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Creation of a geographic information system database of Pacific Spirit Park Helewa, Norman Thomas 1993

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CREATION OF A GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM DATABASE OF PACIFIC SPIRIT PARK by NORMAN THOMAS HELEWA B.Sc.Forestry, Lakehead University, 1989 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF FORESTRY THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Forest Resource Management)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February 1993 © Norman Thomas Helewa, 1993  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  (Signature)  Department of Forest Resource Management The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  ii ABSTRACT  Helewa, N.T. 1992. The creation of a geographic information system database of Pacific Spirit Park. Pacific Spirit Park is a 776.0 hectare urban park located on the Point Grey Peninsula in Vancouver, British Columbia. The park is managed by the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) for recreation opportunities and the preservation of the area's natural resources. Appropriate geographic data were collected and entered into a geographic information system (GIS) in order to create a spatial database of the park. Guidelines from published documents on database creation were followed in the development of the park database. Data collection and design of the database were based on the information requirements of the GVRD park staff (e.g., database users). Information requirements were derived from the activities carried out by the database users. The database could be used to examine the efficiency of activities carried out by park staff on a daily, weekly and yearly basis or assist University of British Columbia faculty and students with research and educational activities in the park. An extended example of how to use the Pacific Spirit Park database for park management was carried out. It exemplified how data on forest vegetation damage can be correlated with other environmental variables (e.g., soils, topography, forest cover, hydrology). Correlations were identified between forest vegetation damage and topography, areas with a high water table and along University Boulevard. The suggested course of action for GVRD park staff is to carry out additional research. Future research could compare the level of forest cover damage in Pacific Spirit Park with similar sites in Southwestern British Columbia, examine how the urban environment impacts the forest vegetation (e.g., damage, composition and growth) and how forest vegetation damage changes over time.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page ABSTRACT^  ii  LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES^  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS^  iX  1.00 INTRODUCTION^  1  1.10 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT SITE ^ 1.20 OBJECTIVES^  1 4  1.30 LITERATURE REVIEW^  4  1.31 Urban Park Management^ 1.32 Geographic Information Systems ^  4 6  2.00 METHOD^  16  2.10 DATABASE CREATION ^  16  ^ Definition of Information^ Requirements 16 21 GIS Hardware and^ Software 21 Data Collection ^ 22 Entry of Spatial ^ Data 23 Theme Processing ^ 26 Entry of Attribute Data ^ 26 Digital Terrain Model ^ 27 Data Output ^ 28 3.00 DATABASE CONTENTS 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18  3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12  Ground Control Points (GCPs) of Point Grey^28 Legal Property Boundaries of Pacific Spirit Park 31 34 Land Use in the Point Grey Area^ 37 Roads of the Point Grey Area^ Topography and Digital Terrain Model of Pacific ^39 Spirit Park Waterbodies (Creeks) of Pacific Spirit Park ^43 Forest Cover Associations of Pacific Spirit Park 46 52 Forest Vegetation Damage^ 57 Trails of Pacific Spirit Park^ 60 Soils of Pacific Spirit Park^ Surficial Materials of Pacific Spirit Park ^63 66 Hydrology of Pacific Spirit Park ^  iv 'Table of Contents Continued'  Page  4.00 FOREST VEGETATION DAMAGE ASSESSMENT^ 69 4.10 INTRODUCTION^  69  4.20 METHODS OF FOREST VEGETATION DAMAGE ASSESSMENT^69 4.21 Approach 1: Damage Type Occurrence ^ 4.22 Approach 2: arid Overlay ^  69 70  4.30 RESULTS OF FOREST VEGETATION DAMAGE ASSESSMENT^71 4.40 DISCUSSION OF FOREST VEGETATION DAMAGE ASSESSMENT 76 5.00 LIMITATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS ^  79  5.10 LIMITATIONS OF THE PACIFIC SPIRIT PARK DATABASE^79 ^ 5.20 POTENTIAL USES OF THE PACIFIC SPIRIT PARK 80 DATABASE 5.30 KNOWLEDGE GAINED FROM THIS PROJECT^  81  6.00 LITERATURE CITED ^  84  7.00 PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS ^  88  APPENDICES^  89  APPENDIX I^TERMINOLOGY^  90  APPENDIX II^ANNUAL COST SAVINGS RESULTING FROM ^91 THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A GIS APPENDIX III GVRD OPERATIONS^ 93 ^ ^ APPENDIX IV SPATIAL AND ATTRIBUTE DATA 96 SOURCES USED FOR THE CREATION OF THE PACIFIC SPIRIT PARK DATABASE APPENDIX V^DEFINITION OF THE DATABASE FEATURE^97 CLASSES APPENDIX VI^TERRASOFT DEFINITION FILES FOR THE^98 PROJECT THEMES APPENDIX VII ATTRIBUTE DATA FILE STRUCTURE FOR ^102 EACH THEME  LIST OF TABLES  Page Table 1 Strengths and weaknesses of the GIS raster and vector data models.^ 1 1 ^ Table 2 List of information requirements 20 for the GIS database of Pacific Spirit Park. The order of data types is from most to least accurate. Table 3 Themes that make up the database of Pacific 25 Spirit Park. Order of presentation is from most to least accurate. ^ Table 4 Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) 29 coordinates of the Vancouver Survey Monuments. ^ Table 5 Areas of the property parcels that 32 comprise Pacific Spirit Park. ^ Table 6 Land use classes in the Point 35 Grey Area. ^ Table 7 Summary of the creek types and length 44 in Pacific Spirit Park. ^ Table 8 Summary of selected forest cover 49 association data including area, crown closure, number of stands and dominant tree type. ^ Table 9 Description of forest vegetation damage 53 types from most to least severe. ^ Table 10 The number and types of conifer and 54 deciduous damage type occurrences. ^ Table 11 Summary of the trail types and number 57 of sections in Pacific Spirit Park. ^ Table 12 Area summary of the soil types in 61 Pacific Spirit Park. ^ Table 13 Area summary of the surficial materials 64 of Pacific Spirit.  vi  'List of Tables continued' Page ^ Table 14 Area summary of the hydrology 67 classes in Pacific Spirit Park. Table 15 Hours required for operations and inventory 94 activities carried out by GVRD park staff in 1991.  vii  LIST OF FIGURES  Page Figure 1 Location of Pacific Spirit Park 2 (black) and other Greater Vancouver Regional District managed parks within the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. ^ Figure 2 The Point Grey Peninsula showing the 3 location of Pacific Spirit Park, and the University of British Columbia. ^ Figure 3 The organization of spatial and related 8 information in a GIS. ^ Figure 4 Visualization of the raster and vector 9 data models. Figure 5 Hardware devices of a GIS workstation. ^12 ^ Figure 6 Software modules of a GIS - Terrasoft 13 ^ Figure 7 Location of the Vancouver Survey 30 Monuments. ^ Figure 8 Legal property parcels of Pacific 33 Spirit Park. ^ Figure 9 Land use in the Point Grey 36 Area. Figure 10 Roads of the Point Grey Area. ^ 38 Figure 11 Topography of the Point Grey Area. ^40 ^ Figure 12 Digital terrain model showing the 41 elevation classes of the Point Grey Area (Viewpoint at X=-4500 m, Y=4200 m and Z=2500. Vertical exaggeration is 2.5 times normal).  viii  'List of Figures continued' Page Figure 13 Slope characteristics of the Point^42 Grey Area (Viewpoint at X=-4500 m, Y=4200 m and Z=2500. Vertical exaggeration is 2.5 times normal). Figure 14 Creeks of Pacific Spirit Park.^ 45 Figure 15 Forest cover associations 1 through^50 10 in Pacific Spirit Park, excluding the foreshore area. ^ 51 Figure 16 Forest cover associations 11 through 20 in Pacific Spirit Park, excluding the foreshore area. ^ Figure 17 Location of trees displaying 55 the five commonest types of deciduous tree injury symptoms in Pacific Spirit Park. ^ 56 Figure 18 Location of trees displaying the four commonest types of coniferous tree injury symptoms in Pacific Spirit Park. Figure 19 Trails of Pacific Spirit Park. ^ 59 Figure 20 Soil types of Pacific Spirit Park. ^62 Figure 21 Surficial material of Pacific Spirit ^65 Park. Figure 22 Hydrology of Pacific Spirit Park. ^68 Figure 23 Location of forest vegetation damage ^72 occurrences. Figure 24 Location, where possible correlations ^73 between forest vegetation damage and topography and hydrology were identified. Figure 25 Location of forest vegetation damage ^74 along University Boulevard. Figure 26 The number of forest vegetation damage ^75 occurrences per hectare in Pacific Spirit Park derived by the polygon grid analysis.  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would like to thank the Greater Vancouver Regional District and more specifically the staff of Pacific Spirit Regional Park for their financial assistance with this project. I also wish to thank Professors Murtha and Kimmins of the Faculty of Forestry, Professor Klinkenberg and Mrs. M. North of the Department of Geography and Professor Jim Atwater of the Faculty of Engineering for their guidance and support.^I also wish to thank Jerry Maedel for his guidance and support with installing and operating computer hardware and software. Most of all I wish to thank my wife Jane for her love and support.  1  1.00 INTRODUCTION 1.10 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT SITE  Pacific Spirit Park was officially dedicated on April 23, 1989 and became the third largest urban regional park managed by the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD). Pacific Spirit Park and the University of British Columbia (UBC) are located on the Point Grey Peninsula (Figures 1 and 2). The peninsula extends out from the Lower British Columbia Mainland Coast into the Strait of Georgia. The approximate location of Pacific Spirit Park is between 49 13' and 49 15' latitude North and 123 17' and 123 21' longitude West. The City of Vancouver is to the east, UBC and the Straits of Georgia are to the west, English Bay to the North and the North Arm of the Fraser River to the south of Pacific Spirit Park. Pacific Spirit Park is located in the Maritime Coastal Hemlock Biogeoclimatic Zone. The park climate is characterized by a mean annual precipitation of 1200 millimeters, a mean annual temperature of 10.0 degrees Celcius, an annual growing period of 225 days and a westerly wind direction (Thompson, 1985). The park's 775.6 hectares (ha) of mostly second growth forest are managed by the GVRD for the preservation of the area's natural resources and recreation opportunities of Lower Mainland residents. Ecological surveys show that a large portion of the park land is environmentally sensitive and ecologically significant, containing unique animal and/or plant species (Pers. Comm.', Bean, 1991). 1^Pers. Comm. - personal communications are listed in Section 7.00 (page 88).  2  Lions Bay  LYNN HEADWATERS  CRIPPEN  •  West Vancouver  Bowen Island^1  CAPILANO  RIVER^forth  Vancouver  ctt  Pacific Spirit Regional Park  Coquitlam Port Coquitlam  °BURNABY LAKE  IONA BEACH  New Westminster  Richmond  Surrey  0^S^10 Scale in kilometres  MINNEKHADA  Port Moody  Bumaby Vancouver  Strait of Georgia  BELCARRA  BOUNDARY BAY  White Rock  Figure 1. Location of Pacific Spirit Park (black) and other Greater Vancouver Regional District managed parks within the Lower Mainland of British Columbia.  3  Spanish Banks  City of Vancouver  Roads Park Boundary S horeline  usquea Indian Reserve  Figure 2. The Point Grey Area showing the relative location of Pacific Spirit Park and the University of British Columbia.  4  Spatial data on various aspects of the park exist in numerous publications and at various scales, but are not readily accessible in one place. If this existing geographic data were combined with a geographic information system (GIS) (Appendix I) and a database of Pacific Spirit Park were constructed, then the GIS model could assist park staff with the management of Pacific Spirit Park. Secondary benefits such as assisting research, providing additional recreational opportunities or assisting education would result. A GIS can be used to carry out tasks that were once carried out manually such as production and updating of maps, scheduling and emergency response planning (Burrough, 1989). GIS technology may also provide urban park managers with a powerful tool for studying environmental processes. A GIS may also be used to explore a range of possible scenarios, obtain an idea of the consequences of a course of action and assist in the site selection of new park facilities (Burrough, 1989; Dangermond et al., 1984). 1.20 OBJECTIVES  The objectives of this study are to: 1.  Construct a GIS database of Pacific Spirit Park that will assist the GVRD with the management of the park.  2.  Demonstrate with an example how GIS technology and the Pacific Spirit Park database could be used for park management.  