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Planning timber supply from the forests of Peninsular Malaysai Hadi, Yusuf bin 1982

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PLANNING TIMBER SUPPLY FROM THE FORESTS OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA by YUSUF B I N (JjlADI B.S., U n i v e r s i t y Of H a w a i i , 1973 M.F.S., Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , 1975  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF  PHILOSOPHY in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES D e p a r t m e n t Of  We a c c e p t  Forestry  t h i s t h e s i s as  to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H October  ©  conforming  COLUMBIA  1982  Yusuf B i n H a d i ,  1982  In  presenting  this  thesis  in partial  fulfilment  of  the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  I  i t freely  available  f o r reference  permission  agree  that  f o r extensive  the Library  shall  and study.  I  make  further  copying of t h i s thesis  agree  for scholarly  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r or  her representatives.  publication  of t h i s thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  Department o f  for financial permission.  Forestry  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  D a t e : Ji  I t i s understood  AfoiS^r^J**-  Columbia  gain  that  that  by  ;  his  copying or  shall  n o t be  ABSTRACT  S u p e r v i s o r s : Dr. Since  1957,  Peninsular timber  in  growth of  Malaysia  production  designated  has  been  Lumber and 3  full  The  range  supply  of  s t a t e by  and  t o 11.6  t o 17.0  Malaysia  million  methods which  of  utilization  Peninsular o f wood.  forests  million  M a l a y s i a , and  In a d d i t i o n ,  times  3  timber  remedy t h e  three  planning  first  time,  management  describe  additional  the a n a l y s i s  of  timber  s t a t e c o u l d i n v o l v e the h i t h e r t o n e g l e c t e d s t a t e  which  own  and  manage  L i n e a r programming  management scenario,  Ten are  the  forest  the  forests  ( T i m b e r RAM)  within  i s used t o  their  optimize  s u p p l y , as a s u p e r i o r a l t e r n a t i v e t o the t r a d i t i o n a l  control.  3  m.  the c u r r e n t  and  m  available  planning  should  in  Annual  c a p a c i t y expanded seven  improved  timber for  territories. timber  estate  i n p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s and  sources  governments  uncoordinated.  i m p r o v e d methods c o n s i d e r , f o r t h e  possibilities potential  industries  P r e v i o u s e s t i m a t e s of t h e a n n u a l l y  Peninsular  major shortcomings  Williams  forest  increased s i x times  plywood m i l l  This thesis presents  system.  and  r a p i d and  s u p p l y h a v e r a n g e d f r o m 4.5  for  D r . D.H.  from the permanent f o r e s t  to'10.1 m i l l i o n m .  supply  and  forestry  for agriculture  1979.  timber  J.H.G. S m i t h  scenarios  for  considered  representing  for  modest  e x t e n s i v e management of t h e  timber  utilization  Peninsular  Malaysia.  improvement  indigenous  and  forests,  in  area  forest Only  one  logging  and  i s analysed  state  by  s t a t e because of i n s u f f i c i e n t The  potential  for  data.  expanded  harvests  However, t h e magnitude of f u t u r e h a r v e s t s because and  responses  isdifficult  define  t h e e v e n t u a l e x t e n t of t h e p r o d u c t i v e f o r e s t s and  priorities  to  73.3  be  assigned  to  Future annual  million  productive  m,  intensification  timber  times  of  of  smaller  management,  to  trees and  and  better  rubberwood, o i l palm, mangroves, and f o r e s t t h e o t h e r hand, major t i m b e r  current wasteful Harvests  logging  c o u l d be r e d u c e d  The  north-eastern  Pahang) w i l l c o n t i n u e timber  and  production.  utilization states.  shortages  states  (Perak,  to  further  more  improved species,  utilization mill  are l i k e l y  of  residues. t o occur i f  management  70  Any i n c r e a s e i n h a r v e s t  are  from  of  continue.  K e l a n t a n , Trengganu and  t o s u p p l y more t h a n  will  percent  of  total  from improved  timber  occur  mainly  in  these  i n d u s t r i e s , which has s t a r t e d ' i n these  s t a t e s , w i l l c o n t i n u e and a c c e l e r a t e .  shift  and  inadequate  a n d f o r e s t management  states  plantations  70 p e r c e n t .  Growth of f o r e s t  western  up  the current harvest, i f a l l  Increases could also result  use  fully  h a r v e s t s c o u l d be i n c r e a s e d  f o r e s t s were c o n v e r t e d  species.  methods of l o g g i n g ,  t i m b e r management a r e n o t now  seven  3  indigenous  fast-growing  On  to  treatments  understood. to  substantial.  trees to various s i l v i c u l t u r a l  likely  of  is  experiencing  processing  of  In  contrast,  a timber timber  the  shortage, to  utilize  south-  and s h o u l d existing  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e a n d a v a i l a b l e manpower. The  recommended  computer-assisted  planning  methods c o u l d f o r m t h e c o r e o f a  f o r e s t p l a n n i n g system f o r P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a .  iv  The  ability  of l i n e a r p r o g r a m m i n g t o h e l p d e f i n e a l t e r n a t i v e s ,  o p t i m i z e , and timber  t o c a r r y out e f f i c i e n t ,  supply c a l c u l a t i o n s  effort  should  secure  be  the a d d i t i o n a l  system  even  more  e f f e c t i v e , and r e p r o d u c i b l e  should a s s i s t  devoted  planners.  Substantial  by M a l a y s i a n p l a n n e r s and m a n a g e r s t o  i n f o r m a t i o n needed  helpful  i n the  to  make  future.  The  the  now  state  desirable  timber  departments  supply  policies.  and  Before  incorporate  improved  then  available  i n the  and  t o d e f i n e i m p l i c a t i o n s of v a r i o u s i n p u t s  and  application  d a t a and  prevailing  d a t a p r o c e s s i n g and  by t h e f e d e r a l  in  local  any  physical, in  analysis  country.  quantify  approach  changes  r e g a r d i n g the b i o l o g i c a l , factors  to  planning  general  d e s c r i b e d h e r e c o u l d be u s e d i n t e r a c t i v e l y forestry  to  the  results  changes needed i n socio-economic  Malaysia. s h o u l d employ  The  assumptions  and  political  techniques  the  best  should  used f o r  technology  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  ..  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  v  L I S T OF TABLES  viii  L I S T OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  xi x i i  1.  Introduction 1 . 1 The P r o b l e m 1 . 2 Objective 1 . 3 O r g a n i z a t i o n of the T h e s i s  2.  F o r e s t r y a n d F o r e s t I n d u s t r y i n P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a .... 2. 1 G e n e r a l B a c k g r o u n d 2. 2 The F o r e s t s 2.2.1 F o r e s t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 2.2.2 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e C a t e g o r i e s 2. 3 F o r e s t Management 2.3.1 The A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S e t t i n g 2.3.2 F o r e s t Management S y s t e m s 2. 4 F o r e s t I n d u s t r i e s 2.4.1 L o g g i n g a n d L o g T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 2.4.2 The S a w m i l l i n g I n d u s t r y 2.4.3 The P l y w o o d a n d V e n e e r I n d u s t r y 2.4.4 O t h e r F o r e s t I n d u s t r i e s 2. 5 I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e F o r e s t r y a n d F o r e s t I n d u s t r i e s Sector 2. 6 Summary  3.  4.  1 1 5 8 10 10 17 17 20 24 24 26 31 31 32 37 39 42 50  Timber S u p p l y : Past Trends and F o r e c a s t s of F u t u r e Levels 3. 1 P a s t T r e n d s i n L o g P r o d u c t i o n a n d C o n s u m p t i o n 3.1.1 T r e n d s i n L o g P r o d u c t i o n 3.1.2 S o u r c e s o f T i m b e r 3.1.3 L o g C o n s u m p t i o n 3. 2 R e v i e w o f P r e v i o u s A n a l y s e s o f T i m b e r S u p p l y f r o m the F o r e s t s of P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a 3.2.1 F o r e c a s t s o f F u t u r e L o g F l o w S c h e d u l e s 3.2.2 S y n t h e s i s o f t h e V a r i o u s F o r e c a s t s 3. 3 Summary  62 64 69 76  D e s i r a b l e F e a t u r e s o f a T i m b e r Management P l a n n i n g Method 4. 1 D e s i r a b l e F e a t u r e s 4.1.1 C a p a b i l i t y o f A c c e p t i n g R e l e v a n t D a t a 4.1.2 T e m p o r a l a n d S p a t i a l D i m e n s i o n s 4.1.3 E f f e c t i v e , E f f i c i e n t a n d R e p r o d u c i b l e A n a l y s e s  78 78 79 80 82  52 52 52 54 60  .  vi  4.1.4 U s e f u l F o r m a t o f P l a n n i n g O u t p u t s 4.1.5 L i n k a g e w i t h M u l t i p l e - u s e P l a n n i n g M e t h o d 4. 2 E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e M e t h o d s U s e d i n P r e v i o u s T i m b e r Supply Analyses 4.2.1 C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f B i o l o g i c a l , E c o n o m i c a n d P o l i t i c a l / Administrative Factors 4.2.2 H a n d l i n g o f S p a t i a l a n d T e m p o r a l D i m e n s i o n s .... 4.2.3 The P l a n n i n g T o o l s 4.2.4 Summary o f M a j o r L i m i t a t i o n s 4. 3 The Recommended M e t h o d s o f P l a n n i n g 5.  6.  7.  84 85 86 87 91 92 94 94  T i m b e r R e s o u r c e A l l o c a t i o n M e t h o d ( T i m b e r RAM) 5. 1 T i m b e r RAM P a c k a g e 5. 2 P l a n n i n g w i t h T i m b e r RAM 5.2.1 M a t r i x G e n e r a t i o n 5.2.2 S o l v i n g t h e L i n e a r P r o g r a m m i n g P r o b l e m 5.2.3 R e p o r t W r i t i n g 5. 3 The A d v a n t a g e s o f U s i n g T i m b e r RAM 5. 4 L i m i t a t i o n s o f T i m b e r RAM 5.4.1 L i m i t a t i o n s I n h e r e n t i n L i n e a r P r o g r a m m i n g Technique 5.4.2 L i m i t a t i o n s B u i l t i n t o T i m b e r RAM  97 97 98 98 104 104 105 107  A p p l i c a t i o n o f T i m b e r RAM t o P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a 6. 1 Some P o s s i b l e F u t u r e Management S i t u a t i o n s 6.1.1 S c e n a r i o 1: B a s i c S c e n a r i o 6.1.2 S c e n a r i o 2: U t i l i z a t i o n o f S m a l l e r L o g s 6.1.3 S c e n a r i o 3: I n c r e a s e d P r o p o r t i o n o f M a r k e t a b l e S p e c i e s i n Subsequent Crops 6.1.4 S c e n a r i o s 4.1 and 4.2: A n y - s p e c i e s U t i l i z a t i o n . 6.1.5 S c e n a r i o 5: I n t e n s i v e F o r e s t Management 6.1.6 S c e n a r i o 6: C o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e C u r r e n t F o r e s t r y Practice 6.1.7 S c e n a r i o s 7.1 a n d 7.2: A d a p t a t i o n o f t h e FDPM Plan 6. 2 D a t a 6.2.1 F o r e s t A r e a 6.2.2 T i m b e r Y i e l d 6.2.3 Management P o l i c y I n f o r m a t i o n 6. 3 Summary  115 115 116 117  P o s s i b l e Timber Supply S i t u a t i o n s f o r P e n i n s u l a r Malaysia 7. 1 L o g F l o w S c h e d u l e s 7.1.1 B a s i c S c e n a r i o 7.1.2 P o s s i b l e I n c r e a s e s i n H a r v e s t s 7.1.3 T i m b e r F l o w R e s u l t i n g f r o m A s s u m p t i o n s o f more Modest Timber Y i e l d 7. 2 The E f f e c t s o f D i s c o u n t R a t e s 7. 3 N a t u r e o f H a r v e s t 7. 4 R e v e n u e s a n d C o s t s 7.4.1 R e v e n u e s 7.4.2 C o s t s o f S i l v i c u l t u r a l O p e r a t i o n s 7. 5 D i s c u s s i o n 7.5.1 F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g F u t u r e H a r v e s t L e v e l s 7.5.2 C o m p a r i s o n Between L o g P r o d u c t i o n a n d  108 109  119 125 132 134 134 136 136 140 157 165 167 167 170 174 180 182 183 185 185 186 190 190  vii  Consumption 7.5.3 C o m p a r i s o n w i t h R e s u l t s o f P r e v i o u s A n a l y s e s 7.5.4 S u p p l y o f T i m b e r f r o m o t h e r S o u r c e s 7. 6 Summary 8.  9.  10.  199 ... 199 202 208  P l a n n i n g Timber Supply f o r t h e V a r i o u s Regions 8. 1 R a t i o n a l e f o r P l a n n i n g R e g i o n by R e g i o n 8. 2 A p p l i c a t i o n o f T i m b e r RAM t o P l a n n i n g R e g i o n by Region 8. 3 R e s u l t s 8.3.1 L o g - F l o w S c h e d u l e s f o r t h e R e g i o n s 8.3.2 R e l a t i v e I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e R e g i o n s 8. 4 D i s c u s s i o n 8.4.1 O t h e r A s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t F u t u r e F o r e s t Management and T i m b e r U t i l i z a t i o n 8.4.2 C o o r d i n a t i o n o f R e g i o n a l P l a n s 8.4.3 An A l t e r n a t i v e P r o c e d u r e f o r P l a n n i n g R e g i o n by Region 8.4.4 A d v a n t a g e s o f P l a n n i n g R e g i o n by R e g i o n 8. 5 Summary  210 210 223 225 225 226 227 228 229 232 234 235  Towards C o m p u t e r - a s s i s t e d F o r e s t r y P l a n n i n g i n Peninsular Malaysia 9. 1 The Need f o r I m p r o v e d P l a n n i n g M e t h o d s 9. 2 P r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r I m p r o v e d F o r e s t r y D e v e l o p m e n t i n Peninsular Malaysia 9.2.1 A p p r o p r i a t e L e v e l o f P l a n n i n g 9.2.2 D a t a Needs 9.2.3 Computer T e c h n o l o g y a n d E x p e r t i s e 9.2.4 E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s p e c t s 9.2.5 Improvement i n t h e P u b l i c Image o f F o r e s t r y .... 9. 3 U s e s o f t h e G e n e r a l A p p r o a c h i n P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a  239 239 240 244 247 248 249  Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n s 10. 1 Summary 10. 2 C o n c l u s i o n s  253 253 260  ,  LITERATURE CITED APPENDIX I .  List  APPENDIX I I .  APPPENDIX I V . APPENDIX V.  267 of A b b r e v i a t i o n s  292  L i n e a r Programming Problem M a t r i x 1  APPENDIX I I I .  237 237  L i s t i n g of t h e L i n e a r Programming Matrix f o r the Basic Scenario  f o r Scenario 294 Problem  Average Gross Volumes i n t h e V a r i o u s Categories  Number o f Stems p e r H e c t a r e Forest Categories  299 Forest 312  i n the Various 317  viii  L I S T OF  1.  TABLES  M a l a y s i a : Gross Domestic Product 1970  and  by  Sector  of  Origin,  1980  15  2.  Commodity e x p o r t s  from M a l a y s i a ,  1980  16  3. 4.  F o r e s t a r e a o f P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a a s o f December 1972 Development of the s a w m i l l i n d u s t r y i n P e n i n s u l a r Malaysia  5.  Development of the plywood/veneer i n d u s t r y i n P e n i n s u l a r Malaysia  38  6.  D i r e c t revenue from the  43  7.  E x p o r t V a l u e s o f S a w l o g and m i l l i o n $ Malaysian  8.  Export Values Malaysia  9.  M a l a y s i a ' s share peelerlogs  .  forests Sawtimber from M a l a y s i a , i n  of M a j o r F o r e s t P r o d u c t s  from  Peninsular  of w o r l d  trade  i n hardwood s a w l o g s  and  21 36  45 46 47  10. M a l a y s i a ' s  share  of w o r l d  trade  i n h a r d w o o d sawnwood ...  48  11. M a l a y s i a ' s  share  of w o r l d  trade  i n hardwood p l y w o o d  49  12. D i r e c t employment i n l o g g i n g , s a w m i l l s , m i l l s and o t h e r wood-based i n d u s t r i e s 13. Log  production  14. A r e a s o f PFE logging  from P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a ,  and  Stateland Forests  15. R a t e s o f l o g g i n g on and  conversion  16. Log  and  production  17. U t i l i z a t i o n  f r o m PFE  (SLF)  ....  plywood/veneer 1950-1979 o p e n e d up  of S t a t e l a n d  50 53  for  Forests  Stateland Forests  55 56 88  of l o g s i n P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a  61  18. V a r i o u s f o r e c a s t s of l o g - f l o w s c h e d u l e s , a n n u a l h a r v e s t a r e a s i n t h e PFE, and r a t e s o f l o g g i n g on S t a t e l a n d Forests  65  19. A s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t t h e s i z e o f  70  20. A s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t t i m b e r  forest  y i e l d s and  resource  base  the l e n g t h s  of  ix  c u t t i n g c y c l e s f o r the Permanent F o r e s t E s t a t e 21. A s s u m p t i o n s o f y i e l d 22. F o r e s t a r e a a s of  71  from the S t a t e l a n d F o r e s t s  74  1980  137  23. Y i e l d s f r o m t h e e x i s t i n g  forests  24. A v e r a g e g r o s s v o l u m e s i n t h e  141  f o r e s t s of average s i t e  ...  143  25. A v e r a g e g r o s s v o l u m e s i n t h e t h r e e q u a l i t y c l a s s e s of f o r e s t s ..  146  26.  Yield  147  27.  Y i e l d s from the Regenerated F o r e s t s  28.  P r o j e c t e d domestic  f o r t h e PFE  assumed i n t h e FDPM P l a n  149  c o n s u m p t i o n o f sawnwood and  in Peninsular Malaysia 29.  P e r i o d i c timber  30.  P e r i o d i c harvest areas  plywood  ( r o u n d w o o d e q u i v a l e n t ) , 1976-2010  harvests  i n the v a r i o u s s c e n a r i o s  Log  production  various  187  i n t a k e by  36. Log  i n t a k e by s a w m i l l s , by  37. Log  i n t a k e by p l y w o o d m i l l s ,  s a w m i l l s and  schedules  41. R e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e supply  by  regions  by  regions mill  harvested  218 i n t a k e of l o g s , 220 i n the  last  f o r the v a r i o u s r e g i o n s  of the  schedules  216 217  r e g i o n s as s o u r c e s  of  f o r t h e v a r i o u s r e g i o n s as a  224 225  timber  C o m p a r i s o n of t h e h a r v e s t s c h e d u l e c a l c u l a t e d by a g g r e g a t i n g r e g i o n a l h a r v e s t s c h e d u l e s and t h a t i n Scenario 1  43. H a r v e s t  ...  regions  39. H a r v e s t l e v e l s and a r e a of PFE decade (1971-1980)  42.  188 215  plywood m i l l s ,  38. D i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n p r o d u c t i o n and by r e g i o n s  Timber-harvest  the  from the v a r i o u s r e g i o n s  35. Log  40.  170 186  33. The r a t e s of s i l v i c u l t u r a l a s s e s s m e n t t o f i n a n c e r e s t o c k i n g of t h e t h e f o r e s t s 34.  167  f o r the v a r i o u s s c e n a r i o s  31. G o v e r n m e n t r e v e n u e s f r o m t i m b e r h a r v e s t 32. C o s t o f s i l v i c u l t u r e o p e r a t i o n s f o r t h e scenarios  165  result  227  230  X  of d i s a g g r e g a t i o n Malaysia  of t h e h a r v e s t  schedule f o r Peninsular  44. Range o f V a l u e s f o r t h e L e t t e r S y m b o l s i n t h e L i n e a r P r o g r a m m i n g M a t r i x ( F i g u r e 9)  233 296  xi  L I S T OF  and A d j a c e n t  FIGURES  1.  Malaysia  Territories  11  2.  Peninsular Malaysia  3.  Log flow schedules previous analyses  4.  Range o f h a r v e s t i n g  5.  Timber h a r v e s t  6.  Decadal harvest  7.  Timber h a r v e s t  8.  Decadal harvest  9.  S t r u c t u r e o f T i m b e r RAM L i n e a r P r o g r a m m i n g P r o b l e m  12 for Peninsular Malaysia  - results  of  i n t e n s i t i e s d e v e l o p e d by t h e F F I D P .  schedules  f o r the various scenarios  areas f o r the various scenarios schedule  f o r Scenario  1  a r e a s i n t h e PFE f o r S c e n a r i o  66 88 168 171 172  1  172 296  xii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I Dr. the  would  D.H. W i l l i a m s , f o r t h e i r University  inspiration of  l i k e t o t h a n k my s u p e r v i s o r s , D r . J.H.G. S m i t h a n d  this  of  British  Columbia.  Dr. Smith's  patience,  and f o r e s i g h t have f a c i l i t a t e d g r e a t l y t h e c o m p l e t i o n  thesis.  techniques  h e l p a n d g u i d a n c e d u r i n g my s t u d y a t  and  Dr. Williams their  use  at  helped  greatly  t h e Computing  with Centre  computer of  the  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Dr.  D. H a l e y ,  Dr. I.B. V e r t i n s k y  members o f my s u p e r v i s o r y provided  valuable  appreciated Dr.  committee,  suggestions  and  D r . C. Weaver,  reviewed  the  criticisms.  and  greatly. as  University  a n d Dean J.W. K e r a g r e e d t o become E x t e r n a l E x a m i n e r .  I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k them f o r t h e i r I am v e r y granting  thesis  as  Their help i s  A.D. Chambers a n d D r . V.S. P e n d a k u r a c t e d  Examiners,  study.  and  my  grateful study  to  leave  help.  Universiti  Pertanian  Malaysia  for  a n d s c h o l a r s h i p t o p u r s u e my g r a d u a t e  I am a l s o t h a n k f u l f o r t h e D o n a l d  S. McPhee  fellowship  f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1980-1981. Finally, daughters,  I Juita  understanding, graduate  study.  w o u l d l i k e t o a c k n o w l e d g e my w i f e , N a p s i a h , a n d and  patience  Nora, and  for  endurance  their during  help,  support,  t h e p e r i o d o f my  1  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION  1.1 The  Problem  Planning timber volume  of  future.  the  supply  timber  i n v o l v e s making  which  c o u l d be a v a i l a b l e  In t h i s t h e s i s t h e term  physical  supply  q u a n t i t y of f o r e s t products  various p r i c e s at a given time. be  best  referred  to  in  services to avoid the p o s s i b i l i t y two  usages.  The  two  interchangeably throughout  sense  of  to  sell  (1971) s u g g e s t e d  at  that the  terms of f l o w of p r o d u c t s and  of c o n f u s i o n a r i s i n g  terms, this  the  i n t h e economic  are prepared  Leslie  of  f o r use i n t h e  i s used i n the  r a t h e r than  sense of the q u a n t i t i e s t h a t producers  former  projections  supply  and  flow,  from  the  are  used  thesis.  Timber s u p p l y p r o j e c t i o n s w i t h o u t e x p l i c i t  consideration  of  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s u p p l y a n d demand t o p r i c e may be l a b e l l e d a s "non-economic". analyst is  i s working  However,  in  most  with a forest  known t o be a b l e t o b r e a k  the  r e s o u r c e about which  wood  supply  too  little  t h e p o t e n t i a l wood s u p p l y down  c o s t / p r i c e c l a s s e s ( A r n o l d , 1974a). of  instances  Moreover, the  into  understanding  p r i c e a n d n o n - p r i c e m e c h a n i s m s o f a d j u s t i n g demand a n d s u p p l y  i n t o what i s o b s e r v e d  a s c o n s u m p t i o n i s v e r y weak.  If  data  on  t r e n d s of t h e c u r r e n t u s e s , h a r v e s t s and i n v e n t o r i e s a r e a t t i m e s of  dubious  elasticities (Row,  q u a l i t y , c o n s i s t e n t and c r e d i b l e and market mechanisms i s a l m o s t  i n f o r m a t i o n on p r i c e completely  lacking  1977). A  country's  timber  supply  could  originate  from  i t s own  2  forests,  o r from  countries. forests which, to  i t s own f o r e s t s augmented by i m p o r t s  Planning  the  production  ( t i m b e r management p l a n n i n g )  of timber  over  a  specified  i n v o l v e s m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s on  time p e r i o d .  t i m b e r management p l a n n i n g i s t o e n s u r e timber the  an  i n t h e s h o r t - t e r m and a c o n t i n u o u s  long-term.  other  from a n a t i o n ' s  when a n d how much f o r e s t a r e a t o h a r v e s t a n d  reforest  from  subsequently  The common g o a l i n acceptable  flow  of  p r o d u c t i o n of timber i n  The g o a l o f a c c e p t a b l e s t r e a m  of h a r v e s t s i s ,  in  t u r n , a means o f a c h i e v i n g o t h e r g o a l s o f s o c i e t y . The  need t o p l a n t i m b e r  s u p p l y assumes s p e c i a l  importance i n  P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a b e c a u s e i t h a s been p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h i s e x p o r t e r of hardwood p r o d u c t s the  turn  1976).  The l a s t  forestry annual  of the century  and  three  forest  Increasing  ( C h o n g , 1979a; FDPM,  decades  have  industries  m  harvest  3  in  seen  a  shortage  before  1977a, 1980b; Mok, rapid  Peninsular  shortages Forecasts,  projection  and  have  growth i n  o f l o g s h a v e been  growth  Malaysia.  m  Forest indicated  that  The a  1979 . 1  been a c c o m p a n i e d by an e q u a l l y the  timber-based  industries.  experienced. situation  i n d u s t r i e s have been h i g h l y v a r i a b l e . Industries  of  from  by  3  made i n t h e l a s t d e c a d e , o f t h e f u t u r e  f o r e s t r y and f o r e s t  Forestry  i n 1950 t o 11,558 t h o u s a n d  levels  r a p i d but uncoordinated  of  face a timber  t i m b e r p r o d u c t i o n i n c r e a s e d more t h a n e i g h t t i m e s  mere 1,305 t h o u s a n d  Local  will  major  Development  future  harvests  Project would  The units a r e expressed i n a b b r e v i a t e d forms. A full these and o t h e r a b b r e v i a t i o n s i s g i v e n i n Appendix I .  The  (FFIDP) initially  l i s t of  3  i n c r e a s e t o a s h i g h a s 17.3 m i l l i o n to  an  annual  These h i g h of  sustained  levels  processing  yield  capacity  warned  Forest Estate  (FAO,  the  products  by 1990.  be  the  1974b).  Malaysia  low  in  a  critique  m  F o r e s t Development  1978) a n d i n t h e FDPM p l a n a long-run  My i n i t i a l  application  data  production  showed  Previous limitations. of  forest  million  per  m  3  thus  3  of f o r e s t  trend  would  sustained Baharuddin  P r o j e c t i o n s made i n t h e Project  (FDPMP)  1980; Chong,  programming  per year  timber-supply Firstly,  m,  year.  to  t h a t t h e f o r e s t s were c a p a b l e  the past  (Hadi,  analyses  (FAO,  1979a) m  have  per year.  3  Baharuddin's  of m a i n t a i n i n g  three  major  o n l y one l e v e l  management f o r t h e f u t u r e , n a m e l y an e x t e n s i v e from t h e f o r e s t s i s The p r o s p e c t s  i n c l u d i n g the u t i l i z a t i o n  species,  intensification  of  of  f o r e s t s and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  not  forest  much  f o r more  smaller  silvicultural  both  1980a).  studies considered  forestry,  growing  3  Malaysia  linear  under c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e .  indigenous  m.  (Freezaillah,  of  management where t h e y i e l d than  4.5  s u s t a i n e d y i e l d o f 5.3 m i l l i o n  o f 5.9 m i l l i o n  i t s own  o f t h e F F I D P p l a n , recommended a l o n g -  Peninsular  indicated  3  3  from t h e Permanent  to decline generally to a  r a n g e s u s t a i n e d y i e l d o f 5.1 m i l l i o n  (1977)  in  Other s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d that the  l e v e l o f b e t w e e n 5.1 a n d 5.9 m i l l i o n  m.  expansion  t o become a n e t i m p o r t e r  annual harvests  decline  the Forestry  (1977a)  yield  as  by  However,  (FDPM)  sustained  ( P F E ) c o u l d be a s  Peninsular  (1977a),  and then  a s h i g h a s 17.0 m i l l i o n  Malaysia  that  causing  for  of  per year  3  were p r e d i c t e d t o be a c c o m p a n i e d  Department of P e n i n s u l a r appraisal  m  higher  progressive  trees  and  treatments  i n the  of p l a n t a t i o n s of  e x o t i c s p e c i e s , h a v e n o t been e x p l o r e d  more  explicitly.  fastWhat  4  are. the  possible  utilization  levels  is  of  improved  timber  production  and/or  i f forest  i f  timber  management  is  intensified? Secondly, on  a  previous planning e x e r c i s e s r e g u l a t e d timber  peninsula-wide basis,  governments which forests  in  i g n o r i n g the importance  own a n d have t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  their  respective  e f f e c t s on h a r v e s t l e v e l s  territories.  of the s t a t e  to  What  flow  manage  the  w o u l d be t h e  i f t h e t i m b e r s u p p l y i s r e g u l a t e d on  s t a t e - b y - s t a t e b a s i s , as opposed t o r e g u l a t i n g  a  i t on a p e n i n s u l a -  wide b a s i s ? Thirdly,  t h e m e t h o d s u s e d were n o t c a p a b l e o f i n d i c a t i n g an  optimum l e v e l o f f u t u r e h a r v e s t f o r g i v e n a s s u m p t i o n s . the  p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s used  the t r a d i t i o n a l timber  production  from  in  sophisticated designed  to  annual quota. an  attempt  industries. of  harvests  improved  a  computer select  annual  cycle.  harvest  harvest  divided Only  simulation  Baharuddin to  the  f o r e s t area  cutting  areas  the  model,  the  area,  which  is  the  number  of  FFIDP  but  to f i l l  the  employed model  log-flow  of o p t i m i z i n g t h e  schedules  a was  up a p r e - c a l c u l a t e d  the timber requirements  What a r e t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s  techniques?  by  on  to  ( 1 9 7 7 a ) u s e d an a r e a - v o l u m e c o n t r o l  take i n t o account  i f the  of  s i m p l e , manual c a l c u l a t i o n s based  area c o n t r o l ; annual harvest corresponded  equivalent t o the t o t a l years  Most  were c a l c u l a t e d  in  of the levels using  5  1.2 O b j e c t i v e T h i s t h e s i s h e l p s t o answer t h e above q u e s t i o n s an a p p l i c a t i o n o f a supply  from  Timber  Resource  calculate  the  the  Linear  Programming  model  Allocation harvest  utilization  illustrates production The  the  Method  levels  (RAM)  and i n t e n s i t y  application  shortcomings Peninsular  in  presented previous  range  of  of  the  analyses  of  in  logging  exercises.  In  addition,  production  from  more  of  to  to  about I t also  plan  should  timber  timber  supply  o f an a n a l y s i s  It  consisting  utilization considered, of  the  indigenous  techniques,  remedy t h e  forestry planning  as  possibilities progressive  from system.  of  a  full  and - f o r e s t as  a  basic  continuation  forests  and  in  previous  of  increasing  forestry  are  of  modest planning timber  explored.  f r o m t h e u s e o f l o g s o f s m a l l e r s i z e s a n d more s p e c i e s ,  more i n t e n s i v e management o f t h e f o r e s t s , plantations  of  fast-growing  species,  the and  establishment  the  calculated.  residues are  This t h e s i s a l s o considers the c o n t i n u a t i o n  relatively  of  u t i l i z a t i o n of  mangroves, rubber and o i l palms, and f o r e s t and m i l l  current  1971a)  assumptions  thesis  timber  e x t e n s i v e management o f t h e m i x e d improvement  I t adapts the  (Navon,  model  this  illustration  situation  timber  basis.  i n Peninsular Malaysia.  scenario,  Increases  the  in  possibilities  management  plan  o f f o r e s t management.  M a l a y s i a and i n t h e c u r r e n t  This t h e s i s i s the f i r s t  presents  from the f o r e s t s of t h e p e n i n s u l a  on a r e g i o n - b y - r e g i o n methods  to  f o r e s t s of P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a .  under s e v e r a l s c e n a r i o s r e p r e s e n t i n g d i f f e r e n t timber  and  of  the  w a s t e f u l h a r v e s t i n g o f t h e f o r e s t s t o show t h e  6  loss  of v a l u a b l e t i m b e r  Analyses  are  also  resources  carried  out  resulting using  from such p r a c t i c e s .  the  forest-management  a s s u m p t i o n s i n t h e c u r r e n t FDPM p l a n . This  thesis  represents  o p t i m a l manner, t h e states plans  in  Peninsular  --  supply  for  Malaysia.  state  implemented.  g o v e r n m e n t s --  i n the p l a n n i n g  process.  elegant  plans  prepared  each  State  lack  of  or  planning  i n an  group  of  would produce better  to  involve  managers of the  forests  assumed  the  f o r a l l of P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a .  The  the  example, s u f f e r e d from a l a c k of consistent  state  t h a t would have a  o w n e r s and  Previous  by  attempt to p l a n ,  I t thus enables planners  the  p r e p a r a t i o n of a s i n g l e p l a n  a  first  t h a t w o u l d be more m e a n i n g f u l and  c h a n c e of b e i n g the  timber  the  studies  have  F F I D P (FAO,  1974b; 1 9 7 5 c ) , f o r  state input during planning  support  from  state  governments  and  during  implementation. This  is  the  optimization Malaysia.  to,  or  technique The  recommended  first  example  FAO  of  such  ( 1 9 7 4 a ) and  in conjunction  w i t h , the  employed planning The  in  a  application supply  for  planning  an  Peninsular  technique  has  been  S a l l e h ( 1 9 7 7 ) as an a l t e r n a t i v e  The  planning  tool  a s u p e r i o r a l t e r n a t i v e t o the area  previous  of  s i m u l a t i o n models which they  developed for Peninsular Malaysia. used r e p r e s e n t s  the  to c a l c u l a t e timber  application  by  of  exercises  and  that  have is  c o n t r o l method in  the  current  system. three  full  improvements, then,  of  a  range of  for  i n c l u d i n g the  c o n s i s t of  the  future forestry p o s s i b i l i t i e s ,  s t a t e governments i n  consideration the p r o v i s i o n  state-by-state  planning,  7  and  the  use  of  more  effective  and  efficient  These improvements c o u l d enhance the p r o c e s s development countries  similar  in  Malaysia  working  agencies  but  as  the  the  in  planning  the development of  forestry  transfer  forestry  developing  management s i t u a t i o n s . to  forestry  c o u n t r i e s and  nations  i n the  f o r e s t r y and application  who  The  planners  from the  development  the  are  cooperative involved  in  f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s i n the of T i m b e r RAM  in Peninsular Malaysia  of t e c h n o l o g y  other  t h e W o r l d Bank and  My  situation  in  interest  industrialized  countries.  and  of p l a n n i n g  tools.  a l s o in other c o u n t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y  FAO,  agencies  the  be o f  i n the d e v e l o p i n g  such  developing  Malaysia resource  therefore, should  only  those  Peninsular  facing  findings, not  in  planning  industrially  i s an  to  analyse  e x a m p l e of  developed  a  countries  to developing, c o u n t r i e s . The  adaptation  successfully  used  of in  problems i n developing planners the  at  a  developed nations  methods  which  countries has  been  to  have  solve  advocated  been  forestry by  forest  m e e t i n g of t h e S t e e r i n g S y s t e m s P r o j e c t G r o u p of  I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i o n of F o r e s t r y R e s e a r c h O r g a n i z a t i o n  in Bucharest, was  planning  Romania i n 1978  responding  to  the  (Navon, 1978).  commitment  made a t t h e  C o n g r e s s i n O s l o , Norway i n 1976  to study  forestry  countries.  problems i n developing  t h e W o r k i n g P a r t y on economic  " E v a l u a t i o n of  development",  techniques. orientation economically  The  working  has  also  more  and  seek  called  project  group  IUFRO XVI  World  solutions  to  A n o t h e r IUFRO g r o u p ,  forestry's  party concluded  " i s towards d e v e l o p i n g  The  (IUFRO)  contribution  f o r the  t e s t i n g of  that, although  its  new main  c o u n t r i e s , work c a r r i e d o u t  advanced c o u n t r i e s i s of r e l e v a n c e . . .  for  to  in the  8  a p p l i c a t i o n of methodology 1976:  in developing  makes  a  l o t o f s e n s e t o a d a p t t h e modern m e t h o d s w h i c h  h a v e been d e v e l o p e d countries  to  countries.  The  important  and  plan  source  projected  used s u c c e s s f u l l y i n forestry  of to  wood and the  of  the  the d e v e l o p i n g  tropical  c o u n t r i e s , p o i n t to the  O r g a n i z a t i o n of the This  thesis  and  then  industries  Peninsular  Sabah  of  nations.  the  fast  Malaysia.  The  two  these  the  forestry  situations  Borneo s t a t e s .  this  The  independently  b a c k g r o u n d of  The  and  forest  description is  Borneo s t a t e s of  in  study  because  between  forests  Sarawak  in  of  Peninsular the  of t h e FDPM.  latter  The  forest  i n P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a a r e more h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d ;  states  have  only  r e c e n t l y taken  f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s and  of round l o g s .  h a v e been k e p t  separate  Borneo s t a t e s .  in  tools.  forestry  from  administered  respective  the  managing  general  excluded  states  industries  and  The  l o c a t e d mainly  for  been  t h e two  are  need  have  M a l a y s i a and  two  but  developed  the  reviews  to Peninsular Malaysia.  differences  the  only for themselves  effective  introduces  P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a and  exports  an  Thesis  first  sector  developing  constitute  f o r e s t s , which are  f o r e s t s w i t h t h e most e f f i c i e n t  Borneo  the  nations  f i b r e not  industrially  in  industrialized  i n c r e a s e i n w o r l d demand f o r wood p r o d u c t s  depletion  limited  the  development  f o r e s t s i n the d e v e l o p i n g  also for export  and  (Grayson,  94). It  1.3  countries."  to  Statistics  steps to develop  reduce on  their  f o r e s t r y and  f o r P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a and  the their  emphasis other for  on  matters each  of  9  The  rising  described future  trend  in log production  i n C h a p t e r 3.  log  The  production,  chapter  made by  e n d s w i t h a s y n t h e s i s of t h e s e Chapter 4 l i s t s 'good' t i m b e r features are the  supply  and  analyses.  The  of  method s h o u l d  Finally,  more e f f i c i e n t  described  and  the  and  An  effective The  planning  Chapter  9  argues the  timber  in  Peninsular Malaysia.  planning  10.  the  tool,  These  chapters.  Timber  data  RAM,  f o r the  to  the  on  The  summary and  is  various  i n Chapter  are presented supply  6  various i n Chapter  a  region-by-  8.  lists  implementation  methods i n M a l a y s i a  Finally,  method.  need f o r a c o m p u t e r - a s s i s t e d  method i n P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a , and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and  the  corresponding  i n Chapter  These  method w h i c h i s  scenarios are discussed  a p p l i c a t i o n to planning  a  the methods used i n  i n the next four  as c a l c u l a t e d by T i m b e r RAM,  region basis i s described  for  in  a s s u m p t i o n s and  schedules  and  i s o u t l i n e d , h i g h l i g h t i n g the  illustrated  utilization  log-flow  scenarios, 7.  and  i n C h a p t e r 5.  management  incorporate.  the p l a n n i n g  improvement i n c o r p o r a t e d  improvement a r e  1968,  of  some d e s i r a b l e f e a t u r e s t h a t  recommended f o r P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a t h r e e a r e a s of  forecasts  forecasts.  t h e n u s e d as c r i t e r i a t o a n a l y s e  previous  areas  summarises the  decades i s  s e v e r a l workers s i n c e  describes  planning  i n the past  of  p o t e n t i a l uses  several  planning  prerequisites  such a p l a n n i n g of  the  method  recommended  are o u t l i n e d . c o n c l u s i o n are presented  i n Chapter  10  CHAPTER 2 FORESTRY AND FOREST INDUSTRY I N PENINSULAR MALAYSIA  2.1 G e n e r a l  Background  Malaysia Established formerly island the  is  situated  in  South  East  i n 1963, M a l a y s i a c o n s i s t s  Malaya,  and  of Borneo.  the  states  of  of  Asia  Peninsular  Sarawak a n d Sabah on t h e  Peninsular Malaysia, in turn,  (Figure  2).  Selangor,  Perak,  P u l a u P i n a n g , Kedah  K u a l a Lumpur, was f o r m e r l y a p a r t o f t h e s t a t e  hectares (202  (32.5 m i l l i o n  miles)  characterised which  Malaysia  broad  mountain range,  which  i t s widest  Negri  northern extends  Sembilan  a c c e s s i b l e passes.  a  part. series  and  but  i n 1974.  central  The of  some  781  km  peninsula  is  mountain  portion.  ranges The main  from T h a i l a n d i n t h e n o r t h  in  a n d 2,171 m e t r e s h i g h .  city,  a t o t a l l a n d a r e a o f 13.2 m i l l i o n  t o p o g r a p h i c a l l y by the  of  Perlis  Selangor  a c r e s ) , the peninsula being at  dominate  state  has  of  Pahang,  and  of  as a s e p a r a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t  Peninsular  the  i s composed  The F e d e r a l T e r r i t o r y c o n t a i n i n g t h e c a p i t a l  was i n s t i t u t e d  1).  Malaysia,  e l e v e n s t a t e s of K e l a n t a n , Trengganu, J o h o r , Melaka,  Negri Sembilan,  1,829  (Figure  to the  t h e s o u t h , c o n t a i n s peaks between  The r a n g e i s c o n t i n u o u s , h a v i n g few  To t h e e a s t o f t h e main  mountain  range,  in  s t a t e s of K e l a n t a n and Trengganu, as w e l l as i n t h e n o r t h e r n  p a r t of Pahang, i s another  area  southern  p e n i n s u l a , i n s o u t h Pahang, Johor and  Melaka, (500  portion  of  the  of  mountainous  i s g e n e r a l l y l o w l a n d , b e l o w an  feet),  undulating  and  of  easy  altitude access.  country.  of  150  The  metres  T h e r e a r e some  12  FIGURE 2. insular Malaysia Scale. 46 Miles to I Inch 050  SUMATRA  INDONESIA  O 20 30 40 50 Miles  13  isolated h i l l s . p l a i n s which three  The p e n i n s u l a i s s u r r o u n d e d  a r e more p r o n o u n c e d a l o n g t h e w e s t c o a s t .  major r i v e r  eastwards  by d i s t i n c t  systems.  i n t o t h e South  coastal There a r e  The K e l a n t a n a n d Pahang R i v e r s d r a i n  C h i n a Sea  and  the  Perak  River  flows  westwards i n t o the S t r a i t s of Melaka. The variety of  soiIs  of t h e p e n i n s u l a a r e q u i t e v a r i e d because of t h e  of parent m a t e r i a l s .  g r a n i t e but massive  parts  of the western  sedimentary many  of  redepositing The by  high  32  degrees 2540  and south c e n t r a l  soils  due  to  found  regions.  the  in  many  The i g n e o u s a n d  decomposition,  down  into  l e a c h i n g and  processes. o f t h e humid  uniform temperatures, The t e m p e r a t u r e  degrees  F).  tropics,  characterized  h i g h h u m i d i t y and m o d e r a t e l y  ranges  C (90 d e g r e e s  C (72 d e g r e e s  mm  i s composed  l i m e s t o n e ) m a t e r i a l s a r e broken  climate i s typical  rainfall. of  outcrops of limestone a r e  (including  types  The main m o u n t a i n r a n g e  f r o m t h e mean  daytime  maximum  F ) t o t h e mean n i g h t minimum o f 22  The a v e r a g e  rainfall  is  (100 i n . ) , r a n g i n g f r o m a h i g h o f 5080 mm  low o f 1651 mm  high  (65 i n . ) . The r e l a t i v e  humidity  approximately (200 i n . ) t o a  i s between  97  p e r c e n t a t s u n r i s e a n d 70 p e r c e n t a t m i d d a y . The  population  o f M a l a y s i a i n 1980 was a b o u t  A b o u t 83.1 p e r c e n t o r 11.8 m i l l i o n Malaysia,  '9.2  (1.1 m i l l i o n ) population Malays, remaining  in  34.9  percent  (1.3 m i l l i o n )  i n Sabah.  lived  in Peninsular  i n Sarawak a n d 7.7 p e r c e n t  Three major e t h n i c groups c o n s t i t u t e t h e  Peninsular percent  people  14.3 m i l l i o n .  Malaysia.  Chinese,  0.7 p e r c e n t b e l o n g e d  10.5  About  53.9  percent  to smaller,  percent  Indians  miscellaneous  were  and t h e groups  14  (Government  of M a l a y s i a , 1981).  Sarawak and  i n d i g e n o u s , e t h n i c groups of which Malay 63.4  i s one.  percent  Chinese  and  5.6  percent others.  p e r c e n t were i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e , 21.5 percent  others  (Government  p o p u l a t i o n of M a l a y s i a has s o , a t an a v e r a g e  percent  1975  of M a l a y s i a , 1976).  g r o w n , and  r a t e of 2.8  t h e 3.8  Malaysia, The  some  people,  In Sabah,  Chinese  i s expected  64.1  and  14.4  From 1975,  the  to continue  to  p e r c e n t p e r annum.  