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A management plan for the University of British Columbia Research Forest Sanders, Peter R. W. 1981

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A MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA RESEARCH FOREST Peter R.W. Sanders, R.P.F. B.S.F. (Brit. Columbia) A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF FORESTRY in the Faculty of Forestry We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1981 by © Peter R.W. Sanders, 1981 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date Oczrr V ^ E-6 (2/79) ABSTRACT The Management Plan (1981) for U.B.C. Research Forest consists of four parts: a description of the Estate (PART I), a current management section (PART II), maps, figures and tables, and f i n a l l y , the appendices and supporting material. The Management Plan has a "r o l l i n g " format, Year 1 of the Plan i s complete with detailed prescriptions and costs, Year 2 in relatively fine detail, Year 3-5 in more general terms, Year 6-10 broadly outlined, and Year 11+ used for "crystal b a l l " projections. PART II of the Plan is revised annually, the entire Plan at 5 year intervals. Only one appendix (the index to the Central F i l i n g System) is included in i t s entirety. Due to the bulk of the other appendices, only the header sheets are included with the Plan, the information being held in the Central Fi l i n g System at U.B.C. Research Forest. Using the one complete appendix, any information pertaining to U.B.C. Research Forest can be found. A prime objective of planning i s to ensure continuity of management intent. The Management Plan of the U.B.C. Research Forest has the format, and the information base required to f u l f i l the objective . i i Ill THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA RESEARCH FOREST MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR PERIOD COMMENCING 1 APRIL 1982 Plan approved by: CONTENTS Ti t l e Page i Abstract i i Contents i i i Table of Contents (PART I) iv Table of Contents (PART II) v i Maps (PART I) ix Maps (PART II) x i Figures (PART I) x i i Figures (PART II) xiv Tables (PART I) x v Tables (PART II) xvi Appendices (PART I) x v i i Appendices (PART II) x i X Acknowledgement x x i i i V TABLE OF CONTENTS PART I 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background 1.2 Objectives of the U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan 1.3 Design of the Management Plan 2.0 SUMMARY OF THE DATA BASE FOR THE U.B.C. RESEARCH FOREST MANAGEMENT PLAN 2.1 The Estate 2.1.2 The History of the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.3 The Topography of the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.4 The Bedrock Geology of the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.5 The Geomorphology of the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.6 The Soils of the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.7 The Climate of the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.8 The Ecological Classification of the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.9 The F a c i l i t i e s of the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.10 Hazards to the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.10.1 Hazards of Direct Human Origin 2.1.10.2 Fire 2.1.10.3 Physical Hazards 2.1.10.4 Biological Hazards 2.2 The Resource 2.2.1 The Tree Resource on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.2.1.1 Qualitative Evaluation 2.2.1.2 Quantitative Assessment 2.2.1.3 Management Practices 2.2.1.4 Summary Appraisal of Tree Resource 2.2.2 The Water Resource on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.2.2.1 Qualitative Evaluation 2.2.2.2 Quantitative Assessment 2.2.2.3 Management Practices 2.2.2.4 Summary Appraisal of Water Resource 2.2.3 The Fish Resource on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.2.3.1 Qualitative Evaluation 2.2.3.2 Quantative Assessment .2.2.3.3 Management Practice 2.2.3.4 Summary Appraisal of the Fish Resource iv vi TABLE OF CONTENTS PART I (continued) 2.2.4 The Wildlife Resource on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.2.4.1 Qualitative Evaluation 2.2.4.2 Quantitative Assessment 2.2.4.3 Management Practices 2.2.4.4 Summary Appraisal of the Wildlife Resource 2.2.5 The Social Resource for the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.2.5.1 Research 2.2.5.2 Education 2.2.5.3 Society Involvement 2.2.5.4 Summary Appraisal of the Social Resource 2.3 The Administration 2.3.1 The Organization of the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.3.2 Staff Responsibilities on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.3.3 The Financing of the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.3.3.1 Direct Income from Forest Operations 2.3.3.2 Direct Grants for Specific Projects from Sources other than U.B.C. 2.3.3.3 Other Sources Apart from U.B.C. and Specially Funded Projects 2.3.3.4 U.B.C. (Operating Expenses) 2.3.3.5 Financial Position (1980) of the U.B.C. Research Forest 3.0 SUMMARY STATEMENT AND OBSERVATIONS ON PART I OF THE U.B.C. RESEARCH FOREST MANAGEMENT PLAN v vVi TABLE OF CONTENTS PART II 4.0 PREFACE 4.1 Explanation of contents 5.0 POLICIES AND OBJECTIVES 5.1 Policy 5.2 Management Objectives 5.3 Assistance to Researchers, Educators and Visitors 5.4 Access to U.B.C. Research Forest 6.0 METHODS TO ACHIEVE OBJECTIVES 6.1 Format 6.2 Proposals and Prescriptions 6.3 Proposals and Prescriptions check-list 6.3.1 Administration 6.3.2 Land (Resource) Control 6.3.3 Function Activities 6.3.4 Forest Operations 6.3.5 Engineering, Plant and Equipment 6.4 Technical Audit 7.0 LONG RANGE MANGEMENT PROPOSALS 7.1 Administration 7.2 Land Management 7.3 Function Management 7.4 Forest Cover 7.4.1 Silviculture 7.4.2 Yield 7.4.3 Harvesting 7.5 Physical Estate 7.5.1 Engineering 7.5.2 Physical Plant 7.5.3 Equipment 8.0 CURRENT MANAGEMENT SECTION (PLAN YEAR 1) 8.1 Format 8.2 Administration 8.2.1 Management Control 8.2.2 Organization 8.2.3 Protection 8.2.4 Support Activities v i rVMI TABLE OF CONTENTS PART II (continued) 8.3 Land (Resource) Use 8.3.1 Best-Use 8.3.2 Working Circles 8.3.2.1 General Provisions 8.3.2.2 Nature and Education Reserves Working Circle 8.3.2.3 Water Production Working Circle 8.3.2.4 Wood Production Working Circle 8.3.2.5 Recreation Working Circle 8.3.2.6 Game Management Working Circle (Wildlife) 8.3.2.7 U t i l i t y Corridor Working Circle (B.C. Hydro Right-of-way) 8.3.2.8 Research Working Circle 8.3.3 Use Hierarchies 8.4 Function Activities 8.4.1 Education 8.4.2 Research 8.4.3 Demonstration 8.4.4 Forest Related Activities 8.5 Forest Operations 8.5.1 Silviculture 8.5.2 Yield 8.5.3 Harvesting 8.6 Engineering, Physical Plant and Equipment 8.6.1 Engineering 8.6.2 Physical Plant 8.6.3 Equipment 8.7 Cost and Quantity Summary 8.7.1 Expenditure Summary 8.7.2 Income Summary 8.7.3 Proposed Budget 8.8 Operation and Expenditure Timetables 8.8.1 Operations Timetable 8.8.2 Income and Expenditure Over Time 8.9 Other Income, Expenditure and Assistance 8.9.1 Summer Employment Programmes 8.9.2 Auxiliary Funding 8.9.3 Work Experience and Community Projects 8.10 Current Management Summary Comments v i i IX, TABLE OF CONTENTS PART II (continued) 9.0 PROJECTED FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS 9.1 Format ' 9.2 Programme Year 2 (1983/84) 9.2.1 Format and contents 9.2.2 Administration (Year 2) 9.2.2.1 Management Control (Year 2) 9.2.2.2 Organization (Year 2) 9.2.2.3 Protection (Year 2) 9.2.2.4 Support activities (Year 2) 9.2.3 Land control (Year 2) 9.2.4 Function activities (Year 2) 9.2.4.1 Education 9.2.4.2 Research (Year 2) 9.2.4.3 Demonstration (Year 2) 9.2.5 Forest Operations (Year 2) 9.2.5.1 Silviculture (Year 2) 9.2.6 Engineering, Plant and Equipment (Year 2) 9.2.6.1 Engineering (Year 2) 9.2.6.2 Physical Plant (Year 2) 9.2.6.3 Equipment (Year 2) 9.3 Programme Years 3-5 (1984/85 - 1986/87) 9.3.1 Format and content 9.4 Programme Year 6-10 9.4.1 Format and content 9.5 Future developments 9.5.1 Policy and Objectives 10.0 DIRECTOR'S CLOSING STATEMENT 10.1 The Plan v i i i X MAPS PART I 2.1.1-1-A Location of U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.1-3-A Compartments on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.1- 4-A Lakes and Main Creeks and Rivers on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.2- 1-A Old Timber Berths and Licences on U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.2-2-A Fire History of the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.2- 29-A Location of Old Railway Logging Grades on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.3- 1-A Topography of the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.3- 2-A Drainage Pattern and Watershed Numbers on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.4- 1-A Bedrock Geology of the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.5- 1-A Land Association (Lacate, 1965) on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.6- 1-A . . - Soil Associations Map of the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.7- 2-A Estimated Mean Annual Precipitation on the U.B.C. Research Forest (E. Hetherington, January 25, 1962) 2.1.8- 2-A Western Hemlock Biogeoclimatic (CWH) Subzones and Generalized Ecosystem Units on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.9- 3-A Roads and Bridges on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.9-4-A Location of Trails on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.9-8-A Location of Structures on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.9-8-B Loon Lake Camp on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.9-8-C Location of Power Lines on the U.B.C. Research Forest ix MAPS PART I (continued) 2.1.9-8-D Administration Buildings, Workshop Compound and Arboretum Area on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.10.1-5-A Approximate Position of Mineral Claims 2.1.10.3-6-A Areas of Blowdown from Typhoon Frieda (1962) on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.2.1.1-3-A . . . . . . Generalized Age Class Distribution on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.2.1.1-5-A Generalized Distribution'of Forest Types on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.2.2.1-8-A . Location of Stream Profile, described in Figure 2.2.2.1-8-A on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.2.2.1-8-B Location of Stream Profile, described In Figures 2.2.2.1-8-B^ ^ & B 2 on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.2.2.1-8-C Location of Stream Profile, described in Figure 2.2.2.1-8-C on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.2.2.1- 8-D Location of Stream Profile, described in Figure 2.2.2.1-8-D 2.2.4.2- 2-A Areas of Deer Concentration on the U.B.C. Research Forest x MAPS PART II 8.3.2.2- 1-A Working Circle No. 1 - Nature and Education Reserves on the U.B.C. Research Forest 8.3.2.3- 1-A Working Circle No. 2 - Water Production and Storage on the U.B.C. Research Forest 8.3.2.4- 1-A Working Circle No. 3 - Wood Production on the U.B.C. Research Forest 8.3.2.5- 1-A Working Circle No. 4 - Recreation on the U.B.C. Research Forest 8.3.2.6- 4-A Population Centres, and Movement of Deer on the U.B.C. Research Forest 8.3.2.7- 1-A Working Circle No. 6 - U t i l i t y Corridor on the U.B.C. Research Forest 8.3.3-2-A . Working Circles Hierarchy of Use on the U.B.C. Research Forest \ xi FIGURES PART I * 1.3-1-A Overall Organization of the U.B.C. ^ Research Forest Management Plan * 1.3-6-A Organization of Part I of the U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan 2.1.2-24-A Copy of the Canadian Forestry Association Tree Farm Certificate of the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.2-107-A Graph showing Volumes (in fbm) of Timber Scaled or logged 1953-1980 2.1.2-107-B Graph showing Summary of Income, Capital and Non-capital Expenditure and Surplus or Deficit for the Period 1963-1978 2.1.5-1-A Profile of Land Association A on the U.B.C. Research Forest (Lacate, 1965) 2.1.5-1-B Profile of Land Association B, C and D on the U.B.C. Research Forest (Lacate, 1965) 2.1.8-2-A General Description of Ecosystem on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.8-10-A Percentage Area of Ecosystem Units (li e s , 1977) on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.8-10-B Area by Ecosystem Units (l i e s , 1977) on the U.B.C. Research Forest * 2.2-1-A Organization of the "Resource Section" of the U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan * 2.2-1-B Organization of the "Social Resource Section" of the U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan * 2.2.1-1-A The Organization of the "Tree Resource Section" of the U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan * 2.2.2-1-A The Organization of the "Water Resource Section" of the U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan 2.2.2.1-5-A Hydrograph of Jacob's Creek on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.2.2.1-8-A Stream Profile of North Alouette River on U.B.C. Research Forest 2.2.2.1-8-B Stream Profile of Blaney Creek on U.B.C. Research Forest 2.2.2.1-8-C Stream Profile of Stephensen Creek on U.B.C. Research Forest 2.2.2.1-8-D Stream Profile of Raven Creek on U.B.C. Research Forest *Included in text x i i : FIGURES PART I (continued) * 2.2.3-1-A The Organization of the "F i s h Resource Section" of the U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan * 2.2.4-1-A The Organization of the " W i l d l i f e Section" of the U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan * 2.2.5-1-A The Organization of the " S o c i a l Resource Section" of the U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan * 2.3-1-A The Organization of the "Administration Section" of the U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan 2.3.1- 2-A Generalized Staff Structure of U.B.C. Research Forest 2.3.2- 1-A Staff R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s on the U.B.C. Research Forest *Included i n text. x i i i FIGURES PART II ' 4.0-A Contents of PART II - U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan k 5.0-A Policies and Objectives fe 6.0-A Methods to Achieve Objectives fe 6.1-4-A Method Used to Ensure Continuity of Proposals between Current, Short and Long Term k 7.0-A Long Range Management Proposals 7.4.2-3-A Schematic Representation of Adjustment to Normality (by Area) 1980 - 2020 - Base Line Year 1980 7.4.2-3-B Schematic Representation of Adjustment to Normality (by Area) 1980 - 2020 - Proj-ection to Year 1990 7.4.2-3-C Schematic Representation of Adjustment to Normality (by Area) 1980 - 2020 - Projection to Year 2000 7.4.2-3-D Schematic Representation of Adjustment to Normality (by Area) 1980 - 2020 - Projection to Year 2010 7.4.2-3-E Schematic Representation of Adjustment to Normality (by Area) 1980 - 2-2-- Projection to Year 2020 ^.O-A Current Management 8.2.2-1-A Staff Structure 1982/83 fc9.0-A Projected Future Developments 9.5.1-2-A Projected Future Staff Structure *Included'in text. xiv TABLES PART I 2.1.1-3-A General Land Classification of the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.1-3-B U.B.C. Research Forest - Details of Compartment Areas 2.1.1-4-A Area of the Lakes on U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.1- 5-A Lengths, Widths and Areas of the Main Creeks and Rivers on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.2- 34-A Product Sale Summary for 1957-1958 2.1.2-36-A A Summary of U.B.C. Research Forest Activities for the Years 1948-1957 2.1.2-61-A Details of the 1963 U.B.C. Research Forest Five Year Logging and Development Plan. 2.1.2-68-A Annual Cutting on the U.B.C. Research Forest 1948-1966 in Relation to Allowable Cut 2.1.2-107-A A Summary of Income, Expenditure, Surplus or Deficit and Volume Logged from 1963 -1973 for the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.6-1-A Soil Legend for the Preliminary Soils Map of the U.B.C. Research Forest (Map 2.1.6-1-A) 2.1.8-1-A Vascular Plants of the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.10.2-2-A A Summary of Fires on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.2.2.2-2-A Area of Major Watersheds on U.B.C. Research Forest 2.2.3.2- 2-A Fish Species Recorded in the Lakes of the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.2.4.1-2-A Mammal Species Recorded on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.2.4.3- 4-A List of Bird Species on U.B.C. Research Forest xv TABLES PART II * 8.5.1-4-A Land Clearing * 8.5.1-4-B Broadcast Burning * 8.5.1-4-C Drainage * 8.5.1-4-D Scarification * 8.5.1-5-A Planting * 8.5.1-6-A . . Weeding * 8.5.1-7-A Juvenile Thinning * 8.5.1-8-A Pruning * 8.5.1-9-A Precommercial Thinning * 8.5.1-10-A . Commercial Thinning * 8.6.1-2-A Details of Road Maintenance for Year 1 8.7.1-1-A Summary of Projected Expenditures on Silvicultural Operations for Year 1 (1982/83) 8.7.3-1-A U.B.C. Detail Operating Budget Faculty of Forestry - Research Forest 8.8.1-1-A - M (inclusive). Monthly Operations Schedules 8.8.1-1-N Summary of Years Operations by Month * 9.2.5.1-6-A Weeding Details for Year 2 * 9.2.5.1-7-A Juvenile Thinning Details for Year 2 * 9.2.5.1-9-A Details of Precommercial Thinning Year 2 * 9.2.5.1-10-A Details of Commercial Thinning Year 2 * 9.2.6.1-2-A Details of Road Maintenance Proposals (Year 2 Onwards) * 9.3.1-1-A General Estimate of Silvic u l t u r a l Management Operations Years 3 - 5 * Included in text. xvi Xvi/l LIST OF APPENDICES (Referenced in PART I) 0.0 Central F i l i n g System of the U.B.C. Research Forest 1.1-9-A . . . . University Forest Management Plan (1953) 2.1.1-2-A Metes and Bounds of the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.1- 2-B List of a l l Map Types of the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.2- 3-A Accounts of Fires on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.2-38-A List of a l l Research Projects initiated on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.2-38-B List of a l l papers, reports, theses and other publications written on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.2-38-C Annual Reports of the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.2-75-A A Master Road Plan for the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.2-79-A Metes and Bounds of Block II on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.2-90-A Calculation of the Annual Allowable Cut on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.6- 1-A Soil Survey Reports on the Arboretum at the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.7- 4-A Summary of Climate Data on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.8- 1-A Ecological Information on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.9- 5-A Details of Bridge Construction on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.9-7-A Details of Structures on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.10.1- 5-A Details of a l l Mineral Claims on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.10.2- 2-A Past and Present Fire Plans of the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.10.3- 6-A Accounts of Typhoon Frieda and resulting damage to U.B.C. Research Forest 2.2.1.1-3-A U.B.C. Research Forest - Forest Inventory 2.2.1.1-3-B Details of Annual Allowable Cut Calculations on U.B.C. Research Forest 2.2.2.1-3-A Owners of Adjacent Properties to U.B.C. Research Forest x v i i LIST OF APPENDICES PART I (continued) Details of Water Recording Station on and Adjacent to U.B.C. Research Forest Register of Water Licences on Creeks Issuing from U.B.C. Research Forest Damming proposals for the North Alouette River on U.B.C. Research Forest and papers relative to Jacob's (Marion) Lake Wildlife Sightings and C.L.I. Capability of U.B.C. Research Forest List of Professional Staff since the Inception of U.B.C. Research Forest x v i i i LIST OF APPENDICES (Referenced in PART II) 8.7.1-2-A Examples of Forms proposed for use on the U.B.C. Research Forest 8.8.1-1-A Long Term Management Projections and Estimates for U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan 9.2.5.1-11-A List of required Silvicultural Operations xix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Management Plan (1981) was prepared under the direction of Dr. J.V. Thirgood who also researched and wrote sections of the Introduction and Part I durxng the summers of 1972 and 1973, and was consulted throughout the preparation of the Plan. Mr. P.R.W. Sanders, worked on the Plan preparations inter-mittently between June 1974 to i t s completion in August 1981 and was responsible for the research compilation and writing of the remainder of Part I, Part II in i t s entirety, the collections of the extensive supplementary material, associated data collecting forms, recording documents, f i l i n g systems, figures, tables, maps and the overall format. The numbering system was suggested by Mr. R.A. McLauchlin who undertook extensive proof reading and made numerous construc-tive suggestions. Acknowledgement i s also given to the many authors of past Forest publications, theses, research reports and general references consulted and made use of as appropriate. AMENDMENTS U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan Sheet # Date New Paragraph Deletions Signature Number (i f any) A l l additions to Part I of the Management Plan should be listed in the Amendments. New paragraphs should be numbered (and dated) to follow the paragraph behind which i t i s inserted, e.g. A paragraph replacing 1.1-9 would be 1.1-9 (year of revision)} whole additional qualifying paragraphs to paragraph 1.1-9 would be 1.1-9.1 (year of revision) etc. U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan PART I Description PART I 1.0 1.1 1.1-1 1.1-2 1.1-3 1.1-4 INTRODUCTION Background The purpose of the U.B.C. Research Forest was set out in the restrictive covenant in 1943 as "For the purpose of instruction and demonstration in the practices of forestry and forest engineering." While many policy statements have been formulated since that time, the primary purpose of management of the Forest is s t i l l for education, research and demonstration. In compiling this Management Plan, recognition has been given to the fact that some areas of ground are best suited for a particular purpose, (for example:-timber production, for w i l d l i f e , or recreation), with secondary uses accepted that are compatible with, but sub-ordinate to, the primary use. Thus, land allocation on the basis of use sui t a b i l i t y , together with secondary uses ranked in hierarchial order and weighed as to relative importance, constitutes the overall land management strategy. PURPOSE OF MANAGEMENT FOR THE U.B.C. RESEARCH FOREST DOMINANT USE LAND SUITABILITY However, the purpose of the U.B.C. Research Forest is for "instruction and demonstration" (para. 1.1-1) and a l l land use i s constrained by activities related to the primary functions. USE CONSTRAINTS 1.1-5 The satisfactory conduct of any enterprise requires CONDUCT OF a management plan, based on a study of a l l relevant THE ENTERPRISE facts to establish: f i r s t , the Objects of Management, to state the clear purpose of the controlling body, and, second, the means of achieving these objectives. 1.1-6 Without some degree of planning and without control of the execution of an agreed plan, action becomes uncoordinated. Individual people, influenced by their separate objectives, a b i l i t i e s , knowledge and personalities react differently to immediate events and thereby often interfere with each other's acts, even i f a l l participants in the enterprise agree continuously with i t s purpose. Generally, the bigger and more complex the enterprise, the more necessary i s a plan of work written in the light of the stated objectives of management and available information. Such a management plan, after approval by higher authority and f u l l consideration of a l l the circumstances, and sub-divided as necessary for operational purposes, defines the purpose of the undertaking and outlines the means for i t s accomplishment. No forest, and the U.B.C. Research Forest is no exception, can be managed effici e n t l y in the absence of a carefully researched and prepared Management Plan designed to satisfy the declared Objectives of Management. NEED FOR PLANNING 3 1.1-7 A Management Plan is particularly necessary for the U.B.C. Research Forest where the functions of education, research and demonstration are combined, and where a changing community of researchers of varied disciplines and diverse objectives i s operating, and which involves the participation of the U.B.C. Faculty of Forestry which encompasses a wide spectrum of interests. Moreover, because these activities depend for their financial support largely on the revenue produced from a self-sustaining operation i t is essential that such a document be prepared correctly and in considerable detail. EDUCATION RESEARCH DEMONSTRATION 1.1-8 Further, for continued efficiency, a forest enterprise DYNAMIC must be dynamic. It is not enough that the operation MANAGEMENT be well founded, fu l l y devised and controlled so CONTROL that work has become a smooth routine. Conditions w i l l change and concepts w i l l evolve. New techniques w i l l be developed and perfected. It i s evident, therefore, that not only must there be a carefully conceived and maintained plan but that this plan must be periodically revised to take account of changes in management objectives. For such revisions to be possible there must be a continuous and i n t e l l i g i b l e record of results and collection of new information on which to base the revision. In every plan, and the U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan is no exception, there must be incorporated means for recording results, for incorporating research findings into techniques, for collecting information from other sources and for storing, digesting and using such information. 1.1-9 Since the U.B.C. Research Forest was established in REVIEW OF 1943 and the i n i t i a l non-prescriptive management plan PREVIOUS was prepared in 1953, (Appendix 1.1-9-A) much infor- MANAGEMENT mation has been generated. This information has CONTROL provided the basis for numerous theses, reports and research papers. These have contributed much to forest science in British Columbia. But most often the data have been developed, compiled, and recorded to meet the needs of specific studies. There have been major deficiencies in the systematic compilation and maintenance of forest records, in the generation of data in a form suitable for management purposes and, in general, in the compilation of information on the forest and forest environment considered as a unit. Where information has been collected, and reports prepared in a form suited to the needs of management, inadequacies in, and inattention to conservation of technical information has frequently resulted not only in the loss of information but also of significant management appraisals and evaluations. 1.1-10 Further, there have been deficiencies in the formal long term planning for the achievement of the Objectives of Management. 1.1-11 In summary, the wealth of information developed on the U.B.C. Research Forest has not been compiled, or adequately maintained, in a form suited to the broad, continuing research and education functions of the Forest as a managed forest. 1.1-12 This Management Plan sets out to correct these deficiencies. Considerable emphasis i s placed on the description of: the forest environment and growing stock, the past history of the Forest, a clear statement of Management Objectives, the provision of the necessary t e r r i t o r i a l management framework, the systematic conduct of operations to achieve the objectives, and the main-tenance of essential records. CLEAR STATEMENT OF FACTS 1.1-13 1.1-14 1.1-15 1.1-16 1.1-17 A written plan is an essential part of long term management. In forestry a management plan enables the governing body f i r s t to c l a r i f y and define the objects of management and to approve the subsequent policy of action and second, to organize the administration and treatment of the forest in harmony with the policy. Any plan soon i s purposeless i f i t is not followed. It is not sufficient to prepare a Management Plan; i t i s also necessary to see that i t s provisions are carried out. It is essential, therefore, for a plan to provide for i t s own control and for the collection and record of results and new information as essential elements in the management of the forest. But a Management Plan should not merely express and provide long and short term planning. It should also summarize the reasoning and justify the planning and proposed action. Without records of such reasoning, subsequent c r i t i c a l analysis of the plan w i l l be handicapped. Effective reasoning, however, depends on a clear statement of Management Objectives, a digestion of past and current facts and their interaction and on the forecast of future events. It requires an assess-ment of growing stock and site, of the results of past treatment and assessment of current demands for raw material and services and an appreciation of future trends. It must include a stock-taking, a survey of resources and a study of limitations which together are analysed to enable decisions on policy and basic methods and detailed action to be made. That much of the necessary data for these are lacking for the U.B.C. Research Forest emphasizes the essential principle of data conservation in management planning. This Plan must provide for the maintenance of reliable records and reports of operations progress. Mechanisms must be provided for the collection of new data, the conservation of these data, and the inclusion of the data in subsequent revisions of this Plan so that decisions at any time are based on accurate information. Therefore the content of the Plan proposed herein, is fourfold: 1. A survey and assessment of past results, present facts, resources and limitations upon which the manage-ment proposals are based. 2. An analysis of these facts with reference to prospects leading to conclusions on policy, Objectives of Management and basic methods - The Long Term Management Plan. 3. A plan for future action in a definite period -The Short Term Management Plan - in conformity with the Long Term Management Plan. 4. Provisions for control of the prescriptions and for maintenance of records for the collection of new data to further and refine future management. THE WRITTEN PLAN PLAN EXECUTION AND CONTROL SUMMARIZE REASONING MANAGEMENT PLANNING SCOPE OF PRESENT PLAN 5 1.1-18 The Forest Management Plan should be evaluated and REVISION judged as a working document. Deficiencies OF THE PLAN in the Plan w i l l become apparent in the working and these should be corrected in subsequent revisions of the Plan. 1.2 Objectives of the U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan 1.2-1 The objectives of the Management Plan are as follows: a) To ensure that the declared forest policy for the U.B.C. Research Forest i s made effective at a l l levels of forest management. b) To ensure the orderly and efficient development of the U.B.C. Research Forest within this framework of policy and to prevent uncoordinated management decisions being made without regard to their wider implications. c) To ensure that the aims of management, both long and short term, are clearly defined and that the methods of achieving these are r e a l i s t i c and are the result of a careful study of a l l relevent factors. d) To ensure that a l l concerned with the U.B.C. Research Forest are aware of i t s intended future development and thereby to achieve continuity of management. e) To bring together in readily accessible form such information as is necessary for the efficient management of the Forest and i t s operation and to provide a work of reference and a foundation upon which to base subsequent management. f) To ensure provision for the systematic compilation of information regarding the U.B.C. Research Forest. g) To provide a mechanism by which the working plan may be reviewed and changed as circumstances may from time to time require. 1 Figure 1.3.-1-A Overall Organization of the U.B.C. Research Forest  Management Plan PART I 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Summary of Data Base for the U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan 3.0 Summary Comments of Part I PART II 4. 0 Preface 5. 0 Policy and Objectives 6. 0 Long Term Management Proposals 7. 0 Planning Methods to Achieve Objectives 8. 0 Current Management Section 9. 0 Projected Future Requirements 10. 0 Directors Closing Statement PART III Tables Figures Maps PART IV Appendices and Other Supporting Information Design of the Management Plan The U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan follows, in part, as shown in Figure 1.3-1-A, the traditional pattern. Description - Part I supported by Part III and IV. Prescription - Part II based on the data base in Part I. The Plan departs from the traditional framework in that i t i s not concerned with a fixed period, but is inovative in that i t i s a permanent, open-ended document, subject to regular amendment and review. Extensive use w i l l be made in future of management aids (e.g. machine generated reports, computer based retrieval systems), as they become available, and provision w i l l be made i n the plan to incorporate projections and constant updating procedures. As more information becomes available, the descriptive section, Part I, w i l l be revised. A l l additions and amendments w i l l be noted in the Record of Amendments, and when additional paragraphs are inserted, paragraph numbers will, be decimalized to accomodate the additions (see "Amendments"). Every five years, the Part I w i l l be revised to incorporate the amendments and update historical and resource information. In Part II, programmes of a qualitative nature are written, followed by detailed quantitative prescriptions. Costs are estimated on a one year basis, constituting an annual programme, with longer term projections being made of treatment for the growing stock, and other forest assets, for a period of 5 or 10 years ahead. Procedures are included for complete re-appraisal at these or other suitable intervals. At intervals of five years, in the light of the PLAN amendments noted in 1.3-3, the plan w i l l be re-appraised RE-APPRAISAL as to i t s satisfaction of the Objectives of Management, and the continuing applicability of the objectives of management. After the revision, the plan w i l l be submitted to Higher Authority for approval. Part I has three major sections as shown in Figure 1.3-6-A. (a) The Estate (b) The Resource (c) The Administration These sections are supported by the Part II Appendices which contain detailed information. Part II has six major sections:-1. Policy and objectives 2. Long term management proposals 3. Planning methods to achieve objectives 4. Current management proposals 5. Projected future requirements 6. Director's closing statement GENERAL PLAN ORGANIZATION OPEN-ENDED PLAN REVISION PART I PART I AND II ORGANIZATION 1 Figure 1.3-6-A Organization of Part I of the U.B.C. Research Forest  Management Plan 1.0 Introduction I 2.0 Summary of Data Base The Estate as i t i s - unalterable features physical constraints The Resource trees water - fish - game social The Administration location, history and legal status permanent site characteristics injuries to which the forest is liable ecological site classification - a r t i f i c i a l structures - qualitative evaluation - quantitative assessment current practices - summary appraisal responsibilities - organization 3.0 Summary Comments Because the plan w i l l also have an educational function many descriptive materials and definitions are included in the Part IV Appendices which would not appear in a usual management plan. Three stages can be indentified in the preparation of the Management Plan. PART III ORGANIZATION PREPARATION OF THE PLAN a) Long term planning The f i r s t stage in the development of the U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan was to conceive in broad outline the future evolution and development of the U.B.C. Research Forest. This involved an analysis and evaluation of the environmental factors, social trends, and the condition of the growing stock. Policy was defined and general consideration given as to how this might be implemented. Some measures, such as the establishment of compartments and their allotment to working circles had to be considered for several decades ahead. Similarly, in rather broader terms, attention had to be directed to the question of the yield. However, under the special circumstance of the U.B.C. Research Forest, very detailed planning for ten or twenty years ahead i s almost certain to be a waste of effort; such advance planning has to be simple and flexible. Nevertheless, long term planning to determine the general policy and basic methods to be employed forms the essential foundation on which management rests and this has been fu l l y recognized in the preparation of the Plan. b) Forecasts Due to the dynamic nature of forest management and swiftly changing circumstances, i t is recognized that detailed quantitative prescriptions made more than one year ahead can rapidly become obsolete. A forecast of quantities and actions, therefore, i s made for five years ahead, to be revised and extended by one year on an annual basis, specifying (in general terms only) the location of the operations and quantities per year for each of the five years. (Detailed prescriptions and estimated costs are made in the annual plan and relate to specific areas.) It was visualized that forecasts made under.a five year open-ended plan w i l l be made with the benefit of modern management aids (such as linear and dynamic programming techniques) as they become available, and thus in the future the yearly revision exercise w i l l "be somewhat simplified. The object of the forecasts i s to ensure that work prescribed, the available labour and the finance are in balance, and that any changes in circumstances or requirements are foreseen and recognized well in advance. c) Short term planning and annual programme A detailed programme of work and one year cost estimates w i l l be prepared annually. These w i l l specify, for one year ahead, the extent and location of a l l operations to the end of the second year. No costs w i l l be scheduled by area (e.g. working c i r c l e , compartment or sub-compartment).. They are, in effect, the quantitative prescriptions that form the basis of the annual financial estimates, and after approval, serve as the Director's instruction for the year. "Long term planning", "forecast" and "programme" are not to be confused. Long term planning involves the development of the overall management objectives along the lines of stated policy. It i s expressed in general, rather than specific terms. The forecast shows the quantity of work which w i l l be required for a number of years ahead to keep the U.B.C. Research Forest in good order and to carry out the Objects of Management. The annual programme specifies firm prescriptions for the actual work and i t s location for one year. In practice i t i s not possible to consider the requirements of the Forest without, at the same time, taking into account the resources l i k e l y to be available in any one year. Additionally, because of the special nature of the Forest, modification of the term forecast may be necessary to satisfy educational and research objectives. SUMMARY OF THE DATA BASE; FOR THE U.B.C. RESEARCH FOREST MANAGEMENT PLAN The Estate Location and Extent of the U.B.C. Research Forest The 5151 hectare (12,728 acre) University of British Columbia Research Forest, owned by the University of British Columbia, is located approximately six kilometers (four miles) north of the town of Haney, B.C. and 58 km (36 miles) from the University Campus on Point Grey, Vancouver (see Map 2.1.1-1-A). The latitudes (-1') of the south and north boundaries are 49° 15' 00" and 49° 21' 43" respectively and the longitudes of the east and west boundaries are 122 31' 10" and 122° 35* 56" respectively. The U.B.C. Research Forest comprises the entire area of Township 4, Range 5, West of the 7th Meridian together with fractional townships and part of Sections 33 and 34, Township 12, less some 147.7 ha (365 acres) of Crown Grants and pre-emption claims. The Research Forest is bounded by Golden Ears Provincial Park to the north and east; Pitt Lake and the t i d a l flats and reclaimed land of Pitt Meadows and Pitt Polder to the west and the Municipality of Maple Ridge to the south. The complete boundary has been legally surveyed as Lots 6110 and 7074 Group I New Westminster D i s t r i c t . A statement of the metes and bounds is given in Appendix 2.1.1-2-A. An index of a l l maps i s contained in Appendix 2.1.1-2-B. The U.B.C. Research Forest comprises on compact block some 4 kilometers (2% miles) wide east-west, and 12 kilometers (7% miles) long north-south. The area i s divided into 35 compartments varying in size from 83 hectares (206 acres) to 263 hectares (651 acres). A general land classification of the U.B.C. Research Forest i s shown in Table 2.1.1—3—A. Compartments are detailed on Map 2.1.1-3-A, while land classification by compartments i s shown on Table 2.1.1-3-B. There are 17 lakes on the U.B.C. Research Forest (Map 2.1.1-4-A). Eleven of these are under 8 ha (20 acres) in size while the largest body of water within the Forest i s Loon Lake, which is approximately 1.6 km (1 mile) long and 0.4 km (0.25 mile) wide (Table 2.1.1-4-A). Jacob's (Marion), Gwendoline, and Eunice Lakes were named after Mr. McCormick's (see 2.1.2-9) wife and daughters respectively, Katherine after Professor Malcolm Knapp's wife, Shirley after Mr. Bruce Webster's wife and Betsy after Miss. Bilodeau, Secretary at U.B.C. Research Forest for many years. Confusion exists in regards to Jacob's Lake which is so identified on o f f i c i a l topographic maps. However, the name Marion Lake is in common use and has been since this name was bestowed by Mr. McCormick early this century. Therefore, in the Plan the name Jacob's Lake w i l l be used with the name Marion shown after in brackets. A number of rivers and small creeks run through the U.B.C. Research Forest (Map '2.1.1-4-A). These are year around flows and are deeply cut, often with steep channels. Lengths, widths and areas of the main creeks and rivers on the U.B.C. Research Forest are shown i n Table 2.1.1-5-A. Lengths of rivers and creeks were determined from the 1:12,000 base map of the U.B.C. Research Forest. Widths of rivers and creeks were estimated from a series of f i e l d measurements. 1+ 2.1.2 2.1.2-1 2.1.2-2 2.1.2-3 2.1.2-4 2.1.2-5 The History of the U.B.C. Research Forest The history of the U.B.C. Research Forest is typical of the coastal forests of British Columbia - i t is one of fires and logging. The oldest trees are 750 years old and although some stands have been reserved, logging, f i r e and Typhoon Frieda in the f a l l of 1962 have taken their t o l l . The most common age of the presently existing old growth is. 300 years. Map 2.1.2-1-A shows the location of the old timber berths and licences on the Forest. The oldest substantial area of second growth is on the Pitt Lake Slope and probably originated following a f i r e started by lightning, early prospectors, or Indians about the year 1840. Second growth stands also originate from an earlier small f i r e that occurred in the south-west corner of the Forest about 1780. The f i r e history of the U.B.C. Research Forest is shown on Map 2.1.2-2-A. With these exceptions, a l l the area that today supports older second growth was burned over by a large f i r e in 1868, one year after the Confederation of Canada. In this year many catastrophic fires burned a l l along the west coast of North America from California to Alaska as a consequence of the great drought that extended from April to November of that year. Fires occurred in the islands in the Gulf of Georgia and throughout much of the Fraser Valley. Men - prospectors, farmers clearing land and Indians - caused most of the fires • Contemporary accounts of the early f i r e history of Coastal British Columbia are given in Appendix 2.1.2-3-A. In 1912 Mr. E.A. Marc, sometime French consul in Victoria, and his wife homesteaded on a 157 acre (63.5 ha) Crown Grant below Loon Lake within the south-western portion of the area now comprising the U.B.C. Research Forest and a short distance from the Southern boundary (Map 2.1.2-1-A). During the First World War Mr. Marc served as a Captain in the French Army. Shortly after the war the Marcs resettled on their property. Although they cleared about 5 acres (3 ha) of land their primary source of income was from Mr. Marc's work in the woods. He ran a small logging operation taking out shingle bolts, cedar poles, sawlogs and shakes from what is now the U.B.C. Research. Forest and maintained a camp on his property for his Japanese work crew, From 1922 to 1932 Mr. Marc operated-a shingle mil l at the southeast corner of his property and over the years built many miles of skid roads, some requiring rock cuts, cribbing ami bridges as long as 100 feet (30 metres) Most of the merchantable timber on B.C. Forest Service Timber Sales X12935 and X14785 (X13636) was logged by Mr. Marc (Map 2.1.2-1-A). In the case of Timber Sale X16769, however, only the cedar poles and dead cedar were removed from the southern portion of the sale. Mr. Marc also removed quantities of cedar from Timber Berth "W", west of Alouette River which had been l e f t uncut by Abernethy and Lougheed Logging Co. GENERAL HISTORY OF THE FOREST THE 1868 FIRE MR. E.A. MARC l5 2.1.2-6 The timber on Mr. Marc's own holding was similar to that on the forest lands adjoining. It comprised a mixture of four to thirty-six inch (ten to eighty-eight centimetres) diameter Douglas-fir, western hemlock and western red cedar about eighty years old. Over the years Mr. Marc took out a considerable quantity of logs from the lower half of his property so that by 1956 the stand was badly broken up with brush openingsiand patches of young hemlock. The upper half remained untouched except for the removal of salvage material. In 1957 Mr. Marc sold the remaining timber on his holding to Herman Sawmills of Mission, receiving $52,400 for i t . Trees ten inches (.25 cm) and under in diameter were not to be cut. Subsequently a second operation removed most of the remaining small diameter material. In 1963, a third, small scale operation removed small poles and fence posts. No timber as such was l e f t on the area but there was some scattered small material. 2.1.2-7 When the Faculty of Forestry f i r s t obtained the U.B.C. Research Forest the surrounding area was unsettled and the Marc family were the only permanent residents, and were of considerable help to the Faculty. The f i r s t students on the Forest stayed with the Marcs, For several years the only road on the Forest was the one through their property and the main public access gate was on their property. 2.1.2-8 In later years Mr. Marc rented boats to fishermen on Loon and Blaney Lakes. In 1959 Mr. Marc died. The boat rental business was continued by Mrs. Marc and her son Marcel until 1968 when their property was purchased by the University, with their boat concession. The Marcs were pioneers in working with the public in the public use of the area. 2.1.2-9 Much of what is now the U.B.C. Research Forest was MR. McCORMICK staked in the timber boom at the turn of the century. Timber Berth "W" (Map 2.1.2-1-A) originally contained about 15 square miles (38.8 sq. km) of mature timber and was about equal in area to the present U.B.C. Research Forest. It was granted by the Dominion of Canada and held by Mr. McCormick of McCormick Deering Co. the manufacturers of farm equipment. As early as 1910-1911 a few men were employed to establish base lines, build t r a i l s , cruise and map, and to serve as a f i r e crew. Headquarters were established in Haney on 14th Avenue near 22nd Road with telephone communication to a camp on Loon Lake and to a lookout on the knoll north of Mr. Marc's homestead. On Jacob's (Marion) Lake Mr. McCormick built a log house which later was shipped to the Chicago World's Fair. 2.1.2-10 Relatively l i t t l e timber was logged until the mid nineteen-twenties when the Abernethy and Lougheed Logging Company (the A and L) ran the biggest railway logging operation of i t s time in British Columbia, on what is now the eastern third of the U.B.C. Research Forest. At the peak of activity, one thousand men were employed in logging and the operation was a show-place for distinguished visitors to the Province. Visitors during this period included the Prince of Wales, Mr. Winston Churchill and the Crown Prince of Germany. THE ABERNETHY AND LOUGHEED LOGGING COMPANY It. 2.1.2-11 The following volumes of timber were logged between 1921 and 1923 on Timber Berth "W" by the Abernethy and Lougheed Logging Company. Volumes (MM f.b .m) logged from Timber Berth "W"1 1921--1923 Fir Year Logs Fuel Hemlock Cedar Others Total 1921 4.6 1.2 1.7 7.9 — 15.4 1922 6.0 1.4 3.1 12.5 0.1 23.1 1923 11.6 2.0 6.9 30.6 0.3 51.4 22.2 4.6 11.7 51.0 0.4 89.9 XSee Map 2.1.2-1-A Average volume logged per acre was 61.5 M board feet on the 1,460 acres (590 ha) cut during the period 1921-1923. In a later year the cut reached a maximum of 115-125 MM board feet. 2.1.2-12 In 1921 the Company began large-scale operations on areas adjacent to the southeast corner of the U.B.C. Research Forest. Headquarters were moved to Allco (on the South Alouette to the north-east of Haney), and logs were dumped in the Fraser River one mile east of Haney to be sold on the open market. Gradually operations extended into the area now known as U.B.C. Research Forest and camps were established at Alouette, Mike, and Jacob's (Marion) Lakes, and on Gold Creek fla t s , in addition to the headquarters at Allco. Most of the logging was done by cold decking and swinging, although an incline was used at Mike Lake. Six locomotives were employed and many miles of railway grade were constructed, a l l by hand labour. Gravel came from the foot of Alouette Lake. Company operations were reduced by the depression and the main operation closed in 1931 after the f i r e that burned over the A and L holdings (Map 2.1.2-2-A) . Approximately 1,800 acres (730 ha) of the timber berth, mainly at higher elevations, remained to be logged. Logging continued for several years on a small scale along the shores of Alouette Lake. 2.1.2-13 In 1933, an unsuccessful attempt was made to exchange the Timber Berth for an equivalent value of Crown timber at Salmon River; at that time the British Columbia Forest Service cruised the Berth and estimated i t s volume at 41 million board feet. However, the Berth was reduced in size, most of i t reverting to the Crown. With the extension of Garibaldi Park down to Maple Ridge, the remaining portions of the Berth reverted to the Crown and were placed in the Park. 2.1.2-14 The B and K Logging Co. operated on Raven Creek from 1921 to 1931 and logged Timber Berth 351 (Map 2.1.2-1-A), a part of which lay in the northern portion of the present Forest. Logs were transported to Pitt Lake by a sky line from the end of the company's railway. B & K LOGGING (BROWN AND KIRKLAND) 11 2.1.2-15 In September 1925 a f i r e started near Alouette Lake, swept across an area of 1,560 acres (630 ha) of logging slash, and destroyed twenty million board feet of timber and two yarding machines (Map 2.1.2-2-A). On slopes the burn was very severe and l e f t only a thin covering of s o i l . The f i r s t fires in the area adjacent to Spur 17, a main branch of the railway, occurred in February, March and August of 1926. 2.1.2-16 Sparks caused by a line striking some rocks on the B and K operation started a f i r e in July 1931. It was fought a l l night and thought to be under control the next morning, but i t suddenly flared up, crowned and travelled northward to Pitt Lake and southward to the A and L operations, burning a l l the slash up to the main line at Mike Lake (Map 2.1.2-2-A). The f i r e was fought for 33 days before the main crew was laid off. Up to 2,500 men were employed on the f i r e at one time; one hundred men were camped at Blaney Lake for six weeks, and supplies were back-packed from Mr . Marc's farm. This f i r e destroyed a l l of the A and L operations. THE 1925/26 FIRES THE 1931 FIRE 2.1.2-17 The U.B.C. Research Forest is situated in the one time Railway Belt. This tract was administered by the Federal Government until 1930 when i t was transferred back to the Province. Timber Berths "W", 351, and 609 were staked in 1900, 1909, and 1923 respectively (Map 2.1.2-1-A). Timber Berths "W" and 351 were in large part logged and then reverted to the Crown. Timber Berth 609 was held by the Webber Lumber Company for several years before i t reverted, uncut, to the Crown. When the Garibaldi Park Boundary was extended toward what is now the Municipality of Maple Ridge in 1968, i t included part of what is now the U.B.C. Research Forest. EARLY ADMINISTRATION 2.1.2-18 In 1927, a t r i a l of about eight exotic species EARLY including Sequoria gigantea, Ponderosa pine, Scots pine, RESEARCH Siberian larch, elm, ash and red oak was established by the B.C. Forest Service one mile east of the present U.B.C. Research Forest and two nearby areas were broadcast seeded with western red cedar. In the period 1928-30, the logged-over portions of Timber Berth "W" (Map 2.1.2-1-A) were examined for the purpose of recording vegetational changes taking place after logging. A line of plots was established by the B.C. Forest Service to give a typical cross-section of each setting. 2.1.2-19 In about 1912, a party of forestry students from EARLY Michigan spent the summer on Mr. McCormick's property, EDUCATION engaging in f i r e protection, cruising and related exercises. On March 1, 1943, the Provincial Government set aside from Garibaldi Park under lease to the University an area of 9,774 acres (3,957 ha) between Haney and Pitt Lake designated, at that time, as the University Forest Reserve. The lease was for 21 years, subject to renewal i f the Reserve was being used for the purposes intended, which were defined as "for forestry demonstration purposes". During 1943-45 road surveys were made to establish the f i r s t road into the University Forest, to Loon Lake. A gi f t of $25,000 by Dr. H.R. McMillan, together with a grant by the Board of Governors of the University of British Columbia, provided the funds for building the two and one-half miles of road (four kilometers) which was completed in October 1946. Prior to this time the only connection between Loon Lake and the end of the Municipal road from Haney at the Marc homestead, was a fisherman's t r a i l . THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY FOREST RESERVE The preliminary work of clearing, stumping, and. grading a campsite at Loon Lake to provide accomodation for students, instructors and research workers was started in the autumn of 1946. A portable sawmill was set up at the site to slab the logs required for the buildings, to saw shakes and boards from standing dead cedar, and to cut other lumber needed for floors, doors and window frames. The adjacent forest provided a l l of the wood for building. In 1947, financial support was pledged by the Forest Industry for the construction of Loon Lake Camp, contingent upon the Crown-Granting of the area to the University by the Provincial Government. The Crown Grant was issued to the University on March 25, 1949, and the British Columbia Loggers' Association gave $140,000 for the completion of Loon Lake Camp. THE 1949 CROWN GRANT During the f i r s t decade (1949-1958) the i n i t i a l steps THE FIRST were taken to change the U.B.C. Forest from an unorganized DECADE and inaccessible forest area to a managed forest 1949-1958 estate. Logging operations provided revenue for the building of roads, buildings and other necessary f a c i l i t i e s . The declared aim was to provide a well-managed, self sustaining forest area that would serve to best advantage the needs of research, education, demonstration, and recreation. Development followed a distinct pattern. F a c i l i t i e s for education were the f i r s t to be provided. A road (2.1.2-20) was built to connect Loon Lake in the west-central section of the Forest with the public road ending at Mr. Marc's Crown Grant in the southern part. Loon Lake Camp (2.1.2-21 and 22) was constructed and o f f i c i a l l y opened on September 15, 1950. In May 1954 at a ceremony at Loon Lake, attended by 200 guests prominent in government, industry, and education, the U.B.C. Research Forest was dedicated as the f i r s t certified Tree Farm in British Columbia by the Canadian Forestry Association (Figure 2.1.2-24-A). TREE FARM NO. 1 11 2.1.2-25 Concurrent with Camp and road construction, steps were taken to prepare for more intensive management. From 1945 to 1948, one or two students had been employed each summer by the University with grants from the B.C. Research Council for two projects, one concerned with the ecology of the timber edges adjacent to cut over areas, and the other with the survey of regeneration on logged areas. A Resident Forester was appointed in July 1948 and in April 1956, a Research Forester was added to the staff. In December 1956 an Administration building was completed, located at the entrance to the Forest. Funds available at f i r s t , amounted to an annual grant of $7,000 from the University, sufficient only for staff salaries and necessary supplies and expenses. Consequently, act i v i t i e s in the early years were restricted largely to reconnaissance and mapping of topography and forest cover and the establishment of a few sample plots. STUDENT EMPLOYMENT RESIDENT AND RESEARCH FORESTERS APPOINTED REC0NNAISSANC1 MAPPING 2.1.2-26 1951 By 1951 the preliminary surveying and mapping of the U.B.C. Research Forest was completed with a five percent timber cruise and the establishment of baseline control. Excluding P i t t Lake Slope i n the northwest the total estimated volume of merchantable timber twelve inches (30 cm) and larger in diameter was eighty-two million board feet. A twenty percent cruise was undertaken on 1600 acres (650 ha) of mature timber. One quarter of the surveyed area comprised non-productive sites and fu l l y stocked 20 year old reproduction. Of the remaining 3,000 acres (1210 ha) a fringe along the timber edge was f u l l y stocked while the rest was a complex mixture with varying degrees of stocking salmon-berry and bare ground. PRELIMINARY SURVEYS CRUISE DETAILS 2.1.2-27 1952 In the face of financial limitations, the relatively small scale logging of the earliest years-salvage logging of dead cedar over 450 acres (182 ha) and right-of-way timber along the Loon Lake road in 1951 - gave way to a large scale logging involving an estimated 6 million board feet. The i n i t i a l undated, descriptive Management Plan (a copy of which is not available), was revised and a fire-control plan prepared, 2.1.2-28 1953 In 1953 operations and development increased greatly and timber sale activity in particular was much expanded. The sale of dead cedar continued in the area south of Blaney Lake. The sale of the Loon Lake road right-of-way timber was completed. A 10 acre (4 ha) clear cut was made in decadent, mistle-toe infected western hemlock and western red cedar immediately southeast of Loon Lake Camp. One hundred and f i f t y acres (66 ha) of patchy old growth consisting of decadent f i r , cedar, and hemlock situated on both sides of the North Alouette River adjacent to the southern boundary of the Forest were sold. This timber was decadent but of high quality and unusually large quantities of windfalls were found to be merchantable. An estimated volume of 6 million board feet was included and three years allowed for logging. TIMBER SALE ACTIVITIES INCREASE ZD 2.1.2-29 Road construction was extended and where possible old railway logging grades were used as roads. The locations of the old railway logging grades on the Forest are shown in Map 2.1.2-29-A. The longest section of new road was 8,500 feet (2600 m) and was constructed in the Alouette River sale area and was located to provide the f i r s t stage of a proposed main north-south haul road. The Loon lake road was joined to the railroad spurs in the cut-over area by 6,200 feet (1890 m) of road north of Blaney Lake. The main railroad grade (Spur 17) was opened from Placid Lake in the northern part of the Forest, south and eastward for approximately five miles to connect with the road system in Garibaldi Park. Construction was begun on 1,500 feet (457 m) of road to connect 14th Avenue, below the Marc Homestead, with the Alouette River road in order to bypass excessive grades on the 14th Avenue h i l l . The Management Plan was again revised and approved. It remained descriptive rather than prescriptive. Both revenues and expenditures greatly increased over previous years. ROAD CONSTRUCTION ACCELERATED USE OF OLD RAILWAY GRADES 2.1.2-30 1954 In 1954 two new sales were made for the salvage of dead cedar from about 700 acres (280 ha) of cut-over lands. Several thousand feet of new road were constructed on the west side of the North Alouette River and the east-west road joining Loon Lake road with Spur 17 (Map 2.1.2-29-A). One mile of railroad grade east of the Alouette River timber sale was opened and connected to the railroad spur at Mike Lake and the road network in the timber sale area. By the end of 1954 approximately ten miles of roads were in use, providing access to the Loon Lake Camp, the old logged areas as far north as Placid Lake, and the south-eastern part of the Forest, and seven miles of road were under construction A f i r e control plan was completed. Four water holes were constructed in the drier areas of the old, cut-over lands. MORE TIMBER SALES AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION FIRE .CONTROL PLAN PREPARED 2.1.2-31 At the close of 1954 the U.B.C. Research Forest was in the favourable financial position of having substantial reserve funds. The timber-sale policy had become well established and an adequate annual income was reasonably assured. Up to this time, operation and development had concentrated on logging and road construction. Very l i t t l e had been done to prepare sites, control brush, improve stands, or plant on a large scale. 