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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Recreation impact on campsite vegetation Baillargeon, Maurice Kinley 1975

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RECREATION IMPACT ON CAMPSITE VEGETATION by MAURICE KINLEY BAILLARGEON B. ENG., MCGILL UNIVERSITY, 1952 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN THE DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY ; We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL 1975 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f or reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s re p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of F o r e s t r y  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date June 3, 1975. i i ABSTRACT The study purpose was to determine the occurrence and magnitude of understory vegetation change caused by the occupants of campsites, to determine the magnitude of screening provided by overstory vegetation, to assess q u a n t i t a t i v e l y the r e l i a b i l i t y of battery operated electromagnetic d i g i t a l t r a f f i c counters, and to correlate permit system data to t r a f f i c counter data. The o r i g i n a l study design provided for cross-sectional data from twenty selected campsites within two campgrounds s i t u -ated within two western Canada National Parks. Lack of v i s i t o r s at one campground and time constraints at the other necessitated abandonment of fifteen sample campsites. The f i n a l f i e l d study was concerned with changes i n understory vegetation, occupancy and screening of f i v e selected campsites i n Wapiti campground of Jasper National Park, the numbers and some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the parties entering the study area, and the numbers of par t i e s entering the campground. , The study period was July 1 to September 1, 1970. Six-teen sample days were randomly selected to provide double backed days, evenly d i s t r i b u t e d between weekdays and weekends. Four experimental plots and one control p l o t , each one square meter i n area, were located within each sample campsite. Within these plots understory vegetation change was determined by scanning the vegetation understory through a cl e a r p l a s t i c g r i d at the beginning and end of the study period. Total vegetation cover within the experimental plots was reduced from a mean of 37 i i i percent to 17 percent. Total vegetation within the control plots was reduced from a mean of 46 percent to 35 percent. S t a t i s t i c a l analysis revealed a s i g n i f i c a n t reduction of t o t a l vegetation within the experimental plots and within the control p l o t s . Occupancy of the sample campsites was observed each hour from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. during the sample days. No c o r r e l a t i o n could be found between changes i n vegetation cover and occupancy of the sample s i t e s . Overstory vegetation screening between campsites, deter-mined by means of a pantallometer, ranged from 2 5 to 50 percent. Electromagnetic d i g i t a l t r a f f i c counters were found to be a r e l i a b l e and s t a t i s t i c a l l y acceptable method of c o l l e c t i n g t r a f f i c data. Correlation of campground permit sales to t r a f f i c entering the campground indicated that each vehicle entered the campground approximately twice d a i l y . i y TABLE, OP CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ix I. INTRODUCTION 1 Statement of the Problem 2 Objectives of the Study 4 Limitations of the Study 5 £>• D e f i n i t i o n of Study Terms 6 I I . LITERATURE REVIEW 8 Vegetation 9 Ground Cover 9 Grasses, Forbs, Lichen and Mosses . . . . 11 Shrubs 13 Trees 15 S o i l s . 17 S o i l Compaction 17 Organic Matter 18 Recreation Use Measurement 19 II I . PROJECT PROCEDURE v 24 The Study 24 Selection of the Study Area . . . . . . . 24 Selection of Study Periods . 25 V CHAPTER PAGE Vegetation Survey 25 Use Intensity Survey . 28 F i e l d Adaptations 29 IV. D ATAMAN ALY SIS 33 Screening 33 Vegetation Cover 33 T r a f f i c Counter C a l i b r a t i o n 55 Occupancy Analysis . . . . . 57 Recreation Impact 60 V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 64 Future Research 67 BIBLIOGRAPHY 70 Lite r a t u r e Cited 70 References 76 APPENDIX A Glossary of Terms 82 APPENDIX B T r a f f i c Counter and Plot Layout Dimen-sio n a l sketches 84 APPENDIX C Photographs of Experimental and Control Plots 91 APPENDIX D T r a f f i c Data 103 APPENDIX E Occupancy Data 104 APPENDIX F Miscellaneous Data 107; v i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I Screening Observations and Screening Effectiveness i n Percent 35 II Experimental Plot Vegetation Observations . 38 III Control Plot Vegetation Observations . . . . 39 IV Total Vegetation Cover i n Percent 41 V Summary of Test of Significance of Changes i n Vegetation Cover Employing Paired T-Tests at Ninety Percent Confidence Level . . . 42 VI Campground T r a f f i c and Permit Sales . . . . 55 VII Study Area and Campground T r a f f i c 56 VIII Study Area T r a f f i c During Observation Periods 58 IX Absence as Percent of Occupancy 59 X Sample Period Occupancy, Use and Absence as Percent of Available Hours 61 XI Recreation and Non-Recreation Vehicles Enter-ing the Study Area 63 XII Sample Campsite T r a f f i c and Study Area T r a f f i c During Observation Periods . . . 103 XIII Occupancy During Weekdays and Weekends . . . 104 XIV Use During Weekdays and Weekends 105 XV Occupancy of Sample Sites and Wapiti Camp-ground by Nights Available 106 XVI Origin of Vehicles Occupying^ the Study Area During Sample Periods 107 XVII Mean Party Size Occupying Sample Sites . . . 108 XVIII D i s t r i b u t i o n of Types of Equipment Used i n the Study Area During Sample Periods . . 109 XIX Hourly D i s t r i b u t i o n of Recreation and Non-Recreation Vehicles Entering the Study Area During Observation Periods 110 v i i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. Wapiti Campground Location 24 2. Portable Wooden Plot Frame 26 3. Clear P l a s t i c Grid 27 4. Location of T r a f f i c Counters and Sample Camp-s i t e s i n Wapiti Campground 30 5. Entrance to Study Area 34 6. Typical Campsite i n Study Area 34 7. Sample Campsite FF-18 with Campsite FF-20 i n Background Providing 49 percent Screening . 36 8. Sample Campsite FF-41 LOdgepole Pine Seedlings 37 9. Sample Campsite FF-03 Showing Service Road with Campsite FF-02 and FF-01 i n Background 43 10. Campsite FF-03 Experimental Plot E - l 44 11. Campsite FF-03 Experimental Plot E-2 45 12. Campsite FF-03 Experimental Plot E-3 46 13. Campsite FF-03 Experimental Plot E-4 47 14. Campsite FF-03 Control Plot C-1 48 15. Sample Campsite FF-11 with Campsites FF-12 and FF-13 i n Background 49 16. Sample Campsite FF-11, Experimental Plot E-2 Removal of Steel Plot Markers 51 17. Sample Campsite FF-11, Experimental Plot E-3 Damaged Vegetation Ground Cover 52 18. Sample Campsite FF-18 Control Plot C-1 . . . . 53 19. Sample Campsite FF-22 Experimental Plot E - l . 54 20. Sample Campsite FF-11 Experimental Plot E - l . 91 21. Sample Campsite FF-11 Experimental Plot E-4 . 92 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES (continued) FIGURE PAGE 22. Sample Campsite FF- 11 Control Plot C-1 . • 93 23. Sample Campsite FF- 18 Experimental Plot E- l . . 94 24. Sample Campsite FF- 18 Exper imental Plot E-2. 95 25. Sample Campsite FF- 18 Experimental Plot E-3. . 96 26. Sample Campsite FF- 18 Experimental Plot E-4. 97 27. Sample Campsite FF- 22 Experimental Plot E- 2. 98 28. Sample Campsite FF- 22 Experimental Plot E-3. 99 29. Sample Campsite FF- 22 Experimental Plot i- 4. 100 30. Sample Campsite FF- 22 Control Plot C-1 101 31 Sample Campsite FF- 41 Control Plot C-1 102 ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am gra t e f u l to Dr. P.J. Dooling, programme advisor, Dr. T.M. Ballard and Dr. L.M. Lavkulich, for t h e i r h e l p f u l suggestions and advice during the planning of the project and for t h e i r excellent c r i t i q u e of the manuscript. Dr. P.J. Dooling arranged for the necessary equipment and funding for the f i e l d work. Dr. A. Kozak provided the s t a t i s t i c a l analy-s i s of the f i e l d observations. I wish to thank Mr. Frank Camp of the National Parks western region administration o f f i c e , Parks Canada, for expediting approval of the project and the Jasper Park s t a f f for t h e i r co-operation. Mrs. Dona..Paul and Mrs. Sandra Aspden provided expert s e c r e t a r i a l assistance during the preparation of the manuscripts. F i n a l l y I wish to express my gratitude to my wife and daughters. Without t h e i r understanding and encouragement the graduate programme would not have been possible. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The demand for outdoor recreational opportunities i s r i s i n g r a p i d l y as a r e s u l t of increased population, l e i s u r e time, disposable income and mobility. The increased number of v i s i t o r s t r a v e l l i n g i n private conveyances has imposed increased o b l i g a t i o n on park administrations to provide accommodation while at the same time preserving the environment of campgrounds and other park areas to meet the requirements of the dedication clause of The National Parks Act. The Act states i n part: The parks are hereby dedicated to the people of Canada for t h e i r benefit, education, enjoyment...and such parks s h a l l be maintained and made use of so as to leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.! H i l l s acknowledges the obligations of land management when he states that: Although man-management may dominate the planning of considerable areas of the national and p r o v i n c i a l parks, forest and wild l i f e management must remain the basic management... The maintenance of vegetative cover, even under the s t r a i n of dense human occupance, i s one of the main objectives of recreational land management.2 The a l l o c a t i o n of s p e c i f i c areas for camping provides a method for c o n t r o l l i n g and guiding public use of the outdoors. National Parks Act. 1956. Part 1. Canada Department of Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources, Ottawa. Consolidated for o f f i c e purposes, page 1. 2 G.H. H i l l s . 1961. The Ecolog i c a l Basis for Land-Use Planning. (Research Report No. 46, Ontario Department of Lands and Forests) page 2. 2 The regulation of use aids i n the o v e r a l l preservation of the attractiveness of recreational lands. It does, however, r e s u l t i n concentration of people on r e l a t i v e l y small areas. This tends to impose excessive recreational pressure on the natural vegetation of campgrounds. Vegetation, as part of the resource a t t r a c t i o n conponent of a recreation area, i s a primary source of outdoor pleasure. Its contribution to the r e c r e a t i o n a l experience i s so subtle that vegetation often goes unnoticed u n t i l i t has been eith e r degraded or eliminated. Douglass states that "deterioration of the occupied portions i s the greatest threat to established recreation 3 4 areas". According to Brockman destruction of Vegetation i s one of the f i r s t indications of overuse of campgrounds. Excessive wear manifests i t s e l f i n several ways,: reduction of shade due to loss of trees, reduction of screening as shrub cover wears out, denudation of the ground and an increase i n dust and d i r t . 5  Statement of the Problem The park administrator has the d i f f i c u l t task of attaining and maintaining a balance between the goal of pro^-3Rpbert W. Douglass. 1969. Forest Recreation (Pergamon, Toronto) page 49. 4 C. Frank Brockman. 1959. Recreational Use of Wild Lands (McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York) page 234. 5 Read W. Bailey, 1962. Recreation Opportunities and  Problems i n the National Forests of the Northern and Inter- mountain Regions (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service Research Paper 66) page 5. 3 viding service and s a t i s f a c t i o n to v i s i t o r s and the goal of preserving the natural features of the park. The history of campgrounds indicates that the forest environment cannot be maintained i n an acceptable condition i n d e f i n i t e l y i f subject to very high or r a p i d l y increasing use pressures. Periodic closures of most campgrounds i s probable at some future date unless methods can be devised to determine t h e i r carrying capa-c i t y as a prerequisite to the regulation and control of use int e n s i t y within the recovery a b i l i t y of the vegetation. The most desirable vegetation within the campgrounds of the National Parks of Canada consists of natu r a l l y established indigenous plant associations. Under c e r t a i n conditions the introduction of plants more r e s i s t a n t to the e f f e c t s of trampling, the application of f e r t i l i z e r and i r r i g a t i o n may be advantageous. "Usually ecology i s defined as the study of the r e l a t i o n of organisms or groups of organisms to t h e i r environment, or the science of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s between l i v i n g organisms and 6 t h e i r environment". In the provision of outdoor recreation opportunities e c o l o g i c a l considerations are important. Ecological science should play an important r o l e i n the design and operation of parks and the campgrounds constructed within them. For adequate design and operation, information i s required related to but not limited to the questions: What Eugene P. Odum. 1959. Fundamentals of Ecology (W.B. Saunders Company) page 4. 4 i s the rate of deterioration of campgrounds and can rates of deterioration at varying levels of use intensity be predicted? Can campgrounds be located, designed and constructed so as to provide continuing satisfactory surroundings? Does regulation of use provide a suitable method for prolonging the usefulness of public campgrounds? Objectives of the Study There has been l i t t l e research in general and scarcely none in Canada on the effect of recreation use on campsite vegetation. Information i s required as to the effects of different kinds and intensities of recreation use on the different species and amount of vegetative cover within recre-ation development sites. The objectives of the study were: 1. To determine the occurrence and magnitude of understory vegetational change in relation to use-intensity of public campsites. 