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Proposed system for 35 mm. large scale aerial photography in natural resource management Schuerholz, Goetz 1970

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A PROPOSED SYSTEM FOR 35 mm. LARGE SCALE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY IN NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT.  by Goetz Schuerholz Vordiplom, U n i v e r s i t y o f Muenchen, 1966 Diplom, U n i v e r s i t y o f F r e i b u r g ,  1968  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF FORESTRY.  The F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h August, 1970  Columbia  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  thesis at  it  purposes  for  freely  permission may  representatives. thesis  partial  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  that  in  financial  is  of  of  Columbia,  British  available  for  for extensive  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment  by  shall  that  not  requirements  copying  of  copying  or  Forestry  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  Date  Columbia  OoW-V^ 1 ^ 4 ^ -13 ' ^ 0  this  for  that  study. thesis or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  Go»tz Schuerholz  of  agree  my D e p a r t m e n t  permission.  Department  I  r e f e r e n c e and  t h e Head o f  understood  gain  the  my  ii  ABSTRACT  This describes an a e r i a l photographic system which i s based on 35 mm. cameras.  The design f o r the  camera mount i s explained i n d e t a i l .  The o r i g i n a l i t y of  t h i s equipment IS due to the f a c t that the camera i s operated by hand and that the s p e c i a l device f o r advancing the f i l m enables the operator to take photos from an a l t i t u d e as low as 400 feet above ground elevation whilst s t i l l obtaining 60 per cent forward overlap.  More than 10 f l y i n g hours were spent i n order to study the f e a s i b i l i t y of t h i s method i n the various f i e l d s of natural resource management and others.  The outcome of  these t e s t f l i g h t s i s i l l u s t r a t e d with stereo p a i r s and s i n g l e p r i n t s f o r the f i e l d s of w i l d l i f e management, f i s h management, range management, a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , c i t y planning, erosion and p o l l u t i o n problems.  The basic f i l m  type used was Kodak Tri-X panchromatic black and white.  The problems which arose during the f l i g h t are i l l u s t r a t e d and discussed, e.g. shutter, scale, speed of the a i r c r a f t , requirements f o r the plane and p i l o t , f i l t e r s and f i l m s , weather conditions etc.  The f e a s i b i l i t y of t h i s  new method was substantiated i n presenting a series of sharp photos.  The high r e s o l u t i o n power of modern 35 mm.  film  material allows the trained interpreter to use the large scale photographs taken by t h i s system f o r : 1.  Estimates o f b i g game populations and spotting game with the a i d of tracks on snow,  2.  Detecting beaver a c t i v i t y ,  3.  Population estimates of muskrats by a house count,  4.  Waterfowl census by p i n pointing the i n d i v i d u a l s on the p r i n t s ,  5.  Detection of spawning grounds f o r salmon, and the estimation of a l g a l production.  6.  Detecting water and land p o l l u t i o n .  7.  Determining  8.  Habitat and range evaluation o f game and l i v e s t o c k .  9  Inventory work i n range management, a g r i c u l t u r e ,  0  erosion problems.  and f o r e s t r y , 10.  C i t y planning and landscape a r c h i t e c t u r e .  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  page INTRODUCTION Purpose Scope  1 •  1 2  EQUIPMENT  4  Aircraft Special device f o r the Camera Longitudinal P o s i t i o n o f the Camera Mount o f the Suspension into the A i r c r a f t L e v e l l i n g of the Camera and Reloading  4 4 . 6 6 6  TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS TO CAMERA  9  PHOTOGRAPHY TEST  10  Films and F i l t e r s Exposure F l y i n g Height and Scale Speed o f A i r c r a f t and Time Interval Between Exposures Image Blur  10 12 12 13 * 13  APPLICATION W i l d l i f e Management Habitat Evaluation Census Method f o r Big Game Beaver A c t i v i t y Muskrats Census Taking of Waterfowl Fish Management P o l l u t i o n Problems Erosion Range Management Agriculture • C i t y Planning (Residential Areas) Forestry  16  •  16 16 21 25 32 36 39 42 46 50 56 67 70  LARGE SCALE PHOTOGRAPHY, C r i t i c a l Analysis  90  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  93  BIBLIOGRAPHY  9  7  TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Number  Pag<  1.  Camera mount i n the A i r c r a f t  5  2.  Graph of Longitudinal and Transverse P o s i t i o n of the Camera  6  3.  Camera mount and Position of the Operator i n the A i r c r a f t  8  4.  Camera i n Operation  9  5.  Blur of image caused by Low Flying Height and Inadequate Exposure Speed W i l d l i f e Habitat Evaluation i n Area Northeast of Stave Lake  15  7.  Deer Habitat Northwest of Stave Lake  19  8.  V a l l e y i n the Northwest of Stave Lake ....... 20  9.  Beach of Boundary Bay  22  10a.,  Human Tracks a t Boundary Bay  23  10b.  Corresponding Ground Photo  23  6.  11a,b.  17  Deer Tracks i n the Mudflats of P i t t Lake .... 24  11c.  Corresponding Ground Photo  24  12a.  Beaver Cuttings i n a Populus Plantation on a Fraser River Island ,  28  12b.  Corresponding Ground Photo .................. 29:  13.  Beaver Cuttings on the same Island as on Figure 12a  14.  Abandoned Beaver dam i n the Fraser River .... 31  15.  Marshland South of P i t t Lake  16.  Muskrat Nest on the Marshland of P i t t Lake ... 34  17.  Muskrat Nests, South of P i t t Lake  18.  Gulls on a Drainage Channel i n Boundary Bay . 38'  30  33  35  Figure Number  Page  19.  Sandy Shoals, South of Boundary Bay  41  20.  River P o l l u t i o n , the Fraser, West of Chilliwack  43  21.  S i l t a t i o n , caused by A g r i c u l t u r a l Activity  44  22.  Dumping of cars on the Northern Beach dam of Boundary Bay  45  23a.  Road Erosion i n Haney Research Forest ...  47  23b.  Corresponding  48  23c.  Kodacolor and Ektachrome  48  23d.  Ektachrome Infrared  49  24.  Open Range i n a Populus Plantation in the Fraser V a l l e y near Chilliwack .... A r t i f i c i a l l y reforested Forest Plantation in Haney Research Forest  53  26.  Natural Growth i n Haney Research Forest .  54  27.  Species D i v e r s i t y i n a Stand o f Haney Research Forest  55  28.  Rural Area i n Delta D i s t r i c t  57  29.  Timber Production and A g r i c u l t u r e i n Surrey D i s t r i c t  58  30.  C a t t l e Rough pasture i n White Rock  59  31.  overstocking Necessitates A r t i f i c i a l Feeding Methods  60  32.  C a t t l e Farm i n Delta D i s t r i c t  61  33.  A g r i c u l t u r a l Area i n Delta D i s t r i c t , Metamorphosis from Rough"Pasture into Cropland  63  orchards i n Delta D i s t r i c t  64  25.  34.  Ground Photo  52  vii  Figure Number 35.  Page Chinese Vegetable Farm i n Delta District  65  36.  Crops i n White Rock (Ektachrome Infrared).  66  37.  Subdivision i n a Residential Area at the Periphery of Haney  67  38.  Periphery o f Haney  69  39.  D r i f t i n g Logs on Stave Lake  71  40.  Mixed Stand of Conifers and Deciduous Trees i n Haney Research Forest  72  41.  Shadows, h e l p f u l f o r Tree I d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  73  42.  Mixed Stands of Conifers and Deciduous Trees a t East side o f Stave Lake A r t i f i c i a l l y Reforested Areas i n Haney Research Forest  43. 44a,  74 75  Oblique Photo i n a Burned Over Area i n Haney Research Forest  76  44b.  Clearcut Area i n Haney Research Forest ...  77  45.  Burned Over Area i n Haney Research Forest.  78  46a.  Corresponding Ground Photos  80  46b. 46c.  Plantations i n Haney Research Forest Kodakcolor  81 82  46d.  Ektachrome  83  46e.  Ektachrome Color  84  47;  Forest Area i n the Fraser Valley? Ektachrome Infrared  86  Plantations i n Haney Research Forest on Color Infrared  87  Corresponding Kodakcolor Stereo p a i r  88  48a. 48b.  Infrared  vlii  L I S T OF TABLES  Table Number  Page  1.  F i l m s and F i l t e r s  11  2.  I n t e r v a l Between Exposures Changing w i t h V a r y i n g F l y i n g H e i g h t and A i r c r a f t Speed, C a l c u l a t e d f o r Transverse P o s i t i o n e d 35 mm. Cameras w i t h an Average F o c a l Length o f 55 mm  14  Comparison o f Costs Between C o n v e n t i o n a l Techniques and .the New Method  91  3.  ;  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This research was performed under the sponsorship and f i n a n c i a l assistance of the Faculty of Forestry a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Grateful acknowledgement i s given to Mr. E. Apt, who's t e c h n i c a l assistance enabled the construction of the workable suspension system.  Acknowledgement a l s o i s given  to the p i l o t , Murray McLean who proved himself a l s o as a h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d navigator.  This paper has been made p o s s i b l e through the co-operative e f f o r t of several i n d i v i d u a l s .  Special thanks are given to Dr. D.D. Munro, f o r h i s h e l p f u l comments and ideas.  A PROPOSED SYSTEM FOR 35 mm. LARGE SCALE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY IN NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT.  INTRODUCTION  PURPOSE  The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s study was to develop a simple, inexpensive technique u t i l i z i n g a 35 mm. camera and a l i g h t plane f o r large scale a e r i a l photographs to serve as an a i d to persons confronted with problems i n natural resource management.  In many cases, resource management personnel  are forced to use a e r i a l photography which i s out of date, has the wrong s c a l e , o r does not cover the required area.  A p o s s i b l e solution to t h i s problem would be the development of a cheap and simple photogrammetric system designed to supply the resource manager with h i s own r e l i a b l e up-to-date negatives and information i n a short time period.  V e r t i c a l a e r i a l photographs are known as a means for obtaining valuable information and are used i n Increasing numbers i n the management of wildland areas, i n forestry, w i l d l i f e , range, and watershed management, i n a g r i c u l t u r e , geology, and i n various other f i e l d s such as landscape a r c h i t e c t u r e , c i t y planning, recreation and ecology.  2.  SCOPS  In an e f f o r t to f u l f i l l the objective o f the study a s p e c i a l suspension f o r a 35 mm. camera was designed to take into account the v i b r a t i o n of the a i r c r a f t , t i p and tilt.  Various kinds of f i l m and f i l t e r combinations  have  been used on d i f f e r e n t objects i n order to show the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h i s system and the a p p l i c a t i o n range.  I t should be understood  that the described technique  i s only a study f o r supplementary a e r i a l photography.  Contact  p r i n t s and enlargement o f 35 mm. negatives cannot replace photos taken by conventional equipment using large cameras, but the q u a l i t y of 35 mm. cameras and films allow enlargements from 35 mm. negatives with a r e s o l u t i o n presenting acceptable and usable d e t a i l q u a l i t y .  Furthermore i t should be understood  that the stereo p a i r s produced by 35 mm. equipment should be used f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a l work only.  The d e t a i l obtained i n these photographs taken from varying f l y i n g heights and with a varying a i r c r a f t speed are useful i n many aspects of resource management.  