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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An analysis of the influence of male age and sex ratio on reproduction in British Columbia moose (Alces.. Thomson, R. N. (Robert Newton) 1991

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AASIS OE IEE OMA AGE A SEOOOCOIISCOMA MOOSE  (Al O  OMSOSUnt 19A ESIS SUIEIIAIME OE QUIMES E GE OMASOSCIEEE CUY OGA SES(ptnt  rtrWpt th th  nfntthrr ddE UI OISCOMA 1991bt  nIn prtth th  ptl ffnt  thrrtf  vddr  thUnt h CbI r th thbrl  frlllf r d  I fth r th pn f tvpn th th f hlpp bt bthhd  dtnt  bh  h rrtIt  dd th pnpln  th th f f  l n bl tht  tpn(Snptnt  ^ r ( 7 ----Unt h CbnCt ^ --- ( / ^ / (-1/-(AAClnbl  x r d rrtp h Cb pnrvtSpl thftth bl lthvt rnvn-lthvtrnt h prn r nptnt d rrtnt rExthvtvt d rrtdfr fr ntbrnrn thrtn thprd nr- bl   pn rt  r prn r l nptn t   fnd thtl x r fr   rt r prn r rn fnd bbl/1 rd lf/1   thntvtE OCOESAbrt ^ bl Ctt ^   r ^ Anlt ^IntrtnSt d Mt ^ 1MSl h ^ 3Sl Strr ^ MSt ^ 7ph ^ 1StAr ^ 15MhA ^ 17S t d tnt ^ 19n td Cptn n ^ Stt  ^ lt ^   ^ 3Mt dn ^ tC  ^ SOGUS1 pr rnb drh tt pn ^ 1 A   thprtn  prdnr- blvtdf thOnbrn d tth rn df thh brn ^ 3 n r f  d d ffr rn h Cb19-199 ^  Mn nptn d f  d df fr rn h Cb19-1995 A   prn r th rfrthpr nt d pt-r bl/1 r ^  Cf/1 r tprn r thpr  ^ 37 A   lf/1 rthbl/1 rfr thpr   thpn-lbrn19-1991 ^ 3 A   lf/1 rthbl/1 rfr thpr   thOnbrn1973-19 ^ 33ACKWMESI d ltth prplv nnl f h ppt d dtn dthprtI d  ltththh  vt Sh Etnd  Sl f thr tf tn ppt pr bthlt rtrd Cn rt tdthr tflMh  th dd  ftn lltbhd I d ltpr prtn tth th d Wdl pr th thr r dd rlltd  pt; K Chd r rb nnndWrhtb Wd d Sn rr Mth   tn Chl f h ddd fttpr th thnrttfh th r1ICOSt d Mt  -  thl rv thrld d  fnd lthrt thbbld bl ft r brn h Cb A.   A.  dn d A  (C d Gt 19 Ell hCb  vd d fnd  dr  h t d  rSpd(199 pr th dn  thrlln d ht dtrn   CIn h Cbth  thhhlvd ldlf bh ntdn-ntt pr pnt pr173th thj(135 thMtr Envnt nthn rn Sd On(Itt p Mtr Envnt drt pr td thpr tnnt  Infr  thnt  thpn trd fr19 t19  lt  l  fr  lt  ltdld     lt ltn nt td thr tnf pn jtrnfr pt dl thpr nbtnnbb%    pd(tt   .  199r ht  Cn f bhtrhd th 9  httt  (tt   .  