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Recreation impact on campsite vegetation Baillargeon, Maurice Kinley 1975

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RECREATION IMPACT ON CAMPSITE VEGETATION  by  MAURICE KINLEY BAILLARGEON B. ENG., MCGILL UNIVERSITY, 1952  A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF SCIENCE IN THE DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming required  ;  to the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL 1975  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s thesis in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  that  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  copying o f t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l written  gain  permission.  Department o f F o r e s t r y The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  June 3, 1975.  shall  not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  ii  ABSTRACT The  study purpose was  t o determine  the occurrence  magnitude of u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n change caused by the of campsites,  t o determine  and  occupants  the magnitude of s c r e e n i n g p r o v i d e d  by o v e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n , t o assess q u a n t i t a t i v e l y the  reliability  of b a t t e r y operated e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c d i g i t a l t r a f f i c c o u n t e r s , and t o c o r r e l a t e permit system data t o t r a f f i c counter d a t a . The o r i g i n a l study d e s i g n p r o v i d e d f o r c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l d a t a from twenty s e l e c t e d campsites w i t h i n two campgrounds s i t u ated w i t h i n two western  Canada N a t i o n a l Parks.  Lack of v i s i t o r s  at one campground and time c o n s t r a i n t s a t the o t h e r n e c e s s i t a t e d abandonment of fifteen sample campsites. was  concerned  The f i n a l f i e l d  study  w i t h changes i n u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n , occupancy  and s c r e e n i n g of f i v e s e l e c t e d campsites  i n W a p i t i campground  o f Jasper N a t i o n a l Park, the numbers and  some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of the p a r t i e s e n t e r i n g the study a r e a , and the numbers of p a r t i e s e n t e r i n g the campground. ,  The  study p e r i o d was  J u l y 1 t o September 1, 1970.  teen sample days were randomly s e l e c t e d t o p r o v i d e double days, evenly d i s t r i b u t e d between weekdays and weekends. experimental p l o t s and one c o n t r o l p l o t , each one  determined  backed Four  square meter  i n a r e a , were l o c a t e d w i t h i n each sample campsite. p l o t s u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n change was  Six-  W i t h i n these by  scanning  the v e g e t a t i o n u n d e r s t o r y through a c l e a r p l a s t i c g r i d a t the beginning and end of the study p e r i o d . w i t h i n the experimental p l o t s was  T o t a l v e g e t a t i o n cover  reduced  from a mean of  37  iii  percent t o 17 percent. was reduced  T o t a l vegetation within the c o n t r o l p l o t s  from a mean o f 46 percent t o 35 p e r c e n t .  Statistical  analysis revealed a s i g n i f i c a n t reduction of t o t a l vegetation w i t h i n the experimental  p l o t s and w i t h i n t h e c o n t r o l  Occupancy o f the sample campsites  plots.  was observed  from 8:00 a.m. t o 8:00 p.m. d u r i n g t h e sample days.  each hour  No c o r r e l a t i o n  c o u l d be found between changes i n v e g e t a t i o n cover and occupancy of the sample  sites.  O v e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n s c r e e n i n g between campsites,  deter-  mined by means o f a p a n t a l l o m e t e r , ranged from 2 5 t o 50 p e r c e n t . E l e c t r o m a g n e t i c d i g i t a l t r a f f i c counters were found t o be a r e l i a b l e and s t a t i s t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e method o f c o l l e c t i n g t r a f f i c data.  C o r r e l a t i o n o f campground permit s a l e s t o t r a f f i c  e n t e r i n g the campground i n d i c a t e d t h a t each v e h i c l e entered the campground approximately  twice  daily.  i y  TABLE, OP CONTENTS CHAPTER  PAGE  ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OF TABLES  vi  LIST OF FIGURES  v i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I.  II.  ix  INTRODUCTION  1  Statement o f the Problem  2  O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e Study  4  L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study  5  £>• D e f i n i t i o n o f Study Terms  6  LITERATURE REVIEW  8  Vegetation  9  Ground Cover  9  Grasses, Forbs, L i c h e n and Mosses  . . . .  11  Shrubs  13  Trees  15  Soils  .  17  S o i l Compaction  17  Organic Matter  18  R e c r e a t i o n Use Measurement III.  19  PROJECT PROCEDURE  v  The Study S e l e c t i o n o f t h e Study Area S e l e c t i o n o f Study P e r i o d s  24 24  . . . . . . .  24 .  25  V  CHAPTER  PAGE V e g e t a t i o n Survey Use I n t e n s i t y  25  Survey  .  F i e l d Adaptations IV.  V.  28 29  D ATAMANALY SIS  33  Screening  33  V e g e t a t i o n Cover  33  T r a f f i c Counter C a l i b r a t i o n  55  Occupancy A n a l y s i s  57  . . . . .  R e c r e a t i o n Impact  60  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  64  Future Research BIBLIOGRAPHY  67 70  Literature Cited  70  References  76  APPENDIX A G l o s s a r y o f Terms  82  APPENDIX B T r a f f i c Counter and P l o t Layout Dimens i o n a l sketches  84  APPENDIX C Photographs o f Experimental and C o n t r o l Plots  91  APPENDIX D T r a f f i c Data  103  APPENDIX E Occupancy Data  104  APPENDIX F M i s c e l l a n e o u s Data  107;  vi  LIST OF TABLES TABLE I II III IV V  VI VII VIII IX X XI XII  PAGE S c r e e n i n g O b s e r v a t i o n s and S c r e e n i n g E f f e c t i v e n e s s i n Percent  35  Experimental P l o t V e g e t a t i o n O b s e r v a t i o n s  .  38  Control P l o t Vegetation Observations . . . .  39  T o t a l V e g e t a t i o n Cover  41  i n Percent  Summary o f T e s t o f S i g n i f i c a n c e of Changes i n V e g e t a t i o n Cover Employing P a i r e d T - T e s t s at N i n e t y Percent Confidence L e v e l . . .  42  Campground T r a f f i c and Permit S a l e s  55  . . . .  Study Area and Campground T r a f f i c  56  Study Area T r a f f i c During O b s e r v a t i o n P e r i o d s  58  Absence as Percent o f Occupancy  59  Sample P e r i o d Occupancy, Use and Absence as Percent of A v a i l a b l e Hours  61  R e c r e a t i o n and Non-Recreation ing the Study Area  63  Vehicles Enter-  Sample Campsite T r a f f i c and Study  Area  T r a f f i c During O b s e r v a t i o n P e r i o d s  . . .  103  Occupancy During Weekdays and Weekends . . .  104  XIV XV  Use During Weekdays and Weekends Occupancy of Sample S i t e s and W a p i t i Campground by N i g h t s A v a i l a b l e  105  XVI  O r i g i n o f V e h i c l e s Occupying^ the Study  XIII  Area  During Sample P e r i o d s XVII XVIII XIX  Mean P a r t y S i z e Occupying  106  107 Sample S i t e s . . .  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Types of Equipment Used i n the Study Area During Sample P e r i o d s . . Hourly D i s t r i b u t i o n of R e c r e a t i o n and NonR e c r e a t i o n V e h i c l e s E n t e r i n g the Study Area During O b s e r v a t i o n P e r i o d s  108 109 110  vii  LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE  PAGE  1.  W a p i t i Campground L o c a t i o n  24  2.  P o r t a b l e Wooden P l o t Frame  26  3.  Clear Plastic  27  4.  L o c a t i o n o f T r a f f i c Counters and Sample Campsites  Grid  i n W a p i t i Campground  30  5.  Entrance t o Study Area  34  6.  T y p i c a l Campsite i n Study Area  34  7.  Sample Campsite FF-18 w i t h Campsite FF-20 i n Background P r o v i d i n g 49 p e r c e n t S c r e e n i n g .  36  8.  Sample Campsite FF-41 LOdgepole P i n e S e e d l i n g s  37  9.  Sample Campsite FF-03 Showing S e r v i c e Road w i t h Campsite FF-02 and FF-01 i n Background  43  10.  Campsite FF-03 E x p e r i m e n t a l P l o t E - l  44  11.  Campsite FF-03 E x p e r i m e n t a l P l o t E-2  45  12.  Campsite FF-03 E x p e r i m e n t a l P l o t E-3  46  13.  Campsite FF-03 E x p e r i m e n t a l P l o t E-4  47  14.  Campsite FF-03 C o n t r o l P l o t C-1  48  15.  Sample Campsite FF-11 w i t h Campsites FF-12 and FF-13 i n Background Sample Campsite FF-11, E x p e r i m e n t a l P l o t E-2 Removal o f S t e e l P l o t Markers Sample Campsite FF-11, E x p e r i m e n t a l P l o t E-3  16. 17.  Damaged V e g e t a t i o n Ground Cover  49 51 52  18.  Sample Campsite FF-18 C o n t r o l P l o t C-1  . . . .  53  19.  Sample Campsite FF-22 E x p e r i m e n t a l P l o t E - l  .  54  20.  Sample Campsite FF-11 E x p e r i m e n t a l P l o t E - l  .  91  21.  Sample Campsite FF-11 E x p e r i m e n t a l P l o t E-4  .  92  viii  LIST OF FIGURES  (continued) PAGE  FIGURE  93  22.  Sample Campsite FF- 11 C o n t r o l P l o t C-1 . •  23.  Sample Campsite FF- 18 Experimental P l o t E- l .  24.  Sample Campsite FF- 18 Exper imental P l o t E- 2.  95  25.  Sample Campsite FF- 18 Experimental P l o t E- 3. .  96  26.  Sample Campsite FF- 18 Experimental P l o t E- 4.  97  27.  Sample Campsite FF- 22 Experimental P l o t E- 2.  98  28.  Sample Campsite FF- 22 Experimental P l o t E- 3.  99  29.  Sample Campsite FF- 22 Experimental P l o t  30.  Sample Campsite FF- 22 C o n t r o l  P l o t C-1  101  31  Sample Campsite FF- 41 C o n t r o l P l o t C-1  102  i-  4.  .  94  100  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I am g r a t e f u l t o Dr. P.J. D o o l i n g , programme a d v i s o r , Dr. T.M. B a l l a r d and Dr. L.M. L a v k u l i c h , f o r t h e i r suggestions  helpful  and advice d u r i n g t h e p l a n n i n g o f t h e p r o j e c t and  f o r t h e i r e x c e l l e n t c r i t i q u e o f t h e manuscript.  Dr. P . J .  D o o l i n g arranged  f o r the necessary  equipment and funding f o r  the f i e l d work.  Dr. A. Kozak p r o v i d e d the s t a t i s t i c a l  s i s o f the f i e l d  observations.  analy-  I wish t o thank Mr. Frank Camp o f t h e N a t i o n a l Parks western r e g i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i c e , Parks Canada, f o r e x p e d i t i n g approval o f t h e p r o j e c t and t h e Jasper Park s t a f f for t h e i r co-operation.  Mrs. Dona..Paul and Mrs.  Sandra Aspden  provided expert s e c r e t a r i a l a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of the manuscripts. F i n a l l y I wish t o express my g r a t i t u d e t o my w i f e and daughters.  Without t h e i r understanding  and encouragement the  graduate programme would n o t have been p o s s i b l e .  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s r i s i n g r a p i d l y as a r e s u l t o f i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n , disposable  income and m o b i l i t y .  l e i s u r e time,  The i n c r e a s e d number o f v i s i t o r s  t r a v e l l i n g i n p r i v a t e conveyances has imposed i n c r e a s e d o b l i g a t i o n on park a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s t o p r o v i d e  accommodation w h i l e a t the same  time p r e s e r v i n g the environment o f campgrounds and other  park  areas t o meet the requirements o f the d e d i c a t i o n c l a u s e o f The N a t i o n a l Parks A c t .  The A c t s t a t e s i n p a r t :  The parks a r e hereby d e d i c a t e d t o the people o f Canada f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t , e d u c a t i o n , enjoyment...and such parks s h a l l be maintained and made use o f so as t o l e a v e them unimpaired f o r the enjoyment o f f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . ! H i l l s acknowledges the o b l i g a t i o n s o f land management when he  states that: Although man-management may dominate t h e p l a n n i n g o f c o n s i d e r a b l e areas o f the n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l parks, f o r e s t and w i l d l i f e management must remain t h e b a s i c management... The maintenance o f v e g e t a t i v e cover, even under the s t r a i n o f dense human occupance, i s one o f the main o b j e c t i v e s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l land management.2 The  a l l o c a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c areas f o r camping p r o v i d e s a  method f o r c o n t r o l l i n g and g u i d i n g p u b l i c use o f the outdoors.  N a t i o n a l Parks A c t . 1956. P a r t 1. Canada Department o f Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources, Ottawa. Consolidated f o r o f f i c e purposes, page 1. 2  G.H. H i l l s . 1961. The E c o l o g i c a l B a s i s f o r Land-Use Planning. (Research Report No. 46, O n t a r i o Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s ) page 2.  2 The  r e g u l a t i o n o f use a i d s i n the o v e r a l l p r e s e r v a t i o n o f  a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d s .  I t does, however, r e s u l t  i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n of people on r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l a r e a s . to  the  T h i s tends  impose e x c e s s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l p r e s s u r e on the n a t u r a l  v e g e t a t i o n o f campgrounds. Vegetation,  as p a r t o f the r e s o u r c e  a t t r a c t i o n conponent  o f a r e c r e a t i o n a r e a , i s a primary source o f outdoor p l e a s u r e . Its  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the r e c r e a t i o n a l experience  v e g e t a t i o n o f t e n goes unnoticed or eliminated. occupied  until  i s so s u b t l e t h a t  i t has been e i t h e r degraded  Douglass s t a t e s t h a t " d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f  the  p o r t i o n s i s the g r e a t e s t t h r e a t t o e s t a b l i s h e d r e c r e a t i o n  3 areas".  4 According  t o Brockman  destruction of Vegetation i s  one o f the f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n s o f overuse o f campgrounds. E x c e s s i v e wear m a n i f e s t s shade due  i t s e l f i n s e v e r a l ways,: r e d u c t i o n o f  t o l o s s o f t r e e s , r e d u c t i o n o f s c r e e n i n g as shrub  cover wears out, denudation o f the ground and an i n c r e a s e i n d u s t and  dirt.  5  Statement of the Problem The  park a d m i n i s t r a t o r has the d i f f i c u l t  a t t a i n i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g  a balance  R p b e r t W. Douglass. 1969. Toronto) page 49. 3  task of  between the g o a l o f pro^Forest Recreation  (Pergamon,  4  C. Frank Brockman. 1959. R e c r e a t i o n a l Use of Wild Lands (McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York) page 234. 5 Read W. B a i l e y , 1962. R e c r e a t i o n O p p o r t u n i t i e s and Problems i n the N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s o f the Northern and I n t e r mountain Regions (U.S. Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Intermountain F o r e s t and Range Experiment S t a t i o n , F o r e s t S e r v i c e Research Paper 66) page 5.  3  v i d i n g s e r v i c e and s a t i s f a c t i o n t o v i s i t o r s and t h e g o a l o f preserving  the n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s o f the park.  The h i s t o r y o f  campgrounds i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e f o r e s t environment cannot be maintained i n an a c c e p t a b l e c o n d i t i o n i n d e f i n i t e l y i f s u b j e c t t o v e r y high o r r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g use p r e s s u r e s .  Periodic  c l o s u r e s o f most campgrounds i s probable a t some f u t u r e date u n l e s s methods can be d e v i s e d  t o determine t h e i r c a r r y i n g capa-  c i t y as a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e r e g u l a t i o n and c o n t r o l o f use i n t e n s i t y w i t h i n the r e c o v e r y a b i l i t y o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n . most d e s i r a b l e v e g e t a t i o n  w i t h i n t h e campgrounds o f t h e N a t i o n a l  Parks o f Canada c o n s i s t s o f n a t u r a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d plant associations.  The  indigenous  Under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n  of p l a n t s more r e s i s t a n t t o t h e e f f e c t s o f t r a m p l i n g , the a p p l i c a t i o n o f f e r t i l i z e r and i r r i g a t i o n may be advantageous. " U s u a l l y ecology i s d e f i n e d  as the study o f the r e l a t i o n  o f organisms o r groups o f organisms t o t h e i r environment, o r the s c i e n c e  o f the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s between l i v i n g organisms and 6  t h e i r environment". opportunities  ecological considerations  E c o l o g i c a l science and  operation  them.  In t h e p r o v i s i o n o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a r e important.  