2. To develop relationships of use-intensity to t r a f f i c by employing visual and t r a f f i c counter survey techniques. 3. To assess quantitatively the r e l i a b i l i t y of battery-operated electromagnetic d i g i t a l t r a f f i c counters. 4. To relate permit system v i s i t o r data to t r a f f i c counter data. The hypothesis of the study was that: The greater the recreational use of campsites the greater i s the reduction in the abundance of low^growing understory vegetation. The research project was undertaken to develop a direct method of determining low-growing plant response within campsites to various levels of occupancy. In the long run 5 factors useful to park management for predicting rates of vegeta-t i v e change are to be developed. The use-vegetation impact relationships w i l l contribute to the c r i t e r i a employed i n the selection and design of campsites i n si m i l a r ecosystems. They w i l l provide the means for predicting maintenance and r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n requirements of e x i s t i n g campsites at varying l e v e l s of occupancy. Limitations of the Study This study was considered to be the f i r s t stage of a three stage undertaking. Tne data analysis are not expected to be conclusive u n t i l the three stage study i s complete. The study was limited to the e f f e c t s of rec r e a t i o n a l use i n t e n s i t y of campsite areas to the denudation of the ground. Adequate data was obtained to provide the changes i n vegetation cover during one camping season. Adequate t r a f f i c data was obtained to i l l u s t r a t e that electromagnetic d i g i t a l t r a f f i c counters provide a r e l i a b l e method of determining t r a f f i c l e v e l s auto-matically. Future stages w i l l require only that vegetative cover readings and t r a f f i c counter readings be^recorded at the beginning and at the end of the camping season, providing no major changes occur i n the campground or park which would a f f e c t v i s i t a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n . From his studies i t became evident to Wagar "...that recreational-carrying capacity i s a complex matter that requires d i f f i c u l t value judgements and must draw on rather complete statements of the desires of r e c r e a t i o n i s t s and 6 the ecology of b i o t i c communities". 7 He concluded that "...the production of recreation values depends not only on the condition of the resource but upon the psychology of r e c r e a t i o n i s t s " . This study was concerned only with changes i n the understory vegetation associated with developed public campgrounds and limited to cross-sectional data f o r the summer study period, 1970. Although the user's attitudes towards s a t i s f a c t i o n and acceptance of h i s surroundings are important factors i n deter-mining carrying capacity, only physical factors of low growth vegetation and screening provided by trees were considered. The e f f e c t of changes i n low growth vegetation on the attitudes of campers towards acceptance of the campground environment were not considered. To overcome the disadvantage of d e t a i l e d and accurate information not being a v a i l a b l e as to conditions and use i n previous years, only s i t e s recently placed i n service i n the National Parks of the Western region were selected. D e f i n i t i o n of Study Terms For convenience and ready reference, d e f i n i t i o n s pertinent to the thesis are l i s t e d i n Appendix A. The reader's J. Alan Wagar. 1964. The Carrying Capacity of Wild Lands  for Recreation (Forest Science Monograph 7) page 20. Ibid, page 21. 7 a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d t o the f o l l o w i n g terms which have p a r t i -c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of data. Study P e r i o d - the i n t e r v a l o f time between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s (8:00 a.m. J u l y 1 s t t o 8:00 a.m. September 1 s t , 1970.) Sample P e r i o d - the 48 hour time i n t e r v a l o f two back t o back sample days from 8:00 a.m. the f i r s t day t o 8:00 a.m. the t h i r d day. O b s e r v a t i o n P e r i o d - a 12 hour time i n t e r v a l from 8:00 a.m. t o 8:00 p.m. d u r i n g back t o back sample days. V e g e t a t i o n Cover - the v e r t i c a l p r o j e c t i o n o f low growing p l a n t l i f e forms c o n s i s t i n g o f graminoids, f o r b s , l i c h e n s and mosses. Impact - t h a t p o r t i o n o f the change i n v e g e t a t i o n cover a t t r i b u t a b l e t o occupancy o f a campsite. Occupancy - the l e n g t h o f s t a y i n a campsite t o which a p a r t y i s e n t i t l e d by the purchase o f a campsite permit. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW The determination of the carrying capacity of recreational land involves, i n terms of i t s b i o t i c component, the determination of changes i n vegetation and changes i n s o i l s as a r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of recreation use. The concept that the carrying capacity of d i f f e r e n t s i t e s for d i f f e r e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l uses i s comparable to that of sustained y i e l d i n timber management, was f i r s t suggested by Dana.^" He outlined the necessity of deter-mining capacity as a basis for adjusting recreation use to reduce the degradation of the resource. It i s generally conceded that e c o l o g i c a l degradation of a recreation microsite i s an obvious feature of the landscape which i s d i f f i c u l t to assess q u a n t i t a t i v e l y . This problem was recognized by LaPage when he stated that: Although the aesthetic d e t e r i o r a t i o n of a recreation s i t e i s oftentimes r e a d i l y apparent, i t becomes quite d i f f i c u l t to a r r i v e at a s a t i s f a c t o r y q u a l i t a t i v e or quantitative measure of t h i s deterioration i n terms of b i o t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Many natural a t t r i b u t e s such as climate, topography and scenery determine the value of a recreation s i t e . The ''"S.T. Dana. 1957. Problem Analysis: Research i n Forest  Recreation (U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service, Washington)pages 22-23. 2Wilbur F. LaPage. 1962. Recreation and the Forest Site (Journal of Forestry, Volume 60) page 320. 9 aesthetic value of an int e n s i v e l y used recreation microsite i s determined l a r g e l y by the plant population and i t s condition. The plant population, e s p e c i a l l y that of the low growing species which form the ground cover, i s dependent on the a b i l i t y of the native plant associations to withstand trampling. Heavy use imposes unfavourable influences on the health and reproduction of ground cover grasses, forbs, lichens and mosses, understory shrubs and overstory trees. L i t t e r cover and depth, screening 3 cover and s o i l properties are also unfavourably affected. Vegetation Ground Cover Some of the most obvious and undesirable r e s u l t s of recreation a c t i v i t y on forest s i t e s are the changes i n the natural vegetation which lead to a reduction i n the aesthetic a t t r a c t i o n of the s i t e . In his studies of the e f f e c t 4 of t o u r i s t t r a v e l on the C a l i f o r n i a Redwood Parks, Memecke attributed the dying out of plants forming the ground cover to bruising, trampling down and to packing of the s o i l . J"Screening cover" i s defined as the percent of the surrounding t e r r a i n which i s obscured, or nearly so, when viewed p a r a l l e l to the p r e v a i l i n g ground surface. (Eamor Nord and Arthur W. M a g i l l . 1963. A Device for Gaging Camp- ground Screening Cover. (Journal of Forestry, Volume 61) page 450-451. 4 E.P. Meinecke. 1929. THe E f f e c t of Excessive Tourist  Travel on the C a l i f o r n i a Redwood Parks ( C a l i f o r n i a Department of Natural Resources, Sacramento) 20 pages. 10 Bates reported that i n England bare ground occurred where treading was most severe and that d i s t i n c t plant zonation was evident from the bare ground outward to the surrounding areas. Leaf size has a bearing on the a b i l i t y of a plant to withstand trampling. Grasses were found to be more r e s i s t a n t 5 6 to trampling than broad leaved herbs, by Bates , Wagar and 7 LaPage . With the prime objective of i d e n t i f y i n g and describing the general r e l a t i o n s between the physical and b i o l o g i c a l properties of developed s i t e s , use loads and degrees of s i t e degradation, Ripley, using multivariate analysis, found that "the most important r e l a t i o n s were those associated with bare ground, erosion, and tree damage". The more f e r t i l e s i t e s G.H. Bates. 1935. Vegetation of Footpaths, Sidewalks,  Carttracks and Gateways (Journal of Ecology, Volume 23) pages 470-487. ^ J . Alan Wagar. 1964. The Carrying Capacity of Wild  Lands f o r Recreation (Forest Seience Monograph 7) page 19. 7 Wilbur F. LaPage. 1964. A Study of Ground Cover Under  the Camper's Feet (American Recreation Journal, Volume 5) pages 103-104. g Thomas H. Ripley. 1962. Recreation Impact on Southern  Appalachian Campgrounds and P i c n i c S i t e s (U.S. Forest Service, S-E Forest Experimental Station Paper 153) page 13. 11 withstood recreational use and maintained vegetation better 9 than nutrient d e f i c i e n t s i t e s . Severe crown closure of the high canopy li m i t e d the amount of understory from which i t was infe r r e d "... that for most areas canopy reduction could produce important regrowth... " ^ Grasses, Forbs, Lichens and Mosses Grasses, forbs, lichens and mosses are low-growing plants which are p r i m a r i l y responsible for the provision of ground cover. They provide a n a t u r a l l y a t t r a c t i v e mat having high water i n f i l t r a t i o n rates which prevents the formation of dust and mud. They bind the s o i l surface against erosion by wind and water and at the same time aid i n maintaining the s o i l humus i n a permeable, compaction-r e s i s t a n t condition. From studies of 137 C a l i f o r n i a campgrounds and p i c n i c s i t e s , M a g i l l and Nord reported that: Grass and forbs were abundant only on about half of the campgrounds-r-those situated along the f o o t h i l l s at lower elevations or on r i p a r i a n s i t e s where grasses and forbs usually predominate. Elsewhere, these plants were scarce i n about 60 percent of a l l campgrounds, and e n t i r e l y absent on 95 percent of the i n d i v i d u a l family u n i t s . H 9 Ibid, page 12. ^ I b i d , page 19. ^ A r t h u r W. Magill and Eamor C, Nord, 1963. An  Evaluation of Campground Conditions and Needs fo r Research (U.S. Forest Service Research Note PSW-4) page 5. 12 12 Ehrenreich reported that when competition for solar energy occurs, opening up tree crown closure increased ground cover vegetation. Wagar^ reported that s u r v i v a l of vegetation decreased as the amount of use increased, with plants located in shaded areas surviving better than those i n sunny s i t e s . He concluded that the increased s u r v i v a l of vegetation i n the shaded areas was due to greater moisture retention of the shaded s o i l . Wagar reconciled h i s findings with the divergent findings of Ehrenreich by suggesting that the ground cover would be most durable where a few trees are arranged to cast the greatest possible amount of shade. In such an arrangement, ground cover would be shaded for protection against excessive drying, but competition from trees would be held to a minimum. On areas where use was s u f f i c i e n t to have caused i n i t i a l 14 15 damage to the ground cover, Wagar and F r i s s e l l and Duncan found that a d d i t i o n a l large increases i n use caused only small increases i n additional vegetation damage. 12 T.H., Ehrenreich. 1959- Releasing Understory Pine  Increased Herbage Production (U.S. Forest Service Station NoteoNo; :139, November) page 2. 13 J. Alan Wagar. 1964. The Carrying Capacity of Wild  Lands for Recreation (Forest Science Monograph 7) page 19. 14 J. Alan Wagar. 1964. The Carrying Capacity of Wild  Lands for Recreation (Forest Science Monograph 7) page 18. 15 Sidney S. F r i s s e l l J r . and Donald P. DUncan. 1965. Campsite Preference and Deterioration i n the Quetico-Superior  Canoe Country (Journal of Forestry 63(4) ) page 258. 13 The t o t a l number of species represented i n a ground cover association decreases as a r e s u l t of trampling. Associations consisting l a r g e l y of mosses are extremely susceptible to damage.^ After severe damage to ground cover, 17 18 Bates and LaPage found that bare spots become revegetated with the more re s i s t a n t native species of grasses and forbs. 19 deVos and Bailey found that the invasion of hardy exotic species was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of in t e n s i v e l y used recreation s i t e s . 20 LaPage attributed a general improvement i n vegetation cover a f t e r the second year of campsite use to "the r e s u l t of more re s i s t a n t species taking over the barren ground previously occupied by the o r i g i n a l plant community". Shrubs Shrubs contribute to the aesthetic appeal of outdoor recreation areas by adding v a r i e t y and colour to the outdoor scene. In combination with tree boles and low branches, they provide screening cover. They often produce Wilbur F. LaPage. 1967. Some Observations on Camp-ground Trampling and Ground Cover Response (U.S. Forest Service Research Paper NE-68) page 4, 17 Bates, Hoc, c i t . ^LaPage, op. c i t . page 7. 1 9A, deVos and R.R, Bailey, 1970, The E f f e c t of Logging  and Intensive Camping on Vegetation i n Riding Mountain National Park (Forestry Chronicle 46:1 February) page 54. 20 LaPage, l o c . c i t . 14 berries which are used as a source of food by animals and birds. The foliage of shrubs i s often edible and used as a winter range by w i l d l i f e . In i n t e n s i v e l y used areas shrub understory i s usually lacking, but where i t does e x i s t as a shrub b a r r i e r i t i s very e f f e c t i v e i n protecting l o c a l areas and i n reducing tree 21 damage. Shrub b a r r i e r s increase vegetative low-growth cover 22 damage by concentrating use into smaller areas. Of the 137 National Forest s i t e s i n C a l i f o r n i a observed 23 by M a g i l l and Nord , ha l f lacked a shrub understory. Of the remainder, t h i r t y - f i v e percent contained a medium density of shrubs and the rest were located on moist s i t e s which supported the most abundant growth. The investigators concluded that species of shrubs that are tough, b r i t t l e , often thorny and grow i n dense stands usually provide the most e f f e c t i v e bar-r i e r s to control v i s i t o r movements and protect tree reproduction. The number of shrubs per acre on l i g h t l y used campsites 24 in three C a l i f o r n i a National Forests was reported by M a g i l l 21 Thomas H. Ripley. 