UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A comparative study of forest research organization and policy Thirgood, Jack Vincent 1960-12-31

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FOREST RESEARCH ORGANIZATION AND POLICY  by JACK VINCENT THIRGOOD B.Sc,  U n i v e r s i t y of Wales, 1950  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF FORESTRY i n the F a c u l t y of FORESTRY  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November i960  In presenting  this thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia., I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available f o r reference  and study.  I further  agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  I t i s understood  that copying or publication of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of S i l v i c u l t u r e State University College of Forestry at Syracuse University. Syracuse, New York, U.S.A. Date - November 25, i960  i  ABSTRACT An attempt i s made t o e v a l u a t e the v a r i o u s concepts and t o i d e n t i f y the o r d e r l y processes conduct o f f o r e s t r y r e s e a r c h .  t h a t a l l o w o f the e f f i c i e n t  D i f f e r i n g national research  patterns are discussed. Emphasis i s on the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f f o r e s t r y r e s e a r c h from the viewpoint  o f p u b l i c and q u a s i - o f f i c i a l b o d i e s .  of f o r e s t r y r e s e a r c h i s c o n s i d e r e d .  The scope  I t i s stressed that f o r -  e s t r y r e s e a r c h t o be p u r p o s e f u l must be r e f l e c t e d i n the p r a c t i c e of f o r e s t r y .  Importance i s a t t a c h e d t o the maintenance  of c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r s and f o r e s t r y p r a c t i t i o n e r s and c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n t o the means by which t h i s may be a t t a i n e d . The  need f o r s p e c i a l i s t r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r s w i t h adequate  s u p p o r t i n g t r a i n e d s t a f f i s emphasized and a t t e n t i o n d i r e c t e d t o the development o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l framework t h a t i s f a v o u r a b l e t o the conduct o f r e s e a r c h i n f o r e s t r y . Although  i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between f u n -  damental and a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h may, a t times,be.unclear, d i s t i n c t i o n i s drawn between the two.  a  I t i s argued t h a t be-  cause o f the nature o f f o r e s t r y such d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s essential  f o r the e f f i c i e n t conduct o f r e s e a r c h ; d i f f e r e n t forms o f  o r g a n i z a t i o n , technique,  s t a f f i n g s t r u c t u r e and q u a l i t i e s i n  the personnel b e i n g r e q u i r e d i n each case. The  l i n k between r e s e a r c h and e d u c a t i o n i s examined, and,  together w i t h s t a t e , i n d u s t r i a l , c o - o p e r a t i v e and p r i v a t e l y sponsored r e s e a r c h groups, a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d t o o r g a n l z a -  ii.  t i o n a l forms and the machinery of control.  Research program-  ing i s considered, and the processes adopted by various agencies are reviewed, together with f i n a n c i a l p r o v i s i o n .  The  importance of inter-agency c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s emphasized. Reference i s made to personnel matters and to the conditions of service of research s t a f f . t r a i n i n g f o r research are presented.  Contrasting viewpoints  on  Publication policy, and  the dissemination of findings i s dealt with i n some d e t a i l and documentation processes reviewed. There i s some discussion of the functions and place of the experimental forest i n f o r e s t r y research. F i n a l l y , i n t e r n a t i o n a l research a c t i v i t y i s surveyed, the work of regional groupings  of various kinds reviewed.  and Stress  i s placed upon the contribution of the international agencies. The history and development of c e r t a i n national programs i s presented as an appendix. An attempt has been made to present one philosophy conc r e t e l y and consistently and, through consideration of the body of the l i t e r a t u r e , to explain t h i s , while providing a framework that, i t i s hoped, may be h e l p f u l to others i n the formulation of what must e s s e n t i a l l y be a personal' philosophy. Throughout, the u n i v e r s a l i t y of f o r e s t r y experience i s emphasized.  A world view i s taken and examples and views drawn  from a number of countries i n an attempt to obtain a synthesis of research thought.  iii  "In r e s e a r c h  more important  than  p l a n n i n g , c o n t r o l , and c o s t l y b u i l d i n g s , i s the c o r r e c t atmosphere f o r the encouragement of the enthusiasm and the  v i s i o n needed t o l i f t  research  from a n a l y s i s t o c r e a t i o n . " P r o f e s s o r W.  I . B. B e v e r i d g e .  F e l l o w of Jesus C o l l e g e ,  Cambridge.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION  1  GENERAL RESEARCH ORGANIZATION AND METHOD The  o r i e n t a t i o n and s c a l e o f r e s e a r c h  4  Fundamental r e s e a r c h o r a p p l i e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n Formal and i n f o r m a l r e s e a r c h , the o b s e r v a t i o n a l method and the c o n t r o l l e d experiment  9 22  RESEARCH AGENCIES The  r e l a t i o n s h i p between f o r e s t r e s e a r c h and  agencies  education  26, 32  Other academic r e s e a r c h The  development o f s t a t e a c t i v i t y i n f o r e s t r y research  Some aspects  45  of state research organization  49  F o r e s t products r e s e a r c h  55  Research by i n d u s t r i a l agencies  59  P r i v a t e l y sponsored r e s e a r c h Researches supported by a s s o c i a t i o n s and cooperatives  60 61  PERSONNEL PROBLEMS Co-operation  i n research  66  Governing bodies and the machinery of c o n t r o l s t a t u s and c o n d i t i o n s of s e r v i c e o f r e s e a r c h staff CONTRASTING VIEWPOINTS ON RESEARCH  70  The  83  American and B r i t i s h views on t r a i n i n g f o r research The  90  use o f s p e c i a l i s t personnel  Subordinate s t a f f i n the r e s e a r c h  104 structure  106  Page The q u e s t i o n o f r e s e a r c h  publication  117  PUTTING RESEARCH INTO PRACTICE Relationships  between r e s e a r c h  p e r s o n n e l and  practicing foresters  123  o f the experimental f o r e s t  127  Demonstration and the e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n  138  The f u n c t i o n s  FUNDS FOR RESEARCH  140  DISSEMINATION AND DOCUMENTATION P u b l i c a t i o n p o l i c y and p r a c t i c e  151  Dissemination i n i n d u s t r i a l research  161  Documentation  162  INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH ACTIVITY  168  FINIS  178 l 8 l  Appendices A u t h o r i t i e s t o whom r e f e r e n c e L i t e r a t u r e consulted  i s made i n the t e x t  198 205  vi ' Foreword and acknowledgements In t h i s study the published writings have been s c r u t i n ized to determine research patterns. I wish to make f u l l acknowledgement of the debt owed to the many writers l i s t e d i n the bibliography, both f o r background information and f o r material incorporated i n the text. Building upon t h i s l i t e r a t u r e and on personal research experience, I have attempted to evaluate the various  concepts  and to i d e n t i f y the orderly processes that allow of the e f f i cient conduct of f o r e s t r y research. This task of synthesis and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would have been d i f f i c u l t without a background of experience, and the end product would have been the poorer but f o r those foresters of Great B r i t a i n , Europe, the Mediterranean  Basin and the Middle  East, and North America: colleagues, i n s t r u c t o r s , friends, who have shared, and enriched, these experiences.  My ideas  have been shaped to a considerable extent by these associations. Also, sincere thanks are due to Dr. J . w. Ker, Associate Professor, Faculty of Forestry, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, with whom much of the material was discussed, f o r h i s encouragement and i n t e r e s t . Much of the i n i t i a l c o l l e c t i o n of material and compilat i o n was done while T was the recipient of a Fellowship from the Van Dusen Foundation,  a part of the Vancouver  I g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge t h i s  support. J.V.T.  Foundation.  1  "You cannot p l a n d i s c o v e r y but you can p l a n t h e c o n d i t i o n s which a l l o w the d i s c o v e r y t o be made." Anon.  INTRODUCTION As Macdonald (154) and L a u r i e (147) have i n d i c a t e d , i n f o r e s t r e s e a r c h the p o s s i b l e s u b j e c t s f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n almost always tend t o exceed the f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e .  I t i s essen-  t i a l t h a t r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y be planned f o r the b e s t use o f f i n a n c i a l and other r e s o u r c e s .  Among o t h e r s , Wilm ( 2 2 3 ) has  emphasized the importance o f c o o r d i n a t e d p l a n n i n g t o p r o v i d e f o r both the long-term i n v e s t i g a t i o n "which s u p p l i e s g r e a t permanent v a l u e s i n land management i n v e s t i g a t i o n s " , and t h e short-term  study o f lower permanent value but with  colorful  momentary appeal,  "the p o t - b o i l e r s ' which g i v e a q u i c k t u r n -  over o f r e s u l t s " .  The concept o f the r e s e a r c h program, the  problem a n a l y s i s , and the experiment working p l a n , go f a r toward s a t i s f y i n g t h i s requirement a t the o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l , but the e f f o r t s o f workers may be g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d , o r r e t a r d e d , by the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l framework w i t h i n which they work, and which i n t u r n r e f l e c t s the o v e r a l l p o l i c y towards r e s e a r c h and development.  Clapp ( 5 2 ) a s c r i b e d many o f the f a i l u r e s t o  make r a p i d o r even reasonable  progress  i n e a r l y American r e -  s e a r c h i n g t o poor s u p e r v i s i o n , poor o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r a combina t i o n o f the two. At the S i x t h B r i t i s h Commonwealth F o r e s t r y Conference, Canada, ( 2 9 ) A. H. G o s l i n g s t a t e d ,  2.  "Unless r e s e a r c h i s p r o p e r l y planned, u n l e s s i t i s p r o p e r l y c o - o r d i n a t e d , the b e s t r e s u l t s w i l l not be achieved." At the same meeting, J . D. B. H a r r i s o n s a i d t h a t the u n d e r l y i n g o b j e c t s o f Canadian f o r e s t r e s e a r c h p o l i c y were, "to ensure the best use would be made o f a v a i l a b l e personnel and f a c i l i t i e s , t o t r y t o a c h i e v e c o o r d i n a t i o n without r e g i m e n t a t i o n , t o preserve i n i t i a t i v e and y e t guide i t . " The  o r i g i n a l and popular concept  o f r e s e a r c h as the domain o f  the s l i g h t l y e c c e n t r i c and unworldly  scientific recluse,  Johnson•s "Hermit hoar i n solemn c e l l Wearing out l i f e ' s evening does not h o l d today.  Most o f t e n present-day  f u n c t i o n o f comparatively  grey" r e s e a r c h i s the  l a r g e and complex o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  Research may be the s o l e a c t i v i t y , o r i t may be o n l y a minor interest.  I t w i l l o n l y r a r e l y occur t h a t the worker i s f r e e  to f o l l o w h i s own i n c l i n a t i o n s ; he has t o come t o terms w i t h his  environment.  I n compensation, he w i l l almost  certainly  have g r e a t e r f a c i l i t i e s a t h i s d i s p o s a l and he w i l l u s u a l l y f e e l t h a t h i s e f f o r t s a r e o f some p r a c t i c a l  significance.  W i t h i n t h i s framework t h e r e i s s t i l l much t h a t may be done t o f a c i l i t a t e the development o f an atmosphere f a v o r a b l e t o productive research. without  The d i f f i c u l t y l i e s i n g i v i n g guidance  stifling initiative.  N a t i o n a l t r a i t s c l e a r l y i n f l u e n c e the approach. procedures  a r e , i n essence,  organizational.  a r e f o r m a l i s t p a t t e r n s , i n France,  American  I n Germany t h e r e  c e n t r a l i s t tendencies.  In  Great B r i t a i n the s t r u c t u r e which has evolved i s o p p o r t u n i s t , to a degree e m p i r i c a l , and w i t h scope f o r i m p r o v i s a t i o n .  3. In t h i s study emphasis i s on the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f from the viewpoint  research  of p u b l i c a g e n c i e s or q u a s i - o f f i c i a l  bodies.  These are most s u i t e d to the long-term e f f o r t necessary f o r the s u c c e s s f u l c o n c l u s i o n of much of f o r e s t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , f o r r e s e a r c h today c a l l s f o r s u s t a i n e d team-work, w i t h a c e n t r a l , c o n t i n u i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and assured  funds (69).  In  the  development of the theme emphasis i s on the u t i l i z a t i o n of v a r y i n g l e v e l s of s k i l l s and Experience has  experiences  i n the r e s e a r c h  team.  shown these t o be of g r e a t immediate importance  to the p r a c t i c e of f o r e s t r y . I t i s o n l y to be expected t h a t there w i l l be d i f f e r e n c e s i n opinion regarding sented. ology and  In p a r t these may  philosophy  conclusions  r e s u l t from d i f f e r e n c e s i n  nuances of meaning.  of experience. one  the I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and  termin-  Much depends on the background  However an attempt has been made to c o n c r e t e l y and  pre-  c o n s i s t e n t l y and,  present  through con-  s i d e r a t i o n of the body of the l i t e r a t u r e , to e x p l a i n t h i s , while p r o v i d i n g a framework t h a t i t i s hoped may  be h e l p f u l  to others i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of what must e s s e n t i a l l y be personal philosophy.  I f a l l were agreed upon the conduct of  man's a c t i v i t i e s such s t u d i e s as t h i s would be  unnecessary.  In the U n i t e d S t a t e s the p r a c t i c e of p e r i o d i c review n a t i o n a l p r o j e c t a n a l y s i s has t r i b u t i o n s to the l i t e r a t u r e and  Cummings (132)  current research.  a  and  r e s u l t e d i n s e v e r a l major con-  (52,5,230,90).  Recently  Kaufert  have completed a review of the s t a t u s of Research o r g a n i z a t i o n and  policy  was  * D u p l i c a t i o n has been avoided and l i t t l e d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e i s made t o t h i s r e p o r t . I t should be r e f e r r e d t o f o r d e t a i l e d accounts of more r e c e n t American a c t i v i t y and r e s e a r c h thought.  4.  c o n s i d e r e d by F r a n c o i s ( 8 7 ) ,  C h i e f of the F o r e s t P o l i c y Branch  of the F o r e s t r y D i v i s i o n of the Food and A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n , i n h i s a u t h o r i t i v e study on f o r e s t p o l i c y , law  and  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and recommendations made f o r the p o s i t i o n i n g of the r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e of Government.  C o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n has a l s o been g i v e n  t o r e s e a r c h p o l i c y a t the v a r i o u s B r i t i s h Commonwealth F o r e s t r y Conferences. GENERAL RESEARCH ORGANIZATION AND The  o r i e n t a t i o n and  METHOD  s c a l e of r e s e a r c h  In g e n e r a l i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o reach any d e f i n i t e conc l u s i o n s as to a d e s i r a b l e s c a l e o f r e s e a r c h e f f o r t .  This  can  o n l y be determined from d i r e c t c o n s i d e r a t i o n of l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , and e s p e c i a l l y o f the stage of f o r e s t r y development. D e t a i l s of most n a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h programs have been publ i s h e d (51,52,84).  i t i s d i f f i c u l t to a r r i v e a t any  c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r adequacy without  realistic  p e r s o n a l knowledge  of l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , or of the s c a l e of the work d e s c r i b e d . Each country's r e s e a r c h program must be adapted t o i t s p a r t i c u l a r circumstances.  Thus the p r o p o r t i o n a t e f o r e s t r y  effort  devoted to r e s e a r c h i n Canada, where, " S i l v i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h has, up u n t i l the present been conducted i n almost the complete absence of planned s i l v i c u l t u r e " ( B i c k e r s t a f f e , i n 29.) but where t h e r e i s e x t e n s i v e n a t u r a l f o r e s t , has  little  rela-  t i o n s h i p to the s c a l e of r e s e a r c h i n South A f r i c a where t h e r e i s an i n t e n s i v e p l a n t a t i o n f o r e s t r y based on the use of e x o t i c s .  Nevertheless and  i t i s important t h a t a balance be maintained  t h a t the a c t i v i t y be  effort,  while  commensurate w i t h the t o t a l f o r e s t r y  the e x i s t e n c e of an a c t i v e and  virile  research  group can do much t o s t i m u l a t e p r o g r e s s i v e t h i n k i n g out of a l l p r o p o r t i o n to i t s numbers, such a group should not absorb a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount of the o v e r a l l e f f o r t and These r e s o u r c e s  may  importance, of men Champion (29)  resources.  be of m a t e r i a l , or perhaps of even g r e a t e r w i t h a c a p a c i t y f o r c o n s t r u c t i v e thought. drew a t t e n t i o n to Troup's views, which,  coming from a keen and  experienced  should be g i v e n some weight.  e x p e r i m e n t a l i s t , he  Troup was  felt  o f the o p i n i o n t h a t ,  "... i n the e a r l i e r stages of f o r e s t development the primary need i s f o r e f f i c i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and e x e c u t i v e work i n the t a s k s of r e s e r v a t i o n , demarcation, p r o t e c t i o n , and survey, l i k e l y t o keep a l l the s t a f f which can be a f f o r d e d f u l l y occupied; t h a t a t t h i s stage wholetime s p e c i a l i s t and r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r s may be a l u x u r y which cannot be a f f o r d e d the s o l u t i o n might be found i n c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t between n e i g h b o r i n g t e r r i t o r i e s with s i m i l a r or common problems," I n e f f e c t , the r e g i o n a l approach which i s d e v e l o p i n g Francois  (87)  today.  h o l d s an opposing view of p r i o r i t i e s .  believes that research  He  should be f a v o r e d over a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  f u n c t i o n s as the p r e r e q u i s i t e to i n i t i a l f o r m u l a t i o n of p o l i c y and  the b a s i s of r a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I t i s o b v i o u s l y a matter of s c a l e , and  also possibly a  matter of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the f u n c t i o n s of t h a t very group of workers o f t e n i n c l u d e d under the umbrella f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e reasons but f a r removed from r e s e a r c h  of  diverse 'research  engaged i n a range of a c t i v i t i e s  sensu s t r i c t a .  L a u r i e (1*1-7) d e c l a r e d  6. " F o r e s t r e s e a r c h v a r i e s a t the one extreme from fundamental s c i e n t i f i c problems of t r e e p h y s i o l o g y and ecology e t c . , through the p r a c t i c a l problems o f growing t r e e s on p a r t i c u l a r s i t e s , to matters t h a t a r e doubtf u l l y r e s e a r c h a t a l l , such as the c o l l e c t i o n o f i n f o r mation f o r management purposes. One c r i t e r i o n t h a t might be a p p l i e d i s whether the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s aimed a t a c q u i r i n g knowledge, o r whether i t i s merely amassing data f o r a s p e c i f i c purpose." I n p r a c t i c e , such a d e f i n i t i o n i s o f t e n not r e a l i s t i c . L a u r i e found i t u s u a l l y convenient t o c l a s s i f y as a l l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s that require a s p e c i a l i s t  'research  1  s t a f f to carry  them out e f f i c i e n t l y . Experience both i n the B r i t i s h Commonwealth and i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s has amply demonstrated the weakness o f depending on the g e n e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e cadre f o r the p r o g r e s s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l work. " i t takes a t r a i n e d r e s e a r c h worker t o be c o n s t a n t l y aware of the wide range of f a c t o r s t h a t p l a y a p a r t i n producing any p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n " (Champion, i n 2 8 ) . Long e x p e r i e n c e has i n d i c a t e d t h a t the s p e c i a l i z e d conduct of r e s e a r c h i n the f i e l d and the o r d i n a r y d i v i s i o n a l d u t i e s cannot be mixed.  officer  While experiment maintenance  times be l e f t i n the hands o f the f i e l d o f f i c e r , a  can some-  specialist  i s r e q u i r e d f o r the s c i e n t i f i c d e t a i l s and maintenance  of  r e c o r d s ( F o r d Robinson i n 2 9 ) . Chalk (45)  d i s c u s s e d world developments  s t a f f i n g i n the immediate  pre-war p e r i o d .  towards  specialist  S i n c e t h a t time t h e r e  has been v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e expansion o f s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d r e search.  Indeed, as has been w e l l s a i d i n another r e g a r d ,  " F o r e s t r y , l i k e o t h e r l i n e s o f b u s i n e s s , runs t o f a d s . " There i s perhaps a present-day tendency f o r f o r e s t  (108)  administrators  to want-'research' i n t h e i r departments r e g a r d l e s s of the o v e r a l l  7-  p i c t u r e , and perhaps on o c c a s i o n , without  any  t r u e knowledge  of what i t i n v o l v e s . I r r e s p e c t i v e of o p i n i o n s as t o the s c a l e of d e s i r a b l e r e s e a r c h e f f o r t , i t i s most important allowed to over-extend progressively.  t h a t enthusiasm be  a r e s e a r c h program.  I t should  not  develop  Care must be taken to c o n f i n e the i n v e s t i g a -  t i o n a l work t o the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by p r a c t i c a l a t i o n s of s t a f f and f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e .  consider-  What i s d e s i r a b l e  w i l l r a r e l y c o i n c i d e w i t h what i s p o s s i b l e . One  o f the major problems has been the d e l i m i t a t i o n of  areas of a c t i v i t y . "Research programs are s c a r c e l y , i f ever, planned from the s t a r t . They u s u a l l y grow out of s m a l l b e g i n n i n g s a c c o r d i n g to the needs o f the s c i e n c e o r technology they serve, and, i f not c o n t r o l l e d s e v e r e l y , they can e a s i l y get out of hand. The p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n are almost i n f i n i t e and i t i s the g e n e r a l experience of anyone who t r i e s to d i r e c t a r e s e a r c h program t h a t the f i e l d of i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o n t i n u a l l y tends to expand, and become l a r g e r than the a v a i l a b l e r e s e a r c h s t a f f can cope w i t h . T h i s i s i n h e r e n t i n any r e s e a r c h conducted by workers w i t h i m a g i n a t i o n and i n i t i a t i v e . I f i t were not so, doubts should a r i s e about the s u i t a b i l i t y of the r e s e a r c h workers f o r t h e i r job." (1^7) I n departmental  r e s e a r c h the primary  a t l e a s t i n the i n i t i a l lems.  interest i s usually,  stages, the s o l u t i o n of c u r r e n t prob-  The more " t e c h n o l o g i c a l " the nature of these  problems  the l e s s l i k e l i h o o d t h e r e i s o f o b t a i n i n g the a s s i s t a n c e of extra-departmental  agencies.  Such work w i l l t h e r e f o r e q u i t e  n a t u r a l l y f a l l w i t h i n the compass of i n - s e r v i c e e n q u i r y . i n t e r e s t develops  i n r e s e a r c h of a more fundamental  When  nature,  which i s n e i t h e r l o c a l i n c h a r a c t e r nor c o n f i n e d to f o r e s t r y , q u e s t i o n s are apt to a r i s e whether such r e s e a r c h should not l e f t e n t i r e l y to other i n s t i t u t i o n s , whether i t might not  be  be  8.  b e t t e r to subsidize s p e c i a l researches  elsewhere, o r whether  t o employ a s p e c i a l i s t w i t h i n the f o r e s t s e r v i c e . depends on the l o c a l Macdonald (15^)  The s o l u t i o n  circumstances. emphasized t h a t ,  " any program o f f o r e s t r e s e a r c h must be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the problems o f the f o r e s t , and as the problems change i n c h a r a c t e r so must the program o f r e s e a r c h v a r y i n i t s scope, and i n the p a r t s on which emphasis must chiefly f a l l . " but he a l s o warned, "A D i r e c t o r o f Research i n f o r e s t r y must be on h i s g u a r d . l e s t he be swayed too much by p a s s i n g f a s h i o n . We a l l know how g r e a t a p a r t f a s h i o n p l a y s i n f o r e s t r y some o f these enthusiasms have a very s h o r t l i f e . . . . I t i s a bad t h i n g when a program o f r e s e a r c h r e f l e c t s too c l e a r l y the i n f l u e n c e o f these temporary changes i n the c u r r e n t o f thought i n f o r e s t r y c i r c l e s . " He s t r e s s e d the importance o f long-term  planning;  ".... one must be c a r e f u l l e s t the r e s e a r c h p r o gram becomes s o l e l y a l i s t o f problems f o r which an immedi a t e l s o l u t i o n i s sought. Research must look forward and the program must c o n t a i n some items which a r e o f l i t t l e c u r r e n t importance but which w i l l be o f importance t e n o r even twenty years hence." Although g r e a t e s t a t t e n t i o n i s commonly d i r e c t e d t o the b i o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s ,  the t r u e needs o f a f o r e s t r y  s i t u a t i o n may r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t r e s e a r c h o r i e n t a t i o n . present est  In  day North America i t i s commonly s a i d t h a t the g r e a t -  l i m i t a t i o n s t o f o r e s t r y advance a r e economic i n n a t u r e .  Under such c o n d i t i o n s g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t s might w e l l r e s u l t from c o n c e n t r a t i o n on economic and managerial s t u d i e s .  The r a p i d  development o f i n t e r e s t and o f a c t i v i t y i n t h i s g e n e r a l in and  area  Northern European c o u n t r i e s - i n p a r t i c u l a r i n S c a n d i n a v i a i n Germany - i n s o - c a l l e d "Work S t u d i e s " , r e s u l t e d from a  r e a l i z a t i o n o f the importance t o f o r e s t r y o f the s o l u t i o n o f  9.  the problems t h a t r e s u l t e d from the changed economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s a f t e r the second world war. C l e a r l y , as Clapp (52) wrote i n r e g a r d  t o the U n i t e d  States, " a broad u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the f o r e s t problem and how i t must be s o l v e d c o n s t i t u t e s t h e o n l y s a t i s f a c t o r y background f o r a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the need f o r f o r e s t r e s e a r c h , o f i t s urgency, and o f the c h a r a c t e r and s i z e o f a n a t i o n a l program." Fundamental  research  or applied i n v e s t i g a t i o n  D i s t i n c t i o n between b a s i c and a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h tenuous.  Fundamental  i s often  s t u d i e s may r e s u l t i n i n f o r m a t i o n  immediate and widespread a p p l i c a t i o n .  t h a t has  Applied research  f r e q u e n t l y produce fundamental i n f o r m a t i o n  will  as a s i d e i s s u e .  There, have been many attempts a t d e f i n i t i o n , r e c e n t l y by McQuilkin  ( 1 5 7 ) , E . C. Stone ( 1 9 7 , 1 9 8 ) and E . L . Stone ( 1 9 9 ) .  There i s , o f course no c l e a r - c u t d i s t i n c t i o n , but r a t h e r a g r a d a t i o n between two extremes.  The d i f f e r e n c e i s f r e q u e n t l y  one o f i n i t i a l approach and o b j e c t i v e .  Simplifying, basic r e -  search i s o f t e n concerned w i t h answering the q u e s t i o n s and  'why', whereas i n a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h  quently  d i r e c t e d towards  'what  1  i n t e r e s t i s more f r e -  'how'.  The s i t u a t i o n i s perhaps b e s t  summed up by E . L. Stone.  A f t e r l i s t i n g t h e whole range o f terms; on the one hand, pure, b a s i c , t h e o r e t i c a l , fundamental, i v o r y tower, academic, imp r a c t i c a l ; and on the other, a p p l i e d , non-basic, e m p i r i c a l , developmental, u t i l i t a r i a n ,  p r a c t i c a l , he concluded,  "perhaps the t e s t o f good f o r e s t r e s e a r c h should not be whether i t i s b a s i c o r non-basic, b u t , r a t h e r , i s i t r e l e v a n t , i s i t w e l l done, w i l l i t reduce the degree o f empiricism i n i t s a r e a . "  10.  I t i s t o be r e g r e t t e d  t h a t a t i n g e of apology i s o c c a -  s i o n a l l y noted i n the p u b l i c a t i o n s f o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n on a p p l i e d  of c e r t a i n  organizations  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , suggesting  the authors c o n s i d e r t h e i r work to be  somehow i n f e r i o r  that on  t h a t account, f o r , " u l t i m a t e l y the r e s u l t s of a l l r e s e a r c h are judged by the improvement i n e f f i c i e n c y and economy of operations." (147) The  approach should be  d i c t a t e d by the needs of the  prob-  lem, "When one (a d i r e c t o r of r e s e a r c h ) has agreed t o take a program up, one must decide whether i t can be d e a l t w i t h i n the f o r e s t by experimental methods or whether i t r e q u i r e s a more fundamental approach." (15*0 In the  Canadian F o r e s t r y Branch, r e s e a r c h has  f i e d under t h r e e heads ( H a r r i s o n , Fact Finding conditions  i n 28).  These  Surveys, to e v a l u a t e and  t o the  studies.  f i n d i n g s of the b i o l o g i c a l and  behaviour  the a d a p t i o n of other sciences  s o l u t i o n of f o r e s t problems.  Applied  Research, i n c l u d i n g the development of p r a c t i c a l  methods of i n f l u e n c i n g f o r e s t development, the o p e r a t i n g and and  existing  study of the  of f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g f o r e s t development and the methods and  are:-  describe  as a b a s i s f o r p l a n n i n g more d e t a i l e d  Fundamental Research, i n v o l v i n g the  been c l a s s i -  r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s , and  the  improvement  of  t e s t i n g of methods  equipment. O f t e n t h e r e are two  i a t e a p p l i c a t i o n , and l a t i o n of b a s i c  the  i r r e c o n c i l a b l e s , the need f o r immedl o n g time i t takes f o r the  information.  I f a working s o l u t i o n , which  w i l l s a t i s f y the needs of f o r e s t management, can be through e m p i r i c a l  accumu-  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i t may  obtained  be q u e s t i o n e d whether  11.  a p u b l i c agency i s j u s t i f i e d i n p u r s u i n g enquiry.  Nevertheless,  a more  i n a comprehensive n a t i o n a l  e f f o r t , even i f such a c t i v i t i e s f a l l o u t s i d e the s e r v i c e enquiry, of r e s e a r c h ,  there  research  scope of i n -  should be p r o v i s i o n f o r the two  e m p i r i c a l and b a s i c , f o r f r e q u e n t l y the  t i f i c foundation  In s e t t l e d c o u n t r i e s there may knowledge, but  lines  scien-  upon which to b u i l d i s p o o r l y developed.  d i v i s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i l l depend on l o c a l be a b a s i s of  Harrison  (29)  looked  The  conditions.  traditional  t h i s w i l l r a r e l y e x i s t i n the newer o r  developed n a t i o n s . matter.  penetrating  f o r advice  on  I n h i s d i s c u s s i o n he i n d i c a t e d the e f f e c t o f  lessthis differ-  ences i n the stage of n a t i o n a l development on the o r i e n t a t i o n of r e s e a r c h .  He  noted t h a t , whereas,  "the European worker i s l i v i n g i n a world of e s t a b l i s h e d f o r e s t p r a c t i c e and as one o f h i s c h i e f f u n c t i o n s he i s c a l l e d i n t o f i n d out why something goes wrong," In c o n t r a s t the Canadian was search had  endeavouring to conduct f o r e s t r e -  i n the absence of an e s t a b l i s h e d s i l v i c u l t u r e , and  thus  a double r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to c a r r y out i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of  most u s e f u l c h a r a c t e r f o r the f u t u r e and t r y to s t i m u l a t e forest practice.  same time to  the development o f more i n t e n s i v e and He  q u e r i e d whether under such  fundamental s t u d i e s might not be search.  at the  the  better  conditions  justified i n in-service re-  T h i s s i t u a t i o n obviously provides  v a l i d arguments f o r  the a d o p t i o n o f a more fundamental viewpoint i f c o n s i d e r e d  in  the l i g h t of comparisons between Canada and Europe a l o n e .  How-  ever t h e r e i s a l s o the circumstance t h a t the more e m p i r i c a l approach has  proved e f f e c t i v e i n the development of a r a t i o n a l  12.  s i l v i c u l t u r e i n s i t u a t i o n s where t h e t o t a l o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge i s but s l i g h t .  H a i g and h i s a s s o c i a t e s  drawn American a t t e n t i o n t o the r e l a t i v e l y simple  (105) have information  on which s i l v i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s have been based i n t r o p i c a l f o r e s t r y , w i t h very c o n s i d e r a b l e empiricism  success.  The key t o such  l i e s i n the p r o v i s i o n o f s t a f f , both r e s e a r c h and  p r a c t i t i o n e r , o f h i g h c a l i b r e w i t h a wide g e n e r a l  background  a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l . Often,  both i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l approaches a r e p o s s i b l e ; t h e  mass experimental a t t a c k , u s i n g l e s s h i g h l y t r a i n e d men and the e v a l u a t i o n o f data from many f i e l d p l o t s ; o r t h e study o f b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s by the i n d i v i d u a l , h i g h l y t r a i n e d F i e l d experiments can o n l y g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n  scientist.  of general  appli-  c a t i o n i f a wide range o f c o n d i t i o n s i s sampled, and may not e x p l a i n c a u s a l mechanisms.  The b a s i c study, when completed,  may s t i l l r e q u i r e a l a r g e experimental program t o determine the n e c e s s a r y techniques.  F o r example, i n Canadian  research,  " i t has become c l e a r t h a t i f the r e s u l t s o f funda» mental s t u d i e s a r e t o be put t o p r a c t i c a l use i t w i l l be necessary t o arrange f o r a s e r i e s o f c o n t r o l l e d c u t t i n g experiments." (35) Although the Canadian F o r e s t r y Branch, as p r e v i o u s l y  indi-  c a t e d , undertakes s t u d i e s o f a fundamental nature, i t a l s o recognizes  t h a t i t cannot a r r i v e a t sound s i l v i c u l t u r a l  t i c e through fundamental r e s e a r c h  prac-  into individual factors  a f f e c t i n g the f o r e s t , w h i l e a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h w i l l l e a d t o sound p r a c t i c e i n time ( H a r r i s o n , i n 2 9 ) .  The F o r e s t r y Branch  f e e l s unable t o wait f o r a long p e r i o d because o f t h e p r e s s i n g nature o f the problems t h a t f a c e i t , but i t a l s o r e a l i z e s t h a t  13.  t h e r e i s no s u b s t i t u t e f o r a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h , f o r without i t Canadian f o r e s t e r s " w i l l never a r r i v e a t decent p r a c t i c e " . T h i s c o n f l i c t , the F o r e s t r y Branch hopes t o r e s o l v e through the  conduct of fundamental s t u d i e s t h a t i t t r u s t s w i l l h e l p  toward the e a r l i e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the observed r e s u l t s o f a p p l i e d experiments - " i f t h i s i s t r u e then i t i s ( c o n s i d e r e d ) a complete j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the fundamental r e s e a r c h  program."  L a u r i e (147) has d i s c u s s e d the two approaches i n the f o l l o w i n g terms, ".... the ad hoc approach t o f i n d i n g what t r e e s w i l l grow b e s t on a problem s i t e i s t o l a y down a s e r i e s o f p i l o t p l o t s o f d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s and r e c o r d t h e i r p e r formance. The b a s i c approach would be t o study i n det a i l the s o i l s , the water r e l a t i o n s , the a v a i l a b l e nut r i e n t s and o t h e r s i t e f a c t o r s on the one hand, and the physiology of d i f f e r e n t tree species, t h e i r tolerances and d i s l i k e s on the o t h e r , and g r a d u a l l y t o b u i l d up a mass o f knowledge on which t o base the c h o i c e o f s p e c i e s . The ad hoc approach i s d i r e c t , q u i c k and cheap. I t depends upon making some i n s p i r e d guesses t o s t a r t w i t h and r e s u l t s u s u a l l y i n a p r a c t i c a l outcome t h a t i s useful. I t c o n t r i b u t e s r e l a t i v e l y n o t h i n g t o fundamental knowledge. The b a s i c or fundamental approach i s f a r more d i f f i cult. I t becomes i n v o l v e d i n e l u c i d a t i n g a complex o f f a c t o r s and i t may take a l o n g time t o produce p r a c t i c a l r e s u l t s , and i s u s u a l l y c o s t l y i n time and manpower. However, i n the end, i t w i l l not o n l y l e a d t o a s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n t o the problem a t hand but may a l s o add s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o fundamental knowledge. Both approaches a r e n e c e s s a r y i n a w e l l i n t e g r a t e d r e s e a r c h program as they supplement each o t h e r , the ad hoc e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s o f t e n p r o v i d i n g m a t e r i a l f o r the fundamental r e s e a r c h e r t o work upon, and the f i n d i n g s o f the l a t t e r p r o v i d i n g i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the ad hoc e x p e r i menter 's guidance t h e r e i s no hard and f a s t l i n e between the two, each u s i n g the o t h e r ' s methods and approach to some e x t e n t . From the standpoint o f r e s e a r c h p l a n n i n g i t i s , however, convenient to make the d i s t i n c t i o n . The ad hoc experimenter works mainly i n the f i e l d , c a r r y i n g out experiments and r e c o r d i n g the r e s u l t s . The fundamental worker, be he e n t o m o l o g i s t , p l a n t p h y s i o l o g i s t , b i o c h e m i s t , p e d o l o g i s t , wood anatomist, m y c o l o g i s t o r e n t o m o l o g i s t , r e - q u i r e s l a b o r a t o r y f a c i l i t i e s , expensive apparatus and more specialized scientific training."  14. Current American r e s e a r c h p h i l o s o p h y appears t o f a v o r the more d e t a i l e d or b a s i c approach.  Present U n i t e d  States  F o r e s t S e r v i c e p o l i c y i s d i r e c t e d towards e x t e n s i o n of b a s i c r e s e a r c h i n the n a t i o n a l program.  I t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the  e a r l i e r more e m p i r i c a l methods have not proved e n t i r e l y cessful.  The  suc-  e x t e n s i o n o f b a s i c s t u d i e s i n the American  P a c i f i c North west has been advocated, and f o r m a l graduate (6l).  study towards h i g h e r academic degrees has been c a l l e d f o r  In f a c t , t h i s i s b e i n g f a c i l i t a t e d through s u i t a b l e p o s t i n g s and assignments, and i n o t h e r ways. unanimous however.  O p i n i o n has not been  P r e v i o u s l y Pearson (147)  western American n e g l e c t o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n  criticized  "the  through a p p l i e d  s i l v i c u l t u r e " f o r i t s i n a b i l i t y "to p r o v i d e a l i v i n g demons t r a t i o n of b e t t e r s i l v i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e . " f i e l d experimentation  He  advocated  i n p l a c e of "the c o n v e n t i o n a l p r a c t i c e  of working backward from v i s u a l e f f e c t to probable  cause."  Without q u e s t i o n i n g the p o s s i b l e v a l i d i t y o f the more r e c e n t c o n c l u s i o n s i t might be wise to r e c a l l the remarks 154)  quoted e a r l i e r on f a s h i o n s i n f o r e s t r y , and,  (109)  i n any  assessment of the success or otherwise  of p a s t American  ity,  s h o r t time t h a t work  to keep i n mind the comparatively  has been underway, and the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered by  activ-  the  i n v e s t i g a t o r s , o f t e n working under very e x t e n s i v e c o n d i t i o n s with l i m i t e d s u p p o r t i n g s t a f f , and w i t h l i t t l e i n the way past experience The  t o guide  of  them.  d e s i r e f o r more r a p i d advance i s l a u d a b l e but, by i t s  nature, f o r e s t r y i s a long-term  undertaking,  and  the b u l k of  f o r e s t r e s e a r c h c o n s i s t s of the slow, r o u t i n e , and  painstaking  15 accumulation  o f f a c t s , l a t e r t o be i n t e r p r e t e d i n the l i g h t o f  experience.  I n the f i n a l outcome good f o r e s t r y i s dependent  upon good f i e l d p r a c t i c e .  No matter how competent i t s execu-  t i o n , r e s e a r c h can have but l i t t l e r e a l e f f e c t i n the absence of  this. The  g r e a t e s t advances i n technique  and r e a l p r o d u c t i v i t y  i n f o r e s t r y r e s e a r c h a t the present day appear t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h those c o u n t r i e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n which c l e a r  distinc-  t i o n i s made between b a s i c and a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h , whether t h i s be formal o r t a c i t .  D i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n require  d i f f e r e n t forms o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , techniques,  f a c i l i t i e s , and  not l e a s t , s t a f f i n g s t r u c t u r e and q u a l i t i e s i n the p e r s o n n e l . When such d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n I s not c l e a r , r e s e a r c h may l o s e balance  and, where major emphasis i s p l a c e d on the fundamental  a s p e c t s , l o s e c o n t a c t with the p r a c t i c i n g f o r e s t e r .  T h i s may  be o f small consequence i n the case o f the s p e c i a l i s t working i n fundamental enquiry, but i t i s u n f o r t u n a t e , and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , i f the m a j o r i t y o f f o r e s t r y r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r s cease to  i d e n t i f y themselves w i t h the p r a c t i t i o n e r .  Macdonald (15*-) 1  stated, "... i n my view i t i s most important t h a t f o r e s t r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r s should be a t a l l times i n c l o s e touch with t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s who a r e running the f o r e s t s , i t i s a bad t h i n g f o r the r e s e a r c h worker t o c u t h i m s e l f o f f from the g e n e r a l c u r r e n t o f a f f a i r s . " In s i l v i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h e s p e c i a l l y i t i s arguable  that  progress i s most r e a d i l y made when t h e r e i s l e s s concern  with  u n d e r l y i n g causes,  and s i l v i c u l t u r e i s r e c o g n i z e d as an empir-  i c a l and i n d u c t i v e s c i e n c e , dependent i n no s m a l l degree on p e r s o n a l s k i l l s , p r o g r e s s i n g from o b s e r v a t i o n t o o b s e r v a t i o n ,  16.  and  f i n a l l y , by weight of evidence,, to c o n c l u s i o n s .  the a d d i t i o n a l data which are may  be  of g r e a t s c i e n t i f i c  p o s s i b l y , more e m p i r i c a l  o b t a i n e d from d e t a i l e d  i n t e r e s t , greater  p r o d u c t i v i t y i s o f t e n to be  o b t a i n e d through l e s s d e t a i l e d  of the  s t r i c t l y c o n t r o l l e d crop approach.  logy.  This  than the  view does not  mental e n q u i r y , nor  In a p p l i e d  adoption field ex-  i n t e n s i v e methods of f o r m a l b i o -  l e s s e n the u l t i m a t e  the importance of a p p l y i n g  such e f f o r t i n p r a c t i c e , f o r a p p l i e d satisfactorily  the  need i s o f t e n f o r e x t e n s i v e methods of  perimentation rather  and,  approaches, w i t h many more experiments  ground, l e s s comprehensive assessment, and  the  studies  technological  on the  investigations  Although  value of fundathe r e s u l t s  r e s e a r c h can  of  progress  o n l y when based upon a sound f o u n d a t i o n of funda-  mental knowledge.  However, the  need f o r v i g i l a n c e i n program-  ming i s u n d e r l i n e d . The  varying  concepts of f o r e s t r y have undoubted  Where f o r e s t r y i s c o n s i d e r e d not i t s e l f , as the sciences,  and  synthesis the  and  so much a s c i e n c e complete i n  coordination  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and  and  of more s p e c i f i c  a p p l i c a t i o n of these to  f o r e s t management, there appears to be British  less d i f f i c u l t y .  Commonwealth, with the p o s s i b l e  adopted  i n - s e r v i c e r e s e a r c h tends to c o n c e n t r a t e on ad hoc the a p p l i c a t i o n of fundamental f i n d i n g s  More profound i n v e s t i g a t i o n f a l l s w i t h i n man  who  has  whp  and  to  technology.  may  the  be,  but  a f o r e s t e r , e i t h e r by i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g or  subsequent e x p e r i e n c e .  the  investiga-  the p r o v i n c e of  s p e c i a l i z e d i n such problems, and  p r o b a b l y i s not,  In  e x c e p t i o n of Canada,  i n much of Europe, t h i s concept i s g e n e r a l l y  t i o n and  influence.  In North America l a c k of i n t e r e s t  on  17the p a r t of pure s c i e n t i s t s i n the f o r e s t environment has l e d to the e n t r y o f the f o r e s t e r i n these s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d s .  In  I n d i a a s i m i l a r l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n the f o r e s t l e d t o s t u d i e s being  undertaken by f o r e s t e r s t h a t Champion ( 2 6 ) c o n s i d e r e d  t r u l y f e l l w i t h i n the province  of the b o t a n i s t .  a f f a i r s i s , of course, not unique t o f o r e s t r y .  This state of A similar situ-  a t i o n occurs and i s o f t e n accepted i n c e r t a i n other fields.  more  professional  N e v e r t h e l e s s i n f o r e s t r y there a r e s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r -  a t i o n s t h a t a r i s e from the comparatively  small  s i z e and l i m i t e d  scope o f the p r o f e s s i o n . As noted e a r l i e r ,  i t i s not contested  t h a t f o r e s t r y as an  a p p l i e d s c i e n c e cannot progress without fundamental r e s e a r c h i n such f i e l d s as p l a n t p h y s i o l o g y , like.  ecology, s o i l  s c i e n c e and the  What i s suggested here i s that t h i s work i s b e t t e r done  when i t i s c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z e d priate discipline.  t o belong p r o p e r l y i n the appro-  The B r i t i s h view i s t h a t ,  " f o r e s t r y w i l l long need two types o f s p e c i a l i s t s even i f t h e i r f i e l d s w i l l o v e r l a p t o a v a r y i n g extent, one whose work must by i t s nature beddone i n a f o r e s t environment and may be termed t e c h n o l o g i c a l , and a second whose must e f f e c t i v e environment i s the r e s e a r c h l a b o r a t o r y or workroom, w i t h others working i n the same s p e c i a l i t y , but not n e c e s s a r i l y i n i t s f o r e s t r y a s p e c t s . Por the l a t t e r type the r i g h t t r a i n i n g i s a degree i n the a p p r o p r i a t e s c i e n c e . . . " (50) Perhaps the l a c k o f acceptance of these views i n North America i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the l e s s e r r e c o g n i t i o n o f f o r e s t r y as an a r e a of t r u l y p r o f e s s i o n a l endeavour and of the l e s s e r development of s c i e n t i f i c f o r e s t r y as a d i s c i p l i n e d i s t i n c t from the u n d e r l y i n g sciences. B a i l e y and Spoehr (5), i n t h e i r a u t h o r i t a t i v e study o f American f o r e s t r y r e s e a r c h  needs, s e t f o r t h o t h e  r e l a t i o n of  18.  r e s e a r c h , i n the fundamental s c i e n c e s , to f o r e s t r y .  They l a i d  s t r o n g emphasis on the need f o r d e s c r i p t i v e and e m p i r i c a l r e search, "Even i n those r e g i o n s , e.g., Europe and Japan, where s i l v i c u l t u r e i s most i n t e n s i v e l y p r a c t i c e d , i t has d e v e l oped almost e n t i r e l y through an e f f i c i e n t l y systemized empiricism. Thus the e x t e n s i o n of s i l v i c u l t u r a l management over the e a r t h ' s vast area of w i l d f o r e s t l a n d must be preceded by a comprehensive d e s c r i p t i v e survey and a n a l y s i s of w i l d l y f l u c t u a t i n g n a t u r a l and economic v a r i a b l e s , and by an i n t e l l i g e n t l y formulated program of emp i r i c a l experimentation." " F o r e s t r y cannot now wait f o r u l t i m a t e e x p l a n a t i o n s o f the extremely i n t r i c a t e b i o l o g i c a l phenomena o f s i l v i c u l t u r e which must be s u p p l i e d through exact and time consuming r e s e a r c h i n the b a s i c experimental s c i e n c e s . " These c o n c l u s i o n s are of i n t e r e s t , f o r they are from outs i d e the p r o f e s s i o n and from pure s c i e n t i s t s , whom, i t i s to be assumed, might have been p r e d i s p o s e d  to f a v o u r a fundamental  approach. One  e x p l a n a t i o n of the g r e a t e r American emphasis on  the  need f o r fundamental s t u d i e s i n f o r e s t r y , as compared to t h e i r B r i t i s h c o u n t e r p a r t s , may r e s e a r c h i n the two  l i e i n the d i f f e r i n g emphasis on pure  countries.  I n B r i t a i n pure r e s e a r c h , i . e . ,  s c h o l a r l y r e s e a r c h undertaken f o r i t s own  sake, amounts to 5 0  percent of the t o t a l n a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e f f o r t . S t a t e s i t forms 7 percent of the n a t i o n a l t o t a l . Robert McKinney, (New  York Times, Oct.  9,  i960)  I n the  United  According  to  former A s s i s t a n t  S e c r e t a r y of the I n t e r i o r and f i r s t permanent U n i t e d  States  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a t the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Atomic Energy Agency, o n l y o n e - t w e l f t h of present day U n i t e d S t a t e s tgepCal expenditure  on  r e s e a r c h goes f o r fundamental r e s e a r c h . I n terms of man-power, of about 300,000 f u l l - t i m e e r s engaged i n r e s e a r c h and development o n l y  27,000  research-  are i n b a s i c  19-  research  (218).  Such b a l d comparisons a r e dangerous, but t h i s  p a r t i c u l a r circumstance may be a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r i n the emphasis on ad hoc e n q u i r y  t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s much o f the ap-  p l i e d r e s e a r c h undertaken i n B r i t a i n , both i n f o r e s t r y and i n other f i e l d s , i n t h a t the work o f the 'pure' s c i e n t i s t  provides  the necessary background ( p o s s i b l y o f a c u l t u r a l nature) t o the e f f o r t s o f the t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t o r , w h i l e i n North America the r e s e a r c h e r  f i n d s i t necessary t o develop t h i s  infor-  mation h i m s e l f . D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the agencies engaged i n v a r i o u s types o f r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y v a r i e s i n d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s . modern f o r e s t r y was e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n the Germanic t h i s may have r e c e i v e d l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n .  tradition  However, w i t h the  development o f l a r g e r s t a t e r e s e a r c h agencies, i s changing.  Where  the o l d e r  pattern  A t Z u r i c h , f o r example, the F e d e r a l f o r e s t r e -  search agency i s concerned very l a r g e l y w i t h the conduct o f r o u t i n e , a p p l i e d enquiry,  o f t e n o f a long-term nature, w h i l e  more fundamental s t u d i e s a r e undertaken by t h e u n i v e r s i t y ( 7 5 ) . Week and Kollman (220) have i n d i c a t e d an i n c r e a s i n g r e a l i z a t i o n of the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f such d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n German f o r e s t r y research, lishment  and have d e s c r i b e d of f e d e r a l r e s e a r c h  r e c e n t developments i n the e s t a b institutions.  i s t s perhaps the c l e a r e s t d i s t i n c t i o n . a l p o l i c y towards s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h d i f f e r e n t types o f a c t i v i t y . sioners i n respect  I n B r i t a i n there ex-  There, the o v e r a l l n a t i o n i n general  recognizes  The d u t i e s o f the F o r e s t r y Commis-  t o r e s e a r c h have been l a r g e l y determined by  a r e p o r t prepared i n 1920 by the A g r i c u l t u r a l Sub-Committee o f a Cabinet "Committee appointed t o c o n s i d e r  the c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f  20.  r e s e a r c h work c a r r i e d out by government departments.  The  Sub-  Committee recommended, " f o r r e s e a r c h work on o t h e r s u b j e c t s (than timber u t i l i z a t i o n and other f o r e s t products, which i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the F o r e s t Products Research L a b o r a t o r y of the Department of S c i e n t i f i c and I n d u s t r i a l Research and not of the F o r e s t A u t h o r i t y ) i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h f o r e s t r y problems and f o r any fundamental r e s e a r c h other than t h a t d i r e c t e d to an immediate economic r e s u l t i n r e l a t i o n to f o r e s t r y , the F o r e s t r y Commission should r e f e r i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e t o the a p p r o p r i a t e a u t h o r i t y i n whom i s vested the c o n t r o l of r e s e a r c h upon the s u b j e c t under consideration." The o f f i c i a l p o l i c y of the F o r e s t r y Commissioners, which has developed  from t h i s , has been s t a t e d q u i t e s p e c i f i c a l l y i n  a Government White Paper ( 9 5 ) t and reviewed  subsequently ( 9 6 ) .  T h i s p o l i c y i s t o l e a v e the more fundamental a s p e c t s of f o r e s t r e s e a r c h t o the u n i v e r s i t i e s and other s c i e n t i f i c  institutions  which s p e c i a l i z e i n p a r t i c u l a r d i s c i p l i n e s , and- are b e t t e r equipped  t o d e a l w i t h them.  Where such e n q u i r i e s are  f o r a p r a c t i c a l outcome o f some importance  necessary  t o the F o r e s t r y  Commission's a c t i v i t i e s , the Commissioners' p o l i c y i s f o r these t o be c a r r i e d out by i n d i v i d u a l s a t t a c h e d t o these The  c o s t of such r e s e a r c h i s u s u a l l y met  F o r e s t r y Fund.  institutions.  by g r a n t s from  the  I f a study i s not e s s e n t i a l t o o p e r a t i o n s , then  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f i n a n c i n g i s not c o n s i d e r e d t o r e s t w i t h the Forest Authority.  The  s t a f f of the Commission's own  research  o r g a n i z a t i o n i s concerned mainly w i t h the more t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s of f o r e s t r y , "with the more immediate p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and w i t h the p r a c t i c a l problems a r i s i n g " , t h i s i s t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r the n e c e s s a r i l y e m p i r i c a l methods of the e x e c u t i v e  staff.  21.  Research o f f i c e r s " t a c k l e and endeavour t o p r o v i d e a s o l u t i o n t o p r o b lems as they a r i s e i n the course o f l a r g e s c a l e o p e r a t i o n s , and when f a i l u r e s occur, attempt t o d i s c o v e r the causes and suggest remedies." (95) Emphasis i s on s t r i c t l y c o n t r o l l e d f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , w i t h concentration  on crop o b s e r v a t i o n s and assessment.  This  ment has been found an e f f i c i e n t approach t o r e s e a r c h  arrange-  problems  where s p e c i a l i s t s k i l l s a r e a v a i l a b l e i n u n i v e r s i t i e s o r spec i a l i s t i n s t i t u t e s (147).  I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i n the absence  of such f a c i l i t i e s a f o r e s t a u t h o r i t y may have t o s e t up l a b o r a t o r i e s and r e c r u i t workers i n the a n c i l l a r y f i e l d s t o supplement the ad hoc program. F o r e s t r y has much t o g a i n from the a s s o c i a t i o n o f workers i n related fields.  S h i r l e y (191) has emphasized the b e n e f i t s  t o American f o r e s t r y o f sueh c o n t r i b u t i o n s  from o u t s i d e the  profession.  Viewpoints a r e un-  coloured  They b r i n g f r e s h approaches.  by f o r e s t r y t r a i n i n g , and new t e c h n i q u e s e n r i c h t h e  research.  I t i s noteworthy, and i n d i c a t i v e o f the wide range  of t a l e n t s which become a v a i l a b l e t o f o r e s t r y through a f l e x i b l e research  system, t h a t  s e l e c t i o n o f a g e n c i e s f o r fundamental en-  q u i r y i n t o f o r e s t r y problems i s not c o n f i n e d  t o the p r o f e s s i o n a l  s c h o o l s i n B r i t a i n , but cover a wide range o f s c i e n t i f i c In a r e c e n t  F o r e s t r y Commission annual r e s e a r c h  t h r e e out o f twelve b a s i c  studies reported  report,  effort. i n only  upon, had the s c i e n -  t i s t s concerned any p r o f e s s i o n a l f o r e s t r y c o n n e c t i o n o r background.  Such i n v e s t i g a t i o n s may extend over a p e r i o d o f y e a r s ,  w i t h the development o f c l o s e and h i g h l y f r u i t f u l between the r e s e a r c h  associations  branch o f the f o r e s t s e r v i c e and workers  22. I n the b a s i c  disciplines.  