should p l a y an important r o l e i n t h e d e s i g n  o f parks and the campgrounds c o n s t r u c t e d  For adequate d e s i g n and o p e r a t i o n ,  information  r e l a t e d t o but n o t l i m i t e d t o the q u e s t i o n s : Eugene P. Odum. 1959. Saunders Company) page 4.  within i s required  What  Fundamentals o f Ecology  (W.B.  4  i s the rate of deterioration of campgrounds and can rates of deterioration at varying l e v e l s of use i n t e n s i t y be predicted? Can campgrounds be located, designed and constructed so as to provide continuing s a t i s f a c t o r y surroundings?  Does regulation  of use provide a suitable method for prolonging the usefulness of public campgrounds? Objectives of the Study There has been l i t t l e research i n general and scarcely none i n Canada on the e f f e c t of recreation use on vegetation.  campsite  Information i s required as to the e f f e c t s of  d i f f e r e n t kinds and i n t e n s i t i e s of recreation use on the d i f f e r e n t species and amount of vegetative cover within recreation development s i t e s . The objectives of the study were: 1.  To determine the occurrence and magnitude of understory vegetational change i n r e l a t i o n to use-intensity of public campsites.  2.  To develop relationships of use-intensity to t r a f f i c by employing v i s u a l and t r a f f i c counter survey techniques.  3.  To assess quantitatively the r e l i a b i l i t y of batteryoperated electromagnetic d i g i t a l t r a f f i c counters.  4.  To r e l a t e permit system v i s i t o r data to t r a f f i c counter data. The hypothesis of the study was that:  recreational use of campsites  The greater the  the greater i s the reduction i n  the abundance of low^growing understory vegetation. The research project was undertaken to develop a d i r e c t method of determining low-growing plant response within campsites to various l e v e l s of occupancy.  In the long run  5  f a c t o r s u s e f u l t o park management f o r p r e d i c t i n g r a t e s o f v e g e t a t i v e change are t o be developed.  The u s e - v e g e t a t i o n  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o the c r i t e r i a  impact  employed i n the  s e l e c t i o n and d e s i g n of campsites i n s i m i l a r ecosystems. will  p r o v i d e the means f o r p r e d i c t i n g maintenance and  They  rehabili-  t a t i o n requirements of e x i s t i n g campsites a t v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f occupancy. L i m i t a t i o n s of the  Study  T h i s study was  c o n s i d e r e d t o be the f i r s t  t h r e e stage u n d e r t a k i n g . to  be c o n c l u s i v e u n t i l  study was of  Tne data a n a l y s i s are not  expected  the t h r e e stage study i s complete.  l i m i t e d t o the e f f e c t s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l use  campsite areas t o the denudation of the ground.  d a t a was  The  intensity Adequate  o b t a i n e d t o p r o v i d e the changes i n v e g e t a t i o n cover  d u r i n g one camping season. to  stage o f a  illustrate  Adequate t r a f f i c d a t a was  that electromagnetic d i g i t a l  traffic  p r o v i d e a r e l i a b l e method o f d e t e r m i n i n g t r a f f i c matically.  obtained  counters  levels  auto-  Future stages w i l l r e q u i r e o n l y t h a t v e g e t a t i v e  cover r e a d i n g s and t r a f f i c counter r e a d i n g s be^recorded a t the beginning and a t the end of the camping season, p r o v i d i n g no major changes occur i n the campground or park which would a f f e c t visitation  distribution.  From h i s s t u d i e s i t became e v i d e n t t o Wagar " . . . t h a t r e c r e a t i o n a l - c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y i s a complex matter  that  r e q u i r e s d i f f i c u l t v a l u e judgements and must draw on r a t h e r complete  statements o f the d e s i r e s o f r e c r e a t i o n i s t s  and  6  the ecology o f b i o t i c communities".  7  He concluded  that  p r o d u c t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n v a l u e s depends not o n l y on c o n d i t i o n o f the r e s o u r c e but upon the psychology recreationists".  T h i s study was  the  of  concerned o n l y w i t h changes  i n the u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h developed campgrounds and study p e r i o d , Although  "...the  public  l i m i t e d to c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l d a t a f o r the summer 1970. the u s e r ' s a t t i t u d e s towards s a t i s f a c t i o n  acceptance o f h i s surroundings  are important  and  factors i n deter-  mining c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y , o n l y p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s o f low growth v e g e t a t i o n and  s c r e e n i n g p r o v i d e d by t r e e s were c o n s i d e r e d .  The e f f e c t of changes i n low growth v e g e t a t i o n on  the  a t t i t u d e s o f campers towards acceptance o f the campground environment were not  considered.  To overcome the disadvantage  of d e t a i l e d and  accurate  i n f o r m a t i o n not being a v a i l a b l e as t o c o n d i t i o n s and use i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s , o n l y s i t e s r e c e n t l y p l a c e d i n s e r v i c e i n the N a t i o n a l Parks o f the Western r e g i o n were s e l e c t e d . D e f i n i t i o n o f Study Terms For convenience and ready r e f e r e n c e , d e f i n i t i o n s p e r t i n e n t to the t h e s i s are l i s t e d  i n Appendix A.  The  reader's  J . A l a n Wagar. 1964. The C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y o f Wild Lands f o r R e c r e a t i o n (Forest S c i e n c e Monograph 7) page 20. I b i d , page 21.  7  attention  i s directed  t o t h e f o l l o w i n g terms w h i c h have  parti-  c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f d a t a . Study P e r i o d - t h e i n t e r v a l o f t i m e between a n d f i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s (8:00 a.m. J u l y 1 s t t o 8:00 September 1 s t , 1970.)  the i n i t i a l a.m.  Sample P e r i o d - t h e 48 h o u r t i m e i n t e r v a l o f two b a c k t o b a c k sample d a y s f r o m 8:00 a.m. t h e f i r s t d a y t o 8:00 a.m. the t h i r d day. 8:00  O b s e r v a t i o n P e r i o d - a 12 h o u r t i m e i n t e r v a l f r o m a.m. t o 8:00 p.m. d u r i n g b a c k t o b a c k sample d a y s .  V e g e t a t i o n C o v e r - t h e v e r t i c a l p r o j e c t i o n o f low growing p l a n t l i f e forms c o n s i s t i n g o f g r a m i n o i d s , f o r b s , l i c h e n s and m o s s e s . Impact - t h a t p o r t i o n o f t h e c h a n g e a t t r i b u t a b l e t o occupancy o f a campsite. a  party  i n vegetation  cover  Occupancy - t h e l e n g t h o f s t a y i n a campsite t o which i s e n t i t l e d by t h e p u r c h a s e o f a c a m p s i t e p e r m i t .  CHAPTER I I LITERATURE REVIEW The  determination  o f the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l  land i n v o l v e s , i n terms o f i t s b i o t i c component, the o f changes i n v e g e t a t i o n  and  determination  changes i n s o i l s as a r e s u l t o f  d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of r e c r e a t i o n use.  The  concept t h a t the  carrying  c a p a c i t y o f d i f f e r e n t s i t e s f o r d i f f e r e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l uses i s comparable t o t h a t o f s u s t a i n e d y i e l d i n timber management, f i r s t suggested by Dana.^"  He o u t l i n e d the n e c e s s i t y of  mining c a p a c i t y as a b a s i s f o r a d j u s t i n g r e c r e a t i o n use the d e g r a d a t i o n o f the  was  detert o reduce  resource.  I t i s g e n e r a l l y conceded t h a t e c o l o g i c a l d e g r a d a t i o n o f a r e c r e a t i o n m i c r o s i t e i s an obvious f e a t u r e o f the which i s d i f f i c u l t recognized  t o assess q u a n t i t a t i v e l y .  by LaPage when he  landscape  T h i s problem  was  stated that:  Although the a e s t h e t i c d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f a r e c r e a t i o n s i t e i s o f t e n t i m e s r e a d i l y apparent, i t becomes q u i t e d i f f i c u l t t o a r r i v e at a s a t i s f a c t o r y q u a l i t a t i v e or q u a n t i t a t i v e measure of t h i s d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n terms o f biotic characteristics. Many n a t u r a l a t t r i b u t e s such as c l i m a t e , and  topography  scenery determine the v a l u e of a r e c r e a t i o n s i t e .  The  ''"S.T. Dana. 1957. Problem A n a l y s i s : Research i n F o r e s t Recreation (U.S. Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , Washington)pages 22-23. W i l b u r F. LaPage. 1962. (Journal of F o r e s t r y , Volume 60) 2  Recreation page 320.  and  the F o r e s t S i t e  9  a e s t h e t i c v a l u e o f an i n t e n s i v e l y used r e c r e a t i o n m i c r o s i t e i s determined l a r g e l y by t h e p l a n t p o p u l a t i o n and i t s c o n d i t i o n . The p l a n t p o p u l a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t o f t h e low growing s p e c i e s which form t h e ground cover, i s dependent on t h e a b i l i t y o f the n a t i v e p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s t o withstand use imposes unfavourable  trampling.  i n f l u e n c e s on t h e h e a l t h and r e p r o d u c t i o n  of ground cover g r a s s e s , f o r b s , l i c h e n s and mosses, shrubs and o v e r s t o r y t r e e s . 3 cover  Heavy  understory  L i t t e r cover and depth, s c r e e n i n g  and s o i l p r o p e r t i e s a r e a l s o unfavourably a f f e c t e d .  Vegetation Ground Cover  Some o f t h e most obvious  and u n d e s i r a b l e  r e s u l t s o f r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y on f o r e s t s i t e s a r e t h e changes i n t h e n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n which l e a d t o a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e a e s t h e t i c a t t r a c t i o n o f the s i t e .  In h i s s t u d i e s o f t h e e f f e c t 4  of t o u r i s t t r a v e l on t h e C a l i f o r n i a Redwood Parks, a t t r i b u t e d t h e d y i n g out o f p l a n t s forming  Memecke  t h e ground  cover  t o b r u i s i n g , t r a m p l i n g down and t o packing o f t h e s o i l . " S c r e e n i n g cover" i s d e f i n e d as the p e r c e n t o f t h e surrounding t e r r a i n which i s obscured, o r n e a r l y so, when viewed p a r a l l e l t o t h e p r e v a i l i n g ground s u r f a c e . (Eamor Nord and A r t h u r W. M a g i l l . 1963. A Device f o r Gaging Campground Screening Cover. ( J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y , Volume 61) page 450-451. J  4 E.P. Meinecke. 1929. THe E f f e c t o f E x c e s s i v e T o u r i s t T r a v e l on t h e C a l i f o r n i a Redwood Parks ( C a l i f o r n i a Department o f N a t u r a l Resources, Sacramento) 20 pages.  10  Bates  r e p o r t e d t h a t i n England  t r e a d i n g was  bare ground o c c u r r e d where  most severe and t h a t d i s t i n c t p l a n t z o n a t i o n  e v i d e n t from the bare ground outward t o the surrounding  was  areas.  Leaf s i z e has a b e a r i n g on the a b i l i t y o f a p l a n t t o withstand t r a m p l i n g .  Grasses were found t o be more r e s i s t a n t 5  t o t r a m p l i n g than broad  leaved herbs, by Bates  6 , Wagar  and  7 LaPage . With the prime o b j e c t i v e o f i d e n t i f y i n g and d e s c r i b i n g the g e n e r a l r e l a t i o n s between the p h y s i c a l and p r o p e r t i e s o f developed  biological  s i t e s , use l o a d s and degrees o f  site  d e g r a d a t i o n , R i p l e y , u s i n g m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s , found t h a t "the most important  r e l a t i o n s were those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  ground, e r o s i o n , and t r e e damage".  The more f e r t i l e  bare  sites  G.H. Bates. 1935. V e g e t a t i o n o f Footpaths, Sidewalks, C a r t t r a c k s and Gateways ( J o u r n a l o f Ecology, Volume 23) pages 470-487. ^ J . A l a n Wagar. 1964. The C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y o f Wild Lands f o r R e c r e a t i o n (Forest Seience Monograph 7) page 19. 7 Wilbur F. LaPage. 1964. A Study o f Ground Cover Under the Camper's Feet (American R e c r e a t i o n J o u r n a l , Volume 5) pages 103-104. g Thomas H. R i p l e y . 1962. R e c r e a t i o n Impact on Southern Appalachian Campgrounds and P i c n i c S i t e s (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , S-E F o r e s t Experimental S t a t i o n Paper 153) page 13.  11  withstood  r e c r e a t i o n a l use  and maintained v e g e t a t i o n  better  9  than n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n t s i t e s  .  Severe crown c l o s u r e of  h i g h canopy l i m i t e d the amount o f u n d e r s t o r y i n f e r r e d "...  the  from which i t was  t h a t f o r most areas canopy r e d u c t i o n c o u l d produce  important regrowth... " ^ Grasses, Forbs,  Lichens  and Mosses  Grasses, f o r b s ,  l i c h e n s and mosses are low-growing p l a n t s which are p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f ground cover. a n a t u r a l l y a t t r a c t i v e mat  They  provide  having h i g h water i n f i l t r a t i o n  which prevents the formation  o f dust and mud.  They b i n d  rates the  s o i l s u r f a c e a g a i n s t e r o s i o n by wind and water and a t the same time a i d i n m a i n t a i n i n g  the s o i l humus i n a permeable, compaction-  resistant condition. From s t u d i e s o f 137 C a l i f o r n i a campgrounds and p i c n i c s i t e s , M a g i l l and Nord r e p o r t e d t h a t : Grass and f o r b s were abundant o n l y on about h a l f of the campgrounds-r-those s i t u a t e d along the f o o t h i l l s a t lower e l e v a t i o n s or on r i p a r i a n s i t e s where g r a s s e s and f o r b s u s u a l l y predominate. Elsewhere, these p l a n t s were scarce i n about 60 percent o f a l l campgrounds, and e n t i r e l y absent on 95 percent o f the i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y units.H 9 I b i d , page  12.  ^ I b i d , page 19. ^ A r t h u r W. M a g i l l and Eamor C, Nord, 1963. An E v a l u a t i o n of Campground C o n d i t i o n s and Needs f o r Research (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Research Note PSW-4) page 5.  12  Ehrenreich  12  r e p o r t e d t h a t when c o m p e t i t i o n  for solar  energy o c c u r s , opening up t r e e crown c l o s u r e i n c r e a s e d ground cover v e g e t a t i o n . decreased  Wagar^ reported that s u r v i v a l of  as the amount o f use  i n shaded areas He concluded  increased, with plants located  s u r v i v i n g b e t t e r than those  i n sunny s i t e s .  t h a t the i n c r e a s e d s u r v i v a l o f v e g e t a t i o n i n the  shaded areas was shaded s o i l .  vegetation  due  t o g r e a t e r moisture r e t e n t i o n o f  Wagar r e c o n c i l e d h i s f i n d i n g s w i t h the  f i n d i n g s o f E h r e n r e i c h by suggesting  t h a t the ground  would be most d u r a b l e where a few t r e e s are arranged the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e amount o f shade.  divergent cover to cast  In such an arrangement,  ground cover would be shaded f o r p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t d r y i n g , but c o m p e t i t i o n  the  excessive  from t r e e s would be h e l d t o a minimum.  On areas where use was  s u f f i c i e n t t o have caused  initial  14 damage t o the ground cover, Wagar  15 and F r i s s e l l and Duncan  found t h a t a d d i t i o n a l l a r g e i n c r e a s e s i n use caused o n l y  small  i n c r e a s e s i n a d d i t i o n a l v e g e t a t i o n damage. 12 T.H., E h r e n r e i c h . 1959R e l e a s i n g Understory Pine Increased Herbage P r o d u c t i o n (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e S t a t i o n NoteoNo; 139, November) page 2. :  13 J . Alan Wagar. 1964. The C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y o f W i l d Lands f o r R e c r e a t i o n (Forest Science Monograph 7) page 19. 14 J . A l a n Wagar. 1964. The C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y o f Wild Lands f o r R e c r e a t i o n ( F o r e s t Science Monograph 7) page 18. 15 Sidney S. F r i s s e l l J r . and Donald P. DUncan. 1965. Campsite P r e f e r e n c e and D e t e r i o r a t i o n i n the Q u e t i c o - S u p e r i o r Canoe Country ( J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y 63(4) ) page 258.  13  The t o t a l number o f s p e c i e s r e p r e s e n t e d i n a ground cover a s s o c i a t i o n decreases as a r e s u l t o f t r a m p l i n g . A s s o c i a t i o n s c o n s i s t i n g l a r g e l y o f mosses are extremely s u s c e p t i b l e t o damage.^ 17 Bates  A f t e r severe damage t o ground c o v e r ,  18 and LaPage  found t h a t bare spots become r e v e g e t a t e d  w i t h the more r e s i s t a n t n a t i v e s p e c i e s o f g r a s s e s and f o r b s . 19 deVos and B a i l e y  found t h a t t h e i n v a s i o n o f hardy  exotic  s p e c i e s was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n t e n s i v e l y used r e c r e a t i o n  sites.  