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Economic feasibility study: integrated industrial complex for the utilizatiion of aspen, birch and cottonwood… Sourial, Farag Anis 1981

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ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY STUDY: INTEGRATED INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX FOR THE UTILIZATION OF ASPEN, BIRCH AND COTTONWOOD IN NORTHEASTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA FARAG ANIS SOURIAL B.Sc., UNIVERSITY OF ALEXANDRIA, EGYPT, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Faculty o f F o r e s t r y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1981 'cT) F a r a g A n i s S o u r i a l , 1981 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date S?¥ » &U I J ?  i i ABSTRACT The f e a s i b i l i t y of u t i l i z i n g the aspen, birch and cottonwood stands which are found i n large volumes i n northeastern B r i t i s h Columbia was investigated. The study included raw material analysis, plant design of fi v e integrated production l i n e s , market study and model of investment. The integrated complex was designed to produce aspen and cottonwood dried veneer with an annual capacity of 70 000 nr5, 3 mm thick, 13 500 nrVyear of s l i c e d - dried birch face veneer, 0.8 mm thick, 40 b i l l i o n s p l i n t s for match manufacture, 10 OOOt of p e l l e -t i z e d aspen bark and 50 GJh of thermal energy. The aspen, cottonwood and birch veneer production was chosen because of i t s higher p r o f i t a b i l i t y than other products and i t s market po t e n t i a l s . The residue u t i l i z i n g l i n e s were included to add manufacturing values i n addition to the main products. The complex i s expected to consume 140 000 nr of x aspen and cottonwood and 30 000 nr of white birch yearly. This volume i s considered a f r a c t i o n of the species annual allowable cut i n the Fort Nelson Forest Unit. A t o t a l c a p i t a l investment of $29 373 000 i s required; of which $17 083 000 would be for fixed investment and $12 290 000 for annual operating cost. The expected i i i a fter tax p r o f i t on investment would be $10 910 000/year, based on annual sales of $3k m i l l i o n . Projected annual return on investment i s expected to reach 6k% of the fixed investment with a payout of 1.6 years. Sixty eight tables and 1+9 figures i n addition to plant layout for the entire integrated i n d u s t r i a l complex are included i n the study as i l l u s t r a t i n g material. TABLE OF CONTENTS i v page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLES v i i i LIST OF FIGURES x i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x v i 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 10 2.1 State and Choices i n the U t i l i z a t i o n of Aspen, Birch and Cottonwood i n B r i t i s h Columbia ..... 10 2.1.1 Extent of aspen, cottonwood and birch manufacturing and u t i l i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada and northwestern United States 10 2.1.2 Problems associated with the u t i l i z a t i o n of aspen, cottonwood and birch •• 11 2.1.3 The need for integrated processing of aspen, cottonwood and birch 12 2.2 Raw Material: Properties and Processing Behavior 13 2.2.1 Anatomical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 11+ 2.2.1.1 Black cottonwood and trembling aspen 1^ 2.2.1.2 White birch 11+ 2.2.1.3 White spruce 11+ 2..2.,2 Physical, mechanical-properties and i n d u s t r i a l processing of aspen, cotton-wood, white birch and white spruce 15 V page 2.2.2.1 Physical and mechanical properties • 15 2 .2 .2 .2 I n d u s t r i a l processing and techniques 15 2.2 .2 .2 .1 Peeler l og conditioning .... 16 2 . 2 . 2 . 2 . 2 Veneer rotary cutting 18 2 . 2 . 2 . 2 . 3 Veneer s l i c i n g 21 2. 2. 2. 2. A- Veneer drying 23 2 . 2 . 2 . 2 . 4 . 1 General review ... 23 2 . 2 . 2 . 2 . 4 . 2 Problems asso-ciated with drying aspen, cottonwood and white spruce veneer 29 2.2.3 Aspen bark as a live s t o c k feed • ••• ^2 2.3 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of B r i t i s h Columbia Aspen, Cottonwood and Birch Stands 35 2.3.1 A v a i l a b i l i t y of wood raw material 35 2.3.2 Density of stands within B r i t i s h Columbia 37 2.3.3 Quality d i s t r i b u t i o n of aspen, cotton-wood and bir c h stands, ••••• 38 2.3.3.1 Diameter v a r i a t i o n and i t s ; inportance 38 2.3.3 .2 Site c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of aspen, . cottonwood and birch i n B.C. ••••••• 40 2.4 Market Study for B r i t i s h Columbia Aspen, Cottonwood and Birch Veneer Production 41 2.4.1 Softwood veneer and plywood s i t u a t i o n i n the U.S.A. and Canada i n the near future . 42 2.4.2 Major plywood markets and the economic demographic factors a f f e c t i n g the future housing demand •••• 43 v i page 2 . 4 . 3 Canadian and United States hardwood veneer and plywood production, trade and consumption 4 7 2 . 4 . 4 Possible market for B r i t i s h Columbia aspen, cottonwood and birch veneer 5 0 3.0 PLANT DESIGN Description, Planning and Design C r i t e r i a for the Production Lines • 5 3 3.1 Log. Preparation Line 5 6 3.2 Aspen and Cottonwood Continuous Rotary Veneering and Drying Production Line • 5 9 3 . 2 . 1 Planning, capacity and design c r i t e r i a ... 6 0 3 . 2 . 2 Line description and general considerations 6 2 3 . 2 . 2 . 1 Lathe charger • 6 2 3 . 2 . 2 . 2 The lathe 6 3 3 . 2 . 2 . 3 Veneer r e e l i n g and storage system .. 6 5 3 . 2 . 2 . 4 The dryer • 6 6 3 . 3 Continuous V e r t i c a l S l i c e r and Drying l i n e for the Production of White Birch Face Veneer 69 3 . 3 . 1 Planning, capacity and design c r i t e r i a ... 69 3 . 3 . 2 V e r t i c a l s l i c i n g and drying l i n e ......... 7 0 3 . 3 . 2 . 1 The v e r t i c a l s l i c e r 7 1 3 . 3 . 2 . 2 The dryer 7 2 3.4 Lengthways S l i c i n g and Drying of Residual -High Grade Birch F l i t c h e s 7 3 3 . 4 . 1 Planning, capacity and design c r i t e r i a ... 7 4 3 . 4 . 2 Machinery description of the lengthways s l i c i n g and drying system 7 4 v i i page 3.5 Match S p l i n t s Processing Line •••••• 7 6 3.5.1 Planning, capacity and design c r i t e r i a ... 7 7 3.5 .2 Description of the s p l i n t manufacturing l i n e 7 7 3.5 .2 .1 S p l i n t production l i n e • 7 8 3 . 5 . 2 . 2 S p l i n t treatment l i n e • 82 3 . 5 . 2 . 3 S p l i n t packing unit 84 3.6 P e l l e t M i l l for Aspen Bark 8 5 3.6 . 1 Process and machinery description • 8 7 3.7 Energy Generating System for the Complex ..... 90 4.0 FINANCIAL ANALYSIS 92 5.0 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 98 5.1 Raw Material Supply and Market Potentials .... 98 5.2 The Design and Its Advantages 105 5.3 Transportation Cost and Market Range 108 5.4 Recommendations 110 5.5 Summary" 110 6.0 LITERATURE CITED 112 7 . 0 APPENDIX 122 Botanical Names for Species Referred to i n the Thesis 122 Tables 123 Figures • 195 v i i i L I ST OF TABLES page 1. The mer c h a n t a b l e volume o f p o p l a r and w h i t e b i r c h i n Canada 123 2. P h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f b l a c k cottonwood, t r e m b l i n g aspen, w h i t e b i r c h and w h i t e spruce ... 124 3. S t r e n g t h p r o p e r t i e s o f b l a c k cottonwood, t r e m b l i n g aspen, w h i t e b i r c h and w h i t e s p r u c e ... 125 4. Q u a l i t y and p r o c e s s i n g s u i t a b i l i t y o f b l a c k cottonwood, t r e m b l i n g aspen, w h i t e b i r c h and w h i t e spruce 126 5. Approximate c o n d i t i o n i n g time f o r veneer l o g s 15 - 90 cm i n d i a m e t e r , t o t a l l y immersed i n a g i t a t e d water o r steam . •• 131 6. Recommended l a t h e s e t t i n g f o r r o t a r y c u t t i n g o f aspen, cottonwood, w h i t e b i r c h and w h i t e spruce • 132 7. C o r r e s p o n d i n g gap and l e a d f o r d i f f e r e n t veneer t h i c k n e s s i n v e r t i c a l s l i c i n g o p e r a t i o n ......... 133 8. D r y i n g s c h e d u l e f o r b i r c h veneer by c o n t i n u o u s j e t veneer d r y e r •• 134 9. D r y i n g s c h e d u l e f o r sp r u c e veneer .'using c o n t i n u o u s j e t veneer d r y e r 135 10. Seven a p p l i c a t i o n s o f h a n d l i n g veneer u s i n g the c o n t i n u o u s j e t veneer d r y e r 136 11. D r y i n g time o f w h i t e s p r u c e heartwood and sap-wood veneer 137 12. Apparent d ry m a t t e r , energy and c a r b o h y d r a t e d i g e s t i b i l i t y o f ruminant r a t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g 15, 30, 45» and 60% u n t r e a t e d aspen b a r k 138 13. Comparative d i g e s t i b i l i t i e s o f steamed and u n t r e a t e d aspen b a r k and a l f a l f a and hay ........ 139 i x page 14. Total volume of approved P.S.Y.U. mature aspen, cottonwood and white birch 18 cm+ D.B.H. i n each forest d i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h Columbia 140 15. Ratio of mature approved P.S.Y.U. 18 cm+ D.B.H. aspen-cottonwood/total hardwood volume, aspen-cottonwood/total softwood volume, and aspen-cottonwood/total volume of a l l species i n each d i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h Columbia 141 16. Ratio of mature approved P.S.Y.U. 18 cm+ D.B.H. b i r c h / t o t a l hardwood volume, b i r c h / t o t a l volume of softwood, and b i r c h / t o t a l volume of a l l species i n each forest d i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h Columbia 142 17. Ratio of mature approved P.S.Y.U. 18 cm+ D.B.H. aspen-cottonwood/total volume of hardwood, aspen-cottonwood/total volume of softwood, and aspen-cottonwood/total volume of a l l species i n each forest unit of Prince George Forest D i s t r i c t .... 143 18. Ratio of mature approved P.S.Y.U. 18 cm+ D.B.H. b i r c h / t o t a l volume of hardwood, b i r c h / t o t a l volume of softwood, and b i r c h / t o t a l volume of a l l species i n each forest unit of the Prince George Forest D i s t r i c t • 144 19. Density (nr/Km ) of mature approved P.S.Y.U. aspen, cottonwood and birch 18 cm+ D.B.H. i n each forest d i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h Columbia . . . 1 4 5 3 2 20. Density (nr/Km ) of mature approved P.S.Y.U. aspen, cottonwood and birch 18 cm+ D.B.H. i n each forest unit of the Prince George Forest D i s t r i c t 146 21. Ratio between 18 cm+ and 28 cm+ D.B.H. for approved P.S.Y.U. aspen-cottonwood mature stands within B r i t i s h Columbia 147 22 e Ratio between 18 cm+ and 28 cm+ D.B.H. for approved P.S.Y.U. mature birch . . stands i n each forest d i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h Columbia 148 X page 23. R a t i o between 18 cm+ and 28 cm+ D.B.H. f o r approved P.S.Y.U. aspen and cottonwood mature s t a n d s i n each f o r e s t u n i t o f the P r i n c e ' George F o r e s t D i s t r i c t • 149 24. R a t i o between 18 cm+ and 28 cm+ D.B.H. f o r approved P.S.Y.U. mature b i r c h s t a n d s i n each f o r e s t u n i t w i t h i n the P r i n c e George F o r e s t D i s t r i c t 150 25. S i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia aspen-cottnwood and b i r c h 151 26. P r o j e c t e d demand and c u r r e n t p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y f o r s o f t w o o d i n the U.S.A 152 27. P r o j e c t e d 1985 supply/demand b a l a n c e f o r s o f t -wood t i m b e r i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s •••• 153 28. F o r e i g n t r a d e o f softwood plywood i n Canada 154 29. P r o j e c t i o n o f h o u s i n g demand i n the U.S.A. up to the y e a r 2000 155 30. Hardwood plywood p r o d u c t i o n , i m p o r t s , e x p o r t s and consumption i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s • 156 31. Hardwood plywood and veneer p r o d u c t i o n , i m p o r t s , e x p o r t s and consumption i n Canada 157 32. Plywood and veneer o p e r a t i o n s and p r o d u c t i o n i n Western Canada and ithe U n i t e d S t a t e s ••••• 158 33. S e n s t i v i t y a n a l y s i s o f c a p i t a l and p r o d u c t i o n c o s t f o r aspen and cottonwood r o t a r y veneer c u t t i n g and d r y i n g l i n e 159 34. H o u r l y o u t p u t o f major p r o c e s s i n g s t e p s o f aspen and cottonwood d r i e d veneer p l a n t ............... 160 35. T e c h n i c a l d a t a on l a t h e c h a r g e r ................. 161 36. T e c h n i c a l d a t a on the l a t h e 162 37. T e c h n i c a l d a t a on the v e r t i c a l veneer s l i c e r .... 163 x i page 38. Lengthways s i n g l e s l i c e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s 164 39. O n e - s e c t i o n d r y e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s • 165 40. E s t i m a t e d t h e r m a l and e l e c t r i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the complex 166 41. P r o f i t a b i l i t y o f the d r i e d aspen and cottonwood veneer o p e r a t i o n 167 42. P r o f i t a b i l i t y o f the v e r t i c a l s l i c e r and d r y i n g o p e r a t i o n 168 43. P r o f i t a b i l i t y o f the lengthways s l i c i n g and d r y i n g o p e r a t i o n 169 44. P r o f i t a b i l i t y o f the s p l i n t m a n u f a c t u r i n g l i n e .. 170 45. P r o f i t a b i l i t y o f the aspen b a r k p e l l e t i n g o p e r a t i o n 171 46. P r o f i t a b i l i t y o f the i n t e g r a t e d complex 172 47. F i n a n c i a l r e p o r t summary f o r each p r o d u c t i o n l i n e and f o r the i n t e g r a t e d i n d u s t r i a l complex .. 173 48. E s t i m a t e d o p e r a t i n g c o s t / y e a r f o r the aspen and cottonwood r o t a r y c u t , , d r i e d veneer p l a n t 174 49. E s t i m a t e d o p e r a t i n g c o s t / y e a r f o r w h i t e b i r c h v e r t i c a l s l i c e r and d r y i n g system • 175 50. E s t i m a t e d o p e r a t i n g c o s t / y e a r f o r the l e n g t h w a y s s l i c i n g and d r y i n g o p e r a t i o n 176 51. O p e r a t i n g c o s t / y e a r f o r the s p l i n t p r o d u c t i o n l i n e 177 52. E s t i m a t e d o p e r a t i n g c o s t s / y e a r f o r aspen b a r k p e l l e t i n g l i n e 178 53. E s t i m a t e d o p e r a t i n g c o s t / y e a r f o r the i n t e g r a t e d complex 179 54. Labour c o s t c a l c u l a t i o n f o r the r o t a r y c u t , d r i e d aspen and cottonwood m i l l 180 x i i page 55. Labour c o s t c a l c u l a t i o n f o r the v e r t i c a l s l i c e r and d r y i n g o p e r a t i o n 181 56. Labour c o s t c a l c u l a t i o n f o r the lengthways s l i c i n g and d r y i n g o p e r a t i o n 182 57. Labour c o s t c a l c u l a t i o n f o r the s p l i n t manufac-t u r i n g l i n e 183 58. Labour c o s t c a l c u l a t i o n f o r aspen b a r k p e l l e t i n g l i n e 184 59. Labour c o s t c a l c u l a t i o n f o r the i n d u s t r i a l complex 185 60. C a p i t a l c o s t f o r aspen and cottonwood r o t a r y c u t , d r i e d veneer p l a n t 186 61. C a p i t a l c o s t e s t i m a t i o n f o r v e r t i c a l s l i c e r and d r y i n g p r o d u c t i o n l i n e 187 62. E s t i m a t e d c a p i t a l c o s t f o r lengthways s l i c e r and d r y i n g system 188 63. E s t i m a t e d c a p i t a l c o s t f o r the s p l i n t m anufactur-i n g l i n e 189 64. E s t i m a t e d c a p i t a l c o s t f o r the b a r k p e l l e t i n g o p e r a t i o n 190 65. C a p i t a l c o s t e s t i m a t i o n f o r the i n t e g r a t e d i n d u s t r i a l complex 191 66. Demand on match s p l i n t s m anufactured i n Canada between 1974 to 1978 192 67. R a i l w a y f r e i g h t c o s t s and s e l l i n g p r i c e a t l o c a t i o n s f o r aspen, cottonwood and w h i t e b i r c h d r i e d veneer 193 68. Truck f r e i g h t r a t e s f o r aspen, cottonwood and b i r c h d r i e d v e neer, i n c l u d i n g e x p e c t e d s e l l i n g p r i c e a t l o c a t i o n s 194 x i i i LIST OF FIGURES page 1. Aspen, cottonwood and b i r c h stands l o c a t i o n s i n Canada .195 2. Tangential and cross s e c t i o n s of trembling aspen and black cottonwood ...196 3. Tangential and cross s e c t i o n s of white b i r c h and white spruce . . . . 197 /+. Computerized, optimized peeler block c o n d i t i o n -i n g system p r o d u c t i v i t y and recovery improve-ments and energy r e d u c t i o n 198 5. S e t t i n g s between k n i f e and pressure bar 199 6. Cross s e c t i o n of v e r t i c a l s l i c e r 200 7. Major methods of s l i c i n g 201 8. Cross s e c t i o n i n a j e t dryer ......202 9. Seven d i f f e r e n t veneer handling a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r d r y i n g veneer using continuous j e t veneer dryer 203 10. Moisture d i s t r i b u t i o n of green white spruce veneer o20Zf 11. Shear strength and dryin g time r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r white spruce plywood p r e t r e a t e d with 2.5% borax ...205 12. Drying time and moisture content r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r white spruce heartwood and sapwood veneer .....206 13. I l l u s t r a t i o n of time versus weight f o r two groups of ewes fed on hay and aspen bark 207 14. Aspen and cottonwood major areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia 208 15. D i s t r i b u t i o n of white b i r c h i n B r i t i s h Columbia ...209 x i v page 16. Exports and imports of Canadian softwood plywood between 1970 to 1977, with p r e d i c t i o n to 1985 210 17. Annual number of b i r t h s i n the United States between 1900 to 1979 with p r e d i c t i o n to 2000 211 18. Canadian hardwood veneer and plywood production, exports, imports and consumption between 1974 and 1978 212 19. Expected market area f o r aspen, cottonwood and b i r c h d r i e d veneer manufactured i n B r i t i s h Columbia 213 20. Log boom - 20t c a p a c i t y 214 21. Super 30" (76.2 cm) Cambio debarker 215 22. S e n s t i v i t y a n a l y s i s of c a p i t a l and production cost f o r aspen and cottonwood r o t a r y veneer c u t t i n g and dr y i n g l i n e 216 23. Lathe charger 217 24«> Views of the recommended l a t h e 218 25. Side view of the l a t h e charger and the l a t h e i n connection with the r e e l i n g system . . .219 26. Approximate measurements and s p e c i a l arrengement of the s e l e c t e d j e t dryer 220 27. Automatic dry c l i p p e r 221 28. Automatic veneer s t a c k i n g machine . . . 2 2 2 29. Dry veneer trimsaw . . . . . . . . . 2 2 3 30. Dry veneer s c a r f er with stacker . . . . 2 2 4 31. Side and top views of the v e r t i c a l s l i c e r .225 XV page 32. Side view of a complete v e r t i c a l s l i c e r and drying production l i n e • 226 33. A s i m p l i f i e d operational view of the lengthways s l i c i n g and drying system . . . . . 2 2 7 34. Single lengthways s l i c e r 228 35. Adjustable knife with a setting angle of 75°-85° of the lengthways s l i c e r 229 36. Front table v e r t i c a l and long i t u d i n a l adjust-ments of lengthways s l i c e r 230 37. S p l i n t peeling machine 231 38. Veneer cutting and p i l i n g unit for s p l i n t s manufacturing 232 39. S p l i n t chopper machine . . . . 2 3 3 40. S p l i n t buffer conveyor . .234 41. S p l i n t spray impregnating unit 235 42. S p l i n t polishing drum 236 43. S p l i n t sorting and cleaning machine 237 44. S p l i n t sieving machine 238 45. Bark hog 239 46. Hammer m i l l 240 47. P e l l e t m i l l 241 48. P e l l e t s ' h o r i z o n t a l cooler 242 49. Wood - bark residue energy generating system 243 50. Plant layout for the aspen, cottonwood and white i*> pod birch integrated i n d u s t r i a l complex •2-4*f-x v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o Dr. L. Pa s z n e r f o r h i s s u p e r v i s i o n and encouragement throughout the cours e o f t h i s s t u d y . A l s o t o the o t h e r members o f the committee; Dr. N. F r a n z , Mr. F. L i s k a and Mr. L. V a l g my s i n c e r e t h a n k s . I a p p r e c i a t e the t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e o f Dr. R. Kennedy o f the F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y , U B C , Dr. G. B r a m h a l l and Dr. W. Hancock o f F o r i n t e k Canada. I would e s p e c i a l l y l i k e to thank Mr. P.K. L a h t i n e n o f Raute I n c . and Mr. R. L i n d e l l o f Arenco AB f o r p r o v i d i n g needed t e c h n i c a l d a t a and i n f o r m a t i o n . I a l s o l i k e to thank my w i f e Mary f o r h e r h e l p and encouragement i n p r e p a r i n g t h i s t h e s i s . I acknowledge w i t h g r e a t e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n the f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t from the F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y , UBC., Donald S. McPhee F e l l o w s h i p f u n d , Canadian F o r e s t r y S e r v i c e g r a n t and BC M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s . 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION The wastage and loss of valuable hardwood species i n Northern B r i t i s h Columbia have become evident (100, 102). Thousands of cubic meters are destroyed each year by burning, rot, over maturity and clear-cut logging operations. It has been reported recently that thousands of hectars of aspen, cottonwood and birch are cleared and burned i n the Northeastern part of the Province (87). On the other hand, Canada's 1978 import of hardwood veneer and plywood products exceeded 66 000 nr5 (15). Recently, strong export markets are developing for wood products due to a general reversal of competition from p l a s t i c s . The projected hardwood veneer and plywood imports by the United States are expected to amount to 3 000 000 nr5 by 1990 (16, 18). This high l e v e l of import i s predicted on the basis of climbing rate of recent consumption of wood products and the declining l e v e l of supplies due to predicted shortages i n wood raw material during the 1980's to 2000 (19, 32, 101). The forest products industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia 2 i s mainly depending on softwood timber supplies. Tight timber supplies i n t h i s area are to some extent due to overcutting beyond the annual allawable cut i n accessible areas; s p e c i a l l y where hardwoods are i n s i g n i f i c a n t concentration and high-grading i s the present pr a c t i c e . B r i t i s h Columbia's softwood supply i s o v e r u t i l i z e d i n manufacturing products which could alternately be produced competetively from hardwood species l a r g e l y untouched, and underutilized i n the North (58, 100, 102). A t o t a l of 177 000 000 m3 and 22 000 000 m3 18 cm+ D.B.H.* of aspen,cottonwood and white bir c h , respectively, i s growing i n B r i t i s h Columbia ( 8 ). Of t h i s , 81 000 000 m3 of aspen-cottonwood and 13 000 000 nr of birch are c l a s s i f i e d as approved P.S.Y.U. mature timber, ready to be u t i l i z e d throughout the Province (102). The Fort Nelson Forest Unit contains the largest volume and concentration of both aspen-cottonwood and bi r c h . diameter at breast height public sustained y i e l d unit 3 Although good q u a l i t y raw m a t e r i a l i s a v a i l a b l e (22), i t must be pointed out that the percentage of decayed aspen-cottonwood t r e e s i n c r e a s e s with time i n overmature stands of 80 years and over (17, 22), A l s o , without disturbance of the over mature white b i r c h ; by f i r e or heavy l o g g i n g operations, these stands may not be renewed ( 2 ) . The raw m a t e r i a l i s abundant, mature and s u i t a b l e f o r the production of competing products. This resources are l a r g e l y uncommitted because of the p r o t e c t i v e p o l i c y which p r o h i b i t s the s a l e of the f o r e s t s unless a commitment was made to u t i l i z e b i r c h and poplar was promoted by the government i n t e r e s t i n t h i s resource which was generated over the past few years (108). F u r t h e r , due to development of strong export p o t e n t i a l , i n t e r e s t can now be generated to u t i l i z e these neglected s p e c i e s . Recent surveys on p o t e n t i a l u t i l i z a t i o n measures of t h i s resource i n d i c a t e that i n t e g r a t i o n of more than one production l i n e i s recommended as the best means of e s t a b l i s h i n g a northern f o r e s t products i n d u s t r y (66). Previous experience i n u t i l i z a t i o n of hardwood species i n northern communities has proven t h a t , s i n g l e commodity operations had repeatedly f a i l e d i n the past due to market slumps, i n f l e x i b i l i t y of operations and lack of b u i l t i n single product competition to buffer against market collapse r e s u l t i n g i n bank ruptcies and foreclosures. Aspen, cottonwood and birch have good manufacturing potentials under one condition, which i s multi-product operation. In demonstrating the v a l i d i t y of such proposal t h i s thesis examines the f e a s i b i l i t y of establishing a highly s p e c i a l i z e d i n d u s t r i a l complex for the u t i l i z a t i o n of aspen, cottonwood and b i r c h . The complex consists of fi v e production l i n e s integrated to: a, maximize p r o f i t a b i l i t y and marketing f l e x i b i l i t y of products, and b, to minimize residue generation and energy consumption. The f i v e production l i n e s selected for the complex are as follows: i . Major production l i n e s : i , a , rotary cut dried aspen-cottonwood veneering l i n e , and i , b , s l i c e d - d r i e d birch veneer l i n e s , i i . Minor production l i n e s : i i , a , s p l i n t s manufacturing for match industry, 5 i i . b . aspen-cottonwood bark treatment l i n e for conversion to animal feed, and i i . c . lengthway birch horizontal s l i c i n g and drying l i n e . The minor l i n e s are added to the complex to u t i l i z e residues generated from major l i n e s to reduce product unit price by adding manufacturing values. The complex w i l l be equiped with a combustion -system to u t i l i z e the l e f t o v e r residues to supplement the energy required for the plant. In the process of decision making selection of the products was extensively studied and decision was made considering the following factors: i . The complex i s planned to include two d i f f e r e n t l i n e catagories; major l i n e s , for the production of the main products and minor l i n e s for the u t i l i z a t i o n of residues generated by major l i n e s , i i . l i m i t a t i o n of the t o t a l investment costs to the range of $20 - $25 m i l l i o n , to encourage and a t t r a c t investment involvments, and i i i . minimizing dependance on external factors a f f e c t i n g complex growth and yearly capacity, i . e . , rate of growth of composite