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The use of fluorescent dye and site characteristics to evaluate surface erosion on harvested areas… Traynor, Janice Mae 1986

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THE  USE TO  OF  FLUORESCENT  EVALUATE IN  DYE  SURFACE  THE  VERNON  AND  EROSION FOREST  SITE ON  CHARACTERISTICS  HARVESTED  DISTRICT,  AREAS  B.C.  By JANICE B.Sc,  A THESIS THE  MAE  TRAYNOR  The U n i v e r s i t y  SUBMITTED  of A l b e r t a ,  1983  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT  R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR MASTER  OF  THE  DEGREE  OF  SCIENCE  in THE  FACULTY  Department  We  THE  GRADUATE  of Forest  accept to  OF  this  Resources  thesis  the required  UNIVERSITY  OF  April ©Janice  Mae  STUDIES  as  Management  conforming  standard  B R I T I S H COLUMBIA 1986 Traynor,  1986  OF  In  presenting  requirements of  British  it  freely  agree for  this  thesis  f o r an a d v a n c e d  Columbia, available  that  I agree  degree that  f o r reference  permission  scholarly  i n partial  may  a t the  and study.  I  copying  be g r a n t e d  understood  that  f i n a n c i a l gain  or publication  shall  n o t be a l l o w e d  permission.  Department  of  FOREST RESOURCES MANAGEMENT  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V 6 T 1W5  D  a  t e  APRIL 30, 1986  Columbia  make  further  of this  by t h e head  o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  for  University shall  department  copying  of the  the Library  f o r extensive  purposes  fulfilment  thesis  o f my  Iti s  of this without  thesis my  written  i i  Abstract  Surface  erosion  sedimentation Okanagan low  and  lands  have  shallow  t i l l .  To  lands  a  research  on  10  sites  in  the  erosion  in  soils  project  Forest  objective and  of  Line  this.  examined  Fluorescent  causal dye  rate,  particle  movement.  Transects and  and  Soil  using to of  10  factors  for  to  on  forest  the  forest  summer  of  1984  cutblocks  and  classes  evaluate  patterns  in  a  and  care-in-logging sites  grid  at  and  to  disturbance  occurrence. of  the  10  downslope  pattern  from  sample bare  deposits  across  soil  the  site  was  and  of  the  of  point  litter  soil.  identification  completed  sites,  soil  distribution  the  deep  used  soil  four of  areal  ranging  gouges  were  erosion on  surface  site  sampled  established  surveyed  potential erosion  was  methods  disturbance  deep  elevation  harvested  i n t e n s i t y to  results indicated  disturbance.  Assessment  study  transects  distance  were  require  nutrient-poor  in  recently  North  demand  occurrence  initiated  separate  plots,  examined  disturbance  the  relate erosion  accomplish  recorded  Higher  the  Region.  Two  cutblock  water.  from  stream  In  municipal  erosion  was  cause  and  developed  evaluate  characteristics.  and  their  can  productivity.  in mid-elevation,  Vernon  The  site  lands  irrigation  levels  glacial  forest  reduce  downstream  sediment  on  of  existing  evaluation.  Day-Glo  fluorescent  situ.  Dye  was  applied  across  the  slope  disturbance. completed Tagged  sufficient  These to  light.  A  hand  lamp  r a t i n g s , based  ratings  were  movement,  compared  possible  to plot  erosion  snowmelt. night  was  recorded  on  on  visual  site  to each  trends.  of  research  results  reported  i n the  literature.  The  sites  erosion  are  trails  and  the  system.  aspects  and  compaction  slopes,  fine' s o i l ,  potential particle be  was  distance  Day-Glo  fully  in persistence  study  Fluorescent  tag allowing  identified.  acetone and  erosion.  north  support  dye and  fluorescent  satisfactory under  plot.  characteristics  results  skid  by  provided  assigned  and  and  The  of  this  were  strips  was  illuminated at  Soil-movement particle  slope  movement  mineral  in  metre  shortly after  and  held  soil  fluorescence  of  identify  located  tag s o i l  in aspect,  of  1985,  to  i n one  i l l u m i n a t i o n and  film.  perception  were  of  used  1984,  varying  measurement  spring  particles  was  i n August,  plots  Field  i n the  ultraviolet  color  on  pigment  the consensus  i s an  road  pigment  in adherence  prevailing  major  climatic  of  Steep  increase  effective  pathways  of  soil  movement  in a  to  s o l u t i o n of  to the  particle  conditions.  iv  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  ABSTRACT List List  i i of Tables of Figures  v i v i i  Acknowledgement  ix  1. I N T R O D U C T I O N  1  2. O B J E C T I V E S 3.  L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W OF S U R F A C E E R O S I O N FACTORS INFLUENCING SURFACE EROSION Vegetation Slope Precipitation Soil Properties SURFACE EROSION C Y C L E Detachment - Overland Flow Overland Flow i n F o r e s t Watersheds Detachment - R a i n s p l a s h T r a n s p o r t - R a i n s p l a s h and Overland Flow Deposition R O L E OF F O R E S T S I N E R O S I O N An H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e B r i t i s h Columbia - Present Perspective  5  ....  4. L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W OF F L U O R E S C E N T D Y E S O I L P A R T I C L E TAGGING Beach Sands Introduced Fluorescent Particles A p p l i c a t i o n Onto N a t u r a l S o i l P a r t i c l e s D A Y - G L O F L U O R E S C E N T PIGMENT 5.  METHODS STUDY  SITE Climate Physiography Soils Vegetation Hydrology F i s h and W i l d l i f e S E L E C T I O N OF METHODS E R O S I O N T R A N S E C T STUDY Site Selection F i e l d Methods Analysis  6 7 7 9 10 11 14 14 16 18 19 21 24 24 27 32 34 36 38 40 42  . .  44 44 46 49 51 52 53 54 56 56 58 58 61  F L U O R E S C E N T D Y E STUDY S e l e c t i o n o f F l u o r e s c e n t Dye Site Selection F i e l d Methods A p p l i c a t i o n o f Dye F i e l d Measurement - S p r i n g Analysis Movement R a t i n g Photographic Record  1985  6. R E S U L T S AND D I S C U S S I O N E R O S I O N T R A N S E C T STUDY Site Evaluation T r i n i t y V a l l e y #1 T r i n i t y V a l l e y #2 D e a f i e s C r e e k #1 D e a f i e s C r e e k #2 B e e t l e C r e e k #1 B e e t l e C r e e k #2 B e a v e r L a k e #1 B e a v e r L a k e #2 B e a v e r L a k e #3 B e a v e r L a k e #4A B e a v e r L a k e #4B C o m p a r i s o n Among S i t e s F L U O R E S C E N T D Y E E R O S I O N STUDY Movement R a t i n g s - S i t e T r i n i t y V a l l e y #1 T r i n i t y V a l l e y #2 B e a v e r L a k e #1 B e a v e r L a k e #4A C o m p a r i s o n o f M o v e m e n t R a t i n g s Among S i t e s F L U O R E S C E N C E STUDY Photographic R e c o r d o f B e a v e r L a k e #4A Addressing P r o j e c t Unknowns 7. SUMMARY AND C O N C L U S I O N S SUMMARY Erosion Transects F l u o r e s c e n t Dye P l o t s F l u o r e s c e n t Dye Method CONCLUSIONS Surface Erosion F l u o r e s c e n t Dye  Evaluation  62 63 63 64 64 65 67 67 67 68 68 68 68 72 73 74 75 76 77 77 78 78 79 80 87 87 87 87 89 90 .. 91 96 96 100 102 102 102 103 104 105 105 106  8. RECOMMENDATIONS  108  LITERATURE  110  APPENDIX  CITED  117  vi  List  of  Tables  Table  I.  Page  Vegetation the  study  and  environment  characteristics  of  area  II.  Soil  III.  O v e r a l l s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from l i n e transect data Line transect data, S o i l disturbance class d i s t r i b u t i o n expressed as a percentage of  IV.  V.  VI.  disturbance  50 categories  60  69 area...  71  Comparison of s o i l d i s t u r b a n c e c l a s s d i s t r i b u t i o n found i n p r e s e n t s t u d y and from o t h e r r e g i o n s as r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e  86  F l u o r e s c e n t dye p l o t movement r a t i n g s  88  characteristics  and  soil  vii  List  1.  An  Figures  i l l u s t r a t i o n of the p h y s i c a l processes operating in s u r f a c e water e r o s i o n and the n a t u r a l s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d management t e c h n i q u e s which impact t h i s process  2.  Location  3.  Precipitation elevation  4.  of  Regional  of the study  area  45  and temperature  changes  with 47  climate  reflected  in forest  regions  and  sections  48  5.  Coldstream  Creek  6.  Snow  equivalent  water  Okanagan  snow  hydrographs  55  (April)  vs e l e v a t i o n  f o r seven  courses  Location  8.  Trinity  9.  Beaver  10.  Field  11.  I l l u m i n a t i o n o f f l u o r e s c e n t dye s t r i p s w i t h hand h e l d m i n e r a l lamp D i s t r i b u t i o n (cutblock area) of disturbance c l a s s e s ( s h a l l o w + deep gouge, s h a l l o w + deep d e p o s i t ) w i t h i n c r e a s i n g s l o p e on c l e a r c u t s i t e s  13.  14.  15.  of the study  55  7.  12.  Valley Lake  #2  #1  57  site  59  site  59  D i s t r i b u t i o n of shallow with increasing slope  deposit  66  disturbance  Distribution with  of bare  on  skid  road  17.  Vehicle site  disturbance  soil  and s o i l  Changes slope  in soil  in Trinity on  82  class  with 84  disturbance  increasing slope  Rilling  66  82  Assessment of c a r e - i n - l o g g i n g v a r i a t i o n increasing slope  16.  18.  sites  a p p l i c a t i o n o f f l u o r e s c e n t dye  values  23  skid  road  84 Valley  #1  of Beaver  92 Lake  #4A 92  movement  ratings with  increasing 94  viii  19.  Fluorescent  illumination  illustrating #4A  Plot  4  Beaver  movement  Lake of  illustrating  #4A  Plot  particles.  20.  Beaver  21.  B e a v e r L a k e #4A P l o t 3. S e d i m e n t d e p o s i t i o n o v e r l a n d flow U l t r a v i o l e t i l l u m i n a t i o n o f B L #4A P l o t 3  22.  Lake  downslope  of  active  2 ...  erosion.  97 97  from 98 98  Acknowledgement  I  would  like  encouragement thank-you dye  My  interrupted to  field  progress.  thank work  Ministry  Environment  Golding  a l l parts  of  f o r h i s support this  i n remeasurement was  open  to  I appreciate  study;  of  new the  the  special  fluorescent  methods freedom  a  and  and I was  given  Mary  and  good  humor.  by  Joneen  personnel  f o r the  Maps and  assistance  information  i n the Vernon  in were  Office,  Forests.  Financial  Columbia,  their  supplied  of  Dr.  research.  Monica,  and  cheerfully  help  committee  develop this I  thank  throughout  f o r the  plots.  to  support  2000  grant  M i n i s t r y of  for this  study  (Federal  Government)  Forests  was  contract.  provided and  a  under British  an  1  Chapter  1  INTRODUCTION  The  forest  important contains this  in a the  water  to  area  of  supplies  meet  of  streams  major  this  most  needs  forms  The  Okanagan  Timber  hectares  and  contains  1.7  i n the  employed  indirectly  schedule  of  the of  levels.  This  Area  a  on  resource  area  supply  demands, quality  of  the  covers of  of The forest  regional  2.5  million  productive  in  further  the 10  area  percent  The  harvesting  the  concept  to  and  of  extensive  population  1985).  assumes  basin  resource.  hectares  i s based  forest  the  are  forest  flows  and  tourism  i n d u s t r y and  industry  summer  level  Supply  the  in the  component  million of  elevation  municipal  the  basin  populations,  supports  (Robinson  productive  current the  forest  this  and  important  percent  employed  continuing  an  land  economy.  Six  fish  r e c r e a t i o n and  which  land.  streams  maintain  forest  Okanagan  high  s p r i n g and  industry  forest  the  The  support  irrigation  a  from  ways.  the  a q u i f e r s and  lakes,  timber  number  These  replenish  surrounding  headwaters  snowmelt  streams.  lands  maintain  undiminished  of  deforestation  play can  an  important  promote  soil  surface  supply  (Gray  at  productivity  protective role  erosion  are  a  cutblock.  Forests  is  and  .1969).  2  Bormann  and Likens  Watershed altered (1)  (eastern  a t Hubbard  United  States)  the natural  by c h a n g i n g  ecosystem of  (1979)  flow  Brook  found  "particle-matter  the hydrologic  erodibility  velocities),  that  deforestation  transport"  i n two  ways:  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  ( i n c r e a s i n g v e l o c i t y of peak  at high  Experimental  and  of the ecosystem.  streamflow  (2) t h r o u g h  This  study  and  increases  time in  examines the  latter. A  fully-forested  vegetative  surface  precipitation translatory surface to  and high  flow  the erosive  layer  promoting  forest  ecosystem:  present  nutrient-poor site soil.  nutrients Loss  of the  with  Removal o f  surface  and exposes i t  and o v e r l a n d compact  reducing  The  incoming  combined  runoff.  particles,  erosion  poses  the  flow. surface  infiltration  a multiple  (1) t o t h e f u t u r e on s i t e  the watershed  the North  rates  erosion.  and  flow.  and s t r u c t u r e s In  most  the s o i l  thereby  regeneration  draining lives  soil  surface  of raindrops  soil  pores  overland  Surface  to absorb  disturbs  energy  has l i t t l e  infiltration  prevents  c a n move  and c l o g  usually  i s able  vegetation  Rainsplash  site  Okanagan  most  t i l l .  soil  of  streams  and  ( 3 ) t o human  parent  material i s  1969).  are contained  of t h i s  to the  p r o d u c t i v i t y and  (2) t o t h e q u a l i t y  (sedimentation)  (Gray  glacial  forest  threat  On  soil  forest  lands  i n the surface  can severely  impact  much  of the  centimetres site  of  3  productivity. by  shallow  or  production  soils  Water  with  erosion to  on  Road a  greater  alone.  construction distinguish erosion  on  occurring  be  aspect, and  or  loss  of  soil  the  the  North  streams can  instream  draining  cause biology,  and  to  erosion,  determine  if  this surface  is significant  on  and,  erosion  cutover  disturbance,  associated  soil  separate.  with  stability (1981)  areas  if  so,  process. included  vegetative  removal  The  cutblocks accessing  than  on  cover,  the  an  stability are  project  was  has  removal  possible  evaluation  sites  harvesting  vegetation  which  present  but  timber  identified  impacts  vegetation  roads  surface  position.  cumulative  actual on  in  i n f l u e n c i n g the  ground  Megahan  and  of  examined  slope  on  and and  in  supply,  lands  factors  to  impact  synergistic  characterized  any  q u a l i t y and  initiated  construction  Gray  so  issue  levels  water  water  is  significant.  important  harvested  those  texture,  nutrients be  impacts  was  these  angle,  land  downstream. the  parameters  slope soil  of  forest  sediment  drinking  project  identify  Site  i s an  diminish  works  view  research  limited  Increased  irrigation In  and  p o t e n t i a l may  f o r e s t area  problems  elevation  quality  Okanagan. the  High  of  road  difficult  to  examined of  also  erosion included.  4  Another  component  evaluation  o f a method  movement.  A  of t h i s using  soil-tagging  color  stratification  chart  t h e pathway  study  was  development and  fluorescent  technique  of s o i l  was  dyes  proposed  p a r t i c l e s by  o f movement  to chart to  soil  allow  l o c a t i o n and t o  and d i s t a n c e  travelled  downslope. Accurate obtain. not  E x i s t i n g methods  the rate  Cost,  time,  of p a r t i c l e  of s o i l measure  movement  and p e r s p e c t i v e  methods.  The  promotes  ease  minimum  measurements  fluorescent  may  only  are d i f f i c u l t  net s o i l  limit  structures  movement.  application  relatively or s i t e  to  movement,  o r pathways of  dye a p p l i c a t i o n method  of a p p l i c a t i o n ,  d e p e n d e n c e on  erosion  of  these  applied  low c o s t  and  modification.  here  5  Chapter  2  OBJECTIVES  The 1.  To  objective  identify  occurring  on  inspection  of  this  study  and determine  cutover  areas  (transects)  i s threefold:  t o what  in this  extent  region  and m o n i t o r i n g  of  by  erosion  is  visual  fluorescent  dye  plots.  2.  To  relate  including soil  3.  To  erosion  aspect,  texture  and  develop  application pathways  and  intensity to site  slope, logging  test  to tag s o i l  ground  characteristics  disturbance,  vegetation,  method.  a method  of  fluorescent  p a r t i c l e s and allow  o f d o w n s l o p e movement  t o be  dye  distance  determined.  and  6  3  Chapter LITERATURE  Surface detached (sheet or  erosion  REVIEW  involves  p a r t i c l e s downslope  erosion)  OF  either  or i n suspension  (Dyrness  1966).  simultaneous  movement  of large  amounts  of gravity  of water  Both  of t h e above  within  the forest  result  of the action being  cover.  Differences  in  the erosion Smith  erosion  (1984)  as  nutrients (abrasion, the  loss  seedling),  structures, resultant  and  operate  Erosion  (Anderson  identified  of s o i l  (rilling  involves of s o i l by  under the large  may  to varying  be  with the  and the  bring  degrees  t o be t h e  on t h e s o i l  about  vegetation differences  support,  of  physical  of roads  (4) s e d i m e n t a t i o n  impact  productivity  (2) i m p e d i n g  impacts.  said  the potential  (3) d e s t r u c t i o n  downstream  water  1951).  of s i t e  fines),  splash  1966).  by t h e t o p o g r a p h y  (1) r e d u c t i o n in soil  flowing  lubricated  i n any of t h e s e  hazard  by r a i n d r o p  quantities  of the climate  modified  of i n d i v i d u a l  Mass w a s t i n g  processes  system.  results  by  and i s often  (Dyrness  EROSION  t h e movement  gullying)  influence  SURFACE  surface  ( l o s s of  regeneration displacement  and  of water  of  of  other courses  with  7  Smith factors  and  Wischmeier  affecting  characteristics, litter  cover.  vegetation,  FACTORS  surface soil  This  slope,  (1962)  identified  erosion:  INFLUENCING  SURFACE  topography  groups  precipitation  basic  rainfall  erodibility,  discussion  four  and  erosion  and  plant  factors  and  into  soils.  EROSION  Vegetation Vegetation erosion eroded other  i s an  (Rutter as  1967).  ground  erosive  vegetative  agents  cover  soil  some the  of  soil  forest  snow.  the  Forests  interception, rates. are  In  thought  Swanston  the  1977,  amount  amount  held  regulate  the  impact the  pg.  speed  and in  and  is  mitigates  impact.  rainfall of  rarely  A on  flowing  dense the  soil,  water  and  1961). the  stabilizing  vegetation  exercises  timing  of  water  storage  as  soil  through and  hydrologic  slope  115).  soil  of  "Forest  evapotranspiration  enhance  site  raindrop  hydrology  these  controlling  (1977) d e s c r i b e  vegetation:  general to  checks  Swanston  over  and  the  in  vegetated  ( A g r i c u l t u r e Canada  and  control  factor  stabilizes  reduces  binds  effect  fully  especially  absorption,  Swanson  A  cover  increases the  important  a  reaching water  combination  and of  influence  on  snowmelt  influences  of  vegetation  stability"  (Swanson  and  8  Vegetation substantial with  lower  demand  soil  a  as  bind  a  holding the to  capacity  i t s water  protecting  is  layer  particles  beneficial  and  of  effects  absorbing  the  soils  greater  flow  rarely  observed.  is  translatory  capacity organic  and  soil.  is  matter This  litter  the  but  Once  the  flow  to  the  organic  increases  cover  flow.  maintained.  Lowdermilk  capacity, from  a  overland  develop.  