g s . k) one year o l d lodgepole pinesihi ibu2i le . t ss . T h i r t y - f i v e s eed l ings were p l a n t e d i n l i n e s i n each treatment i n each r e p l i c a t i o n - ' - and a numbered stake was d r i v e n i n t o the ground bes ide each s e e d l i n g . S e e d l i n g he igh t s were measured at the time of p l a n t i n g and these h e i g h t s are l i s t e d i n Appendix I I I . P l a n t i n g was c a r r i e d out by a group of women d u r i n g the f a l l of 1970, as i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 2,and by a group of male summer students d u r i n g the s p r i n g of 1971. I n bo th cases l abour was s u p p l i e d by K a i s e r Resources L i m i t e d . 1 Except f o r the f a l l r e p l i c a t i o n o f p l o t 11 which has 50 t r e e s p l a n t e d i n each treatment and v a r i o u s other treatments i n which mi scount ing caused s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s from the r e q u i r e d 35 s e e d l i n g s . 15 F i g u r e 2 - Es tab l i shment o f the f a l l p l a n t i n g r e p l i c a t i o n at P l o t 10. Use of c o n v e n t i o n a l p l a n t i n g mattocks a t some of the b u l l d o z e d and compacted s i t e s proved very d i f f i c u l t . P l a n t i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y was g r e a t l y enhanced at these s i t e s d u r i n g es tab l i shment of the s p r i n g r e p l i c a t i o n s through use of m i n e r ' s p i c k s i n p lace of mattocks . Weather at the t ime of f a l l p l a n t i n g was g e n e r a l l y warm and sunny w h i l e t h a t a t the time of s p r i n g p l a n t i n g was g e n e r a l l y c o o l and wet. A t the time P l o t 11 r e p l i c a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d the weather was c o l d and overcas t t o snowing. The b u l l e t s tock was not p l a n t e d i n the manner in tended , as the s o i l i n many of the p l o t s was much too hard and r ocky to d r i v e the b u l l e t s i n w i t h a gun. These b u l l e t s , t h e r e f o r e , were p l a n t e d u s i n g mattocks and were not cu t open as they would have been i f p l a n t e d w i t h a gun. 16 CHAPTER 4 STOCK PLANTED A l l s tock p l a n t e d came from Eas t Kootenay provenances and a l l except the b a r e - r o o t D o u g l a s - f i r came from B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e g i s t e r e d s e e d l o t numbers. These l o t numbers"'" are as f o l l o w s : 1) Lodgepole p ine c o n t a i n e r s tock - 82N H / B 3 / 6 2 1 / 3 . 5 M a r l Creek. 2) D o u g l a s - f i r c o n t a i n e r s tock - 82G I5/B3/539/4.6 L i n e Creek. 3) Engelmann spruce c o n t a i n e r s tock - 82G 11/B3/704/3.8 G a l b r a i t h Creek. 4) Engelmann spruce b a r e - r o o t - 82 G 14/B2/636/5.0 Summer Lake. Seed from which the b a r e - r o o t D o u g l a s - f i r was grown was c o l l e c t e d by a l o c a l nurseryman approx imate ly 25 m i l e s west o f F e r n i e at an e l e v a t i o n of 2800 f e e t . Conta iner s tock used was grown i n the greenhouse o f the P a c i f i c F o r e s t Research Centre i n V i c t o r i a . The b u l l e t used i s a s tandard 4 .5 inches i n l e n g t h w i t h an out s ide diameter of approx imate ly 0 . 9 inches . I t s gross s o i l h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y i s about 20 c c . (Kinghorn 1972). The s tyrofoam p l u g used i s the p ro to type des igned by the s t a f f of the above l a b o r a t o r y . I t i s a l s o 4 . 5 inches i n l e n g t h but i t s i n s i d e diameter i s approx imate ly one 1 The l a s t number i n these r e g i s t r a t i o n numbers i n d i c a t e s the e l e v a t i o n i n thousands of f e e t a t which the seed lo t s were p i c k e d . The name at the end i n d i c a t e s the geographic l o c a t i o n of each seed source. IT inch. I t s gross s o i l h o lding c a p a c i t y i s about twice that of the b u l l e t or k-0 c c . (Kinghorn 1972). The conta i n e r s were f i l l e d w i t h a 3*1 s o i l mix of peat and v e r m i c u l i t e . Both containers are i l l u s t r a t e d below i n Figure 3. Figure 3 - The p l a s t i c b u l l e t and styrofoam plug c o n t a i n e r s . Seed was sown i n containers i n the greenhouse on 25 March 1970 and grown there u n t i l 10 June 1970, at which time i t was moved outside. On 21 J u l y 1970 i t was moved to P r i n c e George to a c c l i m a t i z e to i n t e r i o r c o n d i t i o n s . There i t stayed u n t i l September 1970, at which time i t was tra n s p o r t e d v i a Vancouver to the K a i s e r Resources nursery near Sparwood. The f a l l r e p l i c a t i o n was planted at t h i s time while stock f o r the s p r i n g r e p l i c a t i o n was l e f t i n the nursery. The stock i n the nursery was covered w i t h approximately a one i n c h l a y e r of sawdust t o prevent large d a i l y temperature f l u c t u a t i o n s from o c c u r r i n g i n the area of the roo t s . This procedure worked w e l l and the stock overwintered w i t h almost no mor-t a l i t y . Bare-root spruce was grown i n the Green Timbers nursery of the 18 B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t S e r v i c e . I t was l i f t e d and t r a n s p o r t e d t o the p l a n t i n g s i t e a t the time i t was r e q u i r e d . Ba re - roo t D o u g l a s - f i r was grown at the S teep les Ranch, F o r t S t e e l e , B . C . I t too was l i f t e d and t r a n s p o r t e d to the p l a n t i n g s i t e a t the time i t was r e q u i r e d . 19 • C H A P T E R 5 R E S U L T S F i n a l m e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e t r i a l p l o t s w a s c a r r i e d o u t d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 28 t o 30 M a y 1972. S u r v i v a l , v i g o u r a n d s e e d l i n g h e i g h t s , f r o m w h i c h g r o w t h c o u l d b e d e t e r m i n e d , w e r e r e c o r d e d a n d a r e l i s t e d i n A p p e n d i x I V . N o t e s w e r e a l s o t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i n c i d e n c e o f e r o s i o n , b r o w s i n g a n d d i s t u r b a n c e b y m a n a n d a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x I V . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e ( A N O V A ) w e r e c a r r i e d o u t f o r m e a s u r e d v a r i a b l e s f o r p l o t s 1 t o 10 t o d e t e r m i n e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n s p r i n g a n d f a l l , s p e c i e s , c o n t a i n e r a n d b a r e - r o o t , a n d s i t e r e s u l t s . T h e s e a n a l y s e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x V . A s n o t e d b e f o r e h a n d t w o c a t e g o r i e s o f p l o t s h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d . P l o t s 1 t o 10 a r e l o c a t e d o n l o w e l e v a t i o n r e c l a m a t i o n s i t e s a n d P l o t 11 i s l o c a t e d a t t h e h i g h e l e v a t i o n n e w m i n e s i t e . T h e s e t w o g r o u p s o f p l o t s w i l l b e d e a l t w i t h s e p a r a t e l y . 5.1 L o w E l e v a t i o n R e s u l t s 5.1.1 S u r v i v a l R a t e s T a b l e I I I b e l o w p r e s e n t s t h e s u r v i v a l r a t e s e x p e r i e n c e d a f t e r o n e g r o w i n g s e a s o n o n p l o t s 1 t o 10. T h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c l u s i o n t o b e T a b l e I I I - S u r v i v a l R e s u l t s f r o m P l o t s 1 t o 10. S P R I N G S U R V I V A L P E R C E N T P l o t N o S p r u c e P l u g S p r u c e B u l l e t P i n e P l u g P i n e B u l l D - f i r P l u g . D - f i r B u l i h o D - f i r B - r o o t A v e 1 3 0 9 3 9 23 40 12 2 82 4 l 56 5k 1+6 50 53 53 3 60 37 7^ 40 51 95 57 4 26 ko 89 51 17 ^3 89 51 5 3 0 63 9 6 17 17 16 6 TT 38 9^ 88 kl 68 100 73 7 10 0 79 15 13 11 21 20 8 25 3 50 9 9 6 .22 18 9 0 3 15 18 3 0 0 6 10 89 kl 77 80 62 Jl 71 A v e r a j j ie 38 21 60 38 24 32 51 38 T r e e s L e t s ^ - - 3 3 8 3 3 3 3 3 ^ 3 k 3 3 3 1 3 3 1 3 2 k 2 3 k ° T h o s e D e s t r o y e d ^ -S u r v i v ' ^ ^® 2 & 1 ' I 3 1 1 8 1 ^ I 0 ^ 6 8 8 3 < ' i n g D e s t r o y e d t h r o u g h e r o s i o n o r m i n e p e r s o n n e l . F A L L S U R V I V A L P E R C E N T S p r u c e S p r u c e P i n e P i n e D - f i r D - f i r D - f i r P l u g B u l l e t P l u g B u l l P l u g B u l l e t B - r o o t A v e . 3 0 17 6 6 6 14 7 20 24 38 30 44 6 23 27 71 86 71 5^ 51 63 94 70 17_ 3 83 9 31 14 71 33 m i s s . 9 23 20 6 9 14 13 64 4 83 9 5^ 10 79 44 6 0 4 i 0 14 3 27 13 16 3 16 3 19 7 16 l l l l 0 37 6 0 14 0 10 29 11 _J4 0 14 _ ^ 23 17 26 14 44 14 23 14 37 25 280 337 333 322 330 335 313 2250 73 46 147 k<? 77 48 116 552 21 drawn from t h i s mass o f data i s t h a t , f o r the o v e r a l l experiment, s u r v i v a l o f s p r i n g p l a n t i n g s i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y g r e a t e r than t h a t f o r f a l l p l a n t i n g s ( i . e . 38 percent f o r s p r i n g p l a n t i n g versus 25 percent f o r f a l l p l a n t i n g s ) . T h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n ho lds t rue f o r a l l s p e c i e s / c o n t a i n e r combinat ions and the ANOVA presented i n Appendix V , s e c t i o n 1.1 shows these d i f f e r e n c e s t o be s i g n i f i c a n t . T h i s f a c t has p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e as s u r v i v a l r a t e s not on ly i n f l u e n c e success but a l s o have a d i r e c t e f f e c t on the cos t o f s e e d l i n g e s t ab l i shment . Seasonal p l a n s , t h e r e f o r e , shou ld be developed so t h a t a l l t r e e p l a n t i n g i s c a r r i e d out i n the s p r i n g . A n a l y s i s of s p r i n g p l a n t i n g data now becomes much more important than e v a l u a t i o n of t h a t from the f a l l . Consequently , s p r i n g r e s u l t s w i l l be examined i n much grea te r d e t a i l i n t h i s paper. Some d i s c u s s i o n of f a l l p l a n t i n g r e s u l t s i s a l s o i n order and t h i s i s presented i n separate s e c t i o n s of the t e x t . 22 5.1.1.1 S p r i n g P l a n t i n g R e s u l t s 5.1.1.1.1 S p e c i e s / C o n t a i n e r Combination Comparisons A summary of s p r i n g p l a n t i n g s u r v i v a l r a t e s f o r the v a r i o u s s p e c i e s / c o n t a i n e r combinat ions i s presented below i n Table I V . The da ta presented here suggest t h a t lodgepole p ine i s the best spec ies to p l a n t w h i l e the organ ic s o i l p l u g i s the be s t c o n t a i n e r to use i n p l a n t i n g . The AHOVA presented i n Appendix V, s e c t i o n 1.2 r e v e a l s t h a t the lodgepole p ine p lugs and D o u g l a s - f i r b a r e - r o o t s tock had s i g n i f i c a n t l y g rea te r s u r v i v a l than the o ther s p e c i e s / c o n t a i n e r combinat ions . Table IV - S p r i n g P l a n t i n g S u r v i v a l Rates Ranking S p e c i e s / C o n t a i n e r Combination O v e r a l l S u r v i v a l (percent ) A study of r o o t development was a l s o c a r r i e d out f o r a l l s p e c i e s / c o n t a i n e r combinat ions and observa t ions from t h i s study are presented i n Appendix V I . The s eed l ing s examined were c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g the f a l l of 1972 from the s p r i n g r e p l i c a t i o n o f P l o t '6. T h i s p l o t was s e l e c t e d t o prov ide study m a t e r i a l as i t was f e l t t h a t e x c a v a t i o n i n the f i n e c o a l dust of t h i s s i t e would cause the l e a s t damage t o the r o o t systems o f t r e e s to be examined. 1 2 3 k 5 6 7 Lodgepole p ine p lugs D o u g l a s - f i r b a r e - r o o t Lodgepole p ine b u l l e t s Engelmann spruce p lugs D o u g l a s - f i r b u l l e t s D o u g l a s - f i r p lugs Engelmann spruce b u l l e t s 60 51 38 38 32 2h 21 23 F i v e t r e e s from each s p e c i e s / c o n t a i n e r combinat ion were gathered. Root development was b e s t i n the b a r e - r o o t and organic s o i l p lug s tock . The volume of r o o t growth from seed l ings i n p lugs was up t o f i v e t imes g r e a t e r than tha t from seed l ings i n the p l a s t i c b u l l e t . I n a d d i t i o n , as the b u l l e t s were not broken open, roo t development out s ide t h i s con-t a i n e r extended o n l y through i t s narrow bottom and s ide s l i t s . Length of r o o t growth was approx imate ly s i x i n c h e s . Growth from the p lugs ex-tended from the bottom o n e - t h i r d of the c o n t a i n e r and a l s o averaged approx-i m a t e l y s i x i n c h e s . Roots of the b a r e - r o o t s tock were not much longer than when p l a n t e d but f i b r o u s development was heavy. 5.1.1.1.2 S i t e Comparisons A summary of s u r v i v a l r a t e s f o r the 10 d i f f e r e n t p l o t l o c a t i o n s , toge ther w i t h a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of each p l o t , i s presented below i n Table V. A broad i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these da ta suggests t h a t three s i t e f a c t o r s , s lope e .ompaet ionvandlelevat ion, a f f e c t s u r v i v a l . South f a c i n g s lopes have the l e a s t s u r v i v a l . M o r t a l i t y appears to i n c r e a s e , p a r t i c u l a r l y on non-south f a c i n g s lopes , where compaction occur s . I n a d d i t i o n , the e l e v a t i o n of p l o t s , a l though t h i s f a c t o r ' s e f f e c t i s masked by the aforementioned two, seems to p l a y a r o l e i n s u r v i v a l . I t appears t h a t low e l e v a t i o n p l o t s have h igher m o r t a l i t y than those at h i g h e l e v a t i o n . The AWOVA of s u r v i v a l r a t e s presented i n Appendix V , s e c t i o n 1.2, r e v e a l s t h a t the p l a n t i n g s i t e s can be d i v i d e d i n t o two groups. P l o t s 6, 10, 3j 2 and k have s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r s u r v i v a l r a te s than p l o t s 7, 8 5, 1 and 9. 24 Table V - S i t e S u r v i v a l Rates f o r S p r i n g P l a n t i n g S u r v i v a l Rate Ranking 1 P l o t Number 10 10 E l e v a t i o n ( f e e t ) 4500 4.900 48oo 3800 4650 3700 3900 4650 3700 3800 Slope and Aspect 10 percent east f a c i n g 15 percent n o r t h f a c i n g 30 percent west f a c i n g 30 percent n o r t h f a c i n g 5 percent n o r t h f a c i n g 10 percent north-west f a c i n g f l a t 5 percent south-east f a c i n g 5 percent southg f a c i n g 40 percent south-west f a c i n g S o i l C o n d i t i o n uncompacted c o a l dust and overburden compacted s l i d e rubble uncompacted c o a l dust and overburden uncompacted s l i d e rubble uncompacted f i n e b l a c k -coal dust compacted c o a l and c o a l mine r e s idues compacted c o a l mine r e s i d u e s u n d i s t u r b e d sha l low n a t u r a l s o i l under-l a i n by rock compacted s l i d e rubb le u n d i s t u r b e d n a t u r a l s o i l O v e r a l l S u r v i v a l (percent ) 73 71 57 53 51 20 18 16 12 25 5.1.1.2 F a l l P l a n t i n g R e s u l t s F a l l s u r v i v a l p l a n t i n g r e s u l t s , except f o r the a c t u a l s u r v i v a l r a t e s , g e n e r a l l y p a r a l l e l those of s p r i n g p l a n t i n g . Examinat ion of Table I I I r e v e a l s t h a t the r a n k i n g of s p e c i e s / c o n t a i n e r combinat ions i s the same. S i t e r e s u l t s are a l s o g e n e r a l l y the same w i t h the top f i v e and bottom f i v e p l o t s be ing i n the same s u r v i v a l r a t e groupings i n which they occur i n the s p r i n g p l a n t -i n g r e p l i c a t i o n . 5.1.2 Growth Rates Growth r a t e s were determined by s u b t r a c t i n g o r i g i n a l he ight measure-ments as presented i n Appendix I I I from thcs e taken a f t e r one growing season and presented i n Appendix I V . These r a t e s , as r e l a t e d t o the v a r i o u s t r i a l s a f t e r one growing season, are set out below i n Table V I . Examinat ion of t h i s da ta shows t h a t some of the growth va lues presented are nega t ive . These negat ive va lues are due t o d ieback , browsing and p a r t i a l b u r y i n g caused by s o i l movement on steep s lopes . 26 Table V I - Average Growth A f t e r One Growing Season S p r i n g S p e c i e s / Growth ( i n c h e s ) Conta iner P l o t Number Combination 1 2 3 k 5 6 7 8 9 10 Ave. Spruce p lugs -1.5 0.6 -0.8 0.0 2.9 1.6 1.6 -OA l A 0.7 Spruce b u l l e t s - 1.6* o A 0.6 - 1.3 - 1.6 2. 8 0.6 0.8 P i n e plugs 0.6 1.6 i A 2.2 2.1 0.3 1.2 0.9 -0. 2 0.6 1.2 P i n e b u l l e t s 1.8 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.9 1.2 0.3 0.2 -0. 8 1.2 0.9 D . - f i r p lugs 1.5 0.1 -0.6 0.2 1.6 1.6 1.1 OA 0. 9 0.8 0.6 D . - f i r b u l l e t s 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.6 -0.1 -0.2 0.3 - 0.7 0.1 D. - f i r b a r e - r o o t 0.2 0.2 - l A 0.5 0.2 -0.2 o A 0.2 - 0.9 0.1 Average-L 0.7 0.0 0.9 1.5 0.7 0.9 OA -0. 2 0.9 0.7 F a l l Spruce p lugs 2.1 2.2 i A 2.6 - i A -0.3 o A 3. 5 2.2 1.7 Spruce b u l l e t s - 1.5 1.0 -0.5 0.6 1.1 - 2 A - 0.9 1.1 Pine p lugs 3 A 2.2 1.2 2.5 -0.5 3-1 2.6 2.9 3. l 1.6 2.2 P i n e b u l l e t s 1.8 1.1 1.2 1.6 0.8 2.8 - 2.6 2. 7 - 1.3 D . - f i r p lugs 1.7 1.0 -0.7 0.7 0.2 1.3 1.8 0.5 - 1.1 0.6 D . - f i r b u l l e t s 1.0 1.2 0.8 -0.1 0.1 0.6 1.6 1.3 3. k -0.2 0.9 D . - f i r b a r e - r o o t -1.2 0.0 1.3 1.5 0.7 -OA -2.7 0.8 - -3-3 0.2 Average l A 1.-+ 1.0 1.7 0.3 i A 0.6 1.2 3-2 0.6 1.2 1 The averages l i s t e d above are those c a l c u l a t e d f o r the t o t a l number of l i v i n g t r e e s i n the c l a s s c o n s i d e r e d . S ince there are uneven numbers of t r e e s i n each grouping the averages l i s t e d are not n e c e s s a r i l y the same as those c a l -c u l a t e d by adding the numbers l i s t e d i n the t a b l e and d i v i d i n g by the approp-r i -r i a t e i f d igur e . 5.1.2.1 S p r i n g P l a n t i n g R e s u l t s An ANOVA o f s p r i n g p l a n t i n g growth r a t e s has been c a r r i e d out i n Appendix V , s e c t i o n 2.2. T h i s a n a l y s i s shows t h a t there are s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between s p e c i e s / c o n t a i n e r combinat ion growth ra te s but none between those of the p l o t s . 