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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Small camera aerial photography in forest and wildland recreation Turner, Melvin Howard 1972

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SMALL CAMERA AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY IN FOREST AND WILDLAND RECREATION by MELVIN HOWARD TURNER B.Sc., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the. F a c u l t y of FORESTRY We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February, 1972 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r re f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Mel Turner F a c u l t y of FORESTRY The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date ABSTRACT This t h e s i s t r a c e s the a c q u i s i t i o n and p o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of 35 mm a e r i a l photography as a t o o l i n help-ing to make d e c i s i o n s i n the a l l o c a t i o n of land to f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n . The advantages of the 35 mm a e r i a l system, i n -c l u d i n g i t s v e r s a t i l i t y , s i m p l i c i t y , a p p l i c a b i l i t y , and r e l a t i v e l y low c o s t , were t e s t e d and a p p l i e d to the f i e l d of f o r e s t and w i l d l a n d r e c r e a t i o n . Dealing f i r s t with the technology and equipment a v a i l a b l e , methods of a c q u i r i n g the imagery were i n v e s t i g a t e d , experimented wit h , and adopted. Then, working with the r e s u l t s of eleven hours of f l y i n g time, photogrammetric and p h o t o i n t e r p r e t i v e techniques were a p p l i e d to the r e f l e c t e d a t t r i b u t e s of the p h y s i o g r a p h i c , edaphic, h y d r o l o g i c , and v e g e t a t i v e environments. In a d d i -t i o n , the use of the system was i n v e s t i g a t e d f o r r e c o r d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l use on e x i s t i n g s i t e s . The 35 mm a e r i a l system can help i d e n t i f y those a t t r i b u t e s of the land important to f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n i t has b e n e f i t in the c l o s e l y r e l a t e d f i e l d s of archaeology, protection.,, and w i l d l i f e and i n e v a l u a t i n g i i hazard potential. Used in conjunction with either the small seale imagery soon becoming available through the Earth Resources Technology Satellite Program or existing air photos, the 35 mm system can accurately capture and monitor changes in the natural and a r t i f i c i a l environments at a relatively low cost and assist the forest manager in decisions relating to the allocation of forest land to recreational use. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS • . . . • i v LIST OF TABLES. . . . . . . . . . . .• . . . . . . v i LIST OF FIGURES . .. . . .•. . . . . . . .•. . . .• v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. x FRONTISPIECE xi Chapter I - INTRODUCTION. 1 1 .1 Need f o r Tool s. . . . 1 1.2 H i s t o r i c a l Use of A i r Photos i n Forest Recreation . 6 1.3 35 mm A e r i a l Photography i n Natural Resources . . 10 Chapter II - TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT 18 2.1'Types of Photography 18 2.2 Cameras and Lenses. . . . . 23 2.3 Camera Mounts f o r V e r t i c a l Photographs. . . . 24 2.4 A i r c r a f t . 27 2.5 Fi 1ms and Fi 1 t e r s 28 Chapter III - ACQUISITION OF THE IMAGERY. . . . 35 3.1 Sampling S i t e s 35 3.2 Determination of F l i g h t Lines . . 38 3.3 Ordeal of F l y i n g . 41 i v Page Chapter IV - ANALYSIS OF THE IMAGERY . . ••. . . • ,44 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . 44 4 . 2i:Photogrammetry . 44 4.3 P h o t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 50 4.3.1 Physiography and r e c r e a t i o n . . . . . 50 4.3.2 S o i l s and r e c r e a t i o n . . . • ,52 4.3.3 Vegetation and r e c r e a t i o n 70 4.3.4 Hydrology and r e c r e a t i o n . . . . . . . 76 4.4 Recording and Est i m a t i o n of Recreation Use. . 96 4.5 Miscellaneous and Other Work S e c t i o n . . . 99 4.5.1 Archaeology and r e c r e a t i o n . . . . . . 99 4.5.2 W i l d l i f e and r e c r e a t i o n . . . .... . . . 101 4.5.3 Environmental p r o t e c t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n . ' J 102 4.5.4 Hazards and r e c r e a t i o n . . . . . . . . 102 Chapter V - CONCLUSIONS 104 BIBLIOGRAPHY 107 APPENDIX 1. Diagram of the P l e x i g l a s s Mount . 114 2. I n t e r v a l , F l y i n g Height, S c a l e , Area, and F I i g h t Line'Separation'Computations f o r Varyi ng Focal Lengths . . . . . . . . . . 116 3. Diagram of K l e i n ' s P o r t a b l e Stereo Viewer (Figure 5) . . . 125, 4. Lo c a t i o n of F l i g h t Lines on the U.B.C. Research Forest . . . . . . . 128 v LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. D e t a i l s of Photographic A c q u i s i t i o n . 5 2. Number of Days of 2/10 or Less Cloud Cover at Weather S t a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Col umbi a 1 5 3. Comparative Costs of F i l m , Developing, and Processing of Colour Negative and Colour Reversal Films . 30 4. F i l t e r s f o r Colour Negative and Colour Reversal F i l m s . . . 33 5. Dichotomous Key f o r the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of R e c r e a t i o n a l F a c i l i t i e s . . . 36 6. Photogrammetric Techniques Ap p l i e d to a S i n g 1 e P r i n t . . . . 47 7. Photogrammetric Techniques A p p l i e d to a Stereo P a i r . . . 48 8. R e l a t i o n of Some Landscapes to R e c r e a t i o n a l Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 9. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and Recommendations Based Upon Important S o i l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r Regional S o i l S e r i e s and Land ,Types . . . . . . . . 58 10. Slope L i m i t a t i o n s f o r R e c r e a t i o n a l Use. . . . . . . 64 v i Table Page 11. R e l a t i o n s h i p Between S o i l s , T h e i r C h a r -a c t e r i s t i c s , and R e c r e a t i o n a l Use . 69 12. R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Vegetation and Re c r e a t i o n a l Use 75 13. Wet Beach Width and L i t t o r a l Zone Width f o r Various S h o r e l i n e Slopes. 83 14. R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Streamflow and Re c r e a t i o n a l Use 92 15. R e l a t i o n s h i p Between R i p a r i a n Character-i s t i c s and R e c r e a t i o n a l Use . . . . . . . . . . . 93 16. Maximum A l t i t u d e f o r Recording of Objects Ten Feet i n Length 97 vi i LIST OF FIGURES Fi qure Page ' 1. Lo c a t i o n of f l i g h t p atterns i n the Lower Mainland and the Gulf Islands . 4 2. Stereo o b l i q u e of a p o t e n t i a l v i s t a , U.B.C. Research Forest 20 3. K l e i n ' s e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l mounts . . . . . . 25 4. The f l o a t equipped d e H a v i l l a n d Beaver . . . . . 27 5. K l e i n ' s p o r t a b l e f i e l d s t e r e o f o r viewing t r a n s p a r e n c i e s . . . . . . 31 6. Small p e n i n s u l a on Katherine Lake, U.B.C. Research F o r e s t . . . . . . . . . . 46 7. P l a n t a t i o n east of the headquarters, U.B.C. Research For e s t 48 8. A bog s i t e on Samuel Islan d i n the Gulf of Georgia . 59 9. A r t i f i c i a l s u r f a c e drainage on c o l o u r i n f r a r e d and co l o u r photographs. . 61 10. P o t e n t i a l cottage s i t e on the U.B.C. Research Forest 65 11. V a r i a t i o n i n s u r f a c e t e x t u r e of s h o r e l i n e materi al s 67 • • • V l l T Fi gure Page 12. Gold c o l o u r of s a l a l caused by sun s c a l d . • 72 13. Kelp beds o f f Samuel Islan d 74 14. E f f e c t of e l e v a t i o n on Loon and Eunice Lakes, U.B.C. Research F o r e s t . . . 78 15. Wet and dry beach composition of Katherine Lake peninsula 80 16. Stereo p a i r of A l o u e t t e Lake p i c n i c ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 17. Aquatic nuisances a f f e c t some r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . . . . . 81 18. Streams e n t e r i n g A l o u e t t e Lake . . . . . . . . . 84 19. Changes i n stream g r a d i e n t , North A l o u e t t e R i v e r , U.B.C. Research F o r e s t ; . . . . 86 20. Heavy sediment load c a r r i e d by Gold Creek, Golden Ears P r o v i n c i a l Park. 87 21. D i s c o l o u r a t i o n in a stream on Mayne Is l a n d due to an unknown source 87 22. 35 mm image of a stream bed and r i p a r i a n environment on a creek on the U.B.C. Research F o r e s t . 90 23. Use of va r y i n g f a c i l i t i e s at A l o u e t t e Lake p i c n i c ground . 98 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A t h e s i s i s simply a work i n f l u e n c e d by many people, a l l o f f e r i n g d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s and degrees of help. I wish to thank Mr. P. Dooling f o r his words and encouragement and f i n a n c i a l support f o r t h i s study and Dr. D. Munro with-out whose a d d i t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l a i d I am convinced t h i s study could not have been attempted l e t alone completed. I wish to thank Dr. D. Lacate and Mr. J . Walters, not only f o r t h e i r comments, but f o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s f a r beyond the scope of t h i s t h e s i s . I wish to thank Karel K l i n k a and Frank Howie who shared my a i r adventures and c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y y e t i n di f f e r e n t ways. I wish to thank a l l those anonymous people, students and f a c u l t y , who o f f e r e d c r i t i c i s m , s u g g e s t i o n s , and encour-agement throughout my two years i n the F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y . Anything s u c c e s s f u l to come out of t h i s t h e s i s i s t h e i r c r e d i t , anything missing i s the f a u l t of i t s author. I a l s o wish to thank Shari H a l l e r who typed t h i s manuscript. L a s t , but f a r from l e a s t , I wish to thank the makers of the a i r s i c k n e s s bags. Without t h e i r product, I am c e r t a i n that I would never have been able to complete t h i s study. x ONE PICTURE IS WORTH 10,000 WORDS. Chinese proverb xi 1 Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Need f o r Tools Once upon a time in B r i t i s h Columbia, man as a r e c r e a t i o n i s t accepted without much question whatever land-scape came to him from land uses aimed at commercial products. Now, he has more l e i s u r e to a p p r e c i a t e the r e c r e a t i o n a l e n v i r -onments that surround him, the wealth to produce or conserve them, and g r e a t e r confidence i n h i s t e c h n i c a l c a p a c i t y to manage natu r a l systems. This coupled with a strong d e s i r e to enforce land management l e g i s l a t i o n has placed the p r o v i s i o n of r e c r e a t i o n on his agenda of s o c i a l problems. P r o v i d i n g the m a t e r i a l s he needs to support the complex technology and economy he wants to work i n , along with the environment he wants to l i v e and play i n , w i l l r e q u i r e a s h i f t from land use s p i n o f f to land use p l a n n i n g . In essence, i t w i l l be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the new generation of f o r e s t land managers to n e g o t i a t e t h i s s h i f t . For the most p a r t , the f o r e s t manager does not pro-duce r e c r e a t i o n ; he merely maintains an environment w i t h i n 2 which r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s can be d i s c o v e r e d . Nature has provided him with the foremost t o o l f o r r e c r e a t i o n ; . a n i n i t i a l design of the landscape. This indigenous design i s what f i r s t a t t r a c t s him to the s i t e . The landscape i n harmony with the environment has produced a r e s o u r c e , be i t stands of merchant-able timber or a meadow of a l p i n e f l o w e r s . However, in the quest f o r the r e s o u r c e , most of the harmony i s o b l i t e r a t e d , i n s t e a d of p r o t e c t e d , by an a r b i t r a r y p e n c i 1 - a n d - r u l e r design f o r the land. The s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n of the f i e l d s of timber production and r e c r e a t i o n , as well as mining, watershed and w i l d l i f e management with the landscape and the e n v i r o n -ment i s well w i t h i n man's bounds. What are d e s p e r a t e l y needed are the ways and means r e q u i r e d to achieve the mesh. One of these means i s the use of a e r i a l photographs. When compared to a ground survey of a s i m i l a r i n t e n s i t y , the advantages of a i r photos are overwhelming. They g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e accuracy i n d e l i n e a t i o n and mapping, p r o v i d i n g that the photogrammetry i s c a r r i e d out with t e c h n i c a l s k i l l . A i r photos not only shorten the time r e q u i r e d to compile the data necessary to a p r o j e c t , but they enable the i n t e r p r e t e r to analyse and evaluate i t i n r e l a t i v e comfort. This i s par-t i c u l a r l y i n v i t i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia where.much of the landscape i s d i f f i c u l t to cover i n a season; not only i n the ph y s i o g r a p h i c sense but a l s o i n the c l i m a t i c . Much of the 3 groundwork i s r e s t r i c t e d to the summer months because of the c l i m a t e . A i r photos a l s o serve as a permanent record of temporary c o n d i t i o n s such as v i s i t o r use on a r e c r e a t i o n a l s i t e or seasonal v a r i a t i o n i n v e g e t a t i o n . And the p r a c t i c a l determining f a c t o r , c o s t , i s much l e s s r e l a t i v e to a compar-able ground survey of the same e v a l u a t i o n i n t e n s i t y . Although the advantages of a e r i a l surveys outweigh those of ground surveys, the f o r e s t manager cannot assume that a i r photos are a panacea f o r the co m p l e x i t i e s of h i s ta s k s . This previous e n t h u s i a s t i c a t t i t u d e has been purposely assumed i n an. e f f o r t to s t i m u l a t e g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n the use of a e r i a l photographs i n f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n . However, there should a l s o be a few words of c a u t i o n . There has been a tendency, as i s common with new i d e a s ; f o r in s t a n c e computers, to oversel1 and t h i s has l e d the f o r e s t manager to expect too much from a e r i a l photographs. T h i s , compounded with the f a c t that he may not know how to e x t r a c t a v a i l a b l e informa-t i o n from the photos, can shut his eyes to t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s . . . . The f o r e s t manager i s l i m i t e d by photographic techniques and m a t e r i a l s , the experience and r e g i o n a l f a m i l i a r i t y of his photo i n t e r p r e t e r , as well as the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the land-scape imaged i n the photos. A i r photos are very simply a means; a t o o l , to complement, improve, or reduce f i e l d work ra t h e r than take i t s p l a c e . 4 This thesis traces the application of a r e l a t i v e l y new format of aerial photography, the 35 mm system, to forest recreation. The acquisition of data in this format along with the application of photointerpretive and photogrammetric techniques needed to analyse and evaluate i t in the context of forest recreation are the main objectives of the t h e s i s . Figure 1. Location of f l i g h t patterns in the Lower Mainland and the Gulf Islands. TABLE 1 D e t a i l s of Photographic A c q u i s i t i o n Date (1971) Area of Photography Ai r c r a f t Type of Photography Film Type A p r i l 12 U.B.C. Research Forest Cessna 150 Oblique Kodacolor June 28 Mayne Island deHavi11 and Beaver V e r t i c a l and Oblique Kodacolor, Ekta-chrome i n f r a r e d J u l y 13, 14,15 U.B.C. Research Fores t A l o u e t t e Lake deHavi11 and Beaver V e r t i c a l and Oblique E k t a c o l o r , Ekta-chrome i n f r a r e d 6 1.2 H i s t o r i c a l Use of A i r Photos i n Forest Recreation The a p p l i c a t i o n of a e r i a l photography to f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n began in 1934 (Massie , . 1940) . At that time, a e r i a l photographs r e p l a c e d ground surveys as the p r i n c i p l e method f o r a n a l y s i n g and e v a l u a t i n g parks i n the United S t a t e s . ( I t i s important to r e a l i z e that ground surveys were not e l i m i n a t e d ; r a t h e r they supplemented the photographs.) In 1940, F.R. Wilcox noted i n the miscellaneous s e c t i o n of a p u b l i c a t i o n that at times, they ( a i r photos) can. also be used to advantage in recreation and general forest t r a v e l . He d i d ' not e l a b o r a t e , but i n time others d i d . In 1948, P i t k i n placed s l i g h t l y more emphasis on r e c r e a t i o n as a v i a b l e f o r e s t use than "miscellaneous." He suggested i n h i s 13th and 14th recommendations (out of 14) to the Pennsylvannia Department of Forests and Waters, that a i r photos be a p p l i e d to the a n a l y s i s of lands proposed f o r s t a t e parks and used f o r d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s of park areas, i n c i d e n t to p r e p a r a t i o n of development p l a n s . In the same year, two C a l i f o r n i a n s (Brower and F e l t e r , 1948) a p p l i e d . h i s suggestions to the surveying of s k i runs. The photography was taken in a 10 mile s t r i p from present c l e a r e d roads or r a i l r o a d s , demonstrating at that time, the importance of access i n r e c r e a t i o n . Brower and F e l t e r a l s o concluded that o b l i q u e photography could prove i n f o r m a t i v e , not only f o r 7 those l o o k i n g f o r s k i development s i t e s but al s o f o r s k i e r s who would l i k e to plan a safe but i n t e r e s t i n g s k i mountain i t i n e r a r y i n the back country. One year pushed aside seven, as in 1949, a p u b l i c a -t i o n by Garver and Moessner demoted the odd couple of a e r i a l photography and f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n to the c a t c h - a l l , "other work s e c t i o n " ; along w i t h , not s u r p r i s i n g l y , p u b l i c informa-t i o n and game and watershed management. In 1950, Robert ColwelT wrote a paper e x c l u s i v e l y on the a p p l i c a t i o n of a e r i a l photography to f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n . In his paper, Colwell noted how ob s o l e t e e x i s t i n g maps were concerning d e t a i l s of the r e c r e a t i o n s i t e . Using a i r photos, he f e l t t h a t a s i t e ' s a e s t h e t i c values could be a c c u r a t e l y assessed. He al s o r e a l i z e d that m i c r o - r e c r e a t i o n a l s i t e s such as hard-to-reach l a k e s , t r a i l s , and streams w i t h i n a lar g e area were b a s i c a l l y undiscovered. Colwell used the photos i n p r a c t i c e tp plan t r a i l s i n an area with regard to sc e n i c q u a l i t y , ease of access, and a v a i l a b i l i t y of forage f o r pack animals. He even intended to d i v e r t t r a i l s from poorly drained or swampy areas i n order to reduce any mosquito i nconveni ence. Col w e l l ' s paper l e d to f u r t h e r r e a l i z a t i o n and hence p u b l i c a t i o n of the marriage of the two f i e l d s . Leedy (1953) used and i n t e r p r e t e d a i r photos i n the f i e l d s of w i l d l i f e and 8 f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n . D i l l (1963) and Olson (1969) suggested t h e i r use f o r r e c r e a t i o n s i t e i n v e n t o r y . Stevens (1966) used a e r i a l photographs f o r compiling s o i l s urveys, and Herrington and Tocher (1967) surveyed mountain lakes and streams using a i r p h o t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Lindsay (1966) v o l -unteered an optimum s c a l e of a e r i a l photography f o r i d e n t i f y -ing seven c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s he f e l t c r u c i a l f o r l o c a t i n g poten-* t i al r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s . Welch (1969) found c o l o u r photography very useful in s e l e c t i n g p o t e n t i a l s i t e s f o r underwater parks. He noted • that i t was p o s s i b l e to assess beach acces s , t r a i l l o c a t i o n s , water hazards, s c e n i c underwater rock and kelp f o r m a t i o n s , areas s h e l t e r e d from wind and waves, s u r f c o n d i t i o n s , auto-mobile parking f a c i l i t i e s , and water depths. A l l the f i n d i n g s and recommendations of the photo i n t e r p r e t e r s were v e r i f i e d by ground checks, i n c l u d i n g underwater s c e n i c v a l u e . Kenneweg (1970) noted that q u a n t i t a t i v e data on t r a f f i c d e n s i t y and the u t i l i z a t i o n of parking f a c i l i t i e s could be recorded from a e r i a l photographs. Yet most of these p u b l i c a t i o n s d e a l t mainly with the use of standard or conventional a e r i a l photographs in the These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u d e p o p u l a t i o n centre f a c t o r s , land use, water valu e , roads, a e s t h e t i c v a l u e , unique f e a t u r e s , and f o r e s t v e g e t a t i o n f a c t o r s . 