of  have  a Soils  reduce  together the  i t has  thereby  satisfied,  to  because  evapotranspiration.  moisture  contributes  litter  soil  moisture  infiltration  Vegetation allows  soil  overland  capacity  predominates  soil  satisfy  capacity  forest,  water  to  antecedent  infiltration Within  reduces  the  to  and helps  moisture  due  rather  destructive  matter  (1934)  were  soil  found not  so  that much  i t s action  action  in  of  raindrops. Crockett a  natural  decreasing  and  Shelford  vegetative erosion).  (1982)  cover  identified  increases  These  site  five  ways  stability  that  (thereby  are:  -  Increase in cohesion by v e r t i c a l anchoring of the s o i l mass.  and  -  Increase i n s u r f a c e roughness, r e d u c i n g wind a t the s u r f a c e and l i m i t i n g s l o p e length.  -  I n t e r c e p t i o n of o f w a t e r on t h e  -  D e c r e a s e i n r u n o f f due t o i n c r e a s e d s u r f a c e i n t h e c a n o p y and l i t t e r , i n c r e a s e d surface r o u g h n e s s and i n c r e a s e d i n f i l t r a t i o n rates.  -  A d d i t i o n of o r g a n i c aggregate s t a b i l i t y  r a i n f a l l , decreasing ground surface.  horizontal  impact  matter to the s o i l , and m o i s t u r e - h o l d i n g  speeds  velocity  storage  increasing capacity.  9  Within influence absence litter is  forested  on  of  vegetative  removed,  the  the  Once  between  vegetation  accelerates  found plus  that  60  litter)  the  (1971)  On  disturbance  of  is  soil  slopes  i s the the  that  presence of  vegetative Bailey  manifestation  degradation  to  little  the  cover (1941)  of  forces  stability.  or  in  Depletion  processes  of  and  runoff. on  ground  steeper  a  gradational  and  of  reduced.  are  and key  forest  cover  minimum  found  degree  of  the  has  i s the  amount  research  percent was  and  species  influence  significant  removal in  stabilization. Meeuwig  cover  reverses  (1979)  vegetative  main  aggradation  cover  soil  the  The  a l l vegetated  plant  Orr  a  stability  that  adjustment which  erosion.  layer.  stated  sites  burns  density  necessary  slopes 90  in  South  (live  for  vegetation  soil  in mountainous  percent  Dakota  ground  regions,  cover  was  necessary.  Slope Slope  has  potential  of  a  influence  soil  velocity  of  when  energy  the  the  the  very  site.  significant Slope  erodibility  soil  individual  determines  a  runoff of  soil  steepness directly  (Brown  flowing  of  the  by  the  length  Surface  together.  erosive of  influencing  exceeds  flowing  on  and  1980).  water  particles  energy  impact  soil  the  forces  The  slope  water  (Krag  slope the erodes holding  1980).  10  "The v e l o c i t y o f o v e r l a n d f l o w v a r i e s a s t h e s q u a r e root of t h e s l o p e g r a d i e n t a n d t h e e n e r g y o f o v e r l a n d flow v a r i e s as the square of i t s v e l o c i t y . Overland flow w i l l move down a 40 p e r c e n t s l o p e a t t w i c e t h e v e l o c i t y o f t h a t o n a 10 p e r c e n t s l o p e . By d o u b l i n g t h e v e l o c i t y , t h e e n e r g y o f t h e f l o w w i l l be i n c r e a s e d a b o u t 4 t i m e s ; t h e s i z e o f p a r t i c l e t h a t c a n be t r a n s p o r t e d w i l l be i n c r e a s e d a b o u t 64 t i m e s ( s i x t h p o w e r o f v e l o c i t y ) ; a n d t h e q u a n t i t y o f m a t e r i a l o f a g i v e n s i z e t h a t c a n be c a r r i e d i s i n c r e a s e d a b o u t 32 t i m e s ( f i f t h power o f v e l o c i t y ) " ( F a r m e r a n d v a n H a v e r e n 1971, p a g e 2 ) . The a  above  flow,  move,  values  are based  a measure  on t h e c o n c e p t s  of the s i z e  of p a r t i c l e  (proportional to the sixth  carrying  power,  (proportional Slope  the a b i l i t y  t o the f i f t h  h a s an  integral  The  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of cover  the  effects  Similarly, decreases  of cover slope  topography, erosion.  result,  of  plant  power  Slope,  1971).  aspect,  and moisture  the weathering communities  of  depends  may  particles  steeper  suspension  gradient;  important  development  of  as  and  material  cover  overall subsequently the  of the general  be m o d i f i e d  cover.  slopes.  as a part  of parent  can  and  to vegetative  and e l e v a t i o n modify  also  in  on t h e s l o p e  increasingly  levels  the flow  velocity).  on  Slope,  which  of v e l o c i t y ) ,  relationship  can influence s o i l  temperature, a  to carry  are greater  becomes  (Meeuwig  power  of competance of  radiation,  climate.  and  As  composition  (Brown  1980).  Precipitation Rainfall when  the force  i s a major exerted  resistance  of the s o i l .  pulverizes  materials.  by  factor  in erosion.  r a i n s p l a s h or flow Rain  impact  Erosion  occurs  exceeds the  dislodges  If conditions are right,  particles runoff  and  11  removes  soil  hydraulic seal  the  runoff,  by  action.  and  rainfall  kinetic  and  mass.  intense  energy  to  enough  of  the  transport  some  1966)  (the  dictates  absorbed  by  at  and  rate the  detach  cause  i s high,  soil,  can of  and  thus  of  with  1953).  drop v e l o c i t y in  overland  rainfall The  both  infiltration  absorbed  into  the  intensity.  erosion  of  intensity  a v a i l a b l e water  preventing  the  soil  (Gleason  rate. be  Unless  turbulence,  rainfall  a l l the  to  increasing  particles  functions  help  transport  varies  amount  importance  may  erosion.  erosion  detached  water  impact  by  1967).  to  infiltration  which  the  (Rutter  in  of  material  rain  important  runoff  the  new  infiltration,  rainfall  extent,  and  speed  infiltration  If  can  (Rutter  the  be 1967).  Properties Inherent  of  intensity is  The  are,  soil)  decreasing erosion  i s c o n t r o l l e d by  (Dyrness  Soil  thus  erodes  surfaces  i t i s u n l i k e l y to  The  which  and  some  promoting  is  particles  rate  On  surface,  Rainfall  flow  suspension  the  soil  in  itself.  chemistry  affect  particles  are  determined (1971)  the  A  soil's  of  its erodibility.  dislodged  and  The  become  binding  strength  identified  organic  matter  influencing  erosion.  soil  texture,  the  parameter  by  erodibility  as  are  and  ease  which  the  the  properties  structure  available of  the  with for  soil.  most  erosion  is  Meeuwig  important  soil  1 2  Soil  texture  particles,  (sand,  This  particle  size  particles  larger  size  of t h i s  erosion  of clay  It also which  content  (Meeuwig  sandy  easily  affects  soils 1971).  soils  i n sandy  soils  Therefore  a  susceptibility  particle matter  size  particles  aggregates. governing  When  resistance  stable  i s complex.  matter  of organic t o water  to erosion  of  decreases sandy  matter  repellance  organic matter  content.  i s dependent  i n conjunction with  aggregates  clumped  i s t h e most  to erosion  on  organic  aggregates  because  develop,  these  larger  i s determined  carbonate,  together  important  i n many  a l l influence  d i s l o d g e and t r a n s p o r t .  calcium  effect  of organic material,  i n the s o i l  decreases to  Organic  high  are usually  Aggregation  percentage  present  erosion.  content.  Soil  The  distribution  than  of the influence  t o be l i n k e d  occurring  soil's  Silt-  to increase erosion of  The a d v e r s e  with  on  erodibility  on t e x t u r e .  i s believed  a n d moved  impact  because  and tends  composition.  p e r m e a b i l i t y and  a direct  arises  sized  erosion rates.  detached  influences  have  complexity  matter  in  distribution  i n the s o i l  o f t e x t u r e on s o i l  organic  soils  and c l a y )  a r e more  growth  influence  Much  silt  particles.  vegetative The  i s the proportion of v a r i o u s l y  soils  potential particles  The s t a b i l i t y  by "cementing  organic matter,  soil  property  (Bryan  carbonates  the level  as  or  1969).  moisture  of aggregation. erodibility  a r e more of  difficult  these  agents"  such  and c o l l o i d s .  as  Clay  13  minerals  are  expansion salts  properties,  present Soil  based  density  skid  roads,  1981). and flow  thus  water  kind  significant  rooting  recovery  Decreasing  compacted  the  density  and  no  their  harvesting procedures.  flow  or  are  is a  subsurface  little  to  25 from  and  increasing  amount  years  (e.g.  of  and soluble  ground reduces  infiltration  Measurements  compaction  velocity,  in  Compaction  after  can  skidder  problem  reduces  depth.  infiltration  areas  and  absorption  1967).  increases bulk  on  due as  (Rutter  compaction  forest  space,  important  of  rate,  bulk  h a r v e s t i n g , showed (Schwab  promote  and  and  Watt  overland  tracks) channel  depth  pore  energy  of  flow  surface flow.  14  SURFACE  EROSION  CYCLE  Detachment-Overland Overland surface  to  depths,  that  It  occurs  absorb  on  depression prolonged (with of  and  and  either  soil  the  infiltration  or  rain)  the  or  ice cover,  temperature" Two flow  as  land,  Hortonian  type  extent  and  of  overland  rate  defined (or of  overland both  1967,  flow.  of  soil 248).  flow  are  by  soil. (2)  type  (with  the  soil  organic  litter,  of  vegetative  recognized.  (1)  snowmelt) This  Saturation  precipitation  occurs  exceeds  excess  of  snow  Overland when  the  the  becomes  overland  onto  slope  and  air  (1945)  depth,  moisture,  presence  frost  soil  Development  and  Horton  of  soil  duration,  pg.  rate  the  direct  and  of  texture,  terrain and  1967).  storage  and  lower  surface  incorporated  of  to  (Pierce  1979).  layers  amount  rate  intensity  encompasses  smoothness  rainfall  originally  infiltration  humus  features,  (Pierce  types  rainfall  surface  land  move  when  antecedent of  the  to  capacity  (Morgan  amount  of  moisture  by:"soil  porosity,  outcrops, of  rainstorm  exceeded  influenced  soil  rock  cover,  are  is  microtopographical ground  water  a  flow  of  permit  during  presence  shape  to  inability  hillsides  rain)  of  or  an  infiltration  structure,  matter,  water  from  is, insufficient  intense  presence  arises  storage  overland  soil  flow  Flow  flow  saturated  areas  15  and  return  flow  surface). the  soil  flow.  Rainfall (full  Return  surface 1982)  not  dynamics  of  subsurface  flow  overland  researchers  (such  as  as  this  flow  of  by  seen  as  catchment  areas,  being as  occur  in very  therefore  more flow.  in  climates,  drier  removed  and  properties determine  on of  the  -  flow soil  flow.  The  in  depleted  from  uniformly  over  intensity  small  local,  areas  the  areas  of  s a t u r a t i o n and  where  flow  and  the  amount  of  many  than  (Pearce  complete  It  is  Hortonian prevails  is limited  soils  runoff  nor  surface.  generally  vegetation In  not  ground  space,  whole  temporary  to  and  with  Hortonian  up  time  by  excess  precipitation  areas.  and  varied  capacity), is  rather  overland  in areas  and  1978).  g r e a t l y over  localized  frequency  (Emmett  profile  surface  spatially  i s necessarily constant  results  cultivated  and  infiltration  vary  Hortonian  the  Hewlett  i n f u s i o n s of  snowmelt)  produced  variable,  overland  these  precipitation  neither  capacity  (or  which  location  generally  can  overland  unsteady  rain  produced  the  true  encompass  i s both  or  Saturation  as  form  well.  intensity  of  overland  some  time  saturation  forms  although  (precipitation  1976).  therefore  ground  infiltrate  also  neither  infiltration  cannot  the  can  flow  flow,  and  areas  to  throughflow)  flow  to  saturated  returns  some  i t i s s u p p l i e d by  respect  which  (and  overland  infiltration,  flow  storage)  recognize  Overland since  onto  soil  runoff  do  (subsurface  i t is soil  (Bryan  or  the  which 1976).  16  The on  hydraulic  precipitation  type  of  soil  moisture  (type,  condition,  depressions  and  (Emmett  hydraulics  1978).  of  hillsides.  and  (number  mounds),  Hydraulic  flow  duration),  of  size  simple  of  texture  and  soil  surface and  length  of  d e s c r i p t i o n of  is possible  parameters  depend  vegetation,  steepness,  no  flow  type and  slope  Thus,  overland  overland  c a p a c i t y ) , antecedent  density  features  of  intensity,  (infiltration  topographical  slope  characteristics  vary  on  the  natural  rapidly  over  time  and  space. Overland sheetflow in  an  flow  of  water  anastomosing  topographic hydraulic steady  rather  pattern  conditions on  concentrated  steep  in a  do  of  1980),  Horton permit  slopes,  succession  but of  a  unchannelled  (Morgan  not  of  stated  or  flowing  the  of  runoff  less  from  that  occurrence  rather more  water  resulting  (1945) the  uniform  shallow  is  uniformly  waves.  Overland  Flow  Overland considered  by  in Forest flow  Firstly,  channels  and  in  Watersheds  natural  hydrologists  characteristic. this.  but  c o n s i s t s not  irregularities.  flow  spaced  generally  as  Pierce  (1967)  overland  flow  cause  greater  watersheds an  generally  objectionable  cites can  peak  is  two  main  concentrate  flows  in a  reasons in  for  defined  shorter  time  than  1 7  water  infiltrating  before  entering  overland  flow  Forest minimal under  and p a s s i n g  streamflow.  can cause  lands  overland  flow  Conditions channels  forest  favoring high  i n the surface  organic  debris  (Pierce  vegetation  protects  raindrops forest is  canopy  left  flow  will  undisturbed;  does  not occur  Disturbance and  reduces  to  allow  As  the s o i l  forest  impacts,  (Rothacher  When  surface  the occurrence  infiltration  intensities.  include  porous  incorporated  the erosive Even  impact  of  forested  in addition  to  living  energy of  removal  of the  i f the forest  remains  often  high  this  exposes  and  floor  overland  erosion  sediment  of overland  mineral  i s significant problems  i s the fundamental  and stream  Soil  1965).  i n a watershed  flow,  high  normal  flow.  infiltration  resource  ecosystem  from  minimal  infiltration.  overland  Under  overland  have  erosion.  activity,  litter  the s o i l  infiltration,  l a y e r s and accumulation  1967).  of p l a n t  and l i m i t s  surface  rainfall  and animal  matter  a layer  velocity  of high  infiltration  organic  conditions  areas  u s u a l l y has very  of usual  due t o r o o t  high  layers  e r o s i o n damage.  and l i t t l e  i n excess  the s o i l  Secondly,  are generally  undisturbed  capacities,  through  can  component  can have flow  soil  enough result.  in a  widespread  and i t s e r o s i o n i s  undesirable.  Fire  Disturbance  in a  can destroy  vegetation,  infiltration,  forest  and expose  soil  watershed cause  can take  surface  to raindrop  many  sealing, impact.  forms. limit  18  Compaction,  whether  machinery  reduces  capacity.  Forest  natural  forest  by humans,  pore  space  harvesting  floor  losses,  decreasing  capacity.  exposure  concentrate  and Reinhart  not  rates  that  after  The  roads and  overland  u s e on a w a t e r s h e d  by water  following  are generally  by o v e r l a n d problem,  a  flow.  i sthe  specific  use.  important  of runoff  factor  of rain  flow.  splash  Morgan  f o r by s p l a s h and slope  soil  to  itself  may  detached  by  (1978) h a s transport  detachment  angle,  can cause  Splash  prior  of the p a r t i c l e s  influencing erosion  on b a r e  are ejected  r o l e of  particles  Although  i n the  impact.  of the v a r i a t i o n i n s o i l  i s accounted  t h e volume  many  that  The major  of s o i l  flow.  of s o i l  droplets  raindrop  low.  by o v e r l a n d  12 p e r c e n t  flow  impact  soil  a criterion for  i s the transport  flow  surface  a r e removed  overland  most  erosion  be a n e r o s i o n  shown  Logging  r e s u l t i n g from  i s t h e detachment  removal  splash  rate  i s the  Rainsplash  of overland  rainsplash  suggested  water and  detach  and can promote  the e f f e c t s of land  the s o i l  their  (1964)  which  structure.  water  soil  significant  soil  Rainsplash  erosion  More  decreases  increasing  down  Detachment-  from  thereby  can d i s t u r b the  removal  and break  in infiltration  absence  operations  to raindrops  evaluating change  infiltration  soil  trails  Hornbeck  and hence  of mineral  particles skid  vehicles, or  and v e g e t a t i o n  evapotranspiration storage  cattle,  was  by  which,  judged the  by o v e r l a n d cratering  flow.  which  19  compacts  the surface  dislodge  soil  part, the  moved  (decreasing  particles  which  downslope.  distance  significant  moved,  The  surface  i s covered  by  effects  o f r a i n s p l a s h on  the  surface  layer  the  erosive  capacity  more  large  drops  dispersing produce flow.  As  splash  increases.  raindrop be  flow  expected  transport  as flow  depth  soil  begins  potential  and  to  depths loss  of  by  t o exceed of splash can  entrainment  to increase  on  contain  likely  greater  zero,  the  increase  i n compacting  and the p o t e n t i a l o f wash  and O v e r l a n d  as a  in r i l l s  a  film  (1976)  found  (Kilinc  and  and  Flow that  overland  s o i l - d e t a c h i n g agent  or g u l l i e s ,  increases  agents.  with  rebound  from  and  rains  i s a l s o more generate  flow  but raindrops  turbulence Intense  the entrainment  and Packer  flow  detaching  to  increases  Then,  of overland  effective  rain  and w i l l  - Rainsplash  concentrated  covered  flow  effective  overland  Such  When t h e  1973).  Meeuwig very  increase  a r e more  capabilities  Transport  not  which  depth  agent.  i s decreased  of the flow.  to decrease  Richardson  soil  the greater  i s not u s u a l l y  as a transport  of water  diameter,  splash  and can  and, i n l a r g e  the slope,  i n c r e a s i n g depths  the s o i l .  overland  are elevated  steeper  although  in isolation  infiltration),  flow  unless  but the presence  of  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of raindrops  I f the s o i l of water  and t o d i s l o d g e  surface  i s saturated  the raindrops  and t r a n s p o r t  striking  soil  i s  as  and i t tend  particles.  If  20  the  soil  soil,  i s only  dissipating  frictional  important; moving  at  losses.  interaction  at  moist,  of  the  least Young  raindrops part  and  r a i n s p l a s h and  each soil  process  acting  particles  than  of  tend  their  Wiersma  (1973)  the  energy  found  (overland  separately the  penetrate  kinetic  sheetwash  when  to  that flow)  is less  processes  as the is  efficient are  acting  together. Morgan  (1979)  agents,  those  removal  of  a  which  relatively  uniform  thickness  of  soil  actions  in channels.  The  first  while  the  includes  second  covers  larger  gullies  their  r a i n s p l a s h and water and  removal  i s more  braids,  rills  or  or  role  power  the  less  small  this  and  of may  a  to  energy  transport, hillsides  actual  channels,  low and  at  play  an  and  rills,  intensities  running  water  account  for  more  of  higher  those  or  the  erosion,  intensities  increasingly  an  into  the  i f such energy  erosive  to  than  of  i n entrainment  surges than  of  increases  of  sediment  occurs.  