products depends heavely on price and a v a i l a b i l i t y of adhesives, p a r t i c u l a r l y phenol-formaldehyde 6 r e s i n required for building products. The f i r s t factor established the fact that the complex should contain major and minor production l i n e s . The second factor eliminates the pulp and paper industries from the integrated operation due to the high cost of investment involved which i s approximately ten to twenty times the t o t a l investment of a veneering or plywood m i l l . Factor three, discourages including adhesives using l i n e s , s p e c i a l l y particleboard and f i b e r -board, which consume three times as much adhesives as plywood manufacturing, due to the expensive and climbing adhesives p r i c e s . This leaves only two alternatives to be considered as major production l i n e s . Either a sawmill or a veneering plant. However, before making the f i n a l decision on one of these product l i n e s , the following factors and facts were considered: i . Aspen and cottonwood species produce low quality lumber due to the tendencies of twist and crook during drying ( 5 5 ) , i i . high competition from softwood lumber due to 7 higher volume, better quality and shorter drying time, i i i . the d i f f i c u l t y of developing markets for aspen and cottonwood lumber products due to the bad reputation from previous marketing practices by small-scale operators (103), i v . f l e x i b i l i t y of veneer products, i . e . , the high quality could be used as face veneer and the low quality veneer could be u t i l i z e d as a core material i n either hardwood or softwood plywood production, and v. more p r o f i t could be obtained from given cubic meter of aspen raw material i f converted into dried veneer than into lumber. According to the above factors the decision was made to consider veneering as the major l i n e of the complex. Introduction of a s p l i n t manufacturing l i n e , as a residue consuming l i n e i s consistent with the aims of the study i n producing products which are preferably independent of high-priced adhesives, and converts low value residues to added value products. This l i n e i s designed to u t i l i z e shorts, low quality logs, and better than 50% of the cores and spinouts of the veneering l i n e which account i n most plants for about 30% of t o t a l lathe input (105). Further, the 8 p e l l e t i z e d aspen and cottonwood bark (smooth bark only) mixed with 50% hay and a l f a l f a was considered to add value to that waste material r a i s i n g i t s value from about $5/t for hog fuel to $110/t as animal feed (75). The birch s l i c i n g - d r y i n g l i n e i s added to the complex as the second major l i n e for the following reasons: i . To provide u t i l i z a t i o n for the high quality birch logs found i n association with aspen and cottonwood forest. The e x i s t i n g timber volume r a t i o i s 1:6, birch:aspen and cottonwood respectively, i i . The s l i c e d , a t t r a c t i v e birch face veneer i s expected to increase the aspen-cottonwood dried veneer sales, i . e . , the birch i s recommended as overlay on aspen-cottonwood plywood to increase appearance attractiveness, d u r a b i l i t y and value, i i i . When adhesives prices become sensible, expansion could occure by adding glue spreading, press and f i n i s h i n g l i n e . The plywood l i n e at such time i s planned to use aspen-cottonwood veneer as core material overlaid by s l i c e d birch faces. F i n a l l y , the lengthway horizontal s l i c e r (84) and t r i p l e section dryer i s added to the complex to u t i l i z e 9 the remaining part of the f l i t c h e s produced as residue from the main birch s l i c e r l i n e . The complex also plans to u t i l i z e large diameter softwood logs (maximum 1000 mm), such as white spruce found i n admixture with the hardwoods. The objectives of t h i s thesis are: i . Inventory survey for l o c a t i o n of major raw material concentrations, description of the raw material, establishment of species r a t i o s , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of quality and d i s t r i b u t i o n patterns of highest hardwood volume concentration, i i . s e l e c tion of components of products suitable for a multi-product operation, i i i . survey of market potential for products manufactured by complex, and i v . economic analysis of the integrated operation, including demonstration of p r o f i t a b l e u t i l i z a t i o n of aspen-cottonwood and birch stands i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 10 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 State and Choices i n the U t i l i z a t i o n of Aspen, Birch and Cottonwood i n B r i t i s h Columbia ( •X- -X- * Aspen, cottonwood, and birch are found growing i n mixed stands throughout the boreal forest region of Canada ( F i g . 1 ) . The net merchantable volume of poplar i s 1 900 000 000 m , h a l f of t h i s volume i s growing i n Alberta, Sascatchewan, Manitoba, Yukon and North West T e r r i t o r i e s . Approximately 21% of the t o t a l merchantable volume i s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, while the Central and the At l a n t i c Provinces have 29% (57)• The volume of white birch i n Canada i s 80 000 000 m . The highest volume occurs i n Quebec and approximately 11% of the t o t a l merchantable volume grows i n B r i t i s h Columbia ( 2 ) . Table 1 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of poplar and birch i n each Province. 2.1.1 Extent of aspen, cottonwood and birch manufacturing and u t i l i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada and Northwestern United States Only a marginal f r a c t i o n of the aspen-cottonwood inventory has been u t i l i z e d i n the past by i n d i v i d u a l small-scale m i l l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The major products See appendix for botonical names 11 manufactured by these operations were mainly lumber, chips and veneer (5, 102). The only operational cotton-wood veneering m i l l i n B r i t i s h Columbia at t h i s time i s Tackama Forest Industries i n Fort Nelson v i l l a g e . The p plant capacity i s approximately 1 500 000 m - 9.5 mm thickness (17 m i l l i o n square foot 3/8*' basis)/year. The production of th i s plant i s concentrating on 3 mm thickness of dried veneer to be shipped to the lower mainland. The veneer i s now being used as core material i n plywood manufacture (92). On the other hand, most of the birch i s used as f i r e wood i n B r i t i s h Columbia (100). Some of the good stands are u t i l i z e d by small companies for lumber production (58). The aspen cottonwood and birch veneer and plywood industry i s located i n the Eastern Provinces. Ontario has 18 veneering m i l l s and 8 plywood plants. Quebec has 10 veneer m i l l s i n addition to 7 plywood operations. This industry i s not s i g n i f i c a n t i n the Western Provinces. Although the industry accomplished l i m i t e d success i n B r i t i s h Columbia, f i v e veneering and eleven plywood plants using aspen, cottonwood and birch exist across the Southern border i n Washington and Oregon States (5). 12 2.1.2 Problems associated with the u t i l i z a t i o n of aspen, cottonwood and birch High logging cost i s one of the d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s i n g when poplars and birch species are to be used. The low production y i e l d i s usually due to high percentages of natural defects, such as tensionwood, knots, wet pokets and heart r o t . The product outputs and y i e l d s r a r e l y exceed 50% (66, 92, 101). The proportion of smaller log diameter i s also a s i g n i f i c a n t aspect a f f e c t i n g the species u t i l i z a t i o n . The high moisture content of aspen and cottonwood (90-170%) adds s i g n i f i c a n t l y to veneer drying costs and to the logging and transportation expences. At present, the Canadian Forest Service i s studying new economical harvesting techniques to avoid the high cost of logging of such forests. Also, i t has been suggested (20) that low stumpage rates are required to offset the higher logging and handling costs. The lack of experience i n manufacturing products from these species and the l a r g e l y undeveloped markets were i d e n t i f i e d as the major discouraging factors to aspen, cottonwood and birch u t i l i z a t i o n i n B.C. (60). This s i t u a t i o n could not be changed even by recent government encouragements and incentives. 13 2.1.3 The need for integrated processing of aspen, cottonwood and birch Previous i n d u s t r i a l experience and research established the fact that, although i t i s technically-feasible to u t i l i z e poplars i n high volume manufacturing f a c i l i t i e s , economic and market consideration encourage the development of integrated operations and adapting a multi-product approach (66). Integration i s defined as complete u t i l i z a t i o n of the forest resources for products of greatest economical value. It i s recommended that, each i n d i v i d u a l product to be produced must be considered c a r e f u l l y with respect to i t s raw material requirements, i . e . , when production l i n e s are to be selected, i t i s desirable to consider products which w i l l u t i l i z e the f u l l range of log q u a l i t i e s available. Integration of various product l i n e s can rai s e the manufacturing y i e l d close to 100%. To date not much evidence of integration i s shown by the industry conceivably because of the better softwood market. 2.2 Raw Material: Properties and Processing Behavior Four species are cosidered to be u t i l i z e d by the integrated complex under study. These species are: A. Black cottonwood, B. trembling aspen, C. white birch, and D. white spruce. 14 2.2.1 Anatomical Characteristics 2.2.1.1 Black cottonwood and trembling aspen The two species are very similar regarding macro and micro-anatomical features. Wood material i s whitish to creamy, turns to l i g h t grayish towards the heart. Pores are small, numerous, not v i s i b l e without a hand lens. Parenchyma i s marginal. Rays are unstoried, and uni s e r i a t e . Perforation plates are simple (69). 2.2.1 .2 White birch White birch sapwood i s whitish i n color, while heart-wood i s l i g h t brown with the sapwood generally merging gradually into the heartwood zone. Pores are scarcely v i s i b l e to the naked eye. Rays are unstoried, 1-5 s e r i a t e . Perforation plates within pores are scalariform (69)• 2.2.1 .3 White spruce Species wood material i s nearly white i n color, lustrous, l i g h t , s o f t . Transverse and lon g i t u d i n a l r e s i n canals are present. Rays are very fine and mainly u n i s e r i a t e . P i t s i n c r o s s - f i e l d are piceoid (69). F i g . 2 and 3 show tangential and cross sections of each species. 15 2,2.2 Physical, mechanical properties and i n d u s t r i a l processing of aspen, cottonwood, white birch and white spruce 2,2.2.1 HaysLcal and mechanical properties A study of the physical, mechanical properties and related i n d u s t r i a l research on quality and s u i t a b i l i t y of trembling aspen, black cottonwood, white birch and white spruce i s summarized i n Tables 2 , 3 , and 4 respectively. From the tables i t i s evident that the straight grain of the species provides smooth, uniform thickness and extremely good cuts. Fortunately, the physical and mechanical properties of black cottonwood, trembling aspen and white spruce are either s i m i l a r or within i n s i g n i f i c a n t variations, except i n moisture content. The v a r i a t i o n i n moisture content between spruce and poplar and within;; spruce heartwood and sapwood i s as much as 30 to 180% and does a f f e c t drying quality of veneers produced therefrom. Sorting the wet veneers according to th e i r moisture content and color was highly recommended for each species so that d i f f e r e n t drying schedules could be applied to obtain a uniform f i n a l moisture content suitable for drying. 2.2.2.2. Ind u s t r i a l processing and techniques 16 This section i s constantly focusing on major technical problems which may face material processing within the planned i n d u s t r i a l complex. It also o f f e r s l a t e s t s c i e n t i f i c solutions and discusses most of the processing steps when dealing with new techniques. 2 . 2 . 2 . 2 . 1 . Peeler log conditioning Treating logs with water, steam or agitating water before cutting generally increases the y i e l d of high grade veneer and makes lathe operation more e f f i c i e n t . This e f f e c t i s due to more uniform d i s t r i b u t i o n of the moisture content and increased p l a s t i c i t y of wood tissues throughout the log. It insures softening of tissues and reduces s p l i t i n g and tearing. Establishment of suitable cutting temperatures for each i n d i v i d u a l species was the target of much research work. Table 5 summarizes approximate conditioning times and temperatures for the species involved i n t h i s study as an example of optimization of the p e e l i n g / s l i c i n g operations (36). An exact estimate of peeler l og conditioning times was developed i n 1979 by Steinhagen (99). The study provides an unidimensional set of heating time charts applicable to frozen and nonfrozen logs that are at l e a s t four diameters long for a variety of cases of normalized 17 radius and thermal con d u c t i v i t i e s . Considering also the volume of rays, heating times estimated by t h i s technique confirmed, experimental data. P r a c t i c a l applications of log conditioning were also developed (72 )• This adds to previous studies the advantage of log sorting based on diameter v a r i a t i o n . The operation developed increased productivity, improved recovery of high quality veneer and achieves reduction i n energy consumption. The conditioning operation i s Illustrated i n the general plant layout. The conditioning system includes a length scale, buck saw, an o p t i c a l scanning system to measure block diameter at 2.5 cm i n t e r v a l s , kickers and a number of conditioning vats provided for each assigned diameter range. The operation i s based on processing by computerized log diameter information. The diameter values are used to route the block to the appropriate vat by a c t i v a t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r kicker when the block reaches the assigned vat. The computer continuously checks water l e v e l s i n the vats and insures a constant optimized temperature for each group of blocks. When conditioning time i s up, the computer activates the jack ladder from a p a r t i c u l a r vat and provides for transportation of conditioned blocks to the production l i n e s . The computerized operation eliminates over-conditioning 1 8 and/or under conditioning of blocks, delivers more blocks/ s h i f t and reduces spin-out losses due to excessively soft blocks. The technique i s said to increase productivity and veneer recovery y i e l d s by over 15%, The energy saving for t h i s system i s claimed to average 7%, Typical d i s t r i b u t i o n of peeler blocks in a southern pine plywood m i l l , as an example, i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g , 1+ . 2.2,2.2,2, Veneer rotary cutting (peeling) Veneer cutting i s a complex operation due to the number of variables which have to be considered i n the manufacture and processing of. quality veneers. In addition to the variables associated with wood as a raw material a f f e c t i n g veneer peeling quality, lathe variables such as knives angle, bar pressure, tool f r i c t i o n have to be considered. Process variables such as veneer thickness, gap and lead, and cutting forces are also important. Evidently, knife d u l l i n g within' a working s h i f t seldom reduces veneer quality ( 6 7 ) , A t i p diameter of sharp knife smaller than c e l l wall thickness (2.5-55^0 i s recommended for most species ( 6 8 ) . Changing the contact length between knife face and log as cutting progresses from sapwood to core as well as clearance angle are definately i n f l u e n t i a l i n determining the veneer qu a l i t y . 19 Usually, stationary nosebars are used i n peeling thin hardwood veneers, while r o l l e r bars are recommended for softwood veneer cutting. It has been reported that, thin hardwood veneer could be peeld without nosebar. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , an. a i r - j e t pressure could be used ( 6 8 ) . The heated nosebar developed l a t e l y i s highly recommended. I t i s proven that heating reduces f r i c t i o n between the bar and bolt which consequently reduces the torque on chucks and also minimizes the power required to rotate the bolt ( 1 0 5 ) . This technique produces better veneer quality and reduces spinouts. Peeling quality i s constantly related to f r i c t i o n a l forces between knife and veneer. It has been observed by Palka ( 6 8 ) that veneer quality increases with the decrease of f r i c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t . Log conditioning, moisture content, knife angle and pressure bar angle and type are major factors a f f e c t i n g the f r i c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t . Table 6* i l l u s t r a t e s recommended knife angle, knife bevel, and nosebar angle combinations for rotary cutting of aspen, cottonwood, white birch and white spruce. The table also includes recommended horizontal gap and lead for various veneer thickness. The horizontal and v e r t i c a l gaps are estimated on the basis of 8 0 - 9 5 % and 1 0 - 1 0 0 % of the nominal veneer thickness, respectively. 2 0 Rotary cutting of aspen and cottonwood i s usually associated with fuzzy veneer surface due to the presence of tension wood. This degree of roughness can be reduced by lowering the block temperature to 5°C and using a hard knife (62 on Rockwell C - s c a l e ) ( 2 4 ) . Further improvement were found on introducing extra moisture between the knife and nosebar while cutting i s i n progress ( 5 3 ) . Straight grained white birch usually cuts well. Excellent veneer of 1 mm thickness or l e s s can be obtained from rotary peeling of birch at 20°C. Conditioning white birch blocks to 50 - 6 0°C and 70°C for f l i t c h e s has been recommended p r i o r to s l i c i n g . Evidently, curvy grained birch i s preferably s l i c e d due to the tendency of veneers to break i n the short grain when rotary peeled. White spruce could be rotary cut s a t i s f a c t o r i l y at room temperature. The recommended knife blade hardness for white spruce i s 5 6 - 5 8 on the Rockwell C-scale. The use of microbevel at 3 0 ° angle i s also required ( 3 7 ) . Heating spruce f l i t c h e s to 60°C p r i o r to s l i c i n g was found to improve veneer quality, while exceeding t h i s temperature causes fuzziness i n texture and s h e l l i n g appearance. Since white spruce wood material i s r e l a t i v e l y soft, knife dullness could also cause tearing and rough surfaces. While a sharp knife i s prerequesite to high 2 1 quality spruce veneer, the use of proper v e r t i c a l and horizontal openings between knife and nosebar proved to be equally important ( 3 8 , 5 3 ) . An i l l u s t r a t i o n of settings between knife and pressure bar i n addition to the microbevel p r o f i l e i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Fig 5 • 2 . 2 . 2 . 2 . 3 Veneer s l i c i n g Veneer s l i c i n g operation was o r i g i n a l l y practiced for hardwood face veneer production. The process involves placing pre-conditioned, l o n g i t u d i n a l l y sawn wood f l i t c h e s on f l i t c h bed of the s l i c e r . By moving the f l i t c h up and down against perfectely mounted knife and pressure bar as shown i n F i g . 6, s l i c e d veneer can be produced of very fine thicknesses ranging from 3.0 mm-Q.l mm. The pressure nosebar helps i n c o n t r o l l i n g the veneer thickness due to the application of i d e a l maximum compression ahead of s l i c e r knife edge. Setting of the s l i c e r , i . e . , adjusting the distance between the knife and the nosebar i s very important and i t d i r e c t e l y a f f e c t s veneer qua l i t y . For example, smaller lead ( v e r t i c a l opening) could r e s u l t i n producing s p l i n t e r s breaking o f f which could get jammed between the knife and the nosebar. This can cause rub marks on the veneer. Also excessive pressure against the f l i c h could i n severe cases damage the s l i c e r ( 5 2 )• Table 7 22 shows corresponding gap and lead for d i f f e r e n t veneer thickness. Most of the modern v e r t i c a l and horizontal s l i c e r s are equiped with h y d r a u l i c a l l y operated dogs to maintain maximum s t a b i l i t y and good contact of the f l i t c h with the s l i c e r bed. Methods of s l i c i n g are devided into three major groups as follows: 1. F l a t s l i c i n g ; the cutting d i r e c t i o n usually begins p a r a l l e l to the growth rings, i i . quarter s l i c e d ; cutting occurs across the growth rings and p a r a l l e l to rays, and i i i . r i f t cut; t h i s type of cut i s often used to produce figures shaped by ray structure. The cut i s at a 45° angle to wood rays. The three types of s l i c i n g are i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g . 7 • For better quality veneer, undesirable movement of f l i t c h e s and play of s l i c e r moving parts must be minimized. S l i c i n g thicker veneers than 3 mm could generate vibrati o n due to knife impact on f l i t c h f u l l length. However, by dogging the f l i t c h with an angle of 3° to 5° from the long d i r e c t i o n of the knife, s i g n i f i c a n t reduction of t h i s impact occurs as the cutting starts at one corner rather than across the entire length of the f l i t c h . 23 Veneer thickness v a r i a t i o n caused by heat d i s t o r t i o n of the knife and pressure bar while cutting i s i n progress must be eliminated to increase veneer quality. It was suggested to heat the knife and pressure bar p r i o r to replacing them into the s l i c e r and keep them continually warm t i l l use ( 52 ) . S l i c e r knife angles of 90° 20* to 90° 30*are reported convenient and could be used i n s l i c i n g variable density wood veneer of thicknesses between 0.3 - 6.4 mm. It has been also reported that, s a t i s f a c t o r y cuts of the same veneer thickness were obtained when pressure bar was set at v e r t i c a l opening dead) of 0.75 mm and horizontal opening (gap) of 0.725 to 0.80 mm ( 5 2 ) . Smaller lead of 0.5 mm could be used when cutting 0.9 mm and thicker veneer. 2.2.2.2.4 Veneer drying 2.2.2.2.4.1 General review Drying veneer i s simply reducing i t s moisture content by evaporation without harming the wood structure. Drying improves the physical and mechanical properties of wood i n preparation for gluing. V a r i a b i l i t y of veneer moisture content must be kept within r e l a t i v e l y narrow 24 l i m i t s generally defined by the tolerance of the adhesive to excess moisture u t i l i z e d i n the manufacture of plywood. A moisture content range of 5-14% i s recommended for most phenolic adhesives ( 2 7 ) . To insure optimum s o l i d s content of plywood glue l i n e s , avoidance of "blisters'* and development of loose j o i n t s due to rapid penetration into the wood, and p a r t i c u l a r dried veneer moisture content must be reached depending on the water content of the adhesive. Low veneer moisture content usually r e s u l t s i n improper glue l i n e due to lack of moisture required for glue curing. On the other hand, higher veneer moisture content than 14% could r e s u l t i n defective glue l i n e (under cured) and in most cases could cause blows or b l i s t e r s ( 27 ) . Under i n d u s t r i a l conditions veneer i s dried to 2-4% moisture before gluing ( 79 ) . Veneer drying process i s a r e l a t i v e l y simple operation since thin sheets provide l i t t l e resistance to moisture movement unless species with natural defects such as wet pockets and tensionwood . are to be dried. Such i s the case with aspen and cottonwood ( 56 ) . This problem can be s i g n i f i c a n t e s p e c i a l l y due to the wide sapwood / heartwood moisture content v a r i a t i o n . Surfaces i n a c t i v a t i o n i n spruce i s also a serious problem and i t s elimination requires application of special drying technique. 25 Drying time i s the parameter which plywood manufactures and research have attempted to reduce i n the past since i t has s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on dr i e r throughput and energy losses from the d r i e r . Drying time i s generally influenced by many factors such as species, i n i t i a l moisture content of veneer, the target f i n a l moisture content, the drying system being used, drying temperature, a i r v e l o s i t y , veneer thickness etc. Development of veneer dryers to meet high production rates of modern plywood plants was achieved by dryer manufacturers i n the recent past. Jet-drying i s one of the most successful recent developments i n reducing drying time. Lately, a continuous high c a p i c i t y veneer dryer system was also developed by Raute of Finland to o f f s e t climbing labor and raw material costs. This continuous dry-veneer manufacturing l i n e can reduce labor costs by l+0%f y i e l d s k% more veneer due to reduced breakage from handling, has reduced energy consumption and f l o o r space requirements (51 ). F i g . 8 i l l u s t r a t e s a t y p i c a l cross section of a jet dryer unit and shows i t s basic structure. The maximum dryer speed achievable i s 60 m/min. A veneer capacity of 5 200 m /h - 3 mm thickness could be reached. The dryer i s designed to accept veneer thicknesses ranging from 0.3 mm to 4.5 mm. The heat source 26 can be natural gas, l i g h t and heavy fuel o i l , or hot water at various pressures (10-38 bar). An operating temperature of 220°C can be maintained. The p r i n c i p l e of t h i s drying process i s based on the application of high v e l o c i t y hot dried a i r on both sides of the veneer. Acceptable drying schedules for birch and spruce veneer are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Tables 8 and 9 • From the tables i t i s evident that the drying time for 1.2 mm birch veneer at 175°C i s 2.9 min, while that of 3*1 mm thick spruce veneer i s 6.3 min requiring a drying temperature of 195°C. Thus these veneers should not be mixed. Although, drying schedules for aspen and cottonwood by j e t dryer do not appear i n the l i t e r a t u r e , i ndications are that spruce drying schedules could be adopted for these species since variations i n i n i t i a l moisture content and s p e c i f i c gravity of both species are i n s i g n i f i c a n t . Seven d i f f e r e n t applications of continuous drying process were offered by Raute-Finland ( 9 0 ) as shown i n F i g . 