r a t e f o r P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a i s l o w e r , a t 2.6 to  In  p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n Sarawak were i n d i g e n o u s  31.0  do  S a b a h h a v e numerous  The  percent,  p e r c e n t e s t i m a t e d f o r the Borneo s t a t e s  average compared  (Government of  1981). distribution  geographical,  of p o p u l a t i o n i s uneven as a consequence of  historical  and  economic  factors.  The  western  s t a t e s of P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a a r e more d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d t h a n eastern  states.  Peninsular percent urban  I n 1980,  Malaysia  i n urban population  about  lived  65  percent  in rural  a r e a s , and  c e n t r e s w i t h more t h a n is  growing  faster  of  urban  population  (Government of M a l a y s i a , M a l a y s i a has economy  which  i s steadily  fishing Domestic  in  sector accounted Product  (GDP)  the remaining each.  in 35 The  1970  4.6  to  1980,  percent  per  the annum  1981).  basically  Production  people  10,000 p e o p l e  From  averaged  a  free-enterprise  undergoing  shows t h e m a j o r e c o n o m i c s e c t o r s and 1970's.  the  than the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n  b e c a u s e of r u r a l - t o - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n . growth  of  the  the for  industrialization.  Table 1  their  in  the  forestry  and  primary 22.2  i n 1980.  agriculture-based  agriculture,  percent The  development  of  the  s e c t o r ' s share  real  Gross  i n the  GDP  Table 1 M a l a y s i a : Gross domestic product by s e c t o r of o r i g i n ,  Sector  GDP ($M m i l l i o n ) 1970  A g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y and f i s h i n g M i n i n g and q u a r r y i n g Manufacturing C o n s t r u c t Ion E l e c t r 1 I t y , gas and water T r a n s p o r t , s t o r a g e and communications Wholesale and r e t a i l trade, h o t e l s and r e s t a u r a n t s F i n a n c e . Insurance, r e a l e s t a t e and business s e r v i c e s Government s e r v i c e s Other s e r v i c e s L e s s : Imputed bank s e r v i c e s charges P l u s : Import d u t i e s E q u a l s : Gross domestic product at p u r c h a s e r s ' value  3,797 778 1.650 475 229 581 1.633 1.036 1.367 306 117 573 12.308  Source: Government of M a l a y s i a  1980 5,809 1,214 5,374 1, 186 592 1.696 3.295 2. 155 3.398 657 308 1. 120 26,188  (1981)  1970  and  1980  Avg. annual growth (%) 1971- -1980 4 .3 4 .6 12 .5 9 .6 10 .0 11 .3 7,.3 7 .6 9..5 7. 9 7. 8  Share of (X) 1970 30 .8 6 .8 13 .4 3,.9 1 .9 4..7 13. 3 8..4 11.. 1 2. 5  GDP  1980 22 .2 4,.6 20 .5 4,.5 2..3 6..5 12. 6 8..2 13..0 2..5  16  declined sector  f r o m 30.8 p e r c e n t are the export  Growth i n these price  i n 1970.  of rubber,  The m a j o r a c t i v i t i e s  palm o i l and sawlogs  e x p o r t s h a v e been s l o w  fluctuations  and  the  shift  commodities t o t h a t of p r o c e s s e d  i n t h e 1970's from  the export  i n the  (Table 2 ) . because  of  of primary  products.  Table 2 Commodity e x p o r t s f r o m M a l a y s i a , 1980  Commodity  million  Crude petroleum Manufactures Rubber Palm o i l Tin Sawlogs Sawnt i m b e r Others  in  These  sawntimber,  the  1970's.  products,  and  footwear.  Growth  electronics mining crude  industries  plywood,  and  to  sustained  included  veneer,  wood  products,  blockboard  and  products  comprising  also  occurred  in  food-processing  production  the  in  tyres,  to grew  world  comprising  planing  textile,  industries.  impetus  industries  increase  rubber  The  main  Resource-based  and q u a r r y i n g s e c t o r r e s u l t e d petroleum.  (1981)  s e c t o r has p r o v i d e d t h e  r a p i d l y d u r i n g t h e d e c a d e due demand.  100. .0  Government of M a l a y s i a  manufacturing growth  25. .3 20. .6 17.. 1 9.. 1 8..8 8..6 4..3 6..3  28,448  Source:  output  % of t o t a l  7,200 5,865 4,860 2,576 2,504 2,435 1,221 1 ,784  Total  The  M$  tubes  mill and  electrical,  The g r o w t h o f t h e  from i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n of of  t i n has  declined  since  17  r e a c h i n g a peak i n The  GDP  i n 1980  an a v e r a g e a n n u a l GDP  GDP  The  2.2.1  are  forests  1970  1970's.  This  f r o m M$1,142 i n  prices.  of P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a c a n  forests  mainly  on  Dryland  Peninsular Malaysia.  by  forests  Balaus  could  subdivisions:  was  equal  forests.  These  (1940),  The  descriptions  t h e F F I D P (FAO,  Whitmore  comprise  the  1973a)  Symington  and  (1943),  (1975).  bulk  of  the  They a r e c h a r a c t e r i s e d by which  v a l u a b l e hardwood t i m b e r  which are the Merantis and  (1968) and  Dipterocarpaceae  commercially  waterlogged  two  Forests forests  family  be d i v i d e d i n t o  i s d e s c r i b e d below. the reviews  ( 1 9 6 3 ) , Ray  2.2.1.1 D r y l a n d  spp.)  income o f M$1,836, up  (1977) o f t h e w o r k s of G a r f i t t  Wyatt-Smith  the  during the  t y p e s : d r y l a n d f o r e s t s and  of t h e s e  based  Salleh  percent  increased at  Characteristics  forest  nature  I t has  2  Forests  Forest  broad  M$1  M$26,188 m i l l i o n .  g r o w t h o f 7.8  values are at  The  2  was  r e p r e s e n t s a per c a p i t a  1970. 2.2  1972.  (Shorea  (Shorea  contains  a  of  dominance  of  wide  range of  s p e c i e s , the main groups of  spp.),  spp.).  a  forests  Keruings  (Dipterocarpus  F o r management p u r p o s e s ,  be  further  divided  (1)  primary  dryland  t o US$0.42 a s o f J u n e ,  into forests,  1982.  these  three  physical  (2)  partially  18  harvested h i l l Primary undisturbed  f o r e s t s , and (3) e d a p h i c dryland  forests  dryland  and u p p e r h i l l  consist  forests.  of  Virtually  forests.  the  remaining,  a l l of  the  primary  f o r e s t s on a c c e s s i b l e l o w l a n d s i t e s b e l o w 300 m i n e l e v a t i o n been  logged  or  committed  to  harvesting  (FAO,  r e m a i n i n g a r e a s o f t h i s c a t e g o r y a r e on t h e h i l l at  altitudes  from  forests  is  gradual.  Many  forests  to  species  span  species are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y other.  The  merantis  (Shorea  Dyer  ex  most  King)  Foxw.) a n d b a l a u economic  important  found  (several  importance  hill  both  species i n the h i l l seraya  b u k i t (Shorea  dipterocarp  t y p e s b u t some i n the  f o r e s t s are the  (Shorea  curtisii  p l a t y c l a d o s V.  s p e c i e s of Shorea).  The  The t r a n s i t i o n  i n one t y p e a n d n o t  spp) e s p e c i a l l y m e r a n t i and m e r a n t i  the  1974b).  sites, occurring  o f 300 m t o 760 m a b o v e s e a l e v e l .  the lowland d i p t e r o c a r p  have  Other  S i . ex  species  of  i n c l u d e k e r u i n g ( D i p t e r o c a r p u s s p p . ) , Kempas  ( K o o m p a s s i a m a l a c c e n s i s M a i n g a y ex B e n t h . ) a n d kedondong  (several  spec i e s ) . 3  Partially  harve-sted  h a v e been s e l e c t i v e l y shifting of  cultivation.  hill  This category comprises  f o r e s t and i s o b v i o u s l y i n c r e a s i n g  3  very  highly  which  logged o r , t o a minor e x t e n t , d i s t u r b e d  f o r e s t s are being harvested. is  forests are dryland forests  variable  in  area  The t i m b e r c o n t e n t  the largest as  by area  the  primary  of these  forests  d e p e n d i n g on t h e l o c a l i t y  and time of  S p e c i e s w i t h s i m i l a r t i m b e r p r o p e r t i e s a r e lumped i n t o a s p e c i e s g r o u p u s u a l l y named a f t e r t h e most common v e r n a c u l a r name. Some species groups c o n s i s t of d i f f e r e n t genera. Most c o n s i s t o f d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s . These s p e c i e s groups and t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t g e n e r a a n d s p e c i e s a r e g i v e n i n FAO ( 1 9 7 3 a ) a n d Tang ( 1 9 7 6 ) .  19  exploitation. (FDPM,  1975a).  classified have  Some a r e a s h a v e been The  these  been  1972  forests  logged  logged  forest  inventory  into partially  since  several data  harvested  substantial  volumes  timber  of  marketable  q u a l i t y and s m a l l e r dimension  species, (FAO,  1973a).  access  in  marketable  in  t h e major  drained valleys. (Shorea  spp.),  different The  forests  occur  s p e c i e s ) and  Dipterocarpaceae  family  i n the higher  shorter.  The  of lower marketable marketable  mainly  as  easy  (several  and  the  protection  or i n poorly  include  spp.),  Medang  different  i s represented  hills,  species  s t a t e s o f t h e west  species  (Dipterocarpus Kedondong  contain  those of  on r o c k y s i t e s ,  The m a j o r m a r k e t a b l e Keruing  were  volumes.  watersheds,  especially  story  fully  favoured but f u l l y  adjacent t o the timber d e f i c i t  and upperhi11  trees  s p e c i e s and non-marketable  c o a s t , c o n t a i n v e r y low m a r k e t a b l e  forests  in  The d i s t u r b e d f o r e s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y  or  Edaphic  forests  belonging to the  stock of the l e s s  partially  which  1966, a n d d i s t u r b e d f o r e s t s w h i c h  t o 1966. The p a r t i a l l y  over  (FAO, 1973a)  harvested forests,  logged p r i o r  species, the f u l l  times  Merantis (several species).  by f e w e r s p e c i e s ,  trees  are  generally  t h r e e - l a y e r e d s t r u c t u r e p e r s i s t s b u t t h e emergent  i s o n l y 24 t o 30 m h i g h ( S a l l e h ,  2.2.1.2 W a t e r l o g g e d Waterlogged  1977).  Forests forests  occur  in  c a t e g o r i e s c a n be r e c o g n i z e d : t h e p e a t  the  coastal  plains.  Two'  swamp f o r e s t s a n d mangrove  forests. The  peat  swamp f o r e s t s o c c u r on p e a t  s o i l s o f up t o 6 m d e e p  20  and  occupy r e l a t i v e l y  Pahang,  on  t h e west c o a s t  areas  i n Johor.  these  forests  in  large continuous  Pahang  Very  and  i n P e r a k and  little  (Salleh,  areas  effort  1977).  has  on  the east coast  Selangor,  and  smaller  been d i r e c t e d a t m a n a g i n g  They r e m a i n e d l a r g e l y  only p a r t i a l l y  on  in  harvested  on  unexploited  t h e west c o a s t  (FAO,  1973a). The along  mangrove f o r e s t s o c c u r  two  The  bakau  minyak  these  forest  and  of h i g h t i d e  extent  of  continuous  t o 7 km,  bakau kurap (Rhizophora f o r e s t s as of  following  (Ray,  1968).  (Rhizophora  mucronata Lamk).  1972,  i n v e n t o r y , i s shown i n T a b l e  belt  as e s t i m a t e d  from  3.  Administrative Categories  owned by t h e  individual  Permanent  Forest  N a t i o n a l P a r k s and group,  the  growing  importance  The Each  limit are  For a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes  the  almost  B l u m e a ) and  latest  2.2.2  i n l a n d to the  major commercial s p e c i e s  apiculata  the  an  t h e w e s t c o a s t , v a r y i n g i n w i d t h up  t h e b a n k s of r i v e r s The  as  PFE  the  s t a t e s , can Estate  forest  lands,  be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e  (PFE),  A  fourth  plantations,  be  added  of t h i s  can  groups: and  administrative because of  the  resource.  i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e S t a t e  s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t has  are  the S t a t e l a n d F o r e s t s  W i l d l i f e Reserves.  rubber  which  forestry  t h e power t o d e s i g n a t e  any  land within  t h e s t a t e a s t h e PFE  o r t o e x c i s e any  for  other  purposes.  i n c l u d e s a r e a s p r e v i o u s l y g a z e t t e d as  Forest  R e s e r v e s and as  such.  The  PFE  p a r t of t h e PFE  departments.  o t h e r a r e a s w h i c h a r e deemed s u i t a b l e t o be  included  21  Forest  Forest  area  TABLE 3 of P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a  Type  West C o a s t and S o u t h  a s o f December  East Coast and C e n t r a l  1972  T o t a l Pen. Malaysia  1000 ha  1000 ha  1040.0  2373.5  3413.5  41  Recently Harvested H i l l Forests  337.0  930.5  1267.5  15  Disturbed Forests and F o r e s t s Harvested p r i o r t o 1966  984.5  989.0  1974.0  24  Poor E d a p h i c a n d Upperhill Forests  318.5  382.5  701.0  8  Swamp F o r e s t s , P r i m a r y and P a r t l y Harvested  595.0  369.0  964.0  12  3275.0  5045.0  8320.5  100  6816.0  6395.5  13211.5  1000 ha Primary Forests  Hill  Total Area  Forested  Total  Land  Area  F o r e s t s as % of T o t a l Land Area  48% Source:  79%  %  63%  FAO (1973a)  N o t e : L a t e r e s t i m a t e (FAO, 1978) shows t h e t o t a l 13,159 t h o u s a n d h e c t a r e s .  land area  t o be  22  The have  N a t i o n a l F o r e s t r y C o u n c i l and  approved, i n p r i n c i p l e ,  million  ha  (12.8  the proposal  m i l l i o n acres)  and  implement the p r o p o s a l  proposed  1973,  considerable  c h a n g e s due  e x i s t i n g Forest and  the  status to the  the  end  of  1978,  m i l l i o n ha  (10.4  million  (2.8  ha  the  of  the  PFE  e x c i s i o n of  has  f o r e s t s to the  m i l l i o n ac)  have a l r e a d y were s t i l l  first  been u n d e r g o i n g  f o r e s t lands  and  5.2  states  Since  other  in  the  developments,  p r o p o s e d PFE.  l a s t y e a r of a v a i l a b l e d a t a ,  m i l l i o n ac)  of a b o u t  (FDPM, 1 9 7 9 ) .  Reserves for a g r i c u l t u r a l  the a d d i t i o n of S t a t e l a n d  f o r a PFE  Council  have u r g e d the v a r i o u s  t o a c c e p t and in  the N a t i o n a l Land  As  a total  of  of  4.2  been a p p r o v e d , and  under c o n s i d e r a t i o n  1.1 (FDPM,  1980a) . The  area  gained  in  Malaysia the the  of  the  as  potential  moderate  development. and (22.5 (14.2  general  for mineral  and  Classes  protective million  million  therefore, estimates because the  of ac)  appeared of  1972  Malaysia  Peninsular  Class  capability  I possesses a and  suitable  suitable for  forestry  forest inventory  data  for  the  9.1  some 5.7 for  forestry. areas  III  for  V possess p o t e n t i a l  i n 1970,  and  land  II  Of  1971)  categorised  respectively,  not  1970  of  former  five  respectively.  were  information  Panton,  The  Classes  forested land  h a v e been c l e a r e d s i n c e  and  into  guide.  potentials,  potential  (Lee  1973a).  development.  IV and  from  Classification  (FAO,  l a n d use  forestry,  ac)  been d e r i v e d  c o m p l e t e d i n 1970  of P e n i n s u l a r a  has  Capability  forest inventory  land area  classes  m i l l i o n ha  Land  w h i c h was  1972  high  5.2  high  possess  agricultural productive million million  agriculture However,  ha ha and,  these  were r e v i s e d downwards  i n d i c a t e d that areas  o r were d e s i g n a t e d  for  which  agricultural  23  development Tang,  were  l a r g e r than  the e a r l i e r  land  S t a t e l a n d F o r e s t s are a d m i n i s t e r e d  development  agencies  and  logging  u n d e r t h e n o m i n a l c o n t r o l of t h e  the  Federal  Consolidation Industry  Land  and  have  be c o n v e r t e d  points  known.  i n time  exchange  of  rendered  those  (SEDC).  areas  last  (FELCRA),  (FAO,  between  h a v e been g i v e n  years.  the  PFE  less useful in  1978a),  However, and  the S t a t e l a n d  estimating  2002 t h o u s a n d ha  by  ha  thousand  estimate,  i s t h a t t h e r e was  period  only  considered  subtracting 1124  to  not  constant Forests current  of  of  agriculture  1976  1977,  of  (Chong,  converted t h e end  ha  of  since 1980.  in  the  1980.  N a t i o n a l Parks  t h e W i l d l i f e and  will  is  loggable  areas  t h o u s a n d ha by  t h o u s a n d ha have been c l e a r e d f o r  1977  The  were  from  the  t h e end  which only  A b o u t 878  these  T h e r e were a b o u t 2369 t h o u s a n d  2053 t h o u s a n d ha a t t h e end  1976,  State  for various  the  (FDPM, 1977a; 1 9 7 7 b ) , and  My  Land  Rubber  Consequently,  of the S t a t e l a n d F o r e s t s  five  s i z e of the S t a t e l a n d F o r e s t s .  1979a).  such  much o f t h e S t a t e l a n d F o r e s t s  the e x t e n t  estimates  1325  The  by a g e n c i e s  A u t h o r i t y (RISDA) and  Several estimates  i n the  mid-1975  i s only  year.  As w i t h t h e PFE, precisely  state  (FELDA), F e d e r a l  Authority  Development  c o n t r o l of how  each  Agency  Rehabilitation  Economic Development C o r p o r a t i o n s agencies  i n these areas  i s executed  Development  Smallholder's  by t h e v a r i o u s  s t a t e f o r e s t r y departments.  a l i e n a t i o n of the S t a t e l a n d F o r e s t s  in  (FDPM, 1979;.  1976). The  as  estimates  and  W i l d l i f e Reserves are a d m i n i s t e r e d  N a t i o n a l Parks Department.  Over 600  thousand  by ha  24  of is  s u c h f o r e s t s e x i s t e d i n 1978  (FDPM, 1 9 8 0 a ) , t h e  l o c a t e d i n Taman N e g a r a N a t i o n a l P a r k  Endau-Rompin  Park  (202  expected to produce  thousand  ha).  of  department.  In  plantations  in  these 1980  are  These  areas  Peninsular  are  not  kept  the  remainder  Of  in  t h a n 40.5  been d e c l i n i n g f r o m t h e  the  smallholdings  Malaysia,  1981).  2.3  Forest  of  o w n e r s h i p of the System t o the The The  the  has  forests  resource,  the ha  ha  of  rubber  507,100  in area.  647,200 ha  and  forestry  holdings.  increased  and  is  the  s e l e c t i v e management  Malaysian  affecting Government  ha  Rubber The  area  i n 1970,  but  (Government  of  influenced  shift  by  the  from the Malayan  state Uniform  system.  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l o c a t e s a u t h o r i t y over land  s e v e r a l S t a t e Governments.  f o r e s t r y and or  in  l e v e l s of g o v e r n m e n t .  Parliament  t r a d e , commerce and  N a t i o n a l Parks  and  erosion are  However, o t h e r  f o r e s t i n d u s t r y are vested  both  empowers t h e F e d e r a l  soil  not  Administrative Sett ing  f o r e s t s to the  taxes,  and  Management  Management  2.3.1  ha)  land,  t h i s area,  small  u n d e r e s t a t e s has under  by  million  Malaysia.  plantations greater  area  which  f o r e s t s are  as a g r i c u l t u r a l  t h e r e were some 2.1  were i n e s t a t e s and estates  thousand  of  timber.  Rubber p l a n t a t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d statistics  (434  bulk  to  make  industry.  laws  i n the  matters Federal  The c o n s t i t u t i o n with  respect  to  P r o t e c t i o n of w i l d l i f e  and  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f l a n d w h i c h has  i n c l u d e d i n the  and  "Concurrent  List".  s u f f e r e d from The  legal  25  n a t u r e of a t r e e changes is  felled  i tlegally  and t h e r e f o r e severed  the  property  the j u r i s d i c t i o n  land,  the  requires  The M a l a y s i a n F o r e s t r y headquarters  in  states.  each  states  the  the  and  has a s m a l l secretary of  state.  of t h e  of t h e f o r e s t r y of  the Forestry  government.  Service  There of  Once  and movable  jurisdiction  cooperation  c o n s i s t s of  i s a state  Kelantan,  the  FDPM,  with  departments  f o r e s t r y department  Trengganu,  S e l a n g o r , P e r a k , Kedah a n d P u l a u P i n a n g . Sembilan  the  t h e c a p i t a l , and t h e s t a t e f o r e s t r y  in the various of  on w h i c h i t g r o w s ,  The d e v e l o p m e n t  the  of both l e v e l s of  of  Until a tree  t r e e becomes p e r s o n a l  (FAO, 1 9 7 3 d ) .  therefore,  Departments  of the land  w h i c h comes u n d e r  f e d e r a l government sector,  forms a p a r t  comes u n d e r  from  (tradable)  i n t h e p r o c e s s of l o g g i n g .  The  Pahang, states  Johor,  of  M e l a k a s h a r e a common f o r e s t r y d e p a r t m e n t .  f o r e s t r y d e p a r t m e n t , w h i c h i s headed in  the state c i v i l  service.  by  Negri Perlis  the  The two M a l a y s i a n  Sarawak a n d Sabah on t h e i s l a n d o f B o r n e o h a v e t h e i r  for  state states  own  state  f o r e s t r y d e p a r t m e n t s , i n d e p e n d e n t o f e a c h o t h e r a n d o f t h e FDPM. The and  state  f o r e s t r y departments c a r r y out the  management  development, Forest  of  the  technical  advice,  a c h i e v e p r o p e r and e f f i c i e n t State  resources,  forest  industry  f o r e s t law enforcement, and revenue c o l l e c t i o n .  P o l i c y f o r Peninsular  provide  forest  administration  Governments  may  Malaysia assistance  specifies  management of t h e P F E , a n d t h a t  accept  the FDPM  technical  The  forestry  and f o r e s t r y r e s e a r c h  planning  the  FDPM  and t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s t o  advice f o r implementation. sector  that  The  i s also  the  and p r o f e s s i o n a l responsible  for  and development  26  (FDPM,  1979).  Coordination  between t h e F e d e r a l and  State  Governments  is  e f f e c t e d t h r o u g h a N a t i o n a l Land C o u n c i l which convenes under t h e chairmanship  o f a F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r , w i t h one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  each S t a t e  and  Government. policies  a  maximum  to  i s carried in  related  forestry.  to  composition make  land.  out  established  to  ten  members  from  the  Federal  This council i s responsible f o r formulating national  relating  matters  of  1971,  Coordination  by  the  regarding  National  forestry  Forest  Council,  t o make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s on p o l i c y This  council,  which  has  the  b i n d i n g d e c i s i o n s b u t a c t s a s a f o r u m where can  Governments.  be  reached  between  the  State  (FAO,  1974b).  2.3.2  F o r e s t Management S y s t e m s  coordinated  and  to  forestry  I n t h e l a s t d e c a d e , f o r e s t management i n P e n i n s u l a r in  a  state  Uniform System, which lowland  forests,  the h i l l in  The been  forests.  (1966a), lowland  the  main  of e v o l u t i o n from t h e m o n o c y c l i c has  been  employed  successfully  to the p o l y c y c l i c Malaysian E x c e l l e n t reviews  Peninsular Malaysia  Ismail  same  Federal  The F o r e s t r y C o u n c i l a l s o f u n c t i o n s a s an a d v i s o r y  body t o t h e L a n d C o u n c i l on m a t t e r s r e l a t e d  been  matters  a s t h e N a t i o n a l L a n d C o u n c i l , d o e s n o t have t h e power  agreements  has  from  of the s i l v i c u l t u r a l  (1963) a n d Hodgson  d i p t e r o c a r p f o r e s t s , w h i c h have source  of timber  supply,  Malaysia Malayan i n the  S e l e c t i o n System f o r  a r e a v a i l a b l e i n Mok ( 1 9 7 7 ) ,  Wyatt-smith  policy  FDPM  systems (1972),  (1932). until  recently  were managed u n d e r t h e  27  Malayan Uniform harvesting,  System.  The  system c o n s i s t e d e s s e n t i a l l y of  i n a s h o r t s i n g l e o p e r a t i o n , of the m a r k e t a b l e  trees  i n the upper canopy, f o l l o w e d i m m e d i a t e l y  by  of  t o r e l e a s e the s e l e c t e d  the  non-marketable  species i n order  seedling regeneration in stocked  as  areas  determined  by  the  the  considered a  poison-girdling  to  pre-felling  be  systematic  sampling.  A l l t r e e s of e c o n o m i c s p e c i e s i n dbh  or  44  (4 o r 4.5  and  t h e n o n - m a r k e t a b l e s p e c i e s were s u p p o s e d t o be  to  5  cm  cm  the c u t t i n g to  be  limit  left.  greater  forests. and  S h o r e a f o r e s t s and  P o l e s of  was  About t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r  marketable  normally  felling,  The 1972)  two  Uniform  specified  rising  and  cleanings  labour  logging  operation With  costs  equipment  economically  was  were  years.  stand  carried  one  pole  of  were f o u n d  after  the  (FDPM, 1972;  felling,  t h e PFE  t o be  capital Second  carry  Ismail,  Improvement two  seed  t h e main f e l l i n g .  heavy  to  i m p l e m e n t e d i n 1955  Regeneration  and  necessary  most  relic  in  below  a second r e g e n e r a t i o n survey  S y s t e m was  cleaning operations before  fellings  dbh  was and out  felling.  Malayan  which  down  limits  c o m p l e t e d w i t h i n two  A second r e g e n e r a t i o n survey  t o r e p l a c e the p r e v i o u s  system  15 cm  39  felled  species  c a r r i e d o u t , t o g e t h e r w i t h p o i s o n - g i r d l i n g of the  ten years a f t e r  than  girdled  weed s p e c i e s b e l o w t h e g i r d l i n g  Logging  climber cutting.  linear  f t g i r t h a t b r e a s t h e i g h t ) were t o be  i n the light-demanding  the s h a d e - t o l e r a n t  sufficiently  out  The  Felling  fellings  and  successive  i m p r a c t i c a l because of outlay  World only  (FDPM,  one  in  War.  mechanical It  single  became felling  1966a).  i n the a c c e s s i b l e lowlands a l i e n a t e d  28  f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , most of t h e p r e s e n t PFE and  infertile  lowland areas.  The  Malayan Uniform  found u n s u i t a b l e because these l a t t e r rich  in  the  marketable there  light-demanding  s p e c i e s , and  i s situated  i n the  System has  Merantis  (Shorea)  the Malayan Uniform  abundant  and  poorly  c h a n g e s were made. after  felling  required  The  and  System r e q u i r e s  1966a).  planting The  Burgess,  had  1971,  a system  proposed  Tenggara  to  System.  The  of a p o l y c y c l i c  or  stands  selection  Landon, 1937).  yield  a  complex  development  management in area  of  f i v e years  In was  forest  area  the newly developed  Pahang  (Skapski,  a  a  1971).  More  t h e FDPM i n t r o d u c e d i t s M a l a y s i a n S e l e c t i v e Management The  Zulmukhshar Griffin  belief  i n the coming y e a r s .  1930's ( A r n o t and  sustained  regional  recently,  omitted  because of the emerging  of h a r v e s t i n g t h e t r e e c r o p s e v e r y  timber  where  A s u g g e s t i o n f o r the a d o p t i o n of such  been made i n t h e  allocated  out  of a d v a n c e d r e g e n e r a t i o n i n t h e r e s i d u a l  management.  for  carried  was  a f t e r h a r v e s t i n g l e d to the r e v i v a l  system  was  until  operation  t h a t t h e s e t r e e s m i g h t be m a r k e t a b l e  of  major  felling  1970),  system  Three  that poison-  (Whitmore,  presence  less  c h a n g e was  the  The  for  third  g i r d l i n g of t r e e s s u r v i v i n g 1975;  that  species at  modified to allow regeneration.  as  other  r e g e n e r a t i o n s u r v e y s were p o s t p o n e d  enrichment  (Ismail,  was  distributed  The  and  system  been  s i t e s a r e g e n e r a l l y not  be a b u n d a n t s e e d l i n g r e g e n e r a t i o n o f m a r k e t a b l e  the time of f e l l i n g .  hills  d e t a i l s of t h i s  system  (1979),  (1978),  and C a p r a t a Selective  Andel  can  be  FAO  found  i n FDPM  ( 1 9 7 8 a ) , Mok  (1972),  (1977)  and  (1977). Management  System  involves  harvesting  29  marketable  trees  adequate  advanced  cutting  limits  different and  above  regeneration and  areas,  specified  cutting  stockings  in  the  prescription  specifically,  the  basis  of  the  cutting timber  mortality  and  management  objectives.  A logging  in  between  10  sampling during  and  The  This timber  size  of  guideline prices,  guideline  because  been  a  are  of  15  enough  cm big  volume  to  be  harvested  expected dark been  the  yield  and  light  derived  at  Red  the  and  timber-checking  1977)  and  should  studied.  The  minimum  and  1977). been  of  and  species  specifically  (Shorea the  as  m  records  an  in Malaysia 21  spp.).  prevailing  station  i s  of  estimated  the  regarded  harvest  trees  crop.  on  of  A  Malaysia  harvested  next  of  designed  are  be  for  intensity  forests,  estimates  logging  operations  an  Meranti  be  on  greater to  on  information  has  depends the  determined  volume  trees for  from  from  of  are  consideration  costs  economics  More  Peninsular  and and  volumes  peninsula.  Caprata,  Development  for  blanket  intensity  retained  of  and  stocking  dbh  under  the  permit  logging  i s c a r r i e d out  be  Caprata,  adequately  areas  separately in  volume, of  The  a  limits  and  to  logging  and  dbh  (Griffin  The  not  whole  trees  has  (Griffin  and  the  Forest  there  the  proportion  the  12-percent  the  with  i f  minimum  composition  a  of  species  of  percent  for  does  retaining  harvests.  v a r i a b i l i t y  economics  years  1978a).  determine  the  30.  course  intermediate  on  following  (FAO,  marketable  the  and  determined  forests  cycle  inventory  design  the  Project  to  the  the  for  limits  subsequent are  stocking  growth,  prefelling  that  h i l l  s i l v i c u l t u r s l  the  for  cycles  recognizing  dbh  interim  have 3  per  not ha  i f  30  Red  Meranti"  harvest than  constitutes  v o l u m e , and  50 p e r c e n t  volume i s d e r i v e d marketable which are  28 m  of the  per  3  than  ha  total  1978a).  for  for  the  species,  t h a n 60 cm  current  damage, a t  30  retaining  the c r i t e r i o n and  least  32.  twice The  approximately larger  32  i n dbh,  trees  dbh  trees  should  greater  standing  and  harvest  volume  logging  of  damage,  30 p e r c e n t  or l a r g e r  be  per  sum  of  the  number  for  of  However,  t o 60  dbh.  next crop. 30  t o 50 cm  to  s m a l l e r c l a s s (FAO,  dbh,  In t h i s  case,  t o 45  should  would In 45  dbh.  the  cm  dbh  larger trees  allowing  commercial  number of t r e e s 30  trees  t h a t o f t r e e s 45  required  After  ha  t r e e s a b o v e 45 cm  of  is  retained.  t h a n 45 cm  s u r v i v i n g t o form the  twice  less  i s harvested.  r a t i o n a l e i s t h a t the  the  volume i s  s i z e c l a s s i s t h e r e f o r e assumed t o h a v e t w i c e  a t r e e i n the  4  least  t h e number o f  forests  total  dbh.  i s t h a t the  b e t t e r chance of primary  45 cm  of t h e  expected  p r a c t i c e s e t s minimum l i m i t s o f a r o u n d 50  thereby  dbh  to  gross  f o r t r e e s l e s s t h a n 60 cm  e x i s t i n g , matured stand  felling  The  d e f e c t s and  A d e q u a t e s t o c k i n g o f t r e e s 30 cm after  percent  Meranti's  from the  estimates  40 p e r c e n t  50  i f Red  (FAO,  by d e d u c t i n g  species,  trees greater  more  .cm  be  at  have  a  undisturbed cm  dbh  is  A t r e e of  the  the value  of  1978a).  D a r k and L i g h t Red M e r a n t i s c o n s t i t u t e t h e b i g g e s t component of log production from the f o r e s t s of P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a . During t h e p e r i o d 1971 to 1978, this species group c o n t r i b u t e d an average of 34 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l a n n u a l v o l u m e . This group i s among t h e most v a l u a b l e . A c u b i c metre of Dark and Light Red Merantis fetched a market price ( e x - m i l l ) of $170 i n 1978 c o m p a r e d w i t h a w e i g h t e d a v e r a g e p r i c e o f $138 f o r a l l t h e major s p e c i e s and s p e c i e s g r o u p (FDPM, 1 9 8 0 a ) .  31  2.4 F o r e s t The small,  Industries  forest industries independent  of  logging  Peninsular firms  oriented manufacturing  complexes.  mills  major  constitute  the  i n d u s t r y , the other activities paper  being  primary  to large integrated, Sawmills  and  i n d u s t r i e s and  export-  plyood/veneer processing  secondary  undeveloped.  from  processing  T h e r e i s no p u l p a n d  manufacture. Transportation  Logging i n Peninsular operation wood  Malaysia  designed to provide  land  s t a r t e d as a  independent demand  logs  essentially  short-duration  facilities  of  independence processing little  activity  industry.  licences.  logging  labour-intensive  the  traditional-type  the loggers  few  and t h e d i v o r c e  apparent s a l e s o r g a n i z a t i o n  export  logging  highly  into  system  a n d d e p e n d e n t upon  Even  m i l l s have r e s u l t e d i n a  extent,  Since the an  t o meet t h e i n c r e a s i n g  The  low-capital,  family business  Logs a r e t r a n s p o r t e d lesser  of  t e n d e d t o o p e r a t e on a c o n t r a c t the  of  the  a  o p e r a t e d as a s m a l l  have  type  for  been  companies  (FAO, 1 9 7 3 c ) .  i n t h e 1930's, l o g g i n g has d e v e l o p e d  contract  of  forest-clearing  f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , and t o supply  f o r f u e l and d o m e s t i c c o n s t r u c t i o n  advent of sawmills  with  range  component o f t h e t i m b e r  relatively  2.4.1 L o g g i n g a n d L o g  and  Malaysia  large  has  activity small-area logging  system using the units.  Vigorous  of l o g g i n g  from t h e  fragmented  industry  (FAO, 1 9 7 0 ) .  from t h e f o r e s t s t o t h e m i l l s and, t o a outlets,  by r o a d ,  t r a n s p o r t a c c o u n t s f o r some 93 p e r c e n t  rail  and w a t e r .  a l l l o g s moved,  and  Road rail  32  transport 1973c). from  some  7 percent;  water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s minimal  A s a w m i l l or plywood m i l l  several different  the c o n c e s s i o n  u s u a l l y gets  locations.  I n most c a s e s  the m i l l  i s not  c o n t r a c t s w i t h a number o f l o g g e r s o r t r u c k e r s , o r b u y s l o g s  from  they  see  f i t (FAO,  This in  the l a s t  areas  l o g g i n g c o m p a n i e s who  1970;  defect  peddle the  s e v e r a l years  rectified.  The  has  longer-term  agreement  been t o g r a n t  complexes.  The  area  yield  l i c e n s e e i s r e q u i r e d t o c a r r y out  operations,  including  g o v e r n m e n t may operations out  their  2.4.2  own  The  Sawmills  1976).  These t i m b e r  logs,  thousand  In  the  and  by  in  the  m  3  of  1979, or  the 76  t o p r o d u c e 5,390 t h o u s a n d m  as  The  sawmill  578  sawmills  percent  hand-sawing  some 65  accessible  in  o p e r a t i o n s .before  processed  of t h e t o t a l  o f sawnwood.  3  industry  1930's s m a l l s i n g l e - b e n c h 1940  these  complexes u s u a l l y c a r r y  o f sawnwood, v a l u e d a t M$1,133 m i l l i o n  (FDPM, 1 9 8 0 a ) . started  the  a r e t h e d o m i n a n t f e a t u r e o f t h e wood-based i n d u s t r y  8,727  3  a r e a , and  Industry  In  m  silvicultural  t h e w h o l e o r p a r t of t h e c o s t s o f  of P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a .  thousand  harvested  sustained  logging.  Sawmilling  production  any  trend  generally  i s t o be managed on a  restocking  reimburse  (Harun,  and  concession  (50,000 a c )  The  as  industry i s being  e x c e e d s 20,000 ha basis.  logs  1973c).  i n the  to the timber  A mill  supply  hoc  l o r r y d r i v e r s of t h e  1976).  log  e i t h e r makes ad  the  holder - ( E l l i s ,  its  (FAO,  Some were  Peninsular  2977  exported Malaysia  the Second World  War.  s a w m i l l s were f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d ,  s u c h m i l l s were i n o p e r a t i o n , l o c a t e d forests.  log  During  t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War  mostly (1941-  33  1945)  and  the  ensuing  a c t i v i t i e s were s e v e r e l y the  relocation  areas. 23.5  of  Emergency restricted.  the  sawmills  percent  The  of the  total  period  from the  eastern  number o f  p a r t of the  majority  of  mills  log intakes greater  per  a very  a n n u m , and  was  1972).  Malaysia  Small  are  were l o c a t e d  environment governed  by  in  by  which  welfare  are  members.  low,  expand  efficient they  1961  82  cited  Entrepreneural  5  6  Only  by FAO,  because  had  are  skills  operating.  r a t e s of  capacity  the  sector such  firms  family's duty return  to  f o r the  They a r e  forthcoming;  as  .socio-economic are  f a m i l y have t o  t o a p p r o a c h an  u s u a l l y not  The  family-owned  These  the  their credit ratings.  are  the  no  1972).  within  of  33  (350,000  percent  independent  e c o n o m i c s : members of  processing  the  technically  capacity.  sawmills  highly  Consequently,  thus lowering their  were  10,000 c u b i c m e t r e s  a c c e p t e d f o r employment b e c a u s e i t i s t h e family  in  family-owned e n t e r p r i s e s i n c o u n t r i e s  not  saw  Only  e n t e r p r i s e s , r e s u l t i n g i n a l a c k of c o h e s i o n (FAO,  1960  the west c o a s t .  sawmills  than  small  dominated  to  peninsula.  p r o p e r b r e a k d o w n saws ( H u d d l e s t o n , industry  1940  urban  small processing  of t h e  6  sawmilling  f o r e s t s to the  sawmills  urban  and  had  had  the  inefficient  3  The  M o s t o f t h e s e m i l l s were l o c a t e d on  c e n t r a l and  ft )  (1946-1960)  5  feed  company  unable  optimum the  be  to  level. younger  The emergency r e f e r s t o t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1948 t o 1960 when t h e government d e c l a r e d a s t a t e of emergency as a r e s u l t of an offensive launched by communist insurgents. The communist insurrection developed into prolonged nation-wide guerilla warfare. The e m e r g e n c y was l i f t e d i n 1960. l e v e l of 1972).  i n t a k e w h i c h was  considered  technically efficient  (FAO,  34  generation, work  upon  acquiring  skills,  i n better environments.  because  subsequent  w o u l d i n v a r i a b l y move on t o  There  generations  is  may  a  lack  not  want  of  continuity  to continue  the  enterprise. Since the  the a t t a i n m e n t of p o l i t i c a l  end o f t h e Emergency  phenomenal.  Clearing  agricultural  development  abundance  of  favorable  l o g supply  level  in  investments  (FAO,  vast has  a r e a s of the lowland provided  the  almost  p r i c e s of t r o p i c a l 7  1972;  also stimulated  The  by  the  by t h e new  State their level  7  have  forest assets of  future  increase  in  several  economic p o l i c i e s of  been  (FAO,  1972).  largely  a t an i n c r e a s e d timber  of  unplanned  licences  The p r o s p e c t s Governments  of  or  the  in  harvesting to  of  set  up  increased  to l i q u i d a t e  rate without regard  production,  f o r the  uniformity  S t a t e Governments,  t e m p t e d most S t a t e  of  industrial  The a b s e n c e o f a p l a n n e d s t r a t e g y  or t o expand e x i s t i n g m i l l s .  revenue  world  development  l i c e n c e s t o l o g t h e f o r e s t s and i n d u s t r i a l sawmills  insatiable  wood p r o d u c t s l e d t o a  o f t h e i n d u s t r y has l e d t o a l a c k  issuing,  an This  increase.  designed to stimulate  with  low p r i c e s .  a n d , h e n c e , t o a marked  industry.  1975b).  forests for  industry  logs at r e l a t i v e l y  r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l e x p a n s i o n has  development the  been  s i t u a t i o n and t h e  the  was  government The  i n 1960, g r o w t h i n t h e i n d u s t r y has  of p r o f i t a b i l i t y  investment  the  and  high-quality  demand f o r a n d t h e h i g h high  1957  of  independence i n  for  stability  the  of the  FAO ( 1 9 7 2 ) e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e r a t e s o f t h e r e t u r n on i n v e s t m e n t i n t h e s a w m i l l s i n P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a were 36 p e r c e n t in 1968 and 52 p e r c e n t i n 1969.  35  i n d u s t r y and,  t h e r e f o r e , c o n t i n u e d b e n e f i t from the  U n t i l about short-term  traditional  west  c a p a c i t y has  requirements  1970's. timber  in (FAO,  M o s t new  kiln-drying  states  By  Table  level  of  of  with  the  t h i s very  no  1968  eight  the  inferior  more  heavily  r a p i d expansion  longer  in  supply  and  the  other  hitherto 1980,  capital-intensive  integrated  factories  blockboard, sawmills  unused  about  100  (Sim,  and  have  complexes  and  (Sim,  1980).  1 9 8 0 ) , up  were  together  veneer  mills,  f o r t h e m a n u f a c t u r e of laminated been  small-diameter small-log  region  g a i n e d momentum i n t h e  of l o g g i n g u n i t s , p l y w o o d and  eastern  Most of them h a v e a s a w m i l l ,  o r were i n o p e r a t i o n  (FDPM,  of  the s a w m i l l c a p a c i t y from the l o g -  1978  small-log  By  in  s a w m i l l s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n  m i l l s were i n o p e r a t i o n 1978  sawmills  could  in  such as mouldings,  these  high  form  proliferation  f o r e s t - r i c h c e n t r a l and  started  plants  1974).  and  States  (FDPM, 1 9 8 0 a ) .  Recently,  in  the.  the  i n s u c h h e a v y demands f o r l o g s u p p l i e s t h a t  to the  peninsula  proposed  a  family-owned  of r e l o c a t i n g  with a combination  Liew,  been  by  in  1975b).  west c o a s t  established  process  has  these  complexes.  products  result  coast  process  the  lured  resulted  forests  deficit  was  were  T h e s e m i l l s were c o n c e n t r a t e d  populated  of  The  investments  which  small-scale  machinery.  A  t h e new  capital  profitability.  the  1974  forests.  wood.  established  to  logs  (Sim,  1980;  sawmills  have  been  In  f r o m 32  1979, mills  at l e a s t  43  operating  1980a).  4 shows t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s a w m i l l i n d u s t r y s i n c e  36  Development of t h e s a w m i l l  Year  No. o f M i l l s operating  Table 4 industry i n Peninsular  Log Intake (1000m )  Sawnwood Production (1000m )  3  3  1957 1958 1959 1 960 1 961 1 962 1 963 1 964 1 965 1 966 1 967 1968 1969 1 970 1 971 1 972 1 973 1 974 1 975 1 976 1 977 1 978 1 979  NA NA 406 397 404 41 1 41 1 417 421 432 417 419 447 448 478 490 504 529 536 540 569 585 578  1 368 1316 1 398 1919 1858 1943 2170 2369 2391 2566 2877 3574 3602 41 26 4174 4936 6091 651 0 5741 7629 8534 9023 8727  Malaysia  %  Recovery  NA NA 770 1 029 1006 1069 1 176 1 324 1 339 1 422 1726 2008 2040 2327 2467 31 36 3589 3526 3354 4637 5090 5361 5390  NA NA 55 54 54 55 54 56 56 55 60 56 57 56 59 64 59 54 58 61 60 59 62  N o t e : NA = n o t ava i l a b l e S o u r c e : FDPM A n n u a l  1957.  Except f o r the  production rapid  in  1961,  development.  manufacturing  R e p o r t s , FDPM  declines 1975 In  in  and  the  decade  intake  and/or  sawmill  from  1961  to  1970  the  c a p a c i t y , i n t e r m s o f l o g i n t a k e , i n c r e a s e d by 122  and i n t h e subsequent n i n e  percent  pushed  i n 1979.  log  (1970)  1979, t h e r e h a s been s t e a d y a n d  percent,  year  ( 1 9 8 0 a ) , FAO  the  of  119  c a p a c i t y t o a peak o f 9023 t h o u s a n d s m  per  The c o r r e s p o n d i n g  were 131 p e r c e n t  from  years  increases  an  increase  i n sawnwood  1961 t o 1970 a n d 130 p e r c e n t  from  3  production 1970  to  37  1978. In  addition  sawmills and another  to the s m a l l - s c a l e nature of a m a j o r i t y  t h e i r poor l o c a t i o n s with  major  problem  of  respect  the  industry  u n d e r u t i 1 i z a t i o n of i n s t a l l e d c a p a c i t y . thousand  m  in  3  1979  represented  The  or 44 percent  (1979a)  a  the  single  processing  been  log intake  only  one  the  of  8727  of the  total  shift  per Chong  i n s t a l l e d c a p a c i t y to be 9958 thousand  shift.  capacity  competing f o r the  has  the  supply,  i f sawmills were running double s h i f t s .  estimated  assuming  log  only 88 percent  i n s t a l l e d manufacturing c a p a c i t y , assuming day,  to  of  was  The due  logs and  low  to the  the poor  rate  of  utilization  i n c r e a s i n g number of  locations  of  most  industry,  a majority  m  3  of  mills  of  the  mills. 