Some i n d i v i d u a l s have already r e a l i z e d the p o t e n t i a l benefits obtained by the use of reasonable inexpensive camera equipment and l i g h t aeroplanes and the i n t e r e s t i n i t i s  3.  s t e a d i l y increasing.  P r i n t s made from 35 mm. negatives have  a high p i c t o r i a l value, but c a r e f u l considerations  should be  given to t h e i r l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s , e s p e c i a l l y i f measurements are to be made on the photographs.  These l i m i t a t i o n s are reported by Willingham (1959), Parker and Johnson (1969), Cameggie and Reppert (1969), and other authors.  The research  i n development and a p p l i c a t i o n  of large scale photography i s described by Avery (1958), Sayn Wittgenstein  (1960, 1964), Seely (1959), A r d r i c h , Bailey  and H e l l e r (1959).  The p o t e n t i a l use o f 35 mm. cameras i n Forestry i s pointed out by Parker and Johnson (1969), Cook (1969) and Z s i l i n s k y (1969).  The general outlook of these authors  towards the development and use of large scale photographic systems i s p o s i t i v e .  This report summarizes research performed a t the Forestry Faculty of the University o f B r i t i s h Columbia and includes the design of the camera mount and the r e s u l t s o f t e s t f l i g h t s c a r r i e d out over d i f f e r e n t landscape types.  The Interpretation of the photos w i l l be divided into sections regarding  t h e i r usefulness  i n such f i e l d s as: *  w i l d l i f e management, p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l , erosion c o n t r o l , range management, a g r i c u l t u r e , c i t y planning ( r e s i d e n t i a l areas), and f o r e s t r y .  4.  EQUIPMENT  The a i r c r a f t f o r t h i s p r o j e c t was  a four seated  Cessna 172, lout any other plane with a high wing configuration, slow c r u i s e a b i l i t y and good v i s i b i l i t y can be used with the same e f f i c i e n c y .  Careful consideration should be given to  the f a c t that most a i r c r a f t f l y i n a nose-up a t t i t u d e impairing the view of the p i l o t .  Camera suspension:  Important requirements of the  camera mount are that: -  i t must; be cheap and easy to construct  -  i t requires few or i n s i g n i f i c a n t modifications of the a i r c r a f t .  -  a i r c r a f t v i b r a t i o n i s eliminated a t low  frequencies  -  the camera i s l e v e l when i n a v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n there i s a s u i t a b l e place f o r the camera operator.  The f i n a l mount that produced the best r e s u l t s i s shown and described i n d e t a i l i n Appendix I. designed  The camera mount i s  to clamp to the seat r a i l s of the removed c o - p i l o t  seat (see Figure 1).  To reduce the v i b r a t i o n from the seat r a i l s to the arm holding the camera, two p l e x i - g l a s s frame boxes f i l l e d with polyfoam were mounted on a p l e x i - g l a s s p l a t e which was attached to adjustable tracks which s l i d e over the seat rails.  Through these boxes the mounting arm of the camera r e s t s .  5.  To intercept the remaining v i b r a t i o n that would be amplified through the arm of the camera, three c y l i n d r i c a l vessels are attached d i r e c t l y to the p l e x i - g l a s s frame.  They are f i l l e d  with a viscous mixture o f g l y c e r i n e and honey. independently  Floating  i n t h i s shock absorbing f l u i d are three more  cylinders which are attached to the arm of the camera.  These two independent systems s u f f i c i e n t l y absorb the v i b r a t i o n s allowing the camera to take high q u a l i t y photos.  Figure 1.  Camera mount i n the a i r c r a f t .  6  The suspension holds the camera perpendicular to the f l i g h t l i n e . a 35 mm,  I t i s important, as the negative of  camera has a frame s i z e of 24 by 36 mm.  provides a greater depth of fusion.  This p o s i t i o n  ( Z s i l i n s k y , 1968).  How-  ever, the decision f o r a l o n g i t u d i n a l , or transverse device (see Figure 2) depends upon the assumptions and  requirements  being made and on purpose of the survey.  Figure 2.  a) l o n g i t u d i n a l ,  b) transverse  p o s i t i o n of camera.  The cost of the material used f o r the suspension was approximately  $25.00.  This device can be mounted into the a i r c r a f t within three minutes.  It's use does not require extensive  modifications of the plane, nor s p e c i a l l i c e n s i n g . device can be used f o r any type of 35 mm. type of high wing l i g h t a i r c r a f t .  The  camera and a c e r t a i n  Such an a i r c r a f t can be  rented i n most circumstances by most individuals under reasonable cost conditions.  The charge for a single f l y i n g  hour w i l l range from $16.00 to $25.00 depending upon the type of aeroplane.  A suitable a i r c r a f t for this  suspension  7.  proved to be a four seater, since the device can be  slid  over the r a i l s of the removed c o - p i l o t seat and the shots can be taken out of the door space i n a p o s i t i o n f o r the operator who  comfortable  i s located on the rear seat.  The door i s held by two hinge b o l t s which can be pulled out by hand, and the seat i s attached to the r a i l s by a lever-arm.  The procedure of removing the door and seat  and the mounting process can be done i n 5 to 8 minutes.  A  l i m i t i n g f a c t o r for the use of t h i s design i s the weather. F l i g h t s can be undertaken only during the warmer times of the year and on days without  rain.  Once the a i r c r a f t i s in l e v e l f l i g h t , the camera i s adjusted f o r v e r t i c a l shots i n i t s metal shoe and remains l e v e l l e d even a f t e r reloading.  The reloading process by  i t s e l f during the f l i g h t seemed to be a problem, but once the cameraman gets used to the procedure, he w i l l be able to change films and f i l t e r s , to change diaphragm openings and shutter speeds and to clean the lenses without any  difficulty,  holding the camera between the base p l a t e and h i s feet i n a stable working p o s i t i o n .  To secure the camera during  operating time a safety l i n e (b in Figure 3) connects  the  camera body to the p l e x i - g l a s s frame.  Since no attempt was made to use the viewfinder in f l i g h t the p i l o t had to be able to place the target i n view of the cameraman and had to maintain speed and height  c  8  Figure 3.  Camera mount and the p o s i t i o n o f the operator in the a i r c r a f t .  while f l y i n g the a i r c r a f t according to the instructions of the photographer.  The photographer had to co-ordinate  those parameters with the time i n t e r v a l s between exposures. Reliable r e s u l t s w i l l be obtained by teamwork and experience.  Figure 4 shows the suspension operated during a f l i g h t and the p o s i t i o n of the photographer who i s s i t t i n g on the rear seat.  1  Figure 4.  I l l u s t r a t i o n of the camera in operation.  Technical considerations to the camera:  A Japanese made good q u a l i t y Konika Auto-Reflex camera with a Hexanon 1:2.8  and a 35 mm.  f o c a l length wide-  angle lens was used f o r this study in a l l t e s t f l i g h t s . A l t e r n a t e l y , a Hexanon 1:1.4 57 mm.  was  used.  lens with a f o c a l length of  Magnification of the negatives  an excellent resolving power of the lenses.  requires  Camera attach-  ments such as f i l t e r s , adaptors etc. are commercially available from most camera shops.  10.  Any 35 mm.  camera i s s u i t a b l e f o r t h i s suspension  i f i t f u l f i l l s the two requirements which are good q u a l i t y o p t i c s and f a s t shutter speeds up to 1/500 shutter that does not freeze.  of a second and a  Freezing can be eliminated by  l u b r i c a t i o n with s i l i c o n e s as described by Z s i l i n s k y (1968).  *  PHOTOGRAPHY TEST  Fijms and F i l t e r s  The basic f i l m used i n t h i s study was a Kodak Tri-X panchromatic f i l m that has a f i n e grain and a speed of 400 I t produces good q u a l i t y pictures with sharp images. produces s a t i s f a c t o r y enlargements.  ASA.  It  A comparative study with  four d i f f e r e n t f i l m types was c a r r i e d out g i v i n g excellent d e t a i l , q u a l i t y and information as i s shown i n the following illustrations.  As the colour and the tonal contrast of an image i s one of the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  parameters  i n discriminating among objects, i t i s important to understand the colour ranges of each f i l m type.  The necessary  d e t a i l information can be taken from the corresponding Kodak Papers.  11.  TABLE 1  Films and F i l t e r s  Filter  Film  Kodak Tri-X pan black, and white  V i v i t a r Haze F i l t e r 55mm. UV V i v i t a r , l i g h t green 55mm. X£.  Kodakcolor X  hone  Ektachrome c o l o r  none  Ektachrome i n f r a red IE (135-20)  V i v i t a r , medium yellow Filter, K 2  12. Exposure  The exposure time was determined by the Kodak A e r i a l Exposure Computer.  The proper exposure time depends  to some extent upon the experience and judgement of the photographer.  His experience gives him the necessary  information about haze conditions.  The f i l t e r factors were  taken from the corresponding Kodak information sheet.  F l y i n g height  The f l y i n g height i s one of the most important and most c r i t i c a l parameters  i n photogrammetrical work as  the altimeters i n use are h i g h l y biased as was p r e v i o u s l y pointed out.  A c o r r e c t l y determined height measurement  in connection with a topographic map permits the c a l c u l a t i o n of  the representative f r a c t i o n by a simple formula.  The  formula i s : RF = f = H =  f H - ground elevation f o c a l length i n feet f l y i n g height of the plane.  Furthermore, the f l y i n g height i s required to determine the i n t e r v a l between the exposures, to avoid motion d i s t o r t i o n and to obtain the three dimensional view.  Table 2 showa a l t e r n a t i v e s i n the choice of i n t e r v a l s between the exposures, i n seconds, varying with a l t i t u d e and scale calculated f o r a transversely positioned 35 mm. with a negative format ©,f 3.5 mm.  by 24 mm.  camera  Three d i f f e r e n t  speeds o f the plane were ohosen considering d i f f e r e n t topographic conditions and: d i f f e r e n t a i r turbulences. In other words where a f l i g h t with a. speed of 60 miles per hour might be s u i t a b l e over marshland the same speed f o r the same a i r c r a f t might prove to be c r i t i c a l i n mountainous country.  In preliminary investigations tests were conducted to determine how many pictures the photographer could take in a c e r t a i n time i n t e r v a l .  Under i d e a l conditions, the-  shutter working continuously, the operator was able to take 32 exposures i n 20 seconds.  Thus the c a l c u l a t i o n begins  with 0.65 seconds g i v i n g 0,3 second tolerance.  A f l y i n g height below 300 feet with an inadequate exposure speed causes b l u r of the image as i l l u s t r a t e d by Figure 5 and Fibure 5b,  These pictures were taken from  150 feet over the mudflats of P i t t Lake.  An exposure speed of 1/500 per second and a f l y i n g height greater than 450 feet with an average speed of 700 mph. lap.  give high q u a l i t y pictures with the required over-  14. TABLE 2 Interval between exposures changing with varying f l y i n g height and speed, calculated f o r transverse positioned 35 mm. cameras with an average f o c a l length of 55 mm. Speed i n Mph.  