2.1.2-32 1955 By the end of 1955, eight timber sales were in operation. Four sales encompassed dead cedar on the old logged and burned areas, while the balance comprised right-of-way timber, the large (continuing) timber sale adjacent to the southern boundary, an area one-half mile west of Loon Lake Camp, and a sale planned as a "commercial thinning" (to salvage dead and down cedar), although the thinning included a portion of the residual stand. The f i r s t cedar pole sale was designed as a pre-logged operation in an over-mature stand scheduled for clear cutting. By the end of 1955, approximately 2,200 acres (890 ha) were included in contracts for salvage and timber sales. A total of 4,993,000 board feet of scaled volume was logged during the year. FAVOURABLE FINANCIAL POSITION NO STAND TENDING OR LARGE SCALE PLANTING SALES OF DEAD CEDAR "THINNING" OPERATIONS Road construction and rehabilitation continued and by year end about 17 miles (27.2 km) of road were usable. Operations including pruning of open grown twenty year old Douglas-fir on f i f t y acres (20 ha) and snag f a l l i n g over several hundred. A f i r e suppression and maintenance crew of Canadian Forestry Association Junior Forest Wardens was employed during the summer on a variety of miscellaneous operations; similar crews were to be employed in subsequent years. HIGH PRUNING FIRE SUPPRESSION AND MAINTENANCE CREW 2.1.2-33 1956 The year 1956 saw changes in policy. Develop-ment to that time had emphasized road construction and the sale of timber. However, i t was evident that construction and the sale of timber had outstripped maintenance and essential s i l v i c u l t u r a l operations and problems of brush and slash disposal had begun to accumulate. In this year site preparation and planting operations were started and 40,000 Douglas-f i r seedlings were planted. However, the programme of road construction continued with completion of 4,500 feet (1370 m) of new road. Excessive damage to the Loon Lake road, due to exceptionally heavy f a l l rains, was made good. Culverts were reconstructed and other repairs were made on roads. West of Jacob's (Marion) Lake there were three new timber sales: one sale of right-of-way timber, one for shingle bolts and cedar logs l e f t after shake operations and a sealed tender sale for cedar on 250 acres (101 ha) of logged road west of Spur 17, (Map 2.1.2-29-A). Three other timber sales were extended in time, and three sales completed, including the large sale started in 1954. Approximately 4.06 million board feet were logged plus a large volume of shakes, blanks and shingle bolts. Revenues were the highest on record. PLANTING COMMENCED MORE TIMBER SALES 2.1.2-34 1957 During 1957/58 timber sale activity continued at a high level. In progress were the following salvage operations for the removal of sp l i t cedar and other forest products: two cedar pole sales (one to pre-log an old growth stand and the other to cut selectively a younger stand). one salvage and low thinning sale in a 65 year old stand (to remove small logs, posts, poles, pilings and pulpwood). - a salvage sale of f i r e damaged timber. - a sale of right-of-way timber. - two sales of overmature timber (one of 70 acres (24 ha) and the other of 8 acres (3.2 ha)). Product details are summarized in Table 2.1.2-34-A. A new product, hemlock pulpwood, previously unmerchantable, appeared in 1957 and made possible the salvage of formerly unmerchantable material and the commercial thinning in some second growth stands. HIGH LEVEL OF TIMBER SALES 2.1.2-35 Road construction and maintenance continued with a total of seven miles (11 km) or road constructed or made usable from old railroad spur lines. Access was provided to a timber sale at Goose Lake, the road being built by the contractor as part of the terms of the timber sale. Access was provided to the southeastern parts of the Forest. The original Loon Lake road was again repaired. Planting was carried out on 145 acres (59 ha), as follows: Old A and L cut over (15 ha -37 acres). Planted 2+0 Douglas-fir. Old A and L cut over (24.7 ha - 61 acres) Spot seeded redcedar. Alouette River Sale (0.8 ha - 2 acres). Planted poplar. Alouette River Sale (18.2 ha - 45 acres). Planted 2+0 Douglas-fir. Snag f a l l i n g continued. The Junior Forest Warden SNAG Crew was enlarged. Primary development was completed FALLING on the southern half of the Forest. Four north-south roads, less than half a mile apart, provided access to a l l areas. A l l overmature and decadent timber had been logged except for areas reserved for demonstration and research. A start had been made on rehabilitating old and new cut-over areas. Snags had largely been eliminated. 2.1.2-36 The Fire Control Plan and the Management Plan were revised. Road construction and timber sale activity continued at a high level. The bridge spanning Blaney Creek on Road M was replaced and a garage/workshop was constructed adjacent to the Administration offices. Planting and snag f a l l i n g continued and a slash f i r e escaped during site preparation a c t i v i t i e s , burning approximately 50 acres (19 ha) of slash. A l l operations on the Forest were reported as "satisfactory" and timber sales produced a good income. A summary of activities for the years 1948-1957 is shown in Table 2.1.2-36-A. FIRE CONTROL • AND MANAGEMENT PLAN REVISION 1948-1957 ACTIVITY SUMMARY 2.1.2-37 The teaching programme. During the f i r s t decade (1948-1958) extensive use was made of the U.B.C. Research Forest for teaching purposes. An annual camp extending over three weeks, was held each year when third year forestry students were given an intensive course covering various types of practical forestry work. Especially in the early years, much of this programme contributed to the development of the Forest and many of the road surveys, cruises, and related ac t i v i t i e s were undertaken by students. The potential of the Forest as an educational centre was seen largely in terms of a managed unit along industrial lines. An industrial approach was emphasized with considerable emphasis on current industrial practice. ANNUAL CAMPS FOR U.B.C. FORESTRY STUDENTS 2.1.2-38 The research programme 1949-1958. Prior to 1949 there was only limited research activity. In 1949 the forest industries of British Columbia provided funds with which to begin a research programme. From then, EXPANDING research steadily expanded by means of funds from RESEARCH the University, and from the sale of timber, and during the subsequent decade, the research programme of the Faculty of Forestry was centered around the U.B.C. Research Forest. A major impetus came in 1956 with the appointment of a Research Forester to the Forest staff. Sixty-three projects were undertaken (Appendix 2.1.2-38-A), many publications, reports and theses were produced (Appendix 2.1.2-38-B) and the U.B.C. Research Forest became widely recognized for i t s research 23 contribution. This reputation was gained quickly, and largely at a time when funds and staff were limited, and, i t appears that these limitations were responsible for the circumstances that a l l research projects, with the notable exception of a thinning project initiated in 1949, were short term and observational. The emphasis on large scale operation and the commercial pressures inevitably present in a business enterprise undoubtedly interfered with the establishment of long term s i l v i c u l t u r a l studies and served to reduce the area available for demonstration and experimentation (Appendix 2.1.2-38-C). 2.1.2-39 1959-1973 The following section continues in "diary" form with selected topics extracted from Annual Reports, minutes of meetings of various committees and records of the Forest. Note should be taken of the brief references to policy, the development of work programmes (e.g. timber harvesting) and the general trend of developments over the period. A short summary concludes the section. 2.1.2-40 1959 A pamphlet was produced by the U.B.C. Extension Department to inform the public of the story of the Research Forest. It stated that the four principal functions of the Forest were research, student training, demonstration and recreation. The publication went on to describe the Forest area, and related a c t i v i t i e s . Also, a booklet entitled "The First Decade of Management and Research - U.B.C. Forest 1949-1958", describing the history of the f i r s t 10 years was produced by the Faculty of Forestry. DIARY 1959 2.1.2-41 A report to the Forest Committee of the Faculty of Forestry at U.B.C. noted that the four principal functions FUNCTIONS OF (research, student training, demonstration and recreation) RESEARCH FOREST which had been set out in the Extention Department pamphlet in 1959 (paragraph 2.1.2-40) received equal emphasis. The Committee considered that the terms of reference of the U.B.C. Research Forest should be re-stated, with policy relating to each function clearly detailed. Recommendations were made to create a reserve area within the virgin timber (old growth), to maintain an area in a "natural state", and to use the Forest as a centre of s i l v i c u l t u r a l experimentation, free from the commercial pressures of timber exploitation. ATTEMPTS TO CREATE RESERVES 2.1.2-42 The Forest Research Committee proposed that a 500-600 RESERVE acre (200-250 ha) block in the north-east of the Forest PROPOSAL should be set aside as a designated reserve. (The Forest DEFEATED consisted of only Block I at this time - see map, Appendix 2.1.2-2-A. Block II - see map, Appendix 2.1.2-79-A - was not acquired until 1968). The motion to create the reserve was later defeated and the reserve l i f t e d . Proposals were made concerning an Arboretum and the Committee called for specific recommendations. i f Six new timber sales were awarded during the year, ten were completed and eight extended for another year. Roads continued to be built by contractors for access to their respective Timber Sale Areas. MORE TIMBER SALES Improvements were made to the Camp at Loon Lake and a six week camp for handicapped children was held. Several f i e l d trips were organized and the Fire Protection Plan was updated. CAMP USE EXTENDED Agreement could not be reached between the Forest and the Western Horsemen's Association on the use of the Forest by riders and the problem of access in general was discussed. Gates were installed across the main entrance to the Forest. GATE INSTALLED AT MAIN ENTRANCE 1960 The number of timber sales contined to rise and extensions were granted to selected sales already in operation. The Forest produced a wide range of timber products. Sales included cedar blanks (for sawn shingles), shakes and grape shakes, alder and birch, and a wide range of sawlogs, peeler logs, poles and pilings. Extra payments were made to contractors for avoiding damage to standing "plus" trees and a donkey engine (working in conjuction with a wooden spar) was s t i l l in use in the logging operations. The Forest used rented equipment from Whonnock Lumber Company and employed labour from the Company to assist in comparing logging costs between different operators. The results of the study were published in 1961 (Faculty of Forestry Research Paper 41 - Cost analysis of mobile logging operations on the U.B.C. Research Forest"). Much of the sawlog and peeler material was boomed and sold on the Vancouver Log Market. Two and a half miles (4 km) of new road was constructed to f a c i l i t a t e timber harvesting. In addition, a transit survey of the existing road system was commenced with tally points (control points) established at 5 chain (100 metre) intervals along the roads. 1960 FURTHER TIMBER SALES FOREST RENTS HARVESTING EQUIPMENT The University Forest Committee agreed that no operation EXPENDITURE should be carried out unless i t was shown that the cost LIMITS of the operation would be returned at a reasonable rate of interest and profit. Upper levels of expenditure for re-establishing the felled areas were set (using c r i t e r i a l related to site index). It was agreed, however, that there were many times when overly expensive operations were desireable for demonstration or research purposes. The Junior Forest Wardens programme, instituted in 1959, continued. An additional staff member was taken on as STAFF ADDITIONS an Assistant to the Resident Forester to assist in supervision of the timber sales. His duties also included taking over planting and site preparation programmes for the Research Forester. Plans were formulated to build a sawmill on the Forest SAWMILL on one of the timber sale areas. In this way i t was ESTABLISHED hoped to realise maximum returns from marginal products. A small sawmill was built in 1960 and ran with marginal success u n t i l 1962. Co-operation was sought with other agencies on various projects. The Forest co-operated with the B.C. Forest Service on f i r e control and f i r e weather calculation, as well as snag f e l l i n g problems in the A & L Lands. as 2.1.2-50 1961 The Management Policy of the Research 1961 Forest was re-defined by the Forest Research Committee as: "1. The University Forest i s managed to provide a sustained and maximum income, consistent with effective use of the property for research, teaching, demonstration, and public recreation. Income from the Forest w i l l be used to maintain the capital value of the POLICY Forest in such a manner that these primary uses STATEMENT w i l l be maximized. 2. The principle objective of the research programme w i l l be to study the management, s i l v i c s , and silviculture of western hemlock, Douglas-fir, and western red cedar in the Research Forest as a sample of the Coastal Western Hemlock zone. 3. In the continuance of existing projects and in the development of new programmes, somewhat more emphasis w i l l be placed on studies of western hemlock than on Douglas-fir, and less on western red cedar." (Forest Research Committee Minutes, February 1961). 2.1.2-51 The reserve fund reached an adequate level and i t RESERVE appeared desirable to carry out an expanded FUND programme of research and operations. It was noted ADEQUATE that the research programme could be aided by the addition of a f i e l d laboratory. However, i t was agreed that research would not ordinarily be undertaken by the Forest staff in the fundamental aspects of fi r e control, tree physiology, soils and synecology. Co-operation in these fields would be extended to interested agencies, subject to other commitments, and from time to time, members of the teaching staff of the Faculty of Forestry, or others, might be appointed through the Research Committee to undertake specific projects in co-operation with the Research Forester. 2.1.2-52 Timber harvesting operations continued in 1961 FURTHER although a f i r e closure during the summer and severe HARVESTING winter conditions, kept the level of operations below AND ROAD that of the previous year. A further 1% miles CONSTRUCTION (2.4 km) of road was constructed and i t was recognized that a grader would be required in future to assist with the increased road maintenance. Re-establishment operations included slashburning, planting and some pruning. 2.1.2-53 The use of the Forest for recreation purposes increased RECREATIONAL and gates were constructed to restrict vehicular USE access. Relations with the public were recognized INCREASES as generally good, and the Resident Forester gave several talks to groups during the year. 1962 Major changes took place in the management, 1962 administration and operations on the Forest. T.G. Wright became Dean, Professor F.M. Knapp retired DIRECTOR as Director (Appendix 2.1.10.3-6-A) and a new Director RETIRES (Mr. R. Breadon) was appointed. The duties of the Resident Forester were directed more towards logging and f i r e control. A new steel spar was secured in time to assist in clearing up the ravages of Typhoon TYPHOON Frieda (Appendix 2.3.2-1-A). This October storm FRIEDA caused a major change in operation schedules and a STRIKES programme to clear the devastated patches (amounting to over 270 acres (110 ha)) was formulated. A new committee called the Logging Committee was formed "to investigate various logging methods that might be feasible on the Forest". Concurrently with these events, operational cruising was being done on a l l second growth and old growth stands to provide inventory data, and f i e l d survey work was i n progress to provide information for a new series of maps. Aerial photographs were taken in conjunction with this programme. Re-establishment of tree crops on logged over areas continued, and slashburning, planting and pruning were carried out as was alder control on roadsides and in plantations. Fire Index rating standards were established and revision of the Fire Control Plan commenced. During the year, the Camp f a c i l i t i e s at Loon Lake were CAMP WELL well used and the upgrading of the Camp's f a c i l i t i e s UTILIZED continued. Due to inclement weather, a number of conference groups cancelled. The Canadian Forestry Association Junior Wardens continued their involvement at the Forest and a further work programme was formulated for the group. OPERATIONAL CRUISE AIR PHOTOGRAPHS STAND TENDING CONTINUES A radical step away from the policy of restricted access was taken by admitting hunters (with vehicles) from the local Rod and Gun Club. This club reported 142 v i s i t s and a harvest of 12 deer. HUNTERS ADMITTED TO FOREST 1963 The duties of the Director were reviewed and re-stated as;-"The University Forest exists to serve the Faculty, the students, the University and the Public. The Director of the Forest must recommend policy and supervise the Forest with the objective of attaining these ends in an efficient manner within the limitations of staff and budget." (T.G. Wright, April, 1963.) About this time, a report was submitted to the newly formed Faculty of Forestry Forest Advisory Committee by the Logging Committee urging the development of logging techniques within second-growth areas. The f i n i t e nature of the old growth area was recognised and although the operations were regularly used to demonstrate methods to the students, the current logging practices in the old growth did not differ greatly from other logging areas on the Coast. LOGGING TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT URGED IN SECOND-GROWTH If The Logging Committee urged the study of handling of smaller second growth material and the introduction of smaller equipment for this purpose. Logging methods in 1963 included highlead yarding with a 70' (21 m) steel spar, and skidding with a caterpillar and other tractors. At one time during the year, a wooden spar was raised to open a second "side". In view of the favourable prices, salvage operations resulting from Typhoon Frieda were continued at a rapid pace, together with an extension of the road system. The Forest inventory was partially completed, and a preliminary 5 year logging and road development plan was outlined (Table 2.1.2-61-A). Maps were prepared using the inventory data that was available. About this time, the concept of a s t r i c t annual allowable cut was dropped and a periodic cut was introduced. In view of the high timber prices, approval was given by the Research Forest Advisory Committee to log somewhat more than previously intended (more than the estimated sustainable yield) and u t i l i z e the proceeds for development, management and research. INVENTORY PARTIALLY COMPLETED PERIODIC CUT INTRODUCED The Forest was extensively used by students, recreation-a l i s t s , professional bodies and many visitors and the Haney Rod and Gun Club recorded 286 v i s i t s to the Forest and a harvest of 11 deer. RECREATION USE 1964 Early in the year, concern was expressed by members of the Logging Committee over proposals for the increase in the cut over previous years. However, i t was noted that a cut-back would result in having to amend the cutting plans. The concept of the periodic cut was confirmed (2.1.2-62) to take advantage of the market conditions. Detailed inventory and mapping were completed. 1964 PERIODIC CUT INCREASED The salvage cutting of timber blown down by Typhoon Frieda continued, and logging continued in the old-growth areas. A wide variety of products were sold and included poles, pilings and sawlogs. Heavy snowfall curtailed operations early in the season, but due to the large amount of equipment in use (four "high lead" settings and four caterpillar skidding operations), a large volume of timber was extracted and sold. Horses were used on some salvage (re-logging) areas and greased chutes were used to supplement the more conventional harvesting methods. SALVAGE AND OLD-GROWTH LOGGING CONTINUES The use of the Forest by fishermen at Loon Lake and hunters from the Rod and Gun Club continued, the latter reporting 173 v i s i t s and a harvest of 6 deer. To avoid conflict with other Forest users, hunting was confined to Sundays and holidays. FISHING AND HUNTING CONTINUES 1965 Opinions were expressed about this time that the 1965 size of the Forest compared favourable with other University Forests in North America. It was noted that only about one third of these were self-supporting, and that a good case could be made for the University assuming the long-term responsibility for financing teaching, demonstration and research programmes on the U.B.C. Research Forest. Such support would be required i f the stand improvement programmes required to re-establish the areas devastated by Typhoon Frieda and through logging,were expanded. I* 2.1.2-68 2.1.2-69 2.1.2-70 The main salvage operations resulting from Typhoon Frieda reached a peak and were drawing to a close during 1965. An area exceeding 200 acres (81 ha) was slashburned and an area where slash-burning was unsuccessful was scarified using a caterpillar tractor. The completion of the inventory produced information which permitted the calculation of an annual allowable cut of 900,000 cubic feet (31,800 cubic metres) based on an eighty year.rotation. A table was compiled to show how the harvest on the Forest had fared historically and i s reproduced in Table 2.1.2-68-A. Many improvements were made to the Loon Lake Camp and, as in previous years, i t was utilized by v i s i t i n g groups and students from the Faculty of Forestry. Recreation visitors included the fishermen at Loon Lake, and the 229 hunters from the Rod and Gun clubs of Maple Ridge and Coquitlam for a harvest of 11 deer. INVENTORY COMPLETED IMPROVEMENTS TO LOON LAKE CAMP RECREATION 1966 The Forest saw changes in administrative control in 1966 (Mr. J. Walters - the present Director (1981) -assumming the duties of Mr. B. Breadon), and decisions were taken related to policy and function of the Research Forest. It was recognized that education, demonstration and research were largely inseparable in the context of their academic application, and i t was decided that the objectives as stated in 1958 (2.1.2-41) should be amended, and "recreation" dropped from the four principle objectives Greater involvement of the University was sought and to this end, a statement was circulated to Deans and Heads of other University departments describing the Forest and encouraging inquiries about the area. Demonstration of advanced forest management techniques was proposed and i t was recognized that the Forest should be looked upon as an outdoor laboratory for researchers and a classroom for students, as opposed to the Forest being a demonstration of purely sustained yield. 1966 CHANGE OF DIRECTOR 2.1.2-71 A further major change occurred in administrative control. The University Forest Advisory Committee no longer managed the Forest, but offered advice to the Dean and Director from time to time. The Director assummed control, with one professional assistant. The dependence on summer help was discontinued and a full-time technical staff employed. Separation of operational and research duties by the Forest staff ended. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL CHANGES 2.1.2-72 2.1.2-73 Harvesting continued, but due to a depressed log market, output was confined to old-growth timber. The pulpwood market was weak and losses were recorded on this category. With the extension of harvesting into the granitic-cored uplands the cost of road construction rose as considerable blasting was required. Nearly 90 acres (36.44 ha) were slash-burned and about 11 acres (4.45 ha) were scarified. Planting and weeding of plantations continued. Considerable improvements were made to Loon Lake Camp and a new 24 bed dormitory was bu i l t . The Camp was well used by students and the size and frequency of groups v i s i t i n g the Camp reflected the growing popularity of the installation. The fishing concession continued at Loon Lake and hunters from the local Rod and Gun Glub once again entered the Forest and in five days shot 14 deer. WEAK MARKETS SLASHBURNING, WEEDING AND CAMP IMPROVEMENT 71 2.1.2-74 1967 Several changes in administration and organization of the Forest took place in 1967. The appointment of J. Walters as Director (2.1.2-70) was confirmed and the distinction between research and operations as related to the duties of the staff was further emphasized. The sale of timber was rationalized and a l l timber was sold to one timber company, and a greater involvement by outside agencies than ever before took place with numerous non-Forest researchers i n i t i a t i n g projects on either an individual basis, or on behalf of an outside agency (rather than projects being initiated by the Forest staff as previously). 2.1.2-75 An overall road development plan was proposed and developed (Appendix 2.1.2-75-A). Thus, for the f i r s t time, the annual road building plan for the area would be able to follow a progressive, pre-determined pattern, rather than cater for the short-term harvesting requirements. 2.1.2-76 Forest re-establishment operations continued with slashburning, mechanical scarification, planting and plantation weeding. Reserves (2.1.2-42) on the Forest were increased with the addition of the Malcolm Knapp Reserve. The Arboretum (2.1.2-42), commenced i n 1959, was named in memory of Professor J.E. Bier, pathologist in the Faculty of Forestry at U.B.C. for many years. 2.1.2-77 The fishing concession on Loon Lake was continued by the Marc family, but due to the intensification of research, steps were taken to discontinue hunting by the Maple Ridge Rod and Gun Club. 2.1.2-78 International visitors to the Forest greatly increased as did the use of the Camp by groups from a wide range of back-grounds. Further improvements were made to the Camp, and a new 30 KW generator was installed. Plans were passed for an extension to the Administration Offices and construction commenced early in 1968. 2.1.2-79 1968 Additions were made to the land area of the Forest during the year. The Marc property, consisting of just over 150 acres (61 ha) in the south eastern part of the Forest was purchased for $100,000 by the University and an area of 2807 acres (1136 ha) adjoining the north and east boundaries (known as "Block II" - see Appendix 2.1.2-79-A) of the U.B.C. Research Forest was granted by the Crown. 2.1.2-80 The changes proposed for the internal administration (2.1.2-74) were implemented and Forest staff were used to service, rather than i n i t i a t e , research. The sale of timber was now confined to one company (Whonnock Lumber Co.), and a higher proportion of the harvest was coming from the second-growth areas. 2.1.2-81 The road construction associated with the timber harvesting was now following the new systematic road plan (Paragraph 2.1.2-75). By the end of the year, the Forest had the following lengths of roads: 6.97 miles of main road (11.15 km) 17.35 miles of secondary roads (27.76 km) 12.68 miles of branch roads (20.23 km) 7.12 miles of spur roads (11.39 km) 1967 ADMINISTRATIVE CHANGES MASTER ROAD PLAN MALCOLM KNAPP RESERVE ESTABLISHED HUNTING DISCONTINUED INCREASED VISITORS ADMINISTRATION OFFICE EXTENSION 1968 ADDITIONS TO RESEARCH FOREST INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION CHANGES SYSTEMATIC ROAD PLAN FOLLOWED 3* The operations of 1968 continued with a programme of slashburning*scarification, planting and weeding. The Camp was well ut i l i z e d by v i s i t o r s , and although the fishing concession continued on Loon Lake, the hunting priviledges extended to the local Road and . HUNTING Gun Clubs (2.1.2-77) were cancelled by mutual agreement CEASES to ensure the safety of the large numbers of researchers and v i s i t o r s . The extention to the Administration building was completed. 1969 A Long Range Policy Committee was formed in 1969 December to submit proposals on long range policy jHE LONG for forest land management. The committee was to RANGE POLICY submit proposals on both policy and management objectives>FORMULATION bearing in mind the integrated nature of the forest resource, and that the overriding objective of management should be to create an optimal environment for education (teaching and research), and that management strategies should be judged in terms of their contribution to this primary objective. On the Forest, the "ring" road was completed with the construction of almost a mile (1.6 km) of secondary road around the north end of Katherine Lake. With other construction, the total road length on the Forest was now 45.41 miles (72.66 km). An extensive programme of road maintenance was carried out as was a major programme of roadside brush control. Logging was done in both old growth and second growth areas. Survey control points (established in 1964) were cleared and painted, and a system of "sub-compartments" based on areas felled in various years was established. FOREST RING ROAD COMPLETED An Outdoor Education Programme was initiated for local school children and the Forest staff gave talks to a number of schools and clubs in the Maple Ridge District. The number of visitors continued to rise and a large number of tours of the Forest were arranged. Public fishing on Loon Lake was closed when the Marc family vacated their property. The closure of public fishing after 20 years was intended to pave way for increased research activities connected with fish populations on the Forest. 1970 The Long Range Policy Committee submitted their reports on Management Objectives and Policy. The philosophy of "Best-Use" was summarized in a state-ment to the U.B.C. Research Forest Advisory Committee and the.recommendations were as follows: OUTDOOR EDUCATION PROGRAMME COMMENCED FISHING DISCONTINUED 1970 POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS The purpose of the Research Forest is to provide an optimal environment for education in the applied and basic fields of forestry. 2. The policy of the Faculty should be to manage the Research Forest to the highest possible technical standards as an integrated, multi-use forest resource based on the concept of "Best-Use" forestry." v. 2.1.2-88 Forest research reflected changing social preferences and a number of research projects were initiated on the social aspects of forestry (Appendix 2.1.2-38-A). Examples of projects initiated were the development of an Outdoor Education Programme (with over 2,000 school children participating), trout egg collection for the purpose of breeding fish for sport fishing, and research into the effects of trees on the attenuation of noise (Appendix 2.1.2-38-A and B). 2.1.2-89 Logging continued with a strong emphasis on second growth areas (areas naturally established after wild-fires i n 1840 and 1868). A further road link was established by connecting the E and H10 road system between Loon and Gwendoline Lakes. A t i l t e d a i r s t r i p was used to demonstrate the use of inclined airstrips for aerial f e r t i l i z e r application (Appendix 2.1.9-7-A). 2.1.2-90 A major reduction in the Annual Allowable Cut (AAC) from 1,100,000 to 600,000 cubic feet (31,000 to 17,000 cubic metres) was made during the year (Appendix 2.1.2-90-A). This was necessary because of: CHANGING ROLE OF FOREST AIRSTRIP CONSTRUCTED REDUCTION IN ALLOWABLE CUT 1. Increased Reserve areas; 2. Establishment of Protective Forest on Pitt Slope, Golden Ears Slope, and along streams and lakes; 3. The poor market for small wood and ina b i l i t y to meet Close Utilization standards. 2.1.2-91 1971 A further major reduction in the AAC reduced 1971 the cut from 600,000 to 460,000 cubic feet (17,000 -13,000 cubic metres). The reduction was made as a result of a further detailed analysis (Appendix 2.1.2-90-A) of u t i l i z a t i o n standards, the forest inventory growth and yield data, and areas under research, protection reserves and education reserves. For several years, FURTHER some members of the Faculty of Forestry had been ALLOWABLE expressing concern at the rate of harvesting operations CUT on the Forest. However, because of inadequate inventory REDUCTIONS data and the necessity for subjectivity in arriving at certain factors used in calculations of allowable annual cuts (AAC), i t had been d i f f i c u l t to test the precision of such calculations. In 1970, the Forest staff had been engaged in the preparation of harvesting schedules for the next decade. During this work, i t quickly became apparent that, on the basis of 1966 (the date of the completion of the most recent inventory (.Appendix 2.1.2-90-A) to date), faculty concern over the rate of harvesting was j u s t i f i e d and that by 1981, a l l the mature stands (except those excluded from production as reserves, protection fringes around lakes, and inaccessible stands) would have been logged on both Blocks I and II. At this stage, the Forest administration would have to rely completely on revenue derived from harvesting the immature A and L (2.1.2-10) lands on the east side of the Forest though these stands would then have only reached about 45 years in age. Obviously, the merchantability of such stands would have been low and thus the revenue would also have been low. Moreover, in view of the over-estimation in the 1966 AAC calculation, the prolonged application of the AAC at the 1966 level, would compound the d i f f i c u l t y of establishing a normal age-class distribution without which future sustained yield would be d i f f i c u l t . 2.1.2-92 2.1.2-93 The implementation of the "Best-Use" management MANAGEMENT concept was taken a step further with tentative proposals CONCEPTS for inter-disciplinary studies and demonstrations CHANGING of integrated resource management (Appendix 2.1.2-38-C, Year 1971). A description of what "Best-Use" constituted "BEST-USE" was prepared, together with a map showing the relation-ship to management at the Research Forest. Proposals were also made by the Research Forest Si l v i c u l t u r a l Group (a group within the U.B.C. Research Forest Advisory Committee) for a Silvic u l t u r a l Description of the Forest. The information considered necessary to compile such a description was detailed and a budget was drawn up for the operation. Visitors to the Forest increased and an Open House drew over 4,000 people. The Outdoor Education School Programme commenced 5 day "l i v i n g i n " sessions at the Loon Lake Camp. OPEN HOUSE 2.1.2-94 Timber harvesting continued and now consisted almost entirely of second growth areas. A start was made on a main direct access road to Loon Lake Camp (Road C). Access to the Forest was restricted to the road through the Main Gate; other entrances to rthe Forest were closed. An extensive road maintenance programme was undertaken. SECOND GROWTH TIMBER HARVESTING 2.1.2-95 Brush control continued on roadsides and in plantations. BRUSH Areas were slashburned and a small section of land was CONTROL cleared by bulldozer for a seed orchard. PROBLEMS 2.1.2-96 1972 Notice was received that, although the B.C. Forest 1972 Service supported "Best-Use" interdisciplinary studies (2.1.2-92), they would not aid financially. The FINANCIAL implementation of the concept was, therefore, to be SUPPORT undertaken using the limited resources available to the Forest. A start was made on revising and extending the Research Forest Management Plan. 2.1.2-97 Logging continued in both old-growth and second growth areas, and t r i a l s were carried out to test the use of helicopters on the more inaccessible areas of the Pitt HELICOPTER Slope. The t r i a l s were only partially successful (see TRIALS FOR Research Project 72-6 - Appendix 2.1.2-38-A). HARVESTING 2.1.2-98 An area of about 34 acres (13.7 ha) was mechanically GROUND cleared and some slashburning was carried out. Planting CLEARANCE was limited due to non-completion of the clearcutting CONTINUED programme and poor success of the previous year's slashburning. 2.1.2-99 Improvements continued to be made to the Loon Lake Camp and a secondary sewage treatment system was installed. Both Camp and Forest were extensively used by v i s i t o r s . CAMP FURTHER IMPROVED 33 2.1.2-100 2.1.2-101 2.1.2-102 1973 The alignment of the B.C. Hydro line (Mica Dam project) right-of-way across the southern edge of the Forest was discussed, and a management plan for the development of the land under the power line was proposed. Requests were made to B.C. Hydro to fence the entire line to permit more easily controlled access. The local Rod and Gun Club approached the Forest with a request to use part of the land cut off by the power line,- but no action was taken. The Federal Penitentiary Service approached the Director for permission to build a small medium security installation on a portion of the Research Forest cut off by the Hydro line. While i t was considered that such an installation might bring abundant free labour, no action was taken until the matter was considered in detail and agreement had been reached by the Federal Penitentiary Service with the local municipality No agreement was ever reached. Extensive alterations were proposed at the Loon Lake Camp and the decision was made to construct a new mess-hal l and convert the existing messhall to a bunkhouse. A f u l l time Education Co-ordinator was employed by the Forest commencing January 1974, funded in part, by the Council of Forest Industries. The addition of this staff member was aimed at relieving the other staff members of work imposed by the school Outdoor Education Programme. 1973 POWER LINE RIGHT-OF-WAY DISCUSSED PROPOSED CHANGES AT LOON LAKE CAMP EDUCATION CO-ORDINATOR COMMENCES 2.1.2-103 An area of about 87 acres (35.2 ha) was logged, a l l in second-growth areas. Road building was limited to access roads for logging and a further programme of road maintenance was carried out. Site preparation for planting included mechanical land clearance, although no slash-burning was undertaken due to adverse weather conditions. Summary 1959 - 1973 2.1.2-104 During the course of the period 1959 - 1973, the Forest 1959 - 1973 underwent great changes. The changes were far reaching GREAT CHANGES and reflect, in part, the evolution through which the DURING PERIOD forest industry of B.C. was passing. 2.1.2-105 Although the function of the Forest as set out in the restrictive covenant (1.1-1) remained the same — "instruction, and demonstration" — the interpretation CHANGING ROLE of how this function should be f u l f i l l e d changed radically. OF FOREST For many years, the Forest was used to demonstrate sustained yield and current logging practices, and almost the entire effort of both management and research was oriented around production of timber as a commercial crop. The Annual Reports and l i s t of Research Projects (Appendices 2.1.2-38-A, B, and C) indicates the strong bias of the early administrative and research effort toward industrial forestry and the subsequent broadening trend, reflecting a shift in policy and increased use of the Forest by researchers from other agencies. 3f 2.1.2-106 The use and management policies in the recent past, show the trend away from timber management alone towards an interdisciplinary approach to integrated forest management. These changes reflect current thought within the Faculty of Forestry, the B.C. Forest Service and the Provincial forest industry with respect to forest management. MANAGEMENT TRENDS 2.1.2-107 Thus, over the last 15 years, the shift has been away from a pre-occupation with timber values, to an interdisciplinary approach that attempts to optimize the whole forest resource. Indications of this evalution can be seen in Table 2.1.2-107-A and Figures 2.1.2-107-A and B. 2.1.2-108 The Forest i s f u l f i l l i n g i t s role by evolving to FOREST meet the requirements of education, research and society EVOLVING as a whole. The rapid increase in researcher v i s i t s (Appendix 2.1.2-38-C, Years 1959 - 1973), school parties and casual visitors provides an indication of the interest and the success of the policies. This evolution i s a continuous process, and the management framework, while providing st a b i l i t y for the day to day running of the Forest, to be successful must provide most of a l l a format that reflects the requirements of society, not merely at the present day, but in the future as best as this may be determined. 2.1.2-109 In hindsight, the Forest might have been better served by an early Management Plan directed to other than a purely timber production policy, but this is not necessarily an adverse feature of the early history, having regard to the Forest's role and the original Objectives of Management. HINDSIGHT 2.1.2-110 Many activities and techniques have been attempted at the U.B.C. Research Forest and although these have not always been successful, they have provided valuable examples of former practices and management methodology. It is not suggested that there has been a deliberate policy of "bad practice" but through implementing contemporary policies, examples are provided — whether successful or not — for a l l to see. For example, the pattern of increased u t i l i z a t i o n and expenditure set by operations to salvage timber in the wake of Typhoon Frieda (while continuing normal logging in the mature stands), which set a pattern of increased logging that continued after the salvage was completed, was in direct conflict with the sustained yield principles that policy declared to be pre-eminent. 2.1.2-111 The forest i s , in fact, an experiment in i t s e l f but also reflects, in microcosm, the historical development of the treatment of the Coastal Forest in British Columbia. A valuable function of the Forest i s the provision of a wide variety of examples, both good and bad, of management and cultural operations, within a relatively small area. EXAMPLES AT FOREST FOREST A MICROCOSM 35 2.1.3 The Topography of the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.3-1 The topography of the U.B.C. Research Forest is TOPOGRAPHY very broken (Map 2.1.3-1-A). The land form is one indication of massive disturbance during the last ice age about 10,000 years ago. In general the area i s r o l l i n g to f a i r l y steep f o o t h i l l country. Elevations range from sea level at Pitt Lake in the north west and Pitt Meadows on the south west to 1020 metres (3,350 feet) near the north boundary. Two thirds of the Forest is located below the 500 metre (1640 foot) contour. The general slope of the country i s towards the south, but several north-south ridges provide variation in aspect and sites which give a great variety of forest conditions. The f l a t agricultural land of Pitt Meadows is within half a mile of the west boundary. To the south is the ro l l i n g farm and woodlot land of the Maple Ridge countryside, now rapidly becoming urbanized. 2.1.3-2 The main drainages of the Research Forest are provided DRAINAGE by the North Alouette River in the east, and Blaney Creek in the west (Map 2.1.3-2-A) The North Alouette River is 10 metres (30 feet) or more wide and cuts a deep channel across the southeast corner of the Forest. This river flows from the Golden Ears Park (16,900 ha.-: 43,000 acres) with i t s headwaters on the east slope of Golden Ears Mountain (1,078 m - 3800 f t ) . The North Alouette River enters the Forest just prior to i t s confluence with Jacob's Creek about 900 m (3,200 feet) south of Jacob's (Marion) Lake. 2.1.3-3 Jacob's Creek drains Gwendoline, Eunice and Jacob's LAKES (Marion) Lakes, the latter lake being near the south end of a broad valley which extends northward to Pitt Lake. A wide pass 400 metres (1,300 feet) above sea level, about 3.2 km (2 miles) north of Jacob's (Marion) Lake, is the divide between the north and south drainages. From this divide the land slopes gently to the north down the valley to Raven Creek whence i t drops very steeply to Pitt Lake. The north boundary of the Forest crosses the valley approximately 2.8 km (1 3/4 miles) north of the divide. The north east corner of the U.B.C. Forest is on the lower slopes of Golden Ears Mountain, where the highest point on the Forest is found at an elevation of 1020 metres (3,350 feet) above sea level. 2.1.3-4 To the west of Jacob's (Marion) Lake a long ridge, with CENTRAL maximum elevation of 610 m (2,000 feet) above sea level, RIDGE extends to the north making an impassable barrier except for one high pass to the west of the divide to Raven Creek. 2.1.3-5 The central portion of the Forest contains three parallel VALLEYS north-south valleys. The western valley contains Loon Lake which is the largest lake in the Forest being 49 ha (121 acres) in area and 1.6 km (about 1 mile) long, and the site of the Loon Lake Camp. The central valley i s drained by Blaney Creek as i t flows from Placid Lake to Blaney Lake. The eastern valley is formed by Jacob's (Marion) Lake, Jacob's Creek, and the North Alouette River. The ridges vary in steepness but a l l contain numerous rock outcrops or bluffs. North of Loon Lake a ro l l i n g area forms a high pass from the lake to the steep slope down to Pitt Lake. 2.1.3-6 The central ridge continues into the northern portion RIDGES of the Forest, following the top of the Pitt Lake escarpment, to form a semi-circle running to the north east unt i l i t reaches 790 metres (2,600 feet) just west of Gwendoline Lake and 760 metres (2,500 feet) north of Katherine Lake. North of this i t drops slightly but continues as a high ridge nearly to the north boundary. Beyond i s a broad valley running north to Raven Creek. To the west the slope drops very abruptly from the ridge top down to Pitt Lake, an average slope of 100 percent. The Pitt Lake shore i s rocky. South of the lake the bottom of the slope meets f l a t , wet, grassy tid a l flats contained by dykes. East of the main ridge the ground drops moderately to Gwendoline, Eunice, and Katherine Lakes, which are separated from the broad Alouette-Raven Creek valley by several knolls, ridges and the rock outcroppings of the steep valley side. 2.1.3-7 Gwendoline Lake flows into Eunice Lake the outflow of which cascades down the steep rocky slope to the North Alouette River. Two passes separate Eunice and Katherine Lakes. The latter lake is the only lake on the Forest that drains north to Pitt Lake. Katherine Lake has a wide shore line resulting from i t s being dammed many years ago to provide water for a now abandoned copper mine on the north boundary of the Forest. 2.1.3-8 The south portion of the Research Forest has a generally southerly aspect but varies greatly in steepness. There are numerous knolls of various sizes whose sides are quite steep and spotted with rock outcrops and bluffs. Several creeks flowing south drain most of this portion of the Research Forest. 37 2.1.A 2.1.4-1 2.1.4-2 2.1.4-3 2.1.4-4 The Bedrock Geology of the U.B.C. Research Forest The underlying bedrock i s mainly quartz diorite, BEDROCK granodiorite, diorite, and more or less metamorphosed volcanic formations (Map 2.1.4-1-A). Volcanic rocks and granite occur locally around Loon Lake, Gwendoline Lake and in the north east portion of the Research Forest. Principle formations have a parallel north-south orientation. West of Jacob's Lake (Marion) the Research Forest i s underlain by quartz diorite with localized granitic formations, with granodiorite extending from the steep slopes east and north-east of Loon Lake, to, and on both sides of Blaney Lake, and down Blaney Creek almost to the southern boundary of the U.B.C. Research Forest. To the east there i s diorite in the lower portion of the North Alouette drainage and volcanic rock formations extending to the eastern boundary of the Forest on the edge and Golden Ears Mountains. The area i s traversed by a number of north-south faults, FAULTS the largest of which extends from Loon Lake north-east past Gwendoline Lake, parallel to Pitt Lake. Six major geologic formations have been recognized. Twin Island Group Composition:-Period:-Quaternary Composition:-Period:-Blaney-Jacobs Composition:-Hornblende-granulite, amphibolite, gneiss, schist, conglomerate, quartzite, meta-arkose, lime s i l i c a t e , rock magmatite. Pre-Jurassic (Mesozoic). All u v i a l , marine and glacial deposits. Cenozoic Quartzdiorite, (Biotite more abundant than hornblende) The rock has well developed sheet jointing with a north-easterly trend. Dioritized inclusions and some hornblende diorite are found in the vi c i n i t y of the gorge of the Allouette River near the southern boundary of the Research Forest. Blaney Lake Composition:-West Boundary Composition:-Structure:-North-east Section Composition:-Medium grain granodiorite (hornblende). The content of K-feldspar is low. This grades into quartzdiorite. The rock is unfoliated and has approximately 2% inclusions, although 5% inclusions are found between Loon and Blaney Lakes. The pink colour of the rock is given by the K-feldspar. Quartz diorite (medium grain), with hornblende more prominent than biotite. Small amount of K-feldspar west of Loon Lake. Diorite i s also found where this section crosses the North Alouette river. The only foliation in this area is on the west shore of Loon Lake where i t has an east-west trend. Andesitic dykes were also found on the west shore of the lake. Faults are noticed in the North Alouette River valley where exposures are sheared. Predominantly a diorite area. Hornblende is most dominant. Within the U.B.C. Forest a small pocket of molybdenum was uncovered in 1969 in the area of Eunice Lake in the main geological fault line. The Geomorphology of the U.B.C. Research Forest. There are four major geomorphologic land associations on the Research Forest (Map 2.1.5-1-A). LAND ASSOCIATION CHARACTERISTICS AREA OF FOREST (%) Mountainous to strongly ro l l i n g , granitic-cored uplands. 42.5 H i l l y to gently r o l l i n g . Granitic cored uplands and valleys. Flat to gently ro l l i n g complex of glacio-fluvial and sub-stratified d r i f t deposits. 43.9 7.8 Flat to gently ro l l i n g complex of glacio-marine deposits and sub-stratified d r i f t deposits. 2.2 Water and Streams 3.6 100.0 A generalized map of the s u r f i c i a l geology of the U.B.C. Research Forest is shown in Map 2.1.5-1-1-A. The drainages of the North Alouette River, Jacob's Creek and Raven Creek are overlain by unconsolidated glacial d r i f t . Generally throughout the Forest the bedrock is overlain by glacial t i l l , outwash, glacio-marine and lacustrine deposits of barying thickness. Land Association A - Mountainous to Strongly Rolling Granitic-cored Uplands. Land Association A is characterized by rugged, mountainous topography and extensive areas of shallow s o i l s . The granitic bedrock is generally overlain by dense, compact glacial t i l l which is nearly impervious despite relatively l i t t l e clay and a high percentage of sand. This i s partly a result of the weight of glacial ice beneath which the t i l l was deposited and partly a result of mechanical composition: fine particles f i l l voids between coarse particles and bind them together to form a natural "concrete". Soils have been developed on a complex of ablation t i l l and colluvial material which overlies the t i l l . Colluvium is generally poorly soiled and of a gravelly loam texture. The forest and vegetation cover is extremely variable due to the range in land features, logging and fi r e s . SURFICIAL GEOLOGY MAP LAND ASSOCIATION A 2.1.5-3 Land Association B - Hi l l y to Gently Rolling, Granitic-cored Uplands and Valleys. 2.1.5-4 2.1.5-5 Land Association B covers approximately the same total land area as Land Association A. This land association occurs throughout the Research Forest. In the north i t i s confined to the Jacob's (Marion) Lake-North Alouette River valley, the central depression running from Blaney Creek to Gwendoline and Eunice Lakes and a strip of Land around the north and east shores of Loon Lake. Land Association B is characterized by a higher proportion of a deeper soils than is found in Land Association A, and by less rugged terrain. Gravelly sandly loam colluvium overlying unweathered, compact, glacial t i l l and/or bedrock is the most common structural pattern of the terrain. In draws and low-lying areas reworked t i l l and poorly sorted sands and gravels mantle glacial t i l l . A small area of rich, loam colluvium is situated near Loon Lake Camp. Patches of talus, and varied lacustrine clays and s i l t s are minor inclusions. Land Association C - Flat to Gently Rolling, Complex of Glacio-fluvial and Sub-stra t i f i e d Drift Deposits. The Land Association on the Forest comprises the lower parts of the North Alouette River and Blaney Creek valleys, and a strip of land between these two water courses. Outwash sand and gravel terraces and deltas are the common landforms. The s o i l materials are quite deep. Although these sediments are generally permeable, tree rooting i s restricted on some terraces by discontinous iron pans and cemented layers. Temporary, perched water tables occur above these layers for short periods during the year. Except for terrace scarps and the occasional bedrock knolls, the topography is fl a t to gently sloping. Land Association D - Flat to Gently Rolling, Complex of Glacio-marine Deposits and Sub-stra t i f i e d D r i f t . LAND ASSOCIATION B LAND ASSOCIATION C Although limited to the southwest corner of the Research Forest and occupying only 2.2 percent of the total area, this Land Association contains some of the most productive land and i s composed of glacio-marine deposits over a roll i n g to f l a t topography. Some inclusions of bedrock knolls and islands of t i l l occur. These glacio-marine d r i f t deposits have a s i l t loam to s i l t y clay texture. Stones and sand lenses are scattered throughout. LAND ASSOCIATION D 2.1.6 The Soils of the U.B.C. Research Forest. 2.1.6-1 A preliminary s o i l map of the U.B.C. Research Forest i s shown on Map 2.1.6-1-A while the s o i l legend for this map i s shown in Table 2.1.6-1-A. A detailed s o i l survey report on the 16 ha,(AO acres) Arboretum located adjacent to the Administration buildings i s shown in Appendix 2.1.6-1-A. 2.1.6-2 In the mountainous terrain that extends over much of the Forest geomorphological processes were very significant in s o i l development. Many upland s o i l profiles show evidence of s o i l creep, slides and slumping. Buried profiles, overlain by col l u v i a l - a l l u v i a l caps varying in thickness from 12 - 75 cm (6" - 30") occur on many lower slopes. On some upper slopes (Land Associations A and B) the surface s o i l horizons have been removed or disturbed by gravitational transfer. Mini podzols occur on slopes and ridges where the s o i l is shallow to bedrock. With deeper soi l s , mini and orthic podzols, and acid brown wooded soils are most common. Concretionary brown soils occur on some moist, deep colluvium t i l l materials while gleyed acid brown wooded soils are common in moist areas. In old growth stands, acid brown wooded or orthic podzol soils are common on the better drained conditions, orstein and gleyed podzols where drainage i s imperfect, and eluviated gleysols and peaty gleysols where drainage i s poor. In Land Association C mini podzols and orthic podzols are associated with dry to well-drained s o i l s , and acid brown wooded soils on well-drained to moist conditions. Acid brown wooded and orthic podzols predominate on somewhat moist and well drained sites within Land Association D. Gleyed acid brown wooded soils are associated with moist areas, and gleysols with poorly drained areas. AVAILABLE SOILS DATA 2.1.6-3 Further soils information has been developed through FURTHER SOILS ecological classification on U.B.C. Research Forest. DATA In 1976, a Ph.D thesis (Klinka) was published describ-ing in detail the ecological classification of U.B.C. Research Forest (see 2.1.8 following). Klinka's description included soils and copies of the map based on Klinka's work are held at U.B.C. Research Forest Administration Headquarters. 