9 • B r i e f explanation of each l i n e i n addition to recommended uses are summarized i n Table 10 . Drying mixed species with s i g n i f i c a n t moisture content differences, or even drying one species with variable heartwood / sapwood moisture content i s a major 27 problem i n veneer production. Conventional approaches include green veneer sorting according to moisture content, or redrying incompletely dried sections. The l i t e r a t u r e available on the subject indicates considerable i n t e r e s t i n the equalization technique. The idea i s based on the observation that equilibrium moisture content of wood i n pure water-vapor atmosphere at 112°C i s 6%. Using an a i r - t i g h t dryer, good d i s t r i b u t i o n of moisture content could be reached. The r e s u l t of applying t h i s technique to veneer drying was, dried veneer with homogeneous moisture content not obtainable by other means (27) . The disadvantage of the system i s an i n s i g n i f i c a n t reduction of dryer capacity. On the other hand, the advantages were found to be numorous. They are as follows: i . Reduced labor, raw material, energy costs and percentage of s p l i t s and degrades due to minimized veneer handling and the low temperature drying treatment required, i i . increase plywood production and better quality by obtaining r e l a t i v e l y constant moisture content dried veneer (6%), i i i . elimination of redrying due to lack of r e j e c t s , and 28 i v . reduced plant costs due to minimized inventory of d i f f e r e n t grades, l e s s area and equipment required for sorting and stacking. Although further study and development of the new technique i s e s s e n t i a l , i t appears premising for future uses. An attempt to combine both high speed drying and uniformity i n veneer moisture content was i n i t i a t e d i n 1972 by McCarthy ( 63). The development was to optimize the drying operation by using the computers to control dryer variables such as temperature, a i r v e l o c i t y and i n -dryer conveyor speed. In t h i s operation, the computer c o l l e c t s data such as i n i t i a l veneer moisture content from a moisture detector, veneer thickness from an o p t i c a l scanner and dryer temperature from sensors attached to the dryer. When the computer has s u f f i c i e n t data input, i t i s programmed to determine and insure optimum dryer speed, and compensate for variations i n moisture content, dryer temperature, gaps and other related dryer variables. Benefits of integrated computer operation of the drying process can be summarized as follows: i . Increaced production due to higher drying speed, i i . reduced drying cost by optimized energy consumption, i i i . veneer of uniform moisture content i s obtained, 29 i v , production of better quality plywood due to better veneer g l u a b i l i t y , and v, reduced f i r e hazard i n the dryer, 2,2 ,2 ,2 ,4»2 Problems associated with drying aspen, cottonwood and white spruce veneer A, Aspen and cottonwood Due to b a c t e r i a l invasion, d i s c o l o r a t i o n and wet pockets presence i n the t r a n s i t i o n between sapwood and heartwood of aspen and cottonwood had. been observed previously ( % ) , Wetwood or discolored wood may or may not have higher moisture content than that of adjacent normal sapwood. The reason behind ununiform drying of wet pockets i s that permeability to water flow p a r a l l e l to the grain i s much higher i n normal sapwood as compared to wetwood. Although, the problem has been frequently encountered before, no information on sp e c i a l techniques or schedules for drying aspen and cottonwood veneer i s available from the l i t e r a t u r e . The problem of obtaining dried veneer with s i g n i f i c a n t l y variable moisture content s t i l l exists and must be solved by each veneer drying operation on an i n d i v i d u a l basis. Hand sorting of green veneer i s impractical due to the l a r g e l y unnoticable demarcation l i n e between high and 30 normal moisture content areas. Some suggestions were made to dry the veneer to as low as 0% moisture content (27 ) and allow s u f f i c i e n t e q u i l i b r a t i o n time i n the stack. In addition to wetwood, aspen and cottonwood veneer may buckle during the drying process due to the presence of tensionwood and i t s associated d i f f e r e n t i a l shrinkage from normal wood i n most logs. Veneer free of tension wood or wetwood dries f l a t with only reasonable shrinkage (53 )• B. White spruce Drying of white spruce veneer i s a very delicate process because of the large differences i n green moisture content between sapwood and heartwood. Fig.10 shows moisture d i s t r i b u t i o n of heartwood and sapwood i n white spruce. From an i n d u s t r i a l point of view, drying sapwood and heartwood by the same schedule i s impractical. Also, drying to 0% moisture content, using high temperature, causes p i t c h spread and surface i n a c t i v a t i o n "scorching" due to the migration of fa t t y acids to the veneer surfaces (35 )• Inactivated white spruce veneer surface usually causes poor glue / wood adhesion ( 27) . Low temperature drying of spruce i s discouraged i n most cases because i t decreases productivity. Therefore, a new technique was developed to prevent i n a c t i v a t i o n i n overdried white spruce veneer. Application of 0.8-10% sodium tetraborate pentahydrate 31 solution (borax, Na^ 0 ,^ 5H 20) to the freshly cut white spruce veneer surfaces was found by Chow ( 30) to reduce over-drying and i n a c t i v a t i o n . Strength was sub s t a n t i a l l y improved when borax treated spruce veneer was used. No adverse e f f e c t s of the treatment were noted on service properties of the products. Fig.llshows the improvement i n shear strength of white spruce plywood treated with 2,5% borax. Sorting green spruce veneer according to moisture content and drying the various grades by separate schedules appears to be f e a s i b l e . Alternately, a l l veneer can be dried by a schedule based on veneer average lowest i n i t i a l moisture content. Re-drying of wet veneers, i n t h i s case would be necessary. Table 11 and Fig.12 i l l u s t r a t e drying time required to produce 9% moisture content veneer of white spruce heartwood and sapwood (thickness 2.5 and 4.0 mm - temperature was 150°C and 230°C). Drying i s a very sensitive process s p e c i a l l y when dealing with species l i k e aspen, cottonwood and spruce due to d i f f i c u l t i e s mentioned previously. However, to reach optimum r e s u l t s , more research should be done i n arranging good drying schedules for aspen and cottonwood i n addition to better solutions for drying spruce. Application of boric acid i s excellent, but not p r a c t i c a l when applied to most plywood i n d u s t r i e s . 3 2 2 . 2 . 3 Aspen Bark as a Livestock Feed Recent d e f i c i e n c i e s i n grain and forage supplies for animal feed are depressing l i v e s t o c k returns i n Canada and the United States. This i s manifested i n climbing feed prices, and continued r i s e i n meat prices, as well ( 2 9 )• Some research e f f o r t s were concentrated i n the past on processing aspen wood and bark into alternate nutrative feed s t u f f s for c a t t l e and sheep. The u t i l i z a t i o n of aspen bark as an energy source for animal feed has been t r i e d successfully on several occasions ( 6 4 ) . The use of the smooth parts of aspen bark for feed purposes i s connected with some other advantages. It can eliminate p o l l u t i o n problems by a l l e v i a t i n g the need for disposal procedures that can be cos t l y . Aspen bark rations can be made available at r e l a t i v e l y low cost, whereby i t can o f f s e t the high cost of conventional animal feed and increase the return on c a p i t a l investment i n t h i s industry. Chemical analysis of aspen bark indicated that i t contains 53% carbohydrates, 29% l i g n i n , 7% ether extracts, 4 . 5 % ash and 1 . 5 % crude protein ( 4 0 ). Due to the low protein content of aspen bark, i t has been recommended only for the use with animals kept at maintenance feed l e v e l s . Such are ewes and beef cows i n remote northern 33 areas. However, i t i s advantageous to mix and p e l l e t i z e high protein material with aspen bark to obtain well balanced n u t r i t i v e rations. Fig.13 shows the relat i o n s h i p between time and animal weight for ewes fed on hay, and others on aspen bark rations. From the graph i t i s obvious that animals fed on ra t i o n contains 72.5% aspen bark gained more weight than the control (fed on 100% a l f a l f a and hay). The abrupt weight loss i n February was due only to shearing of wool, and i n A p r i l to lambing. D i g e s t i b i l i t y tests due to chemical treatment of aspen bark are reported with various l e v e l s of success i n the technical l i t e r a t u r e . Table 12 summarizes d i g e s t i b i l i t y of rations containing 15,30,45 and 60% untreated aspen bark. A l k a l i treatment with 9-12% a l k a l i of aspen bark caused substantial 25% increase i n i t s d i g e s t i b i l i t y . This i s due to d e l i g n i f i c a t i o n of bark material to free entrapped ce l l u l o s e ( 29) . The process increases a v a i l a b i l i t y of ce l l u l o s e for microbial fermintation and subsequent u t i l i z a t i o n of aspen bark by animals. The i n j e c t i o n of 2% - 5% anhydrous ammonia and storage for 7 days could improve d i g e s t i b i l i t y i n addition to increasing the crude protein l e v e l by 6% (from 1.5%) i n form of ammonium s a l t s ( 29) . 34 The e f f e c t of aspen bark, p a r t i c l e size on d i g e s t i b i l i t y was also studied. The r e s u l t s confirmed that p a r t i c l e s of 32, 93 and 159 mm have d i g e s t i b i l i t y of 27.4, 25.7 and 30.3% respectively ( 4 2 ) . Apparently, larger p a r t i c l e s giving better d i g e s t i b i l i t y i s quite contrary to the requirements i n increasing a c c e s s i b i l i t y of c e l l u l o s e . Steaming aspen bark has proved to increase the i n vivo d i g e s t i b i l i t y for dry matter from 26% to 32%, and reduced energy d i g e s t i b i l i t y from 3 8 % to 34%. Table 13 shows that i n vivo d i g e s t i b i l i t i e s of steamed aspen bark compared to that of unsteamed and alfalfa-hay was s i g n i f i c a n t . Thus, aspen bark proved to have good potentials i n feeding ruminant animals specially sheep and steers. From previous studies, processing a r a t i o n of steamed bark optionally treated with ammonia or a l k a l i appears to be sound and could provide a useful extention of forages of a l f a l f a and hay. P e l l e t i z i n g treated bark with other high protein materials such as corn, oats, soybean, a l f a l f a , hay, urea and with essential minerals and vitamins could be an excellent means of providing the North with much needed low cost n u t r i t i v e feed rations for the d i f f i c u l t winter months. 35 2.3 C h a r a t e r i s t i c s of B r i t i s h Columbia Aspen, Cottonwood and Birch Stands In B r i t i s h Columbia, trembling aspen,black cottonwood, balsam poplar and white birch are the main hardwood species ( 58). They grow i n both pure and mixed stands. FigJ4 and! 15 show the aspen, cottonwood and white birch major areas i n the Province (57 )• On the coast, aspen and cottonwood grow well on moist lowland i n association with lodgepole pine and s i t k a spuce (1:3:30 respectively) (102). In the southern I n t e r i o r , aspen, cottonwood and birch grow mixed with western red cedar. While i n the northern Inte r i o r the hardwood species grow i n association with white spruce. 2.3.1 A v a i l a b i l i t y of wood raw material The following data were derived from B.C. Forest Service inventory records (8 ). Total volume of mature aspen, cottonwood and birch species 18 cm+ D.B.H.* i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s 199 315 240 m5- 11% white birch and 89% aspen and cottonwood ( 8 ). Only 94 201 464 nr" are c l a s s i f i e d under sustained y i e l d units (S.Y.U.) (14% birch and 86% aspen and cottonwood). The annual allowable cut (A.A.C.) of aspen and diameter at breast height 36 cottonwood i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s approximately 16 000 000 nr. Table Ik i l l u s t r a t e s the t o t a l volume of mature, approved aspen, cottonwood and birch i n public sustained y i e l d unit (P.S.Y.U.) 18 cm+ D.B.H. i n each forest d i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h Columbia. From the table i t should be noticed that, the approved P.S.Y.U. stands comprize about kl% of the exi s t i n g mature 18 cm+ D.B.H. stands. Prince George Forest D i s t r i c t contains the highest volume of approved P.S.Y.U. 18 cm+ D.B.H. aspen, cottonwood and bi r c h , which i s about 76% of the t o t a l volume of the three species i n the Province under the same catagory. Detailed information on aspen, cottonwood and birch inventory i s summarized i n Table 15 and 16, showing the volume of each species i n each forest d i s t r i c t within the Province. In addition, the tables i l l u s t r a t e the volume of aspen, cottonwood and birch as a proportion of t o t a l volume of hardwood, t o t a l volume of softwood and t o t a l volume of a l l species. The tables also indicate that 1.8% of approved P.S.Y.U. mature I8cm+ D.B.H. inventory i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s aspen, cottonwood and bir c h . Focussing on the Prince George Forest D i s t r i c t , as i t contains the highest volume of aspen, cottonwood and bir c h , each unit within the d i s t r i c t was investigated with respect to species d i s t r i b u t i o n . Table 17 and 18 show the volume of 3 7 the species i n each forest u n i t s . The tables also i l l u s t r a t e the r a t i o s of mature approved P.S.Y.U. 1 8 cm+ D.B.H. aspen, cottonwood and birch as a proportion of t o t a l volume of hardwood, t o t a l volume of softwood and t o t a l volume of a l l species. From the tables i t can be seen that, the Fort Nelson approved P.S.Y.U. contains the highest volume of hardwood stands, which i s equal to 15 6 9 4 0 0 0 m3; 1 0 % of these stands being birch and 8 9 % are aspen and cottonwood. It i s also noticeable that, the Fort Nelson Forest Unit contains 1 7 . 2 % of the aspen and cottonwood, and 13% of the birch available i n B.C. 2.3.2 Density of stands within B r i t i s h Columbia Density of either aspen, cottonwood er birch 3 2 (nr/Km ) was studied to give i n i t i a l i n d i c a t i o n and understanding of the importance and the extent of the resource. It should help i n consideration of logging economics, timber y i e l d s and trasportation costs. Table 19 summarizes the density of both aspen, cottonwood and birch for 1 8 cm+ D.B.H. stands i n each forest d i s t r i c t i n B.C. I t should be noticed that the highest density of aspen, cottonwood and birch i s indicated i n the Prince George Forest D i s t r i c t . Density was 4 7 0 nr/Km and 7 5 . 5 m-p Km respectively. 3 8 The same analysis technique was applied to the forest units within Prince George Forest D i s t r i c t (Table 20). Althought, Fort Nelson Forest Unit shows the highest volume of birch, i t appears to project only an intermediate 3 2 stand density of 1 8 9 , 4 m /Km , whereas the density of aspen and cottonwood i n the same unit i s the highest i n the Province ( 1 5 8 3 nr 5/ Km2). 2.3«3 Quality d i s t r i b u t i o n of aspen, cottonwood and birch stands 2 , 3 , 3 , 1 Diameter v a r i a t i o n and i t s importance One of the pot e n t i a l advantages i n establishing a forest i n d u s t r i a l complex, esp e c i a l l y for hardwoods, i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of lo c a t i n g high quality logs which can be sorted by diameter to be processed into a variety of products according to highest valued product manufactured from i t . This could range from face veneer and plywood, i n d u s t r i a l lumber to match s p l i n t s . According to B r i t i s h Columbia Forest S t a t i s t i c s ( 8 ) diameter d i s t r i b u t i o n i s based on 1 8 cm+, 2 8 cm+ and i n some cases 3 3 cm+ D.B.H. Logs of smaller diameter than 2 8 cm+ D.B.H. are recommended to be used i n one of the higher value added processes such as, chemicals, particleboard and pulp i n d u s t r i e s . Material 3 9 which has 2 8 cm D.B.H. or larger could carry a healthy industry based on the manufacture of veneer and plywood ( 1 0 0 ) , ( 1 0 2 ) . Tables 2 1 and 22 were developed to i l l u s t r a t e the r a t i o between 1 8 cm+ and 2 8 cm+ D.B.H. for aspen, cottonwood and bi r c h i n each forest d i s t r i c t within the Province. From the tables i t can be noticed that, only 2 2 % of B r i t i s h Columbia birch i s 2 8 cm+ i n diameter, while 2 7 % of the aspen and cottonwood i n the Province has a diameter exceeding 2 8 cm. The Prince George Forest D i s t r i c t was approached with the same technique. Results show that, Fort Nelson Forest Unit has only 1 0 % of i t s birch i n 2 8 cm+ D.B.H., amounting to 1 7 0 0 0 0 nr', while 2 7 % of the aspen and cottonwood i s 2 8 cm+ D.B.H. ( 3 7 7 2 0 0 0 m^). Both r e s u l t s for Fort Nelson Forest Unit and other units within Prince George Forest D i s t r i c t are reported i n Tables 23 and'2/f, Although the Fort Nelson Forest Unit shows low percentage of 2 8 cm+ D.B.H. stands compared to Big Valley, Purden and Parsnip, i t includes the highest volume of aspen and cottonwood i n the Prince George D i s t r i c t . Volume of 2 8 cm+ D.B.H. birc h i n Fort Nelson Unit ranks f i f t h among the rest of the unit s . High volume of 2 8 cm+ D.B.H. birch stands were located i n Longworth (424 2 7 1 m^), Monkman ( 3 0 8 9 6 5 m-5), Finlay ( 1 9 4 2 3 4 nr5) and Crooked River ( 1 7 6 8 9 5 m 3). 40 2.3.3.2. Site c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of aspen, cottonwood and birch i n B.C. Site c l a s s i f i c a t i o n for B.C. hardwood stands i s based on projected hieght of trees of 100 years. This d i f f e r s from one species to another. Fortunately, there i s an i n s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n between s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of aspen, cottonwood and b i r c h . For the three species, good stands should have a height of 35 m+, while medium stands have the i r heights between 23 m to 35 m. One-hundred year-old aspen, cottonwood or birch stands having 13-23 m i n height are c l a s s i f i e d as poor stands. Less than 13 m stands are considered as low quality s i t e s . S ite c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the species i s shown i n Table 25. It i s observed that the majority of aspen, cottonwood and birch 100 year-old stands have tree heights between 13-35 m and 23-35 m respectively. Fast growing mature stands of t h i s height have 28 cm+ D.B.H. can provide an excellent source of wood base for f i b e r recovery and plywood industry. In summary, the best combination of aspen, cottonwood and birch stands appears to be i n the Fort Nelson 3 2 Forest Unit y i e l d i n g 1583 nr/Km of aspen and cottonwood, and 3 2 190 nr/Km of b i r c h . In addition, t h i s unit contains z 26 000 000 nr of softwood mainly of spruce, as well. 41 2.4 Market Study for B r i t i s h Columbia Aspen; Cottonwood and Birch Veneer Production Canada has surplus of timber ready for u t i l i z a t i o n of about 93 000 000 nr5. Of t h i s surplus, 75% i s softwood and 25% i s hardwood (59)• Of the Provinces having timber surplus, B r i t i s h Columbia i s outstanding. Abundant supplies of aspen, cottonwood and birch stands were i d e n t i f i e d i n North-Eastern B r i t i s h Columbia as reported i n the previous section. No doubt that the Fort •X-Nelson Approved P.S.Y.U., contains the highest volume of poplar (14 000 000 nr5) and white birch (1 700 000 nr 5). Further, Fort Nelson i s claimed to have the highest stand density unit i n the Prince George Forest D i s t r i c t and i n B r i t i s h Columbia, as well. This resource i s constantly depreciating i n value due to losses by natural decay. Its use should be demonstrated by f e a s i b i l i t y of production of a certain mix of products and marketability of the products at present and with projections for the future. * Public Sustained Y i e l d Unit 42 2.4.1 Softwood veneer and plywood s i t u a t i o n i n the U.S.A. and Canada i n ,the near future: chance for the western hardwood products By looking at the projected demand/capacity of softwood plywood i n the U.S. ( 14 ) , the data i n Table 26 was compiled for the purpose of predicting future market potentials for the products. I t should be noticed that, the estimated projected increase i n softwood plywood consumption should reach 2 200 000 000 m - 9.5 mm thickness, by the year 1990. On the other hand, the manufacturing capacity for plywood i s expected to stay at the l e v e l of 2 000 000 000 mr/year-9.5 mm thickness, because of the shortage i n softwood peeler log supplies to the industry i n the P a c i f i c Northwest (14, 31 ) . Table 27 i l l u s t r a t e s the U.S. softwood timber supply/demand i n 1985. From Table .'26 and 27 i t i s evident that, at the end of the next fi v e years the demand on plywood and veneer products w i l l reach 2 200 000 000 m2/year - 9.5 mm thickness. Since the timber supply shown i n Table 27 projects a d e f i c i t of 61 000 000 m3, therefore, the capacity of the t o t a l plywood and veneer production i s expected to remain constant or even decline, especially on the northwest coast, unless new peeler logs and veneer bolts are supplied to the industry to help i t to keep up with the increasing demand and production cost l e v e l (14, 31» 59). 43 The s i t u a t i o n of the Canadian plywood industry appears to be much brighter than that of the United States. The raw material i s s t i l l more readi l y available and a high market demand for forest products i n general i s evident for the years to come. Table 28 and F i g . 16 i l l u s t r a t e the foreign trade volumes for sofwood plywood i n Canada. During the past few years the export market had recorded a dramatic increase i n demand. This trend i s expected to continue but at higher rate i n the coming years provided s u f f i c i e n t capacity improvement. In many respects, the future of the Canadian plywood market i s expected to remain excellent. I t i s predicted that by 1985 the U.S. plywood producers w i l l withdraw from the l o c a l and international Canadian markets i n order to s a t i s f y t h e i r own increasing demands (14 ). In t h i s case, the Canadian plywood industry should gear up and develop new plants to cover l o c a l demands i n addition to 50% of the European imports and 10% of the Japanese demand which was t r a d i t i o n a l l y covered by sources of the U.S. plywood producers (101). These requirements are projected to consume at lea s t 19 000 000 m - 9.5 mm thickness /year of veneer and plywood. 2.4*2 Major plywood markets and the economic demographic factors a f f e c t i n g the future housing demand kk T r a d i t i o n a l l y , three major industries absorb the veneer and plywood manufactured i n both the United States and Canada. More than 60% of the plywood market i s directed towards r e s i d e n t i a l housing construction. The share of the conversion i n d u s t r i e s accounts for 16%. Nonresidential construction u t i l i z e s about 11% of the t o t a l plywood production. The remaining inventory goes into miscellaneous applications such as maintenance, farm use, mining projects etc. (12). The r e s i d e n t i a l housing industry consumes the largest portion of the plywood output. It includes conventional housing and mobile home industry. I t i s obvious that demand variations on r e s i d e n t i a l houses should r e f l e c t s i g n i f i c a n t changes on plywood products demand state. This rule holds p e r f e c t l y unless changes i n consumer preference occur (12 ). Because of t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n between housing st a r t s and demand on veneer and plywood, i t i s important before considering any investment involvments to study the trends and factors a f f e c t i n g housing demands. One of the major i n d i r e c t factors a f f e c t i n g the demand on forest products for housing projects i n general and plywood and veneer i n p a r t i c u l a r i s the i n t e r e s t rate 7 on mortgages. It has been noticed since l a t e 1978, when the i n t e r e s t rate started to climb, the demand on houses declined. The ef f e c t caused a slow-down and manpower l a y o f f s of major portions i n the industry ( 3 ) . The second major factor i s the increasing competition from non-wood products (13) . T i l l now the manufacture of plywood maintained reasonable cost s t a b i l i t y against some non-wood products. However, i t i s predicted that t h i s advantage could diminish with r i s i n g wood costs (stumpage and harvesting) i n the United States between 1985 and 1990 (13) . New household formations have long constituted the chief source of demand for housing. Accordingly, an evaluation of increasing rate of the population growth, changing patterns of family income, uncertain economic conditions created by energy shortages, double d i g i t i n f l a t i o n and recessions becomes necessary. To simplify the issue, the demographic phenomenon i s considered as the main factor a f f e c t i n g new household formations. Demographic change r e f l e c t s b i r t h and f e r t i l i t y rates of the nation. For example, high demand on houses i n the United States between 1970 u n t i l 1978 was expected to r e s u l t from the "baby boom" of 19^0 's and 1950's. F i g . 