5 1.30 LITERATURE REVIEW 1.31 Urban Park Management  Urban park management encompasses the following types of functional activities: park planning, operations, maintenance, activity programming and interpretation (Fogg and Shiner, 1981). The appropriate application of these activities can result in a sustainable balance between the recreation needs of park users and the natural resources of a park (Fogg and Shiner, 1981). The development of a park management plan is a productive method for coordinating the activities (Pers. Comm. Bean, 1992). In 1991, the Pacific Spirit park Management Plan was developed. The components of an urban park management plan are a planning process, public consultation, history (e.g., land disturbance), policy program direction, and natural and recreation management. Public consultation is a time consuming aspect of developing a management plan. During the development of the Pacific Spirit Park Management Plan, 16 interest groups and 10 agencies were consulted (GVRD, 1991). The purpose of the 1991 Pacific Spirit Park Management Plan is to guide park staff in managing the resources and activities of Pacific Spirit Park (GVRD, 1991). The management plan provided direction and action for visitor use, park development, program operations and maintenance (GVRD, 1991). Direction and action took the form of operational activities that park staff carried out on a daily, weekly, monthly and annual basis. The monthly and yearly activities focused on park administration and planning. The daily and weekly activities focused on the patrol and maintenance of park facilities. ^The GVRD  6 allotted 400.0 person hours a week to accomplish the daily and weekly activities. However, these activities required 471.5 hours to complete. The time deficit meant that park staff worked overtime or did not complete all of the scheduled activities. Analysis of the daily and weekly activities with a GIS could have reduced the time deficit and/or associated the overtime costs. 1.32 Geographic Information Systems  Like other types of land use managers, urban park managers traditionally rely on a comprehensive inventory of the land area they manage. The most common medium for storing and displaying inventory information has been a paper map. The analysis of the inventory information involved the visual inspection of the map document coupled with intuitive analysis. Analysis of the spatial information was slow, subject to bias and calculation error (Marble, 1984). Substantial improvements in personal computer (PC) and workstation systems have made it much easier to apply computer technology to the problem of storing, manipulating and analyzing large volumes of spatial data. The most common forms of computer spatial information handling devices are referred to as 'Geographic Information Systems'(Marble, 1984). Many land managers view the adoption of GIS technology as a productive investment for dealing with the problems of planning development and spatial information processing (Dangermond et al., 1984). The technology also has a high potential for ecosystem modeling which is one of many potential environmental applications (Earth Observation Satellite Company, 1991). However, the actual use of GIS technology has remained modest. This has arisen from the lack of awareness of the value of these techniques and the  7 substantial investment needed to convert existing archival data into digital format (Townshend, 1991). Long-term monetary savings have been realized by using GIS technology. For example(s), the GIS GEOMAPS was implemented in a Regional US Forest Service Office in 1987 and provided annual savings of $ 287,000 US (Dickinson & Calkins, 1988), (Appendix II). A hydrological modeling study by planners in Hardford County, Maryland provided estimated savings of $ 175,000 (Foresman, 1992). Hardford County staff also estimate that the county has realized savings of approximately $ 200,000 by using a GIS to identify and prosecute pollution regulation offenders (Foresman, 1992). A GIS describes objects from the real world in terms of (a) their position with respect to a known coordinate system, (b) their attributes that are unrelated to position (e.g., color, cost, pH and incidence of disease) and (c) their spatial interrelations with each other (topological relations, which describe how they are linked together) (Burrough, 1989). The database of a GIS is composed of spatial and attribute data. Spatial data are organized into a series of layers (e.g., similar to overlays on a map) with similar information being stored on the same layer (Figure 3). Attribute information is organized as records in database files. A label is used to link related attribute and spatial data (Burrough, 1989). Geographic information systems differ according to the data model and the conventions established for their data (Aronoff, 1989). Data conventions refer to the data standards, functions and processing, manipulation and analysis procedures used with a GIS. The two types of GIS data models are raster and vector (Figure 4). In the raster  8  Spatial Information Linkage Related Attribute Data Files Lab&  Area(ha) Perimeter (m)  Lab&  Area(ha) Perimeter (m)  Label  A.rea(h  Label  Area(he) !Perimeter (m)  Label  Area(ha) Perimeter (m)  Label  Area(ha) Perimeter (m)  Label  .Area(ha) 1 Perirrieter (m)  ark boundary  f abet L  Label  )(7:abe)( rficial Material  \ f( Label^)  Perimeter (m)  j  fit^Label  •  Controlled by Graphics Modules ^Controlled by Database Management System  Figure 3. The organization of spatial and related information in a GIS (Note: Some of the information types were taken from Table 2, in Section 2.11).  9  Figure 4. Visualization of the raster and vector data models (Maguire and Dangermond, 1991).  10  model, the space is regularly divided into grid cells (usually square in shape). The location of geographic objects or conditions is defined by the row and column position of the cells they occupy. The area that each cell represents defines the spatial resolution available (Aronoff 1989). The vector data model organizes data on the basis of x and y coordinates, displacement and direction (Star and Estes, 1990). The distinction between raster and vector extends through the input, storage and manipulation stages of GIS use. Each data model has strengths and weaknesses (Table 1). The strengths and weaknesses define the suitability of a model for a particular project or task (Dangermond et al., 1984). For example, a vector data model is recommended for an urban park database. A vector data model provides an improved graphic resolution, a small file size, high level of spatial accuracy (e.g., required for urban properties which have a high value) and representation of topological relationships. A GIS workstation is composed of computer hardware and software. Workstation hardware may include a central processing unit (CPU), screen, hard disk drive, input (e.g., digitizer and scanner) and output devices (e.g., plotter and printer) (Figure 5).^GIS software is usually organized into program modules (Digital Resources Systems Limited (DRSL), 1991). For example, the GIS program Terrasoft contains the following program modules: graphics, utilities, database management system, theme processing, data output and digital terrain modeling (DTM) (Figure 6). A GIS database is created by carrying out a series of ordered steps in a creation plan. (Aronoff, 1989). The plan identifies the GIS users and their information requirements which are defined by identifying the tasks carried out by the GIS users. Part of the information requirements are the  11  Table 1. Strengths and weaknesses of the GIS raster and vector data models (Aronoff, 1989).  GIS Data Model^Strengths Raster  -It is a simple data structure. -Overlay operations are easily and efficiently implemented. -High spatial variability is efficiently represented in a raster format. -The raster format is required for efficient manipulation and enhancement of digital images.  Vector  -The vector model provides a more compact data structure than the raster model. -It provides efficient encoding of topology. -It has efficient implementation of operations that require topological information, such as network analysis. -The vector model is better suited to supporting graphics that closely approximate hand-drawn maps. Weaknesses  Raster  -The raster data structure is less compact. -Topological relationships are more difficult to represent. -Raster representation is less precise than the vector data model. -Rasterization adds an additional level of inaccuracy that is defined by the resolution of the raster cell.  Vector  -The data structure is more complex. -Overlay operations are more difficult to implement. -The representation of high spatial variability is inefficient. -Manipulation and enhancement of digital images cannot be effectively done in the vector domain.  12  SCREEN VIDEO DISPLAY UNIT  COMPUTER PROCESSING UNIT  Figure 5 Hardware devices of a GIS workstation.  GIS GRAPHICS MODULE -Used to enter. display and analyze spatial data  RELATIONAL DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM -Used to enter. report on and maintain related attribute data  GIS UT1UTIES MODULE -Used to maintain and edit files and layers and allow communication betw'n modules THEME PROCESSING MODULE -Used to define themes and link spatial and attribute data  DIGITAL TERRAIN MODULE -Generate 3 D models of the earths surface  MAIN GIS SOFTWARE MODULES  GIS OUTPUT MODULE -Used to printout maps and attribute data reports  Figure 6. Software modules of a GIS - Terrasoft (DRSL, 1991).  14 development of standards for data scale, precision and accuracy (Aronoff, 1989). A significant portion of the required data may be collected from existing sources. In cases where the collected data does not meet the established data standards, a field inventory may be required. Information requirements are also used in the design of the GIS database. In the database design each spatial data type is stored on a separate layer. Display (e.g., line colour and width) and where applicable geometric (e.g., symbol for a house) standards are specified for each layer. Related attribute data are stored in one or more files. The database design specifies the name, width, type and data code for each field. The database design specifies the location of all data that are entered into the database. Spatial data in map-form are electronically digitized while spatial data in survey form (e.g., written coordinates, distances and angles) is entered with a computer keyboard (e.g., coordinate geometry - COGO). Spatial data of the same type are stored in the same layer. Related attribute information is keyboard entered into a relational database management program. Following data entry, associated spatial and attribute data are processed and linked. Processing includes the correction of data input errors, the removal of duplicate linework, polygon formation and the linkage of polygons to related attribute records (DRSL, 1991). Related information types (e.g., lakes and rivers) are processed and stored as components of the same theme. The analysis capabilities of a GIS fall into the following categories: local (e.g., overlaying forest vegetation damage  15  and hydrology layers to identify relationships ); local neighbourhood (e.g., the generation of a slope profile or theme from contour elevations); extended neighborhood (e.g., buffering of creeks in Pacific Spirit Park); zones (e.g., calculation of the perimeter and area of a group of forest cover polygons) and layer (e.g., the generation of a histogram showing the distribution of forest vegetation damage types) (Pers. Comm. Klinkenberg, 1991). The output module of a GIS is used for plotting maps and printing reports of the spatial analysis. Some GIS programs can generate a 3 D surface of a digital map. Digital terrain models require the definition of a surface by x, y and z values, in a known coordinate system (Raper & Kelk, 1991). Surfaces are derived from contour and spot height data. Benefits that DTMs provide to urban park managers include a bird's eye view of the landscape, the generation of new data (e.g., slope, aspect and elevation class themes), visualization (e.g., locating forest cutovers) and water drainage analysis (DRSL, 1991).  16 2.00 METHOD 2.10 DATABASE CREATION  The methods used to create the database for Pacific Spirit Park followed procedures that were detailed by Aronoff, 1989; De Man, 1988; Rhine & Green, 1988; Star and Estes, 1990 and Digital Resources Systems Limited, 1991. The procedures followed eleven steps: 1. 2. 3.  Define project objective(s). Identify potential GIS users. Assess tasks and duties currently performed by the potential users. 4. Define GIS applications to assist with the current tasks and duties of the users. 5. Define database data requirements. 6. Define data quality control. 7. Design database. 8. Select GIS hardware and software. 9. Collect data. 10. Enter data. 11. Link data (e.g., theme processing). 