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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A feasibility study for the management of recreation and other selected non-timber resources on private.. 1990

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A FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF RECREATION AND OTHER SELECTED NON-TIMBER RESOURCES ON PRIVATE INDUSTRIAL FOREST LANDS IN COASTAL BRITISH COLUMBIA by Gary B u l l Dip. Tech., British Columbia Institute of Technology, 1984 Forest Resources Management Dip. Tech., Society of Management Accountants, 1988 B.S.F., The University of British Columbia, 1988 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF FORESTRY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES FACULTY OF FORESTRY (Department of Forest Resources Management) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1990 © Gary Bull 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) A b s t r a c t I n d u s t r i a l p r i v a t e f o r e s t landowners i n B r i t i s h Columbia have t r a d i t i o n a l l y v i ewed t h e i r f o r e s t l a n d s as a raw m a t e r i a l s u p p l y f o r t h e i r wood p r o c e s s i n g f a c i l i t i e s . However, t h e y a r e now e x p e r i e n c i n g s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l changes w h i c h a r e r e s t r i c t i n g t h e way t h e i r f o r e s t s a r e managed. These changes have enormous i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r l a r g e f o r e s t r y f i r m s , such as C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c F o r e s t P r o d u c t s . A p o r t i o n o f t h e i r l a n d s , t h e f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y , has been examined t o a s s e s s t h e impact o f t h e s e r e s t r i c t i o n s on t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d u s e . I n a d d i t i o n , non- t i m b e r v a l u e s have been examined f o r t h e i r revenue g e n e r a t i n g p o t e n t i a l . A s t u d y a r e a was d e l i n e a t e d n e a r t h e community o f Sooke, B.C. F i s h i n g , h u n t i n g , d e e r f a r m i n g and camping were a s s e s s e d . I n o r d e r t o complete t h e a n a l y s i s , t h e c o s t s i n terms o f f o r e g o n e t i m b e r v a l u e s , were c a l c u l a t e d under a number o f d i f f e r e n t a s s u m p t i o n s . The impact o f changes i n b a r e l a n d v a l u e s on d e c i s i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e n o n - t i m b e r v a l u e s were a l s o examined. A number o f p o l i c y changes, b o t h by t h e landowner and t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government i n v o l v e d , a r e r e q u i r e d t o promote f o r e s t r y w i t h a renewed emphasis on r e c r e a t i o n . I n i t i a t i n g t h e s e changes i s t h e n e x t s t a g e i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a r e c r e a t i o n management p l a n f o r t h e a r e a under s t u d y i n t h i s t h e s i s . i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s i i i L i s t o f T a b l e s v L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i Acknowledgements . . . . . . . v i i I . INTRODUCTION . 1 I I . RECREATION PLANNING, PRICING, FEES AND MEASUREMENT . . . 7 2.1 R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g 7 2.2 R e c r e a t i o n - P r i c i n g and F e e s 18 2.3 C o n v e r s i o n o f M e a s u r e d U n i t s 38 I I I . STUDY AREA - DESCRIPTION AND RATIONALE 43 3.1 P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g 43 3.2 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f S t u d y A r e a B o u n d a r y 44 IV. MURRAY'S FINDINGS - SUMMARY . . . . . 53 4.1 M e t h o d o l o g y and P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g 53 4.2 M a j o r F i n d i n g s 56 4.3 L i m i t a t i o n s o f M u r r a y ' s S t u d y 57 4.4 C o n c l u s i o n s and Recommendations 59 V. FISHING 61 5.1 I n v e n t o r y - L a k e s 61 5.2 I n v e n t o r y - R i v e r s 62 5.3 M u r r a y ' s F i n d i n g s 65 5.4 C o m p a r a t i v e A n a l y s i s 65 5.5 Management A l t e r n a t i v e . 66 5.6 F i s h F a r m i n g , O t h e r J u r i s d i c t i o n s 67 5.7 E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n c e r n s 69 5.8 D i s c u s s i o n 70 V I . HUNTING - BIG GAME 73 6.1 I n v e n t o r y 73 6.2 M u r r a y ' s F i n d i n g s 74 6.3 V a l u e s - U.S. S t u d i e s 75 6.4 L e a s i n g 76 6.5 C o m p a r a t i v e A n a l y s i s 80 6.6 E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n c e r n s 82 6.7 D i s c u s s i o n 83 i i i V I I . GAME FARMING 8 6 7.1 A n a l y s i s . . . . . 86 7.2 D i s c u s s i o n 90 V I I I . CAMPGROUNDS 92 8.1 S i t e s - D e s c r i p t i o n and R a t i o n a l e 92 8.2 C a m p s i t e P l a n n i n g 93 8.3 F i n a n c i a l A n a l y s i s 95 8.4 Measurement . 99 8.5 C o m p a r a t i v e A n a l y s i s 102 8.6 T r e n d s 104 8.7 D i s c u s s i o n 105 I X . TIMBER AND LAND VALUES . 107 9.1 T i m b e r A n a l y s i s - B a s e C a s e 107 9.2 T i m b e r A n a l y s i s - O p t i o n s 109 9.3 S e n s i t i v i t y A n a l y s i s 115 9.4 L a n d V a l u e s . . . . 119 X. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 124 REFERENCES . 129 APPENDIX I GLOSSARY OF TERMS . . . . . . . . . . • . • • . . 139 APPENDIX I I BONEYARD LAKE 148 APPENDIX I I I MacDONALD LAKE 149 i v L i s t o f T a b l e s 1. Summary o f t h e C a p a b i l i t y and S u i t a b i l i t y Assessments Coverage i n t h e P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s 15 2. Fee S c h e d u l e i n t h e N o r t h Maine Woods . . . . . . . . . 29 3. R e c r e a t i o n a l Use Measurements . 39 4. Summary o f M a j o r F i n d i n g s f o r CPFP Lands . 56 5. S u r v e y R e s u l t s on Lake F i s h i n g i n Murray's Study A r e a . 61 6. R e s u l t s from S t e e l h e a d H a r v e s t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . . . . . . 64 7. D a i l y Revenue from F r e s h w a t e r A n g l i n g 68 8. Summary o f Murray's F i n d i n g s on V a l u e s f o r Deer . . . . 74 9. A c c e s s t o W i l d l i f e on P r i v a t e . F o r e s t T i m b e r l a n d s i n t h e Sout h 77 10. C o m p a r a t i v e V a l u e s o f Lands Leased f o r H u n t i n g 80 11. Summary o f C o s t s f o r Deer Farming . . . . . . 89 12. C o n v e r s i o n F a c t o r s t o T r a n s l a t e U.S. Camping Data . . . 100 13. C o s t o f Ca m p s i t e s i n t h e SRMA . 103 14. C o m p a r a t i v e C o s t f o r Camping p e r A c t i v i t y Day . . . . . 103 15. C o m p a r a t i v e Revenue f o r Camping P e r A c t i v i t y Day . . . . 104 16. D e t a i l e d Summary o f A r e a , Volume, and Net Revenue by H a r v e s t Year 108 17. Summary o f H a r v e s t i n g C o s t by L o g g i n g Phase . . . . . . I l l 18. Timber H a r v e s t i n g P r o j e c t i o n s , U s i n g Two I n v e n t o r i e s . . 113 19. Sooke R e c r e a t i o n Management A r e a - Timber A n a l y s i s . . . 116 20. Land V a l u e s f o r S e l e c t e d B l o c k s on CPFP F o r e s t Lands . . 1 2 0 v L i s t o f F i g u r e s 1. L o c a t i o n Maps o f Study A r e a 2 2. D e t a i l e d Map o f Study A r e a 3 3. P r i v a t e S e c t o r R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g Model . . . . . . . . 8 4. Sooke Community P l a n 14 5. R e c r e a t i o n P r i c i n g on P r i v a t e F o r e s t Lands 20 6. L o c a t i o n Maps o f Murray's Study A r e a 54 7. D e t a i l s o f Murray's Study A r e a . 55 v i Acknowledgements F i r s t , s p e c i a l t h a n k s t o t h e unsung h e r o e s o f a company l i k e C a n adian P a c i f i c F o r e s t P r o d u c t s . K e i t h Tudor and Dave Kynoch e x e m p l i f i e d t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s p i r i t n e c e s s a r y t o make my r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s appear a t t i m e s , p l e a s u r a b l e . The s e n i o r s t a t e s m e n , Bruce D e v i t t and V l a d K o r e l u s , p r o v i d e d w i s e c o u n s e l and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r my s t u d i e s . T h e i r r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e o t h e r v a l u e s on f o r e s t l a n d p r o v i d e d t h e c a t a l y s t f o r much o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . Ted Murray, who p r e p a r e d t h e groundwork f o r t h i s t h e s i s , was e x c e e d i n g l y h e l p f u l and c o - o p e r a t i v e t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e p r o c e s s . Ted and h i s w i f e Kathy a l s o p r o v i d e d me w i t h s h e l t e r and f o o d d u r i n g my l o n g s t a y on Vancouver I s l a n d d o i n g r e s e a r c h . Many t h a n k s t o my committee members from t h e F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y , Dr. D a v i d H a l e y ( S u p e r v i s o r ) , Dr. P e t e r D o o l i n g , and P r o f . Les Reed, who p r o v i d e d many u s e f u l comments i n t h e d r a f t s t a g e s o f t h i s t h e s i s . A l s o t o my t y p i s t , E i l e e n F r y d e n l u n d , who a l w a y s m a i n t a i n e d a c h e e r f u l d i s p o s i t i o n and p r o v i d e d e n c o u r a g i n g words. F i n a l l y , t o my extended f a m i l y who have s u p p o r t e d me i n t h e v a r i o u s endeavors I u n d e r t o o k w h i l e c o m p l e t i n g t h i s work. v i i " S e l f - i n t e r e s t i s h o s t i l e t o t h e common good, b u t e n l i g h t e n e d s e l f - i n t e r e s t i s n o t . " Locke v i i i 1 1. INTRODUCTION P r i v a t e i n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t landowners i n B r i t i s h Columbia are f a c i n g i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e t o manage t h e i r l a n d s f o r more t h a n t h e c o m m e r c i a l t i m b e r v a l u e s and a r e b e g i n n i n g t o ' r a t i o n a l i z e ' t h e o w n e r s h i p o f l a n d . The p u b l i c , who t r a d i t i o n a l l y had f r e e a c c e s s t o t h e s e l a n d s , a r e demanding t h a t t i m b e r h a r v e s t i n g p r a c t i s e s be m o d i f i e d o r s t o p p e d a l t o g e t h e r t o p r o t e c t o r enhance o t h e r v a l u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f o r e s t . No l o n g e r can t i m b e r v a l u e s a l o n e j u s t i f y t h e ownership o f l a n d , and ways must be found t o e n a b l e them t o e a r n a d d i t i o n a l revenue from, o r r e c e i v e c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r , t h e v a r i o u s n o n - t i m b e r r e s o u r c e s . C anadian P a c i f i c F o r e s t P r o d u c t s Ltd.(CPFP) owns a p p r o x i m a t e l y 125,000 ha o f f o r e s t l a n d on s o u t h e r n Vancouver I s l a n d . They f a c e a problem s i m i l a r t o many o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l p r i v a t e landowners i n B.C.; t h a t i s , how t o d e r i v e a b e n e f i t from t h e l a n d base w h i l e t h e y w a i t f o r an immature f o r e s t t o grow. W i t h t h i s i n mind, t h i s t h e s i s examines s e l e c t e d n o n - t i m b e r v a l u e s on f o r e s t l a n d , p r i m a r i l y from CPFP's p e r s p e c t i v e . However, an a t t e m p t i s made t o i d e n t i f y and a d d r e s s t h e c o n c e r n s o f v a r i o u s government a g e n c i e s , o t h e r p r i v a t e landowners and t h e m y r i a d o f i n t e r e s t groups i n t h e a r e a . The Sooke R e c r e a t i o n Management A r e a (SRMA), F i g u r e s 1 and 2, i s i d e n t i f i e d f o r t h e purpose o f s e g r e g a t i n g n o n - c o m p a t i b l e   r e c r e a t i o n a l uses o f t h e f o r e s t l a n d , and t o f a c i l i t a t e an e v a l u a t i o n o f s e l e c t e d n o n - t i m b e r v a l u e s deemed t o have t h e g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r a f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n . The s e l e c t i o n i s based on t h e a r e a ' s p r o x i m i t y t o V i c t o r i a , a l o n g s t a n d i n g t r a d i t i o n o f m u l t i p l e - u s e , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n t r o l l i n g a c c e s s , t h e c u r r e n t l a n d use o f a d j a c e n t a r e a s , t h e r e l a t i v e l y low t i m b e r v a l u e s , and t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d y o f t h e a r e a by Murray (1988) . The o b j e c t i v e s i n t h i s t h e s i s a r e t w o f o l d . The f i r s t i s t o examine r e c r e a t i o n and o t h e r s e l e c t e d n o n - t i m b e r r e s o u r c e s which have revenue g e n e r a t i n g p o t e n t i a l , i n a s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n t e x t . The second, i s t o a s s e s s t h e impact o f managing t h e s e r e s o u r c e s on t h e t i m b e r v a l u e s w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . To a c c o m p l i s h t h e f i r s t o b j e c t i v e , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o r e v i e w and a s s e s s c u r r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e a r e a ; t o c o l l e c t a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n from o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s t o f i l l t h e gaps and e s t a b l i s h p r e c e d e n c e ; and t o i d e n t i f y t h e s o c i a l f a c t o r s w h i c h may p r o h i b i t o r m o d i f y CPFP's d e s i r e t o maximize n e t revenue. The second o b j e c t i v e r e q u i r e d t h e use o f a computer model t o d e t e r m i n e t h e n e t p r e s e n t v a l u e o f t h e t i m b e r under an a r r a y o f a s s u m p t i o n s . A comprehensive r e c r e a t i o n management p l a n i s n o t produced. I t was deemed i n a p p r o p r i a t e , a t t h i s t i m e , f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : l ) The d a t a b a s e f o r t h e f o r e s t l a n d s under r e v i e w i s i n c o m p l e t e . D e s p i t e e f f o r t s t o e x t r a p o l a t e i n f o r m a t i o n from o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s , more r e s e a r c h i s n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e p l a n n e r s t h e c o m p l e t e p i c t u r e o f t h e r e s o u r c e s i n q u e s t i o n . 2) The f o r e s t company, CPFP, must make t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n on t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e p l a n t h a t s u i t s t h e s t r a t e g i c and o p e r a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e company. 3) The o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s , whether t h e y be governments, a d j a c e n t s l andowners, o r i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , must be i n v o l v e d e a r l y i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s t h e s i s m e r e l y s e t s t h e s t a g e f o r t h e p l a y e r s i n t h e p r o c e s s t o b e g i n t h e d i a l o g u e . S e c t i o n 2 p r e s e n t s t h e c o n c e p t u a l models n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e s e r e s o u r c e s . The f i r s t model p l a c e s t h e problem i n a s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n t e x t ; t h e second, d e s c r i b e s how r e c r e a t i o n i s a m a r k e t a b l e p r o d u c t i n n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e economics. F i n a l l y , t h e t h e o r y and problems o f p r i c i n g a r e examined i n some d e t a i l . S e c t i o n 3 d e s c r i b e s t h e p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g f o r t h e s t u d y a r e a and d i s c u s s e s t h e major c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n making t h i s c h o i c e . S e c t i o n 4 summarizes t h e most r e c e n t i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e a r e a and p o i n t s t o t h e major gaps w h i c h must be f i l l e d . S e c t i o n s 5 t o 8 p r e s e n t t h e n e t revenue g e n e r a t i n g p o t e n t i a l f o r f i s h i n g , h u n t i n g , camping, and d e e r f a r m i n g . T h i s i s a c h i e v e d by e x a m i n i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e s t u d y a r e a and t h e e x t r a p o l a t i o n o f d a t a from o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s . S e c t i o n 9 examines c u r r e n t t i m b e r v a l u e s under a h o s t o f a s s u m p t i o n s about l o g g i n g c o s t s , d i s c o u n t r a t e s , t i m b e r v a l u e s , r e a l i n c r e a s e s i n t h e p r i c e o f wood, t i m b e r i n v e n t o r y p r o j e c t i o n s , and a n n u a l c o s t s . The impact o f changes i n b a r e l a n d v a l u e s o v e r t i m e i s a l s o d i s c u s s e d . S e c t i o n 10 p r e s e n t s major c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations f o r f u t u r e a c t i o n . 7 I I . RECREATION PLANNING, PRICING, FEES AND MEASUREMENT 2.1 R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g F o r e f f e c t i v e p r i v a t e s e c t o r f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g D o o l i n g s u g g e s t s t e n i m p o r t a n t s t e p s , e x p r e s s e d d i a g r a m m a t i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 3 (Murray 1988). They a r e : 1) t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r l a n d b a s e o r l a n d u n i t f o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s ; 2) t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f a complete r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r y o f t h a t l a n d b a s e ; 3) t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l a t t r a c t i o n s , problems, h a z a r d s and/or r e s t r i c t i o n s ; 4) t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f s o c i a l and economic d a t a on t h o s e who use t h e a r e a ( p r e s e n t use assessment) and t h o s e who would use t h e a r e a (demand a s s e s s m e n t ) ; 5) an e x a m i n a t i o n o f p u b l i c p o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g t h e use o f t h a t l a n d f o r each a c t i v i t y ; 6) an assessment o f p r i v a t e / c o m p a n y p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g t h e use o f t h a t l a n d f o r each a c t i v i t y ; 7) an assessment o f t h e a r e a t o d e t e r m i n e i t s c a p a b i l i t y and s u i t a b i l i t y f o r s u p p o r t i n g p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ; p h y s i c a l l y , e c o n o m i c a l l y , e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y , c u l t u r a l l y and a e s t h e t i c a l l y ; 8) an e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e " v a l u e " o f p r o v i d i n g s u c h o p p o r t u n i t i e s o r f a c i l i t i e s t o t h e company and t o t h e p u b l i c ; 8 F i g u r e 3 P r i v a t e S e c t o r F o r e s t R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g M o d e l The d i a g r a m and p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was c o n c e i v e d by Dr. P. J . D o o l i n g . 9 9) an e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e c o s t o f p r o v i s i o n , o p e r a t i o n , m a i n t e n a n c e , and l i a b i l i t y o f t h o s e f a c i l i t i e s o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; 10) t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s w i t h r e v e n u e - p r o d u c i n g p o t e n t i a l and t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h a t p o t e n t i a l revenue. The f i r s t s t e p , t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e l a n d b a s e i s c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d i n S e c t i o n 3.2, boundary a r e a r a t i o n a l e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o remember t h a t t h i s boundary i s e s t a b l i s h e d p r i m a r i l y f o r maximum b e n e f i t t o CPFP, n o t n e c e s s a r i l y s o c i e t y as a whole. F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s t h e a u t h o r ' s s t r o n g l y h e l d v i e w t h a t CPFP's r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h o t h e r landowners and a g e n c i e s i n t h e a r e a . The second s t e p , a complete r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r y must be approached from a c o s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s s t a n d p o i n t . Up t o 50% o f t h e s t u d y a r e a i s c l a s s i f i e d as p a r k l a n d o r m a r g i n a l f o r e s t l a n d . T h i s means t h a t i n t h e c u r r e n t economic c l i m a t e t h e s e a r e a s have no s i g n i f i c a n t c o m m e r c i a l t i m b e r v a l u e s . To measure t h e volume o f t i m b e r i s c o s t p r o h i b i t i v e s i m p l y because t h e v a r i a t i o n s between s i t e s make a s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e a s o n a b l e r e s u l t e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t . B o th t h e head t i m b e r i n v e n t o r y t e c h n i c i a n and t h e l o c a l f o r e s t r y t e c h n i c i a n f o r CPFP c o n f i r m e d t h i s . Benson (1985) s u g g e s t s t h e f o l l o w i n g n o n - t i m b e r r e s o u r c e s w o r t h y o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n : • s o i l • r e c r e a t i o n • w a t e r • v i s u a l • f i s h • c u l t u r a l • w i l d l i f e • range The w i l d l i f e i n v e n t o r y from t h e M i n i s t r y o f t h e Environment i s h i g h l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r company management p u r p o s e s . The d e e r p o p u l a t i o n i s s i m p l y unknown i n t h i s r e g i o n . A v i s u a l assessment cannot be f u l l y c o n d ucted u n t i l t h e c o n t o u r l i n e s f o r t h e a r e a a r e d i g i t i z e d and e n t e r e d i n t o a g e o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n s y stem ( G I S ) . Range would n o t be an a p p r o p r i a t e l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s a r e a as no g r a s s l a n d s e x i s t . A l l o t h e r n o n - t i m b e r v a r i a b l e s have been a s s e s s e d and a r e i n company r e p o r t s o r i n c l u d e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . The t h i r d s t e p i s t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l a t t r a c t i o n s , p r oblems, h a z a r d s and/or r e s t r i c t i o n s . The major e n v i r o n m e n t a l a t t r a c t i o n s a r e t h e Sooke R i v e r and p o r t i o n o f t h e Leech R i v e r w i t h t h e i r v o l c a n i c r o c k and swimming h o l e s ; t h e Leechtown s e t t l e m e n t s i t e ; t h e mountainous b o r d e r s , w i t h s c a t t e r e d r o c k o u t c r o p s and v e t e r a n Douglas f i r s ; and f i n a l l y , t h e t h r e e l a k e s w h i c h a r e c a p a b l e o f s u s t a i n i n g f i s h p o p u l a t i o n s (see F i g u r e 2 ) . E n v i r o n m e n t a l problems a r e c u r r e n t l y more s p e c u l a t i v e t h a n r e a l . M i n e r a l c l a i m s s t i l l e x i s t i n t h e a r e a ; t h e w a t e r f l o w s i n b o t h major r i v e r s a r e s u b j e c t t o a d j u s t m e n t by t h e GVWD a f f e c t i n g f i s h and o t h e r a q u a t i c l i f e f orms; one a d j a c e n t landowner has p r o p o s a l s i n p l a c e f o r a l a r g e r e a l e s t a t e development; and c l e a r c u t l o g g i n g w i t h t h e accompanying p o t e n t i a l o f s o i l e r o s i o n i s a n o t h e r p e r c e i v e d t h r e a t . E n v i r o n m e n t a l r e s t r i c t i o n l a r g e l y f o c u s e s on change i n use. I f a c t i v i t i e s a r e f u r t h e r promoted on t h e s e p r o p e r t i e s , v e g e t a t i o n c o u l d be d e s t r o y e d i n t h e s e many f r a g i l e e cosystems; human waste a s s o c i a t e d w i t h human o c c u p a t i o n c o u l d a l s o be a v e r y d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m i f n o t c a r e f u l l y managed. The f o u r t h s t e p , t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f s o c i a l and economic d a t a f o r r e c r e a t i o n was t h e p r i m a r y f o c u s o f Murray (1988). S i n c e t h e s t u d y a r e a f o r t h i s t h e s i s i s a s u b s e t o f Murray's s t u d y a r e a , t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d by him w i l l be used t o e s t i m a t e t h e p r e s e n t use and demand assessment. The f i f t h s t e p , r e q u i r e s t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f p u b l i c p o l i c i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e management o f p r i v a t e i n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t l a n d . I n e a r l y t i m e s i n B.C. t h e r e were no r e s t r i c t i v e p o l i c i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t i m b e r e x t r a c t i o n on p r i v a t e l a n d . However, t h e T a x a t i o n T r e e Farm s t a t u s was implemented i n 1951, under t h e B.C. Assessment A c t , t o encourage p r i v a t e f o r e s t landowners t o manage t h e i r f o r e s t s on a s u s t a i n e d y i e l d b a s i s i n r e t u r n f o r c e r t a i n t a x c o n c e s s i o n s . New l e g i s l a t i o n i n 1987 p r o v i d e d new arrangements w h i c h had s i m i l a r i n t e n t - t h e improved management o f f o r e s t l a n d f o r comm e r c i a l t i m b e r v a l u e s . The r e c r e a t i o n v a l u e s o f t h e f o r e s t a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d under c u r r e n t t a x l e g i s l a t i o n . Why? L e g a l l y , i n B r i t i s h Columbia t h e p r o p e r t y r i g h t s t o f o r e s t l a n d do n o t g i v e t h e p r o p e r t y owner t h e r i g h t t o manage f o r r e c r e a t i o n v a l u e s d e r i v e d from w a t e r , f i s h , and w i l d l i f e ( H a l ey and L u c k e r t 1990). T h e r e f o r e , t h e d e e r and f i s h p o p u l a t i o n s , f o r example, a r e p u b l i c p r o p e r t y and as such a r e managed by t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r f e d e r a l government. However, l e g i s l a t i o n does p e r m i t p r o p e r t y owners t o charge f o r a c c e s s r i g h t s t o t h e n o n - t i m b e r r e s o u r c e s , and t h i s i s a l r e a d y e x e r c i s e d by t h e landowners o f such p l a c e s as S i d n e y I s l a n d (Murray 1988). They c h a r g e f o r t h e p r i v i l e g e o f f a l l o w d e e r h u n t i n g . The more d i f f i c u l t p r o b lem i s t h e p u b l i c p e r c e p t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l l y h e l d r i g h t s . A c c e s s has been w i t h o u t c h a r g e f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use s i n c e e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t , and t o s u d d e n l y l e v y a f e e c r e a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s . However, Murray (1988) and o t h e r s (Cowperthwaite 1984) have shown t h a t t h i s i s a p r o b l e m w h i c h can be overcome. T h i s i s d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l i n S e c t i o n 2.2 w h i c h d e a l s w i t h r e c r e a t i o n p r i c i n g . New p u b l i c p o l i c i e s a r e s l o w l y emerging w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p r i v a t e r i g h t s t o l a n d ownership a r e s h i f t i n g , and r e s t r i c t i o n s a r e b e i n g p l a c e d on t h o s e r i g h t s . F o r example, M a c M i l l a n B l o e d e l L t d . , an i n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t p r o d u c t s f i r m , has j u s t changed i t s h a r v e s t i n g p l a n s on G a l i a n o I s l a n d , B.C. because o f p r e s s u r e from o t h e r landowners on t h e i s l a n d . A l t e r n a t i v e s t o c l e a r c u t t i n g a r e c u r r e n t l y b e i n g examined ( P a r f i t t 1989). The Community o f Sooke has j u s t approved a p l a n f o r i t s community w h i c h i n c l u d e s p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y owned by CPFP. When t h e second growth f o r e s t i n t h e a r e a i s re a d y f o r h a r v e s t t h i s p l a n c o u l d w e l l p l a c e c o n s t r a i n t s on CPFP i n i t s h a r v e s t i n g p r a c t i s e s t o p r o t e c t r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e s ( F i g u r e 4 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , a r e c e n t B.C. Supreme C o u r t d e c i s i o n ( H a m i l t o n 1990) a l s o g i v e s communities t h e r i g h t t o p r o t e c t t h e i r w a t e r s u p p l y by p r o h i b i t i n g l o g g i n g on p r i v a t e l a n d . The s i x t h s t e p i s t h e assessment o f CPFP's p o l i c i e s . They have t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e c o g n i z e d o n l y t h e t i m b e r v a l u e s on t h e i r p r o p e r t y . The d i f f i c u l t y o f a c c e s s c o n t r o l and improved p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s , however, have c o n s c i o u s l y o r u n c o n s c i o u s l y been s t r o n g m o t i v a t o r s i n a l l o w i n g o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use on t h e p r o p e r t y . C u r r e n t l y , a way i s b e i n g sought t o charge u s e r f e e s f o r a c c e s s r i g h t s t o t h e p r o p e r t y , w h i c h i n t u r n w i l l p r o v i d e i n c e n t i v e s f o r t h e company t o manage f o r t h e s e r e c r e a t i o n v a l u e s . The f i n a l company p o l i c y w o r t h m e n t i o n i n g i s t h e u n s t a t e d r e a l e s t a t e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e a r e a . A d j a c e n t p r o p e r t y owners have a l r e a d y begun c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h o t e l / o f f i c e complexes and campgrounds, and proposed p l a n s a r e i n p l a c e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l h o u s i n g . S h o u l d t h i s o c c u r , t h e r e a l e s t a t e p o t e n t i a l f o r t h e SRMA i s v e r y h i g h i n d e e d . The s e v e n t h s t e p i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s t h e s y n t h e s i z i n g o f t h e d a t a and i n f o r m a t i o n c o m p i l e d i n S t e p s 1-6. T a b l e 1 below p r e s e n t s a summary o f how t h i s s t e p i s r e l a t e d t o t h e p r e v i o u s 15 s t e p s . These l i n k a g e s w i l l be examined i n more d e t a i l under t h e s p e c i f i c r e c r e a t i o n v a l u e s examined. Table 1 Summary of the Capabi l i ty and S u i t a b i l i t y Assessments Coverage in the Planning Process Charac ter i s t ic CapabiIi ty Sui t a b i I i ty Physical 1, 2 2, 3 Economic 4 4, 5, 6 Environment 3 3 Cul tura l 2 2 Aesthetics 2 2 The e i g h t h and n i n t h s t e p s i n v o l v e a s s e s s i n g t h e v a l u e and c o s t s o f p r o v i d i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y o r f a c i l i t y . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t t h e " g r o s s d o l l a r v a l u e " o f i n t e n d e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n must f i r s t be measured. Both t h e i n t e n d e d use and t h e a t t a c h e d w i l l i n g n e s s - t o - pay (WTP) v a l u e s were measured by Murray (1988). To f i n d t h e "net v a l u e , " Walsh (1986) s u g g e s t e d t h r e e methods t o measure t h e c o s t s o f d e v e l o p i n g and o p e r a t i n g r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s . These i n c l u d e : (1) e n g i n e e r i n g economic e s t i m a t e s o f t h e optimum c o m b i n a t i o n o f i n p u t s t o produce a range o f o u t p u t l e v e l s ; (2) c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l c omparisons o f s e v e r a l e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s w i t h v a r y i n g o u t p u t l e v e l s a t one p o i n t i n t i m e ; and (3) t i m e - s e r i e s o b s e r v a t i o n s o f c o s t s f o r v a r y i n g o u t p u t l e v e l s o f a s i n g l e r e c r e a t i o n s i t e o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e . The e n g i n e e r i n g economic method i s e s s e n t i a l l y an i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e , whereby t h r e e t o n i n e e n g i n e e r s from c o n s t r u c t i o n companies and equipment s u p p l i e r s a r e i n t e r v i e w e d . Walsh (1986) a l s o s t i p u l a t e d t h a t t h e y be i n v o l v e d i n r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s p l a n n i n g n e a r t h e s t u d y a r e a . The two major problems a r e : t h e s m a l l s i z e o f t h e sample, w h i c h p r e v e n t s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e u s u a l s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s ; and t h e a l r e a d y i n a c c u r a t e c o s t e s t i m a t e s may be extended beyond t h e range o f e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . One f u r t h e r problem n o t mentioned by Walsh, i s f i n d i n g t h e e n g i n e e r s w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y s k i l l s i n a p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y a r e a . V i c t o r i a , B.C., i n t h i s c a s e , s i m p l y does n o t have t h e p e r s o n n e l a v a i l a b l e w i t h t h i s k i n d o f e x p e r t i s e . The b e s t e s t i m a t e s a v a i l a b l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia a r e from t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s b r a n c h , b u t t h e y w i l l r e a d i l y admit t h a t each s i t e has u n i q u e f e a t u r e s w h i c h cause c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n c o s t s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e y do not have an a c c o u n t i n g system i n p l a c e t o p r o v i d e h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e c o s t s f o r d i f f e r e n t s i t e c o n d i t i o n s . The c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l method i s used by p u b l i c and p r i v a t e companies t o examine t h e independent v a r i a b l e s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e c o s t s . U s i n g m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s t h e e f f e c t on c o s t o f r e c r e a t i o n o u t p u t , i n p u t p r i c e s , f a c i l i t y c a p a c i t y , l e v e l o f s e r v i c e , q u a l i t y o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , weather c o n d i t i o n s , and o t h e r i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s can be e s t i m a t e d . A g a i n , t h e c o m p a r a t i v e s t a t i s t i c s a r e s i m p l y n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r p r i v a t e s e c t o r f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n . However, d e s p i t e t h e major d i f f i c u l t i e s , c o m p a r i s o n i s made i n t h i s t h e s i s w i t h t h e c o s t s o f 17 p r o v i d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l a m e n i t i e s on U.S. N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s i n o r d e r t o s u p p o r t t h e e s t i m a t e s g e n e r a t e d . The t i m e s e r i e s method i s p o p u l a r w i t h p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n companies t o e s t i m a t e s h o r t - r u n c o s t f u n c t i o n s . U s u a l l y , v a r i a b l e c o s t s a r e r e g r e s s e d a g a i n s t v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g c o s t , such as wage r a t e s , m a t e r i a l p r i c e s , weather, f u e l c o s t , and so on. A l t h o u g h n o r m a l l y c o n d u c t e d d u r i n g a one-month p e r i o d i n w h i c h v a r i o u s c o s t s a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e number o f v i s i t s p e r month, a t h i r t y - m o n t h p e r i o d can p r o v i d e enough i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . T h i s l a t t e r method i s n o t a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h i s s t u d y p r o p o s a l b u t c e r t a i n l y w a r r a n t s s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n once r e c r e a t i o n management b e g i n s . I t i s an e f f e c t i v e way o f comparing t h e c o s t i n f o r m a t i o n d e v e l o p e d by t h e o t h e r two methods w i t h t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s o p e r a t o r . The t e n t h and f i n a l s t e p i n D o o l i n g ' s r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g model i s f i n a n c i a l a n a l y s i s ; i . e . t o i d e n t i f y t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s w i t h r e v e n u e - g e n e r a t i n g p o t e n t i a l and d e t e r m i n e t h e p o t e n t i a l net revenue under v a r y i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s . I n a d d i t i o n , B e v i n (1971) m a i n t a i n e d t h a t , "any r e a l i s t i c p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i n o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n must c o n s i d e r c a s h e n t e r p r i s e r e t u r n s , l a n d v a l u e a p p r e c i a t i o n , l a n d t a x a t i o n and noneconomic e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l g o a l s . " T h i s a l s o has been c o n s i d e r e d i n S e c t i o n IX o f t h i s t h e s i s . 18 2.2 R e c r e a t i o n - P r i c i n g and Fees I n Canada, o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n on i n d u s t r i a l p r i v a t e f o r e s t l a n d has n o t been s e r i o u s l y e x p l o i t e d as a m a r k e t a b l e p r o d u c t . The o r i e n t a t i o n , and perhaps l e g i t i m a t e l y s o , has been t o w a r d t i m b e r management as a raw m a t e r i a l s u p p l y . However, t h e A m e r i c a n l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t f o r e s t p r o d u c t s companies, such as Champion I n t e r n a t i o n a l L t d . , a r e t a k i n g a c l o s e r l o o k a t t h e o t h e r v a l u e s on t h e i r f o r e s t p r o p e r t y as a s o u r c e o f income t o o f f s e t o p e r a t i n g c o s t s (Anonymous 1989b). A d d i t i o n a l l y , s i n c e c u r r e n t s o c i a l and economic p r e s s u r e s d i c t a t e t h e m u l t i p l e use o f t h e f o r e s t r e s o u r c e , CPFP and o t h e r s must overcome t h e i n e r t i a t h a t f a v o u r s t h e c o n t i n u a n c e o f managing l a n d j u s t f o r t i m b e r ( C o r d e l l e t a l . 1985). Once t h e m u l t i p l e - u s e c o n c e p t i s a c c e p t e d by f o r e s t p r o d u c t companies, a p r i c i n g p o l i c y must be d e v e l o p e d t o a c h i e v e a s a t i s f a c t o r y r a t e o f r e t u r n . P r i c e i s d e t e r m i n e d n o t by demand o n l y , t h e f o c u s o f much o f Murray's (1988) r e s e a r c h , b u t a l s o by t h e s u p p l y and c o s t s o f r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s . T h i s s e c t i o n o u t l i n e s t h e t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a p r i c e , t h e m ajor problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r i c i n g and t h e o t h e r f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e arguments f o r and a g a i n s t r e c r e a t i o n f e e s a r e examined, and methods o f c o l l e c t i o n , w i t h i n d i c a t i o n s o f c u r r e n t c h a r g e s , a r e o u t l i n e d . 2.2.1 P r i c i n g - Theory and P r a c t i s e N a u t i y a l (1988) p r o v i d e d a t h e o r e t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p r i c i n g o f r e c r e a t i o n on p r i v a t e l a n d ( F i g u r e 5 ) . I t i s assumed t h a t as e n t r a n c e f e e s a r e l o w e r e d , t h e number o f v i s i t s w i l l i n c r e a s e ( t h e landowner f a c e s a downward s l o p i n g demand s c h e d u l e f o r r e c r e a t i o n ) . Average revenue (AR) and m a r g i n a l revenue (MR) c u r v e s a r e , t h e r e f o r e , downward n e g a t i v e l y s l o p i n g . The p r i v a t e f o r e s t owner, w i s h i n g t o measure n e t revenue, w i l l p r o v i d e t h a t q u a n t i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n w h i c h equates LRMC ( l o n g r u n m a r g i n a l c o s t ) t o MR. However, t h e e n t r a n c e f e e ch a r g e d by him w i l l be P r ( p r i c e o f r e c r e a t i o n ) . Bowes (1979) and G r e g o r y (1972) i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e m a r g i n a l c o s t i s t h e r e l e v a n t c o s t g u i d e t o how much o f what s h a l l be produce d and how much s h a l l be i n v e s t e d i n v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . A g e n e r a l o u t l i n e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p r i c e o f r e c r e a t i o n as adapte d from CromptOn (1984) i s as f o l l o w s : Stage 1 Determine the costs which the pr ice should recover: • Variable Cost • Fixed Cost • Opportunity Cost Stage 2 Determine the going rate: • Survey s imi la r services offered by other government agencies • Survey s imi l a r services offered by commercial suppliers F i g u r e 5 R e c r e a t i o n P r i c i n g on P r i v a t e F o r e s t L a n d Stage 3 - Examine the appropriateness of different opportunities based on: • Par t ic ipant • Product • Place • Time • Quantity • Promotional Income/Age Needs Stage 1 - The t h e o r e t i c a l p o i n t where t h e m a r g i n a l c o s t i n t e r s e c t s w i t h t h e m a r g i n a l revenue i s p o i n t o f maximum economic e f f i c i e n c y ( F i g u r e 5 ) . F i x e d c o s t s a r e n o t deemed i m p o r t a n t assuming t h e y a r e a l r e a d y a l l o c a t e d t o n o n - r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n f a c t o r s . However, i f t h e d e c i s i o n maker chooses t o a l l o c a t e a f i x e d c o s t such as p r o p e r t y t a x e s among t h e revenue- g e n e r a t i n g r e s o u r c e s and a l l o c a t e on t h e b a s i s o f c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t o t a l income, t h e n i n e f f e c t t h e . f i x e d c o s t becomes a v a r i a b l e c o s t . O p p o r t u n i t y c o s t and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e worthy o f a more l e n g t h y d i s c u s s i o n l a t e r i n t h i s S e c t i o n . S t a g e 2 i s s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y and e f f o r t s were made f o r a l l n o n - t i m b e r v a l u e s c o n s i d e r e d t o e s t a b l i s h a " g o i n g r a t e . " I n Stage 3 Crompton (1984) d e s c r i b e d t h e c r i t e r i a f o r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e p r i c i n g p o l i c y under t h e c a t e g o r i e s : (1) p a r t i c i p a n t s , (2) p r o d u c t , (3) p l a c e , (4) t i m e , (5) q u a n t i t y , and (6) i n c e n t i v e s t o t r y . The p a r t i c i p a n t s c a t e g o r y d e t e r m i n e s t h e p r i c e f o r i d e n t i f i a b l e groups such as t h e h a n d i c a p p e d , s e n i o r c i t i z e n s , c h i l d r e n o r f a m i l i e s . The p r o d u c t c a t e g o r y s u g g e s t s a b a s i c p r i c e be implemented w i t h a d d i t i o n a l p r i c e s r e f l e c t i n g i n c r e m e n t a l c o s t s . The p l a c e c a t e g o r y means c h a r g i n g based on such f a c t o r s as r e s i d e n c y , i . e . r e s i d e n t / n o n - r e s i d e n t . The ti m e c a t e g o r y can be used t o encourage o f f - p e a k u se p e r i o d s . The q u a n t i t y c a t e g o r y l i m i t s t h e amount o f use; and f i n a l l y , t h e i n c e n t i v e t o t r y o f f e r s new c l i e n t s l o w e r p r i c e s o r l o w e r s k i l l l e v e l s w i t h i n t h e same a c t i v i t y a l s o l o w e r s p r i c e s . S e r i o u s problems f o r t h e p r i v a t e i n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t owner a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e development o f an a p p r o p r i a t e p r i c e a t each o f t h e s e t h r e e s t a g e s . They a r e d e s c r i b e d by Crompton (1984) as: 1) I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i d e n t i f y , c l a s s i f y and e q u i t a b l y a l l o c a t e t h e c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each s e r v i c e . 2) The p r i c e c h a r g e d w i l l o n l y r e c o v e r t h e c o s t a n t i c i p a t e d i f t h e p r o j e c t e d number o f s e r v i c e u s e r s i s a c c u r a t e . 3) P r i c e s based on r e c o v e r y o f a p r o p o r t i o n o f c o s t s a r e d e t e r m i n e d n o t by market c o n s i d e r a t i o n s b u t by t h e c o s t o f p r o v i d i n g t h e s e r v i c e . Thus, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e c l i e n t group w i l l r e s i s t i t . 2.2.1.1 C o s t s 2.2.1.1.1 F i x e d and V a r i a b l e C o s t s F i x e d and v a r i a b l e c o s t s f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s , a r e n o t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e where no p r e v i o u s m a rkets e x i s t . Indeed, what c o s t i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t does e x i s t i s n o t r e a d i l y c o n v e r t e d i n t o t h e form r e q u i r e d f o r t h e p r o p o s e d f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r o p o s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . Thus, t o d e v e l o p s u p p l y c u r v e s , where t h e m a r g i n a l c o s t i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t a v a i l a b l e , i s d i f f i c u l t . The a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e q u a n t i t y and p r i c e f o r each r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y and t h e n c a l c u l a t e t h e c o s t o f p r o d u c i n g t h a t amount o f r e c r e a t i o n . I f t h e r a t e o f r e t u r n l o o k s a t t r a c t i v e enough t o w a r r a n t t h e i n v e s t m e n t t h e n t h e s u p p l i e r s , i n t h i s c a s e CPFP, s h o u l d do so. I n summary, o n l y one p o i n t on t h e s u p p l y c u r v e can be d e v e l o p e d w i t h one s e t o f g i v e n c o s t s . U n t i l f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d a m a r k e t a b l e p r o d u c t and a range o f c o s t s i s known f o r d i f f e r e n t q u a n t i t i e s produced, t h i s approach cannot be improved. 2.2.1.1.2 O p p o r t u n i t y C o s t s The measurement o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s t h e second major o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s t h e s i s . Thus i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d i s c u s s i t s i m p l i c a t i o n i n some d e t a i l . I n t h i s t h e s i s , t h e impact o f o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t , i . e . t h e revenue f o r e g o n e as a r e s u l t o f l o s s i n t i m b e r p r o d u c t i o n , can be i g n o r e d o r i n c l u d e d , depending upon t h e a s s u m p t i o n s made. Pe a r s e (1989) s t a t e s : O p p o r t u n i t y c o s t measures t h e r e a l c o s t t o s o c i e t y o f u s i n g a r e s o u r c e i n a p a r t i c u l a r way. However, p r i v a t e p r o d u c e r s i n p u r s u i t o f p r o f i t r e s p ond m a i n l y t o t h e monetary c o s t o r p r i c e t h e y must pay f o r t h e i r i n p u t s . T h i s q u o t a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p r i v a t e p r o d u c e r can i g n o r e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s i m p l y because he/she w i l l n o t f o r e g o t h e o p p o r t u n i t y w h i c h maximizes t h e n e t v a l u e o f t h e o u t p u t . On t h e o t h e r hand, CPFP c o u l d s u c c e s s f u l l y argue t h a t i f t h e p l a n n i n g o r z o n i n g c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by a d j a c e n t landowners, f o r example r e g i o n a l p a r k s c o r r i d o r s o r t h e Sooke community p l a n , r e s t r i c t t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l p r o p e r t y r i g h t s , i . e . p e r m i s s i o n t o c u t t h e f o r e s t , t h e n compensation o r s u b s i d y s h o u l d be f o r t h c o m i n g from t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t imposed. I n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , Crompton (1984) s u g g e s t e d t h e use o f t h e term " m e r i t s e r v i c e s " t o d e s c r i b e t h o s e s e r v i c e s produced by t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r t h a t have p u b l i c s e r v i c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . He s t a t e d : A l t h o u g h i t i s p o s s i b l e t o l e v y u s e r p r i c e s f o r m e r i t s e r v i c e s , i t i s n o t r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t u s e r s t o c o v e r a l l c o s t s because t h e r e a r e s p i l l o v e r b e n e f i t s w h i c h a r e r e c e i v e d by t h e whole community. The u s e r s s h o u l d be s u b s i d i z e d o n l y t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t b e n e f i t s t o t h e whole community a r e p e r c e i v e d t o o c c u r . To measure t h e o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t o f p l a n n i n g , R e i l i n g e t al_, (1983) r e p o r t e d a summary o f t h e methods i n p r e v i o u s c o s t o f p r o v i s i o n s t u d i e s . Among them t h e y l i s t : Study/ Management Agency Gibbs and Van Hees (1980)/U.S. Forest Servi ce Gibbs et a L (1979) OSDF Tyre (1975)/ U.S . Forest Service Type of Fact" I i t i e s Studied Land Cost Capital Cost Operations & Maintenance Cost 111 Campgrounds Timber Replacement Personnel, Wash. & Oregon Opportunity Cost Amortized Vehicles Cost 20 years at 10% Contract & Tools 9 Campgrounds i n Oregon 219 USFS Recreation F a c i l i t i e s in South Timber Replacement Personnel, Opportunity Cost Amortized Vehicles Cost 15 years at 10% Contract & Tools Timber Replacement Opportunity Cost Amortized Cost 20 years at 6% Overhead 25 Some r e s e a r c h e r s have chosen t o i g n o r e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t o f t i m b e r . Benson e t a l . (1985) , i n m e a s u r i n g t h e c o s t o f managing n o n - t i m b e r r e s o u r c e s , chose t o i g n o r e o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s i n t h e i r r e s e a r c h . S i m i l a r l y , R e i l i n g e t a l . (1983) d i d not c a l c u l a t e t h e l a n d c o s t i n a s s e s s i n g t h e c o s t o f p r o v i d i n g campgrounds. The S c a n d i n a v i a n s i n c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h i n t o t h i s p roblem o f o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t found t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n n e t p r e s e n t v a l u e o f an a r e a o f f o r e s t when s h i f t i n g from t i m b e r p r o d u c t i o n o n l y t o t i m b e r p r o d u c t i o n w i t h p r oposed r e c r e a t i o n was $360 p e r ha 1 a t a d i s c o u n t r a t e o f 3.5%. The d e c l i n e i n NPV was due t o t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e r o t a t i o n age beyond i t s optimum. Other S c a n d i n a v i a n r e s e a r c h e r s chose r e s t r i c t i o n on t i m b e r p r o d u c t i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n use based on i n t e r v i e w s and b e h a v i o u r a l s t u d i e s . The p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w e d were based on e s t i m a t e d o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t v a l u e s ( C h r i s t e n s e n 1981). To measure t h e impact o f l a n d z o n i n g , G i b b s e t a l . (1979) examined campgrounds i n Oregon t o d e t e r m i n e what volume o f t i m b e r had been f o r e g o n e by t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e f a c i l i t y . Three c r u c i a l l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s e x i s t on t h e Oregon S t a t e Department o f F o r e s t r y l a n d (OSDF). They a r e : 1) t o p p r o d u c t i o n - a l l e x i s t i n g t i m b e r would have been h a r v e s t e d ; o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t 100%; 11981 U.S. d o l l a r s u n a d j u s t e d . 2) s c e n i c p r o d u c t i o n - 75% o f t h e revenue from t i m b e r n o t h a r v e s t e d would be c o n s i d e r e d an o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t t o t h e campground; 3) s c e n i c c o n s e r v a n c y - no t i m b e r revenue would have been f o r e g o n e . G i b b s e t a l . (1979), u s i n g t h e s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , d e v e l o p e d t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a d e s c r i b i n g t h e p r e s e n t v a l u e o f t h e fo r e g o n e t i m b e r revenue: Present Value = No. of Acres x MAI x Net Stumpage Value per M bd . f t . x % of Loss Due to C l a s s i f i c a t i o n x Years Remaining U n t i l Harvest (1 + Interest R a t e ) Y e a r s R e m a i n i n 9 U n t 1 ' 1 H a r v e s t Present Value Conversion = No. of Hectares x MAI x Net Stumpage Value per Cubic Metre x % of Loss Due to C l a s s i f i c a t i o n x Years Remaining U n t i l Harvest (1 + Interest R a t e ) Y e a r s U n t i l H a r v e s t T h e r e f o r e , i f 2 0 ha o f CPFP's l a n d had been p r e v i o u s l y c l a s s i f i e d as t o p p r o d u c t i o n and t h e y d e c i d e d t o b u i l d a c a m p s i t e , hence a r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t o " r e c r e a t i o n u s e " f o r example, t h e n t h e fo r e g o n e t i m b e r revenue would be t h e n e t p r e s e n t v a l u e o f commercial t i m b e r v a l u e s s i n c e t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f l o s s due t o c l a s s i f i c a t i o n would be 100%. Land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n has enormous i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e mea s u r i n g o f o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t . Land z o n i n g and o t h e r p l a n n i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s a f f e c t CPFP's o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I f , f o r example, t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Sooke d e t e r m i n e s t h a t f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n i s a good o r s e r v i c e t h a t ought t o be a v a i l a b l e t o t h e r e s i d e n t s o f Sooke, t h e n i t i s a m e r i t good and t h e y s h o u l d be p r e p a r e d t o o f f e r a s u b s i d y . The t i m b e r o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t and p o s s i b l y t h e l o s s i n l a n d v a l u e due t o z o n i n g a r e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e measure o f t h e l o s s e s i n c u r r e d by CPFP. I n summary, t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether t o use t h e o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t o f t i m b e r i n an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e economics o f r e c r e a t i o n a l use remains v e r y complex. I f t h e p r o p e r t y r i g h t s o f CPFP a l l o w c o m p l e t e f l e x i b i l i t y i n managing f o r t h e maximum v a l u e o f o u t p u t t h e n no o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t e x i s t s . However, a d j a c e n t p r o p e r t y owners and t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c a t l a r g e can e a s i l y r e s t r i c t t h e f o r e s t company's f l e x i b i l i t y ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n i s c l e a r l y a m e r i t s e r v i c e . S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s argue t h e use o f t i m b e r o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s as an i n d i c a t o r o f t h e amount o f n e t revenue w h i c h must be r e t r i e v e d f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a r e c r e a t i o n a l use a r e a ; o t h e r s chose t o i g n o r e t h e c o s t a l t o g e t h e r . I f u s e r f e e s and s u b s i d i e s from l o c a l governments do n o t c o v e r t h e c o s t o f t h e l o s s i n t i m b e r v a l u e , s u r e l y l i t t l e i n c e n t i v e e x i s t s t o e x t e n d t h e management p r a c t i s e s t o encompass more t h a n t i m b e r . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e impact on l a n d v a l u e as a r e s u l t o f l a n d z o n i n g r e s t r i c t i o n . I f t h i s i s measurable t h e n i t must be i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s u b s i d i e s . F i n a l l y , i f t h e p r o v i s i o n o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n improved t h e b u s i n e s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Sooke, t h i s t o o must be added t o t h e amount o f s u b s i d y c o n s i d e r e d i n n e g o t i a t i o n s . However, o t h e r b e n e f i t s , such as improved p u b l i c . 2 8 r e l a t i o n s , a r e i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s i n c h o o s i n g t h e b e s t c o u r s e t h r o u g h t h e s e v e r y murky w a t e r s . 2.2.1.2 Use Measurement The second problem i d e n t i f i e d by Crompton (1984) was t h a t t h e p r i c e s c h a r g e d w i l l o n l y r e c o v e r t h e c o s t a n t i c i p a t e d i f t h e p r o j e c t e d number o f s e r v i c e u s e r s i s a c c u r a t e . I n M urray's (1988) s u r v e y t h e s e r v i c e u s e r o r r e c r e a t i o n i s t was asked t h e c u r r e n t use o f t h e a r e a f o r r e c r e a t i o n , t h e i n t e n d e d use o f t h e a r e a i f r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s were r e n d e r e d and t h e amount t h e s u r v e y e e would be w i l l i n g t o pay f o r s e l e c t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l a m e n i t i e s . I n t h i s s t u d y , an a t t e m p t was made t o v e r i f y t h e number o f s e r v i c e u s e r s by c o m p i l i n g government s t a t i s t i c s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e was a g r e a t d e a l o f d i s p a r i t y between t h e two c h i e f s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n on s e r v i c e u s e r s . 2.2.1.3 S t a r t - u p P r i c i n g The t h i r d problem i n p r i c e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , a l r e a d y a l l u d e d t o , i s , i n p a r t , t h e absence o f a market on w h i c h t o d e t e r m i n e an a p p r o p r i a t e p r i c e . The o t h e r a s p e c t i s r e s i s t a n c e by r e c r e a t i o n i s t s t o pay p a r t o f t h e c o s t o f something t r a d i t i o n a l l y v i e w e d as b e i n g f r e e ; whereas i f t h e r e c r e a t i o n p r o d u c t had a market p r i c e based on demand t h e y would a c c e p t i t . 29 To overcome t h i s o b s t a c l e Cowperwaite (1984) and L e c o u r t (1990) s u g g e s t e d t h a t a low i n i t i a l p r i c e w h i c h c l i m b s towards t h e market p r i c e o v e r a t e n - y e a r p e r i o d i s s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e . T a b l e 2 p r o v i d e s p r o v i d e s an i l l u s t r a t i o n f o r t h e N o r t h Maine woods o f t h e N o r t h e a s t U n i t e d S t a t e s . Table 2 Fee Schedule i n the North Maine Woods ( i n USS, not adjusted) Yearly Year Yearly Pass Resident Pass Day Use Non-res. Dai ly Fee Resident Dai ly Fee Non-res. Camping Dai ly Resident Camping Max. Non-res. Revenue 1976 5 20 1 3 15 (2 wks) 83,940 1977 5 20 1 3 .50 15 (2 wks) 114,829 1978 5 20 1 3 .50 or $10.00 .50 or 5 (2 wks) 1979 7.50 20 1 3 .50 or $12.50 1 or 21 (2 wks) 155,693 1980 7.50 20 1.50 3.50 1 or $12.50 1 or 21 (2 wks) 199,749 1981 8.00 25 1.50 3.50 3 or $15.00 4.50 or 25 (2 wks) 232,285 1982 10.00 25 2.00 3.50 3 or $15.00 4.00 or 25 (2 wks) 255,296 1983 10.00 25 2.00 3.50 3.50 or $15.00 4.50 or 25 (2 wks) 294,000 (Source: Cowperwaite 1984) L e c o u r t (1990) r e p o r t e d t h a t f o r t h e zones o f c o n t r o l l e d e x p l o i t a t i o n (ZEC) i n Quebec, t h e average a n n u a l f e e s ( i n nominal d o l l a r s ) f o r h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g and r o a d a c c e s s i n c r e a s e d as f o l l o w s : 1978 $ 41 per year 1981 $ 55 1982 $ 83 1985 $100 1989 $300 (maximum) 30 These f i g u r e s v a r y f o r each ZEC b u t g e n e r a l l y t h e f e e s have i n c r e a s e d by as much as 144% i n a 10-year p e r i o d ( L e c o u r t 1990). D e s p i t e t h e u n c e r t a i n t y s u r r o u n d i n g t h e r e c r e a t i o n u s e r f e e system, B o s s i ( c . 1980) argued: " I f we don't do something now, we c o u l d go a n o t h e r 50 y e a r s and s t i l l be w a i t i n g t o implement t h e ' p e r f e c t ' f e e system." 2.2.2 N o n - p r i c e Problems O t h e r problems b e s i d e s p r i c e f a c e t h e p r i v a t e f o r e s t owner. Indeed, t h e i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n might be t o w i t h d r a w from any t h o u g h t o f managing f o r non-timber v a l u e s . However, Hendee (1971) s t a t e d t h a t most c o r p o r a t e f o r e s t landowners w i l l c o n t i n u e t o p r o v i d e r e c r e a t i o n t o c o n t r o l t h e i n e v i t a b l e p u b l i c r e t a l i a t i o n s h o u l d t h e y be i d e n t i f i e d as i r r e s p o n s i b l e s t e w a r d s . The major problems i n p r o v i d i n g open a c c e s s d e s c r i b e d by Hendee (1971) and K o z l o w s k i (1989) a r e : i n c r e a s e d r i s k o f f i r e • i n c r e a s e d r i s k o f v a n d a l i s m e x c e s s i v e t a x a t i o n • condemnation (presumably f o r poor t i m b e r management p r a c t i s e s ) l a b o u r problems u n f a v o u r a b l e image i f c o r p o r a t i o n does n o t e x h i b i t a r e s p o n s i b l e a t t i t u d e • m i n i m a l economic i n c e n t i v e p e r c e i v e d landowner l i a b i l i t y . 