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The nature and magnitude of global non-fuel fisheries subsidies Khan, Ahmed Sheik 2006

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THE N A T U R E A N D MAGNITUDE OF G L O B A L N O N - FUEL FISHERIES SUBSIDIES by A H M E D S H E I K K H A N B . S c , Fourah Bay College, the University o f Sierra Leone, 1998. A THESIS S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R OF S C I E N C E in T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S (Resource Management and Environmental Studies) T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A September 2006 © Ahmed Sheik Khan, 2006 A B S T R A C T Fishery subsidies greatly impact the sustainability of fishery resources. Subsidies that reduce the cost of fisheries operations and those that enhance revenues make fishing enterprises more profitable than they would be otherwise. Such subsidies result in fishery resources being overexploited, as they contribute directly or indirectly to the build-up of excessive fishing capacity, thereby undermining the sustainability of marine l iving resources and the livelihoods that depend on them. In this thesis, fishery subsidies are identified, assessed and categorized, taking into consideration the policy relevance of fishery subsidies, subsidy program descriptions, sources of funding, scope and coverage, annual total amounts, administering authority, and the recipients of the subsidy. Using this taxonomy, a database of subsidy programs reported in marine capture fisheries for 144 coastal countries was compiled spanning 1995 to 2005. From this, an annual estimate of subsidies paid to the fishing sector by governments globally is computed for 2000. This static estimate accounts explicitly for data gaps. Total global fishery subsidies were estimated at about U S D 26 bi l l ion for the eleven subsidy types identified in this study (excluding fuel subsidies). About 60% o f this amount were provided by 38 developed countries and the remaining 40% provided by 103 developing countries. The proportion of estimated subsidies that contributed towards an increase in fishing capacity globally amounted to about U S D 15 bi l l ion, while subsidies that contributed to fisheries management and conservation programs were approximately U S D 7 bil l ion. The remaining U S D 4 bil l ion are defined as ugly subsidies, i.e. they may either lead to fisheries conservation or to overcapacity depending on the context. Japan and the E U were the highest subsidizers of their fisheries, with about U S D 4.2 bil l ion and U S D 3.0 bil l ion, respectively. The results from this study have policy implications for fisheries subsidy reforms at the on-going W T O negotiation on rules to eliminate subsidies that cause overcapacity, and in achieving sustainable fisheries management. This thesis concludes by highlighting some areas for further research, to better understand the impact of subsidies on: (i) resource exploitation, (ii) industrial profits, and (iii) food sufficiency and livelihoods. i i T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S A B S T R A C T ii T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S iii LIST O F T A B L E S iv L I S T O F F I G U R E S v L I S T O F A C R O N Y M S A N D A B B R E V I A T I O N S U S E D v i A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S vii i I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 C H A P T E R 1: B A C K G R O U N D I N F O R M A T I O N 3 1.1 C O N T E X T : S T A T U S OF G L O B A L FISH STOCKS 3 1.2 ISSUES: O V E R C A P A C I T Y , OVERFISHING A N D FISHERIES SUBSIDIES 5 1.3 R E S E A R C H QUESTIONS 7 1.4 JUSTIFICATION 8 C H A P T E R 2: T H E N A T U R E O F F I S H E R Y SUBSIDIES 9 2.1 L I T E R A T U R E REVIEW 9 2.2 W H A T A R E FISHERIES SUBSIDIES? 13 2.3 SUBSIDIES IDENTIFIED A N D CLASSIFIED 16 2.3. 1 Good subsidies 17 2.3.2 Bad subsidies 18 2.2.3 Ugly subsidies 21 C H A P T E R 3: M E T H O D O L O G Y F O R C O M P U T I N G SUBSIDY E S T I M A T E S 24 3.1 D A T A COLLECTION A N D COMPILATION 24 3.2 A N A L Y S I S OF C O L L E C T E D DATA 2 6 3.3 F ILL ING T H E DATA GAPS 28 C H A P T E R 4: R E S U L T S A N D DISCUSSION 30 4.1 G L O B A L T O T A L ESTIMATE OF FISHERIES SUBSIDIES 3 0 4.2 FISHERIES SUBSIDY ESTIMATES B Y CATEGORIES 3 2 4.2.1 Good subsidies 33 4.2.2 Bad subsidies 34 4.2.3 Ugly subsidies 39 4.3 FISHERIES SUBSIDY ESTIMATES B Y REGION 4 2 4.4 R E S E A R C H LIMITATIONS 4 6 C H A P T E R 5: S U M M A R Y A N D C O N C L U S I O N 49 5.1 S U M M A R Y OF M A J O R FINDINGS 4 9 5.2 P O L I C Y IMPLICATIONS 5 0 5.3 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER R E S E A R C H 54 R E F E R E N C E S 55 A P P E N D I X 1: Regional fishery subsidy estimates by categories 63 A P P E N D I X 2: Compendium of global fisheries subsidy programs by country 70 i i i L I S T O F T A B L E S T A B L E 1: ESTIMATES OF G L O B A L FISHERIES SUBSIDY B Y MAJOR CATEGORIES 15 T A B L E 2: G L O B A L FISHERIES SUBSIDY ESTIMATES PER Y E A R IN BILLION USD 3 0 T A B L E 3: ESTIMATE OF B A D SUBSIDY TYPES 3 4 T A B L E 4: WTO SHIP BUILDING NOTIFICATIONS 1996-1997 IN USD MILLION 3 6 T A B L E 5: FISHING ACCESS SUBSIDY PAYMENTS FOR 18 FISHING NATIONS 3 7 T A B L E 6: WTO FISHERIES SUBSIDY NOTIFICATIONS FROM 1995-2001 4 7 T A B L E 7: S O M E DISCREPANCIES IN FISHERIES SUBSIDIES F R O M 1996-1997 4 8 iv L I S T O F F I G U R E S FIGURE 1: G L O B A L T R E N D IN T H E STATUS OF M A R I N E FISHERIES RESOURCES B A S E D O N FAO STATISTICS 3 FIGURE 2: GORDON SCHAEFER BIOECONOMIC M O D E L 19 F I G U R E 3: SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF HOW SUBSIDIES INDUCE OVERFISHING 19 F I G U R E 4: N U M B E R OF DATA CELLS FOR WHICH SUBSIDY ESTIMATES WERE C O M P U T E D 2 9 F I G U R E 5: A COMPARISON OF G L O B A L FISHERY SUBSIDY ESTIMATES 3 2 FIGURE 6: FISHERY SUBSIDY ESTIMATES B Y CATEGORIES 3 2 FIGURE 7: SUBSIDIES A N D M A L T H U S I A N OVERFISHING 41 FIGURE 8: SUBSIDY AMOUNTS B Y MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS 4 2 FIGURE 9: SUBSIDY INTENSITY FOR MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS 4 3 FIGURE 10: SUBSIDY ESTIMATES FOR M A J O R FISHING NATIONS 4 4 v L I S T O F A C R O N Y M S A N D A B B R E V I A T I O N S U S E D A D B : Asian Development Bank A f D B : African Development Bank A P E C : Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation A S C M : Agreement on Subsidy and Countervailing Measures C A R I C O M : Caribbean Community C I D A : Canadian International Development Agency C F F A : Coalition for Fair Fisheries Arrangement D A N I D A : Danish International Development Agency D F I D : Department for International Development D F O : Department of Fisheries and Ocean D W F : Distant Water Fleets E C O W A S : Economic Community of West African States E E C : European Economic Community E E Z : Exclusive Economic Zone E F F : European Fisheries Fund E U : European Union F A D : Fish Aggregating Device F A O : Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations F E D : Foundation for Enterprise Development F I F G : Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance G A T T : General Agreement on Trade and Tariff G E F : Global Environment Fund G F T : Government Financial Transfers G R T : Gross Registered Tonnage G T Z : German Technical Cooperation H A C C P : Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point I C E I D A : Icelandic International Development agency ICES: International Council for the Exploration of the Seas I C Z M : Integrated Coastal Zone Management I D A F : Integrated Development for Artisanal Fisheries EDRC: International Development Research Council IF A D : International Fund for Agricultural Research I F R E M E R : Institut francais de Recherche pour 1'Exploitation de la Mer I N F O F I S H : Intergovernmental Organization for Marketing Information and Technical Advisory Services for Fishery Products within the As i a Pacific Region I U C N : International Union for the Conservation of Nature I U U : Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported fishing L V : Landed Value L M E : Large Marine Ecosystems J ICA: Japanese International Cooperation Agency M C & S : Monitoring, Control and Surveillance M P A : Marine Protected Areas M R A G : Marine Resources Assessment Group N E P A D : New Partnership for African Development N G O : N o n Government Organization N O A A : National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration v i N O R A D : Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation O D A : Overseas Development Agency O E C D : Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development O R S T R O M : Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement Cooperation R & D : Research and Development R F M O : Regional Fisheries Management Organization S F L P : Sustainable Fisheries Livelihood Project S IFAR: Support for International Fisheries and Aquatic Research SIFR: Support for International Fisheries Research U N : United Nations U N C L O S : United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea U N D P : United Nations Development Program U N E P : United Nations Environment Program W B : World Bank W S S D : Wor ld Summit on Sustainable Development W T O : Wor ld Trade Organization W W F : World Wildlife Fund v i i A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S I would like to thank my mentor and supervisor, Dr. Rashid Sumaila who introduced me to this research topic and encouraged me to expand my horizons academically. I would also like to thank my supervisory committee, Dr. Daniel Pauly, Dr. Les Lavkulich and Dr. Gordon Munro, for their invaluable contribution and inputs throughout this study. I would like to acknowledge the contributions from the members of the Fisheries Economics Research Unit and the Sea Around Us Project at the Fisheries Centre for their inputs in this study. I am grateful to Dr. Sylvie Guenette and Dr. Patrizia Abdallah for French and Spanish translations, respectively; and to Andrew Sharpless of Oceana, for access to various information sources. I am indebted to the World University Service of Canada, U B C Chapter for the financial support during my study at U B C . To my parents Hawa and Chernoh, and my extended families and friends in Canada, U S A , U K , Senegambia and Sierra Leone; thank you for your inspiration and moral support throughout the course of this work; and for your understanding of my long silence. Finally, I 'm grateful to M s Jana Bock for being a special friend, and for her encouragements to finish this study on time. v i i i I N T R O D U C T I O N Fishery subsidies are financial payments from public entities to the fishing sector, which help the sector make more profit than it would otherwise. Subsidies have gained worldwide attention because of their complex relation to trade, ecological sustainability and socioeconomic development. It is widely acknowledged that global fisheries are overcapitalized, resulting in the depletion of fishery resources. Although many reasons have been ascribed to the decline of fishery resources, the role of subsidies to the issue of overcapacity and overfishing cannot be sufficiently emphasized. These issues have been reiterated at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg (WSSD, 2002), the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference 1 in Doha, in the Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries ( F A O , 1995), and in the Mil lennium Ecosystem Assessment Report ( M E A , 200,5), and has thus prompted significant research interest. Subsidies provided by governments have been identified as a driving factor for the build- up of excessive fishing capacity, thereby undermining the sustainability of marine resources and the livelihoods that depend on them ( W W F , 2001). Subsidies that enhance revenue and those that reduce cost lead to a marginal increase in profit, thereby increasing participation and fishing effort (Sumaila, 2003). Subsidies that promote fishery resource conservation and management are however, regarded as good and necessary (Milazzo, 1998). This thesis aims to contribute to our understanding of the present nature of fishery subsidies and to estimate the size and extent of subsidies worldwide. It is divided into five chapters: Chapter 1 provides background information on the status o f fish stocks, and presents the issues o f concerns and lays out a set of research questions. Chapter 2 presents an overview of fishery subsidies and provides a set of criteria for identifying and categorizing fishery subsidies. Chapter 3 describes the methods and steps in computing fisheries subsidies 1 Doha Ministerial Declaration, November 20, 2001. WT/MIN f01VDEC/l. http://docsonline.wto.org/gen home.asp?language=land =1. last accessed 10/08/06. 1 globally. Chapter 4 gives the results of the global magnitude o f fisheries subsidies, and delves into a discussion of the results by subsidy categories and geographic regions. Chapter 5 concludes with a summary of major findings, policy implications and suggestions for further research. Appendix I presents the results of the subsidy estimates by geographic regions, and Appendix II presents an inventory of the subsidy programs for each maritime country worldwide. 2 C H A P T E R 1: B A C K G R O U N D I N F O R M A T I O N 1.1 Context: Status of global fish stocks It is widely acknowledged that many global fish stocks are in decline (Watson and Pauly, 2001; Jackson et al. 2001; Worm and Myers, 2003). A n analysis o f the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nation's global fisheries catch statistics by Pauly and Froese (2003), which involved more than 900 species, demonstrated a gradual decline of the status of oceanic fishery resources. Their study illustrates that compared to the 1950s, when most of the catches were taken from undeveloped fisheries (Figure 1); the 1990s showed that most of the catch (about 75%) was from fully exploited or overfished fisheries and over 10% from collapsed fisheries. 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 Years Figure 1: Global trend in the status of marine fisheries resources based on F A O statistics (Froese and Pauly, 2004). The dire situation of many commercially important species, such as Southern Bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyi) and Northern cod (Gadus morhua), led the Wor ld Conservation Union ( IUCN) to add these to its 'Red List ' o f critically endangered and vulnerable species, respectively ( I U C N , 2003). The number of threatened fish species for both the endangered and vulnerable categories increased from 144 to 238 and from 452 to 682, respectively, for 3 the years 2000 to 2006 ( I U C N , 2006). Furthermore, fishing effort increasingly targets species lower down the marine food web, such as sardines, herring and anchovies (Pauly et al. 1998). Such 'fishing down o f marine food webs' greatly disrupts the structure of marine ecosystems, simplifying their food webs and consequently lowering the resilience of ecosystems to environmental variations, and further increasing the risk of collapse. Despite the collapse of major world fisheries within the past couple of decades, the global expansion of fishing effort has continued unabated and trade in fish products has intensified to the extent that they have become one of the most globalize commodities (Sumaila, 2002). Fisheries today are an important source of food, contributing about 19% of animal protein for human consumption, a valuable source of foreign exchange; with more than 60% of global fish production from developing countries ( F A O , 2002). The fishery industry is now global in scope, employing close to 200 mil l ion people worldwide, with international trade of fisheries products reaching over U S D 50 bil l ion per year (Vannuccini, 2003). Commercial fisheries are driven by global markets with capital flows being largely unregulated and tied to multinational investments ( N O A A , 1999). The result is that "over 75% of the world catch is sold and consumed in other countries, rather than the countries in whose E E Z the fish were landed" (Hempel and Pauly, 2002). However, global landings are in decline from a peak of 80 mil l ion tonnes since the late 1980s (Watson and Pauly, 2001). It has been suggested that this crisis is the result of unspecified environmental changes (Sinclair et al. 1997). However, an examination of the history of fisheries reveals that overfishing by humans is one of the fundamental causes of the decline of marine species (Jackson et al. 2001; Pauly et al. 2002). Factors that drive this overfishing include the increasing demand for fish, international global fish trade, poor management and ineffective monitoring of open access fisheries, illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, technological innovations, short term economic and social pressures, subsidies and overcapacity (Sumaila, 2002). The contention that the depletion of fishery resources should lead to rising prices and consequent reduction in consumption has not been well supported (Sadovy and Vincent, 4 2002). This is partly due to the prevalence of subsidies, which distort market price. Global negotiations on trade issues in fisheries have led to the identification of subsidies and non-tariff barriers as areas of concern. Political considerations, however, make global wholesale change in 'perverse' subsidies unlikely (Stone, 1997). A t present, plans and calls to action for the use of sustainable fishery techniques, the reduction of harmful subsidies, and the minimization of by-catch and discards are meeting a strong opposition (Butcher, 2002). Given this bleak state of the marine fisheries worldwide, there is a growing recognition that the management o f fisheries must be put in an ecosystem context (Pauly et al. 2002; Pikitch et al. 2004). Other solutions to the global fishery crisis includes the creation of marine protected areas, right-based fishery management, eco-labeling o f fishery products, reduction of fishing capacity and the abolition of fishery subsidies which contributes directly to the overcapacity problem (Pauly, 2005a). 1.2 Issues: Overcapacity, overfishing and fisheries subsidies One of the most severe impediments to responsible fishing is that on a global scale, there are too many vessels chasing too few fish (Porter, 1998; Cunningham and Greboval, 2001). The F A O (2003a) International Plan of Action for the Management of Fishing Capacity (IPOA-Capacity) calls on states to achieve an efficient, equitable and transparent management of fishing capacity to reduce, and eventually eliminate, all factors, including subsidies, which contribute, directly or indirectly, to the build-up o f excessive fishing capacity ( F A O , 1998). According to Mi lazzo (1998), capacity refers essentially to vessels, gears and labor and how all o f these are put to use. Excess capacity (i.e., overcapacity) can be defined as the positive difference between current fishing capacity and target capacity ( F A O , 1998). Fishery subsidies contribute to overcapacity and overfishing in two major ways: i . Subsidies that reduce the cost of fisheries operation both in terms of capital and operational cost provide an incentive for fishers to increase their catch and profit, with an aggregate impact of further stimulating effort and compounding resource overexploitation problems (Milazzo, 1998); 5 i i . Revenue enhancing subsidies make fishing enterprises far more profitable even when the fishery resources are in decline (Pauly et al. 2002). The consistent conclusion from a number of studies and reports ( F A O , 1992; Milazzo, 1998; O E C D , 2000; F A O , 2000; W W F , 2001; Munro and Sumaila, 2002) is that overcapacity exists worldwide, with government subsidies contributing to the problem. Government assistance takes all forms, including state-owned enterprises and parastatals, direct capital infusion, financing assistance and preferential tax treatment, market promotion, government management and research, and negotiating access agreements for distant water fishing (DWF) operations ( N O A A , 1999). Fishing gear and vessel technology has achieved the capacity to radically impact the marine ecosystems with fishing fleets becoming so powerful as to overexploit essentially all stocks in the world (Sumaila, 2002). Global fishing fleets have been estimated to be more than twice what the oceans can sustainably support (Porter, 1998), with some current estimates even higher (Pauly, 2005a). Within the recently hit tsunami regions of South East Asia , there were concerns about the potential harmful build-up of excessive fishing capacity as some of the region's coastal fisheries were already overcapitalized prior to the disaster (Pauly, 2005b). The European Union (EU) Fisheries Council in July 2004 voted for the promotion of European investments and the transfer of technology and vessels to developing countries, which would be detrimental to sustainable fisheries management ( C F F A , 2005). In the G u l f o f Guinea, it has also been demonstrated that providing subsidized fishing access by the European Union to fishing fleets in countries with poor control measures may lead to stock depletion . With the recently concluded New Partnership for African Development ( N E P A D ) Fish for A l l Summit in Abuja (August, 2005) and the World Bank 'profish' Partnership, the issue of fisheries subsidies has gained new momentum. 