2.11 Definition of Information Requirements  Definition of the information requirements was carried out by (i) identifying the future user(s) of the Pacific Spirit Park database and (ii) identifying how a GIS may assist the users with the tasks that they carry out on a daily, weekly, monthly and yearly basis. Park staff and UBC members (e.g., faculty and staff) were identified as the users of the Pacific Spirit Park database. A GVRD report (GVRD, 1991) (Appendix III) listed the following tasks as being performed by park staff on a daily  17 and weekly basis: vehicle patrol, garbage collection, maintenance of toilet facilities, trails use counts, picking up litter on the beaches and road edges, beach and trail patrols, equipment maintenance, water sampling, grass cutting, trail maintenance, special projects, monitoring and prevention of vandalism, daily diary and journal entries, and administrative duties. Tasks that were carried out by park staff on a monthly and yearly basis included budgeting, public presentations and workshops, report writing and planning. The use of UBC members for Pacific Spirit Park are of two kinds. The first use is for field trips. The second is more intensive, requiring the management of small parcels of land for demonstration purposes and the conduct of research (UELST, 1977). Departments and faculties that make use of Pacific Spirit Park include Forestry, Agricultural Sciences, Geography, Biology, Resource Management and Planning (UELST, 1977; GVRD, 1991). The 1991 Pacific Spirit Park Management Plan recognizes that past education and research by UBC members has greatly contributed to the current knowledge of the park. The 'action items' of the plan explicitly encourage future research work with UBC members. For example, the 1991 Pacific Spirit Park Management Plan (page 33) states that the GVRD should "work with Federal and Provincial fisheries agencies, UBC Resource Management, and the Musqueam Indian Band in an effort to protect, restore and enhance the fish habitat in the Musqueam and Cutthroat Creek Systems". The Park Operations Supervisor (Pers. Comm. Bean, 1992) suggested that a GIS could possibly assist park staff with the management of Pacific Spirit Park. A GIS could be used  18 for the following tasks: 1.  Production of paper or mylar maps for operational and presentation purposes.  2.  Maintaining a database that describes the condition of recreation facilities and trails (e.g., condition and characteristics of buildings, maintenance of trails and picnic areas).  3.  Identify and document the spatial and textural characteristics of utility and right-of-way corridors that traverse park property (e.g., roads, electric and gas lines).  4.  The updating of changes to the physical and ecological characteristics (e.g., topography, hydrology, surficial materials, soils and vegetation) of the database.  5.  Rapid access to the information in the database that describes the characteristics of the park.  6.  Assist park staff with planning and site selection for new recreation facilities (e.g., buildings, picnic areas, trails).  7.  Emergency operations in and around Pacific Spirit Park (e.g., forest fire suppression).  8.  Public consultation and the rapid response to public inquiries -- even a spatial display on a personal computer at the proposed visitor centre.  9.^Identifying changes to the park's characteristics resulting from new urban development in vicinity to the park (e.g., Hampton Place).  19 10.  Identification of problem areas in the park (e.g., vandalism and soil erosion along the foreshore).  11.  Allow park staff to monitor research sites and impacts in the park (e.g., locations of permanent sample plots, archeological sites and forestry exercise locations).  12.  Management of wildlife habitat.  13.  Identifying the location of rare or endangered flora and fauna.  14. Efficient scheduling of daily and weekly park staff tasks. The Pacific Spirit Park database could assist UBC users in the following ways: 1.  Spatial information source for research studies.  2.  Selection of research sites based on specified parameters (e.g., vegetation cover, altitude and proximity to creek).  3.^As an enhancement to courses in forestry, agricultural sciences, geography, resource management and biology that already use the park for field trips and projects. The information entered into the database were based on the information requirements of the project's financial sponsor (GVRD) and the availability of data. The sponsor's information requirements were based on the tasks carried out by park staff. Information was classed into the following types: biotic (B)(living); abiotic (Ab) (non-living); administrative (A) and research (R) classes (Table 2).  20  Table 2. List of information requirements for the GIS database of Pacific Spirit Park. The order of data types are from most to least accurate.  Data Type  ^  Class^Accuracy  Ground control points^Administrative (A) Most Legal property boundaries^A Land use classes^A Roads^ A Topography^ Abiotic (Ab) Waterbodies (creeks) ^Ab Forest cover'^ Biotic (B) Tree damage symptoms'^B Trails^ A Soils^ Ab Surficial materials ^Ab Hydrology'^ Ab^ Least 'data types that were recognized as needed, but due to financial limitations were not collected' Climate^ Ab Park facilities^A Rare flora and fauna 2^B Research sites 2^Research (R) Right-of-way corridors^A Urban development^A Wildlife habitat^B  1^Data missing for portions of Pacific Spirit Park. 2^Restricted access.  21 2.12 GIS Hardware and Software  An IBM PC in combination with a digitizer, plotter and GIS software Terrasoft ) (version 10.01) were used as a GIS workstation. These software packages were available in the Forest Information for Resource Management Systems (FIRMS) remote sensing and GIS laboratory in the Faculty of Forestry at UBC. Terrasoft is a PC based GIS program that uses a vector data model and dBASE IV 2 as the database management system (GIS World, 1991). Terrasoft is a product of Digital Resources Systems Limited of Nanaimo, British Columbia. The Terrasoft 3 GIS had minimal hardware requirements (e.g., 80286 processor, math co-processor, 640 kilobytes of random access memory and a 40 megabyte hard disk drive) and was available in the FIRMS laboratory. 2.13 Data Collection  Data were collected from the following sources: UEL Study Team reports, research projects, provincial and municipal offices and reports and the GVRD. The source, scale (for spatial data) and date of creation of the collected data were recorded (Appendix IV). The limited financial resources of this project restricted data collection to existing information. Information was not available for wildlife habitat, the location of rare flora and fauna and right-of-way corridors, park recreation facilities, climate and research activities. Forest cover information was not available for the foreshore areas and vegetation damage was not available north of Fourth Avenue. 1^Registered trademark of Digital Resources Systems Limited, Nanaimo, B.C. 2^Registered trademark of the Ashton-Tate Corporation (at time of use). 3^Trade names are given for reader convenience and should not be taken as product endorsement.  22 2.14 Entry of Spatial Data  The following steps were carried out to enter spatial data (e.g., polygon, line segments and features) into the Pacific Spirit Park database: 1.  Coordinate Establishment: The spatial size, scale and projection system were selected for the database. A scale of 1:20,000 and Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection system were selected. The spatial size (extent) of the database was defined by specifying the origin and maximum points. The UTM coordinates of the origin and maximum points were 480000 Easting (E) and 5454500 Northing (N) and 487000 E and 5461500 N, respectively. The size of the database was 7.0 by 7.0 km or 49 square kilometers.  2.  Feature Class Definition: Spatial data were stored in 23 layers called feature classes (Appendix V). Definition of a feature class included a descriptive name, colour, line type and thickness, text height and shading pattern. Proper definition of the layers is time well spent, since it results in fewer problems later on with the editing, updating, display and analysis of the data.  3.^Survey Monument Location: A map showing the location of the 13 City of Vancouver survey monuments (Ministry of the Environment Lands and Parks (MELP), 1990) was fixed onto a digitizer. The x and y coordinates of each monument were keyboard-entered into Terrasoft and the location on the map digitized. The survey monuments were stored in the feature class 'Monuments'. Statistics showing the level of error registration (residual error) were generated by the Terrasoft program. The level of error registration was not  23  allowed to exceed 0.2 percent or 14.0 m. An acceptable level of error registration has not been published by the developers of Terrasoft. In this study, experimation with the map registration process showed prior to data entry that error varied with the scale and accuracy of the map. At a level of 0.2 percent or less a cursor placed over a monument location also appeared over the same point on the computer screen. At greater than 0.2 percent the cursor on the screen was visibly offset from the monument location. The locations of the survey monuments were used as ground control points (GCPs) for the map registration of subsequent data. 4.  The remaining data types were entered in the order presented in Table 2. Entering data from most to least accurate meant that the more accurate data could be used to correct the less accurate data.  5.  Spatial linework was carefully digitized and checked against the source data. Textural labels were placed with data that would later undergo theme processing. Theme processing is detailed in section 2.15.  2.15 Theme Processing The theme processing module of Terrasoft was used to link the records of the attribute files to related spatial data. The Pacific Spirit Park database is composed of feature, network and area themes. Feature themes (e.g., survey monument location) comprise point, line, arc or text features that are individually related to a set of attributes in one or more database tables. Network themes (e.g., trails) are line segments composed of links and nodes that are connected end-to-end in a topological structure  24 known as a network. Area themes (e.g., legal property parcels) are polygons that encompass a finite area. Polygons represent homogeneous areas that do not overlap (DRSL, 1991). Themes were defined by the following theme variables: description, database file name, key and the layer(s) on which the spatial data were stored (Appendix VII). Theme processing required the following steps: 1.  Cleaning, whereby duplicate data points from overlapping line features were removed.  2.  Breaking of line-work, such that intersections between line-line, line-arc, and arc-arc feature types were resolved.  3.  Snapping to ensure that the end points of all line-work were closed.  4.  Removal of unconnected lines or dangles.  6.  Creation of polygons, line segments or features.  7.  Linkage to textural labels, which function as unique identifiers for the related attribute records and files created in Section 2.16.  8.^Theme processing of the data resulted in the creation of 10 themes (Table 3).  25  Table 3. Themes that make up the database of Pacific Spirit  Park. Order of presentation is from most to least accurate.  Theme Name  ^  Theme Type^Estimated Level of Error' (metres)  Ground control points^Feature^1.0 Legal property boundaries^Area^1.0 Land use in the Point Grey Area^Area^5.0 Waterbodies (Creeks)^Network^20.0 Forest cover associations^Area^25.0 Forest vegetation damage^Feature^25.0 Network^25.0 Trails^ Area^25.0 Soils^ Surficial materials^Area^25.0 Sub-surface hydrology^Area^25.0  1.^Estimated level of error is a guideline for the data's use and refers to the estimate of spatial reliability of the data relative to the data's true ground position. The estimates are based on the author's familiarity of the data, data sources and data entry procedures.  26 When appropriate data becomes available, themes could be created for climate, park facilities, rare flora and fauna, research sites, right-of-way corridors, urban development and wildlife habitat. 2.16 Entry of Attribute Data  For each theme listed in Table 3, a separate dBASE file with numerous fields was created. The files contain related attribute data that describe the characteristics of the spatial data entered in section 2.14. The fields and field descriptions of each file are listed in Appendix VI. The number of fields in the 10 files ranged from 7 to 47. 2.17 Digital Terrain Model  The DTM module of Terrasoft was used to generate a 3 D surface and slope and elevation profiles of Pacific Spirit Park. Since Terrasoft version 10.02 did not have a DTM module, the entire Pacific Spirit Park database was exported and translated to Terrasoft version 9.30. Translation was necessary as versions 9.30 and 10.02 have different file formats. In the translated file format, the elevation contours were stored in level 5. The contours were processed with a routine that used an inverse weighted average equation to generate a 3 D surface. The equation calculated the inverse weighted average of the elevations between each of the horizontal, vertical and diagonally closest contours (DRSL, 1989). Perspective and radial views of the DTM were then generated. Slope class profiles in 5.0 percent increments and elevation class profiles in 40.0 m increments were also generated.  