standpoint  overland  consists  rills  bulk  flow  i n detachment  this  series  flow,  the  1980).  from  flow  At  gullies  i s used  leaving  discontinuous effective  be  in small  hillside  potential,  contribute to  overland  uniform  (Kirkby  from  velocities), of  flow  rivers.  Concentration  have  of t r a n s p o r t i n g  and  group  transported  types  areally  concentrate  erosion  two  act  which  important  identified  a  which  (greater  overland  flow,  and  little  flow.  On  continuous  many  most for  natural  irregular  likely flow  but  is left  disturbed, are  Raindrops  and  more  (Bryan  1974).  21  On  natural  variations Where  in  there  depressions channels  flow  marked  may  be  i n which  initiates  level  uneven  eroded the  rilling.  at  flow  a  do  thus  in  higher  and  form,  produces erosive  thickness,  some  rate,  initiating  small  and  rills  do  erosion  capacity.  flow  transportation  (Carson  Although  they  simple  and  surface  fluctuations in  concentrated  where  of  the  thickness  are  progressively  slopes,  slopes  become  Kirkby not  1972).  form  on  i s several  This  a l l  times  the  sheetflow.  Deposition The  final  step  Deposition  occurs  diminishes  until  particle.  A  deposited General  forms  many  erosion  when  the  energy  i t i s unable  times of  may as  more  streambanks,  part Forest  of  the  vegetation  to  trap  along  overland the  runoff  erosion  i s not  control  the  organic  matter  be  permanent and  reaches  severe,  problem loss  of  of  down  the  deposition.  transporting the  the  agent  detached  transported,  and  hillslope.  deposition  stream  include  channels  where  ditches,  the  soil  load.  This  promote the  such  the  often  leave  strip  In  amelioration input  site  may  to  a  buffer  i s designed  deposition  stream.  sediment  from  is  support  operations  and  cycle  detached,  streams.  flow  to  i t moves  sediment  harvesting  of  before  the  particle  areas  culverts,  in  of  part  where  techniques streams be  in  sediment  areas  still  strip  can  although  significant.  22  Roads streams. reaches This  constitute Up  to  stream  may  90  a  major  percent  channels  arise  from  and  road  c r o s s i n g s and  which  intercept  subsurface shown have  flows  that,  with  a minimal  (1977)  found  logging  in a  proper  water  to  roads  from  gradients,  minimizing  operations  when  levels.  careful  s u p e r v i s i o n of  to  avoid  An  In  mistakes  overview  and  of  interrelationships erosion Vliet  follows  (1983)  agricultural specific water  for  the  among  (Figure  the 1).  site,  processes  this and  erosion process  flow  the  to  location  of  the  chart  forest  scheduling were  at  factors, is  necessary  specifications.  showing  by  Novak  erosion  occur land  surface and  van  process  i s modified  which  of  road  influencing  Developed  can  was  rainfall  design  process  factors  impacts on  This  steep  and  adherence  illustration  have  after  c r o s s i n g s , and  these  erosion  cuts  Rothwell  and  c o n s t r u c t i o n phases  ensure  the  loads.  avoiding  moisture, to  poor  c o n s t r u c t i o n , roads  before  to  allow  Studies  specifically,  road-stream  runoff  road  then  in Alberta.  channels,  addition  and  or  that  1982).  channel,  flow.  unchanged  soil  allows  stream  sediment  planning,  runoff,  minimum  and  land  (Hewlett  systems,  overland  for  forest  roads  which  the  watershed  stream  sediment from  routes  stream  quality  careful  flow  design  on  subalpine  to  drainage  become  impact  attributed away  to  on  design  directly  subsurface  of  sediment  originates  concentrate stream  of  improper  flow  source  to  i n the  base.  on  an  indicate surface  23  SCHEMATIC OF SURFACE WATER EROSION  EXPOSURE OF SURFACE TO R A I N F A L L IMPACT  SURFACE PREPARATIONAGGREGATE BREAKDOWN, SMOOTHING, CRUSTING  DEFORESTATION GROUND DISTURBANCE  S P L A S H EROSIONTRANSPORTLIMITED  CROP COVER FOREST & GROUND COVER TILLAGE SITE PREPARATION M  A  N  A  G  E  M  E  N  T  HARVESTING  SYSTEM  ROAD CONSTRUCTION K I N E T I C ENERGY OF R A I N S O I L TEXTURE AND STRUCTURE ORGANIC MATTER SLOPE  SURFACE PONDING BEGINS-DUNNE OR HORTONIAN  R A I N F A L L RATE SOIL INFILTRABILITY DRAINAGE P R O F I L E DEPTH  TOPOGRAPHY CHANNELS SURFACE FLOW  SURFACE ROUGHNESS CONTOUR T I L L A G E SITE V E G E T A T I O N COVER  ENTRAINMENT OF S O I L P A R T I C L E S OR AGGREGATESR I L L DEVELOPMENT  S O I L TEXTURE AND STRUCTURE V E G E T A T I V E ROOTS OVERLAND FLOW V E L O C I T Y TURBULENCE  TRANSPORT OF S O I L DOWNSLOPE I N R I L L S BY S U S P E N S I O N / SALTATION, C R E E P DETACHMENT-LIMITED  SLOPE S L O P E LENGTH R A I N S P L A S H TURBULENCE S O I L TEXTURE AND STRUCTURE R A I N F A L L RATE  D E P O S I T I O N OF SORTED MATERIAL I N F I E L D , LOSS TO MAINSTREAM  /WATERSHED  AND STREAMS SEDIMENTATION CHANNEL HYDROLOGY CHANGES LOSS OF SITE PRODUCTIVITY WATER QUALITY PROBLEMS  TECHNIQUES  .^ . PREPARATION  TOPOGRAPHY S O I L TEXTURE AND STRUCTURE V E G E T A T I V E COVER  MODIFIED FROM: NOVAK 6. VAN VLIET  (1983)  F i g u r e 1. An i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s e s o p e r a t i n g i n s u r f a c e water e r o s i o n and t h e n a t u r a l s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and management w h i c h impact t h i s p r o c e s s . «  24  THE  An  ROLE  FORESTS  Historical It  this  knowledge  science  erosion  on  forests  of e r o s i o n , 1971).  o f many  region. that  covered  survives  only  Calabrian  Greece  dwindled,  leaving  by  fine  Bible  By  different  "the  first  1981).  region  of  a major  cause  degradation  end of the  Between  60  only  lush, a  land  of  Italian oak,  laurel  high, the sixth  mountain  and  forest  i n remote  percent  only  a  was  of ash, evergreen  forest  Now  once  Italy  in the r e l a t i v e l y  Originally forests.  was  southern  the extensive  describes  the nineteenth  very  western  soil  that  of  of  areas  of the country  5 percent  i s so  was  covered  1948).  The land.  the development  shown  was  mountains.  B.C.,  1981).  B.C.  the forest  centuries  (Thirgood  of the  of the e f f e c t s  have  the southern  fourth  (Osborn  Studies  empires  I n 400  Today  inaccessible  covered  to consider  of the Mediterranean  myrtle  any assessment  1953).  pennisula. and  making  early civilizations  (Lowdermilk  forested  EROSION  before  (Hudson  the downfall  Much  IN  Perspective  i s relevant  present  of  OF  terms.  thing  world,  P a l e s t i n e as a green century  Lynch,  . . . which  i s the absence  P a l e s t i n e was  an A m e r i c a n , strikes  trees"  fertile  described  noted  a visitor  of f o r e s t  and  in  i n 1849  from the ( i n Thirgood  25  Even  with  knowledge operate  of  in  the  proper  land  left  an  meet  the  the  arid,  and  a  Alps  made  spend  the  from  on  from  to  established, stability  19th  dense  to  and  continues  to  Agriculture  expansion  of  may  deforestation severe  undermine  which As  of  the  century  erosion.  the  land  and  to  ( f o r the control  to  be  not  only  and  to with  good  erosion.  However,  f o r e s t s of  severe  loss and  of  in  life  the  concerned)  1970).  the  floods.  protected  governments  (Keller  base  Europe,  whole,  torrents, avalanches, population  Soil  a  mountain  led  of  unable  severe  high  lack  i s today  governments, little  and  surface  capability  valuable  management the  production.  necessary  in  debris  as  and  erosion  to  Forests  economically  but  in  function.  Forest benefits  stable  torrent  recognized  soil  cycle  deforestation  landscape  i t worthwhile  protective  timber  in  Food  i t s population.  relatively  money  became  led  deforestation Alps  The  area  p r a c t i c e s has  property  Only  of  erosion  present  and  productive  climate,  agricultural  European  the  of  1959).  denuded  needs  extensive  (Sen  management  reduced  moderate  that  Mediterranean  loss  a  f a c t o r s , the  overgrazing  stability the  understanding  Mediterranean.  warns  civilization,  In  present  causal  Organization  future  the  in  forest In  stabilize  cases  in a  Alps  the  areas  slope,  that  expanded  protective  unstable  recognizing  i n many  the  the  exceeded  to  role  where  maintenance returns  as  well  forests  protection  the  evaluate  forests of from  the as  were were  slope logging.  a  26  Management lands, at  included  a f f o r e s t a t i o n of  climatic  suitable of  techniques  soil  timberline),  sites.  "During  conservation  confined  to  with  idea  the  (Fournier  many  has  erosion of  1972  with  adapting  to  has  throughout of  the  "conquering"  natural  system.  often  to  erosion.  population  accelerated much  influx  to  of  use  stock and  to  the  from  become  the  idea being  linked  environment"  the  States  the  Land  land  with  further,  United  deforestation,  occurred  land  taking  expanded  including led  of  (especially  14).  idea  the  of  developed  control  pg.  an  restriction period  cutover  clearings  rational utilization  Colonization proceed  previous  and the  r e f o r e s t a t i o n of  land  use  much  rather  the  than  overgrazing,  Colonization  of  to  practices,  c l e a r i n g , and  same d e f o r e s t a t i o n  protected  seemed  but  in  a  forest  Canada  lesser area  from  exploitat ion. Migration population were and  westward  densities  generally lower  l e v e l s of  and  With of  the  the  population  damage  America low.  logging  The but  methods  mainly  on  accelerated  gradual  timber an  abundant  States,  snow,  had  erosion  similar  floods, to  limited  that the  hand  little  mountain  forests  torrents,  the  loss  supply  occurred.  debris in  the  widespread  included  the  and  reserves  which  e x p l o i t a t i o n of  densities  was  c l e a r i n g prevented  logging  little  United  caused  for  skidding,  continued  western  mudflows Lower  thus  quite  forest  Early  horse  disturbance,  were  exploited  deforestation. falling  in North  of  European life  and  and Alps.  27  property  but  the  problem  recognizing  that  destructive  events,  basic are  element  expended  reached proper where  the  in  rather  than  British  Columbia, in  B.C."  forest -  not  needs  stated,  High of  the  major zone  -  Present former  address  least  of  to  reserve (Weetman  to  cut of  on  the  i s to  threat  has  securing  of  1955,  in  forests  the  water  a  pg.  480).  demands  in  Forest  British  Soil  B.C.  put  on  timber  forest  Productivity  need  several  -  every  bit  i t by  to  of  society  meet  soil  land  erosion  the  management  area  soil  and  loss"  in  operations.  (1200-2000  coast  of  and  supply  is  logging  sawtimber  1983).  "We,  identified  the  water  engineering  (Sears  forester  productive  forest  a  funds  retain  i s on  "Forestry  meet  He  greatest  elevation  chief  that  which  reduce  with  timber  uplands  to  as  Perspective  on  stated  have  which  connection  tributary  after  devoted  biological controls"  we  "the  are  floods  emphasis  industry."  problems  than  greater  whose  (1983),  of  control  far  culture  i n an  the  policy  these  i s assumed  i n t e r e s t i n g aspect  Young,  land  this  i s an  on  W.  the  "while  (1955),  (in part)  This  Columbia  Mr.  channels  Sears  precipitated  forest  e f f o r t s to  on  i t falls.  technological  remarked,  national  upon  use  existed.  deforestation  river  land  still  in the  metres)  British Interior  operations  at  contain  Columbia occurs these  and in  most the  this  elevations  28  must  overcome  (1983) pose .  soil  soil  the  forest  land.  harvesting  of  a  This  The  Canadian of  and  slopes,  Forestry  forest  concise  the  world  by  Young  surface  of  has  occurs on  on  by  leading  the  through  landings  erosion  to  gully  construction  produced  British  terrain  foresters  caused  erosion  important),  in  was  Young  does .  depletion  mass-wasting  Service  . ..  degradation  nutrient  operations overview  stresses.  loggers  Soil  identified  included  in  for  ( s i n g u l a r l y most  roads.  general,  problems  threat  forest  appraisal  else  scientists."  unstable  and,  topographic  "nowhere  compaction,  major  erosion  that  difficult  . and  fire, but  stated  such  .  c l i m a t i c and  a situation  Columbia.  provincial erosion  It  gave  hazards:  "The d i v e r s i t y o f t o p o g r a p h y , g e o l o g y , soils, v e g e t a t i o n , and c l i m a t e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , together w i t h h i s t o r i c a t t i t u d e s and e c o n o m i c s have r e s u l t e d i n a v a r i e t y o f t i m b e r management p r a c t i c e s . This c o m b i n a t i o n of f a c t o r s has p r o d u c e d a marked r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n i n i m p a c t s on t h e s o i l a n d w a t e r resources, and, by i m p l i c a t i o n , a n e e d f o r l o c a l o r r e g i o n a l information concerning t h e s e i m p a c t s or i n t e r a c t i o n s . I n v e r y g e n e r a l t e r m s i t c a n be s t a t e d t h a t : - The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f i m p a c t s may i n c r e a s e from t o n o r t h as the c l i m a t e becomes more r i g o r o u s .  south  - A c c e l e r a t e d e r o s i o n o c c u r s t o some e x t e n t wherever there i s l o g g i n g , with v a r i a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from differences in i n t r i n s i c s o i l erosion hazard and standard of l o g g i n g p r a c t i c e . - The g r e a t e r t h e a r e a l e x t e n t o f d i s t u r b a n c e the g r e a t e r the impact. The e x t e n t of d i s t u r b a n c e is a f u n c t i o n of h a r v e s t i n g method, l o g g i n g technique, road d e n s i t y and slope.  .29  - T h e d e g r e e o f i m p a c t on t h e s t r e a m t e n d s t o be i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e the a c t i v i t y and the water course.  environment d i s t a n c e between  - The l o g g i n g p r a c t i c e s u s e d i n s t e e p t e r r a i n i n t h e I n t e r i o r t e n d t o be m o r e d e s t r u c t i v e t h a n o n the c o a s t because of the type of e q u i p t m e n t u s e d " ( F i n n i s et a l . 1 973). Ballard extensive  are  associated British but  an  (1983)  attempted  various  with  kinds  timber  Columbia."  No  identification regions  was  Cariboo  regions  timber  compaction, relatively  preparation, a was  localized in  the  Charlotte The Columbia  as  as  also  concern Prince  in  soil  and  major In  surface  Nutrient  well  were  the  harvesting and  important.  forest  "how  site  several  Rupert  in  erosion  were  from  from  region,  Nelson,  terms  and  rated  harvesting  i t s major  in  the  of  the  and  site  Mass-erosion  but  notably  in  in  mechanical  impacts. regions  how  available  problems  impacts  degradation  important  were  Kamloops,  losses  and  preparation  erosion the  serious  degradation  quantitative values  obtained.  puddling,  slashburning,  of  assess  harvesting  of  various  to  was  impact  Queen  Islands. mandate Ministry  for of  forest Forests  management i s , in  by  the  British  part:  " t o p l a n the use of the F o r e s t s and r a n g e resources o f t h e Crown so t h a t t h e p r o d u c t i o n of t i m b e r and f o r a g e , the h a r v e s t i n g of timber, the g r a z i n g of l i v e s t o c k and the r e a l i z a t i o n of f i s h e r i e s , wildlife, water, o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n and o t h e r n a t u r a l resource v a l u e s a r e c o o r d i n a t e d and i n t e g r a t e d , i n c o n s u l t a t i o n and c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r m i n i s t r i e s and a g e n c i e s of the Crown and w i t h t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . . . " ( S e c t i o n 5, S u b s e c t i o n C, MOF Act).  30  The to  British  logging  on  Columbia  severe  Ministry  sites  of Forests  (B.C.M.O.F  interim  1968) s t a t e d  guide  that:  "to maintain reasonable s i t e p r o d u c t i v i t y , by minimizing e r o s i o n and encouraging regeneration, adjustments i n stand treatments and l o g g i n g techniques a r e n e e d e d on a n y s i t e where e x t r e m e s o f c l i m a t e , edaphic or topographic features are encountered. Because of s i t e v a r i a b i l i t y , s i l v i c u l t u r a l treatment must be d e t e r m i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f s i t e specific r e c o m m e n d a t i o n f o r a l l f o r e s t u n i t s under management and p r e - l o g g i n g e x a m i n a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l . " These of  some  governmental  high  elevation  Areas  Provincial  and N a t i o n a l  Columbia.  The h a z a r d  expanding supply  and other  to harvesting  has protected i s only  levels.  Logging  stable  designation  to Environmental  off-limits  for erosion  marginally  as  slopes  in  British  presently operations  are  a s o u r wood  diminishes.  Smith  (1962)  stated  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  silviculture  and watershed  importance.  In B r i t i s h  thereof,  i s a prime  Maintenance stability erosion  of s i t e  can often  and  promote  also  or s t r i p  microsites  Columbia  productivity  i s important,  primary  or  lack  as  i s the  alternatives to success.  can maintain  regeneration  clearcutting provides  for seedlings,  of  consideration.  regeneration  planned,  natural  becoming  regeneration,  Management  increase  i f properly  management  silvicultural  of the s o i l .  logging,  Patch  land  Parks,  to dangerous  t o more  as well  sensitive sites  Protection  accelerating  directives,  site  i n some more  e s p e c i a l l y on  limit Selection  stability  species.  favorable  southern  slopes.  31  In  most  erosion, land.  especially  "We  because forest  cannot  they  benefits  pg.  175).  for  benefits  soil  and c o s t s  subjective  imperative  various  non-timber  a  management land  manager  of non-timber  to quantify.  base  soil  options.  minimize  accrue  practices  to the  merely  appropriateness  by c o m p a r i n g  options" faces  costs  (Ballard  i s that  of  1983,  values  options  are  difficult,  Evaluations  are  therefore  Recognizing  in British  degradation  management  The  be d e t e r m i n e d  should  values  forest  degradation.  and d i f f i c u l t .  land  that  management  h o w e v e r , condemn  The p r o b l e m  the forest  with  i f other  of d i f f e r e n t  not impossible,  both of  cause  forest  p r a c t i c e s can only  and  if  instances,  the  Columbia,  be e v a l u a t e d  importance  i ti s in  conjunction  32  Chapter LITERATURE  Studies  of water  distinguishing between  on  OF  or s o i l  Water  the substance  FLUORESCENT  movement  characteristics  the substance  movement.  REVIEW  4  rarely  and s o i l  "tracers  and a l l o w  are d i f f i c u l t allow  i n i t so r i g i n a l  site  because  differentiation and  or tags"  movement  DYE  after  serve  as  labels  t o be o b s e r v e d  and  dyes  used  documented. Normal to  color  "tag"soil  labels  give  (non-fluorescent)  particles  a new  and t o monitor  color  t o t h e sample  resolution,  or a b i l i t y  to distinguish  this  i s limited  by  of  method  tagged  mixing upon  particles  has occurred.  