2 http://www,seaaroundus.org/Dakar?ScientificDocs.html last accessed 01/12/04. 6 The overcapitalization of the fishing industry is in turn the result o f a number of factors, including the classic tragedy of the commons (Hardin, 1968), a self-defeating race to grab dwindling fish stocks. The massive payments made by a number of governments to support their national fishing industries are, however, the main cause, with high levels of fishery subsidies worldwide significantly contributing to the present poor status of fishery resources ( W W F , 2001). Recommendations from a coalition of N G O s concerned with marine conservation called the Green Group during the 2005 Hong Kong World Trade Organization (WTO) Ministerial Meeting included: • Strong disciplines under the W T O Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures ( A S C M ) on the prohibition o f harmful subsidies that lead to overcapacity, overfishing and 1TJU fishing; • Significant improvements in transparency and accountability in subsidy reporting and effective W T O notification requirements; • Appropriate treatment of the special concerns of developing countries and small-scale fishers; • Recognition of subsidies that improve fisheries management by reducing fishing capacity and effort, minimizing by-catch and promoting important policy goals. 1.3 Research Questions The specific research questions for this study include: i . What are the types and categories of fishery subsidies provided worldwide? i i . What is the present amount and extent of each subsidy type (with the exception of fuel) nationally, regionally and globally? i i i . What proportion of the estimated subsidies contributes toward the increase in fishing capacity? 7 1.4 Justification Fishery subsidies are topical because of the concern that they contribute directly or indirectly to overcapacity and overfishing. Previous global estimates of fishery subsidies have ranged from U S D 20 bill ion (Milazzo, 1998) to U S D 54 bi l l ion ( F A O , 1992). Reports by two respected intergovernmental bodies—-the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development ( O E C D ) and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)—have produced significant new data ( W W F , 2001). Regional estimates have also been provided for the As i a Pacific R i m of about U S D 12 bil l ion ( A P E C , 2000) and for the North Atlantic at about U S D 2.5 bil l ion (Munro and Sumaila, 2002). A better and more robust estimate that is composed of various subsidies, in both the industrial and small-scale sectors is needed, so that policy makers can target reducing specific harmful subsidies. Currently, within the O E C D , fishery subsidy data are published annually as part of the review o f fisheries and country statistic bulletin ( O E C D , 2004; 2005). In other regions, such as the Pacific Island States and the Caribbean Islands, subsidies are reported in the grey literature and usually not quantitatively (Haughton, 2002). Studies and reports done on fishery subsidies and other related issues in the G u l f o f Guinea, including those by Mabawonku (1990), Everett (1994), Kaczynski and Fluharty (2002), Alder and Sumaila (2004) and United Nations Environment Program-UNEP (2004a) are either limited in scope or qualitative in nature. Two research areas remain little explored: (i) subsidies provided by donors to developing countries under international aid / bilateral agreements, and (ii) domestic subsidies provided within both the small-scale and industrial fisheries sector in developing countries. There is also a need for a comprehensive inventory of fishery subsidies both regionally and globally, as well as a current estimation of the magnitude considering all coastal countries for marine capture fisheries. The results of this research is an improvement on existing global subsidy estimates, which w i l l provide a basis for further studies on subsidies and fisheries sustainability. 8 C H A P T E R 2 : T H E N A T U R E O F F I S H E R Y S U B S I D I E S 2.1 Li terature review Fishery subsidies provided by governments in the early 1930s and 1940s were originally intended towards investment in the fishing sector - the "infant industry" argument (Schrank, 2003). With rapid technological advancement in boat building, gear design and preservation methods in the early 1940s to the 1970s, and the inclusion of 200 nautical miles under national jurisdiction ( F A O , 1992), fishery subsidies acted as catalysts for the 'race to fish' phenomenon. The global subsidy debate was prompted by the F A O in the early 1990s in preparation for the M a y 1992 Conference on Responsible Fishing in Mexico (Milazzo, 1998). The F A O (1992) made an argument that subsidies are a major causal factor in the creation and perpetuation o f excess fishing capacity, with a gross estimate of global fisheries subsidies of about U S $ 54 bill ion. A further review of a wide range o f direct and implicit assistance programs that encourage and promote the building, repair, modernization, and operations o f the world's fishing fleets was done by Milazzo (1998) with an estimate of about U S $ 15-20 bil l ion accounting for about 20-25 % of landed value. Regional fisheries subsidy estimates by A P E C (2000), and Munro and Sumaila (2002), have to shed more light on these issues. Attempts were earlier made in the O E C D and the W T O to fashion rules that could be applied to fisheries subsidies (Milazzo, 1998). In the O E C D , the context was shipbuilding negotiations; in the W T O , it was the Uruguay round agreement on agriculture. In both instances, the fisheries sector was explicitly excluded. This led to New Zealand's submission 3 to the W T O highlighting the implication of fishing subsidies for fishers, vessel builders and vessel owners, and the enhancement and expansion o f fishing fleet capacity. A 3 WT/CTE/W/52 Committee on Trade and the Environment - Item 6: The Fisheries Sector - Submission by New Zealand. http://docsonline.wto,ore/gen home,asp?language=land =1. last accessed 10/08/06. 9 submission by the United States4 also raised the issue of overcapitalization and overfishing and raised concerns about ecological impact and the need for conservation measures. During the W T O Uruguay Round of Negotiations, fisheries were discussed in the negotiating group as natural resource based products, based on the recommendations from a working party report (Milazzo, 1998). Fishery issues were moved to the market access group along with other negotiating subjects. A s a result o f the Uruguay round, fisheries subsidies were therefore included under the remit of the W T O agreement on subsidies and countervailing measures, which covers all goods except for agriculture (Porter, 2004). Further impetus for the inclusion of fisheries subsidies in trade negotiations developed from the emergence of a broader international coalition in support of subsidy reforms in the fisheries sector, because of the overcapacity problem. Following this, 'The Friends of Fish ' , a group of states including Australia, Iceland, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Chile, the Philippines and the United States, was formed to work on the inclusion o f fisheries subsidies in the multilateral trade round 5. Also , fishing interests in developing countries centered on the implication of heavily subsidized fishing fleets from wealthier nations out competing with local fishers in developing countries in meeting food security needs (Sumaila, 2003; Stokkes and Coffey, 2003). The W T O agreement on subsidies and countervailing measures represents a significant improvement in the rules and disciplines governing both the use o f subsidies and countervailing measures to offset their effects. This agreement constitutes the existing international legal regime governing subsidies in the fisheries sector; and applies to more than 140 W T O member countries. The creation of the W T O Committee on Trade and Environment reflected an effort by the W T O to be more sensitive to trade implications of environmental policy measures, which has allowed discussions on the potential environmental advantages of eliminating harmful subsidies. 4 WT/CTE/W/51 Committee on Trade and the Environment - Item 6: Environmental and Trade Benefits of Removing Subsidies in the Fisheries Sector - Submission by the United States, http://docsonline.wto.org/gen home.asp?language=land =1. last accessed 10/08/06. 5 An opposition bloc, the 'friends of fishers' have formed in Europe, with Spain and France as leading members. 10 Among subsidies that are to be reported to the W T O , only that contingent on export performance or which favor domestic over imported goods are prohibited. Other subsidies can be actionable under the A S C M , i f they can be shown to have adverse effects on the interests of another party (WTO, 1994). According to W W F (2001), notifications to the W T O of fishery subsidies have been very limited in terms of the amount of subsidies reported, the range of subsidies covered, and the quality of information provided. Stone (1997) further pointed out that several key concepts in the A S C M are defined in ways which make it difficult to determine whether many of the most prolific government expenditures and other interventions in the fisheries sector fall within the domain of the agreement. A central challenge for W T O subsidy reform is to clarify which part of a large grey area should be placed definitely in the class of government financial transfers (GFT), which should be disciplined under W T O rules (Stokke and Coffey, 2003). Fishery subsidy issues are now widely addressed worldwide by national agencies; inter governmental organizations including the Organization for Economic Corporation and Development ( O E C D , 2000) and the Asian Pacific Economic Community ( A P E C , 2000); and regional organizations including New Partnership for African Development ( N E P A D ) , the Caribbean Community ( C A R I C O M ) , Associations of Southeast Asian Nations ( A S E A N ) and the South Pacific island nations. The roles played by the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) and of a coalition of N G O s such as the World Wildlife Fund for Nature, BirdLife International, Greenpeace, The Fisheries Secretariat and Oceana, on public outreach and advocacy on these issues cannot be emphasized. The issue of subsidies that leads to I U U fishing and fishing overcapacity was addressed by the U N General Assembly in its resolution 59/25 of 17 November 2004 and, more recently, at the sixth meeting of the United Nations Open-ended Informal Consultative Process on Oceans and the Law of the Sea 6. The Mil lennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) also highlighted the need to eliminate subsidies that promote excessive use o f ecosystem services 6 http://www.un.org/Depts/los/consultative process/consultative process.htm. last accessed 10/08/06. 11 and, where possible, to transfer those subsidies to payments for non-marketed ecosystem services. The work of the U N agencies, notably the F A O and the U N E P has probably been salient in bringing understanding and dialogue on fisheries policy reforms. This has culminated in a multi-stakeholder workshop 7 , reports by U N E P (2002; 2003; 2004b), and expert consultations in partnership with international agencies by F A O (2000; 2001; 2003b). These efforts have also brought particular attention to the impacts of fisheries subsidies on developing countries, notably in relation to fishing agreements and food sufficiency issues. Subsidies towards fishing access agreements and their impact in developing countries have been examined by Porter (1997), Acheampong (1997), Grynberg (1993), I F R E M E R (1999), Kaczynski and Fluharty (2002) and M w i k y a (2006). Pol icy research conducted in collaboration with the Support Unit for International Fishery and Aquatic Research (SIFAR) has improved our understanding of the implication of subsidies and trade liberalization for four countries including: Guinea, India, Bangladesh and Vietnam (Bostock, et al. 2004). The workshop on overcapacity, overcapitalization and subsidies in European fisheries in Portsmouth, U K in 1998 (see Hatcher and Robinson, 1999), concluded with an assessment of subsidies to the fishery sector and their effect on trade, and resource sustainability. In addition, the international workshop on fishing vessel and license buyback programs in L a Jolla, California in 2004, concluded with numerous case studies on the benefits of decommissioning schemes in general. The workshop also stressed on the need for better design and implementation of such programs for effectiveness fisheries management. Attempts to provide empirical results on the impact of subsidies on fishery resources have been limited both in scope or time. Anderson (1986) showed the impact o f subsidies on the cost and revenue structure in open access fisheries using the static Gordon-Schaefer long run equilibrium model. The underlying theory still holds on the effect o f subsidies even though most fisheries are not open access. Arnason (1999) proposed a model for fishery subsidies impact using a change in profits approach, considered far more effective than the 7 http://www.unep.ch/etb/events/FishMeeting20Q4.php. last accessed 20/06/06. 12 government cost approach. This involves modelling resource and effort dynamics to understand the impact on fish biomass and profits. Chuang and Zhang (1999) reviewed subsidy schemes in Taiwan, and how they relate to fish stock sustainability and trade. Seijo (1999) further suggested exploring the potential effect of subsidies for technological development and gear selectivity and recruitment enhancement technologies, which are all relevant to sustainable fisheries management. The UNEP (2004b) provided a matrix approach of analysing the impact of subsidies on fishery resources using two main parameters, i.e., the degree of exploitation and the management system. However, the data needed in analyzing the impact of subsidies on fishery sustainability requires amongst others, an understanding of the nature and extent of fishery subsidies in different regions. This comprehensive study will contribute significantly to an understanding of the current nature of fishery subsidies, and will provide an estimate of the present magnitude of fishery subsidies worldwide. The results of such an estimate, for each maritime fishing country, in major geographical regions, will be useful for policy reforms toward the reduction of overcapacity in marine fisheries worldwide and for long term socioeconomic development. 2.2 What are fisheries subsidies? The FAO expert consultation on the economic incentives and responsible fisheries failed to come to an agreement on the definition of a fishery subsidy, partly because of conceptual issues relating to policy relevance and effects of subsidies (Steenblik, 1999; Schrank, 2003). Despite conceptual disagreements, the forms of government financial transfers (GFT) or subsidies that were prioritized were compatible with the conventional definition of subsidies espoused by the WTO: capital expansion such as vessel purchase or modernization grants, tax waivers and deferrals, and fish price support programs. According to the Marine Resources Assessment Group-MRAG (2002), fishery subsidies may be given for different reasons depending on the government's policy objectives. Broadly speaking, fishery subsidies are provided for the following reasons: 13 i . To support and develop local fishing industry; i i . To protect employment and to improve income distribution in fishing communities; i i i . To manage the marine environment (Cox and Schmidt, 2003). Fisheries subsidy issues have been o f interest to policymakers because o f the potential impact of subsidies on trade, fishery sector development, social issues and the environment. What to include and exclude, therefore, in terms of the analysis of subsidy programs may change according to the reason for such an analysis (Cox and Schmidt, 2003). This also helps to explain the wide range of aggregated subsidy data that has been put forward by various organizations (Porter, 2002). In economic terms, subsidies may be defined as "a payment by government to consumers or producers which makes the factor cost received by producers greater than the market price charged by producers" (Black, 1997). Schrank and Keithly (1999) defined a subsidy in terms of profits to industry as "any government program that potentially permits the firm to increase its profit through time beyond what they would have been in the absence o f the government program". According to M R A G (2000), producer subsidies may benefit richer groups such as industrialized fishing companies in developed countries at the expense of poorer fishing communities in developing countries. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development ( O E C D ) defines subsidies (GFTs) as the monetary value of government interventions associated with fisheries policies. Here, eight program classifications are recognized: (i) management, research, enforcement and enhancement; (ii) fisheries infrastructure; (iii) investment and modernization of vessels and gear; (iv) tax exemptions; (v) decommissioning of vessels and license retirements; (vi) expenditures to obtain access to other countries E E Z s ; (vii) income support and unemployment insurance, and (viii) other government financial transfers ( O E C D , 2000). The Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation ( A P E C ) describe subsidies as a combination of GFTs and support programs that fall within the auspices o f the Pacific Economic 14 Cooperation Council , with six generic modalities or types: (i) direct assistance to fishers and fisheries workers; (ii) lending support programs; (iii) tax preferences and insurance support programs; (iv) capital and infrastructure support programs; (v) marketing and price support programs; and (vi) fisheries management and conservation programs ( A P E C , 2000). Milazzo (1998) categorized subsidies into budgeted and unbudgeted and further added cross-sectoral subsidies, conservation and resource pricing subsidies to his categories in obtaining a global estimate of U S D 15-20 bil l ion (see Table 1). Table 1: Estimates of global fisheries subsidy by major categories (Milazzo, 1998). Subsidy categories Major types Amount (USD billion) Budgeted Subsidies • Development grants 3.5-4.5 • Domestic • State investment • Foreign access • Market promotion • Price support • Foreign access payments Unbudgeted subsidies • Subsidized loans 6.0-7.0 • Loan guarantees • Loan restructuring • Fuel tax exemptions • Income tax deferral • Accelerated depreciation Conservation subsidies • Vessel/permit buybacks Cross sectoral subsidies • A id to shipbuilders 1.5-2.0 • Targeted infrastructure Resource rent subsidies • User fees 3.0-7.0 Total (USD billion) A l l types 14.0-20.5 Mabawonku (1990) in his analysis of subsidies in West Central Africa, considers subsidies as a means by which certain economic objectives can be achieved in a cost-effective manner. The major types of subsidies identified were: (i) rebate on fishing inputs, (ii) provision of infrastructure, and (iii) fuel subsidies (see Sumaila, et al. 2006a). He argued that in many cases, subsidies and other economic instruments are used in various combinations to achieve specific economic objectives. 15 According to G A T T (1994), subsidies are direct or potentially direct transfers of funds from governments to firms or individuals (e.g. grants, loans, loan guarantees, equity infusions), government revenue foregone (e.g. tax waivers or deferrals), government provision of goods and services other than infrastructure at less than market prices, and government support o f prices and incomes. To be a subsidy the action must confer a benefit on the firm or individual and must be specific to an industry or a group of industries. This definition, however, serves the purpose o f setting a standard for fair international trade. There are two schools of thought on the impacts of subsidies which concern economists. One is the 'injury-only' school, which addresses the concerns from subsidized trade, and the other is the 'antidistortion' school, which focuses on the inefficient consequences of government interventions (Hufbauer and Erb, 1984). According to the W W F (2001), determining the definition of 'fishing subsidy' is not a policy-neutral exercise, especially in the context of growing debate over calls for subsidy reforms. Broadly defined in environmental terms, subsidies include all government support to the fishing industry that may play a significant role in encouraging overfishing. However, the most comprehensive and widely accepted definition with a legal standing is that given by the W T O ( G A T T , 1994). 2.3 Subsidies identified and classified There is no single criterion for classifying fishery subsidies; the various categories (Milazzo, 1998; O E C D , 2000; A P E C , 2000) overlap considerably depending on the nature of the subsidy and the purpose of classification. The complexity of this issue is based on the fact that there is no single agreement on what a subsidy is or how its effect can be measured. Subsides, support programs, financial support, economic assistance, and government financial transfers are just five of the most commonly used names for payments that governments provide to the fisheries sector. 