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Trends in forestry mechanization and concepts for containerized seeding in New Zealand Page, Arthur Ian 1971

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TRENDS IN FORESTRY MECHANIZATION AND CONCEPTS FOR CONTAINERIZED SEEDING IN NEW ZEALAND by ARTHUR IAN PAGE B.Sc. (For. Hons.), Un i v e r s i t y of Wales, 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF FORESTRY i n the Faculty of FORESTRY We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1971 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . F a c u l t y o f FORESTRY The u n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a Date S(L Oct. fill ABSTRACT R e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e o n t h e f u t u r e o f wood r e s u l t e d i n t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t l o n g t e r m f u t u r e demand w i l l be f o r l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f c h e a p f i b r e . T h e r e i i s l i k e l y t o be a r e d u c t i o n i n e m p h a s i s o n t h e f o r m a n d d i m e n s i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l t r e e s . M e c h a n i z a t i o n a n d a u t o m a t i o n a r e d e f i n e d a n d t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t r e e e s t a b l i s h m e n t w i t h i n t h e t o t a l f o r e s t i n d u s t r y n o t e d . Some g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s o f f o r e s t m e c h a n i z a t i o n a r e p r o p o s e d a n d d i s c u s s e d . The New Z e a l a n d p o t e n t i a l s f o r wood f i b r e p r o d u c t i o n a n d f o r e s t m e c h a n i z a t i o n a r e a n a l y s e d . R e f o r e s t a t i o n h i s t o r y o f r a d i a t a p i n e ( P i n u s r a d i a t a , D.Don.) i n New Z e a l a n d i s b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d , a n d t h e b a s i s f o r , a n d p r o b l e m s w i t h , b a r e - r o o t p l a n t i n g a r e d i s c u s s e d . A n a l t e r n a t i v e t r e e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s y s t e m , i n v o l v i n g t h e p r e c i s i o n s e t t i n g o f a b u l l e t - l i k e c o n t a i n e r e n c l o s i n g a s e e d , i s p r o p o s e d . The c a s e f o r t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l s y s t e m i s a r g u e d o n t h e b a s i s o f i t s p o t e n t i a l b i o l o g i c a l e q u a l i t y w i t h b a r e - r o o t p l a n t i n g , w h i c h t h e a u t h o r c o n s i d e r s t o be s u f f i c i e n t l y p r o m i s i n g t o b e w o r t h y o f f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a n d i t s s u i t a b i l i t y t o t o t a l m e c h a n i z a t i o n . Some p o s s i b l e c o s t s o f t h e s y s t e m a r e c a l c u l a t e d a n d p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s a r e p o s t u l a t e d . I t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e c o n c e p t i s w o r t h y o f c a r e f u l f i e l d s t u d y i n New Z e a l a n d . i i TABLE OF CONTENTS. Page ABSTRACT 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES . v LIST OF FIGURES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i 1. INTRODUCTION 1 World wood trends 2 Definitions 7 Relative importance of tree establishment ... 9 2. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FOREST MECHANIZATION 11 The systems approach 11 Regional and site effects 15 Influence of work methods and organization ... 19 Development and manufacture 26 Effects on environment and long-term site productivity 30 3. SOME NEW ZEALAND POTENTIALS 36 1. Potential for fibre production 36 2. Potential for forest mechanization 51 4. A FUTURE REFORESTATION SYSTEM FOR N.Z. RADIATA PINE . 59 General background 59 The basis for planting 63 Problems with bare-root planting 65 Planting shock 66 Adaptability to mechanization 70 Root distortion 71 Nurseries 73 Summary 75 An alternative to bare-root planting 75 General description 75 Germination 77 Early growth 82 Protection 85 Handling and planting 92 Cost 97 5. CONCLUSIONS 109 i i i Page BIBLIOGRAPHY 117 APPENDIX 1 - Some sample re-establishment costs from New Zealand State Forests 125 APPENDIX 2 - An estimate of the potential cost reductions of a e r i a l p r e c i s i o n setting of containerized seed and an i n d i c a t i o n of some of the technical problems Involved 129 i v LIST OF TABLES. Page Table 1. Estimates of realizable yields at age 30 in different parts of New Zealand 38 Table 2. New Zealand land base 44 Table 3. Potential gross annual yields from New Zealand exotic forestry, assuming various land bases 49 Table 4. Some New Zealand Customs Tariffs 57 Table 5. Common cost factors of container seeding and bare-root planting 97 Table 6. Some representative reforestation costs in New Zealand 127 v LIST OF FIGURES. Page Figure 1. Possible design for container seeding 78 Figure 2. Possible machine for setting of containers. Sketch of principle only, not a working drawing. 79 Figure 3. Series diagram to show action of possible seed container setting machine. 80 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS W r i t i n g a t h e s i s r e q u i r e s h e l p i n f i n a n c i a l , t e c h n i c a l and i n s p i r a t i o n a l f o r m . F o r t h e f i r s t I am i n d e b t e d t o t h e New Z e a l a n d F o r e s t S e r v i c e , who g r a n t e d me s t u d y l e a v e t o a t t e n d t h i s U n i v e r s i t y . F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e h a s a l s o b e e n r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y , a n d g r a n t s f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y C o m m i t t e e o n R e s e a r c h a n d t h e N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l a d m i n i s t e r e d b y D r . J . H . G . S m i t h , a n d made p o s s i b l e t h e e x t e n s i v e t r a v e l l i n g d u r i n g t h e summer o f 1 9 7 1 . I am i n d e b t e d t o t h e members o f my c o m m i t t e e - Mr. A d a m o v i c h , D r . L a c a t e , D r . S z i k l a i a n d D r . T h i r g o o d - a n d t o my m a j o r P r o f e s s o r , D r . S m i t h , f o r t h e i r t e c h n i c a l h e l p a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t d u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e t h e s i s . Many o t h e r p e o p l e , f a r t o o numerous t o name, h a v e h e l p e d b y t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n , c r i t i c i s m a n d i n f o r m a t i o n . To J a c k W a l t e r s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y R e s e a r c h F o r e s t a t H a n e y , g o e s a s p e c i a l t h a n k y o u f o r p r o v i d i n g much i n t h e way o f i n s p i r a t i o n . On t h e home s c e n e , my w i f e d e s e r v e s a m e d a l f o r h e r p a t i e n c e w i t h my o s c i l l a t i n g moods a s t h e t h e s i s t o o k f o r m . L a s t , b u t b y no means l e a s t , my t h a n k s a r e due t o M i l l y who d e c i p h e r e d t h e j i g s a w p u z z l e o f t h e f i r s t d r a f t a n d p r o d u c e d t h e f i n a l t y p e d c o p y . v i i 1 1. INTRODUCTION " we are i n the midst of the super-i n d u s t r i a l revolution. If f a i l u r e to grasp t h i s fact impairs one 1® a b i l i t y to understand the present, i t also leads otherwise i n t e l l i g e n t men into t o t a l s t u p i d i t y when they t a l k about the future. I t encourages them to think i n simple-minded straight l i n e s ....Such l i n e a r projections characterige most of what i s said or written about the future. And i t causes us to worry about p r e c i s e l y the wrong things. One needs imagination to confront a revolution." (Future Shock, P 186 - T o f f l e r , 1970) This thesis i s concerned with a very small part of T o f f l e r ' s (1970) changing world. Being concerned with f o r e s t r y , i t must look to the future. Concern with mechanization places us i n a f i e l d of such bewildering evolution that perhaps even the most v i v i d imagination would be too conservative. In mundane terms, aa&attempt i s to be made to forecast a possible future mechanized system of r e f o r e s t a t i o n (or afforestation) i n New Zealand radiata pine (Pinus radiata, D.Don.) plantation f o r e s t r y . These are the l i m i t s , but they themselves are part of a much larger framework with which we must be concerned - world forestry and i t s major product, c e l l u l o s e , the future of which i s of major significance to the tiny topic which w i l l be examined i n t h i s t h e s i s . 2 World Wood Trends There are two major questions i n any discussion of the future of i n d u s t r i a l c e l l u l o s e . The f i r s t i s the a b i l i t y of world resources to supply projected future demands, and t h i s i s c l o s e l y linked to the question of the nature and extent of substitution f o r c e l l u l o s e by a l t e r n a t i v e materials. The once popular idea of an imminent world shortage of wood has now generally been replaced by the hypothesis that resources are adequate to meet foreseeable demands, but that c e l l u l o s e w i l l have to be obtained i n very d i f f e r e n t ways compared to today ( S t r e y f f e r t , 1966; Anon., 1966). The new techniques required would include tapping of presently untouched reserves, i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of s i l v i c u l t u r e , u t i l i s a t i o n of the t r o p i c a l hardwood resource, breeding new s t r a i n s , etc.. It i s at t h i s point that the threat of substitutes must be mentioned. The most pessimistic a t t i t u d e (from the point of view of c e l l u l o s e ) i n t h i s respect that the author has seen, i s that of Dawkins (1969). He saw l i t t l e prospect of intensive s i l v i c u l t u r e and mechanization maintaining s u f f i c i e n t l y low wood procurement costs to f i g h t o f f the challenge of substitutes. The s t i l l large reserves of f o s s i l f u e l s and the ubiquitous nature of the AlFeSiCa minerals - and the r e l a t i v e l y concentrated forms i n which these occur compared with the scattered nature of c e l l u l o s e - could mean the gradual replacement of c e l l u l o s e by p l a s t i c s and AlFeSiCa de r i v a t i v e s as wood costs increase. 3 D a w k i n s d i s m i s s e d t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t we w i l l r e q u i r e a l l o u r r e s o u r c e s , fey t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e s u b s t i t u t e s a r e s o a b u n d a n t a s t o be c a p a b l e o f f i l l i n g o u r w a n t s u n t i l t e c h n o l o g y i s s u c h t h a t t h e s u b s t i t u t e s t h e m s e l v e s w i l l be r e & e w a b l e t h r o u g h r e c y c l i n g . T h u s t h e u l t i m a t e a d v a n t a g e o f c e l l u l o s e - i t s r e n e w a b i l i t y -m i g h t be o f l i t t l e h e l p i n t h e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t a l t e r n a t i v e s . T h e s e a r g u m e n t s a r e , o f c o u r s e , c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e f u t u r e a n d we a r e l e a r n i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y t o b e w a r y o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f o r e c a s t i n g m e t h o d s i n v o l v i n g e x t r a p o l a t i o n o f p a s t t r e n d s . Some o f t h e m o s t u n e x p e c t e d o p i n i o n s h a v e p r o v e d t o b e r i g h t a n d v i c e v e r s a . D a w k i n s ' o p i n i o n , t h e n , m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d . T h e r e a r e , h o w e v e r , some comments r e g a r d i n g t h e k i n d s o f e n e r g y t h a t w o u l d be n e e d e d t o a l l o w some o f h i s i d e a s t o a c t u a l l y o c c u r t h a t r e q u i r e d i s c u s s i o n . The d r e a m o f f u t u r e s u p p l i e s o f u n l i m i t e d c h e a p p o w e r h a v e b e e n dampened somewhat b y L o v e r i n g ( 1 9 6 9 ) . He n o t e d t h e l a r g e c a p i t a l c o s t s r e q u i r e d b y , s a y , n u c l e a r e n e r g y p r o d u c t i o n f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n , w a s t e d i s p o s a l a n d o p e r a t i o n . He n o t e d a l s o t h a t c h e a p e r e n e r g y w o u l d l i t t l e r e d u c e t h e t o t a l c o s t o f m i n i n g a n d p r o c e s s i n g r o c k , s i n c e t h e m a j o r c o m p o n e n t s o f t h i s a r e c a p i t a l a n d l a b o u r . D reams o f e x t r a c t i n g m e t a l s f r o m o r d i n a r y r o c k s r a t h e r t h a n o r e w e r e a l s o dampened b y L o v e r i n g when he n o t e d t h e huge amounts o f w a s t e p r o d u c e d i n t h e e x t r a c t i o n o f m e t a l f r o m o r d i n a r y g r a n i t e . 4 The r a t i o o f w a s t e t o m e t a l w o u l d be i n t h e o r d e r o f 2,000:1. The q u e s t i o n o f f u t u r e p o w e r p r o d u c t i o n i s v e r y c o m p l e x a n d c a n n o t be f u l l y d i s c u s s e d h e r e . T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t new s o u r c e s o f e n e r g y w i l l be a w o n d e r f u l a s s e t , b u t t h e i r g r e a t e s t v a l u e i s l i k e l y t o be i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o p r o v i d e d e s p e r a t e l y n e e d e d power when t h e f o s s i l f u e l s a r e e x h a u s t e d . One f o r t e a - s t e r p l a c e s t h e r e m a i n i n g l i f e o f t h e w o r l d ' s f o s s i l f u e l s a t 2-3 c e n t u r i e s f o r c o a l a n d 70-80 y e a r s f o r p e t r o l e u m a n d n a t u r a l g a s (Hubbert,1969). R e c y c l i n g . . o f c e l l u l o s e f i b r e s i s a l r e a d y a n e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t a n d i t s t e c h n o l o g y i s w e l l a h e a d o f t h a t o f i t s c o m p e t i t o r s . The c u r r e n t r e c y c l i n g r a t e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s p u l p a n d p a p e r i n d u s t r y i s some 18-207o. C o u n t r i e s s u c h a s J a p a n a n d W e s t Germany h a v e r e a c h e d r a t e s a s h i g h a s 35-407o ( G o r d o n , 1971). R i s i n g wood p r i c e s f o r e c a s t e d f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s b y J o s e p h s o n (1971), w i l l o n l y s e r v e t o i m p r o v e t h e e c o n o m i c s o f r e c y c l i n g . A f u l l a c c o u n t o f a l l t h e v a r i o u s p r o j e c t i o n s o f t h e f u t u r e o f c e l l u l o s e i s o u t s i d e t h e s c o p e o f t h i s t h e s i s . T he s u b j e c t i s c o n f u s e d w i t h a r g u m e n t a n d c o u n t e r - a r g u m e n t t h a t b r a c k e t t h e w h o l e r a n g e o f t h e o p i n i o n s p e c t r u m f r o m a c u t e p e s s i m i s m t o b o u n c i n g o p t i m i s m . I h a v e no a l t e r n a t i v e b u t t o d r a w f r o m t h i s k a l e i d o s c o p e a f e w s u b j e c t i v e l y s e l e c t e d p o i n t s t o a l l o w t h e s e t t i n g o f a c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t o b u i l d t h i s t h e s i s . I t i s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t s i n g l e c omponent o f t h e c o s t o f f i n i s h e d c e l l u l o s e p r o d u c t s i s t h e c o s t o f wood 5 p r o c u r e m e n t ( W i l l i a m s a n d H a a s , 1971). I n N o r w a y , a s b u t one e x a m p l e , 807o o f t h e c o s t o f sawn l u m b e r i s i n v o l v e d i n t h e stump-t o - m i l l p r o c e s s ( P e r s . c o m m . ) . Wood p r o c u r e m e n t , a n d f o r e s t o p e r a t i o n s g e n e r a l l y , h a v e l o n g b e e n l a b o u r i n t e n s i v e a n d l a b o u r c o s t s h a v e b e e n s p i r a l l i n g a l a r m i n g l y . W i l l i a m s (1971) n o t e d t h a t l a b o u r c o s t s i n e a s t e r n C a n a d a h a v e r i s e n b y 927» s i n c e 1960. The m e c h a n i z a t i o n a l r e a d y i n t r o d u c e d i n t o e a s t e r n C a n a d a ( p r i m a r i l y w h e e l e d s k i d d e r s ) h a s s l o w e d t h e wood c o s t i n c r e a s e t o 137o o v e r t h e l a s t 10 y e a r p e r i o d , b u t t i m b e r c o m p a n i e s s t i l l p a y 40% o f t h e i r c o s t s i n l a b o u r a n d 65% o f t h i s i s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u m p - t o - r o a d s i d e p h a s e o f l o g g i n g ( o p . c i t . ) . L a b o u r c o s t s i n e a s t e r n C a n a d a a r e s o h i g h t h a t m a n u a l p l a n t i n g o f c u t o v e r s h a s r e a c h e d a s h i g h a s $70 p e r a c r e ( e x c l u d i n g s t o c k ) a n d , w i t h no m e c h a n i z a t i o n i n s i g h t , c o m p a n i e s a r e l o o k i n g t o a s s i s t e d n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n a s t h e o n l y way o f e c o n o m i c a l l y r e s t o c k i n g t h e i r c u t o v e r l a n d ( P a g e , 1971). W i t h no p r o s p e c t o f a s l o w - d o w n i n t h e l a b o u r c o s t r i s e , f o r e s t r y , a t l e a s t i n t h e c u r r e n t l y m a j o r wood p r o d u c i n g c o u n t r i e s , i s e x p e r i e n c i n g a c o s t / p r i c e s q u e e z e s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y . The l a t t e r l e d t o t h e i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l m e c h a n i z a t i o n d e s c r i b e d b y B a r b e r (1971). S u c h i n t e n s i v e m e c h a n i z a t i o n i s u r g e n t l y n e e d e d b y t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y t o r e d u c e , o r a t l e a s t m a i n t a i n , wood c o s t s a t a l e v e l w h i c h w i l l a l l o w , i n t u r n , t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n e n j o y e d b y c e l l u l o s e . 6 I n a d d i t i o n t o l a b o u r c o s t , l a b o u r a v a i l a b i l i t y a n d q u a l i t y a r e f a c t o r s i n t h e a r g u m e n t f o r i n c r e a s e d f o r e s t m e c h a n i z a t i o n . F o r e s t w o r k , f o r a l l i t s g l a m o u r t o some, i s g e n e r a l l y r e m o t e , d i r t y , h a r d , u n c o m f o r t a b l e a n d , a t t i m e s , d a n g e r o u s . D e s p i t e t h e h i g h p a y , l o g g i n g camps e x p e r i e n c e v e r y h i g h t u r n o v e r s n e c e s s i t a t i n g f r e q u e n t r e t r a i n i n g a n d r e d u c i n g man-day p r o d u c t i o n . The c o s t o f m a i n t a i n i n g s u b s i d i s e d camps o r ; i n c r e a s i n g l y , commuter t r a n s p o r t , a d d s s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o t h e o v e r h e a d s . H i g h l a b o u r c o s t s a r e , i n p a r t , a r e s u l t o f t h e n e e d t o combat t h e more f a v o u r a b l e w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t . M a c h i n e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e l a t e s t d e v e l o p m e n t s w i t h i n c r e a s e d a u t o m a t i o n , a i r - c o n d i t i o n e d a n d / o r h e a t e d c a b s e t c . , i s o l a t e t h e man f r o m t h e d a n g e r s a n d r i g o u r s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t - a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y f r e e h i m f r o m i t s w o r k - s a p p i n g l i m i t a t i o n s s u c h a s mud, c o l d e t c . . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t r a c t i o n s o f m a c h i n e s - c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t i n t h e f a r m i n g i n d u s t r y ( B a r b e r , 1 9 7 1 ) - a n d t h e i r demands f o r g r e a t e r s k i l l a n d l e s s b r a w n , a t t r a c t a b e t t e r c l a s s o f w o r k e r , i n t e r e s t e d a n d w i l l i n g t o be t r a i n e d . The v e r y much r e d u c e d w o r k f o r c e a l l o w s f a s t e r , more e f f i c i e n t commuter o p e r a t i o n s w h i c h e n s u r e t h a t t h e o f f - d u t y , more u r b a n - o r i e n t e d - d e m a n d s o f t h e s k i l l e d m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r c a n be met. Demands f o r wood a r e r i s i n g a n d a l t h o u g h t h e r a w m a t e r i a l s u p p l y f o r t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f w h a t m i g h t be c a l l e d r e c o n s t i t u t e d wood i s l i k e l y t o be a d e q u a t e , o t h e r s u p p l i e s may n o t . J o s e p h s o n 7 (1971), speaking for the united States, noted "...Under present l e v e l s of management and no^serious overcutting, foreseeable supplies of lumber and plywood w i l l soon f a l l short of p o t e n t i a l demands, with a consequent increase i n timber prices and greater use of competitive materials." T o f f l e r (1970) has noted the problems of forecasting the future i n a world of r a p i d l y accelerating technical innovation and increasing transcience. I t would appear, therefore, to be dangerous to attempt to forecast i n what form the world of a r o t a t i o n hence (even the r e l a t i v e l y short radiata pine rotation) w i l l require c e l l u l o s e (assuming i t wants i t at a l l ! ! ) . I t seems safer to assume that the problems of c e l l u l o s e u t i l i z a t i o n w i l l be solved i n the laboratory and translated into i n d u s t r i a l processes. Form and dimension of the trees grown would then be of l e s s importance i n t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n than they are today. It i s concluded then, that the future demand w i l l be f o r large quantities of low cost f i b r e with but l i m i t e d importance attached to tree form and dimension. Intensive mechanization i s necessary to obtain the low cost and i s favoured by the reduced form and dimension demands. This development i s v i t a l to the health, and even the future existence, of the forest industry. D e f i n i t i o n s It i s appropriate here to define the words mechanization and automation as they w i l l be used throughout t h i s t h e s i s . Mechanization 8 i s d e f i n e d a s £he r e p l a c e m e n t o f human a n d / o r a n i m a l m u s c l e p o w e r w i t h t h a t o f a m o t o r - d r i v e n m a c h i n e . The o p e r a t o r r e t a i n s d i r e c t c o n t r o l o f t h e a c t i v i t y b y h i s m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e m a c h i n e c o n t r o l s , b u t h i s p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h e s s e n t i a l l y i s n o t u t i l i s e d a s a power i n p u t . D u r i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a n y p a r t i c u l a r o p e r a t i o n , t h e r e w i l l b e d e g r e e s o f m e c h a n i z a t i o n . T h u s , i n t r e e f e l l i n g , t h e power i n p u t r e q u i r e d o f man d e c r e a s e d a s a x e s , c r o s s c u t s a w s , c h a i n saws a n d f i n a l l y t r a c t o r - m o u n t e d h y d r a u l i c s h e a r s w e r e d e v e l o p e d . (The a x e i s t e c h n i c a l l y a s i m p l e m a c h i n e , a l t h o u g h n o t c o v e r e d b y t h e a b o v e d e f i n i t i o n o f m e c h a n i z a t i o n . ) A p r o c e s s , o r p a r t o f a p r o c e s s , becomes a u t o m a t e d when i t s v a r i o u s c omponent a c t i v i t i e s c a n be c a r r i e d , o u t b y t h e m a c h i n e w i t h o u t t h e d i r e c t a n d i m m e d i a t e c o n t r o l o f t h e o p e r a t o r . The a u t o m a t i c c y c l e i s s e t i n m o t i o n b y t h e o p e r a t o r who t h e n becomes o n l y a w a t c h d o g , c a p a b l e o f i n t e r v e n i n g a n d s t o p p i n g t h e c y c l e s h o u l d t h i s become n e c e s s a r y o r d e s i r a b l e . A s a n e x a m p l e , t h e p r o c e s s i n g s t a g e o f t h e K o e h r i n g - W a t e r o u s s h o r t w o o d p r o c e s s o r i s a u t o m a t e d . The o p e r a t o r l o a d s a t r e e i n t o t h e p r o c e s s i n g t o w e r w h i c h p r o c e e d s t o d e l i m b a n d b u c k t h e b o l e i n t o p r e d e t e r m i n e d l e n g t h s a u t o m a t i c a l l y . The o p e r a t o r i s f r e e d t o m a n i p u l a t e t h e c u t t i n g a n d l o a d i n g o f a s e c o n d t r e e . 9 Relative importance of tree establishment. An overview of the forest industry c l e a r l y indicates that the establishment phase,and tree planting i n p a r t i c u l a r , constitute a small percentage of the t o t a l cost of growing and d e l i v e r i n g wood to the u t i l i z a t i o n plant. Detailed logging costs have not been published i n New Zealand but an average figure of $NZ600 per acre was generally accepted at a recent symposium (Chavasse, 1969). The author f u l l y appreciates that a p o t e n t i a l reduction i n planting cost of up to 90%, even a f t e r the addition of compound i n t e r e s t , may be of l i t t l e importance when compared to the t o t a l wood cost to the m i l l . Despite ; the r e l a t i v e l y low amounts required, however, money for tree establishment, p a r t i c u l a r l y r e f o r e s t a t i o n , t r a d i t i o n a l l y has been severely l i m i t e d i n New Zealand except for a b r i e f period i n h i s t o r y - 1925-35 - known as the "planting boom". Also, the work has often been thought of as a means of providing work for v. temporarily unemployed workmen - a hangover from the days of the Great Depression - despite the f a c t that very small proportions of recent annual programmes have been completed as make-work projects. If funds are to continue to be l i m i t e d and i f , a s the author believes, labour i s to be increasingly d i f f i c u l t to obtain, development of cheap, highly mechanized systems i s imperative. No apologies need be made,then, fo r the following concentration on tree establishment. The r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n of t h i s phase within the fitLX f o r e s t r y picture i s recognised, but the a l l o c a t i o n of p r i o r i t i e s f o r possibly l i m i t e d development funds i s not the author's concern a t t h i s t i m e . 11 2. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FOREST MECHANIZATION. Compared with some other ind u s t r i e s , mechanization i n forestry i s r e l a t i v e l y primitive. Automation i n the industry i s almost non-existent. I t i s possible, however, to enunciate some general p r i n c i p l e s of forest mechanization, drawing on experience from other industries and from the l i m i t e d development i n fore s t r y to date. These points are discussed below. The Systems Approach. McColl (1969) has defined the systems approach as one of "a recurring cycle of goal orientated steps to lower order objectives". He stressed the importance of the correct choice of goal i n technological progress and hi s words again perhaps best state the consequences of a wrong choice. "To choose the wrong end i s to try to solve the wrong problem; to choose the wrong means i s only to t ry to l i v e with an unoptimised system." In a highly c r i t i c a l account of the progress of logging mechanization i n eastern Canada, he noted that the industry's continued preoccupation with means has led to repeated disenchantment with mechanization developments and a f a i l u r e (he claims) to reduce wood costs to the required l e v e l . An example of t h i s argument i s to be seen i n the recently developed shortwood harvesters such as the Koehring. This i s a highly z 12 sophisticated machine, which even incorporates a considerable degree of automation. I t i s s t i l l producing short wood, however, a system that was designed for man and horse, to supply the m i l l s whose wood rooms have remained b a s i c a l l y unchanged since the days of labour intensive logging. It comes as no surprise then to learn that even a f t e r two years of operation, d i r e c t costs of wood produced to roadside by th i s machine are no lower than the previous tree-length skidding and hand-bucking (Page, 1971). The means, that of mechanizing the shortwood system, has been achieved, but the end, the shortwood system i t s e l f , remains unchanged. This despite a wealth of l i t e r a t u r e that notes the advantages of the treelength and f u l l - t r e e systems (McColl and Pepler, 1950; MacArthur, 1969; Ki r k p a t r i c k , 1964; M i t c h e l l , 1966), and forecasts of a continuing decline i n the shortwood system?.