1962. Recreation Impact on Southern  Appalachian Campgrounds and P i c n i c Sites (U.S. Forest Service, S-E Forest Experimental Station Paper 153) page 19. 22 Ibid, page 14. 23 M a g i l l and Nord. 1963. An Evaluation of Campground  Conditions and Needs for Research (U.S. Forest Service Research Note PSW-4) page 5. 24 Arthur W. M a g i l l . 1963. Evaluating E c o l o g i c a l Trends  on Campgrounds (U.S. Forest Service Research Note PSW~N 16) page 2. 15 to be almost three times greater than on heavily used s i t e s . The reduction of shrubs from heavy use reduced screening e f f e c t i v e -ness by f i f t y percent. Shrubby species i n i n t e n s i v e l y used areas were reported to be displaced by grass-forb associations 25 26 by Bates i n England, and by deVos and Bailey i n northern Canada. Trees - Trees, being the dominant vegetation form, a f f e c t i n several ways the recreational experience. Tree crowns pro-vide shade and protection from wind and other elements of the weather and have considerable influence on ground cover and s o i l conditions. Tree boles often provide the only screening between s i t e s , roadways and pathways. Recreational impact on the eco l o g i c a l q u a l i t y of developed recreation areas may r e s u l t i n successional changes i n forest associations which may have b e n e f i c i a l or detrimental e f f e c t s on the value of the forest recreation resource. An increase i n the r a t i o of conifers to hardwoods due to 27 recreation use was reported by Ripley . He implied that t h i s increase was probably related to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of conifers G.H. Bates. 1935. Vegetation of F o o t h i l l s , Sidewalks,  Carttracks and Gateways (Journal of Ecology, Volume 23) pages 470-487. 2 6 deVos and Bailey, op. c i t . page 55. 27 Ripley, op. c i t . page 13. 16 on thinner s o i l s . Nevertheless, for the same areas he reported that "conifers were c l e a r l y more susceptible to disease and insect attack than were hardwoods... with the possible exception 28 2>9 of short leaf pine and hemlock". deVos and Bailey ' i n a study focusing on northern Canada found softwoods to be hardier and less affected by mutilation than hardwoods. They reported white spruce and jack pine withstood intensive use better than aspen and i d e n t i f i e d tree mutilations as a major factor i n aspen mortality. R i p l e y ^ i d e n t i f i e d tree damage and root exposure as important consequences of r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . M a g i l l and Nord reported that: Most trees of poor vigor, and many vigorous ones, had been abused by campers... To support a multitude of camp conveniences, a l l sizes and kinds of n a i l s , screws and wires — objects that injure and d i s f i g u r e woody plants, favour disease and insect attacks, and introduce toxic substances to the plants — were attached to trees. Carving and chopping has destroyed some trees and g i r d l e d or scarred larger ones. Cars had damaged tree roots, boles, f o l i a g e and seedlings. Nearly a l l damaged trees were considered p h y s i c a l l y weakened and susceptible to pests or such other hazards as windstorms.^i 28 Thomas H. Ripley. 1962. Tree and Shrub Response to  Recreation Use (U.S. Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experimental Station Research Note No. 172) page 2. 29 deVos and Bailey, op. c i t . page 54. 30 Thomas H. Ripley. 1962. Recreation Impact on Southern  Appalachian Campgrounds and P i c n i c Sites (U.S. Forest Service, S-E Forest Experimental Station Paper 153) page 5. 31 Magill and Nord, op. c i t . page 2. 17 S o i l s S o i l Compaction - Intensive recreation use has been 32 33 reported by Dotzenko, Papamichos and Romine and Lutz to compact s o i l . The compaction i n t e r f e r e s with the normal movement of a i r and water into the s o i l . The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the s o i l and vegetation are numerous and complex. The changes i n s o i l properties as a r e s u l t of recreation i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t the s u r v i v a l and propagation of plant species. S o i l s formed from s i l t and clay are susceptible to puddling when wet. On drying, the upper layers of these s o i l s become a powdery dust which i s subject to wind and water 34 erosion. S o i l s formed of sand and gravel are less r e a d i l y compacted but are usually d e f i c i e n t i n nutrients and are l e a s t able to support good vegetative growth. Changes i n s o i l bulk density, i n f i l t r a t i o n rates, a i r capacity and permeability a l l indicate the degree and s i g n i f i -cance of compaction that has occurred i n the upper layers of the s o i l . Compaction i s dependent on i n t e n s i t y and duration of use A.D. Dotzenko, N.T. Papamichos and D.S. Romine. 1967. E f f e c t of Recreational Use on S o i l and Moisture Conditions i n  Rocky Mountain National Park (Journal of S o i l and Water Conservation, September-October) page 197. 33 H.J. Lutz. 1945. S o i l Conditions on P i c n i c Grounds i n Public Forest Parks (Journal of Forestry, Volume 43) page 1 2 T . 34 M a g i l l and Nord. 1963. An Evaluation of Campground  Conditions and Needs for ResearcK (U.S. Forest Service Research Note PSW-4) page 6. 18 and i s most severe i n the A horizon"". By s o i l analysis, Lutz"" found that treading may compact s o i l s to a depth of 20cm., with the greatest increase of s o i l density occurring i n the top 10 cm. Lutz defined a i r capacity as a measure of non-capillary pore space representing the amount of void space i n a s o i l having a moisture content equal to i t s f i e l d capacity. He reported that the a i r capacity of s o i l to a depth of at l e a s t 20 cm. undergoes substantial reduction as a r e s u l t of trampling; and that the permeability of sandy s o i l s was s i x to twenty times greater for unused areas than for heavily trampled areas. In the trampled areas which exhibited changes i n s o i l conditions, Lutz reported the absence of herbaceous vegetation, sedges and grasses. 37 Steinbrenner reported that compacted s o i l s dry out f a s t e r than untrampled s o i l s . Organic Matter - Organic matter i s an important factor i n nutrient r e c y c l i n g , s o i l structure and s o i l permeability. L i t t e r reduces the e f f e c t of trampling, aids the i n f i l t r a t i o n of water and retards evaporation. By interrupting the impact of p r e c i p i t a t i o n and reducing runoff, organic matter reduces erosion. 35 Ripley, op c i t . page 12. 36 Lutz, op. c i t . pages 123-126. 37 E.C. Steinbrenner. 1951. E f f e c t s of Grazing on  F l o r i s t i c Composition and S o i l Properties of Farm Woodland i n  Southern Wisconsin (Journal of Forestry, Volume 49) pages 906-910. 19 Recreational use reduces the thickness of the l i t t e r 38 layer. M a g i l l reported a l i t t e r layer depth of 1.62 inches for l i g h t l y used s i t e s and 0.58 for heavily used s i t e s . A 65 percent reduction i n l i t t e r and humus thickness was 39 reported by F r i s s e l l and Duncan . A dust-bed w i l l often develop when vegetation and l i t t e r cover i s absent. Recreation Use Measurement Recreation use and studies of the impacts of use on s o i l s and vegetation have not been well defined quantitatively. Most investigators have employed an or d i n a l use measurement system usually consisting of two or three classes such as heavy, medium and l i g h t use. Investigators using t h i s system 40 41 have included Dotzenko, Papamichos and Romme , LaPage and 42 43 Magill . Some researchers, including F r i s s e l l and Duncan , 38 Arthur W. M a g i l l . 1963. Evaluating Ecological Trends  on Campgrounds (U.S. Forest Service Research Note PSW-N16) page 2. 39 Sidney S. F r i s s e l l , J r . and Donald P. Duncan. 1965. Campsite Preference and Deterioration i n the Quetico-Superior  Canoe Country (Journal of Forestry 63 (TJ 5 page 258. 40 Dotzenko, Papamichos and Romine, op. c i t . page 196. 4 1 W i l b u r F. LaPage. 1962. Recreation and the Forest S i t e (Journal of Forestry, Volume 60) page 320. ^^M a g i l l , l o c . c i t . 43 F r i s s e l l and Duncan, op. c i t . page 257. 20 have incorporated refinements by specifying l i m i t s for each cla s s . To f u l f i l l the need for a r e l i a b l e method of estimating 44 man-hours of use and number of v i s i t s , James and Ripley devised a double sampling technique based on previous findings which revealed a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p between pneumatic t r a f f i c counts and the amount of use the areas received. The technique was to automatically count the vehicles entering the recreation area and to correlate t h i s data with related information obtained from sample observations. T r a f f i c movements were con-tinuously t a l l i e d on pneumatic t r a f f i c counters and read d a i l y . The number of v i s i t o r s and a c t i v i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n were deter-mined hourly during 12-hour observation periods on a few single random sample days. Camping, considered the sole a c t i v i t y during the remaining 12-hours, was adjusted to a 24-hour basis. Equations were then developed from the analysis of the observed data and t r a f f i c count. Future estimates of v i s i t s and use are based on 24-hour t r a f f i c counts only and the equations developed from the double sampling method. T r a f f i c count data must be c o l l e c t e d at the same location and during the same time of year as the o r i g i n a l c a l i b r a t i o n data. The equations are applicable only as long as there are no major changes i n the f a c i l i t i e s and services of the recreation area. George A. James and Thomas H. Ripley. 1963. Instruction for Using T r a f f i c Covin t e r s to Estimate Recreation  V i s i t s and Use (U.S. Forest Service Research Paper SE-3. March) 11 pp. 21 The investigators stated that "The recommended sampling i n t e n s i t y of ten sampling days per s i t e i s expected to y i e l d error terms no larger than plus or minus 25 percent of the estimated variable at the 67 percent l e v e l of p r o b a b i l i t y . . . I f e r r or terms consistently l e s s than 25 percent are desired, a sharp increase i n the number of 12-hour sampling days w i l l be 45 necessary." Correlation regression and r a t i o analysis were employed 46 by Bury and Margolies to observed attendance records of 23 campgrounds to develop s t a t i s t i c a l models based on the relationships between attendance at each campground and t o t a l attendance. Equations were developed for key "indicator" camp-grounds to estimate t o t a l d a i l y attendance and t o t a l seasonal attendance. The precision of the estimated d a i l y t o t a l attend-ance was reported to be 10 percent of true attendance from counts of d a i l y attendance on only one of the campgrounds. This l e v e l of p r e c i s i o n could be expected i n two out of three estimates and could be improved by including a d d i t i o n a l indicator campgrounds i n the c a l c u l a t i o n s . By combining the concept of key "indicator" campgrounds 47 of Bury and Margolies with the method of c a l i b r a t i o n of 4 5 I b i d , page 7. 4 6 R i c h a r d Bury and Ruth Margolies. 1964. A Method of Estimating Current Attendance on Sets of Campgrounds... a P i l o t Study (U.S. Forest Service Research Note PSW-42) 6 pp. 4 7 I b i d . 22 t r a f f i c counts to use and a c t i v i t y observations developed by 48 49 James and Ripley , James and Rich reduced the cost of large-scale application of James and Ripley's method by reducing the number of single sample days and the i n t e n s i t y of observations at each s i t e . V i s i t s and a c t i v i t y estimates were generated for i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s based on pneumatic t r a f f i c count records. Most estimates were within the acceptable l i m i t s s p e c i f i e d by James and R i p l e y 5 ^ . To determine a technique that can be used to predict recreation v i s i t a t i o n at a campground before the f a c i l i t y i s 51 b u i l t , Dooling modified the single sample day approach of 52 53 James and Ripley , and James and Rich by introducing the concept of two consecutive (back-to-back) sample days i n order to enable more precise determination of the actual length of stay of s i t e v i s i t o r s . 48 James and Ripley l o c . c i t . George A. James and John L. Rich. 1966. Estimating  Recreation Use on a Complex of Developed Sites (U.S. Forest Service Research Note SE-64) 8 pp. 50 James and Ripley, l o c . c i t . 5 1 P e t e r J. Dooling. 1973. Predicting Use of Recreational  S i t e s : Model and User Analysis. (Ph.D. Colorado State University, Fort C o l l i n s , Colorado) p. 48. James and Ripley, l o c . c i t . 