To  than  visual  technique  uses  radioactivity  movement  i n water  detection  studies.  i s successful  radioactivity  i s limited  hazardous,  concern.  technique  has  high  resolution,  or  illustrate  in  soil  or t o a c t as fluid  The use of  the subject these  method  of  public  limitations, yet  i s the use of f l u o r e s c e n c e  studies.  and  i t i s expensive,  overcomes  This  once  This  of p a r t i c l e  method.  detection  t a g dependent  developed.  and f r e q u e n t l y  movement.  and water  this  These  particles, in  changes a  both  The  in visual  to tag particles  because  which  flows.  labelled  resolution was  been  substance.  color  Detection  with  potentially A  fluid  improve  more  tracers  water  the d i f f i c u l t y  or s l i g h t  have  h a s many  t o monitor applications  33  The  appearance  absorption visible  and  spectrum.  as  of  energy  allows thus  a  level  unstable  and  original  state  called  naked when at  eye, the  therefore  i t emits  easily  to  be  fluorescent  and  level. As  has  the  a  light.  which  m u l t i t u d e of  fluorescent  are  calibration  means  of  are  state  used  structures,  is  to i t s  emission i s than  the  the  input  a  the Thus,  t o be  seen ( i . e .  light  and  which as  of  to  visible, light.  emission  are of  allows tracer  in  studies.  summarized  techniques  photon,  invisible  is this  input  of  spectrum)  returns  that  or  input  extra  This  emission  excited  energy  emit  It  movement  commonly  the  The  an  unable  will  for surface  of  an  the  is  visible  energy.  emission  (1977)  tracing  the  molecule  successfully  water  Laidlaw  dyes  from  This  This  ultraviolet  uses:  from  in  the  longer wavelength  particles  used  light  yields  i s , essentially,  i n the  and  dye  white  selective  absorbed  to accept  distinguished.  from  soil,  Smart  the  below  radiant  and  fluorescent  light  sediment,  for  molecule  shortlived.  results  drops  from  i t s previous state.  i t s energy  light,  fluorescence  a  portion  surrounding particles  night)  visible  the  (wavelengths  ultraviolet  ultraviolet  of  reflected  molecule  to  fluorescence  incident  arises  segments  portion  a  fluorescent  increasing  color  Fluorescence results  as  light  of  while  heat.  energy  ultraviolet  The  color  dissipated radiant  normal  reflection  characteristic  higher  of  the  use  in hydrology. water  studies,  f o r dye where  of They where  dilution  current  found  gauging;  metering  is  34  difficult; karst soil  and, f o r t i m e - o f - t r a v e l  groundwater water  identify  studies  water  the occurrence  transmission  routes  infiltration. aid  has a l s o  stratified  SOIL  PARTICLE  have  flow,  and t o  action  of these  and o r i g i n a l  dyes.  In  used to  to trace  water  evaluate soil  movement a n d  on b e a c h e s .  transport  movement  using  been  p a r t i c l e s index  by d i f f e r e n t i a l by s i z e  dyes  of overland  o f wave  and l o c a t i o n  illustrated  soluble  Fluorescent  The t r a c i n g o f  accomplished  in the s o i l ,  i n the evaluation  magnitude  been  studies.  The  forces  c a n be  of p a r t i c l e s c o l o r -  location.  TAGGING  Overview In  evaluating  measurements the  slope,  These  data  little  surface  of s o i l  the plot  and water boundary,  illustrate  about  soil  the point  of s o i l  movement  Mutchler  1969).  Labelling  o f movement In  because  soil  t o be  studies,  particles  or the watershed  evident  within soil  colored  when  i s necessary.  from  the area  of the eroded the area  use of  outlet. but  tell  material  (Young  or the  and  p a r t i c l e s allows  dyes  origin  and  are of l i m i t e d  value  i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g marked and  p a r t i c l e s on t h e b a s i s  especially  studies  charted.  of the d i f f i c u l t y  unmarked  most  c o l l e c t e d a t the bottom  loss  source  patterns  rates  erosion  of c o l o r  an a n a l y s i s  alone.  of large  This i s  numbers o f  The use of r a d i o a c t i v e  compounds i s  35  always  subject  hazards. cost, of  Other  in  easy  to  Large  reasonably  quickly  separate  dye  under  unknown, different  When  and  although  dyes  are  a  of  persistence will  variety  labelling should  are  tagged  of  The  sometimes  be  still  safe  tagged can of  be  prepared  fluorescent  techniques  often  and  partially  Difficulties exist,  simple  unmarked  "colors"  is  record  relatively  and  can  high  visual  stability  conditions  times.  no  are  environmentally  sediment  variety  health  procedure  different application  in  due  yield  detecting to  conditions. of  marking  stratification  points  They  volumes  environmental  environmental  allow  this  Fluorescent  use.  possible  p a r t i c l e s , and  p a r t i c l e samples.  fluorescence  A  limiting  and  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between  particles.  to  concerns  tagging  particles.  inexpensive  allow  public  factors  difficulty  tagged  and  to  of  compounds  particle sizes  p a r t i c l e s with be  and  a  colors and  exist,  slope  fluorescent  which  location.  coating  four  considered:  1) T h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( d e n s i t y , s i z e a n d surface texture) of the n a t u r a l or i n t r o d u c e d p a r t i c l e s should n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d by a p p l i c a t i o n o f the m a r k i n g compound. 2) T h e tagged p a r t i c l e s should from unmarked p a r t i c l e s . 3)  The  procedure  should  be  be  readily  relatively  distinguished  quick  4) T h e t a g g e d c o m p o u n d s h o u l d be p e r s i s t e n t the d e s i r e d l e n g t h of t i m e w i l l depend upon o b j e c t i v e s of the project.  and  easy.  although the  36  The  review  of r e s e a r c h  using  movement  studies  i s divided  original  marking  of beach  fluorescent system; spraying  Beach  ijn s i t u  using  which  a variety  Union  and  soil by  replacement.  evaluated  and under  evaluations. simplest  commercially  fluorescent  possible  technique  u l t r a v i o l e t - s e n s i t i v e dye.  of  dye and marking dyes  technique would  were  allowing  f o r marking  was  found  gum a n d  rate  available  visible  and  combined  bone-glue,  conducted  I t was  light,  i n surface  were  light  (1962)  an  available  dyes  coatings  ultraviolet Wright  These  at a predetermined  Yasso  of these  anthracene,  ultraviolet  agar-agar,  i n sea-water.  Many  1958, i n W r i g h t  used,  red-orange.  to dissolve  (1962)  were  under  of substances,  transport  by t h e I n s t i t u t e o f  (Zenkovitch  t o 3 months)  daylight  the  to a  particles either  of sediment  compounds  fluoresces  adjusted  sediments.  the  study  yellow-green  near-ultraviolet  time  soil  of  material)  marking  conducted  fluorescent  fluoresces  starch,  was  of the Soviet  Two  lumogene  and  the  the introduction  of actual  extensive  fluorescence  1962).  week  sections:  or natural  or e x t r a c t i o n ,  original  Oceanology  with  sands;  (glass  and the tagging  three  in particle  Sands The  which  particles  into  fluorescence  (from 1  daylight  coatings both i n  day and  tests beach that  on  night-  to develop sand the  with  choice  i n t e r d e p e n d e n t . . Many o f  fluoresce  properly  only  in solution  37  in  specific  materials apply  or  them The  solvents were  anthracene,  a  readily  along  Later  techniques  technique  was  dispersal  ultraviolet  lamp  analysis  the  in  Yasso light  eliminating procedure layer  of  of  a  marked  coating  were  obtained  organic  made  to  fluorescing scooped  marked  was  in  to  a  the  checked  were  with  chemical  concentrated  returned  developed the  given  a  on  (a  from  coal-tar  developing  agent.  A  the  shaker same after  collected  helpful  yields  by  sampling  as  it  simple surface  with  the  location.  The  dark  an  for  photometer  distribution area,  thereby  counting is  mechanical  results  particles  field  surface  conventional  sediment  photometer  i f attempts  were  was  rapidly  samples  from  the  was  Sand  sediment  and  (1962)  over  this  and  potential  with  quantitative  lab.  intensity  particles  results  using  with  surfaces.  experiments  lines,  marked  water  available  compound,  of  react  grain  developed.  surveyed  fluorescent  to  in  successful  derivative). suitable  would  soluble  directly  most  or  to  means.  Also,  of  of  sample marked  supplanting  procedure.  difficult  estimating  to  the  relative  the  time  in  a  fraction  used  a  time-integration  This  sample the  or  a  uniform  use  of  a  abundance  needed  for  count ing. Yasso with  (1964)  color-coded  determine action. foreshore  the The'  sizes  nature  of  procedure  zone,  sieving  of  fluorescent  size-velocity involved it  into  tracer  technique  particles  relationships  removing four  sampling  size  in  sediment  from  classes  and  to wave the  38  coating laquer was  these and  with  American  coated  with  fluorescent  foreshore  was  sampled  and  with  a  a  dye  the  just  for  coated  a  wave  subsample  have  Day-Glo  resin. and  Each  was  i n and  the  class  dumped  then  concentration  in  size  ultraviolet  sediment  came  acrylic  the  both  onto area  onsite  lab.  Particles p a r t i c l e s and been  identify  and  Holt  fluorescent glass  particles  used  in  overland  and  studies.  "uranium  willemite,  soil  a  studies  naturally  to  trace  flow v e l o c i t y - p a r t i c l e  of  desired.  are  assumed  soda  to  vary  agent The  Other the  used  mixture  i s cooled,  Young  and  density react  glass  is  Mutchler  trace  soil  similar  the  developed  impregnated agent  fluorescence  i s heated and  natural  soil  This erosion  with  sodium  identified  f l u o r e s c i n g agents  upon  to  same.  (1969)  movement.  i n German  fluorescing  depends  crushed  distribution.  a to  was  commercially  yellow."  and  p a r t i c l e s to  technique  a  substituted amount  glass  Ordinary  diuranate,  (1968)  p a r t i c l e s have  experimental  size  beetle  sediment  glass  to  Switzer  relationships.  These  glass  before  marked  ore,  and  Young used  The  Fluorescent  fluorescing  of  Cyanamid  color.  Fluorescent  size  mixture  different daylight  smaller  Introduced  movement  a  may  as  be  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  the  the  degree  of  fluorescence  until  molten  and  then  sieved  to  the  desired  the  particle  39  Young particles The  and Mutchler to evaluate  as e x i s t i n g  soil  loss,  soil  erosion  particles  were  placed  established  half  hour  runoff  simulated  fluorescent The  was  dye) i n j e c t e d  data  on more  than  portions  and c h a r t  Two  by  onslope glass troughs  the  each  silt-laden  i n the l a b f o r fluorescent occurring  the flow  net s o i l  t h e movement  and  l i n e s of  from the  of uranine  at various  p a r t i c l e s allows  of the slope  allowed  and a f t e r  the advance  into  and  Collecting  rainfall  of the runoff  measured  density  material,  of the slope  of simulated  slopes.  measurements  the slope.  differentiated fluorescent  various yield  across  use of f l u o r e s c e n t  yield  with  of eroded  glass  irregular  t o be e v a l u a t e d .  The v e l o c i t y rain  on  (of s i m i l a r  c o l l e c t e d and analyzed  particles.  fluorescent  and m i c r o r e l i e f  a t the base  increment  was  movement  source  patterns  used  particles  soil)  the point  were  to  soil  use of f l u o r e s c e n t  size  (1969)  loss.  points.  erosion  Plots  plots  "seeded"  particles illustrate  contribute  to total  of the f l u o r e s c e n t  (a  how  sediment  particles  downslope. Fowler used  and Berndt  a natural  silicate movement.  with  under  ore containing  and Helvey  crushed  the e x i s t i n g  ultraviolet  light  soil  and Fowler  fluorescent  a manganese a c t i v a t o r )  T h e o r e was  representing  (1969)  a s an  and graded onsite.  Willemite  glows  Willemite  (1979) (zinc  indicator to  When  of  sizes illuminated  yellow-green.  soil  40  Helvey graded of  and Fowler  fluorescent material  various  sizes.  disturbance each of  with  fine,  downslope  tagged  dyes.  were  (1969),  were  fluorescence  excavating  size  class  Small slope  soil  a  soil  one Rates  a n d maximum  soil  with  particles on  alpine  Small  and p a r t i c l e s  site.  fluorescent  and  fluorescein,  movement.  the  soil  using  position,  ensures  slope  a  microplots were  analyzed  included  spraying  a water  particles sieving  from  into  distinct  a  size  onto  2.5  cm  stable the s o i l  by  2.5  cm  classes, dyeing  color  surface trench each  ( f l u o r e s c e n t ) , and  i n the trench.  metal  collection  to collect  accumulations.  particles.  properties  transects  collectors  separate,  them  soil  (fluorescein) directly  the slope,  replacing  the  dye  sections,  i n the l a b .  procedure  fluorescent  across  onto  slope  tagged  with  soil  soil  levels  evaluated  i n aspect,  were  fitted  particles  Particles  replicate  dye t o index  or  Soil  by e s t a b l i s h i n g e r o s i o n  Particles  The  disturbance  i n Colorado,  varied  separate  of  size-  determined.  fluorescent  for  in surface  of dye d i r e c t l y  particles  Sites  length.  varied  and c o a r s e - g r a i n e d  Onto N a t u r a l  Application  10 p l o t s w i t h  movement  i n three  different  movement  Striffler  salted  "salted"  t o index  plot  medium,  under  Application  movement  Each  a n d was  movement  that  (1979)  surface  Fluorescent  troughs runoff  were and  also  imbedded i n  sediment  dye of v a r i o u s  colors  was  41  sprayed  along  collector original  the  to  allow  site  and  Striffler dyes  transects  simple  the  such  distance particle  inexpensive,  visible  intervals  identification  thus  found  and  sufficiently  the  at  for  yet  night  upslope  of  a  from  the  particle's  moved. tagging  with  effective.  fluorescent  The  illumination  dye  over  remained  a  two  year  period. In  conjunction  with  Striffler,  established  further  erosion  fluorescent  pigments  mixed  either  i_n s i t u  fluorescent and  qualitative  no  coat  soil the  detected allows onto  actual  the  soil  after  soil  slope,  surface  the soil of  was  the  possible color  successful  in  faded even  used  to  after a  be  full  particles  different  both  a quantitative  as  i t i s impossible  some  of  may  with the  on  the  advantage  may of  not  reflect  Day-Glo  replaced the  daytime pigments  experiment  but  illumination site.  be  particles  when  that  to  not  but  found  Night-time year  the  particles  marked  tagged  has  Excavation  Zoghet  stages  time.  tag  situ  particles  stability.  early  to  Day-Glo  in  transport.  particles  used  movement.  particle,  tagged  (1969)  He  Five  allowing  surface  surface  after  acetone  However,  downslope  complete  with  soil  disturbance.  differentiation  this  were of  of  transects.  excavation.  index  complete  the  the  after  pigments  Spraying of  or  Zoghet  that was  42  DAY-GLO F L U O R E S C E N T  A daylight properties absorb  fluorescing  percent  (Day-Glo  These  for  fluorescent  Tech.  Bull,  development process  organic  resin  daylight  light.  color  A  of a  bright  of a  non-  color  can r e f l e c t  reflected 200  t o 300  developed  i n the  date).  pigments  were  signal  first  paint.  Much  availability  fluorescent  of the  was  pigments  particles containing dyes  physical  non-crystalline.  resin  them  structure  easily  i n most  resistant  to strong  in  impetus  silk  with  are transparent The  is a  fluorescence  as a c a r r i e r  into  f o r the  solution.  fine  Day-Glo  .  t h e i n d i v i d u a l dye  of t h e pigment  media.  solvents  acts  t o go  The compound  disperses  dyes.  i s associated  and the organic  molecules allowing The  to  paints.  these organic  molecules  able  but i n combining  no  of commercial  light  90 p e r c e n t  spectrum  extra-bright  Day-Glo  dye  a  but i s a l s o  these to v i s i b l e  reflect  f o r use i n m i l i t a r y  screen  of  might  reflection  end of the spectrum  as the r e f l e c t e d  i n the exciting light  h a s t h e same  color  the lower  and convert  color  emitted  1940s  from  wavelength  present  pigment  as a non-fluorescent  (ultraviolet)  and  fluorescent  wavelengths  similar  PIGMENT  i s amorphous  powder  which  pigments  but a r e stable  or  are not  to indoor  and  outdoor  light.  Direct  characteristics color),  outdoor  depending  vehicle/binder  thickness  of  of  the  tests dyes  on  may  to and  change  pigment  (dissolving  application.  exposure  properties  sunlight  The test  their  (concentration  solvent)  manufacturer  used,  values  and and  recommends  lightfastness.  toxicity  color  see  For Appendix  44  Chapter 5 METHODS  STUDY  SITE  This Interior Vernon The  study  i s located  British  Columbia  Forest  overall  District  project  north,  Beaver  Vernon  on t h e w e s t  located  four  General field maps  surveys (forest  published (1973),  soil  forested  including  Region.  Valley  on t h e  W i n f i e l d and Study  harvested  sites are within  the  years. information  on t h e s t u d y  conducted  i n t h e summer  regions,  topographic  Reports  while  resources  give  Sprout  to other and  obtained  from  o f 1984, g o v e r n m e n t geology) and  by W i l l i n g t o n  et  a l .  and B r i t i s h  Columbia  information  on t h e  which  (1981),  of the Vernon  soils,  was  and K e l l e y  Okanagan  Clement  of vegetation  topography,  (1982)  (1981)  area  and s u r f i c i a l  compiled  and Karanka  of the North  regions  relationship  on t h e e a s t .  of  of the  Forest  by T r i n i t y  areas  area  It i s part  on t h e s o u t h ,  forest  of the region.  vegetation  Okanagan  t h e Kamloops  Lake  of Environment  survey  2).  i s bounded  a n d Lumby  reports.  hydrology a  area  (Swalwell)  Hawthorn  Ministry  (Figure  within  i n mid-elevation  previous  i n the North  Map  (1960)  briefly  completed considered  in detailing Sheet,  determined the  environmental  climate.  components  45  Figure 2. Location of Study A r e a .  46  Climate The  North  Okanagan  precipitation, study  area  Interior wetter  rain  shadow  slopes  precipitation Most  systems these  track  is  of  from  are  southward  west from  temperature  at  to  any  that  Monashee in  the  bottom)  of  also  and  (Willington  of a et  the  to  east.  between  north by  low  During  and  any  and  and  the  increasing  and  west  to  pressure summer  months  precipitation  fall  winter  the  An  The the  Mountains)  convectional  increases  (Figure  cooling, rain  storms  ridge at  The  snow  i s 50  larger  generally  storms  also  usually  tops  the  elevation  Willington  through  the  extend  elevation.  rain  and  proportion percent at  of  at  snow, annual  the  higher  lake  and  et  Okanagan  (1000+m) may  lake  percentage  1973).  with  3).  precipitation,  a l .  to  supplied  while  latitude  Mountains.  form  zone  winters.  