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Proposed system for 35 mm. large scale aerial photography in natural resource management Schuerholz, Goetz 1970

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A PROPOSED SYSTEM FOR 35 mm. LARGE SCALE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY IN NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. by Goetz Schuerholz Vordiplom, U n i v e r s i t y of Muenchen, 1966 Diplom, Un i v e r s i t y of Freiburg, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF FORESTRY. The Faculty of Forestry The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia August, 1970 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I a g ree tha t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Go»tz Schuerholz Department o f Forestry The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date OoW-V^  1^4^ -13 ' ^0 i i ABSTRACT This describes an aerial photographic system which is based on 35 mm. cameras. The design for the camera mount is explained in det a i l . The or i g i n a l i t y of this equipment IS due to the fact that the camera i s operated by hand and that the special device for advancing the film enables the operator to take photos from an altitude as low as 400 feet above ground elevation whilst s t i l l obtaining 60 per cent forward overlap. More than 10 flying hours were spent in order to study the f e a s i b i l i t y of this method in the various fields of natural resource management and others. The outcome of these test fli g h t s i s illustrated with stereo pairs and single prints for the fields of w i l d l i f e management, f i s h management, range management, agriculture, forestry, c i t y planning, erosion and pollution problems. The basic film type used was Kodak Tri-X panchromatic black and white. The problems which arose during the f l i g h t are illus t r a t e d and discussed, e.g. shutter, scale, speed of the a i r c r a f t , requirements for the plane and p i l o t , f i l t e r s and films, weather conditions etc. The f e a s i b i l i t y of this new method was substantiated in presenting a series of sharp photos. The high resolution power of modern 35 mm. film material allows the trained interpreter to use the large scale photographs taken by this system for: 1. Estimates of big game populations and spotting game with the aid of tracks on snow, 2. Detecting beaver ac t i v i t y , 3. Population estimates of muskrats by a house count, 4. Waterfowl census by pin pointing the individuals on the prints, 5. Detection of spawning grounds for salmon, and the estimation of algal production. 6. Detecting water and land pollution. 7. Determining erosion problems. 8. Habitat and range evaluation of game and livestock. 9 0 Inventory work in range management, agriculture, and forestry, 10. City planning and landscape architecture. TABLE OF CONTENTS i v page INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose • 1 Scope 2 EQUIPMENT 4 Air c r a f t 4 Special device for the Camera 4 Longitudinal Position of the Camera . 6 Mount of the Suspension into the Ai r c r a f t 6 Levelling of the Camera and Reloading 6 TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS TO CAMERA 9 PHOTOGRAPHY TEST 10 Films and Fi l t e r s 10 Exposure 12 Flying Height and Scale 12 Speed of Ai r c r a f t and Time Interval Between Exposures 13 * Image Blur 13 APPLICATION 16 Wildlife Management 16 Habitat Evaluation 16 Census Method for Big Game 21 Beaver Ac t i v i t y 25 Muskrats 32 Census Taking of Waterfowl 36 Fish Management 39 Pollution Problems • 42 Erosion 46 Range Management 50 Agriculture • 56 City Planning (Residential Areas) 67 Forestry 70 LARGE SCALE PHOTOGRAPHY, C r i t i c a l Analysis 90 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 93 BIBLIOGRAPHY 9 7 TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Number Pag< 1. Camera mount in the Air c r a f t 5 2. Graph of Longitudinal and Transverse Position of the Camera 6 3. Camera mount and Position of the Operator in the Air c r a f t 8 4. Camera in Operation 9 5. Blur of image caused by Low Flying Height and Inadequate Exposure Speed 15 6. Wildlife Habitat Evaluation in Area Northeast of Stave Lake 17 7. Deer Habitat Northwest of Stave Lake 19 8. Valley in the Northwest of Stave Lake ....... 20 9. Beach of Boundary Bay 22 10a., Human Tracks at Boundary Bay 23 10b. Corresponding Ground Photo 23 11a,b. Deer Tracks in the Mudflats of P i t t Lake .... 24 11c. Corresponding Ground Photo 24 12a. Beaver Cuttings in a Populus Plantation on a Fraser River Island , 28 12b. Corresponding Ground Photo .................. 29: 13. Beaver Cuttings on the same Island as on Figure 12a 30 14. Abandoned Beaver dam in the Fraser River .... 31 15. Marshland South of P i t t Lake 33 16. Muskrat Nest on the Marshland of P i t t Lake ... 34 17. Muskrat Nests, South of P i t t Lake 35 18. Gulls on a Drainage Channel in Boundary Bay . 38' Figure Number Page 19. Sandy Shoals, South of Boundary Bay 41 20. River Pollution, the Fraser, West of Chilliwack 43 21. Siltation, caused by Agricultural Activity 44 22. Dumping of cars on the Northern Beach dam of Boundary Bay 45 23a. Road Erosion in Haney Research Forest ... 47 23b. Corresponding Ground Photo 48 23c. Kodacolor and Ektachrome 48 23d. Ektachrome Infrared 49 24. Open Range in a Populus Plantation in the Fraser Valley near Chilliwack .... 52 25. A r t i f i c i a l l y reforested Forest Plantation in Haney Research Forest 53 26. Natural Growth in Haney Research Forest . 54 27. Species Diversity in a Stand of Haney Research Forest 55 28. Rural Area in Delta D i s t r i c t 57 29. Timber Production and Agriculture in Surrey D i s t r i c t 58 30. Cattle Rough pasture in White Rock 59 31. overstocking Necessitates A r t i f i c i a l Feeding Methods 60 32. Cattle Farm in Delta D i s t r i c t 61 33. Agricultural Area in Delta D i s t r i c t , Metamorphosis from Rough"Pasture into Cropland 63 34. orchards in Delta D i s t r i c t 64 v i i Figure Number Page 35. Chinese Vegetable Farm in Delta D i s t r i c t 65 36. Crops in White Rock (Ektachrome Infrared). 66 37. Subdivision in a Residential Area at the Periphery of Haney 67 38. Periphery of Haney 69 39. Drifting Logs on Stave Lake 71 40. Mixed Stand of Conifers and Deciduous Trees in Haney Research Forest 72 41. Shadows, helpful for Tree Identification . 73 42. Mixed Stands of Conifers and Deciduous Trees at East side of Stave Lake 74 43. A r t i f i c i a l l y Reforested Areas in Haney Research Forest 75 44a, Oblique Photo in a Burned Over Area in Haney Research Forest 76 44b. Clearcut Area in Haney Research Forest ... 77 45. Burned Over Area in Haney Research Forest. 78 46a. Corresponding Ground Photos 80 46b. Plantations in Haney Research Forest 81 46c. Kodakcolor 82 46d. Ektachrome Infrared 83 46e. Ektachrome Color 84 47; Forest Area in the Fraser Valley? Ektachrome Infrared 86 48a. Plantations in Haney Research Forest on Color Infrared 87 48b. Corresponding Kodakcolor Stereo pair 88 LIST OF TABLES v l i i Table Number Page 1. Films and F i l t e r s 11 2. Interval Between Exposures Changing with Varying Flying Height and A i r c r a f t Speed, Calculated for Transverse Positioned 35 mm. Cameras with an Average Focal Length of 55 mm 14 3. Comparison of Costs Between Conventional Techniques and;.the New Method 91 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research was performed under the sponsorship and financial assistance of the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia. Grateful acknowledgement is given to Mr. E. Apt, who's technical assistance enabled the construction of the workable suspension system. Acknowledgement also i s given to the p i l o t , Murray McLean who proved himself also as a highly qualified navigator. This paper has been made possible through the co-operative effort of several individuals. Special thanks are given to Dr. D.D. Munro, for his helpful comments and ideas. A PROPOSED SYSTEM FOR 35 mm. LARGE SCALE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY IN NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. INTRODUCTION PURPOSE The objective of this study was to develop a simple, inexpensive technique u t i l i z i n g a 35 mm. camera and a li g h t plane for large scale aerial photographs to serve as an aid to persons confronted with problems in natural resource management. In many cases, resource management personnel are forced to use aerial photography which is out of date, has the wrong scale, or does not cover the required area. A possible solution to this problem would be the development of a cheap and simple photogrammetric system designed to supply the resource manager with his own re-li a b l e up-to-date negatives and information in a short time period. Vertical aerial photographs are known as a means for obtaining valuable information and are used in Increasing numbers in the management of wildland areas, in forestry, w i l d l i f e , range, and watershed management, in agriculture, geology, and in various other fields such as landscape architecture, c i t y planning, recreation and ecology. 