53 James and Rich, l o c . c i t . CHAPTER III PROJECT PROCEDURE The Study Selection of the Study Area - The two westernmost provinces of Canada were examined to i d e n t i f y newly constructed campsites for the research project. Information obtained from the Provin-c i a l and National Parks branches indicated that few new camp-s i t e s were to be placed i n service i n 1970. In 1969 three additional areas i n Wapiti Campground had been opened to the public which increased the number of campsites from 120 to 325. From one of the new areas, f i v e sample campsites were selected for the study. Wapiti Campground i s located i n Jasper National Park three miles south of Jasper townsite at an elevation of 3470 feet (Figure I, page 24). The campground has a continental, bo r e a l - l i k e climate with extreme temperatures and low p r e c i p i -t a t i o n . The shallow s o i l s support young stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorts) with an a r i d grassland understory consisting mostly of hairy wild rye grass (Elmyrus innovatus), buffalo-berry shrub (Shepherdia canadensis), Kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uvaursi) and wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.). F i r e has had extensive influence on the environment and the development of plant associations. Largely because of f i r e , pure stands of lodgepole pine and aspen poplar (Populus  tremuloides) are the dominant tree species. The study area, a c l u s t e r of campsites oval i n shape, 4 0 4 8 12 16 L n J I I I I S C A L E IN MILES JASPER NATIONAL PARK N i FIDDLI RIVER k ROCKY RIVER A MIETTE w HOT SPRINGS 1 SNARING RIVER ^JASPER^ WHISTLERS ©VQ WAPITI WABASSO O \&MT. KERKESLIN v A HONEYMOON LAKE }JONAS CR. -«j\COLUMBIA S S " J ICEFIELDS K) FIGURE I ^ WAPITI CAMPGROUND LOCATION 25 varied i n elevation by approximately ten feet. The slope pro-vided drainage towards the service area located at the centre of the oval. Because of the low p r e c i p i t a t i o n and the porosity of the s o i l , drainage was not a problem. Selection of gampje Periods - The study period was July 1 to September 1, 1970. Twelve sample days were selected to provide double backed days, evenly d i s t r i b u t e d between week-end and mid-week days. The Schedule f o r the sample periods of the user survey was: Vegetation Survey Four experimental plots and one control p l o t were selected on each sample campsite to provide maximum impact on the experimental plots and minimum impact on the co n t r o l p l o t s . The area of each plo t was one square meter. A square wooden frame (Figure 2, page 26) was employed to define each p l o t . The p l o t frame was divided into 25 - 20x20 cm. squares with wires which were used to locate and support a 1/8 inch thick clear p l a s t i c g r i d (Figure 3, page 27). The plo t frame was adjusted so that the wires used to support the p l a s t i c g r i d were above the vegetation cover of the p l o t . The p l a s t i c g r i d , supported by the wires, was positioned 25 times during Date Period July 4 and 5 July 29 and 30 Week-end Mid-week August 12 and 13 August 15 and 16 August 19 and 20 August 22 and 23 Mid-week Week-end Mid-week Week-end FIGURE 2 PORTABLE WOODEN PLOT FRAME 3 —*• 2 0 cm-2 6 cm-FIGURE 3 CLEAR PLASTIC GRID 28 vegetation cover readings. Observations were made by v e r t i c a l l y sighting through the 25 i n t e r sections of the l i n e s on the p l a s t i c g r i d . The g r i d was scanned for forbs, graminoids, lichens and mosses, l i t t e r and bare ground. Photographs were taken from a fixed height with an Asahi 35 mm. Pentax Spotmatic camera. The projecting s t e e l lugs on the frame were used to locate s t e e l marker pins which were l e f t projecting about a half inch above the ground surface. The ends of the pins were painted orange to f a c i l i t a t e finding them at the end of the study period. Approximately 50 percent of the p l o t l o c a t i o n pins were removed by v i s i t o r s p r i o r to the end of the study period. The pins were replaced with the aid of dimensional sketches drawn during the i n i t i a l p l o t layout and shown i n Appendix B. Campsite screening was determined with a pantallometer constructed according to d i r e c t i o n s d e t a i l e d by Nord and M a g i l l 1 . Use Intensity Survey Two methods of t r a f f i c data c o l l e c t i o n were employed. The f i r s t was the i n s t a l l a t i o n of T r a f f i c Data Systems Model  LP 353C t r a f f i c counters to t a l l y incoming t r a f f i c at the Wapiti campground main entrance, and at the entrance to study Eamor C. Nord and Arthur W. M a g i l l . 1963. A Device  for Gaging Campground Screening Cover (Journal of Forestry, Volume 61) pages 450-451. 29 area FF (Figure 4, page 30). The second method was the recording of two way t r a f f i c movements at a checkpoint located at the entrance to study area FF. The occupancy of the sample s i t e s was v i s u a l l y observed hourly between 8:00 a.m. and 8:00 p.m. on the back-to-back sample days. The number of campsite permits sold each day was obtained from campground records. F i e l d Adaptations Sample campsites FF-3, FF-11, FF-41 presented d i f f i c u l t i e s i n lo c a t i n g small protected areas f o r control plots due to the openness of the campsites. Only one control p l o t was located i n each sample s i t e instead of two as o r i g i n a l l y planned. I t was found that the observations became more d i f f i c u l t as the frame was raised to c l e a r t a l l e r plants of the ground cover. Light wind made i t necessary to judge whether or not a part of the plant would be d i r e c t l y under an observation point i f the plant were stationary. Separating moss from l i t t e r was a problem on those p l o t s l a r g e l y covered with lichens and mosses. The problem arose from the necessity of di s t i n g u i s h i n g l i v e moss which was growing through a blanket of dead moss forming organic l i t t e r . At the end of the study period when vegetation cover readings were taken a second time, the graminoids had l o s t considerable green colour. Some d i f f i c u l t y was experienced i n keeping discoloured grass separated from l i t t e r . F I G U R E 4 LOCATION OF TRAFFIC COUNTERS AND SAMPLE CAMPSITES IN WAPITI CAMPGROUND 31 In many of the p l o t s Kinnikinnick was the dominant plant species and provided e s s e n t i a l l y a l l the ground cover. I t has a spreading root system which makes counting the number of Kinnikinnick plants v i r t u a l l y impossible. For t h i s reason counting and recording the number of plants i n each p l o t was discontinued. The pantallometer used for the determination of screening was not f u l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . Rather than holding the 2 pantallometer at eye l e v e l as i l l u s t r a t e d by Nord and M a g i l l , the apparatus was supported on the end of a s t a f f at eye l e v e l . Although t h i s minor modification improved the r e l i a b i l i t y of the readings, i t was not possible to rotate the apparatus accurately through 360 degrees i n twelve segments. Sloping trees, p a r t i a l l y downed trees and the branches and leaves of trees a l l present problems i n determining t h e i r contribution to campsite screening. D i f f i c u l t i e s were encountered i n observing license numbers and place of o r i g i n of the moving ve h i c l e s . Observation of the number of occupants was only p a r t i a l l y successful. Often an approximation was recorded, e s p e c i a l l y when six to eight passengers were involved. Other t r a f f i c observation problems were related to vehicular entry and e x i t i n the wrong d i r e c t i o n and to vehicles 2E.C. Nord and A.W. M a g i l l . 1963. A Device for Gaging  Campground Screening Cover (Journal of Forestry Volume 61) pages 450-451. 32 simultaneously entering or leaving the study area. These situ a t i o n s sometimes prevented adequate observation of in d i v i d u a l vehicles.* Modifications.'to the o r i g i n a l concept of the project provided the opportunity to i n t e n s i f y the study on a l i m i t e d area. The basic techniques and equipment employed proved to be adequate f o r determining vegetation cover, campground screening, t r a f f i c movements and campground occupancy. Vi s u a l observations contributed to data that otherwise would have been unattainable. * A case was recorded where four vehicles entered, two exited - one i n the wrong d i r e c t i o n - simultaneously, making i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l vehicles impossible. CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS Screening The sample campsites were located i n an immature stand of lodgepole pine (Figures 5 and 6). The stems of the trees, which ranged up to a height of 60 feet, provided screening cover ranging from 25 to 49 percent (Table I, page 35). L i t t e r on the ground surface was predominantly pine needles. Sampb campsite FF-18 supported the most dense growth of lodgepole pine of any of the sample s i t e s (Figure 7, page 36). The average screening was approximately 49 percent. The screening of campsite FF-41 was approximately 25 percent, the most sparse screening of the sample campsites. However, nine seedlings were established which did not contribute s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the screening (Figure 8, page 37). Provided these young trees survive, screening effectiveness can be expected to improve i n the future. Vegetation Cover Total vegetation cover f o r a l l experimental plots was reduced from a mean of 37 percent to 16 percent during the study period (Table I I , page 38). Total vegetation cover for a l l control plots was reduced from a mean of 47 percent to 35 percent (Table I I I , page 39). Vegetation cover reduction as a percent of the vegetation cover at the be-ginning of the study period ranged from 40 to 68 percent on the experimental plots and 13 to 48 percent 34 FIGURE 5 ENTRANCE TO STUDY AREA FIGURE 6 TYPICAL CAMPSITE IN STUDY AREA 35 TABLE I SCREENING OBSERVATIONS AND SCREENING EFFECTIVENESS IN PERCENT '1 '.- ———•—• ' FF-•03 pr- 11 FF- 18 FF-•22 FF- 41 Number 1st 2nd i s t 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 1 "21 23 0 0 0 3 18 23 0 0 2 12 19 20 18 71 65 58 69 45 52 3 . 33 17 17 23 67 57 60 62 42 14 4 13 19 95 45 78 80 69 51 9 18 5 :;5 6 43 18 55 53 34 23 17 33 6 42 31 55 37 57 49 40 34 20 38 7 60 70 46 33 71 43 48 49 29 21 8 67 54 30 47 19 80 62 49 31 26 9 55 59 18 43 67 53 59 53 46 47 10 59 69 32 44 43 36 42 49 10 5 11 36 35 8 22 36 22 26 36 27 31 12 42 33 15 8 42 25 32 28 52 16 13 6 13 - 13 - - , - 26 13 14 Total 899 750 1172 1099 656 Percent Screening 35 30, 49. 44 25 3 6 F I G U R E 7 SAMPLE C A M P S I T E F F - 1 8 WITH C A M P S I T E F F - 2 0 I N BACKGROUND P R O V I D I N G 49 P E R C E N T S C R E E N I N G 37 FIGURE 8 SAMPLE CAMPSITE FF - 4 1 LODGEPOLE PINE SEEDLINGS TABLE II EXPERIMENTAL PLOT VEGETATION OBSERVATIONS Cover Readings Total Vegetation Graminoid Cover Forbs Cover Lichens & Mosses July 1 Sept. 1 July 1 Sept. 1 July 1 Sept. 1 July 1 Sept. 1 FFr-03 E - l 105 57 68 43 15 14 22 0 E-2 77 6 40 6 2 0 35 0 E-3 194 77 81 38 37 15 76 24 8-4 157 81 48 48 33 21 76 12 F F r - H E - l 305 87 40 19 60 44 205 24 E-2 203 11 84 9 10 0 109 2 E-3 335 86 19 9 125 56 191 21 e-4 354 255 1 0 104 103 249 152 FF-18 E - l 150 51 39 18 109 31 2 2 E-2 309 221 36 19 224 181 49 21 E-3 188 112 48 19 70 65 70 28 E-4 226 141 58 34 102 84 66 23 FF-22 E - l 182 43 14 3 97 30 71 10 E^2 234 164 32 28 200 136 2 0 E-3 237 51 23 4 180 46 34 1 E-4 313 139 30 8 86 41 197 90 FF-41 E - l 228 72 78 27 7 0 143 45 E-2 - - — — — _ _ E-3 218 71 7 4 26 12 185 55 E-4 397 1.2.8 48 18 49 27 300 83 Sum 4412 1853 794 354 1536 906 2082 593 Mean • Percent 37 16 7 3 13 , 8 18 5 Cover TABLE III CONTROL PLOT VEGETATION OBSERVATIONS Total Vegetation Graminoid Cover Forbs Cover Lichens & Mosses July 1 Aug. 31 July 1 Aug. 31 July 1 Aug. 31 July 1 Aug. 31 FF-03 C-1 228 117 106 49 63 36 59 32 FF-11 C-1 319 250 77 84 55 44 187 122 FF-18 C-1 316 274 29 17 258 232 29 25 FF-22 C-1 303 235 18 24 242 193 43 18 FF-41 C-1 286 209 38 34 93 90 155 85 Sum 1452 1085 268 208 711 595 473 282 Mean Percent 4^ 7; 3 s 9 , ' 7- 23 • 19 • 15 9 Cover 40 on the control plots (Table IV, page 41)-. A paired t - t e s t at a confidence l e v e l of 90 percent was employed i n the analysis of data tabulated i n Tables II and III for each sample campsite. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the changes i n vegetation cover are shown i n Table V, page 42. In a l l sample campsites there was a s i g n i f i c a n t reduction i n the t o t a l vegetation cover. There was also a s i g n i f i c a n t reduction i n the t o t a l vegetation cover of the control plots due to the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n l o c a t i n g small protected areas within the sample campsites. Sample campsite FF-03 was located adjacent to the service roadway (Figure 9, page 43). The photograph was taken from the table at the approximate centre of the campsite looking towards the service road. This campsite had the l e a s t abundant i n i t i a l and f i n a l vegetation cover of the sample s i t e s studied (Table IV, page 41). The loss of vege-ta t i o n cover i s i l l u s t r a t e d by Figures 10 to 14, pages 44 to 48. The reduction i s most evident-, i n Figure 11. It was observed that the l o c a t i o n of the campsite encouraged trespass by other campers from other s i t e s on t h e i r way to and from the central service area. The impact on the vegetation cover i n sample s i t e FF-03 was due not only to the use of the campsite by the occupying parties but to the e f f e c t s of other trampling as well. Sample campsite FF-11 was more open than FF-03 and supported fewer but larger trees (Figure 15, page 49). This campsite had 41 TABLE IV TOTAL VEGETATION COVER IN PERCENT Experimental Plots Pet. Cover Change i n Pet. Change as Pet. Site July 1 Sept.l Cover of July 1 Value FF-03 21 9 -12 -59 FF-11 48 18 -30 -63 FF-18 35 21 -14 -40 FF-22 39 17 -22 -54 FF-41 45 14 -31 -68 Mean 37 16 -21 -58 Control Plots FF-03 37 19 -18 -49 FF-11 51 40 -11 -22 FF-18 51 44 - 7 -13 FF-22 49 38 -11 -22 FF-41 46 33 =13 -27 Mean 47 35 -12 -25 42 TABLE V SUMMARY OF TEST OF SIGNIFICANCE OF CHANGES IN VEGETATION COVER EMPLOYING PAIRED T-TESTS AT NINETY PERCENT CONFIDENCE LEVEL Experimental Plots Total Lichens Vegetation Graminoids Forbs and Moss FF-03 Yes Yes NO Yes FF-11 Yes No No Yes FF-18 Yes Yes NO Yes FF-22 Yes Yes Yes Yes FF-41 Yes NO Yes Yes Control Plots Total Vegetation Graminoids Forbs Lichens and Moss FF-03 FF-11 FF-18 — Yes No Yes Yes FF-22 FF-41 F I G U R E 9 SAMPLE C A M P S I T E F F - 0 3 SHOWING S E R V I C E ROAD WITH C A M P S I T E F F - 0 2 AND F F - 0 1 I N BACKGROUND J U N E 2 5 , 1970 AUGUST 2 4 , 1970 F I G U R E 10 SAMPLE C A M P S I T E F F - 0 3 , E X P E R I M E N T A L P L O T E - l JUNE 26, 1970 AUGUST 24, 1970 FIGURE 11 SAMPLE CAMPSITE FF-03, EXPERIMENTAL PLOT E-2 JUNE 27, 197 0 ; -AUGUST 24, 1970 FIGURE 12 SAMPLE CAMPSITE F F - 0 3 , EXPERIMENTAL PLOT E-3 JUNE 27, 197 0 AUGUST 24, 1970 FIGURE 13 SAMPLE CAMPSITE FF-03, EXPERIMENTAL PLOT E-4 J U N E 2 7 , 1970 I* AUGUST 2 4 , 1970 F I G U R E 14 SAMPLE C A M P S I T E F F - 0 3 , CONTROL PLOT F I G U R E 15 SAMPLE C A M P S I T E F F - 1 1 WITH C A M P S I T E S F F - 1 2 a n d F F - 1 3 I N BACKGROUND 50 been abused sometime during the study period. The s t e e l p l o t markers were removed by excavating the s o i l and rock around them (Figure 16, page 51). The s i t e showed evidence of damage to the lichens and moss ground cover, part of which i s shown in the photograph of experimental p l o t E-3, Figure 17, page 52. This damage evidently was the r e s u l t of children's play with toy vehicles and shows how severely an area can be damaged by innocent a c t i v i t y . D i f f i c u l t y was encountered i n locating the control plot within campsite FF-11 due to the freedom of human movement. It was observed that the location of the campsite encouraged trespass by other campers on t h e i r way to and from a c t i v i t i e s i n other areas of the campground; for example, attending the evening nature program. The impact from trampling by other than the occupying parties was not as severe as that on sample campsite FF-03. The vegetation cover of the control p l o t at sample campsite FF-18 was the least affected of a l l control plots studied. The reduction represented only 13 percent of the i n i t i a l t o t a l vegetation. Figure 18, page 53, shows l i t t l e damage to the vegetation cover. The control p l o t i s an excellent example of a Kinnikinnick association forming the vegetation ground cover. Sample campsite FF-22 underwent s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n a l l components of the ground cover vegetation. The changes i- • are i l l u s t r a t e d by Figure 19, page 54. 