17 i l l u s t r a t e s the number of annual b i r t h s i n the United States 46 (the major market for Canadian timber and forest products) between 1909 and 1974, with projections to the year 2000 ( 6 1 )• From the graph i t i s c l e a r l y evident that, the 1980 to 1990 period could be expected to reach another high on housing demand due to another peak i n number of bi r t h s between i 960 to 1970. Although, the graph shows an intensive and steady growth, fluctuations could occur due to further unexpected growth i n population, preference for separate dwelling units, decreasing buying power, increase i n si z e , age and mix of the population. The l a s t factor alone i s predicted to account for 1 000 000 additional households annually during the 1980 to 1990 period ( 6 1 )• Table 29 strengthen the study and confirm projections on housing requirements i n the U.S. by source of demand between 1975 and 1980, and by decade to 2000. This can be compared with the actual housing demand between 1 9 5 0 to 1 9 5 9 , I 9 6 0 to 1 9 6 9 , and 1970 to 1974. The prediction i n Table 29 i s based on assuming continuous economic growth, no major domestic or in t e r n a t i o n a l disruptions, moderate i n f l a t i o n and continued steady advancements i n the standard of l i v i n g . I t i s observed from the table that a general increase on housing demand since 1 9 5 0 to 1 9 8 9 i s evident. However, a decline i n demand between 1 9 9 0 and 2000 i s to be expected ( 6 1 ) • 47 2.4.3 Canadian and United States hardwood veneer and plywood production, trade and consumption Hardwood species which are mainly used i n furniture, cabinets, wood containers, p a l l e t s and construction panel manufacturing are; birch, mahogany, sen, aspen, yellow poplar and cottonwood. It i s estimated that, the hardwood veneer and plywood consumption of the United States was 350 000 000 m2 - 9.5 mm thickness, i n 1970 (13 ). About 54% of t h i s volume was imported from Canada, Finland and Japan. At that time, Canada supplied 13% of the t o t a l United States hardwood imports, mainly i n form of birch veneer. It has been projected by the United States Department of Agriculture that the demand of hardwood veneer and plywood from US mills w i l l increase s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the time due to high demand on plywood i n general as a r e s u l t of population increase, declining supply and the increasing stumpage price now imposed on softwoods. It i s predicted that the demand on hardwood veneer and plywood could reach 400 000 000, 490 000 000, and 630 000 000 m2-9.5 mm thickness i n the years 1980, 1990, and 2030 respectively (18 ). On the other hand, imports are expected to follow the same trend with continually decreasing exports. Table 30 shows production, import/export, and 48 consumption of hardwood veneer and plywood i n the United States between the year I960 and 1977, with predictions to the year 2030, These figures c e r t a i n l y bear out the increase i n hardwood plywood demand and steady improvements i n these markets, Canadian hardwood veneer and plywood imports generally y i e l d to the dark t r o p i c a l wood species to s a t i s f y the l o c a l consumer preferences and needs. The imported species are; mahogay, sen, oak veneer and plywood from Switzerland, Ivory Coast, Phylippines, South Korea, Taiwan and Japan, However, a good portion of the t o t a l imports i s l i g h t colored hardwoods, such as bir c h , beech and poplars from Finalnd, USSR, Japan and the United States (15 ), The Canadian exports of hardwood veneer and plywood i n 1978 was close to 108 000 nr, 94% of which was veneer and 6% plywood. The species exported were mainly birch, cottonwood, aspen, elm, maple and walnut. Veneers were shipped to the United States, Taiwan, Belgium, Poland, I t a l y , West Germany, U.K., Netherlands and Denmark (15 ), The production, import/export and apparent consumption of hardwood plywood and veneer manufactured i n Canada i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 31 , Figures i n the table show that the consumption of hardwood plywood runs only s l i g h t l y lower than the production. For t h i s reason export of 49 Canadian hardwood plywood i s not s i g n i f i c a n t , while the exports of veneer reached 260% of t o t a l consumption i n 1 9 7 5 , and about 60% of the 1978 t o t a l production ( 1 5 ) , However, i t i s known that, the o v e r a l l export i s generally one-third of the apparent consumption, while the import accounted for 18% of t o t a l production during the l a s t two years. From Fig. IS i t i s clear that, the t o t a l hardwood plywood and veneer export increased from 66 000 nr i n 1975 to 108 000 nr i n 1978 with an annual rate of increase of 21%. On the other hand, the decline of hardwood imports to Canada from 83 000 nr5 i n 1974 to 66 000 rn^in 1978 has been remarkable. Also, i t should be noticed that the domestic consumption i s climbing with the time. In 1 9 7 4 , the consumption of hardwood veneer and plywood was l i t t l e over 1 3 3 000 nr', t h i s figure i s increasing s u b s t a n t i a l l y at an annual rate of 40% to reach 339 000 m^  i n 1 9 7 8 . In thi s case, the production should have followed the same trend to s a t i s f y both the l o c a l consumption and exports, and to minimize imports. I t i s predicted that, the consumption of hardwood veneer and plywood w i l l account for over h a l f m i l l i o n cubic meters i n 1980 to 1 9 8 1 , with an increase of over 100 000 nr* from the 1978 figure. Species most r e a d i l y available for such an increase are b i r c h , aspen and cottonwood with minor contributions from alder, maple and elm. 50 2.,k,k Possible market for B r i t i s h Columbia aspen, cottonwood and birch veneer production It i s obvious that hardwood plywood plants become the major consumer for both birch and poplar veneers. However, softwood plywood plants can be expected to consume good volume of trembling aspen esp e c i a l l y following recent acceptance of t h i s species by the Canadian Standards Association as inner p l i e s (core) i n the manufacture of softwood plywood (107). There are two potential markets for B r i t i s h Columbia b i r c h , aspen and cottonwood veneer. F i r s t , the l o c a l Canadian market, which includes B r i t i s h Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan. Shipments to the Eastern Provinces are not expected at t h i s stage due to the sharply r i s i n g cost of transportation and r a i l freight rates involved and the Eastern market competition. Second, i s the United States market. Attention should be directed to the Western States market because of lower transportation rates i n comparison to shipping to the East, and also because of the natural concentration and tremendous capacities of the plywood m i l l s on the West Coast. Fig. 19 indicates expected market for bir c h , aspen and cottonwood veneer, i l l u s t r a t i n g number of veneering m i l l s and plywood operations i n each Province and State. Table 32 has been developed to show the t o t a l production of veneer 51 and plywood i n the area under study, and i l l u s t r a t e s the high demand on veneer production. From the table i t should be noticed that, the veneer d e f i c i t being 7 489 ©00 nr i n 1977 was p a r t i a l l y covered by some of the plywood manufacturers producing t h e i r own veneer, and by the mass imports from Japan, Finalnd, S.E. Asia and Canada during these years. In the future expansion of veneering plants producing various plywood veneer grades, changes i n consumer structure w i l l be experienced ; from plywood m i l l s to plywood using industries such as furniture, cabinets, containers and p a l l e t s . The furniture industry i s expected to become the major consumer for hardwood plywood i n the United States (13 )• T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the furniture industry centres were located i n Grand Rapids (Michigan), James town (New York), and Gardner (Massachusetts). Importance and dominance of these t r a d i t i o n a l centres have diminished as new industry i s also being established i n North Carolina, V i r g i n i a , Indiana and southern C a l i f o r n i a . The reasons for re l o c a t i o n were i d e n t i f i e d as; lower labour rates, better timber supply, and l o c a l government incentives (13 )• ©f importance, as far as furniture manufacturing centres are concerned i n the United States, the Southern C a l i f o r n i a furniture industry merits mention. The industry 52 concentrates i n major c i t i e s close to i t s markets. Approximately, 7k% of the western furniture industry i s located i n Los Angeles, about 1000 establishments buying hardwood products ( 60). Because of the r a p i d l y expanding population of C a l i f o r n i a , high demands on hardwood panelling against furniture required,compromizes i n production of hardwood veneer and plywood. The furniture industry i n t h i s area i s u t i l i z i n g hardwood as a major raw material with preference of l i g h t colored species such as red alder, soft maple, yellow poplar, birch,aspen and cottonwood. These species constitute more than 50% of the hardwood consumed by the industry i n C a l i f o r n i a . For example, plywood consumption i s heavely depending on a v a i l a b i l i t y of hardwoods i n t h i s area. For t h i s reason, a consumption r a t i o of 86 to Ik i s established for hardwood to softwood plywood, respectively (60 ). Further, the Los Angeles area i s also the major t e l e v i s i o n and stereo cabinet manufacturer i n the Western States. In summary then, Western Canadian hardwood industry has good pote n t i a l due to the a v a i l a b i l i t y of raw material and markets within western Canada and the United States. However, extra e f f o r t s are needed i n developing s p e c i a l i z e d processing plants and markets for the products. 53 3.0 PLANT DESIGN Description, Planning and Design C r i t e r i a for Production Lines Operation of the plant under study i s forseen as an integrated complex. Such an approach can be shown to give maximum safeguard against the high v u l n e r a b i l i t y to f a i l u r e normally associated with marketing single products. Further, since some of the products could be marketed l o c a l l y , t h i s would compensate for disadvantageous position t h i s plant w i l l have with respect to the major products by being far from i t s markets. The plant i n question i s designed by giving high importance to e f f i c i e n c y i n raw material processing and u t i l i z a t i o n . I t i s designed to use a re a d i l y available, now l a r g e l y i d l e , wood source. The required operating e f f i c i e n c i e s have already been demonstrated to be achievable with r e l a t i v e l y small sized logs i n the Interi o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. In spite of the fact that t h i s i s a vast resource l a r g e l y untapped at the present time, i t i s important that u t i l i z a t i o n be contemplated without wastage of wood. Thus, high-yield technologies were considered only as important i n selecting the product l i n e s . In selecting the components 54 of the complex several options are open. One of the many options chosen along these l i n e s i s based on the consideration that aspen and cottonwood can provide for better than adequate corestock i n plywood manufacture e s p e c i a l l y when such plywood i s overlaid by high quality veneers to upgrade i t s appearance and especially i t s value. Residue u t i l i z a t i o n , i . e . , shorts for match s p l i n t s and bark for c a t t l e feed, improves the recovery factor and adds s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the value recoverable from t h i s resource. Such increased value recovery i s considered to add substantially to the attractiveness and p r o f i t a b i l i t y i n u t i l i z i n g t h i s untapped resources. Thus processing of aspen/cottonwood and white birch species i s considered to hold much promise i n f i l l i n g the unexpensive raw material gaps of the future. Integrated use of the raw material achieves u t i l i z a t i o n and th i s assures maximum economic benefits to the industry. Thereby, components of these hardwood inventories.had to be i d e n t i f i e d with marketable products which can be made from them. A series of combinations of production l i n e s were studied^ taking into consideration the immediate and future scenarios of: i . Raw material quality, i i . recovery of wood supplies, 55 i i i . major p r o d u c t s to be produced, i v . market demands, v. a v a i l a b i l i t y o f o t h e r needed m a t e r i a l s , i . e . , a d h e s i v e and energy and v i . p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n v e r t i n g the r e s i d u e s i n t o u s e f u l and m a r k e t a b l e p r o d u c t s . Thus the s e l e c t e d o p e r a t i o n w i l l a l l o w f u l l above ground biomass u t i l i z a t i o n w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f f o l i a g e (most o f i t would be o f f d u r i n g w i n t e r h a r v e s t i n g anyway). The p r o p o s e d i n d u s t r i a l complex i n c l u d e s f i v e p r o d u c t i o n l i n e s i n l o g i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n to maximize r e c o v e r y and to reduce the u n i t c o s t o f the f i n a l p r o d u c t s . The c o n t e m p l a t e d p r o d u c t i o n l i n e s are as f o l l o w : i . R o t a r y p e e l i n g and d r y i n g o f aspen and cottonwood, ( w h i t e s p r u c e c o u l d a l s o be p r o c e s s e d on t h i s l i n e ) , i i . v e n e e r i n g by v e r t i c a l s l i c i n g and d r y i n g o f b i r c h , ( h i g h grade w h i t e spruce can a l s o be p r o c e s s e d on t h i s l i n e ) , i i i . l e n g t h w a y s s l i c i n g and d r y i n g o f r e s i d u a l h i g h grade b i r c h f l i t c h e s , i v . match s p l i n t s p r o c e s s i n g l i n e , from aspen and cottonwood s h o r t s and c u t - o f f s , and v. aspen b a r k p e l l e t i n g f o r a n i m a l ( c a t t l e ) f e e d . P r o d u c t i o n l i n e s are p l a n n e d to be c o n s t r u c t e d s i d e - b y _ s i d e 56 as shown i n the plant layout (Fig.50)• The required land i s estimated to be 7ha (17«3 acres). This area i s necessary to accomodate the plant structures for the production l i n e s and administration spaces which account for 21+ 256 m . The rest of the land area i s provided to accomodate s u f f i c i e n t log stacking/sorting/storage for 8 months raw material inventory due to p e c u l i a r i t i e s i n harvesting seasons to be observed i n the North. Material flow w i l l be used as a guide i n the following to describe operations i n the complex. 3.1 Log Preparation Line Logs pre cut'-.- to 10 m i n length, are to be obtained by truck d e l i v e r i e s from logging contractors. Two log booms (Fig. 20) with a capacity of 20t each are provided to of f - l o a d logs from trucks into storage or d i r e c t l y to the log processing deck. This unit i s adopted from designs of Kok urns Industries Ltd. (81) as i t provides e f f i c i e n t and fast unloading, sorting, and handling of log inventories i n a minimum amount of space and without the expensive manpower needed for conventional log yard operations. The log boom i s made of s t e e l . It pivots from one end at ground l e v e l and i s supported by an "Au frame structure equipped with four wheels that t r a v e l continuously on a c i r c u l a r r a i l . I t i s equipped with log grapple which i s 57 attached to a bicycle type block with multiple cables. The operation i s remotely controlled. Grapple radius i s 30.5 m with a maximum elevation of 16.5 m. The recommended maximum stacking hight i s 12.2; m. The diameter of the log storage i s o.Ojn thus allowing storage of .60 000 -_.-70-000 nr of logs. The design of the plant includes placing of the two log booms at such distances (Fig. 50) to allow interchange of logs between them and to deliver logs to the cross feeding table. Thus the t o t a l stored wood volume i n the yard would be ±1+0 000 m3 when f u l l y stacked. Plant raw material requirement i s estimated at 180 000 nrVyear. The logs w i l l be conveyed from the cross feeding table to a log holding device, p r i o r to debarking. Here, they are sized up on a log chain conveyor equipped with a length scanner to monitor and r e g i s t e r log lengths. The date i s fed into a mini-computer and u t i l i z e d i n c a l c u l a t i n g plant production y i e l d , and raw material inventory information. The debarker selected i s engineered by Kockums Industries. I t i s designed to work under the complete range of temperatures (-20 to 30°C on both hardwood and softwoods. The Super 3 0 ( 7 6 . 2 cm) Cambio debarker ( F i g . 21) has a capacity of 60 m/min with a t o t a l estimated debarking capacity of 1 200 mvshift. For better debarking r e s u l t s , two log holding devices are attached to each end of the debarker to provide infeed and outfeed s t a b i l i t y . The 58 debarking operation i s followed by a bucking saw which cuts the debarked logs into 5 m blocks. These blocks are conveyed to the conditioning vats along a special conveyor which i s equipped with a diameter scanner, weighing station and kickers (Fig.50.). On t h i s conveyor the blocks are pre-sorted according to there diameter, and density. Log conditioning was explained previously (p.16 to 18). Individual log conditioning for each species (aspen, birch and softwoods) i s based on weight and diameter measurments taken on each 5 m debarked b o l t , assuming a l i m i t e d moisture content range for the species. Thus the system including a length scanner, bucking saw, diameter scanner, weighing s t a t i o n , conditioning vats, and a mini-computer i s designed to handle safely the projected plant capacity of 180 000 n r / year lumber consumption. The conditioning/sorting section i s manufactured and assembled by Atmospheric Sciences Inc. (72 ) i n the U.S.A. After conditioning the 5 m blocks (each species i s conditioned seperately), they are sorted into two groups; aspen, cottonwood and possibly spruce i n one group and white birch i n the other. This operation w i l l be done by an operator. A l l species are resawn to proper processing length on an automatic bucking saw p r i o r to being conveyed to the i n d i v i d u a l production l i n e s . A separate l i n e for bucking and conditioning shorts for the s p l i n t manufacturing 59 l i n e i s shown i n the general plant layout ( F i g . 50 ) . 3.2 Aspen and Cottonwood Continuous Rotary Veneering and Drying Production Line Veneer peeling and drying l i n e i s designed as a continuous operation with l i t t l e i f any storage of veneer i n between the two systems. It consists of three major sections: i . Peeling equipment, i i . veneer dryer, and i i i . veneer sorting and stacking system. Information on t h i s production l i n e was co l l e c t e d from d i f f e r e n t sources. Data were reviewed and evaluated as to s u i t a b i l i t y of the alternate systems for highest productivity and best product quality. Responses to i n q u i r i e s were received from COE Manufacturing Co. i n the U.S.A.(93), Valette and Garreau of France ( 9 4 ) , and Raute Co. of Finiand ( 9 0 ) . The plant design submitted by COE Manufacturing Co. was eliminated because of two reasons: i . The projected plant capacity was low, with dried veneer output of 15 000 n r V y e a r , and i i . the production l i n e consisted of a 15- section, 2 deck steam heated conventional conveyor dryer, which has l i m i t e d drying capacity when compared 60 to j e t d r i e r s . The other two l i n e s obtained from Finland and France, had no apparent s i g n i f i c a n t defferences i n processing procedures with respect to handling, veneer quality and capacity. Both l i n e s provide f a c i l i t i e s for high-speed, variable thickness veneer cutting and an option for high-capacity j e t drying. As mentioned above, the French and the F i n i s h l i n e s are nearly i n d e n t i c a l , except with respect to some engineering and design options. Either of the two l i n e s was found to be suitable for the production of high quality dried aspen, cottonwood and softwood veneer. 3.2.1 Planning, capacity and design c r i t e r i a Due to lack of "skilled labour i n the North, the production l i n e i s planned to be highly automated with a minimum of manpower requirement. The production time of the machinery, with the exception of the dryer and associated machinery behind i t , i s calculated at k 000 h/ year (250 days, 2 s h i f t s each). Productive time of the dryer, clipp e r and automatic stacking system i s set at 8 000 h/year (333 days, 3 s h i f t s each). The design capacity ©f the plant i s based on 61 previously proven economical plant s i z e s . These were •z checked and modified according to t o t a l unit cost of dried veneer of 3 mm thickness basis, and the average s e l l i n g price of t h i s product. In preliminary calculations i t was assumed that the complex consisted only of one production l i n e , i . e . , rotary veneer cutting and drying. Also, the unit cost of the dried veneer was estimated at |80/m5 (101) with a s e l l i n g price of $132/m3 ( 1 5 ) Table 33 and Fig. 22 show a s e n s t i v i t y analysis of c a p i t a l and production cost for t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l i n e . Based oh these calculations the minimum economical plant capacity was found to be about 70 000 nr/year of dried veneer. This capacity i s thus i l l u s t r a t e d at a point where minimal decrease i n t o t a l unit cost f i r s t occurs. With reference to i n d u s t r i a l experience on product recovery from aspen and cottonwood, dried veneer can be obtained i n 50% y i e l d from the incoming raw material (94, 107). In thi s figure allowance i s made for spinout b o l t s , r o t , crooked logs, bark, cores, r a d i a l and tangential drying shrinkage and veneer waste. Table 34 was developed to show the hourly output of each processing step of two aspen and cottonwood dried veneer production (94 ). Based on the above mentioned performance figures, the round log input i s calculated at 140 000 nrVyear. 62 3.2,2 Line descriptions and general considerations Following l og preparation and conditioning of the 5 m debarked bolts, they are cut into the required processing length of 2500 mm. The peeler blocks are then conveyed to the lathe charger by a cross feeding conveyor (Fig. 50 ) . The following i s a b r i e f description of major machinery of the aspen and cottonwood dried veneer pro-duction l i n e : 3.2.2.1 Lathe charger The lathe charger i s a hydraulic device, the function of which i s based on o p t i c a l loading and centering of the logs. Independent centering l i f t aprons controlled by an operator l e v e l the log at i t s ends. Two projectors project targets of concentric c i r c l e s onto the butt ends of the b o l t . Centering of the log i s thus posible and the operator w i l l set the log by d i r e c t i n g the l i f t supports h o r i z o n t a l l y or v e r t i c a l l y u n t i l the desired log pos i t i o n i s attained. By means of a convex mirror, the opposite side of the log i s also monitored. This o p t i c a l centering system allows positioning of logs i n d i v i d u a l l y as required by the shape of the log (Fig. 23). 63 According to the manufacturer(94)> a good,centering system can reduce the raw material waste by 3-5%» due to production of higher quality veneer and l e s s f i s h t a i l s . In addition, the system reduces the time required for most advantageous log positioning between lathe spindles. The loading unit consists of: 1. two clamping arms for securing the log, 2. a movable carriage for quick transfer of logs to the lathe, 3. a carrige guideway gantry, 4. .a compelte universal hydraulic arm set, and 5... a control desk fixed at lathe. As the gantry i s designed long enough, the movable carrige conveys the centered logs to an intermediate waiting s t a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , during the peeling operation, the operator can e f f e c t the centering of a new b o l t . A separate movable carrige conveys the blocks to the gripping p o s i t i o n on the lathe so that the centre of the projected targets corresponds exactly to the spindle centres. Fig. 23 shows a view of the device and Table 35 i l l u s t r a t e s i t s technical data. The charger i s capable of handling four blocks/min, with a capacity of 30 m3/h. 3.2.2.2. The lathe 64 The p e e l i n g machine i s the h e a r t o f the l i n e . C e r t a i n l y , the p l a n t c a p a c i t y i s d e t e r m i n e d on the b a s i s o f the l a t h e speed and t h r o u g h p u t . Thus, the l a t h e c o u l d become the major b o t t l e neck o r l i m i t i n g f a c t o r o f t h i s o p e r a t i o n . The s e l e c t e d l a t h e f o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g o f aspen and cottonwood r o t a r y c u t veneer c a r r i e s the f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s : a. The machine frame c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e p a r t s and a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e s a s o l e p l a t e on which are i n s t a l l e d two heads, c o n n e c t e d by a c r o s s - b a r a t the top p a r t ; b. the p r e s s u r e bar s u p p o r t r e s t s a t i t s ends on 2 i n c l i n e d ramps, f i x e d a t the k n i f e h o l d e r . A c c o r d i n g to the s e l e c t e d p e e l i n g t h i c k n e s s , t h i s u n i t a u t o m a t i c a l l y s e t s the p r e s s u r e bar edge to t h e d e s i r e d v a l u e e n s u r i n g p e r f e c t p e e l i n g c o n d i t i o n s ; cg.ithe k n i f e c a r r i g e r e s t s a t i t s ends on 2 v a r i a b l e g r a d i e n t g u i d e s so as t o ensure a u t o m a t i c s e t t i n g o f the b l a d e c u t t i n g a n g l e as a f u n c t i o n o f l o g s i z e . T h i s s p e c i a l f e a t u r e i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e a t the end o f the p e e l i n g o p e r a t i o n ; and d. an a d d i t i o n a l k n i f e and nosebar c o n t r o l d e v i c e , 65 allowing changes i n operational adjustments during peeling. The machine i s also equipped with telescopic spindles and automatic thickness and pressure change securing device. Technical data and veiw of t h i s lathe are provided i n Table 3 6 and Fig. 24. Lathe capacity i s •z estimated at 25 nr/h> s l i g h t l y under that of the charger, which i s 3 0 m3/h. 3 . 2 . 