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Creation of a geographic information system database of Pacific Spirit Park Helewa, Norman Thomas 1993

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CREATION OF AGEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMDATABASE OF PACIFIC SPIRIT PARKbyNORMAN THOMAS HELEWAB.Sc.Forestry, Lakehead University, 1989A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTERS OF FORESTRYTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES(Department of Forest Resource Management)We accept this thesis as conformingto the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAFebruary 1993© Norman Thomas Helewa, 1993DateIn presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature)Department of Forest Resource ManagementThe University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDE-6 (2/88)iiABSTRACTHelewa, N.T. 1992. The creation of a geographicinformation system database of Pacific SpiritPark.Pacific Spirit Park is a 776.0 hectare urban park located onthe Point Grey Peninsula in Vancouver, British Columbia.The park is managed by the Greater Vancouver RegionalDistrict (GVRD) for recreation opportunities and thepreservation of the area's natural resources. Appropriategeographic data were collected and entered into a geographicinformation system (GIS) in order to create a spatialdatabase of the park.Guidelines from published documents on database creationwere followed in the development of the park database. Datacollection and design of the database were based on theinformation requirements of the GVRD park staff(e.g., database users). Information requirements werederived from the activities carried out by the databaseusers. The database could be used to examine the efficiencyof activities carried out by park staff on a daily, weeklyand yearly basis or assist University of British Columbiafaculty and students with research and educationalactivities in the park.An extended example of how to use the Pacific Spirit Parkdatabase for park management was carried out. Itexemplified how data on forest vegetation damage can becorrelated with other environmental variables (e.g., soils,topography, forest cover, hydrology). Correlations wereidentified between forest vegetation damage and topography,areas with a high water table and along UniversityBoulevard. The suggested course of action for GVRD parkstaff is to carry out additional research. Future researchcould compare the level of forest cover damage in PacificSpirit Park with similar sites in Southwestern BritishColumbia, examine how the urban environment impacts theforest vegetation (e.g., damage, composition and growth) andhow forest vegetation damage changes over time.iiiTABLE OF CONTENTSPageABSTRACT^ iiLIST OF TABLESLIST OF FIGURES^ viiACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iX1.00 INTRODUCTION^ 11.10 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT SITE^ 11.20 OBJECTIVES 41.30 LITERATURE REVIEW^ 41.31 Urban Park Management 41.32 Geographic Information Systems^ 62.00 METHOD^ 162.10 DATABASE CREATION^ 162.11 Definition of Information Requirements^162.12 GIS Hardware and Software^ 212.13 Data Collection^ 212.14 Entry of Spatial Data 222.15 Theme Processing 232.16 Entry of Attribute Data^ 262.17 Digital Terrain Model 262.18 Data Output^ 273.00 DATABASE CONTENTS^ 283.01 Ground Control Points (GCPs) of Point Grey^283.02 Legal Property Boundaries of Pacific Spirit Park 313.03 Land Use in the Point Grey Area^ 343.04 Roads of the Point Grey Area 373.05 Topography and Digital Terrain Model of Pacific^39Spirit Park3.06 Waterbodies (Creeks) of Pacific Spirit Park^433.07 Forest Cover Associations of Pacific Spirit Park 463.08 Forest Vegetation Damage^ 523.09 Trails of Pacific Spirit Park 573.10 Soils of Pacific Spirit Park 603.11 Surficial Materials of Pacific Spirit Park^633.12 Hydrology of Pacific Spirit Park^ 66iv'Table of Contents Continued'Page4.00 FOREST VEGETATION DAMAGE ASSESSMENT^ 694.10 INTRODUCTION^ 694.20 METHODS OF FOREST VEGETATION DAMAGE ASSESSMENT^694.21 Approach 1: Damage Type Occurrence^ 694.22 Approach 2: arid Overlay^ 704.30 RESULTS OF FOREST VEGETATION DAMAGE ASSESSMENT^714.40 DISCUSSION OF FOREST VEGETATION DAMAGE ASSESSMENT 765.00 LIMITATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS^ 795.10 LIMITATIONS OF THE PACIFIC SPIRIT PARK DATABASE^795.20 POTENTIAL USES OF THE PACIFIC SPIRIT PARK^80DATABASE5.30 KNOWLEDGE GAINED FROM THIS PROJECT^ 816.00 LITERATURE CITED^ 847.00 PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS^ 88APPENDICES^ 89APPENDIX I^TERMINOLOGY^ 90APPENDIX II^ANNUAL COST SAVINGS RESULTING FROM^91THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A GISAPPENDIX III GVRD OPERATIONS^ 93APPENDIX IV^SPATIAL AND ATTRIBUTE DATA^96SOURCES USED FOR THE CREATIONOF THE PACIFIC SPIRIT PARK DATABASEAPPENDIX V^DEFINITION OF THE DATABASE FEATURE^97CLASSESAPPENDIX VI^TERRASOFT DEFINITION FILES FOR THE^98PROJECT THEMESAPPENDIX VII ATTRIBUTE DATA FILE STRUCTURE FOR^102EACH THEMELIST OF TABLESPageTable 1 Strengths and weaknesses of the GISraster and vector data models.^ 1 1Table 2 List of information requirements 20for the GIS database of PacificSpirit Park. The order of data typesis from most to least accurate.Table 3 Themes that make up the database of Pacific 25Spirit Park. Order of presentation is frommost to least accurate.Table 4 Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)^29coordinates of the Vancouver SurveyMonuments.Table 5 Areas of the property parcels that^32comprise Pacific Spirit Park.Table 6 Land use classes in the Point 35Grey Area.Table 7 Summary of the creek types and length^44in Pacific Spirit Park.Table 8 Summary of selected forest cover^49association data including area,crown closure, number of stands anddominant tree type.Table 9 Description of forest vegetation damage^53types from most to least severe.Table 10 The number and types of conifer and^54deciduous damage type occurrences.Table 11 Summary of the trail types and number^57of sections in Pacific Spirit Park.Table 12 Area summary of the soil types in^61Pacific Spirit Park.Table 13 Area summary of the surficial materials^64of Pacific Spirit.vi'List of Tables continued'PageTable 14 Area summary of the hydrology^ 67classes in Pacific Spirit Park.Table 15 Hours required for operations and inventory 94activities carried out by GVRD park staff in1991.viiLIST OF FIGURESFigure 1 Location of Pacific Spirit Park(black) and other Greater VancouverRegional District managed parks withinthe Lower Mainland of British Columbia.Page2Figure 2 The Point Grey Peninsula showing the^3location of Pacific Spirit Park,and the University of British Columbia.Figure 3 The organization of spatial and related^8information in a GIS.Figure 4 Visualization of the raster and vector^9data models.Figure 5 Hardware devices of a GIS workstation.^12Figure 6 Software modules of a GIS - Terrasoft 13Figure 7 Location of the Vancouver Survey^30Monuments.Figure 8 Legal property parcels of Pacific^33Spirit Park.Figure 9 Land use in the Point Grey^ 36Area.Figure 10 Roads of the Point Grey Area. 38Figure 11 Topography of the Point Grey Area.^40Figure 12 Digital terrain model showing the 41elevation classes of the Point GreyArea (Viewpoint at X=-4500 m, Y=4200 mand Z=2500. Vertical exaggeration is2.5 times normal).viii'List of Figures continued'PageFigure 13 Slope characteristics of the Point^42Grey Area (Viewpoint at X=-4500 m,Y=4200 m and Z=2500. Verticalexaggeration is 2.5 times normal).Figure 14 Creeks of Pacific Spirit Park.^ 45Figure 15 Forest cover associations 1 through^5010 in Pacific Spirit Park, excludingthe foreshore area.Figure 16 Forest cover associations 11 through^5120 in Pacific Spirit Park, excludingthe foreshore area.Figure 17 Location of trees displaying^ 55the five commonest types of deciduoustree injury symptoms in PacificSpirit Park.Figure 18 Location of trees displaying^ 56the four commonest types of coniferoustree injury symptoms in PacificSpirit Park.Figure 19 Trails of Pacific Spirit Park.^ 59Figure 20 Soil types of Pacific Spirit Park. 62Figure 21 Surficial material of Pacific Spirit^65Park.Figure 22 Hydrology of Pacific Spirit Park.^68Figure 23 Location of forest vegetation damage 72occurrences.Figure 24 Location, where possible correlations^73between forest vegetation damage andtopography and hydrology were identified.Figure 25 Location of forest vegetation damage^74along University Boulevard.Figure 26 The number of forest vegetation damage^75occurrences per hectare in Pacific SpiritPark derived by the polygon grid analysis.ixACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI would like to thank the Greater Vancouver RegionalDistrict and more specifically the staff of Pacific SpiritRegional Park for their financial assistance with thisproject. I also wish to thank Professors Murtha and Kimminsof the Faculty of Forestry, Professor Klinkenberg and Mrs.M. North of the Department of Geography and Professor JimAtwater of the Faculty of Engineering for their guidance andsupport.^I also wish to thank Jerry Maedel for hisguidance and support with installing and operating computerhardware and software. Most of all I wish to thank my wifeJane for her love and support.11.00 INTRODUCTION1.10 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT SITEPacific Spirit Park was officially dedicated on April 23,1989 and became the third largest urban regional parkmanaged by the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD).Pacific Spirit Park and the University of British Columbia(UBC) are located on the Point Grey Peninsula(Figures 1 and 2).The peninsula extends out from the Lower British ColumbiaMainland Coast into the Strait of Georgia. The approximatelocation of Pacific Spirit Park is between 49 13' and 49 15'latitude North and 123 17' and 123 21' longitude West. TheCity of Vancouver is to the east, UBC and the Straits ofGeorgia are to the west, English Bay to the North and theNorth Arm of the Fraser River to the south of Pacific SpiritPark.Pacific Spirit Park is located in the Maritime CoastalHemlock Biogeoclimatic Zone. The park climate ischaracterized by a mean annual precipitation of 1200millimeters, a mean annual temperature of 10.0 degreesCelcius, an annual growing period of 225 days and a westerlywind direction (Thompson, 1985).The park's 775.6 hectares (ha) of mostly second growthforest are managed by the GVRD for the preservation of thearea's natural resources and recreation opportunities ofLower Mainland residents. Ecological surveys show that alarge portion of the park land is environmentally sensitiveand ecologically significant, containing unique animaland/or plant species (Pers. Comm.', Bean, 1991).1^Pers. Comm. - personal communications are listed inSection 7.00 (page 88).BowenWestVancouverVancouver Coquitlam PortCoquitlam°BURNABY LAKENewWestminsterIONABEACHWhite RockBOUNDARYBAYLYNNHEADWATERSRIVER^forth•VancouverBELCARRAPortMoodyMINNEKHADActtCAPILANORichmondSurreyBumabyLions BayCRIPPENIsland^1Pacific SpiritRegional ParkStrait of Georgia0^S^10Scale in kilometres2Figure 1. Location of Pacific Spirit Park (black) and otherGreater Vancouver Regional District managed parkswithin the Lower Mainland of BritishColumbia.RoadsPark BoundaryS horeline usqueaIndian ReserveCity of VancouverSpanish Banks3Figure 2. The Point Grey Area showing the relative locationof Pacific Spirit Park and the University ofBritish Columbia.4Spatial data on various aspects of the park exist innumerous publications and at various scales, but are notreadily accessible in one place. If this existinggeographic data were combined with a geographic informationsystem (GIS) (Appendix I) and a database of Pacific SpiritPark were constructed, then the GIS model could assist parkstaff with the management of Pacific Spirit Park. Secondarybenefits such as assisting research, providing additionalrecreational opportunities or assisting education wouldresult.A GIS can be used to carry out tasks that were once carriedout manually such as production and updating of maps,scheduling and emergency response planning (Burrough, 1989).GIS technology may also provide urban park managers with apowerful tool for studying environmental processes. A GISmay also be used to explore a range of possible scenarios,obtain an idea of the consequences of a course of action andassist in the site selection of new park facilities(Burrough, 1989; Dangermond et al., 1984).1.20 OBJECTIVESThe objectives of this study are to:1. Construct a GIS database of Pacific Spirit Park thatwill assist the GVRD with the management of the park.2. Demonstrate with an example how GIS technology and thePacific Spirit Park database could be used for parkmanagement.51.30 LITERATURE REVIEW1.31 Urban Park ManagementUrban park management encompasses the following types offunctional activities: park planning, operations,maintenance, activity programming and interpretation (Foggand Shiner, 1981). The appropriate application of theseactivities can result in a sustainable balance between therecreation needs of park users and the natural resources ofa park (Fogg and Shiner, 1981). The development of a parkmanagement plan is a productive method for coordinating theactivities (Pers. Comm. Bean, 1992).In 1991, the Pacific Spirit park Management Plan wasdeveloped.The components of an urban park management plan are aplanning process, public consultation, history (e.g., landdisturbance), policy program direction, and natural andrecreation management. Public consultation is a timeconsuming aspect of developing a management plan. Duringthe development of the Pacific Spirit Park Management Plan,16 interest groups and 10 agencies were consulted (GVRD,1991).The purpose of the 1991 Pacific Spirit Park Management Planis to guide park staff in managing the resources andactivities of Pacific Spirit Park (GVRD, 1991). Themanagement plan provided direction and action for visitoruse, park development, program operations and maintenance(GVRD, 1991). Direction and action took the form ofoperational activities that park staff carried out on adaily, weekly, monthly and annual basis. The monthly andyearly activities focused on park administration andplanning. The daily and weekly activities focused on thepatrol and maintenance of park facilities.