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A plan for improving forest fire management in Thailand Ploadpliew, Apinun 1974

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A PLAN FOR IMPROVING FOREST FIRE MANAGEMENT IN THAILAND by Apinun Ploadpliew B.S.F. Kaset s a r t U n i v e r s i t y , T h a i l a n d , 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF FORESTRY i n the F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the requ i r e d standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January, 1974. In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Fa c u l t y of FORESTRY The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada. Date January 17, 1974. i ABSTRACT The values of Thailand's f o r e s t s probably are higher than those of i t s other n a t u r a l resources. Forests are not only v a l u a b l e f o r timber but a l s o f o r r e c r e a t i o n , w i l d l i f e , and watershed. W i l d f i r e s are considered a very important f o r e s t problem i n some t r o p i c a l c o u n t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y I n d i a , Burma, The P h i l i p p i n e s , Indonesia, A u s t r a l i a , B r a z i l , Venezuela, Colombia and Honduras. A number of attempts have been made to reduce the occurrence and t o c o n t r o l f o r e s t f i r e s , but many have not been s u c c e s s f u l , p r i m a r i l y because of the l a c k of funds to do a proper j ob. The m a j o r i t y of f o r e s t f i r e s i n Thailand are man-caused, r e s u l t i n g p r i m a r i l y from camping, de b r i s burning, s h i f t i n g c u l t i v a t i o n , hunting, highway t r a v e l , and inc e n d i a r i s m . These w i l d f i r e s can be c l a s s i f i e d (based.on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , damages, and c o n t r o l techniques) i n t o three major types: p l a n t a t i o n , n a t u r a l f o r e s t , and grassland. Up to the present, because of l a c k of funds and e x p e r t i s e , an e f f e c t i v e f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l o r g a n i z a t i o n has not been developed i n Thai l a n d , despite the many s e n i o r Thai f o r e s t e r s and experts from many agencies of the world who have made a large number of worthwhile recommendations. I f f i r e c o n t r o l i s to be developed f u l l y i n Thailand an appro-p r i a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e w i t h defined work hours, manpower, c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n tasks w i l l have to be adopted. A l l of i i these f a c t o r s should be c a r e f u l l y considered and implemented i n both d i s t r i c t and general f i r e p l a n s . Presuppression i s the l a r g e s t and most i n v o l v e d element of most f o r e s t f i r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Many important f a c t o r s must be taken i n t o account. An e f f e c t i v e and economical d e t e c t i o n system, good communication and b e t t e r equipment, which must be s u i t a b l e f o r f i g h t i n g f i r e i n heavy f o r e s t f u e l s and f o r use by u n s k i l l e d men, are r e q u i r e d . F i r e prevention should be very important i n T h a i l a n d , because most w i l d f i r e s are man-caused and preventable. Great s t r e s s should be l a i d on a d v e r t i s i n g i n a f i r e prevention campaign. There are three suppression methods which can be used i n the present s i t u a t i o n of f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l i n Thailand. These methods are: c l e a r i n g a f i r e l i n e , b a c k f i r i n g , or a p p l i c a t i o n of water, sand or l i g h t s o i l s . Often a combination of a l l three methods i s p r e f e r a b l e . Law enforcement would be the most important t o o l f o r establishment of a f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l operation i n T h a i l a n d . The o b j e c t i v e of law enforcement-should be to increase cooperation from the general p u b l i c by educating and warning. P r e s c r i b e d burning seems to be r e a l l y needed both i n p l a n t a t i o n programs and i n n a t u r a l f o r e s t management plans i n Thailand. The o b j e c t i v e s of f i r e a p p l i c a t i o n would be: stand improvement, s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r seeding and p l a n t i n g , improvement of w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t , improvement of c u t t i n g methods, improvement of a c c e s s i b i l i t y , c o n t r o l of i n s e c t s and d i s e a s e s , and use i n land c l e a r i n g . i i i Research i n i t i a l l y should provide the s c i e n t i f i c foundation f o r f i r e management through l o c a l s t u d i e s and the adaptation of work from other areas i n i g n i t i o n , combustion, f u e l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , f i r e danger measurement, f i r e p r e v e n t i o n , f i r e ecology, f i r e use, f i r e suppression techniques, and f i r e c o n t r o l planning. F i r e c o n t r o l improvement i s very expensive, but many f a c t o r s suggest that i t i s badly needed i n Thailand. I t i s impossible f o r T h a i -land to pr o t e c t a l l of i t s f o r e s t area from f i r e immediately.. A good s t a r t should be made soon and co n s t a n t l y expanded as finances allow. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLES v i i i LIST OF FIGURES i x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS x 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 5 2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 5 2.2 Forest F i r e S i t u a t i o n i n Thailand . . . . 5 2.2.1 The Values of Forests 5 2.2.2 Forest F i r e Occurrence and Area Burned . 9 2.2.3 The Forest F i r e Season . . . . . 10 2.2.4 Causes of F i r e 13 2.2.5 Types of F i r e . . . . . . . 15 2.2.6 E c o l o g i c a l E f f e c t s 16 2.2.7 Forest F i r e C o n t r o l P r a c t i c e s . . . 18 2.2.8 The A t t i t u d e of People to Forest F i r e . 18 2.2.9 F o r e s t r y Laws Concerned w i t h F i r e . . 19 2.2.10 Pressures f o r Improvement . . . . 21 2.3 Status of Forest F i r e C o n t r o l i n Other Countries w i t h Related Conditions 23 2.4 Summary 26 3. FIRE PROGRAM IMPROVEMENT 28 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 28 3.2 F i r e Prevention . . . . . . . . 28 3.2.1 Forest F i r e Prevention Campaign . . 29 3.2.2 A d v e r t i s i n g f o r F i r e prevention.:; . . 32 Signs and Posters 32 Wr i t t e n and I l l u s t r a t e d M a t e r i a l s . 32 Radio, P i c t u r e and T.V. Programs . . 33 Per s o n a l Group Contacts . . . . 33 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) 3.2.3 Prevention Through Education 3.2.4 Prevention Through Enforcement 3.3 Forest F i r e C o n t r o l Organization 3.3.1 Factors A f f e c t i n g Organization S t r u c t u r e s 3.3.2 Manpower 3.3.3 Work Hours . 3.3.4 C e n t r a l i z a t i o n 3.3.5 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 3.3.6 T r a i n i n g 3.3.7 S t a f f 3.4 F i r e C o n t r o l Plans 3.4.1 General Plans 3.4.2 D i s t r i c t Plans 3.5 F i r e Presuppression 3.5.1 Detection Ground P a t r o l Lookout System A i r P a t r o l 3.5.2 Communication 3.5.3 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 3.5.4 Equipment Hand Tools Power Tools 3.5.5 B u i l d i n g 3.6 F i r e Suppression 3.6.1 F i r e Suppression Methods 3.6.2 P a t r o l and Mop-up 3.6.3 Damage Assessment 3.7 Forest F i r e Law Enforcement 3.7.1 Organization 3.7.2 Warning and C i t a t i o n 3.7.3 I n v e s t i g a t i o n of F i r e Page 37 38 39 39 40 42 43 43 44 45 47 47 48 49 49 49 50 52 52 53 54 54 55 56 57 57 58 58 59 59 59 60 v i TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page 3.7.4 Interview Witnesses 60 3.7.5 T e s t i f y i n g i n Court 61 3.8 Summary 62 4. FIRE APPLICATION 63 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 63 4.2 Objectives of F i r e A p p l i c a t i o n . . . . . 64 4.2.1 Stand Improvement 64 4.2.2 S i t e P r e p a r a t i o n f o r Seeding and P l a n t i n g . 65 4.2.3 Improvement of W i l d l i f e Habitat . . . . 66 4.2.4 Improvement of C u t t i n g Methods . . . . 66 4.2.5 Improvement o f A c c e s s i b i l i t y . . . . 67 4.2.6 Co n t r o l of Disease 67 4.2.7 Use i n Land C l e a r i n g 68 4.3 Methods of F i r e A p p l i c a t i o n 68 4.3.1 Back F i r e . . 69 4.3.2 Flank F i r e 71 4.3.3 Head F i r e 72 4.3.4 Spot F i r e 73 4.3.5 Ring F i r i n g . . . . . . . . 74 4.3.6 Chevron Burn 75 4.4 Summary . 76 5. RESEARCH STUDIES 77 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 77 5.2 B a s i c Studies of I g n i t i o n and Combustion . . . 77 5.3 Important Fuel C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 78 5.4 F i r e Danger Measurement and i t s A p p l i c a t i o n . . 78 5.5 F i r e Prevention 78 5.6 E c o l o g i c a l Studies 79 5.7 Techniques of F i r e Use 79 5.8 Suppression Techniques . 79 5.9 F i r e C o n t r o l Planning 80 5.10 Summary 80 v i i TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page 6. COST OF FIRE CONTROL . 83 6.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 83 6.2 Cost of F i r e C o n t r o l U n i t s . . . . . . 83 '6.3 Summary 88 7. CONCLUSIONS 89 8. BIBLIOGRAPHY 91 9. APPENDICES A. Types of Forests i n Thailand . 98 B. Table showing types of f o r e s t s and other s t r a t a f o r a l l regions of Thailand 99 C. Organization chart 1972, Royal Thai F o r e s t r y Department 100 D. Proposed Organization c h a r t , Royal Thai F o r e s t r y Department . 101 E. Proposed Organization chart of Forest P r o t e c t i o n branch 102 F. Forest F i r e A c t , 1974, of Thailand ( H y p o t h e t i c a l ) . G. Sample f i r e report form 109 H. B r i e f f i v e - y e a r p l a n f o r f o r e s t f i r e imp r ovemen t 113 v i i i LIST OF TABLES Page 1. Production of timber and other f o r e s t products of T h a i l a n d . (Based on N a t i o n a l progress report on f o r e s t s f o r 1971.) 7 2. C l i m a t o l o g i c a l data f o r Thailand 1951 - 1965 . . -12' 3. Tools suggested f o r ten-men f i r e f i g h t i n g crew . . 55 4. B r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of personnel and f i n a n c i n g r e q u i r e d f o r f i v e - y e a r program 82 5. Cost of manpower f o r f o r e s t f i r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . . 86 6. Cost of f o r e s t f i r e , fightingaequipment . . . . 87 i x LIST OF FIGURES Page 1. F o r e s t - f i r e - p r e v e n t i o n poster " F i r e Index" . . . 34 2. Help Prevent Forest F i r e 35 3. Century to Grow an Hour to Burn 36 4. P a t r o l by b i c y c l e crew 51 5. Back F i r e 70 6. Flank F i r e 71 7. Head F i r e 72 8. Spot F i r e 73 9. Ring F i r i n g 74 10. Chev»on Burn 75 X ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author wishes to express deep thanks to a l l those who a s s i s t e d him e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y i n t h i s undertaking. S p e c i a l g r a t i t u d e i s due to Dr. J.H.G. Smith, P r o f e s s o r , and Mr. R.C. Henderson, I n s t r u c t o r , F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r s u p e r v i s i o n , h e l p f u l guidance and encouragement. G r a t e f u l acknowledgment i s a l s o extended to Dr. J.V. Thirgood and Dr. J.P. Kimmims, whose suggestions were most val u a b l e f o r the accomplishment of t h i s study. Sincere thanks are o f f e r e d to Mr. T. Greenberg and Miss P. Aswakun f o r i n v a l u a b l e help during study and t h e s i s p r e p a r a t i o n . Attendance at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s were made p o s s i b l e by grants from the Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency, and the author i s deeply g r a t e f u l to the Agency f o r the opportunity to study i n Ontario and Western Canada. A s p e c i a l note of thanks i s due to Mr. J.C. Macleod, the D i r e c t o r of Petawawa Forest Experiment S t a t i o n , Canadian Forest S e r v i c e , f o r h i s continuous i n t e r e s t , encouragement and help both i n Tha i l a n d and i n Canada. 1. INTRODUCTION The Kingdom of T h a i l a n d , c e n t r a l l y s i t u a t e d i n Southeast A s i a , i s bordered by Burma, Laos, Cambodia and M a l a y s i a . I t l i e s between 5 and 21 degrees north l a t i t u d e , and between 97 and 106 degrees east l o n g i t u d e . I t i n c l u d e s an area of about 200,000 square m i l e s and has a po p u l a t i o n of over 36 m i l l i o n . The country i s made up of fou r main reg i o n s : namely, the C e n t r a l P l a i n , the Northeast Plateau^,- the Northern Region, and a narrow s t r i p of land i n the south f a c i n g the Gulf of Thailand to the east and the Indian Ocean to the west. Thailand has la r g e f o r e s t resources of hardwood, rubberwo^edv and bamboo, but only r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l stands of pine. More than 51% of the t o t a l land area i s covered w i t h f o r e s t of various types. I t may be c l a s s -i f i e d , according t o Champion (1962) i n t o the f o l l o w i n g major types: the Evergreen (30%) and the Mixed Deciduous (70%). The evergreen type i s sub-d i v i d e d i n t o H i l l - E v e r g r e e n , T r o p i c a l - E v e r g r e e n , C o n i f e r s , and Mangrove. The Mixed Deciduous type i s subdivided i n t o Mixed Deciduous and Dry Dipterocarp,s' types (Appendix A). P o l i t i c a l l y , T h ailand i s a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l monarchy. The F o r e s t r y Department, under the d i r e c t i o n of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e , i s re s p o n s i b l e f o r applying sound conservation and u t i l i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e s to the n a t u r a l resources of N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s . A l l the f o r e s t of Thailand i s the property of the s t a t e , the p o l i c y of the government having always been to manage i t s f o r e s t f o r the b e n e f i t and we l f a r e of the general p u b l i c The sustained supply of f o r e s t products f o r l o c a l consumption and export t r a d e , and the maintenance of f o r e s t cover f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of the 2 watershed are the main o b j e c t i v e s of f o r e s t r y i n Thailand. There has been a long h i s t o r y i n Thailand of using f i r e i n d i s -c r i m i n a t e l y i n the f o r e s t . The F o r e s t r y Department has recognized that f o r e s t f i r e s have been s e r i o u s l y damaging the f o r e s t of the country f o r many years. But the task of e s t a b l i s h i n g and or g a n i z i n g f o r f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l i s formidable, because funds are not a v a i l a b l e to undertake the i n i t i a l work. Therefore, the Thai F o r e s t r y Department requested a grant from the Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency (CIDA). Under the Colombo P l a n , arrangements were made between the CIDA and the Government of Thailand f o r me to t r a i n and study i n f o r e s t f i r e management i n Canada. The t r a i n i n g programs were provided f o r p r a c t i c e and d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h many f o r e s t f i r e o f f i c e r s both at the headquarters i n Toronto and at many f i e l d o f f i c e s throughout Onta r i o , f o r approximately seven months, from February to September, 1972. Other o p p o r t u n i t i e s were provided f o r graduate s t u d i e s at U.B.C, le a d i n g to a Masters degree i n f o r e s t r y . A l l of my experiences w i l l be \applied i n preparing the pl a n and i n s t a r t i n g a f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Thailand i n 1974. The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to study f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l o r g a n i z a t i o n and the use of f i r e i n Canada and to t r y to apply the p r i n c i p l e s to the s i t u a t i o n i n Thailand. The t h e s i s w i l l f u r n i s h a general statement of p r i n c i p l e s f o r f i r e management i n Thailand. I t i s always d i f f i c u l t to int r o d u c e w e l l developed systems from one area to other places that have a very d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e , but nevertheless some methods based on Canadian experience can be a p p l i e d to improve f i r e management i n Thailand. These measures are mainly the establishment of f i r e p r e v e n t i o n , d e t e c t i o n , and suppression systems, and the development of methods of f i r e a p p l i c a t i o n . II 3 A major d i f f i c u l t y has r e s u l t e d from the very l i m i t e d data a v a i l a b l e and general l a c k of records of past f i r e c o n t r o l a c t i v i t i e s and f i r e occurrences i n Thailan d . F o r t u n a t e l y , some s e n i o r Thai f o r e s t e r s , as w e l l as experts from s e v e r a l f o r e i g n agencies, have made a l a r g e number of recommendations f o r overcoming the f i r e problems i n Thailand. These recommendations are good b a s i c guides f o r studying how to develop proper plans f o r T h a i l a n d . Throughout the prep a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s , I had o p p o r t u n i t i e s to work, d i s c u s s , and study i n many s i t u a t i o n s : 1. Working as a counterpart f o r seven months w i t h Mr. J.C. Macleod, the expert on f o r e s t f i r e s from CIDA i n preparing the b a s i c recommendations to the Thai government r e l a t i n g to the p r o t e c t i o n against f i r e f o r the f o r e s t s of Thailand. 2. T r a i n i n g i n f o r e s t f i r e suppression as a suppression crew member, crew boss, and f i r e s u p e r v i s o r i n Ontario ( F i r e Suppression Course I I ) f o r seven months. 3. Studying at U.B.C. provided an e x c e l l e n t opportunity f o r l e a r n i n g from many experienced p r o f e s s o r s , not only about the problems r e l a t i n g t o f o r e s t f i r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , but a l s o a great deal about f o r e s t f i r e economics, ecology, p o l i c y and law. D i r e c t e d s t u d i e s on these t o p i c s provided the background f o r t h i s t h e s i s . 4. Di s c u s s i n g w i t h many f o r e s t f i r e o f f i c e r s on f i e l d t r i p s throughout Western Canada provided good o p p o r t u n i t i e s to study both the f o r e s t f i r e problems and the views of o f f i c e r s at n e a r l y a l l l e v e l s concerned w i t h pro-t e c t i n g f o r e s t s from f i r e . I t was p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t u n a t e that the t r i p to the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , Yukon, A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h Columbia was made during the f i r e season,, i n 1973. 4 5 . C o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from t r o p i c a l c ountries provided some very good examples. Information about f o r e s t f i r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , f o r e s t f i r e law and l e g i s l a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d from fourteen southern s t a t e s of the U.S.A. and twelve t r o p i c a l c o u n t r i e s around the world. Many ideas and methods from other regions can be a p p l i e d to improve the s i t u a t i o n i n Thailand. This study reviews the nature of f o r e s t f i r e s and t h e i r e f f e c t s on v e g e t a t i o n , and considers ways to improve f o r e s t f i r e management i n Thailand. I t c o n s i s t s of f i v e p a r t s : 1) a review of the l i t e r a t u r e about the f o r e s t f i r e s i t u a t i o n i n Thai l a n d and the status of f o r e s t f i r e management i n other t r o p i c a l c o untries w i t h r e l a t e d c o n d i t i o n s ; 2) a n a l y s i s of methods f o r f o r e s t f i r e program improvement; 3) d e s c r i p t i o n of methods and o b j e c t i v e s f o r f i r e a p p l i c a t i o n ; 4) proposals f o r research s t u d i e s i n ecology, p r e v e n t i o n , and suppression techniques; and 5) e s t i m a t i o n of the costs of f i r e c o n t r o l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n order to compare these w i t h p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s and to e x p l a i n the reasons why f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l i s needed i n Thailand. Because so l i t t l e i s known about f i r e management i n Tha i l a n d and s i m i l a r c o u n t r i e s , i t has been necessary to r e l y h e a v i l y on North American experience. Some of the suggestions made h e r e i n may have to be modified as o p e r a t i o n a l experience i s gained i n Thailand and r e s u l t s of f i r e research become a v a i l a b l e there. 5 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n A major d i f f i c u l t y i n improving f o r e s t f i r e management i n Th a i -land i s the very l i m i t e d data and l a c k of w r i t t e n records a v a i l a b l e on f i r e causes and r e s u l t s of past f i r e c o n t r o l a c t i v i t i e s . F o r t u n a t e l y , some se n i o r Thai f o r e s t e r s and experts from many agencies on the world have made stud i e s and have r e a l i z e d that some a c t i o n must be taken soon to c o n t r o l f o r e s t f i r e s . This chapter i s an attempt to review the s t a t u s of f o r e s t f i r e i n Thailand and to compare i t w i t h s i m i l a r t r o p i c a l c o u n t r i e s . 