21 Due to the nature of t h i s a n a l y s i s i t has on ly been p o s s i b l e t o rank i n d i v i d u a l t r i a l s and t h i s has been done i n Table V I I . I t i s note-worthy t h a t the s p e c i e s / c o n t a i n e r combinat ion w i t h the g rea te s t s u r v i v a l , the lodgepole p ine p l u g , a l s o has the bes t growth ra te w h i l e the b a r e - r o o t D o u g l a s - f i r , the t r i a l w i t h the second bes t s u r v i v a l r a t e , has the wors t . Table V I I - Growth Rate Ranking f o r S p r i n g P l a n t i n g Ranking S p e c i e s / C o n t a i n e r Combination 1 Lodgepole p ine p l u g 2 Lodgepole p ine b u l l e t 3 Engelmann spruce b u l l e t k Engelmann spruce p l u g 5 D o u g l a s - f i r p l u g 6 D o u g l a s - f i r b u l l e t 7 D o u g l a s - f i r b a r e - r o o t 5.1.2.2 F a l l P l a n t i n g R e s u l t s M i s s i n g da ta makes s t a t i s t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of f a l l p l a n t i n g growth r e s u l t s i m p o s s i b l e . Some s u b j e c t i v e judgements, however, are p o s s i b l e . I t appears t h a t , as i n the s p r i n g p l a n t i n g r e s u l t s , there are s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between s p e c i e s / c o n t a i n e r combinat ion growth r a t e s but none between p l o t s . I n a d d i t i o n f a l l p l a n t i n g growth r a te s appear t o be g e n e r a l l y g rea te r than those e x h i b i t e d by s p r i n g p l a n t e d s tock . 1 Use of Duncan's New M u l t i p l e Range Test to determine s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between a l l s p e c i e s / c o n t a i n e r combinat ions was not p o s s i b l e . C e r t a i n t r i a l s had t o be e l i m i n a t e d from the ANOVA f o r v a r i o u s reasons e x p l a i n e d i n d e t a i l . t . in Appendix. V=-f-.section..2[ 2. 28 5.1.3 V i g o u r D e s c r i p t i o n of s e e d l i n g v i g o u r i n t h i s experiment was "based on a s u b j e c t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s eed l ing s i n t o moderate or poor c l a s s e s . C r i t e r i a of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n were v i s u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p l a n t s such as c o l o u r , g e n e r a l appearance and evidence of damage done to the seed-l i n g s d u r i n g p l a n t i n g . The A1M0VA of v i g o u r was c a r r i e d out by a s s i g n i n g the va lue of two t o s eed l ings judged t o have moderate v i g o u r and one t o those judged t o be poor . T h i s ANOVA i s presented i n Appendix V , s e c t i o n 3. Wo s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between e i t h e r s p e c i e s / c o n t a i n e r combinat ions or p l o t s were found i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . 5.2 High A l t i t u d e R e s u l t s S u r v i v a l and growth r a te s f o r the t r i a l s e s t a b l i s h e d a t 6800 f e e t i n p l o t 11 are l i s t e d below i n Table V T I I . V i g o u r i s not cons idered i n t h i s s e c t i o n as i t was r e v e a l e d t o be a n o n s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e a r l i e r i n the t e x t . Table V I I I - High E l e v a t i o n T r i a l R e s u l t s S p e c i e s / C o n t a i n e r Combination S u r v i v a l (percent ) Growth ( inches ) S p r i n g Engelmann spruce p l u g Engelmann spruce b u l l e t Lodgepole p ine p l u g Lodgepole p ine b u l l e t 97 37 11 66 0 . 0 0.1 -0 .5 0.1 F a l l Engelmann spruce p l u g Engelmann spruce b u l l e t Engelmann spruce b a r e - r o o t 67 Ik 78 0.3 1.2 - 0 . 6 29 S p r i n g p l a n t i n g s u r v i v a l at t h i s l o c a l i t y i s aga in c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r than t h a t exper ienced i n the f a l l p l a n t i n g r e p l i c a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , s p r i n g p l a n t i n g r e s u l t s show q u i t e d r a m a t i c a l l y t h a t even at h i g h e l e v a t i o n s i n i t i a l s u r v i v a l r a t e s can be very good. Aga in the organic s o i l p l u g appears t o be the be s t c o n t a i n e r to use w h i l e Engelmann spruce i s perhaps a more s u i t a b l e spec ies t o p l a n t a t t h i s e l e v a t i o n than lodgepole p i n e . I t i s noteworthy t h a t Engelmann spruce b a r e - r o o t s tock s u r v i v a l i n the f a l l p l a n t i n g r e p l i c a t i o n i s extremely h i g h f o r f a l l p l a n t i n g . Growth i n t h i s p l o t i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s than t h a t exper ienced i n the lower e l e v a t i o n p l o t s . A g a i n , as i n the case of the lower p l o t r e s u l t s , f a l l p l a n t i n g growth seems t o be g rea te r than t h a t e x h i b i t e d i n s p r i n g p l a n t i n g s . 5-3 A n i m a l Damage The i n c i d e n c e o f brows ing on the t r i a l p l o t s i s se t out below i n Table I X . Lodgepole p ine i s the h e a v i e s t browsed s p e c i e s , w i t h Douglas-f i r the second h e a v i e s t and Engelmann spruce the l e a s t browsed. G e n e r a l l y , browsing i n c r e a s e d w i t h i s o l a t i o n . The l e a s t browsed p l o t s are near the highway or other areas of a c t i v i t y ( P l o t s 1, 2, 7, 8, 10 and l l ) and the h e a v i e s t brows ing occurred away from the highway and other a c t i v i t y ( P l o t s 3, k, 5 and 6). 30 Table IX - Browsing Occurrence P l o t Browsing (percent ) Number Lodgepole p ine Engelmann spruce D o u g l a s - f i r 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 16 6 12 k 31 9 23 5 kk o 29 6 21 21 19 T O 0 0 8 0 0 8 9 27 100 - one t r e e 0 10 5 2 0 11 15 13 P l o t 9 which i s l o c a t e d near the highway i s an e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s r u l e . I t i s , however, l o c a t e d on a south f a c i n g s lope and as such prov ides one of the few a v a i l a b l e browse areas f o r animals d u r i n g the l a t e w i n t e r and s p r i n g . T h i s f a c t has an o v e r - r i d i n g i n f l u e n c e on the animals who otherwise appear r e l u c t a n t t o browse near areas of a c t i v i t y . I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough there was some brows ing on P l o t 11 a t the new mine s i t e i t s e l f . 5.k I n d u s t r i a l Damage Three p l o t s were p a r t i a l l y des t royed d u r i n g the course of i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y . S t a t i s t i c s r e l a t i n g to t h i s damage are presented below i n Table X . Table X - P l o t s Damaged Through I n d u s t r i a l A c t i v i t y P l o t Number Percentage of P l o t Destroyed 2 3 7 13 8 7 31 I n t o t a l 122 t r e e s out of 5,126 p l a n t e d , or about 2 p e r c e n t , were des t royed i n t h i s manner. P l o t 2 was damaged d u r i n g an attempt t o c o n t r o l a muds l ide , P l o t 7 was damaged d u r i n g min ing opera t ions w h i l e P l o t 8 was damaged d u r i n g the course o f c o n s t r u c t i o n of a n a t u r a l gas p i p e - l i n e ( the p l o t was l o c a t e d on the p i p e - l i n e r i g h t - o f - w a y ) . 5.5 E r o s i o n were found t o have occur red i n these t r i a l s . The i n c i d e n c e of water e r o s i o n as evidenced by washed-out s eed l ings and s l u f f i n g as evidenced by b u r i e d or p a r t i a l b u r i e d s eed l ing s i s l i s t e d below i n Table X I . Table X I - P l o t Damage Due t o E r o s i o n Two types of e r o s i o n , water e r o s i o n and s l u f f i n g on steep s lopes , P l o t Number Trees Washed Out (Percent ) Trees P a r t i a l l y B u r i e d or B u r i e d (percent )  1 2 3 k 5 6 7 8 9 10 l i o 7 0 0 0 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 31 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 2 The water e r o s i o n i n P l o t 2 occurred as the r e s u l t o f a mudsl ide and t h a t i n P l o t 6, as p i c t u r e d i n F i g u r e 4, as the r e s u l t of sheet e r o s i o n of f i n e u n c o n s o l i d a t e d c o a l dus t . A l l s l u f f i n g was due to uns tab le sur faces 32 on steep slopes. I n some of the p l o t s , these slopes were undulations w i t h -i n the p l o t and were only a few f e e t long. I n a l l cases they were i n the order of 30 percent or steeper. In t o t a l , 9k- t r e e s , or about 2 percent of those planted, were destroyed i n t h i s manner. Fi g u r e K - Sheet e r o s i o n r e s u l t s at P l o t 6. 33 CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 6.1 P l a n t i n g Season D i f f e r e n c e s Grea ter s u r v i v a l i n s p r i n g p l a n t i n g than t h a t ob ta ined i n f a l l p l a n t i n g has been r e p o r t e d i n o ther reg ions (Davis 1969 and P o t t e r , Wietzman and T r i m b l e 1951). Reasons f o r t h i s r e s u l t , as noted i n the above two r e f e r e n c e s , i n c l u d e w i n t e r k i l l i n g and f r o s t heav ing . W i n t e r k i l l i n g seems t o be a s e r i o u s problem i n the p r o j e c t area as about 50 percent m o r t a l i t y i n f a l l p l a n t e d s tock was noted a t the t ime the s p r i n g r e p l i c a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d . No r e a l evidence has been c o l l e c t e d toward forming a c o n c l u s i o n as t o why t h i s should occur . However, p l a n t i n g shock and exposure t o the extremes of the elements be fore s n o w f a l l were probab ly major causes. The s tock which overwintered i n the nursery w i t h almost 100 percent s u r v i v a l exper ienced no p l a n t i n g shock and was w e l l p r o t e c t e d from exposure t o c l i m a t i c extremes. Cons iderab le amounts of what appeared t o be f r o s t heaving was noted i n the f a l l p l a n t i n g r e p l i c a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the b u l l e t s tock . An example i s presented below i n F i g u r e 5. Some of t h i s s tock , however, may have been p u l l e d out by browsing an imal s . I n some of the p l o t s , e s p e c i a l l y P l o t k which i s i n a h e a v i l y browsed area and where a l a r g e number of un-ear thed b u l l e t s were found, the m a j o r i t y of what appeared t o be f r o s t damage was p robab ly due t o brows ing . F a l l p l a n t i n g i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u s c e p t i b l e to 3^ t h i s type of damage as the planted t r e e s o f t e n stand out f o r long periods of time as the only green vegetation i n the planted area. Figure 5 - F r o s t heaving. Another reason f o r greater s u r v i v a l i n the s p r i n g p l a n t i n g t r i a l s •was undoubtedly the c o n t r a s t i n g weather c o n d i t i o n s at the times of p l a n t i n g . The s p r i n g weather was c o o l and wet and much more amenable t o a s u c c e s s f u l p l a n t i n g operation than the f a l l weather which was warm and dry. I t i s probable that seedlings planted during the f a l l were d r i e r and t h a t t h e i r r oots were more dehydrated and t h a t t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n higher m o r t a l i t y r a t e s . As was pointed out beforehand, the knowledge that s p r i n g p l a n t i n g i s the most s u c c e s s f u l i s p a r t i c u l a r l y valuable to the forward planning process. With t h i s knowledge on hand i t would now be an extremely wise d e c i s i o n on the p a r t of K a i s e r Resources L i m i t e d to plan to do a l l t h e i r t r e e p l a n t i n g i n the s p r i n g . Not only would i t be more s u c c e s s f u l i n terms of s u r v i v a l but i t would a l s o r e s u l t i n lower reclamation costs as fewer 35 r e p l a n t i n g s , i f any, would be r e q u i r e d . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n growth s t a t i s t i c s between f a l l and s p r i n g r e s u l t s are p robab ly due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n v i g o u r of the s u r v i v i n g t r e e s , even though these d i f f e r e n c e s were not r e a d i l y ev ident i n the v i g o u r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s t e x t . I t i s probable t h a t o n l y the h a r d i e s t , most v i gorous f a l l p l a n t e d s eed l ing s s u r v i v e d the harsh f a l l c o n d i t i o n s w h i l e l e s s v i gorous p l a n t s s u r v i v e d from the s p r i n g p l a n t i n g o p e r a t i o n s . T h i s i s most l i k e l y r e f l e c t e d i n d i f f e r e n t growth r a t e s , w i t h those of the s u r v i v M g g f a l l p l a n t e d s eed l ing s b e i n g the g r e a t e s t . 6.2 Species Comparison I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s ob ta ined from the spec ies t r i a l s are some-what c o m p l i c a t e d by the f a c t t h a t c o n t r a s t s i n spec ies d i f f e r e n c e s are masked by d i f f e r e n c e s i n the type of p l a n t i n g method used and the v a r y i n g ages of the p l a n t i n g s tock . F o r example, three year o l d b a r e - r o o t Douglas-f i r i s compared t o one year o l d lodgepole p ine i n p l u g s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , r e s u l t s of t h i s experiment i n d i c a t e t h a t lodgepole p ine i s the most d e s i r a b l e spec ies t o p l a n t i n the e l e v a t i o n range 3500 t o 5000 f e e t . Not on ly does one of i t s t r i a l s have the g rea te s t s u r v i v a l r a t e a f t e r one growing season but a l s o i t has the g rea te s t growth r a t e . T h i s r e s u l t i s l o g i c a l as lodgepole p ine i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a p ioneer spec ies capable o f c o l o n i z i n g severe s i t e s and those s i t e s which were p l a n t e d are d i f f i c u l t ones on which t o get r e g e n e r a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d . This i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e of the p l o t s on b l a c k c o a l r e s idues where unshaded surfaces become very hot . Surface temperatures have not been recorded i n t h i s experiment but some as h i g h as 150°F. were recorded a t o ther mine s i t e s on s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l (Dee ly and Borden 19&9 a n ( ^ U n i t e d S ta tes F o r e s t S e r v i c e 1971). 36 Lodgepole p ine i s a l s o d e s i r a b l e i n t h a t i t r e a c t s v e i l to browsing p r e s s u r e s . I n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t i t was the heav ie s t browsed spec ies i n t h i s experiment , i t a l s o grew the f a s t e s t . D o u g l a s - f i r s u r v i v a l r a t e s i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s not s u i t e d t o the dark c o a l r e s i d u e s i t e s . T h i s i s p robab ly due t o i t s i n a b i l i t y t o w i t h s t a n d the h i g h temperatures which are pre sent a t the sur face of these dark c o l o u r e d m a t e r i a l s . Engelmann spruce i s g e n e r a l l y regarded as a sub-a lp ine spec ies and on the lower e l e v a t i o n p l o t s r e s u l t s show t h i s spec ie s t o be out o f the environment i n which i t can be expected t o do w e l l . Spruce s u r v i v a l r a t e s at the new mine s i t e i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s w e l l s u i t e d f o r the h i g h e l e v a t i o n work t o be done. A major problem a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h e l e v a t i o n r e c l a m a t i o n w i l l be the procurement o f h i g h e l e v a t i o n seed. I n t h i s regard i t i s important t o note t h a t Engelmann spruce and lodgepole p ine s u r v i v a l a t p l o t number 11 i s s a t i s f a c t o r y , i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t the s tock p l a n t e d o r i g i n a t e s from seed c o l l e c t e d from e l e v a t i o n s of 3500 t o 5000 f e e t . T h i s i n d i c a t e s , per -haps, t h a t more than one c o n i f e r can be expected t o do w e l l a t the new mine s i t e . T h i s i s important when c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the spec ies p l a n t e d here w i l l depend on what seed can be c o l l e c t e d and, s i n c e seed crops are not common, t h a t c o l l e c t e d c o u l d be from any l o c a l spec ie s . Undoubtedly the h i g h s u r v i v a l r a t e s a t the new mine s i t e a re p r i m a r -i l y due to r e l a t i v e l y lower temperatures and the l a c k of an extended drought p e r i o d at t h i s e l e v a t i o n . W h i l e these c o n d i t i o n s have a f f e c t e d s u r v i v a l f a v o u r a b l y , r e s u l t s show t h a t the s h o r t e r growing season has a f f e c t e d growth unfavourab ly . S p r i n g growth f o r Engelmann spruce and lodgepole p ine a t lower e l e v a t i o n s ranges between 0.7 and 1.2 inches w h i l e a t the mine s i t e 37 the range is -0.5 to 0.1 inches. Based on these growth rates i t i s clear that i t w i l l take considerably longer to obtain an effective coniferous cover on the high elevation areas to be reclaimed than i t w i l l at the lower elevations. Not a l l trees planted in this experiment represent stock of an ideal age and size. This i s especially true of the Douglas-fir container stock which germinated late, was s t i l l relatively small when planted (3 to 5 inches in height), and s t i l l appeared succulent. Age and the resulting size of planting stock probably has a sig-nificant effect on survival. The younger and smaller and more succulent the tree i s , the more lik e l y i t is that i t w i l l not survive the f i r s t year after planting. This is particularly true on black, very hot surfaces on which these small seedlings suffer severe heat damage and on steep unconsol-idated slopes where they are buried through sluffing. The importance of age and size is well illustrated by the fact that t r i a l s of two year old bare-root spruce and three year old bare-root Douglas-fir survived better than one year old container stock of the same species. In the case of the bare-root f i r i t exhibited the second best survival rate of a l l the t r i a l s . It is the experience of the author and others (Canadian Forestry Service 1969) that container stock usually has better survival rates than bare-root stock of the same age. However, in this experiment the hardiness of the older bare-root stock predominates and i t has the greater survival. This probably would not have been the case i f the container stock had been older. The importance of planting seedlings of the correct size and age cannot be overemphasized in ensuring long-term successful results. For this 38 area i t -would seem t h a t a two year o l d s e e d l i n g , 8 t o 12 inches i n h e i g h t , would p r o v i d e the optimum combinat ion of r e q u i r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r the g rea te s t s u r v i v a l and growth. T h i s type of s e e d l i n g w i l l be p r o v i d e d w i t h moderate p r o t e c t i o n from heat damage and b u r y i n g but w i l l not be sub jec t t o the d ieback t h a t , f o r example, the much l a r g e r three year o l d b a r e - r o o t D o u g l a s - f i r was. Use of one year o l d s tock i s d e f i n i t e l y not recommended, p a r t i c u l a r l y on any steep s lopes t o be r e c l a i m e d . From o b s e r v a t i o n of the exper imenta l p l o t s i n these t r i a l s i t i s e s t imated t h a t the s l u f f i n g a c t i o n on s lopes i n excess of 30 percent w i l l cause the d e s t r u c t i o n of a s i g n i f i c a n t p ro-p o r t i o n of a l l s eed l ing s l e s s than 8 inches i n he ight w i t h i n two year s . The spec ies chosen f o r t h i s experiment were chosen on the b a s i s of s tock a v a i l a b i l i t y a t the time the t r i a l s were e s t a b l i s h e d . Other c o n i f e r s and broadleaves are a l s o indigenous to the area and o f f e r good r e f o r e s t a t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e s . Use o f the f a s t growing n a t i v e aspen (Populus t remulo ides M i c h x . ) would be e s p e c i a l l y v a l u a b l e on areas p r o v i d i n g browse f o r w i n t e r i n g game and f o r areas scheduled f o r s cen ic enhancement. Coni ferous t r e e s such as western l a r c h ( L a r i x o c c i d e n t a l i s N u t t . ) and a l p i n e f i r - ( A b i e s l a s i o c a r p a (Hook.) W u t t . ) would be s u i t a b l e wood produc ing a l t e r n a t i v e s i f the area were to be revegeta ted t o commerc ia l ly p r o d u c t i v e f o r e s t . 