2.3 Veneer r e e l i n g and storage system The r e e l i n g system i s an excellent buffering unit between the high speed lathe and the r e l a t i v e l y low speed dryer. The system contains s p e c i a l i z e d mechanical devices for handling veneers. The r e e l i n g l i n e s t a r t s d i r e c t l y at the lathe. Veneer i s gripped by a double l e v e l conveyor belt system running at the circumferencial speed of the lathe. This forms part of the veneer transfer system s t a r t i n g with lathe i t s e l f . The veneer i s conveyed further and automatically placed around the circumference of the r e e l i n g r o l l and reeled into bundles. Completed r e e l s are then automatically sealed with adhesive tape to avoid unwinding. Waste material ( f i s h t a i l s , broken veneer, etc.) i s separated out by means of a pneumatically operated waste 66 disposal flap which directs the waste to a diversion channel. Fig, 25 shows the side view of the r e e l i n g system connected with the lathe. The o v e r a l l length of the r e e l i n g equipment i s dependent on the lathe and dryer speed and on available space. The r e e l i n g system operates at speeds between 300-^00 m/min with veneer r e e l diameters of approximately 800 mm. This capacity i s equevelant to 45 m^ /h of 1 mm thickness veneer. Unreeling i s synchronized with the dryer speed. The stored f u l l r e e l s are consecutively dried d a i l y . The system insures veneer production f l e x i b i l i t y and possible separation of veneer groups according to thei r moisture content, so as each to be dried under proper drying schedules. Such f l e x i b i l i t y eliminates or reduces the need for re-drying of i n s u f f i c i e n t l y dried veneer. 3 .2.2.4 The dryer The selected dryer for t h i s type of operation i s a continuous j e t dryer, which permits non-stop output of veneer. B a s i c a l l y , i t i s a single track, multi-deck dryer, f i t t e d with a get blowing system as shown i n Fig. 8. The 67 dryer also contains i n t e r n a l a i r c i r c u l a t i o n and wire mesh conveyor b e l t s for warpage-free drying to eliminate c u r l i n g of the veneer. The dried veneer i s usually cooled through a down draft cooling section i n s t a l l e d under the dryer. In t h i s system, heat i s transferred to the r e - c i r c u l a t i n g a i r through radiators. The radiators are heated by steam, hot water, hot o i l or gases from dire c t f i r i n g . Direct heating could be attained by f i r i n g natural gas within the dryer chamber for high-temperature and fast drying requirements. The selected dryer uses a j e t blowing system, which r e s u l t s i n strong v e r t i c a l a i r drafts on both sides of the veneer track. This assures fast and uniform drying from both sides. The machine i s also equipped with a x i a l a i r blowers across the a l l welded radiators, to insure best possible heat transmission and smallest a i r resistance. This system i s f i r e proof and has a f i n a l moisture equalizer section. According to the manufacture's claims, the speed of the dryer mesh conveyor belts could reach 60 m/min (90) allowing throughputs of 9 m3/h of dried veneer - 1mm thickness basis. A saving i n raw material of 4.5% i s claimed and i s explained as being due to avoidance of human handling of the f r a g i l e green veneer. The system i s also claimed to insure minimum manpower requirements. 68 In addition, l e s s f l o o r area i s required due to the fact that, the conveyors behind the lathe are located above the dryer. F i g . 26 shows aproximate measurements of the selected jet dryer and special arrangement @"f the u n i t s . At the dry-side of the dryer, an automatic veneer cXJLpp.er i s placed having a working width of 3000 mm. The veneer i s sorted and stacked into units of working widths up to 2 8 7 0 mm. The capacity of the stacking machine i s planned at 7 0 - 7 5 sheets/min (90) approximately 15 m^/h-1 mm thickness b a s i s ) . The clipp e r and veneer s o r t i n g / stacking machines are shown i n F i g . 2 7 and 2 8 . Added to t h i s l i n e is aveneer trimsaw and veneer scarfer with stacker, (Fig, 29 and 30 ) . The trimsaw trims one edge of s t r i p veneers for s p l i c i n g and applies glue to the edge. The scarfer bevel cuts both ends of a veneer for j o i n t i n g i n the length and applies glue to one bevel. Working width of machines i s variable within 450,1850 to 2650 mm. The aspen and cottonwood dried veneer production l i n e machinery was c a r e f u l l y selected to s u i t the quality requirements and the calculated 70 000 nrV year dried veneer production capacity of the plant. The dried veneer produced by t h i s l i n e i s intended for use i n the manufacture of the universal size plywood panels (2400 x 1200 mm). 69 3.3 Continuous V e r t i c a l S l i c e r and Drying Line for The Production of White Birch Face Veneer The s l i c i n g - d r y i n g production l i n e consists of two major machine units; the s l i c e r and the dryer. In addition, the usual block, wet and dried veneer handling equipment i s also s p e c i f i e d . Data on the highly automated continuous l i n e were exclusively c o l l e c t e d from Babcock-BSH of W. Germany i n cooperation with Valette:' & Garreau of France (89, 94)• Lines marketed by Capital Machines International Corporation i n the United States (77) were also reviewed, but due to the l i m i t e d information supplied on s l i c e r s and lack of i n t e g r a l l y designed equipment for drying and veneer handling, i t did not appear to be a t t r a c t i v e enough to warrant serious consideration. 3.3*1 Planning, capacity and design c r i t e r i a A highly automated production l i n e was planned for the following reasons: i . Reduction i n operational costs, i i . higher volume of production / unit time, and i i i . better veneer quality. A l l machines within the main l i n e are planned to operate 70 only on a two s h i f t s / day basis (250 sixteen hour days/ year). Capacity of the s l i c i n g - d r y i n g l i n e i s planned on the basis of producing enough dried white birch face veneer to be ov e r l a i d on both sides of the aspen and cottonwood panels. In previous chapters, i t was estimated that, white birch volume, within the plant s i t e logging range, accounts for 12% of the aspen and cottonwood volume. On the other hand, to produce two birch face veneers (0.30 - 0,50 mm t h i c k ) , 1/6 of 70 000 nrVyear (12 000 nr 3 / yr) i s appropriate. Based on i n d u s t r i a l experience (94) , the production y i e l d of the s l i c i n g operation i s estimated at 40% of t o t a l raw material input. Therefore, the amount of round white birch timber needed to allow production of 12 000 nrVyear of dried s l i c e d veneer on a 0.5 mm thickness basis i s 30 000 n r V y e a r . 3.3.2 V e r t i c a l s l i c i n g and drying l i n e Debarked and conditioned 5 m white birch blocks w i l l be conveyed d i r e c t e l y to a v e r t i c a l and horizontal set of saws p r i o r to s l i c i n g . These saws operate with variable settings which are computerized to select the 71 maximum bolt cross section for the benefit of maximum veneer y i e l d . Saw setting i s selected according to the diameter and the long i t u d i u a l shape of the block. The sawn blocks are transferred to the s l i c e r by a cross-feed conveyor (Fig. 50 ) . Description of the s l i c e r and the dryer including some important features of their operation i s as follows: 3.3.2.1 The v e r t i c a l s l i c e r The machine i s equipped with supports, guideways, pressure and knife beams. They are manufactured from spheroid graphite i r o n . The knife-holder and pressure-bar r e s t carrige could be adjusted by a ratchet-mechanism which secures precisions of thickness r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y i n the range of 0.01-0.03 mm. In order to prevent deposition of possible condensations and hence staining of the veneer (formed due to differences i n temperature between the ambient body, the metal and the wood), sets of e l e c t r i c a l resistances are mounted at the l e v e l of the knife and the pressure-bar. These resistances are coupled with thermostats allowing temperature adjustment on the nosebar and knife to preselected nominal temperatures. In t h i s machine, the drive i s ensured by variable-72 speed motor. An air - d r i v e n braking clutch enables immediate and accurate stopping of the machine i s provided. The s l i c e r i s equipped with an automatic retractable dogging system which insures continuous operation and reduces down time required otherwise for readjustment. With the system selected, the residual f l i t c h thickness i s 100 mm. The running of the machine i s claimed to be remarkably s i l e n t . The main features of thi s s l i c e r are the high working speed that can be reached, i . e . , 90 sheets (cuts)/min (94) and the excellent quality of veneer produced. The capacity of the v e r t i c a l s l i c e r i s estimated at 14 000 nr/year - 0.5 mm average thickness basis. Side and top views of the machine, i n addition to i t s technical data, are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Fig.31 and Table 37. 3.3.2.2 The dryer The s l i c e d veneer belt dryer recommended with the s l i c e r has high band running accuracy and tension control, automatic a i r moisture control for economical and careful drying. A i r c i r c u l a t i o n i s optimized by special design which insures minimum heat loss through a i r lock located at entry and exit points. In order to maintain maximum s l i c i n g 73 speed, the length of the dryer was precisely calculated by the manufacturer to absorb the f u l l s l i c e r production without any interruption or delay. The following advantages were claimed by the manufacturer i n favour of the chosen continuous s l i c i n g and drying l i n e i n r e l a t i o n to conventional systems which are i n wide use today: a. better veneer quality, b. r e l a i a b l e conveyance, even for poor quality veneer, c. higher cutting capacities, and d. clean formation of books with the exact number of pre-selected veneers. A side view of the complete s l i c e r and dryer production l i n e i s shown i n F i g . 32. 3.4 Lengthways S l i c i n g and Drying of Veneer from High Grade Birch Flitcho- Residuals The lengthways s l i c i n g and drying l i n e i s planned to be added to the complex to u t i l i z e 1600 (100 mm thick) /year high quality birch f l i t c h e s produced as residue on the v e r t i c a l s l i c e r . The l i n e was developed and introduced by Marunaka Tekkosho Incorporation i n Japan (84) and i s eminently suited for t h i s purpose. The l i n e consists of a lengthways horizontal s l i c e r 7k and a 3 - section dryer as shown i n the general plant layout ( F i g . 3 0 ) . A rotating conditioning vat i s normally connected with the l i n e to provide economical re-condi-tioning required p r i o r to accurate s l i c i n g . 3.4«1 Planning, capacity and design c r i t e r i a for the lengthways s l i c i n g and drying l i n e The operating time of t h i s l i n e i s planned at 2 s h i f t s / day, 8h each, or 230 days /year (k 000 operating hours/year). The lengthways s l i c e r selected for t h i s operation has a capacity of approximately 1 500 nrVyear-0.5 mm thickness basis. This capacity i s thus f u l l y u t i l i z e d i n conversion of the 100 mm thick residual f l i t c h e s originated as residue from the v e r t i c a l s l i c e r . The lengthways s l i c e r produces no s l i c i n g residue, thereby 100% use of the birch f l i t c h material i s possible. A s i m p l i f i e d operational view i s shown i n F i g . 33« 3.4»2 Machinery description of the lengthways s l i c i n g and drying system F l i t c h e s of 5000 x 300 x 100 mm w i l l be dropped from the v e r t i c a l s l i c e r , and conveyed to the lengthways system. The f l i t c h e s are then dropped into a rot a t i n g conditioning vat available for t h i s purpose, i f additional 7 5 conditioning i s required. Conditioned f l i t c h e s w i l l be fed through the s l i c e r to obtain one s l i c e d veneer at the time. F l i t c h e s are recycled i n the system u n t i l the l a s t veneer i s s l i c e d . The s l i c e d veneer comming o f f the s l i c e r i s transferred to the dryer manually. The dried veneer w i l l also require stacking by an operator. The. single, lengthways s l i c e r ( F ig. 3 4 ) has an adjustable knife ( F i g . 3 5 ) on which, se t t i n g angle ranges from 7 5 ° to 8 5 ° to allow production of fin e , high-grade veneer. I t produces veneer from a minimum of 0 . 3 mm to approximately 8 mm maximum thickness. Further s p e c i f i c a t i o n s on the lengthways single s l i c e r are provided i n Table 3 8 . The feed unit of the s l i c e r i s double mechanized. It moves up and down and cushions to hold the material properly without overpressure. No e f f e c t of i n f e r i o r grain nor roughness i s evident on s l i c e d veneer surface. Front table can be fine adjusted both v e r t i c a l l y and l o n g i t u d i n a l l y ( F i g . 3 6 ) so that the knife and the nosebar can be pr e c i s e l y aligned i n accordance with requirements determined by type (species) of material. The s l i c e r i s also equipped with an e l e c t r i c a l thickness c o n t r o l l e r to adjust cutting of veneer at the desired thickness automatically. A three-section dryer i s needed to dry the s l i c e d veneer. I t i s equipped with a pressure cylinder to correct 76 warped and twisted veneer. Feed speed and heating temperature can be controlled according to the thickness and moisture content of the veneer. The dryer i s provided with a dual safety divice to protect i t against accidental over-heating. Dryer s p e c i f i c a t i o n s are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 39. Veneer produced by both v e r t i c a l and lengthways s l i c e r s i s trimmed and spl i c e d into 122x2^2 cm using trimsaw and veneer s p l i c e r shown i n F i g . 29 and 30. 3.5 Match Spl i n t s Processing Line Spl i n t s manufacturing l i n e contains 10 d i f f e r e n t machines. They are catagorized under 3 sections: i . S p l i n t production l i n e , i i . s p l i n t treatment l i n e , and i i i . packaging u n i t . The three sections were designed and engineered by Arenco AB of Sweden (73). This production l i n e i s considered as a residue using l i n e to produce a value added product. It i s planned that t h i s l i n e u t i l i z e s short aspen and cottonwood blocks, spinouts from the major peeling l i n e , low quality blocks and could u t i l i z e low quality veneers and f i s h t a i l s of suitable thickness. 77 3.5*1 Planning, capacity and design c r i t e r i a The s p l i n t s manufacturing l i n e i s f u l l y automated l i n e . Three attendents are needed only to inspect and supervise the operation. Operating time i s 4000 h/year (2 shifts/day), except for the dryer, which has to operate continuously (24h x 333 days/year). Machine speed within the three sections i s synchronized by the manufacturer to avoid bottle necks and down time Although . the capacity of the s p l i n t producing l i n e depends heavily on log and bolt quality, i t i s claimed that, the l i n e could produce approximately 10 m i l l i o n (2.3x2.3x40 mm) packed s p l i n t s / h ready for shipment. 3.5»2 Description of the s p l i n t manufacturing l i n e Two raw material sources can be i n d e n t i f i e d for t h i s l i n e : F i r s t , the short blocks and generally low quality logs bucked at the f i r s t bucking saw on the logs pre-paration l i n e (Fig.5 0 ) . The blocks are sawn to 700 mm i n length, conditioned seperately for good peeling quality and introduced to the s p l i n t production l i n e ( Fig. 50) . Second source of raw material i s the lathe i n the aspen-cottonwood peeling l i n e . A l l spinouts, cores and 78 low quality blocks (2500 mm long) w i l l be conveyed to a v e r t i c a l chain saw to be sawn into the required 3x700 mm blocks. Two - 200 mm pieces have to be removed from each end to eliminate spinning on the match s p l i n t peeling machine. The 700 mm bolts are conveyed to the s p l i n t peeling machine and peeled to 70 mm diameter cores, 3,5 ,2 ,1 S p l i n t production l i n e The s p l i n t production l i n e s t a r t s at the veneer peeling machine and ends at the far end of the s p l i n t dryer. Between these two machines others are located, such as veneer cutting (clipping) and p i l i n g unit, s p l i n t chopping machine, s p l i n t buffer conveyor and spray impre-gnating u n i t . The peeling machine (Fig, 37) i s push button operated from a control panel. Blocks are l i f t e d up to spindle height by the centering device and are clamped between spindles by the ri g h t hand spindle; which gets i t s motion by a pneumatic cylinder. Left-hand spindle i s equipped with outer grippers automatically r e t r a c t when the log diameter gets small and the knife approaches the chuck. Knife s l i d e may be run at high speed towards or from the clamped block by a separate motor. When the 79 block has been peeled•down to the required core diameter, the knife s l i d e feed i s automatically disconnected and, at the same time the knife s l i d e i s run at high speed back to i t s rear end p o s i t i o n . This machine i s designed to provide veneer with a constant speed at 1.7 m/sec within a block diameter range of 600 to 116 mm. Capacity of t h i s machine i s claimed to be 10 m i l l i o n s p l i n t s / h depending on diameter and quality of blocks. Block length to be fed to the peeling machine ranges between 570-690 mm and the maximum diameter may not exceed 600 mm. Seventy millimeter i s the recommended core diameter (73). The veneer p i l i n g unit between the peeling and chopping machines ( F i g . 38) consists of cutting and p i l i n g u n i t s . In the cutting unit the veneer discharged from the veneer peeling machine i s cut to lengths. Knife and counter edge atfe f i t t e d i n rot a t i n g r o l l e r s . In the p i l i n g u n it, the veneers are l i f t e d by r a i l s from the transport chain and are brought i n between two l o n g i t u d i n a l r o l l e r s . These convey the veneer to the p i l i n g station of the unit, which also serves as feeding table to the s p l i n t chopping machine. On the feeding table the veneer i s straightened between one row of adjustable r o l l e r s and another row of o s c i l l a t i n g r o l l e r s . This unit needs no attendent to operate. Maximum 80 veneer width to be fed into t h i s machine i s 630 mm, while the minimum veneer width i s 600 mm, with maximum veneer speed of 2 m/sec. Splint chopper shown i n F i g . 39 i s characterized by high output (up to Ik m i l l i o n s p l i n t s / h ) . It has been designed for continuous veneers pack and for working i n synchronization with the veneer peeling, cutting (clipping) and p i l i n g machines. Machine crankshaft i s located at the bottom to provide sturdy and smooth run. Up and down motion of the knife i s guided i n a pivoting bridge. This provides higher speeds than available with conventional designs. Feed of veneers pack i s arranged with two s t e e l r o l l e r s , one of which i s pressed against the pack by an a i r piston, keeping constant pressure independently of the width of the pack. This machine i s designed for constant veneer feed, but the feed i s variably adjustable for the production of s p l i n t s of thicknesses between 1.6-3*0 mm. Chopper i s equipped with a pressing device r e s t i n g on the pack to insure constant thickness of the s p l i n t s . Knife holder contains a number of v e r t i c a l knifes (lancets). The distance between two lancets i s the length of a s p l i n t . This machine i s designed to receive veneer packs with height ranging between 60-200 mm and width between 350-630 mm. Splint buffer conveyor (Fig. kO) i s intended to 81 be placed between the chopping machine and the s p l i n t impregnating u n i t . I t consists of an endless conveyor chain. Above the upper part of the conveyor there i s a pair of chains connected with rakes, which move i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n of the conveyor. The number of s p l i n t s leaving the conveyor i s dependent on the space formed between the rakes and the conveyor. Spl i n t s on the conveyor are, therefore, used as compensating stock from which they can be taken i f the s p l i n t production should occasionally stop. In t h i s way the necessarily continuous charge of the s p l i n t impregnating machine i s maintained also when s p l i n t production i s i r r e g u l a r . Buffer capacity of t h i s machine i s 6.5 m~* and the infeed capacity could reach up to 14 m i l l i o n s p l i n t s / h . Spray impregnating unit ( F i g . 41) i s placed following the buffer conveyor and before the s p l i n t dryer. In t h i s machine the s p l i n t s are treated with 3% monoamonium phosphate solution to reduce th e i r f l a m a b i l i t y when dry. Wet s p l i n t buffer conveyor insures even s p l i n t flow for obtaining a perfect dosing of impregnation l i q u i d . S p l i n t s are passing a r o t a t i n g drum during the impregnation process. Normal passing time, according to the manufacturer i s 3 min. In the f i r s t part of the drum an impregnating mist of the phosphate i s sprayed on the s p l i n t s and i n the second part, 82 the s p l i n t s are allowed to absorb the l i q u i d . Following t h i s process the s p l i n t s are then discharged on a vibr a t i n g spreading table conveying them to the s p l i n t dryer. Capacity of t h i s unit i s claimed at 10 m i l l i o n s p l i n t s / h . S p l i n t dryer consists of k sections. These are made of a frame of p r o f i l e i r o n with the walls and roof covered by double i r o n sheeting with i n s u l a t i o n of high temperature honcombustible material i n between. The dryer i s provided with k inspection doors on each side. Each section includes two d i r e c t l y connected fans for c i r c u l a t i o n of drying a i r . Dryer conveyor i s made of perforated s t a i n l e s s s t e e l plates. On the top of these plates guiding plates permit variable quantity of s p l i n t s on the conveyor with a maximum s p l i n t height of 300 mm. Within the dryer chamber, steam i s dist r i b u t e d from the main duct into the four drying sections. Each section i s equipped with a separated steam valve. Although the operating temperature inside the dryer i s dependent on the i n i t i a l moisture content of the s p l i n t s and dryer speed, i t however ranges between 85-95°C. This gives an average drying time of 20 min. 3.5.2.2 Sp l i n t treatment l i n e From the s p l i n t dryer, s p l i n t s drop into pneumatic 83 conveyors, along which they are blown to the polishing drum. Air from these conveyors i s exhausted through a fan situated above the i n l e t to the p o l i s h i n g drum. Spl i n t p o l i s h i n g drum (Fig.42) i s simply a r o t a t i n g hexagonal drum mounted on a heavy stand. Axis of the drum declines toward the discharge end. Internal surfaces of the drum are smooth, and the s p l i n t s are polished by working against each other during the tumbling motion r e s u l t i n g from the r o t a t i o n of the drum. Polished s p l i n t s are fed d i r e c t e l y to the s p l i n t cleaning and sorting machine. Capacity of the polishing drum i s reported by the manufacturer to be 5 m i l l i o n s p l i n t s / h . S p l i n t sorting and cleaning machine (Fig.43) i s designed to remove short s p l i n t s andwwaste. It consists of an o s c i l l a t i n g , i n c l i n e d table f i t t e d with perforated aluminum plates at three l e v e l s . Diameter of the perforations i s such that short s p l i n t s drop through the holes, whereas s p l i n t s of the correct length pass down the table. Capacity of t h i s unit i s also 5 m i l l i o n s p l i n t s / h . Following the cleaning and sorting machine i s the s p l i n t sieving machine shown i n Fig.44 . This unit separates and r e j e c t s a l l s p l i n t s which are too thick and have passed the s p l i n t sorting machine. I t comprises a conveyor b e l t made of a series of sieves attached at each end to a l i n k chain. Eccentric cams cause the assemble to vibrate i n the 84 l o n g i t u d i n a l d i r e c t i o n . The sieve mesh permits s p l i n t s only of the correct size to pass through. Spl i n t s are fed to the conveyor at one end of the machine, and while being transported to the other end are vibrated down into the sieves. S p l i n t s of acceptable cross section pass through and drop to a vib r a t i n g channel. Irregular s p l i n t s or pieces'of veneer that cannot pass through the sieves f a l l out when the sieves are inverted i n the normal course of the machine cycle. Capacity of the s p l i n t sieving machine i s up to 5 m i l l i o n s p l i n t s / h . 3.5.2.3 S p l i n t packing unit The • machine i s intended to l e v e l and pack s p l i n t s with l e v e l l i n g e f f i c i e n c y of about k0% of s p l i n t s input into big wooden containers with inside dimensions of 1455 x 1135 x 2622 mm to insure economical shipping of s p l i n t s . The operation s t a r t s with the unlevelled s p l i n t s which 3 are transported from the sieving machine to a 4.5 nr s p l i n t bin by a i r . By means of a vibrator feeder, the s p l i n t s are then brought down to the l e v e l l i n g grating of the machine. L e v e l l i n g grating i s equipped with two motor vibrators giving the grating a horizontal v i b r a t i o n i n the long i t u d i n a l d i r e c t i o n of the s p l i n t . P a r t i t i o n s 8 5 of the grating are determined by the dimensions of the s p l i n t and container. After having been l e v e l l e d through the grating, the s p l i n t s are brought down i n the container. The machine operatestthus f u l l y automatically and the only function <3f the fork truck operator i s to remove the f i l l e d containers and replace them by empty ones. The f u l l capacity of t h i s machine i s 1 7 m i l l i o n s p l i n t s / h . 