16 The following guidelines were useful in identifying and assessing subsidies: (i) policy objective of the subsidy; (ii) subsidy program descriptions; (iii) scope, coverage and duration; (iv) annual USD amounts; (v) sources of funding; (vi) administering authority; (vii) recipients, and (viii) the mechanisms of transfer (FAO, 2003b; Westlund, 2004). The objective criterion for the classification of a subsidy in this study lies in the potential impact on the sustainability of the fishery resource. The effect of a subsidy, however, depends on the status of the fishery and the management system in place. According to Munro and Sumaila (2002), economists have now come to regard fishery resources, like all other natural resources, as natural capital. A set of fishery resources in a particular region can be viewed as a portfolio of natural capital assets capable of yielding a stream of economic benefits (both market and non-market) to society through time. If natural capital is renewable then one can within limits engage in 'investment' in the natural capital assets, such as refraining from harvesting and allowing the resource to rebuild to a biological optimum. Similarly, one can also engage in 'disinvestment' in the natural resource, for example, through activities such as biological and economic overfishing that take the fishery resource away from its optimal use. Based on this theory three categories of subsidies can be identified: (i) 'good' subsidies, (ii) 'bad' subsidies, and (iii) 'ugly' subsidies. 2.3.1 Good subsidies 'Good subsidies' are programs that lead to investment in natural capital assets to a social optimum, which is defined here as the maximum allocation of natural resources to society as a whole, i.e., by maximizing economic rent. Good subsidies enhance the growth of fish stocks through conservation, and the monitoring of catch rates through control and surveillance measures to achieve a biological optimal use. Good subsidies are made up of the following two types: i. Fisheries management programs and services: These are subsidy programs to ensure that publicly-owned fisheries resources are appropriately managed and that regulations are enforced (OECD, 2005). Sub categories include: (a) monitoring, control and surveillance programs, (b) stock assessment and resource surveys, (c) 17 fishery habitat enhancement programs, (d) implementation and maintenance of M P A s , and (e) stock enhancement programs, i i . Fishery research and development (R&D): These are subsidy programs geared towards improving methods for fish catching and processing, and other strategies that enhance the fishery resource base through scientific and technological breakthroughs. Sub categories include: (a) fishery frame surveys, (b) oceanographic studies, (c) fishery socio-economic studies, (d) fishery planning and implementation, (e) setting fishery information systems, (f) creating database and statistical bulletin supportive of fishery management plans, and (f) setting up marine protected areas ( M P A ) and reserves. Fisheries management programs and services have been questioned on the basis that the services mostly benefits the private sector, and not the public, i.e., the rightful owners of marine resources ( W W F , 2001). However, most countries have justified it as their sovereign right to manage and conserve their marine resources within their E E Z s as espoused under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea ( U N C L O S , 1980). 2.3.2 Bad subsidies 'Bad subsidies' are defined as subsidy programs that lead to disinvestments in natural capital assets once the fishing capacity develops to a point where resource exploitation exceeds the Maximum Economic Y i e l d ( M E Y ) . This is equal to the maximum rent obtainable from the fishery, computed as the largest positive difference of total cost and total revenues. A s such, M E Y corresponds to an effort level lower than the maximum sustainable yield ( M S Y ) . Excessive disinvestment can lead in some cases to outright destruction of the natural resources (Bjorndal and Munro, 1998). Fishery economics theory holds that, in an open access fisheries, in which fishing cost is assumed to be proportional to fishing effort, effort w i l l continue to increase even though revenues per unit of effort are declining, and that ultimately revenues w i l l decline until they equal costs (Gordon, 1954). The point at which total revenue equals total cost is commonly 18 regarded as the bionomic equilibrium (BE), where both industry profits and resource rents have been completely dissipated (Figure 2). With subsidies, the fishing effort can actually exceed E3 (Sumaila, 2002). E 2 E 3 Fishing effort (E) Figure 2: Gordon Schaefer bioeconomic model (Gordon, 1954). Figure 3 demonstrates that subsidies that lower cost from T C i to TC2, w i l l also lower the bionomic equilibrium from B E i to B E 2 , thus encouraging the growth of fishing effort from E 3 E 4 Fishing effort (E) Figure 3: Schematic representation of how subsidies induce overfishing (see text). 19 Bad subsidies include all forms of capital inputs and infrastructure investments from public sources that reduce cost or enhance revenue and include the following types: i . Boat construction, renewal and modernization programs: These support programs include lending programs below market rate and geared toward fishing vessel construction, renewal and modernization such as loan guarantees, restructuring and other lending programs. This subsidy type also involves support programs to enhance fishing technology from public funds for fishing enterprises, parastatals and firms; i i . Fishing port construction and renovation programs: These support programs include public funds toward the provision of fish landing site infrastructures, port improvements for fishing fleets ( A P E C , 2000), harbor maintenance, jetty and landing facilities and low or free moorage for fishing fleets; i i i . Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs: These are support programs towards market interventions such as export promotion, value addition and price support. They also include infrastructure investment programs from public funds toward processing and storage of fishery products and fish auction facilities; iv. Fishery development projects and support services: These are support programs towards fisheries enterprises development. It also includes support programs such as the provision of institutional support and services, the provision of baits, and search and rescue programs. The nature and sources for such support programs are diverse and includes development grants and concession credit either from national sources or through bilateral and multilateral assistance programs; v. Tax exemptions: These are subsidy programs for investment in the fisheries sector that have a direct impact on profits such as rebates and other government-funded insurance support programs including: (a) income tax deferral for fishers; (b) crew insurance ( O E C D , 2004); (c) duty free imports o f fishing inputs; (d) vessel insurance programs, and (e) other economic incentive programs; v i . Foreign access agreements: This program entails a combination of one of the following: (a) explicit monetary transfer; (b) the transfer o f fishing technology, and (c) the provision of market access in another fishing country ( O E C D , 2005). Out of 20 these varied combinations, three types of access agreements can be identified worldwide: (i) reciprocal access; (ii) access for trade agreements, and (iii) access fees for third country agreements (Milazzo, 1998). The aggregate impact of subsidies that enhance overcapacity and overfishing through increased revenues or profits is to further stimulate effort and compound resource overexploitation problems (Milazzo, 1998). Certain types of subsidies therefore create incentives for overfishing under certain management conditions (Munro and Sumaila, 2002). 2.2.3 Ugly subsidies 'Ug ly subsidies' are defined as programs that have the potential to lead to either investment or disinvestment in the fishery resource. These subsidy programs can lead to positive impacts such as resource enhancement programs or to negative impacts such as resource overexploitation. Subsidies in this category include controversial ones such as fisher assistance programs, vessel buyback programs and rural fisher community development programs: i . Fisher assistance programs: These are payments to fishers to stop fishing temporarily or to ensure income during bad times. These subsidies can also be given due to a lack of alternative employment opportunities in regions where fishing is the main activity ( O E C D , 2005). This subsidy type could be revenue enhancing from government budgets and increase community dependence on government funds; or may reduce fishing pressure through retraining programs into other economic sectors. They include the following types: (a) income support programs; (b) unemployment insurance; (c) worker adjustment programs, and (d) fisher retraining, and other direct payments to fishers; i i . Vessel buybacks programs: These are fishing capacity reduction programs including two types: (a) permit buybacks, and (b) license retirements. These subsidies reduce fishing pressure and foster resource management goals; however their effectiveness has been seriously questioned (Holland et al. 1999; Munro and Sumaila, 2002; Clark et al. 2005); 21 i i i . Rural fishers' community development programs: These consist of programs that are geared towards rural fisher development with an overall objective of poverty alleviation and food sufficiency. These programs include multiple stakeholder participation within local communities involving cooperatives, with assistance from donor agencies and N G O s for integrated livelihood development policy objectives. Despise such development policy objectives, a number o f fisheries development donor consultations8 have concluded that projects concentrated on enhancing productive capacity in developing countries are contributing to overcapacity, and with poor rate o f management success (SIFR, 1992). In summary, three categories of subsidies with eleven program types are identified globally in this study: A . 'Good subsidies' • Fisheries management programs and services; • Fishery research and development. B . 'Bad subsidies' • Tax exemption programs; • Foreign access agreements; • Boat construction renewal and modernization programs; • Fishing port construction and renovation programs; • Fishery development projects and support services; • Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. C. 'Ug ly subsidies' • Fisher assistance programs; • Vessel buyback programs; and • Rural fishers' community development programs. http://www.onefish.org/global/archive/sifar/onefish.htrn. last accessed 12/08/06. 22 Although fuel tax rebates can be classified as a sub category of tax exemption, this study does not consider subsidies towards vessel fuel usage, which have recently been estimated at about U S D 6.5 bi l l ion by Sumaila et al. (2006a). 23 C H A P T E R 3: M E T H O D O L O G Y F O R C O M P U T I N G SUBSIDY E S T I M A T E S 3.1 Data collection and compilation Information was recorded on 144 coastal countries for the eleven fishery subsidy types identified in this study. Overseas territories of European countries, whatever their legal status are not included in this study 9 e.g. St. Martinique, St Helena Island, etc. Within a matrix framework, quantitative data was collected and recorded in each cell for any given country and subsidy type, and summed to provide subsidy category totals. The coastal countries were grouped (using the U N D P Human Development Index-HDI) into two categories: developed (Group I) and developing (Group II) countries. The H D I 1 0 is a composite index that measures a country's development by taking into account three basic components o f human development: (i) longevity; (ii) knowledge; and (iii) standard o f living. Longevity is a measure of life expectancy, knowledge is measured by a combination of adult literacy (two-thirds weight) and mean years of schooling (one-third weight), and standard of l iving is measured by real G D P per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP). Countries with H D I scores ranging from 0.80-1.00 were classified as Group I, and those with H D I scores from 0.00-0.79 were classified as Group II. Some adjustments were made to this general rule, i.e., Russia, China and Taiwan with H D I of less than 0.80 were nonetheless assigned to the Group I category. This is due to their highly developed industrial fishery sectors and high public expenditures in this sector. This step lessened problems of outliers in statistical estimations for the two country groupings. Similarly, countries such as Trinidad and Tobago, Cuba, and Uruguay with H D I scores greater than 0.80 but with less developed fishery sectors were placed in Group II. Out of the 144 coastal countries, 38 9 The reason is that the landings are summed up under the major countries within 'territorial EEZs' in the Sea Around Us Project database, from which landed values were obtained. For example, landings from the Azores and the Madeira Islands are grouped under Portugal. For each coastal country, four types of landings were considered (i) from their own EEZs (ii) from their territories' EEZs (iii) landings from other countries' EEZs (iv) from the high seas. 1 0 http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2003/pdf/hdr03 HDl.pdf Last accessed 12/06/06. 24 countries were categorized in Group I (developed) and the remaining 106 countries were categorized in Group II (developing). Sumaila et al. (2006a) used the same categorization, and hence their fuel subsidy estimates can be added to those presented here by categories. Fishery subsidy data were compiled mainly from secondary sources in the primary and grey literature including newspaper articles. Internet web resources and search tools were also widely utilized. The study targeted information on the major fishing nations around the world in all six F A O fishery regions (Africa, As ia , Europe, North America, Oceania, South and Central America plus Caribbean). They were obtained mainly through the publications of intergovernmental organizations and multilateral agencies. The first step was targeted at developed countries' fisheries subsidy statistics available from intergovernmental agencies. The next effort was targeted at developing countries statistics through publications of multilateral agencies such as the F A O and U N E P , intergovernmental organizations such as C A R I C O M , and at individual country levels. Data were obtained from the following major sources: (a) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development ( O E C D , 2000; 2004; 2005); (b) Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation ( A P E C , 2000); (c) European Commission (www.europa.eu); (d) Food and Agricultural Organization o f the United Nations (FAO) , web resources on sections that dealt with 'a id ' and 'international cooperation' under specific country profiles and 'investment' or 'subsidies' under the fisheries management information link for any given country (www.fao.org); (e) national fisheries department web links, financial and budgetary reports, and fishery reports and documents; (f) the web resources of the Support for International Fisheries and Aquatic Research, now known as the 'onefish' community directory program (www.onefish.org); (g) United Nations Environment Program reports ( U N E P , 2002; 2003; 2004b); (h) regional financial institution portfolios such as the African Development Bank; (i) overseas development project reports on fishery issues such as the U K ' s Department for International Development (DFID); (j) World Trade Organization (WTO) trade notifications; and (ix) N G O reports on marine issues such as W W F (2001). 25 According to Insull and Orzeszko (1991), international assistance in fisheries is provided in the form of capital aid or technical assistance from bilateral cooperation, multilateral donors and regional financial development banks. Thus, for developing countries, fisheries subsidies were identified from both domestic and international sources, and data was collected from both the subsidy providers and the recipients. 3.2 Analysis of collected data A database of ten subsidy types identified for 144 coastal countries engaged in fishing activity in the year 2000 was created, spanning 1995 to 2005. Even though this is a static analysis for the year 2000, for countries for which year 2000 data was not available, the closest available data within the period 1995 to 2005 was used. The data from years prior or after 2000 were normalized to constant 2000 U S dollars by applying the consumer price index (CPI), extracted from the International Financial Statistics website". The estimate for the magnitude of fishery subsidies is therefore a static estimate, with the eleven year information used explicitly for data gaps. For each data cell entry within the matrix, comments were provided on the year or duration of the subsidy program, the source(s) of information, the nature of the subsidy program, and the subsidy recipients. For each country where a subsidy was provided with information on the amount and duration, the absolute annual amounts in United States dollars (USD) were recorded in the database. This information is referred to as 'known subsidy amounts'. In the O E C D (2004) report, from which subsidy amounts were obtained, the government financial transfer (GFT) categories were reclassified under the eleven types of subsidies identified in the study. The values o f the G F T from this report were converted from O E C D member countries' local currency to U S D . This study focuses on marine capture fisheries only, and subsidies within other fishery sectors such as aquaculture and inland capture fisheries were not considered. " http://pacific.commerce.ubc.ca/ifs/, last accessed 28/06/04. 26 Several steps were taken to normalize the available data: (a) subsidy programs towards capital cost such as infrastructure were annualized by considering depreciation costs ( i f available), or by using World Bank statistics; (b) subsidy programs towards fishery projects were assumed to last five years i f the project cycle was not provided; (c) subsidy programs in the form of concession loans were calculated on the basis of forgone interest rate. For instance, the African Development Fund of the African Development Bank provides interest-free loans for artisanal fishery rural development projects, fisheries harbor complexes and fish markets. The real subsidy benefit were calculated as the market cost of the loan less the total cost o f subsidized loan which is estimated at 4%-5% o f the principal loan amount. This estimate however, depends on available information on subsidized lending such as: (i) the subsidization rate; (ii) the amount of reduced interest rate; (iii) the time of maturities associated with government-guaranteed loans; and (iv) the amount of forgiven loans. According to Milazzo (1998), in the absence of such information, 10% of the principal amount is a better measure of benefits for all subsidized lending. The 10% rule by Milazzo (1998) is applied when information on subsidized loans was not available. Three types of data cell entries can be found in the matrix worksheets: (i) cell entries with annual subsidy figures, i.e., known amounts; (ii) cell entries where subsidies are known to exist but without actual figures; and (iii) cell entries where information was not available. Out of the 144 countries under investigation, subsidy information (both qualitative and quantitative) was collected for 141 countries ranging from one to all ten subsidy types identified above. Croatia, Lebanon and the Democratic Republic o f Congo had no information on fishery subsidies, and they were assumed not to provide any. The total available subsidy amounts for the ten identified subsidy types (excluding fishing access agreements), was U S D 11.0 billion. Data were mostly obtained from developed countries, amounting to about 85% of the collected information. Developed countries also contributed about 60% of global total landed values in year 2000. The bulk of the information from developing countries was qualitative, (i.e., with unknown amounts), for which estimates are provided below (see section 3.3). 27 Payments for fishing access are provided by only a few countries, mostly the E U , U S A and some Asian countries, including Japan, China, Taiwan and South Korea. The most significant is the European Union- Africa Caribbean and Pacific Counties ( E U - A C P ) fishing agreement, which involves lump sum payments from the E U to the African Caribbean and Pacific states. Other kinds of payments from the U S and Japan included access fees for tuna fishing fleets to the Pacific Island States. M R A G (2000) reported that the E U devotes one third of its budget to these agreements, resulting in a subsidy of some U S D 400 mil l ion in total. These foreign agreements are funded mainly for the benefit o f Spanish, French and Portuguese fleets (see Mi lazzo , 1998). Spain has been particularly successful with E U assistance subsidies for joint ventures, with over 250 vessels in 22 countries with production reaching 190,000 tons ( M R A G , 2000). The E U lump sum payments to its member countries are pro rated by L V with about 60% of the amount to Spain, France and Portugal and the remaining 40% to the rest of the E U membership. The known subsidy amounts for fishing access payments are about three quarter bi l l ion (Milazzo, 1998), which was scaled up to about a bi l l ion considering other payments from Russia, China, U S A , Taiwan and South Korea (Milazzo, 1998; M R A G , 2000; Mwikya , 2006). 