^The GVRD6allotted 400.0 person hours a week to accomplish the dailyand weekly activities. However, these activities required471.5 hours to complete. The time deficit meant that parkstaff worked overtime or did not complete all of thescheduled activities. Analysis of the daily and weeklyactivities with a GIS could have reduced the time deficitand/or associated the overtime costs.1.32 Geographic Information SystemsLike other types of land use managers, urban park managerstraditionally rely on a comprehensive inventory of the landarea they manage. The most common medium for storing anddisplaying inventory information has been a paper map. Theanalysis of the inventory information involved the visualinspection of the map document coupled with intuitiveanalysis. Analysis of the spatial information was slow,subject to bias and calculation error (Marble, 1984).Substantial improvements in personal computer (PC) and work-station systems have made it much easier to apply computertechnology to the problem of storing, manipulating andanalyzing large volumes of spatial data. The most commonforms of computer spatial information handling devices arereferred to as 'Geographic Information Systems'(Marble,1984).Many land managers view the adoption of GIS technology as aproductive investment for dealing with the problems ofplanning development and spatial information processing(Dangermond et al., 1984). The technology also has a highpotential for ecosystem modeling which is one of manypotential environmental applications (Earth ObservationSatellite Company, 1991). However, the actual use of GIStechnology has remained modest. This has arisen from thelack of awareness of the value of these techniques and the7substantial investment needed to convert existing archivaldata into digital format (Townshend, 1991).Long-term monetary savings have been realized by using GIStechnology. For example(s), the GIS GEOMAPS was implementedin a Regional US Forest Service Office in 1987 and providedannual savings of $ 287,000 US (Dickinson & Calkins, 1988),(Appendix II). A hydrological modeling study by planners inHardford County, Maryland provided estimated savings of$ 175,000 (Foresman, 1992). Hardford County staff alsoestimate that the county has realized savings ofapproximately $ 200,000 by using a GIS to identify andprosecute pollution regulation offenders (Foresman, 1992).A GIS describes objects from the real world in terms of(a) their position with respect to a known coordinatesystem, (b) their attributes that are unrelated to position(e.g., color, cost, pH and incidence of disease) and (c)their spatial interrelations with each other (topologicalrelations, which describe how they are linked together)(Burrough, 1989).The database of a GIS is composed of spatial and attributedata. Spatial data are organized into a series of layers(e.g., similar to overlays on a map) with similarinformation being stored on the same layer (Figure 3).Attribute information is organized as records in databasefiles. A label is used to link related attribute andspatial data (Burrough, 1989).Geographic information systems differ according to the datamodel and the conventions established for their data(Aronoff, 1989). Data conventions refer to the datastandards, functions and processing, manipulation andanalysis procedures used with a GIS. The two types of GISdata models are raster and vector (Figure 4). In the rasterark boundaryLf abetLabelArea(he) !Perimeter (m)Label)(7:abe)(\jf( Label^)fit^•LabelArea(ha) Perimeter (m)Area(ha) Perimeter (m).Area(ha) 1 Perirrieter (m)LabelLabelLabelrficial MaterialArea(ha) Perimeter (m)Lab&Area(ha) Perimeter (m)Lab&Label A.rea(h Perimeter (m)8Spatial Information Linkage Related Attribute Data FilesControlled by Graphics Modules Controlled by Database Management SystemFigure 3. The organization of spatial and relatedinformation in a GIS (Note: Some of theinformation types were taken from Table 2, inSection 2.11).9Figure 4. Visualization of the raster and vector data models(Maguire and Dangermond, 1991).10model, the space is regularly divided into grid cells(usually square in shape). The location of geographicobjects or conditions is defined by the row andcolumn position of the cells they occupy. The area thateach cell represents defines the spatial resolutionavailable (Aronoff 1989). The vector data model organizesdata on the basis of x and y coordinates, displacement anddirection (Star and Estes, 1990). The distinction betweenraster and vectorextends through the input, storage and manipulation stagesof GIS use. Each data model has strengths and weaknesses(Table 1). The strengths and weaknesses define thesuitability of a model for a particular project or task(Dangermond et al., 1984). For example, a vector data modelis recommended for an urban park database. A vector datamodel provides an improved graphic resolution, a small filesize, high level of spatial accuracy (e.g., required forurban properties which have a high value) and representationof topological relationships.A GIS workstation is composed of computer hardware andsoftware. Workstation hardware may include a centralprocessing unit (CPU), screen, hard disk drive, input(e.g., digitizer and scanner) and output devices (e.g.,plotter and printer) (Figure 5).^GIS software is usuallyorganized into program modules (Digital Resources SystemsLimited (DRSL), 1991). For example, the GIS programTerrasoft contains the following program modules: graphics,utilities, database management system, theme processing,data output and digital terrain modeling (DTM) (Figure 6).A GIS database is created by carrying out a series ofordered steps in a creation plan. (Aronoff, 1989). The planidentifies the GIS users and their information requirementswhich are defined by identifying the tasks carried out bythe GIS users. Part of the information requirements are the11Table 1. Strengths and weaknesses of the GIS raster andvector data models (Aronoff, 1989).GIS Data Model^StrengthsRasterVector-It is a simple data structure.-Overlay operations are easily andefficiently implemented.-High spatial variability isefficiently represented in a rasterformat.-The raster format is required forefficient manipulation and enhancementof digital images.-The vector model provides a morecompact data structure than the rastermodel.-It provides efficient encoding oftopology.-It has efficient implementation ofoperations that require topologicalinformation, such as network analysis.-The vector model is better suited tosupporting graphics that closelyapproximate hand-drawn maps.WeaknessesRasterVector-The raster data structure is lesscompact.-Topological relationships are moredifficult to represent.-Raster representation is less precisethan the vector data model.-Rasterization adds an additional levelof inaccuracy that is defined by theresolution of the raster cell.-The data structure is more complex.-Overlay operations are more difficultto implement.-The representation of high spatialvariability is inefficient.-Manipulation and enhancement ofdigital images cannot be effectivelydone in the vector domain.SCREEN -VIDEODISPLAYUNITCOMPUTER PROCESSING UNIT12Figure 5 Hardware devices of a GIS workstation. GIS GRAPHICS MODULE-Used to enter. display andanalyze spatial dataRELATIONALDATABASEMANAGEMENTSYSTEM-Used to enter.report on andmaintain relatedattribute dataGIS UT1UTIES MODULE-Used to maintain and editfiles and layers and allowcommunication betw'n modulesDIGITALTERRAINMODULE-Generate 3 Dmodels of theearths surfaceTHEME PROCESSINGMODULE-Used to define themes andlink spatial and attribute dataMAIN GIS SOFTWARE MODULESGIS OUTPUT MODULE-Used to printout maps andattribute data reportsFigure 6. Software modules of a GIS - Terrasoft(DRSL, 1991).14development of standards for data scale, precision andaccuracy (Aronoff, 1989).A significant portion of the required data may be collectedfrom existing sources. In cases where the collected datadoes not meet the established data standards, a fieldinventory may be required.Information requirements are also used in the design of theGIS database. In the database design each spatial data typeis stored on a separate layer. Display (e.g., line colourand width) and where applicable geometric (e.g., symbol fora house) standards are specified for each layer. Relatedattribute data are stored in one or more files. Thedatabase design specifies the name, width, type and datacode for each field.The database design specifies the location of all data thatare entered into the database. Spatial data in map-form areelectronically digitized while spatial data in survey form(e.g., written coordinates, distances and angles) is enteredwith a computer keyboard (e.g., coordinate geometry - COGO).Spatial data of the same type are stored in the same layer.Related attribute information is keyboard entered into arelational database management program.Following data entry, associated spatial and attribute dataare processed and linked. Processing includes thecorrection of data input errors, the removal of duplicatelinework, polygon formation and the linkage of polygons torelated attribute records (DRSL, 1991). Related informationtypes (e.g., lakes and rivers) are processed and stored ascomponents of the same theme.The analysis capabilities of a GIS fall into the followingcategories: local (e.g., overlaying forest vegetation damage15and hydrology layers to identify relationships ); localneighbourhood (e.g., the generation of a slope profile ortheme from contour elevations); extended neighborhood (e.g.,buffering of creeks in Pacific Spirit Park); zones (e.g.,calculation of the perimeter and area of a group of forestcover polygons) and layer (e.g., the generation of ahistogram showing the distribution of forest vegetationdamage types) (Pers. Comm. Klinkenberg, 1991). The outputmodule of a GIS is used for plotting maps and printingreports of the spatial analysis.Some GIS programs can generate a 3 D surface of a digitalmap. Digital terrain models require the definition of asurface by x, y and z values, in a known coordinate system(Raper & Kelk, 1991). Surfaces are derived from contour andspot height data. Benefits that DTMs provide to urban parkmanagers include a bird's eye view of the landscape, thegeneration of new data (e.g., slope, aspect and elevationclass themes), visualization (e.g., locating forestcutovers) and water drainage analysis (DRSL, 1991).162.00 METHOD2.10 DATABASE CREATIONThe methods used to create the database for Pacific SpiritPark followed procedures that were detailed byAronoff, 1989; De Man, 1988; Rhine & Green, 1988; Star andEstes, 1990 and Digital Resources Systems Limited, 1991. Theprocedures followed eleven steps:1. Define project objective(s).2. Identify potential GIS users.3. Assess tasks and duties currently performed bythe potential users.4. Define GIS applications to assist with thecurrent tasks and duties of the users.5. Define database data requirements.6. Define data quality control.7. Design database.8. Select GIS hardware and software.9. Collect data.10. Enter data.11. Link data (e.g., theme processing).2.11 Definition of Information RequirementsDefinition of the information requirements was carried outby (i) identifying the future user(s) of the Pacific SpiritPark database and (ii) identifying how a GIS may assist theusers with the tasks that they carry out on a daily, weekly,monthly