2.2 The Forest F i r e S i t u a t i o n i n T h a i l a n d 2.2.1 The Values of Forests The f o r e s t s of Thailand c o n s t i t u t e an important and v a l u a b l e resource. They supply raw m a t e r i a l to saw-mills and other timber based i n d u s t r i e s and they y i e l d many minor f o r e s t products that c o n t r i b u t e to l o c a l s m a l l i n d u s t r i e s . Wood using i n d u s t r i e s i n c l u d e 500 s a w - m i l l s , four pulp and paper p l a n t s , two plywood and veneer p l a n t s , four chipboard p l a n t s , two f i b r e b o a r d p l a n t s , and about 500 woodworking p l a n t s ( N a t i o n a l progress report on f o r e s t s , 1971). A b i g pulp and newsprint m i l l using l o c a l long-f i b r e d species was to be e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1973 by the Thai Newsprint Company. Teak (Tectona grandis) lumber and timber from the f o r e s t s of Thai-land have f o r many years been an important export product recognized f o r i t s e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t y throughout the world. Other species a l s o produce many other v a l u a b l e woods i n c l u d i n g Yang (Dipterocarpus a l a t u s ) , Rosewood (Dalbergia c o c h i c h i n e n s i s ) , Ebony (Diospyros m o l l i s ) and Pine (P. Khasya 6 and P. M e r k u s i i ) to name only a few. There has always been an abundance of wood and other f o r e s t products f o r l o c a l use and a surplus f o r export. T o t a l value of wood and f o r e s t products was about $456.5 m i l l i o n i n 1971. D i r e c t revenue to the government from stumpage and fees was about $61.5 m i l l i o n ( N a t i o n a l progress report on f o r e s t s , 1971, Table 1). To the end of 1970, the area planted amounts to 117,200 acres of which 57% was teak. There was about 5,200 acres of pine p l a n t a t i o n , and the pine p l a n t a t i o n program of the Thai Newsprint Company s t a r t e d i n 1973 w i t h about 3,200 acres a year. Timber values are h i g h , but p o s s i b l y even higher i n the long run are the watershed, s o i l and s i t e v alues. Most low-land farmers, who produce the bulk of the crops i n t h i s l a r g e l y a g r i c u l t u r a l economy, are e n t i r e l y dependent on n a t u r a l l y c o n t r o l l e d water r u n - o f f , as only a small percentage of the farmers have a r t i f i c i a l i r r i g a t i o n . Large h y d r o e l e c t r i c developments a l s o depend h e a v i l y on wooded watersheds. Macleod (1971) noted t h a t : "Forest i n northern T h a i l a n d i s the important mountain and watershed area f o r the Chao Phya R i v e r and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s on which many i r r i g a t i o n and h y d r o e l e c t r i c schemes depend; ...even i f the dams o r i g i n a l l y had the c a p a c i t y to h o l d s u f f i c i e n t water f o r o p e r a t i o n , during the dry season, the s i l t and other products of e r o s i o n caused by f i r e w i l l reduce that capacity i n a very few years." Rindt (1969) reported s i m i l a r l y t h a t : "Forested mountains c o n s t i t u t e a watershed which absorbs water during the r a i n y season and meters i t out during the dry months much as m e l t i n g snowpacks serve that purpose i n the more n o r t h e r l y c l i m a t e s . " A l s o the f o r e s t s of Thailand are becoming more and more i n demand f o r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n . N a t i o n a l parks and r e c r e a t i o n a l areas were encouraged by the N a t i o n a l Development f o r e s t r y programs, and these, 7 TABLE 1 Production of timber and other f o r e s t products of Thailand. (Based on the N a t i o n a l progress report on f o r e s t r y f o r 1971.) Item Products (m ) Value „ (Baht) 3 Per m T o t a l Value (1000 Baht) Royalty Per U n i t (Baht) ^ (Approx) T o t a l D i r e c t Revenue (Baht) Teak 263,514 4,700 1,218,516 150 - 39,527,100 Other species 2,312,388 3,200 7,399,542 20 - 46,247,760 Charcoal 1,681,197 150 252,179 12 - 20,174,264 F u e l Wood 450,787 ..75 33,809 8 - 3,606,296 Rattan 569,296 100 56,993 "10 - 5,699,260 Dama & Gum (D.C.L.) 2 220,332 (D.C.L.) 150 33,050 10 - 2,203,320 Yang o i l (D.C.L.) 654,688 (D.C.L.) 180 117,884 10 - 6,546,880 Bamboo 1,996,620 10 19,966 — — TOTAL — 9,131,899 — 123,004,880 Note 1) $1 (Canadian) i s about 20 baht. 2) D^CL. i s D e c a l i t r e . 3) m i s cubic metre. 4) The Royalty depends on species and q u a l i t y of prod u c t i o n . 8 according to K r i t (1966), can be c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w s : a) N a t i o n a l Parks: The Royal Thai Forest Department, i n co-operation w i t h the T o u r i s t Organization of T h a i l a n d , encourages outdoor l i v i n g and r e c r e a t i o n to enhance the p h y s i c a l and mental h e a l t h of the p u b l i c . Since the promulgation of the N a t i o n a l Park Act i n 1960, seven n a t i o n a l parks have been c o n s t i t u t e d , and another ten places are l i s t e d as f u t u r e n a t i o n a l parks. b) Forest Parks: Small f o r e s t parks have a l s o been created i n va r i o u s l o c a l i t i e s spread over the e n t i r e kingdom. These u s u a l l y are places w i t h superbly b e a u t i f u l n a t u r a l features such as sc e n i c landscapes and picturesque c l i f f s and w a t e r f a l l s . Amenities l i k e p i c n i c and camping grounds, lodges, b i k i n g t r a i l s , e t c . , are provided f o r t o u r i s t s and v a c a t i o n i s t s . c) Arboreta: There are twelve arboreta which serve not only f o r ed u c a t i o n a l and s c i e n t i f i c purposes but a l s o as r e c r e a t i o n a l grounds where t r a v e l l e r s and t o u r i s t s may f i n d shade, r e s t and peace. d) B o t a n i c a l Gardens: There are only two b o t a n i c a l gardens i n Thailand . One was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1942 and the other i n 1971. e) Game Reserves: Up to 1971, only three game reserves have been sur-veyed, demarcated and l e g a l l y d e s c r i b e d , covering a r a t h e r extensive area of about 1,500 square m i l e s . The Royal F o r e s t r y Department takes respon-s i b i l i t y f o r these w i l d l i f e areas. These r e c r e a t i o n areas are i n va r i o u s l o c a l i t i e s , and d i f f e r e n t types of f o r e s t w e l l spread over the whole country, and many of them are f a c i n g problems w i t h w i l d f i r e s . 9 2.2.2 Forest F i r e Occurrence and Area Burned (a) N a t u r a l F o r e s t ; No records have been kept of the number of f i r e s , or areas burned over, i n T h a i l a n d . There i s no need to keep records of f i r e s i n n a t u r a l f o r e s t s because a l l f o r e s t areas i n the north and northeast of the country burn over every year, and some places may s u f f e r m u l t i p l e burns i n one season. Macleod (1971) estimated t h a t : "These two regions account f o r more than 70% of the t o t a l f o r e s t e d area and contain more than that percentage of the important timber s p e c i e s . The east and the south together have a l i t t l e l e s s than 20% of the t o t a l area and s u f f e r much l e s s from f i r e . Under these circumstances i t can be f a i r l y estimated that the annual area burned amounts to something i n excess of 46,930,000 acres." Thiem (1970) made some c a l c u l a t i o n s of l o s s e s caused by the h i l l t r i b e s i n burning f o r s h i f t i n g c u l t i v a t i o n . These c a l c u l a t i o n s were based on data provided by the Royal F o r e s t r y Department and s t u d i e s made by F.A.O. i n the A s i a and P a c i f i c Region. He estimated t h a t : "Some 5,180,000 hectares of f o r e s t areas were e i t h e r l y i n g f a l l o w or being burned by the h i l l t r i b e s . Using the F.A.O. f i g u r e of $17.8 annual value per hectare of f o r e s t c l e a r e d , the monetary l o s s i n f o r e s t values f o r Thailand by s h i f t i n g c u l t i v a t i o n alone should be $92,155,800." Thiem (196'9) a l s o s t u d i e d s o i l and water l o s s e s from burned and unburned areas from 1960 to 1968 and concluded t h a t : "Burning w i l l g r e a t l y increase s o i l and water l o s s e s e s p e c i a l l y i f the areas are burned c o n s e c u t i v e l y every year. When the areas are f i r e - p r o t e c t e d f o r s i x years; r u n - o f f and sediment y i e l d w i l l g r a d u a l l y decrease. However, i f the areas are f i r e p r o t e c t e d f o r s i x years and then burned, the f i r s t year of burning w i l l be most b e n e f i c i a l , as s o i l and water l o s s e s w i l l be the lowest. Repeated burning w i l l , however, increase run-off and sediment y i e l d i n subsequent years." In the n a t u r a l pine stands, the annual f i r e s have kept the 10 surface l i t t e r reduced to the extent that the f i r e s do l i t t l e damage to mature trees that have not been wounded. However, i n the s e v e r a l pine f o r e s t s used f o r r e s i n tapping, the boles have been deeply and crudely gouged by the tappers and f i r e has i n t e n s i f i e d the damage. Macleod (1971) b e l i e v e d t h a t : "The tappers use f i r e to in c r e a s e r e s i n flow and are themselves another cause of f o r e s t f i r e damages." (b) Fo r e s t P l a n t a t i o n : There are numerous p l a n t a t i o n s that have already s u f f e r e d from f i r e and, i n many i n s t a n c e s , may be even more s u s c e p t i b l e to damage by f i r e i n the f u t u r e . Lane (1970) reported t h a t : " F i r e i s the major hazard i n the p l a n t a t i o n areas and has caused tremendous damage, o f t e n year a f t e r year. These are a major f a c t o r i n the choice of species f o r p l a n t a t i o n and ofte n r e s u l t i n e i t h e r f a i l u r e or very open s t o c k i n g ... Only ei g h t y percent of the teak planted was s u c c e s s f u l and only 30% of the other s p e c i e s . The success of p l a n t a t i o n programs depends e n t i r e l y on e f f e c t i v e p r o t e c t i o n against f i r e . " Up to the present, pine p l a n t a t i o n s have s u f f e r e d l i t t l e from f i r e . They form only a small f r a c t i o n of the t o t a l , about 5,200 acres (1970), but the pine p l a n t i n g program of the Thai Newsprint Company w i l l be s t a r t e d i n 1973, three years l a t e r , and should reach a r a t e of 3,200 acres annually. These pine p l a n t a t i o n programs probably w i l l face s e r i o u s damage from f i r e , according to Rindt (1966) who s a i d : "Forest f i r e s burn over l a r g e areas i n Thailand each year. They are a s e r i o u s and a r e a l t h r e a t to the pine p l a n t a t i o n s . A f i r e i n them could be a major d i s a s t e r and could be the c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r i n discouraging a pine-based pulp and paper i n d u s t r y . " 2.2.3 The Forest F i r e Season Thailand i s lucky so f a r as f i r e weather i s concerned, because i t s 11 three-month season i s short i n comparison to the six-month season i n Canada, and t o the year round season i n southern C a l i f o r n i a . According to Macleod (1971) the f i r e season i n Thailand d i f f e r s i n two areas: "In the north and northeast i t i s considered to run from l a t e January to e a r l y May or j u s t over three months. In the south and e a s t , the f i r e season i s very short and normally occurs f o r one month only." McCutchaii at e l (1969) described the f i r e climates i n Southeast A s i a as f o l l o w s : "During the normally dry period (November through A p r i l ) three types of s y n o p t i c - s c a l e disturbances are u s u a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r a i n i n Southeast A s i a . . . F i r e climates are not only a f f e c t e d by temperature, humidity, wind speed and p r e c i p i t a t i o n but the most important f a c t o r s are r a i n f a l l and cloud cover." A b r i e f t a b u l a r summary of c l i m a t o l o g i c a l data f o r three r e p r e s e n t a t i v e weather s t a t i o n s (Thailand M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Department) ranging from n o r t h to south i n 1951 - 1965 (Table 2) f o l l o w s . Both the south and east have about the same amount of r a i n f a l l , 115 - 120 inches per year and during the s o - c a l l e d dry season r a i n s may occur on any day. This i s u n l i k e the s i t u a t i o n i n the n o r t h and northeast, where the average annual r a i n f a l l i s about 35 - 40 inches and where there i s a most d e f i n i t e dry p e r i o d during which even s m a l l r a i n s i n f r e q u e n t l y occur. There i s a normal v a r i a t i o n of perhaps two or three weeks at e i t h e r end of the season i n o c c a s i o n a l years. The f i r e season u s u a l l y s t a r t s during the l a t t e r p a r t of December up to mid-January. TABLE 2 C l i m a t o l o g i c a l Data (1951 - 1 A. L o c a t i o n Province P a r t L a t i t u d e Chieng Mai North 18°47' N. o ' Su r i n Northeast 14 53 N. Trang South 07°37' N. B. C l i m a t o l o g i c a l Data Province R a i n f a l l R.H.% Mean ( i n s ) (Mean) Chieng Mai Dec. iO.m 49.1 Jan. C0447 42.8 Feb. C0443 34.2 Mar. 00j:7,4 30.0 Apr. /.2Q02 33.6 S u r i n Dec. .01 50.3 Jan. .06 43.3 Feb. .33 42.4 Mar. 1.52 42.5 Apr. 2.89 45.3 Thailand Longitude E l e v a t i o n ASL (M.) 98°59' E. ;311.00 103°29' E. 145.00 99°40' E. 14.32 Temp.F° Wind (Knots) (Mean) Mean Max. 83 1.4 37 84 1.5 45 90 ; 2.0 54 95 2.5 54 97 3.1 63 86 3.9 30 88 3.5 33 90 3.3 32 96 3.5 40 97 3.5 44 Continued 13 TABLE 2 ((Continued) Province R a i n f a l l R.H.% Temp.F Wind (Knots) Mean (ins) (Mean) (Mean) Mean Max. Trang Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. 3.99 1.61 1.00 2.33 6.01 64.3 57.3 50.5 50.8 56.3 87 90 93 96 95 8.3 10.4 9.5 6.6 5.1 40 40 45 41 50 2.2.4 Causes of F i r e s The m a j o r i t y of f o r e s t f i r e s i n Thailand are man-caused. Eighty per cent of the f i r e s are l i t on purpose, most f o r some r e a l or imagined g a i n , the remainder being a c c i d e n t a l . Most l i g h t n i n g storms are accompanied by heavy r a i n f and the f i r e s are e x t i n g u i s h e d before they spread. Macleod (1971) assumed that l i g h t n i n g must cause,a few f o r e s t f i r e s i n T h a i l a n d , but t h i s cause can be considered of n e g l i g i b l e import-ance. The man-caused f i r e s can be described as f o l l o w s : Campfire: Anyone i n Thailand can enter or work i n the f o r e s t during the f i r e season. These people may be campers, p i c n i c k e r s , hunters, or fishermen, who s t a r t f i r e s f o r cooking or f o r p r o v i d i n g l i g h t or warmth which commonly spread to the surrounding f o r e s t ( D u s i t , 1968). 14 Debris burning: The r u r a l people of Thailand are pushing i n t o the f o o t h i l l and mountain f o r e s t s i n t h e i r search f o r arable l a n d . These low-la n d Thai farmers apply the slash-and-burn method c a r e l e s s l y , so that many f i r e s set to c l e a r land spread through the f o r e s t . F i r e s are a l s o set. to dispose of rubbish or garbage and to burn ranges and meadows (Macleod, 1971). S h i f t i n g C u l t i v a t i o n : Many h i l l - t r i b e s l i v e i n the mountains through-out T h a i l a n d . T h e i r p r a c t i c e of s h i f t i n g c u l t i v a t i o n i s the cause of many f i r e s each year. Thiem (1970) c a l c u l a t e d that h i l l - t r i b e s , i n burning f o r s h i f t i n g c u l t i v a t i o n i n Thai-land, covered about 5,180,000 hectares a year. Highways: Highway Department employees normally use f i r e f o r c l e a r i n g and cle a n i n g roadsides and l e t i t burn through the f o r e s t near roads. Rindt (1969) noted t h a t : " I t i s common p r a c t i c e to use f i r e to c l e a r roadsides of grass and brush, and f i r e i s allowed to spread beyond the roadsides to burn u n c o n t r o l l e d through the f o r e s t s . " Incendiary: A la r g e number of f i r e s are set m a l i c i o u s l y , f o r example by r u r a l people who d i s l i k e what they consider to be arable land used f o r f o r e s t p l a n t a t i o n s . Rindt (1969) noted t h a t : "A f i r e t h i s year d i d s e r i o u s damage to the pine p l a n t a t i o n at Kunkong (the name of a d i s t r i c t i n the n o r t h of T h a i l a n d ) . " Hunters: The hunters, normally, use f i r e f o r v a r i o u s purposes i n p u r s u i t of game and give no thought to the consequences. Smokers and R a i l r o a d s : I t should be s a i d that c i g a r e t t e s and t r a i n s ' sparks r a r e l y are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f i r e s , because the i n i t i a l i g n i t i o n temperature i s too low. However, matches thrown i n t o the grass and s t i l l burning do reach the necessary temperature (Budowski, 1966). 15 2.2.5 Types of F i r e According to Davis (1959), f o r e s t f i r e s are c l a s s i f i e d i n t o three types, s u r f a c e , ground and crown. In Thailand ground f i r e i s most common. F i r e s i n Thailand can be broken i n t o three general types based on burning c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , average damage, and c o n t r o l techniques which are a f f e c t e d mainly by the v e g e t a t i o n and topography. These types are as f o l l o w s : P l a n t a t i o n type: The predominant f u e l i n p l a n t a t i o n s of a l l species i s the grasses which form a dense and continuous l a y e r i n the open area mixed w i t h small t r e e s . Normally, young trees are the dominant f u e l type. F i r e s burn e a s i l y and r a p i d l y i n t h i s type, do considerable damage, are q u i t e common, and are moderately d i f f i c u l t to c o n t r o l . Open gras s l a n d types: Predominant f u e l i s again various species of grasses and brush. The overstory i s very r e s t r i c t e d ^ o c c u r r i n g i n s m a l l patches i n the g u l l i e s , i f at a l l . Topography u s u a l l y i s f l a t . F i r e s occur e a s i l y i n t h i s type, but do not cause much damage. The most common, and ^ most s e r i o u s , f i r e i n t h i s type i s the f i r e which escapes to the dry di p t e r o c a r p f o r e s t or to the teak f o r e s t . This type of f i r e i s not d i f f i c u l t to c o n t r o l . Forest type: The major f u e l i n teak or pine f o r e s t i s the grasses and understory i n the open mature stands. L o c a l l y , pine or teak n a t u r a l regeneration may be the dominant f u e l type. Topography i s g e n e r a l l y steep,and then the f i r e tends to spread r a p i d l y . Slope i s the major f a c t o r determining r a t e and d i r e c t i o n of spread. Saplings arid regeneration u s u a l l y are k i l l e d o u t r i g h t , w h i l e l a r g e r t r e e s , i n c l u d i n g mature t r e e s , are o f t e n damaged. Since slopes are steep and r a i n f a l l i n t e n s e , burned areas may s u f f e r s e r i o u s 16 e r o s i o n and surface r u n o f f . F i r e under t h i s c o n d i t i o n burns h o t t e r and i s much more d i f f i c u l t to c o n t r o l and e x t i n g u i s h because of the l a r g e volume and s i z e of f u e l . This type of f i r e does much more damage than the other s , but i s very d i f f i c u l t to evaluate i n monetary terms. 2.2.6 E c o l o g i c a l E f f e c t s Generally speaking, there are not many references a v a i l a b l e about f i r e e f f e c t s on p l a n t communities, f o r e s t s t r u c t u r e and w i l d l i f e , i n Thailand. B a s i c research s t u d i e s on these aspects are badly needed. A f t e r t e m p o r a r i l y c u l t i v a t e d land i s abandoned, succession takes p l a c e , beginning w i t h grasses and shrubs which burn e a s i l y i n the dry season. F i r e spreads e a s i l y from grass areas i n t o a d j o i n i n g f o r e s t s i f con d i t i o n s are f a v o r a b l e . In most p a r t s of Thailand f i r e i s misused i n c l e a r i n g f o r e s t v e g e t a t i o n as p a r t of the s o - c a l l e d "slash-and-burn" method. K r i t and P i r o t (1962) found t h a t : "The s o i l l o s s on the burned p l o t amounted to approximately 38 tons a r a i w h i l s t the s o i l l o s s i n the unburned f o r e s t p l o t was only 2 tons. The impoverishment of the s o i l by burning i s . a s t o u n d i n g l y g r e a t e r than u s u a l l y imagined." (1.5 r a i equal 1 acre.) Thiem (1969) a l s o s t u d i e d s o i l and water lo s s e s from burning i n t r o p i c a l deciduous f o r e s t i n the north of Thailand (1960 - 1968). The r e s u l t s of the study can be summarized as f o l l o w s : "1) Burning w i l l g r e a t l y increase s o i l and water l o s s e s e s p e c i a l l y i f the areas are burned c o n s e c u t i v e l y every year. Repeated burning w i l l i ncrease runoff and sediment y i e l d i n subsequent years. 2) F i r e may change the q u a l i t y of the s o i l i n teak f o r e s t . 3) Accumulation of organic matter i n the d i f f e r e n t types of f o r e s t s . w i l l r e s u l t i n increased s t a b i l i t y of the s o i l . 17 4) Slope a l s o p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n s o i l and water l o s s e s such as the r a t e of r u n o f f . P l a n t cover, e s p e c i a l l y bamboos, w i t h compact root systems which help i n b i n d i n g the s o i l together a l s o has a great i n f l u e n c e i n determining the ra t e of s o i l and water l o s s e s . " Champion (1962), when w r i t i n g about p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s i n teak-bearing f o r e s t s , concluded t h a t : "The undergrowth i s a l s o g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the annual f i r e s . I t c o n s i s t s mostly of deciduous shrubs and grass w i t h a tendency to evergreens i n the damper s i t e s . Small regeneration of t r e e species i n c l u d i n g teak i s f a i r l y abundant but on examination much of i t i s found to be from l a r g e misshapen r o o t - s t o c k s , of i n d e f i n i t e age, which have been repeatedly burnt back." Teak has a remarkable f i r e r e s i s t i n g power but s t i l l can be damaged by f i r e s . In some areas, teak seedlings take about twenty years to grow high enough and strong enough to withstand a l i g h t f i r e (Macleod, 1971). On the other hand, burning has advantages f o r teak f o r e s t . I t keeps teak growth more uniform, burns undesired s p e c i e s , and weeds and improves the growth of some young t r e e s . In some areas not burned f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s , teak seedlings w i l l be covered by bamboos, or may be surrounded w i t h so much f u e l that a very f i e r c e f i r e i s l i k e l y to cause much damage. The e f f e c t s of f o r e s t f i r e s i n each area must be s t u d i e d c a r e f u l l y . Some f i r e s w i l l be good. Others w i l l be bad. I t appears c e r t a i n that f i r e management w i l l be needed to ensure that the d e s i r e d e f f e c t s w i l l be achieved. The aim should be to reproduce the d e s i r a b l e e f f e c t s o f f i r e and to d i m i n i s h i t s undesirable consequences. P r e s c r i b e d burning near the beginning of the dry season may accomplish many s i l v i c u l t u r a l l y d e s i r a b l e o b j e c t i v e s w i t h l i t t l e or no e c o l o g i c a l impact. 18 2.2.7 Forest F i r e C o n t r o l P r a c t i c e s Up to the present, an e f f e c t i v e f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l o r g a n i z a t i o n has not been developed i n Thailand. K r i t (1966) noted t h a t : "The only p r a c t i c e i s g e n e r a l l y to c l e a r f i r e l i n e s around a block of f o r e s t p l a n t a t i o n s , when the f i r e hazard becomes very h i g h . " Dusit (1968) s t a t e d t h a t : "The only measure that the Forest Department could c u r r e n t l y adopt, out of i t s l i m i t e d budget, i s to b u i l d and maintain the f i r e l i n e around the bl o c k df f o r e s t p l a n t a t i o n s . " Macleod (1971) reported t h a t : "The p r a c t i c e of f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l i n Thailand has been minimal or non-existant...The only s i g n i f i c a n t e f f o r t s have been a few sm a l l ad hoc programs on f o r e s t conservation ...A few patrolmen have been employed at experimental f o r e s t p l o t s and at some plantations;...Some pre-suppression f i r e -guards have been made w i t h and around p l a n t a t i o n s and small experimental f o r e s t s . " The agents which cause damage to the f o r e s t c o n s i s t of man, i n s e c t s , d i s e a s e , f i r e and other n a t u r a l c a l a m i t i e s . But the i n j u r y done by human beings ( i l l e g a l c u t t i n g ) r a t e s the most s e r i o u s f o r the f o r e s t of Thailan d . Therefore, the F o r e s t r y Department has to concentrate a l l of i t s resources and e f f o r t s to curb such m a l p r a c t i c e s , and p r o t e c t i o n against diseases, i n s e c t s and f i r e s i s s t i l l i n the experimental stage i n Thailand. 