3.6 P e l l e t M i l l For Aspen Bark It has been mentioned and demonstrated i n previous chapter (pp.32-34) that smooth aspen bark has good pot e n t i a l s i n feeding l i v e s t o c k . For the purpose of adding manufacturing value to the aspen bark produced by the complex under study, information on a p e l l e t m i l l machinery was sought from C a l i f o r n i a P e l l e t M i l l Co. i n C a l i f o r n i a ( 7 6 ) . The machinery was selected and a plant has been designed by Mainland Machinery and Welding Ltd. of Canada ( 8 3 ) with the author's cooperation. The p e l l e t m i l l was planned to be included within the complex to u t i l i z e the aspen bark and to convert i t to a more useful material. The advantages of adding a p e l l e t m i l l to the complex are as follows: i . I t densifies the bulky bark material into small p e l l e t s , 86 i i . f a c i l i t a t e s better material handling, i i i . produces a dust-free product, i v . reduces storage and shipping space, and v. insures d i s t r i b u t i o n of nutrative material r a t i o which could be added to the bark. The above factors increase sales value of the product, which consequently adds to the p r o f i t s of the, i n d u s t r i a l complex. The p e l l e t m i l l plant consits of: i . Bark hog, i i . steam jacket, i i i . dryer, i v . hammer m i l l , v. p e l l e t m i l l , v i . cooler system, and v i i . holding and storage bins The estimated oven dry weight of the inner and outer bark of peelable aspen processed through the complex i s 7000t/year (98). Calculations assume only 70% of t o t a l bark input to be processed (smooth bark only). Capacity of the plant i s planned at 10 OOOt/year and the estimated operating time i s 4000h/year over 2 s h i f t s / day. 87 3.6.1 Process and machinery description Smooth aspen bark w i l l be v i s u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d and conveyed to drag l i n e conveyor for removal of stones and foreign objects. The bark then i s transported to a holding bin to regulate feeding speed for the next processing step. Metered bark i s conveyed to the bark hog to be course ground. Bark hog (Fig.45) i s made of "steel, construction. The entire inside surface of i t i s protected by e a s i l y replaceable wear plates. Grid bars with various spacing permit the free swinging heavy hammers to grind the bark to the desired s i z e . Ground bark i s conveyed to the steam jacket by gravity. Continuous steaming treatment at 200°C allows the bark to be treated for at l e a s t 30 min. The cooked bark i s continuously fed to the dehydration system to reduce moisture content to 10-20%. Dehydration system i s designed to contain 4 drying sections. I t i s made of double-sheet i r o n with i n s u l a t i o n i n between. Drying media i s steam at 100-150°C. Dryer i s equipped with an endless perforated self-cleaned plate conveyor. I t i s driven by a variable speed clutch system by a DC motor. For the d i s t r i b u t i o n and c i r c u l a t i o n of the drying media, the dryer i s equipped with propeller fans. It i s also provided with 8 inspection doors. 88 At t h i s stage and after the drying i s completed, flakes of NaOH w i l l be added to the bark through a metering conveyor . i n . a r a t i o of 1:10, . ,NaOH : bark (42), (64)• Both of the above treatments increase bark d i g e s t a b i l i t y . The treated bark i s then fed to a heavy duty lifO Kw hammer m i l l to be fine ground. The hammer m i l l (Fig.46) i s equipped with a f u l l length door which provides quick access to the mill'-S i n t e r i o r . The l i n i n g inside of the door i s a replaceable serrated cast-iron breaker plate. This plate i s designed i n such a way as to convey the product being reduced away from the side walls of the m i l l . Edges of curved screen are well supported i n a c i r c u l a r cradle. The m i l l i s provided with four heavy hammers, each having four grinding edges. Finished ground product exits the m i l l by g r a v i t y c The fine ground bark mixed with NaOH i s elevated to a holding bin. From the bin the product i s transported to the p e l l e t m i l l by a metering conveyor. P e l l e t m i l l design i s based on the fact that, loose material (fine ground bark) fed into the p e l l e t i z i n g chamber can be forced and compressed into p e l l e t s by a rota t i n g die and pressure r o l l e r s . Adjustable knives cut the p e l l e t s to the desired length. The structure of the p e l l e t m i l l i s shown i n F i g . 47. 89 The process s t a r t s at the i n - l i n e feeder-conditioner, where the ground bark and various other possible formulations are mixed and moisture equilibrated. The material i s then compressed and transferred to the p e l l e t chamber by means of centri-feeder d i s t r i b u t o r . After the p e l l e t i z i n g process i s completed, the p e l l e t s are discharged from the hinged die casing to the cooler. The recommended cooler i s a double deck horizontal system (Fig.4 8 ) . I t i s equipped with o s c i l l a t i n g feeder to regulate feeding speed and provided with galvanized perforated trays e s p e c i a l l y b u i l t to minimize corrosion e f f e c t , b u i l ding up or caking of soft urea or molasses treated p e l l e t s . In t h i s system, the p e l l e t s are confined i n a well-sealed area to insure that a l l the a i r being drawn through the p e l l e t s i i s used for cooling and drying. The fi n i s h e d p e l l e t s are then transferred into an a i r -t i g h t storage bin by an elevating conveyor. Doses of anhydrous 2-5% ammonia w i l l be injected to increase crude protein contents of the p e l l e t i z e d bark by absorption i f necessary. A l l storage, holding bins and elevating conveyors made of s t e e l or i r o n are coated with epoxy glue to prevent the corrosion and provide smooth surfaces for material flow through the system. 90 High protein material such as a l f a l f a , hay, maize and dairy and suitable i n d u s t r i a l by-products could be processed through the same system and mixed with bark before p e l l e t i z i n g , thereby to increase i t s n u t r i t i v e and sales values. 3.7 Energy Generating System For The Complex The complex i s provided with a wood-bark residue energy generating system (Fig.4 9 ) . The unit i s furnished by F l u i d Flame Energy Products of Idaho, U.S. (78), with an output of 46.2 GJ/h*. The system i s included i n the complex to provide and d i s t r i b u t e s u f f i c i e n t heat energy at 425°C to maintain e x i s t i n g drying schedules i n addition to conditioning of logs and to cover the heat requirement of the plant (Table 40 ) . The equipment includes; fuel metering and feed unit, combustion c e l l , hot gas blending chamber, c o l l e c t i o n and ducting system to dryers and vats. This system u t i l i z e s both bark and wood residues having maximum p a r t i c l e size of 75 mm. The combustion c e l l i s capable of providing the energy i n the form of gases at a temperature of 1040°C when f i r e d with 55% moisture content wood and bark p a r t i c l e s (78). The system i s also equipped * GJ = 944 822 B.T.U 91 with a dry-air r e c i r c u l a t i o n system, which w i l l be used to recover as much heat energy as possible from the exhaust gases of the dryer. Recirculated gases could be used either for regulating the blend chamber outlet temperature or be directed to the vat system to help conditioning the debarked blocks. 92 Zf.O FINANCIAL ANALYSIS The process of conducting t h i s phase of the f e a s i b i l i t y . s t u d y i s subdivided b a s i c a l l y into two d i s t i n c t but i n t e r r e l a t e d aspects: i . Market study, and i i . f i n a n c i a l analysis The analysis of market potentials, including supply and demand factors, for dried veneer production, as i t represents the major product of the complex, was discussed i n previous chapter (pp.41-52). The f i n a n c i a l analysis i s based on studying, the economics of each l i n e as i f i t was operated i n d i v i d u a l l y , and compare such r e s u l t s with changing economics of the complex and thereby show the advantages of integration and increased raw material recovery. Each f i n a n c i a l report within the study includes; c a p i t a l costs, operating costs, p r o f i t a -b i l i t y and cash flow analysis (Tables 4 1 , 4 2 , 43, 44, 45 and 46). A summary of the estimated c a p i t a l investment, operating cost/year and p r o f i t a b i l i t y i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 47, i n d i c a t i n g important economical parameters such as: i . After tax p r o f i t , i i . pay-out years, and 93 i i i . return on fixed investment, for each l i n e separately and for the integrated complex, as well. The c a l c u l a t i o n of operating costs i n Tables 48, 49, 50, 51, 52 and 53, includes: i . Labor costs (1980 I.W.A. rates for Fort Nelson, B.C.) (6, 80) i n Tables 54, 55, 56, 57, 58 and 59), i i . estimated 1980 raw material costs (62), and i i i . u t i l i t i e s , supplies, s a l a r i e s and administration costs. Property taxes and maintenance costs are calculated on the basis of 3% of fixed investment for each (7)« Insurance i s estimated at 2% of fixed investment. For th i s type of operation, depreciation i s calculated on the basis of 10 year straight amortization of t o t a l cost (44)• Interest on working c a p i t a l i s assumed at 12% of t o t a l fixed investment. From Table 47, i t i s c l e a r l y noticeable that, integration for the 5 production l i n e s i s p r a c t i c a l because of the following reasons: i . The difference i n c a p i t a l cost between the i n d i v i d u a l l y operated l i n e s and the integrated complex i s approximately S3 m i l l i o n , * I.W.A. = International Woodworkers of America 9k i i . yearly operating cost i s minimized to $12.3 m i l l i o n for the integrated complex, versus $16.3 m i l l i o n required for the i n d i v i d u a l operations, i i i . the af t e r tax p r o f i t i s increased substantially with integration, from $8.9 m i l l i o n to $10.9 million/year, i v . return on fixed investment i s also increased by 20%, v. with integration, the complex could be paid out within 1.6 years i n contrast to 2.3 years i n case of i n d i v i d u a l operations under the same management framework, v i . i ntegration provides greater operating power to otherwise low p r o f i t production l i n e s against operating them i n d i v i d u a l l y , i . e . , combined aspen veneer l i n e and aspen bark l i n e vs. veneering alone, v i i . i n t egration insures u t i l i z a t i o n of white birch which would not be economical and r e s t r i c t e d to harvest due to i t s r e l a t i v e l y low volume unless manufacturing proposal included u t i l i z a t i o n of the major species (aspen and cottonwood) growing i n the same logging areas, v i i i . i n t egration of the 5 production l i n e s adds market f l e x i b i l i t y to the products and provides for wider management and sales structure, and 95 i x . f i n a l l y , the integrated complex i n expected to produce better quality products due to the fact that, only high quality raw material i s conveyed to major l i n e s , whereas low quality raw material i s processed by minor l i n e s where no stringent on raw material quality i s required. Integration obviously holds many advantages. F i n a n c i a l l y , the comparative- analysis of the i n d i v i d u a l l y operated . and integrated production l i n e s established the fact that, integrated u t i l i z a t i o n of the northeastern aspen, cottonwood and white birch stands i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s economically sound. The proposed i n d u s t r i a l complex i s designed to produce the following products annually: i . A t o t a l of 70 000 nr5, 3 mm thick, 2 -^20 x 1220 mm sheets of dried aspen, cottonwood and possibly white spruce veneer (20% B grade and 80% CD grade). The veneer average price i s $125/m , and i i . a t o t a l of 13 500 nr5, 0.8 mm thick, 2^20 x 1220 mm sheets of white birch and white spruce (50% select white, 20% uniform white, 10% No.l face, and 5% of each sound, No. 3 s o l i d , No.4 s o l i d and r e j e c t back). The average price of the face veneer produced by the v e r t i c a l s l i c e r i s Sl^OO/nT5, 96 while the average price for the veneer produced by the lengthways s l i c e r i s $2.0k0/w?, and i i i . a t o t a l of kO b i l l i o n monoamonium phosphate treated, dried s p l i n t s , ready for the manu-facture of wooden matches. This product i s priced at S l l O / m i l l i o n s p l i n t s , and i v . 10 OOOt of p e l l e t i z e d , dried aspen bark (steam, NaOH, and ammonia treated). The product contains 5-6% crude protein i s priced at $110/t. The t o t a l raw material input to the complex i s estimated at 170 000 nrVyear ( W 000 nrVyear aspen, cottonwood and white spruce, and 30 000 m3 white b i r c h ) . This raw material i s expected to be harvested within 70 km radius of the plant l o c a t i o n . Annual labour requirements and costs for the plant are estimated at $2 713 500 (Table 59) . The c a p i t a l requirement for the proposed complex i s equivalent to $29 373 000. This includes fixed investment cost of $17 083 000 (Table 65), and operating cost/year of $12 290 000 (Table 53 ) . Based on market prices obtained from i n d u s t r i a l sources (75, 91, 92, 95) for each product, Table kG was developed to show the p r o f i t a b i l i t y of the integrated project. According to the estimated yearly production, and 97 market prices, the projected sales/year i s estimated at $34 110 000. P r o f i t a b i l i t y of the proposed project i s projected through the after tax p r o f i t of $10 910 000 /year, with a cash flow of $12 618 000 and payout of fixed investment within 1.6 years. With a return on fixed investment of 64%, t h i s proposed i n d u s t r i a l venture i s considered an excellent investment opportunity. 98 5.0 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The forgoing sections established technical and economic f e a s i b i l i t y of integrated u t i l i z a t i o n of northern B r i t i s h Columbia aspen, cottonwood and birch wood stands and thus further discussion of the project i s f u l l y warranted. 5.1 Raw Material Supply and Market Potentials Proven aspen, cottonwood and white bi r c h inventories and d i s t r i b u t i o n throughout the province of B r i t i s h Columbia assure excellent continuous raw material supplies for a s i z -able industry. Fortunately, the Province possesses uncommited high volumes of these hardwood species, enough to establish several s p e c i a l i z e d operations such as proposed.! For instance, the recorded hardwood volume i n Fort Nelson Forest Unit alone i s s u f f i c i e n t to supply raw material to more than s i x complexes mainly manufacturing dried veneer with an average annual capacity of 7 400 000 m2 - 9.5 mm thick (80 MMSF -3/8* basis) of aspen and cottonwood,, and the same capacity with 1 mm thick (I/ 2 4 " basis) of dried birch veneer (101). The supplies thus promise adequate conditions with minor concern for variable raw material flow. Inspite of the mass burning and the other natural destroying factors, vast amount of t h i s raw material i s s t i l l available i n the northeastern part of the Province. It i s recognized that the present decline of raw 99 material supply to plywood m i l l s i n the P a c i f i c Northwest Region of the United States r e s u l t s i n severe unrecoverable damage to the industry there. Thus heavy dependence of plywood m i l l s on foreign raw material (veneer) i s i n e v i t a b l e . The only alternative for the U.S. plywood industry to s a t i s f y i t s peeler logs or veneer needs i s from Canadian wood sources. Canada has an annual surplus of mature timber of 93 000 000 nr5. The break down of t h i s supply i s 75% softwoods and 25% hardwoods. Thus, Canada w i l l continue to be a major wood products exporter to the United States. Studies of the softwood plywood s i t u a t i o n both i n Canada and the United States, indicate high demand for Canadian softwood already within "this decade. The pressure i s expected to increase further by the year 2000. Normal population growth pressure i s also expected to contribute to the presently i n d e n t i f i e d shortage. It i s thus concluded that Western Canadian hardwoods have high pote n t i a l as l o g i c a l a lternative for wood source to plywood, veneer and composite panel products. Aspen and cottonwood veneer can serve u s e f u l l y as core material i n plywood production to complement and a l l e v i a t e softwood s c a r c i t y . Introduction of aspen and cottonwood veneer can ease the emerging veneer shortage experienced throughout some 120 plywood 100 plants i n Washington and Oregon. Recent surveys show that the United States hard-wood veneer and plywood production i s projected to be constantly below the expected consumption by about 3 000 000 nr - 9.5 mm thickness basis. As consumption i s believed to increase steadily at the rate of 2.2%/ year, the d e f i c i t w i l l grow larger by the year 2030 (Table 30 ) . United States imports of hardwood veneer and plywood, and possibly fi n i s h e d veneer products, w i l l increase dramatically to cover the expected consumption needs. Again, t h i s indicates a great opportunity to enter the United States markets with Western Canadian hardwood products. Competition from the Asian and European products should be r e a d i l y withstood by the Canadian industry due to advantages of l o c a t i o n , abundance of raw material and lower energy costs. These factors w i l l be very decisive i n determining the cost competetiveness of the Canadian products. Growing i n t e r e s t by the Canadian government to provide i n d u s t r i a l incentives for promoting stepped up u t i l i z a t i o n of the hardwood resource i s also expected •to add to t h i s already substansial looking advantage. The obvious increase i n l o c a l consumption and dramatic climbing rates of Canadian exports of hardwood veneer and plywood can only be met through a s i g n i f i c a n t 101 increase i n production. To accomplish th i s feat, the industry's needs must be s a t i s f i e d by modernization of i t s equipment and add new capacities by updating exi s t i n g plants and constructing new ones. Only through modern f a c i l i t i e s can the products remain competetive on the in t e r n a t i o n a l markets. From the present market study of the aspen, cottonwood and white birch veneer production, i t i s strongly suggested that the potential markets for hard-wood plywood and veneer are far from being saturated. The gap i n supply and demand of the products i n North America remains substantial _ being equivalent to 3 000 000 m3 i n 1980. I f average plant capacities are x 70 000 - 100 000 nr/year, t h i s indicates room for about 30 - 40 expansions and new f a c i l i t i e s as viable ventures which could be based on hardwood species found within the northern mixed forests. Serving l o c a l markets could lead to avoidance of otherwise disadvantageous t a r i f f r e s t r i c t i o n s l e v i e d on exports. T a r i f f on hardwood veneer and plywood to the United States ranges between 4.5% to 9% ad valorem (13) . * a duty l e v i e d as a percentage of the assessed value of - a commodity. 102 Overlaying aspen and cottonwood plywood with s l i c e d high quality and good fig u r a t i o n veneers, such as birch and spruce, increases face d u r a b i l i t y , a t t r a c t i v e -ness, and r e s u l t s i n much added value. For instance, at present time, regular 19 mm sheathing grade plywood -5 to 7 ply, r e t a i l s between $L8 to $28/panel, 122 x 244 cm t t x (4 x 8 ), approximately $318 - $495/m . Whereas birch o v e r l a i d G2S r e t a i l s between $54 to $69/panel, which •' i s equivalent to $955 - $1220/nr5. Thus the market value i s more than doubled on adding the two 1 - 0.8 mm thick birch face veneers. Such products are sought by furniture manufacturers, kitchen, T.V. and stereo cabinet' f a b r i c a t o r s . Regarding the market study for s p l i n t production, contacts were made with the following companies and int e r n a t i o n a l organizations seeking information on the subject: i . Food and Agriculture Organization of th United Nations FAO, i i . International Trade Centre UNCTAD/GATT, i i i . Swedish Match Co., i v . United Nations I n d u s t r i a l Development Organization UNIDO, and v. Western India Match Co. 103 information obtained from these sources indicated that no market studies were available or released on the subject. On the other hand, s t a t i s t i c s Canada (15) supplied data on s p l i n t shipments from Canada. Table 66 was developed to show the climbing demand on match s p l i n t s manufactured i n Canada between 1974 to 1978. The table also projected an annual increase of 35% i n exports of match s p l i n t s to the U.K.,•Ireland, New Zealand, Trinidad - Tobago, U.S., Bermuda, Jamica and other countries. The reason behind the increase of match s p l i n t exports from Canada i s the declining wood supplies suitable for such industry around the world. Thousands of match producing l i n e s are operating around the world with desperate needs of raw material i n forms of logs or s p l i n t s . No doubt that the operation of manufacturing s p l i n t s i s p r o f i t a b l e . This statement i s based on the previously calculated p r o f i t a b i l i t y of the s p l i n t producing l i n e , and on an in v e s t i g a t i o n to one of the major producers of match s p l i n t s i n Canada. A v i s i t to Eddy Match Co. (Canadian S p l i n t s Ltd. i n Pembrook, Ontario) showed that t h e i r production l i n e which i s based on four peeling machines, operates at f u l l capacity year A aroun . On the other hand, i t was indicated that t h e i r inventory was down to approximately 25% of capacity (middle of Summer 1979). Management claimed that s p l i n t s were shipped to U.K., U.S.A., and the Middle East. 10k Demand on l i v e s t o c k feed i n Canada and B r i t i s h Columbia i n p a r t i c u l a r i s climbing due to shortage of supplies (29) . The l i v e s t o c k feeding operation i n B r i t i s h Columbia indicates an i n a b i l i t y i n supporting a c a t t l e f i n i s h i n g operation during the winter months due to shortage i n feed supplies, es p e c i a l l y grain and high protein material. The c a t t l e i s usually shipped to Alberta and the Eastern provinces during the f a l l and winter seasons. Pelleted aspen bark i s expected to cover a f r a c t i o n of the demand. The s e l l i n g price of forage, grass and other p e l l e t i z e d materials for c a t t l e feed i s based on t h e i r crude protein contents (75) > (91)• For 6-7% protein, the p e l l e t price i s expected to range between $85 to $130/t. The bark p e l l e t s produced by the complex could be added to c a t t l e rations or reground and mixed with high protein n u t r i t i v e material and r e p e l l e t e d . The three residue u t i l i z i n g l i n e s , lengthways s l i c e r - d r y e r , s p l i n t manufacturing, the p e l l e t m i l l plant, add approximately $1.7 million/year aft e r tax p r o f i t to the integrated complex. This contribution reduces the production cost of the major products and consequently increases the competetiveness of the complex. 105 5.2 The Design and Its Advantages One of the objectives of t h i s study was to design a highly p r o f i t a b l e i n d u s t r i a l complex to produce good quality products from the under u t i l i z e d aspen, cottonwood and birch stands i n the northeastern part of B.C. To achieve t h i s goal, the following factors were considered and apparently f u l f i l l e d by the design: i . The insurance of acceptable flow of raw material throughout the entire complex. This factor has been achieved by computerizing part of the operation and by avoiding bottle necks, i . e . , where conditioned blocks reach the production l i n e s , notice i n F i g . 50 the buffer conveyors behined each l i n e to stack surplus of blocks to be u t i l i z e d by the l i n e when supplies from conditioning vats or from previous processing steps are low. This option eliminates running out of blocks and reduces down time, i i . The design included residue using l i n e s , which eliminates waste generating to as low as 0%. These selected l i n e s allow f u l l above ground biomass u t i l i z a t i o n , i i i . Production l i n e s included i n the complex u t i l i z e 106 no external material, i . e . , expensive chemicals and adhesives, which could af f e c t productivity. i v . A l l machine capacities are planned to be higher than output demand of finished product by at l e a s t 20% to avoid over working problems which are usually accompanied with over e s t i -mation of machine capacities, v. Each machine, capacity i s calculated to guaranty absorbance of a l l incoming output from previous processing steps. This benefits.by constant flow of material and reduction of down time r e s u l t i n g from possible material jams at one of the previous processing steps. v i . Working hours for most of the machinery i s planned at two s h i f t s only (I6h/day), to provide s u f f i c i e n t maintenance and repair time. This factor i s proven by i n d u s t r i a l experience to reduce down time during operational hours and thus increases productivity of machinery/working time u n i t s . v i i . The energy generating unit, which i s included i n the design, covers about 95% of the operation thermal requirements. This reduces dependance on outside energy sources and eliminates a great 107 portion of the energy costs, i i x . The compact design of the i n d u s t r i a l complex lessens expensive land and building requirements and guaranties better, faster flow and material handling within and between production l i n e s . In addition, t h i s lowers the thermal energy costs for plant heating, especially up north where plants space heating i s required nine month of the year, i x . Manpower throughout the complex has been reduced to the minimum the recent technology permits. This was achieved by providing highly automated machinery. In return, the percentage of human error and accidents w i l l d e f i n i t e l y be lower. In addition, better handling of material which consequently reduces down-time, increases product-i v i t y of better quality products and eliminates a great portion of the expensive labour cost. Machinery within the designed complex are believed and proven to be highly s p e c i a l i z e d and q u a l i f i e d to serve the purpose. They are also c l a s s i f i e d as the most advanced available to t h i s industry today. 