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A comparative study of forest research organization and policy 1960

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FOREST RESEARCH ORGANIZATION AND POLICY by JACK VINCENT THIRGOOD B.Sc, University of Wales, 1950 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF FORESTRY i n the Faculty of FORESTRY We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November i960 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia., I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Silviculture State University College of Forestry at Syracuse University. Syracuse, New York, U.S.A. Date - November 25, i960 i ABSTRACT An attempt i s made to evaluate the various concepts and to i d e n t i f y the orderly processes that allow of the e f f i c i e n t conduct of f o r e s t r y research. D i f f e r i n g national research patterns are discussed. Emphasis i s on the organization of f o r e s t r y research from the viewpoint of public and q u a s i - o f f i c i a l bodies. The scope of f o r e s t r y research i s considered. I t i s stressed that f o r - estry research to be purposeful must be r e f l e c t e d i n the prac- t i c e of f o r e s t r y . Importance i s attached to the maintenance of close r e l a t i o n s h i p s between research o f f i c e r s and f o r e s t r y p r a c t i t i o n e r s and consideration i s given to the means by which t h i s may be attained. The need f o r s p e c i a l i s t research o f f i c e r s with adequate supporting trained s t a f f i s emphasized and att e n t i o n directed to the development of an organizational framework that i s favourable to the conduct of research i n f o r e s t r y . Although i t i s recognized that the difference between fun- damental and applied research may, at times,be.unclear, a d i s t i n c t i o n i s drawn between the two. I t i s argued that be- cause of the nature of f o r e s t r y such d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s essen- t i a l f o r the e f f i c i e n t conduct of research; d i f f e r e n t forms of organization, technique, s t a f f i n g structure and q u a l i t i e s i n the personnel being required i n each case. The l i n k between research and education i s examined, and, together with state, i n d u s t r i a l , co-operative and p r i v a t e l y sponsored research groups, attention i s directed to organlza- i i . tional forms and the machinery of control. Research program- ing i s considered, and the processes adopted by various agen- cies are reviewed, together with financial provision. The importance of inter-agency collaboration i s emphasized. Reference i s made to personnel matters and to the condi- tions of service of research staff. Contrasting viewpoints on training for research are presented. Publication policy, and the dissemination of findings i s dealt with i n some detail and documentation processes reviewed. There i s some discussion of the functions and place of the experimental forest i n forestry research. Finally, international research activity i s surveyed, and the work of regional groupings of various kinds reviewed. Stress i s placed upon the contribution of the international agencies. The history and development of certain national programs i s presented as an appendix. An attempt has been made to present one philosophy con- cretely and consistently and, through consideration of the body of the literature, to explain this, while providing a framework that, i t i s hoped, may be helpful to others in the formulation of what must essentially be a personal' philosophy. Throughout, the universality of forestry experience i s emphasized. A world view i s taken and examples and views drawn from a number of countries i n an attempt to obtain a synthesis of research thought. i i i "In research more important than planning, control, and c o s t l y buildings, i s the correct atmosphere f o r the encouragement of the enthusiasm and the v i s i o n needed to l i f t research from analysis to creation." Professor W. I. B. Beveridge. Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION 1 GENERAL RESEARCH ORGANIZATION AND METHOD The o r i e n t a t i o n and scale of research 4 Fundamental research or applied i n v e s t i g a t i o n 9 Formal and informal research, the observational method and the controlled experiment 22 RESEARCH AGENCIES The r e l a t i o n s h i p between forest research agencies and education 26, Other academic research 32 The development of state a c t i v i t y i n f o r e s t r y research 45 Some aspects of state research organization 49 Forest products research 55 Research by i n d u s t r i a l agencies 59 Priv a t e l y sponsored research 60 Researches supported by associations and co- operatives 61 PERSONNEL PROBLEMS Co-operation i n research 66 Governing bodies and the machinery of control 70 The status and conditions of service of research s t a f f 83 CONTRASTING VIEWPOINTS ON RESEARCH American and B r i t i s h views on t r a i n i n g f o r research 90 The use of s p e c i a l i s t personnel 104 Subordinate s t a f f i n the research structure 106 Page The question of research p u b l i c a t i o n 117 PUTTING RESEARCH INTO PRACTICE Relationships between research personnel and pr a c t i c i n g foresters 123 The functions of the experimental forest 127 Demonstration and the extension function 138 FUNDS FOR RESEARCH 140 DISSEMINATION AND DOCUMENTATION Publication p o l i c y and practice 151 Dissemination i n i n d u s t r i a l research 161 Documentation 162 INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH ACTIVITY 168 FINIS 178 Appendices l 8 l Authorities to whom reference i s made i n the text 198 L i t e r a t u r e consulted 205 v i ' Foreword and acknowledgements In this study the published writings have been scrutin- ized to determine research patterns. I wish to make f u l l acknowledgement of the debt owed to the many writers l i s t e d i n the bibliography, both for back- ground information and for material incorporated in the text. Building upon this literature and on personal research experience, I have attempted to evaluate the various concepts and to identify the orderly processes that allow of the e f f i - cient conduct of forestry research. This task of synthesis and interpretation would have been d i f f i c u l t without a background of experience, and the end product would have been the poorer but for those foresters of Great Britain, Europe, the Mediterranean Basin and the Middle East, and North America: colleagues, instructors, friends, who have shared, and enriched, these experiences. My ideas have been shaped to a considerable extent by these associations. Also, sincere thanks are due to Dr. J . w. Ker, Associate Professor, Faculty of Forestry, University of Br i t i s h Columbia, with whom much of the material was discussed, for his en- couragement and interest. Much of the i n i t i a l collection of material and compila- tion was done while T was the recipient of a Fellowship from the Van Dusen Foundation, a part of the Vancouver Foundation. I gratefully acknowledge this support. J.V.T. 1 "You cannot plan discovery but you can plan the conditions which allow the discovery to be made." Anon. INTRODUCTION As Macdonald (154) and Laurie (147) have indicated, i n forest research the possible subjects f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n almost always tend to exceed the f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e . I t i s essen- t i a l that research a c t i v i t y be planned f o r the best use of f i n a n c i a l and other resources. Among others, Wilm ( 2 2 3 ) has emphasized the importance of coordinated planning to provide fo r both the long-term i n v e s t i g a t i o n "which supplies great permanent values i n land management investigations", and the short-term study of lower permanent value but with c o l o r f u l momentary appeal, "the pot-boilers' which give a quick turn- over of r e s u l t s " . The concept of the research program, the problem analysis, and the experiment working plan, go f a r toward s a t i s f y i n g t h i s requirement at the operational l e v e l , but the e f f o r t s of workers may be greatly f a c i l i t a t e d , or r e - tarded, by the organizational framework within which they work, and which i n turn r e f l e c t s the o v e r a l l p o l i c y towards research and development. Clapp ( 5 2 ) ascribed many of the f a i l u r e s to make rapid or even reasonable progress i n ea r l y American r e - searching to poor supervision, poor organization, or a combin- at i o n of the two. At the Sixth B r i t i s h Commonwealth Forestry Conference, Canada, ( 2 9 ) A. H. Gosling stated, 2. "Unless research i s properly planned, unless i t i s properly co-ordinated, the best r e s u l t s w i l l not be achieved." At the same meeting, J . D. B. Harrison said that the underlying objects of Canadian forest research p o l i c y were, "to ensure the best use would be made of av a i l a b l e personnel and f a c i l i t i e s , to t r y to achieve coordination without regimentation, to preserve i n i t i a t i v e and yet guide i t . " The o r i g i n a l and popular concept of research as the domain of the s l i g h t l y eccentric and unworldly s c i e n t i f i c recluse, Johnson•s "Hermit hoar i n solemn c e l l Wearing out l i f e ' s evening grey" does not hold today. Most often present-day research i s the function of comparatively large and complex organizations. Research may be the sole a c t i v i t y , or i t may be only a minor i n t e r e s t . I t w i l l only r a r e l y occur that the worker i s free to follow h i s own i n c l i n a t i o n s ; he has to come to terms with h i s environment. In compensation, he w i l l almost c e r t a i n l y have greater f a c i l i t i e s at h i s disposal and he w i l l u s u a l l y f e e l that h i s e f f o r t s are of some p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Within t h i s framework there i s s t i l l much that may be done to f a c i l i t a t e the development of an atmosphere favorable to productive research. The d i f f i c u l t y l i e s i n giving guidance without s t i f l i n g i n i t i a t i v e . National t r a i t s c l e a r l y influence the approach. American procedures are, i n essence, organizational. In Germany there are formalist patterns, i n France, c e n t r a l i s t tendencies. In Great B r i t a i n the structure which has evolved i s opportunist, to a degree empirical, and with scope f o r improvisation. 3. In t h i s study emphasis i s on the organization of research from the viewpoint of public agencies or q u a s i - o f f i c i a l bodies. These are most suited to the long-term e f f o r t necessary f o r the successful conclusion of much of forest i n v e s t i g a t i o n , f o r research today c a l l s f o r sustained team-work, with a c e n t r a l , continuing administration and assured funds (69). In the development of the theme emphasis i s on the u t i l i z a t i o n of varying l e v e l s of s k i l l s and experiences i n the research team. Experience has shown these to be of great immediate importance to the practice of f o r e s t r y . I t i s only to be expected that there w i l l be differences i n opinion regarding the Interpretations and conclusions pre- sented. In part these may r e s u l t from differences i n termin- ology and nuances of meaning. Much depends on the background of experience. However an attempt has been made to present one philosophy concretely and consistently and, through con- sideration of the body of the l i t e r a t u r e , to explain t h i s , while providing a framework that i t i s hoped may be h e l p f u l to others i n the formulation of what must e s s e n t i a l l y be a personal philosophy. I f a l l were agreed upon the conduct of man's a c t i v i t i e s such studies as t h i s would be unnecessary. In the United States the practice of periodic review and national project analysis has resulted i n several major con- t r i b u t i o n s to the l i t e r a t u r e (52,5,230,90). Recently Kaufert and Cummings (132) have completed a review of the status of current research. Research organization and p o l i c y was * Duplication has been avoided and l i t t l e d i r e c t reference i s made to t h i s report. I t should be r e f e r r e d to f o r detailed accounts of more recent American a c t i v i t y and research thought. 4. considered by Francois ( 87 ) , Chief of the Forest Po l i c y Branch of the Forestry D i v i s i o n of the Food and Agriculture Organi- zation, i n h i s authoritive study on forest p o l i c y , law and administration and recommendations made f o r the positioning of the research organization within the administrative struc- ture of Government. Considerable attention has also been given to research p o l i c y at the various B r i t i s h Commonwealth Forestry Conferences. GENERAL RESEARCH ORGANIZATION AND METHOD The o r i e n t a t i o n and scale of research In general i t i s impossible to reach any d e f i n i t e con- clusions as to a desirable scale of research e f f o r t . This can only be determined from d i r e c t consideration of l o c a l conditions, and e s p e c i a l l y of the stage of f o r e s t r y development. Details of most national research programs have been pub- li s h e d (51,52,84). i t i s d i f f i c u l t to a r r i v e at any r e a l i s t i c conclusions regarding t h e i r adequacy without personal knowledge of l o c a l conditions, or of the scale of the work described. Each country's research program must be adapted to i t s par- t i c u l a r circumstances. Thus the proportionate f o r e s t r y e f f o r t devoted to research i n Canada, where, " S i l v i c u l t u r a l research has, up u n t i l the present been conducted i n almost the complete absence of planned s i l v i c u l t u r e " (Bickerstaffe, i n 29.) but where there i s extensive natural f o r e s t , has l i t t l e r e l a - tionship to the scale of research i n South A f r i c a where there i s an intensive plantation f o r e s t r y based on the use of exotics. Nevertheless i t i s important that a balance be maintained and that the a c t i v i t y be commensurate with the t o t a l f o r e s t r y e f f o r t , while the existence of an active and v i r i l e research group can do much to stimulate progressive thinking out of a l l proportion to i t s numbers, such a group should not absorb a disproportionate amount of the o v e r a l l e f f o r t and resources. These resources may be of material, or perhaps of even greater importance, of men with a capacity f o r constructive thought. Champion (29) drew attention to Troup's views, which, coming from a keen and experienced experimentalist, he f e l t should be given some weight. Troup was of the opinion that, "... i n the e a r l i e r stages of forest development the primary need i s f o r e f f i c i e n t administration and executive work i n the tasks of reservation, demarcation, protection, and survey, l i k e l y to keep a l l the s t a f f which can be afforded f u l l y occupied; that at t h i s stage wholetime s p e c i a l i s t and research o f f i c e r s may be a luxury which cannot be afforded the solution might be found i n cooperative e f f o r t between neighboring t e r r i t o r i e s with si m i l a r or common problems," In e f f e c t , the regional approach which i s developing today. Francois ( 8 7 ) holds an opposing view of p r i o r i t i e s . He believes that research should be favored over administrative functions as the prerequisite to i n i t i a l formulation of p o l i c y and the basis of r a t i o n a l administration. It i s obviously a matter of scale, and also possibly a matter of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the functions of that very diverse group of workers often included under the umbrella of 'research f o r administrative reasons but engaged i n a range of a c t i v i t i e s f a r removed from research sensu s t r i c t a . Laurie (1*1-7) declared 6. "Forest research varies at the one extreme from fundamental s c i e n t i f i c problems of tree physiology and ecology etc., through the p r a c t i c a l problems of growing trees on p a r t i c u l a r s i t e s , to matters that are doubt- f u l l y research at a l l , such as the c o l l e c t i o n of i n f o r - mation f o r management purposes. One c r i t e r i o n that might be applied i s whether the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s aimed at acquiring knowledge, or whether i t i s merely amassing data f o r a s p e c i f i c purpose." In practice, such a d e f i n i t i o n i s often not r e a l i s t i c . Laurie found i t usually convenient to c l a s s i f y as 'research 1 a l l investigations that require a s p e c i a l i s t s t a f f to carry them out e f f i c i e n t l y . Experience both i n the B r i t i s h Commonwealth and i n the United States has amply demonstrated the weakness of depending on the general administrative cadre f o r the progress of i n v e s t i - gational work. " i t takes a trained research worker to be constantly aware of the wide range of factors that play a part i n producing any p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n " (Champion, i n 2 8 ) . Long experience has indicated that the s p e c i a l i z e d conduct of research i n the f i e l d and the ordinary d i v i s i o n a l o f f i c e r duties cannot be mixed. While experiment maintenance can some- times be l e f t i n the hands of the f i e l d o f f i c e r , a s p e c i a l i s t i s required f o r the s c i e n t i f i c d e t a i l s and maintenance of records (Ford Robinson i n 2 9 ) . Chalk (45) discussed world developments towards s p e c i a l i s t s t a f f i n g i n the immediate pre-war period. Since that time there has been very considerable expansion of sp e c i a l i z e d f i e l d r e - search. Indeed, as has been well said i n another regard, "Forestry, l i k e other l i n e s of business, runs to fads." (108) There i s perhaps a present-day tendency f o r f o r e s t administrators to want-'research' i n t h e i r departments regardless of the o v e r a l l 7- picture, and perhaps on occasion, without any true knowledge of what i t involves. Irrespective of opinions as to the scale of desirable research e f f o r t , i t i s most important that enthusiasm be not allowed to over-extend a research program. I t should develop progressively. Care must be taken to confine the i n v e s t i g a - t i o n a l work to the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by p r a c t i c a l consider- ations of s t a f f and f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e . What i s desirable w i l l r a r e l y coincide with what i s possible. One of the major problems has been the d e l i m i t a t i o n of areas of a c t i v i t y . "Research programs are scarcely, i f ever, planned from the s t a r t . They usually grow out of small beginnings according to the needs of the science or technology they serve, and, i f not controlled severely, they can e a s i l y get out of hand. The p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n are almost i n f i n i t e and i t i s the general experience of any- one who t r i e s to d i r e c t a research program that the f i e l d of i n v e s t i g a t i o n continually tends to expand, and become larger than the a v a i l a b l e research s t a f f can cope with. This i s inherent i n any research conducted by workers with imagination and i n i t i a t i v e . I f i t were not so, doubts should a r i s e about the s u i t a b i l i t y of the research workers f o r t h e i r job." (1^7) In departmental research the primary i n t e r e s t i s usually, at least i n the i n i t i a l stages, the solution of current prob- lems. The more "technological" the nature of these problems the l e s s l i k e l i h o o d there i s of obtaining the assistance of extra-departmental agencies. Such work w i l l therefore quite n a t u r a l l y f a l l within the compass of in - s e r v i c e enquiry. When in t e r e s t develops i n research of a more fundamental nature, which i s neither l o c a l i n character nor confined to f o r e s t r y , questions are apt to a r i s e whether such research should not be l e f t e n t i r e l y to other i n s t i t u t i o n s , whether i t might not be 8 . better to subsidize s p e c i a l researches elsewhere, or whether to employ a s p e c i a l i s t within the forest service. The solution depends on the l o c a l circumstances. Macdonald (15^) emphasized that, " any program of forest research must be c l o s e l y related to the problems of the for e s t , and as the problems change i n character so must the program of research vary i n i t s scope, and i n the parts on which emphasis must c h i e f l y f a l l . " but he also warned, "A Director of Research i n f o r e s t r y must be on h i s guard.lest he be swayed too much by passing fashion. We a l l know how great a part fashion plays i n f o r e s t r y some of these enthusiasms have a very short l i f e . . . . I t i s a bad thing when a program of research r e f l e c t s too c l e a r l y the influence of these temporary changes i n the current of thought i n f o r e s t r y c i r c l e s . " He stressed the importance of long-term planning; ".... one must be careful l e s t the research pro- gram becomes s o l e l y a l i s t of problems f o r which an immed- i a t e l s o l u t i o n i s sought. Research must look forward and the program must contain some items which are of l i t t l e current importance but which w i l l be of importance ten or even twenty years hence." Although greatest attention i s commonly directed to the bio - l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l aspects, the true needs of a f o r e s t r y s i t u a t i o n may require d i f f e r e n t research o r i e n t a t i o n . In present day North America i t i s commonly said that the great- est l i m i t a t i o n s to f o r e s t r y advance are economic i n nature. Under such conditions greatest benefits might well r e s u l t from concentration on economic and managerial studies. The rapid development of i n t e r e s t and of a c t i v i t y i n t h i s general area i n Northern European countries - i n p a r t i c u l a r i n Scandinavia and i n Germany - i n so-called "Work Studies", resulted from a r e a l i z a t i o n of the importance to f o r e s t r y of the solution of 9 . the problems that resulted from the changed economic and s o c i a l conditions a f t e r the second world war. Clear l y , as Clapp (52) wrote i n regard to the United States, " a broad understanding of the forest problem and how i t must be solved constitutes the only s a t i s - factory background f o r a c r i t i c a l analysis of the need f o r forest research, of i t s urgency, and of the character and size of a national program." Fundamental research or applied i n v e s t i g a t i o n D i s t i n c t i o n between basic and applied research i s often tenuous. Fundamental studies may r e s u l t i n information that has immediate and widespread a p p l i c a t i o n . Applied research w i l l frequently produce fundamental information as a side issue. There, have been many attempts at d e f i n i t i o n , recently by McQuilkin ( 157) , E. C. Stone (197,198) and E. L. Stone ( 1 9 9 ) . There i s , of course no clear-cut d i s t i n c t i o n , but rather a gradation between two extremes. The difference i s frequently one of i n i t i a l approach and objective. Simplifying, basic r e - search i s often concerned with answering the questions 'what1 and 'why', whereas i n applied research i n t e r e s t i s more f r e - quently directed towards 'how'. The s i t u a t i o n i s perhaps best summed up by E. L. Stone. After l i s t i n g the whole range of terms; on the one hand, pure, basic, t h e o r e t i c a l , fundamental, ivory tower, academic, im- p r a c t i c a l ; and on the other, applied, non-basic, empirical, developmental, u t i l i t a r i a n , p r a c t i c a l , he concluded, "perhaps the test of good f o r e s t research should not be whether i t i s basic or non-basic, but, rather, i s i t relevant, i s i t well done, w i l l i t reduce the degree of empiricism i n i t s area." 10. I t i s to be regretted that a tinge of apology i s occa- s i o n a l l y noted i n the publications of c e r t a i n organizations f o r concentration on applied i n v e s t i g a t i o n , suggesting that the authors consider t h e i r work to be somehow i n f e r i o r on that account, f o r , "ultimately the r e s u l t s of a l l research are judged by the improvement i n e f f i c i e n c y and economy of oper- ations." (147) The approach should be dictated by the needs of the prob- lem, "When one (a d i r e c t o r of research) has agreed to take a program up, one must decide whether i t can be dealt with i n the forest by experimental methods or whether i t requires a more fundamental approach." (15*0 In the Canadian Forestry Branch, research has been c l a s s i - f i e d under three heads (Harrison, i n 28). These are:- Fact Finding Surveys, to evaluate and describe e x i s t i n g conditions as a basis f o r planning more det a i l e d studies. Fundamental Research, involving the study of the behaviour of fa c t o r s influencing forest development and the adaption of the methods and findings of the b i o l o g i c a l and other sciences to the s o l u t i o n of forest problems. Applied Research, including the development of p r a c t i c a l methods of influencing forest development, the improvement of operating and research techniques, and the t e s t i n g of methods and equipment. Often there are two i r r e c o n c i l a b l e s , the need f o r immed- ia t e a p p l i c a t i o n , and the long time i t takes f o r the accumu- l a t i o n of basic information. I f a working solution, which w i l l s a t i s f y the needs of f o r e s t management, can be obtained through empirical i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i t may be questioned whether 11. a public agency i s j u s t i f i e d i n pursuing a more penetrating enquiry. Nevertheless, i n a comprehensive national research e f f o r t , even i f such a c t i v i t i e s f a l l outside the scope of i n - service enquiry, there should be provision f o r the two l i n e s of research, empirical and basic, f o r frequently the scien- t i f i c foundation upon which to b u i l d i s poorly developed. The d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i l l depend on l o c a l conditions. In s e t t l e d countries there may be a basis of t r a d i t i o n a l knowledge, but t h i s w i l l r a r e l y e x i s t i n the newer or l e s s - developed nations. Harrison (29) looked f o r advice on t h i s matter. In h i s discussion he indicated the e f f e c t of d i f f e r - ences i n the stage of national development on the o r i e n t a t i o n of research. He noted that, whereas, "the European worker i s l i v i n g i n a world of estab- l i s h e d f o rest practice and as one of h i s chief functions he i s c a l l e d i n to f i n d out why something goes wrong," In contrast the Canadian was endeavouring to conduct f o r e s t r e - search i n the absence of an established s i l v i c u l t u r e , and thus had a double r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to carry out investigations of the most useful character f o r the future and at the same time to t r y to stimulate the development of more intensive and better forest p r a c t i c e . He queried whether under such conditions fundamental studies might not be j u s t i f i e d i n i n - s e r v i c e r e - search. This s i t u a t i o n obviously provides v a l i d arguments f o r the adoption of a more fundamental viewpoint i f considered i n the l i g h t of comparisons between Canada and Europe alone. How- ever there i s also the circumstance that the more empirical approach has proved e f f e c t i v e i n the development of a r a t i o n a l 12. s i l v i c u l t u r e i n situations where the t o t a l of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge i s but s l i g h t . Haig and h i s associates (105) have drawn American attention to the r e l a t i v e l y simple information on which s i l v i c u l t u r a l practices have been based i n t r o p i c a l f o r e s t r y , with very considerable success. The key to such empiricism l i e s i n the provision of s t a f f , both research and pr a c t i t i o n e r , of high c a l i b r e with a wide general background at the professional l e v e l . Often, both i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l approaches are possible; the mass experimental attack, using l e s s highly trained men and the evaluation of data from many f i e l d p l o t s ; or the study of basic p r i n c i p l e s by the i n d i v i d u a l , highly trained s c i e n t i s t . F i e l d experiments can only give information of general a p p l i - cation i f a wide range of conditions i s sampled, and may not explain causal mechanisms. The basic study, when completed, may s t i l l require a large experimental program to determine the necessary techniques. For example, i n Canadian research, " i t has become cle a r that i f the r e s u l t s of funda» mental studies are to be put to p r a c t i c a l use i t w i l l be necessary to arrange f o r a series of controlled cutting experiments." (35) Although the Canadian Forestry Branch, as previously i n d i - cated, undertakes studies of a fundamental nature, i t also recognizes that i t cannot a r r i v e at sound s i l v i c u l t u r a l prac- t i c e through fundamental research into i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the fo r e s t , while applied research w i l l lead to sound practice i n time (Harrison, i n 2 9 ) . The Forestry Branch f e e l s unable to wait f o r a long period because of the pressing nature of the problems that face i t , but i t also r e a l i z e s that 13. there i s no substitute f o r applied research, f o r without i t Canadian foresters " w i l l never a r r i v e at decent p r a c t i c e " . This c o n f l i c t , the Forestry Branch hopes to resolve through the conduct of fundamental studies that i t t r u s t s w i l l help toward the e a r l i e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the observed r e s u l t s of applied experiments - " i f t h i s i s true then i t i s (considered) a complete j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the fundamental research program." Laurie (147) has discussed the two approaches i n the following terms, ".... the ad hoc approach to f i n d i n g what trees w i l l grow best on a problem s i t e i s to lay down a series of p i l o t p l o t s of d i f f e r e n t species and record t h e i r per- formance. The basic approach would be to study i n de- t a i l the s o i l s , the water r e l a t i o n s , the available nu- t r i e n t s and other s i t e factors on the one hand, and the physiology of d i f f e r e n t tree species, t h e i r tolerances and d i s l i k e s on the other, and gradually to b u i l d up a mass of knowledge on which to base the choice of species. The ad hoc approach i s d i r e c t , quick and cheap. I t depends upon making some ins p i r e d guesses to s t a r t with and r e s u l t s usually i n a p r a c t i c a l outcome that i s use- f u l . I t contributes r e l a t i v e l y nothing to fundamental knowledge. The basic or fundamental approach i s f a r more d i f f i - c u l t . I t becomes involved i n elu c i d a t i n g a complex of factors and i t may take a long time to produce p r a c t i c a l r e s u l t s , and i s usually c o s t l y i n time and manpower. How- ever, i n the end, i t w i l l not only lead to a s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n to the problem at hand but may also add substan- t i a l l y to fundamental knowledge. Both approaches are necessary i n a well integrated research program as they supplement each other, the ad hoc experimental r e s u l t s often providing material f o r the fundamental researcher to work upon, and the findings of the l a t t e r providing i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the ad hoc experi- menter 's guidance there i s no hard and f a s t l i n e be- tween the two, each using the other's methods and approach to some extent. From the standpoint of research planning i t i s , however, convenient to make the d i s t i n c t i o n . The ad hoc experimenter works mainly i n the f i e l d , carrying out experiments and recording the r e s u l t s . The fundamental worker, be he entomologist, plant physiologist, biochemist, pedologist, wood anatomist, mycologist or entomologist, r e - - quires laboratory f a c i l i t i e s , expensive apparatus and more spec i a l i z e d s c i e n t i f i c t r a i n i n g . " 14. Current American research philosophy appears to favor the more det a i l e d or basic approach. Present United States Forest Service p o l i c y i s directed towards extension of basic research i n the national program. It i s considered that the e a r l i e r more empirical methods have not proved e n t i r e l y suc- c e s s f u l . The extension of basic studies i n the American P a c i f i c North west has been advocated, and formal graduate study towards higher academic degrees has been c a l l e d f o r ( 6 l ) . In f a c t , t h i s i s being f a c i l i t a t e d through suitable postings and assignments, and i n other ways. Opinion has not been unanimous however. Previously Pearson (147) c r i t i c i z e d "the western American neglect of experimentation through applied s i l v i c u l t u r e " f o r i t s i n a b i l i t y "to provide a l i v i n g demon- s t r a t i o n of better s i l v i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e . " He advocated f i e l d experimentation i n place of "the conventional practice of working backward from v i s u a l e f f e c t to probable cause." Without questioning the possible v a l i d i t y of the more recent conclusions i t might be wise to r e c a l l the remarks (109) 154) quoted e a r l i e r on fashions i n f o r e s t r y , and, i n any assessment of the success or otherwise of past American a c t i v - i t y , to keep i n mind the comparatively short time that work has been underway, and the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered by the investigators, often working under very extensive conditions with l i m i t e d supporting s t a f f , and with l i t t l e i n the way of past experience to guide them. The desire f o r more rapid advance i s laudable but, by i t s nature, f o r e s t r y i s a long-term undertaking, and the bulk of forest research consists of the slow, routine, and painstaking 15 accumulation of f a c t s , l a t e r to be interpreted i n the l i g h t of experience. In the f i n a l outcome good f o r e s t r y i s dependent upon good f i e l d p r a c t i c e . No matter how competent i t s execu- t i o n , research can have but l i t t l e r e a l e f f e c t i n the absence of t h i s . The greatest advances i n technique and r e a l p r o d u c t i v i t y i n f o r e s t r y research at the present day appear to be associated with those countries and organizations i n which cle a r d i s t i n c - t i o n i s made between basic and applied research, whether t h i s be formal or t a c i t . Different l e v e l s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n require d i f f e r e n t forms of organization, techniques, f a c i l i t i e s , and not l e a s t , s t a f f i n g structure and q u a l i t i e s i n the personnel. When such d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n Is not clea r , research may lose balance and, where major emphasis i s placed on the fundamental aspects, lose contact with the p r a c t i c i n g f o r e s t e r . This may be of small consequence i n the case of the s p e c i a l i s t working i n fundamental enquiry, but i t i s unfortunate, and unsatis- factory, i f the majority of f o r e s t r y research o f f i c e r s cease to i d e n t i f y themselves with the p r a c t i t i o n e r . Macdonald (151*-) stated, "... i n my view i t i s most important that forest research o f f i c e r s should be at a l l times i n close touch with t h e i r colleagues who are running the f o r e s t s , i t i s a bad thing f o r the research worker to cut himself o f f from the general current of a f f a i r s . " In s i l v i c u l t u r a l research e s p e c i a l l y i t i s arguable that progress i s most r e a d i l y made when there i s l e s s concern with underlying causes, and s i l v i c u l t u r e i s recognized as an empir- i c a l and inductive science, dependent i n no small degree on personal s k i l l s , progressing from observation to observation, 16. and f i n a l l y , by weight of evidence,, to conclusions. Although the a d d i t i o n a l data which are obtained from d e t a i l e d studies may be of great s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t , greater technological productivity i s often to be obtained through less detailed and, possibly, more empirical approaches, with many more experiments on the ground, less comprehensive assessment, and the adoption of the s t r i c t l y controlled crop approach. In applied f i e l d investigations the need i s often f o r extensive methods of ex- perimentation rather than the intensive methods of formal b i o - logy. This view does not lessen the ultimate value of funda- mental enquiry, nor the importance of applying the r e s u l t s of such e f f o r t i n practice, f o r applied research can progress s a t i s f a c t o r i l y only when based upon a sound foundation of funda- mental knowledge. However, the need f o r v i g i l a n c e i n program- ming i s underlined. The varying concepts of f o r e s t r y have undoubted influence. Where f o r e s t r y i s considered not so much a science complete i n i t s e l f , as the synthesis and coordination of more s p e c i f i c sciences, and the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n of these to f o r e s t management, there appears to be less d i f f i c u l t y . In the B r i t i s h Commonwealth, with the possible exception of Canada, and i n much of Europe, t h i s concept i s generally adopted and in-service research tends to concentrate on ad hoc i n v e s t i g a - t i o n and the a p p l i c a t i o n of fundamental findings to technology. More profound i n v e s t i g a t i o n f a l l s within the province of the man who has s p e c i a l i z e d i n such problems, and whp may be, but probably i s not, a forester, either by i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g or subsequent experience. In North America lack of i n t e r e s t on 17- the part of pure s c i e n t i s t s i n the forest environment has led to the entry of the forester i n these s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d s . In India a s i m i l a r lack of i n t e r e s t i n the fo r e s t led to studies being undertaken by foresters that Champion (26) considered more t r u l y f e l l within the province of the botanist. This state of a f f a i r s i s , of course, not unique to fo r e s t r y . A si m i l a r s i t u - ation occurs and i s often accepted i n c e r t a i n other professional f i e l d s . Nevertheless i n for e s t r y there are sp e c i a l consider- ations that a r i s e from the comparatively small size and lim i t e d scope of the profession. As noted e a r l i e r , i t i s not contested that f o r e s t r y as an applied science cannot progress without fundamental research i n such f i e l d s as plant physiology, ecology, s o i l science and the l i k e . What i s suggested here i s that t h i s work i s better done when i t i s c l e a r l y recognized to belong properly i n the appro- priate d i s c i p l i n e . The B r i t i s h view i s that, " f o r e s t r y w i l l long need two types of s p e c i a l - i s t s even i f t h e i r f i e l d s w i l l overlap to a varying extent, one whose work must by i t s nature beddone i n a forest en- vironment and may be termed technological, and a second whose must e f f e c t i v e environment i s the research laboratory or workroom, with others working i n the same s p e c i a l i t y , but not necessarily i n i t s f o r e s t r y aspects. Por the l a t t e r type the r i g h t t r a i n i n g i s a degree i n the appropriate science..." (50) Perhaps the lack of acceptance of these views i n North America i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the lesser recognition of f o r e s t r y as an area of t r u l y professional endeavour and of the lesser development of s c i e n t i f i c f o r e s t r y as a d i s c i p l i n e d i s t i n c t from the underlying sciences. Bailey and Spoehr (5), i n t h e i r a u t h o r i t a t i v e study of American f o r e s t r y research needs, set forthothe r e l a t i o n of 18. research, i n the fundamental sciences, to f o r e s t r y . They l a i d strong emphasis on the need f o r descriptive and empirical r e - search, "Even i n those regions, e.g., Europe and Japan, where s i l v i c u l t u r e i s most i n t e n s i v e l y practiced, i t has devel- oped almost e n t i r e l y through an e f f i c i e n t l y systemized empiricism. Thus the extension of s i l v i c u l t u r a l manage- ment over the earth's vast area of wild forest land must be preceded by a comprehensive descriptive survey and analysis of w i l d l y f l u c t u a t i n g natural and economic v a r i - ables, and by an i n t e l l i g e n t l y formulated program of em- p i r i c a l experimentation." "Forestry cannot now wait f o r ultimate explanations of the extremely i n t r i c a t e b i o l o g - i c a l phenomena of s i l v i c u l t u r e which must be supplied through exact and time consuming research i n the basic experimental sciences." These conclusions are of i n t e r e s t , f o r they are from out- side the profession and from pure s c i e n t i s t s , whom, i t i s to be assumed, might have been predisposed to favour a fundamental approach. One explanation of the greater American emphasis on the need f o r fundamental studies i n fore s t r y , as compared to t h e i r B r i t i s h counterparts, may l i e i n the d i f f e r i n g emphasis on pure research i n the two countries. In B r i t a i n pure research, i . e . , scholarly research undertaken f o r i t s own sake, amounts to 5 0 percent of the t o t a l national research e f f o r t . In the United States i t forms 7 percent of the national t o t a l . According to Robert McKinney, (New York Times, Oct. 9, i 9 6 0 ) former Assistant Secretary of the I n t e r i o r and f i r s t permanent United States representative at the International Atomic Energy Agency, only one-twelfth of present day United States tgepCal expenditure on research goes f o r fundamental research. In terms of man-power, of about 300,000 f u l l - t i m e research- ers engaged i n research and development only 2 7 , 0 0 0 are i n basic 19- research (218). Such bald comparisons are dangerous, but t h i s p a r t i c u l a r circumstance may be a contributing f a c t o r i n the emphasis on ad hoc enquiry that characterizes much of the ap- p l i e d research undertaken i n B r i t a i n , both i n f o r e s t r y and i n other f i e l d s , i n that the work of the 'pure' s c i e n t i s t provides the necessary background (possibly of a c u l t u r a l nature) to the e f f o r t s of the technological investigator, while i n North America the researcher finds i t necessary to develop t h i s i n f o r - mation himself. D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the agencies engaged i n various types of research a c t i v i t y varies i n d i f f e r e n t countries. Where modern f o r e s t r y was early established i n the Germanic t r a d i t i o n t h i s may have received l i t t l e recognition. However, with the development of larger state research agencies, the older pattern i s changing. At Zurich, f o r example, the Federal forest r e - search agency i s concerned very l a r g e l y with the conduct of routine, applied enquiry, often of a long-term nature, while more fundamental studies are undertaken by the u n i v e r s i t y (75). Week and Kollman (220) have indicated an increasing r e a l i z a t i o n of the d e s i r a b i l i t y of such d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n German f o r e s t r y research, and have described recent developments i n the estab- lishment of federal research i n s t i t u t i o n s . In B r i t a i n there ex- i s t s perhaps the clearest d i s t i n c t i o n . There, the o v e r a l l nation- a l p o l i c y towards s c i e n t i f i c research i n general recognizes d i f f e r e n t types of a c t i v i t y . The duties of the Forestry Commis- sioners i n respect to research have been l a r g e l y determined by a report prepared i n 1920 by the A g r i c u l t u r a l Sub-Committee of a Cabinet "Committee appointed to consider the co-ordination of 20. research work carried out by government departments. The Sub- Committee recommended, "for research work on other subjects (than timber u t i l i z a t i o n and other f o r e s t products, which i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Forest Products Research Laboratory of the Department of S c i e n t i f i c and I n d u s t r i a l Research and not of the Forest Authority) i n connection with f o r - estry problems and f o r any fundamental research other than that directed to an immediate economic r e s u l t i n r e l a t i o n to fo r e s t r y , the Forestry Commission should r e f e r i n the f i r s t instance to the appropriate authority i n whom i s vested the control of research upon the subject under consideration." The o f f i c i a l p o l i c y of the Forestry Commissioners, which has developed from t h i s , has been stated quite s p e c i f i c a l l y i n a Government White Paper ( 9 5 ) t and reviewed subsequently ( 9 6 ) . This p o l i c y i s to leave the more fundamental aspects of forest research to the u n i v e r s i t i e s and other s c i e n t i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n s which s p e c i a l i z e i n p a r t i c u l a r d i s c i p l i n e s , and- are better equipped to deal with them. Where such enquiries are necessary f o r a p r a c t i c a l outcome of some importance to the Forestry Commission's a c t i v i t i e s , the Commissioners' p o l i c y i s f o r these to be ca r r i e d out by i n d i v i d u a l s attached to these i n s t i t u t i o n s . The cost of such research i s usually met by grants from the Forestry Fund. I f a study i s not e s s e n t i a l to operations, then r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r financing i s not considered to rest with the Forest Authority. The s t a f f of the Commission's own research organization i s concerned mainly with the more technical aspects of fore s t r y , "with the more immediate p r a c t i c a l experimentation and investigation, and with the p r a c t i c a l problems a r i s i n g " , t h i s i s to provide a basis f o r the necessarily empirical methods of the executive s t a f f . 21. Research o f f i c e r s "tackle and endeavour to provide a so l u t i o n to prob- lems as they a r i s e i n the course of large scale operations, and when f a i l u r e s occur, attempt to discover the causes and suggest remedies." (95) Emphasis i s on s t r i c t l y controlled f i e l d experimentation, with concentration on crop observations and assessment. This arrange- ment has been found an e f f i c i e n t approach to research problems where s p e c i a l i s t s k i l l s are av a i l a b l e i n u n i v e r s i t i e s or spe- c i a l i s t i n s t i t u t e s (147). I t i s recognized that i n the absence of such f a c i l i t i e s a forest authority may have to set up lab- oratories and r e c r u i t workers i n the a n c i l l a r y f i e l d s to sup- plement the ad hoc program. Forestry has much to gain from the as s o c i a t i o n of workers i n r e l a t e d f i e l d s . S h i r l e y (191) has emphasized the benefits to American f o r e s t r y of sueh contributions from outside the profession. They bring fresh approaches. Viewpoints are un- coloured by f o r e s t r y t r a i n i n g , and new techniques enrich the research. I t i s noteworthy, and i n d i c a t i v e of the wide range of talents which become ava i l a b l e to f o r e s t r y through a f l e x i b l e research system, that s e l e c t i o n of agencies f o r fundamental en- quiry into f o r e s t r y problems i s not confined to the professional schools i n B r i t a i n , but cover a wide range of s c i e n t i f i c e f f o r t . In a recent Forestry Commission annual research report, i n only three out of twelve basic studies reported upon, had the scien- t i s t s concerned any professional f o r e s t r y connection or back- ground. Such investigations may extend over a period of years, with the development of close and highly f r u i t f u l associations between the research branch of the forest service and workers 22. In the basic d i s c i p l i n e s . The worker may be at a u n i v e r s i t y , at an independent research i n s t i t u t i o n , or may belong to an- other government department. The arrangement i s b e n e f i c i a l to a l l p arties concerned. Individual researches are financed which would otherwise go unsupported, the Forestry Commission Is able to c a l l upon highly q u a l i f i e d s p e c i a l i s t s as required, and the researcher obtains assistance In the p r a c t i c a l d e t a i l s of f o r e s t r y and f a c i l i t i e s , both material and personnel, that would otherwise be unavailable. Nevertheless, i t i s important, when s p e c i a l i s t s are brought int o association, that machinery be provided f o r close and per- sonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Hollaway ( i n 16) has described how f a u l t y l i a i s o n and lack of mutual understanding between botanists and foresters led to delay i n researches i n t o the natural f o r e s t s of New Zealand, "The botanists tended to supply blanket theories to "explain" a l l podocarp f o r e s t s and a l l Nothafagus f o r e s t s , while for e s t e r s , because these obviously were inapplicable to p a r t i c u l a r t r a c t s , rejected these explanations and r e - garded the botanists as impractical t h e o r i s t s . " Formal and informal research, the observational method and the controlled experiment" Modern f o r e s t r y practice has l a r g e l y developed from empir- i c a l foundations. In the past much was achieved without spe- c i a l i z e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l approaches, e.g., the enormously en- riched tree f l o r a of B r i t a i n , which resulted from the s k i l l s of early a r b o r i c u l t u r i s t s , and which prepared the way f o r the extensive use of exotics In plantation. However, with progress, problems become less amenable to simple solution, and c o n t r o l - led and s p e c i a l i s t enquiry becomes e s s e n t i a l - 23- " the forests of many countries are l i t t e r e d with the remains of abortive experiments upon which much time, en- thusiasm and money has been spent." (29) Nevertheless, although formal i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s now recog- nized as the major form of research a c t i v i t y , much valuable i n - formation and i n t e r e s t may r e s u l t from small-scale t r i a l s and from observations. S h i r l e y (191) has given a number of examples from America and Europe of advances only possible with the f a c i l i t i e s and opportunities avai l a b l e to the p r a c t i c i n g f o r - ester. Lutz (151) stated, "I would l i k e to express my conviction that f i e l d f o r - esters should never delegate a l l enquiry to professional investigators. Any forester who works i n the woods can make useful contributions to knowledge i f he has an enquiring mind and i s a close observer. The long l i s t of things we do not know about trees and for e s t s includes many simple, but important, questions that can be answered without the bene- f i t of either elaborate research equipment or highly spe- c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g . " There i s a regrettable tendency, occasionally apparent i n ce r t a i n sections of present-day research, to discount the ob- servational approach because of the admitted d i f f i c u l t y of pro- ducing s t a t i s t i c a l l y sound proof. C r i t i c i s m , i f any becomes necessary, should be directed towards the i n d i v i d u a l worker rather than as condemnation of the method. Correct evaluation i s necessary and care must be taken to avoid s e l e c t i v i t y i n the f i t t i n g of natural phenomena to pre-existing hypotheses, or hasty conclusions on the basis of f a u l t y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of ob- served occurrences. But si m i l a r care i s necessary i n the use of the experimental method, when there i s equal danger of the acceptance of r e s u l t s of li m i t e d experimentation as conclusive; i n s i m i l a r manner, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y rests with the i n t e r p r e t e r . 