2.2.8 The A t t i t u d e of People to Forest F i r e Measures suggested to improve f o r e s t p r o t e c t i o n i n Thailand o f t e n would i n t e r f e r e w i t h the l i b e r t i e s which the people take f o r granted. They look upon the f o r e s t as a nuisance, and the person that can c l e a r and burn 19 the l a r g e s t area i s considered the most i n d u s t r i o u s i n h i s town. Enforcement, besides being very unpopular, has u s u a l l y proven to be very d i f f i c u l t . D u sit (1968) noted t h a t : "The f o r e s t o f f i c e r s who are charged w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to safeguard the f o r e s t from d e s t r u c t i o n have been t r e a t e d by the community as the ' p u b l i c enemy'. Some of our en e r g e t i c f o r e s t e r s were k i l l e d w h i l e performing t h e i r d u t i e s i n the f o r e s t s . " Almost a l l f i r e s are i n t e n t i o n a l l y set by man, u s u a l l y w i t h a d e f i n i t e i n i t i a l purpose. Macleod (1971) pointed out t h a t : "The a t t i t u d e o f the p u b l i c i n Thailand toward f i r e i n the f o r e s t i s such that almost anyone e n t e r i n g or working t h e r e i n during the f i r e season i s a very s e r i o u s t h r e a t to f o r e s t f i r e . P r a c t i c a l l y a l l people, i n c l u d i n g some of the p r o f e s s i o n a l f o r e s t e r s , appear to have'no s e r i o u s compunction about l e t t i n g f i r e run through the f o r e s t . . . In T h a i l a n d , most of the f o r e s t s that were s u s c e p t i b l e to f i r e have been c l e a r e d and burned by the r u r a l people, who are very poor and uneducated, f o r a g r i c u l t u r e purpose." Rindt (1969) a l s o found t h a t : "There are disagreements about the e f f e c t of f o r e s t f i r e s on hardwood timber types i n Thailan d . Some people cl a i m that f i r e s b e n e f i t hardwood growth. Others c l a i m that f i r e s damage i t . There i s need to know the f a c t s . " Because everyone i n Thailand has been able to use f i r e i n the f o r e s t f o r almost any reason, anytime, even government employees, such as Department of Highway workers, can s t a r t , and leave untended, roadside i. i f i r e s i n f o r e s t e d areas. 2.2.9 F o r e s t r y Laws Concerned w i t h F i r e There are no s p e c i f i c f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l a c t s . i n T h a i l a n d . The only two acts that can be used as t o o l s i n f o r e s t p r o t e c t i o n are: 20 a) F o r e s t r y Act 1941 (amended by F o r e s t r y Act (No.3), 1951), S e c t i o n 54 ... "No person may c l e a r , RAZE or do anything to destroy a f o r e s t unless w i t h i n areas p r e s c r i b e d by the M i n i s t e r by n o t i f i c a t i o n i n the government Gazette unless by a u t h o r i z a t i o n of the competent o f f i c i a l . " S e ction 72 ( t e r ) "Whoever contravenes S e c t i o n 54 s h a l l be l i a b l e to imprisonment and not exceeding one year or a f i n e not exceeding four thousand baht (20 baht equals $1) or both ...In offences under t h i s s e c t i o n , i f committed over an area exceeding f i f t y r a i s (2% r a i s equal 1 a c r e ) , the offender s h a l l be l i a b l e to imprisonment from s i x months to f i v e years and a f i n e of from two thousand to twenty thousand baht...In the event of c o n v i c t i o n under S e c t i o n 54, i f i t appears the f offender needs possession of the f o r e s t land on which the offence was committed, the court i s empowered .to give judgment ordering the e v i c t i o n of such person from such, l a n d . " S e c t i o n 74 ( b i s ) " A l l t o o l s , equipment, animals and v e h i c l e s f o r t r a n s p o r t . or any machinery used i n the commission of offences or i used as a c c e s s o r i e s to o b t a i n r e s u l t s i n the commission of offences under Sect i o n 54, s h a l l be c o n f i s c a t e d whether or not persons have been convicted f o r such o f f e n c e s . " b) N a t i o n a l Park A c t , 1961. Secti o n 16: "Within the n a t i o n a l park, no person s h a l l (1) Hold or possess land, nor c l e a r or Burn the f o r e s t ; . . . ( 1 8 ) d i s -charge rubbish or things at the place not provided f o r such purpose;...(19) leave any loose a r t i c l e which may cause f i r e . " , S e c t i o n 24: "Whoever v i o l a t e s S e c t i o n 16(1) s h a l l be punished w i t h imprisonment not exceeding f i v e years or f i n e not exceeding twenty thousand baht, or both." 21 S e c t i o n 27: "Whoever v i o l a t e s S e c t i o n 16(18) s h a l l be punished w i t h f i n e not exceeding f i v e hundred baht." These two acts do not have adequate clauses to permit f o r e s t -o f f i c e r s t o deal w i t h f o r e s t f i r e problems which i n v o l v e n a t u r a l f o r e s t s and f o r e s t p l a n t a t i o n areas. Legal measures t o prevent f o r e s t f i r e should be more s p e c i f i c and more severe than these clauses. As use of f i r e i s a deeply entrenched custom w i t h r u r a l people everywhere, f o r e s t f i r e a cts should be w r i t t e n i n simple but enforceable terms. 2.2.10 Pressures f o r Improvement The F o r e s t r y Department has recognized that f o r e s t f i r e s have been s e r i o u s l y damaging Thailand's f o r e s t s f o r many years. Over the year s , l a r g e numbers of recommendations have been made f o r overcoming the f i r e problems. These suggestions were as f o l l o w s : Champion (1962) suggested t h a t : "Uncontrolled burning i s u n i v e r s a l i n the deciduous and pine f o r e s t s . I t i s recognized that at present, f u l l p r o t e c t i o n i s u n a t t a i n a b l e , but steps can be taken to reduce the damage done to the growing stock and the s o i l . " K r i t (1966) when w r i t i n g about f o r e s t r y development i n Thailand , noted t h a t : "Thoughts have been given to the c r e a t i o n of f i r e - f i g h t i n g u n i t s , c o n s t r u c t i o n of f i r e observation towers, and procurement of f i r e - f i g h t i n g equipment, but under the present (1966) circumstances, i t w i l l probably be some time before such things m a t e r i a l i z e . " D usit (1968) a l s o noted t h a t : "Forest f i r e i s second to human a c t i v i t i e s i n causing damage to n a t u r a l stands and impoverishing f o r e s t s o i l . " 22 Rindt (1969) reported t h a t : "Pine p l a n t a t i o n s represent a l a r g e investment of p u b l i c funds as w e l l as v a l u a b l e timber resources. A f i r e pro-t e c t i o n and f i r e suppression plan should be developed f o r the pine areas. Necessary f i r e - f i g h t i n g equipment and instruments to measure f i r e weather should be obtained. The h i l l t r i b e s and r u r a l people who are the p r i n c i p a l labour source i n the pine areas, should be t r a i n e d to f i g h t f o r e s t f i r e s . " Lane (1970) b e l i e v e d that f i r e i s the major hazard i n the p l a n t a t i o n program and has caused tremendous damage, oft e n year a f t e r year. He summarized h i s recommendations: 1) A f o r e s t o f f i c e r be appointed f o r f u l l time work on f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l methods and r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g abroad. 2) Reduction of f i r e damage be a major subject i n p u b l i c campaign. 3) P r a c t i c a l steps be c a r r i e d out to reduce f i r e damage by c l e a r i n g f i r e l i n e s , c o n t r o l l e d burning, e s t a b l i s h i n g f i r e s t a t i o n s , f i r e p a t r o l l i n g , and c o n s t r u c t i n g look-out towers. 4) Burning of roadside v e g e t a t i o n be p r o h i b i t e d i n reserved f o r e s t s . L i t t l e a c t i o n to implement these recommendations had been taken u n t i l 1971. Then Mr. J.C. Macleod, the f o r e s t f i r e expert from CIDA, was assigned to provide advice and make recommendations to the Royal F o r e s t r y Department concerning f o r e s t f i r e s i n Thailand. Macleod (1971) gave both general and s p e c i f i c recommendations about r e g u l a t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n , t r a i n i n g , and funds. He a l s o emphasized t h a t : "Even i f no funds are budgeted f o r f i r e c o n t r o l next year, there need be no s l a c k e n i n g of e f f o r t ;to provide p r o t e c t i o n against f i r e . " 23 2.3 Status of Forest F i r e C o n t r o l i n Other Countries w i t h Related C o n d i t i o n s . F i r e has a long h i s t o r y of occurrence i n the t r o p i c s , and i t s e f f e c t s upon the p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l environment have been profound (Batchelder, 1966). There are many unknowns and misconceptions about the exact r o l e of f i r e s i n t r o p i c a l areas (Budowski, 1966). How o l d i s f i r e ? I s l i g h t n i n g f i r e p o s s i b l e or a f a c t o r of importance i n t r o p i c s ? Does the t r o p i c a l r a i n f o r e s t ever burn? Budowski (1966) b e l i e v e d t h a t : " F i r e i s widespread i n a l l t r o p i c a l c o u n t r i e s , u s u a l l y connected w i t h p r i m i t i v e a g r i c u l t u r e and g r a z i n g . L i g h t n i n g was p o s s i b l e and before man's a r r i v a l burned l a r g e areas of f o r e s t and savannas p e r i o d i c a l l y . Man's i n f l u e n c e i s suspected to date back between 10,000 to 50,000 years ago." W i l d f i r e s v-rare considered a very important f o r e s t problem i n many t r o p i c a l American c o u n t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y B r a z i l , Venezuela, Columbia and Honduras, where at times g r e a t - e f f o r t s and expenditures have been made towards t h e i r c o n t r o l . Budowski (1966) , when he discussed f o r e s t f i r e management i n South America, noted t h a t : "In B r i t i s h Honduras c o n t r o l l e d f i r e s were recommended some 20 years ago and according to a l a t e r Annual Report (1962) p r a c t i s e d w i t h apparent success. In Guatemala, recommendations f o r e a r l y f i r e s were made f o r pine i n 1950, but at t h i s stage none have been p r a c t i s e d i n appreciable s c a l e . In Nicaragua, the F.A.O. M i s s i o n had been experimenting f o r many years. E d u c a t i o n a l campaigns were l i m i t e d to l e a f l e t s , road signs and r a d i o programs, a l l advocating suppression of f i r e s but r a r e l y suggesting s u b s t i t u t e s f o r the bene-f i c i a l e f f e c t s achieved by f i r e s . " 24 F i r e i s one of the most serious dangers to the f o r e s t s and grasslands i n many countries of A s i a . A number of attempts have been made to reduce the occurrence of and t o c o n t r o l f o r e s t f i r e s . Most of them have not been s u c c e s s f u l , p r i m a r i l y because of the l a c k of funds to do a proper j o b . In the P h i l i p p i n e s Kimbal (1971) reported: " A c t u a l percentage of area burned i s not known and quotes from various sources range from 25 - 27% of p u b l i c l a n d . . . There are many laws, r e g u l a t i o n s , d i r e c t i v e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e orders regarding i l l e g a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the p u b l i c f o r e s t . G e n e r a l l y , they are adequate to do the r e q u i r e d j o b , but very few are enforced." In I n d i a , Kadambi (1957): " F i r e i s one of the c h i e f enemies of f o r e s t which does i n c a l c u l a b l e harm to f o r e s t growth i n the country. A s i n g l e u n c o n t r o l l e d f i r e can r u i n a f o r e s t and f i n i s h o f f the work of generations of f o r e s t o f f i c e r s and wipe out the advantages which may have occurred to crop, through years of l a b o r i o u s e f f o r t . " The Indian Forest A c t , 1927, Sectio n 26: " P r o h i b i t s any person s e t t i n g f i r e to a reserved f o r e s t o r , i n contravention of any r u l e s made by l o c a l government i n t h i s b e h a l f p r o h i b i t s k i n d l i n g any f i r e or l e a v i n g any f i r e b urning, i n such a manner as to endanger a f o r e s t . V i o l a t i o n of the Act i s punishable w i t h imprisonment f o r a p e r i o d of s i x months or-a f i n e of Rs. 500 or w i t h both, i n a d d i t i o n to such compensation f o r damage done to the f o r e s t as the c o n v i c t i n g court may d i r e c t to be p a i d . " Troup (1940) discussed f o r e s t f i r e p r o t e c t i o n i n A s i a saying: "The f o r e s t laws g e n e r a l l y p r o h i b i t , w i t h i n reserved or Crown f o r e s t s , the f i r i n g of grass or undergrowth. For example, under Federated Malay States Forest Enactment, 1934, ' i t ' i s i l l e g a l to leave f i r e burning, whether w i t h i n or without a reserved f o r e s t , i n such manner as to endanger the f o r e s t . . . The r i g h t h o l d e r s , c o n c e s s i o n a i r e s , employees, and those i n r e c e i p t of Government emoluments who l i v e near the f o r e s t are bound to a s s i s t i n e x t i n g u i s h i n g f i r e s i n , or preventing them 25 from spreading i n t o reserved f o r e s t s , Such compulsory attendance at f i r e s i s r e q u i r e d by the I n d i a , Burma, and Ceylon Forest A c t s . " In A u s t r a l i a , the F o r e s t r y Act provides f o r the c o n t r o l of f i r e on dedicated f o r e s t s , but problems of c o n t r o l l i n g other r u r a l f i r e s are d e a l t w i t h under the Careless Use of F i r e Act. Luke (1949) noted t h a t : "The present Forest Act does not give the f o r e s t e r s u f f i c i e n t powers t o suppress f i r e on neighbouring lands." In New Zealand, f i r e prevention and c o n t r o l i s now p r i n c i p a l l y contained i n the Forest and R u r a l F i r e Act (1947) but comparable p r o v i s i o n s are contained i n the Forests Act (1949) f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of s t a t e f o r e s t s not protected by F i r e D i s t r i c t s and which do not, t h e r e f o r e , come under the former a c t . Boardman (1950) b e l i e v e d t h a t : "The Forest Act and R u r a l F i r e Act together w i t h the F i r e Services A c t , 1949 (which p r o t e c t s urban d i s t r i c t s ) , and the Forest Act 1949 (which p r o t e c t s s t a t e f o r e s t s not brought under the act) now provides the necessary machinery f o r a complete coverage of New Zealand w i t h respect to f i r e prevention and c o n t r o l . " In T r i n i d a d , f i r e s i n teak p l a n t a t i o n s have become a p e r e n n i a l problem. The causes of f i r e s and t h e i r e f f e c t s on the t r e e crop and the s i t e were discussed by Murray (1961) who noted t h a t : "The most p r e s s i n g problem a s s o c i a t e d w i t h teak i n T r i n i d a d today i s the hot surface f i r e s which sweep through approxi-mately 50% of a l l p l a n t a t i o n s each y e a r . Often the same coupe i s burnt twice i n the same dry season." In the same report Murray (1961) suggested t h a t : "The r e a l answer to the f i r e problem l i e s i n the education of the general public...The ordinary c i t i z e n must be made aware of the cumulative e f f e c t s of f i r e s on s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n ; the p u b l i c conscience must be aroused." 26 In l e t t e r s from many f i r e c o n t r o l headquarters i n the southern U.S.A., some v a l u a b l e suggestions were given to me. Mr. Del W. Thorsen (Forest s u p e r v i s o r of the N a t i o n a l Forest i n North C a r o l i n a ) suggested t h a t : " I r e a l i z e that t r o p i c a l f o r e s t s do c o n s i s t of extremely heavy growth which when d r i e d produces vast q u a n t i t i e s of f u e l . This v e g e t a t i o n a l s o i s a hindrance to suppression e f f o r t s . Therefore equipment versus manpower w i t h hand t o o l s i s a very v a l i d question...The area of equipment p o s s i b i l i t i e s and combinations i s very broad and w i l l take q u i t e a b i t of a n a l y s i s and t r i a l and e r r o r ' t o come up w i t h s u i t a b l e equipment." Mr. John W. G r a f f i n (Group Leader, Forest F i r e Management, Southern Area, State and P r i v a t e F o r e s t r y ) advised me t h a t : "The key i s that every able bodied person i s subject to ' f i r e c a l l ' i f c o n d i t i o n s warrant...Training i s most important i n preparing f o r t h i s . " Mr. Ragnar W. Johansen, who i s P r o j e c t Leader, Southern Forest F i r e Laboratory, suggested i n a l e t t e r to me t h a t : "Before any f i r e o r g a n i z a t i o n plans can be made, one must become f a m i l i a r w i t h many f a c e t s of the problem such as: magnitude of the problem,, geography, s o i l s , and t r e e species of the area i n v o l v e d , manpower and equipment resources a v a i l a b l e , personal e x p e r t i s e , extent of road systems and a i r p o r t s , and the monies a v a i l a b l e to do the j o b . " 2.4 Summary The n a t u r a l and managed r o l e s of f o r e s t f i r e i n Th a i l a n d and other t r o p i c a l c o u n t r i e s are discussed. The causes of these f i r e s and t h e i r e f f e c t s on the tree crop and s i t e are reviewed. Although almost a l l f i r e s are man caused, the s p e c i f i c causes of f i r e s are not known w i t h any degree of c e r t a i n t y . 27 W i l d f i r e s are considered to be a very important f o r e s t r y problem i n many t r o p i c a l c o u n t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y B r a z i l , Venezuela, Columbia, Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua, the P h i l i p p i n e s , T r i n i d a d , A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand. In these co u n t r i e s many attempts have been made to reduce f i r e occurrence and damage.. Most of them have not been s u c c e s s f u l , p r i m a r i l y because of the l a c k of funds and e x p e r t i s e . 28 3. FIRE PROGRAM IMPROVEMENT 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n A good f i r e c o n t r o l program i s not the r e s u l t of a s i n g l e act or deed; i t i s an ongoing day-by-day process. What i s s t a r t e d w e l l should be continued as any v a l u a b l e f o r e s t area can be burned i f one year goes by without p r o t e c t i o n . For t h i s reason alone, i t w i l l be necessary to plan a long range program that w i l l be assured of adequate f i n a n c i n g . The p l a n at the s t a r t should be s m a l l and l a t e r c o n s t a n t l y expanded as manpower and finances a l l o w , w i t h the goal being never to cut back on p r o t e c t e d areas. Knowledge of the amount and values of the land to be p r o t e c t e d w i l l thus be necessary to determine the p r i o r i t i e s f o r t h i s p r o t e c t i o n . The eventual o b j e c t i v e of t h i s program would be to place a l l hazardous areas i n the country under i n t e n s i v e f i r e c o n t r o l management, but c e r t a i n l y t h i s i s not p o s s i b l e immediately because e s t a b l i s h i n g a sound f i r e c o n t r o l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s very expensive. Inputs and outputs must be considered c a r e f u l l y . At present, w i t h the low l e v e l of development of the f o r e s t areas to be p r o t e c t e d , i t i s a l s o a formidable job p h y s i c a l l y . However, many f a c t o r s suggest that a good f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l program i s badly needed i n T h a i l a n d , and i n the near f u t u r e a s t a r t should be made i n a s m a l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e area. 3.2 F i r e Prevention F i r e prevention would be the most important aspect of a f i r e c o n t r o l program'in""Thailand, because most f o r e s t f i r e s i n Thailand are man-caused. The o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n f i r e prevention are tremendous. Money and 29 e f f o r t spent i n f i r e p revention pays o f f i n two ways: suppression costs are saved; and damage to the resource i s lessened. The eventual goal of f i r e prevention w i l l be achieved when a m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n of Thailand understands the message about the damage done by f o r e s t f i r e s and the need f o r f i r e p revention. Prevention i s d i f f i c u l t to organize and o f t e n i t i s very hard to determine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of any p a r t i c u l a r , program. Mr. J.C. Macleod, the Canadian f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l expert, who had been working on f o r e s t f i r e s i n T h a i l a n d , suggested to me (personal communication) t h a t : " I r e a l i z e , of course, that f i r e p revention i n t h i s f r e e land i s going to be an u p h i l l fight...The l a n d , where everyone has been able to use f i r e f o r almost any reason i n the f o r e s t , and where even government employees such as Department of Highway workers can s t a r t , and leave untended, roadside f i r e s i n f o r e s t e d areas, i t i s i n e v i t a b l e that they won't want to give up these p r i v i l e g e s . I t i s going to be your j o b , to convince them that i t i s i n t h e i r own best i n t e r e s t s to maintain good f o r e s t s , and that i s one of the major reasons f o r s t a r t i n g now." 3.2.1 Forest F i r e P r e v e n t i o n Campaign Everyone knows f i r e damages the f o r e s t , but sometimes they l o s e s i g h t of j u s t how s e r i o u s these f i r e s are. The Forest Department, a l s o , has recognized f o r many years that f o r e s t f i r e s have been s e r i o u s l y damaging the f o r e s t s of the country, and indeed, without adequate prevention against f i r e , many d e s i r e d methods of f o r e s t management simply cannot be a p p l i e d . A campaign f o r preventing f o r e s t f i r e s must be undertaken soon. The whole a t t i t u d e of the p u b l i c and a l s o of many government o f f i c i a l s , i n c l u d i n g some f o r e s t e r s , towards f i r e i n the f o r e s t s must be changed. A f o r e s t f i r e p revention campaign to accomplish the d e s i r e d 30 o b j e c t i v e would.require a conc e n t r a t i o n of e f f o r t i n a v a r i e t y of d i r e c t i o n s f o r at l e a s t a decade or probably f o r much longer. A strong e f f o r t should be made to seek the cooperation of a l l government agencies i n f i r e p revention. The p u b l i c cannot be expected to be c a r e f u l w i t h f i r e i n the f o r e s t s i f the government o f f i c i a l s do not see f i t to ensure that t h e i r own employees or agents use some common sense i n respect to the use of f i r e . I t should be cons t a n t l y borne i n mind that informed p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n Thailand i s u l t i m a t e l y the most potent instrument f o r i n f l u e n c i n g the behaviour of i n d i v i d u a l s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the government, a l l of whom must change t h e i r ways i f the f o r e s t s are to be saved from f i r e . The i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e of the For e s t r y Department i s the only agency that can be in v o l v e d i n f f o r e s t f i r e a d v e r t i s i n g . This s e r v i c e should be provided w i t h s u f f i c i e n t funds to increase g r e a t l y i t s f o r e s t conserva-t i o n campaign, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h respect to f o r e s t f i r e p revention. I c e r t a i n l y hope that a widespread campaign through the use of posters and other a d v e r t i s i n g media w i l l s t a r t i n 1974 or as sooneas p o s s i b l e t h e r e a f t e r . Many a d v e r t i s i n g ideas used i n f o r e s t f i r e prevention campaigns i n Canada and the United States can be a p p l i e d to T h a i l a n d , but a l l need c a r e f u l study before a p p l i c a t i o n as some slogans may create negative r e a c t i o n s . For example, I would l i k e to adapt some North American ideas to s u i t the nature of Thai people as f o l l o w s : -? T i g e r s , bears and cobras are considered dangerous w i l d animals i n Tha i l a n d , and thus they are u s u a l l y c l a s s i f i e d as the enemy of man. For t h i s reason, the Smokey Bear symbol should be replaced w i t h an "Elephant", as Thai people b e l i e v e that the elephant i s the ki n g of w i l d animals and the most powerful l i v i n g t h i n g i n the f o r e s t . Posters such as those i n Figures 31 1 and 2 should be widely d i s t r i b u t e d . - The slogan, "Remember, only you can prevent f o r e s t f i r e " should be changed to "Even you can help to prevent forest f i r e " because i n Thailand nobody wants to do any work alone but prefer to help others or work i n a group. - The slogan "Protect the wealth of the west" should be changed to "Protecting forests can make you wealthy" because everyone wants to become r i c h even when they know i t i s impossible to do so. -The slogan "Use ashtray to prevent f o r e s t f i r e " does not apply to Thailand because I believe that the i n i t i a l i g n i t i o n temperature of cigarettes i s too low to be a cause of burning. ..'"Don't play with - * matches" i s more suited to the s i t u a t i o n i n Thailand. - The name of "Keep green program" may not be accepted by Thai people because the majority of forest f i r e s are l i g h t ground f i r e s that never turn any big tree;to brown. Such f i r e s usually destroy only the undergrowth and grasses. The forest canopy w i l l s t i l l be green even while the f i r e i s burning, or soon a f t e r burning i t w i l l be green again. Many slogans could be translated d i r e c t l y to Thai, such as, "Promise that you w i l l be c a r e f u l with matches, camp f i r e s " , etc., "A century to grow, an hour to burn", etc. The signs and posters designed for mass appeals should be modified to create s p e c i f i c "how-to-do" and other educational items for l o c a l use. While the program i s aimed p r i m a r i l y at general use, consideration must be given to make i t e f f e c t i v e i n l o c a l s i t u a t i o n s . Each year before the f i r e season, a campaign program should be planned i n advance. Samples of posters, signs, advertising mats, p i c t u r e s , 32 r a d i o s c r i p t s and other items should be discussed i n the p r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n committees to improve the program. Because the great m a j o r i t y of f o r e s t f i r e s i n Thailand are man-caused, i t i s e s s e n t i a l that the prevention campaign must work very w e l l , f o r then there would be many fewer f o r e s t f i r e hazards i n the country. 