9 f i e l d of f o r e s t and w i l d l a n d r e c r e a t i o n ; a s c a l e f o r "every-day use" of 1:20,000 or s m a l l e r , a s c a l e s m a l l e r than optimum. Even now, the s t a t e of the a r t revolves around the r e a l i z a t i o n that not only i s there no "everyday use" s c a l e , but there i s no "everyday use" type of f i l m . C e r t a i n s c a l e s and c e r t a i n f i l m types are more adept than others f o r s o l v i n g p a r t i c u l a r problems, and these are now being employed in various f i e l d s . For example, c l e a r bodies of water absorb i n f r a r e d l i g h t to a high degree. If then, a p a r t i c u l a r problem was to d e l i n e a t e the extent of a r i v e r or i t s t r i b u t a r i e s from the surrounding land that r e f l e c t s i n f r a r e d l i g h t , the most use f u l part of the spectrum to use would be the i n f r a r e d band. Forest r e c r e a t i o n , although l a r g e s c a l e i n p a r t i c i -p a t i o n , has a d i v e r s e s c a l e i n s i t e s e l e c t i o n . For most i n -t e n s i v e a c t i v i t i e s such as beach use, v i s t a s , or campgrounds, f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n i s small s c a l e i n s i t e s e l e c t i o n . That i s to say, only a few s i t e s possess, not only enough but the r i g h t combination of environmental elements such as water, v e g e t a t i o n , and s o i l that create edges or c o n t r a s t areas w i t h i n the landscape. In t u r n , these edges c r e a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l and lead the r e c r e a t i o n i s t to d i s c o v e r , understand, and a p p r e c i a t e his environment. Few people are drawn f o r any length of time towards u n i f o r m i t y i n the land although 10 t h i s does not mean they do not a p p r e c i a t e t h i s type of e n v i r o n -ment. I t i s the d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n the landscape, the rock t a l u s on a f o r e s t e d slope or the f a l l matrix of deciduous and c o n i f e r o u s s p e c i e s , or the i s l a n d i n the ocean that a t t r a c t s the v i s i t o r ' s senses l i k e a magnet; not continuous stands of timber or the endless expanse of the sea. For many extensive a c t i v i t i e s such as hunting or h i k i n g , the area r e -quired f o r f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n i s much l a r g e r . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the need f o r the r i g h t combination of environmental elements i s s t i l l apparent. In order to b e t t e r recognize and evaluate these environmental elements that combine to produce a r e c r e a t i o n s i t e , an a c c u r a t e , d e t a i l e d means of c a p t u r i n g and studying t h e i r image needs to be employed. The 35 mm a e r i a l system appears to be a p p r o p r i a t e . 1.3 35 mm A e r i a l Photography i n Natural Resources The use of 35 mm a e r i a l photography f o r s c i e n t i f i c purposes as opposed to p r i v a t e enjoyment i s two decades o l d . Its use in the f i e l d of f o r e s t and w i l d l a n d r e c r e a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y new. Harold H i l l (1957) developed a master's t h e s i s on the a p p l i c a t i o n of v e r t i c a l a e r i a l photography from a l i g h t a i r c r a f t to f o r e s t management. Using black and white 11 f i l m , he noted that t h i s type of photography could be used f o r l o c a t i o n of roads, f i r e l i n e s , h a r v e s t i n g operations and mapping of timber types. Twelve years l a t e r , armed with b e t t e r cameras and a more complex camera mount that that of H i l l ' s , Cook used the 35 mm system f o r g a t h e r i n g p r e l i m i n a r y f o r e s t data and updating e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . Schuerholz (1970) completed a master's t h e s i s on 35 mm a e r i a l photography and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to problems in w i l d l i f e . In Utah, Lindsay has found the 35 mm system us e f u l f o r g e o l o g i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ( K l e i n , 1970). K l e i n (1970) r e a l i z e d the use of 35 mm c o l o u r a e r i a l photography i n entomology and suggested i t s use f o r l o c a t i n g p o t e n t i a l r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s . Z s i l i n s z k y uses the 35 mm system i n a supplemental r o l e to conventional photo-* graphy for -pvaetieally everything, i n c l u d i n g r e c r e a t i o n . . Indeed, f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n has moved from the "miscellaneous" and "other work" s e c t i o n s to be t r e a t e d w i t h i n the f i e l d of a e r i a l photography. Its f u r t h e r movement i n t o the viewer of the 35 mm system needs to be developed. In 1969, Kreig used 35 mm o b l i q u e a e r i a l photography and a l i g h t a i r c r a f t f o r i n v e n t o r y i n g use on s e v e r a l r e c r e a -t i o n s i t e s i n the s t a t e of New York. Z s i l i n s z k y has a l s o used the 35 mm system to count people on r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s . Personal communication, V. Z s i l i n s z k y , Ontario Department of Lands and F o r e s t s . 12 But 35 mm a e r i a l photography has more p o t e n t i a l than i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n d e a l i n g only with a r e c r e a t i o n census. The photo-i n t e r p r e t i v e and photogrammetric techniques used f o r ev a l u -a t i n g the environmental f a c t o r s comprising a r e c r e a t i o n s i t e have not been i n v e s t i g a t e d , nor has the r e l i a b i l i t y of ta k i n g measurements o f f the photos. These techniques, a p p l i e d to t h i s type of photography and to t h i s type of d i s c i p l i n e , are the o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s t h e s i s . As the a n a l y s i s of conventional a e r i a l surveys has the advantages of i n c r e a s i n g accuracy, decreasing c o m p i l a t i o n time, a c t i n g as permanent r e c o r d s , and c o s t i n g l e s s , than ground surveys, 35 mm a e r i a l photography has, i n t u r n , c e r t a i n a d d i t i o n a l advantages over these conventional a e r i a l surveys. Lindsay (1966) determined that the 1:12,000 s c a l e proved most e f f e c t i v e f o r l o c a t i n g p o t e n t i a l r e c r e a t i o n areas. Yet most of the general purpose a e r i a l photography taken by the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments i s not at t h i s s c a l e but anywhere from 20 c h a i n s - t o - t h e - i n c h to 80 c h a i n s - t o - t h e -i n c h . But even at a s c a l e of 1:12,000 many f e a t u r e s , such as a q u a t i c nuisances, s h o r e l i n e composition, minor drainages and so on that a f f e c t r e c r e a t i o n cannot be recorded. The 35 mm system makes i t p o s s i b l e to obt a i n a ne a r l y exact s c a l e or s c a l e s needed f o r a p a r t i c u l a r use, e l i m i n a t i n g the need to make do with an i n a p p r o p r i a t e s c a l e . 13 Not only are most conventional a e r i a l photographs the i n c o r r e c t or i n a p p r o p r i a t e s c a l e , but o f t e n they are o l d and t h e r e f o r e u s u a l l y out-of-date or of poor q u a l i t y . In f a c t , some areas have no a e r i a l coverage at a l l . The s i m p l i c i t y and v e r s a t i l i t y of the system i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n the equipment needed. A l l of the camera equip-ment, i n c l u d i n g f i l m , f i l t e r s and l e n s e s , i s u s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e from r e t a i l camera s t o r e s e l i m i n a t i n g long delays i n w a i t i n g f o r s p e c i a l i z e d equipment. Indeed, even i f i t i s necessary to purchase the camera equipment i n t o t a l , the cost i s not p r o h i b i t i v e and the purchase i s not r e s t r i c t e d to a s p e c i a l purpose. Another advantage of the system i s the f a c t that weather i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a c r u c i a l l i m i t i n g f a c t o r . In conventional photography, a e r i a l c o n t r a c t o r s w i l l not f l y unless the sky i s v i r t u a l l y c l o u d l e s s because of the f i n a n c i a l r i s k of a r e t a k e . This system allows a e r i a l coverage to be obtained between short breaks in the weather p r o v i d i n g cloud cover i s g e n e r a l l y l e s s than about 20%. A cloud cover of more than 20%, e s p e c i a l l y i f i t i s broken, causes dark blotches on the image of areas that are i n shade. This can be annoying in both the photogrammetric and p h o t o i n t e r p r e t i v e stages of a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . It i s p o s s i b l e to use the system with a 100% cloud cover (or any percent f o r that matter) 14 p r o v i d i n g the c e i l i n g i s high enough to obtain the d e s i r e d s c a l e and there i s enough l i g h t to enable acceptable r e s u l t s . Table 2 l i s t s the number of days of s u i t a b l e f l y i n g weather w i t h i n areas of the f i v e f o r e s t d i s t r i c t s of B r i t i s h Columbia. The most i d e a l weather would be c l e a r with 10-15 mile winds and v i s i b i l i t y of 15 miles or more. This type of weather would reduce haze and help i n e s t a b l i s h i n g ground c o n t r o l to t i e i n with f l i g h t l i n e p a t t e r n s . The a v a i l a b i l i t y of the a i r c r a f t i s yet another advantage. This type of photography can be done using a l i g h t a i r c r a f t , the choice of which w i l l be governed by e i t h e r expense or the type of photography. H i l l , K l e i n , Kreig and Cook a l l used the Cessna a i r c r a f t . Cessnas are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e through most a i r c r a f t r e n t a l or c h a r t e r companies. Z s i l i n s z k y i n his study used the deHav-illand Beaver which i s a l s o a v a i l a b l e f o r c h a r t e r . The major advantage of using a l i g h t a i r c r a f t with t h i s system, besides c o s t , i s that there i s no prolonged w a i t i n g while commercial companies f i l l previous o r d e r s . Yet the major advantage of the 35 mm system i s i t s c o s t . In 1971, i t cost over $1800 to ob t a i n c o l o u r i n f r a r e d and black-and-white 1:12,000 imagery of the 12,000 acre U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Research F o r e s t . For that same $1800, the 35 mm system could capture the same area TABLE 2 Number of Days of 2/10 or Less Cloud Cover at Weather S t a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia ) 1 i\ A M ] J A S 0 N [ ) Vancouver Forest D i s t r i c t : Abbotsford A i r p o r t 2 5 9 5 .3 5 9 6 9 8 .7 6 .0 14 .0 12 .7 11 .7 7 .8 5 .7 3 .7 B u l l Harbour 1 5 .3 5 .3 6 .2 6 2 6 .2 3 .3 5 .6 6 .5 6 .6 6 .2 4 .2 4 7 Comox A i r p o r t 2 4 7 5 .0 6 2 7 .2 9 .6 6 .3 13 .0 11 .4 12 .3 7 .1 4 .2 4 .0 Estevan Point 1 6 2 7 .0 7 .8 8 .4 9 .3 7 .5 12 .1 11 .7 10 .8 8 .4 5 .4 5 .6 Hope 2 5 0 4 .5 5 0 6 .9 7 .4 5 .4 14 .3 10 .9 11 .4 6 .8 6 .0 3 .7 Pachena Point 3 7 4 6 .7 7 .8 6 .0 6 .5 6 .6 7 .1 7 .1 10 .5 9 .0 5 .4 5 .9 Port Hardy A i r p o r t 2 3 .7 3 .9 5 0 4 .1 5 .9 3 6 6 .5 6 .2 6 .3 4 .3 2 .7 2 .8 Spring I s l a n d 2 5 0 5 .3 5 .6 7 .2 7 .1 4 .8 12 .4 10 .2 9 .6 6 .2 4 .2 3 .4 Vancouver Ai r p o r t 1 4 3 5 .0 6 .2 6 6 8 .1 6 3 13 .0 12 .1 11 .1 6 .8 4 .5 3 .7 V i c t o r i a A i r p o r t 1 4 3 5 .0 6 .8 7 2 8 .7 7 .5 15 .2 14 .0 12 .0 8 .1 5 .1 4 .3 Kamloops Forest D i s t r i c t : A s h c r o f t 2 6 2 6 .7 9 0 8 4 9 .3 6 .3 13 .0 12 .4 12 .6 8 .7 6 .3 5 .6 Carmi 2 5 6 6 .1 7 8 7 8 8 .1 6 3 14 .0 13 .3 12 .6 9 .9 6 .3 6 .2 Dog Creek Ai r p o r t 2 7 .4 6 .7 8 .1 6 9 8 .1 4 5 9 .0 9 .0 11 .7 8 .7 7 .8 7 .4 Kami oops Ai r p o r t 1 5 6 7 0 9 .0 8 1 8 .7 6 6 12 4 11 .7 12 .3 8 7 5 .7 4 .7 Lytton 2 6 2 5 .6 8 1 8 7 9 .9 6 9 14 .0 12 .4 13 .5 8 .1 6 .3 5 .3 Prin c e t o n A i r p o r t 1 5 .0 5 .3 7 4 7 2 8 4 6 6 14 .6 12 .4 12 .3 7 .8 4 .8 4 .0 Nelson Fore s t D i s t r i c t : Crescent V a l l e y 1 4 .3 5 .3 7 .8 7 2 7 .4 6 0 14 .0 12 .4 12 .0 8 .1 4 .2 3 .4 Kimberley A i r p o r t 2 4 .9 7 ;0 9 .0 8 4 8 .7 6 0 14 9 12 .4 12 .3 9 .9 6 .9 5 .9 Revelstoke 2 4 .0 4 .5 6 5 7 8 8 .4 4 2 12 .1 TO .2 10 .2 5 .3 3 .6 2 .8 (Continued) TABLE 2 (Continued) J F M A M J J A S 0 N D Prince George Forest D i s t r i c t Beatton River A i r p o r t 2 9.9 8.1 9.0 7.8 6.2 4.5 5.3 7.8 8.4 8.7 8.1 9.6 F o r t Nelson A i r p o r t 1 9.6 7.3 8.7 7.5 5.6 4.8 5.3 7.4 7.5 7.8 7.8 8.1 F o r t St. John A i r p o r t 1 8.7 7.0 8.7 7,2 6.8 5.1 5.9 8.7 8.4 8.1 7.5 7.8 P r i n c e George A i r p o r t 1 6.2 5.9 7.1 6.0 7.8 3.6 6.5 7.8 8.7 8.4 5.4 5.0 Quesnel A i r p o r t 2 5.3 5.9 6.5 8.1 7.8 3.0 8.4 6.8 7.8 5.3 5.1 5.0 Smith River 2 9.9 7.8 9.6 7.5 6.2 4.2 4.7 6.8 6.6 7.1 7.2 9.0 P r i n c e Rupert Forest D i s t r i c t Cape St. James 2 3.4, 3.9 4.7 4.8 5.0 2.4 4.0 5.6 7.5 4.3 3.3 2.8 Dease Lake 2 9.9 7.8 8.7 6.9 5.3 3.9 3.7 5.9 6.0 5.3 4.8 7.4 Prince Rupert 1 6.8 5.9 6.5 6.3 5.9 3.6 4.0 5.3 6.0 4.3 4.5 4.7 Sandspit A i r p o r t 2 5.6 4.5 6.2 7.8 6.2 3.9 5.6 5.3 6.9 5.0 3.9 4.7 Smithers A i r p o r t 2 6.2 5.3 6.5 6.6 6.8 4.2 5.3 7.1 7.8 4.3 3.3 4.3 Terrace A i r p o r t 3 7.4 5.9 5.0 6.9 5.9 3.6 6.5 5.3 6.6 3.7 4.2 3.4 Years Recorded 1 . 1 7-20 years 2. 10-16 years 3. 5 — 9 years (From B r i t i s h Columbia Cloud Normal Charts, 1969: Government of Canada, M e t e o r o l o g i c a l S e r v i c e s . ) 17 in c o l o u r photography with the same overlap and s i d e l a p at a s c a l e of 1:5250, not once but i n each of the four seasons. Before, as there were a few words of c a u t i o n about the use of a i r photographs i n f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n , there are a d d i t i v e words of caution about the 35 mm system. For exten-s i v e photo-to-ground coverage, a small s c a l e i s r e q u i r e d yet t h i s small s c a l e makes many of the f e a t u r e s important to r e c r e a t i o n such as minor drainages and ground v e g e t a t i o n i n d i s c e r n i b l e . In order not to expect too much from the 35 mm a e r i a l system, the f o r e s t manager must decide not only what he wants to see but j u s t how c l e a r l y he needs to see i t . Another in h e r e n t problem with the system i s the a i r c r a f t i t s e l f . Many people seek r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s i n an attempt to escape the very environment an a i r p l a n e r e p r e -s e n t s . Indeed, the p o l i c y of the National Parks of Canada s t a t e s that the sight and sound of low f l y i n g aircraft'would lessen the opportunity for others to- enjoy the natural scene. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , there i s r e a l l y no s u i t a b l e s o l u t i o n to t h i s problem. In essence though, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the equip-ment, the speed and cost with which the equipment and the imagery can be a c q u i r e d , and the r e s u l t s of r e s o l u t i o n and tonal q u a l i t y of the photograph, makes the 35 mm a e r i a l system an a t t r a c t i v e o f f e r to those occupied with the p r o v i s i o n of r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the f o r e s t . 18 Chapter II TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT 2 .1 Types of -Photography The 35 mm system, with i t s combination of low c o s t , v e r s a t i l i t y , and q u a l i t y r e s u l t s , encourages the use of d i f -f e r e n t types of photography and allows e l i m i n a t i o n of the everyday use concept. With a proper choice of planes (a speed to minimize image motion) i t i s p o s s i b l e during one f l i g h t not only to capture o b l i q u e as well as v e r t i c a l photo-graphy, but to capture t h i s photography on a v a r i e t y of f i l m s . This same combination allows the monitoring over a pe r i o d of time f o r such needs as r e c o r d i n g use patterns and noting the environmental changes, such as f a l l c o l o u r i n g or water l e v e l f l u c t u a t i o n , o c c u r i n g w i t h i n a s i t e . A l l of t h i s know-ledge, acquired using v e r t i c a l , o b l i q u e , and s e q u e n t i a l photo-graphy on various f i l m s and with a combination of f i l t e r s i s useful i n a s s e s s i n g the r e c r e a t i o n a l use or p o t e n t i a l of a s i t e . The a p p l i c a t i o n of v e r t i c a l photography i n t h i s study i s needed i n order to examine the r e l i a b i l i t y of measurements 19 taken o f f the 35 mm p r i n t as well as to a s s i s t i n the i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n of the image. V e r t i c a l photography, i n which the geometry of the a e r i a l photographs i s known; that i s the f o c a l length of the lens and the f l y i n g height of the a i r c r a f t above the t e r r a i n , provides a base on which to measure area, stand d e n s i t y , t r e e h e i g h t s , stream g r a d i e n t , water depth, and s o o n . Although secondary i n use today, o b l i q u e photographs were the f i r s t type of a i r to ground photography employed. In 1858, Tournachon succeeded i n photographing a small v i l l a g e near P a r i s from a b a l l o n . In the f o l l o w i n g h a l f century, experiments were concocted and conducted using k i t e s , r o c k e t s , and c a r r i e r pigeons as well as b a l l o o n s . Today, although much of the space photography that i s published i s o b l i q u e , most conventional photography taken from an a i r c r a f t i s v e r t i c a l . Oblique photography i s not without i t s advantages though. This type of photography a f f o r d s a more f a m i l i a r view of the t e r r a i n to those not comfortable to superimposing themselves v e r t i c a l l y with a stereoscope. Obliques a l s o cover a l a r g e r area. As Brower and F e l t e r noted i n 1948, f o r photo-graphy whose primary f u n c t i o n i s general i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , o b liques seem to be d i s t i n c t l y advantageous i n that any plane with a high wing c o n f i g u r a t i o n w i l l s u f f i c e f o r the m i s s i o n . 20 In forest recreation, oblique photography has four major interpretive p o s s i b i l i t i e s ; assessing potential v i s t a s , determining the aesthetics of a s i t e , presenting public i n -formation, and for recording actual use. Assessing potential vistas can be accomplished by f l y i n g r e l a t i v e l y close to the proposed s i t e and photographing in the viewing d i r e c t i o n . Of course, the closer to the s i t e , in essence, the closer to the ground the more accurate the assessment of the vista becomes. Figure 2 is a high oblique taken of the west face of the Golden Ears; a view one would receive from a vista located on the ridge east of Eunice Lake on the U.B.C. Research Forest. Figure 2 . Stereo oblique of a potential v i s t a , U.B.C. Research Forest Using t h i s stereo oblique, access to the top of the Golden Ears can be determined by locating objects of danger, such as c l i f f s , objects of i n t e r e s t , such as snowfields and meadows, and areas of accessible vegetative cover and potential v i s t a s . A t r a i l planned as shown would include a di v e r s i t y of environments ranging from creek, timber, summer snowfield, meadow, rock outcrop, back to a minor drainage, and f i n a l l y a ridge summit. 