27  2.18 Data Output The data output module of Terrasoft was not used to produce maps for this document. Terrasoft is an ideal GIS for the video display of spatial data, but is less than ideal for the production of page-sized maps. The paper maps in this thesis are less-than-perfect facsimiles of the video display. Terrasoft also does not have a visual print option, one that allows the GIS user to see or edit a map sent to output. A senior executive of Digital Resources Systems Limited (Pers. Comm. Dennis Anderson, 1992) recommended the use of a screen capture program called Hijaakl. Desired outputs were displayed on the screen at appropriate scales (e.g., 1:2,000 to 1:35,000) and captured for processing by Hijaak. This process overrides Terrasoft and activated the program Hijaak. Hijaak was then used to convert the captured screen images to a bitmap format (e.g., *.BMP). Legends, north arrows and editing changes were added to the screen images in Microsoft Paintbrush 2 .  1^Product of Hijaak Corporation. 2^Registered trademark of the Microsoft Corporation.  28  3.00 DATABASE CONTENTS 3.01^Ground Control Points (GCPs) of Point Grey  The GCPs used for map registration were part of a 'City of Vancouver Survey Monuments Grid' (Table 4), (MELP), 1990). The 13 survey monuments were located on the east side of Pacific Spirit Park. The location of each monument was described by x, y and z UTM coordinates (Figure 7). The monuments were used as GCPs for the project and the 1990 legal survey of Pacific Spirit Park. The distribution of GCPs along the eastern portion of the study area was less than optimal for map registration. For map registration the GCPs should have been distributed across the study area in an even grid pattern (DRSL, 1991). However, the location and coordinates of survey monuments in Pacific Spirit Park and UBC were not published or available at the time of database creation. The spatial information on the westside of the study area will therefore be less accurately placed than the spatial information on the east side. However, the small area represented by the database minimized registration error resulting from the less than optimal GCP distribution.  29  Table 4. Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates of the Vancouver Survey Monuments (MELP, 1990).  Monument  Easting (x)  Northing (Y)  Elevation (z)  V2990  485971.218  5455624.130  23.655  V3547  484632.572  5458240.322  90.739  V3296  484641.893  5458660.624  92.034  V3350  484616.717  5458460.632  89.396  V3297  484625.670  5458867.498  90.551  V3373  484238.796  5459660.820  86.310  V3374  484322.714  5459431.449  89.676  V3404  484511.096  5459421.313  92.014  V3378  484101.913  5460120.321  49.456  V3379  483989.341  5460065.145  49.025  V3384  484654.988  5460200.926  3.966  V3385  484370.420  5460272.541  3.306  V3347  485501.407  5458219.238  77.638  30  LEGEND Ground Control Points" Roads Park Boundary Shoreline  1000 metres  Figure 7 Location of the Vancouver Survey Monuments (MELP, 1990).  31 3.02^Legal Property Boundaries of Pacific Spirit Park A 1990 legal survey of Pacific Spirit Park showed that the park's 775.6 ha were divided into 14 property parcels (Table 5 and Figure 8). Since the legal survey was tied to survey monuments, recently carried out (1990), performed by certified professionals, and required to meet legal standards for accuracy, the data were considered very accurate. To maintain the high level of accuracy the angles and distances of the property lines were keyboard entered into the database (e.g., COGO). The largest parcel, P768-014-0000, was 353.30 ha in size and comprised the park area between Sixteenth Avenue and Southwest Marine Drive. The remaining land parcels were smaller than 89.81 ha. The legal survey of Pacific Spirit Park used the Vancouver Survey Monuments as GCPs. The property boundaries of parcel numbers P768-018-0000 and P768-019-0000 were from the original 1913 survey of the Point Grey area. The 1913 survey data were entered into the database, but the shoreline was adjusted with data from a 1954 survey of the Point Grey Peninsula by Perks. At the time of database creation the 1954 survey was the most recently available data that encompassed the entire shoreline. The high tide line (shoreline) of the foreshore area (from Perk's survey) was digitized into the PARK_ LS _ROAD feature class and connected to the existing linework. When new survey data for the foreshore area becomes available, the database should be updated.  32  Table 5. Areas of the property parcels that comprise Pacific Spirit Park (GVRD, 1990).  Property Parcel Names  Area (ha)  P768-013-0010  9.9  P768-014-0000  353.3  P768-014A-000  26.1  P768-015-0000  86.6  P768-016-0000  15.6  P768-017-0000  27.2  P768-018-0000 1  16.3  P768-019-0000 1  21.6  P768-021-0000  20.8  P768-022-0000  89.8  P768-023-0000  5.0  P768-024-0000  52.1  P768-025-0000  9.7  P768-026-0000  41.6  Total  775.6  1^Shoreline was adjusted with Perks 1954 survey.  33  P768-021-0000  768-  24-0000 P768-023-0000  \\. (  P768-019-0000  I.  P768-025-0000  P768-018-0000^  S:768-026-0000  P768-014A-000  P768-014.0000  P768-013-000  LLEGEND Park Property Boundary  P768-017-000  r  P768-015-0000  P768-016-0000  N 1000 metres  Figure 8. Legal property parcels of Pacific Spirit Park (GVRD, 1990).  34 3.03^Land use in the Point Grey Area  Land use in the Point Grey Area has been organized into 7 classes (Table 6 and Figure 9). The class Musqueam Indian Reserve refers to the land ceded to the Musqueam Indian Tribe. The Educational Institutions class included primary, secondary and post-secondary institutions. The Golf Course class refers to the University Golf Course. The GVRD class refers to the land occupied by Pacific Spirit Park. The Religious Facilities class includes places of worship and associated facilities. The class Utility refers to transformer facilities operated by BC Hydro. The total land area in the database is 2164.6 ha. The land-use data were derived from a 1977 University Endowment Lands Study Team report. The data were checked for changes in land-use with a 1990 Map of the Vancouver Area. Land use in the City of Vancouver area is entirely classed as residential. Other land uses do exist in this area, but are outside of the projects data requirements as the features do not surround (e.g., UBC) or directly border Pacific Spirit Park.  35  Table 6^Land use classes in the Point Grey Area (UELST, 1977).  Land Ownership Classes Musqueam Indian Reserve Educational Institutions Golf Course Regional Park(Pacific Spirit Park) Religious Facilities Residential Utility Facilities  Total  Area (Ha) 93.9 400.9 82.4 776.0 1.9 808.8 0.7  2164.6  36  Musqueam I.R. Cducational Inst. G di Course GVRD Religious Facilities Residential Utility Facitilies Roads  Figure 9 Land use in the Point Grey Area (UELST, 1977).  37  3.04^Roads of the Point Grey Area  The road data for the Pacific Spirit Park database originate from two sources (Figure 10). The first source is the 1990 legal survey of Pacific Spirit Park. The second source is the UBC planning maps. Both sources are considered to be very accurate. The roads from the planning maps were digitized into the database. However, alleyways, driveways, sidewalks and paths were outside the scope of this project and not entered into the database.  38  Figure 10 Roads of the Point Grey Area (GVRD, 1990; UBC,1981).  3 9  3.05^Topography and Digital Terrain Model of Pacific Spirit Park  The topography of Pacific Spirit Park lies between 0.0 and 128.0 m. above sea level. Most of the park is characterized by a gently sloping upland area between 70.0 and 128.0 m. above sea level (Figure 11). The remainder of the park is characterized by steep slopes (e.g., foreshore areas). The DTM module was used to generate elevation (40.0 m increments) (Figure 12) and slope (5 percent increments) (Figure 13) class profiles. Most of the park has slopes between 0.0 and 10.0 percent. The elevation and slope profiles are new data generated from existing data in the database. In Perk's (1954) survey, 10.0 foot elevation contours were used to show the topography of Pacific Sprit Park. The steep slopes of the shoreline areas resulted in the contour lines being very close together. To minimize digitizing error, every third contour was digitized into the database, creating a contour interval of approximately 10.0 m. In areas without steep slopes the 10.0 foot contours were entered into the database as 3.1 m contours. When the Topographic Resource Inventory Mapping (TRIM) data become available for Pacific Spirit Park, the GVRD should consider replacing the existing topography information with the TRIM data. The TRIM files identify elevations with a 10.0 m contour intervals. Comparison of the two datasets would allow for an analysis of topography changes (e.g., soil erosion).  40  LEGEND 3 m Contours ^ 10 m Contours ^ Shoreline 128 Elevation Above Sea Level  Figure 11 Topography of the Point Grey Area (Perks, 1954).  Note:  ^  The scale of this map presentation is not amenable to showing precise topographic contours. Larger maps must be plotted for greater accuracy.  41  Figure 12 Digital terrain model showing the elevation classes of the Point Grey Area (Viewpoint at X=-4500 m, Y=4200 m and Z=2500. Vertical exaggeration is 2.5 times normal.).  42  Figure 13 Slope characteristics of the Point Grey Area (Viewpoint at X=-4500 m, Y=4200 m and Z=2500. Vertical exaggeration is 2.5 times normal).  43  3.06^Waterbodies (Creeks) of Pacific Spirit Park Pacific Spirit Park contains 6 creeks that drain in either a north or south direction. Musqueam Creek is the longest and only year-round creek in Pacific Spirit Park (Table 7 and Figure 14). The 5 remaining creeks are intermittent, not flowing during periods of drought (Perks, 1954; GVRD, 1990).  44 Table 7 Summary of the creek types and length in Pacific Spirit Park (Perks, 1954; GVRD, 1990).  Name  ^  Musqueam Creek  River Body Class^Length (metres)  ^  Continuous^ 4124.0  Remaining Creeks^Intermittent^13391.0  Total^  17415.0  45  Figure 14 Creeks of Pacific Spirit Park (Perk, 1954; GVRD, 1990).  46  3.07^Forest Cover Associations of Pacific Spirit Park  The surveyed forest vegetation associations of Pacific Spirit Park covered 688.4 ha and were divided into 20 different associations and 198 forest stands. The names of the forest associations are those used by Thomson (1985). The original names have been used in the database and are listed below (Table 8 and Figures 15 and 16): 1 1 . Hardhack (Spiraea douglasii Hook.) - Salmonberry (Rubus spectablis Pursh.) - Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium L.). 2.  Red Alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) - Salmonberry.  3.  Bitter Cherry (Prunus emarginata Dougl.) - Willow (Salix L.) - Trailing Blackberry (Rubus macropetalus Dougl.).  4.  Bigleaf Maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh.) - Spiny Wood Fern (Dryopteris assimilis (S). Walker).  5.  Cascara (Rhamnus purshiana DC (Frangula section) Mountain Ash (Sorbus aucuparia L.) - Deer Fern (Blechnum spicant L. Roth).  6.  Vine Maple (Acer circinatum Pursh.) - Red Elderberry (Sambucus racemosa L.).  7.  Red Alder - Western Red Cedar (Thu a plicata Donn.) Red Huckleberry (Vaccinium parvifolium SM.).  8.  Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziessii (Mirb.) Franco) Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn) - Stokesiella oregana.  9.  Douglas Fir - Salal (Gaultheria shallon Pursh.) Plagiothecium undulatum (Hedw.) B.S.G.  10. Western Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) Mnium glabrescens Amann.  1^The numbers in Table 8 and Figures 15 and 16 refer to the above forest associations. Numbers 1 to 20 are used in the database queries for the Forest Association theme.  47 11. Western Red Cedar - English Holly 12.  Western Hemlock - Douglas Fir - Stokesiella praelonga.  13.  Western Red Cedar - Western Hemlock - Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.).  14.  Pacific Crabapple (Malus fusca Schneid) - Hardhack Wild Lily-of-the-Valley (Maianthemum bifolium (Wood))- Skunk Cabbage (Lysichiton americanum Hullen and St John).  15.  Shore Pine (Pinus contorta var. contorta Dougl.)- White Birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) - Western Hemlock Salal.  16.  Western Hemlock - Salmonberry.  17.  Western Hemlock - Red Huckleberry - Plagiothecium undulatum.  18.  Western Hemlock - Salal - Labrador Tea (Ledum groenlandicum OED).  19.  Pond Association (e.g., Camosun Bog).  20.  Salal - Labrador Tea - Bracken - False Lily-of-theValley  Douglas Fir - Salal - Plagiothecium undulatum (association number # 9) forest association occupied the largest area (128.8 ha). The association with the smallest area was the Salal - Labrador Tea (#20) forest association (0.20 ha). The forest association with the largest number of forest stands (27 stands) was the Red Alder - Western Red Cedar Red Huckleberry (#7). Two forest associations Shore Pine White Birch - Western Hemlock - Salal (#15) and Pond Association (#19) were made up of one stand each (Thomson, 1985). The coniferous forest cover of Pacific Spirit Park covered an area of 343.4 ha (50 percent (%) of the forested area). The deciduous forest cover of Pacific Spirit Park covered an area of 345.0 ha (50 % of the forested area). The crown  48 closure, the proportion of area covered by the tree's crown was between 51.0 and 100.0 percent (Watts, 1983). The crown closure also indicates the percentage of the forest understory that is exposed to direct sunlight. The area for each association is derived from Thompson's (1986) map. Thompsons use of an un-corrected single aerial photograph as the map-base created significant errors in area calculations for the forest associations. Errors would result from tilt and relief displacement and area exaggeration near the edges of the photograph. The very accurate legal boundary data were used to correct the area and boundaries of the forest associations.  