3.2.2 A d v e r t i s i n g f o r F i r e Prevention S e l e c t i o n of the best approach to p u b l i c education i n f i r e p revention leads to the question of media—and means of presenting f i r e p revention messages. These run the f u l l gamut of communication techniques employed i n a d v e r t i s i n g . Many t r o p i c a l c o u n t r i e s have f a i l e d by using the wrong means of a d v e r t i s i n g to prevent f i r e s . No one method i s b e s t , but many are necessary. There are d i f f e r e n c e s i n ideas regarding t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e m erits i n meeting p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s . Davis (1959) c l a s s i f i e d a v a i l a b l e media as f o l l o w s : - Signs and P o s t e r s : These must be designed so as to very a p t l y and s t r i k i n g l y c h a r a c t e r i z e a major p o i n t , both through c a r e f u l choice of wording and some chromatic appealing or memorable v i s u a l images. These e f f e c t s can be produced through the wide v a r i e t y of techniques developed by commercial a r t i s t s f o r business a d v e r t i z i n g . The p o i n t s to be kept i n mind are: (1) the message on the poster must be appropriate to the p u b l i c , (2) i t must be posted at s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n s , (3) i t must hang s t r a i g h t and be placed at eye l e v e l , and (4) damaged signs must be r e p a i r e d or replaced immediately. - W r i t t e n and i l l u s t r a t e d m a t e r i a l i n newspapers, magazines, pamphlets, and l e a f l e t s : These should provide e s s e n t i a l d e t a i l s and give a more complete s t o r y . F i r e prevention slogans or messages should be published or t r a n s m i t t e d as a p u b l i c s e r v i c e . I t i s important that the i n f o r m a t i o n should be checked 33 by the l o c a l f o r e s t e r or r e s p o n s i b l e o f f i c e r i n the area before r e l e a s e . Otherwise, confusion may a r i s e i f i n c o r r e c t or i n a p p r o p r i a t e m a t e r i a l i s iss u e d . - Radio, s t i l l p i c t u r e s , motion p i c t u r e s , and t e l e v i s i o n : T e l e v i s i o n i s expensive and not a c c e s s i b l e to many groups. Radio should be used f o r both spot announcements and longer programs. Motion and s t i l l p i c t u r e s can be used combined w i t h spoken l e c t u r e s , i n f r e e p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s . This i s an extremely f l e x i b l e and e f f e c t i v e medium, as i t can be fashioned to e n t e r t a i n and inform l a r g e s e c t i o n s of the nation's worst f i r e - o f f e n d e r s , the l a r g e l y i l l i t e r a t e r u r a l and h i l l d w e l l e r s . Perhaps r a d i o i s the best means to inform the p u b l i c of important announcements regarding f o r e s t f i r e s ' i n T h ailand because i t can reach a l a r g e p o r t i o n of the po p u l a t i o n i n the s h o r t e s t time. - P e r s o n a l group contacts: Every group or community has c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s and ideas about f o r e s t f i r e s . They may also be ignorant of con-d i t i o n s which need to be changed, or i n d i f f e r e n t to that need. The key i n d i v i d u a l s should be contacted d i r e c t l y to transmit a f i r e p revention message to groups. - I n d i v i d u a l contacts: A personal contact w i t h one or two people, t a l k i n g about f i r e p revention or p o i n t i n g out f i r e hazards, takes a l o t of time per person contacted but the impact w i l l be great. In con t r a s t the rad i o or T.V. program which contacts l a r g e audiences may take r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e e f f o r t per person contacted, but few people w i l l r e a l l y get the message. For Tha i l a n d , I expect that i n d i v i d u a l contacts would be the most s i g n i f i c a n t point of understanding. I t may c o n s i s t of personal i n t e r v i e w s or contacts made by f i r e g u a r d s i n g r e e t i n g or v i s i t i n g . 37 3.2.3 Prevention Through Education Without close cooperation from l o c a l people, l i t t l e f o r e s t f i r e prevention could be accomplished, t h e r e f o r e , i n a d d i t i o n to the amending of the f o r e s t law, the strengthening of f o r e s t r y s t a f f , and i n c r e a s i n g 6 f the budget of the F o r e s t r y Department, education i s extremely important. Forest f i r e p r o t e c t i o n should be a compulsory t o p i c i n the curriculum of the k i n d e r g a r t e n , primary and secondary schools as w e l l as i n higher education. There i s no b e t t e r way than i n s t r u c t i n g the c h i l d r e n , not only because they are the adults of the f u t u r e , but also because of the way they a f f e c t t h e i r parents. Teachers i n schools near f o r e s t s may be w i l l i n g to use a f i r e t o p i c as the subject f o r compositions, i n r e t u r n f o r g i v i n g the c l a s s a t a l k about the need f o r preventing f o r e s t f i r e s . The c h i l d r e n must be c o n s i s t e n t l y taught that f o r e s t s are i n essence t h e i r own property managed f o r them by the government. P i c t u r e drawing and poster design c o n t e s t s , even f o r very s m a l l p r i z e s , i n t e r e s t the c h i l d r e n , leave a long-term impression and almost ensure that some parents w i l l become i n v o l v e d . G i r l and boy scouts and other organized nationwide c i v i c groups can p l a y an important p a r t . A c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a good way to s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t , so much of the m a t e r i a l designed to promote g r e a t e r understanding amongst c h i l d r e n can be prepared on a c e n t r a l o f f i c e l e v e l i n the F o r e s t r y Department and then passed down to the f i e l d u n i t s i n the appropriate l o c a l i t i e s . I t would be d e s i r a b l e to create a new consciousness i n the people 38 regarding the importance of f o r e s t s and regarding the repercussions of f o r e s t f i r e s on the economic f u t u r e of the country. Such education should be aimed at a l l s o c i a l l e v e l s , by means of courses, l e c t u r e s , and confer-ences i n the va r i o u s schools. In the f i r s t p l a c e , i t should acquaint the people w i t h the t r e e and i t s l i f e , and then encourage them to develop a love f o r nature and an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the b e n e f i t s dispensed by nature when one gets to know i t . 3.2.4 Prevention through Enforcement Normally, law enforcement should be the f i n a l step i n a f i r e p revention program, but f o r Thailand i t should come f i r s t or at the same time as education and the prevention campaign. Laweenforcement must be a necessary t o o l of f i r e p revention i n T h a i l a n d , f o r without law, or i f law i s not a p p l i e d when needed, the program w i l l f a i l . Law enforcement i s e s s e n t i a l i n d e a l i n g w i t h i n c e n d i a r y f i r e s , though d i s c r e t i o n and a thorough understanding of the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n are necessary. Many i n c e n d i a r y f i r e s are the r e s u l t of a l o c a l a t t i t u d e of i n d i f f e r e n c e , even approval, regarding woods burning and are not set w i t h c r i m i n a l i n t e n t , and t h e r e f o r e the s p e c i f i c cases have to be considered as l o c a l problems. P e n a l t i e s f o r a c c i d e n t a l s e t t i n g of f i r e s through carelessness o r negligence are necessary i n the prevention program f o r T h a i l a n d . Costs of authorized f i r e s t hat escape boundaries and spread upon and damage another person's property should be recoverable, i n c l u d i n g suppression costs and property damage. B a s i c a l l y , f o r e s t f i r e law and i t s enforcement are an edu c a t i o n a l 39 t o o l to be used w i s e l y and f i r m l y , and they must be accompanied by prevention education. Without understanding and support from l o c a l people, f o r e s t f i r e enforcement could not be s u c c e s s f u l . 3.3 Forest F i r e C o n t r o l O r g a n i z a t i o n The aim of t h i s chapter i s to review the p r i n c i p a l problems i n b u i l d i n g and operating a f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n T h a i l a n d , and to present a way of developing an o r g a n i z a t i o n designed to achieve the needs of the country. This knowledge i s only a b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n r e q u i r e d to handle the i n i t i a l operation and i t should be capable of expansion to a l a r g e s c a l e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the f u t u r e . 3.3.1 Factors A f f e c t i n g Organization S t r u c t u r e s The Royal Forest Department of Thailand was founded i n 1896 by a Royal Decree, on September 18, 1896, i s s u e d by King Rama V. The admin-i s t r a t i o n of the department has a long h i s t o r y . The department was d i v i d e d i n t o seven d i v i s i o n s , namely: 1) Forest management 2) Forest c o n t r o l 3) Park 4) S i l v i c u l t u r a l research 5) Forest product research 6) Finance, and 7) O f f i c e of the Secretary ( K r i t , 1966). There are a l s o the t e r r i t o r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n which c o n s i s t s of 21 f o r e s t d i s t r i c t s , and 644 f o r e s t p r o t e c t i o n u n i t s set up i n the v a r i o u s 40 l o c a l i t i e s considered v a l u a b l e as f o r e s t ( d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e to the Royal Forest Department). Apart from these, there are a l s o 67 p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t o f f i c e s and 470 township f o r e s t o f f i c e s being d i r e c t l y answerable to the p r o v i n c i a l governors. A l s o under the d i r e c t c o n t r o l of the f o r e s t department i s a f o r e s t r y s c h o o l , which i s a v o c a t i o n a l school o f f e r i n g two-year ranger courses. (The r e o r g a n i z a t i o n was done i n 1972, Appendix C.) I t w i l l be seen that t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n set up does not f o l l o w the i n t e r n a t i o n a l form. At present, f i r e c o n t r o l s t i l l i s at the experiment-a l stage as part of the management and s i l v i c u l t u r a l d i v i s i o n s , so i f f i r e c o n t r o l i s to be developed i n t o a f u l l f u n c t i o n i n T h a i l a n d , some type of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e w i l l have to be created. There are many f a c t o r s about f i r e c o n t r o l o r g a n i z a t i o n that have to be considered: 1) F i r e c o n t r o l i s a seasonal j o b ; when the need a r i s e s , i t i s the most urgent of a l l f o r e s t r y operations. Sometimes i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to employ the r i g h t person f o r t h i s work at the r i g h t time. 2) F i r e c o n t r o l plans must be made i n advance. There i s no time to prepare plans w h i l e a f i r e i s burning. 3) Normally, the o r g a n i z a t i o n must be both c e n t r a l i z e d and d e c e n t r a l -i z e d . The headquarters i n Bangkok must be the c e n t r a l o f f i c e c o - o r d i n a t i n g one region w i t h another and the man on the ground must be c o n t r o l l i n g the f i r e . 3.3.2 Manpower F i r e c o n t r o l o r g a n i z a t i o n needs various types and sources of man-power. P r o f e s s i o n a l f i r e c o n t r o l men should devote f u l l time to the problems of f i r e c o n t r o l . They would be most concerned w i t h presuppression 41 or planning and improvement of the system during the o f f season, but during the f i r e season, they would be concerned w i t h f i r e prevention and suppression a c t i v i t i e s . They a l s o would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t r a i n i n g programs, and maintenance of communications and d e t e c t i o n systems, c a r r y i n g on a permanent f i r e prevention campaign and c o o r d i n a t i o n of the o v e r a l l f i r e c o n t r o l o p e r a t i o n , as w e l l as improving f i r e f i g h t i n g t o o l s and methods. Trained persons from deputy d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r l e v e l might be c l a s s i f i e d as pro-f e s s i o n a l c o n t r o l men. i F i r e c o n t r o l must be recognized as every f o r e s t e r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and, when necessary, i t should be a p a r t of every f o r e s t e r ' s j o b . A l l permanent employees i n the f i e l d should be given some t r a i n i n g i n f i r e c o n t r o l . CGhiefsopfpprbtecti'onuunitsaand t h e i r s t a f f s must be classed as part-time firemen. Normally, they would work at t h e i r r e g u l a r j o b s , but i n an emergency they would be a v a i l a b l e to supplement the r e g u l a r suppression crews. This i s only one suggestion that would f a c i l i t a t e more extensive and higher q u a l i t y f i r e suppression i n Thailand. The g r e a t e s t advantage i n using these r e g u l a r employees would be i n having permanent f i r e crews, l a r g e enough to meet the peak demand that might occur only once or twice a year at the lowest cost. Seasonal employees, that i s the labourers and crew members who work d i r e c t l y under the s u p e r v i s i o n of the f i r e c o n t r o l people, are the back-bone of the suppression labour f o r c e . They should be h i r e d only three months a year f o r the f i r e season and be given a t r a i n i n g course at the beginning of the season. They should be given very l i t t l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and must work under c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n . L o c a l h i r i n g should be coordinated w i t h the c h i e f s of the v i l l a g e s but the f o r e s t a u t h o r i t y should not put up any t h r e a t s 42 of f o r c e . The other source of manpower i s men borrowed, as r e q u i r e d , from other government agencies and l o c a l woods-oriented i n d u s t r i e s . There are many logging concessions, s a w m i l l s , parks o f f i c e s , and Highways Department o f f i c e s which have manpower l o c a t e d beside the f o r e s t . They should be a v a i l a b l e as a d d i t i o n a l manpower f o r f i r e f i g h t i n g on p u b l i c f o r e s t lands. The Army i s another very powerful p o t e n t i a l resource f o r f i r e c o n t r o l i n Thailand. The Army of Thailand i s a w e l l s t r u c t u r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n and s u i t e d f o r c a r r y i n g out the o p e r a t i o n a l aspects of a f i r e c o n t r o l program. They have l e a d e r s h i p , personnel, equipment, communications, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and other f a c i l i t i e s throughout the country, a l l of which are necessary f o r the implementation of a n a t i o n a l f i r e c o n t r o l program. However, they would s t i l l r e q u i r e some t r a i n i n g i n the a p p l i e d fundamental methods and techniques of f i r e p r e v e n t i o n , d e t e c t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n and suppression. 3.3.3 Work Hours F i r e c o n t r o l a c t i v i t i e s must operate independent of a r e g u l a r work week. During periods of extreme or high hazard, a l l u n i t crews must be a v a i l a b l e 24 hours a day, seven days a week. This does not mean they w i l l work 24 hours a day, but they must be a v a i l a b l e . However, as nobody wants to work s t r a i g h t through without any days o f f , and long hours each day are not conducive to good work, arrangements should be made to allow f o r time o f f or payment should be made f o r overtime labour. 43 3.3.4 C e n t r a l i z a t i o n Forest f i r e c o n t r o l o r g a n i z a t i o n should be f l e x i b l e . I t should be able to work e f f e c t i v e l y at a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s and be adaptable t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c urgency of f i r e suppression. For example, during the l i f e of a f i r e , the normal chain of command may be reversed. The f i r e boss of a p a r t i c u l a r f i r e i s the man i n complete charge of that f i r e . His d e c i s i o n s should not be changed by any su p e r i o r s who are not f a m i l i a r w i t h the s i t u a t i o n i n th a t area. I f i t i s necessary, men and equipment may be t r a n s f e r r e d from one d i s t r i c t to another to make more e f f i c i e n t use of them. A sample o r g a n i z a t i o n chart f o r f i r e c o n t r o l i s included i n Appendices D and E. A l l ' varf6U_5-ct<^>e^^](_3 fche r e s p o n s i b i l i t y shown w i l l be needed i n the long run. U n t i l the program expands, some of the jobs can be combined i n a s i n g l e p o s i t i o n or perhaps a l t e r e d . 3.3.5 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n At the s t a r t of the f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l program, the f i r e control* u n i t might form part of the management d i v i s i o n . Macleod (1971) suggested that t h i s u n i t should reach d i v i s i o n a l s t a t u s and be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o t e c t i o n against f i r e , i n s e c t s and disease. Under general guidance from headquarters i n Bangkok, f i r e c o n t r o l plans should be made by d i s t r i c t f o r e s t e r s and t h e i r s t a f f s . The f l e x i b l e s t r u c t u r e of the f i r e c o n t r o l o r g a n i z a t i o n must a l s o be a p p l i e d to the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Whether the job of f i r e c o n t r o l i s b i g or s m a l l , plans should be prepared and be kept under review and r e v i s e d from time to time. M a i n t a i n i n g w r i t t e n plans covering normal and emergency operations would be 44 the l o g i c a l f i r s t step i n ensuring t h a t any given s i t u a t i o n i s to be handled i n the proper way. 3.3.6 T r a i n i n g Forest f i r e c o n t r o l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Thailand i s a very new f i e l d , and very l i t t l e work has been done i n the p a s t , so t r a i n i n g w i l l be a major f u n c t i o n f o r a number of years. I t should be regarded as h i g h l y as the need f o r f i r e c o n t r o l on the ground. T r a i n i n g should be c a r r i e d out at more than one l e v e l . A l l f o r e s t o f f i c e r s of the department s t a t i o n e d i n the north and northeast of the country should have a good grasp of p o l i c y and a l s o know something of how f i r e s are fought. Furthermore, f i r e c o n t r o l t r a i n i n g i s a c o n t i n u i n g process that should be repeated year a f t e r year u n t i l a l l concerned can f i l l t h e i r r o l e s i n the f i r e c o n t r o l o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h the most e f f i c i e n c y . T r a i n i n g should be undertaken f o r a few weeks i n advance of the f i r e season or e a r l y January. The crews that have been employed i n previous years w i l l not need to spend-jBiubhttimeoon;:tradining-i The subject m a t e r i a l s provided should i n c l u d e the use of t o o l s and equipment, methods of f i r e l i n e c o n s t r u c t i o n , f i r e behaviour, communications, and f i r e camp c o n s t r u c t i o n . New f o r e s t e r s should r e c e i v e some f i r e c o n t r o l i n s t r u c t i o n w h i l e undergraduates, so courses i n the fundamentals of f i r e c o n t r o l should be i n c l u d e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m of K a s e t s a r t U n i v e r s i t y i n Bangkok, the F o r e s t r y Ranger School i n Prae province and the Forest Worker School at Tak province. 