20 LaPage  a t t r i b u t e d a g e n e r a l improvement i n v e g e t a t i o n cover  a f t e r the second year o f campsite use t o "the r e s u l t o f more r e s i s t a n t s p e c i e s t a k i n g over t h e b a r r e n ground p r e v i o u s l y o c c u p i e d by the o r i g i n a l p l a n t community". Shrubs  Shrubs c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e a e s t h e t i c appeal o f  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n areas by adding v a r i e t y and c o l o u r t o t h e outdoor  scene.  In combination w i t h t r e e b o l e s and low  branches, they p r o v i d e s c r e e n i n g c o v e r .  They o f t e n produce  Wilbur F. LaPage. 1967. Some O b s e r v a t i o n s on Campground Trampling and Ground Cover Response (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Research Paper NE-68) page 4, 17 Bates, Hoc, c i t . ^ L a P a g e , op. c i t . page 7. A , deVos and R.R, B a i l e y , 1970, The E f f e c t o f Logging and I n t e n s i v e Camping on V e g e t a t i o n i n R i d i n g Mountain N a t i o n a l Park ( F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e 46:1 February) page 54. 1 9  20 LaPage, l o c . c i t .  14  b e r r i e s which are used as a source o f food by animals and b i r d s . The by  f o l i a g e o f shrubs i s o f t e n e d i b l e and used as a w i n t e r  range  wildlife. In i n t e n s i v e l y used areas  shrub understory  i s usually  l a c k i n g , but where i t does e x i s t as a shrub b a r r i e r i t i s v e r y e f f e c t i v e i n p r o t e c t i n g l o c a l areas and  i n reducing  tree  21 damage.  Shrub b a r r i e r s i n c r e a s e v e g e t a t i v e low-growth cover 22 damage by c o n c e n t r a t i n g use i n t o s m a l l e r a r e a s . Of the 137  N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s i t e s i n C a l i f o r n i a observed 23  by M a g i l l and Nord  , h a l f l a c k e d a shrub u n d e r s t o r y .  remainder, t h i r t y - f i v e percent  Of  the  c o n t a i n e d a medium d e n s i t y o f  shrubs and the r e s t were l o c a t e d on moist s i t e s which  supported  the most abundant growth.  that  The  i n v e s t i g a t o r s concluded  s p e c i e s of shrubs t h a t are tough, b r i t t l e , o f t e n thorny  and  grow i n dense stands u s u a l l y p r o v i d e the most e f f e c t i v e  bar-  r i e r s t o c o n t r o l v i s i t o r movements and p r o t e c t t r e e r e p r o d u c t i o n . The  number o f shrubs per acre on l i g h t l y used campsites 24 i n t h r e e C a l i f o r n i a N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s was r e p o r t e d by M a g i l l 21 Thomas H. R i p l e y . 1962. R e c r e a t i o n Impact on Southern Appalachian Campgrounds and P i c n i c S i t e s (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , S-E F o r e s t Experimental S t a t i o n Paper 153) page 19. 22 I b i d , page 14. 23 M a g i l l and Nord. 1963. An E v a l u a t i o n o f Campground C o n d i t i o n s and Needs f o r Research (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Research Note PSW-4) page 5. 24 A r t h u r W. M a g i l l . 1963. E v a l u a t i n g E c o l o g i c a l Trends on Campgrounds (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Research Note PSW~N 16) page 2.  15  t o be almost t h r e e times g r e a t e r than on h e a v i l y used The  sites.  r e d u c t i o n o f shrubs from heavy use reduced s c r e e n i n g  ness by f i f t y percent.  effective-  Shrubby s p e c i e s i n i n t e n s i v e l y used  areas were r e p o r t e d t o be d i s p l a c e d by g r a s s - f o r b a s s o c i a t i o n s by Bates  25  i n England, and by deVos and B a i l e y  26  i n northern  Canada. Trees  - T r e e s , b e i n g the dominant v e g e t a t i o n form, a f f e c t  i n s e v e r a l ways the r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e .  Tree crowns p r o -  v i d e shade and p r o t e c t i o n from wind and o t h e r elements o f  the  weather and have c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e on ground cover and conditions.  Tree b o l e s o f t e n p r o v i d e the o n l y s c r e e n i n g between  s i t e s , roadways and pathways.  R e c r e a t i o n a l impact on  e c o l o g i c a l q u a l i t y of developed r e c r e a t i o n areas may  the result in  s u c c e s s i o n a l changes i n f o r e s t a s s o c i a t i o n s which may  have  b e n e f i c i a l o r d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s on the v a l u e o f the  forest  recreation An  soil  resource. i n c r e a s e i n the r a t i o o f c o n i f e r s t o hardwoods due  to  27 r e c r e a t i o n use was i n c r e a s e was  r e p o r t e d by R i p l e y  probably  .  He  implied that t h i s  r e l a t e d t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o n i f e r s  G.H. Bates. 1935. V e g e t a t i o n o f F o o t h i l l s , Sidewalks, C a r t t r a c k s and Gateways ( J o u r n a l o f Ecology, Volume 23) pages 470-487. 2 6  27  deVos and B a i l e y , op.  c i t . page  R i p l e y , op. c i t . page  13.  55.  16  on t h i n n e r s o i l s .  Nevertheless,  f o r the same areas he  reported  t h a t " c o n i f e r s were c l e a r l y more s u s c e p t i b l e t o d i s e a s e i n s e c t a t t a c k than were hardwoods... w i t h the p o s s i b l e of s h o r t l e a f pine and  hemlock".  study f o c u s i n g on northern and  28  deVos and  aspen and  exception  2>9 Bailey ' in a  Canada found softwoods t o be  l e s s a f f e c t e d by m u t i l a t i o n than hardwoods.  white spruce and  and  hardier  They r e p o r t e d  jack pine withstood i n t e n s i v e use  b e t t e r than  i d e n t i f i e d t r e e m u t i l a t i o n s as a major f a c t o r i n  aspen m o r t a l i t y .  Ripley^  i d e n t i f i e d t r e e damage and  root  exposure as important consequences o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . M a g i l l and  Nord r e p o r t e d  that:  Most t r e e s of poor v i g o r , and many v i g o r o u s ones, had been abused by campers... To support a m u l t i t u d e of camp conveniences, a l l s i z e s and kinds of n a i l s , screws and w i r e s — o b j e c t s t h a t i n j u r e and d i s f i g u r e woody p l a n t s , favour d i s e a s e and i n s e c t attacks, and i n t r o d u c e t o x i c substances t o the p l a n t s — were attached t o t r e e s . C a r v i n g and chopping has d e s t r o y e d some t r e e s and g i r d l e d or s c a r r e d l a r g e r ones. Cars had damaged t r e e r o o t s , b o l e s , f o l i a g e and s e e d l i n g s . N e a r l y a l l damaged t r e e s were c o n s i d e r e d p h y s i c a l l y weakened and s u s c e p t i b l e t o p e s t s or such other hazards as windstorms.^i  28 Thomas H. R i p l e y . 1962. Tree and Shrub Response t o R e c r e a t i o n Use (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , Southeastern F o r e s t Experimental S t a t i o n Research Note No. 172) page 2. 29 deVos and  B a i l e y , op.  c i t . page  54.  30 Thomas H. R i p l e y . 1962. R e c r e a t i o n Impact on Southern Appalachian Campgrounds and P i c n i c S i t e s (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , S-E F o r e s t Experimental S t a t i o n Paper 153) page 5. 31  M a g i l l and  Nord, op.  c i t . page 2.  17  Soils S o i l Compaction - I n t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n use has been 32 r e p o r t e d by Dotzenko, Papamichos and Romine compact  soil.  33 and Lutz  to  The compaction i n t e r f e r e s w i t h the normal  movement o f a i r and water i n t o the s o i l .  The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between the s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n a r e numerous and complex.  The  changes i n s o i l p r o p e r t i e s as a r e s u l t o f r e c r e a t i o n i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t the s u r v i v a l and propagation S o i l s formed from s i l t p u d d l i n g when wet.  of plant  species.  and c l a y are s u s c e p t i b l e t o  On d r y i n g , the upper l a y e r s o f these  soils  become a powdery dust which i s s u b j e c t t o wind and water 34 erosion.  S o i l s formed o f sand and g r a v e l a r e l e s s r e a d i l y  compacted but are u s u a l l y d e f i c i e n t i n n u t r i e n t s and are l e a s t able t o support Changes  good v e g e t a t i v e  growth.  i n s o i l bulk d e n s i t y , i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e s , a i r  c a p a c i t y and p e r m e a b i l i t y a l l i n d i c a t e t h e degree and cance o f compaction t h a t has o c c u r r e d soil.  signifi-  i n the upper l a y e r s o f the  Compaction i s dependent on i n t e n s i t y and d u r a t i o n o f use  A.D. Dotzenko, N.T. Papamichos and D.S. Romine. 1967. E f f e c t o f R e c r e a t i o n a l Use on S o i l and M o i s t u r e C o n d i t i o n s i n Rocky Mountain N a t i o n a l Park ( J o u r n a l o f S o i l and Water C o n s e r v a t i o n , September-October) page 197. 33 H.J. L u t z . 1945. S o i l C o n d i t i o n s on P i c n i c Grounds i n P u b l i c F o r e s t Parks ( J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y , Volume 43) page 1 2 T . 34 M a g i l l and Nord. 1963. An E v a l u a t i o n o f Campground C o n d i t i o n s and Needs f o r ResearcK (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Research Note PSW-4) page 6.  18  and  i s most severe i n the A h o r i z o n " " .  found t h a t t r e a d i n g may  By s o i l a n a l y s i s , L u t z " "  compact s o i l s  t o a depth o f 20cm., w i t h  the g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e o f s o i l d e n s i t y o c c u r r i n g i n the 10 cm.  top  L u t z d e f i n e d a i r c a p a c i t y as a measure o f n o n - c a p i l l a r y  pore space r e p r e s e n t i n g  the amount o f v o i d space i n a s o i l  a moisture content equal t o i t s f i e l d c a p a c i t y .  He  reported  the a i r c a p a c i t y o f s o i l t o a depth o f a t l e a s t 20 cm. s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t i o n as a r e s u l t o f t r a m p l i n g ; permeability  o f sandy s o i l s  was  and  having  undergoes  that  the  s i x t o twenty times g r e a t e r  unused areas than f o r h e a v i l y trampled areas.  In the  areas which e x h i b i t e d changes i n s o i l c o n d i t i o n s , Lutz the absence o f herbaceous v e g e t a t i o n ,  sedges and  that  for  trampled reported  grasses.  37 Steinbrenner untrampled  r e p o r t e d t h a t compacted s o i l s  d r y out f a s t e r than  soils.  Organic Matter - Organic matter i s an important f a c t o r i n n u t r i e n t r e c y c l i n g , s o i l s t r u c t u r e and L i t t e r reduces the e f f e c t o f t r a m p l i n g , of water and  retards evaporation.  o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n and  reducing  By  soil  permeability.  a i d s the  infiltration  i n t e r r u p t i n g the  impact  r u n o f f , o r g a n i c matter reduces  erosion. 35 R i p l e y , op c i t . page  12.  36 L u t z , op.  c i t . pages 123-126.  37 E.C. Steinbrenner. 1951. E f f e c t s o f Grazing on F l o r i s t i c Composition and S o i l P r o p e r t i e s o f Farm Woodland i n Southern Wisconsin ( J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y , Volume 49) pages 906-910.  19  R e c r e a t i o n a l use reduces t h e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e l i t t e r 38 layer. for  Magill  lightly  65 percent  reported a l i t t e r  l a y e r depth o f 1.62 inches  used s i t e s and 0.58 f o r h e a v i l y used s i t e s .  A  r e d u c t i o n i n l i t t e r and humus t h i c k n e s s was 39  r e p o r t e d by F r i s s e l l and Duncan  .  A dust-bed w i l l  often  develop when v e g e t a t i o n and l i t t e r cover i s absent. R e c r e a t i o n Use Measurement Recreation soils  use and s t u d i e s o f t h e impacts o f use on  and v e g e t a t i o n have n o t been w e l l d e f i n e d q u a n t i t a t i v e l y .  Most i n v e s t i g a t o r s have employed an o r d i n a l use measurement system u s u a l l y c o n s i s t i n g o f two o r t h r e e c l a s s e s such as heavy, medium and l i g h t  use.  I n v e s t i g a t o r s u s i n g t h i s system 40 41 have i n c l u d e d Dotzenko, Papamichos and Romme , LaPage and 42 43 Magill . Some r e s e a r c h e r s , i n c l u d i n g F r i s s e l l and Duncan , 38 A r t h u r W. M a g i l l . 1963. E v a l u a t i n g E c o l o g i c a l Trends on Campgrounds (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Research Note PSW-N16) page 2. 39 Sidney S. F r i s s e l l , J r . and Donald P. Duncan. 1965. Campsite P r e f e r e n c e and D e t e r i o r a t i o n i n t h e Q u e t i c o - S u p e r i o r Canoe Country (Journal o f F o r e s t r y 63 (TJ 5 page 258. 40 Dotzenko, Papamichos and Romine, op. c i t . page 196. W i l b u r F. LaPage. 1962. R e c r e a t i o n ( J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y , Volume 60) page 320. 4 1  and t h e F o r e s t S i t e  ^^Magill, loc. c i t . 43 F r i s s e l l and Duncan, op. c i t . page 257.  20  have i n c o r p o r a t e d refinements  by s p e c i f y i n g l i m i t s f o r each  class. To f u l f i l l the need f o r a r e l i a b l e method o f e s t i m a t i n g 44 man-hours o f use and number o f v i s i t s , James and d e v i s e d a double sampling  technique  Ripley  based on p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s  which r e v e a l e d a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between pneumatic counts and the amount o f use the areas r e c e i v e d . was  The  traffic technique  t o a u t o m a t i c a l l y count the v e h i c l e s e n t e r i n g the r e c r e a t i o n  area and t o c o r r e l a t e t h i s data w i t h r e l a t e d o b t a i n e d from sample o b s e r v a t i o n s .  information  T r a f f i c movements were con-  t i n u o u s l y t a l l i e d on pneumatic t r a f f i c  counters  and read  daily.  The number o f v i s i t o r s and a c t i v i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n were d e t e r mined h o u r l y d u r i n g 12-hour o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d s on a few  single  random sample days.  Camping, c o n s i d e r e d the s o l e a c t i v i t y  d u r i n g the remaining  12-hours, was  Equations  were then developed  a d j u s t e d t o a 24-hour b a s i s .  from the a n a l y s i s o f the  data and t r a f f i c count.  Future e s t i m a t e s of v i s i t s  based on 24-hour t r a f f i c  counts o n l y and the equations  from the double sampling  method.  observed  and use  developed  T r a f f i c count d a t a must be  c o l l e c t e d a t the same l o c a t i o n and d u r i n g the same time o f as the o r i g i n a l c a l i b r a t i o n d a t a .  The equations  o n l y as l o n g as t h e r e are no major changes i n the and  are  year  are a p p l i c a b l e facilities  s e r v i c e s o f the r e c r e a t i o n a r e a .  George A. James and Thomas H. R i p l e y . 1963. I n s t r u c t i o n f o r Using T r a f f i c Covin t e r s t o Estimate R e c r e a t i o n V i s i t s and Use (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Research Paper SE-3. March) 11 pp.  21  The i n v e s t i g a t o r s s t a t e d t h a t "The recommended  sampling  i n t e n s i t y o f t e n sampling days per s i t e i s expected t o y i e l d e r r o r terms no l a r g e r than p l u s o r minus 25 p e r c e n t o f the estimated v a r i a b l e a t the 67 p e r c e n t l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y . . . I f e r r o r terms c o n s i s t e n t l y l e s s than 25 p e r c e n t a r e d e s i r e d , a sharp i n c r e a s e i n the number o f 12-hour sampling days w i l l  be  45 necessary." C o r r e l a t i o n r e g r e s s i o n and r a t i o a n a l y s i s were employed 46 by Bury and M a r g o l i e s  t o observed attendance r e c o r d s o f 23  campgrounds t o develop s t a t i s t i c a l models based on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between attendance a t each campground and attendance.  total  Equations were developed f o r key " i n d i c a t o r " camp-  grounds t o e s t i m a t e t o t a l d a i l y attendance and t o t a l s e a s o n a l attendance. ance was  The p r e c i s i o n o f the e s t i m a t e d d a i l y t o t a l a t t e n d -  r e p o r t e d t o be 10 p e r c e n t o f t r u e attendance  from  counts o f d a i l y attendance on o n l y one of the campgrounds. T h i s l e v e l o f p r e c i s i o n c o u l d be expected i n two out o f t h r e e e s t i m a t e s and c o u l d be improved  by i n c l u d i n g  additional  i n d i c a t o r campgrounds i n the c a l c u l a t i o n s . By combining  the concept o f key " i n d i c a t o r " campgrounds 47  o f Bury and M a r g o l i e s 4 5  w i t h the method o f c a l i b r a t i o n o f  I b i d , page 7.  R i c h a r d Bury and Ruth M a r g o l i e s . 