24. In the words of Poulton (176), "one must beware of taking one feather from a goose and another from a leghorn." While f o r - mal, s t r i c t l y controlled experimentation should provide the cornerstone of research a c t i v i t y , "there i s no more common error than to assume that, because prolonged and accurate mathematical calculations have been made, the a p p l i c a t i o n of the r e s u l t s to some fact of nature i s absolutely c e r t a i n . " (A. N. Whitehead. Wilm (224) has discussed the desirable balance between "designed" experiment and "organized experience." He suggested that the research man i s l i k e l y to place I n s u f f i c i e n t t r u s t i n the usefulness of t r a i n i n g and experience, and to depend en- t i r e l y on controlled experimentation; that a researcher should be able to develop a hypothesis on the basis of accumulated knowledge and observation which, i f s u f f i c i e n t l y strong, should be acceptable by i t s e l f , or, I f some uncertainty i s l e f t , may be tested by experiment under controlled conditions. Con- versely, he declared the p r a c t i t i o n e r to be impatient of the n i c e t i e s of controlled research. B i c k e r s t a f f e (15) has presented the views of the Canadian Federal Forestry Branch, "The usual research methods employed i n such f i e l d s as a g r i c u l t u r e , biology, and the physical sciences can only be used i n part f o r s i l v i c u l t u r a l research , the long time element involved, the wide variations i n forest conditions, and the d i f f i c u l t y i n c o n t r o l l i n g or measuring various s i t e factors f o r experimental purposes, often l i m i t the a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s of experi- mental design and s t a t i s t i c a l methods. Although s t a t i s - t i c a l methods are followed where applicable, much s i l v i - c u l t u r a l research is,undertaken with the f u l l r e a l i z a t i o n that the r e s u l t s are highly subjective and only as r e - l i a b l e as the judgement of the investigator." 25. This he considered a v a l i d approach, f o r the demand was not p r i m a r i l y f o r information proved s c i e n t i f i c a l l y and s t a t i s - t i c a l l y correct, but "rather f o r approximations to workable procedures which can be tested and r e f i n e d under operating conditions." To provide t h i s type of information, the Canadian Forestry Branch places emphasis on observational and applied research. Support f o r the observational approach was very strongly given by B a i l e y and Spoehr (5). They constantly emphasized the value of the "extensive observational methods of the descriptive sciences" coupled with simple empirical experi- mentation, of so-called cumulative circumstantial evidence and, more es p e c i a l l y , q u a l i t a t i v e rather than quantitative data. Indeed, they questioned quite d e c i s i v e l y whether the methods of the descriptive and the exact sciences could be combined successfully i n the hands of a single investigator, considering that d i f f e r i n g a b i l i t i e s , d i s c i p l i n e s , and mental approaches were required. Few would subscribe to B a i l e y and Spoehr's views i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y today, but i t i s apparent from the l i t e r a t u r e that there i s s t i l l a considerable body of sup- port f o r t h e i r general conclusions, with recognition of the value of the s t a t i s t i c a l tools f o r experimentation that have been developed i n recent years, there i s also an awareness that the desirable q u a l i t i e s possessed by the g i f t e d b i o l o g i s t and creative thinker are not necessarily linked with a mathematical f a c i l i t y . There are many roads to research contribution. "Guessers" and "accumulators", "speculative" and "systematic", 2 6 . " i n t u i t i v e " and " l o g i c a l " are a l l terms used to describe the s c i e n t i f i c mind, and a l l approaches have resulted i n s i g n i f i - cant contributions ( 1 6 6 ) . The greatest t o o l of research must always be the c r i t i c a l and enquiring human mind; inductive and deductive reasoning form a v i t a l part of the research method. There should be no need to apologize f o r s u b j e c t i v i t y . RESEARCH AGENCIES The r e l a t i o n s h i p between forest research agencies and education Investigational and educational functions are often c l o s e l y r e l a t e d . There are two facets, the l i n k between research and education within the organizational structure of a state f o r e s t service, and the more t r u l y academic connection at u n i v e r s i t y f o r e s t r y schools. Within a public agency the connection may be l a r g e l y one of administrative convenience. Research, education, and, pos- s i b l y , public r e l a t i o n s d i v i s i o n s are formed of small groups of s p e c i a l i s t s . I n d i v i d u a l l y these may be d i f f i c u l t to f i t within an administrative structure primarily designed to meet the needs of t e r r i t o r i a l management. A t y p i c a l arrangement occurs i n the B r i t i s h Forestry Commission. There, a Directorate of Research and Education has equal standing with the major administrative d i v i s i o n s , the national Directorates of England, Scotland, and Wales. The Director i s charged with the implementation of the Commissioners 1 p o l i c y i n regard to research and education, the coordination of national a c t i v i t y i n these f i e l d s , l i a i s o n with the u n i v e r s i t i e s and other research i n s t i t u t i o n s , and foreign research agencies and International research organizations. 27. Within the directorate the two branches, research and education, are d i s t i n c t , with standing equivalent to a t e r r i t o r i a l conser- vancy, the major executive formation. In B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l f o r - est departments, although on a smaller scale, there are often si m i l a r structures, with research and education d i v i s i o n s under a common administrative c o n t r o l . A closer association may be found. In New Zealand the Forest Experiment Station was established during the immediate post-war years at the Rotorua Training Centre. In Malaya, there i s a t r a i n i n g establishment at the Forest Research I n s t i t u t e . In India, forest research, forest products research, and f o r e s t r y education f o r o f f i c e r s and rangers are cent r a l i z e d at one I n s t i - t u tion, the Forest Research I n s t i t u t e and Colleges, Dehra Dun. This grouping was not so much a deliberate plan as a r e s u l t of h i s t o r i c a l growth (178)• The self-contained character i s sus- tained by a township with h o s p i t a l and school. The estate, com- p r i s i n g 11,000 acres, i s under the management of the Central S i l v i c u l t u r i s t . At in-service educational i n s t i t u t i o n s the s t a f f do not often engage i n research, but there are exceptions. The Station des Recherches et Experiences Forestieres, the research agency of the French Forest Service, i s an i n t e g r a l part of the French Forestry College at Nancy. The di r e c t o r of the school i s also head of the research s t a t i o n and the professors take an active part i n the research work. Nevertheless here also the trend has been towards increasing dependence on s p e c i a l i s t , f u l l - t i m e , research s t a f f , and the major, and long-term experimental and plot research of the French Forest Service i s now done by such 2 8 . personnel, while the academic contribution i s l a r g e l y confined to the basic and a n c i l l a r y f i e l d s . The circumstances of the Imperial Forestry I n s t i t u t e at the University of Oxford d i f f e r from those of most i n s t i t u t i o n s . This I n s t i t u t e was expressly established with a dual function, as a centre f o r advanced f o r e s t r y education, and also as a r e - search centre. I t was founded i n 1924, consequent on recommen- dations of the F i r s t and Second B r i t i s h Empire Forestry Confer- ences, "... to provide a central Commonwealth i n s t i t u t i o n f o r advanced studies i n f o r e s t r y and to undertake research e s p e c i a l l y f o r those t e r r i t o r i e s whose resources were not then adequate to deal e f f i c i e n t l y with these matters." (47) The i n s t i t u t e i s c l o s e l y associated with the University School of Forestry, but i s financed by various countries of the B r i t i s h Commonwealth. A common organizational structure has evolved i n course of time and the two bodies are now completely amalgamated as the Forestry Department of the University, except f o r f i n a n c i a l provision. There i s also an advisory body to the I n s t i t u t e . In the Department the University School provides undergraduate i n s t r u c t i o n and the In s t i t u t e i s a graduate and s p e c i a l i s t d i v i s i o n , with special f a c i l i t i e s to meet the needs of the se r v i n g " o f f i c e r or s p e c i a l i s t , and ca r r i e s on the research function. The s t a f f i s u n i f i e d . Champion (47,50) reviewed the work of the I n s t i t u t e from 1924 i n papers presented at the Sixth and Seventh Commonwealth Forestry Conferences. By i t s nature the I n s t i t u t e i s not so well suited to undertake studies i n the d e t a i l s of forest management as are the t e r r i t o r i a l Forestry Departments of the Commonwealth and i t s major research contribu- 29. t i o n has been i n the basic and a n c i l l a r y sciences, i n major contributions to the l i t e r a t u r e , and i n the f a c i l i t i e s that i t has been able to o f f e r to forest research o f f i c e r s who require l i b r a r y and other f a c i l i t i e s not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n t h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s of service. Such men may work at the Imperial For- estry I n s t i t u t e f o r variable periods during the conduct of t h e i r researches. The l i b r a r y and documentation services are also made available to Commonwealth foresters on enquiry. Members of the s t a f f may be c a l l e d i n by overseas t e r r i t o r i e s as spe- c i a l advisors and to undertake investigations. An important aspect i s the provision of a common meeting ground f o r foresters from the countries of the B r i t i s h Commonwealth. Comprehensive l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s form the basis f o r 'Forestry Abstracts' pub- l i s h e d by the Commonwealth Forestry Bureau, a re l a t e d but sep- arate body, which Is also housed at the I n s t i t u t e . In Germany, many research i n s t i t u t e s are associated with u n i v e r s i t i e s rather than with the forest services. These i n s t i - tutes d i f f e r i n concept from those of the English-speaking world. They are small, frequently composed only of the s p e c i a l i s t pro- fessor and h i s immediate assistants, are grouped at academic centres, and might better be considered as autonomous s p e c i a l i s t sections of the larger i n s t i t u t i o n . Kostler (146) and Week and Kollman (220) have de t a i l e d the f i e l d s of i n t e r e s t . They cover the whole gamut of fo r e s t r y a c t i v i t y with greater emphasis on fundamental enquiry. C r i t i c i s m s have been advanced that, a l - though academic atmosphere i s provided by association with the teaching schools, and freedom of action r e s u l t s i n research d i - v e r s i f i c a t i o n , there i s no o v e r - a l l , comprehensive plan, and no 3 0 . d i v i s i o n between fundamental and applied i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The trend and nature of the research i s l a r g e l y at the d i s c r e t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l d i r e c t o r , and r e f l e c t s h i s personal i n c l i n - ations. Incomplete coverage of important areas becomes pos- s i b l e . Fufcther, there i s no integration with the p r a c t i t i o n e r and dissemination of information i s d i f f i c u l t . This i s depend- ent on the many German f o r e s t r y journals. To r e c t i f y these acknowledged weaknesses, other research stations have been es- tablished which appear to be more i n l i n e with those of other countries. Older Scandinavian research structures r e f l e c t e a r l y German influence. The Norwegian Forest Research I n s t i t u t e , established i n 1917, i s at the A g r i c u l t u r a l College at Aas. The s t a f f con- s i s t s of three professors, from the f o r e s t r y d i v i s i o n of the college, and four research o f f i c e r s . Work i s done on b i o l o g - i c a l and technical problems. In Sweden there i s a si m i l a r pat- tern, the Forest Research I n s t i t u t e of Sweden, at the Royal Forestry College, i s the central organization f o r state-subsi- dized research. Each d i v i s i o n i s managed by a professor with the cooperation of a research leader, assistants, and aides. The I n s t i t u t e i s governed, together with the Royal College, by a j o i n t board ( 8 3 ) . In I t a l y , a number of specialized agencies are associated with the u n i v e r s i t y at Florence. In Turkey, i n i t i a l German influence i s r e f l e c t e d i n the j o i n t research centre of the Research D i v i s i o n of the General Directorate of Forests and the Forestry Faculty of the Univer- s i t y of Istanbul. 31. At Zurich, the Federal Polytechnic houses, i n addition to the teaching school, the Federal I n s t i t u t e f o r Forest Research, the Federal Materials Testing and Research Laboratory, the S i l v i c u l t u r a l I n s t i t u t e of the Forestry Branch of the Federal Polytechnic, and the Entomological I n s t i t u t e of the Federal Polytechnic. These are a l l concerned with aspects of f o r e s t r y research and are state-financed, but also receive subsidies from various other funds (83). Sponsored research i n s t i t u t e s are commonly associated with academic i n s t i t u t i o n s . Examples are the Forest Biology Centre i n the Limburg Campine, Belgium, j o i n t l y sponsored by Province of Lunbirg and the University of Louvain, and subsidized by the I n s t i t u t e f o r the Promotion of S c i e n t i f i c Research i n In- dustry and Agriculture. This centre i s concerned with research i n the Campine f o r e s t s . S p e c i a l i s t s work under the super- v i s i o n of University of Louvain professors (83). In South A f r i c a , the wattle Research I n s t i t u t e , at the U n i v e r s i t y of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, operates under u n i v e r s i t y auspices and i s financed by commercial i n t e r e s t s , the South A f r i c a n Wattle Growers Association. I t i s of i n t e r e s t that there i s no other f o r e s t r y connection at t h i s University. In Canada, the Laval University Research Foundation i s supported by the Canadian International Paper Company to promote s c i e n t i f i c research and to develop post-graduate studies at the Faculty of Forest Engin- eering. There i s close l i a i s o n with the Faculty and the School of Graduate Studies. Research i s sponsored by the Faculty and p r i m a r i l y focussed on problems requiring immediate attention i n the context of Quebec f o r e s t r y ; studies include both 3 2 . fundamental and applied research. In the United States, f o r e s t research i n s t i t u t e s are an i n t e g r a l part of c e r t a i n of the University schools of f o r e s t r y . Perhaps most commonly associated with the state land-grant colleges, they follow the pattern of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment Stations, of which they may form a part. Although such i n s t i - tutes may have a separate d i r e c t o r , i t i s often d i f f i c u l t to determine where the teaching school leaves o f f and the research i n s t i t u t e begins. In some cases they appear to be pri m a r i l y administrative devices aimed at the financing of p r o f e s s o r i a l and graduate research and, through the provision of ad d i t i o n a l f a c u l t y , the reduction of excessive teaching loads, thus allow- ing a d d i t i o n a l time f o r research pursuit. Under such an arrange- ment there may be a s p e c i f i c a l l o c a t i o n of the working time of a s t a f f member between the research and education functions. There may also be f u l l - t i m e research s t a f f , p a r t i c u l a r l y where there i s an experimental f o r e s t . Other academic research For much of forest research the resources of a state service or i n d u s t r i a l organization are necessary. In the absence of the spec i a l f a c i l i t i e s offered by associated research establishments, or special financing, u n i v e r s i t y researching i n f o r e s t r y i s at a disadvantage as compared with other i n t e r e s t f i e l d s because of the scale necessary f o r much i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y and the r e s u l t i n g heavy demands on s t a f f , f a c i l i t i e s , and time. Nevertheless the unique f a c i l i t i e s of the u n i v e r s i t i e s should be made avail a b l e to forest science. It w i l l be argued l a t e r that a research organization should be an i n t e g r a l part of 3 3 - the forest administration. This does not imply that t h i s a- gency should control a l l research. E s p e c i a l l y i n basic re- search the u n i v e r s i t y contribution i s of great si g n i f i c a n c e . In general t h i s rests upon the highly specialized and diverse s k i l l s of the f a c u l t y . These s c i e n t i s t s are not confined to the professional forestry schools and i t would be impractical to r e c r u i t f u l l - t i m e s a l a r i e d s t a f f of such diverse q u a l i f i - cations to a public research agency, even i f the s p e c i a l i s t s concerned would consent to serve. The academic l i f e has con- siderable a t t r a c t i o n to such men. In addition these i n s t i t u - tions have excellent l i b r a r i e s , unique and often expensive laboratory equipment and p o s s i b i l i t i e s f or consultation with outstanding s c i e n t i s t s . A l l these provide the basis for developing strong programs i n basic research. The d i s t i n c t i v e character of the u n i v e r s i t y contribution to science requires special emphasis. I t sets out to b u i l d up a body of knowledge rather than to solve p a r t i c u l a r prob- lems. To a considerable extent f i n a n c i a l and other support must be given to the i n d i v i d u a l rather than to the project, for major discoveries can be expected only through d i r e c t i n g atten- t i o n to goals that can be defined only i n a very broad sense. Unless freedom i s given, basic research cannot t h r i v e . I f i t i s subjected to too much administrative control and pressure for r e s u l t s , i t can be s t i f l e d . The r e s u l t i s i n e v i t a b l y a program that masquerades under the name of fundamental research but which a c t u a l l y i s a rather unimaginative extrapolation of . known r e s u l t s . 34. A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the American l i t e r a t u r e i s the acceptance of the d e s i r a b i l i t y of maintaining pressure f o r research production. The i n t e n s i t y of t h i s pressure may be subject to discussion, but the general concept i s but r a r e l y questioned. Although most evident i n the writings on indus- t r i a l research i t i s also i m p l i c i t In published statements of f o r e s t r y agency p o l i c y . Some emphasis on r e s u l t s i s to be ex- pected i n agency research, but the extent to which these pres- sures occur i n the American academic world, and the processes by which they may be applied, are d i f f i c u l t f o r the European research worker, accustomed to academic freedom, or to a con- siderable freedom of a c t i o n within in-service research, and to a less competitive atmosphere, to comprehend. As research productivity i s d i f f i c u l t to assess, recourse i s often made i n American research to output of publications. Such an Index has obvious disadvantages, and i s unsatisfactory as a c r i t e r i o n of research capacity and undesirable as a basis f o r research e f f o r t . Emphasis on publication can lead to empha- s i s on quick r e s u l t s and premature publication, and to fragmen- t a t i o n and unnecessarily detailed reporting. It can also lead to the submerging of s i g n i f i c a n t work i n a mass of t r i v i a . The weaknesses inherent are generally recognized but, because of the highly competitive nature of American s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t y , the t i t l e l i s t r etains i t s pre-eminent p o s i t i o n f o r want of some- thing better. In organizations subject to d i r e c t f i s c a l control, some e.g.-, Research Management, the journal of the I n d u s t r i a l Research I n s t i t u t e . 35- measure of administrative reporting i s often unavoidable be- cause of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of f i n a n c i a l programming. Much time may be taken up i n the preparation of detailed project outlines, progress, and terminal reports. In moderation t h i s may be a healthy practice, but i t i s one that can well get out of hand and consume an inordinate amount of time and energy that might otherwise be available f o r productive research. It i s p a r t i c - u l a r l y inappropriate i n the conduct of basic research, the con- t r i b u t i o n that the u n i v e r s i t i e s are most suited to make. The problem i s greatest perhaps i n the context of those u n i v e r s i t i e s where the s c i e n t i s t , i n addition to h i s academic connection, i s also a member of an A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment Station, or where he has to seek i n d i v i d u a l f i n a n c i a l support f o r h i s research projects. In the B r i t i s h system these intrusions on academic freedom have been avoided by the establishment of the Univer- s i t i e s Grants Committee, composed of leading academicians, which al l o c a t e s government funds to the various u n i v e r s i t i e s , and which Carmichael (44), an American commentator, considers has served admirably as a s h i e l d against public pressures on the u n i v e r s i t i e s . No detailed reporting back i s necessary. In t h i s way the administrative measures often necessitated by the needs of public accounting are avoided. Grants that are ob- tained d i r e c t l y also are not subject to the d e t a i l e d control and reporting of American research, and i n general the univer- s i t i e s and f a c u l t y are very jealous of t h e i r independence and strongly r e s i s t any e f f o r t s at external c o n t r o l . On the other hand the funda available are often considerably l e s s . Undoubt- edly d i r e c t i o n of research e f f o r t may r e s u l t i n greater 36. p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of findings and i t s absence may r e s u l t i n much work being undertaken that makes no d i r e c t contribution to man's economic a c t i v i t i e s . In that sense i t may be considered i n e f f i c i e n t , but free enquiry i n the t r a d i t i o n of the great u n i v e r s i t i e s of the world has provided industry with the basis f o r important technologies, and there would seem no v a l i d reason why any greater measure of control should be needed i n funda- mental research i n the sciences basic to f o r e s t r y . Hebb and Martin (110) have considered "free enquiry", as opposed to "controlled" or "directed" research, i n the context of i n d u s t r i a l and technological research. They defined free enquiry as the "pursuit of knowledge i n which the investigator i s at l i b e r t y to select h i s research projects i n l i n e with h i s f i e l d s of i n t e r e s t and to pursue h i s studies i n accordance with hi s own judgement". A sponsored research program i s usually motivated by the expectation of deriving eventual b e n e f i t . I t i s not to be expected, therefore, that i t w i l l extend f a r beyond the s p e c i f i e d areas that show promise of y i e l d i n g r e s u l t s of p r a c t i c a l value. Freedom of enquiry i s the f i r s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of basic research. Without t h i s i t cannot prosper. An equally important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s the uncertainty of r e s u l t s , f o r the course of the exploration can r a r e l y be predicted or r e s u l t s anticipated. Basic research often leads f a r from the i n i t i a l objectives and opens up new avenues of advance. I t i s again stressed that the s c i e n t i s t must be free to explore the unex- pected opportunities that h i s studies reveal. Attempts at con- t r o l through the requirements of administrative programs and predetermined research outlines can only lead to c o n s t r i c t i o n 37. and impoverishment through r e s t r i c t i v e c a n a l i z a t i o n . The case f o r the close association of the applied f o r e s t research o f f i c e r with the p r a c t i t i o n e r has been made e a r l i e r . The man i n fundamental enquiry Is i n a d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n . Often such research s c i e n t i s t s benefit from a c e r t a i n i s o l a t i o n from current problems. As Hebb and Martin remarked "by drawing them into day-to-day a c t i v i t i e s you may benefit the present but s a c r i f i c e the future." Organizational f l e x i b i l i t y i s desirable f o r free enquiry i n research. It must be easy to set up new projects quickly, to carry out preliminary investigations, and then to concentrate a c t i v i t y where opportunities have been disclosed. Given the necessary resources, the u n i v e r s i t i e s are admirably suited f o r t h i s . The value of the academic approach and atmosphere i n basic research i s generally accepted. In applied or technological i n v e s t i g a t i o n the advantages are less c e r t a i n , f o r i t Is easier to i d e n t i f y tangible goals. Consequently the course can be d e f i n i t e l y set and freedom of enquiry may be circumscribed to some extent. Other considerations enter i n . The applied r e - searcher must remain 'close to the f o r e s t ' i n the f i g u r a t i v e sense, f o r emphasis must remain on f i e l d a c t i v i t y since a wood- land complex can be seldom reproduced i n a laboratory. The desirable o r i e n t a t i o n may be obtained more e a s i l y i n a r u r a l environment than i n either an academic or urban s e t t i n g . There i s also the need, previously stressed, to maintain close contact, and to be i n sympathy with the p r a c t i c i n g forester, "for the need f o r research a r i s e s out of the a c t i v i t i e s of the working 38. f o r e s t e r " (March, i n 29) . In t h i s also the physical environ- ment, and the intangeables of country l i v i n g , play a major part. "Forest research i n general (is) apt to devi- ate into academic and somewhat f r u i t l e s s channels unless continual i n s p i r a t i o n from the forests i s maintained" (Chaturvedi, i n 29). When the post-war expansion of B r i t i s h i n-service research was planned, the new research centre might have been situated at a u n i v e r s i t y centre. At Oxford, for example, there were the advantages of the academic environment, p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r close cooperation with the s t a f f of the Imperial Forestry I n s t i t u t e and the Commonwealth Forestry Bureau, extensive l i b r a r y and documentation f a c i l i t i e s and major research laboratories nearby. The other u n i v e r s i t i e s could also o f f e r useful services and associated i n s t i t u t i o n s and laboratories. It was, however de- cided to e s t a b l i s h the headquarters of the expanded research branch i n a r u r a l s e t t i n g . Subsequent development and expansion of t h i s research organization and the contribution that i t has made, during i t s comparatively short existence, to f o r e s t r y practice and, through technological advance, to the implemen- t a t i o n of the national forest p o l i c y , suggest the i n i t i a l d e c i - sion to have been soundly based i n the circumstances of B r i t i s h research. Dis s o c i a t i o n of forest research from f o r e s t education was advised by Professor M. Naslund, acting f o r the Food and A g r i - culture Organization of the United Nations, i n h i s recommenda- tions to the Government of Burma on the formation of a Forest Research I n s t i t u t e ( 165) . Although technical assistance reports 39. are to be interpreted within the context of l o c a l conditions, his views are representative on one body of opinion, "An independent research i n s t i t u t e must be completely separated from the University of Rangoon Forestry Faculty, because teaching takes so much time that the lecturers would be unable to f u l f i l l t h e i r duties at the U n i v e r s i t y and, at the same time, do comprehensive research." His reasons for proposing the separation of research and educational functions were the importance of close and d i r e c t cooperation with p r a c t i c a l forestry; the extensive nature of forest investigation; the frequency with which fo r e s t research necessitated the use of teams of s p e c i a l i s t s : and the need f o r these to be able to coordinate t h e i r s c i e n t i f i c work f r e e l y . It may be assumed that Naslund's views were conditioned by h i s background of experience of the Swedish f o r e s t r y scene. On Uni- v e r s i t y research he wrote, "The main object of the University consists i n theo- r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l education and a l l a c t i v i t i e s d i r e c t l y connected with i t . University research work should be more or less r e s t r i c t e d to short-term experiments which are not time-consuming." Academic research was not to be bound to a p a r t i c u l a r r e - search program. Research personnel were to be free of teaching commitments. Informal contact was envisaged, with f a c u l t y and ^ . . . . . . . . students using the research i n s t i t u t e f o r thesis work. I t may be argued that such views lead to vocational-type t r a i n i n g rather than to education i n professional f o r e s t r y , but i n the assessment of the place of research i n the educational structure much must depend on the nature of the research and the circum- stances of the i n s t i t u t i o n . Professionalism r e s u l t s rather from the outlook and background experience of the i n s t r u c t o r s , and out of the forest environment i n which the student i s trained, 40. than from the presence or absence of research i n the educational scene. It can hardly be suggested that the Indian Forest Ser- vice O f f i c e r , or the c o l o n i a l conservator of for e s t s , i s any- thing other than professional i n outlook, despite the possible absence of a background of research i n the educational process to which he was subjected. The s i t u a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t when the emphasis i s on the t r a i n i n g of s p e c i a l i s t s c i e n t i s t s , when ex- posure to research processes i s an es s e n t i a l portion of the graining process. Although research a c t i v i t y i n the North American univer- s i t y schools of f o r e s t r y was lim i t e d i n the past'there has been considerable attention given to t h i s facet during the post-war period. Opinions as to the form that t h i s should take range from the 'scholarly' to the 'comprehensive'. The more academic approach, and most akin to European thought, considers the colleges and u n i v e r s i t i e s as seats of learning, with the s t a f f members providing i n s t r u c t i o n and doing scholarly fundamental research i n t h e i r special f i e l d s , and with f a c i l i t i e s f o r i n - s t r u c t i o n and research by s t a f f and students. Graves (90) con- sidered contact with students a challenge to research workers, and has pointed out that i t i s through f a c u l t y research that i n d i v i d u a l schools often gain t h e i r special d i s t i n c t i o n and a t - trac t students i n s p e c i f i c f i e l d s . He forecast the evolution of for e s t r y schools as centres of productive research, as i s the case i n other d i s c i p l i n e s . The scope of these undertakings would not usually be comparable to the specia l i z e d research agencies but equally s i g n i f i c a n t contributions would be made i n special f i e l d s , e s p e c i a l l y i n basic knowledge. This approaches the 41. t r a d i t i o n a l concept of the u n i v e r s i t y as a place where men have time to think. A more dynamic ro l e f o r the American u n i v e r s i t y has been envisaged by Westveld ( 2 2 2 ) . In h i s view, strengthening and expansion of state research (as d i s t i n c t from federal a c t i v i t y ) could be done most e f f e c t i v e l y and economically through the state educational i n s t i t u t i o n s under the leadership of the various f o r e s t r y schools. Increased state i n t e r e s t i n post-war forest research he ascribed to academic leadership, and he i n - dicated some of the advantages of working through the educa- t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The advantages lay i n personnel, equip- ment, ownership of forest land, and contact with s p e c i a l i s t s i n other d i s c i p l i n e s . He also indicated the greatest l i m i t i n g f a c t o r to such i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y - lack of adequate f i - nancial support. To obtain t h i s he advocated the d i r e c t i o n of research e f f o r t to the solution of problems of l o c a l importance. In his discussion there i s no i n d i c a t i o n that he recognized any differences between the necessary research structures and pat- terns f o r the conduct of fundamental and applied enquiry. Emphasis on academic research indicates a v i r i l e academic cadre, but i t i s important that enthusiasm be not permitted to r e s u l t i n loss of perspective. Its extent must depend on the size of the f a c u l t y . While research i s desirable and adds to the growth and scope of a school, i t alone does not produce edu- cated and well-rounded graduates. An active research program i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the advanced research student, but i t i s at least questionable whether emphasis on research i s desirable at the first-degree l e v e l . Forestry d i f f e r s from most s c i e n t i f i c 42. d i s c i p l i n e s i n that most graduates are subsequently employed i n the administration and technical management of a landed estate and i n the d i r e c t i o n of f o r e s t r y operations, ratheri.than i n s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t y . Over-emphasis on the research function, when a f a c u l t y i s l i m i t e d i n numbers, may lead to the d i s s i p a - t i o n of f a c u l t y e f f o r t which should be directed to undergraduate i n s t r u c t i o n , where breadth, although not s u p e r f i c i a l i t y , i s desirable, rather than narrow s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . Although exten- sive graduate programs and f a c u l t y researches may be valuable they should not d i s t r a c t attention away from the undergraduate school. I t i s there that professional standards are set and philosophy developed. Although possibly outmoded, i t might be salutatory to record the views of an eminent academician of an e a r l i e r period. To quote S i r Geoffrey Paber on Jowett, Master of B a l l i o l , 1840-1893, "He never concealed h i s own view that education, not research, was the f i r s t and f i n a l function of the tutor. Research, he seems to have thought, was more often a s e l f indulgence, an agreeable escape from more urgent, i f more tedious, duties." In Europe a considerable amount of fundamental research i s done i n academic centres. Many s c i e n t i s t s are able to devote t h e i r major attention over long periods to researching. Students working for advanced degrees are able to devote a l l t h e i r time to research a c t i v i t y without the c o n f l i c t s of prescribed courses and class-room a c t i v i t y . Although possibly working i n f i e l d s a n c i l l a r y to f o r e s t r y and on problems with f o r e s t r y connections, many of these workers are not foresters and may not be members of f o r e s t r y f a c u l t i e s . " i n America most f o r e s t r y research of t h i s nature i s under- 43. taken by men trained i n i t i a l l y as foresters and with subsequent specialized t r a i n i n g i n the appropriate d i s c i p l i n e s . In recent years there has been considerable emphasis on formal advanced q u a l i f i c a t i o n through higher degrees. F i r s t degrees may have considerable vocational content, and of necessity formal teach- ing and course work has received considerable emphasis at the graduate l e v e l . Much time that would otherwise be a v a i l a b l e f o r f a c u l t y research or research d i r e c t i o n i s taken up with i n s t r u c t i o n and the close supervision of student study, both graduate and undergraduate, that i s inherent i n the American u n i v e r s i t y system. I t has been suggested that the part which the f a c u l t y should play i n academic research i s i n the p r o v i - sion of leadership and encouragement of graduate students. This necessarily presupposes previous, or p a r a l l e l , research contribution. Kaufert and Cummings (132) have indicated a close r e l a t i o n s h i p between basic research and graduate t r a i n i n g i n American forest science, "Take away the contributions to basic research through thesis study and contributions made as parts of applied studies, and l i t t l e ' s c i e n t i f i c c a p i t a l ' , would remain." A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c weakness of research programs based upon graduate study i s that t h i s may lead to fragmentation of r e - search and concentration on those areas which lend themselves to short-term study and to c l e a r l y delimited and s t r a i g h t f o r - ward solution, as contrasted with the very necessary, though less e a s i l y defined, integrating study of greater complexity. Solutions to the problem of f a c u l t y research at the Uni- v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia were presented i n a b r i e f to the 44. Canadian Royal Commission on Forests and Forestry. Stress was placed on the d e s i r a b i l i t y of undivided attention i n the con- duct of research of high q u a l i t y . Three p r a c t i c a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s were the d i r e c t i o n of research done by graduate students and assistants, the increase of teaching s t a f f to allow the release of those p a r t i c u l a r l y capable of researching f o r part of the academic year, and the provision of technicians to handle routine research processes (21). The advantage of u n i v e r s i t y research i s the opportunity i t o f f e r s f o r concentration of e f f o r t at various l e v e l s . Certain studies may be divided into areas capable of solution through a short period of concentrated work, and are well suited to grad- uate work. There i s also the f a c i l i t y with which promising side issues may be followed at a r e l a t i v e l y low cost. Perhaps the most important qu a l i t y f o r a u n i v e r s i t y r e - searcher i s the a b i l i t y to organize and co-ordinate the varied projects of h i s students, with a l l the uncertainties of student performance, into one major research scheme. In general, the academic environment provides very favour- able opportunities f o r fundamental research. There i s also the stimulus of contact with colleagues, and students, and there should be an absence of pressures which seek to compel r e s u l t s within a s p e c i f i e d time. Usually there are no r e s t r i c t i o n s other than those of finance and physical l i m i t a t i o n * Nevertheless, there are recognizable weaknesses; projects are selected because of i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t rather than importance or urgency, there i s l i t t l e programming, progress may be slow, the pressure of teaching may make research i n c i d e n t a l . Conversely, excessive 45. preoccupation with research may lead to adverse e f f e c t s on teaching, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the lower l e v e l s . In summation, the r e s u l t s of research at academic i n s t i t u - tions are, i n t o t a l , appreciable, and the d i s t i n c t i v e character of the u n i v e r s i t y contribution requires s p e c i a l emphasis, but a complementary and r e l a t i v e l y more important contribution i s often through the t r a i n i n g of competent research workers and of professional foresters well q u a l i f i e d to apply the r e s u l t s i n the f i e l d . The development of state a c t i v i t y i n f o r e s t r y research Forestry research, i n the modern sense, did not e x i s t u n t i l the l a t t e r part of the 19th Century. I t had been early r e a l i z e d that observations, though useful, were i n s u f f i c i e n t , and that investigations were necessary to solve many problems, but the i n - herent d i f f i c u l t i e s , the scale of the material, and the lapse of time necessary before conclusions could be reached, mitigated against a successful outcome. Gradually i t became apparent that much of f o r e s t r y research, to be successful, almost i n e v i t a b l y involved some form of organ- i z a t i o n which could assure continuity and conduct investigations on a s u f f i c i e n t l y large scale. In 1861 Ebermayer advocated the formation of special research establishments. The f i r s t i n s t i - tute was founded i n Germany i n the 1870*s. Others followed i n countries where the f o r e s t r y t r a d i t i o n was well established. Tourney (210) described the formation of these 19th Century forest research i n s t i t u t e s as "the f i n a l step i n putting the foundations of s i l v i c u l t u r e on a firm s c i e n t i f i c b asis". Never- theless o v e r a l l progress remained slow and even i n these countries 4 6 . r e a l expansion did not occur u n t i l a f t e r 1918. The 19th Century European movement arose out of the d i s - s a t i s f a c t i o n of the state administrations with the f a c i l i t i e s and achievements of academic research of the period. In the United States the pattern was repeated. The evolution of 20th Century American governmental research was ascribed by B a i l e y and Sphoer (5) as an expression of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the status, organization, and accomplishments of research i n the u n i - v e r s i t i e s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y i t s subordination to teaching and administrative expediencies. Viewed i n perspective there i s the mitigating circumstance that, during t h i s period, American f o r - estry education, and indeed the profession of f o r e s t r y i t s e l f , was s t i l l i n the formative stages and s t r i v i n g f o r public recog- n i t i o n . Although e s p e c i a l l y important where there i s a lack of t r a d - i t i o n a l knowledge of a l l aspects of national f o r e s t r y development, research i s the most d i f f i c u l t f o r which to obtain recognition and f i n a n c i a l support. There may be l i t t l e difference i n the actual date of inception of research a c t i v i t y among the various major forested countries, but the significance of research was grasped more t a r d i l y i n the less forestry-conscious nations, and i n general outside of continental Europe research development has been slower. There are c e r t a i n exceptions. Thus i n the United States the Madison forest products laboratory was early i n the forefront of i t s f i e l d , and i n India there was forest research a c t i v i t y at an early date, the forest products laboratory and f o r e s t r y research a c t i v i t y at Dehra Dun preceding s i m i l a r i n s t i - tutions i n the western world. However the o v e r a l l picture shows 47- there was a general lack of appreciation of the potential value of research in the national economy. This lack of recognition of research potential has often extended to the forest administration and to the practicing forester, and i s not an index of the maturity of a country, for in many less-developed regions and colonial territories there was appreciation of research values a considerable time before these developed i n more advanced countries. Although B r i t i s h foresters grasped the significance of research activity at an early stage in many of their overseas charges, the United King- dom i n i t s o f f i c i a l policy was slow to implement large-scale re- search in the management of the developing home resource. In considerable part this was a side effect of s t r i c t l y limited financial resources during the Inter-war period. It may also be argued that, despite the relatively small size of the re- search establishment during this period, considerable research was i n fact undertaken through sponsored university studies i n the underlying fundamental problems, and actually in the day- to-day operations themselves, for these, to a very considerable extent, were essays into the unknown and therefore of an ex- perimental or exploratory nature. Cameron (42) pointed out, in explanation of the relatively slow development of research i n Canada, that scarcity, or the threat of scarcity, i s a great stimulant to research. In Canada, with an historic surplus of forests, there was belated progress. Similarly in the United Kingdom, with i t s traditional role as the world's major timber-importing nation, and with a secure trading position, i t took two world wars, with attendant wood 48. s c a r c i t y , to stimulate forest research on a large scale. The years immediately a f t e r the f i r s t world war were favourable f o r research development but expansion, i n most cases, had proceeded l i t t l e beyond the planning stage, when f i n a n c i a l depression halted development and, i n many instances, resulted i n retrenchment. With improved economic conditions, a c t i v i t y recommenced i n the la t e 1 9 3 0 's, only to be disrupted by f i n a n c i a l and s t a f - f i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s during the second world war. The greatest expansion i n forest research, and acceptance of the need f o r self-contained s p e c i a l i z e d agencies, has come i n recent years. Today there are few national forest agencies i n which there i s not some provision f o r s p e c i a l i z e d research a c t i v i t y . B i r c h (16) considered the greatest lesson from the h i s t o r y of f o r e s t r y i n New Zealand was that l i t t l e r e a l progress i s pos- s i b l e u n t i l s u f f i c i e n t s t a f f i s available to manage commercial forest i n t e n s i v e l y and, at the same time, to carry out, without interruption, a research program, properly designed to improve and extend such management. But world-wide evidence indicates that, i n time of f i n a n c i a l stringency, research i s among the f i r s t a c t i v i t i e s to be c u r t a i l e d i n an administrative organiza- t i o n . This supports the view that, "Administrative a c t i v i t i e s and research do not combine advantageously, research becomes i n c i d e n t a l , investigators become handimen, the doers of odd jobs, and investigations i n e v i t a b l y s u f f e r . Research can only be done e f f e c t i v e l y i n executive organizations i f i t i s separated e n t i r e l y from administrative a c t i v i t i e s . " (52) Nevertheless, as Francois (87) has pointed out, 4 9 . r 11 research on f o r e s t r y and f o r e s t products, i f not organized within the administration i t s e l f , should at least be c l o s e l y co-ordinated with i t s aims and i n t e r e s t s , since the r e s u l t s w i l l influence the development of f o r e s t p o l i c y and form the basis f o r the methods of applying i t . " Some aspects of state research organization Forest management research i s characterized by a d i v e r s i t y of organizational patterns. In part a consequence of the d i f f i - c u l t y of c e n t r a l i z i n g s i l v i c u l t u r a l enquiry, t h i s i s also a natural r e s u l t of the way i n which such research has developed, beginning with the f i r s t tendency of executive o f f i c e r s to spe- c i a l i z e , and culminating i n the grouping of s p e c i a l i s t s In a research branch organized to meet l o c a l requirements. In c e r t a i n instances evolution has been taken a stage further with the es- tablishment of autonomous research agencies. Each country has to evolve a system appropriate to i t s p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l and economic structure. As E d l i n ( 6 9 ) indicated, i n one the central forest authority may take the lead, as i n Great B r i t a i n , i n an- other the u n i v e r s i t i e s may play a major part, with or without government support, as instanced by much fundamental work i n Germany; or again, associations l i k e the Danish Health Society may pioneer a f f o r e s t a t i o n projects that increase s i l v i c u l t u r a l knowledge. To a considerable extent forest research has been set apart from other land-use i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I t has been argued that the time-growth factor, and the management problems of growth and y i e l d , have no p a r a l l e l In other b i o l o g i c a l enquiry; also that concern with populations rather than with i n d i v i d u a l s makes for e s t research d i s t i n c t i v e . There have been advocates of a wider approach. Bor ( 1 9 ) proposed the establishment of