The  worker may  be a t a  a t an independent r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t i o n , or may o t h e r government department. a l l p a r t i e s concerned.  The  b e l o n g to  r e s e a r c h e s are  which would otherwise go unsupported, the F o r e s t r y  and  facilities,  would otherwise be  financed Commission  q u a l i f i e d s p e c i a l i s t s as  the r e s e a r c h e r o b t a i n s a s s i s t a n c e  of f o r e s t r y and  In the  both m a t e r i a l  required,  practical details  and  personnel,  t h a t machinery be  sonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s . l i a i s o n and foresters of New  that  unavailable.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s important, when s p e c i a l i s t s are into association,  an-  arrangement i s b e n e f i c i a l t o  Individual  I s a b l e t o c a l l upon h i g h l y  university,  brought  p r o v i d e d f o r c l o s e and  Hollaway ( i n 16)  has  d e s c r i b e d how  faulty  l a c k of mutual understanding between b o t a n i s t s  l e d t o d e l a y i n r e s e a r c h e s i n t o the n a t u r a l  per-  and  forests  Zealand,  "The b o t a n i s t s tended t o supply b l a n k e t t h e o r i e s t o " e x p l a i n " a l l podocarp f o r e s t s and a l l Nothafagus f o r e s t s , w h i l e f o r e s t e r s , because these o b v i o u s l y were i n a p p l i c a b l e t o p a r t i c u l a r t r a c t s , r e j e c t e d these e x p l a n a t i o n s and r e garded the b o t a n i s t s as i m p r a c t i c a l t h e o r i s t s . " Formal and controlled  i n f o r m a l r e s e a r c h , the o b s e r v a t i o n a l method and experiment"  Modern f o r e s t r y p r a c t i c e has i c a l foundations.  l a r g e l y developed from empir-  I n the past much was  a c h i e v e d without spe-  c i a l i z e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l approaches, e.g.,  the  enormously  r i c h e d t r e e f l o r a of B r i t a i n , which r e s u l t e d from the of e a r l y a r b o r i c u l t u r i s t s , and e x t e n s i v e use  of e x o t i c s  which prepared the way  In p l a n t a t i o n .  and  en-  skills for  the  However, w i t h p r o g r e s s ,  problems become l e s s amenable to simple s o l u t i o n , and led  the  s p e c i a l i s t e n q u i r y becomes e s s e n t i a l  -  control-  23-  " the f o r e s t s of many c o u n t r i e s are l i t t e r e d w i t h the remains of a b o r t i v e experiments upon which much time, enthusiasm and money has been spent." (29) N e v e r t h e l e s s , although formal i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s now  recog-  n i z e d as the major form of r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y , much v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n and i n t e r e s t may from o b s e r v a t i o n s .  r e s u l t from s m a l l - s c a l e t r i a l s  S h i r l e y (191)  and  has g i v e n a number of examples  from America and Europe of advances o n l y p o s s i b l e with the f a c i l i t i e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o the p r a c t i c i n g  for-  ester. Lutz (151)  stated,  " I would l i k e t o express my c o n v i c t i o n t h a t f i e l d f o r e s t e r s should never d e l e g a t e a l l e n q u i r y t o p r o f e s s i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s . Any f o r e s t e r who works i n the woods can make u s e f u l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o knowledge i f he has an e n q u i r i n g mind and i s a c l o s e o b s e r v e r . The l o n g l i s t of t h i n g s we do not know about t r e e s and f o r e s t s i n c l u d e s many simple, but important, q u e s t i o n s t h a t can be answered without the benef i t o f e i t h e r e l a b o r a t e r e s e a r c h equipment or h i g h l y specialized training." There i s a r e g r e t t a b l e tendency,  o c c a s i o n a l l y apparent  c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s of present-day r e s e a r c h , t o d i s c o u n t the  in ob-  s e r v a t i o n a l approach because of the admitted d i f f i c u l t y of p r o ducing s t a t i s t i c a l l y sound p r o o f . necessary,  C r i t i c i s m , i f any becomes  should be d i r e c t e d towards the i n d i v i d u a l worker  r a t h e r than as condemnation of the method.  Correct evaluation  i s necessary and care must be taken t o a v o i d s e l e c t i v i t y i n the f i t t i n g of n a t u r a l phenomena t o p r e - e x i s t i n g hypotheses,  or  h a s t y c o n c l u s i o n s on the b a s i s of f a u l t y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of served o c c u r r e n c e s .  But  ob-  s i m i l a r care i s n e c e s s a r y i n the use  of the experimental method, when t h e r e i s e q u a l danger of the acceptance  of r e s u l t s of l i m i t e d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n as c o n c l u s i v e ;  i n s i m i l a r manner, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e s t s w i t h the  interpreter.  24.  (176),  I n the words of P o u l t o n  "one  f e a t h e r from a goose and another mal,  must beware of t a k i n g  from a l e g h o r n . "  s t r i c t l y c o n t r o l l e d experimentation  cornerstone  of r e s e a r c h  one  While f o r -  should p r o v i d e  the  activity,  "there i s no more common e r r o r than to assume t h a t , because prolonged and a c c u r a t e mathematical c a l c u l a t i o n s have been made, the a p p l i c a t i o n of the r e s u l t s to some f a c t of nature i s a b s o l u t e l y c e r t a i n . " (A. N. Whitehead. Wilm (224) has d i s c u s s e d the d e s i r a b l e balance "designed"  experiment and  t h a t the r e s e a r c h man  "organized e x p e r i e n c e . "  between He  suggested  i s l i k e l y to p l a c e I n s u f f i c i e n t t r u s t i n  the u s e f u l n e s s of t r a i n i n g and experience, t i r e l y on c o n t r o l l e d experimentation;  and  to depend  that a researcher  enshould  be a b l e t o develop a h y p o t h e s i s on the b a s i s of accumulated knowledge and o b s e r v a t i o n which, i f s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r o n g ,  should  be a c c e p t a b l e by i t s e l f , o r , I f some u n c e r t a i n t y i s l e f t ,  may  be t e s t e d by experiment under c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s .  Con-  v e r s e l y , he d e c l a r e d the p r a c t i t i o n e r to be i m p a t i e n t o f the n i c e t i e s of c o n t r o l l e d r e s e a r c h . Bickerstaffe  (15)  has presented  the views of the Canadian  F e d e r a l F o r e s t r y Branch, "The u s u a l r e s e a r c h methods employed i n such f i e l d s as a g r i c u l t u r e , b i o l o g y , and the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s can o n l y be used i n p a r t f o r s i l v i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h , the l o n g time element i n v o l v e d , the wide v a r i a t i o n s i n f o r e s t c o n d i t i o n s , and the d i f f i c u l t y i n c o n t r o l l i n g or measuring v a r i o u s s i t e f a c t o r s f o r experimental purposes, o f t e n l i m i t the a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s of e x p e r i mental d e s i g n and s t a t i s t i c a l methods. Although s t a t i s t i c a l methods are f o l l o w e d where a p p l i c a b l e , much s i l v i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h i s , u n d e r t a k e n with the f u l l r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the r e s u l t s are h i g h l y s u b j e c t i v e and o n l y as r e l i a b l e as the judgement of the i n v e s t i g a t o r . "  25.  T h i s he  considered  a v a l i d approach, f o r the demand  not p r i m a r i l y f o r i n f o r m a t i o n t i c a l l y c o r r e c t , but  statis-  " r a t h e r f o r approximations to workable  procedures which can be conditions."  proved s c i e n t i f i c a l l y and  was  t e s t e d and  r e f i n e d under  operating  To p r o v i d e t h i s type o f i n f o r m a t i o n ,  F o r e s t r y Branch p l a c e s  emphasis on o b s e r v a t i o n a l  the  and  Canadian  applied  research. Support f o r the o b s e r v a t i o n a l g i v e n by B a i l e y and the value of the  Spoehr (5).  "extensive  descriptive sciences"  approach was  very  They c o n s t a n t l y  strongly  emphasized  o b s e r v a t i o n a l methods of  coupled w i t h simple e m p i r i c a l  the experi-  mentation, of s o - c a l l e d cumulative c i r c u m s t a n t i a l evidence and, data.  more e s p e c i a l l y , q u a l i t a t i v e r a t h e r than q u a n t i t a t i v e Indeed, they questioned q u i t e d e c i s i v e l y whether  methods of the d e s c r i p t i v e and  the exact s c i e n c e s  the  could  be  combined s u c c e s s f u l l y i n the hands of a s i n g l e i n v e s t i g a t o r , considering  that d i f f e r i n g a b i l i t i e s ,  approaches were r e q u i r e d .  Few  d i s c i p l i n e s , and  would s u b s c r i b e  Spoehr's views i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y today, but the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t there port f o r t h e i r general value of the  to B a i l e y  and  i t i s apparent from  i s s t i l l a considerable  conclusions,  mental  body of sup-  w i t h r e c o g n i t i o n of  the  s t a t i s t i c a l t o o l s f o r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t h a t have  been developed i n r e c e n t  years,  there  i s a l s o an awareness t h a t  the d e s i r a b l e q u a l i t i e s possessed by the g i f t e d b i o l o g i s t and c r e a t i v e t h i n k e r are not n e c e s s a r i l y l i n k e d w i t h a mathematical facility.  There are many roads to r e s e a r c h  "Guessers" and  contribution.  "accumulators", " s p e c u l a t i v e " and  "systematic",  26. " i n t u i t i v e " and  " l o g i c a l " are a l l terms used t o d e s c r i b e  s c i e n t i f i c mind, and  a l l approaches have r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i -  (166).  cant c o n t r i b u t i o n s  The  always be the c r i t i c a l and deductive  reasoning  the  g r e a t e s t t o o l of r e s e a r c h must  e n q u i r i n g human mind; i n d u c t i v e  and  form a v i t a l p a r t of the r e s e a r c h method.  There should be no need t o a p o l o g i z e f o r s u b j e c t i v i t y . RESEARCH AGENCIES The  r e l a t i o n s h i p between f o r e s t r e s e a r c h a g e n c i e s and I n v e s t i g a t i o n a l and  education  e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s are o f t e n c l o s e l y  related.  There are two  education  w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of a s t a t e f o r e s t  s e r v i c e , and forestry  f a c e t s , the l i n k between r e s e a r c h  the more t r u l y academic c o n n e c t i o n  and  at u n i v e r s i t y  schools.  W i t h i n a p u b l i c agency the c o n n e c t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e convenience.  may  be  l a r g e l y one  Research, e d u c a t i o n ,  and,  pos-  s i b l y , p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s d i v i s i o n s are formed of s m a l l groups of specialists.  I n d i v i d u a l l y these may  be d i f f i c u l t  to f i t w i t h i n  an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e p r i m a r i l y designed t o meet the needs of t e r r i t o r i a l management. B r i t i s h F o r e s t r y Commission. and E d u c a t i o n  has  equal  A t y p i c a l arrangement occurs  i n the  There, a D i r e c t o r a t e of Research  standing w i t h the major a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  d i v i s i o n s , the n a t i o n a l D i r e c t o r a t e s of England, S c o t l a n d ,  and  Wales.  the  The  D i r e c t o r i s charged with the implementation of  Commissioners  1  p o l i c y i n r e g a r d to r e s e a r c h and  education,  c o o r d i n a t i o n of n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n these f i e l d s , the u n i v e r s i t i e s and r e s e a r c h agencies and  liaison  o t h e r r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t i o n s , and International research  the with  foreign  organizations.  27. W i t h i n the d i r e c t o r a t e the two branches, r e s e a r c h and e d u c a t i o n , are d i s t i n c t , with standing e q u i v a l e n t t o a t e r r i t o r i a l vancy, the major e x e c u t i v e f o r m a t i o n . e s t departments, although  conser-  In B r i t i s h colonial  for-  on a s m a l l e r s c a l e , there a r e o f t e n  s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r e s , with r e s e a r c h and e d u c a t i o n d i v i s i o n s under a common a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l . A c l o s e r a s s o c i a t i o n may be found.  I n New Zealand the  F o r e s t Experiment S t a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g the immediate post-war years a t the Rotorua T r a i n i n g Centre. i s a t r a i n i n g establishment  I n Malaya, t h e r e  a t the F o r e s t Research I n s t i t u t e .  In I n d i a , f o r e s t r e s e a r c h , f o r e s t products  r e s e a r c h , and f o r e s t r y  e d u c a t i o n f o r o f f i c e r s and rangers a r e c e n t r a l i z e d a t one I n s t i t u t i o n , the F o r e s t Research I n s t i t u t e and C o l l e g e s , Dehra Dun. T h i s grouping was not so much a d e l i b e r a t e p l a n as a r e s u l t o f h i s t o r i c a l growth (178)•  The s e l f - c o n t a i n e d c h a r a c t e r i s sus-  t a i n e d by a township with h o s p i t a l and s c h o o l .  The e s t a t e , com-  p r i s i n g 11,000 a c r e s , i s under the management o f the C e n t r a l Silviculturist. At i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t h e s t a f f do not o f t e n engage i n r e s e a r c h , but there a r e e x c e p t i o n s . des Recherches e t Experiences  The S t a t i o n  F o r e s t i e r e s , the r e s e a r c h agency  of the French F o r e s t S e r v i c e , i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the French F o r e s t r y C o l l e g e a t Nancy.  The d i r e c t o r o f the school i s a l s o  head o f the r e s e a r c h s t a t i o n and the p r o f e s s o r s take an a c t i v e p a r t i n the r e s e a r c h work.  Nevertheless here a l s o the t r e n d has  been towards i n c r e a s i n g dependence on s p e c i a l i s t , r e s e a r c h s t a f f , and the major, and long-term  full-time,  experimental and  p l o t r e s e a r c h o f the French F o r e s t S e r v i c e i s now done by such  28.  personnel,  while  the academic c o n t r i b u t i o n i s l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d  t o the b a s i c and a n c i l l a r y The  fields.  circumstances o f the I m p e r i a l F o r e s t r y I n s t i t u t e a t  the U n i v e r s i t y of Oxford d i f f e r from those of most i n s t i t u t i o n s . T h i s I n s t i t u t e was e x p r e s s l y e s t a b l i s h e d with a dual f u n c t i o n , as a centre f o r advanced f o r e s t r y education, search  centre.  I t was founded i n 1924,  and a l s o as a r e -  consequent on recommen-  d a t i o n s o f the F i r s t and Second B r i t i s h Empire F o r e s t r y C o n f e r ences, "... t o p r o v i d e a c e n t r a l Commonwealth i n s t i t u t i o n f o r advanced s t u d i e s i n f o r e s t r y and t o undertake r e s e a r c h e s p e c i a l l y f o r those t e r r i t o r i e s whose r e s o u r c e s were not then adequate t o d e a l e f f i c i e n t l y w i t h these matters." (47) The School  i n s t i t u t e i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with the U n i v e r s i t y  o f F o r e s t r y , but i s f i n a n c e d by v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s o f the  B r i t i s h Commonwealth. evolved  A common o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e has  i n course o f time and the two b o d i e s a r e now  completely  amalgamated as the F o r e s t r y Department o f the U n i v e r s i t y , except for financial provision. Institute.  There i s a l s o an a d v i s o r y body t o the  I n the Department the U n i v e r s i t y School  provides  undergraduate i n s t r u c t i o n and the I n s t i t u t e i s a graduate and s p e c i a l i s t d i v i s i o n , with  s p e c i a l f a c i l i t i e s t o meet the needs  of the s e r v i n g " o f f i c e r o r s p e c i a l i s t , and c a r r i e s on the r e s e a r c h function.  The s t a f f i s u n i f i e d .  Champion ( 4 7 , 5 0 ) reviewed the  work o f the I n s t i t u t e from 1924 i n papers presented and  Seventh Commonwealth F o r e s t r y Conferences.  a t the S i x t h  By i t s nature  the I n s t i t u t e i s not so w e l l s u i t e d t o undertake s t u d i e s i n the d e t a i l s o f f o r e s t management as a r e the t e r r i t o r i a l F o r e s t r y Departments o f the Commonwealth and i t s major r e s e a r c h  contribu-  29.  t i o n has been i n t h e b a s i c and a n c i l l a r y s c i e n c e s ,  i n major  contributions  t o the l i t e r a t u r e , and i n the f a c i l i t i e s t h a t i t  has  to o f f e r to f o r e s t research  been able  o f f i c e r s who r e q u i r e  l i b r a r y and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n t h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s of service.  Such men may work a t the I m p e r i a l  e s t r y I n s t i t u t e f o r v a r i a b l e periods during researches.  For-  t h e conduct o f t h e i r  The l i b r a r y and documentation s e r v i c e s a r e a l s o  made a v a i l a b l e t o Commonwealth f o r e s t e r s on e n q u i r y .  Members  of the s t a f f may be c a l l e d i n by overseas t e r r i t o r i e s as spec i a l advisors  and t o undertake i n v e s t i g a t i o n s .  An important  aspect i s t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a common meeting ground f o r f o r e s t e r s from the c o u n t r i e s  o f the B r i t i s h Commonwealth.  Comprehensive  l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s form the b a s i s f o r ' F o r e s t r y A b s t r a c t s '  pub-  l i s h e d by the Commonwealth F o r e s t r y Bureau, a r e l a t e d but sepa r a t e body, which I s a l s o housed a t t h e I n s t i t u t e . In Germany, many r e s e a r c h  i n s t i t u t e s are associated  u n i v e r s i t i e s r a t h e r than w i t h the f o r e s t s e r v i c e s .  with  These i n s t i -  t u t e s d i f f e r i n concept from those o f the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g w o r l d . They a r e s m a l l , f r e q u e n t l y  composed o n l y o f the s p e c i a l i s t  pro-  f e s s o r and h i s immediate a s s i s t a n t s , a r e grouped a t academic centres,  and might b e t t e r be c o n s i d e r e d as autonomous s p e c i a l i s t  s e c t i o n s o f the l a r g e r i n s t i t u t i o n .  Kostler  (146) and Week and  Kollman (220) have d e t a i l e d the f i e l d s o f i n t e r e s t . the whole gamut o f f o r e s t r y a c t i v i t y w i t h g r e a t e r fundamental e n q u i r y .  They cover  emphasis on  C r i t i c i s m s have been advanced t h a t , a l -  though academic atmosphere i s p r o v i d e d by a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the teaching  schools,  and freedom o f a c t i o n r e s u l t s i n r e s e a r c h  di-  v e r s i f i c a t i o n , t h e r e i s no o v e r - a l l , comprehensive p l a n , and no  30. d i v i s i o n between fundamental and a p p l i e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  The  t r e n d and nature o f the r e s e a r c h i s l a r g e l y a t the d i s c r e t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l d i r e c t o r , and r e f l e c t s h i s p e r s o n a l ations. sible.  Incomplete coverage o f important  inclin-  areas becomes pos-  Fufcther, t h e r e i s no i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h the p r a c t i t i o n e r  and d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t . ent on the many German f o r e s t r y j o u r n a l s .  T h i s i s depend-  To r e c t i f y  these  acknowledged weaknesses, o t h e r r e s e a r c h s t a t i o n s have been e s t a b l i s h e d which appear t o be more i n l i n e w i t h those o f o t h e r countries. Older Scandinavian influence. i n 1917,  r e s e a r c h s t r u c t u r e s r e f l e c t e a r l y German  The Norwegian F o r e s t Research I n s t i t u t e , e s t a b l i s h e d  i s a t the A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e a t Aas.  The s t a f f con-  s i s t s o f three p r o f e s s o r s , from the f o r e s t r y d i v i s i o n o f the c o l l e g e , and f o u r r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r s . i c a l and t e c h n i c a l problems.  Work i s done on b i o l o g -  I n Sweden t h e r e i s a s i m i l a r  pat-  t e r n , the F o r e s t Research I n s t i t u t e o f Sweden, a t the Royal F o r e s t r y C o l l e g e , i s the c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r s t a t e - s u b s i dized research.  Each d i v i s i o n i s managed by a p r o f e s s o r w i t h  the c o o p e r a t i o n o f a r e s e a r c h l e a d e r , a s s i s t a n t s , and a i d e s . The  I n s t i t u t e i s governed, together w i t h the R o y a l C o l l e g e , by  a j o i n t board  (83).  I n I t a l y , a number o f s p e c i a l i z e d agencies a r e a s s o c i a t e d with the u n i v e r s i t y a t F l o r e n c e . I n Turkey, i n i t i a l German i n f l u e n c e i s r e f l e c t e d i n the j o i n t r e s e a r c h c e n t r e o f the Research D i v i s i o n o f the G e n e r a l D i r e c t o r a t e o f F o r e s t s and the F o r e s t r y F a c u l t y o f the U n i v e r s i t y of I s t a n b u l .  31. At Z u r i c h , the F e d e r a l P o l y t e c h n i c houses, i n a d d i t i o n t o the t e a c h i n g  s c h o o l , the F e d e r a l I n s t i t u t e f o r F o r e s t Research,  the F e d e r a l M a t e r i a l s T e s t i n g and Research Laboratory,  the  S i l v i c u l t u r a l I n s t i t u t e of the F o r e s t r y Branch of the P o l y t e c h n i c , and Polytechnic.  the E n t o m o l o g i c a l  I n s t i t u t e of the  These are a l l concerned with a s p e c t s  r e s e a r c h and are s t a t e - f i n a n c e d , but a l s o r e c e i v e from v a r i o u s o t h e r funds  Federal  Federal of f o r e s t r y  subsidies  (83).  Sponsored r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e s are commonly a s s o c i a t e d academic i n s t i t u t i o n s .  Examples are the F o r e s t B i o l o g y  i n the Limburg Campine, Belgium, j o i n t l y sponsored by of L u n b i r g and  the U n i v e r s i t y of Louvain, and  with  Centre  Province  subsidized  by  the I n s t i t u t e f o r the Promotion of S c i e n t i f i c Research i n I n d u s t r y and A g r i c u l t u r e .  T h i s centre i s concerned w i t h  i n the Campine f o r e s t s .  Specialists  work under the  v i s i o n of U n i v e r s i t y of L o u v a i n p r o f e s s o r s  (83).  research  super-  In South  A f r i c a , the w a t t l e Research I n s t i t u t e , a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Natal, Pietermaritzburg,  operates under u n i v e r s i t y a u s p i c e s  and  i s f i n a n c e d by commercial i n t e r e s t s , the South A f r i c a n W a t t l e Growers A s s o c i a t i o n . f o r e s t r y connection  I t i s of i n t e r e s t t h a t there i s no at t h i s U n i v e r s i t y .  In Canada, the  U n i v e r s i t y Research F o u n d a t i o n i s supported by the  other Laval  Canadian  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Paper Company t o promote s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h to develop post-graduate s t u d i e s a t the F a c u l t y of F o r e s t eering.  There i s c l o s e l i a i s o n with the F a c u l t y and  o f Graduate S t u d i e s . p r i m a r i l y focussed i n the context  the  and Engin-  School  Research i s sponsored by the F a c u l t y  and  on problems r e q u i r i n g immediate a t t e n t i o n  of Quebec f o r e s t r y ; s t u d i e s i n c l u d e both  32. fundamental and a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h . I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , f o r e s t r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e s a r e an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f c e r t a i n o f the U n i v e r s i t y s c h o o l s o f f o r e s t r y . Perhaps most commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s t a t e land-grant c o l l e g e s , they f o l l o w the p a t t e r n o f the A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment S t a t i o n s , o f which they may form a p a r t .  Although  such i n s t i -  t u t e s may have a separate d i r e c t o r , i t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o determine where the t e a c h i n g s c h o o l l e a v e s o f f and the r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e begins.  I n some cases they appear t o be p r i m a r i l y  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e s aimed a t the f i n a n c i n g o f p r o f e s s o r i a l and graduate r e s e a r c h and, through the p r o v i s i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l f a c u l t y , the r e d u c t i o n o f e x c e s s i v e t e a c h i n g l o a d s , thus ing  a d d i t i o n a l time f o r r e s e a r c h p u r s u i t .  allow-  Under such an arrange-  ment there may be a s p e c i f i c a l l o c a t i o n o f the working time o f a s t a f f member between the r e s e a r c h and e d u c a t i o n f u n c t i o n s . There may a l s o be f u l l - t i m e r e s e a r c h s t a f f , p a r t i c u l a r l y where t h e r e i s an experimental  forest.  Other academic r e s e a r c h F o r much o f f o r e s t r e s e a r c h the r e s o u r c e s o f a s t a t e s e r v i c e or i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e necessary.  I n the absence o f the  s p e c i a l f a c i l i t i e s o f f e r e d by a s s o c i a t e d r e s e a r c h  establishments,  or s p e c i a l f i n a n c i n g , u n i v e r s i t y r e s e a r c h i n g i n f o r e s t r y i s a t a disadvantage  as compared w i t h other i n t e r e s t f i e l d s because o f  the s c a l e necessary f o r much i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y and the r e s u l t i n g heavy demands on s t a f f , f a c i l i t i e s , and time. Nevertheless  the unique f a c i l i t i e s  of the u n i v e r s i t i e s  should be made a v a i l a b l e t o f o r e s t s c i e n c e .  I t w i l l be argued  l a t e r t h a t a r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n should be an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f  33-  the f o r e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . This does not imply that t h i s agency should c o n t r o l a l l research.  Especially i n basic re-  search the u n i v e r s i t y c o n t r i b u t i o n i s of great s i g n i f i c a n c e . In general t h i s r e s t s upon the h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d and diverse s k i l l s of the f a c u l t y .  These s c i e n t i s t s are not confined to  the p r o f e s s i o n a l f o r e s t r y schools and i t would be i m p r a c t i c a l to r e c r u i t f u l l - t i m e s a l a r i e d s t a f f of such d i v e r s e q u a l i f i cations to a p u b l i c research agency, even i f the s p e c i a l i s t s concerned would consent to serve.  The academic l i f e has con-  s i d e r a b l e a t t r a c t i o n to such men.  In a d d i t i o n these  institu-  t i o n s have e x c e l l e n t l i b r a r i e s , unique and o f t e n expensive laboratory equipment and p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n with outstanding s c i e n t i s t s .  A l l these provide the b a s i s f o r  developing strong programs i n basic research. The d i s t i n c t i v e character of the u n i v e r s i t y c o n t r i b u t i o n to science r e q u i r e s s p e c i a l emphasis.  I t sets out to b u i l d  up a body of knowledge r a t h e r than to solve p a r t i c u l a r problems.  To a considerable extent f i n a n c i a l and other  support  must be given to the i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r than to the p r o j e c t , f o r major d i s c o v e r i e s can be expected only through d i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n to goals that can be defined only i n a very broad sense. Unless freedom i s given, b a s i c research cannot t h r i v e . i s subjected to too much a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l and f o r r e s u l t s , i t can be s t i f l e d .  If i t  pressure  The r e s u l t i s i n e v i t a b l y a  program that masquerades under the name of fundamental research but which a c t u a l l y i s a r a t h e r unimaginative e x t r a p o l a t i o n of . known r e s u l t s .  34. A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the American l i t e r a t u r e i s the acceptance o f the d e s i r a b i l i t y of m a i n t a i n i n g p r e s s u r e f o r research production.  The i n t e n s i t y o f t h i s p r e s s u r e may  s u b j e c t to d i s c u s s i o n , but the g e n e r a l concept questioned.  Although  t r i a l research  be  i s but r a r e l y  most e v i d e n t i n the w r i t i n g s on i n d u s -  i t i s a l s o i m p l i c i t In p u b l i s h e d statements o f  f o r e s t r y agency p o l i c y .  Some emphasis on r e s u l t s i s to be ex-  pected i n agency r e s e a r c h , but the extent t o which these sures occur i n the American academic world, and the by which they may be a p p l i e d , a r e d i f f i c u l t  pres-  processes  f o r the European  r e s e a r c h worker, accustomed t o academic freedom, o r t o a cons i d e r a b l e freedom o f a c t i o n w i t h i n i n - s e r v i c e r e s e a r c h , and t o a l e s s c o m p e t i t i v e atmosphere, t o comprehend. As r e s e a r c h p r o d u c t i v i t y i s d i f f i c u l t  to assess,  i s o f t e n made i n American r e s e a r c h t o output Such an Index has obvious  disadvantages,  recourse  of p u b l i c a t i o n s .  and i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  as a c r i t e r i o n of r e s e a r c h c a p a c i t y and u n d e s i r a b l e as a b a s i s for  research e f f o r t .  Emphasis on p u b l i c a t i o n can l e a d t o empha-  sis  on quick r e s u l t s and premature p u b l i c a t i o n , and t o fragmen-  t a t i o n and u n n e c e s s a r i l y d e t a i l e d r e p o r t i n g . to  I t can a l s o l e a d  the submerging o f s i g n i f i c a n t work i n a mass o f t r i v i a .  The  weaknesses i n h e r e n t are g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d but, because o f the h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e nature o f American s c i e n t i f i c  a c t i v i t y , the  t i t l e l i s t r e t a i n s i t s pre-eminent p o s i t i o n f o r want of something better. In o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u b j e c t t o d i r e c t f i s c a l  c o n t r o l , some  e.g.-, Research Management, the j o u r n a l of the I n d u s t r i a l Research I n s t i t u t e .  35measure of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e p o r t i n g i s o f t e n unavoidable cause of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of f i n a n c i a l programming. may  be taken up i n the p r e p a r a t i o n  progress,  and  terminal reports.  h e a l t h y p r a c t i c e , but and  i t i s one  Much time  of d e t a i l e d p r o j e c t o u t l i n e s ,  In moderation t h i s may  be  a  t h a t can w e l l get out of hand  consume an i n o r d i n a t e amount of time and  otherwise be a v a i l a b l e f o r p r o d u c t i v e u l a r l y inappropriate  be-  energy t h a t might  research.  It i s partic-  i n the conduct of b a s i c r e s e a r c h ,  the  con-  t r i b u t i o n t h a t the u n i v e r s i t i e s are most s u i t e d to make. problem i s g r e a t e s t perhaps i n the context  The  of those u n i v e r s i t i e s  where the s c i e n t i s t , i n a d d i t i o n to h i s academic connection,  is  a l s o a member of an A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment S t a t i o n , or where he has  to seek i n d i v i d u a l f i n a n c i a l support f o r h i s  projects.  research  In the B r i t i s h system these i n t r u s i o n s on academic  freedom have been avoided by the establishment  of the  Univer-  s i t i e s Grants Committee, composed of l e a d i n g academicians, which a l l o c a t e s government funds to the v a r i o u s u n i v e r s i t i e s , and which Carmichael (44), has  served  on  d e t a i l e d r e p o r t i n g back i s n e c e s s a r y .  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e measures o f t e n n e c e s s i t a t e d by  needs of p u b l i c a c c o u n t i n g  are a v o i d e d .  t a i n e d d i r e c t l y a l s o are not and  considers  admirably as a s h i e l d a g a i n s t p u b l i c p r e s s u r e s  the u n i v e r s i t i e s . No t h i s way  an American commentator,  and  i n general  the  e f f o r t s at external c o n t r o l .  hand the funda a v a i l a b l e are o f t e n c o n s i d e r a b l y e d l y d i r e c t i o n of r e s e a r c h  ob-  univer-  f a c u l t y are very j e a l o u s of t h e i r independence  s t r o n g l y r e s i s t any  the  s u b j e c t to the d e t a i l e d c o n t r o l  r e p o r t i n g of American r e s e a r c h ,  s i t i e s and  G r a n t s t h a t are  In  e f f o r t may  On the less.  r e s u l t i n greater  and other  Undoubt-  36. p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of f i n d i n g s and  i t s absence may  result i n  much work being undertaken t h a t makes no d i r e c t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o man's economic a c t i v i t i e s .  In t h a t sense i t may  be  considered  i n e f f i c i e n t , but f r e e e n q u i r y  i n the t r a d i t i o n of the  u n i v e r s i t i e s of the world has  provided  for  important t e c h n o l o g i e s ,  why  any  and  i n d u s t r y w i t h the  t h e r e would seem no v a l i d r e a s o n  i n the s c i e n c e s b a s i c to f o r e s t r y .  Hebb and M a r t i n  (110)  have c o n s i d e r e d  " f r e e enquiry",  opposed t o " c o n t r o l l e d " or " d i r e c t e d " r e s e a r c h , of i n d u s t r i a l and enquiry as the  technological research.  i n the  as  context  They d e f i n e d  free  " p u r s u i t of knowledge i n which the i n v e s t i g a t o r  i s a t l i b e r t y to s e l e c t h i s r e s e a r c h f i e l d s of i n t e r e s t and own  basis  g r e a t e r measure of c o n t r o l should be needed i n funda-  mental r e s e a r c h  his  great  judgement".  p r o j e c t s i n l i n e with h i s  to pursue h i s s t u d i e s i n accordance w i t h  A sponsored r e s e a r c h program i s u s u a l l y  motivated by the e x p e c t a t i o n  of d e r i v i n g e v e n t u a l  benefit.  It  i s not to be expected, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t i t w i l l extend f a r beyond the s p e c i f i e d a r e a s t h a t show promise of y i e l d i n g r e s u l t s of p r a c t i c a l value. of b a s i c research.  Freedom of enquiry  i s the f i r s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  Without t h i s i t cannot p r o s p e r .  An  equally  important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s the u n c e r t a i n t y of r e s u l t s , f o r the course of the e x p l o r a t i o n can r a r e l y be p r e d i c t e d or r e s u l t s anticipated. o b j e c t i v e s and  Basic research opens up new  o f t e n leads f a r from the avenues of advance.  I t i s again  s t r e s s e d t h a t the s c i e n t i s t must be f r e e t o e x p l o r e pected o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t h i s s t u d i e s r e v e a l .  initial  the unex-  Attempts a t con-  t r o l through the requirements of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e programs predetermined r e s e a r c h  and  o u t l i n e s can o n l y l e a d to c o n s t r i c t i o n  37.  and  impoverishment through r e s t r i c t i v e c a n a l i z a t i o n . The  case f o r the c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n of the a p p l i e d f o r e s t  research  o f f i c e r w i t h the p r a c t i t i o n e r has been made e a r l i e r .  The  man  i n fundamental e n q u i r y I s i n a d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n .  O f t e n such r e s e a r c h from c u r r e n t  s c i e n t i s t s b e n e f i t from a c e r t a i n i s o l a t i o n  problems.  As Hebb and  M a r t i n remarked "by  them i n t o day-to-day a c t i v i t i e s you may s a c r i f i c e the  b e n e f i t the present  but  future."  Organizational i n research.  drawing  flexibility  i s d e s i r a b l e f o r free enquiry  I t must be easy to set up new  to c a r r y out p r e l i m i n a r y  projects  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , and  then to c o n c e n t r a t e  a c t i v i t y where o p p o r t u n i t i e s have been d i s c l o s e d . necessary r e s o u r c e s ,  quickly,  Given  the  the u n i v e r s i t i e s are admirably s u i t e d f o r  this. The research  value of the academic approach and i s generally accepted.  i n v e s t i g a t i o n the advantages are to i d e n t i f y t a n g i b l e g o a l s . d e f i n i t e l y set and some e x t e n t .  atmosphere i n b a s i c  I n a p p l i e d or  technological  l e s s c e r t a i n , f o r i t Is e a s i e r  Consequently the  freedom of e n q u i r y may  Other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  enter  be in.  course can  be  circumscribed The  applied  to re-  searcher must remain 'close to the f o r e s t ' i n the f i g u r a t i v e sense, f o r emphasis must remain on f i e l d a c t i v i t y s i n c e a woodland complex can be  seldom reproduced i n a l a b o r a t o r y .  d e s i r a b l e o r i e n t a t i o n may  be o b t a i n e d more e a s i l y i n a r u r a l  environment than i n e i t h e r an academic or urban s e t t i n g . i s a l s o the need, p r e v i o u s l y and  to be  The  s t r e s s e d , to m a i n t a i n c l o s e  There contact,  i n sympathy w i t h the p r a c t i c i n g f o r e s t e r , " f o r the  need f o r r e s e a r c h  a r i s e s out of the a c t i v i t i e s of the working  38.  forester"  (March, i n 29) .  I n t h i s a l s o the p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n -  ment, and  the i n t a n g e a b l e s of country l i v i n g , p l a y a major  part. "Forest research i n general ( i s ) apt to d e v i ate i n t o academic and somewhat f r u i t l e s s channels u n l e s s c o n t i n u a l i n s p i r a t i o n from the f o r e s t s i s maintained" ( C h a t u r v e d i , i n 29). When the post-war expansion was  planned,  the new  a u n i v e r s i t y centre.  of B r i t i s h i n - s e r v i c e  research  r e s e a r c h c e n t r e might have been s i t u a t e d a t At Oxford,  f o r example, t h e r e were the  advantages of the academic environment, p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the s t a f f of the I m p e r i a l F o r e s t r y I n s t i t u t e and the Commonwealth F o r e s t r y Bureau, e x t e n s i v e l i b r a r y  and  documentation f a c i l i t i e s and major r e s e a r c h l a b o r a t o r i e s nearby. The  other u n i v e r s i t i e s c o u l d a l s o o f f e r u s e f u l s e r v i c e s and  a s s o c i a t e d i n s t i t u t i o n s and  laboratories.  c i d e d to e s t a b l i s h the headquarters branch i n a r u r a l s e t t i n g .  I t was,  however  de-  o f the expanded r e s e a r c h  Subsequent development and  expansion  of t h i s r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n and the c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t i t has made, d u r i n g i t s comparatively p r a c t i c e and,  short e x i s t e n c e , to f o r e s t r y  through t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance, t o the implemen-  t a t i o n of the n a t i o n a l f o r e s t p o l i c y , suggest  the i n i t i a l  s i o n to have been soundly based i n the circumstances  deci-  of B r i t i s h  research. D i s s o c i a t i o n of f o r e s t r e s e a r c h from f o r e s t e d u c a t i o n a d v i s e d by P r o f e s s o r M.  Naslund, a c t i n g f o r the Food and  c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n of the U n i t e d Nations,  was  Agri-  i n h i s recommenda-  t i o n s to the Government of Burma on the f o r m a t i o n of a F o r e s t Research  Institute  (165).  Although  technical assistance reports  39. are t o be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h i n the context of l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , h i s views are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on one body of o p i n i o n , "An independent r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e must be completely separated from the U n i v e r s i t y of Rangoon F o r e s t r y F a c u l t y , because t e a c h i n g takes so much time t h a t the l e c t u r e r s would be unable to f u l f i l l t h e i r d u t i e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y and, a t the same time, do comprehensive r e s e a r c h . " H i s reasons  f o r proposing  the s e p a r a t i o n of r e s e a r c h  e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s were the importance of c l o s e and  and  direct  c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h p r a c t i c a l f o r e s t r y ; the e x t e n s i v e nature f o r e s t i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; the frequency  with which f o r e s t  n e c e s s i t a t e d the use of teams of s p e c i a l i s t s : and  of  research  the need f o r  these to be a b l e to c o o r d i n a t e t h e i r s c i e n t i f i c work f r e e l y . I t may  be assumed t h a t Naslund's views were c o n d i t i o n e d by h i s  background of experience  of the Swedish f o r e s t r y scene.  On  Uni-  v e r s i t y r e s e a r c h he wrote, "The main o b j e c t of the U n i v e r s i t y c o n s i s t s i n theor e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l e d u c a t i o n and a l l a c t i v i t i e s d i r e c t l y connected w i t h i t . U n i v e r s i t y r e s e a r c h work should be more or l e s s r e s t r i c t e d to short-term experiments which are not time-consuming." Academic r e s e a r c h was search program. commitments. ^  not to be bound to a p a r t i c u l a r r e -  Research personnel were to be f r e e of t e a c h i n g  Informal c o n t a c t was .  .  .  .  .  .  .  envisaged,  with f a c u l t y  and  .  students u s i n g the r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e f o r t h e s i s work.  It  may  be argued t h a t such views l e a d to v o c a t i o n a l - t y p e t r a i n i n g r a t h e r than to e d u c a t i o n i n p r o f e s s i o n a l f o r e s t r y , but i n the assessment of the p l a c e of r e s e a r c h i n the e d u c a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e much must depend on the nature of the r e s e a r c h and the stances of the i n s t i t u t i o n .  circum-  P r o f e s s i o n a l i s m r e s u l t s r a t h e r from  the outlook and background experience  of the i n s t r u c t o r s ,  out of the f o r e s t environment i n which the student  and  i s trained,  40.  than from the presence o r absence o f r e s e a r c h i n the e d u c a t i o n a l scene.  I t can h a r d l y be suggested  t h a t the I n d i a n F o r e s t  Ser-  v i c e O f f i c e r , o r the c o l o n i a l conservator o f f o r e s t s , i s anyt h i n g other than p r o f e s s i o n a l i n outlook, d e s p i t e the p o s s i b l e absence of a background o f r e s e a r c h i n the e d u c a t i o n a l to which he was s u b j e c t e d .  process  The s i t u a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t when the  emphasis i s on the t r a i n i n g of s p e c i a l i s t s c i e n t i s t s , when exposure t o r e s e a r c h processes graining  i s an e s s e n t i a l p o r t i o n o f the  process.  Although  r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y i n the North American u n i v e r -  s i t y schools of f o r e s t r y was l i m i t e d i n the p a s t ' t h e r e has been c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o t h i s f a c e t d u r i n g the post-war period.  Opinions  as t o the form t h a t t h i s should take range  from the ' s c h o l a r l y ' t o the 'comprehensive'.  The more academic  approach, and most a k i n t o European thought, c o n s i d e r s the c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s as seats o f l e a r n i n g , with the s t a f f members p r o v i d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n and doing s c h o l a r l y fundamental r e s e a r c h i n t h e i r s p e c i a l f i e l d s , and w i t h f a c i l i t i e s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n and r e s e a r c h by s t a f f and s t u d e n t s .  Graves (90) con-  s i d e r e d contact with students a c h a l l e n g e t o r e s e a r c h workers, and has p o i n t e d out that i t i s through f a c u l t y r e s e a r c h t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s o f t e n g a i n t h e i r s p e c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n and a t tract  students i n s p e c i f i c f i e l d s .  He f o r e c a s t the e v o l u t i o n o f  f o r e s t r y s c h o o l s as c e n t r e s o f p r o d u c t i v e r e s e a r c h , as i s the case i n other d i s c i p l i n e s .  The scope o f these undertakings  not u s u a l l y be comparable t o the s p e c i a l i z e d r e s e a r c h but e q u a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  would  agencies  c o n t r i b u t i o n s would be made i n s p e c i a l  f i e l d s , e s p e c i a l l y i n b a s i c knowledge.  T h i s approaches the  41.  t r a d i t i o n a l concept  of the u n i v e r s i t y as a p l a c e where  men  have time to t h i n k . A more dynamic r o l e f o r the American u n i v e r s i t y has envisaged by Westveld ( 2 2 2 ) . expansion  been  In h i s view, s t r e n g t h e n i n g  and  of s t a t e r e s e a r c h (as d i s t i n c t from f e d e r a l a c t i v i t y )  c o u l d be done most e f f e c t i v e l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y  through the  s t a t e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s under the l e a d e r s h i p of the various f o r e s t r y schools.  Increased  s t a t e i n t e r e s t i n post-war  f o r e s t r e s e a r c h he a s c r i b e d to academic l e a d e r s h i p , and he i n d i c a t e d some of the advantages of working through the educational institutions.  The  advantages l a y i n p e r s o n n e l ,  ment, ownership of f o r e s t l a n d , and other d i s c i p l i n e s .  equip-  contact w i t h s p e c i a l i s t s i n  He a l s o i n d i c a t e d the g r e a t e s t  limiting  f a c t o r to such i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y - l a c k of adequate n a n c i a l support.  fi-  To o b t a i n t h i s he advocated the d i r e c t i o n of  r e s e a r c h e f f o r t to the s o l u t i o n of problems of l o c a l  importance.  In h i s d i s c u s s i o n there i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t he r e c o g n i z e d d i f f e r e n c e s between the necessary r e s e a r c h s t r u c t u r e s and  any  pat-  t e r n s f o r the conduct of fundamental and a p p l i e d e n q u i r y . Emphasis on academic r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s a v i r i l e academic cadre, but i t i s important  t h a t enthusiasm be not p e r m i t t e d  r e s u l t i n l o s s of p e r s p e c t i v e . s i z e of the f a c u l t y . the growth and  I t s extent must depend on  to  the  While r e s e a r c h i s d e s i r a b l e and adds to  scope of a s c h o o l , i t alone does not produce edu-  cated and well-rounded  graduates.  An a c t i v e r e s e a r c h program  i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the advanced r e s e a r c h student, but i t i s a t l e a s t q u e s t i o n a b l e whether emphasis on r e s e a r c h i s d e s i r a b l e at the f i r s t - d e g r e e l e v e l .  F o r e s t r y d i f f e r s from most  scientific  42.  d i s c i p l i n e s i n t h a t most graduates are subsequently employed i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t e c h n i c a l management o f a landed e s t a t e and i n the d i r e c t i o n of f o r e s t r y o p e r a t i o n s , ratheri.than in scientific activity.  Over-emphasis on the r e s e a r c h f u n c t i o n ,  when a f a c u l t y i s l i m i t e d i n numbers, may  l e a d t o the d i s s i p a -  t i o n of f a c u l t y e f f o r t which should be d i r e c t e d to undergraduate i n s t r u c t i o n , where breadth, a l t h o u g h not s u p e r f i c i a l i t y , i s d e s i r a b l e , r a t h e r than narrow s p e c i a l i z a t i o n .  Although e x t e n -  s i v e graduate programs and f a c u l t y r e s e a r c h e s may  be v a l u a b l e  they should not d i s t r a c t a t t e n t i o n away from the  undergraduate  school.  I t i s t h e r e that p r o f e s s i o n a l standards a r e set and  p h i l o s o p h y developed.  Although p o s s i b l y outmoded, i t might  s a l u t a t o r y t o r e c o r d the views of an eminent e a r l i e r period. of B a l l i o l ,  be  academician of an  To quote S i r G e o f f r e y Paber on Jowett,  Master  1840-1893,  "He never concealed h i s own view t h a t e d u c a t i o n , not r e s e a r c h , was the f i r s t and f i n a l f u n c t i o n o f the t u t o r . Research, he seems t o have thought, was more o f t e n a s e l f i n d u l g e n c e , an agreeable escape from more urgent, i f more tedious, duties." In Europe a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of fundamental r e s e a r c h i s done i n academic  centres.  Many s c i e n t i s t s are a b l e t o devote  t h e i r major a t t e n t i o n over long p e r i o d s t o r e s e a r c h i n g . working f o r advanced  Students  degrees are a b l e t o devote a l l t h e i r time  t o r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y without the c o n f l i c t s of p r e s c r i b e d courses and class-room a c t i v i t y .  Although p o s s i b l y working i n f i e l d s  a n c i l l a r y to f o r e s t r y and on problems w i t h f o r e s t r y c o n n e c t i o n s , many of these workers are not f o r e s t e r s and may of f o r e s t r y  not be members  faculties.  " i n America most f o r e s t r y r e s e a r c h of t h i s nature i s under-  43.  taken by men  t r a i n e d i n i t i a l l y as f o r e s t e r s and with  subsequent  s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g i n the a p p r o p r i a t e d i s c i p l i n e s .  In recent  y e a r s t h e r e has been c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis on f o r m a l advanced q u a l i f i c a t i o n through h i g h e r degrees.  F i r s t degrees may  have  c o n s i d e r a b l e v o c a t i o n a l content, and of n e c e s s i t y f o r m a l  teach-  i n g and course work has r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis a t the graduate l e v e l .  Much time t h a t would otherwise  be a v a i l a b l e  f o r f a c u l t y r e s e a r c h or r e s e a r c h d i r e c t i o n i s taken up i n s t r u c t i o n and  the c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n of student  with  study,  both  graduate and undergraduate, t h a t i s i n h e r e n t i n the American u n i v e r s i t y system.  I t has been suggested  t h a t the p a r t which  the f a c u l t y should p l a y i n academic r e s e a r c h i s i n the s i o n of l e a d e r s h i p and encouragement of graduate  students.  T h i s n e c e s s a r i l y presupposes p r e v i o u s , or p a r a l l e l , contribution.  K a u f e r t and  provi-  research  Cummings (132) have i n d i c a t e d a c l o s e  r e l a t i o n s h i p between b a s i c r e s e a r c h and graduate t r a i n i n g i n American f o r e s t  science,  "Take away the c o n t r i b u t i o n s to b a s i c r e s e a r c h through t h e s i s study and c o n t r i b u t i o n s made as p a r t s of a p p l i e d s t u d i e s , and l i t t l e ' s c i e n t i f i c c a p i t a l ' , would remain." A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c weakness of r e s e a r c h programs based upon graduate study i s t h a t t h i s may search and  l e a d to f r a g m e n t a t i o n  of r e -  c o n c e n t r a t i o n on those areas which l e n d themselves  to short-term  study and t o c l e a r l y d e l i m i t e d and  straightfor-  ward s o l u t i o n , as c o n t r a s t e d with the very necessary, l e s s e a s i l y d e f i n e d , i n t e g r a t i n g study of g r e a t e r  though  complexity.  S o l u t i o n s to the problem of f a c u l t y r e s e a r c h a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia were presented  i n a b r i e f t o the  44.  Canadian Royal Commission on F o r e s t s and F o r e s t r y .  Stress  was  p l a c e d on the d e s i r a b i l i t y of u n d i v i d e d a t t e n t i o n i n the conduct of r e s e a r c h of h i g h q u a l i t y .  Three p r a c t i c a l  possibilities  were the d i r e c t i o n of r e s e a r c h done by graduate students  and  a s s i s t a n t s , the i n c r e a s e of t e a c h i n g s t a f f to a l l o w the r e l e a s e of those p a r t i c u l a r l y capable academic year, and r e s e a r c h processes  of r e s e a r c h i n g f o r p a r t of the  the p r o v i s i o n of t e c h n i c i a n s t o handle r o u t i n e (21).  The advantage of u n i v e r s i t y r e s e a r c h i s the o p p o r t u n i t y i t o f f e r s f o r concentration of e f f o r t at various l e v e l s . s t u d i e s may  Certain  be d i v i d e d i n t o areas capable of s o l u t i o n through a  s h o r t p e r i o d of concentrated work, and are w e l l s u i t e d t o uate work. i s s u e s may  grad-  There i s a l s o the f a c i l i t y w i t h which p r o m i s i n g  side  be f o l l o w e d a t a r e l a t i v e l y low c o s t .  Perhaps the most important  quality for a university re-  searcher i s the a b i l i t y to o r g a n i z e and  c o - o r d i n a t e the v a r i e d  p r o j e c t s of h i s students, w i t h a l l the u n c e r t a i n t i e s of  student  performance, i n t o one major r e s e a r c h scheme. In g e n e r a l , the academic environment p r o v i d e s v e r y a b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r fundamental r e s e a r c h . s t i m u l u s of c o n t a c t w i t h c o l l e a g u e s , and  favour-  There i s a l s o the  students, and  there  should be an absence of p r e s s u r e s which seek to compel r e s u l t s w i t h i n a s p e c i f i e d time.  U s u a l l y t h e r e are no r e s t r i c t i o n s  than those of f i n a n c e and p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n *  other  Nevertheless,  there are r e c o g n i z a b l e weaknesses; p r o j e c t s a r e s e l e c t e d because of i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t r a t h e r than importance or urgency, t h e r e i s l i t t l e programming, progress may t e a c h i n g may  be slow, the pressure  make r e s e a r c h i n c i d e n t a l .  Conversely,  of  excessive  45. p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h r e s e a r c h may teaching,  l e a d to adverse e f f e c t s on  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the lower l e v e l s .  In summation, the r e s u l t s of r e s e a r c h tions are, i n t o t a l , appreciable,  and  a t academic  the d i s t i n c t i v e  institucharacter  of the u n i v e r s i t y c o n t r i b u t i o n r e q u i r e s s p e c i a l emphasis, but a complementary and r e l a t i v e l y more important c o n t r i b u t i o n i s o f t e n through the t r a i n i n g of competent r e s e a r c h  workers and  of  p r o f e s s i o n a l f o r e s t e r s w e l l q u a l i f i e d to a p p l y the r e s u l t s i n the  field.  The  development of s t a t e a c t i v i t y i n f o r e s t r y r e s e a r c h Forestry research,  the l a t t e r p a r t of the that observations,  i n the modern sense, d i d not e x i s t u n t i l 19th  Century.  I t had been e a r l y r e a l i z e d  though u s e f u l , were i n s u f f i c i e n t , and  that  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were necessary t o solve many problems, but  the i n -  herent d i f f i c u l t i e s , the s c a l e of the m a t e r i a l , and  the lapse  time necessary b e f o r e  mitigated  conclusions  c o u l d be reached,  of  a g a i n s t a s u c c e s s f u l outcome. Gradually to be  i t became apparent t h a t much of f o r e s t r y r e s e a r c h ,  s u c c e s s f u l , almost i n e v i t a b l y i n v o l v e d  i z a t i o n which could assure c o n t i n u i t y and on a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e s c a l e . formation t u t e was  of s p e c i a l research  In 1861  establishments.  c o u n t r i e s where the f o r e s t r y t r a d i t i o n was  forest research  described  conduct i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  Ebermayer advocated  founded i n Germany i n the 1870*s.  Tourney (210)  some form of organ-  the f o r m a t i o n  The  first  in  established.  of these 19th  i n s t i t u t e s as "the f i n a l step i n p u t t i n g  f o u n d a t i o n s of s i l v i c u l t u r e on a f i r m s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s " . t h e l e s s o v e r a l l p r o g r e s s remained slow and  insti-  Others f o l l o w e d well  the  even i n these  Century the Nevercountries  46.  r e a l expansion The 19th  d i d not occur u n t i l a f t e r  1918.  Century European movement arose out o f the d i s -  s a t i s f a c t i o n of the s t a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s w i t h the f a c i l i t i e s and achievements of academic r e s e a r c h of the p e r i o d . U n i t e d S t a t e s the p a t t e r n was repeated.  I n the  The e v o l u t i o n of 20th  Century American governmental r e s e a r c h was a s c r i b e d by B a i l e y and Sphoer (5)  as an e x p r e s s i o n o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the  s t a t u s , o r g a n i z a t i o n , and accomplishments o f r e s e a r c h i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y i t s s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o t e a c h i n g and administrative expediencies. m i t i g a t i n g circumstance  Viewed i n p e r s p e c t i v e t h e r e i s the  t h a t , d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , American f o r -  e s t r y e d u c a t i o n , and indeed the p r o f e s s i o n of f o r e s t r y was  still  i n the f o r m a t i v e  itself,  stages and s t r i v i n g f o r p u b l i c r e c o g -  nition. Although  e s p e c i a l l y important  where t h e r e i s a l a c k of t r a d -  i t i o n a l knowledge of a l l a s p e c t s of n a t i o n a l f o r e s t r y r e s e a r c h i s the most d i f f i c u l t and f i n a n c i a l support.  development,  f o r which t o o b t a i n r e c o g n i t i o n  There may be l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n the  a c t u a l date o f i n c e p t i o n of r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y among the v a r i o u s major f o r e s t e d c o u n t r i e s , but the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f r e s e a r c h  was  grasped more t a r d i l y i n the l e s s f o r e s t r y - c o n s c i o u s n a t i o n s , and i n g e n e r a l o u t s i d e of c o n t i n e n t a l Europe r e s e a r c h development has been slower.  There are c e r t a i n e x c e p t i o n s .  