51 AUGUST 2 4 , 1970 F I G U R E 16 SAMPLE C A M P S I T E FF-11, E X P E R I M E N T A L PLOT E - 2 , REMOVAL OF S T E E L P L O T MARKERS JUNE 27, 1970 AUGUST 24, 1970 FIGURE 17 SAMPLE CAMPSITE FF-11, EXPERIMENTAL PLOT E-3, DAMAGED GROUND COVER VEGETATION JUNE 28, 197 0 AUGUST 25, 1970 FIGURE 18 SAMPLE CAMPSITE FF-18, CONTROL PLOT C-1 J U N E 29, 1970 AUGUST 25, 1970 F I G U R E 19 SAMPLE C A M P S I T E FF-22, E X P E R I M E N T A L PLOT E - l 55 Lichens and moss showed a s i g n i f i c a n t reduction i n the vegetation cover within a l l the experimental p l o t s . There was also a s i g n i f i c a n t reduction of t h i s vegetation component within the control p l o t s . This suggests that lichens and moss may be more sensitive to trampling than graminoids and forbs. Photographs i n Appendix C, Figures 20 to 34 provide additional examples of damage to vegetation cover. T r a f f i c Counter C a l i b r a t i o n The r a t i o of v e h i c l e s entering the campground to camp-ground permit sales indicates that each vehicle enters the campground approximately twice d a i l y as summarized i n Table VI. TABLE VI CAMPGROUND TRAFFIC AND PERMIT SALES Period TC-5 Permit Sales Ratio TC-5/permit sales July August 19685 16760 9297 7544 2.12:1.0 2.22:1.0 TOTAL 36445 16841 2.16:1.0 56 The r a t i o of the number of campsites i n the study area to the number of campsites i n Wapiti Campground was0.14:1.0 (Table VII). The r a t i o of the number of vehicles entering the study area (TC-3) to the number of vehicles entering Wapiti campground (TC-5) for the month of August was 0.14:1.0. The close c o r r e l a t i o n r e f l e c t s the f u l l u t i l i z a t i o n of the camp-ground throughout most of the month. During periods when large numbers of campsites throughout the campground are not occupied, the c o r r e l a t i o n provides a method of checking the a l l o c a t i o n of s i t e s by the campground attendants. The r a t i o for the month of Ju l y i s greater than 0.14:1.0 i n d i c a t i n g greater a l l o c a t i o n of v i s i t o r parties to the study area than to other areas of the campground. TABLE VII STUDY AREA AND CAMPGROUND TRAFFIC Period Study Area TC-3 Campground TC-5 Ratio TC-3/TC-5 July August 3349 2311 19685 16760 0.17:1.0 0.14:1.0 TOTAL 5660 36445 0.155:1.0 Campsites 46 325 0.14:1.0 57 Table V I I I f page 58, shows that 573 vehicles entered the study area during the observation sample periods as recorded on t r a f f i c counter TC-3. At the checkpoint during the same periods 555 vehicles were observed to enter the study area. The difference between the two methods of counting vehicles was i n s i g n i f i c a n t at the 95 percent confidence l e v e l employing a paired t - t e s t . T r a f f i c counter recordings were therefore accepted as a suitable method of determining the number of vehicles entering the study area. Seven hundred f i f t y vehicles entered the study area during the observation sample periods (Appendix D, Table XII). Of these, four proceeded to sample campsite FF-03, f i v e to FF-11, nineteen to FF-18, ten to FF-22 and nine to FF-41. The t r a f f i c count use measurement technique would be improved by locating t r a f f i c counters across both lanes of t r a f f i c (entering and departing) and averaging the two t r a f f i c counts. This would account for t r a f f i c movements such as vehicles entering and leaving the study area i n the wrong d i r e c t i o n . Occupancy Analysis Appendix E, Table i x i W l and Table XIV. show the number of hours during the sample weekdays and sample weekends each sample campsite was occupied and used and the t o t a l party hours of occupancy and use. Absence, the difference between occupancy and use, i s shown i n Table IX, page 59. 58 TABLE VIII STUDY AREA TRAFFIC DURING OBSERVATION PERIODS Dateti Time 8:00 a.m. 8:00 p.m. Number of Vehicles Automatically Counted Number of Vehicles Observed July 4 451 546 95* 1 • • • July 5 575 657 82* • • • July 29 3331 3383 52 58 July 30 3399 3459 60 66 August 12 4900 4970 70 60 August 13 5001 5057 56 63 August 15 5174 5283 109 106 August 16 5305 5393 88 74 August 19 5557 5597 40 39 August 20 5610 5640 30 27 August 22 5699 5742 43 38 August 23 5762 5787 25 24 TOTAL VEHICLES 573 555 * Deleted from t o t a l . Observations on July 4 and July 5 were incomplete and have been deleted. 59 TABLE IX ABSENCE AS PERCENT OF OCCUPANCY Occupancy Use Absence Sample Sites P a r t y Hours P a r t y Hours Party Percent Hours of Occupancy FF-03 FF-11 FF-18 FF-22 FF-41 111.4 105.1 221.7 219.2 111.6 100.9 90.4 165.0 180.6 84.5 10.5 14.7 56.7 38.6 27.1 9.4 14.0 25.6 17.6 24.3 TOTAL 769.0 621.4 147.6 19.2 60 The occupancy l e v e l of sample s i t e s FF-18 and FF-22 was considerably higher than that for the other three sample^sites. Sample s i t e s FF-18 and FF-22 were located nearest to the r i v e r , were more i d e a l l y located from the service areas, and were located i n more dense young lodgepole pine and therefore were better screened from adjacent campsites. The assignment of campsites to campground v i s i t o r s i s a r b i t r a r i l y c a r r i e d out by the kiosk attendants. The attendants generally assigned the more a t t r a c t i v e s i t e s f i r s t . This also i s the probable reason why the sample s i t e s were occupied only 62 percent of the nights available compared to the campground occupancy rate of 82 percent during the study period (Appendix E, Table XV) . Occupants of the sample campsites spent approximately a f i f t h of t h e i r stay o f f the campsite (Table X). Except for inactive types of recreation such as re s t i n g or reading, the periods of absence represents most of the active p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n recreation excluding the camping a c t i v i t y i t s e l f . The sample s i t e s i n general were occupied more during weekends than during weekdays. The sample campsites were subjected to recreational impact only 43.2 percent of the p o t e n t i a l time or 10.4 hours out of each 24.0 hours. This includes the time that pa r t i e s were asleep. The net d a i l y impact time would appear to average about three hours per day for each campsite. Recreation Impact Examination of the sample campsite data i n Table IV, page 41, and Table IX, page 59, f a i l e d to reveal the expected 61 TABLE X SAMPLE PERIOD OCCUPANCY, USE AND ABSENCE AS PERCENT OF AVAILABLE HOURS Sample Period Occupancy Party Hours Use Absence Available Percent of Party Party Campsite Available Camp-Hours Hours Hours s i t e Hours  Occu- Use Ab-pancy sence Weekdays ,277.7 222. 2 55. 5 720 Weekends 491.3 399. 2 92. 1 720 TOTAL 769.0 621. 4 147. 6 1440 38.6 30.9 7.7 62.2 55.4 12.8 53.4 43.2 10.2 62 r e l a t i o n s h i p of reduced vegetation cover with increased l e v e l s of occupancy or between reduction i n vegetation cover and l e v e l of use. The two most heavily used sample campsites FF-18 and FF-22 suffered the l e a s t reduction i n vegetation cover. More than half the v i s i t i n g parties accommodated i n the study area used vehicles registered i n Alberta. (Appendix F, Table XVI). A quarter of the v i s i t o r s came from the United States. Less than twenty-one percent came from the r e s t of Canada. The mean size of the parties occupying the sample s i t e s during the sample periods was 3.3 persons (Appendix F, Table XVII). T r a i l e r s were the most popular type of camping equipment and represented 43.7 percent of the units observed (Appendix F, Table XVIII). The next largest group, most of whom i t can be assumed used tents for sleeping accommodation, represented 36.2 percent. Self contained units provided transportation and accommodation to 20 percent of the pa r t i e s occupyng the study area. Eighty-seven and onechalf percent of the vehicles which entered the study area during the observation periods were recreation vehicles (Table XI). The non-recreation vehicles were used by park personnel to provide services to the camp^ -ground occupants including campground supervision, washroom cleaning, service area clean-up, cartage of firewood and garbage c o l l e c t i o n . 63 TABLE XI RECREATION AND NON-RECREATION VEHICLES ENTERING THE STUDY AREA - Weekdays Weekends Tota l Percent Recreation Vehicles 271 216 487 87.7 Non-Recreation Vehicles 44 24 68 12.3 TOTAL 315 240 555 100.0 Twenty-eight percent of the recreation vehicles which entered the study area did so p r i o r to 2:00 p.m. Seventy-two percent entered a f t e r 2:00 p.m. (Appendix F, Table XIX). The analysis revealed that at ninety percent confidence l e v e l there was a s i g n i f i c a n t reduction of t o t a l vegetation ground cover on both the experimental plots and the control plots during the study period. These changes were c l e a r l y evident i n the photographs. No c o r r e l a t i o n was found between reductions i n vegetation cover and l e v e l s of use of the sample campsites; expected re l a t i o n s h i p s appear to be masked i n t h i s study due to uncontrolled variable e f f e c t s and measurement problems. CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The analysis of vegetation cover proved conclusively that the ground cover adjacent to the prepared surface of the sample campsites deteriorated during the second season of occupancy. In at least two of the sample campsites a portion of the tramp-l i n g was unrelated to occupancy. Sample s i t e s FF-03 and FF-11 were observed to receive trampling by trespassers due to t h e i r location i n the study area. The e f f e c t s of t h i s trampling i n excess of that due to occupancy o f f e r s support to the concept that a r b i t r a r y s e l e c t i o n of sample campsites based on p r i o r knowledge of v i s i t o r movements would provide a superior method of sample se l e c t i o n to that of random se l e c t i o n employed i n t h i s study. A r b i t r a r y s e l e c t i o n would have the advantage of eliminating those s i t e s subjected to obvious transient trampling. I t would also have the advantage of providing a more equitable d i s t r i b u t i o n of sample s i t e s throughout the study area. The control plots underwent a s i g n i f i c a n t change in vegetation cover during the study period. Problems of l o c a t i n g and protecting the control plots prevented the removal of human use impacts from other more natural causes of vegetation change. As i t was not possible to consider relationships of user impact alone on changes of vegetation cover, the f i r s t objective of developing use-intensity r e l a t i o n s h i p s to changes 65 in vegetation cover was unattainable. No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n -ship between t o t a l s i t e occupancy and changes i n vegetation ground cover was found. The vegetation analysis of the plots indicated that lichens and moss may be the l e a s t tolerant of the three plant components studied. Vegetation analysis of the control plots indicated that the graminoid component may be the most tolerant. The pantallometer used for the determination of screening as i l l u s t r a t e d by Nord and M a g i l l 1 was considered suitable for q u a l i t a t i v e comparisons between campsites. I t i s best suited to areas where tree boles provide most of the vegetative screening. One of the objectives of the project was to assess the r e l i a b i l i t y of battery operated electromagnetic d i g i t a l t r a f f i c counters. These t r a f f i c counters offered the advantage of a buried wire sensing g r i d much less subject to vandalism than pneumatic type counters. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ence i n the number of vehicles which entered the study area as recorded by the t r a f f i c counter or v i s u a l l y observed. Although the i n s t a l l a t i o n was more involved than the i n s t a l l a t i o n of pneumatic counters, they proved to be completely free of maintenance during the study period. Based on experience, i t i s concluded that electromagnetic d i g i t a l t r a f f i c counters are capable of providing s a t i s f a c t o r y vehicle sensing over a "^E.C. Nord and A.W. M a g i l l . 1963. A Device for Gaging  Campground Screening Cover (Journal of Forestry Volume 61) page 450-451. 66 considerable period of time. The t r a f f i c counters employed i n the project offered the advantage of counting vehicle units rather than axles, thereby recording a vehicle plus t r a i l e r as one unit. The t r a f f i c counters were s u f f i c i e n t l y s e n s i t i v e to record a m e t a l l i c mass as small as that of a b i c y c l e . I f a f a u l t was to be found with the t r a f f i c counters, i t was the inherent o v e r s e n s i t i v i t y of the equipment. I t was necessary to open the hinged l i d of the metal container i n order to observe the count. Occasionally t h i s disturbance caused the d i g i t a l counter to function as though a vehicle had traversed the g r i d . Occupancy of Wapiti Campground based on the sale of campsite permits was 82.0 percent. Occupancy of the sample s i t e s was only 62 percent during the sample periods. I t can be concluded that a disproportionate number of part i e s were assigned to the campsites outside the study area during the study period. Demand f o r campsites at Wapiti Campground often exceeded supply. One hundred percent occupancy was a recurring phenomenon*. Average party s i z e was found to be 3.3 persons. More than a t h i r d of the parties occupying campsites used tents or less sophisticated equipment. A large percentage of v i s i t o r s to the study area came from the Province of Alberta and from the United States. I t appears that the study area caters to the recreational needs primarily of one province and to the c i t i z e n s of the United States more than to the res t of the Canadian population. 