Interval between exposure i n seconds  Scale  60 70 80  0.64 0.55 0.48  1:1801  60 70 80  0.69 0.59 0.52  1:1939  60 70 80  0.74 0.64 0.56  60 70 80  Height i n feet  Area covered i n km*  325  0.0028  350  0.0033  1:2078  375  0.0037  0.79 0.68 0.59  1:2216  400  0.0042  60 70 80  0.84 0.72 0.63  1:2355  425.  0.0048  60 70 80  0.89 0.76 0.67  1:12493  450  0.0054  60 70 80  0.94 0.89 0.74  1:2632  475  0.0060  60 70 80  0.99 0.85 0.74  1:2770  500  0.0066  60 70 80  1.39 1.19 1.04  1:3879  700  0.0130  Source:  3h  Annual report of Serengeti Research Program, (Williams, 1969).  15.  Figure 5.  Figure 5a.  Single shots taken over P i t t Lake mudflats from an a l t i t u d e of 150 feet. Blur caused by low f l y i n g height and inadequate exposure speed can be seen on the tracks of the human beings.  16.  APPLICATION OF THE TECHNIQUE  W i l d l i f e Management: Habitat Evaluation:  Game b i o l o g i s t s w i l l c i t e the provision o f supplementary food as the major r o l e f o r e s t clearings play in t h e i r management program.  The second c r i t e r i o n of a  c l e a r i n g i s the 'edge e f f e c t ' , e s p e c i a l l y important f o r deer.  Recent studies show a c o r r e l a t i o n between s i z e and  shape of c l e a r c u t areas with the s i z e of deer populations (Larson (1966), Schuster, H a l l s (1962), Wilson Berard (1952), and Dalke (1937) ). Areas which provide the best habitat must have a good d i v e r s i t y (Figure 6, No. 1,2) o f vegetation types.  Stereo s e t Figure 6 gives evidence about the  heterogenous nature o f vegetation, the shape and s i z e o f c l e a r i n g (3) and the f a i r number of openings i n the canopy f o r the growth o f browse species.  Hollows and h i l l s (see Figure 6, Nos. 6,7, and 8), caused by topographic d i s t o r t i o n can be i d e n t i f i e d .  17.  F i g u r e 6.  W i l d l i f e h a b i t a t e v a l u a t i o n i n an a r e a o f Stave Lake.  northeast  18.  Figure 7 shows a d i v e r s i t y in shape and s i z e of cut-over areas and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of d i f f e r e n t vegetative age c l a s s e s . The  The v i s i b l e access road w i l l allow a harvest.  'edge'effect' might also be i l l u s t r a t e d by t h i s photo  set which shows mature timber as refuges and openings.  The  term 'edge' might be defined as the boundary between two vegetative types, or two d i f f e r e n t age classes and i s an important component of the previously discussed d i v e r s i t y  The stereo p a i r a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s the usefulness of the technique f o r cover mapping.  The cover map  i s a helpful  tool f o r the f i e l d b i o l o g i s t and the w i l d l i f e manager.  Cover  maps can best be made from large scale v e r t i c a l a e r i a l photographs of good q u a l i t y .  None the l e s s , the i l l u s t r a t i o n  Figure 7 shows that an accurate map of vegetative types can be drawn with a minimum demand on energy, time and cost. However, ground studies, experience, and a basic ecological knowledge are requirements  f o r a meaningful  interpretation.  19.  Figure 7.  Deer habitat northwest of Stave Lake. D i v e r s i t y of clear-cut areas and a d i s t r i b u t i o n of d i f f e r e n t vegetative age classes.  20  Figures 6 and 8 are intended to i l l u s t r a t e only the r e l a t i v e l y small areas occupied by seres which are found along streams and creeks and which are important life.  for wild-  Those s i t e s have excellent moisture and s o i l conditions  and grow a v a r i e t y of browse species f o r deer.  Figure 8.  V a l l e y i n the northwest of stave Lake. height of 900 feet above ground l e v e l .  Flying  21.  The use of v e r t i c a l and oblique a e r i a l photographs in the determination of game species, f o r the census of i n d i v i d u a l s , and f o r population estimates from track counts during summer and winter are described by d i f f e r e n t authors . ( Crissey, 1946; Evans, Troyer and Lensink, 1966; Banfield et a l . , 1955).  The best time of the year to undertake the  surveys may be the winter, when the big game species are concentrated on s u i t a b l e range areas and when the deciduous trees have dropped t h e i r leaves.  This i s also the period  when the contrast between snow covered backgrounds and objects becomes highest.  Observation and counts of snow  tracks provide l i m i t e d information about the winter d i s t r i b u t i o n of the observed species and t h e i r r e l a t i v e abundance as described by Banfield e t a l . (1955).  The tracks are  often of assistance i n l o c a t i n g animals (Crissey, 1946).  Figures 9, 10 and 11 document that tracks can be seen and i d e n t i f i e d from the a i r with ease.  On Figure 9, three d i f f e r e n t human tracks c l e a r l y contrast against the s i l t y background.  Photo Figure 10a and  stereo p a i r 9 were taken from 350 f e e t above ground and a speed of 70 mph.  Figure 9 i s an example of a poor overlap.  The required time i n t e r v a l between the exposures f o r the mentioned height and speed combination would have been f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case 0.50 seconds.  I t was discussed e a r l i e r  Arrow shows footprints of human beings  23.  Figure 10a.  Human tracks along railway crossing, Boundary Bay. Flying height of 350 feet above ground.  Figure 10b.  Ground photo corresponding  to Figure 10a.  24  F i g u r e 11a and b. M u d f l a t s south o f P i t t Lake. Flying h e i g h t o f 150 f e e t above ground. Note the deer tracks.  F i g u r e 11c.  Ground photo c o r r e s p o n d i n g to areas o f 11a and  b.  25.  that the device being used permits the camera operator, under i d e a l conditions, to take exposures with a 0.62 second time i n t e r v a l thus gaining a 60 per cent forward overlap. That t h i s poor stereo p a i r might s t i l l be valuable i s dependent upon the objective of the i n t e r p r e t e r .  In a general  sense, a l o t o f information can be extracted from s i n g l e prints.  Figure 11 shows the tracks o f deer.  The photo  was taken from 150 feet and a-speed o f 70 mph. over the mudflats of P i t t Lake.  Beaver  The management o f beaver populations appears very complex as many opposing ideas have to be taken into consideration as i s reported by Crissey (1946), and Mathiak (1951).  An i n t e n s i v e l y managed s i l v i c u l t u r a l area with c o s t l y  Populus plantations situated on f e r t i l e p l a i n s along r i v e r sides c o n f l i c t s with a high beaver a c t i v i t y i n the same area. In some parts of the country beaver ponds and pools represent not only an enrichment of thellandscape but might be an e c o l o g i c a l necessity.  For example, they may give a  v a r i e t y of other species the base of existence and guarantee water supply to a g r i c u l t u r a l areas throughout  the year.  Data on changes i n population s i z e of beaver and data about  26  l i v i n g and abandoned dams are o f great i n t e r e s t f o r an optimum management program.  Experience has shown sometimes  that a survey o f beaver abundance and i n t e s t i g a t i o n s about damage complaints may be c o s t l y when done from the ground. As an economic solution to t h i s dilemma well organized a e r i a l surveys could be u t i l i z e d .  The problem to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between an a c t i v e and an abandoned beaver dam may be solved by choosing the r i g h t time o f year f o r a survey.  This i s the l a t e  f a l l when the beavers s t a r t to r e p a i r t h e i r dams and get ready f o r winter.  The beaver cuts trees for food  storage, and on the large scale photos fresh chips appearing b r i g h t i n colour, and the stumps and the f a l l e n trees stripped o f t h e i r leaves can e a s i l y be i d e n t i f i e d , (Cressey, 1946).  The mosaic on Figure 14 shows an abandoned beaver dam on which no house can be recognized.  The dam was b u i l t  27  in the middle of the r i v e r connecting sandbanks.  The  distance between the dam and what was apparently the c l o s e s t a v a i l a b l e food supply was approximately  200 yards.  28  Figure 12a.  Beaver cuttings i n a Populus plantation on a Fraser River i s l a n d .  29.  30  Beaver cuttings i n a Populus plantation on an i s l a n d i n the Fraser River. F l y i n g height of 400 f e e t above ground.  31.  Figure 14.  Abandoned beaver dam i n the Fraser River connecting two sandbanks. The photos o f the mosaic are taken from 400 feet f l y i n g height.  32.  Muskrats  The importance of muskrats as bearers of valuable fur requires a well organized management program.  Muskrat  houses can be counted from the a i r (Crissey, 1946).  A good management program f o r the steady maintenance of valuable fur bearers and such an i n t e r e s t i n g species, as an enrichment of marshlands may require an e f f e c t i v e survey which may be done i n the most economical way from the a i r .  One o f the study areas flown was the previously mentioned marsh south of P i t t Lake, which i s protected as a waterfowl refuge.  The oblique photo of Figure 15 shows  a general over-view of the described area. appears uniform.  The vegetation  33.  Figure 15.  Marshland, south of P i t t Lake.  34.  The s i n g l e p r i n t (Figure 16) shows a muskrat house (see  arrow).  The arrows 1 and 2 of the stereo set Figure 17  indicate t r a i l s running from the houses into water channels. The photos were taken from an a l t i t u d e of approximately 250 feet above ground and a speed o f 65 mph.  The minimum  amount o f image b l u r does not influence the informative value. A p e r i o d i c a l yearly survey enables the manager to get an estimate of the population s i z e of muskrats i n a c e r t a i n area, since newly b u i l t houses can be counted.  The best time of  year might be the early winter when the management area i s snow covered.  The a c t i v e nest might appear darker i n tone  on a black and white p r i n t than an abandoned one because of  the heat generated by the animals.  Figure 16.  Muskrat nest on the marshland of P i t t Lake.  35.  Figure 17.  Muskrat houses, south of P i t t Lake. height of 250 feet above ground.  Flying  36.  Waterfowl  A e r i a l photographs can be of considerable use in estimates of the numbers of waterfowl, in evaluation of breeding areas and i n the determination of p o t e n t i a l refuge sites.  The f i r s t experience with duck census from the a i r  i s reported by M i l l e r (1932).  A e r i a l photos i n the  management of waterfowl are given by Crissey, Leedy (1953), Colwell (1950), Kadlec (1968), and Young (1965).  This study with a 35 mm.  camera shows i t s  a p p l i c a t i o n with i t s large scale photographs to the management of waterfowl.  This technique might also be  useful to estimate nests of sea birds l i v i n g together i n colonies as reported by Kadlec  (1968).  Rapidly increasing populations of Larus argentatus and Larus larlbundus i n Europe have created new management problems.  Gulls may pose hazards to a i r c r a f t a t coastal a i r  ports (Kadlec, 1968) and cause severe damage to young crops in i n t e n s i v e l y managed r u r a l areas.  37  A census of ducks and geese has become necessary because of s t e a d i l y increasing hunting pressure.  Peaks of  migration, migration patterns and the e f f e c t of various refuges on waterfowl populations may be determined from the air.  The s i z e o f the areas and i n most cases t h e i r i n -  a c c e s s i b i l i t y would make t h i s work hard to do by ground checks.  The photo mosaic (Figure 18, A.B.C) indicates the f e a s i b i l i t y o f using large scale black and white p r i n t s taken by 35 mm. cameras f o r a census o f some b i r d s .  