and yearly basis.Park staff and UBC members (e.g., faculty and staff) wereidentified as the users of the Pacific Spirit Park database.A GVRD report (GVRD, 1991) (Appendix III) listed thefollowing tasks as being performed by park staff on a daily17and weekly basis: vehicle patrol, garbage collection,maintenance of toilet facilities, trails use counts, pickingup litter on the beaches and road edges, beach and trailpatrols, equipment maintenance, water sampling, grasscutting, trail maintenance, special projects, monitoring andprevention of vandalism, daily diary and journal entries,and administrative duties. Tasks that were carried out bypark staff on a monthly and yearly basis included budgeting,public presentations and workshops, report writing andplanning.The use of UBC members for Pacific Spirit Park are of twokinds. The first use is for field trips. The second ismore intensive, requiring the management of small parcels ofland for demonstration purposes and the conduct of research(UELST, 1977). Departments and faculties that make use ofPacific Spirit Park include Forestry, Agricultural Sciences,Geography, Biology, Resource Management and Planning (UELST,1977; GVRD, 1991). The 1991 Pacific Spirit Park ManagementPlan recognizes that past education and research by UBCmembers has greatly contributed to the current knowledge ofthe park. The 'action items' of the plan explicitlyencourage future research work with UBC members. Forexample, the1991 Pacific Spirit Park Management Plan (page 33) statesthat the GVRD should "work with Federal and Provincialfisheries agencies, UBC Resource Management, and theMusqueam Indian Band in an effort to protect, restore andenhance the fish habitat in the Musqueam and Cutthroat CreekSystems".The Park Operations Supervisor (Pers. Comm. Bean, 1992)suggested that a GIS could possibly assist park staff withthe management of Pacific Spirit Park. A GIS could be used18for the following tasks:1. Production of paper or mylar maps for operational andpresentation purposes.2. Maintaining a database that describes the condition ofrecreation facilities and trails (e.g., condition andcharacteristics of buildings, maintenance of trails andpicnic areas).3. Identify and document the spatial and texturalcharacteristics of utility and right-of-way corridorsthat traverse park property (e.g., roads,electric and gas lines).4. The updating of changes to the physical and ecologicalcharacteristics (e.g., topography, hydrology, surficialmaterials, soils and vegetation) of the database.5. Rapid access to the information in the database thatdescribes the characteristics of the park.6. Assist park staff with planning and site selection fornew recreation facilities (e.g., buildings, picnicareas, trails).7. Emergency operations in and around Pacific SpiritPark (e.g., forest fire suppression).8. Public consultation and the rapid response to publicinquiries -- even a spatial display on a personalcomputer at the proposed visitor centre.9.^Identifying changes to the park's characteristicsresulting from new urban development in vicinity to thepark (e.g., Hampton Place).1910. Identification of problem areas in the park(e.g., vandalism and soil erosion along the foreshore).11. Allow park staff to monitor research sites and impactsin the park (e.g., locations of permanent sample plots,archeological sites and forestry exercise locations).12. Management of wildlife habitat.13. Identifying the location of rare or endangered floraand fauna.14. Efficient scheduling of daily and weekly park stafftasks.The Pacific Spirit Park database could assist UBC users inthe following ways:1. Spatial information source for research studies.2. Selection of research sites based on specifiedparameters (e.g., vegetation cover, altitude andproximity to creek).3.^As an enhancement to courses in forestry, agriculturalsciences, geography, resource management and biologythat already use the park for field trips and projects.The information entered into the database were based on theinformation requirements of the project's financial sponsor(GVRD) and the availability of data. The sponsor'sinformation requirements were based on the tasks carried outby park staff. Information was classed into the followingtypes: biotic (B)(living); abiotic (Ab) (non-living);administrative (A) and research (R) classes (Table 2).20Table 2. List of information requirements for the GISdatabase of Pacific Spirit Park. The order ofdata types are from most to least accurate.Data Type^ Class^AccuracyGround control points^Administrative (A) MostLegal property boundaries^ALand use classes^ARoads^ ATopography Abiotic (Ab)Waterbodies (creeks)^AbForest cover'^ Biotic (B)Tree damage symptoms'^BTrails^ ASoils AbSurficial materials^AbHydrology'^ Ab^ Least'data types that were recognized as needed, but due tofinancial limitations were not collected'Climate^ AbPark facilities^ARare flora and fauna 2^BResearch sites 2^Research (R)Right-of-way corridors^AUrban development^AWildlife habitat B1^Data missing for portions of Pacific Spirit Park.2^Restricted access.212.12 GIS Hardware and SoftwareAn IBM PC in combination with a digitizer, plotter and GISsoftware Terrasoft ) (version 10.01) were used as a GISworkstation. These software packages were available in theForest Information for Resource Management Systems (FIRMS)remote sensing and GIS laboratory in the Faculty of Forestryat UBC. Terrasoft is a PC based GIS program that usesa vector data model and dBASE IV2 as the database managementsystem (GIS World, 1991). Terrasoft is a product of DigitalResources Systems Limited of Nanaimo, British Columbia. TheTerrasoft 3 GIS had minimal hardware requirements (e.g.,80286 processor, math co-processor, 640 kilobytes of randomaccess memory and a 40 megabyte hard disk drive) and wasavailable in the FIRMS laboratory.2.13 Data CollectionData were collected from the following sources: UEL StudyTeam reports, research projects, provincial and municipaloffices and reports and the GVRD. The source,scale (for spatial data) and date of creation of thecollected data were recorded (Appendix IV).The limited financial resources of this project restricteddata collection to existing information. Information wasnot available for wildlife habitat, the location of rareflora and fauna and right-of-way corridors, park recreationfacilities, climate and research activities. Forest coverinformation was not available for the foreshore areas andvegetation damage was not available north of Fourth Avenue.1^Registered trademark of Digital Resources SystemsLimited, Nanaimo, B.C.2^Registered trademark of the Ashton-Tate Corporation(at time of use).3^Trade names are given for reader convenience andshould not be taken as product endorsement.222.14 Entry of Spatial DataThe following steps were carried out to enter spatial data(e.g., polygon, line segments and features) into the PacificSpirit Park database:1. Coordinate Establishment: The spatial size, scale andprojection system were selected for the database. Ascale of 1:20,000 and Universal Transverse Mercator(UTM) projection system were selected. The spatialsize (extent) of the database was defined by specifyingthe origin and maximum points. The UTM coordinatesof the origin and maximum points were 480000 Easting(E) and 5454500 Northing (N) and 487000 E and 5461500N, respectively. The size of the database was 7.0 by7.0 km or 49 square kilometers.2. Feature Class Definition: Spatial data were stored in23 layers called feature classes (Appendix V).Definition of a feature class included a descriptivename, colour, line type and thickness, text height andshading pattern. Proper definition of the layers istime well spent, since it results in fewer problemslater on with the editing, updating, display andanalysis of the data.3.^Survey Monument Location: A map showing the location ofthe 13 City of Vancouver survey monuments (Ministry ofthe Environment Lands and Parks (MELP), 1990) was fixedonto a digitizer. The x and y coordinates of eachmonument were keyboard-entered into Terrasoft and thelocation on the map digitized. The survey monumentswere stored in the feature class 'Monuments'.Statistics showing the level of error registration(residual error) were generated by the Terrasoftprogram. The level of error registration was not23allowed to exceed 0.2 percent or 14.0 m. An acceptablelevel of error registration has not been published bythe developers of Terrasoft.In this study, experimation with the map registrationprocess showed prior to data entry that error variedwith the scale and accuracy of the map. At a level of0.2 percent or less a cursor placed over a monumentlocation also appeared over the same point on thecomputer screen. At greater than 0.2 percent thecursor on the screen was visibly offset from themonument location. The locations of the surveymonuments were used as ground control points (GCPs) forthe map registration of subsequent data.4. The remaining data types were entered in the orderpresented in Table 2. Entering data from most to leastaccurate meant that the more accurate data could beused to correct the less accurate data.5. Spatial linework was carefully digitized and checkedagainst the source data. Textural labels were placedwith data that would later undergo theme processing.Theme processing is detailed in section 2.15.2.15 Theme ProcessingThe theme processing module of Terrasoft was used to linkthe records of the attribute files to related spatial data.The Pacific Spirit Park database is composed of feature,network and area themes. Feature themes (e.g., surveymonument location) comprise point, line, arc or textfeatures that are individually related to a set ofattributes in one or more database tables. Network themes(e.g., trails) are line segments composed of links and nodesthat are connected end-to-end in a topological structure24known as a network. Area themes (e.g., legal propertyparcels) are polygons that encompass a finite area.Polygons represent homogeneous areas that do not overlap(DRSL, 1991).Themes were defined by the following theme variables:description, database file name, key and the layer(s) onwhich the spatial data were stored (Appendix VII).Theme processing required the following steps:1. Cleaning, whereby duplicate data points fromoverlapping line features were removed.2. Breaking of line-work, such that intersections betweenline-line, line-arc, and arc-arc feature types wereresolved.3. Snapping to ensure that the end points of all line-workwere closed.4. Removal of unconnected lines or dangles.6. Creation of polygons, line segments or features.7. Linkage to textural labels, which function as uniqueidentifiers for the related attribute records andfiles created in Section 2.16.8.^Theme processing of the data resulted in the creationof 10 themes (Table 3).25Table 3. Themes that make up the database of Pacific SpiritPark. Order of presentation is from most to leastaccurate.Theme Name^ Theme Type^EstimatedLevel ofError'(metres)Ground control points^Feature^1.0Legal property boundaries^Area 1.0Land use in the Point Grey Area^Area^5.0Waterbodies (Creeks)^Network^20.0Forest cover associations^Area 25.0Forest vegetation damage Feature^25.0Trails^ Network 25.0Soils Area^25.0Surficial materials^Area 25.0Sub-surface hydrology Area^25.01.