2.1.7 2.1.7-1 The Climate of the U.B.C. Research Forest. The f i r s t weather station to serve the Forest area was established in June 1945. This station, referred to as the A.E. Marc Weather Station, i s located at an elevation of 165 metres (550 feet) in the south west portion of the Forest on the old Marc property. This station has been in operation since January 1946. WEATHER STATIONS 2.1.7-2 2.1.7-3 In 1958 a weather station was established at the Administration Office. This station i s at the southern boundary of the Forest at an elevation of 145 metres (475 feet). In 1962 two other stations were established, one near Loon Lake at an elevation of 370 metres (1,215 feet) and the other, south of Spur 17, at an elevation of 375 metres (1,225 feet). Records of the Loon Lake Station have not been continuous and are not reported here. Locations of the four weather stations are shown on Map 2.1.7-2-A (Mean Annual Precipitation). The general climate of the Research Forest area is influenced by the Pacific Ocean to the southeast and by the Coast Mountains to the north. Temperatures are not extreme; summer temperatures of 32° C (90° F) or over are not common and the lowest recorded winter temperature at any of the four stations was -20° C (-5° F.) Average annual precipitation is about 230 cm (90 inches) in the southern part of the Forest but increases in the higher areas to the north. Approximately 11 percent of the precipitation f a l l s in the three summer months. Winter snowfall in the southern part of the Forest averages about 107 cm (42 inches) annually, but increases considerably in the higher elevations in the north. GENERAL CLIMATE 2.1.7-4 2.1.7-5 Summarized weather data for the 22 year period for the A.E. Marc Station are given in Appendix 2.1.7-4-A, together with similar data for the Administration Building and Spur 17 stations. The prevailing summer winds are from the south west during June, July and August. Winds from the north east through to south east are more common during the late f a l l and winter months, but there is considerable variation year by year, for a l l months except June and July. Wind records for the period 1966-72 are presented in Appendix 2.1.7-4-A. The strongest wind experienced on the Forest was on the night of October 12, 1962 when "Typhoon Frieda" swept over the area, and winds were estimated to be 130 - 160 km (80 to 100 miles) per hour. At that time no records of winds were being made. In November 1966 a wind of 85 km (53 miles) per hour and in March 1967 a wind of 99 km (62 miles) per hour were recorded. Usually, however, the winds are steady and light to moderate during the summer and are moderate to strong but variable in f a l l , winter and spring. WEATHER DATA WINDS 2.1.7-6 No records of sunshine were made at the Forest u n t i l SUNSHINE 1968 when readings were started at the Branch E20 Weather Station. However, sunshine records have been maintained at the Dominion Demonstration Farm at Agassiz, 56 km (35 miles) east of the Forest since 1946. These data are shown in Appendix 2.1.7-4-A. 2.1.7-7 Periods of frost at the Forest are generally confined FROST to the months of December, January, February and March. Due to the maritime influence of the Pacific Ocean, low temperatures are extremely variable in occurance. Occasionally, however, freezing temperatures occur as early as September and as late as May. rt 2.1.8 2.1.8-1 The Ecological Classification of the U.B.C. Research Forest. 2.1.8-2 2.1.8-3 2.1.8-4 2.1.8-5 BIOGEOCLIMATL ZONES ECOSYSTEM DEMONSTRATION The Forest is located in the Coastal Western Hemlock Biogeoclimatic zone. This zone is sub-divided into the wet and dry sub-zones, representing approximately the northern and southern halves of the Research Forest respectively. The division runs approximately through the lower end of Loon Lake and across the Forest in an easterly direction to the southern end of Jacob's (Marion) Lake (Map and Figure 2.1.8-2-A). A detailed description of the Coastal Western Hemlock Biogeoclimatic Zone is contained in Appendix 2.1.8-1-A. A major factor in the occurrence of the various plant MOISTURE associations appears to be the distribution of s o i l moisture. The summits of the h i l l s are subject to drought since the shallow soils do not have much water storage capacity. This is indicated in Figure 2.1.8.2-A. where the Salal-Douglas-fir dominates the top of the ridge and ranges down the slope to the Devil's Club Western Red Cedar association in the areas near the creek. Water seeps down into the lower ecosystems and generally becomes increasingly available for plant grown. Six ecosystem demonstration areas have been identified in Compartments 28 and 29 (Map 2.1.1-3-A) and descriptive notice boards installed (Figure 2.1.8-2-A). Their details and interpretation follow. The following details and interpretations have been extracted from U.B.C. Research Forest Research News #2 (April 1975). "A. Ecosystem: Rocky Mountain Salal (Gaultheria shallon) - Douglas-fir. Soil: Lithic Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols Parent Material: Shallow ablation t i l l and colluvim over quartz diorite bedrock. Site Index: DF 70-90, WH 65-85, WRC 65-75 feet/100 years. Interpretation: These ecosystems contribute substantially to bedrock weathering and to the release of minerals but give a low yield of wood. Heavy disturbances such as clear cutting and slash burning w i l l accelerate s o i l erosion and cause retrogression to non-forested ecosystems on thin soils and rock. Reforestation is d i f f i c u l t and large loss of planting stock w i l l normally occur. However, this ecosystem provides a good seed source for adjacent cutover areas. Road construction requires heavy blasting and expensive grading. This landform imposes severe limitations to intensive management. It should be managed to protect soils and slow runoff. It can provide useful shelter for wild l i f e and has good recreation potential." "B. Ecosystem: Moss (Hylocomium splendens) - western hemlock Soi l : Mini Ferro-humic Podzols. Parent Material: Moderately deep ablation t i l l over basal t i l l - bedrock controlled. Site Index: DF 110-150, WH 100-130, WRC 85-115 feet/100 years. Interpretation: Characterized by high stand density and good growing potential for Douglas-fir and western hemlock. It is suitable for intensive management as commercial forest with local limitations for mechanization. Suggested rotation age 60 years (fertilized) to 90 years (without f e r t i l i z a t i o n ) . S i l v i c u l t u r a l systems suggested: 1. Clearcuts of moderate size with subsequent natural or a r t i f i c a l reforestation of Douglas-fir. 2. Two-cut shelterwood system with second cut occurring after 5 to 10 years. A permanent road system could favour western hemlock for pulpwood production. Slash burning is unnecessary and early reforestation should prevent invasion of site by bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum). Recreation and w i l d l i f e land use are relatively subordinate on these good sites." "C. Ecosystem: Moss (Furynchium oreganum) - Oregon grape (Mahonia nervosa) - Douglas-fir-western hemlock. Soil: Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols. Parent Material: Reworked ablation t i l l over basal t i l l -bedrock controlled. Site Index: DF 130-150, WH 85-100, WRC 85-100 feet/100 years. Interpretation: These ecosystems may be managed as protection or commercial forests though steep slopes w i l l limit degree of mechanization. Soil surface erosion is a hazard, especially i f skidding. Slash burning is permitted. Clear cuts of limited size w i l l reduce evaporation on southerly slopes and assist regeneration. Suggested reforestation to Douglas-fir (rotation age 70-100 years) . Shelterwood cutting might be successful i f done to favour Douglas-fir. Stocking control w i l l be essential for proper stand development." "D. Ecosystem: Subhygric moss (Plagiothecium undulatum)-swordfern (Polystichum munitum) - western red cedar - western hemlock. Soil: Weakly gleyed Mini Ferro-Humic Podzols. Parent Material: Reworked ablation t i l l over basal t i l l . Bedrock controlled. Site Index: DF 150-170, WH 110-140, WRC 90-115 feet/100 years. Interpretation: Can be managed intensively as commercial forest with few limitations for mechanization. Compared to moss ecosystem greater intensity of management (including stocking control and fertilization) i s more ju s t i f i e d here particularly for Douglas-fir. Silviculture systems suggested: 1. Clear cuts-immediate, high density reforestation to Douglas-fir to avoid serious hardwood or brush competition. Light spot burning after logging. 2. Two cut shelterwood system cuts 3 to 7 years apart. Suitable i f western hemlock is desired for pulpwood production. Choice of system w i l l depend on local situation (transport, u t i l i z a t i o n , standards, markets and general forest policy objectives)." "E. Ecosystem: Foamflower (Tiarella unifoliata) - swordfern (Polystichum munitum) - western red cedar. Soil: Gleyed Mini Ferro-Humic Podzols. Parent Material: Glacio-fluvial deposits over basal t i l l . Site Index: DF 170-200, WH 115-140, WRC 115-140 feet/100 years Interpretation: Highly productive ecosystems suitable for intensive management with few limitations for mechanization. Recommended species are Douglas-fir, western red cedar (grand f i r at lower elevations): rotation 30 years and small clear cuts to ensure success in immediate reforestation. 1L Special quality nursery stock may be useful to avoid serious brush competition. Stocking control and crop tending measures required earlier and more frequently than in other ecosystems. Slash burning i s acceptable except on fine textured s o i l s . Waterways (buffer strip/ recreation corridors) and stream quality maintenance (for fish) are important. Species mixtures and quickly grown large trees can create aesthetic values." 2.1.8-9 "F. Ecosystem: Devil's club (Oplopanax horridus) - western red cedar. So i l : Gleyed Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols. Parent Material: Glacio-fluvial deposits over basal t i l l . Site Index: DF 150-180, WH 110-130, WRC 115-140 feet/100 years. Interpretation: To be managed mainly as protection forest and excluded from harvesting. Main function w i l l be streambank stabilization and maintenance of stream water quality for fish and other uses. Roads should not be located in close proximity to creeks (drainage and erosion problems) . Very important for recreation -waterfalls and ravine scenery are most attractive in hot summers. Thoughtfully laid-out and carefully built t r a i l s could connect small picnic sites, rest benches and fishing pools. Limitations include the coolness of these sites at night, high humidity and mosquitoes. 2.1.8-10 Ecosystem units (according to Klinka, 1975), have been delineated and mapped for the Research Forest. Copies of the map, published by the U.B.C. Faculty of Forestry are available from the Administration Headquarters. A charge is made for the maps. Map 2.1.8-2- A gives a generalized picture of the Research Forest, indicating the boundary of the Wet and Dry Subzones of the Western Hemlock Biogeoclimatic Zone. Figures 2.1.8-10-A and B show the percentage of each ecosystem unit, and a Key for the numbering is contained in Figure 2.1.8-10-A. 2.1.8-11 A number of publications relative to ecological classifications have been produced and are referenced in Appendix 2.1.8-1-A. SUPPORTING INFORMATION 1 2.1.9 2.1.9-1 2.1.9-2 2.1.9-3 2.1.9-4 2.1.9-5 The F a c i l i t i e s of the U.B.C. Research Forest. The extensive railway system developed during the logging operations earlier this century is shown in Map 2.1.2-29-A. Many of these grades are s t i l l accessible, at least by foot, in spite of the invasion of alder and salmonberry, and a few of them have been in corporated into the road network. Some remains of the old trestles are s t i l l v i s i b l e . The f i r s t access roads were build with the inception of the Research Forest. Over the years, a number of road plans have been prepared, mainly as student projects. Until 1969, however, roads were located on a year to year basis, primarily as access roads to logging areas. A "crash" programme followed Typhoon Frieda to get the blown down timber out at least cost. Due to the constraints of topography, the random road network that resulted was more-or-less in line with the systematic network now being developed. Reflecting more intensive working, road development has been greatest in the southern portion of the Forest. In 1968, a master road plan was prepared to co-ordinate planning (Appendix 2.1.2-75-A). The purpose of the master road plan was to produce a comprehensive road network for the Forest, to eliminate location errors and to ensure adequate construction standards. The completion of the road network is scheduled for 1984 with an overall road density of 1 km to 1.5 sq. km (4.45 miles per square mile) of Forest. Four different construction standards were proposed - main, secondary, branch and spur - with provisions for upgrading the standards as development proceeds. A system of road lettering and numbering was proposed and is in use at the present time. (Map 2.1.9-3-A.) A number of footpaths have been cut to give access to research areas and some t r a i l s have been developed for educational, purposes (Map 2.1.9-4-A). There are five major bridges in the Forest road system situated as follows:-(a) crossing the North Alouette River on Road A (b) crossing Jacobs Creek on Road K (c) crossing Blaney Creek on Road G (d) crossing Blaney Creek on Road M (e) crossing North Alouette on Road A/B OLD RAILWAY SYSTEM EARLY ROAD NETWORK MASTER ROAD PLAN TRAILS BRIDGES A further bridge across Spring Creek (outside the U.B.C. Research Forest on an un-named road leading off Road G), has been maintained by the Forest for use during logging operations, but no l i a b i l i t y i s attached to, or accepted for, the maintenance of this bridge. A l l the bridges on the Forest, with the exception of the bridge across the North Alouette at the point where Roads A and B join, are in excess of 10 years old, are wooden and vary in length from 15-20 m (50-70 feet). The pier construction is cross latticed Douglas-fir stringers cut locally. The fourth bridge (across Blaney Creek on Road M) is built of treated material. Details of bridge construction are in Appendix 2.1.9-5-A. Excerpt from Annual Report 1957-58. "The old hewn-timber bridge over Blaney Creek was removed and replaced by a creosoted wooden trestle. The bridge i s approximately 100 feet long, rests on concrete piers, and has an expected l i f e of at least twenty-five years." The decking of a l l five bridges is squared hemlock (2" x 10"). The l i f e expectancy of such bridges i s not more than 15 years from the time of construction. In 1975, the bridge across the North Alouette was almost completely rebuilt. The old decking was removed, the rotten wood was stripped from the original stringers, and a new set of stringers were placed on top of the old bridge structure. The new bridge section was thus almost one metre (about 3 feet) higher than before, and the road alignment on both sides was improved. A detailed series of photographs of the bridge reconstruction were taken and copies are held at the Administration Building and in the Faculty of Forestry. All the original culverts were wooden. During the CULVERTS course of the road system expansion, the trend has been to use galvanized, self-cleaning culverts, varying in size from 30-365 cm (12" to 12 feet). A few of the wooden culverts remain on the l i t t l e used sections of road. These are being replaced by metal culverts as necessary. Culverts occasionally block and wash out and while the use of correct culvert size and systematic inspection and maintenance lowers the washout rate, with storm events and the subsequent bedload and debris movement into the drainage system, washouts w i l l s t i l l occasionally happen. There are a number of permanent buildings and other BUILDINGS structures on the Research Forest. These are divided into the following categories: (Appendix 2.1.9-7-A) Loon Lake Camp - Gatekeeper's House Administration Buildings - Workshops and Garages Old Marc Property - Research Structures and signs - Climate Stations - Airstrip - Public information signs, road signs, gates and power lines. Situated on a promontory towards the south end of the LOON LAKE Loon Lake (Map 2.1.9-8-A/B). The Camp was commenced in CAMP 1948 and the f i r s t stage completed in 1953 at a cost of $140,000 (2.1.2-24). Details of the Camp layout and other relevant details are contained in Appendix 2.1.9-7-A. The Camp has been used by large numbers of vis i t o r s , f i e l d camps, meetings and as a school for a l l grades of students since i t s completion. Various alterations and modifications have been carried out over the last 20 years. The Camp is further discussed in the description of the Social Resource (Section 2.2.5), and the powerline route to Camp shown on Map 2.1.9-8-C. The main gate area of the U.B.C. Research Forest i s shown on Map 2.1.9-8-D. The Gatekeeper's house (Map 2.1.9-8-A) was built GATEKEEPER'S in 1956 as Administration Offices and accomodation HOUSE for the Gatekeeper and continued this dual role un t i l 1961, when the f i r s t section of the present Administration Building was constructed. However, in 1972, when there was a change in staff and a new Gatekeeper hired, the Gatekeeper's house ceased to be used for office space and was given over entirely to use as the Gatekeeper's residence. The present Administration Building (location - Map ADMINISTRATION 2.1.9-8-A; details of construction - Appendix OFFICES 2.1.9-7-A) was constructed in two parts: The f i r s t phase, consisting of the Main Office, the Director's and Forester (Engineering) offices, were constructed in 1961 while the second phase was added in 1968 when four laboratories were built onto the east side of the Main Office. Adjacent to the Administration Building are two large WORKSHOPS workshops and a garage. Also in this area is a AND GARAGE petrol storage tank with pump (location - Map 2.1.9-A; details of construction - Appendix 2.1.9-7-A). Excerpt from Annual Report 1957-58: "A garage-workshop was constructed adjacent to the administration building. The building is 864 square feet in area and contains a storage and work room for research, a garage, and a workshop. It is wired and heated and houses various power tools and equipment." Acquired in 1968 when the 63.5 ha (157 acres) were purchased from the Marc family, the Marc house was renovated in 1977 when services were installed and the house generally upgraded. (Map 2.1.9-8-A and Appendix 2.1.9-7-A). OLD MARC PROPERTY Over the course of the years, researchers have built small huts, storage sheds, temporary shelters and other semi-permanent structures to f a c i l i t a t e their research efforts. The location and a l i s t of these semi-permanent structures is included in Appendix 2.1.9-7-A. RESEARCH STRUCTURES The Research Forest has a number of continuing CLIMATE experiments, many of which require accurate information STATIONS relating to the climate. The Research Forest maintains a weather station. The location i s given on Map 2.1.7-2-A, details of data and equipment are given in Appendix 2.1.7-4-A. As a demonstration of the use of " t i l t e d " runways AIRSTRIP for forestry purposes, a runway was constructed on the Forest in April 1970 (Map 2.1.9-8-A). The site is on the south side of Spur F40 (Compartment 24) in a southerly direction from the Spur. The average grade on the a i r s t r i p was 23 percent with the steepest part being 27 percent. The air s t r i p was built in two days using a Cat D7F. The original airstrip was 183.5 m (600 feet long) and was oiled to reduce the danger of stones being blown up by the slip-stream of the aircraft. Details of construction and re-alignment are to be found in Appendix 2.1.9-7-A. 5o PUBLIC INFORMATION SIGNS, ROAD SIGNS, GATES AND POWER LINE In 1973, the alignment of the a i r s t r i p was altered, and the specifications upgraded. The flight path approach to the original runway was across the G r i f f i t h Reserve (Project 57-20) and some of the trees had grown to the point that they constituted a hazard to aircraft using the st r i p . The air s t r i p i s now aligned N6W (as opposed to the original N7E), is now 230 m (750 feet long), has an even drop of 20% throughout and conforms to the specifications included in the detailed description in Appendix 2.1.9-6-A. Many information signs relating to experiments and functions of various buildings and other structures have been erected since 1970. These signs are maintained by the Forest Administration and the research agencies to inform both visitors and casual observers of the purpose of certain research installations. Roads are numbered and lettered (Appendix 2.1.2-75-A) to f a c i l i t a t e ease of travelling through the Forest. Gates have been installed at strategic points on the forest road network (Map 2.1.9-6-A) to restrict access and use of unauthorized vehicles within the forest area. Power lines have been constructed on the Forest (Map 2.1.9-8-C). The Mica Hydro line, constructed i n 1975, s t e r i l i z e s an extensive area at the south end of the Forest with respect to timber production and places a severe constraint on the manage-ment possibilities in this area. However, local lines require only a small right-of-way (4.6 metres - 15 feet) and have in some cases been sited along existing roads and consequently remove l i t t l e ground from production. A forest nursery was laid out alongside the Administration U.B.C. Building during 1957 and 1958. A cedar hedge was planted RESEARCH in January 1958 and a start made on landscaping the area FOREST surrounding the Main Gate. A total of 98 m (320 feet) NURSERY of seed bed was available of which 39 m (128 feet) was in production. The remaining 59 m (192 feet) was available for production of 30,000 Douglas-fir seedlings and for special research requirements. Stock growing in a forest nursery (now terminated) at the University campus was l i f t e d in October 1959, and transplanted in the nursery at the Research Forest. Four thousand Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), forty European larch (Larix eurolepis), and three hundred Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis) were set out as 1 - 0 stock. Frost heaving as a result of a succession of severe frosts in November 1959, the latter part of February and the beginning of March 1960, caused the loss of a l l seedlings in the Forest nursery. This loss included approximately 20,000 1 - 0 Douglas-fir seedlings, and 35,000 western hemlock seedlings. Small sowings of sequoia (Sequoia sempervirens) and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) were similarly affected. From 1960 to 1968, the Forest nursery was used mainly as storage for stock to be used for research purposes. In 1968, this nursery was no longer required and the area was landscaped and sown to grass. 5/ HUMAN PRESSURE 2.1.10 Hazards to the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.1.10.1 Hazards of direct human origin. 2.1.10.1-1 Theft There is no record of timber theft but Christmas trees have been stolen, especially from the Arboretum. 2.1.10.1-2 Trespass and Vandalism The Forest is closed to fishing, hunting, horse riding and vehicular access. Damage has been done to the Marc property. Logging trucks and other machinery have been damaged. Climatological stations and directional signs have been shot at. There has been occasional poaching of deer. Increasing urbanization is l i k e l y to intensify these problems. 2.1.10.1-3 The Forest stands on the edge of a large urban area and over one million people live within a 50 mile radius of the Main Gate. Apart from the organized parties of school children on Day Tours, Resident Pupils of the Outdoor Education Programme and meetings at the Loon Lake Camp and other visitors, there are an increasing number of casual visitors, who merely "happen along". The immediate area close to the southern boundary of the Forest is subject to increasing vi s i t o r pressure and educational t r a i l s sited in this area suffer from heavy and often uncontrolled use. While casual visitors are not actively discouraged, the increasing number of this type of un-restrained v i s i t o r could pose serious problems in the near future through over-use of existing educational t r a i l s , l i t t e r disposal problems and possible vandalism. 2.1.10.1-4 Forest Practices Logging methods and management practices have resulted in erosion. Sheet erosion after logging is frequent even on moderate slopes. Poorly designed and sited logging and skid roads have had adverse hydrological effects with excessive erosion and stream sedimentation. Slash burning on shallow to bedrock soils has resulted in exposure of bedrock over extensive areas as f i r e consumes the organic material overlying the bedrock,while any material l e f t on the bedrock following burning is loosened by the f i r e and is generally washed off by subsequent rain. Areas of exposed rock transmit water rapidly and present a strong erosion force to down-slope s o i l material. Rapid surface flows may lead to localized paludification in rock basins. Logging debris and sediment flushed down draws on clearcut and burned areas may accumulate at c r i t i c a l points and lead to extensive damage: culverts plug, roads wash out and site productivity is reduced. 2.1.10.1-5 By Order-in-Council, dated 11 August, 1958, the University MINING Forest is reserved from mining and placer development. A copper mine just beyond the north boundary was in production for several years but has not been worked since the Depression of 1930. A few mineral claims were staked in 1943 at the Alouette River forks, others have been staked, particularly in the north eastern portion of the Forest on the Pit t Lake slopes where gold, silver, and copper can be found in small quantities. Mineral claims on the Forest are shown on Map 2.1.10.1-5-A while details of claims are given in Appendix 2.1.10.1-5-A. MAN THEFT, TRESPASS INTERFERENCE AND FOREST PRACTICES LOGGING AND EROSION SLASH BURNING 5 ^ 2.1.10.2 Fire 2.1.10.2-1 Until recent logging operations, f i r e has been the GENERAL major factor in shaping what is now the U.B.C. FIRE Research Forest. Details of fires prior to the INCIDENCE establishment of the U.B.C. Research Forest in 1949 are given in Sections 2.1.2-15 and 16 and Map 2.1.2-2-A. Since the establishment of the U.B.C. Research Forest, improved access and protection measures have greatly reduced the incidence of f i r e although the hazard remains. Since 1949 the major cost and damage by f i r e to the Forest has resulted from intentionally set slash fires that have burned out of control. 2.1.10.2-2 In July 1949, lightning caused a f i r e in the south FIRES SINCE west corner of the Forest. This was extinguished 1949 before i t had time to spread. In 1957 a small f i r e was started by a smoker, possibly a horseback rider. On October 8, 1957 a slash f i r e flared up out of control during a high north wind. This f i r e spread quickly and covered approximately 20.24 ha (50 acres) of slash-covered ground. A suppression crew of 16 men were employed during the night of October 8 and this number was increased to 49 men on October 9 when the f i r e was brought under control. This f i r e was mostly confined to the slash-covered area but about one hectare (two and a half acres) of second growth timber above Twin Falls on the North Alouette River in Compartment 33(d) were partially burned. During the summer of 1958 four roadside fires were detected and extinguished before causing any damage. In late July 1965, a small picnic f i r e along an abandoned railway (adjacent to Road A) was spotted, located with some d i f f i c u l t y , and extinguished while s t i l l of negligible size by the Canadian Forestry Association Junior Forestry Crew. In September 1967, slash burning operations east of Eunice and Gwendoline Lakes spread out of control. Though heavy rains had ended the summer drought and the logging slash was damped down, canopy interception on the margins of the cut-over areas significantly reduced the effect of the rains on the forest l i t t e r and f i r e entered the adjacent stands. Most of the timber in the burned area was recovered in the subsequent salvage operations, but as a result of the escape, burning costs rose to $93/ha ($37.69 per acre) for the year. Logged-over areas slash burned in previous areas were re-burned as fires spread from new slash to old slash and planted areas, and approximately 1 3.2 ha (8 acres) were burned. The extent of the f i r e i s indicated on the map included in Appendix 2.1.10.2-2-A. On July 7, 1970 a small f i r e on the south part of the Forest along 14th Avenue was spotted and extinguished by Forest Staff before causing significant damage. In 1974, a f i r e escaped from land clearing operations at the south-west corner of the Forest (Hydro power line right-of-way, see Table 2.1.10.2-2-A), causing considerable damage on both the inside and outside the Forest boundary. The f i r e was fought from 13 September to 2 October before i t was completely extinguished, and up to 75 men were employed cutting f i r e guards and manning pumps during this period. Aircraft were employed to spread retardent and extensive use was made of helicopters to lay water and supply the fire-fighters. Ten hectare (25 acres) were burned. The cost of the f i r e was d i f f i c u l t to determine but was placed in excess of $280,000. A summary of f i r e s , causes, costs and areas of damage is shown in Table 2.1.10.2-2-A, while details are given in Appendix 2.1.10.2-2-A. 53 2.1.10.2-3 A Forest Fire Control Plan was prepared in January 1967 and revised and expanded in December 1968 to include the then newly acquired Block II. The revised (1969) Fire Control Plan and the current revision (1976), are shown in Appendix 2.2.10.2-2-A. DETECTION AND CONTROL 2.1.10.2-4 Ground access problems are greatest in the north half of the Forest along the east and west boundaries. These areas have steep, broken ground through which road construction is extremely costly and access on foot, slow and arduous. In the central zone of the northern portion there is f a i r accessibility by road except in the broad valley north of Jacob's (Marion) Lake. Ground access in this area is d i f f i c u l t due to dense cover and broken ground. The southern half of the Forest has a well developed road system and good accessibility. "Remote" fires in the least accessible regions are of low incidence due mainly to lack of access; in these areas lightning is the most lik e l y cause factor. Consequently, a l l control planning for these areas is oriented toward other than ground access. The least accessible areas of the Forest contain the major volumes of old growth timber remaining on the Forest. Because of the steep terrain and shallow soils a f i r e of large proportions would have an extremely damaging effect. In view of these circumstances f i r e prevention and control in the remote areas assumes considerable importance. FIRE ACCESS 5* 2.1.10.3 2.1.10.3-1 2.1.10.3-2 2.1.10.3-3 2.1.10.3-4 2.1.10.3-5 2.1.10.3-6 Physical Hazards Frost damage on the Forest takes two main forms. The f i r s t is the conventional "frost pocket" problem. This i s local in distribution and gives l i t t l e cause for concern. The second aspect of frost is the l i f t i n g action of the moist so i l s , in particular associated with areas of cleared ground where a l l surface vegetation has been cleared by machine. On areas of this nature where frost l i f t is a possibility, planting methods must be used that ensure deep planting with well formed planting stock. The cracking of standing timber due to frost is occasionally found in hemlock and Abies sp. but in general terms this form of frost damage is insignificant. In coastal British Columbia, the combination of wet snow (or rain-on-snow) and dense stands of young conifers leads to the possibility of snow press and snow break. Correct spacing at an early age overcomes this problem. Sun scorch is prevalant on trees on forest edges exposed by clear cutting. Also affected in some instances are young trees in open stands after pruning, and after cleaning operations have removed the competitive top cover. The last problem can be overcome by ensuring that cleaning is undertaken at an early age so that the main crop trees are not exposed to sudden micro-climatic changes. Drought is often of c r i t i c a l significance in the survival of new plantations. If drought conditions occur after late spring planting, complete failure can result. Windfall occurs throughout the Forest in mature stands and on stand edges. Marginal trees may blow down up to ten years or more after clear fellings have been completed. In winter winds from the north west and north east are especially significant and in summer, to a lesser extent, winds from the south east. Degree of exposure to the prevailing wind i s important for windfall intensity. Lake shore lines and ridges are subject to continuing exposure and show a decrease in the extent of windfall intensity with slope variation. In old growth stands local aspect is reflected in susceptibility to windfall. Overall the most c r i t i c a l points are the forest edges of cuts where residual stands are on shallow so i l s . The most extensive wind damage occurred on October 12, 1962 when Typhoon Frieda caused the blow down of 110 ha (272 acres) of old growth and 32 ha (80 acres) of older second growth stands (Map 2.1.10.3-6-A). Much of the damage occurred in the north central valley where winds from the south-southeast were deflected to the north up the valleys. This topographic acceleration of the wind, in conjunction with extensive clear cuttings which had opened up mature and over-mature stands on generally shallow so i l s , resulted in the largest areas of windfall on the Forest. In general, severe damage was restricted to stands 30 metres (100 feet) t a l l and greater. No difference in susceptibility was apparent between older second growth and old growth stands. Greatest damage occurred on exposed south-east slopes with a gradient of less than 50 percent and especially where a cutting boundary had been located along them. In several instances, poor drainage situations, particularly in fine textured so i l s , resulted in serious reduction of root support and consequent up-rooting of trees. Details of Typhoon Frieda windfall areas and volumes are given in Appendix 2.1.10.3-6-A. FROST SNOW BREAK SUN SCORCH DROUGHT WINDFALL TYPHOON FRIEDA 5$ 2.1.10.4 Biological Hazards 2.1.10.4-1 There is no domestic grazing in the Forest. Occasionally DOMESTIC cows have entered through the west boundary. Horse ANIMALS riding caused significant damage to planted areas unti l the Forest was closed to riding in 1959. Dogs chase deer and are known to have caused occasional deer mortality. Dogs k i l l i n g deer is an increasing problem. 2.1.10.4-2 There are no major problems with wild animals on WILD ANIMALS the U.B.C. Research Forest. Bears have been known to upset research installations. Deer cause only slight damage to regeneration and have damaged pines, particularly exotics, through the fraying of velvet. At times hare and grouse have damaged young plantations but this has been only a periodic and limited occurrence Sapsuckers sometimes damage young hemlock trees. On two occasions the Douglas squirrel has caused extensive damage to young Douglas-fir through cutting of leaders. In 1961 such damage occurred over 800 ha (2,000 acres) when 11.5 percent of 3,352 trees were damaged. Trees injured ranged in age from 7 to 30 years and in height from 1-12 meters (3 to 40 feet). A relationship was suggested with a poor seed year in 1960 and squirrel depredations (Walters and Soos, 1961). 2.1.10.4-3 No systematic entomological survey has been undertaken INSECTS although casual observations have been made over the years. Endemic insect populations cause minor defoliation at irregular intervals but the U.B.C. Research Forest does not have a serious history of insect problems. However, the possibility of a serious outbreak should not be overlooked. In the early 1930's an outbreak of hemlock looper, Lambdina f i s c e l l a r i a  lugubrosa, ki l l e d 26.32 ha (65 acres) of hemlock on the Forest. Another localized outbreak occurred in the Widgeon Creek drainage which l i e s to the southwest of Pitt Lake a few miles west of the Forest. There have been small outbreaks of other insects from time to time, and there are others present that could cause problems under favourable circumstances. Sitka spruce plantations have sustained moderate damage to leaders from the Sitka spruce weevil, Pissodes sitchensis. The "plantation weevil" Steremnius carinatus, could develop into a problem in new plantations. It occurs in fresh Douglas-fir stumps and can cause major damage through the girdling of seedlings i f these are planted within one year of f e l l i n g . Losses of up to 40 percent have been reported from areas on Vancouver Island. Both western hemlock and Douglas-fir f a l l -felled logs are susceptible to attacks in the following spring and summer by the ambrosia beetles Trypodendron  lineatum and Gnathotrichus sulcatus. Other insects that may be present but which have caused l i t t l e or no damage are the blackheaded bud worm, Acleris variana, and the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae. The latter has been identified but does not present a serious problem at this time. However, i t is a potential hazard to trees over 100 years of age. The cone midges, Contarinia Oregonensis and Washingtonensis and the cone moths Barbara colsaxiana and Diorcyctia spp. could become a problem. Adelges cooleyi, the Douglas-fir chermes has as alternative hosts Douglas-fir and Sitka spruce, 5* when these two species are present major population increases may occur producing large pineapple galls on the spruce. The European pine shoot moth Rhyacionia buoliana could be a problem, i f pines are planted. The most recent insect problem of some importance i s damage to Pacific Silver f i r (Abies  amabilis), a minor species on the Forest, by the Balsam Wooly aphis (Adelges piceae). This insect i s slowly infecting and k i l l i n g most of the trees. The willow borer, Sternochetus lapathi, has been active for some years on the Forest and i s widespread on willows. As a destroyer of willows i t commanded l i t t l e local attention u n t i l i t was noted in the early 1960's attacking planted hybrid poplar in the Fraser Valley. It i s now recognized as presenting a hazard to hybrid poplar plantations and damage has occurred to poplars in the southern portion of the Forest. 2.1.10.4-4 No systematic pathological survey has been made of the U.B.C. Research Forest. The normal fungal diseases endemic in the lower coast region of British Columbia occur but none are of major significance at this time. In the older stands the normal diseases characteristics of over-maturity are found and many trees in mature and overmature stands are infected with wood destroying fungi causing substantial c u l l losses. Injuries caused by f e l l i n g and skidding during thinning and other partial cutting operations f a c i l i t a t e the entry of wood destroying fungi, causing substantial c u l l losses. As forestry practices become more intensive the significance as distinct from the incidence of fungal disease on the Forest may be expected to become greater. 2.1.10.4-5 There are no serious foliage diseases on the Forest. The only noteworthy disease of this type, and this only to a very limited extent, is the needle-cast disease of Douglas-fir (Rhabdocline pseudotstugae). 2.1.10.4-6 Lodgepole pine is almost always heavily infected with the western gall rust, Peridermium harnessii. It is quite destructive, particularly to seedlings and samplings, k i l l i n g some trees and stunting and malforming many more. However, the small proportion of Lodgepole pine present on the Research Forest reduces the significance of this disease on the Forest. Practically a l l of the regeneration of Pinus monticola has been kill e d or i s heavily infested by the introduced disease Cronartium ribicola white pine blister rust. The alternate host, Ribes spp. is very common on the Forest but eradication has been considered unfeasible because of the rough topography, the general low density of naturally occurring white pine and the ubiquitous nature of the Ribes, as well as weather conditions which in most years are favourable for infection of pine. An extensive white pine varietal t r i a l for resistance to blister rust was established in 1964. The use of antibiotics to control or k i l l the fungus has been and s t i l l i s being tested. Acti-Dione appears to offer most prospects in this regard. DISEASE FOLIAGE DISEASES RUSTS 2.1.10.4-7 2.1.10.4-8 2.1.10.4-9 Of the heart rots, red ring rot Fomes pini and red HEART ROTS belt fungus Fomes pinicola are by far the most common. With the harvesting of the overmature stands their incidence may be greatly reduced. Polyporus abietinus i s also present and causes rapid decay of the sapwood particularly of western hemlock and blasam f i r when these have been scarred. Root rots attack trees of a l l ages. Losses may be ROOT ROTS direct causing mortality or c u l l , or indirect, affecting future yield. The incidence of these diseases is increased where tree species are planted on sites not optimum for their development. Susceptibility to infection i s increased by exposure to prolonged periods of distress consequent on adverse site conditions and weather. Some of the most important root rots are honey or shoestring fungus, Armillaria mellea, white stringy root rot, Fomes annosus and Rhizina root rot, Rhizina undulata (R. i n f l a t a ) . Phellinus w e i r i i , yellow laminated root rot, i s also present. Armillaria mellea is found on many trees, and is primarily important in young stands, particularly i n western hemlock although i t has also k i l l e d dominant Douglas-fir and has been observed on white pine. It i s presently considered the most destructive root rot on the Research Forest. Rhizina undulata, the so-called "coffee-break" disease; because of i t s observed association with small cooking f i r e s , went unrecognized in B.C. until the late 1960's when i t was identified in a newly planted area east of Stave Lake, some fifteen miles (24 km) east of the U.B.C. Research Forest. The disease results in extensive mortality in new plantations and group dying in pole stage stands. It has been reported on the U.B.C. Research Forest in plantations established on sites that have been broadcast burned. 2.1.10.4-10 2.1.10.4-11 Fomes annosus, white stringy root rot, occurs as butt rot rather than as a pathogen. It may become of importance as Forest Management becomes more intensified. Currently i t i s checked by the parastic mould Trichoderma spp. which is present in abundance and favoured by the acid s o i l conditions that prevail. To the present this has provided an effective biological control. With the increase in planted areas and the possibility of i n i t i a t i n g thinnings, the disease could spread quickly. Thus the change from an old growth exploitive forest economy to the more intensive management of a young, vigourous forest, Fomes, as with other fungal diseases endemic in the over-mature forests, could become of serious concern. A thinning study (Project 56-2) in a 25-year-old western red cedar-western hemlock stand raised questions regarding possible pathological constraints on stand treatment. This stand, established on a site burnt in 1931, was released and thinned during 1956, 1957, 1958 and 1960. The hemlock had been damaged by sap suckers and, after thinning, the stand was almost pure cedar. Root and butt rot was so high that extension of the study was abandoned and no further thinnings undertaken. Infection i s entirely confined to the thinned plots. PATHOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS CASE STUDY 5 7 A 0.04 ha (0.1 acre) plot was subjected to detailed pathological examination. In this plot Phellinus subacida as the most frequently isolated pathogen, and sporophores of the fungus were found on 95% of the cankered trees and 85.7% of the stumps. This was followed in frequency by :-Armillaria mellea  Phellinus weirii Fomes annonous  Odontia bicolor Hishioporus abietinus (Polyporus abietinus) These fungi were not confined merely to the roots but include also basal cankers and considerable root rot. 2.1.10.4-12 Few western hemlock stands on the Research Forest are NOXIOUS free from infection by Dwarf Mistletoe (Arceuthobium PLANTS AND campylopodum tsugensis). Appreciable losses occur in FOREST WEEDS a l l age classes and i t is a major concern in young stands. Mistletoe infection is observed in the form of large club-like brooms of livin g (or dead) branches. In the absence of thinning, control of this major destructive parasite is impossible. In one major area of infection south of Loon Lake (Compartment 28) approximately 4 ha (10 acres) of merchantable western hemlock and amabilis f i r were clear felled in 1953. The stand was uneven aged with merchantable trees ranging from 80-240 years. Sixty-six percent of the cruise volume of hemlock was visibl y infected by dwarf mistletoe. There were large openings where the hemlock had been k i l l e d after an extremely dry year in 1951, significantly increasing the size of already existing openings. 2.1.10.4-13 The sites of the lower elevation areas of the Research WEEDS AND Forest are rated as of moderate to good productivity. BRUSH The non-commercial tree species and the underbrush pose an ever present problem to the re-establishment of the forest following clear cutting or f i r e . Lack of funds in the past years has placed a constraint on the tending of newly regenerated areas, and this practice has unfortunately l e f t a legacy of partially stocked areas at the present time (1980). Alder has invaded many of the young plantations, and the extremely rapid early growth rates of this species makes i t d i f f i c u l t to combat. In the past, treatment has been limited to cutting back the weed species and l i t t l e chemical control has been exercised. Currently methods of mechanical weed control are showing promise. Figure 2.2-1-A Organization of the "Resource Section" of the  U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan The Resource Trees Water Fish Wildlife Social Resource Qualitative Evaluation Quantitative Assessment Management Practices Summary Appraisal Research Education Society Involvement Summary Appraisal 51 Figure 2.2.1-B The Organization of the "Social Resource" of the U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan RESEARCH Research Projects Funding Experimental Design Protection Teaching EDUCATION Schools Technical University Public SOCIETY INVOLVEMENT Employment Land Use Constraints Recreation Environmental Stability SUMMARY APPRAISAL 2.2 The Resource 2.2-1 The "Resource Section" w i l l be broken into five parts GENERAL as follows: ORGANIZATION 2.2.1 The Tree Resource 2.2.2 The Water Resource 2.2.3 The Fish Resource 2.2.4 The Wildlife Resource 2.2.5 The Social Resource Each section w i l l be analyzed under four headings (Figure 2.2-1-A) as follows: Qualitative evaluation Quantitative assessment Management practices Summary appraisal of resource The exception to this is the Social Resource (Figure 2.2-1-B) which does not lend i t s e l f to this treatment and w i l l be analyzed as follows: Research Education Society Involvement Summary Appraisal gure 2.2.1.1-A The Organization of the "Tree Resource Section"  of the U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan QUALITATIVE EVALUATION - Historical background - Regeneration surveys Structure and composition Health and vigour Distribution and extent QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT Inventory Growth and Yield - AAC calculations MANAGEMENT PRACTICES Past Policy Current Policy Current treatment I Felling - Clear cutting - Selective cutting High grading - Salvage cutting - Sanitation cutting - Thinning Site preparation Broadcast burning Pile burning Scarification Mechanical ground clearing Drainage Restocking - Planting - Natural regeneration F i l l i n g blanks Seeding Stand tending Brush control - weeding cleaning Spacing Pre-commercial thinning F e r t i l i z e r application Pruning & brashing Produce and marketing Summary of current treatment SUMMARY APPRAISAL OF RESOURCE U 1< •2.2.1 The Tree Resource on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.2.1-1 The general organization of the analyses of the Tree Resource at the U.B.C. Research Forest is shown in Figure 2.2.1-1-A. 2.2.1.1 Qualitative Evaluation 2.2.1.1-1 Two major factors determine the present s i l v i c u l t u r a l character of the forest area: the f i r s t is the f i r e history (Sections 2.1.2-15 and 16 and Map 2.1.2-2-A) while the second i s the logging a c t i v i t i e s . The importance of f i r e and logging are of such over-whelming significance that they almost totally dominate other influences: e.g. the 1868 f i r e destroyed some 1214 ha (3,000 acres) of the western portion of the forest while since 1920, two thirds of the forest has been cut over. Logging operations between 1920 and 1931 and the fires related to these operations, cleared nearly 2834 ha (7000 acres). Since 1953, more than 607 ha (1500 acres) of the forest have been logged. 2.2.1.1-2 Regeneration surveys of timber Berth "W" (Map 2.1.2-1-A) were undertaken by the B.C. Forest Service in 1929 (by the Research Division) and in 1940 (aerial survey). Both surveys indicated a relatively satisfactory level of stocking on the logged and burned areas, as opposed to logged areas where there had been no burning. The species with which the area was stocked was predominantly western hemlock and western red cedar, with a small number of Douglas-fir scattered through the area. 2.2.1.1-3 The composition of the Forest varies. For instance, in the dry sub-zone, as one proceeds from the drier to wetter communities, the proportion of Douglas-fir decreases and the proportion of western hemlock and western red cedar correspondingly increases (See Appendix 2.2.1.1-3-A). Fire and logging have played their part in influencing composition and where there has been l i t t l e logging since the last major f i r e , e.g. on the eastern side of the forest, hemlock and cedar mixtures dominate (See Appendix 2.2.1.1-3-A). The extent of this section of the forest indicates the large area covered by the f i r e (Map 2.1.2-2-A) and the subsequent regeneration patterns are reflected in the present species composition. The earlier 1868 f i r e sites on the western side of the Forest have been extensively logged. With better control of logging in more recent times, combined with rapid replanting with Douglas-fir and natural seeding of hemlock from adjacent stands, species composition varies from almost pure Douglas-fir, through Douglas-fir hemlock mixtures to almost pure western red cedar and western hemlock on sites where planting was unsuccessful. At the southern end of the forest, red alder i s a prominant part of the species composition and is abundant as a competitive weed species on a l l the better quality sites. The uneven age distribution, size classes, stocking and variation in sites, together with the diverse nature of the management policy, renders any approach towards normality in management d i f f i c u l t and i n many instances, unrealistic. Details of site classes and crop types are summarized in forest inventory in Appendix 2.2.1.1-3-A and B. ORGANIZATION HISTORICAL BACKGROUND REGENERATION SURVEYS STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION £3 2.2.1.1-4 The health of the tree crops at the U.B.C. Research HEALTH AND Forest i s generally good, although the areas of forest VIGOUR sited on the shallow soils do not have the vigour popularly associated with the forests of the Pacific North-West. This i s especially so of parts of the central north/south ridge towards the northern end of the forest where growth is poor. Many of the shallow soils i n the less vigourously growing areas are probably at least partly a result of the f i r e and logging history. However, elevation becomes a constraining factor in some instances where the land rises over 365 m (1200 feet) above sea level (Map 2.1.3-1-A). Disease and insect populations in most areas are minimal although, as previously noted in 2.1.10.4-3, care i s required in certain management practices, particularly thinning. 2.2.1.1-5 The generalized distribution and extent of the forest DISTRIBUTION types is shown in Map 2.2.1.1-5-A. Where the primary AND EXTENT forest use is non-timber oriented, precise forest type boundary definition is less important than on timber production areas, and in some instances, a definition which acknowledges gradual transition from one type to another rather than a fixed boundary may be advantageous. 2.2.1.2 Quantitative Assessment 2.2.1.2-1 Much information related to the forest cover has GENERAL been accumulated over the years (Appendix 2.2.1.1-3-A), APPROACH and i t would be impractical to include more than a small proport ion of this within the body of the U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan. However, as much of this information is required to place the current situation in perspective, the following paragraphs are referenced to Appendices 2.2.1.1-3-A (Inventory) and 2.2.1.1-3-B (Calculation of Annual Allowable Cut (AAC)). 2.2.1.2-2 The Quantitative Assessment of the Tree Resource is treated under the following headings: - Inventories past and present - Annual Allowable Cut (AAC) Calculation 2.2.1.2-3 As previously noted in Sections 2.1.2-26 to 2.1.2-68, INVENTORY several inventories have been carried out over the WORK years. The intensity of cruising generally, together with the emphasis in the inventories on timber values, closely reflects the intensity and type of management . practised. The early inventories were extensive and, by current (1980) standards, of a superficial nature. » However, they were adequate at the time, and more intensive surveys would have wasted valuable staff effort at a time of financial stringency. 2.2.1.2-4 The f i r s t reference in the Forest records to inventory THE 1950 is in the Mapping Plan of 1950 (Appendix 2.2.1.1-3-A). INVENTORY In this Plan, procedures were set out for cruise and mapping operations. Specifications relative to the intensity, types of measurements and survey methods were contained in the Mapping Plan, and, together with excerpts from the Annual Reports of the Research Forest of 1951/52, are discussed in Appendix 2.2.1.1-3-A part ( i i ) . 2.2.1.2-5 The f i e l d work for the second inventory was carried out THE 1966 during 1964-1966. The data obtained from this inventory INVENTORY s t i l l provides the quantitative basis for the management of the Forest (1980). Details of this inventory are contained in Appendix 2.2.1.1-3-A, as follows: Part (i) Old Mapping Plan (1950) Part ( i i ) Preliminary Report on the University Forest (Spring 1950). Part ( i i i ) Description of methods used in collection and analysis of point sampling in the 1964/1966 inventory. Part (iv) Summary of inventory stat i s t i c s as of April 1966 and the calculation of the Annual Allowable Cut (1966). Part (y) Area and volume summary of the U.B.C. Research Forest in November 1971 plus key map for identification of Forest types.. Part (vi) Details of Inventory undertaken in 1973 as part of Variable Density Yield Table Assessment (Productivity Committee contract P.C. 006, B.C. Forest Service). Part (vii) Site Classification map. (Site index map, (Baizak 1960), updated to 1971). Part ( v i i i ) Computer print out of 1970 reworked inventory. £5 A copy of the complete inventory consisting of three volumes, together with the key map to the forest types, i s held at the Forest Administration Office, as are the f i e l d books containing the notes, cruise cards, and other plot information. The useable net volume on the U.B.C. Research Forest in cubic feet, trees 7.1" and over, including dead useable material, with deduction for close u t i l i z a t i o n , defect, waste and breakage was: "Old Growth" "Thrifty" 9,188 Mcf (26020 m3) 14,021 Mcf (39707 m 3 ) The 1966 inventory (in the 1970 reworked edition), forms the basis for a l l timber management work on the Forest. The current AAC is based on the data contained in this inventory, as are the calculations related to contractor activities in timber harvesting. COPY OF INVENTORY NET VOLUME 1966 INVENTORY 1970 EDITION A further inventory was undertaken in 1973. Details of this inventory and the purpose of the project are discussed in Appendix 2.2.1.1-3-A. This information has been used in various forms, one of which has been to check parts of the 1966 inventory and another as reference material for student exercises. It does not form the basis of any management decisions due to lack of detail, minor inaccuracies in type boundaries and type grouping which did not co-incide with management requirements. In this project, several methods were used to calculate the volume of timber per acre, and large differences occur between the various methods. Estimates of crown cover, previously ommitted in earlier inventories, was included in the 1973 inventory. The Annual Allowable Cut (AAC) calculation on the U.B.C. Research Forest i s based on a modified form of the Hanzlik formula. THE 1973 INVENTORY THE ROTATION AND ANNUAL ALLOWABLE CUT AAC = Vm + I (thrifty) + I (immature) where AAC = Annual Allowable Cut V = the merchantable volume above rotation age (R) the MAI (Mean Annual Increment) for the f i r s t rotation Thrifty = 41 year plus Immature = up to 40 years of age Annual Allowable Cut calculations are shown in Appendix 2.2.1.1-3-B. 2.2.1.3 Management Practices 2.2.1.3-1 Trees on the Research Forest have been regarded primarily PAST as a source of revenue, and until about 1968, there was MANAGEMENT l i t t l e attempt to relate the Forest to other uses. Since POLICY the f i r s t establishment of the U.B.C. Research Forest, the area has been exploited for timber values and f e l l i n g has been based on a calculated Annual Allowable Cut (AAC) -(Appendix 2 .2.1.1-3-B). The same basic method of yield calculation has been employed throughout, using increasingly detailed information. Due i n i t i a l l y to Typhoon Frieda, and later to management policies based on assumptions that (in hindsight) were not accurate, the Forest was extensively overcut during 1953 - 1967. As a result of both the cutting programme and the previous logging and f i r e history, the age structure of the stands is abnormal (Tables 2.2.1.1-3-A, B and C). 