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The influence of cut-block size and adjacency rules on harvest levels and road networks Finn, Steven Terence 1994

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The Influence Of Cut-Block Size And Adjacency Rules On Harvest Levels And Road Networks by  Steven Terence Finn B.S.F., The University Of British Columbia, 1987 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF FORESTRY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Forestry  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required St dari  Signature(s) removed to protect privacy  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1994 © Steven Terence Finn, 1994  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the department  or  by  his  or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  an advanced shall make it for extensive  head of my that copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Signature(s) removed to protect privacy  (Signature)  Department of  FO,ESTRY  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6 (2/88)  5  11  ABSTRACT Previous harvesting practices in coastal British Columbia generally favoured large opening sizes with relatively short regeneration periods before adjacent blocks were removed. These large openings were both criticized for being aesthetically unpleasing and for not providing a proper age class distribution for wildlife habitat. To combat these problems, smaller opening sizes with longer times between harvesting of adjacent blocks have been proposed. It is believed that smaller opening sizes and more rigid adjacency constraints will impact cutting levels and harvesting and transportation costs. An area-based scheduling model was developed between 1989 and 1991 which quantifies these impacts and provides a better understanding of the harvest levels and costs associated with different cut block sizes and adjacency constraints. The effect on the Annual Allowable Cut (AAC) due to block size and exclusion period showed that the delay period had a greater effect on the AAC than did block size. As the block size decreased while keeping the delay period constant, the reduction in AAC ranged from 6.0% to 23.5%. As the delay or exclusion period increased, adjacency constraints limited the number of blocks available for harvest and therefore reduced the harvest volume. Increasing the delay period from I to 2 and from I to 3 caused volumes to drop an average of 18.6% and 40% respectively. Increasing the delay period and decreasing the block size resulted in large reductions in harvest volume of up to 50%. Another effect of increasing the delay period and decreasing the block size is that a large number of blocks may never be harvested. Values ranged from 6.8% to 43.8% of blocks not eligible for harvesting. A stumpage calculation showed that there is a drastic difference in the amount of stumpage payable when comparing the different sized blocks and adjacency requirements. Values ranged from $119.7 million to $52.8 million, a reduction of nearly $67 million as the block size was decreased and the adjacency requirements increased.  111  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  ii  LIST OF TABLES  iv  LIST OF FIGURES  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  vi  INTRODUCTION PROBLEM BACKGROUND OBJECTIVES LITERATURE REVIEW LITERATURE RELATING TO STRATA BASED PLANS LITERATURE RELATING TO AREA BASED PLANS  I I I 2 3 5  METHODOLOGY DATA FORMULATION AND COMPILATION MCIP FORMULATION I INFORMATION REQUIRED THE RANDOM SEARCH TECHNIQUE BASIC STEPS  6 6 8 12  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION PROGRESSIVE CLEAR CUT SOLUTION UNCONSTRAINED ROAD SOLUTIONS CONSTRAINED ROAD SOLUTION CONSTRAINED VERSUS UNCONSTRAINED SOLUTION  14 14 15 19 23  -  THE EFFECT ON THE AAC DUE TO BLOCK SIZE AND EXCLUSION PERIOD 25 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS  29  IMPACT ON STUMPAGE  35  CONCLUSION  37  BIBLIOGRAPHY  40  APPENDIX I. APPENDIX 2. APPENDIX 3. APPENDIX 4. APPENDIX 5. APPENDIX 6. APPENDIX 7. APPENDIX 8. APPENDIX 9.  DESCRIPTION OF ANALYSIS AREAS ANALYSIS AREA MAP I ZONE MAP DBASE PROGRAM TO MAKE TABLES OF BLOCK VOLUMES BLOCK LAYOUT AND ROAD NETWORKS BY BLOCK SIZE INPUT FILE EXAMPLES MCIP FLOW CHART MAIN PROGRAM FILE OUTPUT FILE EXAMPLES TYPICAL PROGRAM SOLUTIONS  42 45 48 52 56 70 72 94 98  iv  LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Summary Of Files Used In The MCIP Model Table 2: Zone Number And Earliest Possible Entry Table 3: Average Harvest Volumes And Percent Reductions For The Unconstrained Road Construction Solutions Table 4: Average Harvest Volumes And Percent Reductions For The Constrained Road Construction Solutions Table 5: Difference In Volumes Harvested Between The Constrained And Unconstrained Solutions Table 6: Total Amount Of Road Constructed (In Kilometers) For Block Size And Delay Period Combinations Table 7: Percentage Of Blocks Not Harvested During The Planning Period Table 8: Range Of Road Construction, Hauling And Maintenance Costs Per Cubic Meter Harvested By Block Size And Delay Period Table 9: Range Of Tree To Truck Costs Per Cubic Meter By Block Size And Delay Period Table 10: Range Of Total Delivered Cost Of Wood ($1M3) By Block Size And Delay Period Table 11: Range Of Operating Costs ($1M3) By Block Size And Delay Period Table 12: Range Of Indicated Stumpage ($1M3) By Block Size And Delay Period Table 13: Range Of Stumpage Revenues (in millions of $) By Block Size And Delay Period  9 13 16 19 23 24 26 29 30 30 35 36 37  V  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Road Construction Schedule For The Progressive Clear-Cut Solution Figure 2: Road Maintenance Schedule For The Progressive Clear-Cut Solution Figure 3: Road Construction Schedule For The Unconstrained Road Solution I Decade Exclusion Period Figure 4: Road Construction Schedule For The Unconstrained Road Solution -2 Decade Exclusion Period Figure 5: Road Construction Schedule For The Unconstrained Road Solution -3 Decade Exclusion Period Figure 6: Road Maintenance Schedule For The Unconstrained Road Solution I Decade Exclusion Period Figure 7: Road Maintenance Schedule For The Unconstrained Road Solution -2 Decade Exclusion Period Figure 8: Road Maintenance Schedule For The Unconstrained Road Solution 3 Decade Exclusion Period Figure 9: Road Construction Schedule For The Constrained Road Solution I Decade Exclusion Period Figure 10: Road Construction Schedule For The Constrained Road Solution -2 Decade Exclusion Period Figure 11: Road Construction Schedule For The Constrained Road Solution 3 Decade Exclusion Period Figure 12: Road Maintenance Schedule For The Constrained Road Solution I Decade Exclusion Period Figure 13: Road Maintenance Schedule For The Constrained Road Solution -2 Decade Exclusion Period Figure 14: Road Maintenance Schedule For The Constrained Road Solution 3 Decade Exclusion Period Figure 15: Total Delivered Cost By Decade -80 ha Blocks, I Decade Exclusion Period Figure 16: Total Delivered Cost By Decade 80 ha Blocks, 2 Decade Exclusion Period Figure 17: Total Delivered Cost By Decade 80 ha Blocks, 3 Decade Exclusion Period Figure 18: Total Delivered Cost By Decade -40 ha Blocks, I Decade Exclusion Period Figure 19: Total Delivered Cost By Decade -40 ha Blocks, 2 Decade Exclusion Period Figure 20: Total Delivered Cost By Decade -40 ha Blocks, 3 Decade Exclusion Period Figure 21: Total Delivered Cost By Decade -20 ha Blocks, I Decade Exclusion Period Figure 22: Total Delivered Cost By Decade -20 ha Blocks, 2 Decade Exclusion Period Figure 23: Total Delivered Cost By Decade -20 ha Blocks, 3 Decade Exclusion Period -  -  -  -  -  -  -  15 15 16 17 17 18 18 19 20 20 21 21 22 22 31  -  31  -  32 32 33 33 34 34 35  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank the following people for their help with this thesis. First, I would like to thank Dr. John Nelson of the Faculty of Forestry at UBC for his initial topic suggestion, computer programming skills, proof reading of drafts and finally his guidance and support throughout my graduate work at UBC. Second, Ian Thomas and Dave Daust of the UBC Harvest Research Group were of great assistance with their skills in computers and Geographical Information Systems. Appreciation is also extended to the Staff and Management of the Renewable Resources Technology at the British Columbia Institute of Technology for their computer and educational leave support. Finally, to my wife and children, I thank you for your never ending patience and support.  INTRODUCTION  PROBLEM BACKGROUND  Previous harvesting practices in coastal British Columbia generally favoured large opening sizes with relatively short regeneration (“free to grow”) periods before adjacent blocks were removed. Sometimes viewed as a progressive clear-cut, these large openings were criticized for being aesthetically unpleasing and for not providing a proper age class distribution for wildlife habitat. With the growing importance of environmental and other non-timber issues, it is likely that todays harvesting practices will have to be changed or modified to reflect these concerns. In some areas this may mean a switch to an alternative to clear-cutting, such as selection cutting. However, in many areas of the coast selection cutting is not viable from a silvicultural prospective. Therefore, clear-cutting will likely continue but with smaller opening sizes and with longer times between harvesting of adjacent blocks.  OBJECTIVES  It is believed that smaller opening sizes and more rigid adjacency constraints will impact cutting levels and harvesting and transportation costs. An area-based scheduling model was developed which quantifies these impacts and provides a better understanding of the harvest levels and costs associated with different cut block sizes and adjacency constraints. Using a case study approach, this paper will quantify the effect on the Annual Allowable Cut (AAC) due to the reduction of block size in conjunction with more rigid adjacency constraints when: 1) there is no limit on road construction and; 2) there is a road construction limit.  -2Specifically, this paper will: 1) compare the constrained and unconstrained road budget model solutions with regard to volume harvested and road construction and maintenance schedules. 2) determine the effect on the AAC due to block size and exclusion period through a comparison of volume harvested; 3) quantify the total delivered wood cost for combinations of block and exclusion periods and; 4) determine the impact of smaller cut-blocks on stumpage revenues.  LITERATURE REVIEW  Forest planning models can be segregated into two main categories according to the length of the planning horizon and the level of detail required to address resource allocation issues (Nelson and Brodie, 1990). First, there are the long-range strategic or strata based plans that look ahead over one or more rotations. Strata based plans give minimal area resolution with no operational detail. Second, there are the tactical or area based plans that cover a shorter planning horizon than those of the strata based plans. Area based plans are area specific with operational detail.  LITERATURE RELATING TO STRATA BASED PLANS  The most widely used technique for timber harvest scheduling in the United States is linear programming (LP) (O’Hara et al., 1989). One of the earliest models developed was Timber RAM (Resource Allocation Model) which did not include any spatial considerations. This was followed by other models such as MUSYC (Multiple Use Sustained Yield Calculator) and FORPLAN (Forest Planning Model) which attempted to deal more effectively with site-specific environmental questions.  -3Armel (1986) noted that one of the most frequently asked questions by forest managers concerns how the allocations represented by the standard, strata based FORPLAN solution, in which homogeneous forest units are aggregated, can be implemented within a heterogeneous area represented by a given parcel of national forest land. Complications result from the specific placement and management of habitats for wildlife such as spotted owls or pileated woodpeckers, and from the need to consider harvest adjacency constraints. The standard FORPLAN solution does not consider these factors. Approaching the problem by the means of the “coordinated allocation choices” option in FORPLAN version II does not lead to a satisfactory solution to this problem because representation of the problem at the harvest-unit level produces a problem of unmanageable size. O’Hara et al. (1989) state that a problem shared by all LP approaches to solving spatially constrained timber harvest scheduling problem is that the solutions are not integral. Commonly units are split to meet the spatial constraints. In a mathematical sense, the constraints are met, but in practical terms, field implementation of the solution is not possible unless the solution is integral. Bare et al. (1984) note that explicit recognition of spatial relationships and the consequent constraints on timber harvest scheduling are important for a number of reasons. First, management for multiple use requires that managers know the geographic location of specific outputs and how much of the output to produce in a given time period. Second, failure to recognize spatial relationships can also result in environmental problems. Where a buffer strip is to be retained, such as around streams, lakes, recreation areas, roads, or wilderness areas, or where the buffer strip is necessary for regeneration purposes, the spatial relationship between the timber scheduled for harvest and the adjacent stand or feature needs to be recognized. Third, the spatial relationship between harvest units must be recognized so that specific wildlife habitat objectives, such as maintenance of adequate degrees of habitat diversity can be met.  -4The lack of spatial resolution and site specific data is the major disadvantage of strata based models (Nelson and Brodie, 1990). They further state that the principal advantage of strata based models is that individual timber stands with similar physical and economic characteristics can be aggregated, making forest wide planning a task that is computationally feasible. Therefore these models are only adequate for setting strategic harvest goals within a temporal context.  LITERATURE RELATING TO AREA BASED PLANS  In an area based plan individual harvest units (blocks) and road systems are specified creating the ability to define a spatially feasible solution. Since area based plans require integer solutions, these problems are generally solved using mixed integer programming (MIP) techniques (Nelson, 1988). Integer variables are needed to specify if a road is or is not built, and to specify if a harvest unit is or is not cut. This alleviates the problem of splitting harvest units between time periods. However, due to these integer restrictions only very small problems can be solved using MIP. As an alternative to MIP and simulation, a random search algorithm called Monte-Carlo Integer Programming (MCIP) has been used to generate feasible solutions to area based problems (Nelson and Brodie 1990). According to Clements et al. (1990), “a typical MCIP algorithm begins by generating random solutions to a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem. These solutions are tested against a set of spatial and temporal constraints, and solutions meeting all of the constraints are designated feasible. Each feasible solution is evaluated relative to an objective function. After a large number feasible solutions have been identified, the solutions best satisfying the objective function are selected for further analysis.” Unlike MIP, MCIP does not guarantee optimality, however, it is capable of quickly generating feasible solutions to the complex integer problems associated with planning. Nelson and Brodie (1990) were  -5able to find a MCIP solution with a objective function solution that was within 3% of the true optimum. They concluded that by using MCIP, it is relatively easy to find several solutions with values that lie within 10% of the optimum.  METHODOLOGY  A 4500-hectare subunit of MacMillan Bloedel’s Stillwater Logging Division was used as a case study area. This study is broken into two major components, the first being the data formulation and compilation and the second being the MCIP analysis.  DATA FORMULATION AND COMPILATION  Nelson (1988) utilized the same study area and therefore most of the inventory data used were taken from his paper. There are 109 individual stands grouped into 62 analysis areas (AA’s). An analysis area is a timber stratum based on zone, logging system, site, species and age. See Appendix I and 2, pages 42 and 45 for a complete description of the analysis areas and an analysis area map. Using a 1:20,000 scale map of the study area in conjunction with the analysis areas, cut blocks of 80-hectares were formulated using the following guidelines: -  -  -  average yarding distance of 200-m., maximum yarding distance of 250-rn., blocks to be made up of similar age classes.  The 80 ha. blocks were split in half to make 40 ha. blocks. The 40 ha. blocks were subsequently split in half to make 20 ha. blocks. The blocks were split so that the same logging system, and the same main roads could be used in all cases. The results were the formulation of forty-eight 80 ha. blocks, ninety-six 40 ha. blocks and one hundred ninety-two 20 ha. blocks. (Block layout and road network maps are included in Appendix 4, page 52). The blocks were then input into a Geographic Information  -6System (GIS). GIS processing was carried out with the result being themes that give the total area of each block and the area of each analysis area within the block. A stand growth model, Stand Projection System (SPS), was used to generate timber volumes by analysis area. These were then input into a database file and a GIS theme was created to produce the volume per hectare by analysis area by decade. This process was done for both the existing stands and for the projected regenerated stands. The block theme was overlaid onto the yield theme to generate the area and volume per hectare per decade for each block. An small dBase program (Appendix 3, page 48) was then written that produced, for each block size, a table of existing and regenerated volumes per block per decade. At the same time as the blocks were formulated, a road network was created (Appendix 4, page 52). As previously stated, the same main roads were used for all three block sizes. For each block, the road needed to log that particular block was tracked by noting the road links required to access that block. While the total length of the road network remained constant, shorter and more numerous road links were needed as the block size decreased. The number of road links required were 162, 185 and 292 for the 80, 40 and 20 ha. blocks respectively. For a limited number of blocks secondary roads were also required. Secondary roads are defined as roads that are needed only to harvest the block that contained them.  -7-  MCIP FORMULATION/INFORMATION REQUIRED  BLOCK DATA  For each block, the area, current age, zone and adjacent block numbers are required. The area is calculated from the GIS data processing. The existing stand age is an average ,to the closest 10 years, of the stands that make up the block. The entire forest was broken into 8 zones to help the block selection process (Appendix 2, page 45). Each block, therefore, has a zone number. For each block the adjacent blocks were identified. An adjacent block is a cut block whose boundary touches the selected cut block, regardless of the length of common boundary. All the block data were incorporated into a file called blockdat.txt. For examples of all the input files used, see Appendix 5, page 56.  EXISTING AND REGENERATION BLOCK VOLUME TABLE  The total existing and regeneration volume per block per period was incorporated into files called exvoltab.txt and rgvoltab.txt, respectively.  EXISTING AND REGENERATION BLOCK REVENUE TABLE  For each block the estimated logging cost was calculated using the formula derived by Nawitka Resource Consultants (1987):  LOGGING COST ($/M3)  =  -0.3316(age)  +  43.482  -8The above formula was derived for a site of average logging difficulty. As the stands covered such a wide variety of topography, each block was assigned a logging difficulty of high, medium or low based on topography and expected logging difficulty. The logging cost formula was revised to reflect the high and low difficulty classes by adding or subtracting $11m3 respectively. The block revenue tables were incorporated into the files exrevtab.txt and rgrevtab.txt.  MAIN ROAD ACCESS  The road links required to access a particular block were incorporated into a file called mraccess.txt. Also included in this file was the transportation cost for each particular block. The transportation cost formula used was (Hackett, 1990):  TRANS COST ($1M3)  =  2.971  +  .0575(average weighted haul distance (one  way))  The haul distance for each block was calculated from the center of each block to the main access point of the valley.  ROAD LENGTHS AND CONSTRUCTION COSTS  For each main and secondary road to be constructed, the roads length and total construction cost were calculated and saved in a file called mrlinks.txt or srlinks.txt. Three categories of road construction cost were used, with the criteria being based on the topography. The estimated road costs were: LOW $ 30, 000/km MEDIUM $ 45,000/km HIGH $60,000/km  -9Table 1: Summary of files used in the MCIP model File Name  Contents  blockdat.txt  area, existing stand age, zone and adjacent block numbers of each block  constrai.txt  sets the parameters for use within the harvest planner (see below)  exrevtab.txt  estimated logging cost per block per period for existing stands  exvoltab.txt  existing volume per block per period  rgrevtab.txt  estimated logging cost per block per period for regenerated stands  rgvoltab.txt  regenerated volume per block per period  mraccess.txt  transportation costs and road links required to access each block  mrlinks.txt  main road lengths and construction costs  srlinks.txt  secondary road lengths and construction costs  -10CONSTRAINTS  The constraint file (constraints.txt) is the file that sets the parameters for use within the harvest planner. The information required to run the program is: HABITAT DELAY the number of periods (decades) required to pass before the adjacent block can be harvested. -  MAXIMUM NUMBER OF BLOCKS either 48, 96 or 192 depending on the block size being modelled. -  MAXIMUM NUMBER OF PERIODS the total length of the modelling period in decades (i.e. planning horizon). -  MAXIMUM NUMBER OF ZONES set at 8 for this model. -  MINIMUM AGE the minimum harvest age, in decades, for an existing or regeneration stand. -  MAINTENANCE COST the maintenance cost per meter for an previously constructed road. This was set at $5100 per kilometer per year (Hackett, 1990) or $51 per meter per period. -  MAXIMUM ROAD the maximum number of kilometers of road that can be constructed per period. -  CUT I  -  the minimum volume that must be harvested in period 1.  CUT 2 the minimum volume that must be harvested in period 2. -  MINIMUM VOLUME the minimum volume that must be harvested in any period other than periods I and 2. -  MAXIMUM VOLUME the maximum volume per period that can be harvested in any period. -  MINIMUM COST the minimum net revenue per period. -  MAXIMUM COST the maximum cost per period. -  MAXIMUM GRADE COST the maximum road construction and maintenance budget per period. -  —11 ZONE AND PERIOD OF FIRST ENTRY the period of first entry into each particular zone. To prevent the early harvesting of cut-blocks at the far reaches of the road network, the forest was divided into 8 zones with each zone assigned a first entry time. (See appendix 2 page 45 for a map of the zones). —  -  The objective function maximized the total volume produced over the planning horizon, subject to the constraints outlined above.  -12-  THE RANDOM SEARCH TECHNIQUE BASIC STEPS -  As the planning problems had approximately 2000 5000 integer variables, -  depending on block size, direct optimization techniques were impractical. As an alternative, a random search technique was used to find feasible solutions. This method is displayed on a flow chart in Appendix 6 ,page 70. The basic steps used by this technique are: 1) Set the planning period to 1. 