21 I m p l i c i t in a s s e s s i n g a p o t e n t i a l v i s t a i s d e ter-mining the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y of a s i t e t h a t i s r e f l e c t e d by the environmental resource i n harmony with the season. Here, s e q u e n t i a l and c o l o u r photography can g r e a t l y a s s i s t i n pro-v i d i n g contemporary i n f o r m a t i o n such as f a l l c o l o u r s , snow accumulation, and new growth. For the p r e s e n t a t i o n of p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n such as the d e l i n e a t i o n of s k i h i l l s or the l o c a t i o n of t r a i l s designed to t i e i n i n t e r e s t i n g ground f e a t u r e s , o b l i q u e photography i s more use f u l to the p u b l i c than a v e r t i c a l mosaic. On a v e r t i c a l mosaic, topographic f e a t u r e s such as r i d g e s or moun-t a i n s which act as r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s are not e a s i l y , i f at a l l , i d e n t i f i e d by the p u b l i c . A f f o r d i n g them a more f a m i l i a r view can help them to plan t h e i r o n - s i t e a c t i v i t i e s much e a s i e r . By the same token though, ob l i q u e s w i l l block out f e a t u r e s i n the background, which themselves can o f t e n be s c e n i c . The advantage of using o b l i q u e phdtography as opposed to v e r t i c a l photography f o r in v e n t o r y or r e c o r d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l patterns of use i s simply that fewer photographs are r e q u i r e d because of the i n c r e a s e d area covered. For uses where measure-ments are not needed and the necessary d e t a i l i s not obscured by the landscape or v e g e t a t i o n such as the i n v e n t o r y of summer co t t a g e s , o b l i q u e photography could have a f i n a n c i a l advantage 22 over v e r t i c a l . The most inexpensive plane, u s u a l l y a Cessna, that met the requirements of high wing c o n f i g u r a t i o n could be rented. Oblique photography has i t s place w i t h i n the 35 mm system. A c t i n g by i t s e l f or coupled with v e r t i c a l photography, ob l i q u e s provide an added t o o l with which to assess the e n v i r -onmental a t t r i b u t e s as well as the p u b l i c use of a s i t e . The concept of t a k i n g photographs in time sequence to r ecord changes of the earth and i t s f e a t u r e s i s not new. A i r photos become q u i c k l y outdated because of the dynamic ' changes in the f o r e s t environment; changes i n c l u d i n g such consequences as the aftermath of w i l d f i r e or the aftermath of " w i l d " logging. Forests can become inundated with d i s e a s e , i n s e c t s , f i r e , water, l a n d s l i d e s or s u c c e s s i o n and exposed to d i f f e r e n t c l i m a t i c anomalies over a p e r i o d of time. The place of v e r t i c a l and o b l i q u e seasonal photo-graphy i n f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n , however, i s not only new, but e s s e n t i a l i n order to maintain up-to-date i n f o r m a t i o n about changes in r e c r e a t i o n patterns and changes in v e g e t a t i o n patterns through r e c r e a t i o n a l impact, to l o c a t e p o t e n t i a l l y new areas f o r r e c r e a t i o n developments, to assess the a e s t h e t i c value of a s i t e brought about by seasonal change and to record water f l u c t u a t i o n s i n l a k e s , r e s e r v o i r s and streams. Armed with t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , the land manager can expect to make 23 a more knowledgeable d e c i s i o n about the p o t e n t i a l pf a s i t e f o r f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n . 2 . 2 Camera and Lenses For the 35 mm system, the b a s i c camera requirement i s a f a s t s h u t t e r speed, p r e f e r a b l y to 1/1,000 of a second. A s h u t t e r speed of l e s s than 1/250 of a second u s u a l l y r e s u l t s in image motion in the photograph. This requirement d i c t a t e s a f o c a l plane s h u t t e r r a t h e r than a blade, between-the-1ens s h u t t e r because the blade s h u t t e r cameras have a top speed of 1/500 of a second. In a d d i t i o n , because of the p o s i t i o n of the s h u t t e r , blade s h u t t e r cameras have l i m i t e d lens i n t e r -c h a n g e a b i l i t y . Most 35 mm cameras come equipped with a 50-55 mm f o c a l length l e n s . However, a great v a r i e t y of f o c a l lengths are a v a i l a b l e and the lenses are e a s i l y interchanged i n f l i g h t f o r s c a l e a l t e r a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i f the camera i s mounted i n s i d e the a i r c r a f t . Another advantage of the more recent models of 35 mm cameras i s the i n c l u s i o n of the l i g h t meter in the camera body, a l l o w i n g readings to be taken d i r e c t l y through the lens and e l i m i n a t i n g the need to allow f o r f i l t e r f a c t o r s . This simply cuts down on the amount of equipment used in f l i g h t . 24 Most of the s i n g l e lens r e f l e x cameras a v a i l a b l e today are adaptable to t h i s system. 2.3 Camera Mounts f o r V e r t i c a l Photographs Since the use of Tournachon's hands, camera mounts used f o r t a k i n g a e r i a l photographs have reached a high degree of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n using metal, g l a s s , and wood. In 35 mm a e r i a l photography, s o p h i s t i c a t i o n means added expense u s u a l l y i n c u r r e d through remodelling the a i r c r a f t , which then must meet c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of the Department of T r a n s p o r t . Remodelling often d i c t a t e s ownership of the a i r c r a f t and i n order to circumvent t h i s , v arious types of i n t e r n a l and ex-t e r n a l mounts have been conceived. Several types of v e r t i c a l mounts that f a s t e n to the fu s e l a g e and extending j u s t beyond the door or the window have been developed and t e s t e d . With H i l l ' s system i n F l o r i d a , the camera was mounted on a piece of plywood that protruded out the window of the plane. The wood was hinged and the mount worked much l i k e an elbow, a l l o w i n g the camera to be p u l l e d back i n t o the cabin f o r r e l o a d i n g f i l m or changing l e n s e s . This system had the advantage of not r e q u i r i n g any m o d i f i c a t i o n of the plane, but the disadvantages of not having a l e v e l l i n g device and of having to f l y with an open window. 25 Although this caused no discomfort during Florida's winter, i t can be extremely annoying even in the spring climate of B r i t i s h Columbia. Schuerholz's (1970) outside mount, attached to the navigator's seat runners, was constructed of plexiglass boxes of polyfoam and cubicles f i l l e d with glycerine and honey. This mode of construction was used to dampen any vibration due either to the a i r c r a f t or the weather. The major d i s -advantage was the r e l a t i v e complexity of the construction of the mount and the need to f l y without a door. In Utah, Klein (1970) used an internal as well as an external v e r t i c a l mount. They are shown in Figure 3. The major disadvantages associated with these mounts were that they required alteration of the a i r c r a f t with the need to cut a hole in the fuselage or once again, the necessity of f l y i n g with an open window. Figure 3. Klein's external ( l e f t ) and internal mounts. The e x t e r n a l mount fastened onto the window ledge. 26 There are s e v e r a l advantages of i n t e r n a l mounts as opposed to those that protrude o u t s i d e and fastened on doors, windows, or s e a t s . The most comforting advantage from both a warmth and r e a s s u r i n g standpoint i s that a f f o r d e d by t o t a l e n c l o s u r e . The plane i s heated, thus e l i m i n a t i n g any problem with f r e e z i n g of e i t h e r the s h u t t e r or the camera op e r a t o r . The i n t e r n a l mounts a l s o enable e a s i e r r e l o a d i n g of the f i l m and changing of both lenses and f i l t e r s . Z s i l i n s z k y ' s mount, which f i t s over the open cargo hatch of the d e H a v i l l a n d Beaver, i s one of the more complex of the v e r t i c a l mounts. With shock absorbers and t u r n i n g handles a l l o w i n g e i t h e r t r a n s v e r s e or l o n g i t u d i n a l camera p o s i t i o n s , i t represents the expensive m o d i f i c a t i o n mentioned e a r l i er. In t h i s study, i t was not the mount that represented the most c r u c i a l c h o i c e . The mount c o n s i s t e d simply of a piece of 3/8" t h i c k p l e x i g l a s s (Appendix I) centered by a 6" h o l e , c o v e r i n g the open baggage hatch of the a i r c r a f t . A l l photography was hand h e l d , guided by a l e v e l l i n g bubble a t -tached to back of the camera. Instead, i t appeared that the most important choice was the a i r c r a f t i t s e l f . 27 2.4 A i r c r a f t The f l o a t equipped d e H a v i l l a n d Beaver, Figure 4, seemed a l o g i c a l choice to centre the system around. It has a baggage compartment, thus negating the need f o r an o u t s i d e mount and when covered by the p l e x i g l a s s s h i e l d i t permits no discomfort to the photographer. There i s ample space to hold and secure lenses and f i l m as well as an a d d i t i o n a l camera. The plane i s heated, a l l o w i n g comfortable tempera-tures even in winter f l y i n g . Figure 4. The f l o a t - e q u i p p e d d e H a v i l l a n d Beaver. The Beaver i s s t i l l an extremely popular plane not only in the c h a r t e r f i e l d but a l s o i n the f o r e s t and mining i n d u s t r y because of i t s f l o a t s and i t s passenger and f r e i g h t c a p a c i t y . In a d d i t i o n , the Beaver has the high wing c o n f i g u -r a t i o n needed to provide good v i s i b i l i t y as well as unobstructed 28 views f o r ob l i q u e photography and a r e l a t i v e l y slow, 60 mph, c r u i s e speed to ensure enough time to l e v e l the camera between exposure i n t e r v a l s . The Cessna a i r c r a f t have many of the same advan-tages of the d e H a v i l l a n d Beaver, i n c l u d i n g high wing con-f i g u r a t i o n and a slow c r u i s i n g speed. Cessnas have an addi -t i o n a l advantage i n that they are l e s s expensive to rent y e t an a d d i t i o n a l disadvantage i n that many of the planes do not have a open baggage compartment. I f then, the f l i g h t does not r e q u i r e v e r t i c a l photography, the Cessna would o f f e r the cheaper r e n t a l . 2.5 Fi1ms and F i 1 t e r s Colour a e r i a l photography i s no longer i n i t s i n -fancy nor i s i t a toy. Cooper and Smith (1966) noted that the choice between co l o u r and panchromatic f i l m f o r a i r photos was, at the time, m a r g i n a l , and prophesized that i n f i v e years time c o l o u r photography would probably be a standard tool f o r resource i n v e n t o r i e s . During t h i s fore-shadowed h a l f decade, s i n c e 1965, c o l o u r photography has indeed improved to the point where i t s use allows ease, exactness and c o n f i -dence to the i n t e r p r e t e r by adding another dimension, the most n a t u r a l , to his set of photo c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Colour f i l m 29 permits many times more changes in hue, about 20,000 in a l l , as well as b r i g h t n e s s , to be recorded than the approximate two hundred shades of gray that can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d on panchromatic photographs. But i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , c o l o u r photography's g r e a t e s t asset may be that i t i s simply p r e t t y , h o l d i n g the i n t e r p r e t e r ' s i n t e r e s t longer and imbedding a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e . In f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n , c o l o u r f i l m i s extremely useful i n e v a l u a t i n g v e g e t a t i v e s p e c i e s , deter-mining the a e s t h e t i c s of a s i t e , d i s t i n g u i s h i n g beach areas and d e l i n e a t i n g s h o r e l i n e s , p r e s e n t i n g p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n and so on. For t h i s t h e s i s , three makes of 35 mm f i l m were used; Kodacolor X, E k t a c o l o r and Kodak Ektachrome Aero I n f r a r e d . Colour and c o l o u r i n f r a r e d f i l m s have three s e n s i t i v e l a y e r s of y e l l o w , magenta, and cyan. For c o l o u r f i l m , these l a y e r s are s e n s i t i v e to the blue, green and red parts of the l i g h t spectrum. Even though r e v e r s a l f i l m s such as Ektachrome and Kodachrome II are e x c e l l e n t f o r reproducing n a t u r a l c o l o u r s and f o r a t t a i n i n g s u p e r i o r r e s o l u t i o n ( K l e i n , 1970), emphasis was placed on the use of negative f i l m s , Kodacolor X and Ekta-c o l o r , that y i e l d p o s i t i v e p r i n t s . There were se v e r a l reasons f o r t h i s . Besides not have been reported on b e f o r e , as f a r -as t h i s author's knowlege goes, c o l o u r negative f i l m s have a 30 gr e a t e r exposure l a t i t u d e and more v e r s a t i l i t y than r e v e r s a l f i l m s . P r i n t s are e a s i e r to annotate and although they can be made from t r a n s p a r e n c i e s , any photographic d u p l i c a t i o n means a n o t i c e a b l e decrease in q u a l i t y of r e s o l u t i o n , c o l o u r , and c o n t r a s t ; and i n some cases, a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n c o s t . TABLE 3 Comparative Costs of F i l m , Developing and Processing of Colour Negative and Colour Reversal Films Film Types Film Cost Developing Si z e Col our Negatives „ Kodacolor X 20 36 E k t a c o l o r 36 1 .75 2.45 3.75 1 .00 1 .00 1 .00 2R 2" x 3" 3R 3" x 5" 5R 5" x 7" .20 .20 .20 .25 .25 .25 1 .50 (1 .64)* 1 .50 (1 .60) 1.50 (1.63) Colour Reversal 1 .99 2.89 3.49 4.99 2.99 1 .50 1 .50 i ncluded i ncluded i ncluded .35 .35 .35 .35 .35 .45 .45 .45 .45 .45 1.50 (1.68) 1.50 (1.62) 1.50 (1.67) 1.50 (1.64) 1.50 (1.65) Ektachrome X 20 36 Kodachrome II 20 36 Canachrome 20 Numbers i n brackets represent t o t a l cost per p r i n t developed to a 5 R s i z e . ( A f t e r Rushant Cameras, December 1971 ) 31 Although t r a n s p a r e n c i e s are cumbersome to use be-cause of t h e i r small format and the need to be viewed with t r a n s m i t t e d l i g h t , they can be used f o r s t e r e o s c o p i c i n t e r -p r e t i v e work in the f i e l d . K l e i n has developed a p o r t a b l e f i e l d viewer, Figure 5, which allows s t e r e o s c o p i c coverage. Although expensive to c o n s t r u c t , about $200.00, other view-ing systems are p o s s i b l e to make, depending upon the imagina-t i o n , i n i t i a t i v e and perserverance of the i n t e r p r e t e r . Two eyepieces and a glass microscope p l a t e , f o r about $7.00 w i l l do an adequate j o b. Figure 5. K l e i n ' s p o r t a b l e f i e l d s tereo f o r viewing t r a n s p a r a n c i e s . Kodak Ektachrome I n f r a r e d Aero f i l m i s a f a l s e c o l o u r r e v e r s a l f i l m designed f o r , although not l i m i t e d t o , a e r i a l photography. It d i f f e r s from o r d i n a r y c o l o u r f i l m i n that the three s e n s i t i z e d l a y e r s are s e n s i t i v e to green, red, and 32 i n f r a r e d r a d i a t i o n i n s t e a d of having the usual b l u e , green and red s e n s i t i v i t i e s . Like other r e v e r s a l f i l m s , p r i n t s can be made. O r i g i n a l l y designed during the Second World War to d e t e c t camouflaged p o s i t i o n s , c o l o u r i n f r a r e d f i l m r e g i s t e r s the d i f f e r i n g i n f r a r e d r e f l e c t i o n s of a l l imaged o b j e c t s . So, although these images may appear the same c o l o u r on a con-v e n t i o n a l c o l o u r photograph, t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s can be detected using t h i s type of f i l m . Healthy f o l i a g e w i l l be recorded in one f a l s e c o l o u r while cut f o l i a g e or some other m a t e r i a l made to look l i k e f o l i a g e can be e a s i l y detected when the co l o u r i n f r a r e d image i s compared with the corresponding c o l o u r image. This type of f i l m i n the conventional format has been used e x t e n s i v e l y f o r determining water q u a l i t y (Strandberg, 1967), tr e e h e a l t h (Wert et al. , 1970), as well as a n a l y s i n g exposed rocks and s o i l s (Anson, 1970). In the f i e l d of f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n 35 mm c o l o u r i n f r a r e d f i l m has many p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Not only does i t draw examination f o r the above c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i t a l s o possesses the chance to measure snow depth (Hunter and B i r d , 1970) a f a c t o r i n l o c a t i n g p o t e n t i a l s k i developments. Two types of f i l t e r s , a s k y l i g h t and a medium yellow f o r c o l o u r negative and c o l o u r r e v e r s a l f i l m s r e s p e c t i v e l y were used f o r t h i s study. A S k y l i g h t f i l t e r i s used f o r 33 s u n l i g h t and s k y l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s when atmospheric haze i s apparent. It e f f e c t i v e l y absorbs u l t r a v i o l e t r a y s , rendering na t u r a l c o l o u r balance. It a l s o served double duty by pro-t e c t i n g the l e n s . A medium-yellow f i l t e r i s always used with c o l o u r i n f r a r e d f i l m to absorb the blue l i g h t . Table 4 d e s c r i b e s the f i l t e r s used f o r three general types of negative and r e v e r s a l f i l m s shot outdoors. TABLE 4 F i l t e r s f o r Colour Negative and Colour Reversal Films Film Type Subject L i g h t i n g Without F i l t e r P i c t u r e wi11 be F i l t e r to be used DAYLIGHT Agfa Color CT 18, E k t a c o l o r Super Anscochrome, K o d a c h r o m e x B r i g h t sunshine outdoors b l u i s h S k y l i g h t IA Fuj i col or NI00 , Ektachrome X F u j i c o l o r Rl00 , Ektachrome E3 Cloudy weather too blue 81 A Geva Color R5, High-Speed Ektachrome Kodachrome I I , S a k u r c o l o r NI00 Kodacolor X, S a k u r c o l o r Rl00 Morning and Eveni ng reddish 82 A TYPE A Anscochrome Kodachrome B r i g h t sunshine outdoors too blue 85 (continued) 34 TABLE 4 (Continued) Film Type Subject L i g h t i n g Without F i l t e r P i c t U r e wi'l 1 be F i 1 t e r to be used TYPE B Agfa Color R e v e r s a l , High-Speed Ektachrome Geva Color R3, Anscochrome, Ektachrome B r i g h t sunshine outdoors too blue 85 B (from Hoya Glass Works, 1971) In a d d i t i o n to these, a p o l a r i z i n g f i l t e r plays a r o l e in c o l o u r photography as a t e c h n i c a l f i l t e r , e l i m i n a t i n g r e f l e c t i o n from n o n m e t a l l i c bodies such as water s u r f a c e s . 35 Chapter III ACQUISITION OF THE IMAGERY 3 .1 Sampling S i t e s In order to t e s t the 35 mm system and i t s poten-t i a l i t y in. f o r e s t and w i l d l a n d r e c r e a t i o n , sampling s i t e s were needed. Because of the many advantages i n c l u d i n g access, data, and people on and o f f e r e d by the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia's Research F o r e s t , t h i s area ( f o r t h i s t h e s i s par-t i c u l a r l y the northern hal f) was chosen f o r the m a j o r i t y of * the eleven hours of f l y i n g time. The sample s i t e s were l o c a t e d on 1958 small s c a l e photographs (1:31,200) of the Research F o r e s t ; s i t e s chosen f o r the d i v e r s i t y of the environments they r e f l e c t e d i n the way of a combination of the edaphic, p h y s i o g r a p h i c , hydro-l o g i c , and v e g e t a t i v e f a c t o r s . In essence, t h i s i s how the 35 mm system would be a p p l i e d . P o t e n t i a l r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s would f i r s t be i d e n t i f i e d on small s c a l e photographs; s i t e s chosen from a dichotomous key such as Table 5. 35 mm a e r i a l photographs were a l s o obtained by Karel K l i n k a and the author of the southern part of the Research Forest as well as Mayne and Samuel I s l a n d s . 