45 3.3.7 S t a f f The f i e l d work i n f i r e c o n t r o l should be at the d i s t r i c t l e v e l . The d i s t r i c t f o r e s t e r i s the man that should be given both the r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y and the a u t h o r i t y to d e a l w i t h f i r e . The f o l l o w i n g p o s i t i o n s should be found i n the proposed complete d i s t r i c t f i r e c o n t r o l o r g a n i z a t i o n : - A s s i s t a n t D i s t r i c t F o r e s t e r This man should be i n charge of a l l f o r e s t p r o t e c t i o n programs f o r the d i s t r i c t . He should be t r a i n e d i n o r g a n i z a t i o n and p o l i c y f o r f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l . His p o s i t i o n i s as a d i r e c t a s s i s t a n t to the D i s t r i c t f o r e s t e r concerned w i t h f i r e c o n t r o l . He w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r over-seeing the operation of the f i r e season suppression a c t i v i t i e s . In the event of a major f i r e , he might be the person to assume the p o s i t i o n of f i r e boss. Presuppression a c t i v i t i e s a l s o are h i s d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and should be i n i t i a t e d or c l o s e l y supervised by him, and planning f u n c t i o n s should not be delegated. He should keep i n c l o s e contact w i t h headquarters i n Bangkok. The t r a i n i n g of men to f i l l these p o s i t i o n s might be a b i g problem i n the beginning, but a l l these i n d i v i d u a l s would have to be given a short p r a c t i c a l s e s s i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n on f i r e c o n t r o l from headquarters. - Deputy Chief P r o t e c t i o n Unit This p o s i t i o n i s as a d i r e c t a s s i s t a n t to the c h i e f of the p r o t e c t i o n u n i t . He should take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l aspects of f i r e c o n t r o l i n h i s u n i t area. His work i s under s u p e r v i s i o n of the a s s i s t a n t d i s t r i c t f o r e s t e r . - F i r e Warden (honorary) This p o s i t i o n might be considered the most important of the jobs 46 of f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l i n the f i e l d . The chief, of a v i l l a g e , or the owner of a logging concession should take t h i s p o s i t i o n . He should be the man t h a t a c t u a l l y comes i n t o contact w i t h the man on the ground, whether i t i s a logger c u t t i n g on h i s concession or a s h i f t i n g c u l t i v a t o r p r a c t i s i n g h i s system of a g r i c u l t u r e on p u b l i c land. He should work under s u p e r v i s i o n of the Deputy Chief of the p r o t e c t i o n u n i t . The q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r an honorary f i r e warden are: i n t e r e s t e d ; r e l i a b l e ; a v a i l a b l e ; informed; maintains contact up and down the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ladder; can be used when needed; t r a i n e d and has a v e h i c l e (at l e a s t a b i k e ) . - Fireman This man might be a seasonal employee or t r a n s f e r r e d from other d u t i e s , but should have a good knowledge of f i r e suppression techniques. His b a s i c s k i l l might be as a f i r e f i g h t e r . His s k i l l w i l l vary from f i g h t i n g f i r e under l o c a l f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s up through the i n d i v i d u a l who i s knowledgeable about almost any f i r e s i t u a t i o n . A worker i n the "fireman" category should be capable of h o l d i n g any one of a number of s p e c i f i c jobs depending on the p a r t i c u l a r f i r e problem such as, suppression crew, lookout fireman, f i r e p a t r o l man, and a l s o f i r e warehousemen's a s s i s t a n t . - Dispatcher This p o s i t i o n may become important i n the f u t u r e a f t e r a widespread system of lookout towers and f i r e p a t r o l i s e s t a b l i s h e d . This job i n v o l v e s monitoring the r a d i o ori:telephone system, r e c e i v i n g f i r e c a l l s from the look-outs, p l o t t i n g f i r e l o c a t i o n s , and then d i s p a t c h i n g the most s u i t a b l e c o n t r o l f o r c e . A high degree of knowledge about the d i s t r i c t , roads, t r a i l s , f u e l c o n d i t i o n s , and f i r e behaviour i s necessary. This man i s the number one o f f i c e a s s i s t a n t of the Assistant- D i s t r i c t F o r e s t e r . 47 3.4 F i r e C o n t r o l Plans 3.4.1 General Plans A p l a n f o r improving f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l i n Th a i l a n d should c o n s i s t of fo u r p a r t s : The o b j e c t i v e s , the g o a l s , the operations and the development p l a n . To be worthwhile planning must be based on f a c t s , and so a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s and a p p r a i s a l of the e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n i s necessary. As the s i t u a t i o n regarding f o r e s t f i r e s can vary from place to p l a c e , the plans t o cope w i t h these c o n d i t i o n s must a l s o vary. Forest f i r e c o n t r o l a c t i v i t i e s i n Th a i l a n d must be c a r r i e d out by a u t h o r i t y of the F o r e s t r y Department. The aim i s to hold the number of f i r e s to an absolute minimum. Suppression a c t i v i t i e s should be designed to keep the amount of burned area w i t h i n a l e v e l set by the l o c a l f o r e s t manager. Laws, r e g u l a t i o n s , d i r e c t i v e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e orders should be f a i r l y and thoroughly enforced. The goals of f i r e c o n t r o l plans should be implemented on a f i v e year b a s i s (Appendix H) w i t h major e v a l u a t i o n and improvements scheduled. The goals which should be set up are: expand the f i r e p revention program; carry out a f i e l d e v a l u a t i o n of f i r e problems; set up the f i r e c o n t r o l areas; set up and maintain a b a s i c f i r e e v a l u a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n system. Working plans f o r f i r e c o n t r o l procedures are necessary at a l l l e v e l s ; the Headquarters D i s t r i c t , and P r o t e c t i o n u n i t . The Headquarters should be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r : c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h other resources; p r o v i d i n g g u i d e l i n e s f o r s e r v i c e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; f i n a n c i a l a l l o c a t i o n s ; p r o v i d i n g prevention program d i r e c t i o n , and t r a i n i n g . 48 The d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s should be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r : c o o r d i n a t i o n of p r o t e c t i o n u n i t s ; a d m i n i s t r a t i v e support f o r p r o t e c t i o n u n i t ; f i r e prevention and enforcement; and t r a i n i n g . The p r o t e c t i o n u n i t should be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r j f i e l d work i n a l l f i r e c o n t r o l a c t i v i t i e s , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of f i r e c o n t r o l personnel; b a s i c e v a l u a t i o n and planning. These programs should be planned as f a r i n advance as p o s s i b l e and designed to serve as many fun c t i o n s as p o s s i b l e , such as road c o n s t r u c t -i o n , timber management, r e f o r e s t a t i o n , and watershed management. Planning w i l l be done at the headquarters l e v e l a f t e r i n i t i a l recommendation from the d i s t r i c t and u n i t l e v e l . The planning should o r i g i n a t e at headquarters f i r e c o n t r o l headquarters i n Bangkok where standard g u i d e l i n e s f o r a n a l y s i s of the f i r e c o n t r o l s i t u a t i o n can be d r a f t e d and submitted to a l l d i s t r i c t s which have a f i r e problem. A f t e r t h a t , a l l the i n d i v i d u a l plans can be reviewed, and evaluated by the c e n t r a l o f f i c e . 3.4.2 D i s t r i c t Plans Most informa t i o n i n d i s t r i c t plans w i l l be based on accumulation of l o c a l f a c t s and t h e i r a n a l y s i s . I t can be presented by a s e r i e s of d i s t r i c t base maps, on which'the resources and a l l p h y s i c a l features of each d i s t r i c t can be shown w i t h s p e c i a l emphasis on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , manpower, and equipment sources. I t i s suggested that f i r e records be kept f o r a l l f i r e s that occur i n the d i s t r i c t . F a c t s , such as p l a c e , s i z e , f u e l , cause of f i r e , damage and c o n t r o l a c t i o n should be recorded (Appendix G). A f t e r a complete p l a n i s a v a i l a b l e , the headquarters should make f i n a l adjustments and decide on the r a t e and d i r e c t i o n of the f u t u r e program. D e t a i l s of t o p i c s r e q u i r e d on 49 d i s t r i c t plans are shown i n Forest F i r e C o n t r o l and Use by Brown and Davis (1973). 3.5 F i r e Presuppression When f i r s t s t a r t i n g f i r e c o n t r o l i n Thailand many problems w i l l occur. There w i l l be inadequate equipment, e x p e r t i s e , manpower, t r a n s p o r t -a t i o n , communications, and the big g e s t problem of a l l w i l l be l a c k of money. Basi c requirements must be arranged f o r w e l l i n advance of any f i r e suppres-s i o n a c t i o n . Presuppression i s the l a r g e s t and most i n v o l v e d element of most f i r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and there are dozens of f a c t o r s that should be taken i n t o account. Some important f a c t o r s are described below. 3.5.1 Detection I t was mentioned i n item 2.1.4 that most f o r e s t f i r e s i n Th a i l a n d are man-caused, surface f i r e s . I t i s very hard to determine the e f f e c t i v e -ness of any p a r t i c u l a r d e t e c t i o n program. The development of e f f e c t i v e and economical d e t e c t i o n systems r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n about the i n t e n s i t y , frequency, causes, and l o c a t i o n of f i r e s . To be e f f i c i e n t the d e t e c t i o n of f i r e s must be a planned o p e r a t i o n , making use of a l l the p o s s i b l e means of d e t e c t i o n , i n c l u d i n g ground p a t r o l s , observations from lookout towers, a i r p a t r o l or cooperation by the p u b l i c i n r e p o r t i n g f i r e s . The systems must be considered as f o l l o w s : Ground P a t r o l : This system i s a very simple arrangement but, as w i t h most t h i n g s , i t can be v a s t l y improved i f executed m e t h o d i c a l l y . Ground p a t r o l can be c a r r i e d out on f o o t , on horse, b i c y c l e , or small truck. P a t r o l l i n g where there are no roads may be on f o o t , horse, o r , i f t r a i l s permit, b i c y c l e . The 50 patrolman should be a keen observer, adept at making use of various vantage p o i n t s , such as t a l l t rees and r i d g e t o p s . I f he knows h i s area w e l l , he can do q u i t e a good job of d e t e c t i o n . He should know not only the topography of various t r a i l s , but a l s o the work and h a b i t s of the people who are using the f o r e s t . The areas assigned to a patrolman by t h i s system should be the most v a l u a b l e or those where the danger of f i r e s s t a r t i n g i s most acute. This system would be the most p r a c t i c a l f o r a newly formed f i r e c o n t r o l o r g a n i z a t i o n l i k e Thailand's, not only because there i s a l a c k of modern f a c i l i t i e s but a l s o because of i t s r e l a t i v e inexpensiveness. P a t r o l by b i c y c l e crews (Figure 4) has been t e s t e d i n f i r e p r o t e c t i o n experimental areas and found to work very w e l l . Lookout System Lookout towers should be developed f o r wider coverage of areas than i s p o s s i b l e by ground p a t r o l s . From the simple use of the vantage p o i n t s s e l e c t e d by the ground patrolmen i t has developed i n t o a modern and p r e c i s e p r a c t i c e . A good lookout system has to be developed g r a d u a l l y , since funds r a r e l y permit b u i l d i n g a complete system at the beginning. Nevertheless, an i n i t i a l p l a n of development should be made i n order to avoid c o s t l y mistakes. From a l l data on the p r o t e c t i o n area, i t i s p o s s i b l e to make the f i n a l s e l e c t i o n of lookouts and prepare a general p l a n f o r the system. I n s t a l l a t i o n can then proceed as funds become a v a i l a b l e . A lookout system should be developed f i r s t i n some teak p l a n t a t i o n areas that are f a c i n g f i r e problems. Lookouts would be v a l u a b l e not only to detect f i r e s but a l s o to prevent the t h e f t of teak. 51 Figure 4. PATROL BY BICYCLE CREW. 52 A i r P a t r o l At present, a i r p a t r o l i s becoming e x t e n s i v e l y used i n many coun t r i e s and i s l i k e l y to i n c r e a s e . In gene r a l , however, the use of a i r -c r a f t f o r t h i s purpose i s not necessary i n Thailand except during a few weeks a year i n the periods of extreme f i r e hazard. Probably fixed-wing a i r c r a f t which p a t r o l to prevent i l l e g a l c u t t i n g could do f i r e p a t r o l s at the same time. 3.5.2 Communi cat i on The methods of communication should be checked out before c o n s t r u c t i o n of access routes and towers, w h i l e development of a d e t e c t i o n system i s being planned. There are two systems that might be used i n Thailan d . Ground-line telephones w i l l work w e l l where the distances are comparatively short and where the l o c a l people w i l l not cut the w i r e . This system should be developed i n teak p l a n t a t i o n areas or i n some experimental areas. Radio networks w i l l probably be used e v e n t u a l l y and there may be good reasons f o r s t a r t i n g out w i t h t h a t form of communication. There are a l s o the e x i s t i n g r a d i o networks i n the p r o t e c t i o n s e c t i o n of the F o r e s t r y Department that e x i s t t o p r o t e c t f o r e s t s from i l l e g a l c u t t i n g . During the f i r e season, these r a d i o networks should be made a v a i l a b l e f o r f i r e c o n t r o l . A l l operators should be t r a i n e d from the outset to f o l l o w standard operating procedures very s t r i c t l y . Poor operating procedures are sometimes not only very f r u s t r a t i n g , but they can be c o s t l y and p o s s i b l y d i s a s t r o u s . 53 3.5.3 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Good f o r e s t f i r e management demands good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The v e h i c l e s i t u a t i o n i n the F o r e s t r y Department at present i s extremely poor. A four-wheel d r i v e v e h i c l e i s e s s e n t i a l i n r u r a l Thailand. The standard one ton 4x4 'pick up* i s a s a t i s f a c t o r y t o o l f o r f i r e c o n t r o l use, f o r i t can c a r r y men, cargo and equipment as w e l l as a tank or t r a i l e r . The number of v e h i c l e s necessary depends on the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n and every d i s t r i c t w i l l have to be analysed i n d i v i d u a l l y w i t h the i d e a i n mind of keeping t r a v e l time to a one-hour maximum. T r a v e l time should be reduced as finances a l l o w and p r o t e c t i o n becomes more i n t e n s i v e . Care must be taken that any v e h i c l e purchased f o r f i r e c o n t r o l use can a l s o be employed outside of the f i r e season f o r other j o b s . The F o r e s t r y Department of Thailand as a government agency operating on l i m i t e d funds cannot construct many k i l o m e t r e s of roads. The best s o l u t i o n i s f o r the loggers to construct t h e i r own access roads to standards described and enforced by the Forest A u t h o r i t y . These roads w i l l then become good f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l road systems. Normally, no thought i s given to alignment, s u r f a c i n g , e r o s i o n c o n t r o l , l o c a t i o n or maintenance of logging roads. Many logging roads are j u s t mud tracks o f t e n f o l l o w i n g a r i v e r , so that a f t e r the logging i s f i n i s h e d and maintenance ends, most w i l l be impassable w i t h i n a year. Small motorcycles and b i c y c l e s are cheaper, well-adapted to t r a v e l on rough roads, and can be used on t r a i l s q u i t e e f f i c i e n t l y and s a f e l y , sometimes they even go where a jeep cannot. A f o r e s t f i r e guard could t r a v e l by motorcycle and thus cover a l a r g e r area than by f o o t . The use 54 of horses should be another p o s s i b i l i t y . They are much slower on roads but they can go i n areas where roads and t r a i l s are poorly developed. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n by a i r i s l i m i t e d i n Thailand. I t should be used p r i m a r i l y f o r p a t r o l l i n g to prevent f i r e and i l l i c i t c u t t i n g , but not f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , as i t i s not p r a c t i c a l and costs too much. 3.5.4 Equipment There should be two f a c t o r s i n mind when s e l e c t i n g f i r e f i g h t i n g equipment, namely, the job that i s r e q u i r e d of a p a r t i c u l a r piece of equipment and the persons who are going to use i t . F i r e f i g h t i n g equipment takes many forms from the expensive h e l i c o p t e r down to the common shovel. In T h a i l a n d , f o r the next few y e a r s , there i s very l i t t l e use to be gained from a i r p l a n e s , b u l l d o z e r s or even power saws. The equipment that should be s e l e c t e d must be s u i t a b l e f o r f i g h t i n g f i r e s i n heavy f o r e s t f u e l s , and f o r use by u n s k i l l e d men r e q u i r i n g a minimum of t r a i n i n g . However, as the area of p l a n t a t i o n s extends, heavy mechanical equipment should be provided f o r f i r e l i n e c o n s t r u c t i o n and a number of l a r g e c a p a c i t y water tankers should be secured. Hand Tools Hand t o o l s provide the b a s i s of f i r e f i g h t i n g equipment i n h i g h l y developed f i r e f i g h t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Canada, the U.S.A. and A u s t r a l i a . I t i s reasonable to apply t h i s system a l s o to T h a i l a n d . Some to o l s are p l e n t i f u l l y d i s t r i b u t e d around the country i n l o c a l uses other than f i r e f i g h t i n g but others w i l l have to be purchased by the department and kept j u s t f o r these emergencies. A suggested t o o l d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r a ten-man f i r e f i g h t i n g crew, without water, i s : 55 TABLE 3 Tools suggested f o r ten-dan f i r e f i g h t i n g crew, without water. Tool Mountain Areas Grassland Dipterocarp f o r e s t Remark Swatter 3 3 10 A l l t o o l s Shovel 4 3 5 should be l o c a l l y Macleod t o o l 1 — 4 made. This Grubhoe 3 2 - lO-.n&n crew F i r e rake 2 5 - i s s u i t a b l e f o r n a t u r a l Crosscut saw 1 — • 1 f o r e s t w i l d -Axes. 1 - 1 f i r e s . A l l the sharp t o o l s should have a f i l e w i t h them. The foreman should have a compass, map and a l l the necessary f i r e forms. A p o r t a b l e radi o i s a l s o very necessary. Back f i r i n g torches may be needed sometimes. In a d d i t i o n , each man on the crew should be equipped w i t h a hard hat and propertfootwear. There should be an adequate supply of d r i n k i n g water and food, and a l s o f i r s t a i d equipment, e i t h e r i n a la r g e k i t f o r the group or i n d i v i d u a l one-man k i t s . Power t o o l s A Pump-unit crew should be provided f o r b i g p l a n t a t i o n s where there are more i n t e n s i v e f i r e s . Pump s p e c i f i c a t i o n s should be c a r e f u l l y chosen f o r t h e i r proposed use. A pump that weighs l e s s than 40 l b s w i l l 56 perform w e l l at pressures i n excess of 200 l b s , and w i l l d e l i v e r an adequate volume of water f o r most f i r e f i g h t i n g purposes i n Thailand. The most s u i t a b l e pump f o r general f i r e f i g h t i n g purposes should be the c e n t r i f u g a l type. S l i p - o n tankers can be designed to f i t on a v e h i c l e not u s u a l l y used f o r f i r e f i g h t i n g . There are various types of s l i p - o n tankers but the,ones chosen should be completely s e l f - c o n t a i n e d w i t h the pump and l i v e -r e e l mounted on the tank. The u n i t should not be so b i g t h a t i t w i l l become completely unmanageable, the optimum s i z e i s probably about 150-200 g a l l o n s , designed f o r a l i g h t rear-wheel-drive t r u c k . A l l f i r e c o n t r o l equipment should not be designed as s i n g l e purpose items but r a t h e r should be planned to be capable of s e r v i n g the whole f i e l d of f o r e s t r y from business management through r e f o r e s t a t i o n and timber management. But during periods of high and extreme b u i l d up a l l equipment should be on stand by f o r f i r e f i g h t i n g purposes. A suggested l i s t of f i r e f i g h t i n g t o o l s f o r a u n i t (25,000 acres, and 320,000 acres) i s given i n Table 3. 3.5.5 B u i l d i n g At the beginning of the f i r e c o n t r o l o r g a n i z a t i o n program, c o n s t r u c t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s i s necessary. Some crew q u a r t e r s , o f f i c e s and headquarters may temporarily be l o c a t e d i n the same place as the p r o t e c t i o n u n i t , but new b u i l d i n g s should be designed f o r p r a c t i c a l i t y - and economy. Lookouts should be constructed as high as p o s s i b l e above the ground f o r greatest v i s i b i l i t y . Guardhouses should be l o c a t e d at optimum 57 spots t o encourage permanency of the f o r e s t guards and help b u i l d up a b e t t e r work f o r c e . Bunkhouses should be maintained f o r seasonal use i n remote areas i n which there i s no other choice of housing. These b u i l d i n g s might cost a l o t of money. G e n e r a l l y , the lowest-p r i c e d combination of e f f i c i e n c y , d u r a b i l i t y , ease of maintenance, looks and comfort should be picked and i t should blend i n w i t h the t y p i c a l type of c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the f u t u r e . 3.6 F i r e Suppression The previous chapters have discussed many things l e a d i n g up to the a c t u a l f i g h t i n g of f o r e s t f i r e s , which i s the whole purpose of t h i s r e p o r t . E f f e c t i v e and economical f i r e suppression can be accomplished by good d e c i s i o n making and c o r r e c t l y applying s o l u t i o n s to each t a c t i c a l problem. The res p o n s i b l e person must be ready to modify t a c t i c s during suppression a c t i o n whenever there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the behavior of a f i r e . The a p p l i c a t i o n of f i r e suppression methods i s a h i g h l y a p p l i e d s k i l l , but the emphasis here i s only on general methods that may be u s e f u l f o r t y p i c a l s i t u a t i o n s i n Thaila n d . 