2.2.1.3-2 Management policy is s t i l l oriented towards timber CURRENT production, albeit at a lower level than previously. In MANAGEMENT the main, trees are cut for their timber value to POLICY provide essential revenues, in disregard of other management objectives, although the tendency is to concentrate timber production in the southern part of the Forest wherever possible. The current policy (1980) has been to reduce the AAC, and attempt to bring the age class distribution more into balance and approach the theoretical normal forest. Felling in the few remaining old growth areas has been drastically reduced, and has increased in the lower and intermediate age classes (areas naturally regenerated between 1840 and 1890). During 1970-72 the f i r s t steps were taken towards zoning on the basis of Best-Use (Appendix 2.1.2-38-C), and the current policy aims at the eventual withdrawal of timber production from the mountainous areas. Additional to the areas within the zone designated primarily for timber production are areas classified for "subsidiary timber production". A large proportion of the annual c u t i s , in fact drawn from these areas. See current Management Sections 7.0 and 8.0. Harvesting 2.2.1.3-3 The radical change in policy in recent times from one of rapid depletion of the older timber stands, towards a more restrained multiple-use management, coupled with the virtual elimination of the virgin old-growth forest, i s changing the emphasis from clear-cutting and planting to a stand-tending, caretaker management approach to meet the requirements of education, demonstration and research. However, the pressing need to generate revenue to finance essential management activities s t i l l necessitates logging at a higher than desireable rate. Timber growing is now concentrated on the higher quality, more productive and easily accessible sites in the southern end of the Forest. 2.2.1.3-4 The Research Forest evolved i t s own system of guidelines LOGGING (in 1970) prior to the introduction of the B.C. Forest GUIDELINES Service Coast Logging Guidelines of 1972. In general, the self-imposed constraints of the Research Forest are well within the suggested B.C. Forest Service guidelines. Since 1970, streams have been protected by leave strips on each bank, and buffer zones have protected lakes from clear-felled areas (30-120 m - 100-400 feet), depending on the significance of the lake in fishing, research and aesthetic terms. Feeding grounds and wildli f e corridors have been l e f t for game. The adoption of patch-logging has kept the size of the clear-cut operations to areas of generally less than 20 ha (50 acres), although in some instances larger areas have been harvested: the largest cut during the period 1973-1980 was just over 44 ha (110 acres). Ll Felling 2.2.1.3-5 2.2.1.3-6 Two methods of clear-cutting are in use. The conven- CLEAR tional high-lead system is used on the steep ground CUTTING and accounts for about 80% of the clear-felling operations. Rubber-tired skidders are employed on more easily traversed areas where slopes rarely exceed 30%. Selective cutting has been confined to the recovery of cedar bolts for shingles and shakes. In the past, this was very profitable and the Forest was worked over extensively to salvage this type of product, but suitable material i s now scarce and l i t t l e , i f any, of this type of work i s now undertaken. Virtually no selective cutting is carried out for poles and piles, although where clear-cutting operations are in progress, poles and piles are selected as separate categories and on occasion, areas are pre-logged to remove poles and pilings prior to harvesting for sawlogs and pulpwood. SELECTIVE CUTTING 2.2.1.3-7 Salvage cutting has been done on sites of escaped SALVAGE slashfires and areas of windfall (paragraph 2.1.2-54). CUTTING At times, where the area involved has been sufficiently large, a special sale has been offered. On other occasions, parcels of windfalien timber have been sold with adjacent clear-cuts. There are small parcels of this type of timber from time to time, but the last major operation was in 1962/63 after Typhoon Frieda (Paragraphs 2.1.2-65 and 68). 2.2.1.3-8 Thinning has been confined to small research projects THINNING and student exercises, and has not been attempted on an operational scale. The results of the limited thinning research on the Forest have raised questions of disease susceptibility, although there is strong indication that the adverse results obtained were due largely to the presence of pathogens prior to the thinning being carried out (Paragraph 2.1.10.4-11). A small area that was thinned ; in 1971 (now part of a clear-felled area in Compartment 28) apparently did not suffer in the same way. Site Preparation 2.2.1.3-9 Until early 1972, slash-burning was practiced on a l l BURNING clear-felled areas. Burning of slash and logging debris i s now undertaken on a selective basis (using guidelines developed on the Forest based on ecological constraints). The clear-cutting of large areas, which once was a feature of logging operations on the Forest, is no longer carried out, and thus burning of logging slash to reduce f i r e hazard or insect infestation, i s no longer a necessity. 2.2.1.3-10 Cultivation of the s o i l by scarification is not done SCARIFICATION operationally. Any scarification that has been done in the past has been confined to skid roads and chance disturbance during logging. On the skid roads the operation was undertaken using a log pulled behind a rubber-tired skidder. References to scarification in the Annual Reports (Paragraph 2.1.2-68 and Annual Reports 1965 onwards) refer to mechanical ground clearing as detailed in the following section. 2.2.1.3-11 Mechanical ground clearing involves complete clearance MECHANICAL in preparation for f u l l y mechanized cultural operations. GROUND Old stumps are pushed out of the ground into piles and CLEARANCE burned, together with the slash debris from the clear-f e l l i n g operations. Large boulders are removed. Once the bulk of the debris i s burned, the remaining material is buried. Any boggy areas are ditched using land clearing equipment. Rocky outcrops are l e f t untouched and surface irregularities considered a hinderance to the operation of machinery, are leveled out as well as possible. In many instances, the surface topography is completely remodelled. 2.2.1.3-12 On only a few of the highly productive sites at the DRAINAGE southern end of the Forest have been drained. Swamps have been drained in areas to the south-east of Loon Lake in Compartment 28 (Map 2.1.1-3-A), but the areas involved are very small. Draining is not a frequent operation and where undertaken, dynamite, rather than mechanical means such as a backhoe, is favoured. However, there are many instances where the ground is not suitable for dynamite (e.g. stoney ground), and a backhoe has to be used. Restocking 2.2.1.3-13 Until about 1955, there was almost complete dependence NATURAL on natural regeneration for restocking logged or burned REGENERATION areas. After the slash was disposed of by burning, the site was l e f t and over a period of time, possibly up to 20 years, would partially or f u l l y restock with hemlock . and cedar, with often less than 10% of other species such as Douglas-fir. As a consequence of this policy, alder occupies extensive areas on the more productive, lower elevation sites. In many instances, an understorey of conifers is becoming established under the alder invaded areas, but the stocking is generally sparse, and poorly distributed. In the past, the shape of the felled area was planned with consideration being given to distance from the possible seed source. Shading, aspect, condition of the s o i l and type of regeneration required was used to decide whether natural regeneration would be attempted. 2.2.1.3-14 Since 1955, most of the clear-felled areas have been PLANTING planted. The planting stock has been supplied by the B.C. Forest Service, using, in some cases, seed collected on the Forest, and has consisted mainly of 2 + 0 bare root Douglas-fir. Container stock, of hard-walled containers or planting bullets have been successfully used in f i e l d scale t r i a l s . 2.2.1.3-15 Replanting of partially failed areas has been confined BEATING-UP to highly productive sites or to areas where the (FILLING original planting has completely failed. Rarely, i f BLANKS) at a l l , has beating-up of natural regeneration been done thus some of the areas on the central ridge a r e s t i l l under-stocked after 45 years, and in some instances, the stocking level is as low as 30% of the minimum desired level (120 trees per acre as opposed to about 450 trees per acre). 2.2.1.3-16 Some areas were spot seeded in 1957, using locally SEEDING collected seed, but the operation was only partially successful. The areas were relatively small and were subsequently re-planted in 1959. Due to the inefficiencies of seed use, and the marginal success achieved, no a r t i f i c a l seeding has been done since 1957. Stand Tending 2.2.1.3-17 L i t t l e weeding of newly planted areas was practiced WEEDING unt i l 1970. This operation is now confined to highly productive sites and then only when i t i s apparent that the crop w i l l be completely lost i f weeding i s not done. Weed growth consists of a wide variety of weed species such as alder, salmonberry, vine maple, wild rose, bracken etc., and on the high sites is extremely lush and vigorous. Herbicidal sprays have been used in the past but because of environmental considerations, spraying i s no longer practiced unless for research purposes. 2.2.1.3-18 Cleaning of plantations, to r i d them of undesirable CLEANING tree species and reduce competition has been done on the best sites. The operation has only been carried out as a last resort when i t has been considered that the crop would have been completely lost i f the cleaning was not done. Many areas at the southern end of the Forest require cleaning as a routine part of the crop maintenance programme. 2.2.1.3-19 No spacing has been done except in research plots as SPACING part of the experimental treatments, or as part of the (JUVENILE cleaning operation. Small areas have been spaced THINNING) (juvenile thinned) as part of student exercises but these areas are extremely small and have had l i t t l e impact on the overall problem. The stocking on some of the naturally regenerated areas i s such that spacing might be undertaken to advantage, but up to the present time (1980), this has not been done (Appendix 2.1.2-38-C). No c r i t e r i a have been established for space requirements relative to species or site. 2.2.1.3-20 Small areas of the Forest have been treated with FERTILIZER f e r t i l i z e r , but the operation has been confined to APPLICATION research (Appendix 2.1.2-38-B) and demonstration purposes. The aircraft used in the demonstration projects, flew from the sloping airstrip sited on the Forest in Compartment 24 (Paragraph 2.1.9-15 and Map 2.1.1-3-A). 2.2.1.3-21 Some high pruning was carried out on an operational PRUNING AND scale in 1961 and 1962 (Compartments 26 and 34 - see BRASHING Map 2.1.1-3-A). Approximately 48.6 ha (120 acres) were treated and between 85 - 90 trees per ha (35 - 38 trees per acre) were pruned to a height of about 6 m (20 feet). No further operational high pruning has been carried out, although some research areas have been low pruned for access. L i t t l e brashing (pruning to about 2 m in height -6-7 feet) for access and f i r e hazard reduction has been done. The small areas brashed are situated in Compart-ments 25 and 33 in spacing and provenance t r i a l s . A further area was brashed in Compartment 25 to permit a thinning t r i a l . A l l of the brashing operations have been done by non-forest labour (student exercises) and the forest technical staff have not been involved in this activity to date (1980). 70 .Summary of Current Treatment 2.2.1.3-22 Current methods of treating the forest cover have altered considerably over the last few years. The old "traditional" method of logging and slashburning with reliance on uncontrolled natural regeneration has given way to controlled temperature slash f i r e s , mechanical ground clearing and replanting with preferred tree species. Land clearance prior to restocking has led to considerable saving in weeding operations, permit-ting mechanized operation, where formerly i t was not possible to u t i l i z e tractor mounted cutting equipment, and the work had to be undertaken by hand. The i n i t i a l capital investment in land clearing has already been reflected in ease of planting and week control, and w i l l doubtless f a c i l i t a t e later stocking control. ESTABLISHMENT AND TENDING 2.2.1.3-23 L i t t l e thinning has been done and the only harvesting has been by clear-cutting. Economic considerations have overridden the research and demonstration aspect of harvesting and although the logging operations are visited by large numbers of people, the methods have not been innovative, nor developmental. It is notable that there has been l i t t l e research into harvesting and logging operations on the Forest. The size of the fe l l i n g coupes (openings or settings), has generally decreased although this has been more a result of lowering the Annual Allowable Cut (AAC) and current lack of extensive loggable stands, than on committment to reducing the size of clear-cuts. Rather, there is a tendency to extend existing openings, and thus the appearance presented by the harvesting is that of a progressive clear-cut. HARVESTING Produce and marketing 2.2.1.3-24 Timber harvested from the Research Forest f a l l s into PRODUCTS-the following categories: GENERAL (a) Millwood (b) Poles and pilings (c) Cedar for shakes (d) Minor produce such as firewood 2.2.1.3-25 A l l timber produced on the Forest classifiable as sawlogs is currently sold to: SAWLOGS AND PULPWOOD Whonnock Lumber Co. Lougheed Highway, Whonnock, B.C. Ltd. Telephone: 462-4711 2.2.1.3-26 Prior to 1967, a l l timber was boomed in the Pitt River and sold on the Vancouver Log Market. At the present time (1980), the price for the timber is based on the Vancouver Log Market, but a l l timber is sold to Whonnock Lumber. The price i s adjusted monthly to take into account market fluctuations. 2.2.1.3-27 Poles and pilings are purchased by: POLES AND PILINGS Bell Pole Co. Ltd. 2362 River Road, Maple Ridge, B.C. Telephone: 463-8611 Poles and pilings are sometimes produced as special orders and often are felled prior to timber operations in the areas designated to be felled during the coming year. This market i s lucrative and the Research Forest is suited to growing these categories. 11 2.2.1.3-28 The quantity of cedar suitable for shakes and shingles has declined rapidly during the past few years. Material harvested that can be sold for the production of shakes i s purchased by Whonnock Lumber (Paragraph 2.2.1.3-25). 2.2.1.3-29 The amount of minor produce harvested i s extremely small and i s normally produced only to order. Minor produce takes the form of small round fencing material, foliage for market gardeners and s p l i t cedar fence posts, The quantity involved i s insignificant compared to the regular harvesting operations and is not considered part of the regular income for the Forest. 2.2.1.3-30 Other produce consists of specimens cut for use as demonstration, or experimental material for education or research purposes. No charge is levied for this type of produce although records are kept of the type and quantity of material produced. 2.2.1.3-31 The main contractors involved in timber harvesting (1980) are: SHAKES AND SHINGLES MINOR PRODUCTS OTHER PRODUCTS CONTRACTORS L°gS i ng C & L Logging, 11790 - 246th Street, Maple Ridge, B.C. V2X 6X6 Telephone: 463-9616 Haulage (Sub-contracting to C & L Logging) R. Ruddick, 25884 Dewdney Trunk Road, Whonnock, B.C. Telephone: 462-7051 2.2.1.3-32 There is currently (1980) no market for small thinnings. A market for small cedar poles exists but at present i t is not possible to cut sufficient quantities to serve this market. THINNINGS 2.2.1.3-33 In spite of the proximity of the Research Forest to large urban centres, the markets for smaller sized produce is poor. The volume of thinnings that could be produced i s in excess of 100,000 cubic feet (3500 m ) per annum, but none of this material i s harvested due to lack of markets and as a consequence much i s lost to mortality. The market for the larger, higher quality logs and peeler categories, as well as cedar for shakes and shingles, i s attractive, but the quantity of this material remaining on the Forest is now minimal and revenue from this type of produce is declining. MARKETS GENERAL 7> 2.2.1.4 Summary Appraisal of Tree Resource 2.2.1.4-1 In general, i t can be seen that the treatment of the Forest has differed l i t t l e from other coastal forest units. There are areas of the Forest that show signs of severe neglect, but this i s typical of many forest areas in Coastal B.C. The combination of logging method and absence of markets for small material, have worked together to maintain the unevenness of the age class distribution (Tables 2.2.1.1-3-A, B and C). The Research Forest has large area of immature forest cover, which i s developing in an unmanaged condition.. The stands resulting from the 1925 - 1931 fires have been l e f t very much to their own devices and although some minor research projects have been undertaken, and minor spot planting operations have been carried out, there has been l i t t l e development work in these stands. The extensive post -1950 clearcutting has l e f t the Forest with a further large age class, much of which i s in the juvenile stage, requiring extensive maintenance. Much of the weeding being done at the present time i s an attempt to salvage the young plantations and save further damage from smothering by weed growth. Few plantations resulting from recent logging are free of brush problems, and much time and effort has been given in recent years to attempt to stem the intense competition by weeds. 2.2.1.4-2 L i t t l e spacing (juvenile thinning), stock control or.species selection has been carried out. Natural regeneration after the early logging is dense and requires much work to guide the crop towards a desirable stand condition. There is an urgent need to come to grips with the gross overstocking of hemlock, both in the young (1 - 20 years) and many of the intermediate aged stands (40 - 50 years). The backlog of routine maintenance work reflects the extensive nature of crop cultivation in the past and poses a challenge to the present administration. The Forest is not unique in this respect, but the development of mechanized s i l v i c u l t u r a l techniques is an urgent and c r i t i c a l requirement. 2.2.1.4-3 The general quality of the Forest i s average, although the young Douglas-fir plantations now entering the thicket stage are beginning to show the potential of the Forest as a timber growing unit. It i s possible that information at present used to determine site index i s not accurate, and that in some areas, the site index w i l l require re-calculation as more accurate management information becomes available. The tree stands are the basic building blocks of the Forest Resource and the present trend toward intensifying stand establishment operations i s an investment in the Resource as a whole. Figure 2.2.2-1-A The Organization of the "Water Resource Section" of the U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan QUALITATIVE EVALUATION QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES SUMMARY APPRAISAL OF RESOURCE General Lakes Ownership Rivers and creeks Water purity Groundwater Seepage Snowpack Stream gradients Aesthetics Discharge and runoff Drainage features - Past - Lakes Streams Stream training - Current use - Lakes - Streams and rivers 7f 2.2.2 The Water Resource on the U.B.C. Research Forest. 2.2.2-1 The organization of the Analyses of the Water Resource on the U.B.C. Research Forest i s shown in Figure 2.2.2-1-A. 2.2.2.1 Qualitative Evaluation 2.2.2.1-1 The water resource comprises several parts: the major GENERAL components are lakes and streams while other components such as ground water (moving and stored), and snow, make up the balance. The major part of the information available on the Research Forest i s confined to lakes and streams, and as these are the vis i b l e , management components of the water resource, the main part of the description and discussion w i l l be concerned with these aspects. Information on water entering the system via precipitation i s contained in Appendix 2.1.7-4-A (Climate). 2.2.2.1-2 The 17 lakes (Paragraph 2.1.1-4 and Table 2.1.1-4-A) LAKES on the Research Forest cover a total of 126 ha (312 acres) and range in size from 48.5 ha (Loon Lake - 120 acres) down to 0.17 ha (Peaceful Lake - 0.42 acres). The lakes contain approximately 13,000 acre feet of water and the combined catchment area of the lakes on the Forest i s 2150 ha (5,310 acres) (Map 2.1.3-2-A). An area of about 240 ha (600 acres) drains into the Forest lake system from outside the Forest, mainly from the slopes of the Golden Ears. Pitt Lake on the west boundary is not included in the details of the lake system although i t receives the drainage from the western edge of the Forest. The balance of the Forest not covered by lake catchments, drains into streams carrying water directly to the Forest boundary or to areas outside the Forest as shown by the generalized marco-drainage patterns on Map 2.1.3-2-A. 2.2.2.1-3 The shorelines of only two of the 17 lakes are not OWNERSHIP wholly owned by the Forest. On the west boundary, ownership of Goose Lake shoreline is divided between the U.B.C. Research Forest., Pit t Meadows Municipality and one other (private) owner (Appendix 2.2.2.1-3-A). Peaceful Lake, in Block II on the central east boundary, is partially abounded by the Golden Ears Provincial Park and the shoreline ownership i s divided bwtween the U.B.C. Research Forest and the B.C. Parks Branch. 2.2.2.1-4 No processing plants are sited in the lake catchment PURITY system and no industrial waste i s discharged into the area. Waste disposal from Loon Lake Camp is passed through a sewage disposal treatment plant built in 1973 (Appendix 2.1.9-7-A) and a small proportion of the waste i s pumped onto an area adjacent to Loon Lake as part of a Research Project (Appendix 2.1.2-38-A). Prior to the installation of the sewage system at Loon Lake Camp, the wastes from the Camp were piped into septic tanks with the outflows from the tanks being disposed of by seepage into Loon Lake. Total dissolved solids vary between 15 parts per million (p.p.m.) to 30 p.p.m., although local variation i s found seasonally. No serious pollutants are found in the lakes, or creeks and although some of the smaller lakes in the headwaters of the system, shrink in size and become warmer during periods of summer drought, water purity i s relatively high. The buffer strips (Paragraph 2.2.1.3-4) now maintained around the lakes are part of current management efforts to maintain the level of water quality in the lakes. / 7^ 2.2.2.1-5 The main drainage system of the Forest is oriented essentially in a north-south direction (Maps 2.1.1-4-A and 2.1.3-2-A). Most of the rivers and creeks are fed by the lakes and with the many lakes in the Forest providing a "buffering" effect, there is always a certain quantity of water draining from the area, although the generalized Forest hydrograph (Figure 2.2.2.1-5-A) exhibits the typical configuration of a coastal headwater system. About 85% of the water drains towards the south. 2.2.2.1-6 L i t t l e information is available on groundwater or aquifers within the Forest area, either as storage (underground lakes) or channels (underground rivers).Some householders on Silver Valley Road (lower end), draw water from wells sited on an underground stream. The source of this stream i s thought to be in the south-eastern section of the Forest, but no concrete evidence has been presented in support of the hypothesis. Researchers have suggested that springs feed some of the lakes (e.g. Jacob's (Marion) Lake) but none have so far been mapped, although the presence of springs is suggested by the temperature profiles in the lakes recorded during the process of other investigations. Many of the lakes have associated bog and peat masses as well as considerable areas of sphagnem moss around the edges. Large quantities of water are stored in these masses, but no information is available on either quantity or quality. 2.2.2.1-7 There are areas of seepage at various points within the SEEPAGE Research Forest. Some are indicated by Ecological Mapping units (Paragraph 2.1.8-2). Many of the better growing sites are situated in these areas, although apart from the ecological mapping, no specific information is available. 2.2.2.1-8 Stream profiles for the drainage systems on the Forest are shown in Figure 2.2.2.1-8-A (North Alouette River upstream to Gwendoline Lake), Figure 2.2.2.1-8-B (Blaney Creek upstream to Placid and Loon Lakes), Figure 2.2.2.1-8-C (Stephenson Creek upstream to Katherine Lake) and Figure 2.2.2.1-8-D (Raven Creek). These profiles are for description purposes only, and more detailed graphs are held i n the Administration Office. The profiles of minor streams draining into Jacob's (Marion) Lake, Goose Lake and other small catchment systems have not yet been done. Stream profiles are drawn to show the presence of waterfalls, centres of energy distribution and sediment precipitation and areas of sensitivity, where care must be exercised when constraints such as erosion of the stream banks and culvert blockage are considered. If the detailed stream profile includes the lake profile, as well as the entry points of the streams into the lakes, impressions can quickly be drawn as to the general movement of the water in the lake, possible areas of water stagnation and sediment collection. 2.2.2.1-9 Many of the Forest streams provide interesting and AETHETICS aesthetically pleasing scenes. These vary from the confined view of a 6 - 9 m (20 - 30 foot) waterfall at the lower end of the North Alouette River, to the extensive views of the Trestle Creek waterfalls on the slopes of the Golden Ears at the north of the Forest. RIVERS AND CREEKS GROUNDWATER STREAM GRADIENTS 74 2.2.2.1-10 There is l i t t l e information on the influence of snow SNOWPACK in the Forest, although the generalized hydrograph (Figure 2.2.2.1-5-A) clearly shows the accumulation and melt periods. The influence on water storage and runoff i s thought to be considerable, and minor investigations in the form of student projects have been carried out. There are no management practices directed at influencing snowpack accumulation or snowmelt rates, and although records of a general nature are collected at the weather stations sited on the Forest (Map 2.1.7-2-A and Appendix 2.1.7-A-A), l i t t l e detailed data has been recorded. 7 7 2.2.2.2 Quantitative Assessment 2.2.2.2-1 A large amount of streamflow data i s available for DISCHARGE rivers adjacent to the Research Forest, and the AND RUNOFF Department of Energy, Mines and Resources - Water Resources Branch maintains a meter station on upper Jacob's Creek. The meter station i s situated to the north of Jacob's (Marion) Lake - Compartment 23 (Map 2.1.1-3-A). Details of the location and equipment, together with Daily Height and Daily Discharge records for the ten year period 1964-1973 are given in Appendix 2.2.2.2-1-A. The hydrograph for Jacob's Creek i s shown in Figure 2.2.2.1-5-A. The value of the hydrograph li e s in the indication of times of expected peak flow, and this i n turn indicates the risk associated with culverts and roadside drains during these periods. While runoff i s variable in space and time, and differs from river to river, i t i s influenced by such factors as the size of the catchment, the location of the watershed, the potential of the area to store water (in the form of snow, or in bogs or lakes), landform, micro-topography, past and present land use, land cover etc. The hydrograph indicates the general pattern of the area, and fac i l i t a t e s and understanding of the total basin behaviour. Figure 2.2.2.1-5-A shows a typical Pacific Drainage (Mainland) hydrograph with a winter maximum (as opposed to a Pacific Drainage (Vancouver Island) with two maximums, one in June and another in November). 2.2.2.2-2 Maps 2.1.1-4-A and 2.1.3-2-A show the drainage patterns DRAINAGE and watershed areas on the Forest. The Forest i s FEATURES broken down into 15 watershed areas, the largest of which is the Jacob's (Marion) Lake system (Table 2.2.2.2-2-A). Precise measures of water quantities flowing out from each system are not available. n 2.2.2.3 2.2.2.3-1 2.2.2.3-2 PAST USES STREAMS Management Practices L i t t l e use has been made of the creeks and rivers in the Forest. The lower part of the North Alouette River below the f a l l s in Compartment 25 (Map 2.1.1-3-A) has been used for sport fishing. Water has been drawn from the creeks for domestic use, mainly from the North Alouette; some local householders along Silver Valley Road draw water from Anderson Creek, a small surface stream that rises in the area of the Arboretum adjacent to the Main Gate. Water from Blaney Creek was used by the YMCA Camp (now abandoned) that was situated on an un-named road leading off 232nd Street by the south-east corner of the Forest. Details of water licences currently valid on, or adjacent to the southern end of the Forest are given in Appendix 2.2.2.3-1-A. The lakes have been used for a variety of purposes PAST USES in the past. Prior to 1939, Katherine Lake was used LAKES as a source of water for mining operations (Appendix 2.1.10.1-5-A - Viking Group) on Pitt Lake slopes. The outlet from Katherine Lake was dammed and the water diverted from the Jacob's (Marion) Lake drainage system, through Shirley and Rose Lakes, into Stephenson Creek from which water was drawn for the copper mining operations. Camps sited within the Forest during the railway logging shows (in particular in the Jacob's (Marion) Lake area) drew water from the lakes and they undoubtedly served a recreational purpose for the labour force during this time. It i s unlikely that the lakes were ever used to store timber and there are no records or physical signs to indicate that this was ever done, probably due to their comparatively small size, their location relative to the operations, and the type of railway logging operation which required that large volumes of timber be moved quickly to the booming grounds on Pitt Lake and the Fraser River. The main use of the lakes in the recent past has been for recreation and sport. TheEe are indications, inferred by species distribution, that fish were introduced into some of them, although there is no concrete evidence of this. When the concession on Loon Lake was given up in 1967, fishing was banned in a l l Forest lakes. Since 1967, recreation on Loon Lake has been confined primarily to swimming and canoeing by Camp occupants. No power boats are permitted on Loon Lake or any other lakes within the Forest, except as required for research purposes. 7 ? 2.2.2.4 Summary Appraisal of Water Resource 2.2.2.4-1 The Forest i s the source of considerable quantities of water, much of which runs directly out of the system in a relatively short time. The reference section w i l l provide further detailed information. Proposals on the construction of a reservoir to enlarge Jacob's (Marion) Lake by damming the North Alouette River are shown in Appendix 2.2.2.4-1-A.~ 2.2.2.4-2 The water i s generally of good quality and low in sediment yield. At the present time, the water resource i s used for research and as a source of water for fighting fires i f required, with a minor role in recreation. There are currently (1980) no definite objectives under which the water resource i s managed apart from the general objective not to lower the overall quality and to maintain the system in a comparatively pristine state. Figure 2.2.3-1-A The Organization of the "Fish Resource Section" of the U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan QUALITATIVE EVALUATION Description of system headwater system buffering effect lakes - creeks - gradients Historical glaciation natural distribution former use research use ucner - food and productivity spawning areas QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT Surveys Species and location Inventory MANAGEMENT PRACTICES Research - productivity Chum hatchery - Fish transfers Operations - leave strips streamflow temperature logging debris - erosion road construction - sewage disposal f e r t i l i z e r gravel SUMMARY APPRAISAL 2.2.3 2.2.3-1 The Fish Resource on the U.B.C. Research Forest The organization of the analyses of the Fish Resource on the U.B.C. Research Forest is shown in Figure 2.2.3-1-A. 2.2.3.1 Qualitative Evaluation 2.2.3.1-1 Much of the information contained i n the Water Resource HEADWATER: Section (Section 2.2.2) is relevant to the Fish Resource. SYSTEM The whole Forest is typical of the Pacific North-west insomuch as i t is a "headwater system". Almost every creek has a lake or series of lakes at the head (Map 2.1.1-4-A), and as indicated previously the resulting buffering effect irons out peakflows and periods of low flow to a considerable degree (Paragraph 2.2.2.1-5). A l i s t of species i s contained i n Table 2.2.3.2-2-A. 2.2.3.1-2 The lakes are generally cold throughout the year and LAKES due to both the low productivity and the short length of the growing season, the fish do not grow to any significant size. The edges of many of the lakes have accumulations of peat and floating bog, the presence of which decreases the quantity of oxygen available for fish and plant growth. 2.2.3.1-3 The streams have small resident populations of fish. The STREAMS AND gradients of many streams (Figures 2.2.2.1-8-A to D) are STREAM such that few fish migrate. Two waterfalls just outside GRADIENTS the southern boundary of the Forest are major blocks to migration on the North Alouette: although there i s a good run of Steelhead below the f a l l s , none have ever been seen or caught above this point. The shallow stream gradient between Blaney and Loon Lakes probably fa c i l i t a t e s a continuous natural transfer of fish between the two bodies of water. 2.2.3.1-4 2.2.3.1-5 An indigenous fish population came in following HISTORICAL glaciation (Paragraph 2.1.3-1). Some lakes probably were never naturally stocked (e.g. Katherine, Eunice, Gwendoline) though i t is possible that there may origin-a l l y have been natural stocking and that the fish may have died out due to adverse habitat conditions. Investigations however, have shown that humid coastal conditions have prevailed in the area for about 10,500 years with virtually no evidence of a classical hypothermal interval in the intervening years (see Research Project 69-5). There is a possibility that fish have been introduced in some of the lakes on the Forest by man, and although not substantiated, i t i s thought that Indians may have transferred some fish into the area many years ago. Apparently attempts were made to stock the lakes in the late 1800's or early 1900's although this also is unsubstantiated. The presence of kokanee in the system (a fish species that is uncommon in the small lakes of the area) provides some evidence. Fish may have been transferred into Jacob's (Marion) Lake following the building of the McCormick cabin (Paragraph 2.1.2-9) and later during the operation of the logging camp (Paragraph 2.1.2-12). ARTIFICIAL INTRODUCTION 2.2.3.1-6 The Fish Resource has been used in two ways since the inception of the Research Forest. For 20 years, the Marc family ran a fishing concession on Loon Lake until 1968 (Paragraph 2.1.2-8). Access to the lake for many years was by way of a t r a i l originally cut by shake cutters, u n t i l a road was built to the Camp on Loon Lake. The concession was successful and there was very heavy use, although the fis h were generally small in size. 2.2.3.1-7 The second major use has been for research purposes. In 1963, a project entitled "Productivity in a small lake" (Project 64-4) was undertaken by the U.B.C. Institute of Fisheries under the direction of Dr. I.E. Efford. The project, which ran continually for 10 years, has made Jacob's (Marion) Lake one the the best studied lakes in Canada. A l i s t of papers to July 1973 dealing with the biology of Jacob's (Marion) Lake is included in Appendix 2.2.2.4-1-A. A small laboratory and camp was constructed on the west side of the lake in 1967 and dismantled in 1980. PAST USE RESEARCH 2.2.3.1-8 Many other projects concerning the fish populations have been carried out and investigations have been made into many aspects of population dynamics, food source and production and habitat requirements. 2.2.3.1-9 Fish do not grow to an appreciable size in the creeks due mainly to the poor food supply, although low flow levels and temperature regimes in some creeks assert a influence on fish size. Cutthroat trout may liv e for many years (eight to ten) in one relatively short stretch of stream and grow no larger than 15 cm (six inches). The lakes provide a somewhat better food supply although the fish are s t i l l f a i r l y small. The largest recorded fish caught within the Forest boundaries was netted in Jacob's (Marion) Lake by researchers in about 1964. This weighed approximately 0.7 kilograms (approximately lh lbs.), and measured about 35 cm (14 inches). FOOD AND PRODUCTIVITY 2.2.3.1-10 Broadleaved trees grow adjacent to streams over most of the Forest areas and a moderate quantity of alder and willow detritus f a l l s into, or adjacent to, the creeks. Where creeks flow through relatively dense coniferous.. stands, broadleaved streamside trees are sparse and stream productivity i s low. There has been l i t t l e active encouragement of deciduous broadleaved trees along creek banks in the past, but some planting of deciduous broadleaved species has been done (Paragraph 2.2.3.3-8). The creeks and lakes provide breeding areas for many types of insects and the larvae provide a staple part of the fish food supply. Extensive research has been carried out with respect to productivity and much of data are available (see Appendix 2.1.2-38-A - under Ecology, Lake, Management - Fish, Zoology - Fish and Insects). INFLUENCE OF STREAMSIDE VEGETATION OR RIPARIAN FOREST 2.2.3.1-11 Fish spawn in many streams throughout the Forest. Few of the spawning beds are precisely known although there are indications from research observations that kokanee spawn both in Jacob's (Marion) Lake and in parts of the stream above the lake. There are spawning grounds mid-way between Loon and Blaney Lakes and the fish population from both lakes use the area. Hybridization does occur between the respective populations but not apparently in abnormal or unusual proportions. Many of the minor fish populations in the streams are self-sustaining thus there must be small spawning grounds along most of the creeks, although the location of these areas are not known. SPAWNING AREAS 2.2.3.2 Quantitative Assessment 2.2.3.2-1 The Fish and Wildlife Branch carried out a survey SURVEYS in 1951. The survey covered a number of lakes on the Forest. Details are in the Forest "Lake Fi l e s " . Copies of the survey sheets are held at the Institute of Animal Resource Ecology, University of British Columbia. Minor surveys have been undertaken since 1951, generally as part of research projects; these have tended to be highly specific. L i t t l e detailed management information is available and only crude estimates of population size can be made. 2.2.3.2-2 The species of fish that have been recorded in the Forest lakes and streams are shown in Table 2.2.3.2-2-A. The number of recorded species is low. There is no information on some of the smaller lakes. There are no fish in Gwendoline, Eunice or Katherine Lakes. The passage of fish along upper Jacob's Creek is prevented by a steep rise which prevents fish from entering the upper lake systems. Other barriers (e.g. Twin Falls on the North Alouette - Figure 2.2.2.1-8-A) prevent the migration and natural movement of fish from one location to another. The other streams and major lakes were accessible to fish at the time the ice receded and thus were colonized. SPECIES AND LOCATION 2.2.3.2-3 Although crude estimates of the fish population are INVENTORY available, these are of l i t t l e value i n attempting to estimate the production of fish. Counts have been made of small stretches of creeks, mainly by researchers to estimate differences due to forest cover manipulation and influence of ground treatment (e.g. East Creek of Spring Creek investigating mechanical land clearing operations in Compartment 32, clear-cut and burn operations Compartment 27, and uncut areas, also in Compartment 27). Surveys have been used to indicate presence of fish and the data used to indicate results of management strategies and effects on water quality of forest cover manipulation. 2.2.3.3 Management Practices 2.2.3.3-1 Research has figured prominently in the small amount of management that has been done relative to the Fish v Resource. The project "Productivity of a small lake" (Project 63-4) involved many researchers and drew heavily on the resources of the Forest for a considerable time. Many other research projects have been undertaken and involve fish transfers (Paragraph 2.2.3.3-4) the influence of fish on the available food supply, the effect of species integration, and a number of fish monitoring studies. In 1970, an attempt was made to increase the number of cutthroat trout eggs available for hatching and stocking of lakes. Fish were caught in Upper Blaney Creek and transferred to the Fraser Valley Hatchery at Abbotsford where they were held until mature for spawning. The results were poor and the project was discontinued in 1972. 2.2.3.3-2 In 1972, U.B.C. and Environment Canada entered an agree-ment to lease 1.17 ha (2.9 acres) of ground to site a hatchery. The objectives were as follows: RESEARCH PRODUCTIVITY CHUM HATCHERY 1. To produce in two generations, a twenty-five-fold increase in Chum salmon stock (i.e. from approximately 800 to 2,000 fish to 20,000 to 50,000 fish. 2. To understand the problems and requirements for co-existence as related to a drainage area subjected to an active sustained yield logging operation. 3. To do such incidental studies as are required to enhance knowledge of the incubation programme operating techniques and to better understand the ecological associations perculiar to this type of drainage system. 4. To determine procedures required to effectively manage the anticipated increased stock. 2.2.3.3-3 About 265,000 eggs were collected during the f i r s t season. The operation has functioned well from the Fisheries viewpoint and has proved a major attraction for v i s i t i n g students and researchers. Due to poor streamflow conditions in the f a l l of 1974 and 1975, the number of eggs collected was well short of the number required and thus the hatchery was by no means ful l y u t i l i z e d . In September 1974, the hatchery area and some of the unused holding tanks were used (with no apparent adverse effect) to mix f i r e retardent for the fires that spread north-west from the power line operations (Paragraph 2.1.10.2-2). HATCHERY OPERATION 2.2.3.3-4 In 1976, transfer of fish from Loon Lake to two of the three unstocked lakes at the north end of the Forest was begun. The fish species involved were Dolly Varden and cutthroat trout. (See Annual Reports of the Research Forest 1974-1975.) FISH TRANSFERS 2.2.3.3-5 The guidelines instituted by the Forest in 1970 ensure that creeks and lake shores are rarely denuded of forest cover. Exceptions to this rule are seen in Compartment 27 (Map 2.1.1-3-A). Prior to drainage operations, the area was almost total marshland with no clearly defined stream channel. Subsequent stream training in this area and in Compartment 28 l e f t the newly formed stream banks totally devoid of vegetation. Surveys carried out in 1974 however, indicated a resident fish population. LEAVE STRIPS 2.2.3.3-6 The clear-cutting practices on the Forest appear to have l i t t l e effect on the streamflow regimes. Although l i t t l e firm data is available for the time prior to logging operations commenced in the early 1950's, studies carried out during the recent past indicate that the effects of logging on streamflow within the Forest area are small, and that the system rapidly returns to the post-logging situation. The seasonal variation and natural peakflows due to snowmelt, storm, and rain-on-snow events, have a far greater impact than does the removal of forest cover. Some differences in the release of nutrients into the creeks have been observed but serious adverse effects of logging and slashburning on the fish are not apparent at the present time (19 80). 2.2.3.3-7 Measureable temperature differences have been recorded on areas where the forest cover along stream banks has been completely removed. In particular, the stream in the mechanically cleared area in Compartment 32 (MapQ2.1.1-3-A) shows differences in temperature of up to 6 C (10 F.) from the forested sections of the same stream. The apparent result of this i s the relocation of fish from the areas of high temperature to shaded banks and seepage sites where water temperatures are slightly lower, and when temperatures return to "normal", the fish return to their original location (Paragraph 2.2.3.1-9). This pattern has been observed in Jacob's (Marion) Lake where the fish w i l l move to a point over a spring sited in the centre of the lake during periods of high water temperature. 2.2.3.3-8 A l l the creek banks denuded by logging and site treatment are rapidly growing in, and the planting of willow has been carried out to speed up this process in Compartment 32 (Map 2.1.1-3-A). EFFECTS OF LOGGING ON STREAMFLOWS AND NUTRIENT RELEASE TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES REVEGETATION OF DENUDED CREEK BANKS 2.2.3.3-9 There is l i t t l e evidence to suggest that in the small creeks on the Forest, logging debris adversely effects the fish population. A survey in Compartment 27 (Map 2.1.1-3-A) in 1974 along East Creek, showed a relatively large population of cutthroat trout in an area where the creek was almost totally covered by logging debris, providing shelter for fish. There are few migratory fish (Paragraph 2.2.3.2-2) in the Forest waters and thus any major debris jams have l i t t l e effect on the fish. LOGGING DEBRIS 2.2.3.3-10 The Forest soils are relatively stable, with l i t t l e natural sediment (Paragraphs 2.1.6-1 and 2). Erosion from road building and maintenance operations has been small, although there are many examples of poor road construction and poor culvert siting. As the sediment is low (see Water Quality, Paragraph 2.2.2.1-4), and bedload movement normally minimal, the effects on fish are negligible. The implementation of the Forest operation guidelines ensures that such a state w i l l continue. EROSION AND SEDIMENT 2.2.3.3-11 As indicated in Paragraph 2.2.3.3-10, past road construction has not always been of a high standard. Cut banks and f i l l slopes have been poorly constructed and ground drainage has, in many instances, been completely destroyed. Culverts have been poorly sited and in some cases, not been put in at a l l . However, a l l this appears to have had l i t t l e effect on the fish populations. The culvert on Upper Blaney Creek immediately below Loon Lake was replaced in 1974. It is not known yet whether fish w i l l pass through this culvert although the gradient of the culvert was kept between 3 and 4 percent and the size increased to 120 cm (48 inches). ROAD CONSTRUCTION AND CULVERT SITING 2.2.3.3-12 Even prior to the installation of the sewage SEWAGE DISPOSAL -treatment plant at Loon Lake Camp (Paragraph LOON LAKE CAMP 2.2.2.1-4) there was l i t t l e apparent effect of sewage on the fis h . The outflow of the Camp system seeped into the lagoon to the east of the Camp (and thus almost directly into Upper Blaney Creek), but this never appeared to be a threat to the resident fi s h population, or to the spawning area immediately below the lake exit. The effluent may, indeed, have added desirable nutrients to the lake. 2.2.3.3-13 F e r t i l i z e r has been applied to the Forest in small FERTILIZER AND quantities (Paragraph 2.2.1.3-20), but on such a CHEMICAL APPLICATION small scale that the effects on water (and thus on the fish population) have not been discernible. Herbicides have been used for control of brush, both in plantations and along roadsides. Results of herbicide application have been published as research papers (Appendix 2.1.2-38-B). 2.2.3.3-14 Gravel has been excavated from several of the creeks GRAVEL EXCAVATION on the Forest for road construction. The creek along Road E10 (Compartments 20, 21 - Map 2.1.1-3-A) and the creek between Eunice and Gwendoline Lakes, were extensively used as a source of gravel for road surfacing. The effects of the gravel removal on the fi s h are not known and the practice has been discontinued. 2.2.3.4 Suinmary Appraisal of the Fish Resource 2.2.3.4-1 The foregoing paragraphs have presented a general CURRENT picture of the fi s h resource. A considerable KNOWLEDGE OF amount of information i s available concerning SYSTEM various highly specific factors. But although there is probably adequate information to protect the resource, l i t t l e quantitative information is available as to what the resource consists of, and to what extent i t can be managed. Productivity is low, and fish do not grow to any appreciable size. Apart from the Marc fishing concession, there has been no attempt to exploit the resource commercially and the change in emphasis from sport fishing to fisheries research and demonstration has ruled out, in the short term at least, the only economic return from the fish resource. Figure 2.2.4-1-A The Organization of the "Wildlife Section" of the U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan QUALITATIVE EVALUATION QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES SUMMARY APPRAISAL General description and distribution Noted presence of species wild l i f e Food availability Constraints Extent of current knowledge Location of population concentrations Past Hunting Current Game viewing Restrictions of hunting Research o\0 2.2.4 2.2.4-1 2.2.4.1 2.2.4.1-1 2.2.4.1-2 2.2.4.1-3 2.2.4.1-4 The Wildlife Resource on the U.B.C. Research Forest The organization of the analyses of the Wildlife Resource on the U.B.C. Research Forest i s shown in Figure 2.2.4-1-A. Qualitative Evaluation The Forest has an abundance of wildlife, and with the GENERAL low levels of snowpack and the availability of winter range, the southern end of the Forest, in particular, lends i t s e l f to the presence of a wide variety of fauna. The Game generally referred to in this section i s primarily the the Columbian Black-f a i l e d Deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus). The emphasis in this section i s on Game species, although the presence of other w i l d l i f e is recognized and brief notes are included. Studies have been undertaken on varying aspects of game and other wildlife species by researchers working on the Forest, but l i t t l e detailed inventory information i s available. Mammalian wildlife species observed by staff, researchers SPECIES and visitors are listed in Table 2.2.4.1-2-A. A PRESENT further more comprehensive l i s t (1975) and report on sightings (1969) of both animals and birds i s contained in Appendix 2.2.4.1-2-A. The order in Table 2.2.4.1-2-A is arbitrary and i s not intended as an order of sighting frequency, and while the l i s t is relatively comprehensive, i t is recognized that there are gaps which w i l l be f i l l e d as further information i s gathered and recorded. The presence of the large mammal species is decided by a combination of factors. Three factors that have particular weight are: 1. The availability of food. 2. Shelter adjacent to the food supply. 3. The presence of travel corridors between habitat zones. Although in summer, the rain forests of the Pacific North-west are p r o l i f i c primary producers, the winter situation i s markly different. Food must be available on a year round basis to sustain high wildlife population levels, and one of the major constraints on population size and distribution on the Forest, is the limitation imposed by the effects of snow depth in impeding the passage of deer between feeding areas. The age and structure of the forest also affects the quantity of food produced and the rapid depletion stage through which the Forest passed during the last twenty years has enhanced the diversity of primary production and directly influenced wildl i f e populations. Details of the C.L.I, capability ratings for ungulate production on the Forest are shown in Appendix 2.2.4.1-2-A. The cutting patterns employed during the recent past CUTTING and the provision of extensive edge zones, whether PATTERNS deliberate or accidental, has assisted diversification of habitat in the southern section of the Forest, promo-ting increased number of deer. Similar practices in the northern section have not had the same effect on the levels of wildlife, due primarily to the elevation of the cut-over areas, the progressive nature of the clear-cutting and the higher snowpack levels. FOOD AVAILABILITY Wildlife u t i l i z e existing roads and pathways, supple-mented by their own system of t r a i l s . There are nearly 96 km (60 miles) of man-made roads on the Research Forest (Paragraph 2.1.9-3), which provide easy and direct travel corridors for game. Deer are frequently sighted using roads, and the infrequent sightings of bear and cougar are generally along roadways. The major constraint on travel i s the winter snowpack (Paragraph 2.2.4.1-3). Accumulation of slash and other debris from logging operations apparently have l i t t l e effect on the movement of deer, although in the past, most of this material was burned, thus removing the bulk of debris that may have hindered movement. However, since the curtailment of slashburning, deer s t i l l appear to move quite freely through the unburned clear-cuts, although the areas felled have been substantially smaller than that in the past, inferring that deer could easily avoid such areas i f necessary. A further constraint on the deer is the effect of predators (e.g. cougars). Cougars apparently do not k i l l large numbers of deer, (probably not more than 50 per year, although no definite figures are available). The presence of human beings by i t s e l f does not adversely affect the deer population. Visitors have been prohibited from bringing dogs onto the Forest, but dogs running loose have done considerable damage by harassing and sometimes k i l l i n g deer. 2.2.4.2 Quantitative Assessment 2.2.4.2-1 As previously noted in Paragraph 2.2.4.1-1, there i s l i t t l e detailed inventory information on either game or other w i l d l i f e species. Information is available from casual observations of population centres, especially during the winter months. The extent of information reflects the current state of knowledge and the level of management of the Wildlife Resource on the Forest. 2.2.4.2-2 The movement of game in winter on the Forest has been observed by staff and vi s i t o r s , and although no formal record has been kept of the areas of activity, a picture can be drawn of areas of winter range and activity. The areas of deer concentration are shown on Map 2.2.4.2-2-A. Superimposed on the figure i s the extent of the 60 cm (24 inches) snowpack level. This snowpack " c r i t i c a l perimeter" is highly variable from year to year, and should be taken as a approximation only. The areas of deer concentration vary from year to year and until further information relating to game is collected, few details of a concrete nature can be stated. EXTENT OF CURRENT KNOWLEDGE POPULATION CENTRES <?3 2.2.4.3 Management Practices 2.2.4.3-1 Game hunting provides both recreation and food. Hunting was permitted (with restrictions) between 1962 and 1969 (Paragraphs 2.1.2-58 to 2.1.2-77), but in 1969, due to resource management conflicts and for safety reasons, hunting was prohibited. 2.2.4.3-2 Since 1969, research has played a prominent role in the managment of game on the Forest. The research has centered upon nutrition (Project 72-16) and behavioural studies (Project 80-14) and no work has been done on inventory or assessment of population levels. The prohibition of hunting has led to an increased frequency of sighting, and an apparent rise in the deer population. It i s possible that the increased frequency of sighting i s due more to the absence of a hostile environment than a large increase i n numbers. One of the objectives of the nutrition study has been to make the deer more visible to the general public, and to this end, a t r a i l was constructed in 1975, and feeding stations erected at selected points along the t r a i l . Game viewing has been considered a desirable feature of the Resource and although the Forest Administration had no active role in the construction of the t r a i l , the t r a i l was sited with Game viewing in mind, in consultation with the U.B.C. Research Forest staff. 