Mountains.  is  Spring  moderate  cool  Coast  south  spaced  by  Arctic.  occurring  accumulation  the  exists  east,  the  on  of  Monashee  west  decreases  precipitation double  the  and  transition  localized  Precipitation  that  a  widely  from  summers  (east  thunderstorms.  from  state  in  precipitation  systems  intense  hot  gradient  passing  occurring  to  is located  west  east.  warm  is characterized  be  al.(1973) basin as  much  The  as  highest  occurs  in  the  precipitation level  elevations  (valley  47  6562i  r2000  6562  2000 09  0  - \  /  /  c o  > 328M  /  /  1500  |  •1000  ca  v. V  LU  > o  LU 1640  100  300  500  1640  May - September Precipitation (mm)  -8.0  3b. E s t i m a t e d d e c r e a s e in annual temperature with elevation  F i g u r e 3. P r e c i p i t a t i o n a n d t e m p e r a t u r e elevation, (B.C.M.O.E. 1981).  limiting the  while the from  in vegetative i s located  growth.  Dry I n t e r i o r 260 - 450 mm  Region  b o t t o m s i s 70 - 200 cm.  snowfall  Wet B e l t  Forest  (Figure  mean a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n  a n d mean a n n u a l  snowfall  In the I n t e r i o r  i n c r e a s e s t o an a v e r a g e  t o 120 - +350 cm  (Clement  isa  The s o u t h e r n h a l f o f  i n the Dry I n t e r i o r  the north i s i n the I n t e r i o r  precipitation  changes w i t h  much o f t h e a r e a m o i s t u r e a v a i l a b i l i t y  factor  study s i t e  0 o  M e a n D a i l y T e m p e r a t u r e (°C)  3a. E s t i m a t e d i n c r e a s e in seasonal p r e c i p i t a t i o n with elevation  Throughout  500 +4.0  —r-  -4.0  Region 4 ) . In  ranges  i n the v a l l e y  Wet  Belt  o f 425 - 1100 mm and  1981).  51° 00'  H"  CL  ro  rt  ro  •  cu •<  o rt  W  W  CU  H  ro  H-  ro  O iQ a Hcn o 3 fu  rt  ro n ro Hi  i—•  ro o rt ro PJ  H-  3  i-h O H  ro CO  rt  h ro  o 3 to  49  Higher  incoming  accumulations the  Dry  on  south  Interior  occur.  and  Region),  evapotranspiration may  radiation  Site  (PET)  results  west-facing higher  and  specific  slopes  snow  (especially  in  potential  moisture  climatic  deficits  data 1  identified  i n lower  vegetation biophysical^ ^  (PPT  i s based  zones  -  on  PET)  the  (Table I ) .  Physiography The  study  Canadian  area  Cordillera. the  Okanagan  Highlands  (south)  (Holland,  plutonic Surficial Most  erosional  The  1976).  area  geology  Highlands  and  gneissic  bedrock,  basaltic  (basic)  occur  on  mapped  area  the  Coldstream  also  Age  while  produces  wide  valley  m)  to  study  of  the  area  Fulton  (1975).  morainal younger  forested. a  the  granitic bedrock.  although  encompasses  of  by  undifferentiated  P l e i s t o c e n e Ice  study  half  physiographic  plateau i s  Okanagan  d e p o s i t s were  The  northern  the  Plateau  moderately-sloping plateaus  i n the  bedrock  f e a t u r e s are  elevation  of  slopes.  areas the  system  Thompson  Thompson  i s u n d e r l a i n by  (acidic)  from  The  g e n t l e or  weathering  forested  deposits  from  by  step-like  The  Interior the  regions  differential  the  straddles  and  characterized  within  It  (north)  gentle  lies  (600 sites and  range high  i s 800  1200  -  -  1400  of  elevation  peaks 1000 m  m  (1650 in  in the  m).  the south. .  I B i o p h y s i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of landscape u n i t s on t h e b a s i s o f g e o l o g y , t e r r a i n , c l i m a t e , s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n (Walmsley and van B a r n e v e l d 1977).  50  VEGETATION  AND  ENVIRONMENT  TABLE I. CHARACTERISTICS  TRINITY VALLEY  DEAFIES CREEK  Forest region IWB Section SALMON ARM Zone (IWH-WC) Subzone ID-wL Summers Winters Snow a n n u a l (w.e.) u n t i l growing degree days >  IWB SALMON  THE  STUDY  BEETLE CREEK  ARM  (IWC)  ID-wL  warm,moist cool,wet  hot,warm,dry cool,moist  130-220cm April  130-180cm March-April  900-1700  OF  900-1300  AREA  BEAVER LAKE  DI VERNON (ID) IP  DI VERNON (SAeSalF) ID-IP  hot,dry cool,dry  hot,dry cold,dry  1 40cm March  100-200cm April-May  700-1500  700-1100  ( 1  climatic moisture^ ' - 100/+100 deficit/surplus 2  -20.0/+1 00  -200/+100  -200/+100  freezeyfree period^)  80-120days  80-140days  60-1OOdays  growing season precipitation  250-350mm  200-300mm  200-250mm  possible l i m i t s to productivity Soil  Types  -climatic leached - Orthic  soils  Dystric  Eluviated Dystric Brunisols Soil  Texture  moisture d e f i c i t s  Brunisols-  Bruinisolic Gray L u v i s o l s  loam  silt  loam  <250-300mm  in growing short  -Orthic  60-l00day  season  growing Gray  season  Luvisols-  Orthic Eutric Brunisols  Orthic Dystric Brunisols  sandy  silt  loam  loam  T T ) g r o w i n g d e g r e e d a y s - The a c c u m u l a t e d d i f f e r e n c e between t h e mean d a i l y t e m p e r a t u r e a n d s t a n d a r d b a s e t e m p e r a t u r e o f 5 d e g C o n d a y s when t h e mean d a i l y t e m p e r a t u r e i s a b o v e 5 d e g C . (2) c l i m a t i c m o i s t u r e d e f i c i t / s u r p l u s - The a l g e b r a i c difference b e t w e e n May t o September p r e c i p i t a t i o n and p o t e n t i a l e v a p o t r a n s p i r a t i o n . D e f i c i t s ( n e g a t i v e ) and s u r p l u s e s ( p o s i t i v e ) . (3) f r e e z e - f r e e p e r i o d - The in a c a l e n d e r year f r e e of a (B.C.M.O.E. 1 9 7 8 ) .  g r e a t e s t number o f c o n s e c u t i v e t e m p e r a t u r e of 0 degC or l e s s  days  51  Soils The  soils  The  parent  the  nutrient  matter The  of  summer; lower  in  soils  In  which  have  minerals  (with  recent i n the  leached  i n the  and  Podzols  (above  m)  1380  accumulations  and of  the  survey  Clement  iron  and  soil  Sprout  as  a  Grey-Wooded in  In  the  a  (1981) mapped  The and  accumulation  exhibit  and  acidic.  lands.  Eutric Gray  more Brunisols  Dystric  at  of the  leached aluminum  Luvisols clay  Wet  Belt  Bruinisols exhibit  clays higher  upper  Brunisols  of  Interior  characteristically  found  the  surrounding  accumulations  horizons.  are  1984).  during  sampling)  and  and  and is at  leached  minerals.  elevations  layers  (Clement  of  organic  1).  and  Luvisols  most  i n the  forest  Podzolic  field  with  content  i n the  major  deposits.  (Smith  slightly  developed,  surfaces  Gray  Humo-Ferric  are  (Table  poorly  minimal  soil  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  lower  by  poor,  moisture  agricultural  area  and  of  soils  soils  study,  glacial  g e n e r a l l y dry  limited  to  Interior  basic  from  concentrated  greater  soil  e l e v a t i o n s which  surfaces  are  than  Many  adjacent  characterized lower  have  early  mapped  Dry  are  site  centimetres  temperatures  and  which  they  this  Luvisols The  the  few  areas.  areas  extensive  of  (1960) c l a s s i f i e d  were  forest  originate  forested areas  average  Podzol.  and  upper  however,  Kelley  area  is generally nutrient  capital  agricultural and  this  material  the  soils  of  and  1981).  high  52  Vegetation  o n many  erosion,  especially  textured  soils.  rainstorms moisture  The r u n o f f  deficits  serves  on s t e e p e r  can cause  regeneration  sites  slopes  from  problems.  and high  difficult  to control and areas  snowmelt  and  of  fine  intense  I n some a r e a s  soil  soil  climatic  and a i r temperatures  and thus  make  surface  make  soils  less  stable.  Vegetation The (Table  study  1).  area  encompasses  The major  tree  (ID)  (Pseudotsuga  (eS)  (Picea engelmani i ) ,  var  latifolia),  western (Abies The Dry  larch  are Interior  var glauca),  lodgepole r e d cedar  (wL) ( L a r i x  of f o r e s t  pine (wC)  types  Douglas-fir  Engelmann  spruce  (IP) (Pinus (Thuja  occidentalis)  contorta  piicata),  and a l p i n e  f i r  (alF)  lasiocarpa). vegetation  Interior  temperature is  species  menziesii  western  a variety  i s significantly  and the I n t e r i o r and p r e c i p i t a t i o n  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by I n t e r i o r  association  with  ponderosa  elevation,  changing  increases.  A belt  transition conditions.  Wet  Interior  i n the valleys i n  ponderosa)  pine  as e l e v a t i o n  Belt  of  The Dry  (Pinus  by w e s t e r n  Wet  between t h e  as a r e s u l t  Douglas-fir  to lodgepole  to the Interior  Belt  differences.  pine  dominated  different  r e d cedar  and moister,  a t low  forms cooler  a  53  Clement species arnica spp.)  as  identifies  Soopalallie  in the  Dry  Interior  Wet  are  honeysuckle  Utah  (Paxistima  Belt  and  western  clintonia (Linnaea  (Clintonia  b o r e a l i s ) and  system  of  management single  D o u g l a s - f i r and  pathogen  attacks  location. salvage  or  forest  mountain  south  and  east  The  group  shrubs  (Rubus  the  herbs  boxwood cornuta  parviflorus),  northern  area  selection,  types.  Insect  vary  beetle the  silvicultural  i n the  vegetation pine  In  and  (Corylus  major  tree  pine  of  area.  large-leaved rattlesnake  employed  ponderosa  of  Recent  cuts  study  uniflora),  oblongifolia).  and  (Calamagrostis  filbert  thimbleberry  (Goodyera  clearcutting  the  heart-leaved  u t a h e n s i s ) , Oregon  orchid  forest  grass  p o r t i o n of  (Lonicera  (indicator)  canadensis),  pine  myrsinites), California  twinflower  in  understory  portion, characteristic  californica),  blue-bead  major  (Shepherdia  (Arnica cordifolia)  Interior  var.  the  in  especially and  scope  outbreaks  study  is  and  have  led  to  area.  Hydrology The  study  Lake  sites  into  the  and  area  i n the  Okanagan  Trinity  Valley  comprises  south  drain  of  a  number  of  into  Vernon  Creek,  Basin,  while  Beetle  sites  drain  north  Creek, to  the  basins.  Beaver  which  Deafies Shuswap  flows  Creek River.  54  The the  general  spring the of  streamflow pattern  snowmelt  Coldstream the study  study  sites Snow  with  Creek  elevation than  hydrograph,  at slightly  The  study  area  good  lower  rivers  flows  a basin  salmon  variety a r e mule  populations.  water  snowmelt  follows  with  sharp  illustrated  situated  elevations  by  just  west  than the  sites  trout  (Figure  salmonid  at higher  6).  lakes,  some  The  streams  producers  kokanee).  of h a b i t a t s deer,  small  originates  populations.  are important and  equivalent) increases  runoff  c o n t a i n s many  rainbow  the area  (anadromous  (snow  the study  Wildlife  A  a n d l o w summer  a n d most  and  draining  Canadian  and  (Figure 5).  maintaining  There  peaks  area  i s snow d o m i n a t e d  for interior  accumulation  elevations  Fish  hydrograph  exist  m o o s e , some  for wildlife sheep,  in this  and b l a c k  bear  area.  55  S t a t i o n 08NM179 ( N e a r Nouth) r e g u l a t e d flow  !•  Jan.  Feb.  March  Aprl  May  June  July  F i g u r e 5. C o l d s t r e a m C r e e k (Hawthorn and Karanka  a  Figure  25  38 51 63 76 89 102 S n o w W a t e r Equivalent  Aug.  Sept.  Oct.  Nov.  Dec.  hydrographs 1982).  114  127  (centimetre*)  6. Snow w a t e r e q u i v a l e n t ( A p r i l ) v e r s u s s e v e n O k a n a g a n snow c o u r s e s ( B . C . M . O . E .  elevation 1981).  for  56  SELECTION  OF  Fowler use  METHODS  and Berndt  methods  (1969)  of r e c o g n i z i n g  determining  i t s cause  in  watersheds"  mountain  two  relatively  harvested method  fluorescent Canadian  of  1984  location erosion label  particle  EROSION  with  are  and type  method,  distance,  was  erosion  on  established and (2) in soil  i n the  i n slope,  aspect,  and p a t t e r n s  rates  erosion  applied  to four  to  incorporates  sampling  spraying  applied  erosion,  untested  t o examine  The second, was  an  method  differed  of logging,  particles,  rate,  first  transects,  which  occurrence.  causal  summer soils,  factors for  fluorescent  dye t o  o f t h e 10 s i t e s  of downslope  to  soil  movement.  TRANSECT  with  recognized  sedimentation soil  line  t o 10 s i t e s  Estimates together  The  active  to evaluate  Columbia  new  f o r easy  study  transects,  in British  "need  relative  This  methods  relatively  conditions.  soil  examine  used  dye, a  disturbance  (pg. 1).  (1) e r o s i o n  previously  a  or i d e n t i f y i n g  and a p p r a i s i n g  easy-to-use  areas:  identified  STUDY  of s o i l  disturbance  topographic, as  and c l i m a t i c  sites, information,  i n d i c a t o r s of p o t e n t i a l erosion  (Bockheim  disturbance  soil,  on h a r v e s t e d  varies  e_t a l .  1975).  On  and  a harvested  area,  i n l o c a t i o n and i n t e n s i t y across  the  Figure  7.  indicate  Location  of  fluorescent  the dye  study  sites.  plots).  (Triangles  58  cutblock. which  precludes  method  allows  classes al.  I t i s not uniformly  the areal  Smith  have  used  Site  Selection Ten  two  this  sites  type  sites  logged near  (Swalwell)  and degree  climatic  zones  sites  (Figures  Field  Methods Erosion  Transects  overall sample were  site  (1981)  Deafies  7).  The s i t e s  on t h e B e e t l e Creek,  The s i t e s  Creek  Trinity varied  harvested included  Road and  V a l l e y Road and i n aspect,  were  a n d on b o t h  selection  and c l e a r c u t  located  soil  i n two harvested  8 and 9 ) .  laid  resembled  lines  and Watt  Transects  procedure  transect  Bockheim e t  of slope.  to estimate  a n d Wass  Columbia,  a n d Schwab  (Figure  areas  t r a n s e c t s were  were  transect  disturbance  l o c a t e d on r e c e n t l y  area  Lake.  cutblock  Smith  (1976)  The l i n e  of v a r i o u s  In B r i t i s h  were  the study  selectively  clearcut  techniques.  distribution  a n d Waas  distributed,  method.  study  through  Beaver  sampling  t o be d e t e r m i n e d .  (1975),  areas  many  or randomly  general that  and Bockheim  Lines  v a r i e d with  e s t a b l i s h e d every  site  followed  run along  contours.  intensity  by a t h r e e - p e r s o n  out i n a rectangular  (1976) were  done  grid  parameters.  crew.  pattern The  survey  by Schwab a n d W a t t e t a l . (1975).  a bearing  cutblock  1 0 t o 25 m e t r e s  (1981),  The  perpendicular  r a n u p a n d down size.  on t h e  to the  slope and Sample  depending  points  on t r a n s e c t  59  60  length, Ground  to  obtain  a  disturbance  was  to  soil  at  point.  crew  members'  r a t i n g s was  were  based  depth,  (Table  on  100  Although  or  per  cutblock.  and  no-  very-deep-deposit  subjective,  found.  type,  points  s u b j e c t i v e l y from  very-deep-gouge  little  Disturbance  extent  of  of  variation  in  categories  ground  disturbance  II).  Table  I I . SOIL  (modified  At  of  rated  disturbance the  a  minimum  the  point  ND NBS BS SG  DISTURBANCE  from  directly  Schwab  below  CATEGORIES  and  meter  Watt  mark  1981)  on  chain  record:  -  no disturbance n a t u r a l bare soil m i x t u r e o f m i n e r a l s o i l a n d humus s h a l l o w gouge ( m i n e r a l s o i l exposed t o 5 depth) - d e e p g o u g e ( 5 - 2 5 cm d e p t h ) - v e r y d e e p g o u g e ( o v e r 25 cm depth) - shallow deposit (mineral s o i l deposit to depth) - d e e p d e p o s i t ( 5 - 2 5 cm d e p t h ) - v e r y d e e p d e p o s i t ( o v e r 25 cm depth) - l i t t e r d i s t u r b e d and s l a s h p i l e s  DG VDG SD DD VDD L  Along  the  transect  sketch  map.  ground  vegetation  samples cutblock  (3-4 a  determined reversed  Local  per  line  slope were site)  cutblock  downslope.  trails  percentages recorded were  perpendicular by  skid  This  (point a  collected.  offset  size)  and  was  of  were  few At  25-50 m  traversed  continued  until  to  5  recorded point)  random the  cm  cm  on and  soil  edge  of  the  (distance and the  the  line  cutblock  was  a  61  covered.  In the very  selected  areas  were  large  selection cutblock  sampled  in this  two  randomly  manner.  Analysis A written  report  including  general  location,  cutblock  streams  draining  compiled  to give  disturbance.  was  site  completed  parameters  size,  number  f o r each  as aspect,  and  size  the area.  Field  percentage  and degree  of  profiles  were  drawn,  cutblock  including  streams,  skid  trails,  landings  was  included. sites  A  based  occurrence,  site on  is  a  an a r e a  sources,  subjective  movement soil.  comparing sites.  harvesting  Surface  The  soil  analysis  disturbance description,  line  Average  values,  specific  data  features  preliminary  included  samples  data  profiles,  hand-textured  site  possible  areas  to identify  soil  and  bare  assessment among  i n the l a b .  a  of site  record.  evaluation trends  of  levels  evaluation,  in site  occurrence  distribution  and a p h o t o g r a p h i c  of the  erosion  evidence  deposition  utilized  variability used  noted  and d i s t u r b a n c e  were  and  f o r each  Erosion  visual  of the  vegetation  a care-in-logging  the written  conclusions.  on  map  haulroads  strips.  gullies,  operations  were  rough  location,  of s i t e  classes,  a  sites,  based  was  ground  completed  and b u f f e r  and  information  of ground  stream  map  landings  which  rills,  evaluation  was  slope,  reconnaisance  evaluation  including  Site  list  evaluation  deposition  sedimentation  and a  of  transect  Line  sketched,  cutblock  and  and draw  site  62  FLUORESCENT This label  DYE  STUDY  study  soil  method  particles  movement.  This  onto  particles,  the  soil  and  No  fluorescent  only  method.  one  new  literature  (from  Therefore  fluorescent  many  light  the spraying  i s quite  dyes  study  Day-Glo  and u l t r a v i o l e t  procedure,  literature.  using  used  under  a n d few e x a m p l e s  Canadian  the United  -  Will  t h e dye d e g r a d e  -  Will  fluorescence  to identify  of fluorescent  describes  unknowns  pigment  research  climatic  States)  exist,  to soil  dyes  exist  in  studies  conditions  uses  a  similar '  including:  in sunlight?  persist  after  freezing  and  snow  cover? -  -  -  What  solvent  soil  particles?  How  Will  application  change  soil  particles  What  level  to  detect  should  be u s e d should  (size,  to bind  t h e dye t o t h e  such  applied?  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  density,  of u l t r a v i o l e t particles?  be  of the  shape)?  illumination  I s a hand  held  i s necessary field  lamp  sufficient? -  -  Can movement what  color  What  size  visible  patterns  and speed  be  recorded  of f i l m  of p a r t i c l e s  will  f o r measurement?  on  film?  I f so  i s best? hold  t h e dye and  remain  63 Selection In (1969)  a  soil  used  acetone with  of F l u o r e s c e n t movement  Day-Glo  fluorescent (1969)  xylene  (personal  communication  results  tests  with  i n acetone and  on  samples  grams  of  t o one  pigment  were soil  mixed  test  were  and  Day-Glo  ultraviolet have  Both  of  pigment light  of  rains.  satisfactory  (likely  due  to  xylene  Saturn  and  yellow  s p r a y e d on  the  for three  hours  a  end  of  this  illumination  mixed  time  under  found  Therefore,  pigment  weeks  of  m i x t u r e was  sunlight).  fluorescent  Twenty  illumination.  long At  conducted  positively for  set outside  fluorescein  chosen.  of  a c e t o n e and  the  acetone  to  dye  with  Selection In  late  fluorescent slope  grams  temperature,  heavy  reported  site.  ultraviolet  were  solution  fluorescent  ml  tested  of  ijn s i t u .  #2  200  but  of Day-Glo  Site  with  of  in  Both  yellow  Creek  samples  yielded  application was  ml  soil  to high  periodic  degraded  200  soil  Zoghet  solution  i n x y l e n e were  Twenty  night-time  boxes  subject  sunlight,  with  under  mixed  sample.  sample.  fluorescence The  soil  to  fluorescein  were  1984).  Saturn  the D e a f i e s  fluorescein  applied  second  from  in a  fluorescein  dye  Day-Glo  pigment soil  used  applying  in Colorado,  pigment  Striffler  Field  the  study conducted  and  satisfactory  and  Dye  but  August dye  1984,  four  application.  a l l were  located  study The  within  sites  sites  were  varied  selected  for  in aspect  and  walking distance  of  major  64  roads  to  allow  snowmelt Trinity  in  The  11,  numbers  quite  seen  #2  dye  Lake  on  and  access  1985.  The  study  and  Beaver  plots  Valley  reflect  were  #2 #4  has  somewhat the  Lake  established  has  15 6  dye  and  shortly sites  #1  and  on  each  plots,  Beaver  loosely  cutblocks.  established  slope  compacted  skid  them,  Locations ensure  of  of  access  the  The  after  chosen  were  #4. site  Trinity  Lake  #1  variation  location  of  Valley  has  6.  in  site  dye  plots  arbitrary.  lower  beside  and  Beaver  Plots and  #1  Trinity  conditions was  spring  number  varied. has  the  Valley  The  #1  night-time  positions, trails  and  on  generally  proper  clinometer  was  a  and  on in  free  to  of of  in  upper  heavily  of  the  measure  and  to  and  soil  immediate  areas  aspects.  vegetation  dye  positions  undisturbed  slopes  ground  slope  disturbed  relatively  variety  adherence used  both  were  chosen  particles.  slope  above  to  A the  plot.  Field  Methods  Application During for  an  the  dye  even  have  Dye  August,  The  sprayers, a  1984,  various  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  plots.  available not  of  build-up  volatile for of  measured nature  safety high  applicators solutions of  reasons,  pressure.  acetone to The  were of  tested pigment  limited  those final  which  the did  on  65  selection  was  durability  a hand-held  was  marginal  pump-type  due  sprayer,  although i t s  to the corrosive  properties  of  acetone. Dye  was  disturbance were dye  applied of s o i l  sprayed solution  consisted  (Saturn  surface  area  with  rates  and area  into  Two  sponge  plots  areas  dye  and  was  spring  visited  1969).  of  The  fluorescent  to cover  proper  with  pigment  10).  Templates  strips  marked  established  record  were  25  cm  2  o f wood  application one metre  metal  pins  long  and  tied  by  level  deterioration was  tested  ground  to  evaluate  over  time.  On  after  dye a p p l i c a t i o n  of the a p p l i c a t i o n  - Spring  soil  mineralight 11).  on  process  and  compiled.  at night  measured.  recorded  Dye  1985  1985, s h o r t l y  and q u a n t i f y  (Figure  Day-Glo  t o ensure  fluorescence  Measurement  operated  used  and pigment  a photographic  fluorescence  were  (Figure  i n 10 m l a c e t o n e  wide,  were  selected  In  Lines  further  features.  splash  Field  to the slope  boundaries.  raindrop  and  were  precluding  alteration.  o f one gram  yellow)  centimetres  site  to s o i l ,  ( s i m i l a r t o Zoghet  lined  five  and s i t e  perpendicular  pigment  and  directly  to evaluate movement. was  Downslope  used  sites  snowmelt,  the fluorescence  A hand  held  MSL-48  scale  of  plots  of the battery  illumination  o f p a r t i c l e s was  evaluation  on a  the f i e l d  for ultraviolet  movement  A comparison  rating  after  o f movement  identified was  1 t o 10, b a s e d  also on a  Figure  10.  Field  application of fluorescent  dye.  F i g u r e 11. I l l u m i n a t i o n o f f l u o r e s c e n t d y e s t r i p w i t h h a n d h e l d m i n e r a l lamp ( N a t u r a l l i g h t i s c a u s i n g much o f t h i s i l l u m i n a t i o n ) .  visual  perception  of  photographed  under  various  colors  prints  film and  determine  movement.  ultraviolet and  types. 1600  100,  400  and  which  was  most  Each  of  light  dye  using  Color  ASA  the  and  film  a  tripod  black  were  effective for  strips  and  in  and white  compared  use  was  to  photographic  record. Nails indicate  sprayed  and  measurement  with  locate of  fluorescent  paint  p a r t i c l e s downslope  distance  moved  in  were  and  daylight  used  to  allow conditions.  Analysis Movement The from  Rating soil  most  to  particles  movement  occurring  l e a s t , based  moved  and  the  on  the  distance  on  dye  number moved  plots of  was  ranked  individual  downslope  soil  (soil-  movement-rating). The  site  evaluated  and  particular  judged in  trends  site  Photographic The  variables  relating  variables  degree  of  plot  movement  were to  identified.  Record  various  for  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g each  films  and  effectiveness  documenting  movement.  in  photographic capturing  methods  the  used  were  fluorescence  and  68  Chapter R E S U L T S AND  EROSION  Site  TRANSECT  STUDY  #1  Valley  The  cutblock  extending  across  the winter  slashburning had  been  covered  and  mosses). The  was  close rock  by t h i n  average  slope  site  the spur  although  and s k i d  Older  30-35%  road showed  throughout areas  the site  evidence  slash.  No  cuts  the and i n others (mainly  15% o f t h e s i t e  indication  into  done  planted.  vegetation  and  was  surrounding  i n some  and ground  little  windrowed  h a d been  visible  Logging  clearcut  of e r o s i o n was  herbs  was on t h e  severely  of r i l l i n g  (Figure  16  92). Soil-disturbance  77%  place.  was  was  roads  contained  to the surface  soil  There  of a p r o g r e s s i v e  and upslope.  areas  was  revegetated.  eroded  block  a n d some  Bare  was  the contour  and t h i s  burned  cutblock.  selected i s part  had y e t taken  Bedrock  pg.  DISCUSSION  Evaluation  Trinity  in  6  and b a r e - s o i l  a n d 66% r e s p e c t i v e l y  value  for soil  disturbance  (48.4%)  (Table  is  moisture  less  (Table  IV).  With  storage  values  III).  c l a s s e d as bedrock  TV  f o r TV #1  #1  were  had the h i g h e s t  shallow-deposits  close  to the surface  capacity. Therefore,  shallow  there soils  69 TABLE  I I I . OVERALL  SITE  CHARACTERISTICS  % Slope  Size Aspect  FROM L I N E  Soil  TRANSECT  DATA  %*** % Bare (ha) D i s t S o i l  Care** in Logging  Texture  186 45  26 29  22 24  f-s-loam g-s-loam  8.0 8.5 &  selective selective seedtree  clearcut clearcut  Beetle Creek 82-L-2-e(32) 1 82-L-2-e(20) 2  27 25  Deafies Creek 82-L-7-d(25) 1 82-L-6-a(13) 2  20 25  SW SW  17 15  69 67  68 62  si-loam si-loam  4.0 4.5  Trinity Valley 82-L-7 -d(45) 1 82-L-7 -d(23) 2  35 45  W SE  15 10*  77 50  66 46  loam loam-sl  5. 0 c l e a r c u t 9. 0 c l e a r c u t  Beaver Lake 82-L-3 - c ( 3 9 ) 82-L-3 - c ( 3 4 ) 82-L-3 - c ( 3 1 ) 82-L-3 - c ( 5 3 ) 8 2 - L - 3 -- c ( 5 3 )  10 10 8 50 20  S NW SW SW SW  16 1 2 15 7.5 7.5  44 64 37 60 53  44 64 28 43 28  si-loam si-loam si-loam si-loam si-loam  6. 0 4. 0 7. 0 7. 0 7. 0  * **  area traversed (approximately s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n by crew  82-L-2-e (32) ***  1 2 3 4A 4B  SW g e n NW  % Dist  F o r e s t C o v e r Map Cutblock number (Soil  25% o f t o t a l supervisor  clearcut clearcut clearcut clearcut clearcut  cutblock  area)  Location  disturbance)  and % Bare  Soil  from  Table  IV.  70  have  greater  risk  of becoming  snowmelt  and y i e l d i n g  clearcut  located  input  sediment Gray  overland  immediately  to the  soils  i n the Idaho  burning  there  was  previously  might  The in  lower  gouging  fact  values  disturbance  is  somewhat  textured can  likely  logging part  progressive  #1  on  which  cover  may  TV  was and  clearcut.  The h i g h  becomes  i s reduced  #1  had l e s s  cover  than  TV  be  expected  t o be g r e a t e r ,  Rothwell  amount This  coarse-  disturbance  that  value  of c a r e - i n the site  (1978)  forms  stated  that  soil  erosion.  i n c r e a s i n g l y important (Meeuwig  #2,  deep-  23.2%).  the p o t e n t i a l f o r  and  reflected  had a high  value  #1  clearcut.  logged  #1  erosion  o f TV  of the r e l a t i v e l y  logging.  flow,  after  upslope  and shallow  no-disturbance i n view  that  textured  in surface  I I I ) and t o the f a c t  overland  gradient  or  older  similar  the upper  winter  IV).  c l e a r c u t s maximize  disturbance,  rainfall  i s an  be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e low a s s e s s m e n t  of a progressive  vegetative  from was  (Table  and winter  (5.0)(Table  Slope  site  (lowest  study  burning  f o r deep-deposits  unexpected  soil  o f TV  increase  The  input  this  ( 8 . 4 % & 9.5%)  of  There  b a t h o l i t h , found  sites.  sediment that  in a  significant  stable  increase  upslope  (1981),  shallow  on  flow.  during  site.  a n d Megahan  a  saturated  and Packer  therefore  a s was  shown.  soil  as  1976).  movement  TV might  71  TABLE Soil  disturbance classes  Trinity Valley Disturbance 1 Class  No d i s turbance Natural bare soil Bare soil  2  23. 2 45. 1  TRANSECT  f o r study  (percentage  Deafies Creek  Beetle Creek  1  1  2  3 0 . 9 3 3 . 3 72 .4  DATA of cutblock  Beaver  area)  Lake  2  1  2  3  4A  4B  70.5  56.0  36.5  59.2  38. 1  47.2  /  3.5  /  /  1 .6  /  /  /  4.1  0.9  /  /  /  /  /  6 .3  /  /  /  /  /  /  9. 5  7. 5  6 .3  /  3.0  18.8  4. 8  6. 5  1 .6  1 .0  3.7  1.0  32. 1 32. 3  4 .7  21 . 4  16. 0  1 .6  1 .2  4. 3  5 .5  Shallow 6. 3 4.4 gouge Very deep 3. 2 3.5 gouge Shallow 4 8 . 4 23.9 deposit Very deep 8. 4 10.6 deposit Litter & 10. 5 8.0 slash  %  IV. LINE  19.6  3.1 1 .0  11.5 0.9  27.6  29.2  10.2  23.9  3.6  9.7  14.6  9.2  6.2  5.0  /  13.3  17.7  /  5.6  / 18.1 4.2 25.0  Bare Soil  66.3  45.9 67.8  6 2 . 3 22.1  24.2 44.0  63.6 27.6 43.2  27.9  % Disturbance  76.8  50.4  66.6 26.0  29.2 44.0  6 3 . 6 36.8  52.9  69.0  60.2  72  Trinity  Valley  This and  care  #2  cutblock  was  in logging  relatively  was  regeneration  were  ran  to contours.  parallel  skid  roads  and  water  bars  their  length. No  (soil  streams  in  by  skid  Patches and  Skidder  (45% average  skid  u s e was  roads  on  the block  the block.  the moderately  and  This  coarse  of  roads  to the  "put-to-bed"  little  soils  generally  intervals  was  slope)  advanced  confined  were  mounds) e s t a b l i s h e d a t  crossed  occurred  high.  undisturbed  the steeper  rilling part  left  rated  steep  with  along  erosion  or  influenced at (loam-sandy  least  loam  texture). TV  #2  had values  and  46%.  I t was  the  most  stable,  one  for disturbance of the s t e e p e s t  reflected  disturbance  value  45.1%)  In  based  skidding  a  and  ground  operational skid  disturbance  between  less  area TV  #2  deposits was  will  than  on  be  as  sites,  This  on  values  steep  skidder  results and,  on  (9)  50%  one  (high  of  no-  assessment.  slopes,  movement  in a  of  yet also  in logging  operation  soil  safety  to  reduction a cutblock  in basis,  disturbed. proportion  gouges.  more a  and c a r e  the skidroads  had a higher  therefore  compacted  roads.  bare  in disturbance  constraints limit  established  and  skid  I t has a coarse  resistant trail.  of disturbance  to gouging,  classed  textured especially  soil when  as  and  73  onto of  The  water  the  undisturbed  runoff  Deafies  on  roads  cutblock  disturbed  much  of  Most  damage  movement  The  insufficient, intercepted  on  DC  #1  68%  overall  site  site.  Much  high  These  values  the  road  deposits.  of  from  accumulation  (Rothwell  1978).  area  system  the  trails  with  very  on  road  skidder  deep  moderate The  and  the  gouges  slopes system  and  where was  rilled  drainage  road  system  was  to  i n the  the  road  switchbacks  was  which  flow.  of  indicated a  the the  sediment road  21%  high.  of  from this  and  moderate  input  to  and  of  Deafies  bare-soil  percent  of  values, the  (Table  It  that  is likely  skidder  served  as the  a  The  build-up  on  gentle  deposition of  was  IV).  soil  disturbance  sediment.  69%  site  deep-deposit  allowed  amount  system.  Thirty-two  cutblock  upslope  skid  to  them  and  much  perpendicular  through  and  quite  supplied  base  sediment  are  the  disturbance  shallow-deposit  at  prevented  runoff  flow  o r i g i n a t e on had  defined  evaluation  under  cutblock  diverted  e s t a b l i s h e d and  due  respectively.  the  #2  oriented  occurred  subsurface  would  This  unconfined.  mainly  Overall erosion  was  c u l v e r t s were  occurring.  TV  landings  was  few  although  from  and  were  skidder  and  cutover.  There  deposits.  Creek  e s t a b l i s h e d on  #1  small  contours. tracks  skid  Creek  This  bars  eroded the slopes  zone deep  for  74  The  low v a l u e s  presence gouging  of sheet took  especially onsite,  with  drainage  than  indicating  If overland  flow  was  gouges  obliterated.  would  i s greatly  of  trails  overland  contours  reduced  (Meeuwig  Creek  skidder  system.  and s k i d  flow  This  cutblock  a n d was m o s t l y  was  Much  of the lowlands  in  ruts  from  erosion the with  skidder  major there  drainage  concentration  movement.  of  small  The  was  roads  creek  into  resulting  was  i n the  ran  Coldstream  marshy,  The c r e e k  to the  diverted area  rilling.  disturbance was  A  draining  (20-25%)  limited  (aside  from  was  i n t h e marshy  because roads  herbs  and  DC  had 67% d i s t u r b a n c e  in-logging  effective  perpendicular  sloped.  disturbance.  moderate  #2  t o water  1976).  of the cutblock  of channel  cutblock  soil  a n d damage  oriented  gently  Creek.  The  loam  #2  small  exhibited  no  and l a c k of  to eliminate  and Packer  the center  because  movement  Erosion  roads  that  the  (4) ( T a b l e I I I ) ,  by p r o v i d i n g  through  deep  be  reflect  occurring,  of the s i l t  the road  may  rather  the unconfined on  site  the e r o d i b i l i t y  quality  Deafies  on t h i s  low c a r e - i n - l o g g i n g v a l u e  reflected  skid  erosion  place.  shallow  The  f o r gouging  lowlands but  o f low s l o p e s .  and landings)  was  Much o f revegetated  forbs.  (4.5).  There  were  and a  low a s s e s s m e n t  significant  shallow  of  and  caredeep-  75  deposits  (32% and  movement  i n the lowlands  Deafies many  Creek  of the other  finer  silt  summer  loam  logged  The the  16%).  high  diversion  soils  of the creek  of t h i s  load  of the stream. or across  large  on  fairly  steep  rills)  on  was  that  limited spring  (1978)  t o be  by low  runoff  i t into  slope  will  move  the sediment  identified  or draws  skidding  as a cause  and only  trails.  This  (greater  lengths  coarse  minor  than  soil  damage  was  30%) w i t h Most  a t t h e base  (fine  logged.  slight  of t r a i l .  and r e s i s t i n g  on a  selectively  occurred  cutblock  expected  d i d not appear  and i n  of  erosion  quality.  was  the landing  are f a i r l y  This  cutblock  slopes  short  infiltration  as  skid  bed before  soils  i t was  i n the lowlands  and i n c o r p o r a t e  bottoms  that  from t h e  #1  disturbance  occurred  however,  of water  in part,  with  1981).  flow  Rothwell  creek  deterioration  site  to  sediment  skidder  i n comparison  and the fact  channel  as overland  much  This  gouging  amount o f d i s t u r b a n c e  It i s likely,  Creek  site  from  sediment.  resulted,  (Schwab a n d Watt  angles.  Beetle  This  on  disturbance  supply  had h i g h  plots.  eroding  and  would  sites  actively  along  The h i g h  sandy  Little  movement confined  gouges (and  skid  trails  of the slope.  loam),  to  were p u t The  promoting  compaction.  had low d i s t u r b a n c e  selectively  logged  (72%  site.  no-disturbance),  The  only  76  significant which  disturbance  likely  reflected  value  was  the r i l l s  6%  shallow-gouging  developing  on  onsite  some  skidroads. B.C. (6.3%) This  #1  which  might  which  while  reflected  or shallow existence  difficulty Interior  recording a bare-soil  a mixture at a  onsite,  on more a c t i v e  The  site  lower  the shallow-deposits  movement  deposits  of  the only  represent,  forms  little  was  this  sites  #2 m i g h t  of bare  (Clement  allow  soil  intensity,  the  on o t h e r  bare  soil  i t would  a n d humus. process  sites.  With  can remain  evolve  stable,  t o form  shallow  gouges.  in revegetating  Region  of mineral  class  soil  southwest  1981).  similar  might  areas  also  result  slopes  from  the  i n the Dry  The more n o r t h e r l y to establish  aspect  vegetative  cover.  Beetle  Creek  This  large cross  shelterwood ran  some  skid  no d i v e r s i o n  occurring. (gravelly with  and seed  contour  sandy  the road There  was  were  of overland were  loam).  The  little  harvested  few o l d s k i d surface  flow,  little  identified  coarse  using  trails  drainage.  established straight  relatively  and i t s drainage very  A  was  and concentrated  trails  The s o i l s  cutblock  t r e e methods.  up n a t u r a l g u l l i e s  Although with  #2  erosion  upslope was  textured  erosion  was a s s o c i a t e d  (culverts).  gouging  on t h i s  site  (1%) which  77  reflected and  care-in-logging  coarse  textured  (8.5),  soils,  selection  which  logging  a l l minimize  methods,  disturbance  levels.  Beaver  Lake  This large in  a  #1  was  a  small  progressive portion  of  drainage  somewhat  obscure  Much  of  the  area  and  were  had  revegetated  The  low  disturbance which  storage  on  reduce  disturbance.  Beaver  Lake  This and  some  severe  hand  evidence  #2  likely  which  cut,  falling.  The  disturbance  Though of  site  on  formed  was  occurred  buncher.  This  occurred  very  and  clay  soils  problems  with  several with  potted  value  older,  drainage  moss a n d of  may  reflect,  the  wetter  limit  by  were  skidders.  grass. the  in  Cattle  cutblock.  part,  sections.  hoofprints  would  channels  times  portions  by  an  may  Hills  increase  overland  flow  and  a  buncher  #2  cutblock  soil  erosion  BL  and  i n d i c a t e d pockets  surface  crossed  of  table  some  The  and  compacted  water  caused  blowdown.  had  (1971)  High  cutblock  movement  revegetation  clearcut, part  clearcut.  the  rutting,  strip  on  erosion has  the  was  was  of  slopes highly  feller  harvesting  the  block.  accessed disturbed,  caused Most  by  of  the  shallow-gouge  little  mechanized  incidence  harvesting  on  (19%). a  the  feller  observed.  highest  r e s u l t e d from  much  steep  soil  with  mechanized  over  less  the  in part,  silt  78  loam  soil.  movement could  The weight  on  the shallow  cause  The  slopes  revegetation higher  limit  with  erosion  Beaver  Lake  This  due  levels  stabilized  slopes  to increased  of disturbance  vegetation  by  this  site  severe  caused below  revegetation  below  the road  resulted from  on  cutblock on  this  have  availability.  slope  may  be  angle  system was  percent  of t h i s  which  d i d occur  and  from  eroding  lower  road  will  was  more  s t i l l  low.  cutblock was  on  road  road  accessing collapse.  