S t a t e s the Madison f o r e s t products  Thus i n the U n i t e d  l a b o r a t o r y was e a r l y i n the  f o r e f r o n t of i t s f i e l d , and i n I n d i a t h e r e was f o r e s t a c t i v i t y a t an e a r l y date, the f o r e s t products  l a b o r a t o r y and  f o r e s t r y r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y a t Dehra Dun p r e c e d i n g t u t i o n s i n the western world.  research  similar  insti-  However the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e shows  47there was a general lack of appreciation of the p o t e n t i a l value of research i n the national economy. This lack of recognition of research p o t e n t i a l has often extended to the forest administration and to the p r a c t i c i n g forester, and i s not an index of the maturity of a country, f o r i n many less-developed regions and c o l o n i a l t e r r i t o r i e s there was appreciation of research values a considerable time before these developed  i n more advanced countries.  Although  British  foresters grasped the significance of research a c t i v i t y at an early stage i n many of t h e i r overseas charges, the United Kingdom i n i t s o f f i c i a l p o l i c y was  slow to implement large-scale r e -  search i n the management of the developing home resource.  In  considerable part t h i s was a side effect of s t r i c t l y limited f i n a n c i a l resources during the Inter-war period.  It may also  be argued that, despite the r e l a t i v e l y small size of the r e search establishment during t h i s period, considerable research was i n fact undertaken through sponsored u n i v e r s i t y studies i n the underlying fundamental problems, and a c t u a l l y i n the  day-  to-day operations themselves, f o r these, to a very considerable extent, were essays into the unknown and therefore of an experimental or exploratory nature. Cameron (42) pointed out, i n explanation of the r e l a t i v e l y slow development of research i n Canada, that s c a r c i t y , or the threat of scarcity, i s a great stimulant to research.  In Canada,  with an h i s t o r i c surplus of f o r e s t s , there was belated progress. S i m i l a r l y i n the United Kingdom, with i t s t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e as the world's major timber-importing nation, and with a secure trading position, i t took two world wars, with attendant wood  48.  s c a r c i t y , t o s t i m u l a t e f o r e s t r e s e a r c h on a l a r g e s c a l e . The years immediately  a f t e r the f i r s t  world war were  f a v o u r a b l e f o r r e s e a r c h development but expansion,  i n most  cases,  had proceeded l i t t l e beyond the p l a n n i n g stage, when f i n a n c i a l d e p r e s s i o n h a l t e d development and, i n many i n s t a n c e s , r e s u l t e d in  retrenchment. W i t h improved economic c o n d i t i o n s , a c t i v i t y recommenced  in  the l a t e 1 9 3 0 ' s , o n l y t o be d i s r u p t e d by f i n a n c i a l and s t a f -  f i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s d u r i n g the second world war. The of  g r e a t e s t expansion  i n f o r e s t r e s e a r c h , and acceptance  the need f o r s e l f - c o n t a i n e d s p e c i a l i z e d a g e n c i e s , has come  i n recent years.  Today t h e r e a r e few n a t i o n a l f o r e s t  i n which t h e r e i s not some p r o v i s i o n f o r s p e c i a l i z e d  agencies research  activity. B i r c h ( 1 6 ) c o n s i d e r e d the g r e a t e s t l e s s o n from the h i s t o r y of  f o r e s t r y i n New Zealand was t h a t l i t t l e  r e a l progress i s pos-  s i b l e u n t i l s u f f i c i e n t s t a f f i s a v a i l a b l e t o manage commercial f o r e s t i n t e n s i v e l y and, a t the same time,  to c a r r y out,  i n t e r r u p t i o n , a r e s e a r c h program, p r o p e r l y designed and extend  such management.  without  t o improve  But world-wide evidence i n d i c a t e s  t h a t , i n time o f f i n a n c i a l s t r i n g e n c y , r e s e a r c h i s among the first tion.  a c t i v i t i e s t o be c u r t a i l e d i n an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a T h i s supports  the view t h a t ,  " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s and r e s e a r c h do not combine advantageously, r e s e a r c h becomes i n c i d e n t a l , i n v e s t i g a t o r s become handimen, the doers o f odd j o b s , and i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n e v i t a b l y s u f f e r . Research can o n l y be done e f f e c t i v e l y i n e x e c u t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i f i t i s separated e n t i r e l y from a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . " (52) N e v e r t h e l e s s , as F r a n c o i s (87) has p o i n t e d out,  49.  r r e s e a r c h on f o r e s t r y and f o r e s t p r o d u c t s , i f not o r g a n i z e d w i t h i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i t s e l f , should a t l e a s t be c l o s e l y c o - o r d i n a t e d w i t h i t s aims and i n t e r e s t s , s i n c e the r e s u l t s w i l l i n f l u e n c e the development of f o r e s t p o l i c y and form the b a s i s f o r the methods of a p p l y i n g i t . " 11  Some a s p e c t s of s t a t e r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n F o r e s t management r e s e a r c h i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s .  diversity  In p a r t a consequence of the  diffi-  c u l t y of c e n t r a l i z i n g s i l v i c u l t u r a l e n q u i r y , t h i s i s a l s o a n a t u r a l r e s u l t of the way b e g i n n i n g w i t h the f i r s t  i n which such r e s e a r c h has tendency  developed,  of e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s t o  spe-  c i a l i z e , and c u l m i n a t i n g i n the grouping of s p e c i a l i s t s I n a r e s e a r c h branch o r g a n i z e d t o meet l o c a l requirements.  In c e r t a i n  i n s t a n c e s e v o l u t i o n has been taken a stage f u r t h e r w i t h the e s tablishment of autonomous r e s e a r c h a g e n c i e s .  Each country  t o evolve a system a p p r o p r i a t e to i t s p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l  has  and  economic s t r u c t u r e .  As E d l i n ( 6 9 ) i n d i c a t e d , i n one  f o r e s t a u t h o r i t y may  take the l e a d , as i n Great B r i t a i n , i n an-  o t h e r the u n i v e r s i t i e s may  the  central  p l a y a major p a r t , w i t h or without  government support, as i n s t a n c e d by much fundamental work i n Germany; or a g a i n , a s s o c i a t i o n s l i k e the Danish H e a l t h S o c i e t y may  pioneer a f f o r e s t a t i o n p r o j e c t s that increase s i l v i c u l t u r a l  knowledge. To a c o n s i d e r a b l e extent f o r e s t r e s e a r c h has been s e t a p a r t from other land-use i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  I t has been argued  t h a t the  time-growth f a c t o r , and the management problems o f growth and y i e l d , have no p a r a l l e l In o t h e r b i o l o g i c a l e n q u i r y ; a l s o t h a t concern w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s r a t h e r than w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s makes forest research d i s t i n c t i v e . wider approach.  Bor  There have been advocates  ( 1 9 ) proposed  of a  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t r o p i c a l  50.  land-use i n s t i t u t e s , basic  ecology.  arated  I n the  from the  Government and (211).  But  placed  i t has  should  research  effort.  source, forest and  be  how  immediate  organized  far this  receive claims  that  In part  scant  Many o f  because of  however, a l s o  the  this  possibility  often fared badly  p r o b l e m s and  same.  c r o p s and the  of  except re-  desire  of  the  stem f r o m a n a r r o w  programming  claims  of  for-  (29)  and  i t must  when i n  be  associa-  separation  of  forest  become a l m o s t a  tenet  professionalism. occupations.  i n their  practice  are  t r o p i c s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , the i n connection  shade t r e e s a r e  silviculturist  more  Champion  complementary  problems i n v o l v e d In the  the  desire f o r separate e s t a b l i s h -  environmental questions  economic t r e e c o u n t e r e d by  The  a g r i c u l t u r e are  biological  f u n d a m e n t a l l y the  the  of a g r i c u l t u r e f o r f a c i l i t i e s .  t o many f o r e s t e r s .  and  fields  forest  i t a r i s e s from the  of  in  r e c o g n i t i o n i f competing w i t h the  f o r e s t r y has  Forestry  research  large  from a f e a r that  sep-  Research  from other  d e p a r t m e n t s f r o m a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s has  ments may,  was  s e p a r a t i s t tendency,  t i o n w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e , so much so t h a t  of f a i t h  that  and  departments  to r e t a i n c o n t r o l of r e s e a r c h  i n part  reservations  admitted  the'technical  i s a l a r g e f o r e s t s e r v i c e or a  administration  botany  separate D i r e c t o r of  separately  d i r e c t i o n , and  voiced  under a  is justified.  estry w i l l  work o f  u s u a l l y been considered  i s doubtful  where t h e r e  systematic  A n g l o - E g y p t i a n Sudan r e s e a r c h  executive  forestry  It  w i t h e m p h a s i s on  in his  s i m i l a r to study of  the  w i t h many those  en-  forest  sit-  uation. There are  c e r t a i n advantages i n an  i n - s e r v i c e approach  to  51.  s t r i c t l y t e c h n o l o g i c a l enquiry, but even a t t h i s l e v e l s i d e r a b l e economies may  be e f f e c t e d by the p o o l i n g of  conlibraries,  l a b o r a t o r y f a c i l i t i e s , and the s u p p o r t i n g n o n - t e c h n i c a l secretarial staff. may  and  C l e a r l y , where f a c i l i t i e s are l i m i t e d , much  be gained from j o i n t i n s t i t u t i o n s , p r o v i d e d t h e r e i s a r e a l -  i s t i c apportionment of funds to the v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h I n some cases j o i n t land-use ist.  areas.  research stations already  Among these are the I n s t i t u t e of Renewable N a t u r a l  sources i n Mexico, e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1952  (11),  and  ex-  Re-  the E a s t A f r i c a n  A g r i c u l t u r e and F o r e s t r y Research O r g a n i z a t i o n a t Maguaga, Kikuyu,  Kenya (13^,  68,  101).  I t may  be expected  t h a t such ven-  tures w i l l increase. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l problems occur where t h e r e are v a r i o u s e l s of government, as i n a f e d e r a t i o n . b i l i t y r e s t s w i t h one  lev-  I f undivided responsi-  l e v e l , d i f f i c u l t i e s are o f t e n l e s s e n e d .  I n West Germany the Land i s the f o r e s t a u t h o r i t y , and f o r e s t r e search i s undertaken a t Land-financed tutes.  Where the Lander are without  u n i v e r s i t y research university forestry  f o r e s t experiment s t a t i o n s have been e s t a b l i s h e d .  schools,  These a r e d i -  r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e to the f o r e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f the u a l Land.  insti-  individ-  Such s t a t i o n s t a c k l e c u r r e n t problems o f urgent  local interest.  and  S u p r a - r e g i o n a l r e s e a r c h i s f i n a n c e d by the f e d -  e r a l government and  conducted by the F e d e r a l I n s t i t u t e o f F o r e s t  and Wood Economy a t Reinbek, i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the i n s t i t u t e s of the U n i v e r s i t y of Hamburg. conducts r e s e a r c h i n f o r e s t r y and  This  research  establishment  f o r e s t products and i s the  na-  t i o n a l c e n t r e f o r work on f o r e s t economics and the p r e p a r a t i o n of f o r e s t s t a t i s t i c s .  I t i s a l s o the n a t i o n a l centre f o r the  52. documentation of German and f o r e i g n l i t e r a t u r e and,  i n general,  i s responsible for foreign l i a i s o n . The  d i v i s i o n of spheres of i n t e r e s t i s not,, however, c l e a r -  cut or a b s o l u t e .  By custom, German r e s e a r c h workers are  allowed  t o devote a p r o p o r t i o n of t h e i r time.to p r o j e c t s of t h e i r  own  choosing,  Some  and are p r o v i d e d with the necessary  facilities.  d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t occurs, with r e s u l t a n t advantages disadvantages.  and  The m u l t i p l i c i t y of agencies r e s u l t s i n the  frag-  mentation of l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h funds (220). I t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t agreement, whether f o r m a l or be reached ment. ies.  tacit,  on the scope of a c t i v i t y a t each l e v e l of govern-  There i s a u s e f u l arrangement i n Canada e a s t of the RockThe  p r o v i n c i a l governments are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the admin-  i s t r a t i o n of the f o r e s t e s t a t e while the f e d e r a l agencies major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the r e s e a r c h e f f o r t , o p e r a t i n g t o r i a l l y a t the i n v i t a t i o n of the p r o v i n c e s ,  have  terri-  i n general,  the  f e d e r a l e f f o r t has been d i r e c t e d to more b a s i c s t u d i e s , and  the  more l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h e f f o r t of the p r o v i n c i a l s e r v i c e s to t e c h nological  enquiry.  An unusual  f e a t u r e of Canadian f o r e s t r e s e a r c h i s the  s i o n of f e d e r a l a c t i v i t y between two major a g e n c i e s .  The  diviFor-  e s t r y Branch of the Department of Northern A f f a i r s and  Natural  Resources i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r ' f o r e s t r y ' r e s e a r c h while  the  Science S e r v i c e of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e has i t y f o r ' f o r e s t b i o l o g y ' - r e s e a r c h and f i e l d ogy and entomology.  responsibil-  survey i n p a t h o l -  T h i s arrangement o r i g i n a t e d i n the a d v i s -  a b i l i t y of a s s o c i a t i n g a s m a l l b i o l o g i c a l p r o t e c t i o n s t a f f  with  the g r e a t e r f a c i l i t i e s of the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e r v i c e s . D i f f e r e n -  53.  t i a t i o n between r e s e a r c h spheres i s sometimes i n d i s t i n c t and the d e s i r a b i l i t y of r e t a i n i n g the arrangement has been quest i o n e d , most r e c e n t l y by the Standing Committee on Mines, F o r e s t , and waters o f the Canadian House o f Commons, d u r i n g i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the 1959-60 f i n a n c i a l  estimates.  F o r long the Province o f B r i t i s h Columbia stood a s i d e from the g e n e r a l scheme.  The F e d e r a l Science S e r v i c e engaged i n  e n t o m o l o g i c a l and p a t h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , but u n t i l 1958 r e s e a r c h i n s i l v i c u l t u r e , management, f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , e t c . , was the conc e r n s o l e l y o f the p r o v i n c i a l s e r v i c e .  D e s p i t e the P r o v i n c e ' s  g r e a t dependence on a f o r e s t economy, the r e s o u r c e s a t the d i s p o s a l o f the f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t y d i d not c o n t r i b u t e t o the advance o f f o r e s t r y r e s e a r c h i n B r i t i s h Columbia. r e s e a r c h d i v i s i o n i s equipped  The P r o v i n c i a l  and s t a f f e d f o r a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h ,  ".... the a p p l i c a t i o n o f known p r i n c i p l e s o r p r o c e dures, to l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n which s p e c i f i c r e a c t i o n s can o n l y be determined by d i r e c t e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and observat i o n . " (R. H. S p i l s b u r y , i n 194) The  d i v i s i o n has comparatively  l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s and a l -  though the s i z e o f the p r o v i n c i a l r e s e a r c h s t a f f may be l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t from those o f O n t a r i o and Quebec, the o t h e r p r o v i n c e s w i t h major f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s , i n the absence o f t h e f e d e r a l c o n t r i b u t i o n the t o t a l volume o f r e s e a r c h has been l e s s than i n those p r o v i n c e s .  T h i s s i t u a t i o n g a i n s added s i g n i f i c a n c e from  the circumstance  t h a t , while t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e extent the o t h e r  p r o v i n c e s have common problems, and r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s have a wide a p p l i c a t i o n , the f o r e s t r y environment d i f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Thus experience elsewhere i n Canada i s o f  s m a l l value and separate e n q u i r y i s n e c e s s a r y .  There a r e  54.  i n d i c a t i o n s of g r e a t e r f e d e r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columb i a r e s e a r c h i n the f u t u r e . Although, more u s u a l l y , r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e s embrace a range of i n t e r e s t s , s p e c i a l i z e d b o d i e s have been formed i n a r e a s where c e r t a i n a s p e c t s Entomological ing.  and  of f o r e s t r y are of s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e .  p a t h o l o g i c a l l a b o r a t o r i e s are of long  stand-  In n o r t h e r n Europe there have been s i m i l a r developments  i n work s t u d i e s and i n t e r e s t s may  i n tree breeding.  In other cases, s p e c i a l  r e q u i r e continuous or semi-continuous observa-  tions i n a specific l o c a l i t y .  To meet these needs, and  i n g on the s c a l e of e f f o r t , o u t - s t a t i o n s or independent c e n t r e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d .  dependresearch  Amongst the e a r l i e s t were s t a -  t i o n s f o r h y d r o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , as a t Jonkershoek, South A f r i c a , which was  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 19J55-  A notable work on one and  development has been the s p e c i a l i s t centre f o r  s p e c i e s , u s u a l l y o f s p e c i a l economic s i g n i f i c a n c e  distinctive cultural characteristics.  An  example occurs  the W a t t l e Research I n s t i t u t e a t P e i t e r m a r i t z b u r g . war  In  post-  f o r e s t r y those s p e c i a l i s t groups concerned with p o p l a r  t u r e are probably  the best known, l a r g e l y through the  o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Poplar Commission.  in  cul-  activities  Typical organizations  are the I n s t i t u t o d i Sperimentazlone per l a P i o p p i c o l t u r a , Casale Monferrata,  I t a l y , and  1'Union A l l u m e t t i e r e S.A.,  the I n s t l t u t de P o p l c u l t u r e  Grammont, Belgium.  Other  de  institutions  have been e s t a b l i s h e d i n v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s f o r the study of s p e c i e s of s p e c i a l l o c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , e.g.  the Estacao  other  de  Experimentacao F l o r e s t a l de S o b r e i r o , P o r t u g a l , f o r work on  the  Cork Oak;  with  the Centro d i s t u d i o catagno, F l o r e n c e , concerned  55. sweet chestnut; and the Institute- N a c i o n a l do Pinho, R i o de J a n e i r o , which d e a l s with problems of p i n e F o r e s t Products  silviculture.  Research  While products r e s e a r c h f a l l s o u t s i d e the g e n e r a l scope of t h i s study, i t s g e n e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h f o r e s t r y r e s e a r c h  may  be c o n s i d e r e d because of the very c o n f l i c t i n g viewpoints t h a t have been advanced i n r e c e n t times.  A b r i e f review f o l l o w s .  The r e l a t i o n between the two branches of r e s e a r c h were d i s cussed i n d e t a i l by the Standing Committee on F o r e s t Research 31).  Products  of the B r i t i s h Commonwealth F o r e s t r y Conference  I t was  concluded t h a t , w h i l e t h e r e was  no q u e s t i o n of the  n e c e s s i t y f o r a c l o s e l i a i s o n between the two branches, a l s o important  (30,  i t was  t h a t those engaged i n f o r e s t r e s e a r c h should keep  i n touch w i t h the l i v i n g f o r e s t , w h i l e those working i n f o r e s t products r e s e a r c h should be i n c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h consuming i n d u s t r i e s and markets.  Although the p o s s i b i l i t y of d u p l i c a t i o n  of e f f o r t c o u l d not be overlooked, i t might be b e t t e r f o r the two branches t o work i n d e p e n d e n t l y . mon  i n s t i t u t e was  The  disadvantage  of a com-  through the p o t e n t i a l r e s t r a i n t imposed upon  r e s e a r c h workers i n attempting to b r i n g them too c l o s e l y i n t o l i n e w i t h one another.  In a d d i t i o n , the d i r e c t o r might have  d i f f i c u l t y i n keeping up-to-date  w i t h developments i n both  branches.  t h a t the combination  I t was  a l s o suggested  of f o r e s t r y  w i t h f o r e s t products r e s e a r c h might tend t o make the l a t t e r  un-  acceptable to i n d u s t r y . Advocates of a c l o s e r c o n n e c t i o n have been motivated by  an  a p p r e c i a t i o n of the d e s i r a b i l i t y of a b i o l o g i c a l approach t o products r e s e a r c h .  T h i s i s not a r e c e n t development.  In  1939  56.  Chalk ( 4 5 ) , a wood anatomist, f o r e c a s t t h a t t h e study o f wood s t r u c t u r e would serve as a l i n k between f o r e s t r y and wood t e c h nology by f i n d i n g the a n a t o m i c a l f e a t u r e s r e l a t i n g t o timber p r o p e r t i e s , and r e l a t i n g these t o growth c o n d i t i o n s .  He sug-  gested t h a t r e a l p r o g r e s s i n wood technology appeared  t o depend  more on b i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h than on attempts t o s o l v e i s o l a t e d practical  problems.  B i r c h (16) has d e s c r i b e d the p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e i n t e g r a t i o n which e x i s t s i n New Zealand and has i n d i c a t e d the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r q u i c k a p p l i c a t i o n o f new knowledge.  There, expanded  f o r e s t products r e s e a r c h has been o b t a i n e d through i t s i n c l u s i o n i n the F o r e s t Research I n s t i t u t e a t Rotorua.  (179)  Reid  b e l i e v e d t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n t o be c l o s e r t o the i d e a l than any a l t e r n a t i v e approach.  Emphasis i s on "moulding  the l i v i n g body  r a t h e r than " d i s s e c t i n g the dead c a r c a s s " and r e s e a r c h e r s from both s i d e s work t o g e t h e r d u r i n g the c r u c i a l developmental of  the f o r e s t c r o p .  stage  Long-term r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e r e c o g n i z e d  as equal i n importance  t o the immediate needs and problems o f  the wood-using i n d u s t r i e s .  Intimate c o n t a c t i s maintained w i t h  the s i l v i c u l t u r i s t , the t r e e breeder, the p a t h o l o g i s t , the ento m o l o g i s t , and the f o r e s t s y s t e m a t i s t . The e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s d i s t i n c t i v e p a t t e r n i s perhaps t o be found i n the h i s t o r y o f f o r e s t r y and f o r e s t u t i l i z a t i o n i n New Zealand.  U n c o n t r o l l e d e x p l o i t a t i o n o f very l a r g e ,  clean,  q u a l i t y timbers has been succeeded by dependence o f fast-grown, k n o t t y timber from e x t e n s i v e p l a n t a t i o n s .  B i r c h has d e s c r i b e d  how these were e s t a b l i s h e d over a s h o r t p e r i o d i n "an e x t r a o r d i n a r y wave o f nation-wide enthusiasm"  some t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s  57.  ago,  but with scant s i l v i c u l t u r a l knowledge or background,  f o l l o w e d by n e g l e c t .  By c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n and  i n t e g r a t i o n of  r e s e a r c h i t i s hoped t h a t b e t t e r use of the remaining f o r e s t w i l l be  secured,  and  native  including i t s closer u t i l i z a t i o n  and  s u s t e n t i o n , and a l s o the improvement and b e t t e r u t i l i z a t i o n of the e x o t i c p l a n t a t i o n s . I n a review of Reid's vanced.  paper (152)  an opposing  view was  I n A u s t r a l i a i t i s found advantageous to have the  Timber D i v i s i o n of the Commonwealth S c i e n t i f i c and  Industrial  Research O r g a n i z a t i o n separate from the F o r e s t r y and  Timber  Bureau, with each s t a t e , and a l s o i n d u s t r y , c o o p e r a t i n g both.  The  s u g g e s t i o n was  with  t h a t success comes not from the  t i o n of r e s e a r c h , but from c o - o r d i n a t i o n and  Zealand  loca-  co-operation  tween r e s e a r c h e r s and those i n t e r e s t e d i n the r e s u l t s . New  ad-  be-  In  the F o r e s t S e r v i c e conducts a l l r e s e a r c h i n t o  o t i c s , and most of t h a t concerned with the indigenous and f o r e s t r y .  ex-  timbers  I t has a b i g stake i n the u t i l i z a t i o n of e x o t i c  f o r e s t s , and the g r e a t m a j o r i t y of the remaining are state-owned.  timber  resources  Under such c o n d i t i o n s there i s much to be  f o r i n t e g r a t i o n . When such c o n d i t i o n s do not o b t a i n the c a t i o n of r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s may  not always be r e a d i l y  i f they come from the F o r e s t S e r v i c e ' s own  said  appli-  acceptable  laboratories, "for  t h e r e i s not always an easy r e l a t i o n s h i p between a s e r v i c e and an e x p l o i t i n g trade i n indigenous  conserving  forests."  Most o f t e n , d i s t i n c t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e p a r a t i o n r e s u l t s from an absence of common problems, at l e a s t a t the time of tion.  In the U n i t e d Kingdom, f o r e s t products  separa-  r e s e a r c h was  moved from the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the f o r e s t a u t h o r i t y a t an  re-  58. e a r l y stage.  The F o r e s t Products L a b o r a t o r y i s an agency o f  the Department o f S c i e n t i f i c and I n d u s t r i a l Research, a body r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a wide range o f i n d u s t r i a l r e s e a r c h l a b o r a t o r ies.  The d e s i r a b i l i t y o f t h i s s e p a r a t i o n r e s u l t e d from the  d i v e r g e n t i n t e r e s t s o f the two branches.  The timber t e c h n o l o -  g i s t s were p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the i n d u s t r i a l of a wide range o f non-indigenous  utilization  timbers, o f i n t e r e s t t o a  timber i n d u s t r y l a r g e l y geared t o an import t r a d e , and o f importance t o the d e v e l o p i n g f o r e s t economies o f t h e c o l o n i a l territories.  Home-grown timbers a t t r a c t e d l e s s a t t e n t i o n .  Con-  v e r s e l y the F o r e s t r y Commission was charged s o l e l y w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r U n i t e d Kingdom f o r e s t r y , and a t t h a t time the major p r e o c c u p a t i o n was w i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f new f o r e s t s . t h e l e s s t h e r e has been c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n .  Never-  An e x p e r i e n c e d f o r -  e s t e r i s head o f an e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s s e c t i o n o f the F o r e s t Products L a b o r a t o r y and i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e s e a r c h and a d v i sory work r e l a t i n g t o f o r e s t r y and,  i n p a r t i c u l a r , f o r cooper-  a t i o n w i t h the F o r e s t r y Commission (111).  F o r the F o r e s t r y  Commission, a f o r e s t r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r , engaged i n i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o u t i l i z a t i o n o f products from the home woodlands, i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r l i a i s o n w i t h the F o r e s t Products L a b o r a t o r y and the home-grown timber t r a d e .  F u r t h e r c o n t a c t i s maintained  the media o f a d v i s o r y b o d i e s .  through  The D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l o f the  F o r e s t r y Commission s i t s on the A d v i s o r y Committee o f t h e F o r e s t Products L a b o r a t o r y .  The D i r e c t o r o f the F o r e s t Products  L a b o r a t o r y i s a member o f the F o r e s t r y A d v i s o r y Committee. more r e c e n t y e a r s t h e requirements  In  o f the d e v e l o p i n g U n i t e d  Kingdom timber r e s o u r c e have l e d t o g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n t o the  59.  l o c a l product t i o n i s now  and a major change i n products r e s e a r c h o r i e n t a -  underway.  A s i d e from a d m i n i s t r a t i v e q u e s t i o n s , c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n w e l l depend most of a l l on the t r a i n i n g of f o r e s t products search p e r s o n n e l . chemists,  With t h i s back-  be a tendency to accept wood as a v a r i a b l e  t e r i a l with i n h e r e n t f a u l t s t h a t have to be countered n i c a l means.  re-  Often these have been p r i m a r i l y p h y s i c i s t s ,  and engineers, r a t h e r than b i o l o g i s t s .  ground t h e r e may  may  With a b i o l o g i c a l background, the timber  by  ma-  tech-  technol-  o g i s t i s more l i k e l y to have a b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n of how  such  f a u l t s o r i g i n a t e i n the growing t r e e . Research by i n d u s t r i a l  agencies  I n d u s t r i a l or company p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e s e a r c h i s d i f f i c u l t to e v a l u a t e .  I n the o l d e r c o u n t r i e s the s t a t e has been  the p r i n c i p l e or major f o r e s t p r o p r i e t o r and,  although  there are  c o - o p e r a t i v e movements of v a r i o u s k i n d s , government has u s u a l l y been the sponsor b e s t a b l e to support research e f f o r t .  long-term  and  With the development of l a r g e i n t e g r a t e d f o r -  e s t i n d u s t r i e s with c o n s i d e r a b l e l a n d h o l d i n g s the has  sustained  situation  changed. In g e n e r a l , although  c o r p o r a t i o n s ( e s p e c i a l l y i n North  America, where l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l h o l d i n g s form a s i g n i f i c a n t  por-  t i o n of the n a t i o n a l f o r e s t e s t a t e ) show a l i b e r a l approach t o the p r o v i s i o n of f i n a n c i a l support f o r academic r e s e a r c h and  ed-  u c a t i o n , there has been a tendency to c o n f i n e company r e s e a r c h t o the s o l u t i o n of immediate and p r e s s i n g problems of economic significance.  The  volume of such e f f o r t , i n i n t e g r a t e d opera-  t i o n s , r e f l e c t i n g the r e a l i t i e s of the i n d u s t r i a l scene,  has  60.  been very much l e s s than t h a t devoted t u r i n g and f o r e s t p r o d u c t s .  t o r e s e a r c h i n manufac-  There a r e n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s , as  f o r example the Weyerhaeuser F o r e s t Research Centre a t C e n t r a l i a , Washington.  As f o r e s t p r o p e r t i e s advance towards  more i n t e n s i v e management, there i s c e r t a i n evidence  suggestive  of the development o f a more s u s t a i n e d r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t . Informal i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  by i n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t e r s  engaged i n  p i o n e e r and e x p l o r a t o r y development cannot be d i s r e g a r d e d i n any assessment o f the i n d u s t r i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n . e a r l y stages such work may be o f g r e a t  E s p e c i a l l y i n the  significance.  P o t e n t i a l l y , i n d u s t r i a l i n t e r e s t s a r e powerful sponsors.  research  But c e r t a i n weaknesses i n h e r e n t i n i n d u s t r i a l p a r t i -  c i p a t i o n need r e c o g n i t i o n .  The r e s e a r c h e r may f i n d the commer-  c i a l atmosphere uncongenial  t o s u s t a i n e d r e s e a r c h e f f o r t ; the  p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s aspect may predominate; the i n d u s t r i a l e n v i r o n ment may r e s u l t i n p r e s s u r e f o r quick r e s u l t s and e a r l y , o r even premature, a p p l i c a t i o n ,  and a tendency on t h a t account t o  f a v o u r short-term e n q u i r y and a s u p e r f i c i a l approach;  project  s e l e c t i o n and continuance may be s u b j e c t t o the whims o f h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y ; programs may be l i a b l e t o f l u c t u a t i n g f i n a n c i a l p r o v i s i o n ; and t h e r e may w e l l be e x c e s s i v e concern w i t h company secrecy i n regard to r e s u l t s obtained. long-term  Much depends on the  p r o s p e c t s and s e c u r i t y o f tenure o f the company, and  on the p o l i c y o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . P r i v a t e l y sponsored  research  Research may be sponsored d u s t r i a l concerns, Foundation  by i n d i v i d u a l s , f o u n d a t i o n s , i n -  o r by c o - o p e r a t i v e  action.  support f o r the i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r may r e s u l t  61.  i n n o t a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s because o f the independence o f a c t i o n t h a t such support a f f o r d s ; however, f o r major s u s t a i n e d e f f o r t , a c o n t i n u i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n i s necessary. b e n e f i t s accrue from sponsorship.  Here, d i s t i n c t  Long-term f i n a n c i a l  p r o v i d e s s e c u r i t y , while a semi-independent s t a t u s  research support  permits  g r e a t e r freedom o f a c t i o n than may be p o s s i b l e i n governmentsupported  research.  When a s s o c i a t e d w i t h academic c e n t r e s ,  s t i m u l a t i n g c o n t a c t s a r e enabled while p r o v i d i n g f o r independence from p u r e l y academic and pedagogic c o n t r o l .  A valuable  facility  i n such an a s s o c i a t i o n i s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f exchange o f t e a c h i n g and r e s e a r c h personnel f o r v a r y i n g p e r i o d s . P r i v a t e l y supported  r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e s a r e few. An i n t e r -  e s t i n g example i s the f o r e s t r e s e a r c h c e n t r e a t P a r t i n g t o n H a l l , Totnes,  Devon, England.  T h i s i s p a r t o f a p r i v a t e t r u s t f o r the  support  o f a number o f very d i v e r s e r u r a l a c t i v i t i e s  (18).  Fa-  c i l i t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r r e s e a r c h on an a s s o c i a t e d commercial f o r e s t r y e n t e r p r i s e , with woodlands, sawmills, sery, and f o r e s t r y c o n t r a c t i n g .  commercial nur-  Untrammelled by o u t s i d e c o n t r o l  d u r i n g almost t h r e e decades, n o t a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s have been made t o the economics o f p l a n t a t i o n management. I n p a r t i c u l a r , r e s e a r c h e s have been a s s o c i a t e d with the name o f the f o r e s t economist, H. E . H i l e y . Researches supported by a s s o c i a t i o n s and c o o p e r a t i v e s T y p i c a l l y , c o - o p e r a t i v e r e s e a r c h b r i n g s t o mind forestry.  Scandinavian  However, i t i s not c o n f i n e d t o these c o u n t r i e s .  Cer-  t a i n i n s t i t u t i o n s have a l r e a d y r e c e i v e d mention, other examples a r e the New England Pulpwood Research Centre a t Gorham, New Hampshire; "the I n s t i t u t f u r f o r s t l i c h A r b e i t s w i s s e n s c h a f t  62.  ( I n s t i t u t e o f F o r e s t Work E f f i c i e n c y ) , a t Reinbek, Germany; the W i s s e n s c h a f t l i c h e s I n s t i t u t des Deutschen P a p l e v e r e i n s ( S c i e n t i f i c I n s t i t u t e o f the German P o p l a r A s s o c i a t i o n ) , a t B r u . l l , near Cologne; and the Pulp and Paper Research I n s t i t u t e of Canada, a t M o n t r e a l . The New Zealand Pulpwood Research Centre i s sponsored by i n d u s t r y and serves the pulpwood i n d u s t r y i n the n o r t h e r n New England S t a t e s ,  New York, and P e n n s y l v a n i a ( 1 7 4 ) .  The Reinbek  i n s t i t u t e i s sponsored by i n d u s t r y f o r r e s e a r c h i n work s t u d i e s , and e s p e c i a l l y i n t o the e f f e c t o f working c o n d i t i o n s on the p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g and e f f i c i e n c y o f the l a b o u r f o r c e  (220).  The B r u l l p o p l a r i n s t i t u t e i s supported by the p u l p and paper i n d u s t r y as a measure t o encourage the e x t e n t i o n o f p o p l a r cultivation.  The Pulp and Paper Research I n s t i t u t e o f Canada  i s the fundamental r e s e a r c h c e n t r e f o r Canada's p u l p and paper i n d u s t r y , supplementing the r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l companies,  and a c t i n g as a documentation and p u b l i c a t i o n c e n t r e .  I t o r i g i n a t e d i n a p a r t n e r s h i p by the F e d e r a l Government, the Canadian p u l p and paper i n d u s t r y , and M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y . Research program  The  i n c l u d e s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s r a n g i n g from funda-  mental s t u d i e s i n wood c h e m i s t r y and s i l v i c u l t u r e , t o a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h and development  i n manufacturing p r o c e s s e s ( 3 9 ) .  In B r i t i s h Columbia a c o - o p e r a t i v e approach was advocated by Gibson ( 8 9 ) .  He envisaged a p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t r e s e a r c h i n -  s t i t u t e as a j o i n t u n d e r t a k i n g o f the p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t  service,  the f e d e r a l f o r e s t a g e n c i e s , the f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s , and t h e u n i v e r s i t y ; the p a r t i c i p a n t s r e t a i n i n g t h e i r own i d e n t i t i e s , and u n d e r t a k i n g t h e i r own p r o j e c t s , b u t through a common  63.  i n s t i t u t e , a c h i e v i n g a g r e a t e r degree o f c o o r d i n a t i o n . Co-operation i n Scandinavia.  i n r e s e a r c h has found i t s g r e a t e s t  expression  I n Denmark a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e has been p l a y e d  by l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d a s s o c i a t i o n s .  The best known o f these i s  the Danish Heath S o c i e t y which dates from 1866.  This i s a c l a s -  s i c example o f a group founded t o f u r t h e r a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y i t s aim the a f f o r e s t a t i o n o f heath and other lands u n f i t f o r agriculture.  P r o p r i e t o r t o 8900 h e c t a r e s , the s o c i e t y has ex-  e r c i s e d great i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e ; by 1950 i t had been instrumental,  through a d v i c e and i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i n p l a n t i n g 8 0 , 0 0 0 hec-  tares.  Other s o c i e t i e s t h a t have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the development  of r e s e a r c h a r e the Danish F o r e s t A s s o c i a t i o n , founded i n 1880 to f u r t h e r the t e c h n i c a l and economic i n t e r e s t s o f Danish  silvi-  c u l t u r e , and the A s s o c i a t i o n o f Danish F o r e s t Graduates formed i n 1897 as a p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t y with one o f i t s o b j e c t s t o a s s e r t the p r a c t i c a l value o f s c i e n t i f i c e d u c a t i o n and r e s e a r c h  (83). In Norway, b e f o r e the postwar r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , f o r e s t r y r e search was c a r r i e d on i n the east by a s t a t e agency a t the u n i v e r s i t y and i n the west, by the Western Norway F o r e s t Experiment S t a t i o n a t Bergen, sponsored by the Norwegian F o r e s t Owners Federation.  A f t e r the L i b e r a t i o n a v o l u n t a r y c o - o p e r a t i v e  organ-  i z a t i o n o f f o r e s t owners, i n d u s t r y , and f o r e s t r y and f o r e s t products  r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s was formed.  "... t o f a c i l i t a t e the e x t e n s i o n o f r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t i e s by c o - o p e r a t i o n between the f o r e s t r y and wood-processing i n d u s t r i e s , . . . . t o e s t a b l i s h these a c t i v i t i e s on the broade s t p o s s i b l e b a s i s , embracing the whole f i e l d from the cond i t i o n s governing the growth o f t r e e s i n the f o r e s t s u n t i l the t e s t i n g of the f i n i s h e d products turned out by the m i l l s . " (159)  64. There were three c a t e g o r i e s of c o r p o r a t e members, Trade, A d v i s o r y , and Research.  The f i r s t  of these were the t r a d e a s s o -  c i a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g the f o r e s t owners, the timber t r a d e , and the v a r i o u s wood-processing i n d u s t r i e s . necessary f i n a n c i a l support. the p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s .  These p r o v i d e d  The a d v i s o r y group was  formed o f  The r e s e a r c h members were the r e -  search a g e n c i e s , the Norwegian F o r e s t E x p e r i m e n t a l  Department,  the Norwegian Pulp and Paper Research I n s t i t u t e , the of  Timber E n g i n e e r i n g , and  the  Institute  the M e r c h a n t i l e Research I n s t i t u t e .  Under the a u s p i c e s of t h i s s o c i e t y , r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y has been g r e a t l y s t i m u l a t e d and f a c i l i t i e s extended, through t i o n of a c t i v i t y and i n c r e a s e d a v a i l a b i l i t y of  co-ordina-  funds.  In the s p e c i a l case of t r e e - b r e e d i n g i n S c a n d i n a v i a  the  r e s u l t s of c o - o p e r a t i v e endeavour are well-known. I n 1936 was  the Swedish A s s o c i a t i o n f o r F o r e s t Tree Improvement  formed on the i n i t i a t i v e of N i l s s o n - E h l e .  To o b t a i n the  e a r l y p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge of g e n e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , which was  r e s u l t i n g from the work a t i t s  Ekbo nursery, L i n d q u i s t o r g a n i z e d the S o c i e t y f o r P r a c t i c a l Breeding.  Membership was  drawn from c e n t r a l and n o r t h Swedish  f o r e s t r y i n t e r e s t s i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the Gavleborg F o r e s t r y Board.  As t h i s s o c i e t y as a whole was  engage a t once on a f u l l program of seed-orchard in  Tree  County  not ready  to  production, i t  t u r n gave r i s e t o a s u b s i d i a r y , the GaVleborg County Tree  Breeding Group, which i n e f f e c t became the " a c t i v i s t " arm movement (203,  83,  o f the  200).  I n Denmark development f o l l o w e d a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n .  The  s t a t e f o r e s t s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h e d f o r e s t b o t a n i c a l gardens i n  65. 1799* 1838,  and  i n 1936.  The  l a s t of these, the arboretum a t  Horsholm, became the S t a t e F o r e s t Tree B r e e d i n g S t a t i o n . 1941  the Krogerup Tree B r e e d i n g S t a t i o n was  opened f o r  In  the  p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s e v o l v e d i n Horsholm. I n 1951  p r i v a t e f o r e s t owners i n Sealand o r g a n i z e d a co-opera-  t i v e agency w i t h a t r e e - b r e e d i n g a p p l i c a t i o n of the new Throughout there has  techniques i n t h e i r own  the (83).  forests  been c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n between s t a t e  p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s , and foresters.  nursery to f a c i l i t a t e  between r e s e a r c h  workers and  and  practicing  In such c h a i n s of t e c h n i c a l development i t i s d i f f i -  c u l t to say where i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l work ceases and  application  begins. The  S c a n d i n a v i a n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of support f o r  through c o - o p e r a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s  research  shows an awareness of  the  long-term b e n e f i t s , t o i n d u s t r y as a whole, o f advance on wide f r o n t through r e s e a r c h .  It contrasts  e x c e s s i v e s e c r e c y which too f r e q u e n t l y research.  A special feature  i s the  strongly with  These f e a t u r e s  c l o s e c o l l a b o r a t i o n which  are e s p e c i a l l y evident  productivity leading  a d e c l i n i n g labour f o r c e . of o p e r a t i o n s and  University.  c o n t r i b u t i o n f o r which i t i s most s u i t e d .  r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of f o r e s t o p e r a t i o n s . increased  the  characterizes i n d u s t r i a l  e x i s t s among Government, I n d u s t r y , Research, and Each of these makes the  a  i n the movement f o r The  object  the  i n this i s  to h i g h e r wage l e v e l s to combat  I n t e r e s t i s shown i n m e c h a n i z a t i o n  the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of working t e c h n i q u e s ,  and  extends to the  study of hand t o o l s and  and  to work s t u d i e s .  t r a i n young l a b o u r and  t h e i r improvement  There i s a l i n k w i t h woods s c h o o l s t o to i n c r e a s e  the e f f i c i e n c y and  skills  of  66. experienced  woodsmen.  Swedish developments are t y p i c a l .  j o i n t group from i n d u s t r y and  A  s t a t e , the Job Study Department  of the F o r e s t Employers A s s o c i a t i o n and the Swedish F o r e s t S e r v i c e , was  formed i n n o r t h Sweden i n 1937•  The  following  year the S o c i e t y f o r Wormlands F o r e s t Work S t u d i e s , a c o n s t i t u t e d group, was  similarly  formed i n c e n t r a l Sweden, and a few  l a t e r the C e n t r a l and South Sweden F o r e s t Work S t u d i e s completed the n a t i o n a l coverage. ment was  Society  a Work Study Depart-  formed a t the S t a t e F o r e s t Research I n s t i t u t e .  Scandinavian treme f l e x i b i l i t y . be  In 1950  years  r e s e a r c h p a t t e r n s are notable f o r t h e i r The  Scandinavians  ex-  b e l i e v e t h e i r approach t o  sound; the r e s e a r c h e f f o r t handled by s e v e r a l independent  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and  supported  by the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t e d groups,  i n c l u d i n g the s t a t e , r a t h e r than the major r e s e a r c h e f f o r t c e n t r a t e d i n one government agency.  con-  A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s the  way  i n which i n d i v i d u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s submerge t h e i r s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s f o r the common good. PERSONNEL PROBLEMS Co-operation  i n research  C o l l a b o r a t i o n i s common between s t a f f members of p u b l i c agencies.  R a r e l y i s f o r e s t r e s e a r c h i n the happy p o s i t i o n of  having a l l the f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e .  More o f t e n , i t i s done  under e x t e n s i v e c o n d i t i o n s with l i m i t e d f i n a n c e s , and much be gained  through i n t e r - a g e n c y  c o l l a b o r a t i o n , through f o r m a l  i n f o r m a l committees, j o i n t p r o j e c t s and working groups, through p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t .  may and  and  I f other groups or o r g a n i z a t i o n s  are  b e t t e r equipped t o work i n s p e c i a l f i e l d s , i t i s c l e a r l y wastef u l and  i n e f f i c i e n t not to make use of these  facilities.  67. B i r c h (16) has d e s c r i b e d the c l o s e l i a i s o n t h a t e x i s t s i n New Zealand between the F o r e s t Experiment S t a t i o n and other i a l i s t agencies.  spec-  There i s c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the G e o l o g i c a l  Survey, the S o i l Bureau, and the P l a n t D i s e a s e s Botany D i v i s i o n , w h i l e the B i o m e t r i c s S e c t i o n o f the Department o f S c i e n t i f i c and I n d u s t r i a l Research a d v i s e s on s t a t i s t i c a l methods.  The  s p e c i a l i z e d agencies p a r t i c i p a t e i n f o r e s t r y r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s , and the F o r e s t Research S t a t i o n i n t u r n p r o v i d e s a s s i s t a n c e , i n p a r t i c u l a r through o b s e r v a t i o n s and c o l l e c t i o n s by the N a t i o n a l F o r e s t Survey f i e l d s t a f f and through e x t e n s i o n o f the i n t e r e s t f i e l d o f the Survey.  I n s o i l c o n s e r v a t i o n r e s e a r c h and r i v e r  c o n t r o l there i s a f u l l - t i m e l i a i s o n o f f i c e r t o r e p r e s e n t estry  for-  interests. Canadian f e d e r a l r e s e a r c h agencies r e c o g n i z e the importance  of c l o s e i n t e r - a g e n c y l i a i s o n under e x t e n s i v e o p e r a t i n g conditions.  A study o f past and present f e d e r a l a c t i v i t y  reported,  "Establishment o f such experiments ( r e g e n e r a t i o n f e l l i n g s ) must depend upon the c o - o p e r a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e o f the f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s , Increased c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the u n i v e r s i t y f o r e s t s c h o o l s i s a l s o b e i n g sought i n conn e c t i o n with the development o f a more comprehensive p r o gram of fundamental r e s e a r c h , . . . . A d d i t i o n a l avenues f o r c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h other o r g a n i z a t i o n s . . . w i l l be e x p l o r e d ... t o p r o v i d e f o r a s a t i s f a c t o r y coverage o f the whole forest research f i e l d i t i s hoped t h a t u n d e s i r a b l e d u p l i c a t i o n o f e f f o r t can be e l i m i n a t e d . Mutual a s s i s t ance i s p a r t i c u l a r l y necessary.... r e s e a r c h f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e a r e s m a l l i n r e l a t i o n t o the magnitude o f these problems." (62) The  Canadian F o r e s t I n s e c t and Disease Survey, which com-  mands the v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the P r o v i n c e s and the l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l o p e r a t o r s , i l l u s t r a t e s the b e n e f i t s o f c o - o p e r a t i o n . Without the a c t i v e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f these c o l l a b o r a t o r s the c o v e r age  obtained by the f e d e r a l agency would be  Impossible.  68. C o o r d i n a t i n g machinery i s d e s i r a b l e .  In A u s t r i a t h i s i s  p r o v i d e d by the S o c i e t y f o r Timber Research, through i t s v a r i o u s sub-committees (83). the d i f f e r e n t P r o v i n c e s .  In Canada the p o s i t i o n v a r i e s i n O n t a r i o i s most advanced.  I t has  Government Agency Committee, f o r l i a i s o n between the and  P r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t r y groups, and a l s o a F o r e s t r y  Committee of the Research C o u n c i l of O n t a r i o , i n t e r e s t e d b o d i e s at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l .  a  Federal Advisory  formed of a l l  These are the Fed-  e r a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , the f e d e r a l F o r e s t r y Branch, i n d u s t r y , the U n i v e r s i t y , the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , and  the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Planning  and  Development, there are l o c a l c o - o r d i n a t i n g committees i n n o r t h western and n o r t h e r n O n t a r i o . from t h i s join£ p l a n n i n g .  T a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s have  Costs are shared i n group  p r o j e c t s between p u b l i c agencies and  industry.  f a c i l i t i e s f o r research establishments  services f u r n i s h s t a f f f o r entomological  while  and  research  There are  rangements whereby the p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t y p r o v i d e s and  accrued  ar-  buildings  the f e d e r a l  pathological re-  search . Coordinating  committees of a s i m i l a r nature have been  s t r o n g l y advocated f o r B r i t i s h Columbia.  Buckland (32)  drew  a t t e n t i o n to the number of a g e n c i e s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the ince.  He  gave examples of n e g l e c t of important f i e l d s ,  c o o r d i n a t i o n , and  Sloan  (19^)  considered  f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d c o o r d i n a t i n g committee might be Ker and  accrue i n the  l a c k of  g e n e r a l m i s d i r e c t e d e f f o r t as a r e s u l t of  absence of l i a i s o n machinery.  geous.  prov-  Smith (137)  the  that a advanta-  i n d i c a t e d the advantages which would  s p e c i a l f i e l d of mensuration merely through  69.  o r g a n i z a t i o n and s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f procedures. to  I n evidence  the P a r l i a m e n t a r y Committee on E s t i m a t e s o f the F o r e s t r y  Branch, M i n i s t r y o f Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources, on J u l y 1 5 t h 1958, Mahood c a l l e d f o r a B.C. committee o f exp e r i e n c e d f o r e s t e r s , r e p r e s e n t i n g the two l e v e l s o f government, i n d u s t r y , and the u n i v e r s i t y , under the chairmanship o f a q u a l i f i e d layman, t o make a comprehensive programs.  study o f r e s e a r c h  I n the f o l l o w i n g year a d e l e g a t i o n from the B. C.  Lumbermen's A s s o c i a t i o n endorsed these views b e f o r e the same committee. In B r i t a i n , l i a i s o n i s o b t a i n e d through s p e c i a l i s t committees o f the A d v i s o r y Committee on F o r e s t Research.  subThese  c o n s i d e r s p e c i a l a s p e c t s o f the s t a t e r e s e a r c h program and may a c t i v e l y engage i n r e s e a r c h .  Procedures a r e i n f o r m a l and, i f  d e s i r a b l e t o f u r t h e r a c t i v i t i e s , a d d i t i o n a l members may be c o opted ( 1 5 3 ) .  Inter-agency committees,  mal, are f r e q u e n t l y formed. of  e i t h e r formal or i n f o r -  Such an i n f o r m a l j o i n t  committee  a p p r o p r i a t e o f f i c e r s o f the F o r e s t r y Commission Research  Branch and the Nature Conservancy has f a c i l i t a t e d a co-operat i v e program o f fundamental  work on f o r e s t s o i l s and the a p p l i -  c a t i o n o f these s t u d i e s t o s i l v i c u l t u r a l management.  A joint  committee with the F o r e s t Products L a b o r a t o r y c o o r d i n a t e s r e search i n t o the p r o p e r t i e s o f home-grown t i m b e r s .  Intimate c o -  o p e r a t i o n e x i s t s between the F o r e s t r y Research Branch and some s t a f f of the Rothamstead Experiment stitution.  S t a t i o n , an independent i n -  T h i s has made p o s s i b l e the conduct o f a long-term  program o f n u r s e r y n u t r i t i o n r e s e a r c h .  N e i t h e r agency would  have the n e c e s s a r y f a c i l i t i e s o r s k i l l s t o undertake a study  70.  on the s c a l e t h a t has been accomplished S i m i l a r p a t t e r n s have developed  through j o i n t  effort.  with o t h e r b o d i e s , and on  v a r y i n g s c a l e s , thus there i s c o - o p e r a t i v e r e s e a r c h i n b i o l o g ical  c o n t r o l with the E a r l Grey I n s t i t u t e o f F i e l d  Ornithology.  Here, the machinery f o r c o - o p e r a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f a committee of  f o r e s t e r s , entomologists,  and o r n i t h o l o g i s t s .  D i r e c t i o n and  p l a n n i n g i s done by the o r n i t h o l o g i c a l i n s t i t u t e , f i e l d work by l o c a l f o r e s t r y s t a f f , and d e t a i l e d o b s e r v a t i o n s , on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s , by l o c a l n a t u r a l h i s t o r y s o c i e t i e s A necessary  (153).  p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the s u c c e s s f u l outcome o f such  programs o f c o - o p e r a t i v e r e s e a r c h i s c l o s e c o l l a b o r a t i o n a t the personal  level.  Governing bodies and machinery o f c o n t r o l It  i s e s s e n t i a l t o a v o i d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s t h a t make  more p r o v i s i o n f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e channels of  research.  than f o r the conduct  I f the i n i t i a t i v e and a c t i v i t i e s o f r e s e a r c h  workers a r e c u r t a i l e d through e x c e s s i v e l y c e n t r a l i z e d and It  direction  s u p e r v i s i o n , r e a l l y a b l e men cannot be secured o r r e t a i n e d . i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t not o n l y s a l a r y s c a l e s , f a c i l i t i e s , and  o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r advancement a r e s a t i s f a c t o r y - the r i g h t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e environment must be p r o v i d e d .  Nevertheless,  with-  out sound p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n even the most p r o f i t a b l e avenues o f e n q u i r y a r e l i k e l y t o be l e s s p r o d u c t i v e and wastef u l of e f f o r t .  S u c c e s s f u l r e s e a r c h management has been s a i d t o  be a t t r i b u t a b l e a l l the way from "the best r e s e a r c h management i s no management" t o " r e s e a r c h can be planned,  c o s t e d , and d i -  r e c t e d e x a c t l y l i k e any other phase o f b u s i n e s s " r e a l i t y T a l l s between these extremes.  (66). The  The aim should be to  71provide  the atmosphere and smooth-running o r g a n i z a t i o n neces-  sary f o r f r u i t f u l e f f o r t , while a t the same time a l l o w i n g maximum freedom f o r the i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h worker. there  At a l l l e v e l s  should be p r o v i s i o n f o r the e x e r c i s e o f a reasonable  mount o f d i s c r e t i o n .  P r o f e s s i o n a l and s p e c i a l i s t  staff  a-  should  i n no wise be expected merely t o c a r r y out a s e r i e s o f d i r e c tives . Undoubtedly the b e s t form o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s t h a t based p u r e l y on mutual understanding and c o - o p e r a t i o n ,  but i t i s r a r e  t h a t an o r g a n i z a t i o n i s small enough f o r t h i s t o s u f f i c e , and a c e r t a i n degree o f formalism Francois  (87) d e s c r i b e d  service research,  has n e c e s s a r i l y t o be i n t r o d u c e d . various s t r u c t u r a l patterns f o r i n -  i n r e l a t i o n t o the e x e c u t i v e branch, and d i s -  cussed t h e i r advantages and disadvantages. by F r a n c o i s one o f the s i m p l e s t  Although not mentioned  structures i s that of a  separate  r e s e a r c h d i v i s i o n with a d i v i s i o n a l head who i s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  This i s  perhaps the most common arrangement where the r e s e a r c h i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a s t a t e f o r e s t s e r v i c e .  