2) All the blocks that are available for harvest in this period are assigned a random 0/1 variable. I identifies blocks that can harvested in this period and 0 identifies blocks not to be harvested. 3) Let count be a variable to identify the number of attempts at finding a feasible solution for this period. Set count  =  count +1.  4) Queue the list of blocks available for harvest in step 2 according to decreasing accessibility. The blocks with the minimum number of main road links will be at the head of the queue. 5) Randomly select a block near the front of the queue and add its volume to the period harvest. The adjacent blocks to the selected block are made unavailable for harvest until the adjacency delay age has been met. The next available block is then selected and the process continues until the minimum harvest level in that period is met. If the minimum harvest level cannot be satisfied from the available blocks, return to the start of step 2 and try another random block selection. If the count variable exceeds 20, it is unlikely a solution exists and the harvest constraints must be reduced. 6) The road links needed to provide access to the harvested blocks are identified. The road links are checked to determine whether or not they have been constructed previously. If so they are assigned a maintenance cost. If not the road links are constructed, and the grade construction cost is calculated for this period.  -137) The total cost for each period is calculated by summing the main and secondary road construction costs and the maintenance costs from each block harvested. 8) The constraints are checked. If the solution does not meet the constraints, return to step 3. 9) Adjust the block ages for harvest and growth and increment the planning period by 1. If the planning period is greater than the planning horizon, stop, otherwise go to step 2.  Preliminary program runs using the same constraints were executed to determine the suitable length of time for the program to complete a successful run. It was decided that runs should be kept to a maximum of 40, 60 and 90 seconds per solution for the 80, 40 and 20 hectare plans respectively. These were deemed reasonable times for a 80386 computer running at 20 Mhz. Refer to Appendix 7, page 72 for the main program file. Many combinations of zones and entry times are possible and trial runs were carried out to provide a solution that seemed to maximize the annual allowable cut. Once identified, this zone/entry time frame was kept constant throughout the rest of the computer runs. Table 2: Zone number and earliest possible entry zone  I  I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  I I I I I I I I  entry time (period) I 5 I I I 2 1 4  The minimum and maximum AAC were steadily increased until a set of 10 feasible solutions could not be found within the pre-determined time limits. Generally,  -14the minimum AAC was found by increasing the minimum AAC while keeping the maximum AAC large. When the minimum AAC was bounded, the maximum AAC was reduced in the direction of the minimum AAC until the solution was no longer feasible due to time constraints or no feasible solutions existed. See Appendix 8, page 94 for typical program solutions. Feasible solutions were saved to files and their minimum and maximum AAC constraints, solution time, average AAC, AAC standard deviation and AAC range were recorded. The ‘best’ solution was determined as the solution with: 1) the smallest difference between the minimum and maximum AAC; 2) the largest average AAC and 3) the smallest standard deviation. Once the ‘best’ solution was identified, 50 solutions using the same constraints were generated. Finally, these 50 solutions were averaged for comparison purposes. Because MCIP is a random procedure, it was felt that the average of 50 solutions would provide a better bench mark than only the best solution. While the average is useful for evaluating trends, it does not represent a solution that is mapable. In hindsight, perhaps acceptance of the best solution is a preferred method. See Appendix 9, page 98 for typical block solutions by block size and delay period combinations. Initially, no constraints were placed on the length of road that could be constructed during any one period. For comparison, the problem was re-solved with an additional constraint that limited road construction to 25 kilometers per period (ie 2.5 km. per year).  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  PROGRESSIVE CLEAR CUT SOLUTION  To provide a datum, a progressive clear cut solution was generated using the 80 ha blocks. The blocks were progressively harvested from the beginning of the road  -15network without regard for adjacency constraint rules. For this particular block arrangement, the solution generated set the volume harvested per decade at 360 000 m3. Figures 1 and 2 show the road construction and maintenance schedules for the progressive clear-cut solution. ROAD CONSTRUCTION PROGRESSIVE CLEARCUT 70 ° 6 K  Ho 40 30  DECADE  Figure 1: Road construction schedule for the progressive clear-cut solution  ROAD MAINTENANCE PROGRESSIVE CLEARCUT 70  S  10 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  DECADE  Figure 2: Road maintenance schedules for the progressive clear-cut solution  10  -16-  UNCONSTRAINED ROAD SOLUTIONS  Table 3 summarizes the harvest volume by block size and exclusion period for the unconstrained road solutions.  Table 3: Average harvest volumes and percent reductions for the unconstrained road  construction solutions 20 ha blocks  40 ha blocks  80 ha blocks % reduction from delay I delay period harvest volume clear cut 0 5.5 339910 1 25 21 269963 2 39 36 218621 3  % reduction from delayl harvest volume clear cut 0 7.7 332460 20 264830 26 42. 46 192608  % reduction from delay I 0 7.0 28 33 49 52  harvest volume clear cut 334673 241223 171497  The percent reduction is calculated to :1) compare each solution to the progressive clear cut solution; and 2) compare the effect of ncreasing the exclusion period while maintaining the same blocksize.  Figures 3, 4 and 5 show the road construction schedules for each block size and exclusion period combination. Figures 6, 7 and 8 show the road maintenance schedules for each block size and exclusion period combination. ROAD CONSTRUCTION NO LIMIT I DECADE EXCLUSION PERIOD  L 0 M E T E R S 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  DECADE --  8OHA  -•-  4OHA  -+-  2OHA  Figure 3: Road construction schedule for unconstrained road solution exclusion period  -  I decade  10  -17ROAD CONSTRUCTION NO LIMIT 2 DECADE EXCLUSION PERIOD  L 0 M E T E R S 2  3  6  5  4  7  8  9  10  DECADE 8OHA  --  ---  4OHA  --  2OHA  Figure 4: Road construction schedule for unconstrained road solution 2 decade -  exclusion period  ROAD CONSTRUCTION NO LIMIT 3 DECADE EXCLUSION PERIOD 70 60 L 0 M E T E R S  50 40 30 20 10 2  3  6  5  4  7  9  8  10  DECADE 80 HA  I  40 HA  -+-  20 HA  Figure 5: Road construction schedule for the unconstrained road solution 3 decade -  exclusion period  -18ROAD MAINTENANCE NO LIMIT I DECADE EXCLUSION PERIOD 70 K60 —..  !30 20 E R S 10  n  I  1  2  4  3  6  5  7  9  8  10  DECADE —-  --  8OHA  -+-  4OHA  2OHA  Figure 6: Road maintenance schedule for the unconstrained road solution  -  1 decade  exclusion period  ROAD MAINTENANCE NO LIMIT 2 DECADE EXCLUSION PERIOD 70 K  60  S  10 2  3  4  6  5  7  8  9  10  DECADE 80 HA  40 HA  +  20 HA  Figure 7: Road maintenance schedule for the unconstrained road solution -2 decade exclusion period  -19ROAD MAINTENANCE NO LIMIT 3 DECADE EXCLUSION PERIOD 70 K60  S  10 I  0  1  2  3  I  I  I  4  5  6  I  7  8  9  10  DECADE --  8OHA  --  4OHA  --  2OHA  Figure 8: Road maintenance schedule for the unconstrained road solution -3 decade exclusion period  CONSTRAINED ROAD SOLUTIONS  Table 4 summarizes the harvest volume by block size and exclusion period for the constrained road solutions.  Table 4: Average harvest volumes and percent reductions for the constrained road construction solutions 80 ha blocks  40 ha blocks  20 ha blocks  % reduction from delay period harvest volume clear cut delay I harvest volume clear cut delayl harvest volume clear cut delay 1 1 340691 5.4 0 326556 9.3 0 321402 0 11 2 276952 23 19 271697 24 17 255928 29 20 3 221062 39 35 196498 45 40 179044 50 44 The percent reduction Is calculated to :1) compare each solution to the progressive clear cut solution; and 2)compare the effect of increasing the exclusion period while maintaining the same block size.  -20Figures 9, 10 and 11 show the road construction schedules for each block size and exclusion period combination. Figures 12, 13 and 14 show the road maintenance schedules for each block size and exclusion period combination. ROAD CONSTRUCTION LIMITED I DECADE EXCLUSION PERIOD 70 1<60  iHo 40 30  I56789 DECADE --  80 HA  --  40 HA  -+-  20 HA  Figure 9: Road construction schedule for the constrained road solution  -  I decade  exclusion period ROAD CONSTRUCTION LIMITED 2 DECADE EXCLUSION PERIOD 70 1(60  Ho 40 E 30  I  DECADE --  80 HA  --  40 HA  —+-  20 HA  Figure 10: Road construction schedule for the constrained road solution 2 decade -  exclusion period  -21ROAD CONSTRUCTION LIMITED 3 DECADE EXCLUSION PERIOD 70 60 L 0 M E T E R S  50 40 30 20 10 1  2  4  3  6  5  7  9  8  10  DECADE  -a- 40 HA  80 HA  --  -+-  20 HA  Figure 11: Road construction schedule for the constrained road solution 3 decade -  exclusion period ROAD MAINTENANCE LIMITED I DECADE EXCLUSION PERIOD 70 K60  L 0 M E T E R S 2  4  3  7  6  5  8  9  DECADE --  8OHA  -a- 4OHA  -+-  2OHA  Figure 12: Road maintenance schedule for the constrained road solution exclusion oeriod  -  I decade  10  -22ROAD MAINTENANCE LIMITED 2 DECADE EXCLUSION PEROD 70  MFFFZEEEE S  10 C  1  2  3  I  I  4  5  6  7  9  8  10  DECADE -- 80 HA  —-  +-  40 HA  20 HA  Figure 13: Road maintenance schedule for the constrained road solution -2 decade exclusion period  ROAD MAINTENANCE LIMITED 3 DECADE EXCLUSION PERIOD 70 K  60  S  10  0  1  2  I  I  3  4  I  6  5  7  9  8  DECADE  —s- 80 HA  —-  40 HA  -4-  20 HA  Figure 14: Road maintenance schedule for the constrained road solution 3 decade -  exclusion period  10  -23CONSTRAINED VERSUS UNCONSTRAINED SOLUTIONS  Comparison between Tables 3 and 4 shows that limiting the amount of road construction has very little effect on the overall periodic harvest volume. The difference between the volumes harvested was a low of 0.2 % (delay 1, 80 ha. blocks) to a high of 5.7 % (delay 2, 20 ha. blocks).  Table 5: Percent increase in harvest volume of the constrained road solutions (base volumes are unconstrained road solutions)  Delay Period  80 ha blocks  40 ha blocks  20 ha blocks  1  0.2  -1.8  -4.0  2  2.6  2.6  6.1  3  1.1  2.0  4.4  The reason for this low variation of harvest levels is that the 25 kilometer road construction constraint wasn’t binding on volume, If the road constraint was lowered to 15 or 20 kilometers, one would expect the harvest volumes to decrease for the constrained road solutions. Though in our particular case the 25 kilometer road construction constraint wasn’t binding on volume, the results in Table 5 show that with a road constraint, higher volume blocks may have been selected as a result of the road constraint. This in turn related to a small increase in harvest volumes of the constrained road solutions.  -24-  Table 6: Total amount of road constructed (in kilometers) for block size and delay period combinations 80 HA BLOCKS  40 HA BLOCKS  ROAD CONSTRUCTED DELAY PERIOD NO LIMIT 1 113.3 2 106.2 3 99.1  LIMITED 113.9 107.1 99.1  20 HA BLOCKS  ROAD CONSTRUCTED  ROAD CONSTRUCTED  NO LIMIT 112.2 1062 95.9  NO LIMIT 112.7 106.5 95.9  LIMITED 111.6 107.9 97.1  LIMITED 112.0 109.0 98.7  Table 6 shows the total amount of road constructed for each block size and delay period combination. It shows that the delay period reduces the amount of road constructed, which may limit the amount of volume eligible for harvest. Table 6 also shows that some roads are never constructed when long delays are specified. Figures 3, 4 and 5 show that the unconstrained solutions tended to build large amounts of road during the first construction period (up to a high of 48.1 km of road constructed in period 1, 20 ha blocks, delay 1). After this initial peak, road construction fell below the maximum level set in the constrained model. After periods 4-5 the road construction schedules for both the constrained and unconstrained models were very similar for all combinations of block size and delay period. Comparison between the road maintenance schedules show that except for period 1, there is very little difference between the maintenance schedules of the constrained and the unconstrained models. Both models display a relatively uniform schedule. The period I difference is caused by the lower road construction that takes place in the constrained model. There is a greater difference when the maintenance schedules for the two period delay models are compared. The maintenance schedule for the constrained model is still relatively uniform whereas the unconstrained model starts to display a two period cyclic pattern for all block sizes. The cyclic pattern in the  -25unconstrained model results from the combination of the large initial road construction during the first two periods, and the need to maintain rather than construct these roads as the model progresses through its two period adjacency delay constraint. Comparison between the road maintenance schedules for the three period delay models shows that both the constrained and the unconstrained models show a cyclic pattern directly attributable to the three period adjacency delay constraint.  THE EFFECT ON THE AAC DUE TO BLOCK SIZE AND EXCLUSION PERIOD  A comparison can be done between the progressive clear cut solution and the constrained road construction solutions to determine the effect on the Annual Allowable Cut due to the reduction of block size and exclusion period. As shown above, due to the low variation in harvest levels, either the constrained or the unconstrained road construction data could be used for this comparison. The results in table 4 show that the delay period had a greater effect on the MC than did reducing the block size. The smallest reduction (5.4%) is observed between the progressive clear cut solution and the 80 ha, I period delay solution. As the progressive clear cut model is based on 80 ha blocks and the I period delay is not overly restrictive, this small difference is expected. As previously discussed, the 40 ha and 20 ha blocks were created by dividing the original 80 ha blocks. Keeping the exclusion period constant, one would expect that there would be no reduction in harvest volumes as the block size decreased because even though the block size is smaller, more blocks are created and eligible for harvest. The results show that there was a reduction in harvest volumes as the block size decreased while keeping the delay period constant. The values ranged from a difference of 6.0 % (delay period I) to 23.5 % (delay period 3). These volume reductions associated with block size were due to irregularly shaped blocks with a large number of adjacent blocks. Since an adjacent block was defined as a block that shared  -26any part of a common boundary with another block, situations arose with some blocks having from between 7, 8 or 9 adjacent blocks for the 80, 40 and 20 ha formulations respectively. As the block size decreased, adjacency constraints actually reduced the number of available blocks, thus reducing the harvest volume available. As the delay or exclusion period is increased, adjacency constraints limit the number of blocks available for harvest and therefore reduce the harvest volume. Increasing the delay period from I to 2 and from I to 3 caused volumes to drop an average of 18.6 % and 40 % respectively. Simultaneously increasing the delay period and decreasing the block size results in large reductions in harvest volume of up to 50 % in the case of 20 ha blocks and delay period 3. Another effect of increasing the delay period and decreasing the block size is that a large number of blocks may never be harvested. Values ranged from 6.8 % to 43.8 % of blocks not harvested for 20 ha delay period 1 and 20 ha delay period 3 respectively.(Table 7). This is due partially to adjacency constraints making these blocks ineligible for harvest during the length of the simulation. Also the unlogged blocks may require a large amount of road to be constructed to access a relatively low volume of timber. Though not directly investigated during the simulation, a maximum grade cost per period is built into the program. Chances are that a road with a large construction cost would be built if that road accessed a large amount of timber or accessed a large number of blocks, whereas a road that accessed little timber might not be built.  -27Table 7: Percentage of blocks not harvested during the planning period  Delay Period  80 ha blocks  40 ha blocks  20 ha blocks  1  8.3  7.3  6.8  2  18.8  19.8  24.4  3  33.3  36.5  43.8  Figures land 2 show the road construction and maintenance schedules for the progressive clear cut solution. After the first rotation (decade 7), road construction dropped since most of the road network had been constructed. The construction peak in decade 2 was due to the development of branch roads. Road maintenance closely parallelled the progressive clear cut model with the amount of maintenance increasing as the cut progressed towards the back of the valley. Once the end of the first rotation was reached, maintenance decreases as the harvest again moves closer to the beginning of the road network. Road maintenance peaks were related to the maintenance and subsequent abandonment of branch roads. Figures 9, 10 and 11 show that the smaller cut blocks require more road construction during the first 3 or4 decades in order to develop enough volume to meet the allowable cut. As the simulation progressed beyond that period, the smaller cut blocks required slightly less construction as the majority of the road network had already been developed. Observation of Table 6 shows with the delay period held constant, the total amount of road constructed is fairly constant throughout the range of block sizes. As the delay period is increased, the total amount of road constructed decreases. These declines in road construction are directly attributable to the increase in blocks not eligible for harvest due to spatial restrictions. Figures 12,13 and 14 show a definite trend that the smaller cut blocks require a greater amount of road maintenance than did the larger cut blocks, even though the  -28volume of timber harvested was less for the smaller cut blocks. As the delay period increased, the total amount of road maintenance decreased, with the 20 ha blocks still requiring the greatest amount of road maintenance. As the delay period is increased, adjacency constraints decreases the number of available blocks for harvesting, thus the amount of road maintenance decreases. The road maintenance schedules for the 1 and 2 period delay are fairly uniform with a large increase in maintenance during the first three decades, decreasing slightly or staying constant until around the seventh decade and increasing slowly beyond that point. This shows the need to maintain the large initial road construction phase and to re-access previously harvested blocks once the rotation age has passed. The road maintenance schedule for the 3 period delay. shows a definite cyclic pattern not displayed in the I and 2 period delay models. The cyclic pattern follows the 3 period delay constraint where the road maintenance schedule has peaks and valleys every three periods. This pattern is not evident in the I and 2 period delay models as the I and 2 period delays are not overly binding and do not force such a widely dispersed harvest. The results show that current harvesting levels within a fixed area cannot be maintained if smaller cut blocks in combination with longer exclusion periods are used. Either additional forested land must be made available or harvest levels will drop. Other alternatives include designating land within a best-use policy whereby certain lands are set aside primarily as timber production areas or increasing timber production on a limited land base through intensive management.  -29-  ECONOMIC ANALYSIS  An economic analysis was done comparing the construction, hauling, road maintenance, tree to truck and delivered cost per cubic meter for the block size and delay period combinations. Costs were averaged across the decades. Periodic costs are addressed in Figures 15 through 23. For each block size the typical pattern was for the road construction, hauling and maintenance (con/haul/main) cost to be the lowest for a one period delay and to increase for delay periods two and three. Values ranged from a high of $16.01/m3 for 20 ha blocks delay period 3 to a low of $1 0.741m3 for 80 ha delay period 1. This trend was expected even though the actual cost of road construction, maintenance and hauling decreases as the delay period increases, due to the lower volumes harvested when the delay period increases.  Table 8: Average road construction, hauling and maintenance costs ($1m3) harvested by block size and delay period Delay Period  80 ha blocks 40 ha blocks 20 ha blocks  1  10.74  11.75  13.23  2  11.06  13.02  14.91  3  11.75  13.51  16.01  The tree to truck cost per cubic meter showed no trend. The values ranged from $14.70/m3 for 20 ha delay period 2 to a high of $15.34/m3 for 80 ha delay period 1. This was expected as the only variables that change the tree to truck cost are logging difficulty and harvest age, and there was no clearly identifiable pattern for the distribution of logging systems throughout the study area.  -30Table 9: Average tree to truck costs ($/m3) by block size and delay period Delay Period  80 ha blocks 40 ha blocks 20 ha blocks  1  14.35  15.07  15.00  2  14.57  14.72  14.70  3  14.80  14.84  14.72  Adding of the con/haul/main and tree to truck costs per cubic meter shows the total delivered cost per cubic meter. Following the trend of the con/haul/main costs, the total delivered cost was the lowest for delay period I and increased as the delay period increased. The values ranged from $25.09/m3 for 80 ha delay period I to $30.75/m3 for 20 ha delay period 3 (22.6% increase). Graphically, the total delivered costs are shown in Figures 15 through 23. Table 10: Average total delivered cost of wood ($/m3) by block size and delay period Delay Period  80 ha blocks 40 ha blocks 20 ha blocks  1  25.09  26.82  28.23  2  25.63  27.74  29.61  3  26.55  28.35  30.75  80 HA DELAY 1 35.00 C 0 S T  30.00  25.00 P E R  20.00  C U 15.00 C M E T E R  10.00  5.00  0.00  5  6 DECADE  CONMAULIMAIN  TREE TO TRUCK  Figure 15: Total delivered cost by decade 80 ha blocks, I decade exclusion period -  a  NNNNflNNllINIIIOlIHIIrAIrj: ci 00  3  a  0  .,  ) 2.  D  3  a  0  0  .3  0 0  T  )  0  a  C.)>  -<I  0  > ci m  m 0  UI  a  > C  a  j)  0 0  0  I  z  0  C)  0  C  -l  0  m  m  > ci  Z m  >  I > C I:  0  Lii  3-  0  )  D D 2  2.  I)  -I )4.  3.)  D  11  C)  88  -40)00  C)  p.)  0  UI  88888  imu  8  o—wcO  0  m-Im  11  0  a  4.  I)  )  0  D D D.  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O—wtc) mu  -4(1,00  1•  11flHV411  $ 88888888 Pu,  m-4m  ICp.)  o  z  -‘  ;  .  9.  —.  CD -‘ LU  -‘  -o  — ‘J —  CD  —  LU  —  •  D CD  -.  <  —CD  D.  D  CD CD  •  0 CD  LU  3go  LU  o  -‘  (0)  IN  0  -‘  CD  C  CD  -‘  0  E<  CD  (C)  CD  —.  Cl)  :-  o  CD  C)  CD  LU  —  .—  D  •<  o Co  C)  m  0  0  Cl) -1  z  0  -I  C)  -o  I  0  •1  0 0  I)  -rr  ) D  0  a  T  4.  r)  1 ) D  •1  I D C  )•1.  -  p.)  3  )  n  m m  Z m C) > ci m  > C I:  8z  0  (0  (7.  I’)  $fl  0  1•  mo  —1000  88888  O—wcC)  NNNNNNNNNNIIHIUNNNUf1I 1I I I I  8??  0  m-m  m 0  0 0.  ) 3 3 D  )  3 1 CD C, 0) 0. CD  3. ) )  3 D 3-  1 CD  ) )  C  -  j)  D  a  CD -‘ 0  I CD  ) U  -I  11  d  m m  ci m  Zci  > C LZ  z  0  -I  U’  4. LED C) 0  8I  8I  PU’  8I  m—Im  8I  O—wCO  8I  mo  t) 8I  $ 8  -(nOC)  8I  _<I  ci mO  .r.  -35overhead, crew transportation, crew accommodation, sort/scale and forestry costs.(Shaw, 1993). Average operating cost values ranged from $41 .071m3 to $45.501m3 for the 80 ha, I delay period and 20 ha, 3 delay period respectively. (Table 11). For simplicity it was assumed that the calculated operating costs were equal to the operating allowances for use in the stumpage calculation.  