2.4.3  The In  Plywood and Veneer contrast  to  the  sawmill  plywood m i l l s are modern. were  established  i n d u s t r y has Peninsular 12 percent m  3  in  About one-half  the  last  Malaysia.  5mm  In  1979,  thickness)  The  first  the  The  it  was  only  after As  and  of veneer  1961  i n the  the  mills  plywood and  veneer  industry  in  thousand m ,  or  3  produced 505  thousand  77,457 thousand square  (Annual Report FDPM, 1979).  e s t a b l i s h e d in 1948 that  of  plywood  i t consumed 1,345  of plywood and  plywood m i l l was  industry started. due  decade.  of the t o t a l l o g p r o d u c t i o n ,  (based on  of  been the most r a p i d l y expanding timber  metres ( v a r i a b l e t h i c k n e s s )  but  Industry  (FAO,  1970),  the r a p i d expansion of  the  sawmill i n d u s t r y , t h i s expansion  was  to the high p r o f i t a b i l i t y of the  industry, r e s u l t i n g  from  a  38  strong  demand  industrialized  for  plywood  nations,  and  the  in to  government,  house  construction  incentives  industry  by  especially  long-term  c r e d i t s g r a n t e d by t h e M a l a y s i a n  provided  i n the to  the  t h e P i o n e e r S t a t u s and Industrial  Development  F u n d (FAO, 1 9 7 2 ) . Table plywood  5 indicates the continuous  and  veneer  mills  from  and r a p i d expansion  1961 t o 1973.  of  the  Capacity increased  Table 5 Development of t h e plywood/veneer i n d u s t r y i n P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a  Year  No. o f Mills  1 957 1 958 1 959 1 960 1961 1 962 1 963 1 964 1 965 1966 1 967 1968 1969 1 970 1 971 1 972 1 973 1 974 1975 1 976 1 977 1978 1979 Source:  1 2 4 4 4 6 6 9 1 1 12 15 15 16 20 31 33 34 35 35 35 35 35 35  FDPM A n n u a l  Log i n t a k e m 3  1 1 1 1 1 1  4 4 3 4 6 12 18 35 74 1 25 1 60 299 393 503 696 906 040 014 851 195 365 305 344  290 1 07 525 1 34 044 425 749 971 491 367 539 769 674 936 940 1 97 237 793 881 589 325 340 914  Production m 3  2 2 1 2 2 5 7 12 27 54 57 101 1 48 179 247 335 386 280 341 499 524 456 505  299 271 976 1 30 963 310 403 500 830 189 165 360 900 1 35 285 017 374 626 1 34 477 655 123 185  R e p o r t s , FDPM ( 1 9 8 0 a ) ,  FAO  (1970)  39  192  times  i n the  13-year p e r i o d .  130  times  during  the  and  plywood p r o d u c t i o n  as  the  .result  Production  same p e r i o d .  of  In  d e c l i n e d due  a  worldwide  1974  of plywood  and  1975,  log  t o weak demand and recession  (Ong,  increased intake  low  1976;  prices  Radzuan,  1977). The  p r o b l e m of u n d e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f  not  as  s e r i o u s as  1345  thousand m  installed in  1979  i n the  in  3  sawmill  1979  785  industries.  corresponds  c a p a c i t y , a s s u m i n g two  could process  processing  to  86  s h i f t s per  thousand m  of  3  The  capacity  is  log intake  of  percent  day.  logs  of  the  A single shift  annually  (Chong,  1979a). Overall,  the  processing  plywood/veneer m i l l s shifts was  per  utilized.  capacity in  day,  only  2.4.4  grossly  47 p e r c e n t  These e s t i m a t e s  in sawmills  operation.  during  is  the year  of  underutilized. of the  .do  not  approved  (Chong,  plywood  factories,  producing  states. Mangrove  The  two  of  two  installed  take  into  mills  but  capacity  account  the  were n o t  yet  were i n  but  pencil  particle/chipboard  charcoal  main source  wood,  Assuming  operation  Industries  wood-wool cement s l a b s ; t h e s e  production  and  1979a).  57,814 c u b i c m e t r e s of l o g s i n 1979 The  sawmill  total  O t h e r f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s i n c l u d e d one match  the  w h i c h were a p p r o v e d i n 1979  All  Other F o r e s t  capacity  of  raw  is  an  m i l l s and  mills  (Annual  factory,  Report  important  mill  mills  utilized a total FDPM,  of  1979).  i n d u s t r y i n some  materials for charcoal  r u b b e r wood and  three  four  has  been  r e s i d u e s h a v e a l s o been  40  utilized  (FAO,  produced  i n 1978  production  1972).  is  Some  466  thousand  (FDPM, 1 9 8 0 a ) . consumed  by  being f o r household use.  m  of  3  charcoal  was  Up t o 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e c h a r c o a l  the  Rubber  steel  factories,  wood and m i l l  the remainder  wastes  have  also  been c h i p p e d a n d e x p o r t e d t o J a p a n . Secondary  yet f u l l y  developed  a l t h o u g h s i g n i f i c a n t p r o g r e s s h a s been made i n t h e l a s t  few y e a r s  to s h i f t  emphasis  products. kiln  timber  to  industries  the  are  manufacture  In  (FDPM, 1 9 8 0 a ) .  operation.  production  I n 1978,  Other  of  prefabricated  furniture, wooden  high-quality  well  as  by  activities  mouldings,  dowels,  h o u s e s and house p a r t s , tongue-and-groove  c a b i n e t s and  b o a t s and b o a t p a r t s  (Chong,  only  joineries  included  flooring,  s u c h as  panelling,  flooring,  packing  1976; FAO,  1972).  construction Most o f t h e s e  I n 1971, some  90  percent  were  (FAO,  620  in operation  f u r n i t u r e m a n u f a c t u r i n g e n t e r p r i s e s and in Peninsular Malaysia  d e s i g n , mass p r o d u c t i o n  promotion techniques.  by  1972).  i n 1976.  These  s e c o n d a r y wood-based i n d u s t r i e s were n o t w e l l - d e v e l o p e d i n of  the  e x p o r t e d m a c h i n e d - w o o d p r o d u c t s were m a n u f a c t u r e d  four companies There  government  s p e a k e r b o x e s , b l o c k b o a r d and  products are f o r the domestic market. of t h e t o t a l  and  truck  p a r t i c l e b o a r d s , wooden t o y s and s o u v e n i r s , and t h e of  value-added  some 99 k i l n - d r y i n g p l a n t s were  industrial  d o o r and window f r a m e s and crates,  greater  1978, t h e r e were 118 w o o d - p r e s e r v a t i o n p l a n t s  o p e r a t e d by s a w m ' i l l e r s and e x p o r t e r s as  in  of  The m a j o r a c t i v i t i e s h a v e been t i m b e r p r e s e r v a t i o n  drying.  agencies  not  95 two  terms  t e c h n i q u e s , p r o d u c t i o n management and  Most o f  the  furniture  produced  by  the  41  industry of  was  of d o m e s t i c c o n s u m p t i o n .  some s i g n i f i c a n c e p r o d u c i n g  cater  mainly  resettlement  for  moulding plants There  in Peninsular  i s no  p u l p and  even though t h e r e  been e s t a b l i s h e d .  the  paper i n d u s t r y papers,  joss,  w r a p p i n g , t i c k e t and w a s t e p a p e r as bulk  of  imported  1978,  f i n a n c i a l and has  viable  support  feasibility and  last  These  itself  t o the  mills  the  corporations  the  review  have in  medium,  and  depended  on  i s low,  the being  products  were  i n the  l a c k of  been  late  1950's  country  r e a s o n s , no  Several  a  in  joint-  such m i l l s  paper markets i n  f i n a n c i a l and  in  investments  interest on  of  shown  participating  to a t t r a c t  p u l p and  due  establishment  indicated  local  million.  plantations.  the  of  produced  g o v e r n m e n t has by  mill  country  the  eventual  industry  however, f o r v a r i o u s  s e v e r a l y e a r s and  Since  forest  paper m i l l s  Uncertainties  pulp  p a p e r m i l l s has  incentives  pilot-scale  the  paper  The  86  Malaysia;  c o s t i n g a b o u t M$233  industry.  d e v e l o p m e n t of  a  of p r o d u c t i o n  p u l p and  flood  were  no  corrugating  level  Malaysia,  integrated  e s t a b l i s h i n g p u l p and basis;  i n 1978,  some 223,408 t o n n e s of  studies, providing  international  materialized.  papers.  paper  there  e x i s t i n g paper m i l l s  boxes,  The  and  to  1980a).  p a p e r b o a r d r e q u i r e m e n t of  and  establishing  venture  folding  been g e a r i n g  f o r the  The  units  in Peninsular  paper m i l l s  technical constraints.  pulp  1978,  Choo (1980) p r o v i d e d  material.  a b s e n c e of  Malaysia a  In  (FDPM,  and  poster  and  Malaysia  1978.  into Peninsular  The to  raw  paper  imported.  of  In  companies  housing  development  1976).  small  Peh  as  land  paper i n d u s t r y  were 11  has  toilet  prefabricated  government  schemes ( J a m i l ,  T h e r e were f i v e  have the  technical  42  resources  may  have  been  the  m a j o r c o n s t r a i n t s (Peh  and  Choo,  1980). 2.5. I m p o r t a n c e o f The  t h e F o r e s t r y and  Peninsular  sector  has  of t h e  gross  percentage  Malaysia  1978.  The  f o r the  whole  is  higher,  two  to  increase a  more  to  through  companies.  timber  harvested.  granted  for  1980.  10  revenues  contribute,  the h a r v e s t  types  these sources,  charge  Forest  and  State,  is  7.8  percent  of  Trengganu,  per  of  in  the  each  of  of t i m b e r .  The  from  the  u n i t v o l u m e of  hectare  of  forest  assessment  private unit  loggers  and  1981).  assessment  per  due  sawlogs  increase  development  levied  l o g s removed f r o m t h e and  (FDPM,  of  i s a fee payable per  to a s p e c i a l Education  t h e v o l u m e of  the  contribution  t o t h e economy  from  Premium i s a  logging.  I n one  in  Sabah  ( G o v e r n m e n t of M a l a y s i a ,  Royalty  development  harvested.  The  percent  s i l v i c u l t u r e c e s s i s a c o n t r i b u t i o n from the forestry  mainly  i n the p r o d u c t i o n than  s t a t e governments r e c e i v e three logging  1971  forest contributes directly  states  forestry,  percent  f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s s e c t o r grew a c c o r d i n g l y  m a n u f a c t u r e o f wood p r o d u c t s  the  percent,  economy e x p a n d e d a t a r a t e of  annual  and  t o 8.5  1972  s t a t e s o f Sarawak and  the decade from  percent  period  l a r g e r r o l e of  i n the  f o r e s t r y and  logs  i n the  b e t w e e n 7.2  Malaysian  annum d u r i n g  The  industries  to  The  veneer  forest  domestic product  log export,  t o a 3.4  and  4.8  form of  of the  forestry  Sector  and  i n d i c a t i n g the  per  Industries  c o n s i s t e n t l y c o n t r i b u t e d b e t w e e n 4.3  country  1980a).  Forest  sector  v o l u m e of  are  or to logs  required  to  F u n d , amounts p r o p o r t i o n a l forest.  Gross  revenue  f r o m p a y m e n t s o f c o m p e n s a t i o n s and  fines,  to  from have  43  increased percent from  by  from  over  200  percent  1970 t o 1978 ( T a b l e 6 ) .  1960 t o 1970, a n d by 155  The  data  for  the  period  1972 t o 1977 show t h a t o n l y a b o u t 21 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e v e n u e  Direct  Year  Table 6 revenue from t h e f o r e s t s  Revenue  Expenditure  million 1 955 1 956 1 957 1958 1 959 1 960 1 961 1 962 1 963 1 964 1 965 1 966 1 967 1 968 1 969 1 970 1 971 1 972 1 973 1 974 1 975 1 976 1977 1 978  12.958 14.638 14.438 14.285 14.172 18.323 19.094 20.023 22.294 25.166 26.568 31.311 36.325 4.3.028 48.261 56.104 58.833 73.037 90.926 85.408 88.472 121.168 136.121 143.048 Note:  Source:  has  from  FDPM A n n u a l  been s p e n t  being  used  Net  Revenue  $(Malaysian) 5.351 5.660 6. 1 66 6.537 6.534 6.973 7. 187 7.475 8.394 8.892 9.709 11.584 13.584 12.140 11.905 12.520 15.500 16.325 17.454 19.305 24.172 23.341 33.672 NA  7.608 8.978 8.271 7.748 7.637 11 .350 11.907 12.548 13.900 16.294 16.859 19.727 22.741 30.888 36.356 42.584 43.333 56.712 73.472 66.103 64.300 97.827 102.449 NA  NA = n o t a v a i l a b l e  R e p o r t s , 1964, 1970; FDPM ( 1 9 7 9 ) ; (1977)  f o r the f o r e s t r y  sector, the remaining  79  Latiff  percent  f o r t h e maintenance and development of o t h e r s e c t o r s  44  i n t h e economy. time of In  Data from  1978  o n w a r d s were n o t a v a i l a b l e a t  the  writing. 1980,  million,  constituting  the F e d e r a l 1981).  a l l direct  government t h r o u g h  indirect  about  Government  F o r e s t r y and  and  of  forest  taxes  93 p e r c e n t Malaysia  yielded  of the t o t a l  (Government  M$11,923 revenue of  of  Malaysia,  i n d u s t r i e s c o n t r i b u t e t o the  t h e payment o f t a x e s .  c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e f o r e s t r y and  forest  The  federal  magnitude  of  the  i n d u s t r i e s s e c t o r was  not  available,  but a s i g n i f i c a n t  p o r t i o n of t h e t o t a l  t a x e s must h a v e  come  the s e c t o r i n the  form of  from the  timber  excise  duties  from  c o m p a n i e s and from road  income t a x e s  t h e i r e m p l o y e e s , e x p o r t and  custom  t h e e x p o r t s of t i m b e r p r o d u c t s and m o t o r v e h i c l e taxes  from  f o r e s t h a r v e s t i n g and  licence  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of  and  forest  products. The of  e x p o r t s o f l o g s and  Malaysia  for  sawnwood f r o m foreign  the  exchange  earners,  products  registered  percent  of  percent  two  the whole c o u n t r y  products, t i n , petroleum  t h e s e two  last  t i m b e r p r o d u c t s have been a  total  and  the  gross export.  total  value  During between of  1979;  would,  therefore,  among  the  rubber  top and  and five  rubber  t h e s e two  forest  corresponding  to  12.9  t h e p e r i o d 1970  to  1980, 21.0  11.5  percent  and  commodity  exports  (Table  1981).  s u c h as p l y w o o d , v e n e e r , The  e x p o r t of l o g s  I n 1980,  some M$2309 m i l l i o n s ,  h a v e n o t been i n c l u d e d . products  been  palm o i l .  (Government of M a l a y s i a , 1976; other products  has  The  together- with  products contributed of  decades.  feature  The  mouldings  7)  e x p o r t v a l u e s of and  woodchips  p r o p o r t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d by a l l f o r e s t be h i g h e r .  The  v a l u e of e x p o r t s of  45  Table 7 of Sawlog and Sawtimber from M a l a y s i a , i n m i l l i o n Malaysian  Export Values  Year Sawlogs  1970 1971 1 972 1 973 1 974 1975 1 976 1 977 1 978 1 979 1980  Sawntimber  643 641 590 987 1032 669 1 471 1519 1 562 NA 2435  Subtotal Subtotal % of T o t a l  201 1 92 275 561 437 392 854 790 747 NA 1221  844 833 865 1 548 1 469 1 061 2325 2309 2309 NA 3656  N o t e : NA = n o t Source : timber The  products  Government o f  Total Gross Exports  16.3 16.6 17.8 21.0 14.4 11.5 17.3 15.4 13.8 NA 12.9  5163 501 7 4854 7372 10189 9231 13442 14971 16752 NA 28445  available M a l a y s i a (1976,1979,1981  from P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a  i n c r e a s e i n the t o t a l  is  shown  in  Table  v a l u e has been due t o t h e e x p o r t  i n c r e a s i n g volume of p r o c e s s e d  $  and h i g h e r - v a l u e p r o d u c t s  8.  o f an  and  not  l e a d i n g e x p o r t e r of hardwood  logs  from i n c r e a s e d l o g p r o d u c t i o n . Malaysia until  1971  exports  log  when  to  34 p e r c e n t  was  the  world  Indonesia  increased  become t h e l a r g e s t e x p o r t e r . of the world e x p o r t s  exports  come  from  the  i n 1979 Borneo  d e c r e a s i n g e x t e n t , Sarawak; t h e e x p o r t s declined  since  s p e c i e s i n 1972. percent  i t s log  the  imposition  Malaysia accounted  (Table 9 ) . States  Most  of  and for the  of S a b a h , and t o a  from P e n i n s u l a r  Malaysia  o f a ban on t h e e x p o r t  P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a now  of the world export  production  exports  less  of major than  one  volume.  M a l a y s i a , however, r e t a i n s  i t s p o s i t i o n as t h e w o r l d  leading  46  Table 8 of Major F o r e s t Products  Export Values  Year  Logs  Sawnt i m b e r  from P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a  Plywood  Veneer  Total  mi 11 i o n $ ( M a l a y s i a n ) 1961 1962 1971 1972 1 973 1974 1 975 1 976 1 977 1978 1 979  15.5 43.2 101.8 99.6 56.5 53.8 37.9 36. 1 23.4 12.6 23.3  30.0 56.0 1 45.8 225.9 472.5 391 .9 365.2 733.7 690.5 717.8 1133.2  NA 4.8 55.0 79.2 1 48.9 95.4 88.2 173.2 143.2 182.3 240.9  NA 2.6 6.3 8.7 18.1 28.5 13.9 19.3 25.2 19.5 24.0  45.5 106.6 309.9 413.4 696.0 569.6 505.2 962.3 882.3 932.2 1421 .4  N o t e : NA = n o t a v a i l a b l e Source:  FDPM  (1980a)  e x p o r t e r o f h a r d w o o d sawnwood, s u p p l y i n g some 22 p e r c e n t exports than  i n 1979 ( T a b l e  90 p e r c e n t  plywood  and  importance  10).  of M a l a y s i a ' s  P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a c o n t r i b u t e s more total  export volume.  o t h e r wood-based p a n e l s  i n the world market.  Canada, a c c o u n t i n g  from M a l a y s i a  The e x p o r t o f i s growing  in  M a l a y s i a , i n 1979, was t h e s i x t h  l a r g e s t e x p o r t e r a f t e r Taiwan, South and  of world  Korea,  f o r about s i x percent  Singapore,  Finland  of the world  export  volume (Table 11). The e x p o r t decrease to  of  round  logs  Malaysia  is  expected  to  b e c a u s e Sarawak and Sabah have a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h e d e s i r e  reduce  their  r e s p e c t i v e export quotas.  r e d u c e l o g e x p o r t s t o 30 p e r c e n t and  from  of t h e t o t a l  Sabah i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t w i l l  of t h e t o t a l  harvest  Sarawak i n t e n d e d t o  i n 1977 t o 50  annual  production  r e d u c e i t s l o g e x p o r t s from 90% percent  by  1981  (Malaysian  47  Table 9 M a l a y s i a ' s s h a r e of w o r l d t r a d e i n hardwood sawlogs and peelerlogs  Year  Peninsular Malaysia  Malaysia  World  Malaysia % of W o r l d  P. M a l a y s i a % of World  thousand c u b i c metres 1961 1962 1963 1 964 1 965 1966 1967 1 968 1 969 1 970 1 971 1972 1 973 1 974 1 975 1 976 1 977 1978 1 979  4 2 61 889 1 037 1 403 1 471 1 730 1862 2076 2041 1889 849 744 533 470 307 200 NA  2754 31 59 3937 5131 6041 8192 9035 1 051 4 11110 1 1 353 11147 1 1 596 1 2876 12170 1 0792 1 5493 1 61 00 1 671 3 1 6084  1 4306 1 4620 17918 19901 21 1 62 23786 35227 301 62 35050 38751 40701 42822 52406 451 72 39551 45657 471 27 48064 47384  * * * 5 5 6 6 6 5 5 5 4 2 2 1 1 1 * NA  19 22 22 26 29 . 34 36 35 32 29 27 27 25 27 30 34 34 35 34  N o t e : NA = n o t a v a i l a b l e * = insignificant,  l e s s t h a n .5%  S o u r c e : FAO Y e a r b o o k s o f F o r e s t P r o d u c t s 1972, 1977, 1978, 1979  Timber  I n d u s t r i e s Board,  The d e v e l o p m e n t  1978 c i t e d  by F e r g u s o n a n d L l o y d ,  of t i m b e r - p r o c e s s i n g  would expand the share of M a l a y s i a  industries  i n t h e two  i n world trade  1980). states  i n sawnwood and  plywood. M a l a y s i a c a n be e x p e c t e d t o c o n t i n u e t o e x p o r t a volume  o f p r o c e s s e d wood p r o d u c t s , b u t i t s s h a r e w i l l  because  of developments  and  the  Philippines.  i n competing areas, e s p e c i a l l y  substantial be r e d u c e d Indonesia  O t h e r c o m p e t i n g a r e a s , s u c h a s Papua  New  48  Malaysia's Year  T a b l e 10 of w o r l d t r a d e  share  Peninsular Malaysia  Malaysia  World  i n h a r d w o o d sawnwood  Malaysia % of W o r l d  P. M a l a y s i a % of World  thousand cubic metres 1 961 1962 1 963 1964 1 965 1 966 1 967 1968 1 969 1970 1971 1 972 1 973 1974 1 975 1 976 1 977 1 978 1 979  346 389 488 450 462 479 571 483 861 1 030 1 020 1 450 1896 1 790 1517 1715 2644 NA NA  557 584 702 716 740 704 850 798 1 1 76 1 357 1 308 1 761 21 60 2008 1764 201 9 291 1 2787 2856  4291 4331 4464 5303 5500 5821 5707 6340 6897 1 186 7234 8398 10617 8957 801 3 11719 1 1 685 1 1 969 12707  13 13 16 14 13 12 15 13 17 19 18 21 20 22 22 19 25 23 22  8.1 9.0 11.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 8.0 12.0 9.0 14.0 17.0 18.0 20.0 19.0 15.0 23.0 NA NA  N o t e : NA = n o t a v a i l a b l e S o u r c e : FAO Y e a r b o o k s o f F o r e s t P r o d u c t s  Guinea, t r o p i c a l because  they  Africa  produce  A s i a Lumber P r o d u c e r s Malaysia,  Sabah,  succeeded  in  strengthening exports  • decrease  Philippines  support  among  of  a  have  s p e c i e s o f wood.  and  Indonesia  cut-throat member  (Sanvictores,  of t h e w o r l d  similar  log  less The  which are  trade,  Southeast  members, h a s  to  of l o g exports 1975)  effect  Peninsular  competition  countries  The r e s t r i c t i o n  1974  i n i t s share  anouncement  America,  A s s o c i a t i o n (SEALPA), of  restricting  since  Latin  different  progressively.  Philippines  and  1972, 1977, 1978, 1979  and  in  reduce  log  from  the  has r e s u l t e d i n a and  measure from I n d o n e s i a  the  recent  (Ferguson  and  49  T a b l e 11 M a l a y s i a ' s share of w o r l d t r a d e i n hardwood  Year  Peninsular Malaysia  Malaysia  World  Malaysia % of W o r l d  plywood  P. M a l a y s i a % of W o r l d  thousand cubic metres 1961 1962 1 983 1 964 1 965 1 966 1 967 1968 1 969 1 970 1 971 1 972 1973 1 974 1975 1 976 1 977 1 978 1 979  6 5 5 6 1 1 18 29 63 92 141 208 296 41 1 322 284 458 399 NA NA  10 18 26 20 23 42 55 91 11 4 1 67 246 341 457 365 318 493 438 410 432  !  1502 1699 1923 2359 2544 2781 3021 3832 4191 4477 4981 5733 6498 4962 5224 6191 6198 71 02 7229  N o t e : NA = n o t a v a i l a b l e * = insignificant, S o u r c e : FAO Y e a r b o o k s  * * * * * 1 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 6 6 7 6 NA NA  1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 6 8 7 6 6  l e s s than  0.5%  o f F o r e s t P r o d u c t s 1972, 1977, 1978, 1979  Lloyd,  1980) w o u l d u n d o u b t e d l y r e d u c e I n d o n e s i a ' s  world  t r a d e i n hardwood l o g s .  to match M a l a y s i a ' s e x p o r t of  share  of  the  The P h i l i p p i n e s h a s n o t been a b l e sawnwood  and  plywood  since  its  i m p o s i t i o n of l o g - e x p o r t r e s t r i c t i o n s . Direct  employment  in  i n d u s t r i e s amounted t o 52,332 amounting thousand employed  to  about  forest  persons  in  and t i m b e r - b a s e d  1978  (FDPM,  1980a),  1.4 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l employment o f 3,823  (Government o f M a l a y s i a , in  harvesting  1981).  The  number  of  people  1978 i s more t h a n d o u b l e t h e employment f i g u r e s f o r  50  1971  (Table  is higher  11).  total  number o f  i f employment g e n e r a t e d  a c t i v i t i e s are  Direct  The  also  p e o p l e employed i n  in other  sectors  forestry  by  forestry  considered.  T a b l e 12 employment i n l o g g i n g , s a w m i l l s , p l y w o o d / v e n e e r m i l l s o t h e r wood-based i n d u s t r i e s  Year  Employment  1 971 1 972 1 973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978  25,212 31,696 35,268 39,213 41,819 51,100 53,008 52,332  ?.nd  S o u r c e : FDPM (1980a)  2.6  Summary The  main f e a t u r e s  highlighted. production M o s t of  the  f o r e s t r y and  important  i s concerned,  the  Forests,  The  of  forest  is  the  type,  dryland  being gradually activities  are  located.  The  cleared  for  logged.  forests  one-cut,  employed s u c c e s s f u l l y  are  hills  Uniform  far  as  and  forests.  the  Stateland  Stateland  where most of  System  lowland forests  Forests forestry  the  a selective which  i s not  were  timber  development,  b e i n g managed on  Malayan i n the  PFE  With the  agricultural  b e i n g pushed t o the  as  industries  dipterocarp  p r o d u c t i v e f o r e s t s , both i n the  have been p a r t i a l l y  because the  forest  has  PFE  is  system been  applicable  to  51  the  poorer stands i n the h i l l The  forests  a r e owned by t h e S t a t e G o v e r n m e n t s .  f o r e s t r y departments industries service,  in  facilities  to  the  Forestry  The  forest  processing  of  the  respective  provides  between t h e f e d e r a l National  manage  their  FDPM,  forests.  Council  logs  industries  firms,  logs.  The  consists  Land  caused l o c a l Another forest  through the  Council.  m a i n l y of l o g g i n g  i n t o sawnwood, p l y w o o d a n d v e n e e r .  Further  sector  contributes  The  forestry  direct  exchange t h r o u g h t h e  and  exports  and  indirect  of  forest  employment. many f a m i l y - o w n e d ,  some o f w h i c h a r e l o c a t e d but  f a r from  uncoordinated, the  source  of  u n c o o r d i n a t e d growth of the i n d u s t r y  has  shortages of timber. feature  industries  of  the  sector  development  in  Peninsular  r a p i d expansion of l o g p r o d u c t i o n . chapter, together with harvests.  training  Coordination  governments i s e f f e c t e d  i s plagued with  rapid  and  primary  p r o d u c t s , and p r o v i d e s  small  forest  and  revenues, earns foreign  Forestry  federal  The  p r o c e s s i n g o f wood i s n o t y e t w e l l - d e v e l o p e d . forest  forest  departments.  and t h e N a t i o n a l  state  regulate  assistance  forestry  and s t a t e  and  states.  technical  state  industry  forests  The  several  of  the  forestry  M a l a y s i a h a s been t h e  This i s discussed  forecasts  and  of  trends  i n the next in  future  52  CHAPTER 3  TIMBER SUPPLY: PAST TRENDS AND FORECASTS OF FUTURE LEVELS  3.1 P a s t  Trends i n Log P r o d u c t i o n  and C o n s u m p t i o n  3.1.1 T r e n d s i n L o g P r o d u c t i o n The Malaysia  production  for  tropical  hardwoods  i n the i n d u s t r i a l l y  was  strong  Peninsular Malaysia the  from  t h e f o r e s t s of P e n i n s u l a r  in  the  f o l l o w i n g the second world h a s been a b l e t o c o m p e t e  increasing  p r o d u c t i v i t y i n the timber  man-day  proximity  requirement  the labour  with  to  major  advantage  trade  routes  industry.  By  i n 1950 a n d i n  the  13 i n d i c a t e s t h a t g r o w t h i n l o g p r o d u c t i o n  in  w i t h an i n c r e a s e latter  1950 t o 1959 due t o r e s t r i c t e d  part  of  during 1960  1970,  sawmilling  1977a).  t h e Emergency from  production  and  r e q u i r e m e n t had d r o p p e d t o a b o u t o n e - h a l f t h e  Table  42 p e r c e n t  on  export-oriented  (Baharuddin,  during only  war (FAO, 1 9 7 3 c ) .  level  the decade from  market,  f o r l o g g i n g and l o g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n had  been r e d u c e d t o o n e - t h i r d o f t h a t industry  three  from t h e i n c r e a s i n g  i n t e r n a t i o n a l market because of i t s e f f i c i e n t  labour  last  d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s where e c o n o m i c  its  1950  the  international  infrastructure,  the  in  This expansion of l o g output arose  especially growth  timber  showed a g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s i n g t r e n d  decades. demand  of  1948 t o 1960.  the decade.  was s l o w i n  logging  Log o u t p u t  The s i g n i f i c a n t  activities  i n c r e a s e d by increase  in  c o i n c i d e d with, t h e end o f t h e Emergency and  i n the p r i c e of sawntimber which s t a r t e d i n t h e 1959 (FAO, 1 9 7 3 c ) .  From 1961 t o 1973 t h e r e h a s  53  Log  T a b l e 13 from P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a ,  production  Year  Production  Year  thousand cubic 1950 1951 1952 1953 1 954 1955 1956 1757 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1 964  S o u r c e : FAO  been a c o n t i n u o u s output  and  increased  rapid  of  production  experienced 1974  and  i n the 1975,  log  i n excess  1972  and  1973  (FAO,  increase  in  price  tropical  years logs  increased again  per  output  percent  d u r i n g the  year.  From  because  from t h e i r  1975c; G o v e r n m e n t of  more t h a n  1973 of  onwards  violent  wood  of  weaker of  products.  Malaysia, i n 1976  international 1979).  In  demands in  1976).  An  resulted  in  demands Log  the  changes  record high levels  50 p e r c e n t  Malaysia,  Log  13-year p e r i o d  the p r o d u c t i o n d e c l i n e d s l i g h t l y  (Government 1979.  production.  d e c l i n e d b e c a u s e p r i c e s and  o f 20 p e r c e n t  following  in  FDPM (.1980a)  i n c r e a s e i n timber  fluctuated  i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n , but two  3582 4233 4666 5642 5927 7272 7950 9917 1 0774 9587 8376 1 0922 1 0797 1 0464 1 1 558  i n t e r n a t i o n a l market f o r  declined  next  metres  (1973c),  by a b o u t 338  o r an a v e r a g e of 26 p e r c e n t levels  Production  1965 1 966 1 967 1 968 1969 1970 1 971 1 972 1 973 1974 1 975 1 976 1 977 1978 1 979  1 305 1 540 1 557 1 436 1 458 1 742 1876 1803 1811 1852 2500 2460 2568 2997 331 1  1950-1979  i n the for  production  54  3.1.2 S o u r c e s  of Timber  T i m b e r h a s been p r o d u c e d in  the  Stateland  f r o m l o g g i n g i n t h e PFE a s w e l l  Forests.  Each  year  the  state  forestry  departments  open up a r e a s f o r h a r v e s t i n g  in  respective  states.  a n n u a l coupe o r p l a n n e d  Theoretically  the  a n n u a l h a r v e s t a r e a h a s been d e t e r m i n e d  the  as  PFE  in  on t h e b a s i s o f a n o m i n a l  r o t a t i o n o f 50 t o 75 y e a r s f o r t h e l o w l a n d f o r e s t s .  The  annual  based  coupe  should  be  about  p r o d u c t i v e PFE o f 2.4  million  however,  area  the  actual  annual harvest area situations in  (FDPM, 1 9 7 9 ) .  logging to  14  shows  f r o m an a v e r a g e  annual  area  the annual  the p r e v i o u s decade.  and  55-year  noticeable u n t i l , the  FDPM  annual  78,249 h a , w h i c h  practice,  pressures,  since  1967  market resulted  when  the  coupe.  o f 18,335 ha i n t h e p e r i o d  in  1955  the  decade  of  the  to  The e f f e c t o f t h e FDPM  70's r a p i d l y  perhaps,  plan  f o r e s t s and t h e logged-over  cutting  cycles,  1979.  to  than  manage  f o r e s t s on  respectively,  Then, p r o v i s i o n a l  1960  increase.  o f 101,643 h a , h i g h e r by 126 p e r c e n t  the remaining primary h i l l 30-  a  not f o l l o w e d thes e t  Political  especially  on  t h e i n c r e a s e , i n t h e a n n u a l a r e a opened f o r  logged  i n c r e a s e d t o an a v e r a g e  a  has  In  31,204 ha i n 1961 t o 1970, r e p r e s e n t i n g a 70 p e r c e n t  The  in  1980).  nominal  s t a t u s o f f o r e s t a r e a s have  larger areas being logged,  a c t u a l h a r v e s t a r e a exceeded  hectares,  (Mok,  harvested  and t h e changing  Table  32,000 ha  their  was  figures  not from  r e p o r t showed t h a t t h e a n n u a l h a r v e s t a r e a was i s v e r y c l o s e t o t h e 78,709 ha s p e c i f i e d  i n the  plan. The  Stateland  Forests  are  harvested  under  short-term  55  T a b l e 14 F o r e s t s ( S L F ) o p e n e d up f o r l o g g i n g  A r e a s o f PFE a n d S t a t e l a n d  PFE  Year  SLF  Total  (hectares) 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1 960 1961 1962 1 963 1964 1 965 1 966 1967 1968 1 969 1970 1 971 1 972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1 977 1.978  30825 1 1076 16107 1 7480 1 3068 21 576 26456 34006 23930 26671 26781 25372 321 02 40858 42940 32924 681 08 90295 112529 75396 111564 117745 122197 138707  NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 248544. 334189 320191 277865 190540 293043 239100 226517  NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 316652 424484 432720 353261 302104 410788 361297 365224  N o t e : NA = n o t a v a i l a b l e S o u r c e : FDPM A n n u a l R e p o r t s , FDPM  agreements Councils  ( l i c e n c e s ) a w a r d e d e a c h y e a r by (FAO,  to a g r i c u l t u r e . respective  state  the  1973c) o r when a c e r t a i n a r e a The l i c e n c e s a r e i s s u e d  (1980a)  State  Executive  i s being  converted  a n d a d m i n i s t e r e d by  f o r e s t r y d e p a r t m e n t s , b u t t h e s e f o r e s t s do n o t  come u n d e r t h e p r o v i s i o n s  of the f o r e s t L e g i s l a t i o n  only  from  minimal  departments. in  the  attention The s t a t e  forests  the  the  staff  and  of the state  f o r e s t r y departments plan  the  receive forestry  harvesting  t o be c o n v e r t e d a f t e r b e i n g g i v e n a d e v e l o p m e n t  56  s c h e d u l e by t h e  agency  executing  the.  conversion  (Baharuddin,  1977a) .  in  Land  development  the  Federal  Enthusiastic achievement  f o r a g r i c u l t u r e has been a m a j o r  Government  response  programme  for  development.  from the S t a t e Governments has e n a b l e d  o f t h e a n n u a l t a r g e t s o f f o r e s t a r e a s t o be  to a g r i c u l t u r e  emphasis  i n the l a s t  few d e c a d e s .  Table  the  converted  15 shows  that  84  T a b l e 15 R a t e s o f l o g g i n g on and c o n v e r s i o n o f S t a t e l a n d F o r e s t s Years  Area Logged  Area Converted Planned  to A g r i c u l t u r e  Achieved  % Achievement  (thousand h e c t a r e s / y e a r ) 1971-1975 1976-1980 1981-1985 1986-1990  274 253  79.9 69.6 94.0 .68.0  p e r c e n t o f t h e t a r g e t was the  subsequent  exceeded 73,200  ha  of  period,  In the decade  forest  84 116  a c h i e v e d i n the p e r i o d  five-year  the t a r g e t .  65.3 81.1  land  the from  actual 1971  (Hevea  M.A.)  (Elaeis guincensis Jacq.).  o i l palm  i s h i g h e r , 94,000 h a , 1 9 8 5 ) , and The  braziliensis  area to  rate  of  in  converted  1980,  ( W i l l d . ex  about  The  A.  Juss.)  annual  target  f o r the F o u r t h M a l a y s i a Plan p e r i o d  81,000 ha f o r t h e d e c a d e o f t h e average  t o 1975;  were c l e a r e d a n n u a l l y t o be p l a n t e d  mainly w i t h rubber and  1971  (1981-  80's.  l o g g i n g i n the S t a t e l a n d F o r e s t s  was  57  a b o u t 3.7 t i m e s t h e r a t e o f l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t f o r a g r i c u l t u r e the  period  in four has  In other  w o r d s , o n l y a b o u t one  l o g g e d was a c t u a l l y c o n v e r t e d  to agriculture.  been t h a t some a r e a s were h a r v e s t e d ,  over The  1971 t o 1978.  (FDPM,  that  about  of t h e M i n i s t r y  The r e s u l t  sometimes s e v e r a l  times  of  Agriculture  idle.  estimated  810,000 ha o f l a n d a l i e n a t e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e i n 1975  were n o t u n d e r c u l t i v a t i o n  (Arshad,  1979).  of a r e a s f o r l o g g i n g under t h e g u i s e indicates  hectare  1 9 7 7 a ) , a n d l a r g e l o g g e d - o v e r a r e a s were l e f t  Secretary-general  in  the  lack  of  The p r e m a t u r e  of a g r i c u l t u r a l  coordination  between  development  l o g g i n g and l a n d  development f o r a g r i c u l t u r e .  These  only  a  small  economic p o t e n t i a l and r e p r e s e n t  an  proportion  outstanding The have  of  e x a m p l e o f p o o r management ( K e r ,  data  been  i n Table  to  1971  production figures  from  from  the  1972  Stateland  onwards  were  in  recent  the  Stateland  that  in  came f r o m t h e P F E .  1977  Forests. broken  FDPM  essentially  the  same.  Forests  estimate. assumed  into  is  The y i e l d  of  improbable  that  the  (1978)  production  of y i e l d f o r per  FAO  My  1971 t o 1978  percent  estimate  the  their  reports.  of t h e t o t a l  by  for  production  down  i n the period  some 45 p e r c e n t  It  The  annual  The FAO's ( 1 9 7 8 ) h i g h e r  Stateland  of the  of the t o t a l  f i g u r e i s l o w e r t h a n t h e FAO's  PFE a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e h i g h the  Forests  more t h a n o n e - h a l f  not  however, i n d i c a t e d t h a t  This  1971).  i n t h e FDPM a n n u a l r e p o r t s  the  l o g production.  estimate  for  1976; FAO,  PFE o n l y c o n t r i b u t e d an a v e r a g e o f a b o u t 36  total  the  data  contribute  t h a t b e t w e e n 54 a n d 71 p e r c e n t  sources  calculations,  that  contributing  Published  show  came  respective  the  16 i n d i c a t e  consistently  t o t a l production. 1955  their  forests  opening  hectare  (1978a)  the  is  Stateland  58  T a b l e 16 Log p r o d u c t i o n f r o m PFE a n d S t a t e l a n d F o r e s t s  Year  Permanent F o r e s t E s t a t e Volume (1000 m )  Volume (1000 m )  %  3  1 955 1956 1 957 1 958 1959 1960 1 961 1 962 1 963 1 964 1 965 1 966 1 967 1 978 1 969 1 970 1 971  624 719 774 743 770 944 1 062 1 132 1230 1 348 1 502 1 447 1821 2037 1 907 21 12 2972  Stateland Forests %  3  1117 1 1 57 1 029 1 068 1 082 1556 1397 1436 1767 1964 2081 2786 2844 3606 4019 51 60 4978  36 38 43 41 42 38 43 46 41 41 42 34 39 36 32 29 37  64 62 57 59 58 62 57 54 59 59 58 66 61 64 62 71 63  Note: P r o d u c t i o n f i g u r e s f r o m 1972 o n w a r d s were n o t b r o k e n down into their respective sources i n t h e r e c e n t FDPM annual reports. S o u r c e : FDPM A n n u a l  Forests  yielded  a  Reports  1755 t o 1979  h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l  1977 b e c a u s e t h e a r e a o f S t a t e l a n d F o r e s t s l o g g e d was  lower  than  was h i g h e r t h a n  average  Stateland  in  that  year  f o r t h e d e c a d e , w h e r e a s t h e a r e a o f PFE  average.  My c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n in the period  production i n  1971 t o 1980 was b a s e d  Forests  harvested  from  e s t i m a t e s f o r 1979 a n d 1980 a n d an  from each  on 1971  the  forest  areas  of  t o 1978 (FDPM,  estimate  of  the  category PFE  and  1980a),  yield  per  59  hectare  from  each  category.  The  h e c t a r e was d e r i v e d f r o m t h e t o t a l logged was  and  an  1.5 t i m e s  assumption  the yield  calculated yields 24.3  estimate  timber  from a h e c t a r e  The  o f Chong ( 1 9 7 9 a ) ,  lower  estimate  than  of y i e l d  These e s t i m a t e s  data  i n Tables  16  show  forestry  f o r t h e PFE was  15  years.  1955  to  1960.  t o 45.5 m /ha a n d 53.5 m /ha i n t h e n e x t 3  The r e c e n t  The  confirmed  by  harvested  after  and  reduction i n y i e l d  The  values  two f i v e - y e a r  3  to  the h i l l s  "creaming"  nature  t h e FFIDP  c o u l d be due t o t h e  (FAO,  from of  the vanishing  recent  very  per  unit  area  (FAO, 1970) b e c a u s e valleys.  Only  of  the  lowland  operations  1973a) w h i c h c l a s s i f i e d  1966 a s " p a r t i a l l y h a r v e s t e d "  extracted  anticipated  FDPM  of r e c e n t h a r v e s t i n g o p e r a t i o n s and t h e s h i f t of  operations  forests.  very  t h a t t h e PFE y i e l d e d , on t h e  3  s e l e c t i v e nature  slopes  and  for the previous  41.5 m /ha i n t h e p e r i o d  periods.  volume  14  but the y i e l d  are  p e r ha f o r 1971 t o 1980 f o r t h e PFE i s  t h a t t h e average values  increased  The  t h e FAO's ( 1 9 8 0 ) e s t i m a t e .  lower  average,  f r o m a h e c t a r e o f PFE  3  those  considerably  areas  f o r 1971 t o 1980 was 36.4 m /ha f o r t h e PFE a n d  3  to  the  of S t a t e l a n d F o r e s t s .  m /ha f o r t h e S t a t e l a n d F o r e s t s .  close  the y i e l d per  production,  that the y i e l d  8  of  forests.  i n the h i l l the poorly  forests The l o w  forests stocked  ridges are richly  was  stocked  was lower with  This assumption i s the average o f Chong's (1979) a n d FAO's (1978) figures. Chong (1979) assumed t h a t a h e c t a r e o f PFE y i e l d e d 35.0 m i n 1978 t o 1980, w h e r e a s a h e c t a r e of Stateland Forests y i e l d e d 24.5 m . FAO ( 1 9 7 8 a ) e s t i m a t e d that the p r e v a i l i n g p r a c t i c e removed 43 m a n d 25 m f r o m a h e c t a r e o f PFE and S t a t e l a n d F o r e s t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The r a t i o s of t h e y i e l d s from t h e PFE a n d S t a t e l a n d F o r e s t s a r e , t h e r e f o r e 1.4:1 a n d 1.6:1, r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e s e r a t i o s a v e r a g e 1.5:1. 3  3  3  3  60  Shorea c u r t i s i i . 3.1.3  Log The  Consumption bulk  processed  of the  i n the  log production  local  sawmills  q u a n t i t y has  been e x p o r t e d ,  log  i n 1972.  export  for  and  s i n c e the  an a v e r a g e o f 74 p e r c e n t  was  locally.  1972,  reaching  1979,  about  sawmills, percent  This proportion  the  percent  12 p e r c e n t  was  exported  of  increased  log production  processed  and  the  in  23-year log  c l o s e to t o t a l domestic processing 76  was  of  Only a  remaining  small  period  steadily  from  1978.  In  consumed by  plywood 11  on  production  by  was  the  is  restriction  17 shows t h a t f o r t h e  e n d i n g i n 1979, processed  Malaysia  plywood m i l l s .  especially  Table  Peninsular  the  mills,  percent  2  was  not  accounted f o r . The  substantial  production, sawmills  on  and  one  not  h a n d , and  plywood  been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y could  discrepancy  be  and  explained.  i s because timber  extracted,  and  exported,  Chong  to  discrepancy  also  was  because  Palo  (1975) a g r e e d t h a t t h e  forest  may  partly  he  due  suspected  other  the higher  in  were l e f t logs l e f t  may  forestry  discrepancies  and  log  consumed i n  the  o t h e r , has  not  that  this  stated  that  the  forest  and  not  unutilized as  waste  in  i n 1970  the  1972  the 1970,  may  Other reasons f o r of  i n d u s t r y , and  wood-based i n d u s t r i e s w h i c h h a v e n o t  to  the  in  small discrepancies before  be d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e method departments  annual  noting  the  t o e r r o r s i n the c o m p i l a t i o n of d a t a .  discrepancy the  e x p l a i n the  the  changes,  left  logs  on  (1979a),  stock  mills.  but  the  t h e v o l u m e w h i c h was  mills  attributed  between  measurement consumption  been i n c l u d e d  in  be the by by the  Table 17 U t i l i z a t i o n of logs i n P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a  Year  (1)  (2)  (3)  to-  (5)  (6)  (7)  (8)  76. 1 72. 8 75. 6 76. 9 75. 8 76. 1 78. 7 72. 6 68. 8 63. 6 65. 1 68. 7 67. 4 63. 7 61 .3 58. 9 66. 2 78. 5 78. 7 80. 8 91 .7 98. 7 87. 1  271 302 347 432 443 606 656 783 903 1222 1283 1509 1620 1803 1779 1660 740 649 464 404 267 173 260  15. 0 16. 7 18. 7 17. 3 18. 0 23. 6 21 .9 23. 6 25. 2 28. 9 27. 5 26. 7 27. 3 24. 8 22. 4 16. 7 6. 9 6. 8 5. 5 3. 7 2. 5 1 .7 2. 2  8. 9 10. 5 5. 7 5. 8 6. 2 0. 3 0. 6 3. 8 6. 0 7. 5 7. 4 4. 6 5. 3 1 1 .5 16. 3 24. 4 26. 9 14. 7 15. 8 15. 5 5. 8 0. 4 10. 7  (1000 rn ) 3  1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1 979  1805 1811 1852 2500 2460 2568 2997 331 1 3582 4233 4666 5642 5927 7272 7950 9917 1 0774 9587 8376 10922 10797 1 0464 1 1 558  1368 1316 1398 1919 1858 1943 2170 2369 2391 2366 2877 3574 3602 4126 4174 4936 6091 6510 5741 762 8534 9023 8727  4 4 3 4 6 12 19 36 74 126 160 300 393 504 697 907 1040 1014 852 1 1 96 1364 1306 1 344  1372 1320 1401 1923 1864 1955 2189 2404 2466 2691 3037 3874 3996 4630 4871 5842 7131 7524 6593 8824 9899 1032? 1 0071  Note: (1) l o g p r o d u c t i o n (2) sawmill consumption (3) plywood/veneer m i l l consumption (4) t o t a l consumption by sawmill and plywood/veneer (5) t o t a l consumption by sawmill and plywood/veneer as % of t o t a l l o g p r o d u c t i o n (6) l o g exports (7) l o g exports as % of t o t a l l o g p r o d u c t i o n (8) l o g volume unaccounted f o r  mills mills  62  total.  In  1979,  mills  which  manufacture  particle/chipboards  and  wood-wool  cement  percent  l o g production  (Annual  of the t o t a l  3.2 R e v i e w o f P r e v i o u s A n a l y s e s of P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a Comprehensive  attempts  decade. 1901,  Since  the  birth  slabs  consumed  R e p o r t FDPM,  plan  timber  and  crude. initial  0.5  1979).  