31 A l l o f t h e s e a r e s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y , b u t l i a b i l i t y o f t h e landowner i s o f g r e a t c o n c e r n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Whether t h i s i s t r u e i n Canada remains t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d . I n t h e U.S., a t l e a s t 46 s t a t e s have a l t e r e d l i a b i l i t y laws t o r e d u c e t h e landowner's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o t r e s p a s s e r s and l i c e n s e e s ( C o r d e l l 1985) . C a r l t o n (1967) argued t h a t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i n t h e c a s e o f l e a s e s , f o r i n d i v i d u a l members must pass t o t h e l e s s e e . F o r t h e r e c r e a t i o n i s t u s i n g CPFP l a n d s under a f e e o r p e r m i t system a w a i v e r may be a p o s s i b i l i t y ( S i e g e l 1980). Other o p t i o n s i n c l u d e t h e " p o s t i n g " o f w a i v e r s i g n s ( S i e g e l 1980) o r p u b l i c l i a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e ( C a r l t o n 1967). T h i s s u b j e c t needs t o be c a r e f u l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d under f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e b e s t o p t i o n f o r CPFP. 2.2.3 R e c r e a t i o n Fees To implement a u s e r f e e system, t h e t r a d i t i o n o f f r e e a c c e s s , w i t h a l l t h a t i m p l i e s , must be overcome. H a r r i s e t a l . (1987) d i s c u s s e d t h r e e r e a s o n s f r e e a c c e s s s h o u l d c o n t i n u e : 1) h i s t o r i c p r e c e d e n t - i . e . t r a d i t i o n i s a major d e t e r r e n t t o f e e s ; 2) m e r i t goods - p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e m e r i t good because o f t h e i r b e n e f i t s t o s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l ; 3) p u b l i c s u b s i d i e s - o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d and a r e l a t i v e l y u n s t r u c t u r e d e x p e r i e n c e . Thus f e e c o l l e c t i o n i s seen as d e g r a d i n g t h e l e i s u r e 32 e x p e r i e n c e t h a t m o t i v a t e d t h e use o f an a r e a i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . C o c k r e l l e t a l . (1985) argued t h a t r e c r e a t i o n f e e s reduce t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n i s t t o make c h o i c e s , because once you s t a r t c h a r g i n g t h e r e i s a l i k e l i h o o d o f " b u n d l i n g " p r o d u c t s t o g e t h e r t o g e n e r a t e more revenue. D e s p i t e t h i s t h e a u t h o r s concede t h a t f e e s seem " j u s t i f i a b l e , e x p e d i t i o u s and i n e v i t a b l e . " C o r d e l l (1985) and Clawson e t a l . (1966) p o i n t o u t t h a t c o n c e r n s about f a i r n e s s t o low income e a r n e r s and t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f i m p l e m e n t i n g a f e e s system p r o v i d e r a t i o n a l e a g a i n s t a f e e program. However, t h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s n o t a c c e p t e d by a l l r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r s . The e q u i t y q u e s t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o t h e c u r r e n t p o l i c y o f u n d e r - p r i c i n g . A l t h o u g h , f o r example, t h e USFS campground s t u d i e s show o n l y f o u r t o e i g h t p e r c e n t (4-8%) o f t h e t o t a l c o s t i s r e c o v e r e d i n r e c r e a t i o n f e e s , t h e p r i m a r y u s e r s o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a r e i n t h e m i d d l e and upper income b r a c k e t s ( R e i l i n g 1983). The r e p o r t shows t h e median income o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n 28 r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h e median income o f t h e U.S. p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t even though u s e r f e e s were v e r y low o r n o t c h a r g e d a t a l l , i t d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e o f low income e a r n e r s . T r a v e l and equipment c o s t s a r e f a r more s i g n i f i c a n t ( R e i l i n g 1986). However, C o r d e l l (1984) s t a t e s t h i s i s a c t i v i t y s p e c i f i c . I n p a r t i c u l a r , f i s h i n g and h u n t i n g f e e s do d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t l o w e r income g r o u p s . P o s s i b l y a l o c a l government-funded program t o e l i m i n a t e t h i s e q u i t y problem would be t h e most e f f e c t i v e way o f m a i n t a i n i n g f a i r n e s s y e t a l l o w i n g t h e p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n owner t o manage f o r a r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o d u c t . U s i n g t h e p r i c i n g s t r a t e g y d e v e l o p e d e a r l i e r by Crompton (1984), t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t h a t does o c c u r c o u l d p o s s i b l y be a l l e v i a t e d by t h e s u g g e s t i o n s o f Fargo (1984) f o r t h e e l d e r l y , low income o r r u r a l r e s i d e n t s . They a r e : s c h e d u l e f r e e day o r f r e e h o u r s ; r e d u c e r a t e s f o r o f f - s e a s o n o r o f f - p e a k t i m e s ; • have l o c a l c i t i z e n s , b u s i n e s s o r s e r v i c e c l u b s s p o n s o r o r s u b s i d i z e programs o r s p o n s o r p a r t i c i p a n t s ; a d j u s t f e e s t r u c t u r e a c c o r d i n g t o income l e v e l ; p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o work i n exchange f o r f e e s ; • p u b l i c i z e d i s c o u n t o r l o w - c o s t f a c i l i t i e s o r a c t i v i t i e s ; • o f f e r d i s c o u n t p a s s e s t o low-income v i s i t o r s . 2.2.4 Revenue C o l l e c t i o n Revenue f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s on p r i v a t e l a n d can be c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h a l e a s i n g , u s e r f e e , o r p e r m i t system. The l e a s i n g method i s d e s c r i b e d i n more d e t a i l i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n on w i l d l i f e - n a t i v e b i g game s p e c i e s . C o r d e l l e t a l . (1985) r e p o r t e d l e a s e s on p r i v a t e l a n d f o r f i s h i n g and h u n t i n g grew by 28% from 1955 t o 1980. C o r d e l l (1989) a l s o n o t e d t h a t i n 1977, 2.4% o f h o n - i n d u s t r i a l landowners r e p o r t e d h a v i n g a r e c r e a t i o n a l l e a s e on t h e i r l a n d . I n 1982 t h e p e r c e n t a g e was 4.7%; i n 1987 i t was 6.6% (on P a c i f i c C oast 1 1 . 6 % ) . No c u r r e n t s t a t i s t i c s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r i n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t l a n d . The r e c r e a t i o n a l l e a s e s a r e about $3.00 p e r a c r e ($1.40/ha Can.) o r $90.00 p e r p e r s o n p e r y e a r ($103.00 Can.) i n t h e l e a s i n g p a r t y . Most l e a s e s on l a r g e t r a c t s (>200 ha) a r e w i t h c l u b s o r o t h e r groups o f r e c r e a t i o n i s t s ( 7 1 % ) . C o r d e l l (1989) m a i n t a i n e d t h a t owners who l e a s e f o r r e c r e a t i o n spend s u b s t a n t i a l l y g r e a t e r amounts o f money t o improve and manage t h e i r l a n d f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n , w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t o r f i s h e r i e s . O t h e r common methods o f revenue c o l l e c t i o n a r e by p e r m i t o r u s e r f e e system o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f b o t h . Even groups l a b e l l e d " e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , " i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a r e now s u p p o r t i n g t h e c a l l f o r r e c r e a t i o n f e e s (Anonymous 1989a). They s t i p u l a t e : 1) f e e s must be e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e market f o r c e s ; 2) f e e s must be ch a r g e d f o r a l l forms o f r e c r e a t i o n ; 3) managers must g e t an e q u a l s h a r e o f t h e n e t income from a l l forms o f r e c r e a t i o n ; 4) f o r e s t managers must be a l l o w e d t o c o n t r a c t o u t f e e c o l l e c t i o n . A g a i n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , G o d i n (1984) found h i k e r s q u i t e r e c e p t i v e t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i n t h e f u t u r e t h e y might have t o pay f o r some o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t a r e c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e a t no c o s t t o them. E n v i r o n m e n t a l groups (Anonymous 1989a) s u g g e s t e d f e e m o n i t o r i n g be done by v i s i b l e p e r m i t s ; a bumper s t i c k e r o r s k i l i f t - l i k e t a g s . The p e r m i t s can be i s s u e d on a d a i l y b a s i s o r an a n n u a l f e e ( t y p i c a l l y f i v e t i m e s t h e d a i l y f e e ) . They su g g e s t e d f o u r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f p e r m i t s and i n c l u d e : 1) b a s i c e n t r a n c e f e e s $4 p e r day, $20 p e r y e a r ; 2) w i l d e r n e s s p e r m i t s $10-$50 p e r p e r s o n , $25 t o $125 p e r f a m i l y ; 3) h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g p e r m i t s $10-$100 p e r y e a r ; 4) c o n c e n t r a t e d use p e r m i t s $1-$10 p e r day p e r p e r s o n ; examples: p i c n i c k i n g , swimming, b o a t i n g . These p r i c e s a r e based upon a c t u a l c h a r g e s i n many a r e a s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y on p u b l i c f o r e s t l a n d . F o r c o m p a r a t i v e purposes L e c o u r t (1990) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e zones o f c o n t r o l l e d e x p l o i t a t i o n ( ZEC's), o f Quebec, a r e now c h a r g i n g up t o $3 00.00 p e r y e a r f o r t h e p r i v i l e g e s l i s t e d above. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c has t o pay $3.00 t o $7.00 p e r day p e r v e h i c l e f o r t h e use o f r o a d s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e c h a r g e s mentioned, B a l d a c c h i n o (1984) s u g g e s t e d a r e s e r v a t i o n f e e system, whereby a l i m i t e d number o f r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e r s may be a l l o w e d a c c e s s t o an a r e a a t any one t i m e . T h i s c o u l d p r o v e u s e f u l once t h e f e e program i s i n s t i t u t e d and crowd c o n t r o l o r e x c l u s i v e use i s i n demand. P r o p o n e n t s such as B i n k l e y (1984) c i t e d f i v e advantages t o f e e s as compared w i t h o t h e r forms o f l i m i t i n g use. The f i r s t advantage i s t h a t a f e e system w i l l l e a d t o e f f i c i e n t a l l o c a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s . S e c o n d l y , t h e s o c i a l r e t u r n s w i l l i n c r e a s e so much t h a t t h e " w i n n e r s " can compensate t h e " l o s e r s . " The t h i r d advantage i s t h a t f e e s g e n e r a t e revenue. The f o u r t h advantage i s t h a t f e e s on p u b l i c l a n d s w i l l enhance t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n . "A w i d e s p r e a d , w i d e l y adopted p u b l i c system may open up s u r p r i s i n g l y wide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i n r e c r e a t i o n . " And f i n a l l y , f e e s a c h i e v e a more e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o s t . A l t h o u g h t h e s e advantages a r e o r i e n t e d towards p u b l i c l a n d , t h e p r i v a t e l a n d s would c e r t a i n l y b e n e f i t from t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a u s e r f e e system on a l l r e c r e a t i o n l a n d s . B i n k l e y (1987) i n a l a t e r paper i n d i c a t e d t h a t w h i l e r e c r e a t i o n f e e s r e d uce use, t h e i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s w i l l i n c r e a s e r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and t h e r e f o r e i n v e s t m e n t i n r e c r e a t i o n becomes more p r o f i t a b l e . D e s p i t e t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s , t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a p r i c e c o u l d s o l v e a number o f f u t u r e problems f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n i n B.C. on p r i v a t e l a n d . R e i l i n g (1986) s u g g e s t e d t h a t w i t h t h e g r e a t e r economic e f f i c i e n c y w h i c h f o l l o w s , c o n g e s t i o n problems w i l l be r e d u c e d ; t h e p r e s s u r e t o p r e s e r v e more a r e a w i l l be l e s s e n e d ; and t h e demand f o r p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n would p o s s i b l y i n c r e a s e . 37 O t h e r major b e n e f i t s f o r t h e p r i v a t e i n d u s t r i a l landowner from c h a r g i n g o f r e c r e a t i o n a l f e e s a r e : • i n c r e a s e p r o f i t from t h e f o r e s t r e s o u r c e (Brockman 1979); i n c r e a s e c o n t r o l o v e r f i r e and v a n d a l i s m (Hendee 1971); improve p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s (Brockman 1979); • improve chances t o have t a x e s change t o accommodate m u l t i p l e use ( C o r d e l l e t a l . 1989); s p r e a d t h e c o s t o f o p e r a t i o n (e.g. f i r e c o n t r o l ) (Hendee 1971); enforcement a s s i s t a n c e ( C o r d e l l e t a l . 1989); t y i n g p u b l i c a c c e s s t o a s s i s t a n c e programs ( C o r d e l l e t a l . 1989). From t h e p u b l i c ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e y can e x p e c t l a r g e r amounts o f money t o be s p e n t i m p r o v i n g and managing p r i v a t e l a n d f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n , w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t and f i s h e r i e s ( C o r d e l l 1989). N e l s o n (1984) and Crompton (1982), i n t h e i r s t u d i e s , found t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s do n o t oppose a r e a s o n a b l e i n c r e a s e i n f e e o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a f e e i f t h e y p e r c e i v e t h e f e e revenues w i l l h e l p r e c o v e r c o s t o r improve q u a l i t y . 2.2.5 C o n c l u d i n g Remarks Clawson e t a l . (1966) s u g g e s t e d t h a t p r i c e s s e r v e f o u r i m p o r t a n t r o l e s i n o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . They a s s i s t i n a l l o c a t i n g n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , c a p i t a l , l a b o u r and management among v a r i o u s u s e s . They p l a y a r o l e i n h e l p i n g consumers choose among a l t e r n a t i v e s on l i m i t e d incomes. They can be a management t o o l 38 t o b r i n g about more e f f i c i e n t management. F i n a l l y , t h e y a r e an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n i n v e s t m e n t d e c i s i o n s . D e s p i t e a l l t h e s e a t t r a c t i v e b e n e f i t s , t h e c u r r e n t o b s t a c l e s t o e s t a b l i s h i n g a p r i c e a r e f o r m i d a b l e when d e a l i n g w i t h a non- market good such as t h e r e c r e a t i o n v a l u e s e x p l o r e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . R e c r e a t i o n use measurement a l s o c o m p l i c a t e s a t t e m p t s t o c o m p i l e t h e n e c e s s a r y background m a t e r i a l f o r a r e c r e a t i o n p l a n . T h i s i s t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . 2.3 C o nversion o f Measured U n i t s Murray (1988) chose an a c t i v i t y day as h i s b a s i s f o r r e c r e a t i o n use measurement. I n c o n t r a s t , t h e more r e c e n t A m e rican l i t e r a t u r e i n p a r t i c u l a r , g e n e r a l l y u s e s t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l v i s i t o r day (RVD) o r p e r s o n s - a t - o n e - t i m e (PAOT). These d i f f e r e n t use measurements do n o t f a c i l i t a t e t h e comparison o f r e s u l t s , and a b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n s used and why t h e y a r e used seems n e c e s s a r y . The a c t i v i t y day i s " p a r t i c i p a t i o n by any member o f a h o u s e h o l d i n a r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y on t h e l a n d b a s e f o r any p o r t i o n o f a day. I t does n o t equate t o a c a l e n d a r day o f a c t i v i t y " (Murray 1988). So, f o r example, a r e c r e a t i o n i s t c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n f o u r a c t i v i t i e s i n one c a l e n d a r day r e s u l t i n g i n f o u r a c t i v i t y days i n a 24-hour p e r i o d . 39 The r e c r e a t i o n a l v i s i t o r day r e p r e s e n t s 12 v i s i t o r h o u r s s p e n t i n any r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y ; t h e h o u r s may be ag g r e g a t e d c o n t i n u o u s l y , i n t e r m i t t e n t l y o r s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , by one o r more p e r s o n s . Thus one p e r s o n c o u l d be p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n an a c t i v i t y f o r 12 h o u r s o r 12 p e o p l e c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n an a c t i v i t y f o r one hour and s t i l l y i e l d one RVD. The i m p l i c a t i o n i s , o f c o u r s e , t h a t no d i r e c t t r a n s l a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e t o a s s i s t i n t h e comparison o f r e s u l t s . G i b b s e t a l (1979) d i s c u s s e d r e c r e a t i o n days and t h e c o n v e r s i o n t o r e c r e a t i o n a l v i s i t o r days ( T a b l e 3 ) . Table 3 Recreational Use Measurements Recreation Day1 Recreational V i s i t o r Day Conversion A c t i v i t y (hours) (hours) Factor Hunting - big game 8 12 1.50 - sma11 game 5 12 2.40 Camping 13 12 0.92 Fishing - Anadromous 6 12 2.00 - Resident 6 12 2.00 Swimming 5 12 2.40 Picn ick ing 2 12 6.00 Driv ing for Pleasure 3 12 4.00 Four Wheel Dr iv ing 6 12 2.00 Motorcycling 6 12 2.00 Recreation Day - the number of people who v i s i t the s i t e , regardless of the i r length of stay. (Source: Gibbs et a l 1979) R e i l i n g (1983) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e RVD's a r e p r o b l e m a t i c f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , t h e RVD's may n o t a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e l e v e l o f use and t h e c o s t o f accommodating t h a t use. , F o r example, t h e o p e r a t i o n s and 40 maintenance c o s t o f a f a c i l i t y i s much h i g h e r i f 12 p e o p l e use t h e f a c i l i t y f o r one hour v e r s u s one p e r s o n u s i n g t h e same f a c i l i t y f o r 12 h o u r s . The second problem w i t h RVD's i s t h a t u s e r f e e s a r e u s u a l l y a s s e s s e d on t h e b a s i s o f o t h e r use measures. F o r example, t h e USFS uses RVD's t o measure t h e l e v e l o f campground u s e ; however, f e e s a r e a s s e s s e d on t h e b a s i s o f an o c c u p i e d s i t e . I n B r i t i s h C o lumbia, where r e c r e a t i o n management i s g e n e r a l l y p r i m i t i v e as compared w i t h our s o u t h e r n n e i g h b o u r s , t h e measurement o f use i s j u s t i f i a b l y i n a c t i v i t y d ays, u s e r days, o r p a r t y days. Murray (1990) p o i n t s o ut t h a t t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l use i s s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y low i n B.C. as compared w i t h t h e U.S.A.; t h e r e f o r e , measurement i n RVD's would n o t be j u s t i f i e d . C a l c u l a t i n g RVD's i s g e n e r a l l y done o n - s i t e where t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e r can i m m e d i a t e l y r e c a l l t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e he/she j u s t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n . I n c o n t r a s t , most r e c r e a t i o n a l use d a t a i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s c o l l e c t e d by s u r v e y s w h e r e i n p e o p l e cannot p r o v i d e d e t a i l e d a n n u a l r e c a l l . Thus, t h e a c t i v i t y day measurement i s more r e a s o n a b l e and r e a l i s t i c . R e i l i n g (1983) c o n c l u d e d t h a t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s p e c i f y a " c o r r e c t " measure o f r e c r e a t i o n u se. N o n e t h e l e s s , an attempt t o measure i s e s s e n t i a l f o r r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , e s t i m a t i n g RVD's i n terms o f a c t i v i t y days p r o v i d e s a rough b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n . R e c r e a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h e U.S.A., i n 41 p a r t i c u l a r , have d e v e l o p e d f a r more s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e c h n i q u e s f o r q u a n t i f y i n g t h e use and n e t v a l u e o f ou t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . A g e n e r a l f o r m u l a t o c o n v e r t a c t i v i t y day t o RVD's i s : Total A c t i v i t y Days / 12 hours Average Number of A c t i v i t i e s Average number of hours in each a c t i v i t y So, for example, i f average number of a c t i v i t i e s = 4 average number of hours in each a c t i v i t y = 3 then RVD's = Total A c t i v i t y Day 16 T h i s a p p l i e s f o r t h e a g g r e g a t i o n o f a l l a c t i v i t i e s . However, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o examine each r e c r e a t i o n a l use i n d i v i d u a l l y by s l i g h t l y m o d i f y i n g t h e p r e v i o u s f o r m u l a : RVD's = Total A c t i v i t y Days 12 hours/Avg. No. of hours in each a c t i v i t y Here use Gibbs (1979) recreation day (hours) to calcula te the RVD's (See Table 3 ) . S i m i l a r problems e x i s t i n t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f l o g volume from A m e r i c a n (M b d . f t . ) t o m e t r i c (m) u n i t s . S i n c e a s t r a i g h t c o n v e r s i o n i s n o t p o s s i b l e , an average l o g was assumed t o have a 2 0 i n c h t o p d i a m e t e r bucked i n 16 f o o t l e n g t h s . T h e r e f o r e , one l o g i s 280 b o a r d f e e t . U s i n g t h e S m a l i a n f o r m u l a f o r l o g volume ( i . e . avg. b a s a l a r e a l o g l e n g t h x no. o f l o g s p e r t r e e ) t h e rough e q u i v a l e n t t o 280 b d . f t . i s 1 m 3 i f t h e r e a r e f i v e l o g s i n one t r e e ( D i l w o r t h 1973). S m i t h (1990) and G r u e n f i e l d (1990) s u g g e s t an average c o n v e r s i o n 220 M b d . f t . e q u a l s 1 m3. T h i s c a l c u l a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y t o compare l o s s e s i n l o g volumes as a r e s u l t o f non - t i m b e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Of c o u r s e , i t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y i n c o n t r a s t i n g t h e l o g c o s t s and revenue found i n t h e American l i t e r a t u r e . O t h e r measurement problems abound and a r e d i s c u s s e d under t h e s p e c i f i c n o n - t i m b e r r e s o u r c e i n q u e s t i o n . 43 I I I . STUDY AREA - DESCRIPTION AND RATIONALE 3.1 P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g The 4000 ha case s t u d y a r e a , t h e Sooke R e c r e a t i o n Management A r e a (SRMA), i s i d e n t i f i e d i n F i g u r e s 1 and 2. I t i s l o c a t e d i n t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n c o r n e r o f Vancouver I s l a n d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 0 km west o f V i c t o r i a , j u s t n o r t h o f Sooke, B.C. I t i s owned by Canadian P a c i f i c F o r e s t P r o d u c t s L t d . , and c o m p r i s e s a p o r t i o n o f t h e i r p r i v a t e f o r e s t l a n d s i n t h i s r e g i o n . A d j a c e n t owners i n c l u d e Western F o r e s t P r o d u c t s L t d . ; t h e G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a Water Board; and A l b e r t Yeun, a p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l d e v e l o p e r . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l P a r k s Board has r e c e n t l y approved and i s d e v e l o p i n g t h e G a l l o p i n g Goose T r a i l as a r e g i o n a l p a r k c o r r i d o r . The o b j e c t i v e i s t o have a p a r k t r a i l e x t e n d t h e e n t i r e w i d t h o f s o u t h e r n Vancouver I s l a n d . The s t u d y a r e a l i e s i n t h e C o a s t a l Western Hemlock (CWH) b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zone, i n t h e d r i e r m a r i t i m e subzone w i t h a Vancouver I s l a n d v a r i a n t (CWHal). The c l i m a t e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by warm summers, m i l d w i n t e r s , an an n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n o f 2000 mm ( 7 % snow) and 35 mm p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n t h e d r i e s t months ( K l i n k a e t a l . 1 9 8 4 ) . A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e m e r c h a n t a b l e t i m b e r on t h e a r e a has been h a r v e s t e d l e a v i n g t h e t i m b e r p r o d u c t i v e l a n d s t o c k e d w i t h immature p l a n t a t i o n s (20-40 y e a r s o l d ) . The predominant c o m m e r c i a l s p e c i e s p r e s e n t a r e D o u g l a s - f i r Pseudotsuga m e n z e s i i (Mirb.) F r a n c o ( 6 5 % ) ; w e s t e r n hemlock Tsuga h e t r o p h y l l a (Raf.) S a r g . (10%) ; l o d g e p o l e p i n e P i n u s c o n t o r t a Douglas ex Loud. ( 1 5 % ) ; and w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r Thuja p l i c a t a Donn ex D. Don ( 5 % ) . The a n t i c i p a t e d e c o n o m i c a l l y a c c e s s i b l e t i m b e r l i e s l a r g e l y i n v a l l e y bottoms o f low t o medium p r o d u c t i v i t y ; a t l e a s t 25% t o 50% o f t h e a r e a i s i n r o c k o u t c r o p s s c a t t e r e d w i t h non-commercial t r e e c o v e r . The f o r e s t company, CPFP, has, j u s t i f i a b l y , no t i m b e r volume s t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e s e s c a n t i l y c l a d h i l l s . The s t u d y a r e a i s p r e s e n t l y used by a wide v a r i e t y o f r e c r e a t i o n i s t s f o r a number o f a c t i v i t i e s . They i n c l u d e : h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g , swimming and camping, mountain b i k i n g , t r a i l b i k i n g , b e e k e e p i n g and f i r e w o o d c o l l e c t i n g (Murray 1988). To d a t e , CPFP has p e r m i t t e d t h e p u b l i c t o use t h i s a r e a f r e e o f c h a r g e , e x c e p t f o r f i r e w o o d and a p i a r y p e r m i t s . 3.2 Determination of Study Area Boundary I n o r d e r t o r e a l i z e t h e economic p o t e n t i a l o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s , a s p e c i f i c a r e a i s i d e n t i f i e d w h i c h would make t h i s a w o r k a b l e o b j e c t i v e . The major f a c t o r s a r e : i ) an a r e a where t h e t i m b e r i s o f a l o w e r c o m m e r c i a l v a l u e ; i i ) t h e p r o x i m i t y o f t h e a r e a t o major p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s (namely V i c t o r i a and S o o k e ) ; i i i ) t h e i n c r e a s i n g number o f c o n s t r a i n t s on h a r v e s t i n g p r i v a t e f o r e s t l a n d by a d j a c e n t p r o p e r t y owners; i v ) t h e a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l a c c e s s t o t h e a r e a i n o r d e r t o l e v y a u s e r f e e f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s ; v) t h e e x i s t i n g Sooke Community P l a n and i t s z o n i n g o f C P F P ' S p r i v a t e i n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t l a n d ; v i ) t h e c h a n g i n g t i d e o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n . CPFP can show t h a t a major f o r e s t company i s p l a n n i n g f o r t h e l o n g term g i v i n g due c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o a e s t h e t i c and s o c i a l v a l u e s ; v i i ) t h e immature f o r e s t i s n o t s l a t e d f o r l o g g i n g f o r a n o t h e r 15 y e a r s and t h e main h a u l r o a d i s n o t used f o r l o g g i n g o t h e r a r e a s ; v i i i ) t h e a r e a has a l r e a d y been e v a l u a t e d f o r c u r r e n t and i n t e n d e d r e c r e a t i o n a l use. As a l r e a d y mentioned, t h e f i r s t f a c t o r , t i m b e r v a l u e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y low i n t h e SRMA as compared w i t h o t h e r l a n d i n CPFP's p r i v a t e l a n d ^ h o l d i n g . These v a l u e s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n S e c t i o n IX o f t h i s t h e s i s . The second f a c t o r i s t h e SRMA i s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 km from t h e C i t y o f V i c t o r i a and 10 km from t h e Community o f Sooke. Thus i t seems i d e a l l y s u i t e d f o r p r o v i d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l a m e n i t i e s , because i t i s one o f t h e c l o s e s t o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s f o r t h e s e p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , a h i g h q u a l i t y o f t h e o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e c o u l d be o f f e r e d w i t h p r o p e r management, as e v i d e n c e d by c u r r e n t use. The t h i r d f a c t o r i s t h e c o n c e r n s o f a d j a c e n t p r o p e r t y owners. Among them a r e t h e R e g i o n a l P a r k s - G a l l o p i n g Goose 46 T r a i l , A l b e r t Yeun's p r i v a t e c ommercial r e c r e a t i o n a r e a , and t h e G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a Water S u p p l y a r e a . The G a l l o p i n g Goose T r a i l has been approved as a r e g i o n a l p a r k c o r r i d o r . The r e g i o n a l p a r k p l a n n e r , Mr. J e f f Ward, has s u b m i t t e d a budget f o r 1990 and immediate a n t i c i p a t e d use i n c l u d e s h o r s e b a c k r i d i n g , b i c y c l i n g and h i k i n g . A s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f t h e t r a i l , an abandoned r a i l w a y l i n e , r u n s t h r o u g h CPFP p r o p e r t y , and t h e f i n a l d e s t i n a t i o n p o i n t , Leechtown, an abandoned m i n i n g town, i s on CPFP p r o p e r t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s c o r r i d o r w i l l promote even more r e c r e a t i o n use i n t h e v i c i n i t y and CPFP must be a b l e t o c o n t r o l t h e r e c r e a t i o n i s t s on t h e i r l a n d . I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e r s i n t h i s a r e a w i l l be s e n s i t i v e t o t h e a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s , and t h a t t i m b e r h a r v e s t i n g o f t r e e s must be c a r e f u l l y p l a n n e d and e x e c u t e d . A l b e r t Yeun, a p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r , has a 65 ha p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l a r e a on t h e e a s t s i d e o f t h e Sooke R i v e r , a d j a c e n t t o CPFP's l a n d and n o r t h o f Sooke P o t h o l e s P r o v i n c i a l P a r k . He has made s i g n i f i c a n t i n v e s t m e n t s , a l o n g w i t h l o a n s from t h e f e d e r a l government, i n e s t a b l i s h i n g an o f f i c e complex, h o t e l , c a m p s i t e s , p r e f a b r i c a t e d house c o n s t r u c t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and a r e a l e s t a t e complex. I f t h i s p a r t i a l l y c o m pleted p r o j e c t s h o u l d p r o c e e d as p l a n n e d , t h e a e s t h e t i c s o f CPFP's l a n d s as t h e major f o c u s o f t h e v i e w i n g from h i s p r o p e r t y w i l l p l a y a major r o l e i n d e v e l o p i n g an a c c e p t a b l e s e t o f p l a n s f o r t r e e h a r v e s t i n g . The G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a Water S u p p l y A r e a , w h i c h f l a n k s t h e SRMA b o t h on t h e n o r t h e r n and e a s t e r n s i d e s , a l l o w s no r e c r e a t i o n use e x c e p t d e e r h u n t i n g by s p e c i a l p e r m i t . C e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n want t o a c t i v e l y d i s c o u r a g e any r e c r e a t i o n a l use on a d j a c e n t p r o p e r t y s i n c e t h e y f e a r t h a t t h e w a t e r s u p p l y a r e a w i l l be encroached upon f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . The f o u r t h f a c t o r , t h e a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l p u b l i c a c c e s s , i s o f g r e a t c o n c e r n t o company o f f i c i a l s . The company has a l o n g h i s t o r y o f s u f f e r i n g from v a n d a l i s m and d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e l o g g i n g m a c h i n e r y and equipment. A d d i t i o n a l l y , company employees, i n c a r r y i n g out t h e i r d u t i e s have f e l t t h r e a t e n e d by r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y h u n t e r s . F u r t h e r m o r e , a c c e s s c o n t r o l i s c r i t i c a l f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f u s e r f e e s by t h e company o r i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . The f i f t h f a c t o r , an o f f i c i a l community p l a n f o r t h e e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t o f Sooke was adopted on September 14, 1988 as By-law No. 1. The SRMA i s c l a s s i f i e d as open space and r e c r e a t i o n ( p r i m a r i l y a l o n g t h e Sooke R i v e r ) o r as u p l a n d - w a t e r s h e d ( F i g u r e 4 ) . I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t c o n s t r a i n t s on h a r v e s t i n g c o u l d be imposed by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . F o r example, a r e a s have a l r e a d y been i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n t h e SRMA r e q u i r i n g a development p e r m i t w h i c h i s s u b j e c t t o t h e C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Board. The SRMA i s e s s e n t i a l l y c o n s t r a i n e d on t h e e a s t , n o r t h and s o u t h by a d j a c e n t p r o p e r t y owners and t h i s makes i t 48 e a s i e r t o manage because i t i s n ' t d i v i d e d up i n t o i s o l a t e d a r e a s . The o n l y p o t e n t