1964. A Method o f E s t i m a t i n g C u r r e n t Attendance on Sets o f Campgrounds... a P i l o t Study (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Research Note PSW-42) 6 pp. 4 6  4 7  Ibid.  22  traffic  counts t o use and a c t i v i t y o b s e r v a t i o n s developed 48  James and R i p l e y  by  49 , James and R i c h  reduced  the cost of large-  s c a l e a p p l i c a t i o n o f James and R i p l e y ' s method by r e d u c i n g t h e number o f s i n g l e sample days and t h e i n t e n s i t y o f o b s e r v a t i o n s at each s i t e . for  V i s i t s and a c t i v i t y estimates were  generated  i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s based on pneumatic t r a f f i c count r e c o r d s .  Most e s t i m a t e s were w i t h i n the a c c e p t a b l e l i m i t s s p e c i f i e d by James and R i p l e y ^ . 5  To determine a technique  t h a t can be used t o p r e d i c t  r e c r e a t i o n v i s i t a t i o n a t a campground b e f o r e the f a c i l i t y i s 51 b u i l t , Dooling  m o d i f i e d t h e s i n g l e sample day approach o f 52 53 James and R i p l e y , and James and R i c h by i n t r o d u c i n g t h e concept  o f two c o n s e c u t i v e  (back-to-back) sample days i n  order t o enable more p r e c i s e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the a c t u a l length of stay of s i t e v i s i t o r s .  48 James and R i p l e y l o c . c i t . George A. James and John L. R i c h . 1966. E s t i m a t i n g R e c r e a t i o n Use on a Complex o f Developed S i t e s (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Research Note SE-64) 8 pp. 50James and R i p l e y , l o c . c i t . P e t e r J . Dooling. 1973. P r e d i c t i n g Use o f R e c r e a t i o n a l S i t e s : Model and User A n a l y s i s . (Ph.D. Colorado S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , F o r t C o l l i n s , Colorado) p. 48. 5 1  James and R i p l e y , l o c . c i t . 53  James and R i c h , l o c . c i t .  CHAPTER I I I PROJECT PROCEDURE The  Study S e l e c t i o n o f the Study Area - The two westernmost p r o v i n c e s  of  Canada were examined t o i d e n t i f y newly c o n s t r u c t e d  for  the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t .  campsites  Information o b t a i n e d from the P r o v i n -  c i a l and N a t i o n a l Parks branches i n d i c a t e d t h a t few new s i t e s were t o be p l a c e d i n s e r v i c e i n 1970.  In 1969  camp-  three  a d d i t i o n a l areas i n W a p i t i Campground had been opened t o the p u b l i c which i n c r e a s e d the number o f campsites From one o f the new for  the  from 120  a r e a s , f i v e sample campsites  to  325.  were s e l e c t e d  study. W a p i t i Campground i s l o c a t e d i n J a s p e r N a t i o n a l Park  t h r e e m i l e s south o f J a s p e r townsite a t an e l e v a t i o n o f 3470 feet  (Figure I , page 24).  The campground has a c o n t i n e n t a l ,  b o r e a l - l i k e c l i m a t e w i t h extreme temperatures tation. pine  The  and  shallow s o i l s support young stands o f  low  precipi-  lodgepole  (Pinus c o n t o r t s ) w i t h an a r i d g r a s s l a n d u n d e r s t o r y  c o n s i s t i n g mostly o f h a i r y w i l d rye g r a s s b u f f a l o - b e r r y shrub  (Elmyrus  innovatus),  (Shepherdia c a n a d e n s i s ) , K i n n i k i n n i c k  ( A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a u r s i ) and w i l d strawberry  ( F r a g a r i a vesca L . ) .  F i r e has had e x t e n s i v e i n f l u e n c e on the environment and development o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s .  L a r g e l y because of  pure stands o f lodgepole p i n e and aspen p o p l a r  the fire,  (Populus  tremuloides) are the dominant t r e e s p e c i e s . The  study area, a c l u s t e r o f campsites  o v a l i n shape,  JASPER NATIONAL PARK N  1 i FIDDLI RIVER A k ROCKY RIVER  w  MIETTE HOT SPRINGS  SNARING RIVER  ^JASPER^  WHISTLERS  © V Q WAPITI  WABASSO  O  \&MT.  KERKESLIN v A HONEYMOON LAKE  4  0  LnJ SCALE  4 I  IN  8  12 16  I  I  }JONAS CR.  I  MILES  -«j\COLUMBIA S S  FIGURE I  ^  WAPITI CAMPGROUND LOCATION  "  J  ICEFIELDS  K)  25  v a r i e d i n e l e v a t i o n by approximately ten f e e t .  The s l o p e p r o -  v i d e d drainage towards the s e r v i c e area l o c a t e d a t the c e n t r e o f the o v a l .  Because o f the low p r e c i p i t a t i o n and the p o r o s i t y  o f the s o i l , d r a i n a g e was  not a problem.  S e l e c t i o n o f gampje P e r i o d s - The study p e r i o d was t o September 1, 1970. p r o v i d e double backed and mid-week days. u s e r survey  Twelve sample days were s e l e c t e d t o days, evenly d i s t r i b u t e d between week-end  The Schedule  f o r the sample p e r i o d s o f the  was:  Date  Period  J u l y 4 and 5 J u l y 29 and 30  Week-end Mid-week  August August August August Vegetation  July 1  12 15 19 22  and and and and  Mid-week Week-end Mid-week Week-end  13 16 20 23  Survey  Four e x p e r i m e n t a l p l o t s and one c o n t r o l p l o t were s e l e c t e d on each sample campsite t o p r o v i d e maximum impact  on  the experimental p l o t s and minimum impact on the c o n t r o l p l o t s . The a r e a o f each p l o t was  one square meter.  frame ( F i g u r e 2, page 26) was The p l o t frame was  A square wooden  employed t o d e f i n e each  d i v i d e d i n t o 25  - 20x20 cm.  squares w i t h  w i r e s which were used t o l o c a t e and support a 1/8 clear plastic grid  ( F i g u r e 3, page 27).  inch thick  The p l o t frame  a d j u s t e d so t h a t the w i r e s used t o support the p l a s t i c were above the v e g e t a t i o n cover o f the p l o t . supported by the w i r e s , was  plot.  was grid  The p l a s t i c  p o s i t i o n e d 25 times d u r i n g  grid,  FIGURE 2  PORTABLE WOODEN PLOT FRAME  2 0 cm-  3 —*•  2 6 cm-  FIGURE 3  CLEAR PLASTIC GRID  28  v e g e t a t i o n cover r e a d i n g s .  O b s e r v a t i o n s were made by  vertically  s i g h t i n g through the 25 i n t e r s e c t i o n s o f the l i n e s on the plastic grid.  The g r i d was  scanned  for forbs,  l i c h e n s and mosses, l i t t e r and bare ground.  graminoids,  Photographs were  taken from a f i x e d h e i g h t w i t h an A s a h i 35 mm.  Pentax  Spotmatic  camera. The p r o j e c t i n g s t e e l l u g s on the frame were used t o l o c a t e s t e e l marker p i n s which were l e f t p r o j e c t i n g about a h a l f i n c h above the ground s u r f a c e . p a i n t e d orange t o f a c i l i t a t e study p e r i o d .  Approximately  The ends o f the p i n s were  f i n d i n g them a t the end o f the 50 p e r c e n t o f the p l o t  location  p i n s were removed by v i s i t o r s p r i o r t o the end o f the study period.  The p i n s were r e p l a c e d w i t h the a i d o f d i m e n s i o n a l  sketches drawn d u r i n g the i n i t i a l p l o t l a y o u t and shown i n Appendix B. Campsite s c r e e n i n g was  determined w i t h a p a n t a l l o m e t e r  c o n s t r u c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o d i r e c t i o n s d e t a i l e d by Nord and Magill . 1  Use  Intensity Two  The  Survey  methods o f t r a f f i c d a t a c o l l e c t i o n were employed.  f i r s t was  the i n s t a l l a t i o n o f T r a f f i c Data Systems Model  LP 353C t r a f f i c counters t o t a l l y  incoming t r a f f i c  a t the  W a p i t i campground main e n t r a n c e , and a t the entrance t o study  Eamor C. Nord and A r t h u r W. M a g i l l . 1963. A Device f o r Gaging Campground S c r e e n i n g Cover ( J o u r n a l of F o r e s t r y , Volume 61) pages 450-451.  29  area FF  (Figure 4, page 3 0 ) .  r e c o r d i n g o f two way at  The second method was  t r a f f i c movements a t a c h e c k p o i n t l o c a t e d  the entrance t o study area FF.  sample s i t e s was 8:00 p.m.  the  The occupancy  o f the  v i s u a l l y observed h o u r l y between 8:00  on the back-to-back  a.m.  and  sample days.  The number of campsite p e r m i t s s o l d each day  was  o b t a i n e d from campground r e c o r d s . F i e l d Adaptations Sample campsites F F - 3 , FF-11, FF-41  presented  d i f f i c u l t i e s i n l o c a t i n g s m a l l p r o t e c t e d areas f o r c o n t r o l p l o t s due t o the openness o f the campsites. c o n t r o l p l o t was as o r i g i n a l l y I t was  Only  one  l o c a t e d i n each sample s i t e i n s t e a d o f  two  planned. found t h a t the o b s e r v a t i o n s became more  d i f f i c u l t as the frame was the ground c o v e r .  raised to clear t a l l e r plants of  L i g h t wind made i t n e c e s s a r y t o judge  whether o r not a p a r t o f the p l a n t would be d i r e c t l y under an o b s e r v a t i o n p o i n t i f the p l a n t were s t a t i o n a r y . S e p a r a t i n g moss from l i t t e r was  a problem on those p l o t s  l a r g e l y covered w i t h l i c h e n s and mosses.  The problem  from the n e c e s s i t y of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g l i v e moss which  arose was  growing through a b l a n k e t o f dead moss forming o r g a n i c l i t t e r . At  the end o f the study p e r i o d when v e g e t a t i o n c o v e r r e a d i n g s  were taken a second time, the graminoids had l o s t c o n s i d e r a b l e green c o l o u r .  Some d i f f i c u l t y was  d i s c o l o u r e d g r a s s separated from  e x p e r i e n c e d i n keeping litter.  F I G U R E  4  LOCATION OF TRAFFIC COUNTERS AND SAMPLE CAMPSITES IN WAPITI CAMPGROUND  31  In many o f the p l o t s K i n n i k i n n i c k was t h e dominant p l a n t s p e c i e s and p r o v i d e d a spreading  e s s e n t i a l l y a l l t h e ground cover.  r o o t system which makes c o u n t i n g  Kinnikinnick plants v i r t u a l l y impossible. counting  I t has  t h e number o f  F o r t h i s reason  and r e c o r d i n g t h e number o f p l a n t s i n each p l o t was  discontinued. The  pantallometer  used f o r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n  s c r e e n i n g was n o t f u l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y .  of  Rather than h o l d i n g t h e 2  pantallometer  a t eye l e v e l as i l l u s t r a t e d by Nord and M a g i l l ,  the apparatus was supported on the end o f a s t a f f a t eye level.  Although t h i s minor m o d i f i c a t i o n improved t h e r e l i a b i l i t y  o f the r e a d i n g s ,  i t was not p o s s i b l e t o r o t a t e t h e apparatus  a c c u r a t e l y through 360 degrees i n twelve segments.  Sloping  t r e e s , p a r t i a l l y downed t r e e s and the branches and l e a v e s of trees a l l present t o campsite  problems i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r  contribution  screening.  D i f f i c u l t i e s were encountered i n o b s e r v i n g  license  numbers and p l a c e o f o r i g i n o f t h e moving v e h i c l e s .  Observation  o f the number o f occupants was o n l y p a r t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l . Often an approximation was r e c o r d e d , e s p e c i a l l y when s i x t o e i g h t passengers were i n v o l v e d . Other t r a f f i c o b s e r v a t i o n  problems were r e l a t e d t o  v e h i c u l a r e n t r y and e x i t i n t h e wrong d i r e c t i o n and t o v e h i c l e s  E.C. Nord and A.W. M a g i l l . 1963. A Device f o r Gaging Campground Screening Cover ( J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y Volume 61) pages 450-451. 2  32  simultaneously  e n t e r i n g o r l e a v i n g t h e study a r e a .  s i t u a t i o n s sometimes prevented  These  adequate o b s e r v a t i o n o f  individual vehicles.* M o d i f i c a t i o n s . ' t o the o r i g i n a l concept  o f the p r o j e c t  p r o v i d e d the o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n t e n s i f y the study on a l i m i t e d area.  The b a s i c techniques  be adequate f o r d e t e r m i n i n g  and equipment employed proved t o v e g e t a t i o n cover,  s c r e e n i n g , t r a f f i c movements and campground  campground  occupancy.  Visual  o b s e r v a t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d t o data t h a t otherwise would have been u n a t t a i n a b l e .  * A case was recorded where f o u r v e h i c l e s entered, two e x i t e d - one i n the wrong d i r e c t i o n - s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , making i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l v e h i c l e s i m p o s s i b l e .  CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS  Screening The of  sample campsites were l o c a t e d i n an immature stand  lodgepole p i n e  which ranged  ( F i g u r e s 5 and 6 ) . The stems o f the t r e e s ,  up t o a h e i g h t o f 60 f e e t , p r o v i d e d s c r e e n i n g  cover r a n g i n g from 25 t o 49 percent  (Table I , page 3 5 ) .  L i t t e r on the ground s u r f a c e was predominantly Sampb campsite of  FF-18 supported t h e most dense growth  lodgepole p i n e o f any o f t h e sample s i t e s  The average  pine needles.  s c r e e n i n g was approximately  ( F i g u r e 7, page 36).  49 p e r c e n t .  s c r e e n i n g o f campsite FF-41 was approximately  The  25 p e r c e n t ,  the most sparse s c r e e n i n g o f the sample campsites.  However,  nine s e e d l i n g s were e s t a b l i s h e d which d i d n o t c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e s c r e e n i n g ( F i g u r e 8, page 37).  Provided  these young t r e e s s u r v i v e , s c r e e n i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s can be expected t o improve i n t h e f u t u r e . V e g e t a t i o n Cover T o t a l v e g e t a t i o n cover f o r a l l experimental p l o t s was reduced  from a mean o f 37 p e r c e n t t o 16 percent d u r i n g the  study p e r i o d (Table I I , page 38). f o r a l l c o n t r o l p l o t s was reduced to 35 p e r c e n t  T o t a l v e g e t a t i o n cover from a mean o f 47 p e r c e n t  (Table I I I , page 39). V e g e t a t i o n cover  r e d u c t i o n as a p e r c e n t o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n cover a t the beg i n n i n g o f the study p e r i o d ranged on the experimental p l o t s and  from 40 t o 68 p e r c e n t  13 t o  48 percent  34  FIGURE 5 ENTRANCE TO STUDY AREA  FIGURE 6 TYPICAL CAMPSITE IN STUDY AREA  35  TABLE I SCREENING OBSERVATIONS AND SCREENING EFFECTIVENESS IN PERCENT  1 ' '.-  ———•—•  Number  1st  '  p r - 11  FF-•03  FF- 41  FF-•22  FF- 18  2nd  ist  2nd  1st  2nd  1st  2nd  1st  2nd  1  "21  23  0  0  0  3  18  23  0  0  2  12  19  20  18  71  65  58  69  45  52  33  17  17  23  67  57  60  62  42  14  4  13  19  95  45  78  80  69  51  9  18  5  :;5  6  43  18  55  53  34  23  17  33  6  42  31  55  37  57  49  40  34  20  38  7  60  70  46  33  71  43  48  49  29  21  8  67  54  30  47  19  80  62  49  31  26  9  55  59  18  43  67  53  59  53  46  47  10  59  69  32  44  43  36  42  49  10  5  11  36  35  8  22  36  22  26  36  27  31  12  42  33  15  8  42  25  32  28  52  16  13  6  13  -  -  -  , -  26  13  14  3  .  13  Total  899  750  1172  1099  656  Percent Screening  35  30,  49.  44  25  36  FIGURE SAMPLE CAMPSITE FF-20 49  IN  7  FF-18  BACKGROUND  PERCENT  WITH  CAMPSITE  PROVIDING  SCREENING  37  FIGURE 8 SAMPLE CAMPSITE F F - 4 1 LODGEPOLE PINE SEEDLINGS  TABLE I I EXPERIMENTAL PLOT VEGETATION  OBSERVATIONS  Cover Readings T o t a l Vegetation July 1 Sept. 1  Graminoid Cover July 1 Sept. 1  Forbs Cover July 1 Sept. 1  L i c h e n s & Mosses July 1 Sept. 1  FFr-03 E - l E-2 E-3 8-4  105 77 194 157  57 6 77 81  68 40 81 48  43 6 38 48  15 2 37 33  14 0 15 21  22 35 76 76  0 0 24 12  FFr-H  E-l E-2 E-3 e-4  305 203 335 354  87 11 86 255  40 84 19 1  19 9 9 0  60 10 125 104  44 0 56 103  205 109 191 249  24 2 21 152  FF-18 E - l E-2 E-3 E-4  150 309 188 226  51 221 112 141  39 36 48 58  18 19 19 34  109 224 70 102  31 181 65 84  2 49 70 66  2 21 28 23  FF-22 E - l E^2 E-3 E-4  182 234 237 313  43 164 51 139  14 32 23 30  3 28 4 8  97 200 180 86  30 136 46 41  71 2 34 197  10 0 1 90  FF-41 E - l E-2 E-3 E-4  -  228  -  143  45  Sum Mean Percent Cover  218 397  4412  72  78  71 1.2.8 1853  27 —  —  7  _  —  0  _  7 48  4 18  26 49  12 27  185 300  55 83  794  354  1536  906  2082  593  8  18  5  •  37  16  7  3  13  ,  TABLE I I I CONTROL PLOT VEGETATION OBSERVATIONS  Total Vegetation July 1 Aug. 31  Graminoid Cover July 1 Aug. 31  FF-03 C-1  228  117  106  49  63  36  59  32  FF-11 C-1  319  250  77  84  55  44  187  122  FF-18 C-1  316  274  29  17  258  232  29  25  FF-22 C-1  303  235  18  24  242  193  43  18  FF-41 C-1  286  209  38  34  93  90  155  85  1452  1085  268  208  711  595  473  282  15  9  Sum Mean Percent Cover  4^7;  3s  9,'  7-  Forbs Cover July 1 Aug. 31  23 •  19 •  L i c h e n s & Mosses July 1 Aug. 31  40  on the c o n t r o l p l o t s (Table IV, page 41)-. A paired t - t e s t at a confidence  l e v e l of 90  percent  was  employed i n the a n a l y s i s o f d a t a t a b u l a t e d i n Tables  III  f o r each sample campsite.  The  v e g e t a t i o n cover.  encountered i n l o c a t i n g s m a l l p r o t e c t e d  w i t h i n the sample  total  also a s i g n i f i c a n t reduction i n  the t o t a l v e g e t a t i o n cover of the c o n t r o l p l o t s due difficulties  In a l l  a s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n i n the  There was  and  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the changes  i n v e g e t a t i o n cover are shown i n Table V, page 42. sample campsites t h e r e was  II  t o the areas  campsites.  