36 TABLE 5 Dichotomous Key f o r the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of R e c r e a t i o n a l F a c i l i t i e s Dichotomous S e l e c t i o n Subsequent steps or Terminal I d e n t i f i c a t i o n 1 . Forested 1 . Non-Fores ted 2. Slope l e s s than 15% 2. Slope g r e a t e r than 15% 3. Greater than 25 acres usable 3. Less than 25 acres usable 4. Aspect east-south 4. Aspect southwest-northwest 5. Ten to twen t y - f i v e usable acres 5. Three to ten usable acres 6. View of water s u r f a c e 6 . Lack of vi ew 7. On water's edge 7. Away from water's edge 8. Underwater slope gentle 8. Underwater slope steep 9. With view of water or i n t e r e s t 2 10 3 T r a i l and Hiking P o t e n t i a l 4 5 Central campground or p i c n i c p o t e n t i a l P i c n i c s i t e p o t e n t i a l 6 7 P i c n i c area or f o r e s t camp-ground p o t e n t i a l Campground overflow area or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s i t e 8 9 Bathing beach or boat l a n d i n g Boat launch p o t e n t i a l Overlook with p i c n i c p o t e n t i a l 37 TABLE 5 (Continued) Dichotomous S e l e c t i o n Subsequent steps or Terminal Identi f i c a t i bn 9. Without view p o s s i b i l i t i e s Not usable 10. Slope l e s s than 15% usable 11 10. Slope g r e a t e r than 15% Not usable 11 . On water 1s edge 12 11 . Away from water 13 12. Underwater slope gentle Swimming area, boat launch or marina 12. Underwater slope steep Boat launch or marina 13. With view of water or i n t e r e s t V i s t a 13. Without view Admi ni s t r a t i on (from Douglass , 1970) From t h i s small s c a l e , anywhere from an e x p l o r a t o r y , 1:140,000 l e v e l to a reconnaissance, 1 :63 ,000 1 evel , the 35 mm system would come i n t o e f f e c t to sample the s e l e c t e d p o t e n t i a l s i t e s . Appendix IV shows the l o c a t i o n of the f l i g h t l i n e s on the Research * F o r e s t . In a d d i t i o n a f u r t h e r study on the a p p l i c a t i o n of the * Photographs of most of the remainder of t h i s area are a v a i l a b l e from Dr. D. Munro, F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 38 system to r e c o r d i n g v i s i t o r use on an e x i s t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l s i t e r e s u l t e d i n the i n c l u s i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l p i c n i c and campsites at Al o u e t t e Lake i n Golden Ears P r o v i n c i a l Park. 3.2 Determination of F l i g h t Lines . In the determination of the f l i g h t l i n e s using the 35 mm system, there are three main c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ; s c a l e , l i g h t i n g , and the number of exposures on the f i l m . Scale determines the v e r t i c a l d i s t a n c e from the image; l i g h t i n g c o n t r o l s the h o r i z o n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with the image. If the f l i g h t l i n e s are l a i d out to 20 or 36 frame l e n g t h s , or m u l t i p l e s of these, more time i s allowed f o r changing f i l m s or cameras, thus l e a v i n g no gap in the f l i g h t l i n e s . Scale f o r v e r t i c a l photography i s determined by the geometry presented by the camera and the a e r i a l photo-graph, The s c a l e or r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f r a c t i o n (RF) i s given by the r e l a t i o n s h i p , where f i s the f o c a l length of the lens and H i s the d i s t a n c e from the lens to the ground. I n c o r r e c t s c a l e f o r p a r t i c u l a r uses was one of the . primary reasons f o r supplementing the conventional photographs 39 with the 35 mm system. Lindsay (1966) argued that a s c a l e of 1:12,000, or approximately 15 chain to one inch photography proved most e f f e c t i v e i n l o c a t i n g p o t e n t i a l outdoor r e c r e a -t i o n areas based on po p u l a t i o n centre f a c t o r s , land use, water v a l u e , road systems, v e g e t a t i o n , a e s t h e t i c v a l u e , and uniqueness. He noted that at a s m a l l e r s c a l e , some d e t a i l , i n c l u d i n g vegative cover, was e i t h e r l o s t or l e s s c e r t a i n i n the e v a l u a t i o n and l o c a t i o n of s i t e s . Lindsay's s c a l e , i f only one set of photographs i s a v a i l a b l e i s indeed probably the most d e s i r a b l e . As opposed to Lindsay's one s c a l e concept,.new imagery now a v a i l a b l e , or soon becoming a v a i l a b l e (imagery taken at an e x p l o r a t o r y l e v e l of 1:100,000 or s m a l l e r , by s a t e l l i t e or high a l t i t u d e planes such as the CF-100 ) allows l a r g e areas to be q u i c k l y evaluated and those u n d e s i r a b l e areas e l i m i n a t e d . At t h i s small s c a l e , three of Lindsay's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p o p u l a t i o n centre f a c t o r s , land use, and road systems can be e v a l u a t e d . Douglass (1970) found that even poor q u a l i t y , non-stereo col our photographs could be used in s e l e c t i n g p o t e n t i a l i n t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s with a r e l a t i v e l y high degree of accuracy. A f t e r r e c o g n i z i n g p o t e n t i a l s i t e s from the small * For example, c u r r e n t l y the I n s t i t u t e of Remote Sensing i s o b t a i n i n g c o l o u r , c o l o u r i n f r a r e d , panchromatic, and black-and-white i n f r a r e d imagery of parts of Canada. 40 s c a l e photographs, the 35 mm system can be used to inv e n t o r y these areas and t h e i r environment. Obvi o u s l y , the deter-mination of the s c a l e of the 35 mm photographs w i l l depend upon what o b j e c t i v e s are to be met by the photographs; the s m a l l e r the o b j e c t to be i d e n t i f i e d , the l a r g e r the s c a l e . For example, Z s i l i n s z k y plans to use s c a l e s approximately between 1:2390 and 1:5970 on 5 x 7 enlargements to i d e n t i f y and i n t e r p r e t a q u a t i c s h o r e l i n e v e g e t a t i o n , water depth, and water f r o n t c o t t a g e s . Of course, t h e r e becomes a l i m i t to how l a r g e a s c a l e should.be before i t becomes l u d i c r o u s to f l y and advantageous j u s t to ground sample. A f t e r s c a l e has been determined and the v e r t i c a l v e c t o r of the three dimensional space e s t a b l i s h e d , i t i s time to turn the a t t e n t i o n to the h o r i z o n t a l v e c t o r s . Here, l i g h t i n g should be a major c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the l a y o u t of f l i g h t l i n e s . Cross l i g h t i n g i s p r e f e r a b l e to both back and f r o n t l i g h t i n g i n o b l i q u e a e r i a l photography. Back l i g h t i n g tends to emphasize haze and hence reduces contrast between o b j e c t s . Front l i g h t i n g , though more d e s i r a b l e than back, does not emphasize shadows, not only reducing c o n t r a s t but reducing a photo c h a r a c t e r i s t i c useful f o r photogrammetric and photo-i n t e r p r e t a t i v e techniques. Cross l i g h t i n g produces a g r e a t e r apparent c o n t r a s t i n the image a l l o w i n g more s u b j e c t s to stand out. I f - t h e n - t h e long axis f l i g h t l i n e s do not allow s i d e l i g h t i n g , the axis should be changed. 41 Another c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n a e r i a l photography i s the angle of the sun i n r e l a t i o n to the image. A low sun angle in e i t h e r the e a r l y morning or evening causes too much shadow, and i n even open f o r e s t e d areas, can almost e l i m i n a t e impor-tant ground d e t a i l . This problem i s even more pronounced with c o l o u r i n f r a r e d f i l m which, because of i t s wave l e n g t h , does not penetrate shadows. Other problems warranting c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n deter-mining f l i g h t l i n e s are r e l i e f , because of the u s u a l l y low f 1 i g h t - a l t i t u d e , haze, smog, and turbulence brought along by r e l i e f and c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . For the most part though, the v e r s a t i l i t y of the 35 mm system permits the s o l u t i o n to these problems. Problems of r e l i e f can be solved by i n t e r -changeable l e n s ; haze, smog and other weather nuisances can u s u a l l y be overcome by the v e r s a t i l i t y of the equipment and by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the a i r c r a f t . 3 . 3 Ordeal of F l y i n g In order to take advantage of the d e H a v i l l a n d Beaver a i r c r a f t , a piece of p l e x i g l a s s was cut and mounted over the empty baggage compartment. Such a mount r e q u i r e s no a l t e r a t i o n of the a i r c r a f t other than c o l l a p s i n g the back seat and removing the baggage compartment. From t h e r e , the photo-grapher sat on the p l e x i g l a s s and, f o c u s i n g on i n f i n i t y and 42 the landscape, aimed the camera through the h o l e , attempting to keep the camera v e r t i c a l during exposures by l e v e l l i n g the bubble on the back. Because of the s c a t t e r i n g of l i g h t by a i r b o r n e p a r t i c l e s , a meter reading at the f l i g h t p l a t -form i s l i k e l y to be higher than a ground r e a d i n g . There are three ways toscombat t h i s . One, i s to take a ground reading before f l i g h t , i f t h i s i s p o s s i b l e , and shoot that reading. Another a l t e r n a t i v e i s to f l y low to the sample s i t e s , take a reading and then move up to the p l a t f o r m . The f i n a l method i s to use an approximate r u l e of thumb. Gen-e r a l l y , the s e t t i n g f o r a e r i a l exposures below 1 ,000 f e e t i s about the same as f o r t e r r e s t r i a l shots. Between 1,000 and 2,000 f e e t , the lens opening should be approximately one-t h i r d stop s m a l l e r than f o r ground o b j e c t s ; between 2,000 and 4,000 f e e t , one-half stop s m a l l e r and above 4,000 f e e t , one stop smal1er. A second person acted as n a v i g a t o r , g u i d i n g the p i l o t as to d i r e c t i o n , a l t i t u d e , and speed of a i r c r a f t , at the same time as informing the photographer, when and i n whatever way p o s s i b l e , of the exposure i n t e r v a l c a l c u l a t e d from the f l y i n g height and a i r c r a f t speed. He a l s o reloaded one camera ,.whi1e the photographer unloaded the other. Karel K l i n k a and the author found that i t was not p o s s i b l e to expose the frame, advance the f i l m and l e v e l the camera i n 43 less than three seconds.. In order, then, to obtain 60% over-lap, certain platform heights, a i r c r a f t speeds, and focal lengths had to be adhered to. These are noted in Appendix I I . One of the severe problems encountered both before and during the f l i g h t s was communication with the p i l o t . To conserve time, patience, and vocal cords, i t is absolutely necessary to make sure that the p i l o t understands where he is f l y i n g t o , the direction of the f l i g h t l i n e s , and the speed, altitude and level of s t a b i l i t y he is to maintain while making his passes. Lakes and openings in the forest covering are often the easiest landmarks with which to or i e n t , acting as focal points in the landscape. If the photograph of an area is repeated, i t is advisable to ask for the same p i l o t who w i l l be fam i l i a r with the routine. Believe i t or not, i t is a f a l l a c y to assume that commercial pi l o t s can f l y an exacting course. 44 Chapter IV ANALYSIS OF THE IMAGERY 4 .1 I n t r o d u c t i on A f t e r the f l i g h t s were completed and the photography was p r i n t e d , 5R enlargements were made of s e l e c t e d s i t e s i n order to compare with ground t r u t h . The photographs were analysed i n order to see how much of the f o r e s t and w i l d l a n d r e c r e a t i o n environment could be a c c u r a t e l y assessed through both measurement (photogrammetry) and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A f t e r the photogrammetry and p h o t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n had been c a r r i e d out, these sampling s i t e s were ground checked. 4.2 Photogrammetry In 1949, Douglas Kendall wrote on the problems and f u r t h e r outlook f o r the Canadian A i r Survey: I personally believe that a i r survey in Canada, or anywhere else for that matter, w i l l only r e a l l y oome into i t s own when i t i s established in the minds of 99 people out. of 100, not yet aware of the fact, that photogrammetry can provide accurate large scale topographic and engineering maps economically. For every job requiring small scale maps, there are 100 45 i n v o l v i n g 5 foot and 10 foot contours admittedly of smaller areas; but whereas the small scale job may involve 10,000 square miles at $5.00 per square mile, the large scale job i n v o l v i n g 10 square miles at, say, $5,000 per square mile may be more worthwhile doing. Unfortunately out of the 100 large scale jobs poten-t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e in Canada, perhaps only 2% are yet solved photogrammetrically. Much education and demonstration yet re-mains to be done, but as i t i s done, the whole w i l l widen. As a generalization, i t i s also true to say 'survey begets, survey ' meaning that as the small scale maps become a v a i l a b l e , plus the reconnais-sance resources mapping the whole country opens up and the demand for large scale maps i s created. Previous s t u d i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y H i l l (1957) and Schuerholz (1970), warned of the danger of using 35 mm photo-graphy f o r photogrammetry. Such f a c t o r s as t i p and t i l t , keeping the f i l m f l a t , m a intaining the f l y i n g height accur-a t e l y i and minor v a r i a t i o n s i n p r i n t i h g and enlargement, w i l l a l l g r o s s l y a f f e c t the s c a l e , more so when i t i s l a r g e . How-ever, with the use of the l e v e l l i n g bubble placed on the back of the camera, the pressure p l a t e to hold the f i l m f l a t in the exposure step and the r e c o r d i n g of the a l t i m e t e r at the time of the exposure by the n a v i g a t o r or i n exact sequence with another camera, most of the e r r o r s can be s t r i c t l y c o n t r o l 1ed. Accepting t h i s , Lindsay has patented a s t e r e o p l o t t e r that allows two 35 mm stereo photographs to be p r o j e c t e d 46 i n t e r p r e t e d , and mapped ( K l e i n , 1970). Control and p o s i t i o n of the photos i s accomplished by superimposing the imagery at an adjusted s c a l e onto prominent drainages, roads, and other topography from e x i s t i n g topographic maps that has been pre-v i o u s l y t r a n s f e r r e d on a mylar base. If i t can be accepted that the 35 mm system can give an accurate s c a l e based on the a b i l i t y to keep the camera l e v e l and the f i l m f l a t , many of the photogrammetric techniques ap-p l i c a b l e to conventional photography can be a p p l i e d to the small camera system. Tables 6 and 7 show the r e s u l t s of photo-grammetric techniques a p p l i e d to Figures 6 and 7. Figure 6. Small peninsula on Katherine Lake, U.B.C. Research F o r e s t , used f o r e v a l u a t i n g photogrammetric tech-niques on s i n g l e p r i n t s . 47 TABLE 6 Photogrammetric Techniques Applied to a Single P r i n t , Figure 6 Scale 1:795•(H/2260'; f/50 mm) OBJECT HEIGHT (in feet) LENGTH (i n feet) GROUND TRUTH (in feet) A - 7.0 mm/18.6 19.0 B - 19.0 mm/50.4 51 .0 C - 6.5 mm/17.2 17.5 D 481 - 47.0 E 21 .6 mm/57.22 - 56.0 Measurement c a l c u l a t e d by displacement: height = d/r • A. Measurement c a l c u l a t e d by sun angle: height = tan 'a' shadow l e n g t h . S i n 'a' = (cos x) (cos y) (cos z) ± ( s i n x) ( s i n y) f o r J u l y 14, 1971, 12:10 p.m. Explanations on how to use these formulae are included in most books on photogrammetry (for example, Avery, 1968). 48 Figure 7. P l a n t a t i o n s east of the headquarters, U.B.C. Research F o r e s t . TABLE 7 Photogrammetric Techniques Ap p l i e d to a Stereo P a i r , * Figure 7 Sca l e 1:3600 (H/610*; f/50 mm) OBJECT HEIGHT ( i n f e e t ) GROUND TRUTH ( i n f e e t ) A 91 .7 76 B 87.5 52 C 126.1 73 D 100.8 62 E 71 .6 64 Measurement c a l c u l a t e d by p a r a l l a x ; Height = H = 610 P = 42.0, 1.7" Explanations on how to use t h i s formula are inc l u d e d in most books on photogrammetry ( f o r example American S o c i e t y of Photogrammetry, 1960). (from Richardson, 1971) 4 9 Those measurements taken off the stereo pair widely vary from the ground truth. B a s i c a l l y , there appears to be two reasons for t h i s . The image is blurred making i t d i f -f i c u l t to read the top of the crown and this blurred image in conjunction with the ground cover made i t impossible to read the base at ground 1evel. Despite these f i n d i n g s , i t is the author's feeling that the inaccuracies are more with the interpreters than the equipment and that more photogram-metric work needs to be done. Measurements taken off the single 35 mm images are closely approximate to ground t r u t h , cert a i n l y accurate enough in the f i e l d of forest recreation where the detailed measurements of crown width, tree height, stand volumes per acre and the l i k e w i l l play a very, very cursory r o l e . The 35 mm system's photogrammetric role in forest recreation w i l l focus on areal and aerial measure--, ments of water and land as these are two of the most impor-tant physical attributes affecting recreation; how much land is suitable for one type of a c t i v i t y , or more l i k e l y , which land is not s u i t a b l e , how much of the lake is choked by log debris and so on. 50 4.3 Photoi n t e r p r e t a t i on 4.3.1 Physiography and r e c r e a t i o n . A knowledge of the p h y s i b g r a p h i c a l segment of the environment can a s s i s t the land manager in making d e c i s i o n s concerning the p r o v i s i o n of f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n . . Physiography or p h y s i c a l geography i s the study of landforms.. And f o r the most p a r t , land forms the basis of r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and r e c o g n i t i o n of landforms imaged on a e r i a l photography i s a p r a c t i c e d a r t . Countless papers ( B e l c h e r , 1959 ; American S o c i e t y of Photogrammetry, 1960) have been published on the i n t r i c a c i e s of both the photograph and the landform i t s e l f i n order to provide clues l e a d i n g to c o r r e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . - These c l u e s , such as tones, drainage, g u l l y a n a l y s i s , and so on can be deciphered by a s k i l l e d i n t e r p r e t e r . The 35 mm system permits the r e c o r d i n g of minor g u l l i e s , d r a i n a g e s , k n o l l s , swamps and so on; small elements of the p h y s i o g r a p h i c environment often overlooked or simply not captured by small s c a l e photography. In the r e c r e a t i o n -i s t s "world," these elements help to create the edges that a t t r a c t him. Slopes and aspect, a l s o important phys i o g r a p h i c elements, can be measured and determined using the slope 51 wedge and knowledge of the f l i g h t l i n e s . Perhaps the most important r o l e the 35 mm system plays i n the phy s i o g r a p h i c segment though i s that of updating e x i s t i n g photographs and maps and r e c o r d i n g changes i n the physi o g r a p h i c environment. In 1962, both the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation and the National Park S e r v i c e i n the United States were eval u -a t i n g Assateaque Islan d in Maryland f o r d e d i c a t i o n as a . National Seashore. At the same time, Assateaque Islan d was being surveyed f o r p r i v a t e r e s o r t development. Sequential a e r i a l photography, taken before and a f t e r a severe storm, provided data i n d i c a t i n g that a c q u i s i t i o n of the i s l a n d f o r p r i v a t e development would be hazardous. Much of the land surveyed f o r development was transformed by the storm and s h i f t i n g sand i n t o the sea ( U d a l l , 1965). F l o o d p l a i n s o f t e n share a s i m i l a r f a t e . They, i f dry in the use season, can be used f o r some i n t e n s i v e r e c r e -a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s l i k e camping or p i c n i c i n g but other i n t e n -s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l development's such as summer cottages or a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b u i l d i n g s where permanent foundations and sewage d i s p o s a l u n i t s are r e q u i r e d should not be b u i l t on these d e p o s i t s . Once again, s e q u e n t i a l photography can help in the d e c i s i o n making process. Topography plays a major r o l e i n c r e a t i n g the edges that a t t r a c t r e c r e a t i o n i s t s . F l a t topography, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 52 of outwash d e p o s i t s , f l o o d p l a i n s , and d e l t a s o f t e n do not a f f o r d any s c e n i c view of the landscape. Mountains or h i l l y d e p o s i t s such as moraines, o f f e r more v a r i e t y and b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s c e n i c o v e r l o o k s . The 35 mm system, with i t s v e r s a t i l i t y of s c a l e , c o s t , time and types of photography, allows f o r an accurate inventory of the physiographic segment of f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n . It w i l l never r e p l a c e small s c a l e conventional photography f o r the r e c o g n i t i o n of s u r f i c i a l d e p o s i t s . Large s c a l e photographs are often inadequate f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of land-forms because only a small p o r t i o n i s shown; the "overview" i s l o s t . The 35 mm system's g r e a t e s t asset w i l l be to sup-plement high a l t i t u d e , small s c a l e photography, where general