Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Trends in forestry mechanization and concepts for containerized seeding in New Zealand Page, Arthur Ian 1971

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1972_A6 P33.pdf [ 6.84MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0075336.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0075336-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0075336-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0075336-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0075336-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0075336-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0075336-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0075336-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0075336.ris

Full Text

TRENDS IN FORESTRY MECHANIZATION AND CONCEPTS FOR CONTAINERIZED SEEDING IN NEW ZEALAND  by  ARTHUR IAN PAGE B.Sc.  ( F o r . Hons.), U n i v e r s i t y o f Wales, 1966  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF FORESTRY  i n the F a c u l t y of FORESTRY  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming required  t o the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1971  In  presenting  requirements of  British  this thesis  this  Columbia,  the It  agree  thesis  I agree  that  the Library  f o rreference  permission  f o r scholarly  that  i s understood  that  my w r i t t e n  Faculty  of  The university of British V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  Date  S(L  Oct.  fill  of this  s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d  FORESTRY Columbia  by  representatives.  or publication  permission.  I  copying of  p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d  copying  f o rfinancial gain  shall  and study.  f o rextensive  H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s  thesis  fulfilment of the  f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y  make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e further  i n partial  without  ABSTRACT  Review o f the l i t e r a t u r e the  conclusion  quantities emphasis  that  long  on t h e future  term future  o f cheap f i b r e .  o f wood r e s u l t e d i n  demand w i l l  Thereiis  likely  t o be a r e d u c t i o n i n  on t h e form and dimension o f i n d i v i d u a l t r e e s .  Mechanization and automation a r e defined importance noted.  of tree  establishment  Some g e n e r a l  proposed and The  within  described, planting  precision  the  (Pinus  p o t e n t i a l s f o r wood f i b r e  basis  Reforestation  f o r , and problems w i t h ,  alternative tree  establishment  setting of a bullet-like The case  f o r this  which  the author  mechanization.  and  history of i s briefly  bare-root  involving the  enclosing  t h e o r e t i c a l system  considers  equality with  potential benefits  costs  i i  seed,  bare-root  t o be s u f f i c i e n t l y  promising to total  o f t h e system a r e c a l c u l a t e d  are postulated.  careful field  a  i s argued on  investigation, and i t s s u i t a b i l i t y  Some p o s s i b l e  i sworthyof  system,  container  of i t s potential biological  t o be worthy o f f i e l d  concept  industry  production  r a d i a t a , D . D o n . ) i n New Z e a l a n d  and the b a s i s  proposed.  planting,  and  forest  are discussed.  An  is  the total  discussed.  New Z e a l a n d  pine  and t h e r e l a t i v e  p r i n c i p l e s of forest mechanization are  forest mechanization a r e analysed. radiata  be f o r l a r g e  study  I t i s concluded i n New  Zealand.  that the  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS. Page  ABSTRACT  1  TABLE OF CONTENTS  i i i  LIST OF TABLES  .v  LIST OF FIGURES  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  vii  1.  INTRODUCTION World wood trends Definitions Relative importance of tree establishment ...  2.  GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FOREST MECHANIZATION The systems approach Regional and site e f f e c t s Influence of work methods and organization Development and manufacture E f f e c t s on environment and long-term s i t e productivity  ...  1 2 7 9 11 11 15 19 26 30  3.  SOME NEW ZEALAND POTENTIALS 1. P o t e n t i a l f o r f i b r e production 2. P o t e n t i a l f o r forest mechanization  36 36 51  4.  A FUTURE REFORESTATION SYSTEM FOR N.Z. RADIATA PINE . General background The basis f o r planting Problems with bare-root planting Planting shock A d a p t a b i l i t y to mechanization Root d i s t o r t i o n Nurseries Summary An alternative to bare-root planting General description Germination Early growth Protection Handling and planting Cost  59 59 63 65 66 70 71 73 75 75 75 77 82 85 92 97  5.  CONCLUSIONS  109  iii  Page BIBLIOGRAPHY  117  APPENDIX 1 - Some sample r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t c o s t s from New Zealand State F o r e s t s  125  APPENDIX 2 - An estimate o f the p o t e n t i a l c o s t reductions of a e r i a l p r e c i s i o n s e t t i n g of c o n t a i n e r i z e d seed and an i n d i c a t i o n of some o f the t e c h n i c a l problems Involved  129  iv  LIST  OF  TABLES. Page  Table 1.  Estimates of r e a l i z a b l e y i e l d s at age 30 i n d i f f e r e n t parts of New Zealand  38  Table 2.  New Zealand land base  44  Table 3.  P o t e n t i a l gross annual yields from New Zealand exotic forestry, assuming various land bases  49  Some New Zealand Customs T a r i f f s  57  Table 4. Table 5.  Table 6.  Common cost factors of container seeding and bare-root planting Some representative r e f o r e s t a t i o n costs i n New Zealand  v  97  127  LIST  OF  FIGURES.  Page Figure 1.  Possible design f o r container seeding  78  Figure 2.  Possible machine f o r setting of containers. Sketch of p r i n c i p l e only, not a working drawing.  79  Series diagram to show a c t i o n of possible seed container setting machine.  80  Figure 3.  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Writing and  a thesis requires help  inspirational  Zealand  Forest  form.  i n financial,  For the f i r s t  S e r v i c e , who  granted  I am  me  University.  from  t h e F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y , and grants  Committee  travelling  Dr.  am  t o t h e New  to attend  has a l s o been  received  from the U n i v e r s i t y  b y D r . J . H . G . S m i t h , a n d made  during  Lacate,  Council  possible the extensive  t h e summer o f 1 9 7 1 .  indebted  t o t h e m e m b e r s o f my  Dr. S z i k l a i  Professor, Dr. Smith, during  leave  on Research and the N a t i o n a l Research  administered  I  Financial assistance  indebted  study  this  technical  the preparation  and Dr. Thirgood  f o rtheir  committee - a n d t o my  technical help  of the thesis.  - Mr. Adamovich, major  and encouragement  Many o t h e r  people,  n u m e r o u s t o name, h a v e h e l p e d  by t h e i r  information.  a t the U n i v e r s i t y Research  To J a c k  Walters  f a r too  discussion, criticism  and  Forest  a t H a n e y , g o e s a s p e c i a l t h a n k y o u f o r p r o v i d i n g much i n t h e way of  inspiration. O n t h e home s c e n e , my w i f e  w i t h my no  oscillating  means l e a s t ,  jigsaw  puzzle  my  deserves a medal f o r h e r patience  moods a s t h e t h e s i s t o o k f o r m . t h a n k s a r e due t o M i l l y  of the f i r s t  who d e c i p h e r e d  d r a f t and produced  copy.  v i i  Last,  the f i n a l  but by the typed  1 1.  INTRODUCTION " we a r e i n the midst o f the superindustrial revolution. I f f a i l u r e t o grasp t h i s f a c t impairs o n e ® a b i l i t y t o understand the p r e s e n t , i t a l s o l e a d s otherwise i n t e l l i g e n t men i n t o t o t a l s t u p i d i t y when they t a l k about the future. I t encourages them t o t h i n k i n simpleminded s t r a i g h t l i n e s ....Such l i n e a r p r o j e c t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i g e most of what i s s a i d o r w r i t t e n about the f u t u r e . And i t causes us t o worry about p r e c i s e l y the wrong t h i n g s . One needs i m a g i n a t i o n t o c o n f r o n t a revolution." (Future Shock, P 186 - T o f f l e r , 1970) 1  T h i s t h e s i s i s concerned w i t h a v e r y small p a r t o f T o f f l e r ' s (1970) changing w o r l d . l o o k t o the f u t u r e .  Being concerned w i t h f o r e s t r y , i t must  Concern w i t h m e c h a n i z a t i o n p l a c e s  f i e l d o f such b e w i l d e r i n g  evolution  us i n a  t h a t perhaps even the most  v i v i d i m a g i n a t i o n would be too c o n s e r v a t i v e . In mundane terms, aa&attempt i s t o be made t o f o r e c a s t a p o s s i b l e f u t u r e mechanized system o f r e f o r e s t a t i o n ( o r a f f o r e s t a t i o n ) i n New Zealand r a d i a t a p i n e (Pinus r a d i a t a , D.Don.) plantation forestry.  These a r e the l i m i t s , b u t they themselves  are p a r t o f a much l a r g e r framework w i t h which we must be concerned - world f o r e s t r y and i t s major p r o d u c t , c e l l u l o s e , the f u t u r e o f which i s o f major s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the t i n y t o p i c which w i l l be examined i n t h i s t h e s i s .  2  World Wood Trends  There are two major q u e s t i o n s i n any d i s c u s s i o n of the f u t u r e of i n d u s t r i a l c e l l u l o s e .  The  first  i s the a b i l i t y of world  r e s o u r c e s t o supply p r o j e c t e d f u t u r e demands, and t h i s i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o the q u e s t i o n o f the nature and extent o f f o r c e l l u l o s e by a l t e r n a t i v e m a t e r i a l s . an imminent world  The  shortage of wood has now  substitution  once popular i d e a o f  g e n e r a l l y been r e p l a c e d  by the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t r e s o u r c e s a r e adequate to meet f o r e s e e a b l e demands, but t h a t c e l l u l o s e w i l l have to be o b t a i n e d i n v e r y d i f f e r e n t ways compared to today The  new  ( S t r e y f f e r t , 1966;  Anon., 1966).  techniques r e q u i r e d would i n c l u d e t a p p i n g of p r e s e n t l y  untouched r e s e r v e s , i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of s i l v i c u l t u r e , u t i l i s a t i o n of the t r o p i c a l hardwood r e s o u r c e , b r e e d i n g new  strains, etc..  I t i s a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t the t h r e a t of s u b s t i t u t e s must be mentioned.  The most p e s s i m i s t i c a t t i t u d e  (from the p o i n t of view  o f c e l l u l o s e ) i n t h i s r e s p e c t t h a t the author has Dawkins (1969). and mechanization  He  saw  little  seen, i s t h a t o f  p r o s p e c t of i n t e n s i v e s i l v i c u l t u r e  m a i n t a i n i n g s u f f i c i e n t l y low wood procurement  c o s t s to f i g h t o f f the c h a l l e n g e o f s u b s t i t u t e s . The  s t i l l large  r e s e r v e s o f f o s s i l f u e l s and the u b i q u i t o u s nature o f the A l F e S i C a m i n e r a l s - and the r e l a t i v e l y c o n c e n t r a t e d forms i n which these occur compared w i t h the s c a t t e r e d nature of c e l l u l o s e - c o u l d mean the g r a d u a l replacement  o f c e l l u l o s e by p l a s t i c s and A l F e S i C a  d e r i v a t i v e s as wood c o s t s i n c r e a s e .  3  Dawkins dismissed resources, as  t o be  the  fey  the  capable  the  contention of  filling  ultimate  m i g h t be  of  advantage  little  help  that  s u b s t i t u t e s are  our  and  we  are  vice  the  Dawkins'  There  occur that  (1969).  require  cellulose struggle course,  -  then,  to allow  discussion.  The  noted  the  energy production noted also  cost  o f m i n i n g and  this  are  Dreams o f  against  processing  and  rock,  wary of  m u s t be  some o f dream of  the  the  past  -  future  trends.  t o be  right  and  considered.  his  the  kinds  ideas  to  future  required  little  of actually  supplies  of  Lovering  by,  waste d i s p o s a l and  the  that  traditional  somewhat by  since  i s such  alternatives.  concerned with  costs  abundant  i t s renewability  have proved  cheaper energy would  reduce  say,  nuclear  operation. the  total  major components  of  labour.  e x t r a c t i n g metals  were a l s o dampened by produced  capital  for transmission,  that  capital  large  so  a l l our  through r e c y c l i n g .  some c o m m e n t s r e g a r d i n g  needed  require  technology  re&ewable  cheap power have b e e n dampened He  of waste  be  opinions  opinion,  are,however,  t h a t w o u l d be  unlimited  wants u n t i l  will  i n v o l v i n g e x t r a p o l a t i o n of  most unexpected  versa.  energy  of  the  l e a r n i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y t o be  f o r e c a s t i n g methods Some o f  of  i n the  These arguments are,  ore  t h a t we  s u b s t i t u t e s themselves w i l l  Thus the  He  argument  i n the  Lovering  from ordinary  rocks  when he  the  e x t r a c t i o n of  noted  metal  rather  huge  from ordinary  than  amounts granite.  4 The  ratio  o f waste  The  question  cannot be f u l l y that  t o m e t a l would be i n t h e o r d e r  discussed  new s o u r c e s  greatest value  of future  power p r o d u c t i o n  here.  There  o f energy w i l l  i slikely  i s , however,  t o be i n t h e i r  desperately  needed  power when t h e f o s s i l  fortea-ster  places  the remaining  gas  i t s technology  cellulose  recycling rate  is  18-207o.  some  reached  serve  full  cellulose  confused range  with  of the world's  which It  the  fossil  One  fuels  f o r petroleum and n a t u r a l  cost  i salready  account  of i t s competitors.  States  and paper  States  by Josephson  fact The  industry have  R i s i n g wood  o  (1971), w i l l  prices  only  t h e scope  projections of the future  of this  thesis.  argument and counter-argument  to build  pulp  35-407 ( G o r d o n , 1971).  of a l l the various  i soutside  I have  an established  such a s J a p a n a n d West Germany  spectrum  from acute  this  pessimism  to allow  the whole  t o bouncing this  the setting  kaleidoscope of a  context  thesis.  i s g e n e r a l l y agreed  of finished  The s u b j e c t i s  that bracket  no a l t e r n a t i v e b u t t o draw from  few s u b j e c t i v e l y s e l e c t e d p o i n t s  in  t o provide  t h e economics o f r e c y c l i n g .  of the opinion  optimism.  as  f o rt h e U n i t e d  t o improve A  a  but their  f u e l s a r e exhausted.  of that  i n the United  Countries  rates as high  forecasted  fibres  i s w e l l ahead  current  of  doubt  (Hubbert,1969). Recycling..of  and  complex and  little  asset,  capacity  2-3 c e n t u r i e s f o r c o a l a n d 70-80 y e a r s  at  i svery  be a w o n d e r f u l  life  o f 2,000:1.  cellulose  that  the greatest  products  s i n g l e component o f  i s the cost  o f wood  5  procurement  process  operations costs labour  (Pers.comm.).  g e n e r a l l y , have  have been costs The  spiralling  mechanization  137o  over  40%  of their  the l a s t  long been labour alarmingly.  costs  year  introduced  a n d 65%  phase o f l o g g i n g  (1971) n o t e d  into  eastern  t h e wood c o s t  has reached  of this  their  With forestry, is  cutover  no p r o s p e c t  at least  experiencing  agricultural  land  s t i l l  a s $70  i n sight,  that  (Page,  manual  per acre  (excluding  companies a r e l o o k i n g economically  1971).  o f a slow-down i n t h e l a b o u r  cost  i n t h e c u r r e n t l y m a j o r wood p r o d u c i n g  a c o s t / p r i c e squeeze  industry.  The l a t t e r  similar  to that  countries,  i n the  l e d to the intensive  agricultural  described  mechanization  i s u r g e n t l y needed by t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y t o  at least  turn,  maintain,  the maintenance  cellulose.  (1971).  rise,  mechanization  or  by Barber  pay  i s involved i n the  t o a s s i s t e d n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n a s t h e o n l y way o f restocking  Canada  (op.cit.).  as high  no m e c h a n i z a t i o n  that  increase to  companies  i n e a s t e r n Canada a r e so h i g h  of cutovers  labour  927» s i n c e 1960.  by  period, but timber  i n labour  Labour costs  and, with  already  i n t e n s i v e and  Williams  risen  skidders) has slowed 10  stump-to-roadside  planting  Wood p r o c u r e m e n t , a n d f o r e s t  i n e a s t e r n Canada have  ( p r i m a r i l y wheeled  stock)  I n Norway, a s b u t one  807o o f t h e c o s t o f s a w n l u m b e r i s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u m p -  example, to-mill  1971).  ( W i l l i a m s and Haas,  Such i n t e n s i v e  wood c o s t s a t a l e v e l of the competitive  which w i l l  reduce,  allow, i n  p o s i t i o n enjoyed  by  6 In addition to labour are  factors  cost, labour a v a i l a b i l i t y  i n t h e argument f o r i n c r e a s e d f o r e s t  and  quality  mechanization.  F o r e s t w o r k , f o r a l l i t s g l a m o u r t o some, i s g e n e r a l l y r e m o t e , dirty, high  hard,  uncomfortable  p a y , l o g g i n g camps e x p e r i e n c e  necessitating The  and, a t times,  frequent  cost of maintaining  transport, are,  adds  Machines, p a r t i c u l a r l y  man  from  free The in  i t s work-sapping  psychological attractions  skill  interested force that  the latest  labour  limitations o f machines  brawn, a t t r a c t  and w i l l i n g  t o be t r a i n e d .  more e f f i c i e n t  such  - and  a s mud,  - considered  cold  etc..  important  demands f o r  a better class The v e r y  consequently  of worker,  much r e d u c e d  commuter o p e r a t i o n s w h i c h  work ensure  skilled  c a n be met.  Demands f o r wood a r e r i s i n g supply  increased  cabs e t c . , i s o l a t e the  t h e o f f - d u t y , more u r b a n - o r i e n t e d - d e m a n d s o f t h e operator  costs  favourable  developments w i t h  i n d u s t r y (Barber, 1971) - and t h e i r  faster,  commuter  environment.  and l e s s  allows  machine  wood  High  the dangers and r i g o u r s o f the environment  the farming  production.  t o combat t h e more  a i r - c o n d i t i o n e d and/or heated  him from  greater  a n d r e d u c i n g man-day  o f t h e need  the  turnovers  t o the overheads.  conditions of the urban  automation,  high  Despite  s u b s i d i s e d camps o r ; i n c r e a s i n g l y ,  substantially  i n part, a result  working  retraining  very  dangerous.  and although  the raw m a t e r i a l  f o r t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f w h a t m i g h t be c a l l e d r e c o n s t i t u t e d  i s likely  t o be adequate,  other  s u p p l i e s may  not.  Josephson  7  (1971), speaking f o r the u n i t e d S t a t e s ,  noted  "...Under present l e v e l s of management and n o ^ s e r i o u s o v e r c u t t i n g , f o r e s e e a b l e s u p p l i e s o f lumber and plywood w i l l soon f a l l short o f p o t e n t i a l demands, w i t h a consequent i n c r e a s e i n timber p r i c e s and g r e a t e r use o f c o m p e t i t i v e m a t e r i a l s . " T o f f l e r (1970) has  noted the problems of f o r e c a s t i n g  the  f u t u r e i n a world o f r a p i d l y a c c e l e r a t i n g t e c h n i c a l i n n o v a t i o n increasing transcience.  and  I t would appear, t h e r e f o r e , to be dangerous  to attempt t o f o r e c a s t i n what form the world of a r o t a t i o n hence (even the r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t r a d i a t a p i n e r o t a t i o n ) w i l l c e l l u l o s e (assuming i t wants i t a t a l l ! ! ) .  require  I t seems s a f e r t o  assume t h a t the problems of c e l l u l o s e u t i l i z a t i o n w i l l be  solved i n  the l a b o r a t o r y and  Form  dimension of the  translated i n t o i n d u s t r i a l processes.  t r e e s grown would then be of l e s s importance i n  t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n than they are It  and  today.  i s concluded then, t h a t the f u t u r e demand w i l l be  for  l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f low c o s t f i b r e w i t h but l i m i t e d importance attached  t o t r e e form and  dimension.  n e c e s s a r y to o b t a i n the low form and and  dimension demands.  c o s t and  Intensive mechanization i s i s favoured by  the reduced  T h i s development i s v i t a l to the  even the f u t u r e e x i s t e n c e ,  of the  health,  forest industry.  Definitions It  i s appropriate  here to d e f i n e the words m e c h a n i z a t i o n  and  automation as they w i l l be used throughout t h i s t h e s i s . M e c h a n i z a t i o n  8  is  d e f i n e d as  with  replacement  o f human a n d / o r a n i m a l  t h a t of a motor-driven machine.  control but  £he  of  the a c t i v i t y  his physical  by  The  power  operator retains  h i s manipulation of  strength essentially  muscle  i s not  direct  the machine  utilised  as  a  controls, power  input. During be  degrees  input  the development o f any  of mechanization.  r e q u i r e d o f man  and  finally  axe  i s technically  above d e f i n i t i o n A  decreased  tractor-mounted a  of  without  the d i r e c t  this  stage  automated.  The  automatically. loading  of a  of  not  of  by  the  intervening  of the  covered  the  saws (The  by  the  and  or desirable.  As  an  the into  becomes cycle  example,  shortwood  into  The  then  stopping the  buck the  bole  operator  i s freed  to manipulate  the  processor i s  processing  and  tree.  machine  operator.  o p e r a t o r who  the Koehring-Waterous  to delimb  second  c r o s s c u t saws, c h a i n  c a r r i e d , o u t by  operator loads a tree  The  power  shears were developed.  immediate c o n t r o l  become n e c e s s a r y  proceeds  c a n be  i s set i n motion  processing  which  and  a watchdog, capable  should  hydraulic  the  will  p a r t o f a p r o c e s s , becomes automated when i t s  component a c t i v i t i e s  only  axes,  felling,  simple machine, although  various  cycle  as  i n tree  operation, there  mechanization.)  process, or  automatic  Thus,  particular  tower  predetermined the  lengths  cutting  and  9  R e l a t i v e importance of t r e e An  establishment.  overview of the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s that  establishment  the  phase,and t r e e p l a n t i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r , c o n s t i t u t e a  small percentage of the t o t a l c o s t of growing and d e l i v e r i n g wood to the u t i l i z a t i o n p l a n t . published was  i n New  D e t a i l e d l o g g i n g c o s t s have not been  Zealand but an average f i g u r e of $NZ600 per  g e n e r a l l y accepted a t a r e c e n t  author f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e s of up to 90%, of l i t t l e  acre  symposium (Chavasse, 1969).  that a p o t e n t i a l reduction  i n planting cost  even a f t e r the a d d i t i o n of compound i n t e r e s t , may  importance when compared t o the  The  be  t o t a l wood c o s t to the  mill.  D e s p i t e ; the r e l a t i v e l y low amounts r e q u i r e d , however, money f o r tree establishment,  particularly reforestation, traditionally  has been s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d i n New  Zealand except f o r a b r i e f  i n h i s t o r y - 1925-35 - known as the " p l a n t i n g boom". has  A l s o , the work  o f t e n been thought o f as a means o f p r o v i d i n g work  temporarily  period  f o r v.  unemployed workmen - a hangover from the days of  Great D e p r e s s i o n - d e s p i t e  the f a c t t h a t v e r y  the  small p r o p o r t i o n s  of  r e c e n t annual programmes have been completed as make-work p r o j e c t s . I f funds are to continue to be b e l i e v e s , labour  i s to be  l i m i t e d and  increasingly d i f f i c u l t  i f , a s the  author  to o b t a i n ,  development o f cheap, h i g h l y mechanized systems i s i m p e r a t i v e . apologies  need be made,then, f o r the f o l l o w i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n  tree establishment.  The  No on  r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n of t h i s phase w i t h i n  fitLX f o r e s t r y p i c t u r e i s r e c o g n i s e d ,  but  the a l l o c a t i o n of  f o r p o s s i b l y l i m i t e d development funds i s not  the  priorities  the a u t h o r ' s concern  at  this  time.  11  2. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FOREST MECHANIZATION.  Compared w i t h some o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s , mechanization is relatively primitive. existent.  i n forestry  Automation i n the i n d u s t r y i s almost non-  I t i s p o s s i b l e , however, t o enunciate some g e n e r a l  p r i n c i p l e s o f f o r e s t mechanization,  drawing on experience from  other  i n d u s t r i e s and from the l i m i t e d development i n f o r e s t r y t o date. These p o i n t s a r e d i s c u s s e d below. The Systems Approach. M c C o l l (1969) has d e f i n e d the systems approach as one o f "a r e c u r r i n g c y c l e o f g o a l o r i e n t a t e d steps t o lower order o b j e c t i v e s " . He s t r e s s e d the importance  o f the c o r r e c t c h o i c e o f g o a l i n  t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s and h i s words a g a i n perhaps b e s t s t a t e the consequences o f a wrong c h o i c e .  "To choose the wrong end i s t o t r y  to s o l v e the wrong problem; t o choose the wrong means i s o n l y t o t r y to l i v e w i t h an unoptimised  system."  In a highly c r i t i c a l  o f the p r o g r e s s o f l o g g i n g mechanization  account  i n e a s t e r n Canada, he noted  t h a t the i n d u s t r y ' s c o n t i n u e d p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h means has l e d t o repeated disenchantment w i t h mechanization developments and a failure  (he c l a i m s ) t o reduce wood c o s t s t o the r e q u i r e d l e v e l . An example o f t h i s argument i s t o be seen i n the r e c e n t l y  developed  shortwood h a r v e s t e r s such as the Koehring.  This i s a highly  z 12 s o p h i s t i c a t e d machine, which even i n c o r p o r a t e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree o f automation. system t h a t was  I t i s s t i l l p r o d u c i n g short wood, however, a  designed f o r man  and h o r s e , t o supply the m i l l s whose  wood rooms have remained b a s i c a l l y unchanged labour intensive logging.  s i n c e the days o f  I t comes as no s u r p r i s e then t o l e a r n  t h a t even a f t e r two years of o p e r a t i o n , d i r e c t c o s t s o f wood produced t o r o a d s i d e by t h i s machine a r e no lower than the p r e v i o u s t r e e - l e n g t h s k i d d i n g and hand-bucking (Page, 1971). The means, t h a t o f mechanizing the shortwood system, has been a c h i e v e d , but the end, the shortwood system i t s e l f , unchanged.  remains  T h i s d e s p i t e a wealth o f l i t e r a t u r e t h a t notes the  advantages o f the t r e e l e n g t h and f u l l - t r e e  systems ( M c C o l l and P e p l e r ,  1950; MacArthur, 1969; K i r k p a t r i c k , 1964; M i t c h e l l , 1966), and f o r e c a s t s o f a c o n t i n u i n g d e c l i n e i n the shortwood system?.&' ,@se. (Hughes,  1970).  The development  o f t h i s machine p r o v i d e s an example  o f s u b - o p t i m i s a t i o n about which M c C o l l says: " I n g e n e r a l ,  optimisation  o f each sub-system w i l l not l e a d t o a system optimum..."  The  investment i n the machines may,  i n f a c t , bear out M c C o l l ' s words  t h a t "...improvement o f a dominant overall  large  sub-system may  a c t u a l l y worsen the  system.". There are o t h e r examples  of s u b - o p t i m i s a t i o n t o be found i n  f o r e s t r y , most o f which r e s u l t from attempts to mechanize o p e r a t i o n r a t h e r than f i r s t d e f i n i n g the u l t i m a t e g o a l .  a particular Thus  windrowing o f l o g g i n g d e b r i s i n the southern pine r e g i o n has c r e a t e d  13  a s i t u a t i o n where f u l l advantage^ cannot be taken o f p l a n t i n g machines; itself. for  a hand crew must be r e t a i n e d t o p l a n t the windrow area I n some areas t h i s has r e s u l t e d i n s l i g h t l y h i g h e r  costs  machine and supplementary hand p l a n t i n g combinations compared t o  f u l l y manual systems (Page, 1971).  Labour shortages f o r c e the  maintenance o f the p l a n t i n g machines. The  c u r r e n t b a t t l e between b a r e - r o o t  and container-grown  stock i s too o f t e n reduced t o a comparison o f two methods o f p l a n t i n g when, i n f a c t , i t i s two systems o f r e f o r e s t a t i o n which a r e t o be compared.  A look a t the systems r e v e a l s the s u p e r i o r s u i t a b i l i t y o f  containers  t o m e c h a n i z a t i o n and a new dimension i s g i v e n t o the  comparison. The  dangers o f s u b - o p t i m i s a t i o n  a r e t o be found between, as  w e l l as w i t h i n , the v a r i o u s phases o f f o r e s t r y . neglected  Perhaps the most  o f these i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s t h a t o f l o g g i n g and  reforestation. regeneration  I f l o g g i n g i s regarded as the f i r s t  or c o n v e r s i o n  o f the s t a n d i n g  stage i n the  f o r e s t t o a new  stand,  then i t becomes a sub-system and the dangers o f s u b - o p t i m i s a t i o n a r e real.  There a r e many cases o f these dangers b e i n g  i g n o r e d . Page and  S p i e r s (1969) i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l o g g i n g and r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t  under New Zealand c o n d i t i o n s , noted how  l o g g i n g c o u l d o f t e n be manipulated, by a l t e r i n g t i m i n g ,  hauling  method e t c . , to o b t a i n b e t t e r and cheaper r e f o r e s t a t i o n .  