Sample campsite FF-03 was  l o c a t e d adjacent  s e r v i c e roadway (Figure 9, page 43).  The  t o the  photograph was  taken  from the t a b l e a t the approximate c e n t r e o f the campsite l o o k i n g towards the s e r v i c e road. l e a s t abundant i n i t i a l and sample s i t e s s t u d i e d t a t i o n cover 48.  The  T h i s campsite had  the  f i n a l v e g e t a t i o n cover o f  the  (Table IV, page 41).  The  i s i l l u s t r a t e d by F i g u r e s 10 to 14, pages 44  r e d u c t i o n i s most evident-, i n F i g u r e  I t was  l o s s o f vegeto  11.  observed t h a t the l o c a t i o n o f the campsite  encouraged t r e s p a s s by other campers from o t h e r s i t e s on  their  way  the  to and  from the c e n t r a l s e r v i c e area.  v e g e t a t i o n cover  i n sample s i t e FF-03 was  use o f the campsite by the occupying of other trampling  The due  impact on  not o n l y to the  p a r t i e s but to the  effects  as w e l l .  Sample campsite FF-11 fewer but l a r g e r t r e e s  was  more open than FF-03 and  (Figure 15, page 49).  supported  T h i s campsite  had  41  TABLE IV TOTAL VEGETATION COVER IN PERCENT  Experimental P l o t s  Site  Pet. Cover July 1 Sept.l  Change i n Pet. Cover  Change as Pet. of J u l y 1 Value  FF-03  21  9  -12  -59  FF-11  48  18  -30  -63  FF-18  35  21  -14  -40  FF-22  39  17  -22  -54  FF-41  45  14  -31  -68  Mean  37  16  -21  -58  Control  Plots  FF-03  37  19  -18  -49  FF-11  51  40  -11  -22  FF-18  51  44  - 7  -13  FF-22  49  38  -11  -22  FF-41  46  33  =13  -27  Mean  47  35  -12  -25  42  TABLE V SUMMARY OF TEST OF SIGNIFICANCE OF CHANGES IN VEGETATION COVER EMPLOYING PAIRED T-TESTS AT NINETY PERCENT CONFIDENCE LEVEL  Experimental  Total Vegetation  Plots  Graminoids  Forbs  Lichens  and Moss  FF-03  Yes  Yes  NO  Yes  FF-11  Yes  No  No  Yes  FF-18  Yes  Yes  NO  Yes  FF-22  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  FF-41  Yes  NO  Yes  Yes  Forbs  Lichens and Moss  Control Total Vegetation  Plots  Graminoids  FF-03 FF-11 FF-18 FF-22 FF-41  —  Yes  No  Yes  Yes  FIGURE SAMPLE CAMPSITE  FF-03  9 SHOWING  ROAD WITH C A M P S I T E AND F F - 0 1  SERVICE  FF-02  I N BACKGROUND  JUNE  AUGUST  25,  1970  24,  FIGURE  1970  10  SAMPLE CAMPSITE F F - 0 3 , PLOT E - l  EXPERIMENTAL  JUNE 26, 1970  AUGUST 24, 1970  FIGURE 11 SAMPLE CAMPSITE FF-03, PLOT E-2  EXPERIMENTAL  JUNE 27,  197 0  ; -  AUGUST 24,  FIGURE  1970 12  SAMPLE CAMPSITE F F - 0 3 , PLOT E - 3  EXPERIMENTAL  JUNE 27, 197 0  AUGUST 24, 1970  FIGURE 13 SAMPLE CAMPSITE F F - 0 3 , PLOT E-4  EXPERIMENTAL  JUNE  27,  1970  I*  AUGUST  24,  FIGURE SAMPLE CAMPSITE  1970  14  FF-03,  CONTROL PLOT  FIGURE  15  SAMPLE CAMPSITE F F - 1 1 WITH FF-12 and F F - 1 3 IN BACKGROUND  CAMPSITES  50  been abused sometime d u r i n g the study p e r i o d .  The  steel  markers were removed by e x c a v a t i n g the s o i l and r o c k them ( F i g u r e 16, page 51).  plot  around  The s i t e showed evidence o f damage  t o the l i c h e n s and moss ground cover, p a r t of which i s shown i n the photograph  o f experimental p l o t E-3, F i g u r e 17, page 52.  T h i s damage e v i d e n t l y was  the r e s u l t of c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y w i t h  toy v e h i c l e s and shows how innocent  activity.  D i f f i c u l t y was w i t h i n campsite FF-11 I t was  s e v e r e l y an a r e a can be damaged by  encountered  i n l o c a t i n g the c o n t r o l  plot  due t o the freedom o f human movement.  observed t h a t the l o c a t i o n of the campsite  t r e s p a s s by o t h e r campers on t h e i r way  t o and from  encouraged activities  i n o t h e r areas of the campground; f o r example, a t t e n d i n g the evening nature program.  The  impact  than the occupying p a r t i e s was campsite  from t r a m p l i n g by o t h e r  not as severe as t h a t on sample  FF-03.  The v e g e t a t i o n cover o f the c o n t r o l p l o t a t sample campsite FF-18 studied.  was  the l e a s t a f f e c t e d of a l l c o n t r o l p l o t s  The r e d u c t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y 13 percent of the  i n i t i a l t o t a l vegetation.  F i g u r e 18, page 53, shows l i t t l e  damage t o the v e g e t a t i o n cover.  The c o n t r o l p l o t i s an  e x c e l l e n t example of a K i n n i k i n n i c k a s s o c i a t i o n forming the v e g e t a t i o n ground cover. Sample campsite FF-22 underwent s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n a l l components of the ground cover v e g e t a t i o n . i- •  are i l l u s t r a t e d by F i g u r e 19, page 54.  The changes  51  AUGUST  24,  FIGURE  1970  16  SAMPLE CAMPSITE FF-11, EXPERIMENTAL PLOT REMOVAL OF S T E E L P L O T MARKERS  E-2,  JUNE 27, 1970  AUGUST 24, 1970  FIGURE 17 SAMPLE CAMPSITE F F - 1 1 , EXPERIMENTAL PLOT E - 3 , DAMAGED GROUND COVER VEGETATION  JUNE 28, 197 0  AUGUST 25, 1970 FIGURE 18 SAMPLE CAMPSITE FF-18, CONTROL PLOT C-1  JUNE  AUGUST  29,  1970  25,  FIGURE  1970  19  SAMPLE CAMPSITE FF-22, PLOT E - l  EXPERIMENTAL  55  Lichens vegetation  and moss showed a s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n  cover w i t h i n a l l the experimental p l o t s .  also a s i g n i f i c a n t reduction of t h i s vegetation w i t h i n the c o n t r o l p l o t s .  i n the There was  component  T h i s suggests t h a t l i c h e n s and moss  may be more s e n s i t i v e t o t r a m p l i n g  than graminoids and f o r b s .  Photographs i n Appendix C, F i g u r e s  20 t o 34  a d d i t i o n a l examples o f damage t o v e g e t a t i o n  provide  cover.  T r a f f i c Counter C a l i b r a t i o n The  r a t i o o f v e h i c l e s e n t e r i n g the campground t o camp-  ground permit s a l e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t each v e h i c l e e n t e r s t h e campground approximately t w i c e d a i l y as summarized i n Table V I .  TABLE VI CAMPGROUND TRAFFIC AND PERMIT SALES  Permit  Sales  Ratio TC-5/permit s a l e s  Period  TC-5  July August  19685 16760  9297 7544  2.12:1.0 2.22:1.0  TOTAL  36445  16841  2.16:1.0  56  The r a t i o o f the number o f campsites the number o f campsites (Table V I I ) .  i n t h e study area t o  i n W a p i t i Campground was0.14:1.0  The r a t i o o f t h e number o f v e h i c l e s e n t e r i n g t h e  study area  (TC-3) t o the number o f v e h i c l e s e n t e r i n g W a p i t i  campground  (TC-5) f o r the month o f August was 0.14:1.0.  The  c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n r e f l e c t s the f u l l u t i l i z a t i o n o f the campground throughout most o f the month. numbers o f campsites throughout  During p e r i o d s when l a r g e  the campground a r e not o c c u p i e d ,  the c o r r e l a t i o n p r o v i d e s a method o f checking t h e a l l o c a t i o n of s i t e s by the campground a t t e n d a n t s .  The r a t i o f o r the  month o f J u l y i s g r e a t e r than 0.14:1.0 i n d i c a t i n g g r e a t e r a l l o c a t i o n o f v i s i t o r p a r t i e s t o t h e study a r e a than t o o t h e r areas o f the campground.  TABLE V I I STUDY AREA AND CAMPGROUND TRAFFIC  Period  Study Area TC-3  Campground TC-5  Ratio TC-3/TC-5  July August  3349 2311  19685 16760  0.17:1.0 0.14:1.0  TOTAL  5660  36445  0.155:1.0  46  325  0.14:1.0  Campsites  57  Table V I I I  f  page 58, shows t h a t 573 v e h i c l e s e n t e r e d the  study area d u r i n g the o b s e r v a t i o n sample p e r i o d s as r e c o r d e d on t r a f f i c counter TC-3.  At the c h e c k p o i n t d u r i n g the same  p e r i o d s 555 v e h i c l e s were observed t o e n t e r the study a r e a . The d i f f e r e n c e between the two methods o f c o u n t i n g v e h i c l e s was  insignificant  a paired t - t e s t .  a t the 95 p e r c e n t c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l  employing  T r a f f i c counter r e c o r d i n g s were t h e r e f o r e  accepted as a s u i t a b l e method o f d e t e r m i n i n g the number of v e h i c l e s e n t e r i n g the study a r e a . Seven hundred f i f t y v e h i c l e s e n t e r e d t h e study a r e a d u r i n g the o b s e r v a t i o n sample p e r i o d s (Appendix Of these, f o u r proceeded  t o sample campsite  D, T a b l e X I I ) .  FF-03, f i v e t o  FF-11, n i n e t e e n t o FF-18, ten t o FF-22 and n i n e t o FF-41. The t r a f f i c count use measurement technique would be improved by l o c a t i n g t r a f f i c c o u n t e r s a c r o s s both l a n e s of traffic counts.  ( e n t e r i n g and d e p a r t i n g ) and a v e r a g i n g the two T h i s would account  f o r t r a f f i c movements such  traffic as  v e h i c l e s e n t e r i n g and l e a v i n g the study area i n the wrong direction. Occupancy A n a l y s i s Appendix E , T a b l e i x i W l and T a b l e hours d u r i n g the sample weekdays and campsite was  XIV. show the number of  sample weekends each sample  occupied and used and the t o t a l p a r t y hours o f  occupancy and use.  Absence, the d i f f e r e n c e between occupancy  and use, i s shown i n Table IX, page 59.  58  TABLE V I I I STUDY AREA TRAFFIC DURING OBSERVATION PERIODS  Time 8:00 a.m.  Dateti  8:00 p.m.  Number o f Vehicles Automatically Counted  Number o f Vehicles Observed  1  July 4  451  546  95*  •• •  July 5  575  657  82*  •• •  J u l y 29  3331  3383  52  58  J u l y 30  3399  3459  60  66  August 12  4900  4970  70  60  August 13  5001  5057  56  63  August 15  5174  5283  109  106  August 16  5305  5393  88  74  August 19  5557  5597  40  39  August 20  5610  5640  30  27  August 22  5699  5742  43  38  August 23  5762  5787  25  24  573  555  TOTAL VEHICLES * D e l e t e d from t o t a l .  O b s e r v a t i o n s on J u l y 4 and J u l y 5 were incomplete and have been d e l e t e d .  59  TABLE IX ABSENCE AS PERCENT OF OCCUPANCY  Absence  Occupancy  Use  Sample Sites  Party Hours  Party Hours  Party Hours  FF-03  111.4  100.9  10.5  9.4  FF-11  105.1  90.4  14.7  14.0  FF-18  221.7  165.0  56.7  25.6  FF-22  219.2  180.6  38.6  17.6  FF-41  111.6  84.5  27.1  24.3  TOTAL  769.0  621.4  147.6  19.2  Percent of Occupancy  60  The occupancy l e v e l o f sample s i t e s FF-18  and FF-22  was  c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r than t h a t f o r the o t h e r t h r e e s a m p l e ^ s i t e s . Sample s i t e s FF-18  and FF-22 were l o c a t e d n e a r e s t t o the  river,  were more i d e a l l y l o c a t e d from the s e r v i c e a r e a s , and were l o c a t e d i n more dense young l o d g e p o l e p i n e and t h e r e f o r e were b e t t e r screened campsites  from a d j a c e n t campsites.  assignment of  t o campground v i s i t o r s i s a r b i t r a r i l y c a r r i e d  by the k i o s k a t t e n d a n t s .  The  more a t t r a c t i v e s i t e s f i r s t . why  The  out  attendants g e n e r a l l y a s s i g n e d the T h i s a l s o i s the probable  reason  the sample s i t e s were occupied o n l y 62 p e r c e n t o f the  n i g h t s a v a i l a b l e compared t o the campground occupancy r a t e of 82 percent d u r i n g the study p e r i o d Occupants o f the sample campsites of  t h e i r s t a y o f f the campsite  (Appendix E, T a b l e XV) . spent approximately  (Table X).  Except  a  fifth  for inactive  types o f r e c r e a t i o n such as r e s t i n g o r r e a d i n g , the p e r i o d s of absence r e p r e s e n t s most of the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n e x c l u d i n g the camping a c t i v i t y i t s e l f .  The  sample  s i t e s i n g e n e r a l were occupied more d u r i n g weekends than d u r i n g weekdays. impact  The  sample campsites  o n l y 43.2  out of each 24.0 were a s l e e p .  were s u b j e c t e d t o r e c r e a t i o n a l  percent of the p o t e n t i a l time or 10.4 hours.  T h i s i n c l u d e s the time t h a t p a r t i e s  The net d a i l y impact  about t h r e e hours per day  hours  f o r each  time would appear t o average campsite.  R e c r e a t i o n Impact Examination  o f the sample campsite  data i n Table  page 41, and T a b l e IX, page 59, f a i l e d t o r e v e a l the  IV,  expected  61  TABLE X  SAMPLE PERIOD OCCUPANCY, USE AND ABSENCE AS PERCENT OF AVAILABLE HOURS  Sample Period  Occupancy Party Hours  Use Party Hours  Absence Party Hours  Available Campsite Hours  Percent o f A v a i l a b l e Camps i t e Hours Occupancy  Use  Absence  Weekdays  ,277.7  222. 2  55. 5  720  38.6  30.9  7.7  Weekends  491.3  399. 2  92. 1  720  62.2  55.4  12.8  TOTAL  769.0  621. 4  147. 6  1440  53.4  43.2  10.2  62  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f reduced  v e g e t a t i o n cover w i t h i n c r e a s e d l e v e l s  of occupancy or between r e d u c t i o n i n v e g e t a t i o n cover and  level  of use.  and  The two most h e a v i l y used sample campsites  FF-18  FF-22 s u f f e r e d the l e a s t r e d u c t i o n i n v e g e t a t i o n cover. More than h a l f the v i s i t i n g p a r t i e s accommodated i n the study a r e a used v e h i c l e s r e g i s t e r e d i n A l b e r t a . (Appendix F, Table XVI).  A q u a r t e r of the v i s i t o r s came from the U n i t e d  States.  Less than twenty-one percent came from the r e s t o f  Canada.  The mean s i z e o f the p a r t i e s occupying  s i t e s d u r i n g the sample p e r i o d s was Table  3.3  persons  the sample (Appendix F,  XVII). T r a i l e r s were the most popular type o f camping equipment  and represented 43.7 Table XVIII).  percent of the u n i t s observed  (Appendix F,  The next l a r g e s t group, most of whom i t can  be  assumed used t e n t s f o r s l e e p i n g accommodation, r e p r e s e n t e d 36.2  percent.  S e l f contained u n i t s p r o v i d e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  and accommodation t o 20 percent o f the p a r t i e s occupyng the study a r e a . E i g h t y - s e v e n and o n e c h a l f percent of the v e h i c l e s which entered the study area d u r i n g the o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d s were r e c r e a t i o n v e h i c l e s (Table X I ) .  The n o n - r e c r e a t i o n v e h i c l e s  were used by park p e r s o n n e l t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s t o the camp^ground occupants i n c l u d i n g campground s u p e r v i s i o n , washroom c l e a n i n g , s e r v i c e area clean-up, garbage c o l l e c t i o n .  c a r t a g e of firewood  and  63  TABLE XI RECREATION AND NON-RECREATION VEHICLES ENTERING THE STUDY AREA  -  Weekdays  Weekends  Total  Percent  271  216  487  87.7  44  24  68  12.3  315  240  555  100.0  Recreation V e h i c l e s Non-Recreation  Vehicles  TOTAL  Twenty-eight p e r c e n t o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n v e h i c l e s which entered the study area d i d so p r i o r t o 2:00 p.m. percent entered a f t e r 2:00 p.m. The  Seventy-two  (Appendix F, T a b l e X I X ) .  a n a l y s i s revealed that a t ninety percent  confidence  l e v e l t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n o f t o t a l v e g e t a t i o n ground cover on both the experimental p l o t s d u r i n g t h e study p e r i o d . e v i d e n t i n t h e photographs.  p l o t s and t h e c o n t r o l  These changes were c l e a r l y  No c o r r e l a t i o n was found between  r e d u c t i o n s i n v e g e t a t i o n cover and l e v e l s o f use o f t h e sample campsites;  expected  r e l a t i o n s h i p s appear t o be masked  i n t h i s study due t o u n c o n t r o l l e d v a r i a b l e e f f e c t s and measurement problems.  CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND The  CONCLUSIONS  a n a l y s i s of vegetation  cover proved c o n c l u s i v e l y  the ground cover a d j a c e n t t o the prepared s u r f a c e o f the campsites d e t e r i o r a t e d d u r i n g In a t l e a s t two l i n g was  o f the  unrelated  sample campsites a p o r t i o n of the  t o occupancy.  study a r e a .  excess o f t h a t due  sample  the second season o f occupancy.  The  tramp-  Sample s i t e s FF-03 and  were observed t o r e c e i v e t r a m p l i n g by t r e s p a s s e r s l o c a t i o n i n the  that  due  FF-11  to t h e i r  e f f e c t s of t h i s trampling i n  t o occupancy o f f e r s support to the  concept  t h a t a r b i t r a r y s e l e c t i o n o f sample campsites based on  prior  knowledge o f v i s i t o r movements would p r o v i d e a s u p e r i o r method o f sample s e l e c t i o n t o t h a t o f random s e l e c t i o n employed i n t h i s study.  A r b i t r a r y s e l e c t i o n would have the advantage of  e l i m i n a t i n g those s i t e s subjected trampling.  t o obvious t r a n s i e n t  I t would a l s o have the advantage o f p r o v i d i n g  more e q u i t a b l e  d i s t r i b u t i o n of sample s i t e s throughout  a  the  study a r e a . The  c o n t r o l p l o t s underwent a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n  vegetation and  cover d u r i n g  protecting  human use change.  the  study p e r i o d .  