production  h a v e been made o n l y  ot the Malaysian  in  from t h e the  last  Forestry Service i n  t h e p r a c t i c e o f management i n P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a  rudimentary  match,  of Timber Supply from t h e F o r e s t s  to  f o r e s t s of P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a  pencils,  has  been  F o r e s t r y p r a c t i c e has not changed  much f r o m  the  functions  of  protection  collection  of r o y a l t i e s , and d e t e c t i o n of i l l i c i t  of  very  reserves,  p r a c t i c e s (Mok,  1977). The  traditional  instrument  decadal  Working P l a n , prepared,  annual  coupes  Malaysia. years,  for replete  and s u s t a i n e d y i e l d ,  The p l a n  forest with  i s b a s e d on a n o m i n a l r o t a t i o n o f  1/50 o f t h e t o t a l p r o d u c t i v e  forest areas,  were o f t e n u n i m p l e m e n t a b l e  50  to  75  r e m o v i n g t r e e s down t o In  practice,  these  (FDPM, 1979; Mok,  1977),  s u b s t a n t i a t i n g the u b i q u i t o u s c r i t i c i s m s of the t r a d i t i o n a l  Working Plans 1967). and  of  a r e s p e c i f i e d on 1/75 t o  a 38 t o 43 cm (15 t o 17 i n ) d i a m e t e r l i m i t .  thus  prescriptions  f o r each s t a t e i n P e n i n s u l a r  and annual h a r v e s t i n g o p e r a t i o n s  Working Plans  management i s t h e  as a p l a n n i n g  The r a p i d i n c r e a s e  the  tool  (Arnold,  1974a; J o h n s t o n e_t a l • ,  i n f o r e s t h a r v e s t i n g , i n both the  Stateland .Forests,  PFE  t o be c l e a r e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , t h e  c o n c o m i t a n t waste and i n c r e a s i n g a r e a s of u n s t o c k e d a r e a s and t h e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a l expansion  of  the  forest  industries,  in  both  63  capacity  and  location,  are  t e s t i m o n i e s of t h e f a i l u r e of past  f o r e s t planning, or put i n another  way, t h e l a c k  of  appropriate  planning. One of as  main  reason  f o r t h e l a c k o f p l a n n i n g h a s been t h e l a c k  i n f o r m a t i o n about the r e s o u r c e s . 1940  I t was p o i n t e d o u t a s  t h a t t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of t h e f o r e s t s i n t o broad  such as mangroves, beach, f r e s h w a t e r and  montane  management  forests  (Garfitt,  was  1940).  Forest  forest  to assess  resource  forest  types  gained  from  regarding  this  the  and  classified  was  natural  which  the  of P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a  was  and n a t u r e  a l l forest land into 1980).  together in  the  represents  broad  Information  with  information  program  a simple area  of  of  of  Land  r a n k i n g of Peninsular  1971).  1969, a f o r e s t i n v e n t o r y was i n i t i a t e d a s an e x t e n s i o n o f Resources Reconnaissance Survey.  I t was d e s i g n e d  s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a w i t h of t h e  The i n v e n t o r y c o n f i r m e d ,  partially  Consequently, in  at  p o t e n t i a l s of the land  to the i n d u s t r i a l p o t e n t i a l 1973a).  used,  resources,  Classification  (Lee and Panton,  Forest  provide  forest  attempt  the extent, d i s t r i b u t i o n  survey  the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e  In  systematic  a n d p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s (Mok,  other  Capability  Malaysia  resources  dipterocarp  for efficient  first  types  R e s o u r c e s R e c o n n a i s s a n c e S u r v e y w h i c h began i n 1962.  I t was d e s i g n e d the  swamps, l o w l a n d  inadequate The  q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of the timber the  early  harvested  forest  growing  to  respect  stock  (FAO,  among o t h e r s , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f  forests  an i n v e n t o r y o f t h e s e  1974 t o o b t a i n more p r e c i s e d a t a  as  a  source  of  timber.  d i s t u r b e d f o r e s t s was s t a r t e d for forest  regeneration  and  64  development purposes 3.2.1  Forecasts The  last very  of F u t u r e  results  two  (FDPM,  of  The  by  high  first  visible  project  to a s s i s t  project  with  to  plan  9.25  km  Industries  1968-1975.  I t was  f o r e s t a r e a w h i c h was annual  was  selected  by  the  minimum d i s t a n c e f r o m r o a d timber-flow called 1995. year m  3  schedule  f o r high annual From t h e n  on,  i f agricultural  per  1975c). An  year The  i f such  plan  FAO  and  the  areas  the  model or  FDPM.  forest  (FAO,  10.6  to  cease 3  and  production  on  grids  harvest  t h e b a s i s of  planned).  The  the p r o j e c t  14 m i l l i o n m  m i l l i o n m 'per  1974b) was  The  sector.  the  recommended by  were t o c o n t i n u e , were  United  were c a l c u l a t e d on  t h e l e v e l w o u l d be a b o u t 8.5  conversion  Project  in planning  l o c a t i o n of  l e v e l s of over  conversion  log  the  d i v i d e d i n t o square  (existing  finally  harvest  a v e r a g e w o u l d be  earlier  from  s p o n s o r e d by  of  simulation  w h i c h was  a  lowest.  Development  the  harvest  network  of  the  a s i m u l a t i o n model t o p l a n t h e  The  from  level  supply  the Government of M a l a y s i a  t h e b a s i s of a f i x e d c u t t i n g c y c l e ; t h e areas  range  i n the  the p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e c a r r i e d  i n t e g r a t e d development  sides.  the  Forest  developed  of l o g s f r o m t h e  F i g u r e 3,  almost four times  D e v e l o p m e n t Programme (UNDP), was  c a r r i e d out  a c o n s e r v a t i v e l y low  attempt  i n the p e r i o d  implementing the The  to  analyses  18 and  o f P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a was  (FFIDP)  Schedules  supply  l e v e l being  t h e F o r e s t r y and  Nations  Flow  d e c a d e s , shown i n T a b l e  p r o d u c t i o n , the h i g h e s t  out  Log  timber  optimistically  forests  1977b).  until  3  million m or in  12.7  3  per  million  1995  (FAO,  year.  even more o p t i m i s t i c .  The  Various  f o r e c a s t s of l o g flow schedules,  YBH  BHG  FA01  FA02  FA03  FDPM  8 8 7 6 6 5 5 5 6 6 5 6  7 7 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5  15 15 17 17 17 14 14 14 14 14 14 14  14 14 14 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10  3 5 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6  7 .0 8 .7 8. 1 7. 1 7. 1 5 .4 5 .4 5 .4 5 .4 5 .4 5. 3 5. 3  7 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5  10 6  5. 3  5 3  0 0 4 9 1 5 2 4 6 1 7 0  Average Susta1nable 5 9 Level  The  4 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  5 1  0 4 3 3 3 9 9 9 9 9 9 9  14 9  1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3  YBH  BHG  73 57 49 90 86 78 73 77 94 86 81 85  64 52 40 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72  7 5 0 2 6 5 7 7 7 6 7 8  Note: YBH : BHG : FA01: FA02: FA03: FDPM: a s t e r i s k (*) s i g n I n d i c a t e s that the FDPM p l a n  8 6 5 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8  FA01  FA02  FA03  170.0 170.0 153.8 153.8 153.8 153.8 153.8 153.8 153.8 153.8 153.8 153.8  190. 2 190. 2 190. 2 190. 2 190.2 190. 2 190. 2 190.2 190. 2 190. 2 190. 2 190. 2  101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101  forests.  Conversion to a g r I c u l t u r e / y e a r (thousand ha.)  Harvest area/yea r (thousand ha. )  Harvest volume/year (ml 11 Ion cu. m. )  Planning period  1981-1985 1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-20CO 2001-2010 2011-2020 2021-2030 2031-2040 2041-2050 2051-2060 2061-2070 2071-2080  TABLE 18 annual harvest areas In the PFE and r a t e s of logging on S t a t e Land  FDPM 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6  78 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 78  5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5  YBH  BHG  FA01  FA02  56.7 56.7 56.7 56.7 8. 1  56.7 81.081.0 48.6 101.281.0 48.6 81.0 48.6  Had1 (1980a) Baharuddin (1977) FAO (1974b) FAO (1975c) FAO (1978a) FDPM Plan assumed that a l l S t a t e l a n d f o r e s t s would be converted  FA03  FDPM  107.7 95.5 97.4 68 .8* 81.9 52.9 14.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4  by 1987.  66  *—FAO(1974a)  — F A O (1975c)  Hadid980a) , ^ - F A O (1978a) S=-FDPM Plan ^ B a h a r u d d i n (1977a) * — F D P M (1977a)  i  i  i  1  1  1  1  r  r  'PLANNING PERIODS IN DECRDES 4  Figure 3 Log  f l o w schedules  f o r Peninsular Malaysiai Results o f previous analyses  67  annual to  h a r v e s t was c a l c u l a t e d t o be 15.0 m i l l i o n m  reach  2010.  a  high  of  17.3 m i l l i o n m  From t h e n o n , t h e a n n u a l  million  m  d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1991 t o  3  h a r v e s t would l e v e l  off at  The a v e r a g e s u s t a i n e d y i e l d  12.7  Peninsular  3  Malaysia"  (FDPMP)  Government and s p e c i f i c a l l y long-range  plans  p r o j e c t " F o r e s t Development  started  i n 1975 " t o a s s i s t t h e  the f o r e s t r y departments,  to  develop  f o r t h e development of the indigenous  that the forests are regenerated  least  would  m.  As a f o l l o w - u p o f F F I D P , a n o t h e r  and  and  3  14.9 m i l l i o n  to ensure  1981  i f a g r i - c o n v e r s i o n c o n t i n u e s a n d 17.0 m i l l i o n m i f  3  t h e c o n v e r s i o n s t o p s by 1990. be  in  3  c o s t l y manner"  i n t h e most  (FAO, I 9 7 8 a : 7 ) .  Using  forests, effective  the t r a d i t i o n a l  a r e a - c o n t r o l m e t h o d , a more c o n s e r v a t i v e t i m b e r - f l o w s c h e d u l e recommended.  The s u s t a i n e d y i e l d  per y e a r ; t h e h i g h e r  initial  from  was  t h e PFE was 5.3 m i l l i o n  h a r v e s t volume i n c l u d e d t i m b e r  m  3  from  forest conversion to agriculture. With  the  inventories several  and  insight  timber  its officers. baseline  increasing  from  the  The FDPM ( 1 9 7 7 a ) i n  f o r the  acres)  of two  and  acres).  exceed  the  forest  projects,  Paper"  f u t u r e management o f t h e f o r e s t s .  a  Even  under  81 t h o u s a n d  drew  a  B a s e d on a  r e s o u r c e b a s e o f 3.3 m i l l i o n  nominal  c u t t i n g c y c l e s not s p e c i f i e d not  from  development  i t s "Crisis  ha  (8.1  r o t a t i o n o f 55 y e a r s , t h e a n n u a l  a r e a s o p e n e d f o r h a r v e s t i n g were n o t t o (150,000  data  s u p p l y a n a l y s e s were c a r r i e d o u t by t h e FDPM a n d  permanent p r o d u c t i v e f o r e s t million  amount  exceed  polycyclic  -- t h e a n n u a l  61  felling allowable  thousand  ha  systems cut  ha (200,000 a c r e s ) , b e c a u s e 800  should thousand  68  ha  (2 m i l l i o n  either  acres)  immature  or  Stateland Forests acres)  a  year,  of the yet  t h i s being The  forest  estate  converted,  was e s t i m a t e d ft ) a  the p r o j e c t e d  once  thousand  the  Forestry  the  million  2.0  forests.  of  This Forests  resulted  in  a  Council  ha  (5.0  from  the  have been (160  3  into a plan, described  which  was  recommended  f o r endorsement.  million  together  1.3  by to  T h i s FDPM p l a n  million  ac)  with  of  ha  (3.1  partially-harvested  a p o l i c y of.converting the  to agriculture at a gradually log-flow  1987 when t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l ensuing  conversion  p r i m a r y f o r e s t s a n d a 55-yea.r c u t t i n g c y c l e f o r  plan  Stateland  (140,000  t o be b e t w e e n 4.5 t o 5.0 m i l l i o n m  s p e c i f i e d a 30-year c u t t i n g c y c l e f o r the ac)  yield  a l l Stateland Forests  Chong ( 1 9 7 9 a ) a n d F r e e z a i l l a h ( 1 9 8 0 ) ,  million  from the  ha  r a t e of land  are  year.  3  National  area  Harvesting  yield,  T h i s g u i d e l i n e was l a t e r d e v e l o p e d  the  forest  be r e s t o c k e d .  sustainable  permanent  175 m i l l i o n  to  productive  was t o be r e d u c e d t o 57  to a g r i c u l t u r e .  to  total  "steady-state"  decreasing  schedule with decreasing conversion  harvest  i s to  be  rate  harvests  until  completed.  The  was t h e same a s i n t h e FAO  (1978a)  plan. Baharuddin's the A s i a n of  t h e FAO  approach,  (1977)  study,  w r i t t e n as a Master's t h e s i s a t  I n s t i t u t e o f Management, t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , i s a c r i t i q u e (1975c) he  plan.  calculated  Employing a log-flow  a  simple  volume-control  s c h e d u l e b a s e d on a 4 5 - y e a r  c u t t i n g c y c l e , a c o m p r o m i s e b e t w e e n FAO's  (1975c) 30-year c u t t i n g  c y c l e a n d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l y a c c e p t e d n o m i n a l r o t a t i o n o f 50 t o 70 years.  The t a r g e t , " s t e a d y - s t a t e "  harvest  l e v e l was s e t  at  5.1  69  million  m  per  3  year,  forest  industries.  would  decrease  starting would  and  The  annual  gradually  i n 1996. come  h a r v e s t s d u r i n g the  from  7.4  A substantial  from  agriculture.  "a b a r e minimum r e q u i r e m e n t "  My  the  volume  Stateland  calculation  a  m  in  linear-programming  the  model,  to  i n Baharuddin's  3.2.2  S y n t h e s i s of t h e V a r i o u s The  reasons  i n t e n s i t y , and  the  of  rate  timber  The  forest  information uncertainty  in  base  is the  perhaps use  ha  (8.17  production  areas  swamp  reserves for stream-bank was  primary  of  steep  hill,  special  rights  preservation. forest;  of  19.  million  be managed f o r c o n t i n u o u s were  similar  trends  analyses  resource  base,  area,  c o n v e r s i o n of S t a t e l a n d F o r e s t s  as shown i n T a b l e  million  log-flow  t h e l e n g t h o f c u t t i n g c y c l e s and  the that  i n t h e s i z e o f t h e f o r e s t a r e a has  a b o u t 3.31  and  and  future.  planning  area assumptions  that  i n the  resource  a  hence t h e h a r v e s t volume per u n i t  l o g g i n g on and  requirements  areas,  r e s u l t s of these  about the f o r e s t  including  harvesting  data  Forecasts  assumptions  t h e management s y s t e m ,  for  1980a).  f o r the wide-ranging  are t h e i r d i f f e r i n g  in  (Hadi,  years  cleared  produced  w i t h h i g h e r a b s o l u t e , h a r v e s t l e v e l s but plan  level off  initial  forest  the  years  (1977) y i e l d  schedule those  and  3  being  using Baharuddin's of  initial  the  Forests  updated e s t i m a t e s of the e x t e n t  employing  million  to feed  and  of  local  had  important  resource.  The  l e d to d i f f e r e n c e s (1978a)  indicated  a c r e s ) o f t h e PFE logs.  The  could  remaining  other p r o t e c t i v e areas,  S i x t y percent  the remainder  FAO  most  residents,  mining  and and  of t h e p r o d u c t i v e a r e a  p r e v i o u s l y been l o g g e d  but  70  T a b l e 19 Assumptions about t h e s i z e of f o r e s t  FDPM Plan  FAO (1978) Reference  year  Baharuddin (1977)  1 977  1 975  resource  Hadi FAO FAO ( 1 9 8 0 a ) ( 1 9 7 5 c ) (1974b)  1977  1980  (million T o t a l PFE 5.2 P r o d u c t i v e PFE 3.3 Pr imary 2.1 Partially harvested 1 .2 * Loggable * Immature/ unstocked P r o t e c t i v e PFE 1 .9 L o g g a b l e SLF 1.9-2.4  base  1 975  1 970  hectares)  5.2 3.3 1 .3  5.2 4.0 1.8  5.2 4.0 2.8  6.2 5.1 3.3  6.1 5.6 3.2  2.0 1 .2 0.8  2.2 1 .2 1 .0  * * 1 .3  2.4 * *  2.4 * *  1 .9 1 .3  1. 1 1.0  1. 1 0.9  1. 1 1 .6  1 .4 1.4  N o t e : The a s t e r i s k s i g n (*) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s e a r e a s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e p a r t i a l l y h a r v e s t e d f o r e s t s a n d n o t b r o k e n down i n t o these c a t e g o r i e s . SLF  = Stateland Forests.  contained  sufficient  ( C h o n g , 1979) a g r e e d primary FAO  and p a r t i a l l y  (1974b,  1975c)  timber  to  be r e h a r v e s t e d .  with the t o t a l harvested  The FDPM p l a n  f i g u r e but the p r o p o r t i o n  forests  i s reversed.  The e a r l i e r  a s s u m p t i o n s were on t h e h i g h s i d e .  b e c a u s e t h e PFE a s u s e d by them was d e f i n e d a s a r e s i d u a l , suitable  forest  areas  have  been  a g r i c u l t u r e during the plan p e r i o d . the t o t a l  f o r e s t a r e a and lower  agriculture  l e d to  high  earmarked Their  estimates  of  This i s after  f o r conversion to  higher  p r o j e c t e d areas  of  estimates  of  t o be c l e a r e d f o r  t h e P F E , more t h a n t h e  F o r e s t r y Department i s p l a n n i n g t o m a i n t a i n . The were  e s t i m a t e s u s e d by B a h a r u d d i n  attempts  (1977a)  t o i n t e g r a t e t h e 5.2 m i l l i o n  and  Hadi  (1980a)  ha ( 1 2 . 8 m i l l i o n a c )  71  total  PFE a n d t h e i n d i c a t i o n  f r o m FAO (1975) t h a t t h e  protective  component o f t h e PFE c o u l d be r e v i s e d down t o 1.1 m i l l i o n million  acres).  This  r e v i s i o n was, h o w e v e r , n o t s u p p o r t e d  ha ( 2 . 8 by t h e  l a t e r FAO ( 1 9 7 8 a ) r e - e v a l u a t i o n . The area  management s y s t e m assumed i n t h e a n a l y s e s  of  the  forest  volume of t i m b e r The  available  f o r h a r v e s t i n g a n n u a l l y and t h e  w h i c h c a n be h a r v e s t e d  p r o v i s i o n of f l e x i b l e  from t h a t r e s o u r c e  lengths,  intensities. importance  and  varying  These a s s u m p t i o n s a r e of  the  base.  f e l l i n g p r e s c r i p t i o n s i n the s e l e c t i v e  management s y s t e m h a s l e d t o a s s u m p t i o n s differing  determines the  choice  of  cutting  concommitant listed  in  cycles  of  harvesting  Table  20.  The  o f c u t t i n g c y c l e h a s been v e r i f i e d i n  T a b l e 20 Assumptions about timber y i e l d s and t h e l e n g t h s of c u t t i n g c y c l e s f o r t h e Permanent F o r e s t E s t a t e  FDPM Plan  Period  FAO Baharuddin (1978) (1977) m  1971-75 1976-80 1981-85 1986-90 1991-95 1996-2000 Cutting Cycle (years)  -  _-  -  35.0 47.2 61.2 61.2 61.2  35.0 56.0 77.0 77.0 77.0  . 30  55  the FFIDP p l a n n i n g  42.0 42.0 53.0 53.0 53.0 30,50  3  Hadi FAO FAO (1980a) (1974b) (1975c)  p e r ha -  -  52.5 61 .2 70.0 70.0 70.0  61 .2 70.0 70.0 70.0  42.8 56.7 64. 1 64.2 112.5 112.5  45  40  40  exercise i n Peninsular Malaysia;  -  43.9 51 .3 52.5 47.5 75.0 30  any change i n  72  t h i s assumption development The 40  found  early  was  fully  alter  FAO (1974b) a n a l y s i s  the  revised  down t o 30 y e a r s  (FAO,  1975c).  a n d p a r t l y m a r k e t a b l e s p e c i e s were t o be h a r v e s t e d  down  (18  i n ) l o w e r dbh l i m i t assumed  that,  was s p e c i f i e d in  g r e a t e r t h a n 46 cm  (1977)  forest  employed a c u t t i n g c y c l e of  d b h o f 61 cm (24 i n ) i n t h e s h o r t e r  trees  of  Trees  a  plans  strategy  a c c o m p a n i e d by an upward r e v i s i o n o f dbh l i m i t .  to  preferred  "rounded-off" facilitate year  to  (FAO, 1 9 7 4 b ) .  y e a r s , w h i c h was l a t e r  This of  was  a  to  40  the dbh  i n the i n i t i a l  Stateland would  be  years  in  Hadi's  FAO  plan.  Both  a l l marketable  harvested.  Baharuddin  o f 45 y e a r s , w h i c h was (1980a)  analysis  to  o f a l i n e a r programming model w i t h  intervals.  No c u t t i n g  10-  l i m i t s were s p e c i f i e d , b u t  y i e l d s were e s t i m a t e d f r o m p a s t t r e n d s about y i e l d s  Forests,  longer c u t t i n g cycle  the formulation  planning  c u t t i n g c y c l e ; a 46 cm  and  various  assumptions  i n the future.  (1978a)  a n d t h e FDPM p l a n p r o p o s e d two c u t t i n g  FAO ( 1 9 7 8 a ) a l l o c a t e d  cycles.  80 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p r o d u c t i v e  forests  t o be managed u n d e r a 3 0 - y e a r c u t t i n g c y c l e , a n d t h e r e s t u n d e r a 50-year  cutting  cycle.  s u r v e y s w h i c h showed t h a t partially-harvested  This  allocation  resulted  80 p e r c e n t o f t h e p r i m a r y  plan  a  30-year c u t t i n g c y c l e  remaining primary  as  f o r e s t s was a d e q u a t e l y s t o c k e d w i t h  m a r k e t a b l e s p e c i e s f o r a s e l e c t i o n c u t e v e r y 30 FDPM  from  forests, harvest  with  schedule  the  in  the  Harvesting  i n t e n s i t y , i n terms of  a  field  well  as  trees of  years.  In  the  was u s e d f o r l i q u i d a t i n g t h e 55-year  cutting  cycle  partially-harvested lower  diameter  limit,  to  forests. would  73  vary  from  one  area  to  another  depending  on  the  forest  and  economic c o n d i t i o n s . As  i s t o be  c y c l e s , the were  expected from  analyses  assumption  varied.  i n the  after  The  FFIDP s t u d i e s t h a t  1966...[be  "forests  1975:12),  with  probably  lower y i e l d  The  f i g u r e s shown i n T a b l e  projections  of  future  yield.  l e n g t h of c u t t i n g c y c l e and t r e n d of  rate  shape of t h e in  ground.  assumption areas... does  of  have  l o g g i n g was  logging  range  of  the  cases,  time.  first  few  determines  the  decades.  The  p l a n came c l o s e s t t o t h e a c t u a l r a t e s on rates  prescribing  are  "two  reasonably  salvage  high  operations...  the  but  its  for  those  s c h e d u l e d f o r c l e a r i n g i n a decade " (p.  37)  a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y of  scheduled  the  FAO,  e x i s t s i n most  implementation.  t o remove t r e e s down t o a 45 cm  economically  just before  utilizable  trees.  final The  operations  w o u l d be c o n s i d e r a b l e ,  political  climate  other  acre  Stateland Forests  stream d u r i n g  FAO's (1978)  which are  not  second,  FDPM  1974b:135;  show  i n c r e a s i n g y i e l d s over on  combined  i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  y i e l d per  logging  harvest  the The  of  The  the  initially  than o r d i n a r y  20  land  with  a  (FAO,  operations.  as d o e s t h e  forest  logged  harvested]...as operation"  most  of  cutting  f i g u r e s were f u r t h e r c l o u d e d  silvicultural/harvesting  rate  varying  assumed f u t u r e y i e l d s f r o m a u n i t a r e a  equally  The  using  may  not  felling,  in) was  dbh,  first and  social,  such  economic  and  make s u c h a p r o p o s i t i o n v i a b l e .  The  r a t e of  the  a  to salvage a l l  work l o a d i n s u p e r v i s i n g  and  w o r k e r s assumed l o w e r f i g u r e s ,  would c o i n c i d e w i t h the  (18  The  hoping  that  logging  rate  l a n d development f o r a g r i c u l t u r e .  74  The  targets  f o r land development,  as documented i n t h e f i v e - y e a r  d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s , have i n v a r i a b l y The y i e l d given  in  were  t h a t were a s s u m e d f r o m t h e S t a t e l a n d  Table  21.  calculated  harvested.  been a c h i e v e d .  In  by  The v a l u e s f o r FAO dividing  the  (1974b,  log  Forests  are  1975c) a n a l y s e s  outturn  by  the  area  t h o s e two FAO a n a l y s e s , y i e l d v a r i e d w i t h  forest  t y p e s and r e g i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d by s q u a r e g r i d s on t h e map.  Assumptions  T a b l e 21 of y i e l d f r o m t h e S t a t e l a n d F o r e s t s  FDPM Plan  Period  FAO (1978)  FAO (1974b)  FAO (1975)  Baharuddin (1977)  m /ha 3  -  1971-75 1976-80 1981-85 1986-90 1991-95  24.5 28.0 28.0  25.0 25.0 35.0 35.0  —  —  -  31.5 43.2 50.7 44.5  52.7 56.5 55.2 65.9  52.5 61 .2 70.0 70.0  F u t u r e l o g r e q u i r e m e n t s assumed i n t h e a n a l y s e s a r e determinant  of  the l e v e l  of h a r v e s t .  a n n u a l o u t p u t t a r g e t o f 5.1  Baharuddin  t o 8.5 m i l l i o n m  t o be a b a r e minimum t o m a i n t a i n t h e f o r e s t the  past  analyses  requirement 1975c)  used  of the the  did  explicitly  timber-based log-flow  expansion of the f o r e s t harvest  not  industries;  ( 1 9 7 7 a ) s e t an  w h i c h he c o n s i d e r e d  3  industries.  Most  of  c o n s i d e r the future l o g  industries.  schedules  another  The  FAO  (1974b,  as i n p u t d a t a t o p l a n the thus  the  high  levels  of  l e d t o a p l a n t o i n c r e a s e t h e p r o c e s s i n g c a p a c i t y by  5.4  75  million m The  (192 m i l l i o n  3  f t ) o f l o g i n t a k e by 1990 (FAO,  FAO ( 1 9 7 8 a ) a n d t h e FDPM p l a n made c o m p a r i s o n s between  a s s u m p t i o n s of f u t u r e p r o c e s s i n g c a p a c i t y and of l o g f l o w . through  Any d e f i c i t  i n l o g supply  review  of  these  the  forecasts  assumed, e x t e n s i v e  show a g e n e r a l l y d e c l i n i n g harvest  The a n n u a l  current  that  1980b) p o i n t e d t o  the  harvest  10.1  production  level  million  In the i n i t i a l  m  between  would as  3  generally  years  the  decline  Stateland  must  the  high  use, u n t i l  5.1  range l e v e l s  and  the  i tstabilizes at  long-range  5.9 m i l l i o n m  c a l c u l a t e d by t h e  this  range  3  The p a s t  sustained  per year.  FAO  Chong  Only  (1979a) a n d t h e l a t e r  the  three  plans  periods.  These  increases  i n c r e a s i n g y i e l d per hectare the  increase  are  mainly  over  time.  p e r i o d was b e c a u s e t h e y i e l d  increase,  from  timber analyses  would  1975c)  of p r o d u c t i v e of  be  long-  would  fall  permanent the  by t h e FAO ( 1 9 7 4 b ,  levels  i n the. h a r v e s t  a  FDPM  FAO (1978a) FDPMP team.  compiled  showed i n c r e a s e s i n h a r v e s t  the  Even t h e h i g h ,  (1974b,  i f t h e assumed a r e a  yield  f o r e s t were r e d u c e d t o t h e more r e l i a b l e e s t i m a t e s (1977a),  from  Forests are being  f i g u r e t h a t t h e PFE c o u l d s u s t a i n .  f u r t h e r agreed that  1978a)  levels,  f o r e s t management s i t u a t i o n s ,  trend.  withdrawn f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l  within  (Hadi,  v o l u m e s w o u l d come f r o m t h e PFE a s w e l l a s t h e S t a t e l a n d  Forests.  1978)  projections  was assumed t o be made up  past analyses  t h e a g r e e m e n t among t h e s e under  their  their  imports.  My  1990  1974b).  3  i n the i n i t i a l the  result  1975c,  planning  of assuming  I n t h e FDPMP p l a n  (FAO,  f r o m t h e 1981-1985 t o 1986-  per  hectare  was  1986 o n w a r d s , f r o m 42 t o 52 m /ha 3  assumed  to  i n t h e PFE a n d  76  f r o m 25 t o 35 m /ha i n t h e S t a t e l a n d F o r e s t s .  The  3  the  FFIDP  final  plan  to  1991-1995  s t a n d i n g volume i n t h e  in  (FAO, 1975c) i s s m a l l b u t t h e e a r l y (FAO,  1974b) p l a n showed a s u b s t a n t i a l 1986-1990  increase  increase  between  the  because of very o p t i m i s t i c forests  and  of  volume  periods  e s t i m a t e s of  growth.  These  e s t i m a t e s , w h i c h were n o t e l a b o r a t e d i n t h e FAO ( 1 9 7 4 b ) d o c u m e n t , were  apparently too optimistic  17.3 m i l l i o n m reduced  to  3  per year  11.5  because the h i g h harvest  f o r t h e p e r i o d 1991 t o  million  m  1995  l e v e l of  was  later  i n t h e l a t e r FAO ( 1 9 7 5 c ) document  3  w h i c h c o m p a r e d t h e two p l a n s . 3.3 Summary Log This  p r o d u c t i o n has s t e a d i l y  expansion  increased i n the l a s t  i n h a r v e s t v o l u m e came f r o m b o t h  Stateland Forests.  Since  1967 t h e a n n u a l  PFE h a v e c o n s i s t e n t l y been g r e a t e r t h a n a r e a , 32,000 h a , d e t e r m i n e d 75  planned  c u t t i n g c y c l e s o f 30 y e a r s  f o r the primary  55 y e a r s  harvested  o n w a r d s were s t i l l Forecasts Future annual million future practice  m  3  of  h i g h e r than future  the planned  harvests  have  and  3  remains  harvest  r o t a t i o n of  ha.  Even under t h e  forests  i n t h e PFE a n d  i n 1972, 1973 and  h a r v e s t s h a v e been e s t i m a t e d  management  annual  i nthe  f o r e s t s , as s p e c i f i e d  a n d a s l o w a s 4.5 m i l l i o n m .  forest  t h e PFE a n d t h e  on t h e b a s i s o f a n o m i n a l  FDPM p l a n , t h e a c t u a l h a r v e s t a r e a s  years.  r a t e s of harvest  y e a r s a n d a p r o d u c t i v e PFE o f 2.4 m i l l i o n  f o r the p a r t i a l l y  30  at  from  1975  78,709 ha p e r y e a r . been h i g h l y v a r i a b l e . t o be a s h i g h a s  17.3  However, a s s u m i n g t h a t the  current  extensive  t h a t t h e f o r e s t , a r e a c o n s i s t s o f 3.3 m i l l i o n  p r o d u c t i v e PFE a n d 1.3 m i l l i o n  i n the  ha o f  ha o f S t a t e l a n d F o r e s t s , a s i n t h e  77  FDPM p l a n , t h e v a r i o u s would  have  t o d e c l i n e from t h e c u r r e n t  to a s u s t a i n e d y i e l d If  Peninsular  industries exports analysis  o f b e t w e e n 5.1 Malaysia  were  the  harvest  10.1 m i l l i o n  a n d 5.9 m i l l i o n to  maintain  m  m  3  3  per  per its  level year  year. forest  a t i t s c u r r e n t c a p a c i t y , and d o m e s t i c c o n s u m p t i o n and  a t or c l o s e is  future timber would,  f o r e c a s t s agreed that  needed  to to  production.  current explore An  levels,  a  more  comprehensive  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i n c r e a s i n g  analysis  of  i n t u r n , r e q u i r e a "good" p l a n n i n g  f e a t u r e s o f s u c h a method a r e d i s c u s s e d  these  possibilities  method.  The d e s i r a b l e  i n the next  chapter.  78  CHAPTER 4 DESIRABLE FEATURES OF A TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING METHOD Desirable should  features that a timber  incorporate are described  b a s i s f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n of analyses  of  timber  management p l a n n i n g  below.  t h e methods  supply  from  These f e a t u r e s employed  Peninsular  method form t h e  in  previous  Malaysia.  These  f e a t u r e s a n d t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h e methods u s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s analyses  lead t o the choice  of  t h e method  advocated  in  this  thesis. 4.1  Desirable Some  can  Features  desirable  be d e r i v e d  (1976)  from t h e c r i t e r i a  f o r evaluating  from P e a r s e ' s the p l a n n i n g The  features  a  o f a method t o p l a n t i m b e r d e v e l o p e d by C h a p p e l l e  timber  management p l a n n i n g  (1976) r e c o m m e n d a t i o n f o r  further  et a l . , model, and  development  m o d e l u s e d by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F o r e s t  desirable features  supply  of  Service.  are:  (1) t h e method should be capable of accepting p h y s i c a l / b i o l o g i c a l , socio-economic, t e c h n o l o g i c a l and political data that bear most importantly on t h e problem; (2) t h e method s h o u l d be a b l e t o h a n d l e both the temporal and spatial dimensions of resource p r o d u c t i o n and management; (3) t h e p r o b l e m formulation and data analysis e f f e c t i v e , e f f i c i e n t and r e p r o d u c i b l e ; and  must  be  (4) t h e o u t p u t s o f t h e p l a n n i n g model s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d i n a format t h a t can p r o v i d e ready g u i d e l i n e s t o p l a n n e r s and m a n a g e r s . (5) t h e m o d e l should be c a p a b l e of linkage comprehensive m u l t i p l e - u s e p l a n n i n g system.  with  a  79  4.1.1 C a p a b i l i t y o f A c c e p t i n g Four  Relevant  broad c l a s s e s of data  supply: p h y s i c a l / b i o l o g i c a l , political.  forest operations The expected (Arnold,  are required f o r planning  socio-economic,  Physical/biological  a r e a , volume, growing stock  data  method  technological  growth  and  effects  should  Data  on  and  of  stands. also  consider  t h e c o s t s and  returns associated with various production 1974a).  timber  i n c l u d e t h e s i z e of f o r e s t  structure,  on t h e r e s i d u a l  planning  Data  the  cost  of  alternatives  regeneration  and  maintenance of t h e f o r e s t s and of l o g g i n g and l o g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n are  required.  take e x p l i c i t the  Pearse  (1976) s u g g e s t e d  account of c a p i t a l  i n i t i a t i o n o f new c r o p s ,  silvicultural  practice,  that the a n a l y s i s should  c o s t s of postponing  the i m p l i c a t i o n s of r o t a t i o n or c u t t i n g of u t i l i z a t i o n  i n t e n s i t y ) and t h e c a p a c i t y of t h e i n d u s t r y .  (harvesting  R e t u r n s may  form of monetary revenue from t h e s a l e of l o g s and  products,  or  productivity, capital  in  such  to  regional  as  GNP,  f o r e i g n exchange  of  trends  in  The u s e o f i m p r o v e d the  evolution  technological  logging of  more  developments would a f f e c t  the  level  methods effective  management r e g i m e s w h i c h e n h a n c e h i g h e r  future.  and  in  processed  employment,  development  be  labour earnings,  stability,  and  development  are  o f income.  Estimates  machines,  forms  contribution  generation,  distribution  required.  other  and  t h e c o s t s and r e t u r n s from i n t e n s i v e  cycle periods, v a r i a t i o n s i n the l e v e l  the  harvest  of  and  processing  silvicultural/  l o g p r o d u c t i o n , and o t h e r timber  supply  i n the  80  Political forest  services,  structure, (public and  factors  the  are  1974a, 1 9 7 4 b ) . the  feasible  the o r g a n i z a t i o n of  administrative and  regulations,  important  in  boundaries  timber  economic a n a l y s i s can and  4.1.2  Spatial  T e m p o r a l and the  temporal  needs  to  degradation date  dimension,  timber  supply planning  five  few more  al.,  approximations  rotations,  1975;  such  (20  years  intervals,  years  and  Pearse,  or  so)  f i v e years  in  forthcoming  few  years.  be  Allocation  Model  production goals 20-year  "look  to  i n the ahead"  develop  one  year  10 t o 20  Service and  f o r m of a s i m p l e is  then  of  used  The  with shorter  for  the  first  T h i s would  enable  harvest  rate  for  suffice  years.  employs  describe  an the  wood-flow to set  most  phases.  Long-range p l a n n i n g would  B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t  guide  unexpected  planned  thereafter.  w i t h longer p e r i o d i c l e n g t h o f , say, The  to  I t w o u l d be two  t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of a r a t h e r p r e c i s e o p t i m a l the  should  indication  that  1976).  should  f o r i n s t a n c e every  every  is  n o t become a p p a r e n t , a t a f u t u r e  i f p l a n n i n g c o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t  short-term planning  et  what  Dimensions  of t h e r e s o u r c e s w i l l  (Williams  desirable  or  this  effective.  decades, w i t h a general  two  framed  Within  do much t o c l a r i f y  management over  (Arnold,  be  possible.  acceptable  trends  instruments  supply planning  have the g o a l of p r o d u c i n g i n the next  power  and i n c e n t i v e s / d i s i n c e n t i v e s )  l i m i t s o f what i s p o l i t i c a l l y  t h e most e f f i c i e n t  government and  q u a l i t y of p o l i c y  Economic a n a l y s i s c e r t a i n l y  range,  In  as  availability  investments,  budgets  within  the  such  Inventory short-term  plan.  10-year  This  production  81  o b j e c t i v e s and t h e 10-year every  five years.  determine two  the  the  timber  Timber  1978b; S m i t h ,  plan  Supply  1978).  over  Rustagi  Area  Columbia  most  feasible  cases  t o assume  planning period. short some  run  Jackson horizon The  into  same  that  have a f a i r l y  employ 1974),  occurs  1,  2,  2,  2,  2,  year  planning  and  5,...,  of  reason  for  the  among  e c o n o m i c s c a n be c o n s i d e r e d  f o r the  intervals.  15  planning  years . each.  up i n t o  5,  and  planning  10  years,  1980).  two-phase  management p l a n n i n g h a s been p u t f o r w a r d (1974),  the  t h e o p e r a t i o n s on an i n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t  Southern C h i l e ( B a r r o s and W e i n t r a u b ,  others.  approach  by  Leslie  The s u p p l y  to  forest  (1971)  aspect  and  of f o r e s t  i n two s e g m e n t s : t h e e c o n o m i c s o f t h e  of t h e mature and/or overmature n a t u r a l f o r e s t s , and t h e  economics of the supply falls  each  o f p l a n n i n g h o r i z o n was s p l i t  f o r planning  disposal  two-phase  f o r i n s t a n c e , d i v i d e d a 50-year  respectively,  Teeguarden  a  1978a,  l o n g p l a n n i n g h o r i z o n has l e d  variable-length  1,  Another  Service,  in  planning.  i n t e r v a l s o f 5, 5, 5, 10, 10,  length  the  t o that developed  (1978) a l s o s u g g e s t e d  harvesting  i n t e r v a l s of  in  setting  The d e s i r e t o h a v e a more d e t a i l e d p l a n  to  (1971,  reviewed  i t i s n e i t h e r d e s i r a b l e nor c o m p u t a t i o n a l l y  and s t i l l  workers  (TSA),  Forest  " s e q u e n t i a l " a p p r o a c h t o f o r e s t management In  turn,  t h e l o n g r u n (one t o  two d e c a d e s e q u a l  (British  in  (Navon, 1971a) i s u s e d t o  p r o j e c t i o n curve  rate f o r the f i r s t  short-run  are,  The T i m b e r RAM m o d e l  rotations) for a  cutting  objectives  within  the  f r o m managed f o r e s t s .  short-term  horizon,  s a l e a b l e s p e c i e s , l o g and p r o c e s s e d  The  with  product  first  market  aspect  situation,  specifications,  the  82  range  of  cost  and  p r i c e s , and t h e t r e n d s  relatively  precisely.  investment  to  crops.  establish  The  and  aspect  manage  of long-term  is  f o r timber  without  known  concerned  with  t h e second and subsequent  production  or s u s t a i n e d  yield  planning.  s p a t i a l d i m e n s i o n was w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d by H o l l e y  If planning  of  second  The e c o n o m i c s o f c o n t i n u o u s  thus form t h e c r u x  area  The  of consumption  production  were c a r r i e d o u t  (1977).  for a  whole  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s and economics  s c a l e , we a r e a s s u m i n g t h a t l o g p r o d u c t i o n  the head of a p i n .  I f national planning  for  activities forest  occur  commodities  were u n d e r t a k e n a s an i n d e p e n d e n t s e t o f r e g i o n a l p l a n s , we assume t h a t a l l e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y on  within a region  on  still  i s accomplished  t h e h e a d o f a p i n ; h o w e v e r , a t l e a s t we h a v e a number o f p i n s  dotting  t h e map.  location  of  every  wood p r o d u c t s . meaningful  I t i s not always necessary  Similar  geographic  used as timber  the  intended  refers  problems  analyst/planner.  with  because the a n a l y s t  consumer of  aggregated  to  the  the  ability  perform  least  should  Analyses of  analyses ability  expense  of  the  to  out  method  intended to  to  by t h e  produce  the  money a n d t i m e .  be b o t h e f f e c t i v e a n d e f f i c i e n t  i s u s u a l l y faced with a formidable  carried  into  r e g i o n s , w h i c h c a n a l s o be  and R e p r o d u c i b l e  alternatives  exercise  be  f o r the  regions.  and  T i m b e r management p l a n n i n g  planning  supply  can  E f f i c i e n c y means t h e  results  log-production  areas  timber  Efficient  Effectiveness  of f o r e s t l a n d and every  forest  consumption  4.1.3 E f f e c t i v e ,  formulate  hectare  t o account  consider. by  FAO  array  of  For example, i n t h e  (1974a)  in  Peninsular  83  Malaysia,  it  was  theoretically  possible  3.2X10 ° l o g - v o l u m e o u t t u r n a l t e r n a t i v e s cutting  cycles  alternative  p a t t e r n s and  rates  land  of  alternatives  rates  of  of  7  Permanent F o r e s t E s t a t e ,  34  an  e v e n h i g h e r number of  the  based  administrative  alternatives, restricted  various levels  the  and  distorted  decision-makers. discarded  be  The  and  analysis  carried  out  larger case  number  of  technical  identification, i n f o r m a t i o n on ( G o u l d and  Released  analysis,  what a c t u a l l y  Reliable reproducible,  of  the  time  overall  be  the  options,  planners/  the  of  be  nation, of  the  erroneously  i t s presentation  considered  Peninsular can  may  alternative  n e v e r be  from  to  that  well  (Arnold, the  was  may  the  Malaysia,  to be  1974b).  calculations case w i t h then  a  the much  h a n d l e d t h a n w o u l d be  the  tedious  the  aspects  and  getting  happens i n response to  of  problem-  much-needed their  plans  1966).  planning by  of  levels  implications  alternatives the  to  by  p l a n n e r s c o u l d d e v o t e more e n e r g y t o  choice  O'Regan,  forest  i s programmed so  in  million  plantations,  narrowed  financial  alternatives  otherwise.  is  u s i n g a c o m p u t e r , as  FFIDP p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e  7  alternatives.  from the  at  best  prematurely  However, i f the can  of  4  timber supply would g i v e r i s e  and  range  Some  and  Consideration  forest  alternatives  managers a t on  agriculture.  log-supply  of  intensity  realistic.  o t h e r s o u r c e s of  range  harvesting  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of  i m p o r t s and  the  to  considered  of  If  l e v e l s of  conversion  were  alternative  f o r the  approximately  from c o m b i n a t i o n s  2  alternative  t o have  same or  requires  that  other workers.  the One  analysis of  the  be  drawbacks  84  of the t r a d i t i o n a l or  no  critical  (Johnston  e_t  bridge  of  the  1967).  One  possible  course  improvement  of  been t h e a d d i t i o n of a m i d d l e  between  prescriptive  p l a n s i s t h a t the p l a n s c o n t a i n  analysis a_l. ,  c o m p i l a t i o n has a  working  the  parts  first,  of  the  prescriptions.  encountered  Again,  i n timber  would enable  fast  for  supply planning,  analyses  are  forestry planning i s attracting forestry  departments  which  interested  the  are  f o r e s t s and  sector. and  but  of  and  usually  a  computer  needed  of  not  p r o d u c t s and  h a v e t o be  in  the  of  calculations.  i n the consequences of a c t i v i t i e s  agencies  as  because just  w h o l e r a n g e of r e s o u r c e  Planning analyses w i l l  resource  use  increasingly  i n the non-timber  middle  justification  the a t t e n t i o n  the  e x p l a i n p l a n n i n g problems  other  the  forms second,  This  problems,  r e p r o d u c t i o n of e a r l i e r  Reproducible  the  format.  large  action  working-plan  and  s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s c a l c u l a t i o n s , d i s c u s s i o n s and the  of  s e c t i o n which  descriptive,  traditional  little  services  reproduced  w i t h the p u b l i c  agencies  i n the  interactions  the  of  forestry  to discuss with  these  ( W i l l i a m s e_t a l . ,  1975). 4.1.4  U s e f u l Format of P l a n n i n g O u t p u t s The  r e s u l t s of p l a n n i n g s h o u l d be a r r a n g e d  t h e u s e r s --  in t h i s case,  comprehend.  G r a p h s , t a b l e s and  more  effective  with  jargon  economic,  as  than  f o r e s t p l a n n e r s / m a n a g e r s -- c a n concise  descriptions  which easily  are  much  c o m p u t e r p r i n t o u t s w i t h c o l u m n s o f numbers  headings,  statistical  i n a format  or  or  voluminous ecological  s o p h i s t i c a t e d d o c u m e n t s c o u l d be p r o d u c e d  reports  couched  terminologies. as  appendices  in  These to  the  85  more  comprehensible,  illustrations.  