Three flocks  of g u l l s (see Figure 18, A.B.C.) s i t t i n g on the main drainage d i t c h of the sandy beach can be recognized and each g u l l image can be pin pointed.  The contrast between the l i g h t  coloured g u l l s and the dark background o f the water allows f o r a c l e a r and accurate count.  The s t r i p was taken from  400 feet and with a speed o f 70 mph. over Boundary Bay.  39  Fish Management  The e f f i c i e n c y of a e r i a l surveys i n f i s h management was  investigated i n an extensive  study by  Eicher (1953) and improved by Fish and W i l d l i f e Departments in Canada and the United States. can be extremely  V e r t i c a l a e r i a l photos  useful i n the evaluation of spawning  grounds and the determination of algae and other  vegetation  on the bottom of lakes, seashores and shallow r i v e r s .  They  allow f o r estimates to be made of the numbers of spawning salmon (see Eicher, 1953)  and f o r a census of seals.  condition of the l i g h t and the sun angle are factors influencing t h i s kind of work.  The  considerable  Bright l i g h t  a cloudless sky cause a high reflectance o f f the  and  surface  of water bodies, (see Figure 19, arrow A).  The photo Figure 19 was  taken f o r a documentation  of the useful a p p l i c a t i o n of the technique i n f i s h management. Arrow B i n Figure 19 indicates a l g a l production  and demon-  strates the " a b i l i t y "of the f i l m to penetrate c l e a r water under suitable l i g h t conditions.  Arrow A indicates the  tendency f o r r e f l e c t i o n in intensive sunlight which makes i t impossible  to recognize  the f i v e seals, one of the targets,  swimming close to the surface.  Thus i t might be  learned  that a e r i a l photographs provide a permanent index i n census work and habitat evaluation but that good surveys cannot be  40.  made u n l e s s c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e g i v e n to the time o f the day, glare.  the sun a n g l e , the l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s and  to  41  F i g u r e 19.  Sandy s h o a l s , south o f Boundary Bay on the P a c i f i c Coast l i n e .  42  Pollution  Regular surveying of streams, beaches and lakes enable one to i d e n t i f y changing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of water that render i t u n f i t f o r aquatic l i f e and human consumption. these p o l l u t e r s are sewage, i n d u s t r i a l by-products, waste, and a g r i c u l t u r a l and f o r e s t r y p e s t i c i d e s .  Among  Inorganic  Aerial  photographs provide information f o r detection and f o r the determination of the extent o f land and water p o l l u t i o n , as reported by Avery (1969).  Sharp tonal contrast can be seen  in some cases on black and white photos when the p o l l u t a n t enters the unpolluted water body.  (see Figure 20).  The p o l l u t a n t on Figure 20 could be a chemcial waste, p o s s i b l y a by-product of the small holding (see cross on Figure 20) and i s discharged d i r e c t l y into the Fraser.  Organic and inorganic e f f l u e n t s can cause severe damage to any aquatic l i f e and l i m i t the species d i s t r i b u t i o n by changing the v a r i e t y of species to micro-organisms which are adaptable  to the a r t i f i c i a l l y created anaerobic conditions.  Figure 21 shows s i l t a t i o n caused by nearby a g r i c u l t u r a l activity.  A heavy r a i n f a l l washed s i l t and sand through  drainage ditches into the stream.  In the same process  k i l l i n g p e s t i c i d e s can be drained into the r i v e r .  life  43.  F i g u r e 20.  P o t e n t i a l p o l l u t i o n o f the F r a s e r R i v e r near Chilliwack.  44.  F i g u r e 21.  Possible r i v e r p o l l u t i o n , Fraser of Chilliwack.  R i v e r , west  45  The h i g h q u a l i t y  o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by t h e  photos might be i l l u s t r a t e d by F i g u r e 21, on which the c i r c l e s indicate  three persons.  p r e t e r t o determine  the c o r r e c t p o s i t i o n  C i r c l e A - one i n d i v i d u a l legs.  The s t e r e o s c o p e enables t h e i n t e r o f the human beings»  s i t t i n g on the ground w i t h  bent  C i r c l e B - two persons, one i s l y i n g on the  g r a s s , t h e o t h e r w i t h dark h a i r  i s l e a n i n g forward and i s *  wearing  a white  shirt.  F i g u r e 22 shows t h e end r e s u l t o f the i n c r e a s i n g p r o c e s s o f human a c t i v i t y , mechanisation  and c u l t u r a l  satisfaction.  F i g u r e 22.  Northern beach area o f Boundary Bay.  46  Eros ion  Another form of environmental destruction often accelerated by human influence i s erosion.  I t i s known that  careless logging operations and careless road construction can cause heavy disturbance of the s o i l surface by exposing the top layers to wind and water.  Moving water i s the major  agent i n modifying the earth's surface, and forming c h a r a c t e r i s t i c landscape patterns which are of great importance to the photo interpreter. (Avery, 1969).  The road constructor has to be concerned about the slope o f the l i n e , c l i m a t i c conditions, and e s p e c i a l l y a good drainage system which requires ditches and banks. The necessity f o r a stable shoulder on the v a l l e y side o f the road together with a large enough o u t l e t from the d i t c h on the other side of the road becomes obvious from Figure 23 to Figure 25.  These photographs were taken less than four  weeks a f t e r road widening and c l e a r i n g o f the stream bank.  The t y p i c a l structure o f the g l i d i n g h i l l s i d e inside the curve (Figure 23a to d) together with the f i n e grained s o i l material which i s deposited on the foot of the hill  (see Figure 23c, cross) and washed into the r i v e r i n -  dicates the eroding power of water.  This s i l t a t i o n pollutes  the streams and reduces t h e i r a b i l i t y to support f i s h by burying t h e i r eggs.  47  P i o n e e r p l a n t s which a r e growing on the eroded might be b e s t r e c o g n i z e d on F i g u r e 23d.  Ektachrome  hill  Infra red  photography shows h e a l t h y v e g e t a t i o n i n a r e d c o l o u r and d r y s o i l i n a l i g h t b l u e tone.  Arrows A.B.C, and D on F i g u r e 23d  i n d i c a t e the poor growth o f young p i o n e e r  F i g u r e 23a.  1  vegetation.  Road e r o s i o n i n Haney Research F o r e s t .  4 8 .  F i g u r e 23b.  Ground photo c o r r e s p o n d i n g and F i g u r e 25.  F i g u r e 23c.  Road e r o s i o n i n Haney Research F o r e s t .  t o areas  Ektachrome  i n F i g u r e 23c,  49  F i g u r e 23d.  Road e r o s i o n i n Haney Research F o r e s t . F i l m type: Ektachrome I n f r a r e d .  50  Range Management  The a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s of plant ecology enables the range manager to improve p r o d u c t i v i t y and future development of range land which large parts of the country.  occupies  Those areas are i n most cases  important f o r bothr l i v e s t o c k and b i g game, such as deer, and bighorn sheep on the North American continent. knowledge of plant ecology,  A basic  f l o r a , s o i l science, geology, and  climatology i s required f o r any i n t e r p r e t i v e work i n t h i s field.  (df. Joy, H a r r i s , Rader, 1960).  The term 'range'  might be defined as non arable land which produces forage and browse which plants are l a r g e l y native species.  Cameggie (1966, 1967) points out that the range areas comprise nearly one-half o f the earth's land mass. Thus an extensive study of these areas seems a necessity f o r a management program since l i v e s t o c k and game grazing and browsing on the vegetation o f f e r the primary protein supply for the world's human population.  This factor i s neglected,  or not even r e a l i z e d , i n large parts o f world wide rangelands (Cameggie, 1967), leading to misuse and overuse which r e s u l t i n poor s o i l conditions, with scarce vegetation. Erosion problems can be d i r e c t l y correlated to this mismanagement.  Consequently, inventories are needed to provide  information needed f o r i n t e l l i g e n t management.  51  The usefulness of a e r i a l photography applied to assessing  range land i s a commonly c i t e d topic i n any  e c o l o g i c a l journal.  The following i l l u s t r a t i o n s should be  seen as a h e l p f u l contribution  to range management.  The vegetation c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s v i s i b l e on the photos are s i n g l e plants, and plant associations.  Background  information about growth c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the vegetation under d i f f e r e n t canopy conditions, and a good knowledge of s i t e conditions are e s s e n t i a l f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a l  studies  of a e r i a l photographs.  The vegetation i s o f t e r c l a s s i f i e d according to the height l e v e l .  E i n e v o l l (1968) d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between  tree layer, shrub layer, f i e l d layer and bottom layer (see Figure 24) f o r the Scandinavian reindeer grazing grounds. This seems to be an ingenious idea as d i f f e r e n t game species and l i v e s t o c k are feeding  i n d i f f e r e n t vegetation heights?  i . e . , A f r i c a n savanna ecosystem,  elephants and g i r a f f e s  feed in the tree layer, antelope species i n the shrub layer, gazelles on the f i e l d layer and warthogs on the bottom layer.  Figure 25 i l l u s t r a t e s a nearly homogeneous appearing conifer plantation.  The crown closure of this mid-  dle aged stand would be s t r a t i f i e d as high, excluding nearly a l l vegetation growth underneath since the l i g h t i n t e n s i t y  52.  at the ground i s too low.  Whereas i n Figure 25 and 26 an  excellent d i s t r i b u t i o n of d i f f e r e n t plant species can be seen as a r e s u l t of i d e a l canopy openings with excellent light  conditions.  Figure 24.  Open range rough pasture i n a Populus plantation in the Fraser Valley near Chilliwack.  A. Tree layer B. Shrub layer C. F i e l d layer  53.  The s t e r e o p a i r shows an a r t i f i c a l l y r e f o r e s t e d  coniferous  plantation.  light  The canopy appears dense?  c o n d i t i o n s on the ground w i l l not a l l o w or herbs.  the poor  the growth o f shrubs  54.  Figure 26.  Forest in Haney Research Forest. of 450 feet above ground.  F l y i n g height  Excellent d i s t r i b u t i o n of conifers and deciduous trees i n d i f f e r e n t age classes. a v a r i e t y of species  The excellent l i g h t conditions permit  to grow under the canopy and in openings.  55.  Figure 27.  Forest stand in Haney Research Forest. Variety of shrub species shows(good}browse conditions for deer. -ftxlv  56 Agriculture  Range management i s n o t o n l y concerned w i t h s e r e s i n f o r e s t s u c c e s s i o n s but a l s o w i t h i n t e n s i v e l y managen g r a s s land.  The amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n which can be e x t r a c t e d from  the photos b e i n g  taken o f these areas  j u d i c i o u s s e l e c t i o n o f important  i s depending upon a  f a c t o r s : e.g.  d e s c r i p t i o n o f range p l a n t s , s o i l c o l o u r and turbances, moisture  phenological  texture, d i s -  c o n d i t i o n s , p l a n t cover e t c . ( C a m e g g l e ,  1968).  In o r d e r to o p t i m i z e the f o r a g e p r o d u c t i o n an a c c u r a t e An  effectively  i n v e n t o r y o f the p l a n t communities i s r e q u i r e d .  