Problems of l o c a t i n g  the c o n t r o l p l o t s prevented the removal of  impacts from o t h e r more n a t u r a l causes of As  i t was  not p o s s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r  user impact alone on changes o f v e g e t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e of d e v e l o p i n g u s e - i n t e n s i t y  vegetation  r e l a t i o n s h i p s of c o v e r , the  first  r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o changes  65  i n v e g e t a t i o n cover was  unattainable.  No  significant  relation-  s h i p between t o t a l s i t e occupancy and changes i n v e g e t a t i o n ground cover was  found.  The v e g e t a t i o n a n a l y s i s of the p l o t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t l i c h e n s and moss may  be the l e a s t t o l e r a n t o f the t h r e e p l a n t  components s t u d i e d .  V e g e t a t i o n a n a l y s i s o f the c o n t r o l  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the graminoid component may  plots  be the most t o l e r a n t .  The p a n t a l l o m e t e r used f o r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of s c r e e n i n g as i l l u s t r a t e d by Nord and M a g i l l  1  was  considered  s u i t a b l e f o r q u a l i t a t i v e comparisons between campsites.  It  i s b e s t s u i t e d t o areas where t r e e b o l e s p r o v i d e most of the vegetative screening. One  o f the o b j e c t i v e s o f the p r o j e c t was  t o a s s e s s the  r e l i a b i l i t y o f b a t t e r y operated e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c d i g i t a l t r a f f i c counters.  These t r a f f i c counters o f f e r e d the advantage  of a b u r i e d wire s e n s i n g g r i d much l e s s s u b j e c t t o vandalism than pneumatic type c o u n t e r s .  There was  no s i g n i f i c a n t  differ-  ence i n the number of v e h i c l e s which entered the study area as recorded by the t r a f f i c counter o r v i s u a l l y observed. the i n s t a l l a t i o n was  Although  more i n v o l v e d than the i n s t a l l a t i o n o f  pneumatic c o u n t e r s , they proved t o be c o m p l e t e l y f r e e o f maintenance d u r i n g the study p e r i o d .  Based on e x p e r i e n c e , i t  i s concluded t h a t e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c d i g i t a l t r a f f i c  counters  are capable of p r o v i d i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y v e h i c l e s e n s i n g over a  "^E.C. Nord and A.W. M a g i l l . 1963. A Device f o r Gaging Campground S c r e e n i n g Cover ( J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y Volume 61) page 450-451.  66  c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d o f time.  The t r a f f i c counters  employed i n  the p r o j e c t o f f e r e d t h e advantage o f c o u n t i n g v e h i c l e u n i t s r a t h e r than a x l e s , thereby as one u n i t .  recording a v e h i c l e plus  The t r a f f i c counters  trailer  were s u f f i c i e n t l y s e n s i t i v e  t o r e c o r d a m e t a l l i c mass as s m a l l as t h a t o f a b i c y c l e .  If  a f a u l t was t o be found w i t h t h e t r a f f i c c o u n t e r s ,  i t was the  i n h e r e n t o v e r s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e equipment.  necessary  to open t h e hinged observe t h e count. digital the  counter  I t was  l i d o f t h e metal c o n t a i n e r i n o r d e r t o O c c a s i o n a l l y t h i s d i s t u r b a n c e caused t h e  t o f u n c t i o n as though a v e h i c l e had t r a v e r s e d  grid. Occupancy o f W a p i t i Campground based on t h e s a l e o f  campsite permits was 82.0 p e r c e n t .  Occupancy o f the sample  s i t e s was o n l y 62 percent d u r i n g t h e sample p e r i o d s . be concluded  I t can  t h a t a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number o f p a r t i e s were  a s s i g n e d t o t h e campsites o u t s i d e t h e study area d u r i n g t h e study p e r i o d .  Demand f o r campsites a t W a p i t i Campground o f t e n  exceeded supply.  One hundred p e r c e n t occupancy was a  r e c u r r i n g phenomenon*. persons.  Average p a r t y s i z e was found t o be 3.3  More than a t h i r d o f the p a r t i e s occupying  campsites  used t e n t s o r l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d equipment. A l a r g e percentage o f v i s i t o r s t o t h e study area came from t h e P r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a and from t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .  It  appears t h a t t h e study area c a t e r s t o t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l needs p r i m a r i l y o f one p r o v i n c e and t o t h e c i t i z e n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s more than t o the r e s t o f t h e Canadian p o p u l a t i o n .  67  The  methodology employed i n the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t must be  improved t o separate the e f f e c t s o f non on v e g e t a t i o n  controllable variables  cover from the e f f e c t s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o occupancy  o f the sample campsites.  In p a r t i c u l a r , sample s i t e s must be  s e l e c t e d t o minimize t r e s p a s s and from t r a m p l i n g  must be  p r o t e c t i o n of c o n t r o l p l o t s  considered.  Future Research Another study o f the sample s i t e s i s r e q u i r e d t o determine the change i n v e g e t a t i o n and  cover d u r i n g another camping season  d u r i n g the p e r i o d s i n c e the o r i g i n a l study i n 1970.  A  comparative assessment would i n d i c a t e the r a t e o f change o f vegetation  cover.  vegetation  cover leads t o a r e d u c t i o n  t i o n o f the  Based on the premise t h a t d e g r a d a t i o n o f i n the a e s t h e t i c a t t r a c -  s i t e , the study would p r o v i d e  the d a t a r e q u i r e d  estimate the probable u s e f u l l i f e o f the campground b e f o r e cessation of plant propagation.  This information  would  to the  be  u s e f u l t o determine the d e s i r a b i l i t y of r e s t i n g groups of campsites w i t h i n the campground or p e r i o d i c c l o s u r e o f  the  campground. The  p o p u l a r i t y o f the types of mobile accommodation  appears t o be changing from the l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d equipment t o elaborate,  self-contained units.  imposes i t s own campground.  The  l e v e l o f space and  s e r v i c e requirements on  r a t e s o f change i n p o p u l a r i t y of the  types of accommodation should requirements and  Each type o f accommodation  be i n v e s t i g a t e d so t h a t  a  various design  p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s can be i n c o r p o r a t e d  in  68  the p l a n n i n g processes t o meet f u t u r e expected P e r i o d i c overcrowding  types o f use.  o f W a p i t i Campground i n excess  o f r a t e d c a p a c i t y , and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f improperly s e r v i c e d o v e r f l o w areas nearby t o accommodate excess v i s i t a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h a t methods o f c o n t r o l l i n g t h e numbers and c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f v i s i t o r s should be i n v e s t i g a t e d .  BIBLIOGRAPHY  BIBLIOGRAPHY LITERATURE CITED  B a t e s , G.H. 1935. Vegetation of Footpaths, Sidewalks, t r a c k s and G a t e w a y s o ( J o u r n a l o f E c o l o g y , 23) p a g e s 470-487.  Cart-  Sample s i t e s were l o c a t e d i n E n g l a n d . T r a m p l i n g by i t s e l f had l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e o n v e g e t a t i o n c h a n g e b u t when c o m b i n e d w i t h h i g h m o i s t u r e c o n d i t i o n s t o d e v e l o p p u d d l i n g t h e c h a n g e s t o t h e v e g e t a t i o n were s e v e r e w i t h a l m o s t c o m p l e t e s p e c i e s r e p l a c e m e n t on p a t h w a y s . G r a s s e s and woody v i n e s were more r e s i s t a n t t o trampling than broad-leaved herbs. B a i l e y , Reed W. 1962. R e c r e a t i o n : O p p o r t u n i t i e s and P r o b l e m s i n t h e N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s o f t h e N o r t h e r n and I n t e r m o u n t a i n Regions.: (U.S. D e p t . A g r . Intermountain F o r e s t and Range E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n . F o r e s t Research P a p e r 66) 33 pp. The r e p o r t d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e management p r o b l e m s a r i s i n g from i n c r e a s e d use o f t h e N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n and r e c o g n i z e s u n i n t e n t i o n a l s i t e d e t e r i o r a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from e x c e s s i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f p e o p l e a s t h e m a j o r management p r o b l e m . Brockman, C. F r a n k . 1959. R e c r e a t i o n a l Use o f W i l d l a n d s ( M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company I n c o r p o r a t e d . New Y o r k ) 346 pp. T h i s i s a broad b a s i c o u t l i n e o f the background, important v a l u e s and f u n d a m e n t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f r e c r e a t i o n management. The r e a d e r i s p r o v i d e d w i t h a p e r s p e c t i v e f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n , management and r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e o f w i l d l a n d s , along w i t h a h i s t o r y of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n development. Bury,  R., and R. M a r g o l i e s . 1964. A Method o f E s t i m a t i n g C u r r e n t A t t e n d a n c e o n S e t s o f Campgrounds... a P i l o t S t u d y (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Res. N o t e PSW-42) 6 pp. S t a t i s t i c a l m o d e l s were d e v i s e d f o r e s t i m a t i n g a t t e n d a n c e a t campgrounds t h r o u g h c o r r e l a t i o n r e g r e s s i o n and r a t i o analysis. E q u a t i o n s were d e v e l o p e d t o e s t i m a t e t o t a l d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e a t 23 campgrounds by m e a s u r i n g a t t e n d a n c e a t one o f them.  71  Dana, S.T. 1957. Problem A n a l y s i s : Research i n Forest R e c r e a t i o n (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , U.S. D e p t . A g r . W a s h i n g t o n ) p a g e s 22-23. The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f d i f f e r e n t s i t e s f o r d i f f e r e n t r e c r e a t i o n uses i s r e c o g n i z e d as a b a s i c p r o b l e m i n r e c r e a t i o n management. The d e f i n i t i o n of c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y i s implied i n the posing of the q u e s t i o n s , "How much u s e c a n a g i v e n a r e a s t a n d w i t h o u t p h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t h e s i t e and w i t h o u t i m p a i r ment o f a e s t h e t i c and s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s ? " and "How h e a v i l y c a n a campground ... be u s e d w i t h o u t d e s t r o y i n g the very v a l u e s which the r e c r e a t i o n i s t seeks?" de  V o s , A., and R.H. B a i l e y . 1970. The E f f e c t o f L o g g i n g and I n t e n s i v e Camping on V e g e t a t i o n i n R i d i n g M o u n t a i n N a t i o n a l P a r k ( F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e 46(1) ) p a g e s 49-55. Heavy r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e i n two campground a r e a s o f R i d i n g M o u n t a i n N a t i o n a l P a r k i n N o r t h e r n Canada e n c o u r a g e d i n v a s i o n by e x o t i c p l a n t s p e c i e s i n i n t e n s i v e l y u s e d areas. S h r u b b y s p e c i e s were d i s p l a c e d w i t h g r a s s - f o r b associations. S o f t w o o d s were a b l e t o w i t h s t a n d more m u t i l a t i o n t h a n hardwoods.  Dooling, P.J. 1973. P r e d i c t i n g Use o f R e c r e a t i o n a l S i t e s : M o d e l and U s e r A n a l y s i s (Ph.D. C o l o r a d o S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , F o r t C o l l i n s , C o l o r a d o ) 262 pp. D o t z e n k o , A.D., P o p a m i c h o s , N.T., Romine, D.S. 1967. ^ E f f e c t o f R e c r e a t i o n a l Use on S o i l and M o i s t u r e Conditions i n R o c k y M o u n t a i n N a t i o n a l P a r k s ( J o u r n a l o f S o i l and Water C o n s e r v a t i o n . S e p t . - O c t . ) p a g e s 196-197. R e c r e a t i o n a l u s e o f t h r e e l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d campgrounds i n C o l o r a d o i n c r e a s e d s o i l d e n s i t y and d e c r e a s e d o r g a n i c m a t t e r and m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t o f t h e s o i l s u r f a c e s . D o u g l a s s , R o b e r t W. 1969. T o r o n t o ) 336 pp.  Forest  Recreation  (Pergamon  Press,  T h i s book o u t l i n e s f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n n e e d s s u p p o r t e d by e x t e n s i v e d e t a i l s o f p u b l i c d e s i r e s and r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s w h i c h s h o u l d a i d t h e l a n d manager i n s o l v i n g p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d t o p l a n n i n g , d e v e l o p i n g and a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e •forest r e c r e a t i o n area.  72 E h r e n r e i c h , J.H. 1959. Releasing Understory Pine Increased H e r b a g e P r o d u c t i o n (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e C e n t r a l S t a t e s E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n N o t e 139). 2 pp. P r o d u c t i o n o f f o r a g e was i n c r e a s e d by s p r a y i n g u n d e s i r a b l e hardwoods i n an o a k s t a n d u n d e r p l a n t e d w i t h p i n e . F r i s s e l l , S i d n e y S. J r . and D.P. Duncan. 1965. Campsite P r e f e r e n c e and D e t e r i o r a t i o n i n t h e Quetico-Superior Canoe C o u n t r y ( J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y 63(4) ) p a g e s 256-260. V e g e t a t i o n u n d e r s t o r y on t h e c a n o e r o u t e c a m p s i t e s h a s undergone major changes w i t h r e c r e a t i o n a l use. O v e r 80 p e r c e n t i n g r o u n d c o v e r l o s s was i n c u r r e d w i t h l i g h t u s e . A v e r a g e l o s s was 85 p e r c e n t . L i t t e r and humus was r e d u c e d by 65 p e r c e n t . Reduced i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e s , e x p o s e d t r e e r o o t s , l o s s o f s a p p l i n g s and a b s e n c e o f t r e e generation a l l decreased the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f the campsites. Hills,  G.A. 1961. E c o l o g i c a l B a s i s f o r Land-Use ( O n t a r i o D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n d s and F o r e s t s . R e p o r t No. 46) 204 pp.  Planning Research  The r e p o r t d i s c u s s e s t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f l a n d u s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n b a s e d on e c o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The author develops l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems f o r a p p l i c a t i o n t o land-use planning o f renewable n a t u r a l resources. James, G.A., and T.H. R i p l e y . 1963. I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r Using T r a f f i c C o u n t e r s t o E s t i m a t e R e c r e a t i o n V i s i t s and Use (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e s e a r c h P a p e r SE-3) 12 pp. D o u b l e s a m p l i n g and a n a l y t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s f o r e s t i m a t i n g r e c r e a t i o n v i s i t s and u s e a r e d e s c r i b e d . The recommended s a m p l i n g i n t e n s i t y o f t e n d a y s p e r s i t e was e x p e c t e d t o y i e l d a s a m p l i n g e r r o r o f ±25 p e r c e n t a t 67 p e r c e n t l e v e l of p r o b a b i l i t y . C o m p u t a t i o n s c a n be u s e d t o e s t i m a t e f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n v i s i t s and u s e o n l y d u r i n g t h e same season as t h a t o f t h e c a l i b r a t i o n . James, G.A., and J . L . R i c h . 1966. Estimating Recreation Use on a Complex o f D e v e l o p e d S i t e s (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Res. N o t e SE-64) 8 pp. T r a f f i c count r e c o r d s from the employed t o g e n e r a t e e s t i m a t e s s i t e s i n a r e c r e a t i o n area.  " i n d i c a t o r " l o c a t i o n s were of v i s i t a t i o n s to several  73  L a P a g e , W i l b u r F. 1962. R e c r e a t i o n and t h e F o r e s t ( J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y , 60) p a g e s 319-321. D a t a was c o l l e c t e d State Parks. Soil i n c h e s o f s o i l due _______  Site  a t t h r e e l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d New Hampshire d e n s i t y was i n c r e a s e d i n t h e t o p s i x t o r e c r e a t i o n a l use.  1964. A S t u d y o f G r o u n d C o v e r U n d e r t h e Camper's F e e t . ( A m e r i c a n R e c r e a t i o n J o u r n a l , 5) p a g e s 103-104. P l a n t d e n s i t y and s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n were s t u d i e d i n a P e n n s y l v a n i a campground b e f o r e and a f t e r a c a m p i n g season. A marked r e d u c t i o n i n v e g e t a t i o n c o v e r and number of plant species occurred. An i n c r e a s e i n u s e f r o m one t o two camper d a y s p r o d u c e d an i n c r e a s e i n l o s s o f v e g e t a t i o n c o v e r f r o m 10 p e r c e n t t o 60 p e r c e n t . . 