67 The methodology employed i n the research project must be improved to separate the e f f e c t s of non c o n t r o l l a b l e variables on vegetation cover from the e f f e c t s a t t r i b u t a b l e to occupancy of the sample campsites. In p a r t i c u l a r , sample s i t e s must be selected to minimize trespass and protection of control p l o t s from trampling must be considered. Future Research Another study of the sample s i t e s i s required to determine the change i n vegetation cover during another camping season and during the period since the o r i g i n a l study i n 1970. A comparative assessment would indicate the rate of change of vegetation cover. Based on the premise that degradation of vegetation cover leads to a reduction i n the aesthetic a t t r a c -t i o n of the s i t e , the study would provide the data required to estimate the probable useful l i f e of the campground before the cessation of plant propagation. This information would be useful to determine the d e s i r a b i l i t y of r e s t i n g groups of campsites within the campground or periodic closure of the campground. The popularity of the types of mobile accommodation appears to be changing from the less sophisticated equipment to elaborate, self-contained u n i t s . Each type of accommodation imposes i t s own l e v e l of space and service requirements on a campground. The rates of change i n popularity of the various types of accommodation should be investigated so that design requirements and provision of services can be incorporated i n 68 the planning processes to meet future expected types of use. Periodic overcrowding of Wapiti Campground i n excess of rated capacity, and the establishment of improperly serviced overflow areas nearby to accommodate excess v i s i t a t i o n requires that methods of c o n t r o l l i n g the numbers and concentrations of v i s i t o r s should be investigated. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY LITERATURE CITED Bates, G.H. 1935. V e g e t a t i o n o f Footpaths, Sidewalks, C a r t -t r a c k s and Gatewayso ( J o u r n a l of Ecology, 23) pages 470-487. Sample s i t e s were l o c a t e d i n England. Trampling by i t s e l f had l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on v e g e t a t i o n change but when combined w i t h h i g h moisture c o n d i t i o n s t o develop p u d d l i n g the changes t o the v e g e t a t i o n were severe w i t h almost complete s p e c i e s replacement on pathways. Grasses and woody v i n e s were more r e s i s t a n t t o t r a m p l i n g than broad-leaved herbs. B a i l e y , Reed W. 1962. R e c r e a t i o n : O p p o r t u n i t i e s and Problems i n the N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s o f the Northern and Intermountain Regions.: (U.S. Dept. Agr. Intermountain F o r e s t and Range Experiment S t a t i o n . F o r e s t Research Paper 66) 33 pp. The r e p o r t demonstrates the management problems a r i s i n g from i n c r e a s e d use o f the N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n and r e c o g n i z e s u n i n t e n t i o n a l s i t e d e t e r i o r a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from e x c e s s i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of people as the major management problem. Brockman, C. Frank. 1959. R e c r e a t i o n a l Use o f Wildlands (McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc o r p o r a t e d . New York) 346 pp. T h i s i s a broad b a s i c o u t l i n e of the background, important v a l u e s and fundamental requirements o f r e c r e a t i o n management. The reader i s p r o v i d e d w i t h a p e r s p e c t i v e f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n , management and r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f w i l d l a n d s , along w i t h a h i s t o r y o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n development. Bury, R., and R. M a r g o l i e s . 1964. A Method of E s t i m a t i n g Current Attendance on Sets o f Campgrounds... a P i l o t Study (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Res. Note PSW-42) 6 pp. S t a t i s t i c a l models were d e v i s e d f o r e s t i m a t i n g attendance a t campgrounds through c o r r e l a t i o n r e g r e s s i o n and r a t i o a n a l y s i s . Equations were developed t o estimate t o t a l d a i l y attendance a t 23 campgrounds by measuring attendance at one o f them. 71 Dana, S.T. 1957. Problem A n a l y s i s : Research i n F o r e s t R e c r e a t i o n (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , U.S. Dept. Agr. Washington) pages 22-23. The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f d i f f e r e n t s i t e s f o r d i f f e r e n t r e c r e a t i o n uses i s r e c o g n i z e d as a b a s i c problem i n r e c r e a t i o n management. The d e f i n i t i o n o f c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y i s i m p l i e d i n the p o s i n g of the q u e s t i o n s , "How much use can a g i v e n area stand without p h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f the s i t e and without im p a i r -ment o f a e s t h e t i c and s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s ? " and "How h e a v i l y can a campground ... be used without d e s t r o y i n g the v e r y v a l u e s which the r e c r e a t i o n i s t seeks?" de Vos, A., and R.H. B a i l e y . 1970. The E f f e c t of Logging and I n t e n s i v e Camping on V e g e t a t i o n i n R i d i n g Mountain N a t i o n a l Park ( F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e 46(1) ) pages 49-55. Heavy r e c r e a t i o n a l use i n two campground areas of R i d i n g Mountain N a t i o n a l Park i n Northern Canada encouraged i n v a s i o n by e x o t i c p l a n t s p e c i e s i n i n t e n s i v e l y used are a s . Shrubby s p e c i e s were d i s p l a c e d w i t h g r a s s - f o r b a s s o c i a t i o n s . Softwoods were a b l e t o w i t h s t a n d more m u t i l a t i o n than hardwoods. Do o l i n g , P.J. 1973. P r e d i c t i n g Use of R e c r e a t i o n a l S i t e s : Model and User A n a l y s i s (Ph.D. Colorado S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , F o r t C o l l i n s , Colorado) 262 pp. Dotzenko, A.D., Popamichos, N.T., Romine, D.S. 1967. ^ E f f e c t o f R e c r e a t i o n a l Use on S o i l and M o i s t u r e C o n d i t i o n s i n Rocky Mountain N a t i o n a l Parks (Jo u r n a l of S o i l and Water C o n s e r v a t i o n . Sept. - Oct.) pages 196-197. R e c r e a t i o n a l use of t h r e e l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d campgrounds i n C olorado i n c r e a s e d s o i l d e n s i t y and decreased o r g a n i c matter and moisture content o f the s o i l s u r f a c e s . Douglass, Robert W. 1969. F o r e s t R e c r e a t i o n (Pergamon P r e s s , Toronto) 336 pp. T h i s book o u t l i n e s f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n needs supported by e x t e n s i v e d e t a i l s of p u b l i c d e s i r e s and r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s which should a i d the l a n d manager i n s o l v i n g problems r e l a t e d t o p l a n n i n g , d e v e l o p i n g and a d m i n i s t e r i n g the •forest r e c r e a t i o n area. 72 E h r e n r e i c h , J.H. 1959. R e l e a s i n g Understory Pine Increased Herbage P r o d u c t i o n (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e C e n t r a l S t a t e s Experimental S t a t i o n Note 139). 2 pp. P r o d u c t i o n of forage was i n c r e a s e d by s p r a y i n g u n d e s i r -a b l e hardwoods i n an oakstand underplanted w i t h p i n e . F r i s s e l l , Sidney S. J r . and D.P. Duncan. 1965. Campsite P r e f e r e n c e and D e t e r i o r a t i o n i n the Q u e t i c o - S u p e r i o r Canoe Country ( J o u r n a l of F o r e s t r y 63(4) ) pages 256-260. V e g e t a t i o n u n d e r s t o r y on the canoe ro u t e campsites has undergone major changes w i t h r e c r e a t i o n a l use. Over 80 percent i n ground cover l o s s was i n c u r r e d w i t h l i g h t use. Average l o s s was 85 p e r c e n t . L i t t e r and humus was reduced by 65 p e r c e n t . Reduced i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e s , exposed t r e e r o o t s , l o s s of s a p p l i n g s and absence o f t r e e g e n e r a t i o n a l l decreased the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f the campsites. H i l l s , G.A. 1961. E c o l o g i c a l B a s i s f o r Land-Use P l a n n i n g (Ontario Department of Lands and F o r e s t s . Research Report No. 46) 204 pp. The r e p o r t d i s c u s s e s the p r i n c i p l e s of l a n d use c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n based on e c o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The author develops l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems f o r a p p l i c a t i o n t o land-use p l a n n i n g o f renewable n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . James, G.A., and T.H. R i p l e y . 1963. I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r Using T r a f f i c Counters t o Estimate R e c r e a t i o n V i s i t s and Use (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Research Paper SE-3) 12 pp. Double sampling and a n a l y t i c a l procedures f o r e s t i m a t i n g r e c r e a t i o n v i s i t s and use are d e s c r i b e d . The recommended sampling i n t e n s i t y o f ten days per s i t e was expected t o y i e l d a sampling e r r o r o f ±25 p e r c e n t a t 67 p e r c e n t l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y . Computations can be used t o estimate f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n v i s i t s and use o n l y d u r i n g the same season as t h a t o f the c a l i b r a t i o n . James, G.A., and J.L. R i c h . 1966. E s t i m a t i n g R e c r e a t i o n Use on a Complex o f Developed S i t e s (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Res. Note SE-64) 8 pp. T r a f f i c count r e c o r d s from the " i n d i c a t o r " l o c a t i o n s were employed t o generate e s t i m a t e s o f v i s i t a t i o n s t o s e v e r a l s i t e s i n a r e c r e a t i o n area. 73 LaPage, Wilbur F. 1962. R e c r e a t i o n and the F o r e s t S i t e ( J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y , 60) pages 319-321. Data was c o l l e c t e d a t t h r e e l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d New Hampshire S t a t e Parks. S o i l d e n s i t y was i n c r e a s e d i n the top s i x inches o f s o i l due t o r e c r e a t i o n a l use. _______ 1964. A Study of Ground Cover Under the Camper's Feet. (American R e c r e a t i o n J o u r n a l , 5) pages 103-104. P l a n t d e n s i t y and s p e c i e s composition were s t u d i e d i n a P e n n s y l v a n i a campground b e f o r e and a f t e r a camping season. A marked r e d u c t i o n i n v e g e t a t i o n cover and number of p l a n t s p e c i e s o c c u r r e d . An i n c r e a s e i n use from one t o two camper days produced an i n c r e a s e i n l o s s of v e g e t a t i o n cover from 10 p e r c e n t t o 60 p e r c e n t . . 1967. Some Observations on Campground Trampling and Ground Cover Response (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Research Paper NE-68) 11 pp. The f i n d i n g s of the f i r s t t h r e e years o f a c o n t i n u i n g study o f new campsites l o c a t e d i n the A l l e g h e n y N a t i o n a l F o r e s t o f P e n n s y l v a n i a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t o t a l p l a n t s p e c i e s and average number o f s p e c i e s d e c l i n e d due t o the tramp-l i n g e f f e c t s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l use. During the same p e r i o d barren ground became r e v e g e t a t e d w i t h more r e s i s t a n t cover. L u t z , H.J. 1945. S o i l C o n d i t i o n s on P i c n i c Grounds i n P u b l i c F o r e s t Parks ( J o u r n a l of F o r e s t r y , 43) pages 121-127. S o i l c o n d i t i o n s were i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the p i c n i c s i t e s of two C o n n e c t i c u t S t a t e Parks. Trampling r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n s o i l p r o p e r t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the upper 10 cm. l a y e r . D e n s i t y i n c r e a s e d , pore volume and a i r c a p a c i t y and r a t e o f i n f i l t r a t i o n decreased. F i e l d c a p a c i t y i n f i n e t e x t u r e d sandy loams i n c r e a s e d . M a g i l l , A r t h u r W. 1963. E v a l u a t i n g E c o l o g i c a l Trends on Campgrounds (U.S. Dept. Agr. U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Research Note PSW-N 16) 3 pp. H e a v i l y used and unused s i t e s on t h r e e campgrounds i n C a l i f o r n i a N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s were i n v e s t i g a t e d . P r e -l i m i n a r y d a t a i n d i c a t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l use r e s t r i c t s the growth o f young t r e e s , reduces the number o f t r e e s and f o l i a g e s c r e e n i n g and the number o f shrubs. 74 M a g i l l , A r t h u r W and Nord, Eamor C. 1963. An E v a l u a t i o n o f Campground C o n d i t i o n s and Needs f o r Research (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Research Note PSW-4) 8 pp. Heavy r e c r e a t i o n a l use i n 137 C a l i f o r n i a N a t i o n a l F o r e s t Campgrounds and p i c n i c areas caused s i t e d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f v e g e t a t i o n and s o i l c o n d i t i o n s . Reproduction, v i g o u r and numbers o f p l a n t s were reduced. Screening and l i t t e r were reduced and the s o i l compacted. M e i n e c k i , E.P. 1929. The E f f e c t o f E x c e s s i v e T o u r i s t T r a v e l on t h e C a l i f o r n i a Redwood Parks ( C a l i f o r n i a Department of N a t u r a l Resources, D i v i s i o n o f Parks, C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Sacramento, C a l i f o r n i a ) 20 pp. Trampling compacted the s o i l i n t o an impervious l a y e r t h a t i n t e r f e r e d w i t h the normal movement o f a i r and water i n t o the s o i l . The d y i n g out o f p l a n t s was due not o n l y t o b r u i s i n g and t r a m p l i n g but packing o f the s o i l . N a t i o n a l Parks A c t . 