i n c r e a s e o f the f o r a g e p r o d u c t i o n might be gained  s p e c i a l o p e r a t i o n s ; e.g. drainage, o r i r r i g a t i o n vegetation  fertilization  (see F i g u r e  (see F i g u r e 29), and  another  the c a r r y i n g  i n p r e d i c t i n g the  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f the l i v e s t o c k from one  i n o r d e r to prevent  the  (1966).  a i d i n determining  c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f a fenced g r a s s l a n d , and necessary  28),  change o f  (see F i g u r e 28), as r e p o r t e d by L a c a t e ,  A e r i a l photographs a r e a powerful  by  meadow to  overgrazing.  For i n t e n s i v e l y managed c a t t l e farms a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a r a b l e lands a t the p r e s e n t ,  (compare Tuensche's economical  c i r c l e s ) i t appears t h a t l a n d i s a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r , i n areas c l o s e to c i t i e s .  especially  F i g u r e 31 g i v e s an example o f  such r e s t r i c t e d a r e a s , where the farmer i s u s i n g supplemental  57  a r t i f i c i a l f e e d i n g as i n d i c a t e d by the food  F i g u r e 28.  containers.  R u r a l area i n D e l t a D i s t r i c t , south o f Vancouver. Meadow A i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a fence (see a r r o w ) . A h i g h e r p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the s o i l c o u l d p r o b a b l y be gained by brush removal and f e r t i l i z a t i o n .  58.  F i g u r e 29.  D i s t r i c t S u r r e y . Land p r o b a b l y used f o r timber p r o d u c t i o n and rough p a s t u r e . The arrow p o i n t s on a d r a i n a g e d i t c h w i t h a b r i d g e . The d r a i n a g e o f range areas can i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f forage.  59  F i g u r e 30.  Rough p a s t u r e area i n White Rock. Stereoscopic examination o f these photos permits i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the v e g e t a t i o n b e i n g browsed. Evidence i s given t h a t none o f the c a t t l e i s f e e d i n g on the darker a p p e a r i n g rush s p e c i e s .  A,B,C,D,E, and  F mark the animals f e e d i n g on  grass.  G,H,I,K,L, and M p o i n t a t i n d i v i d u a l s r e s t i n g on  (-  r  the ground.  60  61.  Figure 32.  Stereo set, f l y i n g height of 400 feet, of c a t t l e farm i n Delta. Most of the c a t t l e are r e s t i n g . The s o i l around the containers i s h i g h l y d i s turbed by the trampling of the l i v e s t o c k . The meadow i s a rush grass type on a poor s i t e . Bare rocks (see arrows) which are very l i g h t i n colour indicate a shallow s o i l .  V  62  A e r i a l photographs p r o v i d e e x c e l l e n t base maps as has  been shown p r e v i o u s l y .  i n g s , roads, drainage  Boundaries o f farms, b u i l d -  d i t c h e s , f e n c e s , ponds, s t o n e w a l l s ,  hedges, e t c . a r e p r e f e c t l y r e c o g n i z a b l e on the p r i n t s . A g r i c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n e x t r a c t a b l e from these phtoos i n cludes e v a l u a t i o n o f s o i l d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t e r r a i n s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n l a n d use p a t t e r n , and of  s p e c i f i c c r o p s , o r types o f farming.  f i l m and  f i l t e r combinations p e r m i t  crop v i g o r and  indicators,  identification  S p e c i a l types  of  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  the presence o f h e a l t h y , o r d i s e a s e d p l a n t s .  Tonal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s enable  the i n t e r p r e t e r to d i f f e r e n t i a t e  between i r r i g a t e d and dry farming and p r o v i d e him w i t h a v a r i e t y of other  information.  F i g u r e 33 shows a r e c e n t metamorphosis o r rough p a s t u r e to c r o p l a n d .  Rocks and  the l i g h t toned  s u r f a c e on  area A i n d i c a t e t h a t the s o i l i s a poor c l a y i s h type drainage  (see  ditch) excluding high p r o d u c t i v i t y unless i t i s  f e r t i l i z e d , o r mixed w i t h a sandy component.  P l a n t a t i o n s of t r e e s o r shrubs a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by u n i f o r m l y spaced rows o f t r e e s appearing The  in a grid pattern.  trees are planted p r i m a r i l y i n l e v e l t e r r a i n l a i d  i n squares w i t h the same s p a c i n g from t r e e to t r e e and row.  (compare Avery, 1969).  with adequate e c o n o m i c a l l y  That p e r m i t s  out row  to  an easy c u l t i v a t i o n  s i z e d machinery.  F i g u r e 34 might  63.  serve as an example of t h i s phenomenon.  The same stereo p a i r  can give evidence to the interpreter about moisture conditions, and thus c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the s o i l .  A s o i l with a high sandy  component appears l i g h t e r in tone than a heavy c l a y i s h type since a sandy podsolic type has a better percolation than a f i n e grained gleyosol.  Figure 33.  A g r i c u l t u r a l area in Delta D i s t r i c t . A change i n the land use can be seen on f i e l d A. Meadow shrub vegetation (arrow) indicates the recent metamorphosis from rough pasture into crop land. Areas A and B are divided by a fence (see cross) and are separated from C by drainage d i t c h (see c i r c l e s ) .  64.  Figure 34.  Plantations i n Delta D i s t r i c t , south of Vancouver. Note c h a r a c t e r i s t i c g r i d pattern of the blueberry shrubs.  65.  From Figure 35 one can s t r a t i f y the d i f f e r e n t areas on a Chinese vegetable farm in the Delta D i s t r i c t .  Figure 35.  Chinese vegetable farm i n the Delta D i s t r i c t . This farm includes a blueberry p l a n t i n g (A), s i x d i f f e r e n t crop types (B to G) and a farm house. The reason f o r the poor growth of the plants i n the rows which are indicated by arrows needs to be investigated. The vegetables i n those rows might be already harvested.  66.  The usefulness of c e r t a i n f i l m - f i l t e r combinations might be i l l u s t r a t e d by Figure 36.  The photos were  taken with an Ektachrome Infra red f i l m and a medium yellow filter.  The healthy vegetation appears i n a uniformly b r i g h t  red colour (see Figure 36, A ) . cultivation activity.  Area B shows rows created by  More discussion of t h i s type of f i l m  w i l l be given i n the 'Forestry' s e c t i o n .  Figure 36.  Ektachrome Infra red stereo p a i r , over White Rock. F i e l d B shows a more pinkish colour than area A. The difference might be found i n the age of the vegetation. The pinkish colour i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c for young vegetation.  67  Residential Areas.  The interpreter of r e s i d e n t i a l areas and urban features w i l l f i n d that the choice of a r e s i d e n t i a l property i s the key f o r the s o c i a l and economic status of a family. The photomosaic Figure 37 shows a subdivided r e s i d e n t i a l area a t the periphery of Haney.  Figure 37.  68  The p r o p e r t i e s have a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a r e o r i e n t a t e d w i t h the headside  t o the freeway.  they a r e s e p a r a t e d by d r a i n a g e d i t c h e s (A), and and hedges ( C ) . certain  The  individual  shape?  they  Laterally fences ( B ) ,  t a s t e and p r e f e r e n c e f o r a  form o f the s i m i l a r - s i z e d areas becomes obvious  on t h i s photomosaic.  F a m i l i e s D,E,  put a h i g h e f f o r t i n gardening. crops and have o r c h a r d s . out round  and  F (see F i g u r e 37)  They a r e growing  different  Family D p r e f e r s an open  laying  t h e i r house w i t h a l o o s e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t r e e s  and ornamental  p l a n t s , whereas t h e i r neighbours,  show a sense f o r g e o m e t r i c a l l y shaped ornamental  G,E,  and  gardens.  I  69.  F i g u r e 38.  R e s i d e n t i a l farm area on the p e r i p h e r y o f Haney. s t a b l e s ( A ) , barns (B), sheds ( C ) , and d w e l l i n g houses (D,E) a r e easy to i d e n t i f y . The a r c s i n c l u d e bare s o i l , o u t s i d e the s t a b l e gates caused by the t r a m p l i n g o f l i v e s t o c k . The arrows i n d i c a t e gates and b r i d g e s .  70.  Forestry  In t h i s chapter emphasis i s place on  illustrating  the f e a s i b i l i t y of t h i s technique in i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to Forestry. Large - scale v e r t i c a l a e r i a l photographs have proved valuable in preparing vegetation maps, in i d e n t i f y i n g forest types and tree species, i n analysing stand compositions,  in inventory  work l i k e tree counts, or volumes of standing trees, or cut forest products  (see Figure 39) i n logging, road planning,  fire  protection, disease control, and other f i e l d s .  The usefulness of large scale v e r t i c a l a e r i a l photographs in Forest management i s reported by Parker, Johnson, 1970; 1962;  Richenhaller, 1963? Lyons, 1966,  Hegg, 1967 and Aldred, Sayn Wittgenstein,  Sayn Wittgenstein, 1967.  In order to i n t e r p r e t f o r e s t data accurately the interpreter must be able to c o r r e l a t e mation with the image of the photo.  background i n f o r -  He w i l l r e l y p r i m a r i l y  on observable factors; e.g. shape, s i z e , tone, shadow, pattern, texture, topographic o r i e n t a t i o n , and dimension of the objects (Avery, 1969).  For accurate measurement procedures  work photos taken with a 35 mm.  i n inventory  camera are not s u i t a b l e as the  negatives do not have f i d u c i a l marks and the f l y i n g height of the a i r c r a f t i s only a h i g h l y biased estimate unless a c o s t l y radar altimeter i s used.  Nevertheless, the photos provide the  1  71.  F i g u r e 39.  D r i f t i n g l o g s on Stave Lake. 400 f e e t .  The l o g s a r e the r e s u l t o f a t h o u g h t l e s s  Flying height of  damming p r o j e c t .  As  the i n d i v i d u a l stems can be i d e n t i f i e d and counted the photos are o f p o t e n t i a l usefulness  i n i n v e n t o r y work.  72  experienced  i n t e r p r e t e r w i t h a s u p r i s i n g amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n .  The  degree t o which t r e e s p e c i e s and cover  types  can be r e c o g n i z e d depends on t h e q u a l i t y o f the photographs (see F i g u r e 4 0 ) .  F i g u r e 40.  Mixed s t a n d o f c o n i f e r s and deciduous t r e e s i n Haney Research F o r e s t . The h i g h d e t a i l q u a l i t y p r o v i d e s the experienced i n t e r p r e t e r w i t h s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t the s p e c i e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n becomes easy. Crown t e x t u r e and shape a r e customary i d e n t i f i e r s .  73.  For i d e n t i f y i n g t r e e s p e c i e s , the shape, t e x t u r e , and  the tone o f the crown image, the stand p a t t e r n , the  t o p o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n and the p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n a r e the most important i n d i c a t o r s .  Shadows a r e o f t e n a h e l p f u l t o o l (see  F i g u r e 41 and Appendix X I ) .  They e i t h e r p r o v i d e a p r o f i l e  of the image of the c o n f i g u r a t i o n o r the crown f a l l i n g on l e v e l ground can be  F i g u r e 41.  shadows  recognized.  Stand o f c o n i f e r s i n Haney Research F o r e s t . The shadow o f t r e e s can be o f good i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a l h e l p f o r s p e c i e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by p r o d u c i n g the p r o f i l e o f a t r e e , o r the crown t e x t u r e , (see arrows).  