49 Table 8 Summary of selected forest association data including area, crown closure, number of stands and dominant tree type in Pacific Spirit Park, excluding foreshore area (Thomson, 1985). Association 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Total  Area (Ha) 28.8 68.1 19.4 25.4 5.2 92.1 105.3 5.0 128.8 57.7 40.7 23.2 67.4 0.7 0.3 6.6 10.7 0.7 0.8 0.2  ^  Number Stands  Crown Closure' 2-4 2-4 2-4 3 3 3-4 1-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3 3 3 3-4 4 3-4 3 3-4  688.4^  15 20 14 8 2 16 27 5 25 11 4 6 11 2 1 3 2 7 1 4 198  1^Crown Closure 1:0-25 %; 2:26-50 %; 3:51-75 %; 4:76-100%.  Dominant Tree Type Deciduous Deciduous Deciduous Deciduous Deciduous Deciduous Deciduous Conifer Conifer Conifer Conifer Conifer Conifer Deciduous Conifer Conifer Conifer Conifer Conifer Conifer  50  Figure 15 Forest associations 1 through 10 in Pacific Spirit Park, excluding the foreshore area (Thomson, 1985).  51  Figure 16 Forest associations 11 through 20 in Pacific Spirit Park, excluding the foreshore area (Thomson, 1985).  52 3.08^Forest Vegetation Damage A photo interpretation study of tree injury symptoms was completed in 1989 from 1:4000 normal colour aerial photographs. The study area included UBC and GVRD property (e.g., Pacific Spirit Park) south of Fourth Avenue. All trees displaying symptoms of injury were noted on the photographs. Eight types of injury were seen and these types are described in Table 9. The tree injury symptoms are called damage types in this study, after Murtha 1972. A total of 2,705 forest damage occurrences were identified in the surveyed portion of Point Grey (Table 10), and the location of each occurrence was entered into the database using UTM coordinates. The number of deciduous damage type occurrences (Figure 17) exceeded the conifer damage type occurrences (Figure 18) by 389 or 14.4 % of the total number. In contrast two hundred and four of the 234 dead trees (type I) were conifersl. The remaining 30 dead trees were deciduous. The large number of dead conifer trees may indicate that the conifer trees were more susceptible to damage or that damage was more severe among conifers. Among conifer damage types, damage type VIII had the smallest number of occurrences, while type VI had the greatest. Among deciduous damage types, type IV had the smallest number of occurrences, while type VI had the greatest.  1^In the 1989 photo interpretation study, a dead tree is considered as a tree that is at the most advanced stage of damage. Such a tree would have progressed from a less severe damage state to its present dead state.  53  Table 9 Description of forest vegetation damage types from most to least severe.  Types^Description ^ Tree dead, bark exfoliated, exposed wood I bleached whitish through weathering (long dead tree; conifer and deciduous). ^ Recently dead, defoliated tree. The limbs and II branches maintain bark and are dark toned on the photographs.  III^The tree is recently dead. The entire crown shows dead, red brown foliage. IV^Terminal leader or upper branches dead and defoliated, lower crown still retains green foliage. V  ^  VI  ^  Terminal portion of a conifer crown, or varying amounts of foliage in the upper portion of a deciduous crown, display dead, red-brown foliage.  A thin-crowned tree, premature loss of inner branch foliage, inner crown branches visible on aerial photographs, current foliage is present.  VII^Entire crown is yellowed. VIII  ^  Some foliage yellowed, most of the tree crown is not yellowed and residual foliage is the normal green hue.  54  Table 10 The number and types of coniferous and deciduous damage type occurrences.  CONIFER TREES  DECIDUOUS TREES  Damage^Number of Percent Types^Occurrences of Total  Damage Number of Types^Occurrences  I^204  17.7  I  II^183  15.8  III^96  Percent of Total  30  2.0  II  300  19.3  8.3  III  301  19.5  IV^122  10.5  IV  10  0.9  V^0  0.0  V  110  7.1  VI^538  46.4  VI  411  26.6  VII^10  0.9  VII  118  7.6  VIII^5  0.4  VIII  263  17.0  Conifer Total^1158  100.0  Percent of Total  42.8  Total^Number of Occurrences  Deciduous Total 1547  100.0 57.2  2705  55  L EGEND •  Damage Type II Damage Type III Damage Type VI Damage Type VII Damage Type VIII Park Boundary Shoreline  Figure 17 Location of decidous trees displaying the five commonest types of deciduous tree injury symptoms in Pacific Spirit Park.  56  LEGEND • • •  Damage Type I Damage Type II Damage Type IV Damage Type VI Park Boundary Shoreline  -3------_  fN  100 metres  Figure 18 Location of coniferous trees displaying the four commonest types of coniferous tree injury symptoms in Pacific Spirit Park.  57 3.09^Trails of Pacific Spirit Park  The trails in Pacific Spirit Park have been classified into 8 groups. The trails are used for hiking, bicycling and horseback riding, and as fire breaks for forest fire control (GVRD, 1988). Pacific Spirit Park contains 57.4 km of trails (Table 11 and Figure 19). Multiple-use trails (e.g., bicycling, hiking and horseback riding) are the commonest of the trails with a total length of 21.7 km. The smallest group of trails are the summer only-use trails. These trails cover 1.7 km of the parks 57.4 km trails.  58 Table 11 Summary of the trail types and number of sections in Pacific Spirit Park (GVRD, 1989).  Trail Type^  Total Length (kilometres)  Fire Access and Multiple Use^  7.7  Multiple Use^  21.7  Pedestrian^  17.1  Summer Use^  1.7  Under Review'^  0.7  Bike Trails^  6.4  Old Trails 2^2.0  Total^  57.4  1.^Trails that are under review have no assigned use. 2^Closed to public use by the GVRD  59  LEGEND Fire + Multiple Use Multiple Use Only Pedestrian Only Summer Only Under Review Bicycle ^ Old Trail  1 COO metres  Figure 19 Trails in Pacific Spirit Park (GVRD, 1989).  60 3.10^Soils of Pacific Spirit Park  A 1973 study (McBride) identified 5 soil types in Pacific Spirit Park (Table 12). The Bose Series, a Podzolic soil derived from wave sorted gravels, developed where drainage is generally good (GVRD, 1991).^The Heron Series, a Gleysolic soil is derived from marine beach deposits which have formed in flat areas, seepage areas or depressions areas which are poorly drained (GVRD, 1991). The Organic Series contain unleached organics, such as muck and fibrous peat, and is limited to within Camosun Bog (UELST, 1977) (Figure 20). Drainage in the Organic Series is poor since the water table remains at the surface for most of the year, limiting organic matter decomposition and resulting in high acidity (GVRD, 1991). The Summer Series is a Gleysolic soil derived from marine beach deposits. The Sunshine Series is a Podzolic soil also derived from marine beach deposits. The largest area is the Bose Series and is 513.6 ha in size. The smallest area is the 6.0 ha covered by the Summer Series. Soil types where not classified in the Creek valleys.  61  Table 12. Area summary of the soil types in Pacific Spirit Park (McBride, 1973).  Soil Name  ^  Area (ha)  Bose Series  513.6  Heron Series  124.3  Organic Series  27.5  Summer Series  6.0  Sunshine Series  63.2  Creek Valleysl  41.0  Total  775.6  1^No soil information was available for the creek valleys.  62  Bose Series Heron Series Summer Series Organic Series Sunshine Series Park Boundary Shoreline  Figure 20 Soil types of Pacific Spirit Park (McBride, 1973). 1^No soil information was available for the creek valleys.  63 3.11^Surficial Material of Pacific Spirit Park Five classes of surficial material (Table 11 and Figure 21) are identified in Pacific Spirit Park. The Capilano sediments are of beach and fluvial origin and between 1.0 and 5.0 m thick. Organic matter is composed of peat and organic muck deposits. Pre-Vashon drift consists of glacial and non-glacial marine deposits between 10.0 and 300.0 m. thick and cover 89.3 ha of the park's 776.0 ha (UELST, 1977). Vashon drift material covers 538.6 ha of the parks 776.0 ha and is characterized as glacial drift material.  64  Table 13 Area summary of the surficial materials of Pacific Spirit (UELST, 1977). ^ Surficial Material Area ^ Type (ha) Capilano Sediments (Fluvial)  19.3  Capilano Sediments (Beach)  97.5  Organic Deposits  31.2  Vashon Drift (Drift) Pre-Vashon Drift^ (Drift and Marine) Total^  538.6 89.1  775.6  65  Figure 21 Surficial materials of Pacific Spirit Park (UELST, 1977).  66  3.12^Hydrology of Pacific Spirit Park  The hydrology of Pacific Spirit Park is classified as follows: bog, creek valley, high water table, non-recharge and recharge. The bog class is poorly drained containing surface water for part of the year. The high water table class includes low-lying, poorly drained areas with water near the ground surface. During the photo-interpretation of the tree damages it was noted that the 'high water table' areas were identifiable by being low-lying, having an open forest canopy and a high concentration of dead and damaged trees. The creek valley class includes areas that are immediately next to creeks and are characterized by steep slopes and V-shaped valleys. Included in the recharge class are the flat areas that feed surface water into the creeks. The non-recharge class are areas that feed the aquifer under Pacific Spirit Park (UELST, 1977). The recharge class occupies the most ground area 305.3 ha (Table 14). The class that occupied the smallest area was the high water table area at 13.0 ha (Figure 22). Hydrology data were not available for the foreshore areas of Pacific Spirit Park.  67 Table 14^Area summary of the hydrology classes in Pacific Spirit Park .^(UELST,^1977). ]  Hydrological Class  Area (Ha)  Bog Areas  23.1  High Water Table  16.0  Creek Valleys  90.4  Non Recharge Areas  256.3  Recharge Areas  305.3  Total  691.11  1^Hydrology data was not available for the foreshore area of Pacific Spirit Park.  68  LEGEND Bog and Wetland H igh Water Table Creek Area Recharge Area Non-R echarge Area Park Boundary Shoreline  f  N  1000 metres  Figure 22. Hydrology of Pacific Spirit Park (UELST,1977).  1^Data are not available for the foreshore area of Pacific Spirit Park. 2^Identified on 1:4000 colour aerial photographs.  69 4.00 FOREST VEGETATION DAMAGE ASSESSMENT 4.10 INTRODUCTION  An extended example of how to use the Pacific Spirit Park database for park management is developed in this chapter. It will exemplify how data on forest vegetation damage (3.08) can be correlated with other environmental variables (e.g., topography, soils, surficial materials, hydrology, forest cover, trails and roads). The findings could be used to suggest possible lines of future research into the cause of damage symptoms and hence reduce the incidence of damage in the future. 4.20 METHODS OF FOREST VEGETATION DAMAGE ASSESSMENT  Two approaches were developed to correlate forest vegetation damage with other environmental variables. The first approach compared the location of individual damage type occurrences with the location of other environmental variables. The second approach compared the density of forest vegetation damage on a per hectare basis with the same environmental variables. The second approach also showed the changes in the density of forest vegetation damage over the study area. 4.21 Approach 1: Damage Type Occurrence  The analysis module of Terrasoft was used to carry out queries'. Queries retrieved damage type occurrences that satisfied a particular set of attribute criteria and graphically displayed the results. Overlay' operations,  1^Defined in Appendix I.  70 between forest vegetation damage and the forest cover, topography, soil, surficial material, trail, hydrology and road layers, allowed visual comparison and interpretation between the data types. When spatial correlations were identified, maps were produced. 4.22 Approach 2: Grid Overlay  The purpose of the grid overlay was to assist in the identification of spatial correlations between the density of forest vegetation damage and hydrology, surficial materials, forest cover, topography, soil and road data layers. Density was defined as the degree of crowding of individual trees within a defined area. Density was normally measured on a per hectare basis (e.g., number of trees per ha and basal area per ha) (Watts, 1983). The drafting functions of Terrasoft were used to create a grid of 100.0 by 100.0 m polygons. A total of 1200 polygons were placed over the forest damage occurrences. The analysis function 'Polygon Overlay' was used to identify the number and types of forest vegetation damage present in each polygon. The damage types and number of occurrences per polygon were recorded as a record in the attribute file. The polygon grid and attribute file was processed as an area theme called 'Vegetation Damage Density'.  