&' ,@se. (Hughes, 1970). The development of t h i s machine provides an example of sub-optimisation about which McColl says: "In general, optimisation of each sub-system w i l l not lead to a system optimum..." The large investment i n the machines may, i n f a c t , bear out McColl's words that "...improvement of a dominant sub-system may a c t u a l l y worsen the o v e r a l l system.". There are other examples of sub-optimisation to be found i n for e s t r y , most of which r e s u l t from attempts to mechanize a p a r t i c u l a r operation rather than f i r s t defining the ultimate goal. Thus windrowing of logging debris i n the southern pine region has created 13 a s i t u a t i o n where f u l l advantage^ cannot be taken of planting machines; a hand crew must be retained to plant the windrow area i t s e l f . In some areas t h i s has resulted i n s l i g h t l y higher costs for machine and supplementary hand planting combinations compared to f u l l y manual systems (Page, 1971). Labour shortages force the maintenance of the planting machines. The current b a t t l e between bare-root and container-grown stock i s too often reduced to a comparison of two methods of planting when, i n f a c t , i t i s two systems of r e f o r e s t a t i o n which are to be compared. A look at the systems reveals the superior s u i t a b i l i t y of containers to mechanization and a new dimension i s given to the comparison. The dangers of sub-optimisation are to be found between, as well as within, the various phases of forestry. Perhaps the most neglected of these i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s that of logging and ref o r e s t a t i o n . I f logging i s regarded as the f i r s t stage i n the regeneration or conversion of the standing forest to a new stand, then i t becomes a sub-system and the dangers of sub-optimisation are r e a l . There are many cases of these dangers being ignored. Page and Spiers (1969) i n a discussion of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between logging and re-establishment under New Zealand conditions, noted how logging could often be manipulated, by a l t e r i n g timing, hauling method etc., to obtain better and cheaper r e f o r e s t a t i o n . They concluded by saying, " I n t e l l i g e n t control of logging operations i s a 14-most desirable tool of forest management. The forest manager must have have an appreciation of the cost problems that are the immediate concern of the logger and yet r e t a i n the c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n necessary to make viable his p o s i t i o n as land manager.". Smithers (1964) stated the obvious when he noted that savings i n logging costs r e s u l t i n g from mechanization must be s u f f i c i e n t to o f f s e t any a d d i t i o n a l s l l v i c u l t u r a l costs that might occur. Regarding logging as a sub-system within the t o t a l f i b r e growing system i s , encouragingly, an increasing concern of forest managers. In the black spruce forests of parts of Ontario, the add i t i o n a l cost of modifying logging to an alternate s t r i p system - approximately $16/acre - i n order to obtain what i s considered s a t i s f a c t o r y natural restocking, i s judged preferable to the $50-70/ acre required to implement what was claimed as somewhat unreliable a r t i f i c i a l restocking methods currently available,(Page, 1971). Quantitative d e f i n i t i o n s of s a t i s f a c t o r y stocking were not available. At l e a s t one forest company i n the southeast of the United States now plans i t s logging and r e f o r e s t a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s as one exercise ( o p . c i t . ) . A b r i e f examination of other i n d u s t r i e s , which have developed a higher degree of mechanization and automation than fore s t r y , i l l u s t r a t e s the a p p l i c a t i o n of the systems approach. The production l i n e i n the car factory i s perhaps the best known, but the approach can be seen also i n the more c l o s e l y a l l i e d a g r i c u l t u r a l industry. The d e s i r e d end i n wheat harvesting i s clean threshed grain. No 15 t h r e s h i n g m a c h i n e s a r e b e i n g d e s i g n e d t o d a y ; i n s t e a d t h e r e i s a b a s i c d e s i g n o f c o m b i n e h a r v e s t e r w h i c h i s p r o d u c e d b y a l l m a n u f a c t u r e r s a n d w h i c h i s s u i t a b l e f o r a l l v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l w h e a t c r o p s s u c h a s s t r a w l e n g t h , y i e l d p e r a c r e e t c . . T h e m a c h i n e d e s i g n i s s u c h t h a t i t p r o d u c e s c o n d i t i o n s f a v o u r a b l e f o r t h e n e x t o p e r a t i o n a l p h a s e , s t r a w b a l i n g , b y " w i n d r o w i n g " t h e s t r a w , f a c i l i t a t i n g p i c k - u p b y t h e b a l e r . A l t h o u g h t h e s y s t e m s a p p r o a c h , a s d e f i n e d b y M c C o l l , h a s become a s c i e n c e i n i t s own r i g h t - h e n c e s y s t e m s e n g i n e e r - t h e t e r m a s u s e d h e r e i n c l u d e s t h e w i d e r m e a n i n g o f t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r a n o v e r v i e w d u r i n g t h e d e s i g n o f a n y o p e r a t i o n o r m a c h i n e . I f i t i s a s sumed t h a t t h e f o r e s t l a n d u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s i n t e n d e d f o r f i b r e g r o w i n g on A s u s t a i n e d y i e l d b a s i s , t h e n t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e m a c h i n e o r o p e r a t i o n o n t h e s i t e i t s e l f a r e t o be i n c l u d e d . The t e r m e c o s y s t e m i s r e l e v a n t and t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n s i d e r i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f m e c h a n i z a t i o n upon i t a r e d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . R e g i o n a l a n d S i t e E f f e c t s . T h e r e a r e a number o f f a c t o r s i n a n y f o r e s t r e g i o n w h i c h a f f e c t t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r a n d e c o n o m i c s u c c e s s o f m e c h a n i z a t i o n . T h e s e a r e : -- s i g e a n d number o f o w n e r s h i p s ; - s i z e o f c o n t i g u o u s a r e a ; - s i t e : u n i f o r m i t y a nd p r o d u c t i v i t y ; 16 - market diversity; - social background of region, including cost and av a i l a b l i t i y of labour; - terrain; - climate; - ava i l a b i l i t y of technical expertise, either through domestic industry or importation, at the design, manufacture, supervisor, operator and maintenance levels. Particular operations are in themselves sensitive to more detailed factors. For example, productivity of the current single tree harvesting machines is dependent upon individual tree size and, to a lesser extent, volume per acre (Aird, Cottell, Winer and Bredberg, 1970; Hannula 1970). The above points, however, are general factors which would be pertinent to a l l forest machines, although relative values would vary with different systems and functions. The higher capital and other fixed costs of machines make them dependent on the larger, capital-rich organizations for their purchase. The efficient organization of work methods and maintenance f a c i l i t i e s also generally relies on possession of a fleet of machines, a further point in the favour of large organizations. Increasing sophistication - and hence expense - of machines 17 r e s u l t s i n high fixed costs. There i s therefore a strong incentive to maximize machine u t i l i z a t i o n ( S i l v e r s i d e s , 1966), and reduce unproductive moving times to a minimum. Large contiguous areas, therefore, are generally necessary for the use of the more complex machinery. These areas are further r e s t r i c t e d by the necessity for t h e i r boundaries to include only those conditions under which the machine can work. Mechanical systems tend to be less f l e x i b l e than t h e i r labour intensive counterparts i n t h e i r products and the conditions required for e f f e c t i v e operation. Mechanization almost invari a b l y necessitates greater standardization. Mechanization increases man-day production and therefore i s encouraged as labour becomes scarce and/or expensive. Notwithstanding the frequent need for operator and maintenance s t a f f t r a i n i n g (mentioned l a t e r ) , the introduction of machines can reduce reliance on human s k i l l s - eg. tree planting machines - and thus labour quality problems can be a spur to mechanization. Terrain, both through topography and ground conditions, exerts a strong influence on mechanization p o t e n t i a l . Despite a very large i n d u s t r i a l and m i l i t a r y research e f f o r t , steep broken slopes s t i l l provide a formidable b a r r i e r to machine u t i l i z a t i o n . There i s an urgent need f o r a breakthrough i n prime moving techniques to allow the a p p l i c a t i o n of mechanical systems to the steeper country (Rennie,1971). This i s e s p e c i a l l y true of New Zealand where some 50% of the future exotic forest land i s currently classed as 18 non-tractorable (Chavasse, 1969). T e r r a i n conditions and hazards such as mud, snow, vegetation, insects, snakes etc., which have previously l i m i t e d the progress of men and animals, are a decreasing problem to modern machines. For example, the introduction of the Drott feller/buncher and wide-tired grapple skidders, has allowed the logging of some swamp lands i n the southeast of the United States which had previously proved too inhospitable for manual methods (Page, 1971). The necessity to close down the old labour intensive logging methods during extreme cold and the spring break-up i n eastern Canada, was one of the spurs to logging mechanization i n that region ( o p . c i t . ) . Increasingly sophisticated machines demand, i n turn, a more advanced l e v e l of technical expertise at the design, manufacture, supervisor, operator and maintenance l e v e l s (Aird, C o t t e l l , Winer and Bredberg, 1970; S i l v e r s i d e s , 1966; Barber, 1971; Morgan, 1971). The a v a i l a b i l i t y of a l l these factors, e i t h e r within^ the domestic industry or by importation, i s of extreme importance to the successful introduction of mechanical systems to any given area. The term mechanization covers a wide range of i n t e n s i t i e s and mechanical so p h i s t i c a t i o n and to generalize on the conditions required for the introduction of any system i s dangerous. But a summary i s desirable and the foregoing would suggest that any form of mechanization i s favoured by large owners (or the economic support of same) of large contiguous areas of r e l a t i v e l y even-aged and 19 uniform forest, grown to produce a limited number of raw material forms. Topography i s currently a limiting factor, but other, environmental and social conditions which result in scarce or expensive labour, favour mechanization. It is well to note here, though, that there are dangers in over-mechanization i f available technical expertise is insufficient or social problems, such as unemployment, may result. New Zealand's particularly favourable position, with some reservations, in relation to these factors, w i l l be discussed later. Influence of work methods and organization. Intensive mechanization necessitates profound changes in an organization. Personnel needs change, as does the type of man that is attracted to the industry. Barber (1971) noted the psychological effect of agricultural machinery in slowing the d r i f t of labour towards the more sophisticated work conditions of the c i t i e s . The modern worker is looking more and more for status and job satisfaction (Morgan, 1971); operation of a complex machine can supply these wants and provide a kudos that the manager would be foolish to ignore. If automation f u l f i l l s i t s correct role in forest machine design, this trend w i l l be continued and the monotonous manual operations, which can result from partial mechanization (e.g. feeding trees to a planting machine), w i l l at least be minimized. If the forest worker of the mechanical age i s motivated 20 d i f f e r e n t l y at his job, he i s also l i k e l y to have very d i f f e r e n t wants during h i s off-duty time. Bush camp l i f e i s u n l i k e l y to be acceptable and commuting operations are l i k e l y to become even more es s e n t i a l than now. Reduced man-power requirements, f o r a given l e v e l of production, however, w i l l mean smaller units of men to be moved allowing the use of small, f a s t means of transport. A e r i a l commuting, at l e a s t on a 10 days on 4 days o f f basis, i s already a r e a l i t y i n i s o l a t e d parts of B r i t i s h Columbia. Although machines are increasingly i s o l a t i n g the operator from the dangers and discomforts of the bush environment, they are i n turn producing t h e i r own forms of safety hazards which demand new methods i n safety t r a i n i n g . Perhaps the most insidious of these are the s t i l l incompletely understood health hazards r e s u l t i n g from such factors as v i b r a t i o n , noise and fumes. Swedish surveys have shown that 49% of forest workers suffer to some degree from white finger disease, caused by chain-saw vibration.(Sorenson 1969). New forms of safety t r a i n i n g , new safety standards; and much more research i s required on these machine-age safety hazards. As machines and systems become more sophisticated, so do the worker hazards become less obvious. Ergonomic studies are now employed by many manufacturers i n the design of new machines and hopefully many of the poten t i a l problems can be a l l e v i a t e d at t h i s stage. I f safety t r a i n i n g becomes more complex with increasingly sophisticated mechanization, so too does the process of job t r a i n i n g 21 of operators. In many parts of North America, preoccupation with the machinery i t s e l f has led to a neglect of the need for operator t r a i n i n g to maximize machine l i f e and production (Morgan 1970). Differences between crews and i n d i v i d u a l operators have been found to be more s i g n i f i c a n t i n a f f e c t i n g the production of a machine than any of the environmental factors (Aird, C o t t e l l , Winer and Bredberg, 1970; Winer, 1965). Taking the economic approach, Gagne (1971) noted how operator t r a i n i n g can increase machine a v a i l a b i l i t y and showed the presence of an optimum l e v e l of investment i n t h i s aspect. Morgan (1971) noted that i n the Tennessee Valley, sawtimber loggers alone l o s t $2.6 m i l l i o n i n wages due to down time. The majority of t h i s he attributed to i n e f f i c i e n t use of men and machines and f a i l u r e to apply the work systems demanded by the more sophisticated methods of logging. Training and the a p p l i c a t i o n of new methods are required at the supervisory and management l e v e l s as well as at the operator l e v e l ( S i l v e r s i d e s , 1966). A i r d et a]_..(I970) found that i n t e l l i g e n t supervision of B e l o i t Harvester operations - involving such factors as reserving d i f f i c u l t areas f o r daytime operation only and matching machine differences to t e r r a i n differences - had a considerable e f f e c t on production. They concluded: "The best operations were distinguished by e f f e c t i v e management support. This included the provision of good rep a i r and maintenance f a c i l i t i e s and procedures, 22 the provision of we%,trained foremen with the necessary support f a c i l i t i e s of vehicles and radio communication, and the provision of s k i l l e d and well motivated operators... The d i f f e r e n t f i e l d studies have c l e a r l y confirmed the important role that e f f e c t i v e management plays i n the conduct of a logging operation." The author gained the same impressions from observing a number of d i f f e r e n t s i t e preparation operations i n the southeast of the United States (Page, 1971) and there i s no doubt that the p r i n c i p l e s apply to a l l highly mechanized operations. M u l t i - s h i f t working i s becoming more and more prevalent i n f o r e s t r y operations, a trend which i s forced by the high f i x e d costs of machinery and the need to carry out large programmes with the lowest possible c a p i t a l investment i n machinery. Night work brings with i t i t s own crop of safety hazards and organizational d i f f i c u l t i e s , but increasing experience and development of powerful and portable l i g h t i n g units are s t e a d i l y increasing t h i s practice. The working of machines i n teams i s a further procedure which greatly increases the e f f i c i e n c y of mechanical systems. Concentration of machinery reduces the l o g i s t i c problems of maintenance provision and operator transport. I t i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y useful technique i n many land preparation operations where there i s a danger of tractors becoming bogged or ' b e l l i e d ' . Other machines i n the v i c i n i t y can render assistance and prevent expensive hold-ups i n production. In a recent a r t i c l e , Gagne (1971) has pointed out that there i s an optimum l e v e l of investment i n a l l the factors mentioned above. Above c e r t a i n l e v e l s of investment, diminishing returns per unit investment provide a warning of the dangers of over, as well as under, 23 expenditure. He noted that the tailoring of equipment to the particular conditions to be encountered i s a further way of increasing job efficiency but that this factor too, is subject to the law of diminishing returns. Mechanization may often allow the introduction of new systems. Barber (1971) noted a number of examples of this in the agricultural industry including hay baling and silage harvesting. Transportation of pulp wood from forest to m i l l in chip form (Silversides, 1959; Logan, 1965) and weed control by mechanical means at the site preparation stage (Chavasse, 1969), are two examples in forestry. There is also l i t t l e doubt that the introduction of mechanical systems w i l l lead to a change in approach to many s i l v i c u l t u r a l techniques. Silversides (1966) pointed out the probability of a move to the extensive application of mechanized s i l v i c u l t u r a l techniques at the expense of specific site care, and AdamovicbL (1968) has sounded the death knell of s i l v i c u l t u r a l selection i f thinning i s to be mechanized. Wambach (1969) noted that two schools of thought exist, at least in North America, regarding the inter-relationships of mechanization and silviculture. One school favours the adoption of mechanical methods when, but only when,they w i l l assist in attaining s i l v i c u l t u r a l objectives. The second takes thg> view that silviculture can and should be adapted to meet the demands of economically necessitated mechanization. 24 Preoccupation with t h i s controversy, hpwever, should not obscure the f a c t that the demands of mechanization are often i n harmony with those of s i l v i c u l t u r e . The demands of s i l v i c u l t u r e are often f l e x i b l e over a wide range and choosing the s i t u a t i o n from this range which most favours the machine or system prejudices nothing. For example, Wambach (1969) and James, Tustin and Sutton (1970) have shown the s i l v i c u l t u r a l f l e x i b i l i t y of i n i t i a l stand spacing and configuration, within wide l i m i t s . There often i s no reason why a combination of spacing and configuration most suited to mechanization (wide, rectangular spacing) should not be adopted. Some extra costs may be involved i n such adaptations of s i l v i c u l t u r e . Examples are the need to control weed and understorey under plantations of widely spaced trees and the extra cost of protecting monocultures. Although optimisation of the discounted, cost/benefit r a t i o would generally be the aim, i n c l u s i o n of a l l the costs and benefits i s e s s e n t i a l . The short term economic benefits and some of the costs of the introduction of mechanical systems, and any necessary s i l v i c u l t u r a l modifications, are generally known. Knowledge of a l l the factors involved, however, i s generally incomplete and the cost/benefit r a t i o approach must, therefore, be used with caution. The influence of work methods and organization on the e f f i c i e n c y of mechanical operations has been badly neglected. This i s despite the fact that many workers have found the various factors involved to be paramount i n the l e v e l of productive output achieved. 25 T h i s n e g l e c t i s p r o b a b l y due t o t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f q u a n t i f y i n g t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s a n d t h e c o n s e q u e n t r e l i a n c e o n s u b j e c t i v e o p i n -i o n . Q u e s t i o n s o f management e f f i c i e n c y a r e o b v i o u s l y d e l i c a t e s u b j e c t s a n d a n o b j e c t i v e o n s l a u g h t o n l o n g e n t r e n c h e d i d e a s a n d p h i l o s o p h i e s f a c e s more t h a n t h e u s u a l number o f o b s t a c l e s . L i k e -w i s e , n e c e s s a r y c h a n g e s i n w o r k e r m o t i v a t i o n f a c e c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s i s t a n c e f r o m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s u s p i c i o n s o f o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r . A l t h o u g h a n i n c r e a s i n g number o f f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f a n y p a r t i c u l a r s y s t e m o r o p e r a t i o n a r e b e i n g q u a n t i f i e d , t h e r e s t i l l r e m a i n a number o f i n t a n g i b l e c o s t s a n d b e n e f i t s t o a n y m e c h a n i c a l s y s t e m . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e s e w i l l c o n t i n u e t o d e f y a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n a s u b j e c t i v e o r q u a l i t a t i v e a s s e s s m e n t . F o r e x a m p l e , n e a t n e s s w i t h i n a p l a n t a t i o n i s a d e f i n i t e a s s e t t o m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f f o r e s t o p e r a t i o n s b u t i t s e x a c t d o l l a r v a l u e i s e l u s i v e . The a e s t h e t i c s o f m e c h a n i c a l o p e r a t i o n s a r e n o t o n l y n o n -q u a n t i f i a b l e , t h e y c a n be r e g a r d e d a s e i t h e r a b e n e f i t o r a c o s t d e p e n d i n g o n t h e o u t l o o k o f t h e b e h o l d e r . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e y a r e f a c t o r s w h i c h m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d - p o s s i b l y t o a n i n c r e a s i n g d e g r e e -i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f a n y s y s t e m . S c h r e i n e r ( 1 9 7 0 ) c l a i m e d t h e o r d e r e d , f a r m - c r o p - l i k e a p p e a r a n c e o f s y c a m o r e s i l a g e o p e r a t i o n s a s one o f t h e s y s t e m ' s a d v a n t a g e s . T e c h n o l o g y i s d e v e l o p i n g a t a n a c c e l e r a t i n g r a t e a n d t h e r e i s l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t p r o g r e s s i n o u r a b i l i t y t o m a x i m i z e i t s b e n e f i t s 26 i s beginning to lag. But Toffler (1970) has warned of far more serious consequences of our burgeoning technology - the confusion and numbness of future shock as technological revolutions succeed one another ever more frequently, even within one lifetime. For some, a defence is found in a complete committment to technological progress for i t s own sake. Thus the means becomes the end i t s e l f and the concept of an optimum is meaningless. This thesis i s no place for such a philosophical discussion but i t i s well to remember that already we are confused and divided over the impact and future of our technology and that we cannot measure a l l the benefits and costs. The dangers are as real in forestry as they are in any f i e l d of human activity and concern for mankind must demand a watchdog on a l l technological development. Development and Manufacture. The Royal Commission on Farm Machinery in Canada (Barber, 1971) reported a number of disturbing factors concerning farm machinery manufacture. Formed at least partly because of farmer suspicion of the high prices they were charged (eg. price per horse power is the same for large and small tractors), the Commission investigated machinery prices compared with manufacturers' costs. It found that the 85% rise in farm machinery price since 1949 (compared to a 3%, rise i n the price of wheat) was at least partly a result of manufacturers being unable to absorb rising raw material and labour costs Sophisticated machines also require more expensive 27 s k i l l e d l a b o u r a n d c o m p l e x p r o c e s s e s i n t h e i r m a n u f a c t u r e . A s m a c h i n e s become l a r g e r a n d more c o m p l e x , f e w e r a r e r e q u i r e d a n d t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r b e g i n s t o l o s e some o f t h e e c o n o m i e s o f s c a l e . N o t a l l o f t h e c u r r e n t h i g h p r i c e s c o u l d b e e x p l a i n e d b y s u c h l e g i t i m a t e e c o n o m i c r e a s o n s a s a b o v e , h o w e v e r . Much o f t h e l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n m a c h i n e p r i c e s a n d m a n u f a c t u r e c o s t s was c a u s e d b y t h e v e r y h i g h c o s t s o f d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d d e a l e r i n v e n t o r i e s . T h e C o m m i s s i o n a l s o c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e was s t i l l r o o m f o r s i g n i f i c a n t e c o n o m i e s o f s c a l e i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . A n e s t i m a t e d 7-87o c o u l d be s a v e d b y c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f t h e i n d u s t r y i n t o f e w e r f i r m s . W i t h some 30-40 f i r m s c u r r e n t l y m a n u f a c t u r i n g c e n t r e f r a m e a r t i c u l a t e d v e h i c l e s , a s i m i l a r s t u d y o f t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y c o u l d w e l l be w a r r a n t e d . The B a r b e r r e p o r t n o t e s t h a t t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r y h a s a l m o s t a m o n o p o l y o f t h e t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e i n a g r i c u l t u r a l m a c h i n e r y d e s i g n ' . No i n d e p e n d e n t g o v e r n m e n t o r u n i v e r s i t y r e s e a r c h a n d t e s t i n g s t a t i o n s e x i s t w h i c h c o u l d a l s o g i v e i m p a r t i a l a d v i c e t o f a r m e r s . S u c h a s i t u a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s e r i o u s i n f a r m i n g w h e r e t h e c u s t o m e r i s g e n e r a l l y a p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l . D i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n a g r i c u l t u r e a n d f o r e s t r y a r e s i g n i f i c a n t h e r e . I n f o r e s t r y ( w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f f a r m f o r e s t r y ) t h e g r o w e r s a r e g e n e r a l l y f e w e r , h a v e l a r g e h o l d i n g s a n d a r e n o t o f t e n i n d i v i d u a l s . The r e s o u r c e s o f t h e t i m b e r g r o w e r , e s p e c i a l l y c o - o p e r a t i v e s o f g r o w e r s , a r e g r e a t a n d t h e q u e s t i o n o f who s h o u l d l e a d i n m a c h i n e r y d e v e l o p m e n t - t h e u s e r o r t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r - i s i m p o r t a n t . 