3.3 Filling the data gaps Out of the 1152 cell entries 1 2 within the global subsidy matrix worksheets, 22% are known subsidy data entries (252 cells), and 34% of the data cell entries were qualitative with unknown quantities (396 cells). The remaining 44% were cell entries where subsidy information was not available (504 cells). Given this absence o f information, the 504 data cells were assigned zero amounts, i.e., the assumption was made that subsidies were not provided. Estimates were computed for the 396 data cell entries where subsidies were reported, but with unknown amounts (Figure 4). 1 2 Data entries for fisher assistance programs and vessel buybacks are limited to Group I countries and rural community fishery development program entries was limited to Group II countries; thereby excluding 288 data cell entries with no information. 28 Rural fish, community programs Fish. dev. projects & services Fisher assistance Vessel buybacks Tax exemptions Market./process./storage infrastruct. Fish, port construct. & renovation Boat construct. & modernization Fisheries R&D Fish, mngt programs & services • Developing countries • Devebped countries 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Total number of countries for which data were estimated Figure 4: Number o f data cells for which subsidy estimates were computed. For each country with annual subsidy amount, a ratio of the known subsidy amount to the country's total landed value ( L V ) was obtained. The expressed ratio of subsidy amount per L V was then averaged for each group of countries, i.e., developed (Group I) and developing countries (Group II) to obtain a group mean. The group mean for each subsidy type was noted, and used for the data cells where subsidies were reported, but with unknown amounts. Here, subsidies were estimated as the group mean multiplied by the 2000 L V for the country in question. The L V for the year 2000 is obtained from the Sea Around Us project database1 3. The L V data is computed as the ex-vessel price multiplied by the country landings (see Sumaila et al. 2006b). The magnitude of global fishery subsidies is the sum of the data cell entries for both the known subsidy amounts and the estimates for the unknown amounts. http://www.seaaroundus.org/eez/eez.aspx Last accessed July 13th, 2006. 29 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Global total estimate of fisheries subsidies The total magnitude of fishery subsidies in marine capture fisheries was estimated at U S D 25.7 bil l ion for the eleven types of subsidies identified, excluding fuel subsidies. Table 2 shows that more than half of the total estimated subsidies were provided by developed countries (USD 13.4 billion), with the rest being provided by developing countries (USD 12.3 billion). The zeroes in brackets in Table 2 are subsidies for which data were not available, and which were assumed to be zero. Table 2: Global fisheries subsidy estimates per year in bi l l ion (10 9) U S D . S u b s i d y p r o g r a m t ypes D e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s D e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s G l o b a l t o t a l ( b i l l i o n U S D ) Fisheries management programs and services 1.2 5.0 6.2 Fisheries research and development 0.4 0.5 0.9 Boat construction, renewal and modernization programs 0.8 1.2 2.0 Fishing port construction and renovation programs 4.6 0.7 5.3 Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs 1.5 1.0 2.5 Tax exemption programs 0.6 0.5 1.2 Fishing access agreements (0) 1.0 1.0 Vessel buyback programs (0) 0.9 0.9 Fisher assistance programs (0) 2.1 2.1 Fishery development projects and support services 2.2 0.4 2.6 Rural fishers community development programs 0.9 (0) 0.9 T o t a l ( U S D b i l l i o n ) 12.3 13.4 25.7 Table 2 also shows that, subsidies towards vessel buyback programs, fishing access agreements and fisher assistance programs were provided by developed countries only. Likewise, rural fishers' community development programs are provided in developing 30 countries only. Developed countries contributed about 80% to the estimated amount for fisheries management programs and services (USD 5 billion). Boat construction, renovation and modernization programs in developed countries contributed about 60% of the program total amounting to U S D 1.2 bil l ion. The results further shows that developing countries provided appreciable amounts towards fishing port construction and renovation programs, about 86% of the program totals of about U S D 4.6 bill ion. Fishery development projects and support services from developing countries contributed significantly as well , about 85% to the global total of U S D 2.6 bill ion (USD 2.2 billion). This result is well supported by Insull and Orzeszko (1991), who reported earlier on management type aid to the fishery sector in developing countries. This included capital aid projects and technical assistance provided and coordinated by multilateral agencies, international development agencies and regional development banks. A t present, these wide ranging donor funded fishery development program activities can be located at a number of web resources including the O E C D 1 4 , the D F I D 1 5 and the 'onefish' web portal 1 6 . The results from this study also confirms that capital aid programs usually involve loans or direct financial inputs for vessel and equipments, fishery infrastructure including ports and processing facilities, and support programs towards fishery development enterprises. Technical assistance includes diverse support programs such as grants towards fishery development projects and production enhancing technologies, institutional infrastructure, technical resources and capacity building geared towards fisheries research and development, and technical advice for fisheries management. A s illustrated in Figure 5, the U S D 26 bi l l ion subsidy estimate in this study, complemented by the U S D 6.5 bil l ion fuel estimates by Sumaila et al. (2006b), is nicely bracketed by earlier global estimates. Mi lazzo ' s (1998) estimate of U S D 20 bi l l ion was probably on the low side, and the F A O ' s (1992) estimate of U S D 54 bil l ion, was generally assumed to be too high by most fisheries practitioners. 1 4 http://www.oecd.ore/dataoecd/50/17/5Q37721.htm. last accessed 25/08/09. 1 5 http://www.fmsti.org.uk/fmsp/faces/Logout.isp. last accessed 25/08/09. '^ ttp /^www.onefish.org/global/index.isp , last accessed 25/08/06. 31 60 g s Q W g c ro >• n a Fuel All except fuel FAO (1992) This study Milazzo (1998) Figure 5: A comparison of global fisheries subsidy estimates. 4.2 Fisheries subsidy estimates by categories The result of the subsidy estimates by categories is illustrated by Figure 6. Subsidies in the 'bad' category are the highest, amounting to USD 15 billion, with 65% of the global total provided in developing countries. 'Good' subsidies are the next highest in total amount (USD 7 billion), mostly given in developed countries. 'Ugly' subsidies are by far the least (USD 4 billion), with 75% also provided in developed countries. 16 « 14 • o 12 Q W 2. io </> s ra 8 • Developed countries • Developing countries The Good The Bad The Ugly Figure 6: Fishery subsidy estimates by categories. 32 Appendix 1 details country estimates of good, bad and ugly subsidies by regions, with country subsidy intensity provided, i.e. subsidy as a percentage o f landed value ( L V ) . 4.2.1 Good subsidies The total amount of good subsidies was estimated at U S D 7.1 bi l l ion, as the sum of two subsidies types: fisheries management and services, and fisheries research and development. The results for the good subsidies amounts reflects on the fact that in most developing countries with limited budgets, subsidies are obtained for fisheries management (including enforcement) and research and development mostly through international assistance programs. This is demonstrated by numerous international fishery research and management programs, such as the R / V Dr Fridtjof Nansen Resource Surveys. This program jointly funded by N O R A D and F A O have conducted regional fish stock assessments spanning three decades in several developing countries in Asia , Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean (Saetersdal et al. 1999). This study has established that a very large number of countries (about 95% worldwide) provided some form of management subsidies to their fishing sectors (see Appendix 2, subsidy program compendium). With major commercial fish stocks in decline ( F A O , 2004) and an increase in international trade of fishery products (Vannunccini, 2003), there is an increasing and concerted effort towards fisheries management and conservation programs, research and development globally (Hempel and Pauly, 2002). The notion that public management of fisheries can be a subsidy has generated significant debate among economists and policy makers, due to the role of the public sector in managing fishery resources as a public good, and transferring management cost to the private sector ( W W F , 2001). It is widely believed that subsidizing an open access fishery resource by reducing operational cost leads to overexploitation of the resource, but with negligible resource consequences in a privatized fishery (Sumaila, 2003). The argument for and against subsidies under privatized fishery has been widely debated (see Clark et al. 2005). Nonetheless, Mi lazzo (1998) commended user fees on fishery resources as a form of good 33 subsidy, i.e., resource rent subsidies, since natural resources are typically under priced and overexploited. This is justified on the basis that user groups should meet the recovery cost of resource use and collateral environmental impacts. In some countries such as New Zealand and Iceland, user fees are instrumental in recovering government's expense in managing the fishery. In Australia, about 2.5% of landed value is levied on domestic fishers operating in marine fisheries, whilst in Canada; the rate is about 5% o f landed value for fisheries managed with individual quotas. Furthermore, Clark et al. (2006) suggested the use of right-based schemes in conjunction with taxes for effective fisheries management. The challenge however, lies in developing broad rules by which management cost can be recovered from resource users. 4.2.2 Bad subsidies The total amount estimated for the six subsidy types under the bad subsidy category was U S D 15 bil l ion, with fishing port construction and renovation programs contributing up to 36% (USD 5.3 billion), next to fishery development projects and support services amounting to 18% (USD 2.6 billion) as shown in Table 3. Table 3: Estimate of bad subsidy types. Amounts Bad Subsidy types (billion USD) (%) Boat construction, renewal and modernization programs 2(14) Fishing port construction and renovation programs 5(36) Marketing, processing and storage infrastructure programs 3(17) Tax exemption programs 1(8) Fishing access agreements 1(7) Fishery development projects and services 3(18) Total 15 (100) The fisheries subsidy debate has been topical because of the concern that some subsidies aggravate the management of fishery resources by increasing fishing capacity to an unsustainable level (Milazzo, 1998; Munro and Sumaila, 2002; Pauly, 2005). A build up of 34 excess fleet capacity generally results in economic waste and undermines the capacity of resource managers to manage fish resources sustainably (Sumaila, 2003). F A O (2001) further illustrates the effect of subsidies on fishery profits using case studies in specific fisheries from both developing and developed countries. The findings showed that within the European Union and India, almost all types o f vessels which received subsidies would also have been profitable without subsidies. The subsidies played a role, however, in significantly increasing their earnings and profitability, thus encouraging participation. In South Korea, the situation was ambivalent, while in Thailand, vessels that received tax exemptions on fuel required that exemption in order to make profits. The now largely abandoned 2004 European Commission ban on subsidies for more powerful engines was a significant move towards sustainable management of fishery resources. The reform sought to restrict modernization or investment to the whole vessel except for the sole purpose of safety on decks. Gear replacement or renovations programs were to be funded within the context of recovery plans only, or in improving gear selectivity and in meeting sustainable environmental criteria. However, these reforms are undergoing a wave of disproval because of two new developments: (i) enlargement of the E U membership and the needs of new members in securing E U benefits in the areas of fisheries subsidies, and (ii) a worsening economic situation due to increasing fuel prices, eroding the viability of an industry already weakened by overcapacity and depleted stocks (Coffey, 2006). Most of the disapproval comes from a pro-subsidy coalition including France, Spain, Italy, Greece, Portugal, and two new members Poland and Estonia. This new group also known as the 'friends of fishers' have successfully requested aid to support engine replacements and general modernization. Moreover, a new proposal by some member states to outright reverse the 2002 E U subsidy reform that prohibits public aid to joint ventures and the exports of vessels to third countries is far more troubling; as this has been a turning point in phasing out damaging subsidies within both the W S S D and the W T O contexts (Coffey, 2006). Certain types of subsidies such as vessel construction, renovation and modernization are contingent on countries that have a long history o f industrial development (Milazzo, 1998). It is predominantly governments in the North that can afford to subsidize fisheries (Sumaila, 35 2003), both locally within their E E Z s and internationally as distant water fleets (Hempel and Pauly, 2002). According to W T O notification, six countries provided over U S $ 8.4 bil l ion in aid to the shipbuilding sector in 1996, and in 1997 eight countries reported almost US$ 4.5 bil l ion as shown in Table 4 ( W W F , 2001). Table 4: W T O ship building notifications 1996-1997 in U S D mil l ion ( W W F , 2001). Country 1996 1997 Australia 19 17 Belgium Not reported 2 Germany 500 99 Italy Not reported 676 Japan 6,893 3,553 Norway 191 92 Portugal Not reported 13 Spain 503 Not reported United Kingdom 302 8 Total (million USD) 8,408 4,460 There are three impacts of subsidies from the North on fish and fishers in the South: (i) they tend to distort prices and/or costs of fishing in favor of fishers in the North, with a consequent uncompetitive market; (ii) decommissioned vessels in the North posed a threat of vessel transfer to the South with fear of resource overexploitation and a threatened fisher livelihood; and (iii) the purchase of access rights by governments in the North is a subsidy that has negative consequences on the resource biomass and food security of people in the South (Sumaila, 2003). The results from this study shows that fishing access payments for distant water fleets (DWF) are provided by only a handful o f countries but with a significant share of world catches, including the E U , Japan, Russia, Korea, Taiwan, China and the U S A , amounting to about a bi l l ion U S D (see Table 5). The access payments are in the form of (i) bilateral access such as the E U - A C P agreement, which involved financial compensation for a defined quantity o f a specified fishery species. The E U also administers several joint ventures programs, and 'trade for access' arrangements to developing countries for preferential access to markets for various fishery products. In addition to these, Argentina signed a 36 second generation agreement with the E U , which allows quota access to E U vessels in Argentinean E E Z (Mwikya , 2006); (ii) the U S has negotiated the only multilateral tuna fisheries access agreements with seventeen pacific island countries. In 2003, the annual fee was U S D 21 mil l ion for approximately 16 purse seiners. About 86% o f this amount is disbursed from the State Department and the 14% comes from the American Tuna Association (Mwikya, 2006); (iii) The Japanese and other far eastern distant water fleets from Korea, China and Taiwan usually fish under private access agreements with payments from the private sector organizations, as joint ventures or payments made in the form of aid from the governments. These payments are based on the amount o f catch reported at specific ports, and the payments are often not disclosed. Milazzo (1998) reported payments from Japan towards D W F and securing fishing rights in developing countries to the tune of about U S D 200 mill ion. China also continues its D W F and high seas fisheries policy with payments in the North pacific, Indian Oceans, off Western Afr ica and recently in the Caribbean (Milazzo, 1998; Bonfi l et al. 1998) Table 5: Fishing access subsidy payments for 18 fishing nations. Access subsidies amounts Country (USD '000) (%) Japan 200,000 (20) China 193,418(19) Spain 124,910(12) France 100,090 (10) Russia 70,878 (7) Denmark 48,736 (5) Portugal 45,000 (5) Korea 43,606 (4) United Kingdom 36,112(4) Iceland 25,523 (3) Italy 22,937 (2) Taiwan 21,098(2) US 21,000 (2) Netherlands 14,953 (1) Ireland 10,723 (1) Greece 7,041 (1) Germany 6,274 (1) Sweden 4,679 (~0) Belgium 1,726 (~0) Finland 1,297 (~0) Total ('000 USD) 1,000,000 (100) 37 Fishing access subsidies are not only subsidies under the terms of the W T O agreement, but also effectively contribute to the transfer of excessive fishing capacity from Northern to Southern waters, and probably undermine the economic and conservation interests of coastal developing countries. Fishing access agreements pretend to reconcile trade and aid, but have barely contributed to the developments to the local fishing industries o f the coastal states (Milazzo, 1998). These arrangements can be of mutual long-term benefit only i f it is effectively enforced and measures are in place to ensure compliance (Atta-Mills et al. 2004). Most of the E U agreements signed with West African states, nonetheless, do not contain catch quotas for E U vessels and this usually results in resource overexploitation (Kaczynski and Fluharty, 2002). Between 1992 and 2000 E U companies signed 152 joint ventures involving 241 boats, representing about 88,319 G R T ; these deals were highly subsidized by the E U . H a l f of these companies were Spanish, and the rest were Portuguese, Italian, Greek, French and Danish. A s of 2000, these vessels were fishing in the waters of 28 countries; 77% of them in Africa, 22% in South and Central America and 1% in Europe ( C O F R E P E C H E , 2000). Bonfi l et al. (1998) using Senegal and Mauritania to exemplify the problem of transfer of protein and wealth from developing countries to relatively rich D W F nations; estimated that over 80% of the catch was taken by D W F nations from 1950 to 1994. Fishery subsidies provided in developing countries are going through a transition from 'capture component', i.e., poorly managed, state controlled semi- industrial fisheries, to 'export stimulating mechanisms' ( U N E P , 2002). According to Mi lazzo (1998), in developing countries, where government agencies responsible for fisheries generally have modest budgets, it appears that the bulk of subsidies are provided in the form of subsidized loans and tax breaks. Lately, in the 1990s, the emphasis has been on management aid and technical assistance programs in value adding and quality control, as shown by the results of this study and confirmed by other reports (see F A O , 2003c). This could also justify the huge investments in capital infrastructure and marketing programs, from both domestic and international sources. 