71 4.30 RESULTS OF FOREST VEGETATION DAMAGE ASSESSMENT  Forest vegetation damage is more concentrated south of Sixteenth Avenue. The greatest concentrations are in the southwest corner of Pacific Spirit Park, along the foreshore areas of Pacific Spirit Park, and in concentrated pockets inside Pacific Sprit Park (Figure 23). Overlay operations were used to compare topographic data with damage type occurrences. A strong relationship along the foreshore areas of Pacific Spirit Park is identified. Dead (I) (Table 9), defoliated (II), trees with upper branches dead defoliated (IV), trees with thin crowns and premature loss of inner branch foliage (VI) and trees showing some yellowed foliage (VIII) were present in the foreshore area. When the sub-surface hydrology theme was overlain with the forest vegetation damage theme, vegetation damage in high concentrations was identified in areas with a high water table (Figure 24). An overlay operation between the roads and damage type occurrences identified thin crowned (VI) and yellowed foliage trees (VII) along University Boulevard (Figure 25). Overlay operations between the soil, trails, surficial materials, waterbodies themes and the damage type occurrences did not reveal any obvious relationships. The polygon grid showed the density of forest vegetation damage in Pacific Spirit Park (Figure 26). The density of forest vegetation damage was greatest in the southwest corner of Pacific Spirit Park and in areas were relationships between forest vegetation damage and topography, hydrology and roads were identified.  72  •-^Vegetation i Damage Occurrence ^ Park Boundary ^ Shoreline  Figure 23 Location of forest vegetation damage occurrences.  73  .• 7.  •^:.•  LEGEND Vegetation Damage Occurrence exf Hydrology Relationship Slope Relationship ^ Park Boundary ^ Shoreline ;;;;:;.:`,  1000 metres  Figure 24 Locations where possible correlations between forest vegetation damage and the topography and hydrology were identified.  •  LIEGEND Vegetation Damage Occurrence Road Boundary Park Boundary  Pi ^ 50 Metres  Figure 25 Location of forest vegetation damage along University Boulevard. 1^Damage types VI and VII are grouped together as vegetation damage.  75  0 Occurrence\Ha 1 Occurrence1Fla 2 0 courrence H a 3 Occurrence\Ha 4 0 courrence Fl a 5 Occurrence\Ha 6 Occurrence%Ha 7+0ccurrence\Ha Park Boundary ShmAinp  N 100 metres  Figure 26 The number of forest vegetation damage occurrences per hectare in Pacific Spirit Park derived by the polygon grid analysis.  76 4.40 DISCUSSION OF FOREST VEGETATION DAMAGE ASSESSMENT  Spatial relationships between forest cover damage and topography were identified along the foreshore areas of Pacific Spirit Park. Steep slopes, salt air, high wind and ground water seepage characterize the foreshore areas (Pers. Comm. Bean, 1991). Steep slopes may cause surface erosion and result in the exposure of tree roots. Exposed roots are susceptible to damage from pathogens. Trees on steep slopes may be vulnerable to the mass movement of soil (Watts, 1983). Exposure to salt spray may result in a tree's current foliage turning red brown (Murtha, 1972). Prolonged exposure in the foreshore area may retard tree growth and result in trees displaying symptoms of forest damage (Watts, 1983; Murtha, 1982). Dead (I), defoliated trees(II), trees with upper branches dead and defoliated (IV), trees with thin crowns and premature loss of inner branch foliage (VI) and trees showing some yellowed foliage (VIII), were identified along the foreshore area of Pacific Spirit Park. In portions of Pacific Spirit Park environmental factors have combined to produce four locations showing the effects of a high water table (Figure 26). Concentrations of forest damage are identified in these areas. In these areas it is possible that forest vegetation damage may result from water damage or a combination of water damage and opportunistic agents (e.g., pathogens). Periodic or prolonged flooding can suffocate, weaken and damage the root systems of trees. Damaged or killed roots provide a point of entry for organisms of secondary action like Armillaria root rot, (Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Kummer) (Houston, 1981). A root rot can spread from a central infection point and kill trees as it spreads producing a circular concentration of damaged trees (Murtha, 1972).  77  Along University Boulevard several of the silver maple trees (Acer sacchirinum L.) were thin crowned and had yellowed foliage in the tree crowns. Personal observation revealed that many of the trees had their root zones compromised by the proximity of the walkway and road (e.g., asphalt was cracked by tree roots). Trees planted near a roadway are vulnerable to many urban stresses (e.g., exhaust emissions, drought and salt spray) (Houston, 1981). Three possible correlations between forest vegetation damage and environmental variables have been identified. The information generated by this example could be used by park staff to devise appropriate courses of action for minimizing or controlling future damage. In the short-term park staff could restrict or reduce the publics access to the damaged areas. In the long-term park staff could identify the cause(s) of the vegetation damage. For this purpose the GVRD could seek the assistance of UBC faculty and students. The preliminary and general analysis of this example have resulted in the following questions: 1.  Do spatial patterns of forest vegetation damage exist in Pacific Spirit Park?  2.  How will the type of forest vegetation damage change over time?  3.  Is the type of forest vegetation damage in Pacific Spirit Park higher, lower or similar to forest vegetation damage in similar non-urban forests?  4.  What are the causes of forest vegetation damage? Can the damage be ascribed to naturally occurring (e.g., salt air) or human induced phenomena (e.g., air pollution)?  78 5. Are the causes of the vegetation damage also affecting other components of the ecosystem? These questions could represent future directions for research in vegetation damage in Pacific Spirit Park.  79 5.00 LIMITATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 5.10 LIMITATIONS OF THE PACIFIC SPIRIT PARK DATABASE  Published guidelines for GIS database creation were followed for creating the Pacific Spirit Park database. The guideline categories were listed in section 2.10 (Aronoff, 1989; De Man 1988; Rhine & Green, 1988; Star and Estes, 1990). All of the information requirements for the Pacific Spirit Park database are listed in section 2.11. Data were collected from a variety of sources. However, sources for wildlife habitat, rare flora and fauna, right-of-way corridors, park facilities and research activities were not found. Forest stand and hydrology information were missing for UBC property and the foreshore areas of Pacific Spirit Park. Forest vegetation damage data were not available for park and UBC property north of Fourth Avenue. New data are required for the park property boundaries along the foreshore area; the current data were collected in 1913. The data entered into the Pacific Spirit Park database were not designed for GIS database entry. A major benefit of GIS technology is that data of different scale, accuracy, age and origin can be entered into specified layers and then analyzed at the same scale. However, data of different scales, levels of accuracy and age places limitations on the use of the data. During the creation of the database several of the technology limitations which are typical of some current GIS programs were encountered. Program execution and end-offile errors (e.g., lost data), inadequate documentation and vendor support, the absence of true raster-vector integration and spatial analysis functions are examples of the inadequacies.  80 To use the Pacific Spirit Park database the GVRD must purchase GIS hardware and software and undertake training. However, the beginnings of a comprehensive database have been created and GIS hardware and software are becoming cheaper to purchase and easier to operate. 5.20 POTENTIAL USES OF THE PACIFIC SPIRIT PARK DATABASE  Since, the GVRD allots 400.0 person hours of work per week for 471.5 hours of work a time and cost-savings could be realized by using the database and GIS to optimize the scheduling and routes taken to carry out the activities. For example, the trail theme could be used to monitor how the condition of the trails change over time. Trail sections requiring the most maintenance could be identified and an efficient trail maintenance program devised. Database fields could be added to the trail theme database file to record trail use and violations. This information could be used to identify trail sections with the highest trail use and the most violations. Trail patrols could concentrate on those trail sections. Buffers could be created around features (e.g., trails and roads) to identify study areas and establish restriction areas. Network functions could be used to identify the shortest distance between maintenance and patrol sites. The GVRD could also use the database at future open-houses to rapidly answer questions and graphically demonstrate the effects of proposed park improvements (e.g., impact of a trail restriction on park access and use). Terrasoft could also be used by park staff to produce in-house hard copy maps. The database may also assist UBC faculty and students with research and education activities carried out in the park. Topography, forest, surficial material, road and property  81 data could be used to locate potential sites for future park facilities and identify areas in the park which provide shelter and forage for selected animal species. Terrasoft and the Pacific Spirit Park database can also be used to generate new data. For example, the DTM and elevation and slope profiles were generated from the digitized contours. 5.30 KNOWLEDGE GAINED FROM THIS PROJECT  In carrying out this project, the author has learnt the following: 1.  The creation of a database is a complex task that requires a significant amount of planning. Section 2.10 lists 11 procedures for creating a GIS database. Each procedure has several steps.  2.  GIS is an immature and rapidly changing technology. For example, during the creation of the Pacific Spirit Park database Digital Resources Systems Limited released three major revisions to Terrasoft.  3.^The creation of a GIS database is expensive and time consuming. For example, the completion of data entry and editing for the Pacific Spirit Park database required 20 hours a week over a 30 week period (June 1991 to January 1992). However, this exercise was a learning process for the author. A person with more GIS experience could have completed data entry and editing in a shorter period of time. The design of the database, data collection and preparation also required a signicant amount of time. Since GIS and draughting contractors charge $ 25.00 to  82 $ 40.00 an hour for data entry work, the creation of a GIS database is very expensive (Pers. Comm. Bowden, 1992). Based on personal observation the author estimates that the entry of climate, park facilities, rare flora and fauna, research sites, right-of-way corridors, urban development, wildlife habitat and completion of tree damage symptoms, forest cover and hydrology data into the Pacific Spirit Park database will require 100 to 200 hours to complete. 4.  Significant time and cost savings can be realized by updating the database with existing digital data sources like TRIM.  5.  The initial planning and design work for the Pacific Spirit Park database that was carried out by the author kept data entry and processing problems to a minimum. Problems that did arise were software related.  6.  Errors are easily created in the data entry and processing stages of database creation. Digitizing is a repetitive task and errors are easily created. Digitizing a wrong feature, digitizing beside a point and poor map registration are examples of data entry errors. Data entry errors are difficult to identify and time consuming to correct. Errors can be minimized through the training of staff, placing a strong emphasis on quality of work versus quantity and motivation on the part of the data entry person.  7.  Users should refer to the age, origin, scale and original purpose (e.g., metadata) of the data in the database (e.g., Appendix IV and Section 3.00). Metadata are the key determinants of the data's use and  83  reliability for a specific task. For example, the topography and forest cover data in the Pacific Spirit Park database are suitable for studying and identifying the approximate location of a new recreation trail. However, the data are not suitable for the planning of a new road or parking lot. Detailed legal surveys, landscape drawings and field surveys that assess the local ecosystem impact are required for the planning of a new road or parking lot.  84  6.00 LITERATURE CITED Aronoff, S. 1989. Geographic information systems: a management perspective. WDL Publications, Ottawa, Canada. 294 pp. Burrough, P.A. 1989. Principles of geographical information systems for land resource assessment. Clarendon Press, Oxford, England. 