28 McColl has discussed t h i s question at considerable length. He stated that the user has "20-30 times" the incentive of the manufacturer i n innovative endeavours. He therefore concluded that we have two choices - between the "imitative-competitive" route t r a d i t i o n a l l y controlled by the manufacturer and the "innovative-cooperative route that can, and should, be controlled by the user firms". Although accepting that the manufacturing firms have an important contribution to make at the machine production stage, he f e l t that t h e i r natural i n t e r e s t s are frequently opposed to those of the user at the conceptual and developmental stages. The manufacturers are not co-ordinated,and non-industry centred. He convincingly i l l u s t r a t e d his point with the example of the rubber t i r e d skidder. Now manufactured by some 30-40 firms, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to compare these machines, which have had u n t i l recently a service l i f e of around 5,000 hours, with the o r i g i n a l Bonnard Logger MK. IV.. This prototype, plus the f i v e preproduction models that were made, saw l i f e on two operations. They were operated i n excess of 10,000 hours without adequate spare parts or technical support. They therefore had a l i f e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c more than double that of the imitations produced i n the l a s t decade. The Bonnard's subsystems such as power s h i f t transmission, p o s i t i v e d i f f e r e n t i a l locks, integrated hydraulic systems etc., have only recently become av a i l a b l e . Yet the Bonnard Logger, a r e s u l t of industry sponsored research, was produced i n 1955. I t was McColl's 29 opinion, though he quotes no ca l c u l a t i o n s , that at l e a s t $100 m i l l i o n has been l o s t by the industry i n allowing t h i s to happen. In a recent tour of North America (Page, 1971) the author found that the majority of forest machinery design, at l e a s t outside logging, was being ca r r i e d out at the user l e v e l . Originating often from the fore s t r y s t a f f , the new ideas would be translated into a prototype by small l o c a l engineering companies or by company employed personnel. The larger organizations f e l t that t h i s was a f a r more sa t i s f a c t o r y s i t u a t i o n than r e l y i n g on the large manufacturing firms' somewhat li m i t e d i n t e r e s t i n forest machinery. Weyerhaueser's Equipment Development Task Force at Plymouth, N.C., was the most highly organized example of t h i s approach that was seen. Similar approaches were being adopted i n logging machinery design also. St. Regis Paper Company's logging engineering d i v i s i o n i s developing a number of low cost, h y d r a u l i c a l l y operated attachments to f i t a v a r i e t y of tractors which w i l l be within the price range of the small private logger so prevalent i n the southeast U.S.. International Paper Company's Busch Combine and TH-100 thinning machine, now being produced by an equipment manufacturer, are c l a s s i c examples of the user led approach to ne.w machinery developments. With reference to logging machinery, many of the user firms have combined into co-operatives - v i z . American Pulpwood Association, Canadian Pulp and Paper Association Swedish Logging Research In s t i t u t e . Such a co-operative e f f o r t i s very much needed i n the 30 f i e l d of a f f o r e s t a t i o n equipment. The manufacturer generally i s going to show l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n the high r i s k area of forest machinery design and i t i s up to the co-operative e f f o r t s of the users to produce the prototypes and prove t h e i r worth. The great m u l t i p l i c i t y of manufacturing firms w i l l also mean that any research that they might do i s i n danger of considerable du p l i c a t i o n which can only r e s u l t i n an eventual higher s e l l i n g p r i c e . E f f e c t s on Environment and Long-term S i t e P r o d u c t i v i ty . I t was noted above that mechanization almost always necessitates greater standardization. I t demands uniform crops on which to work which, i n many sit u a t i o n s , may mean a monoculture. It i s well known that the most stable ecosystem i s the most diverse. I t follows then, that mechanization may lead us to l e s s stable ecosystems. Although not developed i n response to the demands of mechanization, the f a i l u r e of some spruce monocultures i n Saxony and Switzerland during the nineteenth century (Troup, 1955) i s one of the most often quoted examples of the dangers of forest monocultures. (Although the picture i s confused by cases of poor s i t i n g of some of the spruce plantations.) Deterioration of second r o t a t i o n radiata pine by an average of one si t e class i n South A u s t r a l i a , i s a more recent example. Lewis and Harding (1963) noted that t h i s could reduce the y i e l d of second r o t a t i o n crops by 25% 31 compared with the original plantations. Although f e r t i l i z e r application i s currently restoring the lost productivity, the problem i s by no means completely understood. Such experiences are, of course, common in agriculture and are counteracted there by the injection of yet more technology in the form of f e r t i l i z e r , pesticides, plant breeding etc., and rotation or alternation of crops. Mackintosh-Ellis, the f i r s t Director-General of Forests in New Zealand, when proposing the establishment of pure radiata pine plantations during the 192©>'s, anticipated similar problems but considered potential growth rates to be such that the forest industry would be able to afford the necessary expenditure to cure any problems that arose. Experience to date with two pest epidemics would bear him out. Despite such successes in agriculture and forestry, however, our efforts are generally curative rather than prophylactic, and furthermore we can, of course, cure only those problems we are currently capable of detecting. The ever stronger protests of concerned groups that we may be creating future problems of unprecedented seriousness cannot be ignored. Rachel Carson, with the publication of her Silent Spring i n 1962 began a controversy over the use of chemicals in agriculture and forestry which s t i l l rages today (Graham, 1970). The flood of such literature which currently assails us, however, may blind us to the fact that even the technical innovators themselves are calling for a greater understanding of the implications 32 of the new techniques. Rennie (1971), in a review of world progress in mechanization of forest site preparation, made the following relevant points. "But most of the stated needs for lowering costs and optimising the technique are really calling for a greater understanding of the underlying biological changes that are being wrought by these techniques.The better predictability of f i r e , the more effective use of herbicides, the conversion technology in Australia, the optimisation of scarification and ploughing and the ideal network of drains in peatland afforestation are a l l really requesting that',the relationship between the technique and the biological characteristics of the system be better known, so that the technology can be modified to bring about the desired biological change." He made the plea that our approach to the problems should be such that i t "...matches the sophistication of some of the technology that now exists.". He proposed that the " . . . s i l v i c u l t u r a l situation - i t s problem or opportunity - be the focal point of organization, rather than the technique." Here is another plea that we should get the end sharply into focus and beware of preoccupation with the means. Barber (1971) has commented that, in Canadian agriculture. at least, fundamental biological research is lagging behind machine development. Forestry faces an additional problem, compared with agriculture, with respect to public reaction to mechanization. The recent upsurge in public concern for our rural lands has come long after mechanized farming was introduced and such methods have been, in many respects, accepted. In the United Kingdom, for example, although bewailing the 33 reduction of such f a m i l i a r r u r a l features as hedgerows, the public generally sees intensive, orderly agriculture as a good thing and, moreover, i s content to merely look at i t . But the modern r e c r e a t i o n i s t wants to do more than look at f o r e s t s . He sees them as his r i g h t f u l playground and his preconceived ideas of forest beauty are u n l i k e l y to be i n agreement with the demands of intensive mechanization. Large cutovers, regularly spaced, evenaged single species stands,the roar of machinery 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, and r e s t r i c t e d , roads are not l i k e l y to s a t i s f y h i s demands. Public education w i l l no doubt go a long way towards s e t t l i n g some of the c o n f l i c t s . The hunter w i l l f i n d more game i n the i n t e n s i v e l y managed forest and the roads, when he can use them, w i l l improve his access. The myth of the d e s e r t - l i k e pine plantation, devoid of a l l b i r d l i f e , has been exploded at le a s t i n New Zealand (Jackson, 1971). It would be naive, however, to believe that the public w i l l come to accept a l l the requirements of forest mechanization or that i t w i l l be possible to"educate"them to a new set of values. As with so many si m i l a r situations the; answer w i l l be a compromise. Where the short term economic demands of mechanization are at variance with the requirements of other forest uses - and t h i s includes more than just recreation - t h i s c o n f l i c t becomes a further cost of the mechanical system and as such must be weighed against the b e n e f i t s . 34 D i r e c t machine e f f e c t s such as s o i l compaction, accelerated erosion and top s o i l removal can have severe e f f e c t s on long term s i t e productivity, stream water q u a l i t y etc.. The author Has been shown how indiscriminate bulldozing of cutovers i n parts of V i r g i n i a had reduced s i t e index which was there dependent upon the depth of the top s o i l over the clay-loam subsoil (Page, 1971). Top s o i l removal and compaction of landing s i t e s on the pumice country i n New Zealand necessitates expensive r e h a b i l i t a t i o n operations, or demands the withdrawal of these areas from the productive f o r e s t estate. From 8 to 187» of the logged area can be alienated i n t h i s way (Page and Spiers, 1969). If current logging techniques are ever compared with a future a l t e r n a t i v e sysfcm, that does not create the large areas of compacted landings, the cost of t h i s land a l i e n a t i o n must be measured against the current methods. The word 'system 1 i s a dangerous one - meaning d i f f e r e n t things to d i f f e r e n t people. But i t does not change too much the sense i n which the word has been used i n t h i s thesis up to now, when we note that every forest i s an ecosystem. The demands of cheap mechanized c e l l u l o s e production force us more and mose to modify our forest ecosystems to less diverse and consequently less stable forms. Defence against t h i s i n s t a b i l i t y takes the form of increased management inputs. But the dangers of suboptimisation are as r e a l i n the forest ecosystem as i n any other system and much more research and forethought i s required to ensure that these are avoided as we 35 introduce mechanization and i t s accompanying s i l v i c u l t u r a l and management modifications to the fo r e s t . 36 3. SOME NEW ZEALAND POTENTIALS. In th i s section an attempt w i l l be made to focus the points of the previous discussion on to the p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n i n New Zealand. For convenience the section w i l l be divided into two; a) the p o t e n t i a l for f i b r e production within the world context, and b) the p a r t i c u l a r advantages and problems of mechanization of New Zealand's exotic plantation f o r e s t r y . This topic could be the subject of a thesis i n i t s own r i g h t and a summary only has been attempted here. Much information has been drawn from the fo r e s t r y sector of The National Development Conference (1969) and the reader i s referred to t h i s report, and to the d e t a i l e d working party sub-reports, for comprehensive examination of New Zealand's f o r e s t r y future. a) P o t e n t i a l for f i b r e production. Speaking i n New Zealand, Westoby (1970) noted, ".. the price of wood i s tending to become more decisive and wood qual i t y less decisive ( i n world markets). This n a t u r a l l y opens up great o p o s s i b i l i t i e s for those countries suitably endowed to produce wood cheaply and quickly." There i s l i t t l e doubt that New Zealand i s one of these countries. ° o Situated between l a t i t u d e s 35 S and 47 S, and having an equable climate, the country i s admirably suited to the growing of the exotic species which have been introduced. The r a i n f a l l of 25-80 inches per year over the greater part of the country „-37 i s adequate for these species. In only a small part of the country (parts of Canterbury and Otago) does r a i n f a l l drop to the 15-25 inch l e v e l . The outstanding feature of New Zealand's p r e c i p i t a t i o n to tree growth, however, i s i t s even d i s t r i b u t i o n throughout the year. Other features of the climate i n the commercial timber zone are as follows. Temperatures range from 90°F i n the summer to 15°F i n the winter. Unseasonal f r o s t s are l i k e l y to occur and cause damage to tree growth,but exceptionally severe k i l l i n g f r o s t s are ra«-e. Relative humidities are generally high at 70-807. and sunshine i s of the order of 1700-2200 hours per year. Growing seasons, comparatively free from drought or prolonged cold, are long compared with those of countries with higher climatic extremes. New Zealand has a wide v a r i e t y of s o i l s and the 1969 Forestry Development Conference found no reason to believe that these were not at least as favourable to forest growth as those found i n countries with the same clim a t i c range. The pumice s o i l s , formed from past r h y o l i t i c showers over the central North Island, are p a r t i c u l a r l y suitable. With a few exceptions, which represent only a small proportion of the land on which further a f f o r e s t a t i o n i s contemplated, s o i l s are n u t r i t i o n a l l y adequate and allow free rooting to great depths. The combination of the favourable s o i l and c l i m a t i c conditions mentioned above and the properties of the two major exotic species 38 planted i n New Zealand - radia t a pine and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Mirbo.Franco.) -r e s u l t ih.iextremely high y i e l d s by world standards. Table 1 shows estimates of r e a l i s a b l e y i e l d s at age 30 i n d i f f e r e n t parts of New Zealand. Table 1. Estimates of r e a l i s a b l e y i e l d s at age 30, i n d i f f e r e n t parts of New Zealand. (Data taken from "Merchantable Y i e l d Tables f o r Exotic Conifers", WP 2.2.1, Forestry Development Conference, New Zealand, 1969.) Species D i s t r i c t Cu.ft. per acre per year Radiata pine Auckland 215-240 Central North Island East Coast and Nelson 330-370 Canterbury f o o t h i l l s 230-240 Canterbury pla i n s 150-170 Tapanui, Southland 270-300 Douglas-fir Central North Island (at 30 years) 270 (at 60 years) 340-390 These figures are extremely generalized, intended for use i n computations covering very wide areas, and furthermore are considered conservative. The f i r s t r o t a t i o n of New Zealand's exotic species have received minimum management and l i t t l e data e x i s t to forecast the pot e n t i a l y i e l d s from an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of management. The subcommittee on growth potential and wood s u i t a b i l i t y which reported to the Forestry Development Conference noted that i n p a r t i c u l a r ".. higher y i e l d s could be expected i f thinnings were more frequent, 39 although the latter do not at present appear to be economically attractive." The same sub-committee compared these growth rates with other parts of the world and concluded: "On world standards, New Zealand's exotic forests are unsurpassed in softwood production per acre." On present information, growth rates of radiata pine in Chile - which has a belt of country in latitude 35-39°S with a Mediterranean climate more closely akin to radiata pine's native habitat in C&liifornia than New Zealand's - can be considered equal to those in New Zealand (Yudelevich, 1966). L i t t l e is yet known of the potential growth rates of Douglas-f i r in New Zealand but i t would appear that they surpass the best in the United Kingdom. Height growth of plantation^grown Douglas-f i r on the best sites in New Zealand i s on a par with the best sites i n the U.S.A. (the latter is probably natural regeneration rather than plantation grown),but volume growth i s considerably greater, perhaps by as much as 1007,. The difference between New Zealand and Canadian growth is even more marked. The question of whether New Zealand can match this production potential with the necessary low costs i s more complex. The s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems by which the two major species are grown large contiguous blocks of even-aged single species stands - offer a number of economic advantages. New Zealand i s also l i t t l e troubled with such elsewhere damaging agencies as f i r e , wind and 40 snow. E x t e n s i v e a r e a s o f m o n o c u l t u r e c a n , h o w e v e r , be v u l n e r a b l e t o i n s e c t a n d f u n g a l a t t a c k , p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t w h i c h c o u l d r a i s e management c o s t s . Damage t o d a t e , h o w e v e r , h a s b e e n s l i g h t a n d e v e n t h e m o s t s e r i o u s f u n g a l t h r e a t y e t , P o t h i s t r o m a p i n i ( H u l b . ) a p p e a r s a m e n a b l e t o c o n t r o l a t l o w c o s t p e r a c r e . The p o t e n t i a l d a n g e r s o f i n s e c t a n d d i s e a s e a t t a c k s o n New Z e a l a n d ' s e x o t i c f o r e s t s p e c i e s h a v e l o n g b e e n r e c o g n i z e d . A p p r o p r i a t e l y t h e f o r e s t s a r e k e p t u n d e r c o n s t a n t s u r v e i l l a n c e b y a t e am o f f o r e s t b i o l o g y o b s e r v e r s , who w o r k i n c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n , w i t h a n e x p e r i e n c e d p a t h o l o g y r e s e a r c h t e a m , a n d t h e c o u n t r y a s a w h o l e i s p r o t e c t e d b y a n e f f i c i e n t a n d w e l l - o r g a n i z e d i m p o r t -q u a r a n t i n e s y s t e m . N e i t h e r o f t h e a b o v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s r e a s o n f o r c o m p l a c e n c y b u t t h e i r c r e a t i o n s e r v e s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e c o u n t r y ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f a n d r e a d i n e s s t o c o p e w i t h t h e p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m s . F a l l i n g g r o w t h r a t e s i n s e c o n d a n d s u b s e q u e n t r o t a t i o n s i s a phenomenon l o n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h w i l d m o n o c u l t u r e s . W i t h a f e w v e r y l i m i t e d e x c e p t i o n s , t h i s p r o b l e m d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be t r o u b l i n g r a d i a t a p i n e i n New Z e a l a n d . On t h e p u m i c e s o i l s i n d i c a t i o n s a r e t h a t t h e r e v e r s e i s t r u e a n d s e c o n d r o t a t i o n c r o p s a r e s h o w i n g s i g n s o f i m p r o v e d g r o w t h , a l t h o u g h t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s o f i m p r o v e d s p a c i n g a n d p o s s i b l e i m p r o v e d s i t e a r e n o t known. E v i d e n c e t o d a t e s u g g e s t s t h a t c y c l i n g o f n u t r i e n t s i n r a d i a t a p i n e p l a n t a t i o n s , a t l e a s t o n p u m i c e s o i l s , w i l l r e t a r d s e r i o u s d e p l e t i o n o f n u t r i e n t s a t 41 least until the end of the second rotation (Will, 1968). Soil • nutrient reserves of potassium and calcium seem adequate for a number of tree crops but supplies of nitrogen and phosphorous w i l l largely depend upon their release from s o i l organic matter which form stable complexes with allophane in the s o i l (Will, 1968). There has been a tendency to dismiss completely the potential danger of production f a l l - o f f s in New Zealand radiata pine forestry as a result of th«> excellent performance of the pumice soils as compared to the sands of South Australia (Lewis and Harding, 1963) and the nitrogen poor soils of the Nelson d i s t r i c t (Stone and W i l l , 1963). Will's summary of current knowledge (1968), however, demonstrated sufficient potential problems to justify continued research into the question of pine plantation nutrition. Forestry Working Party No.2; Production Forestry, of the 1969 National Development Conference took a l l these factors into account and concluded: "We have the climate, the soils and the species to grow high quality long-fibred cellulose quickly, and, i f we go about i t the right way, to grow i t extremely cheaply by world standards.". Having grown this cheap, high quality softwood fibre, New Zealand is faced with the f i n a l problem of selling i t . The arguments at the beginning of this thesis suggested that, assuming costs are kept down, the world i s l i k e l y to continue to demand wood fibre, despite the competition of substitute materials. Westoby (1970) 42 a l s o t o o k t h i s v i e w b u t w a r n e d t h a t New Z e a l a n d ' s p r o d u c t - l o n g -f i b r e d s o f t w o o d p u l p - i s no l o n g e r t h e premium m a t e r i a l t h a t i t u s e d t o b e . Q u o t i n g a number o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e n d s , i n c l u d i n g t h e J a p a n e s e p u l p i n d u s t r y ' s c h a n g e f r o m a n 857o s o f t w o o d r a w c m a t e r i a l i n t a k e i n 1955 t o o n l y 157, s o f t w o o d a n d 587, h a r d w o o d i n t a k e i n 1967, he p r e d i c t e d t h a t s o f t w o o d w i l l c o n t i n u e t o f i n d a m a r k e t o n l y w h i l e i t i s c h e a p e n o u g h . The a d v a n t a g e s o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n t o New Z e a l a n d , b u t a l s o t h e w a r n i n g s a g a i n s t c o m p l a c e n c y , a r e o b v i o u s . New Z e a l a n d ' s g e o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n w i t h a l a t i t u d e i n t h e f o r t i e s a n d a l o n g i t u d e i n t h e h u n d r e d a n d s e v e n t i e s may be e x c e l l e n t f o r g r o w i n g r a d i a t a p i n e , b u t i t d o e s n o t o f f e r t h e b e s t a c c e s s t o t h e w o r l d ' s p r i n c i p a l f o r e s t p r o d u c t m a r k e t s . S h i p p i n g r a t e s a n d t h e f r e q u e n c y a n d r e g u l a r i t y o f s h i p p i n g h a v e a l w a y s b e e n , a n d w i l l c o n t i n u e t o b e , a p r o b l e m t o New Z e a l a n d ' s e x p o r t t r a d e ( M a n u f a c t u r i n g C o m m i t t e e ' s r e p o r t t o t h e N a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t C o n f e r e n c e , 1969). W e s t o b y ' s a n s w e r t o t h e p r o b l e m , s h a r e d i n l a r g e m e a s u r e b y t h e F p r e s t r y S e c t o r o f t h e N a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t C o n f e r e n c e , i s f o r New Z e a l a n d t o move a h e a d i n t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f h i g h v a l u e l i n e s , m a n u f a c t u r e d f r o m h e r s u p p l i e s o f c h e a p , v e r s a t i l e r a w m a t e r i a l . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p o l i t i c a l f r a m e w o r k f o r d e v e l o p i n g a c o m p l i m e n t a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e f o r e s t e c o n o m i c s o f New Z e a l a n d a n d h e r c l o s e s t p o t e n t i a l m a r k e t e x p a n s i o n f i e l d , A u s t r a l i a , h a s a l r e a d y b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d (New Z e a l a n d - A u s t r a l i a F r e e T r a d e A g r e e m e n t , N A F T A ) . 43 The report of the Working Party No.l, Marketing, to the Forestry Development Conference, showed that these problems are well recognised by the industry within^ New Zealand, and i n p a r t i c u l a r , firm recommendations were l a i d down concerning the need for serious study of New Zealand's future shipping needs and the ways i n which these w i l l be f u l f i l l e d . A review of New Zealand's p o t e n t i a l f o r f i b r e production would not be complete without some reference to the land resource ava i l a b l e f o r forest production. This matter was investigated by the Land Resources Subcommittee during the 1969 Forestry Development Conference. The National Forestry Planning Model (Familton, 1969) c a l l s for an annual new planting rate of 57,000 acres between 1970 and 1975. Although national planting rates are to be reviewed every 5 years from 1968 on, the model also noted that a de novo planting rate of 52,000 acres per year u n t i l 1985 i s necessary to s a t i s f y growing domestic demands and maintain continuity of exports a f t e r 1995. I t was a concern of the Land Resources Subcommittee, therefore, that land was available f o r t h i s programme. Some 1.6 m i l l i o n acres was required. Two factors complicated the work of the Subcommittee. F i r s t l y , they found that "....considering the question of land a v a i l a b i l i t y and s u i t a b i l i t y for f o r e s t s , no adequate, reasonably complete de s c r i p t i o n of land i n New Zealand e x i s t s . " (See footnote p.44) 44 Secondly, the committee was not satisfied that adequate c r i t e r i a exist to choose among various alternative land uses. They were therefore forced to use a 1959 breakdown of the New Zealand land base which i s badly in need of revision. This breakdown is shown in Table 2. Table 2. New Zealand land base. Land Category. M i l l i o n acres Merchantable indigenous forest (1.3) and productive exotic forest (1.0):-Category A 2.3 Intensive agriculture - Improved pastures (19.5) and "Arable, orchards etc. (1.3):-Category B 20.8 Land suitable for future development in one form or another - Fern, scrub and second growth (5.7), Unimproved Pasture (13.0) and Understocked merchantable forest (1.5):-Category C 20.2 Land not suitable for development -Unmerchantable forest (11.5), Urban, water, minor islands (2.2), Other (9.4):-Category D 23.1 Total 66.4 (Footnote to p.43) The Land Use Capability Survey Handbook, produced for the Soil Conservation and Rivers Control Council by the Water and Soil Division, Ministry of Works, Wellington, was published in 1969. It helps l i t t l e in alleviating the problems noted above, however. Intended as a guide to classifying any particular tract of land, i t makes no attempt to inventory New Zealand's land resource. Even as a guide to land use classification i t s value is somewhat doubtful as i t takes the traditional and very much outmoded approach of rating land by i t s agricultural capability (forestry once again being relegated to those lands on which a l l forms of farming are considered out of the question) rather than presenting a system of land evaluation for each of a l l the possible uses. 45 In order to produce the low cost wood (assuming present day methods of management) land must have c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n teajsonable combinations. (a) A large area (probably i n the region of 100,000 acres) must be available f o r a f f o r e s t a t i o n i n one l o c a l i t y , so that the large volume of wood required f o r integrated u t i l i z a t i o n can be assembled i n one place without excessive transport costs. As has already been noted, large contiguous areas are also required to allow the economic implementation of large scale mechanized systems. Sutton (1964) doubted that forests under 10,000 acres could be economically j u s t i f i e d . (b) The s o i l and climate should be capable of rapid growth of a desirable species, preferably radiata pine or Douglas-fir. The costs of preparing land for a f f o r e s t a t i o n and of maintaining the plantations should be low. (c) The land c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which govern the cost of harvesting the wood must be favourable. Under current methods, those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are associated with t e r r a i n permitting low cost road construction and t r a c t o r logging. Exact descriptions of such land have not yet been formulated. (d) Consideration must also be given to the cost of providing the services such as power, water and transport needed by u t i l i z a t i o n plants. Attention i s focussed on the 20.2 m i l l i o n acres of Category C (see Table 2) f o r expansion of New Zealand's exotic f o r e s t estate. 