^Estimated level of error is a guideline for the data'suse and refers to the estimate of spatial reliabilityof the data relative to the data's true groundposition. The estimates are based on the author'sfamiliarity of the data, data sources and data entryprocedures.26When appropriate data becomes available, themes could becreated for climate, park facilities, rare flora and fauna,research sites, right-of-way corridors, urban developmentand wildlife habitat.2.16 Entry of Attribute DataFor each theme listed in Table 3, a separate dBASE file withnumerous fields was created. The files contain relatedattribute data that describe the characteristics of thespatial data entered in section 2.14. The fields and fielddescriptions of each file are listed in Appendix VI. Thenumber of fields in the 10 files ranged from 7 to 47.2.17 Digital Terrain ModelThe DTM module of Terrasoft was used to generate a 3 Dsurface and slope and elevation profiles of Pacific SpiritPark. Since Terrasoft version 10.02 did not have a DTMmodule, the entire Pacific Spirit Park database wasexported and translated to Terrasoft version 9.30.Translation was necessary as versions 9.30 and 10.02 havedifferent file formats. In the translated file format, theelevation contours were stored in level 5. The contourswere processed with a routine that used an inverse weightedaverage equation to generate a 3 D surface. The equationcalculated the inverse weighted average of the elevationsbetween each of the horizontal, vertical and diagonallyclosest contours (DRSL, 1989). Perspective and radial viewsof the DTM were then generated. Slope class profiles in 5.0percent increments and elevation class profiles in 40.0 mincrements were also generated.272.18 Data OutputThe data output module of Terrasoft was not used to producemaps for this document. Terrasoft is an ideal GIS for thevideo display of spatial data, but is less than ideal forthe production of page-sized maps. The paper maps in thisthesis are less-than-perfect facsimiles of the videodisplay. Terrasoft also does not have a visual printoption, one that allows the GIS user to see or edit a mapsent to output. A senior executive of Digital ResourcesSystems Limited (Pers. Comm. Dennis Anderson, 1992)recommended the use of a screen capture program calledHijaakl. Desired outputs were displayed on the screen atappropriate scales (e.g., 1:2,000 to 1:35,000) and capturedfor processing by Hijaak. This process overrides Terrasoftand activated the program Hijaak. Hijaak was then used toconvert the captured screen images to a bitmap format (e.g.,*.BMP). Legends, north arrows and editing changes wereadded to the screen images in Microsoft Paintbrush 2 .1^Product of Hijaak Corporation.2^Registered trademark of the Microsoft Corporation.283.00 DATABASE CONTENTS3.01^Ground Control Points (GCPs) of Point GreyThe GCPs used for map registration were part of a 'City ofVancouver Survey Monuments Grid' (Table 4), (MELP), 1990).The 13 survey monuments were located on the east side ofPacific Spirit Park. The location of each monument wasdescribed by x, y and z UTM coordinates (Figure 7). Themonuments were used as GCPs for the project and the 1990legal survey of Pacific Spirit Park. The distribution ofGCPs along the eastern portion of the study area was lessthan optimal for map registration. For map registration theGCPs should have been distributed across the study area inan even grid pattern (DRSL, 1991). However, the locationand coordinates of survey monuments in Pacific Spirit Parkand UBC were not published or available at the time ofdatabase creation. The spatial information on the westsideof the study area will therefore be less accurately placedthan the spatial information on the east side. However, thesmall area represented by the database minimizedregistration error resulting from the less than optimal GCPdistribution.29Table 4. Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates ofthe Vancouver Survey Monuments (MELP, 1990).Monument Easting(x)Northing(Y)Elevation(z)V2990 485971.218 5455624.130 23.655V3547 484632.572 5458240.322 90.739V3296 484641.893 5458660.624 92.034V3350 484616.717 5458460.632 89.396V3297 484625.670 5458867.498 90.551V3373 484238.796 5459660.820 86.310V3374 484322.714 5459431.449 89.676V3404 484511.096 5459421.313 92.014V3378 484101.913 5460120.321 49.456V3379 483989.341 5460065.145 49.025V3384 484654.988 5460200.926 3.966V3385 484370.420 5460272.541 3.306V3347 485501.407 5458219.238 77.638LEGENDGround ControlPoints"RoadsPark BoundaryShoreline 1000 metres30Figure 7 Location of the Vancouver Survey Monuments(MELP, 1990).313.02^Legal Property Boundaries of Pacific Spirit ParkA 1990 legal survey of Pacific Spirit Park showed that thepark's 775.6 ha were divided into 14 property parcels(Table 5 and Figure 8). Since the legal survey was tied tosurvey monuments, recently carried out (1990), performed bycertified professionals, and required to meet legalstandards for accuracy, the data were considered veryaccurate. To maintain the high level of accuracy the anglesand distances of the property lines were keyboard enteredinto the database (e.g., COGO).The largest parcel, P768-014-0000, was 353.30 ha in size andcomprised the park area between Sixteenth Avenue andSouthwest Marine Drive. The remaining land parcels weresmaller than 89.81 ha. The legal survey of Pacific SpiritPark used the Vancouver Survey Monuments as GCPs.The property boundaries of parcel numbers P768-018-0000 andP768-019-0000 were from the original 1913 survey of thePoint Grey area. The 1913 survey data were entered into thedatabase, but the shoreline was adjusted with data from a1954 survey of the Point Grey Peninsula by Perks. At thetime of database creation the 1954 survey was the mostrecently available data that encompassed the entireshoreline. The high tide line (shoreline) of the foreshorearea (from Perk's survey) was digitized into thePARK_ LS _ROAD feature class and connected to the existinglinework. When new survey data for the foreshore areabecomes available, the database should be updated.32Table 5. Areas of the property parcels that comprisePacific Spirit Park (GVRD, 1990).PropertyParcel NamesArea(ha)P768-013-0010 9.9P768-014-0000 353.3P768-014A-000 26.1P768-015-0000 86.6P768-016-0000 15.6P768-017-0000 27.2P768-018-0000 1 16.3P768-019-0000 1 21.6P768-021-0000 20.8P768-022-0000 89.8P768-023-0000 5.0P768-024-0000 52.1P768-025-0000 9.7P768-026-0000 41.6Total 775.61^Shoreline was adjusted with Perks 1954 survey.P768-016-0000rN 1000 metresP768-021-0000(P768-019-0000768-24-0000\\. P768-023-0000P768-025-0000I. P768-018-0000^S:768-026-0000P768-014.0000LLEGENDPark PropertyBoundaryP768-015-0000P768-017-000P768-014A-000P768-013-00033Figure 8. Legal property parcels of Pacific Spirit Park(GVRD, 1990).343.03^Land use in the Point Grey AreaLand use in the Point Grey Area has been organized into 7classes (Table 6 and Figure 9). The class Musqueam IndianReserve refers to the land ceded to the Musqueam IndianTribe. The Educational Institutions class included primary,secondary and post-secondary institutions. The Golf Courseclass refers to the University Golf Course. The GVRD classrefers to the land occupied by Pacific Spirit Park. TheReligious Facilities class includes places of worship andassociated facilities. The class Utility refers totransformer facilities operated by BC Hydro. The total landarea in the database is 2164.6 ha.The land-use data were derived from a 1977 UniversityEndowment Lands Study Team report. The data were checkedfor changes in land-use with a 1990 Map of the VancouverArea. Land use in the City of Vancouver area is entirelyclassed as residential. Other land uses do exist in thisarea, but are outside of the projects data requirements asthe features do not surround (e.g., UBC) or directly borderPacific Spirit Park.35Table 6^Land use classes in the Point Grey Area(UELST, 1977).Land OwnershipClassesArea(Ha)Musqueam Indian Reserve 93.9Educational Institutions 400.9Golf Course 82.4Regional Park(Pacific Spirit Park) 776.0Religious Facilities 1.9Residential 808.8Utility Facilities 0.7Total 2164.6Musqueam I.R.Cducational Inst.G di CourseGVRDReligious FacilitiesResidentialUtility FacitiliesRoads36Figure 9 Land use in the Point Grey Area(UELST, 1977).373.04^Roads of the Point Grey AreaThe road data for the Pacific Spirit Park database originatefrom two sources (Figure 10). The first source is the 1990legal survey of Pacific Spirit Park. The second source isthe UBC planning maps. Both sources are considered to bevery accurate.The roads from the planning maps were digitized into thedatabase. However, alleyways, driveways, sidewalks andpaths were outside the scope of this project and not enteredinto the database.38Figure 10 Roads of the Point Grey Area (GVRD, 1990;UBC,1981).3 93.05^Topography and Digital Terrain Model of PacificSpirit ParkThe topography of Pacific Spirit Park lies between 0.0 and128.0 m. above sea level. Most of the park is characterizedby a gently sloping upland area between 70.0 and 128.0 m.above sea level (Figure 11). The remainder of the park ischaracterized by steep slopes (e.g., foreshore areas). TheDTM module was used to generate elevation (40.0 mincrements) (Figure 12) and slope (5 percent increments)(Figure 13) class profiles. Most of the park has slopesbetween 0.0 and 10.0 percent. The elevation and slopeprofiles are new data generated from existing data in thedatabase.In Perk's (1954) survey, 10.0 foot elevation contours wereused to show the topography of Pacific Sprit Park. Thesteep slopes of the shoreline areas resulted in the contourlines being very close together. To minimize digitizingerror, every third contour was digitized into the database,creating a contour interval of approximately 10.0 m. Inareas without steep slopes the 10.0 foot contours wereentered into the database as 3.1 m contours. When theTopographic Resource Inventory Mapping (TRIM) data becomeavailable for Pacific Spirit Park, the GVRD should considerreplacing the existing topography information with the TRIMdata. The TRIM files identify elevations with a 10.0 mcontour intervals. Comparison of the two datasets wouldallow for an analysis of topography changes (e.g., soilerosion).LEGEND3 m Contours^ 10 m Contours^ Shoreline128 Elevation AboveSea Level40Figure 11 Topography of the Point Grey Area (Perks, 1954).Note:^The scale of this map presentation is not amenableto showing precise topographic contours. Largermaps must be plotted for greater accuracy.41Figure 12 Digital terrain model showing the elevationclasses of the Point Grey Area (Viewpoint atX=-4500 m, Y=4200 m and Z=2500. Verticalexaggeration is 2.5 times normal.).42Figure 13 Slope characteristics of the Point Grey Area(Viewpoint at X=-4500 m, Y=4200 m and Z=2500.Vertical exaggeration is 2.5 times normal).433.06^Waterbodies (Creeks) of Pacific Spirit ParkPacific Spirit Park contains 6 creeks that drain in either anorth or south direction. Musqueam Creek is the longest andonly year-round creek in Pacific Spirit Park (Table 7 andFigure 14). The 5 remaining creeks are intermittent, notflowing during periods of drought (Perks, 1954; GVRD, 1990).44Table 7 Summary of the creek types and length in PacificSpirit Park (Perks, 1954; GVRD, 1990).Name^ River Body Class^Length (metres)Musqueam Creek^Continuous^ 4124.0Remaining Creeks^Intermittent 13391.0Total^ 17415.045Figure 14 Creeks of Pacific Spirit Park(Perk, 1954; GVRD, 1990).463.07^Forest Cover Associations of PacificSpirit ParkThe surveyed forest vegetation associations of PacificSpirit Park covered 688.4 ha and were divided into 20different associations and 198 forest stands. The names ofthe forest associations are those used by Thomson (1985).The original names have been used in the database and arelisted below (Table 8 and Figures 15 and 16):1 1 . Hardhack (Spiraea douglasii Hook.) - Salmonberry(Rubus spectablis Pursh.) - Fireweed (Epilobiumangustifolium L.).2. Red Alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) - Salmonberry.3. Bitter Cherry (Prunus emarginata Dougl.) - Willow(Salix L.) - Trailing Blackberry (Rubus macropetalusDougl.).4. Bigleaf Maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh.) - SpinyWood Fern (Dryopteris assimilis (S). Walker).5. Cascara (Rhamnus purshiana DC (Frangula section) -Mountain Ash (Sorbus aucuparia L.) - Deer Fern(Blechnum spicant L. Roth).6. Vine Maple (Acer circinatum Pursh.) - Red Elderberry(Sambucus racemosa L.).7. Red Alder - Western Red Cedar (Thu a plicata Donn.) -Red Huckleberry (Vaccinium parvifolium SM.).8. Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziessii (Mirb.) Franco) -Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn) - Stokesiella oregana. 9. Douglas Fir - Salal (Gaultheria shallon Pursh.) -Plagiothecium  undulatum (Hedw.) B.S.G.10. Western Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) -Mnium glabrescens Amann.1^The numbers in Table 8 and Figures 15 and 16 refer tothe above forest associations. Numbers 1 to 20 areused in the database queries for the Forest Associationtheme.4711. Western Red Cedar - English Holly12. Western Hemlock - Douglas Fir - Stokesiellapraelonga. 13. Western Red Cedar - Western Hemlock - Sitka Spruce(Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.).14. Pacific Crabapple (Malus fusca Schneid) - Hardhack -Wild Lily-of-the-Valley (Maianthemum bifolium(Wood))- Skunk Cabbage (Lysichiton americanum Hullenand St John).15. Shore Pine (Pinus contorta var. contorta Dougl.)