t r o p i c a l 5 0 . land-use i n s t i t u t e s , w i t h emphasis on s y s t e m a t i c botany and b a s i c ecology. I n the A n g l o - E g y p t i a n Sudan r e s e a r c h was sep- a r a t e d from the e x e c u t i v e work of t h e ' t e c h n i c a l departments of Government and p l a c e d under a separate D i r e c t o r of Research (211). But i t has u s u a l l y been c o n s i d e r e d t h a t r e s e a r c h i n f o r e s t r y should be s e p a r a t e l y o r g a n i z e d from other f i e l d s of r e s e a r c h e f f o r t . I t i s d o u b t f u l how f a r t h i s s e p a r a t i s t tendency, except where th e r e i s a l a r g e f o r e s t s e r v i c e or a l a r g e f o r e s t r e - source, i s j u s t i f i e d . In p a r t i t a r i s e s from the d e s i r e of the f o r e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to r e t a i n c o n t r o l of r e s e a r c h programming and d i r e c t i o n , and i n p a r t from a f e a r t h a t the c l a i m s of f o r - e s t r y w i l l r e c e i v e scant r e c o g n i t i o n i f competing w i t h the more immediate claims of a g r i c u l t u r e f o r f a c i l i t i e s . Champion (29) v o i c e d r e s e r v a t i o n s because of t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y and i t must be admitted t h a t f o r e s t r y has o f t e n f a r e d b a d l y when i n a s s o c i a - t i o n w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e , so much so t h a t the s e p a r a t i o n of f o r e s t departments from a g r i c u l t u r a l agencies has become almost a t e n e t of f a i t h to many f o r e s t e r s . The d e s i r e f o r separate e s t a b l i s h - ments may, however, a l s o stem from a narrow p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m . F o r e s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e are complementary o c c u p a t i o n s . Many of the b i o l o g i c a l problems i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r p r a c t i c e are fundamentally the same. In the t r o p i c s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , the problems and environmental q u e s t i o n s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h many economic t r e e crops and shade t r e e s are s i m i l a r to those en- countered by the s i l v i c u l t u r i s t i n h i s study of the f o r e s t s i t - u a t i o n . There are c e r t a i n advantages i n an i n - s e r v i c e approach to 51 . s t r i c t l y technological enquiry, but even at t h i s l e v e l con- siderable economies may be effected by the pooling of l i b r a r i e s , laboratory f a c i l i t i e s , and the supporting non-technical and s e c r e t a r i a l s t a f f . Clearly, where f a c i l i t i e s are lim i t e d , much may be gained from j o i n t i n s t i t u t i o n s , provided there i s a r e a l - i s t i c apportionment of funds to the various research areas. In some cases j o i n t land-use research stations already ex- i s t . Among these are the I n s t i t u t e of Renewable Natural Re- sources i n Mexico, established i n 1952 (11) , and the East A f r i c a n Agriculture and Forestry Research Organization at Maguaga, Kikuyu, Kenya (13^, 68, 101) . It may be expected that such ven- tures w i l l increase. Organizational problems occur where there are various l e v - e l s of government, as i n a federation. I f undivided responsi- b i l i t y rests with one l e v e l , d i f f i c u l t i e s are often lessened. In West Germany the Land i s the forest authority, and f o r e s t r e - search i s undertaken at Land-financed u n i v e r s i t y research i n s t i - tutes. Where the Lander are without u n i v e r s i t y f o r e s t r y schools, forest experiment stations have been established. These are d i - r e c t l y responsible to the forest administrations of the i n d i v i d - ual Land. Such stations tackle current problems of urgent and l o c a l i n t e r e s t . Supra-regional research i s financed by the fed- e r a l government and conducted by the Federal I n s t i t u t e of Forest and Wood Economy at Reinbek, i n association with the research i n s t i t u t e s of the University of Hamburg. This establishment conducts research i n f o r e s t r y and forest products and i s the na- t i o n a l centre f o r work on forest economics and the preparation of forest s t a t i s t i c s . It i s also the national centre f o r the 5 2 . documentation of German and foreign l i t e r a t u r e and, i n general, i s responsible f o r foreign l i a i s o n . The d i v i s i o n of spheres of i n t e r e s t i s not,, however, c l e a r - cut or absolute. By custom, German research workers are allowed to devote a proportion of t h e i r time.to projects of t h e i r own choosing, and are provided with the necessary f a c i l i t i e s . Some duplication of e f f o r t occurs, with resultant advantages and disadvantages. The m u l t i p l i c i t y of agencies r e s u l t s i n the f r a g - mentation of l i m i t e d research funds (220). It i s desirable that agreement, whether formal or t a c i t , be reached on the scope of a c t i v i t y at each l e v e l of govern- ment. There i s a useful arrangement i n Canada east of the Rock- i e s . The p r o v i n c i a l governments are responsible f o r the admin- i s t r a t i o n of the forest estate while the federal agencies have major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the research e f f o r t , operating t e r r i - t o r i a l l y at the i n v i t a t i o n of the provinces, i n general, the f e d e r a l e f f o r t has been directed to more basic studies, and the more li m i t e d research e f f o r t of the p r o v i n c i a l services to tech- nological enquiry. An unusual feature of Canadian forest research i s the d i v i - sion of federal a c t i v i t y between two major agencies. The For- estry Branch of the Department of Northern A f f a i r s and Natural Resources i s responsible f o r 'forestry' research while the Science Service of the Ministry of Agriculture has r e s p o n s i b i l - i t y f o r 'forest biology' - research and f i e l d survey i n pathol- ogy and entomology. This arrangement originated i n the advis- a b i l i t y of associating a small b i o l o g i c a l protection s t a f f with the greater f a c i l i t i e s of the a g r i c u l t u r a l services. D i f f e r e n - 5 3 . t i a t i o n between research spheres i s sometimes i n d i s t i n c t and the d e s i r a b i l i t y of ret a i n i n g the arrangement has been ques- tioned, most recently by the Standing Committee on Mines, For- est, and waters of the Canadian House of Commons, during i t s consideration of the 1959-60 f i n a n c i a l estimates. For long the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia stood aside from the general scheme. The Federal Science Service engaged i n entomological and pathological research, but u n t i l 1958 research i n s i l v i c u l t u r e , management, f i r e protection, etc., was the con- cern s o l e l y of the p r o v i n c i a l service. Despite the Province's great dependence on a forest economy, the resources at the d i s - posal of the fed e r a l authority did not contribute to the ad- vance of f o r e s t r y research i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The P r o v i n c i a l research d i v i s i o n i s equipped and staffed f o r applied research, ".... the a p p l i c a t i o n of known p r i n c i p l e s or proce- dures, to l o c a l conditions i n which s p e c i f i c reactions can only be determined by d i r e c t experimentation and observa- t i o n . " (R. H. Spilsbury, i n 194) The d i v i s i o n has comparatively li m i t e d resources and a l - though the size of the p r o v i n c i a l research s t a f f may be l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t from those of Ontario and Quebec, the other provinces with major forest industries, i n the absence of the federal contribution the t o t a l volume of research has been less than i n those provinces. This s i t u a t i o n gains added sig n i f i c a n c e from the circumstance that, while to a considerable extent the other provinces have common problems, and research findings have a wide app l i c a t i o n , the fo r e s t r y environment d i f f e r s considerably i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Thus experience elsewhere i n Canada i s of small value and separate enquiry i s necessary. There are 54. indications of greater federal p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Colum- bi a research i n the future. Although, more usually, research i n s t i t u t e s embrace a range of i n t e r e s t s , s p e c i a l i z e d bodies have been formed i n areas where c e r t a i n aspects of f o r e s t r y are of special s i g n i f i c a n c e . Entomological and pathological laboratories are of long stand- ing. In northern Europe there have been s i m i l a r developments i n work studies and i n tree breeding. In other cases, s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s may require continuous or semi-continuous observa- tions i n a s p e c i f i c l o c a l i t y . To meet these needs, and depend- ing on the scale of e f f o r t , out-stations or independent research centres have been established. Amongst the e a r l i e s t were st a - tions f o r hydrological research, as at Jonkershoek, South A f r i c a , which was established i n 19J55- A notable development has been the s p e c i a l i s t centre f o r work on one species, usually of s p e c i a l economic sig n i f i c a n c e and d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . An example occurs i n the Wattle Research I n s t i t u t e at Peitermaritzburg. In post- war f o r e s t r y those s p e c i a l i s t groups concerned with poplar c u l - ture are probably the best known, l a r g e l y through the a c t i v i t i e s of the International Poplar Commission. Ty p i c a l organizations are the I n s t i t u t o d i Sperimentazlone per l a Pioppicoltura, Casale Monferrata, I t a l y , and the I n s t l t u t de Poplculture de 1'Union Allumettiere S.A., Grammont, Belgium. Other i n s t i t u t i o n s have been established i n various countries f o r the study of other species of special l o c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , e.g. the Estacao de Experimentacao F l o r e s t a l de Sobreiro, Portugal, f o r work on the Cork Oak; the Centro d i studio catagno, Florence, concerned with 55. sweet chestnut; and the Institute- Nacional do Pinho, Rio de Janeiro, which deals with problems of pine s i l v i c u l t u r e . Forest Products Research While products research f a l l s outside the general scope of t h i s study, i t s general r e l a t i o n s h i p with f o r e s t r y research may be considered because of the very c o n f l i c t i n g viewpoints that have been advanced i n recent times. A b r i e f review follows. The r e l a t i o n between the two branches of research were d i s - cussed i n d e t a i l by the Standing Committee on Forest Products Research of the B r i t i s h Commonwealth Forestry Conference (30, 31). I t was concluded that, while there was no question of the necessity f o r a close l i a i s o n between the two branches, i t was also important that those engaged i n forest research should keep i n touch with the l i v i n g f o r e s t , while those working i n f o r e s t products research should be i n close contact with consuming i n - dustries and markets. Although the p o s s i b i l i t y of du p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t could not be overlooked, i t might be better f o r the two branches to work independently. The disadvantage of a com- mon i n s t i t u t e was through the p o t e n t i a l r e s t r a i n t imposed upon research workers i n attempting to bring them too c l o s e l y into l i n e with one another. In addition, the d i r e c t o r might have d i f f i c u l t y i n keeping up-to-date with developments i n both branches. I t was also suggested that the combination of f o r e s t r y with forest products research might tend to make the l a t t e r un- acceptable to industry. Advocates of a closer connection have been motivated by an appreciation of the d e s i r a b i l i t y of a b i o l o g i c a l approach to products research. This i s not a recent development. In 1939 5 6 . Chalk ( 4 5 ) , a wood anatomist, forecast that the study of wood structure would serve as a l i n k between f o r e s t r y and wood tech- nology by fin d i n g the anatomical features r e l a t i n g to timber properties, and r e l a t i n g these to growth conditions. He sug- gested that r e a l progress i n wood technology appeared to depend more on b i o l o g i c a l research than on attempts to solve i s o l a t e d p r a c t i c a l problems. B i r c h (16) has described the p a r t i c u l a r l y close integra- t i o n which exists i n New Zealand and has indicated the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r quick a p p l i c a t i o n of new knowledge. There, expanded forest products research has been obtained through i t s i n c l u - sion i n the Forest Research I n s t i t u t e at Rotorua. Reid (179) believed t h i s association to be closer to the i d e a l than any alt e r n a t i v e approach. Emphasis i s on "moulding the l i v i n g body rather than "dissecting the dead carcass" and researchers from both sides work together during the c r u c i a l developmental stage of the forest crop. Long-term r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are recognized as equal i n importance to the immediate needs and problems of the wood-using i n d u s t r i e s . Intimate contact i s maintained with the s i l v i c u l t u r i s t , the tree breeder, the pathologist, the ento mologist, and the for e s t systematist. The explanation of t h i s d i s t i n c t i v e pattern i s perhaps to be found i n the h i s t o r y of f o r e s t r y and fo r e s t u t i l i z a t i o n i n New Zealand. Uncontrolled e x p l o i t a t i o n of very large, clean, qu a l i t y timbers has been succeeded by dependence of fast-grown, knotty timber from extensive plantations. B i r c h has described how these were established over a short period i n "an extra- ordinary wave of nation-wide enthusiasm" some t h i r t y - f i v e years 57. ago, but with scant s i l v i c u l t u r a l knowledge or background, and followed by neglect. By close cooperation and integration of research i t i s hoped that better use of the remaining native forest w i l l be secured, including i t s closer u t i l i z a t i o n and sustention, and also the improvement and better u t i l i z a t i o n of the exotic plantations. In a review of Reid's paper (152) an opposing view was ad- vanced. In A u s t r a l i a i t i s found advantageous to have the Timber D i v i s i o n of the Commonwealth S c i e n t i f i c and I n d u s t r i a l Research Organization separate from the Forestry and Timber Bureau, with each state, and also industry, cooperating with both. The suggestion was that success comes not from the l o c a - t i o n of research, but from co-ordination and co-operation be- tween researchers and those interested i n the r e s u l t s . In New Zealand the Forest Service conducts a l l research into ex- o t i c s , and most of that concerned with the indigenous timbers and f o r e s t r y . I t has a b i g stake i n the u t i l i z a t i o n of exotic fo r e s t s , and the great majority of the remaining timber resources are state-owned. Under such conditions there i s much to be said f o r i ntegration. When such conditions do not obtain the a p p l i - cation of research findings may not always be r e a d i l y acceptable i f they come from the Forest Service's own laboratories, "for there i s not always an easy r e l a t i o n s h i p between a conserving service and an exploiting trade i n indigenous f o r e s t s . " Most often, d i s t i n c t organizational separation r e s u l t s from an absence of common problems, at least at the time of separa- t i o n . In the United Kingdom, forest products research was r e - moved from the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the forest authority at an 58. early stage. The Forest Products Laboratory i s an agency of the Department of S c i e n t i f i c and I n d u s t r i a l Research, a body responsible f o r a wide range of i n d u s t r i a l research laborator- i e s . The d e s i r a b i l i t y of t h i s separation resulted from the divergent i n t e r e s t s of the two branches. The timber technolo- g i s t s were primarily concerned with the i n d u s t r i a l u t i l i z a t i o n of a wide range of non-indigenous timbers, of i n t e r e s t to a timber industry l a r g e l y geared to an import trade, and of im- portance to the developing forest economies of the c o l o n i a l t e r r i t o r i e s . Home-grown timbers attracted l e s s attention. Con- versely the Forestry Commission was charged s o l e l y with respon- s i b i l i t y f o r United Kingdom fo r e s t r y , and at that time the major preoccupation was with the establishment of new f o r e s t s . Never- theless there has been close co-operation. An experienced f o r - ester i s head of an external r e l a t i o n s section of the Forest Products Laboratory and i s responsible f o r research and advi- sory work r e l a t i n g to f o r e s t r y and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , f o r cooper- a t i o n with the Forestry Commission (111). For the Forestry Commission, a for e s t research o f f i c e r , engaged i n investigations i n t o u t i l i z a t i o n of products from the home woodlands, i s respon- s i b l e f o r l i a i s o n with the Forest Products Laboratory and the home-grown timber trade. Further contact i s maintained through the media of advisory bodies. The Director-General of the Forestry Commission s i t s on the Advisory Committee of the For- est Products Laboratory. The Director of the Forest Products Laboratory i s a member of the Forestry Advisory Committee. In more recent years the requirements of the developing United Kingdom timber resource have led to greater attention to the 59. l o c a l product and a major change i n products research o r i e n t a - t i o n i s now underway. Aside from administrative questions, close co-operation may well depend most of a l l on the t r a i n i n g of f o r e s t products r e - search personnel. Often these have been pr i m a r i l y p h y s i c i s t s , chemists, and engineers, rather than b i o l o g i s t s . With t h i s back- ground there may be a tendency to accept wood as a variable ma- t e r i a l with inherent f a u l t s that have to be countered by tech- n i c a l means. With a b i o l o g i c a l background, the timber technol- ogist i s more l i k e l y to have a better appreciation of how such f a u l t s originate i n the growing tree. Research by i n d u s t r i a l agencies I n d u s t r i a l or company p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n research i s d i f f i - c u l t to evaluate. In the older countries the state has been the p r i n c i p l e or major forest proprietor and, although there are co-operative movements of various kinds, government has usually been the sponsor best able to support long-term and sustained research e f f o r t . With the development of large integrated f o r - est industries with considerable land holdings the s i t u a t i o n has changed. In general, although corporations ( e s p e c i a l l y i n North America, where large i n d u s t r i a l holdings form a s i g n i f i c a n t por- t i o n of the national forest estate) show a l i b e r a l approach to the provision of f i n a n c i a l support f o r academic research and ed- ucation, there has been a tendency to confine company research to the solution of immediate and pressing problems of economic si g n i f i c a n c e . The volume of such e f f o r t , i n integrated opera- tions, r e f l e c t i n g the r e a l i t i e s of the i n d u s t r i a l scene, has 6 0 . been very much less than that devoted to research i n manufac- turing and forest products. There are notable exceptions, as fo r example the Weyerhaeuser Forest Research Centre at Centralia, Washington. As forest properties advance towards more intensive management, there i s c e r t a i n evidence suggestive of the development of a more sustained research i n t e r e s t . Informal investigations by i n d u s t r i a l foresters engaged i n pioneer and exploratory development cannot be disregarded i n any assessment of the i n d u s t r i a l contribution. E s p e c i a l l y i n the early stages such work may be of great s i g n i f i c a n c e . P o t e n t i a l l y , i n d u s t r i a l i n t e r e s t s are powerful research sponsors. But c e r t a i n weaknesses inherent i n i n d u s t r i a l p a r t i - c i p a t i o n need recognition. The researcher may f i n d the commer- c i a l atmosphere uncongenial to sustained research e f f o r t ; the public r e l a t i o n s aspect may predominate; the i n d u s t r i a l environ- ment may r e s u l t i n pressure f o r quick r e s u l t s and early, or even premature, application, and a tendency on that account to favour short-term enquiry and a s u p e r f i c i a l approach; project s e l e c t i o n and continuance may be subject to the whims of higher authority; programs may be l i a b l e to f l u c t u a t i n g f i n a n c i a l pro- v i s i o n ; and there may well be excessive concern with company secrecy i n regard to r e s u l t s obtained. Much depends on the long-term prospects and security of tenure of the company, and on the p o l i c y of the administration. P r i v a t e l y sponsored research Research may be sponsored by i n d i v i d u a l s , foundations, i n - d u s t r i a l concerns, or by co-operative action. Foundation support f o r the i n d i v i d u a l researcher may r e s u l t 61. i n notable contributions because of the independence of act i o n that such support affords; however, f o r major sustained e f f o r t , a continuing organization i s necessary. Here, d i s t i n c t research benefits accrue from sponsorship. Long-term f i n a n c i a l support provides security, while a semi-independent status permits greater freedom of action than may be possible i n government- supported research. When associated with academic centres, stimulating contacts are enabled while providing f o r independence from purely academic and pedagogic c o n t r o l . A valuable f a c i l i t y i n such an association i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of exchange of teach- ing and research personnel f o r varying periods. P r i v a t e l y supported research i n s t i t u t e s are few. An i n t e r - esting example i s the forest research centre at Partington H a l l , Totnes, Devon, England. This i s part of a private trust f o r the support of a number of very diverse r u r a l a c t i v i t i e s (18). Fa- c i l i t i e s are available f o r research on an associated commercial fo r e s t r y enterprise, with woodlands, sawmills, commercial nur- sery, and fo r e s t r y contracting. Untrammelled by outside control during almost three decades, notable contributions have been made to the economics of plantation management. In p a r t i c u l a r , researches have been associated with the name of the forest econ- omist, H. E. Hi l e y . Researches supported by associations and cooperatives T y p i c a l l y , co-operative research brings to mind Scandinavian f o r e s t r y . However, i t i s not confined to these countries. Cer- t a i n i n s t i t u t i o n s have already received mention, other examples are the New England Pulpwood Research Centre at Gorham, New Hampshire; "the I n s t i t u t f u r f o r s t l i c h Arbeitswissenschaft 6 2 . ( I n s t i t u t e of Forest Work E f f i c i e n c y ) , at Reinbek, Germany; the Wissenschaftliches I n s t i t u t des Deutschen Paplevereins ( S c i e n t i f i c I n s t i t u t e of the German Poplar Association), at Bru.ll, near Cologne; and the Pulp and Paper Research I n s t i t u t e of Canada, at Montreal. The New Zealand Pulpwood Research Centre i s sponsored by industry and serves the pulpwood industry i n the northern New England States, New York, and Pennsylvania ( 1 7 4 ) . The Reinbek i n s t i t u t e i s sponsored by industry f o r research i n work studies, and e s p e c i a l l y into the e f f e c t of working conditions on the physical well-being and e f f i c i e n c y of the labour force ( 2 2 0 ) . The B r u l l poplar i n s t i t u t e i s supported by the pulp and paper industry as a measure to encourage the extention of poplar c u l t i v a t i o n . The Pulp and Paper Research I n s t i t u t e of Canada i s the fundamental research centre f o r Canada's pulp and paper industry, supplementing the research organizations of i n d i v i d u a l companies, and acting as a documentation and publi c a t i o n centre. It originated i n a partnership by the Federal Government, the Canadian pulp and paper industry, and McGill University. The Research program includes investigations ranging from funda- mental studies i n wood chemistry and s i l v i c u l t u r e , to applied research and development i n manufacturing processes ( 3 9 ) . In B r i t i s h Columbia a co-operative approach was advocated by Gibson ( 8 9 ) . He envisaged a p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t research i n - s t i t u t e as a j o i n t undertaking of the p r o v i n c i a l forest service, the federal forest agencies, the forest i n d u s t r i e s , and the univers i t y ; the participants r e t a i n i n g t h e i r own i d e n t i t i e s , and undertaking t h e i r own projects, but through a common 6 3 . i n s t i t u t e , achieving a greater degree of coordination. Co-operation i n research has found i t s greatest expression i n Scandinavia. In Denmark a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e has been played by long-established associations. The best known of these i s the Danish Heath Society which dates from 1866. This i s a c l a s - s i c example of a group founded to further a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y - i t s aim the a f f o r e s t a t i o n of heath and other lands u n f i t f o r ag r i c u l t u r e . Proprietor to 8900 hectares, the society has ex- ercised great i n d i r e c t influence; by 1950 i t had been instrumen- t a l , through advice and investigation, i n planting 80,000 hec- tares. Other s o c i e t i e s that have contributed to the development of research are the Danish Forest Association, founded i n 1880 to further the technical and economic i n t e r e s t s of Danish s i l v i - culture, and the Association of Danish Forest Graduates formed i n 1897 as a professional society with one of i t s objects to assert the p r a c t i c a l value of s c i e n t i f i c education and research ( 8 3 ) . In Norway, before the postwar reconstruction, f o r e s t r y r e - search was carr i e d on i n the east by a state agency at the u n i - v e r s i t y and i n the west, by the Western Norway Forest Experiment Station at Bergen, sponsored by the Norwegian Forest Owners Federation. After the Liberat i o n a voluntary co-operative organ- i z a t i o n of forest owners, industry, and f o r e s t r y and forest products research organizations was formed. "... to f a c i l i t a t e the extension of research a c t i v i t i e s by co-operation between the f o r e s t r y and wood-processing i n d u s t r i e s , . . . . to e s t a b l i s h these a c t i v i t i e s on the broad- est possible basis, embracing the whole f i e l d from the con- di t i o n s governing the growth of trees i n the fore s t s u n t i l the t e s t i n g of the f i n i s h e d products turned out by the m i l l s . " (159) 64. There were three categories of corporate members, Trade, Advisory, and Research. The f i r s t of these were the trade asso- ciations representing the forest owners, the timber trade, and the various wood-processing i n d u s t r i e s . These provided the necessary f i n a n c i a l support. The advisory group was formed of the professional s o c i e t i e s . The research members were the r e - search agencies, the Norwegian Forest Experimental Department, the Norwegian Pulp and Paper Research I n s t i t u t e , the I n s t i t u t e of Timber Engineering, and the Merchantile Research I n s t i t u t e . Under the auspices of t h i s society, research a c t i v i t y has been greatly stimulated and f a c i l i t i e s extended, through co-ordina- t i o n of a c t i v i t y and increased a v a i l a b i l i t y of funds. In the special case of tree-breeding i n Scandinavia the r e s u l t s of co-operative endeavour are well-known. In 1936 the Swedish Association f o r Forest Tree Improvement was formed on the i n i t i a t i v e of Nilsson-Ehle. To obtain the e a r l y p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge of genetical p r i n c i p l e s , which was r e s u l t i n g from the work at i t s Ekbo nursery, Lindquist organized the Society f o r P r a c t i c a l Tree Breeding. Membership was drawn from central and north Swedish f o r e s t r y i n t e r e s t s i n co-operation with the Gavleborg County Forestry Board. As t h i s society as a whole was not ready to engage at once on a f u l l program of seed-orchard production, i t i n turn gave r i s e to a subsidiary, the GaVleborg County Tree Breeding Group, which i n e f f e c t became the " a c t i v i s t " arm of the movement (203, 83, 200). In Denmark development followed a s i m i l a r pattern. The state forest service established forest botanical gardens i n 6 5 . 1799* 1838, and i n 1936. The l a s t of these, the arboretum at Horsholm, became the State Forest Tree Breeding Station. In 1941 the Krogerup Tree Breeding Station was opened fo r the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s evolved i n Horsholm. In 1951 private forest owners i n Sealand organized a co-opera- t i v e agency with a tree-breeding nursery to f a c i l i t a t e the a p p l i c a t i o n of the new techniques i n t h e i r own forests ( 8 3 ) . Throughout there has been close co-operation between state and private i n t e r e s t s , and between research workers and p r a c t i c i n g f o r e s t e r s . In such chains of technical development i t i s d i f f i - c u l t to say where i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l work ceases and a p p l i c a t i o n begins. The Scandinavian c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of support f o r research through co-operative associations shows an awareness of the long-term benefits, to industry as a whole, of advance on a wide front through research. It contrasts strongly with the excessive secrecy which too frequently characterizes i n d u s t r i a l research. A special feature i s the close c o l l a b o r a t i o n which exists among Government, Industry, Research, and University. Each of these makes the contribution f o r which i t i s most suited. These features are e s p e c i a l l y evident i n the movement f o r the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of forest operations. The object i n t h i s i s increased productivity leading to higher wage l e v e l s to combat a declining labour force. Interest i s shown i n mechanization of operations and the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of working techniques, and extends to the study of hand tools and t h e i r improvement and to work studies. There i s a l i n k with woods schools to t r a i n young labour and to increase the e f f i c i e n c y and s k i l l s of 66. experienced woodsmen. Swedish developments are t y p i c a l . A j o i n t group from industry and state, the Job Study Department of the Forest Employers Association and the Swedish Forest Service, was formed i n north Sweden i n 1937• The following year the Society f o r Wormlands Forest Work Studies, a s i m i l a r l y constituted group, was formed i n central Sweden, and a few years l a t e r the Central and South Sweden Forest Work Studies Society completed the national coverage. In 1950 a Work Study Depart- ment was formed at the State Forest Research I n s t i t u t e . Scandinavian research patterns are notable f o r t h e i r ex- treme f l e x i b i l i t y . The Scandinavians believe t h e i r approach to be sound; the research e f f o r t handled by several independent organizations and supported by the various interested groups, including the state, rather than the major research e f f o r t con- centrated i n one government agency. A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s the way i n which i n d i v i d u a l organizations submerge t h e i r sectional i n - terests f o r the common good. PERSONNEL PROBLEMS Co-operation i n research Collaboration i s common between s t a f f members of public agencies. Rarely i s forest research i n the happy p o s i t i o n of having a l l the f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e . More often, i t i s done under extensive conditions with l i m i t e d finances, and much may be gained through inter-agency collaboration, through formal and informal committees, j o i n t projects and working groups, and through personal contact. I f other groups or organizations are better equipped to work i n special f i e l d s , i t i s c l e a r l y waste- f u l and i n e f f i c i e n t not to make use of these f a c i l i t i e s . 67. B i r c h (16) has described the close l i a i s o n that e x i s t s i n New Zealand between the Forest Experiment Station and other spec- i a l i s t agencies. There i s collaboration with the Geological Survey, the S o i l Bureau, and the Plant Diseases Botany D i v i s i o n , while the Biometrics Section of the Department of S c i e n t i f i c and I n d u s t r i a l Research advises on s t a t i s t i c a l methods. The special i z e d agencies p a r t i c i p a t e i n f o r e s t r y research projects, and the Forest Research Station i n turn provides assistance, i n p a r t i c u l a r through observations and c o l l e c t i o n s by the National Forest Survey f i e l d s t a f f and through extension of the i n t e r e s t f i e l d of the Survey. In s o i l conservation research and r i v e r control there i s a f u l l - t i m e l i a i s o n o f f i c e r to represent f o r - estry i n t e r e s t s . Canadian federal research agencies recognize the importance of close inter-agency l i a i s o n under extensive operating con- d i t i o n s . A study of past and present federal a c t i v i t y reported, "Establishment of such experiments (regeneration f e l l - ings) must depend upon the co-operation and assistance of the forest industries, Increased co-operation with the u n i v e r s i t y forest schools i s also being sought i n con- nection with the development of a more comprehensive pro- gram of fundamental research,.... Additional avenues f o r co-operation with other organizations... w i l l be explored ... to provide f o r a s a t i s f a c t o r y coverage of the whole forest research f i e l d i t i s hoped that undesirable duplication of e f f o r t can be eliminated. Mutual a s s i s t - ance i s p a r t i c u l a r l y necessary.... research f a c i l i t i e s a v ailable are small i n r e l a t i o n to the magnitude of these problems." (62) The Canadian Forest Insect and Disease Survey, which com- mands the voluntary p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Provinces and the large i n d u s t r i a l operators, i l l u s t r a t e s the benefits of co-operation. Without the active co-operation of these collaborators the cover- age obtained by the federal agency would be Impossible. 6 8 . Coordinating machinery i s desirable. In Austria t h i s i s provided by the Society f o r Timber Research, through i t s var- ious sub-committees (83). In Canada the p o s i t i o n varies i n the d i f f e r e n t Provinces. Ontario i s most advanced. I t has a Government Agency Committee, f o r l i a i s o n between the Federal and P r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t r y groups, and also a Forestry Advisory Committee of the Research Council of Ontario, formed of a l l interested bodies at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . These are the Fed- e r a l Department of Agriculture, the f e d e r a l Forestry Branch, industry, the University, the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Lands and Forests, and the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Planning and Development, there are l o c a l co-ordinating committees i n north- western and northern Ontario. Tangible benefits have accrued from t h i s join£ planning. Costs are shared i n group research projects between public agencies and industry. There are ar- rangements whereby the p r o v i n c i a l authority provides buildings and f a c i l i t i e s f o r research establishments while the federal services furnish s t a f f f o r entomological and pathological re- search . Coordinating committees of a s i m i l a r nature have been strongly advocated f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. Buckland (32) drew attention to the number of agencies operating within the prov- ince. He gave examples of neglect of important f i e l d s , lack of coordination, and general misdirected e f f o r t as a r e s u l t of the absence of l i a i s o n machinery. Sloan (19^) considered that a formally established coordinating committee might be advanta- geous. Ker and Smith (137) indicated the advantages which would accrue i n the special f i e l d of mensuration merely through 6 9 . organization and standardization of procedures. In evidence to the Parliamentary Committee on Estimates of the Forestry Branch, Ministry of Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources, on July 15th 1958, Mahood c a l l e d f o r a B.C. committee of ex- perienced for e s t e r s , representing the two l e v e l s of govern- ment, industry, and the univ e r s i t y , under the chairmanship of a q u a l i f i e d layman, to make a comprehensive study of research programs. In the following year a delegation from the B. C. Lumbermen's Association endorsed these views before the same committee. In B r i t a i n , l i a i s o n i s obtained through s p e c i a l i s t sub- committees of the Advisory Committee on Forest Research. These consider special aspects of the state research program and may a c t i v e l y engage i n research. Procedures are informal and, i f desirable to further a c t i v i t i e s , a d d i t i o n a l members may be co- opted ( 153) . Inter-agency committees, either formal or i n f o r - mal, are frequently formed. Such an informal j o i n t committee of appropriate o f f i c e r s of the Forestry Commission Research Branch and the Nature Conservancy has f a c i l i t a t e d a co-opera- t i v e program of fundamental work on forest s o i l s and the a p p l i - cation of these studies to s i l v i c u l t u r a l management. A j o i n t committee with the Forest Products Laboratory coordinates r e - search into the properties of home-grown timbers. Intimate co- operation e x i s t s between the Forestry Research Branch and some s t a f f of the Rothamstead Experiment Station, an independent i n - s t i t u t i o n . This has made possible the conduct of a long-term program of nursery n u t r i t i o n research. Neither agency would have the necessary f a c i l i t i e s or s k i l l s to undertake a study 70. on the scale that has been accomplished through j o i n t e f f o r t . Similar patterns have developed with other bodies, and on varying scales, thus there i s co-operative research i n b i o l o g - i c a l control with the E a r l Grey I n s t i t u t e of F i e l d Ornithology. Here, the machinery f o r co-operation consists of a committee of foresters, entomologists, and o r n i t h o l o g i s t s . D i r e c t i o n and planning i s done by the o r n i t h o l o g i c a l i n s t i t u t e , f i e l d work by l o c a l f o r e s t r y s t a f f , and detailed observations, on a volun- tary basis, by l o c a l natural h i s t o r y s o c i e t i e s (153). A necessary prerequisite f o r the successful outcome of such programs of co-operative research i s close c o l l a b o r a t i o n at the personal l e v e l . Governing bodies and machinery of control It i s e s s e n t i a l to avoid organizational patterns that make more provision f o r administrative channels than f o r the conduct of research. I f the i n i t i a t i v e and a c t i v i t i e s of research workers are c u r t a i l e d through excessively centralized d i r e c t i o n and supervision, r e a l l y able men cannot be secured or retained. I t i s e s s e n t i a l that not only salary scales, f a c i l i t i e s , and opportunities f o r advancement are s a t i s f a c t o r y - the r i g h t ad- ministra t i v e environment must be provided. Nevertheless, with- out sound planning and administration even the most p r o f i t a b l e avenues of enquiry are l i k e l y to be less productive and waste- f u l of e f f o r t . Successful research management has been said to be a t t r i b u t a b l e a l l the way from "the best research management i s no management" to "research can be planned, costed, and d i - rected exactly l i k e any other phase of business" (66). The r e a l i t y T a l l s between these extremes. The aim should be to 71- provide the atmosphere and smooth-running organization neces- sary f o r f r u i t f u l e f f o r t , while at the same time allowing max- imum freedom fo r the i n d i v i d u a l research worker. At a l l l e v e l s there should be provision f o r the exercise of a reasonable a- mount of d i s c r e t i o n . Professional and s p e c i a l i s t s t a f f should i n no wise be expected merely to carry out a series of d i r e c - t i v e s . Undoubtedly the best form of administration i s that based purely on mutual understanding and co-operation, but i t i s rare that an organization i s small enough fo r t h i s to s u f f i c e , and a cer t a i n degree of formalism has necessarily to be introduced. Francois (87) described various s t r u c t u r a l patterns f o r i n - service research, i n r e l a t i o n to the executive branch, and d i s - cussed t h e i r advantages and disadvantages. Although not mentioned by Francois one of the simplest structures i s that of a separate research d i v i s i o n with a d i v i s i o n a l head who i s d i r e c t l y respon- s i b l e to higher authority within the administration. This i s perhaps the most common arrangement where the research e f f o r t i s an i n t e g r a l part of a state forest service. So, i n New Zea- land, the Officer-in-charge of the Rotorua Research Station i s responsible to the Development D i v i s i o n of the Of f i c e of the Director of Forestry, and, i n B r i t a i n , the Chief Research O f f i - cer works under the Director of Research and Education, who, i n turn, i s responsible d i r e c t l y to the Director-General, the chief tec h n i c a l o f f i c e r of the Forestry Commission. Such o f f i c e r s , executive heads of research organizations, are responsible f o r o v e r - a l l supervision of a l l research branch a c t i v i t i e s , project development, programing, preparation of annual reports, co- 72. ordination and co-operation between sections, preparation of budgets, and a l l matters e s s e n t i a l to the conduct of the r e - search program. Within s p e c i a l i s t sections, the section head has s i m i l a r functions. Individual project workers have inde- pendence of action within t h e i r own sphere, subject only to the general supervision of the section head.- Given good w i l l and mutual understanding, t h i s simple structure works s a t i s - f a c t o r i l y even i n large i n s t i t u t i o n s . Where a public research agency i s independent of control by the forest administration, supervision may frequently be exercised through a committee or board. In Sweden the State Forest Research I n s t i t u t e , together with the Royal College of Forestry, i s so governed. S p e c i a l i s t d i v i s i o n s are managed by professors of the Royal College with the co-operation of a r e - search leader, assistants, and aides. Kallander ( 1 3 0 ) has described the administration of f o r - est research i n Oregon. There i s a five-member Forest Protec- t i o n and Conservation Committee, comprising three members of the State Board of Forestry, one member appointed f o r a term of four years by the Governor of the State and representing the public, and the Dean of Forestry at Oregon State College as ex- 1 o f f i c i o member. Among other duties t h i s committee establishes po l i c y , controls expenditure, and coordinates the a c t i v i t i e s of state agencies under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the State Board of Forestry i n regard to "research and experiment i n the develop- ment of techniques f o r the protection, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and man- agement of forest lands". An Administrator i s appointed, but 73- r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the conduct of research r e s t s with the D i - rector of the Forest Lands Research Centre. The Director i s . appointed by the Committee, with authority to h i r e personnel, make expenditures, and "do or have done a l l things necessary f o r such research a c t i v i t i e s . " There i s a Forest Lands Ad- visory Committee of ten members representing state, education, research and industry, with the d i r e c t o r of the research s t a - t i o n as secretary. A s i m i l a r pattern exists f o r the conduct of research i n forest products. In c e r t a i n countries, e s p e c i a l l y where there are a number of Interested f a c t i o n s , considerable importance i s attached to the separation of research from the forest administration. From 1862 to 1900 Danish f o r e s t r y research was conducted by a department of the forest service. In 1902 t h i s group obtained separate i d e n t i t y as the State Forest Research Station within the Ministry of Agriculture. F u l l control rests with the Director, i n collaboration with a Forest Research Commission, representative of state and private f o r e s t r y and of higher f o r - estry education ( 8 3 ) . In Germany the research i n s t i t u t e s are autonomous, with the Verband der F o r s t l i c h e n Forschungsanstaltan (Union of Forest Research Organizations) to negotiate with gov- ernment ( 8 3 ) . The importance which some forest researchers attach to freedom from administrative control i s exemplified by Naslund's (165) and Kollman's (139) recommendations. They advised separa- t i o n of the proposed Burmese research establishment from the Forest Administration, with d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the Min- i s t r y of Agriculture and Forests. As an interim measure, the 7 4 . Chief Conservator of Forests was to be responsible f o r admin- i s t r a t i o n , but there was a s p e c i f i c reservation that the r e - search program be "quite independent of con t r o l " by the admin- i s t r a t i o n . An i n i t i a l program provided f o r a j o i n t f o r e s t r y and forest products research centre but eventually these also were to be separated. The ultimate achievement of complete independence was to ensure that research was "absolutely free and unfettered". Though advantages may r e s u l t when private f o r e s t r y i n t e r - ests are of considerable importance, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to see very r e a l advantages to a public research program i n separation from intimate contact with the executive agency, when t h i s i s the major, or only, forest manager. The dangers of research i s o l a t i o n from the r e a l problems of the forest are obvious. To quote Francois ( 8 7 ) , "Since research i n f o r e s t r y and fo r e s t products i s absolutely necessary to any fo r e s t administration, the administration should be i n a po s i t i o n to issue the neces- sary d i r e c t i v e s f o r the conduct of such research so that the attention of the research body i s always focussed on the problems of greatest concern to the development of a sound forest p o l i c y and the e f f i c i e n t implementation of that p o l i c y forest research has to obey such d i r e c t i v e s . Forest sciences, unlike pure sciences, have u t i l i t a r i a n objectives and must solve d e f i n i t e problems. spe c i a l i z e d bodies f o r f o r e s t r y research, or at least f o r the co-ordination of research r e s u l t s , must form an i n t e g r a l part of the administration." It i s to be stressed that the raison d'etre of f o r e s t r y r e - search l i e s i n the practice of f o r e s t r y . The function of the research worker, i n the f i n a l analysis, i s to serve the needs of the p r a c t i c i n g f o r e s t e r . Temporary advantages may occur i n separation from an unsympathetic administration, when more ef- f e c t i v e d i r e c t i o n may r e s u l t from autonomy, but i s questionable 75. whether, i n these unhappy circumstances, a research program w i l l have any r e a l impact. Positive advantages i n r e c r u i t - ment and s t a f f retention may occur, nevertheless, i f separa- t i o n f a c i l i t a t e s the introduction of a s t a f f i n g structure more suited to the needs of research and the provision of more s a t i s f a c t o r y terms of service. In co-operative or other independent research agencies, ultimate control i s usually vested i n a board representative of the supporting i n t e r e s t s , often with the a d d i t i o n of inde- pendent members. In Canada, the Pulp and Paper Research In- s t i t u t e i s administered by a board designated by the Crown, the Royal I n s t i t u t i o n f o r the Advancement of Learning, and the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association. There i s also an ad- visory panel of leading members of the f o r e s t r y and r e l a t e d professions. In Quebec, the Laval University Research Found- ation i s administered by a board of nine d i r e c t o r s chosen from among the members of the Foundation. A Director of Research supervises a l l projects approved by the Board. The Foundation i s formed of members who, by virtue of function, knowledge, or f i n a n c i a l support, may help i t to r e a l i z e i t s objectives and pursue s c i e n t i f i c i n vestigations. The Dean of Forest Engin- eering i s a member e x - o f f i c i o of the Foundation, president of the Board of Administration, and serves as l i a i s o n between the Foundation, the Faculty, and the School of Graduate Study. The Woodland Manager of Canadian International Paper Company i s vice-president. This company provides the major f i n a n c i a l sup- port. There i s also a Board of Governors composed of leading i n d u s t r i a l executives and eminent representatives i n the f i e l d s 76. of education and research. This Board has an advisory func- t i o n and the task of furthering knowledge and appreciation of the objectives of the Foundation amongst the general p u b l i c . The Norwegian Research Society of Forestry and Forest In- dustries, discussed e a r l i e r , i s so constituted that each cor- porate member, i n any of the three categories of research, ad- visory, and trade, forms a separate group, with i t s own group committee. These committees are responsible f o r a c t i v i t i e s within t h e i r own f i e l d s and f o r drawing up f i n a n c i a l proposals. The Chairman and Vice-chairman of the Society, together with the chairmen of the research groups, form the chief adminis- t r a t i v e body, the Research Board. This Board coordinates the detailed proposals of the i n d i v i d u a l groups and prepares the research program. Such a structure would seem admirably suited to the marshalling of f i n a n c i a l resources and the coordination of a c t i v i t y among d i v e r s i f i e d i n t e r e s t s . Many research organizations make use of advisory or tech- n i c a l committees. Munns (l6j5) described the State Forest Coun- c i l of Poland. This had f i v e or seven members, the Minister of Forestry, the Forestry Member of the Central Planning Board, the Chief of the Forestry Administration, representatives of the furniture and wood-using ind u s t r i e s , and the head of one un i v e r s i t y f o r e s t r y school. Among other duties i t exercised an advisory function at the State I n s t i t u t e of Forest Research. In the United States Forest Service, Forest Research Ad- visory Committees at the national and regional l e v e l date main- l y since the early 1950's. These are formed of representatives of industryy--wild-life and liv e s t o c k i n t e r e s t s , the f o r e s t r y 77. profession, f o r e s t r y education, and the p u b l i c . They advise and a s s i s t i n the formulation of research programs (141, 1 9 1 ) . In the United Kingdom there are two bodies to which the Research Branch may turn f o r advice. The f i r s t i s the Tech- n i c a l Committee of the Forestry Commission, composed of senior o f f i c e r s who s c r u t i n i z e the proposed programs i n some d e t a i l . The second i s the Advisory Committee on Forest Research. This i s a committee of eminent s c i e n t i s t s who meet p e r i o d i c a l l y to discuss the research program, with s p e c i a l i s t sub-committees. These sub-committees may undertake research programs themselves, or arrange f o r projects to be ca r r i e d out. Some of these have extended over long periods, the procedures are very f l e x i b l e . Through these two committees reference i s made to the experience of p r a c t i c i n g forest o f f i c e r s and to s c i e n t i f i c opinion. They also a s s i s t i n the d i f f i c u l t decision of deciding when to d i s - continue a research project (154). II For Burma, Naslund and Kollman proposed two s p e c i a l bodies, a Research Council, and an Advisory Board, to secure "regular, continuous and close co-operation" between the research i n s t i - tute and interested government agencies, the u n i v e r s i t y , and the wood-consuming and exporting i n d u s t r i e s . The Research Council was to be composed of the Chief Conservator of Forests, the Chairman of the State Timber Board, i . e . , the forest agency responsible f o r the control of exploitation, the Professors of Forestry and Engineering at the University of Rangooh, the D i - rector of the Research I n s t i t u t e , and the two Deputy Directors of the Forestry and Forest Products rBranches; the two f i r s t - named to~hold the o f f i c e s of Chairman and Vice-chairman respec- 78. t i v e l y . This Council was to meet at least once a year to r e - ceive reports of the Ins t i t u t e ' s a c t i v i t i e s , discuss pending projects, and make suggestions f o r further research work. The Advisory Board was to comprise the Chief Conservator of For- ests, and the Chairman of the State Timber Board, as Chairman and Vice-Chairman respectively, the representatives of the Mi n i s t r i e s of Finance, Industry, Agriculture, and Forests, the A g r i c u l t u r a l and Rural Development Corporation, the Agriculture Department, the National Housing Board, the Burma Railways Board, and the Timber Trade. This body was to meet near the end of the budget year to receive a report of research a c t i v - i t y , i n the in t e r e s t of the body which they represented, i n f i n a n c i a l and other suitable ways. Committees may be useful at the working l e v e l . Depart- mental project committees form automatically according to the needs of research; i t i s a matter of convenience whether these be formally constituted or not. The more formal programing conference may u s e f u l l y be considered. Laurie (147) described United Kingdom procedure. There, the program conference ex- tends over a number of days and i s attended by a l l Research O f f i c e r s . Every o f f i c e r has a copy of the f u l l program and the conference provides a valuable opportunity f o r ensuring that a l l research sections are kept informed of what other research sections are doing. At the discussion, notes are made regard- ing p r i o r i t i e s , the p o s s i b i l i t y of carrying through d i f f i c u l t projects with the resources a v a i l a b l e , and the organization of work a f f e c t i n g more than one Research O f f i c e r , with clear a l l o - cation of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Every project i s thoroughly discussed. 