environmental f a c t o r s can be i d e n t i f i e d . By sampling s e l e c t e d s i t e s chosen from the small s c a l e photographs, the s p e c i f i c environment can be evaluated. Table 8 t r a c e s the r e l a t i o n of physiography to r e c r e a t i o n use. 4.3.2 S o i l s and r e c r e a t i o n . It seems a general truism i n f o r e s t and w i l d l a n d r e c r e a t i o n , that i n t e n s i t y of use brings about d e t e r i o r a t i o n in almost a l l of i t s aspects. It matters not what the TABLE 8 R e l a t i o n of Some Landscapes to Recreational Use Landscape Pattern C h a r a c t e r i s t i cs R e l a t i o n to R e c r e a t i o n a l Use G l a c i a l Landforms Outwash L a c u s t r i n e Clays Moraines T i l l Nearly l e v e l t e r r a i n except where p i t t e d ; composed of v a r i a b l e s i z e s of sands and g r a v e l s . U s u a l l y permeable s o i l with i n t e r n a l d r a i nage. Nearly l e v e l to undulating t e r -r a i n . High water t a b l e , sometimes swampy and poorly d r a i n e d . Undulating to h i l l y t e r r a i n com-posed of m a t e r i a l s ranging from po o r l y drained c l a y s to well drained sands and g r a v e l s . Gently r o l l i n g to mountainous t e r r a i n . M a t e r i a l s vary from c l a y s to boulders and drainage v a r i e s from poor to e x c e l l e n t . Depth to bedrock i s v a r i a b l e with shallow d e p o s i t s o c c u r r i n g o n mountain s l o p e s . U s u a l l y r e s i s t a n t to compaction. Us u a l l y s u i t a b l e f o r a s e p t i c f i e l d and foundations f o r such i n t e n s i v e developments. Topography i s gener-a l l y u n e x c i t i n g f o r s c e n i c s . Subject to compaction by i n t e n s i v e use and when e x c e s s i v e l y dry i t i s subje c t to blowing. Low permea-b i l i t y r e s u l t s in s u r f a c e water and u r i s u i t a b i 1 i t y f o r s e p t i c f i e l d and foundations. Rivers f l o w i n g through L a c u s t r i n e deposits o f t e n c a r r y much suspended sediments due to e r o s i o n . Topography i s u n e x c i t i n g f o r s c e n i c s . Topography creates a d i v e r s i t y of edges f o r scenics and d i s c o v e r y . Low areas are often swampy due to s i l t or c l a y . V a r i a b i l i t y ranges from poor to good f o r sewage d i s p o s a l . Ranges from s u i t a b l e to u n s u i t a b l e f o r r e c r e a t i o n development depending on s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as wetness, depth to bedrock, s u r f a c e and sub-surface texture and so on. Steep areas a f f o r d scenic o v e r l o o k s . co TABLE 8 (Continued) Landscape Pa t t e r n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s R e l a t i o n to R e c r e a t i o n a l Use Mind! a i d Landf brfffs Sand Dunes Undulating t e r r a i n composed of s h i f t i n g sand. Permeable with i n t e r n a l drainage. Sand i s s u b j e c t to blowing and s h i f t -ing and these deposits should not be used f o r permanent i n s t a l l a t i o n s . High s c e n i c and i n t e r p r e t i v e poten-t i a l . W a t e r l a i d Landform F l o o d p l a i ns T i d a l F l a t s G e n e r a l l y f l a t t e r r a i n composed of a s e r i e s of interbedded s i l t s c l a y s , sands and some g r a v e l s . High water t a b l e . G e n e r a l l y f l a t t e r r a i n u s u a l l y composed of mud, marsh or sands. Subject to constant f l o o d i n g and exposure due to t i d e changes. Not s u i t a b l e f o r f o u n d a t i o n s . High water table and constant f l o o d i n g and e r o s i o n deter the establishment of permanent i n s t a l l a t i o n s . Topography i s u s u a l l y u n i n t e r e s t i n g from the ground. Us u a l l y u n s u i t a b l e f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l development.: Uses w i l l vary.depend-ing upon the composition of the t i d a l f l a t . For example the Westham Is l a n d B i r d Sanctuary f u l f i l l s a l a r g e gap in the i n t e r p r e t i v e aspect o f ' r e c r e a -t i o n . ' Deltas F l a t to g e n t l y s l o p i n g t e r r a i n composed of m a t e r i a l s ranging from c l a y s to g r a v e l s ; often d i s e c t e d by stream channels. High ground water and p o s s i b l e quicksand con-d i t i o n s . S u i t a b i l i t y can range from p o s i t i v e to negative depending upon the high water t a b l e , foundation m a t e r i a l , and f l o o d -ing p o t e nti al . Use would vary with the s u i t a b i l i t y . Topography except on s h o r e l i n e , i s u n e x c i t i n g . -Fa TABLE 8 (Continued) Landscape Pa t t e r n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s R e l a t i o n to R e c r e a t i o n a l Use Organic Deposits Level or s l i g h t l y concave t e r r a i n Unsuitable f o r i n t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l composed of organic matter. Poor development because of unstableness drainage and g e n e r a l l y unstable. of s o i l , lack of foundation m a t e r i a l , q u a l i t y of the m a t e r i a l s f o r sewage di s p o s a l . cn 56 d e t e r i o r a t i o n i s ; i t ranges from the p s y c h o l o g i c a l q u a l i t y of the r e c r e a t i o n experience to the p h y s i c a l q u a l i t y of the s o i l . S o i l s c i e n t i s t s c l a s s i c a l l y evaluated s o i l s i n terms of t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l . . The usefulness of s o i l s knowledge in f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n was f i r s t mentioned by Meinecki (1928) when he wrote on the e f f e c t of e x c e s s i v e t o u r i s t t r a v e l w i t h i n the Redwood Parks of C a l i f o r n i a . Evidence of s o i l d e t e r i o r a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from r e c r e a t i o n a l use c o l l e c t e d by Lutz (1945), La Page (1962), Dotzenko, PapamiChios, and Romaine (1967) and summarized by Dboling (1969), points to the need f o r a b e t t e r understanding and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s o i l , and i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s for. the purpose of r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s e l e c t i o n . . A l l s o i l s can be used f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s of some kind. The s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which impose degrees of l i m i t a t i o n s to r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s are wetness due to the presence of a high water t a b l e , p e r m e a b i l i t y , slope gra-d i e n t , depth to bedrock, s u r f a c e s t o n i n e s s , s u r f a c e and sub-s u r f a c e t e x t u r e , f e r t i l i t y , and e r o s i o n hazard. Obviously each of these s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are not mutually e x c l u s i v e nor are the ways to i n t e r p r e t them on a e r i a l photographs. By s e l e c t i n g r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s which, i n essence, l i m i t the l i m i t a -t i o n s , i n i t i a l investment can be lowered, maintenance costs 57 can be reduced, and the necessity of rotating campgrounds for natural recuperation can be lessened. Aerial photography has long been used for s o i l c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n . Stevens (1966) noted that most conventional aerial photography, a scale of 1:1 5 ,840 or 1 :20 ,000 , was too small for delineating s o i l s in intensive recreation developments such as campgrounds. He suggested that photo scales of 1:7.920, 1:6,000, or even larger were more adaptable-to the high level of mapping intensity required for these areas. At such scales as Stevens suggests, many of the s o i l char-a c t e r i s t i c s p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant to forest recreation can be interpreted either d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y depending upon the presence of vegetation masking the s i t e . Using these larger s c a l e s , Stevens recognized the value of s o i l s know-ledge for recreation s i t e planning to the forest manager. A high water tab l e , resulting in s o i l s that are wet throughout the year, is an important s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c affecting forest recreation. Colwell (1950) mentioned the mosquito inconvenience, but severe problems arise with camp-ground l o c a t i o n , sewage.disposal ,.access , and t r a i l and road l o c a t i o n . The high water table may leave the s o i l surface wet, necessitating the surfacing and maintenance of t r a i l s and roads. These wetter s o i l s are better suited for more 58 TABLE 9 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and Recommendations Based Upon Important S o i l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r Regional Soi1 Se r i e s and Land Types ;;T.-S.oiiseries or... 4',.,,land type Important - .soil, characteristics related to interpretations Main interpretations Recommendations ,;Bock outcrop- Vertical cliffs; colluvial material; rock ,out--alluvial soils.. crops; alluvial deposits range fr.oaj sandy to '"iv..V.\... . - silty with strewn organic debra's; floods'pe-'." _ riodicallv. 1. Subject to flooding. 2. Seepage areas will require drainage. 3. Possibility of effluent seep-age along bedrock surfaces. Do not develop, could be used for limited trail location. Clymer soils Loam surface; silt loam subsoil; gravelly loam substratum; subsoil slightly sticky when wet and firm when moist; litter lay-ers are thin; well drained; 0-10% slopes. 1. Will require (gravel) sur-facing on paths and fam-ily units to. reduce deterio-ration. -.Blasting may be required for vault toilet placement on shallow areas. Good for most develop-ments ; use vault type • toilets. Cook port soils Loam surface; heavy silt loam subsoils; soil depth about 30 inches; litter layers are thin; moderately well drained; 0-2% slopes; many shrubs of greenbrier, laurel and rhododen-dron. 1. Drainage problems because of subsoil clay increase. 2. Do not use for-septic field. 3. Will require thieReiiCgrav-- el) wearing surface than-., . area 2. Develop with limited use; avoid for toilet location. 1 Hock outcrop- Deepest sandy textured soil is about 8 inches; J Ramsey soils surface cover on rocks and soil of mosses, j lichens and brush litter; very well drained; 3 % slopes. 1. Will erode and deteriorate under intensive use. 2. Seepage may occur along • bedrock surfaces. 3. Periodic flooding adjacent to stream. Do not develop. -4/ Kniest soils Loam surface; sandy loam subsoils; sub-stratum is quite firm; moderately well drained; slopes range from 10-30% with averaca at J ">.%._. .. , l.Dccp cuts will expose seep areas. Not considered for development because steep slopes. (from Stevens, 1966) 59 extensive r e c r e a t i o n a l uses such as open space or nature study. S o i l wetness in open areas, such as imaged i n Figure 8, can be i n t e r p r e t e d by col our, t e x t u r e and some a i r photo i n t e l 1 i gence. Figure 8. A bog s i t e (I) on Samuel Islan d in the Gulf of Georgia. In f o r e s t e d areas where the ground d e t a i l cannot be d i s t i n -guished, other f e a t u r e s must be i n t e r p r e t e d that are imaged on the photograph and are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of wet areas. For example, i m p e r f e c t l y drained areas on slopes imaging varying drainage c l a s s e s o f t e n can be recognized by a r e l a t i v e change in crown s i z e . Vegetation plays a major r o l e i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s o i l s . Tomlinson and Brown (1962) presented a paper pos-t u l a t i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p between ve g e t a t i o n and s o i l s . In 60 t h e i r paper, they noted that many f o r e s t species common to the tundra, b o r e a l , and hardwood f o r e s t s of Ontario and Quebec acted as r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t o r s of s o i l s and s o i l char-a c t e r i s t i c s . In west coast B r i t i s h Columbia, c e r t a i n s p e c i e s , such as western red cedar (Thuja p l i c a t a ) , grow p r i m a r i l y on wetter s i t e s ( E i s , 1962). Other v e g e t a t i o n changes, such as changes in stand d e n s i t y , growth, and v e r t i c a l s t r u c t u r e r e s u l t i n g i n a more open stand or a sudden s h i f t from a f o r e s t cover to a shrub or herbaceous growth could r e f l e c t wetness as a s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Of course, these changes could s i g n i f y a great deal of other environmental anomalies i n -c l u d i n g other s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , c l i m a t e , f i r e , or har-v e s t i n g and t h e i r c o r r e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n becomes a f u n c t i o n of the s k i l l , e x perience, and the r e g i o n a l f a m i l i a r i t y of the i n t e r p r e t e r . Topography can a l s o play an important r o l e i n the height of the water t a b l e . Receiving or catchment areas at the base of v a l l e y w a l l s are l i k e l y to be wet even though they could be composed of well drained m a t e r i a l s . With the a i d of stereo p a i r s , topographic f e a t u r e s are u s u a l l y e a s i l y d i s c e r n i b l e by d i f f e r e n c e s i n e l e v a t i o n . Figure 8 r e f l e c t s t h i s t r o u g h - l i k e q u a l i t y , a bog (I) swamped by two p a r a l l e l r i d g e s ( I I ) . 61 C l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with topography are s u r f a c e drainage p a t t e r n s . Areas between the confluence of two streams or areas at the base of concave angular or r a d i a l drainages w i l l tend to be wetter. S o i l s s u b j e c t to f l o o d i n g i n the use season pose severe l i m i t a t i o n s to such uses as campsite and cottage l o c a t i o n s and should be avoided f o r any type of i n t e n s i v e development. Surface drainage i s u s u a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d c o r r e c t l y on co l o u r photography, but i n some i n s t a n c e s , the use of co l o u r i n f r a r e d f i l m may i n c r e a s e the accuracy. For example compare the two photographs i n Figure 9. A r t i f i c i a l drainage patterns i n t h i s i n s t a n c e appear to stand out more in the c o l o u r i n f r a r e d than in the c o l o u r image. Iron oxide residue i s present i n the drainage p a t t e r n at A. Figure 9. A r t i f i c i a l s u r f a c e drainage on co l o u r i n f r a r e d ( l e f t ) and co l o u r photographs. 62 S o i l p e r m e a b i l i t y , r e s u l t i n g from pore and p a r t i c l e s i z e of the s o i l components i s y e t another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a f f e c t i n g f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n . S o i l p e r m e a b i l i t y governs ground water supply, the r o o t i n g depth of ve g e t a t i o n and the l o c a t i o n of f i e l d s f o r sewage d i s p o s a l . Surface s o i l s of low permeabi1ity wi11 tend to remain wet a f t e r p r e c i p i t a -t i o n , r e s u l t i n g in the need f o r t r a i l and road s u r f a c i n g . The r e c o g n i t i o n of s o i l s of low p e r m e a b i l i t y on a e r i a l photo-graphs i s done p r i m a r i l y through the presence of s u r f a c e drainage, ponded water, swamps, or c e r t a i n v e g e t a t i o n types on the image. In some cases i n c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia, coarse g r a v e l l y s o i l s can be recognized by the presence of a pure stand of lodgepole pine (Pinus oontovta). Again, other environmental anomalies such as f i r e or even swamp dep o s i t s could account f o r the stand. Slope g r a d i e n t can a l s o impose severe l i m i t a t i o n s in some r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . From s t r i c t l y a slope stand-p o i n t , n e a r l y l e v e l s o i l s present few, i f any, problems f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use. Standards set f o r various a c t i v i t i e s suggest optimum and maximum gr a d i e n t s f o r the a c t i v i t y . These vary from gentle slopes f o r such uses as campground l o c a t i o n to the moderate slopes p r o v i d i n g views f o r cottages and f i n a l l y to the steeper slopes r e q u i r e d f o r ski runs and h i k i n g . 63 Table 10 l i s t s l i m i t a t i o n s of slopes f o r c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s recognized by the r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r of the Canada Land Inventory. A e r i a l photographs can provide accurate slope measurements through the use of a slope wedge on the v e r t i c a l s t e r e o image (Moessner and Choate, 1964). C l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with slope i s s o i l depth to bedrock. Again, depth to bedrock can create problems in sewage d i s p o s a l , excavation of pond s i t e s , road and t r a i l l o c a t i o n and so on. In.mountainous areas where bedrock crops out, depths can be roughly estimated, but i n areas where bed-rock topography cannot be r e a d i l y r e c o g n i z e d , unless the sur-f i c i a l d e p o s i t i s o bservable, i t becomes next to impossible to estimate depth to bedrock d i r e c t l y from the photo with any c o n f i d e n c e . Surface s t o n i n e s s can a f f e c t the ease of i n s t a l l a -t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s and maintenance but g e n e r a l l y t h i s i s not a s e r i o u s problem. On a e r i a l photographs, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s u r f a c e s t o n i n e s s i s dependent upon d i r e c t viewing and landform r e c o g n i t i o n . The importance of s u r f a c e and subsurface te x t u r e i n r e c r e a t i o n revolves around the f a c t that i n t e n s i v e use r e s u l t s in degrees of s o i l compaction, which i n turn r e s t r i c t s root development, as well as water movement through the s o i l ; the 64 TABLE 10 Slope L i m i t a t i o n s f o r R e c r e a t i o n a l Use R e c r e a t i o n a l Use Li mi t a t i on % Slope Beach a c t i v i t i e s none 0 - 5 moderate 6 - 1 5 severe 16 and over Camp and p i c n i c s i t e s none 1 evel moderate 2 - 15 severe 16 and over Lodging none 2 - 8 moderate 9 - 1 5 severe 16 and over S k i i n g beginner around 15 novi ce up to 25 intermediate up to 40 advanced up to 50 with steeper p i t c h e s " (from F i e l d Manual - Land C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Out-door R e c r e a t i o n , 1967) 6 5 Figure 10. P o t e n t i a l cottage s i t e on the U.B.C. Research F o r e s t , A l o u e t t e R i v e r , north of Marion Lake (1:1 500) . In the determination of a cottage s i t e f o r example, s o i l depth to bedrock i s important from both a s a n i t a r y and a foundation standpoint. Recognizing t h i s , as w e l l as other aspects of the environment, 'A' would make a s u i t a b l e s i t e . This p a r t i c u l a r s i t e i s nearly l e v e l and w e l l drained. The s o i l depth to bed-rock i s shallow as there are outcroppings, p a r t i c u l a r l y at the dam. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the landform as w e l l as the r e g i o n a l f a m i l i a r i t y of the i n t e r p r e t e r would suggest a t i l l d e p o s i t . The c l e a r i n g of brush would present no problem because i t i s low; i f i t were h i g h , i t would cover the l o g . There i s a mix-ture of deciduous and coniferous growth p r o v i d i n g v a r i e t i e s i n textur e and, i n f a l l , c o lour. The stream environment c o n t r i -butes to the a e s t h e t i c s of the s i t e . The gradient of the stream changes from a l i t t l e over 0% to about 25% a f t e r the second water-f a l l . A small r a p i d b i s e c t s the stream at 'B T. The stream i s not deep, about f i v e f e e t , with a var y i n g width of 10 to 85 f e e t . A group of yellow pond l i l i e s (Nymphaea p o l y s e p a l a ) at 'C suggest a mud textu r e of the stream bottom. Some rocks and logs l i e on the bottom and coupled w i t h the mud and l i l i e s would probably make swimming uncomfortable. The stream i s n a t u r a l l y bridged by a l o g 'D'. 66 the l a t t e r r e s u l t i n g in i n c r e a s e d r u n o f f and e r o s i o n and de-creased t r a f f i c a b i 1 i t y . For i n t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l developments such as p i c n i c or campsites that might r e q u i r e some s o r t of l e v e l l i n g , the s u b s o i l of a d i f f e r e n t t e x t u r e than the s u r f a c e s o i l may be exposed. Since the s u b s o i l would then become the s u r f a c e s o i l , i t would be val u a b l e to know i t s t e x t u r e . Some s o i l s can l i m i t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of v e g e t a t i o n as well as cause access roads to become extremely dusty. Clay s o i l s tend to remain wet a f t e r i t r a i n s , y e t l o o s e , sandy s o i l s are unstable when dry. Sandy loam and loam s u r f a c e t e x t u r e d s o i l s that have other f a v o u r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are the most d e s i r a b l e f o r i n t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l uses. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s o i l s u r f a c e and subsurface t e x t u r e i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with the r e c o g n i t i o n of the landform wi t h i n w h i ch the s o i l l i e s , a r e c o g n i t i o n u s u a l l y obtained.at a small s c a l e and with the ve g e t a t i o n that the s o i l supports. Colour photography can be used to i d e n t i f y s u r f a c e t e x t u r e of the s h o r e l i n e . Depending o n t h e s c a l e of the photo-graphs, s u r f a c e and o f f s h o r e boulders and other a q u a t i c hazards such as logs and weeds can be re c o g n i z e d . Figure 11 r e v e a l s the images that 35 mm photography provides through c o l o u r and text u r e f o r the a n a l y s i s of two d i f f e r e n t types of s h o r e l i n e s ; one sand (A), the other organic (B). 67 Figure 11. V a r i a t i o n i n s u r f a c e t e x t u r e of s h o r e l i n e m a t e r i a l s . There are few impediments along the shore in the l e f t photo-graph and ample backshore f o r other beach a c t i v i t i e s . On the r i g h t photograph, water l i l i e s and f a l l e n trees act as a q u a t i c nuisances. The organic backshore l i m i t s a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with swimming. Erosion of s o i l s i s also important in f o r e s t r e c r e a -t i o n . S o i l s exposed f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of t r a i l s and s k i slopes can be e a s i l y washed away during r u n o f f unless adequate planning i s done. R e c r e a t i o n i s t s l o c a t i n g summer cottages or permanent b u i l d i n g s on unstable s o i l s near l a k e , r e s e v o i r , or stream edges may f i n d t h e i r foundations of t h e i r i n v e s t -ment eroded away. A s u r f i c i a l g e o l o g i c r e p o r t (Thurber 68 C o n s u l t a n t s , 1970) on the environmental consequences of r a i s i n g Ross R e s e v o i r ' i n the S k a g i t V a l l e y recommends that permanent i n s t a l l a t i o n s be l o c a t e d at l e a s t 120 f e e t from the proposed s h o r e l i n e because of the danger of r e g r e s s i o n from the new water l e v e l s . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and knowledge of the i n s t a b i l i t y or e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l of c e r t a i n s o i l s r e s u l t s from i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n of the landform and examination of past slope f a i l u r e and g u l l y i n g . Sequential photography can help t r a c e the patterns of r e g r e s s i o n over a pe r i o d of time. 35 mm a e r i a l photography, as a supplement to conven-t i o n a l a e r i a l photography, o f f e r s the s c a l e and the low cost-needed to allow the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and mapping o f - s o i l s and some of t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r p o t e n t i a l r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s . This knowledge can g r e a t l y a s s i s t the land manager i n the p l a n n i n g , d e s i g n i n g , d e v e l o p i n g , and maintenance of f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s . Table 11.traces the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o i l s and r e c r e a t i o n a l use. 69 TABLE :11 R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between S o i l s , T h e i r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and R e c r e a t i o n a l Use R e c r e a t i o n a l Use R e l a t i o n of S o i l to R e c r e a t i o n a l Use P i c n i c B r i d l e Paths, Nature and Hiking T r a i l s Cottages, S e r v i c e and U t i 1 i ty B u i l d i n g s Tent and Camp T r a i l e r S i t e s P i c n i c s i t e s r e q u i r e n e a r l y l e v e l to gently s l o p i n g s u r f a c e s with good d r a i n -age. These s i t e s must not be f l o o d e d during the use season. They should a l s o have the a b i l i t y to support a good and v a r i e d v e g e t a t i v e cover. S i t e s on which these t r a i l s are l o c a t e d should be l e v e l to s l o p i n g s u r f a c e s , well d r a i n e d , and of a loamy t e x t u r e en-s u r i n g good f o o t and hoof t r a f f i c a b i 1 i t y . The placement of these paths and t r a i l s on s l o p i n g t e r r a i n should be with the contour i n order to l e s s e n e r o s i o n and i n c r e a s e s t a b i l i t y . V a r i a b i l i t y i n slope g r a d i e n t may serve to enhance i n t e r e s t , but slopes should not exceed 12% f o r prolonged d i s t a n c e s . S i t e s f o r cottages and b u i l d i n g should have good drainage and not be subjected to f l o o d i n g . Again the t e r r a i n should be l e v e l to gently s l o p i n g , with l i t t l e or no e r o s i o n hazard and a minimum of coarse fragments or b o u l d e r s . The s i t e s should be s u i t a b l e f o r absorbing waste from sewage d i s p o s a l systems and capable of s u p p o r t i n g a good and v a r i e d vegeta-t i v e cover. These s i t e s should have well d r a i n e d , loamy s o i l s not s u b j e c t to f l o o d i n g dur-ing the use season. They should be l e v e l to g e n t l y s l o p i n g with l i t t l e or no ero-s i o n hazard. The v e g e t a t i v e cover should be easy to mai n t a i n. (Adapted from S o i l s of' Southeastern Wisconsin, 1966) 70 4.3.3 Vegetation and r e c r e a t i o n . Vegetation plays an important r o l e i n f o r e s t and w i l d l a n d r e c r e a t i o n . The occurrence, type, and s i z e of vege-t a t i v e cover helps govern the type and q u a l i t y of r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Vegetation helps to s t a b i l i z e slopes and prevent e r o s i o n . It provides shade, windbreaks, and can be used to channel breezes. I t can help to reduce noise (Matthews, 1971) and p r o t e c t w i l d l i f e . In the most general of terms, vegeta-t i o n a f f e c t s the a e s t h e t i c s of a r e c r e a t i o n a l s i t e . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of f o r e s t v e g e t a t i o n on a e r i a l photographs has developed p r i m a r i l y i n the f i e l d of f o r e s t i n v e n t o r y . With a great deal of experience, coupled with r e g i o n a l f a m i l i a r i t y and ground checks, f o r e s t s were typed and t h e i r commercial value i n f e r r e d . Crown s t u d i e s , shadow images and the use of various f i l m - f i l t e r combinations have y i e l d e d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r i d e n t i f y i n g f o r e s t t r e e s p e c i e s . This knowledge can be f u r t h e r implemented and c a r r i e d over i n t o r e c r e a t i o n a l s i t e e v a l u a t i o n using the 35 mm system. E a r l i e r , i t was recognized that i n t e n s i t y of use brought about d e t e r i o r a t i o n in almost a l l the aspects of f o r e s t and w i l d l a n d r e c r e a t i o n . V e g e t a t i o n , as an aspect, i s not an e x c e p t i o n . R i p l e y (1962) found that c e r t a i n t r e e species in southern Appalachian campgrounds and p i c n i c s i t e s had 71 d i f f e r e n t t o l e r a n c e s to s i t e d i s t u r b a n c e s , such as s o i l com-pa c t i o n or root exposure, i n f l i c t e d by i n t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l use. I f then, i t were p o s s i b l e to recognize from the a i r the species that comprise a c e r t a i n f o r e s t type; and coupled with i n f o r m a t i o n gained on s o i l s from the same source and t o l e r a n c e of the t r e e species from previous ground s t u d i e s , , i t would be p o s s i b l e to p r e d i c t the r e s i s t a n c e of each f o r e s t type to v a r y i n g degrees of r e c r e a t i o n a l use. Such p r e d i c -t i o n s could lead to e s t i m a t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l expenditures on mai n t a i n i n g v e g e t a t i o n that might be needed i f a s i t e were developed and subjected to va r y i n g . 1 e v e l s of use. The 35ffimm system, with some r e g i o n a l f a m i l i a r i t y , permits a s k i l l e d i n t e r p r e t e r to type.the f o r e s t very accur-a t e l y . H e l l e r et al. (1964) found that the accuracy of t r e e s p e c i e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was in c r e a s e d with c o l o u r as opposed to panchromatic photographs. Colour simply adds another tool besides crown shape, tone, t e x t u r e , or shadow image f o r i n t e r p r e t i v e purposes; a tool used most of t e n i n the recog-n i t i o n of any v i s i b l e f e a t u r e . Trees are not the only component of v e g e t a t i o n which r e f l e c t the i n t e n s i t y of use on an area. Understory v e g e t a t i o n provides screening and noise a t t e n u a t i o n w i t h i n developed s i t e s and i s s u b j e c t to c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t u r b a n c e . 72 This l e s s e r v e g e t a t i o n e s s e n t i a l l y governs the "world" the r e c r e a t i o n i s t i n h a b i t s . He may see a d i s t a n t w a t e r f a l l or hear i t s r o a r , but t h i s three-dimensional environment i s mostly confined to the ground and the s i x f e e t of v e r t i c a l space that surrounds him. And here i s where he does most of his damage. In a c l o s e d canopy f o r e s t i n c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia, shrub and ground cover cannot be recognized nor can the cover be a c c u r a t e l y i n f e r r e d from the composition of the dominant l a y e r ( E i s , 1962). In a more open canopy, shrub cover can be recognized. C e r t a i n shrub c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , such as that shown in Figure 12 can be captured, and depend-ing upon species f a m i l i a r i t y , the shrub can be recorded. Figure 12. Gold c o l o u r of s a l a l {Gaultheria shall on) , 'A' caused by sun s c a l d . Bracken {pteridium aquilinum pubesaens) dominates the v e g e t a t i o n i n 'B'. At r i g h t i s a ground shot of the area. 73 Colour s e q u e n t i a l photography can record the changes in v e g e t a t i v e growth o c c u r r i n g a n n u a l l y , the changes.in c o l o u r among the deciduous s p e c i e s , and changes, u s u a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e , caused by i n t e n s i v e use. Some s p e c i e s , depending upon t h e i r growth c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , can be more e a s i l y recognized and i n t e r p r e t e d at c e r t a i n times of the year. Dogwood, Cornus n u t t a l l i , i s e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d during i t s f l o w e r i n g p e r i o d in e a r l y s p r i n g and western l a r c h , Lavix oaoidentalis i s re c o g n i z a b l e during the l a t e f a l l when i t changes c o l o u r . * B a l l a r d n o t i c e d that i n the e a r l y f a l l , a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n such as Vaccinium and S i t k a Mountain Ash, took on s i g n i f i c a n t c o l o u r changes; changes that he captured p h o t o g r a p h i c a l l y from a ri d g e 1,500 h o r i z o n t a l f e e t away. Vegetation i n an aqua t i c environment i s a l s o cap-tured using l a r g e s c a l e photographs. The extent of aq u a t i c v e g e t a t i o n such as kelp ( F i g u r e 13) and water 1 i 1 i e s ( F i g u r e 6) can be recognized and recorded. A c c e s s i b i l i t y can be appraised by a n a l y s i s of stand d e n s i t y or tre e h e i g h t s . Often mature stands are b e t t e r s u i t e d f o r many kinds of f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n because there i s l e s s ground cover to impede access. Both stand d e n s i t y and approximate tr e e heights can be read from the 35 mm system. Personal communication. Dr. Tim B a l l a r d , Department of S o i l S c i e n c e , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 74 Figure 13. Kelp beds - "dark blue s t r i n g s " 'A' - o f f Samuel Island provide i n t e r e s t f o r scuba d i v e r s but are nuisances f o r swimmers (Scale 1:3940). Recognition of these changes can help ir i the vegetative inven-tory and aesthetic evaluation of potential recreation s i t e s . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of v e g e t a t i v e s p e c i e s , t h e i r s i z e and occurrence can g r e a t l y a s s i s t the f o r e s t manager i n as s e s s i n g t h i s component of a r e c r e a t i o n a l s i t e . The 35 mm 75 system, with i t s s l i d i n g s c a l e and other advantages, presents a more r e l i a b l e t o o l with which to make t h i s assessment. Colour photography i n c r e a s e s the accuracy of species recog-n i t i o n , an i n c r e a s e which wi1T , iri turn^-,increase the accuracy of s i t e e v a l u a t i o n . TABLE 12 R e l a t i o n of Vegetation to Re c r e a t i o n a l Use Rec r e a t i o n a l Use Relation, of Vegetation to R e c r e a t i o n a l Use Swimmi ng Swimming r e q u i r e s a general absence of aquat i c nuisances such as reeds, kelp o r 1 i 1 i e s . Scuba Diving Vegetation i n marine and lake environments adds i n t e r e s t and enjoyment to the d i v e r . P i c n i c , Camp and Cottage Si t e s : T r a i 1 s Varied v e g e t a t i v e cover of r e c r e a t i o n t o l e r a n t s p e c ies provides shade, c o l o u r , and i n t e r e s t and reduces noise and im-pact. Stream F i s h i n g Streamside trees and shrubs shade water, he l p i n g to keep water temperatures down and to s t a b i l i z e banks a g a i n s t e r o s i o n . Access and use can be r e s t r i c t e d by v e g e t a t i o n . Boati ng V a r i e t y of stream, l a k e , or seaside v e g e t a t i o n adds to the i n t e r e s t and enjoyment of bo a t e r s . 76 4.3.4 Hydrology and r e c r e a t i o n . Water as an element'in the context of the r e c r e a -t i o n a l resource plays probably the most important r o l e i n c r e a t i n g the environment that serves to a t t r a c t the r e c r e a -t i o n i s t . The c h a r a c t e r of water s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e s r e c r e a -t i o n a l v a l u e s : i t s q u a n t i t y w i l l determine the number and l o c a t i o n of water based r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s and i t s q u a l i t y , i n a s s o c i a t i o n with the q u a l i t y of the o v e r a l l environment, w i l l r e f l e c t the enjoyment of the r e c r e a t i o n a l d i s c o v e r y , under-s t a n d i n g , and a p p r e c i a t i o n . * Ten of the twenty-five r e c r e a t i o n f e a t u r e s d e s c r i b e d and d i s c u s s e d i n ARDA's Land C a p a b i l i t y f o r Outdoor Recreation are d i r e c t l y water o r i e n t e d . The remaining f e a t u r e s are a l l i n d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d with water in some other way. Recog-n i z i n g the importance of water i n r e c r e a t i o n planning then, the land manager must be able to i n v e n t o r y , on a c o n t i n u i n g basis his water resources i n order to l o c a t e and plan p o t e n t i a l r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s . The 35 mm system adapts very well to the inventor y and e v a l u a t i o n of l a k e , stream and marine e n v i r o n -ments. Obviously the system cannot adapt f u l l y s i n c e such These f e a t u r e s i n c l u d e : a n g l i n g , beach, canoe t r i p p i n g , deep inshore water, w a t e r f a l l s and r a p i d s , small s u r f a c e waters, thermal s p r i n g s , deep water boat t r i p p i n g , wetland w i l d l i f e , and f a m i l y b o a t i n g . 77 water c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as d i s s o l v e d oxygen, hydrogen ion content, d i s s o l v e d s o l i d s , and s p e c i f i c conductance of the h y d r o l o g i c a l regime are unmeasurable d i r e c t l y , but i n some cases, can be a c c u r a t e l y i n f e r r e d . Lake, Reservoir and Marine Environments. In order to provide a f a i r l y complete invento r y of not only l a r g e , but small 1akes , ' r e s e r v o i r s , and marine en-vironments, two h y d r o l o g i c aspects need to be i n v e s t i g a t e d . These i n c l u d e the determination of the t o t a l numbers and l o c a t i o n s of water bodies and a p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of each. These p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u d e s i z e , i n s u l a r i t y of the s h o r e l i n e , s o i l and ve g e t a t i o n composition of the wet and dry beach, seasonal d e l i n e a t i o n and f l u c t u a t i o n of the water l e v e l , depth, o r i g i n of the water body, water c l a r i t y , and shore cover. In some circumstances with adequate ground c o n t r o l , chemical p r o p e r t i e s of the water bodies such as pH, can a l s o be i n d i r e c t l y i n f e r r e d , u s u a l l y through r e c o g n i z a b l e aquatic v e g e t a t i o n a s s o c i a t i o n s and t h e i r known environment. For example, water l i l i e s grow p r i m i a r l y i n an a c i d i c environment. The number and l o c a t i o n of water bodies w i t h i n an e x i s t i n g or proposed r e c r e a t i o n area can g r e a t l y determine the 78 a c t i v i t i e s that occur. For example, the rhombus shape d i s -t r i b u t i o n of lakes that make up Bowron Lake P r o v i n c i a l Park provides an i d e a l connecting route f o r c a n o e i s t s . The area, being r e l a t i v e l y f a r from a major popul a t i o n c e n t r e , can be reserved f o r almost s i n g l e a c t i v i t y use, while Cultus Lake, being one of the few la r g e lakes s e r v i n g the populus of the Lower Mainland, i s subjected to i n t e n s i v e use by many water o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s . Ground e l e v a t i o n of the water body, i n a s s o c i a t i o n with c l i m a t e , a l s o governs use. The i n i t i a l f l i g h t f o r t h i s t h e s i s occurred in e a r l y A p r i l . Figure 14 shows same day photographs of Loon Lake and Eunice Lake re-f l e c t i n g the e f f e c t of e l e v a t i o n on each. Loon Lake Eunice Lake Figure 14. E f f e c t of e l e v a t i o n on Loon Lake (1114 f e e t ASL) and Eunice Lake (1576 f e e t ASL), U.B.C. Research F o r e s t , A p r i l 12, 1971. 79 Recognition pf l a k e s , r e s e r v o i r s , and marine frontage on c o l o u r photographs i s r e l a t i v e l y simple. E s s e n t i a l l y , c o l o u r and t e x t u r e are the dominant photo c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s used f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The s i z e of the water body c l o s e l y governs both the number and the type of r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . In g e n e r a l , the l a r g e r and more d i v e r s e the water body, the l a r g e r the number of a c t i v i t i e s and the g r e a t e r the i n t e n s i t y pf use. The Canada Land Inventory, while not c l a s s i f y i n g water bodies d i r e c t l y , designates Class I beaches (a very high c a p a b i l i t y f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n ) to be s i t u a t e d on a water body which i s at l e a s t s i x square miles i n area or ten miles i n l e n g t h . The s c a l e of the photography o b v i o u s l y w i l l govern the measure-ment of 1ake s i z e . S h o r e l i n e composition of the wet beach to the 5' depth contour and the dry beach, whether i t i s bedrock or muck, i s e s s e n t i a l f o r r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . Figures 15 and 16 show the v a r i a t i o n s in wet and dry beach composition. Hazards and aquatic nuisances such as f a l l e n t r ees or e x t e n s i v e weeds f o r some a c t i v i t i e s are a l s o captured using the 35 mm system ( F i g u r e 17). 80 Figure 15. Wet and dry beach composition of Katherine Lake peninsula. The composition of the wet beach i n t h i s photo i s mud, r e -f l e c t e d by the growth of water l i l i e s at 'A' and the general dark tones. Many logs l i e on the bottom. These aquatic nuisances would p r o h i b i t t h i s area from i n t e n s i v e bathing. The dry beach i s extremely stony, except at 'B', which i s organic (Ledum groenlandiaum, Myrioa gale). At r i g h t i s a ground photo of the area. (1 :2400; H/400' ; f 50 mm) Figure 16. Stereo pair of Alouette Lake picnic s i t e . On the photos, the slope of the beach can be measured using a slope wedge (about 5%) and the width of the wet beach to the f i v e foot contour depth 40 feet and the dry beach (100 f e e t ) , can be measured (Table 1 3 ). Notice the drainage patterns imaged on the sand suggesting a shallow impeding l a y e r of s o i l or bedrock beneath. 