6.3 Comparison of P l a n t i n g Methods A g a i n , as i n the case o f the spec ies comparison, the comparison of p l a n t i n g methods i s made d i f f i c u l t by the i n t e r r e l a t e d e f f e c t s of other p l a n t i n g s tock c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I n t h i s case these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are the d i f f e r i n g species and the d i f f e r i n g ages of p l a n t i n g s tock . R e s u l t s 39 of t h i s experiment , n e v e r t h e l e s s , seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t the most d e s i r a b l e method of p l a n t i n g i s the one i n -which the organic s o i l p l u g developed i n a s tyrofoam b l o c k i s used. T h i s c o n t a i n e r appears t o be i d e a l l y des igned f o r t h i s type of r e g e n e r a t i o n , i n which b i o l o g i c a l l y s u c c e s s f u l r e s u l t s are much more important than modest d i f f e r e n c e s i n the co s t s of p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s c o n t a i n e r can be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h greenhouses to o b t a i n the most f avourab le growth environment and as the s e e d l i n g i s . .p lanted w h i l e s t i l l s i t u a t e d i n i t s o r i g i n a l growing medium there i s a minimum r i s k of p l a n t i n g shock. T h i s i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s experiment as s u r v i v a l and growth of the p lugs i s by f a r the b e s t . I n a d d i t i o n , the e f f e c t s of browsing and f r o s t heaving on the p l u g appear t o be m i n i m a l . The p l a s t i c b u l l e t i s not w e l l s u i t e d to t h i s o p e r a t i o n . I t must o f t e n be hand p l a n t e d due t o the rocky and compacted nature of many of the p l a n t i n g s i t e s . S e e d l i n g s , t h e r e f o r e , w i l l have l i m i t e d area f o r r o o t development be fore the c o n s t r a i n t s of t h i s p l a s t i c j a c k e t , which i s not cut open d u r i n g hand p l a n t i n g , s t a r t t o i n h i b i t r o o t growth. T h i s i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d i n the observa t ions presented on r o o t growth i n Appendix V I . The b u l l e t p l a n t e d i n t h i s manner a l s o becomes extremely s u s c e p t i b l e to f r o s t heaving and t o b e i n g p u l l e d out by browsing an ima l s . T h i s i s due to the compact shape and s l i p p e r y surface of c o n t a i n e r when i t i s not cut open d u r i n g p l a n t i n g . B a r e - r o o t s tock i s l e s s d e s i r a b l e than t h a t i n c o n t a i n e r s because, as was p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r i n the t e x t , b a r e - r o o t s u r v i v a l r a t e s are u s u a l l y lower . I n a d d i t i o n , b a r e - r o o t s eed l ings exper ience p l a n t i n g check i n the f i r s t growing season and growth i n t h i s , the most c r i t i c a l season- from an u l t i m a t e s u r v i v a l p o i n t - o f - v i e w , i s much poorer than t h a t ob ta ined w i t h c o n t a i n e r s tock . ko 6.k S i t e Comparison S i t e e v a l u a t i o n focused a t t e n t i o n on three f a c t o r s which appear t o a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t f i r s t year s u r v i v a l . These are south f a c i n g s lopes , com-p a c t i o n and low e l e v a t i o n . E x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s from south f a c i n g s lopes and o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t few t r e e s grow on u n d i s t u r b e d south s lopes suggest t h a t these areas should not be p l a n t e d w i t h t r e e s . Exact a l t e r n a t i v e s are not d e t a i l e d i n t h i s r e p o r t but var ious - , u n i d e n t i f i e d grasses and shrubs were growing on these s i t e s and undoubtedly these would be more s u i t a b l e f o r south s lope r e g e n e r a t i o n . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y so when one c o n s i d e r s t h a t snow leaves these s lopes q u i c k l y d u r i n g s p r i n g break-up and t h a t p l a n t s on these areas are h e a v i l y browsed u n t i l the snow i s t o t a l l y gone. From o b s e r v a t i o n i t appears t h a t shrubs and grasses are b e t t e r ab le t o s u r v i v e brows ing and are t h e r e f o r e more s u i t a b l e f o r t h i s purpose than are c o n i f e r o u s t r ee s e e d l i n g s . Compaction i s a problem which can be s u c c e s s f u l l y c o r r e c t e d by deep p lowing or r i p p i n g before p l a n t i n g . I t i s f e l t t h a t s u r v i v a l and growth on compacted areas would increase s i g n i f i c a n t l y as a r e s u l t of these t r e a t -ments and they should be cons idered a d e f i n i t e n e c e s s i t y wherever compaction i s a problem. N o t h i n g , o f course , can be done about the f a c t t h a t s u r v i v a l r a t e s decrease as e l e v a t i o n decreases . I t should be emphasized, however, t h a t cho ice of the proper spec ies and type of s e e d l i n g becomes more c r i t i c a l w i t h lower e l e v a t i o n p l a n t i n g s . T h i s i s due t o the extended h i g h temper-a tures and drought exper ienced at these e l e v a t i o n s . kl 6. 5 A n i m a l Damage Much of the d i s c u s s i o n r e l a t i v e t o an imal damage has a l r e a d y been presented i n e a r l i e r s e c t i o n s of t h i s t e x t and w i l l not be expanded upon. One p o i n t , however, shou ld be cons idered i n g rea te r d e t a i l . As mentioned e a r l i e r , brows ing at the new mine s i t e can be expected t o i n c r e a s e . I t i s c r i t i c a l t h a t as l i t t l e browsing as p o s s i b l e occur i n t h i s area i n order t o ensure good s u r v i v a l and growth. E x t e n s i v e browsing c o u l d cause h i g h mor-t a l i t y or a combinat ion of ex tens ive browsing and the short growing season c o u l d soon t u r n p l a n t e d seed l ings i n t o many-leadered shrubs which probably would be of l i t t l e use as ground cover . T h i s i s a good argument f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g Engelmann spruce a t t h i s s i t e as the r e s u l t s o f these t r i a l s show i t t o be the l e a s t browsed. I t i s probable t h a t i t s s p i n y nature makes i t r e l a t i v e l y unpa la tab le to an imal s . 6. 6 A c c i d e n t a l D e s t r u c t i o n The s t a t i s t i c s presented i n Table X r e l a t i v e t o a c c i d e n t a l d e s t r u c -t i o n r e v e a l t h i s t o be a minor problem. These s t a t i s t i c s , however, are mis-l e a d i n g i n t h a t they represent o n l y one y e a r ' s r e s u l t s and because the areas from which they are gathered , except f o r P l o t 7, are not areas of s i g n i f i c a n t min ing a c t i v i t y . I n other words, these r e s u l t s do not represent the cumulat ive e f f e c t s o f s e v e r a l years of min ing i n areas such as the new mine s i t e . I t i s the a u t h o r ' s b e l i e f t h a t a c c i d e n t a l d e s t r u c t i o n , a long w i t h e r o s i o n , which i s d i s c u s s e d i n next s e c t i o n of the t e x t , w i l l be one of the most s e r i o u s o b s t a c l e s i n the way of s u c c e s s f u l r e c l a m a t i o n . S e v e r a l observa t ions p o i n t to t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . k2 P l o t 7, l o c a t e d near the h y d r a u l i c mine, i s the on ly p l o t p r e s e n t l y l o c a t e d i n a t r u l y a c t i v e area . T h i r t e e n percent of t h i s p l o t has been des t royed i n one year . Expansion of t h i s annual damage t o a more l engthy time p e r i o d , w h i l e n o t i n g t h a t t h i s i s o n l y c o n j e c t u r e , shows t h a t i f t h i s t r e n d cont inues t o t a l d e s t r u c t i o n of the p l o t c o u l d occur w i t h i n t e n year s . Proper p l a n n i n g at the h i g h e s t management l e v e l i s r e q u i r e d t o min-imize t h i s problem. T h i s has not been for thcoming t o the present t ime . Cost c o n t r o l and mining e n g i n e e r i n g p l a n n i n g appear t o be the major concerns of management, w i t h r e c l a m a t i o n b e i n g secondary. T h i s has been t r u e i n the case of the d i s t u r b a n c e of P l o t 7 which was, i n c i d e n t l y , c l e a r e d as b e i n g i n an i n a c t i v e area before i t was p l a n t e d . T h i s was a l s o the case i n 1971 when an abandoned s e t t l i n g pond was r e f l o o d e d a f t e r i t had been grassed i n . The a t t i t u d e of r e c l a m a t i o n b e i n g o f secondary importance i s a l s o e x h i b i t e d by K a i s e r Resources h o u r l y employees. T h i s was evidenced by an i n c i d e n t i n which a workman attempted t o d r i v e a f r o n t - e n d loader over a seeded area which he knew to be seeded d u r i n g the s p r i n g of 1972. W h i l e i t i s t rue t h a t the above appear t o be i s o l a t e d i n s t a n c e s , i t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t over a p e r i o d of t ime these in s tances w i l l have a s i g n i f i -cant e f f e c t on the success of p l a n t a t i o n e s t ab l i shment . I n the f u t u r e , and i n p a r t i c u l a r a t the new mine s i t e , r e c l a m a t i o n of an area w i l l have t o be c a r r i e d out c l o s e to o ther min ing a c t i v i t y and soon a f t e r mining of the area has been completed i f e r o s i o n i s t o be checked. I t i s a l s o c l e a r t h a t the i n v i o l a t e nature of these r e c l a i m e d areas t o min ing a c t i v i t y must remain i n t a c t f o r r e v e g e t a t i o n t o succeed. For t h i s to occur i t w i l l be necessary t h a t r e c l a m a t i o n , a long w i t h cos t c o n t r o l and e n g i n e e r i n g p l a n n i n g , occupy a p o s i t i o n of top p r i o r i t y i n the minds of s e n i o r management. ^3 6.7 E r o s i o n C o n t r o l S t a t i s t i c s r e l a t i n g t o e r o s i o n damage, as presented i n Table X I , show t h i s type of damage to be a l s o s m a l l i n na ture . These s t a t i s t i c s are a l s o m i s l e a d i n g , however, as were those r e l a t i n g to a c c i d e n t a l d e s t r u c t i o n . On the one hand they represent the r e s u l t s of e r o s i o n a f t e r o n l y one year . On the other they represent r e s u l t s from areas which i n c l u d e many f l a t t o g e n t l y s l o p i n g aspects and these s i t e s are not t r u l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of those c u r r e n t l y b e i n g c r e a t e d . S e v e r a l i n d i c a t i o n s p o i n t to the f a c t t h a t the cumula t ive e f f e c t s o f e r o s i o n damage w i t h i n the c u r r e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d p l o t s can be expected t o be s e r i o u s . The water e r o s i o n and mudslide problems i n P l o t s 2 and 6 are s t i l l not c o r r e c t e d and w i l l cont inue t o cause damage t o these two p l o t s i n the f u t u r e . Tens ion cracks up t o s i x inches wide have opened up w i t h i n P l o t 10. T h i s p l o t i s l o c a t e d at the top of the Balmer s l i d e and i t i s o n l y a matter of t ime before a t l e a s t p o r t i o n s of i t f a l l away. P l o t s 1 and 2 are l o c a t e d a t the base of t h i s s l i d e and almost c e r t a i n l y w i l l be a f f e c t e d by any major s l i ppage from the s l i d e ' s top l i p . The g r a d u a l b u r y i n g of s eed l ing s can be expected t o cont inue to occur on the s teeper s lopes due t o s l u f f i n g and i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h i s w i l l become an i n c r e a s i n g l y s i g n i f i c a n t problem w i t h t ime . R e s u l t s from P l o t 3 i n d i c a t e the l i k l i h o o d t h a t i t w i l l be almost comple te ly des t royed w i t h i n 5 years . P l o t s 2, 9, 10 and 11 w i l l a l s o be i n c r e a s i n g l y a f f e c t e d w i t h t ime . S e v e r a l l i n e s o f a t t a c k are r e q u i r e d t o s u c c e s s f u l l y c u r t a i l e r o s i o n . E x t e n s i v e and w e l l p lanned dra inage systems w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o minimize water e r o s i o n . T e r r a c i n g o f the steeper s lopes w i l l be r e q u i r e d kk t o check not o n l y water e r o s i o n hut a l s o the e f f e c t s of s l u f f i n g . Where s lopes are i n excess of 30 p e r c e n t , t e r r a c i n g a lone w i l l not he s u f f i c i e n t to check e a r t h movement. I t was shown i n t h i s experiment t h a t s l u f f i n g on steep s lopes o n l y a few f e e t l ong a l s o r e s u l t e d i n p a r t i a l b u r y i n g of seed-l i n g s . Some p l a n t s w i l l have to be e s t a b l i s h e d or some c h e m i c a l a d d i t i v e s i n t r o d u c e d t o these s lopes i n order t o s t a b i l i z e them. V e g e t a t i o n , such as q u i c k s p r o u t i n g grasses and herbs , p r o v i d e the be s t s t a b i l i z a t i o n r e s u l t s a c c o r d i n g to a recent U . S . government study (Dean and Havens 1972). Chem-i c a l s t a b i l i z e r s such as e l a s t o m e r i c polymer cor l i g n o s u l f o n a t e a l s o produced good r e s u l t s i n t h i s s tudy. ^ 5 CHAPTER 7 FUTURE COURSE OF ACTION Some of the da ta r e q u i r e d t o put r e v e g e t a t i o n u s i n g t r e e s eed l ings on a sound b a s i s has been p r o v i d e d by t h i s s tudy. However, mueh experimenta-t i o n and documentation of r e s u l t s i s s t i l l r e q u i r e d . The p r e l i m i n a r y nature of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n terms of s u r v i v a l and growth must be emphasized, as the r e s u l t s ob ta ined are those from o n l y one growing season. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y the case w i t h the h i g h e l e v a t i o n p l o t s where r e s u l t s are based not o n l y on observa t ions over o n l y one growing season but a l s o are d e r i v e d from o n l y 290 p l a n t e d t r e e s . F u r t h e r t r i a l s a t h i g h e l e v a t i o n w i l l be r e q u i r e d w h i l e other measurements of s u r v i v a l and growth i n a l l p l o t s , p robab ly a t the end of the t h i r d growing season, w i l l be needed t o o b t a i n a b e t t e r i n d i c a t i o n of the exper iment ' s u l t i m a t e success . Other authors have noted t h a t i n i t i a l s u r v i v a l on s p o i l banks has been good but growth l a t e r on has been poor (Bengston, A l l e n , Mays and Zarger 1969). A s i m i l a r problem may e x i s t here as i t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the pH of overburden and s p o i l banks i n the surrounding area i s as h i g h as 7.9 w i t h the average b e i n g about 6 t o 7 ( S e i n e r 1972). The optimum pH f o r t r e e growth i s 5-0 t o 5 . 5 (Wilde 1958) and i t may be necessary t o add v a r i o u s s o i l amendments to p l a n t e d areas t o o b t a i n s a t i s f a c t o r y growth. Future r e s u l t s may i n d i c a t e t h a t f e r t i l i z a t i o n may be a n e c e s s i t y . I t s need should be t e s t e d now t o o b t a i n some b a s i c r e s u l t s . The c u r r e n t e x p e r i m e n t a l p l o t s s p l i t i n t o treatments and c o n t r o l s c o u l d p o s s i b l y be used f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h . k6 CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e to s u c c e s s f u l l y p l a n t and grow t r e e s on the overburden wastes of the K a i s e r Resources mine. P l a n t i n g should be c a r r i e d out i n the ' s p r i n g as s u r v i v a l i s s u p e r i o r t o t h a t ob ta ined from f a l l p l a n t i n g s . Two spec ies grown i n the organic s o i l p l u g y i e l d e d the g rea te s t s u r v i v a l and growth. Lodgepole p ine gave the bes t r e s u l t s a t e l e v a t i o n s between 3500 and 5000 f e e t w h i l e Engelmann spruce was s u p e r i o r above 5000 f e e t . When t r e e s are to be used i n r e c l a m a t i o n work, these two, p l a n t e d i n p l u g s , shou ld be used i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e e l e v a t i o n ranges u n t i l more or e q u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l spec ies become known. Stock which was two years o l d gave the be s t r e s u l t s of the age c l a s s e s p l a n t e d . One year o l d s eed l ing s are more s u s c e p t i b l e to heat damage and b u r y i n g through s l u f f i n g on steep s lopes w h i l e three year o l d s eed l ing s e x h i b i t some d ieback d u r i n g the f i r s t growing season. P r o d u c t i o n of p l a n t i n g s tock should t h e r e f o r e favour the development of two year o l d s e e d l i n g s . T r i a l p l o t s s i t u a t e d on south f a c i n g s lopes e x h i b i t e d poor s u r v i v a l . These s i t e s appear b e t t e r s u i t e d t o the e s tab l i shment of shrubs and grasses , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e brows ing on these areas i s heavy. They t h e r e f o r e should be p l a n t e d t o shrubs and grasses and not t r e e s . kl T r i a l p l o t s l o c a t e d on compacted s i t e s a l s o e x h i b i t e d poor s u r v i v a l r a t e s . These s i t e s can be made more s u i t a b l e f o r p l a n t a t i o n e s tab l i shment by r i p p i n g or deep .p lowing. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t s u r v i v a l r a t e s i n the order o f 80 percent can be ach ieved i f the above noted g u i d e l i n e s are adhered t o . A c c i d e n t a l d e s t r u c t i o n and e r o s i o n can be major causes of p l a n t a t i o n f a i l u r e and these two problems must be d e a l t w i t h before r e v e g e t a t i o n can succeed. Proper p l a n n i n g at the h ighes t management l e v e l w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o minimize a c c i d e n t a l d e s t r u c t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , r e c l a m a t i o n w i l l have to occupy a p l a c e of e q u a l importance w i t h c o s t c o n t r o l and e n g i n e e r i n g p l a n n i n g . A v a r i e t y of s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n techniques w i l l have t o be u t i l i z e d t o c o n t r o l e r o s i o n . These techniques must i n c l u d e development of dra inage systems, t e r r a c i n g of l o n g , steep s lopes and s lope s t a b i l i z a t i o n u s i n g c h e m i c a l or v e g e t a t i v e means. T h i s study prov ides some of the da ta r e q u i r e d t o develop a sound r e c l a m a t i o n program. F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , however, i s s t i l l r e q u i r e d . Future growth and s u r v i v a l , f e r t i l i z a t i o n and a d d i t i o n s t o the s o i l t o c o r r e c t h i g h pH are some re sea rch p o s s i b i l i t i e s . 48 BIBLIOGRAPHY Ashby, J . 29 January 1971. The Vancouver Sun. Bengston, G .W. , A l l e n , S . E . , Mays, D .A . and Zarger , T . G . 1969. The Use of F e r t i l i z e r s t o Speed P i n e Es tab l i shment on Recla imed C o a l Mine S p o i l s i n Nor thea s te rn Alabama: I . Greenhouse Exper iments . . 'Abs t r ac t of paper presented at the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Symposium on Ecology and Revege ta t ion of D r a s t i c a l l y D i s t u r b e d Areas . P e n n s y l v a n i a S ta te U n i v e r s i t y . 1 p. B r i t i s h Columbia W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n . 21 January I969. News Release . 7 p. Brooks , D .B . March 1966. S t r i p M i n i n g , Rec lamat ion and the P u b l i c I n t e r e s t . R e p r i n t from American F o r e s t s . 4 p. S p r i n g I967. S t r i p M i n i n g i n Eas t Kentucky - The Same Yet D i f f e r e n t . R e p r i n t from Mountain L i f e and Work. 9 P-Canadian F o r e s t r y S e r v i c e . I969. Conta iner P l a n t i n g Progre s s . Paper presented a t the meeting of the R e f o r e s t a t i o n Board of the Coast TFL Committee. 11 p. C u r t i s , W.R. 1969. The E f f e c t s of S t r i p M i n i n g on the Hydrology of a S m a l l Mountain Watershed. A b s t r a c t of paper presented a t the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Symposium on Ecology and Revege ta t ion of D r a s t i c a l l y D i s t u r b e d Areas . P e n n s y l v a n i a S ta te U n i v e r s i t y . 1 p. D a v i s , G. 19^9- Comparison of F a l l and S p r i n g P l a n t i n g on S t r i p Mine S p o i l s i n The Bituminous Region of P e n n s y l v a n i a . A b s t r a c t of paper presented a t the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Symposium on Ecology and Revegeta t ion of D r a s t i c a l l y D i s t u r b e d Area s . P e n n s y l v a n i a S ta te U n i v e r s i t y . 1 p. Dean, K . C . and Havens, R. 1972. Rec lamat ion of M i n e r a l M i l l i n g Wastes. U . S . Department of the I n t e r i o r . Department of Mines . 7 p. Dee ly , D . J . and Borden, F . Y . 1969. High Surface Temperatures on S t r i p Mine S p o i l s . A b s t r a c t of paper presented a t the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Symposium on Ecology and Revegeta t ion of D r a s t i c a l l y D i s t u r b e d Area s . P e n n s y l v a n i a S ta te U n i v e r s i t y . 1 p . ^9 D i c k , J . H . 1972. K a i s e r R e s o u r c e s R e c l a m a t i o n P r o g r a m . A p a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t a s y m p o s i u m e n t i t l e d E n v i r o n m e n t M a n a g e m e n t : T h e M i n i n g S c e n e , R e c l a m a t i o n o f D i s t u r b e d L a n d A r e a s . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 28 p . D r a s k o v i c , D . I969. R e c l a m a t i o n M e t h o d s t o P r e v e n t W a t e r P o l l u t i o n i n t h e M o n r o v i a W a t e r s h e d , Y u g o s l a v i a . A b s t r a c t o f p a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S y m p o s i u m o n E c o l o g y a n d R e v e g e t a t i o n o f D r a s t i c a l l y D i s t u r b e d A r e a s . P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . 1 p . G a r d i n e r , R . T . 1972. C o m i n c o A p p r o a c h t o V e g e t a t i o n R e s e a r c h . A c o m p a n y m e m o r a n d u m . 15 p . H i l l , R . D . 1969a. R e c l a m a t i o n a n d R e v e g e t a t i o n o f S t r i p - M i n e d L a n d s f o r P o l l u t i o n a n d E r o s i o n C o n t r o l . A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E n g i n e e r s . 69-705- 31 P -1969 t i . R e c l a m a t i o n a n d R e v e g e t a t i o n o f 6^ -0 A c r e s o f S u r f a c e M i n e s -E l k i n s , W e s t V i r g i n i a . . A b s t r a c t o f p a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S y m p o s i u m o n E c o l o g y a n d R e v e g e t a t i o n o f D r a s t i c a l l y D i s t u r b e d A r e a s . P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . 1 p . H u s c h , B . 1963. F o r e s t M e n s u r a t i o n a n d S t a t i s t i c s . T h e R o n a l d P r e s s C o m p a n y , N e w Y o r k . Vf3 p . K a i s e r R e s o u r c e s L i m i t e d . 1971. C r o w s N e s t M i n i n g O p e r a t i o n s 1960-1972, R e v i s e d R e c l a m a t i o n P l a n . 15 p . K e l l e r , R . A . I965. T h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f V e g e t a t i o n o n T a i l i n g P o n d s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , P r o g r e s s R e p o r t N o . 1. F i s h A n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h , D e p a r t m e n t o f R e c r e a t i o n a n d C o n s e r v a t i o n . 33 P-K i n g h o r n , J . M . 1972. P e r s o n a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . L a n g , A . 18 J u n e 1970. T h e V a n e o u v e r S u n . M u r r a y , D . R . 1971. V e g e t a t i o n o f M i n e W a s t e E m b a n k m e n t s i n C a n a d a . C a n a d a D e p a r t m e n t o f E n e r g y , M i n e s a n d R e s o u r c e s . M i n i n g R e s e a r c h C e n t r e I n t e r n a l R e p o r t MR 71/3I - I D . 58 p . P e t e r s o n , E . B . a n d E t t e r , H . M . 1970. A B a c k g r o u n d f o r D i s t u r b e d L a n d R e c l a m a t i o n a n d R e s e a r c h i n t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n R e g i o n o f A l b e r t a . C a n a d i a n F o r e s t r y S e r v i c e I n f o r m a t i o n R e p o r t A-X-3^+. 5^ p . P o t t e r , H . S . , W i e t z m a n , S . a n d T r i m b l e J r . , G . R . 1951. R e f o r e s t a t i o n o f S t r i p M i n e d L a n d s i n W e s t V i r g i n i a . U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e , U . S . F o r e s t S e r v i c e . 28 p . R o v e , J . S . 1959. F o r e s t R e g i o n s o f C a n a d a . D e p a r t m e n t o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s a n d N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , B u l l e t i n 123. 71 p . 50 S e i n e r , J . 1972. U n p u b l i s h e d d a t a . U n i t e d S t a t e s F o r e s t S e r v i c e . 1971. S u r f a c e M i n e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , R e p o r t o f C o o p e r a t i v e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t u d y t o R e h a b i l i t a t e P h o s p h a t e S t r i p -M i n e S i t e s . 2k p . V a n c o u v e r S u n , T h e . 25 J a n u a r y I969. 25 J u n e 1970. W i l d e , S . A . 1958. F o r e s t S o i l s . T h e R o n a l d P r e s s C o m p a n y , N e w Y o r k . 537 p . 51 APPENDIX I Description of Plot Sites 52 APPENDIX I D e s c r i p t i o n , of P l o t S i t e s  P l o t 1 E l e v a t i o n - 3700 f e e t , s lope - 5 percent south f a c i n g . The s o i l i s composed of b u l l d o z e d , v e r y compacted and hard s l i d e r u b b l e . The area has been seeded w i t h grasses and some u n i d e n t i f i e d v a r i e t i e s of annual s , b o t h of which have a medium d e n s i t y of occurrence . No s o i l movement i s e v i d e n t . P l o t 2 E l e v a t i o n - 38OO f e e t , s lope - 30 percent n o r t h f a c i n g . The s o i l i s composed of loose s l i d e r u b b l e . S l u f f i n g on t h i s p l o t has not been as s e r i o u s as expected as the wet rubb le d r i e s w i t h a c e m e n t - l i k e sur face which r e s t r i c t s s l u f f i n g occurrence . Grasses , which have a l i g h t and patchy d e n s i t y , are the o n l y v e g e t a t i o n found on the area . The p l o t has been p a r t i a l l y des t royed by a mudsl ide and a b u l l d o z e r , b o t h of which passed through one s ide of the p l o t . Some of the t ree s on the lower , s teeper (30 percent +) p a r t s of the p l o t have been b u r i e d by s l u f f i n g . P l o t 3 E l e v a t i o n - k-800 f e e t , s lope - 30 percent west f a c i n g . The s o i l medium i s composed of c o a l dust r e s idues and other overburden m a t e r i a l . Heavy e l k and deer s i g n ( t r a c k s ) are ev ident i n the p l o t . A few u n i d e n t i f i e d s c a t t e r e d annuals are present but no grasses . S c a t t e r e d n a t u r a l cottonwoods (Populus t r i c h o c a r p a T o r r . and Gray) are growing on the per imeter of the p l o t a rea . E x t e n s i v e s l u f f i n g i s ev ident but there are no water e r o s i o n problems. 53 P l o t 4 E l e v a t i o n - 4650 f e e t , s lope - 5 percent south f a c i n g . The s o i l medium i s composed of f i n e b l a c k c o a l dus t . Very heavy deer and e l k s i g n i s e v i d e n t . A l i g h t cover of Cottonwood, 5 t o 10 f e e t h i g h , i s l o c a t e d on the p l o t a rea . No other v e g e t a t i v e cover i s p re sent . No water e r o s i o n or s l u f f i n g problems are e v i d e n t . P l o t 5 E l e v a t i o n - 4650 f e e t , s lope - 5 percent south f a c i n g . The s o i l i s u n d i s t u r b e d and v e r y s h a l l o w . The p l o t i s l o c a t e d on the knob o f a h i l l t h a t i s u n d e r l a i n by rock and i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h numerous outcrop-p i n g s . N a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n i n c l u d e s a complete cover of medium d e n s i t y grass and s c a t t e r e d 3 f o o t h i g h b i r c h ( B e t u l a p a p y r i f e r a M a r s h . ) . I s o l a t e d 20 f o o t h i g h lodgepole p ine are a l s o e v i d e n t . T h i s a rea has been e x t e n s i v e l y browsed. P l o t 6 E l e v a t i o n - 4500 f e e t , s lope - 10 percent east f a c i n g . The s o i l medium i s composed of c o a l dust and other overburden m a t e r i a l . There i s l i t t l e or no n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n i n t h i s a rea . P o r t i o n s of t h i s p l o t have been washed out by sheet e r o s i o n . P l o t T E l e v a t i o n - 3700 f e e t , s lope - 10 percent northwest f a c i n g . The p l o t i s l o c a t e d on an o l d mine heap. The s o i l medium i s compacted through b u l l d o z i n g and i s composed of f i n e , g r a n u l a r and l a rge p ieces of c o a l and c o a l mine r e s i d u e s . A s s o r t e d grasses and herbs s p a r s e l y vegetate the a rea . The lower p o r t i o n s of t h i s p l o t have been des t royed through b u l l d o z i n g . No e r o s i o n problems are e v i d e n t . Problems i n r e v e g e t a t i n g t h i s heap may occur as i t i s on f i r e . P l o t 8 E l e v a t i o n - 3900 f e e t , f l a t . The p l o t i s l o c a t e d on a b u l l d o z e d , compacted mine heap. The s o i l medium i s s i m i l a r i n nature t o t h a t i n p l o t 7 and i s composed of f i n e , g r a n u l a r and l a r g e r p i ece s o f c o a l and c o a l mine r e s i d u e s . The area i s covered w i t h s c a t t e r e d sweet c l o v e r which reaches a h e i g h t of 3 t o 5 f e e t . Cotton-? woods are e s t a b l i s h i n g themselves on the edges o f . t h i s heap. No e r o s i o n problems are e v i d e n t , but a b u l l d o z e r has de s t royed a p o r t i o n of the p l o t . P l o t 9 E l e v a t i o n - 38OO f e e t , s lope - ^0 percent southwest f a c i n g . The p l o t i s l o c a t e d on a n a t u r a l mixed s i l t , shale s o i l . I t appears t o be a v e r y dry s i t e . N a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f s c a t t e r e d herbage and grass and Douglas maple (Acer glabrum T o r r . v a r . d o u g l a s i i (Hook) D i p p . ) . Very heavy brows ing i s e v i d e n t . The minor v e g e t a t i o n present has l a r g e l y p r e -vented s l u f f i n g and i t s i n c i d e n c e i s not o f a s i g n i f i c a n t na ture . P l o t 10 E l e v a t i o n - ^900 f e e t , s lope - 15 percent n o r t h f a c i n g . The p l o t i s l o c a t e d at the top o f the Balmer s l i d e a rea . The s o i l medium i s composed o f a sandy t o s h a l e - l i k e and v e r y compacted mine overburden. Tens ion c r a c k s , up t o 6 inches i n w i d t h , are deve lop ing w i t h i n the p l o t and p o r t i o n s are s l o w l y s u b s i d i n g . E v e n t u a l l y t h i s area w i l l s l u f f away, g r a d u a l l y or d u r i n g another major s l i d e . The area i s bare o f v e g e t a t i o n and no water e r o s i o n problems are e v i d e n t . P l o t 11 E l e v a t i o n - .6800 f e e t , f l a t . T h i s i s the o n l y p l o t l o c a t e d at the present mine s i t e . The s o i l medium i s a g r a n u l a r mud- l ike sha le . No e r o s i o n i s e v i d e n t . No v e g e t a t i o n i s p re sent . 55 APPENDIX I I Experimental Design 56 APPENDIX I I E x p e r i m e n t a l Des ign T h i s experiment was l a i d out i n a randomized complete b l o c k des ign w i t h randomiza t ion b e i n g c o n f i n e d to a l l o t m e n t o f the s p e c i e s / c o n t a i n e r combinat ions w i t h i n each p l o t . P l o t l a y o u t was e s t a b l i s h e d u s i n g a t a b l e of random numbers and i s se t out below i n Table I . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the Table I - P l o t Layout P l o t Number c 1 2 3 k 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 s M E 6 T 5 .5 5 l 1 2 3 B Q, 5 6 2 T T 5 3 3 6 I U k k T 1 3 7 5 6 2 N E 3 3 1 6 6 2 7 1 l A N 2 l k 1* 1 3 6 7 6 5 T C 1 5 6 2 k 6 2 l 5 7 I E T 2 3 3 2 4 3 5 7 2 0 N sequence numbers are as f o l l o w s : - number 1 r e f e r s to D o u g l a s - f i r i n b u l l e t s . - number 2 r e f e r s t o D o u g l a s - f i r i n p l u g s , -unlimber 3 r e f e r s t o lodgepole pine i n b u l l e t s . - number h r e f e r s t o lodgepole p ine i n p l u g s . - number 5 r e f e r s to Engelmann spruce i n b u l l e t s . - number 6 r e f e r s t o Engelmann spruce i n p l u g s . - number 7 r e f e r s t o b a r e - r o o t D o u g l a s - f i r . 57 The species/container combinations were planted i n the above sequences. They were l i n e d out i n s t r a i g h t l i n e s with seedlings planted three feet apart, and at r i g h t angles to the contours i n an attempt to equalize any slope or e l e v a t i o n a l e f f e c t s on these combinations. P l o t size i s about 30 to 35 f e e t by 125 feet. 58 A P P E N D I X I I I O r i g i n a l S e e d l i n g H e i g h t s F a l l P l a n t i n g H e i g h t s - p a g e s 59 t o 69.. S p r i n g P l a n t i n g H e i g h t s - p a g e s 70 t o 80. 59 P l o t Number 1 - F a l l 1970. Tree number 1 l o c a t e d nearest the road . Tree Spruce Spruce P I P I D . - f i r D . - f i r D . - f i r Number P l u g s B u l l e t s P lugs B u l l e t s P lugs B u l l e t s Bare- roo t . rones I n . -.J T n c h e s Inches 7 i ichr - T r'"'.. = " 1 2.8 3.8 3.6 3-0 3.6 3-3 11.3 2 k.6 4.0 5.3 2.1 5.1 3-7 11.8 3 6.5 2.4 4.6 3-3 ^.5 3.0 8.5 4 4.8 2.0 k.5 4.0 ^.3 2.5 12.7 5 5.5 2.6 h.3 3.5 5.0 2.4 5.8 6 3.6 2.7 6.2 3-0 2.8 3.2 10.5 7 k.o 2.2 3.6 3-8 4.1 2.4 5.0 8 5.2 2.0 2.2 3-8 4.1 3-0 9-1 9 3.3 2.4 3.0 2.4 3-7 1.6 1^.5 10 3-7 3-0 2.9 3-5 4.0 4.0 11.2 11 k.Q 3-1 4.0 2.4 5 A 2.6 7.9 12 5.2 4.4 4.2 3-1 k.5 2.2 9.0 13 *.3 2.5 5.5 3.0 . 4.0 3.8 6.4 14 k.k 3.