- WhiteBirch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) - Western Hemlock -Salal.16. Western Hemlock - Salmonberry.17. Western Hemlock - Red Huckleberry - Plagiotheciumundulatum.18. Western Hemlock - Salal - Labrador Tea (Ledumgroenlandicum OED).19. Pond Association (e.g., Camosun Bog).20. Salal - Labrador Tea - Bracken - False Lily-of-the-ValleyDouglas Fir - Salal - Plagiothecium  undulatum (associationnumber # 9) forest association occupied the largest area(128.8 ha). The association with the smallest area was theSalal - Labrador Tea (#20) forest association (0.20 ha).The forest association with the largest number of foreststands (27 stands) was the Red Alder - Western Red Cedar -Red Huckleberry (#7). Two forest associations Shore Pine -White Birch - Western Hemlock - Salal (#15) and PondAssociation (#19) were made up of one stand each (Thomson,1985).The coniferous forest cover of Pacific Spirit Park coveredan area of 343.4 ha (50 percent (%) of the forested area).The deciduous forest cover of Pacific Spirit Park covered anarea of 345.0 ha (50 % of the forested area). The crown48closure, the proportion of area covered by the tree's crownwas between 51.0 and 100.0 percent (Watts, 1983). The crownclosure also indicates the percentage of the forestunderstory that is exposed to direct sunlight.The area for each association is derived from Thompson's(1986) map. Thompsons use of an un-corrected single aerialphotograph as the map-base created significant errors inarea calculations for the forest associations. Errors wouldresult from tilt and relief displacement and areaexaggeration near the edges of the photograph. The veryaccurate legal boundary data were used to correct the areaand boundaries of the forest associations.49Table 8 Summary of selected forest association dataincluding area, crown closure, number of standsand dominant tree type in Pacific Spirit Park,excluding foreshore area (Thomson, 1985).Association Area Crown Number Dominant(Ha) Closure' Stands Tree Type1 28.8 2-4 15 Deciduous2 68.1 2-4 20 Deciduous3 19.4 2-4 14 Deciduous4 25.4 3 8 Deciduous5 5.2 3 2 Deciduous6 92.1 3-4 16 Deciduous7 105.3 1-4 27 Deciduous8 5.0 3-4 5 Conifer9 128.8 3-4 25 Conifer10 57.7 3-4 11 Conifer11 40.7 3-4 4 Conifer12 23.2 3-4 6 Conifer13 67.4 3 11 Conifer14 0.7 3 2 Deciduous15 0.3 3 1 Conifer16 6.6 3-4 3 Conifer17 10.7 4 2 Conifer18 0.7 3-4 7 Conifer19 0.8 3 1 Conifer20 0.2 3-4 4 ConiferTotal^688.4^ 1981^Crown Closure 1:0-25 %; 2:26-50 %; 3:51-75 %;4:76-100%.50Figure 15 Forest associations 1 through 10 inPacific Spirit Park, excluding the foreshore area(Thomson, 1985).51Figure 16 Forest associations 11 through 20 inPacific Spirit Park, excluding the foreshore area(Thomson, 1985).523.08^Forest Vegetation DamageA photo interpretation study of tree injury symptoms wascompleted in 1989 from 1:4000 normal colour aerialphotographs. The study area included UBC and GVRD property(e.g., Pacific Spirit Park) south of Fourth Avenue. Alltrees displaying symptoms of injury were noted on thephotographs. Eight types of injury were seen and thesetypes are described in Table 9. The tree injury symptomsare called damage types in this study, after Murtha 1972.A total of 2,705 forest damage occurrences were identifiedin the surveyed portion of Point Grey (Table 10), and thelocation of each occurrence was entered into the databaseusing UTM coordinates. The number of deciduous damage typeoccurrences (Figure 17) exceeded the conifer damage typeoccurrences (Figure 18) by 389 or 14.4 % of the totalnumber. In contrast two hundred and four of the 234 deadtrees (type I) were conifersl. The remaining 30 dead treeswere deciduous. The large number of dead conifer trees mayindicate that the conifer trees were more susceptible todamage or that damage was more severe among conifers. Amongconifer damage types, damage type VIII had the smallestnumber of occurrences, while type VI had the greatest.Among deciduous damage types, type IV had the smallestnumber of occurrences, while type VI had the greatest.1^In the 1989 photo interpretation study, a dead tree isconsidered as a tree that is at the most advanced stageof damage. Such a tree would have progressed from aless severe damage state to its present dead state.53Table 9 Description of forest vegetation damage typesfrom most to least severe.Types^DescriptionI^Tree dead, bark exfoliated, exposed woodbleached whitish through weathering (long deadtree; conifer and deciduous).II^Recently dead, defoliated tree. The limbs andbranches maintain bark and are dark toned on thephotographs.III^The tree is recently dead. The entire crown showsdead, red brown foliage.IV^Terminal leader or upper branches dead anddefoliated, lower crown still retains greenfoliage.V^Terminal portion of a conifer crown, or varyingamounts of foliage in the upper portion of adeciduous crown, display dead, red-brown foliage.VI^A thin-crowned tree, premature loss of innerbranch foliage, inner crown branches visible onaerial photographs, current foliage is present.VII^Entire crown is yellowed.VIII^Some foliage yellowed, most of the tree crownis not yellowed and residual foliage is the normalgreen hue.54Table 10 The number and types of coniferous and deciduousdamage type occurrences.CONIFER TREES DECIDUOUS TREESDamage^Number of Percent Damage Number of PercentTypes^Occurrences of Types^Occurrences ofTotal TotalI^204 17.7 I 30 2.0II^183 15.8 II 300 19.3III^96 8.3 III 301 19.5IV^122 10.5 IV 10 0.9V^0 0.0 V 110 7.1VI^538 46.4 VI 411 26.6VII^10 0.9 VII 118 7.6VIII^5 0.4 VIII 263 17.0Conifer DeciduousTotal^1158 100.0 Total 1547 100.0Percent of Total 42.8 57.2Total^Number of Occurrences 270555EGENDDamage Type IIDamage Type IIIDamage Type VIDamage Type VIIDamage Type VIIIPark BoundaryShoreline•LFigure 17 Location of decidous trees displaying the fivecommonest types of deciduous tree injury symptomsin Pacific Spirit Park.56LEGEND• Damage Type I• Damage Type II• Damage Type IVDamage Type VIPark BoundaryShoreline fN 100 metres-3------_Figure 18 Location of coniferous trees displaying the fourcommonest types of coniferous tree injury symptomsin Pacific Spirit Park.573.09^Trails of Pacific Spirit ParkThe trails in Pacific Spirit Park have been classified into8 groups. The trails are used for hiking, bicycling andhorseback riding, and as fire breaks for forest fire control(GVRD, 1988).Pacific Spirit Park contains 57.4 km of trails (Table 11and Figure 19). Multiple-use trails (e.g., bicycling,hiking and horseback riding) are the commonest of the trailswith a total length of 21.7 km. The smallest groupof trails are the summer only-use trails. These trailscover 1.7 km of the parks 57.4 km trails.58Table 11 Summary of the trail types and number of sectionsin Pacific Spirit Park (GVRD, 1989).Trail Type^ Total Length(kilometres)Fire Access andMultiple Use^ 7.7Multiple Use 21.7Pedestrian^ 17.1Summer Use 1.7Under Review'^ 0.7Bike Trails 6.4Old Trails 2^2.0Total^ 57.41.^Trails that are under review have no assigned use.2^Closed to public use by the GVRDLEGENDFire + Multiple UseUnder ReviewBicycleMultiple Use OnlyPedestrian OnlySummer Only^ Old Trail1 COO metres59Figure 19 Trails in Pacific Spirit Park (GVRD, 1989).603.10^Soils of Pacific Spirit ParkA 1973 study (McBride) identified 5 soil types in PacificSpirit Park (Table 12). The Bose Series, a Podzolic soilderived from wave sorted gravels, developed where drainageis generally good (GVRD, 1991).^The Heron Series, aGleysolic soil is derived from marine beach deposits whichhave formed in flat areas, seepage areas or depressionsareas which are poorly drained (GVRD, 1991). The OrganicSeries contain unleached organics, such as muck and fibrouspeat, and is limited to within Camosun Bog (UELST, 1977)(Figure 20). Drainage in the Organic Series is poor sincethe water table remains at the surface for most of the year,limiting organic matter decomposition and resulting in highacidity (GVRD, 1991). The Summer Series is a Gleysolic soilderived from marine beach deposits. The Sunshine Series isa Podzolic soil also derived from marine beach deposits.The largest area is the Bose Series and is 513.6 ha in size.The smallest area is the 6.0 ha covered by the SummerSeries. Soil types where not classified in the Creekvalleys.61Table 12. Area summary of the soil types in Pacific SpiritPark (McBride, 1973).Soil Name^ Area(ha)Bose Series 513.6Heron Series 124.3Organic Series 27.5Summer Series 6.0Sunshine Series 63.2Creek Valleysl 41.0Total 775.61^No soil information was available for the creekvalleys.Bose SeriesHeron SeriesSummer SeriesOrganic SeriesSunshine SeriesPark BoundaryShoreline62Figure 20 Soil types of Pacific Spirit Park(McBride, 1973).1^No soil information was available for the creekvalleys.633.11^Surficial Material of Pacific Spirit ParkFive classes of surficial material (Table 11 and Figure 21)are identified in Pacific Spirit Park. The Capilanosediments are of beach and fluvial origin and between 1.0and 5.0 m thick. Organic matter is composed of peat andorganic muck deposits. Pre-Vashon drift consists of glacialand non-glacial marine deposits between 10.0 and 300.0 m.thick and cover 89.3 ha of the park's 776.0 ha (UELST,1977). Vashon drift material covers 538.6 ha of the parks776.0 ha and is characterized as glacial drift material.64Table 13 Area summary of the surficial materials ofPacific Spirit (UELST, 1977).Surficial Material^ AreaType^ (ha)Capilano Sediments(Fluvial)Capilano Sediments(Beach)Organic DepositsVashon Drift(Drift)19.397.531.2538.6Pre-Vashon Drift^ 89.1(Drift and Marine)Total^ 775.665Figure 21 Surficial materials of Pacific Spirit Park(UELST, 1977).663.12^Hydrology of Pacific Spirit ParkThe hydrology of Pacific Spirit Park is classified asfollows: bog, creek valley, high water table, non-rechargeand recharge. The bog class is poorly drained containingsurface water for part of the year. The high water tableclass includes low-lying, poorly drained areas with waternear the ground surface. During the photo-interpretation ofthe tree damages it was noted that the 'high water table'areas were identifiable by being low-lying, having an openforest canopy and a high concentration of dead and damagedtrees. The creek valley class includes areas that areimmediately next to creeks and are characterized by steepslopes and V-shaped valleys. Included in the recharge classare the flat areas that feed surface water into the creeks.The non-recharge class are areas that feed the aquifer underPacific Spirit Park (UELST, 1977). The recharge classoccupies the most ground area 305.3 ha (Table 14). Theclass that occupied the smallest area was the high watertable area at 13.0 ha (Figure 22). Hydrology data were notavailable for the foreshore areas of Pacific Spirit Park.67Table 14^Area summary of the hydrology classesPark ].^(UELST,^1977).in Pacific SpiritHydrological AreaClass (Ha)Bog Areas 23.1High Water Table 16.0Creek Valleys 90.4Non Recharge Areas 256.3Recharge Areas 305.3Total 691.111^Hydrology data was not available for the foreshore areaof Pacific Spirit Park.LEGENDBog and WetlandH igh Water TableCreek AreaRecharge AreaNon-R echargeAreaPark BoundaryShorelinefN1000 metres68Figure 22. Hydrology of Pacific Spirit Park (UELST,1977).1^Data are not available for the foreshore area ofPacific Spirit Park.2^Identified on 1:4000 colour aerial photographs.694.00 FOREST VEGETATION DAMAGE ASSESSMENT4.10 INTRODUCTIONAn extended example of how to use the Pacific Spirit Parkdatabase for park management is developed in this chapter.It will exemplify how data on forest vegetation damage(3.08) can be correlated with other environmental variables(e.g., topography, soils, surficial materials, hydrology,forest cover, trails and roads). The findings could be usedto suggest possible lines of future research into the causeof damage symptoms and hence reduce the incidence of damagein the future.4.20 METHODS OF FOREST VEGETATION DAMAGE ASSESSMENTTwo approaches were developed to correlate forest vegetationdamage with other environmental variables. The firstapproach compared the location of individual damage typeoccurrences with the location of other environmentalvariables. The second approach compared the density offorest vegetation damage on a per hectare basis with thesame environmental variables. The second approach alsoshowed the changes in the density of forest vegetationdamage over the study area.4.21 Approach 1: Damage Type OccurrenceThe analysis module of Terrasoft was used to carry outqueries'. Queries retrieved damage type occurrences thatsatisfied a particular set of attribute criteria andgraphically displayed the results. Overlay' operations,1^Defined in Appendix I.70between forest vegetation damage and the forest cover,topography, soil, surficial material, trail, hydrologyand road layers, allowed visual comparison andinterpretation between the data types. When spatialcorrelations were identified, maps were produced.4.22 Approach 2: Grid OverlayThe purpose of the grid overlay was to assist in theidentification of spatial correlations between the densityof forest vegetation damage and hydrology, surficialmaterials, forest cover, topography, soil and road datalayers. Density was defined as the degree of crowding ofindividual trees within a defined area. Density wasnormally measured on a per hectare basis (e.g., number oftrees per ha and basal area per ha) (Watts, 1983).The drafting functions of Terrasoft were used to create agrid of 100.0 by 100.0 m polygons. A total of 1200 polygonswere placed over the forest damage occurrences. Theanalysis function 'Polygon Overlay' was used to identify thenumber and types of forest vegetation damage present in eachpolygon. The damage types and number of occurrences perpolygon were recorded as a record in the attribute file. Thepolygon grid and attribute file was processed as an areatheme called 'Vegetation Damage Density'.714.30 RESULTS OF FOREST VEGETATION DAMAGE ASSESSMENTForest vegetation damage is more concentrated south ofSixteenth Avenue. The greatest concentrations are in thesouthwest corner of Pacific Spirit Park, along the foreshoreareas of Pacific Spirit Park, and in concentrated pocketsinside Pacific Sprit Park (Figure 23).Overlay operations were used to compare topographic datawith damage type occurrences. A strong relationship alongthe foreshore areas of Pacific Spirit Park is identified.Dead (I) (Table 9), defoliated (II), trees with upperbranches dead defoliated (IV), trees with thin crowns andpremature loss of inner branch foliage (VI) and treesshowing some yellowed foliage (VIII) were present in theforeshore area. When the sub-surface hydrology theme wasoverlain with the forest vegetation damage theme, vegetationdamage in high concentrations was identified in areas with ahigh water table (Figure 24). An overlay operation betweenthe roads and damage type occurrences identified thincrowned (VI) and yellowed foliage trees (VII) alongUniversity Boulevard (Figure 25). Overlay operationsbetween the soil, trails, surficial materials, waterbodiesthemes and the damage type occurrences did not reveal anyobvious relationships.The polygon grid showed the density of forest vegetationdamage in Pacific Spirit Park (Figure 26). The density offorest vegetation damage was greatest in the southwestcorner of Pacific Spirit Park and in areas wererelationships between forest vegetation damage andtopography, hydrology and roads were identified.