i a l problem i s t h e Western F o r e s t P r o d u c t ' s p r o p e r t y , v i r t u a l l y i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e SRMA. N e g o t i a t i o n s a r e r e q u i r e d t o ens u r e t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n i n d e v e l o p i n g a r e c r e a t i o n p l a n . The s i x t h f a c t o r , t h e c h a n g i n g t i d e o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n , i s an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e f i r s t f i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . T h i s a r e a seems i d e a l l y s u i t e d t o s e r v e as an example o f a r e c r e a t i o n f o r e s t . CPFP and o t h e r B.C. f o r e s t p r o d u c t f i r m s have s u f f e r e d from n e g a t i v e p u b l i c i t y i n r e c e n t months. Poor p l a n n i n g and l a c k o f p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t a r e o f t e n c i t e d as t h e major o f f e n s e s ( P a r f i t t 1989; M c L i n t o c k 1990). The c r i t i c i s m o f l o g g i n g p r a c t i s e s i s i n t e n s e on t h e p r i v a t e l a n d h o l d i n g s on t h e G u l f I s l a n d s o f B.C. (e.g. G a l i a n o and S a l t s p r i n g i s l a n d s ) . B oth CPFP, a l a r g e f o r e s t p r o d u c t s company, and o t h e r s m a l l e r l o g g e r s on s o u t h e r n Vancouver I s l a n d have a l s o made l o c a l newspaper h e a d l i n e s because o f t i m b e r h a r v e s t i n g p r a c t i s e s ( G a l l a g h e r 1989; Brown 1989). I n t e g r a t e d r e s o u r c e management p l a n n i n g t o s a t i s f y t h e c o n c e r n s o f an alarmed p u b l i c s i m p l y makes good b u s i n e s s sense. Even t h e c u r r e n t M i n i s t e r o f F o r e s t s f o r B.C. a d m i t s , " P u b l i c p e r c e p t i o n i s a major f o r c e t h a t must be d e a l t w i t h " (Richmond 1990). The s e v e n t h f a c t o r i s t h a t l o g g i n g i s n o t s c h e d u l e d t o o c c u r f o r a n o t h e r f i f t e e n y e a r s and t h e main h a u l r o a d i s n o t c u r r e n t l y u sed f o r l o g g i n g o t h e r a r e a s . T h i s i s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e i n i t i a l development o f a r e c r e a t i o n f o r e s t because p r i o r t o l o g g i n g 49 a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e n e x t c e n t u r y p u b l i c c o n f i d e n c e c a n, h o p e f u l l y , be g a i n e d i n o r d e r t o en s u r e t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f w e l l - t h o u g h t - out l o g g i n g p r o p o s a l s . The e i g h t h and f i n a l f a c t o r i s t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l i n v e n t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e from Murray's (1988) t h e s i s and t h e M i n i s t r y o f Environment s t a t i s t i c s . No i n d u s t r i a l p r i v a t e f o r e s t l a n d s i n B.C. have been s t u d i e d i n t h e same amount o f d e t a i l f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . S e c t i o n IV p r e s e n t s a summary o f t h e major f i n d i n g s by Murray and t h e l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d and c o m p i l e d . G i v e n t h e s e major c o n c e r n s t h e s t u d y a r e a boundary was chosen by e x a m i n i n g : i ) t h e p r o p e r t y b o u n d a r i e s c u r r e n t l y i n p l a c e ; i i ) t o p o g r a p h y and major h e i g h t s o f l a n d ; i i i ) p r eponderance o f management u n i t s w i t h low t i m b e r v a l u e s ; i v ) c u r r e n t w a t e r s u p p l y r e g i o n f o r t h e C i t y o f V i c t o r i a and M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Sooke; v) c u r r e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e ; v i ) v a r i e t y o f p o t e n t i a l r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h e x i s t . The h e i g h t o f l a n d i s t h e n a t u r a l boundary on t h e w e s t e r n s i d e because a e s t h e t i c s a r e an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r a t l e a s t two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , t h e A l b e r t Yeun p r o p e r t y and i t s 50 development c o u l d l e a d t o a s i g n i f i c a n t p o p u l a t i o n k e e p i n g c l o s e s c r u t i n y on f u t u r e h a r v e s t i n g p r a c t i s e s (2005-2050). Second, t h e G a l l o p i n g Goose R e g i o n a l P a r k C o r r i d o r w i l l be an e x t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l a c c e s s r o u t e . Many p l a c e s a l o n g t h e t r a i l a l l o w t h e r e c r e a t i o n i s t s l a n d s c a p e v i e w s o f CPFP's p r o p e r t y . I n s e n s i t i v e l o g g i n g c o u l d l e a d t o d i s a s t r o u s p u b l i c and community r e l a t i o n s . The t i m b e r v a l u e s f o r t h i s a r e a a r e c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g two d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f y i e l d p r o j e c t i o n s (see S e c t i o n I X ) . The a n t i c i p a t e d l o s s e s from t i m b e r management can be supplemented by a r e c r e a t i o n management p l a n w h i c h a l l o w s CPFP t o c o l l e c t revenue from i t s n o n - t i m b e r r e s o u r c e s . The c a l c u l a t e d t i m b e r v a l u e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y low compared w i t h t h e a l t e r n a t i v e o f s e l l i n g t h e l a n d (see S e c t i o n I X ) . As mentioned, a t l e a s t 25% o f t h e a r e a has no s i g n i f i c a n t t i m b e r v a l u e . The t o t a l l a n d a r e a i n t h e SRMA i s 4000 ha w h i l e t h e i n v e n t o r i e d p r o d u c t i v e l a n d a r e a i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1170 ha i n CPFP's management c l a s s 40-43. 2 The catchment b a s i n f o r t h e w a t e r s u p p l y f o r t h e V i c t o r i a a r e a i s p a r t i a l l y on CPFP's f o r e s t p r o p e r t y . ( F i g u r e 2 ) . The GVWD i s c u r r e n t l y n e g o t i a t i n g w i t h CPFP p e r m i s s i o n t o p a t r o l t h i s a r e a and a c t i v e l y d i s c o u r a g e r e c r e a t i o n a l use. A d d i t i o n a l l y , a p i p e l i n e was i n s t a l l e d from t h e Leech R i v e r i n t o Sooke Lake. 2See G l o s s a r y f o r e x p l a n a t i o n o f terms. T h i s r e p r e s e n t s t h e n o r t h w e s t e r n boundary f o r t h e SRMA s i n c e w a t e r above t h e p i p e i s o b v i o u s l y d r a i n i n g i n t o t h e G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a Water S u p p l y . The Sooke Water S u p p l y i s a l s o on CPFP p r o p e r t y , a l t h o u g h i t i s n o t c u r r e n t l y under any s p e c i a l p r o t e c t i o n s i n c e i t i s used o n l y i n t h e w i n t e r months as a w a t e r s o u r c e when l i t t l e o r no r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i s o c c u r r i n g . A t o t h e r t i m e s d u r i n g t h e y e a r , t h e w a t e r from Sooke Lake i s conveyed by p i p e t o t h e Sooke Community Water S u p p l y i n t a k e . The c u r r e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f t h e a r e a has been w e l l s u r v e y e d and documented by Murray (1988). The Sooke R i v e r runs t h r o u g h SRMA and i t i s c l e a r l y shown t o be a major s o u r c e o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y ; e s p e c i a l l y swimming, camping and h i k i n g . The s u r v e y r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h e c l e a r p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e l o c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e r s and a r e d e s c r i b e d more f u l l y i n S e c t i o n IV. F i n a l l y , t h i s a r e a o f f e r s an even w i d e r r a n g e . o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r n o n - t i m b e r management t h a n c u r r e n t l y e x i s t s . The f i s h p o p u l a t i o n s i n t h e t h r e e l a k e s c o u l d be enhanced, even a r t i f i c i a l l y m a i n t a i n e d a t h i g h e r l e v e l s . The p o t e n t i a l c a m p s i t e s i d e n t i f i e d i n S e c t i o n V I I I c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d . The h u n t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s c o u l d be managed more i n t e n s i v e l y f o r b o t h l a r g e game and u p l a n d b i r d s . F i n a l l y , t h e management o f l a r g e game s p e c i e s as a f a r m i n g o p e r a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d . W i t h a p p r o p r i a t e m a r k e t i n g t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f t h e a r e a c o u l d be i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . T h i s t h e s i s e x p l o r e s t h e economic f e a s i b i l i t y o f p u r s u i n g t h e s e o p t i o n s . The n e x t s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s a b r i e f summary o f a s u r v e y and t h e s i s by Murray (1988). As a l r e a d y mentioned, t h i s was ah i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e i n t h e development o f t h i s t h e s i s . I V . MURRAY'S FINDINGS - SUMMARY T h e s i s - " H a r v e s t i n g C r o p s Between t h e T r e e s " 4.1 M e t h o d o l o g y and P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g A non-market v a l u a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s on p r i v a t e f o r e s t l a n d was u n d e r t a k e n by Murray (1988) t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r i n t e g r a t e d f o r e s t management d e c i s i o n making. The C o n t i n g e n t V a l u a t i o n Method (CVM) (P e a r c e 1988; B i s h o p e t a l . 1979; Dwyer 1977; Edwards 1987; L a n g f o r d 1978; Cummings e t a l . 1986) was a p p l i e d . A m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e was s e n t t o a random sample o f ho u s e h o l d s w i t h i n t h e C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t on Vancouver I s l a n d . Based on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s u r v e y , e s t i m a t e d w i l l i n g n e s s - t o - p a y (WTP) v a l u e s and d e r i v e d p o t e n t i a l g r o s s b e n e f i t s were made f o r h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g and camping on t h e 18,000 ha s t u d y a r e a , and CPFP's p r i v a t e l y owned l a n d b a s e w h i c h i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10,000 ha o f t h i s s t u d y a r e a , F i g u r e s 6 and 7, T a b l e 4. The r e m a i n i n g 8,000 ha i s l a n d p r i m a r i l y owned by two o t h e r f o r e s t companies; i . e . F l e t c h e r C h a l l e n g e Canada L t d . and Weste r n F o r e s t P r o d u c t s L t d ; though t h e r e a r e a few s m a l l p a r c e l s o f p r i v a t e l y owned non-commercial f o r e s t l a n d , Sooke P o t h o l e s P r o v i n c i a l P a r k and Sooke Mountain P a r k i n c l u d e d .  I s i Figure 7 D e t a i l s of Murray's Study Area 56 Table 4 Summary of Major Findings for CPFP Lands (Numbers are rounded from T. Murray's thesis f ind ings . ) Actual Intended Potent ial Recreational Recreational Avg. Annual A c t i v i t y A c t i v i t y WTP Gross Days Days $ Benefits Hiking 140,000 N/A Swimming 110,000 N/A Sightseeing 110,000 N/A P icn ick ing 90,000 N/A 4-Wheeling/Touring 80,000 N/A Others 160,000 N/A Hunting (big game) 20,000 25,000 9.00 225,000 Fishing 120,000 260,000 2.50 650,000 Camping, 120,000 80,000 525,000 Primi t ive 40,000 3.00 Semi-primitive 30,000 . 8.00 Modified 4,000 10.00 Rural 1,500 13.00 Cabin 2,500 43.00 Total A l I A c t i v i t i e s 950,000 365,000 $1,400,000 (Source: Murray 1988) 4.2 Major F i n d i n g s I n 1986, 14% o f t h e CRD p o p u l a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f CPFP's l a n d w i t h i n Murray's s t u d y a r e a , F i g u r e 7. Some 950,000 a c t i v i t y days a r e c u r r e n t l y g e n e r a t e d by r e c r e a t i o n u se. Three o f e v e r y f o u r a r e a - u s e r heads o f h o u s e h o l d s were male and between 25-54 y e a r s o l d , and 75% o f CPFP l a n d u s e r s have l i v e d i n t h e CRD f o r more t h a n t e n y e a r s . The l a t t e r f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e a v e r y s t a b l e community o f r e s i d e n t s who use and a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e a r e a , w i t h 38% coming from as f a r as t h e S a a n i c h community and 24% from V i c t o r i a . 4.3 L i m i t a t i o n s o f Murray's Study Murray's (1988) t h e s i s d i d not a d d r e s s s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n r e c r e a t i o n a l management p l a n n i n g . They a r e : t h e p o s s i b l e c o n g e s t i o n on s i t e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e ; t h e v a l u e o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e t o non- c onsumptive u s e r s ; t h e o p t i o n , e x i s t e n c e o r bequest v a l u e s a t t a c h e d t o t h e l a n d ; t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s e p a r a t i n g d a t a a f t e r t h e s u r v e y c o v e r e d a much l a r g e r g e o g r a p h i c a r e a ; t h e p o t e n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e s s h o u l d a p p r o p r i a t e m a r k e t i n g p l a n s a t t r a c t n o n - r e s i d e n t s . C o n g e s t i o n f o r a c t i v i t i e s such as f i s h i n g can be a major problem. F i r s t , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e what c o n g e s t i o n means because i t means d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s i n d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s . F or example, t h e Dean R i v e r , B.C., i s c u r r e n t l y e x p e r i e n c i n g c o n g e s t i o n problems w i t h a n g l e r s whose numbers would be c o n s i d e r e d c o m p l e t e l y a c c e p t a b l e i n most European r i v e r s ( P a i s h 1990). I n o r d e r t o keep t h e s u r v e y d a t a t o a manageable amount and t h e s u r v e y i t s e l f t o a r e a s o n a b l e l e n g t h , t h e v a l u e and i n t e n d e d non-consumptive uses were n o t measured. Y e t t h e s t a t i s t i c s show t h e non-consumptive u s e r s a r e 83% o f a c t u a l use ( T a b l e 4) on CPFP p r o p e r t y ; and i n Canada a t l a r g e t h e t o p f i v e r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s a r e (1) p l e a s u r e d r i v i n g , (2) p i c n i c k i n g , (3) h i k i n g , 58 (4) s i g h t s e e i n g , and (5) swimming (Meis 1979) . The l a t t e r f o u r a c t i v i t i e s compare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h Murray's f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 4. These a c t i v i t i e s a r e i m p o r t a n t because, s h o u l d a u s e r f e e system be adopted, t h e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e would be i n p l a c e t o c o l l e c t f e e s from t h e non-consumptive u s e r as w e l l as t h o s e consuming such r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o d u c t s as f i s h i n g , h u n t i n g and camping. The o p t i o n , e x i s t e n c e and bequest v a l u e s a r e now b e i n g measured by e c o n o m i s t s i n t h e i r a t t e m p t t o v a l u e t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e o f f - s i t e u s e r s . These v a l u e s a r e n o r m a l l y a p p l i e d t o p u b l i c l a n d , b u t s h o u l d CPFP e n t e r i n t o an easement agreement, 3 f o r example, t h e n t h e s e v a l u e s a r e worthy o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e revenue t o be g e n e r a t e d from such s h a r i n g o f o w n e r s h i p . F o r a more i n - d e p t h d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e v a l u e s , r e f e r t o P e a r s e 1989, Walsh 1988, P e a r c e 1988, Walsh e t a l . 1986, G r e e n l e y e t a l . 1982. I n o r d e r t o meet CPFP's need t o a s s e s s t h e amount and a n t i c i p a t e d r e c r e a t i o n on i t s p r o p e r t y , Murray had t o s e p a r a t e CPFP's d a t a from t h e l a r g e r s t u d y a r e a ' s d a t a . The a s s u m p t i o n made was t h a t i f t h e r e c r e a t i o n i s t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n one a c t i v i t y on CPFP l a n d t h e n a l l a c t i v i t i e s he/she p a r t i c i p a t e d i n were on 3Easement agreements have been i n p l a c e f o r a t l e a s t 30 y e a r s i n t h e U.S. S e v e r a l t y p e s now e x i s t : s c e n i c , c o n s e r v a n c y , development easement agreements a r e j u s t a few examples how p r i v a t e landowners can be compensated f o r l a n d use r e s t r i c t i o n s ( D o o l i n g 1990). 59 CPFP l a n d , n o t t h e l a r g e r s t u d y a r e a . T h e r e f o r e , t h e numbers g e n e r a t e d must be used w i t h extreme c a u t i o n . Though beyond t h e scope o f Murray's s u r v e y , he i n d i c a t e d 1.5 m i l l i o n v i s i t o r days o f t o u r i s t t r a f f i c e n t e r t h e V i c t o r i a a r e a on an a n n u a l b a s i s (Murray 1988). T h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n CPFP's f u t u r e s t r a t e g i c p l a n s . The B.C. M i n i s t r y o f T o u r i s m concedes i t has no measurement o f t h e use o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s by t o u r i s t s i n B.C. However, t h e V i c t o r i a B u s i n e s s R e p o r t (Marcon R e s e a r c h 1989) s u g g e s t s : The q u e s t i o n f a c i n g t h i s r e g i o n i s m i n i m i z i n g t h e d u a l use c o n f l i c t . To i n t e g r a t e v i s i t o r and f o r e s t r y o p e r a t i o n s , t h e two i n d u s t r i e s must come t o g e t h e r and d e s i g n arid p l a n t h e means t o a c c o m p l i s h d u a l use . . . . F o r t o u r companies t h e b e n e f i t o f w o r k i n g w i t h f o r e s t companies and r e c r e a t i o n a l o p e r a t o r s i n t h e a r e a c o u l d l e a d t o w e l l - p l a n n e d t o u r packages. The average t o u r i s t t o d a y i s l o o k i n g f o r a 'new e x p e r i e n c e , ' one t h a t c h a l l e n g e s them as w e l l as e d u c a t e s them. T h i s s t a t e m e n t a l o n e i n d i c a t e s a d d i t i o n a l uses and v a l u e s t o CPFP l a n d s i f an i n t e g r a t e d f o r e s t management p l a n c a p t u r e s t h e t o u r i s t market. 4.4 C o n c l u s i o n s and Recommendations The m ajor c o n c l u s i o n and recommendations by Murray a r e : f i s h i n g s h o u l d be t h e p r i m a r y f o c u s o f any f u r t h e r r e c r e a t i o n a l revenue r e s e a r c h on t h i s l a n d b a s e , f o l l o w e d by s e m i - p r i m i t i v e camping, h u n t i n g , and p r i m i t i v e camping r e s p e c t i v e l y . F u r t h e r m o r e , more work i s r e q u i r e d t o e s t i m a t e t h e p o t e n t i a l net revenue o b t a i n a b l e from t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . Such a s t u d y s h o u l d a d d r e s s t h e c o s t s o f p r o v i d i n g t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s , and i n c l u d i n g c o s t s o f p l a n n i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n , o p e r a t i o n , maintenance, l i a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e , t a x a t i o n r a t e s , and r i s k s such as f i r e and t h e f t , as w e l l as o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s i n terms o f f o r e g o n e t i m b e r v a l u e s o f u n d e r t a k i n g a p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t . F i n a l l y , methods o f i m p l e m e n t i n g a f e e c o l l e c t i o n scheme s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d . I n l i g h t o f t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations t h i s t h e s i s examines f i s h i n g , h u n t i n g , game f a r m i n g and campgrounds as revenue s o u r c e s . These a r e t h e s u b j e c t s o f t h e n e x t f o u r s e c t i o n s . 61 V. FISHING 5.1 I n v e n t o r y - Lakes F i s h i n g o f f e r s an a l t e r n a t i v e revenue s o u r c e t o CPFP on i t s s o u t h e r n Vancouver I s l a n d l a n d h o l d i n g s . I n o r d e r t o b e n e f i t from r e c r e a t i o n a l f i s h e r i e s t h e s t u d y a r e a d e l i n e a t e d has t h r e e l a k e s and one major r i v e r (Sooke R i v e r ) w i t h i n i t s b o u n d a r i e s . The l a k e s a r e Boneyard Lake, MacDonald Lake and Peden Lake. The p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f i r s t two l a k e s i s i n c l u d e d i n Ap p e n d i c e s I I and I I I . Recent s t a t i s t i c s from t h e M i n i s t r y o f t h e Environment (MOE) a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 5. Assuming t h e l a k e s w i t h i n Murray's s t u d y a r e a a r e i n c l u d e d as p o t e n t i a l s u p p l y s o u r c e s t o r e c r e a t i o n demand, t h e number o f a n g l e r days would be 660. Table 5 Survey Results on Lake Fishing in Murray's Study Area Angler Surface Catch Anglers Days Yearl ing Area Perimeter Lake est . est . es t . Kept Capacity Lhsl (m) Forslund 15 10 15 0 . Boulder 815 55 175 225 TugwelI 310 50 140 190 •Boneyard 530 85 270 155 200 2.4 942 *Peden 0 0 0 0 ? ? ? •MacDonald 115 35 60 40 300 3.3 1010 660 (Source: MOE S t a t i s t i c s 1989) •As te r i sk denotes lakes in B u l l study area (SRMA). The l a k e s w i t h i n t h e SRMA have been s t o c k e d w i t h e i t h e r c u t t h r o a t t r o u t o r rainbow t r o u t . 62 5.2 I n v e n t o r y - R i v e r s The Sooke R i v e r was t h e t a r g e t o f Murray's s u r v e y o f t h e f i s h e r i e s r e s o u r c e on CPFP l a n d s . T h i s t h e s i s assumes t h a t p e o p l e would be w i l l i n g t o pay f o r t h e same r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e on a l a k e s h o r e . The Sooke R i v e r , below Sooke F a l l s , has anadromous c u t t h r o a t t r o u t (Salino c l a r k i ) , s t e e l h e a d (Salmo q a i r d n e r i ) , coho salmon (Oncorhynchus k i s u t s h ) , c h i n o o k salmon (Oncorhynchus t s h a w y t s c h a ) , and chum salmon (Oncorhynchus k e t a ) . They a r e a l l p r e s e n t i n t h e Sooke R i v e r below t h e F a l l s . C u t t h r o a t t r o u t i s t h e o n l y s p e c i e s w i t h w i d e s p r e a d d i s t r i b u t i o n above Sooke R i v e r F a l l s . Some j u v e n i l e cohos have been p l a n t e d i m m e d i a t e l y upstream from t h e F a l l s . C u r r e n t l y t h e Sooke R i v e r has a s p e c i e s c l o s u r e on c h i n o o k and coho, and f l y f i s h i n g i s o n l y a l l o w e d below Sooke R i v e r F a l l s ( Source: B.C. F r e s h Water F i s h i n g R e g u l a t i o n S y n o p s i s , 1989). P a i s h (1990) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e l a k e s i n t h e SRMA a r e n o t h i g h l y p r o d u c t i v e . G e n e r a l l y t h e y a r e s h a l l o w , w a t e r f l o w i s not r a p i d enough; and f o o d i s n o t i n abundant s u p p l y . T h e r e f o r e , even i f t h e l a k e s and r i v e r s were managed t o produce as many f i s h as p h y s i c a l l y p o s s i b l e , i t would n o t meet t h e demand e s t i m a t e s p r o j e c t e d by Murray (1988) o f 258,739 a c t i v i t y days a t an average p r i c e o f $2.49 p e r a c t i v i t y day. Pendray (1980) r e p o r t e d two n e g a t i v e f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e s t e e l h e a d - r e a r i n g c a p a b i l i t y o f t h e Leech-Sooke system. They a r e : 1) The f l u c t u a t i o n i n s t r e a m f l o w . On t h e Leech R i v e r t h e f l u c t u a t i o n was r e c o r d e d t o v a r y from 3520 c f s t o 1.6 c f s . On t h e Sooke System, r e f u g e a r e a s f o r j u v e n i l e f i s h s i m p l y do n o t e x i s t o r a r e v e r y r a r e d u r i n g t h e h i g h f l o w p e r i o d (November-February). 2) Stream p r o d u c t i v i t y . Sooke Lake, w h i c h i s a l a r g e l a k e a t t h e headwater o f t h e Sooke R i v e r , i s d r a i n e d o f f i n t o t h e V i c t o r i a Water S u p p l y . Thus, i n terms o f p r o d u c t i v i t y t h e Sooke System must be compared w i t h o t h e r "non-lake-headed" streams ( i . e . o f l o w e r p r o d u c t i v i t y ) . Wightman (1989) r e p o r t e d t h e c u r r e n t low f l o w i n t h e Sooke R i v e r i s 20-25 c f s . I t s h o u l d be 75-100 c f s i n t h e summer t o b r i n g back salmon p o p u l a t i o n . He a l s o s u g g e s t s t h e number o f f i s h a b l e days i s 30 days maximum. C o m p e t i t i o n between s p e c i e s o f f i s h , w a t e r t e m p e r a t u r e , and m o r t a l i t y d u r i n g o u t - m i g r a t i o n s o v e r f a l l s do n o t seem t o impact t h e f i s h p o p u l a t i o n n e g a t i v e l y (Pendray 1980). The Sooke R i v e r s t e e l h e a d i n f o r m a t i o n , shown i n T a b l e 5, p r e s e n t s a summary o f t h e a n n u a l c a t c h and p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r c o m p a r i s o n o f Murray's s u r v e y i n f o r m a t i o n (Wightman 1989). 64 Table 6 Results from Steelhead Harvest Questionnaire Total Hatchery Angler Steelhead Steelhead Stocking Catch (Smolts) Year Days Catch 1968 1488 1969 1260 1970 1478 1971 1520 209 1972 1398 226 1973 1430 134 1974 2018 349 1975 1990 350 1976 1743 246 1977 965 122 1978 749 53 1979 675 58 1980 362 82 1981 208 47 1982 62 14 1983 134 22 1984 75 21 1985 82 62 1986 45 18 1987 341 63 1988 422 614 50,000 53,000 41 38,000 548 48,000 (Source: HOE S t a t i s t i c s 1989) The n a t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n c a p a b i l i t y c a l c u l a t e d by t h e MOE F i s h e r i e s b i o l o g i s t s i s 300 4 s t e e l h e a d o f w i l d c a t c h . The r e c r e a t i o n a l f i s h e r i e s o b j e c t i v e o f t h e MOE i s t o produce 2000 h a t c h e r y s t e e l h e a d a n n u a l l y f o r a t o t a l o f 3000 a n g l e r days (Wightman 1989). However, Wightman (1990) r e p o r t s t h e s t o c k i n g w i t h s m o l t s s i n c e 1985 has n o t been s u c c e s s f u l and t h e MOE i s c o n s i d e r i n g d i s c o n t i n u i n g t h e p r a c t i s e i n 1991. The f i s h e r i e s s t a t i s t i c s , T a b l e 6, f o r t h e Sooke R i v e r i n 1988 a r e d i s t o r t e d because Wightman (1989) s t a t e s t h e second r e c a p t u r e o f w i l d f i s h i s up 4Volume of : anadromous w a t e r s = 160 000 m3. A t 0.015 s m o l t s p e r 1 m = 2400 s m o l t s = 288 a d u l t s t e e l h e a d (300). 70% and o f h a t c h e r y f i s h i t i s up 50%; and f i n a l l y , a p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e b i a s i s suspected. — you o n l y h e a r from t h o s e who c a t c h f i s h . 5.3 M u r r a y ' s F i n d i n g s Murray (1988) r e p o r t e d t h a t CPFP l a n d u s e r s i n t e n d i n g t o f i s h t h e Sooke R i v e r r e p r e s e n t 258,739 a c t i v i t y d ays. T h i s r e p r e s e n t s more t h a n t w i c e as many i n t e n d e d a c t i v i t y days as a l l o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s p u t t o g e t h e r . The a c t u a l number r e p o r t e d was 121,745 a c t i v i t y days ( f o r a l l l a k e s and r i v e r s ) . T h i s i s t h e second h i g h e s t use a c t u a l l y r e c o r d e d i n t h e s u r v e y . Murray c a l c u l a t e d a p o t e n t i a l g r o s s revenue o f $644,260 (258,739 x $2.49); $2.49 was t h e average WTP v a l u e . Murray s u g g e s t e d t h e r e a s o n why CPFP v a l u e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r was t h e r e s u l t o f t h e payment c a r d ranges p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s u r v e y ($2-$10). I t i s a l s o l i k e l y t h a t t h e p e o p l e who have f r e e l y u sed t h e a r e a t r a d i t i o n a l l y would n o t want t o r e v e a l t h e t r u e v a l u e o f t h e f i s h i n g o p p o r t u n i t y j u s t i n c a s e t h e y would have t o pay i t . 5.4 C o m p a r a t i v e A n a l y s i s I f we i n t e r p r e t a n g l e r days t o equate w i t h a c t i v i t y days i n f i s h i n g , t h e r e a r e s e r i o u s d i s c r e p a n c i e s between t h e a c t u a l use i n d i c a t e d i n M u r ray's s u r v e y (121,745), t h e i n t e n d e d use (258,739), and t h e a n g l e r days p r o v i d e d by t h e l a k e s and streams o f 3,660 as e s t i m a t e d by t h e MOE. F u r t h e r m o r e , Murray's e s t i m a t e s o f i n t e n d e d use seem h i g h l y q u e s t i o n a b l e i f t h e number o f f i s h e r m e n p e r day i s c a l c u l a t e d . The 258,739 a c t i v i t y days d i v i d e d : b y 30 f i s h a b l e days p e r y e a r r e n d e r s 8,624 f i s h e r m e n on a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 km o f strea m . G i v e n t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s , i t i s f a i r l y s a f e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t a t t h e c u r r e n t l e v e l o f f i s h e r i e s management i n t h e G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a a r e a , c u r r e n t s u p p l y as e s t i m a t e d by t h e MOE w i l l n e ver match t h e p r o j e c t e d demand e s t i m a t e d by Murray. 5.5 Management A l t e r n a t i v e An a t t r a c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e t o meet t h e demand p r o j e c t i o n s i s t o a r t i f i c i a l l y s t o c k t h e Boneyard, MacDonald and Peden l a k e s w i t h t r o u t r a i s e d on a f i s h farm. T h i s would, i n e f f e c t , be an a q u a c u l t u r e o p e r a t i o n w i t h i n a l a k e . F o r s u p p l y , t h e r e a r e a l r e a d y f o u r t r o u t growers i n t h e Sooke a r e a ( C a r s w e l l 1990). By t r a n s p o r t i n g grown t r o u t t o t h e l a k e s a r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i s p r o v i d e d . The f i s h e r m e n a r e v i r t u a l l y g u a r a n t e e d s u c c e s s . The c o s t o f t h i s r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i s d e t e r m i n e d by two v a r i a b l e s . The f i r s t i s t h e s i z e o f f i s h r e l e a s e d i n t o t h e l a k e . The second i s t h e number o f f i s h e r m e n a l l o w e d on t h e l a k e s h o r e a t any one t i m e . The s u g g e s t e d approach i s t o have Boneyard Lake d e n s e l y s t o c k e d . The f i s h would be on average 1/4 kg rainbow t r o u t . MacDonald Lake would be m o d e r a t e l y s t o c k e d w i t h l a r g e r f i s h , 1 k g , b u t s t i l l w i t h roaded a c c e s s ; and Peden Lake would be m o d e r a t e l y s t o c k e d w i t h up t o 2.5 kg rai n b o w t r o u t w i t h a maximum o f s i x p e o p l e a l l o w e d on t h e l a k e s h o r e a t any one t i m e . T h i s 67 range o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y a l l o w s f l e x i b i l i t y i n meeting t h e demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n . O n - s i t e m o n i t o r i n g o f t h e revenue and c o s t s would d e t e r m i n e t h e i n t e n s i t y o f f i s h e r i e s management. 5.6 F i s h F a r m i n g , O t h e r J u r i s d i c t i o n s W i t h t h e advent o f f i s h f a r m i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Norway, s p o r t s f i s h i n g i n S c o t l a n d i s a g r o w i n g i n d u s t r y because w i l d s t o c k s o f f i s h a r e i n c r e a s i n g . The Economist (Anonymous 1990) r e p o r t s t h a t sportsmen i n S c o t l a n d have j u s t a g r e e d t o p u r c h a s e t h e 600 tonne quota o f salmon p e r y e a r from t h e F a r o e I s l a n d s , and i n f o r m a l t a l k s have begun w i t h G r e e n l a n d t o p u r c h a s e an 840 tonne q u o t a . The o b j e c t i v e i s t o i n c r e a s e f r e s h w a t e r a n g l i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Meanwhile, back a t home, " F l y f i s h i n g i s v e r y i n , r i g h t a c r o s s N o r t h A m e r i c a " (Simpson 1989). 