2.2.4.3-3 A deer breeding enclosure i s maintained adjacent to \ the Main Gate. The installation, originally contructed for purely research purposes, provides a focal point for research, education and public viewing. Approximately 20 deer are raised in the enclosure each year, and released in the spring at about 10 months of age, the residential animals being retained for further breeding. A programme of improving the quality of the deer has been in operation since 1979, with selected bucks being captured and bred with the residential does. 2.2.4.3-4 Almost a l l information relative to the bird population has been collected as a result of research projects (Appendix 2.1.2-38-A). A l i s t of birds sighted within 2 km (1.25 miles) is contained in Table 2.2.4.3-4-A. Other information directly related to the Forest i s in the form of visitors observations or student projects, none of which have been sufficiently comprehensive of details to give more than a superficial picture. A series of sighting reports on the Research Forest, together with a l i s t of birds observed on the Pitt Polder, are contained in Appendix 2.2.4.1-2-A. Details of the C.L.I. Capability ratings for Waterfowl are also contained in Appendix 2.2.4.1-2-A. PAST-HUNTING PRESENT -RESEARCH GAME VIEWING DEER BREEDING PROGRAMME BIRDS AND BIRD WATCHING 1f 2.2.4.4 Summary Appraisal of the Wildlife Resource 2.2.4.4-1 Research and Game viewing are currently the main use INTANGIBLE of the Wildlife Resource. The extent to which w i l d l i f e VALUES other than deer (such as bear, cougar and mountain goat) and other l i v i n g organisms contribute to game viewing act i v i t i e s i s not known, but is thought to be significant. It i s d i f f i c u l t to place a value on the Wildlife Resource due to both lack of definite population numbers and a yardstick by which the resource might be measured. The Forest is extensively used by hikers and much of the attraction of the area is the presence of wild l i f e species that can be viewed in their natural surroundings without undue d i f f i c u l t y . While birds have received l i t t l e attention in this section, bird watching is known to be a feature of the Forest and numerous visitors take part in this activity. A l i s t of the flora and fauna of the Pitt Polder and details of the C.L.I. Capability Ratings for ungulates is contained in Appendix 2.2.4.1-2-A. 1* Figure 2.2.5-1-A The Organization of the "Social Resource Section" of the U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan GENERAL Purpose Demonstration Benefits RESEARCH Funding of projects Experimental design Protective function Public relations Research findings Further research avenues Teaching research Graduate student thesis research EDUCATION School children Technical education Ranger school (B.C.F.S. University Seminars and meetings Open House SOCIETY INVOLVEMENT Employer Displacement activity Recreation Environmental stability SUMMARY APPRAISAL 2.2.5 2.2.5-1 2.2.5-2 The Social Resource for the U.B.C. Research Forest The U.B.C. Research Forest plays a unique role i n forestry in British Columbia, and i t i s this role that sets i t apart from similar forest areas on the Coast. The description of the role and the interaction of the Research Forest with society i s termed the Social Resource, and requires different treatment than given of the other four resources previously described. The organization of the analyses of the Social Resource for the U.B.C. Research Forest i s shown in Figure 2.2.5-1-A. The Resource w i l l be described under the following headings (a) Research (b) Education (c) Society involvement (d) Summary appraisal Although the term "demonstration" appears i n the Restrictive Covenant (Paragraph 1.1-1), demonstration as such i s not treated as a separate entity. Many of the research and management projects undertaken demonstrate techniques, and the application of current knowledge to both operations and research. The purpose of the Research Forest is such that a reservoir of demonstration areas has been formed pertaining to research, education and public related a c t i v i t i e s , a l l of which are directly related to the Social Resource. GENERAL TREATMENT OF RESOURCE <77 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 2.2.5.1 Research 2.2.5.1-1 Although included in the t i t l e of the management RESEARCH unit, research i s by no means the only activity, PROJECTS but i t i s an important part of the programme, and enters every facit of management. The l i s t of research projects (Appendix 2.1.2-38-A and B), indicates the extent of the work undertaken and the diversity of interests. The number of research projects initiated to December 31, 1980 amounted to 429. 2.2.5.1-2 Funding of research on the Forest i s now normally FUNDING OF ^ independent of the Research Forest budget, although RESEARCH this was not always so in the past. Allocation of funds often reflects social interest and p o l i t i c a l pressures of the present, and as such, i s rarely of a long-term nature. Although there i s no lack of long-term project availability, due to the methods of funding, emphasis i s on the short-term, and investigations of a long-term nature tend to suffer neglect due to financial constraints. No charges are levied by the Forest Administration for the use of the area for research purposes, and although much time and effort i s often expended to assist in maintaining experimental areas, the Forest derives no direct revenue from this service. 2.2.5.1-3 The various research projects that have been undertaken on the Forest provide a variety of examples of experimental design and approaches to problem solving. Although many projects have been terminated, either by the conclusion of the experiment or due to lack of funds, they remain on the ground (in various stages of neglect or development) for visitors to see. 2.2.5.1-4 The Research Forest provides sites on which research PROTECTIVE projects can be undertaken under relatively secure FUNCTION conditions. Although not always successful (e.g. k i l l i n g of deer by dogs in 1975 and 1976 - Project 72-16 and in 1981 Project 80-14), the area i s protected to a large extent against vandalism. Much effort is directed to the security of the Forest and a large part of the Forest resources are used in protection, not merely against vandalism and the natural elements, but in controlling access and regulating the amount of use in any one area. In the past, there have been minor conflicts between research projects, but this problem has been minimal and few conflicts have resulted in permanent damage to installations or work in progress. 2.2.5.1-5 With the exception of closures due to high f i r e hazard PUBLIC conditions, the public are permitted to walk almost RELATIONS anywhere on the Forest although certain small areas are permanently closed to public access, e.g. Loon Lake Camp. The freedom of foot access in any area virt u a l l y free of vehicles draws a large number of people (up to S00 per day — figure from the summer of 1980). Information boards are provided at various research sites and these are useful in informing the visitors as to the purpose and objectives of particular projects. The boards, and information dispensed by the Forest staff during the course of their duties, provide a valuable public relations service. 2.2.5.1-6 The Forest publishes an annotated bibliography of a l l publications, theses and reports generated by users of the area (Appendix 2.1.2-38-B). Other information pertaining to research projects is contained in the f i l e s held at the Adminstration office. Research findings are an important product of the Forest, although the Forest receives no financial benefits from published material. RESEARCH FINDINGS 2.2.5.1-7 Although research projects are often short-term, few FURTHER researchers complete their work without recommending RESEARCH further avenues of investigation. Within the Forest, AVENUES records are maintained and project areas continue to develop and are protected in the event that a project may be reinstated or may be of use to another researcher. At the present time (1980), there is no definite procedure to determine whether or not projects have been definitely terminated. However, consideration is given to reinstatement, where requested, and further research where applications are submitted. 2.2.5.1-8 A further function of research on the Forest concerns TEACHING the training of students and future researchers. RESEARCH Examples of experimental design (Paragraph 2.2.5.1-3) can be seen, providing both good and poor examples. 2.2.5.1-9 The Forest is a useful resource f a c i l i t y and many GRADUATE graduate students have undertaken research work on THESIS the area for thesis purposes (Appendix 2.1.2-38-B). RESEARCH The quantity of basic data of a highly specific nature available on different areas, provides i n i t i a l calibration information, saving time and effort that might otherwise be spent by students on i n i t i a l information gathering. 2.2.5.2 Education 2.2.5.2-1 Many school children v i s i t the Forest, either as day visitors or as residents at Loon Lake Camp. The children consist mainly of grades 6 and 7, although children from other grades attend as well, the older students in grades 11 and 12 acting as counsellors. The residential programme was initiated in 1971 (Paragraph 2.1.2-93), although the Junior Forest Warden Programme of an earlier date (Paragraph 2.1.2-48) was an informal forerunner of the present programme. 2.2.5.2-2 The school children stay at Loon Lake Camp for up to 5 days, accompanied by their own teachers who organize and supervise a c t i v i t i e s . The Forest staff member employed as Education Co-ordinator has, in the past, assisted i f required. The activities have consisted of v i s i t s to t r a i l s , water safety programmes, building plant collections, and many aspects of ecology and forestry education. In many instances, the v i s i t to the Camp is the f i r s t exposure to outdoor education. The numbers of school children staying at Loon Lake Camp have been reported.in the Outdoor Education Annual Reports of the Research Forest (8,580 student days in 1978). 2.2.5.2-3 A large number of school children (4,587 in 1977, 2,043 in 1978) have visited the Forest on day tours. Teachers familiar with the Forest require l i t t l e assistance, but groups arriving for the f i r s t time draw heavily on Forest staff as guides. 2.2.5.2-4 Forestry students from British Columbia Institute of Technology have made extensive use of the Forest for exercises in surveying, timber cruising and other forest management ac t i v i t i e s . The technical school students have been accompanied by their own instructors. 2.2.5.2-5 In the past, the British Columbia Forest Service Ranger School at Green Timbers in Surrey have held management exercises on the Forest preparing f i r e plans etc. There is currently (1980) no active programme. 2.2.5.2-6 The U.B.C. Faculty of Forestry students attend a three week camp at the end of the third year. In the past, a two week survey camp was held at the Loon Lake Camp for second year students, but this was discontinued in 1973. Professors and staff from the Faculty of Forestry bring student groups to the Forest for both f i e l d instruction and to engage in research work. The groups vary in size from small (3-4) to large (40-60) and the interests range over the entire forest resource. The Forest staff play only a minor role in the day excursions and there is often no liaison between Faculty and the Forest staff on these v i s i t s . 2.2.5.2-7 Students from other faculties at U.B.C. as well as other Universities such as Simon Fraser University (S.F.U.), have also been frequent visitors to the Forest. Although information has been provided for such visitors by the Forest Administration, the Professors in charge have generally led the f i e l d trips. 2.2.5.2-8 The Camp is used to host professional seminars related to forestry and other areas of professional interest. These meetings are noted in the Annual Reports of the Research Forest. Also noted are l i s t s of non-forestry agencies using the Forest for seminars and meetings. SCHOOL CHILDREN RESIDENT CAMP DAY VISITS TECHNICAL SCHOOL STUDENTS B.C.F.S. RANGER SCHOOL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS -U.B.C. FORESTRY UNIVERSITY STUDENTS -OTHER SEMINARS AND MEETINGS / 6 0 2.2.5.2-9 From time to time, the Forest invites the general OPEN HOUSE public to an Open House, although since the AND Demonstration Forest was opened in 1978, no Open DEMONSTRATION House has been held. Considerable effort was devoted FOREST to informing the public of current forest practices and a large temporary staff was mobilized (in excess of 100), to assist the permanent staff. The Demonstration Forest provides a permanent, year round f a c i l i t y for both formal education and public relations a c t i v i t i e s . Tours are conducted (2.2.5.2-3) by the Forest Staff as work loads permit, and the Ministry of Forests has funded guides during the summer months on a programme sponsored by the Canadian Institute of Forestry. /ol 2.2.5.3 Society Involvement 2.2.5.3-1 Areas in which people liv i n g in the local community EMPLOYMENT are employed are as follows: 1. Staff positions and office staff. 2. Technical staff for forest operations and maintenance work. 3. Loon Lake Camp and kitchen staff. 6 4. Gatekeeping and for security purposes. 5. Contractors for logging, road building and road maintenance, building contractors and other engineering operations. 6. Some research project maintenance staff. 7. Summer Youth Employment programmes 8. Employment Development programmes A considerable number of people are employed at the Forest and live locally (about 30 full-time and many other part-time). This i s a significant economic input onto the local community. The level of this input varies from year to year, but has steadily increased since the establishment of the Forest. 2.2.5.3-2 Since 1977, a series of employment development and EMPLOYMENT youth employment programmes have been organized by DEVELOPMENT the Education Department of the Forest. Up to 25 persons have been employed during the summer months (mainly on contracts awarded by the Federal Department of Immigration and Employment) on Forest maintenance operations. Youth employment programmes have greatly assisted in plantation maintenance, preparation of areas for student exercises, maintenance of the Arboretum and Loon Lake Camp, and a variety of other work that would normally have been undertaken by the. Forest technical staff. Programmes specifically for the disabled and handicapped (deaf, blind and mentally handicapped) have been developed in conjunction with the Western Institute for the Deaf (W.I.D.), Canadian Institute for the Blind (C.N.I.B.) and Arthur Peake School in Maple Ridge. 2.2.5.3-3 The Forest occupies a considerable land area adjacent LAND USE to the local community. While there are certain minor CONSTRAINTS constraints imposed, the land is available for recreation and leisure purposes. The Forest has displaced other a c t i v i t i e s , (notably hunting and fishing), but generally speaking, has presented an acceptable and aesthetically pleasing alternative for the local community. 2.2.5.3-4 The Forest is open for hiking, game viewing, snow RECREATION shoeing, cross country skiing and general nature rambling by individuals or family groups. Constraints are placed on the entry of motor vehicles, horses, and cross country recreation machines, and thus the Forest presents a peaceful, relaxing recreation setting. The local community directly benefits from the availability of the area for these purposes, as do visitors from many places outside the d i s t r i c t . 2.2.5.3-5 Water licences (Appendix 2.2.2.3-1-A Part ( i i i ) ) have been ENVIRONMENTAL issued on almost a l l of the creeks and rivers leaving STABILITY the Forest. The s t a b i l i t y and purity of the water supply i s affected by the environmental stability of the upstream areas. The Forest Administration actively protects the environmental values of the area by sound forest management. The Research Forest displaces other forms of land use and thus stabilizes the land use pattern. This i s an important feature of the area and directly benefits the local residents. 2.2.5.4 Summary Appraisal of the Social Resource 2.2.5.4-1 The methods by which the University of British Columbia u t i l i z e s the Research Forest have been bri e f l y described in the Social Resource. The relationship between the University, Society and the four physical resources of the Forest (timber, water, fish and game) is complex and highly interactive. The Social Resource includes intangibles that are d i f f i c u l t to describe and quantify (e.g. values of ideas generated during research and education a c t i v i t i e s ) . During the f i r s t 20 years that the University owned the Forest, use was restricted almost entirely to the Faculty of Forestry, and although acti v i t i e s such as recreation received some attention, i t was not until about 1970 that activities on the area became more community and society directed. The development of the Forest Social Resource in the recent past closely reflects changing social attitudes, and as such, is highly relevant to the society of today. /o3 Figure 2.3-1-A The Organization of the "Administration Section"  of the U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan ORGANIZATION General Current Staff Structure STAFF RESPONSIBILITIES Director Forester (Engineering) ' Forester (Silviculture) Education Co-ordinator Technical FINANCING Income - Direct Special projects ' - Grants - U.B.C. Financial Position /of-2.3 The Administration 2.3-1 The organization of the analyses of the administration of the U.B.C. Research Forest is shown in Figure 2.3-1-A and w i l l be broken into three main parts as follows: Organization Staff Responsibilities Financing 2.3.1 The Organization of the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.3.1-1 The Administration has passed through varying stages GENERAL since the inception of the Forest. The area has been administered by a series of Committees and Directors, a l l with varying degrees of authority and responsibility, to the present time when the Director is in sole charge of the day-to-day administration, responsible to the Dean of the Faculty of Forestry, who is in turn responsible to the Board of Governors of the University of British Columbia. There is a U.B.C. Faculty of Forestry Research Forest Advisory Committee that provides for liaison with the staff of the Faculty of Forestry. Much of the evolution of the administration and the events leading to the present situation can be traced through the year-by-year diary (Paragraphs 2.1.2-26 to 108) and information on a historical nature recorded in the previous sections. Formulation of policy i s normally done at Director level and above, while planning and direction is done at Director and Staff levels: execution of operations is done at Staff level. 2.3.1-2 Current administrative (1980) and staff structure ADMINISTRATIVE of U.B.C. Research Forest are shown in Figure 2.3.1- STRUCTURE 2-A. A l l sections overlap and while the main areas of interest are clearly defined, many functions are of a joint nature. Thus, for example, during student camps or Open House preparations, the staff responsibilities are inter-changeable and there is no s t r i c t division or boundaries within which the staff operate. /»5 2.3.2 Staff Responsibilities on the U.B.C. Research Forest 2.3.2-1 In general terms, the staff responsibilities are shown in Figure 2.3.2-1-A and are summarized as follows: (a) Director - In charge of planning and co-ordination, has overall responsibility for the organization and conduct of a l l activities on the Research Forest. (b) Forester - (Engineering) - Responsible for a l l engineering operations, contractor conduct .relative to harvesting, vehicles, equipment and buildings in the Administration and Work-shop areas. Responsible also for f i r e protection and f i r e plan revision. (c) *Forester - (Silviculture and Education) - Responsible for a l l s i l v i c u l t u r a l operations, co-ordination of both residential and day education programmes, compilation of the Management Plan, youth employment and employment development projects. (d) Secretarial - In charge of a l l bookkeeping, f i l i n g , camp reservations and general secretarial work. (e) Technical - Provides technical support for a l l operations. A l i s t of a l l professional staff since the inception of U.B.C. Research Forest is contained in Appendix 2.3.2-1-A. * The position of Forester (Silviculture and Education) involves two major act i v i t i e s , Silviculture and Education. Where responsibilities (or duties) are stated in the Management Plan, the position (depending on subject matter) is noted as either Forester (Silviculture) or Forester (Education) for the sake of brevity. It i s anticipated that the present position w i l l evolve into two positions at some future (unspecified) date. /DC 2.3.3 2.3.3-1 2.3.3.1 2.3.3.1-1 2.3.3.1-2 2.3.3.1-3 2.3.3.1-4 2.3.3.1-5 The Financing of the U.B.C. Research Forest The source financing of the U.B.C. Research Forest i s broken into four main parts: (i) Direct revenue from operations on the Forest. ( i i ) Direct grants for specific projects from sources other than U.B.C. ( i i i ) Other sources apart from U.B.C. and specially funded projects. (iv) U.B.C. (Operating expenses) Direct Income from Forest Operations The direct income source from Forest operations i s as follows: (i) Income from timber operations and other forest products. ( i i ) Income from the Loon Lake Camp operations. ( i i i ) Income from"rent of other forest f a c i l i t i e s . (iv) Income from students fees for Spring Camp. The income from timber has been highly variable over the years, reflecting both administration policies and market trends. The income from this source has shown a decrease during the recent past as the more valuable old growth timber areas have been logged and harvesting has been increasingly concentrated in the second growth areas. Camp operations have provided an increasing amount of income, although this has been largely offset by the increased maintenance necessary due to higher use, and the constant capital improvements to the Camp f a c i l i t i e s . Other sources of income include compensation f° r rights-of-way (e.g. Mica Power Line) which are normally one payment transactions, and the lease of ground (e.g. Chum Salmon Hatchery) which provides a small, but steady income. Income from student fees for Spring Camp do not cover the cost, and the Camp is heavily subsidized by the Faculty of Forestry at U.B.C. GENERAL SOURCES OF INCOME DIRECT INCOME DIRECT INCOME VARIABLE CAMP INCOME OTHER SOURCES STUDENT FEES 07 2.3.3.2 Direct Grants for Specific Projects from Sources other than the University of British Columbia. 2.3.3.2-1 Projects are sometimes financed by agencies or DIRECT GRANTS companies for particular projects or projects FROM OUTSIDE related to research work on the Forest. For instance, U.B.C. the Outdoor Education Department has been assisted by a grant from the Council of Forest Industries and many items related to Outdoor Education are supplied from this fund, including guides for the day tour programme. The preparation of this Management Plan for the Forest has been, in part, financed by a rebate from the logging tax. Income of this nature i s small but an important component of the overall financing, although i t i s also liable to variation as the economic climate of the Province fluctuates. 2.3.3.2-2 Further examples include a National Research Council (NRC) grant for the development of direct seeding techniques, British Columbia Forest Service grants for the development of tree planting containers and machines, Canadian Forestry Service grants for the development of tree planting containers and machines, Canadian Forestry Service grants for development of an aerial cone harvester, and a Careers '75 grant to assist in the metrication of the Forest records. While such grants appear to financially assist the Research Forest, grants of this nature are tied to specific projects, are often short term investigations, non-repeatable and do not necessarily assist the Forest in defraying operating expenses and the continuing charges of management and overhead costs that may indeed, by increased by their receipt. Moreover, these grants involve the Forest staff in extra duties, not directly related to the administration and maintenance of the Forest and may put a strain on the adequate performance of the essential tasks. COSTS OF ACCEPTING GRANTS AND OTHER OUTSIDE FUNDS 2.3.3.3 Other Sources apart from U.B.C. and s p e c i a l l y Funded Projects. 2.3.3.3-1 These sources have included Canada Manpower projects (Canada Works, Young Canada Work Programmes), funds al l o c a t e d by l o c a l School D i s t r i c t s f o r such projects as a new dock at Loon Lake, and donations to the Research Forest Education Development Fund. icfj 2.3.3.A U.B.C. (Operating Expenses) 2.3.3.4-1 The Research Forest operates a def i c i t budget and U.B.C. the University takes up the balance of the expenditure over income. Severe constraints are placed on the amount contained in the annual budget. A small proportion of most Research grants are deducted by the University for administration purposes, but this goes into the general University administration fund and does not reach the Forest directly. No Forestry fund has ever been established and there have been no endowments to the Forest for management purposes that reflect the special nature of the area. no 2.3.3.5 Financial Position (1980) of the U.B.C. Research Forest. 2.3.3.4-1 The financial situation of the Forest is generally PRESENT poor and imposes severe constraints on the operation FINANCIAL of the Forest Unit. Projects of a long term nature POSITION can rarely be attempted due to the uncertainty of POOR the income, and, due to the depleted old growth timber inventory, there are no reserves for contingencies. a SUMMARY STATEMENT AND OBSERVATIONS ON PART I OF THE U.B.C. RESEARCH FOREST MANAGEMENT PLAN The Research Forest is a highly diverse forest area, given to the University of British Columbia "for the purpose of instruction and demonstration in the practice of forestry and forest engineering", (Paragraph 1.1-1) and this one quotation from the restrictive covenant guides the management strategy of the Forest. However, no matter how the restrictive covenant is interpreted, or for that matter, no matter what type of forest i s under consideration, area management must be based on a sound knowledge of the Forest Resource. PART I is the basis of the resource information — an accumulation and repository of the management data. The U.B.C. Research Forest is unique in many respects, in particular in regard to the immense quantity of highly specific information related to the many research projects undertaken on the area. Much of the information is not directly included in this plan, for the inclusion of a l l such material would render the descriptive section of the working plan unwieldy and unmanageable. The appendices of the Management Plan contain a vast quantity of information, and direction to further references in the Central F i l i n g System and elsewhere. It is believed that a balance has been struck. Criticisms can be made that the information selected for inclusion i s biased, with either too much or insufficient detail and the reaction in this respect w i l l depend on the special interest area of the reader. PART I i s , in large part, a key to a box of information and should be treated as such, and not a compendium of the total knowledge available. The yearly reviews and the five year updating procedures w i l l ensure that the contents are kept abreast of current information requirements and i f the format proves incorrect, i t can be altered to f u l f i l l the objectives prevailing at that time. Time alone w i l l show whether or not the present (1980) format is r e a l i s t i c . It is certainly not intended to be sacrosanct or carved in p i l l a r s of stone. Land management forms must change as the need arises. 2.2.1.3-11 Mechanical ground clearing involves complete clearance in preparation for f u l l y mechanized cultural operations. Old stumps are pushed out of the ground into piles and burned, together with the slash debris from the clear-f e l l i n g operations. Large boulders are removed. Once the bulk of the debris i s burned, the remaining material is buried. Any boggy areas are ditched using land clearing equipment. Rocky outcrops are l e f t untouched and surface irregularities considered a hinderance to the operation of machinery, are leveled out as well as possible. In many instances, the surface topography is completely remodelled. MECHANICAL GROUND CLEARANCE 2.2.1.3-12 On only a few of the highly productive sites at the southern end of the Forest have been drained. Swamps have been drained in areas to the -south-east of Loon Lake in Compartment 28 (Map 2.1.1-3-A), but the areas involved are very small. Draining is not a frequent operation and where undertaken, dynamite, rather than mechanical means such as a backhoe, is favoured. However, there are many instances where the ground is not suitable for dynamite (e.g. stoney ground), and a backhoe has to be used. DRAINAGE Restocking 2.2.1.3-13 Until about 1955, there was almost complete dependence on natural regeneration for restocking logged or burned areas. After the slash was disposed of by burning, the site was l e f t and over a period of time, possibly up to 20 years, would partially or f u l l y restock with hemlock and cedar, with often less than 10% of other species such as Douglas-fir. As a consequence of this policy, alder occupies extensive areas on the more productive, lower elevation sites. In many instances, an understorey of conifers is becoming established under the alder invaded areas, but the stocking is generally sparse, and poorly distributed. In the past, the shape of the felled area was planned with consideration being given to distance from the possible seed source. Shading, aspect, condition of the s o i l and type of regeneration required was used to decide whether natural regeneration would be attempted. NATURAL REGENERATION 2.2.1.3-14 Since 1955, most of the clear-felled areas have been planted. The planting stock has been supplied by the B.C. Forest Service, using, in some cases, seed collected on the Forest, and has consisted mainly of 2 + 0 bare root Douglas-fir. Container stock, of hard-walled containers or planting bullets have been successfully used in f i e l d scale t r i a l s . PLANTING 2.2.1.3-15 Replanting of partially failed areas has been confined to highly productive sites or to areas where the original planting has completely failed. Rarely, i f at a l l , has beating-up of natural regeneration been done thus some of the areas on the central ridge are s t i l l under-stocked after 45 years, and in some instances, the stocking level i s as low as 30% of the minimum desired level (120 trees per acre as opposed to about 450 trees per acres). BEATING-UP (FILLING BLANKS) U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan PART II Current Management Section Figure 4.0-A Contents of PART II - U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan 4.0 Preface 5.0 Policy and Objectives 6.0 Long Term Management Proposals 7.0 Planning Methods to Achieve Objectives 8.0 Current Management Proposals Year 1 Prescriptions 9.0 Projected Future Developments Year 2 - 1 0 Proposals 10.0 Director's Closing Statement PART II 4.0 PREFACE 4.1 Explanation of contents 4.1-1 Part II contains; CONTENTS - Policy and Objectives - Long Term Management Proposals - Planning Methods to Achieve Objectives - Current Management - Projected Future Proposals - Director's Closing Statement 4.1-2 Policy, Objectives and Long Term Management OUTLINE proposals explain overall management philosophy. Planning Methods detail the mechanism. Current Management contains the Programme for Year 1 of the Plan. Projected future Proposals details the Short term (Year 2), Intermediate (Years 3-5 inclusive) and Long term (Years 6-10 inclusive) management proposals. Director's Closing Statement i s a short prognosis for the outcome of the 1st year. 4.1-3 Part II i s based on a rolling format and w i l l be ROLLING PLAN amended each year. Thus, in turn Year 2 w i l l be CONCEPT written as Year 1 and enlarged to include sufficient detail for a l l budgetary and planning control. Other sections w i l l be progressively brought forward and the long term planning pushed on one year ahead, ensuring a constant 10 year horizon. Amended and out of date Management Plants w i l l be f i l e d as indicated in Appendix 0.0. 4.1-4 Due to uncertainty of funding, only one year's FUNDING AND programme is set out in detail and a number of PROGRAMME long term proposals (e.g. Harvesting Section 8.5.3 following) are given in only general terms. Uncertainty does not detract from the urgency of many proposals, particularly proposals associated with forest cover operations and building replacement. 4.1-5 The format of Part II has been designed to provide REVISION a flexible management tool. Many headings used in the Prescription Check List (Section 6.2 following) w i l l not be used each year, but their inclusion ensures consideration. The List i t s e l f w i l l be amended and/or enlarged each year as experience indicates necessary. Part II, therefore, contains provision for i t s own revision and this attribute w i l l be used to ensure the intent of, and maintain the integrity of long term management proposals. Figure 5.0-A Policies and Objectives 5.1 Policy statement 5.2 Management objectives Forest Education Research 5.3 Assistance to researchers and educators 5.A Access to the Research Forest POLICIES AND OBJECTIVES Policy The policy of the Forest w i l l be to implement the terms as set out in the Restrictive Convenant of 1943 - namely, the Forest was granted "for the purpose of instruction and demonstration in the practices of forestry and forest engineering." 5.2 Management Objectives 5.2-1 The management objectives to attain the stated MANAGEMENT policy as detailed above cannot be given in one OBJECTIVES concise statement. The major acti v i t i e s within the Forest must be specified for each area of interest. 5.2-2 (i) The Forest - Objectives related to the Forest as a management unit:-(a) The Forest unit w i l l be managed to demonstrate the techniques of Best-Use. This implies intensive management of a l l areas of the Forest under the Best-Use designated for any stated area. Other uses are integrated with, but subservient to, the "Best-Use". (b) The Forest Administration w i l l be managed, and i t s structure refined, to optimize staff effort and available resources. (c) The Forest f a c i l i t i e s such as Loon Lake Camp, the climatological stations, and the road system w i l l be utilized to the fullest extent, to provide l o g i s t i c a l support for the management of the Forest, education, research and related a c t i v i t i e s . 5.2-3 ( i i ) Education - Objectives related to education are divided into the following:-(a) To provide an open-air classroom for technical vocational, and university students. (b) To expose research assistants and graduate students to f i e l d research techniques and methods. (c) To develop and promote forest-oriented outdoor education for school children in the context of the Forest objectives of research, education and demonstration. (d) To promote public interest in Forestry, forest recreation and associated activities. 5.2-4 ( i i i ) Research - Objectives related to research are:-(a) To provide a medium in which research can be actively pursued. (b) To protect research installations. (c) To demonstrate research techniques and (combined with the educational objectives) provide demonstrations for students and visitors to the Forest. 5.2-5 No forest management operation w i l l be undertaken that w i l l interfere with, or adversely affect, a research project. A l l projects, whether for research, education or demonstration purposes, must be approved by the Forest Director or his deputy prior to commencement of f i e l d work. The Forest administration reserves the.right to deny access or assistance where, in i t s opinion, conflicts might arise. Assistance to Researchers, Educators and vi s i t o r s . Researchers and Educators w i l l be assisted where possible. While the Director and staff w i l l do their utmost to satisfy demands in the form of information, material, labour and equipment, resources (where committed) w i l l not be diverted from existing projects Groups, individuals or professional visitors w i l l continue to be given assistance in the form of either information or tours (where time and resources permit) 110 5.4 5.4-1 5.4-2 5.4-3 Access to U.B.C. Research Forest The general public w i l l not be denied access GENERAL except during periods of f i r e closure. Access w i l l PUBLIC continue to be restricted to hiking, or snowshoeing and cross country skiing in winter. Hunting, fishing, horse riding, camping or lighting of camp fires w i l l not be permitted. Non-business vehicular t r a f f i c w i l l not be permitted. Sections of the Forest w i l l be designated "Restricted RESTRICTED Areas" and the general public w i l l be excluded from AREAS these areas for security reasons. Due to the programme to make deer more visible to DOMESTIC visit o r s , and research projects under way (2.2.4), ANIMALS pet dogs w i l l not be permitted on U.B.C. Research Forest. Figure 6.0- A Methods to Achieve Objectives 6.1 Proposal Format I  6.2 Proposals and Prescriptions (Prescription Check-list) 6.3.1 Administration Management control Organization Protection Support Activities 6.3.2 Land (Resource) control Best-Use Working Circles Use Hierarchies Maps 6.3.3 Function Activities Education Research Demonstration Forest Related Activities 6.3.4 Forest Operations Silviculture Yield Harvesting 6.3.5 Engineering Engineering Physical Plant Equipment 6.4 Technical Audit 6.0 METHODS TO ACHIEVE OBJECTIVES 6.1 Format 6.1-1 Proposals are set out i n Sections .7, 8 and 9 i n the following manner: Section 7.0 Long Range Management Proposals PROPOSAL - containing proposals i n general form for FORMAT the 10 year period. The Proposals are written i n general terms only, i n d i c a t i n g management emphasis as described i n headings l i s t e d i n 6.1-2 following. Section 8.0 Current Management - current proposals for Year 1 of the planning period, including budget, cost flow, summaries and operation timetable for year. Section 9.0 Projected future developments. contains proposals f o r Year 2, Years 3-5 and Years 6-10 of the planning period. Projections beyond Year 10 as foreseen by planners at the time of Management Plan review, are also included. 6.1-2 Proposals are made i n each section under the following headings: Administration PROPOSAL Land (Resource) Control HEADINGS Function A c t i v i t e s (Research, Education etc.) Forest Operations ( S i l v i c u l t u r e , Y i e l d and Harvesting) Engineering, Physical Plant and Equipment 6.1-3 To ensure continuity, the Proposed Central F i l i n g RECORDS System w i l l follow a s i m i l a r format as indicated i n 6.1-2 and as expanded i n 6.3 following. 6.1-4 To show continuity of Current Short term and Long PLANNING term planning, Figure 6.1-4-A i s included. Four CONTINUITY areas are c a r r i e d through the e n t i r e planning process; Administrative Intent Land Control Function A c t i v i t i e s Forest Operations. To ensure success, a l l of these areas of forest management requires long term planning, and d e f i c i e n c i e s i n any one w i l l r e s u l t i n major problems at some future date. 6.1-5 The Planning periods are as follows: PLANNING PERIODS Year 1 1982-83 Year 2 1983-84 Years 3-5 1984-85 - 1986-87 Years 6-10 1987-88 - 1991-92 Years 11 + 1992-93 - onwards Figure 6.1-4-A Method Used to Ensure Continuity of Proposals Between Current, Short and Long Term' Year 1 Year 2 Year 3-5 Year 6-10 Year 11+ Current Short Term Long Term 8.2 Administration — 8.3 Land Use 8.4 Function 8.5 Forest Operation 8.6 Engineering 8.7 Cost/Quantity — 8.8 Time Tables — 8.9 Other Income — 8.10 Summary •* 9.2.1 Administration 9.2.2 -* 9.2.3 Land -* 9.2.4 Function •* 9.2.5 Forest Operation -* 9.2.6 Engineering -> 9.2.7 Cost -» 9.2.8 Other ->9.3.1 Administration -» 9.3.2 Land -> 9.3.3 Function -> 9.3.4 Forest Operation-->9.3.5 Engineering -> 9.3.6 Summary ••9.4.1 Administration -> 9.4.2 Land 9.4.3 Function 9.4.4 Forest Operation -> 9.4.5 Engineering -> 9.4.6 Summary Policy -* 9.5.1 Objective Administration -> 9.5.4 Land -*• 9.5.5 Function •+ 9.5.6 Forest Operation -» 9.5.7 Income and Expenditure Predictions "See 6.1-4 of Plan text. Proposals and P r e s c r i p t i o n s To ensure that a l l areas of concern are considered, planned and p r e s c r i b e d , a c h e c k - l i s t i s used. The c h e c k - l i s t (not covering P o l i c y and Object ives -Sect ion 5.0) i s d e t a i l e d i n Sect ion 6.3 f o l l o w i n g . A l l headings l i s t e d do not n e c e s s a r i l y have to be commented on, nor used, but t h e i r i n c l u s i o n ensures cons idera t ion . Many headings inc luded require further s u b d i v i s i o n and merely i n d i c a t e i n t e r e s t areas. Changes i n P o l i c y and Object ives are not w i t h i n the terms of reference of the i n d i v i d u a l charged with r e v i s i n g the Management P l a n . Changes i n P o l i c y and Objec t ives , there fore , w i l l be incorporated in to the Management Plan as required by the D i r e c t o r i n consu l t a t ion with the Dean of the Facu l ty of F o r e s t r y . 6.3 Proposal and Prescription check-list 6.3.1 Administration 6.3.1-1 Management control - budgeting finance - development - technical audit (see also 6.4 following) - marketing - inventory (biological and physical) - valuation - leases - physical plant, equipment and plant additions and renewals (see also 6.3.5-3 following) 6.3.1-2 Organization T staffing - employment policy - labour relations - management plan review - staff training technical training - community involvement accounting procedures reports - minor accounts 6.3.1-3 Protection f i r e (for equipment see 6.3.5-3 following) - security pest control environmental 6.3.1-4 Support activities - maps (see also 6.3.2-4 following) - photos - f i l e s and records - promotion other /2£ 6.3.2 Land (Resource) Control 6.3.2-1 Best-Use Application Review - Amendments 6.3.2-2 Working Circles - Nature and Education - Water Production - Wood Production Recreation - Wildlife - U t i l i t y Corridor Research List and Scales Renewals and ammendments Storage Display - Access - Inventory 6.3.2-3 Use Hierarchies Assessment Application Review - Amendments 6.3.2-4 Maps ill 6.3.3 Function Activities 6.3.3-1 . Education - Education Co-ordinators Function - Universities (including Spring Camp) - Technical Schools - Vocational Institutes - Secondary - Primary - Seminars - Workshops - Work Experience - Special Education Projects - Public Education Signs - Other vi s i t o r s - Other Day Tours and v i s i t s - Other Residential groups Summer student projects - Professional papers - Other 6.3.3-2 Research - Working Plan and Project Outline - Researcher's Package - Long term Project maintenance - Forest Supported research - Research News, other publications Researcher Aid - Other 6.3.3-3 Demonstration - Open House - Demonstration Forest Special Projects Signs - Other 6.3.3-4 Forest Related Activities Landscaping Hatchery - Arboretum - Deer Project - Nursery Weather Station - Other Forest Operations Silviculture - Review of pr i o r i t i e s - Methods of labour - Surveys and assessments - Site preparation - Planting (includes restocking) - Weed control (includes cleaning) Juvenile thinning (includes species control) - Pruning - Pre-commercial thinning Commercial thinning - Rehabilitation - Other plantation maintenance operations Equipment (see 6.3.5-3 following) Compartment Treatment records - Treatment summaries Yield Review of priorities - Methods of labour Inventory Yield calculation Regulation Equipment and instruments (see 6.3.5-3 following) Harvesting - Methods of labour - Programme Year 1 - Programme Year 2 Programme Years 3 - 5 Provisional Programme Years 6-10 - Constraints and precautions Forest equipment (see 6.3.5-3 following) / 6.3.5 Engineering, Plant and Equipment 6.3.5-1 Engineering - Pri o r i t i e s - Method and labour Roads, New ( a l l aspects) Roads, Maintenance (general provisions) - Drainage Snow removal Bridges (new, replacement and maintenance) - Culverts (new, replacement and maintenance) - Guard r a i l s , road markers, signs - Roads Equipment (see 6.3.5-3 following) - Vegetation control - Other 6.3.5-2 Physical Plant - Priorities - Methods and labour - Buildings, New Buildings, Replacement Buildings, Maintenance Camp structures and services - Administration Buildings - Workshop complex - Marc House & Greenhouse - Equipment (see 6.3.5-3 following) - Other 6.3.5-3 Equipment Silviculture - Engineering - Office Survey - Workshop Fire suppression (field) Fire suppression (buildings) Vehicles, tractors, accessories and saws - Purchase and Replacement priorities - Inventory procedures - Other I to 6.4 6.4-1 6.4-2 Technical Audit To ensure constant review, evaluation and effective-ness of management processes, each year prior to Management Plan review, a brief analysis of the previous year's operations w i l l be undertaken. The Technical Audit w i l l be done concurrently with compilation of the Forest Annual Report. Due to the t r i a l nature of the audit, only s i l v i c u l t u r a l operations w i l l receive scrutiny i n i t i a l l y . As audit methods develop in future years, a l l other forest operations w i l l be covered. Audit procedures w i l l be handled internally by the staff member responsible for the operation. AUDIT OF MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS TRIAL OF PROCEDURES 6.4-3 The result of the Technical Audit w i l l be presented to the Director annually or as required for staff meetings. RESULTS I2>1 Figure 7.0-A Long Range Management Proposals 7.1 Administration Management Control Organization Development Finances Protection Markets 7.2 Land Management Best Use Use Hierarchies 7. 3 Function Management | Education Research Demons tration 7.4 Forest Cover Silviculture Yield Operations Priorities Methods Inventory Yield Regulation Harvesting - Principles - Methods - Programme 7.5 Engineering Engineering - Roads - Bridges Physical Plant - Buildings - Landscaping Equipment - New - Maintenance Vehicles - Machinery - Inventory LONG RANGE MANAGEMENT PROPOSAL Administration The Forest w i l l continue to be managed by the Director and Professional Staff. Greater use of management aids (in the form of computer based management and accounting systems) w i l l be made. The Management Plan w i l l be the integrating document and w i l l provide the key for management control. Policies relative to the Forest access and security w i l l be reviewed annually. The Forest Administration w i l l continue to diversify ORGANIZATION it s role relative to Best-Use. As funds become available, individual resource managers w i l l be employed to develop and co-ordinate a ful l y integrated Best-Use management framework. The Forest w i l l continue to develop within the DEVELOPMENT framework of Best-Use. F l e x i b i l i t y w i l l be maintained in both management and education, and due to their developmental nature, both w i l l be expected to change over the course of time to reflect developing social and other influences. An integrated management/ research information retrieval system w i l l be developed, to contain a l l basic data, reports and publications generated on the Forest since i t s inception in 1943. Methods of financing operations on the Forest w i l l continue to be explored. A greater shift in revenue sources away from timber harvesting w i l l place further constraints on a l l a c t i v i t i e s , particularly plantation maintenance. Loon Lake Camp w i l l become financially self-sustaining by 1990, as w i l l other educational a c t i v i t i e s . Funding w i l l continue to be sought for summer student employment. A l l aspects of Protection w i l l continue to receive a high priority. Protection review w i l l be under-taken using the following headings. MANAGEMENT CONTROL FINANCES PROTECTION Fire Protection (Forest) Fire Protection (buildings and plant) Insect Disease Protection Forest Wildlife Water quality Research Environmental quality The f i r e plan and other emergency procedures w i l l be GENERAL LONG reviewed annually and plans redrafted every four TERM PROVISIONS years (see 8.2.3-1 following) or as required to meet intermediate planning dead-lines. Periodic surveys w i l l be undertaken to review potential insect and disease problems. Security against trespass and vandalism w i l l also be reviewed annually. The fence along the southern boundary w i l l be maintained and extended. Areas delineated as "Protection Forest" w i l l be reviewed annually as part of the Working Circle review (see 8.3.2 following), and amended as and when required. JS3 Hunting and f i s h i n g w i l l continue to be prohibited and p r o v i s i o n of adequate winter range w i l l be planned for the l o c a l deer population. Deer breeding w i l l continue to maintain population l e v e l s . Water q u a l i t y w i l l be maintained at a high l e v e l and a systematic sampling of water q u a l i t y w i l l be planned and i n s t i t u t e d . A l l research i n s t a l l a t i o n s w i l l receive protection within the resources a v a i l a b l e . Environmental q u a l i t y w i l l be considered i n a l l operational decisions. Areas accessible to the general public w i l l continue to receive a high p r i o r i t y r e l a t i v e to maintenance and landscaping. 7.1-7 The main market f o r timber w i l l continue to be Whonnock MARKETS AND Lumber and other l o c a l wood processors as determined MARKETING by the Forest Administration. Markets for small dimension logs and thinnings w i l l continue to be sought, and the f e a s i b i l i t y of a small sawmill, using small diameter material w i l l be investigated. Markets for sp e c i a l products (such as f o l i a g e from j u v e n i l e thinnings) w i l l be used when a v a i l a b l e . Land Management The Forest w i l l continue to develop the principles and BEST-USE demonstrate the application of Best-Use management to the total forest resource. Working Circles (see 8.3.2 following) w i l l be reviewed each year and modified as necessary to f u l f i l the overall management objectives. Use hierarchies within Working Circles (see 8.3.3 USE following) w i l l be established, reviewed annually and HIERARCHIES amended as and when considered necessary. Function Management The Education Department of U.B.C. Research Forest w i l l continue to explore and develop use of the Forest for educational purposes. The Forest w i l l continue to host and administer the course Forestry 451 (Spring Camp). When not required by the Faculty of Forestry, the Camp at Loon Lake w i l l be used by School District #42 (or other school districts as determined by the Forest Administration). Active participation in day tours by secondary schools, technical, vocational and university groups w i l l continue with guides provided when, and as, resources permit. Activity of the Forest Education Department w i l l be reported annually. The Forest w i l l continue to encourage research undertaken by researchers, students and agencies, and research installations w i l l be protected within the limits of Forest resources. The Forest Administration w i l l continue to play an active role in in i t i a t i n g their own research projects. A Researchers Information Package w i l l be developed as w i l l a more comprehensive f i l i n g system. The Forest w i l l continue to demonstrate forestry DEMONSTRATION practices. A further series of demonstration sites w i l l be developed relative to forest cover manipulation, forestry practices, outdoor education and research. The public demonstration area w i l l be maintained and enhanced as considered necessary to f u l f i l l educational obj ectives. EDUCATION RESEARCH 7.4 Forest Cover 7.4.1 Silviculture 7.4.1-1 The Forest has a backlog of reforestation and OPERATIONS plantation maintenance. Operations w i l l be planned and budgeted to reduce the backlog, the objective being that by 1990, a l l outstanding operations w i l l have been completed and routine s i l v i c u l t u r a l operations w i l l be planned on an even-flow basis. Silvicultural demonstration areas w i l l be established, and selected areas w i l l be landscaped to enhance the appearance of the Forest. 7.4.1-2 Priorities in s i l v i c u l t u r a l operations w i l l be PRIORITIES given to establishing plantations and rehabilitation of high-site areas lost to Non-Commercial Cover in the Wood Production Working Circle (see 8.1.4 following). Areas suitable for totally mechanized s i l v i c u l t u r a l operations w i l l be cleared as funds permit. A l i s t of p r i o r i t i e s w i l l be established and amended periodically as determined by the Forest Administration. 7.4.1-3 Although traditional methods w i l l be used to establish METHODS and maintain plantations, the Forest w i l l continue to be actively involved in developing new and innovative techniques. Priorities w i l l be given to addressing problems currently facing the forestry sector of British Columbia at the present time. 7.4.1-4 An area w i l l be developed to demonstrate Mountain Silviculture. An area in the Water Protection and Storage Working Circle (see 8.3.2.3 following) in the Marion Lake watershed (Map 2.1.3-2-A) has been proposed for the demonstration site. /37 7.4.2 Yield 7.4.2-1 The Forest Inventory (Appendix 2.2.1.1-3-A) was completed in 1966 and updated in 1970. A continuous Forest Inventory (CIF) w i l l be established on a Compartment basis and the inventory continuously updated. Inventory information w i l l be included i n a computer based management model. INVENTORY 7.4.2-2 Calculation of yield (Appendix 2.2.1.1-3-B) w i l l YIELD continue to be undertaken periodically. Future CALCULATION calculations w i l l be based on yield relative to ecosystem units and increases due to more intensive s i l v i c u l t u r a l techniques. The highly variable nature of the Forest w i l l be taken into consideration as w i l l the use of thinnings available to market. 7.4.2-3 Theoretically, the Annual Allowable Cut (AAC) REGULATION (Appendix 2.2.1.1-3-B) is 19,300 m3 (680,000 f t 3 ) . However, due to age class imbalance, areas reserved for research, education and "protection", the AAC is currently 8,500 m3 (300,000 f t 3 ) . The AAC is based on a productive area of 3,200 ha (7,900 ac) -approximately 63% of the total Forest area. The estimated time required to achieve an even-flow production of 14,200 m3 (500,000 f t 3 ) is 50 years (Figures 7.4.2-3-A, B, C, D, E). It is proposed that 10% of the actual growth i s reserved for contingencies such as f i r e , disease etc. Future regulation policy w i l l be based on a periodic rather than annual cut to allow for market fluctuations, the periodic cut being balanced with permissable cut in any ten year period. It is proposed that the AAC is recalculated in 1985, the calculation being based on variable rotations relative to differing plantation and ecosystem productivity. It i s anticipated that plantations currently being established on high site land in the Wood Production Working Circle w i l l , by intensive management have a reduced rotation, possibly 50 years instead of the present 80 years. Techniques for confirming the possible rotation are not yet available. 7.4.3 Harvesting 7.4.3-1 Due to factors noted in Section 6.3.2, Appendix 2.2.1- PRINCIPLES AND 3-B and PART I, Section 2.2.1.3, har v e s t i n g . PHILOSOPHY w i l l be severely constrained for the next two decades. Production could be maintained by entering areas such as the Knapp Reserve, but such measures would only temporarily alleviate the problems. The programme as detailed in Section 8.5.3 (following) is provisional. In principle, in each of the next ten years, when the budgeted income has been achieved, harvesting w i l l cease, any area not harvested being delayed u n t i l the following year. Further, a series of spot harvesting operations w i l l be undertaken in selected old growth stands on the western slopes of the Golden Ears. Selected harvesting of this nature is a "mining" operation as none of these stands are regarded (due to age) as replaceable and areas thus cut w i l l not be a r t i f i c a l l y reforested. Windblow and diseased stands w i l l be cleared as required i f considered necessary and commercially feasible. 7.4.3-2 Harvesting methods w i l l , in general terms, be based METHODS AND on convential methods using high lead on the steeper SYSTEMS slopes, and skidders where accessibility permits. Helicopters w i l l be used for selected operations where high value, otherwise inaccessible material is harvested. Systems w i l l be clearcutting using cutting patches of approximately 20 hectares (50 acs) per setting. It is anticipated that commercial thinnings w i l l be available towards 1990. 7.4.3-3 Areas selected for harvesting are detailed over three periods: LONG RANGE PROGRAMME Year 1 (Current) Years 2-5 (Short Term) The area covered by the current planning year commencing April 1. Specifics detailed in Section 8.5.3 (following). Areas detailed by sub-compartments. Years immediately following current years harvesting and specified in general terms only. Areas given by compart-ments (where known). Years 6-10 (Long Term) Areas and quantities w i l l be detailed by Working Circles indicating the general area, rather than specific compart-ments. At the present time, there are no long term harvesting proposals. /$1 7.5 Physical Estate 7.5.1 Engineering 7.5.1-1 The road system w i l l be maintained. A long term ROADS maintenance programme w i l l be prepared. Only sufficient new roads w i l l be constructed as w i l l service new logging areas or other sites as required to f u l f i l l the policy of "Best Use" (7.2-1). The single road access to Loon Lake Camp (Road C) w i l l be extended as funding permits. Roads servicing mid-age class (40 - 60 years old) forest stands on the east side of the Forest w i l l be progressively upgraded, commencing in 1985, to permit harvesting to proceed. Vegetation suppression on a l l accessible roads w i l l be continued to permit f i r e or emergency access. 7.5.1-2 A programme of bridge maintenance and replacement BRIDGES w i l l be prepared. New bridges w i l l be constructed on Road G, Road M, and Road K by 1990. Bridges currently on these locations are under weight restrictions because of deterioration due to age. 7.5.1-3 The programme of replacing wooden box culverts CULVERTS (when required) w i l l continue, as w i l l the siting of additional self-cleaning culverts in sections of road where considered necessary. A l l culverts w i l l be numbered and a register maintained as to site, size, age and other pertinent information. 