74  Figure 42.  Mixed stand of conifers and deciduous trees at east side of Stave Lake. Flying height of 400 f e e t . This stereo set permits a correct measurement of the crown closure providing the interpreter with information about l i g h t conditions underneath the canopy. The s i z e of trees A,B, and group C, indicates that the main stand i s r e l a t i v e l y young.  75.  When the main stand i s immature t h e canopy sp pears u n i f o r m l y smooth.  F i g u r e 43.  (see F i g u r e 4 3 , stand A ) .  A r t i f i c i a l l y r e f o r e s t e d areas w i t h i n t e r e s t i n g s p a c i n g p a t t e r n i n Haney Research F o r e s t . The wide s p a c i n g produces branchy, low q u a l i t y timber and c o s t l y p r u n i n g has t o be made. Another d i s advantage o f wide s p a c i n g i s i n d i c a t e d by the arrows: s i n c e t h e r e i s no mature t r e e t h a t can p r o v i d e the i n d i c a t e d areas w i t h s e e d l i n g s c o s t l y c u l t u r a l work becomes n e c e s s a r y i n t h i s i n t e n s i v e l y managed p l a n t a t i o n .  76.  A e r i a l photos can be o f g r e a t h e l p f o r c u l t i v a t i o n a l operations  i n a r t i f i c i a l and n a t u r a l r e f o r e s t a t i o n .  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n about s o i l and m o i s t u r e c o n d i t i o n s might be obtained  i f i n d i c a t e d by poor growth (see F i g u r e 44a,  arrow).  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n can be u s e f u l f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s about r e f o r e s t a t i o n and synchronized  d e c i s i o n s l i k e burning  w i t h a s o l i d knowledge about c l i m a t e  r a i n f a l l e t c . ) and F i g u r e 44a  the e x p o s i t i o n o f the observed  (average area.  i s an o b l i q u e photo o f the burned - o v e r a r e a  shown by s t e r e o s e t F i g u r e 44b. an abundance o f s p r o u t and and o t h e r forms o f  F i g u r e 44a.  of s l a s h , o r not, i f  Burned - o v e r areas  provide  shrubby growth v a l u a b l e t o deer  wildlife.  Oblique photo o f burned - over a r e a Research F o r e s t .  i n Haney  77.  Figure 44b.  Clear cut area i n Haney Research Forest. Flying height of 400 feet above ground. The t r a c t was burned over i n 1969 and not reforested. Area A does show sporadic vegetation, whereas shrubs and annuals can be seen on unturned area B below the marked l i n e .  78.  Figure 45.  Clear cut area, burned over i n 1967. Location: Haney Research Forest. Flying height of 400 feet above ground. Natural r e forestation advances slowly. Shrub species are growing in abundance. The blackened stubs (in c i r c l e s ) of the cut trees can s t i l l be recognized.  79.  The following series of photos show the r e s u l t s of a comparative study with four d i f f e r e n t f i l m - f i l t e r combinations.  The q u a l i t y of these stereo sets a t t e s t s to  the s k i l l o f the p i l o t , who had to f l y exactly the same s t r i p four times with the same speed and a t the same height.  The  camera operator had to help i n navigation as the aeroplane tends to f l y i n a nose - up a t t i t u d e l i m i t i n g the view o f the pilot.  The f i r s t f i l m used was Kodak Tri-X pan, a black and white negative material which was the standard f i l m f o r a l l previously shown p r i n t s .  This type has approximately the  same range o f s e n s i t i v i t y as the human eye. I t s emulsion allows s a t i s f a c t o r y exposures a t low l i g h t i n t e n s i t i e s , a n d i s higher than normal i n d e f i n i t i o n .  Thus i t permits a  greater shutter speed through haze - cutting f i l t e r s case an Uv i n connection with a l i g h t green f i l t e r ) .  (in this The  Tri-X i s highly s e n s i t i v e to green l i g h t and makes a correct i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of plant species d i f f i c u l t , in tone do not appear.  since differences  (Figure 46b).  The a e r i a l Ektachrome f i l m proved to be considerably more useful than panchromatic f o r species i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and s o i l recognition, (see Figure 47e).  This i s explained by the  large numbers o f colours, hues and chromas that permit the interpreter to more r e a d i l y discriminate between objects (Carneggie, Roberts, Colwell, 1966).  This f i l m type i s  80  Figure 46a.  Two ground photos showing the area indicated byarrows on Figures 46c,d, and e. The photos were taken a t the Haney Research Forest.  81 Figure 46b.  Mosaic of plantations i n Haney Research Forest. (corresponding p a i r s : Figures 46c,d, and e). Vegetation easy to d i s t i n g u i s h on the corresponding Ektachrome p r i n t , can hardly be recognized on panchromatic black and white, as slash and s o i l appear i n the same tone as the vegetation i n the ground l a y e r .  82.  F i g u r e 46c.  K o d a k c o l o r s t e r e o s e t ( c o r r e s p o n d i n g area F i g u r e 46b). C o n c l u s i o n about s o i l c o n d i t i o n becomes p o s s i b l e . The s o i l appears p u r p l e , p a r t s i n between the v e g e t a t i o n , y e l l o w i s h (lichen species).  •83.  Figure 46d.  Ektachrome Infra red proved to be the best f i l m type to indicate vegetation. Areas A and B indicate growth which hardly can be recognized on p r i n t s of the other f i l m types.  84  Figure 46e.  Ektachrome shows best moisture content of the s o i l . Sandy dry parts appear i n a l i g h t yellow colour, c l a y i s h wet patches i n darker grayish tones. (A,B, and C, dry patches).  85  s e n s i t i z e d to a l l v i s i b l e colours and provide p r i n t s with natural colour r e n d i t i o n .  A comparison of the described  types with Kodak-  color shows advantages of the l a t t e r i n that i t occupies other colour properties.  (see Figure 47c and  Cameggie and  Figure  48b).  Reppert (1962) comment:  "Whereas the colour f i l m i s s e n s i t i v e to blue, green and red l i g h t , the Colour Infra red f i l m i s s e n s i t i v e to green, red and i n f r a red wave lengths of l i g h t which activates yellow magenta, and cyan dyes, respectively." The colour e f f e c t on p o s i t i v e p r i n t s of Colour Infra red depends on the reflectance and objects.  the s p e c t r a l s e n s i t i v i t y of  the  Plant species which d i f f e r widely i n t h e i r reflectance  and s e n s i t i v i t y can be separated e a s i l y , as can i n d i v i d u a l s that d i f f e r i n these properties because of t h e i r i n f e c t i o n by disease.  Forestry and a g r i c u l t u r a l managers have made important use of t h i s f i l m i n disease detection.  Plants under  stress from disease, or insects gradually lose t h e i r i n f r a red reflectance.  "Reddish appearing healthy trees grade into magenta,  purple, and green as the loss of i n f r a red reflectance progresses." (Kodak Technical Publication, 1968). where a f o r e s t f i r e i n 1966 vegetation.  Figure 47 shows an area  destroyed the main part of  the  The d i f f e r e n t grades of i n f r a red reflectance  be i d e n t i f i e d from t h i s stereo set extrememly w e l l .  can  86  Forest area in Fraser V a l l e y . Flying height of 400 feet, f i l m type Ektachrome Infra red IE (135 20). The stereo p a i r shows a f o r e s t that was destroyed by a f i r e i n 1966. New growing shrub vegetation (A) and new growing deciduous tree species (B) appear i n reddish colour. The green appearing conifers (C,D,E) are dead trees which have already l o s t t h e i r i n f r a red r e f l e c t a n c e . The d i f f e r e n t other grades of colour from red to green indicate the progress of dying vegetation.  87  Figure 48a.-  Ektachrome i n f r a red. Plantations i n Haney Research Forest. The healthy vegetation contrasts from the b l u i s h appearing bare s o i l .  88.  Figure 48b,  Corresponding to p i c t u r e 48a. Film type: Kodakc o l o r . The bare s o i l appears on these p r i n t s i n a b r i g h t purple. That makes i t s discrimination from the vegetation easy.  89.  Bare s o i l appears i n a b l u i s h colour on Color Infra red (see Figure 46d and Figure 47).  A comparison of  these four films i s possible by inspecting Figure 46b showing Tri-X pan;  Figure 46d with Ektachrome; Figure 46c with Kodak-  color and Figure 46d with Ektachrome Infra red.  In general, Figure 46d indicates that colour i n f r a red gives the best information about l i v e vegetation, and Figure 46e shows that the highest contrast of d i f f e r e n t s o i l conditions i s found on Ektachrome p r i n t s .  The d r i e r s o i l with  a normally sandy component appears l i g h t e r than areas with higher moisture contents.  A r t i f i c a l l y reforested areas d i f f e r i n g i n age classes and species are shown in a comparison of Kodakcolor and Color Infra red on Figure 47b and  c.  From t h i s i n i t i a l study i t i s apparent that large scale, v e r t i c a l , a e r i a l photographs which are taken  by 35  cameras and with the mount described i n the f i r s t chapter, prove to be valuable f o r natural resource management, but that choice of f i l m and f i l t e r i s important e a s i l y , the information wanted.  to obtain most  mm.  90.  Large S c a l e Photography: a c r i t i c a l  analysis.  S t u d i e s w i t h l a r g e s c a l e photography 70 mm.  taken w i t h  cameras have been i n t r o d u c e d to the l i t e r a t u r e i n the  p a s t few years by A l d r l c h , B a i l e y and H e l l e r  (1959), by  (1967), and S a y n - W i t t g e n s t e i n and A l d r e d (1967).  Lyons  Radar and  l a s e r a l t i m e t e r s have been used f o r the p r e c i s e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of  the s c a l e f o r l a r g e s c a l e  photography.  S t u d i e s w i t h 35 mm. of  t h i s equipment i s r e p o r t e d by Z s i l i n s k y  and W i l l i n g h a m (1959). of  cameras a r e n o t new.  35 mm.  The  use  (1968), Cook (1969),  But no s t r e s s has been p u t on the use  cameras o p e r a t e d by hand, s t i l l  obtaining  stereo-  s c o p l c a l view from f l y i n g h e i g h t s lower than 500 f e e t .  This  study d e s c r i b e s the d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a s p e c i a l suspension f u l f i l l i n g  those r e q u i r e m e n t s .  A comparison o f the c o s t per 22.5  cm.  p r i n t i n g m a t e r i a l between c o n v e n t i o n a l l a r g e s c a l e motor d r i v e 35 mm. improve system.  square photography,  cameras and hand o p e r a t e d equipment w i l l  the economical advantage o f the d e s c r i b e d p h o t o g r a p h i c  TABLE 3  Investment 22.5 can. Square Camera assembly  35 mm. Motor Drive  36 mm. Hand Operated  $20,000.00  $ 1,400.00  $ 300.00  1,000.00  30,00  30.00  340.00  100.00  100.00  $5.00  $5.00  Film processing equipment Positive printing equipment  Stock Items F-Llm (considers larger number of 35 mm. negatives) Film processing  $ 120.00 18 l i t e r s  chemicals  1 liter  1 liter  L i g h t s e n s i t i v e paper (considers smaller area coverage) 2/3  1  1  P o s i t i v e processing chemicals  1  1  2/3 Manpower  Film processing  3  1  1  P o s i t i v e processing  2/3  1  1  Rental o f airplanes per hour $80.00 to $200.00 Source:  Z s i l i n s k y (1968)  $35.00 to $40.00  $18.00 to $25.00  92  The table shows that the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e in cost between the equipment used by Z s i l i n s k y and the new i s caused by the investment of the camera assembly.  design  The second  d i f f e r i n g cost factor i s the choice of the a i r c r a f t being used. Z s i l i n s k y reports the use of planes which require a Thole i n the f l o o r in order to obtain v e r t i c a l photographs.  