46 It i s f e l t that more than enough land, with the necessary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i s available within; the 5.7 m i l l i o n acres of land currently carrying fern,scrub and second growth f o r e s t . The National Development Conference noted that forest product exports from New Zealand were lim i t e d only by the supply of wood. Usmar and Yska (1971) have more recently noted that the export p o s s i b i l i t i e s are now being more thoroughly examined i n t h e i r own l i g h t and conclude that the r e s u l t w i l l l i k e l y be even greater argument f o r increased forest establishment. Even given the necessary combinations of land c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s mentioned above, there i s l i t t l e doubt i n the author's mind that the 1.6 m i l l i o n acres of Category C required to maintain the annual planting targets set i n 1969, i s only a small proportion of the total'-additional land a v a i l a b l e for exotic forest establishment. Although the forest industry s t i l l contributes r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e to New Zealand's G.N.P.(op. c i t . ) and the a g r i c u l t u r a l industry remains the mainstay of the economy, there i s a trend towards public acceptance of for e s t r y as having a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e to play i n the future economy of the country. Although d e f i c i e n t i n some respects, a number of pioneering studies have been c a r r i e d out which have shaken the t r a d i t i o n a l view that f o r e s t r y should always be relegated to the land considered sub-marginal to farmings (Bg. Ward et _al>. ,1966). Continuing work of t h i s nature, supplemented m and controlled by the deliberations of the recently established 47 Land Use Advisory Committee, i s bound to r e s u l t i n a more r a t i o n a l approach to the p o s s i b i l i t y of f o r e s t r y as an a l t e r n a t i v e land use and a probable increase i n the amount of presently undeveloped land which w i l l be made availa b l e to a f f o r e s t a t i o n . Considerable areas of abandoned and economically sub-marginal farm land are also l i k e l y to be found well suited to timber production. Such trends can only be accelerated by the current problems i n the world wool market and the entry of New Zealand's major trading partner, the United Kingdom, into the European Economic Community. The l a t t e r , i n p a r t i c u l a r , w i l l force a considerable degree of reorganization and r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n on the a g r i c u l t u r a l industry. The lamentable lack of a land c a p a b i l i t y inventory i n New Zealand, presently precludes any attempts to estimate accurately the p o t e n t i a l land base fo r f o r e s t r y . Even assuming the topographic demands of the present day machinery and techniques, the area, over and above that required by the targets of the National Forestry Planning Model,will c e r t a i n l y be measured i n m i l l i o n s of acres. In addition there i s a considerable p o t e n t i a l production which w i l l come from a f f o r e s t a t i o n projects i n which timber production i s not the major objective (ejg. the, so-called protection-production forests mentioned i n the report of forestry working party No.4, Multiple Use Forestry, 1969, and schemes such as that described by Macarthur (1971). 48 Notwithstanding the t e r r a i n l i m i t a t i o n s c i t e d above, the Forest Research Institute's symposium on land c l e a r i n g (Chavasse, 1969) was confident that more than 507o of the land to be afforested i n the future i n New Zealand would possess slope l i m i t a t i o n s that would preclude the use of tr a c t o r s . This author expects that techniques w i l l be developed i n the future which w i l l allow s i t e preparation, planting, tending and harvesting operations to be car r i e d out on t h i s class of country (which has not yet been adequately defined) without r a i s i n g wood costs to p r o h i b i t i v e l e v e l s . Examples of some possible techniques are described by Mann (1967). Although i t i s pure speculation, the temptation to estimate some possible future production potentials of New Zealand exotic forestry has been too great to r e s i s t . The following c a l c u l a t i o n s have u t i l i z e d a blanket mean annual production p o t e n t i a l of 300 cubic feet per acre. This rate of growth has been achieved on many of the medium to good s i t e s of the f i r s t r o t a t i o n of radiata pine, despite an almost complete lack of s i l v i c u l t u r a l treatment since planting. Management inputs such as spacing c o n t r o l , production thinning ( i f t h i s becomes economic), genetic improvement, closer u t i l i z a t i o n and f e r t i l i z a t i o n on the l i m i t e d areas where s p e c i f i c nutrient d e f i c i e n c i e s have reduced growth rate i n the past, w i l l very l i k e l y improve the growth rate of the second and subsequent rotations considerably. The areas of lower growth rates, such as the Canterbury Plains(s@e Table 1) w i l l constitute a r e l a t i v e l y small proportion 49 of the future planting area and should have l i t t l e e f f e c t on the national average growth rate. The figure of 300 cu.ft./acre i s , therefore, considered by no means optimistic and increases from i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of management should l a r g e l y compensate for any lowering of s i t e q u a l i t y that might occur as the forest land; base i s increased. Table 3. Pot e n t i a l gross annual y i e l d s from N.Z. exotic f o r e s t r y , assuming various land bases. Land base - m i l l i o n s acres. M i l l i o n s cubic feet 1.0 (Present productive exotie forest) 300 3.2 (N.D.C. target requirements) 960 5.0 1500 10.0 3000 (Note:- current annual cut from whole of B.C. i s 2,000 m i l l i o n cubic feet - B.C. Forest Service, Annual Report for 1970.) Usmar and Yska (1971) have noted that population and development pressures have not yet overwhelmed the environmental a t t r i b u t e s of New Zealand. Bad mistakes have been made i n the past i n land clearing practices" (eg. Chavasse,1969) and the introduction of exotic herbivors (notwithstanding some b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s of the l a t t e r - v i z . the t o u r i s t and domestic recreational values of hunting deer), and these should be adequate warning that New Zealand must learn from the lessons of other countrre^. Such considerations w i l l i n j e c t some caution into the development^planning of the country's e x c i t i n g , i f presently imprecisely known, forest p o t e n t i a l 50 The approach to planning of possible industries to u t i l i z e indigenous hardwoods, b r i e f l y outlined by Usmar and Yska (1971), i s encouraging i n t h i s respect. The potential of the beech (Nothofagus spp.) resource on the west coast of the South Island was assessed a f t e r conservation, recreation and amenity factors had been :.. considered. The reduced land base i s thought capable of supporting a 500 tons/day K r a f t m i l l . These kinds of p r i o r i t i e s must never be l o s t . Even i f New Zealand i s a l i t t l e technologically backward today, there i s no doubt that she has an environmental quality that i s the envy of many more advanced countries. The forest products industry i n general i s not world renowned for i t s compatability with the environment and any judgement of i t s future pot e n t i a l i n New Zealand must ensure that i t s economic advantages are not bought at the price that has sometimes been paid elsewhere. In summary, i t would appear that with c a r e f u l consideration of a number of problems primarily concerned with her geographic p o s i t i o n and environment, New Zealand's forest industry has a p o t e n t i a l , l i m i t e d by, although r e l a t i v e l y very large i n comparison to, her absolute siz e , to supply some of the forest products the world i s l i k e l y to require and at a price the world will'be prepared to pay. 51 2. Potential for Forest Mechanization. It is convenient to deal with this topic under two sub-divisions:-1. - those factors related to the particular type of forestry in New Zealand; how, where and by whom exotic forestry is practiced. 2. - those factors which are a result of the wider implications of New Zealand's peculiar national features. The most prevalent s i l v i c u l t u r a l system in New Zealand exotic forestry is even-aged management of monocultures. The potential dangers of such forestry (and New Zealand's awareness of same) have already been discussed. Such systems, however, are the best suited to large scale mechanization of a l l phases of the forestry enterprise. The simple and uniform ecological conditions,and tree and log sizes found under such conditions,facilitate machine design and allow the wider application of any one particular design. The forests are in fact already standardized and hence more compatible to a marriage with machinery. New Zealand forestry is characterized by a small (under ten) number of large, forest growing organizations (excluding the farmer foresters), the largest of which is currently the State i t s e l f . Such organizations possess the scale of operations that i s required to justify intensive mechanization and are capable of the large capital outlay generally required. Large areas and organizations allow the implication of such techniques as multi-machine teams and 52 m u l t i - s h i f t working. Good maintenance and managerial backup are l i k e l y to be more r e a d i l y available also. There i s every i n d i c a t i o n that these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ownership and i n d i v i d u a l forest size are l i k e l y to continue. Thus recommendation 23(b) of the Forestry Sector's report to the 1969 National Development Conference reads:-"That the l o c a t i o n of future planting programmes should be dictated by the following consideration(s):-(b) The need to create further large forest concentrations i n areas which can f u l f i l the conditions favouring the development of large-scale industries. The economies of scale i n forestry operations as well as i n forest industries should be recognized." A small number of major markets i s a feature of New Zealand exotic forestry. Although of p a r t i c u l a r advantage to the mechanization of logging and transportation phases, t h i s feature also contributes to the o v e r a l l standardization of f o r e s t r y operations which benefits mechanization of a l l phases of f o r e s t r y , Consideration of New Zealand's t e r r a i n and s o i l s presents a less optimistic picture of forest mechanization. A very large proportion of the current exotic f o r e s t estate i s to be found on f l a t to r o l l i n g country on r e l a t i v e l y stable s o i l s . The question of available land for future a f f o r e s t a t i o n has already been discussed; Quantitatively there i s s u f f i c i e n t land to at l e a s t treble the National Development Conference's target estate for the year 1989. There i s much doubt, however, about how much of this land w i l l be able to support intensive mechanization - at least with todays machines - because of l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by slope and/or erosion p o t e n t i a l . 53 A r e c e n t q u e s t i o n a i r e ( C h a v a s s e , 1969) showed t h a t o f t h e 1,292,000 a c r e s t o be t o be p l a n t e d b y t h e r e s p o n d e n t s d u r i n g t h e n e x t t h i r t y y e a r p e r i o d , o n l y 527o was n e g o t i a b l e b y c r a w l e r t r a c t o r . W i t h t h e new a t t i t u d e s t o l a n d a l l o c a t i o n b e t w e a n f o r e s t r y a n d a g r i c u l t u r e w h i c h s h o u l d r e s u l t f r o m t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e N a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t C o n f e r e n c e , more l a n d o f g e n t l e r s l o p e s h o u l d become a v a i l a b l e t o a f f o r e s t a t i o n . T h e r e i s no d o u b t , h o w e v e r , t h a t s t e e p h i l l s i d e s w i l l l o n g be a p r o b l e m f o r f o r e s t m e c h a n i z a t i o n i n New Z e a l a n d . L a r g e a r e a s o f w h a t h a v e b e e n t e r m e d p r o t e c t i o n - p r o d u c t i o n f o r e s t s a r e b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d . T h e s e schemes i n v o l v e t h e u s e o f e x o t i c s p e c i e s t o r e h a b i l i t a t e f a r m l a n d w h i c h h a s b e e n a b a n d o n e d b e c a u s e o f e r o s i o n p r o b l e m s . A l t h o u g h s o i l p r o t e c t i o n w i l l be t h e o v e r - r i d i n g r o l e o f t h e s e f o r e s t s , i t i s i n t e n d e d t h a t some t i m b e r w i l l be t a k e n f r o m them ( e g . O l s e n , 1970). R e n n i e (1971) n o t e d t h e n e e d , o n a w o r l d w i d e s c a l e , f o r a b r e a k t h r o u g h i n p r i m e m o v i n g t e c h n i q u e s t o a l l o w t h e m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f f o r e s t o p e r a t i o n s o n s t e e p t e r r a i n . N owhere i s t h i s more n e e d e d t h a n i n New Z e a l a n d . A s a g e n e r a l r u l e New Z e a l a n d c a n be c o n s i d e r e d a l a b o u r h u n g r y c o u n t r y . I n many i n d u s t r i e s , t h e n , m e c h a n i z a t i o n w h i c h a l l o w s i n c r e a s e d o r m a i n t a i n e d o u t p u t w i t h t h e minimum i n c r e a s e i n l a b o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s i s f a v o u r e d . T h i s s i t u a t i o n a p p l i e s t o New Z e a l a n d f o r e s t r y but' w i t h t h e c a u t i o n t h a t f o r e s t r y h a s i n t h e p a s t p r o v i d e d r e l i e f t o s m a l l l e v e l s o f u n e m p l o y m e n t p r o d u c e d b y a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f s e a s o n a l w o r k . The " s e a s o n a l l y u n e m p l o y e d " a r e 54 c o n s i d e r e d b y some t o be t h e r e s u l t o f p o o r f i s c a l a n d m o n e t a r y p o l i c i e s o n t h e p a r t o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t a n d t o b e a p u r e l y t e m p o r a r y phenomenon. The a c t u a l numbers i n v o l v e d a r e , i n a n y c a s e , v e r y s m a l l a n d u n l i k e l y t o m a t e r i a l l y c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e l a b o u r n e e d s o f New Z e a l a n d ' s r a p i d l y e x p a n d i n g f o r e s t i n d u s t r y . I t i s c o n c l u d e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t i n c r e a s e d m e c h a n i z a t i o n w i l l be a n e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f f o r e s t r y ' s f u t u r e . A l t h o u g h d e c r e a s i n g t h e t o t a l q u a n t i t i e s o f l a b o u r r e q u i r e d , a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y r e d u c i n g t h e demands f o r t h e l o w e r q u a l i t i e s o f l a b o u r , m e c h a n i z a t i o n d o e s c r e a t e i n t u r n a demand f o r c e r t a i n s k i l l s i n t h e o p e r a t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e m a c h i n e s . I f she i s s h o r t o f l a b o u r p e r s e , t h e n New Z e a l a n d i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s h o r t o f s k i l l e d l a b o u r . A s s i s t e d i m m i g r a t i o n o f s k i l l e d w o r k e r s a n d t r a i n i n g o f h e r p r e s e n t l y u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r f o r c e a r e two ways i n w h i c h New Z e a l a n d i n t e n d s t o p r e v e n t a n y h o l d up o f i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n t h r o u g h m e c h a n i z a t i o n a n d a n y u n e mployment w h i c h may t e n d t o r e s u l t f r o m a r e d u c e d demand f o r u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r ( R e p o r t o f t h e L a b o u r C o m m i t t e e t o t h e N a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t C o n f e r e n c e , 1 9 6 9 ) . I t m ust be remembered h e r e t h a t New Z e a l a n d i s a s o c i a l i s t c o u n t r y w i t h a-:>long h i s t o r y o f g o v e r n m e n t p r o v i d e d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s ( e g . s o c i a l i z e d m e d i c i n e ) . F u l l e m p l o y m e n t i s a n a t i o n a l a i m w h i c h f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s i s a l m o s t c o n s t a n t l y a t t a i n e d . T h i s a t t i t u d e i s b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d b y q u o t i n g f r o m t h e L a b o u r C o m m i t t e e R e p o r t t o t h e N.D.C.:-55 "The c o m m i t t e e c o n s i d e r s t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d a c c e p t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e e f f e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g o f a n o v e r a l l manpower p o l i c y d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e f u l l a n d p r o d u c t i v e e m p l o y m e n t , b u t w h i c h w o u l d a t t h e same t i m e be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o t h e r e c o n o m i c o b j e c t i v e s s u c h a s g r o w t h , p r i c e s t a b i l i t y a n d t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f a d e q u a t e l e v e l s o f o v e r s e a s f u n d s . I n m a k i n g t h i s s t a t e m e n t , h o w e v e r , t h e c o m m i t t e e w i s h e s t o s t r e s s t h a t manpower i s a f a c t o r o f p r o d u c t i o n t h a t m u s t be e x a m i n e d i n s o c i a l a s w e l l a s e c o n o m i c t e r m s . " The c o m m i t t e e a l s o n o t e d t h e p r o b l e m s o f f o r e c a s t i n g l a b o u r demands a n d t r e n d s b u t f e l t t h a t one t r e n d t h a t was d e f i n i t e was a move t o w a r d r e q u i r e m e n t o f more s k i l l e d a n d f e w e r u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r s . I t t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d t h a t e d u c a t i o n , v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g a n d r e t r a i n i n g programmes a r e a n e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s l a b o u r p o l i c y . I n summary, t h e n , m e c h a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n New Z e a l a n d i s e n c o u r a g e d b y a g e n e r a l l a b o u r s h o r t a g e . A n y l o c a l i z e d u n e m ployment p r o b l e m s w h i c h c o u l d a r i s e f r o m " o v e r " m e c h a n i z a t i o n w o u l d be i n t o l e r a b l e i n New Z e a l a n d , b u t i t i s t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s l a b o u r p o l i c y t o a n t i c i p a t e a n d p r e v e n t s u c h s i t u a t i o n s , o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n l i m i t s t h a t a r e e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e . I n a n a t t e m p t t o c o n s e r v e o v e r s e a s f u n d s a n d t o p r o t e c t h e r own s m a l l m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r y - t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r e d v i t a l t o o f f s e t t h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n economy b a s e d o n p r i m a r y p r o d u c t s - New Z e a l a n d h a s l o n g r e s t r i c t e d i m p o r t s o f c e r t a i n t y p e s o f m a c h i n e r y u n d e r c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s . Up t o now, two d i s t i n c t s y s t e m s h a v e b e e n i n o p e r a t i o n . The f i r s t o f t h e s e , i m p o r t l i c e n s i n g , was d e s i g n e d t o " h e l p c o n t a i n e x p e n d i t u r e o n i m p o r t s w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f a v a i l a b l e o v e r s e a s 56 exchange, while ensuring that the resources are used as e f f e c t i v e l y as possible."(Anon., 1970). The import l i c e n s i n g system i s gradually being phased out i n favour of a system of protective t a r i f f s and,in 1970-1971, 65-707, of private imports by value were free of l i c e n s i n g . New Zealand has long had an a g r i c u l t u r a l machinery industry ( i n the 1880's New Zealand was exporting plough, shares to the United States) which currently possesses 110 plants producing, i n 1966-67, machinery valued at $17 m i l l i o n . Such machinery i s subject to import l i c e n s i n g . Many of the heavier types of machinery used i n fores t r y would not be made by these companies and, i n some cases, they would be free of import l i c e n s i n g . In a l l cases, however, the onus Is on the New Zealand user to show that a domestic manufacturer cannot s a t i s f a c t o r i l y produce the machine. The New Zealand Customs T a r i f f has the objectives:- ".... to provide revenue, and to afford reasonable protection to economic New Zealand industries, while at the same time assuring New Zealand manufacturers of entry for th e i r raw materials at the lowest possible duty raises i f the materials are not produced i n New Zealand." (Anon., 1970). The t a r i f f i s based on the Brussel's nomenclature and rates of duty vary according to the country of o r i g i n and the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the goods. Table 4 shows some examples of t a r i f f s taken from the Customs T a r i f f of New Zealand. 57 Table 4. Some New Zealand Customs T a r i f f s . (extracted from The Customs T a r i f f of New Zealand, N.Z. Customs Dept., R.E. Owen, Govt. P r i n t e r , Wellington 1967) Item B r i t i s h P r e f e r e n t i a l Most Favoured Nation General T a r i f f A)Crawler t r a c t o r s : -hydraulic control parts; other parts; (Ditto wheeled tractors) 25% (Can.-35%) Free 25% 5% 60% 10% B)Disc ploughs 10% (Can.-35%) 10% 40% C)Ploughs general 10% (Can.-35%) 20% 40% D)Cultivators 10% (Can.-35%) (Aust.-Free) 10% 40% These two systems, although designed to protect the nation as a whole, could at times cause considerable inconvenience and additio n a l cost to a prospective importer of machinery. The gradual phasing out of the import l i c e n s i n g schedule w i l l remove some of the inconvenience, but the t a r i f f , combined with the cost of f r e i g h t , w i l l r e s u l t i n machines i n New Zealand being priced considerably higher,than i n countries possessing large, e f f i c i e n t manufacturing in d u s t r i e s . '58 New Z e a l a n d i n d u s t r y i s l i k e l y bo be c a p a b l e o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g t h e h e a v y l a n d c l e a r i n g a n d s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n m a c h i n e r y r e q u i r e d i n f o r e s t r y , a l t h o u g h p r o b a b l y a t a h i g h e r p r i c e t h a n a n o v e r s e a s e q u i v a l e n t , b u t i t i s u n l i k e l y t o be c a p a b l e o f p r o d u c i n g s o p h i s t i c a t e d l o g g i n g e q u i p m e n t a n d h e a v y p r i m e m o v e r s f o r some c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e . 59 4. A FUTURE REFORESTATION SYSTEM FOR NEW ZEALAND RADIATA PINE. General Background. Reforestation i s a comparatively new concept to New Zealand exotic forestry, although her high growth rates and early start in plantation forestry have put her considerably in advance of other exotic forest growing nations. In the early days of logging of the exotic forest estate, natural regeneration was thought to be so immediate and abundant that l i t t l e attention was given to reforestation (Ure, 1949). In later years, however, when the efficiency and popularity of natural regeneration began to decline (see below) and i t became necessary to invest considerable sums in a r t i f i c i a l restocking, an objective look at the importance of reforestation would have been desirable. Enough money was being invested in site preparation of the cutovers before a r t i c i a l restocking could be undertaken, that a study of th© relative rates of return on an investment in afforesting new land compared with the cutover would have been justified. Despite the limited resources available for forest establishment, no such study was carried out. The re-establishment of cutover within existing forest boundaries was considered the f i r s t c a l l on funds. This attitude remains today and is exemplified by the Forestry Sector's inclusion of, "restocking existing mature exotic forest as i t is felled" as the f i r s t of a l i s t of methods of achieving wood production targets, in their report to the 1969 National Development Conference. From the point of view of the 6 0 forest purist this is an excellent attitude; from that of an economist,in a country where capital i s currently more limited than land, i t would demand closer examination. For the purposes of this thesis, the attitude is merely accepted. The history of reforestation of radiata pine in New Zealand has been one of decreasing r e l i a b i l i t y of and reliance on natural regeneration. The subject is covered by two papers (Page, 1970,1971 b.) and only a very brief synopsis i s presented here. Before large scale logging commenced in the mid-1950's, natural regeneration was considered adequate. Accelerated logging from 1956 on, however, led to a very great increase in the mileage of stand edge and a consequent population explosion of the seed eating birds and mice ( a l l exotic) to which the stand edge was the most favourable habitat. Radiata pine has a serotinous cone and very rarely are sufficiently high temperatures reached to open these cones during winter-logging. They therefore remain closed on the slash until the f i r s t hot day of spring, which also coincides with the time of most severe food shortage for the seed eating birds and mice. Most seed is consumed as soon as i t drops from the cones and natural regeneration of these winter-logged areas f a i l s . During summer-logging ground temperatures are high enough to open the cones on the felled trees during the two to three week delay between f e l l i n g and yarding. The yarding operations then bury the seed out of reach of the predators. 61 Broadcast a e r i a l seeding with repellent coated seed was introduced on the winter-logged areas to reinforce the d e f i c i e n t natural stocking and proved successful. Both natural and a r t i f i c i a l seeding, however, f a i l e d when logging reached high altitude f l a t country where unseasonal f r o s t s brown of f the young seedlings i n the early autumn. Windrowing of slash and hand planting became necessary on these s i t e s . The increased attention that New Zealand foresters were being forced to pay to the restocking of radiata pine cutovers resulted i n a more c r i t i c a l study of the naturally regenerated areas which had previously been considered adequately stocked. From these surveys i t was concluded that, "no(large)area of natural regeneration can be expected to be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y stocked " (Page, 1970). Poor d i s t r i b u t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l trees was the major complaint, r e s u l t i n g i n a patchwork of badly or non-stocked areas interspersed with areas of over dense stocking, the l a t t e r demanding expensive precommercial thinning or spacing. The same complaints, to a lesser but s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t degree, could be l e v e l l e d against the r e s u l t s of a e r i a l broadcast seeding. Under the very short rotations of radiata pine growing i n New Zealand (26-35 years) control of spacing from the e a r l i e s t years of the stand i s of great management sig n i f i c a n c e . At about the same time as the above work was going on, great stri d e s were being made i n the f i e l d of tree-breeding. New Zealand's radi a t a pine population shows a very great degree of v a r i a t i o n and 62 the pot e n t i a l for improvement i n form and y i e l d through the use of g e n e t i c a l l y superior seed i s very great (N.Z. Forest Service, 1969). Orchard seed r e t a i l s at approximately $iMZ30/lb (Chavasse, pers.comm.) and such an expensive commodity should not be broadcast from an -v a i r c r a f t as was possible with the much cheaper forest c o l l e c t e d seed. The advantages and increasing a v a i l a b i l i t y of planting stock grown from orchard seed, further accelerated the move away from natural regeneration and l e f t a e r i a l seeding i n the r o l e of a stop gap u n t i l s u f f i c i e n t improved stock and labour were avail a b l e to allow planting of a l l areas. In comparing these operations i t should be remembered that use of g e n e t i c a l l y improved stock allows a stand to be started with a very much lower i n t i a l stocking. The target stocking of 1,000 evenly spaced stems per acre on much of the New Zealand pumice country (Page, 1970) was necessitated by the need to have a s u f f i c i e n t l y large population of these very variable individuals to allow the s e l e c t i o n of 80-150 f i n a l crop trees per acre. The poor d i s t r i b u t i o n of seedlings a r i s i n g from natural or broadcast seed demanded that t o t a l stockings i n the order of 3-5,000 stems per acre were necessary to ensure adequate e f f e c t i v e stocking (1000 evenly spaced stems per acre) a f t e r precommercial thinning. Appendix 1 shows some average costs of r e f o r e s t a t i o n operations on one large State owned plantation f o r e s t . They quickly d i s p e l the myth that natural regeneration and a e r i a l seeding are cheap. 