concise  The emergence o f " r e p o r t g e n e r a t o r s "  t h e maze o f numbers i n t h e into  easily  step  in this  r e p o r t w i t h g r a p h i c a l and t a b u l a r  solutions  computer  u n d e r s t o o d t a b l e s and graphs i n p l a n n i n g direction.  Models  1 9 7 1 a ) , MUSYC ( J o h n s o n a n d J o n e s , 1980)  from  to translate  and  SAM  (Field  et  al.,  such  as  Timber  programmes models i s a RAM  (Navon,  1 9 7 9 ) , FORPLAN ( J o h n s o n e t a l . , 1980) a l l h a v e b u i l t - i n  report  writers. 4.1.5 L i n k a g e w i t h M u l t i p l e - u s e P l a n n i n g  Method  With the r e a l i z a t i o n of the c a p a b i l i t y produce  other  resulting,  consider  for  a resource  al.,  and  management p l a n n i n g  the production  the f o r e s t s .  USA; t h e s e  products  Several  the  forests  services,  i n e v i t a b l e trend towards m u l t i p l e  forest areas, to  non-timber  of  use  and  management  model s h o u l d  of a l l t h e major p r o d u c t s  of  and s e r v i c e s i n the  i n c l u d e SAM ( F i e l d e t a l . , 1 9 8 0 ) , FORPLAN ( J o h n s o n  l i n e a r p r o g r a m m i n g model d e v e l o p e d by  the  be a b l e  s u c h m o d e l s have been d e v e l o p e d  1979), Resource A l l o c a t i o n A n a l y s i s  to  et  ( L u n d e e n , 1975) a n d t h e  Benninghoff  and  Ohlander  t o analyse  o n l y one  (1978). A planning resource, be  a  of greater  conjunction for  m o d e l w h i c h h a s been d e s i g n e d  timber utility  management p l a n n i n g m o d e l f o r e x a m p l e , w o u l d i f i t could  be  linked  w i t h , models d e a l i n g w i t h other  a l l forest products  /  t o , or  resources.  and s e r v i c e s w o u l d t h e n be  used  in  Managing  facilitated.  86  4.2 E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e M e t h o d s Analyses The  starting  the  Peninsular  planning  should  of in  be  timber  a  analyse  applauded.  and manipulate  f o r e s t r y data in  1980  and  Supply  by  resource  (1977a) i n  the f o r e s t s of  limited  Technology,  as  skills  data  and  used  here,  needed  The p o o r s i t u a t i o n w i t h in  a  to  regard  statement  t h e D i r e c t o r o f F o r e s t Management, FDPM: " t h e or  growing  stock  of  Malaysia  is  literally  (Mok, 1 9 8 0 : 5 ) .  deficiencies  of be  t h e methods w h i c h seen  in  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y planning environment.  the  are outlined  perspective  i n the  of  this  The s i t u a t i o n  i s improving.  f o u n d a t i o n f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n of f o r e s t r y data  i n Peninsular  Malaysia  has  Reconnaissance  FDPMP.  been  established  Survey  the f o r e s t r y  and  of  associated  the data.  f o l l o w i n g pages have t o  A  Timber  from  i n Malaysia i s aptly described  anybody's guess!" The  supply  situation  i n c l u d e s computer f a c i l i t i e s  timber  Previous  FDPM ( C h o n g , 1979a) a n d B a h a r u d d i n  Malaysia,  technology,  made  in  p i o n e e r i n g e f f o r t s by t h e F F I D P (FAO, 1974b, 1 9 7 5 c ) , t h e  FDPMP (FAO, 1 9 7 8 a ) ,  to  Used  i n v e n t o r y and o t h e r  data.  The  activities  and  dimensions,  of  the  of  Resource  FFIDP  and  of r e l e v a n t  the past analyses are  (1) c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f  political/administrative  s p a t i a l and temporal  Forest  i n the c o l l e c t i o n  deficiencies  d e s c r i b e d under t h r e e h e a d i n g s : economic  the  c a r r i e d o u t by t h e FDPM i n t h e 1960's a n d  E f f o r t s are being continued  timely  by  factors,  (3) t h e p l a n n i n g  biological,  (2) h a n d l i n g of tools.  87  4.2.1  Consideration of B i o l o g i c a l , Administrative Factors These  previous  analyses  considered  assuming the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the and  ignored  other  and  forestry  activities.  These  or p o l y c y c l i c  not  current,  increase  very  yield  resulting  logs  and  from  from the a c c e p t a n c e ,  for the indigenous and  A  the  under  forests  and  the  Possible increases i n  and from i n c r e a s e d i n t e n s i t y the  smaller of f o r e s t  establishment  s p e c i e s were n o t e x p l i c i t l y  marketable  species  of  explored.  were  alternatives  involving  Seven  big  simulated.  by a s e t o f c u t t i n g  harvesting intensities.  A  cycles  cutting  cycles  20, 2 5 , 3 0 , 4 0 , 5 0 , 60 a n d 70 y e a r s .  One o f  c u t t i n g c y c l e s may be s p e c i f i e d  planning  yield  f o r e s t s , but only a l t e r n a t i v e s  be s p e c i f i e d :  these  the  f r o m a w i d e r a n g e o f management  currently  corresponding  could  o n l y one f u t u r e  by t h e i n d u s t r y , o f  management a l t e r n a t i v e was r e p r e s e n t e d and  affect  FFIDP s i m u l a t i o n model has t h e c a p a b i l i t y of c a l c u l a t i n g flow a r i s i n g  trees  assumed  logging practice.  species,  which  system and t h e y i e l d p e r h e c t a r e  significantly  p l a n t a t i o n s of fast-growing  timber  practice,  t h e f o r e s t s w o u l d be managed on  management i n t h e i n d i g e n o u s  The  production  forestry  factors  analyses  felling  selective  more  Political/  only timber  prevailing  political/administrative  f o r e s t management s i t u a t i o n :  would  and  b i o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l s of t h e f o r e s t s , and t h e  economic  selective  Economic  f o r one o f t h e f o u r  5-year  periods. total  of  34  harvesting  intensities  were s p e c i f i e d by  v a r y i n g t h e c o m m e r c i a l p o t e n t i a l and t h e d i m e n s i o n s of t h e t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e h a r v e s t  (Figure 4).  trees  The t r e e s were g r o u p e d  tJCJ  Figure  4  Range o f h a r v e s t i n g i n t e n s i t i e s developed by the FFIDP  10  25  31  20  26  32  15  21  27  33  16  22  28  31  13  19  11  =  •  1 N 11  12  17  —  23  29  24  30  Combinations o f s p e c i e s group and dbh to be h a r v e s t e d i n each a l t e r n a t i v e - see key  vO o VO r> -sr o e O E O OE +> O +> o vO o <r-l  F u l l y on the market P a r t l y on the market Not on the market  over 61 cm  -key-  89  commercially marketable  from of  fully  species,  intervals capable  into  of  15 cm  trees  greater  starting  harvest  (Intensity  to the fully  than  cm  cycles  long  years.  However,  70  the  fully  41  management  and p a r t i a l l y  1975c).  The  length  of  each  corresponding desirable  lack  of  forest  knowledge  only  analysis  required  management other not  one-to-one  e_t a _ l . ,  indicate  specified  the cutting  have  20  years  not  to  matched would  "the  to  i n the 1974b;  but  the  with  the  have  between nearly  dynamics  to as  (FAO,  tried  relationship  of  belonging  considered  was  dbh's  capable  the FFIDP  I t  the growth  operations of  large  been t h e two  complete  of the  considered unwanted  regeneration  harvesting,  assumed  analyses  was  harvest  tropical  1976:24).  the girdling  regeneration. was  by  also  cm  were  at  intensities  and with  as  46  cycles  n o t p o s s i b l e due  concerning  after  analyses  These  a  of the advanced  left  short  species  cycle  classes  selective  i s  above  and non-  i s , therefore,  species  intensities.  silvicultural  were  growth  species the  was  (Alexandratos  The  the  This  very  as  trees  model  I t  calculated  cutting  to establish  variables.  only  of cutting  harvesting  to a  from  dbh  o f management  1).  marketable  range  four  marketable  ranging  alternatives  whole  34)  marketable,  The  range  (Intensity  cutting  into  15 cm.  the whole  simulating as  with  belonging 60  partly  and d i m e n s i o n a l l y  of considering  any-tree  marketable,  A  trees the  i n the other the cutting which  low  more  intensity  analyses. cycles were  not considered  the  Even  FFIDP  to stimulate  and p l a n t i n g i n areas  similar,  limits  of  i n  valuable devoid of  though  employed,  they  of  forest these d i d  assumed.  adequately  the  production  90  of  forest  products  and  services  p r o d u c t i o n o f some n o n - t i m b e r by  the  exclusion  exercise. these  The  of  the  Peninsular  f o r e s t s would  other  p r o d u c t s and protective  Malaysia  than  timber.  services  forests  forest  was  The  implied  i n the p l a n n i n g  policy  stated  that  ensure  the sound climatic and physical c o n d i t i o n of the country, the safeguarding of water supplies, soil fertility and environmental quality and the m i n i m i z a t i o n o f damages by f l o o d s and e r o s i o n t o r i v e r s and a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . . . , f o r r e c r e a t i o n , education, research and t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s f l o r a and fauna ( M a l a y s i a n F o r e s t e r , I980a:2). These a n a l y s e s d i d not timber  production  analysts calculated except  in  determining  ( 1 9 7 7 a ) and  v o l u m e r e g u l a t i o n method. planning  The  of  the  the b a s i s of a r e a  Hadi  but  ( 1 9 8 0 a ) who  been  by  Grayson  treatise  (1970).  They  concerned  only with physical y i e l d s without  of  producing  silvicultural growth  that  forgone  through  directly  in  indirectly  felling  requires  the  several socio-  in  before  flow.  stressed  logic  and  as The  in  a  Johnston  i n an o b j e c t i v e  regards to the terms terms or a f t e r  of  costs  associated  of  potential  the  specified  cycle.  r e p o r t s of t h e p a s t a n a l y s e s of t i m b e r  the p o l i t i c a l  Malaysia  both  o p e r a t i o n s and  r o t a t i o n or f e l l i n g The  that there i s l i t t l e  them,  employed  timber  has  classical  argued  planning  of  regulation,  t h e s e were c a l c u l a t e d o n l y  objectives  in yield  economics  l e v e l o f h a r v e s t s ; most  already-determined  economic  the  FFIDP d i d c a l c u l a t e  parameters  t h e y a r e a f f e c t e d by t h e importance  i n t o account  t h e h a r v e s t s on  f o r Baharuddin  economic  take  and that  institutional timber  supply  structure  of  p r o d u c t i o n be p l a n n e d  recognized Peninsular r e g i o n by  91  region.  The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e  FDPM  on  the  management  f o r e s t s d e p e n d s l a r g e l y on t h e c o n s e n s u s o f t h e S t a t e which  have  their  were  FDPMP p l a n State; from  territories.  hectare  of  easily  (FAO,  reported  1974b)  harvest  Governments  information  levels  results  of  f o r t h e whole p e n i n s u l a .  strict  permanent  area  forest,  levels  the  for  result  The e a r l y  most  Only the  c o n t r o l and u n i f o r m  i n terms of s t a t e s .  each yield  can  FFIDP  be  plan.  t h e a r e a s o f PFE a n d S t a t e l a n d F o r e s t s i n  e a c h S t a t e t o be h a r v e s t e d this  the  (FAO, 1978a) i n c l u d e d l o g p r o d u c t i o n  disaggregrated  but  However,  only presented  i n an e x e r c i s e u s i n g each  the  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y over f o r e s t r y a c t i v i t i e s i n  respective  analyses  of  during  does  t h e 20-year  not  permit  planning  the  horizon,  d i s a g g r e g a t i o n of  i n terms of s t a t e s because t h e y i e l d per  hectare,  w h i c h v a r i e s w i t h l o c a t i o n , was n o t g i v e n . The  F F I D P team recommended t h a t f o r e s t d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s a t  the State the  level  be f o r m u l a t e d  selected, peninsula-wide  i n the process strategy  t h e S t a t e o f Pahang was c o m p i l e d was  using  of implementation  (FAO, 1 9 7 4 b ) .  A  plan  of for  t h e s i m u l a t i o n model w h i c h  used i n t h e c o m p i l a t i o n of t h e p e n i n s u l a  w i d e s t r a t e g y (FAO,  1974d). 4.2.2 H a n d l i n g All  of S p a t i a l and Temporal Dimensions  the analyses  dimension  of  l o g production,  flow schedules situation  have s u c c e e d e d i n p o r t r a y i n g  and  have  been  f o r the  even t h o u g h t h e r e s u l t i n g  presented whole  the  only  peninsula.  indication  that  intensity  w h i c h was a s s u m e d , t h e h a r v e s t  f o r one They  i f f o r e s t management were t o r e m a i n  temporal timber-  management  provided at  an  t h e low  l e v e l s would d e c l i n e i n  92  the next  two  decades t o a l e v e l about  one-half  of  the  current  product i o n . An is  attempt  found  from l o c a t i o n a l  o f l o c a t i o n and to  network. grid  be  u n i t s of square g r i d s .  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were a p p r o x i m a t e d harvested  based  selected  form c l u s t e r s , o r two  cyclical  minimum  resulting  in entire  5 - y e a r p e r i o d s and and  irregular  timber  content  (i.e.,  The  by  regions  causing  patterns  the c r i t e r i a  4.2.3  The The  Planning  tend  tools  simulation efficient  used  producing  program. and the  easily most  within  experience production.  of d i s t a n c e p e r  volume minimum  ( A l e x a n d r a t o s et. a_l. ,  geographical  p u r p o r t s to produce economists  into  locations.  i n these analyses  The  to  ranged from v e r y  a  sophisticated  r e p r o d u c i b l e , b u t may desirable  each  simple, computer  manual a r e a - r e g u l a t i o n c a l c u l a t i o n s  log-flow  not  be  effective  schedule.  These  c o n t r o l methods s p e c i f i e d e q u a l or n e a r l y e q u a l a r e a s harvested  to  Tools  manual, a r e a - c o n t r o l c a l c u l a t i o n s  forest  the  I n t h e o t h e r a n a l y s e s , f o r e s t a r e a s were a g g r e g a t e d c l a s s e s i r r e s p e c t i v e of t h e i r  be  in that  k i l o m e t r e p e r c u b i c m e t r e ) and  broad  to  road  logged  timber  the  from  regions' to  of  as  economics  period w i l l  being  such  seen  selecting  been c r i t i c i z e d  e c o n o m i c o u t t u r n p e r h e c t a r e were s u g g e s t e d 1976).  is  distance  f o r l o g g i n g w i t h i n any  A l t e r n a t i v e methods e m p l o y i n g of  on  H o w e v e r , t h i s a p p r o a c h has  areas  one  of l o g p r o d u c t i o n  i n t h e F F I D P s i m u l a t i o n m o d e l , where t i m b e r  originating  grids  t o model t h e s p a t i a l d i m e n s i o n  year.  sustained  This yield,  method has  are in  area-  of t h e  PFE  of p l a n n i n g , which been  f o r i t s n e g l e c t o f e c o n o m i c and  criticized other  by  factors  93  (Smith, Most  1962;  of  obtained  Haley,  the  1966;  alleged  N a u t i y a l , 1967;  benefits  from c o n t i n u o u s  from  and  Waggener,  sustained  p r o d u c t i o n of t i m b e r  y i e l d could  (Haley,  1966).  a l t e r n a t i v e t o s u s t a i n e d y i e l d has  been p r o p o s e d by G o u l d  Smith  They u r g e d  (1963a)  and  Duerr  flexibly  for balanced  of  market.  the  concepts  of  sufficient (Beuter, The grid  forestry,  Improved  management to  t o h o l d and  technology  (Smith,  calculate  It  is  plan  the  share new  no  longer  harvests using simple  formulas  F F I D P s i m u l a t i o n m o d e l i s an e f f i c i e n t to  The  fill  up  the quota  area-control  basis.  remarked t h a t i t optimization  or  government.  program  compiler  at  operated  had  assumptions 1977).  revise The  (FAO, been t h e the  been  calculated  out  and  per  level on  an  of the model, i n h i n d s i g h t , more  desirable  which be  death  use  an  blow t o the  FAO  of s u c c e e d i n g  centre  select  t h e optimum  inability  not  to  t o be h a r v e s t e d  The  could  phased  being  tool  1974b).  results  computing  been  area  developers  have  program  the  and  The  would  s i m u l a t i o n m o d e l has reproduce  of a r e a s  model, however, does not c a l c u l a t e  of h a r v e s t , the p e r i o d i c h a r v e s t  Unit,  (1962),  must be m a t c h e d w i t h  1963a).  annual  An  that foresters  e x p a n d on  be  1974).  areas  period.  (1966).  1969).  to  workers  were p r e s e n t e d run  where some  because  to  the  t h e p r o g r a m has records  m a n u a l c a l c u l a t i o n s were m i s s i n g  to the PL/1 been  containing  (FDPM, E c o n o m i c  94  4.2.4 Summary o f M a j o r L i m i t a t i o n s By c o n s i d e r i n g o n l y t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f s a w l o g s a n d p e e l e r l o g s f r o m e x t e n s i v e management o f t h e i n d i g e n o u s analyses  have  biological  and  silvicultural use  of the  timber  not  adequately  technical  explored  the  possibilities  area-control  method  schedules  are  t o t h e p o l i t i c i a n s and  continued  on  the  administrative Governments method  of  basis  and  have  of  the  political the  forest  regulation  Their  whole  over  also  of  in  The  prove unwieldy  regulation  which  not  of f o r e s t  as  of  the  ignores  the  the  State  f o r e s t management. does  i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the s p a t i a l dimension  Their  industry.  peninsula  structure  authority  Other  calculation  the  hand c a l c u l a t i o n s w i l l  more a n d more d a t a become a v a i l a b l e . on  the  of  economically e f f i c i e n t , or  which a r e acceptable reliance  range  were i g n o r e d .  precludes  which  full  the previous  of t h e f o r e s t s .  o p e r a t i o n s and f o r e s t p r o d u c t s  supply  harvest  forests,  This  permit  the  management.  4.3 The Recommended M e t h o d s o f P l a n n i n g This  thesis  presents  improved  supply  f o r Peninsular Malaysia  major  shortcomings  system.  should  remedy  Malaysia.  and  the  i n p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s and t h e c u r r e n t  The i m p r o v e d methods c o n s i d e r t h e f u l l  utilization  states  which  methods o f p l a n n i n g  forest  In a d d i t i o n ,  range  management p o s s i b i l i t i e s the timber  supply  of  timber three  planning timber  for Peninsular  s h o u l d be  analysed  by  t o i n v o l v e the h i t h e r t o n e g l e c t e d s t a t e governments which  own a n d manage t h e programming  forests  ( T i m b e r RAM)  superior alternative  within  their  territories.  i s used t o o p t i m i z e timber  t o the t r a d i t i o n a l area  control.  Linear  supply, as a  95  The  analyses  possibilities harvest  are  in  necessary  Peninsular  possibilities management  and  corresponding  to  indicate  the  forestry  logging  would is  be  no  needed. and  suitable  because data  analyses  Planning  presented timber  supply  i s t h e most e f f e c t i v e  political/administrative  of  structure  conditions  in Peninsular Malaysia.  group  states  of  permits  guidance from the and,  the  to  get  and  the  situations  Planning  political  states requires  that  local  averages,  used  in  be  estimates  assumptions for  considering variable  for  to  in i t .  each  solicit  process  support  easily,  confidence  of f o r e s t r y and  f o r t h e w h o l e of  The  the  data  of t h e p l a n and  timber  forest plantations  planning,  planners  incorporated  of  because  other  accuracy  More p r o g r e s s i v e  s t a t e i s advocated  T h i s m e t h o d of p l a n n i n g a l s o e n a b l e s be  country,  timber  plan.  to  planning.  rather  the  forestry state  of  planning  t o implement  local  or  political  forestry  the and  thus  increasing  the  The  variability  of  f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s i n the  data,  to  the  s t a t e governments i n the  consequently,  forest  7.  s t a t e by  method  the  i n C h a p t e r 6 and  i n Chapter  these  be a b l e  y i e l d s and  f o r e x t e n s i v e management and  the v a r i o u s s c e n a r i o s are d i s c u s s e d supply  of  possibilities  a v a i l a b l e o n l y f o r the whole p e n i n s u l a .  timber  management.  would not  concerning  in  extensive  f o r e s t management a r e a n a l y s e d  Peninsular Malaysia  it  of  for export.  various  various,  to consider  requirements  surplus  The  and  have  practices  f u t u r e expanding timber  utilization  of a r e a s  will  the  gains  utilization  Malaysia  useful  to  the  because the c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e  and  there  are  supply  from improvements i n timber  Forestry  supply  of t i m b e r  than  Planning  various  peninsula-wide state  by  state  96  facilitates in  t h e achievement of t h e g o a l t h a t t h e t i m b e r  e a c h s t a t e be s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t  of r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . elaborated RAM  The  i n t i m b e r and t h e n a t i o n a l  rationales  for state  goal  planning  are  i n C h a p t e r 8, w h i c h p r e s e n t s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f T i m b e r  t o p l a n n i n g by r e g i o n s , a r e g i o n b e i n g a s t a t e o r a g r o u p o f  states.  The c h a p t e r c o n s i d e r s o n l y one s c e n a r i o c o r r e s p o n d i n g  e x t e n s i v e management o f t h e m i x e d t r o p i c a l yields  to  area  and  There i s i n s u f f i c i e n t  timber  possibilities  yields  of  of a s s u m p t i o n s . with  the  laborious  region  Malaysia,  task  forest  the  forest  t o analyse the other  selected  because  i t  of  and  by FAO  by S a l l e h  development  is  are presented  consistent  the  project  ( 1 9 7 7 ) i n h i s Ph.D.  matrix generator  facilitates  i n the next  the  linear-programming  chapter.  rapid  f o r a given set  (1974a) from e x p e r i e n c e  industries  formulating  permits  The a d v a n t a g e s o f u s i n g l i n e a r p r o g r a m m i n g ,  T i m b e r RAM,  assumes  i n the  about  The c h o i c e o f an o p t i m i z i n g model  recommendations  in  each  data  optimum t i m b e r h a r v e s t s c h e d u l e s  Use o f t h e T i m b e r RAM  matrix.  in  was  f o r e s t r y and f o r e s t  1975)  and  to  by s t a t e s o r r e g i o n s .  L i n e a r programming calculation  forests  be e q u a l t o t h e n e t m e r c h a n t a b l e v o l u m e  of average s i t e .  the  industry  during (1968thesis.  otherwise problem  particularly  97  CHAPTER 5 TIMBER RESOURCE ALLOCATION METHOD (TIMBER  5.1  T i m b e r RAM  Package  T i m b e r RAM range  forest  RAM)  i s a computerized management  plans,  a s s o c i a t e s at the P a c i f i c  method  for  developed  generating by  S o u t h w e s t F o r e s t and  Navon Range  long-  and  his  Experiment  S t a t i o n , F o r e s t S e r v i c e , U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Berkeley,  California.  a n n o u n c e d and powerful  described  alternative  check techniques description is provided  This by  et  a l . (1971) formulas  f o r f o r e s t c o n t r o l and  o f t h e a p p r o a c h and by Navon ( 1 9 7 1 a ) .  1971c;  (Nazareth,  Hennes  to the t r a d i t i o n a l  t h e Smokey F o r e s t C a s e S t u d y (Navon,  c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m p a c k a g e was  1975),  1971)  the  and  the  as  and  a  more  area-volume  regulation.  A  general  o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e i n the  Specific  first  package  d e t a i l s a r e documented i n  (Navon, 1971b), the F o r e s t e r ' s Guide Mathematical  Programmer's  Computer P r o g r a m m e r ' s g u i d e  Guide (Irving,  1971 ) . The  Timber  RAM  generator  and  t a b l e s and  policy  a report writer.  writer.  by  The  the  t h e LP c o d e , and solution  .The  consists  matrix  (LP) p r o b l e m m a t r i x and problem matrix  t h e c o m m e r c i a l LP c o d e s . generated  package  of  a  generator  matrix  The  i n t o timber  harvest  then  input data be  specific  and  the  the  generates for  the  input  r e p o r t s and  from  the  of  data  s o l u t i o n produced  information  schedules,  data  s o l v e d by any  r e p o r t w r i t e r reads  generator  translates  can  matrix  reads  i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d by t h e u s e r , and  a l i n e a r programming report  computer  by LP  graphs which  98  are  more e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d by f o r e s t  5.2 P l a n n i n g w i t h  Timber  Planning with LP of  problem matrix the reports  5.2.1 M a t r i x  t h e LP p r o b l e m .  yields  and The  timber c l a s s e s  or  stands  The m a j o r costs,  forest  the  Then, any  management  forest to  be  units,  similar in their  f o r management i n a p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d  defining  the  period.  Such  are  of  economics The  area  c a n be l i m i t e d by  of the area which i s a c c e s s i b l e  constraints  into  consisting  t o be managed i n an i d e n t i c a l manner.  percentage  policy  planned i s d i v i d e d unit  by  area and age,  management  each  which a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y  silviculture  described  items are f o r e s t  and area  format  available  the  of  t o g e n e r a t e t h e LP p r o b l e m  i n a s p e c i a l l y designed  1975).  information.  and  by s o l v i n g  data which a r e r e q u i r e d  (1971c,  forest  followed  the generation  Data  input  harvest  T i m b e r RAM s t a r t s w i t h  Generation  matrix are entered Navon  RAM  may be r e q u e s t e d , a s n e e d e d .  5.2.1.1 I n p u t The  managers.  called  during  accessibility  constraints. Schedules  of  harvest  e a c h management u n i t volume associated  class. with  corresponding  by  volume p e r h e c t a r e a r e s p e c i f i e d f o r  assigning  Similarly,  each  schedules  the harvest are defined t o e a c h management u n i t .  management of  revenues  f o r each  unit  a  and  costs  economic  class  S e v e r a l management  may be a s s i g n e d t h e same v o l u m e c l a s s a n d e c o n o m i c  to  class.  units  99  Management p o l i c y i n f o r m a t i o n planning  horizon,  the  that  i s required  objectives  of  includes  management,  c o n s t r a i n t s , management a l t e r n a t i v e s , a n d h a r v e s t  and  the  periodic regulation  constraints. The be  planning  included  periods  horizon  i n the plan.  or  into  two  option  In  the  f o r the f i r s t  five-year periods.  o f y e a r s t o be i n c l u d e d allows  here as the time p e r i o d t o  T i m b e r RAM p e r m i t s  intervals.  decade l o n g , e x c e p t  i s defined  1972 period  up  to  35  v e r s i o n each p e r i o d which  could  be  isa split  The 1975 v e r s i o n a l l o w s a n y number  i n t h e b a s i c p e r i o d , and t h e  the f i r s t  planning  two p e r i o d s  half-length  t o be h a l f t h e b a s i c  period  length. F i v e t y p e s o f o b j e c t i v e s c a n be However, any  only  These  maximization and  revenues  defined  for  RAM.  a s unbounded  objectives  volume, gross  r e v e n u e 1, g r o s s  greater  of c o s t s .  flexibility;  include  the  r e v e n u e 2,  The two t y p e s o f  t h e s e r e v e n u e s c a n be  Each of these o b j e c t i v e s can  up t o s i x t i m e f r a m e s a n d t h e e c o n o m i c  be  objectives  a t up t o s e v e n r a t e s , g i v i n g a maximum  of  174  objectives.  Periodic the  give  be d i s c o u n t e d  alternative  Timber  alternative  i n any way by t h e u s e r .  specified can  of h a r v e s t  o b j e c t i v e s are formulated  net revenue, and t h e m i n i m i z a t i o n  gross  in  one c a n be s p e c i f i e d a s t h e o b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n  one r u n ; t h e r e m a i n i n g  constraints.  specified  constraints  i n p u t s and o u t p u t s used  s p e c i f y l o w e r bounds on t h e v o l u m e o f as  indices  of  performance  (cost,  revenue and t i m b e r  v o l u m e ) a s w e l l a s u p p e r bounds on t h e a r e a t o  be  genetically  planted  with  improved-  stock.  Each  of these  100  constraints planning  may be d e f i n e d  within  the  horizon.  Several the  f o r a number o f i n t e r v a l s  management a l t e r n a t i v e s c a n be s p e c i f i e d by  method o f h a r v e s t , t h e t i m e p e r i o d  within  varying  which the  existing  s t a n d s a r e t o be l i q u i d a t e d a n d b a r e l a n d s a r e t o be p l a n t e d , rotation  lengths  or c u t t i n g c y c l e s  f o r e a c h management u n i t a n d  the  sequence of o t h e r s i l v i c u l t u r a l  The  method o f h a r v e s t may be c l e a r c u t t i n g o n l y o r h a r v e s t  with  a series  with  regular  specified  of  rotations  silvicultural  or c u t t i n g c y c l e s  represent  different  treatments  cycles  rotations four  periods  also  may  specified.  regeneration activities  represent  different  determined  These a c t i v i t i e s  of  cutting  The  as  the  same  harvested or the  be  specified.  improved  f o r each  management  required  by  the  can a l s o  sequence  of  time  to  the  Several r o t a t i o n s or  The 1972 v e r s i o n  p e r m i t s up  to  four  rotations,  or  a  unit.  The  into  number  a  a l l o w s two  regular  possible  l i q u i d a t e the e x i s t i n g forest  to convert the forest  management  of  and eight  planning  c r o p and t h e  regulated  state  specified.  Harvest  control  i s imposed d u r i n g t h e c o n v e r s i o n p e r i o d  shape t h e stream o f h a r v e s t s . be  can  treatments  a n d t h e 1975 v e r s i o n  conversion period are  unit  by  stock.  unstocked, are planted.  genetically  rotations  improved  schedulings  are f i r s t  i f initially  cutting  followed  thinnings.  a s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e t i m e t h e e x i s t i n g s t a n d s i n e a c h  management u n i t units,  genetically  f o r a g i v e n management  sequences  t r e a t m e n t s such as  of i n t e r m e d i a t e h a r v e s t s , or  the  chosen.  One o f t h r e e t y p e s o f c o n t r o l  In a r b i t r a r y c o n t r o l  to can  t h e maximum a n d minimum h a r v e s t  101  levels  are e x p l i c i t l y  s e t f o r each p e r i o d .  each p e r i o d i c h a r v e s t the  preceding  certain  for  periodic  in  the conversion periodic  "current  level",  equivalent  period.  which  harvest  are r e s t r i c t e d  conventional  type  period  of h a r v e s t  5.2.1.2 O v e r v i e w  X ^  during the  the conversion  land, The  to  constraints  several  years  their  level RAM,  from  of the p l a n n i n g Periodic  average, as i n the  The l o n g - r a n g e during  sustained the  c a n be l i n k e d  postto the  period.  Problem RAM  optimize  relating  p e r i o d i c requirements,  o b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n may  to  of c o n t r o l , the  period.  i s to c a l c u l a t e the  j t o be managed under  (or a l t e r n a t i v e ) k i n order subject  remainder  i n Timber  i n Timber  average  the stream of h a r v e s t s  the  RAM  their  period.  harvest  is called  unit  harvest.  a range around the  i n the l a s t  control.  average  d e c i s i o n problem  to  post-conversion  of the Timber  o f management  two t y p e s  t o a range around  during  around within a  preceding  around  constrained  of h a r v e s t  (LRSY), a s t h e  conversion  specifically the  In the l a s t  i s the harvest  i s called  values  c o n t r o l each of the p e r i o d i c harvest  is  forest  which  The  below  constraints stabilize  horizon  level  level,  t o a range of v a l u e s  harvest  "regulated"  yield  t o a range of  t o the length of the f i r s t  Regulation the  and/or  a conventional  is restricted  first  harvest  p e r c e n t a g e above  Finally, levels  i s restricted  In s e q u e n t i a l c o n t r o l  to  and h a r v e s t  an area  area  management  sequence  objective  function  and a c c e s s i b i l i t y of  and r e g u l a t i o n  be r e p r e s e n t e d a s :  policies.  102  Optimize jk  where X  I j=l  D  Z k=l  j k  X  j k  2 number number o f ha o f management u n i t i s the a s s i g n e d t o management s e q u e n c e k,  j t o be  ik D  i s the harvest management u n i t  J  i s t h e number o f management  units,  K  i s t h e number o f management management u n i t k.  sequences s e l e c t e d f o r  Area c o n s t r a i n t s management  I k=l  unit  X  where A^  A  2  j k  the  place  available  upper  limits  on t h e a r e a  management  j=l  j  constraints  unit  number o f h a , Z  to  ,  of each  J  can a l s o  unit j .  be d e f i n e d .  j i s e x p e c t e d t o be a c c e s s i b l e j n  which  i s available  I f only in  period  f o r management  J'n  g  p  jn  A  j  j  =  1  n=l  t  Q  j  to N  where N i s t h e number o f p e r i o d s d u r i n g management  unit  Periodic  which a p a r t  of a  i s inaccessible.  constraints  periodic requirements:  specify  upper  P 1 1  j n  ,  i n the  period i s  z  k,  t o be managed:  i s t h e number o f ha i n management  Accessibility of  volume, r e v e n u e o r c o s t p e r ha o f j i f a s s i g n e d t o management s e q u e n c e  o r l o w e r bounds on  %  103  m  I  I  j=l  k=l  for  specific  j k n  X  j k  range  {  <  ,  of  £  , =  n  }  Mn  where  m^  r e v e n u e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m a n a g i n g one under lower  i s t h e volume, c o s t , o r  kn  ha  of  management  management s e q u e n c e k i n p e r i o d n, a n d M limit  on v o l u m e , c o s t o r r e v e n u e .  n  unit  j  i s t h e upper or  In s p e c i f y i n g  the  area  ik  to  be p l a n t e d  area  to  planting  be  with  genetically-improved  planted  and  M  stock,  m =1, x  i s t h e maximum a r e a  n  i s the  available for  i n p e r i o d n.  The  harvest  control  in  the  model  may  be  one  of  the  following:  (arbitrary)  (sequential)  H  (1-a)  (conventional) where H H  n m i n  H  n m a x  H  The  P  H  n _ 1  <  H  n  <  H  <  H  n  <  (1+b)  H  <  H  n  <  (1+b)  H  (1-a)  H  level  i n p e r i o d n,  c  n m a k  n _ 1  c  i s t h e minimum h a r v e s t user,  level  f o r p e r i o d n s e t by t h e  i s t h e maximum h a r v e s t user,  level  f o r p e r i o d n s e t by t h e  i s the average harvest l e v e l during p e r i o d , and a and b a r e percentages  regulation constraints are similar  harvest H ,  i s the harvest  n  n m i n  flow  i s over  c o n s t r a i n t s , except the post-conversion  the conversion s e t by t h e u s e r .  to the conventional  that the average harvest period:  level,  104  H  (1-a)  5.2.2 S o l v i n g The  <  p  H  <  n  the Linear  linear  (1+b) H  p  Programming  programming p r o b l e m  Problem is  any  of the  linear  Programming  e x t e n d e d ) , d e v e l o p e d by IBM, h a s been u s e d t o  solve  the linear  codes  such  computers  levels, Side of  ILONA  f o r UNIVAC  in  this  computers  thesis. and  linear  programming  reduced c o s t s ,  numbers,  as  solution  the o r i g i n a l  generated  forester.  cost  coefficients, These  pages  selected  comprehensible  Harvest Schedule g i v e s , by T i m b e r  per h e c t a r e , and t h e t o t a l and t h e i r  and  pages to the  to forest  managers.  Writer:  f o r each  management  RAM, t h e a r e a t o be managed, t h e c u t  c u t f o r each  breakdown  into  period.  Total  harvest  i n t e r m e d i a t e and f i n a l  cuts are  given.  (2) The P r o b l e m except given  R i g h t Hand  The R e p o r t W r i t e r r e c a s t s t h i s maze o f f i g u r e s  (1) The T i m b e r  also  f o r CDC  by MPSX, may mean v e r y l i t t l e  F i v e main d o c u m e n t s may be r e q u e s t e d f r o m t h e R e p o r t  volumes  REX  gives the values of a c t i v i t y  and d u a l a c t i v i t i e s .  f o r m a t s t h a t may be r e a d i l y  activity  Other  Writing  (RHS) e l e m e n t s  average in  as  problems  MPSX ( M a t h e m a t i c a l  c a n a l s o be u s e d .  5.2.3 R e p o r t  The  programming  codes.  by  standard commercial System  programming  solved  that  Schedule  economic  data  i s similar  t o the harvest  such as revenues  f o r e a c h management a c t i v i t y .  The  schedule  and c o s t s a r e a l s o  contribution  of  each  105  activity  to the o b j e c t i v e  b a s i s of s e l e c t i o n  function  i s a l s o shown, t h i s b e i n g t h e  i n the problem.  I f the  problem  schedule  is  n o t r e q u e s t e d a more c o n c i s e O b j e c t i v e R e p o r t i s p r o d u c e d , g i v i n g the  activity  selected  and  i t s contribution  to the o b j e c t i v e  f u n c t i o n , p l u s t h e a r e a t o be managed u n d e r e a c h (3)  The  cumulative  Harvest  volume  Report  shows  harvested  postconversion harvest (4) The E c o n o m i c  the  activity.  total  periodic  and  e a c h p e r i o d and t h e a v e r a g e o f t h e  levels. Report s u p p l i e s the p e r i o d i c  c o s t s and r e v e n u e s , d i s c o u n t e d a t up t o f i v e  and  cumulative  different  discount  i n d i c a t e s the harvest l e v e l s  f o r every  rates. (5) The H a r v e s t G r a p h period 5.3  specified,  The A d v a n t a g e s o f U s i n g T i m b e r Timber  calculation most  up t o t h e p l a n n i n g  easily  RAM  was  of h a r v e s t  horizon.  RAM  s e l e c t e d because i t f a c i l i t a t e s g r e a t l y  the  s c h e d u l e s and b e c a u s e i t s p r o g r a m was  the  available,  compared  t o the other planning  The m a j o r s i g n i f i c a n c e o f T i m b e r RAM  i s that  i t permits rapid  easy r e c a l c u l a t i o n  o f t h e a l l o w a b l e c u t and h a r v e s t l e v e l s  revised  affecting  policies  objectives, constraints,  i n t e n s i t y and o t h e r a s s u m p t i o n s . highlighted  in  A d v i s o r y P a n e l on  Newport's Timber  This a b i l i t y  (1973) and  the  report  models.  under  management  o f T i m b e r RAM  to  Environment  the in  and  was  President's the  United  States. The  Timber  RAM  computer  program  facilitates  t h e use of  106  linear  programming f o r f o r e s t p l a n n e r s  and  m a n a g e r s by  overcoming  many b a r r i e r s w h i c h have h i t h e r t o s l o w e d down t h e d e v e l o p m e n t application and is  By  f r e e d from the  i n the  and  of  Timber  code.  The  RAM  package  t o be  solved  formulating  program u s i n g  was  Linear  determines  the  activities  that  predetermined (Chappelle,  the  linear  planning.  primary  or  and  is  be  a  FFIDP  elimination  the  (FAO,  most  were  sector in  The  in that  order  forestry  i t optimally  to  specified  a  constraints  simulation that  an  selecting  planning  model  strategy  for  optimization harvest  exercise  the  areas  in  Peninsular  was  selected  b e t w e e n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s and the  assessed,  satisfactory  1975a).  for  computer  achieve  t h e FAO  In these d i a l o g u e s  strategies  by  in  development  s e r i e s of d i a l o g u e s  alternative  facilitated  management  within  forestry  the  programming  o f method i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  b u i l d e r s of  t h e most d e s i r a b l e  planner-analysts.  selected  In  linear  the  predetermined  followed  programme w o u l d be more a p p r o p r i a t e 1974a).  generates  developed  of  objective  Malaysia  and  generator  report w r i t e r .  useful  mix  This choice  the  incorporated  e x a m p l e of a u s e r - o r i e n t e d  programming  should  activities  matrix  a l s o be  T i m b e r RAM  programming  1976).  Peninsular  first  schedule  recommendation of  Malaysia  The  commercial  a l l  t o be  reads input data  by.a  scheduling  f o r e s t planner/manager  p l a n n i n g / m a n a g i n g p r o c e s s may  T i m b e r RAM  harvest  c o n s t r a i n t s (rows) t h a t are  r e p o r t s w h i c h a r e p r i n t e d by  after  the  l i n e a r programming problem m a t r i x .  the  (FAO,  timber  u s i n g ' T i m b e r RAM,  laborious task  the  problem matrix  the  l i n e a r programming i n  regulation.  (columns)  in  of  and  model  and  results and  of  the  successive  through a process  feasible  developers  of  strategy  was  emphasized  that  107  t h e i r model  represented a basis  than  the presentation  (FAO,  1974a). S e v e r a l p r o g r a m s have been d e v e l o p e d s i n c e T i m b e r RAM.  The  examples  (Johnson e t a l . , (Field  et  (Walker,  1979),  i n t i m b e r management p l a n n i n g a r e MUSYC FORPLAN  a l . , 1980),  1975;  improvements  1978).  over  finally  Timber  TREES  (Johnson (Tedder  These RAM.  new  t h e computing  f o r t h e Computer al.,  1975).  et et  a l . , 1980),  contain  some  t h e T i m b e r RAM p a c k a g e  t h e p r o g r a m h a s been  centre at the University  adapted  of B r i t i s h Columbia  A s s i s t e d Resource Planning p r o j e c t  For the purpose of t h i s  SAM  a l . , 1979) a n d ECHO  methods  However,  h a s been t h e most w i d e l y a v a i l a b l e ; for  rather model  notable  a  evaluation  d e v e l o p e d , economic  most  of  f o r further  (Williams  et  s t u d y , T i m b e r RAM i s s t i l l  sufficient. 5.4 L i m i t a t i o n s o f T i m b e r RAM The types:  l i m i t a t i o n s o f T i m b e r RAM c a n be c l a s s i f i e d (1) those  are b u i l t the  inherent  in linear  programming,  1976).  The  systematically  third  category  studied;  of  limitations  These d i s c u s s i o n s  extensive  of  al.  (1976).  reviews  from  Chappelle  draw (1976)  the  ways  (Chappelle et a l . , has  therefore only the f i r s t  are d i s c u s s e d below.  three  (2) those which  i n t o T i m b e r RAM a n d ( 3 ) t h o s e r e s u l t i n g  p a c k a g e i s b e i n g a p p l i e d by v a r i o u s u s e r s  into  been  two c a t e g o r i e s  heavily and  not  from  Chappelle  the et  108  5.4.1  L i m i t a t i o n s Inherent The  arise  i n L i n e a r Programming Technique  l i m i t a t i o n s of l i n e a r p r o g r a m m i n g m o d e l s ,  from  their  divisibility Lieberman,  and  assumptions  of  deterministic  1980;  Hadley,  proportionality,  nature  1962).  of  events  o f p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y and  total  v o l u m e s , r e v e n u e s and  1971a). size  of  the  size  of  (Hillier  a d d i t i v i t y mean  the  area  being  market p r i c e of t i m b e r produced  (Williams,  may  the  area  managed  A  may  as  more  procedure  and  treating  a  divisibility  management  m a n a g e r s may units  and  unit  may  an  infeasible.  If  values,  problem  the  Alternatively, technique However,  the  Navon  combines integer  Integer  and  LP  by  programming with  mixed-integer  generally computationally inefficient  some  may  1976).  even  be  to integer  Programming. be  integer  expensive  of Some  used;  the  variables.  programming t e c h n i q u e s and  as  (1976).  manner ( C h a p p e l l e ,  n o t be o p t i m a l o r may  solved  a  management  may  normal  being  regimes.  restricted  mixed-integer  is  the  t o e a c h segment  v a r i a b l e s were t o be be  the  l e a d to f r a c t i o n a l areas  identical  S o l u t i o n s w i t h r o u n d e d numbers may  as  straight-line  want s t a n d c o m p a r t m e n t s t o be t r e a t e d a s in  Navon,  approximating  b e i n g managed u n d e r d i f f e r e n t  treated  are  likewise,  into  volumes c o r r e s p o n d i n g  assumption  the  managed  drop  s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s have been d e s c r i b e d by H r u b e s and The  is  timber  for  downward s l o p i n g demand c u r v e by b r e a k i n g i t segments  that  ( C h a p p e l l e , 1976;  i n c r e a s e s and,  decline  1976).  