•-^Vegetation iDamageOccurrence^ Park Boundary^ Shoreline72Figure 23 Location of forest vegetation damageoccurrences..•7.•^:.•LEGENDVegetation DamageOccurrenceHydrologyRelationshipSlope Relationship^ Park Boundary^ Shoreline 1000 metres;;;;:;.:`,exf73Figure 24 Locations where possible correlations betweenforest vegetation damage and the topography andhydrology were identified.•VegetationDamageOccurrenceRoad BoundaryPark Boundary Pi 5^0 MetresLIEGENDFigure 25 Location of forest vegetation damage alongUniversity Boulevard.1^Damage types VI and VII are grouped together asvegetation damage.750 Occurrence\Ha1 Occurrence1Fla2 0 courrence H a3 Occurrence\Ha4 0 courrence Fl a5 Occurrence\Ha6 Occurrence%Ha7+0ccurrence\HaPark BoundaryShmAinpN100 metresFigure 26 The number of forest vegetation damage occurrencesper hectare in Pacific Spirit Park derived by thepolygon grid analysis.764.40 DISCUSSION OF FOREST VEGETATION DAMAGE ASSESSMENTSpatial relationships between forest cover damage andtopography were identified along the foreshore areas ofPacific Spirit Park. Steep slopes, salt air, high wind andground water seepage characterize the foreshore areas (Pers.Comm. Bean, 1991). Steep slopes may cause surface erosionand result in the exposure of tree roots. Exposed roots aresusceptible to damage from pathogens. Trees on steep slopesmay be vulnerable to the mass movement of soil (Watts,1983). Exposure to salt spray may result in a tree'scurrent foliage turning red brown (Murtha, 1972). Prolongedexposure in the foreshore area may retard tree growth andresult in trees displaying symptoms of forest damage (Watts,1983; Murtha, 1982). Dead (I), defoliated trees(II), treeswith upper branches dead and defoliated (IV), trees withthin crowns and premature loss of inner branch foliage (VI)and trees showing some yellowed foliage (VIII), wereidentified along the foreshore area of Pacific Spirit Park.In portions of Pacific Spirit Park environmental factorshave combined to produce four locations showing the effectsof a high water table (Figure 26). Concentrations of forestdamage are identified in these areas. In these areas it ispossible that forest vegetation damage may result from waterdamage or a combination of water damage and opportunisticagents (e.g., pathogens). Periodic or prolonged floodingcan suffocate, weaken and damage the root systems of trees.Damaged or killed roots provide a point of entry fororganisms of secondary action like Armillaria root rot,(Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Kummer) (Houston, 1981). Aroot rot can spread from a central infection point and killtrees as it spreads producing a circular concentration ofdamaged trees (Murtha, 1972).7 7Along University Boulevard several of the silver maple trees(Acer sacchirinum L.) were thin crowned and had yellowedfoliage in the tree crowns. Personal observation revealedthat many of the trees had their root zones compromised bythe proximity of the walkway and road (e.g., asphalt wascracked by tree roots). Trees planted near a roadway arevulnerable to many urban stresses (e.g., exhaust emissions,drought and salt spray) (Houston, 1981).Three possible correlations between forest vegetation damageand environmental variables have been identified. Theinformation generated by this example could be used by parkstaff to devise appropriate courses of action for minimizingor controlling future damage. In the short-term park staffcould restrict or reduce the publics access to the damagedareas. In the long-term park staff could identify thecause(s) of the vegetation damage. For this purpose theGVRD could seek the assistance of UBC faculty and students.The preliminary and general analysis of this example haveresulted in the following questions:1. Do spatial patterns of forest vegetation damage existin Pacific Spirit Park?2. How will the type of forest vegetation damage changeover time?3. Is the type of forest vegetation damage in PacificSpirit Park higher, lower or similar to forestvegetation damage in similar non-urban forests?4. What are the causes of forest vegetation damage? Canthe damage be ascribed to naturally occurring (e.g.,salt air) or human induced phenomena (e.g., airpollution)?785. Are the causes of the vegetation damage alsoaffecting other components of the ecosystem?These questions could represent future directions forresearch in vegetation damage in Pacific Spirit Park.795.00 LIMITATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS5.10 LIMITATIONS OF THE PACIFIC SPIRIT PARK DATABASEPublished guidelines for GIS database creation were followedfor creating the Pacific Spirit Park database. Theguideline categories were listed in section 2.10 (Aronoff,1989; De Man 1988; Rhine & Green, 1988; Star and Estes,1990). All of the information requirements for the PacificSpirit Park database are listed in section 2.11. Data werecollected from a variety of sources. However, sources forwildlife habitat, rare flora and fauna, right-of-waycorridors, park facilities and research activities were notfound. Forest stand and hydrology information were missingfor UBC property and the foreshore areas of Pacific SpiritPark. Forest vegetation damage data were not available forpark and UBC property north of Fourth Avenue. New data arerequired for the park property boundaries along theforeshore area; the current data were collected in 1913.The data entered into the Pacific Spirit Park database werenot designed for GIS database entry. A major benefit of GIStechnology is that data of different scale, accuracy, ageand origin can be entered into specified layers and thenanalyzed at the same scale. However, data of differentscales, levels of accuracy and age places limitations on theuse of the data.During the creation of the database several of thetechnology limitations which are typical of some current GISprograms were encountered. Program execution and end-of-file errors (e.g., lost data), inadequate documentation andvendor support, the absence of true raster-vectorintegration and spatial analysis functions are examples ofthe inadequacies.80To use the Pacific Spirit Park database the GVRD mustpurchase GIS hardware and software and undertake training.However, the beginnings of a comprehensive database havebeen created and GIS hardware and software are becomingcheaper to purchase and easier to operate.5.20 POTENTIAL USES OF THE PACIFIC SPIRIT PARK DATABASESince, the GVRD allots 400.0 person hours of work per weekfor 471.5 hours of work a time and cost-savings could berealized by using the database and GIS to optimize thescheduling and routes taken to carry out the activities.For example, the trail theme could be used to monitor howthe condition of the trails change over time. Trailsections requiring the most maintenance could be identifiedand an efficient trail maintenance program devised.Database fields could be added to the trail theme databasefile to record trail use and violations. This informationcould be used to identify trail sections with the highesttrail use and the most violations. Trail patrols couldconcentrate on those trail sections. Buffers could becreated around features (e.g., trails and roads) to identifystudy areas and establish restriction areas. Networkfunctions could be used to identify the shortest distancebetween maintenance and patrol sites.The GVRD could also use the database at future open-housesto rapidly answer questions and graphically demonstrate theeffects of proposed park improvements (e.g., impact of atrail restriction on park access and use). Terrasoft couldalso be used by park staff to produce in-house hard copymaps. The database may also assist UBC faculty and studentswith research and education activities carried out in thepark.Topography, forest, surficial material, road and property81data could be used to locate potential sites for future parkfacilities and identify areas in the park which provideshelter and forage for selected animal species.Terrasoft and the Pacific Spirit Park database can also beused to generate new data. For example, the DTM andelevation and slope profiles were generated from thedigitized contours.5.30 KNOWLEDGE GAINED FROM THIS PROJECTIn carrying out this project, the author has learnt thefollowing:1. The creation of a database is a complex task thatrequires a significant amount of planning. Section2.10 lists 11 procedures for creating a GIS database.Each procedure has several steps.2. GIS is an immature and rapidly changing technology.For example, during the creation of the Pacific SpiritPark database Digital Resources Systems Limitedreleased three major revisions to Terrasoft.3.^The creation of a GIS database is expensiveand time consuming. For example, the completion ofdata entry and editing for the Pacific Spirit Parkdatabase required 20 hours a week over a 30 week period(June 1991 to January 1992). However, thisexercise was a learning process for the author. Aperson with more GIS experience could have completeddata entry and editing in a shorter period of time.The design of the database, data collection andpreparation also required a signicant amount of time.Since GIS and draughting contractors charge $ 25.00 to82$ 40.00 an hour for data entry work, the creation of aGIS database is very expensive (Pers. Comm. Bowden,1992).Based on personal observation the author estimates thatthe entry of climate, park facilities, rare flora andfauna, research sites, right-of-way corridors, urbandevelopment, wildlife habitat and completion of treedamage symptoms, forest cover and hydrology data intothe Pacific Spirit Park database will require 100 to200 hours to complete.4. Significant time and cost savings can be realized byupdating the database with existing digital datasources like TRIM.5. The initial planning and design work for the PacificSpirit Park database that was carried out by the authorkept data entry and processing problems to a minimum.Problems that did arise were software related.6. Errors are easily created in the data entry andprocessing stages of database creation. Digitizing isa repetitive task and errors are easily created.Digitizing a wrong feature, digitizing besidea point and poor map registration are examples of dataentry errors. Data entry errors are difficult toidentify and time consuming to correct. Errors can beminimized through the training of staff, placing astrong emphasis on quality of work versus quantity andmotivation on the part of the data entry person.7. Users should refer to the age, origin, scale andoriginal purpose (e.g., metadata) of the data in thedatabase (e.g., Appendix IV and Section 3.00).Metadata are the key determinants of the data's use and83reliability for a specific task. For example, thetopography and forest cover data in the Pacific SpiritPark database are suitable for studying and identifyingthe approximate location of a new recreation trail.However, the data are not suitable for the planningof a new road or parking lot. Detailed legal surveys,landscape drawings and field surveys that assess thelocal ecosystem impact are required for the planning ofa new road or parking lot.846.00 LITERATURE CITEDAronoff, S. 1989. Geographic information systems: amanagement perspective. WDL Publications, Ottawa,Canada. 