81 Figure 17. Aquatic nuisances such as water l i l i e s (A) and kelp (B) a f f e c t some r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s l i k e swimming, boating and l a u n c h i n g . A p o l a r i z -ing f i l t e r could e l i m i n a t e the r e f l e c t i o n of the water on the r i g h t photograph, making e a s i e r d e t e c t i o n of these nuisances. Sequential a e r i a l photography can play an important r o l e in r e c o r d i n g water f l u c t u a t i o n e i t h e r w i t h i n r e s e r v o i r s or n a t u r a l l y through f l o o d i n g . Water f l u c t u a t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e s c a r e f u l planning of i n t e n s i v e marine f a c i l i t i e s such as launching ramps and beaches. Large f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the water l e v e l o f t e n r e s u l t i n e r o s i o n of the s h o r e l i n e through slump-ing and washing which i s detrimental to most r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i vi t i e s . Water depth is another p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c that must be evaluated as i t i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with planning and development. Herrington and Tocher (1967) concluded the 82 15 f o o t depth contour was the minimum depth that allows f i s h to escape s u f f o c a t i o n and m o r t a l i t y during severe w i n t e r s . This depth i s a l s o the approximation of the l i t t o r a l zone in which l i g h t p e n e t r a t i o n and water temperature permit the production of food f o r f i s h . Within the 15 f o o t depth con-t o u r , the f i v e f o o t contour i s recognized as the depth w i t h i n which most beach a c t i v i t i e s occur. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of water depth and underwater d e t a i l i s p o s s i b l e on c o l o u r photographs (Welch, 1969). Depending on the amount of suspended sediment and d i s s o l v e d organic m a t e r i a l w i t h i n the water body, depths of 70 f e e t can be achieved (Strandberg, 1967). (However, depths measured on the 35 mm photographs of lakes and r e s e r -v o i r s s t u d i e d f o r t h i s t h e s i s did not exceed eighteen f e e t ) . Measurement of water depths f o r determining the 15 or 5 f o o t depth contour i s p o s s i b l e on a e r i a l photographs by i n t e r p o -l a t i n g the slopes of the s h o r e l i n e . If i t can be assumed that there i s a continuous slope f o r the dry beach and the wet beach, the depths can be c a l c u l a t e d . Table 13 shows the width of the wet beach and the l i t t o r a l zone f o r various s1 opes. Water c l a r i t y i s the r e s u l t of the amount of sus-pended sediment i n water b o d i e s : U s u a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d by both c o l o u r and degree of depth p e n e t r a t i o n , water c l a r i t y can TABLE 13 Wet Beach Width and L i t t o r a l Zone Width f o r Various S h o r e l i n e Slopes Slopes % 5' Depth Contour 15' width i n f e e t 5 100 300 10 50 150 15 34 100 20 25 75 25 20 60 30 17 50 84 r e f l e c t not only the amount of suspended sediment but the r e l a t i v e temperature of some water bodies as w e l l . Often stream temperatures are l e s s than ponded temperatures, i n -f e r r i n g that the water temperatures at the mouths of streams can be expected to be somewhat c o o l e r than the general water body. Figure 18. Streams e n t e r i n g A l o u e t t e Lake are captured by r e c o g n i t i o n of the channels (A). In many cases, t h e i r path to the lake can be tra c e d by noting s t r i n g y v e g e t a t i o n changes (B) of a l d e r i n the general c o n i f e r o u s growth. Another parameter of the h y d r o l o g i c environment i s the v e g e t a t i v e cover of the s h o r e l i n e . Shore cover, i t s type and d i s t r i b u t i o n , g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e s access to the water, the temperature of the water, and the general a e s t h e t i c s of a s i t e . The 35 mm system, using a l a r g e s c a l e , allows a n a l y s i s 85 of the v e g e t a t i o n whether i t . i s in the climax, s e r a i , or pioneer stages. Rivers and Streams. The i n v e n t o r y , e v a l u a t i o n and planning of streams and r i v e r s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use can be improved by the use of the 35 mm system. The l a r g e r - s c a l e helps d e l i n e a t e stream patterns and gives a b e t t e r view of stream l e n g t h , width, g r a d i e n t , flow, and composition, and bank cover than that obtained on s m a l l e r s c a l e coverage. Stream and r i v e r g r a d i e n t , a f f e c t i n g use of the stream f o r many a c t i v i t i e s , can be i n t e r p r e t e d ; by the presence or absence of white water showing on the image or by meander c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Stream g r a d i e n t can be measured using a p a r a l l a x wedge by determining two e l e v a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s along the course of the stream and c o u p l i n g t h i s with the h o r i z o n t a l d i s t a n c e between the two p o i n t s . Figure 19 portrays a r e l a -t i v e l y steep g r a d i e n t and a meandering g r a d i e n t on two parts of the A l o u e t t e River flowing i n t o Marion Lake. Water c l a r i t y , as with l a r g e r water bodies i s almost d i r e c t l y i n t e r p r e t e d by c o l o u r and i n f e r e n c e from depth pene-t r a t i o n . The r e l a t i v e amount of suspended sediment in the 86 Figure 19. Changes in stream g r a d i e n t r e f l e c t e d by the presence (A) or absence (B) of white water in the North A l o u e t t e R i v e r , north of Marion Lake. Of course, white water can be caused by underwater stream impediments as well as changes i n gradient. r i v e r can be i n f e r r e d by c o l o u r photography and coupled with a knowledge of the environmental h a b i t a t of c e r t a i n f i s h popu-l a t i o n s , the stream's f i s h i n g p o t e n t i a l can be guessed at. Figure 20 shows t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p o r t i o n of Gold Creek to be c a r r y i n g a heavy sediment l o a d . Bank f i s h i n g i n t h i s part of the creek would probably be poor as well as d i f -f i c u l t . Notice the steepness of the banks on e i t h e r s i d e of the creek, a l l o w i n g poor access except f o r a steep rock out-crop; the dense veg e t a t i o n would hamper c a s t i n g . Colour photography can a l s o be used to pick up d i s c o l o u r a t i o n s i n the water due to p o l l u t i o n (Cooper et al., 1 969) . 87 . Figure 20. Heavy sediment load c a r r e d by Gold Creek,. Golden Ears P r o v i n c i a l Park. Figure D i s c o l o u r a t i o n in a stream to an unknown source. on Mayne Island due 88 C e r t a i n v e g e t a t i v e species can i n d i c a t e water q u a l i t y i n d i r e c t l y . For example, in c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia, water l i l i e s {Nymphaea polysepala) i n d i c a t e an a c i d i c h y d r o l o g i c regime. Streamflow as a h y d r o l o g i c component in r e c r e a t i o n i s very important. A r e l a t i v e l y high low flow, in some cases augmented by ve g e t a t i o n on the banks p r o v i d i n g shade ,r'- hel ps keep summer water temperatures low. Boating and other a c t i v -i t i e s on r i v e r s or streams are reduced by periods of e i t h e r f l o o d or drought. Excessive f l o o d flow may remove v e g e t a t i v e cover and cause e r o s i o n of the banks through l a t e r a l stream migra-t i o n . Large s c a l e photography allows stream banks to be s c r u t i n i z e d f o r sediment sources that might produce t u r b i d i t y which in turn w i l l reduce photosynthesis and food production f o r game f i s h . Abrupt and l a r g e i n c r e a s e s i n stage are a hazard to r e c r e a t i o n i s t s . These i n c r e a s e s , commonly asso-c i a t e d with f l o o d g a t e d r e s e r v o i r s , are not n e c e s s a r i l y un-common i n nature. Streamflow regime extremes can be monitored by s e q u e n t i a l photography and i n t e r p r e t e d d i r e c t l y . In co a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia, stream f l o o d i n g can be i n d i c a t e d in some instances by a ribbon of black cottonwood (Populus trichocavpa). In other parts of the p r o v i n c e , trembling 89 aspen (Populus tremuloides) and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifeva) act as i n d i c a t o r s of p e r i o d i c stream f l o o d i n g . Knowledge of the composition of the stream bed can a s s i s t i n r e c r e a t i o n planning. The presence of gravel beds can be useful i n e v a l u a t i n g f i s h h a b i t a t and r e p r o d u c t i o n p o t e n t i a l . Stream impediments, r e s t r i c t i n g canoeing or boating a c t i v i t i e s at the same time as p r o v i d i n g a v a r i e t y of f a s t and slow reaches f o r the bank fisherman, can often be i n t e r p r e t e d by shape or by white water. Figure 22 shows the d e t a i l of the stream bed of East Creek on the U.B.C. Research F o r e s t . As with v e g e t a t i o n along l a k e s , r e s e r v o i r s , and bays, streamside v e g e t a t i o n can be extremely important from the standpoint of access, bank s t a b i l i z a t i o n and water tem-perature as well as p r o v i d i n g v a r i e t y i n composition to the r e c r e a t i o n i s t . In a d d i t i o n to those p u r s u i t s normally a s s o c i a t e d with water based environments, there i s another element of hydrology important in f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n - snow. The 35 mm system can provide data on snow ex t e n t , snow depth and snow volumes, although not snow d e n s i t y , and t r a c e snow r e c e s s i o n through s e q u e n t i a l photographs. Information gained through the system can help in the lay o u t of s k i f a c i 1 i t i e s , a l p i n e t r a i l s and campsites, and p o t e n t i a l avalanche areas. 90 Figure 22. 35 mm image of a stream bed and r i p a r i a n e n v i r -onment of East Creek on the U.B.C. Research F o r e s t . This creek bed i s predominantly coarse as evident by the large rocks. From the d e t a i l imaged of the bed i t s e l f , the depth probably does not exceed three feet. Alder (Alnus rubra) 'A' dominates the stream banks. In these minor drainages, which often do not appear on small scale photography, potential bridging s i t e s can be found based on stream width, flooding potential and access. 91 The a p p l i c a t i o n of the 35 mm system to c o l l e c t i n g data on snow c o n d i t i o n s can be complicated. In some i n -stan c e s , data c o l l e c t i o n may n e c e s s i t a t e f l y i n g in steep mountainous t e r r a i n . Not only i s low l e v e l f l y i n g hazardous in t h i s type of t e r r a i n , but when snow blankets those topo-graphic f e a t u r e s which act as guides, there i s a problem in r e c o g n i z i n g the data areas. If the f l i g h t i s above 10,000 f e e t , there w i l l be a need to ca r r y oxygen equipment. The 35 mm system can e f f e c t i v e l y cover many of the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the h y d r o l o g i c a l environment, i n c l u d i n g s i z e , s h o r e l i n e composition and d e l i n e -a t i o n , water f l u c t u a t i o n , c l a r i t y and depth of water and snow.^ This i n f o r m a t i o n , obtained q u i c k l y , simply, and i n -expe n s i v e l y can a i d the f o r e s t manager i n h i s d e c i s i o n of land a l l o c a t i o n . Tables 14 and 15 t r a c e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of some of the h y d r o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to r e c r e a t i o n a l use. 92 TABLE 14 R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Streamflow and R e c r e a t i o n a l Use RECREATIONAL USE RELATION OF STREAMFLOW TO RECREATIONAL USE F i s h i n g High drought flow helps keep summer water temperature low. Excessive f l o o d flow removes cover and may cause e r o s i o n of banks. A v a r i e t y of f a s t and slow reaches adds i n t e r e s t f o r the fisherman. E x c e s s i v e l y high v e l o c i t i e s makes wading dangerous. Abrupt and l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n stage are a hazard to wading fishermen. Boating Boating season reduced by periods of f1ood and drought. A v a r i e t y of f a s t and slow reaches adds i n t e r e s t f o r b o a t e r s . Small v e l o c i t y makes upstream t r a v e l e a s i e r . Camping and Cabin Streamflow c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f a v o u r a b l e to f i s h i n g and boating a l s o are g e n e r a l l y L i v i n g f a v o u r a b l e to camping and cabin l i v i n g . (prepared by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Hendrickson and Doonan, 1971) 93 TABLE 15 R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between R i p a r i a n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and R e c r e a t i o n a l Use RECREATION USE RELATION OF RIPARIAN CHARACTERISTICS TO RECREATIONAL USE Trout F i s h i n g Broad open water makes f l y c a s t i n g e a s i e r , but tends to warm the water. Warm water can have adverse e f f e c t s on t r o u t propa-gation and p o p u l a t i o n . V a r i a b i l i t y i n depth, u s u a l l y r e l a t e d to v a r i a b i l i t y i n v e l o c i t y , a f f e c t s wading. Gravel beds provide spawning o p p o r t u n i t y and produce f i s h food. Sand f i l l s deeper h o l e s ; b u r i e s escape cover, food organ-isms, and gravel beds. Overhanging snags, l o g s , f a l l e n t r e e s , , and boulders provide t r o u t cover. Streamside trees and shrubs shade water and keep water temperature low. This shade may reduce food p r o d u c t i o n , and the pl a n t s may i n t e r c e p t part of ground-water discharge to stream. Clay banks and bottoms produce t u r b i d i t y , reducing photosynthesis and hence food p r o d u c t i o n . T u r b i d i t y a l s o i n t e r f e r e s with s i g h t f e e d i n g by t r o u t . Sand, and gravel banks are more d e s i r a b l e i n t h i s r e s p e c t . Banks devegetated by e r o s i o n , u n d e r c u t t i n g , c a t t l e c r o s s i n g , and boat l a n d i n g t r a f f i c may add u n d e s i r a b l e q u a n t i t i e s of sand, s i l t and c l a y to the water. ( c o n t i nued) 94 TABLE 15 (Continued) RECREATION USE RELATION OF RIPARIAN CHARACTERISTICS TO RECREATIONAL USE Trout F i s h i n g ( c o n t i nued) V a r i a b i l i t y i n g r a d i e n t i s r e l a t e d to v a r i a b i l i t y in v e l o c i t y and a f f e c t s wading. Bottom v e g e t a t i o n adequate to c o n t r i b u t e to food production i s d e s i r a b l e , but when exc e s s i v e i t chokes stream and produces extreme d a i l y f l u c t u a t i o n s in d i s s o l v e d oxygen and temperature. Boating B o a t a b i l i t y i n c r e a s e s as width and depth i n c r e a s e . On s m a l l e r streams , sweepers and log jams decrease b o a t a b i l i t y . O b s t r u c t i o n s , shallows and boulders are objected to by some c a n o e i s t s , welcomed by o t h e r s ; If present i n e x c e s s i v e amounts, they may e l i m i n a t e b o a t i n g . A meandering stream i s more a t t r a c t i v e and i n t e r e s t i n g than a s t r a i g h t stream. V a r i e t y - o f . s t r e a m s i d e to i n t e r e s t . v e g e t a t i o n adds A l t e r n a t i n g high and low banks add to i n t e r e s t . Undeveloped r i v e r banks add to enjoyment of most canoei sts . Frequency and s u i t a b i l i t y of boat launch-ing and takeout p o i n t s , as determined by bank c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and v e g e t a t i o n , i n f l u e n c e u s e a b i l i t y . (continued) 95 TABLE 15 (Continued) R F r R F f l T T f i N MCc RELATION OF RIPARIAN CHARACTERISTICS RECREATION USE J Q pj f£ r; R E AT ION USE Camping and Cabin C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f avourable to f i s h i n g and boating g e n e r a l l y a l s o d e s i r a b l e f o r L i v i n g camping and cabin l i v i n g . Moderately high sandy slopes provide good drainage and easy access to r i v e r . (Prepared by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Hendrickson and Doonan, 1971) 96 4.4 Recording and Est i m a t i o n of Re c r e a t i o n a l Use 35 mm a e r i a l photography had i t s s t a r t i n f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n f o r the i n v e n t o r y i n g of use of r e c r e a t i o n a l s i t e s . Kreig (1969) i n New York i n i t i a t e d the p r a c t i c e p u b l i c l y and i t has been accepted to the point now that d e c i s i o n makers are indeed h i r i n g the a i r c r a f t and c a p t u r i n g the momentary use. A commercial f i r m i n Vancouver, Integrated Resources Photography, was co n t r a c t e d i n the summer of 1971 to f l y the marine beaches from the head of Howe Sound to the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Border during one day; a study designated to invento r y the in toto use on i n t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l s i t e s . James et al. (1971) suggested that a e r i a l photo-graphs taken at a high a l t i t u d e , thus reducing the number of p i c t u r e s and the p o s s i b i l i t y of m u l t i p l e counts, could produce good estimates of use on l a r g e bodies of water. Although not d i s c l o s i n g how high he wanted to f l y , his a l t i t u d e would ob v i o u s l y have to be governed by two f a c t o r s . The f i r s t f a c t o r was whether the camera would record the image. Table 16 gives maximum a l t i t u d e s f o r r e c o r d i n g o b j e c t s ten f e e t i n length with s e v e r a l f o c a l lengths on a 5R p r i n t . The second f a c t o r governing a l t i t u d e i s r e c o g n i t i on . Colwell (1963) pointed out that simply because an o b j e c t can be recorded and measured, i t does not mean that i t can be re c o g n i z e d . It i s 97 TABLE 16 Maximum A l t i t u d e f o r . R e c o r d i n g of Objects Ten Feet i n Length* Focal ;•' Length ( i n mm) Maximum A l t i t u d e ( i n f e e t ) 28 2500 ' 35 3200 • 50 4500 55 5000 58 5300 80 7300 * Based on r e c o r d i n g and measurement of a photo o b j e c t 0.5 mm i n l e n g t h . g e n e r a l l y accepted that an o b j e c t must be enlarged f i v e times in order f o r i t to be i d e n t i f i e d (Strandberg, 1967). For p a r t i c u l a r uses such as determination of v e g e t a t i v e s p e c i e s , a lower a l t i t u d e may be r e q u i r e d to achieve an acceptable, r e s o l u t i o n f o r r e c o g n i t i o n . To a l a r g e e x t e n t , t h i s w i l l depend on the s k i l l s of the i n t e r p r e t e r . This study captured r e c r e a t i o n a l use on a p r o v i n c i a l campsite at A l o u e t t e Lake on two s u c c e s s i v e summer days iri 98 1971. O r i g i n a l l y designed to examine the agreement between v i s i t a t i o n volume recorded by a t r a f f i c counter at the park entrance and a e r i a l photography, the t e s t d i d not succeed because one r o l l of f i l m was exposed during rewinding. There appears to be some merit in the e x e r c i s e though. Numbers of people using c e r t a i n f a c i l i t i e s at a c e r t a i n time as shown in Figure 23 were captured. The use of the carpark, the p i c n i c f a c i l i t i e s , the grass above the dry beach, and,the beach i t s e l f was recorded. Figure 23. Use of varying f a c i l i t i e s at A l o u e t t e p i c n i c g r o u n d . 