effort  So, i n New Zea-  land, the O f f i c e r - i n - c h a r g e o f the Rotorua Research S t a t i o n i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the Development D i v i s i o n o f the O f f i c e o f the D i r e c t o r o f F o r e s t r y , and, i n B r i t a i n , the C h i e f Research  Offi-  cer works under the D i r e c t o r o f Research and E d u c a t i o n ,  who, i n  t u r n , i s r e s p o n s i b l e d i r e c t l y t o the D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l ,  the c h i e f  t e c h n i c a l o f f i c e r o f the F o r e s t r y Commission.  Such o f f i c e r s ,  e x e c u t i v e heads o f r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o v e r - a l l s u p e r v i s i o n of a l l r e s e a r c h branch a c t i v i t i e s ,  project  development, programing, p r e p a r a t i o n o f annual r e p o r t s , c o -  72.  o r d i n a t i o n and c o - o p e r a t i o n between s e c t i o n s , p r e p a r a t i o n o f budgets, and a l l matters e s s e n t i a l t o the conduct o f the r e search program. has  W i t h i n s p e c i a l i s t s e c t i o n s , t h e s e c t i o n head  similar functions.  I n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t workers have i n d e -  pendence o f a c t i o n w i t h i n t h e i r own sphere,  subject only to  the g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n o f the s e c t i o n head.- G i v e n good w i l l and mutual understanding,  t h i s simple  s t r u c t u r e works s a t i s -  f a c t o r i l y even i n l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n s . Where a p u b l i c r e s e a r c h agency i s independent o f c o n t r o l by the f o r e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n may f r e q u e n t l y be e x e r c i s e d through a committee o r board.  I n Sweden t h e S t a t e  F o r e s t Research I n s t i t u t e , together w i t h the R o y a l C o l l e g e o f F o r e s t r y , i s so governed.  S p e c i a l i s t d i v i s i o n s a r e managed by  p r o f e s s o r s o f the Royal C o l l e g e with the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f a r e search l e a d e r , a s s i s t a n t s , and a i d e s . K a l l a n d e r ( 1 3 0 ) has d e s c r i b e d the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f o r e s t r e s e a r c h i n Oregon.  There i s a five-member F o r e s t  t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n Committee, comprising  Protec-  t h r e e members of  the S t a t e Board o f F o r e s t r y , one member appointed  f o r a term  of f o u r y e a r s by the Governor o f the S t a t e and r e p r e s e n t i n g the p u b l i c , and the Dean o f F o r e s t r y a t Oregon S t a t e C o l l e g e as ex1  o f f i c i o member.  Among o t h e r d u t i e s t h i s committee e s t a b l i s h e s  p o l i c y , c o n t r o l s expenditure,  and c o o r d i n a t e s the a c t i v i t i e s  of s t a t e agencies under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e S t a t e Board o f F o r e s t r y i n r e g a r d t o " r e s e a r c h and experiment i n the development o f techniques  f o r the p r o t e c t i o n , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and man-  agement o f f o r e s t l a n d s " .  An A d m i n i s t r a t o r i s appointed, b u t  73r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the conduct of r e s e a r c h r e s t s with the D i r e c t o r of the F o r e s t Lands Research Centre. appointed  Director i s .  by the Committee, with a u t h o r i t y to h i r e  make expenditures, for  The  and  "do  or have done a l l t h i n g s necessary  such r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t i e s . "  There i s a F o r e s t Lands  v i s o r y Committee of ten members r e p r e s e n t i n g r e s e a r c h and  personnel,  state,  Ad-  education,  i n d u s t r y , with the d i r e c t o r of the r e s e a r c h  t i o n as s e c r e t a r y .  A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n e x i s t s f o r the  of research i n f o r e s t  sta-  conduct  products.  In c e r t a i n c o u n t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y where t h e r e are a number of I n t e r e s t e d f a c t i o n s , c o n s i d e r a b l e  importance i s a t t a c h e d  to  the s e p a r a t i o n of r e s e a r c h from the f o r e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . From 1862  to 1900  Danish f o r e s t r y r e s e a r c h was  department of the f o r e s t s e r v i c e . separate  In 1902  conducted by  t h i s group  a  obtained  i d e n t i t y as the S t a t e F o r e s t Research S t a t i o n w i t h i n  the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e .  Full  c o n t r o l r e s t s with  the  D i r e c t o r , i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n with a F o r e s t Research Commission, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of s t a t e and p r i v a t e f o r e s t r y and e s t r y education  (83).  In Germany the r e s e a r c h  autonomous, w i t h the Verband der F o r s t l i c h e n (Union of F o r e s t Research O r g a n i z a t i o n s ) ernment The  of h i g h e r  institutes  forare  Forschungsanstaltan  to n e g o t i a t e with gov-  (83). importance which some f o r e s t r e s e a r c h e r s  a t t a c h to  freedom from a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l i s e x e m p l i f i e d by Naslund's (165)  and Kollman's (139)  recommendations.  They a d v i s e d  t i o n of the proposed Burmese r e s e a r c h establishment  from  separathe  F o r e s t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , with d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the Mini s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and F o r e s t s .  As an i n t e r i m measure, the  74.  C h i e f Conservator o f F o r e s t s was t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r admini s t r a t i o n , but there was a s p e c i f i c r e s e r v a t i o n t h a t the r e search program be " q u i t e independent o f c o n t r o l " by the administration. and  An i n i t i a l program p r o v i d e d  for a joint forestry  f o r e s t products r e s e a r c h centre but e v e n t u a l l y these a l s o  were t o be separated.  The u l t i m a t e achievement o f complete  independence was t o ensure t h a t r e s e a r c h was " a b s o l u t e l y f r e e and  unfettered". Though advantages may r e s u l t when p r i v a t e f o r e s t r y i n t e r -  ests are of considerable  importance, i t i s d i f f i c u l t  t o see  very r e a l advantages t o a p u b l i c r e s e a r c h program i n s e p a r a t i o n from i n t i m a t e c o n t a c t with the e x e c u t i v e the major, o r o n l y , f o r e s t manager.  agency, when t h i s i s  The dangers o f r e s e a r c h  i s o l a t i o n from the r e a l problems o f the f o r e s t a r e o b v i o u s . To quote F r a n c o i s  (87),  "Since r e s e a r c h i n f o r e s t r y and f o r e s t p r o d u c t s i s a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y t o any f o r e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n should be i n a p o s i t i o n t o i s s u e the necessary d i r e c t i v e s f o r the conduct o f such r e s e a r c h so t h a t the a t t e n t i o n o f the r e s e a r c h body i s always f o c u s s e d on the problems o f g r e a t e s t concern t o the development o f a sound f o r e s t p o l i c y and the e f f i c i e n t implementation o f that p o l i c y f o r e s t r e s e a r c h has t o obey such d i r e c t i v e s . F o r e s t s c i e n c e s , u n l i k e pure s c i e n c e s , have u t i l i t a r i a n o b j e c t i v e s and must s o l v e d e f i n i t e problems. s p e c i a l i z e d bodies f o r f o r e s t r y research, or a t l e a s t f o r the c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s , must form an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " I t i s t o be s t r e s s e d t h a t the r a i s o n d ' e t r e o f f o r e s t r y r e search l i e s i n the p r a c t i c e o f f o r e s t r y .  The f u n c t i o n o f the  r e s e a r c h worker, i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , i s t o serve the needs of the p r a c t i c i n g f o r e s t e r .  Temporary advantages may occur i n  s e p a r a t i o n from an unsympathetic a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , when more e f f e c t i v e d i r e c t i o n may r e s u l t from autonomy, but i s q u e s t i o n a b l e  75. whether, i n these unhappy circumstances, a r e s e a r c h w i l l have any ment and  r e a l impact.  P o s i t i v e advantages i n r e c r u i t -  s t a f f r e t e n t i o n may  occur, n e v e r t h e l e s s ,  t i o n f a c i l i t a t e s the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a s t a f f i n g more s u i t e d to the needs of r e s e a r c h more s a t i s f a c t o r y terms of In c o - o p e r a t i v e ultimate of the  pendent members.  and  i f separastructure  the p r o v i s i o n of  service.  or o t h e r independent r e s e a r c h  c o n t r o l i s u s u a l l y vested  supporting  program  i n a board  agencies,  representative  i n t e r e s t s , o f t e n w i t h the a d d i t i o n of I n Canada, the Pulp and  inde-  Paper Research  In-  s t i t u t e i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by a board designated by the Crown, the Royal I n s t i t u t i o n f o r the Advancement of L e a r n i n g , the Canadian Pulp and  Paper A s s o c i a t i o n .  There i s a l s o an  v i s o r y panel of l e a d i n g members of the f o r e s t r y and professions.  and ad-  related  In Quebec, the L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y Research Found-  a t i o n i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by a board of nine d i r e c t o r s chosen from among the members of the Foundation. supervises  A D i r e c t o r of Research  a l l p r o j e c t s approved by the Board.  i s formed of members who, f i n a n c i a l support, may  The  Foundation  by v i r t u e of f u n c t i o n , knowledge, or  h e l p i t to r e a l i z e i t s o b j e c t i v e s  pursue s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s .  The  Dean of F o r e s t  and  Engin-  e e r i n g i s a member e x - o f f i c i o of the Foundation, p r e s i d e n t the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  and  Foundation, the F a c u l t y , and  the School o f Graduate Study.  of  serves as l i a i s o n between the The  Woodland Manager of Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Paper Company i s vice-president. port.  T h i s company p r o v i d e s the major f i n a n c i a l  There i s a l s o a Board of Governors composed of  i n d u s t r i a l executives  and  eminent r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  sup-  leading  i n the  fields  76.  of e d u c a t i o n  and r e s e a r c h .  T h i s Board has an a d v i s o r y  func-  t i o n and the task o f f u r t h e r i n g knowledge and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the o b j e c t i v e s of the Foundation amongst the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . The  Norwegian Research S o c i e t y o f F o r e s t r y and F o r e s t I n -  d u s t r i e s , d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , i s so c o n s t i t u t e d t h a t each c o r porate member, i n any o f the three c a t e g o r i e s o f r e s e a r c h , a d v i s o r y , and t r a d e , forms a separate committee.  group, with i t s own group  These committees a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a c t i v i t i e s  w i t h i n t h e i r own f i e l d s and f o r drawing up f i n a n c i a l The  proposals.  Chairman and Vice-chairman o f the S o c i e t y , together  with  the chairmen o f the r e s e a r c h groups, form the c h i e f administ r a t i v e body, the Research Board.  T h i s Board c o o r d i n a t e s the  d e t a i l e d proposals  o f the i n d i v i d u a l groups and prepares the  r e s e a r c h program.  Such a s t r u c t u r e would seem admirably s u i t e d  t o the m a r s h a l l i n g o f f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s  and the c o o r d i n a t i o n  of a c t i v i t y among d i v e r s i f i e d i n t e r e s t s . Many r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s make use o f a d v i s o r y o r t e c h n i c a l committees. c i l o f Poland.  Munns (l6j5) d e s c r i b e d the S t a t e F o r e s t Coun-  T h i s had f i v e o r seven members, the M i n i s t e r  of F o r e s t r y , the F o r e s t r y Member o f the C e n t r a l Planning the C h i e f o f the F o r e s t r y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  Board,  representatives of  the f u r n i t u r e and wood-using i n d u s t r i e s , and the head o f one u n i v e r s i t y f o r e s t r y school.  Among other d u t i e s i t e x e r c i s e d  an a d v i s o r y f u n c t i o n a t the S t a t e I n s t i t u t e o f F o r e s t Research. In the U n i t e d S t a t e s F o r e s t S e r v i c e , F o r e s t Research Adv i s o r y Committees a t the n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l l e v e l date mainl y s i n c e the e a r l y 1950's.  These a r e formed o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  of i n d u s t r y y - - w i l d - l i f e and l i v e s t o c k i n t e r e s t s , the f o r e s t r y  77.  p r o f e s s i o n , f o r e s t r y e d u c a t i o n , and the p u b l i c .  They a d v i s e  and a s s i s t i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of r e s e a r c h programs (141, 1 9 1 ) . In the U n i t e d Kingdom there are two b o d i e s Research Branch may  turn f o r advice.  The  first  to which the i s the Tech-  n i c a l Committee of the F o r e s t r y Commission, composed of s e n i o r o f f i c e r s who The  s c r u t i n i z e the proposed programs i n some d e t a i l .  second i s the A d v i s o r y Committee on F o r e s t Research.  i s a committee of eminent s c i e n t i s t s who  meet p e r i o d i c a l l y t o  d i s c u s s the r e s e a r c h program, with s p e c i a l i s t These sub-committees may or arrange  extended over l o n g p e r i o d s , the procedures  of  sub-committees.  undertake r e s e a r c h programs themselves,  f o r p r o j e c t s to be c a r r i e d out.  Through these two  This  Some of these have are very  flexible.  committees r e f e r e n c e i s made to the  experience  p r a c t i c i n g f o r e s t o f f i c e r s and to s c i e n t i f i c o p i n i o n .  a l s o a s s i s t i n the d i f f i c u l t continue a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t  They  d e c i s i o n of d e c i d i n g when to d i s (154).  II  For Burma, Naslund and Kollman proposed two  special  bodies,  a Research C o u n c i l , and an A d v i s o r y Board, to secure " r e g u l a r , continuous  and c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n " between the r e s e a r c h  t u t e and i n t e r e s t e d government a g e n c i e s , the u n i v e r s i t y , the wood-consuming and e x p o r t i n g i n d u s t r i e s . C o u n c i l was  The  instiand  Research  t o be composed of the C h i e f Conservator  of F o r e s t s ,  the Chairman of the S t a t e Timber Board, i . e . , the f o r e s t agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o n t r o l of e x p l o i t a t i o n , the P r o f e s s o r s o f F o r e s t r y and E n g i n e e r i n g a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Rangooh, the D i r e c t o r of the Research I n s t i t u t e , and the two  Deputy D i r e c t o r s  of  the two  the F o r e s t r y and F o r e s t P r o d u c t s B r a n c h e s ; r  named t o ~ h o l d the o f f i c e s of Chairman and Vice-chairman  firstrespec-  78. tively.  T h i s C o u n c i l was t o meet a t l e a s t once a year t o r e -  c e i v e r e p o r t s o f the I n s t i t u t e ' s a c t i v i t i e s , d i s c u s s pending p r o j e c t s , and make suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h work. A d v i s o r y Board was t o comprise the C h i e f Conservator  The  of F o r -  e s t s , and the Chairman o f the S t a t e Timber Board, as Chairman and Vice-Chairman r e s p e c t i v e l y , the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e M i n i s t r i e s o f Finance,  Industry, A g r i c u l t u r e , and F o r e s t s , the  A g r i c u l t u r a l and R u r a l Development C o r p o r a t i o n , the A g r i c u l t u r e Department, the N a t i o n a l Housing Board, the Burma Railways Board, and the Timber Trade.  T h i s body was t o meet near the  end o f the budget year t o r e c e i v e a r e p o r t o f r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y , i n the i n t e r e s t o f the body which they r e p r e s e n t e d , i n f i n a n c i a l and o t h e r s u i t a b l e ways. Committees may be u s e f u l a t the working l e v e l .  Depart-  mental p r o j e c t committees form a u t o m a t i c a l l y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e needs o f r e s e a r c h ; i t i s a matter o f convenience whether be f o r m a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d o r not.  The more f o r m a l programing  conference may u s e f u l l y be c o n s i d e r e d . U n i t e d Kingdom procedure.  these  L a u r i e (147) d e s c r i b e d  There, t h e program conference ex-  tends over a number o f days and i s attended by a l l Research Officers.  Every o f f i c e r has a copy o f the f u l l program and the  conference  provides a valuable opportunity f o r ensuring that  a l l r e s e a r c h s e c t i o n s a r e kept s e c t i o n s a r e doing.  informed  o f what other  research  At the d i s c u s s i o n , notes a r e made r e g a r d -  i n g p r i o r i t i e s , the p o s s i b i l i t y o f c a r r y i n g through  difficult  p r o j e c t s w i t h the r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e , and the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f work a f f e c t i n g more than one Research O f f i c e r , w i t h c l e a r cation of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  Every p r o j e c t i s t h o r o u g h l y  allo-  discussed.  79-  To p r o v i d e f o r a longer-term review the work of e i t h e r a whole or one or two of the s m a l l e r s e c t i o n s , or of a group of major p r o j e c t s , I s s u b j e c t e d t o a d e t a i l e d review.  The aim i s t o  cover the whole f i e l d w i t h these s p e c i a l reviews once every f i v e years.  The o f f i c e r s r e s p o n s i b l e prepare papers  detail-  i n g the p o s i t i o n reached i n t h e i r work, and the l i n e s on which f u t u r e work i s proposed.  These papers are c r i t i c a l l y examined.  A f t e r the conference the program i s submitted t o h i g h e r aut h o r i t y and t o the Research A d v i s o r y Committee f o r s c r u t i n y and comment.  I t i s not f o r m a l l y s a n c t i o n e d , though i t i s ex-  pected t o be adhered t o f a i r l y c l o s e l y , and I n a l l S e c t i o n s a c e r t a i n degree of e l a s t i c i t y i s p r e s e r v e d . I n I n d i a , Research i s planned on a f i v e - y e a r b a s i s , w i t h a f o r m a l l y a u t h o r i z e d Research P l a n .  A program i s o u t l i n e d  and s a n c t i o n e d as the Research Working P l a n by a q u i n q u e n i a l S i l v i c u l t u r a l Conference a t the F o r e s t Research I n s t i t u t e . conference i s attended by the P r o v i n c i a l S i l v i c u l t u r i s t s s e n i o r f o r e s t r y o f f i c e r s from a l l I n d i a ( 1 7 8 ) . d e s c r i b e d the procedures.  and (46)  Champion  P r i o r t o the Conference, and  c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the t e r r i t o r i a l Conservators and  This  after  Divisional  F o r e s t r y O f f i c e r s , a d r a f t program i s prepared i n the Working Plans and Research C i r c l e .  The C e n t r a l S i l v i c u l t u r i s t i s g i v e n  the o p p o r t u n i t y to make any suggestions he may  wish.  Finally  the d r a f t i s d i s c u s s e d and amended as found d e s i r a b l e by the S i l v i c u l t u r a l Conference.  At these conferences important mat-  t e r s of s i l v i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y are d i s c u s s e d and d e c i s i o n s taken on p r a c t i c e s to be adopted.  The r e c o r d of p a s t conferences  shows d e t a i l e d debate on b a s i c s i l v i c u l t u r a l concepts and  80.  systems of s i l v i c u l t u r a l working.  In these d e l i b e r a t i o n s the  r e s u l t s of r e s e a r c h , the corpus of e x i s t i n g knowledge, and accumulated experience  of the conference  enter i n .  the  Decisions  of the S i l v i c u l t u r a l Conference have p l a y e d a major p a r t i n the development of I n d i a n F o r e s t r y . procedures  Although  formalistic,  these  have long p r o v i d e d f o r t h a t s y n t h e s i s which i s d e s i r -  a b l e i n a u n i f i e d or f e d e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o p e r a t i n g on a continental scale. However, i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l work, a t whatever l e v e l i t i s undertaken, cannot be kept w i t h i n s t r i c t l y f i x e d No matter how  w e l l - d e f i n e d and  s p e c i f i c the o r i g i n a l scheme,  f r u i t f u l r e s e a r c h w i l l tend to develop r a r e l y be p r e d i c t e d .  boundaries.  i n d i r e c t i o n s that  can  On t h i s account f l e x i b i l i t y of o r g a n i -  z a t i o n and freedom of development are e s s e n t i a l i n a r a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h program.  Where the s c a l e of the e n t e r p r i s e p e r m i t s ,  t h e r e would seem to be advantages i n the avoidance of f o r m a l , long-term  programing.  The autonomous, yet more f o r m a l i s t i c , s t a t u s of some r e search groups, i l l u s t r a t e d by Naslund and Kollman's w r i t i n g s , shows a g a i n i n t h e i r concept  of a c o l l e g i u m , composed of the  s e n i o r members of the r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e , and meeting a t d e c i s i o n of the d i r e c t o r , or a t the request of a t l e a s t t h i r d of the members. the r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e ,  c o n s i d e r s a l l r e s e a r c h matters, I t prepares  both  the annual program  i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p e r s o n n e l matters  and the nomination of candidates tions.  one-  T h i s c o l l e g i u m , as the governing body o f  t e c h n i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e . and the budget, and  the  f o r s t a f f v a c a n c i e s and promo-  I f the d i r e c t o r wishes t o propose candidates he must  81. first  c o n s u l t the c o l l e g i u m .  I n t h i s s t r u c t u r e the d i r e c t o r  would seem t o be r a t h e r a chairman among equals than an executive. Programing procedures have been d e t a i l e d by Shaw  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s F o r e s t S e r v i c e  (190).  Proposals and p l a n s a r e p r e -  pared by r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r s and a r e s u b j e c t e d t o the c r i t i c i s m of e x e c u t i v e f o r e s t e r s .  A t l e a s t once a year, r e g i o n a l p r o -  gram review boards, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the r e g i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the n a t i o n a l f o r e s t s and o f r e s e a r c h , meet t o c o n s i d e r programs and p r o g r e s s .  The members a r e the heads o f r e s e a r c h  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s and the s e n i o r o f f i c e r s o f both s i d e s . I t i s a p r i n c i p l e t h a t a l l d i s c u s s i o n s a r e attended o n l y those d e a l i n g with p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i a l i t i e s . formulated  and not  Opinions a r e  as t o the r e l a t i v e a t t e n t i o n t o be g i v e n t o d i f f e r -  ent f i e l d s c o m p e t i t i v e i n terms o f men and money.  Shaw r e -  marks t h a t t h i s form o f review ensures an a i r o f r e a l i t y t o the r e s e a r c h program and t h a t "the r e t e n t i o n o f f a s c i n a t i n g and  c o s t l y f o r a y s i n t o academic i n v e s t i g a t i o n " i s u n l i k e l y i f  the chance o f p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n cannot be s u b s t a n t i a t e d , but t h a t on the other hand the r e s e a r c h e r knows t h a t h i s f i n d i n g s a r e not l i k e l y t o be d i s r e g a r d e d . Without c r i t i c i z i n g t h i s r e g i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o r q u e s t i o n i n g the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f b r i n g i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s o n n e l  into  c l o s e c o l l a b o r a t i o n with r e s e a r c h s t a f f , i t may perhaps be q u e r i e d whether the s i t u a t i o n suggested  by Shaw's comment  should  ever a r i s e i n a r e s e a r c h program w i t h c o r r e c t emphasis and a sound r e c r u i t m e n t p o l i c y .  " F a s c i n a t i n g and c o s t l y f o r a y s " . . . "  or other u n r e a l i s t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o r a t t i t u d e s should not  82. a r i s e i n a properly oriented, applied research program i n which the research o f f i c e r s i d e n t i f y themselves with, and have an understanding staff.  and appreciation of, the problems of the f i e l d  In such a program i t i s undesirable to employ men who,  perhaps through exposure to basic research techniques during t h e i r educational experience, have adopted the viewpoint of the pure s c i e n t i s t . I f on the other hand, the program i s s p e c i f i c a l l y intended to embrace fundamental enquiry, then there must be freedom of enquiry and i t may be questioned whether the administrative forester should s i t i n judgement, for the non-specialist w i l l r a r e l y have the background knowledge to evaluate.  Men trained  i n the basic d i s c i p l i n e s are required f o r such research and to a considerable extent there can only be confidence i n the worker. If c r i t i c a l evaluation of the d e s i r a b i l i t y of continuing a project i s desired then t h i s i s better obtained through r e f e r ence to a panel of independent, experienced s c i e n t i s t s of standing, than to the judgement of an administrative branch the members of which w i l l often be unqualified to assess the matter and who may tend to over-emphasis short-term objectives Macdonald's "passing fashions and enthusiasms" and Hebb and Martin's "benefits to the present by s a c r i f i c i n g the future". Shaw also ascribes another advantage to combined administrative/research conferences which may be questioned. said to give an urgency to research.  These are  Shaw says that there are  always reasons why one more year of study seems essential to the researcher, reasons which are s a t i s f a c t o r y to himself and to h i s vocational colleagues, but that administrators are "commonly  83. c o l d to such s u b j e c t i v e wishes".  A s i d e from the very ques-  t i o n a b l e d e s i r a b i l i t y of p r e s s u r i n g r e s e a r c h (which should unnecessary i f s t a f f of adequate c a l i b r e i s r e c r u i t e d ) , statement suggests ministration.  be  this  a l a c k of a c c o r d between r e s e a r c h and  ad-  C l e a r l y t h e r e must be machinery f o r c o n t r o l .  Macdonald (154)  has  i n d i c a t e d the importance of the T e c h n i c a l  Committee of the F o r e s t r y Commission and  the A d v i s o r y  Committee  on F o r e s t Research i n t h i s r e g a r d i n the context of B r i t i s h forest research. The  But  such bodies  should be a d v i s o r y i n n a t u r e .  f i n a l d e c i s i o n must r e s t w i t h the d i r e c t o r of r e s e a r c h .  Shaw's d e s c r i p t i o n may  not g i v e a t r u e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the  system i n p r a c t i c e j behind siderable f l e x i b i l i t y .  the terminology  Nevertheless,  t h e r e may  be  con-  i t i s noteworthy t h a t  the t h i n k i n g b a s i c to h i s views i s the a n t i t h e s i s of t h a t of the c o n t i n e n t a l European r e s e a r c h worker w i t h h i s d e s i r e f o r independence from a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r e s s u r e s , as evidenced  by  Nasiund's p h i l o s o p h i e s , the autonomous s t a t u s of the Danish s t a t e r e s e a r c h s t a t i o n , and the Union of F o r e s t Research Organi z a t i o n s i n Germany.  Even i f the extreme view i s not h e l d , the  achievements of C o n t i n e n t a l f o r e s t r y , o f t e n w i t h very r e s o u r c e s , suggest  limited  r e s e a r c h b e n e f i t s from the minimum of con-  t r o l by f o r e s t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s .  E s p e c i a l l y i n basic research  t h e r e i s much to be s a i d f o r the a d v i c e of Leonard E n g e l "Get a good s c i e n t i s t The  s t a t u s and The  .... and  l e t him  (73)  alone".  c o n d i t i o n s of s e r v i c e of r e s e a r c h  need f o r h i g h - c a l i b r e personnel and  staff  the f r e q u e n t  neces-  s i t y of l i v i n g under i s o l a t e d and p o s s i b l y p r i m i t i v e c o n d i t i o n s a r e c o n f l i c t i n g elements i n r e s e a r c h s t a f f i n g .  To the r e s e a r c h  84.  worker the absence of the i n t e l l e c t u a l s t i m u l u s t o be d e r i v e d from c o n t a c t w i t h other i n v e s t i g a t o r s may  be of g r e a t e r impor-  tance than the more m a t e r i a l disadvantages. A p p l i e d r e s e a r c h , p a r t i c u l a r l y , may r e s i d e n c e a t remote f i e l d  stations.  n e c e s s i t a t e permanent  Research workers w i l l  a l l y have s t r o n g p r o f e s s i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n and men  usu-  of the r e q u i r e d  c a l i b r e w i l l o f t e n be prepared, and indeed d e s i r e , to devote themselves  to f i e l d research.  t i o n be encouraged  by p o s i t i v e  But i t i s important t h a t d e d i c a action.  "... o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n , . . . should be on a par w i t h t h a t accorded t o o f f i c e j o b s . " (173) "... a l l too o f t e n an i n d i v i d u a l i s not adequately r e c o g n i z e d u n t i l employment elsewhere i s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n " . (164) T h i s i s not merely a q u e s t i o n of f i n a n c i a l remuneration  but  r a t h e r one of g e n e r a l r e c o g n i t i o n . D i f f i c u l t i e s which may  be minimized by departmental  action  are concerned w i t h q u e s t i o n s of housing, l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , and promotion,  pay  p r o v i s i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n ,  and working f a c i l i t i e s .  In remote r e g i o n s they w i l l o f t e n be  concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h the w e l l - b e i n g of the o f f i c e r ' s f a m i l y . I t may  seem unnecessary t o s t r e s s these matters, but experience  has shown these t o be potent c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n determining the e f f i c i e n c y of a r e s e a r c h program, and which can be e a s i l y  over-  looked i n the o p e r a t i o n of an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machine. I t i s most important t h a t no man  be d i r e c t e d t o work i n r e -  s e a r c h , or remain i n such work, a g a i n s t h i s wishes and  inclina-  tions.  T h i s a p p l i e s e q u a l l y t o p r o f e s s i o n a l and t o subordinate  staff.  The aim should be t o make r e s e a r c h s u f f i c i e n t l y  attrac-  85.  t i v e t o g a i n and. t o h o l d men of the r e q u i r e d type, but w i t h out making i t so a t t r a c t i v e as t o draw p e r s o n n e l p u r e l y because o f m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t s . P r o v i s i o n o f adequate c a r e e r p r o s p e c t s f o r s p e c i a l i s t s i n a n o n - s p e c i a l i s t s e r v i c e f r e q u e n t l y causes d i f f i c u l t y . The  q u e s t i o n i s how t o r e c o g n i z e n o n - a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  accomplishment.  F r a n c o i s (87) suggested  scientific  i t t o be a d v i s a b l e ,  i f a l l persons concerned have r e c e i v e d the same b a s i c t r a i n i n g , to l a y down the p r i n c i p l e t h a t a l l may be c a l l e d upon t o serve i n any branch o f the f o r e s t s e r v i c e .  He r e c o g n i z e s , however,  t h a t some compromise w i l l always be necessary,  f o r a long  per-  i o d o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n may make a man u n s u i t a b l e f o r a p o s i t i o n o f corresponding vice.  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n another  p a r t o f the s e r -  The s i t u a t i o n i s made more d i f f i c u l t than i n other b i o -  l o g i c a l f i e l d s because o f the e x e c u t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e nat u r e o f much p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t y , and which r e s u l t s i n p r o motion s t r u c t u r e s i n t o which i t may be d i f f i c u l t specialist officers.  to f i t senior  Research i s not alone i n t h i s  difficulty,  n e v e r t h e l e s s w i t h i n r e s e a r c h groups p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r promot i o n a r e o f t e n more l i m i t e d than i n other, l e s s branches.  specialized  P r o v i s i o n should be made so t h a t competent men who  wish t o make the change do not s u f f e r any disadvantage  in eli-  g i b i l i t y f o r promotion t o h i g h e r grades w i t h i n the a d m i n i s t r a tion,  i t i s d e s i r a b l e , o f course, t h a t a man i s not n e c e s s a r -  i l y o b l i g e d t o abandon h i s r e s e a r c h c o n n e c t i o n i f he i s t o o b t a i n advancement.  There a r e obvious  advantages i n r e t a i n i n g  o u t s t a n d i n g men with long r e s e a r c h experience search s t r u c t u r e .  w i t h i n the r e -  A l s o , i t does not f o l l o w t h a t because a  86. r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r advances to r e s e a r c h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n h i s posi t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s are ended.  He may. w e l l e n t e r upon a p e r -  i o d of g r e a t e r r e a l p r o d u c t i v i t y through the added a v a i l a b l e to  facilities  him.  But the q u a l i t i e s t h a t m e r i t r e c o g n i t i o n i n a r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r are not n e c e s s a r i l y those most s u i t e d f o r a d m i n i s t r a tive duties.  As Dinsmore (66)  i n d i c a t e d i n the context of i n -  d u s t r i a l r e s e a r c h , there are a l l degrees and g r a d a t i o n s s c i e n t i f i c a b i l i t y and a man  who  of  i s an e x c e l l e n t r e s e a r c h worker  and  can produce v e r y v a l u a b l e r e s u l t s as a c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l  may  be unable t o assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d i r e c t i n g  and  c o o r d i n a t i n g the work of o t h e r s . In the past i t has been suggested search o f f i c e r should have experience entering research.  T h i s concept  t h a t a departmental  i n administration before  i s dying i n the U n i t e d  ( 1 6 4 ) , but i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t l a c k of such experience vents a man  re-  States pre-  t r a n s f e r r i n g out of r e s e a r c h , even when a l l con-  cerned r e c o g n i z e the d e s i r a b i l i t y of such a move from the r e search s t a n d p o i n t .  One  o b j e c t i o n to the complete s e p a r a t i o n of  r e s e a r c h personnel from the e x e c u t i v e i s t h a t i t c o n s i d e r a b l y reduces the p o s s i b i l i t y of a s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n from r e s e a r c h to a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  Movements i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n a l s o be-  come more d i f f i c u l t .  When p r e v i o u s c o n t a c t has been c l o s e ,  t r a n s f e r s are l e s s d i f f i c u l t and may In many government agencies d i f f i c u l t i e s i n advancing  b e n e f i t both branches.  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ,  "the  or r e c o g n i z i n g a r e s e a r c h worker on  the b a s i s of h i s r e s e a r c h c o n t r i b u t i o n s have been w e l l - n e i g h insurmountable"  (164).  To advance a man  i t has been  found  87.  n e c e s s a r y t o a s s i g n more a n d more a d m i n i s t r a t i v e cut  into research  posts  time.  Further,  to satisfy a l l  The s i t u a t i o n i s s i m i l a r i n o t h e r  Sometimes i t h a s b e e n p o s s i b l e t o p r o v i d e advancement, t h e s o - c a l l e d p a r a l l e l pointment  i s made t o r e s e a r c h  ence, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , dissociated istrative  entiation of t i t l e A first a by  a  scientist,  p r e s t i g e , and s a l a r y , w i t h  (184).  administration  I t may be r e m a r k e d t h a t  While  occurs  establishments  spasmodically,  @£ s i m i l a r s t a n d i n g and  l i m i t a t i o n of senior research  should  head o f t h e s e r -  and determined by o r g a n i z a t i o n a l needs, a n  The o n l y r e a l  fications  working as  l i m i t a t i o n of senior administrative posts i n  i s logical  pointments  i s desirable.  i n c e r t a i n of  i n research  i n the grouping of personnel  arbitrary cial.  characteristic  e x p a n s i o n , and hence r e c r u i t m e n t ,  research  differ-  serves.  i s a frequent  seniority.  clear  dependencies the C h i e f Research O f f i c e r has r e c e i v e d  v i c e u n d e r whom he  resulting  titles  a c o n t r i b u t i o n a s i s made  l a r g e r remuneration than the administrative  that  independ-  E v e n when a d m i n -  i s recognition that a s c i e n t i s t , as great  where a p -  specific  to a senior post,  from t h e g e n e r a l  c a n make f u l l y  a supervisor  It  ladder,  positions of increasing  are attached  requirement  the B r i t i s h  research  countries.  another path of  from those o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  functions  which  t h e number o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  i s o f t e n l i m i t e d , and r a r e l y s u f f i c i e n t  requirements.  duties  appointments i s a r t i f i -  l i m i t a t i o n t o advancement i n r e s e a r c h a p -  be a b i l i t y ,  seniority,  and t h e g e n e r a l  quali-  of the candidate.  Long i n c r e m e n t a l throughout a research  scales that allow life  of steady  increase  are another a l t e r n a t i v e .  Learner ( 1 4 9 )  88. has presented  a s t r o n g case f o r these i n i n d u s t r i a l r e s e a r c h .  I f t h i s procedure i s f o l l o w e d the q u e s t i o n o f promotion o r o f title  changes need not e n t e r i n although t h e r e may be the f o r -  m a l i t y of an e f f i c i e n c y b a r a t a c e r t a i n i n c r e m e n t a l  level.  Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s the award o f s p e c i a l r e s e a r c h a l lowances or, a l t e r n a t i v e l y , l a c k o f h i g h e r c a r e e r p r o s p e c t s f o r s p e c i a l i s t s may be r e c o g n i z e d and compensated t o some extent by i n i t i a l appointment t o the middle grades,  o r by a c c e l e r a t e d  promotion d u r i n g the e a r l y stages of a man's c a r e e r , with  tacit  r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t promotion t o the h i g h e r e c h e l o n i s u n l i k e l y w i t h i n the r e s e a r c h s t r u c t u r e .  Such s o l u t i o n s can o n l y be  worked out w i t h i n the context of the i n d i v i d u a l s e r v i c e . T h i s matter i s one of some importance i f the more a b l e men are t o be a t t r a c t e d t o a r e s e a r c h c a r e e r i n s o c i e t i e s where cons i d e r a b l e s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s a t t a c h e d t o m a t e r i a l rewards. In other s i t u a t i o n s , q u e s t i o n s o f p r e s t i g e , p r o f e s s i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n , and p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n may be of g r e a t e r importance. But,  notwithstanding  the s o c i a l environment, the r e s e a r c h worker  w i l l wish f o r , " r e c o g n i t i o n , freedom, and s e c u r i t y , and w i l l expect  t o l i v e on a par with other persons o f e q u i v a l e n t edu-  c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g i n the community." (135). I n s m a l l departments d i f f i c u l t i e s  are i n t e n s i f i e d .  In the  B r i t i s h Overseas C i v i l S e r v i c e t h i s i s r e c o g n i z e d , and a sepa. r a t e , c e n t r a l i z e d r e s e a r c h s e r v i c e has been formed. d i s s o c i a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y from the t e r r i t o r i a l  This i s  administra-  t i v e and t e c h n i c a l departments f o r which i t p r o v i d e s s e r v i c e s , and t o which i t s members a r e o f t e n a t t a c h e d .  Administration  i s by s c i e n t i s t s and promotion i s a c c o r d i n g t o r e s e a r c h c a p a c i t y  89. r a t h e r than by  s t a n d i n g w i t h i n an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h i e r a r c h y .  There i s independence from l o c a l departmentalism  and,  i n recog-  n i t i o n of the f a c t t h a t the r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r , u n l i k e h i s adm i n i s t r a t i v e c o u n t e r p a r t , may engagements and  wish to undertake more l i m i t e d  seek other e x p e r i e n c e s ,  there i s considerable  f l e x i b i l i t y i n c o n t r a c t u a l agreements i n r e g a r d to s e r v i c e , superannuation,  and other t e r m i n a l b e n e f i t s .  To p r o v i d e f o r  f l e x i b i l i t y the o f f i c e r s are members of the f e d e r a t e d annuation  scheme of the B r i t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s and,  super-  i n general,  the c o n d i t i o n s of s e r v i c e are more s i m i l a r to those of the u n i v e r s i t y than to the e x e c u t i v e s e r v i c e s .  These arrangements are  a p p l i c a b l e to r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r s i n a l l t e c h n i c a l departments of Government but have o n l y proved p a r t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l , f o r they are unable to take account of v a r i a t i o n s i n l o c a l t i o n s , such as may  be r e c o g n i z e d i n a t e r r i t o r i a l  cept where they are members of a l a r g e i n s t i t u t e  condi-  service. staffed  Ex-  by  members of the r e s e a r c h s e r v i c e , r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r s have o f t e n p r e f e r r e d to remain i n the g e n e r a l d i v i s i o n , a c c e p t i n g the  dis-  a b i l i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n a s t a f f i n g s t r u c t u r e t h a t i s designed  to  meet the needs of g e n e r a l and t e c h n i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and  on  o c c a s i o n perhaps a d m i n i s t e r e d by e x e c u t i v e s unsympathetic t o , or without research  understanding  o f , the s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  activity.  E d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n o f t e n become c r i t i c a l j u s t when the r e s e a r c h worker i s e n t e r i n g the most p r o d u c t i v e stage of h i s c a r e e r .  T h i s d i f f i c u l t y i s common t o much of  for-  e s t r y e f f o r t but, while t h i s can be p a r t i a l l y overcome i n r e gard to n o n - s p e c i a l i s t s t a f f by s u i t a b l e arrangement of p o s t -  90. i n g s , t h i s i s r a r e l y p o s s i b l e with a l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h l a r g e l y composed of s p e c i a l i s t s .  In the i n i t i a l  experiment s t a t i o n s a compromise may  be necessary  staff,  s i t i n g of and  the  • s c i e n t i f i c a l l y d e s i r a b l e ' s i t u a t i o n d i s c a r d e d i n favour o f one more f a v o u r a b l y s i t u a t e d i n r e g a r d to a m e n i t i e s . Although  complete s e p a r a t i o n of a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h from  p r a c t i c e i s but r a r e l y to be a d v i s e d , the d i f f i c u l t y of r e c o n c i l i n g the r e s e a r c h and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e minds must be  recog-  nized, "The r e s e a r c h management must r e c o g n i z e t h a t nonc o n f o r m i t y o f t e n accompanies c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y , and must be w i l l i n g to accept and work w i t h the p e r s o n n e l problems t h a t may a r i s e as a r e s u l t of non-conformity. The c r e a t i v e man c o n t i n u a l l y c h a l l e n g e s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the r u l e s of n a t u r e . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of man-made r u l e s are even l e s s a c c e p t a b l e without q u e s t i o n i n g . " ( 1 1 5 ) Above a l l , pressures.  r e s e a r c h should not be s u b j e c t t o e x c e s s i v e  A c e r t a i n volume of output of h i g h q u a l i t y i s nec-  e s s a r y but t h i s w i l l r e s u l t from the r e c r u i t m e n t of men right calibre.  The r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r needs time f o r contempla-  t i o n , f o r reading, f o r discussion. e r a t e new  of the  i d e a s , t o e x p l o r e new  Freedom t o browse, to gen-  f i e l d s , and t o e v a l u a t e o l d  ones, i s e s s e n t i a l i f a r e s e a r c h program i s t o make the maximum c o n t r i b u t i o n t o f o r e s t r y advance. CONTRASTING VIEWPOINTS ON RESEARCH American and B r i t i s h views on t r a i n i n g f o r r e s e a r c h While there i s g e n e r a l agreement w i t h the p r i n c i p l e t h a t , " F o r e s t r y r e s e a r c h i s a h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l and s p e c i a l i z e d s u b j e c t which should be c a r r i e d out where-ever poss i b l e by s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r s . " (30) t h e r e i s not always an a p p r e c i a t i o n t h a t the two  l e v e l s of r e -  search a c t i v i t y , t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n and  fundamental  91.  enquiry, r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t o u t l o o k s , d i s t i n c t approaches, f e r e n t methodology and, of t r a i n i n g .  a r i s i n g from these, d i f f e r e n t  dif-  types  There i s a l s o the q u e s t i o n whether r e s e a r c h  t r a i n i n g should be based on i n - s e r v i c e i n f o r m a l t r a i n i n g through experience,  or whether i t should be of a f o r m a l academic  I n the sphere o f b a s i c r e s e a r c h there are d i s t i n c t ences between American and B r i t i s h views.  The B r i t i s h  nature. differ-  concept  i s t h a t b a s i c r e s e a r c h demands a knowledge of s c i e n c e r a t h e r than of f o r e s t r y , and a command of s c i e n t i f i c method r a t h e r than of s i l v i c u l t u r a l technique.  F o r the worker i n the  ancillary  or u n d e r l y i n g s c i e n c e s the r i g h t t r a i n i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a degree i n the a p p r o p r i a t e s c i e n c e (50).  I n the American view  the d e s i r a b l e background i s most o f t e n p r o v i d e d by  training  i n t e c h n i c a l f o r e s t r y f o l l o w e d by s p e c i a l i z a t i o n through uate  grad-  study. As opposed to more r e c e n t thought, B a i l e y and Sphoer  advanced a viewpoint  i n l i n e with B r i t i s h Ideas.  (5)  They ques-  t i o n e d whether r e s e a r c h e r s should r e c e i v e t h e i r b a s i c b i o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g i n the f o r e s t r y s c h o o l and countered t i o n t h a t t h i s was  necessary  t o develop  the  w i t h the remark t h a t i t o n l y s u b s t i t u t e d one a b l e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n f o r another. r e s e a r c h was  the  'forestry  suggesviewpoint'  type of u n d e s i r -  They c o n s i d e r e d t h a t b a s i c  b e s t pursued i n the broadest  and most thorough  manner. "The American f o r e s t e r tends to be too e x a c t i n g and too i m p a t i e n t f o r q u i c k r e s u l t s i n h i s demands upon the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s , and to over-emphasize the value of a v a r i e d program of r a t h e r s t e r e o t y p e d , p r a c t i c a l f o r e s t r y courses i n the t r a i n i n g of i n v e s t i g a t o r s which culminates a t times i n attempts to g i v e men, t r a i n e d as p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n f q r e s t r y , a top d r e s s i n g of graduate i n s t r u c t i o n i n  92. s c i e n c e . . . . . f u l l y as u n d e s i r a b l e as t o r e q u i r e a p o s t graduate, who has concentrated i n some s p e c i a l f i e l d o f s c i e n c e t o take a complete course o f p r a c t i c a l i n s t r u c tion i n forestry." Much depends on the n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n . ter  Perhaps the mat-  may be r e l a t e d t o the way i n which b a s i c o r a n c i l l a r y r e -  search i s o r g a n i z e d .  I f the r e s e a r c h e r s  a r e f u l l members o f  a f o r e s t r y o r g a n i z a t i o n then i t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t they have a b a s i c f o r e s t r y understanding, and an e a r l i e r o p i n i o n t h a t a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r t r a i n i n g men i n f o r e s t r y r e s e a r c h , ancillary fields,  should be a broad g e n e r a l  e s t r y ( 5 2 ) , has some weight.  In general,  even i n  training i n for-  o n l y such t r a i n i n g  can g i v e the background which i s necessary f o r b a l a n c e , so t h a t minor i n t e r e s t s do not become major o b j e c t i v e s .  On the  other hand, i f the worker i n an a n c i l l a r y f i e l d has a d v i s o r y or c o n s u l t a n t  s t a t u s , o r i s brought i n t o work on s p e c i f i c  problems, then there i s much t o be gained from f u l l i d e n t i t y w i t h the b a s i c  discipline.  C o n t r i b u t i n g to the American view i s the circumstance t h a t the e a r l y use o f men t r a i n e d I n the b a s i c s c i e n c e s i n F o r e s t Service research,  o f t e n as experiment s t a t i o n d i r e c t o r s , which  received favourable p a r t i c u l a r l y well  comment from Chalk ( 4 5 ) ,  (164).  d i d not work out  Munns a t t r i b u t e d t h i s more t o l a c k  of s k i l l i n t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n than t o l a c k o f a f o r e s t r y background, and considered  t h a t there was a r e a l p l a c e f o r such  men i n the present-day American r e s e a r c h Current  structure.  American emphasis on b a s i c or d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s o f  c a u s a l f a c t o r s may be b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d . t r i b u t e to t h i s accent.  C e r t a i n f a c t o r s con-  I n p a r t i t r e s u l t s from a f e e l i n g o f  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the r e s u l t s o f past ad hoc r e s e a r c h i n g ,  93.  i n p a r t from the c u r r e n t need f o r r e s e a r c h .  i n t e n s e n a t i o n a l consciousness o f t h e  But there a r e other  contributory factors.  There i s the absence o f a t r a i n e d , d i s t i n c t , making d i f f i c u l t  the conduct o f the l a r g e - s c a l e e x t e n s i v e  grams t h a t a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r success i n f i e l d The  pattern of f o r e s t r y education  tending  subordinate cadre,  experimentation.  may a l s o c o n t r i b u t e ,  often  towards v o c a t i o n a l emphasis a t the undergraduate  w i t h subsequent s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n the u n d e r l y i n g ences a t the post-graduate stage, American r e s e a r c h  pro-  forest  level sci-  from which most present-day  f o r e s t e r s a r e drawn, and a l e s s e r emphasis  on s i l v i c u l t u r e throughout.  Other c o n t r i b u t o r y f a c t o r s a r e  the absence o f a t r a d i t i o n o f c u l t u r a l f o r e s t r y and o f r u r a l good husbandry, and hence a l e s s e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f b a s i c  silvi-  c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f f o r e s t r y r o u t i n e and part-and-parcel  o f day-to-day f o r e s t r y .  mate o f o p i n i o n t h a t a t t a c h e s enquiry  alongside  There i s a l s o the circum-  and h i g h l y developed r e s e a r c h  effort  a much lower l e v e l o f p r a c t i c e and a g r e a t e r  t i o n of research. and  g r e a t e r p r e s t i g e t o fundamental  than t o a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h .  stance o f an e x t e n s i v e  And, p o s s i b l y , a c l i -  staff  isola-  The g r e a t e r use o f s p e c i a l i s t s i n a ' l i n e  p a t t e r n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n r a t h e r than the t r a d i t i o n a l  'generalist' professional forest o f f i c e r line structure i s also of s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t may be q u e r i e d whether, i n f a c t , a r e a l i s t i c program o f applied f i e l d research stimulus  can p r o g r e s s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y without the  o f urgent s i l v i c u l t u r a l problems a r i s i n g i n the course  of day-to-day management, and o f d i r e c t concern t o the m a j o r i t y of the f i e l d  s t a f f or whether the r e s u l t s o f ad hoc r e s e a r c h  94.  can be a p p l i e d s u c c e s s f u l l y i n the absence o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s who are p r i m a r i l y s i l v i c u l t u r i s t s and w i t h an i n t i m a t e knowledge o f l o c a l conditions.  These l a s t two requirements  a r e necessary  f o r the d i s c e r n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n o f a p p l i e d f i n d i n g s .  Perhaps  the l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s i l v i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e has l e d the American f o r e s t r y graduate w i t h b i o l o g i c p o t e n t i a l t o graduate study i n the a n c i l l a r y and u n d e r l y i n g f i e l d s , thus r e s u l t i n g i n the e x t e n s i o n o f the s u b j e c t a r e a and the development o f d i s t i n c t f o r e s t r y connections i n what a r e more a c c u r a t e l y d i s t i n c t disciplines. The  emphasis a t t a c h e d t o f o r m a l post-graduate  qualification  i n present-day American r e s e a r c h , and i t s m a t e r i a l rewards, doubtless c o n t r i b u t e .  The s t a n d i n g o f r e s e a r c h groups i s o f t e n  equated w i t h the p r o p o r t i o n o f graduates qualification.  o f h i g h e r academic  K a u f e r t and Cummings (132) used t h i s  f o r the e v a l u a t i o n o f agency r e s e a r c h .  criterion  I m p l i c i t i s the sugges-  t i o n t h a t the h i g h e r the f o r m a l s t a n d i n g the b e t t e r the r e s e a r c h . While  o f substance  i n the assessment of a fundamental r e s e a r c h  program t h e r e i s l i t t l e evidence t o suggest t h a t the Ph.D. d i s t i n c t i o n makes s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h a t the t e c h n o l o g i c a l l e v e l i f the i n i t i a l degree t r a i n i n g has been soundly based.  Indeed, the deep p e n e t r a t i o n , u s u a l l y  implicit  i n d o c t o r a l study, may develop q u a l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s u n s u l t e d t o r e s e a r c h o f t h i s nature, e s p e c i a l l y i f undertaken p e r i e n c e i n the f i e l d . post-graduate  b e f o r e ex-  Zivnuska, while a c c e p t i n g the value o f  t r a i n i n g , has spoken a g a i n s t "making a f e t i s h o f  the Ph.D." and has suggested  t h a t a man w i t h experience would  b e n e f i t more from study planned  s o l e l y i n terms o f h i s p a r t i c u l a r  95-  i n t e r e s t s " r a t h e r than the minimal accomplishment o f the somewhat a r b i t r a r y requirements  o f a degree program."  However, Stone ( 1 9 8 ) b e l i e v e s t h a t f o r m a l academic t r a i n i n g cannot be a u t o m a t i c a l l y equated with m o t i v a t i o n t o b a s i c r e s e a r c h f o r a l l men with the same academic degree have not been exposed t o the same e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e .  He c o n s i d e r e d  t h a t i n c l i n a t i o n towards b a s i c o r a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h i s i n f l u e n c e d r a t h e r by the s c h o o l . " I t may be apparent a t the b a c h e l o r , master, o r d o c t o r a l l e v e l and r e f l e c t s depth o f t r a i n i n g through study o f a b a s i c d i s c i p l i n e as compared w i t h breadth through study o f s i l v i c u l t u r e o r ecology." In B r i t i s h f o r e s t r y the r e c r u i t m e n t  even o f some p r a c t i -  t i o n e r s from the ranks o f pure s c i e n c e has been advocated, such men t o undergo a p e r i o d o f post-graduate ment.  U n t i l comparatively  training after  r e c e n t years t h i s was p r a c t i c e d more  e s p e c i a l l y i n r e c r u i t m e n t t o I n d i a n , and t o a l e s s e r colonial forestry.  recruit-  extent,  There has been some d i v i s i o n o f o p i n i o n .  Champion ( 4 9 ) saw c o n s i d e r a b l e b e n e f i t t o a f o r e s t s e r v i c e i n r e c r u i t i n g a p r o p o r t i o n o f s c i e n c e graduates and p r o v i d i n g f a c i l i t i e s t o take a f o r e s t r y degree i n a reduced  period  (conse-  quent on the p r i o r p o s s e s s i o n o f the p r e - f o r e s t r y s c i e n t i f i c qualifications), " . . . . t h i s element has proved v a l u a b l e as p r o v i d i n g a f i e l d o f p o s t i n g t o the t e c h n o l o g i c a l s p e c i a l i s t posts such as s i l v i c u l t u r i s t s , u t i l i z a t i o n o f f i c e r s , e t c . , and to the unforeseen odd t a s k s f o r which i t i s not j u s t i f i a b l e o r f e a s i b l e t o c a l l i n the high-power s p e c i a l i s t s and o t h e r s , w i t h whom they have more i n common through their fuller training." Weir ( 2 2 1 ) c o n t e s t e d t h i s view, " — the f o r e s t r y graduate i s b e s t q u a l i f i e d t o undertake t h i s type o f work, p r o v i d e d emphasis i s l a i d on the  96.  n e c e s s i t y of i n c l u d i n g on a pure s c i e n c e standard the r e l a t i v e a s p e c t s of pure s c i e n c e as r e l a t e d t o f o r e s t r y , and not t r e a t i n g the pure s c i e n c e s u b j e c t s as o n l y needi n g a watered down s c i e n c e course good enough f o r f o r e s t r y students." While i n b a s i c r e s e a r c h a knowledge of s c i e n c e w i l l  almost  always be of g r e a t e r importance than a knowledge of t e c h n i c a l f o r e s t r y , i n a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h i t i s important  t h a t the  g a t o r has a sound knowledge of f o r e s t r y p r a c t i c e .  