2. S C O P S In an effort to f u l f i l l the objective of the study a special suspension for a 35 mm. camera was designed to take into account the vibration of the a i r c r a f t , t ip and t i l t . Various kinds of film and f i l t e r combinations have been used on different objects in order to show the applic-a b i l i t y of this system and the application range. It should be understood that the described technique is only a study for supplementary aer i a l photography. Contact prints and enlargement of 35 mm. negatives cannot replace photos taken by conventional equipment using large cameras, but the quality of 35 mm. cameras and films allow enlargements from 35 mm. negatives with a resolution presenting acceptable and usable detail quality. Furthermore i t should be understood that the stereo pairs produced by 35 mm. equipment should be used for interpretational work only. The detail obtained in these photographs taken from varying flying heights and with a varying a i r c r a f t speed are useful in many aspects of resource management. Some individuals have already realized the potential benefits obtained by the use of reasonable inexpensive camera equipment and ligh t aeroplanes and the interest in i t is 3. steadily increasing. Prints made from 35 mm. negatives have a high p i c t o r i a l value, but careful considerations should be given to their limiting factors, especially i f measurements are to be made on the photographs. These limitations are reported by Willingham (1959), Parker and Johnson (1969), Cameggie and Reppert (1969), and other authors. The research in development and application of large scale photography is described by Avery (1958), Sayn Wittgenstein (1960, 1964), Seely (1959), Ardrich, Bailey and Heller (1959). The potential use of 35 mm. cameras in Forestry i s pointed out by Parker and Johnson (1969), Cook (1969) and Zsilinsky (1969). The general outlook of these authors towards the development and use of large scale photographic systems i s positive. This report summarizes research performed at the Forestry Faculty of the University of British Columbia and includes the design of the camera mount and the results of test fli g h t s carried out over different landscape types. The Interpretation of the photos w i l l be divided into sections regarding their usefulness in such fields as: * wi l d l i f e management, pollution control, erosion control, range management, agriculture, c i t y planning (residential areas), and forestry. 4. EQUIPMENT The a i r c r a f t for this project was a four seated Cessna 172, lout any other plane with a high wing configuration, slow cruise a b i l i t y and good v i s i b i l i t y can be used with the same efficiency. Careful consideration should be given to the fact that most a i r c r a f t f l y in a nose-up attitude impairing the view of the p i l o t . Camera suspension: Important requirements of the camera mount are that: - i t must; be cheap and easy to construct - i t requires few or insignificant modifications of the a i r c r a f t . - a i r c r a f t vibration is eliminated at low frequencies - the camera is level when in a v e r t i c a l position there is a suitable place for the camera operator. The f i n a l mount that produced the best results is shown and described in detail in Appendix I. The camera mount is designed to clamp to the seat r a i l s of the removed co-pilot seat (see Figure 1). To reduce the vibration from the seat r a i l s to the arm holding the camera, two plexi-glass frame boxes f i l l e d with polyfoam were mounted on a plexi-glass plate which was attached to adjustable tracks which slide over the seat r a i l s . Through these boxes the mounting arm of the camera rests. 5. To intercept the remaining vibration that would be amplified through the arm of the camera, three cylindrical vessels are attached directly to the plexi-glass frame. They are f i l l e d with a viscous mixture of glycerine and honey. Floating independently in this shock absorbing f l u i d are three more cylinders which are attached to the arm of the camera. These two independent systems suf f i c i e n t l y absorb the vibrations allowing the camera to take high quality photos. Figure 1. Camera mount in the a i r c r a f t . 6 The suspension holds the camera perpendicular to the f l i g h t l i n e . It is important, as the negative of a 35 mm, camera has a frame size of 24 by 36 mm. This position provides a greater depth of fusion. (Zsilinsky, 1968). How-ever, the decision for a longitudinal, or transverse device (see Figure 2) depends upon the assumptions and requirements being made and on purpose of the survey. Figure 2. a) longitudinal, b) transverse position of camera. The cost of the material used for the suspension was approximately $25.00. This device can be mounted into the a i r c r a f t with-in three minutes. It's use does not require extensive modifications of the plane, nor special licensing. The device can be used for any type of 35 mm. camera and a certain type of high wing lig h t a i r c r a f t . Such an a i r c r a f t can be rented in most circumstances by most individuals under reasonable cost conditions. The charge for a single flying hour w i l l range from $16.00 to $25.00 depending upon the type of aeroplane. A suitable a i r c r a f t for this suspension 7. proved to be a four seater, since the device can be s l i d over the r a i l s of the removed co-pilot seat and the shots can be taken out of the door space in a position comfortable for the operator who is located on the rear seat. The door is held by two hinge bolts which can be pulled out by hand, and the seat is attached to the r a i l s by a lever-arm. The procedure of removing the door and seat and the mounting process can be done in 5 to 8 minutes. A limiting factor for the use of this design is the weather. Flights can be undertaken only during the warmer times of the year and on days without rain. Once the a i r c r a f t i s in level f l i g h t , the camera c is adjusted for vertical shots in i t s metal shoe and remains levelled even after reloading. The reloading process by i t s e l f during the f l i g h t seemed to be a problem, but once the cameraman gets used to the procedure, he w i l l be able to change films and f i l t e r s , to change diaphragm openings and shutter speeds and to clean the lenses without any d i f f i c u l t y , holding the camera between the base plate and his feet in a stable working position. To secure the camera during operating time a safety line (b in Figure 3) connects the camera body to the plexi-glass frame. Since no attempt was made to use the viewfinder in f l i g h t the p i l o t had to be able to place the target in view of the cameraman and had to maintain speed and height 8 Figure 3. Camera mount and the position of the operator in the a i r c r a f t . while flying the a i r c r a f t according to the instructions of the photographer. The photographer had to co-ordinate those parameters with the time intervals between exposures. Reliable results w i l l be obtained by teamwork and experience. Figure 4 shows the suspension operated during a fl i g h t and the position of the photographer who is s i t t i n g on the rear seat. 1 Figure 4. Illustration of the camera in operation. Technical considerations to the camera: A Japanese made good quality Konika Auto-Reflex camera with a Hexanon 1:2.8 and a 35 mm. focal length wide-angle lens was used for this study in a l l test f l i g h t s . Alternately, a Hexanon 1:1.4 lens with a focal length of 57 mm. was used. Magnification of the negatives requires an excellent resolving power of the lenses. Camera attach-ments such as f i l t e r s , adaptors etc. are commercially available from most camera shops. 10. Any 35 mm. camera is suitable for this suspension i f i t f u l f i l l s the two requirements which are good quality optics and fast shutter speeds up to 1/500 of a second and a shutter that does not freeze. Freezing can be eliminated by lubrication with silicones as described by Zsilinsky (1968). * PHOTOGRAPHY TEST Fijms and F i l t e r s The basic film used in this study was a Kodak Tri-X panchromatic film that has a fine grain and a speed of 400 ASA. It produces good quality pictures with sharp images. It produces satisfactory enlargements. A comparative study with four different film types was carried out giving excellent de t a i l , quality and information as is shown in the following i l l u s t r a t i o n s . As the colour and the tonal contrast of an image is one of the most characteristic identification parameters in discriminating among objects, i t is important to under-stand the colour ranges of each film type. The necessary detail information can be taken from the corresponding Kodak Papers. 11. TABLE 1 Films and Filters Film F i l t e r Kodak Tri-X pan black, and white Kodakcolor X Ektachrome color Ektachrome infra red IE (135-20) Vivitar Haze F i l t e r 55mm. UV Vivitar, light green 55mm. X£. hone none Vivitar, medium yellow F i l t e r , K 2 12. Exposure The exposure time was determined by the Kodak Aerial Exposure Computer. The proper exposure time depends to some extent upon the experience and judgement of the photographer. His experience gives him the necessary information about haze conditions. The f i l t e r factors were taken from the corresponding Kodak information sheet. Flying height The flying height is one of the most important and most c r i t i c a l parameters in photogrammetrical work as the altimeters in use are highly biased as was previously pointed out. A correctly determined height measurement in connection with a topographic map permits the calculation of the representative fraction by a simple formula. The formula i s : RF = f  H - ground elevation focal length in feet flying height of the plane. Furthermore, the flying height is required to determine the interval between the exposures, to avoid motion distortion and to obtain the three dimensional view. f = H = Table 2 showa alternatives in the choice of intervals between the exposures, in seconds, varying with altitude and scale calculated for a transversely positioned 35 mm. camera with a negative format ©,f 3.5 mm. by 24 mm. Three different speeds of the plane were ohosen considering different topo-graphic conditions and: different a i r turbulences. In other words where a f l i g h t with a. speed of 60 miles per hour might be suitable over marshland the same speed for the same a i r -craft might prove to be c r i t i c a l in mountainous country. In preliminary investigations tests were conducted to determine how many pictures the photographer could take in a certain time interval. Under ideal conditions, the-shutter working continuously, the operator was able to take 32 exposures in 20 seconds. Thus the calculation begins with 0.65 seconds giving 0,3 second tolerance. A flying height below 300 feet with an inadequate exposure speed causes blur of the image as illustrated by Figure 5 and Fibure 5b, These pictures were taken from 150 feet over the mudflats of P i t t Lake. An exposure speed of 1/500 per second and a flying height greater than 450 feet with an average speed of 700 mph. give high quality pictures with the required over-lap. 14. TABLE 2 Interval between exposures changing with varying f l y i n g height and speed, calculated for transverse positioned 35 mm. cameras with an average focal length of 55 mm. Speed Interval bet- Scale Height Area covered in Mph. ween exposure in feet in km* in seconds 60 0.64 1:1801 325 0.0028 70 0.55 80 0.48 60 0.69 1:1939 3h 350 0.0033 70 0.59 80 0.52 60 0.74 1:2078 375 0.0037 70 0.64 80 0.56 60 0.79 1:2216 400 0.0042 70 0.68 80 0.59 60 0.84 1:2355 425. 