'Note the more intensive use made of some areas; one picnic s i t e on the l e f t i s deserted, the one on the right has six tables i n use: one carpark, the nearer to the entrance at r i g h t , has seven cars; the farther, thirty-one. Quantitative data on v i s i t o r numbers and degree of u t i l i z a t i o n and information on concentrations and bottlenecks i s important to the planning, organization, supervision, and management of recreation areas. The use of 35 mm photography in f o r e s t and w i l d l a n d r e c r e a t i o n f o r monitoring r e c r e a t i o n v i s i t a t i o n w i l l probably 99 be kept e x c l u s i v e l y to i n v e n t o r y i n g areas that e i t h e r cannot be or are not gated or r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t are not screened by v e g e t a t i o n . Areas such as beaches, l a k e s , and i n l e t s seem to have the highest s u i t a b i l i t y to a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t the use made of them. 4.5 Miscellaneous and Other Work Se c t i o n If the response to r e c r e a t i o n s i n c e 1949 (Garver and Moessner, 1949) i s any i n d i c a t i o n of the i n t e r e s t generated out of -miscellaneous and other work section, then perhaps demoting f i e l d s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with promoted r e c r e a t i o n w i l l create a s i m i l a r e f f e c t i n the f u t u r e . These f i e l d s t h a t f a l l out of the category of the aspects of the environment mentioned e a r l i e r and out of the e s t i m a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n a l use, yet s t i l l are c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with r e c r e a t i o n , i n c l u d e archaeology, p r o t e c t i o n , and w i l d l i f e . 4.5.1 Archaeology and r e c r e a t i o n . Archaeology now plays an important r o l e i n the d e s i g -nation of r e c r e a t i o n a l s i t e s . The Canada Land Inventory, and in the United S t a t e s , the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation both 100 recognize a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r e c r e a t i o n resource c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems. Strandberg and Tomlinson (1970) employed a e r i a l photography f o r l o c a t i n g 5,000 year o l d f i s h traps i n the Potomac River and recommended that p h o t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n a l y s i s be made along every waterway before any development of r i v e r b a s i n s . Whittlesby (1970) used low a l t i t u d e photography ac-quired from a t e t h e r e d b a l l o n to capture images on archaeo-l o g i c a l s i t e s i n Greece and Turkey. In the summer of 1971, N o r r i s , working f o r the National and H i s t o r i c Parks of Canada, used l a r g e s c a l e a e r i a l photography f o r l o c a t i n g Hudson Bay * Company posts in c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia. Fi n d i n g t r a c e s of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l formations with conventional photography i s often h i t and miss. Many under-ground foundations can be recognized by a geometric change i n p l a n t cover and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s change i s almost t o t a l l y dependent on the s o i l s of the area and the c l i m a t e during the season of photography. Martin (1971) noted that g e n e r a l l y more s i t e s w i l l be found in dry years and i n s o i l s composed p r i m a r i l y of chalk or g r a v e l . She a l s o noted that these general c o n d i t i o n s had true converses. For example s i t e s s i t u a t e d on Personal communication: D.J. N o r r i s , former graduate student in the F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y , U.B.C. 101 or w i t h i n loess soi1s were more r e c o g n i z a b l e during changeable weather than during c o n t i n u o u s l y dry c o n d i t i o n s . Everyday use photographs l i m i t what can be seen. When i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s i t e s i s so dependent upon the r e g i o n a l c l i m a t e at the time, i t i s necessary to be able to f l y at almost any time. The 35 mm system, with i t s low c o s t , v e r s a t i l i t y , and d e p e n d a b i l i t y should warrant s e r i o u s c o n s i d -e r a t i o n in the search f o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s . 4.5.2 W i l d l i f e and r e c r e a t i o n . W i l d l i f e , i t s hunting or viewing, i s c l o s e l y asso-c i a t e d with r e c r e a t i o n . Schuerholz (1970) exp l a i n e d the use and the advantages of the 35 mm system f o r h a b i t a t r e c o g n i t i o n and census determination of some w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s . Strandberg (1967) wrote that hand-held, low a l t i t u d e , low o b l i q u e a e r i a l c o l o u r photography was s u c c e s s f u l i n c a p t u r i n g f i s h - k i l l s . ColwelT (1964) noted that the w i l d l i f e manager could use a e r i a l photography as a law enforcement t o o l to prove i l l e g a l hunting or f i s h i n g i n areas that would be d i f f i c u l t to reach by land or water. Often, such a c t i v i t i e s are documented so well as to make c o n v i c t i o n a c e r t a i n t y . Once again, everyday use photography i s not acceptable f o r c e r t a i n aspects of f o r e s t 102 and w i l d l a n d r e c r e a t i o n that capture momentary use and the 35 mm system takes on more importance. 4.5.3 Environmental p r o t e c t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n . The p r o t e c t i o n of f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s from natural environmental d e s t r u c t i o n such as c l i m a t e , d i s e a s e , and f i r e i s a c o n t i n u i n g problem, s t r u c t u r e d on the need f o r accurate monitoring systems. F i r e or environmental d i s t u r -bances such as h a i l storms or avalanches, may sweep through areas of i n a c c e s s i b l e t e r r a i n . The need f o r the most immediate knowledge of t h e i r e f f e c t f o r salvage or rescue operations can be s a t i s f i e d by 35 mm a e r i a l surveys. 4.5.4 Hazards and r e c r e a t i o n . The indigenous a t t r i b u t e s pf the environment of some areas o f t e n pose hazards to the r e c r e a t i o n i s t . From the 35 mm system, as well as from any other system that allows the ap-p r o p r i a t e s c a l e , he can evaluate and plan f o r or around areas c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c l i f f s , unstable s l o p e s , avalanches, water-f a l l s , r a p i d s , log jams, a q u a t i c nuisances, steep d r o p - o f f s 103 in the wet beach zone, r e e f s , f l o a t i n g d e b r i s , blowdowns and by dense v e g e t a t i o n and so uniform a landform that r e c r e a -t i o n i s t s are i n danger of being l o s t . The advantages of the 35 mm system enable the type of photography, mostly s e q u e n t i a l at c e r t a i n times of the y e a r , to capture many of these char-a c t e r i s t i c s . For example, i n the e v a l u a t i o n of a route f o r c a n o e i s t s , i t would be extremely advantageous to be able to l o c a t e gravel bars, log jams, dry channels and other hazards a s s o c i a t e d with both the a c t i v i t y and the environment. These hazards or annoyances could then be monitored and i f there was a problem of s a f e t y , they could be planned e i t h e r f o r or around. The 35 mm system's v e r s a t i l i t y i n a c q u i r i n g the photographs i s f u r t h e r e d to i t s a p p l i c a t i o n . As well as using them f o r i n v e n t o r y i n g the p h y s i c a l environment of poten-t i a l s i t e s and r e c o r d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l use, or p o t e n t i a l or e x i s t i n g s i t e s , they can ensure accurate r e c o r d i n g s i n archa-eology, f o r e s t protect!* on , , and w i l d l i f e , and hazard p o t e n t i a l . 104 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION In response to r a p i d i n c r e a s e s i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n of f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n , new methods need to be d i s c o v e r e d , t e s t e d , and implemented i n the a l l o c a t i o n of land f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use. The 35 mm a e r i a l system, used to compliment conventional a i r surveys i n other d i s c i p l i n e s , has a vast p o t e n t i a l i n the f i e l d of f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n . Compared to conventional a e r i a l surveys, the 35 mm system f i n a n c i a l l y allows v e r s a t i l i t y of s c a l e s , f i l m types, photography, cameras, .1enses, f l y i n g con-d i t i o n , and a i r c r a f t . The cost of the photography a l s o en-ables seasonal and s e q u e n t i a l imagery to be acquired i n order to monitor changes in the environment. Colour photography, o b t a i n a b l e through both r e v e r s a l and negative f i l m s , adds a new dimension to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a i r photos f o r f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n . Colour f i l m i s useful i n e v a l u a t i n g v e g e t a t i v e s p e c i e s , the a e s t h e t i c s of a s i t e , as well as other environmental elements i n c l u d i n g s o i l s , land-forms, and water. Because of the inadequacy of the commercial developers to s t a n d a r d i z e the q u a l i t y of the 35 mm c o l o u r 105 i n f r a r e d photography, i t was not p o s s i b l e to t e s t the r e l i -a b i l i t y of t h i s f i l m type f o r determining water q u a l i t y , measuring snow depth and i d e n t i f y i n g diseased t r e e s and the hazard they may represent to r e c r e a t i o n i s t s . However, with time and improvement in developing techniques, t h i s imagery may y e t be u s e f u l i n e v a l u a t i n g those environmental charac-t e r i s t i c s , such as t r e e h e a l t h , not obvious on c o l o u r photographs. The f i e l d of photogrammetry, a p p l i e d to 35 mm a e r i a l photos, encounters many problems due to i n a c c u r a c i e s i n h e r e n t in both the r e c o r d i n g of the image and i n the r e c o r d i n g of the i n f o r m a t i o n o f f the image. Ne v e r t h e l e s s , exact measure-ments, such as t r e e h e i g h t s , are seldom necessary i n f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n . Instead, most measurements w i l l be r e l a t i v e and centered on determining how much area i s or i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s . In the f i e l d of p h o t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the 35 mm a e r i a l system has i t s more use f u l a p p l i c a t i o n . The a p p l i c a t i o n of the system i s s u c c e s s f u l i n c a p t u r i n g and e v a l u a t i n g many parts of the p h y s i o g r a p h i c , edaphic, h y d r o l o g i c , and vegeta-t i v e environments. It i s a l s o used in e v a l u a t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l use on areas not masked by v e g e t a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , i t can be used f o r l o c a t i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s , f o r e v a l u a t i n g environmental damage such as f i r e or avalanches, f o r 106 i n v e n t o r y i n g w i l d l i f e and w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t , and f o r l o c a t i n g p o t e n t i a l hazards. The 35 mm system has i t s most use f u l a p p l i c a t i o n i n a s s o c i a t i o n with small s c a l e photography. Small s c a l e photo-graphy can be used f o r e v a l u a t i n g the general environment; land uses, a c c e s s i b i l i t y , road systems, areas n e c e s s i t a t i n g s c e n i c easements, general landforms, and major h y d r o l o g i c a l components. 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Wh i t t l e s b y , J u l i a n H. (1970) Tethered Balloon f o r Archaeo-l o g i c a l Photos. Photogrammetric E n g i n e e r i n g , V o l . 36, No. 2. pp. 181-186. 113 Wilcox, F.R. (1940) The Use of A e r i a l Photogrammetry and A i r c r a f t i n Woods Operations. Photogrammetric  Engi neeri ng, V o l . 6, No. 3. pp. 1 38-143. Z s i l i n s z k y , V i c t o r G. (1968) Supplementary A e r i a l Photo-graphy with M i n i a t u r e Cameras. Photogrammetri a 25 (1969/1970). pp. 27-38. APPENDIX I Diagram of the P l e x i g l a s s Mount Air vent opening 6 camera hole D I A G R A M O F T H E % P L E X I G L A S S S H I E L D U S E D TO C O V E R T H E H O L D APPENDIX II I n t e r v a l , F l y i n g Height, S c a l e , Area, and F l i g h t Line Separation Computations f o r Varying Focal Lengths 28 MM F l y i n g Height Above T e r r a i n (Feet) 1000 2000 3000 4000 , 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 1 0000+ I n t e r v a l (seconds) 70 mph 80 mph 90 mph 100 mph 5.0 4.4 3.9 3.5 10.1 8.8 7.8 7.1 15.1 13.2 11 .8 10.6 20.2 17.7 15.7 14.1 25.2 22.1 19.6 17:7 30.3 26.5 23.6 21 .2 35.3 30.9 27.3 24.7 40.4 35.4 31 .4 28.3 45.4 39.8 35.3 31 .8 50.5 44.2 39.3 35.3 Area Covered length ( f e e t ) width ( f e e t ) area (acres) 1295 874 26 2591 1749 104 3887 2624 234 5183 3449 416 6479 4374 650 7775 5249 937 9071 6124 1275 10367 6998 1665 11663 7873 2108 1 2959 8748 2602 Scale (PSR) 1 negati ve ^ 2 x 3 enlargement^ 3 x 5 enlargement^ 5 x 7 enlargement 10880 5032 3340 2340 21760 10060 6680 4680 32640 15100 10010 7030 43520 20130 1 3350 9370 54410 25164 16690 11710 65290 30200 20020 14050' 76170 35230 23360 16400 87050 40260 26700 18740 97932 45300 30040 21080 ,J 08810 50330 33380 23420 F l i g h t Line Separa-t i o n f o r 30% s i d e -1ap ( f e e t ) 612 1224 1837 2414 3062 3674 4287 4899 5511 6124 Photo Scale R e c i p r o c a l . Timing i s c r i t i c a l to achieve 60% ster e o overlap using hard advance. Scale i s approximate due tominor v a r i a t i o n s i n enlargement and p r i n t i n g . F l i g h t s above t h i s h e i g h t w i l l r e q u i r e oxygen. 35. MM F l y i n g Height Above T e r r a i n (Feet) 1000 2000 3000 : 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 f I n t e r v a l (seconds). 70 mph 80 mph 90 mph 100 mph 4.0 3.5 3.1 2.8-8.1 7.1 6.3 5.6 12.1 10.6 9.4 8.5 16.1 14.2 12.6 11.3 20.2 17.7 15.7 14.1 24.2 21 .2 18.9 17.0 28.3 24.8 22.0 19:8 32.3 28.3 25.2 22.6 36.4 ,31 .8 28.3 25.4 40.4 35.4 31 .4 28.3 Area Covered length ( f e e t ) width ( f e e t ) area (acres) 1037 700 16.7 2074 1400 66.7 3112 2101 150 4149 2801 266 5187 3501 417 6224 4202 600 7262 4902 817 8299 5602 1067 9337 6303 1351 10374 7003 1668 Sc a l e (PSR) negative 2 x 3 enlargement* 3 x 5 enlargement* 5 x 7 enlargement 8710 4030 2670 1880 17420 8060 5340 3740 26130 12090 8020 5620 34840 16120 10690 7500 43550 20140 13360 9375 52260 24170 16030 11250 60980 28200 18700 13120 69690 32230 21370 1 5000 78400 36260 24050 1 6880 87100 40290 26720 18750 F l i g h t Line Separa-t i o n f o r 30% s i d e - . 490 980 1471 1961 2451 2941 3431 3921 4412 4902 lap ( f e e t ) CO 50 MM F l y i n g Height Above T e r r a i n ( f e e t ) 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 • 7000 8000 9000 1000O + I n t e r v a l (seconds) 70 mph 80 mph 90 mph 100 mph 2.8 2 2.52 2 .2 2 2.0 2 5.6 5.0 4.4 4.0 8.5 7.4 6.6 5.1; 11.3 10.0 8.8 7.9 14.1 12.1 11.0 9.9 17.0 14.8 13.2 11.9 20.0 17.3 15.4 13.9 22.6 19.8 1 7 .6 15.8 25.4 22.3 19.8 17.8 28.3 24.8 22.0 19.8 Area Covered length ( f e e t ) width ( f e e t ) area (acres) 726 490 8.2 1452 980 32.7 2178 1470 73.5 2904 1960 131 3631 2451 204 4357 2941 294 5083 3431 400 5809 3921 523 6535 4412 662 7262 4902 817 Scale (PSR) negative 2 x 3 enlargement* 3 x 5 enlargement^ 5 x 7 enlargement 6100 2820 1870 1310 1 2200 5640 3740 2620 18290 8460 5610 3940 24390 11280 7480 5250 30490 14100 9350 6560 36580 16920 11220 7880 42680 19740 13090' 19190 48780 22560 14960 10500 54880 25380 16830 11810 60980 28200 18700 13120 F l i g h t Line Separa-t i o n f o r 30% Side- 343 686 1029 . 1372 1716 2059 2402 2745 3088 3431 lap ( f e e t ) 55 MM F l y i n g Height Above T e r r a i n (Feet) . 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 + I n t e r v a l (seconds) 70 mph 2.6 2 5.1 7.7 10.3 12.8 15.4 18.0 20.6 23.1 25.7 80 mph 2.2 2 4.5 6.8 9.0 11.2 13.5 15.8 18.0 20.3 /22.5 90 mph 2.0 2 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 100 mph 1.8 2 3.6 5.4 7.2 9.0 10.8 12.6 14.4 16.2 18.0 Area Covered length ( f e e t ) width ( f e e t ) area (acres) 660 445 6.7 1370 891 27.0 1980 1337 60.8 2640 1782 108 3300 2228 168 3961 2674 243 4621 3119 330 5281 3565 432 5941 4011 547 660T 4456 675 Scale (PSR) negative ^ 2 x 3 enlargement^ 3 x 5 enlargement^ 5 x 7 enlargement 5540'.; 2560 1700 1190 11090 5130 3400 2390 16630 7690 5100 3580 22170 10260 6800 4770 27720 1 2820 8500 5970 33260 1 5380 10200 7160 38800 1 7950 11900 8350 44340 2051 0 13600 9540 49890 23070 15300 10740 55430 25640 1 7000 11930 F l i g h t Line Separa-2808 3119 t i o n f o r 30% Side- 312 624 936 1247 1560 1872 2183 2496 lap ( f e e t ) ro o 58 MM F l y i n g Height Above T e r r a i n (Feet) 1000 2000 ' 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 f I n t e r v a l (seconds) 70 mph 2.4 2 4.9 7.3 9.8 12.2 14.6 17.1 19.5 21 .9 24.4 80 mph 2.1 2 4.3 6.4 8.5 10.7 12.8 14.9 17.8 19.2 21 .3 90 mph 1.9 2 3.8 5.7 7.6 9.5 • 11.4 13.3 15.2 17.1 19.0 100 mph 1.7 2 3.4 5.1 6.8 8.5 10.2 11.9 13.6 15.4 17.1 Area Covered length ( f e e t ) width ( f e e t ) area ( a c r e s ) 625 422 6.1 1251 844 24.2 1877 1267 54.6 2503 1689 97.1 3129 2112 151 3755 2534 218 4380 2957 297 5006 3379 388 5632 3802 491 6258 4224 607 Scale (PSR) negati ve 2 x 3 enlargement^ 3 x 5 enlargement^ 5 x 7 enlargement -5250 2430 1610 1130 10510 4860 3220 2260 15764 7290 ' 4840 3390 21020 9720 6450 4524 26270 12150 8060 5660 31530 14580 9670 6790 36780 17010 11280 7920 42040 19440 1 2890 9050 47290 21870 14510 10180 52550 24300 16120 . 11310 F l i g h t Line Separa-t i o n f o r 30% Side-lap ( f e e t ) 295 591 887 1182 1478 1774 2070 2365 2661 295.7 80 MM F l y i n g Height Above T e r r a i n (Feet) 1000 2000 3000 4000 ' 5000 ' 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000+ I n t e r v a l (seconds) 70 mph 1.8 2 3.5 5.3 7.1 8.8 10.6 12.4 14.1 15.9 17.7 80 mph 1.5 2 3.1 4.6 6.2 7-7 9.3 10.8 12.4 13.9 15.5 90 mph 1.3 2 2.7 2 4.1 5.5 6.9 8.2 9.6 11 .0 12.4 13.7 100 mph 1.2 2 2.5 2 3.7 4.9 6.2 7.4 8.6 9.9 11.1 12.4 Area Covered length ( f e e t ) width ( f e e t ) area (acres) 453 306 3.2 907 612 12.7 1361 918 28.7 1814 1225 51 .0 2268 1531 79.7 2722 1837 114 3175 2143 156 3629 2450 204 4083 2756 258 4537 3062 319 Scale (PSR) negative ^ 2 x 3 enlargement^ 3 x 5 enlargement^ 5 x 7 enlargement 3810 1760 1170 820 7620 3520 2340 1640 11430 5280 3500 2460 1 5240 7050 4670 3280 19050 8810 5840 4100 22860 10570 7010 4920 26670 1 2330 8180 5740 30480 14100 9350 6560 34290 1 5860 10520 7380 38100 1 7620 11680 8200 F l i g h t Line Separa-t i o n f o r 30% Side- 214 428 643 858 1072 1286 1500 1715 1929 2143 lap ( f e e t ) ro ro 85 MM F l y i n g Height Above T e r r a i n (Feet) 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 + I n t e r v a l (seconds) 70 mph 1.7 2 3.3 5.0 6.6 8.3 10.0 11.6 13.3 15.0 16.6 80 mph 1.4 2 2.9 2 4.4 5.8 7.3 8.7 10.2 11 .6 13.1 14.6 90 mph 1.3 2 2.6 2 3.9 5; 2 6.5 7.8 9.0 10.4 11 .6 12.9 100 mph l . l 2 2.3 2 3.5 4.6 5.8 7.0 8.2 9.3 10.5 11 .6 Area Covered length ( f e e t ) width . ( f e e t ) area (acres) 427 288 2.8 854 576 11.3 1281 864 25.4 1708 1153 45.2 2135 1441 70.6 2562 1729 101 2989 201 7 138 3416 2306 180 3843 2594 228 4270 2882 282 Scale (PSR) negati ve 2 x 3 enlargement^ 3 x 5 enlargement^ 5 x 7 enlargement 3580 1660 1100 770 7170 3320 2200 1540 10760 4980 3300 2320 14340 6630 4400 3090 1 7930 8290 5500 3860 21510 9950 6600 4630 25100 11610 7700 5400 28684 1 3270 8800 6170 32270 14920 9900 6950 35860 16580 11000 7720 F l i g h t Line Separa-t i o n f o r 30% Side- 202 403 605 807 101 1210 1412 .1614 1816 2017 lap ( f e e t ) • PO CO 135 MM F l y i n g Height Above T e r r a i n (Feet) 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000+ I n t e r v a l (seconds) 70 mph I.O 2 2.1 2 3.1 4.2 5.2 6.3 7.3 8.4 9.4 10.5 80 mph 0.9 Z ; 1.8 2 2.8 Z 3.7 4.6 5.5 6.4 7.3 8.2 9.2 90 mph 0.8 2 1 .6 2 2.4 2 3.2 4.1 4.9 5.7 6.5 7.3 8.1 100 mph 0.7 2 1.5 2 2.2 2 2.9 3.7 4.4 5.1 5.9 6.6 7.3 Area Covered length ( f e e t ) width ( f e e t ) area (acres) 268 181 1.1 537 363 4.5 806 544 10.1 1075 726 17.9 1344 907 28.0 1613 1089 40.3 1882 1270 54.9 2151 1452 71 .7 2420 1633 90.7 2689 1815 112 Scale (PSR) negative ^ 2 x 3 enlargement^ 3 x 5 enlargement^ 5 x 7 enlargement 2260 1040 690 490 4520 2090 1380 970 6770 3130 2080 1460 9030 4180 2770 1940 11290 5220 3460 2430 1 3550 6260 4160 2920 15800 7310 4850 3400 18060 8350 5540 3890 20320 9400 6230 4370 22580 10440 6920 4860 F l i g h t Line Separa-1271 t i o n f o r 30% Side- 127 254 381 508 635 762 889 1016 1143 lap ( f e e t ) ro APPENDIX III Diagram of K l e i n ' s P o r t a b l e Stereo Viewer (Figure 5) 126 127 1. Top s e c t i o n 12 . Bulb socket 2. Centre s e c t i o n 13. B o l t 3. Bottom s e c t i o n 14. Spring 4. P l a s t i c c l i p s 15 . B a t t e r y case (non conductive) 5 . Eye pieces (Agfa Lupe 8x) 16 . Lower base 6 . Eye pi e c e holder 17 . Bat t e r y holder 7 . Tr a n s l u c e n t s u r f a c e 18. "C" Ba t t e r y 8. Base ( M i l l e d Aluminum) 19 . R i v e t 9 . Swith 20 . "C" Bar 10 . R e f l e c t o r 21. Eye pi e c e holder connector 11. Bulb 128 APPENDIX IV L o c a t i o n of F l i g h t Lines on the U.B.C: Research Forest 

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