199lrth Ar bl hbn n th d rn thf b ld lhIn C hvt nt  hn  f th tl  tll bhrn lhh thnIn 197 hl trhttr tprnrntr  thnbhvt d ntr  thrh dtrn  thhvtl trrn rr thhtbdrn fr pl  pltf thhtIn 19lthttr h  blrbjt tdfhtprrprrn f trlthvt rf blnrn th t rt t vlftthprtd hlth  lpnthrdrtn   pr npt  nd pt lpn ntrtr trth Arbb(1971197M n v prhn plt lthvt rn3(Stt 197 M d Chd 19; E 19 rnf thlthvt rd  thrnd  th tMSl h - Cp th lltl n t thb  d  th  trltlt hbn dprft dll d ntrlt hbrrhh f(fnn19 l th n trndlll   bhn p  (Ov nSh(G 1971 d Stth r dr  (Cv h(G 19 d th thl   thrth Ar rv(d  .  19;    .197th x prld thhblpr tbr th (t 19;    .  197In  pn AlMtd Mn  .  (197 fnd th bl nvd  zth d th  t pnvd rhl On thK nl Althl nr  ld At bthrIn thMtd Mnpn thl nrt thrfr d-OtIn l thr  thl nnlrr   h   ptdrll btd t  Obrvn WlGr r h Cbfnd l n bl ntr d dthr (G19 M thrvnrr  thb-ptrn d  bn- brh- vlbt In r h  thn l  Wn t (19rv l n blb fnd ltlvtn  thr rrthrt thln thbntn ttrt  l hp (t 19; G 1971 rpplrn  h p  bdp bd bl n rp   h t t tttrh t  fd lr p n bfnd    h th thh tpll bft  (G1971 b rtlf ll lft pftn thr fdtrn ptndl    .  (197 tth thlb d dpl  bpr-d r l zd5vb  th(Mh 197 G 1971 rthnd tth h tpr rrthbrdbl tthv t h bn rr t l  ndn p(t 19; Mr19 rl n(b 19 b thrt  thr  th thbl dttd dl brddh tr pdrh th tdv  pllbrvth tht  thbrd (nt 197 d  -trn   thtdr th tlh d hr(   .197nln   .  (19dd hr " d  d n bvh b ptnClt-  .  (19 th n  l b t thptl tf dl l t tnf f thppbrd In thttn f lrr d vvblf lfn Sbtl b blr(Mr 19dnlr lb l bl l  z Sprt b bl l ztd tblt (G 19;    .  19Ynblth ltl  brdd n bpt tvt    fhtObrvndth thpr  hh-rnbl brdpprt l-rnblfr pt brdt thth  rtnlplphll(Altnn1959; t 19; b 1971 Sprtb t d jr dr blhbnrv l thbrd d prlrb thj ttd rhthrn (Clt-  .  19 Ml(1979 th f l tv  r hrl th  ntltt dtt thlv th dl bh l d hhrSl Strr- b (1971ft th thtdtd  rt v f d d t th tht rtnnrd r rrdt   th thpr  pr(1 dbltnd  pn dthrtpd bpprnthbrdtrlpnd bl ntprt th7tt prbld tll thpnrttr bld  tltthx r  fr  A rpl    thpn d  thbrdptftn bl b  th hjr bl thbl pn d lxl tnpblh thWh f prbl pnthtnd lpn  rtt  r nth bnlltdthprAlth d n hd thpr tb tdtn thtnd tlrthprbld thd th  tn d npt thrrtr prtn d rrtntd bpr b      bnbr t thr f trrt lbn lv th r rv rd b l dr  thpnt  br(b 1971197 Str d b 197MSt  - h hfnd thvnt tbj ft  dnt r th ph h(hr db19 l v   thbl d b-bl ft C th th thp fd rr prllpftndt d l pd   dft f d hrtbtlh  ft h   .  