and  c o s t s f o r each a c t i v i t y  In a c t u a l p r a c t i c e the average c o s t s  of  whole,  additivity,  assumed t o be d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e a r e a w h i c h regardless  a  I n t i m b e r management p l a n n i n g  the assumptions harvest  as  to solve.  are  109  Linear  p r o g r a m m i n g a l s o assumed t h a t  p r i c e s and o t h e r future.  values  However,  the timber y i e l d ,  a r e known w i t h c e r t a i n t y now a n d  the  technique analyses  has  some  t o vary  of p o s t - o p t i m a l  better  u n d e r s t a n d t h e e f f e c t of changing f u t u r e v a l u e s .  and  Haynes  estimates with  (1971).  Their  of the r i g h t - h a n d - s i d e  involved  values  to  Another  by  Thompson  replacing  i n the l i n e a r  point  programming  RAM  L i m i t a t i o n s which a r i s e from t h e d e s i g n by C h a p p e l l e  discussed  Field  (1978) a n d a r e p r e s e n t e d b e l o w a c c o r d i n g  C h a p p e l l e e_t aJL. ( 1 9 7 6 ) .  ( 1 976),  of Timber  been  (1) s i l v i c u l t u r a l  (2)  and  economic  social  RAM  C h a p p e l l e e_t a _ l . (1976) a n d to the  categories  a n d management  considerations,  considerations,  (3)  spatial With the  considerations,  and  (4) c o m p u t a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  development  new  timber-planning  of  programming  technique  in  l i m i t a t i o n s would a l s o apply  the  The  static  consideration responses  employing  decade,  t o these models;  some  these  linear of  these  limitations  RAM.  and M a n a g e r i a l  Considerations  method o f a n a l y s i s i n T i m b e r RAM d o e s n o t a l l o w  o f t h e many  which  models  last  not n e c e s s a r i l y unique t o Timber  5.4.2.1 S i l v i c u l t u r a l  have  They s e p a r a t e d t h e l i m i t a t i o n s i n t o  four c a t e g o r i e s :  are  in i t s  subjective probability distributions.  5.4.2 L i m i t a t i o n s B u i I t i n t o T i m b e r  in  the  certain coefficients  h a s been d i s c u s s e d  approach  in  provisions  options  technique of t r e a t i n g u n c e r t a i n t y  cost,  are  v o l u m e t o be h a r v e s t e d  complex  likely  biological  t o occur  i s s p e c i f i e d by  interactions  and  i n f o r e s t management.  The  the  user  in  a  tabular  110  schedule.  This  leads  to  unrealistic  i n t e r m e d i a t e h a r v e s t volumes.  When  intermediate  harvests  RAM  silvicultural  treatments  identical  Timber  of  the  been c a r r i e d o u t .  frequency  T i m b e r RAM p r o v i d e s  convenience  ( C h a p p e l l e e t a_l. , 1 9 7 6 ) .  drawback,  yield  sensitive  in  the  represent  the  utilize  a  The y i e l d i s same  period,  but  only  for special activities at  treatments  I t would  have  time,  been  An  input data  p l a n n i n g m o d e l s u c h a s T i m b e r RAM h a s been d e v e l o p e d (1976).  Since  the  linear-programming  more  tables,  i n response  and o t h e r e v e n t s .  model t o g e n e r a t e  to  t h e s a c r i f i c e o f much  s t a t e of t h e f o r e s t over  growth  of  to prior  i f g r o w t h f u n c t i o n s were u s e d , i n s t e a d o f y i e l d  various s i l v i c u l t u r a l to  not  the  and t i m i n g of t h i n n i n g s t h a t have  this  to  is  occurring  circumvent  realistic  calculating  c a r r i e d out i n the stands.  f o r a l l harvests  regardless  results with respect to  to  approach  for a by  forest  Williams  s o l u t i o n c a n o n l y be a s  o p t i m a l a s t h e i n p u t d a t a , p l a n n i n g m o d e l s s h o u l d be a b l e t o t h e most a c c u r a t e d a t a The  management  and  constant  changes i n c u t t i n g  available. sequences g e n e r a l l y c y c l e once t h e e x i s t i n g  forests are harvested; fixed  the regenerated cutting  cycles  management s i t u a t i o n s .  due  cycles. to  forests  are  managed  changes  in  the  C u t t i n g c y c l e s of v a r i a b l e  forest  as FORPLAN  (Johnson  such  e t a l . , 1980).  A n o t h e r c r i t i c i s m was t h a t T i m b e r RAM of  or  l e n g t h s c a n be  w i t h i n e a c h management s e q u e n c e i n Type I I m o d e l s  list  on  No p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r  specified  concise  use  does  not  provide  a  a l l t h e management a c t i o n s r e q u i r e d t o a c h i e v e  the o p t i m a l s o l u t i o n ;  some a c t i o n s s u c h  as p l a n t i n g  have  to  be  111  inferred not  from  s e t an  ignoring  the  harvest  upper l i m i t  to the  However, t h e s e  considering  that  planning. the  The  Timber  details  s i z e of  thus  has  pertaining ignores timber  is  cut,  thus  environmental  not  be  serious  u s u a l l y employed i n s t r a t e g i c  to  be  harvested  annually  are  Considerations  and  other  f o r i g n o r i n g a wider  and  can  its  use  by  specified  i n T i m b e r RAM  v o l u m e , r e v e n u e s and  where  the p u b l i c  and  social  private  The  are only  costs;  e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l and  managers i n both  agencies  c o n s t r a i n t s need t o be c o n s i d e r e d .  be  regional  r a n g e of  non-land resource c o n s t r a i n t s ,  l i m i t a t i o n s on  t o the h a r v e s t  the  be  r e g e n e r a t i o n and  been c r i t i c i z e d  goals, products that  to  does  r e g a r d i n g p r e c i s e management p r e s c r i p t i o n s  forest products,  objectives  area  T i m b e r RAM  l i m i t a t i o n s may  RAM  Social  setting certain  other  of  Finally,  in operational planning.  5.4.2.2 E c o n o m i c and T i m b e r RAM  two  i n d i v i d u a l areas  u s u a l l y determined  goals,  size  provisions for effective  protection.  and  schedules.  those  the  model  goals  sectors  that  should  consider. In  focussing  the other products live that of  up  to  o n l y on and  timber  p r o d u c t i o n , t h e model  s e r v i c e s from the  t h e c l a i m by Navon  ( 1 9 7 1 a ) and  i t i s p a r t of a s y s t e m t o p l a n t h e forest  lands.  example,. Range RAM Navon,  1978;  Even t h o u g h o t h e r (Jensen,  Navon, 1981)  compared t o the o t h e r resources  i n favour  1976) —  forests.  and  It  neglects does  Hennes e t §_1.  multiple-use  not  (1971)  management  s y s t e m s h a v e emerged —  for  R o a d i n g RAM  and  the h i g h a v a i l a b i l i t y  (Weintraub of T i m b e r  RAM  s u b s y s t e m s w o u l d e n c o u r a g e m i s a l l o c a t i o n of  of t i m b e r  production.  1 12  T i m b e r RAM d o e s n o t i n c l u d e such as s c a r c i t y  of investment  required  intensive  for  "optimal" focus  solution  of  non-land  resource  funds and s k i l l e d  forest  labour which a r e  management.  Moreover,  to the a l l o w a b l e cut d e c i s i o n ,  Timber  constraints  which  treatments; the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of variables  harvest  may  be  the  optimal  s t o c k i n g and  values  of  these  more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f  levels.  Chappelle  (1976) a n d C h a p p e l l e e t a l . (1976) a r g u e d  major problems of r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n in  i s the  RAM, d o e s n o t i n c l u d e t h e o p t i m a l s o l u t i o n s t o  r e l a t e d d e c i s i o n s such as r o t a t i o n o r c u t t i n g c y c l e ,  input  the  the public  scope than  in  recognize  that  that face  forest  that the managers  s e c t o r may n e e d t o be c o n s i d e r e d on a much the  approach  models  in  such  Timber  RAM.  However,  a s T i m b e r RAM a r e u s e d  a n a l y s i s and not d e c i s i o n making, then these  broader i f  we  in decision  limitations  should  n o t be t a k e n t o mean t h a t t h e s e m o d e l s s h o u l d n o t be u s e d a t a l l . Even C h a p p e l l e no  model  (1976) a n d C h a p p e l l e e t a _ l . ( 1 9 7 6 ) e m p h a s i z e d t h a t  c a n be e x p e c t e d  to provide simultaneous  solutions to a i l inter-related objectives  can  be  handled  c a l l e d Goal Programming, p l a n n i n g m o d e l s by F i e l d et  a l .(1976),  (1978)  and  programming 1980) .  decisions.  by v a r i a t i o n s o f l i n e a r  which  has  employed  in  timber-  Dane et a l . ( 1 9 7 7 ) , S c h u l e r et a l . ( 1 9 7 7 ) ,  Field  been  a l .(1980). discussed  (1975), Dress  programming  Neely  et  (1973), B e l l  been  Multiple  (1975),  Field has  management  global optimal  Multiple-Objective by  Steuer  and S c h u l e r  linear (1979,  1 13  5.4.2.3 S p a t i a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s T i m b e r RAM,  a s a " p o i n t " m o d e l , assumes t h a t  i s c a r r i e d out a t a g i v e n p o i n t i n space, and  logistics  in real  life  in poorly d i s t r i b u t e d areas. RAM  where t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s A t i m b e r c l a s s as  characteristics.  s u c h a s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s and one  t o be  forest area.  can  specific,  be h a n d l e d  (1971).  as t h e r e a r e  aggregation aspects  smaller  done  in  different the  spatial  in  v e r s i o n ) may  be t h e l i m i t i n g  This  silvicultural  number  problem  larger  c a n be  area.  of  other  linear  i n the  programming  of " c u t t i n g u n i t s " by Ware  on  the  property.  t i m b e r c l a s s e s (500  The  i n the  1975  i n the development of such  Average  values of  f o r the a b i l i t y  of  each  the  economic  stand  are  to incorporate other  economies of  w i t h timber c l a s s e s based  three ownership  classes,  Fowler  c o u l d n o t u t i l i z e T i m b e r RAM  (1978)  timber  a  s o l v e d by h a v i n g a l e s s e r number of  s u c h as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s and Even w o r k i n g  the  homogeneous s t a n d s  units  factor  characteristics  compromise i n r e t u r n  redefining  Thus t h e r e w o u l d be a s many t i m b e r c l a s s e s  restriction  limit  Timber  Consequently,  by  c o n t i g u o u s and  T h i s has been  Clutter  u n i t s of  b u t an  in  economies of s c a l e of o p e r a t i o n s  a p p l i c a t i o n s s u c h as i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n  model.  used  occur  i n c l u d e d i n the model.  S p a t i a l dimension  and  usually  l a r g e c o n t i g u o u s a r e a as o p p o s e d t o s p o r a d i c and  u n i t s a r e not  classes  activity  i g n o r i n g the c o s t s  i s n o t a g e o g r a p h i c a l u n i t on t h e g r o u n d ,  of s t a n d s w i t h s i m i l a r  in  thus  each  25 f o r e s t t y p e s and  and  used,  a  aspects  scale.  on t h e a g g r e g a t i o n of 16  age  categories,  b e c a u s e of t h e  o f t h e number of t i m b e r c l a s s e s t h a t i t c a n  handle.  upper  114  A  ' p o i n t ' model  planning  a  such  as  Timber  l a r g e a r e a where a g g r e g a t i o n  i n a m a n a g e a b l e number o f t i m b e r h a r v e s t i n g c o u l d be c a l c u l a t e d country  or  district  or f o r e s t , c o u l d then  g o a l s the in  the  region.  be  of t y p e An  useful  islands  optimum  for  results rate  of  f o r the l a r g e a r e a , f o r example, a at  use  the  lower  spatial  levels,  models,  r a t e of h a r v e s t , f o r t h e s h o r t and  such as  setting  long run,  a as  calculated  ' p o i n t ' model.  The  wide  package r e s u l t s difficult  for  developers  p a c k a g e , but are  in  developers.  of a  options  complex  prospective costly,  have  to the user be  computer to  in  program  adapt  to  i n t e r m s o f money and  provided  however,  available  users  these documents a r e  important  problems can,  Considerations  range  p l a n n i n g s y s t e m s and  which  can  classes.  Modelling  5.4.2.4 C o m p u t a t i o n a l  The  RAM  extensive vague  the Timber that their  about  many  by  communicating  run. the  aspects  ( C h a p p e l l e e_t a_l. , 1 9 7 6 ) .  solved  be  existing  time, to  documents  regarding  may  RAM  with  These the  115  . CHAPTER 6 APPLICATION OF TIMBER RAM TO PENINSULAR MALAYSIA T i m b e r RAM c o u l d situation  in  Peninsular  These m o d i f i c a t i o n s the  be a p p l i e d  Malaysia with  consist  forests are defined,  to s e t the rate the  the  assumptions described,  of  followed  Several  method.  The  scenario  scenario  management  Peninsular  were  harvested.  with  cutting cycles  basic  management  marketable species species,  the  specified  The  different  area,  problem  situations  Malaysia.  situation  c a n be  The  where  and  situation include in  the  lowering  of  forest the  Improvements  system  over  increasing  the proportion  including  the  dbh  cutting  use  limit,  in  regulation  f o r e s t s a r e managed by a s e l e c t i o n years.  basic  a l l the  marketable  i n f o r e s t r y department  o f 30 t o 50  timber  i n Appendix I I .  p o t e n t i a l t i m b e r volume i n s p e c i e s c u r r e n t l y sizes currently  to  programming  management  of  trees  constraints  Situations  envisaged f o r the forests the  of  the following  to the forest  i s described  future  ages  a n d f o r e s t management a r e  linear  F u t u r e Management  alternative  In  corresponding  utilization  policy.  represents  the  l a n d s f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , and  by d a t a p e r t a i n i n g  f o r the basic  6.1 Some P o s s i b l e  harvest  scenarios  timber  y i e l d a n d management matrix  the  management  modifications.  t h e use of t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y  various  about  only minor  o f t h e manner by w h i c h  of withrawal of f o r e s t  specification  sections,  to analyse the forest  the of  of a l l intensive  management i n t h e i n d i g e n o u s f o r e s t s a s w e l l a s t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f the  indigenous forests  species.  On  to  plantations  the pessimistic  side,  of  exotic  fast-growing  the s i t u a t i o n r e s u l t i n g  from  116  the c o n t i n u a t i o n presented forest 6.1.1  of  together  the  current,  with  two  very  selective  adaptations  logging  of t h e FDPM p l a n f o r  management. Scenario  1: B a s i c  This basic where  Scenario  scenario  represents  a l l t r e e s of m a r k e t a b l e  removed i n l o g g i n g . stems from t h r e e (1)  This  The  the  management  s p e c i e s down t o a dbh  c h o i c e of the  46  cm  of 46 cm  lower  dbh  dbh  limit  is  an  approximation  Malayan  of t h e  Uniform  s p e c i e s i n the lowland  h a r v e s t e d down t o a dbh  cm  o f 43.7  (4.5  feet girth)  I n t h e s e l e c t i v e management s y s t e m f o r t h e h i l l dbh  of  is  used  regeneration  in  order  i n the r e s i d u a l  (2) T r a d i t i o n a l l y , has very  been t h e d i v i d i n g  in  Small the  (FAO,  a top diameter  size  1979).  46 cm  of a r o u n d 50 t o  60  advanced  not  ( d i b ) o f 46  "big" logs. accepted  f o r e s t d u r i n g l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n i n t h e PFE development  by  or  (Sim,  cm  Until the  l o g s were c o n s i d e r e d u n e c o n o m i c a l t o p r o c e s s  agricultural  is  for harvesting,  i n s i d e bark  were  be  1978a).  l i n e b e t w e e n " s m a l l " and  during land clearance fo Lew,  stands  which  (FDPM,  secure adequate s t o c k i n g of  r e c e n t l y , l o g s below t h i s  industry. left  to  limit  forestry  forests  forests,  t r e e s which are considered  even though i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e a h i g h e r cm  are limit  System,  r e q u i r e d t h a t a l l of m a r k e t a b l e  minimum  situation  reasons.  department r e g u l a t i o n under the  the  is  and  burnt 1980;  1974). (3)  in c e r t a i n  D a t a on  timber  s t o c k i n g and  i n t e r v a l s of dbh  classes.  v o l u m e s were o n l y One  of  these  dbh  available classes  11 7  begins of  with  46 c m .  These i n t e r v a l s a r e t h e m e t r i c  9  t h e 6-12 i n . , 12-18 i n . , 18-24 i n . , a n d  measure.  These  classes,  besides  being  cost  and  s i t u a t i o n of resource profit (23  by t a k i n g  to  24  diameter the to  at  sawmill  large trees only,  peel a  data  The  same  and w e l l -  (FAO,  industry  achieved  1974a). in a  maximum  down t o dbh o f 58.4 t o 61.0 cm  d a t a a l s o showed t h a t  l o g s o f 38.1  profit,  reasons  Imperial  f o r 1970 i n d i c a t e d t h a t ,  abundance, t h e  in.).  industry could  price  in. in  convenient  s p a c e d , h a v e been d e s i g n e d f o r f i n a n c i a l Preliminary  24+  equivalents  to  43.2  and t h a t c o s t s  i n d u s t r y when p r o c e s s i n g  cm  (15  equalled  the plywood to  17 i n . )  s a l e s revenue i n  l o g s o f 25.4 t o 27.9 cm  (10  11 i n . ) a t t h e s m a l l e n d .  6.1.2 S c e n a r i o This harvested  2: U t i l i z a t i o n  scenario  assumes t h a t  down t o 30 cm d b h .  an i m p r o v e m e n t i n u t i l i z a t i o n basic  scenario  of Smaller  and,  t r e e s of marketable s p e c i e s a r e  This  lower c u t t i n g l i m i t  from t h e p r a c t i c e  hence,  a d o p t i o n of t h i s c u t t i n g l i m i t dbh c l a s s , c o n t a i n i n g  Logs  from  the  means t h a t  assumed  current trees  a p o r t i o n of t h e " s m a l l  represents i n the  practice.  i n the next  The lower  logs", are included  in the harvest. This timber  9  harvesting  to  p r a c t i c e would  the annual harvest.  add  substantial  During the l a s t  volume  of  d e c a d e a b o u t 2.1  I t i s n o t c l e a r what t h e p r e c i s e d i v i d i n g l i n e s b e t w e e n t h e dbh c l a s s e s a r e . The c l a s s e s i n i n c h e s may be 6.0-11.9, 12.0-17.9, 18.0-23.9, a n d 24.0+, o r 6.1-12.0, 12.1-18.0, 18.1-24.0, a n d 24.1+. The d a t a f o r t h e 1972 f o r e s t i n v e n t o r y were g r o u p e d into d i a m e t e r c l a s e s o f 15-30 cm, 30-46 cm, 46-61 cm a n d 61+ cm.  118  million m  3  been b u r n t  of marketable s p e c i e s annually  This estimate class  i s the gross  inventory  contains  28.4 m  million m  The  i n a r e a s w h i c h were c o n v e r t e d  3  3  data  (FAO,  result  has  of l o s s i n p o t e n t i a l  that  been  been  because  the  20 t o 35 p e r c e n t  f o r the larger  available  i n the past,  sawing s m a l l  recovery  rate,  processing (after  p r o j e c t e d by FAO  (Sim, saw  Peninsular Malaysia. to  1980; Lew, 1 9 7 4 ) .  original supply A  with  diameter  lower  than t h e  Because  the  sawmills  l o g s w h i c h h a v e been  readily  logs  i n low  would  result  w o u l d be  In  achieved  (FAO, 1 9 7 4 a ) . of  smaller  The FDPM h a s been e n c o u r a g i n g t h e  process  these  hitherto  These s m a l l - l o g s a w m i l l s generally  i d e a was t o u s e t h e p r o d u c t s  smaller  of s m a l l - l o g sawmills  unused  logs  a r e designed  than  46  i n t h e l o c a l market  t h e m i l l e r ' s own r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r f u r t h e r survey  in  would  low o u t t u r n p e r man-day, a n d w a s t e o f power.  up o f s a w m i l l s  logs  logs  of such logs  There i s a growing t r e n d toward t h e u t i l i z a t i o n  setting  slightly  tax)  s a w i n g l a r g e l o g s o f 58 t o 61 cm d i a m e t e r  in  or  annually.  smaller  t h e e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s o f 1970, maximum p r o f i t  logs  hectare  i s just  per year  (Lew, 1 9 7 4 ) .  designed  by  a  Some 60 p e r c e n t  harvest  3  1971 t o  1976 t o 1995.  i n a l o s s or i n a p r o f i t margin  acceptable have  indicate  r e l u c t a n c e of t h e i n d u s t r y t o u t i l i z e  past  have  to agriculture.  o f t h i s v o l u m e c o u l d h a v e been u t i l i z e d  (1975c) f o r t h e p e r i o d  the  1973a)  t h a n t h e 0.8 t o 1.0 m i l l i o n m  The  dbh  during the period  of t r e e s i n t h i s dbh range.  above e s t i m a t e  greater  cm  m a r k e t a b l e volume i n t r e e s i n t h i s dbh  i n t h e 73,200 ha c l e a r e d a n n u a l l y  1980;  1.2  i n t r e e s 30 t o 46  cm. or  to The to  processing.  by S i m (1980) r e v e a l e d  that  119  the  recovery  percent.  r a t e of  This  small-log  value  conversion  i s t h e same a s t h e r e c o v e r y  q u o t e d f o r b i g l o g s (Chong, 1979a). from  48  cutting  to  76  percent,  techniques  and  percent  diameter 63  for  g r e a t e r than  percent.  products  the  was  33 cm  were low  require  In B r i t i s h  1974)  gave  United  Kingdom.  the  lower  rate  diameter  to  For  l o g s of  r a t e was  around  industry,  of  of  final  silvicultural of  species.  treatments the  standards  limit  dbh  utilized. (1971 of  15 cm  of  v o l u m e may "weed"  forest and/or  marketable  arise  in  utilization  and  10 cm  Smaller cited  top  trees  by  Lew,  (6 i n . ) f o r t h e  P r o p o r t i o n of M a r k e t a b l e  hitherto t h e new  by  cm  Species  in  i n c r e a s i n g t h e v o l u m e of  s p e c i e s i n the subsequent crops.  "refinement"  other  17.5  and  3 r e p r e s e n t s the e f f e c t  p r o p o r t i o n of m a r k e t a b l e  capability  23 cm  Columbia, c l o s e  Montague  diameter  S c e n a r i o 3: I n c r e a s e d Subsequent Crops Scenario  the  of l o g s ,  average  classes.  large  that a l l trees with  ( i n s i d e bark) are harvested  marketable  ranged  i f the s i z e of the  sufficiently  are a l s o being used i n Europe.  6.1.3  diameter  60  large.  o t h e r p a r t s of the w o r l d .  diameter  The  the average recovery  rates  rate  the dimension  f o r l o g s s m a l l e r than  These " s m a l l " l o g s a r e  standards  on  around  r a t e commonly  recovery  f i n a l products.  29 t o 33 cm  Recovery  The  depending  s i z e of  i n c r e a s e d f r o m 49 p e r c e n t 58  averaged  The  i n c r e a s e i n the  from the a c c e p t a n c e ,  species  and  from  by the  s t a n d s a s a r e s u l t of d e l i b e r a t e because  of  the  inherent  s p e c i e s groups to outcompete  the  120  The been  t r e n d towards a c c e p t i n g a wider  evident  which can  be  in  the  past.  included in  P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a has 1949  (Barnard,  1 9 6 3 ) , and listed  The  linear  number of  of  survey  species  i n 1970  s p e c i e s i n 1963  (FDPM, 1 9 7 5 b ) .  in  the  1974  revision  reduction arose  properties.  from  Other  species  species  occur  which  acceptable  i n some l o c a l i t i e s  not  but  "others  district  included  no  phase  grow  species. species  more  special  slowly  classification.  p r e f e r r e d and  in.  of  G r o w t h r a t e was  marketable  have  of f o r e s t r y development  longer considered  group,  as  acceptable  species  than one  only  and,  for  were  specific  in  the  in Peninsular Malaysia  were  interest the  Marketable species.  capable  been  but  are capable utilization  used t o e x p l a i n the  important  because  light  and  of  species  attaining  a wider  increase  in  in  the  1974  of 48.5  i n dbh  cm  harvest  (60  a t 40  years  o f a b o u t 29  yield  of  species  r a n g e of t r e e s p e c i e s has the  into  consist  Acceptable  48.5  a  medium hardwood  a dbh  40 y e a r s .  as  were g r o u p e d  o f a t t a i n i n g a minimum dbh of  they,  Preferred species  are marketable species which cannot reach  The  similar  species  of the major c r i t e r i a  g i r t h a t b r e a s t h e i g h t ) a t age  of age  market.  only".  Heavy hardwood s p e c i e s w h i c h early  the  have  these  species  the  r e d u c e d number  to l i m i t e d areas;  by  species in  49  t h e r e f o r e , were i m p o r t a n t listed  in  Even though  (FDPM, 1 9 7 5 b ) , t h e  grouping  species  (Wyatt-Smith,  d o e s n o t mean t h a t some s p e c i e s h a v e been r e j e c t e d by The  has  (LRS)  been i n c r e a s i n g f r o m a b o u t 200  s p e c i e s d r o p p e d t o 43 p r e f e r r e d s p e c i e s and  species  species  "acceptable"  regeneration  1 9 5 0 ) , t o a b o u t 250  t o 300  range  from  cm. been the  121  lowland  forests  ft /ac)  Malaysia  3  (Wyatt-Smith, dismissed  1961).  unpopular  Silvicultural  treatment  species  has  been  the  increase  (FDPM, 1980a; M a l a y s i a n  Forester,  t o 3018 t h o u s a n d m .  total  production  only  increased  trend  production  rose  1971 t o  by 307 p e r c e n t  Over t h e same p e r i o d ,  by 45 p e r c e n t  i n the timber  f r o m 7950  of "other  thousand  s p e c i e s " as a  f r o m 9.3 p e r c e n t  trend  has  of been  industry i n the last a  wider  range  in  1971 t o  s e v e r a l decades  of  t h e development  t o l e r a n t p r o c e s s e s and p r o d u c t s .  species.  towards  I n t h e p u l p and paper  One  speciesindustry  t r e n d h a s been f r o m t h e e x c l u s i v e u s e o f a l i m i t e d number o f  coniferous  s p e c i e s , through the acceptance of  t h e u t i l i z a t i o n of whole t r e e s , r e s i d u e s  mills,  a n d i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f  tropical use  hitherto  i n 1979.  been t h e u t i l i z a t i o n  encouraging  to  rightly  Over t h e n i n e - y e a r  increased  The p r o p o r t i o n  3  percent  species" 3  to-11558 thousand m .  percentage of t o t a l  the  1960's  i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n of  1980).  741 t h o u s a n d m  3  of  species" produced i n the p e r i o d  from  has  the was  i n d i c a t o r of the i n c r e a s i n g acceptance  volume o f "other  A  in  3  of "other  26.1  3  (750 f t / a c )  period the production  3  8.75 m /ha ( 1 2 5  were c a r r i e d o u t i n unmanaged p r i m a r y f o r e s t s .  A third  m  from  a s a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r b e c a u s e most o f t h e h a r v e s t i n g  operations  1979  Peninsular  i n t h e 1930's t o 52.5 m /ha  3  timber  of  hardwoods.  i n parts of A f r i c a ,  Mixed t r o p i c a l  i n Japan  hardwoods,  from t h e f o r e s t and  including  the  mixed  hardwoods a r e i n c o m m e r c i a l  India, Thailand  i n t h e P h i l i p p i n e s a n d some tropical  species,  select  and South A m e r i c a .  Mills  a r e dependent  mixed  on  hardwoods a s a s o u r c e o f pulpwood; they a r e o f t e n  mixed  1 22  w i t h o t h e r wood, s u c h a s p l a n t a t i o n m a t e r i a l s , p r i o r (Phillips last  et  a l . , 1978).  with  imported  long-fibred  c o l l e c t e d waste paper t o manufacture  200 t r o p i c a l  materials  kraft  liner,  c o r r u g a t i n g medium, b o x b o a r d a n d s a c k p a p e r s The  considerable  particleboard resulted any  advances  fibreboard  i n the u t i l i z a t i o n  s i z e and shape, and  species. raw  and  material  higher  mixed hardwoods,  45 s p e c i e s .  extremely  industry  i s even  of a p a r t i c l e  range  wood  t o mixed The t r e n d  more  mill  r o u n d wood, a n d more  t r o p i c a l hardwoods.  K i n g (1978)  cited  i n Peru which u t i l i z e d  up t o  this  industry  of t h e d i v e r s e types of f l a k i n g machines  be u s e d t o c o n v e r t wood i n t o p a r t i c l e s .  lost  their  species i d e n t i t i e s  Even  in  being u t i l i z e d  of  less sensitive  can  hardwoods  of  r e s i d u e s of almost  The u s e o f h e t e r o g e n e o u s m i x t u r e s i n  the  1978).  i n r e c e n t y e a r s have  i n d u s t r y h a s been t o u s e  board m i l l  liner,  technology  wide  p r o p o r t i o n of unbarked  including  i s p o s s i b l e because  tropical  the  locally  cylinder  input than the p a r t i c l e board i n d u s t r y .  a  the example  in  manufacture  an  •throughout t h e w o r l d i n t h i s residues,  made  species  and  (Cubillos,  of f o r e s t and m i l l  of  The f i b r e b o a r d  pulping  One company i n C o l o m b i a h a s , f o r t h e  two d e c a d e s , been u s i n g a m i x o f a b o u t  together  to  more  many  and  p r o d u c t s have  (Chudnoff, 1976).  traditionally of  These  that  plywood  industry  s p e c i e s , and of v a r y i n g  sizes, are  more.  demanding  Species  which  are  prone  to  m e c h a n i c a l damage, w h i c h h a v e h i g h s u g a r c o n t e n t a n d u n a t t r a c t i v e colours,  could  the g r e a t e r used  in  be  used as c o r e v e n e e r s .  The t h i c k e r  the core,  t h e v o l u m e o f " l e s s e r u s e d " wood s p e c i e s t h a t may  the  plywood  industry  (King,  1978).  be  Alternatively,  123  plywood sheets w i t h u n a t t r a c t i v e face with  embossed,  grained,  stained  veneers  or  can  tinted  be  sheets  overlaid (Chudnoff,  1976). T h e r e h a s been  developed,  p r o d u c t s which- m i g h t p r o v i d e of  the  tropical  in  forests.  with  Examples  is  oriented  toward  also  the  are  timber  pulping  of  the  congress  and  concluded that the best  the  inevitability  production  of t h i s t r e n d  be  in  circumstances, but  in  will  the will  increase  Japan  from  1960,  of  the  The  fibres  1978).  i n 1972  This  1975).  f o r the l a r g e is  offered  wood p r o d u c t s .  forests w i l l ,  individual,  i n the proportion  the trend.  was  by The  i s due t o t h e p r o j e c t i o n t h a t much o f  not r e q u i r e  n i l in  rather  (Towler,  opportunity  composite  i n the  particular  i n 1970 t o 80 p e r c e n t  Richardson  years  i n rare species  1978).  of hardwoods used as pulpwood  1950, 11 p e r c e n t  t h e d e c a d e o f t h e 70's ( R i c h a r d s o n , of  inevitable.  form of c e l l u l o s e ; consumers, except  a n d 60 p e r c e n t  proof  structural The  be more i n t e r e s t e d i n wood a s wood ( K i n g ,  The  species  1978).  f o r e s t resource  t h e demand f o r wood f r o m t h e t r o p i c a l ahead,  of  Seventh Commission of the Seventh  s c a l e use of t h e d i v e r s e t r o p i c a l pulping  is  (King,  W o r l d F o r e s t r y C o n g r e s s i n Buenos A i r e s The  (King,  and p r o d u c i n g  l o g s and boards  conclusion  range  composite plywood or  f l a k e s or strands  chipping,  than merely producing  a  "wafer board" and  p r o c e s s of p u l v e r i z a t i o n of t r o p i c a l trend  years,  an o u t l e t f o r t h e m i x e d wood  p a r t i c l e - c o r e plywood, "press-lam", flakeboards  recent  i n 1955, 36 p e r c e n t  in  by t h e s e c o n d h a l f  of  1978; Shimokawa, 1977) i s one (1978) a t t r i b u t e d t h i s t r e n d t o  i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r r e c o n s t i t u t e d wood p r o d u c t s  throughout  124  the developed production expected  percent  l u m b e r c o n s u m p t i o n was annum  Saeman, 1977;  percent  the  of the t i m b e r  woodchips.  This  23 p e r c e n t The  initial  America,  New  Zealand,  imported  imported  Another  and  use  51  (1979)  complete modelling,  Arnold  has  the r u r a l earlier  a  Jogma  (1977),  Stone  of  logs  r e g i o n s of M a l a y s i a .  review  to kerosene,  form  of  zero in  c o a s t of  North  chips  of  the  Philippines,  1978). A comprehensive  review  i s provided  by  o f t h e s t a t e of t h e a r t i n  others.  forestry,  biomass  o f t h i s use  by  Earl The  by Wong and  use  i n the  (1975)  and  of wood f o r  Razali  (1980).  for cooking, especially  less-affluent and  75  m a n g r o v e s have been  importance  firewood  gas  some  (Shimokawa,  Recently  and  emphasized  The  the  west  of wood f o r e n e r g y  been r e v i e w e d  1971  1965  Indonesia,  among  been w i d e l y u s e d a s  converted  the  Siberia.  The  been  By in  in  short-rotation  simulation.  e n e r g y i n M a l a y s i a has Wood  of  c o u n t r i e s has  and  were  (Richardson,  utilization,  and  developing  part  1.6  1979;  i n c r e a s e from almost  of wood i s f o r e n e r g y .  as  tree  was  percent  Thailand,  Brazil  materials.  rubberwood  of t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e use Smith  the  to increase only at  Japan  A u s t r a l i a and  hardwoods,  G u i n e a and  by  suppliers  from M a l a y s i a ,  Papua New  whereas  been t h e r e p l a c e m e n t  a significant  i n 1960  tropical  annum,  was  1974).  d e l i v e r e d raw  is  1977).  mixed  per  world  paper products  d u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d ( L i n d e l l ,  Madas,  as  i n c r e a s e i n the  p a p e r and  expected  a s s o c i a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t has  woodchips  1955,  t o 2000 t h e  o f wood-based p a n e l s and  per  An by  From 1975  to increase at 3 to 4 percent  projected  and  world.  people  electricity  for  who  in  have  cooking  1 25  c o u l d have been f o r c e d b a c k t o u s i n g wood and t h e r i s i n g c o s t s of t h e new and  charcoal  charcoal,  in  Two  levels  marketable  46 cm  mills,  and  percent  marketable.  crop  Scenarios  In  crop  species,  the  3.2,  the percentage  i s i n c r e a s e d t o 95 4.1  and  are  4.2:  energy.  The  harvest  of t h e  sawlogs,  possibility  to  conducted  elsewhere be  Paris,  through  i n the t r e n d s  Madison, Wisconsin,  could  down  at  France,  46 cm  trees, cm  volume  irrespective  dbh.  T h i s mix  range  p a p e r and  of  Paper I n s t i t u t e  showed t h a t random m i x t u r e s  research  wood-based  s e v e r a l decades.  t h e USDA F o r e s t P r o d u c t s  in  to  any-tree  in forest the  of  products  paper p r o d u c t s ,  in u t i l i z a t i o n in  CSIRO  is  Utilization  15  i n the l a s t  P u l p and  3.1,  forests,  of m a r k e t a b l e  been shown i n t e s t s  i n d u s t r i e s around the w o r l d  in  primary  o f a n y - s p e c i e s u t i l i z a t i o n and  f o r e s t s has  l a b o r a t o r i e s and  species  percent.  Any-species  harvested  f r o m p e e l e r l o g s and  CTFT  with  In S c e n a r i o  existing  s p e c i e s i s t o be u s e d f o r t h e w h o l e  Tests  and  i s assumed t o i n c r e a s e t o  T h e s e s c e n a r i o s assume t h a t a l l f o r e s t  tropical  sawmills  of g r o s s v o l u m e i n t r e e s g r e a t e r t h a n  In S c e n a r i o  the next  of  roof t i l e s  in  were i n c o r p o r a t e d .  volume i n t h e next  about  6.1.4  bricks,  firewood  o f i n c r e a s e i n t h e v o l u m e of m a r k e t a b l e  of g r o s s volume.  in  making  tobacco  85 p e r c e n t 75  O t h e r u s e s of  facilities.  t r e e s g r e a t e r than  the  factories  i n c o c o n u t and  kiln-drying  in  are  alternatives.  c h a r c o a l because of  Laboratory  in Montreal,  Melbourne,  u s e d t o make g o o d p a p e r , h a r d b o a r d  and  Canada,  Australia,  of mixed t r o p i c a l  in  and  hardwoods  fibreboard.  It  126  was a l s o  shown  constraints  that  to  there  producing  were pulp  no and  insurmountable paper  f r o m a random m i x o f  t r o p i c a l woods f r o m w h i c h a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f and  very  problems  dense  wood  were  apparent  reconstituted al.,  board  might  in  from  1978; Kubes e t a l . ,  need  the  very  t o be e l i m i n a t e d . manufacturing  mixed  technical  light  Even  fewer  good-quality  t r o p i c a l hardwoods ( A u c h t e r e t  1978; P e t r o f f ,  1978;  Phillips  et. a l . ,  1978) . The  feasibility  of u s i n g the mixed  the f o r e s t s of M a l a y s i a t o produce tests  at  1978).  the  Forest  Research  Institute  1969.  i n Kepong  in  ( P e h , 1977;  the pulping properties  of  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e l i g h t a n d  medium h a r d b o a r d s were f o u n d t o be s u i t a b l e papers,  hardwoods from  p u l p h a s been d e m o n s t r a t e d  The I n s t i t u t e h a s been t e s t i n g  the indigenous s p e c i e s s i n c e  tropical  l i n e r b o a r d a n d c o r r u g a t i n g medium.  f o r f i n e and wrapping Certain  species  a s K e r u i n g ( D i p t e r o c a r p u s s p p . ) m i g h t have t o be removed  such  because  of t h e i r h i g h r e s i n c o n t e n t . The  results  reflected  of  t h e s e s t u d i e s a n d o t h e r r e s e a r c h h a v e been  i n t h e t r e n d s i n wood u t i l i z a t i o n  industry.  The  manufacture  of p u l p and p a p e r ,  board,  and  i n c r e a s i n g use of mixed plywood,  by  the  tropical  timber-based  hardwood i n t h e  particle  board,  o t h e r r e c o n s t i t u t e d wood p r o d u c t s h a s been  fibre  discussed  earlier. The  opportunity to u t i l i z e  the f o r e s t would g r e a t l y  a l l o r , a t l e a s t , more s p e c i e s i n  increase  the  number  of  ecologically  sound o p t i o n s t o s i l v i c u l t u r i s t s and c o u l d p e r m i t t h e development of  t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h w o u l d n o t h a v e been p o s s i b l e p r e v i o u s l y  when  127  only a r e l a t i v e l y species  few  species  utilization  could  be  utilized.  With  i t w o u l d be more r e a d i l y p o s s i b l e t o manage  and use t h e f o r e s t a s i t i s , and l e s s n e c e s s a r y t o composition  of  any-  future  forests  to  the  few  restrict  species  the  that  are  currently marketable.  H a r v e s t i n g o p e r a t i o n s w o u l d be e a s i e r  and  cheaper  unused  the  if  hitherto  profitability the  o f t h e o p e r a t i o n s w o u l d be  o t h e r w i s e unused  1978).  t i m b e r were a l s o h a r v e s t e d and  t i m b e r (Youngs  Any-species u t i l i z a t i o n  c a p i t a l and t o c l e a r  i m p r o v e d by t h e v a l u e o f  e t a l . , 1978;  E w e l and  c o u l d a l s o be e m p l o y e d  land for plantations  (Palmer,  Condo,  to  raise  1978).  F o u r b r o a d s i l v i c u l t u r a l a l t e r n a t i v e s h a v e been s u g g e s t e d Youngs heavy  et  a l . (1978)  metres  Natural  size (Ewel  could and  regeneration  natural  forests  regenerate trees.  Condo, would  strong  Many o f t h e t r e e s advanced  s t a n d s , a l t h o u g h some new  the  germinating  natural  subsequent  seeds.  1978;  The  The All  al.,  1978).  of  of  about 1981).  f o l l o w b e c a u s e most o b s e r v a t i o n s i n  that  these  forests  winds have blown i n t h e new  stands  growth a l r e a d y trees arise  from  are  adapted  down n a r r o w seem  to  to  strips come  of  from  s t a r t e d beneath the o l d either  sprouting  or  Narrow openings would p r o b a b l y e n a b l e  narrow  approximated  openings would prevent a  of m i c r o c l i m a t e which would  effects  is  stems  s t r i p s of  clearcutting  in  the  greater  i n c r e a s e the p r o p o r t i o n  f a s t - g r o w i n g , s h o r t - l i v e d p i o n e e r s p e c i e s , and w o u l d negative  first  Tisseverasinghe,  s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n t o be b e s t crops.  alteration  reqeneration.  be h a r v e s t e d i n n a r r o w  indicate  after  pre-established  newly  E w e l and Condo ( 1 9 7 8 ) .  removal c u t t i n g w i t h n a t u r a l  merchantable 100  and  by  reduce  o v e r a l a r g e a r e a (Youngs  of the et  1 28  A second a l t e r n a t i v e i s p a r t i a l strata  i n the  tropical  f o r e s t s c o u l d be  shelterwood  and  in  the  again  cited and  been  chipped  advocated  so  species  pure  practice  i n the  area the  The  i n the  in  the  yield  soil,  of  fire,  singly  planting. soil  tropics.  A  attractive. herbicides,  or  the  were  seedlings,  than  most  existing  of  trees  be  the  1970  harvested and  other  f o r e s t and  or mixed s p e c i e s .  T h i s has  With fast-growing peeler-logs,  species  the  plant  been  i n c r e a s i n g number o f  This or  mechanical  forest  possibility  in  treatments  i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of  combination  land  involve of  the  sites  for  damage  that  with  of  depend  and on  supplemental  1978)  i s the  taungya system or  U n d e r t h i s o p t i o n , t h e p l a n t i n g and  initial  forest  f a r m e r s who,  are  of  soil  measures  the  suitable  option would normally  silvicultural  a l o n e or  fourth option  trees  small  top  i s enhanced.  i t c a r r i e s more r i s k  (Young e t a l . ,  permitted  species  P h i l i p p i n e s (Nicholson,  s m a l l t r e e s were t o  in combination,  regeneration  planting  the  of t h e s e p r o d u c t s f r o m a r e l a t i v e l y modest  Therefore,  pests  natural  the  in  preferred  r e m o v a l of  i s to c l e a r c u t the  establishment  i s obviously use  done  inferior  the  r e s i d u a l stand  p u l p a n d / o r s a w t i m b e r and  sustained  the  f o r the  (single species)  plantations for  been  t h a t t h e g r o w t h o f young d i p t e r o c a r p s  A t h i r d option with  which  to l i b e r a t e  Recently,  i n Whitmore, 1975).  desirable  in  o r more o f  Malayan Uniform System i n which the m a r k e t a b l e ,  s t r a t a were removed. has  One  removed as has  system,  removed i n s e v e r a l s t a g e s  c.utting.  carried  out  by  t o grow f o o d c r o p s t o g e t h e r  agri-silviculture.  tending  w i t h the  of  the  as a r e w a r d , forest trees.  new are  129  The would  choice of s i l v i c u l t u r a l o p t i o n depend  particular  on  forest.  the The  ecological,  economic  area.  different  Two  discussing The  first  and  policy and  the  latter  is  is  highly  With  to  be  existing  harvesting  on  of  the  types  I f natural regeneration  the next  after  of  these  included  quality  timber  be a c o n t i n u e d Spears  forests.  much  forests.  waste The  grow on t h e s i t e The n a t u r e  of the  operations  c r o p s c a n be  i s employed and  regeneration  harvest mixed  the  timber  of  the e x i s t i n g  tropical  result  would exotic,  or of indigenous  species. be  forest  species f o r  species for high-  timber.  Only the f i r s t are  mature avoid  p l a n t a t i o n s , e i t h e r of f a s t - g r o w i n g , p r o b a b l y  quality  in  subsequent  the  regeneration  pulpwood and/or u t i l i t y  the  of the f o r e s t s .  silvicultural  c r o p would c o n s i s t of  artificial  consider  the h a r v e s t of the former.  broad  successful  f o r the  considered  utilization  the  area  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  immediately  dependent  three  reasonably  forest,  turn,  e x i s t i n g c r o p s h a s been h a r v e s t e d .  least  envisaged.  policy  i s the subsequent c r o p t h a t w i l l  c a r r i e d o u t d u r i n g and a f t e r At  is  would  associated with the present  after  in  need  increased  resources  utilization  second resource  would,  resources  particular  management  institutional  planning  of these  Improved  long-term  for a  (1979),  in  two o f t h e a b o v e t y p e s this  study.  of  The t h i r d ,  while  increase i n  optimistic  i n c r e a s e , w a r n e d t h a t we s h o u l d  crops  p l a n t a t i o n s of h i g h -  s p e c i e s , w o u l d o n l y be p r o f i t a b l e real price  subsequent  i f t h e r e were t o  better-quality  hardwoods.  t h a t p r i c e s would c o n t i n u e t o  proceed  cautiously  with  large  130  scale  plantations  of  this  t y p e , and t h a t such p r o j e c t s  i n c o r p o r a t e a comprehensive monitoring systematic  review  of s i l v i c u l t u r a l  program w i t h p r o v i s i o n f o r  performance,timber p r o p e r t i e s ,  d i s e a s e p r o b l e m s , and t h e economic r a t e of r e t u r n b e i n g Most M a l a y s i a n therefore, not  h a r d w o o d s h a v e been m a r k e t e d  plantations  o f premium t i m b e r  be a m a j o r u n d e r t a k i n g  compensatory  shortage.  