The new  design  can be mounted in any type of plane with a high wing c o n f i g u r a t i o n .  I t was  emphasized that t h i s new  technique can not  compete i n image q u a l i t y with conventional photography and that i t should be used for interpretation work only.  93. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  Low a l t i t u d e , c o l o u r and b l a c k and w h i t e imagery o f d i f f e r e n t areas w i t h i n t h e P i t t , A l o u e t t e , Stave and H a r r i s o n Lake a r e a s ,  t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y , Langley,  Boundary Bay was p r o c u r e d  The  Surrey,  D e l t a and  from May 15 t o June 15, 1970.  s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e o f the study was t o d e t e r -  mine the i n f o r m a t i o n a l v a l u e o f t h i s imagery and t o improve the f e a s i b i l i t y o f the s p e c i a l l y designed  camera mount.  The  e x t e n t to which t h i s o b j e c t i v e was s a t i s f i e d i s d i s c u s s e d and  i l l u s t r a t e d i n this report.  A n a l y s i s o f the i l l u s t r a t i o n s  i n d i c a t e s t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f the technique to various f i e l d s i n n a t u r a l resource  in i t s application  management.  T h i s photogrammetric system i s documented w i t h s t e r e o p a i r s f o r w i l d l i f e management i n h a b i t e v a l u a t i o n . Photos o f t r a c k s show t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f the technique f o r population estimates. and  Beaver a c t i v i t y can be r e c o g n i z e d  t h e r e s u l t s o f a e r i a l sampling can be h e l p f u l f o r a good  management program.  An a e r i a l survey o f muskrat houses  may be the most e f f i c i e n t and cheapest way t o e s t i m a t e the s i z e o f a p o p u l a t i o n , s i n c e checks from t h e ground a r e t o time and c o s t i n t e n s i v e * f o r the management o f beaver.  t h e same can be s a i d  Waterfowl census from the  a i r may g i v e a c c u r a t e r e s u l t s s i n c e t h e i n d i v i d u a l b i r d s can  94.  be pin-pointed on the photographs  i n the laboratory.  certain species, a count from a e r i a l photographs  For  may be  the only economically and accurate way.  A l g a l production which i s important f o r f i s h management may be determined from the a i r ,  and i s i l l u s t r a t e d .  The a p p l i c a b i l i t y of t h i s system to p o l l u t i o n i s shown by single p r i n t s and stereo p a i r s .  That erosional problems might  be i d e n t i f i e d and estimated from the a i r i s i l l u s t r a t e d with stereo p a i r s taken with d i f f e r e n t f i l m and f i l t e r  combinations.  I l l u s t r a t i o n s are presented f o r range management, a g r i c u l t u r e , c i t y planning and f o r e s t r y .  The i l l u s t r a t i o n s  suggest the f e a s i b i l i t y f o r : 1.  Estimates of forage production on range land.  2.  The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s o i l and moisture conditions in r u r a l and s i l v i c u l t u r a l areas.  3.  Disease and pest control i n f o r e s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e .  4.  The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a l work f o r c i t y planning and landscape architecture.  5.  Tree species i d e n t i f i c a t i o n f o r f o r e s t inventory.  6.  Reforestational problems.  7.  Stem counts per acre which i s important f o r i n v e n t o r i a l work.  Advantages and disadvantages of d i f f e r e n t f i l m and f i l t e r combinations are i l l u s t r a t e d by a series o f stereo pairs  95  which were taken o v e r the Haney Research F o r e s t .  The advantages are:  o f t h i s photogrammetrical  the low c o s t o f a i r c r a f t ,  system  the minimum c o s t o f m a t e r i a l  r e q u i r e d f o r the camera mount, which i s e a s i l y c o n s t r u c t e d , furthermore, the u n i v e r s a l use o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e i n any of small plane, a v a i l a b i l i t y of required a i r c r a f t  type  (almost a t  any time and any l o c a t i o n a s i n g l e engine type can be r e n t e d ) , and the uncomplicated o p e r a t i o n o f the camera mount and a 35 mm.  camera.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s t e c h n i q u e has s e v e r a l ations.  limit-  For example, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y the c o r r e c t  s c a l e caused by i n a c c u r a t e , i n s e n s i t i v e a l t i m e t e r s , disadvantages a r e t h a t 35 mm.  other  n e g a t i v e s do not have f i d u c i a l  marks and parallax-measurement  problems a r i s e .  Thus i t becomes obvious t h a t the photos  taken w i t h  t h i s system cannot be used f o r e x a c t measurements, as, f o r example, i n a f o r e s t i n v e n t o r y and t o p o g r a p h i c mapping. ever, e x c e l l e n t i n f o r m a t i o n can be e x t r a c t e d q u i c k l y s m a l l areas i n an e f f i c i e n t survey. t h a t the photographs  I t s h o u l d be  from  emphasized  taken by u s i n g t h i s system cannot compete  w i t h p r i n t s o f c o n v e n t i o n a l a e r i a l photography  i n the image  q u a l i t y but can be most u s e f u l f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . economical advantages  become obvious because  The  the c o s t s per  p r i n t a r e o n l y a f r a c t i o n o f the c o s t o f those produced c o n v e n t i o n a l a e r i a l photography aeroplanes.  How-  by  w i t h l a r g e cameras and b i g g e r  9 6  Thus i t appears that t h i s new photographic  system  seems to be a useful contribution f o r supplementary a e r i a l photography worthy of further i n v e s t i g a t i o n s .  Certain recommendations regarding future studies can be made.  1.  Modification of the suspension  system  such as p o s i t i o n i n g the camera v e r t i c a l l y on the side of the aeroplane  door allowing  studies during the colder times of the year. 2.  Construction o f a system  interchangeable  f o r l o n g i t u d i n a l or transverse p o s i t i o n of the camera. 3.  Test f l i g h t s should be made through the growing season of the vegetation.  The  reflectance change o f d i f f e r e n t plant species during the growing cycle migh be detected by using c e r t a i n f i l m f i l t e r combinations and can be used f o r the development o f a key f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of plant species which are important  f o r range management i n  vegetation a n a l y s i s .  97. BIBLIOGRAPHY  Aldred, A.H., Kippen, F.W. (1967) Plot Volumes from Large Scale 70 mm. A i r Photographs. For. S c i . , Vol.13, no.4. A l d r i c h , R.C., Bailey, W.F., Heller, R.C. (1959) Large Scale 70 mm. Color Photography Techniques and Equipment and t h e i r Application to a Forest Sample Problem. Photo. Engineering 25(5) pp. 747 - 754. Avery, E.T. (1966) Foresters Guide to A e r i a l photo Interpretation. A g r i c . Handbook 308. Avery, E.T. (1969) Interpretation o f A e r i a l Photographs. Ronald Press, New York, 2nd e d i t i o n . Banfield, A.W.F., Flook, D.R., K e l s a l l , J.P., Loughrey, A.G. (1955) An A e r i a l Suevey Technique f o r Northern Big Game. Twentieth North American W i l d l i f e Conference, pp. 519 - 530. Carheggie, D.M., Lent, J.D., Colwell, R.N. (1967) The F e a s i b i l i t y o f Determining Range Land and Crop Land Conditions by Means o f M u l t i s p e c t r a l A e r i a l Photography, F i n a l Report. School o f Forestry, Berkeley. Cameggie, D.M. (1966) The Use o f High A l t i t u d e , Color and Spectrozonal Imagery f o r the Inventory o f Wildland Resources. Annual Progress Report School o f Forestry, University o f C a l i f o r n i a . September 30, 1966. Cameggie, D.M., Reppert, J.M. (1969) Large Scale 70 mm. A e r i a l Color Photography. Photo. Engineering pp. 249 - 257. Colwell, R.N.  (1950) Uses o f A e r i a l Photographs i n Forest Recreation. Photo Engineering, pp. 21 - 31.  Cook, C.F. (1969) The Use o f L i g h t A i r c r a f t i n Forest Inventory and Mapping Woodlands Section, Pulp Paper Mag. Can. pp. 69 - 74. Crissey, W.F.  Dalke, P.D.  (1964) The Airplane i n Fish and Game Work. State o f New York. Conservation Department. W i l d l i f e Information B u l l . no. 4. (1937) The Cover Map i n W i l d l i f e Management. j . W i l d l . Mgmtx. Vol. 1, n o s . 3 - 4 . pp. 100 105.  98  Eastman  Kodak Company. (1968) Photo I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and I t s Uses. Kodak Pamphlet no, M - 42.  E i c h e r , G.J.  (19 53) A e r i a l Methods o f A s s e s s i n g Red Salmon P o p u l a t i o n s i n Western A l a s k a , j . w i l d l . Mgmt. V o l . 17, no.4. pp. 767 - 776.  E i n e v o l l , 0.  (1968) P h o t o g r a p h i c I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n the R e g i s t e r i n g o f Reindeer G r a z i n g s . Norsk T i d s s k r i f t f o r j o r d s k i f t e og l a n d m a l i n g . no. 1. pp. 91 - 99.  Evans, C.D., T r o y e r , A „ , L e n s i n k , J (1966) A e r i a l Census o f Moose by Quadrat Sampling U n i t s . J . W i l d l . Mgmt. V o l . 30, no.4. pp. 767 - 776. t  Hegg, K.M.  (1967) A Photo I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Guide f o r the Land and F o r e s t Types o f I n t e r i o r A l a s k a . U.S. F o r e s t Service. Research Papaer no.3.  J o y , C.A., H a r r i s , R.W., Rader J . (1960) Photo I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n Range Management. Manual o f P h o t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . American S o c i e t y o f Photogrammetry. Chapter 9. pp. 531 - 538. Kadlec, J.A., Drury, W.H. (1968) A e r i a l E s t i m a t i o n o f t h e S i z e o f G u l l B r e e d i n g C o l o n i e s . J . W i l d l . Mgmt. V o l . 30, no.4. pp. 767 - 776. L a c a t e , D.S.  (1966) Chron.  Larson  (1966) F o r e s t s , W i l d l i f e , and H a b i t a t Management. A c r i t i c a l Examination o f P r a c t i c e and Need. Massachusetts C o o p e r a t i v e W i l d l i f e Research U n i t . U n i v e r s i t y o f Massachusetts, pp. 2 - 26.  J.S.F.  W i l d l a n d I n v e n t o r y and Mapping. V o l . 42, no.2. pp. 184 - 191.  For.  Leedy, D.L.  (1948) A e r i a l Photographs, t h e i r I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and Suggested Use i n W i l d l i f e Management. J . W i l d l . Mgmt. V o l . 12, no.2. pp. 191 - 211.  Leedy, D.L.  (19 53) A e r i a l Photo Use and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n the f i e l d s o f W i l d l i f e and R e c r e a t i o n . Photo. E n g i n e e r i n g , pp. 127 - 137.  Lyons, E.H.  (1966) F i x e d A i r Base 70 mm. Photography, a New T o o l f o r F o r e s t Sampling. F o r . Chron. V o l . 42, no.4. pp. 420 - 431.  Matiak, H.A.  (19 51) Q u a r t e r l y P r o g r e s s Report Surveys and Investigations. State o f Wisconsin.  99  Meier,  H.K.  M i l l e r , J.N.  (1969) Developments i n Photogrammetric Instrument C o n s t r u c t i o n d u r i n g the P a s t 30 Y e a r s . Reviewed w i t h Reference to Z e i s s Equipment, Z e i s s M i t t e i l u n g e n , 5. no.3. (1932) Duck Census from the A i r . pp. 229 230. Mimeo.  P a r k e r , R.C., Johnson, E.W. Photography. March, 1970.  (1970) Small Camera A e r i a l The K-20 System. J o u r . F o r e s t r y , pp. 152 - 155.  R i c h e n h a l l e r , J . (1963) The R a d i a l L i n e P l o t Mehtod o f Determining S c a l e o f Large S c a l e A i r Photos. Department o f F o r e s t r y , Canada, F o r e s t Research Branch. P u b l i c a t i o n no. 1053. Sayn W i t t g e n s t e i n , L. (1965) Large S c a l e A e r i a l Photography. Plans and Problems. Soc. Am. F o r . P r o c . p . 