3.6.1 F i r e Suppression Methods There are three methods of suppressing f i r e which; can be used i n the present s t a t e of f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l i n Thailand! these methods are: clean f i r e l i n e , back f i r i n g and a p p l i c a t i o n of water, sand or l i g h t s o i l s . In some areas where there are dangerous f u e l types, and l a r g e f i r e s can be expected, a combination of a l l three i s p r e f e r a b l e . Almost a l l f i r e s i n Thailand are surface f i r e s , which can g e n e r a l l y be ext i n g u i s h e d by d i r e c t 58 a p p l i c a t i o n of water or by the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a clean f i r e l i n e d i r e c t l y across the f i r e f r o n t . The use of b a c k f i r i n g i s sometimes needed. In many s i t u a t i o n s , d i r e c t a t t a c k becomes impossible and attempts to use i t merely r e s u l t i n a g r e a t e r l o s s to the f o r e s t e s t a t e than the amount s a c r i f i c e d during a back-f i r i n g operation. B a c k f i r i n g r e q u i r e s a c a r e f u l l y considered p l a n of a t t a c k designed to reduce the t o t a l area l i k e l y to be burned, and demands s k i l l and experience. Correct f i r e suppression methods and t a c t i c s are described i n d e t a i l by Brown and Davis (1973) i n t h e i r Forest F i r e C o n t r o l and Use t e x t . However, these elements should be i n d i c a t e d i n a f i r e p l a n , and l o c a l f i r e c o n t r o l manuals should be w r i t t e n to f a c i l i t a t e i n s t r u c t i o n and improve p r a c t i c e . 3.6.2 P a t r o l and Mop-up A f t e r the f i r e i s considered under c o n t r o l , i t i s the end of f o r e s t f i r e f i g h t i n g , but the f i r e c o n t r o l operation i s not f i n i s h e d y e t . Mop-up i s one of the most important parts of f i r e c o n t r o l . There should be some p a t r o l men watching f o r spot f i r e s to prevent f i r e from breaking over c o n t r o l l i n e s . P a t r o l l i n g f o r spot f i r e s outside c o n t r o l l i n e s i s a l s o important. Both p a t r o l and mop-up must continue u n t i l i t i s c e r t a i n that the f i r e i s a b s o l u t e l y out, which normally would r e q u i r e them to be maintained f o r two to three days a f t e r the l a s t smoke was seen. 3.6.3 Damage Assessment Damage assessment i s the f i n a l job f o l l o w i n g mop-up, and i t should take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n damage to s o i l s , watershed, v a l u a b l e timbers, regeneration, and other land uses. I t may take a few years to complete 59 f u l l y agreed and d e f e n s i b l e methods but a s t a r t must be made soon. 3.7 Forest F i r e Law Enforcement As discussed p r e v i o u s l y i n item 3.1.4 regarding f i r e p revention i n T h a i l a n d , enforcement should be of primary importance. S i m i l a r l y , i n f o r e s t f i r e suppression, law enforcement a l s o i s an extremely powerful t o o l . The processes of law enforcement i n Thailand can be described as f o l l o w s : 3.7.1 O r g a n i z a t i o n : The most e f f e c t i v e way of controllQfig man-caused f i r e would be the d i v i s i o n of the f o r e s t land i n t o s m a l l u n i t s , based on n a t u r a l bound-a r i e s . Adequately t r a i n e d men and equipment are to be posted to each u n i t which i s l o c a t e d i n or near the f o r e s t under i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The f a c i l i t i e s t hat should be f u l l y provided are o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s w i t h l i v i n g q u a r t e r s , f i r e f i g h t i n g equipment, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , communication and s a f e t y requirements. Each u n i t area should be d i v i d e d i n t o s m a l l compartments by a s e r i e s of f i r e l i n e s which are kept c o n t i n u a l l y c l e a r of undergrowth and wide enough to use f o r p a t r o l l i n g or to c o n s t i t u t e a base from which the f i r e f i g h t e r can s t a r t . Law enforcement should be a primary duty of a l l f o r e s t r y depart-ment employees, and a l l f o r e s t o f f i c e r s should keep i n mind that law enforcement i s t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 3.7.2 Warning and C i t a t i o n : A l l persons who are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r causing a c a r e l e s s or 60 n e g l i g e n t f i r e should be is s u e d a "Notice of Unlawful Burning C i t a t i o n " f o r a f i r s t offence. In a d d i t i o n , the v i o l a t o r should be informed of h i s c i v i l l i a b i l i t y f o r a l l damage caused by the f i r e . This warning does not preclude prosecuti o n by the f o r e s t r y department i n c r i m i n a l or c i v i l a c t i o n . This i n t e r i m move might lea d to b e t t e r cooperation from the l o c a l people. 3.7.3 I n v e s t i g a t i o n of F i r e : A f t e r the f i r e i s suppressed the f i r e boss should make a thorough i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n an e f f o r t to l o c a t e the o r i g i n of the f i r e . He should look f o r any evidence t h a t might i n d i c a t e the cause or an offe n c e , such as t r a c k s , p a r t i c l e s of c l o t h i n g , remains of camp f i r e s , discarded cans, e t c . This should be a methodical search, planned i n advance so as not to u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y destroy evidence. A l l p o s s i b l e witnesses at or near the f i r e should be questioned. Records should be made during the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of such things as time of day, whom contacted,wwea'therccoriditions, items or evidence found at scene, e t c . 3.7.4 Interview witnesses: G e n e r a l l y , i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r v i e w witnesses i n cases of f o r e s t r y crimes i n Thailand. The key witnesses normally do not want t o get invo l v e d i n something which does not concern them or t h e i r property, and most people s t i l l b e l i e v e that the f o r e s t s belong to nobody. The i n t e r v i e w e r should make a general statement regarding the purpose of the i n t e r v i e w . The i n t r o d u c t i o n should e s t a b l i s h a good r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n t e r v i e w e r and the person being i n t e r v i e w e d . He must be c a r e f u l not to e l i c i t f a l s e 61 i n f o r m a t i o n through improper q u e s t i o n i n g . He may permit d i s c u s s i o n of matters un r e l a t e d to the crime i n order to place the person inte r v i e w e d at ease, but he must not permit the person being i n t e r v i e w e d to become evasive. An i n t e r v i e w should be conducted as soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r the discovery of the v i o l a t i o n , but the i n t e r v i e w e r should not rush to an i n t e r v i e w without f i r s t d e c i d i n g who should l o g i c a l l y be in t e r v i e w e d f i r s t . The i n t e r v i e w e r should take as much time as i s re q u i r e d f o r a complete.and thorough i n t e r v i e w . I n t e r v i e w i n g should be by l o c a l f o r e s t r y o f f i c e r s . 3.7.5 T e s t i f y i n g i n Court; The most important part of law enforcement i n Thailand i s t e s t i f y i n g i n court. I f many f o r e s t f i r e c r i m i n a l s are freed i n c o u r t , the act i t s e l f w i l l be a f a i l u r e . So, the f o r e s t e r must do h i s best to maintain the power of the f o r e s t f i r e law. Preparedness i s most important f o r testimony i n court. The o f f i c e r should review thoroughly h i s o r i g i n a l notes, sketches, photographs, p l a t e s , and f i r e r e p o r t . A l l the answers should l e a d to a c h r o n o l o g i c a l account and should be c o n s i s t e n t . R e v i s i t i n g the f i r e scene may prove h e l p f u l . . While t e s t i f y i n g i n court the f o r e s t o f f i c e r should be c o n t r o l l e d i n mannerisms, speak c l e a r l y , be p o l i t e , pay s t r i c t a t t e n t i o n to questions, g i v i n g b r i e f , complete answers, watch f o r t r i c k questions, t e s t i f y only to f a c t s , and be s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and t r u t h f u l . 62 3.8 Summary The u l t i m a t e goal should be to place a l l hazardous areas i n Thailand under i n t e n s i v e f i r e management. In order to achieve t h i s , many f a c t o r s must be taken i n t o account. An e f f e c t i v e and economical d e t e c t i o n system i n v o l v i n g ground p a t r o l s and lookouts i s r e q u i r e d . A r a d i o network f o r good communication and b e t t e r f i r e f i g h t i n g equipment w i l l have to be provided. Developments of methods of prevention and suppression, which are s u i t a b l e f o r f i g h t i n g f i r e i n heavy f o r e s t f u e l s and f o r use by u n s k i l l e d men who have a minimum of t r a i n i n g , i s r e q u i r e d . Improved laws and b e t t e r enforcement might be the most important aspect f o r establishment of an e f f e c t i v e f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l operation i n Tha i l a n d . The o b j e c t i v e of the laws should be to increase cooperation by educating and warning the general p u b l i c . At the same time the f o r e s t e r must keep doing h i s best to maintain the power of the f o r e s t f i r e law by h e l p i n g enforce i t f a i r l y . Because improvement of f i r e c o n t r o l i s e s s e n t i a l , but expensive, i t should s t a r t i n l o c a l areas and on a small s c a l e . F i r e c o n t r o l plans should be expanded as sound r e s u l t s are achieved and f i n a n c i n g becomes a v a i l a b l e . 63 4. FIRE APPLICATION 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n Forest f i r e management i s concerned not only w i t h f i r e c o n t r o l problems but a l s o w i t h f i r e use or f i r e a p p l i c a t i o n . F i r e has been re s p o n s i b l e f o r much of the v a r i e t y we f i n d i n nature and f o r that reason we can say f i r e i s good when i t does what we want i t to do. Good pre-s c r i p t i o n and c a r e f u l management are the best ways to use f i r e to do what we want. I t seems h i g h l y probable that p r e s c r i b e d burning i s a t o o l that i s r e a l l y needed i n both p l a n t a t i o n programs and i n n a t u r a l f o r e s t manage-ment plans i n Thailand. Some e a r l y burning p r a c t i c e s have been done i n young teak p l a n t a t i o n s f o r s e v e r a l years as a hazard r e d u c t i o n measure. A l s o a few t r i a l s have been made of p r e s c r i b e d burning i n n a t u r a l teak bearing f o r e s t s f o r preparing seedbeds and p l a n t i n g s i t e s i n an attempt to o b t a i n a b e t t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n of age groups, but the methods used were not the best a v a i l a b l e . Macleod (1971) noted that "The process appears to be e f f e c t i v e i n end r e s u l t s , but the output per man day i s f a r too low". In the same report he advised that "The increased use of p r e s c r i b e d f i r e should be made i n the f u t u r e and t h e r e f o r e i t would pay dividends i f plans were made to improve f i e l d p r a c t i c e s " . Improved methods of conducting p r e s c r i b e d burning should be developed i n T h a i l a n d , and e a r l y burning programs should be w i d e l y p r a c t i s e d i n the f u t u r e . B e t t e r planning and equipment should be p r o p e r l y a p p l i e d . A p r e s c r i b e d burn can be used f o r many purposes and even when used 64 f o r j u s t one purpose there may be si d e b e n e f i t s to other resources. The conducting of p r e s c r i b e d burns a l s o provides an e x c e l l e n t opportunity f o r g i v i n g f i r e f i g h t e r s needed experience. On the other hand, p r e s c r i b e d f i r e s can be harmful as w e l l as b e n e f i c i a l . I t i s a complex t o o l and should be used only by those p r o p e r l y t r a i n e d , as i t c a l l s f o r the use of many of the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s used i n f i r e suppression. Proper diagnosis and d e t a i l e d planning are needed f o r each and every area (U.S.D.A. For. Serv. Georgia, 1972). Nevertheless, the'.use of c o n t r o l l e d f i r e s depends on o b j e c t i v e s and methods f o r proper f i r e a p p l i c a t i o n . 4.2 Objectives of F i r e A p p l i c a t i o n A p r e s c r i b e d burn has the advantages of being a planned r a t h e r than an emergency a c t i v i t y . I t a l s o o f f e r s f u l l o pportunity t o take advantage of what i s known about f i r e behavior and the changes to be expected from v a r i a t i o n s i n f i r e weather. I t i s more c a r e f u l l y planned than the c o n t r o l of unwanted f i r e s . There could be many reasons f o r pre-s c r i b i n g f i r e i n the f o r e s t s of Thailand and l o c a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s are needed. This study i s only a simple guide f o r f o r e s t managers to make de c i s i o n s and plans. However, the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e o b j e c t i v e s of f i r e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r Thailand should be as f o l l o w s : 4.2.1 Stand Improvement Many of the teak-bearing f o r e s t s i n Thailand now have low-value and p o o r - q u a l i t y t r e e s , and other species o f t e n occupy the land best s u i t e d to growing teak. Unwanted s p e c i e s , e s p e c i a l l y bamboos, normally suppress 65 teak s e e d l i n g s . In areas where there i s low r a i n f a l l during part of the growing season, competition f o r water may be s i g n i f i c a n t . G e n e r a l l y , p h y s i c a l e l i m i n a t i o n of bamboo and unwanted species i s not economically p r a c t i c a l . These unwanted species can only be kept from competing w i t h teak stands by using p r e s c r i b e d burning. 4.2.2 S i t e P r e p a r a t i o n f o r Seeding and P l a n t i n g F i r e alone can expose adequate m i n e r a l s o i l and c o n t r o l competing v e g e t a t i o n u n t i l s eedlings become e s t a b l i s h e d . Normally on teak bearing s i t e s competing v e g e t a t i o n i s a b i g problem, but f o r t u n a t e l y , teak has more f i r e r e s i s t i n g power than other s p e c i e s , and burning can encourage teak regeneration by destroying i t s l e s s f i r e - r e s i s t a n t competitors. Kadambi (1972) has recorded t h a t : . "In Burma, a burning experiment i n a young crop of teak w i t h bamboo between 1900 and 1908 r e s u l t e d i n the almost complete removal of bamboo and, compared to the unburned p l o t , there was 43 per cent more g i r t h increment of teak t r e e s i n the burned p l o t . " Burning a second year teak p l a n t a t i o n i n I n d i a has i n d i c a t e d that the burning i s advantageous, r e s u l t i n g i n : (1) improved growth of teak; (2) p l a n t s i n the burned p o r t i o n r e q u i r i n g fewer weedings; (3) more uniform teak growth; and (4) a mixture of timbers and s u p e r i o r types of undergrowth appearing (Kadambi, 1972). G e n e r a l l y , i n preparing s i t e s f o r n a t u r a l regeneration i n T h a i l a n d , the knowledge of the a n t i c i p a t e d seed crop and the date of e a r l i e s t seed f a l l i n each f o r e s t i s e s s e n t i a l . For teak, burning should be done as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e a f t e r adequate seed crop has f a l l e n . For other s p e c i e s , burning should be done i n advance of the i n i t i a l seed f a l l . This date w i l l vary by species and l o c a l i t y . 66 4.2.3 Improvement of W i l d l i f e H abitat F i r e i s an e f f i c i e n t and economical t o o l f o r improving food and cover c o n d i t i o n s f o r c e r t a i n w i l d l i f e s pecies. Then a program f o r c o n t r o l l i n g or use of f i r e has a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t . The e f f e c t s of f i r e on w i l d l i f e resources are of v i t a l importance to the f u t u r e . At the present time p r e s c r i b e d burning i s h i g h l y recommended f o r w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t management i n the southern United S t a t e s , but i n A s i a very few aspects of f i r e use have been s t u d i e d . The major w i l d l i f e species b e n e f i t i n g from the use of p r e s c r i b e d f i r e f o r h a b i t a t improvement are deer, q u a i l , and doves (U.S.D.A., Georgia, 1972). F i r e can be employed to remove competing s p e c i e s , to encourage d e s i r e d browse, and to increase the q u a l i t y of v e g e t a t i o n i n an area (Henderson, 1972). P r e s c r i p t i o n s f o r burning should recognize the b i o l o g i c a l r e q u i r e -ments of the p r e f e r r e d w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s , and the c o n d i t i o n of stands. The proper s i z e and time of burns are c r i t i c a l to success i n the use of f i r e i n managing w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t . In Thailand i t would appear that w i l d f i r e has aided i n the degradation of some s o i l s and most of the v e g e t a t i o n cover. F i r e seems to be an e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r , however, i n maintaining s u i t a b l y l a r g e areas of savanna f o r e s t e x p l o i t a b l e by both w i l d herbivores and domestic l i v e s t o c k . 4.2.4 Improvement of C u t t i n g Methods F i r e may be an e s s e n t i a l t o o l i n c a r r y i n g out s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems, where wood production i s the primary value of the f o r e s t . For example, i n s e l e c t i n g teak and some other species f o r c u t t i n g , markers need 67 b e t t e r v i s i b i l i t y and b e t t e r a c c e s s i b i l i t y to do the d e s i r e d j o b . F i r e can be a means of t h i n n i n g over-dense stands i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s . A f t e r c u t t i n g , the l a r g e volume of s l a s h i s not only a f i r e hazard but a l s o prevents n a t u r a l regeneration of teak and some valu a b l e species. The ground should be c l e a r e d by p r e s c r i b e d f i r e . However, f i r e i s a dangerous t o o l . I t should be a p p l i e d w i t h s k i l l , and very c a u t i o u s l y , i n commercial timber types. 4.2.5 Improvement of A c c e s s i b i l i t y P r e s c r i b e d burning could improve a c c e s s i b i l i t y and v i s i b i l i t y f o r many purposes. Burning o f f underbrush improves the e f f i c i e n c y of timber s e l e c t i n g , marking and h a r v e s t i n g . Removing accumulated m a t e r i a l before h a r v e s t i n g provides s a f e t y f o r timber markers and loggers due to b e t t e r v i s i b i l i t y . Hunters and h i k e r s a l s o b e n e f i t from e a s i e r t r a v e l . F i r e can als o remove brush, l i t t e r and unwanted p l a n t s to c o n t r o l species composition and to create a b e t t e r p a t t e r n of p l a n t s w h i l e improving a c c e s s i b i l i t y f o r r e c r e a t i o n . 4.2.6 C o n t r o l of Insects and Diseases Insects and diseases are a s e r i o u s menace to some of Thailand's commercially important t r e e s p e c i e s . For example, teak bee hole borer (Xyleutes ceramicus), which s e r i o u s l y a t t acks teak stands ( D u s i t , 1968) has a l a r v a stage under teak's f a l l e n leaves. The use of f i r e i s the most p r a c t i c a l method of c o n t r o l l i n g t h i s borer. The danger of many kinds of i n s e c t and disease populations developing i n s l a s h areas and a t t a c k i n g green timber i s another important f a c t o r that should encourage p r e s c r i b e d burning. 68 4.2.7 Use i n Land C l e a r i n g Up to the present, complete land c l e a r i n g and burning of f o r e s t e d s i t e s to enable the establishment of teak and coniferous p l a n t a -t i o n has been p r a c t i c e d i n Thailand. This i s done on a systematic b a s i s , and i s almost u n i v e r s a l l y used. The areas prepared f o r f o r e s t p l a n t a t i o n s are commonly c l e a r e d of e x i s t i n g cover by methods s i m i l a r to the c l e a r i n g of land f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . F i r e s t i l l i s a most powerful and economical t o o l f o r land c l e a r -i n g , but t h i s use of f i r e has been an important f a c t o r c o n d i t i o n i n g the a t t i t u d e of a g r i c u l t u r a l people toward the f o r e s t (Macleod, 1971; Brown and Davis, 1973), F i r e i s powerful "medicine" and evidence i s abundant that i t can be extremely harmful (Davis, 1959). Yet w i t h accurate and s k i l f u l a p p l i c a -t i o n , i t can be a good p r e s c r i p t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s . 4.3 Methods of F i r e A p p l i c a t i o n To use p r e s c r i b e d f i r e s u c c e s s f u l l y , Brown and Davis (1973) advised that " s e v e r a l exacting requirements must be met". These requirements are knowledge of f i r e b e h a v i o r , f f i r e d d a n g e r r a t i n g s , burning techniques and advance planning of any p r e s c r i b e d burning operation. The o b j e c t i v e of p r e s c r i b e d burning and weather f a c t o r s must be c o r r e l a t e d c l o s e l y w i t h the proper i g n i t i o n technique. Sometimes, when v a r i a t i o n s i n p r e s c r i b e d weather con d i t i o n s occur, combining two or more i g n i t i o n techniques can achieve good r e s u l t s . The f o l l o w i n g burning techniques are popular i n the United S t a t e s , Canada, A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand. Some might be a p p l i e d to Thailand at the 69 present time and others may be s u i t a b l e f o r f u t u r e use, when the value of f o r e s t s has increased. The f o l l o w i n g methods are only simple g u i d e l i n e s f o r f i r e a p p l i c a t i o n . L o c a l requirements may make some combinations to best accomplish the purpose intended and to prevent harmful e f f e c t s to the f o r e s t resources. 