0.0048 70 0.72 80 0.63 60 0.89 1:12493 450 0.0054 70 0.76 80 0.67 60 0.94 1:2632 475 0.0060 70 0.89 80 0.74 60 0.99 1:2770 500 0.0066 70 0.85 80 0.74 60 1.39 1:3879 700 0.0130 70 1.19 80 1.04 Source: Annual report of Serengeti Research Program, (Williams, 1969). 15. Figure 5. Single shots taken over P i t t Lake mudflats from an altitude of 150 feet. Blur caused by low flying height and inadequate exposure speed can be seen on the tracks of the human beings. Figure 5a. 16. APPLICATION OF THE TECHNIQUE Wildlife Management: Habitat Evaluation: Game biologists w i l l cite the provision of supplementary food as the major role forest clearings play in their management program. The second criterion of a clearing i s the 'edge effect', especially important for deer. Recent studies show a correlation between size and shape of clearcut areas with the size of deer populations (Larson (1966), Schuster, Halls (1962), Wilson Berard (1952), and Dalke (1937) ). Areas which provide the best habitat must have a good diversity (Figure 6, No. 1,2) of vegetation types. Stereo set Figure 6 gives evidence about the heterogenous nature of vegetation, the shape and size of clearing (3) and the f a i r number of openings in the canopy for the growth of browse species. Hollows and h i l l s (see Figure 6, Nos. 6,7, and 8), caused by topographic distortion can be identified. 17. Figure 6. W i l d l i f e habitat evaluation i n an area northeast of Stave Lake. 18. Figure 7 shows a diversity in shape and size of cut-over areas and the distribution of different vegetative age classes. The v i s i b l e access road w i l l allow a harvest. The 'edge'effect' might also be illustrated by this photo set which shows mature timber as refuges and openings. The term 'edge' might be defined as the boundary between two vegetative types, or two different age classes and i s an important component of the previously discussed diversity The stereo pair also illustrates the usefulness of the technique for cover mapping. The cover map is a helpful tool for the f i e l d biologist and the w i l d l i f e manager. Cover maps can best be made from large scale ve r t i c a l aerial photographs of good quality. None the less, the i l l u s t r a t i o n Figure 7 shows that an accurate map of vegetative types can be drawn with a minimum demand on energy, time and cost. However, ground studies, experience, and a basic ecological knowledge are requirements for a meaningful interpretation. 19. Figure 7. Deer habitat northwest of Stave Lake. Diversity of clear-cut areas and a distribution of different vegetative age classes. 20 Figures 6 and 8 are intended to i l l u s t r a t e only the relatively small areas occupied by seres which are found along streams and creeks and which are important for wild-l i f e . Those sites have excellent moisture and s o i l conditions and grow a variety of browse species for deer. Figure 8. Valley in the northwest of stave Lake. Flying height of 900 feet above ground le v e l . 21. The use of vert i c a l and oblique aerial photographs in the determination of game species, for the census of individuals, and for population estimates from track counts during summer and winter are described by different authors . ( Crissey, 1946; Evans, Troyer and Lensink, 1966; Banfield et a l . , 1955). The best time of the year to undertake the surveys may be the winter, when the big game species are concentrated on suitable range areas and when the deciduous trees have dropped their leaves. This is also the period when the contrast between snow covered backgrounds and objects becomes highest. Observation and counts of snow tracks provide limited information about the winter distribu-tion of the observed species and their relative abundance as described by Banfield et a l . (1955). The tracks are often of assistance in locating animals (Crissey, 1946). Figures 9, 10 and 11 document that tracks can be seen and identified from the a i r with ease. On Figure 9, three different human tracks clearly contrast against the s i l t y background. Photo Figure 10a and stereo pair 9 were taken from 350 feet above ground and a speed of 70 mph. Figure 9 is an example of a poor overlap. The required time interval between the exposures for the mentioned height and speed combination would have been for this particular case 0.50 seconds. It was discussed earlier Arrow shows footprints of human beings 23. Figure 10a. Human tracks along railway crossing, Boundary Bay. Flying height of 350 feet above ground. Figure 10b. Ground photo corresponding to Figure 10a. 24 Figure 11a and b. Mudflats south of P i t t Lake. Fly i n g height of 150 feet above ground. Note the deer tracks. Figure 11c. Ground photo corresponding to areas of 11a and b. 25. that the device being used permits the camera operator, under ideal conditions, to take exposures with a 0.62 second time interval thus gaining a 60 per cent forward overlap. That this poor stereo pair might s t i l l be valuable is dependent upon the objective of the interpreter. In a general sense, a l o t of information can be extracted from single prints. Figure 11 shows the tracks of deer. The photo was taken from 150 feet and a-speed of 70 mph. over the mudflats of P i t t Lake. Beaver The management of beaver populations appears very complex as many opposing ideas have to be taken into consideration as i s reported by Crissey (1946), and Mathiak (1951). An intensively managed s i l v i c u l t u r a l area with costly Populus plantations situated on f e r t i l e plains along river-sides conflicts with a high beaver ac t i v i t y in the same area. In some parts of the country beaver ponds and pools rep-resent not only an enrichment of thellandscape but might be an ecological necessity. For example, they may give a variety of other species the base of existence and guarantee water supply to agricultural areas throughout the year. Data on changes in population size of beaver and data about 26 l i v i n g and abandoned dams are of great interest for an optimum management program. Experience has shown sometimes that a survey of beaver abundance and intestigations about damage complaints may be costly when done from the ground. As an economic solution to this dilemma well organized aerial surveys could be u t i l i z e d . The problem to differentiate between an active and an abandoned beaver dam may be solved by choosing the right time of year for a survey. This i s the late f a l l when the beavers start to repair their dams and get ready for winter. The beaver cuts trees for food storage, and on the large scale photos fresh chips ap-pearing bright in colour, and the stumps and the fallen trees stripped of their leaves can easily be identified, (Cressey, 1946). The mosaic on Figure 14 shows an abandoned beaver dam on which no house can be recognized. The dam was b u i l t 27 in the middle of the river connecting sandbanks. The distance between the dam and what was apparently the closest available food supply was approximately 200 yards. 28 Figure 12a. Beaver cuttings in a Populus plantation on a Fraser River island. 29. 30 Beaver cuttings in a Populus plantation on an island in the Fraser River. Flying height of 400 feet above ground. 31. Figure 14. Abandoned beaver dam in the Fraser River connecting two sandbanks. The photos of the mosaic are taken from 400 feet flying height. 32. Muskrats The importance of muskrats as bearers of valuable fur requires a well organized management program. Muskrat houses can be counted from the a i r (Crissey, 1946). A good management program for the steady maintenance of valuable fur bearers and such an interesting species, as an enrichment of marshlands may require an effective survey which may be done in the most economical way from the a i r . One of the study areas flown was the previously mentioned marsh south of P i t t Lake, which is protected as a waterfowl refuge. The oblique photo of Figure 15 shows a general over-view of the described area. The vegetation appears uniform. 33. Figure 15. Marshland, south of P i t t Lake. 34. The single print (Figure 16) shows a muskrat house (see arrow). The arrows 1 and 2 of the stereo set Figure 17 indicate t r a i l s running from the houses into water channels. The photos were taken from an altitude of approximately 250 feet above ground and a speed of 65 mph. The minimum amount of image blur does not influence the informative value. A periodical yearly survey enables the manager to get an estimate of the population size of muskrats in a certain area, since newly b u i l t houses can be counted. The best time of year might be the early winter when the management area is snow covered. The active nest might appear darker in tone on a black and white print than an abandoned one because of the heat generated by the animals. Figure 16. Muskrat nest on the marshland of P i t t Lake. 35. Figure 17. Muskrat houses, south of P i t t Lake. Flying height of 250 feet above ground. 36. Waterfowl Aerial photographs can be of considerable use in estimates of the numbers of waterfowl, in evaluation of breeding areas and in the determination of potential refuge sites. The f i r s t experience with duck census from the a i r is reported by Miller (1932). Aerial photos in the management of waterfowl are given by Crissey, Leedy (1953), Colwell (1950), Kadlec (1968), and Young (1965). This study with a 35 mm. camera shows i t s application with i t s large scale photographs to the management of waterfowl. This technique might also be useful to estimate nests of sea birds l i v i n g together in colonies as reported by Kadlec (1968). Rapidly increasing populations of Larus argentatus and Larus larlbundus in Europe have created new management problems. Gulls may pose hazards to a i r c r a f t at coastal a i r ports (Kadlec, 1968) and cause severe damage to young crops in intensively managed rural areas. 