Table 11: Average operating cost ($1m3) by block size and delay period 80 ha blocks 40 ha blocks 20 ha blocks  Delay Period  1  41.07  41.96  43.23  2  41.22  42.35  44.17  3  41.42  43.48  45.50  The values in Table 11 are reasonable given the variation in road construction and road maintenance requirements for each combination. Also, the smaller cut-block solutions would be expected to have a higher operating cost due to the greater number of machine set-ups and moves required. Stumpage revenue was calculated using the following formula (MOE, 1991): IS  BR  =  +  ((SP  -  OC) -VI)  where: IS  indicated stumpage  =  BR  =  base rate (assumed $14.03/m3). The base rate is a quarterly  adjusted value to ensure that the average of all coniferous sawlog rates is equal to the target rate set by the ministry for that quarter. SP  =  stand as a whole selling price (assumed $80/m3)  OC  =  operating allowance  -36VI  =  mean value index (assumed $17.751m3). The mean value index is a  volume weighted average of the value indexes for all harvests that have occurred in the last twelve months. It provides a benchmark against which individual stands are compared. The calculated indicated stumpage values (Table 12) ranged from $35.211m3 to  $30.781m3 for the 80 ha, I delay period and 20 ha, 3 delay period respectively.  Table 12: Average indicated stumpage values ($/m3) by block size and delay period Delay Period  80 ha blocks 40 ha blocks 20 ha blocks  1  35.21  34.32  33.05  2  35.06  33.93  3211  3  34.86  32.80  30.78  As stumpage is the amount of money that a logging company must pay to the province for the “right” to harvest timber on a tract of land, there is a drastic difference in the amount of money payable when comparing the different sized blocks and adjacency requirements (Table 13). Comparison between the 80 ha, I delay period and the 20 ha, 3 delay period shows the stumpage payable (indicated stumpage multiplied by the total harvest volume) of the 20 ha, 3 delay period is only 44% of the 80 ha, I delay period. This is a reduction of nearly $67 million These figures represent the .  dramatic economic impacts associated with block size and adjacency rules. It should also be noted that due to the high road construction costs in the first few decades, the short-term impacts on stumpage are probably greater than the average figures calculated.  -37Table 13: Average stumpage revenues (in millions of $) by block size and delay period  Delay Period  80 ha blocks  40 ha blocks  20 ha blocks  1  119.7  114.1  110.6  2  94.6  89.9  77.5  3  76.2  63.2  52.8  CONCLUSION  An area-based scheduling model was developed to evaluate the impacts and costs associated with various cut-block sizes and adjacency constraints. Specifically, this paper: 1) determined the effect on the AAC and road network activity due to block size and the exclusion period for both unconstrained and constrained road budgets ; 2) quantified the delivered wood costs; and 3) forecasted the impacts on stumpage revenues. Comparison between the constrained and unconstrained road budgets showed little effect on the overall periodic harvest volumes. The increase of the constrained harvest volume ranged from -4.0% to 6.1% of the unconstrained harvest volume. This difference is low because the road construction constraint of 25 kilometers was not particularly binding. The effect on the MC due to block size and exclusion period showed that the delay period had a greater effect on the AAC than did reducing the block size. As the block size decreased while keeping the delay period constant, the reduction in harvest volume ranged from 6.0% to 23.5%. As the block size decreased, adjacency constraints actually reduced the number of available blocks, thus reducing the volume available for harvest.  -38Increasing the delay period from I to 2 and from I to 3 caused volumes to drop an average of 18.6% and 40% respectively. Increasing the delay period and decreasing the block size simultaneously resulted in large reductions in harvest volume of up to 50%. Another effect of increasing the delay period and decreasing the block size is that a large number of blocks are never harvested. Values ranged from 6.8% to 43.8% of blocks being ineligible for harvest. Road construction schedules showed that the smaller cut-blocks required more road construction during the first 3 or 4 decades in order to develop enough volume to meet the allowable cut. Beyond that point, the smaller cut-blocks required less construction as the majority of the road network was already developed. The road maintenance schedules clearly show that the smaller cut-blocks require a greater amount of road maintenance than did the larger cut-blocks. This was due to the greater amount of road access required to service the dispersed harvest of small blocks. The economic analysis showed that road construction, hauling and maintenance costs were the lowest for the I period delay and increase for delay periods 2 and 3. A stumpage calculation showed that there is a drastic difference in the amount of stumpage payable when comparing the different sized blocks and adjacency options. Values ranged from $119.7 million to $52.8 million, a reduction of nearly $67 million as the block size was decreased and the adjacency constraints increased. As the block size decreased,, the forest became more and more fragmented as groupings of different age classes began to emerge over time. While this may be more aesthetically pleasing than a large clear cut, a highly fragmented forest is not ideal in providing habitat for most species of wildlife. Most wildlife do require a specific age class distribution throughout the forest in order to provide habitat for protection, food production and migration. These particular habitats may exist in the fragmented forest but they must be accessible to the animals and in sufficient quantities through time. Further research must be done to examine the benefits of maintaining a specific age  .39... class distribution for wildlife habitat. For example, different adjacency rules could be set for different areas within a study area so that designated migration corridors would be maintained with a predefined age class distribution of timber. If we are to follow other countries in the world, further research must be done to determine the impacts on harvest levels and road networks of going to cut blocks even smaller than 20 ha. Additional work is also required to investigate the use of selection systems and their economic, social and forest structure impacts.  -40BIBLIOGRAPHY Armel, N.B. 1986. Area analysis and Version II of FORPLAN. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Lessons From Using FORPLAN, Denver, CO, April 29 May 1. USDA Forest Service, Land Management Planning Systems Section, Washington, D.C. -  Bare, B.B., Faaland, B.H., and Gupta, I. 1984. Timber harvest scheduling in the presence of spatial constraints. Paper presented at the Joint National Meeting of the Institute Of Management Sciences and the Operations Research Society of America, San Francisco, CA, May 14-16. Clements, S.E., Dallain, P.L., and Jamnick, M.S. 1990. An operational, spatially constrained harvest scheduling model. Can. J. For. Res. 20: 1438-1447. Hackett, J. MacMillan Bloedel Corporate Forestry, Vancouver, B.C. Personal Communication, 1990. Johnson, K.N., and Jones, D.B. 1991. Multiple Use Sustained Yield Calculation Timber Harvest Scheduling Model Users Guide. Pacific Forestry Center, Victoria, B.C. Johnson, K.N., Stuart, T.W., and Crim, S.A. 1986. FORPLAN Version 2 : An overview. USDA Forest Service, Land Management Planning Systems Section Washington, D.C. Ministry Of Forests, 1991. Stumpage Appraisal Information Paper No. I Comparative Value Timber Pricing, Valuation Branch, Victoria, B.C. Nawitka Resource Consultants. 1987. Impact Of Intensive Forestry Practices On Net Stand Values In British Columbia. Forestry Economic and Regional Development Agreement Report 014, Victoria, B.C. Nelson, J.D. 1988. Integrating Short-term Spatially Feasible Harvest Plans With Longterm Harvest Schedules Using Monte-Carlo Integer Programming And Linear Programming. Ph.D. dissertation, Oregon State University, Oregon. Nelson, J., and Brodie, J.D. 1990. Comparison of a random search algorithm and mixed integer programming for solving area-based forest plans. Can. J. For. Res. 20: 934-942. Nelson, J.D., and Finn, S.T. 1991. The influence of cut-block size and adjacency rules on harvest levels and road networks. Can. J. For. Res. 21: 595-600. O’Hara, A.J., Faaland, B.H., and Bare, B.B. 1989. Spatially constrained timber harvest scheduling. Can. J. For. Res. 19: 715-724.  -41Shaw, N. British Columbia Institute of Technology, Burnaby, B.C. Personal Communication, 1993.  -42-  APPENDIX I  DESCRIPTION OF ANALYSIS AREAS  -43Description of the Analysis Areas (from Nelson, 1988) ANALYSIS AREA I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 32 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 43 44 45 46  SITE/SPECIESIAGE  HA  VOL/HA  HCJ7 MCJ7 MFJ7 HHJ6 HCJ8 MFJ8 LCJO HHJ8 HHJ6 LFJ6 MFJ7 LFJ6 MFJ7 MFJO MHJ7 LHJ6 MFJO MFJC LFJ7 MFJC HHJB MHJA HFJO HHJC HHJA HHJB HHJA HHJC HCJ9 MHJA HFJI HFJ7 HFJB HFJC HFJO HHJ7 HHJ8 HHJB HHJC HCJ4 MFJI MFJ2 MFJ3  45 13 40 120 36 19 17 67 55 12 95 17 28 37 233 18 137 21 45 31 71 202 82 80 39 29 16 28 20 44 368 15 35 12 92 59 56 70 40 26 148 64 295  690 400 330 610 760 470 440 800 610 100 410 100 410 710 410 90 710 620 200 620 970 570 1170 1010 930 970 930 1010 840 570 0 680 940 990 1170 720 800 800 1010 330 0 0 14  -4447 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 58 59 60 61 62  MFJ7 MFJ8 MFJC MFJ0 MHJ4 MHJ6 MHJ7 MHJ8 MCJ3 MCJ4 MCJO LFJI LFJ6  65 27 33 58 20 62 270 60 99 205 14 47 46  410 470 615 710 125 330 410 480 20 120 750 0 100  Codes Used To Define Site/Species/Age: the first character is the site class H = High M = Medium L = Low the second character is the species group F = Fir H = Hemlock C = Cedar the third and fourth characters are the 10 year age classes JI = 10 J2 = 20 J3 = 30 J4 =40 J5 = 50 J6 =60 J7 = 70 J8 = 80 J9 = 90 JA = 100 JB = 110 JC = 130 JO = 200+  -  -  -  -45-  APPENDIX 2 ANALYSIS AREA MAP I ZONE MAP  -46-  ANALYSIS AREA MAP  dWI ]NOZ  c37 &  -48-  APPENDIX 3 DBASE FILE TO MAKE TABLES OF BLOCK VOLUMES  -49* *  MAKETAB CREATES A TABLE OF VOLUMES PER BLOCK PER PERIOD TO BE USED BY MCIP (NELSON)  *  WRITTEN BY STEVE FINN AND IAN THOMAS MAH29, 1990  *  FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY  * *  AA***A****A******INSTRUCTIONS FOR *  * THE FIELD NAMES AND LENGTHS SHOULD CORRESPOND TO THOSE IN THIS * FILE *  * USE C:TERRAUSERSTILLWTR.DB_ *  * TO RUN THE PROGRAM TYPE “DO MAKETAB” AT THE DOT PROMPT IN DBASE * THE VOLUME TABLE WILL BE WRITTEN TO THE FILE “SUMS”. * ***********A.AAAA**AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA1.A.LAAA*  SORT ON POLY_LABEL TO C:\TMPTENT.DBF CLOSE ALL USE C:TMPTENT.DBF GO TOP SELECT B USE C:\TMP\SUMS ZAP SELECT A DO WHILE .NOT. EOFO SUMOI = 0 SUMO2 =0 SUMO3 =0 SUMO4 =0 SUMO5 =0 SUMO6 =0 SUMO7 = 0 SUMO8 = 0 SUMO9 = 0 SUMIO = 0 SUMII =0 SUMI2 = 0 SUMI3 = 0 SUMI4 = 0 SUMI5 = 0  -50SUMI6 = 0 SUMI7 = 0 SUMI8 = 0 SUMI9 = 0 SUM2O =0 SUM2I =0 SUM22 =0 SUM23 =0 SUM24 =0 SUM25 =0 SUM26 =0 SUM27 =0 SUM28 =0 SUM29 =0 SUM3O =0 CURRENT_BLK = POLY_LABEL DO WHILE POLY_LABEL = CURRENT_BLK SUMOI = (POLY_AREA * EX_YLDOI) + SUMOI SUMO2 = (POLY_AREA * EX_YLDO2) + SUMO2 SUMO3 = (POLY_AREA * EX_YLDO3) + SUMO3 SUMO4 = (POLY_AREA * EX_YLDO4) + SUMO4 SUMO5 = (POLY_AREA * EX_YLDO5) + SUMO5 SUMO6 = (POLY_AREA * EX_YLDO6) + SUMO6 SUMO7 = (POLY_AREA * EX_YLDO7) + SUMO7 SUMO8 = (POLY_AREA * EX_YLDO8) + SUMO8 SUMO9 = (POLY_AREA * EX_YLDO9) + SUMO9 SUMIO = (POLY_AREA * EX_YLDIO) + SUMIC SUMI I = (POLY_AREA * EX_YLDI I) + SUMI I SUMI2 = (POLY_AREA * EX_YLDI2) + SUMI2 SUMI3 = (POLY_AREA * EX_YLDI3) + SUMI3 SUMI4 = (POLY_AREA * EX_YLDI4) + SUMI4 SUMI5 = (POLY_AREA * EX_YLDI5) + SUMI5 SUMI 6 = (POLY_AREA * REG_YLDOI) + SUMI 6 SUMI7 = (POLY_AREA * REG_YLDO2) + SUMI7 SUMI8 = (POLY_AREA * REG_YLDO3) + SUMI8 SUMI9 = (POLY_AREA * REG_YLDO4) + SUMI9 SUM2O = (POLY_AREA * REG_YLDO5) + SUM2O SUM2I = (POLY_AREA * REG_YLDO6) + SUM2I SUM22 = (POLY_AREA * REG_YLDO7) + SUM22 SUM23 = (POLY_AREA * REG_YLDO8) + SUM23 SUM24 = (POLY_AREA * REG_YLDO9) + SUM24 SUM25 = (POLY_AREA * REG_YLDI 0) + SUM25 SUM26 = (POLY_AREA * REG_YLDI I) + SUM26 SUM27 = (POLY_AREA * REG_YLDI2) + SUM27 SUM28 = (POLY_AREA * REG_YLDI3) + SUM28 SUM29 = (POLY_AREA * REG_YLDI4) + SUM29 SUM3O = (POLY_AREA * REG_YLDI5) + SUM3O SKIP  -51  -  ENDDO SELECT B APPEND BLANK REPLACE BLOCK_NUM WITH CURRENT_BLK REPLACE EX_VOLOI WITH SUMOI REPLACE EX_VOLO2 WITH SUMO2 REPLACE EX_VOLO3 WITH SUMO3 REPLACE EX_VOLO4 WITH SUMO4 REPLACE EX_VOLO5 WITH SUMO5 REPLACE EX_VOLO6 WITH SUMO6 REPLACE EX_VOLO7 WITH SUMO7 REPLACE EX_VOLO8 WITH SUMO8 REPLACE EX_VOLO9 WITH SUMO9 REPLACE EX_VOLIO WITH SUMIO REPLACE EX_VOLI I WITH SUMI I REPLACE EX_VOLI2 WITH SUMI2 REPLACE EX_VOLI3 WITH SUMI3 REPLACE EX_VOLI4 WITH SUMI4 REPLACE EX_VOLI5 WITH SUMI5 REPLACE REG_VOLOI WITH SUMI6 REPLACE REG_VOLO2 WITH SUMI7 REPLACE REG_VOLO3 WITH SUMI8 REPLACE REG_VOLO4 WITH SUMI9 REPLACE REG_VOLO5 WITH SUM2O REPLACE REG_VOLO6 WITH SUM2I REPLACE REG_VOLO7 WITH SUM22 REPLACE REG_VOLO8 WITH SUM23 REPLACE REG_VOLO9 WITH SUM24 REPLACE REG_VOLIO WITH SUM25 REPLACE REG_VOLI I WITH SUM26 REPLACE REG_VOLI2 WITH SUM27 REPLACE REG_VOLI3 WITH SUM28 REPLACE REG_VOLI4 WITH SUM29 REPLACE REG_VOLI5 WITH SUM3O SELECT A ENDDO AAAAAAAALAAAAAAAAEND OF FILE*  -52-  APPENDIX 4 BLOCK LAYOUT AND ROAD NETWORKS BY BLOCK SIZE  -53-  -  “••.  •1 -  \.  1  ci  / I  .......&.••  / /  .  •.  .. .  80 HECTARE BLOCKS AND ROAD NETWORK  -54-  ...‘..  I....  I  F  / I  40 HECTARE BLOCKS AND ROAD NETWORK  .•  -55-  1:..  ••  I  S  • ..  ...‘  ...  ...  •.;  .  20 HECTARE BLOCKS AND ROAD NETWORKS  -56-  APPENDIX 5 EXAMPLES OF INPUT FILES  -57BLOCKDAT.TXT  block ha 1 78 2 86 3 93 4 83 5 98 6 74 7 66 8 79 9 77 10 84 11 90 12 77 13 79 14 98 15 89 16 67 17 71 18 77 19 84 20 77 21 78 22 89 23 80 24 65 25 84 26 83 27 100 28 81 29 81 30 77 31 81 32 87 33 72 34 78 35 79 36 81 37 86 38 73 39 79 40 87 41 84 42 86 43 71 44 81 45 73  age zone adjacent blocks 7 32 4500000 8 31 5630000 7 32 6700000 7 11 5890000 7 21 2 4 6 8 9 10 0 7 22 3 7 11 10 5 0 0 7 33 6 11 16 0 0 0 0 8 14 5 9 12 0 0 0 0 7 24 5 8 10 12 13 0 0 7 25 6 11 14 13 9 0 0 7 26 7 16 15 14 13 10 0 8 18 9 13 20 19 0 0 0 8 19 10 11 14 21 20 12 0 7 4 10 11 15 13 21 0 0 0 20 4 11 16 17 23 22 14 0 0 20 37 11 15 22 23 17 0 0 7 3 16 15 22 23 18 0 0 0 8 4 17 23 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 1 12 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 1 12 19 13 21 0 0 0 0 7 6 20 13 14 24 0 0 0 0 7 4 15 16 17 23 31 30 25 0 7 4 18 17 16 15 22 31 0 0 7 6 21 25 26 0 0 0 0 0 7 5 24 22 30 32 0 0 0 0 7 6 24 27 28 0 0 0 0 0 7 6 26 28 29 00000 7 6 26 27 29 00000 7 6 27 28 0 00000 7 5 25 22 31 35 34 33 32 0 7 4 23 22 30 35 36 0 0 0 7 5 25 30 33 38 37 0 0 0 20 7 32 30 34 38 37 0 0 0 12 7 33 30 35 39 38 0 0 0 11 8 34 30 31 36 40 39 0 0 11 8 31 35 40 00000 7 5 32 33 38 42 41 0 0 0 7 7 37 32 33 34 39 42 0 0 20 738343540434542 0 12 8 39 35 36 43 0 0 0 0 7 5 37 42 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 7 41 37 38 39 45 44 0 0 10 8 39 40 46 45 0 0 0 0 20 7 42 39 45 47 0 0 0 0 10 8 44 42 39 43 46 47 0 0  46 69 11 47 74 10 48 82 20  -588 45 43 47 48 0 0 0 0 8 44 45 46 48 0 0 0 0 8 46 47 0 0 0 0 0 0  -59CONSTRALTXT HAB_DELAY MAX_BLOCKS MAX_PERIODS MAX_ZONES MIN_AGE MAX_ADJAC 8 10 8 48 6 2 CUT_2 MAX_MRD MAX_ACCESS COST_MAINT MAX_ROAD CUT_I 210000. 25 210000. 51 51 162 MAXVOL MINCOST MAXCOST MAXGRADECOST MINVOL DISC 0. 50000000. 50000000. 265000. 275000. 1. ZONE FIRST_ENTRY I I 5 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 6 2 1 7 4 8  -60EXREVTAB.TXT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48  19.11 16.00 19.11 19.11 19.11 19.11 19.11 16.00 19.11 19.11 19.11 17.00 17.00 20.11 12.88 12.88 19.11 16.00 20.11 20.11 21.11 19.11 19.11 21.11 21.11 21.11 21.11 21.11 21.11 19.11 19.11 20.11 12.88 12.88 12.88 12.88 20.11 19.11 12.88 12.88 20.11 12.88 12.88 13.88 12.88 12.88 12.88 12.88  16.00 12.88 16.00 16.00 16.00 16.00 16.00 12.88 16.00 16.00 16.00 13.88 13.88 17.00 12.88 12.88 16.00 12.88 17.00 17.00 18.00 16.00 16.00 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00 16.00 16.00 17.00 12.88 12.88 12.88 12.88 17.00 16.00 12.88 12.88 17.00 12.88 12.88 13.88 12.88 12.88 12.88 12.88  12.88 12.88 12.88 12.88 12.88 12.88 12.88 12.88 12.88 12.88 12.88 13.88 13.88 13.88 12.88 12.88 12.88 12.88 13.88 13.88 14.88 12.88 12.88 14.88 14.88 14.88 14.88 14.88 14.88 12.88 12.88 13.88 12.88 12.88 12.88 12.88 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50766.0 54716.2 0.0 872.5 9009.5 18773.9 26852.1 33361.7 38302.7 42312.4 45626.0 324.8 2066.5 9816.1 18800.1 25494.8 31499.6 36675.3 39750.4 43459.7 3824.0 8441.5 20530.4 31171.3 38670.5 45826.3 51292.9 55780.4 59873.4 1430.6 4141.8 13432.1 23184.8 30299.0 36864.2 42278.8 45873.0 49799.8 3958.7 8734.2 24253.4 37908.5 48065.9 56464.4 63585.1 69302.7 74789.8  -69SRLINKS.TXT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48  625 0 1365 230 0 0 1220 245 0 0 100 335 0 1395 400 895 360 2130 425 825 0 0 0 140 0 0 0 .0 0 340 0 0 650 505 0 290 215 0 555 843 0 415 60 400 315 0 555 165  18750 0 40950 6900 0 0 36600 7350 0 0 3000 15075 0 62775 12000 26850 10800 63900 19125 37125 0 0 0 8400 0 0 0 0 0 10200 0 0 19500 15150 0 8700 9675 0 16650 25290 0 12450 1800 18000 9450 0 16650 4950  -70-  APPENDIX 6 MCIP FLOW CHART  -71MCIP BLOCK SCHEDULER FLOW CHART  START  ‘I,  LAST SOLUTIOI  no  yes  4>PERIOD  =  44, INITIALIZE ALL VARIABLES  1  >COUNT= 0  COUNT = COUNT + I INITIALIZE PERIOD VARIABLES <  1  COUNT> 20  no  yes  1ASSIGN BLOCKS 0/I  1  IF BLOCK= I, SET ADJACENT BLOCKS =0  V  ASSIGN ROADS  ‘I, ELIMINATE REDUNDANT ROADS  SUM VOLUME  “ SUM REVENUE  ‘If CHECK CONSTRAINTS  PASS CONSTRAINTS  es ADJUST AGES, ETC  ‘If =  PERIOD  +  ILAST PERIOD  no  _>  yes  FEASIBLE SOLUTION  -72-  APPENDIX 7 MAIN PROGRAM FILE  -73(* Monte Carlo Integer Program *) (* trans.PAS MCIP WITH ROADS minvol as constraint,transportation *) (* DATE: February 1993 (* For MB -Stiliwater PROGRAM MCIP (INPUT, OUTPUT,DISKFILE); USES DOS, CRT, PRINTER; CONST MOSTBLOCK =230; { max no of blocks) MOSTZONES =10; MOSTPERIOD =10; { max time periods) MOSTACCESS =100; { MAX NUMBER OF ROADS TO ACCESS BLOCK) MOSTADJAC =10; MAX NUMBER OF ADJACENT BLOCKS) { MAXIMUM NUMBER OF MAIN ROADS } MOSTMRD =300; { (MAXIMUM NUMBER OF REPETITIONS } MAXREPS =100; TYPE ZONEARRAY ARRAY[1 .MOSTZONES] OF INTEGER; ZCOUNTERPTRZONEARRAY; FIRSTENTRYPTRZONEARRAY; INTZONEBLOCKARRAYARRAY[1 ..MOSTZONES,1 ..MOSTBLOCK] OF INTEGER; BLOCKINZONEPTR=”INTZONEBLOCKARRAY; ZONEPERIODARRAY=ARRAY[1..MOSTZONES,1..MOSTPERIOD] OF REAL; ZVOLPTR=’ZONEPERIODARRAY; VOLREVARRAY =ARRAY[1 ..MOSTBLOCK,1 ..MOSTPERIOD,1 .2] OF REAL; (vol and rev tables) volumePtr Avolrevaffay; revenuePtr =Avolrevarray; ARRAY[0..MOSTBLOCK,1 ..MOSTPERIOD] OF REAL; REALARRAY PERIODARRAY =ARRAY[1 ..MOSTPERIOD] OF real; BLOCKARRAY =ARRAY[1 .MOSTBLOCK] OF REAL; Ablockan.ay; areaPtr Ablockaffay; blockPtr MRLENARRAY ARRAY[1 .MOSTMRD] OF REAL; MAINROADARRAY=ARRAY[1 .MOSTMRD, 1. .MOSTPERIOD] OF REAL; =Amajnroadan..ay; mrPtr mrmaintPtr =Amalnroadan.ay; DNRARRAY =ARRAY[1 .maxreps] OF REAL; {number of solutions) ADJACARRAY ARRAY[1 .MOSTBLOCK,0. MOSTADJAC] OF INTEGER;(integers needed for adjac procdure} Aadjarray; adjacPtr ACCESSARRAY =ARRAY[1 ..MOSTBLOCK,1 ..MOSTACCESS] OF INTEGER; {access roads for each block) Aaccessan.ay; accessPtr INTBLOCKARRAYARRAY[1 ..MOSTBLOCK] OF INTEGER; (for vtable and r table) starlagePtr Ajntblockan.ay; Aintblockarray; vtablePtr Aintblockarray; rtablePtr AINTBLOCKARRAY; ZONEPTR INTARRAY ARRAY[1 .MOSTBLOCK,0. .MOSTPERIOD] OF INTEGER; Ajntarray; agePtr .  .  .  .  .  .  VAR ZVOL :ZVOLPTR; BLOCKINZONE:BLOCKINZONEPTR; ZCOUNTER :ZCOUNTERPTR; ZONE :ZONEPTR; FIRSTENTRY:FIRSTENTRYPTR;  .  -74(MAINTENANCE COST/KM/YR) COSTMAINT :REAL; MAXZONE :INTEGER; (max no of blocks) MAXBLOCK, (max time periods } MAXPERIOD, MAXACCESS, { MAX NUMBER OF ROADS TO ACCESS BLOCK) MAXADJAC, { MAX NUMBER OF ADJACENT BLOCKS) MAXMRD, { MAXIMUM NUMBER OF MAIN ROADS) :INTEGER; { MINIMUM HARVEST AGE } MINAGE :REAL; HABDELAY,CUTI ,CUT2 :TEXT; DISKFILE :agePtr; AGE :startagePtr; STARTAGE :accessPtr; ACCESS :adjacPtr; ADJ :BLOCKARRAY; SRCOST :blockPtr; BLOCK :areaPtr; AREA :volumePtr; VOLUME :revenuePtr; NETVAL :vtablePtr; VTABLE :rtablePtr; RTABLE 5, SR :REALARRAY; :BLOCKARRAY; SRLENGTH :BLOCKARRAY; SRBUILT :PERIODARRAY; SECLENGTH :REALARRAY; SRMAINT :BLOCKARRAY; SECMAINT TRANS, LOGCOST, BLKVOL :blockarray; :mrPtr; mr :mm,aintPtr; mrmaint :MRLENARRAY; MRLENGTH :MRLENARRAY; MRBUILT :PERIODARRAY; MAINLENGTH :MRLENARRAY; MAINMAINT :MRLENARRAY; MRCOST :PERIODARRAY; TOTALLENGTH :PERIODARRAY; TOTALMAINT :PERIODARRAY; GRADECOST :PERIODARRAY; MAXGRADECOST DISC, MAINRDS, SECRDS, VOL, HARVCOST, TAREA, MINVOL, MAXVOL, MAXROAD, MINREV, MAXREV,NETREV, NET,ROADMAI NT, :PERIODARRAY; MARGIN, HAUL CU RSORX,C U RSORY, CODE, REP, REPSDESIRED, :INTEGER; J,R :Iongint; SEED RANDSEEDS, :DNRARRAY; DNR HIGHSOFARDNR, :REAL; HIGHESTDNR  -75:CHAR; ASKPRINT :TEXT; A,B,C,D,E,X,Y,Z :STRING; OUTFILE HOURI ,MINI ,SECI ,I-IUNDRETHI :WORD; Resp,passroad, Test, passvol,passrev,passgrade :Boolean; zx,SEEDY :double; (*=============================SCREEN DI SPLAY=====================*) PROCEDURE DRAWBOX; { Draws a header for the screen } var W : Integer; BEGIN CLRSCR; GOTOXY(1 ,l); WRITE (#201); FOR W:= I TO 78 DO WRITE (#205); WRITE (#187); MCIP Block Scheduler); WRITE (#186,’ ‘#186); WRITE (‘ WRITE (#200); FOR W: ITO 78 DO WRITE (#205); WRITE (#188); WRITELN; END; (* screen display —  (*________.______=___________introducllon=____=_____====______.._______ PROCEDURE INTRODUCTION; var :STRING; PAUSE PROCEDURE COLLECT; var : BOOLEAN; RESP, TESTSEED, TESTREP SEEDRESPONSE : CHAR; BEGIN DRAWBOX; TESTREP:FALSE; WRITE (‘PLEASE TYPE IN THE DESIRED NUMBER OF REPETITIONS OF THE PROGRAM: ‘); REPEAT {TESTREP} READLN (REPSDESIRED); IF REPSDESIRED >0 THEN BEGIN If repsdesired <= maxreps then BEGIN TESTREP:=TRUE; END ELSE WRITE (‘PLEASE ENTER A NUMBER BETWEEN I AND’, MAXREPS:5,’ : END ELSE WRITE (‘PLEASE ENTER A NUMBER BETWEEN I AND’, MAXREPS:5,’: UNTIL TESTREP; WRITE (‘PLEASE ENTER SEED:);  -76READLN(zx); (seed for random numer generator) END; (*  —------u  introduction—  (*========================clear result files==========================*) PROCEDURE CLEARFILES; { EMPTIES RESULT FILES) BEGIN ASSIGN (X,’SEEDDNR.txt); RESET (X); REWRITE(X); CLOSE (X); END; end result files  (*____=___________._._=========read input files constraints===__====__=========*) PROCEDURE READCONSTRAINTS; { READS IN VOLUME REV CONSTRAINT DATA FILE VAR I :INTEGER; :STRING; TITLEI ,TITLE2,TITLE3,TITLE4 ZONENUM :ARRAY[1 .MOSTZONES] OF INTEGER; BEGIN ASSIGN (E, ‘CONSTRAINTS.bct); RESET(E); READLN(E,TITLEI); READLN (E, HABDELAY,MAXBLOCK,MAXPERIOD,MAXZONE,MINAGE,MAXADJAC); READLN(E,TITLE2); READLN (E, MAXMRD,MAXACCESS,COSTMAINT,MAXROAD[1J,CUTI ,CUT2); READLN(E,TITLE3); READLN (E, DISC[1 ],MINVOL[1 ],MAXVOL[1 ],MINREV[1 ],MAXREV[1 ],MAXGRADECOST[1 ]); READLN (E,TITLE4); FOR I: I TO MAXZONE DO BEGIN READ(E,ZONENUM[I], FIRSTENTRYALI]) END; CLOSE (E); FOR I:1 TO MAXPERIOD DO BEGIN DISC[IJ:=DISC[I]; MINVOL[I]:MINVOL[1 1; MAXVOLII]: MAXVOL[1 J; MINREV[l]:MINREV[I j; MAXREV[I]:MAXREV[I 1; MAXGRADECOST[IJ:=MAXGRADECOST[I 1; MAXROAD[I]:=MAXROAD[I]; END; MINVOL[1]:=CUT1; MINVOL[2]:CUT2; END; *) (* end read constraints  }  -77.begin READCONSTRAINTS; DRAWBOX; WRITELN; RETURN” KEY.); WRITELN (‘TO PROMPT THE PROGRAM TO CONTINUE JUST PRESS THE TM WRITELN; WRITELN (‘THE CONSTRAINTS USED IN THE MODEL ARE:’); WRITELN; WRITELN (‘PLANNING HORIZON: ‘,MAXPERIOD:8,’ (MAX TIME PERIODS)); WRITELN (‘NUMBER OF BLOCKS: ‘,MAXBLOCK:8,’ (MAX NO. BLOCKS )); WRITELN (‘NUMBER OF ZONES: ‘,MAXZONE:8,’ (NO. ZONES )); WRITELN (‘NUMBER OF MAIN ROADS: ‘,MAXMRD:4,’ { MAX NO. ROADS )); WRITELN (‘MIN HARVEST AGE : ‘,MINAGE:8,’ { MINIMUM HARVEST AGE )); WRITELN (‘MAX ACCESS LINKS :‘,MAXACCESS:8, ‘{ ACCESS LINKS PER BLOCK }); WRITELN (‘ADJAC DELAY AGE : ‘,HABDELAY:8:0,’ (MINIMUM AGE OF ADJAC BLOCKY); WRITELN (‘MINIMUM VOLUME := ‘,MINVOL[3]:8:0,’ (MIN VOLUME HARVESTED PER PERIOD WRITELN (‘MAXIMUM VOLUME := ‘,MAXVOL[1]:8:O,’  { MAX VOLUME HARVESTED PER PERIOD  WRITELN (‘MAXIMUM COST : ‘,MAXREV[1]:8:0,’ (MAX COST PER PERIOD )‘); WRITELN (‘MAX GRADE COST := ‘,MAXGRADECOST[1]:8:0,’ (MAX GRADE BUDGET PER PERIOD)); WRITELN (‘MAINTENANCE COST/KM : ‘,COSTMAINT:8:0,’ (MAINT. COST!M)); WRITELN (‘MAX ROAD COSTRUCTION: ‘,MAXROAD[1J:8:0,’ {MAX KM. ROAD CONST. PER PERIOD )); WRITELN (‘MIN VOL PERIODI :=‘,CUTI :8:0); WRITELN (‘MIN VOL PERIOD2 :‘,CUT2:8:0); pause:=READKEY; COLLECT; CLEARFILES; END; (* end read constraints  (*============================read in block data============================*) (READS IN BLOCK,AREA,AGE AND ADJACENT BLOCKS) PROCEDURE READBLOCKDATA; VAR I,K :INTEGER; TITLEI :STRING; BEGIN ASSIGN (A, ‘BLOCKDAT.txt); RESET(A); FOR I:1 TO MAXZONE DO BEGIN ZCOUNTERA[I]:0; END; readln(A,TITLEI); FOR I : I TO MAXBLOCK DO BEGIN READ (A, BLOCKA[I],AREAA[I],STARTAGEi[I],ZONEA[I]); ZCOUNTERA[ZONE[I]]:=ZCOUNTERA[ZONEA[I]]+I; BLOCKI NZONEA[ZONEA[I],ZCOUNTERA[ZONEA[I]]]:1; FOR K:1 TO MAXADJAC DO BEGIN  -78READ (A, ADJ”[l,KJ); END; END; CLOSE (A); END; (*  —----—  *)  end block data  (*==================read in existing block volume taL, PROCEDURE EXISTVOLUME; VAR l,K :INTEGER; BEGIN ASSIGN (A, ‘EXVOLTAB.TXT’); RESET(A); FOR I : I TO MAXBLOCK DO BEGIN READ (A, BLOCKA[I]); FOR K:1 TO MAXPERIOD DO BEGIN READ (A, VOLUMEA[I,K,1J); END; readln(a); END; CLOSE (A); END; *) end existing volumes  ,  (*===================_==read in regen block volume tab1es*) PROCEDURE REGENVOLUME; VAR I,K :INTEGER; BEGIN ASSIGN (A, ‘RGVOLTAB.TXT); RESET(A); FOR I : I TO MAXBLOCK DO BEGIN READ (A, BLOCKA[I]); FOR K:=1 TO MAXPERIOD DO BEGIN READ (A, VOLUME’[I,K,2]); END; readln(a); END; CLOSE (A); END; end regen volumes —  —  -79(*=====================read in existing block revenue tabIes===========*) PROCEDURE EXISTREVENUE; VAR I,K :INTEGER; BEGIN ASSIGN (A, ‘EXREVTAB.TXT); RESET(A); FOR I : I TO MAXBLOCK DO BEGIN READ (A, BLOCKA[I]); FOR K:1 TO MAXPERIOD DO BEGIN READ (A, NETVALA[I,K,1]); END; readln(a); END; CLOSE (A); END; (* *) end existing revenues —  (*read in regen block revenues tables==================, PROCEDURE REGENREVENUE; VAR I,K :INTEGER; BEGIN ASSIGN (A, ‘RGREVTAB.TXT’); RESET(A); FOR I : I TO MAXBLOCK DO BEGIN READ (A, BLOCKA[I]); BEGIN FOR K:1 TO MAXPERIOD DO READ (A, NETVALA[I,K,2]); END; readln(a); END; CLOSE (A); END; (* end regen volumes  (*.....=========================read in main roads to access blocks============*) PROCEDURE ACCESSROADS; VAR I,K,MARKER :INTEGER; BEGIN ASSIGN (E, ‘MRACCESS.TXT’); RESET (E); FOR I:1 TO MAXBLOCK DO BEGIN READ (E, BLOCKA[I], TRANS[I]); K:0; WHILE NOT EOLN(E) DO BEGIN  -80K:K+1; READ (E, ACCESS’[I,K]); END; END; READLN(E); MARKER:=K; WHILE NOT EOF(E) DO BEGIN FOR I:1 TO MAXBLOCK DO BEGIN K:=MARKER; WHILE NOT EOLN(E) DO BEGIN K:K+1; READ (E, ACCESS’[I,K]); END; READLN(E); END; END; CLOSE (E); END; end read road access  (*=====================read main road lengths and const’n costs============*) PROCEDURE READMRCOST; VAR M :INTEGER; BEGIN ASSIGN (B, ‘MRLINKS.TXT); RESET (B); FOR M : I TO MAXMRD DO BEGIN READ (B,MRALM,J] ,MRLENGTh[M],MRCOST[M]); END; CLOSE (B); END; (* end main road const’n costs —  (*===================read secondary road lengths and const’n costs==========*) PROCEDURE READSRCOST; VAR I :INTEGER; BEGIN ASSIGN (B, ‘SRLINKS.TXT); RESET (B); FOR I := I TO MAXBLOCK DO BEGIN READ (B,BLOCKA[I],SRLENGTH[I] ,SRCOST[Ij); END; CLOSE (B); END; (* end secondary road const’n costs  -81  i i flJIl II I lull lIJI  -  .ieratoi  PROCEDURE RANNUM; VAR :INTEGER; I,k :REAL; (XDECIMAL, S=O or) XETA KX,ALPHA,MU,MM,ZZX :DOUBLE; BEGIN ALPHA:=EXP(LN(7)*5); (alpha,mu,mm for random generator) MU:=EXP(LN(2)*31); MM:=EXP(LN(2)*31)1; {ZX= seed) FOR I:1 TO MAXBLOCK DO BEGIN ZZX:=INT(ALPHA*ZX/MU); (whole number from division) ZZX:=(ALPHA*ZX)(ZZX*MU); (modulus arithmetic) KX:INT(ALPHA*ZXIMU); (whole number) IF (ZZX+KX) < MM THEN ZX:ZZX+KX ELSE ZX:=ZZX+KX-MM; XETA:ZX/MU; S[IJ]: INT(XETA+O.5); IF AGEA[I,J1 < MINAGE THEN S[I,J]:0; (if unit immature..set to zero) END; (set zones zero if before first entry) FOR I:1 TO MAXZONE DO if j < FIRSTENTRYA[I1 then begin for K:=1 to ZCOUNTERA[I] do S[BLOCKINZONEA[I ,KJ,jJ:0 END; END; (* end random number generator  (*==============================set blocks to zero=== PROCEDURE SETTOZERO; VAR :INTEGER; K 1 BEGIN VOL[J]:=O; NET[J]:=O; FOR K:1 TO MAXPERIOD DO DNR[K]:0; FOR I:1 TO MAXBLOCK DO S[I,J] :0; END; (* end blocks to zero  *)  -82(*__==________._.__===================set roads to zero=====================!) PROCEDURE INITROADS; VAR M,K :INTEGER; BEGIN (*main roads to zero*) FOR M:=1 TO MAXMRD DO BEGIN MRAEM,J1 :0; MRMAINT”[M,JJ:=O; END; FOR K:=1 TO MAXBLOCK DO BEGIN (* initialize secondary roads *) SR[K,J]:= 0; SRMAINT[K,J]:0; END; END; end roads to zero —-------  —  roads================================*) (* assign roads for each period *) PROCEDURE ASSIGNROADS; VAR I,K :INTEGER; BEGIN (main roads) FOR I:=1 TO MAXBLOCK DO BEGIN IF S[I,J] = I THEN BEGIN (should use repeat until k=maxaccess or access[i,k]=0) FOR K:1 TO MAXACCESS DO BEGIN IF ACCESSA[I,K] >0 THEN BEGIN MRALACCESSA[I K],Jj:=I; MRMAINTA[ACCESSA[I,K],J]:=I; END; END; END; END; (secondary roads) FOR I: I TO MAXBLOCK DO BEGIN IF S[I,J] =1 THEN BEGIN SR[IJJ:=I; SRMAINT[I,JJ:1; END; END; END; (*_____________________________..  (*  end assign roads  (*check redundancies in road assignments========== PROCEDURE REDUNDANTCHECK;  -83VAR I,K,M :INTEGER; BEGIN IFJ>1 THEN BEGIN FOR M:1 TO MAXMRD DO BEGIN FOR K:1 TO J-1 DO BEGIN IF MRALM,K1 1 THEN MR’jM,JJ:O; END; END; (* check secondary roads for redundancy and correct *) FOR I:1 TO MAXBLOCK DO BEGIN FOR K:1 TO J-1 DO BEGIN IF SR[I,K] 1 THEN SR[I,J]:0; END; END; END; END; end road redundancy check —  *)  (*======================check for adjacent blocks and set to zero===========*) PROCEDURE ADJAC; VAR I,K :INTEGER; ADJACDELAY :BOOLEAN; BEGIN FOR I:=1 TO MAXBLOCK DO BEGIN IF S[I,J] = I THEN begin k:0; ADJACDELAY:TRUE; repeat k:k+1; IF (ADJA[I,K]> 0) AND (AGEALADJALI,K],J] < HABDELAY) THEN BEGIN ADJACDELAY: FALSE; S[I,Jj:0; END; UNTIL (ADJACDELAYFALSE) OR (ADJ”[I,K]O) OR (KMAXADJAC); END; END; FOR I:=1 TO MAXBLOCK DO BEGIN IF S[I,J] = I THEN FOR K:1 TO MAXADJAC DO BEGIN IF ADJ’[I,K] >0 THEN S[ADJA[I,KJ,J]:0; END;  -84END; END; (*  —  end adjacency check  *)  (*====================che net revenue of period solution================*) PROCEDURE REVENUE; (* first the undiscounted main road costs*) VAR I,M,PERIOD :INTEGER; BEGIN MAINRDS[J] :0; MAINLENGTH[J]:=O; MAINMAINT[J]:0; FOR M:1 TO MAXMRD DO BEGIN MAINRDS[J]:MAINRDS[J] + MRCOST[M] * MRA[M,J]; MAINLENGTH[J]:MAINLENGTH[J] + MRLENGTH[M] * MRA[M,J]; MAINMAINT[JJ:MAINMAI NT[J] + MRLENGTH[M]*MRMAINTA[M,J]; END; (* then the undiscounted secondary road costs in each period *)  SECRDS[J]:=O; SECLENGTH[J]:0; SECMAINT[J]:0; FOR l:=l TO MAXBLOCK DO BEGIN SECRDS[J]:SECRDS[J] + SRCOST[I] * SR[I,Jj; SECLENGTH[J]:SECLENGTH[J] +SRLENGTH[I] * SR[I ,J]; SECMAINT[J] :SECMAI NT[J]+SRLENGTH[I] *SRMAI NT[I ,J]; END; (* caic total length (and costs) of roads constructed and maintained*) TOTALLENGTH[JJ:MAINLENGTH[J] + SECLENGTH[JJ; TOTALMA1NT[J]: MAINMAINT[J] + SECMAINT[J]; GRADECOST[J]:MAINRDS[J] + SECRDS[JJ; (* calculate the area harvested *)  TAREA[J]:0; FOR I:1 TO MAXBLOCK DO TAREA[J]:TAREA[J]+(S[I ,JJ*AREA[I]); (* now calculate the gross margin from each sale *) MARGIN[J] :0; HAUL[J]:0; FOR I:1 TO MAXBLOCK DO BEGIN IF RTABLEA[I] = 1 THEN PERIOD:=AGEA[I,JISTARTAGE[l]+1; IF RTABLEA[I] 2 THEN PERIOD:=AGEA[l,JJ; MARGIN[J]: jI]] 1 MARGIN[J]+(S[l,J]*VOLUMEA[l,PERIOD,VTABLEA[l]]*(NETVALA[I,PERIOD,RTABLE +TRANS[l])); HAUL[J]: HAUL[J]+(S[l ,J1*VOLUMEA[I PERlOD,VTABLEl[I]J*TRANS[l]); END; (* CALCULATE THE ROAD MAINTENANCE COSTS PER PERIOD *)  ROADMAINT[JI:=TOTALMAINT[J]*COSTMAINT;  -85(* CALCULATE THE TOTAL COST FOR THE PERIOD *) NET[JI:=0; NT[JJ:=MARGIN[J]+MAINRDS[J]+SECRDS[J]+ROADMAlNT[Jj; END; *) (* end revenue  (*______.____________________IcuIate DNR==============================*) PROCEDURE SUMSALES; (* sum discounted roads and sales to get DNR *) VAR J :INTEGER; BEGIN DNR[RI:0; FOR J:1 TO MAXPERIOD DO DNR[R]:=DNR[R]+NET[J]*DISC[J]; END; (* end DNR  (*=====_.________...____._=====_======screen display of results==================*) (* display solutions to screen *) PROCEDURE DISPRESULTS; VAR I,J :INTEGER; BEGIN { clrscr;} TEXTBACKGROUND(blue); WINDOW(1 ,1 ,80,25); drawbox; GOTOXY(1 ,12); COST: ‘,DNR[R]:8:0); WRITELN (‘REP: ‘,R-l :3,’ WRITELN (‘BLOCKS HARVESTED BY PERIOD’); FOR J =1 TO MAXPERIOD DO BEGIN WRITE (‘PERIOD ‘,J:2,’I); FOR I:-1 TO MAXBLOCK DO BEGIN IF S[I,JJ1 THEN WRITE (1:4); END; Wnte(’ WRITELN; END; WRITELN; WRITELN(’ PERIOD VOLUME CONST_N LEN MAINT LEN CONST_N COST MAINT COST TOTAL COST’); FOR J:1 TO MAXPERIOD DO BEGIN WRITELN(J:5,VOL[J]:1 0:0,TOTALLENGTH[J]/1 000:10:1 ,TOTALMAINT[JjI1 000:11:1, GRADECOST[J]!vol[j]: 13:2, ROADMAtNT[J]/vol[j]:1 3:2,NET[J]/vol[j]: 13:2); END; END; (* end display (*=====...signoff screen display===========================*) PROCEDURE SIGNOFF; BEGIN  -86CLRSCR; DRAWBOX; WRITELN C The program MCIP.exe has completed its run.); WRITELN (‘The results have been written to the following files:’); Readln; exit; END; (*  end sionon  *)  (*===__======_================pnnt results—======——=== PROCEDURE PRINT; VAR I,J,L :INTEGER; Procedure Configurepage; VAR I,J,L :INTEGER; ANS :STRING; Begin { configurepage) FEASIBLE SOLUTION A); VVRITELN (LST,IA writeln(Ist); WRITE (LST,’COST=’,DNR[RJ: 10:2); SEED ‘,SEEDY:15:0); WRITELN (LST,’ WRITELN (LST); FOR J:1 TO MAXPERIOD DO BEGIN Write (LST, ‘Period ‘,J:2,’: ); FOR I:1 TO MAXBLOCK DO IF S[I,J]=1 THEN WRITE (LST,’ ‘,I); Writeln(Ist); END; WRITELN (LST); WRITELN (LST,’HECTARES VOLUME SEC ROADS MAIN ROADS TOTAL COST SEC LEN MAIN LEN TOTLEN); FOR J:1 TO MAXPERIOD DO BEGIN WRITELN(LST,TAREA[Jj:8:0,VOL[J]:8:0,SECRDS[J]: I 0:0,MAINRDS[J]:1 2:0,NET[J]: 12:0, SECLENGTH[J]/1 000:10:1 ,MAINLENGTH[J]/1 000:10:1 ,TOTALLENGTH[J]/1 000:10:1); END; WRITELN (LST); WRITELN (LST,’SEC MAINT MAIN MAINT TOT MAINT GRADE COST RD MAINT COST TRANSCOST); FOR J:1 TO MAXPERIOD DO BEGIN WRITELN (LST,SECMAINT[J]/1 000:8:1 ,MAINMAINT[J]/1 000:10:1, TOTALMAINT[J]/1 000:12:1 ,GRADECOST[J]: 14:1, ROADMAINT[J]:14:1, HAUL[J]:14:1); END; (*pnnts out road links constructed and maintained over time*) WRITELN; WRITELNCDO YOU WANT THE ROADS PRINTED IN DETAIL ? ANSWER Y); READLN(ANS); IF (ANS’Y’) OR (ANS’y’) THEN BEGIN WRITELN (LST); WRITELN (LST,’ ROADS TO BE CONSTRUCTED); WRITELN (LST);  -87WRITELN (LST,’ WRITELN  1  (LST,’—  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10);  -----_________________  FOR L =1 TO MAXMRD DO BEGIN FOR J:1 TO MAXPERIOD DO BEGIN IF (MRA[L,J] =1) AND (J1) THEN WRITELN(LST,L:5); IF (MRALL,J] =1) AND (J2) THEN WRITELN(LST,L:10); IF (MRALL,J] =1) AND (J3) THEN WRITELN(LST,L:1 5); IF (MRA[L,J] =1) AND (J4) THEN WRITELN(LST,L:20); IF (MRA[L,J] =1) AND (J=5) THEN WRITELN(LST,L:25); IF (MR’[L,J] =1) AND (J=6) THEN WRITELN(LST,L:30); IF (MRA[L,JJ =1) AND (J7) THEN WRITELN(LST,L:35); L:40); 1 IF (MRA[L,J] =1) AND (J=8) THEN WRITELN(LST IF (MRALL,J1 =1) AND (J=9) THEN WRITELN(LST,L:45); IF (MR”[L,J] =1) AND (J=10) THEN WRITELN(LST,L:50); END; END; WRITELN (LST);________________________________ VVRITELN (LST,IAAAAAAAAAA***AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA  WRITELN (LST); ROADS TO BE MAINTAINED); WRITELN (LST,’ WRITELN (LST); WRITELN (LST,’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ‘); WRITELN (LST,’ FOR L :1 TO MAXMRD DO BEGIN FOR J:1 TO MAXPERIOD DO BEGIN IF (MRMAINTALL,JJ =1) AND (J1) THEN WRITE(LST,L:5); if (mrrnaintA[I,jj =0) and (j=1) then write(Ist,’ ‘); IF (MRMAINTAEL,J] =1) AND (J=2) THEN WRITE(LST,L:5); if (mrmaintA[I,j] =0) and 0=2) then write(Ist,’ ); IF (MRMAINTA[L,J] =1) AND (J3) THEN WRITE(LST,L:5); if (mrmaint’[IJJ =0) and (j=3) then write(Ist,’ ); IF (MRMAINTALL,J] =1) AND (J4) THEN WRITE(LST,L:5); if (mrmaintA[I,j] =0) and 0=4) then write(Ist,’ ); IF (MRMAINTALL,J] 1) AND (J5) THEN WRITE(LST,L:5); if (mrmaintA[I,j] =0) and 0=5) then write(Ist, ); IF (MRMAINTA[L,J] =1) AND (J6) THEN WRITE(LST,L:5); if (mrmaintA[I,jj =0) and 0=6) then write(Ist,’ ); IF (MRMAINTA[L,JJ =1) AND (J7) THEN WRITE(LST,L:5); if (mrmaintA[I,j] =0) and 0=7) then wiite(Ist,’ ); IF (MRMAINTA[L,J1 =1) AND (J=8) THEN WRITE(LST,L:5); if (mrmaintA[I,j] =0) and 0=8) then write(Ist,’ ‘); IF (MRMAINTA[L,J1 =1) AND (J9) THEN WRITE(LST,L:5); if (mrmaintA[I,j] =0) and 09) then write(Ist,’ ); IF (MRMAINTA[L,J1 =1) AND (J10) THEN WRITE(LST,L:5); {if (mrmaint’[I,j] =0) and 0=10) then write(Ist,’ );} END; WRITELN(LST); END; WRITELN (LST);______________________________________ VVRITELN (LST,AJ); END; I);  END;  { configurepage }  -88Procedure Askforprint; var :boolean; resp