plantations  (Freezaillah,  area  consisting  of  Very l i t t l e  silvicultural  timber;  s p e c i e s would  probably  itself  least  not  i s f a c e d w i t h an  The FDPM i s e m b a r k i n g on a p r o g r a m o f to  produce  would n a t u r a l l y a  mix  would  fast-growing  budgets,  utility  utility-grade  4.1 assumes t h a t a f t e r a n y - t r e e  the harvest  the  achieved.  timber  1980).  Scenario  situation  as  i n Peninsular Malaysia, at  i n t h e near f u t u r e , because t h e P e n i n s u l a impending timber  should  occur  of  regenerate  species treatment  harvest  i n t o a second  growth  found i n the o r i g i n a l  forest.  would  be  and  required.  i f the s i t e s a r e not s u i t a b l e  s p e c i e s o r f o r premium t i m b e r  manpower  operations,  planting  stock  This  f o r any o f  production, or i f  a r e inadequate  f o r more  i n t e n s i v e management. Scenario PFE  a r e t o be c o n v e r t e d  species. of  4.2 assumes t h a t a l l t h e p r o d u c t i v e  This  harvest  actual  can  be  an u p p e r l i m i t  achieved  by  planting  stock.  The  the  sites,  Compensatory  budget,  Forest  f o r the  levels  i n Peninsular Malaysia.  l e v e l w h i c h i s p o s s i b l e w o u l d depend  imposed  i n the  i n t o p l a n t a t i o n s of f a s t - g r o w i n g , e x o t i c  scenario represents  that  areas  manpower  Plantation  on and  the  The  limitations  a v a i l a b i l i t y of  Project  planned  to  131  e s t a b l i s h about produce  189 t h o u s a n d h e c t a r e s  general  (Freezaillah,  utility  on a r o t a t i o n o f a b o u t  15 y e a r s  1980; FDPM, 1 9 8 0 b ) .  The p r o j e c t was t o be  carried  of timber  Scenario  4.2  be  assumes  that  planted.  These  Albizzia  Blume.  falcataria  No i n d i c a t i o n o f  species  was g i v e n .  Project  growth  are  annual  Gmelina arborea  to  be  allocated  will  range o f end u s e s .  (MAI)  deglupta.  be p l a n t e d  i s the  r o t a t i o n of  20 in  estimated Scenario  i n equal  plantations  calculation  However,  the  with  was  project the  that  for  of  Peninsular  assumed document  long-range  Malaysia.  the  each  their  rate  instead  falcataria  i n order linear 10-year  These  the  and  species f o r the Also, a  15  years  to f a c i l i t a t e the  programming  model  intervals.  i n experimental  include Pinus  m e r k u s i i J u n g h . a n d de V r . , P.  MAI  species. of  of  t o t h e low mean  the  MAI f o r t h e f i v e  O t h e r e x o t i c s p e c i e s h a v e been p l a n t e d  G o r d o n , P.  and  deqlupta  4.2 assumes t h a t t h e f i v e  p r o p o r t i o n and  average  years  for Albizzia  incorporating a planning period with  in  because  i n t h e a n a l y s i s seems t o c o r r e s p o n d  increment  specified  Roxb.,  Barr  ( L . ) Fosb., and E u c a l y p t u s area  1980b)  rate', a n d t h a t some P i n u s c a r i b a e a w o u l d be p l a n t e d  used  Eucalyptus  (FDPM,  caribaea var hondurensis  the  i n the  The document s t a t e d t h a t G m e l i n a a r b o r e a a n d  because of i t s wider growth  f r o m 1996.  document  M a e s o p s i s e m i n i i w o u l d be g i v e n h i g h p r i o r i t y high  t o overcome  the f i v e species l i s t e d  species  Maesopsi s emini i Engl., Pinus Golf,  i n 1981 i n o r d e r  which i s p r o j e c t e d t o occur  Compensatory F o r e s t P l a n t a t i o n would  species to  timber  out d u r i n g a 15-year p e r i o d s t a r t i n g a shortage  of quick-growing  plots  k e s i y a Royle ex.  oocarpa Schiede,  and  1 32  Araucaria alba  species  (Fielding,  1972).  The p r o s p e c t s o f A g a t h i s  (Lam.) Foxw., one o f t h e few i n d i g e n o u s c o n i f e r s ,  explored  (Ismail,  in t r i a l  plots  (FAO, I 9 7 3 e ) . Forest  T h i s s c e n a r i o assumes t h a t managed  e x t e n s i v e management.  and  Management  forests  that  the  on t h e poor  selective  t o be u n s u i t a b l e critics  management  claimed.  Tang  in  the  hill  to the  forests  M a l a y s i a , as  in  a  suggested that  specific  be i n t e n s i v e l y managed.  crop,  especially  increment  than  had  because h i s r e s e a r c h  of these t r e e s  lower and t h a t  second  mortality  during the f i r s t  i n the regenerating f o r e s t s  been e x p e c t e d .  The l a r g e r  trees  may do so The  advanced within that  logging was  but  the  a  the was  higher stand smaller  vigorously.  trend  inevitable.  The  productivity  must  towards decreasing be  intensive forest  increased  to  forest area  i d e n t i f i e d i n s u l a r Southeast A s i a ,  management would  supply  volumes f o r domestic use and/or f o r e x p o r t . (1979)  on  i n the r e s i d u a l  d i d n o t show much g r o w t h r e s p o n s e t o ' r e l e a s e ' , trees  suitable  indicated year a f t e r  thesis  He w a r n e d  regeneration  a  some  Master's  relies  produce  seems  were p r o v e d  which  reduced c u t t i n g c y c l e ,  under  currently-  a g a i n s t a c c e p t i n g a s e l e c t i v e system to  were  remain  system i f the l a t t e r  (1976),  submitted to Oxford U n i v e r s i t y , areas  sites  I n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f f o r e s t , management  f o r the f o r e s t s of P e n i n s u l a r  have  good  sites  t o be one o f t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s practiced  also  1 9 6 6 b ) , b u t t h i s s p e c i e s h a s n o t grown r a p i d l y  6.1.5 S c e n a r i o 5: I n t e n s i v e  intensively  were  seems  mean  that  s i g n i f i c a n t timber Lanly  and  Clement  of which M a l a y s i a  isa  1 33  p a r t , as the s u b r e g i o n by t h e l o s s o f Malaysia  tropical  cannot  industries  i n t h e A s i a and closed  continue  to  hardwood maintain  s e c t o r based almost  entirely  unmanaged p r i m a r y D i p t e r o c a r p f o r e s t s Intensive percent  forest  t h e F a r E a s t most  management  o f t h e p r o d u c t i v e PFE,  forests. a  Peninsular  forestry  on  the  (Leslie,  l o c a t e d m a i n l y on  the r i d g e s  and  bottoms are u s u a l l y  with  mass s o i l creep  because  stocked  1975).  of the t o t a l  the h i l l  forest w i l l  area  is  likely  percent  will  percent  are  conventional The is  still  factors  be  (1975)  be w o r k e d .  and  projection  r e s e r v e d f o r roads  due and  road  was  only  50  of t h e  harvest  streams,  12  and  30 by  methods.  not c l e a r as  because the  would  characteristics the  be  manpower.  highly  of  commitment These  t o be c a r r i e d  the  of  the  i n M a l a y s i a where f o r e s t r y has m a i n l y  the l i q u i d a t i o n  and  it  treatments  understood  an  surface  networks,  funds  in  slow  t o r o c k s and  allocate  still  i n f l u e n c e of  p o o r l y s t o c k e d o r t o o s t e e p t o be e x p l o i t e d  i n t e n s i v e l y managed and  of  smaller  that  Nearly 8 percent  n a t u r e of t h e s i l v i c u l t u r a l  such  and  slopes  a r e a o f most o f t h e l o g g i n g c o m p a r t m e n t s i n  t o be u n p r o d u c t i v e  too  flow  The  50  which  T a n g ' s ( 1 9 7 6 ) e s t i m a t e o f 50 p e r c e n t  p r o b a b l y d e r i v e d from Burgess' percent  fewer  these a r e a s a r e under the  movement i n t h e f o r m of e a r t h  (Burgess,  of  w o u l d be p o s s i b l e on a b o u t  (Tang, 1976).  probably  forest  1979).  s t o c k e d w i t h Shorea c u r t i s i i  trees,  and  liquidation  are r i c h l y valley  affected  of t h e p r i m a r y  infant  stage.  forests.  However,  factors  out  dependent forests  on  to  be  government  to  are  not  well  been i n t h e  F o r e s t management the  intensification  form is of  134  management w o u l d p r o b a b l y liberating  the  start with  putting  natural regeneration  regeneration.  proved through  Other treatments  research to  manpower become a v a i l a b l e . with  regular  be  which  into  stands  are  from  devoid  of  w o u l d be a d d e d a s t h e y a r e  beneficial  and  These t r e a t m e n t s  and g e n e t i c a l l y  effort  i n the residual  competing v e g e t a t i o n and i n p l a n t i n g areas such  more  as  budgets  and  may i n c l u d e p l a n t i n g  improved s t o c k , s p a c i n g , t h i n n i n g ,  p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t p e s t s and d i s e a s e , p r u n i n g  and f e r t i l i z a t i o n .  6.1.6 S c e n a r i o  Forestry Practice  This very  6: C o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e C u r r e n t  scenario represents  extensive nature  the continuation  of f o r e s t r y o p e r a t i o n s .  of  the  Logging  current, operations  were assumed t o remove o n l y t h e l a r g e t r e e s o f t h e most d e s i r a b l e species;  the  prevailing lower  yield  of  per hectare  i n the l a s t decade.  bound f o r t i m b e r  6.1.7 S c e n a r i o s These  timber  This  production  Malaysia.  (1980) a n d Chong Scenario (PPF)  were  forests cycle  This  would  the  o f t h e FDPM P l a n  two a d a p t a t i o n s  plan  of  the  vas  of the p l a n  forest  drawn  resources  of  d e s c r i b e d by F r e e z a i l l a h  (1979a).  7.1 assumes t h a t t h e p r i m a r y  forests  in  the  PFE  managed on a 3 0 - y e a r c u t t i n g c y c l e a n d t h e s e c o n d a r y  i n t h e PFE ( P S F ) on a 5 0 - y e a r c u t t i n g c y c l e .  f o r t h e PSF was s h o r t e r  specified  show  from t h e p e n i n s u l a .  up by t h e FDPM f o r t h e management Peninsular  scenario  7.1 a n d 7.2: A d a p t a t i o n  scenarios represent  remains a t the l e v e l  in  the  than  the  55-year  The c u t t i n g  cutting  cycle  FDPM p l a n ; t h i s a d j u s t m e n t was made t o e n a b l e  t h e management s i t u a t i o n  t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n a m o d e l  employing  135  10-year  planning  was  recommended i n t h e  also  based the  the  intervals.  estimates  timber  (PSF)  because the  The  per  FAO  are  than  the  the  to y i e l d  the  i n the PPF  and  assumed  cutting cycle (PPF)  shorter PPF  plan  than  on  produce forests  cutting  cycle.  h a v e been h a r v e s t e d and  same t i m b e r v o l u m e , e v e n t h o u g h t e c h n i c a l l y t h e y  are  basic the  to  FDPM  partially-harvested a  cycle  s h o r t 30-year c u t t i n g c y c l e  partially-harvested that  The  forests  subsequent f o r e s t s growing a f t e r the the  50-year c u t t i n g  plan.  primary  managed on  were assumed t o be managed on  the  (1978a)  Thus, the  hectare PPF  shorter  of y i e l d more on  forest conditions.  less  The  forests.  This assumption  s c e n a r i o where t h e  PSF  is  different  regenerated forests  are  treated  the  same t i m b e r v o l u m e u n d e r t h e  yield  i n an  from  i n both  i d e n t i c a l manner; t h e y  are  same c u t t i n g  cycle. S c e n a r i o 7.2 only  addition  primary  is  forests  a n d / o r 40 cutting  i s a n o t h e r a d a p t a t i o n of another  (PPF)  could  y e a r s , and cycles  of  the 30,  40-year c u t t i n g c y c l e for  the  the  i n c l u s i o n of  that  specifying (Johnson for  the  early allow  the a  a n d / o r 50  a l . , 1977).  f l o w of  greater  years.  The  be  flexibility  The The  The  under  linear , interpolation  as  The was  the  rationale the  in  facilitated timber  harvest  variable  by  classes cycles  during  cutting  in scheduling the.harvest.  for  suggestion  alternative cutting  increases  attained.  (PSF)  30  the  for  allowing  of  y i e l d s under  t i m b e r w o u l d be  cutting cycle By  plan.  years long.  forests  alternative cutting cycle  smooth  could  40  50-year c u t t i n g c y c l e .  regenerated f o r e s t s , decades  FDPM  managed u n d e r c u t t i n g c y c l e s  were e s t i m a t e d by  more t h a n one et.  be  cycle  partially-harvested 40  y i e l d under the  planning  cutting  the  the  cycles  Constraints  1 36  which would o t h e r w i s e  limit  the p e r i o d i c harvest  w i t h a s i n g l e c u t t i n g c y c l e c o u l d be a v o i d e d t o be h a r v e s t e d The  even  areas  cutting  cycle  is  also  c o n s i s t e n t with the  s e l e c t i v e management s y s t e m where t h e c u t t i n g c y c l e  determined practice,  by a l l o c a t i n g  separately  for  the  different  the c u t t i n g c y c l e could vary  areas.  Thus,  and  management p o l i c y  6.2.1  Forest  b e t w e e n 30 a n d 50 y e a r s o r  1980,  the  forest area,  of P e n i n s u l a r  Malaysia,  as  of  the  end  of  of  the  were b a s e d  1976  deducting  a r e a s l o g g e d i n 1977 t o 1980.  1977  1979  and  as  The s i z e s o f t h e v a r i o u s  PFE and S t a t e l a n d F o r e s t s  areas  to  timber  yield,  information.  i s shown i n T a b l e 20.  of p r o d u c t i v e of  include  Area  The f o r e s t a r e a  (FDPM,  on  Areas  of  PFE  logged  1979 a n d a r e a s l o g g e d 1980 were e s t i m a t e d was  further  annual harvesting  categories estimates  logged  the  i n the Stateland  Forests  l o g g e d i n 1977 t o  i n the period  from l o g g i n g a c t i v i t i e s  assumed  that  in  i n 1977  the p e r i o d  areas c o n s i s t e d of e q u a l  proportion  in  1979.  i n 1980 were assumed t o be t h e same a s i n  partially-harvested forests.  about  of  1977a; 1 9 7 7 b ) ,  A r e a s o f PFE  areas of S t a t e l a n d F o r e s t s  end  1978 were a v a i l a b l e i n FDPM ( 1 9 8 0 a ) a n d FDPM A n n u a l R e p o r t  and  in  Data Data used i n the a n a l y s e s  It  is  longer.  6.2  to  plan  t o c u t t i n g c y c l e s of d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h s .  variable  Malaysian  levels in a  from  no  1978.  1977 t o 1980  proportions  T h e r e were  to  1979  of primary  published  data  o f p r i m a r y and p a r t i a l l y - h a r v e s t e d f o r e s t s  Table 22 Forest area as of December  Forest Category  Kelantan  Trengganu  Pahang  Johor  1980  N.Sembllan /Melaka  Selangor  Perak  Kedah/ P e r l 1s/ P.PInang  Peninsular Malaysia  thousand h e c t a r e s Permanent Forest Estate  898  579  1525  416  173  203  1014  389  5197  Product 1ve  518  383  961  399  124  130  522  238  3275  Primary  178  108  186  191  46  12  245  76  1042  P a r t i a l l y harvested  340  275  775  208  78  118  277  162  2233  PS1  247  134  457  82  0  70  127  100  1217  PS2  93  141  318  126  78  48  150  62  1016  Unproduct1ve  380  198  564  17  49  73  492  151  1922  Stateland Forest  110  15S  733  0  76  31  0  18  1 124  1493  1295  3597  1898  830  820  2100  1125  13159  Total  Land Area  Note: PS 1 « p a r t i a l l y harvested f o r e s t s PS2 = p a r t i a l l y harvested f o r e s t s  In the PFE. logged b e f o r e 1971 In the PFE. logged s i n c e 1971  1 38  o p e n e d up e a c h y e a r ; h o w e v e r , t h e FDPM p l a n f o r f o r e s t  management  indicated  that,  been  thousand  ha  harvested  f o r e s t s , and t h a t  reversed:  i n 1978, t h e p r o p o r t i o n  primary  41.8  thousand  partially-harvested Only  forests  to  from  be c o n v e r t e d  (Chong,  to  timber.  The p r o d u c t i v e PFE c o n s i s t s  protective  portion  of  (PSF).  were n o t e x p e c t e d  timber.  The  rubber  considered b r i e f l y In S c e n a r i o s PFE  were  the  higher  older  Forests forest  divided  the  Other  t o produce  forests  areas,  (PPF) and  such  as  the  Parks and W i l d l i f e  significant  and  Stateland  volumes  mangrove f o r e s t s  will  of be  forests  be c o n v e r t e d  i n t h e PFE  to agriculture  i n the  l o g g e d b e f o r e 1971  order  v o l u m e due t o g r o w t h o v e r forests  forests  to  recognize  longer time  (PPF)  and  i n the  Stateland  (ACF) were t h e o t h e r two  classes.  good  primary  ha  and  1971 ( P S 2 ) , i n  I n S c e n a r i o 5, i n t e n s i v e the  t o 36.8 t h o u s a n d  of primary  i n t o those  logged a f t e r  The p r i m a r y  to  is  were e x p e c t e d  produce  plantations  proportion  1 t o 5, t h e p a r t i a l l y - h a r v e s t e d  timber  PS 1.  to  ha p a r t i a l l y -  later.  further  (PS 1) a n d t h o s e  PFE  t h e PFE, t h e N a t i o n a l  Reserves,  40.5  1979a).  to agriculture  forests  thousand  forests  i n the  Forests  logged  have  1979 o n w a r d s t h e  the productive forests  partially  55.4  ha p r i m a r y  forests  should  s i t e s which  forest  i n the  partially-harvested  f o r e s t management was s p e c i f i e d  were assumed t o c o n s i s t  of o n e - h a l f  PFE  each  and  forests  s e v e n management u n i t s a s  one-half  i n the PFE.  follows:  of  of  There were,  on  of the  the  two  therefore,  139  Code  Management U n i t  PPH  S1H S1L S2H S21 ACF  I n S c e n a r i o 6, o n l y two the  not broken because  PFE  (PFE)  down  the  into  yield  and  management  primary data  and  for this  forest conditions.  f o r e s t a r e a was  divided  the  PFE  and  into  in  i n t h e PFE  Scenarios  t h e end  of  The  1 t o 4.2.  1980  proportions  of  ha  of  PPF  and  PPF  and  608.5 508 508 1124  were  I n S c e n a r i o s 7.1 management  The  were a s  in Scenarios  PSF  The  PFE  forests  Scenarios  i n t h e PFE were  2023 t h o u s a n d  1  were a s  assumed  and  7.2,  the  Two  of  1 t o 4.2.  The  to  to  age  groups  a r e a was 4.2  as  but  consist  ha of PSF.  The  of  1977  forests.  and  of the  subsequent  1252  FDPM p l a n  c a t e g o r y as  i n t o the second  as  i n t h e FDPM p l a n .  assumed t h a t t h e management r e g i m e f o r e a c h f o r e s t would c o n t i n u e  was  partially-harvested  e x t e n t of the f o r e s t in  specified,  units.  n o t c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o two  ha o f PFE  608.5  s c e n a r i o d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e  c o n s i s t e d of t h e  as s p e c i f i e d  3275 t h o u s a n d  thousand  b u t was  521  partially-harvested  three  t h e ACF,  t h i r d management u n i t , PSF, forests  units  521  S t a t e l a n d F o r e s t s (ACF).  b e t w e e n t h e two  them,  Area  good s i t e s i n t h e p r i m a r y f o r e s t o f t h e PFE poor s i t e s i n the p r i m a r y f o r e s t s of t h e PFE good s i t e s i n t h e p a r t i a l l y - h a r v e s t e d f o r e s t s o f t h e PFE l o g g e d b e f o r e 1971 poor s i t e s i n the p a r t i a l l y - h a r v e s t e d f o r e s t s o f t h e PFE l o g g e d b e f o r e 1971 good s i t e s i n t h e p a r t i a l l y - h a r v e s t e d f o r e s t s of t h e PFE l o g g e d b e f o r e 1971 poor s i t e s i n the p a r t i a l l y - h a r v e s t e d f o r e s t s o f t h e PFE l o g g e d b e f o r e 1971 SLF t o be c o n v e r t e d t o a g r i c u l t u r e  PPL  namely  Description  of  1 40  6.2.2  Timber  Yield  Timber y i e l d forests after  and  was  for  estimated  separately  for  the r e g e n e r a t e d f o r e s t s which  the e x i s t i n g  the  existing  grow on t h e  area  f o r e s t s h a v e been h a r v e s t e d .  6.2.2.1 Y i e l d s f r o m t h e S t a n d i n g F o r e s t s The  yields  scenarios for  from  the  are given i n Table  f o r e s t s at v a r i o u s ages;  the  Timber  RAM  of h a r v e s t s . trees.  The  existing 21.  The  t h i s was  model w h i c h was  forests  for  the  y i e l d s h a v e been done t o a d a p t  1 0  employed to c a l c u l a t e  i s not e s s e n t i a l  specified  the  T h e s e a g e s were n o t t h e a c t u a l a g e s of actual age  various  data the  stream  the  i n T i m b e r RAM.  to  forest Age  is  j u s t a means t o a s s i g n y i e l d  t o e a c h management u n i t  in  A more r e l e v a n t p i e c e of d a t a i s t h e  a  particular  period.  number of y e a r s t h e t i m b e r c o n t e n t  in partially  r e q u i r e s t o grow t o t h e o r i g i n a l v o l u m e i n t h e The  existing  old,  the p a r t i a l l y - h a r v e s t e d  years  old  stateland  and  primary  forests  (PPF)  as P S 1 ,  primary  forests forests.  were assumed t o be 40  1971  (PS2)  f o r e s t s or a g r i - c o n v e r s i o n f o r e s t s  t o be of t h e same age  harvested  f o r e s t s logged before  those logged a f t e r  i f harvested  (PS1)  20  10 y e a r s o l d .  The  (ACF)  1971  years  were  assumed  i . e . , 20 y e a r s o l d .  We do n o t know t h e a g e s of t h e s e t r e e s . A r e c e n t w o r k s h o p on age and growth rate for tropical trees concluded that our inability t o a c c u r a t e l y d e t e r m i n e age o r g r o w t h r a t e of t r o p i c a l t r e e s a c c o u n t s f o r our l a c k of u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t r o p i c a l f o r e s t s , one o f t h e l e a s t known e c o s y s t e m s i n the world (Bormann and Berlyn, 1981). A state-of-knowledge r e p o r t (UNESCO/UNEP/FAO, 1978a) c i t e d e s t i m a t e s o f 200-450 y e a r s a s t h e maximum a g e s f o r Malaysian d i p t e r o c a r p s ( W y a t t - S m i t h , 1968) and up t o 1400 y e a r s f o r B a l a n o c a r p u s H e i m i i K i n g ( P o o r e , 1968). 0  141  Table 23 Y i e l d from the E x i s t i n g  Forest Categories  Secanrio  20  Forests  Age (years) 60 30 40 50 m  3  70  per ha  5  good  site  51  73  91  91  91  5  poor  site  41  59  74  74  74  63  -  -  -  -  -  36  36  36  36  1 , 3.1, 2 4.1,  4.2  3.2  all  forests  44  63  79  79  79  all  forests  54  78  96  96  96  all  forests  173  208  245  245  245  5  ACF  44  6  PFE  -  6  ACF  24  24  -  -  -  -  7.1 , 7.2  PPF  -  -  55  61  61  61  7.1,  7.2  PSF  65  74  74  74  74  7.1,  7.2  ACF  28  28  -  -  -  -  . Note: ACF PFE PPF PSF  = = = =  S t a t e l a n d f o r e s t s to be converted to a g r i c u l t u r e Permanent F o r e s t E s t a t e Primary f o r e s t s i n the PFE P a r t i a l l y h a r v e s t e d f o r e s t s i n the PFE  I t i s assumed t h a t , at age 40 y e a r s , the f o r e s t s reach dynamic equilibrium where mortality balances growth. Y i e l d s a r e , t h e r e f o r e , constant af  142  In  Scenarios  1, 3.1 a n d 3.2 t h e e x i s t i n g PPF w o u l d y i e l d 79  m /ha i f h a r v e s t e d w i t h i n  t h e next  3  w o u l d be 40 t o 60 y e a r s o l d . old  partially-harvested  harvested the  following  (PS2) now and  i n t h e next  30 y e a r s , t h a t i s ,  The e x i s t i n g s t a n d s  forests  when  i n t h e 20-year-  (PS1) would y i e l d  44 m /ha i f 3  10 y e a r s , a n d 63 m /ha i f h a r v e s t e d  within  3  decade.  they  The y o u n g e r p a r t i a l l y - h a r v e s t e d  forests  were assumed t o be h a r v e s t a b l e o n l y s t a r t i n g 10 y e a r s to  produce  from  44 m /ha when t h e f o r e s t s w o u l d be 20 y e a r s o l d 3  63 m /ha when t h e y a r e 30 y e a r s o l d . 3  In S c e n a r i o trees  i n t h e dbh  harvested. 4.2  2 the y i e l d class  would 30  to  be  higher  46 cm were a l s o  The y i e l d w o u l d be e v e n h i g h e r  because  because  smaller  assumed t o be  i n Scenarios  4.1  and  a l l t r e e s down t o a d b h o f 15 cm were assumed t o be  removed i n h a r v e s t i n g . The gross  y i e l d s f o r Scenarios  marketable  volume  1 to  i n the forest  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the average f o r e s t timber 1972  content forest  inventory data.  averaging logged  harvested  Appendix IV.  t imber.  from  of average s i t e ,  from t h e p r i m a r y  by t h e i r a r e a s .  forests  (PS1  and  The y i e l d  PS2)  The t i m b e r  The y i e l d  estimates  of  contents  i n these  i n the  The the  forests  from  good the  was c a l c u l a t e d by  forest  from t h e p a r t i a l l y - h a r v e s t e d the growth  the  i.e., a  volumes i n t h e s u p e r i o r ,  t h e timber volumes i n t h e l i g h t l y - l o g g e d  forests.  included  derived  of Peninsular M a l a y s i a .  The y i e l d  the timber  medium f o r e s t s , w e i g h t e d  partially  were  o f t h e a v e r a g e f o r e s t h a s been e s t i m a t e d - f r o m  was d e r i v e d by a v e r a g i n g and  4.2  and  heavily-  are given i n forests  also  s t a n d i n g volume o f  143  The are  gross marketable  shown  allowances  i n Table  24.  f o r defects  estimate net commercial trees of  less  than  60 cm d b h .  FDPMP  (FAO,  volumes i n t h e f o r e s t s of average From t h e s e g r o s s m a r k e t a b l e  and  logging  volume.  waste  were  1978a).  deducted  to  factors  Marketable  f o rt r e e s i n excess  were  species  derived  Category  l o w e r dbh 15  from  the  c o n s i s t e d of a l l the  T a b l e 24 Average g r o s s volumes i n t h e f o r e s t s of average  Forest  volumes,  The d e d u c t i o n was 40 p e r c e n t f o r  60 cm i n d b h a n d 30 p e r c e n t  These r e d u c t i o n  site  site  l i m i t (cm)  30  .46  61  m /ha 3  (A) P r i m a r y f o r e s t s A l l species Marketable species  305.7 187.6  211.8 1 45.0  1 55.6 1 1 6.6  1 08. 2 88. 1  (B) P a r t i a l l y h a r v e s t e d forests A l l species Marketable species  216.5 126.5  137.6 89.4  93 .0 65 .2  58. 8 44. 1  s p e c i e s grouped as f u l l y marketable the which  1972  forest  inventory.  were " p a r t i a l l y  (FAO,  197.3a)  by t h e t i m b e r omitted  marketable  I t was assumed t h a t t r e e  marketable  or  having  future  industry.  In  the yield  reality, list,  some  species  species  accepted  have  been  a n d o t h e r s have been a d d e d .  o f 79 m /ha f r o m t h e p r i m a r y 3  in  potential"  i n 1972 h a v e , i n t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s , been  from t h e m a r k e t a b i l i t y  Thus  and p a r t i a l l y  f o r e s t , PFE,  in  1 44  Scenarios in  1.  3.1 a n d 3.2, was t h e sum o f 70 p e r c e n t o f  t r e e s a b o v e 61 cm d b h a n d 60 p e r c e n t o f t h e 28.5 m  t o 61 d b h c l a s s .  The y i e l d s  yield  of  44  yield 61  harvested  m /ha 3  from  forests  the the  of  dbh  class.  i n t h e 46  3  20-year-old  timber  average  i s t h e sum o f 70 p e r c e n t o f 44.1 m  cm  3  manner.  h a r v e s t e d f o r e s t s was d e r i v e d f r o m partially  m  f o r t h e PPF i n S c e n a r i o s 2, -4.1 a n d  4.2 have been d e r i v e d i n a s i m i l a r The  88.1  a n d 60 p e r c e n t o f t h e 21.1 m  The y i e l d a t age 30 y e a r s was  content  site  of the  (Table 24).  i n trees  3  partially-  This  greater  than  i n t h e 45 t o 61 cm d b h  3  calculated  by  adding  20  p e r c e n t p e r decade t o t h e e x i s t i n g  g r o s s volume i n each dbh c l a s s  and  ingrowth  then  growing grow  including  t h e volume  i n t o t h e minimum dbh c l a s s ;  i n d b h a t 0.8 cm p e r y e a r .  the  trees  cutting  system the  cycles)  (FAO, 1 9 7 8 a ) ,  FAO  under  (1976,  from t h e p a r t i a l l y - h a r v e s t e d result and  of  assumed  (harvesting  the Malaysian selective  a n d t h e dbh g r o w t h  ( 1 9 7 8 a ) a n d Tang  were  T h i s volume i n c r e m e n t  i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f management r e g i m e and  due t o s m a l l e r t r e e s  1977).  forests  t h e volume growth  r a t e s were  at  was u s e d intensity  management  estimates  Thus t h e 63 m /ha 30  years  of  yield  3  age  to  i s the  i n t h e t r e e g r e a t e r t h a n 46 cm d b h  t h e volume i n g r o w t h from t h e next  lower,  30  to  46  cm  dbh  class. By  age  40,  partially-harvested as t h e p r i m a r y stands  that  i s 40 y e a r s a f t e r  the l a s t harvest, the  f o r e s t s were assumed t o y i e l d  forests.  From age 30  to  40  w o u l d be c r o w d e d a n d t h e b a s a l a r e a  t o r e a c h t h e p l a t e a u a s h y p o t h e s i z e d by B a u r  t h e same v o l u m e  years, increment (1968)  the  forest  was assumed and  Dawkins  1 45  (1958) .  The y i e l d a t age 40 y e a r s was, t h e r e f o r e , n o t e x p e c t e d  to surpass  t h e y i e l d o f 79 m /ha f r o m  1 1  3  the primary  forests  which  was  considered  the y i e l d corresponding  area  increment.  The y i e l d s f r o m PS 1 a n d PS2 i n S c e n a r i o s 2,  and  t o the plateau of basal  4.2 were a l s o d e r i v e d i n t h i s way f r o m In  Scenario  5, y i e l d d a t a  f o r t h e ACF.  The y i e l d s f r o m  good s i t e s were c a l c u l a t e d  from  t h e s u p e r i o r a n d good f o r e s t s  The  yields  derived  from  moderate  the primary  forests  1972  The  the  on  gross  and  f o r e s t s on t h e  the partially-harvested  volumes data.  t h e p o o r s i t e s were the  net marketable shown  average  inventory  t h e average of t h e timber volumes i n  forests.  from  the primary  i n the  these.three q u a l i t i e s of f o r e s t s a r e yield  t h e PFE a n d  t h e average of t h e timber  from  from  the inventory data.  f o r t h r e e f o r e s t c a t e g o r i e s were  e s t i m a t e d : t h e good a n d p o o r s i t e s f r o m site  4.1  good  and  volumes  from  i n Table  25.  The  forests  i n t h e s e two s i t e s  were e s t i m a t e d a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between t h e y i e l d s  f o r t h e v a r i o u s a g e s were t h e same a s i n t h e f o r e s t s sites.  The  yields  percent h i g h e r than and  from  the  average  s i t e s were c o n s i s t e n t l y  15  t h o s e on t h e a v e r a g e s i t e s f o r t h e same a g e s ,  on t h e p o o r s i t e s t h e y i e l d s  lower.  good  on  were  consistently  6  percent  T h i s s i m p l i f i c a t i o n h a s been i n t r o d u c e d b e c a u s e t h e 1972  Increment i n b a s a l a r e a was h y p o t h e s i z e d t o i n c r e a s e a s t h e b a s a l a r e a i n c r e a s e s . Then t h e b a s a l a r e a i n c r e m e n t w o u l d level off, before declining. B a u r (1968) e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e p l a t e a u was r e a c h e d when t h e s t a n d b a s a l a r e a was b e t w e e n 32.2 a n d 52.9 m /ha for tropical rainforests, represented by t h e SJhoreaD i p t e r o c a r p u s and Dryobalanops f o r e s t s of P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a . Dawkins (1958) e s t i m a t e d that the basal area i n the primary f o r e s t s was 31 m /ha a n d s u g g e s t e d t h a t a r e d u c t i o n t o b e t w e e n 18 and 24 m /ha was n e e d e d t o b o o s t g r o w t h . 1  2  2  2  1 46  T a b l e 25 Average g r o s s volumes i n t h e t h r e e q u a l i t y c l a s s e s of f o r e s t s  Forest  lower 46-61  Categories'  dbh  l i m i t (cm) 61 + total  m  p e r ha  3  (A) G r o s s m a r k e t a b l e v o l u m e Superior Good Moderate  30.0 29.7 26.7  114.1 95.2 67.3  1 44. 1 1 24.9 94.0  (B) N e t m a r k e t a b l e v o l u m e Superior Good Moderate  18.0 17.8 16.0  inventory data  d i d not c l a s s i f y  into  classes  for  quality the primary  higher  79.9 66.6 47. 1  the p a r t i a l l y  97.9 84.4 63. 1  harvested  forests  o f s u p e r i o r , good a n d m o d e r a t e f o r e s t s a s  forests.  on t h e good s i t e s ,  In real  life,  and lower  the growth r a t e would  on t h e p o o r s i t e s ;  be  therefore,  t h e p a r t i a l l y - h a r v e s t e d f o r e s t s on t h e good s i t e s w o u l d r e a c h t h e original yield  volumes  of the primary  f r o m t h e ACF was assumed t o be t h e same a s f r o m t h e  on a v e r a g e In  Scenario  6,  average outturns  estimates  forest  yields  were  the  36 m /ha, a n d 3  estimates  f o r the  from t h e f o r e s t c a t e g o r i e s i n t h e p e r i o d  as d e s c r i b e d yields  t h e PFE was assumed t o y i e l d  These  3  The  The  sites.  t h e ACF 24 m '/ha.  1980,  f o r e s t s i n a shorter time.  1971 t o  i n C h a p t e r 3. in  Scenarios  i n t h e FDPM p l a n .  7.1 a n d 7.2 were d e r i v e d f r o m t h e  The p l a n s p e c i f i e d  yield  estimates  147  under  cutting  forests  cycles  of  under a c u t t i n g  f r o m t h e FDPM p l a n .  yields  cycle  o f 30  years  plan  and  S c e n a r i o 7.2.  from  the  the  PPF  yields  The i n c r e a s e  Yield  and  under  a  Period  30  1976-1980 1981-1990 1991 a n d b e y o n d  appropriate per as  o f 40 a n d 50  are given cutting  i n T a b l e 26  cycle  40-year c u t t i n g  i n the cycle for  i n the y i e l d e s t i m a t e over  time  was  to "increasing  Cycles i n Years 40  m  increase  cycles  directly  T a b l e 26 f o r t h e PFE assumed i n t h e FDPM P l a n  Planning  and  taken  from t h e  interpolation.  PSF  Cutting  attributed  were  using s t r a i g h t - l i n e  t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e y i e l d s under a 55-year FDPM  The y i e l d s  The y i e l d s u n d e r c u t t i n g  y e a r s were c a l c u l a t e d The  30 a n d 55 y e a r s .  35 55 61  50 p e r ha  3  —  —  60 68  65 74  35 67 77  d o m e s t i c demand, t e c h n o l o g i c a l  i n h a r v e s t i n g e f f i c i e n c y and regulatory  55  measures"  introduction  (Chong, I 9 7 9 a : 3 8 5 ) .  changes of  more  The y i e l d s  h e c t a r e f r o m t h e s u b s e q u e n t c r o p s were assumed t o be t h e same t h e y i e l d from t h e e x i s t i n g  forests  a s s u m e d t o y i e l d 28 m /ha a s s p e c i f i e d 3  in  1991.  i n t h e FDPM  The plan.  ACF  was  148  6.2.2.2 Y i e l d s f r o m t h e R e g e n e r a t e d The 27.  yields  from t h e r e g e n e r a t e d  The v o l u m e s o f t i m b e r  ranging  i n the l a s t  22.4  have  species  also  occurred  been  derived  mortality  Stocking data estimated  rates  at  and  (Scenario  by  growth  have  (1978a) and A n d e l 0.8 cm  i n dbh p e r y e a r  Finally,  the  cm  applying  logs  rates  Scenarios  estimates  in  the  of  logging  residual  L o g g i n g damage  dbh  and  30  stands.  has  percent  (FAO, 1978a; A n d e l ,  been  were  assumed  at  adapted  from  for  1978). 20  been  trees  Mortality  percent  per  per decade f o r t r e e s  f o r t r e e s 30 cm dbh Tang  and  greater.  (1976, 1977),  FAO  The t r e e s h a v e been assumed t o grow a t  (FAO, 1978a;  estimates  smaller  d e s t r u c t i o n o f t r e e s 5 t o 15 cm d b h , 40  dbh  (1978).  the  3.1, 3.2 a n d 4 . 1 ) .  f o r t r e e s 5 t o 15 cm d b h , 15 p e r c e n t  figures  of  forests in  i n A p p e n d i x V.  15 t o 30 cm dbh and 10 p e r c e n t These  use  in  in  i n the r e s i d u a l stands  decade  An i n c r e a s e  from t h e s t o c k i n g (stems per h e c t a r e )  10 t o 30 cm  6), to a high  to  50 p e r c e n t  30  4.2). the  the  1  site  are given  for trees than  with  from t h e r e g e n e r a t e d  f o r e s t of average  damage,  (Scenario  2) a n d more s p e c i e s  The y i e l d s  if  from p l a n t a t i o n s of  3  growth  greater  (Scenario  m / h a / y e a r , w h i c h c o u l d be r e a l i z e d  (Scenario  increasing with  The g r o w t h i n v o l u m e b e t w e e n  d e c a d e were t o c o n t i n u e  volume  percent  the y i e l d  cycles  3  fast-growing  the  for cutting  r a n g e d f r o m a l o w o f 0.9 m / h a / y e a r ,  exotic,  3.2  produced are given  l e n g t h of c u t t i n g c y c l e .  successive harvests  of  f o r e s t s a r e shown i n T a b l e  i n l e n g t h f r o m 20 t o 50 y e a r s ,  increasing  trend  Forests  of  timber  dbh's were b a s e d on t h e g e n e r a l  Andel,  1978;  Tang,  1976).  volume f o r t r e e s of v a r i o u s  volume t a b l e f o r h i l l  forests  of  Yield  Scenario  T a b L e 27 from t h e r e g e n e r a t e d  forests.  Cutting Cycle (years)  Forest Category 20  30  40  50  Y i e l d i n m /ha (PAI i n m /ha) 3  3  1  all  forests  2  all  forests  3.1  all  forests  3.2  all  forests  4.1  indigenous mixed f o r e s t s  4.1  fast-growing exotic spp.  5  good  sites  5  poor  sites  -  6  all  forests  -  7.1  PPF  7.1  PSF  7.2 7.2  ' PPF PSF  49 (1.63) 64 (2.13) 55 (1 .83) 62 (2.07)  -  448 (22.4)  1 17 (3.90)  61 (2.03)  -  61 (2.03)  -  77 (1.93) 80 (2.00) 88 (2.20) 98 (2.45) 100 (2.50)  79 (1 .58) 96 (1 .92) 88 (1 .76) 98 (1 .96)  -  -  -  -  -  74 (1.85) 36 (0.90)  -  68 (1.70) 68 (1.70)  -  74 (1 .48)  -  74 (1 .48)  Note: PPF = P r i m a r y f o r e s t s i n t h e permanent f o r e s t e s t a t e PSF = P a r t i a l l y h a r v e s t e d f o r e s t s i n t h e permanent forest estate  150  P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a developed  f o r t h e 1972 f o r e s t  i n v e n t o r y (FAO,  1973c). The  periodic  1.93 m / h a / y e a r than  the  regeneration  increment  (PAI )  o f b e t w e e n 1.58 a n d  1 2  i n t h e b a s i c s c e n a r i o ( S c e n a r i o 1)  3  lower  annual  estimates c i t e d  of  the t r o p i c a l  i s generally  i n other works d e a l i n g w i t h t h e  forests.  However, t h e s e  estimates  a r e d i f f i c u l t t o compare b e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o n d i t i o n s of t h e f o r e s t s , of measurement. that  the  the s i l v i c u l t u r a l  a p p l i e d , a n d methods  F o r P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a , Tang  residual  stands a f t e r  a b o u t 2.5 m / h a / y e a r .  selection  (1980)  felling  d i p t e r o c a r p f o r e s t s were e x p e c t e d  estimated  c o u l d produce  He a d d e d t h a t , i f p r o p e r l y  3  regenerated  treatments  managed,  the  t o produce a t l e a s t  3.5 m / h a / y e a r . 3  Other estimates m /ha/year 3  (Andel,  1974b), t o as h i g h forests and  f o r P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a h a v e v a r i e d f r o m 2.2  (Campbell,  1978), as  17  through  3.5 t o 4.6 m / h a / y e a r (FAO,  m /ha/year 3  3  f o r managed  1980 c i t i n g Wood, 1 9 7 4 ) .  However, Tang ( 1 9 8 0 )  Wood ( 1 9 7 4 ) d i d n o t e l a b o r a t e on t h e i n t e n s i t y  w h i c h they assumed, and t h e h i g h e s t i m a t e s have  apparently  been  Tang's (1980) e s t i m a t e figure  were  probably  lowered  dipterocarp  of  o f management  the  FAO  (1974b)  i n a l a t e r a n a l y s i s (FAO, 1 9 7 5 c ) .  f o r the r e s i d u a l  s t a n d and Andel's  i n terms of gross volume.  (1980)  I f the current  p r a c t i c e of deducting  b e t w e e n 30 a n d 40 p e r c e n t  This i s the average timber volume a t time The v o l u m e j u s t a f t e r c u t t i n g c y c l e , i s not  growth rate calculated by d i v i d i n g t h e o f h a r v e s t by t h e l e n g t h o f c u t t i n g c y c l e . harvest, that i s at the beginning of a zero as i n c l e a r c u t .  1 2  f o r defects  and  151  damage  were  estimates the  applied,  of volume  basis  mortality  low  probably  to as high  between  (1976). cut  of growth  He  i n a  1 and  selection (1973)  estimate  forests  was  m /ha/year  m /ha/year.  Miller's  Indonesian  selectively  3  estimate within  In  as  and  by assuming be  of  o f 2  t h e volume  i n  35  years.  2.9  t o 4.3  m /ha/year  f o r  3  forests  rain that  Catinot's  dense  i s  Johnson  predicted  3  and  West A f r i c a n  by  produce  to  forests  high  the Nigerian  (1974)  as  estimate  that  replaced  from  tropical  The mean  growth  figures  ranged  estimated  Tagudar  logged f o r  of growth  f o r managed  i n the Phillipines  (1980)  that  (1972)  also  f a l l  range.  Scenario  4.1, t h e i n d i g e n o u s ,  area  after  at  2.5  m /ha/year.  any-tree  yield  from  a  This  estimate  comparison  regenerating  hectare  harvest At  3  a  species  Palmer  remarked  tropical  that  even  another  forests were  forests  of using  forests f o r  this study  with  the low  which  would  by G a n g u l i  be  by P a l m e r wood  to  grow  from  100  3  naturally  of  growth  (1971)  m .  (1978) i n  plantations of  of  on  therefore, the  manufacture rate  grow  assumed  o f 40 y e a r s ,  the estimates  merits  a s raw m a t e r i a l  he c i t e d  operations  rotation  from  of the relative mixed  mixed  of the regenerated  was d e r i v e d  growing  optimistic;  have  1974).  w i l l  the  and  forests  3  the  a  system f o r  of 3 m /ha/year  this  Wood,  estimates  3  logged  workers  3  Lowe's  my  authors.  m /ha/year  felling  with  be n o t e d  the estimates  3  these  t a l l y  I t should  17 m / h a / y e a r  3  selectively  was  other  1980 c i t i n g  derived  2  two  from  as  should  i n logging.  by t h e s e  (Campbell,  estimates  calculations  developed  a s 0.5  forests  removed  - f o r my  Estimates  their  fastpaper. may  where  be the  1 52  growth  of  the  m /ha/year.  regenerated  Most  3  of  the  r e g e n e r a t i o n of t r o p i c a l rate  after  the  forests other  was  e s t i m a t e d as o n l y  works  dealing  f o r e s t s have f o c u s s e d  existing  with  o n l y on  the  f o r e s t s h a v e been s e l e c t i v e l y  0.5 the  growth logged.  T h e i r e s t i m a t e s of growth r a t e s a r e , t h e r e f o r e , f o r  comparatively  bigger  the  trees  left  as  advance  regeneration  in  residual  forests. The derived cited  yield from the  f o r the  from the p l a n t a t i o n s of f a s t - g r o w i n g s p e c i e s s i m p l e a v e r a g e of t h e MAI  five  P r o j e c t document  (FDPM,  31.5  Maesopsis emini i  35.0  Pinus caribaea  17.5  Albizzia  14.0  age  MAI  3  Plantation  1980b):  Gmelina arborea  average  ( i n m /ha/year)  s p e c i e s i n the Compensatory F o r e s t  falcataria  Eucalyptus  The  values  deglupta  i s 22.4  14.0  m / h a / y e a r , and 3  o f 20 y e a r s i s , t h e r e f o r e , 448  the y i e l d at a  other  species,  countries  site  protection  is  factors,  f a c t o r s , and  3  complicated  silvicultural data  d i f f e r e n t p r o v e n a n c e s and  by  factors  treatments,  specification.  on  soils  of  different  moisture  and  estimates  such  as  the  p a t h o l o g i c a l and  G r o w t h may  v a r i a t i o n s of a g i v e n s p e c i e s .  s p e c i e s g e n e r a l l y grows a t v a r i o u s r a t e s a t and  rotation  m /ha.  A c o m p a r i s o n of t h e s e growth e s t i m a t e s w i t h o t h e r for  was  different nutrient  vary A  with given  altitudes content.  1 53  Silvicultural  treatments  such as t h e  initial  tree  spacing  and  subsequent o p e r a t i o n s such as t h i n n i n g , p r u n i n g and f e r t i l i z a t i o n would  affect  t h e growth  of  d i s e a s e s , p e s t s and f i r e . the  estimates  may  Lastly,  vary;  The  growth  t r e e s a s w o u l d a n y damage by  t h e a c t u a l volume i n c l u d e d  in  some e s t i m a t e s may i n c l u d e t h i n n i n g s ,  o t h e r s may be m e a s u r e d o v e r v a r i o u s t o p diameter  the  b a r k , a n d t h e s e e s t i m a t e s may s p e c i f y  limits.  rate  f o r Gmelina  arborea,  as  cited  i n the  C o m p e n s a t o r y F o r e s t P l a n t a t i o n P r o j e c t d o c u m e n t , h a s been d e r i v e d from  t h e works  Sandrasegaran Malaysia the  (1966).  Japanese  Occupation  wood h a s been f o u n d p r i n t i n g papers, Gmelina arborea (1981), 31.5  Sandrasegaran  superseding  species.  I t was l a t e r p l a n t e d  e n c r o a c h e d by  illegal  during  the  ( F r e e z a i l l a h and Sandrasegaran,  1966.).  The  t o be s u i t a b l e  f o r t h e manufacture of w r i t i n g  i f mixed w i t h l o n g - f i b r e d p u l p h a s been  extensively  that  unthinned  reviewed  a  10 t o 15 y e a r s .  by e s t i m a t e s by Lamb  e t a l . (1964). low  of  4.6  Greaves  The MAI o f by  Greaves  (1968),  T h i s c o n c l u s i o n has Palmer  (1978)  and  H o w e v e r , o t h e r MAI r e s u l t s have v a r i e d m /ha 3  Savanna zone i n N i g e r i a (Greaves, years  by  p l a n t a t i o n s o f 2.4 by 2.4 m c a n a t t a i n an  3  been s u p p o r t e d  (Peh, 1964).  an e a r l i e r work by Lamb ( 1 9 6 8 ) .  