294 pp.Burrough, P.A. 1989. Principles of geographical informationsystems for land resource assessment. ClarendonPress, Oxford, England. 194 pp.Byers, R.A. and C.N. Prague. 1989.^Everyman's databaseprimer featuring dBASE IV Ashton-Tate. TatePublishing. Torrance, California, USA. 426 pp.Cracknell, A.P. 1986. Editorial: geographical informationsystems. Taylor and Francis, New York, New York,U.S.A. Vol. 7. No. pp. 721-722.Dangermond, J., B. Derrenbacher and E. Harnden. 1984.Description of techniques for automation ofregional natural resource inventories. Pecora 9Proceedings, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, U.S.A.October 1984. pp. 90-97.Digital Resource Systems Limited. 1989. Terrasoftuser guide. Nanaimo, B.C. 190 pp.Digital Resource Systems Limited. 1991. Terrasoftreference guide. Nanaimo, B.C. 250 pp.Dickinson, H.J. and H.W. Calkins. 1988. The economicevaluation of implementing a GIS. InternationalJournal of Geographical Information Systems. Vol.2, No. 4. pp 307-328.Earth Observation Satellite Company. 1991. First EosatAward. Recipient Announced at ASPRS Meeting. NewsRelease. April 1991. 1 pp.Erik De Man, N.H. 1988. Establishing a geographicalinformation system in relation to its use. Aprocess of strategic choices. InternationalJournal of Geographical Information Systems. Vol.2, No. 3. pp 245-261.Fogg G.E. and J.W. Shiner. 1981. Management planning forpark and recreation areas. National Recreation andPark Association, Arlington, Virginia. 110 pp.Foresman, T.W. 1992. Sparks at the top still need fuel atthe bottom. GIS World. Vol. 5 No. 7: p 74.85GIS World. 1991. GIS Sourcebook: 1990-91. GIS WorldIncorporated. Fort Collins, Colorado. 720 pp.Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD). 1988. Trailsof Pacific Spirit Regional Park. Burnaby, B.C.lpp.GVRD, 1990. Legal survey boundary maps of Pacific SpiritRegional Park. Burnaby, B.C..GVRD, 1991. Pacific Spirit Regional Park Management Plan.GVRD, Burnaby, B.C. 128 pp.Holister, G. and A. Porteus. 1986. The environment: adictionary of the world around us. Arrow BooksLimited. London, England. 279 pp.Houston, D.R. 1981. Stress triggered tree diseases: thediebacks and declines. U.S.D.A. Forest Service.Northeastern Forest Experimental Station, Hamden,CONN, USA. 40 pp.Johannsen, C.J. and J.L. Sanders 1982. Remote sensing forresource management. Soil Conservation Society ofAmerica, Ankeny, Iowa, 665 p.Lillesand, M.T. and R.W. Riefer. 1987. Remote sensing andimage interpretation. 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons,Inc. 721 pp.Maguire, D.J. and J. Dangermond. 1991. Geographicalinformation systems: the functionality of GIS(Chapter 21). Volume 1. Longman Scientific &Technical, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NewYork, USA. p. 319-336.Marble, D. T. 1984. Geographic information systems: anoverview. Pecora 9 Proceedings, Sioux Falls, SouthDakota, U.S.A. October 1984. pp. 18-24.Ministry of the Environment Lands and Parks. 1990.Published legal survey monuments for the GreaterVancouver area, Vancouver, British Columbia.500 pp.Murtha, P.A. 1972. A guide to air photo interpretation offorest damage in Canada. Publication 1292.Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario. 63 pp.Murtha, P.A. 1982. Detection and analysis of vegetationstress: 141-150. In Johannsen, C.J. and J.L.Sanders (Eds). Remote Sensing for ResourceManagement. Soil Conservation Society of America,Ankeny, Iowa, 665 p.86Raper, J.R. and B. Kelk, 1991. Three dimensional GIS.Chapter 20. p 299-317. In Maguire, D.J., M.F.Goodchild and Rhine, D.W. Geographical informationsystems. Volume 2. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., NewYork. 447 pp.Rhine, D.W. and N.P.A. Green. 1988. Design of ageographical information system for a heterogeneousscientific community. International Journal ofGeographical Information Systems. Vol. 2, Num. 2.pp 171-190.Star, J. and E. Estes. 1990. Geographic information systems:an introduction. Prentice Hall, Inc., EnglewoodCliffs, New Jersey. 303 pp.Thompson, G.A. 1985. Vegetation classification of theendowment lands. U.B.C. Technical Committee on theEndowment Lands, Vancouver, B.C. 230 pp.Townshend, J.R.G. 1991. Environmental databases and GIS:201-216. In Maguire, D.J., M.F. Goodchild andRhine, D.W. Geographical information systems.Volume 2. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.447 pp.University Endowment Lands Study Team. 1977. Universityendowment lands report. Ministry of theEnvironment. Victoria, B.C. 200 pp.Watts, S.B. 1983. Forestry handbook for British Columbia.The Forestry Undergraduate Society. UBC Faculty ofForestry Vancouver, B.C. 611 pp.Weibel, R & M. Heller, 1991. Geographical InformationSystems: Digital Terrain Modeling (Chapter 19).Volume 1. Longman Scientific & Technical, JohnWiley & Sons, Inc., New York. p. 269-297.877.00 PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONSAnderson, D. 1992. July 1992. Senior GIS Consultant.Digital Resources Systems Limited, Nanaimo,B.C.Bean, R. 1991. May 1991. Operations park manager. PacificSpirit Park Office. Vancouver, B.C.Bean, R. 1992. September 1992. Operations park manager.Pacific Spirit Park Office (telephoneconversation). Vancouver, B.C.Bowden, J. 1992. December 1992. Silviculture GIS Forester.B.C. Ministry of Forests, Victoria, B.C.Klinkenberg, B. 1991. Lecture in Geography 472:introduction to geographic information systems.March, 1991. The University of BritishColumbia, Vancouver, B.C.Murtha, P.A. 1990. September 1990. Faculty of Forestry.The University of British Columbia, Vancouver,B.C.88APPENDICES89APPENDIX I TERMINOLOGYAccuracy: The degree of likelihood that the informationprovided is correct (Aronoff, 1989).Agent: a causative factor or condition responsible for thedeterioration or stress of tree.Analysis (spatial): A series of GIS functions that arecarried out to achieve a desired result or answer(Aronoff, 1989).Attribute Data: Geographic data for which characteristicsother than location are described (Star and Estes,1990).CPU: Central processing unit of a computer.Data Model: The conceptual organization of a database istermed the data model.Database: A collection of information about things and theirrelationship to each other (Aronoff, 1989).Digital Terrain Model (DTM): A model that uses digitalelevation data to create three dimensionalrepresentations of the landscape surface (Aronoff,1989).Digitizer: A device that electronically encodes theposition of the pointing device with a potentialprecision of fractions of a millimetre (Aronoff, 1989).Ecosystem: The plants, animals and microbes (biotic) thatlive in a defined zone and the physical environment(abiotic) in which they live (Holister and Porteus,1976).Geographic Information System: A computer based system forcollecting, storing, retrieving at will, transformingand displaying spatial data from the real world for aparticular set of purposes (Burrough, 1989).Hardware: Computer components such as the CPU box andmonitor.Map Registration: The correlation of positions on a map, asmeasured in digitizer coordinates, to positions on thesurface of the earth, as measured in real world units(DRSL, 1991).90Overlay: The process of spatially laying a closed shapefeature, buffer, area theme, or raster layer on top offeatures, polygons, or pixels within another layer ortheme.Query: An analytical function used to select a set offeatures, polygons, or pixels within a theme basedon a specified set of attribute criteria.Raster: A regular grid of square or rectangular cells. Thelocation of each cell or pixel (picture element) isdefined by its row and column numbers. The valueassigned to the cell indicates the value of theattribute it represents (Aronoff, 1989).Relational Database Management System: A set of computerprograms used to input, maintain, analyze, and reporton the attributes in a database (DRSL, 1992).Scale: The ratio of the distance between two points orfeatures on a layer in a GIS database or a map to itscorresponding distance on the ground (DRSL, 1992;Johannsen and Sanders, 1982).Software: Program line code that provides the instructionsto make the computer hardware operate.Spatial Data: Geographic data for which locations areidentified (Star and Estes, 1990).Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM): A map projectionsystem that is used for mapping at scales of 1:500,000or larger and is the standard base for NationalTopography Series maps at 1:50,000 and 1:20,000 forB.C. Provincial forest cover maps(Aronoff, 1989).Vector: The position in X, Y and Z or UTM or Latitude andLongitude of the points, lines and polygons areprecisely specified to represent the feature ofinterest (Aronoff, 1989).91APPENDIX II ANNUAL COST SAVINGS RESULTING FROM THEIMPLEMENTATION OF A GIS(Dickinson and Calkins,1987).The following cost savings were realized by a US ForestService District Office with the 1987 implementation of aGIS:Improved forest management and reduced costs (3 positions)US $ 80,000 per year.Improved scheduling for silviculture operations US $ 7,000per year.Savings from timber harvest tracking US $ 50,000 per year(staff cost avoidance).More rapid environmental impact planning US $ 30,000 peryear (staffing).Faster response to public inquiries US $ 15,000 per year.Faster response and analysis of ownership records US $10,000 per year.Forest practices involving soil impacts US $ 25,000 peryear.Savings in special projects requests US $ 10,000 per year.Savings in cartography and engineering departmentUS $ 60,000 per year.Total Savings^ US $ 287,000.92APPENDIX III GVRD OPERATIONSTable 15  Hours required for operations and inventoryactivities carried out by GVRD park staff in 1991(GVRD, 1991).Operation^Hours^FrequencyActivity Required^per WeekperActivityTotal WeeklyHoursVehicle Patrol^2.25^7 15.75Garbage Collection^0.75 7 5.25Toilet Facilities^6.00 7 42.00Trail Counts^1.00^2 2.00Litter Beach 3.00 7 21.00Litter Road Edge^6.00 1 6.00Beach Patrol^16.00^7 112.00Trail Patrol 16.00 7 112.00Service Yard^3.00 7 21.00Water Samples 6.00^1 6.00Grass Cutting^2.00 0.5 1.00Weed Eating/pruning 3.00 4 12.00Trail Crews^2.50^5 12.50Trail Maintenance^5.00 5 25.00Special Projects^2.50 7 17.50Vandalism^1.50^7 10.50Daily diaries^3.00 5 15.00Administration 5.00 7 35.00Total Hours of labour 471.50Available HoursStaff of 10^X^40.00 Hours per Week = 400.00Weekly Deficit -71.5093Definition of Operation ActivitiesVehicle Patrol A drive-by of all parking lots, roadways and accessiblefacilities within park boundaries.Garbage CollectionThe collection of garbage from all receptacles during thedaily vehicle patrol.Toilet Facilities The cleaning and supply of toilets.Trail Counts The gathering of data from pedestrian and traffic counters(six locations).Litter (Beach) The collection of litter deposited on the beach (2 staffmembers).Litter (Road Edge) The collection of litter deposited along road edges andditch lines within Park boundaries.Beach Patrol Foot patrol of the entire fore-shore area (This patrol isalways done with 2 staff members). Includes: datacollection, litter pick up, enforcement, minor operationsand maintenance.Trail PatrolThe patrol of approximately 50 kilometers of upland trails(patrol by foot and mountain bike).Service Yard Miscellaneous The service of tools and machinery, vehicle washing, etc.Water Samples The collection of water samples as required by provincialhealth regulations (collected at 2 sites along theforeshore, by foot)94Grass CuttingThe cutting and maintenance of grass areas not covered bythe contractor.Weed Eating/PruningBrushing of trails, sign locations, ditches, etc.Trail Crews The supervision, scheduling, training assistance of trailcrews.Trail Maintenance The construction, reconstruction, resurfacing, ditching andgeneral maintenance of Park trails.Special Projects Projects such as data collection, construction of minorfacilities, annual and biannual building maintenance,training programs, etc.VandalismThe repair, replacement and maintenance required due to actsof vandalism such as illegal dumping, party sites,destruction of Park property, etc.Daily Diaries and JournalsDiaries, journals and time utilization sheets kept by eachstaff member. These are filled out daily and used to tracktime spent on individual activities and documentation ofwork assigned and completed.AdministrationThe time spent by the Park Assistant III and Park AssistantII on the park scheduling, purchasing, training and reportwriting necessary for Park operations.95APPENDIX IV^SPATIAL AND ATTRIBUTE DATA SOURCES USEDFOR THE CREATION OF THE PACIFIC SPIRITPARK DATABASEArmstrong, J.E. 1979. Surficial materials of the Vancouverarea, B.0 Geological Survey of Canada (mapl).Scale 1:9600City of Vancouver. 1990. Municipal map (map). Scale1:25000GVRD, 1989. Recreation trails of Pacific Spirit Park.