investi-  Stoate  (28)  s t r e s s e d t h a t b e f o r e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n there must be a broad  fun-  damental t r a i n i n g i n f o r e s t r y which cannot be r e p l a c e d by  train-  i n g i n the b a s i c s c i e n c e s or i n any other p r o f e s s i o n . Of course much depends on what i s c o n s i d e r e d to c o n s t i t u t e adequate p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g .  I t i s desirable that i t i n -  clude c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis on s c i e n c e as a f o u n d a t i o n f o r subsequent i n s t r u c t i o n i n f o r e s t r y .  Further essential require-  ments f o r r e s e a r c h are t r a i n i n g i n f i e l d experiment i n c l u d i n g d e s i g n and a n a l y s i s of experiments,  techniques,  recording pro-  cedures, and a p e r i o d of p r a c t i c a l experience of r e s e a r c h methods a t a r e s e a r c h e s t a b l i s h m e n t .  The  importance of ecology i n  the t r a i n i n g of r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r s has o f t e n been s t r e s s e d , among o t h e r s by Mooney, from I n d i a , and E g g l i n g , from Uganda Eggling  (28).  said,  " S i l v i c u l t u r e has been d e f i n e d as a p p l i e d ecology, and one of the mistakes which has been made i n the past has been t o appoint to s i l v i c u l t u r i s t p o s t s men who have o n l y the s k e t c h i e s t Ideas of  ecology."  I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n concern i s not p r i m a r i l y i n r e g a r d t o the techniques of the p r o f e s s i o n a l e c o l o g i s t , but i n the proach t o the study of the t o t a l environment. of the e c o l o g i c a l viewpoint  cannot be  The  ap-  importance  overestimated.  97. "A g r e a t many problems, and indeed most of those i n v o l v i n g the c o n s e r v a t i o n of b i o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s g r e a t l y over-reach the l i m i t s of any one f i e l d of speci a l i z a t i o n " ... . " I t i s o n l y through s y n t h e s i s t h a t specialized studies acquire t h e i r true significance."(65) Daubenmire's views (65)  i n r e g a r d to the t r a i n i n g o f e c o l -  o g i s t s are o p p o s i t e to the t r a i n i n g of  silviculturists,  "... t h i s r o l e c a l l s f o r broad t r a i n i n g and experi e n c e , and an understanding of d e t a i l s without preoccup a t i o n w i t h any one of them." D e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the content of p r o f e s s i o n a l  for-  e s t r y t r a i n i n g l i e s o u t s i d e the scope of the present d i s c u s s i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s some r e f e r e n c e i s d e s i r a b l e .  There i s an  obvious  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g of r e s e a r c h s t a f f . P r i m a r i l y the a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h e r must be a sound f o r e s t e r .  For  f o r e s t r y e d u c a t i o n to be of r e a l value as t r a i n i n g f o r r e s e a r c h , it  i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t i t does not c o n s i s t merely  and memory t r a i n i n g .  of v o c a t i o n a l  Emphasis i s r e q u i r e d on c r i t i c a l under-  s t a n d i n g r a t h e r than t r a i n i n g f o r p r a c t i c e , and the should not f o l l o w too narrow a v o c a t i o n a l p a t h . must be a t the level.  course  Obviously, i t  ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' r a t h e r than the ' t e c h n i c i a n '  The aim, the i n c u l c a t i n g of h a b i t s of r e a s o n i n g  from  f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s r a t h e r than accumulation of f a c t u a l knowledge. Chalk's  (45)  comments are s t i l l  topical,  " F o r e s t r y e d u c a t i o n appears to have reached a stage when two d i s t i n c t trends are b e g i n n i n g to emerge. On the one hand t h e r e i s a tendency to i n c r e a s e the amount of p u r e l y t e c h n i c a l knowledge so t h a t the f o r e s t e r s h a l l be armed a t a l l p o i n t s with a ready made s o l u t i o n to every problem, while on the other there i s a tendency to bel i t t l e the t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s as of c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e value except as a means to an end, the b a s i c o b j e c t bei n g to teach men to draw r e l i a b l e c o n c l u s i o n s from t h e i r own o b s e r v a t i o n s . T h i s seems to be the e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r ence between t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n . I t may be p o s s i b l e , perhaps, to combine the advantages of both methods^, but o n l y by conscious e f f o r t and a c l e a r knowledge of the r e s p e c t i v e advantages and disadvantages.  98. The " t e c h n i c a l " type o f t r a i n i n g has one b i g advantage, t h a t i t i n c r e a s e s the chance of a f o r e s t r y a p p o i n t ment at the end of the course the s e l e c t i o n of men f o r posts i n the s e r v i c e s i s bound to be b i a s e d i n f a v o u r of the man who can c a r r y out h i s f i r s t job most e f f i c i e n t ly, and the " t e c h n i c a l " type o f t r a i n i n g i s p u r p o s e l y devoted to t h i s end. The weakness.... o n l y becomes e v i dent i n the l a t e r stages of a man's c a r e e r , when he has to use h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e and draw on h i s s c i e n t i f i c knowledge to s o l v e the numerous problems t h a t c o n f r o n t him. Whether a man has r e c e i v e d a " t e c h n i c a l " t r a i n i n g or an e d u c a t i o n he s t i l l l a c k s experience and.has much t o l e a r n a f t e r he has completed h i s courses, and i t i s v e r y much e a s i e r f o r the man with the sound s c i e n t i f i c background to p i c k up t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s d u r i n g h i s s e r v i c e than f o r the man w i t h the t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o i n c r e a s e h i s knowledge o f s c i e n c e . On the whole the " e d u c a t i o n a l " type o f t r a i n i n g seems to be the most d e s i r a b l e . " I n i t i a l l y American f o r e s t r y s c h o o l s were c l o s e l y modelled upon the p a t t e r n of European i n s t i t u t i o n s , w i t h  concentration  upon g e n e r a l b i o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g and the study of f o r e s t management, but t h e r e was  scientific  a g r a d u a l change o f emphasis.  C u r r i c u l a were r e v i s e d g i v i n g more and more a t t e n t i o n t o the  ad-  m i n i s t r a t i v e , economic, and i n d u s t r i a l a s p e c t s , and a much l e s ser  p o r t i o n of the average student's time has been g i v e n to the  b i o l o g i c a l s c i e n c e s and  silviculture.  B a i l e y and Spoehr con-  cluded t h a t , while t h i s v o c a t i o n a l type c u r r i c u l u m might be i n d i s p e n s i b l e t o producing at  the type of p r a c t i t i o n e r most needed  t h a t stage o f f o r e s t r y development, i t was  not adapted to  the t r a i n i n g of the i n v e s t i g a t o r s f o r f o r e s t experiment t h a t were then r e q u i r e d ( 5 ) .  stations,  They proposed c u r r i c u l a  " formulated, i n the f i r s t p l a c e t o enhance the powers of o b s e r v a t i o n , of c r i t i c a l l y a n a l y z i n g cumulative c i r c u m s t a n t i a l evidence and of a c c u r a t e l y i n t e r p r e t i n g s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s , and i n the second p l a c e , to g i v e sound, well-rounded t r a i n i n g i n g e n e r a l s c i e n c e , a broad comprehension o f f o r e s t r y , and p a r t i c u l a r l y of the b i o l o g y o f the f o r e s t , and an adequate r e a d i n g knowledge of modern l a n guages."  99. They a d v i s e d a g a i n s t premature s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , and recommended t h a t c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n s p e c i a l f i e l d s o f s c i e n c e o r f o r e s t r y be d e f e r r e d t o the post-graduate phase, and then pursued where those  s u b j e c t s a r e most b r o a d l y and thoroughly  These c o n c l u s i o n s had g r e a t impact b u t l i t t l e effect.  developed.  long-term  The t r e n d i n American e d u c a t i o n has been towards t h e  maintenance o f the t e c h n i c a l o r v o c a t i o n a l nature  o f the f i r s t  degree w i t h a measure o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n through the e l e c t i v e course  system, and with emphasis on making up d e f i c i e n c i e s i n  the s c i e n c e s a t the graduate stage. too complex t o e n t e r i n t o here.  The reasons f o r t h i s a r e  I n p a r t they may be due t o  l a c k o f f a c i l i t i e s f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and hence a need f o r a broader b a s i s o f r e c r u i t m e n t  a t the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l .  C u r r e n t l y there a r e i n d i c a t i o n s o f a r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f educ a t i o n a l aims. F l e t c h e r and McDermott (76) have r e c e n t l y made a p e n e t r a t i n g a n a l y s i s o f the c u r r e n t requirements o f American f o r e s t r e search from the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . by Neam ( 1 6 6 ) .  T h i s study was supplemented  Emphasis i s p l a c e d on the need f o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n  on fundamental b i o l o g i c a l processes  and r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  Although i t may be assumed t h a t an e d u c a t i o n a l program develops t o s u i t the p a r t i c u l a r requirements o f time and p l a c e , and  t h a t the " t e c h n i c a l " and the " s c i e n t i f i c " types o f t r a i n -  i n g have evolved  t o s a t i s f y n a t i o n a l needs, t h e q u e s t i o n i s o f  some importance and F r a n c o i s  1  (87) e v a l u a t i o n i s g i v e n i n d e t a i l ,  " i t should be born i n mind t h a t the a p p l i e d s c i e n c e s and techniques on which t h e treatment and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of f o r e s t s a r e based a r e numerous and v a r i e d and t h a t they themselves a r e based on v a r i o u s pure s c i e n c e s which a r e always i n process o f development and c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g  100. s p e c i a l i z e d and s u b d i v i d e d . No attempt can be made t o g i v e a student a complete and d e t a i l e d knowledge of each of these a p p l i e d s c i e n c e s and t e c h n i q u e s , and s t i l l l e s s of the b a s i c pure s c i e n c e s . o n l y two s o l u t i o n s are p o s s i b l e . D e t a i l e d s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g may be g i v e n i n the techniques concerned and t h e i r p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n without i n s i s t i n g on an understanding o f the s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s and development on which they are founded A l t e r n a t i v e l y , b a s i c t r a i n i n g may be g i v e n which w i l l ena b l e a student to d i s c o v e r h i s problems, to d e f i n e and t o analyze them, and to develop techniques by l o g i c a l r e a s o n i n g from the s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s known to him. He w i l l then be a b l e d u r i n g the course of h i s c a r e e r t o widen h i s knowledge i n any d e s i r e d d i r e c t i o n . I n t h i s case, t r a i n ing w i l l c o n s i s t p a r t i c u l a r l y of g e n e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n as a b a s i s f o r f u t u r e development c o n s i d e r i n g the i n c r e a s i n g s c i e n t i f i c t e c h n i c a l requirements of f o r e s t r y , the wide range of f o r e s t r y a c t i v i t i e s , and the v a r i e t y of p h y s i c a l and human f a c t o r s t h a t w i l l be encountered d u r i n g a f o r e s t r y c a r e e r , i t seems t h a t a g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n might be p r e f e r a b l e . E s p e c i a l l y i t w i l l equip the f o r e s t o f f i c e r f o r the wider aspects of h i s c a r e e r i n r e l a t i o n to the publ i c w e l f a r e and t o economic and i n d u s t r i a l q u e s t i o n s , which are s t e a d i l y assuming g r e a t e r importance i n r e g a r d to f o r e s t r y matters." I n Champion's view (49), e x t e n s i o n of the l e n g t h of ing,  e i t h e r through e x t e n s i o n of a f i r s t - d e g r e e course  train-  or  through graduate t r a i n i n g , i s not the s o l u t i o n to the crowding of  the s y l l a b u s with t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r s .  He b e l i e v e d fragmenta-  t i o n through e a r l y s p e c i a l i z a t i o n a l s o to be u n d e s i r a b l e . the problem e x i s t e d , i t s r o o t was of his to  the t r a i n i n g g i v e n and  Where  the p u r e l y t e c h n i c a l nature  the l a c k of e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e .  o p i n i o n , to add a f u r t h e r year merely to enable be f i l l e d with more t e c h n i c a l data was  a  In  student  worse than u s e l e s s .  N e i t h e r would the a d d i t i o n of a s p e c i a l i z e d y e a r , graduate or undergraduate, f u l f i l l requirements  because i t was  broader  the r e a l need.  ( s c i e n t i f i c ) b a s i s t h a t was  Where t h e r e i s e x c e s s i v e emphasis on  primarily a  •technical'  t h i s has o f t e n r e s u l t e d from attempts to " s e l l "  training,  the p r o f e s s i o n  by p r o v i d i n g the type of t r a i n i n g c o n s i d e r e d necessary  to meet  \  101. the short-term needs o f i n d u s t r y . Brasnett  ( 2 0 ) summarized B r i t i s h thought on f o r e s t r y edu-  c a t i o n when he s t a t e d , "the f u n c t i o n o f the u n i v e r s i t i e s i s not t o t u r n out men who 'know a l l the answers' .... but men who have l e a r n t t o observe and reason, so t h a t they may evolve the t h e o r i e s and techniques o f the f u t u r e . " In the B r i t i s h view, f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n s i l v i c u l t u r e and f o r e s t management there can be no s u b s t i t u t e f o r f a c u l t y memb e r s with e x t e n s i v e f i e l d  experience,  ".... the q u e s t i o n o f t e a c h i n g s t a f f i n s t r u c t i n g bef o r e i t has p r a c t i c a l experience f o r the p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s o f f o r e s t r y , the p r a c t i c a l experience i s o f t r e mendous value i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the academic t r a i n i n g . " Champion, i n 2 8 ) . R e s o l u t i o n V I I o f the 5 t h B r i t i s h Empire F o r e s t r y C o n f e r ence i n c l u d e d the c l a u s e : "That f o r e s t r y s c h o o l s should be c r e a t e d and maint a i n e d o n l y under c o n d i t i o n s p r o v i d i n g t h e f u l l - t i m e s e r v i c e s o f an adequate s t a f f with f i e l d experience " There i s a l s o s t r o n g agreement w i t h F r a n c o i s ' c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i n a d d i t i o n i n s t r u c t o r s should broaden t h e i r background through experience  of t h e i r subject i n f o r e i g n countries.  There i s a l s o the view t h a t the r e s e a r c h f o r e s t e r should have p r i o r f i e l d  experience.  Champion ( 2 9 ) s t a t e d t h a t i t was  e s s e n t i a l , and he emphasized e s s e n t i a l r a t h e r than merely imp o r t a n t , t h a t a r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r s h a l l have e s t a b l i s h e d a r e p u t a t i o n f o r h i m s e l f as a man o f p r a c t i c a l  ability.  ".... i n the more fundamental r e s e a r c h work, i t may , w e l l become unnecessary: but when d e a l i n g w i t h the t e c h n o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s , i t i s a p o i n t I t h i n k has a g r e a t d e a l of f o r c e . " Much may depend on the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n .  Harrison  (29)remarked,  102.  "While i t may be d e s i r a b l e f o r the r e s e a r c h man to have a r e p u t a t i o n as a p r a c t i t i o n e r b e f o r e he undertakes r e s e a r c h work i n c o u n t r i e s where s i l v i c u l t u r e i s h i g h l y developed t h i s i s r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t i n Canada because t h e r e i s so l i t t l e of the p r a c t i c e of s i l v i c u l t u r e . " N e v e r t h e l e s s , March ( 2 9 ) , from the viewpoint  of Jamaica, s t r o n g l y advocated,  of the p r a c t i c i n g f o r e s t e r , the  i n a l l r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s of a nucleus i n g a f i e l d background.  inclusion  of o f f i c e r s  possess-  The matter i s not, as H a r r i s o n appeared  t o assume, p r i m a r i l y an emphasis on the value of p r a c t i c a l s i l v i c u l t u r a l experience  as an a i d t o r e s e a r c h , but r a t h e r a  q u e s t i o n of rapprochment w i t h the p r a c t i c i n g  forester.  In f i e l d r e s e a r c h , i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i s of c o n s i d e r a b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e , e s p e c i a l l y f o r r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r s who i s o l a t i o n or i n small u n i t s .  w i l l work i n  S i g n i f i c a n t advantages w i l l  accrue  from p e r i o d s of secondment or detachment to e s t a b l i s h e d r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s , f o r the o b s e r v a t i o n of the p r a c t i c a l d e t a i l s of r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n and procedure. t h a t procedures,  Facilities for travel  o r g a n i z a t i o n , and f o r e s t r y techniques may  studied w i l l also r e s u l t i n research b e n e f i t s . be of extended d u r a t i o n or of a comparatively the study o f s p e c i f i c problems.  Such t o u r s  be may  l i m i t e d nature f o r  F o r g r e a t e s t value an  should have gained p r i o r p r a c t i c a l experience  so  officer  i n his field,  he t r a v e l s as a s p e c i a l i s t r a t h e r than as a t r a i n e e , and  thus  can r e -  l a t e what he sees to the c o n d i t i o n s under which he w i l l work on returning to  duty.  C o u n t r i e s I n r e g i o n s d i s t a n t from the European c e n t r e s o f c l a s s i c a l f o r e s t r y , and where f o r e s t r y i s p r a c t i c e d under v e r y d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s , as f o r example those of A u s t r a l i a ,  Africa,  and A s i a , a t t a c h c o n s i d e r a b l e importance to European t o u r i n g f o r  103 t h e i r f o r e s t r y s t a f f s , both a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and r e s e a r c h . perhaps arguable  t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e b e n e f i t s might have accrued  t o North American f o r e s t r y through the development o f a tradition.  It i s  similar  In r e c e n t years t o u r s organized through c e r t a i n of  the f o r e s t r y s c h o o l s , p r i n c i p a l l y f o r f o r e s t e r s of s t a n d i n g , i n d i c a t e an I n c r e a s i n g awareness of the v a l u e s of such  experience.  I n l i k e manner the i n c r e a s i n g number o f European f o r e s t e r s v i s i t i n g North America i n d i c a t e s an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the value of  study  of the n a t u r a l f o r e s t . A u s e f u l i n n o v a t i o n have been i n c r e a s e d I n t e r e s t i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l meetings. transportation.  These are f a c i l i t a t e d by Increased Apart from the l a r g e i n t e r n a t i o n a l  ease o f world congresses,  s m a l l e r s p e c i a l i s t meetings and t o u r s have p o s i t i v e v a l u e s .  For  the g r e a t e s t r e s e a r c h b e n e f i t s i t i s very d e s i r a b l e t h a t n a t i o n a l d e l e g a t i o n s to such meetings Include p r a c t i c i n g r e s e a r c h and are not c o n f i n e d e x c l u s i v e l y t o more s e n i o r h i g h officers.  officers  ranking  The meetings o f the v a r i o u s groups sponsored by  Food and A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n and  the  the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union of  F o r e s t Research O r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o v i d e a v a l u a b l e means o f extendi n g the experience  of research s t a f f .  Such meetings as the Food  and A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n sponsored Research Workers Seminar i n 1956  at Dehra Dun,  I n d i a , the meetings of the s p e c i a l i z e d i n -  t e r n a t i o n a l commissions, and the Range Management Seminars of the American I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o - o p e r a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , attended  by  l a n d managers from Near E a s t and South west A s i a n n a t i o n s , have great b e n e f i t s .  The Dehra Dun meeting was  pants from nine c o u n t r i e s . methods.  Treatment was  A t t e n t i o n was  from the viewpoint  attended by  partici-  d i r e c t e d to research o f the  practicing  f o r e s t r e s e a r c h worker and the methods d i s c u s s e d were chosen  104. s p e c i f i c a l l y to meet the every day requirements of h i s work. Seminar leaders were research men  drawn from a number of d i f -  ferent countries. So f a r , attention has been directed to the t r a i n i n g of the specialized research o f f i c e r .  But of necessity, and desirably,  a considerable body of i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l work, both formal and i n formal, must perforce continue to be done by the ordinary  non-  s p e c i a l i s t p r a c t i c i n g f o r e s t e r . A l l f o r e s t o f f i c e r s should be exposed to elementary i n s t r u c t i o n i n research methods and recordkeeping, to enable them to make simple experiments.  This w i l l  reduce the p o s s i b i l i t y of erroneous conclusions, such as have occurred i n the past, from well-meaning but poorly conducted experimentation.  There has been much wasted endeavour and  resources  i n attempted research by enthusiastic but untrained i n d i v i d u a l s that could be obviated by simple i n s t r u c t i o n during i n i t i a l training. The use of s p e c i a l i s t  personnel  The s p e c i a l i s t has long been accepted i n f i e l d s a n c i l l a r y to s i l v i c u l t u r e and forest management.  In technology  there  was  slower recognition of the need f o r foresters s p e c i a l l y q u a l i f i e d by t r a i n i n g or experience f o r research. Research was  considered as part of the function of the  p r a c t i c i n g f o r e s t e r , and the e a r l i e r p o l i c y of the U.S.  Forest  Service of encouraging every f o r e s t e r to make h i s own experiments (45) was  common to most administrative agencies.  subjects as systematic botany, wood anatomy, timber  Such  testing,  etc. demanded the services of a s p e c i a l i s t , but i n f o r e s t r y sensu s t r i c t a the ordinary forest o f f i c e r was the s p e c i a l i s t .  Those who  considered to be  advocated research by the executive  105  f o r e s t e r claimed t h a t he c o u l d b e s t formulate t h a t h i s experience  the problems,  and  and o b s e r v a t i o n s i n the f o r e s t p r o v i d e d  the  b e s t c l u e s to t h e i r s o l u t i o n .  Even i n 1937  i t was  i n most p a r t s of the B r i t i s h Commonwealth i t was  said  (45) t h a t  more u s u a l f o r  an a d m i n i s t r a t o r to d i r e c t r e s e a r c h than f o r a s c i e n t i s t undertake a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . at  In B r i t i s h Columbia f i r s t  to  attempts  r e s e a r c h took the form of spasmodic i n v e s t i g a t i o n s by  var-  i o u s o f f i c e r s a t t a c h e d to the s t a f f s of d i s t r i c t f o r e s t e r s (42). Pressure of r o u t i n e d u t i e s and  l a c k of d i r e c t i o n m i t i g a t e d  a g a i n s t any very t a n g i b l e r e s u l t s .  During  t h i s p e r i o d i t was  f r e q u e n t l y not a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t , " F o r e s t r e s e a r c h i s a h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l and s p e c i a l i z e d s u b j e c t which should be c a r r i e d out wherever poss i b l e by h i g h l y t r a i n e d r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r s . " (30) Only with the development of modern experimental niques and  i n c r e a s e d complexity  tech-  i n methodology has t h e r e been  more g e n e r a l r e c o g n i t i o n of the need f o r s p e c i a l r e s e a r c h and r e l i a n c e on the p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r . (105) have w r i t t e n i n r e g a r d t o t r o p i c a l  skills  As H a i g e t a l  forestry,  "Advances have been the b e s t and most s a t i s f a c t o r y where.good r e s e a r c h agencies have been a v a i l a b l e ; the poorest where such agencies do not e x i s t or are not strong." The  f u l l - t i m e r e s e a r c h appointment i s now  almost common-  p l a c e , but i t i s s t i l l not always a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t the needs of r e s e a r c h , e s p e c i a l l y i n a small department where the i s thrown on h i s own  r e s o u r c e s , cannot o f t e n be met  researcher merely by  r e l e a s i n g a f o r e s t e r from other d u t i e s and g a z e t t i n g him as a research o f f i c e r . a man  The  award of a r e s e a r c h t i t l e does not  to undertake i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l work, nor does the  equip  possession  106  of a p t i t u d e a l o n e . Nevertheless  i t may  be emphasized t h a t although  special-  i s t s are r e q u i r e d f o r the s a t i s f a c t o r y conduct of i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l work, t h i s does not n e c e s s a r i l y imply narrow s p e c i a l ization.  S p e c i a l i z a t i o n enables a g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n on  i n d i v i d u a l f i e l d s but there i s a r i s k of an equal degree of isolation.  I n f o r e s t r y the stage has r a r e l y been reached  permits of the "abandonment of the g e n e r a l view.  which  Especially i n  the e a r l y stages of r e s e a r c h , i n v e s t i g a t o r s of u n u s u a l l y v i s i o n are r e q u i r e d i n the p i o n e e r t a s k of d e v e l o p i n g  broad  sound  and f a r - r e a c h i n g programs. Subordinate  s t a f f i n the r e s e a r c h s t r u c t u r e  In most f o r e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s t h e r e a r e , i n p r i n c i p l e , two  t r a i n e d cadres, termed by F r a n c o i s (87)  ordinate" .  "sub-  North American f o r e s t r y i s almost unique i n not  making t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n except p r o f e s s i o n a l ranger  f o r the l i m i t e d use of a  sub-  s t a f f i n c e r t a i n f o r e s t s e r v i c e s , more  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Canada.  Where such men  are employed,  r o l e i s l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d t o p r o t e c t i o n and tration.  " s u p e r i o r " and  district  their adminis-  In the U n i t e d S t a t e s the p i o n e e r f o r e s t ranger  of  e a r l i e r times has been r e p l a c e d , not by a v o c a t i o n a l l y t r a i n e d man  but by the u n i v e r s i t y graduate.  I n i n d u s t r y , the man  with  f o r m a l v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i s almost unknown. In a l l s e r v i c e s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , there a r e s u p e r i o r and ordinate s t a f f .  The  former i n c l u d e s p e r s o n n e l  sub-  i n charge of r e -  search and those e n t r u s t e d w i t h the e l a b o r a t i o n of f o r e s t  pol-  i c i e s a t whatever l e v e l necessary.  has  The  subordinate  no r e s p o n s i b i T i t i e s i n r e g a r d to p o l i c y , but  staff  simply undertakes  107  r o u t i n e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  c a r r i e s out p r e s c r i b e d  operations  on the ground i n accordance w i t h g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n s Where there are two  (87).  d i s t i n c t cadres each r e c e i v e s a d i f f e r e n t  type of t r a i n i n g , the one on b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s , and  a t u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l w i t h emphasis the other o f a v o c a t i o n a l nature  w i t h emphasis on f i e l d techniques.  Francois r e f l e c t s  general  o p i n i o n when he emphasizes t h a t a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n must be maintained between the assignments proper to each, and one  that  of the e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r e f f i c i e n t f o r e s t admin-  i s t r a t i o n i s t h a t s u p e r i o r s t a f f w i l l not be a s s i g n e d t h a t can be done by  subordinate s t a f f , nor  should  work  their  train-  i n g be d i r e c t e d to a c q u i r i n g the v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y f o r the s u c c e s s f u l conduct of such work.  It i s generally  ac-  cepted t h a t each cadre should be t r a i n e d f o r the l e v e l of work i t w i l l undertake and  f o r no o t h e r .  Where v o c a t i o n a l l y t r a i n e d  f o r e s t e r s form an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of the f o r e s t r y s t r u c t u r e i t i s recognized  t h a t these men  are h i g h l y s k i l l e d , and have a  d i s t i n c t i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l f u n c t i o n , and,  as such, r e q u i r e  a  d i s t i n c t i v e t r a i n i n g which i s not merely a watered-down v e r s i o n of the u n i v e r s i t y program.  The  number of graduates from  v o c a t i o n a l schools g r e a t l y outnumber those from the  univer-  sities.  t h e i r grad-  The  s t a t u s of the two  uates i s c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and  types of schools and  accepted, g i v i n g s t a b i l i t y  order t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p r o f e s s i o n a l and forestry  and  vocational  personnel.  In North America these p r i n c i p l e s have not yet been adopted and many t a s k s which elsewhere would be w i t h i n  the  sphere of Jthe v o c a t i o n a l l y t r a i n e d f o r e s t e r are undertaken by  108  the u n i v e r s i t y man, who thus combines the f u n c t i o n s o f both cadres. With more i n t e n s i v e working the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f u s i n g voc a t i o n a l l y t r a i n e d men i s r e c e i v i n g i n c r e a s e d recent  recognition.  In  times a number o f papers have appeared I n the American  p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e t h a t a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f the changing viewpoint ( 6 0 , 6 , 1 0 7 , 6 7 , 6 5 , 1 9 6 ) .  These views agree very c l o s e l y  with p r a c t i c e s o u t s i d e North America, a l t h o u g h i n some  instances  i t would seem t h a t a t e c h n i c i a n i s envisaged o f r a t h e r  lower  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y than the v o c a t i o n a l o r working f o r e s t e r opera t i n g i n other c o u n t r i e s .  Questions o f p r o f e s s i o n a l  t i o n exercise considerable  thought i n present-day American  forestry.  To a c o n s i d e r a b l e  extent  recogni-  this also i s related to  the nature o f the d u t i e s t h a t f a l l t o the l o t o f the u n i v e r sity  graduate. I t i s t o be a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t as North American f o r e s t  management becomes more i n t e n s i v e and f o r e s t r y more mature there w i l l be i n c r e a s i n g a p p r e c i a t i o n o f these advantages and t h a t the present  wasteful  use o f graduate p o t e n t i a l w i l l  way t o a s t r u c t u r e more a k i n t o t h a t elsewhere. time comes many o f the present  give  when t h i s  day c u r r i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s o f  the u n i v e r s i t y f o r e s t r y schools w i l l be r e s o l v e d and a l s o questions  of professional recognition.  Canadian p r a c t i c e i s perhaps a compromise between the two s t a f f i n g patterns,  t r a d i t i o n a l and American.  But there i s a  R e c e n t l y a c t i o n has been taken w i t h i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s F o r e s t S e r v i c e t o provide f o r an establishment o f three v o c a t i o n a l l y t r a i n e d t e c h n i c i a n s t o each u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n e d f o r e s t e r . [ H T L . S h i r l e y . P e r s o n a l communication i 9 6 0 ) .  109 n o t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between c o n t i n u i n g departmental p r a c t i c e , w i t h o n l y minor use o f v o c a t i o n a l l y t r a i n e d men, and the supp o r t v o i c e d by the Canadian and B r i t i s h Columbian for  delegates  the p r i n c i p l e of d u a l - l e v e l s t a f f i n g and education,  when  t h i s has been d i s c u s s e d a t v a r i o u s B r i t i s h Commonwealth F o r e s t r y Conferences.  Doubtless,  crepancy i s the constant mean completely  a f a c t o r i n t h i s apparent  difficulty  dis-  of d e f i n i t i o n , terms may  d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t o men from d i f f e r e n t en-  vironments, thus a Canadian delegate may c o n s i d e r t h a t such a s i t u a t i o n i s met by the very l i m i t e d amount o f s u b - p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n Canadian government f o r e s t r y . Where the v o c a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e has been f u l l y men, known v a r i o u s l y as t e c h n i c i a n s , rangers,  developed,  foresters, f i e l d  a s s i s t a n t s , e t c . , and t r a i n e d i n v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s , a r e f r e q u e n t l y employed e x t e n s i v e l y i n r e s e a r c h .  Such s t a f f develop  s p e c i a l i s t s k i l l s and commonly have c o n s i d e r a b l e They s t a f f f i e l d  s t a t i o n s , have f u l l  responsibility.  charge o f r e s e a r c h nur-  s e r i e s o r a r b o r e t a , o r a r e employed as a s s i s t a n t s to the r e search o f f i c e r s .  Emphasis i s on the team approach t o i n v e s t i -  g a t i o n r a t h e r than on i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c r e s e a r c h i n g .  T h i s team  concept i s not one o f a group o f s p e c i a l i s t s a t work on a common problem under a r e s e a r c h l e a d e r , but r a t h e r of a r e search o f f i c e r with an adequate s u p p o r t i n g programs o f f i e l d experimentation comparatively  staff.  Very l a r g e  thus a r e p o s s i b l e , with a  l i m i t e d s t a f f o f u n i v e r s i t y graduates.  Forest  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a r e dependent on the smooth working o f a group of people,  each with h i s own f u n c t i o n , and t r a i n e d t o t h a t  l e v e l , and competent t o undertake h i s p a r t o f the t a s k , r a t h e r  110  than on the e f f o r t s of i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h  officers.  I n the U n i t e d Kingdom c o n s i d e r a b l e importance has been a t t a c h e d t o t h i s aspect and an o f f i c i a l  statement  notes,  " I t has been found t h a t the progress and success of the work depend very c o n s i d e r a b l y on the maintenance o f a proper balance between the graduate s t a f f p l a n n i n g and a n a l y z i n g experiments and the r e s e a r c h f o r e s t e r s respons i b l e f o r t h e i r l a y o u t , s u p e r v i s i o n and assessment i n the f i e l d . There i s no doubt t h a t the e x i s t e n c e of t h i s body of s k i l l e d f o r e s t e r s p r o v i d e s a v i t a l l i n k i n f o r e s t r e s e a r c h , which i s l a c k i n g , or a t any r a t e i n s u f f i c i e n t , i n some f o r e s t r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s , even i n c o u n t r i e s where more money i s a v a i l a b l e . " (231) In B r i t i s h Columbia, although  o n l y l i m i t e d use has been  made of f i e l d a s s i s t a n c e to the graduate r e s e a r c h f o r e s t e r , and t h i s by men  without  f o r m a l t r a i n i n g , the employment o f  t h i s element has been advocated, " F i e l d r e s e a r c h , to a g r e a t e x t e n t , c o n s i s t s of r o u t i n e procedures, such as experiment l a y o u t , t r e a t ments, assessments, r e c o r d i n g , and c o m p i l a t i o n of- materi a l , a l l o f which can be accomplished adequately by a s s i s t a n t s and t e c h n i c i a n s under s u p e r v i s i o n . " ( S p i l s b u r y , i n 194) Where t h e r e I s an adequate s u p p o r t i n g s t a f f the p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r i s concerned w i t h the p l a n n i n g and o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , the p r e p a r a t i o n o f p r o j e c t a n a l y s e s and experiment working p l a n s , and w i t h  the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s , r a t h e r than w i t h the a c t u a l conduct of the o f t e n time-consuming and r o u t i n e work of experiment out, maintenance, and assessment.  lay-  Thus he can undertake a more  extended program o f r e s e a r c h w i t h a g r e a t e r number of a c t i v e p r o j e c t s a t any one  time.  Among h i s f u n c t i o n s i s to use h i s  s p e c i a l i s t s k i l l s and experience s k i l l s and vantage,  t o employ the more p r a c t i c a l  t r a i n i n g of h i s r e s e a r c h f o r e s t e r s to the b e s t  ad-  upon t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r d e t a i l e d and a c c u r a t e work  111. depends the value o f the i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d . the c a l i b r e of the s t a f f  Much depends on  recruited.  There i s much t o be s a i d f o r a f a i r l y f r e q u e n t of  turn-over  s t a f f a t the n o n - s p e c i a l i s t j u n i o r f i e l d - a s s i s t a n t  Coming d i r e c t l y t o r e s e a r c h a f t e r completion ing,  level.  of formal  train-  these men may be employed on such r o u t i n e t a s k s as sample  p l o t and n u r s e r y assessment and as a s s i s t a n t s t o the r e s e a r c h foresters.  O f t e n these d u t i e s may i n v o l v e a c o n s i d e r a b l e a-  mount o f t r a v e l l i n g and with extended p e r i o d s away from the duty s t a t i o n s .  A f t e r perhaps t h r e e y e a r s , u n l e s s they  a s t r o n g d e s i r e t o remain, and a r e c o n s i d e r e d  express  suitable f o r  more s p e c i a l i z e d d u t i e s , these men a r e t r a n s f e r r e d t o the territorial staff. his  I n t h i s way a man i s not r e t a i n e d a f t e r  enthusiasm has begun t o wane o r he has become bored  with  the o f t e n r o u t i n e d u t i e s o f d e t a i l e d assessment, and when f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s may be o f I n c r e a s i n g importance.  The  short-term view might be t h a t such men a r e l o s t t o r e s e a r c h a t a stage when they a r e becoming o f r e a l value, and t h e r e might be a temptation  t o r e t a i n an experienced man r a t h e r than  a new and u n t r a i n e d r e c r u i t . it  Nevertheless  take  i n the l o n g term,  i s t o the advantage o f both the r e s e a r c h branch and the  s e r v i c e g e n e r a l l y f o r t h i s t u r n - o v e r t o take p l a c e .  The s e r -  v i c e b e n e f i t s from the f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g which the man has obt a i n e d and from the h a b i t s o f a c c u r a c y which have been i n c u l c a t e d , while the r e s e a r c h branch gains from the understanding and  c o o p e r a t i o n o f ex-research personnel  i n the f i e l d .  I n f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s the volume o f work t h a t can be d i r e c t l y c o n t r o l l e d by one r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r i s i n d i r e c t  112.  r e l a t i o n s h i p to the number of a s s i s t a n t s of grade t h a t he has  It  working w i t h him.  sub-professional  i s generally  overlooked  t h a t every permanent sample p l o t or experiment means a demand on the time of s t a f f , and  every new  future  a r e a i n which i n -  v e s t i g a t i o n s are i n i t i a t e d means l o s s of time i n t r a v e l l i n g (Experimental Manual of the I n d i a n S i l v i c u l t u r a l Research Code, 1931).  To a c o n s i d e r a b l e  research  i s the p r o v i s i o n of subordinate s t a f f f o r without  such a s s i s t a n c e l y and out  extent the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n such  the r e s e a r c h  the best use  o f f i c e r cannot operate  i s not made of h i s time and  efficient-  skills,  with-  the p r o v i s i o n of an adequate s t a f f of f i e l d a s s i s t a n t s  p o i n t i s e a r l y reached when r e s e a r c h o f t e n c u r t a i l e d , w i t h the  has  to be  the  concentrated  c e s s a t i o n of the i n i t i a t i o n of  and  new  I n v e s t i g a t i o n s because o f the demands of e x i s t i n g p r o j e c t s f o r r o u t i n e work. To be  successful, f i e l d  on a s u f f i c i e n t l y e x t e n s i v e ure  e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n must be scale.  Where t h e r e has been  to o b t a i n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s from r e s e a r c h  i t has  o f t e n r e s u l t e d from i n s u f f i c i e n t  of c o n d i t i o n s  encountered.  a v a i l a b i l i t y of s t a f f .  rarely  fail-  of t h i s nature  sampling of the  range  T h i s , i n t u r n , i s dependent on  the  When there i s inadequate p r o v i s i o n o f  subordinate s t a f f i n the r e s e a r c h shown t h a t an e x t e n s i v e  conducted  s t r u c t u r e , experience  program of f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n  has can  succeed.  The  p r o v i s i o n of s k i l l e d a s s i s t a n c e  tance i n c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of b a s i c and though here a l s o i n v e s t i g a t i o n may small team of -trained a s s i s t a n t s .  i s o f l e s s e r impor-  observational  research,  o f t e n be f a c i l i t a t e d by  a  113. In d i s t r i c t administration  i t i s commonly accepted  that  a p r o f e s s i o n a l o f f i c e r operates most e f f i c i e n t l y when superv i s i n g the a c t i v i t i e s of between s i x and  t e n subordinate grades.  Each of these w i l l n o r m a l l y have a t e r r i t o r i a l charge w i t h h i s own  t r a i n e d a s s i s t a n t s and  w i t h f u l l c o n t r o l of h i s own  labor  force. I n a small r e s e a r c h in a larger organization men  may  increase  who  may  f a l l i n t o two  group a s i m i l a r r a t i o may  r e l a t i v e t o the v o c a t i o n a l l y t r a i n e d categories,  i n the f i e l d and  t h e i r area.  those o p e r a t i n g  responsible  Commission, t h i s has  research  officers,  (231).  o f f i c e r and  The  those s t a -  for a l l activities  107  s t a f f i n g pattern T h i s has  British  vocationally trained f o r i s i l l u s t r a t e d by  the  t h r e e graduate o f f i c e r s ,  seven f i e l d p a r t i e s each comprising three or f o u r t r a i n e d f o r e s t e r s (1955  within  a s t a f f of t h i r t y - s i x graduate  supported by  Mensuration S e c t i o n .  staff,  as d i r e c t  To r e v e r t t o the Research Branch of the  Forestry  esters  but  the number of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d  a s s i s t a n t s t o the i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h tioned  apply,  and  vocationally  establishment), a d d i t i o n a l l y , there i s  a small group of f o r e s t e r s engaged i n t e c h n i c a l o f f i c e work, a s s i s t e d by female computor .operators. i b l e and men  may  structure i s f l e x -  be drawn from the f i e l d p a r t i e s f o r work i n  the o f f i c e f o r p e r i o d s of v a r y i n g s t a f f may  The  j o i n the f i e l d  duration,  w h i l e the  parties.  Comparable f i g u r e s f o r some Canadian r e s e a r c h are noted below.  office  agencies  114.  " P r o f e s s i o n a l " and " S u b - p r o f e s s i o n a l " S t a f f Employed by c e r t a i n Canadian Research Agencies (41) i n 1955 Agency  "Professional" i . e . graduate, staff  Research Branch, Federal Forestry Branch Forest Biology Service  "Sub-profes s i o n a l " staff ( d e t a i l s of t r a i n i n g not given)  36  65 149 ( i n c l . 1 t e c h n i c a l l y trained)  D i v i s i o n of F o r e s t Research. Dept. Lands and F o r e s t s , O n t a r i o  17  Research D i v i s i o n , Forest Service, B r i t i s h Columbia  14  83  4 ( i n semit e c h n i c a l work)  Canapcal F o r e s t Research S t a t i o n . Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Paper Co., Quebec  A d d i t i o n a l seasonal  s t a f f may  s t i t u t i o n f o r a r e g u l a r subordinate  sometimes be staff.  engaged .in sub-  This practice  may  appear p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d to c o n d i t i o n s where c l i m a t i c conditions dictate a distinct f i e l d t r a i n i n g and  experience  s u b s t i t u t e f o r experienced  such personnel  special  or o t h e r s may  The  sustained  temporary employment  have s u p e r f i c i a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s but  t h i s cannot r e p l a c e the t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s of the f o r e s t e r ; attempts to use  the  can r a r e l y f u l l y  permanent t e c h n i c i a n s i n a  c o n t i n u i n g program of r e s e a r c h .  of students  Nevertheless  f o r r e s e a r c h i s as d e s i r a b l e at  lower l e v e l as a t the upper and  and  season.  such men  vocational  n e c e s s i t a t e a g r e a t e r mea-  sure of s u p e r v i s i o n on the p a r t of the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f  and  115.  the l o s s of the s p e c i a l i s t s k i l l s o f the working f o r e s t e r . Where f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i s attempted under such d i t i o n s , examination  con-  c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s the l i m i t e d extent o f  the program which can be undertaken i n r e l a t i o n to the number of  r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r s employed and the funds a v a i l a b l e .  Char-  a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , i n the absence of v o c a t i o n a l s t a f f , upon whom the weight of e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n n o r m a l l y f a l l s , f i e l d s t u d i e s take on a more i n t e n s i v e , though more l i m i t e d , nature  with  the ever-present danger of the o p e r a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e o f d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s i n r e g a r d to i n f o r m a t i o n necessary f o r a p r a c t i c a l outcome.  S p i l s b u r y (194) r e c o g n i z e d these  limita-  tions, " A s s i s t a n t s , when t r a i n e d t o c a r r y out such r o u t i n e d u t i e s , would r e l i e v e the p r e s e n t ( B r i t i s h Columbia F o r est S e r v i c e r e s e a r c h ) s t a f f o f much ( r o u t i n e ) work and enable (graduate) f o r e s t e r s both a t head o f f i c e and r e g i o n a l l y to c a r r y out more important d u t i e s and r e search programs." When a subordinate r e s e a r c h s t a f f i s employed, the f i c a t i o n of r e s e a r c h methods and procedures  and  the use  standard r e c o r d forms f a c i l i t a t e s o v e r - a l l c o n t r o l . methods have been developed  by v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s .  The  F o r e s t r y Commission has a v e r y workable system of  codiof  Suitable British  silvicultural  experiment r e c o r d s which l e n d themselves t o m o d i f i c a t i o n f o r use under d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s ( 2 0 6 , 2 0 9 ) and procedures ( 1 1 8 ) .  and m e n s u r a t i o n a l  i t s sample p l o t  proformas have been p u b l i s h e d  A t t e n t i o n i s a l s o drawn to the methods d e s c r i b e d i n  the I n d i a n S i l v i c u l t u r a l Research Code.  Such c o d i f i c a t i o n  a l l o w s the use of l e s s h i g h l y t r a i n e d s t a f f and  tends t o m i n i -  mize the r e c o r d i n g of s u p e r f l u o u s data, w h i l e p r e v e n t i n g the  116.  n e g l e c t of n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n .  Given f o r e s t e r s with a  sound v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n f o r e s t r y p r a c t i c e , once they are experienced i n the r e a d i n g the use  of standard  treatment, and routine.  The  of an experiment working p l a n ,  r e c o r d forms, then p l o t establishment  the c o m p i l a t i o n research  E x p e r i e n c e has  and  of data becomes a matter of  o f f i c e r i s f r e e d from the n e c e s s i t y  e x e r c i s i n g c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n , and gram.  and  of  i s enabled t o extend h i s p r o -  demonstrated the p r a c t i c a b i l i t y of such  methods even i n undeveloped c o u n t r i e s w i t h r e l a t i v e l y uneducated  subordinate  staff.  In fundamental r e s e a r c h supporting  staff.  t h e r e i s , perhaps, l e s s need f o r  Nevertheless,  i n many c o u n t r i e s the  of l a b o r a t o r y t e c h n i c i a n i s f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d . s t i t u t e s and  In the i n -  u n i v e r s i t i e s of such c o u n t r i e s most l a b o r a t o r i e s  w i l l have a l a b o r a t o r y steward and assistants.  craft  The  an adequate number of  steward i s r e s p o n s i b l e under the head of  l a b o r a t o r y f o r r o u t i n e l a b o r a t o r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and a personage of no  s m a l l consequence t o s t u d e n t s and  members of the f a c u l t y .  The  t e c h n i c i a n s f r e e the  the  i s often to j u n i o r  scientist  from the conduct of the time-consuming l a b o r a t o r y work and r o u t i n e of p r e p a r a t i o n and laboratory i n s t r u c t i o n . manual and  entific  d i s p o s a l uhseparable from student  They may  a t t a i n v a r y i n g degrees o f  t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s i n e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and  blowing, e t c . and may staff.  the  work as p e r s o n a l  i n glass-  a s s i s t a n t s to the  sci-  A p r a c t i c a l a b i l i t y does not always accompany  a capacity f o r creative research, s h i p s have o c c u r r e d  and  long and  between h i g h l y s k i l l e d and  l a b o r a t o r y t e c h n i c i a n s and  fruitful  partner-  experienced  distinguished scientists.  Entry  to  117. the trade i s o f t e n through a form o f a p p r e n t i c e s h i p n a t i o n a l l y recognized  with  q u a l i f y i n g examinations conducted by  the t e c h n i c i a n s ' own a s s o c i a t i o n . A n a l y s i s o f s t a f f i n g a t the I m p e r i a l F o r e s t r y I n s t i t u t e , Oxford i n d i c a t e s the l e v e l of a s s i s t a n c e t h a t may be a t t a i n e d when a n c i l l a r y s t a f f a r e a v a i l a b l e .  There a r e s i x t e e n aca-  d e m i c a l l y t r a i n e d t e a c h i n g and r e s e a r c h  s t a f f members.  To  a s s i s t , there a r e t h i r t y t e c h n i c i a n s ( 5 0 ) . T h i s s k i l l e d element i s very l a r g e l y absent from the North American u n i v e r s i t y . graduate student  To some extent  assistants.  i t i s r e p l a c e d by  Although t h i s has a v a l u a b l e  t r a i n i n g f u n c t i o n , r a r e l y can such short-term r e p l a c e the experienced The  helpers  fully  laboratory technician.  question of research p u b l i c a t i o n In the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g  world there i s sharp c o n t r a s t be-  tween North American and B r i t i s h Commonwealth thought on r e search p u b l i c a t i o n .  Canadian approaches have been i n f l u e n c e d  by U n i t e d S t a t e s p r a c t i c e .  I n the one case t h e r e i s a tendency  to over- and i n the other t o u n d e r - p u b l i c a t i o n . the q u e s t i o n o f audience.  There i s a l s o  The p r o c l i v i t y o f Canadian r e s e a r c h  f o r e s t e r s t o w r i t e f o r other r e s e a r c h e r s has been commented upon by Place  (175)  "Esteem o f h i s co-workers i s one o f the c h i e f i n c e n t i v e s f o r the r e s e a r c h worker, h i s p r e s t i g e i s not g r e a t l y enhanced by w r i t i n g f o r n o n - s p e c i a l i s t s - thus he tends t o w r i t e f o r other r e s e a r c h men, h i s language i s o f t e n t e c h n i c a l and h i s papers assume a background knowledge few f o r e s t e r s have." At the r e g i o n a l Experiment S t a t i o n s o f the U n i t e d  States  F o r e s t S e r v i c e the F i e l d D i v i s i o n C h i e f s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  118.  the output of p u b l i c a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i r d i v i s i o n s and been l a i d down t h a t portant  "productivity i n t h i s respect  consideration  officers"  (215).  i n judging the  There i s strong  and  detailed re-  support f o r the view t h a t  e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e p u b l i c a t i o n of r e s e a r c h  f i n d i n g s i s an  o b l i g a t i o n assumed by p u b l i c a g e n c i e s engaged i n There i s a l s o a strong  d e t a i l s should be p u b l i s h e d . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s F o r e s t departmental p u b l i c a t i o n s of one  page o n l y ,  and  f e e l i n g that f u l l  one  Service  to short  reason or another i s not  i a l i s also published The  these range from major station releases,  The  Forest  Service  serve  that  for  Mater-  scientific  attaches  e f f o r t to t h i s f a c e t .  jour-  considerable  findings  A tentative  the form of p u b l i c a t i o n even a t  problem a n a l y s i s stage and study, and b e f o r e any  distin-  suitable for printing."  s i g n i f i c a n c e to the d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h  s i o n i s made r e g a r d i n g  perhaps  latter  volume o f m a t e r i a l  i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l and  United States  devotes c o n s i d e r a b l e  experimental  o f t e n i n m u l t i l i t h e d form and  " o u t l e t s ' f o r a considerable  nals.  research."  A wide c h o i c e o f media e x i s t s .  guished o n l y by a d i s t i n c t i v e l e t t e r h e a d . as  im-  C l e a r l y t h e r e i s an atmosphere i n North  search p u b l i c a t i o n .  (132)  i s an  c a p a b i l i t i e s of these  America t h a t i s conducive t o c o n s i d e r a b l e  "the  i t has  as p a r t i a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r  i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l work i s s t a r t e d .  and deci^ the the Other  agencies have s i m i l a r p o l i c i e s , but  standards vary g r e a t l y .  The  s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t a c h e d to  s i t u a t i o n i s i n t e n s i f i e d by the  p u b l i c a t i o n as an i n c e n t i v e f a c t o r i n the  conduct o f  research.  Coupled w i t h t h i s i s a f e e l i n g t h a t t h e r e should be a p o l i c y o f e a r l y - p u b l i c a t i o n to ensure r e c o g n i t i o n of  contributions  119. and  t o encourage a c r e a t i v e atmosphere.  On  o c c a s i o n i t would  almost seem t h a t the purpose of i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s p u b l i c a t i o n . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , papers p r e s e n t the r e s u l t s o f i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h e s or experiments, and  e a r l y p u b l i c a t i o n , even of  p a r t i a l r e s u l t s , i s encouraged. the present s i t u a t i o n as  Work (225)  has  summarized  follows,  "When f o r e s t r y was j u s t g e t t i n g a s t a r t i n North America, S e h l i c h had few competitors i n our language. But now t h a t f o r e s t r y has come of age commercially i n the past couple of decades, we f i n d o u r s e l v e s b u r i e d by p u b l i c a t i o n s of every form and type, so t h a t one of the r e a l problems i s to d i s c a r d the m a t e r i a l not p e r t i n e n t to our i n t e r e s t , and t o keep t r a c k of what has been done." In p a r t ,  t h i s s i t u a t i o n has  a r i s e n out  urgency i n the development of f o r e s t s c i e n c e  of a f e e l i n g of and  the  lack of  f o u n d a t i o n of common knowledge, i n p a r t , p o s s i b l y , from l a r g e number o f agencies engaged i n f o r e s t r y , and e n t a l scope of a c t i v i t i e s . stance t h a t the r e s e a r c h t r a i n e d s t a f f and  the  I t a l s o a r i s e s from the  o f f i c e r , unaided by  thrown much on h i s own  p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s to h i s operations,  a  the  contin-  circum-  vocationally  r e s o u r c e s , and i s o b l i g e d by  with  circum-  stances to concentrate h i s a t t e n t i o n on fewer problems a t  any  one  indi-  time.  Thus he tends to g i v e g r e a t e r  a t t e n t i o n to the  v i d u a l study, i n c l u d i n g the f i n a l p u b l i c a t i o n of r e s u l t s . importance a t t a c h e d to r e s e a r c h  p u b l i c a t i o n as a c r i t e r i o n f o r  the assessment of n o n - a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a p a b i l i t y w i t h i n agency a l s o p l a y s a p a r t .  The  an  s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s emphasis  i s d i f f i c u l t to a s s e s s , so must remain a matter of but  The  i t i s c l e a r l y a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r i n many  opinion,  instances.  E s p e c i a l l y among the younger r e s e a r c h  workers t h e r e i s much  t r u t h i n the  Perish".  catch-phrase " P u b l i s h or  120.  In c o n t r a s t ,  t h e r e i s much l e s s emphasis on p u b l i c a t i o n  i n the B r i t i s h s c i e n t i f i c w o r l d .  I n f o r e s t r y l i t e r a t u r e the  B r i t i s h f o r e s t e r i s accustomed t o a form o f p u b l i c a t i o n i n which problems o r s i t u a t i o n s a r e d i s c u s s e d and l i n e s o f a c tion outlined.  The r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r i s p r i m a r i l y  concerned  w i t h i n v e s t i g a t i o n and the s o l u t i o n o f problems and i s but l i t t l e i n t e r e s t e d i n p u b l i c a t i o n , o f t e n a g r e e i n g with the Preacher i n E c c l e s i a s t e s  that  "of the making o f many books  t h e r e i s no end and much l e a r n i n g i s a weariness o f the f l e s h . " He does not i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f with the s c i e n t i s t , but w i t h h i s f e l l o w f o r e s t e r s , so he f e e l s no i n c e n t i v e tific  esteem.  