They  concluded by s a y i n g , " I n t e l l i g e n t c o n t r o l o f l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s  isa  14-  most d e s i r a b l e t o o l of f o r e s t management.  The  f o r e s t manager must  have have an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the c o s t problems t h a t are  the  immediate concern of the l o g g e r and y e t r e t a i n the c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n necessary t o make v i a b l e h i s p o s i t i o n as l a n d manager.". Smithers (1964) s t a t e d the obvious when he noted t h a t i n l o g g i n g c o s t s r e s u l t i n g from m e c h a n i z a t i o n must be o f f s e t any  a d d i t i o n a l s l l v i c u l t u r a l c o s t s t h a t might  sufficient  managers.  fibre  an i n c r e a s i n g concern of f o r e s t  In the b l a c k spruce f o r e s t s o f parts of O n t a r i o ,  a d d i t i o n a l c o s t of m o d i f y i n g  to  occur.  Regarding l o g g i n g as a sub-system w i t h i n the t o t a l growing system i s , encouragingly,  savings  l o g g i n g t o an a l t e r n a t e s t r i p  - approximately $16/acre - i n order to o b t a i n what i s  the system  considered  s a t i s f a c t o r y n a t u r a l r e s t o c k i n g , i s judged p r e f e r a b l e to the $50-70/ acre r e q u i r e d t o implement what was  claimed  as somewhat u n r e l i a b l e  a r t i f i c i a l r e s t o c k i n g methods c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e , ( P a g e ,  1971).  Q u a n t i t a t i v e d e f i n i t i o n s of s a t i s f a c t o r y s t o c k i n g were not a v a i l a b l e . A t l e a s t one now  plans  f o r e s t company i n the southeast  i t s l o g g i n g and  o f the U n i t e d  r e f o r e s t a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s as one  States exercise  (op.cit.). A b r i e f examination of other i n d u s t r i e s , which have developed a h i g h e r degree of m e c h a n i z a t i o n and automation than f o r e s t r y , illustrates  the a p p l i c a t i o n of the systems approach.  l i n e i n the c a r f a c t o r y i s perhaps the b e s t known, but can be The  The  the approach  seen a l s o i n the more c l o s e l y a l l i e d a g r i c u l t u r a l  d e s i r e d end  i n wheat h a r v e s t i n g  i s c l e a n threshed  production  industry.  grain.  No  15  t h r e s h i n g machines are being designed basic and  d e s i g n of combine h a r v e s t e r which  which  crops  i s suitable  such  design  as  that  phase,  facilitating  become a as  i t produces  the  the  here  systems  includes  by  approach, right  is  assumed t h a t  machine o r o p e r a t i o n on term ecosystem effects  and  There  Site  size  -  site:  next  straw,  site and  itself  the  by M c C o l l ,  the  the necessity  a r e t o be  importance  has  engineer -  for  If i t  i s intended f o r  then the e f f e c t s  f o r and  i n any  economic  of  included.  of considering  the The the  later.  number o f  ownerships;  of contiguous area; uniformity  and  forest  region  which  success of mechanization.  These a r e : -  -  the  consideration  basis,  a r e a number o f f a c t o r s  and  machine  Effects.  the p o t e n t i a l  -sige  wheat  o p e r a t i o n or machine.  under  yield  the  i s relevant  The  systems  o f m e c h a n i z a t i o n upon i t a r e d i s c u s s e d  Regional  affect  land  on A s u s t a i n e d  growing  a l l manufacturers  favourable f o r the  as d e f i n e d  - hence  o v e r v i e w d u r i n g the d e s i g n o f any  fibre  acre etc..  the wider meaning of  forest  by  individual  "windrowing"  an  the  there i s a  baler.  s c i e n c e i n i t s own used  per  i n the  conditions  straw baling,  p i c k - u p by  Although  yield  instead  i s produced  f o r a l lv a r i a t i o n s  straw length,  i s such  operational  term  today;  productivity;  16 - market d i v e r s i t y ; - s o c i a l background of region, including cost and a v a i l a b l i t i y of labour; - terrain; - climate; - a v a i l a b i l i t y of technical expertise, e i t h e r through domestic industry or importation, at the design, manufacture, supervisor, operator and maintenance l e v e l s . P a r t i c u l a r operations are i n themselves sensitive to more detailed factors.  For example, productivity of the current single  tree harvesting machines i s dependent upon i n d i v i d u a l tree size and, to a lesser extent, volume per acre (Aird, C o t t e l l , Winer and Bredberg, 1970; Hannula 1970).  The above points, however,  are  general factors which would be pertinent to a l l forest machines, although r e l a t i v e values would vary with d i f f e r e n t systems and functions. The higher c a p i t a l and other f i x e d costs of machines make them dependent on the larger, c a p i t a l - r i c h organizations for t h e i r purchase.  The e f f i c i e n t organization of work methods and  maintenance f a c i l i t i e s also generally r e l i e s on possession of a f l e e t of machines, a further point i n the favour of large organizations. Increasing s o p h i s t i c a t i o n - and hence expense - of machines  17  r e s u l t s i n high fixed costs.  There  i s therefore a strong incentive  t o maximize machine u t i l i z a t i o n ( S i l v e r s i d e s , 1966), and unproductive moving times t o a minimum.  reduce  Large contiguous a r e a s ,  t h e r e f o r e , are g e n e r a l l y necessary f o r the use of the more complex machinery.  These areas are f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t e d by the n e c e s s i t y f o r  t h e i r boundaries t o i n c l u d e o n l y those c o n d i t i o n s under which the machine can work.  Mechanical  systems tend t o be l e s s f l e x i b l e  t h e i r l a b o u r i n t e n s i v e c o u n t e r p a r t s i n t h e i r products and conditions required f o r e f f e c t i v e operation.  than  the  Mechanization  almost  invariably necessitates greater standardization. M e c h a n i z a t i o n i n c r e a s e s man-day p r o d u c t i o n and t h e r e f o r e i s encouraged  as l a b o u r becomes scarce and/or expensive.  the f r e q u e n t need f o r o p e r a t o r and maintenance s t a f f (mentioned  Notwithstanding training  l a t e r ) , the i n t r o d u c t i o n of machines can reduce  reliance  on human s k i l l s - eg. t r e e p l a n t i n g machines - and thus l a b o u r q u a l i t y problems can be a spur t o mechanization. T e r r a i n , both through topography  and ground c o n d i t i o n s ,  e x e r t s a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on mechanization p o t e n t i a l .  Despite a  v e r y l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l and m i l i t a r y r e s e a r c h e f f o r t , steep broken slopes s t i l l p r o v i d e a f o r m i d a b l e b a r r i e r to machine u t i l i z a t i o n . There  i s an urgent need f o r a breakthrough  to a l l o w the a p p l i c a t i o n o f mechanical country (Rennie,1971).  i n prime moving techniques  systems t o the steeper  T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e of New  Zealand where  some 50% of the f u t u r e e x o t i c f o r e s t l a n d i s c u r r e n t l y c l a s s e d as  18 non-tractorable  (Chavasse, 1969).  T e r r a i n c o n d i t i o n s and hazards such as mud,  snow, v e g e t a t i o n ,  i n s e c t s , snakes e t c . , which have p r e v i o u s l y l i m i t e d the progress of men  and  animals, are a d e c r e a s i n g  example, the grapple  problem to modern machines.  i n t r o d u c t i o n of the D r o t t  s k i d d e r s , has  f e l l e r / b u n c h e r and  S t a t e s which had  p r e v i o u s l y proved  i n h o s p i t a b l e f o r manual methods (Page, 1971). c l o s e down the o l d labour the  The  i n t e n s i v e l o g g i n g methods d u r i n g  to l o g g i n g mechanization i n t h a t r e g i o n  one  and Bredberg, 1970; The  spurs  s o p h i s t i c a t e d machines demand, i n t u r n , a more manufacture,  and maintenance l e v e l s ( A i r d , C o t t e l l , Winer S i l v e r s i d e s , 1966;  Barber, 1971;  Morgan, 1971).  importation,  i s of extreme importance to  s u c c e s s f u l i n t r o d u c t i o n o f mechanical systems to any The  extreme  of the  a v a i l a b i l i t y of a l l these f a c t o r s , e i t h e r w i t h i n ^ the  i n d u s t r y or by  to  (op.cit.).  advanced l e v e l of t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e a t the d e s i g n , s u p e r v i s o r , operator  i n the  too  necessity  s p r i n g break-up i n e a s t e r n Canada, was  Increasingly  wide-tired  allowed the l o g g i n g o f some swamp lands  southeast o f the U n i t e d  c o l d and  For  domestic  the  given  area.  term m e c h a n i z a t i o n covers a wide range of i n t e n s i t i e s  mechanical s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and r e q u i r e d f o r the  to g e n e r a l i z e  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f any  summary i s d e s i r a b l e and  on the  conditions  system i s dangerous.  But  the f o r e g o i n g would suggest t h a t any  o f m e c h a n i z a t i o n i s favoured by  and  a form  l a r g e owners ( o r the economic support  o f same) of l a r g e contiguous areas of r e l a t i v e l y even-aged  and  19  uniform forest, grown to produce a l i m i t e d number of raw material forms.  Topography i s currently a l i m i t i n g factor, but other,  environmental and s o c i a l conditions which r e s u l t i n scarce or expensive labour, favour mechanization.  I t i s well to note here,  though, that there are dangers i n over-mechanization i f available technical expertise i s i n s u f f i c i e n t or s o c i a l problems, such as unemployment, may  result.  New Zealand's p a r t i c u l a r l y favourable p o s i t i o n , with some reservations, i n r e l a t i o n to these factors, w i l l be discussed l a t e r .  Influence of work methods and organization. Intensive mechanization necessitates profound changes i n an organization.  Personnel needs change, as does the type of man  i s attracted to the industry.  that  Barber (1971) noted the psychological  e f f e c t of a g r i c u l t u r a l machinery i n slowing the d r i f t of labour towards the more sophisticated work conditions of the c i t i e s .  The  modern worker i s looking more and more f o r status and job s a t i s f a c t i o n (Morgan, 1971);  operation of a complex machine can supply these  wants and provide a kudos that the manager would be f o o l i s h to ignore.  If automation f u l f i l l s i t s correct role i n forest machine  design, this trend w i l l be continued and the monotonous manual operations, which can r e s u l t from p a r t i a l mechanization (e.g. feeding trees to a planting machine), w i l l at least be minimized. If the forest worker of the mechanical age i s motivated  20  d i f f e r e n t l y a t h i s j o b , he i s a l s o l i k e l y t o have v e r y d i f f e r e n t wants d u r i n g h i s o f f - d u t y time.  Bush camp l i f e  i s u n l i k e l y t o be  a c c e p t a b l e and commuting o p e r a t i o n s a r e l i k e l y t o become even more e s s e n t i a l than now.  Reduced man-power requirements, f o r a g i v e n  l e v e l o f p r o d u c t i o n , however, w i l l mean s m a l l e r u n i t s o f men t o be moved a l l o w i n g the use o f s m a l l , f a s t means o f t r a n s p o r t .  Aerial  commuting, a t l e a s t on a 10 days on 4 days o f f b a s i s , i s a l r e a d y a r e a l i t y i n i s o l a t e d p a r t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. A l t h o u g h machines a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y i s o l a t i n g the o p e r a t o r from the dangers and d i s c o m f o r t s o f the bush environment, they a r e i n t u r n producing t h e i r own forms o f s a f e t y hazards which demand new methods i n s a f e t y t r a i n i n g . are the s t i l l  Perhaps the most i n s i d i o u s o f these  i n c o m p l e t e l y understood h e a l t h hazards r e s u l t i n g from  such f a c t o r s as v i b r a t i o n , n o i s e and fumes.  Swedish surveys have  shown t h a t 49% o f f o r e s t workers s u f f e r t o some degree from white f i n g e r d i s e a s e , caused by chain-saw v i b r a t i o n . ( S o r e n s o n 1969).  New  forms o f s a f e t y t r a i n i n g , new s a f e t y standards; and much more r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d on these machine-age  safety hazards.  As machines and  systems become more s o p h i s t i c a t e d , so do the worker hazards become l e s s obvious.  Ergonomic s t u d i e s a r e now employed by many manufacturers  i n the d e s i g n o f new machines and h o p e f u l l y many o f the p o t e n t i a l problems can be a l l e v i a t e d a t t h i s  stage.  I f s a f e t y t r a i n i n g becomes more complex w i t h  increasingly  s o p h i s t i c a t e d m e c h a n i z a t i o n , so too does the process o f j o b t r a i n i n g  21  of  operators.  In many p a r t s o f North America, p r e o c c u p a t i o n  with  the machinery i t s e l f has l e d to a n e g l e c t o f the need f o r o p e r a t o r t r a i n i n g to maximize machine l i f e D i f f e r e n c e s between crews and  and p r o d u c t i o n (Morgan 1970).  i n d i v i d u a l o p e r a t o r s have been found  to be more s i g n i f i c a n t i n a f f e c t i n g the p r o d u c t i o n o f a machine than any o f the environmental Bredberg,  1970;  (1971) noted how and  factors  Winer, 1965).  ( A i r d , C o t t e l l , Winer and  T a k i n g the economic approach, Gagne  o p e r a t o r t r a i n i n g can i n c r e a s e machine a v a i l a b i l i t y  showed the presence  of an optimum l e v e l of investment  in this  aspect. Morgan (1971) noted t h a t i n the Tennessee V a l l e y , sawtimber l o g g e r s alone l o s t $2.6  m i l l i o n i n wages due  to down time.  m a j o r i t y of t h i s he a t t r i b u t e d t o i n e f f i c i e n t use o f men and  The  and machines  f a i l u r e t o a p p l y the work systems demanded by the more  s o p h i s t i c a t e d methods of l o g g i n g . T r a i n i n g and  the a p p l i c a t i o n o f new  methods are r e q u i r e d a t  the s u p e r v i s o r y and management l e v e l s as w e l l as a t the l e v e l ( S i l v e r s i d e s , 1966).  Aird  e t a]_..(I970) found  that  operator intelligent  s u p e r v i s i o n o f B e l o i t H a r v e s t e r o p e r a t i o n s - i n v o l v i n g such as r e s e r v i n g d i f f i c u l t  factors  areas f o r daytime o p e r a t i o n o n l y and matching  machine d i f f e r e n c e s to t e r r a i n d i f f e r e n c e s - had a c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f e c t on p r o d u c t i o n .  They  concluded:  "The b e s t o p e r a t i o n s were d i s t i n g u i s h e d by e f f e c t i v e management support. T h i s i n c l u d e d the p r o v i s i o n of good r e p a i r and maintenance f a c i l i t i e s and procedures,  22 the p r o v i s i o n of we%,trained foremen w i t h the necessary support f a c i l i t i e s of v e h i c l e s and r a d i o communication, and the p r o v i s i o n of s k i l l e d and w e l l motivated o p e r a t o r s . . . The d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s t u d i e s have c l e a r l y confirmed the important r o l e t h a t e f f e c t i v e management p l a y s i n the conduct o f a l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n . " The  author gained  the same impressions  from o b s e r v i n g a  number o f d i f f e r e n t s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s i n the southeast the U n i t e d S t a t e s (Page, 1971)  and  of  t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t the  p r i n c i p l e s a p p l y to a l l h i g h l y mechanized o p e r a t i o n s . M u l t i - s h i f t working i s becoming more and more p r e v a l e n t i n f o r e s t r y o p e r a t i o n s , a t r e n d which i s f o r c e d by the h i g h c o s t s of machinery and the lowest  the need to c a r r y out l a r g e programmes w i t h  p o s s i b l e c a p i t a l investment  b r i n g s w i t h i t i t s own  i n machinery.  N i g h t work  crop o f s a f e t y hazards and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  d i f f i c u l t i e s , but i n c r e a s i n g experience and  fixed  and development of  p o r t a b l e l i g h t i n g u n i t s are s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g t h i s  powerful  practice.  The working of machines i n teams i s a f u r t h e r procedure which g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e s the e f f i c i e n c y of mechanical systems.  Concentration  o f machinery reduces the l o g i s t i c problems of maintenance p r o v i s i o n and o p e r a t o r t r a n s p o r t .  I t i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l technique  in  many l a n d p r e p a r a t i o n operations where there i s a danger of t r a c t o r s becoming bogged or ' b e l l i e d ' . render a s s i s t a n c e and prevent  Other machines i n the v i c i n i t y expensive  can  hold-ups i n p r o d u c t i o n .  In a r e c e n t a r t i c l e , Gagne (1971) has p o i n t e d out t h a t there i s an optimum l e v e l of investment  i n a l l the f a c t o r s mentioned above.  Above c e r t a i n l e v e l s o f investment, investment  d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s per  unit  p r o v i d e a warning of the dangers of over, as w e l l as under,  23 expenditure.  He noted that the t a i l o r i n g of equipment to the  p a r t i c u l a r conditions to be encountered i s a further way of increasing job e f f i c i e n c y but that t h i s factor too, i s subject to the law of diminishing returns. Mechanization may often allow the introduction of new systems.  Barber (1971) noted a number of examples of t h i s i n the  a g r i c u l t u r a l industry including hay baling and silage harvesting. Transportation of pulp wood from f o r e s t to m i l l i n chip form ( S i l v e r s i d e s , 1959; Logan, 1965) and weed control by mechanical means at the s i t e preparation stage (Chavasse, 1969), are two examples in forestry. There i s also l i t t l e doubt that the introduction of mechanical systems w i l l lead to a change i n approach to many s i l v i c u l t u r a l techniques.  S i l v e r s i d e s (1966) pointed out the p r o b a b i l i t y of a  move to the extensive a p p l i c a t i o n of mechanized s i l v i c u l t u r a l techniques at the expense of s p e c i f i c s i t e care, and AdamovicbL (1968) has sounded the death k n e l l of s i l v i c u l t u r a l s e l e c t i o n i f thinning i s to be mechanized. Wambach (1969) noted that two schools of thought e x i s t , at least i n North America, regarding the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s of mechanization and s i l v i c u l t u r e .  One school favours the adoption of  mechanical methods when, but only when,they w i l l a s s i s t i n a t t a i n i n g s i l v i c u l t u r a l objectives.  The second takes thg> view that  s i l v i c u l t u r e can and should be adapted to meet the demands of economically  necessitated mechanization.  24 Preoccupation with t h i s controversy,  hpwever, should  not  obscure the f a c t t h a t the demands of m e c h a n i z a t i o n are o f t e n i n harmony w i t h those o f s i l v i c u l t u r e .  The  o f t e n f l e x i b l e over a wide range and  choosing the  t h i s range which most favours nothing.  the machine or system  spacing and  silvicultural flexibility  c o n f i g u r a t i o n , w i t h i n wide l i m i t s . a combination of spacing and  to m e c h a n i z a t i o n (wide, r e c t a n g u l a r Some e x t r a c o s t s may silviculture.  be  prejudices  stand  There o f t e n i s no  c o n f i g u r a t i o n most s u i t e d adopted.  i n such a d a p t a t i o n s  Examples are the need to c o n t r o l weed and  under p l a n t a t i o n s of w i d e l y spaced t r e e s and p r o t e c t i n g monocultures.  Sutton  of i n i t i a l  spacing) should not be  involved  are  s i t u a t i o n from  For example, Wambach (1969) and James, T u s t i n and  (1970) have shown the  r e a s o n why  demands of s i l v i c u l t u r e  understorey  the e x t r a c o s t  A l t h o u g h o p t i m i s a t i o n of the  of  of  discounted,  c o s t / b e n e f i t r a t i o would g e n e r a l l y be  the aim,  c o s t s and  s h o r t term economic b e n e f i t s  benefits i s essential.  The  i n c l u s i o n o f a l l the  and  some o f the c o s t s of the i n t r o d u c t i o n of mechanical systems,  any  n e c e s s a r y s i l v i c u l t u r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s , are g e n e r a l l y known.  and  Knowledge of a l l the f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d , however, i s g e n e r a l l y incomplete and used w i t h The  the c o s t / b e n e f i t r a t i o approach must, t h e r e f o r e ,  caution. i n f l u e n c e o f work methods and  e f f i c i e n c y o f mechanical o p e r a t i o n s i s despite  be  has  o r g a n i z a t i o n on  the  been b a d l y n e g l e c t e d .  the f a c t t h a t many workers have found the v a r i o u s  i n v o l v e d to be paramount i n the l e v e l of p r o d u c t i v e  This factors  output a c h i e v e d .  25  This  neglect  i s probably  the various aspects ion.  Questions  subjects  and t h e consequent r e l i a n c e  o f management  f a c e s more t h a n  necessary  resistance  changes  from  efficiency  still  t o any mechanical  continue  to defy  dollar  system.  as  than  they  c a n be r e g a r d e d  influence the  c o s t s and these  will  qualitative  within a plantation i s a operations but i t s exact  one o f t h e s y s t e m ' s Technology  operations as e i t h e r  of the beholder.  a r e not only non-  a benefit or a  Nevertheless  cost  they a r e  - p o s s i b l y t o an i n c r e a s i n g degree Schreiner  f a r m - c r o p - l i k e appearance  doubt  that  a subjective or  of forest  the e v a l u a t i o n o f any system.  little  labour.  i s elusive.  f a c t o r s w h i c h must be c o n s i d e r e d  ordered,  I t i s likely  neatness  to mechanization  depending on the o u t l o o k  in  Like-  considerable  suspicions of organized  a e s t h e t i c s of mechanical  quantifiable,  ideas and  system or o p e r a t i o n are being  other  F o r example,  value The  anything  delicate  number o f o b s t a c l e s .  r e m a i n a number o f i n t a n g i b l e  benefits  asset  are obviously  a n i n c r e a s i n g number o f f a c t o r s w h i c h  there  assessment.  on s u b j e c t i v e o p i n -  i n worker motivation face  o f any p a r t i c u l a r  quantified,  of quantifying  on l o n g entrenched  the usual  the t r a d i t i o n a l  Although  definite  efficiency  and an o b j e c t i v e onslaught  philosophies wise,  due t o t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s  (1970) claimed  o f sycamore  silage  the  operations  advantages.  i s developing  that progress  a t an a c c e l e r a t i n g r a t e and there i s  i n our a b i l i t y  t o maximize  i t s benefits  -  26  i s beginning to l a g .  But T o f f l e r (1970) has warned of f a r more  serious consequences of our burgeoning technology - the confusion and numbness of future shock as technological revolutions succeed one another ever more frequently, even within one l i f e t i m e .  For  some, a defence i s found i n a complete committment to technological progress f o r i t s own sake.  Thus the means becomes the end i t s e l f  and the concept of an optimum i s meaningless. This thesis i s no place for such a philosophical discussion but i t i s well to remember that already we are confused and divided over the impact and future of our technology and that we cannot measure a l l the benefits and costs.  The dangers are as r e a l i n  forestry as they are i n any f i e l d of human a c t i v i t y and concern f o r mankind must demand a watchdog on a l l technological  development.  Development and Manufacture. The Royal Commission on Farm Machinery i n Canada (Barber, 1971) reported a number of disturbing factors concerning farm machinery manufacture.  Formed at least p a r t l y because of farmer  suspicion of the high prices they were charged (eg. price per horse power i s the same f o r large and small t r a c t o r s ) , the Commission investigated machinery prices compared with manufacturers' costs. It found that the 85% r i s e i n farm machinery (compared  price since 1949  to a 3%, r i s e i n the price of wheat) was at least p a r t l y a  r e s u l t of manufacturers being unable to absorb r i s i n g raw material and labour c o s t s  Sophisticated machines also require more expensive  27 skilled  labour  and  complex processes  i n t h e i r manufacture.  m a c h i n e s become l a r g e r and  more c o m p l e x ,  the  lose  manufacturer begins Not  a l l of  such l e g i t i m a t e large  The  the  could With  be  very high  saved by  be  a  be  and  there  of  the  s i m i l a r study  scale.  industry  the  for  estimated  i n t o fewer  centre forest  was  inventories.  room An  the  costs  dealer  s t i l l  by  Much o f  manufacture  was  of  of  and  explained  above, however.  i n manufacturing.  Barber  report  notes  the  No  that  farmers.  where the  Such a  customer  independent  7-87o  firms.  frame industry  generally  possible  i s generally  could  growers,  are  development  -  of  could  also  the  large timber  great  and  the  user  a private  the or  of  university  give  s i g n i f i c a n t here.  and  are  the  not  in  advice  farming  Differences In  forestry  growers  often  are  individuals.  grower, e s p e c i a l l y co-operatives question  the  of  who  manufacturer  should -  has  research  impartial  individual.  farm f o r e s t r y )  holdings  industry  in agricultural  government or  f o r e s t r y are  exception  fewer, have  resources  manufacturing  s i t u a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y serious  b e t w e e n a g r i c u l t u r e and the  the  technical expertise  t e s t i n g stations e x i s t which  (with  could  currently manufacturing  vehicles,  m a c h i n e r y design'.  The  scale  economies  d i s t r i b u t i o n and  that  consolidation  almost a monopoly of  to  prices  required  warranted. The  and  of  concluded  some 3 0 - 4 0 f i r m s  well  costs  economies of  articulated  high  the  between machine p r i c e s  Commission also  significant  current  some o f  economic reasons as  difference  caused by  the  to  fewer are  As  is  lead  in  important.  of  machinery  28  M c C o l l has He  discussed  s t a t e d t h a t the user has  manufacturer i n i n n o v a t i v e we  have two  choices  t h i s question  at considerable  "20-30 times" the i n c e n t i v e o f endeavours.  He  firms".  route  - between the " i m i t a t i v e - c o m p e t i t i v e "  t h a t can,  Although accepting  and  should,  the  t h e r e f o r e concluded t h a t  t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d by the manufacturer and cooperative  length.  the  route  "innovative-  be c o n t r o l l e d by the user  t h a t the manufacturing f i r m s have  an important c o n t r i b u t i o n to make a t the machine p r o d u c t i o n he  felt  t h a t t h e i r n a t u r a l i n t e r e s t s are f r e q u e n t l y opposed to those  o f the user a t the conceptual  and  developmental stages.  manufacturers are not co-ordinated,and n o n - i n d u s t r y He  convincingly  the rubber t i r e d is  stage,  centred.  i l l u s t r a t e d h i s p o i n t w i t h the example of  skidder.  Now  manufactured by  some 30-40 f i r m s , i t  i n t e r e s t i n g to compare these machines, which have had  r e c e n t l y a s e r v i c e l i f e o f around 5,000 hours, w i t h the Bonnard Logger MK.  IV..  The  T h i s prototype,  models t h a t were made, saw  life  on two  p l u s the f i v e  operations.  until original preproduction  They were  operated i n excess of 10,000 hours without adequate spare p a r t s t e c h n i c a l support.  They t h e r e f o r e had  a life  or  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c more  than double t h a t of the i m i t a t i o n s produced i n the l a s t decade. Bonnard's subsystems such as power s h i f t t r a n s m i s s i o n ,  The  positive  d i f f e r e n t i a l l o c k s , i n t e g r a t e d h y d r a u l i c systems e t c . , have o n l y r e c e n t l y become a v a i l a b l e .  Yet  i n d u s t r y sponsored r e s e a r c h , was  the Bonnard Logger, a r e s u l t produced i n 1955.  I t was  of  McColl's  29  o p i n i o n , though he quotes no c a l c u l a t i o n s , that a t l e a s t $100 m i l l i o n has been l o s t by the i n d u s t r y i n a l l o w i n g t h i s t o happen. I n a r e c e n t t o u r o f North America (Page, 1971) the author found t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f f o r e s t machinery d e s i g n , a t l e a s t l o g g i n g , was b e i n g c a r r i e d out a t the user l e v e l .  outside  Originating  often  from the f o r e s t r y s t a f f , the new ideas would be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a prototype by s m a l l l o c a l e n g i n e e r i n g companies o r by company employed personnel.  The l a r g e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s f e l t t h a t t h i s was a f a r more  s a t i s f a c t o r y s i t u a t i o n than r e l y i n g on the l a r g e manufacturing f i r m s ' somewhat l i m i t e d i n t e r e s t i n f o r e s t machinery.  Weyerhaueser's  Equipment Development Task Force a t Plymouth, N.C., was the most h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d example  o f t h i s approach t h a t was seen.  S i m i l a r approaches were b e i n g adopted i n l o g g i n g machinery design also.  