5.6.1 Revenue I n E n g l a n d and S c o t l a n d , f r e s h w a t e r r e c r e a t i o n a l f i s h i n g i s a l r e a d y a w e l l - d e v e l o p e d i n d u s t r y . P a i s h (1990) c a l c u l a t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g a verage p r i c e s : $4.68 p e r kg o f f i s h and $12.00 p e r day. He f u r t h e r r e p o r t e d t h a t d a y - t i c k e t a n g l i n g on l a k e s and r e s e r v o i r s a c c o u n t s f o r 40% o f t h e t r o u t a n g l i n g e f f o r t . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e t y p i c a l p h y s i c a l and a n g l e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e as f o l l o w s : 68 Physical Charac te r i s t ics : Total number of lakes Size range Average s ize Total area under water Season 187 0.2 ha - 1,255 ha 76 ha 13,127 ha March to November Catch and Angler Charac ter i s t ics : Estimated CPUE of retained f i sh 1.9 per angler day Estimated CPUE including released f i sh 2.4 per angler day Avg. weight or retained f i sh 0.862 kg The species are 60% rainbow and 40% brown t rout . (Source: Paish 1990) P e a r s e (1988) and L e c o u r t (1990) s t a t e d t h a t under Quebec's ZEC system, s p o r t s f i s h e r m e n p a i d between $15 t o $25 p e r day f o r l a k e f i s h i n g . F o r salmon f i s h i n g t h e charge was between $25 t o $65 p e r day. P a i s h (1990) r e p o r t s t h a t i n t h e M e r r i t t Lakes a r e a o f B r i t i s h Columbia t h e f e e f o r f r e s h w a t e r a n g l i n g o f l a r g e t r o u t i s $50 p e r day. N o r t h c o t t (1989) i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n Osoyoos on R i c h t e r Lake t h e charge f o r c a t c h i n g 1-4 kg t r o u t was s e t a t $25.00 p e r day. T a b l e 7 p r e s e n t s a summary o f revenue p r o j e c t i o n s f o r f r e s h w a t e r a n g l i n g . Table 7 Da i ly Revenue from Freshwater Angling Using contingent valuation method. WTP per a c t i v i t y day: Reid Walsh Walsh CPFP B.C. USF&W et a l . Olienyk 2.49 26.53 21.79 18.37 13.76 17.75 Using market value, the pr ice charged per day: England/ Merr i t t Richter Scotland Quebec Lakes Lake 12.00 15.00- 50.00 25.00 . 25.00 69 5.6.2 C o s t s The c o s t s o f p r o v i d i n g t h e t r o u t by Western T r o u t Farms, V i c t o r i a , B.C. a r e e s t i m a t e d as f o l l o w s : Fish Size Pr ice 2.5 kg $12-$13 per trout 1.0 kg $2.50 per trout 0.25 kg $1.50 per trout plus de l ivery costs (Source: Leman 1990) P e a r s e (1988) wrote t h a t f e e s f o r s p o r t f i s h i n g s h o u l d r e f l e c t t h e c o s t o f improved f i s h e r i e s management. I n t h e ec o n o m i s t ' s j a r g o n , t h e p r o v i s i o n o f f r e s h w a t e r f i s h i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s w a r r a n t s improved management as l o n g as m a r g i n a l revenue i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e m a r g i n a l c o s t f o r each a d d i t i o n a l u n i t o f o u t p u t produced. P a i s h (1990) a g r e e s , a l s o e m p h a s i z i n g t h e need t o p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e s w h i c h augment t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l f i s h e r i e s e x p e r i e n c e . He s u g g e s t e d , f o r example, t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a ch e f t o p r e p a r e t h e f i s h f o r d i n n e r , and s u i t a b l e accommodations. 5.7 E n v i r o n m e n t a l Concerns L e g i s l a t i o n i s a l r e a d y i n p l a c e t o p r o v i d e p r i v a t e f i s h i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s and t h e pur c h a s e o f an a q u a c u l t u r e l i c e n c e i s r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e . The p o t e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems w h i c h must be c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d i n o r d e r t o a m e l i o r a t e MOE con c e r n s a r e : 70 t h e maintenance o f w a t e r q u a l i t y ; t h e e c o l o g y o f s p e c i e s chosen; • t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f f i s h escapement. A l l o f t h e s e c o n c e r n s r e l a t e t o t h e downstream impact on n a t i v e f i s h p o p u l a t i o n s (Wightman 1990). 5.8 D i s c u s s i o n As a l r e a d y mentioned, t h e Sooke R i v e r i s n o t a s u i t a b l e a r e a t o f o c u s on f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l f i s h i n g . I t has a low w a t e r f l o w i n summer and poor f o o d p r o d u c t i v i t y f o r f i s h . The r i v e r i s r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t (5 km), and o n l y a p o r t i o n (<2 km) can accommodate s p o r t f i s h e r i e s . A l s o , t h e f e d e r a l f i s h e r i e s management o b j e c t i v e s a r e p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h s a l t w a t e r r e c r e a t i o n a l a n g l i n g . The p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f p r o v i d i n g p r i v a t e a n g l i n g has poor p r o s p e c t s f o r CPFP on t h i s r i v e r system. A n o t h e r p r o b l e m i s t h e measurement o f a c t u a l use o f t h e a r e a f o r f r e s h w a t e r a n g l i n g , as d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h i s s e c t i o n . The r e c o n c i l i n g o f t h e a n g l e r day r e p o r t e d by t h e MOE and a c t u a l a c t i v i t y days by Murray (1988) seems i m p o s s i b l e . The d e f i n i t i o n o f an a n g l e r day, "any p a r t o f a day f i s h i n g by one a n g l e r " (Wightman 1990), i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h an a c t i v i t y day, seems t o measure t h e same amount o f use. The o n l y p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t t h e s u r v e y measurements c o n t a i n g r e a t e r r o r s i n d e e d . T h i s i s i m p o r t a n t t o c o n s i d e r i n d e v e l o p i n g a r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n because t h e o b j e c t i v e f o r f i s h e r i e s management, i s s i m p l y n o t c l e a r . 71 A n o t h e r d i f f i c u l t y i n measuring t h e t o t a l demand f o r f r e s h w a t e r a n g l i n g i s t h e l a c k o f d a t a o r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y i n B.C. W i t h e f f e c t i v e m a r k e t i n g , n o n - r e s i d e n t s t o t h e a r e a c o u l d i n c r e a s e t h e demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n , presumably by a s h i f t t o t h e r i g h t o f t h e demand c u r v e . S i n c e Murray (1988) i n d i c a t e d t h e use o f h i s s t u d y a r e a was l a r g e l y l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , t h i s c o u l d have enormous i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e management o p t i o n chosen. Thus, CPFP's i n v e s t m e n t p l a n s would be i l l - c o n c e i v e d i f t h e revenue and c o s t e s t i m a t e s j u s t p r e s e n t e d were t h e s o l e b a s i s f o r t h e i r d e c i s i o n . D e s p i t e t h e o b v i o u s i n a c c u r a c i e s i n t h e use measurement, and revenue and c o s t p r o j e c t i o n s t h e t r e n d s f o r f r e s h w a t e r a n g l i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e v e r y p o s i t i v e . I n t h e V i c t o r i a a r e a , demand f o r f i s h i n g i s v e r y h i g h . So much so t h a t p l a n s have j u s t been announced t o b u i l d a $10 m i l l i o n h a t c h e r y on t h e Cowichan R i v e r t o s u p p l y v a r i o u s l a k e s on Vancouver I s l a n d . I t i s e x p e c t e d t o be i n p r o d u c t i o n by 1992 o r 1993. Where does t h i s l e a v e CPFP and t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n o b t a i n i n g revenue from n o n - t i m b e r r e s o u r c e s ? The b e s t r o u t e t o f o l l o w , i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e a u t h o r , i s t o d e v e l o p a u n i q u e f r e s h w a t e r a n g l i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r a v a r i e t y o f markets i n Boneyard, MacDonald and Peden Lake. T e s t markets w i t h c a r e f u l assessment o f m a r g i n a l c o s t s and revenues a r e n e c e s s a r y . The p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n i s t h e r e ; t h e o n l y s h o r t term i n v e s t m e n t i s t h e purchase 0 o f r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f i s h , o f v a r i o u s s i z e s , t o meet consumer demand. F o r CPFP t h e r i s k i s m i n i m a l s i n c e s t a f f and f i s h can b o t h be p u r c h a s e d as demand r e q u i r e s . 73 V I . HUNTING - BIG GAME N a t i v e S p e c i e s The b l a c k - t a i l d eer ( O d o c i l e u s hemionus columbianus) i s t h e p r i m a r y f o c u s o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n w h i c h f o l l o w s . The major r e a s o n s a r e t h e v a l u e o f t h e d e e r meat, t h e i d e n t i f i e d demand by Murray (1988), and t h e h i g h s u c c e s s r a t e o f h a r v e s t , w h i c h make t h e a c c e s s r i g h t s a m a r k e t a b l e p r o d u c t . 6.1 I n v e n t o r y The M i n i s t r y o f t h e Environment (Janz 1989) r e p o r t e d t h a t o v e r t h e l a s t t w e l v e y e a r s t h e average number o f k i l l s p e r y e a r i s 84 0 i n MU 1-2 (Management U n i t 1-2) by 2 000 l i c e n s e d h u n t e r s . The c u r r e n t d e e r p o p u l a t i o n i s 8,750 ±50% and i l l e g a l h u n t i n g i s e s t i m a t e d t o be a t l e a s t 50% o f t h e a n n u a l l i c e n s e d k i l l . F i n a l l y , R e i d (1985) r e p o r t e d t h e average s u c c e s s r a t e f o r h u n t e r s i s 54% on Vancouver I s l a n d . G i v e n t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s , t h e number o f h u n t e r s i s e s t i m a t e d t o be 4000 p e r y e a r and t h e number o f d e e r k i l l s i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1700. T h e r e f o r e t h e s u c c e s s r a t e i s 42% (1700 d e e r p e r 4000 h u n t e r s ) , w h i c h i s l o w e r t h a n t h e 54% r e p o r t e d by R e i d (1985). The d e e r p o p u l a t i o n e s t i m a t e s a r e r e m a r k a b l y poor w i t h a 50% v a r i a t i o n . However, i t does c o n f i r m t h a t an a n n u a l hunt o f 1700 d e e r p e r y e a r i s c e r t a i n l y s u s t a i n a b l e , even i f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s on t h e l o w e r end o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n e s t i m a t e s . 74 The m ajor assumptions i n u s i n g t h e s e c a l c u l a t i o n s i s t h a t t h e MU 1-2 a r e a i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u i v a l e n t t o Mu r r a y ' s (1988) s t u d y a r e a . I f t h e c o n d i t i o n s a r e s i m i l a r i n o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s , such as t h e U.S. South, L a s s i s t e r ' s (1985) e s t i m a t e s f o r t h e 10,000 ha o f CPFP l a n d s t u d i e d by Murray would be: 10.000 ha 6 deer per ha = 1700 deer produced per year T h i s v e r i f i e s t h e p r o j e c t e d a n n u a l h a r v e s t f o r d e e r p r o j e c t e d . above. 6.2 Mu r r a y ' s F i n d i n g s Murray (1988) e s t i m a t e d t h e r e a r e 20,092 a c t u a l a c t i v i t y days o f use f o r b i g game h u n t i n g , i . e . b l a c k - t a i l d e e r on h i s s t u d y a r e a . The i n t e n d e d a c t i v i t y days w i t h management i s 25,481 w i t h a WTP o f $10.15 p e r a c t i v i t y day. T h i s compares f a v o u r a b l y w i t h t h e market v a l u e o f $11.47 p e r a c t i v i t y day on t h e G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a Water D i s t r i c t p r o p e r t y (see T a b l e 8 ) . Table 8 Summary of Murray's Findings on Values for Deer Adjusted Total Gross Projected Values Values Actual Intended Values Revenue per ha per Hunter Use Use (1989 S) (1989 $) (1989 $) (1989 $ A c t i v i t y Days CPFP Land (Murray) 20,092 25,481 Values 10.15 258,632 25.86 2.50 A c t i v i t y Days (study area, Murray) 20,092 31,220 Values 11.16 348,415 19.36 Murray's (1988) s u r v e y d i d n o t i n d i c a t e t h e i n t e n s i t y o f management o r t h e p r o p e r t y r i g h t s a l l o c a t e d . A l t h o u g h t h e v a l u e o f $25.86/ha/year f o r t h e l e a s e i s c a l c u l a t e d , t h e v a l u e o f $19.3 6/ha/year seems more r e a s o n a b l e . I n t h e at t e m p t t o s e p a r a t e t h e CPFP v a l u e s from t h e s t u d y a r e a v a l u e , an e r r o r seems p r o b a b l e . E x a m i n i n g t h e v a l u e s r e p o r t e d by Murray on non-CPFP p r o p e r t y ( i . e . 8000 h a ) , i t seems o n l y 26% o f t h e revenue i s d e r i v e d from 44% o f t h e l a n d base. No r e a s o n a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n e x i s t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , e x a m i n i n g f i s h v a l u e s , 47% o f t h e revenue i s d e r i v e d from 44% o f t h e l a n d base. T h i s r a t i o o f v a l u e t o a r e a seems r e a l i s t i c . Thus, $19.36 p e r ha i s t h e most r e a s o n a b l e l e a s i n g c h a rge s h o u l d CPFP t a k e t h i s c o u r s e o f a c t i o n and a c c e p t Murray's s u r v e y r e s u l t s as a c c u r a t e . 6.3 V a l u e s - U.S. S t u d i e s L i s t e d below a r e s e l e c t e d U.S. s t u d i e s r e p o r t i n g v a l u e s f o r dee r h u n t i n g 1 u s i n g t h e C o n t i n g e n t V a l u a t i o n Method (CVM): Author Date of Data Per A c t i v i t y Day' 1982 1989 US $ Can $ M i l l e r (1980) Colorado 16.00 29.92 Hansen (1977) 33.03 96.45 USFWS (1980) 3 27.32 51.09 1 The adjustment assumes values have increased with i n f l a t i o n . t Represents addi t ional cost to get to hunt s i t e . 'Nationwide survey. (Source: Sorg and Loomis et al. 1984) These measure t o t a l v a l u e , n o t j u s t t h e p r i c e s o f a c c e s s t o hunt. Each s t u d y asked d i f f e r e n t q u e s t i o n s w i t h d i f f e r e n t non- m a r k e t - v a l u a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . Thus, c o m p a r i s o n i s d i f f i c u l t and i t c e r t a i n l y does not a s s i s t i n d e t e r m i n i n g revenue p o t e n t i a l . O n l y i f t h e v a l u e o f t i m e , equipment and s i t e , f o r example, can be d e t e r m i n e d can t h e n e t t e d - o u t v a l u e o f s u c c e s s f u l h u n t i n g be d e t e r m i n e d . Thus, much o f t h e p u b l i s h e d r e s e a r c h f o r p u b l i c l a n d s i n U.S. i s o f l i m i t e d use i n a s s e s s i n g t h e b e s t c o u r s e o f a c t i o n f o r such i n d u s t r i a l l a n d owners as CPFP. Most American s t u d i e s , w i t h r e s p e c t t o h u n t i n g v a l u e s on p r i v a t e f o r e s t l a n d , f o c u s on t h e w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d l e a s i n g arrangement f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n revenue. Thus, t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f l e a s e s and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s i s t h e f o c u s o f t h e n e x t two s e c t i o n s i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n on d e e r . 6.4 L e a s i n g L a r g e f o r e s t p r o d u c t s c o r p o r a t i o n s , such as Champion I n t e r n a t i o n a l , have s t a t e d t h a t , "The t r e n d i s towards p r i v a t i z a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n v a l u e s , " and Champion i s committed t o i n c r e a s i n g t h i s on i t s l a n d h o l d i n g s i n t h e s o u t h and n o r t h o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s (Anonymous 1989b). T a b l e 9 p r e s e n t s a summary o f how a c c e s s t o w i l d l i f e i s managed i n t h e U.S. South on p r i v a t e f o r e s t t i m b e r l a n d s . 77 Table 9 Access to W i l d l i f e on Private Forest Timberlands in the South Access Arrangement Total Acres i n 1983 State W i l d l i f e Management Areas 3,274,174 No permission or permit required 2,754,673 Permission or permit required 4,696,939 Free (2,499,776) Charge (2,197,163) Access Right Leased 6,569,760 Open only to owners, employees or guests 1,233,509 Closed to a l l part ies 1.358.803 19,358,858 (Source: Lassis ter 1987) Recent s t u d i e s have shown t h a t t h e r e may be s i g n i f i c a n t economies o f s c a l e i n o f f e r i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l l e a s e s , b o t h i n m a r k e t i n g and a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e l e a s e s , and because l a r g e c o n t i g u o u s a r e a s may be r e l a t i v e l y more a t t r a c t i v e t o l e s s e e s . S i n c e 1974, i n t h e S t a t e o f Maine, t h e N o r t h Main Woods A s s o c i a t i o n has c o n t r o l l e d a c c e s s f o r h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g and camping by s e l l i n g p e r m i t s . T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s c o m p r i s e d o f 18 p r i v a t e landowners ( m a i n l y c o r p o r a t i o n s and l a n d management compan i e s ) . I n i t i a l l y f e e s were s e t low on t h i s 2.5MM a c r e s o f f o r e s t l a n d , b u t r o s e t o $294,000 revenue by 1983. T h i s i s s t i l l n o t enough t o f u l l y compensate owners f o r t h e c o s t o f p r o v i d i n g a c c e s s ( t h e A s s o c i a t i o n ' s d e f i c i t i s about $10,000); b u t owners f e e l group management o f f e r s them h e l p i n c o n t r o l l i n g l i a b i l i t y and v a n d a l i s m as w e l l as p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s b e n e f i t s (Healy e t a l . 1989) . 6.4.1 Advantages L a s s i s t e r (1987) c i t e d t h e s e advantages t o s e l l i n g a c c e s s r i g h t s on l a n d w i t h l a r g e w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n . They a r e : an n u a l income from t h i s s o u r c e assumes g r e a t e r r e l a t i v e v a l u e when i n t e r e s t r a t e s a r e h i g h , due t o t i m b e r p r o d u c t i o n ' s heavy c a s h f l o w c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; enhanced p r o p e r t y c o n t r o l ; r e d u c e d p r o p e r t y damage; l e s s i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h f i e l d o p e r a t i o n s ; r e d u c e d l i a b i l i t y ; f ewer t r e s p a s s enforcement headaches; where l o c a l and d i s t a n t groups v i e f o r a c c e s s , owners may enhance t h e i r l o c a l r e p u t a t i o n by l e a s i n g t o l o c a l g r o u p s . O t h e r advantages r e c o g n i z e d i n more r e c e n t r e s e a r c h a r e : b e g i n n i n g t h e g r a d u a l a c c l i m a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c t o a c c e s s f e e s u n t i l t h e f o r e s t owner can charge t h e market v a l u e o f t h e p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; s p i l l - o v e r b e n e f i t s t o o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e r s i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e a r e a under w i l d l i f e l e a s i n g ; t h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e form o f w i l d l i f e v i e w i n g ; an i n c e n t i v e t o use t h e w i l d l i f e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system ( B r i t i s h Columbia 1983), t h u s i m p r o v i n g t h e d e e r management i n t h e r e g i o n . 79 6.4.2 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s L eased a c c e s s r i g h t s i n L a s s i s t e r ' s (1985) s t u d y were g e n e r a l l y s h o r t term, w i t h a median l e n g t h o f one y e a r ; made p r e d o m i n a n t l y t o groups o r c l u b s ( n o n - p r o f i t ) ; and a c c e s s r i g h t s g e n e r a l l y l i m i t e d t o w i l d l i f e a l o n e . A c c e s s r i g h t s i s n o t g r a n t e d t o n o n - r e s i d e n t s , w i t h p r e f e r e n c e t o l o c a l r e s i d e n t s i n immediate v i c i n i t y . T h i s improved l o c a l p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s and a v o i d e d v a n d a l i s m and a r s o n . The l e s s e e s a r e n o t a l l o w e d t o s u b l e a s e a c c e s s r i g h t s ; t h e y have t o p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e o f l i a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e and/or s i g n " h o l d h a r m l e s s " agreements; and f i n a l l y , t h e y must agree t o r e s t r i c t i o n s on w i l d l i f e f o o d p l o t s when t h e s e a r e a l l o w e d . 6.4.3 M a r k e t s and P r i c e s L a s s i s t e r (1985) s u g g e s t e d t h e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e "market" f o r a c c e s s t o w i l d l i f e a r e : c o n g e s t i o n , c u r r e n t l e v e l s o f w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n , t h e p r o x i m i t y o f l a n d s on w h i c h w i l d l i f e a r e l o c a t e d t o p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s , and t h e s u b s t i t u t a b i l i t y o f o t h e r f o r e s t l a n d s . He f u r t h e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t t o d e t e r m i n e p r i c e s , two approaches a r e t a k e n . The f i r s t , h u n t i n g r i g h t s l e a s e s a r e a d v e r t i s e d , b i d s t a k e n , and t h e l e a s e i s awarded t o t h e h i g h e s t b i d d e r . The second, a few i n d i v i d u a l s a c t as b r o k e r s t o b r i n g b u y e r s and s u p p l i e r s o f a c c e s s t o g e t h e r . 80 6.4.4 F o r e s t Management P r a c t i s e s The f o r e s t management p r a c t i s e s c o n s i d e r e d b e n e f i c i a l t o w i l d l i f e a r e p r e s c r i b e d b u r n i n g , s t a n d t h i n n i n g , s t r e a m s i d e management zone, seeded woods r o a d s , and d i s p e r s i o n o f age c l a s s e s i n even-age management. However, s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n i n f o r e s t management p r a c t i s e s o n l y o c c u r s i f t h e l e a s e v a l u e exceeds $12.50 p e r ha ( L a s s i s t e r 1985). 6.5 C o m p a r a t i v e A n a l y s i s Table 10 Comparative Values of Lands Leased for Hunting Location or Company Champion International (private) " " (state) Area Avg. S/ha 15.19 3.04 Range $/ha Value Market Market U.S. South CPFP (Murray's) CPFP+ (Murray's study area) 10,000 18,000 5.19 1.04-33.20 Market 25.86 CVM 19.36 CVM Champion I n t e r n a t i o n a l , a f o r e s t p r o d u c t s company, i s now p l a n n i n g t o l e a s e 75% o f i t s p r i v a t e l a n d h o l d i n g s t o t h e s t a t e s o f New Hampshire and Vermont f o r a charge o f $3.04/ha; and 25% o f i t s p r i v a t e h u n t i n g l e a s e s f o r a charge o f $15.19/ha. I n t h e U.S. South, t h e range from $1.04/ha t o $33.20/ha i s n o t e x p l a i n e d by L a s s i s t e r (1985). However, Wheetman (1990) i n d i c a t e s t h a t a d d i t i o n a l r i g h t s a r e g r a n t e d (e.g. t o b u i l d h u n t i n g c l u b f a c i l i t i e s ) on t h e h i g h e r - p r i c e d l e a s e s . The l e a s e t o s t a t e government r e n d e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s income and fewer r i g h t s (see T a b l e 1 0 ) . L o o k i n g i n more d e t a i l , a n o t h e r U.S. f o r e s t company, Westvaco, has been i m p l e m e n t i n g w i l d l i f e and r e c r e a t i o n f e e s f o r some t i m e . They have 170,000 ha l e a s e d t o 300 c l u b s and 53,000 ha i n c o o p e r a t i v e game management agreements w i t h s t a t e a g e n c i e s . They have some 14,000 p e r m i t s i s s u e d f o r h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g , s p e c i a l s i t e s d e s i g n a t e d as p r e s e r v e s o f non-game w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s and n a t i v e p l a n t s and, f i n a l l y , some 15 major a r e a s d e s i g n a t e d f o r u n i q u e b i o l o g i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l o r g e o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( K i n a r d 1979). Two o t h e r U.S. f o r e s t p r o d u c t s companies r e c e n t l y r e p o r t e d t h e i r l a n d s under w i l d l i f e l e a s e s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l Paper Co. i n t h e S t a t e o f Maine now has 51,000 a c r e s (20,647 ha) under l e a s e f o r f i s h , h u n t i n g and r e c r e a t i o n a c c e s s (Healy e t a l . 1989). Champion I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o r p o r a t i o n c u r r e n t l y has h u n t i n g l e a s e s on 2,000,000 a c r e s (809,716 ha) o f i t s t i m b e r l a n d s n a t i o n w i d e (Anonymous 1989b). K i n a r d (1979) d e s c r i b e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s t a n d a r d h u n t i n g l e a s e agreement. They: s p e c i f y t h e a n n u a l f e e ; r e s t r i c t p r i v i l e g e s g r a n t e d t o h u n t i n g and/or f i s h i n g ; r e q u i r e p r o t e c t i o n o f p r o p e r t y and t i m b e r from any damage and t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f f o r e s t f i r e s ; • r e q u i r e c o n f o r m i t y w i t h s t a t e and f e d e r a l law and r e g u l a t i o n s ; • i n d e m n i f y Westvaco from any c l a i m o r l o s s ; • r e s t r i c t c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c a m p s i t e s w i t h o u t s p e c i a l p e r m i s s i o n ; • p r o v i d e t h e r i g h t f o r Westvaco t o c a n c e l t h e l e a s e w i t h r e f u n d o f u n e x p i r e d p o r t i o n o f t h e l e a s e f e e ; • r e q u i r e t h e l e s s e e t o pay any t a x o r l i c e n c e f e e s which may be a s s e s s e d a g a i n s t t h e p r e m i s e s due t o t h e l e a s e u s e ; • r e q u i r e t h e s i g n i n g o f t h e l e a s e agreement by a l l c l u b members; g r a n t p e r m i s s i o n t o p o s t l e a s e d l a n d s i f such n o t i c e s r e a d " p o s t e d no h u n t i n g . " 6.6 E n v i r o n m e n t a l Concerns S i n c e t h e management o f b l a c k - t a i l d e e r on p r i v a t e f o r e s t l a n d s has n o t y e t been done i n B.C. t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s r e m a i n s p e c u l a t i v e . However, s h o u l d CPFP p u r s u e an a g g r e s s i v e management p o l i c y t o i n c r e a s e t h e d e e r p o p u l a t i o n t h e r e a r e , i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e a u t h o r , a r e a s o f c o n c e r n , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o government w i l d l i f e managers. They a r e : (1) t h e g e n e t i c m a n i p u l a t i o n t o produce s u p e r i o r w i l d l i f e s t o c k ; (2) v e g e t a t i o n management t o i n c r e a s e p o p u l a t i o n s i n c o n c e n t r a t e d a r e a s ; (3) s u p p l e m e n t a l f e e d i n g t o a t t r a c t d e e r from o t h e r r e g i o n s o f S o u t h e r n Vancouver I s l a n d ; and f i n a l l y , (4) t h e impact on o t h e r r e s o u r c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e under government j u r i s d i c t i o n such as f i s h , w a t e r and m i n e r a l s . 83 6.7 D i s c u s s i o n Problems abound when i t comes t o t h e management o f n a t i v e b i g game a n i m a l s . F i r s t , t h e c o n t r o l o f p u b l i c a c c e s s t o CPFP and o t h e r companies' p r i v a t e l a n d i s s i m p l y c o s t p r o h i b i t i v e . C u r r e n t l y , a d j a c e n t landowners, such as t h e GVWD, a r e h a v i n g l i m i t e d s u c c e s s i n c o n t r o l l i n g a c c e s s (Dixon 1989). Second, deer have a home range w h i c h t r a n s c e n d s p r o p e r t y b o u n d a r i e s . Thus t h e management o f d e e r p o p u l a t i o n s would have t o i n c l u d e a d j a c e n t landowners. T h i r d , CPFP r i s k s i n c r e a s e d damage t o b o t h equipment and p l a n t a t i o n s . Equipment damage i s w e l l documented i n company r e c o r d s and i n c r e a s e d human a c t i v i t y c o u l d mean a h i g h e r p r o b a b i l i t y o f t h i s t y p e o f damage. F o u r t h , p l a n t a t i o n s can s u f f e r from heavy d e e r b r o w s i n g ; t h u s i n c r e a s i n g t h e d e e r p o p u l a t i o n s i m p l y means more damage t o t h e young f o r e s t . F i f t h , t h e government r e c o r d s show a g e n e r a l downward t r e n d i n h u n t i n g , as Murray r e p o r t e d (1988), w i t h a n t i h u n t i n g groups and t h e "Bambi" syndrome h a v i n g p o p u l a r a p p e a l . S i x t h , t h e i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f h u n t i n g w i t h o t h e r forms o f r e c r e a t i o n a l use i s r e c o g n i z e d by most r e s o u r c e managers. The h u n t i n g would t h e r e f o r e have t o be on t h e l o g g e d - o v e r l a n d s a d j a c e n t t o t h e SRMA on t h e Sooke R i v e r and/or d u r i n g r e s t r i c t e d t i m e . Seventh and f i n a l l y , t h e n o n - p r o f i t f i s h and game c l u b s i n t h e Sooke a r e a a r e n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e w i l d l i f e l e a s e arrangement used e x t e n s i v e l y on o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l p r i v a t e f o r e s t l a n d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . 84 C u r r e n t government p o l i c y a l s o poses problems t o i n d u s t r i a l p r i v a t e f o r e s t owners l i k e CPFP. F o r example, t h e MOE has d e c i d e d n o t t o p e r m i t n o n - n a t i v e b i g game s p e c i e s on p r i v a t e l a n d i n a n o n-fenced a r e a (Walker 1990). The r a t i o n a l e i s t h a t s t a t e s i n t h e U.S.A., l i k e Texas and F l o r i d a , have c o n c l u d e d i t was an e r r o r t o a l l o w t h e m i x i n g o f n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e b i g game a n i m a l s . The n a t i v e s p e c i e s can no l o n g e r be found because o f i n t e r b r e e d i n g . B r i t i s h Columbia a l r e a d y has one o f t h e b e s t mix o f game s p e c i e s found anywhere i n t h e w o r l d . The w i l d l i f e b r a n c h f e e l s t o a l l o w i n t e r b r e e d i n g would damage t h i s r e s o u r c e (Walker 1990). However, s p e c i e s such as f a l l o w d e e r do n o t b r e e d w i t h b l a c k - t a i l d e e r , and t h u s t h e p o l i c y changes s h o u l d a l l o w p r i v a t e landowners t o use t h e l a n d f o r t h i s n o n - n a t i v e s p e c i e s . O t h e r w i s e t h e r e i s an o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t i n c u r r e d by CPFP. As f a r back as 1930, t h e American Game C o n f e r e n c e had t h i s recommendation f o r w i l d l i f e management. R e c o g n i z e landowners as t h e c u s t o d i a n s o f p u b l i c w i l d l i f e on a l l o t h e r l a n d , p r o t e c t them from t h e i r r e s p o n s i b l e s h o o t e r and compensate them f o r p u t t i n g t h e i r i a n d i n t o a p r o d u c t i v e c o n d i t i o n . . . . I n s h o r t , make w i l d l i f e management a p a r t n e r s h i p e n t e r p r i s e whereby landowners and t h e p u b l i c each c o n t r i b u t e a p p r o p r i a t e s e r v i c e s and each d e r i v e s a p p r o p r i a t e s u p p o r t . ( C o l y e r e t a l . 1989) F o r e s t companies i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s have c h a r g e d f o r h u n t i n g r i g h t s on p r i v a t e l a n d f o r some t i m e . Recent t a x r e f o r m (Tax Reform A c t 1986) meant t h e l o s s o f p r e f e r e n t i a l c a p i t a l g a i n s t r e a t m e n t f o r t i m b e r income. Not o n l y has t h i s changed l a n d o w n e r s h i p p a t t e r n s i n t h e U.S., i t has f o r c e d landowners 85 i n t o r e c o n s i d e r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s o u r c e o f income i n o r d e r t o make t h e i r l a n d h o l d i n g s r e t u r n a r e a s o n a b l e r a t e on t h e i r i n v e s t m e n t s . T h i s same p r o c e s s i s now o c c u r r i n g i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia w i t h w i l d l i f e management. I n summary, t h e e s t i m a t e d v a l u e o f d e e r on t h e s t u d y a r e a by Murray (1988) seems a r e a l i s t i c i n d i c a t i o n o f p r o j e c t e d revenue f o r CPFP. The l e a s i n g o f t h e a c c e s s t o n o n - p r o f i t c l u b s under s h o r t - t e r m arrangements seem t o be t h e most p o p u l a r form o f management i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . The revenue c a p t u r e d i s h i g h l y dependent upon t h e p r o p e r t y r i g h t s n e g o t i a t e d . However, h u n t i n g i s o f t e n a n o n - c o m p a t i b l e r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y . The h u n t e r s w i l l have t o be r e s t r i c t e d i n t i m e o r space t o a l l o w o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o be p r o v i d e d c o n c u r r e n t l y . 