to obtain  There i s g r e a t e r cohesiveness w i t h i n  scienthe p r o -  f e s s i o n and fewer a g e n c i e s ; the n a t u r a l r e s u l t o f a s i t u a t i o n where the major p r o f e s s i o n a l  a c t i v i t y i s by Government, and  the  e n l i g h t e n e d s e c t i o n o f p r i v a t e ownership and p r a c t i t i o n e r s  are  l i n k e d by n a t i o n a l f o r e s t r y s o c i e t i e s .  and  greater p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r personal contact also play a part,  as does the h i g h e r l e v e l o f p r a c t i c e .  The l e s s e r d i s t a n c e s  As a r e s u l t o f t h i s com-  b i n a t i o n o f f a c t o r s the r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r p u b l i s h e s s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h papers more r a r e l y , and h i s r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s  appear  i n summary form i n departmental annual and o t h e r r e p o r t s , and o f t e n anonymously; much may remain u n p u b l i s h e d , a l t h o u g h 1  e n c i n g p r a c t i c e through departmental a c t i o n .  The more l i m i t e d  p u b l i c a t i o n output i s d i r e c t e d t o the p r o f e s s i o n rather  influ-  than t o a l i m i t e d c i r c l e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l  as a whole r e s e a r c h work-  e r s , and d e t a i l e d accounts o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n o r o f r e s e a r c h procedures a r e r a r e l y i n c l u d e d . s i e t y journals  are professional  I n g e n e r a l , the v a r i o u s s o rather  than s c i e n t i f i c .  It  121.  might be noted I n p a s s i n g t h a t t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e extent a similar  s i t u a t i o n occurs i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s , both i n the f o r e s t r y  s c h o o l s and the s c i e n c e f a c u l t i e s .  I n the e d u c a t i o n a l  process  t h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s e r emphasis on the study o f i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s than on the corpus o f e s t a b l i s h e d knowledge. I n d i c a t i v e o f the much l e s s e r p a r t t h a t p u b l i c a t i o n p l a y s i n p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e i s the circumstance iod  1 9 1 9 t o 1949, the f i r s t  t h a t d u r i n g the p e r -  t h i r t y years o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f  the modern s t a t e f o r e s t r y agency, o f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s of a t e c h n i c a l nature comprosed o n l y e i g h t e e n b u l l e t i n s , t h r e e r e p o r t s o f n a t i o n a l f o r e s t r y i n v e n t o r y , twenty-seven l e a f l e t s , and f i v e s m a l l b o o k l e t s .  Of these o n l y a minor p r o p o r t i o n  d e a l t with r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . of  T h i s p e r i o d covered  the r e v i v a l  s c i e n t i f i c f o r e s t r y i n B r i t a i n and encompassed many impor-  t a n t advances i n n u r s e r y and a f f o r e s t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e .  The  l a c k o f importance a t t a c h e d t o p u b l i c a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the treatment  o f the important  peafcland a f f o r e s t a t i o n .  and s i g n i f i c a n t developments i n  The f i r s t  d e t a i l e d account o f t h i s r e -  search program d i d not appear u n t i l 1 9 5 4 , when t h e b u l l e t i n "Experiments i n Tree P l a n t i n g on Peat" was p u b l i s h e d .  This  comprehensive account d e t a i l e d t h e r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y t h a t had gone i n t o the development o f these techniques,  which had been  a major a c t i v i t y over an extended p e r i o d , had occupied many people,  and had p e r m i t t e d the e x t e n s i o n o f t r e e p l a n t i n g onto  a m i l l i o n acres of h i t h e r t o unplantable  l a n d d u r i n g the p r e -  v i o u s t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s , and i s p o s s i b l y one o f the most  signi-  f i c a n t advances i n European f o r e s t r y d u r i n g t h i s c e n t u r y . A l most nothing o f r e s e a r c h s i g n i f i c a n c e had been p u b l i s h e d  122.  p r e v i o u s l y on t h i s work. In c o n t r a s t to the sense of urgency which c h a r a c t e r i z e s American p o l i c y the B r i t i s h view i s t h a t emphasis on e a r l y p u b l i c a t i o n o f t e n r e s u l t s i n h a s t y c o n t r i b u t i o n s of ephemeral v a l u e , and  t h a t p r e s e n t a t i o n b e n e f i t s from m a t u r i t y  longer p e r i o d f o r the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of i d e a s , s i d e r e d a p i t y i f what I s c o n s i d e r e d e a r l y p u b l i c a t i o n i s permitted  and  i t i s con-  a mistaken d e s i r e f o r  to obscure t h i s advantage.  Whether a d e l a y of t h i r t y y e a r s i n the p u b l i c a t i o n of a u t h o r i t a t i v e and  a  an  d e t a i l e d account of a major a c t i v i t y i s  j u s t i f i e d i s a question  of  opinion!  Even when allowance i s made f o r the l e s s e r v a r i e t y o f c o n d i t i o n s , and  the d i f f e r e n t s c a l e of a c t i v i t i e s , i t i s c l e a r  t h a t p u b l i c a t i o n assumes a d i f f e r e n t p l a c e i n the  scheme o f  t h i n g s i n the U n i t e d Kingdom F o r e s t r y Commission than i n the U. S. F o r e s t  Service.  In the American p r a c t i c e t h e r e i s danger t h a t c o n t r i b u t i o n s may  be  l o s t s i g h t of and  significant  the i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h  worker, and more p a r t i c u l a r l y the p r a c t i c i n g f o r e s t e r , may d i f f i c u l t y i n maintaining  contact w i t h c u r r e n t development as  a consequence of the sheer volume of p u b l i c a t i o n . B r i t i s h there i s l i t t l e  doubt t h a t v a l u a b l e  g e n e r a l l y unknown o u t s i d e and  have  the  In  information  s t a t e s e r v i c e f o r long  e s p e c i a l l y on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l .  the  The  remains  periods  British  liter-  a t u r e , a p a r t from the b r i e f s e l e c t e d accounts i n the  official  annual r e s e a r c h r e p o r t , i s no r e a l guide t o p r o g r e s s ,  or even  of the present  s t a t e of knowledge.  123.  PUTTING RESEARCH INTO PRACTICE R e l a t i o n s h i p s between r e s e a r c h personnel and p r a c t i c i n g esters Clapp's  for-  ( 5 2 ) view t h a t t h e r e i s o b j e c t i o n t o c l o s e c o n t a c t  between r e s e a r c h e r and f i e l d s t a f f , because t h i s c o u l d r e s u l t i n more emphasis on immediate q u e s t i o n s than i s d e s i r a b l e , i s r a r e l y tenable.  I t does not h o l d f o r r e s e a r c h i n the main  areas of f o r e s t r y .  The r a t i o n a l m o t i v a t i o n f o r f o r e s t r y r e -  search i s the f u r t h e r a n c e of the p r a c t i c e of f o r e s t r y . t i o n s may  be  Solu-  sought through fundamental s t u d i e s , or through  t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , dependent on the nature of the problem, but i n most cases c o n c l u s i o n s w i l l e v e n t u a l l y devolve upon work i n the f i e l d . r e s e a r c h may  I n the a n c i l l a r y f i e l d s , i s o l a t i o n of  be of l i t t l e d i r e c t consequence, but i t i s essen-  t i a l t h a t the a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h worker should have f u l l i n t i m a t e c o n t a c t with the  and  practitioner.  I n the r e p o r t of the committee set up t o c o n s i d e r r e s e a r c h matters a t the S i x t h B r i t i s h Commonwealth F o r e s t r y Conference the d e s i r a b i l i t y of c l o s e c o n t a c t was  clearly indicated,  "In some cases t h e r e appears t o be a l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n the p o t e n t i a l value of r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s on the p a r t o f practicing foresters, i n o t h e r s , f o r e s t managers have rushed p r e l i m i n a r y r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n t o p r a c t i c e b e f o r e the r e s e a r c h man h i m s e l f has been s a t i s f i e d as to t h e i r v a l i d i t y . There i s , t h e r e f o r e , need f o r c l o s e r cooperat i o n and b e t t e r understanding between p r a c t i c i n g f o r e s t e r s and r e s e a r c h workers." Macdonald ( 1 5 ^ ) has  stated positive research  values,  " a r e a l l y good r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r w i l l know what i s going on i n the f o r e s t and h i s experience may t e l l him t h a t a problem which has a r i s e n i n one p a r t o f the c o u n t r y may have a l r e a d y been answered by a f o r e s t e r working on a p r i v a t e e s t a t e or i n a s t a t e f.o'rest else-where who has stumbled on the s o l u t i o n , q u i t e l i k e l y by a c c i d e n t . "  124.  There a r e a l s o b e n e f i t s i n the d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f f i n d i n g s . Much depends on the nature o f the r e s e a r c h .  There i s l i t t l e  doubt t h a t the r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r who i s working on a program of f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n  i s b e t t e r able to maintain c l o s e r  c o n t a c t w i t h the p r a c t i c i n g f o r e s t e r than i s the man engaged i n more fundamental enquiry, and i s b e t t e r a b l e t o ensure t h a t the e x e c u t i v e and r e s e a r c h s i d e s do not become i s o l a t e d . Marsh (29) s t a t e d t h a t "such an o f f i c e r I s f a r more l i k e l y t o o b t a i n the d e s i r e d c o - o p e r a t i o n than i s the pure I n t h i s r e g a r d i t i s important  scientist."  t h a t those who a r e t o a p p l y  r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s should be g i v e n the f u l l e s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n when d e v e l o p i n g r e s e a r c h p l a n s .  Champion ( 2 9 ) emphasized t h e  importance o f having a program approved by those who  "should  be u l t i m a t e l y a p p l y i n g the r e s u l t s " and t h a t t o the maximum extent p o s s i b l e the p r a c t i t i o n e r 3hould be drawn i n t o the p r e p a r a t i o n o f the program.  T h i s keeps the r e s e a r c h  effort  "focussed on the c h i e f problems, those t h a t cover the g r e a t e s t a r e a o f f o r e s t , whose s o l u t i o n would be o f the g r e a t e s t economic advantage." The  very r e a l advantages t o the r e s e a r c h e f f o r t t h a t r e -  s u l t from the l o c a l knowledge and w i l l i n g c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t e r r i t o r i a l s t a f f a l s o need emphasis.  As Marsh p o i n t e d out, v e r y  o f t e n the p r a c t i c a l experience  o f the working f o r e s t e r can  s h o r t - c i r c u i t a very expensive  r e s e a r c h program.  gree;of c o - o p e r a t i o n and mutual understanding  A c e r t a i n de-  may be a c h i e v e d  through f o r m a l measures, such as those p r o v i d e d by the r e g i o n a l program review boards o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s F o r e s t S e r v i c e , b u t the f i n a l outcome depends on p e r s o n a l  contact.  125-  The onus f o r a c h i e v i n g the d e s i r e d f r i e n d l y must r e s t w i t h the r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r .  relationship  E f f o r t s t o g a i n the con-  f i d e n c e o f f i e l d s t a f f a t a l l l e v e l s a r e amply r e p a i d .  In  t h i s r e g a r d , the absence o f any e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n p r o v i d e s benefits. The r e s e a r c h e r should a p p r e c i a t e the d i f f i c u l t i e s p r a c t i t i o n e r , and the complexity of h i s d u t i e s . unnecessary  o f the  I t i s almost  t o note t h a t t e r r i t o r i a l o f f i c e r s should always  be extended the c o u r t e s y o f b e i n g informed o f any work i n tended  i n t h e i r t e r r i t o r i a l charge,  and t h e i r p e r m i s s i o n and  c o - o p e r a t i o n o b t a i n e d b e f o r e a c t i o n i s taken t o a c q u i r e experimental s i t e s . be forwarded  Copies o f experiment working p l a n s  should  f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , w i t h a d d i t i o n a l c o p i e s f o r the  l o c a l f o r e s t e r , and c o p i e s o f any r e p o r t s or c o n c l u s i o n s .  It  i s a wise p r e c a u t i o n t o c l e a r l y mark such r e s e a r c h papers ' f o r i n f o r m a t i o n o n l y ' , t o a v o i d misunderstandings.  I t i s easy f o r  n o n - s p e c i a l i s t p e r s o n n e l t o m i s i n t e r p r e t such documents and attempt t o c a r r y out experimental  prescriptions.  However, although i n t e r e s t and a c t i v e a s s i s t a n c e should be welcomed, d i s c r e t i o n should be e x e r c i s e d i n r e q u e s t i n g a s s i s t ance w i t h r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s .  Research s t a f f should  remember  t h a t the t e r r i t o r i a l f o r e s t e r has a complex o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and has much t o do. I t i s important  t h a t r e s e a r c h and e x e c u t i v e f u n c t i o n s do  not o v e r l a p . " I t should be c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z e d as a p r i n c i p l e t h a t the i n i t i a t i o n o f e x e c u t i v e a c t i o n , on t h e b a s i s o f r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n experimentation, i s no p a r t o f the f u n c t i o n o f the r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r . The d e c i s i o n as t o the  126. implementation o f r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s , o r the d e s i r a b i l i t y of m o d i f y i n g c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s and standard techniques should remain the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l of F o r e s t s o r e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s nominated by him. The duty o f the r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r i s t o g i v e t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e on the b a s i s o f h i s f i n d i n g s , implementation o f t h i s a d v i c e must r e s t with the e x e c u t i v e who w i l l have due r e gard t o o v e r a l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f p o l i c y " , ( 2 0 9 ) The  s i t u a t i o n has been w e l l expressed  i n the f o l l o w i n g  statement o f a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h p o l i c y . "Progress i n a g r i c u l t u r e as i n o t h e r f i e l d s o f human endeavour depends u l t i m a t e l y on the p r a c t i c a l man and on the t o o l s ( i n c l u d i n g new i d e a s ) which he has a t h i s d i s p o s a l . The provence o f the r e s e a r c h worker i s t o p r o v i d e new t o o l s , new techniques and new i d e a s which can be i n corporated i n t o p r a c t i c e . I t i s not f o r the r e s e a r c h worker f i n a l l y t o judge whether the new techniques which h i s r e s e a r c h e s have produced a r e t o be f i t t e d i n t o gene r a l p r a c t i c e . The worker I n the f i e l d o f a p p l i e d r e search must, however, always have r e g a r d t o p r a c t i c e and have an eye on the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f h i s r e s u l t s . I f he does so he w i l l f i n d t h a t h i s work c r e a t e s i n t e r e s t among farmers; i n t e r e s t c r e a t e s new thought and i s a d i r e c t s t i m u l a n t t o change." (source unknown) Except  i n s p e c i a l i n s t a n c e s where the r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r i s  a s p e c i a l i s t engaged r a t h e r i n the development o f a c e r t a i n phase o f f o r e s t r y than i n r e s e a r c h proper, when may d i c t a t e otherwise,  circumstances  i t i s most d e s i r a b l e t h a t he be not  i n v e s t e d w i t h e x e c u t i v e powers t h a t reduce h i s freedom o f a c t i o n , and p o s s i b l y r e s u l t i n the i n t r u s i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e t a i l s i n the conduct o f r e s e a r c h . I t i s t o be d e s i r e d t h a t the r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r be enabled to undertake i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a t a l l stages by h i m s e l f o r through h i s own s t a f f .  Suggestions  a r e f r e q u e n t l y made f o r the conduct  of r e s e a r c h through t e r r i t o r i a l s t a f f , e s p e c i a l l y I n the e a r l y stages o f i n - s e r v i c e r e s e a r c h development.  I n New Zealand the  o b j e c t i v e o f the newly formed experiment s t a t i o n was the  127. s u p e r v i s i o n and The  (16).  c o o r d i n a t i o n of f o r e s t s e r v i c e r e s e a r c h  t e r r i t o r i a l Conservancies were expected t o make l o c a l i n -  v e s t i g a t i o n s under the i n d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n o f the Experiment Station.  W i t h m a t u r i t y most r e s e a r c h groups become l e s s  pendent on o u t s i d e a s s i s t a n c e .  As was  de-  s t a t e d i n recommenda-  t i o n s f o r the conduct of r e s e a r c h i n I r a q  (209)  "No b a s i c s u p e r i o r i t y of s p e c i a l i s t personnel over the t e r r i t o r i a l f o r e s t e r i s Implied, and i t i s important f o r good r e l a t i o n s t h a t t h i s concept i s not f o s t e r e d , but the s p e c i a l i s t has a d i f f e r e n t type of t r a i n i n g and exp e r i e n c e , and.... i s f r e e from the r o u t i n e commitments... of the t e r r i t o r i a l f o r e s t e r there should be the p r i n c i p l e t h a t ... no experiments w i l l be l a i d down which cannot be c o n t r o l l e d . . . . by r e s e a r c h f o r e s t e r s . Only disappointment and wasted e f f o r t and funds w i l l r e s u l t i f t h i s i s not so. I f necessary the r e s e a r c h program should be l i m i t e d u n t i l men of the r e q u i r e d c a l i b r e are available...." F i e l d experimentation  can seldom be taken to a  satis-  f a c t o r y c o n c l u s i o n i f i t i s dependent on the g e n e r a l torial The  terri-  staff.  f u n c t i o n s of the experimental T y p i c a l l y , experimental  American f o r e s t r y .  forest  f o r e s t s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  North  In the absence of t r a c t s under i n t e n s i v e  management they have assumed g r e a t  s i g n i f i c a n c e i n canetda  the U n i t e d S t a t e s , both f o r r e s e a r c h and S t a t e s F o r e s t S e r v i c e experience  demonstration.  has been t h a t w i d e l y  and United  scattered  p l o t s , even i n the n a t i o n a l f o r e s t s or other p u b l i c lands, not be  s a t i s f a c t o r i l y administered,  protected,  can-  or u t i l i z e d f o r  long-term r e s e a r c h  (141).  F o r e s t S e r v i c e has  set up f i e l d experiment s t a t i o n s , i . e . , ex-  perimental  In consequence, the U n i t e d  States  f o r e s t s , i n areas r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the major  i c a l and management types i n each r e g i o n .  ecolog-  These s t a t i o n s demon-  s t r a t e t h e " a p p l i c a t i o n of methods t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s and  serve  128. as areas f o r e x t e n s i v e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n .  In p r a c t i c e , a l l con-  d i t i o n s are seldom r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n the f i e l d  experiment  s t a t i o n s and i t has been necessary to go o u t s i d e the boundaries  i n many i n s t a n c e s .  Rather,  they serve as f o c a l c e n t r e s  for  regional research.  Barr (8),  when d i s c u s s i n g the Bctodgett  F o r e s t of the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a i n the S i e r r a Nevada, noted t h a t experience had  shown t h a t the permanent r e s e a r c h  f o r e s t , i f c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d and p r o p e r l y a d m i n i s t e r e d , under a good p l a n of long-term  and  study, p r o v i d e d the most e f f e c -  t i v e b a s i s f o r many types of f i e l d  experimentation.  In Canada, although i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the experiment s t a t i o n s are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of o n l y a few of the f o r e s t c o n d i t i o n s , permanent r e s e a r c h areas a r e  important considered  necessary because o f the s u p e r i o r p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s assured tenure t h a t they p r o v i d e (15)-  and  The areas i n v o l v e d  range from the seven-and-one-half square-mile  mixed-hardwood  experiment f o r e s t a t V a l c a r t i e r , i n Quebec, t o the 100-squarem i l e Petawawa Experiment S t a t i o n In O n t a r i o . With the e x c e p t i o n of L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y , which m a i n t a i n s o n l y a s m a l l t r a c t , a l l the Canadian f o r e s t r y s c h o o l s have r e search f o r e s t s .  At the U n i v e r s i t y of New  Brunswick there i s a  3 , 6 0 0 - a c r e f o r e s t a d j a c e n t to the Campus, and another a c r e s of young growth f i f t e e n m i l e s away.  35,000  The F a c u l t y of F o r -  e s t r y of the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto has a 1 7 , 0 0 0 - a c r e f o r e s t some 150  m i l e s n o r t h of Toronto.  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia has a 10,000-acre r e s e a r c h f o r e s t a t Haney, t h i r t y s i x m i l e s from the campus. the general.aim  In the management of these  areas  i s t o m a i n t a i n a well-managed, s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g  129. f o r e s t area t h a t w i l l and demonstration.  serve the needs o f r e s e a r c h ,  The U.B.C  education,  Research F o r e s t i s i l l u s t r a t i v e  of academic t h i n k i n g i n r e g a r d t o such a r e a s .  The F o r e s t i s  d e d i c a t e d t o f o r e s t r y e d u c a t i o n , t o f o r e s t r y r e s e a r c h , and t o good f o r e s t management, i n the i n t e r e s t s o f the P r o v i n c e and the people o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  I t s d e c l a r e d purpose i s t o  p r o v i d e f i e l d t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r students i n f o r e s t r y and a l l i e d  fields,  t o serve as a demonstration  p r a c t i c e s , and t o p r o v i d e a f i e l d (Allen, 1950). aged f o r e s t .  laboratory f o r research  I t i s intended t o develop Research i s designed  of forestry  the t r a c t as a man-  t o guide management of the  area i t s e l f , and t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n o f more widespread usefulness. for  The F o r e s t i s used f o r a summer t r a i n i n g  camp  students, and f o r a s t e a d i l y d e v e l o p i n g r e s e a r c h program  under the s u p e r v i s i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n o f a graduate f o r e s t e r a s s i s t e d by a f u l l - t i m e graduate a s s i s t a n t .  Another graduate  f o r e s t e r i s i n charge o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the conduct o f routine operations.  I n v e s t i g a t i o n s a r e made by F a c u l t y and  students i n f o r e s t r y and a l l i e d  disciplines.  a f a c u l t y D i r e c t o r and A s s o c i a t e D i r e c t o r .  D i r e c t i o n I s by There i s a Research  Committee formed o f F a c u l t y members and a l s o an A d v i s o r y Comm i t t e e formed o f l e a d i n g government and i n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t e r s  (22). During the p e r i o d 1949-58 the f o r e s t p r o v i d e d for  f i f t y - n i n e research p r o j e c t s .  short-term  facilities  These ranged from  simple  s t u d i e s completed i n one season, t o i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  c o n t i n u i n g over a number o f y e a r s .  Twenty-six i n d i v i d u a l r e -  s e a r c h e r s , p r i m a r i l y f a c u l t y and graduate students i n f o r e s t r y  130.  and the b i o l o g i c a l s c i e n c e s , made use o f t h e f a c i l i t i e s able.  avail-  These a c t i v i t i e s have expanded over t h e years and e v e r -  i n c r e a s i n g use i s b e i n g made o f t h e f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d by the t r a c t .  W i t h the passage o f time, management p o l i c i e s  will  c l a r i f y i n long-term management and i t I s t o be expected t h a t the demonstration  f u n c t i o n o f the t r a c t as a well-managed u n i t  w i l l r e c e i v e i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n . The award t o t h e f o r e s t o f the f i r s t B r i t i s h Columbia Tree Farm L i c e n s e i s an i n d i c a t i o n that i t s p o t e n t i a l i t y i n t h i s regard i s recognized. I n d u s t r i a l management has taken up the i d e a o f t h e experimental f o r e s t .  Silversides  (192)  has d e s c r i b e d the o p e r a t i o n s  of the Westvaco experimental f o r e s t o f the West V i r g i n i a and Paper Company.  Marples  (156)  Pulp  discussed the operation of  the Powell R i v e r Company experimental f o r e s t i n B r i t i s h  Columbia.  In e a s t e r n Canada t h e A b i t i i b i Power and Pulp Company operates a 40,000-acre woodlands l a b o r a t o r y .  On t h i s t h e company en-  deavours " t o develop the a r t o f f o r e s t r y by m a n i p u l a t i n g  for-  e s t f a c t o r s on a p r a c t i c a l b a s i s w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by o p e r a t i n g procedures." The aim o f the 7>000-acre Canapcal F o r e s t Research  Station  of the Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Pulp and Paper Company i n Quebec i s t o " c l o s e the gap between f o r e s t r e s e a r c h and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o the b u s i n e s s o f f o r e s t r y " and i n f u r t h e r a n c e i t undertakes  l a r g e - s c a l e r e s e a r c h i n t o pulp-wood p r o d u c t i o n , i t  i s probably p r e f e r a b l e t o c o n s i d e r such areas as p i l o t r a t h e r than experimental a r e a s .  forests  T h e i r primary aim i s the dem-  o n s t r a t i o n and a d a p t i o n o f known p r i n c i p l e s t o the commercial management o f i n d u s t r i a l  forests.  131.  E v a l u a t i o n o f company r e s e a r c h and experimental is difficult, to  f o r c o n s i d e r a b l e p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s value a t t a c h e s  sponsorship.  Although  the m a j o r i t y o f c o r p o r a t i o n s a r e  s i n c e r e I n t h e i r i n t e r e s t , a m i n o r i t y have l i t t l e substance  forests  t o support t h e i r experimental  research  or dedicated areas.  Outside North America, experimental f o r e s t s have found more l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n .  They a r e o f t e n c o n f i n e d t o s m a l l  areas o f woodland c o n t r o l l e d by u n i v e r s i t y f o r e s t r y  depart-  ments, and a r e perhaps the e x c e p t i o n r a t h e r than the r u l e . T h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e under American c o n d i t i o n s , and absence from the European scene, was d i s c u s s e d i n Unasylva  (8l).  An excep-  t i o n i s i n Sweden where a t o t a l o f 34,000 h e c t a r e s o f f o r e s t , i n f o u r u n i t s , has been s e t a s i d e f o r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n .  These  u n i t s a r e t o a l l o w the use o f c a r e f u l i n v e n t o r y and stand d e s c r i p t i o n , and t o permit forest-management measures t o be s t u d i e d and a p p l i e d on a l a r g e s c a l e ( 7 0 ) . I n Burma, Naslund (165)  recommended the f o r m a t i o n o f ex-  p e r i m e n t a l f o r e s t s i n each o f the n a t u r a l r e g i o n s , seven i n all.  He a d v i s e d t h a t f i e l d r e s e a r c h should be c o n c e n t r a t e d on  these areas, which would be e x c l u s i v e l y a t the d i s p o s a l o f the research i n s t i t u t e .  To f a c i l i t a t e r e s e a r c h , permanent s t a t i o n s  would be e s t a b l i s h e d .  The r e s e a r c h d i v i s i o n should c a r r y on  r a t i o n a l f o r e s t management i n those p a r t s o f the experimental f o r e s t s not b e i n g used f o r t e s t i n g purposes.  G r a d u a l l y a dem-  o n s t r a t i o n f o r e s t would e v o l v e . In North America the r e s e a r c h f o r e s t i s p l a y i n g a u s e f u l r o l e i n b r i d g i n g the gap between p r a c t i c e and t h e o r y .  On such  t r a c t s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o demonstrate on a p r a c t i c a l s c a l e not  132. o n l y the a p p l i c a t i o n of r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s , but a l s o the a p p l i c a t i o n of long-accepted f o r e s t r y p r i n c i p l e s t h a t cannot be served elsewhere i n the absence the aspect t h a t was  of managed f o r e s t .  s t r e s s e d by Chalk (45)  This  ob-  was  when he d i s c u s s e d  what he termed a w h o l l y admirable f e a t u r e o f a l l the b e t t e r American  forestry schools.  student-training f a c i l i t i e s ,  He a t t a c h e d importance t o the f a c i l i t i e s  t o the  for faculty re-  search, t o the p o t e n t i a l value of such a r e a s as examples of management where adequate to  r e c o r d s have been kept and  especially  t h e i r importance as demonstration a r e a s b o t h f o r students  and the p u b l i c , i n s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r the managed f o r e s t s which are  a v a i l a b l e f o r i n s p e c t i o n I n Europe.  He c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the  value of these areas would i n c r e a s e c o n s i d e r a b l y w i t h time. I l l u s t r a t i v e of t h i s i s the Campus F o r e s t a t the U n i v e r s i t y of New  Brunswick where t h e r e i s a complete  a e r i a l photographic  r e c o r d of the f o r e s t a t f i v e - y e a r i n t e r v a l s over the past  thirty  years. As B i c k e r s t a f f  (15)  has i n d i c a t e d , many q u e s t i o n s t h a t a-  r i s e d u r i n g the t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d between the e r a of u n c o n t r o l l ed e x p l o i t a t i o n and planned f o r e s t management cannot be  ans-  wered on the b a s i s o f p r a c t i c a l experience o r of r e s e a r c h i n the s t r i c t  sense of the word, and i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o f i l l  gap i n 'experience' knowledge through p r a c t i c a l Under such c o n d i t i o n s ' r e s e a r c h ' and always be  this  demonstration.  'demonstration'  cannot  differentiated.  I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t the name "Experimental" or  'Re-  search f o r e s t ' has been g e n e r a l l y adopted f o r these t r a c t s . many cases  In  'Demonstration f o r e s t ' would be b e t t e r s u i t e d t o the  133. long-term f u n c t i o n . to the term r e s e a r c h , it  than i s j u s t i f i e d .  f a c i l i t a t e extension  Considerable  p r e s t i g e has been  attached  and p o s s i b l y more s i g n i f i c a n c e g i v e n Less emphasis on t h i s f a c e t might w e l l o f the demonstrated p r a c t i c e s i n t o i n -  d u s t r i a l management. The  d e s i r a b i l i t y o f demonstration i n an experimental f o r -  e s t would seem t o be the b a s i c p o i n t a t i s s u e i n the s t r o n g a t t a c k which was made by Pearson (173)  on the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of the f o r e s t experiment s t a t i o n s o f the western States.  He c r i t i c i z e d an a l l e g e d g e n e r a l  United  f a i l u r e t o demon-  s t r a t e i n the experimental f o r e s t s p r i n c i p l e s o f management which had been e s t a b l i s h e d as a r e s u l t o f i n t e n s i v e and  research,  s t a t e d t h a t a f t e r f o r t y y e a r s o f n a t i o n a l f o r e s t admin-  i s t r a t i o n there was y e t t o be produced a well-managed f o r e s t , even though f o r most o f t h i s p e r i o d s i l v i c a l r e s e a r c h had been c a r r i e d on a t s i x experiment s t a t i o n s i n the r e g i o n . There was no l a c k o f r e s e a r c h  s t u d i e s but they were not i n t e -  g r a t e d and a p p l i e d i n a b a l a n c e d program o f management. view was t h a t " c l e a r l y the f u n c t i o n of r e s e a r c h  His  i s t o assume  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y not o n l y f o r b r i n g i n g f o r t h much needed i n f o r mation but a l s o i n a p p l y i n g  it."  Of r e c e n t y e a r s there have been suggestions t h a t the v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s o f the experimental f o r e s t , v i z . , r e s e a r c h , demonstration, and education,  a r e not compatible.  When the Canadian Petawawa F o r e s t Experiment S t a t i o n was first  e s t a b l i s h e d i t was considered  t h a t i t s g r e a t e s t use  would be as a demonstration area on which the r e s u l t s o f working-plan management c o u l d be shown t o p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r -  134.  i t i e s and i n d u s t r i a l o p e r a t o r s .  As i t s use as a f i e l d  o r a t o r y expanded i t became more and more d i f f i c u l t ize  the requirements  lab-  t o harmon-  o f s u s t a i n e d - y i e l d management and the  p r o v i s i o n o f s a t i s f a c t o r y areas f o r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . now the p o l i c y t o g i v e p r i o r i t y t o r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s .  It i s Forest  r e s o u r c e s a r e not e x p l o i t e d c h i e f l y t o o b t a i n revenue o r t o s a t i s f y l o c a l demand f o r raw m a t e r i a l s , nor i s any p a r t i c u l a r e f f o r t made t o f e l l each year the y i e l d a c c o r d i n g t o the working  plan (34). D i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e when i t i s necessary f o r r e s e a r c h f o r -  e s t s t o be s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g , and a l s o , as i n the case o f some u n i v e r s i t y t r a c t s , f o r the income t o support a r e s e a r c h p r o gram o f f the f o r e s t .  I t may then become n e c e s s a r y t o main-  t a i n revenue, even a t the expense o f long-term demonstration  r e s e a r c h and  b e n e f i t s and o f the improvements t h a t would r e -  s u l t from the more i n t e n s i v e management p o s s i b l e i f f o r e s t r y fund p r i n c i p l e s were f o l l o w e d .  Where areas o f second-growth  f o r e s t have come i n t o the p o s s e s s i o n o f f o r e s t r y s c h o o l s l a c k of  revenue from the immature stands may s e v e r e l y l i m i t manage-  ment p o s s i b i l i t i e s . C o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t between r e s e a r c h and the t r a i n i n g and demonstration  a s p e c t s has been suggested.  At B l o d g e t t  F o r e s t , C a l i f o r n i a , a 2,731-acre t r a c t , f o u r elements o f adm i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y were adopted when the a r e a was taken under management. 1. 2. 3.  These a r e : -  The primary use o f the f o r e s t should be t o f u r n i s h f a c i l i t i e s f o r research. The f o r e s t should not be used f o r undergraduate i n struction. The F o r e s t might be used f o r graduate i n s t r u c t i o n and r e s e a r c h as o p p o r t u n i t y developed.  135.  4.  Demonstrations of f o r e s t treatments should not be set up which might not be i n keeping with the p r a c t i c a l needs and l i m i t a t i o n s of the a r e a , but should attempt to apply such improved p r a c t i c e s as might be a p p r o p r i a t e to l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s ( 8 ) .  There i s room f o r d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g the fourth principle.  In the management of a demonstration  i n a r a p i d l y d e v e l o p i n g f o r e s t economy i t may  forest  be wise to r e -  c a l l the words a t t r i b u t e d to John Dewey - I t does not pay t e t h e r one's thoughts a  to  to the post of u s e f u l n e s s w i t h too s h o r t  rope. At Oregon S t a t e C o l l e g e the f o r e s t p r o p e r t i e s are managed  under a d i f f e r e n t p o l i c y .  Among the p r o p e r t i e s o f the  School  of F o r e s t r y there are the 6 , 8 0 9 - a c r e McDonald F o r e s t , the  ad-  j a c e n t 4 , 0 0 0 - a c r e A d a i r T r a c t , and the 181-acre George W.  Peavy  Arboretum. campus.  Two  These form one b l o c k of timber  seven m i l e s from the  other t r a c t s are a l s o w i t h i n reasonable d i s t a n c e .  These f o r e s t s are used e x t e n s i v e l y f o r student i n s t r u c t i o n  and  a f l e e t of t r u c k s takes c l a s s e s t o them d a i l y f o r f i e l d i n struction. In g e n e r a l the g r e a t e s t v a l u e s i n the u n i v e r s i t y - t y p e exp e r i m e n t a l f o r e s t appear to be i n the p r o v i s i o n of t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r students through forest.  the development o f well-managed  There would seem t o be no reason why  t h i s should  be  i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the r e s e a r c h f u n c t i o n , not the employment o f areas of f o r e s t f o r permanent demonstrations p r a c t i c e or as n a t u r a l r e s e r v e s .  Although  of more advanced  i n the  intensively  managed f o r e s t s of Europe there might c o n c e i v a b l y be a c o n f l i c t of  i n t e r e s t , t h i s i s most u n l i k e l y t o occur a t the present  stage of North-American management.  Greater d i f f i c u l t y  arises  136.  when the p o l i c y i s f o l l o w e d o f attempting t o manage such t r a c t s w i t h these p r i n c i p l e s i n mind, and a t the same time a t tempting  t o demonstrate commercial management w i t h i n the  framework o f c u r r e n t and, p o s s i b l y , short-term economic  con-  ditions.  forest  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y so i n a r a p i d l y changing  economy such as o b t a i n s i n much o f North  America.  A more v a l i d argument i s advanced a g a i n s t the experimental f o r e s t as a r e s e a r c h u n i t .  Ostram and H e i b e r g  (170),  r e c o g n i z i n g the value o f such areas f o r combining and economic phases i n a s i n g l e t r i a l , tages t h a t a c c r u e .  while  biological  i n d i c a t e d the d i s a d v a n -  I n g e n e r a l these a r i s e from the a d d i t i o n a l  demand on l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h r e s o u r c e s through  the need f o r a t -  t e n t i o n t o r o u t i n e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and f o r e s t management. l o s s o f r e s e a r c h c o n t r o l was a l s o suggested  A  and the d i f f i c u l t y  of i n t e r p r e t i n g r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n terms o f o t h e r a r e a s .  The  d e m o n s t r a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l value o f such areas was r e c o g n i z e d - the extent t o which the demonstration  o b j e c t i v e should  i n f l u e n c e a program o f r e s e a r c h depended on l o c a l needs and the p o l i c y o f the r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n . With the e x t e n s i o n o f c o n t r o l the importance i m e n t a l f o r e s t other than as a demonstration be much reduced.  o f the exper-  area w i l l  probably  K a u f e r t and Cummings (132) r e f e r r e d t o the  •more r e a l i s t i c ' a t t i t u d e o f most American s c h o o l s , and s a i d t h a t t h e r e was no l o n g e r the i n s i s t e n c e t h a t the ownership o f f o r e s t lands was a prime p r e r e q u i s i t e t o s i l v i c u l t u r e and management r e s e a r c h , i n view o f the i n c r e a s i n g a v a i l a b i l i t y o f government and i n d u s t r i a l lands f o r academic r e s e a r c h  purposes.  F o r e s t r y s c h o o l s had wasted v a l u a b l e r e s e a r c h time and money  137-  on the o p e r a t i o n of e x t e n s i v e f o r e s t s and many had become 'property poor' and  'operation poor' i n the p r o c e s s .  considered  could p o i n t to such o p e r a t i o n s as f i n a n -  t h a t few  They  c i a l l y p r o f i t a b l e u n l e s s they h i d c o s t s , something t h a t  they  s a i d was  should  r e a d i l y done.  They concluded  t h a t the schools  leave t o i n d u s t r y most of the t a s k of demonstrating the a b i l i t y of f o r e s t l a n d management and  profit-  concern themselves i n -  stead w i t h the Important t a s k of o b t a i n i n g growth, r e p r o d u c t i o n , and other management i n f o r m a t i o n . P o s s i b l y the q u e s t i o n devolves operation.  i n t o one  of i n t e n s i t y of  Where f o r e s t r y i s p r a c t i c e d under e x t e n s i v e  d i t i o n s a f o r e s t school may e s t a t e with but  little  con-  be a b l e to manage a l a r g e f o r e s t  difficulty.  With the e v o l u t i o n of more  i n t e n s i v e p r a c t i c e s t h i s w i l l be much l e s s p r a c t i c a b l e w i t h out s e r i o u s d i v e r s i o n of The  effort.  t r u e r e s e a r c h value as d i s t i n c t from the demonstra-  t i o n f u n c t i o n w i l l depend on l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . has  s t a t e d (194)  R. H.  Spilsbury  t h a t the B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t S e r v i c e  search D i v i s i o n , from experience  of two  Re-  e x i s t i n g areas, has  i n t e n t i o n of a c q u i r i n g or developing more.  Experimental  no  sta-  t i o n s were c o s t l y to m a i n t a i n and g e n e r a l l y of a somewhat r e s t r i c t e d nature, s i t e , type, age i e t y of s t u d i e s .  they d i d not c o n t a i n s u f f i c i e n t ranges i n groups, or o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s t o s u s t a i n a v a r Instead, demonstration p l o t s , c o v e r i n g  range of f o r e s t environments, were p r e f e r r e d .  the  These c o u l d be  s i t u a t e d on f o r e s t management l i c e n s e areas, p u b l i c working c i r c l e s , and on other crown l a n d s . "Much may  depend on the s t a f f and r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e .  In  138.  recommendations f o r r e s e a r c h development i n I r a q ( 2 0 9 ) a d v i s e d t h a t separate experimental  i t was  f o r e s t s be not s e t up  be-  cause t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n would be too much of a s t r a i n on the young r e s e a r c h d i v i s i o n , n e c e s s i t a t i n g dup l i c a t i o n of s t a f f , and d i v e r t i n g a t t e n t i o n from u r g e n t l y needed i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l work. e l e v a t i o n experimental e s t boundaries,  E x c e p t i o n s were s p e c i a l h i g h -  areas of l i m i t e d extent o u t s i d e the  and a r b o r e t a a d j a c e n t to the r e s e a r c h  I n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , i t may  for-  institute.  be p r e f e r a b l e , i f demon-  s t r a t i o n f o r e s t s a r e , e s t a b l i s h e d , t h a t these be  controlled  by  the r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n , but i n t h i s event a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f should be p r o v i d e d , and the e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n c l e a r l y  de-  limited. Demonstration and the E x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n F o r e s t r e s e a r c h , t o be p u r p o s e f u l , must f a c i l i t a t e , matter how  i n d i r e c t l y , the p r a c t i c e of f o r e s t r y .  no  T r u l y , "the  r e s u l t s o f r e s e a r c h work i n s i l v i c u l t u r e and management are v a l u a b l e i n s o f a r as they become a p p l i e d i n p r a c t i c e "  (Champion,  in 29).  provide  But a l s o the r e s u l t s of fundamental e n q u i r y  the necessary background f o r the a c t i v i t i e s of the  technolog-  i c a l i n v e s t i g a t o r . H i s f i n d i n g s i n t u r n , t o g e t h e r with f r u i t s of accumulated experience, c r a f t of the p r a c t i t i o n e r . i f i t reaches  the man  who  the  p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r the  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s o n l y of value i s t o put i t i n t o p r a c t i c e .  There are v a r i o u s ways of b r i d g i n g the gap between the d i s c o v e r y or development of new application.  techniques and  their  field  Demonstration and p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t most commonly  139-  have the g r e a t e s t impact, but e f f e c t s are l o c a l i z e d and may ephemeral. marked  There may  a l s o be c e r t a i n dangers.  be  Champion r e -  (29),  "Many r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r s are almost a f r a i d t o open t h e i r mouths i n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t h e i r e x e c u t i v e c o l leagues f o r f e a r t h a t some s u g g e s t i o n emerging from p r e l i m i n a r y r e s u l t s , but not yet e s t a b l i s h e d , w i l l be extens i v e l y a p p l i e d i n c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e , with r i s k s of undes i r a b l e r e s u l t s b r i n g i n g the r e s e a r c h work i n t o d i s r e p u t e . " F o r permanence and wide d i s t r i b u t i o n , p u b l i c a t i o n i s usua l l y necessary.  P a r t i c u l a r l y i n s m a l l , i n - s e r v i c e groups, d i -  r e c t l y c o n t r o l l e d by the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e branch, t h e r e may c o n f l i c t between " r e s e a r c h " and o f f i c e r may  "demonstration".  The  be  a  research  be c a l l e d upon t o demonstrate the s u i t a b i l i t y of  predetermined  p r a c t i c e s and t o e s t a b l i s h "experiments", more  t r u l y demonstrations,  or t o "prove",  f o r reasons  policy, facts already well-established.  of  departmental  Such a c t i v i t i e s i n t r u d e  upon t r u e r e s e a r c h and on t h a t account are o f t e n most unpopular. Under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s however, an e x t e n s i o n , or e d u c a t i o n a l , f u n c t i o n may  be a d m i n i s t e r e d w i t h i n a r e s e a r c h s t r u c t u r e with  p o s i t i v e a l l - r o u n d g a i n s , but e f f o r t s to g i v e s t a t u r e to partmental  p o l i c i e s through the a d d i t i o n of a r e s e a r c h  should be r e s i s t e d .  Demonstration should be c l e a r l y  shed from r e s e a r c h , and The  l a b e l l e d as  de-  cachet  distingui-  such.  p o l i c y of the Canadian F o r e s t B i o l o g y S e r v i c e p r o v i d e s  a u s e f u l model f o r the l a r g e r s p e c i a l i s t r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n . Here the need i s f o r " a b s o l u t e l y dependent and adequate and t h o r o u g h l y r e l i a b l e r e s e a r c h " ( 1 7 7 ) .  surveys  F o r t h i s reason i t has  been l a i d down t h a t although r e s e a r c h workers should  maintain  c l o s e p r o f e s s i o n a l l i a i s o n w i t h c o o p e r a t i n g groups they  should  140.  not become so preoccupied  with extension  services that  the  c o n t i n u a t i o n of r e s e a r c h i s impeded or p r o h i b i t e d . To f a c i l i t a t e l i a i s o n i t has been suggested (Prebble, 194)  t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l governments and  f o r e s t companies should a s s i g n a man  each of the major  to cooperate w i t h  F o r e s t I n s e c t and Disease Survey, to keep a b r e a s t ments, to f i l l  in  the  of develop-  the gap between f i n d i n g s and a p p l i c a t i o n , and  t o assume o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and  d i r e c t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s when  large-scale c o n t r o l operations In r e c e n t years  are  necessary.  i n I n d i a , a P u b l i c i t y and L i a i s o n Branch  has been formed a t the C e n t r a l Research I n s t i t u t e to improve dissemination education.  of r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s and  T h i s was  f o r general f o r e s t r y  found necessary d e s p i t e a l a r g e output of  p u b l i c a t i o n s , aimed a t both the p r o f e s s i o n and lic,  the g e n e r a l  and a l s o c l o s e l i a i s o n w i t h f o r e s t departments and  forest d i s t r i c t s  pub-  i n the  (178).  However, i t i s not always easy to d i s t i n g u i s h between 'research' and ist fields. Poplar  'non-research' a c t i v i t y , more so i n the  In these r e s e a r c h and  c u l t i v a t i o n and  development may  tree breeding  be  specialcombined.  are examples of a c t i v i t i e s  where the boundary between t r u e r e s e a r c h and  the conduct of  r o u t i n g , though s p e c i a l i z e d , o p e r a t i o n a l and  extension  is indistinct. f a l l s into this  The  duties  work of many commissions and working groups  category. BUNDS FOR  RESEARCH  There i s l i t t l e need to j u s t i f y expenditures f o r as wilm ( 2 3 ) has  written,  f o r research,  141.  " I t has been shown r e p e a t e d l y t h a t w e l l executed and adequately f i n a n c e d r e s e a r c h pays d i v i d e n d s f a r beyond the necessary e x p e n d i t u r e s . I f e f f i c i e n t l y conducted, even l a r g e - s c a l e and p r o t r a c t e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s r e q u i r e o n l y a f r a c t i o n o f the v a l u e s t h a t keep on b e i n g wasted f o r l a c k o f knowledge." N e v e r t h e l e s s , one must be r e a l i s t i c ; i t has t o be r e c o g nized that, "the r e a l l i m i t a t i o n o f the scope o f a r e s e a r c h p r o gram i s u s u a l l y f i n a n c i a l . Only a c e r t a i n amount o f money can be s e t a s i d e f o r r e s e a r c h , and how much t h a t should be depends on a number o f f a c t o r s . I n the case o f the o l d , l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d f o r e s t department which has s e t t l e d down t o f a i r l y s t e r e o t y p e d methods of working and has b u i l t up a t r a d i t i o n o f management and s i l v i c u l t u r a l t e c h n i q u e s , l e s s expenditure would be c a l l e d f o r than i n a r e l a t i v e l y young and d e v e l o p i n g department concerned w i t h the c r e a t i o n o f a f o r e s t e s t a t e under new c o n d i t i o n s . The p r a c t i c a l problems t h a t a r i s e i n the l a t t e r case a r e more numerous and more urgent, and i t i s prima f a c i e d e s i r a b l e t o spend a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n on r e s e a r c h i n r e l a t i o n to t o t a l expenditure. Other f a c t o r s a l s o come i n such as the g e n e r a l f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n i n the c o u n t r y and the f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n i n the f o r e s t r y department itself. I t i s an u n f o r t u n a t e paradox t h a t i n any i n d u s t r y , f o r e s t r y i n c l u d e d , the need f o r r e s e a r c h i s g r e a t e s t when t h i n g s a r e going b a d l y and money can be l e a s t spared." Attempts have been made a t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h o t h e r of a c t i v i t y .  spheres  K a u f e r t and Cummings (1^2) used data from a range  of i n d u s t r i e s t o determine search e x p e n d i t u r e s .  the d e s i r a b l e l e v e l o f American r e -  The Canadian Lumberman's A s s o c i a t i o n (24)  have made comparisons w i t h f e d e r a l expenditure on a g r i c u l t u r a l research.  I t may be questioned whether such comparisons a r e  v a l i d f o r the r e s e a r c h needs o f one i n d u s t r y can have b e a r i n g on the requirements  little  o f another.  An a l t e r n a t i v e approach has been t o c o r r e l a t e r e s e a r c h exp e n d i t u r e w i t h present p r o d u c t i v i t y but, u n l e s s f o r e s t r y i s t o be c o n s i d e r e d o n l y from the extremely narrow viewpoint o f a short-term e x t r a c t i v e e n t e r p r i s e i t i s d i f f i c u l t  t o see t h a t  142.  t h i s index can g i v e any i n d i c a t i o n o f a d e s i r a b l e l e v e l o f expenditure.  There i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , a s i g n i f i c a n t  disparity  between expenditures i n i n d u s t r y - s p o n s o r e d r e s e a r c h i n f o r e s t products and i n management r e s e a r c h , even w i t h due a l l o w ance f o r the p o s s i b l y more c o s t l y nature o f the former.  The  i n c e n t i v e o f e a r l y f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n encourages g r e a t e r i n v e s t ment . S l o a n (194) commented on the f a c t t h a t i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s about t h r e e times as much money I s spent on produ c t s r e s e a r c h than on r e s e a r c h i n f o r e s t r y .  He emphasized t h a t :  "to compare the amount o f money spent on products r e s e a r c h i n terms o f percentage o f net annual value o f t h a t product w i t h the amount spent on f o r e s t r y r e s e a r c h i n terms o f net annual value o f primary f o r e s t p r o d u c t s , does not take i n t o s u f f i c i e n t account the enormous f u t u r e v a l u e s t h a t can be expected from i n t e n s i v e f o r e s t management o f our c a p i t a l a s s e t the c a p i t a l value and p o t e n t i a l p r o d u c t i o n o f our f o r e s t s should be c o n s i d e r e d as w e l l as the annual income value when a s s e s s i n g the adequacy o f f o r e s t r e s e a r c h programs." D e s p i t e i n d u s t r y emphasis on products r e s e a r c h i t i s s a l u t a t o r y t o r e c o r d t h a t i n 1955 one company was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i r t y percent o f the t o t a l expenditure on f o r e s t management i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and f a r exceeded Government's c o n t r i b u t i o n (194).  However i t should be noted t h a t the i n d u s t r i a l  con-  t r i b u t i o n i s apt t o f l u c t u a t e w i d e l y w i t h v a r y i n g economic conditions.  Government-sponsored r e s e a r c h i s l e s s l i k e l y t o be  i n f l u e n c e d by short-term t r e n d s . Attempts a t the development o f an economic y a r d s t i c k f o r determining the adequacy o f r e s e a r c h e x p e n d i t u r e s n e g l e c t the s i t u a t i o n t h a t timber p r o d u c t i o n i s but one f a c e t o f f o r e s t r y , and t h a t research, i s d e s i r a b l e i n f i e l d s from which f i n a n c i a l  143returns, i f any, w i l l be of an i n d i r e c t nature. Clearly under such conditions an economic evaluation i s Impossible. "In any research program the expenditure should not be l i m i t e d a r b i t r a r i l y to a c e r t a i n percentage of t o t a l expenditure or to a certain f i x e d amount, but must be conditioned by the number, importance and urgency of the problems that have, to be solved." (147) In the present study an attempt was made to compare nat i o n a l research expenditures. absence of a common base.  This proved impossible i n the  As Laurie also found, annual f i n a n -  c i a l statements of forest services r a r e l y prove very informat i v e , f o r s t a f f and other overhead expenditures are very often not c l e a r l y a l l o c a t e d .  A l l that can be done Is to describe  individual situations.  In B r i t i s h Columbia research expendi-  ture during the ten-year period 1935-1945 was 0.94 t o t a l forest revenue. 1956-57 i t was 0.27  In 1946-47 i t was 0.47  percent.  In 1946-47, 1.06  percent of  percent and i n percent of t o t a l  government expenditure on f o r e s t r y went to research. was so devoted (194).  In  1955-  1956,  0.62  1956,  the amount spent by the Forest Authority on forest r e -  In the United Kingdom, i n  search, including a l l s a l a r i e s and overheads, and also grants to u n i v e r s i t i e s and other i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r fundamental research, was 2.9  percent of the t o t a l state expenditure on f o r e s t r y .  In  the United States, expenditure by a l l agencies on f o r e s t r y r e search (excluding forest products) was given by Kaufert and Cummings as 0.06 percent of timber-products revenue. As Laurie remarked, i t i s a matter of opinion whether or not any one l e v e l i s correct. Additional d i f f i c u l t i e s r e s u l t from changing money values  144.  w i t h time and between c o u n t r i e s .  D i r e c t comparisons between  n a t i o n a l expenditures can mean l i t t l e . c r i t i c i s m of K a u f e r t and Cummings  ,  I t l i s perhaps a v a l i d  r e p o r t t h a t they r e l i e d  to  an undue extent on f i n a n c i a l p r o v i s i o n and academic s t a n d i n g f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of r e s e a r c h e f f o r t .  It i s difficult  to  suggest any p r a c t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e as an exact y a r d s t i c k ;  the  q u e s t i o n i s whether q u a n t i t a t i v e d e f i n i t i o n i s p o s s i b l e and has any r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n such a h i g h l y p e r s o n a l i z e d f i e l d of human endeavour.  K a u f e r t and Cummings attempt 1  contrasts  w i t h the e a r l i e r s t u d i e s when more p h i l o s o p h i c a l and t i v e assessments were made.  qualita-  Perhaps the methods adopted  in  the v a r i o u s i n s t a n c e s r e f l e c t the p r e v a i l i n g r e s e a r c h p h i l o s o p h i e s o f the  time.  Recommended and a c t u a l e x p e n d i t u r e s on f o r e s t r e s e a r c h i n post-war B r i t a i n i l l u s t r a t e the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f f o r e c a s t i n g desirable financial provision. on the new proposed  Including c a p i t a l  expenditure  r e s e a r c h e s t a b l i s h m e n t , the F o r e s t r y Commission  an annual expenditure o f  post-war decade ( 9 5 ) .  £30,000 d u r i n g the  first  An a l t e r n a t i v e program which was  advo-  c a t e d by the n a t i o n a l f o r e s t r y s o c i e t i e s c a l l e d f o r annual expenditure r i s i n g to $i 150,000 a t the end of the f i r s t years ( 9 8 ) .  I n f a c t t h e r e was  a c t i v i t y than was  ten  considerably greater research  envisaged i n e i t h e r p r o p o s a l s , w i t h a  s i d e r a b l y e n l a r g e d s t a f f , and a much extended and a c t u a l r e s e a r c h expenditure was  range of i n t e r e s t ,  $ 2 6 5 , 0 0 0 i n 1956  Expenditure has continued t o i n c r e a s e , and i n 1958 the order of J 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 .  con-  (147).  i t was  of  The advantages of f l e x i b i l i t y i n p r o -  graming, arid of a c e r t a i n o p p o r t u n i s t approach,  are obvious.  145.  under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  T h i s cannot be so r e a d i l y o b t a i n e d  when long-term, f o r m a l , and d e t a i l e d r e s e a r c h programs are adopted. Where the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s not so f a v o u r a b l y i n c l i n e d towards r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y t h e r e a r e advantages i n f o r m a l l o n g term assurance of adequate support.  