St. R e g i s Paper Company's l o g g i n g e n g i n e e r i n g  division  i s d e v e l o p i n g a number o f low c o s t , h y d r a u l i c a l l y operated attachments to f i t  a v a r i e t y o f t r a c t o r s which w i l l be w i t h i n the p r i c e range o f  the s m a l l p r i v a t e l o g g e r so p r e v a l e n t i n the southeast U.S.. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Paper Company's Busch Combine and TH-100 t h i n n i n g machine, now being produced by an equipment manufacturer, a r e c l a s s i c examples o f the user l e d approach t o ne.w machinery developments. With r e f e r e n c e t o l o g g i n g machinery, many o f the user f i r m s have combined  i n t o c o - o p e r a t i v e s - v i z . American Pulpwood  Association,  Canadian P u l p and Paper A s s o c i a t i o n Swedish Logging Research Institute.  Such a c o - o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t  i s v e r y much needed i n the  30 f i e l d o f a f f o r e s t a t i o n equipment. going t o show l i t t l e machinery  The manufacturer  generally i s  i n t e r e s t i n the h i g h r i s k area o f f o r e s t  d e s i g n and i t i s up t o the c o - o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s o f the  users t o produce  the p r o t o t y p e s and prove t h e i r  worth.  The g r e a t m u l t i p l i c i t y o f manufacturing f i r m s w i l l mean t h a t any r e s e a r c h t h a t they might  also  do i s i n danger o f c o n s i d e r a b l e  d u p l i c a t i o n which can o n l y r e s u l t i n an e v e n t u a l h i g h e r s e l l i n g price.  E f f e c t s on Environment  and Long-term S i t e P r o d u c t i v i t y .  I t was noted above that m e c h a n i z a t i o n almost necessitates greater standardization.  always  I t demands uniform crops on  which t o work which, i n many s i t u a t i o n s , may mean a monoculture. I t i s w e l l known t h a t the most s t a b l e ecosystem  i s the most d i v e r s e .  I t f o l l o w s then, t h a t mechanization may l e a d us t o l e s s  stable  ecosystems. A l t h o u g h not developed i n response t o the demands o f mechanization, the f a i l u r e o f some spruce monocultures  i n Saxony  and S w i t z e r l a n d d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y (Troup, 1955) i s one of the most o f t e n quoted examples o f the dangers o f f o r e s t monocultures.  (Although the p i c t u r e i s confused by cases o f poor  s i t i n g o f some o f the spruce p l a n t a t i o n s . )  D e t e r i o r a t i o n o f second  r o t a t i o n r a d i a t a pine by an average o f one s i t e c l a s s i n South A u s t r a l i a , i s a more r e c e n t example. t h a t t h i s c o u l d reduce  Lewis and H a r d i n g (1963) noted  the y i e l d o f second r o t a t i o n c r o p s by 25%  31  compared with the o r i g i n a l plantations.  Although  fertilizer  a p p l i c a t i o n i s currently restoring the l o s t productivity, the problem i s by no means completely understood. Such experiences are, of course, common i n agriculture and are counteracted there by the i n j e c t i o n of yet more technology i n the form of f e r t i l i z e r , pesticides, plant breeding e t c . , and r o t a t i o n or a l t e r n a t i o n of crops.  Mackintosh-Ellis, the f i r s t  Director-General of Forests i n New Zealand, when proposing the establishment of pure radiata pine plantations during the 192©>'s, anticipated similar problems but considered potential growth rates to be such that the forest industry would be able to afford the necessary expenditure to cure any problems that arose.  Experience  to date with two pest epidemics would bear him out. Despite such successes i n agriculture and forestry, however, our e f f o r t s are generally curative rather than prophylactic, and furthermore we can, of course, cure only those problems we are currently capable of detecting. The ever stronger protests of concerned groups that we may be creating future problems of unprecedented  seriousness cannot be ignored.  Rachel Carson, with  the publication of her S i l e n t Spring i n 1962 began a controversy over the use of chemicals i n agriculture and forestry which s t i l l rages today (Graham, 1970). The flood of such l i t e r a t u r e which currently a s s a i l s us, however, may b l i n d us to the fact that even the technical innovators themselves are c a l l i n g f o r a greater understanding of the implications  32  of the new  techniques.  Rennie (1971), i n a review of world progress  i n mechanization of forest s i t e preparation, made the following relevant points. "But most of the stated needs f o r lowering costs and optimising the technique are r e a l l y c a l l i n g f o r a greater understanding of the underlying b i o l o g i c a l changes that are being wrought by these techniques.The better p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of f i r e , the more e f f e c t i v e use of herbicides, the conversion technology i n A u s t r a l i a , the optimisation of s c a r i f i c a t i o n and ploughing and the ideal network of drains i n peatland a f f o r e s t a t i o n are a l l r e a l l y requesting that',the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the technique and the b i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the system be better known, so that the technology can be modified to bring about the desired b i o l o g i c a l change." He made the plea that our approach to the problems should be such that i t "...matches the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of some of the technology that now  e x i s t s . " . He proposed that the " . . . s i l v i c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n  - i t s problem or opportunity  - be the f o c a l point of organization,  rather than the technique."  Here i s another plea that we  the end sharply into focus and beware of preoccupation  should  get  with the means.  Barber (1971) has commented that, i n Canadian a g r i c u l t u r e . at l e a s t , fundamental b i o l o g i c a l research i s lagging behind machine development. Forestry faces an a d d i t i o n a l problem, compared with a g r i c u l t u r e , with respect to public reaction to mechanization.  The recent upsurge  i n public concern for our r u r a l lands has come long a f t e r mechanized farming was  introduced and such methods have been, i n many respects,  accepted. In the United Kingdom, f o r example, although bewailing  the  33  r e d u c t i o n o f such f a m i l i a r r u r a l f e a t u r e s as hedgerows, the p u b l i c g e n e r a l l y sees i n t e n s i v e , o r d e r l y a g r i c u l t u r e as a good t h i n g  and,  moreover, i s content to merely l o o k a t i t . But the modern r e c r e a t i o n i s t wants t o do more than l o o k a t forests.  He  sees them as h i s r i g h t f u l playground and h i s p r e c o n c e i v e d  i d e a s o f f o r e s t beauty are u n l i k e l y to be i n agreement w i t h the demands o f i n t e n s i v e mechanization.  Large c u t o v e r s , r e g u l a r l y  spaced, evenaged s i n g l e s p e c i e s stands,the r o a r o f machinery hours a day and 7 days a week, and likely  24  r e s t r i c t e d , roads are not  t o s a t i s f y h i s demands. P u b l i c e d u c a t i o n w i l l no doubt go a l o n g way  some o f the c o n f l i c t s .  The hunter w i l l  towards  settling  f i n d more game i n the  i n t e n s i v e l y managed f o r e s t and the roads, when he can use them, w i l l improve  h i s access.  The myth o f the d e s e r t - l i k e p i n e p l a n t a t i o n ,  d e v o i d o f a l l b i r d l i f e , has been exploded a t l e a s t i n New (Jackson,  Zealand  1971).  I t would be n a i v e , however, t o b e l i e v e t h a t the p u b l i c  will  come t o accept a l l the requirements of f o r e s t mechanization or t h a t i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e to"educate"them  to a new  set of values.  As  w i t h so many s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s the; answer w i l l be a compromise. Where the s h o r t term economic demands o f m e c h a n i z a t i o n are a t v a r i a n c e w i t h the requirements o f o t h e r f o r e s t uses - and  this  i n c l u d e s more than j u s t r e c r e a t i o n - t h i s c o n f l i c t becomes a f u r t h e r c o s t o f the mechanical system and as such must be weighed a g a i n s t the  benefits.  34  D i r e c t machine e f f e c t s such as s o i l compaction, a c c e l e r a t e d e r o s i o n and  top s o i l removal can have severe e f f e c t s on l o n g term  s i t e p r o d u c t i v i t y , stream water q u a l i t y e t c . . shown how  i n d i s c r i m i n a t e b u l l d o z i n g of cutovers  V i r g i n i a had  reduced s i t e index which was  Top  s o i l removal and  pumice country operations,  i n New  been  i n p a r t s of  s u b s o i l (Page, 1971).  compaction of l a n d i n g s i t e s on  the  Zealand n e c e s s i t a t e s expensive r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  or demands the withdrawal of these areas from the forest estate.  a l i e n a t e d i n t h i s way techniques  author Has  there dependent upon  the depth of the top s o i l over the clay-loam  productive  The  From 8 to 187» of the logged  (Page and  S p i e r s , 1969).  area can  If current  be  logging  are ever compared w i t h a f u t u r e a l t e r n a t i v e sysfcm, t h a t  does not c r e a t e the l a r g e a r e a s of compacted l a n d i n g s , the c o s t of t h i s l a n d a l i e n a t i o n must be measured a g a i n s t the c u r r e n t methods. The  word 'system  1  i s a dangerous one  t h i n g s to d i f f e r e n t people.  But  - meaning d i f f e r e n t  i t does not change too much the  sense i n which the word has been used i n t h i s t h e s i s up to now, we  note t h a t every f o r e s t i s an ecosystem.  mechanized c e l l u l o s e p r o d u c t i o n  The  demands of cheap  f o r c e us more and mose to modify  f o r e s t ecosystems t o l e s s d i v e r s e and  But  and  forethought  increased  the dangers o f s u b o p t i m i s a t i o n  i n the f o r e s t ecosystem as i n any  our  consequently l e s s s t a b l e forms.  Defence a g a i n s t t h i s i n s t a b i l i t y takes the form of management i n p u t s .  when  other  are as  real  system and much more r e s e a r c h  i s r e q u i r e d to ensure t h a t these are avoided  as  we  35  i n t r o d u c e mechanization and i t s accompanying s i l v i c u l t u r a l management m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o the f o r e s t .  and  36  3.  SOME NEW  ZEALAND POTENTIALS.  I n t h i s s e c t i o n an attempt w i l l be made t o f o c u s the p o i n t s o f the p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n on to the p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n i n New Zealand.  For convenience  the s e c t i o n w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o two;  a)  the p o t e n t i a l f o r f i b r e p r o d u c t i o n w i t h i n the world c o n t e x t , and b) the p a r t i c u l a r advantages and problems of mechanization o f  New  Zealand's e x o t i c p l a n t a t i o n f o r e s t r y . T h i s t o p i c c o u l d be the s u b j e c t of a t h e s i s i n i t s own and a summary o n l y has been attempted  here.  right  Much i n f o r m a t i o n has  been drawn from the f o r e s t r y s e c t o r of The N a t i o n a l Development Conference  (1969) and the reader i s r e f e r r e d t o t h i s r e p o r t , and t o  the d e t a i l e d working of New  p a r t y s u b - r e p o r t s , f o r comprehensive  Zealand's f o r e s t r y  examination  future.  a) P o t e n t i a l f o r f i b r e p r o d u c t i o n . Speaking  i n New  Zealand, Westoby (1970) noted, ".. the p r i c e  o f wood i s t e n d i n g to become more d e c i s i v e and wood q u a l i t y decisive  ( i n world markets).  less  T h i s n a t u r a l l y opens up g r e a t o  p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r those c o u n t r i e s s u i t a b l y endowed t o produce wood c h e a p l y and q u i c k l y . "  There  i s l i t t l e doubt that New  Zealand i s one  o f these c o u n t r i e s . °  o  S i t u a t e d between l a t i t u d e s 35 S and 47 S, and having an equable  c l i m a t e , the country i s admirably s u i t e d to the growing  the e x o t i c s p e c i e s which have been i n t r o d u c e d .  The r a i n f a l l of  25-80 i n c h e s per year over the g r e a t e r p a r t o f the country „-  of  37  i s adequate  f o r these s p e c i e s .  In o n l y a small p a r t o f the  country ( p a r t s o f Canterbury and Otago) does r a i n f a l l drop t o the 15-25 i n c h l e v e l .  The o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e o f New Zealand's  p r e c i p i t a t i o n to t r e e growth, however, i s i t s even  distribution  throughout the year. Other f e a t u r e s o f the c l i m a t e i n the commercial are as f o l l o w s . i n the w i n t e r .  Temperatures  range from 90°F i n the summer to 15°F  Unseasonal f r o s t s are l i k e l y t o occur and cause  damage t o t r e e growth,but ra«-e.  timber zone  e x c e p t i o n a l l y severe k i l l i n g f r o s t s a r e  R e l a t i v e h u m i d i t i e s a r e g e n e r a l l y h i g h a t 70-807. and sunshine  i s o f the o r d e r o f 1700-2200 hours per year.  Growing  seasons,  comparatively f r e e from drought or prolonged c o l d , a r e l o n g compared w i t h those o f c o u n t r i e s w i t h h i g h e r c l i m a t i c  extremes.  New Zealand has a wide v a r i e t y o f s o i l s and the 1969 F o r e s t r y Development Conference found no reason t o b e l i e v e t h a t these were not a t l e a s t as f a v o u r a b l e t o f o r e s t growth as those found i n c o u n t r i e s w i t h the same c l i m a t i c range. rhyolitic suitable.  The pumice s o i l s , formed from past  showers over the c e n t r a l North I s l a n d , a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y With a few e x c e p t i o n s , which r e p r e s e n t o n l y a s m a l l  p r o p o r t i o n o f the land on which f u r t h e r a f f o r e s t a t i o n i s contemplated,  s o i l s a r e n u t r i t i o n a l l y adequate  and a l l o w f r e e  r o o t i n g t o g r e a t depths. The combination o f the f a v o u r a b l e s o i l and c l i m a t i c mentioned  conditions  above and the p r o p e r t i e s o f the two major e x o t i c s p e c i e s  38 p l a n t e d i n New Zealand - r a d i a t a p i n e and D o u g l a s - f i r m e n z i e s i i , Mirbo.Franco.) standards.  - r e s u l t ih.iextremely h i g h y i e l d s by world  Table 1 shows e s t i m a t e s o f r e a l i s a b l e y i e l d s a t age 30  i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f New  T a b l e 1.  (Pseudotsuga  Zealand.  E s t i m a t e s o f r e a l i s a b l e y i e l d s a t age 30, i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f New  Zealand.  (Data taken from "Merchantable Y i e l d T a b l e s f o r E x o t i c C o n i f e r s " , WP  2.2.1, F o r e s t r y Development Conference, New Zealand, 1969.)  District  Species  R a d i a t a pine  Douglas-fir  C u . f t . per a c r e per year  Auckland Central North Island E a s t Coast and N e l s o n Canterbury f o o t h i l l s Canterbury p l a i n s Tapanui, Southland C e n t r a l North Island ( a t 30 y e a r s ) ( a t 60 y e a r s )  215-240 330-370 230-240 150-170 270-300 270 340-390  These f i g u r e s a r e extremely g e n e r a l i z e d , intended f o r use i n computations conservative.  c o v e r i n g v e r y wide a r e a s , and furthermore are c o n s i d e r e d The f i r s t r o t a t i o n o f New Zealand's e x o t i c s p e c i e s  have r e c e i v e d minimum management and l i t t l e d a t a e x i s t  to f o r e c a s t  the p o t e n t i a l y i e l d s from an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f management.  The  subcommittee on growth p o t e n t i a l and wood s u i t a b i l i t y which r e p o r t e d t o the F o r e s t r y Development Conference  noted t h a t i n p a r t i c u l a r "..  h i g h e r y i e l d s c o u l d be expected i f t h i n n i n g s were more f r e q u e n t ,  39 although the l a t t e r do not at present appear to be economically attractive." The same sub-committee compared these growth rates with other parts of the world and concluded: "On world standards, New Zealand's exotic forests are unsurpassed i n softwood production per acre."  On present information, growth rates of radiata pine i n  Chile - which has a belt of country i n l a t i t u d e 35-39°S with a Mediterranean climate more c l o s e l y akin to radiata pine's native habitat i n C&liifornia than New to those i n New  Zealand's - can be considered equal  Zealand (Yudelevich, 1966).  L i t t l e i s yet known of the potential growth rates of Douglasf i r i n New  Zealand but i t would appear that they surpass the best  i n the United Kingdom.  Height growth of plantation^grown Douglas-  f i r on the best s i t e s i n New  Zealand i s on a par with the best sites  i n the U.S.A. (the l a t t e r i s probably natural regeneration rather than plantation grown),but volume growth i s considerably greater, perhaps by as much as 1007,.  The difference between New  Zealand  and Canadian growth i s even more marked. The question of whether New  Zealand can match this production  p o t e n t i a l with the necessary low costs i s more complex.  The  s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems by which the two major species are grown large contiguous blocks of even-aged single species stands - o f f e r a number of economic advantages.  New  Zealand i s also l i t t l e  troubled with such elsewhere damaging agencies as f i r e , wind and  40  snow. to  Extensive  i n s e c t and  areas  most  Damage t o d a t e ,  serious fungal  appears amenable t o The  control at  potential  Appropriately  the  however, has  low  dangers of  f o r e s t s are  cost  an  whole  experienced  i s protected  quarantine for  system.  complacency but  country's  by  an  their  who  of  the  and  disease  work  could slight  and  pini  (Hulb.)  a t t a c k s on  i n close association, the  country  well-organized  to  New  s u r v e i l l a n c e by  illustrate  t o cope w i t h  as  a  import-  above o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s  readiness  raise  recognized.  team, and  c r e a t i o n serves  r e c o g n i t i o n o f and  vulnerable  acre.  under constant  research  efficient  Neither  been  have l o n g been  kept  pathology  per  i n s e c t and  team o f f o r e s t b i o l o g y o b s e r v e r s ,  with  h o w e v e r , be  threat yet, Pothistroma  Zealand's e x o t i c f o r e s t species  a  can,  fungal attack, p r o t e c t i o n against which  management c o s t s . even the  of monoculture  the  reason  the potential  problems. Falling a  i n second and  phenomenon l o n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h w i l d  very  limited  radiata that of  growth rates  the  pine  i n New  reverse  improved  spacing  exceptions,  and  Zealand.  growth,  the  p o s s i b l e improved  least  pumice  soils,  of  the  pumice  relative  site  are  not  crops  effects known.  nutrients i n radiata pine  will  With  a p p e a r t o be  soils  second r o t a t i o n  although  that cycling  monocultures.  problem does not On  i s t r u e and  suggests on  this  subsequent r o t a t i o n s i s a  few troubling  indications are of  showing  are signs  improved  Evidence  to  date  plantations, at  r e t a r d s e r i o u s d e p l e t i o n of n u t r i e n t s at  41 least u n t i l the end of the second r o t a t i o n ( W i l l , 1968).  Soil •  nutrient reserves of potassium and calcium seem adequate f o r a number of tree crops but supplies of nitrogen and phosphorous w i l l l a r g e l y depend upon t h e i r release from s o i l organic matter which form stable complexes with allophane i n the s o i l ( W i l l , 1968). There has been a tendency to dismiss completely the potential danger of production f a l l - o f f s i n New  Zealand radiata pine forestry  as a r e s u l t of th«> excellent performance of the pumice s o i l s as compared to the sands of South A u s t r a l i a (Lewis and Harding,  1963)  and the nitrogen poor s o i l s of the Nelson d i s t r i c t (Stone and W i l l , 1963).  W i l l ' s summary of current knowledge (1968), however,  demonstrated s u f f i c i e n t potential problems to j u s t i f y continued research into the question of pine plantation n u t r i t i o n . Forestry Working Party No.2;  Production Forestry, of the  1969  National Development Conference took a l l these factors into account and concluded:  "We  have the climate, the s o i l s and the species to  grow high quality long-fibred c e l l u l o s e quickly, and, i f we go about i t the r i g h t way,  to grow i t extremely cheaply by world  standards.". Having grown t h i s cheap, high quality softwood f i b r e , Zealand i s faced with the f i n a l problem of s e l l i n g i t .  New  The arguments  at the beginning of t h i s thesis suggested that, assuming costs are kept down, the world i s l i k e l y to continue to demand wood f i b r e , despite the competition of substitute materials. Westoby (1970)  42  also  took this  fibred used the  view b u t warned  Zealand's  product -  s o f t w o o d p u l p - i s no l o n g e r t h e premium m a t e r i a l  t o be.  Q u o t i n g a number o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l  Japanese  material  pulp industry's  intake  i n 1955  intake  i n 1967,  market  only while  situation are  t h a t New  to only  he p r e d i c t e d  t o New  change 157,  that  i t i s cheap  from an  including  857o s o f t w o o d r a w  softwood w i l l  Zealand, but also  that i t  trends,  s o f t w o o d a n d 587,  enough.  long-  hardwood  continue to find  The a d v a n t a g e s  the warnings  c  of  against  a  this complacency,  obvious. New  forties  Zealand's  geographic p o s i t i o n with  and a l o n g i t u d e  for  growing  the  world's principal  the  frequency and r e g u l a r i t y  continue  radiata  i n the hundred  report  forest  t o New  Fprestry  New  Z e a l a n d t o move a h e a d  be  excellent  Shipping rates been,  and  Development Conference,  from her supplies  addition,  potential  shared  i n l a r g e measure  the production of high value o f cheap,  the p o l i t i c a l  been established  market  will  1969).  S e c t o r o f the N a t i o n a l Development Conference, into  and  Zealand's export trade (Manufacturing  complimentarity between the f o r e s t closest  i n the  the best access to  o f s h i p p i n g have always  t o the problem,  the  In  product markets.  t o the National  Westoby's answer  manufactured  a n d s e v e n t i e s may  pine, but i tdoes not o f f e r  t o be, a problem  Committee's  a latitude  versatile  framework economics  expansion f i e l d ,  raw  by  i s for lines,  material.  f o r developing a o f New  Australia,  Zealand and h e r has  already  (New Z e a l a n d - A u s t r a l i a F r e e T r a d e A g r e e m e n t ,  NAFTA).  43  The  r e p o r t o f the Working P a r t y N o . l , M a r k e t i n g , to  the  F o r e s t r y Development Conference, showed that these problems are recognised  by  the i n d u s t r y w i t h i n ^ New  Zealand, and  f i r m recommendations were l a i d down concerning study o f New these w i l l be  Zealand's f u t u r e s h i p p i n g  well  in particular,  the need f o r s e r i o u s  needs and  the ways i n which  fulfilled.  A review of New  Zealand's p o t e n t i a l f o r f i b r e  would not be complete without some r e f e r e n c e a v a i l a b l e f o r f o r e s t production.  to the l a n d  T h i s matter was  the Land Resources Subcommittee d u r i n g  production  the 1969  resource  investigated  by  F o r e s t r y Development  Conference. The N a t i o n a l F o r e s t r y P l a n n i n g f o r an annual new 1975.  Model ( F a m i l t o n ,  1969)  calls  p l a n t i n g r a t e of 57,000 a c r e s between 1970  and  A l t h o u g h n a t i o n a l p l a n t i n g r a t e s are to be reviewed every  5 years from 1968  on,  the model a l s o noted t h a t a de novo p l a n t i n g  r a t e o f 52,000 a c r e s per year u n t i l 1985  i s necessary to  satisfy  growing domestic demands and m a i n t a i n c o n t i n u i t y of e x p o r t s a f t e r 1995.  I t was  a concern of the Land Resources Subcommittee,  t h e r e f o r e , t h a t land was m i l l i o n a c r e s was Two  a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s programme.  Some  1.6  required.  f a c t o r s complicated  the work of the Subcommittee.  they found t h a t " . . . . c o n s i d e r i n g  the q u e s t i o n  and  no adequate, r e a s o n a b l y complete  suitability for forests,  d e s c r i p t i o n of l a n d i n New  Zealand e x i s t s . "  of l a n d  Firstly,  (See  availability  footnote  p.44)  44 Secondly,  the committee was  not s a t i s f i e d that adequate c r i t e r i a  e x i s t to choose among various alternative land uses. They were therefore forced to use a 1959 breakdown of the New  Zealand land base which i s badly i n need of r e v i s i o n .  breakdown i s shown i n Table Table 2.  New  This  2.  Zealand land base.  Land Category. Merchantable indigenous forest (1.3) and productive exotic forest (1.0):Category A Intensive agriculture - Improved pastures (19.5) and "Arable, orchards etc. (1.3):Category B Land suitable for future development i n one form or another - Fern, scrub and second growth (5.7), Unimproved Pasture (13.0) and Understocked merchantable forest (1.5):Category C Land not suitable for development Unmerchantable forest (11.5), Urban, water, minor islands (2.2), Other (9.4):Category D Total  M i l l i o n acres  2.3  20.8  20.2  23.1 66.4  (Footnote to p.43) The Land Use C a p a b i l i t y Survey Handbook, produced for the S o i l Conservation and Rivers Control Council by the Water and S o i l D i v i s i o n , M i n i s t r y of Works, Wellington, was published i n 1969. I t helps l i t t l e i n a l l e v i a t i n g the problems noted above, however. Intended as a guide to c l a s s i f y i n g any p a r t i c u l a r tract of land, i t makes no attempt to inventory New Zealand's land resource. Even as a guide to land use c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i t s value i s somewhat doubtful as i t takes the t r a d i t i o n a l and very much outmoded approach of r a t i n g land by i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y (forestry once again being relegated to those lands on which a l l forms of farming are considered out of the question) rather than presenting a system of land evaluation for each of a l l the possible uses.  45  In order  to produce the low  c o s t wood (assuming present  day  methods of management) land must have c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n teajsonable  combinations.  (a) A l a r g e area  (probably  i n the r e g i o n of 100,000 a c r e s )  must be a v a i l a b l e f o r a f f o r e s t a t i o n i n one  locality,  so that  the  l a r g e volume of wood r e q u i r e d f o r i n t e g r a t e d u t i l i z a t i o n can assembled i n one  p l a c e without e x c e s s i v e  transport costs.  be  As  a l r e a d y been noted, l a r g e contiguous areas are a l s o r e q u i r e d  has to  a l l o w the economic implementation o f l a r g e s c a l e mechanized systems. S u t t o n (1964) doubted t h a t f o r e s t s under 10,000 acres economically (b) The  could  be  justified. s o i l and  climate  should  be capable of r a p i d growth  of a d e s i r a b l e s p e c i e s , p r e f e r a b l y r a d i a t a pine or D o u g l a s - f i r . The  c o s t s of p r e p a r i n g  land f o r a f f o r e s t a t i o n and  the p l a n t a t i o n s should be (c) The harvesting  of  maintaining  low.  l a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which govern the c o s t  the wood must be f a v o u r a b l e .  of  Under c u r r e n t methods,  those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t e r r a i n p e r m i t t i n g c o s t road c o n s t r u c t i o n and  t r a c t o r logging.  low  Exact d e s c r i p t i o n s of  such land have not yet been formulated. (d) C o n s i d e r a t i o n  must a l s o be g i v e n to the c o s t of  the s e r v i c e s such as power, water and  t r a n s p o r t needed by  providing utilization  plants. A t t e n t i o n i s focussed  on the 20.2  (see Table 2) f o r expansion of New  m i l l i o n a c r e s of Category C  Zealand's e x o t i c f o r e s t e s t a t e .  46  It  is felt  that more than enough l a n d , w i t h the necessary  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i s a v a i l a b l e within; currently carrying fern,scrub  the 5.7 m i l l i o n a c r e s o f l a n d  and second growth f o r e s t .  The N a t i o n a l Development Conference noted t h a t f o r e s t product e x p o r t s from New Zealand were l i m i t e d only by the supply o f wood.  Usmar and Yska (1971) have more r e c e n t l y noted t h a t the  export p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r e now being more thoroughly examined i n t h e i r own l i g h t and conclude t h a t the r e s u l t w i l l l i k e l y be even g r e a t e r argument f o r i n c r e a s e d  forest  establishment.  Even g i v e n the necessary combinations o f l a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s mentioned above, there  is little  doubt i n the a u t h o r ' s mind t h a t the  1.6 m i l l i o n a c r e s o f Category C r e q u i r e d  t o m a i n t a i n the annual  p l a n t i n g t a r g e t s s e t i n 1969, i s o n l y a small p r o p o r t i o n o f the total'-additional land a v a i l a b l e f o r e x o t i c f o r e s t A l t h o u g h the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y s t i l l little  establishment.  contributes  relatively  t o New Zealand's G.N.P.