^ 2.2 3.5 1.6 3-5 10.2 15 k.5 2.3 6.6 2.5 ^.5 3.2 7.0 16 3.9 2.0 3-5 2.5 3.2 2.2 7.2 17 5.5 4.0 3.0 3.0 5.0 2.2 7.7 18 k.l 2.9 3.2 2.0 4.0 2.2 8.1 19 6.6 4.4 3-5 3-9 4.4 1.3 7.7 20 5.1 2.6 5.1 3.0 3-2 1.8 8.1 21 5.6 2.6 3.0 4.1 3.8 8.4 22 3-5 4.0 2.9 4.0 2.3 2.7 7.5 23 2.4 • 2.2 3A 3.1 4.2 2.0 8.4 2k 6.3 4.0 4.6 4.0 3-2 2.5 6.5 25 h.9 2.4 k.9 3.0 2.5 3.1 7.3 26 3-7 2.3 4.1 3.8 3-9 3.1 7.2 27 ^.7 4.0 2.8 3-3 3-1 2.5 7.0 28 3-7 2.0 3.8 6.3 2.2 5.2 29 3-6 2.7 3-3 3-3 3.2 3.6 10.5 30 4.2 2.5 5 A 3.1 5.5 3-3 5.5 31 3.6 2.6 3.8 3.0 5.7 1.8 7.5 32 7.5 3.1 2.8 2.4 5.0 2.6 7.0 33 5.5 3-7 2.7 2.5 4.4 2.3 7.0 3k 5.k- 3.5 4.0 2.9 3.3 2.7 7.2 35 3.5 3.2 5.9 3-6 3.1 3-0 5.6 60 P l o t Number 2 - F a l l 1970. Tree number 1 l o c a t e d nearest the road . Tree D . - f i r Spruce P I P I D . - f i r Spruce D . - f i r Number B a r e - r o o t P l u g P l u g B u l l e t B u l l e t B u l l e t P l u g Inches 1 9.6 5.9 6.3 2.5 2.9 k.k k.3 2 9.k 5.5 k.6 2.5 1.1 3.2 k.5 3 7.7 6.9 3.6 3-7 2.1 2.2 k.o h 6.0 8.5 k.o 3.5 2.0 k.l 2.8 5 5.0 5.1 5.1 2.k k.o 3.6 k.o 6 7.2 7.3 6.6 3.k 1.5 k.8 k.5 T 8.1 6.6 k.l 2.9 2.3 2.5 k.o 8 5.2 k.l k.5 2.6 3-5 2.1 k.o 9 6.9 5.7 k.8 2.k 2.5 5.5 5.1 10 7.0 6.6 k.6 3.k 2.0 3-3 k.3 11 5.2 k.6 3.8 3-9 3.1 2.6 12 7.9 7.1 3.6 2.6 3-2 k.6 ^.5 13 3.8 5.5 k.k 3. k 2.5 3.7 k.k Ik 5.0 3-8 5.k k.o 2.2 3.3 k.l 15 5.5 8.7 k.k 3.k k.8 3.6 k.l 16 7.5 3.6 k.Q k.o 3.6 2.8 k.5 17 7.0 3.9 k.2 3-3 k.6 2.7 5.9 18 6.2 5.3 k.2 3.8 1.0 3.1 6.5 19 6.0 l.k k.k 2.7 2.6 3.5 5.8 20 ' 8.3 3-1 3-6 5.7 2.1 3.0 3.8 21 7.1 k.9 5-5 2.9 1.9 3-3 5.2 22 8.6 3-5 k.o k.Q 2.5 3.6 3-3 23 5.8 ^.5 5.3 3.7 1.6 3.k 5.0 2k 7.7 3.2 ^.3 3.3 2.0 3-2 ^.8 25 5.0 k.9 k.l 2.9 2.2 3.6 3.0 26 9-2 3.5 k.9 3-3 2.0 ^.5 k.o 27 12.3 2.9 k.8 3.k 2.0 k.3 6.k 28 10.9 k.6 5.2 3.0 3-6 k.6 3-9 29 k.5 k.9 3.k 3-k 1.8 k.6 5.0 30 10.5 k.o 3.k 3.2 2.1 2.9 5 A 31 11.5 3.7 5.0 3.2 1.7 3-3 5.0 32 6.2 k.5 k.l 3.1 k.5 2.7 3-9 33 9.0 3.8 5 A 3.k 3.k 2.9 3.3-3* 10.5 ^.3 k.l 2.9 • 3.0 2.9 k.3 35 8.2 k.6 3-3 3.0 3.k 3.0 k.l 61 P l o t Number 3 - F a l l 1970. Tree number 1 l o c a t e d nearest the road . Tree Spruce D . - f i r D . - f i r D . - f i r P I Spruce P I Mumper B u l l e t P l u g B a r e - r o o t B u l l e t P l u g P l u g B u l l e t Inches 1 3.7 3.8 10.3 2 1.8 6.3 10.5 3 1.9 k.o 12.3 k ' 2.7 ^.5 9.0 5 2.0 5.0 9.0 6 3.5 5.9 13-5 7 2.8 . ^.3 l l . l 8 1.9 k.5 8.6 9 3-9 1.8 10.5 10 3-3 3.9 12.0 11 2.9 k.o Ik. 2 12 2.k k.3 13 2.0 5.0 9.1 Ik 2.k 3-6 • l.:k 15 1.8 3-5 6.2 16 2.0 3.7 12.9 17 2.5 3-0 Ik. 5 18 2.0 1.9 9-7 19 1.7 3.8 10.0 20 1.6 3-k 7.3 21 3.0 3.0 7.0 22 2.5 2.k 9.3 23 2.8 k.2 Q.k 2k 3-0 3.8 12.0 25 2.0 k.o 5.0 26 k.o k.Q 16.0 27 3.8 3.0 10.5 28 3-1 3.5 8.2 29 k.o 2.1 9.0 30 2.5 3.8 8.8 31 2.3 1.1 9.3 32 2.8 l.k 7.1 33 2.0 2.9 8.2 3^ 2.9 ^.3 7.0 35 2.5 3.1 7.3 2.6 9-5 ^.3 2.5 3.5 3 A 0.6 7.5 2.8 3.3 1.9 5 A 3.7 3.0 1.8 3-0 2.1 3-0 2.5 2.9 k.l 2.3 2.2 3.5 1.1 3 A 2.5 3-5 6.2 3.8 2.0 k.k 3-9 2.7 1.5 " 3.5 5.0 3.0 1.6 G.k 3.2 k.2 2.3 3-k 2.6 k.o 1.6 1.5 7.6 2.5 3-7 5.6 3-1 3.7 2.7 2.8 3-3 3-8 2.1 k.Q 3-5 k.l 2.8 k.l 5.6 k.6 1.8 3-3 5.7 5.2 2.7 3.k 5.8 k.o 2.6 3-3 3.2 ^.5 2.8 •+.5 5.8 2.0 1.6 k.l k.6 2.9 2.5 3-3 k.k 3-5 3.5 3-1 7.5 2.6 2.6 k.k 3-0 3.9 2.1 6.2 6.7 3.k 2.6 3.k k.o 2.1 2.5 3-9 6.8 3.1 3-3 3-5 k.2 3.8 k.o 3-9 5.5 2.9 2.k ^.5 ^.5 3-9 2.2 k.o J+.5 2.7 1.2 k.2 5.1 3-5 2.5 3.8 k.5 3.1 2.2 3.5 3.8 2.0 1.7 2.6 k.5 1.5 2.k k.o k.k 5.1 k.o k.5 3.9 62 P l o t Number 4 - F a l l 1970. Tree number 1 l o c a t e d u p h i l l . Tree Spruce D . - f i r D . - f i r Number B u l l e t Ba re - roo t B u l l e t 1 3-0 6.1 2.8 2,. 2.6 8.4 4.0 3 3.4 9-5 4.8 k 3-3 -6.2 3-2 5 2.k 9.5 2.6 6 2.7 12.5 2.8 7 3.6 10.0 3-3 8 k.O H.3 3-1 9 3.5 7.8 3.0 10 2.9 Ik.3 2.2 11 2.5 12.6 2.2 12 3-3 12.1 3.4 13 2.7 8.8 2.6 i 4 3-1 8.9 3-9 15 2.9 5 A 2.8 16 3-2 6.5 3-7 17 2.8 11.0 2.5 18 3.3 5.5 3-1 19 4.3 9.0 1.4 20 k.2 16.5 4.4 21 3-3 9.0 2.2 22 3.2 9.8 3.7 23 2.5 13.4 3-8 2k 4.3 11.2 3.6 25 3.8 7.7 3.2 26 3.0 10.3 2.7 27 3-3 7.2 3.6 28 3-4 9-2 2.1 29 2.7 7.4 3.6 30 3.6 8.5 3-2 31 3.5 l l . l 3.9 32 3-4 13.4 2.4 33 3.3 9.4 3-2 34 3-3 7.0 2.3 35 3.7 7.0 3.6 Spruce P I D . - f i r P I P l u g P l u g P l u g B u l l e t Inches 3.3 3.8 5.3 1.8 5.4 4.0 3.4 2.0 3.5 4.9 4.0 2.2 3.7 3.8 3-5 2.6 4.0 3.9 2.1 2.8 6.9 5.7 4.3 3.5 2.5 4.2 2.4 2.2 5.5 4.8 4.0 2.7 6.5 5.6 3.2 2.9 4.8 5.4 2.5 3.1 8.1 4.5 4.5 3.2 7.0 4.0 3.3 2.9 4.1 2.7 3.0 3.1 5.2 4.1 3.4 4.5 5.1 6.1 2.7 > 3.6 4.6 5.0 3-2 2.8 5.2 3.9 2.9 3-1 5.0 5.3 4.2 2.7 6.8 k.k 3-0 3-6 6.0 3-9 2.7 2.6 4.2 4.3 2.9 2.2 4.0 4.9 2.3 3.7 6.6 5.2 3-7 2.5 3.4 4.3 2.8 2.9 9.0 5.5 4.0 2.0 5.6 4.5 5.1 4.5 6.5 4.9 3.5 2.8 3.3 7.9 3.6 2.5 4.8 4.0 4.0 3-0 4.0 5.0 4.2 3.0 5.0 5.0 3-9 3.6 4.9 4.1 4.8 3.0 3-3 5.4 4.0 2.5 6.1 3.9 5.4 3.1 5.0 3.8 4.7 2.5 63 P l o t Number 5 - P a l l 1970. Tree number 1 l o c a t e d u p h i l l . ree Spruce D . - f i r P I Sprue e D . - f i r P i D . - f i r imber B u l l e t B a r e - r o o t B u l l e t P l u g B u l l e t P l u g P l u g Inches 1 2.5 9-0 3.8 1.5 7.2 8.0 2 4.0 11.2 4.9 4.8 6.5 6.7 3 1.5 10.0 4.0 2.9 7.0 6.3 4 4.1 8.5 3.0 2.6 8.2 5.3 5 3-0 9-5 3.9 M 3-9 8.1 8.2 6 3-1 10.0 5.6 X 2.4 10.1 7.5 7 4.1 8.8 3.4 1 1.9 9.3 5.7 8 3.5 9-5 3.8 S 3.1 8.5 6.0 9 4.0 7.1 4.6 Q ' • 3.0 8.2 5.5 10 4.1 8.1 5.0 o 2.5 6.1 7.3 l l 2.5 9-0 3.8 I 1.2 7.7 6.0 12 2.7 7.2 4.6 1\T 2.4 2.6 6.4 13 2.6 9.0 4.0 IM 2.0 9-0 6.9 l 4 3.1 9.1 4.3 G 2.9 8.2 5-3 15 4.4 6.5 1.9 2.0 6.5 6.9 16 2.3 9.6 4.5 3.5 6.7 6.5 17 3.5 8.8 5.0 4.1 7.3 6.4 18 3-7 9-5 6.1 2.6 4.6 6.1 19 5.2 6.0 3-2 4.5 8.5 5.0 20 4.6 6.7 2.6 2.0 7.0 4.2 21 5.0 7.8 5.2 3.6 4.4 6.7 22 4.2 8.5 5.1 1.6 5.0 7.7 23 5.5 7.5 4.1 1.9 6.6 5.3 2k 3.6 7.2 5.6 4.0 8.2 • 3.6 25 4.3 7.5 5.5 4.1 5.6 7.9 26 2.1 7.5 5.5 3.2 9-0 7.2 27 2.0 8.7 4.1 2.0 5-5 5.1 28 4.5 8.8 4.0 2.1 8.3 4.8 29 - 6.5 6.0 4.0 6.5 5.7 30 4.5 9.1 3.1 2.1 9.8 7.1 31 3-5 8.1 4.8 2.k 7.8 6.8 32 5.2 6.6 3-3 2.7 4.3 5.5 33 3.0 8.8 • 6.5 2.9 7.6 4.6 34 3.6 9.0 4.5 1.0 7.7 6.7 35 2.1 10.1 - 3-6 7.5 4.0 64 P l o t Number 6 - F a l l 1970. Tree number 1 d o w n h i l l . :ee D . - f i r Spruce D . - f i r D . - f i r P I Spruce P I imber B u l l e t B u l l e t B a r e - r o o t P l u g B u l l e t . P l u g P l u g Inches 1 0.7 3.0 8.6 2.6 3.6 3-7 5.1 2 k.8 ^.3 . 12.3 3.9 2.2 3-9 8.3 3 3.1 2.5 17.5 3.8 3-3 5.2 4.0 k 3.5 2.5 8.k ^.5 2 A 7.0 k.9 5 3-1 2.9 7.6 3.7 3 A 9 A 4.8 6 1.7 2.1 10.6 6.1 3-5 6.5 3-8 7 2.k 2.9 11.3 k.k 2.8 5 A 4.4 8 1.7 2.k 7.2 k.k 3.0 5 A 7.9 9 3-6 k.l 1 0 A 3-5 3.8 5.1 k.9 10 2.5 3.7 10 A 5.0 3.2 ^.3 5.1 11 3.0 2.5 3.8 k.3 2.5 5.9 7.3 12 1.6 k.o 10.5 k.l 3-5 4.6 4.1 13 2.9 2.3 13-3 3-8 3.0 5 A 5.7 14 2.6 3.0 11.3 k.o 3.7 ^.3 7.0 15 2.4 4.5 8.7 k.l 2.0 6.9 7.7 16 3-2 k.l 9.0 3.0 3.5 5.7 5 A 17 k.k 2.5 16.0 3.5 3.7 5.1 5.7 18 3-1 2.6 5 A k.o 2.7 4.7 4.1 19 3.0 2.3 8.9 k.l 3-8 5.7 4.2 20 3-8 ^.5 9.5 2.8 3-7 3.5 6.2 21 1.9 k.l 9-1 3.5 k.6 5 A 4.6 22 2.3 2.6 7.0 k.9 3.5 4.7 4.8 23 2.5 2.8 9 A k.k 2.8 3.0 5.0 2k 2.9 ^.3 8.2 5.3 2.8 4.5 4.8 25 3 A 3.1 10.6 5.7 2.5 5.1 4.1 26 3.2 k.6 6 A 6.6 3-6 5-9 3-9 27 2.8 3.6 8.6 k.o k.9 5.5 5 A 28 1.8 1.3 13.5 k.l 4.5 4.0 5.0 29 3-9 3-8 12.1 5.6 3.3 4.2 5.1 30 2.9 2.8 11.6 5.0 2.9 6.4 6.9 31 1.8 3.1 16.8 3 A 2.6 6.3 4.2 32 2.8 k.l 8.0 3-7 4.5 6.6 5.8 33 2.0 3-6 7.9 3-0 3-8 3-3 5.8 3^ 2.5 3-3 8.5 k.k 3.1 7.9 3.9 35 2.9 3-2 2.9 3.5 2.7 7.9 3-0 2.7 6.5 3.8 65 P l o t Number 7 - F a l l 1970. Tree D . - f i r P I Number B u l l e t P l u g 1 3-7 3-5 2 2.8 2.4 3 4.1 5.3 4 4.9 3-1 5 4.2 2.5 6 4.1 1.4 7 1.9 6.5 8 1.7 4.0 9 1.8 3.0 10 . 2.5 4.8 11 0.9 3-1 12 1.5 3.5 13 1.5 4.5 l4 4.3 4.6 15 2.6 4.5 16 2.7 3.4 17 2.2 3.2 18 1.3 4.5 19 2.5 4.3 20 1.9 3-9 21 2.2 5.5 22 2.1 4.1 23 3,0 5.1 24 2.-5 5.7 25 2.0 4.9 26 2.1 5.8 27 3.5 3.2 28 3.1 6.0 29 4.2 3.4 30 3-9 3-8 31 3-3 2.5 32 3-0 2.9 33 2.0 3.0 3k 3-4 6.1 35 2.8 3.6 4.6 Tree number 1 d o w n h i l l . Spruce D . - f i r B u l l e t Ba re - roo t Inches 3-7 12. 2 3-4 11.0 2.4 7-3 2.8 9.5 3-3 12.3 4.0 11.5 4.6 10.6 4.0 15.8 3-9 8.0 2.5 4.6 3.1 10.5 2.1 11.2 2.6 12.3 3.9 11.2 3.9 12.6 5.2 14.6 3.1 11.7 3.2 9-2 3-2 6.4 3-6 10.1 2.7 9.3 3.1 6.8 2.6 9-8 4.3 10.6 2.4 9.8 3.1 7.6 3.1 13.1 1.9 10.8 3.2 11.1 3.5 i4.o 1.8 10.7 2.1 8.8 3.5 14.2 2.9 9.0 3.1 11.4 Spruce D . - f i r P I P l u g P l u g B u l l e t 6.7 4.1 3-5 3-6 4.5 3.1 3-7 4.2 3-7 3-7 4.2 2.5 4.2 5.1 2.9 4.7 5-5 3-1 5.7 2.5 3-5 5.0 4.5 3-7 6.4 4.2 3.1 5.3 3-0 2.6 5.2 3-9 3-6 4.9 4.6 3-6 5.4 3-8 2.7 5.4 4.7 3.4 2.3 4.5 3-0 6.0 3.4 3-0 4.2 4.0 2.1 7.9 4.3 2.1 6.6 5.4 2.4 5.2 6.5 3.8 6.4 4.1 2.9 5.1 5.2 2.6 5.3 7.0 1.3 4.6 5.5 4.0 8.5 6.9 3.1 6.2 2.6 2.5 6.9 4.6 4.1 8.3 5.0 3-1 6.8 3.5 3.1 6.2 4.3 5.3 3-8 3-6 2.6 6.0 4.1 2.9 5.9 5.7 3.3 6.5 6.0 2.3 8.1 3.8 2.4 4.8 66 P l o t Number 8 - F a l l 1970. Tree number 1 nearest highway. Tree D . - f i r P I Spruce P I D . - f i r D . - f i r Spruce Number P l u g B u l l e t P l u g P l u g Bare -root B u l l e t B u l l e t Inches 1 3-1 2 3.7 3 3-5 4 k.3 5 k.e 6 3-5 7 k.O 8 3-5 9 k.Q 10 5.4 l l 5.5 12 3.0 13 4.1 14 4.4 15 3-6 16 3.6 17 6.1 18 4.8 19 3-7 20 4.2 21 2/9 22 4.0 23 2.3 24 4.2 25 4.1 26 3.8 27 4.4 28 5.5 29 4.7 30 5.1 31 3.6 32 3-9 33 2. 2 3k 2.9 35 -2.9 7.0 4.7 4.1 3.0 3.4 3.4 3.7 3.8 4.7 4.0 4.1 3.7 2.1 2.8 4.2 3-0 3-2 3-2 2.5 3.1 3.2 2.7 4.9 2.4 6.1 2.1 5.0 2.9 5.4 2.6 3-5 3.1 5.2 3-0 5.7 2.8 5.3 3-0 7.1 3.9 5.6 2.6 5.3 3-2 4.1 3-6 4.9 3.0 4.1 2.7 7.3 3-6 5.9 2.5 6.6 3-2 5.8 3-8 4.1 2.5 4.3 3-5 7.1 3-1 4.2 3-1 8.0 3.2 6.2 3-1 9-1 3.6 15.1 4.6 14.5 2.9 13-6 4.1 12.9 2.7 9.6 2.0 9.4 3.9 11.0 4.0 12.9 4.6 7.5 4.1 9.0 4.5 11.6 4.5 12.2 4.1 10.5 3-5 3.5 4.1 7.5 3-6 7.5 3.2 10.3 3.6 7.2 3.8 8.0 4.3 9.3 2.7 9.8 6.7 7.2 4.0 9-2 4.6 11.9 5.1 6.8 3-9 10.5 4.8 10.2 4.6 14.7 4.1 10.0 4.6 13.6 5.9 7.9 2.0 8.7 5.3 9.5 4.9 11.6 5.9 4.0 2.7 2.1 2.2 1.7 1.6 4.0 2.5 3.1 2.2 3.2 1.7 2.5 2.0 2.6 1.0 2.5 2.5 3-3 1.8 3-5 2.5 2.6 3.1 2.7 3.4 3.0 3-7 2.8 2.2 2.9 1.4 3.1 2.5 2.0 4.1 2.3 1.8 2.9 1.0 2.8 2.0 2.0 3-1 2.8 l . l 2.0 2.1 2.5 3-1 2.7 3.0 1.7 3.0 2.9 3-1 2.2 2.3 2.3 3.0 2.9 3.2 2.4 3.7 2.9 4.1 3.4 1.3 3.2 - 2.4 67 P l o t N u m b e r 9 - F a l l 1970. T r e e n u m b e r 1 d o w n h i l l a n d n e a r e s t r a i l r o a d t r a c k . r e e P I P I D . - f i r D . - f i r S p r u c e S p r u c e B a r e - r o o t i m b e r P l u s B u l l e t P l u g B u l l e t P l u g B u l l e t D . - f i r I n c h e s 1 5.2 2.3 5.0 1.6 5.6 3-0 8.4 2 2.2 2.9 3.2 3-3 3.5 3.8 10.6 3 2.5 3-5 5.0 1.4 5.9 2.8 13-k 4 5.8 3-2 2.1 2.7 k.9 2.5 11.5 5 3.9 3.0 3.6 3.7 5.1 2.4 7.9 6 k.l 3.2 k.3 3.0 4.2 3-8 6.6 7 k.k 2.4 3.1 2.0 5.6 2.0 8.9 8 k.2 2.4 3 A 3-2 5.3 2.4 11.1 9 3-7 2.9 3-5 2.3 7.5 4.6 8.6 10 3.5 2.6 3-6 3-5 4.2 2.9 11.0 11 4.0 3.0 5.3 4.7 4.5 2.0 6.6 12 3-3 2.5 3-5 1.3 6.0 2.8 l.k 13 4.8 2.6 5.1 2.8 . 6.5 3-0 8.9 l 4 5.3 2.7 ^.5 2.1 1.8 3.6 9-8 15 5.1 k.3 5.0 2.1 5.2 3-3 6.4 16 6.8 3.k 4.6 2.0 6.7 2.3 6.2 17 4.5 2.0 3-3 3.2 3-6 4.4 H.5 18 5.1 3.k 3.6 3.1 3-9 2.8 12.8 19 6.0 4.8 3.5 2.7 5.7 2.5 12.3 20 5.0 3.7 3.9 2.2 7.3 3.1 10.5 21 5.1 2.3 3.6 3.2 3-9 2.5 15.1 22 ^.5 2.4 3.k 2.9 4.2 4.6 9-9 23 7.0 2.6 3.1 3.0 8.2 3.1 9-5 2k 3-6 3.6 3-0 1.0 9-3 3.9 12.0 25 2.5 2.7 3-2 2.3 4.8 2.1 8.1 26 k.9 2.5 3.1 3-5 7-7 1.9 8.8 27 6.0 3.0 4.7 2.2 5.2 4.6 13.8 28 6.7 2.6 3.0 2.0 k.9 3-9 12.9 29 4.2 2.8 3.k 2.4 3.5 3.6 15-1 30 4.5 2.5 4.6 1.6 6.9 4.4 11.0 31 4.1 2.4 6.2 2.5 3-6 2.8 9-1 32 6.0 3.0 4.0 2.6 3.2 2.4 5.4 33 5.1 3.2 4.2 2.7 5.k 3.0 9.1 3^ 3.1 3.k 4.0 3.2 5-3 5.1 5.6 35 3-8 4.0 3.5 4.3 3-k 4.8 10.4 10.7 68 P l o t Number 10 - F a l l 1970. Tree number 1 d o w n h i l l . ?ee P I Spruce P I D . - f i r Spruce D . - f i r D . - f i r imber B u l l e t P l u g P l u g B u l l e t B u l l e t Ba re - roo t P l u g Inches 1 3.5 5.9 4.5 2.4 2.9 7.3 4.8 2 2.6 5.5 5.5 3.0 3.0 8.8 3.2 3 3.4 5.3 4.9 1.6 3.2 9-3 4.3 4 2.8 6.8 5.7 1.2 15'. 8 12.4 3.1 5 3.5 7.9 7.2 2.3 2.8 14.2 4.5 6 4.2 5.2 3-7 0.8 2.4 Ik. 2 4.4 7 3-0 4.4 6.0 1.9 2.5 10.9 3.6 8 3.9 6.9 6.0 2.7 3.6 11.9 5.5 9 3-5 4.1 2.8 1.9 4.4 12.0 4.8 10 2.5 7.2 5.7 1.3 2.5 12.1 5.7 11 2.6 5.5 5.4 2.8 3.5 11.4 3-3 12 3.8 6.6 5.8 1.5 3.7 9-9 5.0 13 4.5 6.5 5.1 2.2 3.8 11.4 4.4 14 . 3-0 3.4 5.7 3.2 2.5 10.1.. 5.3 15 3.5 5.4 5.8 1.3 3.0 9-1 3.5 16 3.6 8.4 4.0 2.6 3.0 12.5 6.4 17 3.0 2.5 4.1 1.7 2.6 11.4 5-3 18 4.5 0.7 5.7 2.1 2.4 9-9 6.8 19 3.0 2.2 3-3 1.5 2.9 11.0 4.3 20 4.0 4.8 5.0 2.8 2.1 10.9 4.5 21 3.1 . 5.0 3.2 3-2 2.3 10.0 5.4 22 3.8 4.0 4.3 2.2 4.0 10.6 3.6 23 3.8 7.4 5.4 3.0 2.9 11.2 4.7 24 4.6 4.0 4.2 3.6 2.9 9.7 5.5 25 3-5 3.9 5.1 1.9 1.6 9-5 4.3 26 3.6 4.3 3-8 2.6 4.6 11.5 5.0 27 2.6 4.1 3-5 4.3 3.1 10.4 6.1 28 3.0 3.4 4.1 2.7 2.5 12.5 4.8 29- 4.0 3.5 6.4 4.3 2.6 13.6 4.5 30 2.8 4.3 1.2 3.2 2.3 7.1 4.6 31 2.5 4.8 5.2 1.9 2.5 8.9 5.0 32 3-0 5.0 3.9 3.3 2.2 13-6 6.1 33 3.2 4.1 4.4 2.1 3.8 10.3 3.6 34 3.5 4.9 2.9 2.6 3.4 13.2 3.4 35 3-1 4.7 4.0 2.4 2.7 9.2 8.9 10.1 2.8 6 9 P l o t N u m b e r 11- F a l l 1970. T r e e n u m b e r 1 n e a r e s t r o a d . T r e e S p r u c e S p r u c e S p r u c e N u m b e r B a r e - r o o t P l u g s B u l l e t s I n c h e s 1 8.0 2.5 2.3 2 7.2 3-7 2.5 3 5.4 4.0 2.0 4 7.4 3-5 2.1 5 4.8 10.2 2.6 6 5.5 5.6 2.2 7 4.5 8.0 2.4 8 3-9 7.5 2.0 9 4.1 4.3 2.9 10 5.6 7.1 2.6 11 5.0 4.6 2.2 12 1.7 4.0 2.2 13 3-2 4.3 3.5 14 1.9 2.0 2.9 15 7.7 1.1 3.0 16 3-7 1.2 1.5 17 7.8 7.5 2.0 18 5.1 3.3 2.7 19 6.8 5.2 1.8 20 4.1 3-3 0.3 21 5.3 4.9 2.3 22 3.5 2.7 0.5 23 1.4 6.4 2.1 24 7.2 1.9 2.6 25 3.5 9-9 1.9 26 3.2 4.7 2.1 27 2.9 1.6 2.0 28 3.8 4.3 3.5 29 2.7 4.5 2.7 30 11.5 3.3 2.0 31 9.3 2.9 3-2 32 6.8 2.5 2.6 33 5.9 4.3 3-7 34 5.1 2.4 2.6 35 7.8 4.8 2.9 36 8.9 7.3 1.9 37 5.4 7-5 2.3 38 4.5 8.1 2.0 39 3.5 3-9 2.1 40 1.6 5.6 2.4 4 l 3.4 4.2 0.2 42 7.9 3.4 -43 4.0 3-3 0.3 44 3-1 2.8 0.5 45 4.3 2.3 0.6 46 5.0 0.6 l . l 47 3.4 - 0.8 48 3.1 3.6 2.1 49 4.4, 4.1 1.1 50 - 2.7 2.9 TO P l o t Number 1 - S p r i n g 1971. Tree number 1 l o c a t e d nearest the road . Tree D . - f i r D . - f i r D . - f i r P I P I Spruce Spruce Number Bare -root B u l l e t P l u g B u l l e t P l u g B u l l e t P l u g Inches 1 8.5 2 7.5 3 k.3 4 6.3 3 8.0 6 6.8 T 6.5 8 6.0 9 5.0 10 8.0 11 6.3 12 7.8 13 6.0 i 4 4.5 15 7.3 16 5.0 17 8.3 18 5.5 19 4.5 20 ^.5 21 7.3 22 7.5 23 4.0 2k ^.3 25 5.0 26 4.0 27 4.0 28 5.3 29 5.0 30 ^.3 31 4.5 32 6.5 33 7.0 3^ 5.0 35 5.0 2.3 7.2 1.8 7.5 2.8 ^.5 2.2 3-6 2.3 4.8 4.0 7.0 2.2 5 A 2.5 k.l 2.5 6.5 1.5 6.0 2.5 k.3 3.3 5.6 4.0 5.7 2.0 5-3 3.5 3.k 3-0 k.l 3.0 3.2 2.5 2.5 3-0 2.5 4.0 3.7 3.8 3.7 4.0 3.7 3.5 4.6 3-0 k.3 3-0 2.1 3-0 k.l 2.5 2.8 2.2 5.2 2.5 4.2 2.0 5.5 2.0 3-3 4.0 6.0 2.3 3.5 3.5 2.5 3.0 3.0 k.3 9-2 3.0 8.7 6.0 7.5 3.k 7.0 5.1 5.9 k.l 7.2 5.2 8.2 k.3 8.2 6.5 6.9 4 .7 6.2 4.6 8.7 4.0 7.0 4.8 7.1 4.2 7.9 5.7 8.4 3.8 7.3 4.4 9-5 4 .7 8.0 5.5 6.7 2.7 5.2 5.1 6.0 4 .7 6.1 6.1 6.5 k.3 5.0 5.6 7.0 5.2 4 .7 5.7 10.4 6.0 6.7 6.0 7.0 k.3 8.1 2.6 5.8 3.0 6.5 4.0 6.1 3.2 6.2 3.1 7.2 2.5 5-5 1.5 k.3 - 3.3 3.0 k.3 1.3 k.3 1.0 6.2 1.0 7.5 2.0 7.2 3.2 9-0 2.5 5.2 2.0 5.2 3.5 5.0 2.0 4.0 2.5 4.5 2.0 2.5 2.3 4.0 3.0 5.2 1.8 2.5 2.8 5.0 2.3 4.2 3-0 4.0 3.0 4.0 2.0 2.5 3-5 4.2 1.5 5.2 4 .0 4.0 3.8 5.5 2.0 4.0 1.5 5.5 3.5 3.5 2.5 3.0 2.0 4.8 3.5 4.0 1.8 5.0 4.0 3-8 71 P l o t Number 2 - S p r i n g 197L Tree number 1 l o c a t e d nearest the road . Tree D . - f i r Spruce P I P I D . - f i r Spruce D . - f i r Number Bare -root P l u g P l u g B u l l e t B u l l e t B u l l e t P l u g Inches 1 : 8.9 2 10.0 3 9.1 4 8.2 5 10.8 6 6.8 7 8.1 8 9.0 9 10.5 10 10.4 l l 11.6 12 9-5 13 4.5 14 10.0 15 8.0 16 7.8 17 .4.6 18 5.0 19 6.0 20 10.5 21 6.2 22 7,9 23 14.6 2k 11.6 25 7.8 26 l l . l 27 14.5 28 9.0 29 6.8 30 7.8 31 7.0 32 9.0 33 7.2 34 9.0 35 -6.5 4.0 4.1 4.0 4.5 5.0 4.5 3.5 8.1 2.5 6.0 3.8 7.0 5.3 7.9 5.0 3.8 5.0 4.0 6.0 6.6 5.3 7.1 4.0 8.1 4.3 8.6 3-0 8.5 3.5 5.5 5.3 4.2 4.0 4.9 4.5 6.2 5.3 5.0 5.8 5.9 7.5 4.0 5.5 5.2 6.2 4.6 6.5 5.1 4.5 3.5 3.2 4.5 5.0 3.5 2.5 3.0 3.8 3.8 6.0 3.5 5.2 3.8 4.0 3.8 5.5 3-3 5.2 4.6 1.0 3-2 4.5 4.5 2.3 5.3 2.1 5.5 3.2 4.0 4.0 4.6 3.7 5.3 1.7 5.0 2.9 4.0 2.6 6.0 4.1 4.5 3-7 3-0 3-3 2.0 3.3 5.0 4.0 4.6 3-3 4.0 4.4 6.5 3.6 5-5 3.1 5.1 3.4 5.0 1.9 6.9 3.3 4.0 3-1 6.5 2.6 4.6 2.9 4.8 5.0 4.5 3.0 5.6 2.0 5.5 3.6 7.0 2.1 3.5 2.6 4.6 4.0 4.0 4.2 6.5 -7.0 -3-3 4.8 3.0 7.5 9-0 5.5 6.0 4.4 4.5 2.0 3-5 5.7 2.5 3.0 3.0 5.0 2.8 3-5 2.8 3.7 3-5 4.5 4.0 5.3 4.0 5.3 4.0 5.8 4.0 5.0 1.8 6.3 2.8 4.5 3-5 5.8 3-3 6.5 2.5 4.4 3.0 4.5 3-3 5.6 1.5 6.8 4.5 3.9 2.5 4.0 2.5 6.0 3.3 3-3 2.3 4.5 2.0 4.3 3.0 5.8 3-5 4.3 3.5 4.0 3-3 3-0 2.8 5.1 2.0 5.3 72 P l o t Number 3 - S p r i n g 1971. Tree number 1 l o c a t e d nearest the road . Tree Spruce D . - f i r D . - f i r D . - f i r P I Spruce P I Number B u l l e t P l u g Bare - r o o t B u l l e t P l u g P l u g B u l l e t Inches 1 2.5 ^.5 6.7 2.6 4.0. 3-2 3.0 2 3.0. 3-8 6.7 3.2 4.8 4.0 2.9 3 2.5 4.0 7.7 4.2 3.0 5.1 4.1 4 • 2.8 4.8 8.9 2.3 5.3 3.5 2.6 3 2.3 3.6 9.1 2.4 2.0 6.6 2.7 6 3.5 3-5 8.0 2.6 2.8 8.7 4.7 7 1.3 5.1 5.6 3.3 2.0 6.6 2.6 8 • 1.8 4.6 8.9 2.3 k.3 • 4.6 3-6 9 2.0 k.3 7.1 2.8 3.3 8.7 5.0 10 4.0 3.0 7.0 1.5 4.0 7.7 4.2 l l 2.0 4.4 11.3 1.8 4.0 3.k 5.1 12 2.5 3.1 13.6 2.5 5.0 6.8 7.0 13 2.0 5.1 20.3 0.8 2.3 5.5 6.3 14 2.5 k.9 11.2 1.3 6.8 3-9 3-3 15 2.3 6.9 14.9 2.0 3-0 3-3 5.6 16 2.5 4.4 14.6 1.5 1.5 4.4 3.5 17 1.8 5.5 10.5 k.3 3.5 3.0 3.0 18 2.0 4.5 20.1 2.5 3.0 6.9 3-3 19 2.0 3-3 16.8 3.0 2.8 4.1 3.0 20 2.0 3.7 16.1 2.0 3-0 3-3 3-3 21 3-0. 3.7 7.2 2.0 k.3 5.7 3.5 22 3-5 5.6 - 2.0 3.0 k.3 3-0 23 2.5 3-9 - 1.3 k.3 4.2 k.3 24 3-0 6.0 - 2.0 4.0 ^.3 5.0 25 2.5 5.1 - 2.5 4.0 4.4 3.3 26 2.5 3-k - 3-3 k.3 4.2 3-0 27 2.8 6.0 - 3.5 5.0 3-9 3.3 28 1.8 3.1 - 2.3 9.0 4.5 k.3 29 2.8 3-7 - 3.5 3.0 6.0 3.0 30 1.8 4.7 - 2.5 2.0 6.8 2.8 31 2.3 5.6 - 2.0 4.0 6.4 3.0 32 2.0 4.8 - 2.0 4.5 7.5 3-5 33 2.3 4.0 - 2.0 3.8 6.4 2.8 3k 1.8 4.4 - 2.0 5.0 7.6 3.3 35 1.8 k.9 - 2.5 5.0 2.7 3-3 73 P l o t Number 4 - S p r i n g 1971. Tree number 1 l o c a t e d u p h i l l . :ee Spruce D . - f i r D . - f i r Spruce P i D . - f i r P i imber B u l l e t Bare- roo t B u l l e t P l u g P l u g P l u g B u l l e t Inches 1 3 A 6.2 .3.3 6.2 7.3 ^.7 3.k 2 2.5 6.0 3.3 5.9 7.1 3 A 3-0 3 2.1 8.0 3.0 9.8 3.8 3.2 3-3 4 3-3 6.0 2.8 10.0 8.9 5.8 3-9 3 • k.6 8.0 2.9 7.0 6.7 5.0 3.1 6 k.9 3.9 3-7 5.7 h.9 3.0 2.6 7 5.0 6.5 3.0 9.1 8.2 3-5 3.5 8 3.3 7.0 3.5 6.6 2.5 k.l 3.7 9 3.6 5.7 3 A 4.4 7.2 3.k 4.1 10 5.1 6.3 5.0 5.8 3.1 3.8 2.7 11 5.0 6.0 k.k 6.3 3.2 5.5 4.5 12 k.l 9.5 k.6 8.4 4.6 3.k 3.6 13 5.1 l.k 3.2 4.4 6.5 5.0 3.7 14 6.2 6.0 2.6 7.3 6.7 6.2 6.1 15 2.9 9.1 3.3 7.5 3.1 5.2 k.3 16 3.5 k.3 3.1 6.9 3-8 3.9 ^.3 17 5.9 6.5 2.6 7.8 4.9 3.8 3.1 18 3.5 5.0 1.8 9.0 7.2 3.7 3.1 19 2.1 k.3 2.9 5.6 7.0 ^.5 3.2 20 5.0 k.2 3.3 7.3 3-k 3-2 4.0 21 3-5 k.3 2.5 7.0 7.7 k.3 2.5 22 5.1 5.0 2.7 6.2 10.5 5.3 3-0 23 k.o 3-9 3 A 6.0 3-k 6.5 4.6 2k 3.2 2.5 3.7 7.1 8.1 ^.7 5.5 25 5.1 9-6 3-3 5.6 9-3 5.2 5.6 26 5.0 6.7 1.5 8.8 5.7 4.1 2.7 27 k.6 6.2 3.2 k.9 9.1 ' 6.7 k.3 28 3.1 k.o 1.9 6.4 8.2 6.0 6.0 29 2.2 3.3 2.7 6.9 8.4 5.0 k.2 30 2.0 3-2 2.3 5.5 4.0 4.0 5.2 31 3-1 3-1 5.0 4.6 10.6 5.1 6.1 32 . 3.0 6.5 3-2 6.4 5.0 ' 5.5 4.2 33 6.0 7.5 3.7 4.0 3-0 6.5 3k 4.5 6.0 3-2 6.2 ^•3 6.7 9.7 35 3.0 5.7 3.6 8.1 11.2 6.5 k.3 74 P l o t Number 5 -. S p r i n g 1971. Tree number 1 l o c a t e d u p h i l l . Tree Spruce D . - f i r P I Sp D . - f i r P I D . - f i r Number B u l l e t B a r e - r o o t B u l l e t P l u g B u l l e t P l u g P l u g Inches 1 4.4 10.1 3-2 4.3 3.2 3.6 3-7 2 3.2 7.0 3.8 4.4 4.1 5.0 5.2 .3 2.9 13.2 3.0 5.1 2.9 4.6 4.3 4 2.5 8.1 2.2 7.1 2.7 5.8 5.5 5 2.9 9-2 3.6 3.5 4.9 4.2 4.1 6 4.3 11.5 4.2 5.9 2.8 4.0 3.6 7 3.0 9-5 2.5 2.6- 1.6 5.1 4.7 8 2.5 6.0 4.0 5.8 2.9 5.3 4.3 9 3-3 9.1 5.1 5.9 2.3 4.9 4.0 10 3.4 1.4 3.0 5.0 3.3 5.0 4.6 11 3-3 8.9 3.5 5.0 3-5 7.4 4.0 12 3-0 10.1 2.8 5.8 2.8 4.7 4.6 13 2.8 9-1 3.9 5.1 4.2 5.0 3.2 l4 2.5 10.3 4.3 4.5 3.6 4.5 4.8 15 1.6 10.1 3.4 4.1 4.9 3-9 5-5 16 2.5 8.4 4.0 4.0 k.k 8.1 5.0 17 2.8 7.9 5.3 5.4 4.3 4.9 3-3 18 3.5 9.8 3.6 8.5 3.7 7-3 5.4 19 3.4 9-9 3.4 6.4 3.0 6.4 4.2 20 3-0 9-9 2.5 4.0 3-2 4.8 3.5 21 2.6 10.9 4.5 3-5 3.9 5-5 6.1 22 3-4 10.2 3-7 4.8 2.9 8.0 4.1 23 4.7 i4 . o 4.4 4.6 2.4 3-5 4.7 2k 3.0 i4 . o 4.0 7.8 1.7 5.7 5.5 25 1.9 9-7 3.6 4.4 2.5 6.5 4.5 26 2.6 13.7 3-3 8.7 2.9 3.2 3-7 27 4.0 9-0 6.1 3-0 3.6 4.2 5.8 28 2.9 12.9 3.7 4.1 4.1 3-5 4.0 29 2.2 11.9 3.6 8.0 2.3 3.0 4.7 30 3.6 12.3 3-5 6.1 4.4 5.1 4.2 31 3.5 8.2 4.8 3.5 3.3 4.0 4.4 32 2.6 10.9 2.9 6.7 3-6 3-7 4.3 33 3-0 10.8 2.8 3.8 2.6 5.5 4.0 34 2.7 5.9 3.7 5.6 3-2 8.5 4.7 35 4.3 10.9 3-9 k.k 5.0 4.9 6.3 4.1 4.0 5.6 3-2 3.3 7.1 4.0 75 P l o t Number 6 - S p r i n g 1971. Tree number 1.downhi l l . cee D . - f i r Spruce D . - f i r D . - f i r P I Spruce P i imber B u l l e t B u l l e t Bare -root P l u g B u l l e t P l u g PlUj Inches 1 4.2 4.0 8.0 2.5 6.2 7.5 7.8 2 1.4 ^.5 7.2 4.0 6.6 8.3 6.0 3 3-1 4.8 7.6 6.0 7.0 5.0 9 A 4 2.9 2.5 8.3 k.5 2.3 9.3 9-1 5 3-9 3-8 8.5 3.8 2.8 9-5 8.0 6 3.5 3.0 9.3 5.5 3-0 8.5 8.6 T 3.6 2.8 9.7 4.0 2.8 k.5 8.0 8 2.7 3.0 8.5 5.0 1.0 5.0 8.6 9 2.9 1.5 8.2 3.5 2.5 6.5 6.9 10 5.0 3.3 7.3 3 .Q 2.5 10.0 7.7 11 2.7 k.5 8.0 5.0 6.0 9.0 9-1 12 4.0 2.5 6.4 2.8 4.0 6.5 10.0 13 2.0 3.0 6.9 3.5 2.9 6.0 9-2 14 2.3 8.0 4.8 3.0 3.1 9.7 15 2.5 4.5 8.9 4.0 5.0 3-3 3-2 16 4.2 4.0 10.5 5.5 3-5 8.0 6.4 IT 4.2 2.5 9.0 3-5 4.4 ^.5 7.8 18 3.1 3.5 10.2 4.0 5.5 4.5 7.8 19 4.0 2.5 9-9 3.8 ^.5 5.0 7.5 20 2.6 3.0 8.0 4.0- 5.1 5.0 8.3 21 3.6 3.8 6.9 5.3 2.7 4.5 8.3 22 3-1 2.3 9.5 5.0 2.6 6.3 7.7 23 5.2 2.3 9.0 4.8 5.0 8.0 9.1 24 3-8 2.5 8.0 2.5 7.5 6.9 25 4.5 3.0 8.6 3.3 ^.5 5.0 8.0 26 " 5.5 2.5 9-8 6.0 3-3 3.5 9.2 27 3.0 4.0 8.5 3.0 1.8 6.0 6.5 28 3.7 3-3 9.1 5.3 2.8 3.5 10.7 29 3-5 3.5 9.2 5.0 4.0 5-3 7.1 30 h.5 2.8 6.0 3-5 2.5 5.5 4.1 31 2.5- 1.0 9.2 10.0 3-0 k.3 6.3 32 3.5 2.0 10.4 3.0 2.0 7.0 7.0 33 k.3 3-0 10.2 4.0 ^.3 5.0 11.4 & 1.7 3.5 10.0 3.3 3.8 5.5 9-1 35 3-9 2.5 8.0 3.5 3.0 5.0 8.8 76 P l o t Number 7 - S p r i n g 1971. Tree number 1 d o w n h i l l . Tree D . - f i r P I Spruce D . - f i r Spruce D . - f i r P I Number B u l l e t P l u g B u l l e t Bare - root P l u g P l u g B u l l e t Inches 1 1.2 8.6 1.8 8.7 4.7 4.2 3.1 2 3.0 6.2 4.5 9.6 4.0 2.1 6.2 3 1.5 6.2 2.2 9.2 7.0 4.2 2.5 4 2.6 8.0 4.5 5.3 5.2 4.2 4.7 5 3.6 7.0 3.2 9.7 4.8 2.8 5.7 6 2.0 9-9 2.1 11.9 2.5 5.0 5.0 7 1.2 6.7 2.6 10.0 6.2 4.2 1.8 8 1.5 6.0 2.2 9-7 6.6 4.2 2.5 9 2.0 3.0 3.1 7.0 7.2 3.6 2.7 10 2.0 6.5 2.2 6.7. 