In B r i t i s h  Columbia,  S p i l s b u r y (194) has s a i d t h a t the g r e a t e s t need i s f o r a s s u r ance of adequate p r o v i s i o n f o r s u s t a i n i n g long-term s i v e programs.  comprehen-  Cuts i n f i n a n c i a l a l l o c a t i o n s d e s t r o y e d a l l  e f f o r t s a t p l a n n i n g and encouraged  day-to-day  expediency,  with  emphasis on short-term s t u d i e s , r a t h e r than on p o s s i b l y more urgent long-term i n v e s t i g a t i o n s .  I n America  the McSweeney-  McNary Act of 1928, a u t h o r i z i n g ten-year a p p r o p r i a t i o n s , p r o v i d e d the a s s u r e d support n e c e s s a r y f o r the development of the r e g i o n a l experiment  s t a t i o n s which are the b a s i s f o r p r e s e n t -  day American f e d e r a l r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y . Most o f t e n , p r i n c i p l e f i n a n c i a l support i s by Government, but i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o o b t a i n as wide a base as p o s s i b l e . S h i r l e y (191) vantages  has e v a l u a t e d the r e l a t i v e advantages and d i s a d -  of the v a r i o u s sources of support i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  Government funds, a l t h o u g h a major source, o f t e n have l i m i t e d flexibility.  Support by i n d u s t r y has the advantage of p r o v i -  s i o n f o r immediate urgency.  That from the f o u n d a t i o n s and  from  u n i v e r s i t y funds has g r e a t e s t f l e x i b i l i t y i n the a l l o c a t i o n o f the r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e . A common method of f i n a n c i a l p r o v i s i o n i n i n - s e r v i c e r e search i s by d i r e c t a l l o c a t i o n through a departmental The r e l i a b i l i t y  budget.  and extent o f such p r o v i s i o n depends upon the  146. value a t t a c h e d t o the r e s e a r c h f u n c t i o n by h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y . T h i s o b v i o u s l y w i l l be much i n f l u e n c e d by the value of the r e s e a r c h c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the f u r t h e r a n c e of departmental tice.  I n t h i s the, a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h group has obvious  tages because of the more immediately  apparent  prac-  advan-  applicability  of i t s f i n d i n g s . P r o v i s i o n f o r r e s e a r c h must r e f l e c t for forestry i n general.  s e c u r i t y of p r o v i s i o n  Where the p r i n c i p l e of the  forestry  fund has been adopted t h i s has been g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d . c o n s i d e r a b l e extent the f a c i l i t i e s a t the Dehra Dun  The  a  Institutions  i n I n d i a are a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the a p p l i c a t i o n of f u n d i n g c i p l e s to f o r e s t r y i n I n d i a .  To  prin-  demands made upon I n d i a n  f o r e s t revenues by the s t a t e s s i n c e independence has the a v a i l a b i l i t y of funds f o r such  lessened  purposes.  I n North America b a s i c r e s e a r c h i s o f t e n f i n a n c e d  through  t r u s t funds or by g r a n t s - i n - a i d from p u b l i c and p r i v a t e agenc i e s , and most o f t e n the r e s e a r c h worker has t o seek f i n a n c i a l support f o r the i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t .  In o t h e r c o u n t r i e s support  comes most o f t e n from g e n e r a l funds, i f a t a u n i v e r s i t y , from government g r a n t s .  or  When such support i s p r o v i d e d by a  f o r e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , d i r e c t i o n of funds towards p r o j e c t s of d i r e c t i n t e r e s t to the sponsoring body may  be expected.  freedom o b t a i n s when government monies are c h a n n e l l e d  Greater through  p u b l i c agencies charged w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the s t i m u l u s support of fundamental r e s e a r c h i n g e n e r a l .  Examples are  and  the  N a t i o n a l S c i e n c e Foundation  of the U n i t e d S t a t e s and the Cana-  d i a n Research C o u n c i l .  aims of the American body are  cal,  The  typi-  147. " . . ( t h e p r o v i s i o n o f ) a i d t o any o r g a n i z a t i o n o r i n d i v i d u a l i n a p o s i t i o n t o make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s c i e n t i f i c p r o g r e s s . " (191). U s u a l l y , however, the i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r s t i l l has t o p r e s e n t an extremely  d e t a i l e d statement  search when a p p l y i n g f o r support. this  o f h i s proposed r e -  Much time may be spent on  facet. The u s u a l p a t t e r n o f t h e European u n i v e r s i t i e s i s f o r  long-term  support t o be g i v e n t o the l a b o r a t o r y or f a c u l t y  r a t h e r than t o the i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t and f o r t h i s t o be p r o v i d e d d i r e c t l y by the u n i v e r s i t y .  I n the European s t a t e u n i -  v e r s i t i e s t h e r e i s t h e ever-present p o s s i b i l i t y o f government d i r e c t i o n b u t the t r a d i t i o n o f academic freedom i s j e a l o u s l y guarded.  I n B r i t a i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s a r e independent founda-  t i o n s , although i n modern times t h e r e has been i n c r e a s i n g s t a t e subvention.  Independence o f a c t i o n i s p r o v i d e d through the  U n i v e r s i t y Grants Committee, which permits o f government f i n a n c i n g without government c o n t r o l o r d i r e c t i o n o f e x p e n d i t u r e . Funds a r e passed  t o the Committee f o r d i s p o s i t i o n t o the u n i v e r -  s i t i e s as b l o c k g r a n t s a t i t s d i s c r e t i o n .  The workings o f t h e  Committee, which i s formed o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the u n i v e r s i t i e s , has been d i s c u s s e d by Carmichael  (43).  In addition,  s p e c i f i c s t u d i e s may be undertaken a t the r e q u e s t o f government agencies.  These a r e f i n a n c e d s e p a r a t e l y .  E a r l i e r , r e f e r e n c e was made t o r e s e a r c h sponsorship by nongovernmental b o d i e s , t r a d e a s s o c i a t i o n s , c o o p e r a t i v e s , foundat i o n s , t r u s t s , p r i v a t e and i n d u s t r i a l a g e n c i e s , and through industrial participation.  The degree o f c o n t r o l t h a t may be  e x e r c i s e d by any-of these i s dependent on the i n t e r e s t t h a t  148.  the sponsoring body has i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of the r e s u l t s tained.  Where t h e r e i s d i s i n t e r e s t e d sponsorship  there  ob-  may  be l i t t l e more than a check t o ensure t h a t funds are u s e f u l l y spent, even t h i s may Cooperative  be  omitted.  agreements between s t a t e and o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d  p a r t i e s p r o v i d e r e s e a r c h advantages.  An example i s the a r -  rangement a t Z u r i c h where the r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e s a t t a c h e d  to  the F e d e r a l P o l y t e c h n i c are financed by the S t a t e , but work i s a l s o supported  by a  Wood U t i l i z a t i o n The  1  'Fund f o r promoting F o r e s t Research  and by other sources  and  (83).  d e s i r a b i l i t y of c o o r d i n a t e d agency r e s e a r c h has been  discussed.  S i m i l a r r e s e a r c h b e n e f i t s r e s u l t s from the p o o l i n g  of f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , a much more d i f f i c u l t p r o c e e d i n g . o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Research S o c i e t y o f the F o r e s t r y and e s t I n d u s t r i e s of Norway has a l r e a d y been d e s c r i b e d . i t s most important  f u n c t i o n s was  One  Forof  the m a r s h a l l i n g o f a v a i l a b l e  f i n a n c e s so t h a t the member i n s t i t u t e s might be p l a c e d on f i r m economic f o u n d a t i o n t h a t was  The  necessary  take the long view i n t h e i r r e s e a r c h .  the  I f they were t o  To f a c i l i t a t e t h i s , a l l  c l a s s e s of members; i n d u s t r y , a d v i s o r y b o d i e s , and  research  i n s t i t u t e s , pledged membership f o r an i n i t i a l p e r i o d of f i v e y e a r s , a u t o m a t i c a l l y renewable f o r succeeding A v o l u n t a r y l e v y was  five-year periods.  made on timber used, the f o r e s t owners  c o n t r i b u t e d through t h e i r f e d e r a t i o n on the same b a s i s as t h a t o b t a i n i n g f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of the s t a t e forest-improvement tax, while the t r a d e members p a i d a l e v y on each t o n of f i n i s h e d products and a l s o one put.  percent of the s a l e s value of t h e i r  These measures produced s u b s t a n t i a l l y more than  had  out-  149.  h i t h e r t o been a v a i l a b l e f o r f o r e s t r e s e a r c h and the sum was, moreover, assured f o r a p e r i o d o f y e a r s . search budget was p r o v i d e d f o r .  Thus t h e annual r e -  C a p i t a l expenditure f o r new  c o n s t r u c t i o n and the e x t e n s i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s was o b t a i n e d by a p p l i c a t i o n o f a p o r t i o n o f the proceeds o f an export t a x l e v i e d on the wood-producing i n d u s t r i e s , twenty percent o f which was r e s e r v e d by government f o r purposes o f common i n t e r est  t o the f o r e s t r y and wood-processing i n d u s t r i e s . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s the r e s e a r c h and f i r e - c o n t r o l  activ-  i t i e s o f the Oregon F o r e s t P r o t e c t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n Comm i t t e e a r e supported  through a p r i v i l e g e t a x on the h a r v e s t i n g  of  T h i s t a x i s l e v i e d on the produce o f a l l  f o r e s t products.  f o r e s t lands c o n t a i n i n g merchantable stands, and from a l l f o r est  lands p r o t e c t e d from f i r e by o f f i c i a l s t a t e a g e n c i e s .  The  l e v y c o n s i s t s o f f o u r cents p e r 1 , 0 0 0 f e e t board measure o f timber produced, e x c l u d i n g the f i r s t 2 5 , 0 0 0 f e e t .  Monies f o r  r e s e a r c h f i n a n c i n g a r e p l a c e d i n a F o r e s t Research and E x p e r i ment Account.  T h i s has a r e s e r v e base o f $ 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 .  sources i n t h i s account  I f the r e -  exceed the r e s e r v e base a t the end o f  the f i n a n c i a l year t h e t a x i s reduced by 50 percent d u r i n g the f o l l o w i n g year.  S i m i l a r arrangements have been made f o r monies  allotted f o r f i r e protection.  The Research Fund a l s o r e c e i v e s  any funds made a v a i l a b l e t o the S t a t e o f Oregon by any f e d e r a l agency f o r f o r e s t r e s e a r c h purposes, g i f t s by p r i v a t e persons  and any c o n t r i b u t i o n s o r  or by p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e agencies  (130).  D e s p i t e t h i s assured income the present s i t u a t i o n o f t h i s r e search group, n e v e r t h e l e s s , i l l u s t r a t e s a danger t h a t should be avoided, f o r while i n i t i a l l a r g e c a p i t a l expenditures  permitted  150. the establishment  of a l a r g e s t a t i o n and e x t e n s i v e permanent  i n s t a l l a t i o n s , c u r r e n t income i s i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r the maintenance of the l e v e l of s t a f f i n g necessary of  t o make f u l l e s t  use  A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the American l i t e r a t u r e i s the  em-  the f a c i l i t i e s  available.  p h a s i s p l a c e d upon f i n a n c e as the key t o s u c c e s s f u l r e s e a r c h . The of  example j u s t noted may  seem t o s u b s t a n t i a t e the  validity  t h i s view, however the emphasis goes deeper than the  v i s i o n of a minimum s t a f f .  Great and  pro-  continuing stress i s  l a i d on a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s a l a r y l e v e l s and  research  q u a l i t y , and upon m a t e r i a l rewards as a major f o r c e i n the a t t r a c t i o n of personnel l e s s i n evidence  to a career i n research.  T h i s i s much  i n the e a r l y w r i t i n g s , f o r example Clapp  remarked t h a t o n l y r e l a t i v e l y small s u b s i d i e s were to  stimulate research a c t i v i t y .  Cummings (132) ules play.  necessary  In c o n t r a s t , K a u f e r t  emphasized the important  (52)  and  p a r t t h a t s a l a r y sched-  Thus,  "those agencies and r e s e a r c h areas w i t h the b e s t s a l a r y schedules appeared t o have the h i g h e s t percentage of i m a g i n a t i v e and p r o d u c t i v e r e s e a r c h p e r s o n n e l . Quali t y as w e l l as q u a n t i t y i s purchasable Many outstanding f o r e s t r y s c h o o l graduates with r e s e a r c h promise see more o p p o r t u n i t y f o r advancement and f o r g r e a t e r ( f i n a n c i a l ) compensation i n management and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n than i n r e s e a r c h . " T h i s r e f l e c t s the f a v o u r a b l e employment s i t u a t i o n t h a t been enjoyed by American f o r e s t e r s i n r e c e n t y e a r s . l e s s , care should be taken i n unduly weighting  the  has  Neverthepecuniary  advantages as between r e s e a r c h and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n or p r a c t i c e . Research i s o n l y a p o r t i o n of the o v e r - a l l f o r e s t r y scheme. h e a l t h y s i l v i c u l t u r e r e q u i r e s a v i r i l e r e s e a r c h e f f o r t but i t  A  151.  a l s o r e q u i r e s men  w i t h i m a g i n a t i o n and the c a p a c i t y f o r con-  s t r u c t i v e thought  i n management.  Without these  qualities  t h e r e can be no t r u l y p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s .  There i s  perhaps l i t t l e r e a l d i f f e r e n c e between the o u t s t a n d i n g i n f i e l d r e s e a r c h and i n p r a c t i c e .  F o r e s t r y would be  men ill-  served i f the inducements to r e s e a r c h were such as t o draw o f f a l l men  of h i g h c a l i b r e .  to a r i s e !  Probably the s i t u a t i o n i s u n l i k e l y  N e v e r t h e l e s s a balance i s n e c e s s a r y .  There can  be  too much emphasis on r e s e a r c h and i n s u f f i c i e n t on sound management.  Where the necessary balance i s t o be must depend  on the circumstances  of the f o r e s t r y s i t u a t i o n , but i t i s im-  p o r t a n t t h a t p r a c t i c e be not looked upon as the poor r e l a t i o n of r e s e a r c h i n the p r o v i s i o n of s t a f f of h i g h DISSEMINATION AND P u b l i c a t i o n p o l i c y and  DOCUMENTATION  practice  D i f f i c u l t i e s i n d i s s e m i n a t i o n may d i s t i n c t i o n tM. aim. a specific  attainment.  r e s u l t from l a c k of  In g e n e r a l , papers should be d i r e c t e d t o  audience.  P l a c e (175)  suggested  that large research agencies  employ f l u e n t s t a f f w r i t e r s f o r more popular accounts  should  of r e -  search a c t i v i t y ; i n f a c t , p u b l i c a t i o n o r e d i t o r i a l branches are f r e q u e n t l y o r g a n i z e d w i t h i n government f o r e s t They are perhaps l e s s commonly concerned The  agencies.  with research alone.  s i z e of such e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o b v i o u s l y must depend upon the  s i z e of the s e r v i c e .  I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e r e i s an e d i t o r  a t each F o r e s t Experiment S t a t i o n and a l s o an e d i t o r i a l  staff.  I n Great B r i t a i n , a P u b l i c a t i o n s O f f i c e r i s a t t a c h e d t o the Research and E d u c a t i o n D i r e c t o r a t e and i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  152.  co-ordination The  o f a l l F o r e s t r y Commission p u b l i c a t i o n s .  machinery o f p u b l i c a t i o n v a r i e s .  Research i n s t i t u t e s  may c o n t r o l t h e i r own p u b l i c a t i o n p o l i c y and p u b l i s h t h e i r own f i n d i n g s , o r p u b l i c a t i o n may be c e n t r a l i z e d through the f o r e s t service.  Both p r a c t i c e s may be f o l l o w e d  w i t h i n the same organ-  i z a t i o n f o r d i f f e r e n t types o f p u b l i c a t i o n . r e c t l y by the r e s e a r c h  s t a t i o n r e s u l t s i n l e s s d e l a y , but i t  may l e a d t o o v e r - p r o d u c t i o n . the r e s e a r c h regard. siderable  Publication d i -  Much depends on the a t t i t u d e o f  s t a f f ; there i s considerable  variation i n this  I n some cases workers o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s s i g n i f i c a n c e to research  attach  publications,  con-  i n others  t h e r e i s but l i t t l e i n t e r e s t . The  United States Forest  Service  procedure (215)  i s espe-  c i a l l y n o t a b l e f o r i t s formalism and comprehensiveness.  There  are d e t a i l e d and extremely s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r each stage i n the p u b l i c a t i o n p r o c e s s . searcher. and  L i t t l e freedom i s l e f t  J o i n t p u b l i c a t i o n with other agencies i s regulated  procedures a r e p r e s c r i b e d  f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n  o f papers  f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n the s c i e n t i f i c and p r o f e s s i o n a l Responsibility f o r release  journals.  through n o n - o f f i c i a l o u t l e t s  w i t h the D i r e c t o r o f the F o r e s t responsible  t o the r e -  f o r a l l research  Experiment S t a t i o n .  rests  He i s  p u b l i c a t i o n from h i s s t a t i o n and  d e c i d e s on types, scope, c h a r a c t e r  and a u t h o r s h i p w i t h i n the  l i m i t s l a i d down by the r e g u l a t i o n s .  Important o r c o n t r o v e r -  s i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s , o r those d e a l i n g w i t h p o l i c y m a t t e r s , must be r e f e r r e d f o r a p p r o v a l t o the Washington o f f i c e . In the s t a n d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r suggestion, of t o p i c s , guiding  authors, s c h e d u l i n g  production,  153  c o n t r o l l i n g accuracy,  e t c . , are d e l i m i t e d i n g r e a t  detail.  S p e c i f i c a t i o n s are l a i d down f o r the t e c h n i c a l p r o d u c t i o n  of  manuscripts, i n c l u d i n g s e c r e t a r i a l i n s t r u c t i o n s i n s u r p r i s i n g detail.  C o n d i t i o n s f o r the a l l o t t i n g of a u t h o r s h i p  s t r i c t l y prescribed.  credit  are  A t i m e t a b l e i s l a i d down f o r each stage  i n the p u b l i c a t i o n p r o c e s s . Two  types o f o f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n are r e c o g n i z e d .  These  are termed Departmental p u b l i c a t i o n s and S t a t i o n r e l e a s e s . The  Departmental p u b l i c a t i o n s must be approved by  the  C h i e f of the Bureau ( i . e . , the F o r e s t S e r v i c e ) and reviewed  by  o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d government bureaux (departments), whose comments and  suggestions  must be c o n s i d e r e d  and,  i f possible, har-  monized. Before up,  p r e p a r a t i o n of the manuscript a p r o s p e c t u s i s drawn  endorsed by the S t a t i o n D i r e c t o r and  s i o n C h i e f , and Research.  approved by the A s s i s t a n t C h i e f i n Charge of  T h i s o f f i c e r i s responsible f o r f i n a l approval  p u b l i c a t i o n s and The  the Washington D i v i -  f o r g e n e r a l p o l i c y and  c h a i n o f p r o c e s s i n g i s complex.  of  standards. Copies of the manu-  s c r i p t pass through a l a r g e number of hands.  A formal Board  o f Review, formed o f s e n i o r o f f i c e r s , i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t e c h n i c a l review; i n a d d i t i o n the manuscript i s c r i t i c a l l y cons i d e r e d by each of a number o f p r e s c r i b e d s e n i o r o f f i c e r s . paper may  be r e t u r n e d f o r r e v i s i o n to the parent  number of time d u r i n g p r o c e s s i n g . e d i t o r i a l hands and  before  the  station a  F i n a l l y i t passes i n t o the  thence to p r i n t i n g .  years from the i n i t i a l  A  I t may  take s e v e r a l  submission of the completed manuscript  final"publication.  154  T h i s procedure may  be presumed to have evolved  to meet  the needs of an o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s c a l e of the U n i t e d  States  F o r e s t S e r v i c e , but i n t o t a l i t appears i n o r d i n a t e l y c o s t l y I n man-power and  subject to very considerably delays.  It i s a  matter of o p i n i o n whether complete s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n p r e s e n t a t i o n and the e l i m i n a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e i s d e s i r a b l e . I t may  moreover be questioned  malized  whether such a complex and  p r o c e s s i n g procedure i s e s s e n t i a l f o r a r e s e a r c h  of h i g h q u a l i t y , i f t h e r e i s a r a t i o n a l approach t o p u b l i c a t i o n both i n terms o f q u a l i t y and  volume.  p h a s i s p l a c e d on the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f e a r l y and t i o n has  forstaff  research  Perhaps  em-  f u l l publica-  produced r e a c t i o n i n the need f o r d e t a i l e d c o n t r o l of  production. To reduce d e l a y s , and f o r papers of l e s s e r s i g n i f i c a n c e , the r e g i o n a l experiment s t a t i o n s of the U n i t e d S t a t e s S e r v i c e use  station releases.  There are t e c h n i c a l , s t a t i o n ,  and r e s e a r c h papers, a l l i n numbered s e r i e s and v e h i c l e s f o r d i f f e r e n t types o f p u b l i c a t i o n .  providing  There are a l s o  short s t a t i o n notes t h a t g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on s p e c i f i c and which r e p o r t progress  Forest  subjects  i n i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of l i m i t e d  scope.  T h e i r purpose i s the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t i m e l y r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s and  i n f o r m a t i o n on c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s .  are processed  Station releases  at the experiment s t a t i o n l e v e l .  There are i n -  s e r v i c e procedures s i m i l a r to those a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d at national  the  level.  To m a i n t a i n  a h i g h and uniform  standard  o f p u b l i c a t i o n the  Experiment S t a t i o n s conduct programs o f c o n t i n u i n g t r a i n i n g i n the techniques  of w r i t i n g and  analysis for publication.  The  155. i d e a l i s uniformity  and  the e l i m i n a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l c h a r -  a c t e r i s t i c s or s t y l e . In recent  years increase  search a g e n c i e s has of p u b l i c a t i o n . raphic  i n the number and  resulted i n a greatly increased  volume  t h i s i s o n l y a p a l l i a t i v e f o r the numer-  ous  and  lem  i s the d u p l i c a t i o n of e s s e n t i a l l y the  ever-growing number of s e r i e s and  journals.  One  prob-  same r e s u l t s i n  form.  I t may  be q u e s t i o n e d whether the  search r e p o r t i n g , necessary. on the  re-  P a r t i a l s o l u t i o n i s p r o v i d e d by the b i b l i o g -  a g e n c i e s , but  different  s i z e of  typically detailed re-  complete w i t h l i t e r a t u r e review, i s always  A r a t i o n a l p o l i c y towards p u b l i c a t i o n , and  s t a n d i n g of the o r g a n i z a t i o n  superfluous a considerable of methods and  reliance  concerned, should render  proportion  of the  data a n a l y s i s i n r o u t i n e  d e t a i l e d accounts  e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , when  w e l l - t r i e d techniques are employed or simple f i e l d t r i a l s involved.  I t i s of course d e s i r a b l e , i n t h i s r e g a r d , to d i s -  t i n g u i s h between the p r e s e n t a t i o n e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and  been r e p o r t e d  o f f i n d i n g s from  the p u b l i c a t i o n of new  An example of the value o f the by S e t t e n ( 1 8 7 ) .  p r i n c i p l e s i n i t i a l l y described U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h The  are  routine  research  techniques.  l a t t e r form o f p u b l i c a t i o n T h i s was  the use  has  i n Malaya of  i n a paper by J . W.  Ker  of  the  Columbia.  p u b l i c a t i o n of l a r g e numbers of mimeographed s t a t i o n  notes, r e p o r t i n g on i n d i v i d u a l experiments, extending over a short p e r i o d  and  of very v a r y i n g  s i g n i f i c a n c e , and  often  w i t h o n l y i n t e r i m or p r o v i s i o n a l r e s u l t s , i s consuming o f search r e s o u r c e s .  A matter t h a t has  received  little  only  re-  attention  156.  i n the l i t e r a t u r e i s the demands t h a t the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s m a t e r i a l makes on the time o f the r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r , both I n p r e p a r a t i o n and review.  K a u f e r t and Cummings (132) remarked,  "Research notes a r e h e l p f u l i n d i s s e m i n a t i n g r e s u l t s i n summary form, but u s u a l l y they a r e a v a i l a b l e o n l y l o c a l l y t o p r a c t i c i n g f o r e s t e r s , and n a t i o n a l l y o n l y through the l i b r a r i a n s o f r e s e a r c h a g e n c i e s . T h e i r sheer abundance makes t h e i r review by even r e s e a r c h personnel d i f f i cult." I t may perhaps be questioned whether p u b l i c a t i o n i n t h i s manner o f the b a l d r e s u l t s o f i n d i v i d u a l experiments i s the most d e s i r a b l e method o f p r e s e n t a t i o n .  While o f i n t e r e s t t o  o t h e r r e s e a r c h workers who may be working i n the same a r e a , and  s e r v i n g t o keep them informed  o f p r o g r e s s and c u r r e n t  a c t i v i t y , they do not supply the p r a c t i t i o n e r w i t h the o v e r a l l view t h a t he r e q u i r e s t o decide how h i s p r a c t i c e and t e c h niques  should be m o d i f i e d i n the l i g h t o f s c i e n t i f i c  I t i s h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e t h a t the s p e c i a l i s t r e s e a r c h  advance. officer  i n t e r p r e t h i s f i n d i n g s i n terms t h a t a r e i n t e l l i g i b l e t o the n o n - s p e c i a l i s t , who w i l l almost c e r t a i n l y not be a b l e t o keep i n touch with a l l c u r r e n t a c t i v i t y through p e r s o n a l o f r e s e a r c h p u b l i c a t i o n , even supposing  review  t h a t he possesses the  s p e c i a l knowledge t o e v a l u a t e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h notes a r e d i f f i c u l t  t o conserve.  The  q u e s t i o n i s whether they serve any v i t a l and i r r e p l a c e a b l e function.  I f t h e r e i s need f o r e a r l y p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s  c l a s s o f m a t e r i a l t h i s may o f t e n be s a t i s f i e d by a short note i n the annual r e p o r t o f r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y , a most  important  publication.  The short d e l a y i n p u b l i c a t i o n i s o f but s m a l l  consequence.  I f necessary  t h i s may be supplemented by an  157.  o c c a s i o n a l note i n a c u r r e n t  journal.  Eventually  the f i n a l -  i z e d and accumulated f i n d i n g s should appear i n a comprehensive study. To many f o r e s t e r s , time taken i n the p r e p a r a t i o n papers of ephemeral v a l u e ,  o f minor  t h e d e s i r e f o r immediate p u b l i c a -  t i o n , and the consequent i m p r e s s i o n o f p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h i n d i v i d u a l experiments, o f t e n o f l i m i t e d e x t e n t o r minor n a t u r e , suggests a l i m i t e d i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h sive desire f o r recognition. for  program and an exces-  T h i s assessment may be d i f f i c u l t  the American worker t o understand b u t i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s  so. The  English-language s c i e n t i f i c  j o u r n a l s Nature and  S c i e n c e p r o v i d e a u s e f u l medium through t h e i r l e t t e r columns for  miscellaneous observations  and r e c o r d s  i n the b a s i c  sci-  ences, the former, p a r t i c u l a r l y , i s used e x t e n s i v e l y f o r t h i s purpose and i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n the scope o f i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n s . I t i s t o be r e g r e t t e d t h a t more use i s not made o f s i m i l a r f a c i l i t i e s i n the f o r e s t r y j o u r n a l s f o r t h i s c l a s s o f m a t e r i a l . C o n s e r v a t i o n would be g r e a t l y The writers.  facilitated.  need f o r s y n t h e s i s has been i n d i c a t e d by s e v e r a l H i g n e t (112) has commented on t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f  study by which, " f o r s e v e r a l decades the m a j o r i t y o f s c h o l a r s " have p r e f e r r e d w r i t i n g small s t u d i e s . . . . o f t i n y a r e a s . . . . o f t o p i c s obscure and p e r i f e r a l . . . . those who l o o k i n from o u t s i d e see no c a t h e d r a l a r i s i n g (but o n l y h a p h a z a r d l y s c a t t e r e d heaps o f b r i c k s ) " In the p r e f a c e  t o Baldwin's e x c e l l e n t s y n t h e s i s  Tree Seed (6), i t i s s a i d ,  Forest  158.  " P r a c t i c i n g f o r e s t e r s and nurserymen o f t e n do not have a c c e s s t o such ( r e s e a r c h ) p u b l i c a t i o n s , or time f o r l o o k i n g them up e v e n . i f they hear of them. Such d e f e c t s i n our methods of s c i e n t i f i c study must be remedied by an o c c a s i o n a l s y n t h e s i s and d i g e s t i o n of the s c a t t e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n , and c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n a s i n g l e p u b l i c a t i o n . " S h i r l e y (191)  believes  that,  " S t u d i e s t h a t i n t e g r a t e r e s u l t s of s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s of l i m i t e d scope i n t o broad p r i n c i p l e s a p p l i c able over wide areas, and under a wide range of c i r c u m stances, are e s p e c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e . " Examples of such syntheses are the review a r t i c l e s i n Forestry Abstracts  and  the T e c h n i c a l  Commonwealth F o r e s t r y Bureau. u s e f u l sources. mit  Communications of  Academic t h e s e s a l s o p r o v i d e  I t i s t o be r e g r e t t e d  o f the p u b l i c a t i o n of t h e s e .  mains g e n e r a l l y u n a v a i l a b l e ,  the  t h a t funds do not  Much v a l u a b l e  and  material  even unknown, to the  useful.  Microfilming  re-  majority  of workers, w i t h i n the covers of the many d i s s e r t a t i o n s are prepared each y e a r .  per-  that  P e r i o d i c p u b l i c a t i o n of summaries i s  techniques have a l s o made a u s e f u l con-  tribution. Most normal requirements of government a g e n c i e s may met  be  by a p u b l i c a t i o n p o l i c y t h a t makes p r o v i s i o n on the  ing lines: lication, during  The  annual r e s e a r c h  report,  the main r e s e a r c h  summarizing the t e c h n i c a l a c t i v i t i e s of the  the y e a r under review, and  work undertaken and  r e v i e w i n g and  the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d .  This  I n s t i t u t e papers, a numbered s e r i e s , p u b l i s h e d  cific  subjects  well reserved  f o r major and  authoritative  agency  should be  the  findings.  at i r r e g u l a r  concerned w i t h comprehensive accounts of of l a s t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e .  pub-  d e t a i l i n g the  p r i n c i p l e v e h i c l e f o r the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of r e s e a r c h  i n t e r v a l s and  follow-  spe-  Such a s e r i e s i s contributions.  159.  L e a f l e t s , a g a i n a numbered s e r i e s , c o n t a i n i n g l a s t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e but  material  of  of l e s s e r magnitude.  M i s c e l l a n e o u s p u b l i c a t i o n s and  s i n g l e sheets, i n  un-  numbered s e r i e s , are b e s t a v o i d e d .  Such a p u b l i c a t i o n policy-  i s w e l l f i t t e d f o r the c o n s e r v a t i o n  of s i g n i f i c a n t m a t e r i a l  w h i l e r e d u c i n g the  l i k e l i h o o d of i t s becoming l o s t i n the  of l i b r a r y s t a c k s ,  whether p u b l i c a t i o n s  should be w r i t t e n  a p r o f e s s i o n a l or a s c i e n t i f i c c i r c l e must depend on the cumstances but  t h e r e should be  present-day r e s e a r c h  clear appreciation  that  for  cir-  the  p u b l i c a t i o n i s o f t e n of a nature t h a t i s  s u i t e d t o the l a t t e r r a t h e r But  dust  u n l e s s a strong  than the  former.  a f f i r m a t i v e can be  g i v e n to the  query  " I f t h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n remains unpublished, i n t h i s form, w i l l f o r e s t r y and may  f o r e s t s c i e n c e be  the poorer" then the  be r a i s e d as t o the d e s i r a b i l i t y of  publication.  Supplementing o f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s , f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s are v a l u a b l e  s c i e n t i f i c and  of the c o n t r i b u t i o n  to r e a c h .  The  more  study w i l l u s u a l l y m e r i t p u b l i c a t i o n i n v e h i c l e s serving  pro-  media f o r d i s s e m i n a t i o n .  c h o i c e depends much on the c h a r a c t e r the c i r c l e t h a t i t i s d e s i r e d  question  s p e c i a l i s t i n t e r e s t s and  Their and  penetrating specifically  possibly international i n  scope. F i n a l l y , t h e r e should be f a c i l i t i e s f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n o b s e r v a t i o n s by the p r a c t i t i o n e r . the r e s e a r c h  organization  e s t r y s t r u c t u r e and  Whatever the  of  importance of  i n a f o r e s t s e r v i c e or n a t i o n a l f o r -  howsoever i t be o r g a n i z e d , t e c h n i c a l  vance i s not dependent o n l y upon the p r o f e s s i o n a l  ad-  researcher.  E v e r y f o r e s t o f f i c e r f r e q u e n t l y makes o b s e r v a t i o n s , experiments,  l6o." and  t r i a l s f o r himself  ing.  I t may  i f he  i s worthy of p r o f e s s i o n a l  not be f o r m a l i z e d  accumulated should not be  but  lost.  the mass of experience thus  I t may  b e s t be  preserved  through departmental, house, or s o c i e t y j o u r n a l s . way  There i s perhaps much to be  the type of the now in Britain. bution  and  of the  defunct J o u r n a l  said for publications of the F o r e s t r y  A t e c h n i c a l p u b l i c a t i o n , t h i s had  i t s c i r c u l a t i o n was  service personnel. service.  were i n v i t e d from a l l grades  More u s u a l , however, i s the  case of o f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s , t h e r e has  example i s p r o v i d e d by  The  society  the  as  An  check l i s t  In a l l ,  i n the most  (54).  with considerable  c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r number to be  in  extreme  the German f o r e s t r y l i t e r a t u r e .  cover a range of i n t e r e s t s but  recated  But,  condition i s general.  (1953) Forestry Abstracts  J a h r i g (128)  journal.  been a tendency  f i f t e e n German f o r e s t r y p e r i o d i c a l s were i n c l u d e d recent  Commission  m a i n l y r e s t r i c t e d to f o r e s t  Contributions  towards p r o l i f e r a t i o n .  These overlapping.  e x c e s s i v e and  dep-  s i t u a t i o n ; he maintained t h a t t h r e e o n l y would  s u f f i c i e n t and  d e s i r a b l e ; one  of  limited d i s t r i -  These have the advantage of a wider c i r c u l a t i o n .  one  In t h i s  i n d i v i d u a l experience can be made a c c e s s i b l e to a wider  circle.  the  stand-  f o r f o r e s t science  f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l f o r e s t r y and  and  f orestr.products;  be  research;  and  t e c h n i c a l p u b l i c a t i o n d i r e c t e d t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c .  one  non-  I n most  n a t i o n a l circumstances such an arrangement has much to commend it.  Where r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s are  e x t e n s i v e as the U n i t e d S t a t e s ,  strong,  or i n a country  f o r example, i t may,  a l l y , be d e s i r a b l e to p r o v i d e v e h i c l e s f o r m a t e r i a l i n t e r e s t , but  i t has  been w e l l s a i d that w r i t e r s  as  additionof l o c a l  should  be  •  161.  g i v e n a s a b b a t i c a l year i n which t o be g i v e n time t o r e a d a r a t h e r l a r g e r f r a c t i o n o f what i s a l r e a d y I n p r i n t .  Espe-  c i a l l y i n the h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e atmosphere o f American r e search i t I s h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e t h a t attempts be made t o overcome the v i c i o u s c i r c l e o f o v e r - p u b l i c a t i o n . Dissemination i n I n d u s t r i a l research The freedom w i t h which the Scandinavian f o r e s t co-operate  industries  i n f o r e s t r y r e s e a r c h , and t h e i r r a t i o n a l approach  t o p u b l i c a t i o n o f r e s u l t s , I s i n d i c a t i v e o f the m a t u r i t y o f the f o r e s t r y e f f o r t I n those c o u n t r i e s .  Company advantage  may ensue from the w i t h h o l d i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n on i n d u s t r i a l processes i n the products f i e l d , b u t s i m i l a r p o l i c i e s i n the f o r e s t i n d i c a t e a l a c k o f a p p r e c i a t i o n of the nature of. f o r e s t r y endeavour.  Much more may be gained through mutual a d -  vance than from the w i t h h o l d i n g o f d a t a .  The extremes t o  which company s e c r e c y may be taken i s i n s t a n c e d by a case encountered by the w r i t e r d u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s  study.  P e r m i s s i o n t o r e f e r t o a t h e s i s prepared by a candidate f o r the B r i t i s h Golumbia R e g i s t e r e d F o r e s t e r s q u a l i f i c a t i o n was. r e f u s e d by one o f the l a r g e s t i n t e g r a t e d f o r e s t The m a t e r i a l i n q u e s t i o n comprised the remuneration,  industries.  a short note d e s c r i b i n g  o r g a n i z a t i o n and r o u t i n e d u t i e s o f a s i x -  man s i l v i c u l t u r a l crew of f i e l d t e c h n i c i a n s .  I n t h a t i t sub-  s t i t u t e d r e g u l a r , year-long, f o r casual, seasonal, labour t h i s was a new and promising departure i n B r i t i s h Columbia forestry.  However, t h i s was c o n s i d e r e d t o be c o n f i d e n t i a l i n -  f o r m a t i o n o f p o s s i b l e value t o i n d u s t r i a l c o m p e t i t o r s . and Smith (137)  Ker  d i s c u s s e d the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n m e n s u r a t i o n a l  162.  a c t i v i t y t h a t r e s u l t e d from e x c e s s i v e i n d u s t r i a l s e c r e c y i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  They i n d i c a t e d the n e e d l e s s d u p l i c a t i o n  t h a t r e s u l t e d and a l s o the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of u n d e r t a k i n g f a c t o r y growth-and-yield d e c l a r e d , "There  s t u d i e s on a company b a s i s .  should be no need t o l a b e l as  any r e s e a r c h i n f o r e s t mensuration."  satis-  They  'confidential'  I t i s t o be expected,  or  a t l e a s t hoped, t h a t w i t h growing m a t u r i t y and i n c r e a s e d unders t a n d i n g of f o r e s t r y the s i t u a t i o n w i l l change. i n d u s t r y p r o v i d e s a s u i t a b l e model. i n thought  i t is difficult  t o see how  Scandinavian  U n l e s s t h e r e i s a change t h e r e can be r e a l  ad-  vance i n technology when the major a c t i v i t y i s i n the hands of i n d u s t r i a l operators. Documentation "An important f u n c t i o n of a r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r i n a s m a l l department i s t o keep a watching b r i e f on c u r r e n t developments abroad so t h a t he might i n f o r m the e x e c u t i v e of any development which has promise f o r h i s own d e p a r t ment, or which may suggest a promising l i n e of e n q u i r y . He must keep i n touch w i t h c u r r e n t f o r e s t r y thought and advance," To f a c i l i t a t e  this,  " I t i s necessary t h a t a r e s e a r c h e r or s p e c i a l i s t has access t o a comprehensive and up-to-date l i b r a r y I f he i s to work p r o p e r l y the v a l u e of the most important p o l i c y statement, i n v e s t i g a t i o n , survey or o b s e r v a t i o n , r e s t s e n t i r e l y on i t s b e i n g known, i t i s t h e r e f o r e imp o r t a n t t h a t documentation and p u b l i c a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s keep pace w i t h o t h e r development." ( 2 0 9 ) Documentation i s an e s s e n t i a l concomitant  to p u b l i c a t i o n .  Lack o f knowledge of the e x i s t e n c e of s i m i l a r r e s e a r c h or exp e r i e n c e knowledge can l e a d t o unnecessary The Seventh Conference  duplication.  of the Pood and A g r i c u l t u r e Organ-  i z a t i o n urged Member Governments t o e s t a b l i s h c e n t r e s f o r f o r e s t r y b i b l i o g r a p h y to co-operate w i t h a g e n c i e s u n d e r t a k i n g  •163.  documentation a t the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l . General  The D i r e c t o r  o f the Food and A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n f u r t h e r sug-  gested t h a t n a t i o n a l c e n t r e s f o r f o r e s t b i b l i o g r a p h y  should  prepare t i t l e l i s t s r e g u l a r l y . In the l a r g e r agencies  documentation c e n t r e s a r e u s u a l l y  associated with l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s .  These p r o v i d e  f o r the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of r e p r i n t s , photostatic copies, c l i p p i n g s , p u b l i c a t i o n s and j o u r n a l s .  To p r o v i d e  similar services f o r  small groups, n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l c e n t r e s have come i n t o being.  T h e i r p a t t e r n s u i t s l o c a l needs.  mentation f u n c t i o n i s centered on Reinbek. and  I n Germany the docuI n Canada, the Pulp  Paper Research I n s t i t u t e serves as a c l e a r i n g house and  d i s t r i b u t i o n c e n t r e f o r t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n o f importance t o the pulp and paper i n d u s t r y . sources  Here i n f o r m a t i o n from s c a t t e r e d  i s assembled and d i s t r i b u t e d i n the form o f monographs,  b i b l i o g r a p h i e s , t r a n s l a t i o n s , and c r i t i c a l r e v i e w s .  In India  the S i l v i c u l t u r a l S e c t i o n o f the C e n t r a l Research I n s t i t u t e has  long f u n c t i o n e d as a c l e a r i n g house and documentation  c e n t r e f o r I n d i a n and world  i n f o r m a t i o n , and an extremely de-  t a i l e d system o f l e d g e r f i l e s has been e v o l v e d .  Similar ser-  v i c e s a r e p r o v i d e d by the E a s t A f r i c a n A g r i c u l t u r e and F o r e s t r y O r g a n i z a t i o n a t Muguga, Kenya.  F o r the B r i t i s h Commonwealth as  a whole, c o l l e c t i o n and d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s undertaken by the Commonwealth F o r e s t r y Buneau, r e g u l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n i s through F o r e s t r y A b s t r a c t s and T e c h n i c a l Communications. There a r e a l s o f a c i l i t i e s  f o r the borrowing o f l i t e r a t u r e .  s c i e n t i f i c worker o f f o r e s t e r i n a c o n t r i b u t i n g country correspond  d i r e c t l y with the d i r e c t o r o f the bureau with  may  Any  164.  requests f o r information, or f o r bibliographies on any spec i f i c t o p i c j these are prepared on request without charge to the i n d i v i d u a l or the service.  The service i s informal and  there are no o f f i c i a l channels of communication.  These A g r i -  c u l t u r a l Bureaux, of which the Forestry Bureau i s one, are d i s t r i b u t e d at suitable centres i n the B r i t i s h Commonwealth and are governed by an Executive t r i b u t i n g country has a seat. for  Council on which each con-  The organization i s dependent  f i n a n c i a l support upon the contributions of the i n d i v i d u a l  Commonwealth Governments. For the best use of such f a c i l i t i e s i t i s desirable that there be uniformity i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f o r e s t l i t e r a t u r e . The International Union of Forest Research Organizations-prior to 1929 c a l l e d the International Association of Forest Research I n s t i t u t e s - put the question of f o r e s t bibliography on i t s program as e a r l y as 1 9 0 3 , with the object of creating a u n i versal system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and an i n t e r n a t i o n a l b i b l i o g raphy.  Subsequent developments have been described by Saari  (185).  After long and d i f f i c u l t  preparation a complete system  of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of forest l i t e r a t u r e was presented by i t s B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l Committee i n 1 9 3 3 .  to IUFRO  This, the Forest  Bibliography, became known widely as the F l u r y System, a f t e r Dr. P h i l i p p Flury, a Swiss f o r e s t e r who d i d the greater part of the creative work on the new system.  The System was so  arranged as to be a sub-division of the Universal Decimal Class i f i c a t i o n (UDC).  One of i t s main uses was to c l a s s i f y the  t i t l e references i n the International Forest Bibliography t h i s was a scheme organized by IUFRO f o r the regular exchange  165.  of  r e f e r e n c e s t o l i t e r a t u r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l  importance. During the  1930's  r e v i s i o n became n e c e s s a r y because o f  new developments i n f o r e s t r e s e a r c h .  A f t e r the Second World  War a completely r e v i s e d system was submitted by the Commonwealth F o r e s t r y Bureau a t Oxford. T h i s r e v i s i o n was based upon 10 year's e x p e r i e n c e gained i n the course o f day-to-day ing  work i n a b s t r a c t i n g and c l a s s i f y -  the world flow o f f o r e s t r y l i t e r a t u r e , and i n c o n s u l t a t i o n  with the c h i e f Research S t a t i o n o f the U. K. F o r e s t r y Commiss i o n a t A l i c e H o l t and the F o r e s t Products L a b o r a t o r y o f the Department o f S c i e n t i f i c and I n d u s t r i a l Research a t P r i n c e s Risborough.  The proposed  new system was s u b j e c t e d t o c r i t i c a l  examination by a j o i n t IUFR0/FA0 committee over a p e r i o d o f f o u r y e a r s , and a t v a r i o u s stages o f r e v i s i o n was c i r c u l a t e d as w i d e l y as p o s s i b l e t o members o f I0FR0 and t o o t h e r r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s throughout  the f o r e s t r y world.  The d e f i n i t i v e t e x t o f what became known o f f i c i a l l y Oxford System o f Decimal C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r F o r e s t r y was by the 1 9 5 3 Congress to  e s t r y s c i e n c e o f u s i n g a s i n g l e up-to-date Subsequently,  and Spanish.  system  Seventh S e s s i o n i n Rome, commended  of c l a s s i f i -  o f FAO, a t i t s  the system f o r a d o p t i o n by  f o r e s t r y l i b r a r i e s , i n s t i t u t e s , and documentation  est  to f o r -  i t was t r a n s l a t e d i n t o French, German,  Two months l a t e r the Conference  the member c o u n t r i e s .  adopted  o f IOFR0 when a l l i t s members were urged  adopt the new system because o f the h i g h importance  cation.  as the  centres i n  E a r l i e r , i n 1 9 5 2 , the Committee on F o r -  Management, S i l v i c u l t u r e , and F o r e s t P r o t e c t i o n o f the 6 t h  166.  B r i t i s h Commonwealth F o r e s t r y Conference recommended I t s use f o r i n d e x i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n .  The j o i n t FAO/IFURO  Committee on B i b l i o g r a p h y remains i n b e i n g and i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r any f u r t h e r development  of the System t h a t may  become nec-  e s s a r y t o meet the changing requirements o f f o r e s t r y documentation. The System, thus o f f i c i a l l y endorsed a t the governmental l e v e l by the member n a t i o n s o f the Food and A g r i c u l t u r e  Organ-  i z a t i o n and a t the s c i e n t i f i c l e v e l by the member i n s t i t u t e s of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union o f F o r e s t Research O r g a n i z a t i o n s , has r e c e i v e d c o n t i n u i n g f a v o u r a b l e n o t i c e and review and i s r e c o g n i z e d as the most d e f i n i t i v e method o f documentation i n forestry.  I t l e n d s i t s e l f t o the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of book  collections,  pamphlet  f i l e s , technical records, o f f i c e  and even photographic c o l l e c t i o n s  and maps.  files  Considerable  m a n i p u l a t i o n and f l e x i b i l i t y i n use i s p o s s i b l e without compromising the advantages o f u n i v e r s i t a l i t y . ployed as a s u b - d i v i s i o n o f e i t h e r the UDC Systems o f L i b r a r y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  I t may  be  em-  o r Dewey Decimal  On these accounts i t has  been adopted by most of the world's major documentation c e n t r e s and l i b r a r i e s . Although the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y  used U n i v e r s a l Decimal Sys-  tem was e v o l v e d from the American Dewey Decimal System o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , American l i b r a r y s c i e n c e has developed along different  l i n e s from elsewhere, p r i n c i p a l l y i n i t s use of  " e x p a n d a b l e - t o - i n f i n i t y " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n p l a c e of the " c l o s e d - c a t a l o g u e " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t h a t are more u s u a l abroad. F o r e s t r y documentation has lagged somewhat.  None of the major  167.  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of the present day have been d e v i s e d c i f i c a l l y f o r use i n f o r e s t r y and  spe-  so have l a c k e d p r e c i s i o n .  Because of these i n a d e q u a c i e s , domestic  systems of f o r e s t r y  documentation have been d e v i s e d a t most f o r e s t r y  libraries.  These are of v a r y i n g q u a l i t y and although some have o b t a i n e d wider d i s t r i b u t i o n they l a c k the advantages of u n i v e r s i t a l i t y . Frances F l i c k of the U. S. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e L i b r a r y has d i s c u s s e d the American s i t u a t i o n i n d e t a i l 78,79)»  d e s c r i b i n g e a r l y systems and the e v o l u t i o n of those  In use at the present day. of  (77*  She a n a l y z e d the r e l a t i v e m e r i t s  the Oxford System from the American standpoint and has  ad-  vocated i t s t r i a l as a u s e f u l t o o l f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n American f o r e s t r y documentation. to  I t s n e g l e c t she  attributes  the r e l u c t a n c e o f e s t a b l i s h e d f o r e s t r y l i b r a r i e s to change  t r a d i t i o n a l systems, the absence of new  forestry  and the alarm with which American l i b r a r i a n s and  collections, foresters  (accustomed to simpler f o r e s t r y concepts and not always i n formed on the g r e a t e r complexity of world t e r m i n o l o g y ) , on l o o k i n g over the System f o r the f i r s t time, view i t s s i z e , tail,  and comprehensiveness.  de-  T h i s l a t t e r p o i n t , of course, i s  overcome by the f a c i l i t y w i t h which i t may  be employed at  any  l e v e l of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as need a r i s e s . As F l i c k sees them, the advantages of the Oxford System are t h a t i t i s up-to-date,  expandable by i t s decimal  covers i n d e t a i l the c l a s s i c  nature,  scope of f o r e s t r y , and can be  i n c o n j u n c t i o n with s h e l f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by another  used  system.  An a d d i t i o n a l f a c i l i t y i s the l i n k t h a t i t p r o v i d e s w i t h the  168.  l i t e r a t u r e c i t a t i o n s from the world's f o r e s t r y l i t e r a t u r e appear i n F o r e s t r y A b s t r a c t s  and a l s o w i t h the l e s s e r known  C e n t r a l i z e d T i t l e S e r v i c e , an u n s e l e c t e d Indexed d u r i n g  that  l i s t i n g of abstracts  the c u l l i n g o f the l i t e r a t u r e f o r F o r e s t r y Ab-  stracts. INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH ACTIVITY There i s i n c r e a s i n g r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t f o r e s t r y and f o r e s t r y i n t e r e s t s transcend  national frontiers.  In f o r e s t r y research  the time f a c t o r i s o f g r e a t  significance.  ments, f o r e x a m p l e , i n t e r v a l s  o f a century  In f i e l d  experi-  or more may be r e -  q u i r e d t o b r i n g an experiment t o a c o n c l u s i o n i n order the r e s u l t s o f r e s e a r c h  and t e c h n i q u e .  it  t h a t the f o r e s t e r be a b l e t o review  i s almost imperative  a long span o f e x p e r i e n c e .  Under these  t o prove  conditions  I t i s p r i n c i p a l l y f o r t h i s reason  t h a t the f o r e s t s and f o r e s t r y o f the " o l d c o u n t r i e s "  constitutes  such a unique and immense experimental f i e l d from which the world at l a r g e has been able t o g a i n much p r a c t i c a l knowledge and many t h e o r e t i c a l concepts,that l i g h t of l o c a l conditions.  may be i n t e r p r e t e d i n the  In t h i s regard  i t i s important t o  r e a l i z e t h a t t h i s "experience knowledge" i s not c o n f i n e d t o a p p l i e d f o r e s t r y and r e s e a r c h  only  i n the b i o l o g i c a l f i e l d s , but  a l s o r e l a t e d t o the economic and s o c i a l problems and the p u b l i c p o l i c i e s designed t o meet these. As the l a t e C.E.Legat ( 2 8 )  said  "In a small world the narrow, i n s u l a r o r p a r o c h i a l p o i n t o f view I s t o be avoided l i k e the plague. Vital and dynamic f o r e s t p o l i c y i s most l i k e l y t o d e r i v e from f o r e s t c o n t r o l w e l l informed on world c u r r e n t f o r e s t p o l i c y and i n touch w i t h the l a t e s t developments I n f o r e s t s c i e n c e and p r a c t i c e . "  169-  American f o r e s t e r s have been s u b j e c t e d t o the g r e a t e s t c r i t i c i s m i n t h i s r e s p e c t ; r e c e n t l y by E d l i n  (69), Wood (226),  and H i l e y (114) among o t h e r s , who see evidence insularity.  of increasing  Some o f t h i s c r i t i c i s m may be u n j u s t i f i e d .  How-  ever, p u b l i s h e d comments such as the b r i e f note on i n i t i a l American r e s e a r c h development i n Puerto R i c o as l a t e as 19^2 (14) which even a t t h a t date demonstrated a complete l a c k o f knowledge o f t h e very c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t s o f the f o r e s t e r s of many n a t i o n s i n t r o p i c a l f o r e s t r y , i n c l u d i n g much e f f o r t i n the Caribbean  r e g i o n , and even c l a i m i n g t h a t no work had  been done p r e v i o u s l y on t r o p i c a l f o r e s t r y ; t h e problems o f which where s t a t e d as though newly enunciated, d i s p e l the i m p r e s s i o n .  do l i t t l e t o  I t i s n o t a b l e t h a t although  Kaufert  and Cummings (122) p l a c e d c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis on the importance o f adequate d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f American r e s e a r c h  informa-  t i o n , and d i s c u s s e d the adequacy o f c u r r e n t media, they made no r e f e r e n c e t o the equal d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r American r e s e a r c h workers and f o r e s t e r s t o have access t o knowledge o f developments elsewhere.  The o m i s s i o n i s i n s t r o n g c o n t r a s t t o the  importance a t t a c h e d t o t h i s f a c e t i n the e a r l i e r surveys, and e s p e c i a l l y i n t h a t o f B a i l e y and Spoehr (5).  These  indeed  went even f u r t h e r f o r they p l a c e d c o n s i d e r a b l e importance on the need f o r f o r e i g n languages i n the e d u c a t i o n o f a l l f o r e s t e r s so t h a t they might m a i n t a i n c o n t a c t w i t h f o r e s t r y advance and p r a c t i c e abroad. Marcel LeLoup, u n t i l r e c e n t l y D i r e c t o r o f t h e F o r e s t r y D i v i s i o n o f the Food and A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the U n i t e d Nations, has w r i t t e n ;  170.  " I n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o r d i n a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h i s essent i a l t o the most e f f e c t i v e use of l i m i t e d manpower and funds i f f o r e s t r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s are t o p r o v i d e the necessary s o l u t i o n s t o a l l f o r e s t r y problems." (84) Detailed consideration a c t i v i t y l i e s outside  the  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l and  regional  scope of t h i s study, but  for re-  search t o be f u l l y e f f e c t i v e t h e r e must be a c t i v i t y a t supra-national  level.  the  Without the e f f o r t s of a g e n c i e s such  as the Food and A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n  of the U n i t e d  and  commissions (see p . 1 7 4  i t s various  s p e c i a l i z e d , a g e n c i e s and 12,  85),  Union of F o r e s t Research O r g a n i z a t i o n s  and  accompanying c h a r t )  (121,  122,  123,  124)  (106,  and  228,  48,  the  Nations  International  i t s working  the p r o v i s i o n of f a c i l i t i e s  sections  such as  those of the Commonwealth F o r e s t r y Bureau i n the b i b l i o g r a p h i c field  (Howard i n 2 8 ,  56)  n a t i o n a l programs would be  I t i s unnecessary t o d e t a i l the v a r i o u s t r a i l s , poplar, bibliography, to name but  chestnut and  eucalypt  poorer.  activities-provenance  commissions, f o r e s t  seed exchange c o n t r o l and  a few  the  testing regulations,  - t h a t i l l u s t r a t e the v e r y r e a l b e n e f i t s  that r e s u l t . Much of the  stimulus  f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y has  re-  s u l t e d from the a c t i v i t i e s of the Food and A g r i c u l t u r e Organization.  