(op. c i t . ) and the a g r i c u l t u r a l  i n d u s t r y remains the mainstay o f the economy, there  i s a trend  towards p u b l i c acceptance o f f o r e s t r y as having a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e to p l a y i n the f u t u r e economy o f the c o u n t r y . in  some r e s p e c t s , a number o f p i o n e e r i n g  Although d e f i c i e n t  s t u d i e s have been c a r r i e d  out which have shaken the t r a d i t i o n a l view t h a t f o r e s t r y always be r e l e g a t e d  t o the land c o n s i d e r e d  (Bg. Ward e t _al>. ,1966). C o n t i n u i n g  should  sub-marginal t o farmings  work o f t h i s n a t u r e , supplemented  m  and  c o n t r o l l e d by the d e l i b e r a t i o n s o f the r e c e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d  47 Land Use A d v i s o r y  Committee, i s bound to r e s u l t i n a more r a t i o n a l  approach to the p o s s i b i l i t y and  a probable i n c r e a s e  of f o r e s t r y as an a l t e r n a t i v e land  use  i n the amount of p r e s e n t l y undeveloped  land  which w i l l be made a v a i l a b l e to a f f o r e s t a t i o n . Considerable  areas of abandoned and  m a r g i n a l farm land are a l s o l i k e l y t o be timber  economically  sub-  found w e l l s u i t e d to  production. Such trends  can o n l y be a c c e l e r a t e d by the c u r r e n t  i n the w o r l d wool market and trading partner, Community.  The  the U n i t e d latter,  the e n t r y of New  Zealand's major  Kingdom, i n t o the European Economic  i n p a r t i c u l a r , w i l l force a  degree o f r e o r g a n i z a t i o n and  problems  considerable  r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n on the a g r i c u l t u r a l  industry. The  lamentable l a c k o f a l a n d c a p a b i l i t y i n v e n t o r y  Zealand, p r e s e n t l y p r e c l u d e s  any  attempts to e s t i m a t e  the p o t e n t i a l l a n d base f o r f o r e s t r y . demands o f the present and  techniques,  Model,will  a d d i t i o n there  topographic  the area,  above t h a t r e q u i r e d by the t a r g e t s of the N a t i o n a l  Planning  New  accurately  Even assuming the  day machinery and  in  over  Forestry  c e r t a i n l y be measured i n m i l l i o n s of a c r e s .  i s a considerable  p o t e n t i a l production  In  which w i l l  come from a f f o r e s t a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n which timber p r o d u c t i o n  i s not  the major o b j e c t i v e (ejg.  forests  the, s o - c a l l e d p r o t e c t i o n - p r o d u c t i o n  mentioned i n the r e p o r t of f o r e s t r y working p a r t y No.4, F o r e s t r y , 1969,  and  Multiple  Use  schemes such as t h a t d e s c r i b e d by Macarthur (1971).  48 N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the t e r r a i n l i m i t a t i o n s c i t e d above, the F o r e s t Research I n s t i t u t e ' s symposium on l a n d c l e a r i n g (Chavasse, 1969)  was c o n f i d e n t that more than 507 o f the l a n d t o be a f f o r e s t e d o  i n the f u t u r e i n New Zealand would possess slope l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t would p r e c l u d e techniques  the use o f t r a c t o r s .  T h i s author expects t h a t  w i l l be developed i n the f u t u r e which w i l l a l l o w  p r e p a r a t i o n , p l a n t i n g , t e n d i n g and h a r v e s t i n g o p e r a t i o n s c a r r i e d out on t h i s c l a s s o f country  site  t o be  (which has not y e t been  adequately d e f i n e d ) without r a i s i n g wood c o s t s t o p r o h i b i t i v e l e v e l s . Examples o f some p o s s i b l e techniques  a r e d e s c r i b e d by Mann (1967).  A l t h o u g h i t i s pure s p e c u l a t i o n , the temptation some p o s s i b l e f u t u r e p r o d u c t i o n  p o t e n t i a l s o f New Zealand e x o t i c  f o r e s t r y has been too great t o r e s i s t .  The f o l l o w i n g c a l c u l a t i o n s  have u t i l i z e d a b l a n k e t mean annual p r o d u c t i o n c u b i c f e e t per a c r e .  t o estimate  p o t e n t i a l o f 300  T h i s r a t e o f growth has been achieved  on  many o f the medium t o good s i t e s o f the f i r s t r o t a t i o n o f r a d i a t a p i n e , d e s p i t e an almost complete l a c k o f s i l v i c u l t u r a l since planting. production  treatment  Management i n p u t s such as spacing c o n t r o l ,  t h i n n i n g ( i f t h i s becomes economic), g e n e t i c  improvement,  c l o s e r u t i l i z a t i o n and f e r t i l i z a t i o n on the l i m i t e d areas where s p e c i f i c n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n c i e s have reduced growth r a t e i n the past, w i l l very l i k e l y improve the growth r a t e o f the second and subsequent r o t a t i o n s c o n s i d e r a b l y . The Plains(s@e  areas o f lower growth r a t e s , such as the Canterbury Table  1) w i l l c o n s t i t u t e a r e l a t i v e l y small  proportion  49 o f the f u t u r e p l a n t i n g area and should have l i t t l e e f f e c t on the n a t i o n a l average growth r a t e . The  f i g u r e o f 300 c u . f t . / a c r e i s , t h e r e f o r e , c o n s i d e r e d  by no  means o p t i m i s t i c and i n c r e a s e s from i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f management should  l a r g e l y compensate f o r any l o w e r i n g  might occur as the f o r e s t land;  Table  3.  of s i t e q u a l i t y that  base i s i n c r e a s e d .  P o t e n t i a l gross annual y i e l d s from N.Z. e x o t i c f o r e s t r y , assuming v a r i o u s land bases. Land base - m i l l i o n s a c r e s .  M i l l i o n s cubic feet  1.0 (Present p r o d u c t i v e e x o t i e forest) 3.2 (N.D.C. t a r g e t requirements) 5.0 10.0  300 960 1500 3000  (Note:- c u r r e n t annual c u t from whole o f B.C. i s 2,000 m i l l i o n c u b i c f e e t - B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , Annual Report f o r 1970.) Usmar and Yska (1971) have noted t h a t p o p u l a t i o n and development pressures  have not y e t overwhelmed the environmental  a t t r i b u t e s o f New Zealand.  Bad mistakes have been made i n the past  i n l a n d c l e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s " (eg. Chavasse,1969) and the i n t r o d u c t i o n of e x o t i c h e r b i v o r s  (notwithstanding  some b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s o f the  l a t t e r - v i z . the t o u r i s t and domestic r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e s o f hunting  d e e r ) , and these should be adequate warning t h a t New Zealand  must l e a r n from the l e s s o n s o f other c o u n t r r e ^ . will  Such  considerations  i n j e c t some c a u t i o n i n t o the development^planning o f the  country's  e x c i t i n g , i f p r e s e n t l y i m p r e c i s e l y known, f o r e s t p o t e n t i a l  50 The approach  to p l a n n i n g of p o s s i b l e i n d u s t r i e s to u t i l i z e  indigenous hardwoods, b r i e f l y o u t l i n e d by Usmar and Yska (1971), i s encouraging  i n this respect.  The  p o t e n t i a l of the beech  spp.) r e s o u r c e on the west c o a s t o f the South I s l a n d was a f t e r c o n s e r v a t i o n , r e c r e a t i o n and amenity considered.  The reduced  a 500 tons/day K r a f t  assessed  f a c t o r s had been :..  l a n d base i s thought capable of s u p p o r t i n g  mill.  These k i n d s of p r i o r i t i e s must never be l o s t . Zealand i s a l i t t l e  (Nothofagus  Even i f New  t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y backward today, there i s no  doubt that she has an environmental q u a l i t y t h a t i s the envy of many more advanced c o u n t r i e s .  The  f o r e s t products i n d u s t r y i n g e n e r a l  i s not world renowned f o r i t s c o m p a t a b i l i t y w i t h the environment any  judgement of i t s f u t u r e p o t e n t i a l i n New  Zealand must ensure  t h a t i t s economic advantages are not bought a t the p r i c e t h a t sometimes been p a i d  and  has  elsewhere.  In summary, i t would appear t h a t with c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a number of problems p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h her p o s i t i o n and environment,  New  Zealand's  geographic  f o r e s t i n d u s t r y has a  p o t e n t i a l , l i m i t e d by, although r e l a t i v e l y v e r y l a r g e i n  comparison  t o , her a b s o l u t e s i z e , t o supply some of the f o r e s t products the world i s l i k e l y t o r e q u i r e and a t a p r i c e the world w i l l ' b e prepared to pay.  51 2.  P o t e n t i a l for Forest Mechanization. I t i s convenient to deal with t h i s topic under  two  sub-divisions:1. - those factors related to the p a r t i c u l a r type of forestry i n New is  Zealand; how,  where and by whom exotic forestry  practiced.  2. - those factors which are a r e s u l t of the wider of New  Zealand's peculiar national  features.  The most prevalent s i l v i c u l t u r a l system i n New forestry i s even-aged management of monocultures. dangers of such forestry (and New already been discussed.  implications  Zealand exotic  The  potential  Zealand's awareness of same) have  Such systems, however, are the best suited  to large scale mechanization of a l l phases of the forestry The  enterprise.  simple and uniform ecological conditions,and tree and log sizes  found under such c o n d i t i o n s , f a c i l i t a t e machine design and allow the wider application of any one p a r t i c u l a r design.  The  forests are  i n fact already standardized and hence more compatible to a marriage with machinery. New  Zealand forestry i s characterized  number of large, forest growing organizations  by a small (under (excluding  ten)  the farmer  f o r e s t e r s ) , the largest of which i s currently the State i t s e l f . Such organizations  possess the scale of operations that i s required  to j u s t i f y intensive mechanization and are capable of the c a p i t a l outlay generally required.  Large areas and  large  organizations  allow the implication of such techniques as multi-machine teams and  52 m u l t i - s h i f t working.  Good maintenance and managerial backup are  l i k e l y to be more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e a l s o . There i s every i n d i c a t i o n t h a t these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ownership and  i n d i v i d u a l f o r e s t s i z e are l i k e l y t o continue.  recommendation 23(b)  of the F o r e s t r y S e c t o r ' s r e p o r t to the  N a t i o n a l Development Conference  Thus 1969  reads:-  "That the l o c a t i o n of f u t u r e p l a n t i n g programmes should be d i c t a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n ( s ) : (b) The need to c r e a t e f u r t h e r l a r g e f o r e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n areas which can f u l f i l the c o n d i t i o n s f a v o u r i n g the development of l a r g e s c a l e i n d u s t r i e s . The economies of s c a l e i n f o r e s t r y o p e r a t i o n s as w e l l as i n f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s should be r e c o g n i z e d . " A  small number o f major markets i s a f e a t u r e of New  exotic forestry.  A l t h o u g h of p a r t i c u l a r advantage to  m e c h a n i z a t i o n of l o g g i n g and  Zealand  the  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n phases, t h i s f e a t u r e a l s o  c o n t r i b u t e s to the o v e r a l l s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of f o r e s t r y o p e r a t i o n s which b e n e f i t s mechanization of a l l phases of f o r e s t r y , Consideration  of New  Zealand's t e r r a i n and  l e s s o p t i m i s t i c p i c t u r e of f o r e s t mechanization.  s o i l s presents A very  large  p r o p o r t i o n of the c u r r e n t e x o t i c f o r e s t e s t a t e i s to be found flat  to r o l l i n g country  on r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e s o i l s .  The  a  on  question  of  a v a i l a b l e l a n d f o r f u t u r e a f f o r e s t a t i o n has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d ; Q u a n t i t a t i v e l y there  i s s u f f i c i e n t l a n d to a t l e a s t t r e b l e the  N a t i o n a l Development Conference's t a r g e t e s t a t e f o r the year There i s much doubt, however, about how able to support machines potential.  1989.  much of t h i s l a n d w i l l  i n t e n s i v e mechanization - at l e a s t with  be  todays  because of l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by slope and/or e r o s i o n  53 A  r e c e n t q u e s t i o n a i r e (Chavasse,  1969)  showed  that of the  1,292,000 a c r e s t o b e t o b e p l a n t e d b y t h e r e s p o n d e n t s next  thirty  year  With  t h e new a t t i t u d e s  agriculture  which  527o w a s n e g o t i a b l e b y c r a w l e r t r a c t o r .  period, only  to land allocation  should r e s u l t  from  N a t i o n a l Development Conference, become a v a i l a b l e There a  problem  betwean f o r e s t r y  the recommendations o f the  more l a n d o f g e n t l e r  however,  f o r forest mechanization  problems. these them  i n New  Zealand.  forest  As hungry  forestry  high  species to of erosion  be t h e o v e r - r i d i n g timber w i l l  of  role  be t a k e n  of  from  1970).  i n prime  moving  techniques  terrain.  t o allow the mechanization  Nowhere i s t h i s  more  of  needed  Zealand.  a general rule  Zealand  c a n be c o n s i d e r e d a  labour  I n many i n d u s t r i e s ,  then, mechanization  which  or maintained  requirements  t h a t some  areas  be  are being  t h e use o f e x o t i c  protection will  long  (1971) n o t e d t h e n e e d , o n a w o r l d w i d e s c a l e , f o r a  country.  increased  relief  soil  o p e r a t i o n s on steep  i n New  should  will  Large  has been abandoned because  i t i s intended  (eg. Olsen,  breakthrough  schemes i n v o l v e  farmland which  Although  Rennie  than  These  forests,  slope  that steep h i l l s i d e s  what have been termed p r o t e c t i o n - p r o d u c t i o n f o r e s t s  rehabilitate  and  to afforestation.  i s no d o u b t ,  established.  during the  New  output  i s favoured.  This  w i t h t h e minimum situation  to small levels  t o New  Zealand  has i n the past  o f unemployment produced  p r o p o r t i o n o f s e a s o n a l work.  increase i n labour  applies  but' w i t h t h e c a u t i o n t h a t f o r e s t r y  allows  by a  provided  relatively  The " s e a s o n a l l y unemployed" a r e  54 considered policies  by  on  the  phenomenon. s m a l l and New  part  The  Zealand's  of  the  result  that  of  poor f i s c a l  Government and  t o be  involved are,  to m a t e r i a l l y contribute  r a p i d l y expanding increased  a  to  will  the  be  monetary  purely  i n any  forest industry.  mechanization  and  temporary  case,  labour  needs  It is an  very of  concluded,  essential part  forestry's future. Although  and  decreasing  particularly  labour, skills short  reducing  mechanization i n the  of  skilled  labour  per  labour.  Zealand  intends  se,  Committee It country (eg.  to  and  any any  hold  medicine).  a l l practical  to  the  purposes  of  skilled  up  of  two  labour  N.D.C.:-  employment  short  w o r k e r s and  training  tend  (Report  of  to  the  result Labour  1969).  Zealand  is a  socialist  welfare  services  i s a n a t i o n a l aim  from the  New  production  constantly attained.  quoting  is of  ways i n w h i c h  increased  t h a t New  i s almost by  of  I f she  is particularly  government provided  Full  illustrated  qualities  u n e m p l o y m e n t w h i c h may  remembered h e r e  required,  machines.  N a t i o n a l Development Conference,  m u s t be  i s best  lower  the  force are  demand f o r u n s k i l l e d  the  of  Zealand  labour  labour  i n t u r n a demand f o r c e r t a i n  maintenance  w i t h a-:>long h i s t o r y o f  attitude  q u a n t i t i e s of  demands f o r the  t h e n New  to prevent  socialized  Report  and  unskilled  through mechanization reduced  the  total  Assisted immigration  presently  from a  the  does create  operation  of her  for  the  a c t u a l numbers  unlikely  therefore, of  some t o b e  Labour  which  This  Committee  55 "The c o m m i t t e e c o n s i d e r s t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t should accept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the e f f e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g o f an o v e r a l l manpower p o l i c y d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e f u l l and p r o d u c t i v e employment, b u t w h i c h w o u l d a t t h e same t i m e b e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h other economic o b j e c t i v e s such as growth, p r i c e s t a b i l i t y and the maintenance of adequate levels of overseas funds. In making t h i s statement, however, the committee wishes t o s t r e s s t h a t manpower i s a f a c t o r o f p r o d u c t i o n t h a t must be examined i n s o c i a l as w e l l as economic terms." The  committee a l s o  noted  demands and  trends but  move t o w a r d  requirement  labourers.  I t therefore considered that  training  and  retraining  Government's In  by  o f more  could arise  i n New  from  within  limits  that  I n an  fewer  an  distinct The  to offset  the  of  a  unskilled  essential  part of  the  Any  Zealand  localized  i s  unemployment  such  overseas -  intention  be  of the Government's  situations, occurring  feasible. funds  and  to protect  the development of which  problems  - New  of machinery  systems  first  prevent  industry  primary products types  and  to conserve  small manufacturing  certain  was  education, vocational  i t i s the  are economically  attempt  considered v i t a l  two  and  definite  "over" mechanization would  Zealand, but  to anticipate  of  skilled  labour  policy.  policy  on  forecasting  t r e n d t h a t was  programmes a r e  labour  based  one  a general labour shortage.  which  intolerable  own  that  of  s u m m a r y , t h e n , m e c h a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n New  encouraged problems  labour  felt  the problems  Zealand  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an has  under c e r t a i n  her  i s economy  long restricted  imports  conditions.  to  Up  now,  have been i n o p e r a t i o n . these, import  c o n t a i n e x p e n d i t u r e on  licensing,  imports w i t h i n  the  was  limits  designed  to  of available  "help overseas  56 exchange, w h i l e e n s u r i n g that the r e s o u r c e s a r e used as e f f e c t i v e l y as p o s s i b l e . " ( A n o n . , 1970). The  import l i c e n s i n g system  i s g r a d u a l l y being phased out i n  favour o f a system o f p r o t e c t i v e t a r i f f s a n d , i n 1970-1971, 65-707, of p r i v a t e imports by v a l u e were f r e e of l i c e n s i n g . New Zealand has l o n g had an a g r i c u l t u r a l machinery i n d u s t r y ( i n the 1880's New Zealand was e x p o r t i n g plough, shares to the U n i t e d S t a t e s ) which c u r r e n t l y possesses 110 p l a n t s producing, i n 1966-67, machinery v a l u e d a t $17 m i l l i o n . import l i c e n s i n g .  Such machinery i s s u b j e c t t o  Many o f the h e a v i e r types o f machinery used i n  f o r e s t r y would not be made by these companies and, i n some cases, they would be f r e e o f import l i c e n s i n g .  In a l l c a s e s , however, the  onus Is on the New Zealand user t o show t h a t a domestic cannot  s a t i s f a c t o r i l y produce  manufacturer  the machine.  The New Zealand Customs T a r i f f has the o b j e c t i v e s : - ".... to p r o v i d e revenue,  and t o a f f o r d r e a s o n a b l e p r o t e c t i o n t o economic  New Zealand i n d u s t r i e s , w h i l e a t the same time a s s u r i n g New Zealand manufacturers  o f e n t r y f o r t h e i r raw m a t e r i a l s a t the lowest  duty raises i f the m a t e r i a l s a r e not produced 1970).  possible  i n New Zealand."  The t a r i f f i s based on the B r u s s e l ' s nomenclature  (Anon.,  and r a t e s  of  duty v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o the country o f o r i g i n and the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  of  the goods.  Table 4 shows some examples o f t a r i f f s  Customs T a r i f f o f New Zealand.  taken from the  57 T a b l e 4.  Some New Zealand Customs T a r i f f s .  ( e x t r a c t e d from The Customs T a r i f f of New Zealand, N.Z. Customs Dept., R.E. Owen, Govt. P r i n t e r , W e l l i n g t o n 1967)  Item  A)Crawler t r a c t o r s : hydraulic control parts; other p a r t s ; ( D i t t o wheeled t r a c t o r s )  B)Disc  ploughs  C)Ploughs  general  D)Cultivators  These two systems,  British Preferential  Most Favoured Nation  25% (Can.-35%) Free  25%  60%  5%  10%  10% (Can.-35%)  10%  40%  10% (Can.-35%)  20%  40%  10% (Can.-35%) (Aust.-Free)  10%  40%  General Tariff  although designed t o p r o t e c t the n a t i o n as  a whole, c o u l d a t times cause c o n s i d e r a b l e inconvenience and a d d i t i o n a l c o s t t o a p r o s p e c t i v e importer o f machinery.  The g r a d u a l  phasing out o f the import l i c e n s i n g schedule w i l l remove some o f the inconvenience, but the t a r i f f , combined w i t h the c o s t o f f r e i g h t , w i l l r e s u l t i n machines i n New Zealand b e i n g p r i c e d c o n s i d e r a b l y higher,than i n countries possessing large, e f f i c i e n t industries.  manufacturing  '58  New  Zealand  manufacturing  industry  the heavy  required  i n forestry,  overseas  e q u i v a l e n t , but  sophisticated considerable  is likely  land clearing  although  be  and  probably  i t i s unlikely  l o g g i n g equipment and time.  bo  capable  site  of  p r e p a r a t i o n machinery  at a higher price t o be  heavy  capable  of  than  an  producing  p r i m e m o v e r s f o r some  59 4. A FUTURE REFORESTATION SYSTEM FOR NEW ZEALAND RADIATA PINE. General Background. Reforestation i s a comparatively  new concept to New Zealand  exotic f o r e s t r y , although her high growth rates and e a r l y start i n plantation f o r e s t r y have put her considerably i n advance of other exotic forest growing nations. In the early days of logging of the exotic forest estate, natural regeneration was thought to be so immediate and abundant that l i t t l e attention was given to r e f o r e s t a t i o n (Ure, 1949).  In  l a t e r years, however, when the e f f i c i e n c y and popularity of natural regeneration began to decline (see below) and i t became necessary to invest considerable sums i n a r t i f i c i a l restocking, an objective look at the importance of r e f o r e s t a t i o n would have been desirable. Enough money was being invested i n s i t e preparation of the cutovers before a r t i c i a l  restocking could be undertaken, that a study of th©  r e l a t i v e rates of return on an investment i n a f f o r e s t i n g new land compared with the cutover would have been j u s t i f i e d . l i m i t e d resources available f o r forest establishment, was c a r r i e d out.  The re-establishment  Despite the no such study  of cutover within e x i s t i n g  forest boundaries was considered the f i r s t c a l l on funds. This attitude remains today and i s exemplified by the Forestry Sector's i n c l u s i o n of, "restocking e x i s t i n g mature exotic forest as i t i s f e l l e d " as the f i r s t of a l i s t of methods of achieving wood production targets, i n t h e i r report to the 1969 National Development Conference.  From the point of view of the  60  forest purist this i s an excellent attitude;  from that of an  economist,in a country where c a p i t a l i s c u r r e n t l y more l i m i t e d than land, i t would demand closer examination.  For the purposes of t h i s  thesis, the attitude i s merely accepted. The history of r e f o r e s t a t i o n of r a d i a t a pine i n New  Zealand  has been one of decreasing r e l i a b i l i t y of and reliance on natural regeneration.  The subject i s covered by two papers (Page, 1970,1971 b.)  and only a very b r i e f synopsis i s presented  here.  Before large scale logging commenced i n the mid-1950's, natural regeneration was from 1956  considered adequate.  Accelerated logging  on, however, led to a very great increase i n the mileage of  stand edge and a consequent population explosion of the seed eating birds and mice ( a l l exotic) to which the stand edge was  the most  favourable habitat. Radiata pine has a serotinous cone and very r a r e l y are s u f f i c i e n t l y high temperatures reached to open these cones during winter-logging.  They therefore remain closed on the slash u n t i l the  f i r s t hot day of spring, which also coincides with the time of most severe food shortage for the seed eating b i r d s and mice. Most seed i s consumed as soon as i t drops from the cones and natural regeneration of these winter-logged areas  fails.  During summer-logging ground temperatures are high enough to open the cones on the f e l l e d trees during the two to three week delay between f e l l i n g and yarding.  The yarding operations then bury the  seed out of reach of the predators.  61 Broadcast a e r i a l seeding w i t h r e p e l l e n t coated seed  was  i n t r o d u c e d on the w i n t e r - l o g g e d areas t o r e i n f o r c e the d e f i c i e n t n a t u r a l s t o c k i n g and proved  successful.  Both n a t u r a l and a r t i f i c i a l seeding, however, f a i l e d when l o g g i n g reached h i g h a l t i t u d e  flat  country where unseasonal  brown o f f the young s e e d l i n g s i n the e a r l y autumn.  Windrowing of  s l a s h and hand p l a n t i n g became necessary on these The  i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n t h a t New  f o r c e d t o pay  expected  to be  f o r e s t e r s were b e i n g  study of the n a t u r a l l y regenerated areas which had  p r e v i o u s l y been c o n s i d e r e d adequately concluded  sites.  to the r e s t o c k i n g of r a d i a t a p i n e c u t o v e r s r e s u l t e d i n  a more c r i t i c a l  was  Zealand  frosts  stocked.  From these surveys i t  t h a t , " n o ( l a r g e ) a r e a of n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n can be satisfactorily  stocked  " (Page, 1970).  Poor d i s t r i b u t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l t r e e s was  the major  complaint, r e s u l t i n g i n a patchwork of b a d l y or non-stocked  areas  i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h areas o f over dense s t o c k i n g , the l a t t e r demanding expensive  precommercial  a l e s s e r but s t i l l  t h i n n i n g or s p a c i n g .  s i g n i f i c a n t degree,  r e s u l t s of a e r i a l broadcast seeding. of  r a d i a t a p i n e growing i n New  The  same complaints, t o  c o u l d be l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t the Under the v e r y short r o t a t i o n s  Zealand  (26-35 years) c o n t r o l of  spacing from the e a r l i e s t years of the stand i s of g r e a t management s i g n i f i c a n c e . A t about the same time as the above work was s t r i d e s were b e i n g made i n the f i e l d  going on, g r e a t  o f t r e e - b r e e d i n g . New  Zealand's  r a d i a t a p i n e p o p u l a t i o n shows a v e r y g r e a t degree of v a r i a t i o n  and  62  the p o t e n t i a l f o r improvement i n form and y i e l d through  the use  of  g e n e t i c a l l y s u p e r i o r seed i s v e r y g r e a t (N.Z. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , 1969). Orchard and  seed r e t a i l s a t approximately  such an expensive  a i r c r a f t as was The  $iMZ30/lb  (Chavasse,  commodity should not be broadcast  pers.comm.)  from an -  v  p o s s i b l e w i t h the much cheaper f o r e s t c o l l e c t e d  advantages and  seed.  i n c r e a s i n g a v a i l a b i l i t y of p l a n t i n g stock  grown from orchard seed, f u r t h e r a c c e l e r a t e d the move away from n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n and  l e f t a e r i a l seeding i n the r o l e of a stop  gap u n t i l s u f f i c i e n t improved stock and  l a b o u r were a v a i l a b l e to  a l l o w p l a n t i n g of a l l a r e a s . In comparing these o p e r a t i o n s i t should be remembered t h a t use o f g e n e t i c a l l y improved stock a l l o w s a stand to be s t a r t e d w i t h a v e r y much lower spaced  intial  stocking.  The  t a r g e t s t o c k i n g of 1,000  stems per acre on much o f the New  (Page, 1970)  was  evenly  Zealand pumice country  n e c e s s i t a t e d by the need to have a  sufficiently  l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n of these v e r y v a r i a b l e i n d i v i d u a l s to a l l o w the s e l e c t i o n of 80-150 f i n a l crop t r e e s per a c r e . of s e e d l i n g s a r i s i n g from n a t u r a l or b r o a d c a s t  The poor d i s t r i b u t i o n seed demanded t h a t  t o t a l s t o c k i n g s i n the order of 3-5,000 stems per a c r e were t o ensure adequate e f f e c t i v e s t o c k i n g (1000  e v e n l y spaced  necessary  stems per  a c r e ) a f t e r precommercial t h i n n i n g . Appendix 1 shows some average c o s t s of r e f o r e s t a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s on one  l a r g e S t a t e owned p l a n t a t i o n f o r e s t .  They q u i c k l y d i s p e l  myth t h a t n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n and a e r i a l seeding are cheap.  the  63 The basis for planting. New Zealand has a long background i n the planting of bareroot radiata pine.  The much hallowed planting "boom" of the 1920 s !  and 30's, when the bulk of the currently maturing exotic estate was established, r e l i e d to a very large extent on t h i s method (although quite large areas were established by spot seeding). Scott (1960) noted that radiata pine i s extremely easy to raise i n the nursery, producing robust and health/ seedlings i n one season. The season i n which planting of open-rooted carried out i s very long.  stock can be  Under normal operating conditions the f u l l  six month winter period i s available f o r outplanting.  