disturbed  with  less  had n o - d i s t u r b a n c e . the cutblock  system.  overland  disturbance.  system  and p a r t i a l  revegetation  increased  had l i m i t e d  the haul  rilling  but e r o s i o n  the a c t i v e l y  disturbance  moisture  zone  flow.  flat  culverts  disturbance  logs  #3  relatively  Sixty  of  climatic  and t h e low s l o p e  overland  of drainage  area  skidder  t h e movement  i n the Dry I n t e r i o r  Lack  The  and  unconfined  this.  Northwest more  of machinery,  The  below  flow  surface  higher  the road  and  The  sediment  likely input  upslope.  Beaver  L a k e #4A  This  small  clearcut  from  the landing.  left  onsite  trails.  and  cut i n winter  Significant  skidders  Sidecuts  was  of skid  were  accumulations confined  trails  and  and  rises  of s l a s h  steeply were  to established  the entire  skid  trail  79  and  road  system  was  stable. Even  with  disturbance. confined (23.9%) high  to  and  for  is a  result  The  of  slash  high  left  increase of  the  but  erosion  r e s u l t e d from  amount  likely  value  This trails.  amounts  The and  significant  likely  sediment  exhibited erosion  of  skidder  value  for  erosion  on  from  the  deep-gouging  rest  occurring,  winter  of  the  cut  38%  had  no-  movement  being  shallow-deposits skid  roads.  logging  The  would  trap  deposition.  shallow-gouging  reflected  the  r i l l s  was  was  fairly  forming  low,  as  on  high  skid  expected  (11.5%)  trails.  in  The  winter  logging.  Beaver  Lake  This sloping  cutblock  plateau.  (swamp). winter  #4B was Much  Significant  logging  upslope of  the  ground  minimized  from area  cover  #4A had  and  was  poor  gently  drainage  vegetation  disturbance  a  was  leaving a  left  fairly  and stable  site. BL  #4B  had  twice  vs  28%).  classes  (53%  and  p r o t e c t i o n of  also  the had  little  is greatest  greater  proportion  Watt  1981).  in of  much  This the  gouging.  gouging  and  as  is  soil  disturbance  indicative  snow  cover  Deep  disturbance  summer total  logging  of  during  and  disturbance  as  bare-soil  winter  logging  operations. in- the  deposits  in winter  form form  It of a  (Schwab  80  Comparison  Among  Sites  Observation major  disturbance  skidding.  This  transport cycle  on  within  due  slope  angles,  significant  soils,  where  values  caused  the  random  d i d not I t was  little  of overland  the second  skid  erosion roads  step  flow  of  shown  erosion as  the  (BL  a  erosion  generally  correlated with  were  low  (TV #2).  located  across  in fine-textured  (BL #4A).  were  were  On  soils,  coarser  textured  put-to-bed,  erosion  rates  The  of  trails  density  increased  skid  erosion,  the contours  on was  especially i f  and a l l o w e d  to  flow.  Logging  in high  disturbance. illustrate  The  this.  moisture  high  Disturbance  increase  sediment  snowmelt  runoff.  The  moisture  logged,  that  Many cutblock  site, reduces  leaving buffer  channels.  This  values  severe  o f DC  beds  a n d BL  #2  likely  i n storm  values  a management  #2  will  especially  disturbance  illustrates site  can cause  i n creek  levels,  lower  of the cutblocks by  areas  disturbance  directly  stream  was  occurrence.  especially  clearcuts  high  slopes  therefore  showed  channel  cutblock  erosion  to lack  indicates that  limiting.  High  roads  a  disturbance  gentle  i s likely agent,  was  soil  evaluation  c o r r e l a t e with  disturbance  #2).  site  factor  However,  necessarily that  and  f o r BL  option,  and #4B,  a  winter  impact. limit  sediment  strips  appeared  of  t o be  movement  forest  from  vegetation  s u c c e s s f u l and  the along  81  deposition the  of  strip  slowing  (personal  overland  Much  of  as  evidenced  DC  #1).  (see  sediment  Skid  The  trails of  on  This  vegetation  cover,  compaction  and  disturbance.  promote  Creek  illustrated  the  this  erosion  actual  cutover.  winter  logging)  have  stabilized The  this  classes  shallow-deposit  percentage neither those  place  leaving  with  were  sites  indicated  of  for  slope  clearcut  class  was  skid  shallow-deposits  on  #3  and  sites  minimal  site  1965)  The  of  BL  rates  trails  site  any,  resist  that  Beetle #4  also  were not  vegetation  the  and  sites  shown  slope  l i e below  sites  which  Rothacher  to  with an  the  lower  equal  the  high,  the (in  is believed  to  various  varies  (Figure  increase  (Figure  statistically significant.  that  (BL  preservation  and  system  area.  increasing  which  in  plots).  erosion  on  road  if  ground  slash  of  i t s role  erosion  erosion.  the  of  edge  little,  Evaluation  on  Preservation and  per  Although  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  disturbance The  taking  also  soils  reduce  this.  statement.  was  (as  the  failure  showed  infiltration,  will  from  erosion  textured  i s expected  vegetation  supports  were  sites  the  showed  roadbed  dye  at  sediment.  a t t r i b u t e d to  maintaining sites  and  cutblocks  logged  be  #1)  comes d i r e c t l y  coarse  It  i n DC  fluorescent  can  vegetation  capturing  rilling  selectively  erosion.  and  erosion deep  discussion  ground  observation  flow  the by  on  13)  in  although  Identification  regression  line  care-in-logging  slope.  12).  (Figure have  of 13),  higher  82  60  n  50  40  CL O _J 00  30-  Legend X  20-  SG  • DG 10-  H SD E DD  0  I  0  — I —  10  20  30  ~i— 40  I—  50  60  DISTURBANCE C L A S S % area F i g u r e 12. D i s t r i b u t i o n ( c u t b l o c k a r e a ) o f d i s t u r b a n c e c l a s s e s ( s h a l l o w + deep gouge, s h a l l o w + deep d e p o s i t ) witn i n c r e a s i n g s l o p e on c l e a r c u t s i t e s .  60-  50-  13 BL 4A HTV  40  2  H  D_  o  30-  _l GO  C3DC 2  20-  EJBL  10-  ^4  BDC  1  BL 1 B B B L 2 3  0-  I  0  10  20  30  i 40 0 4  I  50  60  S H A L L O W DEPOSIT DISTURBANCE C L A S S % a r e a  F i g u r e 13. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f s h a l l o w class with increasing slope .  deposit  disturbance  83  Steeper (Figure  slopes  14).  This  significant, attributed limit 35%  was  varied. logged  trend,  although  reported  care  not  in  logging  statistically  Schwab  and Watt  i t t o the p h y s i c a l and  safety  constraints  movement  the When  sites  also  increased  by  skidder  slope  require  in operation  relationship  between  evaluated  a  and  as  on  steep  (1981)  which  slopes.  Below  c a r e - i n - l o g g i n g and  group,  selective  those  sites  steeper  slope,  those  sites  than  35%  who  slope  sites,  winter-  showed  high  care-in-logging. At  a  given  less  disturbance  with  fine  anomaly  soils  t o t h e above  disturbance  fine  soil  by  Lake  Table  with  matter  other  I t had  soil  content  classes  must  evaluated  affect  values.  (range  of  (1981)  (55.9%)  (1981)  established line  Cariboo  23  The  t o 59)  Forest  but  mean was  of  Region  the  with of  study  similar  than  and  as  of B r i t i s h  the be  lower  other fact  that  influenced  of  Such  this a  variability  of  will 46.2%  Schwab  Schwabb  harvested  Columbia.  distribution  class  value  values  on  an  compares  site  disturbance  magnitude.  transects  by  but  the  literature. care,  than  those  soil.  no-disturbance  lower  than  slopes  also  have  presents  of proportion  i n the  differences in definition  steep  I t may  for this  reported  4A  explained  values  studies be  of  soils  percentage  percentage  logged.  shows a v e r a g e  coarser  Beaver Lake  is likely  winter  disturbance  comparison and  V  15).  bare  This  4 was  bare-soil  trend.  and  plots.  the organic  among  lower  (Figure  soil  Beaver  and  with  and  sites  Their  and  Watt  Watt i n the  study  most  84  60-j 5040-  o  _l to  30  Legend  2010-  13  A  TV  X  DC  •  BC  El B L  0  T  -r  -T  —T"  i  8  5 6 C A R E IN L O G G I N G  0  10  F i g u r e 14. A s s e s s m e n t o f c a r e - i n - l o g g i n g with increasing slope.  variation  60-. A BL 4A  X  50-  X  A TV 2  40o_ O _i to  A TV 1  30X  20  X  ABC 1 A BC 2  X  X  10 H  >A  4B  H A  X  -i  0  1  1  1  B  L  1  A rjc 2 DC 1  Legend  KBL 2  BL 1  A  DC  X  BS  3  1  1  i  r—  10 . 20 30 40 50 60 70 B A R E S O I L A N D D I S T U R B A N C E (% a r e a )  F i g u r e 15. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f b a r e s o i l values with increasing slope.  80  and  soil  disturbance  85  closely  replicated  et  a l . (1975)  of  disturbance  was  by  Schwabb  Watt.  87.5%.  were  the  and  c l o s e agreement  and  Watt  deposit  and  the  i n the  deposits.  Bockheim  studies  the  in  range than V).  of  with of  of  those  of  of  was those  soil  study,  et  and  in  reported  disturbance disturbance suggested  was  l a r g e but  the  British  a_l.  this  area study  was  study  the  and  literature.  values  of  c l a s s e d as  Schwab deep-  some v a r i a t i o n  particularly average  utilizing  Bockheim  i n the  et  in  of  Total  62.6%  Bockheim  a l . presented States  values  (12.5%).  greater  disturbance,  United  values  study  total  The  lower  value  than  present  depth  (Table  in this The  lack  estimating  lower  65%  less  The  study.  considerably  Shallow-disturbance  deep-disturbance  The  present  a  in  shallow-  values  similar  in  from  method.  overall  averages  Columbian  studies  were  86  T A B L E V.  Comparison of s o i l d i s t u r b a n c e c l a s s d i s t r i b u t i o n found i n p r e s e n t s t u d y and from o t h e r r e g i o n s as reported i n the literature  Present Study  Bockheim et a l . * *  Schwabb & Watt*  Avg. values+ in literature  Di s t u r b a n c e Class 46.2  No % disturbance  ++  /  55.9  72.5  39.4  16.3  1 1  12.2  15.6  27.8  58.5  24.5  65  62.6  87.5  50  Shallow gouge % Shallow deposit %  Deep Gouge  %  Deep Deposit  %  Total soil Disturbance  ++ D a t a area.  are  averaged  and  Watt  and  are  presented  *  Schwab  (1981) C a r i b o o  **  Bockheim  et  +  averages Bockheim  from data i n l i t e r a t u r e e t a l . (1975)  al.d975)  G a r r i s o n and Rummell Woolridge (1960) D y r n e s s (1965)  Forest  Vancouver  (1951)  as  percent  Region,  Forest and  a  B.  District,  presented  of  land  C. B.C.  in  E a s t e r n Oregon & Washington North C e n t r a l Washington South C e n t r a l Oregon  87  F L U O R E S C E N T DYE  Movement Trinity  Ratings Valley  TV  #1  (15-35%) ratings (avg. Hart on  EROSION  -  Site  #1  had  a  medium-textured  slopes.  North  (average  rating  2.2),  although  (1984)  STUDY  who  aspects 2.9)  slope  found  northfacing slopes  had  had  (loam)  higher  (Table VI)  was  that  soil  the  higher a  and  soil-movement  than  same.  south  This  antecedent  strong  effect  moderate  aspects  agreed  with  moisture  on  surface  levels erosion  rates. To series  evaluate  slope  downslope  on  plots  a l l showed  upper  plot  This  may  the  to  lower  expected  particles  TV slopes  series  of  lower  slope  same c u t b l o c k .  The  as  the  slope  plot  three  furthest  positions or  easily  overland and  located  soil-movement-ratings  to  i s more  i t s depth  flow  ability  a  sets  of  from  the  downslope.  c o n t r i b u t e more  that  sediment  moved.  Such  detach  and  deposited  results  i s channelled to  in  and  are  flows  transport  increases.  Valley #2  were  erosion process  because  downslope,  Trinity  the  the  the  plots  increasing  indicate  sediment on  in  position,  had  #2 a  10-32%  coarse above  quite  uniform  over  the  south  aspects  than  on  textured the  plots.  block. north  (loam-sandy  loam)  Movement  ratings  Average  (28%  vs.  slope  23%)  but  was  soil  and  were  higher  on  soil-movement  88  TABLE  DYE  PLOT  V I . FLUORESCENT DYE PLOT CHARACTERISTICS SOIL-MOVEMENT-RATINGS  DATA  TRINITY Aspect  VALLEY  Slope  #1  SMR  TRINITY  Location  Aspect  -  N27W N63W N31W S70W S37W S70W N06W N45W N45W N35W S66W  u u  u u  d d d  -  avg.  33 21 21 31 23 28 15 35 35 25 1 5 25.6  3 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 4 4 2  skid skid skid skid skid skid skid skid skid skid skid  t t t t t t t t t t t  r r r r r r r r r r r  a a a a a a a a a a a  i i i i i i i i i i i  l l l 1 1 l 1 1 l l l  2.6  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 1 2 13 1 4 1 5  S10W S34E S35E d N44W N44W d S20W S20W d S50E S80E u N10W N10W d N08E N08E d Level S24E avg.  BEAVER Aspect  LAKE  Slope  #1  SMR  25  2 2 2 1 3 2.5 3 3 2.5 3 3 2 2 2 2  27 .6  2.3  Aspect  Slope  S20W S30W S40W u S80E S80E u — S avg.  u d SMR  30 30 20 15 5 25 21 . 1  #2  LAKE  s o i l mound skid trail skid trail skid trail skid trail skid trail skid trail skid trail skid trail cutslope cutslope cutslope cutslope ridgetop skid trail  #4A  SMR  Location  35 30 20 30 40 35  5 5 6 4.5 2 6  skid tra skid tra skid tra skid tra cutslope skid tra  32 .0  4.7  % 1 2 3 4 5 6  -& 50 32 32 10 20 25 25 25 33 25 25 30 30  BEAVER  Location  VALLEY  S l o p e SMR L o c a t i o n  % 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1  AND  % 2 1 1 2 1 1  cutslope skid tra skid tra skid tra skid tra cutslope  1 .3  i i i i  l l l l  1 2 3 4 5 6  N60W W N68W N35W W N35W avg.  d d  u d  no r e l a t i o n t o p r e v i o u s p l o t location l o c a t e d upslope from p r e c e d i n g p l o t l o c a t e d downslope from p r e c e d i n g p l o t Soil-movement-rating  i i i i  l l l l  il  89  ratings  were  movement  t h e same  (2.4 v s . 2.3)  on t h e c u t s l o p e  skidroads.  I t would  compaction  would  movement.  In t h i s  was  t h e same  be e x p e c t e d  limit  the coarse  significant  overland  particles.  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t  channelling  of overland  infiltration sufficient Plot surface, in  14, w i t h indicated  the erosion  summer can  rains  cause  Fowler  Beaver  soil  soils  overland  are usually high  promoted  occurred  o f 2.0  played was  intensity  soil  with  soil.  rating  This  problems  soils  flow  t o move much  t o move  prevented  and the coarse  movement  soil  required  of waterbars  on s i t e .  erosion  cutslope  intensity  rainsplash erosion  process  severe  Lake #1  on a  level  a dominant  expected,  as  thunderstorms  (Clement  role  that  1981, H e l v e y  and  #1 was  a  fine  s l o p e s ) , south  observed some  flow  on t h e  and hence  or r a i n f a l l  potential a  lower  The r a t e of  1979).  BL (5-30%  flow  so i t i s u n l i k e l y erosion  flow  VI).  as t h a t  that  overland  study  (Table  and t h e main  trampling The  soil  by  textured facing  loam),  cutblock.  disturbance  less  Little  factor  was  steep  movement  was  r a i n s p l a s h and  cattle.  movement  rating  higher  than  the adjacent  result  from  animal  uncompacted  (silt  plot  browsing  cutslope,  for plot on  or a  allowing  1 on  the skid looser  the cutslope  road.  soil  This  surface  e a s i e r movement  by  was  may on t h e  raindrops.  90  Beaver  Lake  BL steep on  #4A  #4A  was  (20-40%  northern  movement  but  the  textured  cutblock  aspects.  both  Soil  fine  slope)  ratings  disturbed 17).  a  This  i n the  by  surface  had  steepest  highest  soil  was  only  2  Mutchler  that  soil  short  segment  On  a  loss  from  Bockheim  a l . (1975)  likely  the  best  was  susceptibility  Results  from  on  important  skid  when  this  roads  comparing  study  and  the  its soil  site  with  on  depended  point  of  harvested  important  soil  surface  to  a  were  rating  Young loam  sites  of  skidroads.  The  alone.  mineral and  soil hence  potential.  slope plots  more  a  the  slope  of  and soil  steepness  disturbance  movement  cutover  measurement.  of  high  with  silt  regeneration  values  the  #2).  exposed  harvesting forest  on  on  than  that  (Figure  movement  Dakota slope  severely  p l o t s were  site  i n TV  disturbance  cutover  on  soil  were  plot  i n d i c a t e d degree  in comparing but  road  dye  generally  tracks  plot  concluded of  2  level  above  more  index  erosion  more  a  indicates that factor  is  (40%)  South  disturbance et  slope  a  1 and  a l l skid This  to  highest  vehicle  low.  immediately  plot  the  and  r a t i n g s , yet  (comparable  found  cutover  was  movement  (1969)  flow  relatively  p l o t s were  Plots  r a t i n g s on  value  loam),  dye  had  study.  cutover the  and  site  overland  movement  (silt  may  be  located  significant  91  Comparison  o f Movement  Beaver rating  (Table  on  #4  Valley VI).  skidroads  less  southfacing  slopes  (2.0) and  percent  a n d h a d SW than  on  movement  on  (8/12)  skid  slopes  groups  sets  than  or equal  The  ranged  sets  with of  t h e more  relationship  increasing slope  p l o t s had a  of these  stable  i n which  from  t h e f l u o r e s c e n t dye l i n e .  were a l l 3 o r  sets  downslope  These  one p l o t  was  movement  the upslope  plot  of p l o t s with  were  located  on  no TV  sites.  of i n c r e a s i n g s o i l (Figure  p l o t s were  for plots  of the s o i l  Those  rating  plots  were e s t a b l i s h e d .  None  plot(s).  trails  four  25-40%.  decreased  movement  Fourteen  three  skid  plots  f o r these  The  stable  from  ratings  #1  3 w e r e on t h e more  of dye p l o t s  t o t h e next  30% or  Those  beside  of another.  a n d BL  areas  adjacent  slopes  soil-movement-ratings  o f two o r t h r e e  in soil  o f p l o t s on  Only  downslope  #2  on  t o 3 and a l l of these  located  change  plots  t o have  of 3 or greater.  trails.  the cutslope  though  downslope  than  o r SE a s p e c t s .  o r SE a s p e c t s .  Fourteen were  (2.3)  (3.3) than  greater  located  #2  appear  ratings less  located  SW  than  (2.9).  cutblocks  on  movement  (1.3).  slopes  (2.1) had l e s s  with  rating  soil-movement-  had the lowest  (2.6) h a d more  had soil-movement-ratings  plots  were  #1  average  northfacing  Sixty-seven more  Lake  Sites  In g e n e r a l ,  movement  cutovers  #1  Among  had the h i g h e s t  (4.7) and Beaver  Trinity  more  Lake  Ratings  18) was The  movement  based  lower  on  slope  ratings  observations of the  Figure  16.  Rilling  on  Skid  road  in Trinity  V a l l e y #1 .  F i g u r e 17. V e h i c l e d i s t u r b a n c e on s k i d r o a d , L a k e #4A. N a i l ( b e s i d e s t o n e ) l o c a t e s dye  Beaver plot.  93  regression on  skid  trails  slope.  This  trails slope  line  was  length  northeast  most  expected  Oregon,  were  storms  was  the r e s u l t s  Lake  (higher  on  Trinity  of  snowpack  may  study  of  level).  snowmelt i n the  was  likely  sites.  This  influence  on  The s i t e s  measurement  of  increased  were  depth  erosion  summer with  the Beaver  o f dye p l o t s  the high  be  movement  greater  so  runoff.  1985 w o u l d  as a r e s u l t  on  in  by  Dye p l o t s  significant  elevations).  when  Valley  the f a l l  indicated  The snowpack  in April  skid  dependent  a t t h e 85%  released  movement.  t h e movement  snowmelt.  