194 pp. Byers, R.A. and C.N. Prague. 1989. ^Everyman's database primer featuring dBASE IV Ashton-Tate. Tate Publishing. Torrance, California, USA. 426 pp. Cracknell, A.P. 1986. Editorial: geographical information systems. Taylor and Francis, New York, New York, U.S.A. Vol. 7. No. pp. 721-722. Dangermond, J., B. Derrenbacher and E. Harnden. 1984. Description of techniques for automation of regional natural resource inventories. Pecora 9 Proceedings, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, U.S.A. October 1984. pp. 90-97. Digital Resource Systems Limited. 1989. Terrasoft user guide. Nanaimo, B.C. 190 pp. Digital Resource Systems Limited. 1991. Terrasoft reference guide. Nanaimo, B.C. 250 pp. Dickinson, H.J. and H.W. Calkins. 1988. The economic evaluation of implementing a GIS. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems. Vol. 2, No. 4. pp 307-328. Earth Observation Satellite Company. 1991. First Eosat Award. Recipient Announced at ASPRS Meeting. News Release. April 1991. 1 pp. Erik De Man, N.H. 1988. Establishing a geographical information system in relation to its use. A process of strategic choices. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems. Vol. 2, No. 3. pp 245-261. Fogg G.E. and J.W. Shiner. 1981. Management planning for park and recreation areas. National Recreation and Park Association, Arlington, Virginia. 110 pp. Foresman, T.W. 1992. Sparks at the top still need fuel at the bottom. GIS World. Vol. 5 No. 7: p 74.  85 GIS World. 1991. GIS Sourcebook: 1990-91. GIS World Incorporated. Fort Collins, Colorado. 720 pp. Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD). 1988. Trails of Pacific Spirit Regional Park. Burnaby, B.C.lpp. GVRD, 1990. Legal survey boundary maps of Pacific Spirit Regional Park. Burnaby, B.C.. GVRD, 1991. Pacific Spirit Regional Park Management Plan. GVRD, Burnaby, B.C. 128 pp. Holister, G. and A. Porteus. 1986. The environment: a dictionary of the world around us. Arrow Books Limited. London, England. 279 pp. Houston, D.R. 1981. Stress triggered tree diseases: the diebacks and declines. U.S.D.A. Forest Service. Northeastern Forest Experimental Station, Hamden, CONN, USA. 40 pp. Johannsen, C.J. and J.L. Sanders 1982. Remote sensing for resource management. Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, Iowa, 665 p. Lillesand, M.T. and R.W. Riefer. 1987. Remote sensing and image interpretation. 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 721 pp. Maguire, D.J. and J. Dangermond. 1991. Geographical information systems: the functionality of GIS (Chapter 21). Volume 1. Longman Scientific & Technical, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, New York, USA. p. 319-336. Marble, D. T. 1984. Geographic information systems: an overview. Pecora 9 Proceedings, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, U.S.A. October 1984. pp. 18-24. Ministry of the Environment Lands and Parks. 1990. Published legal survey monuments for the Greater Vancouver area, Vancouver, British Columbia. 500 pp. Murtha, P.A. 1972. A guide to air photo interpretation of forest damage in Canada. Publication 1292. Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario. 63 pp. Murtha, P.A. 1982. Detection and analysis of vegetation stress: 141-150. In Johannsen, C.J. and J.L. Sanders (Eds). Remote Sensing for Resource Management. Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, Iowa, 665 p.  86 Raper, J.R. and B. Kelk, 1991. Three dimensional GIS. Chapter 20. p 299-317. In Maguire, D.J., M.F. Goodchild and Rhine, D.W. Geographical information systems. Volume 2. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 447 pp. Rhine, D.W. and N.P.A. Green. 1988. Design of a geographical information system for a heterogeneous scientific community. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems. Vol. 2, Num. 2. pp 171-190. Star, J. and E. Estes. 1990. Geographic information systems: an introduction. Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 303 pp. Thompson, G.A. 1985. Vegetation classification of the endowment lands. U.B.C. Technical Committee on the Endowment Lands, Vancouver, B.C. 230 pp. Townshend, J.R.G. 1991. Environmental databases and GIS: 201-216. In Maguire, D.J., M.F. Goodchild and Rhine, D.W. Geographical information systems. Volume 2. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 447 pp. University Endowment Lands Study Team. 1977. University endowment lands report. Ministry of the Environment. Victoria, B.C. 200 pp. Watts, S.B. 1983. Forestry handbook for British Columbia. The Forestry Undergraduate Society. UBC Faculty of Forestry Vancouver, B.C. 611 pp. Weibel, R & M. Heller, 1991. Geographical Information Systems: Digital Terrain Modeling (Chapter 19). Volume 1. Longman Scientific & Technical, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. p. 269-297.  87 7.00 PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS Anderson, D. 1992. July 1992. Senior GIS Consultant.  Digital Resources Systems Limited, Nanaimo, B.C.  Bean, R. 1991. May 1991. Operations park manager. Pacific  Spirit Park Office. Vancouver, B.C.  Bean, R. 1992. September 1992. Operations park manager.  Pacific Spirit Park Office (telephone conversation). Vancouver, B.C.  Bowden, J. 1992. December 1992. Silviculture GIS Forester.  B.C. Ministry of Forests, Victoria, B.C.  Klinkenberg, B. 1991. Lecture in Geography 472:  introduction to geographic information systems. March, 1991. The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.  Murtha, P.A. 1990. September 1990. Faculty of Forestry.  The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.  88  APPENDICES  89 APPENDIX I TERMINOLOGY Accuracy: The degree of likelihood that the information provided is correct (Aronoff, 1989). Agent: a causative factor or condition responsible for the deterioration or stress of tree. Analysis (spatial): A series of GIS functions that are carried out to achieve a desired result or answer (Aronoff, 1989). Attribute Data: Geographic data for which characteristics other than location are described (Star and Estes, 1990). CPU: Central processing unit of a computer. Data Model: The conceptual organization of a database is termed the data model. Database: A collection of information about things and their relationship to each other (Aronoff, 1989). Digital Terrain Model (DTM): A model that uses digital elevation data to create three dimensional representations of the landscape surface (Aronoff, 1989). Digitizer: A device that electronically encodes the position of the pointing device with a potential precision of fractions of a millimetre (Aronoff, 1989). Ecosystem: The plants, animals and microbes (biotic) that live in a defined zone and the physical environment (abiotic) in which they live (Holister and Porteus, 1976). Geographic Information System: A computer based system for collecting, storing, retrieving at will, transforming and displaying spatial data from the real world for a particular set of purposes (Burrough, 1989). Hardware: Computer components such as the CPU box and monitor. Map Registration: The correlation of positions on a map, as measured in digitizer coordinates, to positions on the surface of the earth, as measured in real world units (DRSL, 1991).  90 Overlay: The process of spatially laying a closed shape feature, buffer, area theme, or raster layer on top of features, polygons, or pixels within another layer or theme. Query: An analytical function used to select a set of features, polygons, or pixels within a theme based on a specified set of attribute criteria. Raster: A regular grid of square or rectangular cells. The location of each cell or pixel (picture element) is defined by its row and column numbers. The value assigned to the cell indicates the value of the attribute it represents (Aronoff, 1989). Relational Database Management System: A set of computer programs used to input, maintain, analyze, and report on the attributes in a database (DRSL, 1992). Scale: The ratio of the distance between two points or features on a layer in a GIS database or a map to its corresponding distance on the ground (DRSL, 1992; Johannsen and Sanders, 1982). Software: Program line code that provides the instructions to make the computer hardware operate. Spatial Data: Geographic data for which locations are identified (Star and Estes, 1990). Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM): A map projection system that is used for mapping at scales of 1:500,000 or larger and is the standard base for National Topography Series maps at 1:50,000 and 1:20,000 for B.C. Provincial forest cover maps(Aronoff, 1989). Vector: The position in X, Y and Z or UTM or Latitude and Longitude of the points, lines and polygons are precisely specified to represent the feature of interest (Aronoff, 1989).  91 APPENDIX II ANNUAL COST SAVINGS RESULTING FROM THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A GIS(Dickinson and Calkins,  1987).  The following cost savings were realized by a US Forest Service District Office with the 1987 implementation of a GIS: Improved forest management and reduced costs (3 positions) US $ 80,000 per year. Improved scheduling for silviculture operations US $ 7,000 per year. Savings from timber harvest tracking US $ 50,000 per year (staff cost avoidance). More rapid environmental impact planning US $ 30,000 per year (staffing). Faster response to public inquiries US $ 15,000 per year. Faster response and analysis of ownership records US $ 10,000 per year. Forest practices involving soil impacts US $ 25,000 per year. Savings in special projects requests US $ 10,000 per year. Savings in cartography and engineering department US $ 60,000 per year.  Total Savings^  US $ 287,000.  92  APPENDIX III GVRD OPERATIONS  Table 15  Hours required for operations and inventory activities carried out by GVRD park staff in 1991 (GVRD, 1991).  Operation^Hours^Frequency Activity^Required^per Week per Activity  Total Weekly Hours  Vehicle Patrol^2.25^7 Garbage Collection^0.75^7 Toilet Facilities^6.00^7 Trail Counts^1.00^2 Litter Beach^3.00^7 Litter Road Edge^6.00^1 Beach Patrol^16.00^7 Trail Patrol^16.00^7 Service Yard^3.00^7 Water Samples^6.00^1 Grass Cutting^2.00^0.5 Weed Eating/pruning 3.00^4 Trail Crews^2.50^5 Trail Maintenance^5.00^5 Special Projects^2.50^7 Vandalism^1.50^7 Daily diaries^3.00^5 Administration^5.00^7  15.75 5.25 42.00 2.00 21.00 6.00 112.00 112.00 21.00 6.00 1.00 12.00 12.50 25.00 17.50 10.50 15.00 35.00  Total Hours of labour  471.50  Available Hours Staff of 10^X^40.00 Hours per Week Weekly Deficit  =  400.00 -71.50  93  Definition of Operation Activities Vehicle Patrol A drive-by of all parking lots, roadways and accessible facilities within park boundaries. Garbage Collection The collection of garbage from all receptacles during the daily vehicle patrol. Toilet Facilities The cleaning and supply of toilets. Trail Counts The gathering of data from pedestrian and traffic counters (six locations). Litter (Beach) The collection of litter deposited on the beach (2 staff members). Litter (Road Edge) The collection of litter deposited along road edges and ditch lines within Park boundaries. Beach Patrol Foot patrol of the entire fore-shore area (This patrol is always done with 2 staff members). Includes: data collection, litter pick up, enforcement, minor operations and maintenance. Trail Patrol The patrol of approximately 50 kilometers of upland trails (patrol by foot and mountain bike). Service Yard Miscellaneous The service of tools and machinery, vehicle washing, etc. Water Samples The collection of water samples as required by provincial health regulations (collected at 2 sites along the foreshore, by foot)  94 Grass Cutting The cutting and maintenance of grass areas not covered by the contractor. Weed Eating/Pruning Brushing of trails, sign locations, ditches, etc. Trail Crews The supervision, scheduling, training assistance of trail crews. Trail Maintenance The construction, reconstruction, resurfacing, ditching and general maintenance of Park trails. Special Projects Projects such as data collection, construction of minor facilities, annual and biannual building maintenance, training programs, etc. Vandalism The repair, replacement and maintenance required due to acts of vandalism such as illegal dumping, party sites, destruction of Park property, etc. Daily Diaries and Journals Diaries, journals and time utilization sheets kept by each staff member. These are filled out daily and used to track time spent on individual activities and documentation of work assigned and completed. Administration The time spent by the Park Assistant III and Park Assistant II on the park scheduling, purchasing, training and report writing necessary for Park operations.  95  APPENDIX IV  ^  SPATIAL AND ATTRIBUTE DATA SOURCES USED FOR THE CREATION OF THE PACIFIC SPIRIT PARK DATABASE  Armstrong, J.E. 1979. Surficial materials of the Vancouver area, B.0 Geological Survey of Canada (mapl). Scale 1:9600 City of Vancouver. 1990. Municipal map (map). Scale 1:25000 GVRD, 1989. Recreation trails of Pacific Spirit Park. (map). Scale 1:25000. GVRD, 1990. Legal property boundaries of Pacific Spirit Park (map). Scale 1:2000 to 1:5000 - 16 maps at various scales. May Chow, 1985. Set of UEL maps compiled from various sources. (map). Scale 1:9600. McBride, B. 1973. Land Suitability and Use in UEL Point Grey, B.C. B.Sc., Dept. of Soil Science (map). Scale 1:9600. Ministry of the Environment, Lands and Parks. 