37 A census of ducks and geese has become necessary because of steadily increasing hunting pressure. Peaks of migration, migration patterns and the effect of various refuges on waterfowl populations may be determined from the a i r . The size of the areas and in most cases their i n -acc e s s i b i l i t y would make this work hard to do by ground checks. The photo mosaic (Figure 18, A.B.C) indicates the f e a s i b i l i t y of using large scale black and white prints taken by 35 mm. cameras for a census of some birds. Three flocks of gulls (see Figure 18, A.B.C.) s i t t i n g on the main drainage ditch of the sandy beach can be recognized and each gull image can be pin pointed. The contrast between the ligh t coloured gulls and the dark background of the water allows for a clear and accurate count. The strip was taken from 400 feet and with a speed of 70 mph. over Boundary Bay. 39 Fish Management The efficiency of aerial surveys in f i s h management was investigated in an extensive study by Eicher (1953) and improved by Fish and Wildlife Departments in Canada and the United States. Vertical aerial photos can be extremely useful in the evaluation of spawning grounds and the determination of algae and other vegetation on the bottom of lakes, seashores and shallow rivers. They allow for estimates to be made of the numbers of spawning salmon (see Eicher, 1953) and for a census of seals. The condition of the li g h t and the sun angle are considerable factors influencing this kind of work. Bright light and a cloudless sky cause a high reflectance off the surface of water bodies, (see Figure 19, arrow A). The photo Figure 19 was taken for a documentation of the useful application of the technique in fis h management. Arrow B in Figure 19 indicates algal production and demon-strates the "ability "of the film to penetrate clear water under suitable li g h t conditions. Arrow A indicates the tendency for reflection in intensive sunlight which makes i t impossible to recognize the five seals, one of the targets, swimming close to the surface. Thus i t might be learned that aerial photographs provide a permanent index in census work and habitat evaluation but that good surveys cannot be 40. made unless c a r e f u l considerations are given to the time of the day, the sun angle, the l i g h t conditions and to glare. 41 Figure 19. Sandy shoals, south of Boundary Bay on the P a c i f i c Coast l i n e . 42 Pollution Regular surveying of streams, beaches and lakes enable one to identify changing characteristics of water that render i t unfit for aquatic l i f e and human consumption. Among these polluters are sewage, industrial by-products, Inorganic waste, and agricultural and forestry pesticides. Aerial photographs provide information for detection and for the determination of the extent of land and water pollution, as reported by Avery (1969). Sharp tonal contrast can be seen in some cases on black and white photos when the pollutant enters the unpolluted water body. (see Figure 20). The pollutant on Figure 20 could be a chemcial waste, possibly a by-product of the small holding (see cross on Figure 20) and i s discharged directly into the Fraser. Organic and inorganic effluents can cause severe damage to any aquatic l i f e and li m i t the species distribution by changing the variety of species to micro-organisms which are adaptable to the a r t i f i c i a l l y created anaerobic conditions. Figure 21 shows s i l t a t i o n caused by nearby agricultural a c t i v i t y . A heavy r a i n f a l l washed s i l t and sand through drainage ditches into the stream. In the same process l i f e k i l l i n g pesticides can be drained into the river. 43. Figure 20. P o t e n t i a l p o l l u t i o n of the Fraser River near Chilliwack. 44. Figure 21. Possible r i v e r p o l l u t i o n , Fraser River, west of Chilliwack. 45 The high q u a l i t y of information provided by the photos might be i l l u s t r a t e d by Figure 21, on which the c i r c l e s i n d i c a t e three persons. The stereoscope enables the i n t e r -preter to determine the correct p o s i t i o n of the human beings» C i r c l e A - one i n d i v i d u a l s i t t i n g on the ground with bent legs. C i r c l e B - two persons, one i s l y i n g on the grass, the other with dark h a i r i s leaning forward and i s * wearing a white s h i r t . Figure 22 shows the end r e s u l t of the increasing process of human a c t i v i t y , mechanisation and c u l t u r a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . Figure 22. Northern beach area of Boundary Bay. 46 Eros ion Another form of environmental destruction often accelerated by human influence is erosion. It i s known that careless logging operations and careless road construction can cause heavy disturbance of the s o i l surface by exposing the top layers to wind and water. Moving water i s the major agent in modifying the earth's surface, and forming characteristic landscape patterns which are of great importance to the photo interpreter. (Avery, 1969). The road constructor has to be concerned about the slope of the line, climatic conditions, and especially a good drainage system which requires ditches and banks. The necessity for a stable shoulder on the valley side of the road together with a large enough outlet from the ditch on the other side of the road becomes obvious from Figure 23 to Figure 25. These photographs were taken less than four weeks after road widening and clearing of the stream bank. The typical structure of the gliding h i l l s i d e inside the curve (Figure 23a to d) together with the fine -grained s o i l material which is deposited on the foot of the h i l l (see Figure 23c, cross) and washed into the river i n -dicates the eroding power of water. This s i l t a t i o n pollutes the streams and reduces their a b i l i t y to support fish by burying their eggs. 47 Pioneer plants which are growing on the eroded h i l l might be best recognized on Figure 23d. Ektachrome Infra red photography shows healthy vegetation in a red colour and dry s o i l in a l i g h t blue tone. Arrows A.B.C, and D on Figure 23d ind i c a t e the poor growth of young pioneer vegetation. Figure 23a. Road erosion i n Haney Research Forest. 1 4 8 . Figure 23b. Ground photo corresponding to areas i n Figure 23c, and Figure 25. Figure 23c. Road erosion i n Haney Research Forest. Ektachrome 49 Figure 23d. Road erosion i n Haney Research Forest. Film type: Ektachrome Infra red. 50 Range Management The application of the principles of plant ecology enables the range manager to improve productivity and future development of range land which occupies large parts of the country. Those areas are in most cases important for bothr livestock and big game, such as deer, and bighorn sheep on the North American continent. A basic knowledge of plant ecology, flora, s o i l science, geology, and climatology i s required for any interpretive work in this f i e l d . (df. Joy, Harris, Rader, 1960). The term 'range' might be defined as non arable land which produces forage and browse which plants are largely native species. Cameggie (1966, 1967) points out that the range areas comprise nearly one-half of the earth's land mass. Thus an extensive study of these areas seems a necessity for a management program since livestock and game grazing and browsing on the vegetation offer the primary protein supply for the world's human population. This factor i s neglected, or not even realized, in large parts of world wide range-lands (Cameggie, 1967), leading to misuse and overuse which result in poor s o i l conditions, with scarce vegetation. Erosion problems can be directly correlated to this mis-management. Consequently, inventories are needed to provide information needed for intelligent management. 51 The usefulness of aerial photography applied to assessing range land is a commonly cited topic in any ecological journal. The following illustrations should be seen as a helpful contribution to range management. The vegetation characteristics v i s i b l e on the photos are single plants, and plant associations. Background information about growth characteristics of the vegetation under different canopy conditions, and a good knowledge of site conditions are essential for interpretational studies of aerial photographs. The vegetation i s ofter c l a s s i f i e d according to the height level. Einevoll (1968) differentiates between tree layer, shrub layer, f i e l d layer and bottom layer (see Figure 24) for the Scandinavian reindeer grazing grounds. This seems to be an ingenious idea as different game species and livestock are feeding in different vegetation heights? i.e., African savanna ecosystem, elephants and giraffes feed in the tree layer, antelope species in the shrub layer, gazelles on the f i e l d layer and warthogs on the bottom layer. Figure 25 illustrates a nearly homogeneous ap-pearing conifer plantation. The crown closure of this mid-dle aged stand would be s t r a t i f i e d as high, excluding nearly a l l vegetation growth underneath since the light intensity 52. at the ground is too low. Whereas in Figure 25 and 26 an excellent distribution of different plant species can be seen as a result of ideal canopy openings with excellent lig h t conditions. Figure 24. Open range rough pasture in a Populus plantation in the Fraser Valley near Chilliwack. A. Tree layer B. Shrub layer C. Field layer 53. The stereo p a i r shows an a r t i f i c a l l y reforested coniferous p l a n t a t i o n . The canopy appears dense? the poor l i g h t conditions on the ground w i l l not allow the growth of shrubs or herbs. 54. Figure 26. Forest in Haney Research Forest. Flying height of 450 feet above ground. Excellent distribution of conifers and deciduous trees in different age classes. The excellent li g h t conditions permit a variety of species to grow under the canopy and in openings. 