Begin { askforprint) Resp:=false; DRAWBOX; WRITELN; If repsdesired = I then begin WRITE (‘DO YOU WANT A PRINTOUT OF THE FEASIBLE SOLUTION ?: ‘); Repeat ASKPRINT: READKEY; If askpnnt in [#89,#121 ,#78,#1 10] then Resp:= true; (yes or no) Until resp =true; end; END; { askforprint } BEGIN (procedure print main) Askforprint; CASE ASKPRINT OF #89,#121:begin Configurepage; { Y OR y) end; #78,#1 10: exit; end; { case) end; (print) end print results (*_=write DNR and seed to fiIe==================*) PROCEDURE WRITESEEDTOFILE; VAR I,J :INTEGER; TOTALVOL,LENGTH :REAL; BEGIN TOTALVOL:=0; LENGTH:0; FOR J:1 TO MAXPERIOD DO BEGIN TOTALVOL:=TOTALVOL+VOL[J]; LENGTH:=LENGTH+TOTALLENGTH[J]/1 000; END; ASSIGN (X,’SEEDDNR.txt); APPEND (X); RANDSEEDS[R] : RANDSEED; BEGIN WRITE (X,SEEDY:1 2:0,DNR[R]:1 0:0,TOTALVOL:1 O:0,LENGTH:1 0:1); FOR I:1 TO MAXPERIOD bo WRITE(X,TOTALLENGTH[I]/1 000:5:1); FOR I:= I TO MAXPERIOD DO WRITE(X,TOTALMAINT[I]/1 000:5:1); WRITELN(X); CLOSE (X); END; END; (* end DNR and seed to file  -89(*_________======_._....._=========calc run time================================*) Procedure CalcElapsedTime; var ELAPSEDHOUR, ELAPSEDMIN, : Word; ELAPSEDSEC, ELAPSEDTIME HOUR2,MIN2,SEC2,HUNDRETH2 :WORD; begin GETTIME(HOUR2,MIN2,SEC2,HUNDRETH2); IF SEC2 < SEC1 THEN BEGIN ELAPSEDSEC := 60+ SEC2 -SECI; MIN2 :=MIN2 I; END ELSE ELAPSEDSEC :SEC2-SECI; IF MIN2 < MINI THEN BEGIN ELAPSEDMIN : 60+ MIN2 -MINI; HOUR2 := HOUR2-I; END ELSE ELAPSEDMIN :MIN2-MIN1; ELAPSEDHOUR:HOUR2-HOURI; ELAPSEDTIME:(ELAPSEDHOUR*3600+ELAPSEDMIN*60+ELAPSEDSEC); WRITELN LOWEST COST IS:’,HIGHESTDNR:l 0:0); WRITELN CELAPSED TIME:’); WRITELN (ELAPSEDTIME:8,’ sec); WRITELN(ELAPSEDHOUR:3,’ hr,ELAPSEDMIN:3,’ min’,ELAPSEDSEC:3,’ s’); end; (* —---end run time -  (*initia1ize vol & rev tables and flags for constructed roads====*) PROCEDURE INITTABLES; VAR I :INTEGER; BEGIN FOR l:1 TO MAXBLOCK DO BEGIN AGEA[I I ]:STARTAGEA[l]; VTABLEA[l]:=I; RTABLE”[l]:I; END; END; (* end initialize tables and const’n flags ,  (*===============__===========INCREMENT BLOCK AGES===========================*) PROCEDURE INCREMENTAGE; VAR I :INTEGER; BEGIN IFJ> 1 THEN BEGIN FOR l:1 TO MAXBLOCK DO  -90AGE’jI,J]:AGE”[I,J-l] + 1; END; END; (* end increment block ages—  -  (*.__.....============_==========set age of blocks cut to zero================ PROCEDURE ADJUSTAGE; VAR :INTEGER; I BEGIN FOR I:1 TO MAXBLOCK DO IF SfI,J] =1 THEN BEGIN STARTAGEA[I]:0; AGE’[I,J]:=O; VTABLE’[I]:2; RTABLE”[l]:2; END; END; end setting ages to zero (*===========_===_===========sum volumes for period j*) PROCEDURE SUMVOL; VAR I,PERIOD,K :INTEGER; BEGIN FOR I:1 TO MAXZONE DO BEGIN FOR K:1 TO ZCOUNTERA[I] DO BEGIN IF VTABLEA[BLOCKINZONEALI ,K]]1 THEN PERIOD:AGE”[BLOCKI NZONEALI ,K],J] STARTAGE[BLOCKINZONEA[I ,K]]+1; VTABLEA[BLOCKINZONEA[I K]]2 TI-lEN PERIOD:AGE”[BLOCKI NZONEA[I ,K],J]; IF ,  (check if volume is above lower bound, if so,) (set the rest of the blocks in the zone(s) to zero) IF VOL[J] >= minvol[j] THEN BEGIN (current zone) FOR K:=K TO ZCOUNTERA[I] DO SLBLOCKINZONEA[I ,K],J]:0; END; BLKVOL[BLOCKINZONEA[I ,K]] : VOLUMEA[BLOCKINZONEALI K],PERIOD,VTABLEA[BLOCKINZONEA[I K]]] * S[BLOCKINZONEA[I,K1,J]; ,  VOL[J]:VOL[J] END; END; END; (*  +  ,  BLKVOL[BLOCKI NZONEA[I ,K]];  end sum volumes—----------------  _*)  -91check the PROCEDURE CHECKCONSTRAINTS; BEGIN IF (TOTALLENGTH[J]/1 000 <= MAXROAD[J] ) THEN PASSROAD:TRUE; IF (VOL[J] >= MINVOL[J]) AND (VOL[J] <= MAXVOL[J]) THEN passvol:=true; IF (NET[J] >= MINREV[J]) AND (NET[J] <= MAXREV[J]) THEN  constrIIL—,  passrev:=true;  IF (GRADECOST[J] < MAXGRADECOST[J]) THEN passgrade:=true; writeIn vol ‘,vol[j]:lO:O,’ cost ‘,net[j]:lO:O,’ grade ‘,gradecost[j]:lO:O,’ road ‘,totallength[j]/l 000:2:0); END; (* end check constraints  (*============================n==================__====__==============*)  PROCEDURE BEEP; BEGIN SOUND (500); DELAY (75); NOSOUND; END; (*  end beep  *)  (*==========================sta period by period Ioop=====================*) PROCEDURE PERIOD2; Var ExitProcPrem2 : Boolean; counter : array[1 .50] of integer; BEGIN J:=0; INITrABLES; REPEAT BEGIN J:J+1; COUNTER[J] :0; INCREMENTAGE; ExitProcPrem2 := False; .  REPEAT initroads; settozero;  passvol:= false; passrev:= false; passgrade:=false; passroad:=FALSE; COUNTER[J] :COUNTER[J]+1; IF COUNTER[J] >30 THEN BEGIN Test : False;  -92ExitProcPrem2 True; EXIT; END; RANNUM; ADJAC; SUMVOL; ASSIGNROADS; REDUNDANTCHECK; REVENUE; WINDOW(1 ,1 ,80,25); TEXTBACKGROUND(red); gotoxy(45,5); writeITERATIONS PERIOD : ‘,J,COUNTER[J]:lO); CHECKCONSTRAINTS; UNTIL (passvol AND passrev AND passgrade AND passroad); ADJUSTAGE; END; UNTIL J > MAXPERIOD; END; (*  end period loop-  (*===========================sta the main program=======================*) BEGIN (* MAIN PROGRAM *) J:0; new(volume); new(netval); new(startage); new(age); new(adj); new(access); new(vtable); new(rtable); new(mr); new(mrmaint); new(area); new(block); new(zcounter); new(zone); new(zvol); new(flrstentry); new(blockinzone); INTRODUCTION; GETTIME(HOURI ,MINI ,SECI ,HUNDRETHI); EXISTVOLUME; REGENVOLUME; EXISTREVENUE; REGENREVENUE; ACCESSROADS; READMRCOST; READSRCOST; HIGHSOFARDNR :9999999999.; DRAWBOX; FOR R:=2 TO REPSDESIRED+1 DO BEGIN WINDOW(2,2,76,24);  -93TEXTBACKGROUND(red); GOTOXY(1 ,1); WRITELN(’REP: ‘,R-1 :5); REPEAT Test: True; SEEDY:ZX; READBLOCKDATA; PERIOD2; IF test=TRUE THEN BEGIN SUMSALES; WRITESEEDTOFILE; END; UNTIL test; IF DNR[R] < highsofardnr THEN HIGHSOFARDNR:=DNR[Rj; HIGHESTDNR:HIGHSOFARDNR; DISPRESULTS; END; CALCELAPSEDTIME; BEEP; READLN; PRINT; {signoff;} END. (*  end of main program  *)L1  -94-  APPENDIX 8 EXAMPLES OF OUTPUT FILES  -95-.  FEASIBLE SOLUTION COST  =  83366009.86  PERIOD PERIOD PERIOD PERIOD PERIOD PERIOD PERIOD PERIOD PERIOD PERIOD  SEED  =  143601313  1 78 13 15 19 2 4 12 17 30 14 16 18 20 24 31 41 22 27 32 34 42 3 9 21 25 28 33 5 29 37 40 44 6 8 15 19 26 36 38 2 4 7 12 17 30 45 48 1 10 16 20 24 35 46 13 18 31 32 34 41 43  1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9: 10:  HECTARES  VOLUME SEC ROADS  MAIN ROADS  TOTAL COST  SEC LEN MAIN LEN  TOTLEN  475 394 549 440 485 433 563 615 519 557  233369 236534 335679 344762 343111 342277 335729 342859 344760 343351  720300 335250 715050 625425 321750 453150 147450 211650 122400 21300  6619883 5992715 8780604 8513922 8231911 8928417 8736617 9527481 8424133 9610326  2.9 1.3 5.4 0.9 2.0 1.5 0.3 0.5 0.0 0.1  22.4 12.1 22.0 14.0 9.5 12.5 4.2 7.5 4.1 0.8  SEC MAINT  MAIN MAINT  TOT MAINT  GRADE COST  RD MAINT COST  TRANS COST  2.9 1.3 5.4 0.9 2.0 1.5 1.4 3.0 2.5 2.7  19.5 24.5 37.9 38.6 37.0 49.0 39.7 35.3 34.4 38.8  22.4 25.7 43.3 39.5 39.0 50.4 41.0 38.3 36.9 41.5  814125.0 378225.0 914100.0 653025.0 382200.0 506115.0 156150.0 226050.0 122400.0 23100.0  1142145.0 1312995.0 2208300.0 2015265.0 1990785.0 2572848.0 2092020.0 1950750.0 1880370.0 2116500.0  740996.8 760174.1 1131632.2 1216631.7 1155298.3 1207249.2 1128142.6 1176189.2 1164064.4 1190865.7  93825 42975 199050 27600 60450 52965 8700 14400 0 1800  19.5 10.9 16.6 13.1 7.5 11.1 4.0 7.1 4.1 0.7  TYPICAL SOLUTION FOR A 80 HECTARE DELAY PERIOD I  -96-  FEASIBLE SOLUTION COST  =  67810904.24  PERIOD PERIOD PERIOD PERIOD PERIOD PERIOD PERIOD PERIOD PERIOD PERIOD  SEED=  I  3 8 13 16 31 18 19 24 28 39 2 14 22 33 41 4 12 27 40 7 23 25 38 44 5 20 35 46 3 15 26 29 37 1 9 19 36 45 6 16 18 24 30 41 4 13 28 39 48  1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9: 10:  HECTARES  VOLUME SEC ROADS  399 386 429 347 384 323 432 393 444 404  221443 253252 272760 269928 273481 273012 273819 272331 271999 272616  SEC MAINT  MAIN MAINT  TOT MAINT  GRADE COST  RD MAINT COST  TRANS COST  2.5 3.3 2.0 1.4 1.6 0.8 2.0 1.7 3.5 1.0  20.0 30.2 32.3 28.5 25.8 21.6 43.0 23.2 38.3 35.8  22.5 33.4 34.4 29.9 27.4 22.4 44.9 24.8 41.8 36.8  735525.0 973950.0 620025.0 368715.0 291750.0 300975.0 324675.0 167400.0 81000.0 122250.0  1148265.0 1704165.0 1753635.0 1524033.0 1397400.0 1141125.0 2291430.0 1266330.0 2133330.0 1876290.0  713764.8 881859.0 927975.6 904328.9 944458.8 923469.8 957742.8 905348.6 919287.8 958412.5  75150 108075 82275 47265 54600 37125 21675 36900 10200 4950  MAIN ROADS  TOTAL COST  SEC LEN MAIN LEN  660375 865875 537750 321450 237150 263850 303000 130500 70800 117300  6313897 7332786 6908205 6448749 6314494 5932608 7667755 6129366 7548646 7214399  2.5 3.3 2.0 1.4 1.6 0.8 0.6 1.2 0.3 0.2  20.0 17.7 14.7 7.2 6.2 7.9 5.9 4.4 2.4 3.9  TYPICAL SOLUTION FOR A 80 HECTARE DELAY PERIOD 2  TOTLEN 22.5 20.9 16.8 8.6 7.8 8.8 6.5 5.6 2.7 4.1  -97-  P.AA*AAAAAAAAAA.AAAAAAA  FEASIBLE SOLUTION COST  =  SEED =810616507  58274230.45  1 3 13 15 18 8 25 26 29 31 193339 2 7 14 17 41 24 28 36 46 4 12 34 15 18 32 42 10 21 40 1 3 19 31 47 8 25 29 37  PERIOD 1: PERIOD 2: PERIOD3: PERIOD 4: PERIOD 5: PERIOD 6: PERIOD 7: PERIOD 8: PERIOD 9: PERIOD 10: HECTARES  VOLUME SEC ROADS  MAIN ROADS  TOTAL COST  SEC LEN MAIN LEN  TOTLEN  416 408 235 405 296 238 339 249 410 330  211663 225899 210556 225614 227497 220125 223015 226034 211288 213422  711300 968550 258450 382800 313050 44100 155175 270750 32400 72000  6266347 7007142 4770470 6029787 5893739 4551109 6179895 5597294 5640978 6337470  4.5 0.2 1.6 3.0 0.4 1.1 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.2  24.8 19.3 9.1 13.1 9.3 2.2 5.2 7.9 1.6 1.8  SEC MAINT  MAIN MAINT  TOT MAINT  GRADE COST  RD MAINT COST  TRANS COST  4.5 0.2 1.6 3.0 0.4 1.1 2.9 0.8 3.0 0.5  20.3 31.0 17.4 31.9 31.8 15.6 28.8 29.2 23.6 41.2  24.8 31.2 19.0 34.9 32.2 16.7 31.8 30.0 26.5 41.6  846900.0 975900.0 313725.0 492975.0 330150.0 81225.0 167625.0 296040.0 49050.0 81675.0  1266585.0 1591965.0 969510.0 1779390.0 1643220.0 849660.0 1619505.0 1529643.0 1353540.0 2123385.0  687567.5 767151.9 732239.0 750005.8 817869.2 715300.6 779601.2 758966.6 711642.6 737639.1  135600 7350 55275 110175 17100 37125 12450 25290 16650 9675  20.3 19.1 7.5 10.2 8.8 1.2 4.8 7.1 1.1 1.6  TYPICAL SOLUTION FOR A 80 HECTARE DELAY PERIOD 3  -98-  APPENDIX 9 TYPICAL BLOCK SOLUTIONS  -99-  48 47 46 42 3q  43 40  37 38 2q 27 35  33 28 6 24  25  23 22/ 21  J  A 80 HECTARE, DELAY PERIOD I SOLUTION  HARVEST PERIOD  ::  -100-  48 47 48 •  42  )  43  /  40  HAPVEST PERIOD  1 2  34  3  I .36 30 25  ,  A 80 HECTARE, DELAY PERIOD 2 SOLUTION  -101-  44  48  45  47 46  41 42  43 37  HARVEST PERIOD  40  35 36  22/23  10  1M;\  11  —  /  7  5 4 1  2  A 80 HECTARE, DELAY PERIOD 3 SOLUTION  1  -102-  J-ç2 7778\  (  Yi1 I 90  I  \—m) 88  84  87 86  79  HARVEST PERIOD  85  80 8182  84  1 2  41 ‘i  3 q35j  36  A 40 HECTARE, DELAY PERIOD I SOLUTION  -103-  PERIOD  A 40 HECTARE, DELAY PERIOD 2 SOLUTION  -104-  86 ]\/  144  1  ;/  ‘\85  I 41\  I I\ k  KI\ I  )(  )64  ‘v  38  72 //‘%%%/ \c, 70 J68 I / \ /6 I  4%%%  -  40’\,)  \—(  1 84Lf  &  I L  ?  Ir 56  82 5c  60  35 34  —  /33  8 31 26  24 20  48 27 22  21  is  10 :.:.:.:.:.:.7  HARVEST PERIOD  12  14  8  6 5 S  3  A 40 HECTARE, DELAY PERIOD 3 SOLUTION  R  3  -105-  17q  h\J’X”7 f >i’__  147 JX-/ tYlee \r-) ( L(  r_______74)%72\1  rio  140 es  163  169  143  •,.  1271 121  182  154  157 186  152  153  133  tee so  181  159  146 140  HARVEST PERIOD  tes  135  :  131  17  112  _i3 114  A 20 HECTARE, DELAY PERIOD I SOLUTION  12  Ij]  1  11  2  •  -106-  192  101 177 149 172 147  174  •  189  163  181  159  162  141 •  53  131 82  e3  138  •  :......  13  132  .5.’.  7 72  71 70  ..  h  1L1••115 113  U  •. ..  GO  ••  •  10$.:..  104  106  62  •.•:•  47  •.  54  ..:.::  ::  51 46  37  -  3  40  .•::••.•..  44  48 41  1  i03  57 63  91  3G 32 30  31  Ii 22  24  21  ii 17  28 4  HARVEST PERIOD  105  toe  142  •  187 184  107  170  14.  183  i’m  143  190  182 176  171  .  148  eq  173  5  :-:.:t:.:.:• 2  A 20 HECTARE, DELAY PERIOD 2 SOLUTION  [jjjj] lj: S  1 2 3  -107-  160 i.,. q 172  173  174  l-_  196  •i7g 189  157 •3  84  135  137 1  .  18  70  126  120  117  12 Li  .  —./106  86 84  96 .•.•::  44  31  41  ...  40  32 Ii  29  25  .øt:::.  “•:•.  37  42  29  1,  7q9  ..  54  4e  28  104 103  57  48  1  127  •:.  ioi  81  129  131  18 14  21  201710  2423  12 11  4  •::• 2 ::::3:  5  7  A 20 HECTARE, DELAY PERIOD 3 SOLUTION  :::  •  13  123125 74  HARVEST PERIOD  L  152  •Z.•  .122  7  62  164  151  132  78  63  1,82  134 133  138  •19  163  160  .  81  ‘75  184  159  —  cç  187 184  285  169  159  142  141  92  193  iq  591  182 176  175  147  99  iqi  177  2 3  

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