7 9 - To provide f o r a longer-term review the work of either a whole or one or two of the smaller sections, or of a group of major projects, Is subjected to a detailed review. The aim i s to cover the whole f i e l d with these special reviews once every f i v e years. The o f f i c e r s responsible prepare papers d e t a i l - ing the p o s i t i o n reached i n t h e i r work, and the l i n e s on which future work i s proposed. These papers are c r i t i c a l l y examined. After the conference the program i s submitted to higher au- t h o r i t y and to the Research Advisory Committee f o r scrutiny and comment. It i s not formally sanctioned, though i t i s ex- pected to be adhered to f a i r l y c l o s e l y , and In a l l Sections a ce r t a i n degree of e l a s t i c i t y i s preserved. In India, Research i s planned on a five-year basis, with a formally authorized Research Plan. A program i s outlined and sanctioned as the Research Working Plan by a quinquenial S i l v i c u l t u r a l Conference at the Forest Research I n s t i t u t e . This conference i s attended by the P r o v i n c i a l S i l v i c u l t u r i s t s and senior f o r e s t r y o f f i c e r s from a l l India ( 1 7 8 ). Champion ( 4 6 ) described the procedures. P r i o r to the Conference, and a f t e r consultation with the t e r r i t o r i a l Conservators and D i v i s i o n a l Forestry O f f i c e r s , a draft program i s prepared i n the Working Plans and Research C i r c l e . The Central S i l v i c u l t u r i s t i s given the opportunity to make any suggestions he may wish. F i n a l l y the draft i s discussed and amended as found desirable by the S i l v i c u l t u r a l Conference. At these conferences important mat- ters of s i l v i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y are discussed and decisions taken on practices to be adopted. The record of past conferences shows detailed debate on basic s i l v i c u l t u r a l concepts and 8 0 . systems of s i l v i c u l t u r a l working. In these deliberations the r e s u l t s of research, the corpus of e x i s t i n g knowledge, and the accumulated experience of the conference enter i n . Decisions of the S i l v i c u l t u r a l Conference have played a major part i n the development of Indian Forestry. Although f o r m a l i s t i c , these procedures have long provided f o r that synthesis which i s d e s i r - able i n a u n i f i e d or federal administration operating on a con- t i n e n t a l scale. However, i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l work, at whatever l e v e l i t i s undertaken, cannot be kept within s t r i c t l y f i x e d boundaries. No matter how well-defined and s p e c i f i c the o r i g i n a l scheme, f r u i t f u l research w i l l tend to develop i n d i r e c t i o n s that can r a r e l y be predicted. On t h i s account f l e x i b i l i t y of organi- zation and freedom of development are e s s e n t i a l i n a r a t i o n a l research program. Where the scale of the enterprise permits, there would seem to be advantages i n the avoidance of formal, long-term programing. The autonomous, yet more f o r m a l i s t i c , status of some r e - search groups, i l l u s t r a t e d by Naslund and Kollman's writings, shows again i n t h e i r concept of a collegium, composed of the senior members of the research i n s t i t u t e , and meeting at the decision of the d i r e c t o r , or at the request of at least one- t h i r d of the members. This collegium, as the governing body of the research i n s t i t u t e , considers a l l research matters, both technical and administrative. It prepares the annual program and the budget, and i s also responsible f o r personnel matters and the nomination of candidates f o r s t a f f vacancies and promo- tion s . I f the d i r e c t o r wishes to propose candidates he must 8 1 . f i r s t consult the collegium. In t h i s structure the d i r e c t o r would seem to be rather a chairman among equals than an exec- ut i v e . Programing procedures i n the United States Forest Service have been detailed by Shaw ( 1 9 0 ) . Proposals and plans are pre- pared by research o f f i c e r s and are subjected to the c r i t i c i s m of executive f o r e s t e r s . At least once a year, regional pro- gram review boards, representative of the regional administra- t i o n of the national forests and of research, meet to consider programs and progress. The members are the heads of research and administrative units and the senior o f f i c e r s of both sides. It i s a p r i n c i p l e that a l l discussions are attended and not only those dealing with p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i a l i t i e s . Opinions are formulated as to the r e l a t i v e attention to be given to d i f f e r - ent f i e l d s competitive i n terms of men and money. Shaw r e - marks that t h i s form of review ensures an a i r of r e a l i t y to the research program and that "the retention of f a s c i n a t i n g and c o s t l y forays into academic in v e s t i g a t i o n " i s u n l i k e l y i f the chance of p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n cannot be substantiated, but that on the other hand the researcher knows that h i s f i n d - ings are not l i k e l y to be disregarded. Without c r i t i c i z i n g t h i s regional structure or question- ing the d e s i r a b i l i t y of bringing administrative personnel into close collaboration with research s t a f f , i t may perhaps be queried whether the s i t u a t i o n suggested by Shaw's comment should ever a r i s e i n a research program with correct emphasis and a sound recruitment p o l i c y . "Fascinating and c o s t l y forays"..." or other u n r e a l i s t i c investigations or attitudes should not 82. arise in a properly oriented, applied research program in which the research officers identify themselves with, and have an understanding and appreciation of, the problems of the f i e l d staff. In such a program i t i s undesirable to employ men who, perhaps through exposure to basic research techniques during their educational experience, have adopted the viewpoint of the pure scientist. If on the other hand, the program i s specifically intended to embrace fundamental enquiry, then there must be freedom of enquiry and i t may be questioned whether the administrative forester should s i t in judgement, for the non-specialist w i l l rarely have the background knowledge to evaluate. Men trained in the basic disciplines are required for such research and to a considerable extent there can only be confidence in the worker. If c r i t i c a l evaluation of the desirability of continuing a project i s desired then this i s better obtained through refer- ence to a panel of independent, experienced scientists of standing, than to the judgement of an administrative branch the members of which w i l l often be unqualified to assess the matter and who may tend to over-emphasis short-term objectives - Macdonald's "passing fashions and enthusiasms" and Hebb and Martin's "benefits to the present by sacrificing the future". Shaw also ascribes another advantage to combined adminis- trative/research conferences which may be questioned. These are said to give an urgency to research. Shaw says that there are always reasons why one more year of study seems essential to the researcher, reasons which are satisfactory to himself and to his vocational colleagues, but that administrators are "commonly 8 3 . cold to such subjective wishes". Aside from the very ques- tionable d e s i r a b i l i t y of pressuring research (which should be unnecessary i f s t a f f of adequate c a l i b r e i s r e c r u i t e d ) , t h i s statement suggests a lack of accord between research and ad- m i n i s t r a t i o n . C l e a r l y there must be machinery f o r c o n t r o l . Macdonald (154) has indicated the importance of the Technical Committee of the Forestry Commission and the Advisory Committee on Forest Research i n t h i s regard i n the context of B r i t i s h f o r e s t research. But such bodies should be advisory i n nature. The f i n a l decision must rest with the d i r e c t o r of research. Shaw's description may not give a true representation of the system i n p r a c t i c e j behind the terminology there may be con- siderable f l e x i b i l i t y . Nevertheless, i t i s noteworthy that the thinking basic to h i s views i s the a n t i t h e s i s of that of the continental European research worker with h i s desire f o r independence from administrative pressures, as evidenced by Nasiund's philosophies, the autonomous status of the Danish state research station, and the Union of Forest Research Organ- iz a t i o n s i n Germany. Even i f the extreme view i s not held, the achievements of Continental fore s t r y , often with very l i m i t e d resources, suggest research benefits from the minimum of con- t r o l by forest administrators. E s p e c i a l l y i n basic research there i s much to be said f o r the advice of Leonard Engel (73) "Get a good s c i e n t i s t .... and l e t him alone". The status and conditions of service of research s t a f f The need f o r high-calibre personnel and the frequent neces- s i t y of l i v i n g under i s o l a t e d and possibly primitive conditions are c o n f l i c t i n g elements i n research s t a f f i n g . To the research 84. worker the absence of the i n t e l l e c t u a l stimulus to be derived from contact with other investigators may be of greater impor- tance than the more material disadvantages. Applied research, p a r t i c u l a r l y , may necessitate permanent residence at remote f i e l d stations. Research workers w i l l usu- a l l y have strong professional orientation and men of the required c a l i b r e w i l l often be prepared, and indeed desire, to devote themselves to f i e l d research. But i t i s important that dedica- t i o n be encouraged by p o s i t i v e action. "... o f f i c i a l recognition,... should be on a par with that accorded to o f f i c e jobs." (173) "... a l l too often an i n d i v i d u a l i s not adequately recognized u n t i l employment elsewhere i s under consider- ation" . (164) This i s not merely a question of f i n a n c i a l remuneration but rather one of general recognition. D i f f i c u l t i e s which may be minimized by departmental action are concerned with questions of housing, l i v i n g conditions, pay and promotion, provision of educational f a c i l i t i e s f o r children, and working f a c i l i t i e s . In remote regions they w i l l often be concerned primarily with the well-being of the o f f i c e r ' s family. It may seem unnecessary to stress these matters, but experience has shown these to be potent considerations i n determining the e f f i c i e n c y of a research program, and which can be e a s i l y over- looked i n the operation of an administrative machine. It i s most important that no man be directed to work i n r e - search, or remain i n such work, against h i s wishes and i n c l i n a - t i o n s . This applies equally to professional and to subordinate s t a f f . The aim should be to make research s u f f i c i e n t l y a t t r a c - 8 5 . t i v e to gain and. to hold men of the required type, but with- out making i t so a t t r a c t i v e as to draw personnel purely be- cause of material b e n e f i t s . Provision of adequate career prospects f o r s p e c i a l i s t s i n a non-specialist service frequently causes d i f f i c u l t y . The question i s how to recognize non-administrative s c i e n t i f i c accomplishment. Francois (87) suggested i t to be advisable, i f a l l persons concerned have received the same basic t r a i n i n g , to l ay down the p r i n c i p l e that a l l may be c a l l e d upon to serve i n any branch of the forest service. He recognizes, however, that some compromise w i l l always be necessary, f o r a long per- iod of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n may make a man unsuitable f o r a p o s i t i o n of corresponding r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n another part of the ser- v i c e . The s i t u a t i o n i s made more d i f f i c u l t than i n other b i o - l o g i c a l f i e l d s because of the executive and administrative na- ture of much professional a c t i v i t y , and which r e s u l t s i n pro- motion structures into which i t may be d i f f i c u l t to f i t senior s p e c i a l i s t o f f i c e r s . Research i s not alone i n t h i s d i f f i c u l t y , nevertheless within research groups p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r promo- t i o n are often more lim i t e d than i n other, less s p e c i a l i z e d branches. Provision should be made so that competent men who wish to make the change do not suffer any disadvantage i n e l i - g i b i l i t y f o r promotion to higher grades within the administra- t i o n , i t i s desirable, of course, that a man i s not necessar- i l y obliged to abandon h i s research connection i f he i s to obtain advancement. There are obvious advantages i n r e t a i n i n g outstanding men with long research experience within the r e - search structure. Also, i t does not follow that because a 86. research o f f i c e r advances to research administration h i s pos- i t i v e contributions are ended. He may. well enter upon a per- iod of greater r e a l productivity through the added f a c i l i t i e s a vailable to him. But the q u a l i t i e s that merit recognition i n a research o f f i c e r are not necessarily those most suited f o r administra- t i v e duties. As Dinsmore (66) indicated i n the context of i n - d u s t r i a l research, there are a l l degrees and gradations of s c i e n t i f i c a b i l i t y and a man who i s an excellent research worker and can produce very valuable r e s u l t s as a creative i n d i v i d u a l may be unable to assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d i r e c t i n g and coordinating the work of others. In the past i t has been suggested that a departmental r e - search o f f i c e r should have experience i n administration before entering research. This concept i s dying i n the United States (164) , but i t i s recognized that lack of such experience pre- vents a man t r a n s f e r r i n g out of research, even when a l l con- cerned recognize the d e s i r a b i l i t y of such a move from the r e - search standpoint. One objection to the complete separation of research personnel from the executive i s that i t considerably reduces the p o s s i b i l i t y of a successful t r a n s i t i o n from research to administration. Movements i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n also be- come more d i f f i c u l t . When previous contact has been close, transfers are less d i f f i c u l t and may benefit both branches. In many government agencies i n the United States, "the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n advancing or recognizing a research worker on the basis of h i s research contributions have been well-neigh insurmountable" ( 1 6 4 ) . To advance a man i t has been found 87. necessary t o a s s i g n more and more a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s which cut i n t o r e s e a r c h time. F u r t h e r , the number of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e posts i s o f t e n l i m i t e d , and r a r e l y s u f f i c i e n t t o s a t i s f y a l l requirements. The s i t u a t i o n i s s i m i l a r i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . Sometimes i t has been p o s s i b l e t o pr o v i d e another path of advancement, the s o - c a l l e d p a r a l l e l r e s e a r c h l a d d e r , where ap- pointment i s made to r e s e a r c h p o s i t i o n s o f i n c r e a s i n g independ- ence, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , p r e s t i g e , and s a l a r y , w i t h s p e c i f i c t i t l e s d i s s o c i a t e d from those of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Even when admin- i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s are a t t a c h e d to a s e n i o r post, c l e a r d i f f e r - e n t i a t i o n of t i t l e from the g e n e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s d e s i r a b l e . A f i r s t requirement i s r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t a s c i e n t i s t , working as a s c i e n t i s t , can make f u l l y as g r e a t a c o n t r i b u t i o n as i s made by a s u p e r v i s o r (184). I t may be remarked t h a t i n c e r t a i n of the B r i t i s h dependencies the C h i e f Research O f f i c e r has r e c e i v e d a l a r g e r remuneration than the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e head of the s e r - v i c e under whom he s e r v e s . I t i s a fr e q u e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n r e s e a r c h e s t a b l i s h m e n t s t h a t expansion, and hence r e c r u i t m e n t , occurs s p a s m o d i c a l l y , r e s u l t i n g i n the grouping of personnel @£ s i m i l a r s t a n d i n g and s e n i o r i t y . While l i m i t a t i o n of s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s t s i n r e s e a r c h i s l o g i c a l and determined by o r g a n i z a t i o n a l needs, an a r b i t r a r y l i m i t a t i o n of s e n i o r r e s e a r c h appointments i s a r t i f i - c i a l . The o n l y r e a l l i m i t a t i o n t o advancement i n r e s e a r c h ap- pointments should be a b i l i t y , s e n i o r i t y , and the g e n e r a l q u a l i - f i c a t i o n s of the ca n d i d a t e . Long i n c r e m e n t a l s c a l e s t h a t a l l o w of steady i n c r e a s e throughout a r e s e a r c h l i f e are another a l t e r n a t i v e . Learner (149) 88. has presented a strong case f o r these i n i n d u s t r i a l research. I f t h i s procedure i s followed the question of promotion or of t i t l e changes need not enter i n although there may be the f o r - mality of an e f f i c i e n c y bar at a ce r t a i n incremental l e v e l . Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s the award of spe c i a l research a l - lowances or, a l t e r n a t i v e l y , lack of higher career prospects f o r s p e c i a l i s t s may be recognized and compensated to some extent by i n i t i a l appointment to the middle grades, or by accelerated promotion during the early stages of a man's career, with t a c i t recognition that promotion to the higher echelon i s u n l i k e l y within the research structure. Such solutions can only be worked out within the context of the i n d i v i d u a l service. This matter i s one of some importance i f the more able men are to be attracted to a research career i n s o c i e t i e s where con- siderable s o c i a l significance i s attached to material rewards. In other situations, questions of prestige, professional recog- n i t i o n , and personal s a t i s f a c t i o n may be of greater importance. But, notwithstanding the s o c i a l environment, the research worker w i l l wish f o r , "recognition, freedom, and security, and w i l l expect to l i v e on a par with other persons of equivalent edu- cation and t r a i n i n g i n the community." (135). In small departments d i f f i c u l t i e s are i n t e n s i f i e d . In the B r i t i s h Overseas C i v i l Service t h i s i s recognized, and a sepa- .rate, centralized research service has been formed. This i s dissociated administratively from the t e r r i t o r i a l administra- t i v e and technical departments f o r which i t provides services, and to which i t s members are often attached. Administration i s by s c i e n t i s t s and promotion i s according to research capacity 89. rather than by standing within an administrative hierarchy. There i s independence from l o c a l departmentalism and, i n recog- n i t i o n of the f a c t that the research o f f i c e r , unlike h i s ad- minis t r a t i v e counterpart, may wish to undertake more l i m i t e d engagements and seek other experiences, there i s considerable f l e x i b i l i t y i n contractual agreements i n regard to service, superannuation, and other terminal b e n e f i t s . To provide f o r f l e x i b i l i t y the o f f i c e r s are members of the federated super- annuation scheme of the B r i t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s and, i n general, the conditions of service are more sim i l a r to those of the u n i - v e r s i t y than to the executive services. These arrangements are applicable to research o f f i c e r s i n a l l technical departments of Government but have only proved p a r t i a l l y successful, f o r they are unable to take account of variations i n l o c a l condi- tions, such as may be recognized i n a t e r r i t o r i a l service. Ex- cept where they are members of a large i n s t i t u t e staffed by members of the research service, research o f f i c e r s have often preferred to remain i n the general d i v i s i o n , accepting the d i s - a b i l i t i e s inherent i n a s t a f f i n g structure that i s designed to meet the needs of general and technical administration, and on occasion perhaps administered by executives unsympathetic to, or without understanding of, the special c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of research a c t i v i t y . Educational f a c i l i t i e s f o r children often become c r i t i c a l just when the research worker i s entering the most productive stage of h i s career. This d i f f i c u l t y i s common to much of f o r - estry e f f o r t but, while t h i s can be p a r t i a l l y overcome i n r e - gard to non-specialist s t a f f by suitable arrangement of post- 90. ings, t h i s i s r a r e l y possible with a limited research s t a f f , l a r g e l y composed of s p e c i a l i s t s . In the i n i t i a l s i t i n g of experiment stations a compromise may be necessary and the • s c i e n t i f i c a l l y desirable' s i t u a t i o n discarded i n favour of one more favourably situated i n regard to amenities. Although complete separation of applied research from practice i s but r a r e l y to be advised, the d i f f i c u l t y of recon- c i l i n g the research and administrative minds must be recog- nized, "The research management must recognize that non- conformity often accompanies creative a b i l i t y , and must be w i l l i n g to accept and work with the personnel problems that may a r i s e as a r e s u l t of non-conformity. The cre- ative man continually challenges the interpretations of the rules of nature. The interpretations of man-made rules are even less acceptable without questioning." (115) Above a l l , research should not be subject to excessive pressures. A c e r t a i n volume of output of high q u a l i t y i s nec- essary but t h i s w i l l r e s u l t from the recruitment of men of the r i g h t c a l i b r e . The research o f f i c e r needs time f o r contempla- t i o n , f o r reading, f o r discussion. Freedom to browse, to gen- erate new ideas, to explore new f i e l d s , and to evaluate old ones, i s e s s e n t i a l i f a research program i s to make the maximum contribution to f o r e s t r y advance. CONTRASTING VIEWPOINTS ON RESEARCH American and B r i t i s h views on t r a i n i n g f o r research While there i s general agreement with the p r i n c i p l e that, "Forestry research i s a highly technical and s p e c i a l - ized subject which should be carried out where-ever pos- s i b l e by s p e c i a l l y trained research o f f i c e r s . " (30) there i s not always an appreciation that the two l e v e l s of re- search a c t i v i t y , technological i n v e s t i g a t i o n and fundamental 9 1 . enquiry, require d i f f e r e n t outlooks, d i s t i n c t approaches, d i f - ferent methodology and, a r i s i n g from these, d i f f e r e n t types of t r a i n i n g . There i s also the question whether research t r a i n i n g should be based on in-service informal t r a i n i n g through experience, or whether i t should be of a formal academic nature. In the sphere of basic research there are d i s t i n c t d i f f e r - ences between American and B r i t i s h views. The B r i t i s h concept i s that basic research demands a knowledge of science rather than of f o r e s t r y , and a command of s c i e n t i f i c method rather than of s i l v i c u l t u r a l technique. For the worker i n the a n c i l l a r y or underlying sciences the r i g h t t r a i n i n g i s considered to be a degree i n the appropriate science (50). In the American view the desirable background i s most often provided by t r a i n i n g i n technical f o r e s t r y followed by s p e c i a l i z a t i o n through grad- uate study. As opposed to more recent thought, B a i l e y and Sphoer (5) advanced a viewpoint i n l i n e with B r i t i s h Ideas. They ques- tioned whether researchers should receive t h e i r basic b i o l o g - i c a l t r a i n i n g i n the f o r e s t r y school and countered the sugges- t i o n that t h i s was necessary to develop the 'forestry viewpoint' with the remark that i t only substituted one type of undesir- able s p e c i a l i z a t i o n f o r another. They considered that basic research was best pursued i n the broadest and most thorough manner. "The American forester tends to be too exacting and too impatient f o r quick r e s u l t s i n h i s demands upon the natural sciences, and to over-emphasize the value of a varied program of rather stereotyped, p r a c t i c a l f o r e s t r y courses i n the t r a i n i n g of investigators which culminates at times i n attempts to give men, trained as p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n fqrestry, a top dressing of graduate i n s t r u c t i o n i n 92. science..... f u l l y as undesirable as to require a post- graduate, who has concentrated i n some special f i e l d of science to take a complete course of p r a c t i c a l i n s t r u c - t i o n i n f o r e s t r y . " Much depends on the national s i t u a t i o n . Perhaps the mat- ter may be rela t e d to the way i n which basic or a n c i l l a r y r e - search i s organized. I f the researchers are f u l l members of a f o r e s t r y organization then i t i s desirable that they have a basic f o r e s t r y understanding, and an e a r l i e r opinion that a prerequisite f o r t r a i n i n g men i n f o r e s t r y research, even i n a n c i l l a r y f i e l d s , should be a broad general t r a i n i n g i n f o r - estry (52), has some weight. In general, only such t r a i n i n g can give the background which i s necessary f o r balance, so that minor i n t e r e s t s do not become major objectives. On the other hand, i f the worker i n an a n c i l l a r y f i e l d has advisory or consultant status, or i s brought i n to work on s p e c i f i c problems, then there i s much to be gained from f u l l i d e n t i t y with the basic d i s c i p l i n e . Contributing to the American view i s the circumstance that the early use of men trained In the basic sciences i n Forest Service research, often as experiment s t a t i o n d i r e c t o r s , which received favourable comment from Chalk (45), d i d not work out p a r t i c u l a r l y well (164). Munns attributed t h i s more to lack of s k i l l i n t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n than to lack of a f o r e s t r y back- ground, and considered that there was a r e a l place f o r such men i n the present-day American research structure. Current American emphasis on basic or d e t a i l e d studies of causal factors may be b r i e f l y discussed. Certain factors con- t r i b u t e to t h i s accent. In part i t r e s u l t s from a f e e l i n g of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the r e s u l t s of past ad hoc researching, 93. i n part from the current intense national consciousness of the need f o r research. But there are other contributory f a c t o r s . There i s the absence of a trained, d i s t i n c t , subordinate cadre, making d i f f i c u l t the conduct of the large-scale extensive pro- grams that are necessary f o r success i n f i e l d experimentation. The pattern of f o r e s t r y education may also contribute, often tending towards vocational emphasis at the undergraduate l e v e l with subsequent s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n the underlying f o r e s t s c i - ences at the post-graduate stage, from which most present-day American research foresters are drawn, and a lesser emphasis on s i l v i c u l t u r e throughout. Other contributory factors are the absence of a t r a d i t i o n of c u l t u r a l f o r e s t r y and of r u r a l good husbandry, and hence a lesser appreciation of basic s i l v i - c u l t u r a l practice as an i n t e g r a l part of f o r e s t r y routine and part-and-parcel of day-to-day f o r e s t r y . And, possibly, a c l i - mate of opinion that attaches greater prestige to fundamental enquiry than to applied research. There i s also the circum- stance of an extensive and highly developed research e f f o r t alongside a much lower l e v e l of practice and a greater i s o l a - t i o n of research. The greater use of s p e c i a l i s t s i n a ' l i n e and s t a f f pattern of organization rather than the t r a d i t i o n a l 'generalist' professional forest o f f i c e r l i n e structure i s also of s i g n i f i c a n c e . It may be queried whether, i n f a c t , a r e a l i s t i c program of applied f i e l d research can progress s a t i s f a c t o r i l y without the stimulus of urgent s i l v i c u l t u r a l problems a r i s i n g i n the course of day-to-day management, and of d i r e c t concern to the majority of the f i e l d s t a f f or whether the r e s u l t s of ad hoc research 9 4 . can be applied successfully i n the absence of p r a c t i t i o n e r s who are primarily s i l v i c u l t u r i s t s and with an intimate knowledge of l o c a l conditions. These l a s t two requirements are necessary for the discerning a p p l i c a t i o n of applied f i n d i n g s . Perhaps the lack of opportunity f o r s i l v i c u l t u r a l p r actice has led the American f o r e s t r y graduate with b i o l o g i c p o t e n t i a l to graduate study i n the a n c i l l a r y and underlying f i e l d s , thus r e s u l t i n g i n the extension of the subject area and the development of d i s - t i n c t f o r e s t r y connections i n what are more accurately d i s t i n c t d i s c i p l i n e s . The emphasis attached to formal post-graduate q u a l i f i c a t i o n i n present-day American research, and i t s material rewards, doubtless contribute. The standing of research groups i s often equated with the proportion of graduates of higher academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n . Kaufert and Cummings (132) used t h i s c r i t e r i o n f o r the evaluation of agency research. I m p l i c i t i s the sugges- t i o n that the higher the formal standing the better the research. While of substance i n the assessment of a fundamental research program there i s l i t t l e evidence to suggest that the Ph.D. d i s - t i n c t i o n makes s i g n i f i c a n t contributions to applied research at the technological l e v e l i f the i n i t i a l degree t r a i n i n g has been soundly based. Indeed, the deep penetration, usually i m p l i c i t i n doctoral study, may develop q u a l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s unsulted to research of t h i s nature, e s p e c i a l l y i f undertaken before ex- perience i n the f i e l d . Zivnuska, while accepting the value of post-graduate t r a i n i n g , has spoken against "making a f e t i s h of the Ph.D." and has suggested that a man with experience would benefit more from study planned s o l e l y i n terms of h i s p a r t i c u l a r 9 5 - i n t e r e s t s "rather than the minimal accomplishment of the some- what a r b i t r a r y requirements of a degree program." However, Stone ( 1 9 8 ) believes that formal academic t r a i n - ing cannot be automatically equated with motivation to basic research f o r a l l men with the same academic degree have not been exposed to the same educational experience. He considered that i n c l i n a t i o n towards basic or applied research i s influenced rather by the school. "I t may be apparent at the bachelor, master, or doctoral l e v e l and r e f l e c t s depth of t r a i n i n g through study of a basic d i s c i p l i n e as compared with breadth through study of s i l v i c u l t u r e or ecology." In B r i t i s h f o r e s t r y the recruitment even of some p r a c t i - tioners from the ranks of pure science has been advocated, such men to undergo a period of post-graduate t r a i n i n g a f t e r r e c r u i t - ment. U n t i l comparatively recent years t h i s was practiced more es p e c i a l l y i n recruitment to Indian, and to a lesser extent, c o l o n i a l f o r e s t r y . There has been some d i v i s i o n of opinion. Champion ( 4 9 ) saw considerable benefit to a for e s t service i n r e c r u i t i n g a proportion of science graduates and providing f a - c i l i t i e s to take a f o r e s t r y degree i n a reduced period (conse- quent on the p r i o r possession of the pre-forestry s c i e n t i f i c q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ) , " . . . . t h i s element has proved valuable as providing a f i e l d of posting to the technological s p e c i a l i s t posts such as s i l v i c u l t u r i s t s , u t i l i z a t i o n o f f i c e r s , etc., and to the unforeseen odd tasks f o r which i t i s not j u s t i - f i a b l e or f e a s i b l e to c a l l i n the high-power s p e c i a l i s t s and others, with whom they have more i n common through t h e i r f u l l e r t r a i n i n g . " Weir ( 2 2 1 ) contested t h i s view, " — the f o r e s t r y graduate i s best q u a l i f i e d to under- take t h i s type of work, provided emphasis i s l a i d on the 9 6 . necessity of including on a pure science standard the r e l a t i v e aspects of pure science as r e l a t e d to f o r e s t r y , and not treating the pure science subjects as only need- ing a watered down science course good enough fo r f o r - estry students." While i n basic research a knowledge of science w i l l almost always be of greater importance than a knowledge of technical f o r e s t r y , i n applied research i t i s important that the i n v e s t i - gator has a sound knowledge of f o r e s t r y p r a c t i c e . Stoate (28) stressed that before s p e c i a l i z a t i o n there must be a broad fun- damental t r a i n i n g i n f o r e s t r y which cannot be replaced by t r a i n - ing i n the basic sciences or i n any other profession. Of course much depends on what i s considered to constitute adequate professional t r a i n i n g . I t i s desirable that i t i n - clude considerable emphasis on science as a foundation f o r sub- sequent i n s t r u c t i o n i n f o r e s t r y . Further e s s e n t i a l require- ments f o r research are t r a i n i n g i n f i e l d experiment techniques, including design and analysis of experiments, recording pro- cedures, and a period of p r a c t i c a l experience of research meth- ods at a research establishment. The importance of ecology i n the t r a i n i n g of research o f f i c e r s has often been stressed, among others by Mooney, from India, and Eggling, from Uganda (28). Eggling said, " S i l v i c u l t u r e has been defined as applied ecology, and one of the mistakes which has been made i n the past has been to appoint to s i l v i c u l t u r i s t posts men who have only the sketchiest Ideas of ecology." In t h i s connection concern i s not p r i m a r i l y i n regard to the techniques of the professional ecologist, but i n the ap- proach to the study of the t o t a l environment. The importance of the ecological viewpoint cannot be overestimated. 97. "A great many problems, and indeed most of those involving the conservation of b i o l o g i c a l resources greatly over-reach the l i m i t s of any one f i e l d of spec- i a l i z a t i o n " ... . " I t i s only through synthesis that speci a l i z e d studies acquire t h e i r true significance." ( 6 5 ) Daubenmire's views (65) i n regard to the t r a i n i n g of e c o l - ogists are opposite to the t r a i n i n g of s i l v i c u l t u r i s t s , "... t h i s r o l e c a l l s f o r broad t r a i n i n g and exper- ience, and an understanding of d e t a i l s without preoccu- pation with any one of them." Detailed consideration of the content of professional f o r - estry t r a i n i n g l i e s outside the scope of the present discussion. Nevertheless some reference i s desirable. There i s an obvious r e l a t i o n s h i p with the i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g of research s t a f f . Primarily the applied researcher must be a sound f o r e s t e r . For f o r e s t r y education to be of r e a l value as t r a i n i n g f o r research, i t i s e s s e n t i a l that i t does not consist merely of vocational and memory t r a i n i n g . Emphasis i s required on c r i t i c a l under- standing rather than t r a i n i n g f o r practice, and the course should not follow too narrow a vocational path. Obviously, i t must be at the 'professional' rather than the 'technician' l e v e l . The aim, the i n c u l c a t i n g of habits of reasoning from f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s rather than accumulation of f a c t u a l knowledge. Chalk's (45) comments are s t i l l t o p i c a l , "Forestry education appears to have reached a stage when two d i s t i n c t trends are beginning to emerge. On the one hand there i s a tendency to increase the amount of purely technical knowledge so that the f o r e s t e r s h a l l be armed at a l l points with a ready made soluti o n to every problem, while on the other there i s a tendency to be- l i t t l e the technical d e t a i l s as of comparatively l i t t l e value except as a means to an end, the basic object be- ing to teach men to draw r e l i a b l e conclusions from t h e i r own observations. This seems to be the e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r - ence between technical t r a i n i n g and education. It may be possible, perhaps, to combine the advantages of both methods^, but only by conscious e f f o r t and a clear knowledge of the respective advantages and disadvantages. 98. The "technical" type of t r a i n i n g has one b i g advan- tage, that i t increases the chance of a f o r e s t r y appoint- ment at the end of the course the s e l e c t i o n of men f o r posts i n the services i s bound to be biased i n favour of the man who can carry out h i s f i r s t job most e f f i c i e n t - l y , and the "technical" type of t r a i n i n g i s purposely devoted to t h i s end. The weakness.... only becomes e v i - dent i n the l a t e r stages of a man's career, when he has to use h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e and draw on h i s s c i e n t i f i c knowl- edge to solve the numerous problems that confront him. Whether a man has received a "technical" t r a i n i n g or an education he s t i l l lacks experience and.has much to learn a f t e r he has completed h i s courses, and i t i s very much easier f o r the man with the sound s c i e n t i f i c background to pick up t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s during h i s service than f o r the man with the technical information to increase h i s knowl- edge of science. On the whole the "educational" type of t r a i n i n g seems to be the most desirable." I n i t i a l l y American f o r e s t r y schools were c l o s e l y modelled upon the pattern of European i n s t i t u t i o n s , with concentration upon general b i o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g and the study of s c i e n t i f i c f o r e st management, but there was a gradual change of emphasis. Cu r r i c u l a were revised giving more and more attention to the ad- m i n i s t r a t i v e , economic, and i n d u s t r i a l aspects, and a much l e s - ser portion of the average student's time has been given to the b i o l o g i c a l sciences and s i l v i c u l t u r e . B a i l e y and Spoehr con- cluded that, while t h i s vocational type curriculum might be i n - dispensible to producing the type of p r a c t i t i o n e r most needed at that stage of f o r e s t r y development, i t was not adapted to the t r a i n i n g of the investigators f o r forest experiment stations, that were then required (5). They proposed c u r r i c u l a " formulated, i n the f i r s t place to enhance the powers of observation, of c r i t i c a l l y analyzing cumulative circumstantial evidence and of accurately i n t e r p r e t i n g s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s , and i n the second place, to give sound, well-rounded t r a i n i n g i n general science, a broad compre- hension of f o r e s t r y , and p a r t i c u l a r l y of the biology of the fo r e s t , and an adequate reading knowledge of modern l a n - guages." 