55. Figure 27. Forest stand in Haney Research Forest. Variety of shrub species shows(good}browse conditions for deer. -ftxlv 56 A g r i c u l t u r e Range management i s not only concerned with seres in f o r e s t successions but also with i n t e n s i v e l y managen grass-land. The amount of information which can be extracted from the photos being taken of these areas i s depending upon a judicious s e l e c t i o n of important f a c t o r s : e.g. phenological des c r i p t i o n of range plants, s o i l colour and texture, d i s -turbances, moisture conditions, plant cover etc. (Cameggle, 1968). In order to optimize the forage production e f f e c t i v e l y an accurate inventory of the plant communities i s required. An increase of the forage production might be gained by s p e c i a l operations; e.g. f e r t i l i z a t i o n (see Figure 28), drainage, or i r r i g a t i o n (see Figure 29), and change of the vegetation (see Figure 28), as reported by Lacate, (1966). A e r i a l photographs are a powerful a i d in determining the carrying carr y i n g capacity of a fenced grassland, and in p r e d i c t i n g the necessary transportation of the l i v e s t o c k from one meadow to another in order to prevent overgrazing. For i n t e n s i v e l y managed c a t t l e farms associated with arable lands at the present, (compare Tuensche's economical c i r c l e s ) i t appears that land i s a l i m i t i n g factor, e s p e c i a l l y in areas close to c i t i e s . Figure 31 gives an example of such r e s t r i c t e d areas, where the farmer i s using supplemental 57 a r t i f i c i a l feeding as indicated by the food containers. Figure 28. Rural area in Delta D i s t r i c t , south of Vancouver. Meadow A i s characterized by a fence (see arrow). A higher p r o d u c t i v i t y of the s o i l could probably be gained by brush removal and f e r t i l i z a t i o n . 58. Figure 29. D i s t r i c t Surrey. Land probably used for timber production and rough pasture. The arrow points on a drainage d i t c h with a bridge. The drainage of range areas can increase p r o d u c t i v i t y of forage. 59 Figure 30. Rough pasture area in White Rock. Stereoscopic examination of these photos permits i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the vegetation being browsed. Evidence i s given that none of the c a t t l e i s feeding on the darker appearing rush species. A,B,C,D,E, and F mark the animals feeding on grass. G,H,I,K,L, and M point a t i n d i v i d u a l s r e s t i n g on the ground. (- r 60 61. Figure 32. Stereo set, flying height of 400 feet, of cattle farm in Delta. Most of the cattle are resting. The s o i l around the containers i s highly dis-turbed by the trampling of the livestock. The meadow is a rush grass type on a poor s i t e . Bare rocks (see arrows) which are very light in colour indicate a shallow s o i l . V 62 A e r i a l photographs provide excellent base maps as has been shown previously. Boundaries of farms, b u i l d -ings, roads, drainage ditches, fences, ponds, stonewalls, hedges, etc. are p r e f e c t l y recognizable on the p r i n t s . A g r i c u l t u r a l information extractable from these phtoos i n -cludes evaluation of s o i l distinguished by t e r r a i n i n d i c a t o r s , s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n land use pattern, and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s p e c i f i c crops, or types of farming. Special types of f i l m and f i l t e r combinations permit the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of crop vigor and the presence of healthy, or diseased plants. Tonal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s enable the i n t e r p r e t e r to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between i r r i g a t e d and dry farming and provide him with a v a r i e t y of other information. Figure 33 shows a recent metamorphosis or rough pasture to cropland. Rocks and the l i g h t toned surface on area A indicate that the s o i l i s a poor c l a y i s h type (see drainage ditch) excluding high p r o d u c t i v i t y unless i t i s f e r t i l i z e d , or mixed with a sandy component. Plantations of trees or shrubs are characterized by uniformly spaced rows of trees appearing i n a g r i d pattern. The trees are planted p r i m a r i l y i n l e v e l t e r r a i n l a i d out in squares with the same spacing from tree to tree and row to row. (compare Avery, 1969). That permits an easy c u l t i v a t i o n with adequate economically sized machinery. Figure 34 might 63. serve as an example of this phenomenon. The same stereo pair can give evidence to the interpreter about moisture conditions, and thus classification of the s o i l . A s o i l with a high sandy component appears lighter in tone than a heavy clayish type since a sandy podsolic type has a better percolation than a fine grained gleyosol. Figure 33. Agricultural area in Delta D i s t r i c t . A change in the land use can be seen on f i e l d A. Meadow shrub vegetation (arrow) indicates the recent metamorphosis from rough pasture into crop land. Areas A and B are divided by a fence (see cross) and are separated from C by drainage ditch (see c i r c l e s ) . 64. Figure 34. Plantations in Delta D i s t r i c t , south of Vancouver. Note characteristic grid pattern of the blueberry shrubs. 65. From Figure 35 one can s t r a t i f y the different areas on a Chinese vegetable farm in the Delta D i s t r i c t . Figure 35. Chinese vegetable farm in the Delta D i s t r i c t . This farm includes a blueberry planting (A), six different crop types (B to G) and a farm house. The reason for the poor growth of the plants in the rows which are indicated by arrows needs to be investigated. The vegetables in those rows might be already harvested. 66. The usefulness of certain film - f i l t e r combin-ations might be illustrated by Figure 36. The photos were taken with an Ektachrome Infra red film and a medium yellow f i l t e r . The healthy vegetation appears in a uniformly bright red colour (see Figure 36, A). Area B shows rows created by cultivation a c t i v i t y . More discussion of this type of film w i l l be given in the 'Forestry' section. Figure 36. Ektachrome Infra red stereo pair, over White Rock. Field B shows a more pinkish colour than area A. The difference might be found in the age of the vegetation. The pinkish colour i s characteristic for young vegetation. 67 Residential Areas. The interpreter of residential areas and urban features w i l l find that the choice of a residential property is the key for the social and economic status of a family. The photomosaic Figure 37 shows a subdivided residential area at the periphery of Haney. Figure 37. 68 The properties have a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c shape? they are orientated with the headside to the freeway. L a t e r a l l y they are separated by drainage ditches (A), and fences (B), and hedges (C). The i n d i v i d u a l taste and preference for a certa i n form of the s i m i l a r - sized areas becomes obvious on t h i s photomosaic. Families D,E, and F (see Figure 37) put a high e f f o r t in gardening. They are growing d i f f e r e n t crops and have orchards. Family D prefers an open l a y i n g out round t h e i r house with a loose d i s t r i b u t i o n of trees and ornamental plants, whereas t h e i r neighbours, G,E, and I show a sense for geometrically shaped ornamental gardens. 6 9 . Figure 38. Residential farm area on the periphery of Haney. stables (A), barns (B), sheds (C), and dwelling houses (D,E) are easy to i d e n t i f y . The arcs include bare s o i l , outside the stable gates caused by the trampling of l i v e s t o c k . The arrows indicate gates and bridges. 70. Forestry In this chapter emphasis is place on i l l u s t r a t i n g the f e a s i b i l i t y of this technique in i t s application to Forestry. Large - scale vertical aerial photographs have proved valuable in preparing vegetation maps, in identifying forest types and tree species, in analysing stand compositions, in inventory work like tree counts, or volumes of standing trees, or cut forest products (see Figure 39) in logging, road planning, f i r e protection, disease control, and other f i e l d s . The usefulness of large scale v e r t i c a l a e r i a l photographs in Forest management i s reported by Parker, Johnson, 1970; Richenhaller, 1963? Lyons, 1966, Sayn Wittgenstein, 1962; Hegg, 1967 and Aldred, Sayn Wittgenstein, 1967. In order to interpret forest data accurately the interpreter must be able to correlate background infor-mation with the image of the photo. He w i l l rely primarily on observable factors; e.g. shape, size, tone, shadow, pattern, texture, topographic orientation, and dimension of the objects (Avery, 1969). For accurate measurement procedures in inventory 1 work photos taken with a 35 mm. camera are not suitable as the negatives do not have fiducial marks and the flying height of the a i r c r a f t i s only a highly biased estimate unless a costly radar altimeter is used. Nevertheless, the photos provide the 71. Figure 39. D r i f t i n g logs on Stave Lake. F l y i n g height of 400 f e e t . The logs are the r e s u l t of a thoughtless damming p r o j e c t . As the i n d i v i d u a l stems can be i d e n t i f i e d and counted the photos are of p o t e n t i a l usefulness in inventory work. 72 experienced i n t e r p r e t e r with a suprising amount of information. The degree to which tree species and cover types can be recognized depends on the q u a l i t y of the photographs (see Figure 40). Figure 40. Mixed stand of conifers and deciduous trees in Haney Research Forest. The high d e t a i l q u a l i t y provides the experienced i n t e r p r e t e r with s u f f i c i e n t information that the species i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n becomes easy. Crown texture and shape are customary i d e n t i f i e r s . 7 3 . For i d e n t i f y i n g tree species, the shape, texture, and the tone of the crown image, the stand pattern, the topographic location and the plant association are the most important i n d i c a t o r s . Shadows are often a h e l p f u l t o o l (see Figure 41 and Appendix XI). They eith e r provide a p r o f i l e of the image of the configuration or the crown shadows f a l l i n g on l e v e l ground can be recognized. Figure 41. Stand of conifers in Haney Research Forest. The shadow of trees can be of good i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a l help for species i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by producing the p r o f i l e of a tree, or the crown texture, (see arrows). 