178 - 179. Sayn W i t t g e n s t e i n L . (1962) Large S c a l e Sampling Photographs f o r F o r e s t Surveys i n Canada. Canada. Department o f F o r e s t r y . F o r e s t Research Branch, pp. 256 - 260. Schuster, J . L , , H a l l s , L.K. (1962) Timber Over S t o r y Determines Deer Forage i n S h o r t l e a f L o b l o l l y P i n e - Hardwood F o r e s t s . F o r . Chron. V o l . 38, no.2, pp. 165 - 167. Seely,  H.E.  W i l l i a m s , P.  (1962) The Value o f 70 mm. A i r Cameras f o r Winter A i r Photography. Woodlands Review, Pulp Paper Mag. Can. pp. 218 - 225. (1969) A e r i a l Photography and Photogrammetry Annual Report o f S e r e n g e t i Research Program. Ngorongoro C o n s e r v a t i o n U n i t . Arusha, Tanzania Litho Ltd.  W i l l i n g h a m , J.W. (1959) O b t a i n i n g V e r t i c a l A e r i a l P h o t o g r a p h i c Coverage w i t h a 35 mm. Camera, j o u r . F o r e s t r y , pp. 108 - 110. Young,  H.E.  (1965) Recent Advances i n F o r e s t and W i l d l i f e Photogrammetry. Maine F o r e s t e r , pp. 23 - 27.  Z s i l i n s k y , V.G. (1963) P h o t o g r a p h i c I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Tree S p e c i e s i n O n t a r i o . O n t a r i o Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s . Z s i l i n s k y , V.G. (1968) Supplementary A e r i a l Photography w i t h Minature Cameras. Timber Branch. O n t a r i o Deparment o f Lands and F o r e s t s , Toronto, Canada. P r e s e n t e d to Commission IV a t the X l t h Congress o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r Photogrammetry, Lansanne, S w i t z e r l a n d , J u l y ,  1968.  A P P E N D I C E S  APPENDIX I  DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE CAMERA MOUNT  D e t a i l description o f the Camera Mount Construction  1.  of the device.  (Figure 1)  Represents the v i s i b l e h a l f o f the track o f which i s one side ajdustable  to the desired width within  a range of 8 inches by b o l t ' a ; 1  2. 3,4.  points out the h inch p l e x i - g l a s s base p l a t e ; depicts two p l e x i - g l a s s frame boxes f i l l e d with pressed polyfoam;  5.  shows the holes d r i l l e d i n the p l e x i - g l a s s cubicles to accommodate the camera suspension;  6,7,8.  represent the three previously described  glycerine  and honey f i l l e d a n t i - v i b r a t i o n c y l i n d e r s , that are f i x e d to the p l e x i - g l a s s frame; 9,10.  are two o f the f l o a t i n g cylinders that are attached with yoke;  11.  to the suspension arm;  12.  i s the t h i r d f l o a t i n g cylinder i n combination with  13.  which f i x e s i t to the suspension arm and i s s t a b i l i z e d by spring  14.  and crossarm *15* which allows the inner cylinder to f l o a t f r e e l y ;  16.  i s the metal suspension arm that i s attached d i r e c t l y to an adjustable  17.  which incorporates  sheet metal frame.  four l e v e l l i n g screws to  achieve the correct v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n of the camera by using l e v e l bubble - 'IS*.  19.  shows the stop watch box required to guarantee the correct exposure intervals?  20.  i d e n t i f i e s a p l e x i - g l a s s device mounted to the f i l m advance arm? thus less movement i s required to advance the f i l m consequently increasing the f i l m advance speed.  The f i l m advancer i s operated  by a nylon l i n e attached to the device by screw - * 21*, the l i n e runs around the grooved a r c of the advancer and then i s directed by p u l l y -'22' through a copper tube s e t i n cubicle -'3'.  This  tube i s l i n e d a t either end by a heat r e s i s t a n t carbon s t e e l bushing to withstand the f r i c t i o n created by the continuous movement of the advancer string. 23.  i s an e l a s t i c band which controls the tension o f the fij.m advance l i n e and thus maintaining the line's  24.  c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n around the advancer?  i s a handgrip f o r the advance l i n e and i s operated in conjunction with *25' an extended cable release which allows the f i l m to be advanced and the p i c t u r e taken from a comfortable p o s i t i o n behind the suspension assembly.  F i g u r e 1.  The s p e c i a l designed mount f o r a 35 mm. camera  APPENDIX  L E G E N D TO T H E  FIGURE  II  ILLUSTRATIONS  5 TO F I G U R E  47  LEGEND TO ILLUSTRATIONS Time of day  Film  5a,b.  K.Tr.P.  UV  150  70  500  8  May 25  11 - 1  6  K.Tr.P.  UV  150  70  500  8  May 25  11 - 1  7  K.Tr.P.  UV  150  70  500  8  Kay 25  11 - 1  8  K.Tr.P. . - UV  150  70  500  8  May 25  11 - 1  9  K.Tr.P.  UV  350  70  500  8  May 30  11 - 12  10a  K.Tr.P.  UV  350  70  500  8  May 30  11 - 12  11a,b.  K.Tr.P.  UV  150  70  500  8  May 25  11 - 12  12  K.Tr.P.  UV  450  70  500  8  May 21  11 - 12  13  K.Tr.P.  UV  400  70  500  8  May 21  11 - 12  14  K.Tr.P.  UV  400  70  500  8  May 21  11 - 12  15  Agfa C o l Ct - 18 UV  450  80  250  11  May 25  11 - 12  16  K.Tr.P.  UV  250  65  500  8  May 25  11 - 12  17  K.Tr.P.  UV  250  65  500  8  May 25  11 - 12  18  K.Tr.P.  UV  400  70  500  8  May 30  11 - 12  19  K.Tr.P.  UV  400  70  500  8  May 30  11 - 12  20  K.Tr.P  UV  400  70  500  8  May 21  11 - 12  •  Filter  Flying height in feet  Aircraft speed i n Mph.  Exposure F stop speed i n 100 o f s e c .  Date  Figure number  LEGEND TO ILLUSTRATIONS Figure number  Film  Aircraft speed i n Mph.  Exposure speed i n 100 o f s e c .  21  K.Tr.P.  UV  450  70  500  8  May 21  23a  K.Tr.P.  UV and green  400  70  500  5.6  June 12 11  —  12  Kodakcolor  none  400  70  500  5.6  June 12 11  —  12  Ektachrome  none  400  70  500  5.6  June 12 11  —  12  Ektachrome Infrered yellow  400  70  500  2.8  June 12 11  —  12  24  K.Tr.X.P. UV  450  70  500  8  May 21  11  -  12  25 .  K.Tr.X_,P. UV and green  450  80  500  5.6  June 1  11  -  12  26  K.Tr.X.P. UV and green  450  80  500  5.6  June 1  11  27  K.Tr.X.P. UV  400  70  500  8  June 1  11  28  K.Tr.X.P. UV  450  70  500  8  May 30  11  29  K.Tr.X.P. UV  450  70  500  8  May 30  11  30  K.Tr.X.P. UV  500  70  500  8  May 30  11  31  K.Tr.X.P. UV  400  70  500  8  May 30  11  23b 23c 23d  Filter  Flying height i n feet  F stop  Date  Time o f day  11  -  -  —  12  12 12 12 12 12 12  LEGEND TO ILLUSTRATIONS Figure number  Film  Filter  Flying height in feet  Aircraft speed i n Mph.  Exposure speed i n 100 of sec.  F stop  Date  Time of day  32  K.Tr.X.P. UV  400  70  500  8  May 30  11 - 12  33  K.Tr.X.P. UV  350  70  500  8  May 30  11 - 12  34  K.Tr.X.P. UV  400  70  500  8  May 30  11 - 12  35  K.Tr.X.P. UV  400  70  500  8  May 30  11 - 12  36  Ektachrome Infrared yellow  400  70  500  2.8  May 13  11 - 12  37  K.Tr.P.  UV  450  70  500  8  June 1  11 - 12  38  K.Tr.P.  UV  450  70  500  8  June 1  11 - 12  39  K.Tr.P.  UV  450  70  500  8  June 1  11 - 12  40  K.Tr.P.  UV  350  70  500  8  June 1  11 - 12  41  K.Tr.P.  UV  450  70  500  8  June 1  11 - 12  42  K.Tr.P.  UV  400  70  500  8  June 1  11 - 12  43  K.Tr.P.  UV  400  70  500  8  June 1  11 - 12  44a  Agfa Color Ct 18 UV  450  70  500  5.6  June 1  11 - 12  44b  Kodak Tr.P.  400  70  500  5.6  June 1  11 - 12  UV  LEGEND TO Figure number  Film  Filter  Flying height in feet  ILLUSTRATIONS  Aircraft speed i n Mph.  Exposure speed i n 100 o f s e c .  F stop  Date  Time of day  45  Kodak Tr.P.  UV  400  70  500  5.6  June 1  11-12  46a,b  Kodak Tr.P.  UV  400  70  500  5.6  June 1  11-12  Kodak color  none  400  70  500  5.6  May 24  11 - 12  46c 46d  Ektachrome Infrared yellow  400  70  500  2.8  May 24  11 - 12  46 e  Ektachrome Color none  400  70  500  8  May 24  11 - 12  47a  Ektachrome Infrared yellow  400  70  500  2.8  May 24  11 - 12  47b  Kodak color  400  70  500  8  May 24  11 - 12  none  K.Tr.P. / Kodak T r i X Pancromatic  b l a c k and white.  TECHNICAL DATA TO ILLUSTRATIONS OF APPENDIX I I I  Figure number  Film  Filter  Flying height in feet  Aircraft speed i n Mph.  Exposure speed i n 100 o f s e c .  F  stop  Date  Time o f day  1  K.Tr.P.  UV  400  70  500  8  May 30  11 - 12  2  K.Tr.P.  UV  450  70  500  8  May 15  11 - 12  3  K.Tr.P.  UV  500  70  500  8  May 31  11 - 12  4  K.Tr.P.  UV  400  70  500  8  May 30  11 - 12  5  K.Tr.P.  UV  450  70  500  8  June 1  11 - 12  6  K.Tr.P.  UV  450  70  500  8  May 30  11 - 12  7  K.Tr.P.  UV  450  70  500  8  May 30  11 - 12  8  K.Tr.P.  UV  450  70  500  8  May 30  11 - 12  9  K.Tr.P.  UV  450  70  500  8  May 30  11 - 12  10  K.Tr.P.  UV  700  70  500  8  June 1  11 - 12  11  K.Tr.P.  UV  450  70  500  8  June 1  11 - 12  12  K.Tr.P.  UV  450  70  500  8  May 15  11 - 12  APPENDIX I I I  ILLUSTRATIONS TO APPLICATION OF 35 mm. VERTICAL PHOTOGRAPHS IN FISH, WILDLIFE, AND RANGE MANAGEMENT,  AGRICULTURE,  RECREATION AND FORESTRY.  II  Figure 2.  Location: Haney Research Forest. Note the hetereogenity i n vegetation, which provides good deer habitat since the waterhole has water the year round.  II  Figure 2.  Location: Haney Research Forest. Note the hetereogenity i n vegetation, which provides good deer habitat since the waterhole has water the year round.  Ill Range Management  Figure 3.  An example f o r deer and c a t t l e range i n Delta d i s t r i c t . The q u a l i t y of the stereo set gives information about species composition e t c . •Edges' provide cover f o r deer.  IV  W i l d l i f e Management  Figure 4.  Drainage pattern on beach area a t Boundary Bay.  V  Range Management  Figure 5.  Forest area i n Haney Research Forest. Note good range conditions f o r deer. Poor crown closure and openings give base f o r growth of shrub and herbs.  VI  Range Management  Figure 6.  Mixed range, good for deer and l i v e s t o c k . Location: Surrey d i s t r i c t .  VII  Range Management  Figure 7.  V i s i b l e f i e l d and bottom layer o f the vegetation indicates game and c a t t l e range.  VIII  Agriculture  Figure 8.  «  The stereo set shows s o i l and vegetation conditions on range and crop land. The photos are taken over Surrey d i s t r i c t from 350 feet above ground.  Agriculture  Figure 9. Drying process i n a r e c e n t l y plowed f i e l d . Sandy organic and c l a y i s h patches might be recognized. Location: Delta District.  X  Recreation  Figure 10.  P o t e n t i a l campsite, creek with fresh water close. Access road 100 yards from v i s i b l e area. Location: Stave Lake.  XI  Forestry  Figure 11.  The stereo s e t shows the administrative area of Haney Research Forest. The shadows of the trees paint p r o f i l e of crowns and the shape of the trees. The plant rows i n the glasshouse and on the seed bed are recognizable.  XII  Forestry  Figure 12.  Mixed stand i n Haney Research Forest, Species i d e n t i f i c a t i o n becomes easy on pictures with such high d e t a i l q u a l i t y .  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS OF APPENDIX III  Figure Number  Page  1.  Spawning Grounds of Salmon in Boundary Bay .... I  2.  Hetereogenity of Vegetation I l l u s t r a t e d on an Area i n Haney Research Forest  3.  Deer and Cattle Range i n Delta M u n i c i p a l i t y ... I l l  4.  Drainage Pattern a t Beach Area <at Boundary  II  Bay  IV  5.  Plantation in Haney Research Forest  V  6. 7.  Mixed Range i n Surrey D i s t r i c t F i e l d and Bottom Layer of Vegetation Game and C a t t l e Range  8.  S o i l and Vegetation Conditions on Range and Crop Land  VIII  9.  Drying Process i n a F i e l d that was Recently  IX  10.  P o t e n t i a l Campsite near stave Lake  11.  Administrative Area of Haney Research Forest .. XI  12.  Mixed Stand i n Haney Research Forest. Identification  VI Indicates  Plowed  VII  X  Species  XII  

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