covered  of the  i s very  similar  water  increasing  a t t r i b u t a b l e t o snowmelt  from  to determine  sites  which  in a  surface  with  movement  e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e e n d o f t h e summer  measurements  necessary  rate  is significant  of s o i l  o f t h e movement  Although  indicated that  compaction  flow  (1969),  found  cause  study  because  overland  and Berndt  plots  at a greater  (regression  the major  present  trail  increased  can increase  Fowler  was  for skid  still  snow  was  completed  and  duration  ratings  o n BL  #4A. Bethlahmy were  greater  opposite  while  on  southwest  when  site  southwest northeast  hypothesized equally  found  of the results  explained study,  (1967)  bare,  i n Idaho  than  that  study.  characteristics  plots  averaged  i f northeast  overland  flow  runoff  on n o r t h e a s t  of this  facing plots  that  41.9% b a r e He  and southwest  would  be  equal.  the  i s easily  are identified.  2.7%.  erosion  exposures,  This  averaged only  and  In h i s  ground  also exposures  were  40-  30-  TV 2 20-  ""SL 1  Legend  10-  A X  1  2  3  4  5  SOIL M O V E M E N T RATING  F i g u r e 18. C h a n g e s i n s o i l - m o v e m e n t increasing slope .  ratings  Statistics: 'All' regression i s significant confidence level r  2  2  90%  at  85%  .88  'Skid* r e g r e s s i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t confidence level r  at  .76  with  ALL SKID  95  In  the present  study,  skid  trails  independent  of aspect.  northfacing  slopes  was  not unexpected.  are similar,  and  i t is likely  rates  uniformly greater  on n o r t h e r n  radiation occur of  compacted,  input.  sooner  Increased  antecedent exposures  With  less  on n o r t h f a c i n g  were e q u a l l y  soil  movement If  because  storage,  on  infiltration  skidroads  moisture  are  levels  overland  causing  evidenced  by t h i s  fairly  will  of reduced  slopes  bare  be  solar  flow  will  greater  amounts  movement. Some g e n e r a l  (recognizing  trends  the small  sample  size  study  and h i g h  variability  of  sites) are: -  steeper  -  skidroads  have  -  northwest  and northeast  movement -  silt  slopes  than  loams  compared  lead  to higher  more  erosion  southern  sandy  than  aspects  of s o i l  movement  cutslopes have  more  soil  aspects  g e n e r a l l y have  with  rates  loams,  i n c r e a s e d movements especially  when  at higher  slope  angles. -  r a i n s p l a s h appears (evidenced  by  t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t  rating  on TV  #2  plot  14).  erosion  agent  96  FLUORESCENCE  STUDY  Photographic  Record  Photographs dye  plots.  strip road The  of Beaver  provide  Figure  left  tracks  a n d some 20  dyed  was  still  easily  the  dye s t r i p .  Figures photographs the  with  useful  when  on a  was  located  a n d shown was  removed  color  by  from  visibility over  e s p e c i a l l y when  on a  in Figure  disturbed  had degraded  show  skid  17. tire  the  site.  o f t h e Day G l o the winter  concentrated  appeared  and  Overland  snow)  sheet  coated  but in  unchanged  ultraviolet flow  of water.  with  load  and f l u o r e s c i n g  i s occurring  but p a r t i c l e s  fluorescent  of t h e water  p a r t i c l e s would  on  remain  Marking  p a r t i c l e s f o r photography.  the sediment  photo.  daylight  plot.  melting  the thin  nails  to locate  seen  a n d 22  (from  useful  penetration  plot  daytime  fluorescent  o f t h e same  through  movement  fluorescent  period.  21  dye s t r i p  visible  visible, The  the study  This  p a r t i c l e s were  color  of the  t h e i l l u m i n a t i o n of t h e dye  tracks  illustrates  The normal  #4A record  of t h e dye s t r i p  pigment.  over  light.  by v e h i c l e  portion  Figure  a visual  19 r e c o r d s  by u l t r a v i o l e t disturbed  Lake  spray  downslope paint  i s  It i s also reduces n o t be  light easily  97  F i g u r e 19 F l u o r e s c e n t i l l u m i n a t i o n o f B e a v e r L a k e #4A P l o t 2 i l l u s t r a t i n g d o w n s l o p e movement o f p a r t i c l e s .  F i g u r e 20. B e a v e r L a k e #4 P l o t 4 i l l u s t r a t i n g e r o s i o n (on l e f t o f p h o t o ) .  active  98  F i g u r e 2 1 . BL #4A P i 3 Sediment  deposition  from o v e r l a n d Nails  F i g u r e 22. U l t r a v i o l e t illumination  o f BL #4A P 3  Much o f p l o t  i s under water,  Light  color  reflects  o f the water  sediment  load.  on r i g h t  flow. side  indicate  particle  movement  ( F i g . 22).  99  These movement  of s o i l  photography photos later  photos  illustrate particles  the illumination on  i s not required  c a n be  useful  comparison  to obtain  records  among  the dye p l o t s .  plots.  of s i t e  soil  and the Although  movement  processes  and  ratings allow  1 00  Addressing In  unknowns  discussed on  here  sunlight  provided  nine  The  particles  illuminate  surface  and  or  photography  400  a  area, white  roughness  daylight  or  although  ASA)  was film  found  coarse-grained ASA  tripod  was at  exposure easily  found a  time.  captured  ultraviolet  lamp  the  soil  to  or  more  better  of  film,  a  thin  of A  one  was  suitable.  soil  hand  metres visible provided  with  a  by  eye  that  lamp  would record.  The  30-60 were  high  in  and  in  speed  overexposure clarity taken  on  of a  second generally  position  illuminated  ground  Color  were  the  held  insufficient  resulted  Photos  the  solution  was  fluorescence.  suitable.  photography  for  photographic  resolution  0.5  under  ultraviolet  than  photo. be  and  1969).  but  plots  stable  e f f e c t i v e l y showed  most  The  dye  was  density  strength  of  It  application  Zoghet  of  are  fully  vehicle  and  of  for  a  the  particles  be  Particles on  and  use  giving  was  freezing  size  of  period.  unnecessary  to  height  on  ample  evaluation  was  The  photography  and  night  pigment  as  list  fluorescent  application.  adherence.  provided  a  factors  study  winter  impact  The  the  the  acetone  observations  more  Black  of  little  lamp  illumination,  after  method  62).  of  Day-Glo  through  choice  had  results  of  dye  (Page  made d u r i n g  also  (site  ultraviolet  (1600  on  months  excellent  which  fluorescent listed  based  and  snowpack.  layer  was  persistence  satisfactory  Unknowns  the  observations  The  in  Project  outlining  project  and  the  that  of  the  portion.  101  The  ultraviolet  flowing  water  The and  but  of  photo  The  small dye  and  large of  soil  the  would  fully  was  of  a  to  for  the  direct  soil  was  organic  stratified  to  size-overland excavation  would  application of  flow  could  and  by  on  application  of  accepted  ultraviolet a  It to  is  likely  various  could  then  particle sizes  velocity)  disturb  the  to  be  soil  could  but  the  entire  p a r t i c l e s because  the  fluorescent  of  the  particle.  the The  to  of  be  from  color (particle This  dye  particle tag  very  estimate  excluded  documented. surface  of  necessary  sizes  be  coat  underside  edge  lamp.  quantitative  size-velocity relationships  then  the  which  the  sieve  organics  other  allow  ruler  matter  p a r t i c l e s moved.  and  between  amount  of  application  sites  large  number  small  a l l  the  particles precluded  The  on  evaluation.  of  particles.  under  cover.  comparison  fluorescent  illuminated  sample  snow  particles  constant  numbers  soil  the  thin  reference  aid  pigment  fluorescent  a  strip  l i m i t a t i o n to  a  "loss"  of  p a r t i c l e s and  was  excavate  dye  dye  inclusion  major  fluorescent  through  the  term  the  illuminated  even  of  a  photos the  and  width  provided  lamp  preventing is  turned  to  102  Chapter 7 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  SUMMARY  Erosion  Transects  Site on  harvested  line On  characteristics influencing  transect  gentle  loams,  i n the North  data.  slopes  erosion.  Slope  high  was a n i m p o r t a n t  disturbance  levels  significant  erosion  was t a k i n g  were  not the harvested  and roads  harvesting  operations  controlled  erosion  Another  This  on s t e e p e r  factor  factor  identification  component  i n road  to extract  textured  silt  The major  itself  but rather  the timber.  o f water  limiting  correlated  erosion  well  with  of careful planning  construction  little  Some  slopes' s u c c e s s f u l l y  by i n s t a l l a t i o n  significant  logging."  built  by  characteristic.  place. land  movement  identified  caused  especially finer  sites  soil  were  slopes,  trails  (1977)  Okanagan  On s t e e p  erosion skid  areas  surface  t o minimize  bars  (TV #2).  was " c a r e - i n Rothwell's  a s t h e major water  quality  deterioration. Some little  trends  statistical  deposits  may r e s u l t  evident  s i g n i f i c a n c e . The area  increased  care-in-logging which  i n the r e s u l t s appear  with  values from  increasing had higher  overland  slope. amounts  flow  although of  under Sites  shallow with  of s o i l  and deposition  lower  deposits onsite.  103  Northern  aspects,  identified The  as  cutover  rates  were  having  surface  were  silt  higher  and  finer  erosion  had  less  soil  sandy  loam  soils  soils  rates  on  were  skid  trails.  and  erosion  disturbance  showed  loams  on  similar  susceptible  to  deep  gouging  angles  often  although  low  slope  Disturbance progressive than  slopes  low.  Coarser finer  steep  other  levels  clearcuts sites  slopes.  disturbance  High  moisture  high  soil  limited  in clearcuts  appeared  while  and  less  to  sites  disturbance  erosion.  varied  have  than  greatly  more  soil  selection harvesting  had  but  movement the  least  disturbance.  Fluorescent The  Dye  fluorescent  erosion  process  ratings  were  slopes.  The  slope  was The  erosion occurred erosion  Plots plots  occurring  higher  on  on  yielded  the  steeper  movement processes  showing of  the  Soil  and  ratings  tagged  particles  a l l locations.  on  the  on  site.  Overland  steeper  on  on  slopes  flow and  northfacing  steeper was  and  slopes.  i n d i c a t i v e of  Rainsplash also on  the  movement  soil-movement-rating  higher  occurring  e s p e c i a l l y on  information  slope.  slopes  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  linear  at  dye  erosion  caused  fine  soils.  104  Fluorescent The  Dye  Method  fluorescent  climatic  conditions  months.  As  is  likely  months. acetone size,  little  thinly  adherence  of  dye  with  a p p l i c a t i o n of  was  recommended.  view  under  difficult.  to  the  of  to a  Day-Glo  of  hand  held  soil  particles  quantify the  size  extraction  classes  and  were  was  of  to  which  and  noted,  than  pigment  impact  in  on  stable  fluorescence mineral  was  lamp.  index  movement  ir\  soil  situ  "clutter" make  recommended.  tagged the  method  very  field  of  measurement  determine  surface  i t  nine  this  soil  a  was  gave  The  nine  suggested,  i l l u m i n a t i o n and movement  least  little  ultraviolet  on  under  fluorescent  with  dye  dye  at  longer  particles.  fluorescent  ultraviolet To  for  particles  soil  stable  fluorescence  surface  Spraying  and  relationships  area  some m o d i f i c a t i o n s  for  organic  study  is considerably  texture  the  visible  fine  the  degradation  coated or  Although  sieving  of  a p p l i c a t i o n was  a p p l i c a t i o n of  density  easily  dye  persistence The  Evaluation  soil  particle-size sample  and  105  CONCLUSIONS  Surface  Erosion  Surface  erosion  i s an a c t i v e  base  of t h e N o r t h Okanagan.  skid  trails  operations. general  and the road The data  consensus  process  The major  system  in this  results  the forest  sites  constructed  collected  of research  on  land  of erosion are in harvesting  study  confirmed  recorded  the  i n the  literature. The -  trends  slope  in soil  is a  disturbed -  -  movement  significant  on t h e s t u d y  component  in erosion  i s much  surface  of the  higher  on  skid  trails  on  erosion  than  on l o a m s  and sandy  loams.  -  soil  movement  increases  downslope.  -  water  bars  than  on t h e  cutover.  more  -  showed:  sites.  erosion  skid  sites  occurs  on  fine,  are effective  silt  loam  in limiting  textured  soil  movement  roads.  selection  logging  practices  cause  less  erosion  clearcutting. -  soils  i t i s the road  system,  surface,  has the highest  which  not the a c t u a l  cutover  erosion.  than  on  106  F l u o r e s c e n t Dye Day-Glo useful not  as a  f l u o r e s c e n t pigment soil  tag.  significantly  Such  alter  i s s t a b l e under  least  months.  Using for be  normal  illumination,  of s o i l  acetone  particles  is does  s u n l i g h t and p e r s i s t s  film  a n d an u l t r a v i o l e t  a photographic  record  f o r at  mineral  lamp  of f l u o r e s c e n c e can  obtained. Excavation  forest fine  and s i e v i n g  harvested  materials  downslope  pathways  dye  the large matter)  a n d makes  i s an  effectively  of s o i l  numbers of  which  clutter  quantification  movement  relatively potential  was  landings,  t o be  most  of  very the  soil  on  many  in significant  movement  of eroding  little  skid  disturbances On  easy-to-apply and  soil allows  m a t e r i a l and  observed.  erosion  active  system.  soil  on a c t u a l c u t o v e r s  surface  a l l site  harvesting  sources  low, i n d i c a t i n g from  inexpensive,  illustrates  movement,  o f movement  Soil  resulted  field  organic  i s r e c o m m e n d e d on  difficult.  which  process  of p a r t i c l e s  to reduce  (largely  Fluorescent  rates  sites  viewing  movement  tag  color  labelling  with  p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of the  particles, nine  in solution  of t h i s roads,  of  productive The  access  roads,  erosion and  from the  harvesting  movement.  region i s  soil.  resulting  sites,  soil  loss  in this  I t was  operations shown  that  107  with  high  little  care  impact  planning  the  i n area  cutblocks  some c u t b l o c k s high  movement  flowed  erosion  should  indicative  and a need  of downstream  initiate  action  courses  to  will  course that  stream.  f o r high  users,  sediment  established  noted a  i f proper  of  of stream  stream  i t was into  onsite  with  completed.  channels  directly  values  t h e needs  is  a detailed  not completed,  satisfy  process  The p r o x i m i t y  Although  water  c a n be h a r v e s t e d  i s not n e c e s s a r i l y  and the drainage  was  sites  maintenance  streams.  this.  evaluation  with  road  movement  influence  steep  on t h e s o i l  and s k i d  Soil levels  in logging  runoff In a  quality  such  to stabilize  region water  indicators the  from  to  of  soil  surface. Selection stability. Much for of and  They  a r e , however,  of the forest both  size  economic and shape  road  location  clearcut  careful  in this  of c l e a r c u t s , can reduce  maintain  and road  soil  surface  not u n i v e r s a l l y will  and s i l v i c u l t u r a l  influence soil  logging  promote  region  h a r v e s t i n g methods  adversely  and  l o g g i n g methods  soil applicable.  be c l e a r c u t  reasons.  Modification  and care  in site  disturbance  levels.  s t i l l  stability  have  potential  but proper  preparation Such to  planning,  c o n s t r u c t i o n can reduce  stability.-  harvested  this  and impact  108  Chapter 8 RECOMMENDATIONS  Some m o d i f i c a t i o n s in dye  the  study  are  application 1)  excavate  classes. Glo  2)  3)  in  can  replace  former  might  Each  locations  the  recommended.  soil  pigment  to  follow  upslope  class  also  the  be  dye  This  for  the and  can  solution  fluorescent  be  method  steps sieve  into  acetone.  below:  desired  with  used  fluorescent  listed  sprayed  with  methods  a  size  different  Different  Day-  slope  color-stratified.  extracted  soil  and  attempt  to  recreate  conditions.  monitor  downslope  movement  with  a  hand-held  mineral  light. 4)  photograph  5)  quantify  fluorescence.  movement  downslope  (especially  medium  and  color  nails.  In  coded  pathways  and  distances  larger  and  location  sizes)  daylight  a  downslope  by  marking  sketch can  of  be  of  particles with  movement  obtained.  F o r e s t Management Uses The  ease  fluorescent assessment roads  minor  dye of  begins  capable  of  until  of  application methods  roads as  and  shallow  transporting the  flow  and  support skid  relatively their  trails.  sheetflow. sediment,  is channelled  use Much  low  in  the and  of  erosion  of  Although  cost  the  erosion  sheetflow  erosion rilling  problem and  on  is is  gullying  109  take their  place.  formation  erosional on  On  impact  would  c a n be slopes  rilling  inexpensive  measures  extra that  pigment  bright  had taken  to stabilize  much  color  disrupted,  fluorescent  of the a c t u a l  occurring  place  early in  pattern  Spraying  movement  i s easily  normal  flow  a n d on p a r t s  illumination i s necessary  Day-Glo  are identified  reduced.  illustrate  significant  night  i f rills  and the o v e r l a n d  c u t and f i l l  surface  roads,  and allow  use of  the surface.  in daylight  would  require  simple,  Although results,  and a c t s  dye t o t a g p a r t i c l e s .  of the monitoring  road  before  for quantitative  visible  dye  no  This  a s an means  night-time  illumination.  An be  i n t e r e s t i n g and u s e f u l  to revisit  fluorescence This of  would  this  the study and s o i l  yield  sites  after  data  dye under  to this  and evaluate  movement  necessary  fluorescent  follow-up  persistence  two t o t h r e e  on p e r s i s t e n c e  local  study  climatic  and  would of  years. stability  conditions.  1 10  LITERATURE CITED Agriculture Anderson,  Bailey,  Canada.  1961. S o i l  Erosion  by W a t e r .  H.B. 1 9 6 7 . E r o s i o n a n d s e d i m e n t a t i o n . G e o p h y s . U n i o n 48:2. 697-700.  R.W. 1941. Land E r o s i o n - n o r m a l in the semi-arid west. Trans. U n i o n . 14pp.  Ballard,  35pp. Trans.  Amer.  and accelerated Amer. G e o p h y s .  -  T.M. 1 9 8 3 . S o i l d e g r a d a t i o n e f f e c t s of forest h a r v e s t i n g a n d s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n . In Soil D e g r a d a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , P r o c . 8 t h B.C. S o i l S c i e n c e W o r k s h i p . B.C. M i n . 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PhD  Thesis  APPENDIX A PROPERTIES  OF  DAY-  COLORS  A-ll A-l 2 A-13N A-14N A-15N A-16N  Aurora Pink Neon Red Rocket Red Fire Orange Blaze Orange Arc Yellow [Saturn Yellow) Signal Green Horizon Blue Corona Magenta Invisible Blue  FLUORESCENT  PIGMENT  AX  D  AX-11 AX-12 AX-13N AX-14N AX-15N AX-16N AX-17N AX-18N  |A-17N] A-I8N A-19 A-21 A-594-5  D-12 D-13 D-14 D-15 D-17  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CHEMICAL NATURE Specific Gravity Average Particle Size (microns) Softening Point Decomposition Point Oil Absorption (g/ lOOg pigment)  1.36 3.5 - 4.0 115-120°C. I95°C. 47  TOXICITY  A, A X T, G T  HM HMS  Z  S  L D o 9 9>  16.0  23.1  15.38  10.0  Acute Dermal Toxicity  LD 5  23.0  10.2  3.0  2.15  Acute Dust Inhalation  L C 50 m g / L a i r >  4.4 ( 4 hrs.)  3.0  2.88  8.3  No significant irritation  mildly irritating  mildly irritating  slight transient irritant  Acute Oral Toxicity  Eye Irritation  /k  5  0  g/kg>  •  

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