74 Figure 42. Mixed stand of conifers and deciduous trees at east side of Stave Lake. Flying height of 400 feet. This stereo set permits a correct measurement of the crown closure providing the interpreter with information about light conditions underneath the canopy. The size of trees A,B, and group C, indicates that the main stand is relatively young. 7 5 . When the main stand i s immature the canopy sp pears uniformly smooth. (see Figure 43, stand A). Figure 43. A r t i f i c i a l l y reforested areas with i n t e r e s t i n g spacing pattern in Haney Research Forest. The wide spacing produces branchy, low q u a l i t y timber and c o s t l y pruning has to be made. Another d i s -advantage of wide spacing i s indicated by the arrows: since there i s no mature tree that can provide the indicated areas with seedlings c o s t l y c u l t u r a l work becomes necessary i n t h i s i n t e n s i v e l y managed p l a n t a t i o n . 7 6 . A e r i a l photos can be of great help f o r c u l -t i v a t i o n a l operations in a r t i f i c i a l and natural r e f o r e s t a t i o n . This information about s o i l and moisture conditions might be obtained i f indicated by poor growth (see Figure 44a, arrow). This information can be useful for considerations about r e -forestation and decisions l i k e burning of slash, or not, i f synchronized with a s o l i d knowledge about climate (average r a i n f a l l etc.) and the exposition of the observed area. Figure 44a i s an oblique photo of the burned - over area shown by stereo set Figure 44b. Burned - over areas provide an abundance of sprout and shrubby growth valuable to deer and other forms of w i l d l i f e . Figure 44a. Oblique photo of burned - over area i n Haney Research Forest. 77. Figure 44b. Clear cut area in Haney Research Forest. Flying height of 400 feet above ground. The tract was burned over in 1969 and not reforested. Area A does show sporadic vegetation, whereas shrubs and annuals can be seen on unturned area B below the marked l i n e . 78. Figure 45. Clear cut area, burned over in 1967. Location: Haney Research Forest. Flying height of 400 feet above ground. Natural re-forestation advances slowly. Shrub species are growing in abundance. The blackened stubs (in circles) of the cut trees can s t i l l be recognized. 79. The following series of photos show the results of a comparative study with four different film - f i l t e r combinations. The quality of these stereo sets attests to the s k i l l of the p i l o t , who had to f l y exactly the same strip four times with the same speed and at the same height. The camera operator had to help in navigation as the aeroplane tends to f l y in a nose - up attitude limiting the view of the p i l o t . The f i r s t film used was Kodak Tri-X pan, a black and white negative material which was the standard film for a l l previously shown prints. This type has approximately the same range of sensitivity as the human eye. Its emulsion allows satisfactory exposures at low ligh t intensities,and i s higher than normal in definition. Thus i t permits a greater shutter speed through haze - cutting f i l t e r s (in this case an Uv in connection with a ligh t green f i l t e r ) . The Tri-X i s highly sensitive to green lig h t and makes a correct identification of plant species d i f f i c u l t , since differences in tone do not appear. (Figure 46b). The aerial Ektachrome film proved to be considerably more useful than panchromatic for species identification and s o i l recognition, (see Figure 47e). This is explained by the large numbers of colours, hues and chromas that permit the interpreter to more readily discriminate between objects (Carneggie, Roberts, Colwell, 1966). This film type is 80 Figure 46a. Two ground photos showing the area indicated by-arrows on Figures 46c,d, and e. The photos were taken at the Haney Research Forest. 81 Figure 46b. Mosaic of plantations in Haney Research Forest. (corresponding pairs: Figures 46c,d, and e). Vegetation easy to distinguish on the corresponding Ektachrome print, can hardly be recognized on panchromatic black and white, as slash and s o i l appear in the same tone as the vegetation in the ground layer. 82. Figure 46c. Kodakcolor stereo set (corresponding area -Figure 46b). Conclusion about s o i l condition becomes possibl e . The s o i l appears purple, parts in between the vegetation, yellowish (lichen species). •83. Figure 46d. Ektachrome Infra red proved to be the best film type to indicate vegetation. Areas A and B indicate growth which hardly can be recognized on prints of the other film types. 84 Figure 46e. Ektachrome shows best moisture content of the s o i l . Sandy dry parts appear in a light yellow colour, clayish wet patches in darker grayish tones. (A,B, and C, dry patches). 85 sensitized to a l l v i s i b l e colours and provide prints with natural colour rendition. A comparison of the described types with Kodak-color shows advantages of the latter in that i t occupies other colour properties. (see Figure 47c and Figure 48b). Cameggie and Reppert (1962) comment: "Whereas the colour film is sensitive to blue, green and red light, the Colour Infra red film is sensitive to green, red and infra red wave lengths of li g h t which activates yellow magenta, and cyan dyes, respectively." The colour effect on positive prints of Colour Infra red depends on the reflectance and the spectral sensitivity of the objects. Plant species which d i f f e r widely in their reflectance and sensitivity can be separated easily, as can individuals that d i f f e r in these properties because of their infection by disease. Forestry and agricultural managers have made important use of this film in disease detection. Plants under stress from disease, or insects gradually lose their infra red reflectance. "Reddish appearing healthy trees grade into magenta, purple, and green as the loss of infra red reflectance progresses." (Kodak Technical Publication, 1968). Figure 47 shows an area where a forest f i r e in 1966 destroyed the main part of the vegetation. The different grades of infra red reflectance can be identified from this stereo set extrememly well. 86 Forest area in Fraser Valley. Flying height of 400 feet, film type Ektachrome Infra red IE (135 -20). The stereo pair shows a forest that was destroyed by a f i r e in 1966. New growing shrub vegetation (A) and new growing deciduous tree species (B) appear in reddish colour. The green appearing conifers (C,D,E) are dead trees which have already lost their infra red reflectance. The different other grades of colour from red to green indicate the progress of dying vegetation. 87 Figure 48a.- Ektachrome infra red. Plantations in Haney Research Forest. The healthy vegetation contrasts from the bluish appearing bare s o i l . 88. Figure 48b, Corresponding to picture 48a. Film type: Kodak-color. The bare s o i l appears on these prints in a bright purple. That makes i t s discrimination from the vegetation easy. 89. Bare s o i l appears in a bluish colour on Color Infra red (see Figure 46d and Figure 47). A comparison of these four films i s possible by inspecting Figure 46b showing Tri-X pan; Figure 46d with Ektachrome; Figure 46c with Kodak-color and Figure 46d with Ektachrome Infra red. In general, Figure 46d indicates that colour infra red gives the best information about l i v e vegetation, and Figure 46e shows that the highest contrast of different s o i l conditions i s found on Ektachrome prints. The drier s o i l with a normally sandy component appears lighter than areas with higher moisture contents. A r t i f i c a l l y reforested areas differing in age classes and species are shown in a comparison of Kodakcolor and Color Infra red on Figure 47b and c. From this i n i t i a l study i t is apparent that large -scale, v e r t i c a l , aerial photographs which are taken by 35 mm. cameras and with the mount described in the f i r s t chapter, prove to be valuable for natural resource management, but that choice of film and f i l t e r is important to obtain most easily, the information wanted. 90. Large Scale Photography: a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s . Studies with large scale photography taken with 70 mm. cameras have been introduced to the l i t e r a t u r e i n the past few years by A l d r l c h , Bailey and H e l l e r (1959), by Lyons (1967), and Sayn-Wittgenstein and Aldred (1967). Radar and laser altimeters have been used for the pr e c i s e determination of the scale for large scale photography. Studies with 35 mm. cameras are not new. The use of t h i s equipment i s reported by Z s i l i n s k y (1968), Cook (1969), and Willingham (1959). But no stress has been put on the use of 35 mm. cameras operated by hand, s t i l l obtaining stereo-scoplcal view from f l y i n g heights lower than 500 feet. This study describes the design and construction of a s p e c i a l suspension f u l f i l l i n g those requirements. A comparison of the cost per 22.5 cm. square p r i n t i n g material between conventional large scale photography, motor drive 35 mm. cameras and hand operated equipment w i l l improve the economical advantage of the described photographic system. TABLE 3 Investment 22.5 can. Square 35 mm. Motor Drive Camera assembly $20,000.00 $ 1,400.00 Film processing equipment 1,000.00 30,00 Positive printing equipment 340.00 100.00 36 mm. Hand Operated $ 300.00 30.00 100.00 Stock Items F-Llm (considers larger number of 35 mm. negatives) $ 120.00 Film processing chemicals 18 l i t e r s Light sensitive paper (considers smaller area coverage) 2/3 Positive processing chemicals 2/3 $5.00 1 l i t e r 1 1 $5.00 1 l i t e r 1 1 Film processing Positive processing 3 2/3 Manpower 1 1 1 1 Rental of airplanes per hour $80.00 to $200.00 $35.00 to $40.00 $18.00 to $25.00 Source: Zsilinsky (1968) 92 The table shows that the significant difference in cost between the equipment used by Zsilinsky and the new design is caused by the investment of the camera assembly. The second differing cost factor is the choice of the a i r c r a f t being used. Zsilinsky reports the use of planes which require a Thole in the floor in order to obtain vertical photographs. The new design can be mounted in any type of plane with a high wing configuration. It was emphasized that this new technique can not compete in image quality with conventional photography and that i t should be used for interpretation work only. 93. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Low a l t i t u d e , colour and black and white imagery of d i f f e r e n t areas within the P i t t , Alouette, Stave and Harrison Lake areas, the Fraser Valley, Langley, Surrey, Delta and Boundary Bay was procured from May 15 to June 15, 1970. The s p e c i f i c objective of the study was to deter-mine the informational value of t h i s imagery and to improve the f e a s i b i l i t y of the s p e c i a l l y designed camera mount. The extent to which th i s objective was s a t i s f i e d i s discussed and i l l u s t r a t e d in t h i s report. Analysis o f the i l l u s t r a t i o n s indicates the usefulness of the technique in i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to various f i e l d s i n natural resource management. This photogrammetric system i s documented with stereo p a i r s f o r w i l d l i f e management i n habit evaluation. Photos of tracks show the usefulness o f the technique for population estimates. Beaver a c t i v i t y can be recognized and the r e s u l t s of a e r i a l sampling can be h e l p f u l f o r a good management program. An a e r i a l survey of muskrat houses may be the most e f f i c i e n t and cheapest way to estimate the s i z e of a population, since checks from the ground are to time and cost intensive* the same can be said f o r the management of beaver. Waterfowl census from the a i r may give accurate r e s u l t s since the i n d i v i d u a l birds can 94. be pin-pointed on the photographs in the laboratory. For certain species, a count from aerial photographs may be the only economically and accurate way. Algal production which is important for f i s h management may be determined from the a i r , and is illustrated. The applicability of this system to pollution is shown by single prints and stereo pairs. That erosional problems might be identified and estimated from the a i r is illu s t r a t e d with stereo pairs taken with different film and f i l t e r combinations. Illustrations are presented for range management, agriculture, c i t y planning and forestry. The illustrations suggest the f e a s i b i l i t y for: 1. Estimates of forage production on range land. 2. The interpretation of s o i l and moisture conditions in rural and s i l v i c u l t u r a l areas. 3. Disease and pest control in forestry and agriculture. 4. The interpretational work for c i t y planning and landscape architecture. 5. Tree species identification for forest inventory. 6. Reforestational problems. 7. Stem counts per acre which i s important for inventorial work. Advantages and disadvantages of different film and f i l t e r combinations are illustrated by a series of stereo pairs 95 which were taken over the Haney Research Forest. The advantages of t h i s photogrammetrical system are: the low cost of a i r c r a f t , the minimum cost of material required for the camera mount, which i s e a s i l y constructed, furthermore, the universal use of t h i s technique i n any type of small plane, a v a i l a b i l i t y of required a i r c r a f t (almost at any time and any l o c a t i o n a s i n g l e engine type can be rented), and the uncomplicated operation of the camera mount and a 35 mm. camera. Unfortunately, t h i s technique has several l i m i t -a tions. For example, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y the correct scale caused by inaccurate, i n s e n s i t i v e a l t i m e t e r s , other disadvantages are that 35 mm. negatives do not have f i d u c i a l marks and parallax-measurement problems a r i s e . Thus i t becomes obvious that the photos taken with t h i s system cannot be used f o r exact measurements, as, f o r example, in a f o r e s t inventory and topographic mapping. How-ever, excellent information can be extracted q u i c k l y from small areas i n an e f f i c i e n t survey. I t should be emphasized that the photographs taken by using t h i s system cannot compete with p r i n t s of conventional a e r i a l photography in the image q u a l i t y but can be most useful f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The economical advantages become obvious because the costs per p r i n t are only a f r a c t i o n of the cost of those produced by conventional a e r i a l photography with large cameras and bigger aeroplanes. 9 6 Thus i t appears that this new photographic system seems to be a useful contribution for supplementary aerial photography worthy of further investigations. Certain recommendations regarding future studies can be made. 1. Modification of the suspension system such as positioning the camera v e r t i c a l l y on the side of the aeroplane door allowing studies during the colder times of the year. 2. Construction of a system interchangeable for longitudinal or transverse position of the camera. 3. Test flights should be made through the growing season of the vegetation. The reflectance change of different plant species during the growing cycle migh be detected by using certain film f i l t e r combinations and can be used for the development of a key for identification of plant species which are important for range management in vegetation analysis. 97. BIBLIOGRAPHY Aldred, A.H., Kippen, F.W. (1967) Plot Volumes from Large Scale 70 mm. Air Photographs. For. Sci., Vol.13, no.4. Aldrich, R.C., Bailey, W.F., Heller, R.C. (1959) Large Scale 70 mm. Color Photography Techniques and Equipment and their Application to a Forest Sample Problem. Photo. Engineering 25(5) pp. 747 - 754. Avery, E.T. (1966) Foresters Guide to Aerial photo Interpretation. Agric. Handbook 308. Avery, E.T. (1969) Interpretation of Aerial Photographs. Ronald Press, New York, 2nd edition. Banfield, A.W.F., Flook, D.R., Kelsall, J.P., Loughrey, A.G. (1955) An Aerial Suevey Technique for Northern Big Game. Twentieth North American Wildlife Conference, pp. 519 - 530. Carheggie, D.M., Lent, J.D., Colwell, R.N. (1967) The Feasibility of Determining Range Land and Crop Land Conditions by Means of Multispectral Aerial Photography, Final Report. School of Forestry, Berkeley. Cameggie, D.M. (1966) The Use of High Altitude, Color and Spectrozonal Imagery for the Inventory of Wildland Resources. Annual Progress Report School of Forestry, University of California. September 30, 1966. Cameggie, D.M., Reppert, J.M. (1969) Large Scale 70 mm. Aerial Color Photography. Photo. Engineering pp. 249 - 257. Colwell, R.N. (1950) Uses of Aerial Photographs in Forest Recreation. Photo Engineering, pp. 21 - 31. Cook, C.F. (1969) The Use of Light Ai r c r a f t in Forest Inventory and Mapping Woodlands Section, Pulp Paper Mag. Can. pp. 69 - 74. Crissey, W.F. (1964) The Airplane in Fish and Game Work. State of New York. Conservation Department. Wildlife Information Bull. no. 4. Dalke, P.D. (1937) The Cover Map in Wildlife Management. j . Wildl. Mgmtx. Vol. 1, n o s . 3 - 4 . pp. 100 -105. 98 Eastman Kodak Company. (1968) Photo Interpretation and Its Uses. Kodak Pamphlet no, M - 42. Eicher, G.J. (19 53) A e r i a l Methods of Assessing Red Salmon Populations i n Western Alaska, j . w i l d l . Mgmt. Vol. 17, no.4. pp. 767 - 776. Ei n e v o l l , 0. (1968) Photographic Interpretation in the Registering of Reindeer Grazings. Norsk T i d s s k r i f t f o r j o r d s k i f t e og landmaling. no. 1. pp. 91 - 99. Evans, C.D., Troyer, A„, Lensink, J t (1966) A e r i a l Census of Moose by Quadrat Sampling Units. J . W i l d l . Mgmt. Vol. 30, no.4. pp. 767 - 776. Hegg, K.M. (1967) A Photo I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Guide for the Land and Forest Types of In t e r i o r Alaska. U.S. Forest Service. Research Papaer no.3. Joy, C.A., Harris, R.W., Rader J . (1960) Photo Interpretation in Range Management. Manual of Photointerpret-a t i o n . American Society of Photogrammetry. Chapter 9. pp. 531 - 538. Kadlec, J.A., Drury, W.H. (1968) A e r i a l Estimation of the Size of Gu l l Breeding Colonies. J . W i l d l . Mgmt. Vol . 30, no.4. pp. 767 - 776. Lacate, D.S. (1966) Wildland Inventory and Mapping. For. Chron. V o l . 42, no.2. pp. 184 - 191. Larson J.S.F. (1966) Forests, W i l d l i f e , and Habitat Management. A c r i t i c a l Examination of Practice and Need. Massachusetts Cooperative W i l d l i f e Research Unit. University of Massachusetts, pp. 2 - 26. (1948) A e r i a l Photographs, t h e i r Interpretation and Suggested Use in W i l d l i f e Management. J . W i l d l . Mgmt. Vol . 12, no.2. pp. 191 - 211. (19 53) A e r i a l Photo Use and Interpretation in the f i e l d s of W i l d l i f e and Recreation. Photo. Engineering, pp. 127 - 137. (1966) Fixed A i r Base 70 mm. Photography, a New Tool f o r Forest Sampling. For. Chron. V o l . 42, no.4. pp. 420 - 431. Matiak, H.A. (19 51) Quarterly Progress Report Surveys and Investigations. State of Wisconsin. Leedy, D.L. Leedy, D.L. Lyons, E.H. 99 Meier, H.K. M i l l e r , J.N. (1969) Developments in Photogrammetric Instrument Construction during the Past 30 Years. Reviewed with Reference to Zeiss Equipment, Zeiss Mitteilungen, 5. no.3. (1932) Duck Census from the A i r . pp. 229 -230. Mimeo. Parker, R.C., Johnson, E.W. (1970) Small Camera A e r i a l Photography. The K-20 System. Jour. Forestry, March, 1970. pp. 152 - 155. Richenhaller, J . (1963) The Radial Line P l o t Mehtod of Determining Scale of Large Scale A i r Photos. Department of Forestry, Canada, Forest Research Branch. Publication no. 1053. Sayn Wittgenstein, L. (1965) Large Scale A e r i a l Photography. Plans and Problems. Soc. Am. For. Proc. p. 178 - 179. Sayn Wittgenstein L. (1962) Large Scale Sampling Photographs for Forest Surveys i n Canada. Canada. Department of Forestry. Forest Research Branch, pp. 256 - 260. Schuster, J.L,, H a l l s , L.K. (1962) Timber Over Story Determines Deer Forage in Shortleaf L o b l o l l y Pine - Hard-wood Forests. For. Chron. V o l . 