1967. Some O b s e r v a t i o n s on Campground T r a m p l i n g and G r o u n d C o v e r R e s p o n s e (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e s e a r c h P a p e r NE-68) 11 pp. The f i n d i n g s o f t h e f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s o f a c o n t i n u i n g s t u d y o f new c a m p s i t e s l o c a t e d i n t h e A l l e g h e n y N a t i o n a l Forest of Pennsylvania i n d i c a t e d that t o t a l plant species and a v e r a g e number o f s p e c i e s d e c l i n e d due t o t h e t r a m p l i n g e f f e c t s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l use. D u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d b a r r e n g r o u n d became r e v e g e t a t e d w i t h more r e s i s t a n t cover.  Lutz,  H.J. 1945. S o i l C o n d i t i o n s on P i c n i c F o r e s t P a r k s ( J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y , 43)  Grounds i n P u b l i c p a g e s 121-127.  S o i l c o n d i t i o n s were i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h e p i c n i c s i t e s o f two C o n n e c t i c u t S t a t e P a r k s . Trampling r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n s o i l p r o p e r t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e u p p e r 10 cm. l a y e r . D e n s i t y i n c r e a s e d , p o r e volume and a i r c a p a c i t y and r a t e o f i n f i l t r a t i o n d e c r e a s e d . F i e l d c a p a c i t y i n f i n e t e x t u r e d sandy loams i n c r e a s e d . M a g i l l , A r t h u r W. 1963. E v a l u a t i n g E c o l o g i c a l T r e n d s on Campgrounds (U.S. D e p t . A g r . U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e s e a r c h N o t e PSW-N 16) 3 pp. H e a v i l y u s e d and u n u s e d s i t e s on t h r e e campgrounds i n C a l i f o r n i a N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s were i n v e s t i g a t e d . Prel i m i n a r y d a t a i n d i c a t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l use r e s t r i c t s t h e g r o w t h o f y o u n g t r e e s , r e d u c e s t h e number o f t r e e s and f o l i a g e s c r e e n i n g and t h e number o f s h r u b s .  74  M a g i l l , A r t h u r W a n d N o r d , Eamor C. 1963. An E v a l u a t i o n o f Campground C o n d i t i o n s a n d Needs f o r R e s e a r c h (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e s e a r c h N o t e PSW-4) 8 p p . Heavy r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e i n 137 C a l i f o r n i a N a t i o n a l F o r e s t Campgrounds and p i c n i c a r e a s c a u s e d s i t e d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f v e g e t a t i o n and s o i l c o n d i t i o n s . Reproduction, vigour and numbers o f p l a n t s were r e d u c e d . S c r e e n i n g and l i t t e r were r e d u c e d a n d t h e s o i l c o m p a c t e d . M e i n e c k i , E . P . 1929. T h e E f f e c t o f E x c e s s i v e T o u r i s t T r a v e l on t h e C a l i f o r n i a Redwood P a r k s ( C a l i f o r n i a D e p a r t m e n t of N a t u r a l Resources, D i v i s i o n o f Parks, C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , S a c r a m e n t o , C a l i f o r n i a ) 20 pp. T r a m p l i n g compacted t h e s o i l i n t o an i m p e r v i o u s l a y e r t h a t i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h e n o r m a l movement o f a i r a n d water i n t o t h e s o i l . T h e d y i n g o u t o f p l a n t s was d u e not o n l y t o b r u i s i n g and t r a m p l i n g b u t p a c k i n g o f t h e soil. N a t i o n a l Parks Act. 1956. P a r t 1 C a n a d a D e p a r t m e n t o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s . Ottawa. Consolidated f o r o f f i c e purposes. 8 pp. N o r d , E.C. a n d A.W. M a g i l l . 1963. A D e v i c e f o r G a g i n g Campground S c r e e n i n g C o v e r , ( J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y , 61) p a g e s 450-451. Odum, E u g e n e P. 1959. Company) 546 pp.  Fundamentals o f E c o l o g y  (W.B. S a u n d e r s  T h i s book i s a b a s i c r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s a n d concepts o f ecology. S t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f t h r e e major h a b i t a t s o f t h e b i o s p h e r e , namely marine, f r e s h w a t e r and t e r r e s t r i a l a r e d e s c r i b e d . R i p l e y , Thomas H. 1962. R e c r e a t i o n Impact o n S o u t h e r n A p p a l a c h i a n Campgrounds a n d P i c n i c S i t e s , ( S o u t h e a s t e r n Forest Experimental Station, A s h v i l l e , North C a r o l i n a : S t a t i o n P a p e r 153) 20 pp. Forty-two r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s over t e n years o l d l o c a t e d i n t h r e e N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s were a n a l y s e d b y m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s o n 18 i n d e p e n d e n t and e i g h t dependent v a r i a b l e s . I t was f o u n d t h a t b r e a k s i n h i g h canopy b e n e f i t t e d ground c o v e r . The r a t i o o f c o n i f e r s t o hardwoods i n c r e a s e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d g r o u n d c o v e r damage and r o o t e x p o s u r e . Shrub b a r r i e r d e c r e a s e d t r e e i n j u r y b u t i n c r e a s e d g r o u n d c o v e r damage.  75  R i p l e y , Thomas H. 1962. T r e e and S h r u b R e s p o n s e t o R e c r e a t i o n Use ( S o u t h e a s t e r n F o r e s t E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n , A s h v i l l e , N o r t h C a r o l i n a : R e s e a r c h N o t e No. 171) 2 pp. A c o n v e n i e n t r a n k i n g o f s p e c i e s o f hardwoods and c o n i f e r s i n o r d e r o f d e c r e a s i n g r e c r e a t i o n impact t o l e r a n c e i s tabulated. Hardwoods g e n e r a l l y w i t h s t o o d d i s e a s e i n f e c t i o n and i n s e c t i n f e c t i o n b e t t e r t h a n c o n i f e r s . The a u t h o r o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e d e n s e s h a d e p r o d u c e d by c o n i f e r s a p p a r e n t l y induced g r e a t e r s i t e d e g r a d a t i o n from r e c r e a t i o n use. S t e i n b r e n n e r , E.C. 1951. E f f e c t s o f G r a z i n g on F l o r i s t i c C o m p o s i t i o n and S o i l P r o p e r t i e s o f Farm W o o d l a n d i n Southern Wisconsin^ ( J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y , 49) p a g e s 906-910. A r e p o r t o f a c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y w h i c h showed t h a t c o m p a c t e d s o i l s h e l d l o w e r s p r i n g m o i s t u r e and d r i e d out f a s t e r . Water and a i r p e r m e a b i l i t y d e c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with grazing. Wagar, J . A l a n . 1964. The C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y o f W i l d L a n d s f o r R e c r e a t i o n ( F o r e s t S c i e n c e Monograph 7. Published by t h e S o c i e t y o f A m e r i c a n F o r e s t e r s ) 24 pp. S i m u l a t e d t r a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e s were e m p l o y e d on experimental p l o t s i n Brighton Recreation Area of Michigan. M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s methods were employed t o d e v e l o p e q u a t i o n s which d e s c r i b e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v e g e t a t i o n , v i s i t o r u s e and s i t e factors. W e l l - s h a d e d g r a s s e s and woody v i n e s were damaged l e s s t h a n d i c o t y l e d o n o u s h e r b s .  REFERENCES Appel,  A . J . 1950. P o s s i b l e S o i l R e s t o r a t i o n on Overgrazed R e c r e a t i o n A r e a s ( J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y , 48) page 368. Heavy r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e o f f o r e s t e d a r e a s b r o k e down t h e d u f f i n t o f i n e powder w h i c h was e r o d e d away and l e f t a hard mineral s o i l surface. S o i l compaction d e p r i v e d t r e e s o f w a t e r and o x y g e n . Sawdust was s u g g e s t e d t o correct soil deficiencies.  A u t e n , J o h n T. 1933. P o r o s i t y and W a t e r A b s o r p t i o n o f S o i l s (Journal of A g r i c u l t u r a l Research. 46 (11) p a g e s 997-1014.  Forest )  Layers o f o r g a n i c matter reduce t r a m p l i n g shock, a i d i n f i l t r a t i o n o f w a t e r and r e t a r d l o s s o f s o i l m o i s t u r e through evaporation. B o h a r t , C.V. 1968. Good R e c r e a t i o n A r e a D e s i g n H e l p s P r e v e n t S i t e s D e t e r i o r a t i o n ( J o u r n a l o f S o i l and W a t e r C o n s e r v a t i o n * 23 (1) ) p a g e s 21-22. Dead and d y i n g v e g e t a t i o n , c o m p a c t e d and e r o d e d s o i l s , l i t t e r i n g and e x c e s s i v e v a n d a l i s m a r e i n d i c a t o r s o f p o o r management o r d e s i g n . Good d e s i g n and s i t e s e l e c t i o n and methods o f l i m i t i n g u s e t o d e s i g n c a p a c i t y i s included. Bugslag, C R . 1968. E c o l o g y as a F a c t o r i n P l a n n i n g f o r Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n (Masters T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia) 123 pp. The s t u d y r e v i e w e d t h e l i t e r a t u r e t o show t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i n t e r d e p e n d a n c i e s b e t w e e n o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n , e c o l o g y and p l a n n i n g . The work o f Angus H i l l s , P h i l i p L e w i s and I a n McHarg was a n a l y s e d . When e c o l o g i c a l information i s ignored, a resource i s e i t h e r degraded o r destroyed. Coleman, J o h n R.B. 1967. The V i s i t o r Impact on t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s i n Canada ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union f o r C o n s e r v a t i o n o f N a t u r e and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s . P u b l . No. 7, P a r t 1) p a g e s 112 - 115. V i s i t o r a c c o m m o d a t i o n and s i t e s e l e c t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n n e t w o r k and m a j o r p o i n t s o f i n t e r e s t a r e m a j o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i f a r e a s i n N a t i o n a l P a r k s a r e t o be preserved. The c o n c e p t o f V i s i t o r S e r v i c e s C e n t r e s w h i c h do n o t h o l d a p r i m e p l a c e i n t h e p a r k was d e s c r i b e d .  77  Czarnowski, K/J. 1967. An A n a l y s i s o f t h e R e c r e a t i o n L a n d Use P r o b l e m s o f t h e Mount Lemmon A r e a . Coronada N a t i o n a l F o r e s t (Masters T h e s i s . Michigan State University) 91 pp. The s t u d y a n a l y s e d r e c r e a t i o n l a n d u s e p r o b l e m s i d e n t i f i e d c a u s e s by e x a m i n i n g p a s t and p r e s e n t d e c i s i o n s of the United States Forest S e r v i c e . Densmore, J a c k and D a h l s t r a n d , N i l s P. 1965. on R e c r e a t i o n L a n d ( J o u r n a l o f S o i l and tion: Nov. - Dec.) p a g e s 261-262.  and policy  Erosion Control Water C o n s e r v a -  S o i l and w a t e r c o n s e r v a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s o f l a n d t r e a t m e n t , w a t e r d i s p o s a l and v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r c a n be e m p l o y e d t o s o l v e p r o b l e m s due t o r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e " o f l a n d . D o o l i n g , P.J. 1969. S o i l s , C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y and R e s o u r c e Based R e c r e a t i o n Systems. (Faculty of Forestry, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. P a p e r p r e s e n t e d t o 4 t h B.C. Soil S c i e n c e w o r k s h o p a t A b b o t s f o r d , B.C., O c t o b e r 15 - 17 1969) 10 pp. E d w a r d s , R.Y. 1967. The Impact o f R e c r e a t i o n on t h e L a n d scape i n the Mountains o f Western Canada. (Intern a t i o n a l U n i o n f o r C o n s e r v a t i o n o f N a t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources. P u b l . No. 7. P a r t 1) p a g e s 124-126. A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n l a n d s c a p e damage and t h e means o f c o n t r o l l i n g i t s s p r e a d t h r o u g h t o w n s i t e and r o a d l o c a t i o n and v e h i c l e t r a v e l r e s t r i c t i o n s . The most s e r i o u s wear p r o b l e m i s damaged v e g e t a t i o n , c o m p a c t e d and e r o d e d s o i l s i n c a m p i n g a r e a s by t r a m p l i n g . Graham, E.H.. 1956. The R e c r e a t i v e Power o f P l a n t C o m m u n i t i e s . P a g e s 677 - 691 i n W.L. Thomas e t a l . e d s . Man's R o l e i n Changing the Face of the E a r t h . (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 111.) A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t s o f human a c t i v i t i e s on n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n and t h e d y n a m i c powers o f p l a n t communities t o r e c o n s t i t u t e themselves i n response t o human i m p a c t . G r e g a r s o n , Hans M. p a g e s 18-20.  1965.  Campurbia  ( A m e r i c a n F o r e s t s 71  (7)  Some o f t h e c a m p i n g p u b l i c i s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f c a m p i n g o n l y and some a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n o u t d o o r camping f o r n a t u r e o b s e r v a t i o n . Opportunities for b o t h must be p r o v i d e d .  )  78  Hodgson, R o n a l d . 1969. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Campground F e a t u r e s A t t r a c t i v e t o S t a t e P a r k Campers ( M a s t e r s T h e s i s , M i c h i g a n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y ) 100 pp. H u t c h i s o n , S. B l a i r . 1962, R e c r e a t i o n O p p o r t u n i t i e s and P r o b l e m s i n t h e N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s o f t h e N o r t h e r n and I n t e r m o u n t a i n R e g i o n s ( I n t e r m o u n t a i n F o r e s t and Range E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n R e s e a r c h P a p e r 66) 33 pp. An e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n f o r e s t p r o b l e m s and management d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e r e s o u r c e c o n s i d e r e d i n two p a r t s - " t h e p a r t p e o p l e o c c u p y and t h e p a r t t h e y look at." A m a j o r management p r o b l e m i s t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f abused v e g e t a t i o n from e x c e s s i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f p e o p l e w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s b o t h s i t e d e t e r i o r a t i o n and reduced n a t u r a l beauty. James, G.A. and R.K. H e n l e y . 1968. Sampling Procedures f o r E s t i m a t i n g Mass and D i s p e r s e d T y p e s o f R e c r e a t i o n Use on L a r g e A r e a s (U.S. D e p t . A g r . F o r e s t S e r v i c e Research P a p e r SE-31) 15 pp. The R e s e a r c h P a p e r d e t a i l s a s t r a t i f i e d random s a m p l i n g technique f o r c a l i b r a t i n g t r a f f i c data obtained with m e c h a n i c a l c o u n t e r s and a c t i v i t y d a t a o b t a i n e d by c h e c k p o i n t i n t e r v i e w s . The method i s u s e f u l f o r e s t i m a t i n g f u t u r e t o t a l v i s i t s t o and u s e o f d i s p e r s e d r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s b a s e d on t r a f f i c c o u n t s r e c o r d e d a t t h e same l o c a t i o n s a s t h a t o f t h e c a l i b r a t i o n and d u r i n g t h e same s e a s o n . J e m i s o n , G e o r g e M. 1967. I m p a c t s o f R e c r e a t i o n on t h e E c o l o g y o f Temperate N o r t h American F o r e s t s ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union f o r C o n s e r v a t i o n o f N a t u r e and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s . Publ. No. 7. P a r t 1) p a g e s 173-185.  ^ King,  A g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f the amenity v a l u e s o f the f o r e s t e n v i r o n m e n t as r e s o u r c e s o f i n s p i r a t i o n and enjoyment t o man down t h r o u g h h i s t o r y . Due t o e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g v i s i t o r d e n s i t y i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l p r o b l e m s o f s i t e damage h a v e become m a j o r p r o b l e m s . David Agr.  A. 1966. A c t i v i t y P a t t e r n s o f Campers (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e s e a r c h N o t e , NC-18) 3 pp.  Dept.  F a m i l i e s c a m p i n g i n a u t o campgrounds on H u r o n - M a n i s h e e N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s p e n d m o s t o f t h e i r t i m e i n and a r o u n d t h e i r campsite. D i v e r s i t y o f i n t e r e s t s and p r e f e r e n c e s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f campground facilities.  