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(19 td h d  j ftdnt rvr b ptn tp  pn  n rthrrtfn thpfrh th r fnld dprthr n ltnStdthnthn tdrpn lprl-tl bl(Knl 19; b 19 Ifll-d ndx trt(tl bz  t bl th th b thd bptn  hltrtld lt thth   ltpthtt tthr frprtht thfrdnth th h n ll nt tbpd 9  pth fnd thtrpd f tbpr hr(Srtz19d th   th thpr  bl pl r ttr (b 19;Srtz p It  h bn t thlv bn l b brd thnd  thdtr ll hr   rv  thrf nt b  thr l z(r 1975;Crht 19; Chd d An 19   pth fnd th lbn lv dn pntth d  tthnt th l bhtth lv n  thf tr (Srtzp G tht tr pd d thptl pt  f tr brdf lfrv ld bpt th  ttn hf blt fr ( l-dtft-dllpn pnpnrn h ll blltthr   tCrt b d ndxl tt d bb (19tbt ft thbrdld blptt d thndn ltddr th  brd thf trd dr h l fn dr th  ltld dd  h l  thl bl  l d b fr1thfrn  ttnth bl fr vr p  vl ntttlbd dthr pdph d  th r    th th th thdvt hth pd thtrtn trlr  th tb nthbrdb  ld bfll ttf rdvtn pn dt x rd bl rtd th rrtn ld n btlpr  ntrtbprtnd rlrr1 ltr thptl ph bhdt rt d x r flnrrtn  pndt ldt rnthl l drnh rrtntd thnb  lv bntnt  thd d  thnb  lv rvtprv nth (  pn vtrdr thpp d d l  thpthnb  lv p 1    th rrtnt11ntpt rrtn  l thrnnrn l ftnptn t(Ml 1979 d prn r (d 197 19 C ft nptn tthrd tr  r  h bn rv  rdr (Ml d nln 1973d  (Srtzp C h  bn r tprnr (t 1959; Mr 19; znn d Srtz19d tnnr (t 1959;  19 Mt th rn  d tl fd lpt  bl  rrtn h n bndt f  S   hht th lbln  ftbrd br-tl bld brdblblrt  l nptn d d rprn r (n d 1979; h  .1979; Sth 19 d bl/rdnptn t(nt 197 d rprn r( 19 Aprlntnt nptnh bn t  ft ftlf rv dthpt  rrtntn r dtnnr ll br tprt th thdnthx ptl prt Slltptl rrtnt ll bdn bprt1I ^ AGE SUC ^ SEOlfCOEIOMIEGY       OC       IICIEr1pr rnb  drhtt pn(dt l dt rn13Extn rtft   prndd hrt f lnItld brn h th thftll ptt thdptlbprtd rrtntAl f rt pl  thpr rn b nptntd rrtntb prtn thl r thrd n bt tht lhfld  I td  l n ththrth d ptllbdrd th thvt d vtd Mn hh n brt  thf v ttltn1  thrtn  prd nr- blrt  r prn r?  thrtn  prd nr- blrt  d nptn d?3   thx r  fr   rt r prn r? ^  thft rrtnt?1tfr v CMtr Envntbrnr  th  On Cd pn-lbrnr b thr t hvtd b th hhvtprrrttrt  df  thhvt pb thbrn Onplt  ltblr 19 thh brnhtnn-ltbl 15S AASfldtn thbrn thrt fr thnfnd br  .  (199pn-lbrn rrtthSthnIntr Epr   t brdr tv rfr tvdd  pd td nfthh nC brn rrtthCtr IntrEprWtldrdprn  t th  thpn-lbrnvn  tdtb thdrhn tr d thld bl ft Grdh  thh x th  nftExtvtld prt  pt thbrnnr bbl ft thnth prnb d dOnbrn rrtthSblIntr EprWtld d  rtbr d rhh fldt vv  thd nftth d drnth  thh1brn rrtthrl nEpr d   thn d thMntn ntt  rdrthld ntd b rExtvdftd dt p  (p trdMhx pd hn nft  thrt thbrn17MEOExt CWdl dr tlf   tht rn thd(r1d tdrth tn  lld pn dtd  prt   d h prl   rnvvthp It  ft thnt tnd hltlpt  rt htd n blt th n rdth d Atnnr lft prbhd pblb(t 1959; znnd Srtz 19 thdrn tAll