(map). Scale 1:25000.GVRD, 1990. Legal property boundaries of Pacific SpiritPark (map). Scale 1:2000 to 1:5000 - 16 maps atvarious scales.May Chow, 1985. Set of UEL maps compiled from varioussources. (map). Scale 1:9600.McBride, B. 1973. Land Suitability and Use in UEL PointGrey, B.C. B.Sc., Dept. of Soil Science (map). Scale1:9600.Ministry of the Environment, Lands and Parks. 1990.Published Coordinates of City of Vancouver SurveyMonuments. Land Surveys and Titles Office (groundcontrol points). No scale.Murtha, P.A. 1989. Forest vegetation damage in PacificSpirit Park. (35 aerial photographs and forestvegetation damage assessment (overaly on the photos).Photo scale 1:4000.Perks, M. 1954. UEL topography and land survey map.Dept. of Surveyor General (map). Scale 1:9600.Thomson G.A. 1985. Forest vegetation associations of theUEL. MSc.Thesis (map and report). Scale 1:8333.University of British Columbia. 1981. University planningmaps (map). Scale 1:2000.University Endowment Lands Study Team. 1977. Hydrology mapof Pacific Spirit Park (map). Scale 1:9600.1 Type of data source.96APPENDIX VTable 16DEFINITION OF DATABASE FEATURE CLASSESDefinition information for the Pacific Spirit Parklayers.Feature Colour Line Type Thickness Text^Shade FontClass SizeNameBLK BR TXT_ _ 1 1 1 1 1 1BLOCK BDRY 3 1 1 1 1 1BOUNDARIES 6 2 2 3 1 1CONTOURS 3 1 1 1 1 1FOR ASSOC 12 1 1 1 1 1FOR TXT 1 1 1 1 1 1FOR DAM 5 3 4 1 1 1GEOLOGY 15 1 1 1 1 1GEOLOGY ID_ 1 1 1 1 1 1LABELS 4 1 1 10 1 1MONUMENTS 8 1 1 3 1 1PARKLSRD 6 1 1 1 1 1POLYGON 4 1 1 1 1 1POLY LABEL 4 1 1 1 1 1ROADS 2 1 1 3 1 1SHORELINE 1 1 1 1 1 1SOILS 12 1 1 1 1 1SOIL ID_ 5 1 1 1 1 1TRAILS 7 1 1 1 1 1VEG DAMAGE 5 2 6 1 1 1WATER 11 1 1 1 1 1WATERLINE 2 1 1 1 1 1WATER ID_ 2 1 1 1 1 197APPENDIX VI^TERRASOFT DEFINITION FILES FOR THE PROJECTTHEMESThis section details the information in each themedefinition file.FOREST COVER ASSOCIATIONS OF PACIFIC SPIRIT PARKTHEME NAME^: FOREST_ASSOCDESCRIPTION : FOREST ASSOCIATIONS OF PSRPDEFAULT DATA TABLETABLE NAME^: FOREST.DBFINDEX •KEY_FIELD : P LABELKEY-FIELD-WIDTH^: 1-6-SOURCE FEATURE CLASSES FROM MAPBOUNDARIES (LINEAR)^: FOR ASSOCDATABASE KEYS (TEXT) : FOR-TXTSURFICIAL MATERIAL OF PACIFIC SPIRIT PARKTHEME NAME^: GEOLOGYDESCRIPTION : PARENT MATERIAL OF PSRPDEFAULT DATA TABLETABLE NAME^: GEOLOGY.DBFINDEXKEY_FIELD : P_LABELKEY-FIELD-WIDTH^: 16SOURCE FEATURE CLASSES FROM MAPBOUNDARIES (LINEAR)^: GEOLOGYDATABASE KEYS (TEXT) : GEOLOGY IDGROUND CONTROL POINTS OF PACIFIC SPIRIT PARKTHEME NAME^: CONTROL_POINTSDESCRIPTION : GROUND CONTROL POINTSDEFAULT DATA TABLETABLE NAME^: MONUMENT.DBFINDEXKEY_FIELD : P_LABELKEY-FIELD-WIDTH^: 1698SOURCE FEATURE CLASSES FROM MAPBOUNDARIES (LINEAR)^: MONUMENTSHYDROLOGY OF PACIFIC SPIRIT PARKTHEME NAME^: HYDROLOGYDESCRIPTION : WETLAND, BOG, AND RECHARGE AREASDEFAULT DATA TABLETABLE NAME^: HYDRO.DBFINDEXKEY_FIELD : P_LABELKEY-FIELD-WIDTH^: 16SOURCE FEATURE CLASSES FROM MAPBOUNDARIES (LINEAR)^:WATERLINEDATABASE KEYS (TEXT) : WATER IDLEGAL PROPERTY BOUNDARIES OF PACIFIC SPIRIT PARKTHEME NAME^: PSRP_PROPERTYDESCRIPTION : LAND PARCELS COMPRISING PSRPDEFAULT DATA TABLETABLE NAME^: PSRPROP.DBFINDEXKEY_FIELD : P_LABELKEY-FIELD-WIDTH^: 16SOURCE FEATURE CLASSES FROM MAPBOUNDARIES (LINEAR)^: PARK LS ROADDATABASE KEYS (TEXT) : PRK-ID TxPROPERTY OWNERSHIP AROUND PACIFIC SPIRIT PARKTHEME NAME^: PROPERTYDESCRIPTION : PROPERTIES SURROUNDING PRSPDEFAULT DATA TABLETABLE NAME^: PROPERT.DBFINDEXKEY_FIELD : P_LABELKEY-FIELD-WIDTH^: 16SOURCE FEATURE CLASSES FROM MAPBOUNDARIES (LINEAR)^: BLOCK BDRY99DATABASE KEYS (TEXT)^: BLK BR TXTSOILS OF PACIFIC SPIRIT PARKTHEME NAME^: SOILSDESCRIPTION : SOILS OF PSRPDEFAULT DATA TABLETABLE NAME^: SOILS.DBFINDEXKEY_FIELD : P_LABELKEY-FIELD-WIDTH^: 16SOURCE FEATURE CLASSES FROM MAPBOUNDARIES (LINEAR)^: SOILSDATABASE KEYS (TEXT) : SOIL IDTRAILS OF PACIFIC SPIRIT PARKTHEME NAME^: TRAILSDESCRIPTION : RECREATION TRAILS OF PSRPDEFAULT DATA TABLETABLE NAME^: TRAILS.DBFINDEX •KEY_FIELD : P_LABELKEY-FIELD-WIDTH^: 16SOURCE FEATURE CLASSES FROM MAPBOUNDARIES (LINEAR)^: TRAILSFOREST VEGETATION DAMAGE IN PACIFIC SPIRIT PARKTHEME NAME^: STRESSEDDESCRIPTION : LOCATION OF DAMAGED TREES IN PSRPDEFAULT DATA TABLETABLE NAME^: STRESS7.DBFINDEXKEY_FIELD : P_LABELKEY-FIELD-WIDTH^: 16SOURCE FEATURE CLASSES FROM MAPBOUNDARIES (LINEAR)^: VEG DAMAGE100WATERBODIES OF PACIFIC SPIRIT PARKTHEME NAME^: WATERDESCRIPTION : CREEKS WITHIN PSRPDEFAULT DATA TABLETABLE NAME^: WATER.DBFINDEXKEY FIELD : P LABELSOURCE FEATURE CLASSES FROM MAPBOUNDARIES (LINEAR)^: WATER101APPENDIX VII ATTRIBUTE DATA FILE STRUCTURE FOR EACH THEMEA description of the fields for each attribute theme fileare listed below:ATTRIBUTE FIELDS IN FILE FOREST.DBF 1  ASSOCIATED WITHFOREST COVER THEMEP LABELP AREAP PERIMP XP YP STAT-C,3,02-Label linking record to polygon-N,13,5-Area of each polygon-N,13,5-Perimeter of each polygon-N,10,2-X Coordinate of label-N,10,2-Y Coordinate of label-C,2,0-Status of polygon (linked, unlinked)FOR ASSOC-C,3,0-Forest association code (1-20)REMARKS -C,120,0-Textural based remarks for each polygonASSOC^-C,40,0-Full name of each forest associationpolygonCROWN DEN -N,3,0-Forest cover class (1-0-25%;2-26-50%;3-51-_ 75%,4- 76-100%).COVER TYPE-C,2,0-Major forest species cover type (conifer,or deciduous)-C,20,0-Name of the 1st most dominant tree species-N,4,2-Percent of species composition of 1st mostdominant tree species-N,4,0-Year of origin of 1st most dominant treespecies-N,4,1-Height in metres of 1st most dominant treespeciesTREE1PERCENT1ORIGIN1HEIGHT1 M1^The ending .DBF in a file specifies that the file is indBase format.2.^C or N identify the field as being character ornumeric. The two numbers following C and N indicatethe field width and the number of decimal places.102DIAM1 CM -N,4,1-Diameter at breast height of 1st mostdominant tree speciesTREE2^-C,20,0-Name of the 2nd most dominant tree speciesPERCENT2 -N,4,2-Percent of species composition of 2nd mostdominant tree speciesORIGIN2HEIGHT2-N,4,0-Year of origin of 2nd most dominant treespeciesM -N,4,1-Height in metres of 2nd most dominant treespeciesDIAM2 CMORIGIN3-N,4,1-Diameter at breast height of 2nd mostdominant tree species-C,20,0-Name of the 3rd most dominant tree species-N,4,2-Percent of species composition of 3rd mostdominant tree species-N,4,0-Year of origin of 3rd most dominant treespeciesTREE3PERCENT3HEIGHT3 M -N,4,1-Height in metres of 3rd most dominant treespeciesDIAM3 CM -N,4,1-Diameter at breast height of 3rd mostdominant tree speciesTREE4^-C,20,0-Name of the 4th most dominant tree speciesPERCENT4 -N,4,2-Percent of species composition of 4th mostdominant tree speciesORIGIN4 -N,4,0-Year of origin of 4th most dominant treespeciesHEIGHT4 M -N,4,1-Height in metres of 4th most dominant treespeciesDIAM4 CM -N,4,1-Diameter at breast height of 4th mostdominant tree speciesSHRUB1^-C,20,0-Name of 1st most dominant shrub species inthe understorySHRUB2^-C,20,0-Name of 2nd most dominant shrub species inthe understorySHRUB3^-C,20,0-Name of 3rd most dominant shrub species inthe understory103SHRUB4^-C,20,0-Name of 4th most dominant shrub species inthe understorySHRUB5^^-C,20,0-Name of 5th most dominant shrub species inthe understoryFERN1^-C,20,0-Name of 1st most dominant fern species inthe understoryFERN2^-C,20,0-Name of 2nd most dominant fern species inthe understoryFERN3^-C,20,0-Name of 3rd most dominant fern species inthe understoryHERB1^-C,20,0-Name of 1st most dominant herbaceousspecies in the understoryHERB2^-C,20,0-Name of 2nd most dominant herbaceousspecies in the understoryHERB3^-C,20,0-Name of 3rd most dominant herbaceousspecies in the understoryHERB4^-C,20,0-Name of 4th most dominant herbaceousspecies in the understoryMOSS1^-C,30,0-Name of 1st most dominant moss species inthe understoryMOSS2^-C,30,0-Name of 2nd most dominant moss species inthe understoryMOSS3^-C,30,0-Name of 3rd most dominant moss species inthe understoryMOSS4^-C,30,0-Name of 4th most dominant moss species inthe understoryATTRIBUTE FIELDS IN FILE GEOLOGY.DBF ASSOCIATED WITHSURFICIAL MATERIALS THEME P_ LABEL -C,3,0-Label linking record to polygonP AREA^-N,13,5-Area of each polygon_P _PERIM -N,13,5-Perimeter of each polygonP X^-N,10,2-X Coordinate of label_P Y^-N,10,2-Y Cooridnate of label_104P_STAT^-C,2,0-Status of polygon (linked, unlinked)QUAT DEP -C,4,0-Deposit type within the polygonREMARKS -C,60,0-Remarks for describing the geologyfeatures of the polygonATTRIBUTE FIELDS IN FILE HYDRO.DBF ASSOCIATED WITHSUB-SURFACE HYDROLOGY THEMEP_LABELP AREAP PERIMP XP YP_STAT-C,3,0-Label linking record to polygon-N,13,5-Area of each polygon-N,13,5-Perimeter of each polygon-N,10,2-X Coordinate of label-N,10,2-Y Coordinate of label-C,2,0-Status of polygon (linked, unlinked)HYDRO CLSS-C,2,0-Hydrology classification for the polygonATTRIBUTE FIELDS IN FILE MONUMENT.DBF ASSOCIATED WITHGROUND CONTROL POINTS THEMEP LABELP_ AREAP PERIMP XP YP_STAT-C,3,0-Label linking record to polygon-N,13,5-Area of each polygon-N,13,5-Perimeter of each polygon-N,10,2-X Coordinate of label-N,10,2-Y Coordinate of label-C,2,0-Status of polygon (linked, unlinked)ATTRIBUTE FIELDS IN FILE PROPERTY.DBF ASSOCIATED WITHLAND-USE THEME P_LABEL -C,3,0-Label linking record to polygonP AREA^-N,13,5-Area of each polygonP PERIM -N,13,5-Perimeter of each polygon105P X^-N,10,2-X Coordinate of labelP Y^-N,10,2-Y Coordinate of labelP STAT^-C,2,0-Status of polygon (linked, unlinked)LAND USE -C,20,0-Dominant land use within the polygonOWNER^-C,20,0-Owner of land in that polygonMUNICIPAL -C,20,0-Municipality in which the polygon islocatedREMARKS -C,150,0-Remarks related to the polygonATTRIBUTE FIELDS IN FILE PSRP.DBF ASSOCIATED WITHPROPERTY THEMEP LABEL -C,3,0-Label linking record to polygonP AREA^-N,13,5-Area of each polygonP PERIM -N,13,5-Perimeter of each polygonP X^-N,10,2-X Coordinate of labelP Y^-N,10,2-Y Coordinate of labelP STAT^-C,2,0-Status of polygon (linked, unlinked)PARK^-C,4,0-Name of park in which polygon lies (PSRP)DEPARTMENT-C,5,0-Name of the department responsible for themanagement of the land defined by the polygonLEGAL^-C,20,0-Legal description of the land defined bythe polygonOWNER^-C,4,0-Name of the owner of the land defined bythe polygonPCL ADDRES-C,20,0-Name of the PCL ADDRESS for the landdefined by the polygonMUNICIPAL -C,4,0-Municipality in which the land defined bythe polygon liesVENDOR^-C,10,0-Name of the previous owner of the landdefined by the polygonREMARKS -C,150,0-Remarks related to the land defined by106the polygonATTRIBUTE FIELDS IN FILE RASTER.DBF ASSOCIATED WITHPOLYGON GRID THEMEP_ LABEL -C,3,0-Label linking record to polygonP_ AREA^-N,13,5-Area of each polygonP _PERIM -N,13,5-Perimeter of each polygonP X^-N,10,2-X Coordinate of label_P Y^-N,10,2-Y Coordinate of labelP_ STAT^-C,2,0-Status of polygon (linked, unlinked)TREETYPE -C,10,0-Name of the dominant tree type damaged inthe square gridDAM_ 1^-C,8,0-The 1st most dominant damage type in thesquare gridNUMB _1^-N,2,0-Number of the 1st most dominant damage typein the square gridDAM_ 2^-C,8,0-The 2nd most dominant damage type in thesquare gridNUMB _2^-N,2,0-Number of the 2nd most dominant damage typein the square gridDAM_ 3^-C,8,0-The 3rd most dominant damage type in thesquare gridNUMB_ 3^-N,2,0-Number of the 3rd most dominant damage typein the square gridTOTAL^-N,3,0-Total number of damage type occurrences inthe square gridATTRIBUTE FIELDS IN FILE TRAIL.DBF ASSOCIATED WITHTRAIL THEMEP_ LABEL -C,3,0-Label linking record to polygonP AREA^-N,13,5-Area of each polygon_P _PERIM -N,13,5-Perimeter of each polygonP X^-N,10,2-X Coordinate of label_107P Y^-N,10,2-Y Coordinate of labelP STAT^-C,2,0-Status of polygon (linked, unlinked)TRAIL USE -C,2,0-Trail use of the linear featureTRAIL NO -C,3,0-Trail identification numberTRAIL COND-N,1,0-Condition of the trailTRL REMARK-C,100,0-Remarks related to the trailsATTRIBUTE FIELDS IN FILE WATER.DBF ASSOCIATED WITHWATERBODY (CREEKS) THEMEP LABEL -C,3,0-Label linking record to polygonP AREA^-N,13,5-Area of each polygonP PERIM -N,13,5-Perimeter of each polygonP X^-N,10,2-X Coordinate of labelP Y^-N,10,2-Y Coordinate of labelP STAT^-C,2,0-Status of polygon (linked, unlinked)RIVER NAME-C,20,0-Name of the riverCLASS^-C,1,0-Classification of the river based on waterflowFISH POPN -C,1,0-Occurrence of fish populations in the riverATTRIBUTE FIELDS IN FILE SOIL.DBF ASSOCIATED WITHSOILS THEMEP LABEL -C,3,0-Label linking record to polygonP AREA^-N,13,5-Area of each polygonP PERIM -N,13,5-Perimeter of each polygonP X^-N,10,2-X Coordinate of labelP Y^-N,10,2-Y Coordinate of labelP STAT^-C,2,0-Status of polygon (linked, unlinked)SOIL NAME -C,20,0-Name of soil type108CLSSFCTN -C,20,0-Soil classification typePRNT MTRLS -C,30,0-Name of parent materials_TOPOGRAPHY -C,20,0-Topography descriptionSLP TYPE -C,20,0-Slope type_PRCNT SLP -N,4,0-Percent slope_

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