79 Leopold, Aldo. 1970. A Sand C o u n t y A l m a n a c w i t h E s s a y s C o n s e r v a t i o n f r o m Round R i v e r ( B a l l a n t i n e B o o k s , I n c o r p o r a t e d , New Y o r k ) 295 pp.  on  The book i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f s h o r t a r t i c l e s w h i c h d e s c r i b e s the s e a s o n a l changes i n n a t u r e . The a u t h o r s u p p o r t s a p l e a f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a new l a n d e t h i c o f c o n s e r v a t i o n by c i t i n g many e x a m p l e s o f t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of the n a t u r a l environment. f  M a r c u s , L . F . , E.M. G o u l d , and R.L. B u r y . R e c r e a t i o n Use o f N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s T e c h n i c a l P a p e r , PSW-59) 26 pp.  1961. Measuring the (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e  A r t i c l e d i s c u s s e s methods o f m e a s u r i n g i n d i v i d u a l v i s i t s and l e n g t h o f s t a y f o r c a l c u l a t i n g man-days o f r e c r e a t i o n use. Montgomery, P.H. and F.C. E d m i n s t e r . 1966. Use o f S o i l S u r v e y s in Planning Recreation, pp. 104 - 112 i n L . J . B a r t e l l i e t a l . eds. S o i l S u r v e y s and L a n d Use P l a n n i n g . Soil Science of America, Madison, Wisconsin. E x c e l l e n t q u a l i t a t i v e i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o the p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f s o i l s and t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s f o r s p e c i f i c r e c r e a t i o n uses. Neff,  P a u l E. 1965. A p p l i e d S i l v i c u l t u r e i n Managing Outdoor Recreation Sites. (Paper t o t h e N a t i o n a l M e e t i n g o f the S o c i e t y of American F o r e s t e r s a t D e t r o i t , Michigan, O c t o b e r 26, 1965.) 2 J p p . A p l e a f o r improved timber h a r v e s t i n g p r a c t i c e s w i t h i n t h e c o n c e p t o f l a n d s c a p e management a r e a s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a d d i n g t o t h e s c e n i c a t t r a c t i o n and p u b l i c e n j o y m e n t o f f o r e s t l a n d s and t o g a i n t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f and s u p p o r t f o r harvesting practices.  N e l s o n , J.G. E d . 1970. on t h e c o n f e r e n c e : Tomorrow, C a l g a r y ,  Canadian Parks i n P e r s p e c t i v e . (Based The C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l P a r k s T o d a y and O c t o b e r , 1968) 343 pp.  The book i s a c o m p i l a t i o n o f s e l e c t e d p a p e r s p r e s e n t e d at the Calgary conference. The t o p i c s a r e v a r i e d and i n c l u d e a r t i c l e s on t h e h i s t o r y , p r o t e c t i v e p h i l o s o p h y , d e v e l o p m e n t and f u t u r e p l a n n i n g r e q u i r e d t o meet a g r o w i n g demand.  80  Paine,  L.A. 1966. B u t t Rot D e f e c t and P o t e n t i a l H a z a r d i n L o d g e p o l e P i n e on S e l e c t e d C a l i f o r n i a R e c r e a t i o n A r e a s . (U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e s e a r c h N o t e PSW-106) 7 pp. The r e s e a r c h n o t e i s b a s e d on d a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m f i v e p l o t s e a c h c o n t a i n i n g 100 t r e e s o v e r 10 i n . dbh. a t e l e v a t i o n s between 7400 and 9500 f e e t i n C a l i f o r n i a . Old growth lodgepole p i n e stands w i t h h i g h hazard r a t i n g s are e x t e n s i v e l y used f o r r e c r e a t i o n .  Seffergren, CD. and D.M. Cole. 1970. R e c r e a t i o n E f f e c t s on S o i l and V e g e t a t i o n i n t h e M i s s o u r i O z a r k s ( J o u r n a l of Forestry. 68 (4) ) p a g e s 231-233. A s t u d y o f t h r e e campgrounds h a v i n g s i m i l a r s o i l , p h y s i o g r a p h i c and v e g e t a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t s o f p a s t r e c r e a t i o n on f o r e s t v e g e t a t i o n and soils. Surface compaction, sheet e r o s i o n , surface rock a c c u m u l a t i o n and s o i l m o i s t u r e d e p l e t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h e l e v e l of d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f the s i t e s . S n y d e r , A.P. 1960. W i l d e r n e s s A r e a Management: an A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Study of a P o r t i o n o f the High S i e r r a W i l d e r n e s s A r e a (U.S. D e p t . A g r . F o r e s t S e r v i c e Region 63 pp.  5)  The a r t i c l e d i s c u s s e s t h e damage t o v e g e t a t i o n and t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f e r o s i o n c a u s e d by t h e i m p a c t o f t h e h o r s e s u s e d by g r o u p s o f r e c r e a t i o n i s t s . S t e v e n s , M.E. 1966. S o i l S u r v e y s as A p p l i e d t o S i t e P l a n n i n g ( J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y , 64 (5)  Recreation ) p a g e s 314-316.  A r t i c l e demonstrates the a p p l i c a t i o n of s o i l surveys to r e c r e a t i o n s i t e l o c a t i o n and o u t l i n e s t h e a e s t h e t i c and economic advantages o f s i t e d e s i g n s which c o n s i d e r s o i l properties. S t o n e , Edward C Wilderness  1965. Preserving ( S c i e n c e V o l . 150,  V e g e t a t i o n i n P a r k s and No. 3701) p a g e s 1261-1267.  The a r t i c l e o u t l i n e s t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f d e f i n i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f management r e l a t e d t o v e g e t a t i o n preservation. The o b j e c t i v e s o f k e e p i n g p a r k l a n d s green, p r e s e r v a t i o n o f favoured dominant s p e c i e s , p r e s e r v a t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r s u c c e s s i o n a l stages and slowing succession are discussed. U n i v e r s i t i e s with l a n d management c o u r s e s c a n b e s t p r o v i d e t r a i n i n g t o meet t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s .  81  T o c h e r , S. R o s s , Wagar, J . A l a n , and H u n t , J o h n D. 1965. Sound Management P r e v e n t s Worn Out R e c r e a t i o n S i t e s . ( P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n . 48 (3) ) p a g e s 151-153. Article o u t l i n e s m e t h o d s by w h i c h i n d i s c r i m i n a t e t r a m p l i n g and damage c a n be a v o i d e d and i n c l u d e s d e a d and d y i n g v e g e t a t i o n , c o m p a c t e d and e r o d i n g s o i l s i n a l i s t o f i n d i c a t o r s o f p o o r management. Wagar, J . A l a n . 1965. C u l t u r a l T r e a t m e n t o f V e g e t a t i o n on R e c r e a t i o n S i t e s (Paper t o N a t i o n a l M e e t i n g o f S o c i e t y American F o r e s t e r s a t D e t r o i t , Michigan. O c t o b e r 26, 1965.) 3 pp.  of  Recommends u s e o f c u l t u r a l t r e a t m e n t s t o r e e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n o v e r s t o r y and v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r i n g . Application o f f e r t i l i z e r and w a t e r were v e r y e f f e c t i v e . Wagar, J.V.K. 1946. RecreationistSo  S e r v i c e s and F a c i l i t i e s f o r F o r e s t ( J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y , 44) p a g e s 883-887.  P r o t e c t i o n o f t * e e s and s c e n i c a r e a s i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e d e t a i l e d l i s t of o b j e c t i v e s i n the p r o v i s i o n of f a c i l i t i e s . W e s t h o f f , V. 1967. The E c o l o g i c a l Impact on P e d e s t r i a n , E q u e s t r i a n and V e h i c u l a r T r a f f i c on V e g e t a t i o n ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i o n f o r C o n s e r v a t i o n o f N a t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources. P u b l . No. 7, P a r t 1) p a g e s 218-223. The c a p a c i t y and v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f e c o s y s t e m s t o r e c r e a t i o n i m p a c t v a r y w i t h s o i l t y p e s and s o i l p r o p e r t i e s . Flat, s t a b l e , compact s o i l s a r e v e r y r e s i s t a n t t o r e c r e a t i o n impact. S l o p e s w i t h l o o s e sandy s o i l s a r e e x t r e m e l y vulnerable.  82  APPENDIX A  GLOSSARY OF  TERMS  Absence - the p e r i o d o f time i n hours t h a t the v e h i c l e o f party i s not l o c a t e d at a campsite. I t i s equal to the d i f f e r e n c e between o c c u p a n c y and use. A v a i l a b l e Hours - the be occupied.  p e r i o d of time i n hours a campsite  a  could  Campground - a d e v e l o p e d a r e a l o c a t e d i n a w i l d l a n d s e t t i n g f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c a m p i n g and r e l a t e d i n t e n s i v e u s e a c t i v i t i e s . Campsite - a s i n g l e u n i t w i t h i n  a developed  campground.  F o r e s t R e c r e a t i o n - t h a t o u t d o o r form o f r e c r e a t i o n t h a t d e p e n d e n t on f o r e s t o r o t h e r w i l d l a n d s . Impact - t h a t p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e c h a n g e i n v e g e t a t i o n a t t r i b u t a b l e to occupancy of a campsite.  is  cover  O b s e r v a t i o n P e r i o d - a twelve hour i n t e r v a l of time from 8:00 a.m. t o 8:00 p.m. d u r i n g b a c k t o b a c k sample d a y s . Occupancy - the l e n g t h o f s t a y i s e n t i t l e d by t h e p u r c h a s e o f P a r t y Hours - the occupancy.  i n a campsite t o which a a campsite permit.  measurement u n i t o f  length of  P a r t y S i z e - t h e number o f p e o p l e t r a v e l l i n g occupy a campsite. P e r c e n t Absence - the r a t i o o f h o u r s m u l t i p l i e d by 100. P l a n t Community r e l a t i v e l y uniform  stay  party  or  together  absence t o occupancy i n  who party  a combination of competing p l a n t s which i s i n i t s s t r u c t u r e and f l o r i s t i c composition.  Recreation - refers to creative leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s on s e l f c h o i c e / i n i t i a t i v e and spontaneity.  based  R e c r e a t i o n a l Q u a l i t y - i s the degree to which a r e c r e a t i o n a r e a n o r m a l l y c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e p h y s i c a l and p s y c h i c w e l l being o f the user.  83  Sample P e r i o d - t h e 48 h o u r t i m e i n t e r v a l o f two b a c k t o d a y s f r o m 8:00 a.m. t h e f i r s t day t o 8:00 a.m. t h e t h i r d Sample Weekdays - b a c k t o b a c k Wednesdays and T h u r s d a y s s e l e c t e d from the study p e r i o d .  back day. randomly  S t u d y P e r i o d - t h e i n t e r v a l o f t i m e b e t w e e n t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s '(8:00 a.m. J u l y 1 t o 8:00 a.m. S e p t e m b e r 1970) . S t u d y A r e a - t h e c a m p s i t e s i n W a p i t i campground c l u s t e r FF. Total  Sample P e r i o d  - the t o t a l  o f t h e back  Use - t h e p e r i o d o f t i m e i n h o u r s t h a t i s l o c a t e d on a c a m p s i t e .  1,  i d e n t i f i e d as  t o back  the v e h i c l e  sample of a  days.  party  V e g e t a t i o n c o v e r - t h e v e r t i c a l p r o j e c t i o n o f low g r o w i n g p l a n t l i f e f o r m s c o n s i s t i n g o f g r a m i n o i d s , f o r b s , l i c h e n s and m o s s e s . Vehicle  Origin  Visitor  Hours  - the p o l i t i c a l - party  size x  unit  issuing a vehicle  occupancy.  licence.  APPENDIX B  CIRCLE  FF  LOCATION SKETCH - TC 3 WAPITI C . G . CIRCLE F F JUNE 25 1970  WAPITI. CAMPGROUND CS FF-03 SKETCH 102 JUNE 25 1970  APPENDIX  B  87  WAPITI CAMPGROUND CS FF-11 . SKETCH 104 JUNE 27 1970  88 APPENDIX  B  WAPITI. CAMPGROUND CS  FF-18  SKETCH JUNE  i  28  105 1970  89 APPENDIX  B  WAPITI CAMPGROUND CS F F - 2 2 SKETCH 106 JUNE 2 9 1970  WAPITI CAMPGROUND CS FF-41 SKETCH 108 JULY 3 1970  APPENDIX C  AUGUST 2 4 , 1 9 7 0 FIGURE >  SAMPLE  20  CAMPSITE F F - 1 1 , PLOT E - l  91  APPENDIX  AUGUST  24,  FIGURE SAMPLE CAMPSITE  C  1970  21  FF-11,  PLOT  E-4  93 APPENDIX  JUNE  AUGUST  27,  C  1970  25,  FIGURE  1970  22  SAMPLE CAMPSITE F F - 1 1 ,  PLOT  C-1  APPENDIX  JUNE  AUGUST  28,  SAMPLE  1970  25,  FIGURE  94  C  1970  23  CAMPSITE F F - 1 8 ,  PLOT  E-l  JUNE  28,  AUGUST  25,  FIGURE SAMPLE CAMPSITE  197 0  1970  24  FF-18,  PLOT  E-2  APPENDIX  June  28,  AUGUST  25,  FIGURE SAMPLE CAMPSITE  C  1970  1970  25  FF-18,  PLOT  E-3  APPENDIX  JUNE  AUGUST  28,  197 0  25,  FIGURE  97  C  1970  26  SAMPLE C A M P S I T E F F - 1 8 ,  PLOT  E-4  98 APPENDIX  SAMPLE CAMPSITE  C  FF-22,  PLOT  E-2  99 APPENDIX  JUNE  AUGUST  29,  C  1970  25,  FIGURE  1970  28  SAMPLE C A M P S I T E F F - 2 2 ,  PLOT  E-3  100  APPENDIX C  JUNE  AUGUST  29,  25,  FIGURE SAMPLE  1970  1970  29  CAMPSITE F F - 2 2 ,  PLOT  E-4  APPENDIX  JUNE  AUGUST  2 9,  1970  25,  FIGURE SAMPLE  C  1970  30  CAMPSITE F F - 2 2 ,  PLOT  C-  APPENDIX  C  AUGUST 25, 1970 FIGURE 31 SAMPLE CAMPSITE FF-41, PLOT C-1  102  APPENDIX D TABLE X I I SAMPLE CAMPSITE TRAFFIC AND  STUDY AREA TRAFFIC  DURING OBSERVATION PERIODS  Vehicles  Date  July 4 July 5 J u l y 29 J u l y 30 August August August August August August August August TOTAL  12 13 15 16 19 20 22 23  Entering  Sample  Campsites Vehicles Entering Study Area  FF-03  FF-11  FF-18  FF-22  FF-41  Total  1 0 0 0  0 1 2 1  2 1 1 2  1 3 0 0  2 0 0 0  6 5 3 3  95 82 52 60  1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0  2 1 2 2 2 0 3 1  0 2 2 0 1 0 0 1  2 0 3 2 0 0 0 0  5 3 9 5 3 0 3 2  70 56 109 88 40 30 43 25  4  5  19  10  9  47  750  104  APPENDIX E TABLE  XIII  OCCUPANCY DURING WEEKDAYS AND  Sample S i t e Sample  Period  Weekdays -  • •  Weekends  FF-03 Party Hours 2.0  WEEKENDS  Occupancy FF-41 Party Hours  FF-11 Party Hours  FF-18 Party Hours  FF-22 Party Hours  31.4  44.4  36.5  3.3  44.2  24.9  23.4  22.8  28.1  -  -  -  18.7  31.4  111.4  89.5  26.7  34.2  47.2  33.8  ' 47.3  42.2  41.7  26.5  48.0  40.5  42.7  28.5  41.9  -  16.7  16.8  -  92.7  73.7  110.3  129.7  105.1  221.7  219.2111.6  TOTAL OCCUPANCY 111.4  84.9-  Total Party Hours  277.7  491,3  769.0  105  APPENDIX E TABLE X I V USE DURING WEEKDAYS AND WEEKENDS  Sample S i t e U s e  Sample  Period  Weekdays  FF-03 Party Hours  FF-11 Party Hours  FF-18 Party Hours  FF-22 Party Hours  30.9  35.9  26.9  3.3  -  29.6  14.3  19.3  -  15.2  28.1  18.7  30.9  80.7  69.3  22.6  30.7  39.5  32.8  41.3  29.3  34.7  18.8  31.9  40.0  32.6  16.8  -  19.6  30.0  84.3  111.3  2.0 16.7  -  Weekends  82.2 TOTAL  58.3  FF-41 Party Hours  Total Party Hours  222.2  61.9  398.0 620.2  106 APPENDIX E TABLE XV OCCUPANCY OF SAMPLE  SITES AND WAPITI  CAMPGROUND BY NIGHTS AVAILABLE  Sample S i t e Date  Occupancy  FF-03  FF-11  FF-18  FF-22  FF-41  Total  2  2 2  2 2 2 2 1 1  2 2 1 2 2 2  2 1 2  10 6 5 9 3 4  J u l y 4-5 J u l y 29-30 A u g u s t 12-13 A u g u s t 15-16 A u g u s t 19-20 A u g u s t 22-23  1 2  TOTAL  6  5  10  11  5  37  Total nights Available  -  -  -  -  -  60  1  1  Occupancy i n Percent  62  WAPITI CAMPGROUND OCCUPANCY July Permits Issued 9282 Number o f N i g h t s 31 A v a i l a b l e Campsites 10075 Occupancy i n P e r c e n t 92.1  August 7542 31 10075 74.9  Overflow deducted from t o t a l  Total 16824 62 20150 82.0  permits issued.  107  APPENDIX F TABLE XVI ORIGIN OF VEHICLES OCCUPYING THE STUDY SAMPLE PERIODS  AREA DURING  Origin Alberta British  Columbia  Saskatchewan  Number 149  53.7  24  8.7  13  4.7  1  0.4  18  6.5  1  0.4  Manitoba Ontario Quebec Maritime United TOTAL  Provinces  States  71 277  Percent  Percent  53.7 t  —  20.7  25. 6 100.0  25.6 100.0  108  APPENDIX F TABLE X V I I MEAN PARTY S I Z E OCCUPYING SAMPLE S I T E S  Sample C a m p s i t e  Number o f Visitors  Sample  Size  Mean P a r t y Size  FF-03  16  6  3.7  FF-11  12  4  3.0  FF-18  32  9  3.6  FF-22  35  10  3.5  FF-41  10  3  3.3  TOTAL  105  32  3.3  109  APPENDIX F TABLE  XVIII  DISTRIBUTION OF TYPES OF EQUIPMENT IN THE STUDY AREA DURING SAMPLE PERIODS  Trailer  USED  Number o f Units  Percent  78 40 3  121  28.2 14.4 1.1  43.7  56  16.2 3.2 0.7  20.1  101  26.8 6.0 0.7 0.7  36.2  Equipment  Tent T r a i l e r s House T r a i l e r s Campers a n d House T r a i l e r s Self-contained  units  Campers Vans M o b i l e Home U n i t s  45 9 2  T e n t s and O t h e r Autos S t a t i o n Wagons Trucks Motor C y c l e s TOTAL Number o f U n i t s  80 17 2 2  278  100.0  APPENDIX F TABLE  XIX.  HOURLY DISTRIBUTION OF RECREATION AND NON-RECREATION VEHICLES ENTERING THE STUDY AREA DURING OBSERVATION PERIODS 1  T  i  m  e  July RV  8:00-9:00 a.m. 9:00-10:00 a.m. 8 10:00-11:00 a.m. 2 11:00-12:00 a.m. 12:00-1:00 p.m. 2 1:00-2:00 p.m. 8 2:00-3:00 p.m. 8 3:00-4:00 p.m. 22 4:00-5:00 p.m. 18 5:00-6:00 p.m. 20 6:00-7:00 p.m. 16 7:00-8:00 p.m. 10  TOTAL  104  29-30 A u g u s t 12-13 NRV RV NRV 2 2  5 4  2 2  4 2  7 4  14  From o r i g i n a l  9 11 16 20--12  108  Field  1 4  5 2 6 11  A u g u s t 19-20 A u g u s t 15^16 RV NRV RV NRV 4 3 2 4  1  9  1  2 4 6 2 8 13  2  12 10 21 14 7 24 30 18 17  14  49  16  166  3 3 2 1  Observations.  2 1 4 3 1  2 1 2 3  A u g u s t 22-23 TOTAL RV NRV RV NRV 1 3 4 1 3 2 4 6 7 4 6  3 3 2 1 3 1  '7 23 23 17 25 42 5 48 66 72 68  2  9  2  61  12  50  12  487  11 2 3 7 11 12 12 3  68  

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