63 The basis for planting. New Zealand has a long background in the planting of bare-root radiata pine. The much hallowed planting "boom" of the 1920!s and 30's, when the bulk of the currently maturing exotic estate was established, relied to a very large extent on this method (although quite large areas were established by spot seeding). Scott (1960) noted that radiata pine is extremely easy to raise in the nursery, producing robust and health/ seedlings in one season. The season in which planting of open-rooted stock can be carried out is very long. Under normal operating conditions the f u l l six month winter period i s available for outplanting. Under research conditions, and particularly using specially prepared nursery stock, i t i s possible and, in terms of improved early growth, often advantageous, to plant a l l the year round (Moberly, 1970). The combination of a long planting season and the short ... nursery time required to produce plantable radiata pine stock have spared New Zealand the log i s t i c problems of say eastern Canada where extremely limited planting seasons and the necessity to grow seedlings of such species as white spruce (Picea glauca Voss.) for 2-4 years in the nursery, have led to the comparatively recent interest in container planting (MacKinnon, 1968). The potential advantages of container grown seedlings in terms of planting season extension, easier planning and lower cost have not been of great significance in New Zealand. Containers have only been considered in New Zealand for 64 very sensitive species such as the Eucalypts (Bunn and van Dorser i n Chavasse and Weston, 1969). Research on radiata pine establishment i s now firmly committed to the bare-root concept. E f f o r t s are concentrated on improving the cost and qualtEy of the nursery product through such means as intensive mechanization, p r e c i s i o n sowing, mechanical pretreatment of seedlings (wrenching) etc. (Chavasse and Weston, 1969; Chavasse, pers.comm.). The fortuitous combination of s o i l s and climate^which produces the very high growth rates of radiata pine i n New Zealand, unfortunately produces the same e f f e c t on the competing weed species. The need for tree seedlings to be free of t h i s competition as soon as possible ( i n order to minimize weeding costs) i s often used as an argument for bare-root planting as opposed to seeding methods of r e f o r e s t a t i o n . The argument presupposes a superior growth rate from the planted tree. Although there i s l i t t l e doubt as to the su p e r i o r i t y of the planted tree i n competing with weed growth up to about twelve inches i n height, the author has seen many instances of trees a r i s i n g from natural or a r t i f i c i a l l y applied seed r a p i d l y overhauling planted stock within one season. This i s discussed more f u l l y i n the next section. The problem of weed growth i s being attacked on two fronts i n New Zealand. Chemical control has shown considerable promise i n the release of overtopped plantations from such weeds as l u p i n , gorse etc.. The technique, however, i s l i a b l e to come increasingly under f i r e f o r environmental reasons. 65 Mechanical cultivation of the site has recently received considerable attention in New Zealand. As well as contributing to easier planting conditions and appearing to cause an increase in early growth, well timed cultivation can have considerable effects in suppressing weed growth in the early stages of a plantation's l i f e . If such methods can hold back weed growth for the length of time required for a tree growing from seed to catch up with a planted seedling, assuming this is possible, one of the arguments for planting^ as opposed to seeding, w i l l have been invalidated. Problems with bare-root planting. The techniques of tree planting have changed l i t t l e and the principles not at a l l for 400 years (Walters, 1967). As Walters (1971) has pointed out, Evelyn knew the dangers inherent in the transplanting of bare-root stock and the procedures required to counteract them 300 years ago. (Evelyn was quoting Theophratus so the knowledge has been around even longer.) This long history of the use of a single principle and a number of related techniques could imply a soundness and satisfaction with a system that cannot be equalled or exceeded. A glance through past issues of Forestry Abstracts, however, shows that a very considerable research effort is s t i l l being put into the improvement of bare-root planting. Much of the work is repetitive and outdated, but there i s l i t t l e doubt that there are very real problems with the bare-root system which might suggest a need for a search for a new system. 66 Some of the problems with bare-root planting, p a r t i c u l a r l y as they r e l a t e to radiata pine, are discussed below. Planting shock. Planting shock i s a very loose term and i t i s used here to head a section concerned with a l l aspects of a tree's s e n s i t i v i t y to a l l stages of outplanting. Any physical removal of the plant from one growing medium to another w i l l destroy to some extent the more sensitive parts of the root system and necessitate a period of recovery during which the damaged parts of the roots are replaced. A period of growth, varying i n length with species, planting s i t e and the amount of damage done, i s therefore l o s t while the plant regenerates the l o s t or damaged tissue. This problem has long been recognized but only recently has intensive work been undertaken to attempt to improve the root growth capacity of bare-root planting stock (e..g. Stone and Norberg, 1971). During t h i s period of root regeneration the tree's a b i l i t y to withstand adverse environmental conditions, p a r t i c u l a r l y with regard to water stress, i s more or les s impaired. This s i t u a t i o n leads to varying l i m i t a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y regarding season of outplanting, on the establishment of forest trees by bare-root planting. At least under research conditions and using seedlings which have received multiple wrenching i n the nursery bed (van Dorser i n Chavasse and Weston, 1969) these l i m i t a t i o n s are s l i g h t with radiata pine i n New Zealand (Moberly, 1970). It i s doubtful, however, whether the care 67 given to research plantings can be applied economically at an operational l e v e l and the extent of the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by the tree's root growth capacity under New Zealand conditions i s l i k e l y to depend more upon preconditioning of the planting stock i n the nursery by such techniques as wrenching. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note here that although the p r a c t i c a l advantages of wrenching radiata pine i n reducing the tree's s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to "planting shock" are well demonstrated, the physi o l o g i c a l basis f o r th i s r e s u l t i s very incompletely understood (Cameron and Rook i n Chavasse and Weston, 1969). Because of the great s e n s i t i v i t y of the l i f t e d nursery seedling to environmental conditions, problems are to be found i n the handling, transport and storage phases of forest establishment with bare-root stock. Again tolerances vary.with the species, climate etc. but an exact knowledge of these tolerances i n any p a r t i c u l a r set of conditions i s rare. Research work i s s t i l l being c a r r i e d out -though with the added advantage of various sophisticated techniques -to i l l u s t r a t e such time proven concepts as the necessity to keep bare root exposure between l i f t i n g and outplanting to a minimum (Mullin, 1971). In many parts of the world various techniques have been developed to attempt to protect the transplants from the dangers of exposure. Puddling the roots with the" nursery s o i l and plant dipping with a number of commercial a n t i - t r a n s p i r a t i o n mixtures, such as A g r i c o l and Collatex (sodium and ammonium alginates r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , are examples. Results are once again as varied as the species and 68 l o c a l i t i e s tested. Rook (1970) found that Agricol and Collatex were toxic to radiata pine when the puddled seedlings were planted out into hot dry conditions. It is not intended here to attempt a comprehensive review of a l l the various treatments, storage and transport methods etc. which have to be employed to protect the bare-root seedling during the • c r i t i c a l stage between l i f t i n g and outplanting. Suffice i t to say that problems exist, to greater and lesser degrees, and that the sensitivity of seedlings to this stage in turn creates logisti c and administrative problems, often limits planting seasons and results in reduced survivals i f due care and consideration are not taken in the handling of the seedlings. In New Zealand the enumeration and enforcement of the correct procedures in the handling, packaging and transport stages i s considered a major research and administrative goal i n the development of the bare-root planting technique for radiata pine. In one conservancy, Auckland, the correct application of long known (and largely commonsense) procedures in these stages of establishment has resulted in a reduction of blanking (supplementary planting) from 307o to nothing, at a saving of some $10/acre (Chavasse, pers.comm.). The over-riding point, however, is that, with the exception of a few recent techniques designed to precondition the tree in the nursery bed to better withstand the transplanting stage, the requirements of care in handling, transport etc. have long been known. We have, however, shown a singular lack of a b i l i t y to put a l l this knowledge into practice. The reasoas are various and involve such 69 factors as the poor q u a l i t y of labour and/or supervision, reluctance to spend money on the required transport and storage f a c i l i t i e s , attempts to meet planting targets, possibly set f o r p o l i t i c a l or f i n a n c i a l reasons without regard to -v the requirements of tree handling necessary to ensure s u r v i v a l , and a host of others. Rirkland (1969) has traced the h i s t o r y of Douglas-fir establishment at Kaingaroa Forest i n New Zealand and found that the success of these operations - and hence the q u a l i t y of the stands present today -varied d i s t i n c t l y from period to period. Consultation of the old ( b e a u t i f u l l y hand-written!) compartment records shows c l e a r l y that without exception good r e s u l t s occurred during periods when great care was taken with species s i t i n g , establishment techniques and vigorous follow-up protection for the new stands. We are l i v i n g i n an age where the a p p l i c a t i o n of such techniques w i l l be increasingly d i f f i c u l t . The economic and i n d u s t r i a l conditions under which we w i l l have to work, even i n fores t r y , may not allow enough care and attention to i n d i v i d u a l s i t e , shipments of seedlings,periods of p a r t i c u l a r weather conditions and even to the i n d i v i d u a l tree i t s e l f at the actual planting stage. At the same time the future economics ©f growing trees w i l l not allow us the expense of supplementary planting to reduce the e f f e c t s of uneven spacing and growth which r e s u l t s from poor establishment. Up to now we have f a i l e d to apply consistently the necessary techniques to ensure success i n the bare-root planting method, despite our long knowledge of the requirements. There i s no reason to suggest that without much e f f o r t , we w i l l improve i n t h i s respect i n the future. 70 A d a p t a b i l i t y t o m e c h a n i z a t i o n . The n e c e s s i t y f o r g r e a t e r m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f t h e j c e l l u l o s e g r o w i n g e n t e r p r i s e i n t h e f u t u r e h a s a l r e a d y b e e n d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . The demands o f m e c h a n i z a t i o n a r e one o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l c o n d i t i o n s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e . M a n u a l p l a n t i n g r e m a i n s t h e m o s t p r e v a l e n t t r e e e s t a b l i s h m e n t t e c h n i q u e i n New Z e a l a n d t o d a y . W a l t e r s ( 1 9 6 9 ) h a s i d e n t i f i e d a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . I n b o t h c o u n t r i e s a t t e m p t s h a v e b e e n made t o m e c h a n i z e t h e o p e r a t i o n b y t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f m o d i f i e d a g r i c u l t u r a l m a c h i n e r y ( b a s i c a l l y a m o d i f i e d b r o c c o l i p l a n t e r ) . D e s p i t e n e a r l y h a l f a c e n t u r y o f d e v e l o p m e n t , h o w e v e r , b a r e - r o o t t r e e p l a n t i n g r e m a i n s a t b e s t o n l y p a r t i a l l y m e c h a n i z e d . B a r e - r o o t s e e d l i n g s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y d i m e n s i o n s w h i c h v a r y f r o m s e e d l i n g t o s e e d l i n g . S u c h a l a c k o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n g r e a t l y h i n d e r s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a n a u t o m a t e d h a n d l i n g s y s t e m a n d f o r c e s t h e c u r r e n t m a c h i n e s t o r e l y h e a v i l y o n m a n u a l a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e p l a c i n g o f t h e t r e e i n t h e f u r r o w a n d i n s u b s e q u e n t f o l l o w - u p o p e r a t i o n s t o i m p r o v e t h e j o b d o n e b y t h e m a c h i n e . V a r y i n g s u c c u l e n c e o f t h e b a r e - r o o t s e e d l i n g s i s a f u r t h e r h a n d i c a p t o t o t a l m a c h i n e h a n d l i n g a n d p l a n t i n g . T o d a y ' s s o - c a l l e d p l a n t i n g m a c h i n e s , t h e n , a r e somewhat o p t i m i s t i c a l l y named. M o r e c o r r e c t l y , t h e y s e r v e t o o p e n t h e f u r r o w o r h o l e a n d r e c l o s e t h i s a f t e r t h e t r e e h a s b e e n m a n u a l l y i n s e r t e d . I n r e c e n t y e a r s much w o r k h a s b e e n c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e U.S.S.R. o n t h e m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f p l a n t i n g . One o f t h e l a t e s t m a c h i n e s 71 described by Kornienko (1970), although designed to a l l e v i a t e some of the b i o l o g i c a l problems of bare-root planting by producing a s l i t without compacted sides and covering the roots with loose s o i l , s t i l l has, however, a high manual labour content. The single row machine requires a team of four - d r i v e r , two planters and an assistant to straighten trees where necessary. The-^Russians are also attempting to overcome some of the problems involved i n the automatic handling of non-uniform trees. Nevertheless, Usanov (1969) i n discussing some of the many problems involved, noted that of the f i v e experimental types of handling system so f a r developed, none was then ready for commercial ap p l i c a t i o n . The s e n s i t i v i t y of bare-root seedlings to damage between l i f t i n g and planting i s a further b a r r i e r to t o t a l mechanization of the planting operation. The accommodation necessary to protect the c r i t i c a l requirements of seedling physiology at a l l stages of i t s transfer from nursery to planting s i t e , suggests a need, to develop a new system of forest tree establishment. The new system should be more adaptable to t o t a l mechanization without s a c r i f i c i n g the advantages of spacing control, and should y i e l d improved and consistent survival at lower cost. Root d i s t o r t i o n . There i s now some evidence that root d i s t o r t i o n at the time of planting can contribute considerably to lower s u r v i v a l and slower i n i t i a l growth ( E r t f e l d , , 1968; Chavasse and Weston, 1969). Stem form 72 can also be adversely affected and, i n New Zealand, toppling of young stands when exposed to wind has been related to 'J' shaped, or "hockey s t i c k " roots caused by poor planting technique (Chavasse and Balneaves, 1969). This problem i s of increasing importance i n New Zealand as more sophisticated management techniques are developed. It has also been found to be more widespread than was formerly thought, including a considerable incidence on the pumice country. At one f o r e s t , Rotoehu, i t i s barely possible to select 250 stems per acre (from 6 !x6' planting) f o r pruning due to the high proportion of toppled or butt swept stems (N.Z. Forest Service, 1970). E r t f e i d (1968) found the incidence of root d i s t o r t i o n to be high i n both machine and auger planting. The best root and stem forms and height growth were found i n Scots pine which had grown from seed on the same s i t e s . Many young radiata pine i n New Zealand have been excavated and i t has been found that, "On the whole (but not invariably) regeneration (natural) has good taproots and well d i s t r i b u t e d l a t e r a l s , while nearly a l l the planted trees have grossly d i s t o r t e d root systems." (Chavasse, pers.comm.). The problem i s a d i f f i c u l t one to investigate. Poor . operational r e s u l t s i n the f i e l d may often be due to i n s u f f i c i e n t or poor q u a l i t y supervision the adverse e f f e c t s of which are d i f f i c u l t to pinpoint both t e c h n i c a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y . Research plantings to test the d i f f e r e n t tools and methods used operationally tend to y i e l d inconclusive r e s u l t s , perhaps because care and attention paid to such plantings i s u n l i k e l y to be s i m i l a r to that received by trees 73 p l a n t e d i n n o r m a l o p e r a t i o n s . I n New Z e a l a n d t h e r e i s a n i n c r e a s i n g t e n d e n c y t o p l a c e m a n u a l p l a n t i n g o n a n i n c e n t i v e b a s i s . T h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t s u c h m e a s u r e s i n c r e a s e p l a n t i n g r a t e s a n d , t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , a t t r a c t a b e t t e r t y p e o f w o r k e r t o t h e j o b . I m p r o v e m e n t o f p l a n t i n g q u a l i t y b y t h i s m e t h o d , h o w e v e r , i s d o u b t f u l . A l t h o u g h p l a n t i n g i s g e n e r a l l y t h o u g h t o f a s a n u n s k i l l e d j o b , a l l t h e t o o l s a v a i l a b l e t o d a y f o r t h e p l a n t i n g o f b a r e - r o o t s t o c k demand c a r e i n t h e i r u s e i f t h e t r e e i s n o t t o be a b u s e d . S u c h c a r e t a k e s t i m e a n d i t s m a i n t e n a n c e r e q u i r e s v i g o r o u s s u p e r v i s i o n t h e moment t h e o p e r a t i o n i s p l a c e d o n a n i n c e n t i v e b a s i s i n v o l v i n g o n l y q u a n t i t y . I f t h e s u p e r v i s i o n i s s u c c e s s f u l , p l a n t i n g a n i n d i v i d u a l t r e e m u s t t a k e l o n g e r a n d r e s u l t i n a demand f o r a h i g h e r b a s e r a t e i n t h e i n c e n t i v e scheme, a n d h e n c e more e x p e n s i v e p l a n t i n g . The a u t h o r h a s s e e n many u n s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t s t o e s c a p e t h e f a c t t h a t w e l l p l a n t e d t r e e s a r e e x p e n s i v e t r e e s . The p a r a g r a p h a b o v e d i s c u s s e s o n l y t h e a c t u a l p l a n t i n g s t a g e . E q u a l c a r e i s r e q u i r e d o f l a b o u r a t a l l s t a g e s f r o m t h e n u r s e r y t o t h e f i e l d . N u r s e r i e s . The p r o d u c t i o n o f b a r e - r o o t p l a n t i n g s t o c k demands t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f l a r g e p e r m a n e n t n u r s e r i e s . The i d e a o f s m a l l t e m p o r a r y n u r s e r i e s h a s now b e e n a b a n d o n e d i n New Z e a l a n d . The r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a g o o d n u r s e r y s o i l f o r r a d i a t a p i n e a r e c o m p l e x a n d w e r e d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h b y C h a v a s s e a n d W e s t o n ( 1 9 6 9 ) . S u c h l a n d i s e x p e n s i v e a n d g e n e r a l l y l o c a t e d a t d i s t a n c e s f r o m t h e a f f o r e s t a t i o n 74 s i t e which create d i f f i c u l t i e s i n transportation and seedling acclimatization. ©rowth of 1-0 radiata pine i s considered to remove more nutrients from the s o i l than any other plant crop i n New Zealand ( W i l l , i n Chavasse and Weston, 1969). The quantities of nutrient removed from an acre include the equivalent of 501bs of dolomite, 2001bs of sulphate of ammonia, 751bs of potash and 50lbs of super-phosphate. As u t i l i z a t i o n of nutrients cannot be expected to be much better than 407o, at l e a s t twice the above amounts w i l l be required each year by a crop of 1-0 radia t a pine ( o p . c i t . ) . The necessity f o r the use of a l l the other chemicals required i n the forest nursery - s o i l s t e r i l a n t s , fungicides and i n s e c t i c i d e s -leads to considerable expense. Cost of stock i s a s i g n i f i c a n t proportion of the t o t a l cost of r e f o r e s t a t i o n . Four years old (2-2) spruce i n Ontario can cost as much as 4.6<: per tree (Page, 1971) although cost of 1-0 radiata pine i n New Zealand i s generally arouncl 1 .5c per tree. -'Perhaps more s i g n i f i c a n t i n the argument against bare-root stock i s the care required i n the handling and planting procedures necessary to ensure successful establishment of bare-root stock. It may be pertinent to note here that the large scale use of chemicals so necessary i n the modern bare-root nursery i s p o t e n t i a l l y l i a b l e to the attacks of the increasingly e c o l o g i c a l l y aware public. The land area required for the growing of bare-root planting stock i s small compared with the size of the established plantation. The average seedling density quoted i n the symposium edited by Chavasse 75 and Weston (1969) was approximately 200,000 per acre of gross nursery area. Thus one acre of nursery supplies sufficient 1-0 trees to plant 400 acres at 6'xl2 T. Any ecological problems associated with chemical use in forest nurseries i s li k e l y to be on a small scale. Nevertheless, the author is sufficiently concerned about the possible effects of intensively managed nurseries to cite these potential problems as one argument in favour of efforts to develop a tree establishment system that eliminates nurseries. Nursery research i s continuing to improve our knowledge of the requirements of our forest tree species in the germination and seedling stages, but the nursery system i t s e l f remains unchanged. Both Walters (1969) and Kinghorn (1970) have noted how a new approach to the germination and growing of seedlings - in these cases container planting - reduces requirements for a nursery. Smaller compact nurseries can be used which require no more than an adequate water supply. A compact nursery permits the use of relatively expensive f a c i l i t i e s such as greenhouses, removing suitable climate from the l i s t of nursery site requirements. Summary. The present major system of establishing radiata pine in New Zealand - bare-root planting - has certain disadvantages. Despite recent developments in the pre-conditioning of seedlings, considerable care i s required in the l i f t i n g , packing, storage, transport and planting processes to prevent excess exposure of, and 76 physical damage to, the trees. Care is also required at the plant-ing stage to avoid distorted roots and the possibly slower and poorer quality growth and risk of toppling. It is unlikely that these requirements w i l l be compatible with the economic and industrial conditions under which forestry w i l l be practised in the future. In particular, bare-root planting, because of tb® sensitivity and variation in size and succulence of the individual trees, i s the system least accommodating to total mechanization of reforestation. An alternative to bare-root planting. General description and specifications. Although somewhat similar ideas are in fact being tested today (eg, Anon, b, 1969; J.Walters, pers. comm.) no system that possesses a l l the features enumerated below exists. No attempt w i l l be made here to describe exactly the components and processes involved in such a system. It w i l l remain a concept, the practical f e a s i b i l i t y of which w i l l be argued. Specifications for such a system are as follows:-- A system of reforestation (or afforestation) is envisaged that would involve the placement, at a precise spacing, of a containerized seed. (See Fig. 1) The naturally high germination potential of radiata pine, coupled with seed sorting and/or pretreatment, w i l l ensure almost 1007o germination and fast i n i t i a l growth. - The latter w i l l be assisted by the provision within the container of a l l the requirements of the seedling until the stage in i t s development is reached when i t s requirements 77 can be met by the planting site. Thus the container should furnish a suitable germination and growing medium, nutrient and water supply and protection from insect, fungal and animal pests and climatic extremes, at least to the point where the seedling is no more dependent upon, or susceptiblp to, these agencies than a conventional bare-root seedling. - Having performed the above functions, the container w i l l ':u be such that i t w i l l in no way re s t r i c t the further development of the tree. - The total cost of manufacturing and loading the container, i t s transportation and planting, plus the cost of any special provisions necessary for the successful establish-ment of the seedling, shall be considerably less than the present system of planting nursery grown, bare-root stock. In particular, the system w i l l be suited to total mechan-ization. A l l stages of handling w i l l be dealing with an object of uniform shape and size without the sensitivity to mechanical handling and exposure exhibited by bare--root seedlings. Figures 2 and 3 show a potential mechan-ized planting device suited to the proposed system. The f e a s i b i l i t y of the system i s now discussed under a number of headings. Germination. The natural v i a b i l i t y of radiata pine seed is high. In 1960 Scott noted that New Zealand nurseries were obtaining around 9,000 plants per pound of seed (average 15,000 seeds per pound), this gives a plant percent of approximately 60. The situation has improved considerably since then (Chavasse and Weston, 1969). Many of the losses can be attributed to seed predators (birds and mice) and there seems to be some doubt as to the continuing efficiency of some of the traditional chemical seed coatings used in the nursery such as 'Arasan1 and red lead (op.cit.). Radiata pine seed does not exhibit any natural dormancy and hence many of the pretreatments which are necessary to obtain f i g u r e I. P o s s i b l e d e s i g n o f c o n t a i n e r s e e d i n g ( a c t u a l s i z . e ) . f o r c o n t a i n e r 78 uoaaac o D D oc r D D D D t p l a n t i n g l u g . g e r m i n a t i o n and r o o t i n g medium - e.g. peat and v e r m i c u l i t e m i x t u r e p l u s f e r t i l i s e r water r e s e r v o i r s - e.g.' f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e d p l a s t i c s p h e r e s r e t i c u l a t e d e x t e n s i o n tube - p o s s i b l e means of p r o t e c t i n g seed and germinant from p r e d a t o r s and e x c e s s i n s o l a t i o n . • seed F i g u r e 2. P o s s i b l e machine f o r b e t t i n g o f c o n t a i n e r s . S k e t c h o f p r i n c i p l e o n l y ; not a w o r k i n g 79 d r a w i n g . S c a l e }^ n a t u r a l s i z e , d i r e c t i o n o f t r a v e l c e n t r a l magazine o f c o n t a i n e r s l e v e l l i n g wheel e x t e r i o r c a s i n g r o t a t i n g wheel, speed s y n c h r o n i s e d w i t h l a n d speed o f t r a c t o r h i n g e d arm lamp c o n t a i n e r bout to be s e t i n ground ground s u r f a c e / F i g u r e t>* S e r i e s diagram 10 show a c t i o n of p o s s i b l e c o n t a i n e r s e t t i n g macnine. seed 80 S c a l e - a p p r o x i m a t e l y * / I 0 n a t u r a l s i z e , (x) i n d i c a t e s the same p o i n t on each diagram a. to H o r i z o n t a l s c a l e a t ground s u r f a c e i s d i s t o r t e d , t h u s p o s i t i o n of (x) may not be a c c u r a t e . - d i r e c t i o n o f r e v o l u t i o n of p l a n t i n g wheel. > - d i r e c t i o n of t r a v e l of prime mover. 