7.5.2 7.5.2-1 7.5.2-2 Physical Plant A review system w i l l be developed to determine priority of use, space requirements and efficient use of buildings. A replacement policy w i l l be developed and the older buildings progressively upgraded or replaced as considered necessary by the Forest Administration. A small t r a i l e r area w i l l be established for the use of vi s i t i n g researchers as w i l l a storage area for inactive research equipment. Selected points throughout the Forest w i l l be landscaped as funds permit. Areas selected for treatment w i l l be at strategic, well frequented road intersections, key buildings and research sites. Summer programmes w i l l provide the labour, and plants w i l l be grown in the Forest nursery. It i s proposed that a landscaping programme is developed and one site treated each year. BUILDINGS LANDSCAPING \ 7.5.3 Equipment 7.5.3-1 As the function of the Forest expands, new equipment NEW w i l l be required, particularly for silviculture, Education and Research. Equipment i s also required for t r a i l construction and maintenance of Research installations. A replacement programme for existing equipment, together with a l i s t of pri o r i t i e s for acquisition w i l l be prepared and equipment purchased as funding permits. 7.5.3-2 A technician w i l l maintain equipment MAINTENANCE servicing f a c i l i t i e s and undertake repairs. A comprehensive workshop and store w i l l be constructed for equipment maintenance operations. The technician w i l l prepare service schedules and a system of preventative maintenance w i l l be instituted. 7.5.3-3 Replacement of vehicles w i l l continue as required. VEHICLES Vehicle (and equipment) logs w i l l be introduced with a system of regular inspections and maintenance. 7.5.3-4 The Forest maintains a number of special purpose MACHINERY machines (saws, brushcutters, sprayers, tractors), as well as machines developed on the Forest for demonstration purposes. A programme of housing and maintenance of special purpose machinery w i l l be planned and instituted as funding permits. Repairs to instruments w i l l continue to be contracted out. 7.5.3-5 A comprehensive inventory and equipment handling system INVENTORY w i l l be developed. The technician responsible for maintenance w i l l be in charge and w i l l receive training in inventory and stock control. CURRENT MANAGEMENT SECTION (PLAN YEAR 1) (1982-83) Format Section 8.0 contains a l l proposals necessary to guide the principle management activities on the U.B.C. Research Forest for Year 1 of the Management Period. Proposals follow the format set out in Section 6.3 and the main headings follow the outline as set out in Figure 6.0-A. Amendments to the methods of presenting proposals w i l l be reviewed and amended as decribed in Section 8.2.1 following. ure 8.0- A. Current Management 8.1 Format 8.2 Administration i Management Control Organization Protection Support Activities 8.3 Land (Resource) Control Best Use Working Circles 1 - Format - Recreation - Nature & Education - Game - Water - U t i l i t y - Wood - Research 8.4 Function Activities Education Research Demonstration Forest Related Activities 8.5 Forest Operations Silviculture Yield Harvesting 8.6 Engineering l 1 Engineering Physical Plant Equipment 8.7 Cost & Quantity Expenditure Summary Income Summary Proposed Budget 8.8 Operation & Expenditure I 1  Operations Time Table Income & Expenditure/Time 8.9 Other Income Expenditure & Assistance » Summer Employment Auxiliary Funding Work Experience 8.10 Current Management Summary Comments 8.2 Administration 8.2.1 Management control 8.2.1-1 The U.B.C. Research Forest w i l l be administered GENERAL and controlled by the Forest Director, assisted by his professional staff. The Director and staff w i l l continue to be responsible for the day-to-day administration, allocation of resources, budget allocation and a l l matters pertaining to Forest use. 8.2.1-2 Budgeting w i l l be coordinated by the Director BUDGETING in consulation with his staff. A deficit budget of $205,000.00 has been proposed for the year, to cover operating expenses. - Estimated expendure = $603,500.00 - Estimated income = $398,500.00 - Budgeted operation cost = $205,000.00 The Budget for 1982/83 w i l l be presented to the Dean of the Faculty of Forestry, U.B.C. for consideration of the Board of Govenors in September 1981 for finalization in February 1982. 8.2.1-3 In view of the current financial constraints, l i t t l e DEVELOPMEK work of a developmental nature w i l l be undertaken during the year. Any developmental work w i l l be the result of funding from outside the University. 8.2.1-4 A method of assessing the success and efficiency TECHNICAL of s i l v i c u l t u r a l operations w i l l be devised and AUDIT initiated, based on the outcome of the s i l v i c u l t u r a l technical audit. 8.2.1-5 Marketing arrangements w i l l continue as in previous years. Timber w i l l be offered and sold to Whonnock Lumber and specialist products to other traditional outlets. In view of the increasing quantity of small roundwood available from thinnings, markets w i l l be sought for this material and revenue generated to develop techniques and offset operating costs. 8.2.1-6 In view of the time that has elapsed since the last forest inventory, preparations w i l l be made to in i t i a t e the f i e l d work necessary to complete a new inventory. The inventory w i l l include a number of factors previously omitted such as wildlife and recreation (see 9.2.2.2.1-6 following) 8.2.1-7 As a step to assist allocation of resources, a method of valuing assets within the Forest w i l l commence. Information w i l l assist with decisions of building replacement, depreciation, valuation of growing stock, research, education and recreation f a c i l i t i e s . MARKETING FOREST INVENTORY VALUATION lis 8.2.1-8 .All leases and rentals w i l l be reviewed during the year to determine their purpose, performance and pro f i t a b i l i t y . The information w i l l determine whether the service provided i s reasonable in light of current financial hardships. LEASES AND RENTALS 8.2.1-9 The U.B.C. Research Forest operates a number of pieces of mechanical equipment, and maintains an extensive inventory of tools. A complete inventory w i l l be compiled during the year for each section and a stock-taking procedure initiated. A technician w i l l be employed to service equipment, maintain stock books, and control and account for movement of tools and equipment. , PLANT AND EQUIPMENT 8.2.2 8.2.2-1 8.2.2-2 8.2.2-3 Organization The staff structure for the Forest devised during 1979/80 w i l l be implemented and amendments made where required. (Figure 8.2.2-1-A). In view of the diverse nature of the operations undertaken on the Forest, a register of job and operation descriptions w i l l be compiled and w i l l include education levels and specialist s k i l l s required. In future, employment c r i t e r i a w i l l be established to maintain a pool of diverse specialist s k i l l s , particularly technical. Where s k i l l s are not immediately available, su i t a b i l i t y for training within the specified specialist, area w i l l be included in employment c r i t e r i a for both professional and technical positions. A series of periodic f i e l d meetings w i l l be held for a l l staff. While the focus of the meetings w i l l be technical, with the technician in charge of the work explaining the operation, staff w i l l be encouraged to exchange views on any factors affecting interstaff relations. STAFFING EMPLOYMENT CRITERIA LABOUR RELATIONS 8.2.2-4 The U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan w i l l be reviewed annually. The review w i l l be undertaken at the same time as the Forest Annual Report is written. The joint exercise w i l l permit the Technical Audit to be assessed, records summarized and additions to be made to Part I of the Management Plan. A review of the Plan format w i l l be undertaken at the same time. Plans w i l l be made to include the Management Plan review as part of Forestry 451 (Spring Field Camp for 4th Year Forestry students). MANAGEMENT PLAN REVIEW 8.2.2-5 Professional staff w i l l organize and schedule their personal continuing education. Annually, each professional staff member w i l l submit to the Director his plans for the year, including coursework and workshops. STAFF TRAINING 8.2.2-6 Each technical and secretarial staff member w i l l be encouraged to continue their education to re-inforce old s k i l l s and acquire new s k i l l s , with particular reference to the c r i t e r i a established within their job description (see 8.2.2-2). Although the overall responsibility w i l l rest with the individual involved, a member of the professional staff w i l l be responsible for co-ordinating and advising staff members of opportunities. TECHNICAL TRAINING 8.2.2-7 The Forest w i l l continue to play an important role in COMMUNITY the.local community. The open door access policy w i l l INVOLVEMENT be maintained, grants applied to employ local students, and information made available to local press and interested individuals. Organized groups w i l l be encouraged to participate in creative work programmes, conducted tours and educational projects. / 8.2.2-8 Although the Forest operates under the University Finance Department, internal accounting procedures w i l l be reviewed during the year to ensure a more rapid recall of accounting information, including quantities and costs, particularly in regard to operational procedures. This w i l l be part of the research function of the Forest. ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES 8.2.2-9 8.2.2-10 Safety and safe work practices w i l l continue to have a high profile. Staff meetings (8.2.2-3) w i l l provide a medium for re-inforcement and staff w i l l be encouraged to participate in safety courses outside the Forest (8.2.2-6). Emergency procedures w i l l be reviewed and injured party evacuation practices held. Close liaison w i l l be maintained with the local Search and Rescue Department (contact telephone number 463-6251). The Forest Annual Report w i l l continue to be written by the Director (see 8.2.2-4), and a standard format suitable for machine processing w i l l be investigated. A brief summary of the years' activities w i l l be written for inclusion in a continuing history, and eventual inclusion in PART I of this Plan, and other reports w i l l be produced as required. The Forest information leaflet w i l l be reviewed, amended where necessary and reprinted. The leaflet w i l l continue to be available to the general public free of charge. SAFETY AND EMERGENCIES REPORTS, HISTORY AND INFORMATION in 8.2.3 Protection 8.2.3-1 The Fire Plan w i l l continue to be reviewed annually. FIRE Major revisions w i l l be carried out every four years (7.1-6), the next revision being due in 1982. Six copies of the Fire Plan w i l l be held at the U.B.C. Research Forest, the distribution being as follows: - Director - Forester (Engineering) Forester (Silviculture & Education) - Office Copy Senior Technician - Management Plan (Appendix 2.1.10-2-A) The Forester (Engineering) w i l l be responsible for Fire Plan revision and ensuring that the provisions of the Fire Plan are carried out. 8.2.3-2 Security of the Forest w i l l be constantly under SECURITY review. The Forester (Engineering) w i l l be responsible for a l l activities related to security, trespass and vandalism, and w i l l ensure that the Director i s informed at a l l times as to security status. Outside of normal working hours, the Gatekeeper w i l l be in charge of the gate and a l l administration buildings, ensuring that a l l buildings and gates are secured when not in use. The fence patrol t r a i l running immediately inside the southern fence line w i l l be , completed. The Caretaker, while in residence, at Loon Lake w i l l be in charge of Camp security. When the Caretaker i s not in residence, i t i s the responsi-b i l i t y of the Forester (Silviculture), to ensure adequate security measures are taken. 8.2.3-3 The Forester (Silviculture) w i l l be responsible for PEST CONTROL accurate information relative to forest pests and diseases. Problem areas w i l l be observed and the Director kept informed. Where outbreaks of either insects or diseases occur that are outwith the knowledge of Forest Staff, samples w i l l be collected and sent for analysis by specialists. Decisions as to treatment w i l l be made by the Forest professional staff as required. Support Activities A comprehensive stock of maps w i l l be maintained. MAPS The Forester (Silviculture) w i l l be responsible for ensuring that the maps are available for educational, research and operational use. A system for continually amending maps w i l l be investigated and initiated i f feasible. Scales currently in use are as follows: General Descriptive 1:50,000 This scale does not permit fine detail, but i s useful for descriptive purposes. Figures in the Management Plan are drawn to 1:50,000 as are the maps handed out to visitors (see 8.2.2-10). Management Detail 1:10,000 The most commonly used scale in management control. Sufficient detail i s available from the scale to isolate areas as small as 1 ha (2.47 ac) with a reasonable degree of accuracy, and provide relatively precise detail of project areas, roads, creeks and so on. The entire Forest can be displayed on one map sheet, and thus the map provides a detailed overall picture of the Forest. Many of the "specialized" maps are drawn to this scale (e.g. Ecosystem Units Map, compartments etc.). Operation Detail 1:5,000 The largest scale in common use and used extensively for measuring areas, precise plotting of boundaries. A l l harvesting, planting, land clearing, cultural operations, sub-compartment details, reserves and features of special management interest are recorded on 1:5,000. A l i s t of the maps held at the Administration Office i s contained in Appendix 2.1.1-2-B of the Management Plan. For proposals relative to maps, see Section 8.3.4 following. The Forester (Engineering) w i l l be responsible for PHOTOGRAPHS ensuring that air photographs w i l l be taken every two years to provide f u l l Forest coverage. The next series w i l l be due in 1983. Other air photographs w i l l be taken as required for education or research purposes. A l l photographs w i l l be catalogued and a current l i s t available (together with information as to the whereabouts of the negatives) w i l l be held in the Forest Central F i l i n g System at a l l times. The Senior Technician w i l l be responsible for storage of a l l s t i l l photographs, slides and movie films related to the Forest. A method of cataloguing, storage and access w i l l be devised during the current year. The Central F i l i n g System currently under development w i l l be implemented during the year and amendments made as required. F i l i n g w i l l be the responsibility of the Office Secretary (Office Administrator) and a system of f i l e security w i l l be developed and implemented (Appendix 0.0). FILES AND RECORDS /So 8.2.4-4 Public relations w i l l continue to be the responsibility of the Director who w i l l allocate tasks related to public relations and promotion of Forest interests, to staff as required. PROMOTION OF FOREST INTERESTS 8.2.4-5 A review w i l l be undertaken of the efficiency and use of the Administration Building. Proposals formulated in 1975 w i l l be reviewed, (see Section 8.6.2-7 following), and recommendations made for inclusion in the 1983/84 budget and implementation in 1985. OTHER ADMINISTRATION SUPPORT ACTIVITIES /si 8.3 8.3.1 8.3.1-1 8.3.1-2 8.3.1-3 Land (Resource) Use Best-Use Best-Use w i l l continue to be actively applied to APPLICATION U.B.C. Research Forest. Sections 8.3.2 and 8.3.3 (following) detail the areas best ut i l i z e d for specific purpose and how use integration w i l l be applied. A review procedure w i l l be devised to test the REVIEW validity of the Working Circles (8.3.2) covering any suspected failures to achieve objectives detailed for each Working Circle. Where amendments become necessary through reviews AMENDMENTS the Director w i l l instruct the professional staff member responsible for that particular resource (see Figure 8.2.2-1-A) to amend the use hierarchy (see 8.3.3-1 following) as required. Any major revisions w i l l be formalized and carried out at the Management Plan revision. J5V 8.3.2 Working Circles 8.3.2.1 General provisions 8.3.2.1-1 The term "Working Circle" i s used to delineate FORMAT areas of common purpose and treatment as determined by the Forest Management Objectives. Working Circles w i l l overlap and a series of secondary (complimentary) uses prescribed. Boundaries w i l l be fixed only for the period of the short term (one year) and adjusted as required to accomodate changing policies and objectives. However, although the boundaries are fixed in the short term, by following Best Use management, i t is unlikely that sudden changes w i l l result, particularly in view of the Long Term Management Proposals (7.1-2). Adjustments w i l l be carried out at the time of Management Plan revision. Selected areas of the Forest have, in the past, been broadly classified as "Protection" areas. As "Protection" i s inherent in sound forest management, the term i s not used as a separate working ci r c l e t i t l e . 8.3.2.1-2 There w i l l be seven Working Circles: DIVISIONS - Nature and Educational Reserves - Water Production and Storage Wood Production - Recreation - Game Management - U t i l i t y Corridor - Research 8.3.2.1-3 For the period of this plan, the Forester (Silviculture) RESPONSIBILITY w i l l be responsible for administering a l l Working Circles, reporting directly to the Director. The Director w i l l allocate management responsibility for specific areas to the professional staff during the year and these provisions w i l l be included in the Management Plan revision for 1983/84. /53 8.3.2.2 Nature and Education Reserves Working Circle 8.3.2.2-1 The Nature and Educational Reserves Working Circles EXTENT w i l l include a l l existing Ecological, Nature, Mensurational and Education Reserves (Map 8.3.2.2-1-A). The area extends to 1,463 ha (3,517 acres). Areas reserved for Research Projects are discussed under the t i t l e of Research Working Circle (Section 8.3.2.8 following). 8.3.2.2-2 Although areas within the Working Circle have special PROTECTED protection status (i.e. limited or zero commercial AREAS use), due to financial stress, logging perforce has been, and w i l l continue to be carried on in selected Reserves in so far as this i s not incompatible with Reserve status. Individual Reserve records w i l l continue to be maintained in the Forest Central F i l i n g System and w i l l contain a l l pertinant details including purpose, description, extent and treatment philosophy. 8.3.2.2-3 Few boundaries of the Nature Reserves are accurately marked on the ground, nor accurately mapped. A programme to survey and mark boundaries w i l l commence during the coming year. 8.3.2.2-4 A l l logged over areas within Educational Reserves w i l l be assessed and provisions made to rehabilitate and raise stocking to acceptable levels. One selected area in the Loon Lake Educational Reserve w i l l be retained for planting workshops. The Loon Lake Education Reserve Five Year Plan (1976) w i l l be revised and provisions made to complete outstanding work. Volunteer labour w i l l be encouraged and a grant applied for to complete a number of the proposed f a c i l i t i e s (Section 8.9 following). 8.3.2.2-5 A l l access t r a i l s within Reserves w i l l be accurately mapped, plotted onto maps of each reserve, at a scale 1:5,000, and summarized onto one master copy of the entire Forest at a scale of 1:10,000. A system of regular t r a i l inspections w i l l be devised to permit scheduling of maintenance, assessment of use and permit regular inspections of the reserves themselves. TREATMENT NATURE RESERVES TREATMENT -EDUCATIONAL RESERVES ACCESS 8.3.2.2-6 Although no other treatment i s prescribed, periodic inspections may reveal work necessary to maintain the integrity of an area. Contingencies w i l l be discussed at staff meetings and treatment scheduled as considered necessary. OTHER TREATMENT I5J-8.3.2.3 Water Production and Storage Working Circle 8.3.2.3-1 The Water Production and Storage Working Circle comprises three watersheds, Jacob's (Marion) Lake, Gwendoline Lake and Eunice Lake, extending to 1,723 ha (4,142 acres), (Map 8.3.2.3-1-A). This tract has be envisioned as a future Water Production Area, and the Working Circle has been established to preserve the integrity of the watershed. 8.3.2.3-2 No treatment for Water Production i s prescribed. At an unscheduled future date, the Working Circle w i l l be managed under a range of s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems to demonstrate and research their operation on a f i e l d scale (Paragraph 7.4.1-1). These systems w i l l be compatible with the watershed values. A survey to implement these treatments w i l l be made in 1982. No Silvicultural work w i l l be done below the contour of proposed flooding level 340 m (1,125 f t . ) , unless to maintain the integrity of the water storage objective. 8.3.2.3-3 Existing access w i l l be maintained and selected railroad grades on the slopes to the east of Jacob's (Marion) Lake w i l l be cleared to provide access for fi r e control and for future s i l v i c u l t u r a l operations. 8.3.2.3-4 The Water Production Working Circle could be enlarged to include Katherine Lake watershed, and the inclusion of this area within the Working Circle w i l l be investigated during the 1983 revision. GENERAL TREATMENT ACCESS KATHERINE LAKE /55 8.3.2.4 Wood Production Working Circle 8.3.2.4-1 The Wood Production Working Circle w i l l cover 780 ha EXTENT (1,875 acres) at the southern end of the Forest as indicated on Map 8.3.2.4-1-A. Topography (ground under 30 ) and site type (areas in excess of S.I. 30 D-f at 50 years), w i l l be constraining factors in determining the extent of the Working Circle. In order that the area comprises one contiguous block, small areas w i l l be included that do not meet the topography and site requirements, notably rock outcrops and thin s o i l areas. Recreation corridors w i l l include winter grazing for game. Permanent research areas w i l l remain undisturbed. 8.3.2.4-2 Areas of the Forest not included in the Wood Production Working Circle w i l l also produce timber. The areas where timber production w i l l not be the primary use, but timber w i l l be produced in stand treatment, w i l l be designated "Subsidiary Wood Producing Zones". In such areas, the constraints imposed by the Primary Use w i l l be paramount. SUBSIDIARY WOOD PRODUCING ZONES 8.3.2.4-3 Treatment within the Wood Production Working Circle w i l l be undertaken using mechanized equipment as . far as practical (see 8.5.1-4 following). . TREATMENT 8.3.2.4-4 A further 10 ha (24 acres) w i l l be cleared in Compartment 32 (using contractor equipment and labour) in 1982/83. Where draining i s required, backhoe or bulldozer w i l l be used. GROUND PREPARATION Approximately 20,000 Douglas-fir w i l l be planted by the Forest Technicians. The seedlings w i l l consist of both bare root and bullet stock, and w i l l be planted at between 1,000 and 1,400 trees per ha (400 - 500 trees per acre). The bullet stock w i l l be planted by the injection planting machine developed at the Forest at 3 m x3 m (10 feet x 10 feet). In areas where the use of the planting machine is not possible due to topographical constraints, containers w i l l be planted using the Walters' planting gun. Bare root stock w i l l be planted by mattock. Small areas in Compartments 16 and 20 w i l l be f i l l e d in (beaten up). 8.3.2.4-6 Weeding (70 ha - 173 acres) and Cleaning (60 ha - 148 acres) w i l l be carried out by the Forest Technicians. Approximately 40 ha (99 acres) w i l l be undertaken on areas previously cleared, using tractor mounted mowers. The balance w i l l be weeded by hand using brush cutters (Husqvarna power scythes) and hand tools (Sandvik brush knives). PLANTING CROP WEEDING AND CLEANING 8.3.2.4-7 A small area of plantation (6 ha - 15 acres) w i l l be brashed; (pruned to 2 m (6.2 feet) in height) for access, f i r e hazard reduction and to permit measure-ment of sample plots. Volunteer labour and students w i l l be used to assist in this activity. PLANTATION BRASHING Forest Related A c t i v i t i e s Selected areas w i l l be landscaped during the year as funds and assistance permit (8.3.2.5-3 and 8.9 following). Landscaping w i l l be designed to improve areas frequented by the public and w i l l create a more orderly, w e l l cared appearance. The Forester ( S i l v i c u l t u r e ) w i l l be responsible for a l l landscaping projects and w i l l , during 1981/82, formulate a 5-year programme to improve the appearance of s t r a t e g i c points throughout the Forest. LANDSCAPING The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f or maintaining the Chum Hatchery i n Compartment 30 w i l l remain with the Federal A u t h o r i t i e s . A programme to improve the immediate environs of the area w i l l be formulated by the Forester ( S i l v i c u l t u r e ) and submitted to the Federal Au t h o r i t i e s as a j o i n t l y funded project. HATCHERY Few additions w i l l be made to the Arboretum during the year. Requests f o r seeds from Eastern Provinces w i l l be made and, i f successful, sowings w i l l take place i n Spring 1982. Maintenance w i l l continue and the grass and hedges cut to present an orderly appear-ance. Trees susceptible to browse damage by deer w i l l be protected. The Forester ( S i l v i c u l t u r e & Education) w i l l be responsible f o r the Arboretum. Name plates w i l l be checked and replaced as necessary. Funds secured during 1979 w i l l be used to maintain the Deer Breeding project (formerly Research Project 72-16). Deer bred w i l l be released to the surrounding area to improve the v i s i b i l i t y of the herd outside the enclosure. No destructive research w i l l be per-mitted on the herd, although any approaches by researchers to use the deer for research purposes w i l l be considered. The Forester ( S i l v i c u l t u r e ) and s t a f f w i l l be responsible f o r the project and w i l l submit a report to the sponsors ( P r o v i n c i a l Lottery Fund) i n January 1982. ARBORETUM The Weather/Climate Station (Research Project 56-4) w i l l be maintained and operated by the Forest. Researchers s e t t i n g up temporary climate stations w i l l be requested to submit data for i n c l u s i o n i n the Data Bank i n the Forest Central F i l i n g System. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y for operation of the Weather/Climate Station w i l l r e s t with the Forest Senior Technician. WEATHER STATION The areas set aside for a transplant nursery w i l l be NURSERY maintained, and specimen trees w i l l be grown f or landscaping purposes and for the Arboretum. A seedling s h e l t e r w i l l be planned and i f funding permits, constructed. The Forester ( S i l v i c u l t u r e & Education) w i l l be responsible for the nursery. Other Forest Related a c t i v i t i e s that may a r i s e OTHER (e.g. sawmill or other management a c t i v i t i e s not defined at t h i s time), w i l l be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Dire c t o r . /51 8.3.2.4-8 Approximately 2 ha (5 acres) w i l l be juvenile thinned by students during the Spring Field Camp (Forestry 451) and students from the Pacific Vocational Institute (P.V.I.) during practical f i e l d work on U.B.C. Research Forest. JUVENILE THINNING 8.3.2.4-9 A further 2 ha (4.8 acres) w i l l be thinned by students, THINNING but no Forest staff w i l l be engaged i n this activity due to lack of funds and markets for the produce. 8.3.2.4-10 No harvesting w i l l be carried out in the Wood Production HARVESTING Working Circle during the coming year. A l l timber w i l l come from the Subsidiary Wood Production Zones. 15% 8.3.2.5 8.3.2.5-1 8.3.2.5-2 8.3.2.5-3 Recreation Working Circle The Recreation Working Circle comprises two parts, Primary and Secondary Use Areas (Map 8.3.2.5-1-A). EXTENT A. Golden.Ears Slope B. Irmy Placid Area - Primary Total area = 668 ha (2816 acres) Secondary C. Wood Production Zone D. Water Storage and Pitt Lake Reserve Total area = 2237 ha (5412 acres) Included in the Secondary Use Areas are corridors' CORRIDORS (e.g. North Alouette River) where a l l operations w i l l be carried out with aesthetics and public safety in mind. Apart from minor landscaping projects (8.4.4-1 follow- TREATMENT ing) no new f i e l d operations w i l l be undertaken to enhance recreation values due to lack of funds. The Tra i l Master Plan (Research Project 76-5) w i l l be completed and a long term construction and maintenance programme prescribed to commence in 1984. 8.3.2.5-4 While i t is recognized that almost the entire Forest OTHER is used by the general public for recreation purposes, no provisions are made for areas not included in • Section 8.3.2.5-1. A review w i l l be made of Forest recreational use in 1983. Working Circle extent, use and treatment w i l l be amended at this time as required to f u l f i l l objectives. 151 PLANNING AND TREATMENT 8.3.2.6 Game Management Working Circle (Wildlife) 8.3.2.6-1 Game Management w i l l not be the primary use on any GENERAL one part of the Forest. The purpose of the Game Management Working Circle is to indicate areas of high use, winter grazing, movement corridors and breeding areas. A l l Working Circles on the Forest w i l l be managed with game in mind to permit free movement and adequate food supplies both summer and winter (Map 2.2.4.2-2-A). 8.3.2.6-2 Apart from the Deer Breeding Project which w i l l continue (see Section 8.4.4-4 following) no treat-ment w i l l be prescribed during the year related directly to Game Management. Plans w i l l be formulated with the view to making deer more visible to the general public in both the timber production zone and the recreation areas, and this w i l l be done in conjunction with the Trail Master Plan (8.3.2.5-3). 8.3.2.6-3 No hunting w i l l be permitted during the current HUNTING planning period. A programme of culling w i l l be introduced at some future date but at the present time, no stock improvement programme is underway. If, for any reason, animals have to be destroyed, the local Fish and Wildlife Branch of the B.C. Forest Service w i l l be contacted. 8.3.2.6-4 Conflicts could arise between the production of WINTER wood and winter grazing (Map 8.3.2.6-4-A). Areas GRAZING of prime winter grazing are often the same areas that are highly productive wood production areas, and local cropping damage may occur in young plantations during excessively hard winters. 8.3.2.7 U t i l i t y Corridor Working Circle .(B.C. Hydro Right-of-way) 8.3.2.7-1 This Working Circle comprises the B.C. Hydro Mica GENERAL Right-of-way at the southern end of the Forest (see Map 8.3.2.7-1-A), extending to almost 44 ha (110 acres) in Compartments 30, 31, 32 and 35. 8.3.2.7-2 A Management Plan was proposed for the area in 1972 MANAGEMENT prior to commencement right-of-way clearing operations. PLAN but was not implemented. (A copy of this Plan is held at the Administration Headquarters of the Forest) . During the course of 1982/83, the Plan, which proposed and prescribed six separate management areas, w i l l be reviewed. 8.3.2.7-3 The six management areas proposed were:-(i) Upland Game Management area (i i ) Christmas Tree Farm ( i i i ) S.F.U. Experimental station (iv) Public Recreation Park (v) Forest Information Centre (vi) Deer Park MANAGEMENT AREAS 8.3.2.7-4 Indicated on Map 8.3.2.7-1-A are areas 5, 6 which are not within the boundaries of the Forest, but were included in the original management proposals. 8.3.2.7-5 No treatment w i l l be prescribed for the U t i l i t y Corridor Working Circle. When the Right-of-way Management Plan has been reviewed, prescriptions w i l l be drawn up, and treatment scheduled. AREAS NOT INSIDE RESEARCH FOREST TREATMENT 8.3.2.8 Research Working Circle 8.3.2.8-1 The Research Working Circle has no fixed t e r r i t o r i a l limits. The purpose of the Research delineation i s to ensure the use by researchers of a definite project plan that i s co-ordinated with the routine operations of the Forest. Project outlines w i l l be prepared by the individual researcher and, after agreement by the Forest Administration, f i l e d at the Forest Headquarters. A Research Project Outline w i l l be prepared for each study and no research project may be undertaken without the preparation, and lodging of such an outline. The Forester (Engineering) w i l l be responsible for research co-ordination and resolution of use-conflicts. 8.3.2.8-2 The format for the Research Project Working Plan w i l l be prepared. The Plan w i l l state clearly the Forest maintenance requirements for implementation, details of financing and responsibility, treatment and control. 8.3.2.8-3 A map was prepared as part of a census in 1979, showing location of research projects on the Forest. Funds w i l l be sought to complete the census and draft the map. The Forester (Engineering) w i l l be responsible for ensuring the map is up-to-date at a l l times and that accurate location details are included in Research Project f i l e s in the Forest Central Fili n g System. GENERAL PROJECT PLANS LOCATION OF PROJECTS 8.3.3 Use Hierarchies 8.3.3-1 A l l areas, with the exception of selected Reserves, GENERAL w i l l be managed for a series of uses. The primary use w i l l be satisfied before other complementary uses are considered. To ensure a definite sequence of use priorities and avoid conflicts, a hierarchy system w i l l be used. While a l l uses are considered, in the management of a Working Circle, each hierarchial level has precedence over the next. Thus, for example, the primary use of Working Circle 4 w i l l be Recreation, with wood production permitted in selected areas as a secondary use. Wood production w i l l be permitted only after the stated Recreational Objectives have been satisfied. A l l areas (excluding the Wood Production Working Circle), where wood producing i s included as a secondary use, are classified as "Subsidiary Wood Production Zones" (see 8.3.2.4-9). At the present time (1980), a l l logging i s in Subsidiary Wood Production Zones. 8.3.3-2 Hierarchy within the Working Circles is APPLICATION detailed below and the area details are shown on Map 8.3.3-2-A. Working Circles  Working Circle 1. (Nature and Education) 1. (a) (i) Nature and Education ( i i ) Recreation ( i i i ) Community Resource Use (iv) Wood Production (v) Wildlife 1. (b) (i) Nature and' Education ( i i ) Recreation ( i i i ) Wildlife (iv) Wood Production 1. (c) (i) Nature and Education ( i i ) Recreation ( i i i ) Wood Production (iv) Wildlife 1. (d) (i) Nature and Education (Eunice Lake Reserve) ( i i ) Wildlife 1. (e) (i) Nature and Education (Knapp Reserve) ( i i ) Wildlife 1. (f) (i) Nature and Education (Arboretum and Ecology Reserve) ( i i ) Recreation ( i i i ) Wildlife 1. (g) (i) Nature and Education (Gr i f f i t h Reserve) (i i ) Wildlife l.(h) (i) ( i i ) Nature and Education (Otto Reserve) Wildlife Working Circle 2. (Water Production and Storage) (i) Water Production and Storage ( i i ) Wood Production and demonstration of s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems ( i i i ) (iv) Recreation Wildlife Working Circle 3. (Wood Production) 3. (a) (i) ( i i ) ( i i i ) Wood Production Recreation Wildlife 3. (b) (i) ( i i ) ( i i i ) (iv) Wood Production Community Resource Use Recreation Wildlife Working Circle 4. (Recreation) 4. (a) (i) ( i i ) ( i i i ) Recreation Wood Production Wildlife 4. (b) (i) ( i i ) Recreation Wildlife Working Circle 5. (Wildlife - Game Management) The Wildlife Working Circle is not shown as in no one area is wildlife the Primary Use. Working Circle 6. (Utility Corridor) For details of the U t i l i t y Corridor see Map 8.3.2.7-1-A. A l l stated uses at the present time are single uses only. Working Circle 7. (Research) A l l research areas w i l l be single use areas and no other activity w i l l be permitted unless specified in the relevant Research Project Working Plan. Note:-(A) The number and letter refer to the Working Circle division. e.g. 3.(a) = the f i r s t division within the Working Circle. (B) The Roman numeral refers to the use hierarchy. e.g. (i) = Best use ( i i ) = Use in second position of priority ( i i i ) = Use in third position of priority etc (C) Travel corridors have been designated along Roads F, H, K, and M. Although the areas through which the corridors pass have a pre-designated Best-Use, the management of the land adjacent to the corridor w i l l be constrained by the preservation of aesthetics associated with recreation. i<4 8.4 8.4.1 8.4.1-1 .4.1-2 1.4.1-3 8.4.1-4 4.1-5 8.4.1-6 8.4.1-7 Function Activities Education The duties of Forester (Silviculture & Education) EDUCATION w i l l be reviewed and amended as required. The position CO-ORDINATOR currently assisting the.Education Co-ordinator (Forester (Silviculturist & Education) w i l l assume greater control of education activities (other than for universities). The Director of the Forest w i l l continue to run UNIVERSITY Spring Camp (Forestry 451) assisted by his professional staff. Details of a l l activities pertaining to Forestry 451 w i l l be maintained in the Forest Central Fil i n g System under the heading "Spring Camp". The register containing ideas for student theses w i l l continue to be maintained and w i l l be included in the Central Fil i n g System. A l l other educational activities pertaining to universities w i l l be co-ordinated by the Forester in charge of Education. Technical Schools w i l l continue to use the Forest for TECHNICAL a variety of activities. In view of the diverse SCHOOLS requirements of Technical Schools, a l l professional staff at the Forest w i l l be engaged in tuition at some time throughout the year. The Forest w i l l continue to provide a site for the VOCATIONAL numerous activities for Vocational Schools throughout SCHOOLS the year. Classes arrive with their own instructors and w i l l require only occasional assistance from Forest staff. Visits requiring assistance w i l l continue to be arranged on a personal basis by staff members involved in the different programmes. Secondary schools w i l l be involved in both day tours SECONDARY and residential programmes. The Education Co-ordinator SCHOOLS wi l l continue to be responsible for liaison with the various parties concerned and w i l l continue to be responsible for their programmes and conduct. The v i s i t s by primary school groups w i l l be the PRIMARY responsibility of the assistant to the Education Co-ordinator. Numerous workshops for teachers and student leaders WORKSHOPS wi l l be held throughout the year. School District #42 w i l l be responsible for In-service Workshops arranged specifically for the Residential Programme although the Forest Education Co-ordinator w i l l assist where required. Other workshops w i l l be conducted as required through the Education Co-ordinator and his staff. The Education Co-ordinator w i l l continue to support workshops outside the Forest given by other schools and school districts on the Lower Mainland. Workshops w i l l be held for Forest employees as decided by the Professional Staff. Seminar groups using the f a c i l i t i e s at Loon Lake Camp w i l l continue to be the responsibility of the departments involved and, unless specific requests are made, Forest staff w i l l not be directly involved. SEMINARS The Education Co-ordinator and staff w i l l be responsible for a l l work experience programmes held on the Forest. Programmes w i l l be arranged directly with the schools concerned and w i l l continue to be of a developmental nature. Where possible, work experience programmes of a service type (i.e. non-developmental), w i l l involve participants working directly with the Forest technical staff. WORK EXPERIENCE Projects involving mentally retarded, deaf and disadvantaged students w i l l continue to be the responsibility of the Education Co-ordinator and staff. Participating groups w i l l supply teachers and specialists in their respective fields, the Forest involvement regarded as developmental and of a demonstration nature. SPECIAL EDUCATION PROJECTS Members of the general public w i l l continue to be encouraged to use the Forest both on a formal and informal basis. (See also 8.4.3 following.) Forest professional staff w i l l continue to be involved in public education courses, either through the Univer-sity (Continuing Education Department) or through local community programmes. Information w i l l continue to be available through staff at the Administration Buildings of the Forest. PUBLIC EDUCATION Information signs throughout the Forest w i l l continue to be maintained, ammended and additions made as funding permits. The Education Co-ordinator w i l l be responsible for sign maintenance and renewal. Signs w i l l continue to play an important role in dispensing information, creating order and so l i c i t i n g public support in maintaining the Forest in an orderly, vandal-free condition. SIGNS The Forest w i l l continue to receive visitors from many parts of the world. Visitors w i l l be guided around the Forest by members of the professional or technical staff as considered pertinent to the vis i t i n g group. Responsibility for co-ordinating foreign visitors w i l l continue to rest with the Director. OTHER VISITORS Day tours and visitors not covered under any of the foregoing w i l l be the responsibility of the Education Co-ordinator. A l l groups wishing to use the Demonstration Forest T r a i l System w i l l continue to book (8.4.3 following). DAY TOURS -OTHER Residential programmes not covered under any of the foregoing w i l l be the responsibility of the Education Co-ordinator and staff. Camp bookings, conduct and access w i l l be the responsibility of the Education Co-ordinator's staff and the Camp Caretaker. RESIDENTAIL PROGRAMMES -OTHER The Education Co-ordinator w i l l continue to be responsible for summer students and other grant funded personnel throughout the summer months (see also 8.9 following). SUMMER STUDENT PROJECTS 8.4.2 8.4.2-1 8.4.2-2 8.4.2-3 i.4.2-4 8.4.2-5 8.4.2-6 Research The Forester (Engineering) w i l l be responsible for co-ordinating research on the Forest (8.3.2.8-1), and w i l l request assistance from other Professional staff as required. Research w i l l continue to be actively encouraged and a l l other activities (with the exception of selected education projects such as Forestry 451), w i l l have a low priority relative to research unless otherwise decided by the Director. GENERAL Project outline sheets currently in use w i l l be revised. Researchers w i l l lodge a definite working plan (which w i l l be kept in the relevant f i l e in the Forest Central Filing System), and project outline. The Format for the Research Working Plan w i l l be developed during 1982 and w i l l be ready for use by December 31, 1982. A package of information for the use of researchers w i l l be developed during the year and be ready for use December 31, 1983. The package w i l l include a l i s t of other projects and researchers (including location of project areas), details of basic infor-mation relative to the Forest (climate, biogeoclimatic information etc.), and access to a publications l i s t . The package w i l l be prepared in a manner suitable for storage in a computer or word processor machine. The Forest w i l l continue to maintain a number of long term research projects where'researchers have completed their research or moved away, and in the opinion of the Forest professional staff, the project should be maintained in an active state. A maintenance policy (stating priorities) w i l l be developed and funding sought to supplement Forest funds for continuing maintenance. The Forester (Silviculture) w i l l be responsible for maintenance of long term research proj ects. The Forest staff w i l l continue to be directly involved in a number of research projects. An annual review w i l l be conducted to maintain the active status or terminate (as required) staff research projects. The review w i l l be constructed at the time of the Annual Report compilation and Management Plan revision (8.2.2-4). Compilation of "Research News" w i l l continue only as time permits. Researchers w i l l be requested to write an interim report on their own projects, and the report edited for Forest use in the "Research News". Due to financial constraints, a stock of publications w i l l not be maintained at the Forest. One copy of each publication w i l l be maintained in the Forest Central F i l i n g System, and one copy in the relevant project f i l e . WORKING PLAN AND PROJECT OUTLINE RESEARCHER'S PACKAGE LONG TERM PROJECT MAINTENANCE FOREST SUPPORTED RESEARCH RESEARCH NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS /LI 8.4.2-7 The Forest w i l l continue to assist researchers where funds and time permit. Requests for aid w i l l be dealt with by the Forester (Engineering) who w i l l assess the pri o r i t i e s in consultation with other Forest professional staff. The Forester (Engineering) w i l l ensure that the Researcher's Working Plan (8.4.2-2) has provisions for contingencies and that limits of Forest aid are clearly stated in the relevant plan. RESEARCHER AID i.4.2-8 Conflicts and matters arising relative to research and researcher use of the Forest w i l l be the responsibility of the Forester (Engineering), who w i l l ensure that a l l professional staff are kept informed as to problems, requests for aid, commitments and matters arising. OTHER RESEARCH MATTERS ia DEMONSTRATION FOREST 8.4.3 Demonstration 8.4.3-1 No provisions w i l l be made for an "Open House" OPEN HOUSE during the year. Due to constraints on availability of staff, and the presence of existing demonstration areas, an "Open House" is not envisaged for sometime. 8.4.3-2 The Demonstration Forest T r a i l system w i l l continue to be the centre of day tours (8.4). The Forester (Silviculture and Education) w i l l be responsible for a l l activities and maintenance of the area. The booking system for a l l guided and non-guided groups w i l l continue. Funds and personnel w i l l be sought by the Canadian Institute of Forestry (C.I.F.) to staff the Demonstration Forest during the period May -September, 1982. A review w i l l be conducted as to the success of the area for public and secondary school education, and amendments and changes made where funds and time permit. The brochure, f i r s t produced in 1978, w i l l be reviewed and funds sought for rewriting and printing a second edition. 8.4.3-3 The Forest w i l l continue to play host to demonstrations SPECIAL of a special nature (e.g. harvesting equipment, PROJECTS cone collection devices, aerial spraying etc.). The Director w i l l be responsible for special events assisted, as required, by his staff. 8.4.3-4 Information and signs relative to demonstration areas SIGNS have been dealt with in Section 8.4.1-12. Directional and other signs for individual demonstration projects w i l l be the responsibility of the relevant organizer. IC? 8.4.4 8.4.4-1 8.4.4-2 8.4.4-3 8.4.4-4 8.4.4-5 8.4.4-6 8.4.4-7 LANDSCAPING HATCHERY Forest Related Activities Selected areas w i l l be landscaped during the year as funds and assistance permit (8.3.2.5-3 and 8.9 following). Landscaping w i l l be designed to improve areas frequented by the public and w i l l create a more orderly, well cared for appearance. The Forester (Silviculture) will be responsible for a l l landscaping projects and w i l l , during 1981/82, formulate a 5-year programme to improve the appearance of strategic points throughout the Forest. The responsibility for maintaining the Chum Hatchery in Compartment 30 w i l l remain with the Federal Authorities. A programme to improve the immediate environs of the area w i l l be formulated by the Forester (Silviculture) and submitted to the Federal Authorities as a jointly funded project. Few additions w i l l be made to the Arboretum during ARBORETUM the year. Requests for seeds from Eastern Provinces w i l l be made and, i f successful, sowings w i l l take place in Spring 1982. Maintenance w i l l continue and the grass and hedges cut to present an orderly appearance. Trees susceptible to browse damage by deer w i l l be protected. The Forester (Silviculture & Education) w i l l be responsible for the Arboretum. Funds secured during 1979 w i l l be used to maintain the Deer Breeding project (formerly Research Project 72-16) . Deer bred w i l l be released to the surrounding area to improve the v i s i b i l i t y of the herd outside the enclosure. No destructive research w i l l be per-mitted on the herd, although any approaches by researchers to use the deer for research purposes w i l l be considered. The Forester (Silviculture) and staff w i l l be responsible for the project and w i l l submit a report to the sponsors (Provincial Lottery Fund) in January 1982. The Weather/Climate Station (Research Project 56-4) w i l l be maintained and operated by the Forest. Researchers setting up temporary climate stations w i l l be requested to submit data for inclusion in the Data Bank in the Forest Central Fili n g System. Responsibility for operation of the Weather/Climate Station w i l l rest with the Forest Senior Technician. The area set aside for a transplant nursery w i l l be maintained, and specimen trees w i l l ,be grown for landscaping purposes and for the Arboretum. A seedling shelter w i l l be planned and i f funding permits, constructed. The Forester (Silviculture & Education) w i l l be responsible for the nursery. Other Forest Related activities that may arise (e.g. sawmill or other management activities not defined at this time), w i l l be the responsibility of the Director. DEER PROJECT WEATHER STATION NURSERY OTHER / Forest Operations Silviculture The Forest has a large backlog of plantation REVIEW OF maintenance and rehabilitation. Resources, where PRIORITIES available, w i l l be placed to maintain existing research areas and healthy plantations in the Wood Production Working Circle (8.3.2.4), and bring back into production high site land that has been lost to brush. The Forester (Silviculture) Figure 8.2.2-1-A), w i l l submit a l i s t of priorities to the Director for approval and w i l l be responsible for the year's schedule, operations and performance (6.4). Where possible, a l l operations w i l l be undertaken using f u l l mechanization. Land w i l l be cleared, drainage channels dug, planting undertaken and plantations weeded using machinery. Hand operations w i l l be used to supplement machinery, the labour being drawn from the Forest technical staff assisted by casual labour as required. A system of continuing systematic surveys w i l l be introduced to keep maps (8.3.4-2) and records up to date. A complete l i s t of planting and plan-tation maintenance requirements w i l l be compiled. Although much of the work w i l l not be undertaken due to lack of funds, the completed statement w i l l indicate the backlog of work required to render the Forest a comprehensive demonstration of sound, intensive forest management. A further 10 ha (24.8 acres) w i l l be cleared in the SITE Wood Production Working Circle. Areas w i l l be PREPARATION cleared as follows: Table 8.5.1-4-A LAND CLEARING Compartment Area ha (ac) Method Unit Cost $/ha Total Cost ($) 27 6.0 (14.8) D7 Cat 1800 10,800 31 2.6 ( 6.5) D7 Cat 1500 3,900 33 1.4 ( 3.5) D7 Cat 1300 1,800 Totals 10.0 (24.8) 16,500 An area of 6 ha (14.8 ac) w i l l be broadcast burned as weather conditions permit in the Loon Lake Education Reserve as follows: METHODS AND LABOUR SURVEYS AND ASSESSMENTS Table 8.5.1-4-B BROADCAST BURNING Compartment Area ha (ac) Method Unit Cost $/ha Total Cost ($) 17 3.0 (7.4) Hand 120 360 18 3.0 (7.4) Hand 120 360 Totals 6.0 (14.8) 720 ni Drainage w i l l be undertaken in the Wood Production Working Circle as follows: Table 8.5.1-4-C DRAINAGE Compartment Area ha (ac) Method Unit Cost $/ha Total Cost ($) 21 2.1 (5.2) Backhoe 100 200 27 1.1 (2.7) JD 450 360 400 33 0.8 (2.0) Backhoe 120 100 Totals 4.0 (9.9) • ' 700 Scarification w i l l take place on 18 ha (45 ac) in the Wood Production Working Circle as follows: Table 8.5.1-4-D SCARIFICATION Compartment Area ha Method Unit Cost Total Cost (ac) $/ha ($) 31 18.0 (45.0) Disc (D-7) 61 1,100 8.5.1-5 Planting w i l l be carried out on 40 ha (99 ac) as PLANTING follows: Table 8.5.1-5-A PLANTING Compartment Area ha (ac) Method Unit Cost $/ha Total Cost ($) 16 15 (37) Hand (bare root and bullets) 494 (1000 trees/ ha) 7,400 31 25 (62) Machine (bullets) 150 (1500 trees/ ha) 3,700 Totals 40 (99) 11,100 Planting in Compartment 16 w i l l be carried out by Forest Technicians supplemented by casual labour. The ReForester injection planting machine w i l l be used to plant Compartment 31 using bullets grown on the Forest. Species w i l l include Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga  menziesii) and White Pine (Pinus monticola). The White Pine seedlings w i l l be grown from seed collected on the Forest under'Research Project 65-5. )1l 8.5.1-6 A total of 150 ha (370 ac) Production Working Circle. Table. 8.5.1-6-A WEEDING w i l l be weeded in the Wood WEEDING The programme includes: Compartment Area ha (ac) Method Unit Cost $/ha Total Cost ($) 25 5 (12) Hand 180 900 27 11 (28) Hand 150 1,600 30 28 (69) Hand 230 6,400 31 48 (118) Mowing/ Chemicals 160 7,700 32 46 (113) Mowing/ Chemicals 100 4,600 35 12 (28) Hand 300 3,600 Totals 150 (370) 24,800 Hand weeding w i l l be carried out by Forest Technical staff supplemented by casual labour as required to complete the programme, using hand power tools (brushcutters). Mowing w i l l be undertaken using an agricultural rotary flail-type mower and chemicals. Strict precautions w i l l be observed where chemicals are to be used, and they w i l l only be applied by ful l y licenced applicators. The Forester (Engineering) w i l l be responsible for safety of a l l staff involved in applying chemicals and for securing relevant licences. 