99. They advised against premature s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , and recom- mended that concentration i n spe c i a l f i e l d s of science or f o r - estry be deferred to the post-graduate phase, and then pursued where those subjects are most broadly and thoroughly developed. These conclusions had great impact but l i t t l e long-term e f f e c t . The trend i n American education has been towards the maintenance of the technical or vocational nature of the f i r s t degree with a measure of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n through the el e c t i v e course system, and with emphasis on making up d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the sciences at the graduate stage. The reasons f o r t h i s are too complex to enter into here. In part they may be due to lack of f a c i l i t i e s f o r vocational t r a i n i n g and hence a need f o r a broader basis of recruitment at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . Currently there are indications of a re-evaluation of edu- cational aims. Fletcher and McDermott (76) have recently made a penetrat- ing analysis of the current requirements of American forest r e - search from the educational process. This study was supplemented by Neam ( 1 6 6 ) . Emphasis i s placed on the need f o r concentration on fundamental b i o l o g i c a l processes and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Although i t may be assumed that an educational program de- velops to s u i t the p a r t i c u l a r requirements of time and place, and that the "technical" and the " s c i e n t i f i c " types of t r a i n - ing have evolved to s a t i s f y national needs, the question i s of some importance and Francois 1 (87) evaluation i s given i n d e t a i l , " i t should be born i n mind that the applied sciences and techniques on which the treatment and administration of f o r e s t s are based are numerous and varied and that they themselves are based on various pure sciences which are always i n process of development and constantly being 100. s p e c i a l i z e d and subdivided. No attempt can be made to give a student a complete and detailed knowledge of each of these applied sciences and techniques, and s t i l l l e s s of the basic pure sciences. only two solutions are possible. Detailed spe c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g may be given i n the techniques concerned and t h e i r p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n without i n s i s t i n g on an understanding of the s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s and development on which they are founded A l t e r n a t i v e l y , basic t r a i n i n g may be given which w i l l en- able a student to discover h i s problems, to define and to analyze them, and to develop techniques by l o g i c a l reason- ing from the s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s known to him. He w i l l then be able during the course of h i s career to widen h i s knowledge i n any desired d i r e c t i o n . In t h i s case, t r a i n - ing w i l l consist p a r t i c u l a r l y of general i n s t r u c t i o n as a basis f o r future development considering the i n - creasing s c i e n t i f i c t echnical requirements of f o r e s t r y , the wide range of f o r e s t r y a c t i v i t i e s , and the va r i e t y of physical and human factors that w i l l be encountered during a f o r e s t r y career, i t seems that a general education might be preferable. E s p e c i a l l y i t w i l l equip the forest o f f i c e r f o r the wider aspects of h i s career i n r e l a t i o n to the pub- l i c welfare and to economic and i n d u s t r i a l questions, which are s t e a d i l y assuming greater importance i n regard to f o r - estry matters." In Champion's view (49), extension of the length of t r a i n - ing, either through extension of a first-degree course or through graduate t r a i n i n g , i s not the solution to the crowding of the syllabus with technical matters. He believed fragmenta- t i o n through early s p e c i a l i z a t i o n also to be undesirable. Where the problem existed, i t s root was the purely technical nature of the t r a i n i n g given and the lack of educational value. In his opinion, to add a further year merely to enable a student to be f i l l e d with more technical data was worse than useless. Neither would the addition of a s p e c i a l i z e d year, graduate or undergraduate, f u l f i l l requirements because i t was p r i m a r i l y a broader ( s c i e n t i f i c ) basis that was the r e a l need. Where there i s excessive emphasis on •technical' t r a i n i n g , t h i s has often resulted from attempts to " s e l l " the profession \ by providing the type of t r a i n i n g considered necessary to meet 1 0 1 . the short-term needs of industry. Brasnett (20) summarized B r i t i s h thought on f o r e s t r y edu- cation when he stated, "the function of the u n i v e r s i t i e s i s not to turn out men who 'know a l l the answers' .... but men who have learnt to observe and reason, so that they may evolve the theories and techniques of the future." In the B r i t i s h view, f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n s i l v i c u l t u r e and forest management there can be no substitute f o r f a c u l t y mem- bers with extensive f i e l d experience, ".... the question of teaching s t a f f i n s t r u c t i n g be- fore i t has p r a c t i c a l experience f o r the p r a c t i c a l aspects of forest r y , the p r a c t i c a l experience i s of t r e - mendous value i n association with the academic t r a i n i n g . " Champion, i n 2 8 ) . Resolution VII of the 5th B r i t i s h Empire Forestry Confer- ence included the clause: "That f o r e s t r y schools should be created and main- tained only under conditions providing the f u l l - t i m e services of an adequate s t a f f with f i e l d experience " There i s also strong agreement with Francois' conclusion that i n addition instru c t o r s should broaden t h e i r background through experience of t h e i r subject i n foreign countries. There i s also the view that the research f o r e s t e r should have p r i o r f i e l d experience. Champion (29) stated that i t was es s e n t i a l , and he emphasized e s s e n t i a l rather than merely im- portant, that a research o f f i c e r s h a l l have established a repu- t a t i o n f o r himself as a man of p r a c t i c a l a b i l i t y . ".... i n the more fundamental research work, i t may , well become unnecessary: but when dealing with the tech- nological aspects, i t i s a point I think has a great deal of force." Much may depend on the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n . Harrison (29)remarked, 102. "While i t may be desirable f o r the research man to have a reputation as a p r a c t i t i o n e r before he undertakes research work i n countries where s i l v i c u l t u r e i s highly developed t h i s i s rather d i f f i c u l t i n Canada because there i s so l i t t l e of the practice of s i l v i c u l t u r e . " Nevertheless, March ( 2 9 ) , of Jamaica, strongly advocated, from the viewpoint of the p r a c t i c i n g f o r e s t e r, the i n c l u s i o n i n a l l research organizations of a nucleus of o f f i c e r s possess- ing a f i e l d background. The matter i s not, as Harrison appeared to assume, pr i m a r i l y an emphasis on the value of p r a c t i c a l s i l v i c u l t u r a l experience as an a i d to research, but rather a question of rapprochment with the p r a c t i c i n g f o r e s t e r . In f i e l d research, in-service t r a i n i n g i s of considerable s i g n i f i c a n c e , e s p e c i a l l y f o r research o f f i c e r s who w i l l work i n i s o l a t i o n or i n small u n i t s . S i g n i f i c a n t advantages w i l l accrue from periods of secondment or detachment to established research organizations, f o r the observation of the p r a c t i c a l d e t a i l s of research organization and procedure. F a c i l i t i e s f o r t r a v e l so that procedures, organization, and f o r e s t r y techniques may be studied w i l l also r e s u l t i n research b e n e f i t s . Such tours may be of extended duration or of a comparatively l i m i t e d nature f o r the study of s p e c i f i c problems. For greatest value an o f f i c e r should have gained p r i o r p r a c t i c a l experience i n h i s f i e l d , thus he tr a v e l s as a s p e c i a l i s t rather than as a trainee, and can r e - late what he sees to the conditions under which he w i l l work on returning to duty. Countries In regions distant from the European centres of c l a s s i c a l f o r e s t r y , and where f o r e s t r y i s practiced under very d i f f e r e n t conditions, as f o r example those of A u s t r a l i a , A f r i c a , and Asia, attach considerable importance to European touring f o r 103 t h e i r f o r e s t r y s t a f f s , both administrative and research. It i s perhaps arguable that considerable benefits might have accrued to North American f o r e s t r y through the development of a s i m i l a r t r a d i t i o n . In recent years tours organized through c e r t a i n of the f o r e s t r y schools, p r i n c i p a l l y f o r f o r e s t e r s of standing, i n - dicate an Increasing awareness of the values of such experience. In l i k e manner the increasing number of European foresters v i s i t - ing North America indicates an appreciation of the value of study of the natural f o r e s t . A useful innovation have been increased Interest i n interna- t i o n a l meetings. These are f a c i l i t a t e d by Increased ease of world transportation. Apart from the large i n t e r n a t i o n a l congresses, smaller s p e c i a l i s t meetings and tours have p o s i t i v e values. For the greatest research benefits i t i s very desirable that national delegations to such meetings Include p r a c t i c i n g research o f f i c e r s and are not confined exclusively to more senior high ranking o f f i c e r s . The meetings of the various groups sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Union of Forest Research Organizations provide a valuable means of extend- ing the experience of research s t a f f . Such meetings as the Food and Agriculture Organization sponsored Research Workers Seminar i n 1956 at Dehra Dun, India, the meetings of the spe c i a l i z e d i n - ternational commissions, and the Range Management Seminars of the American International Co-operation Administration, attended by land managers from Near East and South west Asian nations, have great benefits. The Dehra Dun meeting was attended by p a r t i c i - pants from nine countries. Attention was directed to research methods. Treatment was from the viewpoint of the p r a c t i c i n g f o r e s t research worker and the methods discussed were chosen 104. specifically to meet the every day requirements of his work. Seminar leaders were research men drawn from a number of d i f - ferent countries. So far, attention has been directed to the training of the specialized research officer. But of necessity, and desirably, a considerable body of investigational work, both formal and i n - formal, must perforce continue to be done by the ordinary non- specialist practicing forester. A l l forest officers should be exposed to elementary instruction i n research methods and record- keeping, to enable them to make simple experiments. This w i l l reduce the possibility of erroneous conclusions, such as have occurred i n the past, from well-meaning but poorly conducted ex- perimentation. There has been much wasted endeavour and resources in attempted research by enthusiastic but untrained individuals that could be obviated by simple instruction during i n i t i a l training. The use of specialist personnel The specialist has long been accepted i n fiel d s ancillary to silviculture and forest management. In technology there was slower recognition of the need for foresters specially quali- fied by training or experience for research. Research was considered as part of the function of the practicing forester, and the earlier policy of the U.S. Forest Service of encouraging every forester to make his own experi- ments (45) was common to most administrative agencies. Such subjects as systematic botany, wood anatomy, timber testing, etc. demanded the services of a specialist, but i n forestry sensu stricta the ordinary forest officer was considered to be the specialist. Those who advocated research by the executive 105 f o r e s t e r claimed that he could best formulate the problems, and that h i s experience and observations i n the f o r e s t provided the best clues to t h e i r solution. Even i n 1937 i t was said (45) that i n most parts of the B r i t i s h Commonwealth i t was more usual f o r an administrator to d i r e c t research than f o r a s c i e n t i s t to undertake administration. In B r i t i s h Columbia f i r s t attempts at research took the form of spasmodic investigations by var- ious o f f i c e r s attached to the s t a f f s of d i s t r i c t f o r e s ters (42). Pressure of routine duties and lack of d i r e c t i o n mitigated against any very tangible r e s u l t s . During t h i s period i t was frequently not appreciated that, "Forest research i s a highly technical and s p e c i a l - ized subject which should be carried out wherever pos- s i b l e by highly trained research o f f i c e r s . " (30) Only with the development of modern experimental tech- niques and increased complexity i n methodology has there been more general recognition of the need f o r s p e c i a l research s k i l l s and r e liance on the professional researcher. As Haig et a l (105) have written i n regard to t r o p i c a l f o r e s t r y , "Advances have been the best and most s a t i s f a c t o r y where.good research agencies have been av a i l a b l e ; the poorest where such agencies do not ex i s t or are not strong." The f u l l - t i m e research appointment i s now almost common- place, but i t i s s t i l l not always appreciated that the needs of research, e s p e c i a l l y i n a small department where the researcher i s thrown on h i s own resources, cannot often be met merely by releasing a f o r e s t e r from other duties and gazetting him as a research o f f i c e r . The award of a research t i t l e does not equip a man to undertake i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l work, nor does the possession 106 of aptitude alone. Nevertheless i t may be emphasized that although s p e c i a l - i s t s are required f o r the s a t i s f a c t o r y conduct of i n v e s t i g a - t i o n a l work, t h i s does not necessarily imply narrow s p e c i a l - i z a t i o n . S p e c i a l i z a t i o n enables a greater concentration on i n d i v i d u a l f i e l d s but there i s a r i s k of an equal degree of i s o l a t i o n . In f o r e s t r y the stage has r a r e l y been reached which permits of the "abandonment of the general view. E s p e c i a l l y i n the early stages of research, investigators of unusually broad v i s i o n are required i n the pioneer task of developing sound and far-reaching programs. Subordinate s t a f f i n the research structure In most forest administrations there are, i n p r i n c i p l e , two trained cadres, termed by Francois (87) "superior" and "sub- ordinate" . North American f o r e s t r y i s almost unique i n not making t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n except f o r the l i m i t e d use of a sub- professional ranger s t a f f i n c e r t a i n forest services, more p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Canada. Where such men are employed, t h e i r r o l e i s l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d to protection and d i s t r i c t adminis- t r a t i o n . In the United States the pioneer f o r e s t ranger of e a r l i e r times has been replaced, not by a vocationally trained man but by the u n i v e r s i t y graduate. In industry, the man with formal vocational t r a i n i n g i s almost unknown. In a l l services, nevertheless, there are superior and sub- ordinate s t a f f . The former includes personnel i n charge of r e - search and those entrusted with the elaboration of forest p o l - i c i e s at whatever l e v e l necessary. The subordinate s t a f f has no r e s p o n s i b i T i t i e s i n regard to p o l i c y , but simply undertakes 107 routine administration and c a r r i e s out prescribed operations on the ground i n accordance with given i n s t r u c t i o n s (87). Where there are two d i s t i n c t cadres each receives a d i f f e r e n t type of t r a i n i n g , the one at u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l with emphasis on basic p r i n c i p l e s , and the other of a vocational nature with emphasis on f i e l d techniques. Francois r e f l e c t s general opinion when he emphasizes that a clear d i s t i n c t i o n must be maintained between the assignments proper to each, and that one of the e s s e n t i a l conditions f o r e f f i c i e n t f o r est admin- i s t r a t i o n i s that superior s t a f f w i l l not be assigned work that can be done by subordinate s t a f f , nor should t h e i r t r a i n - ing be directed to acquiring the vocational s k i l l s necessary f o r the successful conduct of such work. It i s generally ac- cepted that each cadre should be trained f o r the l e v e l of work i t w i l l undertake and f o r no other. Where voc a t i o n a l l y trained foresters form an e s s e n t i a l part of the f o r e s t r y structure i t i s recognized that these men are highly s k i l l e d , and have a d i s t i n c t i v e professional function, and, as such, require a d i s t i n c t i v e t r a i n i n g which i s not merely a watered-down ver- sion of the u n i v e r s i t y program. The number of graduates from vocational schools greatly outnumber those from the univer- s i t i e s . The status of the two types of schools and t h e i r grad- uates i s c l e a r l y defined and accepted, gi v i n g s t a b i l i t y and order to the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between professional and vocational f o r e s t r y personnel. In North America these p r i n c i p l e s have not yet been adopted and many tasks which elsewhere would be within the sphere of Jthe vocationally trained f o r e s t e r are undertaken by 108 the u n i v e r s i t y man, who thus combines the functions of both cadres. With more intensive working the d e s i r a b i l i t y of using vo- c a t i o n a l l y trained men i s receiving increased recognition. In recent times a number of papers have appeared In the American professional l i t e r a t u r e that are i n d i c a t i v e of the changing viewpoint ( 6 0 , 6 , 1 0 7 , 6 7 , 6 5 , 1 9 6 ) . These views agree very c l o s e l y with practices outside North America, although i n some instances i t would seem that a technician i s envisaged of rather lower r e s p o n s i b i l i t y than the vocational or working f o r e s t e r oper- ating i n other countries. Questions of professional recogni- t i o n exercise considerable thought i n present-day American f o r e s t r y . To a considerable extent t h i s also i s r e l a t e d to the nature of the duties that f a l l to the l o t of the univer- s i t y graduate. It i s to be anticipated that as North American forest management becomes more intensive and f o r e s t r y more mature there w i l l be increasing appreciation of these advantages and that the present wasteful use of graduate p o t e n t i a l w i l l give way to a structure more akin to that elsewhere. when t h i s time comes many of the present day c u r r i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s of the u n i v e r s i t y f o r e s t r y schools w i l l be resolved and also questions of professional recognition. Canadian practice i s perhaps a compromise between the two s t a f f i n g patterns, t r a d i t i o n a l and American. But there i s a Recently action has been taken within the United States Forest Service to provide f o r an establishment of three vocationally trained technicians to each u n i v e r s i t y trained f o r e s t e r . [ H T L . S h i r l e y . Personal communication i 9 6 0 ) . 109 notable difference between continuing departmental practice, with only minor use of vocationally trained men, and the sup- port voiced by the Canadian and B r i t i s h Columbian delegates for the p r i n c i p l e of dual-level s t a f f i n g and education, when t h i s has been discussed at various B r i t i s h Commonwealth For- estry Conferences. Doubtless, a factor i n t h i s apparent d i s - crepancy i s the constant d i f f i c u l t y of d e f i n i t i o n , terms may mean completely d i f f e r e n t things to men from d i f f e r e n t en- vironments, thus a Canadian delegate may consider that such a s i t u a t i o n i s met by the very l i m i t e d amount of sub-professional a c t i v i t y i n Canadian government f o r e s t r y . Where the vocational p r i n c i p l e has been f u l l y developed, men, known variously as technicians, rangers, f o r e s t e r s , f i e l d a s s istants, etc., and trained i n vocational schools, are f r e - quently employed extensively i n research. Such s t a f f develop s p e c i a l i s t s k i l l s and commonly have considerable r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . They s t a f f f i e l d stations, have f u l l charge of research nur- series or arboreta, or are employed as assistants to the r e - search o f f i c e r s . Emphasis i s on the team approach to i n v e s t i - gation rather than on i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c researching. This team concept i s not one of a group of s p e c i a l i s t s at work on a common problem under a research leader, but rather of a re- search o f f i c e r with an adequate supporting s t a f f . Very large programs of f i e l d experimentation thus are possible, with a comparatively l i m i t e d s t a f f of u n i v e r s i t y graduates. Forest investigations are dependent on the smooth working of a group of people, each with h i s own function, and trained to that l e v e l , and competent to undertake h i s part of the task, rather 110 than on the e f f o r t s of i n d i v i d u a l research o f f i c e r s . In the United Kingdom considerable importance has been attached to t h i s aspect and an o f f i c i a l statement notes, "I t has been found that the progress and success of the work depend very considerably on the maintenance of a proper balance between the graduate s t a f f planning and analyzing experiments and the research foresters respon- s i b l e f o r t h e i r layout, supervision and assessment i n the f i e l d . There i s no doubt that the existence of t h i s body of s k i l l e d f oresters provides a v i t a l l i n k i n f o r - est research, which i s lacking, or at any rate i n s u f f i - cient, i n some for e s t research organizations, even i n countries where more money i s a v a i l a b l e . " (231) In B r i t i s h Columbia, although only l i m i t e d use has been made of f i e l d assistance to the graduate research f o r e s t e r , and t h i s by men without formal t r a i n i n g , the employment of t h i s element has been advocated, " F i e l d research, to a great extent, consists of routine procedures, such as experiment layout, t r e a t - ments, assessments, recording, and compilation of- mater- i a l , a l l of which can be accomplished adequately by assistants and technicians under supervision." (Spilsbury, i n 194) Where there Is an adequate supporting s t a f f the profes- s i o n a l l y trained research o f f i c e r i s concerned with the plan- ning and organization of investigations, the preparation of project analyses and experiment working plans, and with the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s , rather than with the actual conduct of the often time-consuming and routine work of experiment l a y - out, maintenance, and assessment. Thus he can undertake a more extended program of research with a greater number of active projects at any one time. Among h i s functions i s to use h i s s p e c i a l i s t s k i l l s and experience to employ the more p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s and t r a i n i n g of h i s research foresters to the best ad- vantage, upon t h e i r capacity f o r detailed and accurate work 111. depends the value of the information derived. Much depends on the c a l i b r e of the s t a f f r e c r u i t e d . There i s much to be said f o r a f a i r l y frequent turn-over of s t a f f at the non-specialist junior f i e l d - a s s i s t a n t l e v e l . Coming d i r e c t l y to research a f t e r completion of formal t r a i n - ing, these men may be employed on such routine tasks as sample plot and nursery assessment and as assistants to the research f o r e s t e r s . Often these duties may involve a considerable a- mount of t r a v e l l i n g and with extended periods away from the duty stations. After perhaps three years, unless they express a strong desire to remain, and are considered suitable f o r more specia l i z e d duties, these men are transferred to the t e r r i t o r i a l s t a f f . In t h i s way a man i s not retained a f t e r h i s enthusiasm has begun to wane or he has become bored with the often routine duties of detailed assessment, and when family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s may be of Increasing importance. The short-term view might be that such men are l o s t to research at a stage when they are becoming of r e a l value, and there might be a temptation to r e t a i n an experienced man rather than take a new and untrained r e c r u i t . Nevertheless i n the long term, i t i s to the advantage of both the research branch and the service generally f o r t h i s turn-over to take place. The ser- vice benefits from the further t r a i n i n g which the man has ob- tained and from the habits of accuracy which have been i n c u l - cated, while the research branch gains from the understanding and cooperation of ex-research personnel i n the f i e l d . In f i e l d investigations the volume of work that can be d i r e c t l y controlled by one research o f f i c e r i s i n d i r e c t 1 1 2 . r e l a t i o n s h i p to the number of assistants of sub-professional grade that he has working with him. It i s generally overlooked that every permanent sample plot or experiment means a future demand on the time of s t a f f , and every new area i n which i n - vestigations are i n i t i a t e d means loss of time i n t r a v e l l i n g (Experimental Manual of the Indian S i l v i c u l t u r a l Research Code, 1 9 3 1 ) . To a considerable extent the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n such research i s the provision of subordinate s t a f f f o r without such assistance the research o f f i c e r cannot operate e f f i c i e n t - l y and the best use i s not made of h i s time and s k i l l s , with- out the provision of an adequate s t a f f of f i e l d assistants the point i s early reached when research has to be concentrated and often c u r t a i l e d , with the cessation of the i n i t i a t i o n of new Investigations because of the demands of e x i s t i n g projects f o r routine work. To be successful, f i e l d experimentation must be conducted on a s u f f i c i e n t l y extensive scale. Where there has been f a i l - ure to obtain s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s from research of t h i s nature i t has often resulted from i n s u f f i c i e n t sampling of the range of conditions encountered. This, i n turn, i s dependent on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s t a f f . When there i s inadequate provision of subordinate s t a f f i n the research structure, experience has shown that an extensive program of f i e l d experimentation can r a r e l y succeed. The provision of s k i l l e d assistance i s of lesser impor- tance i n c e r t a i n aspects of basic and observational research, though here also i n v e s t i g a t i o n may often be f a c i l i t a t e d by a small team of -trained a s s i s t a n t s . 113. In d i s t r i c t administration i t i s commonly accepted that a professional o f f i c e r operates most e f f i c i e n t l y when super- v i s i n g the a c t i v i t i e s of between six and ten subordinate grades. Each of these w i l l normally have a t e r r i t o r i a l charge with h i s own trained assistants and with f u l l control of h i s own labor force. In a small research group a s i m i l a r r a t i o may apply, but i n a larger organization the number of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained men may increase r e l a t i v e to the vocationally trained s t a f f , who may f a l l i nto two categories, those operating as d i r e c t assistants to the i n d i v i d u a l research o f f i c e r and those s t a - tioned i n the f i e l d and responsible f o r a l l a c t i v i t i e s within t h e i r area. To revert to the Research Branch of the B r i t i s h Forestry Commission, t h i s has a s t a f f of t h i r t y - s i x graduate research o f f i c e r s , supported by 107 vocationally trained f o r - esters (231) . The s t a f f i n g pattern i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the Mensuration Section. This has three graduate o f f i c e r s , and seven f i e l d parties each comprising three or four vocationally trained foresters (1955 establishment), a d d i t i o n a l l y , there i s a small group of foresters engaged i n t e c h n i c a l o f f i c e work, assisted by female computor .operators. The structure i s f l e x - i b l e and men may be drawn from the f i e l d p a r t i e s f o r work i n the o f f i c e f o r periods of varying duration, while the o f f i c e s t a f f may j o i n the f i e l d p a r t i e s . Comparable figures f o r some Canadian research agencies are noted below. 114. "Professional" and "Sub-professional" S t a f f Employed by c e r t a i n Canadian Research Agencies (41) i n 1955 Agency Research Branch, Federal Forestry Branch Forest Biology Service D i v i s i o n of Forest Research. Dept. Lands and Forests, Ontario Research D i v i s i o n , Forest Service, B r i t i s h Columbia Canapcal Forest Research Station. Canadian International Paper Co., Quebec "Professional" i . e . graduate, s t a f f 65 "Sub-profes s i o n a l " s t a f f ( d e t a i l s of t r a i n i n g not given) 149 ( i n c l . 1 techni- c a l l y trained) 17 36 83 14 4 ( i n semi- technical work) Additional seasonal s t a f f may sometimes be engaged .in sub- s t i t u t i o n f o r a regular subordinate s t a f f . This practice may appear p a r t i c u l a r l y suited to conditions where c l i m a t i c con- d i t i o n s dictate a d i s t i n c t f i e l d season. Nevertheless s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g and experience f o r research i s as desirable at the lower l e v e l as at the upper and such personnel can r a r e l y f u l l y substitute f o r experienced permanent technicians i n a sustained and continuing program of research. The temporary employment of students or others may have s u p e r f i c i a l attractiveness but t h i s cannot replace the technical s k i l l s of the vocational forester; attempts to use such men necessitate a greater mea- sure of supervision on the part of the professional s t a f f and 1 1 5 . the loss of the s p e c i a l i s t s k i l l s of the working f o r e s t e r . Where f i e l d experimentation i s attempted under such con- d i t i o n s , examination c l e a r l y indicates the l i m i t e d extent of the program which can be undertaken i n r e l a t i o n to the number of research o f f i c e r s employed and the funds a v a i l a b l e . Char- a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , i n the absence of vocational s t a f f , upon whom the weight of experimentation normally f a l l s , f i e l d studies take on a more intensive, though more l i m i t e d , nature with the ever-present danger of the operation of the p r i n c i p l e of diminishing returns i n regard to information necessary f o r a p r a c t i c a l outcome. Spilsbury (194) recognized these l i m i t a - tions, "Assistants, when trained to carry out such routine duties, would r e l i e v e the present ( B r i t i s h Columbia For- est Service research) s t a f f of much (routine) work and enable (graduate) foresters both at head o f f i c e and r e g i o n a l l y to carry out more important duties and r e - search programs." When a subordinate research s t a f f i s employed, the codi- f i c a t i o n of research methods and procedures and the use of standard record forms f a c i l i t a t e s o v e r - a l l c o n t r o l . Suitable methods have been developed by various agencies. The B r i t i s h Forestry Commission has a very workable system of s i l v i c u l t u r a l experiment records which lend themselves to modification f o r use under d i f f e r e n t conditions ( 2 0 6 , 2 0 9 ) and i t s sample plot procedures and mensurational proformas have been published ( 1 1 8 ) . Attention i s also drawn to the methods described i n the Indian S i l v i c u l t u r a l Research Code. Such c o d i f i c a t i o n allows the use of less highly trained s t a f f and tends to mini- mize the recording of superfluous data, while preventing the 116. neglect of necessary information. Given f o r e s t e r s with a sound vocational t r a i n i n g i n f o r e s t r y practice, once they are experienced i n the reading of an experiment working plan, and the use of standard record forms, then plot establishment and treatment, and the compilation of data becomes a matter of routine. The research o f f i c e r i s freed from the necessity of exercising close supervision, and i s enabled to extend h i s pro- gram. Experience has demonstrated the p r a c t i c a b i l i t y of such methods even i n undeveloped countries with r e l a t i v e l y unedu- cated subordinate s t a f f . In fundamental research there is, perhaps, l e s s need f o r supporting s t a f f . Nevertheless, i n many countries the c r a f t of laboratory technician i s f i r m l y established. In the i n - s t i t u t e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s of such countries most laboratories w i l l have a laboratory steward and an adequate number of a s s i s t a n t s . The steward i s responsible under the head of the laboratory f o r routine laboratory administration and i s often a personage of no small consequence to students and to junior members of the f a c u l t y . The technicians free the s c i e n t i s t from the conduct of the time-consuming laboratory work and the routine of preparation and disposal uhseparable from student laboratory i n s t r u c t i o n . They may a t t a i n varying degrees of manual and technical s k i l l s i n experimentation and i n g l a s s - blowing, etc. and may work as personal assistants to the s c i - e n t i f i c s t a f f . A p r a c t i c a l a b i l i t y does not always accompany a capacity f o r creative research, and long and f r u i t f u l partner- ships have occurred between highly s k i l l e d and experienced laboratory technicians and distinguished s c i e n t i s t s . Entry to 117. the trade i s often through a form of apprenticeship with n a t i o n a l l y recognized q u a l i f y i n g examinations conducted by the technicians' own association. Analysis of s t a f f i n g at the Imperial Forestry I n s t i t u t e , Oxford indicates the l e v e l of assistance that may be attained when a n c i l l a r y s t a f f are a v a i l a b l e . There are sixteen aca- demically trained teaching and research s t a f f members. To a s s i s t , there are t h i r t y technicians (50). This s k i l l e d element i s very l a r g e l y absent from the North American u n i v e r s i t y . To some extent i t i s replaced by graduate student a s s i s t a n t s . Although t h i s has a valuable t r a i n i n g function, r a r e l y can such short-term helpers f u l l y replace the experienced laboratory technician. The question of research p u b l i c a t i o n In the English-speaking world there i s sharp contrast be- tween North American and B r i t i s h Commonwealth thought on r e - search p u b l i c a t i o n . Canadian approaches have been influenced by United States p r a c t i c e . In the one case there i s a tendency to over- and i n the other to under-publication. There i s also the question of audience. The p r o c l i v i t y of Canadian research foresters to write f o r other researchers has been commented upon by Place (175) "Esteem of h i s co-workers i s one of the chief incen- t i v e s f o r the research worker, h i s prestige i s not gr e a t l y enhanced by writing f o r non-specialists - thus he tends to write f o r other research men, h i s language i s often tech- n i c a l and h i s papers assume a background knowledge few foresters have." At the regional Experiment Stations of the United States Forest Service the F i e l d D i v i s i o n Chiefs are responsible f o r 118. the output of publications within t h e i r d i v i s i o n s and i t has been l a i d down that "productivity i n t h i s respect i s an im- portant consideration i n judging the c a p a b i l i t i e s of these o f f i c e r s " (215). Cl e a r l y there i s an atmosphere i n North America that i s conducive to considerable and d e t a i l e d r e - search pub l i c a t i o n . There i s strong support f o r the view that "the e a r l i e s t possible p u b l i c a t i o n of research findings i s an o b l i g a t i o n assumed by public agencies engaged i n research." (132) There i s also a strong f e e l i n g that f u l l experimental d e t a i l s should be published. A wide choice of media e x i s t s . In the United States Forest Service these range from major departmental publications to short s t a t i o n releases, perhaps of one page only, and often i n m u l t i l i t h e d form and d i s t i n - guished only by a d i s t i n c t i v e letterhead. The l a t t e r serve as "out l e t s ' f o r a considerable volume of material that f o r one reason or another i s not suitable f o r p r i n t i n g . " Mater- i a l i s also published i n the professional and s c i e n t i f i c jour- nals. The United States Forest Service attaches considerable s i g n i f i c a n c e to the dissemination of research findings and devotes considerable e f f o r t to t h i s facet. A tentative d e c i ^ sion i s made regarding the form of p u b l i c a t i o n even at the problem analysis stage and as p a r t i a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the study, and before any i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l work i s started. Other agencies have si m i l a r p o l i c i e s , but standards vary greatly. The s i t u a t i o n i s i n t e n s i f i e d by the s i g n i f i c a n c e attached to p u b l i c a t i o n as an incentive f a c t o r i n the conduct of research. Coupled with t h i s i s a f e e l i n g that there should be a p o l i c y of e a r l y - p u b l i c a t i o n to ensure recognition of contributions 119. and to encourage a creative atmosphere. On occasion i t would almost seem that the purpose of i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s p u b l i c a t i o n . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , papers present the r e s u l t s of i n d i v i d u a l researches or experiments, and early publication, even of p a r t i a l r e s u l t s , i s encouraged. Work (225) has summarized the present s i t u a t i o n as follows, "When fo r e s t r y was just getting a s t a r t i n North America, Sehlich had few competitors i n our language. But now that f o r e s t r y has come of age commercially i n the past couple of decades, we f i n d ourselves buried by publications of every form and type, so that one of the r e a l problems i s to discard the material not pertinent to our i n t e r e s t , and to keep track of what has been done." In part, t h i s s i t u a t i o n has a r i s e n out of a f e e l i n g of urgency i n the development of f o r e s t science and the lack of a foundation of common knowledge, i n part, possibly, from the large number of agencies engaged i n f o r e s t r y , and the contin- ental scope of a c t i v i t i e s . I t also arises from the circum- stance that the research o f f i c e r , unaided by vocationally trained s t a f f and thrown much on h i s own resources, and with physical l i m i t a t i o n s to h i s operations, i s obliged by circum- stances to concentrate h i s attention on fewer problems at any one time. Thus he tends to give greater attention to the i n d i - vidual study, including the f i n a l p ublication of r e s u l t s . The importance attached to research p u b l i c a t i o n as a c r i t e r i o n f o r the assessment of non-administrative c a p a b i l i t y within an agency also plays a part. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s emphasis i s d i f f i c u l t to assess, so must remain a matter of opinion, but i t i s c l e a r l y a contributing f a c t o r i n many instances. E s p e c i a l l y among the younger research workers there i s much truth i n the catch-phrase "Publish or Perish". 120. In contrast, there i s much less emphasis on publi c a t i o n i n the B r i t i s h s c i e n t i f i c world. In f o r e s t r y l i t e r a t u r e the B r i t i s h forester i s accustomed to a form of pub l i c a t i o n i n which problems or situations are discussed and l i n e s of ac- t i o n outlined. The research o f f i c e r i s pri m a r i l y concerned with i n v e s t i g a t i o n and the solution of problems and i s but l i t t l e interested i n publication, often agreeing with the Preacher i n Eccle s i a s t e s that "of the making of many books there i s no end and much learning i s a weariness of the f l e s h . " He does not i d e n t i f y himself with the s c i e n t i s t , but with h i s fellow f o r e s t e r s , so he f e e l s no incentive to obtain scien- t i f i c esteem. There i s greater cohesiveness within the pro- f e s s i o n and fewer agencies; the natural r e s u l t of a s i t u a t i o n where the major professional a c t i v i t y i s by Government, and the enlightened section of private ownership and p r a c t i t i o n e r s are linked by national f o r e s t r y s o c i e t i e s . The lesser distances and greater p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r personal contact also play a part, as does the higher l e v e l of pra c t i c e . As a r e s u l t of t h i s com- bination of factors the research o f f i c e r publishes s p e c i f i c research papers more r a r e l y , and his research findings appear i n summary form i n departmental annual and other reports, and often anonymously; much1 may remain unpublished, although i n f l u - encing practice through departmental action. The more l i m i t e d p u b l i c a t i o n output i s directed to the profession as a whole rather than to a li m i t e d c i r c l e of professional research work- ers, and de t a i l e d accounts of experimentation or of research procedures are r a r e l y included. In general, the various so- s i e t y journals are professional rather than s c i e n t i f i c . I t 1 2 1 . might be noted In passing that to a considerable extent a sim- i l a r s i t u a t i o n occurs i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s , both i n the f o r e s t r y schools and the science f a c u l t i e s . In the educational process there i s a considerably lesser emphasis on the study of i n d i v i d u a l research findings than on the corpus of established knowledge. Indicative of the much lesser part that p u b l i c a t i o n plays i n professional l i f e i s the circumstance that during the per- iod 1 9 1 9 to 1949, the f i r s t t h i r t y years of the existence of the modern state f o r e s t r y agency, o f f i c i a l publications of a technical nature comprosed only eighteen b u l l e t i n s , three r e - ports of national f o r e s t r y inventory, twenty-seven l e a f l e t s , and f i v e small booklets. Of these only a minor proportion dealt with research findings. This period covered the r e v i v a l of s c i e n t i f i c f o r e s t r y i n B r i t a i n and encompassed many impor- tant advances i n nursery and a f f o r e s t a t i o n technique. The lack of importance attached to publication i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the treatment of the important and s i g n i f i c a n t developments i n peafcland a f f o r e s t a t i o n . The f i r s t d e t ailed account of t h i s r e - search program did not appear u n t i l 1 9 5 4 , when the b u l l e t i n "Experiments i n Tree Planting on Peat" was published. This comprehensive account detailed the research a c t i v i t y that had gone into the development of these techniques, which had been a major a c t i v i t y over an extended period, had occupied many people, and had permitted the extension of tree planting onto a m i l l i o n acres of hitherto unplantable land during the pre- vious t h i r t y - f i v e years, and i s possibly one of the most s i g n i - f i c a n t advances i n European f o r e s t r y during t h i s century. A l - most nothing of research significance had been published 122. previously on t h i s work. In contrast to the sense of urgency which characterizes American p o l i c y the B r i t i s h view i s that emphasis on early pu b l i c a t i o n often r e s u l t s i n hasty contributions of ephemeral value, and that presentation benefits from maturity and a longer period for the consolidation of ideas, i t i s con- sidered a p i t y i f what Is considered a mistaken desire f o r early p u b l i c a t i o n i s permitted to obscure t h i s advantage. Whether a delay of t h i r t y years i n the p u b l i c a t i o n of an authoritative and detailed account of a major a c t i v i t y i s j u s t i f i e d i s a question of opinion! Even when allowance i s made f o r the l e s s e r v a r i e t y of conditions, and the d i f f e r e n t scale of a c t i v i t i e s , i t i s c l e a r that publication assumes a d i f f e r e n t place i n the scheme of things i n the United Kingdom Forestry Commission than i n the U. S. Forest Service. In the American practice there i s danger that s i g n i f i c a n t contributions may be l o s t sight of and the i n d i v i d u a l research worker, and more p a r t i c u l a r l y the p r a c t i c i n g f o r e s t e r , may have d i f f i c u l t y i n maintaining contact with current development as a consequence of the sheer volume of pu b l i c a t i o n . In the B r i t i s h there i s l i t t l e doubt that valuable information remains generally unknown outside the state service f o r long periods and e s p e c i a l l y on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l . The B r i t i s h l i t e r - ature, apart from the b r i e f selected accounts i n the o f f i c i a l annual research report, i s no r e a l guide to progress, or even of the present state of knowledge. 1 2 3 . PUTTING RESEARCH INTO PRACTICE Relationships between research personnel and p r a c t i c i n g f o r - esters Clapp's ( 5 2 ) view that there i s objection to close contact between researcher and f i e l d s t a f f , because t h i s could r e s u l t i n more emphasis on immediate questions than i s desirable, i s r a r e l y tenable. I t does not hold f o r research i n the main areas of f o r e s t r y . The r a t i o n a l motivation f o r f o r e s t r y r e - search i s the furtherance of the practice of f o r e s t r y . Solu- tions may be sought through fundamental studies, or through technological i n v e s t i g a t i o n , dependent on the nature of the problem, but i n most cases conclusions w i l l eventually devolve upon work i n the f i e l d . In the a n c i l l a r y f i e l d s , i s o l a t i o n of research may be of l i t t l e d i r e c t consequence, but i t i s essen- t i a l that the applied research worker should have f u l l and intimate contact with the p r a c t i t i o n e r . In the report of the committee set up to consider research matters at the Sixth B r i t i s h Commonwealth Forestry Conference the d e s i r a b i l i t y of close contact was c l e a r l y indicated, "In some cases there appears to be a lack of i n t e r e s t i n the p o t e n t i a l value of research findings on the part of p r a c t i c i n g f o r e s t e r s , i n others, forest managers have rushed preliminary research findings into practice before the research man himself has been s a t i s f i e d as to t h e i r v a l i d i t y . There i s , therefore, need f o r closer coopera- t i o n and better understanding between p r a c t i c i n g f o r e s t e r s and research workers." Macdonald ( 1 5 ^ ) has stated p o s i t i v e research values, " a r e a l l y good research o f f i c e r w i l l know what i s going on i n the f o r e s t and h i s experience may t e l l him that a problem which has a r i s e n i n one part of the country may have already been answered by a forester working on a private estate or i n a state f.o'rest else-where who has stumbled on the solution, quite l i k e l y by accident." 124. There are also benefits i n the dissemination of f i n d i n g s . Much depends on the nature of the research. There i s l i t t l e doubt that the research o f f i c e r who i s working on a program of f i e l d experimentation i s better able to maintain closer contact with the p r a c t i c i n g f o r e s t e r than i s the man engaged i n more fundamental enquiry, and i s better able to ensure that the executive and research sides do not become i s o l a t e d . Marsh (29) stated that "such an o f f i c e r Is f a r more l i k e l y to obtain the desired co-operation than i s the pure s c i e n t i s t . " In t h i s regard i t i s important that those who are to apply research findings should be given the f u l l e s t consideration when developing research plans. Champion ( 2 9 ) emphasized the importance of having a program approved by those who "should be ultimately applying the r e s u l t s " and that to the maximum extent possible the p r a c t i t i o n e r 3hould be drawn into the preparation of the program. This keeps the research e f f o r t "focussed on the chief problems, those that cover the greatest area of for e s t , whose solution would be of the greatest economic advantage." The very r e a l advantages to the research e f f o r t that r e - sult from the l o c a l knowledge and w i l l i n g co-operation of t e r - r i t o r i a l s t a f f also need emphasis. As Marsh pointed out, very often the p r a c t i c a l experience of the working f o r e s t e r can s h o r t - c i r c u i t a very expensive research program. A c e r t a i n de- gree;of co-operation and mutual understanding may be achieved through formal measures, such as those provided by the regional program review boards of the United States Forest Service, but the f i n a l outcome depends on personal contact. 125- The onus f o r achieving the desired f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p must res t with the research o f f i c e r . E f f o r t s to gain the con- fidence of f i e l d s t a f f at a l l l e v e l s are amply repaid. In t h i s regard, the absence of any executive p o s i t i o n provides be n e f i t s . The researcher should appreciate the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the pr a c t i t i o n e r , and the complexity of h i s duties. I t i s almost unnecessary to note that t e r r i t o r i a l o f f i c e r s should always be extended the courtesy of being informed of any work i n - tended i n t h e i r t e r r i t o r i a l charge, and t h e i r permission and co-operation obtained before a c t i o n i s taken to acquire ex- perimental s i t e s . Copies of experiment working plans should be forwarded f o r information, with a d d i t i o n a l copies f o r the l o c a l f o r e s t e r , and copies of any reports or conclusions. I t i s a wise precaution to c l e a r l y mark such research papers 'for information only', to avoid misunderstandings. I t i s easy f o r non-specialist personnel to misinterpret such documents and attempt to carry out experimental p r e s c r i p t i o n s . However, although i n t e r e s t and active assistance should be welcomed, d i s c r e t i o n should be exercised i n requesting a s s i s t - ance with research projects. Research s t a f f should remember that the t e r r i t o r i a l f o r e s t e r has a complex of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and has much to do. It i s important that research and executive functions do not overlap. " I t should be c l e a r l y recognized as a p r i n c i p l e that the i n i t i a t i o n of executive action, on the basis of r e - sul t s obtained i n experimentation, i s no part of the func- t i o n of the research o f f i c e r . The decision as to the 126. implementation of research findings, or the d e s i r a b i l i t y of modifying current practices and standard techniques should remain the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Director-General of Forests or executive o f f i c e r s nominated by him. The duty of the research o f f i c e r i s to give technical advice on the basis of h i s findings, implementation of t h i s ad- vice must res t with the executive who w i l l have due r e - gard to o v e r a l l considerations of p o l i c y " , ( 2 0 9 ) The s i t u a t i o n has been well expressed i n the following statement of a g r i c u l t u r a l research p o l i c y . "Progress i n ag r i c u l t u r e as i n other f i e l d s of human endeavour depends ultimately on the p r a c t i c a l man and on the tools (including new ideas) which he has at h i s d i s - posal. The provence of the research worker i s to provide new tools, new techniques and new ideas which can be i n - corporated into p r a c t i c e . I t i s not f o r the research worker f i n a l l y to judge whether the new techniques which h i s researches have produced are to be f i t t e d into gen- e r a l p r a c t i c e . The worker In the f i e l d of applied r e - search must, however, always have regard to practice and have an eye on the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of h i s r e s u l t s . If he does so he w i l l f i n d that h i s work creates i n t e r e s t among farmers; i n t e r e s t creates new thought and i s a d i - rect stimulant to change." (source unknown) Except i n spe c i a l instances where the research o f f i c e r i s a s p e c i a l i s t engaged rather i n the development of a c e r t a i n phase of f o r e s t r y than i n research proper, when circumstances may dictate otherwise, i t i s most desirable that he be not invested with executive powers that reduce h i s freedom of ac- ti o n , and possibly r e s u l t i n the i n t r u s i o n of administrative d e t a i l s i n the conduct of research. I t i s to be desired that the research o f f i c e r be enabled to undertake investigations at a l l stages by himself or through h i s own s t a f f . Suggestions are frequently made f o r the conduct of research through t e r r i t o r i a l s t a f f , e s p e c i a l l y In the early stages of in-service research development. In New Zealand the objective of the newly formed experiment s t a t i o n was the 127. supervision and coordination of forest service research ( 1 6 ) . The t e r r i t o r i a l Conservancies were expected to make l o c a l i n - vestigations under the i n d i r e c t supervision of the Experiment Station. With maturity most research groups become less de- pendent on outside assistance. As was stated i n recommenda- tions f o r the conduct of research i n Iraq (209) "No basic s u p e r i o r i t y of s p e c i a l i s t personnel over the t e r r i t o r i a l f o r e s t e r i s Implied, and i t i s important f o r good r e l a t i o n s that t h i s concept i s not fostered, but the s p e c i a l i s t has a d i f f e r e n t type of t r a i n i n g and ex- perience, and.... i s free from the routine commitments... of the t e r r i t o r i a l f o r e s t e r there should be the p r i n c i p l e that ... no experiments w i l l be l a i d down which cannot be controlled.... by research f o r e s t e r s . Only disappointment and wasted e f f o r t and funds w i l l r e s u l t i f t h i s i s not so. I f necessary the research program should be l i m i t e d u n t i l men of the required c a l i b r e are a v a i l a b l e . . . . " F i e l d experimentation can seldom be taken to a s a t i s - factory conclusion i f i t i s dependent on the general t e r r i - t o r i a l s t a f f . The functions of the experimental forest T y p i c a l l y , experimental forests are associated with North American f o r e s t r y . In the absence of t r a c t s under intensive management they have assumed great s i g n i f i c a n c e i n canetda and the United States, both f o r research and demonstration. United States Forest Service experience has been that widely scattered plots, even i n the national forests or other public lands, can- not be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y administered, protected, or u t i l i z e d f o r long-term research (141). In consequence, the United States Forest Service has set up f i e l d experiment stations, i . e . , ex- perimental f o r e s t s , i n areas representative of the major ecolog- i c a l and management types i n each region. These stations demon- strate the"application of methods to l o c a l conditions and serve 128. as areas f o r extensive experimentation. In practice, a l l con- di t i o n s are seldom represented within the f i e l d experiment stations and i t has been necessary to go outside the boundar- ies i n many instances. Rather, they serve as f o c a l centres fo r regional research. Barr ( 8 ) , when discussing the Bctodgett Forest of the University of C a l i f o r n i a i n the S i e r r a Nevada, noted that experience had shown that the permanent research f o r e s t , i f c a r e f u l l y selected and properly administered, and under a good plan of long-term study, provided the most e f f e c - t i v e basis f o r many types of f i e l d experimentation. In Canada, although i t i s recognized that the experiment stations are representative of only a few of the important forest conditions, permanent research areas are considered necessary because of the superior physical f a c i l i t i e s and assured tenure that they provide (15)- The areas involved range from the seven-and-one-half square-mile mixed-hardwood experiment forest at V a l c a r t i e r , i n Quebec, to the 100-square- mile Petawawa Experiment Station In Ontario. With the exception of Laval University, which maintains only a small t r a c t , a l l the Canadian f o r e s t r y schools have r e - search f o r e s t s . At the University of New Brunswick there i s a 3,600-acre forest adjacent to the Campus, and another 35,000 acres of young growth f i f t e e n miles away. The Faculty of For- estry of the University of Toronto has a 17 ,000-acre forest some 150 miles north of Toronto. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia has a 10,000-acre research forest at Haney, t h i r t y - six miles from the campus. In the management of these areas the general.aim i s to maintain a well-managed, s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g 129. forest area that w i l l serve the needs of research, education, and demonstration. The U.B.C Research Forest i s i l l u s t r a t i v e of academic thinking i n regard to such areas. The Forest i s dedicated to f o r e s t r y education, to f o r e s t r y research, and to good forest management, i n the in t e r e s t s of the Province and the people of B r i t i s h Columbia. I t s declared purpose i s to provide f i e l d t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r students i n f o r e s t r y and a l l i e d f i e l d s , to serve as a demonstration of f o r e s t r y practices, and to provide a f i e l d laboratory f o r research (Allen, 1950). I t i s intended to develop the t r a c t as a man- aged f o r e s t . Research i s designed to guide management of the area i t s e l f , and to provide information of more widespread usefulness. The Forest i s used f o r a summer t r a i n i n g camp fo r students, and f o r a st e a d i l y developing research program under the supervision and coordination of a graduate for e s t e r assisted by a f u l l - t i m e graduate a s s i s t a n t . Another graduate forester i s i n charge of administration and the conduct of routine operations. Investigations are made by Faculty and students i n f o r e s t r y and a l l i e d d i s c i p l i n e s . D i r e c t i o n Is by a f a c u l t y Director and Associate Director. There i s a Research Committee formed of Faculty members and also an Advisory Com- mittee formed of leading government and i n d u s t r i a l foresters ( 2 2 ) . During the period 1949-58 the forest provided f a c i l i t i e s f o r f i f t y - n i n e research projects. These ranged from simple short-term studies completed i n one season, to investigations continuing over a number of years. Twenty-six i n d i v i d u a l r e - searchers, primarily f a c u l t y and graduate students i n f o r e s t r y 130. and the b i o l o g i c a l sciences, made use of the f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l - able. These a c t i v i t i e s have expanded over the years and ever- increasing use i s being made of the f a c i l i t i e s provided by the t r a c t . With the passage of time, management p o l i c i e s w i l l c l a r i f y i n long-term management and i t Is to be expected that the demonstration function of the tr a c t as a well-managed unit w i l l receive increasing public recognition. The award to the forest of the f i r s t B r i t i s h Columbia Tree Farm License i s an in d i c a t i o n that i t s p o t e n t i a l i t y i n t h i s regard i s recognized. In d u s t r i a l management has taken up the idea of the exper- imental f o r e s t . S i l v e r s i d e s (192) has described the operations of the Westvaco experimental forest of the West V i r g i n i a Pulp and Paper Company. Marples (156) discussed the operation of the Powell River Company experimental forest i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In eastern Canada the A b i t i i b i Power and Pulp Company operates a 40,000-acre woodlands laboratory. On t h i s the company en- deavours "to develop the art of f o r e s t r y by manipulating f o r - est factors on a p r a c t i c a l basis within the l i m i t a t i o n s im- posed by operating procedures." The aim of the 7>000-acre Canapcal Forest Research Station of the Canadian International Pulp and Paper Company i n Quebec i s to "close the gap between forest research and i t s a p p l i - cation to the business of fo r e s t r y " and i n furtherance i t undertakes large-scale research i n t o pulp-wood production, i t i s probably preferable to consider such areas as p i l o t forests rather than experimental areas. Their primary aim i s the dem- onstration and adaption of known p r i n c i p l e s to the commercial management of i n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t s . 131. Evaluation of company research and experimental forests i s d i f f i c u l t , f o r considerable public r e l a t i o n s value attaches to sponsorship. Although the majority of corporations are sincere In t h e i r i n t e r e s t , a minority have l i t t l e research substance to support t h e i r experimental or dedicated areas. Outside North America, experimental for e s t s have found more l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n . They are often confined to small areas of woodland controlled by u n i v e r s i t y f o r e s t r y depart- ments, and are perhaps the exception rather than the r u l e . Their significance under American conditions, and absence from the European scene, was discussed i n Unasylva ( 8 l ) . An excep- t i o n i s i n Sweden where a t o t a l of 34,000 hectares of f o r e s t , i n four units, has been set aside f o r experimentation. These units are to allow the use of ca r e f u l inventory and stand description, and to permit forest-management measures to be studied and applied on a large scale (70). In Burma, Naslund (165) recommended the formation of ex- perimental forests i n each of the natural regions, seven i n a l l . He advised that f i e l d research should be concentrated on these areas, which would be exclus i v e l y at the disposal of the research i n s t i t u t e . To f a c i l i t a t e research, permanent stations would be established. The research d i v i s i o n should carry on r a t i o n a l forest management i n those parts of the experimental forests not being used f o r testing purposes. Gradually a dem- onstration forest would evolve. In North America the research forest i s playing a useful r o l e i n bridging the gap between practice and theory. On such t r a c t s i t i s possible to demonstrate on a p r a c t i c a l scale not 132. only the a p p l i c a t i o n of research findings, but also the a p p l i - cation of long-accepted f o r e s t r y p r i n c i p l e s that cannot be ob- served elsewhere i n the absence of managed f o r e s t . This was the aspect that was stressed by Chalk (45) when he discussed what he termed a wholly admirable feature of a l l the better American f o r e s t r y schools. He attached importance to the student-training f a c i l i t i e s , to the f a c i l i t i e s f o r f a c u l t y r e - search, to the p o t e n t i a l value of such areas as examples of management where adequate records have been kept and e s p e c i a l l y to t h e i r importance as demonstration areas both f o r students and the public, i n su b s t i t u t i o n f o r the managed fores t s which are a vailable f o r inspection In Europe. He considered that the value of these areas would increase considerably with time. I l l u s t r a t i v e of t h i s i s the Campus Forest at the University of New Brunswick where there i s a complete a e r i a l photographic record of the f o r e s t at five-year i n t e r v a l s over the past t h i r t y years. As B i c k e r s t a f f (15) has indicated, many questions that a- r i s e during the t r a n s i t i o n period between the era of unc o n t r o l l - ed e x p l o i t a t i o n and planned f o r e s t management cannot be ans- wered on the basis of p r a c t i c a l experience or of research i n the s t r i c t sense of the word, and i t i s necessary to f i l l t h i s gap i n 'experience' knowledge through p r a c t i c a l demonstration. Under such conditions 'research' and 'demonstration' cannot always be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . I t i s unfortunate that the name "Experimental" or 'Re- search f o r e s t ' has been generally adopted f o r these t r a c t s . In many cases 'Demonstration f o r e s t ' would be better suited to the 133. long-term function. Considerable prestige has been attached to the term research, and possibly more sig n i f i c a n c e given i t than i s j u s t i f i e d . Less emphasis on t h i s facet might well f a c i l i t a t e extension of the demonstrated practices into i n - d u s t r i a l management. The d e s i r a b i l i t y of demonstration i n an experimental f o r - est would seem to be the basic point at issue i n the strong attack which was made by Pearson (173) on the administration of the fo r e s t experiment stations of the western United States. He c r i t i c i z e d an alleged general f a i l u r e to demon- strate i n the experimental for e s t s p r i n c i p l e s of management which had been established as a r e s u l t of intensive research, and stated that a f t e r f o r t y years of national f o r e s t admin- i s t r a t i o n there was yet to be produced a well-managed f o r e s t , even though f o r most of t h i s period s i l v i c a l research had been c a r r i e d on at six experiment stations i n the region. There was no lack of research studies but they were not i n t e - grated and applied i n a balanced program of management. His view was that " c l e a r l y the function of research i s to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y not only f o r bringing f o r t h much needed i n f o r - mation but also i n applying i t . " Of recent years there have been suggestions that the various functions of the experimental f o r e s t , v i z . , research, demonstration, and education, are not compatible. When the Canadian Petawawa Forest Experiment Station was f i r s t established i t was considered that i t s greatest use would be as a demonstration area on which the r e s u l t s of working-plan management could be shown to p r o v i n c i a l author- 134. i t i e s and i n d u s t r i a l operators. As i t s use as a f i e l d lab- oratory expanded i t became more and more d i f f i c u l t to harmon- ize the requirements of sustained-yield management and the provision of s a t i s f a c t o r y areas f o r experimentation. I t i s now the p o l i c y to give p r i o r i t y to research projects. Forest resources are not exploited c h i e f l y to obtain revenue or to s a t i s f y l o c a l demand f o r raw materials, nor i s any p a r t i c u l a r e f f o r t made to f e l l each year the y i e l d according to the work- ing plan (34). D i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e when i t i s necessary f o r research f o r - ests to be self-supporting, and also, as i n the case of some un i v e r s i t y t r a c t s , f o r the income to support a research pro- gram o f f the f o r e s t . It may then become necessary to main- t a i n revenue, even at the expense of long-term research and demonstration benefits and of the improvements that would r e - sult from the more intensive management possible i f f o r e s t r y fund p r i n c i p l e s were followed. Where areas of second-growth forest have come into the possession of f o r e s t r y schools lack of revenue from the immature stands may severely l i m i t manage- ment p o s s i b i l i t i e s . C o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t between research and the t r a i n i n g and demonstration aspects has been suggested. At Blodgett Forest, C a l i f o r n i a , a 2,731-acre t r a c t , four elements of ad- mini s t r a t i v e p o l i c y were adopted when the area was taken under management. These are:- 1. The primary use of the forest should be to fur n i s h f a c i l i t i e s f o r research. 2. The forest should not be used f o r undergraduate i n - str u c t i o n . 3. The Forest might be used f o r graduate i n s t r u c t i o n and research as opportunity developed. 135. 4 . Demonstrations of forest treatments should not be set up which might not be i n keeping with the prac- t i c a l needs and l i m i t a t i o n s of the area, but should attempt to apply such improved practices as might be appropriate to l o c a l conditions ( 8 ) . There i s room fo r differences of opinion regarding the fourth p r i n c i p l e . In the management of a demonstration f o r e s t i n a r a p i d l y developing forest economy i t may be wise to r e - c a l l the words attr i b u t e d to John Dewey - I t does not pay to tether one's thoughts to the post of usefulness with too short a rope. At Oregon State College the f o r e s t properties are managed under a d i f f e r e n t p o l i c y . Among the properties of the School of Forestry there are the 6 ,809-acre McDonald Forest, the ad- jacent 4 ,000-acre Adair Tract, and the 181-acre George W. Peavy Arboretum. These form one block of timber seven miles from the campus. Two other t r a c t s are also within reasonable distance. These fore s t s are used extensively f o r student i n s t r u c t i o n and a f l e e t of trucks takes classes to them d a i l y f o r f i e l d i n - s t r u c t i o n . In general the greatest values i n the university-type ex- perimental f o r e s t appear to be i n the p r o v i s i o n of t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r students through the development of well-managed f o r e s t . There would seem to be no reason why t h i s should be incompatible with the research function, not the employment of areas of forest f o r permanent demonstrations of more advanced practice or as natural reserves. Although i n the i n t e n s i v e l y managed fo r e s t s of Europe there might conceivably be a c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t , t h i s i s most u n l i k e l y to occur at the present stage of North-American management. Greater d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s 136. when the p o l i c y i s followed of attempting to manage such t r a c t s with these p r i n c i p l e s i n mind, and at the same time at- tempting to demonstrate commercial management within the framework of current and, possibly, short-term economic con- d i t i o n s . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y so i n a r a p i d l y changing forest economy such as obtains i n much of North America. A more v a l i d argument i s advanced against the experimental forest as a research u n i t . Ostram and Heiberg ( 170) , while recognizing the value of such areas f o r combining b i o l o g i c a l and economic phases i n a single t r i a l , indicated the disadvan- tages that accrue. In general these a r i s e from the ad d i t i o n a l demand on li m i t e d research resources through the need f o r a t - tention to routine administration and forest management. A loss of research control was also suggested and the d i f f i c u l t y of i n t e r p r e t i n g r e s u l t s obtained i n terms of other areas. The demonstrational and educational value of such areas was recog- nized - the extent to which the demonstration objective should influence a program of research depended on l o c a l needs and the p o l i c y of the research organization. With the extension of control the importance of the exper- imental forest other than as a demonstration area w i l l probably be much reduced. Kaufert and Cummings (132) r e f e r r e d to the •more r e a l i s t i c ' attitude of most American schools, and said that there was no longer the insistence that the ownership of forest lands was a prime prerequisite to s i l v i c u l t u r e and man- agement research, i n view of the increasing a v a i l a b i l i t y of government and i n d u s t r i a l lands f o r academic research purposes. Forestry schools had wasted valuable research time and money 137- on the operation of extensive forests and many had become 'property poor' and 'operation poor' i n the process. They considered that few could point to such operations as f i n a n - c i a l l y p r o f i t a b l e unless they h i d costs, something that they said was r e a d i l y done. They concluded that the schools should leave to industry most of the task of demonstrating the p r o f i t - a b i l i t y of forest land management and concern themselves i n - stead with the Important task of obtaining growth, reproduc- t i o n , and other management information. Possibly the question devolves into one of i n t e n s i t y of operation. Where f o r e s t r y i s practiced under extensive con- di t i o n s a forest school may be able to manage a large f o r e s t estate with but l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y . With the evolution of more intensive practices t h i s w i l l be much les s practicable with- out serious diversion of e f f o r t . The true research value as d i s t i n c t from the demonstra- t i o n function w i l l depend on l o c a l conditions. R. H. Spilsbury has stated (194) that the B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Service Re- search D i v i s i o n , from experience of two e x i s t i n g areas, has no i n t e n t i o n of acquiring or developing more. Experimental s t a - t i o n s were co s t l y to maintain and generally of a somewhat re - s t r i c t e d nature, they did not contain s u f f i c i e n t ranges i n s i t e , type, age groups, or other conditions to sustain a var- i e t y of studies. Instead, demonstration p l o t s , covering the range of forest environments, were preferred. These could be situated on f o r e s t management license areas, public working c i r c l e s , and on other crown lands. "Much may depend on the s t a f f and resources a v a i l a b l e . In 138. recommendations f o r research development i n Iraq ( 2 0 9 ) i t was advised that separate experimental f o r e s t s be not set up be- cause t h e i r organization and administration would be too much of a s t r a i n on the young research d i v i s i o n , necessitating du- p l i c a t i o n of s t a f f , and d i v e r t i n g attention from urgently needed i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l work. Exceptions were spe c i a l high- elevation experimental areas of l i m i t e d extent outside the f o r - est boundaries, and arboreta adjacent to the research i n s t i t u t e . In the f i n a l analysis, i t may be preferable, i f demon- st r a t i o n f o r e s t s are,established, that these be controlled by the research organization, but i n t h i s event a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f should be provided, and the extension function c l e a r l y de- l i m i t e d . Demonstration and the Extension function Forest research, to be purposeful, must f a c i l i t a t e , no matter how i n d i r e c t l y , the practice of f o r e s t r y . Truly, "the r e s u l t s of research work i n s i l v i c u l t u r e and management are valuable insofar as they become applied i n p r a c t i c e " (Champion, i n 2 9 ) . But also the r e s u l t s of fundamental enquiry provide the necessary background f o r the a c t i v i t i e s of the technolog- i c a l i n v estigator. His findings i n turn, together with the f r u i t s of accumulated experience, provide the basis f o r the c r a f t of the p r a c t i t i o n e r . This information i s only of value i f i t reaches the man who i s to put i t into p r a c t i c e . There are various ways of bridging the gap between the discovery or development of new techniques and t h e i r f i e l d a p p l i c a t i o n . Demonstration and personal contact most commonly 139- have the greatest impact, but e f f e c t s are l o c a l i z e d and may be ephemeral. There may also be c e r t a i n dangers. Champion r e - marked ( 2 9 ) , "Many research o f f i c e r s are almost a f r a i d to open t h e i r mouths i n conversation with t h e i r executive c o l - leagues f o r fear that some suggestion emerging from pre- liminary r e s u l t s , but not yet established, w i l l be exten- s i v e l y applied i n current practice, with r i s k s of unde- sir a b l e r e s u l t s bringing the research work into disrepute." For permanence and wide d i s t r i b u t i o n , p u b l i c a t i o n i s usu- a l l y necessary. P a r t i c u l a r l y i n small, in-service groups, d i - r e c t l y controlled by the administrative branch, there may be a c o n f l i c t between "research" and "demonstration". The research o f f i c e r may be c a l l e d upon to demonstrate the s u i t a b i l i t y of predetermined practices and to e s t a b l i s h "experiments", more t r u l y demonstrations, or to "prove", f o r reasons of departmental p o l i c y , f a c t s already well-established. Such a c t i v i t i e s intrude upon true research and on that account are often most unpopular. Under c e r t a i n conditions however, an extension, or educational, function may be administered within a research structure with p o s i t i v e all-round gains, but e f f o r t s to give stature to de- partmental p o l i c i e s through the addition of a research cachet should be r e s i s t e d . Demonstration should be c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i - shed from research, and l a b e l l e d as such. The p o l i c y of the Canadian Forest Biology Service provides a useful model f o r the larger s p e c i a l i s t research organization. Here the need i s f o r "absolutely dependent and adequate surveys and thoroughly r e l i a b l e research" ( 177) . For t h i s reason i t has been l a i d down that although research workers should maintain close professional l i a i s o n with cooperating groups they should 140. not become so preoccupied with extension services that the continuation of research i s impeded or prohibited. To f a c i l i t a t e l i a i s o n i t has been suggested (Prebble, i n 194) that the p r o v i n c i a l governments and each of the major for e s t companies should assign a man to cooperate with the Forest Insect and Disease Survey, to keep abreast of develop- ments, to f i l l the gap between findings and a p p l i c a t i o n , and to assume organizational and d i r e c t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s when large-scale control operations are necessary. In recent years i n India, a P u b l i c i t y and L i a i s o n Branch has been formed at the Central Research I n s t i t u t e to improve dissemination of research findings and f o r general f o r e s t r y education. This was found necessary despite a large output of publications, aimed at both the profession and the general pub- l i c , and also close l i a i s o n with forest departments and i n the forest d i s t r i c t s (178). However, i t i s not always easy to d i s t i n g u i s h between 'research' and 'non-research' a c t i v i t y , more so i n the s p e c i a l - i s t f i e l d s . In these research and development may be combined. Poplar c u l t i v a t i o n and tree breeding are examples of a c t i v i t i e s where the boundary between true research and the conduct of routing, though specialized, operational and extension duties i s i n d i s t i n c t . The work of many commissions and working groups f a l l s into t h i s category. BUNDS FOR RESEARCH There i s l i t t l e need to j u s t i f y expenditures f o r research, f o r as wilm ( 2 3 ) has written, 141. " I t has been shown repeatedly that well executed and adequately financed research pays dividends f a r be- yond the necessary expenditures. I f e f f i c i e n t l y con- ducted, even large-scale and protracted investigations require only a f r a c t i o n of the values that keep on being wasted f o r lack of knowledge." Nevertheless, one must be r e a l i s t i c ; i t has to be recog- nized that, "the r e a l l i m i t a t i o n of the scope of a research pro- gram i s usually f i n a n c i a l . Only a c e r t a i n amount of money can be set aside f o r research, and how much that should be depends on a number of f a c t o r s . In the case of the old, long-established forest department which has s e t t l e d down to f a i r l y stereotyped methods of working and has b u i l t up a t r a d i t i o n of management and s i l v i c u l t u r a l techniques, less expenditure would be c a l l e d f o r than i n a r e l a t i v e l y young and developing department concerned with the creation of a forest estate under new conditions. The p r a c t i c a l problems that a r i s e i n the l a t t e r case are more numerous and more urgent, and i t i s prima f a c i e desirable to spend a larger proportion on research i n r e l a t i o n to t o t a l expenditure. Other fac t o r s also come i n such as the general f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n i n the country and the f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n i n the f o r e s t r y department i t s e l f . I t i s an unfortunate paradox that i n any i n - dustry, f o r e s t r y included, the need f o r research i s great- est when things are going badly and money can be least spared." Attempts have been made at c o r r e l a t i o n with other spheres of a c t i v i t y . Kaufert and Cummings (1^2) used data from a range of industries to determine the desirable l e v e l of American r e - search expenditures. The Canadian Lumberman's Association (24) have made comparisons with federal expenditure on a g r i c u l t u r a l research. I t may be questioned whether such comparisons are v a l i d f o r the research needs of one industry can have l i t t l e bearing on the requirements of another. An a l t e r n a t i v e approach has been to correlate research ex- penditure with present productivity but, unless f o r e s t r y i s to be considered only from the extremely narrow viewpoint of a short-term extractive enterprise i t i s d i f f i c u l t to see that 142. t h i s index can give any i n d i c a t i o n of a desirable l e v e l of expenditure. There i s , nevertheless, a s i g n i f i c a n t d i s p a r i t y between expenditures i n industry-sponsored research i n f o r - est products and i n management research, even with due allow- ance f o r the possibly more co s t l y nature of the former. The incentive of early f i n a n c i a l return encourages greater invest- ment . Sloan (194) commented on the fac t that i n Canada and the United States about three times as much money Is spent on prod- ucts research than on research i n f o r e s t r y . He emphasized that: "to compare the amount of money spent on products research i n terms of percentage of net annual value of that product with the amount spent on f o r e s t r y research i n terms of net annual value of primary forest products, does not take into s u f f i c i e n t account the enormous future values that can be expected from intensive f o r e s t manage- ment of our c a p i t a l asset the c a p i t a l value and pot e n t i a l production of our forests should be considered as well as the annual income value when assessing the adequacy of forest research programs." Despite industry emphasis on products research i t i s salu- tatory to record that i n 1955 one company was responsible f o r t h i r t y percent of the t o t a l expenditure on f o r e s t management i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and f a r exceeded Government's contribu- t i o n (194). However i t should be noted that the i n d u s t r i a l con- t r i b u t i o n i s apt to fluctuate widely with varying economic conditions. Government-sponsored research i s les s l i k e l y to be influenced by short-term trends. Attempts at the development of an economic yardstick f o r determining the adequacy of research expenditures neglect the s i t u a t i o n that timber production i s but one facet of f o r e s t r y , and that research, i s desirable i n f i e l d s from which f i n a n c i a l 143- returns, i f any, w i l l be of an indirect nature. Clearly under such conditions an economic evaluation i s Impossible. "In any research program the expenditure should not be limited a r b i t r a r i l y to a certain percentage of total expenditure or to a certain fixed amount, but must be conditioned by the number, importance and urgency of the problems that have, to be solved." (147) In the present study an attempt was made to compare na- tional research expenditures. This proved impossible i n the absence of a common base. As Laurie also found, annual finan- c i a l statements of forest services rarely prove very informa- tive, for staff and other overhead expenditures are very often not clearly allocated. A l l that can be done Is to describe individual situations. In B r i t i s h Columbia research expendi- ture during the ten-year period 1935-1945 was 0.94 percent of total forest revenue. In 1946-47 i t was 0.47 percent and i n 1956-57 i t was 0.27 percent. In 1946-47, 1.06 percent of total government expenditure on forestry went to research. In 1955- 1956, 0.62 was so devoted (194). In the United Kingdom, i n 1956, the amount spent by the Forest Authority on forest re- search, including a l l salaries and overheads, and also grants to universities and other institutions for fundamental research, was 2.9 percent of the total state expenditure on forestry. In the United States, expenditure by a l l agencies on forestry re- search (excluding forest products) was given by Kaufert and Cummings as 0.06 percent of timber-products revenue. As Laurie remarked, i t i s a matter of opinion whether or not any one level i s correct. Additional d i f f i c u l t i e s result from changing money values 144. with time and between countries. Direct comparisons between national expenditures can mean l i t t l e . I t l i s perhaps a v a l i d c r i t i c i s m of Kaufert and Cummings, report that they r e l i e d to an undue extent on f i n a n c i a l provision and academic standing f o r the evaluation of research e f f o r t . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to suggest any p r a c t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e as an exact yardstick; the question i s whether quantitative d e f i n i t i o n i s possible and has any r e a l s ignificance i n such a highly personalized f i e l d of human endeavour. Kaufert and Cummings1 attempt contrasts with the e a r l i e r studies when more philosophical and q u a l i t a - t i v e assessments were made. Perhaps the methods adopted i n the various instances r e f l e c t the p r e v a i l i n g research philoso- phies of the time. Recommended and actual expenditures on f o r e s t research i n post-war B r i t a i n i l l u s t r a t e the d i f f i c u l t i e s of forecasting desirable f i n a n c i a l provision. Including c a p i t a l expenditure on the new research establishment, the Forestry Commission proposed an annual expenditure of £30,000 during the f i r s t post-war decade ( 9 5 ) . An a l t e r n a t i v e program which was advo- cated by the national f o r e s t r y s o c i e t i e s c a l l e d f o r annual expenditure r i s i n g to $i 150,000 at the end of the f i r s t ten years ( 9 8 ) . In f a c t there was considerably greater research a c t i v i t y than was envisaged i n either proposals, with a con- siderably enlarged s t a f f , and a much extended range of i n t e r e s t , and actual research expenditure was $ 2 6 5 , 0 0 0 i n 1956 (147). Expenditure has continued to increase, and i n 1958 i t was of the order of J 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 . The advantages of f l e x i b i l i t y i n pro- graming, arid of a c e r t a i n opportunist approach, are obvious. 145. under such circumstances. This cannot be so r e a d i l y obtained when long-term, formal, and d e t a i l e d research programs are adopted. Where the administration i s not so favourably i n c l i n e d towards research a c t i v i t y there are advantages i n formal long- term assurance of adequate support. In B r i t i s h Columbia, Spilsbury (194) has sai d that the greatest need i s f o r assur- ance of adequate provision f o r sustaining long-term comprehen- sive programs. Cuts i n f i n a n c i a l a l l o c a t i o n s destroyed a l l e f f o r t s at planning and encouraged day-to-day expediency, with emphasis on short-term studies, rather than on possibly more urgent long-term investigations. In America the McSweeney- McNary Act of 1928, authorizing ten-year appropriations, pro- vided the assured support necessary f o r the development of the regional experiment stations which are the basis f o r present- day American federal research a c t i v i t y . Most often, p r i n c i p l e f i n a n c i a l support i s by Government, but i t i s desirable to obtain as wide a base as possible. S h i r l e y (191) has evaluated the r e l a t i v e advantages and disad- vantages of the various sources of support i n the United States. Government funds, although a major source, often have l i m i t e d f l e x i b i l i t y . Support by industry has the advantage of p r o v i - sion f o r immediate urgency. That from the foundations and from u n i v e r s i t y funds has greatest f l e x i b i l i t y i n the a l l o c a t i o n of the resources a v a i l a b l e . A common method of f i n a n c i a l provision i n in-service r e - search i s by d i r e c t a l l o c a t i o n through a departmental budget. The r e l i a b i l i t y and extent of such provision depends upon the 146. value attached to the research function by higher authority. This obviously w i l l be much influenced by the value of the research contribution to the furtherance of departmental prac- t i c e . In t h i s the, applied research group has obvious advan- tages because of the more immediately apparent a p p l i c a b i l i t y of i t s findings. Provision f o r research must r e f l e c t security of provision f o r f o r e s t r y i n general. Where the p r i n c i p l e of the f o r e s t r y fund has been adopted t h i s has been greatly f a c i l i t a t e d . To a considerable extent the f a c i l i t i e s at the Dehra Dun I n s t i t u t i o n s i n India are a t t r i b u t a b l e to the a p p l i c a t i o n of funding p r i n - c i p l e s to f o r e s t r y i n India. The demands made upon Indian forest revenues by the states since independence has lessened the a v a i l a b i l i t y of funds f o r such purposes. In North America basic research i s often financed through t r u s t funds or by grants-in-aid from public and private agen- ci e s , and most often the research worker has to seek f i n a n c i a l support f o r the i n d i v i d u a l project. In other countries support comes most often from general funds, i f at a u n i v e r s i t y , or from government grants. When such support i s provided by a forest administration, d i r e c t i o n of funds towards projects of d i r e c t i n t e r e s t to the sponsoring body may be expected. Greater freedom obtains when government monies are channelled through public agencies charged with r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the stimulus and support of fundamental research i n general. Examples are the National Science Foundation of the United States and the Cana- dian Research Council. The aims of the American body are t y p i - c a l , 147. "..(the provision of) a i d to any organization or in d i v i d u a l i n a p o s i t i o n to make a s i g n i f i c a n t contribu- t i o n to s c i e n t i f i c progress." (191). Usually, however, the i n d i v i d u a l researcher s t i l l has to present an extremely detailed statement of h i s proposed r e - search when applying f o r support. Much time may be spent on t h i s facet. The usual pattern of the European u n i v e r s i t i e s i s f o r long-term support to be given to the laboratory or f a c u l t y rather than to the i n d i v i d u a l project and f o r t h i s to be pro- vided d i r e c t l y by the u n i v e r s i t y . In the European state u n i - v e r s i t i e s there i s the ever-present p o s s i b i l i t y of government d i r e c t i o n but the t r a d i t i o n of academic freedom i s jealo u s l y guarded. In B r i t a i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s are independent founda- tions, although i n modern times there has been increasing state subvention. Independence of action i s provided through the University Grants Committee, which permits of government f i n a n - cing without government control or d i r e c t i o n of expenditure. Funds are passed to the Committee f o r d i s p o s i t i o n to the univer- s i t i e s as block grants at i t s d i s c r e t i o n . The workings of the Committee, which i s formed of representatives of the u n i v e r s i - t i e s , has been discussed by Carmichael (43). In addition, s p e c i f i c studies may be undertaken at the request of government agencies. These are financed separately. E a r l i e r , reference was made to research sponsorship by non- governmental bodies, trade associations, cooperatives, founda- tions, t r u s t s , private and i n d u s t r i a l agencies, and through i n d u s t r i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The degree of control that may be exercised by any-of these i s dependent on the i n t e r e s t that 148. the sponsoring body has i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of the r e s u l t s ob- tained. Where there i s d i s i n t e r e s t e d sponsorship there may be l i t t l e more than a check to ensure that funds are u s e f u l l y spent, even t h i s may be omitted. Cooperative agreements between state and other interested parties provide research advantages. An example i s the ar- rangement at Zurich where the research i n s t i t u t e s attached to the Federal Polytechnic are financed by the State, but work i s also supported by a 'Fund f o r promoting Forest Research and Wood U t i l i z a t i o n 1 and by other sources (83). The d e s i r a b i l i t y of coordinated agency research has been discussed. Similar research benefits results from the pooling of f i n a n c i a l resources, a much more d i f f i c u l t proceeding. The organization of the Research Society of the Forestry and For- est Industries of Norway has already been described. One of i t s most important functions was the marshalling of a v a i l a b l e finances so that the member i n s t i t u t e s might be placed on the firm economic foundation that was necessary I f they were to take the long view i n t h e i r research. To f a c i l i t a t e t h i s , a l l classes of members; industry, advisory bodies, and research i n s t i t u t e s , pledged membership f o r an i n i t i a l period of f i v e years, automatically renewable f o r succeeding five-year periods. A voluntary levy was made on timber used, the f o r e s t owners contributed through t h e i r federation on the same basis as that obtaining f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of the state forest-improvement tax, while the trade members paid a levy on each ton of f i n i s h e d products and also one percent of the sales value of t h e i r out- put. These measures produced s u b s t a n t i a l l y more than had 149. hitherto been av a i l a b l e f o r forest research and the sum was, moreover, assured f o r a period of years. Thus the annual r e - search budget was provided f o r . Capital expenditure f o r new construction and the extension of f a c i l i t i e s was obtained by ap p l i c a t i o n of a portion of the proceeds of an export tax lev i e d on the wood-producing in d u s t r i e s , twenty percent of which was reserved by government f o r purposes of common i n t e r - est to the f o r e s t r y and wood-processing i n d u s t r i e s . In the United States the research and f i r e - c o n t r o l a c t i v - i t i e s of the Oregon Forest Protection and Conservation Com- mittee are supported through a p r i v i l e g e tax on the harvesting of forest products. This tax i s le v i e d on the produce of a l l forest lands containing merchantable stands, and from a l l f o r - est lands protected from f i r e by o f f i c i a l state agencies. The levy consists of four cents per 1,000 feet board measure of timber produced, excluding the f i r s t 25,000 f e e t . Monies f o r research financing are placed i n a Forest Research and Experi- ment Account. This has a reserve base of $400 ,000. I f the r e - sources i n t h i s account exceed the reserve base at the end of the f i n a n c i a l year the tax i s reduced by 50 percent during the following year. Similar arrangements have been made f o r monies a l l o t t e d f o r f i r e protection. The Research Fund also receives any funds made available to the State of Oregon by any fed e r a l agency f o r forest research purposes, and any contributions or g i f t s by private persons or by public or private agencies ( 1 3 0 ) . Despite t h i s assured income the present s i t u a t i o n of t h i s r e - search group, nevertheless, i l l u s t r a t e s a danger that should be avoided, f o r while i n i t i a l large c a p i t a l expenditures permitted 150. the establishment of a large s t a t i o n and extensive permanent i n s t a l l a t i o n s , current income i s i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r the mainten- ance of the l e v e l of s t a f f i n g necessary to make f u l l e s t use of the f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e . A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the American l i t e r a t u r e i s the em- phasis placed upon finance as the key to successful research. The example just noted may seem to substantiate the v a l i d i t y of t h i s view, however the emphasis goes deeper than the pro- v i s i o n of a minimum s t a f f . Great and continuing stress i s l a i d on a r e l a t i o n s h i p between salary l e v e l s and research qualit y , and upon material rewards as a major force i n the a t t r a c t i o n of personnel to a career i n research. This i s much less i n evidence i n the e a r l y writings, f o r example Clapp (52) remarked that only r e l a t i v e l y small subsidies were necessary to stimulate research a c t i v i t y . In contrast, Kaufert and Cummings (132) emphasized the important part that salary sched- ules play. Thus, "those agencies and research areas with the best salary schedules appeared to have the highest percentage of imaginative and productive research personnel. Qual- i t y as well as quantity i s purchasable Many out- standing f o r e s t r y school graduates with research promise see more opportunity f o r advancement and f o r greater ( f i n a n c i a l ) compensation i n management and administration than i n research." This r e f l e c t s the favourable employment s i t u a t i o n that has been enjoyed by American foresters i n recent years. Neverthe- l e s s , care should be taken i n unduly weighting the pecuniary advantages as between research and administration or p r a c t i c e . Research i s only a portion of the o v e r - a l l f o r e s t r y scheme. A healthy s i l v i c u l t u r e requires a v i r i l e research e f f o r t but i t 151. also requires men with imagination and the capacity f o r con- str u c t i v e thought i n management. Without these q u a l i t i e s there can be no t r u l y professional p r a c t i t i o n e r s . There i s perhaps l i t t l e r e a l difference between the outstanding men i n f i e l d research and i n p r a c t i c e . Forestry would be i l l - served i f the inducements to research were such as to draw o f f a l l men of high c a l i b r e . Probably the s i t u a t i o n i s u n l i k e l y to a r i s e ! Nevertheless a balance i s necessary. There can be too much emphasis on research and i n s u f f i c i e n t on sound man- agement. Where the necessary balance i s to be must depend on the circumstances of the f o r e s t r y s i t u a t i o n , but i t i s im- portant that practice be not looked upon as the poor r e l a t i o n of research i n the provision of s t a f f of high attainment. DISSEMINATION AND DOCUMENTATION Publication p o l i c y and practice D i f f i c u l t i e s i n dissemination may r e s u l t from lack of d i s t i n c t i o n tM. aim. In general, papers should be directed to a s p e c i f i c audience. Place (175) suggested that large research agencies should employ fluent s t a f f writers f o r more popular accounts of r e - search a c t i v i t y ; i n f a c t , p u b l i c a t i o n or e d i t o r i a l branches are frequently organized within government fo r e s t agencies. They are perhaps less commonly concerned with research alone. The size of such establishments obviously must depend upon the size of the service. In the United States there i s an editor at each Forest Experiment S t a t i o n and also an e d i t o r i a l s t a f f . In Great B r i t a i n , a Publications O f f i c e r i s attached to the Research and Education Directorate and i s responsible f o r 152. co-ordination of a l l Forestry Commission publications. The machinery of publ i c a t i o n v a r i e s . Research i n s t i t u t e s may control t h e i r own pu b l i c a t i o n p o l i c y and publish t h e i r own findings, or pu b l i c a t i o n may be ce n t r a l i z e d through the fo r e s t service. Both practices may be followed within the same organ- i z a t i o n f o r d i f f e r e n t types of pub l i c a t i o n . Publication d i - r e c t l y by the research s t a t i o n r e s u l t s i n l e s s delay, but i t may lead to over-production. Much depends on the attitude of the research s t a f f ; there i s considerable v a r i a t i o n i n t h i s regard. In some cases workers or organizations attach con- siderable significance to research publications, i n others there i s but l i t t l e i n t e r e s t . The United States Forest Service procedure (215) i s espe- c i a l l y notable f o r i t s formalism and comprehensiveness. There are detailed and extremely s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r each stage i n the publ i c a t i o n process. L i t t l e freedom i s l e f t to the r e - searcher. Joint p u b l i c a t i o n with other agencies i s regulated and procedures are prescribed f o r the preparation of papers f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n the s c i e n t i f i c and professional journals. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r release through n o n - o f f i c i a l outlets r e s t s with the Director of the Forest Experiment Station. He i s responsible f o r a l l research p u b l i c a t i o n from h i s s t a t i o n and decides on types, scope, character and authorship within the l i m i t s l a i d down by the regulations. Important or controver- s i a l publications, or those dealing with p o l i c y matters, must be referred f o r approval to the Washington o f f i c e . In the standing i n s t r u c t i o n s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r sugges- tion, of topics, guiding authors, scheduling production, 153 c o n t r o l l i n g accuracy, etc., are delimited i n great d e t a i l . S p e c i f i c a t i o n s are l a i d down f o r the technical production of manuscripts, including s e c r e t a r i a l i n s t r u c t i o n s i n surprising d e t a i l . Conditions f o r the a l l o t t i n g of authorship c r e d i t are s t r i c t l y prescribed. A timetable i s l a i d down f o r each stage i n the p u b l i c a t i o n process. Two types of o f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n are recognized. These are termed Departmental publications and Station releases. The Departmental publications must be approved by the Chief of the Bureau ( i . e . , the Forest Service) and reviewed by other interested government bureaux (departments), whose com- ments and suggestions must be considered and, i f possible, har- monized. Before preparation of the manuscript a prospectus i s drawn up, endorsed by the Station Director and the Washington D i v i - sion Chief, and approved by the Assistant Chief i n Charge of Research. This o f f i c e r i s responsible f o r f i n a l approval of publications and f o r general p o l i c y and standards. The chain of processing i s complex. Copies of the manu- s c r i p t pass through a large number of hands. A formal Board of Review, formed of senior o f f i c e r s , i s responsible f o r tech- n i c a l review; i n addition the manuscript i s c r i t i c a l l y con- sidered by each of a number of prescribed senior o f f i c e r s . A paper may be returned f o r r e v i s i o n to the parent s t a t i o n a number of time during processing. F i n a l l y i t passes i n t o the e d i t o r i a l hands and thence to p r i n t i n g . I t may take several years from the i n i t i a l submission of the completed manuscript before the f i n a l " p u b l i c a t i o n . 