108 5,3 Transportation Cost and Market Range Transportation cost i s obviously going to a f f e c t future expansion or even the existance of remotely located plants i n Canada and the United States due to the termendous annual increase of energy costs. The ultimate goal however, of integrated operations i s to reduce the unit cost of major products which increase t h e i r cost competetiveness to a degree where i t could o f f s e t the day-to-day climbing f r e i g h t costs. Table 67 was compiled from data submitted by B r i t i s h Columbia Railway to show freight cost for veneer and plywood within B.C. as far East as Winnipeg, Manitoba, and as far South as Houston, Taxas, A l l rates include service charges where a p l i c a b l e . Minimum weight of 36 281 kg (80 000 Lbs,) i s required on most shipments. Table 67 also includes s e l l i n g price for aspen, cottonwood and white birch veneers at each l o c a t i o n calculated on the basis of f.o.b. plant price of $75/m for aspen and cottonwood veneer 3mm thickness basis, and $1258/m3 for white birch veneer 0,8 mm thick. These pr i c e s are calculated considering integration c r e d i t s and contribution from residue u t i l i z i n g l i n e s . No doubt that the prices l i s t e d are competetive with those l i s t e d for sim i l a r quality products and produced by single l i n e type 109 operation ($12.3MJ for aspen and cottonwood veneer and ftlifOO/nr* for s l i c e d white b i r c h ) . On the other hand, rapid delivery and transportation f l e x i b i l i t y of veneer by trucks, can be turned into an advantage against slow and t i e d up d e l i v e r i e s . The low operating cost and high p r o f i t a b i l i t y of the integrated operation again could afford the high cost of transportation by trucks. This factor i s of economical importance especially with the present day to day variable market s i t u a t i o n . Table 68 i l l u s t r a t e s f reight rates by trucks for veneer and plywood obtained from Canadian Freightways Ltd., i n Vancouver, B.C. Thus, integration provides the products with competing power against s i m i l a r commodities produced by single product operations. Competition i s proven to be even at product's l o c a l markets. Although high shipping rates shown i n Table 67 and 68 are expected to l i m i t future market expansions for u it conventional one product veneering plants, products manu-factured by the integrated complex are expected to reach Los Angeles, Albuquerque, Winnipeg and Houston markets when lower p r o f i t margins are accepted. Certainly, the increasing rates of shipping costs to a certain l i m i t could increase the integrated complex sales due to the i n a b i l i t y of other operations i n covering such market demands. 110 5.4 Recommendations This f e a s i b i l i t y study i s considered as a conceptual proposal for the u t i l i z a t i o n of northern hardwood species. For developing and accomplishing higher accuracy, closer investment planning and optimum operating conditions should be achieved through advanced studies. Detailed engineering and costs are needed before the f u l l p o t e n t i a l of t h i s proposal can be appreciated. These aspects are beyond the scope of t h i s t h e s i s . Further, plans for ref o r e s t a t i o n of the expected harvested areas, an economical logging plan and optimization of plant operations are needed. In spite of some i n d u s t r i a l experience i n the processing behaviour of aspen and cottonwood, more r e l i a b l e veneer drying schedules should be developed. F i n a l l y , the development of strong l o c a l , U.S., and overseas markets for hardwood veneers and plywood i s desirable, 5.5 Summary According to the information i n Table 47, i t i s evident that integrated operation i s economically feasible and highly desirable. Also i n comparing t h i s operation I l l with the single l i n e approach, the integrated complex requires only marginally higher c a p i t a l investment but with much improved p r o f i t a b i l i t y . As i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 46, the projected annual sales of a l l products exceeds $34 m i l l i o n . The gross p r o f i t of the operation i s calculated at $21.8 million/year, with an af t e r tax p r o f i t of $11 million/year. Under recent economical conditions, i t i s expected that the c a p i t a l invested i n t h i s operation would be written o f f i n 1.6 years. With the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the low cost raw material, good pote n t i a l market, sound plant design and high return on fixed investment/year, the project i s considered an excellent investment opportunity. Such findings are expected to develop confidence i n aspen, cottonwood and birch u t i l i z a t i o n i n the future. 112 6.0 LITERATURE CITED 1. Amrine, H.T., J.A. Ritchey and O.S. Hulley. 1966. Manufacturing Organization and Management. Prentice-Hall Inc. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey, U.S.A. pp. 47-91. 2. Anon. 1969. Birch Symposium Proceedings. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Upper Darby, PA, U.S.A. pp. 6-38. 3. 1980. Business Week. June 1980. pp. 98-99. 4. 1980. Canali Veneer M i l l Concept Increases F l e x i b i l i t y . E f f i c i e n c y . 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C a l i f o r n i a , U.S.A. 73. 1979. Arenco AB, Machinery Divi s i o n of the Swedish Match Group. Kalmar, Sweden. 74. 1980. Brunette Machine Works Ltd. B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. 75. 1980. Buckerfield's Ltd. B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. 76. 1980. C a l i f o r n i a P e l l e t M i l l Co.-California, U.S.A. 77. , 1979. Capital Machine Co., Inc. Indiana, U.S.A. 78. 1980. F l u i d Flame Energy Products of Idaho. Idaho, U.S.A. 79. 1980. George Bramhall and Associates Ltd. B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. 119 1979. International Woodworkers of America. Regional Council No. 1. Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. 1979. Kokums Industries Ltd. B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. 1979. Linea Consulting Ltd. B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. 1980. Mainland Machinery & Welding Ltd. B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. 1980. Marunaka International Inc., Shizuoka, Japan. 1980. Normick Perron Inc. Quebec, Canada. 1980. Pallmann Pulverizers Co., Inc. New Jersey, U.S.A. 1980. Peace-Liard Region Economic Development Commission. B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. 1979. Plywood Equipment Sales, Inc. Oregon, U.S.A. 1980. POllmann/Mellor International Inc. New York, U.S.A. 1980. Raute, Inc. Georgia, U.S.A. 1980. Ritchie-Smith Feeds, Inc. B r i t i s h Columbia Canada. 1980. Tackama Forest Industries. B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. 1979. The COE Manufacturing Co. Ohio, U.S.A. 1980. Valette and Garreau. Vichy, France. 1980. Weyerhaeuser Canada Ltd. Ontario, and B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. 120 96. Robson, W.M. and F.A. Taylor. 1976. The Marketing of the Forest Products from B.C. i n World Markets. Presented to F.P.R.S. Annual Meeting. Toronto, Ont., Canada, pp. 10. 97. Roubicek, T. 1978. Rotary Peeling Small Diameter Logs-A Review of Techniques and Y i e l d . Norman Springate and Associates International Ltd. B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada, pp. 7. 98. Smith, J.H.G. and A. Kozak. 1971. 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Vancouver, B.C., Canada, pp.97-99. 104. Vajda, P. 1974. Particleboard and Fiberboard Processes. Poplar U t i l i z a t i o n Symposium. Rep. No. VP-X-127. W.F.P.L. Vancouver, B.C., Canada, pp. 219-227. 105. Walser, D.C. 1978. New Developments i n Veneer Peeling. Modern Plywood Techniques. Vol. 6. M i l l e r Freeman Pub., Inc. San Francisco, C a l i f o r n i a , U.S.A. pp.6-18. 106. Wardle, W.D. 1972. Report of the Canadian Hardwood Plywood Mission to the United States. Dept. of Industry, Trade and Commerce. Ottawa, Canada, pp. 13. 101. 102. 121 107. Wells, J . 1962. Plywood-Operating Experience With Poplar. Poplar U t i l i z a t i o n Symposium. Rep. No. VP-X-127. W.F.P.L. Vancouver, B.C., Canada, pp. 207-211. 108. Young, W. 1974. The Resource and Forest Management Policy-B r i t i s h Columbia. Poplar U t i l i z a t i o n Symposium. Rep. No. VP-X-127. W.F.P.L. Vancouver, B.C., Canada, pp. 17-23. 122 7.0 APPENDIX BOTANICAL NAMES FOR SPECIES REFERED TO IN THE THESIS COMMERCIAL NAME BOTANICAL NAME ASPEN Populus tremuloides Michx. COTTONWOOD Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray WHITE BIRCH Betula papyrifera Marsh. WHITE SPRUCE Picea glauca (Moench) Voss 123 TABLE 1. THE MERCHANTABLE VOLUME OF POPLAR AND WHITE BIRCH IN CANADA (2? 8, 100, 102). PROVINCE/REGION MERCHANTABLE VOLUME OF POPLAR* BIRCH* «0Q0 m3 BRITISH COLUMBIA 396 436 10 689 MARITIME PROVINCES 16 990 1 699 NEW FOUNDLAND — 2 572 ONTARIO 498 376 22 913 PRAIRIE PROVINCES 874 990 2 336 QUEBEC 70 792 40 470 TOTAL 1 857 584 80 679 * 10 cm+ D.B.H. ** 25 cm+ D.B.H. — insignificant volume TABLE 2. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BLACK COTTONWOOD, TREMBLING ASPEN, WHITE BIRCH AND WHITE SPRUCE (34, 46, 53).. COMMON NAME SPECIFIC GRAVITY GREEN M.C. PERMEABILITY SHRINKAGE BASIC NOMi" 0. DRY"'SAP HEART MIX SAP HEART TANG. RADIAL VOL. : - • % % % % % % BLACK COTTONWOOD 0.295 0.320 0.334 150 180 175 P m 8.8 3.6 11.7 TREMBLING ASPEN 0.374 0.408 0.424 90 100 90 p m 6.6 3.6 11.8 WHITE BIRCH 0.508 0.564 0.605 70 90 70 m m 9.3 6.8 16.0 WHITE SPRUCE 0.354 0.372 0.393 160 50 60 r r 6.9 3.2 11.3 ': green volume. !': airdry. volume. »'»: ovendry volume. p: permiable, m: moderately permiable, r: refractory. **. green to ovendry, based on dimensions when green. TABLE 3. STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF BLACK COTTONWOOD, TREMBLING ASPEN, WHITE BIRCH AND WHITE SPRUCE (21, 46). COMMON NAME STATIC BENDING CO.//TO GRAIN CO. 1 TO GRAIN SHEAR //TO GRAIN MOR MOE MAXT CRUSHING STRESS AT P.L* MAX. STRESS MPa BLACK COTTONWOOD 28 7 '930 12.8 0.70 3.85 49 13 000 27.7 1.79 5.94 TREMBLING ASPEN 38 10 400 16.2 1.37 4.95 68 13 500 36.3 3.52 6.76 WHITE BIRCH 44 15 200 21.2 2.47 7.17 85 23 000 51.7 5.41 12.66 WHITE SPRUCE 35 9 450 17.0 1.69 4.62 63 13 800 36.9 3.45 6.79 *: propotional l i m i t . moiture content at testing: top value(green); bottom value(12%) TABLE 4-QUALITY AND SUITABILITY OF BLACK COTTONWOOD, TREMBLING ASPEN, WHITE BIRCH AND WHITE SPRUCE. (34, 36., 53). . 7 QUALITY AND SUITABILITY OF: B. COTTONWOOD T. ASPEN W. BIRCH W. SPRUCE AVERAGE DIAMETER, WIDTH OF SAPWOOD, LOG FORM AND ESTIMATED DIAMETER OF MATURE TIMBER (cm) 70-90 ESTIMATED DIAMETER OF TYPICAL VENEER LOS (cm) 45-90 WIDTH OF SAPWOOD OF VENEER LOGS (cm) 04-10 LOG FORM: ECCENTRICITY a CROOK b TAPER a LOG PROPERTIES RELATIVE FREEDOM OF LOGS FROM: END SPLITS b SHAKE. b DECAY b KNOTS b REACTION WOOD c RESIN. OR GUM a INSECT ATTACK b 28-36 25-36 05-10 a b a a a c b-c c a b 35-45 25-36 10-15 b b b b b c b b a b 30-60 30-45 05-06 b a b b c b b b TABLE k. CONT'D QUALITY AND SUITABILITY OF: B. COTTONWOOD T. ASPEN W. BIRCH W. SPRUCE BIRD PECK BARK POCKETS WET WOOD STAIN HARD DEPOSIT CUTTING OF VENEER ROTARY SLICED (FLAT) SLICED (QUARTER) SLICED (RIFT) EASE OF DEBARKING LOG HEATING, VENEER CUTTING AND DRYING SUGGESTED CONDITIONING TEMPERATURE FOR: ROTARY (°C) SLICED (°C) RECOMMENDED CUTTING TEMPERATURE ( 0C)... a b c b a x b l 5-20 5-20 5-20 b a c c a x x a l 5-20 5-20 5-20 a b a c a x x X X b l 50-60 60-70 20-35 b a a a x x a l 20-50 50-60 10-35 AGGRAVATION OF LOG SPLITTING DUE TO HEATING.., a a a H ro TABLE 4. CONT'D QUALITY AND SUITABILITY OF: SENSITIVITY TO SETTING OF: KNIFE PRESSURE BAR DRYING TIME SAPWOOD HEARTWOOD DEFECTS IN DRYING BUCKLE SPLITS COLLAPSE RELATIVE FREEDOM FROM VENEER CHARACTERISTICS ORIGINATED IN LOG STORAGE AND IN PROCESSING SAP STAINS MOLD IRON STAIN OXIDATIVE STAIN BACTERIA: ODOR EXTREME PERMEABILITY SURFACE IRREGULARITIES COTTONWOOD T. ASPEN W. BIRCH W. SPRUCE b b b a b b c b c c c c b b b b c b c b a b a b a b b-c a b2 b2 a2 b2 b2 c2 a2 b2 a2 b2 b2 c2 b2 b2 a2 a2 c2 b2 c2 b2 a2 a2 a2 c2 c2 a2 c2 H Co TABLE k»-CONT'D QUALITY AND SUITABILITY OF: SHELLING, ROUGH.... CLEAR VENEER, FIGURE IN VENEER, AND SUITABILITY FOR DIFFERENT USES CLEAR VENEER FIGURE OF VENEER: ROTARY AND FLAT SLICED, QUARTER AND RIFT SLICED, RELATIVE SUITABILITY FOR: CONSTRUCTION PLYWOOD DECORATIVE FACE VENEER INNER PLIES OF DECORATIVE PANELS, CONTAINER VENEER AND PLYWOOD a : species property very suitable for veneer b : intermediate, c : l e s s desirable for veneer production, B. COTTONWOOD T. ASPEN W. BIRCH W. SPRUCE a2 b2 a2 b2 b2 b2 b2 b2 b3 faint growth ri n g p l a i n b3 f a i n t growth r i n g occasional cross figure s i l k y l u s t e r b3 d i s t i n c t , not conspicuous growth r i n g , occasionally wavy pl a i n , occasionally wavy c3 f a i n t growth ri n g none di-ck bk ah ck bk ah *k aZf-b/f b4 bk bk-ck ck ck ah production, ro TABLE 4. CONT'D a l : r e l a t i v e l y easy to debark, b l : intermediate, c l : d i f f i c u l t to debark, a2 : good-species,resists development of undesirable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s under a wide range of operating conditions, b2 : species intermediate i n resistance, c2 : poor-species,susceptible to thi s undesirable developments, a3 : indicates veneer logs of the species tend to have a high percent of clear wood, b3 : intermediate, c3 : indicates a low percent of clear wood, a4 : species i s well suited for end product, b4 : intermediate, c4 : generally not suited for end product. TABLE 5. APPROXIMATE HEATING TIME FOR VENEER LOGS TOTALLY IMMERSED IN AGITATING WATER OR STEAM (36 j 99). LOG TEMPERATURE VAT OPERATING FOR BEFORE TEMPERATURE CUTTING CUTTING °C °C °C 5 -30 38 5 - 7 38 5 -30 70 5 - 7 70 50 -30 50 50 - 7 50 50 0 50 50 20 50 60 -30 60 60 - 7 60 60 0 60 60 20 60 70 -30 70 70 - 7 70 70 0 70 70 20 70 TOTAL HEATING TIME (h) FOR LOG DIAMETER OF: 15* 25 30 45 60 75 90 cm h 4 7 10 23 41 64 92 2 4 5 12 21 34 48 2 4 6 . 14 25 39 56 1 2 3 7 12 20 28 10 16 22 50 89 140 200 7 12 17 39 69 109 156 6 10 14 31 55 87 124 4 8 12 27 48 76 108 8 13 19 41 73 115 164 6 11 15 35 61 95 136 5 9 13 28 50 78 112 4 8 11 25 45 70 100 6 12 17 38 69 108 152 5 10 14 33 58 91 132 4 8 12 27 48 75 108 3 7 11 24 44 68 96 * calculated 1—1 TABLE 6. EECCMKETOBD LATHI STTTMQ FOR B0TABT VENEER CUTTING OF ASPEN, COTTORTOCD, SHITE BIRCH AND RHITE SPRUCE (38) HORIZONTAL OAP VERTICAL OPENING KNIFE ANGLE FOR BLOCK DIAHETER OF 610 230 KltlFE DEVEC" DIAMETER OF ROLLER BAR BAR AN0L8 OH •a nui am AS PEN BIRCH SPRUCZ ASPEN BIRCH SPRUCE ASPEN & SPRUCE BIRCH ASPEN l> SPRUCE BIRCH ASPEN 8. SPRUCE BIRCH ASPEN & SPECC2 5.1 1.62 4.72 4.57 2 . lS 0.85 0.89 2.1? 0.8? 90° 90° 89° 89° 20° 11).3-15.9 14° "l.2 3.76 3.86 3.71 2.16 0.89 0.76 2.16 0.76 90 90 89 89 20 14.3-15.9 — lit 3.6 3.25 3.35 3.30 2.16 0.61) 0.76 2.16 0.64 90 90 89 89 20 lit.3-15.9 — lit 3.2 2.79 2.89 2.79 2.16 0.51 0.61, 2.16 0.51 90 90 89 89 20 14.3-15.9 — lit 2.5 2.29 2.29 2.16 2.16 0.51 0.51 2.16 0.38 90 90 89 89 20 14.3-15.9 — lit 2.1 1.88 1.93 1.83 1.65 0.38 0.38 2.16 0.38 90 90 89 89 20 14.3-15.9 — 14 1.6 1.37 1.1.2 1.27 1.65 0.25 0.25 2.16 0.25 90 90 89 89 20 14.3-15.9 — lit 1.3 — 1.12 — — — 0.25 — — . — 90 — 89 20 — — — 1.1 — 0.91 — — — 0.25 — 90 30' — 89 30* 20 — — — 1.0 — 0.81 — • — — 0.25 — — — 90 30* — 89 30* 20 — — — 0.9 — 0.76 — — — 0.25 — — 90 30* — 89 30* 20 — — — O.S — 0.66 — — 0.25 —. — — 90 30* — 69 30* 20 — — — 0.6 — 0.61 — — — 0.25 — • — — 90 30* — 89 30* 20 — — — 0.5 — 0.51 — — — 0.25 — — — 90 30* 89 30* 20 — — — BIRCH 14° lit lit lit lit lit lit lit lit lit lit 11. lit 14 * Tltb rolar bar •• with flxad bar »Uh a iero b«T»l l a caaa o f wblta tyraee — data ara sot available 133 TABLE 7* RECOMMENDED VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL GAPS AND KNIFE ANGLE FOR VENEER SLICING ( 52 ) . VENEER THICKNESS VERTICAL GAP HORIZONTAL GAP* KNIFE ANGLE mm 0.25 0.50 0.25 90°30* 0.81 0.50 0.56 90 30 0.90 0.50 0.725 90 30 1.07 0.75 0.82 90 30 1.59 0.75 1.34 90 30 2.54 0.75 2.29 90 30 3.17 0.75 2.92 90 30 3.25 0.75 3.00 90 30 4.76 0.75 4.51 90 30 6.30 0.75 6.05 90 30 6.35 0.75 6.10 90 30 * horizontal gap=veneer thickness - 0 . 25 or 90% of veneer . thickness 134 TABLE 8. DRYING SCHEDULE FOR BIRCH VENEER BY CONTINUOUS JET VENEER DRYER ( 51 ) . VENEER THICKNESS DRYING TIME (min) AT TEMPERATURE mm 160°C 170°C 175°C 195°C 1 .2 3.4 3.1 2.9 1.5 4.2 3.9 3.7 3.4 1.9 — 5.7 veneer i n i t i a l moisture content=90% veneer f i n a l moisture content=3% — : data are not available 135 TABLE 9. DRYING SCHEDULE FOR SPRUCE VENEER USING THE CONTINUOUS JET VENEER DRYER (51). VENEER THICKNESS DRYING TIME (min) AT TEMPERATURE OF mm 160°C 195°C 200°C 210°C 1.6 5.5 4.6 4.1 4.0 2.2 10.0 5.0 3.1 ~ 6.3 -- 5.6 3.5 ~ 8.6 8.2 8.0 4.3 10.9 veneer i n i t i a l moisture content=90% veneer fi n a l moiture content=3% — : data are not available 136 TABLE 10. SEVEN APPLICATIONS OF CONTINUOUS RECOMMENDED USES (90 ) . APPLICATION 1. four-deck dryer with rear cooling f i e l d and overhead one-deck feeder 2. five-deck dryer with bottom cooling f i e l d and overhead one -deck feeder 3» three-deck dryer with bottom cooling f i e l d and overhead three-deck tray feeder f i t t e d with veneer ribbon breaker 4. five-deck dryer with bottom cooling f i e l d , three-tray conveyor system and green l i n e combination sheet feeding device for feeding of green veneer 5» four-deck with bottom cooling f i e l d and three-deck tray feeder i n front 6. three-deck dryer with rear cooling f i e l d and three-deck tray feeder i n front 7. four-deck dryer with bottom cooling f i e l d ; r e e l i n g and r e e l supply system i n front of dryer DRYING PROCESS AND THEIR RECOMMENDED USE small diameter logs and ea s i l y bent veneer species small diameter logs and ea s i l y bent veneer species large log diameter of a l l species small and large diameter logs, e s p e c i a l l y where di f f e r e n t moisture content between sap and heartwood i s s i g n i f i c a n t - peel i n two s h i f t s and dry i n three s h i f t s large log diameter of a l l species for thick and b r i t t l e veneers large diameter logs - thin p l i a n t veneer production -peel i n two s h i f t s and dry i n three 137 TABLE 11. DRYING OF WHITE SPRUCE HEARTWOOD AND SAPWOOD VENEER (35)« VENEER THICKNESS DRYING TEMPERATURE 150°C 230°C SAP. HEART. SAP. HEART, mm min 2.5 17 9 7 3.5 4.0 30 14 13 dryer used was 3 zone, cross c i r c u l a t i o n , 300 m/min at 6.5 mm above veneer 138 TABLE 12 . APPARENT DRY MATTER, ENERGY AND CARBOHYDRATE DIGESTIBILITY OF RUMINANT RATIONS CONTAINING 15, 30, 45 AND 60% UNTREATED ASPEN BARK (64). BARK APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY DRY MATTER ENERGY CARBOHYDRATE % % 15 60.0 62.5, 70 .4 30 58.0 58.7 63.2 k5 55.8 56.1 56.5 60 54.1 54.7 56.4 139 TABLE 13. COMPARATIVE DIGESTIBILITIES OF STEAMED AND UNTREATED ASPEN BARK AND ALFALFA AND HAY ( 2 9 ) . RATION i n vivo DIGESTIBILITY DRY MATTER ENERGY % UNTREATED BARK 26.1 38.3 STEAMED BARK 31.8 34.0 ALFALFA-HAY 60.3 56.5 1/fO TABLE 14. VOLUME OF APPROVED P.S.Y.U. MATURE ASPEN, COTTONWOOD AND BIRCH 18 cm+ D.B.H. IN EACH DISTRICT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (8, 100, 102). DISTRICT TOTAL VOLUME OF ASPEN-COTTONWOOD BIRCH m3  CARIBOO 4 848 378 758 539 KAMLOOPS 1 416 039 624 866 NELSON 626 283 160 549 PRINCE GEORGE 61 464 461 9 883 999 PRINCE RUPERT 11 920 956 1 314 586 VANCOUVER 1 058 738 124 070 TOTAL 81 334 855 12 866 609 TABLE 15. RATIO OF MATURE APPROVED P.S.Y.U. 18 cm+ D.B.H. ASPEN-COTTONWOOD/TOTAL HARDWOOD VOLUME, ASPEN-COTTONWOOD/TOTAL SOFTWOOD VOLUME AND ASPEN-COTTONWOOD/TOTAL VOLUME OF ALL SPECIES IN EACH DISTRICT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (8, 100, 102). DISTRICT TOTAL VOLUME OF RATIO RATIO RATIO ASP.-COTT. HARDWOOD SOFTWOOD ALL SPECIES 1/2 1/3 l A (1) (2) (3) (4) «000 nr5 % CARIBOO 4 848 5 607 501 220 506 827 86.5 0.97 0.97 KAMLOOPS 1 416 72 071 491 593 563 664 2.0 0.29 0.25 NELSON 626 787 31 223 32 010 80.0 2.01 1.96 PRINCE GEORGE 61 465 71 347 1 344 487 1 415 834 86.2 4.57 4.34 PRINCE RUPERT 11 921 15 484 1 883 344 1 898 828 77.0 0.63 0.63 VANCOUVER 1 059 2 273 835 781 838 054 46.6 0.13 0.13 TOTAL 81 335 167 569 5 087 648 5 255 217 48.5 1.60 1.55 TABLE 16. RATIO OF MATURE APPROVED P.S.Y.U. 18 cm+ D.B.H. BIRCH/TOTAL ASPEN-COTTONWOOD VOLUME, BIRCH/ TOTAL HARDWOOD VOLUME, BIRCH/TOTAL SOFTWOOD VOLUME AND BIRCH/TOTAL VOLUME OF ALL SPECIES IN EACH FOREST DISTRICT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (8, 100, 102). DISTRICT TOTAL VOLUME BIRCH ASPEN-COTT. HARDWOOD (1) (2) (3) 1000 m-CARIBOO 759 4 848 5 607 KAMLOOPS 625 1 416 72 071 NELSON 161 626 787 PRINCE GEORGE 9 884 61 465 71 347 PRINCE RUPERT 1 315 11 921 15 484 VANCOUVER 124 1 059 2 273 • RATIO RATIO RATIO RATIO SOFTWOOD ALL SPP. 1/2 1/3 1/4 1/5 (4) (5) 501 220 506 827 15.7 13.5 0 0.15 0.15 491 593 563 664 44.1 00.9 0.13 0.11 31 223 32 010 25.7 20.5 0.52 0.50 1 344 487 1 415 834 16.1 13.9 0.74 0.70 1 883 344 1 898 828 11.0 8.5 0.07 0.07 835 781 838 054 11.7 5.5 0.02 0.02 TOTAL 12 867 81 335 167 569 5 087 648 5 255 217 15.8 7.7 0.25 0.25 TABLE 17. RATIO OF MATURE APPROVED P.S.Y.U. 18 cm+ D.B.H. ASPEN-COTTONWOOD/TOTAL VOLUME OF HARDWOOD, ASPEN-COTTONWOOD/TOTAL VOLUME OF SOFTWOOD, AND RATIO OF ASPEN-COTTONWOOD/TOTAL VOLUME OF ALL SPECIES IN EACH FOREST UNIT OF THE PRINCE GEORGE FOREST DISTRICT (8, 102). FOREST UNIT TOTAL VOLUME OF RATIO ASPEN-COTT. HARDWOOD SOFTWOOD ALL SPECIES 1/2 1/3 l A iQOO nr3 % ALAZA LAKE 17 80 1 642 1 772 24 1.0 1.0 BIG VALLEY 37 40 20 404 20 444 93 0.2 0.2 BLUEBERRY 5 531 5 587 68 371 73 958 99 8.1 7.5 CANOE 64 71 19 775 19 846 90 0.3 0.3 CARP 2 868 3 262 87 562 90 824 88 3.3 3.2 CROOKED RIVER 1 465 2 084 43 122 45 206 70 3.4 3.2 FINLY 8 886 10 275 254 791 265 066 87 3.5 3.4 FONTAS 1 172 1 369 7 982 9 351 86 14.7 12.5 FORT NELSON 14 017 15 694 25 946 41 639 89 54.0 33.7 KLUSKUS 167 167 29 193 29 361 100 0.6 0.6 LONGWORTH 590 1 745 88 813 90 558 34 0.7 0.7 MOBERLY k 021 4 230 54 495 58 725 95 7.4 6.9 MONKMAN 476 1 243 66 014 67 257 38 0.7 0.7 NAVER 100 190 18 695 18 885 54 0.5 0.5 NECHAKO 3 390 3 538 78 268 81 806 96 4.3 4.1 PARSNIP 415 822 64 231 65 053 50 0.7 0.6 PEACE 3 014 3 410 60 241 63 651 88 5.0 4.7 PURDEN 538 998 45 072 46 070 54 1.2 1.2 ROBSON 684 1 175 29 158 30 333 58 2.4 2.3 SIKANNI 3 442 3 599 30 064 33 663 96 11.5 10.2 STUART LAKE k 951 5 532 66 936 72 468 90 7.4 6.8 TAKLA 2 009 2 276 135 219 137 495 88 1.5 1.5 WAPITI 2 461 2 501 47 015 . 49 516 98 5.2 5.0 WESTLAKE 795 932 20 194 21 125 85 3.9 3.8 WILLOW RIVER 356 537 17 285 17 821 66 2.1 2.0 TOTAL 61 465 71 347 1 344 487 1 415 834 86 4.6 4.3 TABLE 18. RATIO OF MATURE APPROVED P.S.Y.U. 18 cm+ D.B.H. BIRCH/TOTAL VOLUME OF HARDWOOD, BIRCH/TOTAL VOLUME OF SOFTWOOD, AND BIRCH/TOTAL VOLUME OF ALL SPECIES IN EACH UNIT OF THE PRINCE GEORGE FOREST DISTRICT (8, 100). FOREST UNIT TOTAL VOLUME OF BIRCH HARDWOOD SOFTWOOD ALL SPECIES RATIO 1/2 RATIO 1/3 RATIO I A (1) (2) (3) , • OHO TT) (4) ALAZA LAKE 53 70 1 642 '1 712 75.7 BIG VALLEY 3 40 20 404 20 444 7.5 BLUEBERRY 57 5 587 68 371 73 958 1.0 CANOE 7 71 19 775 19 846 9.9 CARP 394 3 262 87 562 90 824 12.1 CROOKED RIVER 620 2 084 43 122 45 206 29.8 FINLAY 1 389 10 275 254 791 265 066 13.5 FONTAS 197 1 369 7 982 9 351 14.4 FORT NELSON 1 677 15 694 25 946 41 639 10.4 KLUSKUS 00 167 29 193 29 361 00.0 LONGWORTH 1 155 1 745 88 813 90 558 66.2 MOBERLY 208 4 230 54 495 58 725 4.9 MONKMAN 768 1 243 66 014 67 257 61.8 NAVER 90 190 18 695 18 885 47.4 NECHAKO 148 3 538 78 268 81 806 4.2 PARSNIP 407 822 64 231 65 053 49.5 PEACE 396 3 410 60 241 63 651 11.6 PURDEN 460 998 45 072 46 070 46.1 ROBSON 491 1 175 29 158 30 333 41.8 SIKANNI 157 3 559 30 064 33 663 4.4 STUART LAKE 582 5 532 66 936 72 468 10.5 TAKLA 268 2 276 135 219 137 495 11.8 WAPITI 40 2 501 47 015 49 516 1.6 WESTLAKE 137 932 20 194 21 125 14.7 WILLOW RIVER 181 537 17 285 17 821 33.7 % 3.2 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.5 1.4 0.6 2.5 6.5 0.0 1.3 0.4 1.2 0.5 0.2 0.6 0.7 1.0 1.7 0.5 0.9 0.2 0.1 0.7 1.1 3.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.4 1.4 0.5 2.1 4.0 0.0 1.3 0.4 1.1 0.5 0.2 0.6 0.6 1.0 1.6 0.5 0.8 0.2 0.1 0.7 1.0 H -P-TOTAL 9 884 71 347 1 344 487 1 415 834 13.9 0.7 0.7 TABLE 1 9 . * a DENSITY ( B ^ A / ) OF MATURE APPROVED P.S.Y.U. ASPEN-COTTONWOOD AND BIRCH 1 8 cm+ D.B.H. IN EACH FOREST DISTRICT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ( 2 , 8, 1 0 0 , 1 0 2 ) . FOREST DISTRICT TOTAL FOREST LAND AREA Km2 TOTAL VOLUME OF ASPEN-COTTONWOOD BICH • 0 0 0 nr 3 DENSITY OF ASPEN-COTTONWOOD m3/Km2 BIRCH CARIBOO KAMLOOPS NELSON PRINCE GEORGE PRINCE RUPERT VANCOUVER 5 6 0 8 7 40 9 7 5 3 2 7 2 8 1 3 0 8 5 0 5 5 5 8 5 2 1 1 5 9 4 848 1 416 626 61 465 11 921 1 059 759 625 1 6 1 9 884 1 315 124 86.4 34.6 19.1 469.7 214.5 50.0 13.5 15.3 4.9 75.5 23.7 5.9 TOTAL 3 3 7 3 8 4 8 1 3 3 5 1 2 8 6 7 2 4 1 . 1 3 8 . 1 146 TABLE 20. , p DENSITY (m^/Km ) OF MATURE APPROVED P.S.Y.U. BIRCH 18 cm+ D.B.H. IN EACH FOREST UNIT OF THE PRINCE GEORGE FOREST DISTRICT (100, 102).' FOREST UNIT FOREST LAND AREA DENSITY OF ASPEN-COTTONWOOD BIRCH Km2 m3/Km2  ALEZA LAKE 77 220 689 BIG VALLEY 743 50 4 BLUEBERRY 7 770 712 7 CANOE 1 209 53 6 CARP 5 234 548 75 CROOKED RIVER 2 401 610 258 FINLAY 23 865 372 58 FONTAS 4 367 268 45 FORT NELSON 8 856 1 583 189 KLUSKUS 3 168 53 00 LONGWORTH 3 454 171 335 MOBERLY 6 036 666 35 MONKMAN 3 023 157 254 NAVER 1 228 81 73 NECHAKO 8 762 387 17 PARSNIP 4 443 93 92 PEACE 4 901 615 81 PURDEN 2 158 249 213 ROBSON 2 582 265 190 SIKANNI 10 953 325 15 STUART LAKE 4 875 1 016 119 TAKLA 9 046 222 30 WAPITI 8 545 288 5 WESTLAKE 2 296 346 60 WILLOW RIVER 1 219 292 148 TOTAL 130 851 470 76 TABLE 21. RATIO BETWEEN 18 cm+ AND 28 cm+ D.B.H. FOR APPROVED P.S.Y.U. ASPEN-COTTONWOOD MATURE STANDS WITHIN BRITISH COLUMBIA (8, 102). FOREST DISTRICT TOTAL VOLUME OF ASPEN-COTTONWOOD 18 cm+ 28 cm+ '000 m 3 RATIO BETWEEN 28cm+ AND 18 cm+ D.B.H. % CARIBOO KAMLOOPS NELSON PRINCE GEORGE PRINCE RUPERT VANCOUVER 4 848 1 416 626 61 465 11 921 1 059 1 053 347 241 15 330 4 167 543' 22 25 39 25 35 51 TOTAL 81 335 21 680 27 * 33.3 cm+ D.B.H. TABLE 22. RATIO BETWEEN 28 cm+ AND 18 cra+ D.B.H. FOR APPROVED P.S.Y.U. MATURE BIRCH STANDS IN EACH FOREST DISTRICT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (8, 100). FOREST DISTRICT TOTAL VOLUME OF BIRCH 18 cm+ 28 cm+ '000 m 3 RATIO BETWEEN 28 cm+ AND 18 cm+ B.B.H. % CARIBOO 759 121 16 KAMLOOPS 625 1 8 19 NELSON 161 33 21 PRINCE GEORGE 9 884 2 130 22 PRINCE RUPERT 1 315 369 28 VANCOUVER 124 14 11 TOTAL 12 867 2 785 22 TABLE 23. RATIO BETWEEN 18 cm+ AND 28 cm+ D.B.H. FOR APPROVED P.S.Y.U. ASPEN-COTTONWOOD MATURE STANDS IN EACH UNIT WITHIN PRINCE GEORGE DISTRICT ( 8 , 102). FOREST UNIT TOTAL VOLUME OF APEN-COTTONWOOD RATIO BETWEEN 28 cm+ 18 cm+ 28 cm+ AND 18 cm+ D.B.H. '000 m3 % ALEZA LAKE 17 8 45 BIG VALLEY 37 16 43 BLUEBERRY 5 531 1 333 24 CANOE 64 39 61 CARP 2 868 635 22 CROOKED RIVER 1 465 505 35 FINLAY 8 886 1 469 17 FONTAS 1 172 290 25 FORT NELSON 14 017 3 772 27 KLUSKUS 167 34 20 LONGWORTH 590 199 34 MOBERLY 4 021 996 25 MONKMAN 476 141 30 NAVER 100 30 30 NECHAKO 3 390 832 25 PARSNIP 415 249 60 PEACE 3 014 871 29 PURDEN 538 297 55 ROBSON 684 286 42 SIKANNI 3 442 622 18 STUART LAKE 4 951 1 162 24 TAKLA 2 009 445 22 WAPITI 2 461 724 29 WESTLAKE 795 258 33 WILLOW RIVER 356 101 28 TOTAL 61 465 15 330 25 TABLE 24 • RATIO BETWEEN 28 cm+ AND 18 cm+ D.B.H. FOR APPROVED P.S.Y.U. MATURE BIRCH STANDS IN EACH FOREST UNIT WITHIN THE PRINCE GEORGE FOREST DISTRICT (8;, 100).. FOREST UNIT ALEZA LAKE BIG VALLEY BLUEBERRY CANOE CARP CROOKED RIVER FINLAY FONTAS FORT NELSON KLUSKUS LONGWORTH MOBERLY MONKMAN NAVER NECHAKO PARSNIP PEACE PURDEN ROBSON SIKANNI STUART LAKE TAKLA WAPITI WESTLAKE WILLOW RIVER TOTAL VOLUME OF BIRCH 18 cm+ 28 cm+ 53 3 57 7 394 620 389 197 677 155 208 768 90 148 407 396 460 491 157 582 268 40 137 181 •000 ra 3 18 1 2 2 48 177 193 18 170 424 33 309 12 23 135 80 149 105 20 61 78 11 23 40 RATIO BETWEEN 28 cm+ AND 18 cm+ D.B.H. % 33 36 4 29 12 29 14 9 10 33 37 16 40 14 15 33 20 32 21 13 11 29 27 17 22 TOTAL 9 884 2 131 22 151 TABLE 25• SITE CLASSIFICATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ASPEN-COTTONWOOD AND BIRCH (8, 100, 102). SPECIES CLASSIFICATION GOOD MEDIUM POOR LOW _ % ASPEN-COTTONWOOD 5.3 47.0 43.2 4.6 WHITE BIRCH 16.0 66.0 8.0 10.0 1 5 2 TABLE 2 6 . PROJECTED DEMAND AND CURRENT PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY FOR SOFTWOOD PLYWOOD IN U.S.A. (9.5 mm THICKNESS BASIS) (lit, 101). YEAR CONSUMPTION CAPACITY BALANCE »000 000 m2  1974* 1500 2000 +500 1980** 1800 2000 +200 1985** 2000 2000 000 1990** 2200 2000 -200 * r e a l data ^* projected 153 TABLE 27. PROJECTED 1985 SUPPLY - DEMAND BALANCE FOR SOFTWOOD TIMBER (ROUNDWOOD EQUIVELENT) (14, 101). SAWLOGS VENEER LOGS PULPWOOD OTHER TOTAL '000 000 ra3  DEMAND 181 44 133 10 368 SUPPLY 148 38 111 10 307 BALANCE - 33 - 6 - 22 0 0 - 6 1 154 TABLE 28. FOREIGN TRADE OF SOFTWOOD PLYWOOD IN CANADA (9.5 THICKNESS BASIS) (14, 101). YEAR IMPORTS EXPORTS «000 000 m2 1970* 1.2 37 1971* 1.4 34 1972* 8.6 45 1973* 9.7 46 1974* 34.3 34 1975* 47.5 26 1976* 18.1 22 1977* 5.1 35 1980** n/a 44 1985** n/a 77 * r e a l data ** projected n/a not available 155 TABLE 29. PROJECTION OF HOUSING DEMAND IN THE U.S.A. UP TO THE YEAR 2000 (61, 101). PERIOD 1950 - 1959 I960 - 1969 1970 - 1974 1975 - 1979 1980 - 1989* 1990 - 1999* TOTAL DEMAND 1 522 000 1 649 000 2 343 000 2 490 000 2 560 000 2 360 000 * projected 156 TABLE 30. HARDWOOD PLYWOOD PRODUCTION, IMPORTS, EXPORTS AND CON-SUMPTION IN THE UNITED STATES (9.5 mm THICKNESS BASIS) ( 3 D . YEAR DOMESTIC PRODUCTION IMPORTS EXPORTS CONSUMPTION '000 000 m2  I960 102 65 0.2 167 1965 185 93 0.6 287 1970 167 185 5.4 352 1975 111 180 6.2 387 1976 130 222 7.3 343 1977 139 213 9.3 343 1990* 167 324 n/a 491 2000* 194 343 n/a 537 2010* 204 370 n/a 574 2020* 241 370 n/a 611 2030* 278 352 n/a 630 * projected n/a not available 157 TABLE 31. HARDWOOD PLYWOOD AND VENEER PRODUCTION. IMPORTS, EXPORTS AND CONSUMPTION IN CANADA (1974 - 1978) (15) . YEAR ITEM PRODUCTION IMPORTS EXPORTS CONSUMPTION 'OOO nr3  1974 PLYWOOD 34 52 5 81 VENEER 94 21 73 42 TOTAL 128 83 78 133 1975 PLYWOOD 28 50 4 74 VENEER 73 13 62 24 TOTAL 101 83 66 118 1976 PLYWOOD 190 50 4 236 VENEER 111 18 88 41 TOTAL 301 68 92 277 1977 PLYWOOD 193 45 5 233 VENEER 127 15 86 56 TOTAL 320 60 91 209 1978 PLYWOOD 217 52 7 262 VENEER 164 14 101 77 TOTAL 381 66 108 339 TABLE 32. PLYWOOD AND VENEER OPERATIONS AND PRODUCTION IN WESTERN CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES, 1977 (9.5 mm THICKNESS BASIS) (5, 101). PROVINCE/STATE PLYWOOD VENEER VENEER No. OF PLANTS PRODUCTION No. OF PLANTS PRODUCTION "DEFICIT •000 m3 '000 m3 '000 rrr ALBERTA 4 216 00 00 216 BRITISH COLUMBIA 26 2 240 11 686 mm 1 554 SASKATCHEWAN 1 64 00 00 64 TOTAL WESTERN CANADA 31 2 520 11 686 - 1 834 CALIFORNIA 18 541 10 592 + 51 IDAHO 7 515 2 12 — 503 MONTANA 5 608 00 00 _ 608 OREGON 80 7 453 68 3 941 — 3 512 WASHINGTON 31 1 795 17 712 1 083 TOTAL WESTERN U.S. 141 10 912 97 5 257 5 655 ,3 TOTAL WESTERN NORTH AMERICA 172 13 432 108 5 943 - 7 489 TABLE 33 -SENSITIVITY AJiALYSIS OF CAPITAL AND PRODUCTION COSTS FOR ASPEN AND COTTONWOOD ROTARY VENEER CUTTING AND DRYING LINE. CAPACITY/YEAR •OOO m3/YEAR 5 10 15 18 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 TOTAL CAPITAL S'000 000 1 . 