8.5.1-7 L i t t l e juvenile thinning (spacing/stock control) w i l l be undertaken although i t i s estimated that over 200 ha (500 ac) requires attention at the present time. The only juvenile thinning w i l l be carried out by students during Forestry 451 (8.4.1-2) and w i l l amount to less than 2 ha (5 ac) in the Wood Production Working Circle. Table 8.5.1-7-A JUVENILE THINNING Compartment Area ha Method Unit Cost Total Cost (ac) $/ha 28 2.0 (5.0) Hand (Student Labour) Juvenile thinning w i l l be used to demonstrate methods of assessment, and operational techniques. Hand carried power tools (chain saws and brushcutters) w i l l be used under s t r i c t technical supervision. JUVENILE THINNING 8.5.1-8 A quantity of pruning (brashing) w i l l be undertaken PRUNING in the Wood Production Working Circle using volunteer and student labour. Pruning to 2 m (6.2 feet) w i l l permit access for future operations and reduce f i r e hazard at a later date. Table 8.5.1-8-A PRUNING Compartment Area ha (ac) Method Unit Cost $/ha Total Cost 25 0.5 (1.2) Hand 28 0.6 (1.5) Hand 30 0.4 (1.0) Hand • Volunteer Labour 35 0.3 (0.7) Hand J Totals 1.8 (4.4) Hand saws w i l l be used in a l l pruning operations. A very small quantity of high pruning to 3 m (10 feet) w i l l be done by students in Forestry 451, but as i t w i l l be less than 0.1 ha (0.25 ac), i t w i l l not be detailed here. 8.5.1-9 Approximately 0.8 ha (2 ac) of precommercial thinning PRE-COMMERCIAL w i l l be undertaken by Forestry 451 students in the THINNING Wood Production Working Circle as follows: Table 8.5.1-9-A PRE-COMMERCIAL THINNING Compartment Area ha (ac) Method Unit Cost $/ha Total Cost 25 0.4 (1.0) Hand Student Labour *30 0.5 (1.2) Chemical Research Project 79-8 33 0.4 (1.0) Hand Student Labour Totals 1.3 (3.2) A l l stands treated w i l l be 20 year old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), and operations w i l l be used for instruction in intensive forest management. *Note: This item covers an area allocated to a researcher for experimental purposes. The Forester (Engineering) w i l l ensure that a l l safety and licencing requirements are f u l f i l l e d . nf-Commercial thinning w i l l be carried out in Compartment COMMERCIAL 35 (in the Wood Production Working Circle) by students THINNING engaged in Forestry 451. While referred to as "Commercial Thinning", no market has yet been found for material harvested under this category. Markets w i l l be investigated (8.2.1-6). The operation w i l l be carried out i n the following location: Table 8.5.1-10-A COMMERCIAL THINNING Compartment Area ha (ac) Method Unit Cost $/ha Total Cost 35 2.0 (4.9) Various methods for student instruction A number of areas have been lost to brush (estimated REHABILITATION at over 100 ha (250 ac)), and a summary w i l l be prepared by the Forester (Silviculture) to assess the high site areas at present under a non-commercial cover. No rehabilitation work w i l l be undertaken during the year due to financial constraints. No areas w i l l be f e r t i l i z e d , drained or beaten-up (stocking raised by additional planting), and no other plantation maintenance work is scheduled. A l l heavy land clearing, scarification and drainage equipment w i l l be supplied and operated by a local contractor. The Forest maintains an adequate supply of hand and hand held power tools (8.2.1-10).The Forester (Silviculture) w i l l be responsible for ensuring that tools, and spares and fuel are ordered through the equipment technician (Figure 8.2.2-1-A). OTHER PLANTATION MAINTENANCE EQUIPMENT ns Yield Two major issues w i l l be reviewed during 1981/82, the Forest inventory and Regulation required to achieve a "normal" forest situation by the year 2050 (Figures 7.4.3-3-A- E inclusive). Yield calculation w i l l be divided into three sections Wood production areas Subsidary Wood production areas - Reserves. A further breakdown w i l l be carried out to allocate yield figures to Compartments. The Forester (Engineering) w i l l be responsible for planning and implementing the programme. The Forest Inventory review w i l l include consideration INVENTORY of previous work on "Sequential Sampling with Partial Replacement" carried out in 1975 (Appendix 2.1.2-38-A). Assistance w i l l be requested from the Faculty of Forestry on available systems and expertise (see also 8.9). Investigation w i l l be made to see whether i t is feasible to work yield calculations into a management model for use by Forestry 451 students. Assistance w i l l also be sought in this matter. Regulation (Appendix 2.2.1.1-3-B) is directly related to REGULATION financial problems currently facing the Forest. The Director and professional staff w i l l carry out a further investigation into methods of regulation (8.5.2-1). Funding w i l l be sought for a computer terminal EQUIPMENT AND through which to access yield and inventory information. INSTRUMENTS No other purchases of equipment or instruments w i l l be carried out until the Forester (Engineering) presents the Inventory Revision Plan (8.5.2-2). REVIEW OF PRIORITIES METHODS AND LABOUR YIELD CALCULATIONS 8.5.3 8.5.3-1 8.5.3-2 8.5.3-3 8.5.3-4 8.5.3-5 ,5.3-6 Harvesting Clearcutting harvesting systems w i l l be used on a l l METHODS AND mature forest stands. Only very small areas w i l l be LABOUR commercially thinned (8.5.1-10). Settings w i l l vary in size from 2 ha (5 ac) patches where helicopters are used, to 20 ha (50 ac) blocks harvested by conventional methods. Reforestation proposals are detailed in Section 8.5.1. Contract labour w i l l be used in a l l harvesting operations with the exception of commercial thinning (8.5.1-10). The harvesting programme for 1982/83*is currently PROGRAMME (1981) in preparation, and is not available at this time. YEAR 1 The harvesting proposals for 1983/84 are not available PROGRAMME at this time (8.5.3-2). YEAR 2 General locations for future harvesting operations FUTURE have not been established at this time. PROPOSALS Until harvesting programmes have been established, no environmental constraints can be noted and no precautions can be prescribed. Traditional equipment w i l l be used to harvest the bulk of the timber. High lead systems w i l l be used on a l l accessible hillsides with topographical slopes of over 30%, using a 18 m (60 ft) Rosedale Mobile Spar. Slopes of less than 30% w i l l be harvested by a skidder. A small quantity of timber w i l l be extracted by helicopter (7.4.3-2). Helicopters w i l l be used in areas inaccessible by road where the value of the product permits their use. CONSTRAINTS AND PRECAUTIONS EQUIPMENT *Note: It w i l l be noted that in 8.7.1-3, an item is included for "Harvesting" and "New Roads". These figures are included to cover the possibility that additional operation funds w i l l not be available, and harvesting w i l l have to proceed in the current management period. m 8.6 8.6.1 8.6.1-1 8.6.1-2 Engineering, Physical Plant and Equipment Engineering The only new roads to be constructed during the year w i l l be associated with the harvesting programme. As the harvesting programme i s not available, at this time, (8.5.3), no programme for new roads has been formulated. Only sufficient maintenance to keep the roads useable w i l l be undertaken (Table 8.6.1-2-A). Plans w i l l be formulated during the year to upgrade the main road system. Proposals set out in Figure 9.2.6.1-1-A (following) are of a tentative nature and are subject to radical change at the time when more precise plans have been formulated. ROADS, NEW ROADS, MAINTENANCE Table 8.6.1-2-A Details of Road Maintenance for Year 1 Operation Location Quantity Cost ($) Remarks Grading F, E, M 20 km 1800 Forest grader (labour only) Ditching K 2 km 1500 Contract backhoe Culvert cleaning A l l roads 200 1500 Handwork during storm events Vegetation Control L, G 3 km 600 Summer Crews Snow removal F, E, M (Camp) 20 km 2000 Contingency Surfacing F, E 0.2 km 2000 Includes gravel TOTAL 9400 Physical Plant No new buildings w i l l be constructed during the year. Renovation to the Administrative Buildings w i l l commence and follow plans as detailed in Appendix 2.1.9-7-A. Workshop and garage buildings in the compound (Map 2.1.9-8-C) w i l l be painted. A series of storage areas in the Workshop w i l l be constructed to assist with organization of tools, equipment and spare parts. The surrounds of the compound w i l l be graded and surfaced. A plan to reconstruct buildings in Camp w i l l be formulated and material w i l l be assembled to re-construct Cabin 6 (Map 2.1.9-8-B) in Year 2. Buildings w i l l be painted as finances permit. Efforts w i l l be made to generate funding for major upgrading work and the funding proposal, complete with costs and details of improvements such as materials and operations timetable, w i l l be prepared by the Forester (Education). The Marc House (Map 2.1.9-8-A) w i l l be repainted MARC HOUSE and repairs carried out on the roof. BUILDINGS LOON LAKE CAMP Routine maintenance w i l l be carried out on other OTHER WORK structures and installations on the Forest as required. n1 Equipment A review of equipment required for plantation establishment and maintenance w i l l be prepared by the Forester (Silviculture), Provisions for new equipment noted in 9.2.6.3-1 (following) are provisional and may be amended once the overall review has been undertaken. No new equipment w i l l be purchased for engineering operations. Plans w i l l be formulated for a small screening and crushing plant to be sited in the gravel pit adjacent to Blaney Creek on Road G (Maps 2.1.1- 4-A and 2.1.9-3-A). Existing engineering equipment w i l l be maintained in working condition. A review of the adequacy of existing f i r e suppression equipment w i l l be undertaken by the Forester (Engineer-ing) who w i l l project equipment requirements for Years 1-5. Plans w i l l be drawn up for a mobile tank tr a i l e r to carry i n i t i a l attack equipment (Appendix 2.1.10.2-2-A) for purchase in Year 2. A l l f i r e equipment in buildings w i l l be inspected twice during the year and repaired and/or replaced i f found to be faulty or inadequate. Equipment inventory procedures w i l l be instituted throughout the Forest by department heads( Figure 2.3.2- 1-A) . One pick-up truck w i l l be purchased and one older model traded in to offset the cost. Maintenance of vehicles w i l l be the responsibility of the workshop technician who w i l l report to the Forester (Engineering). SILVICULTURE ENGINEERING FIRE SUPPRESSION INVENTORY VEHICLES n o 8.7. 8.7.1 8.7.1-1 8.7.1-2 8.7.1-3 TECHNICAL EXPENDITURE Cost and Quantity Summary Expenditure Summary The U.B.C. Research Forest Budget (Table 8.7.3-1-A) is broken down into "Salaried" and "Non-Salaried" items. While the budget w i l l continue to be submitted in i t s present form, a detailed technical breakdown w i l l be presented in the current section of the Management Plan following, as far as practical, the "Prescription Check L i s t " (6.3). It i s anticipated that as time progresses, more detail w i l l be included in the breakdown as shown in Figures 8.5.1-4-A to 8.5.1-10-A. Inter-departmental forms (Appendix 8.7.1-2-A) DATA FOR circulated in 1979 w i l l be reviewed as to effectiveness . BUDGET and re-circulated each year prior to budget compilation. COMPILATION Estimate summaries (Table 8.7.1-1-A) w i l l be compiled and submitted to the Director for approval. Breakdown of budgeted expenditure i s as follows: Administration Land Control Function Activities Forest Operations - Silviculture - Harvesting Unallocated salaried and non-salaried items - $ 30,120* - $ 174,900 Engineering Sundry Maintenance - $ 41,000 - New Roads - $ 21,000 $ 336,480 $ 205,020 $ 62,000 Total budget (Table 8.7.3-1-A) $ 603,500 * Table 8.7.1-1-A. Income Summary Details of budgeted revenue are included in Table 8.7.3-1-A (page 3). Proposed Budget The entire budgetary details of the U.B.C. Research Forest Operating Budget are included in Table 8.7.3. A on Pages 1 and 2. 8.8 Operations and Expenditure Timetables 8.8.1 Operations Timetable 8.8.1-1 Operations are scheduled month by month, for 13 months, commencing at the beginning of March 1982, ending at the end of March 1983. Tables 8.8.1-1-A to M (inclusive). The purpose for inclusion of the last month of the previous year i s to permit "visual continuity" when the new amendment is introduced each year, and to ensure continuity of technical operations from one year to another. 8.8.1-2 The operations labour summary Table 8.8.1-1-N has been summarized for the year to balance with the budget. 8.8.1-3 The Director's budget proposal to the Dean w i l l be submitted based on inter-staff communications in October 1981. Records of inter-departmental budget estimates w i l l be recorded in Appendix 8.8.1-1-A for one year and then transferred to the Central F i l i n g System at the time of the Management Plan review. 8.8.2 Income and Expenditure Over Time 8.8.2-1 The Un i v e r s i t y of B.C. operates a "Public Sector Accounting" system and draws from a budgeted allotment for the year for operating expenses. 8.8.2-3 Revenue from logging normally occurs within three months of cessation of logging a c t i v i t i e s , and a l l receipts w i l l be complete by August 1, 1982. 8.8.2-4 In view of discussions currently underway r e l a t i v e to funding and harvesting, methods of funding are l i a b l e to r a d i c a l a l t e r a t i o n . Thus, i n s p i t e of budget pr e d i c t i o n s , income cannot be accurately be predicted f o r the year 1982/83. 8.8.2-5 A u x i l i a r y funding w i l l be applied for on a continuing basis (8.9 following). The success of funding i s unpredictable and estimates of possible income from these sources w i l l not be included. Other income, expenditure and assistance Summer employment programmes Application w i l l be made for assistance to complete the location map of Research Projects, and physically mark selected areas in the f i e l d . As funding for Youth Employment Programmes for Universities i s uncertain, no detailed planning (other than project outlines) w i l l be done until funding is confirmed. A further application w i l l be made for the Job YOUNG CANADA Creation Branch of the Federal government for WORKS funds to employ students during the summer. Students PROGRAMME would maintain the Demonstration Forest T r a i l system, do pruning and weeding in plantations and assist in landscaping projects. A detailed outline w i l l be prepared by the Forester (Education) and submitted at the appropriate time. YOUTH EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMME FOR UNIVERSITIES Other funding opportunities w i l l be followed up as they arise. OTHER FUNDING its 8.9.2 Auxiliary Funding 8.9.2-1 A f i l e containing funding ideas and outlines w i l l GENERAL be maintained in the Central F i l i n g System. The Register, compiled on similar lines to the Thesis Ideas F i l e (8.4.1-2) w i l l be maintained by the Education Co-ordinator. Unsolicited proposals w i l l be submitted as circumstances dictate. Work Experience and Community Projects The Forest w i l l continue to run Work Experience programmes for schools and interested community groups. The Forester (Education) w i l l be responsible for outlining and carrying through work experience programmes and w i l l continue to encourage student interest in forest oriented employment. A l l students w i l l be covered by Workmens Compensation,coverage being the responsi-b i l i t y of the leaders of the participating groups. GENERAL The number of programmes run for Secondary Schools w i l l not be increased at the present time due to constraints on staffing, although existing contacts w i l l be encouraged to return. The present programme w i l l maintain continuity with interested schools and provide a format for programme development. SECONDARY The Forest w i l l continue to work closely with the Special Education Programme sponsored by School District #42 (Maple Ridge). Programmes w i l l continue to be tailored to the individual student (as opposed to group work experience projects - 8.9.3-2) and continue to cater for students experiencing d i f f i c u l t y in classroom situations. Programmes designed and initiated for mentally retarded students w i l l continue. The Forester (Education) w i l l act as advisor and work co-ordinator, the school authorities being responsible for a l l other aspects of the programme. A programme designed specifically for deaf students w i l l be formulated by the Forester (Education) in conjunction with a specialist school in Vancouver. A l l work experience programmes w i l l continue to have a strong education emphasis. Although work experience, per se, w i l l continue to be the focal point of any programme, students w i l l be instructed in forest related subjects including biology and wi l d l i f e . Work experience w i l l continue to provide a medium for outdoor (environmental) education. SPECIAL EDUCATION PROGRAMMES SPECIAL INTEREST GROUPS EDUCATION ELEMENT IN WORK EXPERIENCE The Forester (Education) w i l l continue to accept workers involved in community service (Probationary) programmes, reserving the right to terminate at any time should the subject not participate in the s p i r i t of the programme. The Corrections Branch of the Provincial Government w i l l not be approached for assistance by the Forest during the coming year. Local community groups volunteering for minor work projects (e.g. T r a i l Maintenance) w i l l be encouraged. The Forester (Education) w i l l be responsible for co-ordinating work of a community nature, directing work effort to maintaining public education areas. COMMUNITY SERVICE CORRECTIONS SERVICE OTHER 8.10 Current Management summary comments 8.10-1 The foregoing paragraphs contain details of acti v i t i e s which are required to maintain the v i a b i l i t y of the Forest as an Education, Demonstration and Research f a c i l i t y . Due to contingencies, selected activities may not be undertaken. These w i l l be rescheduled the following year. Prescriptions (Section 8) have been formulated to maintain the Forest at a minimum operating level, the following section (9.0 Projected Future Requirements) indicating activities required to promote growth and alleviate past neglect. Funding constraints w i l l continue to be of prime concern to the managers of the Forest who w i l l spend considerable time attempting to generate revenue. Figure 9.0 -A Projected Future Developments 9.1 Format 9.2 Programme Year 2 (1982/83) I Management Control Administration Land Control Function Activities Forest Operations Engineering Provisional Costs Other Provisions 9.3 Programme Years 3-5 Administration Land Function Forest Operations Engineering Summary 9.4 Programme Years 6-10 Administration Land Function Forest Operations Engineering Summary 9.5 Future Developments Policy Objectives Administration Land Functions Forest Operations Expenditure Income 9.0 9.1 9.1-1 9.1-2 9.1-3 9.1-4 PROJECTED FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS Format Section 9 contains four parts (9.2) Programme Plan Year 2 (1983/84) (9.3) Programme Plan Years 3-5 (1984/85 -1986/87 inclusive) (9.4) Programme Plan Years 6-10 (1987/88 -1991/92 inclusive) (9.5) Long Term Developments (Plan Year 11 +) Only brief outlines are presented for each section. As questions relative to funding and harvesting are resolved, more details w i l l be included in the future Plan revisions. Plan Year 2 (1983/84) Programme w i l l , where relevant, pick up incomplete segments of the programme for Year 1 (1982/83). Thus, although definite proposals w i l l be made and w i l l follow in logical sequence from the previous year, incomplete prescriptions w i l l (unless specifically excluded by current planning) automatically take precedence and w i l l be included implicitly as part of Current Management in the Yearly Revision (8„2.2-4). Programme for Plan Years 3-5 (1984/85 - 1986/87) w i l l contain proposals under general headings as detailed in Section 7. Quantities w i l l be detailed as summaries (rather than individually allocated quantities to specific areas) to indicate projected requirements based on current information. Although costs w i l l be indicated in general terms and an overall budget figure suggested, the programme w i l l contain no detailed breakdown. Plan Years 6-10 (1987/88 - 1991/92) w i l l be detailed sufficiently to indicate trends and projected long term requirements. The section w i l l contain sufficient detail to show the quantity of work necessary not merely to maintain the Forest at a minimum operating level, but upgrade the quality of Forest stands, expanding the present scope of cultural operations, to f u l f i l the projected role of the Forest as a demonstration of sound advanced management and cultural practices. Long Term Development (Plan Years 11 +) w i l l contain a prognosis of management trends for the Forest to follow in the future. The section w i l l provide "crystal b a l l " opportunity and project policies and objectives past the tenure of current management personnel, providing a basic premise of any sound, long term management plan - continuity of intent. PLAN YEAR 2 PLAN YEARS 3 - 4 PLAN YEARS 6-10 PLAN YEARS 11 + 9.2 9.2.1 9.2.1-1 9.2.1-2 Programme - Year 2 (1983/84) Format and contents A year end review of incomplete operations prescribed for Year 1 w i l l be undertaken by the Forest Staff. Incomplete work w i l l automatically be transferred to current year's prescriptions and reasons sought for non-completion. Certain prescriptions, particularly in stand treatment, can be delayed without undue problems, for periods of up to 10 years, (although delay would result i n lower treatment effectiveness), depending on the type of treatment and stand to be treated. Silvi c u l t u r a l prescriptions for Year 1 contain a number of such operations, which, i f time and resources permit, w i l l be carried out, but may be temporarily delayed. A l l s i l v i c u l t u r a l treatment reports made by the Forester (Silviculture) w i l l have the "buffer-dates" (dates between which the prescribed treatment should be undertaken), and these figures w i l l be included as part of the tables for Year 1, commencing the f i r s t Plan revision. This w i l l ensure that the option of treatment is not lost, nor damage result to a stand due to neglect. INCOMPLETE YEAR 1 OPERATIONS Administration (Year 2) Management Control (Year 2) Budgeting w i l l be undertaken by the Director in consultation with his staff. Operating costs for the Forest are calculated at $220,000 (205,000 in Year 1), and w i l l be presented to the Dean of the Faculty of Forestry at U.B.C. for the consideration of the Board of Govenors in September 1982. Discussions currently underway relative to harvesting continue to make short term plans nebulous due to income uncertainties. Employment development grants w i l l continue to be applied for by the Forester (Silviculture) although the outcome (and possible success) of these applications cannot be predicted, and estimates of income from grant sources are not included. No major new developments are predicted for Year 2 and no prescriptions are included of a developmental nature. The results of the Technical Audit from Year 1 w i l l be assessed and procedures amended as necessary. Factors noted in 9.2.1-1 w i l l be considered and the Audit assessed in conjuction with stand treatment objectives. Marketing of minor forest products w i l l continue to be investigated by the Forester (Silviculture). Should sufficient revenue be generated from products not currently produced, consideration w i l l be given to employment of a further f u l l time technician (paid out of minor produce revenue) to f i l l orders. Marketing w i l l also be undertaken relative to rental of Loon Lake Camp, and greater use of the Camp f a c i l i t y w i l l be investigated. Tenders from consultants w i l l be invited for an inventory of the Tree Resource (8.5.2-1). The inventory format w i l l be compiled by the Forester (Engineering) in consultation with Mensurationists at U.B.C. Faculty of Forestry and Ministry of Forests inventory specialists. Inventory of equipment and fittings w i l l be carried out by the Senior Technician, as w i l l inventories of chemicals and dangerous substances Inventories at Loon Lake Camp w i l l be undertaken by the staff responsible for each section. Thus, the Head Cook w i l l undertake food and equipment in the Mess Hall, the Caretaker equipment and fittings in the Cabins and other Camp buildings. L i t t l e work w i l l be carried out on valuation unless time permits. Valuation work w i l l be limited to discussion of suitable format within which to undertake the work. Leases w i l l remain the responsibility of the Director. No additional leases are anticipated for Year 2, and any matters arising relative to leases w i l l be dealt with by the Director as required. No major additions to either physical plant or equip-ment are scheduled. Preventative maintenance w i l l be undertaken on a continuing basis in a similar manner as noted in 8.2.1-9. Organization (Year 2) No additions to staff w i l l be made. Staff structure w i l l be reviewed by the Director and action taken as considered necessary to achieve optimum efficiency. STAFFING The number of technical staff currently employed w i l l not be increased (unless as noted in 9.2.2-5), although sufficient work is available (particularly in s i l v i c u l t u r a l operations) to employ a further four technicians. Employment grants w i l l be applied for (9.2.2-2). Informal meetings between technical and professional LABOUR staff w i l l continue. RELATIONS The third revision of the Management Plan w i l l be undertaken. Descriptive sections currently included in PART II (for purposes of explanation) w i l l be removed and placed in an appendix for reference purposes, and PART II w i l l become more condensed and precise. Workshops for technical staff w i l l be oriented towards safety and safe work practices. Technicians holding Industrial First Aid Certificates w i l l return for further training, pesticide applicator courses w i l l be attended by a l l technical staff, and a continuing programme of instruction on preventative maintenance of equipment w i l l be undertaken. MANAGEMENT PLAN REVIEW TRAINING Further cooperation with community groups (such as COMMUNITY the Woman's Institute) w i l l continue, and professional staff w i l l give talks to local organizations as invited and as time permits. The open door policy (8.2.2-7) w i l l continue as w i l l conducted tours (staff availability permitting). A mini computer w i l l be installed to provide a more ACCOUNTS efficient system of maintaining accounts and retrieving accounting information. Review of safety procedures w i l l be a continuing SAFETY process. One member of the professional staff w i l l head the Safety committee and be responsible for a l l matters related to safety, assisted by one technician holding an Industrial First Aid Certificate. Compilation of the Forest Annual Report w i l l be REPORTS undertaken by the Director, with the professional staff contributing major sections. Other reports w i l l be written by the staff as required. A composite paper comprising summaries of a l l reports w i l l be produced for the year. 9.2.2.3 Protection (Year 2) 9.2.2.3-1 The Forester (Engineering) w i l l review the Fire Plan (8.2.3-1) and ensure that equipment is serviced and ready for use. Training of Forest staff in f i r e control w i l l be undertaken, as w i l l training of temporary personnel i n the use of f i r e equipment. The Fire Weather Index w i l l be calculated and posted daily throughout the summer months. Patrols w i l l be mounted as required and decisions to close the Forest during period of high f i r e hazard w i l l be made by the Director. .The access t r a i l s in Compart-ment 24 (Map 2.2.1-3-A) w i l l be cleared in Spring to provide access onto the Central ridge for emergency purposes. 9.2.2.3-2 Security w i l l remain the responsibility of the Forester (Engineering) who w i l l ensure that the Director i s informed at a l l times on security status of the Forest. The fence on the southern end of the Forest w i l l be patrolled weekly. 9.2.2.3-3 The Forester (Silviculture) w i l l continue to be responsible for monitoring forest pests and diseases. A map w i l l be compiled from compartment records, showing the location of problem areas, and a series of short t r a i l s cut through selected stands for education and demonstration purposes relative to disease. FIRE SECURITY PEST CONTROL 9 . 2 . 2 . A Support activities (Year 2 ) 9 . 2 . 2 . A - 1 The Forester (Silviculture) w i l l continue to be responsible for ensuring an adequate supply of maps for operational and education purposes. Estimates (redrafting services) w i l l be made for bringing the 1 9 7 5 series of 1 : 5 , 0 0 0 maps up to date. Further, one map w i l l be drafted to show the location of a l l research projects, both active and terminated. 9 . 2 . 2 . A - 2 The Forester (Engineering) w i l l remain in charge of air photographs and ensure that a new set covering the entire Forest i s taken during the year. MAPS PHOTOGRAPHS 9 . 2 . 2 . A - 3 A reference system for the Central F i l i n g System w i l l be CENTRAL developed and programmed into the mini-computer to FILING SYSTEM be purchased for accounting purposes ( 9 . 2 . 2 . 2 - 7 ) . 9.2.3 9.2.3-1 9.2.3-2 9.2.3-3 9.2.3-4 Land control (Year 2) Best Use land management w i l l continue to be actively pursued and no major revisions in land use patterns are scheduled. No amendments to boundaries or treatments in any working circl e are scheduled. Plans w i l l continue to be implemented and the Forester (Silviculture) w i l l ensure the provisions of the Management Plan are carried out. A review of use prio r i t i e s w i l l be undertaken by the Forester (Silviculture), particularly with reference to Wildlife and use patterns in the U t i l i t y Corridor (Hydro Right-of-way). A series of treatment maps relative to each Compartment MAPS w i l l be commenced. Each compartment w i l l have a complete series of maps relative to a standard format similar to the prescription check l i s t 6.3.4-1 items "Site preparation" through to "Other plantation maintenance operations". BEST USE CONTINUING WORKING CIRCLES USE HIERARCHIES in 9.2.A Function act i v i t i e s (Year 2) 9.2.A.l Education 9.2.A.1-1 The Forester (Silviculture and Education) EDUCATION - referred to in this section as Forester COORDINATOR (Education) - w i l l continue to f i l l the role of Education Co-ordinator. 9.2.A.1-2 No departure from items in 8.A.1-2 to 8.A.1-16, i s anticipated. The Forester (Education) w i l l continue to be involved in a l l aspects of education work, including the organization of residential programme for Resource Technicians (involving six schools scattered throughout British Columbia). A residential programme for adults (associated with the Outdoor Education programme at Loon Lake Camp) w i l l be planned in co-operation with personnel of School District #A2. i m 9.2.4.2 Research (Year 2) 9.2.4.2-1 The Forester (Engineering) w i l l continue to be responsible for liaison with researchers using the Forest. The Working Plan format for research projects w i l l be tested and amendments made as necessary. The map showing the location of a l l projects (9.2.2.4-1) w i l l be completed. 9.2.4.2-2 A map w i l l be prepared showing research projects adjacent to the Main Gate that would be of interest to v i s i t i n g foresters. The map w i l l show long term s i l v i c u l t u r a l projects and selected demonstration areas (such as the area selected for ful l y mechanized silviculture and the thinning demonstration area). The objective of such a map is to permit v i s i t i n g foresters and forestry students to guide themselves around projects of interest, saving Research Forest staff time. It i s anticipated that a write-up of the selected areas w i l l be prepared at a later date. 9.2.4.2-3 Work w i l l continue on the "Researcher's Package" which should be ready for use by December 31, 1983. The Forester (Engineering) w i l l be responsible for the package. 9.2.4.2-4 A programme of selecting one long term s i l v i c u l t u r a l project each year and undertaking a major clean up, assessment and interim write up w i l l commence. A number of long term research projects have become neglected due to lack of researcher interest or lack of resources necessary to undertake the work. A number of these projects have been underway for many years and could provide useful operational information i f cleaned up and assessed. The Forester (Silviculture) w i l l be responsible for this programme. WORKING PLAN VISITORS PROJECT MAP RESEARCHER'S PACKAGE LONG TERM PROJECT MAINTENANCE 9.2.4.3 Demonstration (Year 2) 9.2.4.3-1 The Demonstration Forest w i l l continue to be main-tained and enriched with the ad d i t i o n of further areas of i n t e r e s t . The Thinning Demonstration area ( s i t e d between Roads F and A10 - Map 2.1.9-3-A) w i l l continue to develop, and a serie s of signs w i l l be prepared f o r s i t i n g throughout the area. 9.2.4.3-2 Tours w i l l be given to v i s i t i n g groups where s t a f f and time permit. A grant w i l l be applied f o r ( i n a s s o c i a t i o n with the C.I.F.) to fund two summer students to a s s i s t with guiding tours during the peak school v i s i t s (late May and June) and with public tours at the weekends during the summer. 9.2.4.3-3 Other demonstrations w i l l be arranged as considered necessary. I t i s not known at t h i s time what requests w i l l be made to the Forest for demonstration s i t e s , but requests w i l l be considered by the Director as they a r i s e . DEMONSTRATION FOREST OTHER DEMONSTRATIONS 9.2.4.3-4 Signs w i l l continue to play an important r o l e i n pro-v i d i n g information to v i s i t o r s . A programme of sign maintenance w i l l be prepared and i n s t i t u t e d by the Forester (Education). If} 9.2.5 9.2.5.1 9.2.5.1-1 9.2.5.1-2 9.2.5.1-3 9.2.5.1-4 9.2.5.1-5 9.2.5.1-6 Forest Operations (Year 2) Silviculture (Year 2) Operations incomplete from Year 1 w i l l be completed. Methods and labour w i l l be as for Year 1 (8.5.1-2). The results of the survey (8.5.1-3) conducted in Year 1 (8.5.1-3) w i l l be reviewed and treatment pri o r i t i e s established. No land clearing w i l l be undertaken except as necessary to complete Year 1 programme (Table 8.5.1-4-A), or clearing required for research or demonstration purposes. Broadcast burning w i l l be undertaken on areas in Compartment 28 for research purposes. The precise location of the area has not yet been determined. No drainage or scarification w i l l be undertaken during Year 2 unless for demonstraion purposes. Planting w i l l be carried out to reforest harvested areas. As areas to be harvested have not been determined, ( 8.5.3-2) specific programme details are not available. No f i l l i n g in ( beating up) is anticipated or scheduled. Weeding w i l l amount to 190 ha (470 acres) as set out in Table 9.2.5.1-6-A. GENERAL TREATMENT PRIORITIES OF BACKLOG SITE PREPARATION DRAINAGE AND SCARIFICATION PLANTING . WEEDING Table 9.2.5.1-6-A Weeding Details for Year 2 [Compartment Area ha (ac) Method |Unit Cost $/ha Total Cost ($) 25 27 30 31 32 35 16 31 5 (12) 11 (28) 28 (69) 48 (118) 46 (113) 12 (28) 15 (37) 25 (62) Hand Hand Hand Mowing/ Chemicals Mowing/ Chemicals Hand Hand Hand/ Machine 180 150 230 160 100 300 25 200 900 1,600 6,400 7,700 4,600 3,600 375 5,000 30,175 9.2.5.1-7 Approximately 10 ha (25 ac) w i l l receive juvenile thinning (Table 9.2.5.1-7-A). The labour w i l l be provided by students, (mainly from the Pacific Vocational Institute Forestry Crewperson programme), although 1 ha (2.5 ac) w i l l be carried out by students attending Forestry 451 as part of their f i e l d a c t i v i t i e s . Table 9.2.5.1-7-A Juvenile Thinning Details for Year 2 Compartment Area ha (ac) Method Unit Cost $/ha Total Cost 20 8 (20 ac) Hand Student Labour 28 2 (5 ac) Hand Student Labour 9.2.5.1-8 The programme for pruning plantations for access and PRUNING reduction of f i r e hazard w i l l continue as shown in Table 9.2.5.1-8 (Total = 5 ha (12 acres)). Table 9.2.5.1-8-A Pruning Programme for Year 2 Compartment Area ha (ac) Method Unit Cost $/ha Total Cost 19 0.5 (1 ac) Hand 24 2.0 (5 ac) Hand Student and Volunteer Labour 28 1.0 (2.5 ac) Hand 29 1.0 (2.5 ac) Hand 31 0.5 (1 ac) Hand 9.2.5.1-9 Precommercial thinning amounting to 2 ha (5 acres) PRECOMMERCIAL w i l l be undertaken in Compartments 27 and 31 as THINNING part of student exercises associated with Forest 451 (Table 9.2.5.1-9-A). Table 9.2.5.1-9-A Details of Precommercial Thinning (Year 2) Compartment Area ha (ac) Method Unit Cost $/ha Total Cost 27 1 (2.5 ac) Hand Student labour 31 1 (2.5 ac) Hand JUVENILE THINNING I 9.2.5.1-10 Compartment 35 w i l l again be the site for student exercises and a further 2 ha (5.0 acres) w i l l be commercially thinned using small skidders for extracting the material to roadside. No market i s available for the quantity of thinnings to be produced although this aspect of the operation w i l l be investigated prior to the activity. Table 9.2.5.1-10-A Details of Commercial Thinning (Year 2) Compartment Area ha (ac) Method Unit Cost $/ha Total Cost 35 2 (5 ac) Various methods f o r student ins t r u c t i o n 9.2.5.1-11 No other s i l v i c u l t u r a l operations are prescribed OTHER for Year 2. If labour becomes available through SILVICULTURAL either financial assistance or student labour, OPERATIONS cleaning plantations in Compartments 25, 30, 31 and 35 w i l l receive priority, followed by juvenile thinning in Compartments 17, 19, 20, 21, 28 and 29. Other si l v i c u l t u r a l activities could be pursued and a l i s t of such operations i s contained in Appendix 9.2.5.1-11-A. COMMERCIAL THINNING 9.2.6 Engineering, Plant and Equipment (Year 2) 9.2.6.1 Engineering (Year 2) 9.2.6.1-1 No new roads w i l l be constructed unless associated with harvesting (9.2.5.3-1). Any new roads w i l l be built to "Spur" road specifications (Appendix 2.1.2-75-A), with no provision forfeiture maintenance. 9.2.6.1-2 An extensive programme of road maintenance w i l l commence. Table 9.2.6.1-2-A details proposals for the programme. ROADS, NEW ROADS, MAINTENANCE Table 9.2.6.1-2-A Details of road maintenance proposals (Year 2 onward) OPERATION ROAD QUANTITY METHOD UNIT TOTAL COST NUMBER(S) COST GRADING A l l main roads (and side roads as required) on a continuing basis. Cost (1981 $) approximately $6,000 per year ROADSIDE DITCHES F,G,K,H,L 48 km (30 miles) Backhoe $l/m $4,000 annually CULVERT CLEANING F,G,K,H,L 1 Plus contin-gencies) 300 Hand and Backhoe $10/ea. $3,000 annually CULVERT REPLACEMENT G y K y H j Li 60 Backhoe and cat $500/ea. $5,000 annually VEGETATION CONTROL F J G ^ K J H ^ L J E 20 km (12 miles) Hand and Machine $200/km $1,000 annually REALIGNMENT K,H,F 3 km (2 miles) Contract $20,000/km $5,000 annually $20,000 annually 9.2.6.1-3 The bridge over Blaney Creek on Road G (Maps 2.1.1-4-A BRIDGES and 2.1.9-3-A), w i l l be replaced at a cost of approximately $60,000, and plans w i l l be made to realign and reconstruct the trestle bridge over Blaney Creek on Road M at a date yet to be fixed. No financial provisions have been made for either project'and, although both projects require urgent attention, both may be delayed. 9.2.6.1-4 Vegetation w i l l be cut back along Roads L, E10 and K OTHER ROAD (Map 2.1.9-3-A), using labour employed under summer WORK youth employment and development programmes (9.2.2.1-2). A gravel screening plant costing approximatley $5,000 w i l l be constructed and the material processed used to surface Roads F, M and E. Depending on the quantity of material developed in proposed screening operations, a stockpile of road surfacing material w i l l be assembled to surface other roads (notably Roads F, H and K), in future years. Contingency work w i l l be undertaken to protect roads as required. 2^3 9.2.6.2 Physical Plant (Year 2) 9.2.6.2-1 No new buildings w i l l be constructed in Year 2, although plans w i l l be made to enlarge sleeping accommodation at Loon Lake Camp (9.2.6.2-2 following). 9.2.6.2-2 The log cabins at Loon Lake require major repairs and one cabin (#6 - Map 2.1.9-8-B) w i l l be dismantled, and reconstructed on a new foundation, with a more efficient heating system and new roof. A number of overhead power lines w i l l be replaced and the Mess Hall connected to the emergency power supply. A further effort w i l l be made to raise funds to undertake major renovations in Camp. Funds would be used to renew a l l services, reconstruct selected buildings, resurface roads, create a new beach area and generally upgrade the f a c i l i t i e s and Camp surrounds. BUILDINGS, NEW LOON LAKE CAMP 9.2.6.2-3 Routine maintenance w i l l be carried out on other structures as required, and the Administration Buildings w i l l be renovated i f funds become available. OTHER WORK 9 .2 .6 .3 Equipment (Year 2) 9 .2 .6 .3-1 Addi t ions to equipment required for p l a n t a t i o n maintenance w i l l be made. Four chainsaws, two brushcut ter s , two t r a c t o r mounted mowers and sundry items of hand equipment w i l l be purchased. 9 .2 .6 .3-2 The screen noted i n 9 .2 .6 .1-4 w i l l be constructed and a new t r a c t o r towed rock rake w i l l be purchased. The grader w i l l continue to be maintained. 9 .2 .6 .3-3 Survey equipment w i l l continue to be borrowed from the Facul ty of Forestry at U . B . C , a n d ' s u f f i c i e n t o f f i c e equipment w i l l be maintained as w i l l adequately support the serv ices required by the Forest Admin i s t r a t ion . SILVICULTURE ENGINEERING SURVEY AND OFFICE EQUIPMENT 9 .2 .6 .3-4 A t r a i l e r w i l l be purchased s p e c i f i c a l l y for f i r e suppression equipment. The t r a i l e r w i l l be equipped with a 680 l i t r e (150 gal lon) tank, f i r e pump and 45 m (150 feet) of hose. The t r a i l e r w i l l a l so carry s u f f i c i e n t hand too l s for a four man suppression crew. The f i r e equipment w i l l be kept i n readiness throughout the year , and a small cache of f i r e equipment w i l l be maintained at Loon Lake Camp i n the garage adjacent to the Caretaker ' s house (Map 2 .1 .9-8-B) . F i r e equipment i n a l l b u i l d i n g s w i l l be checked twice year ly by the Royal C i t y F i r e Equipment Company. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y for ensuring that f i r e equipment i s f u l l y serv iced and ready for emergency use w i l l continue to be he ld by the Forester (Engineer ing) . 9 .2 .6 .3-5 Safety equipment and f i r s t a id supp l i e s , as w e l l as f i r s t a id f a c i l i t i e s w i l l continue to be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Chairman of the Safety Committee (normally the Forester (Engineer ing) ) . 9 .2 .6 .3-6 Inventories of equipment w i l l be c a r r i e d out at the d i r e c t i o n of the s t a f f member respons ible for each area. Inventories w i l l be undertaken twice year ly and d e f i c i e n c i e s made up before the beginning of the next f i n a n c i a l year . FIRE SUPPRESSION EQUIPMENT SAFETY EQUIPMENT INVENTORY >o5 9.3 9.3.1 9.3.1-1 Programme Years 3-5 (1984/5 - 1986/87) Format and content The programme for Years 3 - 5 is in preparation. Proposals and data in process of collection are found in Appendix 9.2.5.1-11-A. The Forester (Silviculture) w i l l be responsible for formulation of long term programmes based on proposals made by the Professional Staff in consultation with the Director. General estimates of s i l v i c u l t u r a l maintenance requirements are set out below in Table 9.3.1-1-A. OVERALL PROGRAMME IN PREPARATION Table 9.3.1-1-A General Estimates of Silvicultural Maintenance Operations Years 3-5. OPERATION LOCATION (COMPARTMENTS) QUANTITY REMARKS Site preparation 28,29,30,31,34,35 100 ha (250 ac) Rehabilitation Planting 28,29,30,31,34,35 100 ha (250 ac) Hand & Machine Weed control 28,29,30,31,32,34,35 420 ha (1050 ac) Hand & Machine Juvenile thinning 3,4,8,7,15,16,17,18, 20,21,28 200 ha (490 ac) Hand Precommercial thinning 24,28,29,31,35 30 ha (75 ac) Hand 2b 9.4 Programme Year 6 - 1 0 9.4.1 Format and content 9.4.1-1 No provisions have been made thus f a r for long term programmes, although, i n e f f e c t , long term management proposals as d e t a i l e d i n Section 7.0 w i l l be implemented. It i s anticipated that Section 9.0 of the UBC Research Management Plan w i l l be more comprehensive as r e v i s i o n s are made, and that by 1985/86, projections w i l l be a v a i l -able for the 10 year period. 70 9.5 Future developments 9.5.1 Policy and Objectives 9.5.1-1 Although the policy of the Forest w i l l remain as noted in 5.1-1, the interpretation of the restrictive covenant w i l l reflect demands placed upon the establishment. It is anticipated that the Forest w i l l become more heavily involved in education relative to the schools system and technical educational establishments. The Forest w i l l become involved in numerous extension projects, centered on Loon Lake Camp. The wealth of s i l v i c u l t u r a l demon-stration areas, long term research projects and extensive data bank, w i l l make the Forest the foremost f i e l d forestry laboratory in Western Canada. Management Objectives w i l l aim to satisfy the demands placed upon the Forest. 9.5.1-2 The Forest Administration w i l l expand to include a number of specialists (Figure 9.5.1-2-A) in management, education, individual resources (such as wildlife) and support staff. The professional staff w i l l be faced with greater problems associated with land use conflicts, and considerable time and resources w i l l be devoted to protection. Finances w i l l pose severe problems u n t i l a major component of fund-ing i s assumed by the Provincial Government. 9.5.1-3 Best Use w i l l continue to dominate management strategy and use patterns and use hierarchies w i l l reflect p o l i t i c a l and social pressures. 9.5.1-4 The Function Activities w i l l expand to include a major recreation component, and demonstrations of sound recreation management. Education w i l l continue to expand and dominate a l l other ac t i v i t i e s . Loon Lake Camp w i l l become a f u l l y (year round) utilized f a c i l i t y , run as a separate accounting unit under the control of a f u l l time camp manager reporting to the Director. 9.5.1-5 Forest operations w i l l continue to be poorly funded unti l funding stategies have been developed and a sound financial base established. While s i l v i c u l t u r a l opera-tions w i l l assume a greater proportion of the budget than hitherto, with a f u l l time s i l v i c u l t u r a l technical crew of 10 trained technicians, supported by a seasonal staff of some 40 persons, many f i e l d operations w i l l be done by persons participating in educational and train-ing programmes (similar to the Forestry Crewperson pro-gramme currently in operation at the Pacific Vocational Institute). There is a possibility of the Forest running service courses of this nature under the auspices of the Ministry of Education at some future date. Roads w i l l be heavily used and w i l l require extensive and continuing maintenance. A f u l l time engineering crew of six, complete with mechanized support equipment, w i l l be required to maintain roads, bridges and security installations (such as perimeter fences around the Forest). A separate physical plant section w i l l be required to assist with building maintenance, reconstruction of Camp f a c i l i t i e s , assistance to researcher's and educational buildings. An extensive equipment inventory w i l l be required, and a f u l l y equipped service depot w i l l be constructed, staffed by four technicians. The Forest w i l l develop i n t o a dynamic, f i e l d oriented f o r e s t r y i n s t i t u t i o n , o f f e r i n g service courses i n a l l aspects of fo r e s t management, f o r e s t use and c u l t i v a t i o n , at a l l education l e v e l s . As part of the educational pro-gramme, the Forest w i l l develop and use a highly complex and sophisticated management model f o r use of both the Administration and students as part of t h e i r exercise work. Research w i l l be more integrated with education, and researchers w i l l address themselves more to pressing operational problems, r e f l e c t i n g funding sources and s o c i a l pressures. The forest w i l l expand into a large operational u n i t , playing a leading r o l e i n f o r e s t r y , with other agencies associated with f o r e s t r y using the Forest as a base of operations. Care w i l l have to be exercised that orderly development i s followed i n the expansion process, and to t h i s end, the Future Development Section of the Management Plan should have a minimum 50 year horizon. In future years, the Management Plan w i l l contain greater d e t a i l i n proj e c t i o n , and long term proposals w i l l provide an orderly format f o r development. >o1 10.0 DIRECTOR'S CLOSING STATEMENT 10.1 The Plan 10.1-1 The U.B.C. Research Forest Management Plan has been designed and written to assist the Director and his staff manage a diverse, dynamic forest enterprise. 10.1-2 The U.B.C. Research Forest, although physically similar, in many respects, to other areas in Coastal British Columbia, i s unique in the terms of the Crown Grant, interpretations of the Restrictive Covenant, information available for management purposes, and use pattern. 10.1-3 The Forest plays host to a highly diverse group of researchers, students and educators, a l l having specialized interests, forceful and often single minded in their objectives. Any Management Plan format would lack the total f l e x i b i l i t y necessary to accommodate (in f u l l ) such a group, and s t i l l maintain the continuity of intent necessary to manage a forest unity subject to coherent, long term objectives. Thus, not a l l users of the Forest w i l l be totally satisfied. 10.1-4 An attempt has been made to integrate the constraints imposed by finances in the short term, the overall objectives of the long term, and changing social preferences which alter rapidly and are reflected in p o l i t i c a l pressures. 10.1-5 The format of the Management Plan w i l l undoubtedly changeover time, but any foreseen change can be accommodated in the preceeding pages. At the present time, uncertainty exists relative to financing, and thus the Management Plan cannot be presented as a complete document (see Section 9.0). However, this in i t s e l f illustrates the f l e x i b i l i t y inherent in the Plan format. 10.1-6 U.B.C. Research Forest is passing through a period of re-adjustment relative to financing, land use and resource control. It i s foreseen that the Management Plan w i l l provide not only an administrative guide, but an effective management and recording instrument that w i l l benefit the University, the users of the Forest and society as a whole. ADDRESS OF RESEARCH FOREST' THE DIRECTOR, UBC RESEARCH FOREST, R.R.2, MAPLE RIDGE, B.C. CANADA, V2X 7E7 TELEPHONES' LOCAL FACULTY OF FORESTRY AT UBC 463-8I4B 463-8149 228-2727 FROM VANCOUVER 10 MILES 16 KILOMETETERS NEW WESTMINSTER MAP 2.1.1-1 - A A 5596 FT./1696 M MT. BLANCHARD MAIN GATE 8 ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SILVER VALLEY ROAD 232 STREET 120 AVENUE (DEWDNEY TRUNK ROAD) 224 STREET (HANEY BOULEVARD) 8 MILES I 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 KILOMETERS LOCATION OF UBC RESEARCH FOREST i ^^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^ MAP 2.1.1-4-A LAKES AND MAIN CREEKS AND RIVERS ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST dot* SEPT. I9£0 •cot* 1:50,000 dr. AIM 1 Source tBC Forest Service History Maps UBC RESEARCH FOREST MAP 2.1.2-1-A OLD TIMBER BERTHS AND LICENCES1 ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT. WtO •cols hSO.OOO legend dr. :<fflM dtk. 1926 'Source :Researcti Forest and B.C. Tor est Service records «MHP ^1.2-2-A FIRE HISTORY1 OF THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT. dr. scale 1:50,000 ASL LOGGING OPERATIONS TO ALLCO ANO THE FRASER RIVER Source:B.C. Forest Service,History Map Series, Alouette River 1930. History Map, Alouette River (Timber Berth W) Abernethy Lougheed Coy. March 1935. U B C MAP 2.1.2-29-A LOCATION OF OLD RAILWAY LOGGING GRADES ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT. 1980 scale 1:50,000 CIHC. legend: told railroad grades U B C R E S E A R C H F O R E S T M A P 2 . 1 . 3 - 1 - A T O P O G R A P H Y OF THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST dote SEPT. I980 •cote 1 ; 5 0 , 0 0 0 1 I l e g e n d : A l l -e levat ions in meters A.S.L. dr. AMI w n K « Legend 1. Volcanic 4.Granite 2. Quartz Diorite 5.Diorite 3. Grano Diorite 6.Unconso1idated Glacial Drift UBC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT, 1980 dr. AH4 scale U50,000 chit. MAP 2.1.4-I-A BEDROCK GEOLOGY OF THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST UBC RESEARCH FOREST MAP 2.1.5-1-A LAND ASSOCIATION (LACATE, 1965) ON THE USC RESEARCH FOREST dot* SEPT. M O tattle 1 ; SO, 0 0 0 s legends JFor explanation of symbols see ^pdrdgraph 2.1.5-1 dr. Ai# UBC FOREST MAP 2.1.6-1-A i - , — s , — : SOILS ASSOCIATION JnAP ON THE AjBC^RESE ARCHIFORCST 1 date SEPT. 1980 scale-|:45,000 - f o r key, see paragraph 2.1.6-3 FOREST MAP 2.1.7-2-A ESTIMATED MEAN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST (E. HETHERINGTON, IAN.25,1972 ) date SEPT. I9SO scale 1:50,000 legend dr. AIM chk. SOIL NUTRIENT REGIME OUGOTROPHIC EUTROPMIC WET SUBZONE CWH b - <-DRY SUBZONE CWH a SUBHYOmC UBC RESEARCH dot* SEPT. IftO AW* hsopoo MAP 2.1.8-2-A WESTERN HEMLOCK BIOGEOCLIMATIC (CWH) SUBZONES AND GENERALISED ECOSYSTEM UNITS ON THE UBC f o r details af road specifications see appendix 2.1.2 -75 -A FOREST £ ROADS AND BRIDGES IN THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST date Sf PT. 1980 scale h50,000 legend: road road number - F40 bridge -----^ dr. AWJ chk. . 2^5 UBC RESEARCH FOREST MAP 2.1.9-4-A LOCATION OF TRAILS ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT.F9S0 scale 1 '-50,000 legend *• trails x — — dr. AUfl cUk. SOIL SCIENCE T E S T STATION —' UBC RESEARCH FOREST MAP 2.1.9-8-A LOCATION OF STRUCTURES ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT. 1980 scale 1:50,000 legend: building structures • dr. ALM .elite* >15 FLOAT. i TO LAKE TRAIL SEWAGE PONDS LEGEND BUILDINGS M70 ROAD '• C CARETAKER'S HOUSE R RECREATION HALL S SADIE HALL W WASH HOUSE D DINING HALL ST STAFF HOUSE WO WOODSHED Y YACHT CLUB 1-6 CABINS TO MOORE TRAIL Y FIREPITS V VOLLEYBALL COURT CR CANOE RACK *- TRAFFIC FLOW _ — ° " * n DISUSED ROAD . TRAIL >^ \MHI STEEP BANK mm STEPS PARKING AREA UBC RESEARCH FOREST MAP 2.1.9-8-B LOON LAKE CAMP ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT. 1980 dr. AUM scale 1:1250 chic. See map 2.1.9-8-A for location on the UBC Research Forest UBC RESEARCH FOREST MAP 2.1.9-8-C LOCATION OF POWER LINES ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT. 1980 scale 1:50,000 legend: power line dr. AIM chic. Legend: ® GATEKEEPER'S HOUSE ID IFIRE EQUIPMENT j® ADMINISTRATION BUILDING @ JOLD DONKEY ENGINE • - : * i © CAR PARK ' : . : : : : :z:: : : : : : : : :r: ® DEER SHELTER & FEED STORE ® MAIN GATE ~ _Z" ~ ~ _ 1 ® WEATHER STATION ® WORKSHOP COMPOUND TRAILS UBC RESEARCH * FOREST MAP 2.I.9-8-© . ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS, W^tSpp IMPOUND AND A^ BORET^ UM AREA ON THE "~~~-17.'. UBC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT. 1980 _ scale Icm = 25m dr. AIM ctikvr r : r 1 UBC RESEARCH FOREST MAP 2.I.IO.I-5-A APPROXIMATE POSITIONS OF CLAIMS data SfPT. AUM For further information appendix 2.1.10.1-5-A FOREST -MAP 2.1.10.3-6-A AREAS OF BLOWDOWN FROM TYPHOON FREIDA (1962) ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT. 1980 scale h 50,000 legend: areas o f blowdown ^ dr. AUM crm. .. . © 150 and over m i x e d ® * ® mixed © A ® UBC RESEARCH FOREST MAP 2.2.1.1 -3-A GENERALIZED AGE CLASS DISTRIBUTION ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT. 1980 dr. Al/M h i Legend: Western Hemlock/ Western Red Cedar dominated mixtures Pure Douglas-fir Douglas-fir dominated mixtures NJ U B C RESEARCH FOREST MAP 2.2.1.1-5-A GENERALIZED DISTRIBUTION Of FOREST TYPES ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT.I980 dr. AIM I 50,000 UBC FOREST MAP 2.2.2.1-8-B LOCATION OF STREAM PROFILE, DESCRIBED IN FIGURES 2.2.2.1 - 8 - Bj&Bd ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT. 1980 dr. Al/M scale |:50,000 chk. legend: j location of stream profile / UBC iliE^RCW 3 FOREST MAP 2.2.2.1 -8-C LOCATION OF STREAM PROFILE, DESCRIBED IN FIGURE 2.2.2.1 - 8 - C ON THE UBC RESEAT FOREST 1 date SEPT. 1980 scale h50,000 j legend: location of stream profile >^ [dr. m rchk. : UBC RESEARCH , FOREST MAP 2.2.2.1-8-A LOCATION OF STREAM PROFILE, DESCRIBED IN FIGURE 2.2.2.1-8-A ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT.I980 scale 1:50,000 legend: location of stream profile dr. AUM chk. CREEK UBC RESEARCH FOREST MAP Z2.2.1-8-D LOCATION OF STREAM PROFILE, DESCRIBED IN FIGURE 2.2.2.1-8-D ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST dote SEPT. 1980 dr. 1:50,000 legend: "location of stream profile Legend: winter grazing areas population centers 2$C movement trend In .summer 0 see also map 8.3.2.6-4-A for further details UBC RESEARCH FOREST MAP 2.2.4.2 -2 -A AREAS OF DEER CONCENTRATION ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT.I980 scene 1^50,000 legend dr. AI>M * thk. U B C R E S E A R C H F O R E S T MAP 8.3.2.2 - I - A WORKING CIRCLE NO.1 NATURE & EDUCATIONAL RESERVES ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST :__ date SEPT. 1980 dr. I: mature reserve eductional reserve UBC RESEARCH FOREST MAP 8.3.2.3-1-A WORKING CIRCLE NO.2 WATER PRODUCTION AND STORAGE ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST dot* SEPT, JiS® J r i scale 1:50,000 legend •v. mm - :C%dt. 7*? Areas hatched thus gJBJjffli&are included within the Wood Production Working Circle at the present time but maybe reioned at a later date for Community 'Development purposes. UBC RESEARCH FOREST MAP 8.3.2.4-l-A T . . i WORKING CIRCLE NO. 3 WOOD PRODUCTION ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT. 1980 scale 1 \50,000 legend dr. AWA . chk. U B C RESEARCH FOREST MAP 8.3.2.5-1-A WORKING CIRCLE NO.4 RECREATION ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST For key, 8.3.2.5-1 2 f t GOOSE LAKE -RESEARCH FOREST BOUNDARIES -AREA OUTWITH \ UBC RESEARCH \ FOREST BOUNDARY\ BUT INCLUDED UNDER AREA 2 FOR PLANNING J»UROSES. AREAS 4,5 AND 6 ARE OUTWITH UBC RESEARCH FOREST BOUNDARIES BUT ARE INCLUDED FOR PLANNING PURPOSES. PROPOSED USEi AREA I - UPLAND GAME BIRD MANAGEMENT AREA AREA 2 — CHRISTMAS TREE FARM AREA 3 - SFU EXPERIMENTAL STATION AREA 4 - PARK AND PICNIC GROUND AREA 5 - FOREST INFORMATION CENTRE (WITHIN AREA 4) AREA 6 - DEER PARK UBC RESEARCH FOREST MAP 8.3.2.7-1-A WORKING CIRCLE NO.6 UTILITY CORRIDOR ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT. 1980 dr. ALM scale 1:2000 chic. legend W O R K I N G CIRCLES-HIERARCHY OF USE O N THE U B C RESEARCH FOREST scale 1:50,000 | l egend:Work ing Travel corridors with Circle D iv i s i ons -4A constraints due to J j f o r l ^ a e e ^ S ^ ^ I recreat ion dr. J - -3 f i H K « - . - -I Legend •  winter grazing areas winter grazing patterns summer grazing patterns passible svmmer grazing pattern „ MiSiAflCH MAP 8.3.2.6-4-A POPULATION CENTERS, AND MOVEMENT OF DEER ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT. dr. scate 1:50,000 FIGURE 2.1.2-107-A GRAPH SHOWING VOLUMES (INfbm)OF TIMBER 1953-1980 SCALED OR LOGGED 1 ^ OT O O O -OT-5 0 0 4 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 100 100 NON-CAPITAL EXPENDITURE CAPITAL EXPENDITURE — ' T ^ ^ ! ! \ 1—\ :N' f DEFICIT OR SURPLUS OF REVENUE OVER EXPENDITURE (CAPITAL + NON-CAPITAL) 1963 64 6 5 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 7 3 74 75 76 77 78 7 9 8 0 FIGURE 2.1.2- 107-B TIME (YEARS) G R A P H SHOWING S U M M A R Y O F INCOME , C A P I T A L AND N O N - C A P I T A L E X P E N D I T U R E AND S U R P L U S OR DEFICIT FOR T H E PERIOD 1 9 6 3 - 1 9 (F igu res extracted f rom R e s e a r c h Forest Annua l R e p o r t s ) H* C H fD O I w For key to watershed numbers see Table2.2.2.2-2-A MAP 2.1.3-2-A DRAINAGE PATTERN AND WATERSHED NUMBERS ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT. 1980 scale 1:50,000 legend: drainage d i r e c t i o n ^ watershed a r e a ^ watershed area boundaries — n u m b e r - 13 dr. t\m jGHK. . . . . UBC RESEARCH FOREST FIGURE 2.L5-I-A PROFILE OF LAND ASSOCIATION A ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST (LACATE ,19*5) dot* SEPT. 1980 M i dr. AIM cHfc. UBC RESEARCH FOREST FIGURE 2.1.5-1-1 PROFILE OF LAND ASSOCIATION t,C, AND D ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST (LACATE, 1965) date SEPT. 1980 dr. AW MH UBC RESEARCH FOREST FIGURE 2.1.8-2 - A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF ECOSYSTEM ON THE URC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT. 1980 scale dr. ALU chk. IS o o_._ J2, X -o o 3 „g g I . 1 _ L _ 1 t l g ^ g g ? 8 8 J | J J I 2 o © CD • o \ i is CO o IL. s s 31 i i 2fr 29 19 £S 2S 2£l ifil 212 112 Ifi £9 116 *9 IS ng 101 218 2 1 III s i m 5 U B C R E S E A R C H F O R E S T FIGURE 2.1.8-tO-A PERCENTAGE AREA OF ECOSYSTEM UNITS (ILES 1977) ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT. 1980 dr. AM* : scale C l f K . legendt For key to ecosystem unit numbers see table 2.1.8-10(A) I UBC RESEARCH (FIGURE 2 . 1 . 