4.9 4.5 2.0 l l 2.1 7.1 2.0 8.0 3-2 2.5 4.0 12 2.8 4.0 2.3 11.2 6.1 3-0 2.8 13 2.0 4.3 2.0 4.7 6.3 3-2 4.4 l4 1.2 5.6 3-5 9.5" 6.6 3.6 2.1 15 1.5 7.7 3-0 3-7 6.2 3.7 2.6 16 3.1 4.0 2.2 6.0 5.5 3.6 3.5 17 2.0 5.5 2.5 9.0 5.0 3-2 3.4 18 2.5 6.2 2.3 8.0 4.0 3.1 3-0 19 1.5 6.1 2.2 9.5 4.9 3.4 3.6 20 4.0 8.7 2.2 6.0 5.2 5.0 3.2 21 3.0 7.7 2.0 9.8 4.1 4.0 3.2 22 2.3 10.1 2.1 3-5 7.0 4.0 5.1 23 0.9 7.5 2.2 9.4 7.6 3.0 3-3 2k 3.7 5.4 2.2 10.0 4.1 3.6 4.5 25 3.5 7.1 2.6 - 4.0 5.1 ' 4.5 26 3.1 6.7 3-0- 8.5 3.3 3.5 4.5 27 3.2 6.5 2.0 12.8 6.1 4.1 3.0 28 2.0 10.0 2.5 6.7 4.0 3-5 4.1 29 1.5 5.7 2.6 7.9 5.5 3.6 3.5 30 1.2 6.0 1.8 4.8 4.0 4.4 4.0 31 1.0 6.7 2.0 6.5 4.5 4.0 3-0 32 3.0 5.5 2.6 5.5 2.9 2.1 3.0 33 2.7 7.1 2.2 8.1 2.5 3.0 3-5 34 2.7 9.0 3.0 8.8 4.0 3.2 2.1 35 2.4 6.5 2.3 8.7 5.2 3.0 3.1 77 P l o t N u m b e r 8 - S p r i n g 1971. T r e e n u m b e r 1 n e a r e s t h i g h w a y . : e e D . - f i r P I S p r u c e P I D . - f i r D . - f i r S p r u c e i m b e r P l u g B u l l e t P l u g P l u g B a r e - r o o t B u l l e t B u l l e t I n c h e s 1 3.0 5.5 3.0 3-7 5.5 4.6 4.0 2 5.4 3.0 4.0 1.2 9.2 2.7 2.2 3 2.0 0.7 6.0 8.0 7.5 3.1 3.9 4 2.0 2.3 8.0 7.3 6.4 2.2 3-7 5 6.0 4.0 7.0 8.4 5.1 3-7 3-5 6 6.4 2.8 9.0 7.3 10.5 3.8 4.6 7 5.8 6.0 5.0 8.6 7.5 3.5 2.5 8 4.2 5.2 4.0 8.0 4.7 2.5 4.9 9 5.2 3.2 5.2 7.1 6.5 1.0 1.1 10 6.2 5.2 3.0 8.1 6.7 1.5 4.0 11 5.1 4.0 2.2 ' 9.2 6.0 2.5 2.0 12 6.4 3.0 8.3 6.5 7.0 2.7 2.0 13 5.5 3-5 7.1 6.5 • 7.2 2.5 4.1 l 4 6.5 3-5 1.2 6.5 4.8 1.2 2.9 15 4.9 5.2 6.7 6.0 8.0 1.7 2.1 16 6.8 3.5 8.3 7.4 7.0 2.3 3.8 17 6.0 3.2 5.3 2.3 5.2 2.2 4.6 18 5.3 4.4 5.2 5.2 5.2 2.3 2.2 19 5.8 3.0 3-9 7.7 3.1 3.0 2.8 20 4.0 5.5 5.1 8.5 7.0 3-0 4.0 21 8.0 5.7 7.0 6.3 7.9 3-9 2.5 22 5-3 3.2 5.0 7.9 6.5 3.7 2.2 23 5.5 3.8 3.6 5.5 8.0 1.9 2.8 24 4.5 4.0 7.4 3-9 7.1 1.2 4.9 25 6.0 6.0 8.0 5.5 8.3 2.0 4.1 26 5.8 3-0 7.0 7.9 6.0 4.1 3.6 27 3.1 4.0 5.7 7.0 • 6.4 3.0 5.4 28 5.7 4.2 8.8 5.5 8.2 4.0 3-1 29 4.6 6.0 4.9 5.5 7.9 3-5 4.5 30 3.8 3.2 6.8 7.1 9.3 3.0 2.5 31 6.3 3.5 5.1 5.8 7.0 3.1 2.9 32 6.5 5.6 7.8 3.0 6.5 4.9 3-3 33 5.3 4.2 6.9 6.1 5-5 3.0 2.5 34 6.0 5.0 9.5 4.3 8.7 3-0 3-2 35 4.2 5.1 - 5.4 2.8 3.5 3.1 78 P l o t N u m b e r 9 - S p r i n g 1971. T r e e n u m b e r 1 d o w n h i l l a n d n e a r e s t r a i l r o a d t r a c k . T r e e P I P I D . - f i r D . - f i r S p r u c e S p r u c e D . - f i r N u m b e r P l u g B u l l e t P l u g B u l l e t P l u g B u l l e t B a r e - r o o t I n c h e s 1 7.0 k.5 5.7 2.2 2.5 - -2 7.1 2.3 4.6 3.2 5.0 - . 9.5 3 6.1 5.2 5.0 1.0 5.2 - 11.0 4 - 4.6 5.3 1.5 7.1 2.5 8.5 5 6.1 4.1 5.5 1.2- ^.9 2.5 13-1 6 5.7 4.2 4.1 1.5 7.1 2.7 8.2 7 7.1 3.9 5-5 2.0 3.5 3.1 10.0 8 k.8 6.2 5.9 1.0 6.0 4.0 10.1 9 5.k 3.3 3.6 4.0 4.0 3.5 13-0 10 6.2 - 4.2 3.0 5.8 2.4 6.1 11 k.o k.5 5.5 2.0 5.0 2.5 8.0 12 6.1 k.3 5.6 1.8 5.1 2.0 5.5 13 7-3 5.6 3.6 3.2 3.7 2.5 7.7 l4 6.2 5.6 5.2 2.7 4.8 3-7 9.8 15 3.8 4.5 ^.5 2.0 5.2 4.7 9-2 16 6.7 5.0 5.0 2.1 6.1 3.5 9-9 17 6.9 3.0 4.5 3-2 4.2 3.8 10.5 18 6.2 5-3 h.9 3.9 7.8 2.0 7.1 19 5.1 4.0 6.4 1.5 5-5 3.1 9.0 20 5.7 2.5 4.5 1.0 5.1 3-0 8.0 21 8.3 k.l ^.5 1.0 6.8 2.5 6.0 22 k.8 3.9 5-5 1.6 5.0 2.1 7.1 23 k.l 3-6 4.5 2.0 6.7 2.0 7.7 2k 5.8 3-3 3.7 3.5 5.7 3.0 3-5 25 11.6 2.7 5.8 2.7 5.5 4.0 10.6 26 9.6 5.1 3.7 2.0 3.5 3.1 7.7 27 5 A 5.1 4.1 2.0 7.1 3.k 8.5 28 8.6 5.6 5.5 1.2 3-5 2.5 10.1 29 8.4 5.9 3.3 3.0 4.0 2.6 10.9 30 7.3 5.7 k.3 3.6 4.0 2.5 10.9 31 4.0 5-5 - 4.2 5.9 4.4 11.6 32 7.7 5.0 - 3.3 l.k 3-5 8.5 33 7.0 5.9 - 3.9 6.5 3-0 7.2 3^ 5.8 6.7 - 3-3 - 3.3 7.1 35 k.9 5.3 - 3-8 - 2.8 6.0 79 P l o t N u m b e r 10 - S p r i n g 197.1. T r e e n u m b e r 1 i s d o w n h i l l . r e e P I S p r u c e P i D . - f i r S p r u c e D . - f i r D . - f i r i m b e r B u l l e t P l u g P l u g B u l l e t B u l l e t B a r e - r o o t P l u g I n c h e s 1 3.0 9.0 7.7 2.0 3-5 14.3 4.2 2 2.6 •2.8 4.5 2.8 3.3 10.0 5.2 3 2.6 6.0 7.4 2.5 3.2 10.0 5.0 4 2.7 2.5 4.2 2.0 3-5 8.5 4.3 5 4.4 3.3 2.5 2.3 2.2 7.5 3-6 6 5.3 4.5 2.0 4.5 3.6 8.0 3-4 7 2.5 2.7 3-3 4.5 3.0 8.5 5.0 •8 2.3 2.9 5.0 2.3 3.1 7-5 4.6 9 1.3 • 3.3 2.5 1.0 2.3 8.0 5.2 10 3.4 2.5 6.7 2.3 2.8 7.0 2.8 l l 1.8 3.5 5.8 2.0 2.8 7.0 4.6 12 2.9 4.0 8.0 2.5 4.5 9-3 5.5 13 T.9 3.0 5.7 2.5 3.0 12.0 3-3 l4 5.5 3.3 4.7 3-0 3-2 9.0 2.3 15 2.7 4.0 4.1 1.5 2.5 7.5 3.5 16 3.5 2.8 4.9 3-3 4.2 8.5 3-0 17 3.5 4.5 5.0 1.7 2.9 . 10.0 3.8 18 2.2 4.0 5.0 3.8 3-7 10.5 3-8 19 2.1 6.0 4.6 5.3 3.1 4.5 3-5 20 3-0 2.5 5.7 2.8 2.9 10.0 3-3 21 4.4 2.3 4.4 1.8 3-3 14.0 5.3 22 4.4 4.5 4.1 2.0 3.1 8.0 2.5 23 5.6 5.8 7.5 2.5 2.9 13-5 3.0 2k 4.0 4.3 7.0 1.5 2.7 10.0 5.0 25 3.6 2.0 4.9 2.3 2.2 8.0 2.3 26 3.6 2.0 8.4 1.5 4.2 8.0 4.5 27 2.7 3.3 6.8 1.8 2.5 5.8 3-3 28 3-0 3.8 2.5 2.5 2.5 10.0 3-5 29 5.6 2.8 5.2 1.5 2.0 9.5 4.0 30 5.1 2.8 6.1 2.8 2.9 8.8 4.5 31 4.3 2.3 5.5 1.5 3.0 5.3 3.5 32 4.3 2.0 4.3 2.5 3.2 8.0 3-0 33 2.1 3.3 3.8 2.0 3.0 6.3 4.0 34 3-3 2.5 6.2 3.0 3.0 4.0 3-3 35 3.6 4.5 4.0 2.0 - 6.8 -80 P l o t Number 11 - S p r i n g 1971. Tree number 1 i s nearest road . Tree Spruce Spruce P I P I Number B u l l e t P l u g P l u g B u l l e t Inches 1 l A 8.1 6.3 6.8 2 2.4 6.4 8.5 5 A 3 3.1 8.3 8.3 3.3 4 k.3 7.9 6.8 6.4 5 ^•3 8.1 ^•3 5.8 6 5.1 9.5 9.3 5.5 7 3.5 2.8 7.5 4.4 8 4.4 6.1 8.0 5.8 9 6.0 7.4 6.8 7.3 10 5.3 6.8 8.1 5.7 11 4.1 6.1 7.1 6.8 12 2.5 6.3 7.8 5.0 13 1.4 4.8 9* k.9 l 4 3.7 7.4 9-1 3 A 15 ^.3 7.7 7.9 3-5 16 . 3.8 5.7 8.3 3-8 IT 4.1 5.5 7.5 5.9 18 4.7 5 A 6.9 6.1 19 3.5 5 A 7.0 4.4 20 4.7 ^.5 7.1 3.8 21 3-9 7.5 9-7 3.3 22 2.5 4.8 9.0 4.1 23 3.7 8.1 7.8 5.5 24 4.4 7-5 9-1 4.0 25 4.8 7.3 8.5 6.3 26 3.1 4.8 9-7 5.7 27 2.8 5-8 7.4 4.0 •28 3-1 5.7 6.5 5.5 29 3.7 6.1 8.5 5 A 30 3-9 6.9 6.9 6.4 31 1.8 5.4 8.1 4.4 32 3.8 7.8 7.1 4.0 33 4.0 ^.5 5.0 3-9 3^ 3 A 6.8 7.8 k.3 35 3-5 5.9 8.7 3-5 81 A P P E N D I X I V P i n a l P l o t R e s u l t s F a l l P l a n t i n g R e s u l t s - p a g e s 83 t o 93. S p r i n g P l a n t i n g R e s u l t s - p a g e s 94 t o ic4. 82 A b b r e v i a t i o n s V i g o u r 4 - 4 e a 4 p - p o o r m - m o d e r a t e d b - d i e p a c k E r o s i o n P r o b l e m s p - b u r i e d p b - p a r t i a l l y b u r i e d O t h e r b r - b r o w s e d M e a s u r e m e n t s M e a s u r e m e n t s l i s t e d a r e i n i n c h e s . 83 P l o t Number 1 - P l a n t e d f a l l 1970, measured May 28, 1972. Tree Spruce Spruce P I P I D . - f i r D . - f i r D . - f i r Number P lugs B u l l e t s P lugs B u l l e t s P lugs B u l l e t s Bare r o o t 1 d d d d d d d 2 d d d d d d d 3 d d d d d d d 4 d d d d d d d 5 d d d d d d d 6 d d d m-6.4 d m-3.5 p-6.0-db 7 d d d m-4.0 d d d 8 d d d d d d m-10.0 9 d d m-9.5 d d d d 10 d d m-7. k d m-5.4 d P-7.5 11 d d d d d d d 12 d d d d d d m-10.0 13 d d m-5.1 d d d d l 4 d d d d d • d d 15 d d d d d m-4.9 d 16 d d d d d d d 17 d d m-6.9 d d d d 18 d d m-7.1 d m-5.9 d d 19 d d m-5.4 d d d d 20 m-7. 2 d d d d d d 21 d d d d d d P-8.5 22 d d d d d d d 23 d d d d d d d 2k d d d d d d d 25 d d d d d d d 26 d d d d d d d 27 d d d d d d d 28 d d d d d d d 29 d d d d d d d 30 d d d d d d d 31 d d d d d d d 32 d d d d d d d 33 d d d d d d d 3h d d d d d d d 35 d d d d d d d S u r v i v a l percent 3 0 17 6 6 6 14 Trees a l i v e 1 0 6 2 2 2 5 . Trees dead 34 35 29 33 33 33 30 84 P l o t Number 2 - P l a n t e d f a l l 1970, measured May 28,1972. Tree D . - f i r Spruce P I P I D . - f i r Spruce D . - f i r Number Bare - roo t P l u g P l u g B u l l e t B u l l e t B u l l e t P l u g 1 Destroyed by mudslide m-4.7 2 m-5.0 3 d m-4.7 k D d m-5.0 5 e m-6.0 d m-5.0 d 6 s d d d m-5.8 7 t d p-8.0 d d d d 8 r d P-6.3 m-5.0 d m-4.3 d 9 o d m-5.5 m-4.5 d d d 10 y d m-6. 5 d d d m-4.9 l l e d d d d m-3.0 d 12 d d d d d d m-5.7 13 m-7.8 d d d d m-5.8 ik by d d d d d d 15 d d m-4.5 d d d 16 t d d d d m-2.0-db d 17 r d d p-2.0-db d d d 18 a d m-5.4 m-7.0 d d m-6. 5 19 c d m-6.0 m-2.k d d m-4. k 20 t d d d d d m-7.0 21 0 d d d d d m-6.6 22 r d d d d d d 23 m-8.8 d d d d d d 2k d d d d d d d 25 m-6.0 d d d d d d 26 d d d d d d d 27 d d d d d d d 28 d m-6. 5 d d d d d 29 d d d d m-3.0 m-7.0 m-6.4 30 d d m-7.0 d d m-5.8 m-5.2 31 m-7. 5 m-5.5 d d d d m-6. 2 32 d d m-8.0 d m-6.0 d m-5.5 33 d m-7.4 m-7.9 m-6.6 d d m i s s i n g 34 d m-5.4 m-7. 5 p-O.O-db d m-5.4 m i s s i n g 35 d m-7. 3 m-4.3 d d d m i s s i n g S u r v i v a l 23 20 38 30 6 2k kk Trees a l i v e 3 6 11 9 2 8 15 Trees dead 10 2k 18 21 29 26 19 or m i s s i n g Trees des t royed - by mudslide - 27 - by man - 17 85 P l o t Number 3 - P l a n t e d f a l l 19TO, measured May 29, 1972. Tree Spruce D . - f i r Number B u l l e t P l u g 1 m-3-5 d 2 p - 2 .0 m -5.8-br 3 m-3.1 d 4 m-3. 5-pt> m-2.9-pb 5 d P - 3 .0 6 m-3,. 9 m-3-3 7 m-4. 6 m-3.8-pb 8 m-3.1-pb m-3.3-pb 9 m-4. 8 d 10 m-3-3 m -3.7-pt 11 m-3.4 d 12 m -3.6-br p-2.1-b 13 m-4. 9 m-4.2-pb 14 m-3-6-pb d 15 m-2.3-pb d -"br 16 m-3-4-pb m-5.1-pb 17 m-2.8 m-3.0-pb 18 d d 19 m-4. 5 d 20 m-4. 2 d 21 d m-2.3-pb - b r 22 m-4. 9 m-2.8-pb 23 m-3-6-pb d 24 m-4. 6 d 25 m -3.7-pl3 m-2.8-pb 26 m-5-7 m-5. 7 27 m=4.1 m-2.8-pb -br 28 m-1.9 p - 2 .3 - b r 29 m-4. 2 d 30 d d 31 P -3.0 d 32 m-1.5-br d 33 d d 34 m-3. 9 m-3-1-pb 35 m-4.1 d S u r v i v a l or 51 Percent Trees ^0 18 A l i v e Trees 5 17 D . - f i r D . - f i r P I Spruce P I Bar e- r o o t B u l l e t P l u g P l u g B u l l e t d m-11.6 m-13.4 m-9.6 m-lO.O-br m - l6 .0 m-12.0 m-6.7 m-11. 5 m-12.9 m - l4 .0 m -6.1-br m-9.6 m-10.5-pb m-6. 9 m - l4 .2 m-17.7 m-10.9 d m-9.4 m-9.3 m-12.6 m-9.4 m-11.9 m-6. 8 m - l6 .5 -b m-10.2 m-9.9 m-9.4-db m-11.2 m-12.0 p -9 .5 m -8.1-br m-8.8 m-10.4 9 4 33 m-4.7-pb m-4.8-pb d m-5.8-pb m-2.8 m-6.9 m-2.9-pb d m-1.6-b m-5.8 m-3.9 m-2.O-pb m-3. 2 m-6. 5 d m -3.3-br m-3 A m-5-3 m -5.6-br m-2.9 d m-2.7-pb m-7. 5 m-5. 6 - b r m-2.8 m -3.3-br d m -4.6-br m-2.4 m-4.O-br P -3-8-pb m -3.7-br m-2.4 m-4.5-pb m-5.4 m-6.1 m-3. 2 m-8.0 m-6. 5 m-5.1 d m-6.2-pb m-2. 3-pb m-4. 3 d d d m-4.5 d m-8. 5 m-5.7 d p - l . l - p b d d d d m-4.1-pb m-4. 6 m-4. 7 m-2. 7 m-7.6-pb d d m-4.1 d d m-7.0 m-3.8 m-6.0 d d m-3.4 m-5.1 m-6. 5 d m-2.1 m-5. 9 d m-3. 4 m-3.1 d m-6.O-br d m-4. 2 d m-5. 2 d d m-3.8 m-10.4 d m-2.9 m-5.1 m-3.7-pb d m-3.4 m -4.8-br m-7. 6 m-4. 5 m-3-5 m-2.0 m-5. 3 m-3. 6 d d m-7. 7 d p -4 .8 m -7.3-br d m-5. 3 d d P -7 .6 m-4.3-br m-3. 3 d m-8.6 . m-6.0 d d p - 6 .3 - b r d d m-3. 2 m-6. 6 d d m-6. 5 m-5. 4 d d m-5.6 m-5. 9 d d d m-6. 4 d 63 71 71 54 22 25 25 19 13 10 10 16 Dead 86 P l o t Number 4 - F a l l 1970, measured May 28, 1972. Tree Spruce D . - f i r D . - f i r Spruce P I D . - f i r P I Number B u l l e t B a r e - r o o t B u l l e t P l u g P l u g P l u g B u l l e t 1 d m-8. 2 d d m -4.4-br d d 2 d m-9.9 d d m -7.4-br p - 2 .6 - b r d 3 d d m-5. 2 d d d m -3.3-br 4 d d m-3 - 6 d m-6.2 d d 5 d m-11.7 d d d d d 6 d m-14.7 d d d d d 7 d m -8.1-br d d d d d 8 d d m-3. 5 d m-3.6-br d d 9 d d d d d d d 10 d m - l6 .4 d d m-6.6-br d m-3.3-br n d m-12.O-br d d m-7.1 d d 12 d m - l4 .7 d d m-4.8-br d d 13 d m-10.0 d m-3.6 p - 2 .5 - b r l 4 d m-10.7 d d m-7.8 m-2.9-br d 15 d m-8.0 d d m-4. 5 d d 16 d d d d m-9.9 m-4. 7 d 17 d d d d m-8.9 d d 18 p -2 .8 d d d m-9.5 m -5.2-br d 19 d d d d p - 4 .5 - b r m -4.5-br d 20 d m-17.2 d d m-8. 2 m-4.0 d 21 d m-11. 7 d m-4. 7 m-4. 6 d d 22 d p -6.0-db d d m -7.4-br d d 23 d d d d d m-5. 4 d 24 d m-13.3 d d m-7.4 d d 25 d m-9.4 d d m -7.7-br m-4.1-br d 26 d m-12.3 d m-8. 3 m-5.O-br d d 27 d m-9.8 d m-4. 2 m-7.4 d d 28 d d d m-7. 2 m-11.9 d d 29 d m-9.8 m-3-5 d m-7.0 d d 30 d m-9.9 d d m-10.5 d d 31 d m-13.9 d d m-9-7 d d 32 d m-14.8 d d m-6. 5 d d 33 d m-11.6 p - 1 .7 - b r m-9.3 m-9. 2 m-5.6 m-6.1 3^ d m -8.5-br d d m-7.8 p -6 .6 d 35 d m-7.8 d m-9.5 m-5 O-br d d S u r v i v a l Percent 71 14 17 83 31 Trees A l i v e 25 29 11 Trees Dead 10 30 29 24 32 87 P l o t Number 5 - P l a n t e d f a l l 1970, measured May 29, 1972. Tree Spruce D . - f i r D . - f i r P I P I D . - f i r Spruce Number B u l l e t B a r e - r o o t B u l l e t B u l l e t P l u g P l u g P l u g 1 d d d d d d 2 d d d d d d 3 d d d d d d 4 d d d d d d 5 d d d d d d M 6 d d d d d d I 7 m-4.8 d d d d d S 8 d d d d d d S 9 d d d d d d I 10 d d d d m-9-5 d N 11 d d d d d d G 12 d d d d d d 13 d d d d p -4 .3 -db d l4 d d P-•2.9-br m-4. 2 P -7 .6 d 15 d d d d d d 16 d d d m -4.8-br d d 17 d d m-•4.1-br m-5.1 d d 18 m-4.9 d m-•2.8 d d d 19 d d d m -3.7-br d m-4.8 20 d d d d d d 21 m-4. 8 d d d m-4.3-br d 22 d d d d m -4.6-br d 23 d d d d m -5.3-br d 24 d d d d d d 25 d m-•7.1 d d d d 26 d m-•8.8 d m-4.8 d d 27 d m-•9.8 d m-6. 2 m-4.5 d 28 d d d d d d 29 - d d d m-7.4 d 30 d m-•9-2 d d d d 31 d m-•9-5 d d d d 32 d d d m-6. 6 d d 33 d d d d d m -4.3-br 34 d d d d d d 35 d d - d d d 14 9 20 23 S u r v i v a l P e r c e n t T r e S S 3 5 3 7 8 2 A l i v e 2 3 1 o d Trees Dead 31 30 31 28 27 33 88 P l o t Number 6 - P l a n t e d f a l l 1970, measured May 29, 1972. Tree D . - f i r Spruce D . - f i r D . - f i r P I Spruce P I Number B u l l e t B u l l e t Ba re - roo t P l u g B u l l e t P l u g P l u g 1 m-1.9 d m-9.0 d m-5.4 m-6. 2 P-4.8 2 d d p-10.4-db d d d P-8.2 3 m-3.7 d m-18.7 p-4.6 d m-7.5-br m-7.8 4 d d p-9.2-db d d • m-8.9 d 5 d d d d d m-8. 2 6 d d m-12.0-br d d ' washout m-8.9 7 d d m-9.6-br d d m-9-7 8 d d m-8.5 m-6.3 d m-10.4 9 d d d d d m-8.3 m-8. 7 10 d d m-12.6 P-5.2 d d m-8.5 11 d d p-4. 5-"br m-6. 2 d m-9-3 d 12 13 d d d d washout d m-5.2 d d d m-5.9 m-9.1 m-8.2-br 14 d d m-13.4-br m-6. 5 d m-6. 7 p-7.8-br 15 d d m-9. 7 m-5.3 d d d 16 d d m-8.6 d d d m-5.4 17 d d m-7.2-br -db m-5.7 d p-2.2-db m-7. 2 18 d d m-8.3 P-4.3 d d 19 20 d d d d p-4.8-br d d m-4.5-br d m-7.5 washout 21 d d p-3.5-br d 22 d m-8.1-br m-4.0 m-8.5 23 d m-6. 3-"br ' washout P-9.2 2k washout m-10.0 m-11.0 d washout 25 26 27 28 washout washout washout d m-8.6 m-5.4 m-9.3 m-9. 2 29 m-4.9 m-13.3 washout d m-10.2 30 d d d m-10.2 m-11.7 31 d d m-15.2 m-7. 8 m-7.0 32 d d m-8.2-br m-6.6 m-7.1 33 d d . d m-5.5 m-9.8 3k m-2.5-pb d m-8.7-br m-6.0 d m-8. 2 d 35 d d d m-5.9 d m-4.8 d S u r v i v a l ^ Percent k 79 54 9 64 83 Trees A l i v e 3 1 23 14 2 14 25 Trees Dead 26 27 6 12 20 8 5 Trees Washed out 6 7 6 9 13 13 5 89 P l o t Number 7 - P l a n t e d f a l l 1970, measured May 30, 1972. Tree D . " - f i r P I Spruce D. - f i r Spruce D. - f i r P I Number B u l l e t P l u g B u l l e t B a r e - r o o t P l u g P l u g B u l l e t 1 d 2 d 3 d d 4 d d d 5 d d d 6 d d d 7 d m-8. 2 d 8 d d d 9 d d d 10 d d d 11 d m-8.8 d 12 d d d 13 d d d 14 d P-7.4 d 15 d m-8.0 d 16 d d d 17 ' d d d 18 m-2.9 m-8.3 d 19 d d d 20 d m-6. 5 d 21 d P-4.9 d 22 d d d 23 d d d 24 d d d 25 d d d 26 d d d 27 d d d 28 d d d 29 d d d 30 d p-3.9-cTb d 31 d m-4.7 d 32 d m-5.1 d 33 d m-6. 2 d 34 d m-7.4 d 35 d m-8.4 d S u r v i v a l Percent Trees A l i v e Trees Dead Destroyed by t r a c t o r d d d d d m-12.3 d m-9.4-db d d d d d d d d d d d d d p-4.7 cl d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d p-7.1 ci d d d d m-6.6-db d d d d d p-7.8 d d m-5.2 d d m-5.9-db d d d d d d d m-7.4-db d d d d d d d m-8.3-db d d d d d m-4.6 d m-7.0-db d d d m-9.0-db d m-5.5 cl d d d d d d d d m-15.6-db d d d d d d d d d d d 4 l 0 27 6 14 0 1 13 0 9 2 4 0 34 19 33 2k. 32 25 28 Trees 0 3 2 2 1 6 7 Destroyed By T r a c t o r 90 P l o t Number 8 - P l a n t e d f a l l 1970, measured May 28, 1972. Tree D . - f i r P I Spruce P I : D . - f i r D . - f i r Number Plug. . B u l l e t P l u g P l u g B a r e - r o o t B u l l e t Spruce B u l l e t 1 2 3 4 d 5 d 6 d 7 d 8 d 9 d 10 d 11 d 12 d 13 d 14 d 15 d 16 d 17 d 18 d 19 P-20 d 21 d 22 P-23 d 24 m-25 d 26 d 27 d 28 d 29 d 30 P-31 d 32 m-33 m-3^ d 35 -Destroyed by t r a c t o r b u i l d i n g p i p e l i n e •3.1-db • 3.0-db •5.9 •3.6-br •3.9 S u r v i v a l P e r c e n t Trees A l i v e Trees Dead 19 25 Trees Destroyed 3 by T r a c t o r 3 1 31 3 16 5 27 11 5 27 16 5 26 4 d d m-4.1 d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d m-7.4 d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d p-5.8-db d. d d d d d d d d p-4.0-db d d d d d d d d d d d m-12.1 d d d d m-7. 5 m-3-3 d p-5.6-db m-7. 5 d d d d d d d d m-9-5 m-8.9 d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d m-9.0 d m-8.0 m-4.1 m-5. 7 d d d d d d d P-10.9 d d d P-7-5 P-11.5 -7 2 28 4 d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d m-4. 9 d d d d d d d d d d d 3 1 32 91 P l o t Number 9 - P l a n t e d f a l l 1970, measured May 30, 1972. Tree P I P I D . - f i r D . - f i r Spruce Spruce D . - f i Number P l u g B u l l e t P l u g B u l l e t P l u g B u l l e t B a r e -i 1 d d d d d d d 2 d d d m-7. 7 d d d 3 d d d d d d d 4 d d d d d d d 5 m-5. 5 d d d d d d 6 m-7.9 d d d d d d 7 d p-2.2 d m-5.2-pb d d d 8 d d d d d d d 9 d d d d d d d 10 d d d m-T . l d d d 11 d d d d P-7.8 d d 12 m-6. 6 d d d d d d 13 d d d d d d d l4 d d d ' d m-5-5 d d 15 d d d d d d d 16 d d d d d d d 17 d d d d d d d 18. d d d d p-6.9-db d d 19 d d d d d d d 20 d d d d d d d 21 d d d d d d d 22 m-9.5 d d d d d d 23 p-2.9-db d d d d d d 24 m-10.2 d d d d d d 25 m-6.4-db d d d m-8.7 d d 26 m-7. 7 d d d d d d 27 d d d p-3.9-br d d d 28 m-9-5 d d d d d d 29 m-9.0 d d m-6. 