154 This procedure may be presumed to have evolved to meet the needs of an organization of the scale of the United States Forest Service, but i n t o t a l i t appears ino r d i n a t e l y c o s t l y In man-power and subject to very considerably delays. I t i s a matter of opinion whether complete standardization i n presen- t a t i o n and the elimination of i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e i s desirable. I t may moreover be questioned whether such a complex and f o r - malized processing procedure i s e s s e n t i a l f o r a research s t a f f of high q u a l i t y , i f there i s a r a t i o n a l approach to research p u b l i c a t i o n both i n terms of q u a l i t y and volume. Perhaps em- phasis placed on the d e s i r a b i l i t y of early and f u l l publica- t i o n has produced reaction i n the need f o r d e t a i l e d control of production. To reduce delays, and f o r papers of l e s s e r s i g n i f i c a n c e , the regional experiment stations of the United States Forest Service use s t a t i o n releases. There are t e c h n i c a l , station, and research papers, a l l i n numbered series and providing vehicles f o r d i f f e r e n t types of p u b l i c a t i o n . There are also short s t a t i o n notes that give information on s p e c i f i c subjects and which report progress i n investigations of l i m i t e d scope. Their purpose i s the presentation of timely research r e s u l t s and information on current i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . Station releases are processed at the experiment s t a t i o n l e v e l . There are i n - service procedures s i m i l a r to those already described at the national l e v e l . To maintain a high and uniform standard of p u b l i c a t i o n the Experiment Stations conduct programs of continuing t r a i n i n g i n the techniques of writing and analysis f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . The 155. i d e a l i s uniformity and the elimination of i n d i v i d u a l char- a c t e r i s t i c s or s t y l e . In recent years increase i n the number and size of r e - search agencies has resulted i n a greatly increased volume of pub l i c a t i o n . P a r t i a l solution i s provided by the b i b l i o g - raphic agencies, but t h i s i s only a p a l l i a t i v e f o r the numer- ous and ever-growing number of series and journals. One prob- lem i s the d u p l i c a t i o n of e s s e n t i a l l y the same r e s u l t s i n d i f f e r e n t form. I t may be questioned whether the t y p i c a l l y d e t a i l e d r e - search reporting, complete with l i t e r a t u r e review, i s always necessary. A r a t i o n a l p o l i c y towards publication, and r e l i a n c e on the standing of the organization concerned, should render superfluous a considerable proportion of the detailed accounts of methods and data analysis i n routine experimentation, when w e l l - t r i e d techniques are employed or simple f i e l d t r i a l s are involved. It i s of course desirable, i n t h i s regard, to d i s - tinguish between the presentation of findings from routine experimentation and the p u b l i c a t i o n of new research techniques. An example of the value of the l a t t e r form of p u b l i c a t i o n has been reported by Setten ( 1 8 7 ) . This was the use i n Malaya of p r i n c i p l e s i n i t i a l l y described i n a paper by J . W. Ker of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. The publication of large numbers of mimeographed s t a t i o n notes, reporting on i n d i v i d u a l experiments, extending over only a short period and of very varying s i g n i f i c a n c e , and often with only interim or p r o v i s i o n a l r e s u l t s , i s consuming of r e - search resources. A matter that has received l i t t l e a ttention 156. i n the l i t e r a t u r e i s the demands that the preparation of t h i s material makes on the time of the research o f f i c e r , both In preparation and review. Kaufert and Cummings (132) remarked, "Research notes are h e l p f u l i n disseminating r e s u l t s i n summary form, but usually they are available only l o - c a l l y to p r a c t i c i n g f o r e s t e r s , and n a t i o n a l l y only through the l i b r a r i a n s of research agencies. Their sheer abun- dance makes t h e i r review by even research personnel d i f f i - c u l t . " I t may perhaps be questioned whether p u b l i c a t i o n i n t h i s manner of the bald r e s u l t s of i n d i v i d u a l experiments i s the most desirable method of presentation. While of i n t e r e s t to other research workers who may be working i n the same area, and serving to keep them informed of progress and current a c t i v i t y , they do not supply the p r a c t i t i o n e r with the over- a l l view that he requires to decide how h i s practice and tech- niques should be modified i n the l i g h t of s c i e n t i f i c advance. It i s highly desirable that the s p e c i a l i s t research o f f i c e r i n t e r p r e t h i s findings i n terms that are i n t e l l i g i b l e to the non-specialist, who w i l l almost c e r t a i n l y not be able to keep i n touch with a l l current a c t i v i t y through personal review of research publication, even supposing that he possesses the special knowledge to evaluate t h i s information. Individual research notes are d i f f i c u l t to conserve. The question i s whether they serve any v i t a l and irreplaceable function. I f there i s need f o r early p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s c lass of material t h i s may often be s a t i s f i e d by a short note i n the annual report of research a c t i v i t y , a most important publication. The short delay i n pu b l i c a t i o n i s of but small consequence. I f necessary t h i s may be supplemented by an 157. occasional note i n a current journal. Eventually the f i n a l - ized and accumulated findings should appear i n a comprehensive study. To many fores t e r s , time taken i n the preparation of minor papers of ephemeral value, the desire f o r immediate pub l i c a - t i o n , and the consequent impression of preoccupation with i n - d i v i d u a l experiments, often of lim i t e d extent or minor nature, suggests a l i m i t e d i n d i v i d u a l research program and an exces- sive desire f o r recognition. This assessment may be d i f f i c u l t f o r the American worker to understand but i t i s nevertheless so. The English-language s c i e n t i f i c journals Nature and Science provide a useful medium through t h e i r l e t t e r columns fo r miscellaneous observations and records i n the basic s c i - ences, the former, p a r t i c u l a r l y , i s used extensively f o r t h i s purpose and i s in t e r n a t i o n a l i n the scope of i t s contributions. It i s to be regretted that more use i s not made of si m i l a r f a - c i l i t i e s i n the f o r e s t r y journals f o r t h i s c l a s s of material. Conservation would be greatly f a c i l i t a t e d . The need f o r synthesis has been indicated by several writers. Hignet (112) has commented on the fragmentation of study by which, "for several decades the majority of scholars" have preferred writing small studies.... of t i n y areas.... of topics obscure and p e r i f e r a l . . . . those who look i n from outside see no cathedral a r i s i n g (but only haphazardly scattered heaps of b r i c k s ) " In the preface to Baldwin's excellent synthesis Forest Tree Seed (6), i t i s said, 158. "Practicing f oresters and nurserymen often do not have access to such (research) publications, or time f o r looking them up even.if they hear of them. Such defects i n our methods of s c i e n t i f i c study must be remedied by an occasional synthesis and digestion of the scattered information, and concentration i n a single p u b l i c a t i o n . " S h i r l e y (191) believes that, "Studies that integrate r e s u l t s of s p e c i f i c research projects of l i m i t e d scope in t o broad p r i n c i p l e s a p p l i c - able over wide areas, and under a wide range of circum- stances, are e s p e c i a l l y desirable." Examples of such syntheses are the review a r t i c l e s i n Forestry Abstracts and the Technical Communications of the Commonwealth Forestry Bureau. Academic theses also provide usef u l sources. I t i s to be regretted that funds do not per- mit of the p u b l i c a t i o n of these. Much valuable material r e - mains generally unavailable, and even unknown, to the majority of workers, within the covers of the many di s s e r t a t i o n s that are prepared each year. Periodic p u b l i c a t i o n of summaries i s u s e f u l . Microfilming techniques have also made a useful con- t r i b u t i o n . Most normal requirements of government agencies may be met by a publication p o l i c y that makes provision on the follow- ing l i n e s : The annual research report, the main research pub- l i c a t i o n , summarizing the technical a c t i v i t i e s of the agency during the year under review, and reviewing and d e t a i l i n g the work undertaken and the r e s u l t s obtained. This should be the p r i n c i p l e vehicle f o r the dissemination of research f i n d i n g s . I n s t i t u t e papers, a numbered series, published at i r r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s and concerned with comprehensive accounts of spe- c i f i c subjects of l a s t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e . Such a series i s well reserved f o r major and authoritative contributions. 159. L e a f l e t s , again a numbered series, containing material of l a s t i n g s ignificance but of lesser magnitude. Miscellaneous publications and single sheets, i n un- numbered series, are best avoided. Such a p u b l i c a t i o n policy- i s well f i t t e d f o r the conservation of s i g n i f i c a n t material while reducing the l i k e l i h o o d of i t s becoming l o s t i n the dust of l i b r a r y stacks, whether publications should be written f o r a professional or a s c i e n t i f i c c i r c l e must depend on the c i r - cumstances but there should be clear appreciation that the present-day research p u b l i c a t i o n i s often of a nature that i s suited to the l a t t e r rather than the former. But unless a strong affirmative can be given to the query " I f t h i s contribution remains unpublished, i n t h i s form, w i l l f o r e s t r y and forest science be the poorer" then the question may be raised as to the d e s i r a b i l i t y of p u b l i c a t i o n . Supplementing o f f i c i a l publications, s c i e n t i f i c and pro- f e s s i o n a l journals are valuable media f o r dissemination. Their choice depends much on the character of the contribution and the c i r c l e that i t i s desired to reach. The more penetrating study w i l l usually merit publication i n vehicles s p e c i f i c a l l y serving s p e c i a l i s t i n t e r e s t s and possibly i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n scope. F i n a l l y , there should be f a c i l i t i e s f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n of observations by the p r a c t i t i o n e r . Whatever the importance of the research organization i n a forest service or national f o r - estry structure and howsoever i t be organized, tec h n i c a l ad- vance i s not dependent only upon the professional researcher. Every forest o f f i c e r frequently makes observations, experiments, l6o." and t r i a l s f o r himself i f he i s worthy of professional stand- ing. I t may not be formalized but the mass of experience thus accumulated should not be l o s t . I t may best be preserved through departmental, house, or society journals. In t h i s way i n d i v i d u a l experience can be made accessible to a wider c i r c l e . There i s perhaps much to be said f o r publications of the type of the now defunct Journal of the Forestry Commission i n B r i t a i n . A technical publication, t h i s had l i m i t e d d i s t r i - bution and i t s c i r c u l a t i o n was mainly r e s t r i c t e d to f o r e s t service personnel. Contributions were i n v i t e d from a l l grades of the service. More usual, however, i s the society journal. These have the advantage of a wider c i r c u l a t i o n . But, as i n the case of o f f i c i a l publications, there has been a tendency towards p r o l i f e r a t i o n . The condition i s general. An extreme example i s provided by the German f o r e s t r y l i t e r a t u r e . In a l l , f i f t e e n German f o r e s t r y p e r i o d i c a l s were included i n the most recent (1953) Forestry Abstracts check l i s t ( 5 4 ) . These cover a range of i n t e r e s t s but with considerable overlapping. Jahrig ( 128) considered t h e i r number to be excessive and dep- recated the s i t u a t i o n ; he maintained that three only would be s u f f i c i e n t and desirable; one f o r forest science and research; one f o r professional f o r e s t r y and f orestr.products; and one non- technical p u b l i c a t i o n directed to the general public. In most national circumstances such an arrangement has much to commend i t . Where regional i n t e r e s t s are strong, or i n a country as extensive as the United States, f o r example, i t may, addition- a l l y , be desirable to provide vehicles f o r material of l o c a l • i n t e r e s t , but i t has been well said that writers should be 161. given a sabbatical year i n which to be given time to read a rather larger f r a c t i o n of what i s already In p r i n t . Espe- c i a l l y i n the highly competitive atmosphere of American r e - search i t Is highly desirable that attempts be made to over- come the vicious c i r c l e of over-publication. Dissemination i n I n d u s t r i a l research The freedom with which the Scandinavian f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s co-operate i n f o r e s t r y research, and t h e i r r a t i o n a l approach to p u b l i c a t i o n of r e s u l t s , Is i n d i c a t i v e of the maturity of the f o r e s t r y e f f o r t In those countries. Company advantage may ensue from the withholding of information on i n d u s t r i a l processes i n the products f i e l d , but si m i l a r p o l i c i e s i n the for e s t indicate a lack of appreciation of the nature of. f o r - estry endeavour. Much more may be gained through mutual ad- vance than from the withholding of data. The extremes to which company secrecy may be taken i s instanced by a case en- countered by the writer during the preparation of t h i s study. Permission to r e f e r to a thesis prepared by a candidate f o r the B r i t i s h Golumbia Registered Foresters q u a l i f i c a t i o n was. refused by one of the largest integrated f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s . The material i n question comprised a short note describing the remuneration, organization and routine duties of a s i x - man s i l v i c u l t u r a l crew of f i e l d technicians. In that i t sub- s t i t u t e d regular, year-long, f o r casual, seasonal, labour t h i s was a new and promising departure i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r e s t r y . However, t h i s was considered to be c o n f i d e n t i a l i n - formation of possible value to i n d u s t r i a l competitors. Ker and Smith (137) discussed the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n mensurational 1 6 2 . a c t i v i t y that resulted from excessive i n d u s t r i a l secrecy i n B r i t i s h Columbia. They indicated the needless d u p l i c a t i o n that resulted and also the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of undertaking s a t i s - factory growth-and-yield studies on a company b a s i s . They declared, "There should be no need to l a b e l as ' c o n f i d e n t i a l ' any research i n forest mensuration." It i s to be expected, or at least hoped, that with growing maturity and increased under- standing of f o r e s t r y the s i t u a t i o n w i l l change. Scandinavian industry provides a suitable model. Unless there i s a change i n thought i t i s d i f f i c u l t to see how there can be r e a l ad- vance i n technology when the major a c t i v i t y i s i n the hands of i n d u s t r i a l operators. Documentation "An important function of a research o f f i c e r i n a small department i s to keep a watching b r i e f on current developments abroad so that he might inform the executive of any development which has promise f o r h i s own depart- ment, or which may suggest a promising l i n e of enquiry. He must keep i n touch with current f o r e s t r y thought and advance," To f a c i l i t a t e t h i s , " I t i s necessary that a researcher or s p e c i a l i s t has access to a comprehensive and up-to-date l i b r a r y I f he i s to work properly the value of the most important p o l i c y statement, investigation, survey or observation, rests e n t i r e l y on i t s being known, i t i s therefore im- portant that documentation and p u b l i c a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s keep pace with other development." ( 2 0 9 ) Documentation i s an e s s e n t i a l concomitant to pub l i c a t i o n . Lack of knowledge of the existence of si m i l a r research or ex- perience knowledge can lead to unnecessary d u p l i c a t i o n . The Seventh Conference of the Pood and Agriculture Organ- i z a t i o n urged Member Governments to e s t a b l i s h centres f o r f o r - estry bibliography to co-operate with agencies undertaking •163. documentation at the in t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l . The Director General of the Food and Agriculture Organization further sug- gested that national centres f o r forest bibliography should prepare t i t l e l i s t s r e g u l a r l y . In the larger agencies documentation centres are usually associated with l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s . These provide for the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of r e p r i n t s , photostatic copies, c l i p p i n g s , publications and journals. To provide s i m i l a r services f o r small groups, national and regional centres have come into being. Their pattern suits l o c a l needs. In Germany the docu- mentation function i s centered on Reinbek. In Canada, the Pulp and Paper Research I n s t i t u t e serves as a cl e a r i n g house and d i s t r i b u t i o n centre f o r technical information of importance to the pulp and paper industry. Here information from scattered sources i s assembled and d i s t r i b u t e d i n the form of monographs, bibliographies, t r a n s l a t i o n s , and c r i t i c a l reviews. In India the S i l v i c u l t u r a l Section of the Central Research I n s t i t u t e has long functioned as a clearing house and documentation centre f o r Indian and world information, and an extremely de- t a i l e d system of ledger f i l e s has been evolved. Similar ser- vices are provided by the East A f r i c a n Agriculture and Forestry Organization at Muguga, Kenya. For the B r i t i s h Commonwealth as a whole, c o l l e c t i o n and dissemination of information i s under- taken by the Commonwealth Forestry Buneau, regular d i s t r i b u t i o n i s through Forestry Abstracts and Technical Communications. There are also f a c i l i t i e s f o r the borrowing of l i t e r a t u r e . Any s c i e n t i f i c worker of f o r e s t e r i n a contributing country may correspond d i r e c t l y with the di r e c t o r of the bureau with 1 6 4 . requests for information, or for bibliographies on any spe- c i f i c topicj these are prepared on request without charge to the individual or the service. The service i s informal and there are no o f f i c i a l channels of communication. These Agri- cultural Bureaux, of which the Forestry Bureau i s one, are distributed at suitable centres i n the B r i t i s h Commonwealth and are governed by an Executive Council on which each con- tributing country has a seat. The organization i s dependent for financial support upon the contributions of the individual Commonwealth Governments. For the best use of such f a c i l i t i e s i t i s desirable that there be uniformity i n classification of forest literature. The International Union of Forest Research Organizations-prior to 1929 called the International Association of Forest Research Institutes - put the question of forest bibliography on i t s program as early as 1 9 0 3 , with the object of creating a uni- versal system of classification and an international bibliog- raphy. Subsequent developments have been described by Saari ( 1 8 5 ) . After long and d i f f i c u l t preparation a complete system of classification of forest literature was presented to IUFRO by i t s Bibliographical Committee i n 1 9 3 3 . This, the Forest Bibliography, became known widely as the Flury System, after Dr. Philipp Flury, a Swiss forester who did the greater part of the creative work on the new system. The System was so arranged as to be a sub-division of the Universal Decimal Clas- sifi c a t i o n (UDC). One of i t s main uses was to classify the t i t l e references in the International Forest Bibliography - this was a scheme organized by IUFRO for the regular exchange 1 6 5 . of references to l i t e r a t u r e considered to be of in t e r n a t i o n a l importance. During the 1 9 3 0 ' s r e v i s i o n became necessary because of new developments i n forest research. After the Second World War a completely revised system was submitted by the Common- wealth Forestry Bureau at Oxford. This r e v i s i o n was based upon 10 year's experience gained i n the course of day-to-day work i n abstracting and c l a s s i f y - ing the world flow of f o r e s t r y l i t e r a t u r e , and i n consultation with the chief Research Station of the U. K. Forestry Commis- sion at A l i c e Holt and the Forest Products Laboratory of the Department of S c i e n t i f i c and I n d u s t r i a l Research at Princes Risborough. The proposed new system was subjected to c r i t i c a l examination by a j o i n t IUFR0/FA0 committee over a period of four years, and at various stages of r e v i s i o n was c i r c u l a t e d as widely as possible to members of I0FR0 and to other research organizations throughout the f o r e s t r y world. The d e f i n i t i v e text of what became known o f f i c i a l l y as the Oxford System of Decimal C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Forestry was adopted by the 1 9 5 3 Congress of IOFR0 when a l l i t s members were urged to adopt the new system because of the high importance to f o r - estry science of using a single up-to-date system of c l a s s i f i - cation. Subsequently, i t was translated into French, German, and Spanish. Two months l a t e r the Conference of FAO, at i t s Seventh Session i n Rome, commended the system f o r adoption by fo r e s t r y l i b r a r i e s , i n s t i t u t e s , and documentation centres i n the member countries. E a r l i e r , i n 1 9 5 2 , the Committee on For- est Management, S i l v i c u l t u r e , and Forest Protection of the 6 t h 1 6 6 . B r i t i s h Commonwealth Forestry Conference recommended I t s use for indexing and c l a s s i f y i n g information. The j o i n t FAO/IFURO Committee on Bibliography remains i n being and i s responsible fo r any further development of the System that may become nec- essary to meet the changing requirements of f o r e s t r y documen- ta t i o n . The System, thus o f f i c i a l l y endorsed at the governmental l e v e l by the member nations of the Food and Agriculture Organ- i z a t i o n and at the s c i e n t i f i c l e v e l by the member i n s t i t u t e s of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations, has received continuing favourable notice and review and i s recognized as the most d e f i n i t i v e method of documentation i n fo r e s t r y . I t lends i t s e l f to the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of book c o l l e c t i o n s , pamphlet f i l e s , technical records, o f f i c e f i l e s and even photographic c o l l e c t i o n s and maps. Considerable manipulation and f l e x i b i l i t y i n use i s possible without com- promising the advantages of u n i v e r s i t a l i t y . I t may be em- ployed as a sub-division of either the UDC or Dewey Decimal Systems of Library C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . On these accounts i t has been adopted by most of the world's major documentation centres and l i b r a r i e s . Although the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y used Universal Decimal Sys- tem was evolved from the American Dewey Decimal System of C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , American l i b r a r y science has developed along dif f e r e n t l i n e s from elsewhere, p r i n c i p a l l y i n i t s use of "expandable-to-infinity" c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n place of the "closed-catalogue" c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s that are more usual abroad. Forestry documentation has lagged somewhat. None of the major 1 6 7 . c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of the present day have been devised spe- c i f i c a l l y f o r use i n f o r e s t r y and so have lacked p r e c i s i o n . Because of these inadequacies, domestic systems of f o r e s t r y documentation have been devised at most f o r e s t r y l i b r a r i e s . These are of varying q u a l i t y and although some have obtained wider d i s t r i b u t i o n they lack the advantages of u n i v e r s i t a l i t y . Frances F l i c k of the U. S. Department of Agriculture Library has discussed the American s i t u a t i o n i n d e t a i l (77* 7 8 , 7 9 ) » describing early systems and the evolution of those In use at the present day. She analyzed the r e l a t i v e merits of the Oxford System from the American standpoint and has ad- vocated i t s t r i a l as a useful t o o l f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n American f o r e s t r y documentation. I t s neglect she a t t r i b u t e s to the reluctance of established f o r e s t r y l i b r a r i e s to change t r a d i t i o n a l systems, the absence of new f o r e s t r y c o l l e c t i o n s , and the alarm with which American l i b r a r i a n s and foresters (accustomed to simpler f o r e s t r y concepts and not always i n - formed on the greater complexity of world terminology), on looking over the System f o r the f i r s t time, view i t s siz e , de- t a i l , and comprehensiveness. This l a t t e r point, of course, i s overcome by the f a c i l i t y with which i t may be employed at any l e v e l of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as need a r i s e s . As F l i c k sees them, the advantages of the Oxford System are that i t i s up-to-date, expandable by i t s decimal nature, covers i n d e t a i l the c l a s s i c scope of fore s t r y , and can be used i n conjunction with shelf c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by another system. An additional f a c i l i t y i s the l i n k that i t provides with the 168. l i t e r a t u r e c i t a t i o n s from the world's f o r e s t r y l i t e r a t u r e that appear i n Forestry Abstracts and also with the le s s e r known Centralized T i t l e Service, an unselected l i s t i n g of abstracts Indexed during the c u l l i n g of the l i t e r a t u r e f o r Forestry Ab- st r a c t s . INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH ACTIVITY There i s increasing r e a l i z a t i o n that f o r e s t r y and f o r e s t r y in t e r e s t s transcend national f r o n t i e r s . In f o r e s t r y research the time fa c t o r i s of great s i g n i f i c a n c e . In f i e l d experi- ments, for example,intervals of a century or more may be r e - quired to bring an experiment to a conclusion i n order to prove the r e s u l t s of research and technique. Under these conditions i t i s almost imperative that the fores t e r be able to review a long span of experience. I t i s p r i n c i p a l l y f o r t h i s reason that the forests and f o r e s t r y of the "old countries" constitutes such a unique and immense experimental f i e l d from which the world at large has been able to gain much p r a c t i c a l knowledge and many t h e o r e t i c a l concepts,that may be interpreted i n the l i g h t of l o c a l conditions. In t h i s regard i t i s important to r e a l i z e that t h i s "experience knowledge" i s not confined only to applied f o r e s t r y and research i n the b i o l o g i c a l f i e l d s , but also related to the economic and s o c i a l problems and the public p o l i c i e s designed to meet these. As the late C.E.Legat (28) said "In a small world the narrow, i n s u l a r or parochial point of view Is to be avoided l i k e the plague. V i t a l and dynamic forest p o l i c y i s most l i k e l y to derive from forest control well informed on world current forest p o l i c y and i n touch with the l a t e s t developments In f o r - est science and practice." 169- American foresters have been subjected to the greatest c r i t i c i s m i n t h i s respect; recently by E d l i n (69), Wood (226), and H i l e y (114) among others, who see evidence of increasing i n s u l a r i t y . Some of t h i s c r i t i c i s m may be u n j u s t i f i e d . How- ever, published comments such as the b r i e f note on i n i t i a l American research development i n Puerto Rico as la t e as 19^2 (14) which even at that date demonstrated a complete lack of knowledge of the very considerable e f f o r t s of the foresters of many nations i n t r o p i c a l f o r e s t r y , including much e f f o r t i n the Caribbean region, and even claiming that no work had been done previously on t r o p i c a l f o r e s t r y ; the problems of which where stated as though newly enunciated, do l i t t l e to di s p e l the impression. I t i s notable that although Kaufert and Cummings (122) placed considerable emphasis on the impor- tance of adequate dissemination of American research informa- t i o n , and discussed the adequacy of current media, they made no reference to the equal d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r American research workers and foresters to have access to knowledge of develop- ments elsewhere. The omission i s i n strong contrast to the importance attached to t h i s facet i n the e a r l i e r surveys, and es p e c i a l l y i n that of B a i l e y and Spoehr (5). These indeed went even further f o r they placed considerable importance on the need f o r foreign languages i n the education of a l l f o r - esters so that they might maintain contact with f o r e s t r y ad- vance and practice abroad. Marcel LeLoup, u n t i l recently Director of the Forestry D i v i s i o n of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, has written; 170. "International coordination of research i s essen- t i a l to the most e f f e c t i v e use of l i m i t e d manpower and funds i f f o r e s t r y investigations are to provide the necessary solutions to a l l f o r e s t r y problems." (84) Detailed consideration of i n t e r n a t i o n a l and regional a c t i v i t y l i e s outside the scope of t h i s study, but f o r r e - search to be f u l l y e f f e c t i v e there must be a c t i v i t y at the supra-national l e v e l . Without the e f f o r t s of agencies such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and i t s various specialized, agencies and commissions (see p . 1 7 4 f o r accompanying chart) (106, 228, 48, 12, 8 5 ) , the International Union of Forest Research Organizations and i t s working sections (121, 122, 123, 124) and the provision of f a c i l i t i e s such as those of the Commonwealth Forestry Bureau i n the b i b l i o g r a p h i c f i e l d (Howard i n 2 8 , 56) national programs would be the poorer. It i s unnecessary to d e t a i l the various activities-provenance t r a i l s , poplar, chestnut and eucalypt commissions, forest bibliography, seed exchange control and t e s t i n g regulations, to name but a few - that i l l u s t r a t e the very r e a l benefits that r e s u l t . Much of the stimulus f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y has r e - sulted from the a c t i v i t i e s of the Food and Agriculture Organ- i z a t i o n . Aside from i t s d i r e c t a c t i v i t i e s i t has also per- formed a most important function as a stimulus to i n t e r n a t i o n a l thinking i n f o r e s t r y and as a coordinator. A major force i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l f o r e s t r y i s the World Forestry Congresses, f o r which F.A.O. provides a Secretariate. There have been f i v e Congresses, the f i r s t held i n Rome i n 1926, the second i n Buda- pest i n 1935* the t h i r d i n H e l s i n k i i n 1949, the fourth i n 1 7 1 . Dehra Dun i n 1 9 5 4 and the f i f t h i n Seattle i n i 9 6 0 . These gatherings are attended by foresters representative of a l l countries interested i n f o r e s t r y and the national delegations are usually representative of the various national f o r e s t r y i n t e r e s t s . The Congresses deal with technology and p o l i c y and promote interchange of information, personal contacts and wider knowledge of technique and development. Recommend- ations are made to E.A.O. and to the p a r t i c i p a t i n g govern- ments. One of the encouraging developments of recent years has been the extension of the a c t i v i t i e s of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations, mainly confined to Europe i n pre-war days, onto the world stage. This has r e - sulted from the increasing r e a l i z a t i o n of the research i n s t i - tutes of the non-European nations of the tangeable benefits that r e s u l t from association. A very r e a l advantage i n i t s operations i s i t s non-governmental nature. T r u l y an organi- zation of s c i e n t i s t s , the member i n s t i t u t e s are representa- t i v e only of themselves and not of t h e i r governments. Excepting the notably close co-operation of working groups i n s p e c i a l i s t f i e l d s and most often sponsored by FAO or IUFRO, closest co-operation on a large and continuing scale has de- veloped within the more r e s t r i c t e d sphere of the B r i t i s h Commonwealth. The most important organ i s the Commonwealth Forestry Conference which i s held at f i v e year i n t e r v a l s . This i s attended by representatives of the Commonwealth forest ser- vices and of private f o r e s t r y and the wood using i n d u s t r i e s . It has been responsible, through i t s deliberations, f o r the 172. various Commonwealth Forest i n s t i t u t i o n s : the Imperial For- estry I n s t i t u t e ; the Empire Forestry Association, a profes- sional society of Commonwealth foresters that provides a valuable l i n k through i t s quarterly Review; the Commonwealth Forestry Bureau. These bodies are inter-governmental and are e n t i r e l y dependent f o r f i n a n c i a l support on contributions from the member countries or, i n the case of the Empire Forestry Association, from i t s Commonwealth membership. In addition to these formally constituted organizations there i s con- siderable informal Commonwealth collaboration. At the regional l e v e l co-operation has usually developed out of a r e a l i z a t i o n of common problems. Such c o l l a b o r a t i o n may take any of several forms. There may be coll a b o r a t i o n between national agencies on a s p e c i f i c project. Examples are the co-operative program on rodenticides of the B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Service and c e r t a i n American agencies, and the co-oper- ative Douglas F i r provenance study coordinated by the Oregon Forest Lands Research Centre i n the north western United States and i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t may take the form of spe- c i a l services, as i n the provision of f a c i l i t i e s at the Forest Products I n s t i t u t e of the Union of South A f r i c a f o r public and private concerns throughout A f r i c a (219) or i t may be on a f o r - mal l e v e l , as i n the various regional commissions and research centres sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization (discussed i n d e t a i l i n 8 5 ) . In the Caribbean the formation of a Commission was advo- cated "to obtain f u l l coordination of research, to prevent overlapping and dupl i c a t i o n of research on common problems, 173. to render unnecessary the c o n s t i t u t i o n of a number of uneconomic and i n d i v i d u a l research stations, to meet the needs of units which could not a f f o r d a research station" (43) The v a l i d i t y of such arguments are generally recognized. Nevertheless, despite unanimity among the delegates and con- siderable a c t i v i t y i n the preparation of a detailed problem analysis and progress report on work then current, at least i n regard to i t s f o r e s t r y a c t i v i t i e s , t h i s Commission, r e - presenting the United Kingdom, the United States, France, and the Netherlands did not achieve i t s early promise and now appears to be either defunct or moribund. I t s lack of success i s perhaps an i n d i c a t i o n of the important part that can be played i n such groupings by an i n t e r n a t i o n a l agency. Such intervention can supply the coordination that i s necessary when there are no close p o l i t i c a l or other l i n k s . Subse- quently a West Indies Regional Research Centre, confined to the B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r i e s , and established at the Imperial College of T r o p i c a l Agriculture, Trinidad, has proved suc- c e s s f u l i n the same region. In t h i s case there were no i n t e r - national i n t e r e s t s to confuse the s i t u a t i o n . The advantages of the regional approach have received increasing recognition i n recent years. A regional rather than a t e r r i t o r i a l approach to research a c t i v i t y i n the B r i t i s h Dependencies was recommended by the United Kingdom Colonial Re- search Committee (93) when considering post-war organization. The Committee on Forest Management, S i l v i c u l t u r e and For- est Protection of the 6th B r i t i s h Commonwealth Forestry Con- ference (.30-), held i n Canada, considered the matter. I t s ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR EUROPE Timber Committee ( 1 9 4 7 ) (ECE/FAO Timber Division, Geneva) O R G A N I Z A T I O N , C H A R T (Dates i n brackets are dates of formation JOINT COMMITTEE: Forest Working Techniques and Training of Forest Workers JOINT WORKING PARTY: Forestry Statistics EUROPEAN FORESTRY COMMISSION ( 1 9 4 8 ) (FAO HEADQUARTERS: Rome) ORKDJG PARTIES: Afforestation and Reforestation Torrent Control and Avalanches NEAR EAST FORESTRY COMMISSION ( 1 9 5 5 ) FAO REGIONAL OFFICE: Cairo) RKING PARTY: Forest Range Management ffiCETTEE: Research JOINT SUBCOMMISSION ON MEDITERRANEAN FORESTRY PROBLEMS Silva Mediterranea (1948) (FAO HEADQUARTERS: Rome) WORKING PARTIES: Cork-Oak Eucalyptus Planting Techniques F A O FORESTRY DIVISION (1946) (HEADQUARTERS: Rome) ASIA-PACIFIC FORESTRY COMMISSION ( 1 9 5 0 ) (FAO REGIONAL OFFICE: Bangkok) SUBCOMMISSION: Teak FORKING PARTIES: Grading and Standard- ization Public Education i n Forestry Watershed Management COMMITTEES: Si l v i c u l t u r a l and Forest Management Research Forest Products Research LATIN AMERICAN ^FORESTRY COMMISSION ( 1 9 4 9 ) (FAO REGIONAL OFFICE: Santiago) WORKING PARTIES: Forestry Development Afforestation and Re- forestation COMMITTEE: Research TECHNICAL COMMISSIONS iternational Poplar Commission (1947) iternational Chestnut Commission ( 1 9 5 2 ) TECHNICAL COMMITTEE Joint FAO/IUFRO Committee on Bibliography ( 1 9 4 9 ) TECHNICAL PANELS Mechanical Wood Technol- ogy ( 1 9 4 7 ) Wood Chemistry ( 1 9 4 7 ) Forest Range Management ( 1 9 5 4 ) Forestry Equipment ( 1 9 5 4 ) Forestry Education ( 1 9 5 5 ) After Uhasylva II ( 2 ) 1957 175. views on the scope of regional a c t i v i t y are reproduced. " I t i s e s s e n t i a l that research workers, p a r t i c u l a r l y those.engaged i n s i l v i c u l t u r a l investigations i n the f o r - est, should be able to obtain information relevant to the work on which they are engaged, get expert advice, obtain information on research techniques and standardized meth- ods, and learn who are the workers i n the same f i e l d . I t i s of the utmost importance that regional research organizations should be set up, with the follow- ing functions: a. to be a storehouse of up-to-date information on a l l s i l v i c u l t u r a l and other f o r e s t r y matters within the scope of the research f i e l d of the region. This i n - formation to be indexed and c l a s s i f i e d , , b. to advise research o f f i c e r s and a l l others carrying out investigations and experiments, and to examine and comment on a l l project-plans f o r experiments be- fore f i e l d work i s i n i t i a t e d ; c. to c i r c u l a t e information on work going on within the region; d. to maintain l i a i s o n with s i m i l a r research centres i n other regions; e. to standardize research methods and codify them; f . to organize co-operative experiments i n subjects of common i n t e r e s t i n the t e r r i t o r i e s within the region; g. to organize, where necessary, the t r a i n i n g of research o f f i c e r s . " The Committee drew attention to the f a c t that 3uch a r e - gional organization had existed since 1906 i n India i n the S i l v i c u l t u r a l Branch of the Forest Research I n s t i t u t e at Dehra Dun, with highly productive r e s u l t s , and considered that the creation of the f o r e s t r y section of the East A f r i c a n A g r i c u l - ture and Forestry Research Organization at Muguaga i n Kenya, was a s i g n i f i c a n t step i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . The Committee con- sidered that such organizations should be developed i n c e r t a i n regions, such as west A f r i c a , the Caribbean region, and South 176. East Asia (including Malaya, B r i t i s h North Borneo, Sarawak, Hong Kong, and possibly F i j i and the Solomon Islands) and i t drew attention of the Dominions to the advantages of such r e - gional research centres. The a c t i v i t i e s of the Dehra Dun centre are well known and documented. Those of the East A f r i c a n Agriculture and Forestry Research Organization are less well known. Problems common to a l l the East A f r i c a n T e r r i t o r i e s - Kenya, Tanganyika, Uganda, and Zanzibar - are investigated and p a r t i c u l a r attention i s given to coordination. In t h i s region most problems are i n t e r - t e r r i t o r i a l ( 101) . A regional documentation centre has been established within EAAFRO and standardized research procedures adopted f o r the t e r r i t o r i a l groups. Where common t i e s do not ex i s t l e s s formal arrangements may be more e f f e c t i v e . G r i f f i t h s (103) has discussed the f o r - estry aspects of the International Committee f o r Technical Co- operation i n A f r i c a , south of the Sahara, and the Second Inter- A f r i c a n Forestry Conference held at Point Noire, i n the Moyen Congo of French Equatorial A f r i c a , and has indicated the bene- f i t s that have resulted i n the following terms: " i n general we are f a r too parochial i n our outlook and i t i s of the greatest value to meet our tech- n i c a l neighbours and to get to know them and t h e i r prob- lems, and what they are doing about them." Greatest success may perhaps be obtained when such meet- ings are s p e c i a l i s t i n nature. The annual A f r i c a n "Miombo Con- ference", a meeting of s p e c i a l i s t s on Miombo savanna (169) that has resulted from the Inter-African Forestry Conference i s such a case. 177. That such i n t e r n a t i o n a l bodies can be successful when there are common in t e r e s t s i s shown by the Northern Forest Union, formed i n 1946, of the leading forest research i n s t i - tutes and organizations i n the Scandinavian countries to promote inter-Scandinavina collaboration. A congress i s held at four year i n t e r v a l s and management of the Union's a f f a i r s devolves i n turn on the four countries concerned. In the P a c i f i c Northwest of North America a very high l e v e l of regional co-operation has developed i n recent years between B r i t i s h Columbia and the American P a c i f i c Coast states. Ritchen (l8o) l i s t e d eighteen committees which have come a- bout spontaneously to gather information on a wide range of problems. Almost i n v a r i a b l y these committees have been f o r - med to gather f a c t s needed by management, to exchange ideas, to define problems, and to indicate needed avenues f o r r e - search. They include representatives of government, industry, research, and the u n i v e r s i t i e s . T ypical i s the Forest S o i l s Committee which was formed i n 1948 as a r e s u l t of a meeting of a group of foresters to discuss ways and means of promoting the development of i n f o r - mation on fo r e s t s o i l s . This committee has been the nucleus f o r s o i l s work, and has served i n an organizational, educa- t i o n a l and p u b l i c i t y capacity, and as an agent f o r the d i s t r i - bution of information. In conjunction with the u n i v e r s i t i e s i t has organized short courses. I t was instrumental i n pro- moting research and teaching i n fo r e s t s o i l s at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l i n the P a c i f i c Northwest with the establishment of a forest s o i l s department at Oregon State College. 178. These committees have stimulated i n t e r e s t i n research by- bringing into focus the needs and the opportunity f o r public and private organizations to contribute. Not least of the values of regional and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i s the opportunity i t provides f o r overcoming the disadvantages of i s o l a t i o n , and of f a c i l i t a t i n g contact with current development elsewhere and, hence, stimulating research a c t i v i t y . The values that l i e i n the exchange of information and personnel between world regions has been emphasized by Haig et a l (105)y i n t h e i r discussion of the lessons that American foresters can learn from t r o p i c a l f o r e s t r y "Tropical f o r e s t r y has undoubtedly p r o f i t e d immen- sely by the presence of c o l o n i a l f o r e sters trained under quite d i f f e r e n t conditions, often Interchanged between regions and p e r i o d i c a l l y brought together, as at the Indian S i l v i c u l t u r a l , B r i t i s h Commonwealth and, more recently, at the Inter-African Forestry Congresses. More formal contact and interchange of Information on a r e - gional and world basis i s needed i n the t r o p i c s . Tem- perate zone s i l v i c u l t u r i s t s could probably p r o f i t by following t h i s pattern." FINIS Viewpoints are greatly influenced by changing s o c i a l and economic conditions, and by the increased enlightenment that r e s u l t s from developing experience. New problems a r i s e and t h e i r solution gives r i s e to more e f f i c i e n t methods of work- ing. In turn, new organizational concepts evolve that meet the needs of the new s i t u a t i o n . Nevertheless, care should be taken before disregarding the methods of the past, f o r i t i s upon these foundations that the future must b e i b u i l t , and from a c r i t i c a l evaluation of the 1 7 9 - corpus of knowledge that true advance i s obtained. There must be understanding and recognition of the u n i v e r s a l i t y of forest experience. This i s applicable to p o l i c y and or- ganization as i t i s to technology. In the circumstance of the modern world, i t i s impossible f o r any nation or group of people to ex i s t i n I s o l a t i o n . I t i s i n the i n t e r e s t of a l l that the peoples of the world should learn to l i v e together, to work together and to develop t h e i r resources together f o r the mutual benefit of a l l . I t i s hoped that t h i s study may contribute to t h i s better understanding. "Yes, I think you'd better leave o f f " , said the Gryphon, and A l i c e was only too glad to do so. APPENDIX 1 181. The development of some national programs France - In France the period from the end of the 17th to the beginning of the 19th Centuries was r i c h i n research e f f o r t . There i s a h i s t o r y of early experimenters, such were Duhamel du Monceau (1700-1782), Varenne de F e n v i l l e (1700- 1793) and most important of a l l , P h i l l i p e Andre de Vilmorin (1821-1862). However French research properly dates from the founding of the Station de recherches et experiences f o r e s t i e r e s i n 1882 as an annexe to the Ecole nationale des Eaux et Forets. This s t a t i o n had modest beginnings with one or two forest o f f i c e r s and u n t i l 1914 there was only slender f i n a n c i a l provision. The f i e l d of a c t i o n was, of necessity> confined to the f o r e s t s i n the v i n i c i t y of Nancy and d i r e c t l y under the control of the school. The professors p a r t i c i p a t e d very l a r g e l y . Research was l i m i t e d e x c l u s i v e l y to f o r e s t r y questions or to questions d i r e c t l y bearing on the f o r e s t , notably forest meteorology. According to Rol (183) there i s mention of research on the e f f e c t of thinnings. As early as 1866 Mathiew, Professor, of Natural Sciences at the School, had established a series of meteorological posts and undertaken research on influence of the f o r e s t on climate, t h i s work was continued and extended by the research station, eventually the r e s u l t s were published and are now u n i v e r s a l l y accepted. During the f i r s t world war the greater part of the s t a - tion's records were l o s t . In the subsequent reorganization 1 8 2 . the organizational patterns of the present day were introduced, though subsequently extended. The stat i o n was organized i n branches each under the d i r e c t i o n of the professors i n charge of i n s t r u c t i o n i n the various s p e c i a l i s t f i e l d s . The Director of the School remained Director of the Research Station. A separate branch f o r the management of the school forests and for the conduct of general forest research was formed under a s p e c i a l i s t o f f i c e r . His p r i n c i p l e task was the systematic study of growth and development with sample pl o t s throughout Prance, a chain of Meteorological stations, and also with r e - s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r special major projects. In subsequent reor- ganization t h i s post has advanced i n standing u n t i l today i t i s of conservateur rank. Gradually also provision has been made f o r co-operation with other research agencies, the Central Timber Testing Laboratory i n Paris, the Central Station of Applied Hydrobiology, and with geographers and others on ques- tions such as mountain landuse and protection f o r e s t r y . Con- currently f i e l d sub-stations have been developed. Germany - In Germany there i s a sim i l a r story of gradually unfolding research a c t i v i t y . Here, however, i n the absence of a u n i f i e d forest service, research was not exposed to c e n t r a l - i z i n g influences such as moulded French f o r e s t r y . Groups of small, specialized and autonomous research i n s t i t u t e s were f o r - med at the various u n i v e r s i t y schools. Although i n d i v i d u a l l y small these i n s t i t u t e s have made notable contributions to f o r - estry. They have been strongly influenced by the in d i v i d u a l s who worked i n them, so, to the present day the s i l v i c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n of the University of Munich, which since 1878 has 182. been linked with the names of such persons as Carl Gayer, Heinrich Mayer and Ludwig F a b r i c i u s , moulds the work of the In s t i t u t e of S i l v i c u l t u r e while at the Uni v e r s i t y of Gottingen the Faculty of Forestry at Hamm-Munden maintain those of the experimental areas of Eberwalde, the former Prussian Forest Research I n s t i t u t e , which are i n the Federal Republic. Some of these plots have been the subject of accurate observation f o r over 70 years. In Lander without f o r e s t r y schools r e - search stations were established with r e s p o n s i b i l i t y d i r e c t l y to the Lander fo r e s t administration. In more recent times the need f o r more comprehensive establishments with greater f a c i l i t i e s has led to the establishment of a national r e - search agency - the Federal I n s t i t u t e of Forest and wood Eco- nomy at Reinbek near Hamburg (220). Scandinavia - I n i t i a l l y the Scandinavian countries were influenced by German research thought but gradually a d i s - t i n c t l y Scandinavian approach evolved. In Denmark, with the longest t r a d i t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c f o r e s t r y , a research department of the state service was formed i n 1852. In Sweden a research s t a t i o n was founded at the Royal College of Forestry i n 1902. In Norway the national forest research i n s t i t u t e was established at the A g r i c u l t u r a l College at Aas i n 1917. Swedish develop- ments have been described by Eklund (70) and S t r e y f f e r t ( 2 0 0 ) . A f t e r 100 years of extensive e x p l o i t a t i o n of over-mature v i r g i n f o r e s t s , previously conserved f o r centuries, the need was r e a l - ized f o r serious attention to r e - f o r e s t a t i o n and better f o r - estry practices. There was l i t t l e or no national experience. 