38 4.2.3 Ugly subsidies The total estimate o f ugly subsidies worldwide is about U S D 4.0 bi l l ion, with fisher assistance programs in developed countries contributing more than 50%. Fisher assistance programs, though applauded for their social welfare objectives in many instances, have also been criticized for their role in creating a subsidy-dependent community, with alternative suggestions for fisher retraining programs. The argument against fisher assistance programs is that it encourages fishers to stay in the fishing industry rather than leave it and diversify into other economic activities (Schrank, 2003). The impact of such subsidies is basically to artificially raise the price of harvested fish or reduce the cost of fishing (Munro and Sumaila, 2002). Subsidy policies that are directed either implicitly and/or explicitly at social objectives need to be analyzed to ensure that they do not hamper the effective management of fish stocks ( O E C D , 2005). The policies should at least be coherent and mutually supportive for sustainable resource management. With the decline of fisheries within the North Atlantic (Pauly and Mclean, 2003) and grossly overcapitalized global fleets (Greboval, 1999), vessel buyback programs are generally regarded as good subsidies due to their capacity reduction goals (Milazzo, 1998). Buyback programs were estimated close to a bi l l ion U S D and provided only by developed countries. These programs though with good intent in reducing fishing capacity, have been criticized for their ineffectiveness as the fishing capacity usually seeps back into the fishery over time (Cunningham and Greboval, 2001; Holland et al. 1999; Clark et al. 2005). Munro and Sumaila (2002) also pointed out that buybacks can be good when not anticipated by fishers, but bad when anticipated because fishers w i l l accumulate effort in anticipation, thereby neutralizing the expected benefits. Furthermore, there is the general fear of a 'spillover effect' o f vessels from one fishery to another either in the high seas or as distant water fleets into other E E Z s (Munro, 1998). It has been reported that vessels decommissioned from the Canadian cod fishery, for e.g., were transferred to Argentinean waters ( U N E P , 2003). 39 The E U for instance has developed sets of criteria and sustainability reference points for sustainable vessel buyback programs including: (i) an entry/exit ratio for the introduction of new vessels o f 1 to 1; (ii) vessel buybacks supported by public aid non-replaceable; and (iii) for any new vessels over 100 G R T built with public aid, the entry/exit ratio should be 1 to 1.35 to counter technological advancement 1 7. However, E U common fishing policy rules are often poorly enforced and monitored, resulting in breaches and infringements 1 8 and the export o f fishing capacity to other countries (Milazzo, 1998). According to C O F R E P E C H E (2000), from 1992 to 2000, Kenya, Guinea Conakry and Angola had about 110%, 96% and 85% increase in G R T respectively, due to vessels imported as a result o f E U joint venture agreements. A n earlier common fisheries policy (CFP) Regulation (2371/2002) sought to strengthen the link between fleet management and public aid but without any success. This was because monitoring and control was ineffective, and aid was conditional upon compliance with reference points. With recent developments in the C F P such as vessel modernization, it appears that the E U may be stepping from some of the key subsidy reforms committed to a few years ago (Coffey, 2006). Case study analysis in West Central Africa by Mabawonku (1990) demonstrated that fishery subsidies can achieve specific economic objectives, such as increasing income through the reduction of input prices (mainly for food) and the provision of infrastructure and services, such as extension and training. It is important from a sustainability perspective, to assess subsidies in small scale fisheries that would be directly 'capacity-enhancing' and to distinguish it from other subsidy types without such effects (Schorr, 2005). Rural fisher community development programs in developing countries are synonymous to fisher assistance programs in developed countries; however, the major difference is that the former has livelihood program activities integrated within coastal communities. In several developing countries, excess capacity in the form of human capital or labor is likely to be more significant than capital in the form of fleets, particularly where barriers to labor mobility are commonplace (Clark et al. 2005). This is further exacerbated by 1 7 htto://www.fao.org/fi/fcD/en/GBrVbodv.htrri, last accessed 18/06/06. l8http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do last accessed 12/08/06. 40 intergenerational shift into fishing activities from other sectors (Tietze et al. 2000), and the lack of access to alternative income generating activities in several coastal communities. Subsidy support programs in such circumstances are regarded as unsustainable i f they promote indiscriminate gear use by coastal fishers (Pauly et al. 1989; C E C A F , 2000), and/or promote large excess of rural labor that may lead to Malthusian overfishing as shown in Figure 7 (Pauly, 1993; 1997; Teh and Sumaila, 2006). This can have negative impact in sustaining fishery resources and the very livelihoods they aim to support. To remedy such situation, Teh and Sumaila (2006) recommended the integration of food sufficiency program goals within a sustainable coastal management framework. E 3 E 4 Fishing effort (E) F i g u r e 7: Subsidies and Malthusian overfishing (adapted from Pauly, 1997). Also , the effect of subsidies and development assistance in most developing countries does not seem to meet the expected outcome of the intended policy goals (SLFR, 1992). For instance, most external assistance programs on research in developing countries tend to target high value species such as tuna for export rather than species that could be harvested by the local fishermen to supply domestic markets (Milazzo, 1998). Moreover, there are indications to show that some o f the subsidy programs geared towards small scale fisheries development in general are intended to enhance fishing capacity to target commercial fish 41 species for export ( F A O , 1996; Khan, 1998) with a consequent shortage of protein to the local population ( U N E P , 2002). 4.3 Fisheries subsidy estimates by region With seven geographical regions of the world identified (Sub Saharan Africa, Asia , North Africa and the Mediterranean, Europe, North America, Oceania, Latin America and the Caribbean), information is provided on the size and extent to which subsidies contribute to fisheries conservation programs and the increase in fishing pressure. Figure 8 illustrates that As i a provided the largest amount of subsidies, about U S D 11.6 bi l l ion, representing about 16% of total L V , and with more than 50% in the bad subsidies category. The next highest subsidizing region is Europe, with more than 50% in the bad subsidies category as well , representing about 22% of the total L V (see Figure 9 for regional subsidy intensity). Oceania North Africa & Mediterranean Sub Saharan Africa North America Lat. America & Caribbean Europe Asia • Good subsidies • Bad subsidies El Ugly subsidies 0 1 I 1 1 1 1 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 ~i r~ 9 10 11 12 13 Subsidy amount (billion USD) Figure 8: Subsidy amounts by major geographic regions. Oceania provided the least amount of subsidies to its fishery, about U S D 755 mill ion, with two of its regional members (Australia and New Zealand) being proponents for the ban of subsidies with the Friends of Fish Alliance. 42 In contrast to developed countries, industrial fisheries of many developing countries in Asia , Oceania, Africa etc., deal with the high capital investment and operating costs by one or more of the following: (i) national inputs: import or export duty waivers and concessions; (ii) bilateral or overseas development assistance: technical assistance in the form of infrastructure support; (iii) multilateral assistance such as marketing supports programs, and (vi) joint venture arrangements ( U N E P , 2003). Appendix 1 provides regional subsidy estimates for the seven geographical regions under consideration, and individual country's subsidy intensity, i.e. total annual subsidy provided as a percentage of total annual landed value. " | 25 o> .1 2 0 S 15 v> North Africa Sub Sah North Europe Oceania Asia Lat. America & Medit. Africa America & Caribbean Figure 9: Subsidy as a percentage of total L V for major geographic regions A breakdown of the results of this study by subsidy categories provided by major fishing nations is illustrated in Figure 10, with Japan being the highest subsidizer ( U S D 4.2 billion), representing 19% of its L V . Next are the E U , Russia, China, Peru and the U S A in decreasing order; with subsidy intensity ranging from 4% in Peru to 23% in the U S A . 43 5 • Good subsidies • Bad subsidies B Ugly subsidies c o E CO i H 0 Japan EU Russia China Peru USA Figure 10: Subsidy estimates for major fishing nations The Japanese fishing industry is one of the largest and highly diverse, with the Fisheries Agency of Japan's budget amounting to about U S D 4.0 billion, a quarter of total revenues in the marine capture fisheries (Milazzo, 1998). Japan's per capita fish consumption has consistently ranked among the highest in the world, about 69.1 kg/year, far exceeding the world average of 16.0 kg/year ( F A O 2002). Japan's fish consumption patterns have also accounted for being one of the world's largest markets for fishery products, both in weight and value 1 9. Japan obtains much of its catch from the coastal waters of developing countries (Swartz, 2004). As of 2000, Japan ranked third in marine landings, behind China and Peru ( F A O 2002), with most of the catch based on joint venture agreements (Nakai, 1995) and distant water fleets (Iwasaki, 1997) subsidized by the Japanese governments in the form of aid packages and development grants (Bergin and Haward, 1995). The E U has the third largest fleet in the world with around 100,000 boats taking 10% of the world's catch, with an increase in fleet size by about 6% with the entry of 10 new members into the Union 2 0 . The newly approved E U subsidy budget of about U S D 4.8 billion, have both fisheries management and cost reduction components and includes: (i) installing more efficient engines for crafts less than 12 meters long; (ii) providing aid towards rising fuel 1 9 http://faostat.fao.orp/sile/506/DesktopDefault,aspx?PaeelD=506. last accessed 17/08/06. 2 0 http://oceana.org/uploads/media/UNEP workshop on fisheries subsidies and sustainable fisheries management.pdf. last accessed 16/08/06. 44 cost; (iii) contributing towards environmental friendly fishing techniques; (iv) assisting with processing and marketing programs, and (v) providing fisher assistance support 2 1. The new European Fisheries Fund (EFF) is to replace the Financial Instrument on Fisheries Guidance (FIFG), and is responsible for the provision of financial support to the fisheries sector from 2007-2013. However, controversy still looms over the terms of agreement of the fund; since Britain, Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands and Belgium object to the expansion of existing fishing fleets, because this w i l l undermine current W T O subsidy negotiations and fisheries sustainability. The demand came mainly from 'friends of fishers' who have requested for grants for new engines in boats under 12 meters long, which account for 80% of Europe's fleet 2 2. Russia's current subsidy programs are low (estimated at U S D 1.4 billion) compared to the mid seventies and early eighties when they were the most dominant player in high sea fisheries with distant water trawler and factory "mother ships" (Milazzo, 1998). Pashkova (2001) reported that current government subsidies to the industry are in the order of U S D 5 bill ion, taking into consideration distant water fleet investments and local infrastructure support needs. Current post-Soviet subsidy programs are to boost about 50 fishery factories, for enhanced processing and marketing of fishery products particularly around the Murmansk region, one of the biggest fish processing complexes in the world (Euro Arctic news, March 11 t h 2006) 2 3 . The estimates for Russian subsidies may be on the conservative side. Most o f the subsidies provided by the U S A as illustrated in Figure 10 are good subsidies, aimed at management and conservation purposes. 2 1 www.intrafish.com Published 20/06/06, last accessed 22/06/06. 2 2 NewScientist.com Published 20/05/06, last accessed 25/05/06 2 3 http://www.sr.se/cgi-bin/euroarctic/amnessida.asp?programlD=2460andNvheter=0andgrupp=2604andartikel=813284. last accessed 22/06/06. 45 4.4 Research limitations The accuracy and precision of the estimation techniques used in this study are determined by a number of factors: (a) the availability of information provided by most countries to multilateral and intergovernmental organizations, such as the F A O , O E C D and A P E C ; (b) the type of normalization and standardization applied to the available data sets; (c) grouping countries into developed and developing country categories based on economic indicators 2 4; (d) reliability in the secondary information collated without cross checking or validation; (e) the use of weighted averages based on countries landed value for interpolation purposes; (f) the criteria for excluding certain information from the estimates (e.g. subsidies towards aquaculture); (g) the taxonomy of subsidies used in the study; and (h) the nature of the data sources. Despite the attempt in obtaining detailed information on all countries and on all types of subsidies, there have been several challenges and drawbacks. These include the following: i . The W T O notifications on actionable subsidies submitted to the negotiation group mostly lacked information on specific amounts of the various subsidies reported. Table 6 shows that from 1995 to 2001, about 191 submissions were made (Cox and Schmidt, 2002); i i . Information from W T O records does not reflect the true nature of the subsidies provided, nor is the values corroborated and updated. According to W W F (2001), the twelve countries with the largest total fishing subsidies officially reported by O E C D (2000) and the A P E C (2000) showed considerable discrepancies in their figures reported to the various intergovernmental organizations as shown in Table 7; i i i . Some under-reporting has also been noted and includes the following: • The U S A provided subsidies under the capital construction fund ( A P E C , 2000), with known costs of administration, but without the actual subsidy figures enjoyed by the fishing industry ( W W F , 2001); 2 4 http://earthtrends.wri.org. last accessed 10/06/06. 46 • China provided rough estimates of about U S $ 700-800 mil l ion in annual subsidies to the fish-harvesting sector (Milazzo, 1998), yet only US$ 50 mil l ion was officially reported to A P E C (2000); • Japan reported U S D 5 bil l ion subsidies to the W T O in 1996 for tax preference programs, that was not included in either the O E C D or A P E C studies ( W W F , 2001). iv. It is worth noting that the total amount of global subsidies reported in this study is likely to be an underestimate, for at least two reasons: • The definition of subsidies is narrow in the sense that it focuses on direct monetary transfers; and • For countries for which there was no information, I assumed no subsidies. Clearly this is a strong assumption, because some countries may in fact provide subsidies. Detailed information and clarity on the amount and nature of the subsidies provided by countries worldwide w i l l set the stage for better negotiation rules on setting sustainable fishing criteria and also measuring the impact of these subsidies on fishery resources. 47 C o u n t r y 2 5 H a r v e s t i n g sec to r S h i p -b u i l d i n g P r o c e s s i n g O t h e r s T o t a l N o . b y c o u n t r y C a n a d a 4 N A N A N A 4 Japan 6 N A N A 1 7 S . K o r e a 6 2 2 1 11 N o r w a y 16 1 1 4 22 P h i l i p p i n e s 1 N A N A N A 1 P o l a n d 3 N A N A N A 3 Senega l 1 N A N A N A 1 S l o v a k i a 1 N A N A N A 1 U S A 5 N A N A N A 5 E U countr ies 75 9 9 34 127 Ice land 1 N A 1 3 5 T u n i s i a N A N A N A 1 1 S ingapore 1 N A N A N A 1 T u r k e y 1 N A N A N A 1 T h a i l a n d N A N A N A 1 1 T o t a l 121 12 13 4 5 191 T a b l e 7: Some discrepancies in fisheries subsidies from 1996 to 1997 ( W W F , 2001). C o u n t r y / S t a t e s O f f i c i a l l y r e p o r t e d g o v e r n m e n t s u b s i d i e s to t he O E C D a n d A P E C ( U S D b i l l i o n ) A m o u n t o f g o v e r n m e n t s u b s i d i e s r e p o r t e d to t he W T O ( U S D b i l l i o n ) Y e a r 1996 1997 1996 1997 Japan 8.2 3.0 5.0 0 E U 0.9-1.0 0.8-1.0 0.6 0.7 C a n a d a 0.8 0.7-0.8 0.6 0.7 K o r e a 0.4 0.3-0.4 0.04 0.05 T a i w a n 0.1 0.2 N A N A N o r w a y 0.2 0.2 0.01 0.02 S p a i n 0.1 0.2 0.07 0.07 I taly 0.08 0.07 0 0 C h i n a 0.06 0.05 N A N A 2 5 NA: Not Available (No information available). 48 C H A P T E R 5: S U M M A R Y A N D C O N C L U S I O N 5.1 Summary of major findings Major findings of this research are: • The magnitude of global fishery subsidies was estimated at U S D 26 bil l ion for marine capture fisheries for eleven subsidy types identified (excluding fuel subsidies). The eleven subsidy types were (i) fisheries management programs and services; (ii) fishery research and development; (iii) tax exemption programs; (iv) foreign access agreements; (v) boat construction renewal and modernization programs; (vi) fishing port construction and renovation programs; (vii) fishery development projects and support services; (viii) marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs; (xi) fisher assistance programs; (x) vessel buyback programs; and (xi) rural fishers' community development programs. • Fisheries subsidies can be classified into three categories based on their potential impact on fish stocks as: the 'Good ' , the 'Bad ' and the ' U g l y ' . For these three subsidy categories, bad subsidies were the highest, estimated at U S D 15 bill ion. Next were the good subsidies at about U S D 7 bil l ion; and the ugly subsidies being the least provided at about U S D 4 bil l ion. • A total o f 1152 entries were made within the subsidy matrix in computing for the magnitude of fishery subsidies. This information was obtained for 141 countries where subsidies were provided and documented. • Out o f the eleven subsidy types identified, fishery management programs and services amounted to the highest provided, almost a quarter of the global totals (USD 6.2 billion), provided by 138 coastal countries. • Vessel buyback programs, fishing access agreement and fisher assistance programs were common to developed countries only, with estimates of U S D 1 bil l ion, U S D 1 bil l ion and U S D 2 bill ion, respectively. • Rural fisher community development programs are only provided in developing countries and estimated at U S D 1.0 bill ion. 49 • Subsidies for fishery access agreement payments were estimated at U S D 1 billion, and they are given by a handful of nations with a huge share o f global catch including the E U , Japan, China, U S A , Russia, Taiwan and Korea. • About 52% of the total global fisheries subsidy estimate is provided by 38 developed countries (USD 13.4 billion) and the remaining 48% from 103 developing countries (USD 12.3 billion). • B y geographical regions, As i a (East, South and West) provided the largest share of the global fishery subsidies about U S D 11.6 bill ion, next to Europe with U S D 5 bil l ion, with subsidy intensity of 16% and 22% respectively. • Amongst the major fishing nations, Japan provided the highest subsidy amount about U S D 4.2 bil l ion, next to the E U with about U S D 3 bil l ion, followed by Russia, China, Peru and the U S A with U S D 1.4 billion, U S D 1.3 bill ion, U S D 1.1 bil l ion and U S D 1.0 bil l ion respectively. 5.2 Policy implications The debate on fisheries subsidies no longer deals exclusively, or even largely with trade injury, but increasingly with fishery resource conservation issues (Milazzo, 1997) and economic waste (Munro, 1998). Other concerns have been socio-economic regarding rural development, coastal employment and food security issues (Fluharty and Kaczynski , 2002; Sumaila, 2003; Alder and Sumaila, 2004). Most policy reforms on fishery subsidies have been within multilateral trade talks by the negotiation group on subsidy rules at the World Trade Organization (WTO) in collaboration with the United Nation agencies such as the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) , the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) , intergovernmental organizations and a coalition of Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs). The emphasis has been to elininate subsidies that distort trade and also those that lead to overcapacity and overfishing based on the Doha rounds of trade talks and the Johannesburg Summit on Sustainable Development. 