4.3.1 Back F i r e The back f i r e technique c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y of backing f i r e i n t o the wind. F i r e i s s t a r t e d along a prepared base l i n e , such as a road, plowed l i n e , stream, or other form of b a r r i e r , and allowed to back i n t o the wind (U.S.D.A. For. Serv., Georgia, 1972). On f l a t or g e n t l y s l o p i n g t e r r a i n , the l i n e of f i r e i s set at r i g h t angles to the wind d i r e c t i o n . In steep topography, i t i s set along the ridgetop. An a d d i t i o n a l f i r e break i s required f o r each l i n e of f i r e s e t , u s u a l l y about every 100 to 200 meters (Brown and Davis, 1973). This method i s the e a s i e s t and s a f e s t type of p r e s c r i b e d f i r e , but when used i n heavy rough and s a p l i n g s i z e stands, steady winds and secure base c o n t r o l l i n e are re q u i r e d . I t could be a p p l i e d to teak or coniferous p l a n t a t i o n s i n Thailand to reduce f u e l hazard or to c o n t r o l i n s e c t s and diseases. F i g u r e - 5 . BACK FIRE. 71 4.3.2 Flank F i r e The f l a n k f i r e technique c o n s i s t s of t r e a t i n g an area w i t h l i n e s of f i r e set i n t o the wind which burn outward at r i g h t angles to the wind, a f t e r a burned s a f e t y s t r i p has been e s t a b l i s h e d along a f i r e b r e a k (Brown and Davis, 1973). I t i s used q u i t e o f t e n to secure the f l a n k s of a s t r i p - h e a d f i r e , backing f i r e or other methods as they progress. This method can stand l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n i n wind d i r e c t i o n and needs expert crew coo r d i n a t i o n and timing (U.S.D.A. For. Serv., Georgia, 1972). I t i s u s e f u l f o r a s m a l l area, l i g h t t o medium f u e l s , f a s t area i g n i t i o n , and f o r securing the f l a n k s of other burning techniques. This method could be a p p l i e d to a s m a l l high value n a t u r a l f o r e s t area or p l a n t a t i o n s that need more i n t e n s i v e f i r e p r o t e c t i o n . Figure 6 . FLANK FIRE. 72 4.3.3 Head F i r e This method c o n s i s t s of s e t t i n g f i r e to run w i t h the wind or upslope. I t i s the reverse of the back-burn technique, though the head f i r e i s seldom permitted to run f r e e l y f o r any considerable distance i n a pre-s c r i b e d burning p r o j e c t . U s u a l l y a broad s a f e t y s t r i p of f i r e b r e a k i s burned out f i r s t , then the l i n e of f i r e i s set at a predetermined distance from i t and p a r a l l e l to i t and permitted to burn i n t o i t w i t h the wind. This creates a new burned s t r i p . As soon as i t has burned out, a new l i n e of f i r e i s set p a r a l l e l to i t and the process i s continued u n t i l the e n t i r e area to be t r e a t e d has been burned over (Brown and Davis, 1973). This technique i s u s e f u l f o r s m a l l areas w i t h l i g h t and even d i s -t r i b u t i o n , and r e q u i r e s use i n cool weather, f l a t f u e l s , high f u e l moisture content and low wind s h i f t s . I t could be a p p l i e d to moist-deciduous or some evergreen f o r e s t s i n f l a t areas of T h a i l a n d , and probably could be used to develop w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t . Figure 7. HEAD FIRE. 73 4.3.4 Spot F i r e This method c o n s i s t s of spacing set f i r e s f a r enough apart that they w i l l not i n t e r a c t yet w i l l cover the area intended by the end of the burning p e r i o d . I t i s designed to avoid strong convective a c t i v i t y . The purpose i s to reduce f u e l hazards over l a r g e f o r e s t areas at low cost and minimum damage to the f o r e s t stand (U.S.D.A. For. Serv., Georgia, 1972). The spot technique r e q u i r e s considerable experience by the pre-s c r i b e d burner. Timing and spacing of the i n d i v i d u a l f i r e spots are the keys to s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s method. I t can be used w i t h l i g h t v a r i a b l e winds and i t i s u s e f u l f o r using i n uniform f u e l s and allows f a s t i g n i t i o n . This method could be a p p l i e d to n a t u r a l teak f o r e s t i n Thailand. The s p e c i a l advantage i s to reduce f u e l hazards over large areas at low cost. F i r e s w i l l be spread only on exposed s l o p e s , dry s i t e s and unwanted areas. The l a r g e area can be t r e a t e d i n a s i n g l e burning p e r i o d w i t h l i t t l e or no c o n s t r u c t i o n of i n t e r i o r f i r e b r e a k s . A e r i a l i g n i t i o n methods a l s o might be used i n t h i s system. R O A D . Figure 8. SPOT FIRE. 74 4.3.5 Ring F i r i n g This technique c o n s i s t s of s t a r t i n g f i r e s along the outer edge of an area and l e t t i n g them spread toward the center. The base c o n t r o l l i n e , u s u a l l y on the down wind side of the burn area, i s made secure w i t h back and f l a n k f i r i n g s . The method i s a p p l i c a b l e on small areas of an acre or two i n l i g h t to moderate f u e l s or as an a u x i l i a r y to s t r i p and centre f i r i n g i n l a r g e r areas. This method of f i r i n g has been widely used i n Thailand f o r a long time, i n s l a s h d i s p o s a l e f f o r t s on areas preparatory to p l a n t i n g . WIN D Figure 9 . RING FIRING. 7.5 4.3.6 Chevron Burn This technique c o n s i s t s of e s t a b l i s h i n g the l i n e of f i r e i n a crescent or V-shaped p a t t e r n . In ge n e r a l , the chevron p a t t e r n i s made to conform t o that of the rear of a w i l d f i r e or to the m i r r o r image of a n a t u r a l head f i r e . This gives s t a b i l i t y to the f r o n t of the backing f i r e . The technique may be supplemented by use of f l a n k f i r e or head f i r e t e c h-niques, depending on circumstances (Brown and Davis, 1973). The chevron technique may be s u i t e d to use i n h i l l y areas of n a t u r a l teak f o r e s t i n Thailand to prepare s i t e s f o r seeding, and should be used i n combination w i t h other techniques f o r stand improvement. Figure 10. CHEVRON BURN. 76 4.4 Summary The aim of t h i s chapter i s to define general p r e s c r i b e d burning g u i d e l i n e s . In a d d i t i o n , f o r e s t managers should consider the o b j e c t i v e s of burning, the f u e l i n the area, general weather c o n d i t i o n s , and topographical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n order to s e l e c t the proper method and the proper time f o r a safe but e f f e c t i v e burn. A s m a l l t e s t area should be burned before the a c t u a l i g n i t i o n p l an i s put i n t o e f f e c t . This t e s t f i r e i s a last-minute check of ambient c o n d i t i o n s and can be used to adjust i g n i t i o n times and methods. The t e s t f i r e i s c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d so t h a t , i f con d i t i o n s prove unfavorable to immediate burning, f u r t h e r i g n i t i o n can be h a l t e d . I f f o r e s t managers could p r e d i c t w i t h c e r t a i n t y that a p r e s c r i b e d burn w i l l not become u n c o n t r o l l e d the o b j e c t i v e s of burning w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e n e f i c i a l and the net e f f e c t s on l o c a l ecology w i l l be fa v o r a b l e . 77 5. RESEARCH STUDIES 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n Everyone knows that f i r e s can damage the f o r e s t , but no one r e a l i z e s j u s t how much damage they can do. Many l o c a l people and some p r o f e s s i o n a l Thai f o r e s t e r s seem to b e l i e v e that annual f i r e s are nature's way of keeping the f o r e s t ecology i n balance. Some b e l i e v e that f i r e s b e n e f i t teak f o r e s t , but others claim that f i r e s damage i t . What are the f a c t s ? Research can provide the in f o r m a t i o n that people need to know. F i r e s can reduce f o r e s t y i e l d s , k i l l s e e d lings and s t a r t decay and i n s e c t a t t a c k s i n l a r g e r t r e e s . Hardwoods are p a r t i c u l a r l y s u s c e p t i b l e to f i r e wounding and decay may s t a r t i n these wounds. Sometimes, severe f i r e , or repeated l i g h t f i r e s , can s t a r t s e r i o u s e r o s i o n . A l l these things need research s t u d i e s on a sm a l l s c a l e before l a r g e investments i n f i r e c o n t r o l are c a r r i e d out i n Thailan d . Research i n i t i a l l y should provide the s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n as f o l l o w s : 5.2 Bas i c Studies of I g n i t i o n and Combustion ; These st u d i e s w i l l i d e n t i f y s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s and develop f u e l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c a l e s that w i l l l e a d to more p r e c i s e and e f f e c t i v e f i e l d s t u d i e s . This research should prove h e l p f u l i n developing l o c a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a v a r i e t y of types and show: - How composition of f u e l s i n f l u e n c e s r a t e of i g n i t i o n and combustion. - How r e l a t i v e humidity a f f e c t s the p r o b a b i l i t y of i g n i t i o n . - How combustion i s a f f e c t e d by d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c o n t r o l l i n g v a r i a b l e s . 78 5.3 Important F u e l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The f u e l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that need to be s t u d i e d i n c l u d e the s i z e , shape, amount, compactness, arrangement, and v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l pieces of f u e l . These b a s i c s t u d i e s w i l l l e a d to a b e t t e r understanding of f u e l s . But research should be aimed d i r e c t l y at the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f u e l s that make c o n t r o l of f o r e s t f i r e s d i f f i c u l t , that r e s u l t i n v a r y i n g r a t e s of spread, and that c o n t r i b u t e to f i r e damage (Nelson and Bruce, 1958). 5.4 F i r e Danger Measurement and i t s A p p l i c a t i o n F i r e c o n t r o l o r g a n i z a t i o n s cannot o b t a i n f u l l v alue from danger measurements unless s t a t i o n s are l o c a t e d and operated according to acceptable t e c h n i c a l standards. Danger measurements may be put to other important uses, such as g u i d i n g a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n the i s s u i n g of burning permits, manning f i r e towers, general o r g a n i z a t i o n p l a n n i n g , and d e s i r a b i l i t y of woods c l o s u r e s . For T h a i l a n d , good records f o r s e v e r a l years could be used to measure the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of f i r e prevention e f f o r t s (Nelson, 1961). 5.5 F i r e Prevention Almost a l l f i r e s i n Thailand are man-caused and presumably preventable. Research should be done to determine why people set f o r e s t f i r e s . Stopping man-caused f i r e s may depend on the p a t t e r n of l e a d e r s h i p i n a community and the a t t i t u d e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f o r e s t r e s i d e n t s . Studying of l o c a l problem areas may help p i n p o i n t both the motives of f i r e s t a r t e r s and the most e f f e c t i v e prevention methods. 79 5.6 E c o l o g i c a l Studies Forest f i r e s can a f f e c t t r e e s and other v e g e t a t i o n , animals, and the s o i l i n many ways. D e t a i l e d knowledge of f i r e e f f e c t s i s needed to guide the management of Thailand's forest.whether i t be to p l a n e f f i c i e n t f i r e c o n t r o l , to.mark burned areas f o r salvage or to p l a n e f f e c t i v e use of f i r e . The s t u d i e s of d i r e c t e f f e c t s of f i r e s , such as average m o r t a l i t y s a n d growth l o s s under v a r i o u s weather and stand c o n d i t i o n s , could give an a c t u a r i a l b a s i s f o r improved f i r e damage a p p r a i s a l , and f o r the economic a n a l y s i s of f i r e c o n t r o l c o s t s . I n d i r e c t e f f e c t s a l s o m e r i t some •, i study. F i r e research should provide i n f o r m a t i o n of f i r e e f f e c t s on i l i v e s t o c k , game, i n s e c t s , s o i l and watersheds. 5.7 Techniques of F i r e Use P r e s c r i b e d f i r e i s one of the l e a s t expensive t o o l s i n the f o r e s t e r ' s k i t f o r t r e a t i n g l a r g e areas. Nevertheless, l o c a l s t u d i e s of f i r e use may l e a d to more e f f i c i e n t techniques of handling f i r e . Research should be done i n t o methods f o r regeneration of d i f f i c u l t areas, and i n t o c o n t r o l l i n g unwanted species on teak bearing f o r e s t . P r e s c r i b e d burns at v a r i o u s times i n the dry season should be t e s t e d . 5.8 Suppression Techniques The most d i f f i c u l t of a l l problems f a c i n g f i r e c o n t r o l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s suppression. Research s t u d i e s may be needed i n equipment development, and improved t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication systems. These st u d i e s should be done i n a d d i t i o n to the new program i n Thailand f o r immediate 80 needs, but formal research i s not required now. 5.9 F i r e C o n t r o l Planning Studies should be made on the beginning p r o j e c t s . As more i s learned about weather, f u e l s , e f f e c t s , p r evention, and suppression techniques, and the many other elements that enter i n t o f i r e c o n t r o l , more b a s i c f a c t s w i l l accumulate w i t h which to plan more e f f e c t i v e l y . These f a c t s should be: - What i s the best d i s t r i b u t i o n of funds among pr e v e n t i o n , d e t e c t i o n and suppression? - How much money i s needed (Table 4) t o produce a r e a l l y e f f e c t i v e o r ganization? - I s the present u n i t organized i n the management branch i n the best a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n f o r operations? - I s the communication system adequate to meet emergencies? - How much can the government a f f o r d to pay f o r f i r e c o n t r o l ? 5.10 Summary F i r e c o n t r o l o r g a n i z a t i o n s have a-continuing job of studying t h e i r own o p e r a t i o n a l problems, and need to h i r e s k i l l e d i n v e s t i g a t o r s to help i n s o l v i n g l o c a l problems of f i r e p r e v e n t i o n , i n deciding what types of equipment are most s u i t a b l e f o r l o c a l use, and i n developing a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r the f i n d i n g s of b a s i c research. The research work i s a v a l u a b l e t o o l i n i n i t i a t i n g and f u r t h e r i n g the success of a f o r e s t f i r e program i n Thailand. Some of the fundamental s t u d i e s may have been done already i n s i m i l a r t r o p i c a l c o u n t r i e s . Results from s t u d i e s of f u e l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , b a s i c i g n i t i o n and combustion, and a l s o methods of f i r e danger r a t i n g might 81 t be borrowed from developed c o u n t r i e s and a p p l i e d to Thailand. But some aspects r e q u i r e i n t e n s i v e l o c a l study, e.g., f i r e p r e v e n t i o n , f i r e suppression, f i r e p l a n n i n g , f i r e use, and e c o l o g i c a l impact s t u d i e s . 82 TABLE 4 B r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of personnel and f i n a n c i n g r e q u i r e d f o r f i v e year program. Pe r i o d A c t i v i t i e s Number of Personnel . Cost ($) P r o f e s -s i o n a l Tech-n i c i a n Labour S a l a r i e s Equip-ment 1974 C o l l e c t data & i n f o r m a t i o n 1 2 8 3,340 1000 1975-76 F i r e planning s t u d i e s 1 1 2 2 e! 8 8,280 2000 1975-78 I n i t i a t e ex-perimental s t u d i e s on a l l necessary as-pects (at l e a s t f i r e p r e v e n t i o n , f i r e suppres-s i o n , f i r e ecology and f i r e use) 2 ' 4 16 27,520 8000 T o t a l 4 8 32 39,140 11000 Notes 1) P r o f e s s i o n a l o f f i c e r should be a graduate from the s c h o o l of f o r e s t r y at K a s e t s a r t U n i v e r s i t y . (Salary plus diem allowance i s about $100 a month.) 2) Technicians should be graduates from the Ranger School (two year course, s a l a r y plus diem allowance i s about $60 a month). 3) Labour should be seasonal jobs that l a s t only f o u r months. (Salary i s about $25 a month.) 4) This amount of money does not i n c l u d e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication. 83 6. COST OF FIRE CONTROL 6.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The important cornerstone of f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l management i n Thailand w i l l be economics. F i r e c o n t r o l i s of long-term b e n e f i t , and once s t a r t e d i t should be continued, so i t i s necessary to p l a n a long range program that w i l l be assured of adequate f i n a n c i n g . I t may be b e t t e r to p r o t e c t a quarter of the f o r e s t adequately than to p r o t e c t a l l of i t p o o r l y . A p l a n of s t a r t i n g s m a l l and c o n s t a n t l y expanding as finances a l l o w , w i t h never a c u t t i n g back of pro t e c t e d areas, should be the g o a l . 6.2 Cost of F i r e C o n t r o l U n i t s I f f i r e c o n t r o l i s to be developed i n t o a f u n c t i o n of the Royal Thai F o r e s t r y Department, some expenses have to be considered very c a r e f u l l y . Men have to be t r a i n e d , equipment purchased, communications developed, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s made a v a i l a b l e , and new jobs created w i t h t h e i r a d d i t i o n a l s a l a r i e s . These operations cost a l o t of money. I t i s impossible f o r Thailand to p r o t e c t a l l of i t s f o r e s t area from f i r e immediately. The best way i s to p r o t e c t the most important areas f i r s t , and then l a t e r expand to the lower value areas. Considering the f o r e s t area of T h a i l a n d , 100,000 square m i l e s i n t o t a l 25,000 square mil e s of n a t u r a l teak f o r e s t and 117,200 acres (1970) of p l a n t a t i o n , i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to estimate the cost of f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the wh o l e f f o r e s t y a r e a . However, i t can be s a i d that each p l a n t a t i o n area should have i t s own f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l p l a n and the expenses should be covered by an annual 84 budget. Macleod (1971) proposed a f i r e c o n t r o l p lan f o r the 9140 acres of f u t u r e pine p l a n t a t i o n i n the north of Thailand and estimated the costs of f i r s t year o r g a n i z a t i o n as f o l l o w s : 1. F i r e c o n t r o l equipment $16,260 2. One t e c h n i c a l f i r e c o n t r o l o f f i c e r $ 960 3. One lookout man $ 360 4. One dozer operator $ 840 5. Two p a t r o l men $ 720 6. Fifteen-man crews stand by (3 months) $ 1,350 T o t a l expense i s $20,490. I t may be about $3,500 f o r the next year o p e r a t i o n , or i t i s about 30 cents per acre f o r f i r e p r o t e c t i o n . This seems to be very expensive compared to 18 cents per acre i n Canada and 22 cents i n the U.S.A; However, t h i s p l a n i n c l u d e s the lookout man, dozer operator and p a t r o l men who might be considered as permanent s t a f f . I f seasonal jobs only were counted the expense would drop t o $2,690 annually, or about 25 cents per acre, or i f these resources cover 25,000 acres the cost w i l l drop down to 14 cents per acre. The costs of f i r e c o n t r o l should be i n c l u d e d i n the annual budget f o r a p l a n t a t i o n program from the beginning. Each 100 square k i l o -meter u n i t (25,000 acres) should be protected at a cost of $11,375 f o r the f i r s t year and $1,445 annually t h e r e a f t e r (Tables 5 and 6). There should be about f o r t y f i r e c o n t r o l u n i t s f o r the f o r e s t p l a n t a t i o n s of Thailand c o s t i n g about $445,000 f o r the f i r s t year and about $57,800 annually. 85 Considering the 25,000 square miles of n a t u r a l teak f o r e s t , each 500 square m i l e s should be setrup as one u n i t area f o r f i r e - c o n t r o l . I t w i l l cost $35,525 f o r the f i r s t year, and may be about $4,240 annually (Tables 5 and 6). There should be f i f t y u n i t s d i s t r i b u t e d around the country. . Some flammable s p e c i e s , l i k e pines both i n the p l a n t a t i o n and n a t u r a l f o r e s t , may cost more to p r o t e c t from f i r e , but some hard-wood species may cost l e s s . Such f a c t o r s must be c a r e f u l l y considered i n f o r e s t f i r e planning. This amount of money does not i n c l u d e the overhead expenses such as cost of s u p e r v i s i o n , b u i l d i n g s , f a c i l i t i e s , s a f e t y , some communication and some t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . These f i g u r e s show that i t i s impossible f o r Thailand to s t a r t p r o t e c t i n g a l l f o r e s t area from f i r e at the same time. The i d e a of an "adequate c o n t r o l method" (Brown and Davis, 1973) should be considered f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n , u n t i l the r e s u l t s from research show what type of f o r e s t should be p r o t e c t e d and f o r how long each type w i l l need p r o t e c t i o n from f i r e . For example, many people b e l i e v e that teak trees need p r o t e c t i o n against f i r e only i n the s e e d l i n g stage which l a s t s about three to f i v e years a f t e r logging. Normally teak f o r e s t s have a t h i r t y years f e l l i n g c y c l e and a 180 years r o t a t i o n , so that only one-sixth of the whole area has to be protected. I f t h i s hypo-t h e s i s i s t r u e , f i r e p r o t e c t i o n w i l l cost only one-sixth df the above estimates. 86 TABLE 5 Cost of Forest F i r e F i g h t i n g Equipment Item Cost($) Per P l a n t a t i o n u n i t (25,000 acres) N a t u r a l f o r e s t U n i t (500 sq ,ms.) Remarks Unit Quantity T o t a l cost ($) Quantity T o t a l ($) F i r e f i g h t i n g shovels F i r e rakes Back pack pumps Axes Drip torches Cross cut saw 3 4 35 2 39 3 15 15 10 12 5 10 45 50 350 24 195 30 15 10 10 20 -5 10 45 40 350 40 195 30 L o c a l l y made L o c a l l y made Imported L o c a l l y made Imported L o c a l l y made Slip-on-tank (75 gal.) 1360 1 1360 1 1360 Imported Land Rover t r u c k 5500 1 5500 1 5500 Imported Radio t r a n s -c e i v e r s (one set) 2000 , 1 2000 1 2000 Imported F i r e lookout tower & equip-ment 400 1 400 4 1600 Imported F i r e weather instruments 125 — 1 125 Imported Dozer D4 cat. 20000 - 1 20,000 Imported T o t a l 9930 31285 Note 1) L o c a l l y made equipment estimated by author's experience. The p r i c e s should be good f o r the year 1971 but some may be about 10% higher i n the year 1974. 2) Imported equipment costs i n Canadian d o l l a r s from the " l i s t of Wajax Company; i n c l u d i n g s h i p p i n g , packing and duty. 87 TABLE 6 Cost of manpower f o r f o r e s t f i r e o r g a n i z a t i o n Items Cost($) Per day P l a n t a t i o n U n i t (25,000 acres) N a t u r a l Forest U n i t . 320,000 acres (500 square miles) Remarks Quantity T o t a l Per year ($) Quantity T o t a l Per year ($) F i r e t e c h -n i c i a n 2 1 720 F u l l time Lookout man 1.5 1 135 4 540 Seasonal Dozer-operator 2. 1 180 1 180 Seasonal Patrolman 1 2 180 5 450 Seasonal Standby crews 1 5 450 15 1350 Seasonal Equipment maintenance and f u e l - - 500 - 1000 T o t a l 1445 4240 Note 1) The current budget f o r F o r e s t r y Department i s about 300 m i l l i o n baht (about 15 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s ) . I f the Department decides to reduce one percent of i t s current program f o r f i r e c o n t r o l , i t . would ensure a s t a r t being made. 2) The f i r e c o n t r o l u n i t i n p l a n t a t i o n areas i s more important than i n n a t u r a l f o r e s t , and n a t u r a l teak f o r e s t should come before other s p e c i e s . 