184. Guidance was sought abroad, and p a r t i c u l a r l y In Germany. Higher f o r e s t r y education was started i n 1828, and on the German pattern some experimental work was undertaken but with- out any s o l i d footing i n the natural sciences and mostly of the " t r i a l and error" type. This formed the i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l front up to the end of the 19th Century. In 1902 the i n s t i t u - t i o n whieh was eventually to become known as the Statens skogsforskningsinstitut (Forest Research I n s t i t u t e ) was founded as the Swedish I n s t i t u t e of Experimental Forestry. O r i g i n a l l y on modest l i n e s i t was soon recognized that requirements had been underestimated. In subsequent years there have been sev- e r a l reorganizations with increases In s t a f f and material r e - sources. During the 1 9 3 0 * s other t r a d i t i o n s began to emerge. In each of the Scandinavian countries the co-operative movement got underway and groups of i n d u s t r i e s , forest owners, with sometimes the state, joined together i n associations to ad- vance various aspects of f o r e s t r y , notably tree improvement, and r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of work methods. To further t h e i r aims these associations set up research establishments such as have been described i n the main text. Canada - Experimental work dates from e a r l y experiments i n tree planting i n Manitoba i n 1 9 0 5 , and research proper from the period 1 9 1 0 to 1 9 2 0 . Federal a c t i v i t y started i n a small way with the Commission of Conservation, which undertook f a c t - f i n d i n g surveys and the gathering of information generally, the f i r s t serious attempt to obtain Information regarding the fo r e s t resources of the country. The f i r s t p r o v i n c i a l inven- 185. tory was conducted f o r the Government of Nova Scotia i n 1909- 1910 under the d i r e c t i o n of Dr. B. E. Fernow of the Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto, and published by the Com- mission i n 1912. In 19l4~19l6 an inventory was conducted i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The report was published i n 1918. During 1918-1921 the Commission c a r r i e d out c e r t a i n experimental work i n Eastern Canada. In 1917 a d i v i s i o n of s i l v i c u l t u r a l ex- perimentation and research was formed i n the Forestry Branch of the then Department of the I n t e r i o r . S t a f f was extremely l i m i t e d . Various small scale s i l v i c u l t u r a l experiments were made i n the western provinces and at the Petawawa Forest Ex- periment Station which was established i n 1918. When the Commission of Conservation was abolished i n 1918 the Forestry Branch took over i t s research s t a f f and several of i t s projects-; and a small research team of f i v e foresters was established i n Ottawa. The research program at Petawawa developed at a mod- erate rate, a number of experiments were established outside the s t a t i o n i n co-operation with various commercial companies. In 1930, a f t e r the transfer of the natural resources of the western provinces to the p r o v i n c i a l governments, research be- came the chief function of the Forest Branch and progress be- came more rapid, although adversely affected by economic condi- ti o n s . At the time of Chalk's v i s i t to Petawawa i n 1937 he noted that while the experimental s t a t i o n had had the use of plenty of r e l i e f labour and was well o f f f o r roads and b u i l d - ings, the money available f o r research seemed less adequate, and the research o f f i c e r i n charge of the s t a t i o n had many 186. administrative duties i n connection with the running of the f o r e s t . The o r i g i n a l p o l i c y , l a t e r superceded, was to main- t a i n the Petawawa Station as a demonstration forest as well as a research u n i t . A gradual expansion of a c t i v i t y took place and regional research o f f i c e s and other experimental forests were established. E s p e c i a l l y since the second world war larger appropriations have allowed considerable expansion, and i n a l l f i v e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s have been set up, with eight experimental forests or research areas. By 1952 there were 48 professional foresters engaged exclusively i n s i l v i c u l t u r a l and management research. B i c k e r s t a f f estimated that an approx- imately equal number of men were employed on s i l v i c u l t u r a l work by the various provinces and i n d u s t r i a l organizations. A notable feature of Canadian forest research i s the sep- aration of entomological and pathological enquiry from the rest of forest i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The o r i g i n a l agents were the Forest Insect Investigations Unit of the Entomology D i v i s i o n and the Forest Pathology Section of the D i v i s i o n of Botany and Plant Pathology, i n 1951, the two groups were brought together to form the D i v i s i o n of Forest Biology i n the Science Service of the Department of Agriculture. The insect and disease sur- veys which form a major part of t h i s agency's a c t i v i t y o r i g i n - ated from a survey made i n 1936 to determine the extent and severity of the European Spruce Sawfly i n f e s t a t i o n of Eastern Canada. Recognition of the value of t h i s survey led to i t s gradual extension to a l l provinces and the i n c l u s i o n of a l l types of insects, and, a f t e r merging with pathology i n 1951, disease. A series of laboratories and stations has been 187- developed across Canada and In addition s p e c i a l i s t labora- t o r i e s and sections operated, notably In co-operation with the p r o v i n c i a l government i n Ontario. In 1955 t e c h n i c a l s t a f f con- s i s t e d of 193 s c i e n t i f i c and 144 technical grades. In ad d i t i o n the Department of Agriculture makes extra-mural research grants. Since 1923 the National Research Council has also i n t e r - ested i t s e l f i n forest research, concerning i t s e l f l a r g e l y with the support of the more fundamental enquiry. Certain l i m i t e d phases of s i l v i c u l t u r a l research have been under p r o v i n c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l auspices. The most consistent e f f o r t has been by the p r o v i n c i a l forest service i n B r i t i s h Columbia. After early sporadic e f f o r t s i n the d i s t r i c t s sus- tained e f f o r t started with the i n i t i a t i o n of some growth studies i n 1920 by a f o r e s t e r attached to the headquarters s t a f f . Organized research has continued uninterrupted since that date. A small research d i v i s i o n of f i v e professional f o r - esters was organized i n 1927. Two f i e l d experiment stations were established. The s t a f f was increased to eight. Economic conditions resulted i n setback and by 1936 the research s t a f f was reduced to three. In 1939 research was merged with f o r e s t surveys to form the Mensuration, S i l v i c u l t u r e and S o i l s Sections of an Economics D i v i s i o n . A f t e r the war the D i v i s i o n once more took on a separate existence. In 1955 i t had a s t a f f of 15 professional foresters and four technical a s s i s t a n t s . In Ontario the p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t r y branch i n i t i a t e d growth and y i e l d studies on a small scale i n 1920, these were ca r r i e d on sporadically u n t i l 1930. A c t i v i t y ceased during the depres- sion and was not resumed u n t i l 1941. i n 1944 a Research 188. D i v i s i o n of the Department of Lands and Forests was formed t' and subsequent development has been rapid. In 1955 the s t a f f consisted of 89 of whom 35 were p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained, plus a seasonal recruitment of some 40 to 50 persons. The only other province to engage i n research a c t i v i t y has been Quebec, here, p r o v i n c i a l forest service research s t a f f , although few i n number, have done c e r t a i n work e s p e c i a l l y on s i t e c l a s s i f i - cation, and the Bureau of Entomology of the Department of Lands and Forests has done work on forest protection, the only p r o v i n c i a l agency In any of the Provinces to have made any serious e f f o r t at active entomological work i n the f i e l d (42) (15) ( 6 3 ) . New Zealand - The i n i t i a l recommendations of the f i r s t Director of Forestry of the newly formed f o r e s t service i n 1920 included the statement that the formation of a strong r e - search d i v i s i o n was absolutely necessary i f they were to make any advance In the f o r e s t r y problems of New Zealand. Action on the recommendation was deferred. B i r c h (16) has described subsequent development against a background of world depres- sion and f i n a n c i a l stringencies. In these conditions, with a few marked exceptions, forest research was sporadic i n the extreme. Research undertaken was the work of i n d i v i d u a l s ; a notable contribution was that of Dr. Leonard Cockayne otx the botany and ecology of the Indigenous f o r e s t s , and of the For- est Service generally, involving many experimental plots of diverse character i n exotic and indigenous f o r e s t s . In more recent years more fundamental research was undertaken on seed- 189. crops, seed v i a b i l i t y and growth eycles of commercial species. In 1939/40 increases i n s t a f f made i t possible to plan f o r - est service development on a s p e c i a l i s t d i v i s i o n a l basis i n place of the previous t e r r i t o r i a l organization, war i n t e r - vened. In 1946 the planned reorganization took place and r e - search was included i n a Development D i v i s i o n . A Forest Ex- periment Station was established at Rotorua i n 1947. By 1949 research personnel were engaged i n I n i t i a t i n g and co-ordin- ating short term research projects and i n developing, a long term p o l i c y . The i n i t i a l s t a f f consisted of nine professional o f f i c e r s , with provision f o r about t h i r t y divided between four sections - Botany and S i l v i c u l t u r e , Management, Pathology and Forest Products. The National Forest Survey, commenced i n 1946 was absorbed within the research structure. Great B r i t a i n - Forestry In B r i t a i n has a long h i s t o r y . Evelyn's ' S i l v a ' was published i n the time of the Stuarts, but there was a gap i n the middle of the nineteenth century, and fore s t research In the modern sense started only with the or- ganization of the Forestry Commission i n 1919 and then to a li m i t e d extent. With i t s t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e as the world's greatest timber producer i t took two world wars with attendant wood stringency to stimulate forest research on a large scale. Review of subsequent development i s f a c i l i t a t e d by the Govern- ment White Paper on the Forestry Commissioners' Proposals f o r Post-war Forest P o l i c y (95) and the Forestry Commissioners' comprehensive report on t h e i r f i r s t t h i r t y years a c t i v i t y ( 9 6 ) . When large scale a c t i v i t y started i n 1919 the new Author- i t y was faced with a lack of technical information. Forestry 1 9 0 . education was directed towards the needs of overseas, and l a r g e l y Indian f o r e s t r y . Hitherto home f o r e s t r y had been mainly practiced on private estates or i n the l i m i t e d areas of Crown Forest. Knowledge was l o c a l i z e d and personal and the few textbooks a v a i l a b l e were mostly t r a n s l a t i o n s of German books and of doubtful a p p l i c a b i l i t y . Much of the knowledge accumulated i n the past was of s l i g h t a p p l i c a t i o n to the conditions under which the Commission had to operate. With few exceptions experience was confined to the better s o i l s and where poor s i t e s had been planted the knowledge had been l o s t . In addition there was a difference i n scale. For- mal research, such as that of Augustine Henry, had l a r g e l y been concerned with systematics and dendrology and the botan- i c a l aspects of growth. P r a c t i c a l work, apart from more r e - cent e f f o r t such as S i r John S t i r l i n g Maxwell's moorland spruce planting at Corrour, which set the pattern f o r future development, had been confined to the introduction of exotics and production of some hybrids, emphasis had been on a r b o r i - c u l t u r e . Such was the s e t t i n g i n 1 9 1 9 . The Forestry Act of 1 9 1 9 empowered the Commission to "Make, or a i d i n making such enquiries, experiments and research, and c o l l e c t or a i d i n c o l l e c t i n g such information as they may think Important f o r the purpose of promoting fo r e s t r y , and the teach- ing of f o r e s t r y , and to publish or otherwise take steps to make known the r e s u l t s of such enquiries, experiments or research, and to disseminate such information." The duties of the Com- missioners i n respeet to research on a) timber and other f o r - est products, and (b) "the deeper underlying reactions which 191. trees have i n common with other organisms", were l a r g e l y de- termined by the reports of two Sub-Committees dealing with research by government departments. In 1920 the A g r i c u l t u r a l Sub-Committee of a Cabinet Committee appointed to consider co- ordination of government research recommended that a Research I n s t i t u t i o n be set up under the Forestry Commission to "deal with problems connected with the growing crop" but that f o r research work on other subjects i n connection with f o r e s t r y problems and f o r any fundamental research other than that d i - rected to an immediate economic r e s u l t reference should be made i n the f i r s t instance to the appropriate authority " i n whom was vested control of research upon the subject under discussion. 1 1 A small research branch was set up i n 1919 and executive o f f i c e r s encouraged to make t h e i r own experiments on l o c a l problems. The proposal to set up a research i n s t i t u t e was not implemented, mainly owing to lack of funds and because i n the circumstances, the Commissioners considered i t better to make the f u l l e s t use of e x i s t i n g centres of f o r e s t r y t r a i n i n g and research. The second recommendation led to c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s i n practice and i n 1929 the p o l i c y towards f o r e s t research was reviewed by the Research Co-ordination Sub-committee of the Committee on C i v i l Research, which recommended the appointment of an Advisory Committee on Forest Research, and the provision of s u f f i c i e n t funds to enable the Commissioners to finance r e - search of the nature envisaged by the 1920 Committee. The Ad- visory Committee was appointed but no e f f e c t was given to the recommendation f o r increase of funds. Nevertheless from time 192. to time research of a purely s c i e n t i f i c character was financed where t h i s was considered necessary to solve problems of prac- t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Over the greater part of the f i r s t twenty- f i v e years the s t a f f i n g l e v e l of the Research Branch remained , stationary with a Chief Research O f f i c e r stationed at London headquarters, a Research O f f i c e r f o r England and Wales, st a - tioned at the Imperial Forestry I n s t i t u t e , Oxford, a Research O f f i c e r f o r Scotland, stationed In Edinburgh and a Sample Plot O f f i c e r who covered the whole country. A Mycologist and an Entomologist were appointed to the s t a f f of the Forestry I n s t i - tute at Oxford, nominally employed by the I n s t i t u t e but engaged f u l l time on problems f o r the Forestry Commission. The two research o f f i c e r s were responsible f o r s i l v i c u l t u r a l research, each with a small s t a f f of research foresters and foreman s t a - tioned i n those areas where nursery and plantation Investiga- tions were mainly concentrated. The remaining researches dur- ing t h i s period were grant-aided. They covered a wide range of subjects, f o r example, vole disease, mycorrhiza research, forest s o i l s , and the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of c e r t a i n fungus diseases. A detailed account of the major f i e l d s of a c t i v i t y to 1939 i s given i n the White Paper. In postwar development research a c t i v i t y was much extended, the p o l i c y of confining the research branch a c t i v i t y to work mainly involving f i e l d studies was continued but s p e c i a l i s t r e - cruitment extended Interest f i e l d s beyond s i l v i c u l t u r e into the re l a t e d f o r e s t sciences, and more recently i n t o economics. There were considerable increases i n s t a f f . The weakness of maintain- ing a scattered and fragmented research group was recognized 193. and a central research,station founded i n the State Forest of Alice Holt, Farnham, Hants, which had been under a management plan for some 35 years. A small research group was established i n Scotland. Grant aided research was extended and continued. A high degree of co-operation was developed with other research bodies and with private forestry interests. Development f o l - lowed and surpassed the program of the White Paper. In the immediate prewar years research expenditure averaged i f 15,900 per annum. The estimated cost of the program envisaged i n the White Paper was 300,000 for the f i r s t postwar decade, includ- ing the capital expenditure on the research station. In 1952 active annual research expenditure was d 148,000, by 1956 i t had reached jf 265,000 ( 1 4 6 ) . The White Paper proposed a pro- fessional staff of nine or ten officers. In 1957 the research staff consisted of 23 professional officers plus supporting technical grades. By i 9 6 0 there had been a further increase to 36 officers. The research accommodation has proved inadequate and recently a large new research institute has been opened. United States - An account of the his t o r i c a l development of forest research i s incomplete without reference to the United States. To quote Harper (108) "Federal Forest Research started with the appointment of one man i n 1876, his tfob was to find out about timber consumption, timber for import and export, the probable supply for the future, the best ways of preserving and renewing the forests, and to report on the same within one year." The level of research activity i s indicated by the overall national expenditure (1953) of 245,400,000 for a l l agencies and a staff of approximately 1100 technically trained 194. personnel i n the fed e r a l agency ( 1 3 2 ) . A general review of the development of U.S. Forest Service researching was pub- lis h e d by Kotok (141) and the development of research In aca- demic i n s t i t u t i o n s and a g r i c u l t u r a l experiment stations by Westveld ( 2 2 2 ) . For a comprehensive account of American r e - search development, attention i s directed to the report by Kaufert and Cummings ( 1 3 2 ) . India - Gf the eastern nations research a c t i v i t y f i r s t developed i n India. Progress has been traced by Champion (46) and Ranganathan ( 1 7 8 ) . The f i r s t s i l v i c u l t u r a l contribution to the 'Indian Forester' was published i n 1891. The present Forest Research I n s t i t u t e s and Colleges at Dehra Dun are out- growths of a ranger school established i n 1878 by the then Government of the N. ¥. Provinces. In 1900 the f i r s t research post, that of Forest Entomologist, was i n s t i t u t e d . In 1906 the Central Research I n s t i t u t e was founded with branches f o r S i l v i c u l t u r e , Botany, Entomology, Chemistry and Economics. This was the second of a series of central Indian Government research agencies, and was preceded only by the Indian A g r i c u l t u r a l Re- search I n s t i t u t e , formed i n 1901. For the f i r s t two years the post of Central S i l v i c u l t u r i s t was held by the P r i n c i p a l of the College but i n 1908 a separate appointment was made. In 1916 a separate S i l v i c u l t u r i s t f o r Burma was appointed and soon a f t e r development became more rapid with a c q u i s i t i o n s of s t a f f , and also d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n through the appointment of p r o v i n c i a l s i l v i c u l t u r i s t s from 1918 onward. In 1921-22 the Economics Branch was expanded to form a branch of wood technology and f o r - est products, i n subsequent years t h i s branch expanded and 195. came almost to make up an i n s t i t u t e within an i n s t i t u t e . The Central Research I n s t i t u t e tended more to serve as a co-ordin- ating and documentation centre f o r decentralized p r o v i n c i a l a c t i v i t y , and as a t r a i n i n g ground i n research techniques. Since the second world war and the p a r t i t i o n of India further reorganization and expansion has taken place. War experience Indicated the value of the I n s t i t u t e to the country, and highlighted i t s d e f i c i e n c i e s i n equipment and personnel; there was a large reorganization scheme aiming at extensive modernization of equipment and buildings. The branches dealing with forest research proper, the ad- min i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e s , herbarium, museums, l i b r a r y , Convocation H a l l , and Indian Forest College, are now a l l housed i n one large and imposing b u i l d i n g . Laboratories, workshops, and p i l o t plants connected with f o r e s t products research occupy a number of separate buildings scattered over the s i t e . There i s a demonstration f o r e s t , an extensive arboretum, and a bo- t a n i c a l garden. The Herbarium contains a quarter m i l l i o n leaves, i n c l u d - ing 1200 type or co-type sheets and dating back to I 8 l 6 . The Reference C o l l e c t i o n of insects contains over 17,000 authenti- cated i d e n t i f i e d species. An important feature i s a large photographic c o l l e c t i o n covering a l l aspects of Indian f o r e s t r y . Copies of a l l o f f i c i a l photographs are sent to Dehra Dun. An- other feature of the c o l l e c t i o n s are card indexes and ledger ' f i l e s which have been c a r e f u l l y maintained i n a l l branches. Burma - Burma was administered by the Government of India u n t i l 1935. An Indian Forest Service forest research o f f i c e r 196. was appointed i n 1913. E a r l y a c t i v i t y had been l a r g e l y con- fin e d to botanical research and empirical advance, with Brandis and Grimble i n the forefront and active at the end of the 19th Century. In 1920 a Research and Working Plans C i r c l e was formed but economic depression prevented the r e a l i z a t i o n of plans f o r a research i n s t i t u t e . As a compromise, a Work- ing Plans C i r c l e with an a d d i t i o n a l post of S i l v i c u l t u r i s t was formed and a separate u t i l i z a t i o n c i r c l e was established. No further advance was made u n t i l a f t e r World War I I when the ^supply of munitions timber brought out the f a c t that other spe- cies than teak had a range of u t i l i t y not r e a l i z e d before. After the war economic research was undertaken by the U t i l i z a - t i o n c i r c l e at Rangoon , b i o l o g i c a l and s t a t i s t i c a l research at Maymyo. In 1956 Forest research was s t i l l l inked with that of India to some extent f o r the Burmese Government s t i l l c o n t r i - buted to the cost of the Indian Forest Research I n s t i t u t e . In that year assistance was obtained from the Food and A g r i c u l t u r a l Organization of the United Nations i n drawing up plans f o r a Forest Research I n s t i t u t e and Forest Products Laboratory (165) ( 1 3 9 ) . Malaya and the East Indies - In other non-European coun- t r i e s i n i t i a l development was slower, but by the 1930 's research groups were coming into being. In Java the Boschbouwproefstation at Buitenzorg served the Dutch East Indies and was mainly de- voted to the b i o l o g i c a l aspects of fo r e s t r y . In the B r i t i s h Dependencies Malaya was the only country to have achieved a l o c a l f orest research i n s t i t u t e although others had s p e c i a l i s t 1 9 7 . o f f i c e r s and research groups. Again progress was delayed by economic depression. The decision to e s t a b l i s h a s t a t i o n at Kepong was made i n 1926. By 1 9 2 9 the establishment was ready. O r i g i n a l intentions to provide a comprehensive research ser- vice went unrealized due to retrenchments. With the return of more prosperous times expansion was just beginning when the outbreak of the second world war again delayed matters (145). 198. APPENDIX 2 Authorities to whom reference i s made i n the text Name Al l e n , G. S. Aung, Din Bailey, ¥. I. Baldwin, H. I. Barr, P. M. Beltram, E. Beresford-Peirse, H. H. Bevan, A. Bi c k e r s t a f f , A. Bier, J . E. Birch, T. T. C. Bor, N. L. Brasnett, N. V. T i t l e and A f f i l i a t i o n Dean, Faculty of Forestry, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Regional Forestry O f f i c e r , Asia and the Far East, Food and Agriculture Organization. Professor of Botany, Harvard University. Forestry and Recreation Commission, New Hampshire, U. S. A. Professor of Forestry, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a . Director, I n s t i t u t e of Renewable Natural Resources, Mexico. Deputy Director-General, United King- dom Forestry Commission, Deputy Director, Forestry D i v i s i o n , Food and A g r i c u l t u r a l Organization. Director, T r o p i c a l Forest Experiment Station, United States Forest Service, Puerto Rico. Head, S i l v i c u l t u r e and Management Sec- t i o n , Forest Research D i v i s i o n , For- estry Branch, Department of Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources, Canada. Associate Chief, Science Survey, D i v i - sion of Forest Biology, Department of Agriculture, Canada. Inspector-in-charge, Development (Training and Research) D i v i s i o n , New Zealand Forest Service. Ecologist, Indian Forest Service. Lecturer i n Forest Management, Imperial Forestry I n s t i t u t e , Oxford. (Sometime Conservator of Forests, B r i t i s h West A f r i c a . 199- Buckland, D. C. Carmichael, 0. C. Cameron, R. R. Chalk, L. Champion, H. 6. Chaturvedi - C o r r e l l , K. M. Cowlin, ,R. W. Clapp, E. H. Cummings, w. H. Dana, S. T. Davis, K. P. Daubenmire, R. p. Dinsmore, R. P. D u f f i e l d , J . W. E d l i n , H. L. Eggling, W. J . Associate Professor of Forestry, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. President, Carnegie Foundation f o r the Advancement of Learning. Dominion Forester, Canada. Lecturer i n Wood Structure and Proper- t i e s , Imperial Forestry I n s t i t u t e , Oxford. Director, Imperial Forestry I n s t i t u t e , Professor of Forestry, University of Oxford, (sometime President, Forestry Research,institute and Colleges, Dehra Dun, India). Inspector General of Forests, India. Director, D i v i s i o n of Personnel, United States Forest Service. Director, P a c i f i c North West Forest and Range Experiment Station, United States Forest Service. Acting Head, U. S. Forest Service. Director, Centralia Forest Research Centre, Weyerhaeuser Timber Company, Washington, U.S.A. Dean, School of Natural Resources, University of Michigan. Professor, Department of Forestry, University of Michigan Professor of Botany, Washington State College. Vice-President, Research and Develop- ment, Goodyear T i r e and Rubber Company. Forest Geneticist Nesqually Forest Nursery, Washington, U.S.A. Publications O f f i c e r . Directorate of Research and Education, United Kingdom Forestry Commission. Conservator of Forests, Uganda 200. Fischer, F. Fletcher, P. W. F l i c k , Frances Ford Robinson, F. C. Francois, T. Geltz, C. G• Gibson, J . M. Gosling, A. H. Graves, H. S. G r i f f i t h , A. L. Haig, I. T. Harrison, J . D. B. Hardee, J . H. Hawley, R. C. Hebb, M. H. Henderson, FI Y. Director, Federal I n s t i t u t e f o r For- est Research ( S i l v i c u l t u r e ) , Zurich Switzerland. Director, School of Forestry, Pennsyl- vania State University Forestry L i b r a r i a n , United States De- partment of Agriculture Library, Washington, D. C. Director, Commonwealth Forestry Bureau. Chief, Forest P o l i c y Branch, Forestry D i v i s i o n , Food and Agriculture Organ- i z a t i o n . School of Forestry, U n i v e r s i t y of F l o r i d a . Dean of Forestry, U n i v e r s i t y of New Brunswick. Director-General, United Kingdom For- estry Commission. Chief Forester, United States Forest Service. S i l v i c u l t u r i s t , East A f r i c a n A g r i c u l - ture and Forestry Research Organiza- t i o n (sometime... Central S i l v i c u l t u r i s t , Indian Forest Service). Chief, Forest Technology Branch, For- estry D i v i s i o n , Food and Agriculture Organization. Director, Forest Research D i v i s i o n , Forestry Branch, Canadian Department of Northern A f f a i r s and Natural Resources. Forestry Advisor, United States Inter- national Co-operation Administration. Professor of S i l v i c u l t u r e , Yale Univer- s i t y . General E l e c t r i c Research Laboratories, Schenectady, New York, United States. Director, Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, England. 201. Hlley, H. E. Heiberg, S. 0. Howard, H. Huberman, M. A. Hummel, F. C Kallender, R. Kaufert, F. H. Keen, B. A. K i l l i a n , J. R. Kotok, E. I. Kollman, F. Laurie, M. V. Learner, F. D. Lutz, H. J . Macdonald, J . Forest Economist, Partington H a l l Trust, England (sometime Lecturer, Imperial Forestry I n s t i t u t e , Oxford U n i v e r s i t y ) . Associate Dean of Graduate Studies, New York State University College of Forestry, Syracuse. Secretary-General, Commonwealth A g r i c u l t u r a l Bureaux. Chief of S i l v i c u l t u r e , Forestry D i v i - sion, Food and Agriculture Organi- zation. Chief Mensuration O f f i c e r , United King- dom Forestry Commission. Administrator,. Forest Protection and Conservation Committee, State Board of Forestry, Oregon, U. S. A. Dean of Forestry, University of Minne- sota. Director, East A f r i c a n Agriculture and Forestry Research Organization. Special Assistant f o r Science and Tech- nology to the President of the United States, President of Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology. Chief Forestry, United States Forest Service. Advisor on Forest Products Research to the Government of Burma, Food and A g r i - culture Organization. Federal I n s t i t u t e of Forest and Wood Economics, Reinbek, Germany. Chief Research O f f i c e r , United Kingdom Forestry Commission. Personnel Director, B e l l Telephone Laboratories. Professor of S i l v i c u l t u r e , Yale Univer- s i t y . Director of Research and Education, United Kingdom Forestry Commission. 2 0 2 . McQuilkin, W. E. Marsh, E. W. Meidell, A. Martin, M. J . Mooney, H. F. Munns, E. N. Naslund, N. Neam, ¥. T. Ostram, E. C. Pearson, G. A. Philbrook, D. A. Prebble, — Place, I. C. M. Poulton, C. E. Ranganathan, C. R. Reid, J.. S. North Eastern Forest Experimental Station, U. S. Forest Service. Conservator of Forests, Jamaica. General Manager, Boregard Concern, Norway (a major integrated forest i n - dustry. ) General E l e c t r i c Research Laboratories, Schenectady, United States Forestry Advisor, B r i t i s h Middle East O f f i c e , Beirut, Lebanon, (some time Chief Forestry Advisor, Eastern States Agency, India) Chief, D i v i s i o n of Forest Influences, United States Forest Service. Senior Director, Forest Research I n s t i - tute, Stockholm, Sweden. Associate professor of Forestry, Penn- sylvania State University. Chairman, Committee on Technical Pro- cedure and Standards f o r S i l v i c u l t u r a l Research. D i v i s i o n of S i l v i c u l t u r e , Society of American Foresters. Director, South Western Forest and Range Experiment Station, United States For- est Service. Manager, North East Pulpwood Research Centre, Gorham, New Hampshire, U.S.A. Chief, D i v i s i o n of Forest Biology, Science Service, Department of A g r i - culture, Canada. Editor, Forestry Chronicle, Canada. Professor of Range Management, Oregon State College. President, Forest Research I n s t i t u t e and Colleges, Dehra Dun, India. Engineer i n Forest Products, i n charge of Forest Products Research, New Zealand Forest Research I n s t i t u t e , Rotorua, New Zealand. 203. Royer, G. L. Saari, E. Schreiner, E. Setton, G. G. K. Shaw, R. R. Shaw, S. B. Silversides, C. P. Smith, H. J. G. Sloan, M. G. Spilsbury, R. H. Streyffert, T. Stoate, W. Stoddard, C. H. Stone, E. Stone, E. L. Shirley, H. L. Spoehr, H. A. S. Thirgood, J. V. Administrative Assistant to General Manager, Research Division, American Cyanamide Company. Chairman, IUFR0/FA0 Committee on Bibliography. North Eastern Forest Experimental Station, U. S. Forest Service. Chief Research Officer, Forest Research Institute, Kepong, Malaya. Librarian, United States Department of Agriculture Library. United States Forest Service and For- estry Division of F.A.O. Abitibi Power and Paper Company Ltd., Canada. Assistant Professor of Forestry, Uni- versity of B r i t i s h Columbia. Chief Justice, Special Commissioner, Royal Commission of Enquiry into For- estry i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Forester-in-charge, Research Division, B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Service. Rector of the Royal School of Forestry, Stockholm. Conservator of Forests, Western Australia. Executive Director, Resources for the Future, Inc. Assistant Professor, University of California. Professor of Forest Soils, Cornell University. Dean of Forestry, New York State Uni- versity, Syracuse. Carnegie Institute, United States. Forestry Research Advisor to the Govern- ment of Iraq, Food and Agriculture Organ- ization (sometime, S i l v i c u l t u r i s t , Cyprus Forest Service) 2 0 4 . Tourney, J . W. Troup, R. Waterman, A. T. Weir, A. H. W. Week, J . Westveld, R. H. Wilm, H. G. W i t t , W. E. Work, H. Wood, R. F. P r o f e s s o r of S i l v i c u l t u r e , Y a l e U n i - v e r s i t y . D i r e c t o r , I m p e r i a l F o r e s t r y I n s t i t u t e , P r o f e s s o r of F o r e s t r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f Oxford. D i r e c t o r of the American N a t i o n a l S c i ence Foundation. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O f f i c e r , F a c u l t y o f Sci e n c e , Edinburgh U n i v e r s i t y (sometime Conservator o f F o r e s t s , B r i t i s h West A f r i c a ) F e d e r a l I n s t i t u t e of F o r e s t and Wood Economics, Reinbek, Germany. Head, Department of F o r e s t r y , M i s s o u r i S t a t e C o l l e g e . P r o f e s s o r of F o r e s t I n f l u e n c e s , A s s o c i a t e Dean of Graduate S t u d i e s , New York S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e o f F o r e s t r y , Syracuse. D i r e c t o r of F o r e s t r y , Union of South A f r i c a . C o n s u l t i n g F o r e s t e r , Staunton, V i r g i n i a . S i l v i c u l t u r i s t , U n i t e d Kingdom F o r e s t r y Commission. Zon, A. T. D i r e c t o r , Lake S t a t e s F o r e s t E x p e r i - mental S t a t i o n , U. S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e . 205- L i t e r a t u r e Consulted (Abbreviations follow Forestry Abstracts Coverage L i s t . Forestry and Forest Products Study No. 7, 1953) 1. A l l e n , G. S., 1950. Forest research at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Univ. B r i t . Col. Fac. For. Res. Note 1. 2 . American Foresters, Society of, 1950. Preliminary report, Sub-committee on planning and s t a t i s t i c a l procedures, Committee on technical procedures and standards f o r s i l v i c u l t u r a l research and research publications. Amer. J . For. 48 ( 1 0 ) : 716-720. 3 . Anderson, M. L., 1952. Future f o r e s t r y education. Emp. For. Rev. 3 0 : 196-202. 4 . A s i a - P a c i f i c Forestry Commission, 1957* Forestry and For- est products research. F.A . 0 . Rome. FAO/APFC-5^/31. 5 . Bailey, ¥., and H. A. S. Spoehr, 1929. The ro l e of research i n the development of f o r e s t r y i n North America. Amer. Nat. Acad. Sc. pp. 118. 6. Baldwin, H. I., 1942. Preface, Forest tree seed. Chronica Botanica. Waltham, Mass. 7. Baldwin, H. I., i 9 6 0 . Licencing of Foresters. Amer. J . For. 58: 325-326. 8. Barr, P. M., 1946. The research program of Blodgett Forest of the University of C a l i f o r n i a . Amer. J . For. 44 ( 1 0 ) : 738-741. 9 . Barrett, L. T. I., 1946. The status of s i l v i c u l t u r a l r e - search. .Amer. J . For. 44 (11) : 972-977. 10. Bates, C. G., and R. Zon, 1922. Research methods i n the study of forest environment. U.S.D.A. B u l l . 1059. 11. Beltran, E., 1955- Forestry and related research i n Mexico. (Trans, and prepared by T. G i l l ) , i n Forestry and related research i n North America. Soc. Amer. For., Washington, D. C. 12. Beresford-Peirse, H., 1957. The work of F.A.O., Forestry 30 ( 1 ) . 13. Besley, L. G. S., A l l e n , L. M. Gibson, L. Z. Rouseau, and J. w. S. Sisam, 1957. Forestry research at the Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . P. and P. Mag. Can. 53 ( 7 ) . eo6. 14. Bevan, A., 1942. T r o p i c a l forest research. Amer. J . For. 40: 169-79.. 15. B i c k e r s t a f f , A., 1952. S i l v i c u l t u r a l research program of the Forestry Branch. Misc. Pub. For. Res. For. Br. Can. 2. pp. 10. 16. Birch, T. T. C , 1949. Forestry research and education i n New Zealand. Unasylva 3 (2) . 17. Blenis, H. 1953. The rol e of forest ranger schools i n Canada and the United States. For. Chron. 29 ('2). 18. Bonham-Carter, V., 1958. Dartington H a l l . The h i s t o r y of an experiment. Phoenix London, pp. 224. Review i n Quart. J. For. L I l (4): 338-339- 1958. 19. Bor, N. L., 1947. T r o p i c a l ecology and research. 5th B r i t . Emp. For. Conf. Pap. pp. 6. 20. Brasnett, N. V., 1952. Future f o r e s t r y education. Emp. For. Rev. 30: 196-202. 21. B r i t i s h Columbia, Faculty of Forestry, University of, 1955- Report to the Royal Commission on fores t s and f o r - estry i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver, B. C. 22. B r i t i s h Columbia, Faculty of Forestry, University of, 1958. F i r s t decade of management research. U. B. C. Forest. 1949-58. Vancouver, B. C. 23. B r i t i s h Columbia, Forest Service of, Forest research r e - views . 24. B r i t i s h Columbia, 1958. E d i t o r i a l . B.C. Lumberm. March, 1958. 25. B r i t i s h Columbia Lumbermans Association, 1958. Annual Meeting. B.C. Lumberm. March, 1§58 . 26. B r i t i s h E c o l o g i c a l Society, and Society of Foresters, 1944. E c o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s involved i n the practice of for e s t r y . J . Ecol. 32:83. 27. B r i t i s h Empire Forestry Conference (5th) (Great B r i t a i n ) . 1947. Summary report, resolutions, reports of com- mittees. U. K. For. Comm. London. 28. B r i t i s h Empire Forestry Conference (5th) (Great B r i t a i n ) . 1947. Proceedings. U. K. For. Comm. London. 29. B r i t i s h Commonwealth Forestry Conference (6th) Canada). 1952. Proceedings. For. Br. Can. Ottawa.- 207. 30. B r i t i s h Commonwealth Forestry Conference (6th) (canada) 1952. Summary report, resolutions,.reports of committees. For. Br. Can. Ottawa. 3 1 . B r i t i s h Commonwealth Forestry Conference (7th) ( A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand). 1957. Summary report, resolutions, reports of committees. For. Timb. Bur. Aust., Canberra. 3 2 . Buckland, D. C , 1954. Research on re-search? B.C. Lumberm. 38 (10):44-46. 3 3 . Canada: Department of In t e r i o r , Forestry Branch. 1925. Forest research manual. Ottawa. 34. Canada: Department of Resources and Development, Forestry Branch, 1952. The Petawawa Forest Experiment Sta- t i o n . For. Res. Misc. Pub. For. Br. Can. 3 . pp. 27 . 35 . Canada: Department of Northern A f f a i r s and National Re- sources, 1956. Research work of the Forestry Branch. For. Res. Misc. Pub. For. Br. Can. 6 . pp 3 9 . 3 6 . Canada: Department of Northern A f f a i r s and National Re- sources, Forestry Branch, Annual reports. 37. Canada: Pulp and Paper Research I n s t i t u t e , 1955. Direc- tory of current woodlands research and experimental work i n the Canadian pulp and paper industry. Montreal. pp. 247• 3 8 . Canada: Pulp and Paper Research I n s t i t u t e , 1955* Direc- tory of current vroodlands research and experimental work i n the Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . Montreal, pp 6 9 . 39- Canada: Pulp and Paper Research I n s t i t u t e , 1958. The pulp and Paper Research I n s t i t u t e of Canada. Montreal. 40. Canadian Forest Products Ltd. 1955: Submission to the Royal Commission on Forestry. Vancouver, B. C. 41. Canadian woodlands Research Coordination Conference, 1955. Proceedings of the Montreal Meeting. Pulp Pap. Res. Inst. Can. Montreal. 42. Cameron, D. R., 1947- Forest and forest products research i n Canada. Unasylva 1. ( l ) : 4 7 - 5 3 . 4 3 . Caribbean Research Council, Caribbean Commission. Com- mittee on Agriculture, Nutrition, F i s h e r i e s , and Forestry. 1947. Forest research within the Caribbean area. 4 4 . Carmichael, 0 . C. 1959- U n i v e r s i t i e s : Commonwealth and American. Harper. New York. 208. 4 5 . Chalk, L., 1939. A fo r e s t r y tour i n 1937. Inst. Pap. Imp. Por. Inst. 16. Oxford, pp. 71 . 46. Champion, H. G. 1939- S i l v i c u l t u r a l research manual f o r use i n India, v o l . 1. The experimental manual. Dehra Dun, India. 4 7 . Champion, H. G. 1947. The Imperial Forestry I n s t i t u t e i n 1947. 5 t h B r i t . Emp. For. Conf. Pap. U. K. For Comm. London, pp. 7« 48. Champion, H. G. 1947. Relations of Empire f o r e s t r y with the United Nations 1 Food and Agriculture Organiza- t i o n . 5 t h B r i t . Emp. For. Conf. Pap., U. K. For. Comm. London, pp. 5 . 4 9 . Champion, H. G. 1951. Future f o r e s t r y education. Emp. For. Rev. 30 ( l ) : 2 0 - 2 1 . 5 0 . Champion, H. G. 1957. The Imperial Forestry I n s t i t u t e be- tween 1947 and 1956. 7 th B r i t . Comm. For. Conf. Pap., For. Tim. Bur. Aust., pp. 15• 51 . C i v i d i r i , - , and Wraker, M. 1949. Godzdarski i n s t i t u t . S2iovenije v. l e t i h 1947-49. (Forest research i n s t i - tute of Slovenia In 1947-49) . Izv. gozd. Inst. Sloven. 1. (abstract seen only.) 52. Clapp, E. H. 1926. A national program of for e s t research. Soc. Amer. For. pp. 232. 5 3 . Commonwealth Forestry Bureau, 1939-1960. Forestry Ab- str a c t s . Oxford. 54. Commonwealth Forestry Bureau, 1951. The chief research centres f o r f o r e s t r y and wood u t i l i s a t i o n i n contin- ental Europe. Review a r t i c l e . For. Abstr. 13 ( 2 ) . 55. Commonwealth Forestry Bureau, 1952. The chief research centres f o r f o r e s t r y and wood u t i l i s a t i o n i n the Near and Far East. Review a r t i c l e . For. Abstr. 13 (4). - 56. Commonwealth Forestry Bureau, 1954. The Oxford system of decimal c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r f o r e s t r y . Oxford. 57. Commonwealth Forestry Bureau, 1958. Guide to the use of Forestry Abstracts. Oxford. 58. Connaughton, C. A. and I. T. Haig. 1945. Forest research i n the south,being expanded. Sth. Lumberm. 171:129- 33- 209- 59. Correia, C. A. de Paixae, 1955• Estudos sobre o sobreiro em Portugal. Trabalhos em cursp no Estacao de Exper- imentacao P l o r e s t a l do Sobreiro. (Studies on Cork Oak i n Portugal." Work i n progress at the Cork Oak Forest Experiment Station). B a l . Junta nac. C o r t i c a . Lisboa. 17(200)(217-20 LXV-LXVII:47-8) (abstract seen only.) 60. Correl, L. M. Foresters f o r tomorrow. 1957- Proc. Am. Soc. For. 61. Cowlin, R. W. 1959. Preface. Rep. Pacif. Nth. West. For. Range. Exp. Sta. 1958. 62. Dana, S. T. 1951. Future f o r e s t r y education. Emp. For Rev. 50:136-137. 63. Dana, S. T. 1955* Forestry and related research i n Canada, i n , Forestry and re l a t e d research i n North America. Soc. Amer. For., Washington, D. C. 64. Duabenmire, R. F. 1947* Plants and environment. Wiley. 2nd. Ed. 65. Davis, K. 8. 1959. Should we develop a dual system of f o r e s t r y education? Amer. J . For. 57:381-382. 66. Dinsmore, R. P. 1958. Improving the professional environ- ment of research people: Human r e l a t i o n s are impor- tant. Res. Management 1 (2). 67. D u f f i e l d , J. w. 1959• What kind of f o r e s t r y schools? Amer. J . For. 57:374-575. 68. East A f r i c a , 1951. Proceeding of the s p e c i a l i s t committee of f o r e s t r y research, 13th-15th December, 1950 (Nairobi). E. Af. Agric. For. Res. Organ. Kikuyu, Kenya (abstract seen only). 69. E d l i n , H. L. 1956. Review of, Forestry and re l a t e d r e - search i n North America. Forestry XXIX (2). 70. Eklund, B. 1948. The organisation and work of the Swedish Forest Research I n s t i t u t e . Unasylva 2 (5) . 71. Ellsworth, H. 1945* Needs of forest research. Wst. Cst. Lumberm. 72 (6) . 72. Empire Forestry Review, 1951. E d i t o r i a l , Future f o r e s t r y education. Emp. For. Rev. 50(1) :115. 75. Engel, L. 1954. Get a good s c i e n t i s t and l e t him alone. Harpers Magazine, 1240:55-59. 210. 74. Farrar, J..L. 1950. Some p r i n c i p l e s of s i l v i c u l t u r a l research. For. Chron. 26(3):226-230. 75. Fischer, F. i960. Personal conversation. 76. Fletcher, P. W. and R. E. McDermott. 1959- Identifying and guiding future researchers i n f o r e s t r y . Proc. Am. Soc. For. 77. F l i c k , F. J . , 1954. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes f o r f o r e s t r y . Am. J . For. 52:201-202. 78. F l i c k , F. J . , 1954. The Oxford system of decimal c l a s s i - f i c a t i o n f0r f o r e s t r y . Amer. J. For. 52:868-869. 79. F l i c k , F. J . , 1956. Applying the Oxford system i n America. Amer. J . For. 54: 325-328. 80. Food and Agriculture Organization. The work of FaO (Annual Reports). Rome. 81. Food and Agriculture Organization. 19^7• Forestry i n the North Western United States of America. Unasylva 1(5). 82. Food and Agriculture Organization. 1952. Eucalyptus study tour i n A u s t r a l i a , September/October, 1952. MImeo. Rome. 83. Food and Agriculture Organisation, 1953. National forest p o l i c i e s i n Europe. FAO For. For. Prod. Stu. 8. 84. Food and Agriculture Organisation, 1953. Research i n fores t r y and forest products. FAO For. For. Prod. Stu. 9. 85. Food and Agriculture Organisation, 1957• Ten years of forestry i n F.A.O. Unasylva 11(2) -.49-100. 86. France: Ecole Nationale des Eaux et Forets, 1956. Dix ans d ' a c t i v i t e de l a station de recherches et ex- periences f o r e s t i e r e s de 1'Ecole Nationale des Eaux et Forets. (Ten years work at the forest research and experiment st a t i o n of the Ecole Nationale des Eaux et Forets). Ann. Ec. Eaux For. Nancy. 15 ( l ) . 87. Francois, T. 1950. Forest p o l i c y , law, and administra- t i o n . FAO For. For. Prod. Stu. 2. pp 211. 88. Furse, R. 1951. Future f o r e s t r y education. Emp. For. Rev. 30: 131-134. 89. Gibson, J . M., 1956. Research i n f o r e s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Unpub. manuscript. Fac. For. Univ. B r i t . --Col. 2 1 1 . 9 0 . Graves, H. S. 1 9 4 7 . problems and progress i n f o r e s t r y i n the United States. Rep. J t . Sub-Comm. For., Nat. Res. Council. Soc. Amer. For. 9 1 . Great B r i t a i n : 1944. S c i e n t i f i c research and development. Statement of the e x i s t i n g Government organisation. H.M.S.O. London, pp. 1 2 . 9 2 . Great B r i t a i n : Colonial research committee. 1 9 4 4 . F i r s t annual report. H.M.S.O. London, pp. 1 1 . 9 3 . Great B r i t a i n : Colonial research committee. 1 9 4 5 . Colonial research 1 9 4 4 - 4 5 . Second annual report. H.M.S.O. London. 9 4 . Great B r i t a i n : Committee f o r c o l o n i a l , a g r i c u l t u r a l , animal health and f o r e s t r y research, 1 9 4 8 . Recom- mendations f o r the organisation of c o l o n i a l research i n a g r i c u l t u r e , animal health and f o r e s t r y . H.M.S.O. London. Colonial 2 1 9 . PP« 1 6 . 9 5 . Great B r i t a i n : Forestry Commissioners. 1 9 4 3 * Post-war forest p o l i c y . H.M.S.O. London. Commd. 6447. 9 6 . Great B r i t a i n : Forestry Commissioners. 1 9 4 9. T h i r t i e t h annual report of the Forestry Commissioners. H.M.S.O. London. 9 7 . Great B r i t a i n : Forestry Commission. 1 9 4 9 - 5 8 . Reports of forest research. H.M.S.O. London. 9 8 . Great B r i t a i n : Joint Committee, Royal S c o t t i s h Forestry Society and Royal Forestry Society of England and Wales. 1 9 4 4 . Post-war f o r e s t r y . A report on f o r - est p o l i c y . 9 9 . Great B r i t a i n : Nature Conservancy, 1 9 5 0 . The Nature Con- servancy, status and functions. H.M.S.O. London. 1 0 0 . Great B r i t a i n : Nature Conservancy. 1 9 5 3 / 4 . Study of woodlands. Rep. Nat. Conserv. London. 1 0 1 . G r i f f i t h , A. L. 1 9 5 3 . Forest research i n East A f r i c a . Unasylva 7 ( 4 ) . 1 0 2 . G r i f f i t h , A. L. 1 9 5 7 - I.U.F.R.O. study tour of North Scotland 1 9 5 6 . Emp. For. Rev. 3 1 ( l ) : 8 0 - 8 4 . 103. G r i f f i t h , A. L. 1 9 5 9 . The second i n t e r - A f r i c a n Forestry Conference 1 9 5 8 . Emp. For. Rev. 3 8 ( 2 ) - 9 6 . 104. Gunther, h. Bericht uber den Stand den Papperlforchung i n den Deutchen Demakratischen Republik (Report on the present p o s i t i o n of poplar research i n D.D.R.) Arch, f o r s t . 4 ( 7 / 8 ) . (abstract seen only). 2 1 2 . 1 0 5 . Haig, I. T., M. A. Huberman, U. Aung Din. 1 9 5 9 - T r o p i c a l s i l v i c u l t u r e . Proc. Amer. Soc. For. 1 9 5 9 • 1 0 6 . Hambidge, G., The story of F. A. 0 . , D. Van Nostrand Co. Inc. New York and London. 107« Hardee, J . H., 1 9 5 9 • Comments on what kind of f o r e s t r y schools? Amer. J . For. 5 7 , 7 6 1 - 7 6 2 . 1 0 8 . Harper, V. L. 1 9 5 5 . Some high-lights of forest research. Amer. J. For. 5 3 ( 2 ) : 1 0 6 - 1 1 1 . 1 0 9 . Hawley, R. C. 1 9 4 0 . Practice of S i l v i c u l t u r e . Wiley. New York. 1 1 0 . Hebb, G. H. and M. J . Martin, 1 9 5 8 . Free inquiry i n i n - d u s t r i a l research. Research Management, 3. ( 2 ) . 1 1 1 . Henderson, F. Y. 1 9 5 0 . Forest research i n the United King- dom. Research i n forest products. Unasylva 4_ ( l ) . 1 1 2 . Hignet, G. 1 9 4 9 and 1 9 5 3 . The c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . Oxford Univ. Press. 1 1 3 . Hiley, W. E. 1 9 5 6 . Review of, Forestry handbook of so- c i e t y American Foresters. Forestry 29 ( 2 ) . 114. Hiley, w. E. 1 9 5 9 * Review, of, Economics of American f o r e s t r y by A. C. Worell. Q. Jour. For. L I I I ( 3 ) . 1 1 5 . H i l l i e r , J . 1 9 5 8 . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the f i r s t l i n e of supervision i n research. Research Management 1 ( 4 ) . 1 1 6 . Huberman, M. A. 1 9 4 7 * Forest research i n Japan. Amer. J . For. 4 5 ( 2 ) . 1 1 7 . Hosmer, R. S. 1 9 5 1 . Future f o r e s t r y education. Emp. For. Rev. 3 0 : 1 3 4 - 1 3 6 . 1 1 8 . Hummell, F. C , G. M. Locke, J. N. R. J e f f e r s , and J . M. C h r i s t i e , 1 9 5 9 . Code of sample plot procedure. U. K. For. Comm. B u l l . 3 1 . London. 1 1 9 . India: 1 9 4 4 . Forest Research I n s t i t u t e , Dehra Dun. Nature. 1 9 3 . 1 2 0 . India: Ministry of Agriculture, 1 9 4 8 ( ? ) . The Forest Re- search I n s t i t u t e and Colleges, i t s scope and function. 1 2 1 . International Union of Forest Research Organizations, 1 9 4 7 - 5 8 . Annual reports. 1 2 2 . International Union of Forest Research Organisations, 1 9 5 8 . Proceedings of the Twelfth Congress. Oxford. 1 9 5 6 . PP. 1 2 9 . 213. 123. 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