1990. Published Coordinates of City of Vancouver Survey Monuments. Land Surveys and Titles Office (ground control points). No scale. Murtha, P.A. 1989. Forest vegetation damage in Pacific Spirit Park. (35 aerial photographs and forest vegetation damage assessment (overaly on the photos). Photo scale 1:4000. Perks, M. 1954. UEL topography and land survey map. Dept. of Surveyor General (map). Scale 1:9600. Thomson G.A. 1985. Forest vegetation associations of the UEL. MSc.Thesis (map and report). Scale 1:8333. University of British Columbia. 1981. University planning maps (map). Scale 1:2000. University Endowment Lands Study Team. 1977. Hydrology map of Pacific Spirit Park (map). Scale 1:9600.  1 Type of data source.  96  APPENDIX V  DEFINITION OF DATABASE FEATURE CLASSES  Table 16  Definition information for the Pacific Spirit Park layers.  Feature Class Name  Colour  BLK_BR_TXT BLOCK BDRY BOUNDARIES CONTOURS FOR ASSOC FOR TXT FOR DAM GEOLOGY GEOLOGY _ID LABELS MONUMENTS  Line Type  1 3  1 1  6 3  2 1 1 1 3 1 1 1  12 1 5 15 1 4  Thickness  1 1 2 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1  Text^Shade Size  1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 10  1 1 1  1 1  3 1  1 1  1 1  1 1  3 1  1 1  1 1 1 1 1  Font  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  8 6 4 4  1 1  SHORELINE SOILS  2 1 12  1 1 1  1 1  1  1  SOIL_ID TRAILS  5 7  1 1  1 1  1 1  1 1  1  VEG DAMAGE  5  2  6  1  1  1  WATER WATERLINE WATER _ID  11  1  1  1  1  2 2  1 1  1 1 1  1 1  1 1  1 1  PARKLSRD POLYGON POLY LABEL ROADS  1 1  1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1 1  97  APPENDIX VI^TERRASOFT DEFINITION FILES FOR THE PROJECT THEMES  This section details the information in each theme definition file. FOREST COVER ASSOCIATIONS OF PACIFIC SPIRIT PARK  THEME NAME^: FOREST_ASSOC DESCRIPTION^: FOREST ASSOCIATIONS OF PSRP DEFAULT DATA TABLE TABLE NAME^: FOREST.DBF INDEX^• KEY_FIELD^: P LABEL KEY-FIELD-WIDTH^: 1 6 --  SOURCE FEATURE CLASSES FROM MAP BOUNDARIES (LINEAR)^: FOR ASSOC DATABASE KEYS (TEXT)^: FOR TXT -  SURFICIAL MATERIAL OF PACIFIC SPIRIT PARK  THEME NAME^: GEOLOGY DESCRIPTION^: PARENT MATERIAL OF PSRP DEFAULT DATA TABLE TABLE NAME^: GEOLOGY.DBF INDEX KEY_FIELD^: P_LABEL KEY-FIELD-WIDTH^: 16 SOURCE FEATURE CLASSES FROM MAP BOUNDARIES (LINEAR)^: GEOLOGY DATABASE KEYS (TEXT)^: GEOLOGY ID GROUND CONTROL POINTS OF PACIFIC SPIRIT PARK  THEME NAME^: CONTROL_POINTS DESCRIPTION^: GROUND CONTROL POINTS DEFAULT DATA TABLE TABLE NAME^: MONUMENT.DBF INDEX KEY_FIELD^: P_LABEL KEY-FIELD-WIDTH^: 16  98  SOURCE FEATURE CLASSES FROM MAP BOUNDARIES (LINEAR)^: MONUMENTS HYDROLOGY OF PACIFIC SPIRIT PARK THEME NAME^: HYDROLOGY DESCRIPTION^: WETLAND, BOG, AND RECHARGE AREAS DEFAULT DATA TABLE TABLE NAME^: HYDRO.DBF INDEX KEY_FIELD^: P_LABEL KEY-FIELD-WIDTH^: 16 SOURCE FEATURE CLASSES FROM MAP ^ BOUNDARIES (LINEAR) ^:WATERLINE DATABASE KEYS (TEXT) : WATER ID LEGAL PROPERTY BOUNDARIES OF PACIFIC SPIRIT PARK THEME NAME^: PSRP_PROPERTY DESCRIPTION^: LAND PARCELS COMPRISING PSRP DEFAULT DATA TABLE TABLE NAME^: PSRPROP.DBF INDEX KEY_FIELD^: P_LABEL KEY-FIELD-WIDTH^: 16 SOURCE FEATURE CLASSES FROM MAP BOUNDARIES (LINEAR)^: PARK LS ROAD DATABASE KEYS (TEXT)^: PRK-ID Tx PROPERTY OWNERSHIP AROUND PACIFIC SPIRIT PARK THEME NAME^: PROPERTY DESCRIPTION^: PROPERTIES SURROUNDING PRSP DEFAULT DATA TABLE TABLE NAME^: PROPERT.DBF INDEX KEY_FIELD^: P_LABEL KEY-FIELD-WIDTH^: 16 SOURCE FEATURE CLASSES FROM MAP ^ BOUNDARIES (LINEAR) : BLOCK BDRY  99 DATABASE KEYS (TEXT)^: BLK BR TXT SOILS OF PACIFIC SPIRIT PARK  THEME NAME^: SOILS DESCRIPTION^: SOILS OF PSRP DEFAULT DATA TABLE TABLE NAME^: SOILS.DBF INDEX KEY_FIELD^: P_LABEL KEY-FIELD-WIDTH^: 16 SOURCE FEATURE CLASSES FROM MAP ^ BOUNDARIES (LINEAR) ^: SOILS DATABASE KEYS (TEXT) : SOIL ID TRAILS OF PACIFIC SPIRIT PARK  THEME NAME^: TRAILS DESCRIPTION^: RECREATION TRAILS OF PSRP DEFAULT DATA TABLE TABLE NAME^: TRAILS.DBF INDEX^• KEY_FIELD^: P_LABEL KEY-FIELD-WIDTH^: 16 SOURCE FEATURE CLASSES FROM MAP BOUNDARIES (LINEAR)^: TRAILS FOREST VEGETATION DAMAGE IN PACIFIC SPIRIT PARK  THEME NAME^: STRESSED DESCRIPTION^: LOCATION OF DAMAGED TREES IN PSRP DEFAULT DATA TABLE TABLE NAME^: STRESS7.DBF INDEX KEY_FIELD^: P_LABEL KEY-FIELD-WIDTH^: 16 SOURCE FEATURE CLASSES FROM MAP BOUNDARIES (LINEAR)^: VEG DAMAGE  100 WATERBODIES OF PACIFIC SPIRIT PARK  THEME NAME^: WATER DESCRIPTION^: CREEKS WITHIN PSRP DEFAULT DATA TABLE ^ TABLE NAME : WATER.DBF INDEX ^ KEY FIELD : P LABEL SOURCE FEATURE CLASSES FROM MAP BOUNDARIES (LINEAR)^: WATER  101 APPENDIX VII ATTRIBUTE DATA FILE STRUCTURE FOR EACH THEME  A description of the fields for each attribute theme file are listed below: ATTRIBUTE FIELDS IN FILE FOREST.DBF 1 FOREST COVER THEME  ASSOCIATED WITH  P LABEL  -C,3,02-Label linking record to polygon  P AREA  -N,13,5-Area of each polygon  P PERIM  -N,13,5-Perimeter of each polygon  P X  -N,10,2-X Coordinate of label  P Y  -N,10,2-Y Coordinate of label  P STAT  -C,2,0-Status of polygon (linked, unlinked)  FOR ASSOC-C,3,0-Forest association code (1-20) REMARKS -C,120,0-Textural based remarks for each polygon ASSOC^-C,40,0-Full name of each forest association polygon CROWN_DEN -N,3,0-Forest cover class (1-0-25%;2-26-50%;3-5175%,4- 76-100%). COVER TYPE-C,2,0-Major forest species cover type (conifer, or deciduous) TREE1  -C,20,0-Name of the 1st most dominant tree species  PERCENT1  -N,4,2-Percent of species composition of 1st most dominant tree species  ORIGIN1  -N,4,0-Year of origin of 1st most dominant tree species  HEIGHT1 M -N,4,1-Height in metres of 1st most dominant tree species 1^The ending .DBF in a file specifies that the file is in dBase format. 2.^C or N identify the field as being character or numeric. The two numbers following C and N indicate the field width and the number of decimal places.  102 DIAM1 CM -N,4,1-Diameter at breast height of 1st most dominant tree species TREE2^-C,20,0-Name of the 2nd most dominant tree species PERCENT2 -N,4,2-Percent of species composition of 2nd most dominant tree species ORIGIN2  -N,4,0-Year of origin of 2nd most dominant tree species  HEIGHT2 M -N,4,1-Height in metres of 2nd most dominant tree species DIAM2 CM  -N,4,1-Diameter at breast height of 2nd most dominant tree species  TREE3  -C,20,0-Name of the 3rd most dominant tree species  PERCENT3  -N,4,2-Percent of species composition of 3rd most dominant tree species  ORIGIN3  -N,4,0-Year of origin of 3rd most dominant tree species  HEIGHT3 M -N,4,1-Height in metres of 3rd most dominant tree species DIAM3 CM -N,4,1-Diameter at breast height of 3rd most dominant tree species TREE4^-C,20,0-Name of the 4th most dominant tree species PERCENT4 -N,4,2-Percent of species composition of 4th most dominant tree species ORIGIN4 -N,4,0-Year of origin of 4th most dominant tree species HEIGHT4 M -N,4,1-Height in metres of 4th most dominant tree species DIAM4 CM -N,4,1-Diameter at breast height of 4th most dominant tree species SHRUB1^-C,20,0-Name of 1st most dominant shrub species in the understory SHRUB2^-C,20,0-Name of 2nd most dominant shrub species in the understory SHRUB3^-C,20,0-Name of 3rd most dominant shrub species in the understory  ^  103  SHRUB4^-C,20,0-Name of 4th most dominant shrub species in the understory SHRUB5^-C,20,0-Name of 5th most dominant shrub species in the understory FERN1^-C,20,0-Name of 1st most dominant fern species in the understory FERN2^-C,20,0-Name of 2nd most dominant fern species in the understory FERN3^-C,20,0-Name of 3rd most dominant fern species in the understory HERB1^-C,20,0-Name of 1st most dominant herbaceous species in the understory HERB2^-C,20,0-Name of 2nd most dominant herbaceous species in the understory HERB3^-C,20,0-Name of 3rd most dominant herbaceous species in the understory HERB4^-C,20,0-Name of 4th most dominant herbaceous species in the understory MOSS1^-C,30,0-Name of 1st most dominant moss species in the understory MOSS2^-C,30,0-Name of 2nd most dominant moss species in the understory MOSS3^-C,30,0-Name of 3rd most dominant moss species in the understory MOSS4^-C,30,0-Name of 4th most dominant moss species in the understory ATTRIBUTE FIELDS IN FILE GEOLOGY.DBF ASSOCIATED WITH SURFICIAL MATERIALS THEME  P_ LABEL -C,3,0-Label linking record to polygon P_AREA^-N,13,5-Area of each polygon P _PERIM -N,13,5-Perimeter of each polygon P_ X^-N,10,2-X Coordinate of label P_Y^-N,10,2-Y Cooridnate of label  104  _  P STAT^-C,2,0-Status of polygon (linked, unlinked) QUAT DEP -C,4,0-Deposit type within the polygon REMARKS -C,60,0-Remarks for describing the geology features of the polygon ATTRIBUTE FIELDS IN FILE HYDRO.DBF ASSOCIATED WITH SUB-SURFACE HYDROLOGY THEME  _  P LABEL  -C,3,0-Label linking record to polygon  P AREA  -N,13,5-Area of each polygon  P PERIM  -N,13,5-Perimeter of each polygon  P X  -N,10,2-X Coordinate of label  P Y  -N,10,2-Y Coordinate of label  P STAT  -C,2,0-Status of polygon (linked, unlinked)  _  HYDRO CLSS-C,2,0-Hydrology classification for the polygon ATTRIBUTE FIELDS IN FILE MONUMENT.DBF ASSOCIATED WITH GROUND CONTROL POINTS THEME P LABEL  -C,3,0-Label linking record to polygon  P AREA  -N,13,5-Area of each polygon  P PERIM  -N,13,5-Perimeter of each polygon  P X  -N,10,2-X Coordinate of label  P Y  -N,10,2-Y Coordinate of label  P STAT  -C,2,0-Status of polygon (linked, unlinked)  _  _  ATTRIBUTE FIELDS IN FILE PROPERTY.DBF ASSOCIATED WITH LAND-USE THEME  _  P LABEL -C,3,0-Label linking record to polygon P AREA^-N,13,5-Area of each polygon P PERIM -N,13,5-Perimeter of each polygon  105  P X^-N,10,2-X Coordinate of label P Y^-N,10,2-Y Coordinate of label P STAT^-C,2,0-Status of polygon (linked, unlinked) LAND USE -C,20,0-Dominant land use within the polygon OWNER^-C,20,0-Owner of land in that polygon MUNICIPAL -C,20,0-Municipality in which the polygon is located REMARKS -C,150,0-Remarks related to the polygon ATTRIBUTE FIELDS IN FILE PSRP.DBF ASSOCIATED WITH PROPERTY THEME P LABEL -C,3,0-Label linking record to polygon P AREA^-N,13,5-Area of each polygon P PERIM -N,13,5-Perimeter of each polygon P X^-N,10,2-X Coordinate of label P Y^-N,10,2-Y Coordinate of label P STAT^-C,2,0-Status of polygon (linked, unlinked) PARK^-C,4,0-Name of park in which polygon lies (PSRP) DEPARTMENT-C,5,0-Name of the department responsible for the management of the land defined by the polygon LEGAL^-C,20,0-Legal description of the land defined by the polygon OWNER^-C,4,0-Name of the owner of the land defined by the polygon PCL ADDRES-C,20,0-Name of the PCL ADDRESS for the land defined by the polygon MUNICIPAL -C,4,0-Municipality in which the land defined by the polygon lies VENDOR^-C,10,0-Name of the previous owner of the land defined by the polygon REMARKS -C,150,0-Remarks related to the land defined by  106  the polygon ATTRIBUTE FIELDS IN FILE RASTER.DBF ASSOCIATED WITH POLYGON GRID THEME  P_ LABEL -C,3,0-Label linking record to polygon P_ AREA^-N,13,5-Area of each polygon P _PERIM -N,13,5-Perimeter of each polygon P_X^-N,10,2-X Coordinate of label P Y^-N,10,2-Y Coordinate of label P_ STAT^-C,2,0-Status of polygon (linked, unlinked) TREETYPE -C,10,0-Name of the dominant tree type damaged in the square grid DAM_ 1^-C,8,0-The 1st most dominant damage type in the square grid NUMB _1^-N,2,0-Number of the 1st most dominant damage type in the square grid DAM_ 2^-C,8,0-The 2nd most dominant damage type in the square grid NUMB _2^-N,2,0-Number of the 2nd most dominant damage type in the square grid DAM_ 3^-C,8,0-The 3rd most dominant damage type in the square grid NUMB_ 3^-N,2,0-Number of the 3rd most dominant damage type in the square grid TOTAL^-N,3,0-Total number of damage type occurrences in the square grid ATTRIBUTE FIELDS IN FILE TRAIL.DBF ASSOCIATED WITH TRAIL THEME  P_ LABEL -C,3,0-Label linking record to polygon P_AREA^-N,13,5-Area of each polygon P _PERIM -N,13,5-Perimeter of each polygon P_X^-N,10,2-X Coordinate of label  107 P Y^-N,10,2-Y Coordinate of label P STAT^-C,2,0-Status of polygon (linked, unlinked) TRAIL USE -C,2,0-Trail use of the linear feature TRAIL NO -C,3,0-Trail identification number TRAIL COND-N,1,0-Condition of the trail TRL REMARK-C,100,0-Remarks related to the trails ATTRIBUTE FIELDS IN FILE WATER.DBF ASSOCIATED WITH WATERBODY (CREEKS) THEME P LABEL -C,3,0-Label linking record to polygon P AREA^-N,13,5-Area of each polygon P PERIM -N,13,5-Perimeter of each polygon P X^-N,10,2-X Coordinate of label P Y^-N,10,2-Y Coordinate of label P STAT^-C,2,0-Status of polygon (linked, unlinked) RIVER NAME-C,20,0-Name of the river CLASS^-C,1,0-Classification of the river based on water flow FISH POPN -C,1,0-Occurrence of fish populations in the river ATTRIBUTE FIELDS IN FILE SOIL.DBF ASSOCIATED WITH SOILS THEME P LABEL -C,3,0-Label linking record to polygon P AREA^-N,13,5-Area of each polygon P PERIM -N,13,5-Perimeter of each polygon P X^-N,10,2-X Coordinate of label P Y^-N,10,2-Y Coordinate of label P STAT^-C,2,0-Status of polygon (linked, unlinked) SOIL NAME -C,20,0-Name of soil type  108  CLSSFCTN -C,20,0-Soil classification type PRNT_MTRLS -C,30,0-Name of parent materials TOPOGRAPHY -C,20,0-Topography description SLP_ TYPE -C,20,0-Slope type PRCNT_SLP -N,4,0-Percent slope  

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