A s i d e from i t s d i r e c t a c t i v i t i e s i t has  formed a most important f u n c t i o n as a stimulus t h i n k i n g i n f o r e s t r y and  as a c o o r d i n a t o r .  also per-  to i n t e r n a t i o n a l  A major f o r c e i n  i n t e r n a t i o n a l f o r e s t r y i s the World F o r e s t r y Congresses, f o r which F.A.O. p r o v i d e s a S e c r e t a r i a t e .  There have been f i v e  Congresses, the f i r s t h e l d i n Rome i n 1926, pest  i n 1935* the t h i r d i n H e l s i n k i i n 1949,  the  second i n Buda-  the f o u r t h i n  for  171.  Dehra Dun i n 1 9 5 4 and the f i f t h i n S e a t t l e i n i 9 6 0 . gatherings  a r e attended  These  by f o r e s t e r s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l l  c o u n t r i e s i n t e r e s t e d i n f o r e s t r y and the n a t i o n a l  delegations  are u s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the v a r i o u s n a t i o n a l f o r e s t r y interests.  The Congresses d e a l with technology and p o l i c y  and promote interchange  of information, personal  and wider knowledge o f technique and development.  contacts Recommend-  a t i o n s are made t o E.A.O. and t o the p a r t i c i p a t i n g governments. One o f the encouraging developments o f r e c e n t y e a r s has been the e x t e n s i o n  o f the a c t i v i t i e s o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Union o f F o r e s t Research O r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  mainly confined to  Europe i n pre-war days, onto the world stage.  T h i s has r e -  s u l t e d from the i n c r e a s i n g r e a l i z a t i o n o f the r e s e a r c h  insti-  t u t e s o f the non-European n a t i o n s o f the tangeable b e n e f i t s that r e s u l t from a s s o c i a t i o n . operations  A very r e a l advantage i n i t s  i s i t s non-governmental n a t u r e .  T r u l y an o r g a n i -  z a t i o n o f s c i e n t i s t s , the member i n s t i t u t e s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o n l y o f themselves and not o f t h e i r governments. Excepting in  the n o t a b l y c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n  o f working groups  s p e c i a l i s t f i e l d s and most o f t e n sponsored by FAO o r IUFRO,  closest co-operation veloped  on a l a r g e and c o n t i n u i n g  s c a l e has de-  w i t h i n the more r e s t r i c t e d sphere o f the B r i t i s h  Commonwealth.  The most important organ i s the Commonwealth  F o r e s t r y Conference which i s h e l d a t f i v e year i n t e r v a l s . i s attended  This  by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the Commonwealth f o r e s t s e r -  v i c e s and o f p r i v a t e f o r e s t r y and the wood u s i n g i n d u s t r i e s . I t has been r e s p o n s i b l e , through i t s d e l i b e r a t i o n s , f o r the  172.  v a r i o u s Commonwealth F o r e s t i n s t i t u t i o n s : the I m p e r i a l  For-  e s t r y I n s t i t u t e ; the Empire F o r e s t r y A s s o c i a t i o n , a p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t y o f Commonwealth f o r e s t e r s t h a t p r o v i d e s a v a l u a b l e l i n k through i t s q u a r t e r l y Review; t h e Commonwealth F o r e s t r y Bureau.  These b o d i e s a r e inter-governmental  e n t i r e l y dependent f o r f i n a n c i a l support  and a r e  on c o n t r i b u t i o n s from  the member c o u n t r i e s o r , i n the case o f the Empire F o r e s t r y A s s o c i a t i o n , from i t s Commonwealth membership.  In addition  to these f o r m a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h e r e i s cons i d e r a b l e i n f o r m a l Commonwealth c o l l a b o r a t i o n . At the r e g i o n a l l e v e l c o - o p e r a t i o n out o f a r e a l i z a t i o n o f common problems. may take any o f s e v e r a l forms.  has u s u a l l y developed Such c o l l a b o r a t i o n  There may be c o l l a b o r a t i o n  between n a t i o n a l agencies on a s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t . the c o - o p e r a t i v e  Examples a r e  program on r o d e n t i c i d e s o f the B r i t i s h  F o r e s t S e r v i c e and c e r t a i n American agencies, a t i v e Douglas F i r provenance study c o o r d i n a t e d  Columbia  and the co-operby the Oregon  F o r e s t Lands Research Centre i n the n o r t h western U n i t e d S t a t e s and i n B r i t i s h Columbia. cial  I t may take the form o f spe-  s e r v i c e s , as i n the p r o v i s i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s  a t the F o r e s t  Products I n s t i t u t e o f the Union o f South A f r i c a f o r p u b l i c and p r i v a t e concerns throughout A f r i c a (219) or i t may be on a f o r mal  l e v e l , as i n the v a r i o u s r e g i o n a l commissions and r e s e a r c h  centres  sponsored by the Food and A g r i c u l t u r e  Organization  (discussed i n d e t a i l i n 8 5 ) . In the Caribbean the f o r m a t i o n  o f a Commission was advo-  cated "to o b t a i n f u l l c o o r d i n a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h , t o prevent o v e r l a p p i n g and d u p l i c a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h on common problems,  173.  to render unnecessary the c o n s t i t u t i o n of a number of uneconomic and i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h s t a t i o n s , to meet the needs of u n i t s which c o u l d not a f f o r d a r e s e a r c h station" (43) The  v a l i d i t y of such arguments are g e n e r a l l y  Nevertheless,  recognized.  d e s p i t e unanimity among the d e l e g a t e s  and  con-  s i d e r a b l e a c t i v i t y i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of a d e t a i l e d problem a n a l y s i s and i n regard  progress  r e p o r t on work then c u r r e n t , a t  least  to i t s f o r e s t r y a c t i v i t i e s , t h i s Commission, r e -  presenting  the U n i t e d Kingdom, the U n i t e d S t a t e s , France,  the Netherlands d i d not achieve appears t o be e i t h e r defunct  i t s e a r l y promise and  or moribund.  now  I t s l a c k of  success  i s perhaps an i n d i c a t i o n of the important p a r t t h a t can played  i n such groupings by an i n t e r n a t i o n a l agency.  and  be  Such  i n t e r v e n t i o n can supply the c o o r d i n a t i o n t h a t i s n e c e s s a r y when there are no c l o s e p o l i t i c a l or other quently  a West I n d i e s R e g i o n a l  the B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r i e s , and  links.  Subse-  Research Centre,  confined  e s t a b l i s h e d at the  Imperial  C o l l e g e of T r o p i c a l A g r i c u l t u r e , T r i n i d a d , has proved c e s s f u l i n the same r e g i o n .  The  suc-  In t h i s case t h e r e were no  n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s to confuse the  inter-  situation.  advantages of the r e g i o n a l approach have r e c e i v e d  i n c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n i n recent years.  A regional rather  than a t e r r i t o r i a l approach to r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y i n the Dependencies was  British  recommended by the U n i t e d Kingdom C o l o n i a l  search Committee (93) The  to  when c o n s i d e r i n g post-war o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Committee on F o r e s t Management, S i l v i c u l t u r e and  For-  e s t P r o t e c t i o n of the 6th B r i t i s h Commonwealth F o r e s t r y Conference  Re-  (.30-), h e l d i n Canada, c o n s i d e r e d  the m a t t e r .  Its  O R G A N I Z A T I O N  ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR EUROPE Timber Committee ( 1 9 4 7 ) (ECE/FAO Timber D i v i s i o n , Geneva)  ,  (Dates i n brackets are dates of formation  JOINT COMMITTEE: Forest Working Techniques and Training of Forest Workers JOINT WORKING PARTY: Forestry Statistics  EUROPEAN FORESTRY COMMISSION ( 1 9 4 8 ) (FAO HEADQUARTERS: Rome) ORKDJG PARTIES: A f f o r e s t a t i o n and Reforestation Torrent Control and Avalanches  NEAR EAST FORESTRY COMMISSION ( 1 9 5 5 ) FAO REGIONAL OFFICE: Cairo) RKING PARTY: Forest Range Management ffiCETTEE: Research  CHART  JOINT SUBCOMMISSION ON MEDITERRANEAN FORESTRY PROBLEMS S i l v a Mediterranea (1948) (FAO HEADQUARTERS: Rome) WORKING PARTIES: Cork-Oak Eucalyptus Planting Techniques  ASIA-PACIFIC FORESTRY COMMISSION ( 1 9 5 0 ) (FAO REGIONAL OFFICE: Bangkok) SUBCOMMISSION: Teak FORKING PARTIES: Grading and Standardization Public Education i n Forestry Watershed Management COMMITTEES: S i l v i c u l t u r a l and Forest Management Research Forest Products Research  LATIN AMERICAN ^FORESTRY COMMISSION (1949)  FAO FORESTRY DIVISION (1946)  (FAO REGIONAL OFFICE: Santiago) WORKING PARTIES: Forestry Development A f f o r e s t a t i o n and Reforestation COMMITTEE: Research  (HEADQUARTERS: Rome)  TECHNICAL COMMISSIONS iternational Poplar Commission (1947) iternational Chestnut Commission (1952)  TECHNICAL COMMITTEE Joint FAO/IUFRO Committee on Bibliography ( 1 9 4 9 )  TECHNICAL PANELS Mechanical Wood Technology  (1947)  Wood Chemistry ( 1 9 4 7 ) Forest Range Management (1954)  Forestry Equipment ( 1 9 5 4 ) Forestry Education ( 1 9 5 5 )  A f t e r Uhasylva I I ( 2 ) 1 9 5 7  175.  views on the scope of r e g i o n a l a c t i v i t y are reproduced. " I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t r e s e a r c h workers, p a r t i c u l a r l y those.engaged i n s i l v i c u l t u r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n the f o r e s t , should be able to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to the work on which they are engaged, get expert a d v i c e , o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on r e s e a r c h techniques and s t a n d a r d i z e d methods, and l e a r n who are the workers i n the same f i e l d . It i s of the utmost importance t h a t r e g i o n a l r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s should be set up, w i t h the f o l l o w ing f u n c t i o n s : a.  t o be a storehouse of up-to-date i n f o r m a t i o n on a l l s i l v i c u l t u r a l and other f o r e s t r y matters w i t h i n the scope of the r e s e a r c h f i e l d of the r e g i o n . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n to be indexed and c l a s s i f i e d , ,  b.  to advise research out i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and comment on a l l f o r e f i e l d work i s  c.  t o c i r c u l a t e i n f o r m a t i o n on work going on w i t h i n the region;  d.  t o m a i n t a i n l i a i s o n with s i m i l a r r e s e a r c h c e n t r e s i n other r e g i o n s ;  e.  to s t a n d a r d i z e r e s e a r c h methods and  f.  to o r g a n i z e c o - o p e r a t i v e experiments i n s u b j e c t s of common i n t e r e s t i n the t e r r i t o r i e s w i t h i n the r e g i o n ;  g.  t o o r g a n i z e , where necessary, officers."  The  Committee drew a t t e n t i o n to the f a c t t h a t 3 u c h a r e -  g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n had  o f f i c e r s and a l l o t h e r s c a r r y i n g and experiments, and to examine p r o j e c t - p l a n s f o r experiments beinitiated;  c o d i f y them;  the t r a i n i n g of r e s e a r c h  e x i s t e d s i n c e 1906  i n I n d i a i n the  S i l v i c u l t u r a l Branch of the F o r e s t Research I n s t i t u t e a t Dehra Dun,  w i t h h i g h l y p r o d u c t i v e r e s u l t s , and c o n s i d e r e d t h a t  the  c r e a t i o n of the f o r e s t r y s e c t i o n of the E a s t A f r i c a n A g r i c u l t u r e and F o r e s t r y Research O r g a n i z a t i o n a t Muguaga i n Kenya, was  a s i g n i f i c a n t step i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n .  The  Committee con-  s i d e r e d t h a t such o r g a n i z a t i o n s should be developed i n c e r t a i n r e g i o n s , such as west A f r i c a , the Caribbean r e g i o n , and  South  176.  E a s t A s i a ( i n c l u d i n g Malaya, B r i t i s h North Borneo, Sarawak, Hong Kong, and p o s s i b l y F i j i and  the Solomon I s l a n d s ) and i t  drew a t t e n t i o n of the Dominions t o the advantages of such r e gional research The  centres.  a c t i v i t i e s of the Dehra Dun  documented.  c e n t r e are w e l l known and  Those of the East A f r i c a n A g r i c u l t u r e and  Research O r g a n i z a t i o n are l e s s w e l l known.  Forestry  Problems common t o  a l l the E a s t A f r i c a n T e r r i t o r i e s - Kenya, Tanganyika, Uganda, and Z a n z i b a r  - are i n v e s t i g a t e d and p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n i s  g i v e n to c o o r d i n a t i o n . territorial  (101).  I n t h i s r e g i o n most problems are  A r e g i o n a l documentation c e n t r e has  e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n EAAFRO and adopted f o r the t e r r i t o r i a l  standardized  research  be more e f f e c t i v e .  e s t r y aspects  been  procedures  groups.  Where common t i e s do not e x i s t l e s s f o r m a l may  inter-  G r i f f i t h s (103)  has  arrangements  d i s c u s s e d the  of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Committee f o r T e c h n i c a l  operation i n A f r i c a ,  south of the Sahara, and  forCo-  the Second I n t e r -  A f r i c a n F o r e s t r y Conference h e l d at P o i n t N o i r e , i n the Moyen Congo of French E q u a t o r i a l A f r i c a , and has  i n d i c a t e d the bene-  f i t s t h a t have r e s u l t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g terms: " i n g e n e r a l we are f a r too p a r o c h i a l i n our outlook and i t i s of the g r e a t e s t value to meet our t e c h n i c a l neighbours and to get t o know them and t h e i r problems, and what they are doing about them." Greatest  success may  perhaps be obtained  i n g s are s p e c i a l i s t i n nature.  The  when such meet-  annual A f r i c a n "Miombo Con-  f e r e n c e " , a meeting of s p e c i a l i s t s on Miombo savanna  (169)  t h a t has r e s u l t e d from the I n t e r - A f r i c a n F o r e s t r y Conference is  such a  case.  177.  That such i n t e r n a t i o n a l bodies  can be s u c c e s s f u l when  there a r e common i n t e r e s t s i s shown by the Northern F o r e s t Union, formed i n 1946, o f the l e a d i n g f o r e s t r e s e a r c h t u t e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the Scandinavian promote i n t e r - S c a n d i n a v i n a c o l l a b o r a t i o n . at  insti-  countries to A congress i s h e l d  f o u r year i n t e r v a l s and management o f the Union's a f f a i r s  devolves  i n t u r n on the f o u r c o u n t r i e s concerned.  I n the P a c i f i c Northwest o f North America a very l e v e l o f r e g i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n has developed i n r e c e n t  high years  between B r i t i s h Columbia and the American P a c i f i c Coast s t a t e s . R i t c h e n ( l 8 o ) l i s t e d e i g h t e e n committees which have come a bout spontaneously t o gather problems.  i n f o r m a t i o n on a wide range o f  Almost i n v a r i a b l y these  committees have been f o r -  med t o gather f a c t s needed by management, t o exchange i d e a s , to  d e f i n e problems, and t o i n d i c a t e needed avenues f o r r e -  search.  They i n c l u d e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f government, i n d u s t r y ,  r e s e a r c h , and the u n i v e r s i t i e s . T y p i c a l i s the F o r e s t S o i l s Committee which was formed i n 1948 as a r e s u l t o f a meeting o f a group o f f o r e s t e r s t o d i s c u s s ways and means o f promoting the development o f i n f o r mation on f o r e s t s o i l s . for  T h i s committee has been the nucleus  s o i l s work, and has served i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , educa-  t i o n a l and p u b l i c i t y c a p a c i t y , and as an agent f o r the d i s t r i bution of information. i t has o r g a n i z e d  I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the u n i v e r s i t i e s  short courses.  I t was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n p r o -  moting r e s e a r c h and t e a c h i n g i n f o r e s t s o i l s a t the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l i n the P a c i f i c Northwest w i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t f o r e s t s o i l s department a t Oregon S t a t e C o l l e g e .  of a  178.  These committees have s t i m u l a t e d i n t e r e s t i n r e s e a r c h byb r i n g i n g i n t o f o c u s the needs and  the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p u b l i c  and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o c o n t r i b u t e . Not  l e a s t o f the v a l u e s o f r e g i o n a l and  international  a c t i v i t y i s the o p p o r t u n i t y i t p r o v i d e s f o r overcoming disadvantages  o f i s o l a t i o n , and of f a c i l i t a t i n g  c u r r e n t development elsewhere and,  the  contact  with  hence, s t i m u l a t i n g r e s e a r c h  activity. The personnel  v a l u e s t h a t l i e i n the exchange of i n f o r m a t i o n between world r e g i o n s has been emphasized by  et a l (105)y  and Haig  i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n o f the l e s s o n s t h a t American  f o r e s t e r s can l e a r n from t r o p i c a l  forestry  " T r o p i c a l f o r e s t r y has undoubtedly p r o f i t e d immens e l y by the presence of c o l o n i a l f o r e s t e r s t r a i n e d under q u i t e d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s , o f t e n Interchanged between r e g i o n s and p e r i o d i c a l l y brought t o g e t h e r , as a t the I n d i a n S i l v i c u l t u r a l , B r i t i s h Commonwealth and, more r e c e n t l y , a t the I n t e r - A f r i c a n F o r e s t r y Congresses. More f o r m a l c o n t a c t and i n t e r c h a n g e of I n f o r m a t i o n on a r e g i o n a l and world b a s i s i s needed i n the t r o p i c s . Temp e r a t e zone s i l v i c u l t u r i s t s c o u l d p r o b a b l y p r o f i t by following this pattern." FINIS Viewpoints  are g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by changing s o c i a l  and  economic c o n d i t i o n s , and by the i n c r e a s e d enlightenment t h a t r e s u l t s from d e v e l o p i n g  experience.  New  problems a r i s e  and  t h e i r s o l u t i o n g i v e s r i s e t o more e f f i c i e n t methods of working.  I n t u r n , new  needs o f the new  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l concepts e v o l v e t h a t meet the situation.  Nevertheless,  c a r e should be taken b e f o r e d i s r e g a r d i n g the  methods of the p a s t , f o r i t i s upon these f o u n d a t i o n s f u t u r e must b e i b u i l t , and  that  from a c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n o f  the  the  179-  corpus of knowledge t h a t t r u e advance i s o b t a i n e d .  There  must be understanding and r e c o g n i t i o n o f the u n i v e r s a l i t y of f o r e s t experience.  T h i s i s a p p l i c a b l e t o p o l i c y and o r -  g a n i z a t i o n as i t i s t o t e c h n o l o g y . I n the circumstance of the modern world, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r any n a t i o n o r group of people t o e x i s t i n I s o l a t i o n .  It  i s i n the i n t e r e s t of a l l t h a t the peoples o f the world s h o u l d l e a r n t o l i v e t o g e t h e r , t o work t o g e t h e r and t o develop r e s o u r c e s t o g e t h e r f o r the mutual b e n e f i t of I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s study may understanding.  their  all.  contribute to t h i s b e t t e r  "Yes, I t h i n k you'd b e t t e r l e a v e o f f " , s a i d the Gryphon, and A l i c e was o n l y too g l a d t o do so.  181. APPENDIX 1 The  development of some n a t i o n a l programs France  - I n France  t o the b e g i n n i n g effort.  the p e r i o d from the end of the  of the 19th  C e n t u r i e s was  r i c h i n research  There i s a h i s t o r y of e a r l y experimenters,  such were  Duhamel du Monceau ( 1 7 0 0 - 1 7 8 2 ) , Varenne de F e n v i l l e 1793)  and most important  (1821-1862).  of a l l ,  (1700-  P h i l l i p e Andre de V i l m o r i n  However French r e s e a r c h p r o p e r l y dates from  the founding o f the S t a t i o n de recherches f o r e s t i e r e s i n 1882 Eaux e t F o r e t s . or two  17th  et  experiences  as an annexe t o the E c o l e n a t i o n a l e  T h i s s t a t i o n had modest b e g i n n i n g s  f o r e s t o f f i c e r s and u n t i l 1914  financial provision.  t h e r e was  The f i e l d o f a c t i o n was,  very l a r g e l y .  Research was  The  one  o f necessity> directly  professors participated  l i m i t e d e x c l u s i v e l y to f o r e s t r y  q u e s t i o n s or t o q u e s t i o n s d i r e c t l y b e a r i n g on the n o t a b l y f o r e s t meteorology.  with  only slender  c o n f i n e d t o the f o r e s t s i n the v i n i c i t y o f Nancy and under the c o n t r o l of the s c h o o l .  des  A c c o r d i n g to R o l  forest,  (183)  there i s  mention of r e s e a r c h on the e f f e c t o f t h i n n i n g s . As e a r l y as 1866  Mathiew, Professor, o f N a t u r a l  Sciences  a t the S c h o o l , had e s t a b l i s h e d a s e r i e s o f m e t e o r o l o g i c a l  posts  and undertaken r e s e a r c h on i n f l u e n c e of the f o r e s t on c l i m a t e , t h i s work was  continued and  extended by the r e s e a r c h  e v e n t u a l l y the r e s u l t s were p u b l i s h e d and are now  station,  universally  accepted. During  the f i r s t world war  t i o n ' s r e c o r d s were l o s t .  the g r e a t e r p a r t of the  sta-  I n the subsequent r e o r g a n i z a t i o n  182.  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s o f the present day were i n t r o d u c e d , though subsequently  extended.  The s t a t i o n was o r g a n i z e d i n  branches each under the d i r e c t i o n o f the p r o f e s s o r s i n charge of i n s t r u c t i o n i n the v a r i o u s s p e c i a l i s t f i e l d s .  The D i r e c t o r  of the School remained D i r e c t o r o f the Research S t a t i o n .  A  separate branch f o r the management o f the s c h o o l f o r e s t s and f o r the conduct o f g e n e r a l f o r e s t r e s e a r c h was formed under a specialist officer.  H i s p r i n c i p l e t a s k was t h e systematic  study o f growth and development w i t h sample p l o t s throughout Prance, a c h a i n o f M e t e o r o l o g i c a l s t a t i o n s , and a l s o w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s p e c i a l major p r o j e c t s .  I n subsequent r e o r -  g a n i z a t i o n t h i s post has advanced i n standing u n t i l today i t i s o f conservateur  rank.  G r a d u a l l y a l s o p r o v i s i o n has been  made f o r c o - o p e r a t i o n with other r e s e a r c h a g e n c i e s , Timber T e s t i n g L a b o r a t o r y A p p l i e d Hydrobiology,  i n P a r i s , the C e n t r a l S t a t i o n o f  and with geographers and o t h e r s on ques-  t i o n s such as mountain landuse currently f i e l d  the C e n t r a l  and p r o t e c t i o n f o r e s t r y .  s u b - s t a t i o n s have been  Con-  developed.  Germany - I n Germany t h e r e i s a s i m i l a r s t o r y o f g r a d u a l l y unfolding research a c t i v i t y .  Here, however, i n the absence o f  a u n i f i e d f o r e s t s e r v i c e , r e s e a r c h was not exposed t o c e n t r a l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e s such as moulded French f o r e s t r y .  Groups o f  s m a l l , s p e c i a l i z e d and autonomous r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e s were f o r med a t the v a r i o u s u n i v e r s i t y s c h o o l s .  Although  individually  small these i n s t i t u t e s have made n o t a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o f o r estry.  They have been s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the i n d i v i d u a l s  who worked i n them, so, t o the present day the s i l v i c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f Munich, which s i n c e 1878 has  182.  been l i n k e d w i t h the names o f such persons as C a r l Gayer, H e i n r i c h Mayer and Ludwig F a b r i c i u s , moulds the work o f the I n s t i t u t e o f S i l v i c u l t u r e w h i l e a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f G o t t i n g e n the F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y a t Hamm-Munden m a i n t a i n those o f t h e experimental areas o f Eberwalde, t h e former P r u s s i a n F o r e s t Research  I n s t i t u t e , which a r e i n t h e F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c .  Some  of these p l o t s have been t h e s u b j e c t o f a c c u r a t e o b s e r v a t i o n f o r over 70 y e a r s .  I n Lander without f o r e s t r y s c h o o l s r e -  search s t a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  directly  t o the Lander f o r e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  times  I n more r e c e n t  the need f o r more comprehensive e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h g r e a t e r f a c i l i t i e s has l e d t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a n a t i o n a l r e search agency - the F e d e r a l I n s t i t u t e o f F o r e s t and wood Economy a t Reinbek near Hamburg (220). S c a n d i n a v i a - I n i t i a l l y the S c a n d i n a v i a n c o u n t r i e s were i n f l u e n c e d by German r e s e a r c h thought b u t g r a d u a l l y a d i s t i n c t l y S c a n d i n a v i a n approach e v o l v e d .  I n Denmark, w i t h the  l o n g e s t t r a d i t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c f o r e s t r y , a r e s e a r c h department of the s t a t e s e r v i c e was formed i n 1852. s t a t i o n was founded  I n Sweden a r e s e a r c h  a t the R o y a l C o l l e g e o f F o r e s t r y i n 1902.  I n Norway the n a t i o n a l f o r e s t r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e was e s t a b l i s h e d a t the A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e a t Aas i n 1917. ments have been d e s c r i b e d by Eklund  Swedish develop-  (70) and S t r e y f f e r t  (200).  A f t e r 100 years o f e x t e n s i v e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f over-mature v i r g i n f o r e s t s , p r e v i o u s l y conserved f o r c e n t u r i e s , the need was r e a l i z e d f o r s e r i o u s a t t e n t i o n t o r e - f o r e s t a t i o n and b e t t e r f o r estry practices.  There was l i t t l e  o r no n a t i o n a l  experience.  184.  Guidance was  sought abroad,  and p a r t i c u l a r l y I n Germany.  Higher f o r e s t r y e d u c a t i o n was  s t a r t e d i n 1828,  German p a t t e r n some experimental work was  and on the  undertaken  but w i t h -  out any s o l i d f o o t i n g i n the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s and m o s t l y of the " t r i a l and e r r o r " type.  T h i s formed the  f r o n t up t o the end o f the 19th t i o n whieh was  Century.  investigational  In 1902  the  institu-  e v e n t u a l l y to become known as the S t a t e n s  s k o g s f o r s k n i n g s i n s t i t u t ( F o r e s t Research  I n s t i t u t e ) was  as the Swedish I n s t i t u t e of Experimental F o r e s t r y . on modest l i n e s i t was been underestimated.  founded  Originally  soon r e c o g n i z e d t h a t requirements  had  I n subsequent y e a r s t h e r e have been sev-  e r a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n c r e a s e s I n s t a f f and m a t e r i a l r e sources. During the  1930*s  o t h e r t r a d i t i o n s began t o emerge.  In  each o f the S c a n d i n a v i a n c o u n t r i e s the c o - o p e r a t i v e movement got underway and groups of i n d u s t r i e s , f o r e s t owners, w i t h sometimes the s t a t e , j o i n e d t o g e t h e r i n a s s o c i a t i o n s t o advance v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f f o r e s t r y , n o t a b l y t r e e improvement, and r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of work methods.  To f u r t h e r t h e i r aims  these a s s o c i a t i o n s s e t up r e s e a r c h e s t a b l i s h m e n t s such as have been d e s c r i b e d i n the main t e x t . Canada - E x p e r i m e n t a l work dates from e a r l y in  t r e e p l a n t i n g i n Manitoba i n 1 9 0 5 ,  experiments  and r e s e a r c h proper  from  the p e r i o d 1 9 1 0 t o 1 9 2 0 . F e d e r a l a c t i v i t y s t a r t e d i n a s m a l l way  w i t h the Commission o f C o n s e r v a t i o n , which undertook f a c t -  f i n d i n g surveys and the g a t h e r i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a l l y , the f i r s t  s e r i o u s attempt  t o o b t a i n I n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the  f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s o f the c o u n t r y .  The f i r s t p r o v i n c i a l i n v e n -  185. t o r y was 1910  1909-  conducted f o r the Government of Nova S c o t i a i n  under the d i r e c t i o n of Dr. B. E. Fernow of the F a c u l t y  of F o r e s t r y , U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, m i s s i o n i n 1912. B r i t i s h Columbia.  and p u b l i s h e d by the Com-  In 1 9 l 4 ~ 1 9 l 6 an i n v e n t o r y was The  r e p o r t was  conducted i n  p u b l i s h e d i n 1918.  During  1918-1921 the Commission c a r r i e d out c e r t a i n experimental i n E a s t e r n Canada.  In 1917  a d i v i s i o n of s i l v i c u l t u r a l  p e r i m e n t a t i o n and r e s e a r c h was  Various  ex-  formed i n the F o r e s t r y Branch  of the then Department of the I n t e r i o r . limited.  work  S t a f f was  extremely  small s c a l e s i l v i c u l t u r a l experiments were  made i n the western p r o v i n c e s and a t the Petawawa F o r e s t periment S t a t i o n which was  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1918.  Commission of C o n s e r v a t i o n was  The  the F o r e s t r y  s e v e r a l of i t s projects-;  and a small r e s e a r c h team of f i v e f o r e s t e r s was Ottawa.  When the  a b o l i s h e d i n 1918  Branch took over i t s r e s e a r c h s t a f f and  Ex-  established i n  r e s e a r c h program at Petawawa developed  at a mod-  e r a t e r a t e , a number of experiments were e s t a b l i s h e d o u t s i d e the s t a t i o n i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h v a r i o u s commercial companies. In 1930,  a f t e r the t r a n s f e r of the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s of the  western p r o v i n c e s to the p r o v i n c i a l governments, r e s e a r c h  be-  came the c h i e f f u n c t i o n of the F o r e s t Branch and progress  be-  came more r a p i d , although a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by economic c o n d i tions. noted  At the time of Chalk's  visit  t h a t while the experimental  p l e n t y of r e l i e f labour and was  to Petawawa i n 1937  s t a t i o n had had  he  the use  w e l l o f f f o r roads and  of  build-  i n g s , the money a v a i l a b l e f o r r e s e a r c h seemed l e s s adequate, and  the r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r i n charge of the s t a t i o n had many  186.  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the running of the forest.  The  o r i g i n a l p o l i c y , l a t e r superceded,  t a i n the Petawawa S t a t i o n as a demonstration as a r e s e a r c h u n i t .  was  t o main-  f o r e s t as w e l l  A g r a d u a l expansion of a c t i v i t y  p l a c e and r e g i o n a l r e s e a r c h o f f i c e s and other  took  experimental  f o r e s t s were e s t a b l i s h e d . E s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the second war  world  l a r g e r a p p r o p r i a t i o n s have allowed c o n s i d e r a b l e expansion,  and i n a l l f i v e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s have been set up, w i t h e i g h t experimental f o r e s t s or r e s e a r c h a r e a s . 48  By 1952  t h e r e were  p r o f e s s i o n a l f o r e s t e r s engaged e x c l u s i v e l y i n s i l v i c u l t u r a l  and management r e s e a r c h .  B i c k e r s t a f f estimated t h a t an approx-  i m a t e l y equal number of men  were employed on s i l v i c u l t u r a l work  by the v a r i o u s p r o v i n c e s and i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A n o t a b l e f e a t u r e of Canadian f o r e s t r e s e a r c h i s the a r a t i o n of e n t o m o l o g i c a l and p a t h o l o g i c a l e n q u i r y from r e s t of f o r e s t i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  The  sep-  the  o r i g i n a l agents were the  F o r e s t I n s e c t I n v e s t i g a t i o n s U n i t of the Entomology D i v i s i o n and the F o r e s t Pathology S e c t i o n of the D i v i s i o n of Botany and P l a n t Pathology,  i n 1951,  the two groups were brought  together  to form the D i v i s i o n of F o r e s t B i o l o g y i n the S c i e n c e S e r v i c e of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e .  The i n s e c t and d i s e a s e s u r -  veys which form a major p a r t of t h i s agency's a c t i v i t y ated from a survey made i n 1936  to determine  origin-  the extent  and  s e v e r i t y of the European Spruce Sawfly i n f e s t a t i o n of E a s t e r n Canada.  R e c o g n i t i o n of the value of t h i s survey l e d t o i t s  g r a d u a l e x t e n s i o n to a l l p r o v i n c e s and the i n c l u s i o n of a l l types of i n s e c t s , and, a f t e r merging with pathology i n disease.  A s e r i e s of l a b o r a t o r i e s and  s t a t i o n s has been  1951,  187-  developed a c r o s s Canada and t o r i e s and  sections  In a d d i t i o n s p e c i a l i s t  operated, n o t a b l y In c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h In 1955  p r o v i n c i a l government i n O n t a r i o . s i s t e d of 193  labora-  s c i e n t i f i c and  144  technical staff  t e c h n i c a l grades.  In  ested the  the N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l has  i t s e l f i n f o r e s t research,  con-  addition  the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e makes e x t r a - m u r a l r e s e a r c h S i n c e 1923  the  grants.  also i n t e r -  concerning i t s e l f  l a r g e l y with  support o f the more fundamental e n q u i r y . C e r t a i n l i m i t e d phases of s i l v i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h  under p r o v i n c i a l and  i n d u s t r i a l auspices.  The  most  have been consistent  e f f o r t has  been by the p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t s e r v i c e i n B r i t i s h  Columbia.  A f t e r e a r l y sporadic  e f f o r t s i n the d i s t r i c t s  sus-  t a i n e d e f f o r t s t a r t e d w i t h the i n i t i a t i o n o f some growth studies  i n 1920  staff.  Organized r e s e a r c h  by a f o r e s t e r a t t a c h e d t o the h e a d q u a r t e r s has  t h a t date.  A small research  e s t e r s was  o r g a n i z e d i n 1927.  were e s t a b l i s h e d . conditions was  The  continued u n i n t e r r u p t e d  d i v i s i o n of f i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l f o r Two  s t a f f was  In 1939  f i e l d experiment  increased  r e s u l t e d i n setback and  reduced t o t h r e e .  by  1936  research  took on a separate e x i s t e n c e . p r o f e s s i o n a l f o r e s t e r s and  In 1955  Economic  the r e s e a r c h  was  A f t e r the war  stations  to e i g h t .  staff  merged w i t h f o r e s t  surveys to form the Mensuration, S i l v i c u l t u r e and o f an Economics D i v i s i o n .  since  Soils  Sections  the D i v i s i o n once more  i t had  a s t a f f of  15  four technical a s s i s t a n t s .  In O n t a r i o the p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t r y branch i n i t i a t e d growth and  y i e l d studies  on a s m a l l  on s p o r a d i c a l l y u n t i l 1930. s i o n and  was  s c a l e i n 1920,  these were c a r r i e d  A c t i v i t y ceased d u r i n g  not resumed u n t i l 1941.  i n 1944  the  a Research  depres-  188.  D i v i s i o n o f the Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s was formed t'  and  subsequent development has been r a p i d .  I n 1955 the s t a f f  c o n s i s t e d o f 89 o f whom 35 were p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d , p l u s a s e a s o n a l r e c r u i t m e n t o f some 40 t o 50 persons.  The o n l y  o t h e r p r o v i n c e t o engage i n r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y has been Quebec, here, p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t s e r v i c e r e s e a r c h s t a f f , a l t h o u g h few i n number, have done c e r t a i n work e s p e c i a l l y on s i t e  classifi-  c a t i o n , and t h e Bureau o f Entomology o f the Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s has done work on f o r e s t p r o t e c t i o n , the o n l y p r o v i n c i a l agency I n any o f the P r o v i n c e s t o have made any s e r i o u s e f f o r t a t a c t i v e e n t o m o l o g i c a l work i n t h e f i e l d (42)  (15) ( 6 3 ) . New Zealand - The i n i t i a l recommendations o f the f i r s t D i r e c t o r o f F o r e s t r y o f the newly formed f o r e s t s e r v i c e i n 1920  i n c l u d e d t h e statement  t h a t the f o r m a t i o n o f a s t r o n g r e -  search d i v i s i o n was a b s o l u t e l y necessary i f they were t o make any advance I n t h e f o r e s t r y problems o f New Z e a l a n d . on the recommendation was d e f e r r e d .  Action  B i r c h (16) has d e s c r i b e d  subsequent development a g a i n s t a background o f world  depres-  s i o n and f i n a n c i a l s t r i n g e n c i e s . I n these c o n d i t i o n s , w i t h a few marked e x c e p t i o n s , f o r e s t r e s e a r c h was s p o r a d i c i n t h e extreme.  Research undertaken was the work o f i n d i v i d u a l s ; a  n o t a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n was t h a t o f Dr. Leonard  Cockayne otx the  botany and e c o l o g y o f the Indigenous f o r e s t s , and o f the F o r est  S e r v i c e g e n e r a l l y , i n v o l v i n g many experimental p l o t s o f  d i v e r s e c h a r a c t e r i n e x o t i c and indigenous f o r e s t s .  I n more  r e c e n t years more fundamental r e s e a r c h was undertaken on seed-  189.  crops,  seed v i a b i l i t y and growth e y c l e s o f commercial  species.  I n 1939/40 i n c r e a s e s i n s t a f f made i t p o s s i b l e t o p l a n f o r est  s e r v i c e development on a s p e c i a l i s t d i v i s i o n a l b a s i s i n  p l a c e o f the p r e v i o u s vened.  t e r r i t o r i a l organization,  war i n t e r -  I n 1946 the planned r e o r g a n i z a t i o n took p l a c e and r e -  search was i n c l u d e d i n a Development D i v i s i o n .  A F o r e s t Ex-  periment S t a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d a t Rotorua i n 1947. r e s e a r c h personnel  By 1949  were engaged i n I n i t i a t i n g and c o - o r d i n -  a t i n g short term r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s and i n developing, a l o n g term p o l i c y .  The i n i t i a l  s t a f f c o n s i s t e d o f nine p r o f e s s i o n a l  o f f i c e r s , w i t h p r o v i s i o n f o r about t h i r t y d i v i d e d between f o u r s e c t i o n s - Botany and S i l v i c u l t u r e , Management, Pathology and F o r e s t Products. 1946  The N a t i o n a l F o r e s t Survey, commenced i n  was absorbed w i t h i n the r e s e a r c h  structure.  Great B r i t a i n - F o r e s t r y I n B r i t a i n has a long h i s t o r y . Evelyn's  ' S i l v a ' was p u b l i s h e d i n t h e time o f the S t u a r t s , b u t  there was a gap i n the middle o f the n i n e t e e n t h  century, and  f o r e s t r e s e a r c h I n the modern sense s t a r t e d o n l y w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e F o r e s t r y Commission i n 1919 and then t o a l i m i t e d extent.  With i t s t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e as the world's  g r e a t e s t timber producer i t took two world wars w i t h  attendant  wood s t r i n g e n c y t o s t i m u l a t e f o r e s t r e s e a r c h on a l a r g e s c a l e . Review o f subsequent development i s f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e Government White Paper on the F o r e s t r y Commissioners' P r o p o s a l s  for  Post-war F o r e s t P o l i c y (95) and the F o r e s t r y Commissioners' comprehensive r e p o r t on t h e i r f i r s t  t h i r t y years a c t i v i t y ( 9 6 ) .  When l a r g e s c a l e a c t i v i t y s t a r t e d i n 1919 t h e new Authori t y was f a c e d w i t h a l a c k o f t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n .  Forestry  190.  e d u c a t i o n was  d i r e c t e d towards the needs o f overseas,  l a r g e l y Indian f o r e s t r y .  and  H i t h e r t o home f o r e s t r y had  been  m a i n l y p r a c t i c e d on p r i v a t e e s t a t e s or i n the l i m i t e d  areas  of Crown F o r e s t .  Knowledge was  the few  a v a i l a b l e were m o s t l y t r a n s l a t i o n s of  textbooks  l o c a l i z e d and p e r s o n a l  German books and of d o u b t f u l a p p l i c a b i l i t y . knowledge accumulated i n the past was  Much o f the  of s l i g h t a p p l i c a t i o n  to the c o n d i t i o n s under which the Commission had With few e x c e p t i o n s experience was  and  to  operate.  c o n f i n e d t o the b e t t e r  s o i l s and where poor s i t e s had been p l a n t e d the knowledge had been l o s t .  I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e was  a difference i n scale.  mal r e s e a r c h , such as t h a t o f Augustine  Henry, had  been concerned with s y s t e m a t i c s and dendrology i c a l a s p e c t s of growth.  and  For-  largely the b o t a n -  P r a c t i c a l work, a p a r t from more r e -  cent e f f o r t such as S i r John S t i r l i n g Maxwell's moorland spruce p l a n t i n g a t Corrour, which set the p a t t e r n f o r f u t u r e development, had been c o n f i n e d t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f e x o t i c s and p r o d u c t i o n o f some h y b r i d s , emphasis had been on a r b o r i culture.  Such was  the s e t t i n g i n 1 9 1 9 .  The F o r e s t r y A c t of 1 9 1 9 empowered the Commission t o "Make, o r a i d i n making such e n q u i r i e s , experiments and r e s e a r c h ,  and  c o l l e c t o r a i d i n c o l l e c t i n g such i n f o r m a t i o n as they may  think  Important f o r the purpose of promoting f o r e s t r y , and the  teach-  i n g of f o r e s t r y , and  t o p u b l i s h or otherwise  take steps to make  known the r e s u l t s o f such e n q u i r i e s , experiments o r r e s e a r c h , and t o disseminate  such i n f o r m a t i o n . "  The d u t i e s o f the Com-  m i s s i o n e r s i n r e s p e e t t o r e s e a r c h on a) timber and o t h e r e s t p r o d u c t s , and  for-  (b) "the deeper u n d e r l y i n g r e a c t i o n s which  191.  t r e e s have i n common w i t h other organisms", were l a r g e l y determined by the r e p o r t s o f two Sub-Committees d e a l i n g w i t h r e s e a r c h by government departments. Sub-Committee o f a Cabinet  I n 1920 the A g r i c u l t u r a l  Committee appointed  to consider co-  o r d i n a t i o n o f government r e s e a r c h recommended t h a t a Research I n s t i t u t i o n be s e t up under the F o r e s t r y Commission t o " d e a l w i t h problems connected w i t h the growing crop" b u t t h a t f o r r e s e a r c h work on o t h e r s u b j e c t s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h  forestry  problems and f o r any fundamental r e s e a r c h o t h e r than t h a t d i r e c t e d t o an immediate economic r e s u l t r e f e r e n c e should be made i n the f i r s t  i n s t a n c e t o the a p p r o p r i a t e a u t h o r i t y " i n  whom was v e s t e d c o n t r o l o f r e s e a r c h upon the s u b j e c t under discussion.  11  A s m a l l r e s e a r c h branch was s e t up i n 1919 and e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s encouraged t o make t h e i r own experiments on l o c a l problems.  The p r o p o s a l t o s e t up a r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e was not  implemented, mainly owing t o l a c k o f funds and because i n t h e circumstances,  t h e Commissioners c o n s i d e r e d i t b e t t e r t o make  the f u l l e s t use o f e x i s t i n g c e n t r e s o f f o r e s t r y t r a i n i n g and research.  The second recommendation l e d t o c e r t a i n  difficulties  i n p r a c t i c e and i n 1929 the p o l i c y towards f o r e s t r e s e a r c h was reviewed by the Research C o - o r d i n a t i o n Sub-committee o f the Committee on C i v i l Research, which recommended the appointment of a n A d v i s o r y Committee on F o r e s t Research, and the p r o v i s i o n of s u f f i c i e n t funds t o enable  the Commissioners t o f i n a n c e r e -  search o f the nature envisaged by the 1920 Committee.  The Ad-  v i s o r y Committee was appointed b u t no e f f e c t was g i v e n t o t h e recommendation f o r i n c r e a s e o f funds.  Nevertheless  from time  192.  to  time r e s e a r c h of a p u r e l y s c i e n t i f i c c h a r a c t e r was  where t h i s was tical  c o n s i d e r e d necessary  significance.  financed  t o s o l v e problems o f p r a c -  Over the g r e a t e r p a r t of the f i r s t twenty-  f i v e y e a r s the s t a f f i n g l e v e l of the Research Branch remained , s t a t i o n a r y w i t h a C h i e f Research O f f i c e r s t a t i o n e d a t London headquarters,  a Research O f f i c e r f o r England and Wales,  t i o n e d a t the I m p e r i a l F o r e s t r y I n s t i t u t e , Oxford,  sta-  a Research  O f f i c e r f o r S c o t l a n d , s t a t i o n e d I n Edinburgh and a Sample P l o t O f f i c e r who Entomologist  covered  were appointed  t u t e a t Oxford, full  the whole country.  A M y c o l o g i s t and  an  t o the s t a f f of the F o r e s t r y I n s t i -  n o m i n a l l y employed by the I n s t i t u t e but engaged  time on problems f o r the F o r e s t r y Commission.  The  r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s i l v i c u l t u r a l  two  research,  each w i t h a s m a l l s t a f f of r e s e a r c h f o r e s t e r s and foreman s t a t i o n e d i n those areas where n u r s e r y and p l a n t a t i o n I n v e s t i g a t i o n s were mainly ing of  concentrated.  The  t h i s p e r i o d were g r a n t - a i d e d .  remaining  researches  dur-  They covered a wide range  s u b j e c t s , f o r example, v o l e d i s e a s e , mycorrhiza  research,  f o r e s t s o i l s , and the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f c e r t a i n fungus d i s e a s e s . A d e t a i l e d account of the major f i e l d s o f a c t i v i t y to 1939  is  g i v e n i n the White Paper. I n postwar development r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y was  much extended,  the p o l i c y o f c o n f i n i n g the r e s e a r c h branch a c t i v i t y t o work mainly i n v o l v i n g f i e l d cruitment  s t u d i e s was  continued but  specialist re-  extended I n t e r e s t f i e l d s beyond s i l v i c u l t u r e i n t o  r e l a t e d f o r e s t s c i e n c e s , and more r e c e n t l y i n t o economics. were c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e s i n s t a f f . ing  The weakness of  a s c a t t e r e d and fragmented r e s e a r c h group was  the There  maintain-  recognized  193. and a central research,station founded i n the State Forest of A l i c e Holt, Farnham, Hants, which had been under a management plan f o r some 35 years. i n Scotland.  A small research group was established  Grant aided research was extended and continued.  A high degree of co-operation was developed with other research bodies and with private f o r e s t r y i n t e r e s t s .  Development f o l -  lowed and surpassed the program of the White Paper.  In the  immediate prewar years research expenditure averaged if 15,900 per annum.  The estimated cost of the program envisaged i n the 300,000 f o r the f i r s t postwar decade, i n c l u d -  White Paper was ing  the c a p i t a l expenditure on the research s t a t i o n .  In 1952  active annual research expenditure was d 148,000, by 1956 i t had reached  jf 265,000  (146).  The White Paper proposed a pro-  f e s s i o n a l s t a f f of nine or ten o f f i c e r s .  In 1957 the research  s t a f f consisted of 23 professional o f f i c e r s plus supporting technical grades. 36 o f f i c e r s .  By i 9 6 0 there had been a further increase to  The research accommodation has proved  inadequate  and recently a large new research i n s t i t u t e has been opened. United States - An account of the h i s t o r i c a l development of forest research i s incomplete without reference to the United States.  To quote Harper (108) "Federal Forest Research  started with the appointment of one man i n 1876, h i s tfob was to f i n d out about timber consumption, timber f o r import and export, the probable supply f o r the future, the best ways of preserving and renewing the f o r e s t s , and to report on the same within one year."  The l e v e l of research a c t i v i t y i s indicated by  the o v e r a l l national expenditure  (1953) of 245,400,000 f o r a l l  agencies and a s t a f f of approximately  1100 t e c h n i c a l l y trained  194.  p e r s o n n e l i n the f e d e r a l agency ( 1 3 2 ) .  A g e n e r a l review o f  the development o f U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e s e a r c h i n g was publ i s h e d by Kotok (141) and the development o f r e s e a r c h I n a c a demic i n s t i t u t i o n s and a g r i c u l t u r a l experiment s t a t i o n s by Westveld ( 2 2 2 ) .  F o r a comprehensive account o f American r e -  search development, a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d t o the r e p o r t by K a u f e r t and Cummings  (132).  I n d i a - Gf the e a s t e r n n a t i o n s r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y developed  i n India.  Progress has been t r a c e d by Champion (46)  and Ranganathan ( 1 7 8 ) . to  first  The f i r s t  silvicultural contribution  the 'Indian F o r e s t e r ' was p u b l i s h e d i n 1 8 9 1 .  The present  F o r e s t Research I n s t i t u t e s and C o l l e g e s a t Dehra Dun a r e outgrowths o f a ranger  s c h o o l e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1878 by the then  Government o f the N. ¥ . P r o v i n c e s . p o s t , t h a t o f F o r e s t Entomologist,  I n 1900 t h e f i r s t  research  I n 1906  was i n s t i t u t e d .  the C e n t r a l Research I n s t i t u t e was founded w i t h branches f o r S i l v i c u l t u r e , Botany, Entomology, Chemistry  and Economics.  This  was the second o f a s e r i e s o f c e n t r a l I n d i a n Government r e s e a r c h a g e n c i e s , and was preceded o n l y by the I n d i a n A g r i c u l t u r a l Research I n s t i t u t e , formed i n 1 9 0 1 .  F o r the f i r s t  two y e a r s the  post o f C e n t r a l S i l v i c u l t u r i s t was h e l d by the P r i n c i p a l o f the C o l l e g e but i n 1908 a separate appointment was made. a separate S i l v i c u l t u r i s t f o r Burma was a p p o i n t e d  I n 1916  and soon a f t e r  development became more r a p i d w i t h a c q u i s i t i o n s o f s t a f f , and a l s o d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n through the appointment o f p r o v i n c i a l s i l v i c u l t u r i s t s from 1918 onward.  I n 1921-22 the Economics  Branch was expanded t o form a branch o f wood technology and f o r est  products,  i n subsequent y e a r s t h i s branch expanded and  195. came almost t o make up an i n s t i t u t e w i t h i n an i n s t i t u t e .  The  C e n t r a l Research I n s t i t u t e tended more t o serve as a c o - o r d i n a t i n g and documentation c e n t r e f o r d e c e n t r a l i z e d p r o v i n c i a l a c t i v i t y , and as a t r a i n i n g ground i n r e s e a r c h  techniques.  S i n c e t h e second world war and the p a r t i t i o n o f I n d i a f u r t h e r r e o r g a n i z a t i o n and expansion experience  has taken p l a c e .  War  I n d i c a t e d the value o f the I n s t i t u t e t o the country,  and h i g h l i g h t e d i t s d e f i c i e n c i e s i n equipment and p e r s o n n e l ; t h e r e was a l a r g e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n scheme aiming a t e x t e n s i v e modernization  o f equipment and b u i l d i n g s .  The branches d e a l i n g w i t h f o r e s t r e s e a r c h proper, m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e s , herbarium, museums, l i b r a r y ,  the a d -  Convocation  H a l l , and I n d i a n F o r e s t C o l l e g e , a r e now a l l housed i n one l a r g e and imposing  building.  L a b o r a t o r i e s , workshops, and  p i l o t p l a n t s connected w i t h f o r e s t products r e s e a r c h occupy a number o f separate b u i l d i n g s s c a t t e r e d over the s i t e . i s a demonstration  There  f o r e s t , an e x t e n s i v e arboretum, and a bo-  t a n i c a l garden. The Herbarium c o n t a i n s a q u a r t e r m i l l i o n l e a v e s , i n c l u d ing  1200 type o r co-type  sheets and d a t i n g back t o I 8 l 6 .  The  Reference C o l l e c t i o n o f i n s e c t s c o n t a i n s over 1 7 , 0 0 0 a u t h e n t i cated i d e n t i f i e d species. photographic  An important  feature i s a large  c o l l e c t i o n covering a l l aspects of Indian  forestry.  Copies o f a l l o f f i c i a l photographs a r e sent t o Dehra Dun.  An-  other f e a t u r e o f the c o l l e c t i o n s a r e c a r d indexes and l e d g e r ' f i l e s which have been c a r e f u l l y maintained  i n a l l branches.  Burma - Burma was a d m i n i s t e r e d by the Government o f I n d i a u n t i l 1935.  An I n d i a n F o r e s t S e r v i c e f o r e s t r e s e a r c h  officer  196.  was appointed i n 1913.  E a r l y a c t i v i t y had been l a r g e l y  con-  f i n e d t o b o t a n i c a l r e s e a r c h and e m p i r i c a l advance, w i t h B r a n d i s and Grimble the 1 9 t h Century.  i n the f o r e f r o n t and a c t i v e a t the end o f I n 1920 a Research  and Working Plans  was formed b u t economic d e p r e s s i o n prevented of ing  plans f o r a research i n s t i t u t e .  Circle  the r e a l i z a t i o n  As a compromise, a Work-  Plans C i r c l e w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l post o f S i l v i c u l t u r i s t was  formed and a separate u t i l i z a t i o n c i r c l e was e s t a b l i s h e d .  No  f u r t h e r advance was made u n t i l a f t e r World War I I when the ^supply o f munitions  timber brought  out the f a c t t h a t other  spe-  c i e s than teak had a range o f u t i l i t y not r e a l i z e d b e f o r e . A f t e r the war economic r e s e a r c h was undertaken  by the U t i l i z a -  t i o n c i r c l e a t Rangoon , b i o l o g i c a l and s t a t i s t i c a l r e s e a r c h a t Maymyo.  I n 1956 F o r e s t r e s e a r c h was s t i l l  l i n k e d with that of  I n d i a t o some extent f o r the Burmese Government s t i l l buted t o the c o s t o f the I n d i a n F o r e s t Research  contri-  Institute.  In  t h a t year a s s i s t a n c e was o b t a i n e d from the Food and A g r i c u l t u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the U n i t e d Nations i n drawing up p l a n s f o r a F o r e s t Research  I n s t i t u t e and F o r e s t Products L a b o r a t o r y  (165)  (139). Malaya and the E a s t I n d i e s - I n other non-European count r i e s i n i t i a l development was slower, but by the 1 9 3 0 ' s r e s e a r c h groups were coming i n t o b e i n g . at  I n Java the Boschbouwproefstation  B u i t e n z o r g served the Dutch E a s t I n d i e s and was mainly de-  voted t o the b i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f f o r e s t r y .  I n the B r i t i s h  Dependencies Malaya was the o n l y country t o have a c h i e v e d a l o c a l f o r e s t r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e a l t h o u g h o t h e r s had s p e c i a l i s t  197. o f f i c e r s and r e s e a r c h groups. economic d e p r e s s i o n .  A g a i n p r o g r e s s was delayed by  The d e c i s i o n t o e s t a b l i s h a s t a t i o n a t  Kepong was made i n 1 9 2 6 .  By 1 9 9 the e s t a b l i s h m e n t was 2  ready.  O r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n s t o p r o v i d e a comprehensive r e s e a r c h s e r v i c e went u n r e a l i z e d due t o retrenchments. o f more prosperous  W i t h the r e t u r n  times expansion was j u s t b e g i n n i n g when  the outbreak o f the second world war a g a i n d e l a y e d (145).  matters  198.  APPENDIX 2 A u t h o r i t i e s t o whom r e f e r e n c e i s made i n the t e x t T i t l e and A f f i l i a t i o n  Name A l l e n , G. S.  Dean, F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Aung, D i n  R e g i o n a l F o r e s t r y O f f i c e r , A s i a and the F a r E a s t , Food and A g r i c u l t u r e Organization.  Bailey, ¥. I.  P r o f e s s o r o f Botany, Harvard U n i v e r s i t y .  Baldwin, H. I .  F o r e s t r y and R e c r e a t i o n Commission, New Hampshire, U. S. A.  B a r r , P. M.  Professor of Forestry, U n i v e r s i t y of California.  Beltram, E .  D i r e c t o r , I n s t i t u t e o f Renewable N a t u r a l Resources, Mexico.  B e r e s f o r d - P e i r s e , H. H. Deputy D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l , U n i t e d K i n g dom F o r e s t r y Commission, Deputy D i r e c t o r , F o r e s t r y D i v i s i o n , Food and A g r i c u l t u r a l Organization. Bevan, A.  D i r e c t o r , T r o p i c a l F o r e s t Experiment Station, United States Forest Service, Puerto R i c o .  B i c k e r s t a f f , A.  Head, S i l v i c u l t u r e and Management Sect i o n , F o r e s t Research D i v i s i o n , F o r e s t r y Branch, Department o f Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources, Canada.  Bier, J . E.  A s s o c i a t e C h i e f , Science Survey, D i v i s i o n o f F o r e s t B i o l o g y , Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Canada.  B i r c h , T. T. C.  I n s p e c t o r - i n - c h a r g e , Development ( T r a i n i n g and Research) D i v i s i o n , New Zealand F o r e s t S e r v i c e .  Bor,  E c o l o g i s t , Indian Forest  N. L.  B r a s n e t t , N. V.  Service.  L e c t u r e r i n F o r e s t Management, I m p e r i a l F o r e s t r y I n s t i t u t e , Oxford. (Sometime Conservator o f F o r e s t s , B r i t i s h West Africa.  199Buckland, D.  Associate Professor of Forestry, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  C.  Carmichael, 0. Cameron, R.  C.  Dominion F o r e s t e r , Canada.  R.  L e c t u r e r i n Wood S t r u c t u r e and Propert i e s , Imperial F o r e s t r y I n s t i t u t e , Oxford.  Chalk, L.  Champion, H.  Chaturvedi  I n s p e c t o r G e n e r a l of F o r e s t s ,  -  D i r e c t o r , P a c i f i c North West F o r e s t and Range Experiment S t a t i o n , U n i t e d States Forest Service.  W.  H.  Cummings, w.  A c t i n g Head, U. S. F o r e s t H.  Service.  D i r e c t o r , C e n t r a l i a F o r e s t Research Centre, Weyerhaeuser Timber Company, Washington, U.S.A.  T.  D a v i s , K.  India.  D i r e c t o r , D i v i s i o n of Personnel, United States Forest Service.  M.  Cowlin, ,R.  Dana, S.  D i r e c t o r , Imperial F o r e s t r y I n s t i t u t e , P r o f e s s o r of F o r e s t r y , U n i