5 d d d 30 m-10.k m-8.0 d d d d d 31 m-6.8 d d d d d d 32 m-6.8 d d d d d d 33 d d d d d d d 3^ d d d d d d d 35 d d d d d d d P S ™ 37 6 0 14 11 0 0 lltTe 13 2 0 5 4 0 0 Dead" 2 2 33 35 30 31 35 35 92 P l o t Number 10 - P l a n t e d f a l l 1970, measured May 30, 1972. Tree P I Spruce P I D . - f i r Spruce D . - f i r D . - f i r Number B u l l e t P l u g P l u g B u l l e t B u l l e t Ba re - roo t P l u g 1 d d d m-0.9-p"b m-2.9-pTj m-2.9-db d 2 d d p-6.6 d d d d 3 d d d d d d m-3.8 4 -pb d d m-7.8 d d d d 5 d d d m-3.3 d d d 6 d d d d m-3.5 d d 7 d d m-6.0 d d d d 8 d d d d d d d 9 d d d d d d d 10 d m-9.3 d d d d d 11 d m-8.1 d d d p-6.0 p-4. 6 12 d m-9. 5 d d m-3.4 P-5-6 d 13 d d d d d d d l 4 d d d p-3.0 d d d 15 d d m-8.0 d d d d 16 d d d d d d d 17 d m-4.0 d d d d d 18 d d d d d p-7.2-"br d 19 d d d d d p-6.1 d 20 d d d d d d d 21 d d d d d d d 22 d p_4.4_d.T3 m-4. 3 d d d d 23 d d • d d d m-10.0 d 24 d P-7.0 d d d d m-7. 2 25 d d p-5. l-~br d d m-11.0 m-4.9 26 d d p-5.4 d d d d 27 d d d d d d d 28 d m-6.4 d d d d d 29 d m-6. 3 d d d d d 30 d P-6.4 d d d d d 31 d d m-7.9 d d d d 32 d P-6.8 m-6.0 d d d d 33 d d m-7.1 d m-4. 9 d d 34 d d m-5.8 d d d P-5.7 35 d d p-4. 2 d d P-3.9-db d S u r v i v a l 0 29 34 9 11 23 14 P e r c e n t Alive ° 1 0 1 2 -3- 4 8 5 Dead" 3 5 2 5 2 3 3 2 3 1 2 ? 3 0 93 P l o t Number 11 - P l a n t e d f a l l 1970, measured May 30, 1972. (1) (2) (3) (1) (2) (3) Tree Spruce Spruce Spruce Number Bare - roo t P lugs B u l l e t s 1 m-10.0 d d 2 m-6.5 m-6.0 m-4. 5 3 m-3.8 m-6.4 m-4. 5 4 m-6. 7 m-4.8-db d 5 d P-3.2 d 6 m-6.8 m-8.4 d 7 m-4.8 m-9.9 m-4.0 8 m-5. 5 d d 9 m-l.T-dTD m-4.9-br d 10 m-6.4 m-4.9-br d 11 d m-4.O-br d 12 m-2.5-br P-3-9 d 13 d d d 14 m-3.4 m-3-3-br d 15 m-4.O-br d d 16 m-3.8 p-4.0 d 17 d d d 18 m-3.3-db p-3.9-br d 19 m-5.0 d d 20 m-2.7-br d d 21 m-4.8-br d d 22 d d d 23 m-2.8-br d d 24 m-5.5-br d d 25 m-4.O-br m-5.O-br d 26 m-3.O-br m-5. 2 d 27 m-2.9-br m-1.5-br P-2.3 28 m-5.9-br m-3.8 d 29 m-3.6-br m-3.O-br d 30 m-5.O-br m-4.9 d 31 d m-3« 9-br d 32 d m-3.8-br d 33 d m-7.0 d 3V d p-6.1-br d 35 d p-6.5-br d 36 m-6.O-br p-5.5-br m-4. 5 37 m-4.1-br d d 38 d d d 39 m-4.3-br p-4.5-br d 40 m-3.5-br p-2.6-db d 4 l m-2.2-br p-1.9-br -42 p-3.5-"br m-6.3 d ^3 m-5.3 m-5.4-db d 44 m-1.9-br d d k5 m-3.6-br m-1. 5 d 46 m-2.5-br d d kl p-1.8-br - m-1.4-br 48 m-3.7 m-5. 3 m-1.2-br k9 m-1.O-br d d 50 - m-2.2-br d P^Sr T8 6T Trees A l i v e 38 33 7 Trees Dead 11 16 42 94 P l o t Number 1 - P l a n t e d s p r i n g 1971, measured May 28, 1972. Tree D . - f i r D . - f i r D . - f i r P I P I Spruce Spruce Number Bare - roo t B u l l e t P l u g B u l l e t P l u g B u l l e t P l u g 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 i4 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 S u r v i v a l Percent Trees A l i v e Trees Dead m-6.7-db d d d p-9.0-db d d m-7.5-db d d d d d d m-4.5-db m-2.5 d d d d d d d d d d d d m-6.0-db d d d d d d m-7-9 p-5.0 d d d d d m-7.0 d d d d d d m-6. 5 m-2.5 d m-7.0 d d d m-6. 5 m-3.1 d d d d d m-8.0 m-2.5 d d d d d m-6.9 d d d d d d m-5.0 d d d d d d d d d d m-8.0 d d d d d d m-9.0 d d d m-4. 4 d d d d d m-7. 7 d d d d d p-2 d m-3.4 d d d d d m-4. 5 d m-4.4 d d d d d d P-3-0 d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d p-2.0-db d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d m-3.0 d d d d d d d d d d d d d d m-5.0 d d d d 40 23 9 3 9 0 3 14 8 3 1 3 0 1 21 27 32 34 32 35 34 95 P l o t Number 2 - P l a n t e d s p r i n g 1971, measured May 28, 1972. Tree D . - f i r Spruce Number B a r e - r o o t P l u g P I P I D . - f i r Spruce D . - f i r Plug B u l l e t B u l l e t B u l l e t P l u g 1 P-10.9 m-6.0 m-5.0 d 'Destroyed by 2 m-11.0 m-4. 8 m-4. 7 m-4. 9 m-3.0 3 d m-3.3-pb m-5.0 m-4.9 mud- d 4 d m-4.9 m-5.4 d s l i d e d 5 m-9.3 m-7. 7 m-4. 7 d d 6 m-8.9 m-5.8 p-2.5-pb m-3.5 m-4. 0 p-3-7-pb 7 m-8.0 m-6.9 P-5.7 m-4.8 d d 8 d m-6.0 d d d d 9 m-11.3 m-4.5 m-6. 7 m-5.0 d m-2.1-pb 10 m-11.0 d m-7. 2 d d d 11 d d m-6. 5 m-7.0 d m-3.0-pb 12 d d d d m-4.0 d 13 d P-7.7 d d d d 14 d m-8.6 d d d d 15 d m-8.4 d d m-4.4 d 16 d m-6.8 d m-6.0 m-3.5 m-3.1 17 m-4. 6 m-5.0 d d d d 18 m-7.0 m-3.0-db d d m-3.8 d 19 d m-7.0 m-7.8 d m-3.8 m-5.5 20 m-11.5 d d m-6. 2 d m-3.4 21 m-3.5-db m-4. 2 d d m-2.0 m-4.7 22 d m-3.5 d m-7. 7 m-2.5 m-5.0 23 d m-5.5 m-7.4 d d m-3.8 24 m-11.4 m-5-7 m-8. 7 m-6. 7 m-2.9 d 25 d d m-8. 7 m-5.5 d m-2.8 26 m-11.4 d m-6. 5 p-4. 6 p-4. 8 d 27 m-l4.2 m-7.9 d m-5.7 d d 28 m-9. 6 m-6.9 d m-6.0 d m-5.0 29 d m-4.9 d d m-2.9 d 30 d m-4.7 m-6.1 m-8.4 d m-3.3 31 d m-6.5 m-6.1 d m-3.7 d 32 m-8.6 m-6.0 d m-7.6 m-3.4 d 33 m-7.0 m-7.0 m-8.1 m-5.8 m-4.8 d 34 m-7.0 m-5.0 m-8. 2 m-7.4 - d 35 - - - m-7. 7 - m-3-7 S u r v i v a l Percent Trees A l i v e Trees Dead 53 18 16 82 28 6 56 19 15 Trees des t royed by muds l ide - 6 54 19 16 50 14 14 4 i 14 20 d d m-3.2-pb m-3.5-pl> d d m-3-9 m-4. 2 m-3-5 m-4.0-pb d d m-6. 5 m-5.5 m-5-5 d m-4.8 d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d m-4. 8 d d 46 11 24 96 P l o t Number 3 - P l a n t e d s p r i n g 1971, measured May 29, 1972. Tree Spruce D . - f i r D . - f i r D.-fir P I Spruce P I Number B u l l e t P l u g B a r e - r o o t B u l l e t P l u g P l u g B u l l e t 1 m-2.7-pb - b r d m-5.5-pb m-2.6-pb d d m i s s i n g 2 d d m-4. 2 d m-3.8-pb -br d p-3.0-br 3 d m-4.9 m-5•9-pb d m-5. 5 d p-3.6-br 4 p-2.1-pb d m-6.7-pb d p-4.6-pb - b r d p-3.1-br 5-- d d m-7.2-pb m-1.8-pb d m-5.6 d 6 p-4.4 d m-8.2-pb m-1.8-pb m-5.4 m-6.3 d 7 d m-3> 6-pb m-4.9-pb m-2.9-pb m-5. 3 m-4.9 m-2.7-br 8 d P~3.9-Pb m-8.1 m-1.9-pb m-6. 3 p-4.3-b m-4.7-br 9 d m-4.0-pb p-5.0-pb d m-5.2-b m-6.8 d 10 d d m-6.9-pb d m-4.9 d d 11 d d m-11.1 p-2.4-pb m-3. 5 p-3.7-pb m-4.3 m-4.3 -pb 12 m-3.7 m-11.4-pb m-2.4-pb d m-4.9 d 13 d d m-17.3-br d m-2.7-pb m-5.0-b d l 4 m-2.4-pb d m-11.3-pb d d d m-2.8 15 p-1.5-b m-5.4-br m-10.1-pb d m-4.3-pb d m-4. 3 16 P-1.9-Pb d m-l4.4-br d d d m-5. 8 17 m-2.9-pb m-4.4-br m-10.6 m-3.0-pb m-3.8-pb - b r d d 18 d p-6.O-br m-20.6 d m-4.2-pb d d 19 d d m-13.5 m-2.3-br m-3-5-pb m-4.3-pb m-5. 6 20 m-3-3 d m-13-7 p-2.6-pb p-2.6-pb m-4.4-pb m-4.1 21 m-4.7 d d d d m-5.5-b m-5. 4 22 m-3.5-pb m-5.3 - d m-8. 2 d m-4. 7 23 d m-2.6-pb - b r - p-2.9-pb - b r m-7.9 d m-6. 3 24 d P-4.4 - d m-8.6 m-6. 4 d 25 m-4.1 d - m-2.6-pb m-6. 7 d d 26 d m-4.3 - p-2.9-pb - b r m-5.4 p-2.4-pb d 27 d d - m-4.4-pb m-4. 7 m-2.9 m-4.3 28 d d - p-2.8-pb m-10.2 m-3-9 d 29 m-2.5-br d - d m-4. 5 m-5. 5 d 30 d d - d m-5.3 m-5.9 m-5.6 31 d m-2. 7 - d d m-4.5 m-3.7-b 32 d d - d d m-7. 7 d 33 d d - p-2.4-pb d m-6.7 m-3.5-b 3^ d m-2.9-pb - m-3-3-pb m-5. 5 m-7.8 m-3.5-b 35 d d - m-3-3-pb m-5.5-b d d S u r v i v a l P e r c e n t 40 95 51 74 60 5^ Trees A l i v e 13 14 20 18 26 21 19 Trees Dead 22 21 17 14 16 97 Plot Number 4 - Planted spring 1971, measured May 29, 1972. :ee Spruce D.-fir D.-fir Spruce PI D.-fir PI imber Bullet Bare-root Bullet Plug Plug Plug Bullet 1 d m-7. 2 d d m-10.4 d p-5.1-br 2 d m-7. 7 d m-6.6 m-10.1 m-4. 2 m-4.5-br 3 d m-8.3 d d m-5. 7 d d 4 d m-7.2-br d d m-11. 2 d d 5 d m-8. 5 d d m-10.0 d m-3.2-br 6 d d d d m-6.1-br d d 7 d m-7.6-br d d m-10.5 m-3. 8 d 8 d m-7.4 P-3-6 d m-5.1 d d 9 d m-5.9 d d m-9.9 d m-5. 5 10 m-3-7 m-6.1-br d d ra-11.0 d p-2.5-db 11 d m-6.0 m-4. 2 m-6.5 d m-5. 5 d 12 m-5.1 m-10.0 d m-8.3 m-7. 3 d d 13 m-4. 8 m-7.0 d d d d d 14 m-5.0 m-6. 2 m-3. 2 d m-8. 7 m-7.1 d 15 m-6. 2 m-9-5 d d m-5.0 d m-3.5 16 m-2. 7 d m-3.0 d m-7. 5-t>r d m-4.2-br 17 d m-7.5 m-2.9 d m-9.1-br d d 18 m-5. 5 m-6. 5 m-3.4 m-9.1 m-8.8 d d 19 m-3. 5 m-6.O-br m-2.4 m-5.2-br m-8.8-br d d 20 d m-5.6-br d d m-5.9 d d 21 m-5.4 m-4. 7 m-2.8 m-7. 2 m-7.3 m-3.O-br d 22 d m-5.5-br P - 3 A d m-10.6 d m-6.1 23 m-5.6 m-4. 2 d m-4. 8 d m-7.1 24 d m-2.7-br d m-7. 2 m-8.4 d m-7.0 25 d m-8.0 P-3.1 d m-10.1 d d 26 d m-6.0 d d m-6.8 d d 27 d m-6.6 d d m-10.6 d d 28 d d p-2. 6 d m-9. 2 d m-7. 6 29 d m-6. 7-br m-2.8-br d m-10.1 d m-4.6-br 30 Pr2 . 1 d P-2.5 m-6. 5 m-12.1 d m-7.1 31 m-4. 2 m-4.O-br P-3.8 d m-6. 6 d m-7.9 32 p-2.2-br m-7.8 d d d d m-5. 7 33 d m-7.1 d d m-7.4-br d m-5.9 3^ d m-6. 7 d d m-7.O-br d m-4.2-br 35 m-3.4 p-5.9-br d m-6. 7 d m-7. 2 m-5. 2 Survival Percent Trees Alive Trees Dead 40 14 21 31 4 4 3 15 20 26 26 31 4 17 29 51 18 17 98 P l o t N u m b e r 5 - P l a n t e d s p r i n g 1971, m e a s u r e d M a y 29, 1972. T r e e S p r u c e D . - f i r P I S p r u c e D . - f i r P L D . - f i r N u m b e r B u l l e t B a r e - r o o t B u l l e t P l u g B u l l e t P l u g • P l u g . 1 d m - l O . O - b r d d d m - 5 . 8 - b r d 2 d d d d m -5 .1 m - 7 . 5 - b r d 3 d m - l 6 . 0 m -4 .0 d d m - 3 . 6 - d b d 4 d d d d p - 2 . 4 d d 5 d d d d d d d 6 d d d d d d d 7 d m - 1 1 . 3 - b r d d d d d 8 d P - 8 . 5 d d d d d 9 d d d d d d d 10 d d d d d d d 11 d d d d d m - 7 . 2 - b r d 12 d d d d d m - 8 . 0 - b r d 13 d d - 7 . 6 - b r - d b d d d d d 14 d p - 5 . 8 - d b d d d d d 15 d d d d d m - 4 . 2 - b r d 16 d d d d d m - 1 1 . 7 - b r d 17 d d d d d d d 18 d d d d d d d 19 d d d d d m - 5 . 0 - b r d 20 d d d d P - 3 - 7 m -5 .0 d 21 d d d d d m-5.5-b>r d 22 d d d d m -3 .8 m - 8 . 0 - b r d 23 d d d d d m -6 . 6 d 24 d d d d m -2. 2 m - 7 . 5 - b r d 25 d d d d d m -9 .9 d 26 d d d d m -3 .6 m -8.5 d 27 d d d d d m -7 .8 d 28 d d d d d m - 5 . 5 - d b d 29 d d d d d m - 5 . 1 - b r d 30 d d m -5-5 d d m -12.0 m - 5 . 4 - b r 31 d d m -4 .6 d d m -8. 7 d 32 d d d d d m -4.5 m -6. 2 33 d d d m -6. 7 d d d 34 d d d d d d d 35 d d d d d m -7. 3 d S u r v i v a l Q P e r c e n t 17 9 3 17 63 6 T r e e s A l i v e 0 6 3 1 6 22 2 T r e e s D e a d 35 29 32 34 29 13 33 99 P l o t N u m b e r 6 - P l a n t e d s p r i n g 1971, m e a s u r e d M a y 29, 1972. T r e e D . - f i r S p r u c e D - f i r N u m b e r B u l l e t B u l l e t B a r e - r o o t D . - f i r P I S p r u c e P l u g B u l l e t P l u g m-4. 6 m-7.1 m-7.8 d m-7.0 m-8. 2 d m-7.6 d d m - 3 . 5 - b r m-9.4 m-k.O-br m-5.4 m-9. 2 m-5. 6 m - 3 . 9 - b r m-8.8 d m - 3 . 9 - b r m - 5 . 6 - b r m - 6 . 6 - b r m-4. 9 m - 7 . 5 - b r pA . 5 d d d m-6. 3 m-10.1 m-6.9 m-6. 5 m-10.2 m-k. 0 m-3. k m-7.1 d m - 3 . 7 - b r d d m - 4 . 5 - b r m - 5 . 2 - b r m - 4 . 5 - d b m-5. 9 d d m - 3 . 9 - b r d m - 5 . 7 - b r m-4. 7 m-7.0 w a s h o u t m-5.4 m - 8 . 3 - b r m-6.1 m-5.2 d P I P l u g 1 d d 2 m-1. 2 d 3 m-3.4 d 4 d m-3. 8 5 d d 6 m-3. 7 d 7 m-3-3 m-3.0 8 m-3. 2 d 9 m-2.1 d 10 m-4. 4 d 11 d d 12 m-4. 7 d 13 p - 2 . 0 P-3-8 14 m-4. 7 d 15 p - 2 . 4 d 16 d d 17 d m-4.8 18 d P - 4 . 0 19 d d 20 w a s h o u t 21 m-3. 5 d 22 m-3. 2 m-3. 7 23 m-5.1 d 24 m -4.0 m -3. 5 25 m-4.4 m-4. 5 26 m-5.1 d 27 d m-5.1 28 d m-3.0 29 m-3.0 m-4. 7 30 m-4. 2 m-5.6 31 m-2. 5 m-3.7 32 m -3. 2 d 33 m -4.1 d 3^ d d 35 m-3-9 d S u r v i v a l P e r c e n t T r e e s A l i v e T r e e s D e a d 68 38 23 13 11 21 m - 7 . 9 - b r m-8. 2 m -8.0 m-tt P -9 m-9 m-9 m-7 3 1 - b r 5 - b r 5 6 m - 7 . 8 - b r m - 8 . 1 - b r m-8.0 m-7.0 m-7.4 m-7.9 m-8.8 m-10.5 m -8. 2 m-9.1 p - 7 . 5 - b r - d b p - 2 . 6 - d b m-7.3 m - 9 . 3 - b r m-10.2 m -8 .0 m-9. 3 m-9. 7 m-7. 6 m-8.9 m-9. 2 m - 4 . 6 - b r m - 1 0 . 5 - b r m - 9 . 7 - b r m-9.6 m-9.6 m-8.4 100 35 -6.3 m-6. 5 d d d m -d d m-6. m-7. d m -5.1 d m - 4 . 4 - b r d d d 2 1 ^7 16 18 w a s h o u t d m-5. 7 m - 3 . 1 - b r m-4.8 m-4. 7 m - 3 - 9 - b r d m-5.9 m - 4 . 8 m - 3 . 4 - b r m-5.1 m-5.6 m-4.7 d 29 4 w a s h o u t p -10.1 m-10.0 m - 7 . O - b r m-5. 5 m-9. 2 m -6.0 m - 7 . 8 - b r m - 7 . 6 - b r m - 5 . 9 - b r m-9.6 d m -6.0 m-7.4 77 25 m-7. 6 m - 7 . O - b r m-9.8 m-9. 2 m -9.0 d m-8.7 m-7.9 m-7.9 m-9.4 m-10.3 m-10.6 d m-9.6 m-11.2 m - 5 . O - b r m-7. 2 m-8. 5 m-8. 5 m-8.6 m-10.1 m-9-7 m-9. 2 m-10.1 m-8. 2 m-8.4 m-10.4 m-7-5 m-10.8 m - 7 . 8 - b r m-5.1 m-7.4 m-8.0 m-10.9 m-9.5 94 33 T r e e s W a s h e d O u t 100 P l o t N u m b e r 7 - P l a n t e d s p r i n g 1971, m e a s u r e d M a y 30, 1972. T r e e D . - f i r P I S p r u c e D . - f i r S p r u c e D . - f i r P I N u m b e r B u l l e t P l u g B u l l e t B a r e - r o o t P l u g P l u g B u l l e t 1 2 3 D e s t r o y e d b y t r a c t o r m -5. m-4. , 0 - d b • 3 4 d d 5 d d m-6. 5 6 d d m -5. .3 7 d d m -6 .8 m -4. 3 d 8 d m -11.2 d d d 9 d d d d d d 10 d d d d d d 11 d d d d d d 12 m -3 .8 d d d m -7. 2 d d 13 d m -5 .0 d d d d d l4 d m -7 . 7 d d d d d 15 d p - 5 . 0 - d b d d d d d 16 d m -5 . 7 d m - 7 . 0 - d b d d d 17 d m -7 . 3 d d d d d 18 d m -7 . 7 d d d d d 19 p - 4 . 0 - d b d d d d d d 20 d m -9 .6 d d d d d 21 d m -8. 7 d d m - 7 . 0 - d b d d 22 d m-10.8 d d d m -5 .5 d 23 d m -8.5 d d d d d 24 d m -7.5 d d d d d 25 d d d d d d d 26 d d d m - 9 . 5 - d b d d d 27 d m -8 . 2 d p - 1 2 . 0 d d d 28 d m -10.7 d d d d d 29 d m -7 .9 d m -9 . k d d d 30 d d d d d m -5 . 7 d 31 d m -8.5 d d d d d 32 P - 3 . 1 m -6 . 6 d d d P - 3 - 5 d 33 d m -8. 8 d d d d P - 3 . 5 - d b 34 d m-10.3 d m - 7 . 0 - d b d d d 35 d m -8 .0 d d d d d S u r v i v a l P e r c e n t 11 79 0 21 10 13 15 T r e e s A l i v e 3 19 0 6 3 4 5 T r e e s D e a d 2k 5 28 22 28 28 29 T r e e s 4 D e s t r o y e d 8 11 7 7 3 1 b y T r a c t o r 101 P l o t N u m b e r 8 - P l a n t e d s p r i n g 1971, m e a s u r e d M a y 28, 1972. T r e e D . - f i r P I S p r u c e P I D . - f i r D . - f i r S p r N u m b e r P l u g B u l l e t P l u g P l u g B a r e - r o o t B u l l e t B u i 1 2 D e s t r o y e d b y t r a c t o r b u i l d i n g p i p e l i n e . 3 d 4 d d d d d d 5 d m-3.9 d d d d d 6 d d d m-8.5 d d d T d d d d d d m - ' 8 d d d d d d d 9 d d d m -8 .0 d d d 10 d m-5.9 d d d d d 11 d d d d d d d 12 d d d d d d d 13 d d d d d d d 14 d d d d d d d 15 d d d d d d d 16 d d d m-8.5 d d d I T d d d d d d d 18 d d d m -6.1 d d d 19 d d d d d d d 20 d d d d d d d 21 d d d m-7. 2 d d d 22 d d d m-8. 9 d d d 23 d d d m-5.8 d d d 24 d d d m-5.1 d d d 25 d d p - 4 . 0 - d b d m-7.9 d d 26 d d d d d d d 27 d d m-5.8 m-7. 5 m-7.9 d d 28 d d m -9.0 m-5.8 m - 7 . 8 - b r d d 29 m-5.0 d m-5.0 d d m -4.0 d 30 d d m-7.0 m-8.4 d m-3.1 d 31 p - 6 . 4 d d m-6. 7 m-7. 7 d d 32 d d m-7.9 m-4.4 d d d 33 d m-4. 2 m-6.9 m-7.1 m-5. 2 d d 34 d d m-9. 7 m -5.0 m-9.3 d d 35 m-4.8 d - m-6.1 m-2.8 m i s s i n g d S u r v i v a l P e r c e n t 9 9 25 50 22 6 3 T r e e s A l i v e 3 3 8 16 7 2 1 T r e e s D e a d 29 29 24 16 25 30 30 T r e e s D e s t r o y e d 3 3 2 3 3 3 4 4.1 b y T r a c t o r 102 P l o t N u m b e r 9 - P l a n t e d s p r i n g 1971, m e a s u r e d M a y 30, 1972. T r e e P I P I D . - f i r D . - f i r S p r u c e S p r u c e D . - f : N u m b e r P l u g B u l l e t P l u g B u l l e t P l u g B u l l e t B a r e - : 1 d d d d d 2 d d d d d - d 3 d d d d d - d k - d d d d d d 5 d d d d d d d 6 d d d d d d d T d d d d d d d 8 d d d d d d d 9 d d d d d d d 10 d - d d d d d 11 d d d d d- d d 12 d m-k. 6 d d d d d 13 d d d d d P-5-3 - b r d Ik d d d d d d d 15 d d d d d d d 16 d d d d d d d 17 d d d d d d d 18 d d d d d d d 19 d d d d d d d 20 d d d d d d d 21 d d d d d d d 22 d d d d d d d 23 d d d d d d d 2k p-6. 2 d d d d d d 25 d d d d d d d 26 m-9.1 d d d d d d 27 m-k. 9 d d d d d d 28 m-10.6 m-6. 2 m-6. 5 d d d d 29 d p-2.5 - b r d d d d d 30 d m-6.1 d d d d d 31 d d - d d d d 32 m-5. 4 - b r p-1.8 - b r - d d d d 33 d d - d d d d 3^ d m-7.0 - d - d d 35 d d - d - d d S u r v i v a l , P e r c e n t 18 3 0 0 3 ( T r e e s A l i v e 5 6 l 0 0 1 ( T r e e s D e a d 29 28 29 35 33 31 31 103 P l o t Number 10 - P l a n t e d s p r i n g 1971, measured May 30, 1972. Tree P I Spruce P I D . - f i r Spruce D . - f i r D . - f i r Number B u l l e t P l u g P l u g B u l l e t B u l l e t Ba re - roo t P l u g 1 P-3-1 P-9-9 m-8. 7 m-2. 5 m-3. 8 p-16.6 m-4.9 2 m-3.6 m-3.8 m-5. 3 p-3.4 m-3. 5 P-3.7-db d 3 m-3.2 m-6.8 p-6. 2 m-3.4 m-3.8 m-10.5 d 4 p-4.3 m-4. 2 m-4.5-br m-3-5 m-3.3 P-9-2 m-4. 2 5 d p-3.2-db d d m-4. 2 m-9. 2 d •.6 m-6.4 m-5. 8 d d d m-9.0 p-4.0 7 m-3.6 m-3.4 m-2.1-pb P-3.6 m-3.0 d m-5.0 8 m-4.1-pb m-2.5-br p-6.0 d d m-9.0 m-4.4 9 P-5A m-5.0 P-7.1 d d m-9.5 d 10 d p-3.6-db m-6. 2 p-1.4 d P-7.2 m-5.2-pb 11 P-3.3 d m-8.6 P-3-5 d p-8.0 P-5.6 12 m-4. 6 m-4. 5 m-7.0 m-4.0 d p-10.0 d 13 m-4.0 m-5. 5 m-5.4 p-1.7-<lb d m-13.5 d 14 d d m-4. 6 m-4.3 d p-9.0 p-4.4 15 m-4.4 m-4. 5 P-5.5 m-2.8 m-5.0 m-8.9 m-3.0 16 m-4. 5 m-5.0 p-6. 2 d d m-10.6 d 17 m-4. 2 m-6.0 m-5. 9 d m-3.9 m-8.5-db m-4. 2 18 m-3-7-br m-7.5 m-5. 9 P-3-2 m-3.0 m-l4.7 m-4. 7 19 m-3.0 m-4. 2 P-6.4 m-3.3 m-3.0 p-3.4 m-4. 5 20 p-4.6 m-5.4 p-4.8-br m-2. 6 d m-10.5 m-4.9 21 m-5. 5 m-7. 3 d m-3.1 d d d 22 m-5.0 d d m-2.4 d d d 23 m-6.4 p-0.8-db m-8.6 d d m-15.3 P-1.5 24 m-5. 3 p - l . O - d b d m-2. 2 d p-10.2 d 25 m-4.4 m-3.8 m-9. 2 m-3.0 d m-8. 3 m-6. 2 26 d m-6. 3 m-8.1 m-4.0 m-4. 6 m-10.5 m-3. 2 27 d m-5. 5 d m-3. 5 d m-7.8 P-5.5 28 m-3. 3 m-5. 2 m-5.6 m-3.9 d m-11.9 d 29 p-6.0 m-5. 3 m-7. 2 P-3.3 m-2.6 m-10.2 v-k.l 30 m-6.0 m-3.8 m-6.0 d m-4. 2 m-10.8 P-4.5 31 m-5. 5 m-5.3 m-4.0 P-3.3 m-3.4 p-6.7-db d 32 d m-4. 5 p-4.1 p - l . O - d b d p-10.2 m-4. 2 33 d m-5.1 d p-2.0-db d d d 3k m-4.1 m-7.4 p-1.6 d d d V-5.k 35 m-5. 2 d d m-4. 5 - d -S u r v i v a l Percent Trees A l i v e Trees Dead 80 28 7 31 4 77 27 7^ 26 4 l 14 20 83 29 62 21 13 104 P l o t N u m b e r 11 - P l a n t e d s p r i n g 1971, m e a s u r e d M a y 30, 1972. T r e e S p r u c e S p r u c e P I P I N u m b e r B u l l e t P l u g P l u g B u l l e t 1 d m-8.0 m-6. 7 p-7.2 - d b 2 d m-6. 5 d P-5.5 3 d m-8.8 m-8.5 m-3. 3 k d d p-1.5 - c l b d 5 d m-8.4 m-4.2 - b r m-6. 2 6 d m-10.0 m-9.7 m-5.8 7 d p-4.8 - b r p-1.5 - d b P-4.8 8 m-4.4 m-6.4 m-8.4 m-4.3 - b r 9 m-3.0-"br m-7.6 d d 10 P-5. 2 m-4.5 - b r m-8.5 d 11 d P-3.0 d p-5.4 - b r 12 p-4.0 m-6. 5 m-8.5 d 13 p-4. 2 m-5.4 m-9.9 d Ik m-2.7 m-7.4 p-2.7 - b r m-3.5 - p b - b r 15 m-3.9-hr m-7.9 m-7.9 m-4.8-pb 16 d m-6. 2 m-8.8 m-3.8-pb 17 d m-4.0-pb . m-7. 5 m-6.1 18 d p-5.4 d m-7.0 19 d p-5.0 - b r d d 20 d p-4.0 - d b d d 21 d p-8.0 d m-4.8 22 d m-3.5 - b r d m-5.6 23 p-2.0 m-8. 2 m-5.3 - b r m-4. 5 2k d m-7. 9 m-9. 6 d 25 m-5. 2 m-7.7 m-9.1 d 26 m-6.3 m-5.0 d d 27 d m-6.0 d d 28 d m-6.0 m-6. 8 m-5.8 29 d m-6. 2 m-8.5 d 30 d m-7.4 m-7-3 p-3.6 - b r 31 d m-5.9 m-8. 2 P-4.5 32 d m-7.8 m-7. 7 P-4.5 33 p-4.4 m-5. 7 m-5.0 m-4.6 3k m-4.3 m-7.0 m-8.3 P-3.5 35 m-1.8 m-6.4 m-9.1 m i s s i n g S u r v i v a l P e r c e n t T r e e s A l i v e T r e e s D e a d 37 13 22 97 34 71 25 10 66 23 12 105 APPENDIX V STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 106 APPENDIX V  S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y i s 1 S u r v i v a l Rates 1.1 S p r i n g / F a l l P l a n t i n g R e s u l t s Comparison A summary of s u r v i v a l r a t e s f o r s p r i n g and f a l l p l a n t i n g r e s u l t s which are compared i n t h i s a n a l y s i s i s l i s t e d i n Table I I I of the main t e x t of t h i s t h e s i s . I n the AVOVA of s p r i n g and f a l l r e s u l t s i t was determined t h a t a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the da ta was r e q u i r e d i n order to meet the assump-t i o n s on which the ANOVA i s based. A square r o o t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f da ta l i s t e d i n Table I I I of the t e x t i s t h e r e f o r e presented below i n Table I o f t h i s Appendix . P l o t s 3 and 5 were e l i m i n a t e d from the ANOVA. P l o t 3 was e l i m i n a t e d as i t was caus ing a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between s p r i n g and f a l l r e s u l t s . T h i s i s thought t o have occurred because o f the dominat ing e f f e c t s t h a t brows ing and b u r i a l of s eed l ing s through s l u f f i n g had on s u r v i v a l . P l o t 5 was e l i m i n a t e d as there was m i s s i n g da ta i n t h i s p l o t and i t c o u l d not t h e r e f o r e be used i n the ANOVA. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the s p e c i e s / c o n t a i n e r combinat ions l i s t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s of t h i s Appendix are as f o l l o w s : Combination S p e c i e s / c o n t a i n e r Number Combinat ion 1 Englemann spruce plugs 2 Engelmann spruce b u l l e t s 3 Lodgepole p ine p lugs k Lodgepole p ine b u l l e t s 5 D o u g l a s - f i r p lugs 6 D o u g l a s - f i r b u l l e t s T D o u g l a s - f i r b a r e - r o o t t— o rH 03 > •rl > U w bO CJ •rH - P CJ cd H ft H rH cd <+H d cd bO CJ •rH ft [0 o CJ o •rH -p 03 a o CQ CJ oi r-l - P -p o o u CU U • 03 03 - P a* o3 co rH 03 - P o EH cu •i d - P O H Pn OA CO tr— <o -d-OJ LTNCO VO O N r H ON ONllr— LTN LTN i—I LTN t— i—I i—! ON OJ D - OJ VO ON C O - d " LTN OJ CO CO LT\VO O . d - OJ u ^ - d - r o 4 - LT\ OO r o d - J J - OJ O oo O ir—_d- Ir— O H _d" -d- Ir— ON CO VO H oo O oo O ft O N V O C O C O C— CO O N O N LTN O OJ OJ OJ OJ o o O oo ir—_d- OO o o O t— CO OJ t— o o CO tr-LTN O rH O O - r J - rH O O O OJ rH O O OJ O O 0 O tr— O O 0 O ON O t— O O O t — V O LTN OJ OJ U ^ r H h - m 0 O H J -OJ OJ O CO OJ LTN VO OJ LTN V O O C O t r — O H c O O J rH O C O C O V O 0 O LTN -4* oo O CO OO oo r o d -J - -4- ITN O LTN VO O t— VO O N C O LTN-d" O C— H VO 0 O C O 0J O OJ ft rH OS .VO ON O N V O CO O I I 0 \_- t OO H OO t— 0 O ON OJ C O - d " OJ LTN 0 O O C O - d " rH rH LTN-d" LTNVQ ON t — V O ONOO -d" ON LTN LTN OO 0 O C O OJ rH O LTN O CO CO L"—CO O -4" - J " 0 O C— O OJ OJ OJ ONVO C— tr -VO tr- tr-OJ O O OJ O LT\_- t 0 0 O O O O O O O O N O J C O t— O O t - O t— 0 O 1 T N rH O 0 O rH OO -d" VO rH w CU •rH bO CU •rH cd CJ rH H CJ - P rQ •iH 03 & CU CJ a U rH 0J 0 O U ^ V O t— - P o3 ft o O ft o EH CQ o O CQ EH tr— CO OJ t— tr— ON H Ir— t— OJ O t O r l d -_d" VO CO rH CO O N C O oo vO OO OO O CO 0 O OJ ON OO rH LT\ H OO OJ OO LTNVO O O r l O K M -C O r H O O O - d - O O N ^ O o o o o c O O tr— O t — O LTN OO LTN O OO O O - d " <0 OJ VO O OJ ON O H O r l O C O d - 0 4 - O OO O O - d - O t— O 0 O O VO 0J O OO O CO CO LTN LTN rH O 0J O 0J CO LTN O O OO O 00 LT \ ,d- O o tr— o ir— OOVQ o tr-vO -d-J - r i d - H _d" 0J _d" 0 N O O O O r H O J V O rH - d - O O O - d - O O O N O J - d - O - d - O t r - t r - r H u ^ O J O V O O O O r H L T N O N O O O O CO 0J CO O O rH O - d - VO CO O O H O r O H c O IX) o LTN c o OJ ON oo tr— o o o o rH .d -OO 0J O O t— rH VO 0J r o H O VO - d - OJ r l r l O LTN IT—_d" 0N ON -d" rH ON OO LTN r o c o LTN 0 O 0J 00 -d" IT— OO ON LTN ir— ONVO tr- oo-d - ~ _d- c o H _-t vo -d- t— co ONCO ' co -d-_d-vo LTNVO OJ _d- -d-oo OJ O O O O N O N O N r l OO r o o J - d - d -Ir—O H _d- - d - - d - tr—ON r—I O - d " OJ OJ OJ 0O)VO rH rH Oi rH rH OJ r O - d " LTNVO L— - P Oi O PH EH LTN VO LTN rH VO rH - d - ON OJ LTN o vo • LTN OJ CO VO H c o • II c o • oo OO H LTN tr— £3 O tr— o II ON oo II •rl • P r H II It w O o3 CJ 03 rH w O U n5 -p w CU •H - p o cs3 - p CQ O rH CU a CU -p ft CQ •H u CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ 108 S o u r c e o f E r r o r d . f . s . s . M . S . C a l c . F T a b . F P l o t s m - 1 = T 375.825 53.689 13.319 . 2.83* S e a s o n n - 1 = 1 73-801 73.801 18.308 6.92* I n t e r a c t i o n (m ' - ) i i ) ( n - 1) = : T 6^.565 9.224 2.288 2.83 R e s i d u a l n x m x ( p -• = 96 386.961 4.031 T o t a l ( n x m x p ) - 1 = 111 901.152 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0.05 p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l . A s m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e h a n d i n t h e t e x t , d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s now s w i n g s t o e x a m -i n a t i o n o f s p r i n g r e s u l t s . 1.2 P l o t a n d S p e c i e s / C o n t a i n e r C o m b i n a t i o n C o m p a r i s o n f o r S p r i n g D a t a T h e f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s i s b a s e d o n t h e b a s i c d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e I I I o f t h e m a i n t e x t . T a b l e I I o f t h i s A p p e n d i x a g a i n l i s t s t h i s d a t a a s a n a i d t o t h e r e a d e r . T h e s e d a t a w e r e f o u n d t o m e e t t h e a s s u m p t i o n s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e A N O V A . T a b l e I I - S p r i n g S u r v i v a l P e r c e n t a g e s Species/ P l o t N u m b e r C o n t a i n e r C o m b i n a t i o n 1_ 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9_ 10 T o t a l 1 3 82 60 26 3 77 10 25 0 89 375 2 0 41 37 4o 0 38 0 3 3 4 l 203 3 9 56 74 89 63 94 79 50 15 77 606 4 3 54 54 51 9 88 15 9 18 80 381 5 9 46 40 17 6 47 13 9 3 62 252 6 23 50 51 43 17 68 11 6 0 74 343 7 40 53 95 _§2 17 100 21 22 0 83 520 T o t a l 87 382 m 355 115 512 1K9 125 39 506 2680 109 S . S . t o t a l = 66,308 S . S . p l o t s = 42,957 S . S . c o n t a i n e r / s p e c i e s = 11,972 S . S . r e s i d u a l - 11,379 S o u r c e o f E r r o r d . f . S . S . M . S . C a l c . F T a b . F P l o t s n - 1 = 9 42,957 4773 22.6 2.75* c o n t a i n e r m " 1 = 6 ^ 9 7 2 1995 9-5 3-15* R e s i d u a l ( n - l ) ( m - l ) = 54 11,379 211 T o t a l ( n x m) - 1 = 69 66,308 * T h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n p l o t a n d s p e c i e s / c o n t a i n e r c o m b i n a t i o n s u r v i v a l d a t a a t t h e 0.05 p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l . T h e q u e s t i o n n o w s w i n g s t o w h i c h p l o t s a n d w h i c h s p e c i e s / c o n t a i n e r c o m b i n a -t i o n s h a v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r s u r v i v a l . D u n c a n ' s m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t , a s s e t o u t i n H u s c h (1963), i s u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h i s . D u n c a n ' s M u l t i p l e R a n g e T e s t S p e c i e s / C o n t a i n e r C o m b i n a t i o n s T h e s t a n d a r d e r r o r f o r t h e g r o u p m e a n i s 4.593 C o m b i n a t i o n N u m b e r 2_ 5_ 6 1_ k 7_ 3 * M e a n s 20.3 25.2 3^.3 37.5 38.1 52.0 ZoTE * A n y t w o m e a n s n o t u n d e r l i n e d b y t h e s a m e l i n e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e 0.05 p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l . 110 T h e b a s i c c o n c l u s i o n t o b e d r a w n f r o m t h i s d a t a i s t h a t s p e c i e s / c o n t a i n e r c o m b i n a t i o n s 3 a n d 7 h a v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r s u r v i v a l r a t e s t h a n a l l t h e o t h e r c o m b i n a t i o n s . P l o t n u m b e r 9 1 5 8_ J_ 4_ 2 3_ 10 6_ * M e a n s J\T T2J+ ISTT 17-7 21.3 50.7 5^.6 58.7 72.3 73-1 * A n y t w o m e a n s n o t u n d e r l i n e d b y t h e s a m e l i n e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e 0.05 p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l . T h e c o n c l u s i o n s t o b e d r a w n f r o m t h i s . a n a l y s i s a r e : 1) P l o t s 6 a n d 10 h a v e s u r v i v a l r a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h o s e e x p e r i e n c e d i n a l l p l o t s e x c e p t P l o t 3. 2) P l o t s 2, 3, h} 6 a n d 10 h a v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r s u r v i v a l r a t e s t h a n p l o t s 1, 5, 7, 8 a n d 9. 2 G r o w t h R a t e s 2.1 S p r i n g / F a l l P l a n t i n g R e s u l t s C o m p a r i s o n A s s p r i n g p l a n t i n g s u r v i v a l r a t e s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n f a l l r e s u l t s t h e a u t h o r d e c i d e d t h e r e w a s l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a d e t a i l e d c o m p a r i s o n o f s p r i n g / f a l l g r o w t h r e s u l t s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e w e r e m a n y s p e c i e s / c o n t a i n e r c o m b i n a t i o n s i n t h e f a l l r e p l i c a t i o n w i t h 100 p e r c e n t m o r t a l i t y a n d t h i s m a d e a n A N O V A a n i m p o s s i b i l i t y . A s a r e s u l t , o n l y a s u b j e c t i v e g r o w t h c o m p a r i s o n i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e b o d y o f t h e t e x t . I l l 2.2 P l o t a n d S p e c i e s / C o n t a i n e r C o m b i n a t i o n C o m p a r i s o n f o r S p r i n g  P l a n t i n g G r o w t h D a t a I n t h e A N O V A f o r t h i s d a t a i t w a s d e t e r m i n e d t h a t a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w a s r e q u i r e d t o m e e t t h e a s s u m p t i o n s u p o n w h i c h t h e A N O V A i s " b a s e d . S p e c i e s / c o n t a i n e r c o m b i n a t i o n 2 a n d P l o t 9 w e r e o m i t t e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s a s t h e y h a d d a t a m i s s i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , S T o m b i h a t i o n o r l i w a s d o m i t c b . e d e i n t o r d e r b t o ' ' m e e t t h e a s s u m p t i o n s o f A N O V A . T a b l e I I I b e l o w l i s t s t h e t r a n s f o r m e d d a t a u s e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s . T h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n u s e d w a s t h e s q u a r e r o o t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e s p l u s 2 ( i . e . X + 2) . T a b l e I I I - S q u a r e R o o t T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f S p r i n g P l a n t i n g G r o w t h D a t a e S / P l o t N u m b e r C o n t a i n e r S . S . t o t a l = 2.383 S . S . p l o t s = 0.422 S . S . S p e c i e s / c o n t a i n e r = 0.801 S . S . r e s i d u a l = 1.160 C o m b i n a t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 T o t a l 3 1.612 1.897 1.844 2.049 2.025 1.517 1.789 1.703 1.612 16.048 4 1.949 1.703 1.673 1.643 1.703 1.789 1.517 1.483 1.789 15.249 5 1.871 1.449 1.183 1-483 1.897 1.897 1.761 1.544 1.673 .14.763 6 1.581 1.449 1.449 1.483 1.612 1.378 1.342 1.517 1.643 13.454 7 1.342 1.483 ©..775 1.581 1.483 1.342 1.549 1.483 1.703 12.741 T o t a l 8.355 7.981 6.924 8.239 8.720 7.923 7.958 7.735 8.420 72.255 112 S o u r c e o f E r r o r d . f . S . S . M . S . C a l c . F T a b . F P l o t s n - 1 = 8 0.422 0.053 1.4-7 2.25* S p . / C o n t . m - 1 = k 0.801 0.200 5.56 2.67* R e s i d u a l ( n - l ) ( m - 1) = 32 1.160 O.O36 T o t a l ( m x n ) - 1 = kk 2.383 * T h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e g r o w t h r a t e s o f t h e s p e c i e s / c o n t a i n e r c o m b i n a t i o n s a t t h e 0.05 p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l . N o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a r e e v i d e n t b e t w e e n p l o t s . D u n c a n ' s M u l t i p l e R a n g e T e s t S p e c i e s / C o n t a i n e r C o m b i n a t i o n s - S . E . f o r t h e g r o u p m e a n i s O.0632 C o m b i n a t i o n e a n s ffot u 6 5 4 3 * M e a n s 1.4l6 1.1+95 1.640 1.69k I.783 * A n y t w o m e a n s n o t u n d e r l i n e d b y t h e s a m e l i n e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e 0.05 p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l . A s t h i s a n a l y s i s l e a v e s o u t t h e s p r u c e c o n t a i n e r c o m b i n a t i o n s i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d r a w c o n c l u s i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e o v e r a l l n u m b e r o f t r i a l s . I t i s p o s s i b l e , h o w e v e r , t o s a y t h a t : l ) L o d g e p o l e p i n e p l u g s g r e w s i g n i f i c a n t l y f a s t e r t h a n t h e b a r e - r o o t D o u g l a s - f i r . T h i s i s a n i m p o r t a n t p o i n t t o c o n s i d e r w h e n i t i s n o t e d t h a t t h e s e w e r e t h e t w o t r i a l s w h i c h h a d t h e g r e a t e s t s u r v i v a l . 113 3 S p r i n g P l a n t e d S e e d l i n g V i g o u r S e e d l i n g v i g o u r w a s c l a s s i f i e d u s i n g s u b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a b a s e d o n a p p e a r a n c e . V i g o u r w a s d i v i d e d i n t o t w o c l a s s e s , m e d i u m e a n d p o o r , a n d t h e s e c l a s s e s w e r e g i v e n n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s o f m e d i u m = 2, p o o r = 1. A v e r a g e v i g o u r o f t h e v a r i o u s t r i a l s i s l i s t e d i n T a b l e I V b e l o w . T a b l e I V - A v e r a g e V i g o u r o f S p r i n g P l a n t e d S e e d l i n g s S p e c i e s / C o n t a i n e r C o m b i n a t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 1.0 2.0 1.8 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 3 1.7 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.0 4 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.0 1.8 2.0 5 1.7 2.0 1.8 2.0 .2,.'© I . e . 1.7 6 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.7 1.9 1.3 2.0 T 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 1.7 1.9 1.8 2.0 B o t h ' P l o t 9 a n < l s p e c i e s / c o n t a i n e r c o m b i n a t i o n 2 h a v e b e e n d e l e t e d f r o m t h i s a n a l y s i s b e c a u s e o f m i s s i n g d a t a . I n a d d i t i o n , P l o t 10 w a s o m i t t e d t o c o n f o r m t o t h e a s s u m p t i o n s u p o n w h i c h A N O V A i s b a s e d . S . S . t o t a l = 1.79 S . S . p l o t s = 0.34 S . S . s p e c i e s c o n t a i n e r = 0.22 S . S . r e s i d u a l = I.23 S o u r c e o f E r r o r d . f . S . S . M . S . C a l c . F . T a b . F . P l o t s n - 1 = 7 0.34 0.0485 1.38 3.63 S p . / C o n t . m - 1 = 5 0.22 0.0440 1.25 4.11 R e s i d u a l ( n - l ) ( m - l ) = 35 I.23 0.0351 T o t a l ( n x m) - 1 = 47 1.79 114 The conclusion to be drawn from t h i s analysis i s that p l o t and species/container combination differences i n vigour, as i t i s measured i n these t r i a l s , are not s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.05 p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l . 115 APPENDIX VT Root Development 116 A P P E N D I X V I R o o t D e v e l o p m e n t T h e f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e b a s e d o n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f f i v e t r e e s f r o m e a c h s p e c i e s / c o n t a i n e r c o m b i n a t i o n . T h e t r e e s w e r e c o l l e c t e d o n S e p t e m b e r 20, 1972. 1. L o d g e p o l e p i n e b u l l e t s C o n s i d e r a b l e r o o t m a t e r i a l t o a m a x i m u m l e n g t h o f 6 i n c h e s i s g r o w -i n g f r o m t h e b o t t o m a n d s i d e s l i t s o f t h e p l u g s . G r o w t h o f r o o t s i s t h e r e f o r e v e r y o n e - s i d e d . T h e c o n t a i n e r i s c o m p l e t e l y f i l l e d w i t h a m a s s o f f i b r o u s r o o t m a t e r i a l . T h e t r e e s o b t a i n e d a p p e a r g r e e n a n d h e a l t h y . S t e m l e n g t h s r a n g e f r o m 5^ t o 9 i n c h e s w i t h t h e g r e e n t o p s b e i n g 2 t o 5 i n c h e s l o n g . 2. L o d g e p o l e p i n e p l u g s M o s t o f t h e r o o t g r o w t h e x t e n d s f r o m t h e b o t t o m o f t h e p l u g w i t h t h e v o l u m e o f g r o w t h b e i n g a b o u t 5 t i m e s t h a t e x t e n d i n g f r o m t h e b u l l e t . N e w g r o w t h i s a b o u t 3 "bo 5 i n c h e s a n d t h e p l u g i s a m a s s o f f i b r o u s r o o t m a t e r i a l . T h e t r e e s l o o k v e r y h e a l t h y a n d a r e m u c h m o r e v i g o r o u s a n d l a r g e r t h a n t h o s e i n b u l l e t s . S t e m l e n g t h s a r e 9ir t o 13 i n c h e s w i t h t o p l e n g t h s b e i n g 6 t o 8-g- i n c h e s . 3. E n g e l m a n n s p r u c e b u l l e t s R o o t g r o w t h i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t d e s c r i b e d f o r l o d g e p o l e p i n e b u l l e t s a n d i s 2 t o 3 i n c h e s i n l e n g t h . T h e t r e e s a r e c h l o r o t i c a n d s m a l l . S t e m l e n g t h s a r e k t o 5 i n c h e s w i t h t o p l e n g t h s b e i n g 3^r t o h. i n c h e s . 117 k. E n g e l m a n n s p r u c e p l u g s R o o t g r o w t h i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t d e s c r i b e d f o r l o d g e p o l e p i n e p l u g s a n d i s a b o u t 5 t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f s p r u c e p l a n t e d i n b u l l e t s . L e n g t h o f r o o t g r o w t h i s 3 t o 9 i n c h e s , w h i l e s t e m l e n g t h s v a r y f r o m 6-g- t o 10 i n c h e s a n d t o p l e n g t h s f r o m 5 "to 9 i n c h e s . T h e s e t r e e s a r e g r e e n e r a n d l a r g e r t h a n t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n b u l l e t s . 5. D o u g l a s - f i r b u l l e t s R o o t g r o w t h i s p o o r , w i t h t h e n e w g r o w t h b e i n g 2 t o 5 i n c h e s i n l e n g t h b u t v e r y s p i n d l y l o o k i n g . A g a i n r o o t d e v e l o p m e n t i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o r o t h e r s p e c i e s g r o w i n g i n b u l l e t s . T h e t r e e s a r e s m a l l w i t h s t e m l e n g t h s b e i n g \ \ t o 5 i n c h e s a n d t o p l e n g t h s 2\ t o k i n c h e s . 6. D o u g l a s - f i r p l u g s R o o t d e v e l o p m e n t f o r D o u g l a s - f i r i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f o t h e r s p e c i e s p l a n t e d i n p l u g s b u t n o t n e a r l y a s g o o d . G r o w t h i s a b o u t 2 t o 5 i n c h e s a n d 2 t o 3 t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t n o t e d i n D o u g l a s - f i r i n b u l l e t s . S t e m l e n g t h s v a r y b e t w e e n 5? t o 7 i n c h e s w h i l e t o p l e n g t h s v a r y b e t w e e n k t o 6 i n c h e s . 7. D o u g l a s - f i r b a r e - r o o t T h e r o o t s o f t h e b a r e - r o o t s t o c k a r e n o t m u c h l o n g e r t h a n w h e n p l a n t e d b u t f i b r o u s d e v e l o p m e n t i s h e a v y . T o t a l r o o t l e n g t h s a r e 6 t o 9 i n c h e s . T h e s e a r e v e r y g o o d l o o k i n g t r e e s w i t h s t e m l e n g t h s b e i n g 9 t o 10 i n c h e s a n d t o p l e n g t h s b e i n g 7 t o 9 i n c h e s . 

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