Under research  conditions, and p a r t i c u l a r l y using s p e c i a l l y prepared nursery stock, i t i s possible and, i n terms of improved early growth, often advantageous, to plant a l l the year round (Moberly, 1970). The combination  of a long planting season and the short ...  nursery time required to produce plantable radiata pine stock have spared New Zealand the l o g i s t i c problems of say eastern Canada where extremely limited planting seasons and the necessity to grow seedlings of such species as white spruce (Picea glauca Voss.) for 2-4 years i n the nursery, have l e d to the comparatively recent interest i n container planting (MacKinnon, 1968).  The potential advantages of  container grown seedlings i n terms of planting season extension, easier planning and lower cost have not been of great significance i n New Zealand.  Containers have only been considered i n New Zealand f o r  64 v e r y s e n s i t i v e s p e c i e s such as the E u c a l y p t s (Bunn and van Dorser i n Chavasse and Weston, 1969). Research on r a d i a t a pine e s t a b l i s h m e n t committed to the b a r e - r o o t concept. improving  pretreatment  firmly  E f f o r t s are c o n c e n t r a t e d  the c o s t and q u a l t E y of the nursery product  means as i n t e n s i v e mechanization,  1969;  i s now  p r e c i s i o n sowing,  on  through  such  mechanical  of s e e d l i n g s (wrenching) e t c . (Chavasse and Weston,  Chavasse, pers.comm.). The  f o r t u i t o u s combination  o f s o i l s and climate^which  the v e r y h i g h growth r a t e s of r a d i a t a p i n e i n New  produces  Zealand,  u n f o r t u n a t e l y produces the same e f f e c t on the competing weed s p e c i e s . The  need f o r t r e e s e e d l i n g s to be f r e e of t h i s c o m p e t i t i o n as soon as  p o s s i b l e ( i n order t o minimize weeding c o s t s ) i s o f t e n used as  an  argument f o r b a r e - r o o t p l a n t i n g as opposed to seeding methods of reforestation.  The  argument presupposes a s u p e r i o r growth r a t e  from the p l a n t e d t r e e . Although  there i s l i t t l e doubt as to the s u p e r i o r i t y of the  p l a n t e d t r e e i n competing w i t h weed growth up to about twelve i n h e i g h t , the author has  inches  seen many i n s t a n c e s of t r e e s a r i s i n g from  n a t u r a l or a r t i f i c i a l l y a p p l i e d seed r a p i d l y o v e r h a u l i n g p l a n t e d stock w i t h i n one The New  season.  T h i s i s d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y i n the next s e c t i o n .  problem of weed growth i s b e i n g a t t a c k e d on two  Zealand.  Chemical  r e l e a s e of overtopped The  c o n t r o l has  fronts i n  shown c o n s i d e r a b l e promise i n the  p l a n t a t i o n s from such weeds as l u p i n , gorse e t c . .  technique, however, i s l i a b l e to come i n c r e a s i n g l y under f i r e f o r  environmental  reasons.  65 Mechanical c u l t i v a t i o n of the s i t e has recently received considerable attention i n New  Zealand.  easier planting conditions and appearing  As well as contributing to to cause an increase i n early  growth, well timed c u l t i v a t i o n can have considerable e f f e c t s i n suppressing weed growth i n the e a r l y stages of a plantation's l i f e . If  such methods can hold back weed growth for the length of time  required for a tree growing from seed to catch up with a planted seedling, assuming t h i s i s possible, one of the arguments for planting^ as opposed to seeding, w i l l have been invalidated.  Problems with bare-root planting. The techniques of tree planting have changed l i t t l e and the p r i n c i p l e s not at a l l for 400 years (Walters, 1967).  As Walters (1971)  has pointed out, Evelyn knew the dangers inherent i n the transplanting of bare-root stock and the procedures required to counteract them 300 years ago.  (Evelyn was  quoting Theophratus so the knowledge has  been around even longer.) This long h i s t o r y of the use of a single p r i n c i p l e and a number of related techniques could imply a soundness and  satisfaction  with a system that cannot be equalled or exceeded. A glance through past issues of Forestry Abstracts, however, shows that a very considerable research e f f o r t i s s t i l l being put into the improvement of bare-root planting.  Much of the work i s r e p e t i t i v e and  outdated,  but there i s l i t t l e doubt that there are very r e a l problems with the bare-root system which might suggest a need for a search for a system.  new  66 Some o f the problems with b a r e - r o o t  planting, particularly  as they r e l a t e t o r a d i a t a p i n e , are d i s c u s s e d below.  Planting  shock.  P l a n t i n g shock i s a v e r y l o o s e term and i t i s used here t o head a s e c t i o n concerned w i t h a l l a s p e c t s all  stages Any  of a tree's s e n s i t i v i t y to  of outplanting. p h y s i c a l removal o f the p l a n t from one growing medium t o  another w i l l d e s t r o y  t o some extent  the more s e n s i t i v e p a r t s o f the  r o o t system and n e c e s s i t a t e a p e r i o d o f r e c o v e r y d u r i n g which the damaged p a r t s o f the r o o t s a r e r e p l a c e d . v a r y i n g i n l e n g t h with  s p e c i e s , p l a n t i n g s i t e and the amount o f  damage done, i s t h e r e f o r e l o s t while or damaged t i s s u e .  A p e r i o d o f growth,  the p l a n t regenerates  T h i s problem has l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d  the l o s t but o n l y  r e c e n t l y has i n t e n s i v e work been undertaken t o attempt t o improve the r o o t growth c a p a c i t y o f b a r e - r o o t  p l a n t i n g stock  (e..g. Stone and  Norberg, 1971). D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d of r o o t r e g e n e r a t i o n withstand  the t r e e ' s a b i l i t y t o  adverse environmental c o n d i t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h  regard  to water s t r e s s , i s more o r l e s s impaired.  T h i s s i t u a t i o n leads t o  varying l i m i t a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y regarding  season o f o u t p l a n t i n g , on  the establishment under r e s e a r c h  o f f o r e s t t r e e s by b a r e - r o o t  planting.  At least  c o n d i t i o n s and u s i n g s e e d l i n g s which have r e c e i v e d  m u l t i p l e wrenching i n the nursery  bed (van D o r s e r i n Chavasse and  Weston, 1969) these l i m i t a t i o n s are s l i g h t with r a d i a t a pine i n New Zealand (Moberly, 1970).  I t i s d o u b t f u l , however, whether the care  67 given to research  p l a n t i n g s can be a p p l i e d e c o n o m i c a l l y  o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l and the extent  a t an  o f the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by the  t r e e ' s r o o t growth c a p a c i t y under New Zealand c o n d i t i o n s i s l i k e l y to depend more upon p r e c o n d i t i o n i n g nursery  o f the p l a n t i n g stock i n the  by such techniques as wrenching. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note here t h a t a l t h o u g h the p r a c t i c a l  advantages o f wrenching r a d i a t a pine i n r e d u c i n g  the t r e e ' s  s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o " p l a n t i n g shock" are w e l l demonstrated, the p h y s i o l o g i c a l b a s i s f o r t h i s r e s u l t i s very  incompletely  understood  (Cameron and Rook i n Chavasse and Weston, 1969). Because o f the great  s e n s i t i v i t y o f the l i f t e d nursery  seedling  to environmental c o n d i t i o n s , problems are t o be found i n the h a n d l i n g , t r a n s p o r t and storage stock. exact  phases o f f o r e s t establishment  with  bare-root  A g a i n t o l e r a n c e s v a r y . w i t h the s p e c i e s , c l i m a t e e t c . but an knowledge o f these t o l e r a n c e s  conditions i s rare.  i n any p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f  Research work i s s t i l l b e i n g  though w i t h the added advantage o f v a r i o u s to i l l u s t r a t e  c a r r i e d out -  s o p h i s t i c a t e d techniques -  such time proven concepts as the n e c e s s i t y t o keep  bare r o o t exposure between l i f t i n g and o u t p l a n t i n g  t o a minimum  ( M u l l i n , 1971). In many p a r t s o f the world v a r i o u s  techniques have been  developed t o attempt t o p r o t e c t the t r a n s p l a n t s from the dangers o f exposure.  Puddling  the r o o t s w i t h the" nursery  s o i l and p l a n t  dipping  w i t h a number o f commercial a n t i - t r a n s p i r a t i o n m i x t u r e s , such as A g r i c o l and C o l l a t e x (sodium and ammonium a l g i n a t e s r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , are examples.  Results  are once a g a i n  as v a r i e d as the s p e c i e s and  68  l o c a l i t i e s tested.  Rook (1970) found that A g r i c o l and Collatex  were toxic to radiata pine when the puddled seedlings were planted out into hot dry conditions. It i s not intended here to attempt a comprehensive review of a l l the various treatments, storage and transport methods etc. which have to be employed to protect the bare-root  seedling during the •  c r i t i c a l stage between l i f t i n g and outplanting.  S u f f i c e i t to say  that problems e x i s t , to greater and l e s s e r degrees, and that the s e n s i t i v i t y of seedlings to t h i s stage i n turn creates l o g i s t i c  and  administrative problems, often l i m i t s planting seasons and r e s u l t s i n reduced survivals i f due care and consideration are not taken i n the handling of the In New  seedlings.  Zealand the enumeration and enforcement of the correct  procedures i n the handling, packaging and transport stages i s considered a major research and administrative goal i n the development of the bare-root  planting technique f o r radiata pine.  In one  conservancy, Auckland, the correct a p p l i c a t i o n of long known (and l a r g e l y commonsense) procedures i n these stages of establishment resulted i n a reduction of blanking  has  (supplementary planting) from  307o to nothing, at a saving of some $10/acre (Chavasse, pers.comm.). The over-riding point, however, i s that, with the exception  of  a few recent techniques designed to precondition the tree i n the nursery bed to better withstand the transplanting stage,  the  requirements of care i n handling, transport etc. have long been known. We  have, however, shown a singular lack of a b i l i t y to put a l l t h i s  knowledge into p r a c t i c e .  The reasoas are various and involve such  69 f a c t o r s as the poor q u a l i t y of labour and/or s u p e r v i s i o n , r e l u c t a n c e to spend money on the r e q u i r e d t r a n s p o r t and  storage  facilities,  attempts to meet p l a n t i n g t a r g e t s , p o s s i b l y set f o r p o l i t i c a l f i n a n c i a l reasons without regard to  -v the requirements  or  of t r e e  h a n d l i n g necessary to ensure s u r v i v a l , and a host of o t h e r s . Rirkland  (1969) has t r a c e d the h i s t o r y of D o u g l a s - f i r e s t a b l i s h m e n t  a t Kaingaroa  F o r e s t i n New  Zealand and  found  t h a t the success of  these o p e r a t i o n s - and hence the q u a l i t y o f the stands present today v a r i e d d i s t i n c t l y from p e r i o d to p e r i o d . ( b e a u t i f u l l y hand-written!) without  C o n s u l t a t i o n of the o l d  compartment r e c o r d s shows c l e a r l y t h a t  e x c e p t i o n good r e s u l t s o c c u r r e d d u r i n g p e r i o d s when great  care was  taken w i t h s p e c i e s s i t i n g , e s t a b l i s h m e n t  v i g o r o u s f o l l o w - u p p r o t e c t i o n f o r the new We  techniques  stands.  are l i v i n g i n an age where the a p p l i c a t i o n of  techniques w i l l be i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t .  and  The  such  economic and  i n d u s t r i a l c o n d i t i o n s under which we w i l l have to work, even i n f o r e s t r y , may  not a l l o w enough care and a t t e n t i o n to i n d i v i d u a l  site,  shipments of s e e d l i n g s , p e r i o d s of p a r t i c u l a r weather c o n d i t i o n s and even to the i n d i v i d u a l t r e e i t s e l f a t the a c t u a l p l a n t i n g stage. A t the same time the f u t u r e economics ©f growing t r e e s w i l l not a l l o w us the expense of supplementary p l a n t i n g to reduce the e f f e c t s of uneven spacing and growth which r e s u l t s from poor e s t a b l i s h m e n t . to now  we  have f a i l e d t o a p p l y c o n s i s t e n t l y the necessary  Up  techniques  to ensure success i n the b a r e - r o o t p l a n t i n g method, d e s p i t e our l o n g knowledge of the requirements.  There i s no reason to suggest  that  without much e f f o r t , we w i l l improve i n t h i s r e s p e c t i n the f u t u r e .  70  Adaptability The growing  to  mechanization.  necessity f o r greater mechanization  enterprise  thesis.  The  i n the  similar  remains  Zealand  situation  today.  Walters  i n North America. the  agricultural  (basically  tree  machinery  nearly half  planting  seedlings  are  seedling.  machines to r e l y  the  i n the  lack  Varying  planting  machines,  the  they  of  introduction  a  which  vary  and  planter). bare-root  from  hinders  Bare-root seedling to the  f o r c e s the  on manual a s s i s t a n c e i n the  have  of modified  mechanized.  standardization greatly  of  current  placing  follow-up operations to  the bare-root  machine h a n d l i n g and then,  are  t o open the  been manually  the mechanization  seedlings i s a  planting.  Today's  somewhat o p t i m i s t i c a l l y furrow  of  the  improve  of planting.  o r h o l e and  further so-called  named.  More  reclose  this  inserted.  I n r e c e n t y e a r s much w o r k h a s on  identified  c o u n t r i e s attempts  only partially dimensions  establishment  machine.  serve  t r e e has  industrial  a modified broccoli  i n subsequent  succulence  to total  after  at best  heavily  handicap  correctly,  the  automated h a n d l i n g system  the  the  century of development, however,  f u r r o w and  j o b done by  of  (1969) has  In both  o p e r a t i o n by  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  development of an  tree  a  remains  Such a  one  the most p r e v a l e n t t r e e  b e e n made t o m e c h a n i z e  Despite  are  this  above.  Manual p l a n t i n g i n New  thejcellulose  a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d i n  demands o f m e c h a n i z a t i o n  c o n d i t i o n s mentioned  technique  f u t u r e has  of  been c a r r i e d  One  of  the  out  latest  i n the machines  U.S.S.R.  71 d e s c r i b e d by Kornienko of  (1970), although designed t o a l l e v i a t e some  the b i o l o g i c a l problems o f b a r e - r o o t p l a n t i n g by producing a s l i t  without compacted s i d e s and c o v e r i n g the r o o t s w i t h l o o s e s o i l , has, however, a h i g h manual labour c o n t e n t .  still  The s i n g l e row machine  r e q u i r e s a team o f f o u r - d r i v e r , two p l a n t e r s and an a s s i s t a n t t o s t r a i g h t e n t r e e s where necessary. The-^Russians a r e a l s o attempting t o overcome some o f the problems i n v o l v e d i n the automatic h a n d l i n g o f non-uniform  trees.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , Usanov (1969) i n d i s c u s s i n g some o f the many problems i n v o l v e d , noted t h a t o f the f i v e e x p e r i m e n t a l types o f h a n d l i n g system  so f a r developed, none was then ready f o r commercial The  lifting of  application.  s e n s i t i v i t y o f b a r e - r o o t s e e d l i n g s t o damage between  and p l a n t i n g i s a f u r t h e r b a r r i e r t o t o t a l  mechanization  the p l a n t i n g o p e r a t i o n . The accommodation necessary t o p r o t e c t the c r i t i c a l  requirements o f s e e d l i n g p h y s i o l o g y a t a l l stages of i t s t r a n s f e r from n u r s e r y t o p l a n t i n g s i t e ,  suggests  system o f f o r e s t t r e e e s t a b l i s h m e n t .  a need, t o develop a new  The new system  should be more  adaptable t o t o t a l mechanization without s a c r i f i c i n g the advantages of  s p a c i n g c o n t r o l , and should y i e l d improved  at  lower  and c o n s i s t e n t  survival  cost.  Root d i s t o r t i o n . There i s now some evidence t h a t r o o t d i s t o r t i o n a t the time o f p l a n t i n g can c o n t r i b u t e c o n s i d e r a b l y t o lower s u r v i v a l and slower initial  growth ( E r t f e l d , ,  1968; Chavasse and Weston, 1969).  Stem form  72 can a l s o be a d v e r s e l y  a f f e c t e d and,  stands when exposed to wind has  i n New  Zealand, t o p p l i n g of young  been r e l a t e d to ' J ' shaped, or  "hockey s t i c k " r o o t s caused by poor p l a n t i n g technique  (Chavasse  and Balneaves, 1969). T h i s problem i s o f i n c r e a s i n g importance i n New  Zealand  more s o p h i s t i c a t e d management techniques are developed. been found to be more widespread than was including a considerable  incidence  formerly  (from 6 x6' !  toppled  or b u t t  on the pumice country.  Ertfeid  p l a n t i n g ) f o r pruning due swept stems (N.Z.  forms and  height  from seed on the  same s i t e s .  of r o o t d i s t o r t i o n to The  best r o o t and  Many young r a d i a t a pine  ( n a t u r a l ) has  one  be  stem grown  i n New  Zealand  the whole  (but  good t a p r o o t s and  d i s t r i b u t e d l a t e r a l s , w h i l e n e a r l y a l l the p l a n t e d  of  1970).  i t has been found t h a t , "On  invariably) regeneration  At  stems per  growth were found i n S c o t s pine which had  have been excavated and not  auger p l a n t i n g .  also  t o the h i g h p r o p o r t i o n  Forest Service,  (1968) found the i n c i d e n c e  h i g h i n both machine and  I t has  thought,  f o r e s t , Rotoehu, i t i s b a r e l y p o s s i b l e to s e l e c t 250 acre  as  well  t r e e s have  g r o s s l y d i s t o r t e d r o o t systems." (Chavasse, pers.comm.). The  problem i s a d i f f i c u l t  one  o p e r a t i o n a l r e s u l t s i n the f i e l d may  to i n v e s t i g a t e . o f t e n be due  to  Poor . insufficient  or poor q u a l i t y s u p e r v i s i o n the adverse e f f e c t s of which are to p i n p o i n t both t e c h n i c a l l y and  politically.  Research  difficult  plantings  t o t e s t the d i f f e r e n t t o o l s and methods used o p e r a t i o n a l l y tend to y i e l d i n c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s , perhaps because care and t o such p l a n t i n g s i s u n l i k e l y to be  a t t e n t i o n paid  s i m i l a r to t h a t r e c e i v e d by  trees  73 planted  i n normal I n New  operations.  Zealand  manual p l a n t i n g on measures better by  increase  type  of  planting  as  t o be  an  the  the  attempts  Equal  planting.  to escape  The care  base  the  quantity.  The  rate  i s required  of  labour  at  is  generally  s e e n many  only  is  requires an is  and  result  scheme, and  are  hence  expensive  actual planting  a l l stages  the  unsuccessful  trees  the  for  tree  supervision  incentive  planted  on  longer  a  quality  i f the  i s placed  such  attract  i t s maintenance  must take  a u t h o r has  paragraph above d i s c u s s e s  that  planting  use  I f the  i n the  fact that w e l l  doubt  planting  in their  operation  individual tree  place  t o o l s a v a i l a b l e today  t i m e and  moment t h e  a demand f o r a h i g h e r  more e x p e n s i v e  takes  involving only  p l a n t i n g an  a l l the  to  certain extent,  Although  demand c a r e  Such care  i s no  Improvement of  i s doubtful.  stock  tendency  There  and,to a  job.  u n s k i l l e d job,  supervision  successful,  the  to  bare-root  basis  increasing  planting rates  abused.  incentive  i s an  incentive basis.  of worker  of  vigorous  in  an  t h i s method, however,  thought  not  there  from the  trees.  stage.  nursery  to  field.  Nurseries. The  production  establishment  of  large  temporary nurseries requirements  of  were discussed expensive  and  of  a at  bare-root  stock  permanent n u r s e r i e s .  has  now  been abandoned  good n u r s e r y length  generally  planting  by  soil  at  idea  i n New  Weston  distances  the  of  small  Zealand.  f o r r a d i a t a pine  Chavasse and  located  The  demands  are  (1969).  from  the  The  complex  and  Such land  afforestation  is  74 s i t e which c r e a t e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and s e e d l i n g acclimatization. ©rowth of 1-0 r a d i a t a pine  i s considered  t o remove more  n u t r i e n t s from the s o i l than any other  p l a n t crop i n New  ( W i l l , i n Chavasse and Weston, 1969).  The q u a n t i t i e s o f n u t r i e n t  removed from an acre 2001bs o f sulphate phosphate.  i n c l u d e the e q u i v a l e n t  Zealand  of 501bs of dolomite,  o f ammonia, 751bs o f potash and 5 0 l b s o f super-  As u t i l i z a t i o n of n u t r i e n t s cannot be expected to be  much b e t t e r than 407 , a t l e a s t twice the above amounts w i l l be o  r e q u i r e d each year by a crop o f 1-0 r a d i a t a pine  (op.cit.).  The n e c e s s i t y f o r the use o f a l l the other chemicals r e q u i r e d i n the f o r e s t nursery  - soil  s t e r i l a n t s , f u n g i c i d e s and i n s e c t i c i d e s -  leads to considerable  expense.  Cost o f stock i s a s i g n i f i c a n t  p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l c o s t o f r e f o r e s t a t i o n . (2-2)  spruce i n O n t a r i o  can c o s t as much as 4.6<: per t r e e (Page, 1971)  a l t h o u g h c o s t of 1-0 r a d i a t a pine 1.5c  per tree.  bare-root  Four years o l d  i n New Zealand i s g e n e r a l l y  arouncl  -'Perhaps more s i g n i f i c a n t i n the argument a g a i n s t  stock i s the care r e q u i r e d  i n the h a n d l i n g  and p l a n t i n g  procedures necessary t o ensure s u c c e s s f u l establishment  of bare-root  stock. I t may be p e r t i n e n t to note here t h a t the l a r g e s c a l e use o f chemicals so necessary i n the modern b a r e - r o o t  nursery  i s potentially  l i a b l e t o the a t t a c k s o f the i n c r e a s i n g l y e c o l o g i c a l l y aware p u b l i c . The land area r e q u i r e d f o r the growing of b a r e - r o o t  p l a n t i n g stock i s  s m a l l compared w i t h the s i z e o f the e s t a b l i s h e d p l a n t a t i o n .  The  average s e e d l i n g d e n s i t y quoted i n the symposium e d i t e d by Chavasse  75 and Weston (1969) was approximately 200,000 per acre of gross nursery area.  Thus one acre of nursery supplies s u f f i c i e n t 1-0  trees to plant 400 acres at 6 ' x l 2 . T  Any e c o l o g i c a l problems  associated with chemical use i n forest nurseries i s l i k e l y to be on a small scale.  Nevertheless, the author i s s u f f i c i e n t l y  concerned  about the possible e f f e c t s of i n t e n s i v e l y managed nurseries to c i t e these potential problems as one argument i n favour of e f f o r t s to develop a tree establishment system that eliminates nurseries. Nursery research i s continuing to improve our knowledge of the requirements of our forest tree species i n the germination and seedling stages, but the nursery system i t s e l f remains unchanged. Both Walters (1969) and Kinghorn (1970) have noted how a new approach to the germination and growing of seedlings - i n these cases container planting - reduces requirements f o r a nursery. Smaller compact nurseries can be used which require no more than an adequate water supply.  A compact nursery permits the use of  r e l a t i v e l y expensive f a c i l i t i e s  such as greenhouses,  suitable climate from the l i s t of nursery s i t e  removing  requirements.  Summary. The present major system of establishing radiata pine i n New Zealand - bare-root planting - has c e r t a i n disadvantages.  Despite  recent developments i n the pre-conditioning of seedlings, considerable care i s required i n the l i f t i n g , packing, storage, transport and planting processes to prevent excess exposure of, and  76 physical damage to, the trees.  Care i s also required at the  ing stage to avoid distorted roots and  plant-  the possibly slower and  poorer quality growth and r i s k of toppling.  It i s unlikely that  these requirements w i l l be compatible with the economic and i n d u s t r i a l conditions the future.  under which forestry w i l l be practised i n  In p a r t i c u l a r , bare-root planting, because of tb®  s e n s i t i v i t y and v a r i a t i o n i n size and  succulence of the individual  trees, i s the system least accommodating to t o t a l mechanization of r e f o r e s t a t i o n .  An alternative to bare-root planting. General description and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . Although somewhat similar ideas are i n fact being tested today (eg, Anon, b, 1969;  J.Walters, pers. comm.) no system that  possesses a l l the features be made here to describe involved  enumerated below e x i s t s .  No attempt w i l l  exactly the components and processes  i n such a system.  I t w i l l remain a concept, the p r a c t i c a l  f e a s i b i l i t y of which w i l l be argued. Specifications for such a system are as  follows:-  - A system of r e f o r e s t a t i o n (or afforestation) i s envisaged that would involve the placement, at a precise spacing, of a containerized seed. (See F i g . 1) The naturally high germination potential of radiata pine, coupled with seed sorting and/or pretreatment, w i l l ensure almost 1007o germination and f a s t i n i t i a l growth. - The l a t t e r w i l l be assisted by the provision within the container of a l l the requirements of the seedling u n t i l the stage i n i t s development i s reached when i t s requirements  77  can be met by the planting s i t e . Thus the container should furnish a suitable germination and growing medium, nutrient and water supply and protection from insect, fungal and animal pests and c l i m a t i c extremes, at least to the point where the seedling i s no more dependent upon, or susceptiblp to, these agencies than a conventional bare-root seedling. - Having performed the above functions, the container w i l l ':u be such that i t w i l l i n no way r e s t r i c t the further development of the tree. - The t o t a l cost of manufacturing and loading the container, i t s transportation and planting, plus the cost of any special provisions necessary f o r the successful e s t a b l i s h ment of the seedling, s h a l l be considerably l e s s than the present system of planting nursery grown, bare-root stock. In p a r t i c u l a r , the system w i l l be suited to t o t a l mechani z a t i o n . A l l stages of handling w i l l be dealing with an object of uniform shape and size without the s e n s i t i v i t y to mechanical handling and exposure exhibited by bare-root seedlings. Figures 2 and 3 show a potential mechanized planting device suited to the proposed system. The f e a s i b i l i t y of the system i s now  discussed under a number  of headings. Germination. The natural v i a b i l i t y of radiata pine seed i s high. Scott noted that New  In  1960  Zealand nurseries were obtaining around 9,000  plants per pound of seed (average 15,000 seeds per pound), this gives a plant percent improved considerably  of approximately 60.  The  s i t u a t i o n has  since then (Chavasse and Weston, 1969).  of the losses can be attributed to seed predators  Many  (birds and mice)  and there seems to be some doubt as to the continuing e f f i c i e n c y of some of the t r a d i t i o n a l chemical seed coatings used i n the such as 'Arasan  1  nursery  and red lead ( o p . c i t . ) .  Radiata pine seed does not exhibit any natural dormancy and hence many of the pretreatments which are necessary to obtain  78 figure  I. Possible design of container for seeding ( a c t u a l siz.e).  uoaaac o D D oc r  planting lug. g e r m i n a t i o n and r o o t i n g medium - e.g. p e a t a n d vermiculite mixture plus f e r t i l i s e r  w a t e r r e s e r v o i r s - e.g.' f i n e l y perforated p l a s t i c spheres  D D D D t  container  reticulated extension t u b e - p o s s i b l e means o f p r o t e c t i n g seed and germinant from p r e d a t o r s and e x c e s s i n s o l a t i o n .  • seed  Figure  79  2. P o s s i b l e m a c h i n e f o r b e t t i n g o f c o n t a i n e r s . S k e t c h o f p r i n c i p l e o n l y ; not a w o r k i n g drawing. S c a l e }^ n a t u r a l s i z e , direction of t r a v e l  exterior casing  rotating wheel, speed synchronised with land speed of tractor  central magazine o f containers  hinged  arm  lamp  levelling wheel  container b o u t t o be set i n ground  ground  surface/  Figure  t>* S e r i e s d i a g r a m 10 show a c t i o n o f p o s s i b l e s e e d c o n t a i n e r s e t t i n g macnine. Scale - approximately */I0 natural s i z e , ( x ) i n d i c a t e s t h e same p o i n t o n e a c h d i a g r a m a . t o H o r i z o n t a l s c a l e a t ground s u r f a c e i s d i s t o r t e d , t h u s p o s i t i o n o f ( x ) may n o t be a c c u r a t e . - d i r e c t i o n of r e v o l u t i o n of p l a n t i n g wheel.  >  - d i r e c t i o n of t r a v e l of p r i m e mover.  80  81 s a t i s f a c t o r y germination percentages with some other forest species are not required.  