drllt bMtr Envntf d dllf th  t  d r  bl thhvt;    thhvt; prn rd d  nptn; d ntpn n d thf bl/lfrA  -  h fr hvt  rllt ththrrttrt C-drllthr dtfr   thbrn ll drtrt fr thSrSttt thMtr Envnt Eh 1tth fr ht-ll bl vtnt bhtf n A dn bdntth d tthnt n thrt (St d t 1959Yrlblr fr thd h   dtrnfr thtthrn dd th l rdrrt  ld thtbnltl  thfld d thn bnr t  rn thh pr tf th  t dtrn d thd th th rrrt thdtrn  thhvtIt  d th thprtn    thtth rn rrt th thtl pnthltbl rn thOnrtrt thhvt  d bl thtth rn df thbrn bd td r bl d thd n b th brn Cprdth tdfr thOnnt vt Mrdn dd v  Od (19d    tlfr bl hvt thOn blrnd tb thprt 5 1/(KChd p In thtth rn19dthrd  5 dS t d tnt - Wt vtrpfd rlbMtrf  thOn d pn-lbrn t thvtvd fr rl tlnrnt rv vd fr  tGl ltr rvr ttnfd t ftnpt  thpn-lbrn rd rd blvtrd Mt  thvtftn  thffn  thl  bl d lfllt tdr thr tl rlbnth thd  r th rn lln pbltfblb Crdth fr tllblbthpr  vv p  th (Ml197  pr  tl pl  thbl Ifndndtn dft th   rd   fd tClfnftn dd f  bnvt tt t thnb  blp 1 ; dthnb  lv p 1 Sv thOnbrn rpfd rl tfthblttb tl zn td Cptn n  - nt   thfr brnrr tbt rrttrtfr thl trhthd  lvb  rlSn  thrrttrtr thOn  d pn-lbrn In thOnbrnthlltn  rrttrtb  1977 d llz rlIn thpn-lbrnlltnb  19 d  thbrnthb  19C brn b llt19hbn  rrttrtnrd l rl f   Onldfr 19 d 19 r fr thCn lldn bthpr  ft  thIn  ftrnprt d tlnptnprn d  bdt bthpr  brn thrd bltt (Mr 19 tl   th pr dn  prn(Mr 19 hthOnthlbrn trrt th n ddthprn d  rlndtbprnt  thdnn b n  thIn thOndtdn tbprnt b    thrrd  n prntYrl rr fr thdtb thr hhlvblprn r h lr tnrn (t 1959; znn d Srtz19 l nb l d ht ft  thprn r thpnn dft tdnrnthpn x r d bl rtr  prnthnptn d d bt fr thz thftrthf 9d dntftn b bthn-rp lh (Mr 19  C dpn-lbrn thft lh/rn dn bMr (19 f nOnbrn  ftth dd v thMr thrt dft  th thh brnf v ft lh pr tb dfb thbrnthMr thr thrn l ft rrl d dd thMrtht nptn dn bbtrtthft fr thd llStt ffb thpnt pr dnr thOnbl pn d thpnt 5+ -d thbl pnfr thC d pn-lbrnrtt th thKrl-Wl ttnpr   nfn   vn tt (S d hlf19ff prn r b thbrnrtt f th thKrl-Wl ttnr rr  (S d hlf 19 ttt f rnb prn r dbl/1 r lf/1 rd prnr; d lf/1 rd bl/1 rtfr dl nt r tprn r d lf/1 r bl/1 r rf nt   rnh h bh vtdd rrttrtlththrnrpl tlfrn Cf/1 rr nprn r fr thpr   th d hbn  thlv rnSl lf/1rr n bl/1 rfrthpr nt  thld btht tthpn x r  thlv rnn r r n bl/1 rfr bh thpr nt d fr thntdtfllltn  thrrttrttdnh vtpr thbtrnSUS  thrtn  prd nr- blrt  r prn r? - r thprtn prd nr- blfr thOnntrvth thprtn  blfd d thhvt thh brn Yrl rn   thd h d th thOnbrn h t