1956. P a r t 1 Canada Department o f Northern A f f a i r s and N a t u r a l Resources. Ottawa. C o n s o l i d a t e d f o r o f f i c e purposes. 8 pp. Nord, E.C. and A.W. M a g i l l . 1963. A Device f o r Gaging Campground S c r e e n i n g Cover, ( J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y , 61) pages 450-451. Odum, Eugene P. 1959. Fundamentals o f E c o l o g y (W.B. Saunders Company) 546 pp. T h i s book i s a b a s i c r e f e r e n c e t o the p r i n c i p l e s and concepts of ecology. S t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f t h r e e major h a b i t a t s o f the b i o s p h e r e , namely marine, f r e s h water and t e r r e s t r i a l a re d e s c r i b e d . R i p l e y , Thomas H. 1962. R e c r e a t i o n Impact on Southern Appalachian Campgrounds and P i c n i c S i t e s , (Southeastern F o r e s t Experimental S t a t i o n , A s h v i l l e , North C a r o l i n a : S t a t i o n Paper 153) 20 pp. Forty-two r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s over t e n years o l d l o c a t e d i n th r e e N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s were analysed by m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n s t a t i s t i c a l t echniques on 18 independent and e i g h t dependent v a r i a b l e s . I t was found t h a t breaks i n h i g h canopy b e n e f i t t e d ground cover. The r a t i o o f c o n i f e r s t o hardwoods i n c r e a s e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d ground cover damage and r o o t exposure. Shrub b a r r i e r decreased t r e e i n j u r y but i n c r e a s e d ground cover damage. 75 R i p l e y , Thomas H. 1962. Tree and Shrub Response t o R e c r e a t i o n Use (Southeastern F o r e s t Experimental S t a t i o n , A s h v i l l e , North C a r o l i n a : Research Note No. 171) 2 pp. A convenient r a n k i n g of s p e c i e s o f hardwoods and c o n i f e r s i n o r d e r o f d e c r e a s i n g r e c r e a t i o n impact t o l e r a n c e i s t a b u l a t e d . Hardwoods g e n e r a l l y w i t h s t o o d d i s e a s e i n f e c t i o n and i n s e c t i n f e c t i o n b e t t e r than c o n i f e r s . The author observed t h a t the dense shade produced by c o n i f e r s a p p a r e n t l y induced g r e a t e r s i t e d e g r a d a t i o n from r e c r e a t i o n use. S t e i n b r e n n e r , E.C. 1951. E f f e c t s o f G r a z i n g on F l o r i s t i c Composition and S o i l P r o p e r t i e s o f Farm Woodland i n Southern Wisconsin^ ( J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y , 49) pages 906-910. A r e p o r t o f a comparative study which showed t h a t compacted s o i l s h e l d lower s p r i n g moisture and d r i e d out f a s t e r . Water and a i r p e r m e a b i l i t y decreased s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h g r a z i n g . Wagar, J . A l a n . 1964. The C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y o f W i l d Lands f o r R e c r e a t i o n ( F o r e s t S c i e n c e Monograph 7. P u b l i s h e d by the S o c i e t y of American F o r e s t e r s ) 24 pp. Simulated t r a m p l i n g techniques were employed on experimental p l o t s i n B r i g h t o n R e c r e a t i o n Area of Michigan. M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s methods were employed t o develop equations which d e s c r i b e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v e g e t a t i o n , v i s i t o r use and s i t e f a c t o r s . Well-shaded gra s s e s and woody v i n e s were damaged l e s s than d i c o t y l e d o n o u s herbs. REFERENCES Appel, A.J. 1950. P o s s i b l e S o i l R e s t o r a t i o n on Overgrazed R e c r e a t i o n Areas ( J o u r n a l of F o r e s t r y , 48) page 368. Heavy r e c r e a t i o n a l use of f o r e s t e d areas broke down the d u f f i n t o f i n e powder which was eroded away and l e f t a hard m i n e r a l s o i l s u r f a c e . S o i l compaction d e p r i v e d t r e e s o f water and oxygen. Sawdust was suggested t o c o r r e c t s o i l d e f i c i e n c i e s . Auten, John T. 1933. P o r o s i t y and Water A b s o r p t i o n o f F o r e s t S o i l s ( J o u r n a l o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Research. 46 (11) ) pages 997-1014. Layers o f o r g a n i c matter reduce t r a m p l i n g shock, a i d i n f i l t r a t i o n o f water and r e t a r d l o s s o f s o i l moisture through e v a p o r a t i o n . Bohart, C.V. 1968. Good R e c r e a t i o n Area Design Helps Prevent S i t e s D e t e r i o r a t i o n ( J o u r n a l o f S o i l and Water Conser-v a t i o n * 23 (1) ) pages 21-22. Dead and d y i n g v e g e t a t i o n , compacted and eroded s o i l s , l i t t e r i n g and e x c e s s i v e vandalism are i n d i c a t o r s of poor management o r d e s i g n . Good d e s i g n and s i t e s e l e c t i o n and methods o f l i m i t i n g use t o d e s i g n c a p a c i t y i s i n c l u d e d . Bugslag, C R . 1968. Ecology as a F a c t o r i n P l a n n i n g f o r Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n (Masters T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia) 123 pp. The study reviewed the l i t e r a t u r e t o show the i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i n t e r d e p e n d a n c i e s between outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , ecology and p l a n n i n g . The work of Angus H i l l s , P h i l i p Lewis and Ian McHarg was a n a l y s e d . When e c o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s i g n o r e d , a r e s o u r c e i s e i t h e r degraded o r d e s t r o y e d . Coleman, John R.B. 1967. The V i s i t o r Impact on the N a t i o n a l Parks i n Canada ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union f o r C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Nature and N a t u r a l Resources. Publ. No. 7, P a r t 1) pages 112 - 115. V i s i t o r accommodation and s i t e s e l e c t i o n r e l a t i v e t o the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network and major p o i n t s o f i n t e r e s t are major c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i f areas i n N a t i o n a l Parks are t o be p r e s e r v e d . The concept o f V i s i t o r S e r v i c e s Centres which do not h o l d a prime p l a c e i n the park was d e s c r i b e d . 77 Czarnowski, K/J. 1967. An A n a l y s i s of the R e c r e a t i o n Land Use Problems of the Mount Lemmon Area. Coronada N a t i o n a l F o r e s t (Masters T h e s i s . Michigan S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y ) 91 pp. The study analysed r e c r e a t i o n l a n d use problems and i d e n t i f i e d causes by examining pa s t and p r e s e n t p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s of the U n i t e d S t a t e s F o r e s t S e r v i c e . Densmore, Jack and D a h l s t r a n d , N i l s P. 1965. E r o s i o n C o n t r o l on R e c r e a t i o n Land ( J o u r n a l o f S o i l and Water Conserva-t i o n : Nov. - Dec.) pages 261-262. S o i l and water c o n s e r v a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s o f l a n d treatment, water d i s p o s a l and v e g e t a t i v e cover can be employed t o s o l v e problems due t o r e c r e a t i o n a l use"of l a n d . D o o l i n g , P.J. 1969. S o i l s , C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y and Resource -Based R e c r e a t i o n Systems. ( F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Paper presented t o 4th B.C. S o i l S c i e nce workshop a t A b b o t s f o r d , B.C., October 15 - 17 1969) 10 pp. Edwards, R.Y. 1967. The Impact o f R e c r e a t i o n on the Land-scape i n the Mountains o f Western Canada. ( I n t e r -n a t i o n a l Union f o r C o n s e r v a t i o n of Nature and N a t u r a l Resources. P u b l . No. 7. P a r t 1) pages 124-126. A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n landscape damage and the means o f c o n t r o l l i n g i t s spread through t o w n s i t e and road l o c a t i o n and v e h i c l e t r a v e l r e s t r i c t i o n s . The most s e r i o u s wear problem i s damaged v e g e t a t i o n , compacted and eroded s o i l s i n camping areas by t r a m p l i n g . Graham, E.H.. 1956. The R e c r e a t i v e Power o f P l a n t Communities. Pages 677 - 691 i n W.L. Thomas e t a l . eds. Man's Role i n Changing the Face o f the E a r t h . ( U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , Chicago, 111.) A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the e f f e c t s o f human a c t i v i t i e s on n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n and the dynamic powers o f p l a n t communities t o r e c o n s t i t u t e themselves i n response t o human impact. Gregarson, Hans M. 1965. Campurbia (American F o r e s t s 71 (7) ) pages 18-20. Some o f the camping p u b l i c i s i n t e r e s t e d i n the s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f camping o n l y and some are i n t e r e s t e d i n out-door camping f o r nature o b s e r v a t i o n . O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r both must be p r o v i d e d . 78 Hodgson, Ronald. 1969. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Campground Fe a t u r e s A t t r a c t i v e t o S t a t e Park Campers (Masters T h e s i s , Michigan S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y ) 100 pp. Hutchison, S. B l a i r . 1962, R e c r e a t i o n O p p o r t u n i t i e s and Problems i n the N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s of the Northern and Intermountain Regions (Intermountain F o r e s t and Range Experimental S t a t i o n Research Paper 66) 33 pp. An e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n of r e c r e a t i o n f o r e s t problems and management d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the r e s o u r c e c o n s i d e r e d i n two p a r t s - "the p a r t people occupy and the p a r t they look a t . " A major management problem i s the p r e v e n t i o n o f abused v e g e t a t i o n from e x c e s s i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of people which c o n s t i t u t e s both s i t e d e t e r i o r a t i o n and reduced n a t u r a l beauty. James, G.A. and R.K. Henley. 1968. Sampling Procedures f o r E s t i m a t i n g Mass and D i s p e r s e d Types of R e c r e a t i o n Use on Large Areas (U.S. Dept. Agr. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Research Paper SE-31) 15 pp. The Research Paper d e t a i l s a s t r a t i f i e d random sampling technique f o r c a l i b r a t i n g t r a f f i c d a t a o b t a i n e d w i t h mechanical c o u n t e r s and a c t i v i t y d ata o b t a i n e d by check-p o i n t i n t e r v i e w s . The method i s u s e f u l f o r e s t i m a t i n g f u t u r e t o t a l v i s i t s t o and use o f d i s p e r s e d r e c r e a t i o n areas based on t r a f f i c counts r e c o r d e d a t the same l o c a t i o n s as t h a t o f the c a l i b r a t i o n and d u r i n g the same season. Jemison, George M. 1967. Impacts o f R e c r e a t i o n on the Ecology o f Temperate North American F o r e s t s ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union f o r C o n s e r v a t i o n of Nature and N a t u r a l Resources. Publ. No. 7. P a r t 1) pages 173-185. A g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f the amenity v a l u e s o f the f o r e s t environment as r e s o u r c e s o f i n s p i r a t i o n and enjoyment t o man down through h i s t o r y . Due t o e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g v i s i t o r d e n s i t y i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l problems of s i t e damage ^ have become major problems. King, David A. 1966. A c t i v i t y P a t t e r n s o f Campers (U.S. Dept. Agr. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Research Note, NC-18) 3 pp. F a m i l i e s camping i n auto campgrounds on Huron-Manishee N a t i o n a l F o r e s t spend most o f t h e i r time i n and around t h e i r campsite. D i v e r s i t y o f i n t e r e s t s and p r e f e r e n c e s should be c o n s i d e r e d i n the p r o v i s i o n of campground f a c i l i t i e s . 79 Leopold, Aldo. 1970. A Sand County Almanac w i t h Essays on C o n s e r v a t i o n from Round R i v e r ( B a l l a n t i n e Books, Inc o r p o r a t e d , New York) 295 pp. The book i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f s h o r t a r t i c l e s which d e s c r i b e s the seasonal changes i n nature. The author supports a p l e a f o r the development o f a new l a n d e t h i c o f c o n s e r v a t i o n by c i t i n g many examples of the d e s t r u c t i o n of the n a t u r a l environment. f Marcus, L.F., E.M. Gould, and R.L. Bury. 1961. Measuring the R e c r e a t i o n Use o f N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e T e c h n i c a l Paper, PSW-59) 26 pp. A r t i c l e d i s c u s s e s methods o f measuring i n d i v i d u a l v i s i t s and l e n g t h of s t a y f o r c a l c u l a t i n g man-days of r e c r e a t i o n use. Montgomery, P.H. and F.C. Edminster. 1966. Use of S o i l Surveys i n P l a n n i n g R e c r e a t i o n , pp. 104 - 112 i n L . J . B a r t e l l i e t a l . eds. S o i l Surveys and Land Use P l a n n i n g . S o i l S c i e nce o f America, Madison, Wisconsin. E x c e l l e n t q u a l i t a t i v e i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o the p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of s o i l s and t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s f o r s p e c i f i c r e c r e a t i o n uses. N e f f , Paul E. 1965. A p p l i e d S i l v i c u l t u r e i n Managing Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n S i t e s . (Paper t o the N a t i o n a l Meeting of the S o c i e t y o f American F o r e s t e r s a t D e t r o i t , Michigan, October 26, 1965.) 