81 satisfactory germination percentages with some other forest species are not required. There is some evidence that pretreatments such as cold water soaking or treatment with "Ethrel" can increase germinative energy (N.Z. Forest Service, 1970; Chavasse and Weston, 1969). Working with seed from Australia's oldest seed orchard, Brown (1971^ found that the orchard seed had higher germinative energy than three forest collected samples. Ten days after the beginning of the test, 817, of the orchard seed sample had germin-ated while the mean for the three other samples was 52%. After 28 days, 87% of the orchard seed had germinated compared with 72%. for the forest collected seed. At this time also 6%. of the orchard seed was found to be sound and ungerminated thus indicating a 93%, v i a b i l i t y or potential germination. Seed predation rather than poor germination has been the major problem in the nursery raising of radiata pine to date. Very l i t t l e work has therefore been done on pretreatment. The literature on seed pretreatment of other species i s extensive including various chemical treatments, sonic treatment (Lisenkov, 1964), V-radiation (El-Lakany and Sziklai, 1968)and others. Further work on radiata pine could reveal pretreatments that would increase s t i l l further the already very high germination percentages and germinative energy. Considerable work has been carried out with radiata pine in i the e f f e c t s of seed sorting on germination. The removal of empty 82, seed by sorting is the obvious f i r s t step and many methods of doing this have been described for other species. These include ethanol flotation (Barnett 1970), X-ray techniques (Eden, 1965), hot-plate testing (Llodri, 1964) and mechanical sorters. The last have been tried with only limited success in New Zealand and wind tunnel methods are currently under investigation (N.Z. Forest Service,;. -1970, a). Nursery t r i a l s have already shown that, "when seeds are sown at precise spacing and depth, the large seed gave an average increase or growth at nine months of three inches more than small seed" (op.cit.). The importance to planting stock quality of precise seed density in the nursery bed has been shown in New Zealand (Chavasse and Weston, 1969) and work is in progress to improve germination expectancy of radiata pine, primarily by seed sorting, to the point where precision sowers can be used to lay seed at the optimum spacing i n i t i a l l y and allow the production of uniform seedlings which can be l i f t e d mechanically without the necessity of culling. Confidence in the potential of this research indicates that the germination requirements of the proposed container seeding system can be met. Improvements of seedling vigour through pretreatment and sorting are also of great potential value to the proposed system. Early growth. Improvement of early growth through seed sorting has already been mentioned. 83 Much work on the f e r t i l i z e r requirements of radiata pine seedlings has been done (Will in Chavasse and Weston, 1969). Some additional work should be capable of quickly determining the ideal mixture to promote maximum growth of a containerized seed. Many rooting media are now available (e.g. vermiculite/peat mixture) and the ideal medium for germination and early growth of radiata pine would need to be found. Recent work is showing that the early growth of many tree species can be altered significantly by manipulation of such environmental factors as temperature, light and carbon dioxide concentration (e.g. Tinus, 1971). The degree to which such modi- ' fications can be made in a f i e l d planted container are obviously limited. In the past, container systems have been limited to supplying a physically optimum rooting medium and the required nutrients. An adequate water supply is of great importance to the survival and rate of early growth of seedlings and the provision of a water reservoir within the container would have many advantages as well as possibly allowing an extension of the season in which the containers could be set. The idea is already receiving study at University of British Columbia's Research Forest (Walters, pers. comm.). Small, finely perforated plastic spheres, f i l l e d by compression in a water bath, and strategically placed within the rooting medium would allow f a i r l y long term storage of the water with a minimum of evaporative loss. 84 Supply of water at the germination stage may provide some additional problems but careful arrangement of the rooting medium materials and precise planting of the seed within the container, coupled with pretreatment and sorting to ensure rapid germination, should allow the required conditions to be maintained for sufficient time. Having provided the conditions necessary for germination and early growth, plus protection from various agencies, i t is important that the container does not rest r i c t growth of the seedling in later stages. Constriction of root growth, in particular, has long been a criticism levelled at such container seedling systems as the Walters bullet (Kinghorn, 1970; White and Schneider, 1971). The Walters system attempts to overcome this problem by breaking the container at the time of planting by means of knives on the planting gun (Walters,1969). Although effective when the gun is used, the system does not allow destruction of the container i f planting is done in some other way such as from the air (Walters, 1971). A r i g i d and strong container is considered necessary for the following reasons:-(a) It can be pushed or shot into the s o i l , removing the necessity to open a planting hole or s l i t and therefore simplifying the planting process. (b) It w i l l provide better mechanical protection at least from small predators. (c) It provides a vehicle for the seed and growing medium that is;suited to mechanical handling. 85 P o t e n t i a l container materials are now becoming available c h i e f l y from the p l a s t i c s industry. The i n j e c t i o n moulding technique, possible with many p l a s t i c s , allows the mass production of complex container designs at low cost. Some recent investigations of the biodegradability of a material c a l l e d caprolactone polyester suggest that i t could be i d e a l for a container system such as described here (Dr. J . Potts, Union Carbide Co., lecture given at U.B.C. on 17th November, 1971). The material would give the i n i t i a l strength and r i g i d i t y properties required of the container but would subsequently break down allowing free egress of the tree's roots. The time taken to biodegrade i s c o n t r o l l a b l e by varying the exact formulation of the p l a s t i c . Protection. A container seeding system must provide protection to the seed and germinadt at l e a s t to the point where i t i s no more vulner-able than a recently outplanted nursery grown seedling. During the e a r l y stages the seed and seedling w i l l be subject to some of the dangers to which i t would be exposed i n the nursery. Any nursery problems which are a r e s u l t of concentration of a large number of seedlings i n a small place, however, are u n l i k e l y to a f f e c t the containerized seed i n the f i e l d . The success of protection measures for nursery sown seed against such pests as insects, birds and mice (generally by means of seed coatings) i s not outstanding (Chavasse and Weston,1969). Mechanical protection within a closed container, i t s e l f protected 86 f r o m l a r g e r a n i m a l s a n d b i r d s b y t a s t e o r s m e l l , ( s e e f i g . l ) s h o u l d p r o v i d e more e f f i c i e n t p r o t e c t i o n a n d a l s o a v o i d t h e use o f s u c h n o x i o u s a n d t r o u b l e s o m e m a t e r i a l s a s r e d l e a d ' A r a s a n ' a n d t h e v a r i o u s i n s e c t i c i d e s . S o i l p e s t s g e n e r a l l y c a n be a v o i d e d b y t h e u s e o f a s t e r i l -i z e d r o o t i n g medium, b u t i t i s s t i l l l i k e l y t h a t p r o b l e m s may a r i s e f r o m some f u n g a l d i s e a s e s s u c h a s d a m p i n g - o f f . T r e a t m e n t o f t h e r o o t i n g medium w i t h a f u n g i c i d e t o p r e v e n t r e - i n v a s i o n i s p o s s i b l e b u t p r e s e n t s p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m s . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e f u n g i c i d e w o u l d w e a r o f f g r a d u a l l y a n d a p o i n t c o u l d be r e a c h e d w h e r e a n y l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e f u n g i c o u l d r e - i n v a d e t h e c o n t a i n e r . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n s o i l f u n g i a n d p l a n t s a r e ^ complex, b u t t h e r e h a v e b e e n c a s e s o f n o r m a l l y h a r m l e s s f u n g i b e c o m i n g p a t h o g e n i c when p r e s e n t i n i s o l a t i o n ( v a n d e r Kamp, p e r s . comm.). T h e r e i s a c h a n c e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e s e e d l i n g c o u l d be a t t a c k e d b y a r e i n v a d i n g f u n g u s w h i c h , u n d e r n o r m a l c o n d i t i o n s , w o u l d b e h a r m l e s s . A s e c o n d p o s s i b l e aaethod o f p r o t e c t i n g a c o n t a i n e r i z e d s e e d a n d s e e d l i n g f r o m f u n g a l a t t a c k i s t o a r t i f i c i a l l y i n o c u l a t e t h e r o o t i n g medium w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f f u n g a l s p e c i e s (some o f w h i c h may f o r m • n t j r c o r r h i z a l a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t h e s e e d l i n g ) w h i c h w o u l d e f f e c t i v e l y p r e v e n t t h e i n v a s i o n o f a n y p a t h o g e n . I t i s w e l l known i n New Z e a l a n d t h a t f u n g u s d i s e a s e s s u c h a s d a m p i n g - o f f do o c c u r among y o u n g g e r m i n a n t s i n t h e f i e l d a r i s i n g f r o m n a t u r a l o r a r t i f i c i a l l y a p p l i e d s e e d . I t i s a l m o s t c e r t a i n t h e n , t h a t p r o t e c t i o n w o u l d h a v e t o be g i v e n t o a n y c e n t a i n e r s e e d i n g s y s t e m . w 87 P r o t e c t i o n f r o m c l i m a t i c e x t r e m e s i s a l s o l i k e l y t o be r e q u i r e d . I n t h e n u r s e r y t h i s i s p r o v i d e d b y s u c h m e a s u r e s a s i r r i g a t i o n , m o v a b l e s h a d e s c r e e n s , c o l d w a t e r s p r a y s , smudge p o t s e t c . . The p r o v i s i o n o f w a t e r r e s e r v o i r s w i t h i n t h e c o n t a i n e r t o e n s u r e a d e q u a t e s u p p l i e s h a s a l r e a d y b e e n m e n t i o n e d . Weed c o n t r o l t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f c h e m i c a l s , o r p r e f e r a b l y b y c u l t i v a t i o n w h e r e -e v e r t h i s i s p o s s i b l e , a l s o h e l p i n c o n s e r v i n g s o i l m o i s t u r e . B y t h e t i m e t h e s e e d l i n g i s d r a w i n g s u p p l i e s f r o m o u t s i d e t h e c o n t a i n e r , h o w e v e r , i t s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d t o be c a p a b l e o f w i t h s t a n d i n g a t l e a s t s h o r t d u r a t i o n d r o u g h t s , m e a s u r e d i n d a y s r a t h e r t h a n w e e k s . L o n g e r p e r i o d s o f d r o u g h t d u r i n g t h e g r o w i n g s e a s o n a r e n o t common i n New Z e a l a n d a n d o n c e o v e r t h e . g e r m i n a t i o n s t a g e , t h e s e e d l i n g w o u l d be r e l a t i v e l y s a f e f r o m d e s s i c a t i o n . S u n s c o r c h i s a p r o b l e m t o f i e l d g e r m i n a n t s o f r a d i a t a p i n e a t p r e s e n t i n New Z e a l a n d . C o n t a i n e r d e s i g n s h o u l d b e s u c h t h a t p a r t i a l s h a d e i s s u p p l i e d t o t h e s e e d l i n g d u r i n g t h e e a r l i e s t s t a g e s . A r e t i c u l a t e d e x t e n s i o n t u b e ( s e e f i g . l ) on t h e t o p o f a b u l l e t i s a l r e a d y b e i n g t e s t e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s R e s e a r c h F o r e s t ( W a l t e r s , p e r s . c o m m . ) . S u c h a d e v i c e a l s o d o u b l e s a s p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t b i r d s a n d s m a l l a n i m a l s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d h e r e t h a t t h e c o s t o f a p l a s t i c c o n t a i n e r d o e s n o t b e a r a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f i t s d e s i g n . The i n j e c t i o n m o u l d i n g t e c h n i q u e w i l l a l l o w t h e c h e a p a n d 88 rapid production of the most complicated shape, once the o r i g i n a l mould has been made. Frost has lim i t e d the use of seeding techniques for the re f o r e s t a t i o n of radiata pine i n the past (Page,1970). Limitations can be expected &n the. use of containerized seeding for the same reasons, but;these can be very considerably reduced. Container seeding, with i t s greater degree of protection from animal predators, sun scorch and dessication, and provision of optimum growing conditions generally i n the early stages of a seedling's l i f e , may allow the seedlings to reach a greater size by the end of the f i r s t growing season compared with natural or broadcast seed. This hypothesis s t i l l requires to be tested i n the f i e l d , but i f proven, the larger, better established seedlings with t h e i r greater degree of woody stem development, should be capable of better withstanding any damaging, early autumn f r o s t s . There are indications that s i t e preparation, p a r t i c u l a r l y removal of logging debris and c u l t i v a t i o n of the mineral s o i l , reduces the e f f e c t of f r o s t s (Page, 1970). Reasons f o r t h i s are somewhat obscure but are most l i k e l y a combination of two factors. F i r s t ; the c u l t i v a t i o n allows better rooting and frees the seedling from vegetative competition, thus contributing to a healthier, better established seedling. Second, there i s some evidence that c u l t i v a t i o n can ac t u a l l y reduce f r o s t i n t e n s i t y by i t s e f f e c t on the r a d i a t i o n balance of the s i t e (op. c i t . ) . Intensive s i t e prepar-ation, including s o i l c u l t i v a t i o n , i s being recognized increasingly i n New Zealand as a worthwhile technique with bare-root planting 89 (Chavasse, 1969). Its probable necessity for r e f o r e s t a t i o n with containerized seed i s therefore u n l i k e l y to be an argument against the system. The danger of f r o s t damage i s l i k e l y to preclude contain-erized seeding only on a l i m i t e d range of s i t e s i n New Zealand. It may, however, r e s t r i c t more seriously the season i n which the containers can be set. Setting too l a t e i n the season may leave i n s u f f i c i e n t time f o r the seedling to become established s u f f i c i e n t l y to be able to r e s i s t f r o s t damage. The great potent-i a l of the system, however, for t o t a l mechanization and automation, w i l l allow very large programmes to be completed i n a r e l a t i v e l y short time, reducing the significance of the seasonal l i m i t a t i o n s on setting. Frost l i f t has been a constant problem of^container plant-ings i n North America. There i s every reason to expect s i m i l a r problems i n New Zealand. Use of a short l i f e container and the more rapid growth of radiata pine compared with most North American species - r e s u l t i n g i n a greater root spread i n the f i r s t season - may prevent the problem occurring. Competition from weed growth i s often quoted as an argument against seeding methods of e s t a b l i s h i n g radiata pine i n New Zealand. The argument presupposes a f a s t e r growth rate on the part of planted trees throughout the whole period of the plantation's l i f e Ulat weed growth i s a threat (up to 3 years). This argument i s based, L^n New Zealand, on some f i e l d evidence that larger bare-90 root stock grows faster after planting. (In the argument between seeding and planting the seed is considered to be the ultimate 'small tree'.) The larger trees are, however, more expensive to transport and plant and survivals generally drop once height exceeds 15 inches (Chavasse and Weston, 1969). Smith and Walters (1965), working with Douglas-fir in coastal Br i t i s h Columbia, found that the larger seedlings at the time of planting survived well and maintained their height advan-tage. The effect has been maintained for at least five more years (Walters, 1970). The original height differences in the seedlings were caused primarily by differences in amount and kind of f e r t i l i z e r . The question of seedling quality is a confused one. Attempts were made to set specifications for planting stock at a recent New Zealand symposium (Chavasse and Weston, 1969) but with l i t t l e success. Most judgements were based on arbitrary measures such as 'good' colour, hardness, sturdiness etc.. Some recent work carried out by the New Zealand Forest Research Institute suggested that height increment after planting was more related to nursery bed density than to a seedling grade based on height:stem diameter ratios (N.Z. Forest Service, 1970). There is s t i l l much research to be done on this question. It should be remembered that a container seeding system would not subject a seedling tree to a drastic change in growing medium and the consequent necessity to u t i l i z e time, energy and 91 nutrient resources i n the i n i t i a t i o n of new roots. Nor would there be the potential danger of stand i n s t a b i l i t y and poor form that i s thought to be associated with poor planting techniques (N.Z. Forest Service, 1970). E r t f e l d (1968) found that the root d i s t o r t i o n of Scots pine at the time of planting affected both stem form and growth rate. Some recent New Zealand evidence has already been discussed (p.72 ). A seeding system which allows root development in s i t u and thus reduces the chances of d i s t o r t i o n as well as removing the need to develop new roots a f t e r outplanting, may allow growth rates i n the seeded tree which w i l l counter,to some unknown degree, the height advantage enjoyed by the bare-root seedling at the time of planting. There i s no doubt as to the superiority of the planted tree i n competing with weed growth up to about twelve inches i n height. If vegetative competition was strong from the germination stage on, any seeding system would suffer. A seeding system, therefore, would demand weed control i n the f i r s t season. Recent work i n New Zealand has shown that many of the common forest weeds, such as lu p i n (Lupinus arboreus L.), bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum L.), and gorse (Ulex europe'js L.) can be controlled, i n the f i r s t season at l e a s t , by s o i l c u l t i v a t i o n , c a r e f u l l y timed to ensure the destruction of roots and rhizomes (Chavasse, 1969). Grass remains a problem but t r i a l s are under way with germination i n h i b i t i n g chemicals which show promise of a 92 capability to hold grass regrowth for one or two seasons (N.Z. Forest Service, unpublished internal report). Intensified site preparation* in general, and soi l cultiv-ation in particular, are being increasingly recognized as sound investment in New Zealand forestry in combination with the current bare-root planting techniques. In frost-prone areas i t is consid-ered essential (Page, 1971), and i t s potential in reducing weed competition, f a c i l i t a t i n g the planting process and improving the degree and speed of attainment of a well-established vigorous plant, is increasingly being recognized. It is unlikely, therefore, that the site preparation demands of a container seeding system w i l l constitute any additional expense over that already justified with bare-root planting. Weed control by mechanical covering is a technique which has shown considerable success in other parts of the world (eg. Reitz, 1970) but which has received l i t t l e formal testing in New Zealand. A temporary plastic s o i l covering around each container, sprayed on by the same machine that performs the planting, is but one possibility. Handling and planting. It has been argued that the postulated container seeding system could satisfy the biological requirements of tree establish-ment at least as well, and perhaps better^ than a system based on bare-root planting. It has also been argued, earlier in this thesis, that future production of wood fibre, cheap enough to 93 successfully compete with alt e r n a t i v e materials, w i l l depend on the introduction of t o t a l mechanization into the c e l l u l o s e growing enterprise. Perhaps the greatest advantage of the system, then, i s i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r t o t a l mechanization. Walters (1968) described a machine that loads s o i l and seed into p l a s t i c b u l l e t s . In a l a t e r paper, the same author (1969 b) v noted the problems that are involved i n the pr e c i s i o n sowing of single seed into containers. I r r e g u l a r i t y of shape and dimension of the Douglas-fir seed are the main reasons f o r these d i f f i c u l t i e s . Radiata pine seed i s considerably less variable than Douglas-fir and many of the other North American species and there i s l i t t l e serious doubt as to the potential of t o t a l mechanization of container loading and seeding i n the case of t h i s species. The uniform shape and size, resistance to mechanical handling and lack of s e n s i t i v i t y to environmental exposure of the seed container compared to bare-root stock, w i l l make the handling, transportation and setting stages simple and easy to mechanize. At the setting stage i n p a r t i c u l a r the container concept has great advantages. With a s u f f i c i e n t l y r i g i d container and prepared ground, the container could e a s i l y be pushed (or shot) into the ground and there would be no necessity to make a planting s l i t or hole and repack the s o i l around the planted tree. The elimination of these processes would greatly reduce the horse power requirement of the prime mover, much of which i s currently absorbed i n dragging a planting shoe, or equivalent, continuously, or intermittently, 94 through the s o i l . The uniformity of the containers would allow f u l l y automated metering and feeding of the planter, a part of the operation which i s proving very d i f f i c u l t to mechanize with bare-root planting (see above). Mechanical tree planting or container setting at a r i g i d l y c o n t r o l l e d spacing may not allow the required l e v e l of microsite s e l e c t i o n . The capacity to r e j e c t an unsuitable planting s i t e and relocate a tree or container elsewhere i s considered an e s s e n t i a l feature of an automatic planter i n some parts of the world. The microsite" v a r i a t i o n s found i n coastal B r i t i s h Columbia or parts of Scandinavia f o r example, demand t h i s selection. Although microsite differences can s t i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t i n New Zealand, the problems are very much less than i n the areas mentioned above. Boulder or rock outcrops and stones are rare or non-existent on the majority of s o i l s where exotic forestry i s practiced i n New Zealand. S o i l c u l t i v a t i o n before planting i s practiced increasingly and planting areas assume more and more the appearance of ploughed f i e l d s . Stumps on cutover land remain a problem, although i f aligned i n rows, a clear lane w i l l be a v a i l a b l e between them. Cutover c l e a r i n g i n the southeast United States with angled shear blades which cut o f f stumps at ground l e v e l , followed by bedding or mounding, removed the b a r r i e r of stumps and other debris to mechanical planting (Page, 1971 a). 95 As New Zealand exotic forest management becomes more inten-sive and as tree u t i l i z a t i o n becomes closer and operations more mechanized, geometric spacing increases i n importance at the expense of microsite sele c t i o n . Microsite v a r i a t i o n s , i f s i g n i f -icant, w i l l , where possible, be evened out by s i t e preparation techniques. I f the v a r i a t i o n s cannot be removed, and they a f f e c t tree growth s u f f i c i e n t l y , mechanized forest management w i l l simply not be practiced on those areas to the same degree as elsewhere. Mechanized planting of containers would be adaptable to a l l forms of prime movers, be they wheels, tracks, legs or a i r c r a f t . It i s pertinent to note here that p r e c i s i o n sowing i n rows from a i r c r a f t i s already a r e a l i t y , a l b e i t on an experimental basis (Mann and Taylor, 1969). Metering and e j e c t i o n equipment for clay-encased seed has been designed and b u i l t and plans c a l l f o r three rows at a time to be sown. One machine w i l l be set at the a i r -c r a f t centre l i n e and one under each of the wings. The f e a s i b i l i t y of a e r i a l planting of container grown seedlings i s being investigated at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Research Forest and elsewhere i n B.C.. Results to date were described by Walters (1971 b) and although percentage of trees successfully planted and s u r v i v a l rates are s t i l l unsatisfactory, very high p o t e n t i a l cost savings are seen i n the system.. Estimates have been made of 160,000 seedlings being sown on 400 acres i n one day by one a i r c r a f t at an estimated cost of $2.80 per acre (Anon., 1971K The use of a i r c r a f t as prime movers i n forest operations 96 o t h e r t h a n t r a n s p o r t , r e c o n n a i s s a n c e a n d s p r a y i n g i s a s y e t f r a u g h t w i t h many p r o b l e m s . N o t t h e l e a s t o f t h e s e i s g u i d a n c e o f a i r -c r a f t t o t a r g e t a r e a s , w h i c h i s u n d e r s t u d y i n N o r t h A m e r i c a (Mann a n d T a y l o r , 1969) a n d h a s r e c e i v e d v e r y l i m i t e d s t u d y i n New Z e a l a n d ( e g . P a g e , 1969 a , b ) . D e s p i t e t h e s e p r o b l e m s , h o w e v e r , t h e p o t e n t i a l o f a i r c r a f t i n s p e e d a n d c o s t r e d u c t i o n a r e v e r y g r e a t a n d d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k i s l i k e l y t o c o n t i n u e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n New Z e a l a n d w h e r e a l a r g e a n d e f f i c i e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l a v i a t i o n i n d u s t r y h a s l o n g b e e n i n e x i s t e n c e . A p p e n d i x 2 i s a n a t t e m p t t o show t h e p o t e n t i a l o f a i r c r a f t a n d a l s o t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e m a g n i -t u d e o f some o f t h e e n g i n e e r i n g p r o b l e m s t h a t w o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n a e r i a l p r e c i s i o n s e t t i n g o f c o n t a i n e r i z e d s e e d * The s u i t a b i l i t y o f a s y s t e m f o r t o t a l m e c h a n i z a t i o n i s a n a d v a n t a g e w h i c h c a n o n l y i n c r e a s e i n v a l u e a s t h e c o s t o f l a b o u r c o n t i n u e s t o r i s e a n d i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y a n d q u a l i t y t e n d t o f a l l . T he n e e d f o r c a r e i n t h e b a r e - r o o t s y s t e m t o e n s u r e c l o s e t o 1007o s u c c e s s h a s a l r e a d y b e e n m e n t i o n e d . T h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e f a i t h i n t h e r e q u i r e d l e v e l o f c a r e b e i n g a p p l i e d , i s p e r h a p s i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e p l a n t i n g t a r g e t s s e t b y t h e 1969 N a t i o n a l F o r e s t r y P l a n n i n g M o d e l . The s a t i s f a c t i o n o f g r o w i n g d o m e s t i c demands a n d t h e m a i n -t e n a n c e t o f c o n t i n u i t y o f e x p o r t s r e q u i r e s a n e t i n c r e a s e i n e x o t i c f o r e s t e s t a t e o f 45,000 a c r e s p e r y e a r u n t i l 1985. A n a n n u a l new l a n d p l a n t i n g r a t e o f 52,000 a c r e s i s c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y t o a c h i e v e t h i s . S u c h f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e a n e x p e c t e d 1670 f a i l u r e r a t e . 