There i s some evidence that pretreatments  such  as cold water soaking or treatment with " E t h r e l " can increase germinative energy  (N.Z. Forest Service, 1970; Chavasse and Weston,  1969). Working with seed from A u s t r a l i a ' s oldest seed orchard, Brown (1971^ found that the orchard seed had higher germinative energy than three forest collected samples. beginning of the test,  Ten days a f t e r the  817, of the orchard seed sample had germin-  ated while the mean f o r the three other samples was 52%. A f t e r 28 days, 87% of the orchard seed had germinated compared with 72%. f o r the forest collected seed.  A t t h i s time also 6%. of the orchard  seed was found to be sound and ungerminated thus indicating a 93%, v i a b i l i t y or p o t e n t i a l germination. Seed predation rather than poor germination has been the major problem i n the nursery r a i s i n g of radiata pine to date. l i t t l e work has therefore been done on pretreatment.  Very  The l i t e r a t u r e  on seed pretreatment of other species i s extensive including various chemical treatments, sonic treatment (Lisenkov, 1964), V - r a d i a t i o n (El-Lakany and S z i k l a i , 1968)and others.  Further work on radiata  pine could reveal pretreatments that would increase s t i l l further the already very high germination percentages and germinative energy. Considerable work has been carried out with radiata pine i n i the e f f e c t s of seed sorting on germination.  The removal of empty  82,  seed by sorting i s the obvious f i r s t step and many methods of doing t h i s have been described for other species.  These include ethanol  f l o t a t i o n (Barnett 1970), X-ray techniques (Eden, 1965), hot-plate testing ( L l o d r i , 1964) and mechanical t r i e d with only l i m i t e d success i n New  sorters.  The l a s t have been  Zealand and wind tunnel  methods are currently under i n v e s t i g a t i o n (N.Z. Forest Service,;. 1970, a). Nursery t r i a l s have already shown that, "when seeds are sown at precise spacing and depth, the large seed gave an average increase or growth at nine months of three inches more than small seed" ( o p . c i t . ) . The importance  to planting stock quality of precise seed  density i n the nursery bed has been shown i n New  Zealand  (Chavasse  and Weston, 1969) and work i s i n progress to improve germination expectancy of radiata pine, primarily by seed sorting, to the point where p r e c i s i o n sowers can be used to lay seed at the optimum spacing i n i t i a l l y and allow the production of uniform seedlings which can be l i f t e d mechanically without the necessity of c u l l i n g . Confidence i n the potential of t h i s research indicates that the germination requirements of the proposed container seeding system can be met.  Improvements of seedling vigour through  pretreatment  and sorting are also of great p o t e n t i a l value to the proposed  system.  Early growth. Improvement of early growth through seed sorting has already been mentioned.  83  Much work on the f e r t i l i z e r requirements of radiata pine seedlings has been done (Will i n Chavasse and Weston, 1969). additional work should be capable of quickly determining  Some  the ideal  mixture to promote maximum growth of a containerized seed.  Many  rooting media are now available (e.g. vermiculite/peat mixture) and the ideal medium f o r germination and early growth of radiata pine would need to be found. Recent work i s showing that the early growth of many tree species can be altered s i g n i f i c a n t l y by manipulation  of such  environmental factors as temperature, l i g h t and carbon dioxide concentration (e.g. Tinus, 1971).  The degree to which such modi-  '  f i c a t i o n s can be made i n a f i e l d planted container are obviously limited.  In the past, container systems have been limited to  supplying a p h y s i c a l l y optimum rooting medium and the required nutrients.  An adequate water supply i s of great importance to the  survival and rate of early growth of seedlings and the provision of a water r e s e r v o i r within the container would have many advantages as well as possibly allowing an extension of the season i n which the containers could be set.  The idea i s already receiving study  at University of B r i t i s h Columbia's Research Forest (Walters, pers. comm.). Small, f i n e l y perforated p l a s t i c spheres, f i l l e d by compression i n a water bath, and s t r a t e g i c a l l y placed within the rooting medium would allow f a i r l y long term storage of the water with a minimum of evaporative  loss.  84  Supply of water at the germination stage may provide some a d d i t i o n a l problems but careful arrangement of the rooting medium materials and precise planting of the seed within the container, coupled with pretreatment and sorting to ensure rapid germination, should allow the required conditions to be maintained f o r s u f f i c i e n t time. Having provided the conditions necessary for germination and early growth, plus protection from various agencies, i t i s important that the container does not r e s t r i c t growth of the seedling i n l a t e r stages.  C o n s t r i c t i o n of root growth, i n p a r t i c u l a r , has long  been a c r i t i c i s m l e v e l l e d at such container seedling systems as the Walters b u l l e t (Kinghorn, 1970; White and Schneider, 1971).  The  Walters system attempts to overcome t h i s problem by breaking the container at the time of planting by means of knives on the planting gun (Walters,1969).  Although e f f e c t i v e when the gun i s used, the  system does not allow destruction of the container i f planting i s done i n some other way such as from the a i r (Walters, 1971). A r i g i d and strong container i s considered necessary f o r the following reasons:(a) I t can be pushed or shot into the s o i l , removing the necessity to open a planting hole or s l i t and therefore simplifying the planting process. (b) I t w i l l provide better mechanical protection at least from small predators. (c) I t provides a vehicle f o r the seed and growing medium that i s ; s u i t e d to mechanical  handling.  85  P o t e n t i a l c o n t a i n e r m a t e r i a l s are now c h i e f l y from the p l a s t i c s i n d u s t r y .  The  becoming a v a i l a b l e  i n j e c t i o n moulding  technique, p o s s i b l e w i t h many p l a s t i c s , allows of complex c o n t a i n e r designs a t low  cost.  the mass  Some r e c e n t  production investigations  of the b i o d e g r a d a b i l i t y of a m a t e r i a l c a l l e d c a p r o l a c t o n e suggest that i t c o u l d be i d e a l f o r a c o n t a i n e r described  system such as  here (Dr. J . P o t t s , Union C a r b i d e Co.,  U.B.C. on 17th November, 1971). s t r e n g t h and  rigidity  The  lecture given  m a t e r i a l would g i v e the  p r o p e r t i e s r e q u i r e d of the c o n t a i n e r  would subsequently break down a l l o w i n g f r e e e g r e s s of the roots. exact  The  polyester  at  initial  but tree's  time taken t o biodegrade i s c o n t r o l l a b l e by v a r y i n g  formulation  of the  the  plastic.  Protection. A container seed and  seeding  system must provide  p r o t e c t i o n to  germinadt a t l e a s t to the p o i n t where i t i s no more v u l n e r -  able than a r e c e n t l y outplanted e a r l y stages the  seed and  nursery  grown s e e d l i n g .  s e e d l i n g w i l l be  problems which are a r e s u l t of c o n c e n t r a t i o n seedlings  Any  the  the  nursery  of a l a r g e number of  i n a small p l a c e , however, are u n l i k e l y to a f f e c t  c o n t a i n e r i z e d seed i n the The  During  s u b j e c t to some of  dangers to which i t would be exposed i n the nursery.  against  the  the  field.  success of p r o t e c t i o n measures f o r nursery  sown seed  such pests as i n s e c t s , b i r d s and mice ( g e n e r a l l y by means  of seed c o a t i n g s )  i s not o u t s t a n d i n g  (Chavasse and Weston,1969).  Mechanical p r o t e c t i o n within a closed container,  itself  protected  86 from  l a r g e r animals and b i r d s by t a s t e  should  provide  more e f f i c i e n t  pests  generally  r o o t i n g medium, b u t i t i s s t i l l  from  some f u n g a l  rooting  presents  soil  isolation  fungi  seedling  It  fungal  then,  that  seeding  comm.).  be a t t a c k e d would  arise  of the  i s possible  of the fungicide  be r e a c h e d where any l e s s  There  The r e l a t i o n s h i p s have been  or a r t i f i c i a l l y  i s a chance,  by a r e i n v a d i n g  of fungal  fungus  cases  therefore, which,  a containerized  with  o f any  Zealand  applied  seed  inoculate the  species  (some o f w h i c h  the seedling)  which  would  pathogen. that  d o o c c u r among y o u n g g e r m i n a n t s  system.  Treatment  i s to artificially  a population  p r o t e c t i o n would  may  be h a r m l e s s .  attack  i s w e l l k n o w n i n New  natural  steril-  b e c o m i n g p a t h o g e n i c when p r e s e n t i n  prevent the invasion  damping-off  could  p o s s i b l e aaethod o f p r o t e c t i n g  from  problems  the container.  •ntjrcorrhizal a s s o c i a t i o n s  effectively  from  re-invade  fungi  could  r o o t i n g medium w i t h form  that  a n d p l a n t s a r e ^complex, b u t t h e r e  conditions,  second  likely  The e f f e c t i v e n e s s  and a point  ( v a n d e r Kamp, p e r s .  the seedling  A  could  harmless  under normal  may  t h e use o f  'Arasan' and t h e  to prevent re-invasion  p o t e n t i a l problems.  fungi  normally  and  as r e d lead  such as damping-off.  a fungicide  wear o f f g r a d u a l l y  between  that  diseases  medium w i t h  susceptible  of  avoid  c a n be a v o i d e d by t h e use o f a  ized  would  fig.l)  insecticides. Soil  but  (see  p r o t e c t i o n and a l s o  such noxious and troublesome m a t e r i a l s various  or smell,  seed.  have t o be g i v e n  fungus  diseases  such as  i n the f i e l d  arising  I t i s almost  certain  t o any  centainer  87  w  Protection required.  I n the nursery  irrigation, etc..  movable  through  the  i s also likely  i s provided  screens,  supplies  cold  this time  water  capable  however,  growing  weeks.  stage,  soil  s u p p l i e s from  Longer  pots  Weed  periods  control where-  moisture.  By  outside the  e s t a b l i s h e d t o be  short duration droughts,  measured  of drought during the  s e a s o n a r e n o t common i n New Z e a l a n d  germination  smudge  within the container to  be s u f f i c i e n t l y  of withstanding at least  days r a t h e r than  measures as  sprays,  i n conserving  i s drawing  i tshould  t o be  o r p r e f e r a b l y by c u l t i v a t i o n  i s possible, also help the seedling  by such  has a l r e a d y been mentioned.  the use o f chemicals,  container,  in  shade  this  extremes  The p r o v i s i o n o f w a t e r r e s e r v o i r s  ensure adequate  ever  from c l i m a t i c  and once over  t h e s e e d l i n g w o u l d be r e l a t i v e l y  safe  the .  from  dessication. Sun at  present  partial  i s a problem  i n New Z e a l a n d .  shade  stages. bullet  scorch  Container  i s already being  extension  design  tube  a l s o doubles  Forest  of radiata  should be such  purpose  (Walters,  pine  that  the earliest  (see f i g . l )  tested f o rthis  Columbia's Research  Such a device  germinants  i s supplied to the seedling during  A reticulated  of B r i t i s h  to field  on t h e t o p o f a  at the University pers.comm.).  as p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t b i r d s and small  animals. It  should  does not bear design.  be noted  a linear  here  that the cost  relationship  The i n j e c t i o n m o u l d i n g  with  technique  of a plastic  the complexity will  container  of i t s  a l l o w t h e cheap and  88 r a p i d p r o d u c t i o n o f the most complicated  shape, once the o r i g i n a l  mould has been made. F r o s t has l i m i t e d the use o f seeding techniques  f o r the  r e f o r e s t a t i o n o f r a d i a t a p i n e i n the p a s t (Page,1970).  Limitations  can be expected &n the. use o f c o n t a i n e r i z e d seeding f o r the same reasons, but;these  can be v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l y  reduced.  C o n t a i n e r seeding, w i t h i t s g r e a t e r degree o f p r o t e c t i o n from animal p r e d a t o r s , sun s c o r c h and d e s s i c a t i o n , and p r o v i s i o n of optimum growing c o n d i t i o n s g e n e r a l l y i n the e a r l y stages o f a s e e d l i n g ' s l i f e , may a l l o w the s e e d l i n g s t o reach a g r e a t e r s i z e by the end o f the f i r s t growing season compared w i t h n a t u r a l o r broadcast  seed.  This hypothesis  the f i e l d , but i f proven,  still  r e q u i r e s t o be t e s t e d i n  the l a r g e r , b e t t e r e s t a b l i s h e d s e e d l i n g s  w i t h t h e i r g r e a t e r degree o f woody stem development, should be capable o f b e t t e r w i t h s t a n d i n g any damaging, e a r l y autumn f r o s t s . There a r e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y removal o f l o g g i n g d e b r i s and c u l t i v a t i o n o f the m i n e r a l reduces  the e f f e c t o f f r o s t s (Page, 1970).  Reasons f o r t h i s a r e  somewhat obscure but a r e most l i k e l y a combination First;  soil,  o f two f a c t o r s .  the c u l t i v a t i o n a l l o w s b e t t e r r o o t i n g and f r e e s the s e e d l i n g  from v e g e t a t i v e c o m p e t i t i o n , thus c o n t r i b u t i n g t o a h e a l t h i e r , better established seedling.  Second, there i s some evidence  c u l t i v a t i o n can a c t u a l l y reduce f r o s t the r a d i a t i o n balance  o f the s i t e  ation, including s o i l cultivation,  that  i n t e n s i t y by i t s e f f e c t on  (op. c i t . ) . I n t e n s i v e s i t e i s being recognized  prepar-  increasingly  i n New Zealand as a worthwhile technique w i t h b a r e - r o o t p l a n t i n g  89  (Chavasse, 1969).  I t s probable n e c e s s i t y f o r r e f o r e s t a t i o n w i t h  c o n t a i n e r i z e d seed i s t h e r e f o r e u n l i k e l y to be an argument against  the The  system. danger of f r o s t damage i s l i k e l y to p r e c l u d e o n l y on a l i m i t e d range of s i t e s i n New  e r i z e d seeding I t may,  however, r e s t r i c t more s e r i o u s l y the  containers  can be  insufficient  set.  season may  The  great  system, however, f o r t o t a l mechanization and  w i l l a l l o w v e r y l a r g e programmes to be completed i n a short time, r e d u c i n g  the  leave  s e e d l i n g to become e s t a b l i s h e d  s u f f i c i e n t l y to be a b l e to r e s i s t f r o s t damage. i a l of the  Zealand.  season i n which the  S e t t i n g too l a t e i n the  time f o r the  contain-  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the  potent-  automation,  relatively  seasonal  l i m i t a t i o n s on s e t t i n g . F r o s t l i f t has been a constant ings i n N o r t h America. problems i n New  Zealand.  problem o f ^ c o n t a i n e r  plant-  There i s every r e a s o n to expect s i m i l a r Use  of a short l i f e  c o n t a i n e r and  the  more r a p i d growth of r a d i a t a pine compared w i t h most North American s p e c i e s - r e s u l t i n g i n a g r e a t e r r o o t spread i n the season  - may  first  prevent the problem o c c u r r i n g .  C o m p e t i t i o n from weed growth i s o f t e n quoted as an argument against Zealand.  seeding The  in  New  argument presupposes a f a s t e r growth r a t e on  p a r t of p l a n t e d life  methods o f e s t a b l i s h i n g r a d i a t a pine  t r e e s throughout the whole p e r i o d of the  U l a t weed growth i s a t h r e a t  i s based, ^Ln New  (up to 3 y e a r s ) .  the  plantation's  T h i s argument  Zealand, on some f i e l d evidence t h a t l a r g e r bare-  90 root stock grows f a s t e r a f t e r planting.  (In the argument between  seeding and planting the seed i s considered 'small tree'.)  to be the  ultimate  The larger trees are, however, more expensive to  transport and plant and survivals generally drop once height exceeds 15 inches (Chavasse and Weston, 1969). Smith and Walters (1965), working with Douglas-fir i n coastal B r i t i s h Columbia, found that the larger seedlings at the time of planting survived well and maintained their height advantage.  The e f f e c t has been maintained for at l e a s t f i v e more years  (Walters, 1970).  The o r i g i n a l height differences i n the  seedlings  were caused primarily by differences i n amount and kind of fertilizer. The  question of seedling q u a l i t y i s a confused  one.  Attempts were made to set s p e c i f i c a t i o n s for planting stock at a recent New  Zealand symposium (Chavasse and Weston, 1969)  l i t t l e success.  but with  Most judgements were based on a r b i t r a r y measures  such as 'good' colour, hardness, sturdiness etc.. work c a r r i e d out by the New  Some recent  Zealand Forest Research I n s t i t u t e  suggested that height increment a f t e r planting was more related to nursery bed density than to a seedling grade based on height:stem diameter r a t i o s (N.Z.  Forest Service, 1970).  research to be done on t h i s  There i s s t i l l much  question.  It should be remembered that a container seeding  system  would not subject a seedling tree to a d r a s t i c change i n growing medium and the consequent necessity to u t i l i z e time, energy and  91  n u t r i e n t r e s o u r c e s i n the i n i t i a t i o n o f new r o o t s . be the p o t e n t i a l danger o f stand i n s t a b i l i t y  Nor would  there  and poor form t h a t i s  thought t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h poor p l a n t i n g t e c h n i q u e s (N.Z. F o r e s t Service,  1970).  Ertfeld at  (1968) found t h a t the r o o t d i s t o r t i o n o f Scots pine  the time o f p l a n t i n g a f f e c t e d both stem form and growth r a t e .  Some r e c e n t New Zealand evidence has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d A seeding system which a l l o w s r o o t development  (p.72 ).  in s i t u and  thus reduces the chances o f d i s t o r t i o n as w e l l as removing the need t o develop new r o o t s a f t e r o u t p l a n t i n g , may a l l o w growth  rates  i n the seeded t r e e which w i l l c o u n t e r , t o some unknown degree, the h e i g h t advantage enjoyed by the b a r e - r o o t s e e d l i n g a t the time of planting. There i s no doubt as t o the s u p e r i o r i t y o f the p l a n t e d  tree  i n competing w i t h weed growth up t o about twelve i n c h e s i n h e i g h t . I f v e g e t a t i v e c o m p e t i t i o n was s t r o n g from the g e r m i n a t i o n stage on, any seeding system would  suffer.  A seeding system,  would demand weed c o n t r o l i n the f i r s t  therefore,  season.  Recent work i n New Zealand has shown t h a t many o f the common f o r e s t weeds, such as l u p i n (Lupinus arboreus L . ) , bracken f e r n ( P t e r i d i u m a q u i l i n u m L . ) , and gorse (Ulex europe'js L.) can be c o n t r o l l e d , i n the f i r s t  season a t l e a s t , by s o i l c u l t i v a t i o n ,  c a r e f u l l y timed t o ensure the d e s t r u c t i o n o f r o o t s and rhizomes (Chavasse, 1969).  Grass remains a problem but t r i a l s are under way  w i t h g e r m i n a t i o n i n h i b i t i n g c h e m i c a l s which show promise o f a  92 c a p a b i l i t y to hold grass regrowth f o r one or two seasons (N.Z. Forest Service, unpublished i n t e r n a l report). Intensified s i t e preparation* i n general, and s o i l c u l t i v ation i n p a r t i c u l a r , are being increasingly recognized as sound investment  i n New Zealand forestry i n combination with the current  bare-root planting techniques.  In frost-prone areas i t i s consid-  ered e s s e n t i a l (Page, 1971), and i t s potential i n reducing weed competition, f a c i l i t a t i n g the planting process and improving the degree and speed of attainment of a well-established vigorous plant, i s increasingly being recognized.  I t i s u n l i k e l y , therefore,  that the s i t e preparation demands of a container seeding system w i l l constitute any additional expense over that already j u s t i f i e d with bare-root planting. Weed control by mechanical covering i s a technique which has shown considerable success i n other parts of the world (eg. Reitz, 1970) but which has received l i t t l e formal testing i n New Zealand.  A temporary p l a s t i c s o i l covering around each container,  sprayed on by the same machine that performs the planting, i s but one  possibility.  Handling and planting. It has been argued that the postulated container seeding system could s a t i s f y the b i o l o g i c a l requirements  of tree establish-  ment at l e a s t as well, and perhaps better^ than a system based on bare-root planting.  I t has also been argued, e a r l i e r i n t h i s  thesis, that future production of wood f i b r e , cheap enough to  93  s u c c e s s f u l l y compete w i t h a l t e r n a t i v e m a t e r i a l s , w i l l depend on the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t o t a l mechanization i n t o the c e l l u l o s e enterprise. its  Perhaps  the g r e a t e s t advantage  growing  o f the system,  then, i s  p o t e n t i a l f o r t o t a l mechanization. W a l t e r s (1968) d e s c r i b e d a machine t h a t l o a d s s o i l and seed  into p l a s t i c bullets.  I n a l a t e r paper, the same author (1969 b) v  noted the problems t h a t are i n v o l v e d i n the p r e c i s i o n sowing o f s i n g l e seed i n t o c o n t a i n e r s . of  I r r e g u l a r i t y o f shape and dimension  the D o u g l a s - f i r seed a r e the main reasons f o r these d i f f i c u l t i e s .  R a d i a t a pine seed i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s v a r i a b l e than D o u g l a s - f i r and many o f the o t h e r North American  s p e c i e s and t h e r e i s l i t t l e  s e r i o u s doubt as t o the p o t e n t i a l o f t o t a l mechanization o f c o n t a i n e r l o a d i n g and seeding i n the case o f t h i s The  species.  uniform shape and s i z e , r e s i s t a n c e t o mechanical h a n d l i n g  and l a c k o f s e n s i t i v i t y t o environmental exposure  o f the seed  c o n t a i n e r compared t o b a r e - r o o t s t o c k , w i l l make the h a n d l i n g , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and s e t t i n g stages simple and easy to mechanize. At  the s e t t i n g stage i n p a r t i c u l a r the c o n t a i n e r concept has g r e a t  advantages. ground,  With a s u f f i c i e n t l y r i g i d  c o n t a i n e r and prepared  the c o n t a i n e r c o u l d e a s i l y be pushed ( o r shot) i n t o the  ground and there would be no n e c e s s i t y to make a p l a n t i n g s l i t o r h o l e and repack the s o i l around the p l a n t e d t r e e .  The e l i m i n a t i o n  of  these processes would g r e a t l y reduce the horse power requirement  of  the prime mover, much o f which i s c u r r e n t l y absorbed  i n dragging  a p l a n t i n g shoe, or e q u i v a l e n t , c o n t i n u o u s l y , o r i n t e r m i t t e n t l y ,  94  through the The  soil. u n i f o r m i t y of the c o n t a i n e r s would a l l o w f u l l y automated  m e t e r i n g and  f e e d i n g of the p l a n t e r , a p a r t of the  which i s p r o v i n g v e r y d i f f i c u l t to mechanize w i t h  operation bare-root  p l a n t i n g (see above). Mechanical t r e e p l a n t i n g or c o n t a i n e r c o n t r o l l e d spacing may selection. and  The  s e t t i n g at a r i g i d l y  not a l l o w the r e q u i r e d l e v e l o f m i c r o s i t e  c a p a c i t y to r e j e c t an u n s u i t a b l e p l a n t i n g  r e l o c a t e a t r e e or c o n t a i n e r elsewhere i s c o n s i d e r e d  site an  e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e of an automatic p l a n t e r i n some p a r t s of the w o r l d . The  microsite" v a r i a t i o n s found i n c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia or p a r t s  of Scandinavia  f o r example, demand t h i s s e l e c t i o n .  A l t h o u g h m i c r o s i t e d i f f e r e n c e s can s t i l l be New  significant in  Zealand, the problems are v e r y much l e s s than i n the areas  mentioned above. non-existent  B o u l d e r or r o c k outcrops and  stones are r a r e or  on the m a j o r i t y of s o i l s where e x o t i c f o r e s t r y i s  p r a c t i c e d i n New  Zealand.  S o i l c u l t i v a t i o n before  planting i s  p r a c t i c e d i n c r e a s i n g l y and p l a n t i n g areas assume more and more the appearance of ploughed  fields.  Stumps on cutover  l a n d remain a problem, a l t h o u g h i f a l i g n e d  i n rows, a c l e a r l a n e w i l l be a v a i l a b l e between them. c l e a r i n g i n the southeast  U n i t e d S t a t e s with angled  Cutover  shear  blades  which cut o f f stumps a t ground l e v e l , f o l l o w e d by bedding or mounding, removed the b a r r i e r of stumps and m e c h a n i c a l p l a n t i n g (Page, 1971  a).  other d e b r i s to  95  As New  Zealand e x o t i c f o r e s t management becomes more i n t e n -  s i v e and as t r e e u t i l i z a t i o n becomes c l o s e r and o p e r a t i o n s more mechanized, geometric  spacing i n c r e a s e s i n importance a t the  expense of m i c r o s i t e s e l e c t i o n .  Microsite variations, i f signif-  i c a n t , w i l l , where p o s s i b l e , be evened out by techniques.  site preparation  I f the v a r i a t i o n s cannot be removed, and  t r e e growth s u f f i c i e n t l y ,  they  affect  mechanized f o r e s t management w i l l  not be p r a c t i c e d on those areas to the same degree as  simply  elsewhere.  Mechanized p l a n t i n g of c o n t a i n e r s would be adaptable forms of prime movers, be they wheels, t r a c k s , l e g s or I t i s p e r t i n e n t to note here aircraft  craft  sown.  c e n t r e l i n e and one The  on an experimental  basis  M e t e r i n g and e j e c t i o n equipment f o r c l a y -  encased seed has been designed rows a t a time t o be  aircraft.  t h a t p r e c i s i o n sowing i n rows from  i s already a r e a l i t y , a l b e i t  (Mann and T a y l o r , 1969).  to a l l  One  and b u i l t and p l a n s c a l l f o r t h r e e machine w i l l be  set a t the a i r -  under each of the wings.  f e a s i b i l i t y o f a e r i a l p l a n t i n g o f c o n t a i n e r grown  s e e d l i n g s i s b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Research F o r e s t and elsewhere i n B.C.. were d e s c r i b e d by W a l t e r s s u c c e s s f u l l y p l a n t e d and  (1971  R e s u l t s to date  b) and although percentage  of t r e e s  s u r v i v a l r a t e s are s t i l l u n s a t i s f a c t o r y ,  v e r y h i g h p o t e n t i a l c o s t savings are seen i n the system.. Estimates have been made of 160,000 s e e d l i n g s b e i n g sown on 400 a c r e s i n one day by one a i r c r a f t a t an estimated c o s t o f $2.80 per acre  (Anon.,  1971K The  use of a i r c r a f t  as prime movers i n f o r e s t  operations  96 other  than  transport, reconnaissance  w i t h many p r o b l e m s . craft  Zealand  T a y l o r , 1969)  great  and  show t h e of  some o f  aerial  the  need  success  can  to rise f o r care  has  and  received very Despite  planting  and  tenance t of c o n t i n u i t y  planting this.  Such  America  limited  study  problems,  agricultural  Appendix  system  bare-root  the  New  very in  aviation  illustrate  for total  and  system That  attempt the  to  magni-  involved  as  mechanization the  cost of  quality  tend  to ensure there  1969  domestic  labour fall.  close to  is little  1007o  faith illustrated  demands and  the  increase i n An  expected  167  0  mainexotic  annual  52,000 a c r e s i s c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y an  an  National Forestry Planning  r e q u i r e s a net  indicate  i s  to  a p p l i e d , i s perhaps  growing  of exports  figures  in  however,  2 i s an  45,000 a c r e s p e r y e a r u n t i l 1985.  rate of  air-  to continue, particularly  increase i n value  of  fraught  of  cost r e d u c t i o n are  also to  of care being  satisfaction  yet  of c o n t a i n e r i z e d seed*  t a r g e t s s e t by  estate of  these  efficient  a l r e a d y been mentioned.  the  achieve  has  i t s availability  i n the  by  The  of a  only  required level  land  i n North  i n speed and  setting  the  forest  study  e n g i n e e r i n g p r o b l e m s t h a t w o u l d be  in  Model.  i s under  l a r g e and  suitability  advantage which  The  i s guidance  of a i r c r a f t  precision  The  continues  these  long been i n e x i s t e n c e .  potential  s p r a y i n g i s as  of  a,b).  of a i r c r a f t  where a  i n d u s t r y has  in  least  development work i s l i k e l y  Zealand  tude  and  ( e g . P a g e , 1969  potential  New  the  to t a r g e t areas, which  (Mann and  the  Not  and  new  to  failure  rate.  97 Cost To a  quote  concept  costs of a reforestation  i s , of course,  however, where generally  the bare-root  considered  biological  attempts  success  to estimate  the  container seeding  the  existing  themselves, The into  of the existing  concept  incompletely  detailed  5.  Cost ; Factor No.  major processes  i n some d e t a i l .  This  (although  these  system  t o equal then,  costs of  with  the latter  results  section  some o f t h e p o t e n t i a l  i n each  system a r e s p l i t ,  factors.  Each o f these  Deficiencies i n data  have  a n a l y s i s on a l l b u t the p l a n t i n g o p e r a t i o n  Common c o s t f a c t o r s o f c o n t a i n e r s e e d i n g bare-root planting.  Container  a new  an a b i l i t y  system.  but  costs of  are,  -:j.y-:.c'-i.v  known). i n Table i s then prevented itself.  and  C o s t conyDonents b y s y s t e m . seeding Bare-root planting  1. 2.  Seed c o s t s . Cost o f container f i l l i n g and seeding  3. 4. 5. 6.  