2Jpp. A p l e a f o r improved timber h a r v e s t i n g p r a c t i c e s w i t h i n the concept o f landscape management areas f o r the purpose o f adding t o the s c e n i c a t t r a c t i o n and p u b l i c enjoyment of f o r e s t lands and t o g a i n the acceptance o f and support f o r h a r v e s t i n g p r a c t i c e s . Nelson, J.G. Ed. 1970. Canadian Parks i n P e r s p e c t i v e . (Based on the c o n f e r e n c e : The Canadian N a t i o n a l Parks Today and Tomorrow, C a l g a r y , October, 1968) 343 pp. The book i s a c o m p i l a t i o n o f s e l e c t e d papers presented a t the C a l g a r y conference. The t o p i c s are v a r i e d and i n c l u d e a r t i c l e s on the h i s t o r y , p r o t e c t i v e p h i l o s o p h y , development and f u t u r e p l a n n i n g r e q u i r e d t o meet a growing demand. 80 Paine, L.A. 1966. B u t t Rot Defect and P o t e n t i a l Hazard i n Lodgepole Pine on S e l e c t e d C a l i f o r n i a R e c r e a t i o n Areas. (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Research Note PSW-106) 7 pp. The r e s e a r c h note i s based on d a t a o b t a i n e d from f i v e p l o t s each c o n t a i n i n g 100 t r e e s over 10 i n . dbh. a t e l e v a t i o n s between 7400 and 9500 f e e t i n C a l i f o r n i a . Old growth l o d g e p o l e p i n e stands w i t h h i g h hazard r a t i n g s are e x t e n s i v e l y used f o r r e c r e a t i o n . S e f f e r g r e n , C D . and D.M. C o l e . 1970. R e c r e a t i o n E f f e c t s on S o i l and V e g e t a t i o n i n the M i s s o u r i Ozarks ( J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y . 68 (4) ) pages 231-233. A study o f t h r e e campgrounds having s i m i l a r s o i l , p h y s i o g r a p h i c and v e g e t a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o determine the e f f e c t s o f p a s t r e c r e a t i o n on f o r e s t v e g e t a t i o n and s o i l s . S u r f a c e compaction, sheet e r o s i o n , s u r f a c e rock accumulation and s o i l m oisture d e p l e t i o n i n d i c a t e d the l e v e l o f d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f the s i t e s . Snyder, A.P. 1960. W i l d e r n e s s Area Management: an A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Study of a P o r t i o n o f the High S i e r r a W ilderness Area (U.S. Dept. Agr. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Region 5) 63 pp. The a r t i c l e d i s c u s s e s the damage t o v e g e t a t i o n and the i n i t i a t i o n o f e r o s i o n caused by the impact o f the horses used by groups o f r e c r e a t i o n i s t s . Stevens, M.E. 1966. S o i l Surveys as A p p l i e d t o R e c r e a t i o n S i t e P l a n n i n g ( J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y , 64 (5) ) pages 314-316. A r t i c l e demonstrates the a p p l i c a t i o n o f s o i l surveys t o r e c r e a t i o n s i t e l o c a t i o n and o u t l i n e s the a e s t h e t i c and economic advantages o f s i t e d e s i g n s which c o n s i d e r s o i l p r o p e r t i e s . Stone, Edward C 1965. P r e s e r v i n g V e g e t a t i o n i n Parks and Wilderness (Science V o l . 150, No. 3701) pages 1261-1267. The a r t i c l e o u t l i n e s the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f d e f i n i n g the o b j e c t i v e s o f management r e l a t e d t o v e g e t a t i o n p r e s e r v a t i o n . The o b j e c t i v e s of keeping park lands green, p r e s e r v a t i o n o f favoured dominant s p e c i e s , p r e s e r v a t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r s u c c e s s i o n a l stages and slowing s u c c e s s i o n are d i s c u s s e d . U n i v e r s i t i e s w i t h l a n d management courses can b e s t p r o v i d e t r a i n i n g t o meet these o b j e c t i v e s . 81 Tocher, S. Ross, Wagar, J . A l a n , and Hunt, John D. 1965. Sound Management Prevents Worn Out R e c r e a t i o n S i t e s . (Parks and R e c r e a t i o n . 48 (3) ) pages 151-153. A r t i c l e o u t l i n e s methods by which i n d i s c r i m i n a t e t r a m p l i n g and damage can be avoided and i n c l u d e s dead and d y i n g v e g e t a t i o n , compacted and e r o d i n g s o i l s i n a l i s t o f i n d i c a t o r s o f poor management. Wagar, J . A l a n . 1965. C u l t u r a l Treatment o f V e g e t a t i o n on R e c r e a t i o n S i t e s (Paper to N a t i o n a l Meeting o f S o c i e t y o f American F o r e s t e r s a t D e t r o i t , Michigan. October 26, 1965.) 3 pp. Recommends use of c u l t u r a l treatments t o r e e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n o v e r s t o r y and v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r i n g . A p p l i c a t i o n of f e r t i l i z e r and water were v e r y e f f e c t i v e . Wagar, J.V.K. 1946. S e r v i c e s and F a c i l i t i e s f o r F o r e s t R e c r e a t i o n i s t S o ( J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y , 44) pages 883-887. P r o t e c t i o n o f t*ees and s c e n i c areas i s i n c l u d e d i n the d e t a i l e d l i s t o f o b j e c t i v e s i n the p r o v i s i o n of f a c i l i t i e s . Westhoff, V. 1967. The E c o l o g i c a l Impact on P e d e s t r i a n , E q u e s t r i a n and V e h i c u l a r T r a f f i c on V e g e t a t i o n ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union f o r C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Nature and N a t u r a l Resources. P u b l . No. 7, P a r t 1) pages 218-223. The c a p a c i t y and v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f ecosystems t o r e c r e a t i o n impact v a r y w i t h s o i l types and s o i l p r o p e r t i e s . F l a t , s t a b l e , compact s o i l s are v e r y r e s i s t a n t t o r e c r e a t i o n impact. Slopes w i t h l o o s e sandy s o i l s are extremely v u l n e r a b l e . 82 APPENDIX A GLOSSARY OF TERMS Absence - the p e r i o d o f time i n hours t h a t the v e h i c l e o f a p a r t y i s not l o c a t e d a t a campsite. I t i s equal to the d i f f e r e n c e between occupancy and use. A v a i l a b l e Hours - the p e r i o d of time i n hours a campsite c o u l d be occupied. Campground - a developed area l o c a t e d i n a w i l d l a n d s e t t i n g f o r the purpose o f camping and r e l a t e d i n t e n s i v e use a c t i v i t i e s . Campsite - a s i n g l e u n i t w i t h i n a developed campground. F o r e s t R e c r e a t i o n - t h a t outdoor form of r e c r e a t i o n t h a t i s dependent on f o r e s t or o t h e r w i l d l a n d s . Impact - t h a t p r o p o r t i o n o f the change i n v e g e t a t i o n cover a t t r i b u t a b l e t o occupancy of a campsite. Obs e r v a t i o n P e r i o d - a twelve hour i n t e r v a l of time from 8:00 a.m. t o 8:00 p.m. d u r i n g back t o back sample days. Occupancy - the l e n g t h of s t a y i n a campsite t o which a p a r t y i s e n t i t l e d by the purchase o f a campsite permit. P a r t y Hours - the measurement u n i t of l e n g t h o f s t a y or occupancy. P a r t y S i z e - the number of people t r a v e l l i n g t o g e t h e r who occupy a campsite. Percent Absence - the r a t i o of absence t o occupancy i n p a r t y hours m u l t i p l i e d by 100. P l a n t Community - a combination of competing p l a n t s which i s r e l a t i v e l y u n i f o r m i n i t s s t r u c t u r e and f l o r i s t i c c omposition. R e c r e a t i o n - r e f e r s t o c r e a t i v e l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s based on s e l f c h o i c e / i n i t i a t i v e and s p o n t a n e i t y . R e c r e a t i o n a l Q u a l i t y - i s the degree t o which a r e c r e a t i o n area normally c o n t r i b u t e s t o the p h y s i c a l and p s y c h i c w e l l -b e i n g o f the user. 83 Sample P e r i o d - the 48 hour time i n t e r v a l o f two back t o back days from 8:00 a.m. the f i r s t day t o 8:00 a.m. the t h i r d day. Sample Weekdays - back to back Wednesdays and Thursdays randomly s e l e c t e d from the study p e r i o d . Study P e r i o d - the i n t e r v a l o f time between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s '(8:00 a.m. J u l y 1 t o 8:00 a.m. September 1, 1970) . Study Area - the campsites i n W a p i t i campground i d e n t i f i e d as c l u s t e r FF. T o t a l Sample P e r i o d - the t o t a l o f the back t o back sample days. Use - the p e r i o d o f time i n hours t h a t the v e h i c l e of a p a r t y i s l o c a t e d on a campsite. V e g e t a t i o n cover - the v e r t i c a l p r o j e c t i o n o f low growing p l a n t l i f e forms c o n s i s t i n g o f graminoids, f o r b s , l i c h e n s and mosses. V e h i c l e O r i g i n - the p o l i t i c a l u n i t i s s u i n g a v e h i c l e l i c e n c e . V i s i t o r Hours - p a r t y s i z e x occupancy. APPENDIX B CIRCLE F F LOCATION SKETCH - TC 3 WAPITI C .G. CIRCLE FF JUNE 25 1970 WAPITI. CAMPGROUND CS F F - 0 3 SKETCH 102 -JUNE 25 1970 87 A P P E N D I X B WAPITI CAMPGROUND CS FF-11 . SKETCH 104 JUNE 27 1970 A P P E N D I X B 88 WAPIT I . C A M P G R O U N D C S F F - 1 8 S K E T C H 105 J U N E 2 8 1 9 7 0 i A P P E N D I X B 89 WAPITI CAMPGROUND CS F F - 2 2 SKETCH 106 JUNE 29 1970 WAPITI CAMPGROUND CS F F - 4 1 SKETCH 108 JULY 3 1970 APPENDIX C 91 > AUGUST 24, 1970 FIGURE 20 SAMPLE CAMPSITE F F - 1 1 , PLOT E - l A P P E N D I X C AUGUST 2 4 , 1970 F I G U R E 21 SAMPLE C A M P S I T E F F - 1 1 , PLOT E - 4 A P P E N D I X C 93 J U N E 2 7 , 1 9 7 0 AUGUST 2 5 , 1 9 7 0 F I G U R E 22 SAMPLE C A M P S I T E F F - 1 1 , P L O T C - 1 A P P E N D I X C 94 J U N E 2 8 , 1970 AUGUST 2 5 , 1970 F I G U R E 23 SAMPLE C A M P S I T E F F - 1 8 , PLOT E - l J U N E 2 8 , 197 0 AUGUST 2 5 , 1970 F I G U R E 24 SAMPLE C A M P S I T E F F - 1 8 , P L O T E - 2 APPENDIX C J u n e 2 8 , 1970 AUGUST 2 5 , 1970 F I G U R E 25 SAMPLE C A M P S I T E F F - 1 8 , PLOT E - 3 A P P E N D I X C 97 J U N E 2 8 , 197 0 AUGUST 2 5 , 1970 F I G U R E 26 SAMPLE C A M P S I T E F F - 1 8 , P L O T E - 4 A P P E N D I X C 98 SAMPLE C A M P S I T E F F - 2 2 , PLOT E - 2 A P P E N D I X C 99 JUNE 2 9 , 1970 AUGUST 2 5 , 1970 F I G U R E 28 SAMPLE C A M P S I T E F F - 2 2 , PLOT E - 3 A P P E N D I X C 100 J U N E 2 9 , 1970 AUGUST 2 5 , 1970 F I G U R E 29 SAMPLE C A M P S I T E F F - 2 2 , P L O T E - 4 A P P E N D I X C J U N E 2 9, 1970 AUGUST 2 5 , 1970 F I G U R E 30 SAMPLE C A M P S I T E F F - 2 2 , PLOT C -A P P E N D I X C 102 AUGUST 25, 1970 FIGURE 31 SAMPLE CAMPSITE FF-41, PLOT C-1 APPENDIX D TABLE XII SAMPLE CAMPSITE TRAFFIC AND STUDY AREA TRAFFIC DURING OBSERVATION PERIODS Date V e h i c l e s E n t e r i n g Sample Campsites FF-03 FF-11 FF-18 FF-22 FF-41 T o t a l V e h i c l e s E n t e r i n g Study Area J u l y 4 J u l y 5 J u l y 29 J u l y 30 August 12 August 13 August 15 August 16 August 19 August 20 August 22 August 23 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 0 3 1 1 3 0 0 0 2 2 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 2 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 6 5 3 3 5 3 9 5 3 0 3 2 95 82 52 60 70 56 109 88 40 30 43 25 TOTAL 4 5 19 10 9 47 750 104 APPENDIX E TABLE X I I I OCCUPANCY DURING WEEKDAYS AND WEEKENDS Sample S i t e Occupancy Sample P e r i o d FF-03 P a r t y Hours FF-11 P a r t y Hours FF-18 P a r t y Hours FF-22 P a r t y Hours FF-41 P a r t y Hours T o t a l P a r t y Hours Weekdays 2.0 31.4 44.4 36.5 3.3 - • • 16.7 - 44.2 24.9 23.4 - - 22.8 28.1 -18.7 31.4 111.4 89.5 26.7 277.7 Weekends 34.2 47.2 33.8 ' 47.3 42.2 41.7 26.5 48.0 40.5 42.7 16.8 - 28.5 41.9 -92.7 73.7 110.3 129.7 84.9- 491,3 TOTAL OCCUPANCY 111.4 105.1 221.7 2 1 9 . 2 1 1 1 . 6 769.0 105 APPENDIX E TABLE XIV USE DURING WEEKDAYS AND WEEKENDS Sample S i t e Use FF-03 FF-11 FF-18 FF-22 FF-41 T o t a l P a r t y P a r t y P a r t y P a r t y P a r t y P a r t y Sample P e r i o d Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Weekdays 2.0 30.9 35.9 26.9 3.3 16.7 - 29.6 14.3 19.3 - - 15.2 28.1 -18.7 30.9 80.7 69.3 22.6 222.2 Weekends 30.7 39.5 32.8 41.3 29.3 34.7 18.8 31.9 40.0 32.6 16.8 - 19.6 30.0 -82.2 58.3 84.3 111.3 61.9 398.0 TOTAL 620.2 106 APPENDIX E TABLE XV OCCUPANCY OF SAMPLE SITES AND WAPITI CAMPGROUND BY NIGHTS AVAILABLE Sample S i t e Occupancy Date FF-03 FF-11 FF-18 FF-22 FF-41 T o t a l J u l y 4-5 J u l y 29-30 August 12-13 August 15-16 August 19-20 August 22-23 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 10 6 5 9 3 4 TOTAL 6 5 10 11 5 37 T o t a l n i g h t s A v a i l a b l e - - - - - 60 Occupancy i n Percent 62 WAPITI CAMPGROUND OCCUPANCY J u l y August T o t a l Permits Issued Number o f Nights A v a i l a b l e Campsites Occupancy i n Percent 9282 31 10075 92.1 7542 31 10075 74.9 16824 62 20150 82.0 Overflow deducted from t o t a l permits i s s u e d . 107 APPENDIX F TABLE XVI ORIGIN OF VEHICLES OCCUPYING THE STUDY AREA DURING SAMPLE PERIODS O r i g i n Number Percent Percent A l b e r t a 149 53.7 53.7 B r i t i s h Columbia 24 8.7 t Saskatchewan 13 4.7 Manitoba 1 0.4 — 20.7 O n t a r i o 18 6.5 Quebec 1 0.4 Maritime P r o v i n c e s - -U n i t e d S t a t e s 71 25. 6 25.6 TOTAL 277 100.0 100.0 108 APPENDIX F TABLE XVII MEAN PARTY SIZE OCCUPYING SAMPLE SITES Sample Campsite Number of V i s i t o r s Sample S i z e Mean Pa r t y S i z e FF-03 16 6 3.7 FF-11 12 4 3.0 FF-18 32 9 3.6 FF-22 35 10 3.5 FF-41 10 3 3.3 TOTAL 105 32 3.3 109 APPENDIX F TABLE XVIII DISTRIBUTION OF TYPES OF EQUIPMENT USED IN THE STUDY AREA DURING SAMPLE PERIODS Number of U n i t s Percent T r a i l e r Equipment Tent T r a i l e r s 78 House T r a i l e r s 40 Campers and House T r a i l e r s 3 121 S e l f - c o n t a i n e d u n i t s Campers 45 Vans 9 Mobile Home U n i t s 2 56 Tents and Other Autos 80 S t a t i o n Wagons 17 Trucks 2 Motor C y c l e s 2 101 28.2 14.4 1.1 43.7 16.2 3.2 0.7 20.1 26.8 6.0 0.7 0.7 36.2 TOTAL Number o f U n i t s 278 100.0 APPENDIX F TABLE XIX. HOURLY DISTRIBUTION OF RECREATION AND NON-RECREATION VEHICLES ENTERING THE STUDY AREA DURING OBSERVATION PERIODS 1 T i m e J u l y 29-30 August 12-13 August 19-20 August 15^16 August 22-23 TOTAL RV NRV RV NRV RV NRV RV NRV RV NRV RV NRV 8:00-9:00 a.m. 2 5 2 1 1 3 '7 11 9:00-10:00 a.m. 8 4 2 4 4 3 23 2 10:00-11:00 a.m. 2 2 5 3 1 9 4 23 3 11:00-12:00 a.m. 2 2 2 12 2 1 3 17 7 12:00-1:00 p.m. 2 6 4 10 3 25 1:00-2:00 p.m. 8 4 11 3 1 21 1 2 2 42 11 2:00-3:00 p.m. 8 2 7 3 2 4 14 2 4 1 3 5 12 3:00-4:00 p.m. 22 4 9 2 4 3 7 3 6 48 12 4:00-5:00 p.m. 18 11 1 6 1 24 7 1 66 3 5:00-6:00 p.m. 20 16 2 30 4 72 6:00-7:00 p.m. 16 20--- 8 18 6 68 7:00-8:00 p.m. 10 12 1 13 2 17 2 9 2 61 TOTAL 104 14 108 14 49 16 166 12 50 12 487 68 From o r i g i n a l F i e l d O bservations. 

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