8 2 . 7 3.4 3 . 8 4 . 1 5.2 6 . 1 7 . 0 7 . 8 8 . 6 9 . 3 10 10.6 1 1 . 9 CAPITAL INVESTMENT /UNIT - S/m3 3 6 . 0 2 7 . 0 2 2 . 7 2 1 . 3 2 0 . 5 1 7 . 3 15.3 14.0 1 3 . 0 1 2 . 3 1 1 . 6 1 1 . 1 1 0 . 6 9 . 9 i'OOD COST/CSIT S / s 3 3 6 . 6 3 6 . 6 3 6 . 6 3 6 . 6 3 6 . 6 3 6 . 6 3 6 . 6 3 6 . 6 3 6 . 6 3 6 . 6 36.6 3 6 . 6 3 6 . 6 3 6 . 6 FHOD'JCTICN COST/ rjMIT - 3 / n 3 1 0 6 . 1 77 .7 . 6 4 . 7 5 9 . 6 5 6 . 8 4 7 . 4 4 1 . 6 3 7 . 6 3 4 . 7 3 2 . 4 50.5 2 S . 9 2 7 . 6 25.4 TOTAL COST/UNIT S / n 3 1 7 8 . 7 141.3 124.0 1 1 7 . 5 113.9 1 0 1 . 3 9 3 . 5 M . 2 8 4 . 3 8 1 . 3 7 8 . 7 7 6 . 6 7 4 . 8 7 1 . 9 160 TABLE 34. HOURLY OUTPUT OF MAJOR PROCESSING STEPS OF ASPEN AND COTTONWOOD DRIED VENEER PLANT. ROUND TIMBER INPUT : 35.0 m5/h 100% DEBARKED LOGS : 32.6 nrVh 93% WET VENEER : 24.5 m3/h 70% DRY VENEER : 19.6 m3/h 55% STACKED VENEER : 17.5 m3/h 50% 161 TABLE 35. TECHNICAL DATA ON LATHE CHARGER (94). MAXIMUM LOG DIAMETER 1 OOO mm MINIMUM LOG DIAMETER 250 mm MAXIMUM LENGTH OF LOG 2 700 mm MINIMUM LENGTH OF LOG 1 300 mm NET WEIGHT 8./ft GROSS WEIGHT l i t SEAWORTHY PACKING 37 m3 162 TABLE 36. TECHNICAL DATA ON THE LATHE (94). MAXIMUM LOG DIAMETER 1 500 mm LENGTH OF BLADES 2 800 mm DIAMETER OF TELESCOPIC SPINDLE 130 - 190 mm DIAMETER OF TELESCOPIC CLAW 130 - 280 mm MINIMUM PEELING LENGTH WITHOUT EXTENTION. 1 550 mm SPINDLE SPEED 200 r/min VENEER THICKNESS 0.4 - 5.5 mm OUTPUT OF AUXILIARY MOTORS 30 Kw NET WEIGHT 381 GROSS WEIGHT 44t SEAWORTHY PACKING 103 m3 163 TABLE 37. TECHNICAL DATA OF THE VERTICAL VENEER SLICER ( 94 ) . MAXIMUM BLOCK LENGTH 5 100 mm LENGTH OF KNIFE 5 550 mm BLOCK HEIGHT 800 mm MAXIMUM BLOCK WIDTH 800 mm MAXIMUM VENEER THICKNESS 3 mm CONTROL OF NUMBER OF CUTS 20 - 70/min DRIVE POWER 80 Kw INSTALLED POWER 115 Kw NET WEIGHT Mft GROSS WEIGHT 521 SEAWORTHY PACKING 66 nr5 164 TABLE 38. LENGTHWAYS SINGLE SLICER SPECIFICATIONS (84)» FEED MOTOR 11 Kw ELEVATION MOTOR 0.75 Kw WORK CAPACITY: MAX. SLICING WIDTH 250 mm MAX. SLICING THICKNESS .. 8 mm AVAILABLE MATERIAL SIZE: MAX. WIDTH .... 250 mm MAX. THICKNESS 240 mm KNIFE BIAS ANGLE 75°- 85° FEED SPEED 37 m/min TABLE HEIGHT 800 mm MACHINE SIZE: WIDTH x LENGTH x HEIGHT .. 1850x3150x1830 mm MACHINE NET WEIGHT 5720 Kg 165 TABLE 39. ONE-SECTION DRYER SPECIFICATIONS (84). MAX. FEED SPEED 8 m/min FEED MOTOR 1.5 Kw BLOWER MOTOR 5.5 Kw BURNER MOTOR 0.125 Kw WORKING TEMPERATURE RANGE 150°C MAX. TEMPERATURE 180°C MAX. ELECTRIC CURRENT 60 A ENTRANCE WIDTH 1050 mm MACHINE SIZE: WIDTH x LENGTH x HEIGHT ..... 1820x6200x2740 mm MACHINE NET WEIGHT 5300 Kg TABLE 40. ESTIMATED THERMAL AND ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE PLANT, ELECTRICAL THERMAL Kwh GJh LOG BOOM, DEBARKER AND CONVEYORS 300 ASPEN-COTTONWOOD VENEERING-DRYING LINE 500 28 VERTICAL SLICER AND DRYING LINE 300 6 SPLINT MANUFACTURING LINE 140 4 LENGTHWAYS SLICER AND DRYER 20 2 PELLET MILL PLANT 500 3 CONDITIONING VATS 5 5 PLANT LIGHTING AND HEATING 15 2 TOTAL 1 780 50 167 TABLE Z f l . PROFITABILITY OF THE DRIED ASPEN ANDCOTTONWOOD VENEER OPERATION AT SELLING PRICE OF $125/m3 - 3mm THICKNESS BASIS ( 92) (1980 BASIS). VENEER SALESAEAR 8 750 000 TOTAL OPERATING COSTS 7 361 000 GROSS PROFIT 1 389 000 INCOME TAX AT 50% 695 000 AFTER TAX PROFIT 695 000 DEPRECIATION 793 000 CASH FLOW 1 488 000 PAY OUT 11 YEARS RETURN ON FIXED INVESTMENT 8.8% 168 TABLE 42. PROFITABILITY OF THE VERTICAL SLICER AND DRYING OPERATION AT A SELLING PRICE OFiUOO/m^ - 0.8mm THICKNESS BASIS(95) (1980 BASIS). VENEER SALES/YEAR 16 800 000 TOTAL OPERATING COST 3 755 000 GROSS PROFIT 13 045 000 INCOME TAX AT 50% 6 523 000 AFTER TAX PROFIT 6 523 000 DEPRECIATION , ^93. 000 CASH FLOW 7 016 000 PAY OUT 0.8 YEARS RETURN ON FIXED INVESTMENT 132% 169 TABLE 43. PROFITABILITY OF LENGTHWAYS^SLICING AND DRYING OPERATION AT SELLING PRICE OF $2040/m3 - 0.8mm THICKNESS BASIS (95) (1980 BASIS). VENEER SALESAEAR 3 060 000 TOTAL OPERATING COST 1 618 000 GROSS PROFIT 1 442 000 INCOME TAX AT 50% 721 000 AFTER TAX PROFIT 721 000 DEPRECIATION 163 000 CASH FLOW 844 000 PAY OUT 2.3 YEARS RETURN ON FIXED INVESTMENT 44.5% 170 TABLE 44-PROFITABILITY OF THE SPLIT MANUFACTURING LINE BASED ON SELLING PRICE OF $110/1 000 000 SPLITS ( *) (1980 BASIS). $ SPLINT SALESAEAR 4 400 000 TOTAL OPERATING COST 2 594 000 GROSS PROFIT 1 806 000 INCOME TAX AT 50% 903 000 AFTER TAX PROFIT 903 000 DEPRECIATION 406 000 CASH FLOW 1 309 000 PAY OUT 4.5 YEARS RETURN ON FIXED INVESTMENT 22.2% * Canadian S p l i n t s Ltd., Pembrook, Ontario. 171 TABLE 45. PROFITABILITY OF THE ASPEN BARK PELLETING OPERATION AT A SELLING PRICE OF $110/t (1980 BASIS). PELLETS SALES/YEAR 1 100 000 TOTAL OPERATING COST 1 01+6 000 GROSS PROFIT 5k 000 INCOME TAX AT 50% 27 000 AFTER TAX PROFIT 27 000 DEPRECIATION ' 155 000 CASH FLOW 182 000 PAY OUT 57 YEARS RETURN ON FIXED INVESTMENT 1.8% based on 6-7% protien 172 TABLE 46. PROFITABILITY OF THE INTEGRATED COMPLEX (1980 BASIS). $ ASPEN AND COTTONWOOD VENEER SALES 8 750 000 SLICED BIRCH VENEER SALES 19 860 000 SPLINTS SALES 4 400 000 BARK PELLETS SALES 1 100 000 TOTAL SALES/YEAR 3 4 H O 000 TOTAL OPERATING COST 12 290 000 GROSS PROFIT 21 820 000 INCOME TAX AT 50% 10 910 000 AFTER TAX PROFIT 10 910 000 DEPRECIATION 1 708 000 CASH FLOW 12 618 000 PAY OUT 1.6 YEARS RETURN ON FIXED INVESTMENT 64% TABLE 47 • FINANCIAL REPORT SUMMARY FOR EACH PRODUCTION LINE AND FOR THE INTEGRATED INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX FINANCIAL STATEMENT PRODUCTION LINES ASPEN & VERTICAL LENGTHWAYS SPLINT BARK COTT.DRIED SLICER & SLICE & LINE VENEER DRYER DRYER TOTAL INTEGRATED PELLET COMPLEX CAPITAL INVESTMENT 4 OOO 7 930 OPERATING COST/ YEAR $ '000 7 361 PROFITABILITY AFTER TAX PROFIT S ! 000 695 PAY OUT - YEARS 11 RETURN ON FIXED INVESTMENT % 8.8 4 930 3 755 6 523 0.8 132 1 622 1 618 721 2.3 44.5 4 063 1 548 20 094 17 083 2 594 1 046 16 374 12 290 903 27 8 869 10 910 4.5 57 2.3 1.6 22.2 1.8 44 64 174 TABLE 48. ESTIMATED OPERATING COST/YEAR FOR THE ASPEN AND COTTONWOOD ROTARY CUT, DRIED VENEER PLANT (1980 BASIS). $ LABOUR COST 1 441 000 RAW MATERIAL 2 800 000 UTILITIES AND SUPPLIES 560 000 SALARIES AND ADMINISTRATION 180 000 MAINTENANCE 238 000 PROPERTY TAXES 238 000 INSURANCE 159 000 DEPRECIATION 793 000 INTEREST ON WORKING CAPITAL 952 000 TOTAL OPERATING COSTS 7 361 000 175 TABLE 49 • ESTIMATED OPERATING COSTS/YEAR FOR WHITE BIRCH VERTICAL SLICER AND DRYING SYSTEM (1980 BASIS) . LABOUR COST 1 334 000 RAW MATERIAL 600 000 UTILITIES AND SUPPLIES 200 000 SALARIES AND ADMINISTRATION 140 000 MAI TEN AN CE 148 000 PROPERTY TAXES W 000 INSURANCE 1 0 0 000 DEPRECIATION 493 000 INTEREST ON WORKING CAPITAL 592 000 TOTAL OPERATING COSTS 3 755 000 176 TABLE 50. ESTIMATED OPERATING COST/YEAR FOR THE LENGTHWAYS SLICING AND DRYING OPERATION (1980 BASIS). $ LABOUR COST 920 000 RAW MATERIAL COST 75 000 UTILITIES AND SUPPLIES 20 000 SALARIES AND ADMINISTRATION 85 000 MAINTENANCE 60 000 PROPERTY TAXES 60 000 INSURANCE kO 000 DEPRECIATION 163 000 INTEREST ON WORKING CAPITAL 195 000 TOTAL OPERATING COST 1 618 000 177 TABLE 51. OPERATING COST/YEAR FOR THE SPLINT PRODUCTION LINE (1980 BASIS). $ LABOUR COST 880 000 RAW MATERIAL 320 000 UTILITIES AND SUPPLIES 64 000 SALARIES AND ADMINISTRATION 90 000 MAINTENANCE 125 000 PROPERTY TAXES 125 000 INSURANCE 84 000 DEPRECIATION 406 000 INTEREST ON WORKING CAPITAL 500 000 TOTAL OPERATING COST 2 594 000 178 TABLE 52. ESTIMATED OPERATING COSTS/YEAR FOR ASPEN BARK PELLETING LINE (1980 BASIS). s LABOUR COST *f27 000 RAW MATERIAL 50 000 UTILITIES AND SUPPLIES 30 000 SALARIES AND ADMINISTRATION 75 000 MAINTENANCE 46 000 PROPERTY TAXES 46 000 INSURANCE 31 000 DEPRECIATION 155 000 INTEREST ON WORKING CAPITAL 186 000 TOTAL OPERATING COSTS 1 046 000 179 TABLE 53* ESTIMATED OPERATING COST/YEAR FOR THE INTEGRATED COPLEX (1980 BASIS). $ LABOUR COST 2 714 000 RAW MATERIAL 3 500 000 UTILITIES AND SUPPLIES 700 000 SALARIES AND ADMINISTRATION 250 000 MAITENANCE 513 000 PROPERTY TAXES 513 000 INSURANCE 342 000 DEPRECIATION 1 708 000 INTEREST ON WORKING CAPITAL 2 050 000 TOTAL OPERATING COST 12 290 000 180 TABLE 54. LABOUR COST CALCULATION FOR THE ROTARY CUT, DRIED ASPEN AND COTTONWOOD MILL (1980 I.W.A. FORT NELSON, B.C. RATES). OCCUPATION WAGE NO. OF WORKER/SHIFT COST OF RATE $ DAY A.NOON NIGHT LABOR/DAI $ LOG HANDLING SYS. 10.74 1 1 n 171.84 DEBARKER ASSIST. 9.66 1 1 n 154.55 HOG CHIPPER ASST. 9.17 1 1 n 146.72 CONDITIONING VAT 9.66 1 1 1 231.84 LATHE OPERATOR 10.74 1 1 n 171.84 DRYER OPERATORS 9.84 2 2 2 473.28 CLIPPER ASSISTANT 9.27 1 1 1 222.48 FORK LIFT OPERATOR 9.53 2 2 2 457.44 CLEAN UP WORKER 9.11 2 2 1 364.40 CERTIFIED MECH. 11.77 2 2 1 470.80 CERTIFIED ELECT. 11.77 1 1 1 282.48 OILER-GRINDMAN 10.16 1 1 n 162.56 BOILER ATTENDANT 11.77 1 1 n 188.32 SUPERVISOR 12.50 1 1 n 200.00 FORMAN 11.90 2 2 2 571.20 TOTAL LABOUR COST/DAY 4 270 TOTAL LABOUR COSTAEAR 1 067 438 5% OVER TIME 53 372 30% FRINGE BENEFITS 320 231 TOTAL WAGES/YEAR 1 441 041 International Woodworkers of America n:no workers required 181 TABLE 55. LABOUR COST CALCULATION FOR THE VERTICAL SLICER AND DRYING SYSTEM OPERATION (I.W.A. 1980 RATES). OCCUPATION WAGE NO. OF WORKERS/SHIFT COST OF RATE DAY A. NOON NIGHT LABOR/DAY LOG HANDLING SYS. 10.74 1 1 n 171.84 DEBARKER ASSIST. 9.66 1 1 ri 154.55 HOG CHIPPER ASST. 9.17 1 1 n 146.72 CONDITIONING VAT 9.66 1 1 1 231.84 BLOCK PREPARATION 9.66 1 1 n 154.55 SLICER OPERATOR 10.74 1 1 n 171.84 DRYER OPERATOR 9.86 1 1 1 236.64 VENEER STACKING 9.66 1 1 1 231.84 FORK LIFT OPETR. 9.53 2 1 1 304.96 CLEAN UP WORKER 9.H 2 2 1 364.40 CERTIFIED MECH. 11.77 2 1 n 282.48 CERTIFIED ELECT. 11.77 2 1 n 282.48 OILER-GRINDMAN 10.16 1 1 n 162.56 N.GAS BURNER ATT. 11.77 1 1 1 282.48 SUPERVISOR 12.50 1 I n 200.00 FORMAN 11.90 2 2 2 571.20 TOTAL LABOUR COST/DAY 3 950 TOTAL LABOUR COSTAEAR 987 500 5% OVER TIME 49 735 30% FRINGE BENEFITS 296 250 TOTAL WAGES/YEAR 1 333 125 n:no workers required 182 TABLE 56. LABOUR COST CALCULATION FOR THE LENGTHWAYS SLICING AND DRYING OPERATION (1980 I.W.A. RATES). OCCUPATION WAGE NO.OF WORKERS/SHIFT COST OF Li RATE $ DAY A. NOON NIGHT /DAY $ LOG BOOM OPTR. 10.74 1 1 n 171.84 DEBARKER ASSIST. 9.66 1 1 n 154.55 HOG CHIP. ASSIST. 9.17 1 1 n 146.72 COND. VATS ASSIST. 9.66 1 1 1 231.84 BLOCK PREPARATION 9.66 1 1 n 154.55 SLICER OPERATOR 10.74 1 1 n 171.84 DRYER OPERATOR 9.86 2 2 n 315.52 VENR. STACKING ATT. 9.66 1 1 n 154.55 FORK LIFT OPRTR. 9.53 1 . 1 n 152.48 CLEAN UP WORKER 9.H 1 1 n 145.76 CERTIFIED MECHANIC 11.77 1 1 n 188.32 CERTIFIED ELECTRCN. 11.77 1 n n 94.16 OILER-GRINDMAN 10.16 1 1 n 162.56 N. GAS BURNER ATT. 11.77 1 1 n 188.32 FORMAN 11.90 1 1 n 190.40 SUPERVISOR 12.50 1 n n 100.00 TOTAL LABOUR COST/DAY 2 :724 TOTAL LABOUR COST/YEAR 681 000 5% OVER TIME 34 050 30% FRINGE BENEFITS 204 300 TOTAL WAGESAEAR 919 350 n:no workers required i 183 TABLE 57. LABOUR COST CALCULATION FOR THE SPLINT MANUFACTURING LINE (1980 I.W.A. RATES). OCCUPATION WAGE NO.OF WORKERS/SHIFT COST OF RATE DAY A.NOON NIGHT LABOUR/DAY LOG BOOM OPRTR. 10.74 1 1 n 171.84 COND. VATS ASSIT. 9.53 1 1 n 152.48 SKILLED OPERATOR 10.74 3 3 1 601.44 FORK LIFT OPRTR. 9.53 1 1 n 152.48 CLEAN UP WORKER 9.11 1 1 1 218.64 CERTIFIED MECH. 11.77 2 1 n 282.48 CERTIFIED ELEC. 11.77 1 1 n 188.32 OILER-GRINDMAN 10.16 1 1 n 162.56 FORMAN 11.90 2 2 1 476.00 SUPERVISOR 12.50 1 1 n 200.00 TOTAL LABOUR COST/DAY 2 606 TOTAL LABOR COST/YEAR 651 560 5% OVER TIME 32 578 30% FRINGE BENEFITS 195 468 TOTAL WAGES/YEAR 879 606 n:no labour required 184 TABLE 58 . LABOUR COST CALCULATION FOR ASPEN BARK PELLETING LINE (1980 I.W.A. RATES). OCCUPATION WAGE NO.OF WORKERS/SHIFT COST OF RATE «. DAY A.NOON NIGHT LABOR/Di $ BARK HOG ASSIT. 9.53 1 1 n 152.48 DRYER OPERATOR 9.86 1 1 1 236.64 HAMMER MILL AND PELLET MILL OPRTR. 9.17 1 1 n 146.72 CLEAN UP WORKER 9.H 1 n 1 145.76 CERTIFIED MECHANIC 11.77 1 1 n 188.32 CERTIFIED ELECTRCN. 11.77 1 n n 94.16 SUPERVISOR 12.50 1 1 1 300.00 TOTAL LABOUR COST/DAY 1 264 TOTAL LABOUR COST/YEAR 316 000 5% OVER TIME 15 800 30% FRINGE BENEFITS 94 800 TOTAL WAGES/YEAR 426 600 n:no labour required 185 TABLE 59-LABOUR COST CALCULATION FOR THE INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX (1980 I.W.A. RATES). OCCUPATION WAGE NO.OF WORKERS/SHIFT COST OF RATE DAY A.NOON NIGHT LABOR/DAY $ ft LOG BOOM OPERATOR 10.74 2 2 n 343.68 DEBARKER ASSIST. 9.66 1 1 n 154.56 HOG CHIPPER OPRTR. 9.17 1 1 n 146.72 CONDITIONING VAT AST . 9.66 1 1 n 154.56 LATHE OPERATOR 10.74 1 1 n 171.84 DRYER OPERATOR 9.86 2 2 2 473.28 CLIPPER ATTENDANT 9.26 1 1 1 222.48 BLOCK PREP. ASSIT. 9.66 1 1 n 154.56 SLICER OPERATOR 10.74 1 1 n 171.84 DRYER OPERATOR 9.86 1 1 1 236.64 STACKING ATTENDT. 9.66 1 1 1 231.84 L.WAYS SLICER OPRTR. 10.74 1 1 n 171.84 DRYER OPERATOR 9.86 2 2 n 315.52 STACKING ATTENDT. 9.66 1 1 n 154.55 SPLIT LINE SKILLED 601.44 OPERATORS 10.74 3 3 1 BARK HOH ASSIST. 9.53 1 1 n 152.48 BARK DRYER OPRTR. 9.86 1 1 1 236.64 HAMMER MILL AND 146.72 PELLET MILL OPRTR. 9.17 1 1 n CLEAN UP WORKER 9.H 4 4 2 728.80 FORK LIFT OPERATOR 9.53 3 3 2 609.92 CERTIFIED MECHANIC 11.77 4 2 3 847.44 CERTIFIED ELECTRICN. 11.77 3 2 1 564.96 FORMAN 11,90 4 4 4 1142.40 SUPERVISOR 12.50 2 2 1 500.00 TOTAL LABOUR COST/DAY 8 040 TOTAL LABOUR COST/YEAR 2 010 000 5% OVER TIME 100 500 30% FRINGE BENEFITS 603 000 TOTAL WAGES/YEAR 2 713 500 n:no labour required 186 TABLE 60. CAPITAL COST FOR ASPEN AND COTTONWOOD ROTARY CUT, DRIED VENEER PLANT (1980 BASIS). SITE PREPARATION AND LAND COST 100 000 BUILDING, POWER AND PLUMBING 1 500 000 LOG HANDLING SYSTEM AND DEBARKER 520 000 CONDITIONING CHEST AND EQUIPMENT 300 000 VENEERING AND DRYING SYSTEM 1 800 000 INSTALLATION AND SERVICES 330 000 MOBILE EQUIPMENT 300 000 BURNER - BOILER SYSTEM 500 000 CONSTRUCTION OVERHEAD 750 000 SUB TOTAL .6 100 000 CONTINGENCY 1 220 000 ENGINEERING AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT .610 000 TOTAL CAPITAL COST 7 9'30 000 187 TABLE 61. CAPITAL COST ESTIMATION FOR VERTICAL SLICER AND DRYING PRODUCTION LINE (1980 BASIS). SITE PREPARATION AND LAND COST 75 000 BUILDING, POWER AND PLUMBING .800 000 LOG PREPARATION EQUIPMENT 500 000 CONDITIONING CHEST AND EQUIPMENT 200 000 BLOCKS PREPARATION EQUIPMENT 380 000 SLICER - DRYER AND EQUIPMENT 1 000 000 INSTALLATION AND SERVICES 237 000 MOBILE EQUIPMENT 200 000 CONSTRUCTION OVERHEAD 400 000 SUB TOTAL 3 792 000 CONTINGENCY 759 000 ENGINEERING AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT 379' 000 TOTAL CAPITAL COST 4 930 000 188 TABLE 62. ESTIMATED CAPITAL COST FOR LENGTHWAYS SLICER AND DRYING SYSTEM (1980 BASIS). S SITE PREPARATION AND LAND COST 30 000 BUILDING, POWER AND PLUMBING 300 000 LOG HANDLING AND PREPERING EQUIPMENT 300 000 CONDITIONING VATS, SLICER AND 3 SECTION DRYER ... 320 000 INSTALLATION AND SERVICES 7k 000 MOBILE EQUIPMENT 50 000 CONSTRUCTION OVERHEAD 150 000 SUB TOTAL 1 224 000 CONTINGENCY 275 000 ENGINEERING AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT 123 000 TOTAL CAPITAL COST 1 622 000 189 TABLE 63. ESTIMATED CAPITAL COST FOR THE SPLINT MANUFACTURING LINE (1980 BASIS). $ SITE PREPERATION AND LAND COST 75 000 BUILDING, POWER AND PLUMBING 500 000 CONDITIONING VATS AND EQUIPMENT 200 000 LOG PREPERATION EQUIPMENT AND SPLINT LINE 1 550 000 BURNER AND BOILER SYSTEM 250 000 INSTALLATION AND SERVICES 200 000 MOBILE EQUIPMENT 100 000 CONSTRUCTION OVERHEAD 250 000 SUB TOTAL 3 125 000 CONTINGENCY 625 000 ENGINEERING AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT 313 000 TOTAL CAPITAL COST k 063 000 190 TABLE 64. ESTIMATED CAPITAL COST FOR THE BARK PELLETING OPERATION (1980 BASIS). SITE PREPERATION AND LAND COST 50 000 BUILDING, POWER AND PLUMBING 400 000 BARK TREATMENT AND PELLETING EQUIPMENT 425 000 INSTALLATION AND SERVICES 66 000 MOBILE EQUIPMENT 50 000 CONSTRUCTION OVERHEAD 200 000 SUB TOTAL 1 191 000 CONTINGENCY 238 000 ENGINEERING AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT 119 000 TOTAL CAPITAL COST 1 548 000 191 TABLE 65. CAPITAL COST ESTIMATION FOR THE INTEGRATED INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX (1980 BASIS). SITE PREPARATION AND LAND COST 193 000 BUILDING, POWER AND PLUMBING 2 600 000 LOG PREPARATION EQUIPMENT 790 000 CONDITIONING VATS AND EQUIPMENT 400 000 BIRCH BLOCK PREPARATION SYSTEM 380 000 ASPEN AND COTTONWOOD PEELING AND DRYING LINE ... 1 800 000 VERTICAL SLICER AND DRYING LINE 1 000 000 LENGTHWAYS SLICER, DRYER AND EXT. COND. VAT .... 320 000 SPLINT MANUFACTURING EQUIPMENT 1 200 000 ASPEN BARK PELLETING LINE 425 000 ENERGY GENERATING SYSTEM 1 500 000 INSTALLATION AND SERVICES 833 000 MOBILE EQUIPMENT 400 000 CONSTRUCTION OVERHEAD 1 300 000 SUB TOTAL 13 141 000 CONTINGENCY 2 628 000 ENGINEERING AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT 1 314 000 TOTAL CAPITAL COST 17 083 000 TABLE 66. DEMAND ON MATCH SPLINTS MANUFACTURED IN CANADA BETWEEN 1974 TO 1978 (15). YEAR 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 VALUE :S'000 1 552 1 623 1 773 2 541 3 470 193 TABLE 67. RAILWAY FREIGHT COSTS AND SELLING PRICE AT LOCATIONS FOR ASPEN, COTTONWOOD AND WHITE BIRCH DRIED VENEER (1980). v DESTINATION FREIGHT COST/m3 PRICE AT LOCATION/rrr ASPEN BIRCH ASPEN BIRCH $ FORT NELSON,B.C. FORT ST.JOHN PRINCE GEORGE PRINCE RUPERT VANCOUVER, B.C. CALGARY, ALTA. EDMONTON, ALTA. REGINA, SASK. WINNIPEG, MAN. SEATTLE, WASH. PORTLAND, ORE. LAUREL, MONT. BOISE, IDAHO LAS VEGAS, NEV. LOS ANGELES, CAL. ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. HOUSTON, TEX. 00.00 00.00 5.98 10.71 9.45 16.92 36.92 66.08 15.14 27.09 14.11 22.27 11.30 17.84 18.91 29.80 22.38 35.22 18.76 33.57 23.47 42.00 27.51 49.21 27.13 48.55 34.61 61.92 32.06 57.38 34.38 61.52 36.70 65.67 75.00 1258.00 80.98 1338.98 84.45 1342.45 111.92 1369.92 90.14 1348.14 89.11 1347.11 86.30 1344.30 93.91 1351.91 97.38 1355.38 93.76 1351.76 98.47 1356.47 102.51 1360.51 102.13 1360.13 109.61 1367.61 107.06 1365.06 109.38 1367.38 111.70 1369.70 194 TABLE 68. TRUCK FREIGHT RATES FOR ASPEN, COTTONWOOD AND WHITE BIRCH DRIED VENEER, INCLUDING EXPECTED SELLING PRICE AT LOCATIONS (1980). DESTINATION FREIGHT COST/nr 5 PRICE AT LOCATION/nr ASPEN BIRCH ASPEN BIRCH _ $ FORT NELSON, B.C. 00.00 00.00 75.00 1258.00 FORT ST. JOHN 16.38 29.34 91.38 1287.34 PRINCE GEORGE 32.76 58.68 107.76 1316.68 PRINCE RUPERT 58.22 104.27 133.22 1362.27 VANCOUVER-; B.C. 40.95 73.35 115.95 1331.35 CALGARY, ALTA.* 44.79 80.22 119.79 1338.22 EDMONTON, ALTA* 36.08 64.63 111.08 1322.63 * rates are reduced due to lower f u e l cost at locations FIG. 1. ASPEN, COTTONWOOD AND WHITE BIRCH MAJOR AREAS IN CANADA (2, 57). FIG. 2. TANGENTIAL AND CROSS SECTIONS OF TREMBLING ASPEN AND BLACK COTTONWOOD (69) BLACK COTTONWOOD TREMBLING ASPEN FIG. 3. TANGENTIAL AND CROSS SECTIONS OF WHITE BIRCH AND WHITE SPRUCE (69) • WHITE SPRUCE WHITE BIRCH 198 FIG. i f . COMPUTERIZED, OPTIMIZED PEELER BLOCK---.'CONDITIONING SYSTEM-PRODUCTIVITY AND RECOVERY IMPROVEMENTS AND ENERGY REDUCTION (72). 15 i 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 block' diameter d i s t r i b u t i o n - cm energy-reduction productivity improvement recovery improvement FIG. 5. SETTINGS BETWEEN KNIFE AND PRESSURE BAR (37). 1. horizontal gap 3. knife angle 5. r o l l e r bar 2. v e r t i c a l gap 4. f l a t bar 6. knife FIG. 6. CROSS SECTION OF A VERTICAL SLICER (52) FIG. 7. METHODS OF SLICING (52) r i f t s l i c e d 202 FIG. 8. CROSS SECTION IN A JET DRYER (90). 7 8 10 11 12 10 1. automatic feeder 3. a x i a l flow blower 3. drying deks with jet boxes, wire mesh belts and be l t support r o l l s 7. a i r exhaust funnel 9. heating radiator 11. heat insulated body •. 2. maintenance bridge k» heat insulated doors 6. cooling f i e l d 8. steam d i s t r i b u t i n g pipe 10. f i r e extinguisher 12. condensate tube 203 FIG. 9. SEVEN DIFFERENT VENEER HANDLING APPLICATIONS FOR DRYING VENEER USING THE CONTINUOUS JET VENEER DRYER (90). i n iv V 8 22 V I V I 1 1. lathe charger 4. dryer 8. green clipp e r 2. lathe 3. dryer feeder 5. dryer out feed 6 e c o l l e r 7. dry. clipper 9. stacking system for redrying 10. r e e l i n g station 204 FIG. 10. MOISTURE DISTRIBUTION OF GREEN WHITE SPRUCE VENEER (35), 70. 60 5Q I o § 30j rH 20 i d 50 100 150 200 250 moisture content - % FIG. 11. SHEAR STRENGTH SPRUCE PLYWOOD AND DRYING TIME RELATIONSHIP FOR WHITE PRETREATED WITH 2.5% BORAX (30). 206 FIG. 12. DRYING TIME AND MOISTURE CONTENT RELATIONSHIP FOR WHITE SPRUCE HEARTWOOD AND SAPWOOD VENEER (35) , 1. veneer thickness of 2.5 2. veneer thickness of k»0 3. veneer thickness of 2.5 /+. veneer thickness of k»0 mm - temperature at 230°C mm' - temperature at 230°c mm - temperature at 150°C mm - temperature at 150 C 207 FIG. 13 . ILLUSTRATION OF TIME VERSUS WEIGHT FOR TWO GROUPS OF EWES FED ON HAY AND ASPEN BARK ( 40 ) . 208 FIG. 14. ASPEN-COTTONWOOD MAJOR AREAS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA (57). 210 FIG. 16. EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF CANADIAN SOFTWOOD PLYWOOD BETWEEN 1970 TO 1977, WITH PREDICTION TO 1985 (12). 100 * 9.5 mm thickness basis FIG. 17. ANNUAL NUMBER OF BIRTHS IN THE UNITED STATES BETWEEN 1900 TO 1979 WITH PREDICTIONS TO 2000 (61 ) . o o o 3 rt 1900 1950 years 2000 212 FIG. 18. CANADIAN HARDWOOD VENEER AND PLYWOOD PRODUCTION, EXPORTS, IMPORTS AND CONSUMPTION BETWEEN 1974 AND 1978 (101). 213 FIG. 19. EXPECTED MARKET AREA FOR ASPEN, COTTONWOOD AND BIRCH VENEER MANUFACTURED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA (101). 215 216 FIG. 22. SENSTIVITY ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL AND PRODUCTION COSTS FOR ASPEN AND COTTONWOOD ROTARY VENEER CUTTING AND DRYING LINE. 2001 20 ZfO „ 60 80 100 120 capacity - nr/year 217 FIG. 2 4 . VIEW OF RECOMMENDED LATHE ( 9 4 ) . VENEER SIDE PLANT VIEW F I G . 25. , . S I D E V I E W O F T H E LATHE CHARGER & T H E L A T H E I N C O N N E C T I O N W I T H T H E R E E L I N G S Y S T E M (94). hook hoists waste conveyor FIG. 26. MEASUREMENTS AND SPECIAL ARRENGEMENT OF THE SELECTED JET DRYER ( 9 0 ) . LI L2 L 4 W o h3 h3 h2 i l l LI : length of entry side 4200 mm L2 : length of heated f i e l d 2000 mm . n L3 : length of drive/exit side 2600 mm L4 : t o t a l dryer length 32 800 mm W : t o t a l width 2900 mm + b h i : height of cooling f i e l d 950 mm h2 : height of heated f i e l d 2300 mm + M h3 : free height with overhead feed table 2500 mm 600 n : number of heated sections = 13 b : maximum working width = 3000 mm M : number of drying decks = 6 FIG. 27. AUTOMATIC DRY CLIPPER (90). 2 2 1 FIG. 28. AUTOMATIC VENEER STACKING MACHINE (90) 222 223 FIG. 29. DRY VENEER TRIMSAW (90). 224 FIG. 30. , DRY VENEER SCARFER WITH STACKER ( 9 0 ) . 225 FIG. 31. SIDE AND PLANT VIEWS OF THE VERTICAL SLICER (94). V FIG. 32. SIDE VIEW OF A COMPLETE VERTICAL SLICER AND DRYING PRODUCTION LINE (94) . VENEER SLICER DRYER AUTOMATIC FEED EQUIPMENT STACKING EQUIPMENT ro FIG. 33. N A SIMPLIFIED OPERATIONAL VIEW OF THE LENGTHWAYS SLICING AND DRYING SYSTEM (84). 228 • CD CD 55 Hi h-t CO 229 230 F I G . 36. FRONT TABLE VERTICAL AND LONGITUDINAL ADJUSTMENTS OF LENGTHWAYS SLICER (84). front table movable back and forth front table movable up and down 231 FIG. 37. SPLINT PEELING MACHINE (73). 232 FIG. 38, VENEER CUTTING AND PILING UNIT FOR SPLINTS MANUFUCTURING (73). 234 FIG. 40. SPLINT BUFFER CONVEYOR (73). 235 FIG. 4 1 . SPLINT SPRAY IMPREGNATING UNIT (73 ) . 236 FIG. 43 . SPLINT SORTING AND CLEANING MACHINE (73). 238 239 FIG. 45. BARK HOG (81) . FIG. 46. HAMMER MILL (83) FIG. hi • PELLET MILL (76) d i e h o l d i n g b o l t i n - l i n e f e e d e r - c o n d i t i o n e r a d j u s t a b l e f e e d plow o n e - p i e c e main s h a f t t w o - p i e c e s t a i n l e s s s t i f f e n e r r i n g / c o v e r r o l l assembly FIG. 48. PELLET HORIZONTAL COOLER ( 7 6 ) . ro -p-ro FIG. 4 9 . conveyance system B U R N E R B O I L E R S Y S T E M L O G S T A C K I N G A R E A A D M I N I S T R A T I O N W O R K E R S ' F A C I L I T I E S 

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