38, no.2, pp. 165 - 167. Seely, H.E. Williams, P. (1962) The Value of 70 mm. A i r Cameras for Winter A i r Photography. Woodlands Review, Pulp Paper Mag. Can. pp. 218 - 225. (1969) A e r i a l Photography and Photogrammetry Annual Report of Serengeti Research Program. Ngorongoro Litho Ltd. Conservation Unit. Arusha, Tanzania Willingham, J.W. (1959) Obtaining V e r t i c a l A e r i a l Photographic Coverage with a 35 mm. Camera, jour. Forestry, pp. 108 - 110. Young, H.E. (1965) Recent Advances i n Forest and W i l d l i f e Photogrammetry. Maine Forester, pp. 23 - 27. Z s i l i n s k y , V.G. (1963) Photographic Interpretation of Tree Species in Ontario. Ontario Department of Lands and Forests. Z s i l i n s k y , V.G. (1968) Supplementary A e r i a l Photography with Minature Cameras. Timber Branch. Ontario Deparment of Lands and Forests, Toronto, Canada. Presented to Commission IV a t the Xl t h Congress of the International Society for Photogrammetry, Lansanne, Switzerland, July, 1968. A P P E N D I C E S APPENDIX I DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE CAMERA MOUNT Detail description of the Camera Mount  Construction of the device. (Figure 1) 1. Represents the vi s i b l e half of the track of which is one side ajdustable to the desired width within a range of 8 inches by bolt 'a 1; 2. points out the h inch plexi-glass base plate; 3,4. depicts two plexi-glass frame boxes f i l l e d with pressed polyfoam; 5. shows the holes d r i l l e d in the plexi-glass cubicles to accommodate the camera suspension; 6 ,7 ,8 . represent the three previously described glycerine and honey f i l l e d anti-vibration cylinders, that are fixed to the plexi-glass frame; 9,10. are two of the floating cylinders that are attached with yoke; 11. to the suspension arm; 12. i s the third floating cylinder in combination with 13. which fixes i t to the suspension arm and is stabilized by spring 14. and crossarm *15* which allows the inner cylinder to float freely; 16. is the metal suspension arm that is attached directly to an adjustable sheet metal frame. 17. which incorporates four levelling screws to achieve the correct vertical position of the camera by using level bubble - 'IS*. 19. shows the stop watch box required to guarantee the correct exposure intervals? 20. identifies a plexi-glass device mounted to the film advance arm? thus less movement is required to advance the film consequently increasing the film advance speed. The film advancer i s operated by a nylon line attached to the device by screw - * 21*, the line runs around the grooved arc of the advancer and then is directed by pully -'22' through a copper tube set in cubicle -'3'. This tube i s lined at either end by a heat resistant carbon steel bushing to withstand the f r i c t i o n created by the continuous movement of the advancer string. 23. i s an elastic band which controls the tension of the fij.m advance line and thus maintaining the line's c r i t i c a l position around the advancer? 24. is a handgrip for the advance line and is operated in conjunction with *25' an extended cable release which allows the film to be advanced and the picture taken from a comfortable position behind the suspension assembly. Figure 1. The s p e c i a l designed mount for a 35 mm. camera A P P E N D I X I I L E G E N D TO T H E I L L U S T R A T I O N S F I G U R E 5 TO F I G U R E 4 7 LEGEND TO ILLUSTRATIONS Figure number Film • F i l t e r F lying height i n feet A i r c r a f t speed i n Mph. Exposure speed i n 100 of F stop sec. Date Time of day 5a,b. K.Tr.P. UV 150 70 500 8 May 25 11 - 1 6 K.Tr.P. UV 150 70 500 8 May 25 11 - 1 7 K.Tr.P. UV 150 70 500 8 Kay 25 11 - 1 8 K.Tr.P. -. UV 150 70 500 8 May 25 11 - 1 9 K.Tr.P. UV 350 70 500 8 May 30 11 - 12 10a K.Tr.P. UV 350 70 500 8 May 30 11 - 12 11a,b. K.Tr.P. UV 150 70 500 8 May 25 11 - 12 12 K.Tr.P. UV 450 70 500 8 May 21 11 - 12 13 K.Tr.P. UV 400 70 500 8 May 21 11 - 12 14 K.Tr.P. UV 400 70 500 8 May 21 11 - 12 15 Agfa Col Ct - 18 UV 450 80 250 11 May 25 11 - 12 16 K.Tr.P. UV 250 65 500 8 May 25 11 - 12 17 K.Tr.P. UV 250 65 500 8 May 25 11 - 12 18 K.Tr.P. UV 400 70 500 8 May 30 11 - 12 19 K.Tr.P. UV 400 70 500 8 May 30 11 - 12 20 K.Tr.P UV 400 70 500 8 May 21 11 - 12 LEGEND TO ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Film F i l t e r F l y i n g height A i r c r a f t Exposure F stop Date Time number i n feet speed i n speed i n of day Mph. 100 of sec.  21 K.Tr.P. UV 450 70 500 8 May 21 11 - 12 23a K.Tr.P. UV and green 400 70 500 5.6 June 12 11 — 12 23b Kodak-color none 400 70 500 5.6 June 12 11 — 12 23c Ekta-chrome none 400 70 500 5.6 June 12 11 — 12 23d Ektachrome Infrered yellow 400 70 500 2.8 June 12 11 — 12 24 K.Tr.X.P. UV 450 70 500 8 May 21 11 - 12 25 . K.Tr.X_,P. UV and green 450 80 500 5.6 June 1 11 - 12 26 K.Tr.X.P. UV and green 450 80 500 5.6 June 1 11 - 12 27 K.Tr.X.P. UV 400 70 500 8 June 1 11 - 12 28 K.Tr.X.P. UV 450 70 500 8 May 30 11 - 12 29 K.Tr.X.P. UV 450 70 500 8 May 30 11 - 12 30 K.Tr.X.P. UV 500 70 500 8 May 30 11 - 12 31 K.Tr.X.P. UV 400 70 500 8 May 30 11 — 12 LEGEND TO ILLUSTRATIONS Figure number Film F i l t e r Flying height in feet A i r c r a f t speed in Mph. Exposure speed in 100 of sec. F stop Date Time of day 32 K.Tr.X.P. UV 400 70 500 8 May 30 11 - 12 33 K.Tr.X.P. UV 350 70 500 8 May 30 11 - 12 34 K.Tr.X.P. UV 400 70 500 8 May 30 11 - 12 35 K.Tr.X.P. UV 400 70 500 8 May 30 11 - 12 36 Ektachrome Infrared yellow 400 70 500 2.8 May 13 11 - 12 37 K.Tr.P. UV 450 70 500 8 June 1 11 - 12 38 K.Tr.P. UV 450 70 500 8 June 1 11 - 12 39 K.Tr.P. UV 450 70 500 8 June 1 11 - 12 40 K.Tr.P. UV 350 70 500 8 June 1 11 - 12 41 K.Tr.P. UV 450 70 500 8 June 1 11 - 12 42 K.Tr.P. UV 400 70 500 8 June 1 11 - 12 43 K.Tr.P. UV 400 70 500 8 June 1 11 - 12 44a Agfa Color Ct 18 UV 450 70 500 5.6 June 1 11 - 12 44b Kodak Tr.P. UV 400 70 500 5.6 June 1 11 - 12 LEGEND TO ILLUSTRATIONS Figure number Film F i l t e r F l y i n g height i n f e e t A i r c r a f t speed i n Mph. Exposure speed in 100 of sec. F stop Date Time of day 45 46a,b 46c 46d 46 e 47a 47b Kodak Tr.P. UV Kodak Tr.P. UV Kodak color none Ektachrome Infrared yellow Ektachrome Color none Ektachrome Infrared yellow Kodak color none 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 5.6 June 1 1 1 - 1 2 5.6 June 1 1 1 - 1 2 5.6 May 24 11 - 12 2.8 May 24 11 - 12 8 May 24 11 - 12 2.8 May 24 11 - 12 8 May 24 11 - 12 K.Tr.P. / Kodak T r i X Pancromatic black and white. TECHNICAL DATA TO ILLUSTRATIONS OF APPENDIX III Figure number Film F i l t e r F l y i n g height in feet A i r c r a f t speed in Mph. Exposure speed i n 100 of sec. F stop Date Time of day 1 K.Tr.P. UV 400 70 500 8 May 30 11 - 12 2 K.Tr.P. UV 450 70 500 8 May 15 11 - 12 3 K.Tr.P. UV 500 70 500 8 May 31 11 - 12 4 K.Tr.P. UV 400 70 500 8 May 30 11 - 12 5 K.Tr.P. UV 450 70 500 8 June 1 11 - 12 6 K.Tr.P. UV 450 70 500 8 May 30 11 - 12 7 K.Tr.P. UV 450 70 500 8 May 30 11 - 12 8 K.Tr.P. UV 450 70 500 8 May 30 11 - 12 9 K.Tr.P. UV 450 70 500 8 May 30 11 - 12 10 K.Tr.P. UV 700 70 500 8 June 1 11 - 12 11 K.Tr.P. UV 450 70 500 8 June 1 11 - 12 12 K.Tr.P. UV 450 70 500 8 May 15 11 - 12 APPENDIX III ILLUSTRATIONS TO APPLICATION OF 35 mm. VERTICAL PHOTOGRAPHS IN FISH, WILDLIFE, AND RANGE MANAGEMENT, AGRICULTURE, RECREATION AND FORESTRY. I I Figure 2. Location: Haney Research Forest. Note the hetereogenity in vegetation, which provides good deer habitat since the waterhole has water the year round. I I Figure 2. Location: Haney Research Forest. Note the hetereogenity in vegetation, which provides good deer habitat since the waterhole has water the year round. I l l Range Management Figure 3. An example for deer and cattle range in Delta d i s t r i c t . The quality of the stereo set gives information about species composition etc. •Edges' provide cover for deer. IV Wildlife Management Figure 4. Drainage pattern on beach area at Boundary Bay. V Range Management Figure 5. Forest area in Haney Research Forest. Note good range conditions for deer. Poor crown closure and openings give base for growth of shrub and herbs. VI Range Management Figure 6. Mixed range, good for deer and livestock. Location: Surrey d i s t r i c t . VII Range Management Figure 7. Visible f i e l d and bottom layer of the vegetation indicates game and cattle range. VIII Agriculture Figure 8. The stereo set shows s o i l and vegetation conditions on range and crop land. The photos are taken over Surrey d i s t r i c t from 350 feet above ground. « Agriculture Figure 9. Drying process in a recently plowed f i e l d . Sandy organic and clayish patches might be recognized. Location: Delta D i s t r i c t . X Recreation Figure 10. Potential campsite, creek with fresh water close. Access road 100 yards from v i s i b l e area. Location: Stave Lake. XI Forestry Figure 11. The stereo set shows the administrative area of Haney Research Forest. The shadows of the trees paint p r o f i l e of crowns and the shape of the trees. The plant rows in the glass-house and on the seed bed are recognizable. XII Forestry Figure 12. Mixed stand in Haney Research Forest, Species identification becomes easy on pictures with such high detail quality. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS OF APPENDIX III Figure Number Page 1. Spawning Grounds of Salmon in Boundary Bay .... I 2. Hetereogenity of Vegetation Illustrated on an Area in Haney Research Forest II 3. Deer and Cattle Range in Delta Municipality ... I l l 4. Drainage Pattern at Beach Area <at Boundary Bay IV 5. Plantation in Haney Research Forest V 6. Mixed Range in Surrey D i s t r i c t VI 7. Field and Bottom Layer of Vegetation Indicates Game and Cattle Range VII 8. Soil and Vegetation Conditions on Range and Crop Land VIII 9. Drying Process in a Field that was Plowed Recently IX 10. Potential Campsite near stave Lake X 11. Administrative Area of Haney Research Forest .. XI 12. Mixed Stand in Haney Research Forest. Species Identification XII 

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