88 6.3 Summary There i s no doubt that f i r e c o n t r o l o r g a n i z a t i o n s cost much money, but many f a c t o r s suggest that i t i s badly needed i n Thaila n d . Forest f i r e c o n t r o l p r o j e c t s i n v o l v e long run returns and do not produce d i r e c t revenue, so i t i s very hard to persuade people to adopt them. The v a l u a t i o n and a p p r a i s a l of l o s s i n timber and f o r e s t value are very complicated but reasonable procedures. These processes w i l l b r i n g forward examples to help people r e a l i z e how much f o r e s t s were damaged by f i r e , and the l e v e l of f i r e c o n t r o l expenditures may be considered more appropriate then. 89 7. CONCLUSIONS Obviously, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to draw f i r m conclusions about how f i r e management should be improved without f u r t h e r c a r e f u l d i s c u s s i o n w i t h concerned s e n i o r f o r e s t e r s i n Thailand. My plan f o r improving f i r e c o n t r o l should serve as a foundation from which I can urge d e s i r a b l e f u t u r e developments. By b r i n g i n g together i n f o r m a t i o n about methods used i n w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d North American f i r e management agencies and t e s t i n g t h e i r ideas against the s i t u a t i o n i n Thailand I hope that i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e to e f f e c t many improvements. High p r i o r i t y should be given to a program of c o l l e c t i n g data on which f i r e c o n t r o l planning can be i n i t i a t e d to i n c l u d e number, s i z e and cause of f i r e s by time periods and l o c a t i o n , and a l s o there should be a complete network of r a i n f a l l s t a t i o n s . Some aspects of the t h e s i s can be used d i r e c t l y . The posters and ideas f o r f i r e prevention could be implemented r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y . The d r a f t law w i l l r e q u i r e searching examination by f o r e s t law super v i s o r s and s e n i o r f o r e s t e r s , c a r e f u l review p o l i t i c a l l y , and then, h o p e f u l l y , Royal assent. The plans f o r buying equipment, b u i l d i n g new f a c i l i t i e s , and h i r i n g necessary s t a f f a l s o must be reviewed c a r e f u l l y . Perhaps, outside agencies as w e l l as the most concerned Thai i n d u s t r i a l i s t s can be persuaded to lend support t o those Thai f o r e s t e r s who view i n d i s c r i m i n a t e use of f i r e w i t h deep concern. The in f o r m a t i o n and ideas presented must be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the Thai language. H o p e f u l l y , they a l s o w i l l be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o an e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n program which w i l l capture and hold the i n t e r e s t s and energies 90 of both v i l l a g e r s and p r o f e s s i o n a l managers. The issues are r e a l and very important. F i r e s must be managed soon to preserve our teak f o r e s t s , p r o t e c t our watersheds, and provide much more pleasant environments i n which to work and l i v e . I t might take one or two generations to achieve a b i g change i n the p u b l i c ' s a t t i t u d e towards f o r e s t f i r e s , but i t i s imperative that such changes be made. I f f o r e s t e r s of today do not pla y an a c t i v e p a r t i n the program, how can we expect the f u r t h e r generation t o do so? 91 8. BIBLIOGRAPHY Anoh., 1973. F i r e c o n t r o l p l a n , t r e e farm l i c e n c e number 23, Canadian Cellulose* Company L t d . , i n t e r i o r woods operations, Nakusp, B.C. 64 p. ., 1951. Report of the f i r e c o n t r o l study tour. Economic Cooperation A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Washington, D.C. (F.A.O./52/7/3863). 184 p. Arno l d , R.K., 1950. Economic and s o c i a l determinants of an adequate l e v e l of f o r e s t f i r e c o n t r o l . D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan, U.S.A. 26 p. Barney, R.J., 1969. I n t e r i o r A l a ska W i l d f i r e s 1956-1965, U.S.D.A. I n t e r i o r North F o r e s t r y . 43 p. Batchelder, R.B., 1966. S p a t i a l and Temporal Patterns of F i r e i n the T r o p i c a l World. T a l l Timbers F i r e E c o l . Conf., 1966: 171-250. 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E r a d i c a t i n g Understory Hardwoods by Repeated P r e s c r i b e d Burning. U.S.D.A. For. Serv. Res. Pap. 50-56. 11 p. Hakimuddin, M., 1953. Forest F i r e . Indian Forester 79(10) 572-573. Henderson, R.C. and R.K. K i n g , 1968. S p r i n k l e r System Eases C o n t r o l of P r e s c r i b e d F i r e s . Truck Logger 24(9): 16-17. , 1969. Slash Burning Under S c r u t i n y . Truck Logger 25(4): 18-19. , 1972. P r e s c r i b e d F i r e : Spring and E a r l y Summer vs. F a l l . F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y , U.B.C. 11 p. (mimeo.) , 1973. Forest F i r e Management Planning. F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y , U.B.C. 30 p. 94 Hewetson, C.E., 1954. F i r e s and T h e i r E c o l o g i c a l E f f e c t s i n Madhya Pradesh. Indian F o r e s t e r 80(40): 235-237. Hough, W.A., 1968. F u e l Consumption and F i r e Behavior of Hazard Reduction Burns. U.S.D.A. For. Serv. Res. Pap. SE-36. 7 p. Jones, A.R., J r . T a y l o r , M.L. and A.L. Bertrand, 1965. Some Human Factors i n Woods Burning. L o u i s i a n a Agr. Exp. Sta. B u l l . 601. 28 p. Kadambi, K., 1957. F i r e P r o t e c t i o n of Forest i n I n d i a . Indian F o r e s t e r 83(5): 339-364. ' , 1972. S i l v i c u l t u r e and Management of Teak. School of F o r e s t r y , Stephin F. A u s t i n State Univ., Texas, B u l l . 24. 138 p. Kimbal, E.C., 1971. The P h i l i p p i n e s F i r e C o n t r o l . Report prepared f o r the Government of the P h i l i p p i n e s by F.A.O. (F0:SF/PHI 16). 62 p. Kingston, G.A., 1956. Developments i n Forest F i r e Suppression. For. Chron. 32(2): 221-224. Kinney, J.P., 1917. The Development of Forest Law i n America. Chapman and H a l l L i m i t e d . 247 p. Kotok, E . I . , E.W. K e l l e y and C F . Evans, 1973. N a t i o n a l P l a n f o r American F o r e s t r y . U.S. Government Senate Document 12(2): 1395-1418. J K r i t , S., 1966. For e s t r y Development i n Thailand. Dept. of F o r e s t r y , Bangkok, Thailand. 39 p. and S. P i r o t , 1962. A Study on the E f f e c t of S h i f t i n g C u l t i v a t i o n on Forest S o i l s . Dept. of F o r e s t r y No. R. 51. 10 p. Kun, S.F., 1958. An A n a l y s i s of F o r e s t r y F i r e C o n t r o l Standards. F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y , M.F. T h e s i s , U.B.C. 104 p. Lane, D.A., 1970. R e f o r e s t a t i o n and Forest Improvement i n Thailan d . The Vanasarn, V o l . 28(2): 16-34. Luke, R.S., 1949. Forest F i r e C o n t r o l i n New South Wales. A u s t r a l i a n F o r e s t e r , V o l . 13(1): 15-21. Macleod, J.C., 1956. Forest F i r e C o n t r o l P l a n s . F o r e s t r y Chron. 32(2): 197-201. , 1971. Forest F i r e C o n t r o l i n Thailand. F i n a l report to the Thai Government, Bangkok. 25 p. 95 Mactavish, J.S., 1966. App r a i s i n g F i r e Damage to Mature Forest Stands. F o r e s t r y Branch Departmental P u b l i c a t i o n No. 1162. 30 p. ' ' and M.R. Lockman, 1964. Forest F i r e Losses i n Canada 1963. Ottawa, Forest Research Branch. 14 p. Maclean, D.L., 1970. Economic Determinants of an Optimal L e v e l of Forest F i r e P r o t e c t i o n . For. Res. I n s t . , C.F.S. Dept., Ontario. I n t e r n a l report F.F. 13, A p r i l 1970. 7 p. and M.R. Lockman, 1966. Forest F i r e Losses i n Canada 1965. Dept. of For. and R u r a l Development. 15 p. MaCutchan, M.H. and R.S. Helfman, 1969. Synoptic Scale Weather Disturbances that Influence F i r e Climate i n Southeast A s i a During Normally Dry P e r i o d s . P r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t , P a c i f i c Southeast Forest and Range Exp. S t a . , U.S.D.A., Berkeley, C a l i f . , U.S.A. 65 p. Mcleskey, H.M., 1968. Fo r e s t r y Law and Organ i z a t i o n i n M i s s i s s i p p i . Soc. S c i . Res. Center, M i s s . State Univ. Rep.: 23. 32 p. Murray, C.H., 1961. Teak and F i r e i n T r i n i d a d . Caribbean F o r e s t e r , V o l . 22, p. 57-61. Nelson, R.M. and D. Bruce, 1958. Forest F i r e Research Needs i n the South. Jour. For. 56: 399-413. , 1961. Burning Index as a . P a r t i a l Guide to A i r P a t r o l i n the South. U.S.D.A. Southern For. Exp. Sta. Pap. No. 118. 28 p. Pa t t e r s o n , G.A., 1955. How we Developed a F i r e Prevention P l a n . B.C. Lumberman 39(3): 54-55. Pagni, P.J. ejt j i l , 1971. P r e s c r i b e d Burning. C a l i f o r n i a U n i v e r s i t y , Berkeley, C a l i f . PB 206. 259 p. i R i n d t , C.A., 1969. Report on the F o r e s t r y T.D.Y. L i m i t e d c i r c u l a t i o n r e p o r t . 14 p. S c h i f f , A.L., 1962. F i r e arid Water. Harvard Univ. P r e s s , Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 196 p. ^ Show, S.B., 1955. Pimary Basis and Ideas f o r F i r e - C o n t r o l Planning on C a l i f o r n i a N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s . F i r e C o n t r o l Notes 16(1): 1-8. Smith, J.H.G., 1953. P r o t e c t i o n of Forests from F i r e . 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Prepared by Eastern Region. 24 p. 1965. Ten Standard F i r e F i g h t i n g Orders. Prepared under the t e c h n i c a l d i r e c t i o n of the D i v . of F i r e C o n t r o l . Washington, D.C 82 p. , 1965. A Guide to F i r e by P r e s c r i p t i o n . Prepared by Southern Region, A t l a n t a , Georgia, U.S.A. 32 p. , 1968. F i r e i n the F o r e s t , Servant or Master? Prepared by Southern Region, A t l a n t a , Georgia, U.S.A. 16 p. _, 1973. F i r e Guard T r a i n i n g Handbook. Prepared by Southern Region, A t l a n t a , Georgia, U.S.A. 166 p. 97 U.S.D.A., Forest S e r v i c e , 1972. A guide f o r P r e s c r i b e d F i r e i n Southern F o r e s t s . A t l a n t a , Georgia,.U.S.A. 34 p. West, 0., 1971. F i r e , Man and W i l d f i r e as I n t e r a c t i n g Factors L i m i t i n g the Development of Climax Vagetation i n Rhodesia. T a l l Timbers No. 11: 121-145. 98 JHakhon Phanom TYPES OF FORESTS l l l i i l J TROPICAL EVERGREEN FORESTS DECIDUOUS OlPTEROCARP FORESTS !E3 MIXED DECIDUOUS FORESTS . MANGROVE FORESTS SAVANAS APPENDIX B. Table. ah;v;i:-;:;. -type of fa r o s t s and othe 99 r s t r a t a for a l l •egions of Thailand (in Kh. ~) -.0 area of each province i s obtained from land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Surveys Record. 2. The aroas of several f o r e s t types and other s t r a t a other than forests are obtained from Photo re s u l t s of photo scales 1:60,000 taken i n 1961, 3. Forest area i n the West including Banboo forest" i n Kanchanaburi Province i s about 9,362 Krr.t 2 U. A g r i c u l t u r a l land i n the South including Rubber Plantation i s about 6,700 o. ."orosx, i'J.a.itatirwiS are recorded up to December 1970. • - i n t e r o r e i,a L i o r APPENDIX C. ORGANIZATION CHART, 1972, ROYAL THAI FORESTRY DEPARTMENT. •DIRECTOR (rENERftl FORESTRY POLICE I r ASS. DIRECTOR (A&M,)| 1 SECRETARY CLERK RECORDS T R A N S P O R T A T I O N I FINANCE BRA ACCOUNTS BUDGET C H E C K I N G B A N K I N G W A R E H O U S I N G PERSONNEL BRA, P E R S O N N E L AJ>Mj P E R S O N N E L MfrT. S T A F F DEVELOPS. FIIE REGISTRY T R A I N I N G I N F O R . N A T I O N BRfl, E X T E N S I O N 4 T A T I S T I C S S T A T I O N A R Y L I B R A R Y MUS.EUM RESEARCH BRA. t r V I C U l T U R E R E S . WOOJ> TECHNOLOGY RES. WATERSHED R E S . WILDLIFE, P A R K B S 5 . PROTECTION R E S . E X P E R I M E N T *TA. I MANAGEMENT BRAl TIMBER MGT. WrtT£R?MEJ> Mtf-T. WILDLIFE M(JT. R E C R E A T I O N MdT . FOREST T B O T E C T I O N | DISTRICT FORESTS"! SECRETARY \ \ R E S E A R C H \ | MANAGEMENT | | NATION TARK \ | FOREST PARK 1 -j FORESTRY SCHOOL 1 ASS. DIRECTOR CTECH.) CONTROL B R A . L E G I S L A T I O N LAW INVESTIGATION T E S T I F Y I N G FOREST CONTROL C U T T I N G P E R M I T DOTY CONTROL S T A . C O N C E S S I O N C O N T R O L L \ INFORMATION \ \ CONTROL 1 | RESERVED FORESTJ ] FOREST RANGER I PROTECT tO M UMITS] APPENDIX D. ORGANIZATION CHART (PROPOSED) ROYAL THAI FORESTRY DEPARTMENT. DIRECTOR GENERAL FORESTRY POLICE |- FORESTRY SCHOOL ASS. DIRECTOR fADM) 1 ASS. DIRECTOR (TECH.) SECRETARY I • , I RESEARCH | | MAN AC-EMENT j NATION PARK | | FOREST PARK | , T , . I _ j INFORMATION | | CONTROL 1 \ PROTECTION | RESERVED FOREST] SOREST RANKER | "PROTECTION UNTTS APPENDIX E. ORGANIZATION CHART (PROPOSED) FOREST PROTECTION BRANCH. PROTECTION BRANCH FIRE CONTROL INSECTS AND DISEASES I L L I C I T C U T T I N G SERVICES SAFETY TRAINING eauiffiENT CAMPING PREVENTION P L A N N I N G DATA COLLECTION WEATHER COrinUNlCATlON TRANSPORTATION AIR SERVICE FIRE UNITS ACCOUNT LOOKOUT TOWERS [(SEASONAL EMPLOYEE) PATROLS (SEASONAL EMPLOYEE)! S U P P R E S S I O N CREWS) (TEMPORARY EMPLOYEE) F IRE WARDEN (HONORARY EMPLOYttjl WAREHOUSE (PERMANENT EMPLOYEE! 103 APPENDIX F FOREST FIRE ACT B. E. 2516 (HYPOTHETICAL) IN THE NAME OF HIS MAJESTY, KING BHUMIBOL ADULYADEJ IS GRACIOUSLY PLEASED TO PROCLAIM THAT: Whereas i t i s expedient to have a law on :Forest F i r e ; Be i t , t h e r e f o r e , enacted by the K i n g , by and w i t h the advice and consent of the Constituent Assembly a c t i n g as the N a t i o n a l Assembly, as f o l l o w s : S e c t i o n 1. This Act s h a l l be c a l l e d the "Forest F i r e A c t , B.E. 2516". Sectio n 2. This Act s h a l l come i n t o f o r c e as and from the day f o l l o w i n g the date of i t s p u b l i c a t i o n i n the Government Gazette. S e c t i o n 3. A l l other laws, r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s i n so f a r as they are already provided by t h i s A c t , and are contrary to or i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p r o v i s i o n s o b f cthisAActs'shallbberreplacedbby-this Act. Sectio n 4. In t h i s A c t : (1) " F o r e s t " means an area of land proclaimed to be f o r e s t under a Forest A c t , which c a r r y i n g f o r e s t growth, that may be damaged by f i r e . (2) "Timber land" means any n a t u r a l f o r e s t or f o r e s t p l a n t a t i o n which has enough timber o r woody brush, standing or down, to c o n s t i t u t e a f i r e hazard to i t s e l f o r a d j o i n i n g lands. (3) "Flammable m a t e r i a l " s h a l l i n c l u d e , but i s not l i m i t e d to r e f u s e , d e b r i s , waste f o r e s t m a t e r i a l , brush, stumps, l o g s , r u b b i s h , f a l l e n timber, grass, s t u b b l e , leaves.and s l a s h . 104 (4) " O f f i c e r " means the person appointed by the M i n i s t e r f o r the execution of t h i s Act. (5) "Director-General" means the Director-General of the Forestry Department. (6) "Department" means the Royal Forestry Department. (7) "Minister" means the M i n i s t e r who takes charge and control f or the execution of t h i s Act. Section 5. The M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e s h a l l take charge and control f o r the execution of the act, and s h a l l have the power to appoint competent o f f i c i a l s and to issue M i n i s t e r i a l Regulations f o r the execution of t h i s Act. Such M i n i s t e r i a l Regulations s h a l l come into force upon t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n i n the Government Gazette. Chapter 1  F i r e Season Section 6. The period from the f i r s t day of January to the 30th of A p r i l i n each year s h a l l be a f i r e season. (1) Except under the authority of f i r e permit,, no person s h a l l s t a r t a f i r e or i g n i t e working f i r e i n or near the forest or timber land during a f i r e season f o r any purpose other than cooking or obtaining warmth. (2) Upon a p p l i c a t i o n therefore an o f f i c e r may issue a f i r e permit. (3) A f i r e permit may be cancelled or suspended at any time by an o f f i c e r , and immediately upon receiving notice of such c a n c e l l a t i o n or suspension, the permittee s h a l l extinguish any f i r e started under the permit. 105 Chapter 2  Prevention Measures Sectio n 7. No person s h a l l : (1) Within or adjacent to timber l a n d , dispose of a l i g h t e d match, or other flaming or glowing substance, or any other substance or t h i n g i n such c o n d i t i o n that i t i s l i k e l y to i g n i t e a f o r e s t . (2) Set f i r e or cause or procure the s e t t i n g on f i r e of any flammable m a t e r i a l on timber l a n d , without n o t i f y i n g the nearest o f f i c e r and without t a k i n g reasonable precautions both before and a f t e r l i g h t i n g the f i r e and at a l l time t h e r e a f t e r to prevent escape thereof. (3) Deposit or leave unattended on any r a i l r o a d or highway right-of-way w i t h i n or adjacent to f o r e s t , any f i r e or l i v e c o a l s , or set or maintain thereon any f i r e f o r the purpose of cooking, h e a t i n g , or p r o v i d i n g l i g h t or warmth unless such f i r e i s enclosed w i t h i n a stove, drum, f i r e p l a c e or other p r o p e r l y prepared l o c a t i o n . (4) W i t h i n or adjacent to,a f o r e s t , set a b a c k f i r e , or cause a b a c k f i r e to be s e t , except under the d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n of the o f f i c e r , or unless i t can be e s t a b l i s h e d that the s e t t i n g of such b a c k f i r e i s necessary f o r the purpose of saving l i f e or v a l u a b l e property. (5) Without a u t h o r i t y , d e s t r o y , deface, or remove any n o t i c e , s i g n , or p o s t e r of the Department, posted f o r the b e t t e r p r o t e c t i o n of wood l o t s , f o r e s t s , or w i l d l a n d from f i r e t r e s p a s s . (6) L i g h t or maintain w i t h i n or adjacent to a f o r e s t an open f i r e or campfire without c l e a r i n g flammable m a t e r i a l surrounding such f i r e as necessary to ensure against the escape or spread t h e r e o f , or leave such f i r e before i t i s extinguished. 106 (7) K i n d l e or s t a r t , or d i r e c t another to k i n d l e or s t a r t , any f i r e i n or near a p u b l i c road or highway w i t h i n or adjacent to timber land unless i t i s under c o n t r o l at a l l times, and p r o p e r l y extinguished before l e f t . S e c t i o n 8. Every member of a road c o n s t r u c t i o n or maintenance crew, whether employed by the Highway Department, or the commissioners and every road c o n t r a c t o r or subcontractor of s a i d s t a t e road department and t h e i r employees s h a l l keep a l l f i r e s set by them under c o n t r o l , and confined to the right-of-way and s h a l l suppress a l l f i r e s discovered and detected by them w i t h i n f i f t y meters of the center l i n e of the right-of-way of the p u b l i c road or highway. Sectio n 9. No person s h a l l w i l f u l l y , m a l i c i o u s l y , wantonly, or n e g l i g e n t l y set on f i r e or cause or procure to be set on f i r e any f o r e s t or timber l a n d , or p l a n t a t i o n not owned, leased or c o n t r o l l e d by him or them. Chapter 3  Extinguishment of F i r e S e c t i o n 10. An o f f i c e r may, at any time i n the i n t e r e s t of f o r e s t p r o t e c t i o n , e x t i n g u i s h a f i r e or order any person i n charge, or apparently i n charge, of a f i r e to e x t i n g u i s h the f i r e . S e c t i o n 11. Every person who has s t a r t e d a f i r e i n a f o r e s t , that i s not kept under c o n t r o l , s h a l l report the f i r e without undue delay to an o f f i c e r and i n any prosecution or an a c t i o n the onus i s upon him to prove that he so reported the f i r e . S e c t i o n 12. No person s h a l l : (1) Hinder, o b s t r u c t , or impede an o f f i c e r i n performance of h i s d u t i e s . 107 (2) Refuse or neglect to provide any p r i v a t e l y owned requirement or to render a s s i s t a n c e when req u i r e d . Chapter 4  P e n a l t i e s S e c t i o n 13. Whoever v i o l a t e s s e c t i o n 7 (4) (7) (8) and s e c t i o n 9 s h a l l be punished w i t h imprisonment not exceeding f i v e years or a f i n e not exceeding twenty thousand baht ($1.00 i s about 20 b a h t ) , or both. S e c t i o n 14. Whoever v i o l a t e s s e c t i o n 7 (1) (2) (3) (5) and Sectio n 11 s h a l l be punished w i t h imprisonment not exceeding one month or a f i n e not exceeding one thousand baht or both. Sect i o n 15. Whoever v i o l a t e s s e c t i o n 6 (1) (2) and s e c t i o n 12 (1) (2) s h a l l be punished w i t h a f i n e not exceeding f i v e hundred baht. Sect i o n 16. A l l equipment, instruments, and v e h i c l e s used: by any person i n committing the offence of burning the f o r e s t s h a l l be f o r f e i t e d r e g a r d l e s s of whether they belong to the offender, and whether any person i s convicted. Chapter 5  Regulations Sec t i o n 17. The M i n i s t e r may make r e g u l a t i o n s : (1) d e c l a r i n g part of the country to be a f i r e d i s t r i c t and d e c l a r i n g the name that each f i r e d i s t r i c t s h a l l bear; (2) d e c l a r i n g any p e r i o d of f i r e season i n any year to be f i r e season i n a f i r e d i s t r i c t or any pa r t of a f i r e d i s t r i c t ; (3) d e c l a r i n g any f i r e d i s t r i c t to be a r e s t r i c t e d f i r e z (4) f o r any other reason f o r the purpose of f i r e c o n t r o l . t e : This h y p o t h e t i c a l Forest F i r e Act i s based on: 1. Forest Act 1941 (Thailand) 2. N a t i o n a l Park Act 1961 (Thailand) 3. State-Forest F i r e Laws Southern Region (U.S.A.) 4. Forest F i r e Prevention Act 1970 (Ontario) 5. Forest Act 1962 ( B r i t i s h Columbia) 6. F o r e s t r y Act 1972 (India) 109 APPENDIX G SAMPLE FIRE REPORT FORM FIRE REPORT •1. P r o t e c t i o n U n i t F i r e name Loc a t i o n Province D i s t r i c t , 2. F i r e Number 3. F i r e S t a r t i n g Time Date 4. F i r e Suppression Time Date 5. Mopping up Completion Time ...Date 6. Report By 7. Area Burnt P l a n t a t i o n . . R a i ; Damage Value baht Teak Forest R a i ; Damage Value baht Others R a i ; Damage Value baht T o t a l . . . . . R a i ; Damage Value baht 8. Vegetation D e s c r i p t i o n . 9. Salvage Value 10. Cost of Suppression.... No. of S t a f f Present Labour Cost baht T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Cost baht Others Cost baht 110 11. Equipment Requirement L i s t of Hand t o o l s . . . . L i s t of Power t o o l s . . . L i s t of Machine hours, 12. Weather Data by Burning per i o d . . Temperature R e l a t i v e Humidity Wind D i r e c t i o n Wind Speed 13. Topography E l e v a t i o n Slope 14. Cause of F i r e 15. Map Reference FIRE MAP Scale 1: Note; Form to be completed and dispatched to D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r w i t h i n 12 hours of end of f i r e . APPENDIX G FIRE DISCOVERY REPORT FORM Name of Observer Lookout No P a t r o l No P r o t e c t i o n U n i t D i s t r i c t F i r e Name F i r e Number Time of Discovery Hours Date Azimuth L o c a t i o n : Zone No. Compt. No. Close to Fu e l Type Grass Dry Dipterocarp f o r e s t Fern Teak f o r e s t Pine Others P o s i t i o n on Slope F l a t Base of slope Middle of slope Top of sl o p e . . . Amount of smoke Heavy L i g h t Colour of Smoke Grey - white.. Yellow - white Black D i r e c t i o n of Smoke N NE E SE Wind Speed.... D i r e c t i o n Other Remarks: S t a t i o n Dutyman's Name Time N o t i f i e d Reporting Time S . SW. W . NW. S t r a i g h t up, 113 APPENDIX H B r i e f Five-year P l a n f o r Forest F i r e Management 1. P r o j e c t Schedule Program Item Years and Months of A p p l i c a t i o n 1974 1 2 1 3 14 T975" 1 2 13 14 1976 112 3 4 1977 1 2 13 1,4 1978 II 2 1 3 1 4 Remarks 1. Expert ad-2. v i s e r s Survey and Data C o l l -e c t i o n 3. E s t a b l i s h F i r e C o n t r o l U n i t s 4. Develop F i r e . C o n t r o l P l a n 5. Develop com-munication Network 6. Equipment' v/pur chase 7. I n s t a l l Weather S t a t i o n 8. F i r e l i n e C o n s t r u c t i o n 9. F i r e Preven-t i o n Campaign 10. T r a i n i n g 11. Research Studies Note 1. F i r e season l a s t s from January t o A p r i l ( J a n . - l , Feb.-2, Mar.-3, Apr. 2. Expert advisers and some equipment should be requested from C.I.D.A. 3. Equipment (Tables 3 and 6 ) , F i r e c o n t r o l u n i t s (Table 4 ) , Communication and Research Studies f o l l o w suggestions i n the t e x t . 

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