8 - 1 0 - i .::z:::::r'" AREA BY ECOSYSTEM UNITS (ILES 1977) ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT.I980 1 .' •-:.VC -scale legends! „_ ZFor key .toecosystem unit numbers see table 2.1.8-KXA) dr. M i ~ j . :dKAc. — . M "hf— ~~m~— —'i 7 ; aNooas M3d 133J o ienD Ml MOld NV3M UBC FORESt FIGURE 2.2.2.1-5-A HYDROGRAPH FOR UPPER JACOB'S CREEK ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT. 1980-dr. chk. 3 C O OD S o CO SIS Ss* s! II 5 s m 600 ; LOWER GWENDOLINE CREEK ENTERS EUNICE LAKE AT THIS POINT LOWER JACOB'S CREEK UPPER JACOB'S CREEK AT THIS POtWT tAf*/\BBttt ng»r M M • V A S M B A I JACOB'S (MARION) LAKE ^UPPER JACOB'S CREEK LOWER JACOB'S CREEK ENTERS MOUTH ALOUETTE RIVER AT THIS POINT ENTERS NORTH ALOUETTE RIVER AT THIS POIHT J — ± _ — , — 9¥ 'NORTH ALOUETTE RIVER LEAVES RESEARCH ON SOUTHERN BOUNDARY AT THIS POINT •f -i i I 4 mm OS OS 09 1.2 I.S U 2.1 2.4 ET SO 55 56 5.8 42 4.8 44 8.1 5.4 ST 6.0 6.48.7 T.O T.S 7.6 6.0812 8.6 8.8 9.0 S.4 S.7 ^  103 109 ILB MM K5.0 KX6 It IS.O lOOO'S OF METERS FROM FOREST BOUNDARY (HORIZONTAL DISTANCE) UBC RESEARCH FOREST FIGURE 2.2.2.1 -8-B, STREAM PROFILE OF BLANEY CREEK TO PLACID LAKE ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST (SECTION I) date SEPT. 1980 scale legend dr. AUM c h k . O « 5 © Ki o 22 a - i << 1 N ;S I > 1 Z i •*-3 S a S fi Sllif iff SiifHllgsss *T8-V SH313W NI NCUVASia FOREST FIGURE 2.2.2.1-8-B2 STREAM PROFILE Of BLANEY CREEK TO PLACID LAKE ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST (SECTION 2) date SEPT.1980 scale chk. legend 8 to 8 8 T S V SN3JL3N NI M0I1VA313 UBC RESEARCH FOREST FIGURE 2.2.2.1-8-C STREAM PROFILE OF STEPHENSEN CREEK ON THE UBC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT. 1980 scale legend .. dr. AVHi chic. 3K O W m S I 9 T I G O a, CO m C O m > 70 O I z S m 3 i s JO f l s « 5 s E P I 13 S S3 © c 90 m - • to 1006 CO K U l U i 800 ROADS K/Hj JUNCTION 1000 1800 2000 METERS (HORIZONTAL DISTANCE) 2500 3000 3500 Figure 2.3.1-2-A Generalized Staff Structure of U.B.C. Research Forest (See also Figures 2.3.2-1-A and 8.2.2-1-A following) Director Foresters Professional Staff 3. Secretarial and Technical Permanent Support Staff Service groups and casual employees Specially funded groups (Part-time) Volunteers i5f Figure 2.3.2-1-A Staff Responsibilities on the U.B.C. Research Forest (See also 8.2.2-1-A following) Director Overall responsibility of forest enterprise Foresters Direction and control of labour, operations, budgeting and programme . Technical Field technical operations Workshop support services A l l forest maintenance Secretarial Office management Accounting and other secretarial support services Service groups Catering at Loon Lake Camp Casual labour assisting technical staff Contractors Operations using specialized equipment e.g. Harvesting, road construction Volunteers Tour guides Special education projects Recreation enhancement programmes It i 8 i o I 8 8 O I o IN § S3MV103H NI V3HV 5 k. O s III m in •» 5 e < U B C RESEARCH FOREST FIGURE 7.4.2-3-A SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF ADJUSTMENT TO NORMALITY (BY AREA) I9B0 BASE LINE YEAR 1980 date SEPT. 1980 scale •: • • ^ dr. mm law*, - v . — •' U B C R E S E A R C H F O R E S T FIGURE 7.4.2 - 3 - i 1 h . .v. .. . ........... .. .... SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF ADJUSTMENT TO NORMALITY (BY AREA) -1990 BASE LINE YEAR I9B0 dote SEPT.I9SO scale dr. AMI ^Z0m^^:^^,i.y3H J i ' V3MV FIGURE 7.4.2-3-C SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF ADJUSTMENT TO NOMALITY (•YAREA) -2000 BASE LINE YEAR 1980 dote SEPT. 1990 « < r i . •;::';:-:::;:.v. . dr. AIM d 8 i eg s I s o o o S 3 H V 1 3 3 H NI V 3 U V UBC RESEARCH FOREST date SEPT. 1980 scale FIGURE 7.4.2-3-E SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF ADJUSTMENT TO NORMALITY (BY AREA) -2030 BASE LINE YEAR 1980 dr. AUM Figure 8.2.2 - 1-A U.B.C. Research Forest Staff Structure 1982/83 Board of Governors, U.B.C. I Dean - Faculty of Forestry, U.B.C. DIRECTOR - Overall r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - Management P o l i c i e s - Resource a l l o c a t i o n - Special projects - Spring Camp - F i n a n c i a l control SILVICULTURIST/ EDUCATION CO-ORDINATOR - S i l v i c u l t u r a l operations - Management Plan r e v i s i o n - Recreation - Fish and W i l d l i f e - Education development - Demonstration Forest - Loon Lake Education Reserve -- Student Employment - S i l v i c u l t u r a l research - Camp Administration Secretary/Technician Tour co-ordination Education programme Education grant accounting Cook house s t a f f i n g S i l v i c u l t u r i s t secretary Student supervisor Camp Caretaker Building maintenance Grounds J a n i t o r i a l work Equipment and f i t t i n g s Routine repairs RESIDENT FORESTER Engineering Physical plant and equipment Security Harvesting F i r e control Safety Forest Inventory and y i e l d A i r photos Research Co-ordinator FOREST ADVISORY COMMITTEE Secretary Reception Information F i l i n g system and records Accounting Employment records and forms Publications Casual p a y r o l l Purchasing O f f i c e supplies Director's personal secretary Camp bookings Senior Technician - Work project co-ordinator - Labour co-ordinator - Equipment and equipment development - Loon Lake Camp i n s t a l l a t i o n Camp Kitchen Staff Gatekeeper Security H.Q. grounds Non o f f i c e hours Forest access Workshop Technician Equipment maintenance Equipment inventory Vehicle maintenance Instruments Special projects Workshop maintenance Technical Pool - Forest maintenance - Weather stations - Other i n s t a l l a t i o n s and maintenance Contractors, Sub-contractors and Temporary assistance Figure 9.5.1-2-A Projected Future Staff Structure BOARD OF GOVENORS DEAN, FACULTY OF FORESTRY DIRECTOR, U.B.C. RESEARCH FOREST RESOURCE CO-ORDINATOR (Assistant to the Director) Camp Manager Si l v i c u l t u r i s t Engineer Physical Plant Camp Staff Office Manager (Accounting) Education Co-ordinator Fish, Wildlife and Water Resources Research Co-ordinator TECHNICAL SUPPORT STAFF FOR EACH OF EIGHT SECTIONS Temporary Employees and Seasonal Workers Contractors Table 2.1.1-3-A General Land Classification of the U.B.C. Research Forest Land classification Productive and potentially productive forest land (including areas within Reserves) Creeks Lakes Swamp Rock slides Rock Scrub Gravel pits Buildings Arboretum Roads Research plots Total non productive area Area details Hectares Acres Per cent 4,620.3 11,417 89.7 36.4 90 0.7 126.2 312 2.5 16.1 40 0.3 21.8 54 0.4 137.1 339 2.7 53.8 133 1.0 2.0 5 0.0 4.0 10 0.1 8.0 20 0.2 107.6 266 2.1 16.9 42 0.3 (529.9) (1,311) (10.3) 5,150.2 12,728 100.0 Table 2.1.1-3-B U.B.C. Research Forest — Details of Compartment Areas Compartment No. Lakes 1. 2. 3. 14. 21.5 5. 6. 7. 8. 14.9 9. 10. 11. 12. 0.4 13. 14. 2.0 15. 10.9 16. 17. 18. 0.4 19. 48.9 20. 0.8 21. 22. 23. 13.3 24. 25. 0.4 26. 27. 28. 8.5 29. 30. 3.6 31. 32. 33. 34. 0.8 35. Total 126.4 Roads Quarries Swamp Creeks Slides Rock Forest Other Total 1.2 1.2 3.6 9.7 131.1 146.8 0.4 0.4 2.4 7.6 122.2 133.0 6.4 0.4 0.4 1.2 12.9 99.5 120.8 5.2 0.8 1.2 6.4 136.3 171.4 1.2 2.0 11.3 191.3 205.9 0.4 1.2 9.3 161.0 171.9 6.0 0.8 0.8 0.8 10.5 153.7 172.6 8.9 0.8 0.4 0.4 4.4 119.3 149.1 0.4 1.6 5.6 159.4 167.0 1.2 0.4 2.0 143.2 146.8 0.4 0.8 1.2 4.4 150.5 157.5 0.8 0.4 0.8 8.4 130.3 140.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 2.0 123.4 127.8 3.2 0.8 0.8 0.8 3.6 123.0 134.2 5.2 0.8 0.4 3.2 79.7 100.2 0.4 1.6 6.0 125.0 133.0 4.0 6.0 95.5 105.5 0.4 4.0 151.7 156.5 2.0 0.4 1.6 2.4 95.5 2.8 154.0 6.8 0.4 2.4 144.8 155.2 2.4 1.6 142.0 146.0 1.2 1.2 1.6 0.4 2.4 112.0 118.8 4.4 0.4 1.2 0.4 0.8 133.1 153.6 3.2 0.4 0.4 4.0 179.2 1.2 188.4 6.0 0.4 0.4 10.1 1.2 112.0 0.4 130.9 4.0 0.8 119.7 124.5 4.8 0.4 2.4 127.8 135.4 8.9 7.2 238.7 263.3 3.2 0.4 1.6 173.6 178.8 4.8 1.2 2.4 84.9 15.3 112.2 4.0 100.3 1.6 105.9 4.8 5.2 105.2 12.1 127.3 2.0 0.4 80.9 83.3 2.0 0.8 0.4 164.7 168.7 2.0 129.0 27.9 158.9 106.6 TJ5 16.4 36.1 21.6 137.3 4,639.6 61.3 5,147.4 Table 2.1.1.4-A Areas of the Lakes on U.B.C. Research Forest Area Name Hectares (Acres) Jacobs (Marion) 13.31 (32.95) Placid 1.83 (4.54) Gwendoline 11.13 (27.55) Eunice 14.12 (34.94) Katherine 20.00 (49.43) Shirley 1.03 (2.55) Betsy 0.23 (0.57) Rose 0.92 (2.27) Surprise 0.23 (0.57) Irmy 0.34 (0.85) Lost 0.34 (0.85) Blaney 8.71 (21.59) Goose 3.44 (8.52) Loon 49.35 (122.15) Mirror 0.69 (1.70) Peaceful 0.17 (0.42) Bird 0.23 (0.56) Total Lake Area 134.07 (312.01) 1 Areas were determined by planimeter from the 1:12,000 base map (1964) of the U.B.C. Research Forest. 2 Discrepancy between the figure of 134.17 hectares and 126.4 hectares shown on Table 2.1.2-3-B arises due to sub-compartment areas are not recorded under 0.4 hectare. 3 The boundary of the U.B.C. Research Forest passes through both Goose and Peaceful Lakes, thus, the total surface area of the lakes i s not recorded on the table. Table 2.1.1-5-A Lengths, Widths and Areas of the Main Creeks and Rivers on the U.B.C. Research Forest length width area Name meters (feet) meters (feet) hectares (acres) Alouette River 6,000 19,000 15 50 9.15 22.61 Spring Creek 3,690 12,100 9 30 3.37 8.33 Blaney Creek 6,650 21,800 10 35 7.08 17.50 Donegani Creek 2,680 8,800 6 20 1.62 6.00 Loon Creek 820 2,700 9 30 0.73 1.85 Trestle Creek 2,100 6,900 6.0 20 1.22 3.01 Other small creeks 22,000 72,000 4.5 15 13.28 32.82 44,000 144,100 36.45 90.12 Lengths of rivers and creeks were determined from 1:12,000 base map of the U.B.C. Research Forest. Widths of the rivers and creeks estimated from measurements. 11\ Table 2.1.2-34-A Product Sale Summary for 1957 - 1958 Product Sold Revenue Percent of total Split products $ 3,946.68 7.2 Cedar poles 2,846.37 5.2 Pulpwood and small logs 969.72 1.8 Large sawlogs and veneer logs 47,132.70 85.8 The following were produced by contractors operating on the U.B.C. Forest:-Tapered shakes 217,675 square feet Blank shakes 78,152 pieces Cedar poles 35,918 lineal feet Shingle bolts 65.5 cords Pulpwood 30 cords Piling 640 lineal feet Saw logs 2,875,287 board feet Veneer logs 840,348 board feet ^Source:-- Sales slips and Research Forest records. Table 2.1.2-36-A Summary of U.B.C. Research Forest Activities for the Years 1948 - 19571 Stumpage Expend- Existing length Income itures of road Kilo-meters (Miles) 1948 1 Cedar shakes $ 250 $ 6,000 4.0 Oh) 1949 1 Cedar shakes 400 6,000 4.0 (2%) 1950 3 Cedar shakes Salvaged logs 1,000 7,000 4.0 (2*5) 1951 3 Cedar shakes Saw logs 3,000 8,000 4.0 Oh) 1952 3 Cedar shakes Saw logs 7,000 8,000 4.0 Oh) 1953 3 Cedar shakes Saw logs Wood logs 22,000 18,000 12.0 Oh) 1954 4 Cedar shakes Saw, veneer, wood logs 28,500 25,000 16.0 (10) 1955 8 Cedar shakes Shingle bolts Box lumber Cedar poles Saw, wood Veneer logs 29,000 56,000 28.9 (18) 1957 13 A l l s p l i t products, cedar poles f i r pilings, Saw, veneer, logs, hemlock pulpwood 54,800 76,000 40.2 (25) Year No. of Products Sales Operating Fiscal Year - April 1 to March 31. U 3 Table 2.1.2-61-A Details of the 1963 U.B.C. Research Forest Five Year Logging and Development Plan Year Old-growth logging volume (MM fbm) Area Hectares (acres) Road Construction Meters (feet) 1964/65 1965/66 1966/67 1967/68 1968/69 6.4 5.8 7.5 6.6 5.7 80.5 59.0 83.5 65.9 67.0 (199) (146) (207) (163) (166) 2980 3100 3650 4950 3750 (9,800) (10,200) (12,000) (16,220) (12,300) Total 1964/69 32.0 356 (881) 18500 (60,500) Table 2.1.2-68-A Annual Cutting on the U.B.C. Research Forest 1948 - 1966 in Relation to Allowable Cut Actual Cut Year Years under Regulation MBM scaled Cumulative MBM scaled Average Vol. scaled Since 1951 Allowabli in Force 1947-48 — — _ 1948-49 - - -1949-50 - - -1950-51 0 - -1951-52 1 - - 0 2200 1952-53 2 1106 1106 553 3000 1953-54 3 2506 3612 1200 3000 1954-55 4 4993 8605 2780 3000 1955-56 5 4060 12665 2530 3000 1956-57 6 3715 16380 2730 3000 1957-58 7 3843 20223 2900 3250 1958-59 8 3726 23949 2990 3250 1959-60 9 5003 28952 3220 3250 1960-61 10 5639 34591 3459 3250 1961-62 11 1934 36525 3320 3250 1962-63 12 10241 46766 3900 3250 1963-64 13 9904 56670 4360 3250 1964-65 14 7925 64595 4600 3250 1965-66 15 6439 71034 4735 4300 Total 1948-66 71034 e Cut (MBM) I In determining the allowable cut during these years, no account was taken of the skewed nature of the age class distribution, nor was there a detailed breakdown of the yield from the different major age classes. Areas of reserves, low productivity and poor accessibility were not shown, and no account was taken of the lack of normality of the age classes. Figures are shown, as recorded, in board feet measure. Approximate conversion: 5.66 cubic meter to 1,000 board feet. For Figures to 1980, see Appendix 2.2.1.1-3- A and B. Table 2.1.2-107-A Summary of Income, Expenditure, Surplus or Deficit and Volume Logged from 1963 - 1973 for the U.B.C. Research Forest Volume Cumulative Capital Surplus or logged from Income Expenditure expenditure deficit (M fbm) 1952 - 1953 1963/64 499,824 390,272 67,029 +42,465 9,904 56,670 1964/65 491,902 337,029 73,381 +81,491 7,925 64,595 1965/66 433,199 426,388 82,356 -75,548 6,439 71,034 1966/67 481,194 369,214 64,804 +47,176 7,919 78,953 1967/68 309,665 248,393 26,170 +35,101 5,281 34,234 1968/69 322,613 280,214 96,410 -54,011 4,777 89,011 1969/70 336,430 292,238 54,908 -10,715 3,750 92,761 1970/71 351,688 341,284 69,640 -59,239 4,733 97,494 1971/72 244,905 262,838 33,808 -51,741 2,968 100,461 1972/73 372,294 290,956 63,678 +17,659 3,110 103,572 1973/74 211,591 306,333 93,554 -88,301 2,411 105,984 Totals for 11 year period 4,055,305 3,545,164 725,795 -115,661 59,209 M fbm2 "'"Figures reproduced from U.B.C. Research Forest Annual Reports 1963 - 1973 2 Approximate metric conversion 1,000 fbm=5.66 m3 Table 2.1.6-1-A- Soil Legend for the Preximinary Soils Map of the U.B.C. Research Forest (Mao 2.1.6-1-A-) Material Symbol Series Slopes i Glacial T i l l CI Cardinal Mini Ferro-humic Podzol moderately well 15-35 ST Steelhead Cleved Mini Ferro-humic Podzol imperfect 2-20 BE Blaney Mini Ferro-humic Podzol moderately well 20-50 MN Marion Gleved Mini Ferro-humic Podzol imperfect 10-40 SN Strachan Orthic Ferro-humic Podzol moderately well 20-50 BW Burwell Gleyed Orthic Ferro-humic Podzol imperfect 10-40 GE Golden Ears Orthic Ferro-humic Podzol moderately well 15-50 Glacial T i l l WH whonnock Gleyed Orthic Ferro-humic Podzol imperfect 5-30 2 feet over'rock CE Cannel Lithic Mini Humo-ferric Podzol well rapid 20-60 S Sayres Lithic Orthic Ferro-humic Poszol well-moderately well 20-60 HB Hollyburn Lithic Orthic Humo-ferric Podzol well-moderately well 20-60 Glaciofluvial (out- CP Capilano Orthic Humo-ferric Podzol well 5-20 wash and ice contact) HY Haney Orthic Humo-ferric Podzol well-rapid 20-60 SH Salish Orthic Humo-ferric Podzol well-moderately well 10-40 Glaciofluvial 5 feet BO Bose Mini Humo-ferric Podzol well 5-20 over glacio-marine BY Boosey Gleyed Mini Humo-ferric Podzol imperfect 0-20 DR Defehr Gleyed Mini Ferro-humic Podzol imperfect 0-20 Colluvium JM Jackman Rego Humic Gleysol poor 0-5 PN Paton Mini humo-ferric Podzol well-rapid 50-90 PA Palisade Mini-Ferro-humic Podzol well-moderately well 50-90 LS Lions Mini-Humo-ferric Podzol well-rapid 50-90 Colluvium 2 feet HV Hoover Lithic Mini Humo-ferric Podzol well-rapid 50-90 over rock Alluvium SG Sturgeon Rego Gleysol poor 0-5 Glaciomarine HA Hallert Rego Gleysol: peaty phase very poor 0-5 W Whatcom Bisequa Mini Humo-ferric Podzol moderately well 5-30 SC Scat Orthic Humic Gleysnl poor 0-5 Organi JW Judson Terric Meisisol very poor 0-2 GV Glen Valley Fenno Fibrisol very poor 0-2 WG Widgeon Terric Humisol very poor 0-2 Miscellaneous Land R.O. Rock Outcrop Types TA Talus and avalanche tracks ** (%) i — Table 2.1.8-1-A Vascular Plants of the U.B.C. Research Forest (Source: Klinka Ph.D Thesis 1976) Commercial Tree Species AbieA amabiLU (Dougl.) Forbes Abi.QJ> gAandib (Dougl.) Lindl. ChamazcypajuA nootkaten&iA (D. Don) Spach. VixLZJX 6i£chen&iA (Bong.) Carr. Pinwi, contOAta Dougl. ex Loud. PiniU> monticota Dougl. ex D. Don in Lamb. P6eudot6uga men.zi.ehti. (Mirb.) Franco Ibuga heteAOphylta (Raf.) Sarg. T6UQ0. me/vten&Zana (Bong.) Carr. Non-commercial Tree Species AceA cMicZnatum Pursh AceA macAophyZZum Pursh AZnuA fiubfux Bong. Alnuu, iinuata (Regel) Rydb. AAbutuA mtnzZe&LZ Pursh BetuZa pcupyfu.hzA.CL Marsh. CoAnLLi nuXAaJUbti. Aud. Mo£uo iu&CjCL (Raf.) Schneider PopuZia, tA.ejmuJLoi.du Michx. VopuJLua, tAjLchocjLiApa T. & G. ex Hook PAU/LLU) maAgZnata (Dougl.) ex Eaton PAuniii, viAgZnZana L. RkamnLU, puAAhZana DC. SaLix hookeAZana Barratt SaLix La&ZandAa Benth. SaLix ACOuZe/Uana Barratt in Hook. SaLix iZtcken&Z& Sanson in Bong. Taxut, bAevZ^oLia Nutt. Herbs and Shrubs AchZLtea miZZefioLium L. AcMZyi tAZphyLta (Smith) DC. Aetata AubAa (Ait.) Willd. AdenocauZon bi.cuol.oA Hook. AdZantum pedatum L. kgAot>tU> dZegoen&Zi, visey AgAobtZb itabAa Willd. AmeZanchZeA aZnZ^oLZa Nutt. AnaphaLU maAgoAZtacexL (L.) B. & H. Anemone ZyaZLU. Britt. AngQJLZCJX genu&lexa Nutt. AquiZegZa ioAmo&a Fisch. AActium minuA (Hill) Bernh. AActoAtaphyZoA uva-uA&Z (L.) Spreng. AAIWCUA iylveAteA Kostel. AiOAum caudatiim Lindl. AipZenZum txlckomaneA L. AtkyAMm ^ZZix- &emina (L.) Roth. Blechnum tpZojxnt (L.) Roth. Bo&cknZakZa hookeAZ Walpers BoykinZa zZata (Hook.) Shear BAOmuA vuZgaAiA (Nutt.) Greene Table 2.1.8-1-A Vascular Plants of the U.B.C. Research Forest (continued) Herbs and Shrubs (continued) CcJLanvxQfio&tu canadeni^u (Michx.) Beauv. CaAdamine. biew&u. Wats. Ccmex oqucutiLU Wahl. Co/Lex coneacenA L . CaA.e.x dw&yana. Schw. Ca/iex hwdejuonLL L.H. Bailey Cotex AJitovLon. L.H. Bailey CaJiex lazvi.culmil> Meinsh. CaAzx tat>iocah.pa Ehrh. CaA&x lojptalza. Wahl. CaAex loptopoda Mack. Cotex meA^ e>u>6t Prescott ex Bong. Q.OJWX pau<u.&loAa. Lightf. Ca/izx KzVwnt>a. Schw. CaAex hJObbJUL Boott in Hook. Catex 64Ach.e.n6iA Prescott in Bong. CaAex bpz.cAjohJJLLt> Dewey ZaJbbXjopz meAtznAijina. (Bong.) G. Don dvunaphiZa mwz<LeA<U. (R. Br.) Spreng. Chwaphila. umbeZtauta ( L . ) Bart. CAJIYWL IxvtiioLLa. (Trev.) Griseb. CiAca&a atpina L . CAJICJCLQJOL pa.CA.^ca Asch. & Mag. Cvuiwn tduJLz Nutt. Cladothamnm, pytiolae.&loALU> Bong. CLbvtoruJi uyvL^lotux. (Schult.) Kunth. Zoptiii uptzniioUjx Salisb. Coptli t^iiolia ( L . ) Salisb. ConaZZonhlza mac.ui.ata Raf. ZoKcdULohKlza. meAJtmA-uxna Bong. Conmu canad&niAj, L. CoA.ylu& coAnuata Marsh. CAyptoaAamma OuApa ( L . ) R. Br. ZybtoptVuA iMLQWU (L-) Bernh. VactytLi glomtAata L . Vanthonia. ip^icata. ( L . ) Beauv. Vi.C.Wi£ha ^oAmo&a (Andr.) Walpers V-L&poAum hook&U. (Torr.) Nicholson VAo&eAa longlioLLa L . VAOAVUX Aotundi^olia L . VnyoptQAAj, cmbtAiaca (Jacq.) Woynar £X Schinz & Thell. ViyoptVuJs OAguta. (Kaulf.) Watt. ElymuA glaucuA Buckl. EpiJLobiim atpinum L . EpJJLobAMin anguAtlfioLium L . EquZ&etum OAVZYL&Z L . EquiAeXum filuvicLtiZo. L . Equi&ztum kimate. L . EqvuueAwn tolmattia. Ehrh. Eqiil&eXum voAlzgatum Schleich. EAA.oph.OAum dtami&ioruA CA. Mey. EAAJipkohian QKadtz Koch in Roth EJU-QZAOH &PQ.CAJO&U& (Lindl.) DC. Table 2.1.8-1-A Vascular Plants of the U.B.C. Research Forest (continued) Herbs and Shrubs (continued) FeAtuca occZdznZaLU Hook. Tutsxta &ubuZZ&loia Scribn. Galium tnZfJLoKum Michx. GauZXheAZa ovati&oLLa. Gray GauZ£heAZt> AhalZon Pursh GcritZana &czpiAum Griseb. Geum macJwphyttw Willd. GtycZAZa eZaZa (Nash) M.E. Jones GZyczAZa AViZaZa (Lam.) A.S. Hitchc. Goodyzha obtongZ£oZZa, Raf. GymnocaApZum dAyoptzAZi (L.) Newm. HabenaAZa oKhZcutata (Pursh) Torr. HabznaKZa &acca£a Greene HzmiZomeJ> conger turn Gray He.mcJn.zAja. glabfia, Willd. ex R. & S. HeucheAa. mZcAanZha Dougl. ex Lindl. HZeAacZum aZbZitofmm Hook. HOICJULQ ZanaXaa L. HolodLLoCUl) dZbCOLol (Pursh) Maxim. HypeAZcum anagatZoZdej> C. & S. HypopZty& mon.oXA.opa Crantz I£ex aquZ^olZum L. ImpatZcm, noZZ-tang SAC L. JanciU) znbZ^oZZaa Wikst. KaZmia poZZ^oZZa Wang. LacZuca. muAaZZt (L.) Fresen. Ledum QKO QjitandZcum Oeder LZZZum coZumbZanum Hanson LZnnata bowatii, L. LZ&tCAa caufu.na Piper LZ&teAa coida&a (L.) R. Br. LonZccAO. cZZZo&a (Pursh.) DC. LonZceAa invoZucAaZa (Rich.) Banks ex Spreng. LuzuZa gZabfiata (Hoppe) Desv. LuzuZa muZZZ^Zo/ia (Retz.) Lej. LuzuZa paAvZ^Zola (Ehrh.) Desv. Lycopodium cZavatum L. LycopodZum compZainjotum L. LycopodZum ob&cuAum L. lycopodium bclago L. var. myothZanum Makirio LycopuA unZ^ZoALU Michx. Ly&ZchZZum ameAZcanum Hulten & St. John UahonZa nzAvo&a (Pursh) Nutt. MaZanthemum dZZaXaZum (Wood) Nels. & MacBr. Mmyanthzo tAZioZZaXa. L. MwzZeAZa ^eAAugZnta Smith MimuluA mo&cJiatuA Dougl. in Lindl. MZteZZa ovaZZ& Greene MitelZa pentandAa Hook. Moneaeo unZiZona (L.) Gray MontZa panvZ^oZZa (Moc.) Greene MontZa bibZhZca, (L.) Howell MyiZca gait L. HuphnA poZyizpaZum Engelman. Table 2.1.8-1-A Vascular Plants of the U.B.C. Research Forest (continued) Herbs and Shrubs (continued) Oznanthz AaAmzntoAa Presl Oplopanax howUxiuA (J.E. Smith) Miq. O&mafiOYUM. cZAUAi£omlo (T. & G.) Greene O&mohkiza chJULznsiA H. & A. PachyAtima myfiAinltzA (Pursh) Raf. PznAtzmon davidsonii Greene PznAtzmon AZAAulatuA Menzies ex Smith in Rees PkylZodocz mptztAJL{omiA (Smith) D. Don PhyAOCOApuA capitatuA (Pursh) Kuntze Poa paluAtAiA L. Poa pnatznAiA L. Poa tAivialib L. PolypodJum glycyfiAhlza D.C. Eaton PolypooUwn montznAZ F.A. Lang PolyAtickum andeA&onLi Hopkins Polystichum munitum (Kaulf.) Presl PKznantkzA alata (Hook.) D. Dietr. Pnunzlla. vulgaAii> L. PtZAidiim aquitinum (L. ) Kuhn Pytiola aAOAi^olia Michx. Pyiola Azcunda L. Ranunculus AzpznA L. RibzA bAactzoAum Dougl. RibzA divoAicatum Dougl. RibzA lacu&tne. (Pers.) Poir. RibzA Aanguinzum Pursh Rosa gymnocaApa Nutt. Rosa nutkana Presl RubuA chamazmofiuA L. RubuA IzucodzAmii Dougl. ex T. & G. Robo6 poAvi^lonuA Nutt. RubuA pzdatuA J.E. Smith. RubuA Apzctabitii Pursh RubuA UAAAjn.UA Cham. & Schlect. Rumex obtuAi^oliuA L. SambucuA pubznA Michx. Sangui&oAba mznzizAii Rydb. SanguiAouba micAoczpkala Presl SaxifAaga ^zhAuginza. Grah. SciApuA micAocoApuA Presl Szlaginzlta MolZaczi Hieron. Smilacina naczmoAa (L.) Desf. Smilacina Atzllata (L.) Desf. SoftbuA AitckznAiA Roemer SpiAaza douglaAii Hook. StachyA cWuatja Dougl. ex Benth. StzWvUa calycantha (Ledeb.) Bong. StzllaAia CAibpa Cham. & Schlecht. StAzptopuA amplzxliotUxA (L.) DC. in Lam. & DC. StAZptopUA flOAZUA Michx. StAZptopuA AtAzptopoidzA (Ledeb.) Frye & Rigg. SympkofiicaApoA albuA (L.) Blake Table 2.1.8-1-A Vascular Plants of the U.B.C. Research Forest (continued) Herbs and Shrubs (continued) TaAaxacum ofifiicinalz Weber in Wiggers lellima gAandi^loKa (Pursh) Dougl. TkatictAum occidzntalz Gray TheJiypteAia phzgoptZAU (L.) Slosson lioAeJUUi laciniaXa Hook. TiaAzlia tAifioliata L. TiaAzlia. uni^oLiata. Hook. Jo^zldia gZutino&a (Michx.) Pers. Tolmiza mejn.ZA.eAii (Pursh) T. & G. TtiautveXtzAia cxiAolinizn&zA (Walt.) Vail JAizntatU aActica Fisch. ex Hook. Tnizntatu laii^olia Hook. TAitLUm ovcvtum Pursh TniAZtum ceAnuum Trin. UAtica dioica L. Vaccinium ala&kazn&z Howell Vaccinium mzmbfianzczum Douglas ex Hook. Vaccinium ovali^olium Smith in Rees Vaccinium oxycoccuA L. Vaccinium paAvi&olium Smith in Rees Vaccinium uligino&um L. VeAaiAum viniAz Ait. VeAonica ameAicana Schwein. ex Benth. in DC. VibuAnum zdulz (Michx.) Raf. Vida ameAicana Muhl. Viola glabella. Nutt. in T. & G. Viola oAbiculaija Geyer ex Hook. Viola palmtAU L. Viola AzmpZAviAZnA Greene Table 2.1.8-10-A KEY TO ECOSYSTEM UNIT NUMBERS Ecosystem Unit Number Ecosystem Unit Name 11 12 131 132 211 212 31 41 42 51 52 53 61 62 63 64 71 72 73 811 812 911 912 101 R A (LICHEN) - GAULTHERIA - DF LICHEN - GAULTHERIA - LP - DF Gaultheria - WH - DF Mahonia - Gaultheria - WH - DF Moss - WH Mahonia - Moss - WRC - WH MOSS - (POLYSTICHUM) - WRC - WH VACCINIUM - GAULTHERIA - DF - WH VACCINIUM - MOSS - WH BLECHNUM - AF - WH STREPTOPUS - BLECHNUM - AF - WH BLECHNUM - WH - WRC RIBES - VM POLYPODIUM - GAULTHERIA - DF - WRC POLYPODIUM - POLYSTICHUM - DF - WRC MAHONIA - POLYSTICHUM - DF - WRC TIARELLA - POLYSTICHUM - WRC RUBUS - POLYSTICHUM - WRC ADIANTUM - POLYSTICHUM - WRC Polystichum - Oplopanax - WRC Ribes - Oplopanax - WRC Vaccinium - Lysichitum - WRC Vaccinium - Lysichitum - YC - WRC ANTHYRIUM - ARUNCUS - RA - SA Non-forested ecosystems on rocks Non-forested ecosystem in aquatic environment Source: Ecosystem mapping by: K. Klinka, B.C. Forest Service, Research Division, 1975. 7 Table 2.1.10.2-2-A Summary of Fires on the U.B.C. Research Forest Date Cause Cost to extinguish Area of Damage 1949 Lightning No record Ni l 1957 Lightning No record Ni l 1957 Smoker No record N i l 1957 Escaped Slashburn $620.00 2.5 acres (1 ha) 1958 Smoker No record Ni l 1965 Abandoned campfire $41.00 Ni l 1967 Escaped Slashburn $1,042.00 8 acres (3.2 ha) 1970 Smoker $25.00 Ni l 1974 Escaped Right-of- $280,000 24.7 acres (10 ha) way f i r e See Map 2.1.2-2-A Table 2.2.2.2-2-A Area of Major Watersheds at U.B.C. Research Forest CATCHMENT AREAS Approx. area in acres (ha) 1. Raven Creek 1480 599 2. Katherine Lake 390 157 3. Pitt Slope 1410 570 4. Eunice Lake 470 190 5. Gwendoline Lake 310 125 6. Marion (Jacob's) Lake 2250 910 7. Marion (Jacob's) Creek 210 85 8. North Alouette River 1130 457 9. Spring Creek 1160 469 10. Blaney Lake 1030 417 11. Loon Lake 860 348 12. Goose Lake 300 121 13. Donegani Creek 740 300 14. Blaney Creek 360 146 15. South Alouette River 600 243 Approx. Total : 12700 5137 \ Table 2.2.3.2-2-A Fish Species Recorded in the Lakes of the U.B.C. Research Forest Lake Name ha Lake size Acres Species present Betsy Bird Blaney Eunice Goose Gwendoline Irmy Katherine Loon Lost Jacob's (Marion) 0.23 0.23 8.71 14.12 3.44^ 11.13 0.34 20.00 49. 35 0.34 13.31 0.57 0.56 21.59 34.94 8.52 27.55 0.85 49.43 122.15 0.85 32.95 None None Cutthroat trout Dolly Varden None Three spine stickleback Possibly cutthroat trout None None recorded None Cutthroat trout Dolly Varden As for Loon Lake Kokanee Rainbow trout Cutthroat trout Dolly Varden (plus rainbow/cutthroat trout hybrid) Mirror 0.69 1.70 Cutthroat trout Peaceful 0.17 0.42 None recorded Placid 1.83 4.54 Cutthroat trout Rose 0.92 2.27 Not known Shirley 1.03 2.55 Not known Surprise 0.23 0.57 Not known In addition long-nosed dace, sculpen species and steelhead trout have been recorded in the North Alouette River. Most other creeks have cutthroat trout and there are the occasional Dolly Varden in the creek connecting Loon and Blaney Lakes. Pitt Lake is not included in the above l i s t . Information pertaining to this lake may be obtained from the Federal Fisheries Branch in New Westminster. Table 2.2.4.1-2-A Mammal Species Recorded on the U.B.C. Research Forest Species Scientific name Sighting frequency Weasel (Mustela spp.) Infrequent Muskrat (Ondatra zibethica) Infrequent Columbian Black tailed deer (Odocoileus hernionus columbinanus) Daily sightings Fisher (Martes pennanti) Rare Black bear (Ursus americanus) Infrequent Coyote (Canis latrans) Infrequent Wolf (Canis lupus) Rare Fox (Vulpes fulva) Rare Cougar (Felis concolor) Frequent Bobcat (Lynx rufus) Infrequent Rabbit (Lepus americanus) Occasional Deer Mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) Daily Voles (Microtus spp.) Daily Skunk (spotted) (Spilogale gracilis) Frequent Skunk (Mephitis mephitis) Frequent Marmots (Marmota spp.) Rare Beaver (Castor canadensis) Infrequent Douglas Squirrel (Tamiasciurus douglasi) Frequent Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) Rare Chipmunks (Eutamias spp.) Common Bats (Myotis spp., etc) Frequent Mink (Mustela vison) Occasional A l i s t of flora and fauna of the Pitt Polder is found in Appendix 2.2.4.1-2-A. Source of sc i e n t i f i c names:-McTaggart Cown, I and C.J. Guiguet. (1973) The Mammals of  British Columbia. Handbook No. 11, B.C. Provincial Museum, Dept. of Recreation and Conservation, Victoria, B.C. 414 p Table 2.2.4.3-4-A List of Birds on U.B.C. Research Forest (From census undertaken in Compartment 22 by R. McLachlin 1979-1981) Seasonal Status: R - resident, present a l l year long W - winter S - summer T - transient, present only during migration American goldfinch S American kestrel S American robin R Bald eagle R Band-tailed pigeon S Barn swallow S Belted kingfisher R Bewick's wren R Black-capped chickadee R Black-headed grosbeak S Black swift S Black-throated gray warbler S Blue grouse S Brewer's blackbird S Brown creeper R Brown-headed cowbird S Bushtit R Canada goose R Cedar waxwing S Chestnut-backed chickadee R C l i f f swallow S Cooper's hawk S Common flicker S Common loon S Common merganser R Common nighthawk S Common raven R Dark-eyed junco S Dipper R Evening grosbeak S Gloucous-winged gull R Golden-crowned kinglet R Goshawk R Great blue heron S Great horned owl R Hairy woodpecker R Hammond's flycatcher S Hermet thrush T House finch S Carduelis t r i s t i s (Linnaeus) Falco sparverius Linnaeus Turdus migratorius Linnaeus Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Linnaeus) Columba jasciata Say Hirundo rustica Linnaeus Megaceryle alcyon (Linnaeus) Thryomanes bewickii (Audubon) Parus atricapillus Linnaeus Pheucticus melanocepholus (Swainson) Cyseloides niger (Gmelin) Dendroica nigrescens Townsend Dendrogopus obscurus (Say) Euphagus cyanocephalus (Wagler) Certhia fomiliaris Linnaeus Molothrus ater (Boddaert) Psaltriparus minimus (Townsend) Branta canadensis (Linnaeus) Bombycilla cedrorum V i e i l l o t Parus rufescens Townsend Petrochelidon pyrrhonota (Vieillot) Accipiter cooperii (Bonaparte) Colaptes auratus (Linnaeus) Gavia immer (Brunnich) Mergus merganser Linnaeus Chordeiles minor (Forster) Corvus corax Linnaeus Junco hyemalis (Linnaeus) Cinclus mexicanus Swainson Hesperiphona vespertina (Cooper) Larus glaucescens Naumann Regulus satrapa Lichtenstein Accipiter gentilis (Linnaeus) Ardea herodias Linnaeus Bubo virginianus (Gmelin) Pecoides villosus (Linnaeus) Empidonax Prammondii (Xantus) Catharus guttatus (Pallas) Carposacus mexicanus (Muller) rable 2.2.4.3-4-A List of Birds on U.B.C. Research Forest'continued Hutton's vireo. R Vireo huttoni Cassin Mac Gillivray's warbler S Oporornis tolmiei (Townsend) Mallard R Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus Marsh hawk R Circus syaneus (Linnaeus) Mew gull W Larus canus Linnaeus Mourning dove S Zenaida macrowia (Linnaeus) Northwestern crow R Corvus caurinus Baird Olive-sided flycatcher S Nuttallornis borealis (Swainson) Orange-crowned warbler S Vermivora celata (Say) Pigmy owl R Glaucidium gnoma Wagler Pileated woodpecker R Dryocopus pileatus (Linnaeus) Pine siskin R Carduelis pinus (Wilson) Purple finch R Carpodacus purpureus (Gmelin) Red-breasted nuthatch S Sitta canadensis Linnaeus Red crossbill S Loxia curvirostra Linnaeus Red-eyed vireo S Vireo olivaceus (Linnaeus) Red-tailed hawk R Butes jamaicensis (Gmelin) Ring-necked pheasant R Phasianus colchicus Linnaeus Rock dove R Columba l i v i a Gmelin Rough-winged swallow S Stelgidopteryx r u f i c o l l i s (Vieillot) Ruby-crowned kinglet T Regulus calendula (Linnaeus) Ruffed grouse R Bonasa umbellus (Linnaeus) Rufous hummingbird S Selasophorus rufus (Gmelin) Rufous-sided towhee R Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus) Sharp-shinned hawk S Accipiter striatus V i e i l l o t Solitary vireo S Vireo solitarius (Wilson) Song sparrow R Melospiza melodia (Wilson) Spotted sandpiper S Acti t i s mocularia (Linnaeus) Starling R Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus Steller's jay R Cyanocitta s t e l l e r i (Gmelin) Swainson's thrush S Catharus ustulatus (Nuttall) Townsend's sol i t a i r e S Myadestes townsendii (Audubon) Townsend's warbler S Dendroica townsendi (Townsend) Tree swallow S Iridoprocne bicolor (Vieillot) Varied thrush R Ixoreus naevius (Gmelin) Vaux's swift S Chaetura vauxi (Townsend) Violet-green swallow s Tochycineta thalassina (Swainson) Warbling vireo s Vireo gilvus (Vieillot) Western flycatcher s Empidonax d i f f i c i l i s Baird Western tanager s Piranga ludoviciana (Wilson) Western wood pewee s Contopus sordidulus Sclater White-crowned sparrow R Zonotrichia leucophrys (Forster) Willow flycatcher S Empidonax t r a i l l i i (Audubon) Wilson's warbler S Wilsonia pusilla (Wilson) Winter wren R Troglodytes troglodytes (Linnaeus) Wood duck S Aix sponsa (Linnaeus) Yellow-bellied sapsucker R Sphyropicus varius (Linnaeus) Yellow-rumped warbler S Dendroica coronata (Linnaeus) Yellow warbler S Dendroica petechia (Linnaeus) e 8.7.1-1-A Summary of Projected Expenditure on Silvicultural Operations for Year 1 (1982/83) Operation Land Area Total Cost Land Clearing 10 ha (24.8) $ 16,500.00 Broadcast Burning 6 ha (14.8) 720.00 Drainage 4 ha (9.9) 700.00 Scarification 18 ha (45.0) 1,100.00 Planting 40 ha (99.0) 11,100.00 Juvenile Thinning 2.0 ha (5.0) -Pruning 1.8 ha (4.4) -Precommercial Thinning 1.3 ha (3.2) -Commercial Thinning 2.0 ha (4.9) Total Expenditure on Silviculture $ 30,120.00 \ Budget ($) ( P a s t ) 37,986 37,986 23,929 19,596 19 ,800 12,360 13,824 12,360 12,360 12,360 12,360 14,904 11,484 12,000 25,500 11,000 213,837 26,500 3,500 7,100 100 7,700 2,100 450 6,000 50 13,200 3,300 Table 8.7.3 - 1 - A U.B.C. D e t a i l Operating Budget Faculty of Forestry - Research Forest Page 1 D e t a i l Academic/Board Salaries , Budget ($) A c c o u n t Code (Year 1) 2 9 - 8 9 9 0 - 1 6 1 2 9 - 8 9 9 0 - 1 6 2 UUU3 1U S t a r t I nc rement s 0001 10 K i t c h e u S t a f f 0002 10 C a s u a l and Emergency Labour 16 ,013 31 ,875 11 ,000 239,260 Non Salary Items M002 10 Food Purchases M001 10 Employer Share of Benefits M003 10 E l e c t r i c i t y M004 10 Memberships M022 10 Gasoline and O i l M005 10 Insurance and Licences M006 10 P r i n t i n g and Publications 33,000 3,500 8 ,000 100 7,700 2,100 450 M007 10 Repairs and Maintenance - Bldgs. 10000 .00 7,000 20 (Less: Recovery from Faculty 3000.00 30 of Forestry-Maintenance, Loon 40" Lake Camp) M008 10. P u b l i c a t i o n Purchase 80 M009 10 Supplies and Expenses 16 ,000 2^ -8990 -165 2 9 - 8 9 9 0 - 0 9 1 - 2 0 5 - 2 3 4 - 2 3 7 - 2 4 4 - 2 5 0 - 2 5 7 - 2 6 2 - 2 6 3 - 2 7 0 M010 10 Telephone 3,300 - 2 7 2 iabie 8.7.3 - 1 - A Budget ($) ( P a s t ) Non S a l a r y I tems 500 M011 10 550 MO 12 10 375 MO 13 10 15 ,500 M014 10 135 M015 10 7,500 M016 10 1,000 M023 10 5,000 M017 10 20 14,250 M018 10 165,900 M020 10 21 ,000 M021 10 301,710 Budget ($) ( P a s t ) 553,533 U.B.C. Detail Operating Budget Faculty of Forestry - Research Forest Detail T r a v e l - Lea rned S o c i e t i e s T r a v e l - G e n e r a l Po s t a ge M a i n t e n a n c e - V e h i c l e s R e p a i r s and Ma in tenance - Roads U.B .C . D e t a i l O p e r a t i n g Budget F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y U n i v . R e s e a r c h F o r e s t D e t a i l Budget ($) (Year 1) 900 700 375 15,000 135 9,000 1,000 5,500 14,000 174,900 21,000 _323,7.40_ w . Budget ($) ( Y e a r 1) I n c l u d e d i n Budgeted Revenue - F o r R e f e r e n c e R001 10 Camp R e n t a l s R002 10 Log S a l e s 3000 c u n i t s @$92/CCF R003 10 P o l e s and P i l i n g 200 CCF @$120 R004 10 G o v ' t Canada F i s h e r i e s Lea se R005 10 C o u n c i l o f F o r e s t I n d u s t r i e s 15000.00 R006 10 S p r i n g Camp Fees 7500.00 Rese rve 75000.00 276000.00 24000.00 1000.00 398,500 30,000 A c c o u n t Code -273 -274 -278 -281 -284 -412 -414 -416 -417 -422 -491 A c c o u n t Code 7 9 - 8 9 9 0 - 5 2 0 - 5 3 4 - 6 2 5 - 5 2 0 - 5 0 8 T o t a l 603,500 E s t i m a t e d L a b o u r A v a i l a b i l i t y I S t o r e T e c h n i c i a n x 21 d a y s 5 F i e l d T e c h n i c i a n s x 21 d a y s I S e c r e t a r y / T e c h . x 6 d a y s TOTAL T E C H N I C A L LABOUR A V A I L A B L E 21 d a y s 105 d a y s 6 d a y s 132 d a y s C a s u a l l a b o u r a s r e q u i r e d - s e e r e m a r k s c o l u m n i n " T o t a l L a b o u r B u d g e t e d " - b e l o w TASK R E S P O N S I B L E O F F I C E R (SECONDARY R E S P O N S I B I L I T Y ) OPERAT ION EST IMATED LABOUR REQUIREMENTS PR 1 OR 1TY RAT 1NG REMARKS (PERFORMANCE) a . A d m i n a r e a R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) W e a t h e r W o r k s h o p m a i n t e n a n c e 21 S t o r e / T e c h d a y s _____ b. S p r i n g Camp D i r e c t o r ( E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ) P r e p a r a t i o n s - p o l e s - t r a i 1 s - n o t i c e s 14 T e c h / D a y s 1 c . P h y s i c a l P l a n t R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) G e n e r a l m a i n t e n a n c e 4 T e c h / D a y s 4 d . Compound R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) B u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n 4 T e c h / D a y s 4 e . R o a d s R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) Cu1 v e r t s R o a d s i d e d i t c h e s G r a d i n g C l e a n u p 8 T e c h / D a y s 3 H P> cr M n oo 0 0 • M I M > SC o 3 r t 3* 9 i-t Pd o r> CO CO o n> c M ro i H O 0 0 f . P l a n t i n g S i 1 v i c u l t u r i s t ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c a n ) C o m p a r t m e n t s 1 8/19/20 20 T e c h / d a y s 2 g . W e e d i n g S i 1 v i c u l t u r i s t ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) C o m p a r t m e n t s 2 9 / 3 0 20 T e c h / d a y s 2 h . S c h o o l P r o g r a m m e E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ( S e c r e t a r y / T e c h n i c i a n ) Day T o u r s 6 S e c / D a y s / T e c h 4 i . D e e r P r o j e c t E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ( S e c r e t a r y / T e c h n i c i a n ) F e n c e C h e c k F e e d i ng 2 T e c h / d a y s 4 j . Camp P o w e r 1i ne R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) C l e a r o v e r h a n g i n g t r e e s 10 T e c h / d a y s 4 k. O t h e r E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ( S e c r e t a r y / T e c h n i c i a n ) G r e e n h o u s e E d u c a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s C o n t i n g e n c i e s 4 T e c h / d a y s 4 T e c h / d a y s 5 T e c h / d a y s 4 TOTAL LABOUR BUDGETED, FOR MONTH OF MARCH . = 1 3 2 d a y s No c a s u a l l a b o u r r e q u i r e d N o t e : No h o l i d a y s , s i c k l e a v e o r o t h e r l o s t t i m e c a u s e s a r e t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n CONTRACTOR OPERAT IONS a . H a r v e s t i n g R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S i 1 v i c u l t u r i s t ) C o m p a r t m e n t s E s t i m a t e d t o c o n t i n u e a l l m o n t h b . S p r i n g Camp D i r e c t o r ( E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ) P r e p a r a t i o n s a s r e q u i r e d t o f u l f i l S p r i n g Camp S c h e d u l e E s t i m a t e d L a b o u r A v a i l a b i I i t y I S t o r e T e c h n i c i a n x 20 d a y s = 20 d a y s 5 F i e l d T e c h n i c i a n s x 20 d a y s = 100 d a y s I S e c r e t a r y / T e c h . x 6 d a y s = 6 d a y s TOTAL TECHNICAL LABOUR A V A I L A B L E = _I26 d a y s C a s u a l l a b o u r a s r e q u i r e d - s e e r e m a r k s c o l u m n i n " T o t a l L a b o u r B u d g e t e d " - b e l o w TASK R E S P O N S I B L E O F F I C E R (SECONDARY R E S P O N S I B I L I T Y ) OPERATION ESTIMATED LABOUR REQUIREMENTS P R I O R I T Y RAT 1NG REMARKS (PERFORMANCE) a. A d m i n a r e a R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) W e a t h e r W o r k s h o p T e s t F i r e E q u i p m e n t 20 S t o r e / T e c h d a y s b. S p r i n g Camp D i r e c t o r ( E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r & S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) P r e p a r a t i o n s - Camp - E x e r c i s e s e t up - I n v o l v m e n t 20 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 20 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 20 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 1 1 1 c . P l a n t i n g S i 1 v i c u 1 t u r i s t ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) C o m p a r t m e n t 17/18 19/20 15 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 2 d. W e e d i n g S i 1 v i c u l t u r i s t ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) C o m p a r t m e n t s 29/30 15 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 4 e. R o a d s R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) G r a d i n g c l e a n - u p D i t c h e s B r u s h 10 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 10 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 10 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 3 r- 1 ro oo I 3 r t ro i-< ca r t H-o 3 CO CO o 3" ro CL e OO r o f . D e e r p r o j e c t E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ( S e c r e t a r y / T e c h n i c i a n ) P i pe1 i ne F e e d i ng 8 F i e 1 d / T e c h d a y s 4 S e e " C o n t r a c t o r " s e c t i o n g. S c h o o l p r o g r a m m e E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ( S e c r e t a r y / T e c h n i c i an) Day T o u r s 6 S e c / T e c h D a y s 4 h. O t h e r E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ( S e c r e t a r y / T e c h n i c i a n ) G r e e n h o u s e E d u c a t i o n F a c i 1 i t i e s 4 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 4 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 4 TOTAL LABOUR BUDGETED FOR MONTH OF A P R I L = 1 6 2 d a y s A v a i l a b l e f r o m F o r e s t = 126 S u p p l e m e n t a r y c a s u a l l a b o u r = 36 162 N o t e : No a l l o w a n c e s f o r c o n t i n g e n c i e s o r l o s t t i m e due t o l e a v e , s i c k e t c . CONTRACTOR OPERATIONS a. H a r v e s t i n g R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S i 1 v i c u l t u r i s t ) C o m p a r t m e n t s C o n t i n u e s a 11 month b. S p r i ng Camp D i r e c t o r ( E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ) As r e q u i r e d t o p r e p a r e & s u p p o r t e x e r c i s e s c. D e e r P e n E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ( S e c r e t a r y / T e c h n i c i a n ) P i pe 1 i ne 3 d a y s b a c k hoe d. E d u c a t i o n E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ( S e c r e t a r y / T e c h n i c i a n ) O u t s i de t o i l e t s 2 d a y s b a c k h o e E s t i m a t e d L a b o u r A v a i l a b l e I S t o r e T e c h n i c i a n 5 F i e l d T e c h n i c i a n s I S e c r e t a r y / T e c h . x 21 d a y s x 21 d a y s x 6 d a y s 21 d a y s 105 d a y s 6 d a y s C a s u a l l a b o u r a s r e q u i r e d ( S e e " r e m a r k s " c o l u m n i n " T o t a l L a b o u r B u d g e t e d " - b e l o w ) TOTAL TECHNICAL LABOUR A V A I L A B L E 132 d a y s TASK R E S P O N S I B L E O F F I C E R (SECONDARY R E S P O N S I B I L I T Y ) OPERATION EST 1 MATED LABOUR REQUIREMENTS P R I O R I T Y RAT 1NG REMARKS (PERFORMANCE) a. A d m i n a r e a R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) W e a t h e r W o r k s h o p Compound 21 S t o r e / T e c h d a y s b. S p r i n g Camp Di r e c t o r ( E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r & S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) 1 n v o l v m e n t C l e a n up 80 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 8 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 1 c. S c h o o l P r o g r a m m e E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ( S e c r e t a r y / T e c h n i c i a n ) Day T o u r s 6 S e c / T e c h d a y s 4 d. P l a n t i n g S i 1 v i c u 1 t u r i s t ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) C o m p 1 e t e a 1 1 s c h e d u l e d a r e a s 10 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 2 e. D e e r P r o j e c t E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ( S e c r e t a r y / T e c h n i c i a n ) Round up C o n f i n e m e n t t e n d i n g 2 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 20 T e c h a i d d a y s ( s e e " N o t e s " ) 1 1 f . O t h e r E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r G r e e n h o u s e 4 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 4 ( S e c r e t a r y T e c h n i c i a n ) E d u c a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s 2 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 4 TOTAL LABOUR BUDGETED FOR MONTH OF MAY = | 55 d a y s A v a i l a b l e f r o m F o r e s t = 132 S u p p l e m e n t a r y c a s u a l l a b o u r = 2 3 T o t a l = 155 d a y s N o t e s : a . No c o n t i n g e n c i e s o r l o s t t i m e i n c l u d e d b. A d d i t i o n a l c a s u a l l a b o u r may be r e q u i r e d f o r S p r i n g Camp e x e r c i s e s . c . T e c h n i c a l A i d e m p l o y e d f o r d e e r c o n f i n e m e n t May-Aug. 1980. d. I p u b l i c h o l i d a y d u r i n g m o n t h ( V i c t o r i a D a y ) . CONTRACTOR OPERATIONS a. H a r v e s t i n g R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S i 1v i c u 1 t u r i s t ) C o m p a r t m e n t C o n t i n u e a l 1 month (May c e a s e f o r a p e r i o d d u r i n g S p r i n g Camp.) b. S p r i ng Camp D i r e c t o r ( E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ) As r e q u i r e d t o f u l f i l S p r i n g Camp S c h e d u l e c. R o a d s R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) G r a d i n g a s r e q u i r e d t o r e p a i r r o a d s a f t e r S p r i n g Camp E s t i m a t e d L a b o u r A v a i l a b i l i t y I S t o r e T e c h n i c i a n 5 F i e l d T e c h n i c i a n s I S e c r e t a r y / T e c h . x 21 d a y s = 21 d a y s x 21 d a y s = 21 d a y s x 6 d a y s = 6 d a y s TOTAL TECHNICAL LABOUR A V A I L A B L E 132 d a y s C a s u a l l a b o u r a s r e q u i r e d ( s e e " R e m a r k s " c o l u m n i n " T o t a l l a b o u r B u d g e t e d " a n d " N o t e s " - b e l o w ) . TASK R E S P O N S I B L E O F F I C E R (SECONDARY R E S P O N S I B I L I T Y ) OPERATION ESTIMATED LABOUR REQUIREMENTS PR 1 OR 1TY RAT 1NG REMARKS (PERFORMANCE) a. Admin. a r e a R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) W o r k s h o p m a i n t e n a n c e W e a t h e r F i r e e q u i p m e n t c h e c k 21 S t o r e / T e c h d a y s -b. B r u s h C o n t r o l S i 1 v i c u 1 t u r i s t ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) C o m p a r t m e n t s 3 0 / 3 1 / 3 5 28 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 2 c . S p r i n g Camp E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) T h i n n i n g c l e a n - u p 4 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 4 d. Summer s t u d e n t s E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ( S e c r e t a r y / T e c h n i c i a n ) As p e r d a i l y s c h e d u l e a n d p r o j e c t o u t l i n e * 10 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 1 e. S c h o o l P r o g r a m m e E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ( S e c r e t a r y / T e c h n i c i an) Day T o u r s 6 S e c r e t a r y / T e c h . d a y s 4 f . F i r e E q u i p m e n t R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) F i r e p r a c t i s e C o n s t r u c t h o s e d r y i n g f a c i 1 i t i e s T e s t F i r e E q u i p m e n t 10 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 3 g. D e e r P r o j e c t E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ( S e c r e t a r y / T e c h n i c i a n ) D e e r c o n f i n e m e n t 20 T e c h / A i d d a y s 4 h. N u r s e r y S i 1 v i c u l t u r i s t ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) R o t o v a t e a r e a a n d g e n e r a l c l e a n - u p 4 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 4 * S e e c o n t r a c t o r s o p e r a t i o n s i . P h y s i ca1 P I a n t R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) G e n e r a l m a i n t e n a n c e 10 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 4 j . O t h e r E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) G r e e n h o u s e A r b o r e t u m 4 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 4 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 4 S u r p l u s = 31 TOTAL LABOUR BUDGETED FOR MONTH OF JUNE = 152 d a y s A v a i l a b l e f r o m F o r e s t = 132 T e c h n i c a I A i d = 20 152 N o t e s : a . No l o s t t i m e i n c l u d e d a l t h o u g h 31 d a y s s u r p l u s t e c h n i c a l t i m e f o r month a i l e d f o r l e a v e , p u b l i c h o l i d a y s , f i r e p a t r o l e t c . b. * l f no summer s t u d e n t p r o j e c t s , t r a n s f e r t o B r u s h c o n t r o l ( i t e m 6 ) . CONTRACTOR OPERATIONS a. H a r v e s t i n g R e s i d e n t Fo r e s t e r ( S i 1 v i c u l t u r i s t ) C o m p a r t m e n t s C l e a n - u p o p e r a t i o n s 1 b. H y d r o F e n c e R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S i 1 v i c u 1 t u r i s t ) F e n c e f r o m Road t o N o r t h A l o u e t t e R i v e r 2 c . N u r s e r y S i 1 v i c u 1 t u r i s t ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) R o t o v a t e a r e a 1 t r a c t o r day 3 E s t i m a t e d L a b o u r A v a i l a b i l i t y I S t o r e T e c h n i c i a n x 21 d a y s = 5 F i e l d T e c h n i c i a n s x 21 d a y s = I S e c r e t a r y / T e c h . x 10 d a y s = TOTAL TECHNICAL LABOUR A V A I L A B L E = 21 d a y s 105 d a y s 10 d a y s 136 d a y s C a s u a l l a b o u r a s r e q u i r e d ( s e e " R e m a r k s " c o I u m n i n " T o t a l l a b o u r B u d g e t e d " a n d " N o t e s " - b e l o w ) . TASK R E S P O N S I B L E O F F I C E R (SECONDARY R E S P O N S I B I L I T Y ) OPERATION ESTIMATED LABOUR REQUIREMENTS P R I O R I T Y RAT 1NG REMARKS (PERFORMANCE) a. A d m i n , a r e a R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) W o r k s h o p M a i n t e n a n c e W e a t h e r F i r e e q u i p m e n t c h e c k 21 S t o r e / T e c h d a y s b. B r u s h c o n t r o l ( M e c h a n i c a 1 ) S i 1 v i c u l t u r i s t ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c a n ) C o m p a r t m e n t s 3 0 / 3 1 / 3 2 / 3 5 * 42 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 2 1 n t e r c h a n g e a b 1 e w i t h d. c . B r u s h c o n t r o l ( C h e m i c a 1 ) R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) C o m p a r t m e n t s 2 5 / 3 1 / 3 2 42 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 1 d. Summer s t u d e n t s E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ( S e c r e t a r y / T e c h n i c i a n ) As p e r d a i l y s c h e d u l e a n d p r o j e c t o u t l i n e 42 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s * 1 n t e r c h a n g e a b 1 e w i t h b. e. D e e r P r o j e c t E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ( S e c r e t a r y / T e c h n i c i a n ) D e e r c o n f i n e m e n t 21 T e c h / A i d d a y s * * 4 f . L o o n L a k e Camp Di r e c t o r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) New c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d r o u t i n e m a i n t e n a n c e 24 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 4 ro oo oo I o 3 r t 3" ro H CO rt H-O CO to r> 3" ro a. c r- 1 ro I C-H c oo to o g. M a r c H o u s e ( F i r e p r e c a u t i o n s ) R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) W a t e r s y s t e m a n d E m e r g e n c y W a t e r sump 15 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 4 h. O t h e r S i 1 v i c u 1 t u r i s t ( S e c r e t a r y / T e c h n i c i a n ) A r b o r e t u m m a i n t e n a n c e G r e e n h o u s e c l e a n - u p 2 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 4 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 4 TOTAL LABOUR BUDGETED MONTH J U L Y = 171 d a y s A v a i l a b l e f r o m F o r e s t = 136 D e e r P r o j e c t T e c h n i c a l A i d = 2 1 * * ( s e e i t e m e.) C a s u a l l a b o u r r e q u i r e d = 14 171 d a y s N o t e : a . * l t e m s b, a n d d a r e i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e i f no summer s t u d e n t s a r e a v a i l a b l e . b . No a l l o w a n c e h a s b e e n made f o r s i c k l e a v e , f i r e p a t r o l , h o l i d a y s o r o t h e r l o s t t i m e . c . * * * S e e c o n t r a c t o r o p e r a t i o n s . CONTRACTOR OPERATIONS a. L o o n L a k e Camp Di r e c t o r (Camp C a r e t a k e r ) C a p i t a l p r o j e c t s a s d e t a i l e d i n b u d g e t e s t i m a t e s b. M a r c H o u s e R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) E m e r g e n c y f i r e sump, d i s m a n t l i n g t o w e r , r e a 1 i g n i n g e l e c t r i c a 1 a n d w a t e r 1 i n e s o E s t i m a t e d L a b o u r A v a i l a b i I i t y I S t o r e T e c h n i c i a n x 21 d a y s = 21 d a y s 5 F i e l d T e c h n i c i a n s x 21 d a y s =105 d a y s I S e c r e t a r y / T e c h . x 10 d a y s = 10 d a y s TOTAL TECHNICAL LABOUR A V A I L A B L E = 136 d a y s C a s u a l l a b o u r a s r e q u i r e d ( s e e " R e m a r k s " c o l u m n i n " T o t a l l a b o u r B u d g e t e d " a n d " N o t e s " - b e l o w ) . TASK R E S P O N S I B L E O F F I C E R (SECONDARY R E S P O N S I B I L I T Y ) OPERATIONS ESTIMATED LABOUR REQUIREMENTS PR 1 OR 1TY RAT 1NG REMARKS (PERFORMANCE) a. A d m i n , a r e a R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) W o r k s h o p B u i l d i n g m a i n t e n a n c e W e a t h e r F i r e E q u i p m e n t C h e c k 21 S t o r e / T e c h d a y s b. B r u s h c o n t r o l S i 1 v i c u l t u r i s t ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) C o m p a r t m e n t s 3 0 / 3 1 / 3 5 *42 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 1 1 n t e r c h a n g e a b 1 e 1 c . Summer S t u d e n t s E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ( S e c r e t a r y / T e c h n i c i a n ) As p e r da i l y s c h e d u l e a n d p r o j e c t o u t l i n e *42 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 10 S e c / T e c h d a y s 1 1 1 n t e r c h a n g e a b l e d. D e e r P r o j e c t E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ( S e c r e t a r y / T e c h n i c i a n ) D e e r C o n f i n e m e n t * * 2 I T e c h / A i d d a y s 2 e. P h y s i c a l P l a n t R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) R o u t i n e b u i l d i n g ma i n t . 24 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 4 h-1 OO OO I 8 s 3 rt fl> i-t P) rt H-O 3 W OT r> cr fD O. C M tt) i 01 oo f . Loon L a k e Camp Di r e c t o r (Camp C a r e t a k e r ) C o m p l e t e c a p i t a l p r o j e c t P r e p a r e f o r S c h o o l p r o g -ramme 30 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 3 g. L a n d s c a p i n g S i 1 v i c u l t u r i s t ( S e c r e t a r y / T e c h n i c i a n ) Road j u n c t i o n E/F, F/G 10 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 4 h. C o n e C o l l e c t i o n S i 1 v i c u l t u r i s t ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) Wh i t e P i n e 10 F i e i d / T e c h d a y s 1 TOTAL LABOUR BUDGETED MONTH AUGUST = 168 d a y s A v a i l a b l e f r o m F o r e s t = 136 D e e r P r o j e c t T e c h n i c a l A i d = 21 C a s u a l L a b o u r = I I 168 N o t e : a . No a l l o w a n c e f o r c o n t i n g e n c i e s , s i c k l e a v e , h o l i d a y s , f i r e p a t r o l o r o t h e r l o s t t i m e . b. F i r e c l o s u r e may c u r t a i l o p e r a t i o n s . c. Summer s t u d e n t p r o j e c t s ( i f o p e r a t i o n a l ) ' t e r m i n a t e 29 Augus+ CONTRACTOR OPERATIONS - None s c h e d u l e d E s t i m a t e d L a b o u r A v a i I a b l e I S t o r e T e c h n i c i a n x 21 d a y s = 21 d a y s 5 F i e l d T e c h n i c i a n s x 21 d a y s = 105 d a y s I S e c r e t a r y / T e c h x 8 d a y s = 8 d a y s TOTAL TECHNICAL LABOUR A V A I L A B L E = 134 d a y s C a s u a l l a b o u r a s r e q u i r e d ( s e e " R e m a r k s " c o l u m n i n " T o t a l l a b o u r B u d g e t e d " a n d " n o t e s " - b e l o w ) . TASK R E S P O N S I B L E O F F I C E R (SECONDARY R E S P O N S I B I L I T Y ) OPERATION ESTIMATED LABOUR REQUIREMENTS P R I O R I T Y RAT 1NG REMARKS (PERFOMRANCE) a. A d m i n , a r e a R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) W o r k s h o p ma i n t . W e a t h e r Compound Ma i n t . 21 S t o r e / T e c h d a y s b. B r u s h C o n t r o l S i 1 v i c u 1 t u r i s t ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) C o m p a r t m e n t s ; 27/28/30/31 42 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 1 c. L o o n L a k e Camp D i r e c t o r (Camp C a r e t a k e r ) S c h o o l P r o g r a m m e s 4 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 3 d. E d u c a t i o n E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ( S e c r e t a r y / T e c h n i c i a n ) Work e x p e r i e n c e T o u r s & I n s e r v i c e F a c i 1 i t i e s 10 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 8 S e c / T e c h d a y s 4 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 2 e. R o a d s R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) R o u t i n e ma i n t . G r a d i n g , e t c . 10 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 4 f . D e e r P r o j e c t E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ( S e c r e t a r y / T e c h n i c i a n ) F e e d i n g a n d f e n c e c h e c k V e t e r i n a r i an 6 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 4 H cr ro oo oo l Q & 0 r t cr 9 ro H o 3 cn CO o P 1 rt> Cu c i - 1 ro CO ro •d r t fD s-ro >-f oo g. P h y s i c a l P l a n t R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) G e n e r a l m a i n t e n a n c e W a t e r 1 i n e c l e a n - u p 10 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 4 h. C o n t r a c t o r s u p p o r t R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S i 1 v i c u l t u r i s t ) Swamper ( g r o u n d c l e a n i n g ) 20 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 4 i . S i t e P r e p a r a t i o n R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( d e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) B u r n i n g r o a d s i d e p i l e s 20 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 3 j . O t h e r S i 1 v i c u 1 t u r i s t ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) N u r s e r y G r e e n h o u s e C o n e S t o r a g e T r a i l e r M a i n t . ( M a r c ) 2 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 4 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 4 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 4 TOTAL LABOUR BUDGETED MONTH OF SEPTEMBER A v a i l a b l e f r o m F o r e s t C a s u a l l a b o u r = 165 d a y s = 134 = _3L 165 N o t e : a . L a b o u r day t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . b. No o t h e r l o s t t i m e e s t i m a t e d f o r s i c k l e a v e , h o l i d a y s e t c . CONTRACTOR OPERATIONS a. L a n d c l e a r i n g R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S i 1 v i cu1 t u r f s t ) A s r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n R o a d G b. P i 1e b u r n i n g R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) As w e a t h e r p e r m i t s (may be d e l a y e d t o O c t . / N o v . ) c . P i p e 1 i n e c l e a n - u p R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) A s s c h e d u l e and f i n a n c e s p e r m i t d. G r a d i n g R o a d s R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) A s r e q u i r e d . o E s t i m a t e d L a b o u r A v a i l a b l e I S t o r e T e c h n i c i a n x 21 day 5 F i e l d T e c h n i c i a n x 21 day I S e c r e t a r y / T e c h x 8 day TOTAL T E C H N I C A L LABOUR A V A I L A B L E = 21 d a y s = 105 d a y s = _ 8 _ = I 34 d a y s C a s u a l l a b o u r a s r e q u i r e d ( s e e " R e m a r k s " c o l u m n i n " T o t a l l a b o u r B u d g e t e d " a n d " N o t e s " - b e l o w ) . TASK R E S P O N S I B L E O F F I C E R (SECONDARY R E S P O N S I B I L I T Y ) OPERAT ION EST IMATED LABOUR REQUIREMENTS PR 1 OR 1TY RAT 1NG REMARKS (PERFORMANCE) a . A d m i n , a r e a R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) F i r e e q u i p m e n t t e s t W o r k s h o p ma i n t . W e a t h e r 21 S t o r e / T e c h d a y s b . B r u s h c o n t r o l S i 1 v i c u l t u r i s t ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) C o m p a r t m e n t 35 42 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 2 c . R o a d s & b r i d g e s R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) R e c o n s t r u c t i o n b r i d g e s C u l v e r t c l e a n i n g 42 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 1 d . D e e r p r o j e c t E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r ( S e c r e t a r y / T e c h n i c i a n ) F e e d i ng F e n c e c h e c k F o o d S t o r e c o n s t r u c t i o n 24 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 3 e . E d u c a t i o n E d u c a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r Day T o u r s Work e x p e r i e n c e F a c i 1 i t y ma i n t e n a n c e 8 S e c r e t a r y / T e c h d a y s 8 F i e l d / T e c h d a y s 4 & h - 1 0> 00 o o I s o 3 r t 3* § (D H $B rt H-O 0 cn OT o cr m o. c M m i o o rt O c r fD i-t co f . Loon Lake Camp Di r e c t o r ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) School Programme 4 F i e l d / T e c h days 4 g. Cones S i 1 v i c u l t u r i s t ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) H a r v e s t i ng 10 F i e l d / T e c h days 4 h. O t h e r S i 1 v i c u l t u r i s t ( S e c r e t a r y / T e c h n i c i an) Greenhouse 4 F i e l d / T e c h day 4 TOTAL LABOUR BUDGETED MONTH OF OCTOBER = 165 days A v a i l a b l e from F o r e s t = 134 Casual l a b o u r = 29 163 days Note; No a l l o w a n c e s f o r c o n t i n g e n c i e s and l o s t t i m e , h o l i d a y s e t c . CONTRACTOR OPERATIONS a. Bridge, r e c o n s t r u c t i o n R e s i d e n t F o r e s t e r B r i d g e s Road K ( S e n i o r T e c h n i c i a n ) Note: Road c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r h a r v e s t i n g may commence ( d e t a i l s November s c h e d u l e ) . E s t i m a t e d L a b o