50 At the moment, out of the numerous position papers and proposals to the W T O negotiation group, two submissions for policy reforms are noteworthy. One approach is to have a top-down broad-based prohibition of all fishery subsidies, and the other is a bottom-up approach that prohibit subsidies that are explicitly listed as trade distorting or that lead to overcapacity. The difference between the two approaches, i.e., top-down and bottom-up is simply about what is at stake. The argument for the bottom-up approach led by Japan, the E U , Korea and Taiwan is that, by addressing overcapacity through reduction in vessel construction, modernization and overseas transfers, would inevitably curtail problems of overfishing. Also , the bottom-up proponents are arguing that ineffective fisheries management is also a contributing factor as much as subsidies to the present status of global fish stocks. Alternatively, the friends of fish countries and several developing countries including Iceland, New Zealand, Pakistan, Australia, Brazi l , Chile and India, are advocating for a total ban of all subsidies, but with exemptions, such as considering the needs of developing countries under a special and differential (S&D) provision. The benefits of this blanket prohibition are that it is simple, leads to transparency, and still allow for some exceptions. However, the top-down prohibition imposes stronger disciplines and notification requirements, which are neither within the Doha mandate nor within the A S C M and may have impact on other non fishing sectors. There are several challenges to this proposal as well , such as compliance to rules, and the cost of notification and enforcement. Some countries including the U S and a coalition of N G O s have been advocating for subsidies that support conservation efforts, and disaster relief programs. The contention with the S & D provision is that since some developing countries are major fish harvesters, extending such a rule w i l l undermine the effectiveness of any new fisheries rules. Further proposal on the negotiations of rules on the S & D provision are on-going, but the needs of small and vulnerable coastal states have emphasized with particular reference to the exemption of access payments, research related fisheries management programs and certain social insurance programs for fisher communities and disaster relief programs. Beneficiaries of such de minimis, i.e., developing country subsidies prohibition package w i l l 51 then need to meet certain other eligibility criteria. One suggestion has been to give exceptions to fisheries in developing economies with a gross national income of less than a thousand U S D 2 6 . Another proposal is to provide a basis for itemizing small scale fishing boats by size, length or volume of catch landed, and to set a limit to which rules should apply in identifying which fisheries are artisanal and small scales. Another issue has been the ambiguous definition of small scale or artisanal fisheries, which requires the provision of guidelines or sets of criteria to measure the effect of subsidies that enhance overcapacity (Schorr, 2005). To this effect, the best proposals is to apply S & D only to those countries that fall below a certain threshold based on weight in terms of world market share of traded According to Schorr (2005), because subsidies to artisanal fisheries appear to take on a wide variety of forms, their effect is always hard to measure. Subsidies are most likely to be associated with the following: (i) vessel/gear modernization including motorization and the use of efficient gear such as purse seines; (ii) landing and processing infrastructure including fishing port facilities, refrigeration, roads and transport infrastructure; (iii) export including value adding and quality control; (iv) fuel subsidies; (v) other inputs such as ice; (vi) training programs and capacity building, and (vii) capital for investment. However, the outcomes of some of these policies on fishery sustainability in small scale fisheries have not been well studied, and needs further investigation. A turning point in the W T O negotiations has been the suggestion by Brazi l and other developing countries to include regional fisheries management organizations ( R F M O ) in the subsidies discussion, since they have regional management responsibilities. Sumaila and Keith (2006) further emphasized on the positive role of R F M O s in stimulating discussion amongst regional members and the sharing of information towards the W T O negotiation on rules. The suggestion to include fishery subsidy talks within multilateral environmental 2 6 TN/RL/GEN/57/REV.2 Paper submitted to the WTO negotiation group on rules. http://docsonline.wto.org/gen home.asp?languaee=l and =1. last accessed 10/08/06. 2 7 http://www.ictsd.org/weeklv/06-06-21 /storv4.htm. last accessed 20/08/06. 2 8 TN/RL/GEN/79/REV.l Paper submitted to the WTO negotiation group on rules. http://docsonline.wto.org/gen home.asp?language=land =1. last accessed 10/08/06. 52 agreements with the collaboration of the U N agencies, and ways to improve on the reporting and clarification of subsidy information is highly relevant to policy development. However, the challenges to these contributions are many, ranging from non-membership role within R F M O s , the legal procedures for international environmental agreements and the cost of monitoring and compliance. How to address these issues within the W T O requires more negotiations and proposals on better reporting o f subsidies and understanding the impact on subsidies on resource sustainability. Defining working guidelines and sustainability criteria for specific fishery sectors, using both ecological and economic indicators is highly desirable, and needed for the following goals: • To monitor subsidies aimed at reducing fishing capacity, but results in seepages and spill over effects; • To assess certain subsidies in developing countries that are effort-enhancing such as access agreements, using the criteria 'patently at risk' in terms of fish stocks and 'effective fishery management' in terms of monitoring and control should be considered; • To examine subsidies that may lead to Malthusian overfishing in rural coastal communities and to develop coherent policies for rural communities; • To investigate subsidy programs that promote food sufficiency and poverty alleviation and to distinguish them from subsidies that promote fish exports; • To develop national fisheries subsidy report cards, with rules on transparent reporting, and compliance on notifications. Such a report card can be used for S & D provisions, R F M O management programs and for negotiation rules on subsidy reforms within the W T O . 53 5.3 Suggestions for further research Three major areas have been less investigated in the analysis of impacts of subsidies. Future research should therefore focus on the following three areas, both for policy reforms in sustaining fishery resources and for sustainable fishery livelihoods: • To assess the impact of subsidies on resource exploitation and sustainability in different fishery sectors, i.e., artisanal and industrial fishing sector; • To examine the impact of subsidies on industrial profits; • To investigate the impact of subsidies on exports, food sufficiency and livelihoods in artisanal fisheries; • To corroborate subsidy data with reporting agencies to account for biases and uncertainties in the computation of fishery subsidy estimates. 54 R E F E R E N C E S Abdallah, P.R. and U . R Sumaila. 2006. 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UNEP/ETB/2004/13 , U N E P , Geneva. Vannuccini, S. 2003. Overview of fish production, utilization, consumption and trade -based on 2001 data. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. Watson, R. and D . Pauly. 2001. Systematic distortions in world fisheries catch trends. Nature, 414: 534-536. Westlund, L . 2004. Guide for identifying, assessing and reporting on subsidies in the fisheries sector. F A O Fisheries Technical Paper No . 438. F A O , Rome. Worm, B . and R . A . Myers. 2003. Rapid worldwide depletion of predatory fish communities. Nature, 423: 280-283. W S S D . 2002. Report o f the World Summit on Sustainable Development, United Nations publication, New York. , Johannesburg, South Africa: 1-173 W T O . 1994. Uruguay Round Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures. Article 1-32. W T O , Geneva. W T O . 2001. G A T T / W T O Rules on Subsidies and Aids Granted in the Fishing Industry: Addendum Committee on Trade and the Environment, W T O , Geneva. W W F . 1997. Subsidies and Depletion of World Fisheries: Case Studies, W W F , Washington, D . C . W W F . 2001. Hard facts, hidden problems: A review of current data on fishing subsidies. W W F , Washington, D . C . W W F . 2004. Healthy fisheries and sustainable trade. Crafting new rules on fishing subsidies in the W T O . A W W F position paper and technical resources. W W F , Washington, D . C . 62 APPENDIX 1: Regional fishery subsidy estimates by categories ( U S D '000). Region - As i a C o u n t r y 2000 H D I S c o r e 2000 L V ('000) G o o d s u b s i d i e s B a d s u b s i d i e s ugly s u b s i d i e s T o t a l A m o u n t s ( U S D •000) S u b s i d y as % o f L V Bangladesh 0.51 819,152 29,442 266,990 16,576 313,008 38 Cambodia 0.57 95,138 3,419 13,485 1,925 18,830 20 China Main 0.75 24,562,885 11,999 492,036 827,082 1,331,117 5 Hong Kong 0.90 69,918 2,564 777 0 3,341 5 India 0.60 1,817,110 188,246 2,008,631 36,771 2,233,648 123 Indonesia 0.69 1,608,348 84,546 226,077 32,546 343,170 21 Japan 0.94 20,567,316 2,807,057 684,617 711,553 4,203,227 20 South Korea 0.89 5,537,726 53,511 276,845 29,453 359,809 6 Malaysia 0.79 3,028,474 1,723 455,934 0 457,657 15 Myanmar 0.55 2,157,127 77,530 588,587 43,652 709,769 33 Pakistan 0.50 1,073,885 38,597 152,277 21,731 212,605 20 Philippines 0.75 1,608,830 57,824 315,616 32,556 405,996 25 Singapore 0.90 13,176 0 4,000 0 4,000 30 Sri Lanka 0.74 619,851 22,278 8,447 0 30,725 5 Taiwan 2,679,357 25,875 212,214 14,500 273,687 9 Thailand 0.77 2,252,243 24,625 253,758 45,576 323,959 14 Vietnam 0.69 3,142,600 49,357 331,335 0 380,692 12 R e g i o n a l t o t a l 71,653,135 3,478,594 5,854,603 1,813,922 11,584,142 16 63 Region - Europe Country 2000 H D I Score 2000 L V ('000) Good subsidies Bad subsidies ugly subsidies Total amounts (USD •000) Subsidy as % of L V Albania 0.78 3,868 38 1,287 0 1,325 34 Belgium 0.94 57,677 2,514 2,415 7,829 12,758 22 Bulgaria 0.80 15,036 307 2,769 304 3,380 22 Croatia 0.83 48,963 0 0 0 0 0 Denmark 0.93 1,628,873 111,105 1,048,736 97,847 1,257,688 77 Estonia 0.85 267,479 18,245 20,129 17,900 56,274 21 Finland 0.94 43,359 7,072 7,280 1,492 15,844 37 France 0.93 1,514,739 61,513 188,072 16,697 266,282 18 Georgia 0.74 4,317 155 402 87 644 15 Germany 0.93 209,687 6,936 32,168 5,970 45,074 21 Greece 0.90 235,337 29,352 26,764 19,727 75,843 32 Iceland 0.94 853,043 23,742 54,820 127 78,689 9 Ireland 0.94 358,371 54,057 15,209 39,245 108,511 30 Italy 0.92 766,591 50,576 83,451 92,549 226,576 30 Latvia 0.81 332,721 11,958 30,983 0 42,942 13 Lithuania 0.84 189,131 6,798 0 0 6,798 4 Malta 0.88 2,560 481 311 481 1224 48 Netherlands 0.94 499,748 3,138 17,228 9,755 30,121 6 Norway 0.96 1,204,872 84,403 17,955 51,476 153,834 13 Poland 0.85 116,017 8,968 141 0 9,109 8 Portugal 0.90 313,006 23,889 70,244 20,947 115,080 37 Romania 0.77 6,057 218 885 0 1,103 18 Russia 0.80 9,001,066 613,960 527,674 299,291 1,440,925 16 Spain 0.92 1,890,375 30,847 333,786 92,729 457,362 24 Sweden 0.95 156,374 20,977 7,037 6,052 34,065 22 Turkey 0.75 868,138 1,746 138,149 144 140,039 16 Ukraine 0.78 963,299 34,622 136,543 19,493 190,658 20 U K 0.94 1,206,938 64,091 42,735 42,313 149,139 12 Regional total 22,757,641 1,271,707 2,807,174 842,024 4,920,905 22 64 Region - Latin America and the Caribbean Country 2000 HDI Score 2000 L V ('000) Good subsidies Bad subsidies Ugly subsidies Total amounts (USD '000) Subsidy as % of L V Anti & Barb. 0.80 4,404 158 5,941 0 6,099 139 Argentina 0.85 2,173,591 52,224 206,279 145,462 403,945 19 Bahamas 0.82 27,161 976 6,721 0 7,697 28 Barbados 0.89 7,610 274 9,471 154 9,899 130 Belize 0.74 60,543 2,176 8,343 21 10,540 17 Brazil 0.78 1,197,170 43,028 1,289,430 3,708 1,336,166 112 Chile 0.84 985,030 7,204 40,886 0 48,090 5 Colombia 0.77 256,315 9,212 33,606 5,187 48,005 19 Costa Rica 0.83 84,413 3,034 23,409 876 27,319 32 Cuba 0.81 133,938 2,732 12,472 0 15,204 11 Dominic Rep. 0.74 26,609 2,796 5,967 0 8,762 33 Dominica 0.74 2,942 106 879 60 1,044 35 Ecuador 0.74 1,450,403 52,130 136,562 0 188,692 13 E l Salvador 0.72 16,587 596 1,545 0 2,141 13 Grenada 0.75 4,162 150 5,214 0 5,363 129 Guatemala 0.65 78,288 1,217 11,446 1,584 14,247 18 Guyana 0.72 118,007 4,241 10,989 2,388 17,618 15 Haiti 0.46 11,046 397 284 0 681 6 Honduras 0.67 33,048 1,188 6,439 669 8,295 25 Jamaica 0.76 12,825 262 2,305 260 2,826 22 Nicaragua 0.67 49,775 2,467 5,316 0 7,783 16 Panama 0.79 537,720 10,968 149,116 10,881 170,965 32 Peru 0.75 26,077,223 545,893 10,702 527,698 1,084,293 4 St. Kit & Nev. 0.84 1,148 23 168 0 191 17 St. Lucia 0.78 4,552 164 1,262 92 1,518 33 S t . V i n & Gre. 0.75 20,253 728 3,946 410 5,084 25 Suriname 0.78 50,617 1,032 4,154 1,024 6,211 12 Trini. & Tob. 0.80 21,139 431 6,890 0 7,321 35 Uruguay 0.83 250,997 5,120 0 0 5,120 2 Venezuela 0.78 817,432 16,673 226,683 16,542 259,897 32 Regional total 34,514,948 767,399 2,226,422 717,015 3,710,836 11 65 Region - North Africa and Mediterranean Country 2000 HDI Score 2000 L V ('000) Good subsidies Bad subsidies Ugly subsidies Total amounts (USD '000) Subsidy as % of L V Algeria 0.70 254,804 9,158 331,575 5,156 345,889 136 Bahrain 0.84 28,756 492 2,169 968 3,630 13 Brunei Daruss. 0.87 3,132 113 855 0 967 31 Cyprus 0.88 164,758 2,843 12,752 440 16,034 10 Egypt 0.65 309,572 11,126 28,828 0 39,954 13 Iran 0.73 645,513 23,201 176,133 13,063 212,396 33 Israel 0.91 12,344 842 554 0 1,396 11 Jordan 0.75 245 5 23 0 28 11 Kuwait 0.84 14,724 1,004 1,108 0 2,112 14 Lebanon 0.76 8,942 0 0 0 0 0 Libya 0.79 71,108 2,556 0 0 2,556 4 Morocco 0.62 809,172 29,083 220,788 16,374 266,245 33 Oman 0.77 295,516 13,830 80,633 5,980 100,443 34 Qatar 0.83 17,527 895 727 590 2,213 13 Saudi Arabia 0.77 121,987 4,384 5,932 2,469 12,784 10 Syria 0.71 4,913 100 0 0 100 2 Tunisia 0.75 219,318 4,473 60,819 0 65,293 30 U A E 0.82 258,649 17,642 0 0 17,642 7 Yemen 0.48 281,594 5,744 78,089 0 83,833 30 Regional total 3,522,574 127,492 1,000,984 45,040 1,173,516 33 66 Region - North America C o u n t r y 2000 H D I S c o r e 2000 L V (•000) G o o d s u b s i d i e s B a d s u b s i d i e s U g l y s u b s i d i e s T o t a l a m o u n t s ( U S D ' 0 0 0 S u b s i d y as % o f L V C a n a d a 0.94 2 ,382 ,416 202 ,550 162,550 267 ,498 632 ,598 27 M e x i c o 0.80 1,198,443 41 ,719 113,748 0 155,467 13 U S A 0.94 4 ,545 ,906 936,600 92 ,210 29 ,900 1,058,710 23 R e g i o n a l t o t a l 8 ,126,765 1,180,869 347 ,508 297 ,398 1,846,775 23 6 7 Region - Oceania Country 2000 HDI score 2000 L V ('000) Good subsidies Bad subsidies Ugly subsidies Total amounts (USD '000) Subsidy as % of L V Australia 0.95 1,747,995 55,873 56,318 199,000 311,191 18 Fiji 0.76 68,573 1,399 6,386 1,388 9,172 13 Kiribati N A 57,392 1,171 11,178 0 12,349 22 Maldives 0.75 324,979 6,829 33,755 0 40,584 12 Marshall Islands N A 19,779 711 27,803 0 28,514 144 Micronesia N A 57,353 2,061 187,975 0 190,036 331 Nauru N A 248 9 323 0 331 134 New Zealand 0.93 1,356,210 33,246 0 0 33,246 2 Palau 2,690 55 603 0 658 24 P. N . Guinea 0.54 203,878 7,328 66,451 4,126 77,904 38 Samoa 0.77 31,907 1,147 8,848 646 10,641 33 Solomon Islands 0.62 62,212 1,269 7,769 1,259 10,297 17 Tonga 0.79 9,230 332 2,309 0 2,641 29 Vanuatu 0.57 168,218 3,431 23,844 0 27,275 16 Regional total 4,110,663 114,859 433,562 206,418 754,838 18 68 Region - Sub Saharan Africa C o u n t r y 2000 H D I S c o r e 2000 L V ( '000) G o o d s u b s i d i e s B a d s u b s i d i e s U g l y s u b s i d i e s T o t a l a m o u n t s ( U S D ' 0 0 0 ) S u b s i d y as % o f L V A n g o l a 0.38 569 ,576 20,471 30,595 1,235 52 ,302 9 B e n i n 0.42 14,466 1,178 803 3,177 5,158 36 C a m e r o o n 0.50 139,960 5,030 6,805 0 11,836 8 C a p e V e r d e 0.72 26,555 1,271 9,303 0 10,574 40 C o m o r o s 0.53 32,391 541 59 140 740 2 C o n g o 0.49 10,547 379 982 0 1,361 13 C o n g o D . R . 0.37 50,175 0 0 0 0 0 C o t e d ' l vo i re 0.40 159,968 5,749 195,683 0 201 ,432 126 D j i b o u t i 0.45 854 17 112 17 147 17 Equa t . G u i n e a 0.70 6,270 128 584 127 839 13 E r i t rea 0.44 30,943 1,604 7,687 626 9,917 32 G a b o n 0.65 89,567 3,667 748 ,835 132 752 ,634 840 G a m b i a 0.45 64 ,894 1,060 17,996 1,313 20 ,369 31 G h a n a 0.57 888,744 31,943 138,366 17,985 188,293 21 G u i n e a 0.43 214,761 3,524 17,652 366 21 ,542 10 G u i n e a - B i s s . 0.35 11,480 413 0 2 3 2 645 6 K e n y a 0.49 11,691 4 2 0 9,431 0 9,851 84 L i b e r i a 18,413 376 977 373 1,725 9 M a d a g a s c a r 0.47 250 ,536 5,110 0 0 5,110 2 M a u r i t a n i a 0.47 100,928 1,829 136,694 2 ,042 140,565 139 M a u r i t i u s 0.79 23 ,603 481 2,198 0 2 ,679 11 M o z a m b i q u e 0.35 63 ,596 1,297 10,088 1,287 12,672 20 N a m i b i a 0.61 239 ,257 8,599 53 ,649 0 62 ,248 26 N i g e r i a 0.47 755,208 11,859 600 1,200 13,659 2 Sao T . & P r i . 0.65 8,466 173 788 171 1,132 13 Senega l 0.44 924,791 14,487 10,635 411 25 ,533 3 Seyche l l es 0.85 80,431 2,891 4,911 1,628 9,429 12 S ie r ra L e o n e 0.27 147,406 3,007 21 ,550 2 ,983 27 ,540 19 S o m a l i a 49 ,080 1,001 4 ,570 993 6,565 13 Sou th A f r i c a 0.67 1,216,811 43 ,734 0 0 43 ,734 4 S u d a n 0.51 12,270 441 3,403 248 4 ,092 33 T a n z a n i a 0.41 129,521 4,655 29 ,043 0 33 ,698 26 T o g o 0.50 42 ,398 865 6 ,199 858 7,921 19 R e g i o n a l t o t a l 6 ,385,555 178,201 1,470,198 3 7 , 5 4 5 1,685,944 26 6 9 A P P E N D I X 2: Compendium of global fisheries subsidy programs by country. Introduction The information herein is a summary of subsidy support programs reported from 1995 to 2005, the information is reported by fishery subsidy types, as summarized below. A . 'Good subsidies' A . l Fisheries management programs and services; A . 2 Fishery research and development. B . 'Bad subsidies' B . l Boat construction renewal and modernization programs; B.2 Fishery development projects and support services; B.3 Fishing port construction and renovation programs; B.4 Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs; B.5 Tax exemption programs; B . 6 Foreign access agreements. C. 'Ug ly subsidies' C. l Fisher assistance programs; C.2 Vessel buyback programs, and; C.3 Rural fisheries community development programs C.4 Others. Reported subsidy amounts are given where available, annualized and adjusted for the year 2000 as explained in the text (section 3.2). Estimates in brackets were obtained using the method outlined in the text (section 3.3). They are provided only for countries for which there was positive indication that the type of subsidy in question existed. Subsidy types not listed in the country inventory means that information was not available, even after a thorough search. This absence of information was interpreted as meaning the subsidy type in 70 question does not exist in that country. This implies that the global estimate of subsidies given to marine fisheries is an underestimate. Information from web links such as the F A O web resources are provided, and reference is made to the date the links were last accessed, at the end of the country report. 71 Subsidy program description Amounts (USD •000) Source(s) of information Group I: Argentina 403,945 A.l Fisheries management and services. 15,000 UNEP, 2003. A.l UNDP/GEFAVB project for the technical preparation for ITQ management system. http://www.fao.ors/fi/fcp/es/ARG/bodv.htm A.l FAO provided technical expertise for fishery data statistical analysis. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/ARG/bodv.htm A.l Naval patrol and surveillance programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/ARG/bodv.htm A.2 Funds from Japan to the fisheries research institute EL INIDEP for research on fish stocks. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/ARG/profile.htm A. 2 Funds for research and technology development funded by JICA, WB and OFCF. UNEP, 2003. Fishery research and development. (37,203) B.l Subsidies towards industrial boat construction and development. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/ARG/profile.htm Boat construction, renewal and modernization programs (73,351) B. 2 Financial support through trade missions and public-private partnership projects, partly funded by the World Bank and the Inter-American Development bank. UNEP, 2003. Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (24,163) B.4 Government support with credit lines in order to promote exports. UNEP, 2003. B.4 Subsidies programs for the reimbursements of exported fisheries products. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/es/ARG/bodv.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (90,220) B.5 Tax exemption programs. UNEP, 2003. Tax exemption programs. (18,545) C l Employment and other social benefits. UNEP, 2003. C l Worker retraining programs. UNEP, 2003. Fisher assistance programs. (73,189) C.2 Capacity reduction programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/es/ARG/bodv.htm Vessel buyback programs. (72,273) FAO Web links last accessed 28/03/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group I: Australia 311,191 A. 1 Stock enhancement programs. http ://www.daff. eov.au/ A.l MPA programs. Australian Commodity Vol. 13 no. 1/03/05. A.l Fisheries management and services. 25,954 OECD, 2004. A.2 R and D programs to develop new fisheries technology; business Rand D programs. APEC, 2000. Fishery research and development programs. (29,919) B.l Lending support programs such as loan guarantees to Australia's Commonwealth fishery program. APEC, 2000. B.l Cost reducing transfers excluding the Agribiz package and the shipbuilding bounty. 56,318 OECD, 2004. C.l Community grants to boost economic activity after fishing adjustment programs. 20,000 Australian Commodity Vol. 13 no. 1/03/05. C.l Fishing business restructuring assistance programs. 30,000 Australian Commodity Vol. 13 no. 1/03/05. C.l Assistance for skippers and crews. http://www.affa.gov.au/ C.2 Vessel buyback programs. 149,000 Australian Commodity Vol. 13 no. 1/03/05. C.2 Support for permanent withdrawal of fishing vessels. OECD, 2004. Australian govt, fisheries web pages, last accessed 02/06/06. Group I: Bahrain 3,630 A.l Support towards fishery management programs from Japanese government. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BHR/profile.htm Fishery research and development programs. (492) B.l Fishing equipment subsidies, equipment repair and bank loans. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BHR/profile.htm Boat construction, renewal and modernization programs. (970) B.3 Maintenance of fishing vessels facilities. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BHR/rirofile.htm Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (953) B.5 Fishing equipment tax exemption programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fco/en/BHR/profile.htm Tax exemption programs. (245) C.l Various aid programs and government loan programs to assist local fishermen. http://www.fao.ors/fi/fcB/en/BHR/bodv.htm Fisher assistance programs. (968) FAO Web links last accessed 02/06/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group I: Belgium 12,758 A.l Flemish government contribution to fishery management programs. 1,527 http://www.fao.org/fi/fcrj/en/BEL/bodv.htm A.l EU and Belgian government fishery recovery plans. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcrj/en/BEL/bodv.htm A.2 R&D towards research and support to the Foundation Sustainable Fisheries Program. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcrj/en/BEI7bodv.htm Fishery research and development programs. (987) B.4 Direct payments for marketing and processing programs. 689 OECD, 2004 B.6 Foreign fishing access agreements (EU). Milazzo, 1998. MRAG, 2000. Foreign access agreements. (1,726) C l Direct payments for fisher assistance packages. C.2 Direct payments for vessel buyback programs. C2 Fishing capacity reduction programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BEL/bodv.htm Vessel buyback programs. (1,918) C.4 Direct payments for marine capture fisheries programs including C l & C.2 5,911 OECD, 2004 FAO Web links last accessed 02/06/06 Group I: Canada 632,598 A.l Provincial funds for fishery enhancement and renewal programs. Examples includes: the Pacific salmonid enhancement program, the Atlantic groundfish strategy, etc. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fct)/en/CAN/bodv.htm A.l Annual stock assessment programs undertaken by DFO (not included in estimate). 57,700 APEC, 2000 A.l Annual fisheries enforcement programs undertaken by DFO (not included in estimates). 52,500 APEC, 2000 A. 1 User charges 32,214 A. 1 Fisheries management programs and services. 121,074 OECD, 2004 A.2 R&D towards research and development. 49,262 OECD, 2004 B.l Annual loan guarantee payment. 4,228 OECD, 2004 B.l Loan guarantees and other lending support programs on coastal Quebec and Atlantic Canada. APEC, 2000 'B.l Contributions under cost reducing transfer. 64,966 OECD, 2004 B.3 Payments towards fishing harbor facilities. 59,060 OECD, 2004 B.4 Direct payments under marketing and processing programs. 34,296 OECD, 2004 C l Unemployment insurance programs 168,188 OECD, 2004 C. 1 Older worker adjustment schemes and other retraining programs 2,550 OECD, 2004 C l Other assistance programs 23,960 OECD, 2004 C l Annual support program towards the Atlantic fishery assistance payments in mid 90s (not included in estimates) 239,048 APEC, 2000 C l Payments per license fisher per year, CAD $ 30,000 per year irrespective of other earnings, provided they fish for 12 wks of the year (not included in estimates). 20,204 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/CAN/bodv.htm C l Payments made per year from 1990 to 1998 to minimize disruption by the cod fishery collapse (not included in estimates). 253,053 http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/CAN/bodv.htm C.2 DFO payments for license & vessel retirement programs overall in Canada 72,800 APEC, 2000 FAO Web links last accessed 05/06/06 Subsidy program description Amounts (USD •000) Source(s) of information Group I: Chile 48,090 A.l Fishery enhancement and management programs excluding aquaculture . 3,204 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/es/CHL/profile.htm A.2 Fisheries research fund. 4,000 APEC, 2000 ' A.2 Fisheries research collaboration (by the provision o f technical assistance) between Chile and Japan, Denmark, Norway, Iceland and Spain. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/CHL/profile.htm B.4 Export oriented market programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/CHL/profile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (40,886) FAO Web links last accessed 14/04/06 Group I: China 1331,117 A.l State investments in firms, cooperatives & parastatals. APEC, 2000 A.l & B.3 Support programs towards boat construction, sea port construction from the Hainan Province Marine Fishery Development Program (1998). APEC, 2000 B.2 Development grants for fisheries enterprises (Fujian Province Fishery Pillar Industry Development Program). APEC, 2000 B.2 Chinese national development fishery projects towards vision 2000-2005. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/CHN/bodv.htm B.2 Capacity training programs. 125 APEC, 2000 B.3 Funds from both the central and local provincial governments for fishing port construction and modernization. 64,625 APEC, 2000 B.4 Fish processing and marketing programs for Hainan Province alone. 100 APEC, 2000 B.5 Tax preferences for foreign fisheries investment, and favorable tax rates on inputs. B.5 Fujian Province interest subsidy. 375 APEC, 2000 B.5 Tax exemption programs. 209,569 APEC, 2000 B.6 Foreign fishing access agreements. Milazzo, 1998. Foreign access agreements. (193,418) C.l 'Fishing holiday' relief fund as income support programs in some provinces including Guangdong. APEC, 2000 C.l Fisher assistance packages. (827,082) C.4 Other central financial authority budget program funds. 24,200 http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/CHN/bodv.htm FAO Web links last accessed 14/04/06 Subsidy program description Amounts (USD *000) Source(s) of information Group I: Cyprus 16,034 A.l EU Special conservation areas (Habitat Directive, 92/43/EEC) in Cyprus. httD://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/CYP/profile.htm A.l Program funds for monitoring using VMS and special boats for monitoring fishing capacity. http://www.moa.gov.cv/moa/Aericulture.nsfy A.l EU Project MedMPA on the development of MPAs in the Mediterranean region. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/CYP/profile.htm A.l Structural funds for technical assistance to the fishery sector (2003). 23 EC, 2003 Document. Fishery research and development programs. (2,820) B.l EU structural funds under the single programming document. EC, 2003 Document. B.3 Fishery harbor infrastructure and storage/processing project. http://www.moa.eov.cv/moa/Aericulture.nsf/ B.4 Support towards fishing shelters and quality control htto://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/CYP/profile.htm Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (5,463) Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs (6,839) C.2 Structural funds for buy-backs (2003). 440 EC, 2003 Document. C.2 Total fishing vessels capped at 500 as EU initiative. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/CYP/profile.htm C.4 Structural funds forbuybacks, fishing infrastructures, processing and marketing (2003). 450 EC, 2003 Document. Web links last accessed 05/06/06 Group I: Denmark 1,257,688 A.l General fisheries management programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/DNK/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (83,230) A.2 National fisheries R&D programs and initiatives. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/DNK/profile.hrm Fishery research and development programs. (27,880) B.l FIFG and national renewal and modernization programs (2000). 487,000 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/DNK/bodv.htm B.l FIFG and national programs for technical assistance (2000). 8,000 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/DNK/bodv.htm B.4 FIFG and national programs in processing and marketing programs, and ports renovations (2000). 505,000 http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/DNK/bodv.htm B.6 Foreign fishing access agreements (EU). Milazzo, 1998. Foreign access agreements. (48,736) National support programs for young fishers. (54,847) C.2 EU and national fishing capacity reduction programs -fishing fleet adjustment (2000). 43,000 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/DNK/bodv.htm FAO Web links last accessed 04/06/06 Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group I: Estonia 56,275 A.l National fisheries management programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcn/en/ESTftodv.htm A.l Fisheries management programs and services. (13,667) A.2 Multidisciplinary scientific research including ICES related stock assessment work, etc. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/EST/profile.htm A.2 Fishery research and development programs. (4,578) B.l FIFG modernization and renewal of fishing fleet programs. Estonia-EU SPD, 2003. B.l Boat construction, renewal and modernization programs. (9,027) B.4 FIFG Investment support measures for fisheries chain. Estonia-EU SPD, 2003. B.4 Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs . (11,102) C l FIFG measures for restructuring of the fisheries sector from unfavorable socio-economic impacts. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/EST/bodv.htm C l Fisher assistance packages. (9,007) C.2 Fishing capacity reduction under the FIFG scheme. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcrj/en/EST/profile.hrm C.2 Vessel buyback programs. (8,894) C.4 Other fisheries related measures, which include social and market research (FIFG). Estonia-EU SPD, 2003. FAO Web links last accessed 16/06/06 Group I: Finland 15,844 A.l Monitoring control & surveillance program. 926 OECD, 2004 A.l Protection of marine areas for the rearing of juvenile salmon smolts. 235 OECD, 2004 A.l Support towards management programs. 2,161 OECD, 2004 A.2 Fishery research and development programs. 2,623 OECD, 2004 B.l Vessel construction and modernization 477 OECD, 2004 B.2 Fisheries transportation subsidies. 442 OECD, 2004 B.3 Support for fishing ports. 2,000 OECD, 2004 B.4 Export promotion programs. 1,127 OECD, 2004 B.4 Investment in marketing and processing programs. 1,953 OECD, 2004 B.6 Foreign fishing access agreements (EU). Milazzo, 1998. Foreign access agreements. (1,297) B.5 Insurance towards the Aland County scheme. 1,111 OECD, 2004 C l Compensation to salmon fishers (in Aland County) from damage caused by seals. 50 OECD, 2004 C.2 Fishing capacity adjustment programs in tune with the EU fisheries common policy. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/FrN/bodv.htm C.2 Vessel buyback programs. (1,442) Subsidy program description Amounts (USD •000) Source(s) of information Group I: France 266,282 A.l Management and administrative cost including enforcement. 11,972 OECD, 2004 A.2 Fishery research and development programs. 49,541 OECD, 2004 B.l Renewal and modernization of fleets in the form of direct payments to the fishing sector. 9,908 OECD, 2004 B.2 Funds for rebuilding the fishery after storm Erika. 38,807 OECD, 2004 B.3 Fishing port & harbor construction, & renovation programs 1,835 OECD, 2004 B.4 Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs 28,716 OECD, 2004 B.5 Interest rebates 8,716 OECD, 2004 B.6 Foreign fishing access agreements (EU). Milazzo, 1998. Foreign access agreements. (100,090) C.l Unemployment insurance programs 5,229 OECD, 2004 C.l Compensation for geographic remoteness. 5,688 OECD, 2004 C.2 Vessel buyback programs in tune with EU fisheries common policy. 5,780 OECD, 2004 Group I: Germany 45,074 A.l Federal depleted fishery recovery program. 3,347 http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/DEU/profile.htm A.2 German and EU research and conservation policy and programs. 3,589 http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/DEU/profile.htm B.l Annual lending programs towards purchase and renewal of fishing vessels. 1,079 OECD, 2004 B.l Grants for the purchase and modernization of fishing vessels. 6,427 OECD, 2004 B.4 Marketing support, processing & storage infrastructure programs 18,013 OECD, 2004 B.5 Interest subsidies. 375 OECD, 2004 B.6 Foreign fishing access agreements (EU). Milazzo, 1998. Foreign access agreements. (6,274) C.l Federal capacity aid program to ameliorate the fishing sector difficulties. 5,172 http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/DEU/profile.hrm C.2 Payments for both the temporary and permanent withdrawal of fishing vessels. 798 OECD, 2004 FAO Web links last accessed 05/06/06 Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group I: Greece 75,843 A.l Control, monitoring and surveillance programs. 28,900 OECD, 2004 A.2 Fishery research and development programs. 452 OECD, 2004 B.2 Administrative support. 1,277 OECD, 2004 B.3 Fishing port/ harbour construction, & renovation programs 5,404 OECD, 2004 B.4 Miscellaneous market intervention programs. 11,034 OECD, 2004 B.5 Tax exemptions programs excluding fuel amounts. (2,008) OECD, 2004 B.6 Foreign fishing access agreements (EU). Milazzo, 1998. Foreign access agreements. (7,041) C l Fishermen assistance programs. http://www.eurofish.dk/indexSub.php?id=210 C.2 Direct payments for fleet reduction programs. 11,803 OECD, 2004 Eurofish web link, last visited 05/06/06. Group I: Hong Kong 3,341 A.l Habitat enhancement project including artificial reefs. 2,564 APEC, 200 B.2 Development grants for fisheries enterprises. APEC, 2000 B.2 Fishery development projects and support services. (777) Group I: Iceland 78,689 A.l Total amounts towards fisheries monitoring, control & surveillance programs. 11,617 OECD, 2004 A.2 Total of fisheries research transfers 12,125 OECD, 2004 B.2 Development grants for fisheries enterprises. 7,990 OECD, 2004 B.4 Marketing support, processing & storage infrastructure programs 5,796 OECD, 2004 B.5 Income tax deductions for fishers. 15,511 OECD, 2004 B.5 Foreign access agreements. (25,523) C l Fisher training programs. 127 OECD, 2004 Group I: Ireland 108,511 A.l Total amount for for administrative, research and fish stock sustainability programs (2002). 54,057 OECD, 2005 B.l Irish and EU grant-aid to promote the renewal of whitefish fleet investments (2003). 3,297 htto://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/IRL/profile.htm B.4 Direct total payments for marketing and processing programs (2002). 1,189 OECD, 2005 B.6 Foreign fishing access agreements (EU). Milazzo, 1998. Foreign access agreements. (10,723) C l Direct payments taken for fisher assistant programs, may include other descriptions. 39,245 OECD, 2005 FAO Web links last accessed 06/06/06 Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group I: Israel 1,396 A.l National fisheries management programs. httD://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ISR/bodv.htm A.l Fisheries management programs and services . (631) A.2 Government funded fishery research and development programs. httD://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ISR/Drofile.htm A.2 Fishery research and development programs. (211) B.l Vessel renewal programs. htro://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ISR/bodv.htm B.l Boat construction, renewal and modernization programs. (417) B.2 Government investment grants towards fishing equipments for fishing fleets. htro://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ISR/bodv.htm B.2 Development grants for fisheries enterprises. (137) FAO Web links last accessed 16/06/06 Group I: Italy 226,576 A.l General fisheries management programs and services. 50,576 OECD, 2004 B.4 Market intervention programs. 53,407 OECD, 2004 B.6 Foreign fishing access agreements (EU). Milazzo, 1998. Foreign access agreements. (22,937) C.l Payments for fisher assistance packages and other unspecified programs. 92,549 OECD, 2004 C.4 Contributions under cost reducing transfers (not specified). 7,107 OECD, 2004 Group I: Japan 4,203,227 A.l General fisheries management programs and services. 2,807,057 OECD, 2004 B.l Financial support for setting up new fishing vessels. 37,491 B.l Subsidized lending programs. APEC, 2000 B.2 Development grants towards fishery enterprises. APEC, 2000 Fishery development projects and support services. (228,640) B.4 Market intervention programs. 43,008 OECD, 2004 B.5 Tax preferences and insurance programs. APEC, 2000 Tax exemptions programs. (175,479) B.6 Foreign access payments 200,000 Milazzo, 1998 C.l Assistance to fish workers (Fishery Trust Fund Subsidy) APEC, 2000 C.l Fisher assistance programs. Milazzo, 1998 Fisher assistance programs. (692,543) C.2 Vessel buyback programs. 19,010 OECD, 2004 Subsidy program description Amounts (USD •000) Source(s) of information Group I: Republic of Korea 359,809 A.l Stock enhancement programs. 48,558 OECD, 2004 A.2 Fishery research and development programs. 4,953 OECD, 2004 A.l Cost reducing transfer for renewal and modernization of fishing vessels. 7,695 OECD, 2004 B.l Subsidized lending programs. APEC, 2000 B.3 Fishing port/ harbor construction, & renovation programs. 160,977 OECD, 2004 B.4 Marketing support, processing & storage infrastructure programs. 4,422 OECD, 2004 B.5 Support for crew insurance. 4,157 OECD, 2004 B.6 Foreign fishing access agreements. Milazzo, 1998. Foreign access agreements. (43,606) C.2 Fishing fleet reduction programs. 29,453 OECD, 2004 C.4 Other cost reducing transfers 55,988 OECD, 2004 Group I: Kuwait 2,112 A.l Government subsidization programs to the management of the fishery sector. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/KWT/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (752) A.2 Kuwaiti government support towards fishery research and development. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/KWT/profile.htm Fishery research and development programs. (252) B . l Subsidy programs towards the development of the fishery sector. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/KWT/profile.htm Boat construction, renewal and modernization programs. (497) B.4 Marketing support programs http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/KWT/Drofile.htm Marketing support, processing & storage infrastructure programs (611) FAO Web links last accessed 10/06/06 Group I: Malta 1,224 A.l EU Financial cooperation and Pre-accession assistance towards the fisheries sector for monitoring and control programs 387 httD://eurooa.eu.int/eur-lex/budeet/data/D2004 EUR25 VOL4/EN/nmc-titleN 1 A447/nmc-chapterN 1 A79E/index.html A.2 Externally funded research programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/MLT/profile.htm A.2 Fishery research and development programs. (44) B.l Financial support towards fleet renewal programs 272 http://www.maltafisheries.eov.mt/news.asp B.4 Marketing and processing support programs 209 htto://www.maltafisheries.eov.mt/news.asp C.2 Fishing fleet reduction programs. 311 http://www.maltafisheries.eov.mt/news.asp Web links last accessed 10/06/06 Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group I: Mexico 155,467 A.l Fisheries management expenditures. 6,944 OECD, 2000 A.l Enforcement expenditures. 868 OECD, 2000 A.2 Fisheries research expenditures. 33,907 OECD, 2000 B.l Financing fisheries investment projects FIRA-FOPESCA. 61,100 APEC, 2000 B.l Fishing fleet modernization program. 40,848 APEC, 2000 B.4 BANCOMEXT export subsidies. 11,800 APEC, 2000 Group I: Netherlands 30,121 A.l Fisheries management expenditure. 508 OECD, 2004 A.2 Innovative actions in fisheries management. 2,630 OECD, 2004 B.4 Direct payments towards marketing and processing programs. 2,275 OECD, 2004 B.6 Foreign fishing access agreements (EU). Milazzo, 1998. Foreign access agreements. (14,953) C.2 Decommissioning programs. 6,273 OECD, 2004 C.2 Payments for voluntary temporary stops. 3,482 OECD, 2004 Group I: New Zealand 33,246 A.l Regulatory management, fishing access and administration programs. 7,728 OECD, 2004 A.l Program support towards fisheries monitoring, enforcement and prosecution. 10,973 OECD, 2004 A. 1 User charges 12,272 OECD, 2004 A.l General services towards policy framework 2,273 OECD, 2004 Group I: Norway 153,834 A.l Monitoring, control and surveillance programs. 45,666 OECD, 2004 A. 1 Departmental and agency costs. 16,330 OECD, 2004 A.2 Fishery research and development programs. 22,407 OECD, 2004 B.2 Transport subsidies. 3,750 OECD, 2004 B.5 Interest subsidies and investment support for vessel building. 8,523 OECD, 2004 C l Income support programs. 1,591 OECD, 2004 C l Worker adjustment programs. 9,822 httD://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/NOR/bodv.htm C.2 Fishing fleet reduction programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/NOR/bodv.htm Fishing fleet reduction programs. (40,063) C.4 Other cost reducing subsidies 5,682 OECD, 2004 Web links last accessed 10/06/06 Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group I: Poland 9,109 A.l Fisheries habitat enhancement and management programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/POL/bodv.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (5,928) A.2 Fishery research and development programs. 3,040 OECD, 2000 B.l Subsidized lending for fisheries infrastructure and capital cost support programs http://www.fao.ors/fi/fcp/en/POL/bodv.htm B.l Boat construction, renewal and modernization programs. http://www.fao.ors/fi/fcp/en/POL/bodv.htm B.l Funds for boat modernization and renewal programs 14 htto://www.paiz.gov.pl/index/?id=70ece 1 e 1 e0931919438fcfc6bd5fl 99c B.4 Funds for marketing and processing programs. 