86 V I I . GAME FARMING Game f a r m i n g s t a r t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1982 w i t h t h e b i s o n . C u r r e n t l y t h e o n l y s p e c i e s a l l o w e d a r e b i s o n , f a l l o w deer and r e i n d e e r . The MOE i s vehemently opposed t o o t h e r s p e c i e s . F o r example, t h e e l k have been found t o have an e f f e c t on t h e w i l d s t o c k o f e l k by s p r e a d i n g d i s e a s e . T h i s i s n o t an a c c e p t a b l e r i s k t h e MOE wants t o t a k e i n B.C. (Walker 1990). Some w i l d l i f e ' e c o l o g i s t s a r e opposed t o t h e development o f game f a r m i n g because i t i n c r e a s e s p r e s s u r e on t h e n a t i v e game p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s has been documented t o be t r u e s i n c e poachers now have a market f o r t h e a n i m a l s k i l l e d i l l e g a l l y , u n l e s s a r i g i d r e g i s t r a t i o n program i s i n p l a c e (Karpan 1989). C u r r e n t l y , game f a r m i n g r e q u i r e s w e l l - f e n c e d p r i v a t e l a n d t h a t i s 5 ha o r l a r g e r ; as opposed t o game r a n c h i n g , w h i c h a l l o w s f r e e - r a n g i n g a n i m a l s t o mix w i t h w i l d s p e c i e s . I n 1987, t h e f a r m i n g o f f a l l o w deer as a n o n - n a t i v e s p e c i e s s t a r t e d i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia. C u r r e n t l y t h e r e a r e some 29 game f a r m i n g p e r m i t s i s s u e d i n B.C. 7.1 A n a l y s i s I f r e s t r i c t i v e p o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g t h e management o f non- n a t i v e s p e c i e s changes, t h e n CPFP c o u l d s t a r t t o manage f a l l o w d e e r as a commercial c r o p on t h e i r own p r i v a t e f o r e s t l a n d s i n a game r a n c h i n g s t y l e . F a i l i n g t h i s , i t i s a l r e a d y l e g a l l y p o s s i b l e t o farm f a l l o w d e e r w i t h i n a f e n c e d a r e a o f 5 ha o r 87 more. The p o t e n t i a l c o s t s and b e n e f i t s f o r a s m a l l h e r d o f such a v e n t u r e a r e as f o l l o w s . Assume: herd buck:doe r a t io doe replacement buck replacement pregnancy rate, does offspring doe year l ing buck year l ing full-grown deer dressed weight, buck - 4 bucks, 120 does - 1:33 (Strachan 1990) - 7% (Strachan 1990) - 33% (Strachan 1990) - 90% (Paish 1990) - 50% bucks, 50% does (Paish 1990) - sold after one year - sold after one year - 55 kg (Karpan 1989) - 30 kg (Strachan 1990) A c t u a l y e a r l y h a r v e s t i s t h e r e f o r e e x p e c t e d t o be ( t h i s assumes k e e p i n g t h e h e r d a t t h e same p o p u l a t i o n l e v e l ) : Maximum buck yearl ings per year Minus replacement .33(4) Minus unsuccessful pregnancies .1(60) Anticipated number of bucks per year 60 - 2 - 6 52 Maximum doe yearl ings per year 60 Minus replacement .07(120) - 9 Minus unsuccessful pregnancies .1(60) - 6 Ant ic ipated number of does per year 45 88 7.1.1 Revenue Assume year l ing doe value $1200 (Strachan 1990) Venison value ; $14.30/kg (Strachan 1990) Velve t 1 $120.00/kg (Ireland undated) Given: year l ing bucks are 52 per year, dressed weight 30 kg The annual revenue from bucks i s : 52 bucks x 30 kg x $14.30/kg = $22,308/yr. Given: year l ing does are 45 per year The annual revenue from does i s : 45 does at $1200 = $54.000/yr Total Revenue = $76,308/yr. 1 Velve t ($120/kg) - not a s ign i f i can t amount produced. (Paish 1990). 7.1.2 C o s t s The major c o s t s a r e t h e mature a n i m a l s , f e n c i n g , l a b o u r , f e e d i n g , and i n t e r e s t : Animals • breeding doe • s i r e buck • breeding doe Canadian Fallow Deer Farm • breeding doe Douglas Lake Ranch Investment per breeding doe $1000-$1200 per animal $1200+ " » (Karpan 1989) $1400-51500 " " $1800 (Paish 1990) (Paish 1990) $1700 » " (Strachan, 1990) Population l eve l s : 30 per ha i f rye grass/clover mixture - 20 tonnes per ha 45 per ha i f supplemental feeding - maize 89 T a b l e 11 p r e s e n t s t h e major c o s t s i n s e t t i n g up a de e r farm o p e r a t i o n . Table 11 Summary of Costs for Deer Farming The Cap i t a l i z a t i on of Investment Cost in Fallow Deer ( i . e . $180,000 = $1500 x 120 does) Capi ta l Costs ($ per year) Interest I n i t i a l Investment Write-off Amortization Period Rate 5 Years 10 Years 15 Years 8 45,082 26,825 21,029 10 47,484 29,294 23,665 12 49,934 31,857 26,428 . 15 53,696 35,865 30,783 20 60,188 42,934 38,498 Other Costs ($ per year): Labour (I person) Feed (supplements) Set-up Fence $7195/10 y r s . 3 0% Permi ts Other F a c i l i t i e s $1800/10 yrs 3 0% Slaughtering/Animal Care Sub-total Costs ($ per year per herd) $10,000 7,200 720 100 180 3.800 $22,000 The c h o i c e o f t h e an n u a l r e t u r n s from d e e r f a r m i n g depends on t h e i n t e r e s t r a t e and t h e a m o r t i z a t i o n p e r i o d chosen t o w r i t e o f f i n i t i a l i n v e s t m e n t . To i l l u s t r a t e , i f t h e i n t e r e s t r a t e i s p r o j e c t e d t o be 15% and t h e a m o r t i z a t i o n p e r i o d i s 10 y e a r s t h e a n n u a l i n t e r e s t expense on t h e i n i t i a l i n v e s t m e n t o f $180,000 i s $35,865.00. T h i s added t o t h e an n u a l c o s t o f $22,000 g i v e s $57,865 f o r t o t a l c o s t . I f t h e a n n u a l revenue i s $76,308 t h e n n e t revenue i s $18,443 p e r y e a r b e f o r e t a x . I n o t h e r words t h e r a t e o f r e t u r n on i n v e s t m e n t i s 10%. 90 T h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n i g n o r e s t h e impact o f t a x a t i o n . C u r r e n t l y , t h e V e n t u r e C a p i t a l Tax C r e d i t i s a l l o w e d t o be a p p l i e d a g a i n s t such an i n v e s t m e n t . T h i s and o t h e r t a x c o n c e s s i o n s i s beyond t h e scope o f t h i s t h e s i s b u t p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h e r a t e o f r e t u r n on i n v e s t m e n t i s more l i k e l y t o be n o m i n a l l y between 20% and 25%. C u r r e n t l y , b e t t e r c o s t and revenue e s t i m a t e s a r e b e i n g d e v e l o p e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e . However t h e y a l r e a d y have p u b l i s h e d i n f o r m a t i o n on t y p i c a l y e a r l y f l o w as p r e s e n t e d below. Months J F H A M J J A S O _N_ _D_ % Income per year 40 43 17 X Expense per year 6 2 13 1 15 15 55 3 (Source: Strachan 1990) 7.2 D i s c u s s i o n A l t h o u g h t h e r a i s i n g o f f a l l o w d e e r i s p o s s i b l e i n t h e SRMA, c u r r e n t government p o l i c i e s do n o t a l l o w t h e h u n t i n g o f t h e s e a n i m a l s o r a l l o w them t o roam f r e e l y . Thus CPFP might c o n s i d e r t h i s as a revenue s o u r c e on o t h e r p r i v a t e h o l d i n g s , such as P h i l l i p s Farm, where l a n d i s a l r e a d y i n an a g r i c u l t u r e l a n d r e s e r v e and g r a s s l a n d a r e a s c u r r e n t l y e x i s t (approx. 175 ha, o f wh i c h 10 ha i s g r a s s l a n d ) . 91 The advantages o f d e e r f a r m i n g t o CPFP on i t s p r i v a t e property- a r e : t h e income h e l p s o f f s e t t h e a n n u a l c o s t o f h o l d i n g t h e l a n d ; t h e change i n l a n d use w i l l h e l p c o n v i n c e a d j a c e n t landowners t h a t t i m b e r h a r v e s t i n g m e r e l y f a c i l i t a t e s t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f c r o p ; • t h e l a n d h o l d i n g s a r e c l o s e t o m a r k e t s , w h i c h a r e m a i n l y " w h i t e t a b l e c l o t h r e s t a u r a n t s . 1 1 The advantages i n p r o d u c i n g f a l l o w d e e r v e r s u s o t h e r game farm a n i m a l s a r e : t h e b i o l o g i c a l problems have been l a r g e l y r e s o l v e d by r e s e a r c h e r s and s c i e n t i s t s a f t e r 20 y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n New Z e a l a n d and G r e a t B r i t a i n ( I r e l a n d c. 1988) ; d e e r meat i s low i n c h o l e s t e r o l and f a t c o n t e n t , w h i c h i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a * s h e a l t h c o n s c i o u s s o c i e t y (Karpan, 1989); f u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s l i g h t and t e n d e r ; t h e demand f o r v e n i s o n meat i s g r o w i n g , and demand c u r r e n t l y exceeds s u p p l y , so much so t h a t t h e meat p r o d u c e r s can o n l y meet demand by r e s t a u r a n t s , n o t t h e sup e r m a r k e t s ( P a i s h 1990). 92 V I I I . CAMPGROUNDS The p r i v a t e campground i n d u s t r y i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s r e l a t i v e l y w e l l d e v e l o p e d as compared t o t h e f i s h and w i l d l i f e i n d u s t r y as d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . The problems w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l s i n c e t h e y impose a s e v e r e h a n d i c a p i n measuring p r o j e c t e d e a r n i n g from such a v e n t u r e . Trends i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s campground i n d u s t r y a r e w e l l documented and s e r v e as a g u i d e t h r o u g h t h e d i f f i c u l t and p o t e n t i a l l y c o s t l y d e c i s i o n s t h a t must be made on t h i s s t u d y a r e a . Two campground l o c a t i o n s have been chosen f o r s t u d y and a c o s t / r e v e n u e breakdown i s documented. 8.1 S i t e s - D e s c r i p t i o n and R a t i o n a l e A f t e r c a r e f u l l y e x a m i n i n g t h e s u i t a b l e s i t e s w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a , two campground l o c a t i o n s have been i d e n t i f i e d . Campground #1, Sooke R i v e r , has t r a i l - o n l y a c c e s s w h i c h r e q u i r e s a 15-20 minute w a l k by t h e h i k e r . T h i s d i s t a n c e i s s u i t a b l e f o r c h i l d r e n , f o r b a c k p a c k e r s , and o t h e r s w i s h i n g a more p r i m i t i v e t y p e o f e x p e r i e n c e . No r e c r e a t i o n a l v e h i c l e s w i l l be p e r m i t t e d . The a r e a has good d r a i n a g e , an e x c e l l e n t swimming h o l e , h i g h a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s , and s e c l u s i o n . The t i m b e r v a l u e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y low s i n c e i t has n e v e r been c o n v e r t e d t o commer c i a l s p e c i e s s i n c e l o g g i n g . On r o c k y a r e a s l o d g e p o l e p i n e i s growing, and i t has no c u r r e n t c o m m e r c i a l v a l u e . Campground #2, Leechtown, i s i d e a l l y s u i t e d f o r r e c r e a t i o n i s t s who i n t e n d t o o v e r n i g h t w h i l e h i k i n g t h e G a l l o p i n g Goose T r a i l and r e t u r n t h e n e x t day t o t h e V i c t o r i a a r e a . A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t has roaded a c c e s s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l v e h i c l e s . A g a i n , t h e t i m b e r v a l u e s a r e a n t i c i p a t e d t o be v e r y low, because i t i s l o c a t e d on an o l d t o w n s i t e w i t h s o i l s o f low p r o d u c t i v i t y and u n d e s i r a b l e t r e e s p e c i e s f o r c o m m e r c i a l u s e s . On t h e p o s i t i v e s i d e , t h e amenity v a l u e s i n t h e v i c i n i t y a r e v e r y h i g h . S e v e r a l o t h e r f a c t o r s have i n f l u e n c e d t h e c h o i c e o f l o c a t i o n . They a r e : (1) t h e p r o x i m i t y o f t h e G a l l o p i n g Goose R e g i o n a l P a r k c o r r i d o r ; (2) t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l development o f A l b e r t Yeun; (3) t h e community p l a n s f o r t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Sooke and i t s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e Sooke R i v e r as a r e c r e a t i o n a l a r e a ; (4) t h e v a r i e t y i n camping e x p e r i e n c e s demanded as shown by Murray (1988), and t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e s e two l o c a t i o n s t o meet t h i s demand; (5) t h e p h y s i c a l s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e s i t e , i . e . r e l a t i v e l y f l a t ground and easy t o d e v e l o p ; (6) t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e a r e a s f o r e x p a n s i o n . 8.2 Campsite Planning U s i n g M u rray's (1988) p o t e n t i a l demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n , t h e number o f c a m p s i t e s n e c e s s a r y a r e c a l c u l a t e d . The F a c i l i t i e s D e s i g n Manual o f t h e B.C. P a r k s Branch (1986) i s used t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p h y s i c a l a r e a n e c e s s a r y t o meet t h i s demand. Campsite #1 i s d e s i g n e d u s i n g group campground s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . T h i s means an a r e a o f 230 m2 p e r c a m p s i t e , w i t h 45 c a m p s i t e s needed f o r a t o t a l a r e a o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 ha. T h i s meets t h e demand p r o j e c t e d f o r p r i m i t i v e camping. Campsite #2 i s d e s i g n e d u s i n g i n d i v i d u a l c a m p s i t e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . The average a r e a i s 320 m2 p e r c a m p s i t e , w i t h 170 c a m p s i t e s needed t o meet demand a n t i c i p a t e d f o r s e m i - p r i m i t i v e camping. The t o t a l a r e a i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 ha. The t o t a l o f 215 c a m p s i t e s i s a r b i t r a r i l y chosen. The c a l c u l a t i o n u s i n g Murray's (1988) s u r v e y r e s u l t s does n o t , i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e a u t h o r , r e n d e r a v a l u e o f any r e a l i t y . The c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e : Intended No. of A c t i v i t y Days No. of Days Campsites S i te Per Household i n Season . Needed Pr imi t ive 39,883 120 332 Semi-primitive 29,442 120 245 577 Based on p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n , t h i s number o f c a m p s i t e s i s t o t a l l y u n r e a l i s t i c . F u r t h e r m o r e , as i n o t h e r a r e a s o f r e c r e a t i o n management, t h e i n c r e m e n t a l approach i s more r e a l i s t i c , and a d a p t a t i o n can q u i c k l y be made t o demand f o r camping s i t e s . F i n a l l y , i t i s r e a l i s t i c t o a n t i c i p a t e a s h i f t i n demand once use i s r e s t r i c t e d t o s p e c i f i c a r e a s and a l t e r n a t i v e a r e a s a r e a v a i l a b l e a t a l o w e r p r i c e . Thus t h e number o f c a m p s i t e s p l a n n e d f o r i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d o f t h e c a l c u l a t e d number r e q u i r e d i f Murray's d a t a were t h e d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r . 95 8.3 F i n a n c i a l Analysis 8.3.1 Campsite C o s t s A summary o f t h e major c o s t s i n d e v e l o p i n g t h i s s i t e i s as f o l l o w s : Capital Costs S i t e #1 - 45 s i t e s - Sooke River Total Amortized Cost Cost 15 years 10% Tables, Type III $ 15,750 Pad (natural) 22,500 Fireplace 4,500 Corrals 2,700 Water - Toilets 4,000 Parking Lot ( d i r t ) 36.450 $ 85,900 $11,295/yr Site #2 - 170 sit e s - Leechtown Total Amortized Cost Cost 15 yrs 10% Tables, Type III Pad (natural) Fireplace Corrals (12) Water (12) Toilets (12) parking Lot (natural) Roads ( 2 km) Gateway House $ 59,500 85,000 17,000 14,400 77,000 24,000 44.550 100,000 43.000 $464,450 $61,063/yr $72,358/yr $75,000/yr rounded = V (1 + i ) G i b b s e t a l (1979) and Gibb s & Van Hees (1980) used a d i s c o u n t r a t e o f 10% and 15-20 y e a r s f o r a m o r t i z a t i o n . The t o t a l c o s t i s c o m p r i s e d o f c a p i t a l c o s t , o p e r a t i o n s and maintenance c o s t . 96 The e s t i m a t e d o p e r a t i o n s and maintenance c o s t a r e : Operation and Maintenance Labour (3 summer personnel) Annual Maintenance Ltrucks, repair , cleanup)' Administration Cost ($28/ha x 4000 ha x 1/2 x 1/3) Add: C a p i t a l Cost ( a n n u a l i z e d ) T o t a l Cost $ 30,000 30,000 20.000 . $ 80,000 75.000 $155,000/yr 38% of to ta l cost of campsite operations and maintenance (Contract 15%, Vehicles 14%, Tools and Mater ials 9%). (Schuster et a l 1983) 2 1/2 i s d i v i s i o n of cost with timber values, 1/2 to non-timber values; 1/3 i s d iv id ing the cost between hunting, f i sh ing and camping. 8.3.2 Campground Revenue U s i n g M u rray's (1988) e s t i m a t e t h e revenue p r o j e c t i o n i s : W i l l i n g n e s s - t o - P a y v a l u e s Per A c t i v i t y Day P r i m i t i v e $3.00 x 39,883 S e m i - p r i m i t i v e $8.00 x 29,492 Total Revenue At Face Value 119,649 235.936 355,585 $355.600 One-Third 39,883 78.645 118,528 $118.500 A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i t i s more common t o use $ / S i t e i n revenue c a l c u l a t i o n s based on a c t u a l market p r i c e s . The c l o s e s t s i t e c h a r g e s a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g : Capita l Regional D i s t r i c t Charge (Semi-primitive) $ 7.50 per s i t e Coldstream P r o v i n c i a l Park/ T h e t i s Lake Campground $12.00 per s i t e Murray (1988) i n es tabl ishing a wil l ingness-to-pay value, asked for a d a i l y fee i n a 24-hour period. This fee i s for the campsite not just an individual person. Therefore, he co r rec t ly d i d not apply the expansion factor of 2.68 to the a c t i v i t y day to ca lcula te the gross value of the recreational a c t i v i t y . For campsite planning, the expansion factor i s applied since the survey respondent was responding for the party of 2.68 people he/she represented. U s i n g t h e s e c h a r g e s , t h e revenue p e r y e a r i s : No. of No. of Total Charge Days Si tes Revenue . 12.00 120 215 $309,600 8.50 120 215 $219,300 T h i s r e p r e s e n t s t h e most o p t i m i s t i c and r e a l i s t i c revenue p r o j e c t i o n t o be e x p e c t e d . I t a l s o assumes t h a t u n i q u e r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s w i l l be p r o v i d e d t o a t t r a c t r e c r e a t i o n i s t s t o t h i s remote a r e a : w e l l - d e v e l o p e d h i k i n g t r a i l s , f i s h i n g i n s e t t i n g s o f v a r i o u s e x c l u s i v i t y , s a f e swimming a r e a s , p u b l i c t o u r s o f f o r e s t s , and h u n t i n g r e s e r v e s l o c a t e d f a r away from t h e main r e c r e a t i o n a r e a . I n summary, t h e p r o j e c t e d revenue and c o s t s a r e as f o l l o w s : Revenue Using Murray WTP values (1988) $355,600/yr Using Murray WTP values (1988) (1/3) $118,500/yr Using comparable charges in the area: Capi ta l Regional D i s t r i c t (semi-prim) $219,300/yr Goldstream Provinc ia l Park $309,600/yr (215 s i t e s , 120 camping days/yr) $119,000/yr $155,000/yr Cost Assuming low labour, administrative and maintenance costs Assuming high labour, administrat ive and maintenance costs T h i s assumes f u l l s i t e occupancy f o r t h e e n t i r e camping se a s o n . 98 8.3.3 C o s t and Revenue A n a l y s i s Thus, on t h e s u r f a c e a t l e a s t , campgrounds l o o k l i k e a s o l i d i n v e s t m e n t . However, t h e r e a r e a number o f problems t o c o n s i d e r . They a r e : 1) The g r a v e l r o a d from t h e Community o f Sooke t o t h e c a m p s i t e i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 km. T h i s would have t o be paved o r k e p t i n w e l l - m a i n t a i n e d g r a v e l l e d c o n d i t i o n s . 2) O t h e r c a m p s i t e s i n t h e V i c t o r i a v i c i n i t y a r e c u r r e n t l y h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s k e e p i n g t h e i r c a m p s i t e s f u l l y o c c u p i e d . 3) The c o s t o f maintenance and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e overhead i s d i f f i c u l t t o measure, s i n c e t h e a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t v a r i o u s government employment programs may c o v e r some o f t h e s e c o s t s . 4) The a s s u m p t i o n t h a t s i t e occupancy c o u l d be 100% i s v e r y u n r e a l i s t i c , b u t no r e l i a b l e occupancy r a t e f i g u r e i s a v a i l a b l e . O t h e r problems abound, s t a r t i n g w i t h WTP f i g u r e s from M u r r a y ' s s u r v e y a r e i n t e n d e d use o n l y . Not everyone does what i s i n t e n d e d . A l s o , t h e t r a d i t i o n o f f r e e l y u s i n g t h e a r e a o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e w i l l p r o b a b l y i n h i b i t p e o p l e from e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r t r u e market v a l u e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e income l e v e l s o f t h o s e who c u r r e n t l y u s e , o r i n t e n d t o use, t h e a r e a i s low. I f CPFP sought t o p r o v i d e a u n i q u e r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , h i g h e r income groups c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e . F i n a l l y , t h e CVM f a i l s t o measure t h e o t h e r c o s t s t o t h e r e c r e a t i o n i s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . F o r example, t h e c o s t o f t r a v e l o r camping equipment can be c o s t p r o h i b i t i v e , e s p e c i a l l y t o t h e low income group. T h e r e f o r e , t h e p e r s o n s u r v e y e d c o u l d have f a i l e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e a d d i t i o n a l c o s t t h a t would have t o be i n c u r r e d i n o r d e r t o e n j o y t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . The weaknesses a r e many, b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s t h e p r o v i s i o n o f camping s i t e s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , i t i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h CPFP c o u l d p r o v i d e on i t s p r i v a t e l a n d . Second, t h e community o f Sooke o r some n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e a r e a might be i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a s i n g t h e l a n d t o s e t up campgrounds. They c o u l d i n t u r n more e a s i l y s o l i c i t f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l f u n d i n g t o c o v e r employment, c a p i t a l , o p e r a t i o n s , and maintenance c o s t s . T h i s would r e q u i r e no i n v e s t m e n t on t h e landowner's p a r t and t h e revenue c o u l d h e l p i n o f f s e t t i n g t h e a n n u a l c o s t o f h o l d i n g t h e l a n d . 8.4 Measurement T h i s s e c t i o n d e a l s p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e U.S. e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e camping i n d u s t r y . The emphasis i s on camping i n t h e U.S. N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s i n c e l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e f o r camping on i n d u s t r i a l p r i v a t e f o r e s t l a n d . I n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e some b a s i s f o r comparing t h e U.S. N a t i o n a l F o r e s t l i t e r a t u r e w i t h p r o j e c t e d c o s t d a t a used i n t h i s 100 t h e s i s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n v e r t from PAOT ( p e r s o n s a t one time) and RVD's ( r e c r e a t i o n a l v i s i t o r days) t o Mu r r a y ' s measurement o f a c t i v i t y days. The c o n v e r s i o n from RVD's t o a c t i v i t y days has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 2.3.3. The c o n v e r s i o n o f PAOT's t o RVD's i s d e s c r i b e d i n T a b l e 12. Table 12 Conversion Factors to Translate U.S . Camping Data RVD A c t i v i t y Day Type of Murray's Conversion Conversion Recreation S i t e EL Equivalent Factor Factor Family Campground 2 Pr imi t ive 0.01265 13/12 = 1.0833 Family Campground 3 Semi-primitive 0.01401 1.0833 ^Experience level (see Glossary) . 2Shuster et a h (1983). ^The conversion from RVD to a c t i v i t y i s based on the formula (see Table 3 ) : RVD = T o t a l A c t i v i t y Day 12 hours/Average No. of hours i n each a c t i v i t y , i . e . 13 hours f o r camping (Gibbs et a l 1979) The measurement problem i s e x a c e r b a t e d by Mu r r a y ' s d e f i n i t i o n s o f p r i m i t i v e and s e m i - p r i m i t i v e camping s i t e s , a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e USFS ROS system (see G l o s s a r y o f t e r m s ) . To f u r t h e r compound t h e problem t h e USFS p l a n s on t h e ROS system ( R e c r e a t i o n O p p o r t u n i t y Spectrum), b u t c o s t and revenue d a t a a r e g e n e r a l l y n o t r e p o r t e d i n t h o s e terms. I n B.C. t h e P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s p e r s o n n e l do n o t use t h e ROS system, and t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n a l development p l a n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y camping, a r e demand-driven w i t h c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by a n n u a l b u d g e t s . T h i s a g a i n makes co m p a r i s o n d i f f i c u l t s i n c e Murray's 101 e s t i m a t e s a r e based on a n t i c i p a t e d use, n o t a c t u a l use. F u r t h e r m o r e B.C. p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s use p a r t y days, n o t a c t i v i t y d a ys, as a s t a n d a r d measurement o f r e c r e a t i o n a l use. There a r e u s u a l l y 3-4 p e o p l e p e r p a r t y . N e e d l e s s t o say, t h e c o n v e r s i o n i n t o a c t i v i t y days i s n o t p o s s i b l e , m a i n l y because t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . A l l t h i s emphasizes t h e need t o s t a n d a r d i z e t h e measurement u n i t t o improve t h e d a t a b a s e f o r r e c r e a t i o n d e c i s i o n makers i n b o t h government and i n d u s t r y . 102 8 . 5 C o m p a r a t i v e A n a l y s i s 8.5.1 C o s t s U s i n g t h i s methodology, t h e a n n u a l i z e d c o s t s p r e s e n t e d by S c h u s t e r e t a l (1983) a r e t r a n s l a t e d a s : Unadjusted 1980 US $ Type of Recreation S i t e Annualized Costs i n PAOT Family Campground Family Campground Group Campground E L 1 4%2 _7%2 10%3 2 130.33 147.53 119.40 3 128.06 142.29 130.24 40.06 45.45 36.89 1989 Can. $ EL 4% 7% 10% 2 3.00 3.40 2.75 3 2.83 3.28 3.00 0.92 1.05 0.85 Conversion to A c t i v i t y Days Family Campground Family Campground Group Campground Example of conversion: $130.33 x .01265 x 13/12 x 1.2325 x -1.058 x 1.044 x 1.040 x 1.041 x 1.044 x 1.041 x 1.050 = $3.00 per a c t i v i t y day. V s already mentioned, EL = Experience Leve l . EL2 - p r imi t ive camping; EL3 - semi-primitive camping. 2 The 4% and 7% items amortized over 10 years or 20 years, depending on the item. ^The 10% item amortized over 15 years. O t h e r s t u d i e s r e p o r t t h e c o s t o f d e v e l o p i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g a campground as shown below. Study EL Year of Data Cost per RVD $ Cost per A c t i v i t y Day (1989) Gibbs & Van Hees (1980) 2 1977 1.44 4.00 II II II 3 1977 1.74 4.83 Gibbs et a l . . (1979) 1979 1.69 4.69 Tyre (1975) 1970 2.48 6.88 I n t h i s s t u d y t h e a n n u a l i z e d c o s t o f development compares f a v o u r a b l y w i t h t h e o t h e r s t u d i e s mentioned. The t o t a l a n n u a l i z e d c o s t s o f $155,000 p e r y e a r d i v i d e d by t h e t o t a l a c t i v i t y days i n p r i m i t i v e and s e m i - p r i m i t i v e camping (39,883 + 29,492) y i e l d a v a l u e o f $2.23 p e r a c t i v i t y day. W e i g h t i n g t h e c a p i t a l c o s t by t h e number o f p r i m i t i v e and s e m i - p r i m i t i v e c a m p s i t e s , t h e c o s t p e r a c t i v i t y day i s : Table 13 Cost of Campsites i n the SRMA Capi ta l Cost P r imi t ive (124 s i t e s ) - annualized 10% 15 yrs $ 39,670 Semi-primitive ( 91 s i t e s ) - 32,687 Operation & Maintenance Pr imi t ive 124/215x80,000 46,139 Semi-primitive 91/215 x 80,000 33,860 Cost per A c t i v i t y Day Pr imi t ive (39,670 + 46,139)/39,883 a c t i v i t y days = $2 .15 /ac t iv i ty day Semi-primitive (32,687 + 33,860)/29,492 a c t i v i t y days = $2 .26 /ac t iv i ty day A c o m p a r a t i v e summary o f c o s t p e r a c t i v i t y day i s shown i n T a b l e 14. Table 14 Comparative Cost for Camping per A c t i v i t y Day of Campsite Development and Maintenance Type of Schuster Van Hees Gibbs Tyre B u l l Recreation S i te (1983) (1980) (1979) (1975) (1990) P r imi t ive Camping 2.75 4.00 4.69 6.88 2.15 Semi-primitive Camping 3.00 4.83 4.69 6.88 2.26 I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o no t e t h a t b o t h s t u d i e s by Gibbs and t h e T y r e s t u d y a r e u s i n g d a t a t w e l v e and t e n y e a r s o l d r e s p e c t i v e l y . P o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e h i g h e r v a l u e a r e t h a t t h e c o s t s have n o t k e p t up w i t h i n f l a t i o n , camping s t a n d a r d s have been l o w e r e d , o r t h e e x p e r i e n c e l e v e l s f o r w h i c h t h e campgrounds were d e v e l o p e d a r e much h i g h e r t h a n EL2 o r EL3. 104 8.5.2 Revenue Murray (1988) p r e s e n t e d a comparison o f WTP v a l u e s w h i c h b e a r s r e p e a t i n g , m a i n l y because t h e y show t h a t w h i l e t h e v a l u e s used i n t h i s s t u d y a r e low compared t o A m e r i c a n s t u d i e s , t h e y a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s more r e a l i s t i c f o r B r i t i s h C olumbia's s i t u a t i o n . The v a l u e s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o 1989 Canadian d o l l a r s a r e : Table 15 Comparative Revenue for Camping Per A c t i v i t y Day for Primitive and Semi-Primitive Camping 1986 $ 1989 $ U.S.A. Walsh - Primitive Camping 18.37 20.96 - Semi-primitive Camping 12.28 14.01 Camping - Western Washington 13.88 USA Average Semi-primitive Camping 16.04 18.30 B.C. CRD/GVWD Semi-primitive Camping 7.50 8.56 Goldstream Provincial Campground Semi-primitive Camping 12.00 Murray - Primitive Camping 2.49 2.96 - Semi-primitive Camping 8.53 10.13 (Sources: Murray 1988; Goldstream Provincial Campground brochure 1988; Sorg & Loomis 1984.) 