97 C o s t To q u o t e c o s t s o f a r e f o r e s t a t i o n s y s t e m w h i c h i s s t i l l 1 b u t a c o n c e p t i s , o f c o u r s e , i m p o s s i b l e . U n d e r New Z e a l a n d c o n d i t i o n s , h o w e v e r , where t h e b a r e - r o o t p l a n t i n g t e c h n i q u e c a n p r o d u c e r e s u l t s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a c c e p t a b l e i n t e r m s o f s u r v i v a l , a new s y s t e m n e e d s t o show p o t e n t i a l a d v a n t a g e s o t h e r t h a n a n a b i l i t y t o e q u a l t h e b i o l o g i c a l s u c c e s s o f t h e e x i s t i n g s y s t e m . T h i s s e c t i o n t h e n , a t t e m p t s t o e s t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e l y some o f t h e p o t e n t i a l c o s t s o f t h e c o n t a i n e r s e e d i n g c o n c e p t a n d t o compare t h e s e w i t h c o s t s o f t h e e x i s t i n g b a r e - r o o t t e c h n i q u e ( a l t h o u g h t h e l a t t e r a r e , -:j.y-:.c'-i.v t h e m s e l v e s , i n c o m p l e t e l y k n o w n ) . The m a j o r p r o c e s s e s i n e a c h s y s t e m a r e s p l i t , i n T a b l e 5, i n t o a number o f common c o s t f a c t o r s . E a c h o f t h e s e i s t h e n d i s c u s s e d i n some d e t a i l . D e f i c i e n c i e s i n d a t a h a v e p r e v e n t e d d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o n a l l b u t t h e p l a n t i n g o p e r a t i o n i t s e l f . T a b l e 5. Common c o s t f a c t o r s o f c o n t a i n e r s e e d i n g a n d b a r e - r o o t p l a n t i n g . C o s t ; F a c t o r No. C o s t cony Donents b y s y s t e m . C o n t a i n e r s e e d i n g B a r e - r o o t p l a n t i n g 1. S e e d c o s t s . S e e d c o s t s . 2. C o s t o f c o n t a i n e r f i l l i n g a n d s e e d i n g C a p i t a l c o s t o f n u r s e r y l a n d , b u i l d i n g s e t c . . A l l n u r s e r y o p e r a t i o n s . 3. S t o r a g e . S t o r a g e . 4. T r a n s p o r t . T r a n s p o r t . 5. S i t e p r e p a r a t i o n . S i t e p r e p a r a t i o n . 6. S e t t i n g ( c o m p l e t e m e c h a n i z a t i o n ) . P l a n t i n g ( m a n u a l a n d m a c h i n e ) 7. W e e d i n g . W e e d i n g . 98 1. Seed costs. Seed costs per established tree are l i k e l y to be s i m i l a r for each system. Both systems w i l l use orchard seed as i t becomes avai l a b l e . Recent work i n New Zealand has demonstrated the r e l a t i o n s h i p between seed size and seedling vigour and the importance of precise i n i t i a l spacing of germinants within the nursery bed, to obtain optimum and even seedling growth (Chavasse and Weston, 1969). T o t a l l y mechanized l i f t i n g , bundling and out-planting w i l l demand an almost complete absence of c u l l s and the bare-root seedling system w i l l require the same extremely high germination percent as the container seeding. It i s l i k e l y , i n fact,that the highly mechanized bare-root nursery w i l l demand even high@r standards of evenness of germination and early growth, due to the need for precise timing of the various operations. 2. Container and nursery costs. To the author's knowledge^ no s a t i s f a c t o r y account of nursery costs exists i n New Zealand. P a r t i c u l a r l y , the high c a p i t a l costs of nursery land, buildings etc. has not been taken into account i n ca l c u l a t i o n s of seedling costs. The most recent figures available are from the nursery at Kaingaroa Forest i n the North Island which grows 10 m i l l i o n trees per year. One year old radiata pine seedlings from here were costed at$NZ12 per thousand or 1.2<: per tree (N.Z. Forest Service, 1970 b). D e t a i l s of the cost of buying and loading containers i s scanty and no costs are available for New Zealand. The best inform-a t i o n available i n B r i t i s h Columbia indicates the production costs 99 of b u l l e t s , Ontario tubes and bare-root Douglas-fir (2-0) to be:-Bu l l e t s -2.00<: P e r seedling (approx.) Ontario tubes -1.00c u " " " Bare-root -1.35c " " 1 1 The container system costs here presumably include the t-.. actual growing of the seedling as well as the cost of container plus loading*: I t would appear then, that the competitive p o s i t i o n of container seeding w i l l depend much upon the cost of the in d i v i d u a l containers. It should be possible to pay up to 1,0$ per container to maintain the cost of loaded containers at approximately the same l e v e l as bare-root planting s£ock. There i s no doubt that once the relevant machinery had been designed and manufactured, the loading and seeding of the containers would be a very much fas t e r , more compact and les s labour intensive operation than the growing of bare-root seedlings. The operation would be completely independent of weather. It i s often assumed that protection of young seedlings from damaging agencies can be more cheaply and e f f i c i e n t l y provided i n the confined environs of the nursery. This i s probably true as f a r as protection from the larger browsing animals i s concerned ( i . e . the nursery can be fenced). I f , however, the protective functions of the container postulated e a r l i e r , can be r e a l i s e d , t h i s may cease to be the case. The crowded conditions of the nursery bed are themselves an encouragement to the rapid spread of certa i n diseases and pests and force the a p p l i c a t i o n of protective measures -100 a l b e i t at a cheap rate per seedling - which may not be necessary to the container seeding system. The continued a p p l i c a t i o n of intensive plant rearing techniques to the same area of ground may lead to problems such as s o i l exhaustion and th©1 b u i l d up of s o i l chemical contents to phytotoxic l e v e l s . At best, such situations w i l l demand the app l i c -a t i o n of further, curative treatments and hence addit i o n a l expense. For example, attempts to f i n d treatments that would guarantee 1007, protection of nursery seedlings from the needle b l i g h t Dothistroma  p i n i , resulted i n a treatment which involved the ap p l i c a t i o n of 21b active copper per acre ( as a cuprous oxide suspension i n water) every two weeks. No t o x i c i t y problems were found a f t e r one season's treatment but the e f f e c t s of such massive doses of copper over several years i s unknown (N.Z. Forest Service, 1969). :?« 5 3. Storage. Storage i s l e s s l i k e l y to be necessary with the container seeding system. Very f a s t production rates at the loading stage (eg. the loading machine described by Walters, 1969 a, i s capable of f i l l i n g 864 b u l l e t s per minute) w i l l allow a close t i e i n of the operation with f i e l d demands. Should storage become necessary, the greater independence of the containerized seed from environmental conditions w i l l make t h i s process very much simpler, and hence cheaper, than with the more sensitive bare-root stock. Long term storage should be possible i n a cold room and les s volume would be required per unit number of containers than with 101 the bare-root stock. This factor then i s l i k e l y to be considerably cheaper with container seeding. 4. Transport. The s e n s i t i v i t y of bare-root stock to exposure and handling necessitates special provisions during transportation. Special packaging and loading procedures are required to prevent excess drying and crushing and temperatures must be c a r e f u l l y controlled inside the transporter. Refrigerated vans are now thought necessary i n many parts of the southeastern United States (Page, 1971) and have been mooted i n New Zealand. No such problems e x i s t with containerized seed. The loaded containers would be r e l a t i v e l y i n s e n s i t i v e to fluctuations i n environmental conditions and t h e i r more robust nature would allow the use of f u l l y automated loading and unloading techniques. Lower volume and weight per unit number, plus the absence of any r e s t r i c t i o n s on packing density (often necessary to prevent over-"heating of bare-root stock), would allow more containers to be c a r r i e d per unit volume of transporter, than with bare-root seedlings. Transportation then, should be very much cheaper and simpler with the container seeding system. 5. S i t e Preparation. S i t e preparation requirements of the two systems have already been discussed. There i s u n l i k e l y to be much cost d i f f e r e n t i a l between the two systems i n t h i s respect i f current trends towards more intensive s i t e preparation f o r bare-root planting continue. 1 0 2 6. Setting or Planting. It i s in the actual planting operation that the greatest cost savings are lik e l y to be realized with the container seeding system. Manual planting of container seedlings in North America is claimed to be possible at double (Kinghorn,1970) or even tr i p l e (Walters,1969) the rate obtainable using bare-root stock. It is in the suitability of the system to highly mechanized planting, however, that the greatest cost saving potential l i e s . The fact that the container can be-merely pushed into the ground obviates the need for a planting furrow and therefore reduces the horse-power requirement of the prime mover. The smaller prime movers required w i l l be cheaper to operate. The planting method possible with containers, and i t s adaptability to a mechanical feed system, should allow very much faster travel speeds than is possible with tractor drawn bare-root planting machines. Speed w i l l be limited by terrain and tractor power and design, rather than the feed rate of the planting device.. An attempt has been made below to calculate a li k e l y cost of mechanized planting of containerized seed. The following assumptions have been made: (a) Planting is at 6f intervals with 12' between rows. (b) Two setting machines, twelve feet apart, are mounted on or towed behind the prime mover. Operation of these, and movement of the containers from storage to the setting head, are enitrely automatic and are powered by the hydraulic system of the prime 103 mover. Possible designs have been i l l u s t r a t e d i n f i g . 2 . $NZ10 per hour has been allowed as the h i r e rate for the container setters; (c) The prime mover i s assumed to be a class V wheeled t r a c t o r (over 50hp., F.A.O. c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) . Many modern examples of such tractors are capable of a maximum speed around 20 mph. (ag. Timberjack 550 - 22.8 mph; F r a n k l i n 170/XL - 15.4 mph; manufacturer's s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . ) . It i s assumed that the power required to both drive the container setting machines and overcome t h e i r resistance to the t r a c t o r ' s movement w i l l be less than h a l f that a v a i l a b l e from the power source. Speeds of 10 mph over f l a t prepared ground are, therefore,thought e n t i r e l y f e a s i b l e . Slope l i m i t a t i o n s to such t r a v e l speeds are beyond both the sicope of t h i s thesis and the author's a b i l i t y to investigate. The following c a l c u l a t i o n s , therefore, may, at t h i s stage, only be applied to f l a t or gently r o l l i n g country. Increasing slope would presumably require the use of more powerful tra c t o r s or an a l t e r n a t i v e prime moving technique. $NZ20 per hour i s allowed as the h i r e rate f o r the prime mover. (d) Only one driver/operator i s required. Current (1970) tr a c t o r driver wage rates i n the New Zealand Forest Service are $NZ1.10 per hour. In the following c a l c u l a t i o n $NZ2.00 per hour has been used to allow $NZ0.90 per hour fo r labour overheads. The cost c a l c u l a t i o n then i s : -104 i ) Planting rate:-two row setting allows an 8 yard swath to be covered at each pass. With 1760 yards per mile and 4840 square yards per acre, the area covered w i l l be:-10 x 1760 x 8 acres per hour 4840 = 29 " " 11 (approx.) At 6'xl2' spacing 605 containers are set per acre. Planting rate can be a l t e r n a t i v e l y expressed as:-605 x 29 containers per hour = 17,545 i i ) Cost:-Class V t r a c t o r plus two planting-machines at a combined hourly .fcire rate of $NZ30 - $NZ $30.00 One driver/operator at t o t a l cost ( i n c l . overheads) of$NZ2 per hour - $NZ 2,00; To t a l planting cost per hour - $NZ 32.00 i i i ) Cost per acre:-32 - $NZ 1.10 per acre 29 iv) Cost per tree:-32 - $NZ 0.0018 per tree 17,545 These costs can be compared with some data that are available i n New Zealand on the cost of bare-root planting. 105 At Kaingaroa State Forest the average cost of planting on cleared cutover (see Page 1971 c, for details of clearing) at 1,000 stems per acre, was $NZ11.03 per acre (N.Z. Forest Service, 1970 b.)), This work was carried out on an incentive basis (hourly rate plus bonus payments depending on production) and the costs include direct labour only; overheads, transport, supervision, etc. are not included. If this figure is increased by 807o to cover over-heads and reduced by 30% to compensate for the closer spacing used, a more re a l i s t i c ' figure, approximately $14 per acre, is obtained for comparison with the hypothetical cost above. Mechanized container planting, therefore, has a potential of reducing manual planting costs by a factor of round about twelve. No costs of machine planting of bare-root stock have been published in New Zealand. Manktelow (1967) described bare-root planting with crank-axle Lowther planters in the Tarawera Forest of the Tasman Pulp and Paper Company. The optimum system found in this work was an Allis-Chalmers HD-11 tractor (110 hp.) pulling two Lowther machines set seven feet apart on the tow bar. Actual planting costs were not mentioned in the ar t i c l e (with widely v varying hire rates and accounting systems they would have meant l i t t l e anyway) but a planting rate of 10,000 trees per 8 hour day per machine was quoted. An approximate cost per tree, and then per acre at a spacing of 6'xl2', has been calculated from these data. 106 i ) D a i l y cost:- $NZ HD-11 tractor at $NZ20 per hour 160 TTwo Lowther planting machines at $NZ^ each per hour 48 Labour - three men at $2 each per hour (including overheads) 48 Total 256 i i ) Cost per tree:-Number of trees planted - 20,000 Cost per tree - 256 20.000 1.3$ per tree, i i i ) Cost per acre at 605 spa. (6'xl2'):-605 x 1.3c = $NZ7/.90 per acre (approx.) I t would appear then, that the container seeding concept has the potential to reduce machine planting costs by a factor of approximately seven. The figures quoted here should be viewed with considerable caution. They have been used merely as an exercise to i l l u s t r a t e the p o t e n t i a l cost savings, at the planting stage, of container seeding, Estimates have been made that d e l i b e r a t e l y err on the high side for the new postulated system and on the low side f o r current methods. Despite t h i s , the container seeding system shows a pote n t i a l f o r reducing planting costs by around, 907o. 7. Weeding. The weeding requirements of the two systems have already been discussed. If the assumptions made i n that discussion were correct, there should be no difference i n weeding costs between the two systems. 107 If trees a r i s i n g from container seeding were unable to equal the growth of planted bare-root seedlings, plantations estab-l i s h e d by container seeding would require a longer r o t a t i o n period. I f a whole year were l o s t by seeding,the cost of stumpage foregone could be as much as 300 cubic feet times 4£ per cubic foot or $NZ12.00 per acre. However, the cost of extending a radiata pine r o t a t i o n by one year was considered i n 1969 to be only $NZ4.00 per acre (F.R.I., S i l v i c u l t u r a l Economics Unit, pers. comm.). Superior growth of r a d i a t a pine bare-root planting stock, compared with container seeding such as has been described i n t h i s t h e sis, has not been demonstrated i n New Zealand. F i e l d experience with r e f o r e s t a t i o n ©f t h i s species has indicated to the author that the p o s s i b i l i t y of better establishment of a protected, containerized seed and possible improved growth of the r e s u l t i n g tree, even to the point of equalling that of planted-bare-root trees, i s at l e a s t worthy of f i e l d t e s t i n g . Although as much as three feet of growth from seed has been observed i n one year, bare-root nursery stock i s generally only 15 inches t a l l when planted. E f f e c t s of planting on "check" and subsequent height growth must be studied i n comparison with d i r e c t sowing of containerized seed. Because of the varying proportions of s e l e c t i o n of seed and s i t e s , uncontrolled comparisons of growth of planted and n a t u r a l l y sown seedlings can be misleading. S i m i l a r l y ^ controlled studies are needed to determine whether or not possibly greater mortality of container sown seeds, 108 c o m p a r e d t o b a r e - r o o t t r e e s , w o u l d i n c r e a s e t h e c o s t o f t h e f o r m e r v s y s t e m . A g a i n , t h e a u t h o r f e e l s t h e p o t e n t i a l o f c o n t a i n e r s e e d i n g t o e q u a l , o r e v e n e x c e e d s u r v i v a l s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g a c h i e v e d w i t h b a r e - r o o t p l a n t i n g , i s w o r t h y : o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 109 5. CONCLUSIONS. The introduction to th i s thesis discussed probable world demands for c e l l u l o s e i n the future. Although estimates of quantitative demand vary a great deal, there i s general agreement that one d e f i n i t e trend i s towards a greater use of reconstituted wood. With technology developing at an ever accelerating rate, the threat of substitute materials becomes greater. The price d i f f e r -e n t i a l between c e l l u l o s e and i t s competitors, i n many areas, i s narrowing r a p i d l y . C e l l u l o s e , as a raw material, has the disad-vantage of being widely dispersed, with consequentially high, and ra p i d l y increasing, costs of growing and harvesting. For c e l l u l o s e to remain competitive, these s p i r a l l i n g costs must be controlled. Intensive management of a decreasing land base and, p a r t i c -u l a r l y , intensive mechanization, w i l l be required to obtain the necessary large quantities of wood f i b r e at a s u f f i c i e n t l y low cost. Mechanization i n the forest growing industry i s currently primitive compared to many other enterprises. Nevertheless, i t i s possible to enunciate some general p r i n c i p l e s of forest mechanization. The systems approach to forest mechanization has been somewhat overlooked i n the past and examples of sub-optimisation have arisen. Such mistakes are made when we attempt to mechanize, or develop generally, i n d i v i d u a l operations i n i s o l a t i o n . Hence 110 replanting i s only one operation i n a t o t a l system of r e f o r e s t a t i o n which can be thought of as s t a r t i n g with the logging phase. There i s a danger of concentrating on the trees instead of the wood. Mechanization brings with i t the necessity for new work and management methods. F a i l u r e to change the l a t t e r w i l l , at best, prevent the maximum benefits being gained from the mechanization process. M u l t i - s h i f t and team-working, provision of adequate maintenance and repair f a c i l i t i e s and c a r e f u l operational planning are examples. The machines w i l l bring with them a need for d i f f e r e n t types of personnel at the operative, maintenance, super-vi s o r y and administrative l e v e l s . F a i l u r e to obtain or t r a i n these people w i l l again compromise the p o t e n t i a l of the mechaniz-ation process. The introduction of machines without the required personnel being avai l a b l e or without the required s i t e and stand conditions, minimum sized working areas etc., could be very expensive. Increasing mechanization generally means increasing c a p i t a l invest-ment and the e f f i c i e n t use of that c a p i t a l i s e s s e n t i a l . The pot e n t i a l s o c i a l problems of over-mechanization must be recognized and avoided. Mechanization should never be introduced f o r i t s own sake alone. It i s only recently that we have begun to notice the s o c i a l e f f e c t s of what T o f f l e r (1970) c a l l s our super-i n d u s t r i a l revolution. S i m i l a r l y a watch must be kept on the environmental e f f e c t s of our attempts to mechanize. A number of authors have noted that our a b i l i t y to design and manufacture machines i s already ahead of I l l o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g b i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y c o n t r o l t h e l a n d ' s a b i l i t y t o p r o d u c e , W i t h i n t h i s f r a m e w o r k , New Z e a l a n d ' s p o t e n t i a l a s a p r o d u c e r o f c h e a p wood f i b r e , a n d t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f New Z e a l a n d e x o t i c f o r e s t r y t o m e c h a n i z a t i o n , w e r e e x a m i n e d . A f a v o u r a b l e c o m b i n a t i o n o f c l i m a t e , s o i l a n d s p e c i e s p r o d u c e s , i n New Z e a l a n d ' s e x o t i c f o r e s t s some o f t h e f a s t e s t c o n i f e r g r o w t h r a t e s i n t h e w o r l d . A l t h o u g h t h i s e x o t i c e s t a t e i s c u r r e n t l y s m a l l w o r l d s t a n d a r d s , t h e p o t e n t i a l l a n d r e s o u r c e i s l a r g e , i f p r e s e n t l y l i t t l e known. A n e s t i m a t e h e r e p l a c e s New Z e a l a n d ' s t o t a l a n n u a l f i b r e p r o d u c t i o n p o t e n t i a l ( a s s u m i n g a v e r y g r e a t i n c r e a s e i n e s t a b l i s h m e n t e f f o r t ) a t 5 0 % more t h a n t h e c u r r e n t a n n u a l c u t o f t h e w h o l e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . New Z e a l a n d ' s l a t i t u d e a n d l o n g i t u d e do n o t p l a c e h e r f a v o u r a b l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o w o r l d t r a d e . E x p a n d i n g m a r k e t s i n A u s t r a l i a a n d J a p a n , h o w e v e r , a n d t h e c o n t i n u e d , i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p r o v i s i o n o f e f f i c i e n t p o r t a n d s h i p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d m i n i m i z e t h e e f f e c t s o f t h i s r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n . I n many r e s p e c t s New Z e a l a n d ' s e x o t i c f o r e s t e n v i r o n m e n t p-p r o v i d e s e x c e l l e n t c o n d i t i o n s f o r i n t e n s i v e m e c h a n i z a t i o n ! ; The m a j o r i t y o f t h e e x o t i c e s t a t e i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t o v e r y l a r g e c o n t i g u o u s b l o c k s , c o n s i s t i n g p r i m a r i l y o f e v e n - a g e d m o n o c u l t u r e s . P l a n s f o r f u t u r e e x p a n s i o n c a l l f o r a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h i s t r e n d . Management o f t h e s e l a r g e b l o c k s i s v e s t e d w i t h a s m a l l number o f l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e l a r g e s t o f w h i c h i s t h e S t a t e i t s e l f . 112 M a r k e t s , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r a n g e o f r a w m a t e r i a l f o r m s . r e q u i r e d , a r e f e w a n d l a r g e . On t h e m i n u s s i d e , t h e r e a r e c o n s i d e r a b l e t e r r a i n p r o b l e m s . A l a r g e , t h o u g h a s y e t i n c o m p l e t e l y known, p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e a v a i l a b l e l a n d r e s o u r c e i s i n l a n d c u r r e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d t o o s t e e p f o r t r a c t o r s . U n l i k e many o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d , much o f t h i s s t e e p l a n d h a s t h e h i g h e s t s i t e i n d e x f o r r a d i a t a p i n e . ( R e a s o n s f o r t h i s a r e unknown b u t i t i s p r o b a b l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c l i m a t e a n d t h e w a t e r r e t e n t i o n p r o p e r t i e s o f p u m i c e . ) The n e e d f o r a b r e a k t h r o u g h i n s t e e p c o u n t r y p r i m e m o v i n g t e c h n i q u e s i s u r g e n t i n New Z e a l a n d . New Z e a l a n d i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a l a b o u r h u n g r y c o u n t r y -a n e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o m e c h a n i z a t i o n . The s e c t o r i n w h i c h t h i s d e f i c i t i s g r e a t e s t , h o w e v e r , i s t h e s k i l l e d a n d t r a i n e d management, p e r s o n n e l . The p r e s e n t g o v e r n m e n t r e c o g n i z e s t h i s p r o b l e m a n d e s s e n t i a l p a r t s o f t h e c u r r e n t l a b o u r p o l i c y a r e e d u c a t i o n , v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g a n d r e t r a i n i n g p r ogrammes. New Z e a l a n d i s a s o c i a l i s t c o u n t r y a n d u n e m p l o y m e n t , e v e n on a l o c a l l e v e l , p r o d u c e d b y o v e r - m e c h a n i z a t i o n w o u l d be i n t o l e r a b l e . New Z e a l a n d h a s t o d a y a n e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y t h a t i s t h e e n v y o f many more a d v a n c e d c o u n t r i e s . M e c h a n i z a t i o n ( a n d t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y g e n e r a l l y ) i s n o t a l w a y s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h some e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a l u e s a n d t h e r e i s l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t a n i n c r e a s i n g l y a w a r e p u b l i c w i l l e n s u r e t h a t e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t i s n o t b o u g h t a t t h e p r i c e 113 t h a t h a s s o m e t i m e s b e e n p a i d e l s e w h e r e . I n summary, i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t , w i t h c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a number o f p r o b l e m s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h h e r g e o g r a p h i c * * ' p o s i t i o n a n d e n v i r o n m e n t , New Z e a l a n d ' s f o r e s t i n d u s t r y h a s a p o t e n t i a l o n l y l i m i t e d b y , a l t h o u g h r e l a t i v e l y v e r y l a r g e i n c o m p a r i s o n t o , h e r a b s o l u t e s i z e , t o s u p p l y some o f t h e f o r e s t p r o d u c t s t h e w o r l d i s l i k e l y t o r e q u i r e a n d a t a p r i c e t h e w o r l d w i l l be p r e p a r e d t o p a y . The f a s t g r o w t h a n d h a r d i n e s s o f r a d i a t a p i n e s e e d l i n g s c o u p l e d w i t h a m i l d c l i m a t e a n d a g o o d s u p p l y o f m a n u a l l a b o u r e a r l i e r i n t h i s c e n t u r y , l e d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f b a r e - r o o t p l a n t i n g a s t h e m a j o r a f f o r e s t a t i o n s y s t e m i n New Z e a l a n d e x o t i c f o r e s t r y . A s r e f o r e s t a t i o n m e t h o d s b e g a n t o e v o l v e a n d t h e a d v a n -t a g e s o f a r t i f i c i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t r e e s a t r e g u l a r s p a c i n g became c l e a r , i t was l o g i c a l t h a t t h e b a r e - r o o t s y s t e m s h o u l d a g a i n be a d o p t e d f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e -second r o t a t i o n . T h e r e a r e , h o w e v e r , some i n h e r e n t d i s a d v a n t a g e s i n t h e s y s t e m . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t t h e t r e e m u s t be c o m p l e t e l y r e m o v e d f r o m one r o o t i n g medium a n d t r a n s -p l a n t e d t o a n o t h e r . A c t i v e , g r o w i n g r o o t s a r e d e s t r o y e d i n t h e p r o c e s s a n d m u s t be r e g e n e r a t e d a t t h e new g r o w i n g s i t e . D u r i n g t h e t r a n s p l a n t i n g p r o c e s s t h e t r e e i s v u l n e r a b l e t o e x p o s u r e a n d p h y s i c a l damage a n d m u s t be p r o t e c t e d b y s p e c i a l p a c k a g i n g t e c h n i q u e s a n d c a r e f u l h a n d l i n g . P l a n t e d t r e e s h a v e b e e n f o u n d t o h a v e a v e r y much h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e o f r o o t d e f o r m a t i o n ( w i t h i t s a c c o m p a n y i n g e f f e c t s o n 114 stem growth and quality and stand s t a b i l i t y ) than trees which have grown, i n s i t u , from seed.. The lack of uniformity i n size and shape of the transplants and t h e i r s e n s i t i v i t y to mechanical handling and exposure creates problems i n attempts to mechanize the forest establishment process. Taking advantage of the very high natural v i a b i l i t y of radiata pine seed (which can be further increased by seed sorting and pretreatment) a t h e o r e t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e system f o r radiata pine establishment has been proposed. The system envisages a cheap mass produced container into which i s loaded a gene t i c a l l y superior ( i . e . seed orchard grown) seed plus a l l the requirements for f a s t gerrninati/orr and early growth. These would include a suitable growing medium, water supply and nutrients. The container would provide protection from birds and small rodents and excess i n s o l a t i o n . The seed and seedling would be further protected by added i n s e c t i c i d e s _ and.an a r t i f i c i a l l y inoculated fungus population which w i l l prevent the invasion of pathogenic species. The container, although r i g i d and firm when set out, would be biodegradable to allow unrestricted root egress. Suitable biodegradable p l a s t i c s are just now becoming ava i l a b l e . Assuming the b i o l o g i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y of the system, many points of which are already demonstrable, i t presents a number of d i s t i n c t advantages over the bare-root system. A l l phases of the establishment operation from loading to outplanting are much more 115 a d a p t a b l e t o t o t a l m e c h a n i z a t i o n . The c o n t a i n e r s w o u l d be o f a u n i f o r m s h a p e and s i z e a n d i n s e n s i t i v e t o m e c h a n i c a l h a n d l i n g a n d e x p o s u r e c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e b a r e - r o o t s t o c k . A l a r g e , c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e n u r s e r y , w i t h a l l t h e p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m s o f c o n t i n u o u s g r o w i n g o f s i n g l e s p e c i e s i n c o n c e n t r a t e d b e d s , w o u l d be u n n e c e s s a r y . O b s e r v a t i o n s o f n a t u r a l and p l a n t e d s e e d l i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t b y e l i m i n a t i n g t h e t r a n s p l a n t i n g s t a g e a b e t t e r f o r m e d a n d f a s t e r g r o w i n g t r e e c a n be o b t a i n e d . The i m p r o v e d r o o t s y s t e m w o u l d a l s o l e a d t o a more s t a b l e s t a n d . The a d v a n t a g e s o f i n t e n s i v e s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n , e v e n b e f o r e b a r e - r o o t p l a n t i n g , a r e b e i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y r e c o g n i z e d i n New Z e a l a n d . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a c o n t a i n e r s e e d i n g s y s t e m w o u l d h a v e a n y g r e a t e r demands i n t h i s r e s p e c t t h a n b a r e - r o o t p l a n t i n g . The s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e s y s t e m t o t o t a l m e c h a n i z a t i o n i s l i k e l y t o be t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t o f t h e a d v a n t a g e s . The p r o b l e m s o f m e c h a n i z i n g n u r s e r y a n d b a r e - r o o t p l a n t i n g a r e g r e a t a n d a r e s t i l l a l o n g way f r o m b e i n g s o l v e d , e v e n a f t e r c e n t u r i e s o f t h e m e t h o d ' s u s e . I t h a s b e e n i n d i c a t e d t h a t m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f t h e p l a n t i n g p h a s e o f c o n t a i n e r s e e d i n g c o u l d r e d u c e c o s t s b y a f a c t o r o f a r o u n d t e n c o m p a r e d w i t h b a r e - r o o t p l a n t i n g . O t h e r p h a s e s , s u c h a s t r a n s p o r t a n d s t o r a g e , a r e a l s o l i k e l y t o be p o s s i b l e a t l o w e r c o s t . I t m ust be s t r e s s e d t h a t , a t t h i s s t a g e , t h e s y s t e m i s n o t h i n g more t h a n a c o n c e p t . C e r t a i n o f i t s a t t r i b u t e s h a v e b e e n 116 demonstrated elsewhere (eg. the suitability of container systems generally to mechanization) and some of i t s demands w i l l be required by other systems anyway (e.g. highly mechanized nursery growing of bare-root transplants is l i k e l y to demand extremely fast, even and complete germination of the seed). The potential advantages and cost savings, however, more than justify further analysis of the system and a start on the experimental testing of the techniques involved. Laboratory t r i a l s would not have provided much helpful information for development and testing of the concepts outlined herein. They evolved primarily from four years of New Zealand f i e l d experience in establishment of radiata pine and exposure to North American ideas about mechanization and containerization. The concepts proposed herein are considered to be worthy of operational and research t r i a l s in the f i e l d in New Zealand. The author hopes to be closely associated with planning and execution of such investigations on his return to New Zealand in 1972. 117 BIBLIOGRAPHY. ADAMOVICH, L. 1968: Problems i n mechanizing commercial thinnings. Paper No. 68-127, Annual meeting of American Society of A g r i c u l t u r a l Engineers, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, 24 pp. AIRD, P.L., COTTELL, P.L., WINER, H.I., and BREDBERG, C.J., 1970: Evaluating the productivity of logging machines: studies of B e l o i t Harvesters. Pulp and Pap. Mag. of Canada, Sept. 1970, (107-114). ANON.. 19©6: Wood . - world trends and prospects.^ . 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Houghton M i f f l i n , Boston. 368 CHAVASSE, C.G.A. 1969: Land preparation for forestry i n New Zealand N.Z. Forest Service, F.R.I. Symposium No. 11, 205 pp. CHAVASSE, C.G.A.& WESTON, G.C. 1969: Forest nursery and est a b l i s h -ment practice i n New Zealand. N.Z. Forest Service, F.R.I. Symposium No. 9, 214 pp. 118 DAWKINS, H.C. 1969: The future on i n d u s t r i a l c e l l u l o s e . Supp. to Forestry, 50 years on. O.U.P.* EDEN, C.J. 1965: "Use of X-ray techniques for determining sound seed." Tree Plant. Notes, No. 72, (25-8). EL-LAKANY,M»E. & S8IKLAI-, 0. 1968: Preliminary report on the e f f e c t of gamma-irradiation on the germination of some west-ern coniferous species. Paper presented to Forest Section, N.W. S c i e n t i f i c Assoc., Central Washington State College, Ellensburg, Washington. Mimeo 15 pp. ERTFELD, W. 1968: Root deformation on young Scots pine and t h e i r e f f e c t s on height growth and stem quality.. S o z i a l Forstw., B e r l . 18(12), (371-380). (Trans, by N.Z. Forest Service,197Q) FAMILTON, A.K. 1969: The 1969 National Forestry Planning model. Prepared for Production Forestry working party report to the Forestry Development Conference, Wellington, New Zealand, 18-20th Feb., 1969, 43 pp. GAGNE, G. 1971: Economics of Equipment Operating costs. Pulp and Pap. Mag. of Canada, 72(7), p.85. GORDON, L.S. 1971: Opening remarks to Tappi, Annual meeting feature session. TAPPI 54(6), (895). GRAHAM,Jr.,.F. 1970: Since S i l e n t Spring. Fawcett World Library, New York. 333 pp. HANNULA, 0. 1970: The ef f e c t s of average stand diameter on tree-length logging costs. Pulp & Pap. Mag. of Canada, 72(2), (96-100). HUBBERT, M.K. 1969: Energy Resources. In Resources and Man, a study and recommendations by the committee on Resources and Stan, of the D i v i s i o n of Earth Sciences, National Academy of Sciences. Published by W.H.Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 259 pp. HUGHES, J.P. 1970: Logging operations i n Canada - review and forecast. Pulp & Pap. Mag. of Canada (Woodlands Index-2553) A p r i l , 1970, (100-103). JACKSON, R.W. 1971: Birds i n exotic forests i n New Zealand. N.Z. Journ. For., 16(1), (61-68). JAMES, R.N., TUSTIN, J.R., SUTTON, W.R.J. 1970: Forest Research Institute symposium on pruning and thinning. N.Z.Journ. For., 15(1), (25-56). 119 JOSEPHSON, H.R. 1971: Recycling of waste paper i n r e l a t i o n to forest resources. TAPPI, 54(6), (896-899). KINGHORN, J.M. 1970: The status of container planting i n western Canada. For. Chron., 46(6), (466-469). KIRKLAND, A. 1969: Notes on the establishment and thinning of old-crop Douglas f i r i n Kaingaroa Forest. N.Z. Journ. For., 14(1),(25-37). KIRKPATRICK, R.E. 1964: Tree-length logging symposium. Pulp & Pap. Mag. of Canada, Sept., 1964, WR 366-380. KORNIENKO, M.F., PERFIL'EV, V.N., LJUTIN, M.F. 1970: The SKL-I machine fo r planting large stock on f e l l e d areas. Lesn. Hoz., 1970 (9), (55-59). (Abstract only seen.). LEWIS, N.B., HARDING, J.H. 1963: S o i l factors i n r e l a t i o n to pine growth i n South A u s t r a l i a . Aust. For., XXVII (1), (27-34). LLODRA,R.,J.M. 1964: A p p l i c a t i o n of temperature i n the study of the germination of Pinus r a d i a t a seeds. Bol. Tec. Esc. Ingem. For. Univ. Chile No. 9. 19 pp. (Abstract only seen.) LOGAN, B.A. 1965: Mobile tree-length chipping i n the forest. Pulp & Pap. Mag. of Canada, Oct. 1965, WR 453-461. LOVERING, T.S. 1969: Mineral resources from the land. In Resources and Man, a study and recommendations by the committee on resources and man of the D i v i s i o n of Earth Sciences, National Academy of Sciences. Published by W.H.Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 259 pp. MACARTHUR, J.B. 1969: Multi-product integrated logging. Pulp & Pap. Mag. of Canada, 70(15), (79-82). MACARTHUR, R.S. 1971: Some observations on the economic value of dual purpose forestry i n the Wairau River catchment. N.Z. Journ. For. 16(1), (46-60). MACKINNON, G.E. 1968: Reforestation i n Ontario. For. Chron., 44 (14-17) MANN, M.J. 1967: Plantation establishment on steep t e r r a i n . Appita 20(6), (xvii-xxx). MANN J r . , W.F.,TAYLOR J r . , H.T. 1969: A e r i a l row seeding i s possible. Journ. For., 67(11), (814-815). McMOLL, B.J. 1969: Ak systems approach to some industry problems. C.P.P.A., Woodlands Section Index No. 2558 ( B - l ) , 56 pp. 120 McCOLL,. J . , PEPLER, W.A.E. 1953: The development of mechanical pulpwood logging methods fo r eastern Canada. CP.P.A. Woodlands Section Index No. 1325 ( B - l ) . ( B r i e f to Mechaniz-ation Steering Committee, September 1950.) MITCHELL, A.S. 1966: Pulpwood harvesting. Pulp & Pap. Mag. of Canada, Sept., 1966, WR 433-435. MOBERLY, B.W.A. 1970: The r a i s i n g and planting of Pinus radiata seedlings throughout the year. N.Z. For. Res. Inst., Res. L e a f l e t . No. 30. 4: pp. MORGAN J r . , R.L. 1971: Labor a v a i l a b i l i t y : influence on methods of harvesting and transporting. Section 32, XVth I.U.F.R.O. Congress, G a i n s v i l l e , F l o r i d a ; March, 1971, 6 pp. MULLIN, R.E. 1971: Some e f f e c t s of root dipping, root exposure and extended planting dates with white spruce. For. Chron. 47(2), (90-93). NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE 1969: Conference held i n Wellington, New Zealand. Material taken from:- ( i ) Forestry Sector Report; ( i l ) Report of the Manufacturing Committee; ( i i i ) Report of the Labour Committee. NEW ZEALAND FOREST SERVICE 1969: Report of the Forest Research Insti t u t e for 1968. N.Z.F.S., Wellington, New Zealand, 99 pp. NEW ZEALAND FOREST SERVICE 1970(a): Report of the Forest Research Insti t u t e for 1969. N.Z.F.S., Wellington, New Zealand, 103 pp. NEW ZEALAND FOREST SERVICE 1970 (b): Summary of current re-establish-ment costs. Internal f i l e , Kaingaroa Forest, 28/4/0 4th May 1970, 3 pp. OLSEN, P.F. 1970: Mangatu: a production forest with a major protection value. N.Z. Journ. For. 15(2), (169-183). PAGE, A.I. 1969 (a): The use of large scale a e r i a l photo mosaics for planning and control of air-seeding. N.Z. Journ. For.14(1), (96-97). PAGE, A.I. 1969 (b): High a l t i t u d e photography for the control of a e r i a l seeding operations. N.Z. Journ. For. 14(2), (239-241). PAGE, A.I. 1970: The re-establishment of radiata pine at Kaingaroa Forest. 1. Basic studies to f i n d the l i m i t a t i o n s of a r t i f i c i a l and natural seeding. N.Z. Journ. For. 15(1),(69-78). 121 PAGE, A.I. 1971 (a): Report on a tour of North America. Submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of For. 503 at the Faculty of Forestry, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., type-writ ten, 50 pp. PAGE, A.I. 1971 (b): The re-establishment of radiata pine at Kaingaroa Sorest. 2. T a i l o r i n g method to s i t e . N.Z. Journ. For. 16(1), (82-87). PAGE, A.I. 1971 ( c ) : Site preparation for the establishment of the second crop of Pinus radiata i n New Zealand. Paper No. 71-161, Annual meeting of American Society of A g r i c u l t u r a l Engineers, Washington, State University, Pullman, Washington. June 27-30th, 1971. Mimeo 12 pp; PAGE, A.I., SPIERS, J.J.K. 1969: Logging and re-establishment. In N.Z. Forest Service, F.R.I. Syfriposium No. 11. p. 146. REITZ, J . 1970: New methods of weed control i n forestry, Forst. u. Holzw. 25(5), (88-89). (Abstract only seen.) RENNIE, P.J. 1971: The role of mechanization i n forest s i t e prepar-ation. Invited paper, Section 32, XVth I.U.F.R.O. World Congress, G a i n s v i l l e , F l o r i d a . March 1971. Mimeo 37 pp. ROOK, D.A. 1970: Puddjfclhgg mixtures: t h e i r evaluation and e f f e c t s on plants. N.Z. For. Res. Inst., Res. Note No. 46, pp 6. SCHREINER, E.J. 1970: Mi n i - r o t a t i o n f o r e s t r y . U.S.D.A. Forest Serv. Res. Pap. NE-174. 32 pp. SCOTT, CW. 1960: Pinus radiata. FAO For. and For. Prod. Stud. .No 14. - Rome, ..1960>,. 3 28 pp. SILVERSIDES, CR. 1959: Prospects for portable wood chippers. FAO For. Equip. Notes D. Cat. 2, 1959. SILVERSIDES, CR. 1966: The influence of mechanization on harvesting and transportation methods. 6CFM/G/C.T.IV/5, 6th World Forestry Congress, Madrid, 1966. SMITH, J.H.G. and WALTERS3 J . 1965: Influence of seedling size on growth, s u r v i v a l and cost of growing Douglas-fir. Univ. of B.C., Fac. of For., Res. Note No. 50, 7 pp. SMITHERS, L.A. 1964: The impact of mechanical logging on s i l v i c u l t -ure i n Canada. Section 32, I.U.F.R.O., 1964, Mimeo 8 pp. 122 SORENSON, B. 1969: Vibrations occurring i n chain saws. Tim. Trade Journ. 269(4831), p.59. STONE, E.C., NORBERG, E.A. 1971: Modification of nursery climate to improve root growth capacity of ponderosa pine trans-plants. Paper No. 71-165, Annual meeting of American Society of A g r i c u l t u r a l Engineers, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington. June 27-30th, 1971. Mimeo 17 pp. STONE, E.L., WILL,G.M. 1963: Nitrogen deficiency of second gener-ation radiata pine i n New Zealand. Paper presented at the second N. Amer. Forest S o i l s Conference, Oregon State Univ-e r s i t y , 1963. Printed i n F o r e s t - S o i l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n North America, (117-139). STREYFFERT, T. 1966: The world's fo r e s t resources and t h e i r adequacy. Proc. 6th World For. Congress, Madrid. 1966. Vo l . 1 (483-490). SUTTON, W.R.J. 1969: Overhead costs i n r e l a t i o n to forest s i z e . N.Z. Journ. For., 14(1), (87-89). TINUS, R.W. 1971: A greenhouse nursery system f o r rapid production of container planting stock. Paper No. 71-166, Annual meeting of American Society of A g r i c u l t u r a l Engineers, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington. June 27-30th, 1971. Mimeo 17 pp. TOFFLER, A. 1970: Future Shock. Random House Inc., New York. 561 pp. TROUP, R.S. 1955: S i l v i c u l t u r a l systems. 2nd e d i t i o n , O.U.P., 1955 216 pp. URE, J . 1949: The natural regeneration of Pinus r a d i a t a on Kaingaroa Forest. N.Z. Journ. For. 6(1), (30-38). USANOV, A.V. 1969: Some problems i n designing automatic tree planting machines for conifers. Lesn. H6z., 22(6), (79-83). (Abstract only seen.) USMAR, R., YSKA, G.J. 1971: New Zealand wood supply - trends i n i t s management and use. Paper presented to the 12th P a c i f i c Science Congress, Canberra, A u s t r a l i a . Mimeo. 24 pp. WALTERS, J . 1967: Container planting i n fore s t r y . Proc. Inter. Plant Prop. S o c , Annual meeting, 1967, (414-146). WALTERS, J . 1968: Container planting with guns, b u l l e t s and lazy-susans. Pulp & Pap. Mag. of Canada, Jan., 1968, (91-93). 123 WALTERS, J . 1969 (a): Container planting of Douglas f i r . For. Prod. Journ. 19(10), (10-14). WALTERS, J . 1969 (b): Pr e c i s i o n sowing of forest tree seed f o r container planting. Winter meeting of American Society of A g r i c u l t u r a l Engineers, Sherman House, Chicago. Dec. 9-12th, 1969. Mimeo 6 pp. WALTERS, J . 1970: University of B r i t i s h Columbia Research Forest, Annual Report for period A p r i l 1, 1969 to March 31,1970. Univ. of B.C. , Fac. of For., mimeo 19 pp. WALTERS, J . 1971(a): Letter i n For. Chron. V o l . 47(4), p. 177. WALTERS, J . 1971(b): A e r i a l planting of tree seedlings. Paper No. 71-173, Annual meeting of American Society of A g r i c u l t -ural Engineers, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington. June 27-30th, 1971. Mimeo 8 pp. WAMBACH, R.F. 1969: Compatibility of mechanization with s i l v i c u l t u r e . Journ. For. 67(2), (104-108). WARD, J.T., PARKES, E.D., GRAINGER, M.B., FENTON, R. 1966: An economic analysis of large scale land development for a g r i c -ulture and forestry. L i n c o l n College A g r i . Econ. Res. Unit, Pub. No. 27, 158 pp. WESTOBY, J.C. 1970: One world f o r e s t r y , New Zealand's r o l e . N.Z. Journ. For., 15(1), (9-24). WHITE, D.P., SCHNEIDER, G. 1971: A s o i l - l e s s regeneration system for growing coniferous seedlings. Presented to Annual meet-ing of American Society of A g r i c u l t u r a l Engineers, Washington State Uni v e r s i t y , Pullman, Washington, June 27-30th, 1971. Mimeo 11 pp. WILL, G.M. 1968: The uptake, c y c l i n g and removal of mineral nutrients by crops of Pinus radiata. Proc. N.Z. Ec o l . S o c , 15 (20-24). WILLIAMS, N.R. 1971: A decade of wood cost performance f o r industry east of the Rockies. C.P.P.A., Woodlands Section 53rd Annual Meeting. WILLIAMS, W.C., HAAS, L. 1971: World trends. Pulp and Paper Inter., 13(8), (9-16). WINER, H.I. 1965: Assessment of stand factors and logging conditions. Pulp & Pap. Mag. of Canada, Dec. 1965, WR 530-531. 124 YUDELEVICH, M. 1966: Inventario de las plantaciones forestales de l a zona centro sur de C h i l e . Inst. For., Santiago, Informe Tecnico No. 27, 16 pp. 125 APPENDIX 1 Some sample re-establishment costs from New Zealand State Forests. (Source: N.Z. Forest Service, 1970 (b).). (a) A e r i a l sowing. 21bs Pinus radiata seed per acre (approx. 28,000 seeds) d i s t r i b u t e d through "Swathmaster" f e r t i l i z e r . spreader mounted on an Aero Commander 'Snow* a i r c r a f t (600 hp). The cost oiH t h i s operation i s dependent upon the cost of the seed which constitutes some 80% of the t o t a l operational cost. Only bulk (slash collected) seed has been used for t h i s operation to date. Seed - 2 lbs/acre at $NZ3.00/lb -• $6.00 F l y i n g (A/C hire at $NZ90.00/hour.) - $0.50 Ground control and overheads - $0.50 $NZ7.00/acre. (b) Supplementary planting. This i s defined as any cut-over planting operation where cognizance i s taken of e x i s t i n g seedlings a r i s i n g from natural or a e r i a l l y supplied seed. A l l natural regeneration and a e r i a l l y sown areas require t h i s treatment (Page, 1971 b). The per acre cost of t h i s operation, of course, depends upon the amount of supplementation required. Average cost/acre (1969) - $NZ10.04 Range i n cost/acre ( 1 1 ) - $NZ14.38-4.19. Average cost/100 trees ( " ) - $NZ 1.45 126 (c) Blanket planting of cut-overs; Windrowed:-Average cost/acre (1969) - $NZ11.03 Range i n " / " (& " ) - $NZ 8.75 - 13.50 Unprepared:-Average cost/acre ( " ) - $NZ25.61 Range i n " / ( 11 ) - $NZ18.58 - 37.75 (d) Windrowing logging slash. The unmanaged nature of many of the radiata pine stands now being logged r e s u l t s i n large quantities of logging slash. Much of t h i s material i s dead wood from the many dead stems r e s u l t i n g from natural mortality i n the overmature plantations. Future intensive management and closer u t i l i z a t i o n w i l l l i k e l y prevent a s i m i l a r residue when the second r o t a t i o n crops are f e l l e d . In the meantime, however, the large accumulations of logging slash are a physical b a r r i e r to replanting and there i s also some evidence that f r o s t regimes are i n t e n s i f i e d on c e r t a i n s i t e s by the debris (Page, 1970). Windrowing of the slash with rootrakes removes the b a r r i e r and the concurrent s o i l c u l t i v a t i o n i s thought to be b e n e f i c i a l also, p a r t i c u l a r l y on the f r o s t i e r s i t e s . Cost of windrowing depends on many factors such as operator s k i l l , t e r r a i n , tractor type, amount of slash,etc.. An average figure for Kaingaroa would be i n the region of $25/acre (Page, 1971 c ) . (e) Burning slash. Slash burning i s r e l a t i v e l y new i n New Zealand exotic forestry .127 and no r e l i a b l e cost estimates are av a i l a b l e . There seems l i t t l e doubt, however, that costs w i l l be many times lower than mechanical windrowing. $NZ0.50 to 1.00 per acre would not be an unreason-able estimate, (f) Spacing. Ear l y spacing control i s of great importance i n the management of New Zealand's f a s t growing softwoods. Both natural regeneration and a e r i a l sowing r e s u l t i n l o c a l i z e d overstocking (even though other parts of the cutover may be understocked to the point of req u i r i n g supplementary planting). Juvenile spacing i s almost always required therefore. No successful mechanical system has been developed for t h i s operation and the operation - known as slasher thinning i n New Zealand - i s ca r r i e d out manually at a stand height of approximately f i v e feet and at an average cost of $NZ10.00/acre. The following table indicates some approximate estimates of the t o t a l r e f o r e s t a t i o n costs of various types of cutover. The costs are based on 1969 data. Tree stocks costs are taken as $NZ12.00/1,000 for 1-0 and $NZ16.00/1,000 for the l%-0 trees required on the colder s i t e s . 128 Table 6. Some representative r e f o r e s t a t i o n costs i n New Zealand. Operation. Per acre cost f o r each cutover type.?N.Z. Natural~ regen. A e r i a l Sowing Windrowed "hard" s i t e s Unprep. cutover A i r sowing 7.00 Suppl. planting (Assume 500spa planted.) 7.25 7.25 Planting (6x6) 11.03 25.61 Tree stocks 6.00 6.00 18.66 18.66 Windrowing 25.00 Juvenile spacing 10.00 10.00 To t a l 23.25 30.25 54.69 44.27 .129 APPENDIX 2 An estimate of the potential cost reductions of a e r i a l p r e c i s i o n setting of containerized seed and an i n d i c a t i o n of some of the technical problems involved. The figures used below (except f o r such known s t a t i s t i c s as a i r c r a f t payloads, h i r e rates e t c ? ) are e n t i r e l y hypothetical. Despite t h i s , the exercise was thought worth while i f only to i l l u s t r a t e that very large savings i n per acre costs and time may ,be possible i f a e r i a l methods of planting containerized seed could be developed. The technical problems are also very large but the magnitude of the potential cost, and p a r t i c u l a r l y time, savings i s s u f f i c i e n t j u s t i f i c a t i o n , i n t h i s author's opinion, f o r further analysis of a e r i a l systems. ( i ) Container size and weight. The container i s assumed to be 2 cms. i n diameter and 10 cms. i n length. Applying the volume.formula:-Vol . = T T r 2 . l the volume of the container w i l l be:-3.142 . 1 . 10 = 31.42cms3. Assuming the f i l l e d container has a s p e c i f i c gravity of 0.8, the containers weight w i l l be:-0.8 . 31.42 = 25gms. (approx.) ( i i ) A i r c r a f t capacity. The a i r c r a f t used i n t h i s exercise i s an Aero Commander 'Snow' with a payload of 22001bs (1,000 k i l o s ) . I t i s assumed that 130 50% of t h i s payload i s absorbed by the container e j e c t i o n machinery and an a i r c r a f t guidance system. The e f f e c t i v e payload i s then some 500 k i l o s which represents 20,000 loaded containers. At a spacing of 6'xl2' the a i r c r a f t would carry s u f f i c i e n t containers i n each load to plant:-20,000 = 30 acres (approx.) 605 ( i i i ) Planting rate. Assuming a) a f l y i n g speed of 100 mph and b) that the a i r -c r a f t i s equipped with three e j e c t i o n devices - one under the fuselage and one under each of the wings - the rate of area coverage w i l l be:-100. 1760 . 12 s 480Q = 436 acres/hour. 4840 11 or approximately 450 acres per hour of e f f e c t i v e f l y i n g time. Required e f f e c t i v e f l y i n g time per a i r c r a f t load i s then:-30 . 60 = 4 minutes. 450 (iv) Planting cost. It i s assumed that 607« of the a i r c r a f t ' s time i n the a i r i s spent f e r r y i n g and turning at the end of each run. The amount of paid time required for each a i r c r a f t load w i l l then be 10 minutes. (In New Zealand forest operations, when a i r c r a f t are hired by the hour the clock i s running from the time the wheels begin to r o l l on the take-off run to the time the a i r c r a f t reaches a complete stop a f t e r landing. Loading time i s charged at a separate rate, i f at a l l . ) 131 The hire rate for an Aero Commander 'Snow' is around $NZ120/ hour (White in Chavasse, 1969). The flying cost, on a per acre basis w i l l therefore be:-10 . 120 - $NZ0.66/acre. 60 . 30 Considering the arbitrary nature of the data used here, and • the technical problems that would be involved in such a system, the cost diffe r e n t i a l between aerial and ground planting systems (the latter calculated in the main body of the thesis at $NZ1.10/acre) is not particularly great. In terms of speed of planting, however, the aerial system, i f possible, is greatly superior. The rate of ISO acres per flying hour is some six times the rate per working hour of the ground based system. Increasing the potential speed of the ground prime mover would, of course, narrow the gap, although increased speed is l i k e l y to bring with i t problems of planting machine design. The aircraft based system presents many technical problems. No machinery exists yet that could accurately eject the containers at the very high speeds required (although military hardware exists today that i s capable of f i r i n g rates greatly in excess of what would be required by the above system). For precision sowing air-craft guidance of far greater accuracy than is currently used in the forest industry would be needed. The technology exists today in the form of i n e r t i a l guidance systems and radio beacon navigators, but very high capital and installation costs have, up to now, been prohibitive. 132 The f i g u r e s p r e s e n t e d h e r e , h o w e v e r , a r e s u f f i c i e n t j u s t i -f i c a t i o n f o r a t l e a s t f u r t h e r a n d more d e t a i l e d t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e s y s t e m . 

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