Storage. Transport. Site preparation. Setting (complete mechanization). Weeding.  7.  than  and t o compare  technique  a n u m b e r o f common c o s t  discussed  Table  bare-root  other  1  conditions,  can produce  i n terms o f s u r v i v a l ,  advantages  objectively  i s still  U n d e r New Z e a l a n d  p l a n t i n g technique  acceptable  n e e d s t o show p o t e n t i a l the  impossible.  system which  Seed c o s t s . Capital cost of nursery land, buildings etc.. A l l nursery operations. S torage. Transport. Site preparation. P l a n t i n g (manual and machine) Weeding.  5,  98  1. Seed c o s t s .  Seed c o s t s per e s t a b l i s h e d t r e e are  to be s i m i l a r f o r each system. as i t becomes a v a i l a b l e .  Both systems w i l l use orchard  Recent work i n New  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between seed s i z e and importance of p r e c i s e i n i t i a l nursery bed,  likely  Zealand  seed  has demonstrated  s e e d l i n g v i g o u r and  the  spacing of germinants w i t h i n the  to o b t a i n optimum and even s e e d l i n g growth (Chavasse  and Weston, 1969).  T o t a l l y mechanized l i f t i n g ,  p l a n t i n g w i l l demand an almost  b u n d l i n g and  complete absence o f c u l l s and  b a r e - r o o t s e e d l i n g system w i l l r e q u i r e the same extremely  outthe  high  g e r m i n a t i o n percent as the c o n t a i n e r seeding. It i s l i k e l y ,  i n f a c t , t h a t the h i g h l y mechanized b a r e - r o o t  nursery w i l l demand even high@r standards and e a r l y growth, due  of evenness of  germination  to the need f o r p r e c i s e t i m i n g of the v a r i o u s  operations.  2.  C o n t a i n e r and nursery c o s t s .  no s a t i s f a c t o r y account  To the author's  of nursery c o s t s e x i s t s i n New  knowledge^  Zealand.  P a r t i c u l a r l y , the h i g h c a p i t a l c o s t s of nursery l a n d , b u i l d i n g s e t c . has not been taken i n t o account  i n c a l c u l a t i o n s of s e e d l i n g c o s t s .  The most r e c e n t f i g u r e s a v a i l a b l e are from the nursery a t F o r e s t i n the North One  Kaingaroa  I s l a n d which grows 10 m i l l i o n t r e e s per year.  year o l d r a d i a t a pine s e e d l i n g s from here were c o s t e d at$NZ12  per thousand or 1.2<: per t r e e (N.Z.  F o r e s t S e r v i c e , 1970  D e t a i l s o f the c o s t o f buying and scanty and no c o s t s are a v a i l a b l e f o r New  b).  loading containers i s Zealand.  The b e s t  inform-  a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n d i c a t e s the p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s  99 of b u l l e t s , Ontario  tubes and b a r e - r o o t  Bullets -2.00<: P O n t a r i o tubes -1.00c " Bare-root -1.35c "  e r  u  The  container  Douglas-fir  seedling " "  (2-0) t o be:-  (approx.) " 11  system c o s t s here presumably i n c l u d e the t-..  a c t u a l growing o f the s e e d l i n g as w e l l as the c o s t o f c o n t a i n e r plus  loading*: I t would appear then, t h a t the competitive  container  seeding  containers.  position of  w i l l depend much upon the c o s t o f the i n d i v i d u a l  I t should be p o s s i b l e t o pay up t o 1,0$ p e r c o n t a i n e r  to m a i n t a i n the c o s t o f loaded same l e v e l as b a r e - r o o t  containers  a t approximately the  p l a n t i n g s£ock.  There i s no doubt that once the r e l e v a n t machinery had been designed and manufactured, the l o a d i n g and seeding  o f the c o n t a i n e r s  would be a v e r y much f a s t e r , more compact and l e s s l a b o u r operation  than the growing o f b a r e - r o o t  seedlings.  intensive  The o p e r a t i o n  would be completely independent o f weather. I t i s o f t e n assumed t h a t p r o t e c t i o n o f young s e e d l i n g s  from  damaging agencies can be more cheaply and e f f i c i e n t l y provided i n the c o n f i n e d  environs  o f the n u r s e r y .  T h i s i s probably true as f a r  as p r o t e c t i o n from the l a r g e r browsing animals i s concerned ( i . e . the nursery  can be f e n c e d ) .  o f the c o n t a i n e r  p o s t u l a t e d e a r l i e r , can be r e a l i s e d ,  cease t o be the case. are  I f , however, the p r o t e c t i v e  functions  t h i s may  The crowded c o n d i t i o n s o f the nursery bed  themselves an encouragement t o the r a p i d spread o f c e r t a i n  diseases  and pests and f o r c e the a p p l i c a t i o n o f p r o t e c t i v e measures -  100  a l b e i t a t a cheap r a t e per s e e d l i n g - which may not be necessary to  the c o n t a i n e r seeding  system.  The c o n t i n u e d a p p l i c a t i o n o f i n t e n s i v e p l a n t r e a r i n g techniques t o the same a r e a o f ground may l e a d t o problems such as s o i l e x h a u s t i o n and th© b u i l d up o f s o i l chemical c o n t e n t s t o 1  phytotoxic l e v e l s .  A t b e s t , such s i t u a t i o n s w i l l demand the a p p l i c -  a t i o n o f f u r t h e r , c u r a t i v e treatments and hence a d d i t i o n a l expense. For  example, attempts  to f i n d treatments t h a t would guarantee 1007,  p r o t e c t i o n o f n u r s e r y s e e d l i n g s from the needle b l i g h t  Dothistroma  p i n i , r e s u l t e d i n a treatment which i n v o l v e d the a p p l i c a t i o n o f 21b a c t i v e copper per acre ( as a cuprous oxide suspension i n water) every two weeks.  No t o x i c i t y problems were found a f t e r one  season's treatment but the e f f e c t s o f such massive doses o f copper over s e v e r a l y e a r s i s unknown (N.Z. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , :?« 5  3.  Storage.  1969).  Storage i s l e s s l i k e l y t o be necessary w i t h  the c o n t a i n e r seeding system.  Very f a s t p r o d u c t i o n r a t e s a t the  l o a d i n g stage (eg. the l o a d i n g machine d e s c r i b e d by W a l t e r s , 1969 a, i s capable o f f i l l i n g 864 b u l l e t s p e r minute) w i l l a l l o w a c l o s e t i e i n o f the o p e r a t i o n w i t h f i e l d demands. n e c e s s a r y , the g r e a t e r independence  Should storage become  o f the c o n t a i n e r i z e d  seed  from environmental c o n d i t i o n s w i l l make t h i s p r o c e s s v e r y much s i m p l e r , and hence cheaper, than w i t h the more s e n s i t i v e b a r e - r o o t stock.  Long term storage should be p o s s i b l e i n a c o l d room and l e s s  volume would be r e q u i r e d per u n i t number o f c o n t a i n e r s than w i t h  101  the b a r e - r o o t  stock.  T h i s f a c t o r then i s l i k e l y to be  cheaper with c o n t a i n e r  4. T r a n s p o r t .  considerably  seeding.  The  s e n s i t i v i t y of b a r e - r o o t  stock to  exposure and h a n d l i n g n e c e s s i t a t e s s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n s d u r i n g transportation.  S p e c i a l packaging  r e q u i r e d to prevent  and  l o a d i n g procedures  excess d r y i n g and c r u s h i n g and  temperatures  must be c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d i n s i d e the t r a n s p o r t e r . vans are now  thought necessary  U n i t e d S t a t e s (Page, 1971) No  are  i n many p a r t s of the  Refrigerated southeastern  and have been mooted i n New  such problems e x i s t w i t h c o n t a i n e r i z e d seed.  Zealand. The  loaded  c o n t a i n e r s would be r e l a t i v e l y i n s e n s i t i v e to f l u c t u a t i o n s i n environmental  c o n d i t i o n s and  t h e i r more r o b u s t nature would a l l o w  the use of f u l l y automated l o a d i n g and  unloading  techniques.  Lower volume and weight per u n i t number, p l u s the absence of r e s t r i c t i o n s on packing d e n s i t y ( o f t e n necessary "heating of b a r e - r o o t  to prevent  any over-  s t o c k ) , would a l l o w more c o n t a i n e r s to be  c a r r i e d per u n i t volume o f t r a n s p o r t e r , than w i t h  bare-root  seedlings. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n then, w i t h the c o n t a i n e r seeding  5. S i t e P r e p a r a t i o n . two  should be v e r y much cheaper and  simpler  system.  S i t e p r e p a r a t i o n requirements  systems have a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d .  much c o s t d i f f e r e n t i a l between the two  of the  There i s u n l i k e l y to be  systems i n t h i s r e s p e c t i f  c u r r e n t trends towards more i n t e n s i v e s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r bareroot p l a n t i n g continue.  102  6. Setting or Planting.  I t i s i n the actual planting  operation that the greatest cost savings are l i k e l y to be r e a l i z e d with the container seeding  system.  Manual planting of container  seedlings i n North America i s claimed  to be possible at double  (Kinghorn,1970) or even t r i p l e (Walters,1969) the rate using bare-root  obtainable  stock.  It i s i n the s u i t a b i l i t y of the system to highly mechanized planting, however, that the greatest cost saving potential l i e s . The fact that the container can be-merely pushed into the ground obviates the need f o r a planting furrow and therefore reduces the horse-power requirement of the prime mover.  The smaller prime  movers required w i l l be cheaper to operate.  The planting method  possible with containers, and i t s a d a p t a b i l i t y to a mechanical feed system, should allow very much f a s t e r t r a v e l speeds than i s possible with tractor drawn bare-root  planting machines.  Speed  w i l l be l i m i t e d by t e r r a i n and tractor power and design,  rather  than the feed rate of the planting device.. An attempt has been made below to calculate a l i k e l y cost of mechanized planting of containerized seed.  The following  assumptions have been made: (a) Planting i s at 6  f  i n t e r v a l s with 12' between rows.  (b) Two setting machines, twelve feet apart, are mounted on or towed behind the prime mover. the containers from storage  Operation of these, and movement of  to the setting head, are e n i t r e l y  automatic and are powered by the hydraulic system of the prime  103 mover.  Possible  per hour has  designs have been i l l u s t r a t e d i n f i g . 2 .  been allowed as the h i r e r a t e  f o r the  $NZ10  container  setters; (c) The tractor  prime mover i s assumed to be a c l a s s V wheeled  (over 50hp., F.A.O. c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) .  of such t r a c t o r s are (ag. Timberjack 550  Many modern examples  capable of a maximum speed - 22.8  mph;  Franklin  around 20  170/XL - 15.4  mph.  mph;  manufacturer's s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . ) . I t i s assumed t h a t  the  c o n t a i n e r s e t t i n g machines and t r a c t o r ' s movement w i l l be power source.  power r e q u i r e d  to both d r i v e  overcome t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e  l e s s than h a l f that a v a i l a b l e  Speeds of 10 mph  to  sicope of t h i s t h e s i s and  author's a b i l i t y  The  may,  following  a t t h i s stage, o n l y be a p p l i e d  r o l l i n g country.  the  are,  Slope l i m i t a t i o n s to such  t r a v e l speeds are beyond both the to i n v e s t i g a t e .  the  from  over f l a t prepared ground  therefore,thought e n t i r e l y f e a s i b l e .  therefore,  the  the  calculations, to f l a t or  gently  I n c r e a s i n g slope would presumably r e q u i r e  of more powerful t r a c t o r s or an a l t e r n a t i v e  the  prime moving technique.  $NZ20 per hour i s allowed as  the h i r e r a t e  f o r the  prime  (d) Only one  i s required.  Current  (1970)  mover. driver/operator  t r a c t o r d r i v e r wage r a t e s  i n the New  $NZ1.10 per hour.  following  has  In the  been used to a l l o w $NZ0.90 per The  Zealand F o r e s t S e r v i c e c a l c u l a t i o n $NZ2.00 per  are hour  hour f o r l a b o u r overheads.  c o s t c a l c u l a t i o n then i s : -  use  104  i)  Planting rate:two row s e t t i n g a l l o w s  to be covered a t each pass. 4840 square yards per a c r e , 10 x 1760 x 8 4840 29  =  A t 6'xl2' spacing  an 8 yard  swath  W i t h 1760 yards per m i l e and the area covered w i l l be:a c r e s per hour "  605 c o n t a i n e r s  "  11  (approx.)  are s e t per a c r e .  Planting  r a t e can be a l t e r n a t i v e l y expressed a s : 605 x 29  ii)  = Cost:-  containers  per hour  17,545  C l a s s V t r a c t o r p l u s two p l a n t i n g machines a t a combined h o u r l y .fcire r a t e o f $NZ30  - $NZ $30.00  One d r i v e r / o p e r a t o r a t t o t a l c o s t ( i n c l . overheads) of$NZ2 per hour  - $NZ  2,00;  T o t a l p l a n t i n g c o s t per hour  - $NZ  32.00  i i i ) Cost per a c r e : -  iv)  32 29 Cost p e r t r e e : 32 17,545  - $NZ 1.10 p e r acre  - $NZ 0.0018 p e r t r e e  These c o s t s can be compared w i t h some d a t a t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e i n New Zealand on the c o s t o f b a r e - r o o t  planting.  105 At Kaingaroa State Forest the average cost of planting on cleared cutover (see Page 1971  c, for d e t a i l s of clearing) at  1,000  stems per acre, was $NZ11.03 per acre (N.Z. Forest Service, 1970 b . ) ) , This work was  carried out on an incentive basis (hourly rate plus  bonus payments depending on production) and the costs include d i r e c t labour only; overheads, transport, supervision, etc. are not included.  I f this figure i s increased by 807o to cover over-  heads and reduced by 30% to compensate for the closer spacing used, a more r e a l i s t i c '  figure, approximately $14 per acre, i s obtained  for comparison with the hypothetical cost above.  Mechanized  container planting, therefore, has a p o t e n t i a l of reducing manual planting costs by a factor of round about twelve. No costs of machine planting of bare-root published i n New  Zealand.  stock have been  Manktelow (1967) described  bare-root  planting with crank-axle Lowther planters i n the Tarawera Forest of the Tasman Pulp and Paper Company. i n t h i s work was  an Allis-Chalmers HD-11  The optimum system found t r a c t o r (110 hp.)  two Lowther machines set seven feet apart on the tow bar.  pulling Actual  planting costs were not mentioned i n the a r t i c l e (with widely v varying h i r e rates and accounting  systems they would have meant  l i t t l e anyway) but a planting rate of 10,000 trees per 8 hour day per machine was  quoted.  An approximate cost per tree, and then per  acre at a spacing of 6'xl2', has been calculated from these data.  106 i)  D a i l y cost:-  $NZ  HD-11 t r a c t o r a t $NZ20 p e r hour  160  TTwo Lowther p l a n t i n g machines a t $NZ^ each per hour  48  Labour - three men a t $2 each per hour ( i n c l u d i n g overheads) Total ii)  Cost per t r e e : Number o f t r e e s p l a n t e d Cost per t r e e  i i i ) Cost per acre a t 605 spa. 605  x 1.3c  =  - 20,000 - 256 20.000  1.3$  per tree,  (6'xl2'):-  $NZ7/.90  p e r acre  I t would appear then, t h a t the c o n t a i n e r has  48 256  (approx.)  seeding  concept  the p o t e n t i a l t o reduce machine p l a n t i n g c o s t s by a f a c t o r o f  approximately seven. The caution.  f i g u r e s quoted here should  high  considerable  They have been used merely as an e x e r c i s e t o i l l u s t r a t e  the p o t e n t i a l c o s t s a v i n g s , seeding,  be viewed w i t h  a t the p l a n t i n g stage,  of container  Estimates have been made t h a t d e l i b e r a t e l y e r r on the  s i d e f o r the new p o s t u l a t e d  c u r r e n t methods.  Despite  a p o t e n t i a l f o r reducing 7. Weeding.  this,  system and on the low s i d e f o r the c o n t a i n e r  seeding  system shows  p l a n t i n g c o s t s by around, 907 . o  The weeding requirements o f the two systems  have a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d . d i s c u s s i o n were c o r r e c t , there c o s t s between the two systems.  I f the assumptions made i n t h a t should be no d i f f e r e n c e i n weeding  107 I f t r e e s a r i s i n g from c o n t a i n e r seeding were unable to equal the growth of p l a n t e d b a r e - r o o t  s e e d l i n g s , p l a n t a t i o n s estab-  l i s h e d by c o n t a i n e r seeding would r e q u i r e a l o n g e r r o t a t i o n p e r i o d . I f a whole year were l o s t by seeding,the c o u l d be as much as 300 $NZ12.00 per a c r e . r o t a t i o n by one  c o s t o f stumpage  foregone  c u b i c f e e t times 4£ per c u b i c f o o t or  However, the c o s t of extending  year was  considered  i n 1969  a r a d i a t a pine  t o be o n l y $NZ4.00  per acre (F.R.I., S i l v i c u l t u r a l Economics U n i t , p e r s . comm.). S u p e r i o r growth of r a d i a t a pine b a r e - r o o t p l a n t i n g stock, compared w i t h c o n t a i n e r seeding  such as has been d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s  t h e s i s , has not been demonstrated i n New w i t h r e f o r e s t a t i o n ©f t h i s s p e c i e s has  Zealand.  Field  i n d i c a t e d to the  t h a t the p o s s i b i l i t y of b e t t e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t  experience author  of a p r o t e c t e d ,  c o n t a i n e r i z e d seed and p o s s i b l e improved growth of the  resulting  t r e e , even t o the p o i n t of e q u a l l i n g t h a t of p l a n t e d - b a r e - r o o t i s a t l e a s t worthy of f i e l d Although observed  i n one  testing.  as much as three f e e t of growth from seed has year, b a r e - r o o t n u r s e r y  inches t a l l when p l a n t e d .  been  stock i s g e n e r a l l y o n l y  15  E f f e c t s of p l a n t i n g on "check" and  subsequent h e i g h t growth must be sowing of c o n t a i n e r i z e d seed. o f s e l e c t i o n of seed and  trees,  s t u d i e d i n comparison with  Because of the v a r y i n g  direct  proportions  s i t e s , u n c o n t r o l l e d comparisons of  growth of p l a n t e d and n a t u r a l l y sown s e e d l i n g s can be  misleading.  S i m i l a r l y ^ c o n t r o l l e d s t u d i e s are needed to determine whether or not p o s s i b l y g r e a t e r m o r t a l i t y of c o n t a i n e r sown  seeds,  108  compared t o b a r e - r o o t formervsystem. seeding achieved  trees,  Again,  to equal,  the  would  author  or even exceed  with bare-root  planting,  i n c r e a s e the feels  the  survivals  cost  potential currently  i s worthy:of  of of  the container  being  consideration.  109  5. CONCLUSIONS.  The  introduction to t h i s thesis discussed  demands f o r c e l l u l o s e i n the f u t u r e .  probable world  Although e s t i m a t e s o f  q u a n t i t a t i v e demand v a r y a great d e a l , there  i s general  t h a t one d e f i n i t e trend  use o f r e c o n s t i t u t e d  i s towards a g r e a t e r  agreement  wood. W i t h technology d e v e l o p i n g a t an ever a c c e l e r a t i n g r a t e , the threat of substitute materials  becomes g r e a t e r .  The p r i c e d i f f e r -  e n t i a l between c e l l u l o s e and i t s c o m p e t i t o r s , i n many areas, i s narrowing r a p i d l y .  C e l l u l o s e , as a raw m a t e r i a l , has the d i s a d -  vantage o f b e i n g w i d e l y d i s p e r s e d ,  with consequentially  r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g , c o s t s o f growing and h a r v e s t i n g . to remain c o m p e t i t i v e , Intensive  h i g h , and  For c e l l u l o s e  these s p i r a l l i n g c o s t s must be c o n t r o l l e d .  management o f a d e c r e a s i n g  l a n d base and, p a r t i c -  u l a r l y , i n t e n s i v e mechanization, w i l l be r e q u i r e d  t o o b t a i n the  n e c e s s a r y l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f wood f i b r e a t a s u f f i c i e n t l y low cost. M e c h a n i z a t i o n i n the f o r e s t growing i n d u s t r y p r i m i t i v e compared t o many other e n t e r p r i s e s . p o s s i b l e t o enunciate some g e n e r a l  i s currently  Nevertheless, i t i s  principles of forest  mechanization. The  systems approach t o f o r e s t mechanization has been  somewhat overlooked i n the past and examples o f have a r i s e n .  sub-optimisation  Such mistakes a r e made when we attempt t o mechanize,  or d e v e l o p g e n e r a l l y ,  i n d i v i d u a l operations  i n isolation.  Hence  110  r e p l a n t i n g i s o n l y one o p e r a t i o n i n a t o t a l system o f r e f o r e s t a t i o n which can be thought  of as s t a r t i n g w i t h the l o g g i n g phase.  There  i s a danger o f c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the t r e e s i n s t e a d of the wood. M e c h a n i z a t i o n b r i n g s w i t h i t the n e c e s s i t y f o r new management methods.  F a i l u r e t o change the l a t t e r w i l l , a t b e s t ,  prevent the maximum b e n e f i t s b e i n g gained from the process.  work and  mechanization  M u l t i - s h i f t and team-working, p r o v i s i o n of adequate  maintenance and r e p a i r f a c i l i t i e s and c a r e f u l o p e r a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g are examples.  The machines w i l l b r i n g w i t h them a need f o r  d i f f e r e n t types of personnel a t the o p e r a t i v e , maintenance, v i s o r y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s .  super-  F a i l u r e t o o b t a i n or t r a i n  these people w i l l a g a i n compromise the p o t e n t i a l of the mechaniza t i o n process. The  i n t r o d u c t i o n of machines without  being a v a i l a b l e or without  the r e q u i r e d personnel  the r e q u i r e d s i t e and  minimum s i z e d working areas e t c . , c o u l d be v e r y I n c r e a s i n g mechanization  stand c o n d i t i o n s , expensive.  g e n e r a l l y means i n c r e a s i n g c a p i t a l  invest-  ment and the e f f i c i e n t use of t h a t c a p i t a l i s e s s e n t i a l . The  p o t e n t i a l s o c i a l problems o f over-mechanization  r e c o g n i z e d and f o r i t s own  avoided.  sake a l o n e .  Mechanization  should never be i n t r o d u c e d  I t i s o n l y r e c e n t l y t h a t we  n o t i c e the s o c i a l e f f e c t s of what T o f f l e r industrial  must be  have begun t o  (1970) c a l l s our  super-  revolution.  S i m i l a r l y a watch must be kept on the environmental o f our attempts  t o mechanize.  effects  A number of authors have noted t h a t  our a b i l i t y to d e s i g n and manufacture machines i s a l r e a d y ahead of  I l l  our  understanding  ultimately  control  Within producer exotic  i n New  small  total  increase  current  annual New  Australia  annual  of climate, soil  fibre  land resource i s  An estimate  here  m a n y r e s p e c t s New  places  (assuming  trade.  port  increased attention  Zealand's  exotic forest  environment  majority  of the e x o t i c estate  f o r future expansion  Management o f t h e s e large  i s concentrated primarily  call  large blocks  organizations, the largest  should  isolation.  e x c e l l e n t c o n d i t i o n s f o r i n t e n s i v e mechanization!;  Plans  very  Expanding markets i n  and s h i p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s  relative  blocks, consisting  a  Columbia.  provides  contiguous  New  a t 50% more t h a n t h e  and Japan, however, and t h e c o n t i n u e d ,  In  species  and l o n g i t u d e do n o t p l a c e h e r  to world  of this  and  the potential  of British  the effects  Zealand  exotic estate i s  c u t o f the whole  respect  o f New  this  effort)  latitude  as a  of the fastest  production potential  the provision of e f f i c i e n t  minimize  Although  standards, known.  some  i n establishment  Zealand's  favourably with  to  world  which  examined.  exotic forests  i fpresently l i t t l e  Zealand's great  were  growth r a t e s i n the world.  currently  potential  and t h e s u i t a b i l i t y  combination  Zealand's  processes  t o produce,  Zealand's  t o mechanization,  favourable  produces,  ability  f r a m e w o r k , New  o f c h e a p wood f i b r e ,  A  large,  the land's  this  forestry  conifer  of the underlying b i o l o g i c a l  into very  o f even-aged  of which  The  large  monocultures.  f o r a continuation of this i s vested  p-  trend.  w i t h a s m a l l number o f i s the State  itself.  112  Markets, are  few  and and  On A  minus  though as  available  this  and  the  are  raw  material  forms.required,  yet  there are  the  considerable terrain  i n c o m p l e t e l y known, percentage i s i n land currently  highest  unknown but  site  parts of index  i n steep  country  world,  for radiata  i t i s probably  of  considered  the  the too  pine.  The  steep  much o f  the  need  prime moving techniques  this  (Reasons  associated with  pumice.)  problems.  climate  for  a  i s urgent  in  Zealand. New  Zealand  i s generally considered  an  encouragement to mechanization.  is  g r e a t e s t , however,  personnel. essential  The  socialist  the  training country  and  Zealand  has  The  skilled  a  sector i n which  and  trained  retraining  policy  unemployment, e v e n on w o u l d be today  an  environmental  industry  always compatible  will  and  ensure  there  is little  this  -  deficit  problem  and  education, New  Zealand  local  level,  is a produced  intolerable.  countries.  g e n e r a l l y ) i s not  are  a  country  management,  this  programmes.  e n v y o f many more a d v a n c e d  values  labour hungry  government r e c o g n i z e s current labour  and  over-mechanization New  i s the  present  parts of  vocational  by  of  water r e t e n t i o n properties of  breakthrough New  range  U n l i k e many o t h e r  l a n d has  for  side,  land resource  tractors.  steep  the  large.  the  large,  for  consequently  doubt  Mechanization  t h a t an  t h a t economic development  quality  with  that i s (and  some  increasingly  i s not  bought a t  the  the forest  environmental aware p u b l i c the  price  113  t h a t has  sometimes been p a i d  In  summary, i t w o u l d  o f a number o f position  and  potential  appear  problems p r i m a r i l y  e n v i r o n m e n t , New  only limited  by,  absolute  products  i s likely  be  the w o r l d prepared  The  fast  to  that, with concerned  Zealand's  although  comparison to, her  will  elsewhere.  size,  hardiness a  earlier  i n this  the  forestry. tages  of  As  century,  i t was  adopted  led to  establishment logical  f o r the  tree  The  m u s t be  majority of completely  planted  to another.  process  and  the  m u s t be  damage and  techniques  and  Planted incidence  some o f at  the  a price  a  in  forest the  supply  pine  world  of manual  Zealand  i n New  bare-root  and  trees at regular bare-root of  the  -second  concerned  removed from  regenerated the  m u s t be  at  tree  one  with  advan-  spacing should  rotation. in  the  fact  that  r o o t i n g medium and  roots are  the  the  exotic  the  system  some i n h e r e n t d i s a d v a n t a g e s are  labour  system  of  A c t i v e , growing  careful  seedlings  of  t h a t the  these  t r a n s p l a n t i n g process  physical  large  establishment  establishment  There a r e , however, system.  very  of radiata  good  major a f f o r e s t a t i o n  artificial  be  i n d u s t r y has  r e f o r e s t a t i o n methods began t o e v o l v e  became c l e a r , again  supply  geographic**'  pay.  g r o w t h and  the  forest  t o r e q u i r e and  w i t h a m i l d c l i m a t e and  as  w i t h her  relatively  to  coupled  planting  careful consideration  new  destroyed  growing  in  site.  p r o t e c t e d by  special  transthe  During  i s vulnerable to exposure  and  packaging  handling.  t r e e s have been found  of root deformation  t o have a v e r y much  higher  ( w i t h i t s accompanying e f f e c t s  the  on  114  stem growth and q u a l i t y and stand s t a b i l i t y ) than t r e e s which have grown, i n s i t u , from seed.. The  l a c k o f u n i f o r m i t y i n s i z e and shape o f the t r a n s p l a n t s  and t h e i r s e n s i t i v i t y to mechanical  h a n d l i n g and exposure c r e a t e s  problems i n attempts to mechanize the f o r e s t e s t a b l i s h m e n t  process.  T a k i n g advantage o f the v e r y h i g h n a t u r a l v i a b i l i t y o f r a d i a t a pine seed  (which can be f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d by seed  sorting  and pretreatment)  a t h e o r e t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e system f o r r a d i a t a  p i n e e s t a b l i s h m e n t has been proposed. The  system envisages a cheap mass produced c o n t a i n e r i n t o  which i s loaded a g e n e t i c a l l y s u p e r i o r ( i . e . seed orchard grown) seed p l u s a l l the requirements growth.  f o r f a s t gerrninati/orr and  early  These would i n c l u d e a s u i t a b l e growing medium, water  supply and n u t r i e n t s .  The c o n t a i n e r would p r o v i d e p r o t e c t i o n from  b i r d s and s m a l l rodents and excess  insolation.  The seed and  s e e d l i n g would be f u r t h e r p r o t e c t e d by added i n s e c t i c i d e s _ and.an artificially  i n o c u l a t e d fungus p o p u l a t i o n  i n v a s i o n o f pathogenic and  species.  which w i l l prevent the  The c o n t a i n e r , although  f i r m when s e t out, would be biodegradable  r o o t egress.  S u i t a b l e biodegradable  rigid  to allow u n r e s t r i c t e d  p l a s t i c s a r e j u s t now  becoming a v a i l a b l e . Assuming the b i o l o g i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y o f the system, many p o i n t s o f which are a l r e a d y demonstrable, i t presents a number o f d i s t i n c t advantages over the b a r e - r o o t system.  A l l phases o f the  e s t a b l i s h m e n t o p e r a t i o n from l o a d i n g t o o u t p l a n t i n g are much more  115  adaptable uniform and  to  total  shape and  exposure A  of  size  capital  continuous  b e d s , w o u l d be  eliminating  growing also  the  t r e e can  lead  of  be  stable of  Zealand.  