prtn  prdnr- blth thh brn ^ df fnd tbtlt(p 1r3 prn rbbrnll f  t  d dt dfrfnd b thbrn(p 5 thrtn  prd nr- blrt  d nptn d? - rth d nptn f  brnt rnlldtr  l th dn vthd  th l b   h thdn t dfr thStdd dtnrl  l  Cf l(95%ll t   d% prnr  5+ l19 ^ 19 ^ 19 ^ 19 ^ 19Yr---- On ^ -- I  pn19 ^ 19 ^ 19 ^ 19  ^ C r A   thprtn  prd nr- blvtdf thOnbrn d tth rndf thh brn11 OMICAIACE OMO CAO19 7 77(n=53 (n=19   (n (n=5 (n=719 9 (n= (n=19   77(n= (n=193 (n=19   93(n= (n=159 (n=9199 7  79(n= (n=1 (n=r3n r f  d d f frrn h Cb19-1990 OMICA ^ ACE ^ OMO ^ CAO11O ^ O 19(7 (57O O  O 19( (379 (1O O19(79 (1O O  O 19(7 (1 (7O O  O 19(75 (13 (O O  O 199(9 (119 (519r Mn nptn d f  d d ffr rn h Cb ^ 19-199(th lzd dd dtnth thrnt df nptnd b brn b thbrn  th thx r  fr   rt  r prn r? - r5 thprn r  thOn pn-ld brnth bl/rfr thpr ntvt Ov thr  bl/1 rttnt rn fnd (p  r5b  thprn r f th brnth thpt-r x r  t rnfnd (p  thft rrtnt? - rlf/1 rth thrrpdprn rfr dl nt  thOn dpn-lbrn rn  nt(p 1 -          1_  ^                          a=  ^ t fr thpr ntegy 1  ^-  ^ +   ^  =17  ^  ^  ^  ^ b1 b-r regy  ^  ^  ^  ^ 1b1 Omica ^ pn ^ + acer5A   prn r th rfrthpr nt d pt-r bl/1 rr=1n=19p5E lf/1 ^  ^  ^ prn rOn ^ E  pn ^+ 7531 ^ 1r Cf/1 r tprn r  thpr 31r7  lf/1 rth bl/1rfr thpr nt vtdt fr 19 t1991  thpn-lbrndrd tthr pdprt  ^  tnrn (p  ^ h d th rrtnt h bn t t 1975 thb ll/1 rhdl n 1975r lf/1 rth bl/1rfr thpr nt f thOnbrndrd bth  thltrnrplt trn fnd (p lf/ 1 1   r2=3     n= p5    + ++3^  + +  ^ +   ^ ^              ^  ^  ^  ^  ^ 1 ^ 1 ^ 1bl/1  ^ 19-7 ^ ^ 1975- ^ + 19-91r7A   lf/1 rth bl/1 rfrthpr   thpn-lbrn19-19911n= ^p5 +^:+^ 44-^ ++++ lf/1 ^  ^  ^  ^  ^ 1 ^ 1 ^ 1bl/1  ^pr8 ^ +^ pt-191r A   lf/1 rth bl/1 rfrthpr   thOnbrn1973-193SCUSSIOA Strt- A df  thrt thbl pn fnd b thOnbrn d ththr h brn(rOnbrnth thltp h tlt pnt prd nr-bl(p 1b  th  thvtfn dth thtth rn dfr thh brn n th thlpnt prd nr- bl thC d pn-lbrnrt  rprn r t df prnr (p 5rfnd b thbrn(r3 n th thdf  rtb thbrnh ft nptn t Mn nptn d f lbrnd  l l rd  5 dpd  rlO (rnt df  th d b  th95%nf lt thrvnppt thhh th rtn  thprtn  prd nr- bl thpn thr t h h n35t ft  rrtn blpfnthj thbrdnn bdn fr thtd v brnlt th  thbrnth lprtn prd nr- bl thrbltlvv  thbrdtthfdrt pnf l l bnt nrn f nrh th rrtrn Undlthnd dfr d tl dr(Odlvnn  nn n   .  (19fnd th dft htr d tltthnn tv  pn d th h vft h h  .  (1979th thj ntrn th tl  tpn  n d th t th r thltprr f brdhlnf thfn thpnS t -   fnd f rn bx r d prn r rrtntIn th prn rvbl/1 d lf/1 (r 5 5bd   n th thrn pthr thIt prth thft  xr  lt  vl bl/l 3lth  bl1  (r 5d 5b Onlf dpntllb th l (f thd pn-lbrn d nrtn prn rv th lzl t rn (p fnd bprn rd rrtnt (rOnlrn f l rn d bthllzth ll G thl z nt   lprrttprn r d lf/rfr th In brnthrvf nt hh rnlrrtld nt vtf thprrt r th rn dfr thbrnrpl d thrn ltr r b  19 lpt nrn b lf/1 d bl/1  thpn-lbrn (r7 ld tfttd thpnpt trd   bl lf/1 r th19-7pd  vt r  th pdvtrpfd  nt h rlr d h dft bndth thprtnt  Arth hh fl d pblt lf prn lr  thrlpd b n  thl pd( d  t37p S rrrt tbt55dt  fr  bl ndld d Ont dthl19 d rl195(tn 1955 d thl b (197  th l x rnl f nlr pnb (19 th  t pnptt ttn n 55x r td dr  rrtnth  (19dCr  .  (19bv th % bl thtntpn ( bl1 ththrhdb h rrtn brI fnd n th th  thl;prn r  Cpnth t xr lth  bl1  ltthrt  n pnth hh xrAn  thlld Cpr n th pr bl hh bl/rnrf tnrhh prn r    thtnth thrt thht lf th C dpn-lrrrt thtlpn th thptn th lr3ldrrt  htd blltbt ltth f nv th  x r drrtnt ftn dd thnt vtdbn rrrtn  thpnAnb thvtd ltbt thbl/d   pblth  thhx  lth h d rvIf p x rbn rtlb tht x rn th d bpt th th d rvt th  bd brCv ld rn th thrththr thf nt d th thth lf/rrld blth fbl/r Anh pbl  r lf/rd b thdf h ltn b  th lv d  thtlvAn tnpln tthl rnb prn r(r  bl/r(r 7 d  th rrtnt  th tnrtftrptlf nbbthnt vtrd A vtrd   rlnr   lth39nt h ndnd hh ttrlf nb  prn d pr hndntlt ptn brlfnb   Al h fnd brn br  (Ur  prn tbthj rt flv (lld   .  1991 Wf  (C l  prn td  j rt f Qb (M d Cr19 d thdt rtt  lv  Il(Mh  .  19pblft  pn dtrrtp bnd tprthrt It n pblttthfln  dt thvbl ttd tl d ntddt fthflnd thrt ptl ln thrn b lf/1 d bl/1 r(r 7 d j thhh bl/r(5bl1 rrv bth19 d brrttrtrbnlltIt  pblth dtrhh  n thrlr vtrpfd d th hr rrtntMAGEME COMMEAO1 Wdl ld nt tvtthrnb bl  x r d rrtn tt r pt thr   Cpn  d bf th lr ld brth nt vtpfd th nt thrrtlllt lld bpfd ttt h vtthnr  d pblbdbfltr vtth t blt ld btpt  v h hdft n  d ft h3Wt vtld bpfd d rd nt  b rh th rh  th thftn n brl th hd   rrtdd ht hvt d prl d bln  nt bndrdt jrh/ ft    pblth   pbltdfttb pn  Al nl hvt d vtd  dd tlh thtplrn thd Wdl  rrtlrntnt tlltd ntth l fr thnl lhvt ^ It  rnd th thprr btn    pbl ptlf dt prvblf frn d rrt pn d ll lbvbld nrftpn z thr dl5  nthnld bdd rthprr thnth  lptt th n  thprtt  tntrd  prtdld b  dl tthhvt d vtdrrtl bthWdl CIAltnnM1959Grp d WnM dthrt  Ml.  -rA1975 pln bllhtrn  Ont AM CfWh11-1lldW SWhnd  1991pn d  Sth-Ctr AlWdl. 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