MAI o f 30 m /ha o r more o v e r  between  by  farming  3  Chittenden  (1966) a n d  The s p e c i e s was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o P e n i n s u l a r  m /ha a p p e a r s t o be i n l i n e w i t h t h e c o n c l u s i o n  (1981)  3  and  s y s t e m i n r e s e t t l e m e n t schemes d u r i n g t h e Emergency  t o r e c l a i m areas  and  Freezaillah  i n 1920 a s a f i r e w o o d  taungya  and  of  a t 11 y e a r s on p o o r s i t e s  i n the  1981) t o a h i g h o f 36 m /ha 3  ( C h i n t e , 1971a, 1971b) a n d 46 m /ha a t 8 y e a r s 3  at  (Nanagas  1 54  and  Serna, The  of  yield  the  at  the Forest  (FDPM, 1 9 8 0 b ) .  available  (1974),  on  Omule  sites  and  I n s t i t u t e a t Kepong,  (1977),  Semana (1978) r e p o r t e d  estimate,  an  MAI  was i n t r o d u c e d  for  Malaysian  purpose  carpentry  to  a n d Kedah  I973e).  of a t o t a l  species  Trees By  15  f o r use i n  and  joinery,  (Freezaillah,  1966).  The  i n 1936 ( B e r n a r d species  Species  1978  only  Project  was  some 2,260 h e c t a r e s o f  E v e n t h o u g h t h e main  i n Pahang  and  use  envisaged  for  p u l p a n d p a p e r , t h e wood c o u l d be u t i l i z e d a s products  also  suitable  found  (1967-1972)  t a r g e t o f 3,592 ha d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1973  sawnwood a n d o t h e r been  to  l o n g - f i b r e p u l p w o o d p l a n t a t i o n s by t h e P l a n t a t i o n  1978 (FDPM, 1 9 8 0 a ) .  this  10  1957) a n d was recommended t o be t h e main  (FAO,  out  on b e t t e r  o f P i n u s c a r i b a e a came f r o m  f o r e s t p l a n t a t i o n s h a v e been e s t a b l i s h e d , m a i n l y Johor,  20  1977).  into Peninsular Malaysia  of Q u i c k - g r o w i n g I n d u s t r i a l Malaysia  of  The wood i s s u i t a b l e  f o r t h e growth  research p l o t s i n Selangor  Beveridge,  readily  t h e works of  3  for the Philippines.  and  not  citing  m a t c h m a n u f a c t u r e a n d p l y w o o d i n d u s t r y (Omule,  species  were  12.9 m /ha a t age 10 y e a r s  building construction, general  The  growth  3  i n Uganda.  3  the  i n d i c a t e d a n MAI o f b e t w e e n 2.6 m /ha a t age  poor  m /ha/year  Research  Data from o t h e r areas  f o r comparison.  Kingston  sites  f o r M a e s o p s i s e m i n i i was d e r i v e d f r o m  species  Malaysia  years  1970) i n t h e P h i l i p p i n e s .  (FAO,  I973e).  Pinus  car ibaea  has  f o r t h e manufacture of p a r t i c l e b o a r d  (Wong, 1 9 7 4 ) . The estimate  a b o v e g r o w t h r a t e a p p e a r s t o be a t t h e l o w e r i n a comprehensive review  end of t h e  o f t h e s p e c i e s by Lamb  (1-973).  155  He  c o n c l u d e d t h a t an MAI o f 17.5 t o 21 m /ha u n d e r b a r k c o u l d be 3  a c h i e v e d up t o a g e 15 y e a r s i n many a r e a s degrees MAI 3  N a n d 30 d e g r e e s S.  He a l s o  between  latitudes  i n d i c a t e d that t h e range of  i n p l a n t a t i o n s o f P i n u s c a r i b a e a a t 18 y e a r s o f age was to  37 m / h a , d e p e n d i n g 3  content. m /ha  The P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a  on  3  on s o i l  Soil  Class  I  and  14  I973e).  Data  from F i j i  from  t e x t u r e , m o i s t u r e and n u t r i e n t MAI  data  m /ha 3  r o t a t i o n s o f 12 t o 15 y e a r s ( F r e e z a i l l a h , FAO,  varied  on  between  1966; F i e l d i n g ,  i n d i c a t e d a range of from  3  21  S o i l Class I I I f o r 1972;  16 t o 34  m /ha, w i t h a l i k e l y mean e s t i m a t e o f 24.4 m /ha a t age 15  years  3  (Lamb,  30  1973).  The  growth  rate  for Albizzia  falcataria  was  f o r trees  g r o w i n g a t t h e F o r e s t R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e , K e p o n g , M a l a y s i a (FDPM, 1980a).  The e s t i m a t e o f 14.0 m / h a / y e a r i s l o w c o m p a r e d t o  data  3  f r o m t h e P h i l i p p i n e s w h i c h show MAI o f b e t w e e n 20 m /ha a t a g e 10 3  years  ( R e y e s , 1977) a n d 50 m /ha a t a g e 8 y e a r s ( L a n t i c a n , 3  The was  growth  1978).  r a t e o f 14.0 m / h a / y e a r f o r E u c a l y p t u s d e g l u p t a 3  e s t i m a t e d from d a t a from  Papua  New  Guinea  (FDPM,  1980a)-.  O t h e r d a t a f r o m Papua New G u i n e a , h o w e v e r , i n d i c a t e d a h i g h e r MAI of  31  m /ha 3  at  ages  12 t o 15 ( W i l l a n ,  1979).  Tagudar  (1974)  p r o v i d e d a h i g h e r e s t i m a t e o f 17 t o 25 m /ha f o r t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , 3  and P a l m e r For  (1978) c i t e d a g r o w t h r a t e  S c e n a r i o 5, t h e y i e l d  from  i n e x c e s s o f 20 m / h a / y e a r . 3  intensively  managed  stands  h a v e been e s t i m a t e d f o r s i t u a t i o n s where t h e t r e e s a r e g r o w i n g a t their  optimal  competition the  rates.  The  major  limiting  factor  f o r g r o w i n g s p a c e among t h e l a r g e c r o w n s  tropical  forest  trees  ( P a l m e r , 1975; C a t i n o t ,  seems t o be of  most  of  1972; B a u r ,  156  1963;  Dawkins,  equations  1959,  relating  t h e c r o w n s o f two  1963;  crown  diameter  s p a c i n g , as s u g g e s t e d dbh  general  volume  1.8  (1963b),  to  be  increment If  of  a  within cm  per  stand  the  regeneration  30  145.8  of w h i c h  3  stands may  assumed  3  annual  At  (1973a)  80 p e r c e n t  mean  at  45  diameter  year.  of t h e d e s i r e d ' s i z e  rate;  i n dbh,  is  found  t o be  regeneration in i n 30  f o r example, i f the  the years  existing  t h e t r e e s w o u l d grow t o 45 cm i n dbh  same too  of  1.3  cm  per  year.  as t h e e s t i m a t e o f t h e optimistic  for  dbh  FAO  selectively  forests.  The smaller  above  yield  s i z e than  management  75  m  a  the  tops  FAO  years  This  ( 1 9 7 4 b ) , w h i c h was  the  S.  square  t r e e s per ha.  117 m /ha was  growth  growth  Assuming  of  i n 30 y e a r s w i t h an a v e r a g e diameter  M i q . and  This y i e l d  attainment  were 5 cm  showed t h a t  h e c t a r e o f i n t e n s i v e l y managed  would r e q u i r e a slower growth  logged  81  t h e t r e e s were t o grow f r o m e x i s t i n g  residual  (1963)  t h e number of t r e e s o f  3  for harvesting.  1.5  m wide.  m / t r e e , as e s t i m a t e d i n  table,  achieved  Dawkin's  leprosula  o c c u p y t h e s i t e was  c o u l d produce a t o t a l volume of be a v a i l a b l e  (S.  were 11.1  by S m i t h  that could f u l l y  a g r o s s volume of  dbh  1963b).  to bole diameter  s p e c i e s of Shoreas  p a r v i f o l i a D y e r ) a t 45 cm  cm  Smith,  of  e s t i m a t e was  i n Tang's ( 1 9 7 6 )  the Seraya  per  ha  A l t h o u g h he d i d n o t estimate  of  dbh  t o a dbh indicate growth  proposal  for  (Shorea c u r t i s i i )  in Peninsular Malaysia. trees  f o r t r e e s o f y o u n g e r age  of  the  f o r growing  to produce about  cutting  "greater  intensive  f o r e s t s on t h e r i d g e  His plan c a l l e d o f 58 cm  the  and  cycle  than  170  50  to  m /ha.  involved,  3  his  1 cm/yr" i f r e g u l a r  157  treatments a  tree  58 cm  a r e g i v e n meant t h a t i t w o u l d t a k e a b o u t 50 y e a r s  of  5 cm  dbh  i n the  residual  stand  t o grow t o t h e d e s i r e d  dbh. In S c e n a r i o s  6 t o 7.2,  f u t u r e y i e l d s have been assumed t o  e q u i v a l e n t t o the y i e l d  from the e x i s t i n g primary  6.2.3  Information  Management P o l i c y  6.2.3.1 P l a n n i n g The years.  time  period considered  This  Malaysia  period  forests.  is  i n the  longest  p e r i o d was  a decade l o n g . the  considered  planning  for  horizon  first  12  of  spanning  i n the model.  control twice The  i n t e r v a l s or p l a n n i n g p e r i o d s  nature  show any  of t h e  g r e a t a d v a n t a g e b e c a u s e of  management  units  the  consistent with  P r e l i m i n a r y runs w i t h the h a l f - l e n g t h o p t i o n  p e r i o d d i d not  aggregative detailed  divided into  specified  120  Peninsular  degree by  was  l e n g t h of  the  is  t h a t an a c c e p t a b l e  rotation  model  twice the  r e g u l a t i o n c o u l d g e n e r a l l y be a c h i e v e d  year  forests.  planning  approximately  This  Navon's (1975) s u g g e s t i o n  l e n g t h of t h e  be  Horizon  l o n g e s t r o t a t i o n w h i c h c o u l d be  and  for  and  the 120of for the  insufficiently  data.  6.2.3.2 O b j e c t i v e s of Management The ' o b j e c t i v e maximization annum.  function  o f stumpage  value  Stumpage v a l u e was  t o t h e S t a t e G o v e r n m e n t s by  specified  discounted  a p p r o x i m a t e d by the  in  loggers.  this at  10  the t o t a l  study  was  percent  the per  charges paid  158  L i m i t e d d a t a on Governments  in  r o y a l t y and per  the government charges  1978  Royalty  3  development revenues  cess  accounted  $2.01.  collected  These  logs  values  document  (FDPM,  1976  not  collected  to  $3.77  The  S t a t e and,  from  1971-1978  The  from the  high  i n the volumes  revenue from the  t h e r e f o r e , was  for  Forest  because of the d e l a y  statistics resulting  and  figures  education  i n c l u d e d i n t h e stumpage v a l u e b e c a u s e i t  i n one  $13.14  estimated  Pahang. the  State  premium,  about  premium  were  in  1980a)  produced i n t h i s S t a t e .  f u n d was  $7.36,  by a l l S t a t e s e x c e p t  c o m p i l a t i o n of t h e s e of  amounted  for  Pahang were o n l y a v a i l a b l e u n t i l Statistics  the  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the major items —  d e v e l o p m e n t a s s e s s m e n t --  m.  r e c e i v e d by  was  only  not a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a  model d e a l i n g w i t h the whole of P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a . The current  discount interest  percent.  Since  r a t e of  10 p e r c e n t  rate in Malaysia. 1981,  the  was The  interest  an a p p r o x i m a t i o n  14 and  for  r a t e f i x e d by  the  Economic Review, homes. for  The  1982).  10 p e r c e n t  evaluating  1977),  f o r loans i n excess  including  Most of  public-sector the  15 p e r c e n t  discount  projects  were  been  in  were a l s o t r i e d  t o see  for  Malaysia  Eastern buying used  (Lockman,  Compensatory  Alternative the  10  between  been t h e s t a n d a r d  c o s t / b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s of the  rates in Scenario  Other  loans  d i s c o u n t r a t e has  F o r e s t P l a n t a t i o n P r o j e c t (FDPM, 1 9 8 0 b ) . 5, and  has  o f t h a t amount ( F a r  these  8.5  government  l o a n s a m o u n t i n g t o l e s s t h a n M$100,000, and  16 p e r c e n t  the  prime l e n d i n g r a t e i s  C e n t r a l Bank f o r a l l c o m m e r c i a l b a n k s i n t h e c o u n t r y percent  of  effect  r a t e s of of  2,  varying  1.  a l t e r n a t i v e o b j e c t i v e s were a l s o s p e c i f i e d  to  account  159  for their harvest  respective  These  other  The  s a l e s v a l u e of l o g s was  for  them  by  the m i l l e r s  (FDPM, 1 9 8 0 a ) .  weighted  by  the  The  volume  taken  t o be  i n 1978,  Prices,  t h e manner i n w h i c h individual  average  produced,  the producer  purchasers.  price was  Other  is  city  government.  about  it  factors  terrain  and  was  existing forests.  to obtain  use  to  influence  to  prices  distance  i t appears t h a t the  Kuala  t h e FAO  The  capital  1973c). from  the  forest  ( 1 9 7 3 c ) d i d n o t deem  these data to analyse p r i c e  s t r u c t u r e or  to  trends.  assumed  to  f o r e s t s and  be $60  former  product  m /ha o f s a w l o g s and 3  3  paid  average p r i c e of the a l l - s p e c i e s  The  m.  premium  reliable  Because of t h i s problem  The  per  committed  r o y a l t y and  In g e n e r a l terms,  $85  per  m  3  was  products  in  Scenario  f o r the products  f o r the products  t h e p r i c e s of s o l i d wood and forests.  M$138  access, haulage  data  is difficult  forecast price  4.1  that  It  to  data  a l l species,  and  (FAO,  The  y e a r of  s e t s the base f o r l o g p r i c e s e l s e w h e r e .  possible  price  l o g m a r k e t where l o g s  r e p r e s e n t s a major p u r c h a s i n g c e n t r e  industries.  average  for  financed  t o t h e m a r k e t , w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s , and  Lumpur p r i c e  the  t h e r e f o r e , f l u c t u a t e widely i n accordance  i n c l u d e the type of f o r e s t s ,  the  the c o s t s of  the l a t e s t  P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a does not have a c e n t r a l are traded.  include  treatments.  available  to  variables  v o l u m e , t h e g r o s s s a l e s v a l u e o f t i m b e r and  silvicultural  paid  values.  from  the  from  average of  the  existing  c o m p o n e n t s were assumed t o c o n s i s t o f  peelerlogs selling  a t $138  the  regenerated  c a l c u l a t e d as the w e i g h t e d chipwood produced  from  per m  3  as  in  79 the  160  o t h e r S c e n a r i o s , a n d 166 m /ha c h i p w o o d s e l l i n g 3  estimated  by  Minato  (1978).  f o r e s t s were a s s u m e d t o c o n s i s t per  The p r o d u c t s  a t $60 p e r m ,  as  3  from t h e r e g e n e r a t e d  of o n l y chipwood,  selling  at  $60  m. 3  The  average  price  f o r the p l a n t a t i o n m a t e r i a l s i n Scenario  4.2 was a s s u m e d t o be $161 p e r m .  T h i s f i g u r e was c a l c u l a t e d by  a v e r a g i n g t h e p r i c e of sawlogs  chipwood  3  plantations harvested. 67  established  percent  of  sawlogs  selling  existing  at  from  The a v e r a g e  the  f o r e s t s h a v e been  $212 p e r m  3  consist  of  a n d 33 p e r c e n t  T h e s e p r i c e s were t h e  3  estimates  c o s t t o t r e a t one h e c t a r e  after  f o r e s t a r e a h a s been l o g g e d was assumed t o be $ 1 7 6 . 8 3 .  This  figure  i s the weighted  treat  the  treat  the  a t $57 p e r m .  t h e FDPM ( 1 9 8 0 b ) .  the  after  produced  The p l a n t a t i o n m a t e r i a l s were assumed t o  pulpwood s e l l i n g of  and  41,818  average  ha  of  of  primary  the  $ 112.31/ha  required  to  f o r e s t s and t h e $25l.42/ha  to  t h e 36,790 ha o f p a r t i a l l y - h a r v e s t e d  forests  in  the  area  o p e n e d a n n u a l l y f o r l o g g i n g a s e s t i m a t e d i n t h e FDPM P l a n ( C h o n g , 1979a) . The girdling  FDPM  estimates  GCL  enrichment  Baharuddin  operations planting  (1977a).  felling  i n c l u d e d the cost of (GCL) , and- e n r i c h m e n t  were e s t i m a t e d t o c o s t $39.41 p e r ha an  earlier  The FDPM e s t i m a t e s a r e s l i g h t l y  FAO ( 1 9 7 8 a ) c o n c l u d e d  girdling  have  $151.13 p e r ha i n  t h e e s t i m a t e s by B a h a r u d d i n  selective  must  o f p e s t t r e e s a n d c_limber c u t t i n g  planting. and  cost  system  study lower  by than  (1977a). t h a t s i l v i c u l t u r a l t r e a t m e n t s under should  i n c l u d e o n l y "a l i g h t  o f unwanted t r e e s " , and s h o u l d c o s t l e s s than  a  poison-  "$30 p e r  161  ha,  in  places."  However,  studies  s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e a v e r a g e c o s t was estimate  was  (Eugeissona trees  average  tristis Griff.)  ($35-50/ha)  1978a).  4.5  2 percent  sales value  1978a).  This  except  for  establishment  calculation  cost  lack  of  hectare.  poison-girdling  and  cull  weeding  ($80-120/ha)  (FAO,  to  cost.  the  of the  different  area,  were  sales price  of  more  was  of  estimated  to  $60.06/ha  $71.50  plantations  for  sites  per  m  3  used i n a l l s c e n a r i o s  detailed  costs  These  wood  l o g s produced, or  estimate  of  This  of  add  of h a r v e s t  (FAO,  The  per  experiments  t h a t p l a n t i n g o f open y a r d s and  3  species.  o v e r $100  ($200/ha),  a s s u m i n g a y i e l d o f 42 m /ha and  the  treatment  of e r a d i c a t i o n of Bertam palms  further  percent  of  cost  thinning  would  assuming  r e q u i r e d on  cost  and  Planting  operations, is  the  in  of  data  various  fast-growing prevented  the  intensities  of  management. The  cost  $ 2 5 0 0 / h a , as  of  establishing  specified  P r o j e c t document  in  (FDPM,  the  plantations Compensatory  was  assumed t o  Forest  be  Plantation  1980b).  6.2.3.3 Management A l t e r n a t i v e s The  method  of  harvest  employed i n the b a s i c s c e n a r i o  selective c u t t i n g , with f e l l i n g However,  in  Timber  "clearcutting" with "trick" the RAM.  was  section  this  " r o t a t i o n s " of  felling 30,  used to a v o i d c o m p l i c a t i o n s  "harvest The  RAM,  c y c l e s of  cut  with  intermediate  40  with  the  40  and  s y s t e m was and  t h a t may  50  50  years.  specified years.  arise  cuttings" option  i n f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h i s o p t i o n has dealing  30,  was  This  from  using  i n Timber  been d i s c u s s e d  l i m i t a t i o n s of T i m b e r RAM.  as  in  The  the yield  162  w h i c h w o u l d be a s s i g n e d by t h e T i m b e r RAM g e n e r a t o r for  a l l harvesting  operations  r e g a r d l e s s of the p r e v i o u s The l i q u i d a t i o n existing three  ten-year PS1,  third  periods, within  to  harvested  the  specified  p e r i o d of f i r s t  the  first  partially-harvested  periods.  time  with  the  in  the  harvested . 1 3  section  h a r v e s t and l a s t h a r v e s t  decade.  The r a t e f o r t h e f i r s t  the f i r s t  dealing  i n the input  of t h e S t a t e l a n d F o r e s t s  in  to  to  (ACF) e a r m a r k e d f o r  proceed  at  limit  followed  specifies  by the  as  specified  specified editing  period.  The  using  the  rate  of  target  i n t h e F o u r t h and Malaysia, the  matrix.  1976;  accessibility The  matrix  a c c e s s i b i l i t y c o n s t r a i n t s as t h e upper  o f t h e a r e a o f a management u n i t  a particular  a  p e r i o d was t h e g o v e r n m e n t  F i f t h M a l a y s i a Plan-s ( 1 9 8 1 - 1 9 9 0 ) (Government o f was  data.  d e c a d e a n d 314,000 ha i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  agriculture  policy  from  These  ha  constraints,  younger  been i n i t i a l l y  810,000  This  The  partially-  d e v e l o p m e n t was assumed  generator  the  periods, a f t e r a l l the older  have  alienation  conversion  older four  agricultural  1981).  that  f o r e s t s , P S 2 , were o n l y t o be h a r v e s t e d  the f i f t h  forests  and  r e s t r i c t i o n s were s p e c i f i e d  for  t h e same p e r i o d ,  treatments.  p o l i c y w h i c h was assumed  partially-harvested  The  in  identical  s t a n d s o f t h e PPF were t o be h a r v e s t e d w i t h i n t h e f i r s t  forests,  the  occurring  is  resulting  t h a t c o u l d be h a r v e s t e d i n matrix  was  edited  before  I n i t i a l r u n s o f t h e model w i t h the basic scenario indicated that the l a s t o f t h e PS1 were i n i t i a l l y h a r v e s t e d i n t h e t h i r d period. T h e r e f o r e , PS2 c o u l d o n l y be h a r v e s t e d from t h e t h i r d p e r i o d onward.  1 3  163  being  solved,  t o an e q u a l i t y  t o change t h e " g r e a t e r than o r e q u a l (=) s i g n .  S e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e c u t t i n g c y c l e s were management u n i t s i n t h e P F E . be h a r v e s t e d 50  years.  every  In Scenarios  specified  for  a l l  1 t o 3.2 t h e PPF c o u l d  30 o r 40 y e a r s a n d PS1 a n d PS2 e v e r y  3 0 , 40 o r  T h e s e c u t t i n g c y c l e s were d e r i v e d f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e  o f w o r k e r s who Malaysia.  t o " (>) s i g n  have  The  studied  30-year  forest  management  in  Peninsular  c u t t i n g c y c l e h a s been s p e c i f i e d  i n the  FDPM p l a n , t h e FDPMP (FAO, 1978a) a s w e l l a s t h e l a t e r v e r s i o n o f the FFIDP p l a n FFIDP  (FAO, 1 9 7 5 c ) .  employed  a  40-year  The e a r l i e r cutting  (1977a) used a 45-year f e l l i n g 55  y e a r s h a v e been s p e c i f i e d  by t h e FAO The second  far  cycle,  period.  Timber  RAM,  Therefore,  Timber  RAM  and  forests  respectively. u s e , would not have  a.  however, r e q u i r e s t h a t a c u t t i n g in this  i s concerned,  e a c h management s e q u e n c e i n v o l v i n g 6.2.3.4 H a r v e s t  the  Baharuddin  harvested  study a long c u t t i n g c y c l e  100 y e a r s was s p e c i f i e d , w i t h a s e c o n d h a r v e s t as  by  C u t t i n g c y c l e s o f 50  ACF, b e i n g c l e a r e d f o r n o n - f o r e s t harvest.  whereas  f o r the p a r t i a l l y  ( 1 9 7 8 a ) a n d t h e FDPM p l a n ,  c y c l e be s u p p l i e d . of  plan developed  of  zero.  As  t h e r e was one more h a r v e s t i n t h e ACF.  C o n t r o l and R e g u l a t i o n  A s e q u e n t i a l c o n s t r a i n t ( l o w e r bound o n l y ) was s p e c i f i e d f o r the six-decade  conversion  period.  Each  periodic  c o n s t r a i n e d t o a l e v e l e q u a l .to o r g r e a t e r t h a n previous  periodic harvest.  The f i r s t  harvest  90 p e r c e n t  p e r i o d i c harvest  was  of t h e  s h o u l d be  164  at l e a s t  90 p e r c e n t  of the "current h a r v e s t  T h i s g r a d u a l d e c l i n e o f 10 p e r c e n t industry other  to  sources  remaining periodic the  from  to  the  should  of  the  the called  planned  should  capacity.  During  the post-conversion period, the  f l u c t u a t e by no more t h a n post-conversion  ±10 p e r c e n t  lower  yield.  s h o u l d n o t be l e s s t h a n  limit  (1979b to The  was d e r i v e d  cited  from  by F r e e z a i l l a h ,  1995, t h e a v e r a g e a n n u a l estimates  48.8 m i l l i o n m the  recent  of f o r e c a s t t e n d s period;  1991  m  3  The  further  i s f a r enough i n t h e f u t u r e .  years  i s probably  abundant,  I n any c a s e ,  that  the  per  Even  This Chong  of  is  m. 3  though  1995, t h e  the  The e r r o r forecast  F o r e c a s t s by t h e FAO  as  f a r as  1994  and  i f consumption does i n c r e a s e , from  other  sources.  c a p i t a wood c o n s u m p t i o n d o u b l e s  unrealistic.  tendency  26. after  length  c o u l d be assumed t o be made up  assumption  by  p e r d e c a d e was s e l e c t e d .  to increase with the  respectively.  the d e f i c i t  projection  i n Table  ( 1 9 7 8 b ) a n d Kumar (1981) gave v a l u e s o n l y 1985,  per decade.  3  c o n s u m p t i o n w o u l d be 4.88 m i l l i o n  f o r other years a r e given  o f 48.80 m i l l i o n  The p e r i o d i c  1 9 8 0 ) , t h a t d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1991  c o n s u m p t i o n was p r e d i c t e d t o i n c r e a s e estimate  of  harvests, or the long-run  One s e t o f p e r i o d i c c o n s t r a i n t s was s p e c i f i e d . harvest  3  a d j u s t - by r e d u c i n g c a p a c i t y o r p r o c u r i n g l o g s maintain  p e r decade  m. the  harvest  sustained  " o f 101,280,000 allow  s i x decades,  average  1 4  As  f o r more  the  forests  efficient  become  i n 30 less  use of t i m b e r ;  T h i s was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g p u b l i s h e d d a t a o f l o g p r o d u c t i o n f o r 1971 t o 1979 (FDPM, 1980a; FDPM A n n u a l R e p o r t 1 9 7 9 ) , a n d a s s u m i n g that t h e p r o d u c t i o n i n 1980 was e q u a l t o t h e a v e r a g e p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e p e r i o d 1976 t o 1979.  1 4  165  therefore,  the increase  i n per c a p i t a  a s y m p t o t i c a t some p o i n t  i n the near  consumption  would  become  future.  T a b l e 28 P r o j e c t e d d o m e s t i c c o n s u m p t i o n o f sawnwood and p l y w o o d i n P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a ( r o u n d w o o d e q u i v a l e n t ) , 1976-2010  Period  Populat ion (million)  Per c a p i t a wood c o n s u m p t i o n (m /yr) 3  1976-1980 1981-1985 1 986-1990 1991-1995 1 996-2000 2001-2005 2006-2010  1 0.825 12.450 1 4.946 16.736 18.551 20.143 22.327  lower l i m i t  of  between  His  lower  forecast  more r e c e n t  limit  was  FAO  4.8  million m  the  world  6.3  Summary Ten  3  million  million m  3  equivalent  (1978b)  forecast  m  1980b)  i s lower than the  3  target  assumed by B a h a r u d d i n ( 1 9 7 7 a ) . to  requirement during gave  the  earlier  the period  FAO  1991  (1975c)  t o 1995.  f i g u r e s o f between  3.5  A  .and  p e r y e a r f o r 1994, d e p e n d i n g on t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f  economy.  scenarios  are described,  the c u r r e n t  extensive  productive  PFE  between,  o f 48.8  and 8.5  log  2.36 2.83 3.77 4.88 6.20 7.63 9.36  (1979b c i t e d by F r e e z a i l l a h ,  5.1  of  3  .218 .227 .252 .292 .334 .379 .419  S o u r c e : Chong  This  Average annual wood c o n s u m p t i o n ( m i l l i o n m /yr)  the  to use  forestry  practice  plantations of  small  ranging  of  trees  from a c o n t i n u a t i o n to  conversion  fast-growing and  more  of  of a l l  species. species,  In and  166  intensification  of  forest  assumptions  in  the  scenarios.  Forest  FDPM area  y i e l d s h a v e been e s t i m a t e d information for  about  d e f e c t s and  plan data  have are  from the  cutting  are been  1972  harvest  schedules  into  f o r 1980.  two Timber  inventory  limits  h a v e been  and  The  and  allowance  working  in  decade.  calculated  v a r i o u s s c e n a r i o s are presented  assumed.  adapted  forest  cycles, cutting  i n the l a s t  also  estimates  w a s t a g e f r o m f o r e s t e r s who  Peninsular Malaysia The  management  by  i n the next  Timber chapter.  RAM  f o r the  1 67  CHAPTER 7 POSSIBLE TIMBER SUPPLY SITUATIONS FOR PENINSULAR MALAYSIA  7.1 L o g F l o w  Schedules  The l o g - f l o w s c h e d u l e s model  are  shown  Periodic  Scenario  1  in  c a l c u l a t e d by t h e l i n e a r  Table  29 a n d F i g u r e 5.  2  92. 54 115. 24 95. 92 98. 54 295. 54 419. 42 1 02. 21 48. 92 81 . 32 91 . 51  83.28 103.71 86.33 88.69 263.15 377.48 91 .99 37.02 65.06 73.21  Decades 4  3  74.95 93.34 77.69 79.82 193.75 634.62 82.79 29.48 52.05 58.56  3  5  rising  harvests  60.71 75.61 62.93 64.65 123.29 756.55 81 .04 29.48 49.36 48.80  67.46 84.01 69.92 71 .84 176. 13 710.65 85.00 29.48 54.85 52.71  i n Scenario  t o a d e c l i n e from the c u r r e n t h a r v e s t a  level.  "steady-state" On t h e h i g h e r  indigenous  forests  level side, and  7+  6  54.64 53.76 69.07 68.05 57.60 60.31 71 .76 67.65 87.87 . 79.89 710.65 733.60 104.47 94.98 29.48 29.48 61 .38 55.80 59. 1 5 55.45  i n ;S c e n a r i o  4.2.  equal any-tree  converting  6  to  On t h e l o w e r  c o n t i n u a t i o n of the c u r r e n t f o r e s t r y p r a c t i c e  to  levels  per decade  r a n g e f rom a s h a r p l y id e c l i n i n g p r o d u c t i o n rapidly  The h a r v e s t  T a b l e 29 harvests i n the various scenarios  timber  m i l l i o n im 1 2 3. 1 3.2 4.1 4.2 5 6 7.1 7.2  programming  ( S c e n a r i o 6)  o f 101.28 m i l l i o n t o 29 p e r c e n t harvest a l l the  side, a  in  leads  m /decade 3  of the c u r r e n t the  standing  p r o d u c t i v e PFE t o  Figure 5 Timber harvest schedules f o r the various scenarios Notei The Y-axis i s s p l i t into two sections, each with a d i f f e r e n t scale, to accommodate a l l schedules i n one graph.  169  plantations causes  a  of  exotic,  rapid  rise  quick-growing  i n timber  w h i c h i s more t h a n s e v e n t i m e s In between the scenarios  show  two  a  scenarios  register  schedule  in  Scenario  indicates  harvest  of  obtained smaller  1,  when trees  in  Scenario  4.1,  Gains dbh  other  more  the  than the sustained The  for  the  other  even t h o u g h some  periods.  The  log-flow  t r e n d and Higher  (Scenarios  lower  diameter  a long-range  sustained  harvest 3.1,  2) a r e a l s o h a r v e s t e d .  3.2  harvests,  culminating  levels and  The  in harvest  substantial  expansion 5)  of  and  harvests  increases species  i n d i c a t e lower basic scenario.  harvest  15  in cm  of h a r v e s t i n g down t o immediate.  from  The  levels  are were  On  intensive  two  i n the  adaptations first  five  They, however, r e g i s t e r h i g h e r  the  forest  i s more p r o n o u n c e d i n l a t e r p e r i o d s  f o r e s t s are harvested.  and  in a large increase  v o l u m e s as a r e s u l t  2) a r e  are  4.1)  as a r e s u l t o f h a r v e s t i n g a l l t r e e s down t o  hand,  FDPM p l a n  harvest.  as more of t h e h i t h e r t o u n u t i l i z e d  (Scenario  improved  level  currently-accepted,  species  (Scenario  to a long-range  r e s u l t of h a r v e s t i n g a l l c u r r e n t l y  a decreasing  management ( S c e n a r i o the  to  4.2)  trend  in certain a  (Scenario  harvests  declining  3  included  30 cm  the  53.76 m i l l i o n m / d e c a d e .  obviously higher  dbh.  the c u r r e n t  generally  m a r k e t a b l e s p e c i e s down limits,  production  extremes,  increases  species  when of  the  periods long-run  yields. decadal  harvest  shown i n T a b l e 30 and Details  of  areas  Figure  the h a r v e s t  f o r each s c e n a r i o are  given  for  the  various  scenarios  are  6. schedules in  the  and  management  following  activities  sections.  The  170  T a b l e 30 areas f o r the various  P e r i o d i c harvest  Scenario  1  2  Decades . 4  3  scenarios  6  7+  1 086 1063 1047 1 1 57 879 1 586 1 076 819 898 881  1065 1075 1075 1090 799 1637 966 819 827 836  5  t h o u s a n d ha p e r d e c a d e 1 2 3.1 3.2 4. 1 4.2 5 6 7.1 7.2  721 745 763 796 634 1181 782 819 974 1 1 70  harvest and  926 952 985 1031 879 1586 1030 819 829 960  schedule  then t h e harvest  7.1.1  Basic  Figure  the  than  scenarios  first,  will  be  scenario.  t h a n 46 cm r e s u l t s  rate  3  of  90 p e r c e n t  i n a log-flow  i n Figure  10 p e r c e n t during  of t h e p r e v i o u s  fluctuate of  53.76  1  level.  f o r e s t s , w h i c h c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  sustained y i e l d  shown  The p e r i o d i c h a r v e s t  The d e c l i n e i s a t  period  of the current  which  7.  schedule  in  levels  ( 1 9 7 1 - 1 9 8 0 ) v o l u m e o f 101.28 m i l l i o n  i n p e r i o d 6.  f o r the harvest  harvests  be d i s c u s s e d  p o t e n t i a l n e t m a r k e t a b l e volume i n t r e e s of  from the c u r r e n t  allowable  f o r the other'  i n the basic  54.64 mi 11 i o n m  except  schedules  5 and s e p a r a t e l y  decline  1 1 04 1121 1085 1 039 879 1689 786 819 736 757  Scenario  Harvesting dbh g r e a t e r  1085 1090 1087 1079 719 1 586 842 819 823 81 1  i n the basic scenario w i l l  compared t o those  to  1 034 1 063 1 1 04 1 1 57 799 1689 1 149 819 772 859  ±10  million  which  percent 3  periodic is  3  maximum harvest,  slightly  more  From p e r i o d 7 o n w a r d s t h e  regulated,  m.  the  m  produce  around The  periodic  the  long-run  allowable  maximum  o  i  1  1  1  1 — ' i — i — i — i — i  i  PLANNING PERIODS INDECADES  r — n  8  Figure  6  Decadal h a r v e s t areas f o r the v a r i o u s  scenarios  ~i 2  i  i  i  i  1  i  6  A  1  8  r JO  32  PLANNING PERIODS IN DECADES Figure Timber h a r v e s t Notei  7  schedule  f o r Scenario  The c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e PFE a n d f o r e s t s (ACF) a r e i n d i c a t e d .  1  Stateland  average 10-65  T  PLANNIN6 PERIODS IN DECADES 8  Figure Decadal harvest  areas  32  8  i n t h e PFE f o r S c e n a r i o  1  173  harvest  of  48.8  million m  i s encountered  3  only  in periods 7  and  11. T h i s stream percent  of h a r v e s t s  o f t h e PFE  years.  The  cutting  on  remaining  cycle  i s the r e s u l t of  managing  a r e a o f t h e PFE  is  to  be  The  primary  harvested  periods. years  residual  the  remaining  timber  and  PS2)  of t h e a r e a  two The  than for  p e r i o d s as  t h e ACF  timber  production  The  periodic  average p e r i o d i c than  volumes are  PS2) in  first  two  every  30  forests  in  the  shown  Some 96  PFE  percent  the remainder are harvested  every i n the  policy. in  for periods  Figure 1 and  t h e y complement  8.  The  2 are  lower  the  harvests  for agriculture.  c o n t r i b u t e some 61.5  period  the  1  and  76.2  percent percent  of in  From p e r i o d 3 o n w a r d s , t h e w h o l e p r o d u c t i o n comes f r o m  PFE.  higher  are  the  in  existing  (ACF)  are c l e a r e d  PS 1 and  a  The  i n t h e assumed  thousand ha;  on  40 y e a r s .  30 y e a r s and  i n t h e PFE  when t h e l a t t e r  in  reharvested  harvested  harvested  1016  (PPF,  every  stands  f r o m p e r i o d s 2 t o 5.  specified  areas  existing  is  Stateland Forests  t o be  PFE  p e r i o d 2. the  The  the c u r r e n t  the t o t a l  15 p e r c e n t  i s reharvested every  harvest  The  of the a r e a  i s harvested  areas  periodic  are  i n the p a r t i a l l y  40 o r 50 y e a r s . first  PFE  A b o u t 85 p e r c e n t  and  (PS1  the  managed  30  f o r a very small area which i s  managed on a 5 0 - y e a r c u t t i n g c y c l e . in  92  the s h o r t e s t s p e c i f i e d c u t t i n g c y c l e of  o f 40 y e a r s e x c e p t  forests  over  the lower  harvest areas  harvest area current than  f o r p e r i o d s 3 t o 6 and  the  f r o m p e r i o d 7 onwards a r e  slightly  h a r v e s t a r e a , even though the  harvest  the c u r r e n t h a r v e s t .  174  C o n s i d e r i n g o n l y the l o g output increases  from  of  in  3  timber  period  3.  primary  f o r e s t s and  which are harvested of  the  yield  7.1.2  of  from  improvement  stated,  are  in  over  the  sources.  made  with  basic harvest area  The  stream  All  comparisons, to  the  h a r v e s t s and  schedules,  2: U t i l i z a t i o n  levels  of h a r v e s t s r e s u l t i n g  i n p e r i o d 1.  decline  at  h a r v e s t volume i n the percent  over  timber  forests a  in (PS1)  portion  harvest  less comes  are d e s c r i b e d below  i n the timber  From  of  then  basic  the b a s i c timber  otherwise  scenario.  periodic harvest basic timber  The areas  harvest  Logs  from i n c l u d i n g  "small logs"  harvest  an  shows  101.28 m i l l i o n m on,  t h e same r a t e a s "small logs"  unless  respectively.  of S m a l l e r  from the c u r r e n t l e v e l  3  three  from v a r i o u s a s s u m p t i o n s  scenario,  of  million m  of  whole  basic  30 t o 46 cm  harvest  first  Harvests  of d i a m e t e r  24.5  the  the b a s i c s c e n a r i o are h e r e a f t e r c a l l e d  7.1.2.1 S c e n a r i o  larger  second crop which produces  respect  schedules, of p e r i o d i c t i m b e r  and  i n the  From p e r i o d 3,  increases in harvest, resulting  according to t h e i r  for  the  of  forests.  Possible Increases The  production  o f PFE  harvest  t o a maximum  3  the near-matured secondary  From p e r i o d 6 o n w a r d s  from second-growth  the  l a r g e r volumes  i n these p e r i o d s .  comes  volume per ha.  The  from s m a l l e r a r e a s  p e r i o d s i s p o s s i b l e b e c a u s e of t h e the  PFE,  t h e e s t i m a t e d c u r r e n t 44 m i l l i o n m  o f 74.95 m i l l i o n m volumes  from the  however,  3  the  increase to  115.24 harvest  i n the b a s i c s c e n a r i o .  contributes harvest  an  schedule  The  increase f o r the  of  first  1 75  six  periods;  yield  thereafter,  the increase i n the long-run  i s 28.5 p e r c e n t . The  higher  i n c r e a s e i n the l e v e l s of yield  estimates  s m a l l t r e e s boost percent.  slightly  the y i e l d  The y i e l d  harvest  cycle,  the l o n g e r , increase  larger  areas  is  are larger  cutting  higher  yield  7.1 .2.2 U t i l i z a t i o n Forests  occurs  to  be  managed  harvested.  cycle.  harvested  later  the  yield  in  by a b o u t 23  i f these  Thus,  the  small  cutting The  30-year  percent  p e r i o d s i s t h e r e s u l t of t h e  p e r i o d s , the increase  from the regenerated  forests. Regenerated  i f t h e p r o p o r t i o n of forest  crops  p e r i o d s when t h e s u b s e q u e n t f o r e s t s a r e increases  early the  i n the i n i t i a l  a  24.5  o f Wider- Range o f Spec i e s i n t h e  in  The  o f t h e a r e a managed on  In the l a t e r  estimates  H o w e v e r , some  experienced increased  in  areas.  under  s p e c i e s were e n h a n c e d i n t h e s u b s e q u e n t  mostly  the  b e c a u s e s l i g h t l y more o f t h e  i n c r e a s e i n t h e l e v e l s of h a r v e s t s  marketable  of  from t h e s t a n d i n g f o r e s t s and s l i g h t l y  harvest area.  due t o h i g h e r y i e l d  The  forests,  w i t h o n l y about 3 percent  40-year  periodic  harvest  h i g h e r under a 30-year  i n harvests f o r the i n i t i a l  percent  because  h i g h e r under a 40-year c u t t i n g c y c l e .  a r e a o f t h e PFE a r e a l l o c a t e d cutting  larger  from the regenerated  c y c l e a n d 3.9 p e r c e n t  is  from t h e s t a n d i n g f o r e s t s  l o g s a r e i n c l u d e d , i s 30.6 p e r c e n t  periodic  harvest  as a r e s u l t of the i n c l u s i o n of s m a l l e r  t r e e s and because of t h e  23  sustained  periods future  periods.  in  periodic  harvests  are  because t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n of  permits  bigger  areas  to  be  176  Scenario crops  3.1;  increased  volume i n the  first  six  the  increased  by  The rate  i n the e x i s t i n g by  3.7  long-run 12.2  i n the  percent  sustained  first  PFE  only  for  the  larger  regenerated  smaller harvest areas  the  the  proportion  of  trend  due  forests, first  long-run  of  log  than  30-year  the  represented  three  sustained yield  14.3  periodic  cutting (4.7  cycle  is  i s e x p a n d e d , by a n o t h e r  i s the  percent  in  is  by  under areas  the  allocated  not m a n i f e s t e d  the  basic to  the  estimates  immediately offset  by  in the  periods.  P r o p o r t i o n of m a r k e t a b l e  marketable  the The  harvest  as  percent)  increase in y i e l d  i n these  by  periods.  e f f e c t of the h i g h e r y i e l d  forests  higher  i n the b a s i c s c e n a r i o because  l e s s area The  to  f o r e s t s which are higher  long-range  i n c r e a s e d t o 95 p e r c e n t .  forests gross  3.2:  i n the b a s i c  correspondingly  decreasing  i n the  The  p e r i o d s 4 t o 6 because the  crops  The  is  i n i t i a l years are  in  with slightly  Scenario  those  u n d e r a 3 0 - y e a r c u t t i n g c y c l e and  40-year c u t t i n g c y c l e .  from  r a i s e s the h a r v e s t s i n the  yield  from the r e g e n e r a t e d  a r e managed on a  scenario,  of g r o s s v o l u m e ,  above  of t h e e x i s t i n g  increase  slightly  marketable  s i x periods i s maintained.  a 40-year c u t t i n g c y c l e . are  spec i e s i n subsequent  i n c r e a s e i n the  percent  harvest areas  of y i e l d s  percent  An  stands,  percent.  liquidation  higher periodic  result  percent.  i n c r e a s e s i n the  of  12.2  85  periods  scenario;  production  to  f u t u r e f o r e s t s t o 85 p e r c e n t  t h e 75 p e r c e n t  12.2  P r o p o r t i o n of m a r k e t a b l e  The  increase in harvest  timber 10  v o l u m e amounts t o t w i c e t h e  spec i e s i n subsequent  volume i n the  percent,  to  95  levels i f subsequent  percent  increase in Scenario  3.1.  of The  177  l e v e l s of h a r v e s t a r e r a i s e d by a b o u t 6.5 the  basic  scenario in periods  the p o s t - c o n v e r s i o n p e r i o d . percent  percent  1 t o 5 and  I n p e r i o d 6,  i n c r e a s e i n the h a r v e s t s  even f a s t e r  the  r a t e of l i q u i d a t i o n  in periods  of the  percent  harvest  4 to 5 the higher h a r v e s t s r e s u l t  from the  regenerated  augmented by  The  practically o n l y 0.2  periodic  t h e w h o l e PFE  percent  cutting  forests.  31.3  areas  from the h i g h e r  yields  the higher y i e l d  are  higher  is  volume  larger  because  i s managed on a 3 0 - y e a r c u t t i n g  of the a r e a  an  From  t o produce even  harvest  to  cycle;  i s managed u n d e r t h e l o n g e r ,  40-year  cycle.  7.1.2.3  Scenario 4.1; All-Spec ies U t i l i z a t i o n , I n d i g e n o u s , M i x e d , T r o p i c a l Spec i e s  Harvesting a l l trees, results  increase  in  in  a  from  flow  schedule  the  current  with period  a to  on due  from  first-period  the  regenerated  t h r e e t i m e s as  subsequent  harvests  by  i r r e s p e c t i v e of s p e c i e s , down t o 15  timber  harvest  Followed  However, the h a r v e s t s d e c l i n e from then  before  is  forests.  From p e r i o d 6,  larger harvest areas  logs.  almost  during  1 t o 3 i s due  existing  periods  dbh,  25.8  in  higher.  The  of  by  above those  forests. large  The  as  declined  s t a b i l i z i n g at a long-run  in by  the up  t o the  basic  substantial period low  harvest  per  1.  yield  scenario.  t o 30 p e r c e n t  cm  was The  decade  s u s t a i n e d y i e l d which i s only  1 5  49  178  percent  h i g h e r than  The from 5,  higher  i n the basic scenario.  harvest  levels  the high timber content the  harvest  the f i r s t  i n the f i r s t  i n the existing the l a s t  of the e x i s t i n g  of the regenerated  forests.  From p e r i o d 6,  comes f r o m t h e r e g e n e r a t e d  long-run  sustained y i e l d  regenerated  forests.  regenerated  forests  the regenerated  7.1.2.4  results The  from  PAI  f o r e s t s and the  2.5  whole  The i n c r e a s e i n t h e  the higher growth  of  period  m /ha/year  rate from  3  log-flow  harvest  in  increasing  forests  i n the basic scenario.  schedule  resulting  fast-growing  t r e n d from  the present 3  liquidation  harvest  level  of t h e e x i s t i n g  consists  of  in  from  species  the productive, indigenous  harvests i n the f i r s t  the  the  3  an a v e r a g e o f 733.60 m i l l i o n m The  of  i s 53 p e r c e n t h i g h e r t h a n t h e 1.63 m / h a / y e a r  p l a n t a t i o n s of e x o t i c ,  output  forests.  In  S c e n a r i o 4.2: A l l - S p e c i e s Ut i 1 i z a t i o n , Followed P l a n t a t i o n s o f E x o t i c , F a s t - g r o w i n g Spec i e s  The  times  forests.  comes f r o m  harvest  for  f o u r p e r i o d s come  by  the establishment of following  any-tree  f o r e s t s shows a g e n e r a l l y  101.28 m i l l i o n m  3  p e r decade t o  p e r decade from p e r i o d 4 onward. two p e r i o d s , w h i c h  are  about  4.5  t h e b a s i c s c e n a r i o , come f r o m t h e  forests.  In  period  3  the  timber  p l a n t a t i o n m a t e r i a l s as w e l l as timber  from  The s e q u e n t i a l h a r v e s t c o n t r o l s p e c i f i e d i n the basic model w h i c h a l l o w s t h e s u b s e q u e n t h a r v e s t s t o be a t l e a s t 90 p e r c e n t o f the harvest i n the preceding period i s relaxed i n t h i s scenario. T h e s e t i g h t c o n s t r a i n t s c a n n o t be s a t i s f i e d i n the t r a n s i t i o n from h a r v e s t i n g the r e l a t i v e l y r i c h , e x i s t i n g stands t o logging i n t h e r e g e n e r a t e d f o r e s t s where t h e y i e l d i s o n l y 41 p e r c e n t o f that i n the primary stands.  1 5  179  the l a s t of the p r o d u c t i v e , indigenous of  h a r v e s t s from p e r i o d 4 r e s u l t  plantation  species.  m /ha/year,  is  3  for  yield  growth  from the  rate,  22.4  m /ha/year  forests  in  the  thus,  yield  i