It is unlikely  have any  g r e a t e r demands  still  a  the  method's use.  such at  as  a  handling  stock.  single  w i t h a l l the  species  planted  The  in  potential  concentrated  seedlings  intensive site being  root  and  system  that faster  would  p r e p a r a t i o n , even  increasingly  recognized  that a container seeding in this  of  suggest  a b e t t e r formed  improved  the  respect  system  significant and  to  of  than total  the  bare-root  storage,  are  system  would planting.  advantages.  The  great  also likely  problems are  c e n t u r i e s of  the  could reduce planting.  is  and  that mechanization  compared w i t h b a r e - r o o t  New  mechanization  p l a n t i n g are  been i n d i c a t e d  before  in  bare-root  solved, even a f t e r  container seeding  t r a n s p o r t and  lower  of  c o s t s by Other  t o be  the a  factor  phases,  possible  cost.  It nothing  ten  of  stand.  from being  I t has  phase of  of around  most  nursery  l o n g way  planting  are  suitability  of mechanizing  of  n a t u r a l and  obtained.  advantages  t o be  to mechanical  the bare-root  growing  planting,  likely  insensitive  intensive nursery,  bare-root  The  c o n t a i n e r s w o u l d be  t r a n s p l a n t i n g stage  t o a more  The  The  unnecessary.  Observations by  and  compared w i t h  large,  problems  mechanization.  m u s t be  more  than  stressed that, at a  concept.  this  Certain  of  stage,  the  system  i t s attributes  is  have  been  116 demonstrated elsewhere  (eg. the s u i t a b i l i t y of container systems  generally to mechanization) and some of i t s demands w i l l be required by other systems anyway (e.g. highly mechanized nursery growing of bare-root transplants i s l i k e l y to demand extremely f a s t , even and complete germination of the seed).  The potential  advantages and cost savings, however, more than j u s t i f y further analysis of the system and a start on the experimental testing of the techniques involved. Laboratory t r i a l s would not have provided much h e l p f u l information f o r development and testing of the concepts outlined herein.  They evolved primarily from four years of New Zealand  f i e l d experience i n establishment of radiata pine and exposure to North American ideas about mechanization and containerization. The concepts proposed herein are considered to be worthy of operational and research t r i a l s i n the f i e l d i n New Zealand. The author hopes to be c l o s e l y associated with planning and execution of such investigations on h i s return to New Zealand i n 1972.  117 BIBLIOGRAPHY. ADAMOVICH, L. 1968: Problems i n mechanizing commercial t h i n n i n g s . Paper No. 68-127, Annual meeting o f American S o c i e t y o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E n g i n e e r s , Utah S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , Logan, Utah, 24 pp. AIRD, P.L., COTTELL, P.L., WINER, H.I., and BREDBERG, C.J., 1970: E v a l u a t i n g the p r o d u c t i v i t y o f l o g g i n g machines: s t u d i e s o f B e l o i t H a r v e s t e r s . P u l p and Pap. Mag. o f Canada, Sept. 1970, (107-114). ANON.. 19©6: Wood . - world trends and p r o s p e c t s . ^ . Unasylva 20 (1-2), 136 pp. ANON.. 1969 ( a ) : Land c a p a b i l i t y survey handbook. Produced f o r the S o i l C o n s e r v a t i o n and R i v e r s C o n t r o l C o u n c i l by the Water and S o i l D i v i s i o n , M i n i s t r y o f Works, W e l l i n g t o n , New Zealand, 138 pp. ANON.. 1969 ( b ) : Seed squares s t u d i e s i n Sweden. Dec. 1969, (17-18).  World Wood,  ANON.. 1970: Investment i n New Z e a l a n d . Dept. o f I n d u s t r i e s and Commerce, W e l l i n g t o n , New Zealand, 116 pp. ANON.. 1971: P e t r i f i e d f o r e s t r y . (38-41).  Can. For. Ind., J u l y 1971  BARBER, C L . 1971: Report o f the R o y a l Commission on farm machinery. Canada, March, 1971, 636 pp. BARNETT, J.P. 1970: F l o t a t i o n i n e t h a n o l e f f e c t s s t o r a b i l i t y o f spruce pine seeds. Tree P l a n t . - N o t e s , 21(4), (18-19). BROWN, A.G. 1971: Experience i n management o f a r a d i a t a pine seed orchard a t T a l l a g a n d a S t a t e F o r e s t , New South Wales.*, A u s t . For Res., 5 ( 1 ) , (15-30). CARSON, RACHEL 1962:  Silent Spring.  Houghton M i f f l i n , Boston. 368  CHAVASSE, C.G.A. 1969: Land p r e p a r a t i o n f o r f o r e s t r y i n New Zealand N.Z. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , F.R.I. Symposium No. 11, 205 pp. CHAVASSE, C.G.A.& WESTON, G.C. 1969: F o r e s t n u r s e r y and e s t a b l i s h ment p r a c t i c e i n New Zealand. N.Z. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , F.R.I. Symposium No. 9, 214 pp.  118 DAWKINS, H.C. 1969: The f u t u r e on i n d u s t r i a l c e l l u l o s e . to F o r e s t r y , 50 years on. O.U.P.*  Supp.  EDEN, C . J . 1965: "Use o f X-ray techniques f o r d e t e r m i n i n g sound seed." Tree P l a n t . Notes, No. 72, (25-8). EL-LAKANY,M»E. & S8IKLAI-, 0. 1968: P r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t on the e f f e c t o f gamma-irradiation on the germination o f some weste r n c o n i f e r o u s s p e c i e s . Paper presented t o F o r e s t S e c t i o n , N.W. S c i e n t i f i c Assoc., C e n t r a l Washington S t a t e C o l l e g e , E l l e n s b u r g , Washington. Mimeo 15 pp. ERTFELD, W. 1968: Root deformation on young Scots p i n e and t h e i r e f f e c t s on h e i g h t growth and stem quality.. S o z i a l Forstw., B e r l . 18(12), (371-380). (Trans, by N.Z. F o r e s t Service,197Q) FAMILTON, A.K. 1969: The 1969 N a t i o n a l F o r e s t r y P l a n n i n g model. Prepared f o r P r o d u c t i o n F o r e s t r y working p a r t y r e p o r t t o the F o r e s t r y Development Conference, W e l l i n g t o n , New Zealand, 18-20th Feb., 1969, 43 pp. GAGNE, G. 1971: Economics o f Equipment O p e r a t i n g c o s t s . P u l p and Pap. Mag. o f Canada, 72(7), p.85. GORDON, L.S. 1971: Opening remarks t o T a p p i , Annual meeting f e a t u r e s e s s i o n . TAPPI 54(6), (895). GRAHAM,Jr.,.F. 1970: Since S i l e n t S p r i n g . New York. 333 pp.  Fawcett World L i b r a r y ,  HANNULA, 0. 1970: The e f f e c t s of average stand diameter on t r e e l e n g t h l o g g i n g c o s t s . P u l p & Pap. Mag. o f Canada, 72(2), (96-100). HUBBERT, M.K. 1969: Energy Resources. In Resources and Man, a study and recommendations by the committee on Resources and Stan, o f the D i v i s i o n o f E a r t h S c i e n c e s , N a t i o n a l Academy o f S c i e n c e s . P u b l i s h e d by W.H.Freeman and Co., San F r a n c i s c o , 259 pp. HUGHES, J.P. 1970: Logging o p e r a t i o n s i n Canada - review and f o r e c a s t . P u l p & Pap. Mag. o f Canada (Woodlands Index-2553) A p r i l , 1970, (100-103). JACKSON, R.W. 1971: B i r d s i n e x o t i c f o r e s t s i n New Zealand. Journ. F o r . , 16(1), (61-68).  N.Z.  JAMES, R.N., TUSTIN, J.R., SUTTON, W.R.J. 1970: F o r e s t Research I n s t i t u t e symposium on pruning and t h i n n i n g . N.Z.Journ. F o r . , 15(1), (25-56).  119 JOSEPHSON, H.R. 1971: R e c y c l i n g o f waste paper i n r e l a t i o n t o forest resources. TAPPI, 54(6), (896-899). KINGHORN, J.M. 1970: The s t a t u s o f c o n t a i n e r p l a n t i n g i n western Canada. For. Chron., 46(6), (466-469). KIRKLAND, A. 1969: Notes on the e s t a b l i s h m e n t and t h i n n i n g o f o l d crop Douglas f i r i n Kaingaroa F o r e s t . N.Z. Journ. For., 14(1),(25-37). KIRKPATRICK, R.E. 1964: T r e e - l e n g t h l o g g i n g symposium. Mag. o f Canada, Sept., 1964, WR 366-380.  Pulp & Pap.  KORNIENKO, M.F., PERFIL'EV, V.N., LJUTIN, M.F. 1970: The SKL-I machine f o r p l a n t i n g l a r g e stock on f e l l e d a r e a s . Lesn. Hoz., 1970 ( 9 ) , (55-59). ( A b s t r a c t o n l y seen.). LEWIS, N.B., HARDING, J.H. 1963: S o i l f a c t o r s i n r e l a t i o n to pine growth i n South A u s t r a l i a . A u s t . For., XXVII ( 1 ) , (27-34). LLODRA,R.,J.M. 1964: A p p l i c a t i o n o f temperature i n the study o f the germination o f Pinus r a d i a t a seeds. B o l . Tec. Esc. Ingem. For. Univ. C h i l e No. 9. 19 pp. ( A b s t r a c t only seen.) LOGAN, B.A. 1965: Pulp & Pap.  M o b i l e t r e e - l e n g t h c h i p p i n g i n the f o r e s t . Mag. o f Canada, Oct. 1965, WR 453-461.  LOVERING, T.S. 1969: M i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s from the l a n d . In Resources and Man, a study and recommendations by the committee on resources and man o f the D i v i s i o n o f E a r t h S c i e n c e s , N a t i o n a l Academy o f S c i e n c e s . P u b l i s h e d by W.H.Freeman and Company, San F r a n c i s c o , 259 pp. MACARTHUR, J.B. 1969: Multi-product integrated logging. Mag. o f Canada, 70(15), (79-82).  Pulp & Pap.  MACARTHUR, R.S. 1971: Some o b s e r v a t i o n s on the economic v a l u e o f d u a l purpose f o r e s t r y i n the Wairau R i v e r catchment. N.Z. Journ. F o r . 16(1), (46-60). MACKINNON, G.E. 1968:  R e f o r e s t a t i o n i n O n t a r i o . F o r . Chron., 44 (14-17)  MANN, M.J. 1967: P l a n t a t i o n establishment 20(6), ( x v i i - x x x ) .  on steep t e r r a i n . A p p i t a  MANN J r . , W.F.,TAYLOR J r . , H.T. 1969: A e r i a l row seeding i s p o s s i b l e . Journ. F o r . , 67(11), (814-815). McMOLL, B.J. 1969: k systems approach t o some i n d u s t r y problems. C.P.P.A., Woodlands S e c t i o n Index No. 2558 ( B - l ) , 56 pp. A  120 McCOLL,. J . , PEPLER, W.A.E. 1953: The development o f mechanical pulpwood l o g g i n g methods f o r e a s t e r n Canada. CP.P.A. Woodlands S e c t i o n Index No. 1325 ( B - l ) . ( B r i e f t o Mechaniza t i o n S t e e r i n g Committee, September 1950.) MITCHELL, A.S. 1966: Pulpwood h a r v e s t i n g . Canada, Sept., 1966, WR 433-435.  P u l p & Pap.  Mag. o f  MOBERLY, B.W.A. 1970: The r a i s i n g and p l a n t i n g o f P i n u s r a d i a t a s e e d l i n g s throughout the y e a r . N.Z. For. Res. I n s t . , Res. L e a f l e t . No. 30. 4: pp. MORGAN J r . , R.L. 1971: Labor a v a i l a b i l i t y : i n f l u e n c e on methods o f h a r v e s t i n g and t r a n s p o r t i n g . S e c t i o n 32, XVth I.U.F.R.O. Congress, G a i n s v i l l e , F l o r i d a ; March, 1971, 6 pp. MULLIN, R.E. 1971: Some e f f e c t s o f r o o t d i p p i n g , r o o t exposure and extended p l a n t i n g dates w i t h white spruce. For. Chron. 47(2), (90-93). NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE 1969: Conference h e l d i n W e l l i n g t o n , New Zealand. M a t e r i a l taken from:- ( i ) F o r e s t r y Sector Report; ( i l ) Report o f the M a n u f a c t u r i n g Committee; ( i i i ) Report o f the Labour Committee. NEW ZEALAND FOREST SERVICE 1969: Report o f the F o r e s t Research I n s t i t u t e f o r 1968. N.Z.F.S., W e l l i n g t o n , New Zealand, 99 pp. NEW ZEALAND FOREST SERVICE 1970(a): Report o f t h e F o r e s t Research I n s t i t u t e f o r 1969. N.Z.F.S., W e l l i n g t o n , New Zealand, 103 pp. NEW ZEALAND FOREST SERVICE 1970 ( b ) : Summary o f c u r r e n t r e - e s t a b l i s h ment c o s t s . I n t e r n a l f i l e , K a i n g a r o a F o r e s t , 28/4/0 4th May 1970, 3 pp. OLSEN, P.F. 1970: Mangatu: a p r o d u c t i o n f o r e s t w i t h a major protection value. N.Z. Journ. F o r . 15(2), (169-183). PAGE, A . I . 1969 ( a ) : The use o f l a r g e s c a l e a e r i a l photo mosaics f o r p l a n n i n g and c o n t r o l o f a i r - s e e d i n g . N.Z. Journ. For.14(1), (96-97). PAGE, A . I . 1969 ( b ) : High a l t i t u d e photography f o r the c o n t r o l o f a e r i a l seeding o p e r a t i o n s . N.Z. Journ. For. 14(2), (239-241). PAGE, A . I . 1970: The r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f r a d i a t a p i n e a t Kaingaroa F o r e s t . 1. B a s i c s t u d i e s t o f i n d the l i m i t a t i o n s o f a r t i f i c i a l and n a t u r a l seeding. N.Z. Journ. F o r . 15(1),(69-78).  121 PAGE, A . I . 1971 ( a ) : Report on a tour o f North America. Submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f For. 503 a t the F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., t y p e w r i t ten, 50 pp. PAGE, A . I . 1971 ( b ) : The r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f r a d i a t a pine a t Kaingaroa S o r e s t . 2. T a i l o r i n g method t o s i t e . N.Z. Journ. F o r . 16(1), (82-87). PAGE, A . I . 1971 ( c ) : S i t e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the establishment o f the second crop o f Pinus r a d i a t a i n New Zealand. Paper No. 71-161, Annual meeting o f American S o c i e t y o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E n g i n e e r s , Washington, S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , Pullman, Washington. June 27-30th, 1971. Mimeo 12 pp; PAGE, A . I . , SPIERS, J.J.K. 1969: Logging and r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t . N.Z. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , F.R.I. Syfriposium No. 11. p. 146. REITZ, J . 1970: New methods o f weed c o n t r o l i n f o r e s t r y , Holzw. 25(5), (88-89). ( A b s t r a c t o n l y seen.)  In  F o r s t . u.  RENNIE, P.J. 1971: The r o l e o f m e c h a n i z a t i o n i n f o r e s t s i t e preparation. I n v i t e d paper, S e c t i o n 32, XVth I.U.F.R.O. World Congress, G a i n s v i l l e , F l o r i d a . March 1971. Mimeo 37 pp. ROOK, D.A. 1970: Puddjfclhgg m i x t u r e s : t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n and e f f e c t s on p l a n t s . N.Z. F o r . Res. I n s t . , Res. Note No. 46, pp 6. SCHREINER, E . J . 1970: M i n i - r o t a t i o n f o r e s t r y . Serv. Res. Pap. NE-174. 32 pp.  U.S.D.A. F o r e s t  SCOTT, CW. 1960: Pinus r a d i a t a . FAO F o r . and F o r . Prod. Stud. .No 14. - Rome, ..1960>,. 3 28 pp. SILVERSIDES, C R . 1959: P r o s p e c t s f o r p o r t a b l e wood c h i p p e r s . For. Equip. Notes D. C a t . 2, 1959.  FAO  SILVERSIDES, C R . 1966: The i n f l u e n c e o f mechanization on h a r v e s t i n g and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n methods. 6CFM/G/C.T.IV/5, 6th World F o r e s t r y Congress, Madrid, 1966. SMITH, J.H.G. and WALTERS J . 1965: I n f l u e n c e o f s e e d l i n g s i z e on growth, s u r v i v a l and c o s t o f growing D o u g l a s - f i r . Univ. of B.C., Fac. o f For., Res. Note No. 50, 7 pp. 3  SMITHERS, L.A. 1964: The impact o f mechanical l o g g i n g on s i l v i c u l t ure i n Canada. S e c t i o n 32, I.U.F.R.O., 1964, Mimeo 8 pp.  122 SORENSON, B. 1969: V i b r a t i o n s o c c u r r i n g i n c h a i n saws. Journ. 269(4831), p.59.  Tim. Trade  STONE, E.C., NORBERG, E.A. 1971: M o d i f i c a t i o n o f n u r s e r y c l i m a t e to improve r o o t growth c a p a c i t y o f ponderosa pine t r a n s p l a n t s . Paper No. 71-165, Annual meeting o f American S o c i e t y o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E n g i n e e r s , Washington S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , Pullman, Washington. June 27-30th, 1971. Mimeo 17 pp. STONE, E.L., WILL,G.M. 1963: N i t r o g e n d e f i c i e n c y o f second genera t i o n r a d i a t a pine i n New Z e a l a n d . Paper presented a t the second N. Amer. F o r e s t S o i l s Conference, Oregon S t a t e Unive r s i t y , 1963. P r i n t e d i n F o r e s t - S o i l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n North America, (117-139). STREYFFERT, T. 1966: The world's f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s and t h e i r adequacy. P r o c . 6th World F o r . Congress, M a d r i d . 1966. V o l . 1 (483-490). SUTTON, W.R.J. 1969: Overhead c o s t s i n r e l a t i o n t o f o r e s t N.Z. J o u r n . F o r . , 14(1), (87-89).  size.  TINUS, R.W. 1971: A greenhouse n u r s e r y system f o r r a p i d p r o d u c t i o n of c o n t a i n e r p l a n t i n g stock. Paper No. 71-166, Annual meeting o f American S o c i e t y o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E n g i n e e r s , Washington S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , Pullman, Washington. June 27-30th, 1971. Mimeo 17 pp. TOFFLER, A. 1970:  Future Shock.  TROUP, R.S. 1955: S i l v i c u l t u r a l 216 pp.  Random House Inc., New York. 561 pp. systems.  2nd e d i t i o n , O.U.P., 1955  URE, J . 1949: The n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n o f P i n u s r a d i a t a on Kaingaroa F o r e s t . N.Z. J o u r n . F o r . 6 ( 1 ) , (30-38). USANOV, A.V. 1969: Some problems i n d e s i g n i n g automatic t r e e p l a n t i n g machines f o r c o n i f e r s . Lesn. H6z., 22(6), (79-83). ( A b s t r a c t o n l y seen.) USMAR, R., YSKA, G.J. 1971: New Z e a l a n d wood supply - trends i n i t s management and use. Paper p r e s e n t e d t o the 12th P a c i f i c Science Congress, Canberra, A u s t r a l i a . Mimeo. 24 pp. WALTERS, J . 1967: C o n t a i n e r p l a n t i n g i n f o r e s t r y . P r o c . I n t e r . P l a n t Prop. S o c , Annual meeting, 1967, (414-146). WALTERS, J . 1968: C o n t a i n e r p l a n t i n g w i t h guns, b u l l e t s and l a z y susans. P u l p & Pap. Mag. o f Canada, J a n . , 1968, (91-93).  123 WALTERS, J . 1969 ( a ) : C o n t a i n e r p l a n t i n g o f Douglas f i r . Prod. J o u r n . 19(10), (10-14).  For.  WALTERS, J . 1969 ( b ) : P r e c i s i o n sowing o f f o r e s t t r e e seed f o r c o n t a i n e r p l a n t i n g . W i n t e r meeting o f American S o c i e t y o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E n g i n e e r s , Sherman House, C h i c a g o . Dec. 9-12th, 1969. Mimeo 6 pp. WALTERS, J . 1970: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Research F o r e s t , Annual Report f o r p e r i o d A p r i l 1, 1969 t o March 31,1970. Univ. o f B.C. , Fac. o f F o r . , mimeo 19 pp. WALTERS, J . 1971(a):  L e t t e r i n F o r . Chron.  V o l . 4 7 ( 4 ) , p. 177.  WALTERS, J . 1971(b): A e r i a l p l a n t i n g o f t r e e s e e d l i n g s . Paper No. 71-173, Annual meeting o f American S o c i e t y of A g r i c u l t u r a l E n g i n e e r s , Washington S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , Pullman, Washington. June 27-30th, 1971. Mimeo 8 pp. WAMBACH, R.F. 1969: C o m p a t i b i l i t y o f m e c h a n i z a t i o n w i t h silviculture. Journ. F o r . 67(2), (104-108). WARD, J.T., PARKES, E.D., GRAINGER, M.B., FENTON, R. 1966: An economic a n a l y s i s o f l a r g e s c a l e l a n d development f o r a g r i c u l t u r e and f o r e s t r y . L i n c o l n C o l l e g e A g r i . Econ. Res. U n i t , Pub. No. 27, 158 pp. WESTOBY, J.C. 1970: One w o r l d f o r e s t r y , New Zealand's r o l e . N.Z. J o u r n . F o r . , 15(1), (9-24). WHITE, D.P., SCHNEIDER, G. 1971: A s o i l - l e s s r e g e n e r a t i o n system f o r growing c o n i f e r o u s s e e d l i n g s . P r e s e n t e d t o Annual meeti n g o f American S o c i e t y o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E n g i n e e r s , Washington S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , Pullman, Washington, June 27-30th, 1971. Mimeo 11 pp. WILL, G.M. 1968: The uptake, c y c l i n g and removal o f m i n e r a l n u t r i e n t s by crops o f P i n u s r a d i a t a . P r o c . N.Z. E c o l . S o c , 15 (20-24). WILLIAMS, N.R. 1971: A decade o f wood c o s t performance f o r i n d u s t r y e a s t o f the R o c k i e s . C.P.P.A., Woodlands S e c t i o n 53rd Annual Meeting. WILLIAMS, W.C., HAAS, L. 1971: World t r e n d s . 13(8), (9-16).  P u l p and Paper I n t e r . ,  WINER, H.I. 1965: Assessment o f stand f a c t o r s and l o g g i n g Pulp & Pap. Mag. o f Canada, Dec. 1965, WR 530-531.  conditions.  124  YUDELEVICH, M. 1966: I n v e n t a r i o de l a s p l a n t a c i o n e s f o r e s t a l e s de l a zona c e n t r o sur de C h i l e . I n s t . F o r . , Santiago, Informe T e c n i c o No. 27, 16 pp.  125 APPENDIX 1  Some sample r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t (Source: N.Z.  (a) A e r i a l  c o s t s from New  F o r e s t S e r v i c e , 1970  Zealand S t a t e  (b).).  sowing.  21bs  P i n u s r a d i a t a seed per acre  (approx. 28,000 seeds)  d i s t r i b u t e d through "Swathmaster" f e r t i l i z e r an A e r o Commander 'Snow* a i r c r a f t operation  Forests.  (600  . spreader mounted  hp).  The  i s dependent upon the c o s t of the  some 80%  o f the t o t a l o p e r a t i o n a l c o s t .  seed has  been used f o r t h i s o p e r a t i o n  c o s t oiH t h i s  seed which c o n s t i t u t e s  Only b u l k ( s l a s h c o l l e c t e d )  to date.  Seed - 2 l b s / a c r e a t $NZ3.00/lb  -• $6.00  Flying  - $0.50  (A/C  h i r e a t $NZ90.00/hour.)  Ground c o n t r o l and  on  overheads  - $0.50 $NZ7.00/acre.  (b) Supplementary p l a n t i n g . T h i s i s d e f i n e d as any  cut-over  p l a n t i n g o p e r a t i o n where  cognizance i s taken of e x i s t i n g s e e d l i n g s a r i s i n g from n a t u r a l aerially  supplied  seed.  A l l natural regeneration  sown areas r e q u i r e t h i s treatment (Page, 1971 The  per acre c o s t o f t h i s o p e r a t i o n ,  and  or  aerially  b).  o f c o u r s e , depends upon  the amount o f supplementation r e q u i r e d . Average c o s t / a c r e  (1969) - $NZ10.04  Range i n c o s t / a c r e  (  Average cost/100 t r e e s  (  11  ) - $NZ14.38-4.19.  " ) - $NZ  1.45  126  (c) B l a n k e t p l a n t i n g of c u t - o v e r s ; Windrowed:Average c o s t / a c r e  (1969) - $NZ11.03  Range i n  (& " ) - $NZ  " /  "  8.75  -  13.50  Unprepared:Average c o s t / a c r e  (  Range i n  (  " /  (d) Windrowing l o g g i n g The  " ) - $NZ25.61 11  ) - $NZ18.58 - 37.75  slash.  unmanaged nature o f many of the r a d i a t a pine stands  b e i n g logged r e s u l t s i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of l o g g i n g this material  management and  i n the overmature p l a n t a t i o n s .  closer  r e s i d u e when the  second r o t a t i o n crops are  l a r g e accumulations of l o g g i n g  intensive  felled.  In the meantime,  s l a s h are a  physical  there i s a l s o some evidence t h a t f r o s t  i n t e n s i f i e d on c e r t a i n s i t e s by  Windrowing o f the  Future  u t i l i z a t i o n w i l l l i k e l y prevent a s i m i l a r  b a r r i e r to r e p l a n t i n g and regimes are  Much of  i s dead wood from the many dead stems r e s u l t i n g from  natural mortality  however, the  slash.  now  the d e b r i s  (Page, 1970).  s l a s h w i t h r o o t r a k e s removes the b a r r i e r and  the  concurrent s o i l c u l t i v a t i o n i s thought to be b e n e f i c i a l a l s o , p a r t i c u l a r l y on the  frostier  sites.  Cost o f windrowing depends on many f a c t o r s such as skill,  t e r r a i n , t r a c t o r type, amount of s l a s h , e t c . .  f i g u r e f o r Kaingaroa would be (e) B u r n i n g  An  operator  average  i n the r e g i o n of $25/acre (Page, 1971  c).  slash.  S l a s h b u r n i n g i s r e l a t i v e l y new  i n New  Zealand e x o t i c  forestry  .127  and no r e l i a b l e c o s t e s t i m a t e s are a v a i l a b l e .  There seems l i t t l e  doubt, however, t h a t c o s t s w i l l be many times lower than mechanical windrowing.  $NZ0.50 t o 1.00 p e r acre would not be an unreason-  able estimate, ( f ) Spacing. E a r l y spacing c o n t r o l i s o f great importance i n the management o f New Zealand's f a s t growing softwoods.  Both n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n  and a e r i a l sowing r e s u l t i n l o c a l i z e d o v e r s t o c k i n g (even though o t h e r p a r t s o f the c u t o v e r may be understocked t o the p o i n t o f r e q u i r i n g supplementary p l a n t i n g ) . always r e q u i r e d t h e r e f o r e .  J u v e n i l e s p a c i n g i s almost  No s u c c e s s f u l mechanical system has  been developed f o r t h i s o p e r a t i o n and the o p e r a t i o n - known as s l a s h e r t h i n n i n g i n New Zealand - i s c a r r i e d out manually a t a stand h e i g h t o f approximately f i v e f e e t and a t an average c o s t o f $NZ10.00/acre. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i n d i c a t e s some approximate e s t i m a t e s o f the t o t a l r e f o r e s t a t i o n c o s t s o f v a r i o u s types o f c u t o v e r . c o s t s are based on 1969 d a t a .  Tree stocks c o s t s are taken as  $NZ12.00/1,000 f o r 1-0 and $NZ16.00/1,000 f o r the l % - 0 t r e e s r e q u i r e d on the c o l d e r  sites.  The  128 T a b l e 6.  Some r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r e f o r e s t a t i o n c o s t s i n New  Operation.  Per acre c o s t f o r each c u t o v e r type.?N.Z. Natural~ A e r i a l Windrowed Unprep. regen. Sowing "hard" s i t e s cutover 7.00  A i r sowing Suppl. p l a n t i n g (Assume 500spa planted.)  7.25  7.25  P l a n t i n g (6x6) Tree  stocks  6.00  6.00  Windrowing Juvenile Total  spacing  Zealand.  11.03  25.61  18.66  18.66  25.00 10.00  10.00  23.25  30.25  54.69  44.27  .129 APPENDIX 2 An  estimate  o f the p o t e n t i a l c o s t r e d u c t i o n s  precision setting of containerized of the t e c h n i c a l problems  The  of aerial  seed and an i n d i c a t i o n o f some  involved.  f i g u r e s used below (except  f o r such known s t a t i s t i c s as  a i r c r a f t payloads, h i r e r a t e s e t c ) a r e e n t i r e l y h y p o t h e t i c a l . ?  Despite  t h i s , the e x e r c i s e was thought worth w h i l e  illustrate  that very  l a r g e savings  i n p e r acre  i f only t o  c o s t s and time may  ,be p o s s i b l e i f a e r i a l methods o f p l a n t i n g c o n t a i n e r i z e d be developed.  The t e c h n i c a l problems a r e a l s o v e r y  seed c o u l d  l a r g e but the  magnitude o f the p o t e n t i a l c o s t , and p a r t i c u l a r l y time, savings i s sufficient justification, analysis of a e r i a l ( i ) Container The  i n t h i s author's o p i n i o n , f o r f u r t h e r  systems.  s i z e and weight.  container  i n length.  i s assumed t o be 2 cms. i n diameter and 10 cms.  Applying  the volume.formula:-  Vol. = T T r . l 2  the volume o f the c o n t a i n e r w i l l be:3.142 . 1 Assuming the f i l l e d  .  10  =  31.42cms . 3  c o n t a i n e r has a s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y o f 0.8,  the c o n t a i n e r s weight w i l l be:0.8 . 31.42 (ii) Aircraft The  =  25gms. (approx.)  capacity.  a i r c r a f t used i n t h i s e x e r c i s e  i s an Aero Commander  'Snow' w i t h a payload o f 22001bs (1,000 k i l o s ) .  I t i s assumed t h a t  130 50% o f t h i s payload i s absorbed by the c o n t a i n e r e j e c t i o n machinery and an a i r c r a f t guidance system.  The e f f e c t i v e payload i s then  some 500 k i l o s which r e p r e s e n t s 20,000 loaded c o n t a i n e r s . At  a s p a c i n g o f 6'xl2' the a i r c r a f t would  carry  sufficient  c o n t a i n e r s i n each l o a d to p l a n t : 20,000 605 ( i i i ) Planting Assuming craft  =  30 a c r e s (approx.)  rate. a) a f l y i n g speed o f 100 mph and b) t h a t the a i r -  i s equipped w i t h three e j e c t i o n d e v i c e s - one under the  f u s e l a g e and one under each o f the wings - the r a t e o f area coverage w i l l be:100. 1760 . 12 4840  s  480Q 11  =  436 a c r e s / h o u r .  or a p p r o x i m a t e l y 450 a c r e s per hour o f e f f e c t i v e f l y i n g time. Required e f f e c t i v e f l y i n g time per a i r c r a f t l o a d i s then:30 . 60 450 (iv)  =  4 minutes.  Planting cost. I t i s assumed t h a t 607« of the a i r c r a f t ' s  time i n the a i r i s  spent f e r r y i n g and t u r n i n g a t the end o f each r u n .  The amount of  p a i d time r e q u i r e d f o r each a i r c r a f t l o a d w i l l then be 10 minutes. (In New Zealand f o r e s t o p e r a t i o n s , when a i r c r a f t are h i r e d by the hour the c l o c k i s r u n n i n g from the time the wheels b e g i n to r o l l on the  t a k e - o f f r u n t o the time the a i r c r a f t reaches a complete stop  after landing. all.)  Loading time i s charged a t a separate r a t e , i f a t  131 The hire rate f o r an Aero Commander 'Snow' i s around $NZ120/ hour (White i n Chavasse, 1969).  The f l y i n g cost, on a per acre  basis w i l l therefore be:10 . 120 60 . 30  -  $NZ0.66/acre.  Considering the a r b i t r a r y nature of the data used here, and • the technical problems that would be involved i n such a system, the cost d i f f e r e n t i a l between a e r i a l and ground planting systems (the l a t t e r calculated i n the main body of the thesis at $NZ1.10/acre) i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y great.  In terms of speed of planting, however,  the a e r i a l system, i f possible, i s greatly superior.  The rate of  ISO acres per f l y i n g hour i s some six times the rate per working hour of the ground based system.  Increasing the p o t e n t i a l speed  of the ground prime mover would, of course, narrow the gap, although increased speed i s l i k e l y to bring with i t problems of planting machine design. The a i r c r a f t based system presents many technical problems. No machinery exists yet that could accurately eject the containers at the very high speeds required (although m i l i t a r y hardware exists today that i s capable of f i r i n g rates greatly i n excess of what would be required by the above system).  For p r e c i s i o n sowing a i r -  c r a f t guidance of f a r greater accuracy than i s currently used i n the forest industry would be needed.  The technology exists today i n  the form of i n e r t i a l guidance systems and radio beacon navigators, but very high c a p i t a l and i n s t a l l a t i o n costs have, up to now, been prohibitive.  132  The  figures  fication  for at  analysis  of  the  presented  least  further  system.  here, and  however, are more d e t a i l e d  sufficient theoretical  justi-  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0075336/manifest

Comment

Related Items