8.6 Trends G e n e r a l l y , t h e revenue d e r i v e d from campgrounds c o n t i n u e s t o be much l e s s t h a n s i m i l a r f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h i s p r o b l e m i s compounded by t h e r e c e n t t r e n d s i n t h e p r i v a t e campground i n d u s t r y on t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t . McEwen (1989) o u t l i n e s t h e s e t r e n d s . They a r e : 105 • O v e r a l l , t h e p r i v a t e campground i n d u s t r y has had a 1% d e c r e a s e i n t h e l a s t t e n y e a r s . However, i n t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t r e g i o n t h e r e has been a 16% i n c r e a s e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . • The average r e t u r n on i n v e s t m e n t i s 3.8%. Campgrounds w i t h l e s s t h a n 100 s i t e s show a l o s s o f 5.3%. T h e r e f o r e i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t campground owners n a t i o n w i d e i n d i c a t e d 32% o f t h e i r p a r k s a r e f o r s a l e . • As i n d i c a t e d above, t h e economies o f s c a l e have changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e l a s t two decades. I n 1968 t h e r e was an average o f 3 0 s i t e s p e r campground; i n 1987 t h e r e were 117 s i t e s p e r campground on an average l a n d base o f 12 ha. • The c a m p s i t e s w i t h no e l e c t r i c a l , sewage o r w a t e r hookup a r e o n l y 28% o f a l l c a m p s i t e s . Those w i t h t h e hookups j u s t mentioned have a l s o i n c r e a s e d swimming f a c i l i t i e s by 289% s i n c e 1979, RV s u p p l i e s by 150%, and t e n n i s c o u r t s by 137%. A d d i t i o n a l l y t h e r e i s ' a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n t e n t and RV o n - s i t e r e n t a l s . C l e a r l y t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s a r e n o t i d e n t i f i e d by M urray's s u r v e y as d e s i r a b l e . • F i n a l l y , o n l y a few membership campgrounds have been s u c c e s s f u l . 8.7 D i s c u s s i o n The U.S. t r e n d s f o r p r i v a t e campgrounds i n d i c a t e t h a t w h i l e r e c e n t t r e n d s i n t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t r e g i o n l o o k p o s i t i v e f o r campground use, t h e r e t u r n s on i n v e s t m e n t a r e v e r y low, t h e 106 campground s i z e i s now much l a r g e r , and t h e demand i s c l e a r l y f o r l u x u r y campgrounds. T h i s i s n o t p r o m i s i n g f o r CPFP because t h e r e t u r n on i n v e s t m e n t i s u n a t t r a c t i v e , and t h e i n t e n d e d campers i d e n t i f i e d by Murray (1988) d e s i r e p r i m i t i v e and s e m i - p r i m i t i v e campgrounds, no t l u x u r y campgrounds. The k e r n e l o f t h e p r o blem i s t h e low f e e c h a r g e d i n p u b l i c campgrounds. Both t h e p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l p a r k s use o p e r a t i o n s and maintenance c o s t r e c o v e r y as t h e b a s i s f o r campground management. G i v e n t h a t t h e y have most o f t h e prime l o c a t i o n s and no p r o f i t m o t i v e , t h e p r i v a t e campground i n d u s t r y s i m p l y c a nnot compete. The one "spanner i n t h e works" i s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f p r o v i d i n g a t o t a l r e c r e a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e , o f w h i c h camping i s a p a r t . The most l o g i c a l way t o p r o c e e d would be t h e g r a n t i n g o f l e a s e s t o l o c a l governments o r n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n s who can o p e r a t e on a c o s t r e c o v e r y b a s i s . 107 IX. TIMBER AND LAND VALUES The management o f f o r e s t a r e a s f o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s w i l l have an impact on commercial t i m b e r v a l u e s . T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e v a l u e s , t h e p r o b a b l e impact o f r e c r e a t i o n on b o t h t h e l o g g i n g c o s t and t h e a n t i c i p a t e d revenue from t h e t i m b e r r e s o u r c e s . U s i n g a t r a d i t i o n a l d i s c o u n t i n g approach t h e impact on t h e company's n e t income w i l l be examined. T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by an a n a l y s i s o f t h e most s e n s i t i v e v a r i a b l e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e n e t p r e s e n t v a l u e . F i n a l l y , an e x a m i n a t i o n o f changes i n l a n d v a l u e and i t s impact on t h e d e c i s i o n t o manage f o r r e c r e a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d . 9.1 Timber A n a l y s i s - Base Case F o r t h e SRMA, many o f t h e assumptions by Massey (1984) i n h i s s i m p l e economics model a r e used. These i n c l u d e : t h e r e a l r a t e o f i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r i c e o f wood i s 1.5% p e r annum; t h e r e a l d i s c o u n t r a t e i s 6%; one r o t a t i o n o f t i m b e r ; and y i e l d c u r v e s . L o g g i n g c o s t s and l o g v a l u e s a r e changed t o more a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t c u r r e n t c o n d i t i o n s . The l o g g i n g c o s t used i s $26.00 p e r m3 ( A v i s , 1989). A summary o f t h e a r e a and volume u s i n g t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 16. 108 Table 16 Detai led Summary of Area, Volume, and Present Net Revenue by Harvest Year Harvest Year Area (ha) Volume Mil Present Net Revenue at 6% 2005 2015 2020 2025 . 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 2060 2065 2070 2080 79 69 77 73 81 136 94 103 87 60 174 68 69 24,508 36,669 53,285 51,880 52,104 74,437 99,962 63,079 28,670 31,033 105,894 42,900 25,571 369,567 391,977 476,116 385,967 321,651 380,168 421,269 218,849 81,721 59,392 165,685 54,803 21,700 1170 689,992 $3,348,865 The p r o j e c t e d revenue i s d e r i v e d from Vancouver Log Market p r i c e s r e p o r t e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s and Land i n 1989 f o r Douglas f i r ( F d ) , w e s t e r n hemlock (Hw) and w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r (Cw). I t i s assumed t h a t t h e s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e f i n a l volume i s 60% Fd, 5% Hw, 10% Cw. The r e m a i n i n g 20% o f t h e volume i s assumed t o have no commercial v a l u e . The average p r i c e s r e p o r t e d f o r t h e s e s p e c i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y a r e $64.62/m 3, $53.26/m 3 and $66.94/m 3 ( P a w l i u k 1989). The o t h e r a s s u m p t i o n i n T a b l e 16 i s r e s p e c t i n g t h e h a r v e s t y e a r . Even though t h e f i n a n c i a l r o t a t i o n i s d e t e r m i n e d f o r each f o r e s t t y p e (see T a b l e 1 6 ) , t h e h a r v e s t y e a r has been changed, where n e c e s s a r y , t o ens u r e a minimum d i a m e t e r o f a t l e a s t 35 cm a t b r e a s t h e i g h t . T h i s p r o v e d n e c e s s a r y i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f f o r e s t t y p e s , making i t i n e f f e c t a h a r v e s t y e a r chosen by a t e c h n i c a l r o t a t i o n age. To s i m p l i f y t h e a n a l y s i s and t o r e a l i z e t h e r e a l c o n s t r a i n t o f moving men and equipment t o t h i s a r e a , a 109 minimum volume o f a t l e a s t 25,000 m3 must be h a r v e s t e d i n any one p e r i o d . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s c o n s t r a i n t w i l l a l s o f a c i l i t a t e t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f a e s t h e t i c v a l u e by such o r g a n i z a t i o n s as t h e G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a R e g i o n a l P a r k s p e o p l e , who manage a d j a c e n t p r o p e r t y t o t h e s t u d y a r e a . 9.2 Timber A n a l y s i s - O p t i o n s I n o r d e r t o improve t h e economic p r o j e c t i o n s made f o r t h e SRMA, a number o f v a r i a b l e s a r e t e s t e d . They a r e : 1) l o g g i n g c o s t ; 2) l o g p r i c e s ; 3) a n n u a l c o s t s o f h o l d i n g f o r e s t p r o p e r t y ; 4) r e a l r a t e o f change i n t h e v a l u e o f wood; 5) growth and y i e l d p r o j e c t i o n s ; 6) d i s c o u n t r a t e . 9.2.1 L o g g i n g C o s t The l o g g i n g c o s t i s i n c r e a s e d by 18% f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f n o n - t i m b e r v a l u e s (Benson e t a l . 1985). They v a r y f o r e v e r y s i t e , d e p e nding upon such f a c t o r s as f a l l i n g method, y a r d i n g method, d i s t a n c e t o l o g dump, equipment a v a i l a b i l i t y , r o a d c o n d i t i o n s , e t c . O t h e r s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h e i n c r e a s e i n l o g g i n g c o s t t o be as much as 30% f o r a r e c r e a t i o n f o r e s t ( C h r i s t e n s e n 1981). / The c a t e g o r i e s o f non- t i m b e r v a l u e s c o n s i d e r e d by Benson e t a l . (1985) i n t h e i r s u r v e y o f 187 t i m b e r s a l e s were: S o i l • R e c r e a t i o n Water • V i s u a l F i s h • C u l t u r a l W i l d l i f e • Range S o i l c o n s e r v a t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n o f w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t were deemed t o have t h e b i g g e s t e f f e c t on l o g g i n g c o s t s . S c h u s t e r e t a l . (1983) r e p o r t e d t h e major h a r v e s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h have t o be m o d i f i e d i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e s e n o n - t i m b e r a c t i v i t i e s a r e : Timber Sale A c t i v i t y Rank Location and s ize of cut t ing units 1 Road - density and locat ion 2 Road - seed, mulch, plant 3 Proportion of area harvested 4 Drainage - cu lver t s , di tches, e tc . 5 Road alignment at grade 6 Leave s t r i p s , streamside cover 7 Yarding/skidding d i r ec t ion and distance 8 Cross d i tch and water-bar sk id t r a i l s 8 Cleaning t r a i l s and streams 8 Ranking is in order of importance. T a b l e 17 p r e s e n t s a c o m p a r a t i v e c o s t summary o f l o g g i n g . Sauder (1988) r e p o r t e d t h e g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r f u t u r e h a r v e s t i n g i s w i t h ground s k i d d i n g equipment. MacDonald (1987) i n d i c a t e d g r a p p l e y a r d i n g i s worthy o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n ; p a r t i c u l a r l y when o t h e r r e s o u r c e v a l u e s such as a e s t h e t i c s r e q u i r e a d i f f e r e n t approach. I l l Table 17 Summary of Harvesting Cost by Logging Phase. (1989) (1984) (1984) (1987) (1985) A c t i v i t y . p A v i a ($/m 3) Mas&ey ($/m 3) MacDonald ($/m 3) Howard ($/m 3) Benson" ($/m 3) F a l l i n g 4.00 5.91 Yard and Load (skidder) 10.00 (skidder) 9.50-13.00 11.97 Yard (alone) (grapple) 5.68 (skidder) 5.31-5.35 Haul 11.00 11.00 5.95 6.05 Roads 1.00 1.42 1 $26.00 $25.35 .3 Costs in table are unadjusted for. i n f l a t i o n . Costs are based oh small opening 5-10 ha, second growth Douglas f i r . Conversion: t($/mfbm) x 221 BF/m3] 1 mfbm/1000 BF x 1.17 (exchange rate 1989) 9.2.2 Log P r i c e s Two s e t s o f l o g p r i c e s a r e u s e f u l because o f CPFP's ow n e r s h i p o f t h i s p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , on w h i c h l o g e x p o r t s a r e not r e s t r i c t e d . I f l o g e x p o r t p r i c e s r e f l e c t t h e r e a l v a l u e o f t h e l o g s , t h e n a more a c c u r a t e assessment o f t h e impact on t i m b e r v a l u e s can be d e r i v e d . T h e r e f o r e , Vancouver Log Mar k e t p r i c e s and t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Log Market p r i c e s p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r revenue p r o j e c t i o n s . 9.2.3 A nnual C o s t s The two p r i m a r y a n n u a l c o s t s o f h o l d i n g f o r e s t p r o p e r t y a r e p r o p e r t y t a x e s and maintenance c o s t s ( r o a d s , f i r e c o n t r o l , f o r e s t r y c o s t , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) . The c o s t s a l t e r n a t i v e s used were d e v e l o p e d by CPFP f o r e s t r y p e r s o n n e l . 112 9.2.4 Wood V a l u e s The impact o f t h e r e a l r a t e o f change i n t h e v a l u e o f wood i s t e s t e d a t 1.5%, 0.75%, and 0%. The a p p r o x i m a t e annu a l change i n t h e r e a l v a l u e o f wood o v e r t h e l a s t 100 y e a r s i s 1.5% (Teeguarden 1990). Massey, i n h i s s i l v i c u l t u r a l i n v e s t m e n t model f o r CPFP (1984), a l s o used 1.5% i n c r e a s e . However, H a l e y (1990) arg u e s t h a t t h e r a t e o f change has slowed down c o n s i d e r a b l y i n t h e l a s t 4 0 y e a r s . T h i s i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e s u b s t i t u t a b i l i t y o f o t h e r m a t e r i a l s f o r wood p r o d u c t s i n r e c e n t decades. Thus, 0.75% i s a r b i t r a r i l y chosen" t o r e p r e s e n t t h e f u t u r e i n c r e a s e i n wood p r i c e s . The use o f a 0% r e a l i n c r e a s e i n p r i c e s i m p l y i n d i c a t e s t h e n e t p r e s e n t v a l u e s i f t h i s v a r i a b l e i s i g n o r e d . 9.2.5 Growth and Y i e l d P r o j e c t i o n s Two i n v e n t o r y p r o j e c t i o n s a r e used. The f i r s t i s Massey's y i e l d c u r v e s , and t h e second i s B a s k e r v i l l e - D e v i t t ' s y i e l d c u r v e s . A l l o f t h e s e a r e c u r r e n t l y used by CPFP p e r s o n n e l i n t h e i r f o r e s t p l a n n i n g . T e s t i n g t h e economic s i g n i f i c a n c e o f growth and y i e l d p r o j e c t i o n s i s deemed i m p o r t a n t , because t h e Massey y i e l d e s t i m a t e s a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be about 20% h i g h e r t h a n B a s k e r v i l l e ' s and t h e c u t t i n g c y c l e i s 30 y e a r s l o n g e r u s i n g Massey's p r o j e c t i o n s (Tudor 1990). A l t h o u g h Massey's (#1) volume i s 45% h i g h e r t h a n B a s k e r v i l l e 1 s (#2) (see T a b l e 1 8 ) , t h e volume i s c a l c u l a t e d o v e r an 80-year p e r i o d f o r #1 and o v e r a 45-year p e r i o d f o r #2. T h i s means i n #2 t h e r e i s a d d i t i o n a l volume on t h e n e x t c r o p which i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e comparison o f volume. F o r example, a l l o f t h e s t a n d s c u t b e f o r e 2050 i n #2 p r o j e c t i o n s a r e a d d i n g volume n o t c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e comparisons w i t h #1 p r o j e c t i o n s w h i c h do n o t add second-growth volume t o t h e s e same s t a n d s u n t i l 2080. Thus t h e d i s t o r t i o n s i n volume as a r e s u l t o f c o n s i d e r i n g o n l y one r o t a t i o n a r e e x a g g e r a t e d . I f t h e mean a n n u a l i n c r e m e n t on t h i s p r o d u c t i v e l a n d i s 10 m3 p e r ha p e r y e a r , t h e a d d i t i o n a l volume t o add t o #2 volume i s : 10 m 3\ha\yr x 1170 ha x 30 y e a r s = 351,000 m3. T h i s would r e n d e r a t o t a l o f 831,313 m3 u s i n g t h e B a s k e r v i l l e y i e l d c u r v e s , w h i c h a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y a 20% h i g h e r y i e l d t h a n w i t h Massey's y i e l d c u r v e s . T h i s a g r e e s w i t h CPFP's e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e two y i e l d c u r v e s . Table 18 Timber Harvesting Project ions, Using Two Inventories. Massey #1 Baske rv i l l e (#2) Projected volume ( a l l species) 690,262 m3 480,313 m? Addi t ional volume 351.000 ml Total volume 831,313 m Harvest years range 2000-2080 2005-2050 Average area cut per cut t ing cycle 77 ha 145 ha Maximum opening s izes 5-10 ha 5-10 ha Species - commercial mix (both) Fd 65%, Hw 10%, Cw 5% Management classes 40-43 40-43 60-63 Total area logged over rota t ion 1170 1165 114 As a l r e a d y mentioned, t h e t i m b e r h a r v e s t from t h e Sooke R e c r e a t i o n A r e a i s s u f f i c i e n t l y low t h a t moving men and equipment t o t h e a r e a can o n l y be j u s t i f i e d a t 5-10 y e a r i n t e r v a l s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e t i m e o f h a r v e s t i s a l s o c o n s t r a i n e d by t h e d i a m e t e r . Company p o l i c y f o r m i l l i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s d i c t a t e s t h a t t h e average d i a m e t e r s h o u l d be 35 cm o r g r e a t e r ; t h u s on s i t e s w i t h p o o r p r o d u c t i v i t y t h e f i n a n c i a l r o t a t i o n age i s extended u n t i l t h i s t e c h n i c a l r o t a t i o n age i s r e a c h e d . Recent s t u d i e s o f second-growth h a r v e s t i n g i n d i c a t e a s m a l l e r d i a m e t e r s i z e i s m e r c h a n t a b l e (Howard 1987). Of a l l t r e e s h a r v e s t e d , 63% were between 24 cm and 3 3 cm, and 30% were g r e a t e r t h a n 35 cm. CPFP c u r r e n t p o l i c y , however, i s g e a r e d t o w a r d t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f h i g h - q u a l i t y saw l o g s , r e s u l t i n g i n h i g h e r v a l u e - a d d e d end p r o d u c t s . Sauder (1988) p r e d i c t e d t h e stump d i a m e t e r i n second-growth f o r e s t w i l l range from 40-60 cm. 9.2.6 D i s c o u n t Rate F i n a l l y , t h e impact o f change i n r e a l d i s c o u n t r a t e s o f 4%, 6%, and 8% i s t e s t e d . CPFP does n o t c u r r e n t l y s e p a r a t e b a r e l a n d v a l u e s from c o m m e r c i a l t i m b e r v a l u e s , meaning t h a t t h e r a t e o f r e t u r n i s c o n s i d e r e d from t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f b o t h v a l u e s . S i n c e t h e change i n l a n d v a l u e s i n d i c a t e s a h i g h r a t e o f r e t u r n (see S e c t i o n 9.4), t h e d i s c o u n t r a t e used f o r t i m b e r i s j u s t i f i a b l y l o w e r , because l a n d and t i m b e r a r e n o t s e p a r a t e d i n company d e c i s i o n making. 115 9.3 S e n s i t i v i t y Analysis The economic e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e t i m b e r r e s o u r c e i s summarized i n T a b l e 19. Each c a l c u l a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s t h e n e t p r e s e n t v a l u e o f t h e t i m b e r s u p p l y from t h e SRMA f o r a s i n g l e f o r e s t r o t a t i o n . The f a c t o r s w h i c h a r e most s e n s i t i v e t o f o r e s t p l a n n i n g a r e : l o g p r i c e s r e a l r a t e o f change i n t h e v a l u e o f wood growth and y i e l d p r o j e c t i o n s d i s c o u n t r a t e . S e l e c t e d d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e s e f a c t o r s i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . Note t h a t c o s t s e n s i t i v i t y i s d e s c r i b e d i n T a b l e 19. 9.3.1 Log P r i c e s I f t h e assu m p t i o n s about l o g p r i c e s changed from Vancouver Log Market P r i c e s t o I n t e r n a t i o n a l Log P r i c e s , t h e s e l e c t e d r e s u l t s , i n p e r c e n t a g e change, from T a b l e 19 a r e : Inventory Discount Rates 1 Projections 8% 6% 4% Massey 337 223 179 Devit t 335 158 118 Assume: • annual cost 1 - holding the land only. • increase i n wood prices 0.75%. • logging cost minimum. O b v i o u s l y , a t t h e h i g h e r d i s c o u n t r a t e (8%) t h e i n v e n t o r y p r o j e c t i o n i s u n i m p o r t a n t ; b u t t h e n e t p r e s e n t v a l u e c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e n e a r l y t h r e e t i m e s h i g h e r t h a n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s a t 4%. A l s o , t h e i n v e n t o r y p r o j e c t i o n s become more i m p o r t a n t as t h e d i s c o u n t 116 Table 17 SOOKE RECREATION MANAGEMENT AREA • ( a l l calculations are in 1989 dollars to the nearest thousand $) Period Area Volume i P 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 (years) (ha) (i3). 2005-2080 1170 690000 8 0.00% 698 48 -401 565 84 -534 1874 1225 775 1742 1092 643 Yield 1 0.751 1096 446 -3 964 314 -135 2600 1950 1501 2467 1818 1368 1.501 1626 977 527 1494 845 395 3566 2916 2467 . 3434 2784 2334 6 0.005 1316 454 -143 1066 204 -393 3536 2674 2076 3286 2424 1827 0.751 2171 1308 711 1921 1059 462 5092 4230 3633 4843 3980 3383 1.505 3349 2487 1890 3099 2237 1640 7238 6376 5779 6989 6126 5529 4 0.005 2724 1461 586 2208 944 695 7319 6056 5181 6803 5539 4665 0.755 4769 3506 2631 4253 2989 2115 11044 9781 '8906 10528 9264 8390 1.505 7709 6446 5571 7192 5929 .5054 16399 15135 14261 15882 14619 13744 2005-2050 1165 480000 8 0.005 746 97 -353 605 -45 -494 2005 1356 906 1864 1214 765 Yie l d 2 0.755 1116 466 17 974 325 -125 2678 2029 1579 2537 1887 1438 1.505 1596 947 497 1454 805 356 3553 2904 2454 3412 2762 2313 6 0.005 1899 1037 440 1758 896 299 4105 3243 2646 3964 3102 2505 0.755 2642 1780 1183 2500 1638 1041 5458 4595 3998 5316 4454 3857 1.505 3633 2770 2173 3491 2629 2031 7262 6400 5803 7121 6258 5661 4 0.005 4334 3071 2196 4193 2929 2055 8540 7277 6402 8399 7136 6261 0.755 5947 • 4684 3809 5806 4542 3668 11478 10215 9340 11337 . 10073 9199 1.505 8151 6887 6013 8009 6746 5871 15491 14228 13353 15350 14086 13212 i= discount rate 1 = VLM Log Prices, annual cost 0, Avis logging costs p= r e a l increase i n wood prices 2 = VLM Log Prices, annual cost 1, Avis logging costs V1H= Vancouver Log Market 3 = VLM Log Prices, annual cost 2, Avis logging costs INT= International Log Market 4 = VLM Log Prices, annual cost 0, Benson logging costs Y i e l d 1= Hassey curves 5 = VLM Log Prices, annual cost 1, Benson logging costs Yield 2= Baskerville-Devitt curves 6 = VLM Log Prices, annual cost 2, Benson logging costs 7 = INT Log Prices, annual cost 0, Avis logging costs 8 = INT Log Prices, annual cost 1, Avis logging costs 9 = INT Log Prices, annual cost 2, Avis logging costs 10= KIT Log Prices, annual cost 0, Benson logging costs 11= INT Log Prices, annual cost 1, Benson logging costs 12= INT Log Prices, annual cost 2, Benson logging costs 117 r a t e i s l o w e r e d . I n a l l c a s e s , t h e d r a m a t i c i n c r e a s e i n n e t p r e s e n t v a l u e i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e as s u m p t i o n about t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l o g p r i c e s . 9.3.2 Wood V a l u e The r e a l r a t e o f change i n t h e v a l u e o f wood a l s o has an i m p o r t a n t impact. S e l e c t e d r e s u l t s , i n p e r c e n t a g e change, from T a b l e 19 i n d i c a t e t h e g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f change: Change in Discount Rates Log Prices Real Pr ice 8% 4% Vancouver Log Market 0 -.1.5% International Log Market 0 - 1.5% Assume: • no annual cost of land holding. » logging costs are minimum. • Massey inventory. The n e t p r e s e n t v a l u e changes by 90-193% w i t h a change i n r e a l p r i c e s from 0 - 1.5% p e r annum. 9.3.3 Growth and Y i e l d The growth and y i e l d p r o j e c t i o n s o f Massey and D e v i t t / B a s k e r v i l l e have been t e s t e d . The f o l l o w i n g s e l e c t e d r e s u l t s , i n p e r c e n t a g e change, from T a b l e 19 r e p r e s e n t t h e t r e n d i n a l l v a r i a b l e s : Discount Rates Discount Rates Real Pr ice Vancouver Log Market International Log Market 8% 6% 4% 8% 6% 4% 102 128 110 11 21 . 20 4 36 33 4 8 4 3 11 7 -<1 -<1 -6 Assume: • annual cost 1 - holding the land only . • logging cost minimum. • Vancouver Log Market for log p r ices . 132 193 90 124 118 The growth and y i e l d p r o j e c t i o n s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e i f t h e r e a l i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r i c e o f wood i s 0% and t h e Vancouver Log Market p r i c e s a r e used. E x a m i n i n g t h e s e n s i t i v i t y i f t h e l o g g i n g c o s t i s i n c r e a s e d by 18%, t h e s e n s i t i v i t y i s i n c r e a s e d even more a t t h e 0% l e v e l . Thus t h e o b v i o u s c o n c l u s i o n i s , i f t h e f u t u r e p r i c e s f o r wood a r e gloomy and t h e l o g g i n g c o s t s a r e a n t i c i p a t e d t o r i s e a t a s i g n i f i c a n t r a t e , t h e c h o i c e o f which y i e l d . c u r v e s t o use becomes e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t . 9.3.4 D i s c o u n t Rate The a s s u m p t i o n s about t h e a p p r o p r i a t e d i s c o u n t r a t e g i v e a c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h magnitude o f change. The s e l e c t e d r e s u l t s , i n p e r c e n t a g e change, p r e s e n t e d below, show marked s e n s i t i v i t y . log Markets Real Increase i n Vancouver International Pr ice of Wood (8%-4%) (8%-4%) 0% 290 290 1.5% 374 360 Assume: • annual costs - holding the land only. • Massey inventory. • logging costs are minimum. F o r example, i f t h e d i s c o u n t r a t e changes from 8% t o 4%, t h e change i n t h e n e t p r e s e n t v a l u e o f t h e f o r e s t under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s 290%, i r r e s p e c t i v e o f whether t h e l o g market p r i c e s used a r e d o m e s t i c o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l . T h i s change i n n e t p r e s e n t v a l u e becomes even more pronounced i f t h e r e a l i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r i c e o f wood changes from 0% t o 1.5%. I n S e c t i o n 9.2.6, d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h c h o o s i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e d i s c o u n t r a t e a r e d i s c u s s e d . T h i s prompted t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e n e x t s e c t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s on t h e , o f t e n i g n o r e d , l a n d v a l u a t i o n q u e s t i o n . 9.4 Land V a l u e s Land v a l u e s a r e worthy o f d i s c u s s i o n s i n c e t h e assu m p t i o n s made a r e c r u c i a l t o t h e p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; more s p e c i f i c a l l y , t o t h e r a t e o f r e t u r n from p r o v i d i n g r e c r e a t i o n . The SRMA i s a s s e s s e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e change i n b a r e l a n d v a l u e s o v e r t i m e . I n d i c a t i o n s a r e t h a t t h i s i s t h e h i d d e n " j e w e l " i n t h e ownership o f l a n d i n s o u t h w e s t e r n B.C. The B.C. Assessment A u t h o r i t y ' s l a n d v a l u e f o r t h e SRMA a r e e s t i m a t e d t o be as f o l l o w s : T a b l e 2 0 g i v e s a sample o f t h e l a n d v a l u e s f o r s e l e c t e d b l o c k s w i t h i n t h e Sooke R e c r e a t i o n A r e a . The a s s e s s e d v a l u e s a r e based on t h e independent v a r i a b l e s o f t h e average growth r a t e o f t r e e (MAI) and t h e average 5-year stumpage v a l u e f o r t i m b e r from t h e Vancouver Log Market p r i c e s . The key i n d i c a t o r o f a s s e s s e d l a n d v a l u e t h e n i s t h e change i n r e p o r t e d stumpage v a l u e o v e r t i m e . Si te Component Land Value (S/ha) 25% Medium 50% Poor 25% Non-productive 699 348 10 (Source: B .C. Assessment Authori ty 1988) 120 Lane (1990) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s e a r e c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e s o f t h e change i n p r i v a t e l a n d v a l u e s , because t h e t i m b e r a v a i l a b l e on p u b l i c l a n d i s becoming s c a r c e r due t o r e c e n t t r e n d s i n l a n d b e i n g s e t a s i d e f o r o t h e r r e s o u r c e v a l u e s . He f u r t h e r r e p o r t s t h a t t h i s i s d r i v i n g up demand f o r p r i v a t e l a n d h o l d i n g f o r wood s u b s t a n t i a l l y . Table 20 Land Values for Selected Blocks on CPFP Forest Lands (Source: Assessment Authori ty Reports, 1988) ( A l l values in unadjusted $) Blocks 1151 1167 1187 1195 1436 Range Area (ha) 98 57 74 183 145 (per ha) Assessed Values Years 1975 3,446 636 1,547 7,336 6,334 11-44 1978 9,300 4,900 6,900 19,600 15,850 1983 28,950 5,150 28,800 36,919 29,048 1988 34.423 1 19,950 25,993 64,495 50,746 10-700 Rate of Return i n % 19 30 24 18 17 Rate of Return (net of i n f l a t i on ) i n % 16 27 21 15 14 Hhe three variables upon which assessed values are calculated are topography, distance to market, and s o i l q u a l i t y . The topography i s "average"; the access i s "c lose"; and the s o i l qua l i t y i s 25% non-productive, 50% poor, 25% medium. 2 S t a t i s t i c s Canada (May 2, 1990) reports the average i n f l a t i o n rate for the period 1975-1989 i s 3.1%. The o t h e r major a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t changes i n a s s e s s e d v a l u e s a r e an i n d i c a t o r o f changes i n market v a l u e s f o r t h i s p e r i o d . G e n e r a l l y , a s s e s s e d v a l u e s a r e l o w e r t h a n market v a l u e s f o r l a n d , and t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y t r u e f o r t h e s t u d y a r e a . The SRMA's u n i q u e r e c r e a t i o n a l f e a t u r e s and p r o x i m i t y t o t h e C i t y o f V i c t o r i a would see market v a l u e s f a r h i g h e r t h a n a s s e s s e d v a l u e s . However, a r e c e n t s a l e o f poor s i t e l a n d on n o r t h e r n Vancouver I s l a n d (November 1988) a t $479/ha i n d i c a t e s t h e a s s e s s e d v a l u e s were low, b u t n o t c o m p l e t e l y out o f l i n e . I n f o r m a t i o n f o r p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y s a l e s i s d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n and even more d i f f i c u l t t o b r e a k down i n t o t h e components o f t h e s a l e . F o r example, p e o p l e o f t e n i n c l u d e o t h e r i t e m s such as h a r v e s t i n g equipment i n t h e s e l l i n g p r i c e , and t h e o n l y v a l u e a v a i l a b l e from Crown Lands i s t h e t o t a l p r i c e . The r e a l r a t e s o f r e t u r n , as r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 20, o v e r a 13-year p e r i o d , a r e i n t h e range o f 14% t o 27%. T h i s has s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on t i m b e r management d e c i s i o n s . A n n u a l c o s t o f p r o p e r t y t a x e s , and s i l v i c u l t u r e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o s t s , f o r example, c o u l d be t a k e n as a d e d u c t i o n from t h e l a n d v a l u e s , n o t t h e t i m b e r v a l u e s . The most i m p o r t a n t outcome o f t h i s change i n p e r s p e c t i v e i s a change i n approach t o s i l v i l c u l t u r a l i n v e s t m e n t d e c i s i o n s and t h e method o f e v a l u a t i n g n o n - t i m b e r v a l u e s . I t can be argued, as l o n g as any a c t i v i t y i n d i c a t e s a p o s i t i v e r e t u r n o f any amount CPFP s h o u l d c a r r y out t h a t p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y . The r e t u r n s a r e s i m p l y an add-on t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n t r a t e s o f r e t u r n from h o l d i n g t h e f o r e s t l a n d p r o p e r t y . 122 To i l l u s t r a t e t h e approach, assume t h e 4000 ha o f t h e SRMA i s o f t h r e e s o i l - q u a l i t y t y p e s : medium ( 2 5 % ) ; p o o r ( 5 0 % ) ; and n o n - p r o d u c t i v e ( 2 5 % ) . The a s s e s s e d v a l u e i s c a l c u l a t e d a s : Non-productive: $ 10/ha x 1000 ha $ 10,000 $348/ha x 2000 ha 696,000 $699/ha x 1000 ha 699,000 Component Land Value $1,405,000 Timber Values St 6% Real Pr ice Increase 1.5% Taxes & Admin, deducted Baskerv i l l e curves Vancouver Log Market Prices (from Table 19) 2,173,000 The Net Present Value of Land and Timber i s $3,578,000 I f t h e $3,578,000 i s i n v e s t e d f o r 60 y e a r s ( i . e . 1990-2050) a t a r e a l i n t e r e s t r a t e o f 6%, t h e n e t p r e s e n t v a l u e o f revenues g e n e r a t e d i s : v n = v o ( l • i ) n V n = 3,578,000 ( 1 . 0 6 ) 6 0 = $118,000,000 n = Number of interest-bearing periods i = Interest rate V_ = Present value o V_ = Future value n T a b l e 20 s u g g e s t s t h e b a r e l a n d v a l u e has been i n c r e a s i n g a t a r a t e o f 14-20% p e r annum. T h i s r a t e o f r e t u r n t o t h e b a r e l a n d i g n o r e s t h e r e a l e s t a t e v a l u e o f t h e p r o p e r t y , because t h e gr o w i n g o f f o r e s t i s deemed i t s " h i g h e s t and b e s t u s e . " An a l t e r n a t i v e t o s e l l i n g t h e l a n d and t i m b e r f o r $3,578,000 i s t o h o l d o n t o t h e p r o p e r t y . As l o n g as t h e i n c r e a s e i n l a n d v a l u e s i n c r e a s e s a t a r a t e g r e a t e r t h a n 7.66%, t h e n t h i s i s t h e w i s e r c h o i c e . The c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e as f o l l o w s : 123 $1,405,000 ( 1 + i ) 6 0 = $118,000,000 where i = [the 60th root of 118,000,000/1,405,000] - 1 = .076639. T h e r e f o r e , as l o n g as t h e average i n c r e a s e i n l a n d v a l u e s exceeds t h e r e t u r n s from s e l l i n g now ( n e a r l y 2 p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t s i n t h i s c a s e ) , and CPFP's company p o l i c y c o n t i n u e s n o t t o s e p a r a t e t h e i r l a n d v a l u e s from t i m b e r v a l u e s , t h e g r o w i n g o f t r e e s a t a l o w e r r a t e o f r e t u r n i s j u s t i f i e d . S i m i l a r l y , as l o n g as t h e r e c r e a t i o n v a l u e s exceed t h e a s s o c i a t e d c o s t s , t h e d e c i s i o n t o make r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i s a l s o j u s t i f i e d . X. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSIONS The management o f p r i v a t e i n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t l a n d s under a m u l t i p l e use c o n c e p t p r e s e n t s r e a l c h a l l e n g e s t o b o t h governments and i n d u s t r y . A t t h e p o l i c y l e v e l , s i g n i f i c a n t improvements can be made by governments t o p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e s f o r t h e improved management o f f o r e s t l a n d . T h i s c o u l d be i n t h e form o f c h a n g i n g r e g u l a t i o n s o r p o l i c i e s and g i v i n g t a x c o n c e s s i o n s o r d i r e c t s u b s i d i e s t o promote m u l t i p l e - u s e . S i m i l a r l y , t h e f o r e s t p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y needs t o encourage i t s p e r s o n n e l t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s i n t h e development o f a m u l t i p l e - u s e p l a n . The l o n g t e r m b e n e f i t s would be i n a f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n from non- t i m b e r r e s o u r c e s and t h e s h o r t t e rm b e n e f i t s would be i n improved p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s . A t t h e o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l , s e v e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn from t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n t h i s t h e s i s . They a r e : . • M u r r a y ' s (1988) s u r v e y r e s u l t s from t h e s t u d y a r e a n o r t h o f Sooke must be used w i t h extreme c a u t i o n . The a c t u a l and i n t e n d e d use f i g u r e s r e p o r t e d a r e n o t v e r i f i a b l e i n government s t a t i s t i c s o r by CPFP company p e r s o n n e l . S i m i l a r l y , t h e average w i l l i n g n e s s - t o - p a y v a l u e s a r e i n d e e d a v e r a g e s , and no r e l i a b l e demand c u r v e s c o u l d be drawn from t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d . • I n t e n s i v e f i s h e r i e s management, under e x i s t i n g a q u a c u l t u r e l i c e n c e s , p r e s e n t s a t t r a c t i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r i v a t e i n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t landowners t o d e r i v e revenue from t h e i r l a n d base. However, f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s n e c e s s a r y t o i d e n t i f y t h e demand f o r t h i s k i n d o f p r o d u c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y from t h e n o n - r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n . W i l d l i f e management, w i t h emphasis on b l a c k - t a i l d e e r , o f f e r s a v i a b l e revenue s o u r c e f o r l a r g e landowners. P r e l i m i n a r y r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h e most e f f e c t i v e arrangement i s t h r o u g h s h o r t term l e a s e s t o n o n - p r o f i t o u t d o o r c l u b s . Deer f a r m i n g , a r e c e n t l y i n t r o d u c e d c o n c e p t t o B.C., c u r r e n t l y o f f e r s i n v e s t o r s a v e r y h i g h r a t e o f r e t u r n . T h i s i s e x p e c t e d t o c o n t i n u e f o r a t l e a s t a n o t h e r t e n "years and i s seen as an a l t e r n a t i v e use o f n o n - p r o d u c t i v e f o r e s t l a n d . Campgrounds do n o t o f f e r a t t r a c t i v e r a t e s o f r e t u r n and f u t u r e t r e n d s do n o t l o o k e n c o u r a g i n g . However, t h e i r p r o v i s i o n i s n e c e s s a r y s i n c e t h e y a r e an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e t o t a l r e c r e a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e . Timber v a l u e s a l o n e do n o t w a r r a n t t h e r e t e n t i o n o f l a n d o w n e r s h i p on S o u t h e r n Vancouver I s l a n d . However, t h e changes i n l a n d v a l u e s i n d i c a t e t h a t r e a l r e t u r n s a r e a c c r u i n g t o t h e b a r e l a n d . T h i s has enormous i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g a s a t i s f a c t o r y r a t e o f r e t u r n from i n v e s t m e n t s i n s i l v i c u l t u r e o r r e c r e a t i o n management. 126 RECOMMENDATIONS P r i v a t e i n d u s t r i a l landowners, such as CPFP, have t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o a g g r e s s i v e l y p u rsue t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r m u l t i p l e - use management. The p u b l i c p r e s s u r e s now b e i n g e x p e r i e n c e d by f o r e s t landowners can be vie w e d as a p o s i t i v e f o r c e w h i c h , p r o p e r l y c h a n n e l l e d , can p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e s o f revenue and t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o improve p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s . To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s , CPFP s h o u l d : c o l l e c t a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on such n o n - t i m b e r r e s o u r c e s as a e s t h e t i c and w a t e r v a l u e s t o form a more complete p i c t u r e o f t h e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e management o f r e c r e a t i o n f o r e s t s ; implement a p i l o t p r o j e c t t o manage f o r t h e r e c r e a t i o n p r o d u c t s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s t h e s i s and c a r e f u l l y m o n i t o r t h e m a r g i n a l c o s t s and revenue t o improve t h e i n f o r m a t i o n base f o r f u t u r e e x p a n s i o n . I t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y f o r p r i v a t e i n d u s t r i a l l andowners, such as CPFP, t o work i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h v a r i o u s government a g e n c i e s t o produce a r e c r e a t i o n management p l a n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e y c o u l d : • c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e M i n i s t r y o f T o u r i s m t o d e t e r m i n e t h e m a r k e t a b i l i t y o f t h e o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n p r o d u c t ; a s s i s t t h e M i n i s t r y o f Environment - W i l d l i f e Branch t o d e v e l o p a b e t t e r i n v e n t o r y o f t h e w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s 127 c u r r e n t l y under t h e management o f p r o v i n c i a l w i l d l i f e b i o l o g i s t s ; • p r o v i d e encouragement and i n i t i a t i v e f o r t h e development o f e f f e c t i v e measures o f r e c r e a t i o n u s e . S t a n d a r d i z i n g use measurements w i l l a l l o w v a r i o u s government and b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e s t h e a b i l i t y t o compare s t a t i s t i c s f o r b e t t e r p l a n n i n g ; i n v i t e l o c a l > g o v e r n m e n t s , such as t h e Sooke m u n i c i p a l i t y , t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T h e i r i n t e r e s t would i n c l u d e s uch r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s as camping, p i c n i c k i n g and swimming. Outdoor groups s h o u l d be c o n s u l t e d a t t h i s e a r l y s t a g e i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . F o r example, i n t h e c a s e s t u d y p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , CPFP c o u l d a s s i s t groups such as t h e Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l i n t h e i r a t t e m p t t o b r i n g f o r w a r d l e g i s l a t i o n t o c o n t r o l t h e use o f a l l t e r r a i n v e h i c l e s on f o r e s t l a n d s . A n o t h e r example, l o c a l f i s h and game c l u b s need t o be i n v i t e d t o c o n s i d e r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f h o l d i n g e x c l u s i v e h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g p r i v i l e g e s i n s p e c i f i e d a r e a s . The f i n a l recommendation, and perhaps t h e most i m p o r t a n t one, i s t h a t f o r e s t companies, such as CPFP, h i r e f o r e s t e r s who have a good u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e b r o a d e r c o n c e p t o f f o r e s t r y , meaning t h e i n c l u s i o n o f b o t h t i m b e r and n o n - t i m b e r v a l u e s i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n making. These f o r e s t e r s must e x h i b i t a new k i n d o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m so t h a t when i n e v i t a b l e c o n f l i c t s a r i s e t h e y 128 can e f f e c t i v e l y n e g o t i a t e w i t h government o f f i c i a l s , r e g i o n a l p a r k s p e r s o n n e l , l o c a l i n t e r e s t group members and a d j a c e n t p r o p e r t y owners on t h e f o r e s t company's b e h a l f . The a n a l y s i s c o mpleted i n t h i s s t u d y m e r e l y p r o v i d e s some b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e n e x t s t a g e i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s — c o o p e r a t i o n and n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h a l l i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s . As b o t h t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r and p u b l i c a g e n c i e s b e g i n t o g r a p p l e w i t h t h e management o f non - t i m b e r r e s o u r c e s perhaps t h e a d v i c e o f t h e T h i r d N a t i o n w i d e Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n P l a n i n t h e U.S.A. needs t o be c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d . The r e p o r t s t a t e s : D e s p i t e i t s i m p o r t a n c e , r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h c u r r e n t l y l a c k s c o o r d i n a t i o n , f a i l s t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y c o n s i d e r r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h from o t h e r f i e l d s , i s o f t e n d u p l i c a t i v e , and l a c k s e f f e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l and t r a n s f e r mechanisms. These d e f i c i e n c i e s l i m i t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g and management a t a l l l e v e l s o f government a n d 1 i n t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . (Diamond e t a l . 1983) H o p e f u l l y t h e s e m i s t a k e s can be a v o i d e d , b r i n g i n g more e f f e c t i v e m u l t i p l e - u s e management t o a l l f o r e s t l a n d s i n B.C. P r i v a t e f o r e s t landowners have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a k e t h e i n i t i a t i v e and h e l p g u i d e t h e momentum t h a t i s b u i l d i n g f o r r e c r e a t i o n f o r e s t r y i n t h e p u b l i c a t l a r g e , t o a s a f e haven where p l a n s a r e made and c o n f l i c t s a r e i n d e e d r e s o l v e d . 129 REFERENCES A c h e r t , W.S. and J . G i b a l d i . 1985. The MLA S t y l e Manuel. The Modern Language A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a . New Yo r k , New York. Anonymous. 1989a. Reform: T e s t i n g F o r e s t S e r v i c e Reforms, F o r e s t r y Watch Magazine 2 ( 4 ) , supplement. Anonymous. 1990. "Throwing Back t h e Salmon Quotas." The Ec o n o m i s t . J a n u a r y 13: 84. Anonymous. 1989b. 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(1989-2005), F o r e s t E n g i n e e r i n g R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e , S p e c i a l R e p o r t SR-49, 43p. S c h u s t e r , E.G. and K.C. G i b b s . 1983. C o s t s f o r Developed R e c r e a t i o n S i t e s i n t h e N o r t h e r n R e g i o n . USDA F o r e s t S e r v i c e . I n t e r m o u n t a i n F o r . and Range E x p t . S t a . Res. pap. No. INT-317. Ogden, UT. 6p. S c h u s t e r , E.G., C.E. Keegan I I I , and R.E. Benson. 1984. P r o v i s i o n s f o r P r o t e c t i n g and E n h a n c i n g Nontimber R e s o u r c e s i n N o r t h e r n R e g i o n Timber S a l e s . USDA F o r . S e r v . , I n t e r m o u n t a i n F o r . and Range E x p t . S t a . Res. pap. No. INT-326. Ogden, UT. ' 9p. S i e g e l , W.C. 1980. Landowner L i a b i l i t y Law: I m p l i c a t i o n f o r P u b l i c Use o f P r i v a t e F o r e s t Land. 2 9 t h A n n u a l F o r e s t r y Symposium, L o u s i a n a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , B a t o n Rouge, 17-24p. Simpson, S. 1989. "On t h e F l y . " Vancouver Sun. 18 J u l y . S m i t h , J.H.G. 1990. p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w . March 15. S o r g , C., J . Loomis, and U.S. F i s h and W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e . 1984. E m p i r i c a l E s t i m a t e s o f Amenity F o r e s t V a l u e s : A Comparative Review. USDA F o r . S e r v . Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-107. 23p. S t r a c h a n , G. 1990. " P l a n n i n g f o r P r o f i t s . " B.C. Game Growers, M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and F i s h e r i e s . Kamioops, B.C. Teeguarden, D.E. 1990. Making S t r a t e g i c C h o i c e s : The R o l e o f Economics i n N a t i o n a l F o r e s t P l a n n i n g , Western W i l d l a n d s 1 5 ( 4 ) : 12-17p. Tudor, K. 1990. Telephone I n t e r v i e w . May 7. Wa l k e r , J . 1990 Telephone I n t e r v i e w . A p r i l 4. REFERENCES Walsh, R.G. 1986. R e c r e a t i o n Economics D e c i s i o n s : Comparing B e n e f i t s and C o s t s , V e n t u r e P u b l i s h i n g I n c . , S t a t e C o l l e g e PA. 637p. Wheetman, G. 1990. P e r s o n a l I n t e r v i e w . May 21. Wightman, C. 1989. P e r s o n a l I n t e r v i e w . May 31. Wightman, C. 1990. Telephone I n t e r v i e w . May 18. 139 APPENDIX I GLOSSARY OF TERMS A c t i v i t y Day P a r t i c i p a t i o n by any member o f a h o u s e h o l d i n a r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y on t h e l a n d base f o r any p o r t i o n o f a day. I t does n ot equate t o a c a l e n d a r day o f a c t i v i t y (Murray 1988). A n g l e r Day One a n g l e r f i s h i n g f o r any t i m e p e r i o d i n one day (MOE 1990). C a p a b i l i t y B i o p h y s i c a l assessment o f l a n d f o r r e c r e a t i o n and t h e i n h e r e n t a t t r a c t i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n . Camping C l a s s i f i c a t i o n adopted by USFS 1982 i n Rim Handbook Development and E x p e r i e n c e L e v e l 1 S i t e M o d i f i c a t i o n - M i n i m a l . R u s t i c o r r u d i m e n t a r y improvements t o p r o t e c t s i t e r a t h e r t h a n p r o v i d e c o m f o r t t o u s e r s . S y n t h e t i c m a t e r i a l s a v o i d e d . S u b t l e , m i n i m a l c o n t r o l s ; no o b v i o u s r e g i m e n t a t i o n . I n f o r m a l s p a c i n g e x t e n d e d t o m i n i m i z e c o n t a c t s . M o t o r i z e d a c c e s s n o t p r o v i d e d o r p e r m i t t e d R e c r e a t i o n E x p e r i e n c e s . P r i m i t i v e f o r e s t e n v ironment dominates. Rudimentary and i s o l a t e d s i t e s beyond t h e s i g h t o r sound o f inh a r m o n i o u s i n f l u e n c e s . Maximum o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e x p e r i e n c i n g s o l i t u d e , t e s t i n g s k i l l s , and compensating f o r t h e r o u t i n e s o f d a i l y l i v i n g . U s e r s e n s e s no 140 r e g i m e n t a t i o n , f e e l s p h y s i c a l achievement t o r e a c h s i t e i s i m p o r t a n t . Development and E x p e r i e n c e L e v e l 2 S i t e M o d i f i c a t i o n - L i t t l e . R u s t i c o r r u d i m e n t a r y improvements t o p r o t e c t s i t e r a t h e r t h a n p r o v i d e c o m f o r t t o u s e r s . S y n t h e t i c m a t e r i a l s a v o i d e d . S u b t l e , m i n i m a l c o n t r o l s ; l i t t l e o b v i o u s r e g i m e n t a t i o n . I n f o r m a l s p a c i n g extended t o m i n i m i z e c o n t a c t s . M o t o r i z e d a c c e s s p r o v i d e d o r p e r m i t t e d , p r i m a r i l y o v e r p r i m i t i v e r o a d s . R e c r e a t i o n E x p e r i e n c e s . Near p r i m i t i v e f o r e s t environment. O u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s p r e s e n t b u t m i n i m i z e d . F e e l i n g o f accomplishment a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o w - s t a n d a r d a c c e s s i s i m p o r t a n t b u t p h y s i c a l e x e r t i o n n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e q u i r e d t o r e a c h s i t e . O p p o r t u n i t y f o r s o l i t u d e and chance t o t e s t o u t d o o r s k i l l s . Development and E x p e r i e n c e L e v e l 3 S i t e M o d i f i c a t i o n - Moderate. F a c i l i t i e s e q u a l l y t o p r o t e c t s i t e and c o m f o r t u s e r s . C o n t e m p o r a r y / r u s t i c d e s i g n o f improvements u s i n g n a t i v e m a t e r i a l s . I n c o n s p i c u o u s t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s u s u a l l y p r o v i d e d f o r v e h i c l e s . Roads may be h a r d s u r f a c e d and t r a i l s f o r m a l i z e d . Development d e n s i t y : about 3 f a m i l y u n i t s p e r a c r e . P r i m a r y a c c e s s t o s i t e o v e r h i g h - s t a n d a r d , w e l l - t r a v e l e d r o a d s . V i s i t o r I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s , i f a v a i l a b l e , a r e i n f o r m a l and i n c i d e n t a l . 141 R e c r e a t i o n E x p e r i e n c e s . F o r e s t environment i s e s s e n t i a l l y n a t u r a l . S o l i t u d e i s combined w i t h some o p p o r t u n i t y t o s o c i a l i z e . C o n t r o l s and r e g i m e n t a t i o n f o r s a f e t y and w e l l - b e i n g o f u s e r s u f f i c i e n t l y o b v i o u s t o a f f o r d a sense o f s e c u r i t y b u t s u b t l e enough t o l e a v e t h e t a s t e o f a d v e n t u r e . Development and E x p e r i e n c e L e v e l 4 S i t e M o d i f i c a t i o n - H e a v i l y M o d i f i e d . Some f a c i l i t i e s s t r i c t l y f o r c o m f o r t and c o n v e n i e n c e o f u s e r s b u t no l u x u r y f a c i l i t i e s . F a c i l i t i e s may i n c o r p o r a t e s y n t h e t i c m a t e r i a l s . E x t e n s i v e use o f a r t i f i c i a l s u r f a c e s f o r r o a d s and t r a i l s . T r a f f i c c o n t r o l s f o r v e h i c l e s p r e s e n t and u s u a l l y o b v i o u s . P r i m a r y a c c e s s u s u a l l y o v e r paved r o a d s . Development d e n s i t y : 3-5 f a m i l y u n i t s p e r a c r e . P l a n t m a t e r i a l s u s u a l l y n a t i v e . V i s i t o r I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s f r e q u e n t l y a v a i l a b l e . R e c r e a t i o n E x p e r i e n c e s . F o r e s t e n v ironment i s p l e a s i n g and a t t r a c t i v e b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y n a t u r a l . B l e n d s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o l i t u d e and s o c i a l i z i n g w i t h o t h e r s . T e s t i n g o f o u t d o o r s k i l l s m o s t l y l i m i t e d t o t h e camping a c t i v i t y . Many u s e r c o m f o r t s a v a i l a b l e . Moderate c o n t r a s t t o d a i l y l i v i n g r o u t i n e s . C r e a t e s marked sense o f s e c u r i t y . Development and E x p e r i e n c e L e v e l 5 S i t e M o d i f i c a t i o n - H i g h Degree. F a c i l i t i e s , most f o r c o m f o r t and c o n v e n i e n c e o f u s e r s , i n c l u d e f l u s h t o i l e t s and may i n c l u d e showers, b a t h houses, l a u n d r y f a c i l i t i e s , and 142 e l e c t r i c a l hookups. D e s i g n s may be f o r m a l i z e d and a r c h i t e c t u r e contemporary. S y n t h e t i c m a t e r i a l s commonly used. Formal w a l k s o r s u r f a c e d t r a i l s . R e g i m e n t a t i o n o f u s e r s i s o b v i o u s . A c c e s s u s u a l l y by h i g h - s p e e d highways. Development d e n s i t y : f i v e o r more f a m i l y u n i t s p e r a c r e . P l a n t m a t e r i a l s may be n o n - n a t i v e . Formal V i s i t o r ' I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s u s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e . Mowed lawns and c l i p p e d s h r u b s common. (EL5 s i t e s a r e p r o v i d e d o n l y i n s p e c i a l s i t u a t i o n s o r c l o s e t o l a r g e c i t i e s where o t h e r l a n d s a r e u n a v a i l a b l e . ) R e c r e a t i o n E x p e r i e n c e s . P l e a s i n g e n v ironment a t t r a c t i v e t o t h e n o v i c e o r h i g h l y g r e g a r i o u s camper. O p p o r t u n i t y t o s o c i a l i z e w i t h o t h e r s v e r y i m p o r t a n t . S a t i s f i e s u r b a n i t e s 1 needs f o r compensating e x p e r i e n c e s and r e l a t i v e s o l i t u d e , b u t l e s s i n t e n s i v e l y t h a n i n c l a s s e s 1-4. (User c o n s c i o u s l y i n s e c u r e s i t u a t i o n w i t h ample p r o v i s i o n s f o r p e r s o n a l c o m f o r t so w i l l n o t be c a l l e d upon t o use undeveloped s k i l l s . ) ( S h u s t e r 1983) Hunter-day One h u n t e r h u n t i n g f o r any t i m e p e r i o d i n one day; e.g. 2 h o u r s o r 8 h o u r s = 1 h u n t e r day (MOE 1989). M e r i t S e r v i c e (Good) P r i v a t e s e r v i c e s (good) t h a t have some p u b l i c s e r v i c e (good) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( i . e . p a r t o f t h e b e n e f i t i s r e c e i v e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l consumer and p a r t i s r e c e i v e d by t h e p u b l i c i n g e n e r a l ) . (Crompton 1984) 143 One t h a t i s n o t d e t e r m i n e d by an i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e system, b u t by t h e p r e f e r e n c e system o f some " h i g h e r " a u t h o r i t y ( 1972). M u r r a y ' s a d a p t a t i o n o f ROS spectrum a. P r i m i t i v e P r e d o m i n a n t l y n a t u r a l a p p e a r i n g , r e a s o n a b l y good r o a d a c c e s s , some e v i d e n c e o f and c o n t a c t w i t h p e o p l e , p o t e n t i a l i s o l a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e , p i c n i c t a b l e , f i r e r i n g , l e v e l l e d t e n t o r camper s i t e , p i t t o i l e t , no r u n n i n g w a t e r . b. S e m i - p r i m i t i v e As i n (a) above, b u t w i t h good r o a d a c c e s s , g r e a t e r e v i d e n c e o f and c o n t a c t w i t h p e o p l e , b u i l t up t e n t o r camper pad, f i r e w o o d p r o v i d e d , garbage c o l l e c t i o n , p i t o r f l u s h t o i l e t , and c o l d r u n n i n g w a t e r t o c e n t r a l camp a r e a . c. M o d i f i e d As i n (b) above, b u t w i t h s u b s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e o f and c o n t a c t w i t h p e o p l e , f l u s h t o i l e t , h o t and c o l d r u n n i n g w a t e r , showers. d. R u r a l As i n (c) above b u t w i t h s u b s t a n t i a l l y m o d i f i e d e n v i r o n m e n t , v e r y h i g h e v i d e n c e o f and c o n t a c t w i t h p e o p l e , l e v e l g r a s s y camper pad, e l e c t r i c a l and sewer hookups, l a u n d r y , s t o r e . e. C a b i n s W i t h beds, c o o k i n g f a c i l i t i e s , h o t and c o l d r u n n i n g w a t e r , f l u s h t o i l e t and showers i n any o f t h e above 144 s e t t i n g s . (Murray 1988) PAOT P e r s o n s a t one t i m e I t r e p r e s e n t s t h e number o f p e o p l e who c o u l d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y r e c r e a t e a t a s i t e a c c o r d i n g t o i t s d e s i g n and f a c i l i t i e s . I t i s a measure common t o a l l U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e - d e v e l o p e d r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s ( S h u s t e r 1983). P u b l i c Good Goods wh i c h s u p p l i e r s cannot p a r c e l up and s e l l t o t h o s e who a r e w i l l i n g t o pay a p r i c e and e x c l u d e o t h e r s , and w h i c h consumers can consume w i t h o u t d i m i n i s h i n g t h e s u p p l y a v a i l a b l e t o o t h e r s . ( P e a r s e , 1989). P u b l i c goods a r e o f two k i n d s : s o c i a l goods and m e r i t good (Gregory, 1972). R e c r e a t i o n O p p o r t u n i t y S p e c t r u m a s D e f i n e d b y C l a s s e s and S e t t i n g P r i m i t i v e A r e a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e s s e n t i a l l y u n m o d i f i e d n a t u r a l environment o f f a i r l y l a r g e s i z e . I n t e r a c t i o n between u s e r s i s v e r y low and e v i d e n c e o f o t h e r u s e r s i s m i n i m a l . The a r e a i s managed t o be e s s e n t i a l l y f r e e from e v i d e n c e o f man-induced r e s t r i c t i o n s and c o n t r o l s . M o t o r i z e d use w i t h i n t h e a r e a i s n o t p e r m i t t e d . L a r g e mammals and w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s w h i c h a r e n o t t o o t o l e r a n t o f man's p r e s e n c e . 145 S e m i - P r i m i t i v e , N o n - M o t o r i z e d A r e a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a p r e d o m i n a t e l y n a t u r a l o r n a t u r a l - a p p e a r i n g environment o f m o d e r a t e - t o - l a r g e s i z e . I n t e r a c t i o n between u s e r s i s low, bu t t h e r e i s o f t e n e v i d e n c e o f o t h e r u s e r s . The a r e a i s managed i n such a way t h a t minimum o n - s i t e c o n t r o l s and r e s t r i c t i o n s may be p r e s e n t , b u t a r e s u b t l e . M o t o r i z e d use i s n o t p e r m i t t e d . Large mammals w h i c h a r e n o t t o o t o l e r a n t o f man's p r e s e n c e . S e m i - P r i m i t i v e , M o t o r i z e d A r e a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a p r e d o m i n a t e l y n a t u r a l o r n a t u r a l - a p p e a r i n g environment o f m o d e r a t e - t o - l a r g e s i z e . C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f u s e r s i s low, but t h e r e i s o f t e n e v i d e n c e o f o t h e r u s e r s . The a r e a i s managed i n such a way t h a t minimum o n - s i t e c o n t r o l s and r e s t r i c t i o n s may be p r e s e n t , b u t a r e s u b t l e . M o t o r i z e d use i s p e r m i t t e d . W i l d l i f e s p e c i e s mid-range between t h o s e t o l e r a n t o f man's p r e s e n c e and t h o s e n o t . Roaded N a t u r a l A r e a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p r e d o m i n a t e l y n a t u r a l - a p p e a r i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s w i t h moderate e v i d e n c e s o f t h e s i g h t s and sounds o f man. Such e v i d e n c e s u s u a l l y harmonize w i t h t h e n a t u r a l environment. I n t e r a c t i o n between u s e r s may be low t o moderate, b u t w i t h e v i d e n c e o f o t h e r u s e r s p r e v a l e n t . Resource m o d i f i c a t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e s a r e e v i d e n t , b u t harmonize w i t h t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . C o n v e n t i o n a l m o t o r i z e d use i s p r o v i d e d f o r i n c o n s t r u c t i o n s t a n d a r d s and d e s i g n o f f a c i l i t i e s . L a r g e mammals t o l e r a n t o f man's p r e s e n c e ; t h o s e n o t t o l e r a n t p r e s e n t i n f r e q u e n t l y . P r e v a l e n c e o f s m a l l e r w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s . R u r a l A r e a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s u b s t a n t i a l l y m o d i f i e d n a t u r a l e nvironment. Resource m o d i f i c a t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e s a r e p r i m a r i l y t o enhance s p e c i f i c r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and t o m a i n t a i n v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r and s o i l . S i g h t s and sounds o f man a r e r e a d i l y e v i d e n t , and t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between u s e r s i s o f t e n moderate t o h i g h . A c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f f a c i l i t i e s a r e d e s i g n e d f o r use by a l a r g e number o f p e o p l e . F a c i l i t i e s a r e o f t e n p r o v i d e d f o r s p e c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . Moderate d e n s i t i e s a r e p r o v i d e d f a r away from d e v e l o p e d s i t e s . F a c i l i t i e s f o r i n t e n s i f i e d m o t o r i z e d use and p a r k i n g a r e a v a i l a b l e . W i l d l i f e s p e c i e s l i m i t e d m o s t l y t o t h o s e t o l e r a n t o f man's p r e s e n c e . Urban A r e a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s u b s t a n t i a l l y u r b a n i z e d e n v i r o n m e n t , a l t h o u g h t h e background may have n a t u r a l - a p p e a r i n g e l e m e n t s . Renewable r e s o u r c e m o d i f i c a t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e s a r e t o enhance s p e c i f i c r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . V e g e t a t i v e c o v e r i s o f t e n e x o t i c and manicured. S i g h t s and sounds o f man, o n - s i t e , a r e predominant. L a r g e numbers o f u s e r s can be e x p e c t e d , b o t h o n - s i t e and i n nearby a r e a s . F a c i l i t i e s f o r h i g h l y i n t e n s i f i e d motor use and p a r k i n g a r e a v a i l a b l e w i t h forms o f mass t r a n s i t o f t e n a v a i l a b l e t o c a r r y p e o p l e t h r o u g h o u t t h e s i t e . W i l d l i f e 147 s p e c i e s r e s t r i c t e d t o t h o s e h i g h l y t o l e r a n t o f man's p r e s e n c e . RIM R e c r e a t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n Management I t i s a U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e c r e a t i o n Management System. R e c r e a t i o n use i s o n l y one p a r t o f t h e i n v e n t o r y ; i t a c c o u n t s f o r e x p e n d i t u r e s , c o n d i t i o n s o f i n v e n t o r y . RVD R e c r e a t i o n V i s i t o r Day I t r e p r e s e n t s 12 v i s i t o r h o u r s spent i n any r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y . The hours may be a g g r e g a t e d c o n t i n u o u s l y , i n t e r m i t t e n t l y , o r s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , by one o r more p e r s o n s . S u i t a b i l i t y I t i n c l u d e s t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c r i t e r i a , s i t e e x p a n s i o n p o t e n t i a l , c l i m a t i c s u i t a b i l i t y , l a n d t e n u r e , m i n e r a l l a n d u s e s , e t c . U s e r Day The same as an a c t i v i t y day i f t h e member o f t h e h o u s e h o l d p a r t i c i p a t e d i n o n l y one a c t i v i t y (Murray 1990). Appendix 2 : Physical p r o f i l e of Boneyard Lake it* oo 149 Appendix 3 : Physical P r o f i l e of MacDonald Lake SUKVCVEO O " C. UMti O M E ' i<" «,"0I SMOnE OUTLINE FnOM* A i n P H O T O OC 0 0 0 0 2 039 R E S O U R C E A N A L Y S I S B R A N C H MINIST n t OF T H E ENVIRONMENT STATISTICS AT T IME O F S U D V E Y 1. ELEVATION Z2B.6 m 2 SunrncE AREA 32 ,500 iq .m . 1. VOLUME 7G,OC0<am 4 EST ANNUAL FLUCTUATION — ». MEAN OEPTH 2 S in ( . ' M A X . O E P ' H i "> 7. PERIMETER lO iO.m a . A l l E A , M. CONTOUR 9. HEIGHT OF BENCH MARK ABOVE WATER L E V E L B I O L O G I C A L S Y S T E M S S E C T I O N MacDONALD LAKE D E P T H S I N M E T E R S ntC>0N- U I M co -onptM* ic to ))f/r 0*!( ' JVl t i*. t f t t OtlawN • J A 8 *"u VI500 C » L C U I * H O » ' I a r r io t line § r fk\* 0*>C 0 * -' , "92B/I2 // II ii ll li II H II Ii \\ \\ w w w 1

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