127 http://www.paiz.eov.pl/index/?id=70ecel el e0931919438fcfc6bd5fl 99c Web links last accessed 15/06/06 Group I: Portugal 115,080 A.l Fisheries management programs and services. 9,933 OECD, 2004 A.l Monitoring, control and surveillance programs. 2,204 OECD, 2004 A.2 Fishery research and development programs. 11,752 OECD, 2004 B.l Vessel construction and modernization programs. Boat construction, renewal and modernization programs. (10,563) B.2 Aid for small fisheries. 1,689 OECD, 2004 B.3 & B.4 Fishing port renovation, processing and marketing support programs. http://www.fao.ors/fi/fcp/en/PRT/tirofile.htm Marketing and processing support programs (12,992) B.6 Foreign fishing access agreements (EU). Milazzo, 1998. Foreign access agreements. (45,000) C.l Compensation programs and innovative projects for fishers. http://www.fao.ors/fi/fcD/en/PRT/nrofile.htm Fisher assistance programs. (10,540) C.2 Vessel capacity reduction programs and distant water fleets programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/PRT/profile.htm Vessel buyback programs. (10,408) FAO web links last accessed 11/06/06 Group I: Qatar 2,213 A.l Subsidization programs towards fisheries management. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/OATOodv.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (896) B.4 Government fishery production subsidies. http://www.fao.ors/fi/fcp/en/OATOodv.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (727) C.l Government funded fishermen assistance programs. http://www.fao.ors/fi/fcp/en/OATOodv.htm Fisher assistance programs. (590) FAO web links last accessed 16/06/06 Subsidy p r o g r a m description Amounts (USD "000) Source(s) of information Group I: Russia 1,440,925 A. 1 Enforcement and control programs. Milazzo, 1998 Fisheries management programs and services. (154,063) A.2 Government research and development programs. httD://www.fao.org/fi/fct)/en/RUS/t)rofile.hrm Fishery research and development programs. (459,923) B.l The 'Ryba' program for fleet renewal and modernization. 100,000 APEC, 2000 B.l Developing and reviving ship building facilities. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/RUS/profile.htm B.l Government ship building facilities and programs. B.3 The Ryba program: fisheries infrastructure support, maintenance and repairs. 280,000 APEC, 2000 B.4 Russian state grants to the Murmansk fish processing factories. http://www.sr.se/csi-bin/euroarctic/amnessida.asp?t)roEramID=2460&Nv heter=0&gniDD=2604&artikel=813284 B.5 Tax incentives endorsed by the Russian Committee on Fisheries. Milazzo, 1998 Tax exemption programs (76,796) B.6 International fishing agreements. Pashkova, 2001. Milazzo, 1998. B.6 State committee for fisheries' partner fishing agreements httD://www.fao.ors/fi/fcp/en/RUS/t)rofile.htm Fishing access payments (70,878) C.2 Fishing fleet reduction programs. Pashkova,2001 Vessel buyback programs. (299,291) Web links last accessed 16/06/06 Group I: Singapore 4,000 B.3 Fishing port infrastructure enhancement programs. 2,000 APEC, 2000 B.4 Fish product promotion programs. 2,000 APEC, 2000 Group I: Spain 457362 A.l General fisheries management programs and services. 12,136 OECD, 2004 A.l Innovative measure and pilot projects. 328 OECD, 2004 A.l Exploratory fishing. 809 OECD, 2004 A.l Monitoring, control and surveillance programs. 8,812 OECD, 2004 A.l MPA programs 1,713 OECD, 2004 A.2 Fishery research and development programs, both regional and national. 7,049 OECD, 2004 B.l PESCA initiative. 50,562 OECD, 2004 B.l Vessel modernization programs. 16,691 OECD, 2004 B.2 New vessel construction. 63,761 OECD, 2004 B.2 Technical assistance and educational support. 3,058 OECD, 2004 B.3 & B.4 Fishing port renovation, processing and marketing support programs. 12,349 OECD, 2004 B.4 Marketing and processing programs. 62,455 OECD, 2004 B.6 Foreign access agreements (EU). Milazzo, 1998. Foreign access payments. (124,910) C.l Socioeconomic measures. 260 OECD, 2004 C.2 Permanent vessel withdrawals. 8,525 OECD, 2004 C.2 Regional aids for temporary stops and permanent withdrawals. 83,944 OECD, 2004 Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group I: Sweden 34,065 A.l General fisheries management programs and services. 17,893 OECD, 2004 A.l User charges 407 A.2 Fisheries management and research. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/SWE/bodv.htm Fishery research and development programs. (2,677) B.l Grants towards vessel modernization and renewal from both state and EU sources. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/SWE/bodv.htm B.l Cost reducing transfers 2,358 OECD, 2004 B.6 Foreign access agreements (EU). Milazzo, 1998. Foreign access payments. (4,679) C l Direct payments including fisher assistance packages 852 OECD, 2004 C.2 EU capacity reduction programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/SWE/bodv.htm Vessel buyback programs. (5,200) FAO web links last accessed 16/06/06 Group I: Taiwan 273,687 A.l Stock Enhancement program. 4,829 APEC, 2000 A.l Stock assessment programs. 2,800 APEC, 2000 A.l General fisheries management programs. 14,165 APEC, 2000 A.2 Fishery research and development programs towards marine capture fisheries. 4,081 APEC, 2000 B.l State investment in capital and infrastructural support towards fishing fleets. 79,400 APEC, 2000 B.3 Funds towards fishing ports infrastructure and fishery development programs. 126,514 APEC, 2000 B.4 Fish product market promotion programs. 6,300 APEC, 2000 B.6 Foreign access agreements Milazzo, 1998 Foreign access payments (21,098) C l Marine insurance to fishing vessels and fishermen. 4,800 APEC, 2000 C l Worker adjustments and retraining programs. 9,700 APEC, 2000 Group I: United Arab Emirates 17,643 A.l Government fisheries management support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ARE/bodv.htm A.l Government fisheries MPA programs in place. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ARE/bodv.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (13,216) Fishery research and development programs. (4,427) FAO web links last accessed 16/06/06 Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group I: United Kingdom 149,139 A.l Monitoring, control and surveillance programs. 42,727 OECD, 2004 A.2 Fishery research and development programs. 21,364 OECD, 2004 B.l Boat construction, renewal and modernization programs. 364 OECD, 2004 B.3 Fishing port construction, & renovation programs. 1,546 OECD, 2004 B.4 Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. 4,713 OECD, 2004 B.6 Foreign access agreements (EU). Milazzo, 1998. Foreign access payments. (36,112) C.l PESCA Program. 2,182 OECD, 2004 C.2 EU common fishery policy on capacity reduction. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GBR/profile.htm C.2 Vessel buyback programs. (40,131) FAO web links last accessed 16/06/06 Group I: United States 1,058,710 A.l Conservation and management programs. 168,700 OECD, 2004 A.l Fishery data collection support programs. 225,900 OECD, 2004 A.l Monitoring, control and surveillance programs. 542,000 OECD, 2004 B.l NMFS industrial fisheries financed programs. 2,250 OECD, 2004 B.2 Fisheries development program funds and grants. 25,380 OECD, 2004 B.4 Promotion programs under marketing and processing. 41,080 OECD, 2004 B.5 NMFS Capital Construction Fund tax deferral programs. 2,500 OECD, 2004 B.6 Foreign access payments. 21,000 Mwikya, 2006 C.l NMFS Fishermen's contingency funds. 1,000 OECD, 2004 C.l Fisheries disaster relief. 28,900 OECD, 2004 Group II: Albania 1,325 A.l Stock enhancement programs http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ALB/orofile.htm A.l ADRIAMED project funded by the Italian government for monitoring, control and surveillance. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ALB/profile.htm A.l Coastal zone management programs including artificial reefs and other management programs. 38 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ALB/profile.htm A.2 INTEREG Project funded by the EU towards marine resources research and environmental protection. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ALB/profile.htm B.2 World Bank fishery development project 670 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ALB/profile.htm B.3 The rehabilitation and improvement of nine marine fishing ports. 69 Albania Government Project Appraisal Doc, 2001. B.3 Technical assistance through the World Bank pilot fishery development project. 41 Albania Government Project Appraisal Doc, 2001. B.5 The EU Phare Sector Operative Project funds and technical assistance for marketing and fishery infrastructures http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ALB/profile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (507) FAO web links last accessed 15/03/06 Subsidy program description Amounts (USD •000) Source(s) of information Group II: Antigua and Barbuda 6,099 A.l Stock enhancement programs. http://www.fao.ors/fi/fcp/en/ATG/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (90) A.2 Fisheries research and development http://www.fao.ors/fi/fcp/en/ATG/profiIe.htm Fishery research and development programs. (68) B.l Subsidized lending from the Antigua and Barbados Development Bank and the National Development Foundation. 191 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ATG/bodv.htm B.2 Assistance from JICA in berthing and harbor facilities. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ATG/profile.htm B.2 Capacity building projects by CIDA and the Commonwealth fund for technical cooperation. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ATG/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (410) B.3 Fishing port construction and renovation programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ATG/profile.htm Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (4,529) B.4 Assistance from JICA for processing and gear technology. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ATG/profile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (577) B.5 Tax and duty-free concessions for new vessels, engines, fishing gear and other related fishing equipment. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ATG/bodv.htm Tax exemption programs. (234) Web links last accessed 18/06/06. Group II: Bahamas 7,697 A.l Fishery management programs. htto://www.breef.ore/fisheries.pdf Fisheries management programs and services. (554) A.2 Fisheries R&D programs http://www.breef.ors/fisheries.pdf Fishery research and development. (422) B.l Subsidized lendngs for fishery investments and a small boat loan program towards the lobster fishery. http://filaman.ifm-eeomar.de/Trainins/ReDorts/Belize/mr crbOl .htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (1,321) B.l Subsidized loan programs towards fishing input such as boats http://www.breef.ore/fisheries.pdf Fishery research and development. (2,529) B.5 Duty exemption on fishing equipments and inputs. 2,871 httoV/www.breef.ors/fisheries.pdf Web links last accessed 24/03/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD •000) Source(s) of information Group II: Bangladesh 313,008 A. 1 Support provided towards resource surveys and stock assessment. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcD/en/BGD/profile.htm A . l GEF support towards biodiversity and marine conservation. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcD/en/BGD/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (16,708) A.2 Fisheries R&D programs http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BGD/Drofile.htm Fishery research and development. (12,733) B.l State assistance towards fishery inputs for fishery enterprises Khatun ei a/. 2004. Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (39,831) B.2 Institutional support to the fisheries sector by UNDP, World Bank, DFID amongst others. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BGD/profile.htm B.2 Technical assistance and infrastructure support for fishery development from EU, DANIDA etc. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcD/en/BGD/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (76,280) B.4 Support for HACCP programs by the FAO, i.e., export subsidies. Khatun el at. 2004. Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (107,401) B.5 Duty free imports of capital machinery and fishing inputs, custom clearance for fish exports and other tax rebates. Khatun et al. 2004. B.5 Financial incentives provided by the government UNEP, 2000. Tax exemption programs. (43,479) C.3 Rural fishers' community programs and projects funded by DFID, ICLARM, World Bank and UNDP. UNEP, 2000. Rural fisheries community development programs. (15,576) Web links last accessed 19/03/06. Group II: Barbados 9,899 A.l Support towards stock assessment, monitoring and control programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcD/en/BRB/Drofile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (155) A.l & A.2 Fishery management, research and development programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BRB/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (118) B.l Subsidized loans for fisheries enterprises including the support from the Rural Enterprise Fund. 243 http://www.fao.org/fi/fcD/en/BRB/profile.htm B.3 Inter American Development support for the Bridgetown fisheries complex. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BRB/Drofile.htm Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (7,826) B.4 European Development Fund (EDF) for fisheries marketing infrastructure. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BRB/Drofile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (998) B.5 Duty free concessions on fishing inputs. httD://www.agriculture.gov.bb/default.asp?V DOC ID=786 Tax exemption programs. (404) C.3 Assistance to fisher organizations. httD://www.agriculture.gov.bb/default.asp?V DOC ID=788 Rural fishers community development programs. (154) Web links last accessed 17/06/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group II: Belize 10,540 A. 1 Government fisheries MPA programs in place. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/BLZ/profile.htm A.l Overseas development agencies (ODA) technical assistance programs towards fishery management. htrp://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/BLZ/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (1,235) A.2 GEF funded projects and CARICOM research projects. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/BLZ/profile.hrm Fishery research and development. (941) B.l Subsidized benefits from loans towards the fishery sector. 2,117 http://www.belize.eov.bz/cabinet/d silva/welcome.shtml B.5 Belize enjoys export subsidies to the U.S.A. under the Caribbean Basin Initiative 6,226 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/BLZ/profile.htm C.3 Assistance to fisher organizations. 21 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/BLZ/profile.htm Web links last accessed 18/06/06. Group II: Benin 5,158 A.l Fisheries management programs towards stock replenishment and assessment. 120 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcrj/fr/BEN/profile.htm A. 1 Fisheries management programs the coastal zone, funded by the Netherlands. 833 httrj://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/BEN/profile.htm A.2 Fisheries management, research and development programs http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/BEN/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (225) B.2 JICA project funds for the provision of fishing equipments. 802 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/BEN/profile.htm C.3 Subsidies towards the artisanal fishery development project funded by AfDB 3,177 Web links last accessed 18/06/06. Group II: Brazil 1,336,166 A.l Government funded fishery management programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/BRA/bodv.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (24,418) A.2 Research towards appraisal of fishery resources, socio-economics, fishery statistics etc. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/BRA/bodv.htm Fishery research and development. (18,610) B.l Enhancing and renovating ocean fleets with support from the government and the banks. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/BRA/bodv.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (58,211) B.3 Modernizing port infrastructures with support from the government and the banks. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/BRAftodv.htm Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (1,231,219) B.5 Fiscal incentives are provided including about 25% tax reduction in fishery investment projects. Abdallah and Sumaila, 2006; Bank of Brazil C.3 Subsidized rural credit programs towards fishing activities. 3,708 Abdallah and Sumaila, 2006; Bank of Brazil Web links last accessed 18/06/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group II: Brunei Darussalam 967 A.l General f isher ies mngt programs inc lud ing enhancement. http://www.fisheries.Eov .bn /potentials/ index.htm Fisheries management programs and serv ices. (64) A.2 Stock appraisal and surveys for tuna and other capture f isheries. http://www.fisheries.eov .bn /potentials/ index.htm Fishery research and development . (49) B.l & B.2 General government incent ive and support programs towards the f ishery sector. http://www.fisheries.eov .bn /Dotentials/ index.hrm Boat construct ion renewal and modern iza t ion programs. (152) Fishery deve lopment projects and support services. (292) B.4 Government incent ive and support programs towards the processing sector. http://www.fisheries.eov .bn /potentials/ index.htm Marketing support , p rocess ing and storage infrastructure programs. (411) Web l inks last accessed 18/06/06. Group II: Bulgaria 3,380 A.l Stock enhancement programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/BGR/profile.htm A.l Fishery management programs w i th EU assistance in in format ion and statistical instal lat ions. http://www.fao.ora/fi/fcp/en/BGR/profile.htm A.l Monitoring and survei l lance programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/BGR/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and serv ices. (307) B.4 Provision of marke t ing infrastructure. hrrD://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/BGR/profile.htm Marketing support , p rocess ing and storage infrastructure programs. (1,971) B.5 Tax exempt ions on f ishery inputs and outputs. httD://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/BGR/profile.htm Tax exempt ion programs. (798) C.3 Rural f isher deve lopment programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/BGR/profile.htm Rural f ishers ' commun i t y development programs. (304) FAO web l inks last accessed 17/06/06. Group II: Cambodia 18,830 A.l SEAFDEC reg ional projects through t ra in ing , research and informat ion services. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/KHM/Drofile.htm Fisheries management programs and serv ices. (1,941) A.2 Research towards appraisal o f f ishery resources, R&D, etc. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/KHM/profile.htm Fishery research and development . (1,479) B.l Fisheries enterprise development through economic incent ives through the state monopo ly company , KAMFIMEX. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/KHM/profile.htm Boat construct ion renewal and modern iza t ion programs. (4,626) B.2 World Bank funded projects in var ious areas of f isher ies wi th loans and grants in b iod ivers i ty protect ion programs. httD://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/KHM/profile.htm Fishery deve lopment projects and support services. (8,859) C.3 Government support of rural f isher ies deve lopment and the implementat ion of cooperat ive management. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/KHM/profile.htm Rural f ishers ' commun i t y development programs. (1,925) FAO web l inks last accessed 19/06/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group II: Cameroon 11,836 A.l General fisheries management programs including enhancement. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/CMR/rjrofile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (2,855) A.2 Oceanographic, ecological and socio-economic research activities. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/CMR/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (2,176) B.l Microfinance towards local fishery investments http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/CMR/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (6,805) FAO web links last accessed 19/06/06. Group II: Cape Verde 10,574 A.l The government of the Netherlands financed a marine resource conservation project. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/CPV/profile.htm A.l LUXDEV surveillance project 188 http://www.fao.ore/fi/proiects/7221ux.asp A.2 European development funds towards research in computer system information and fisheries analysis. 1,083 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/CPV/profile.htm B.l The Cape Verde fishery is a beneficiary of lot of assistance from bilateral co operations and multilaterals. Within 1997 to 2001, 87% of the investment is towards vessels, of which half of the funds is provided through overseas development agencies. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/CPV/profile.htm B.l The fishery sector benefits from grants and aid from international development assistance. 2,258 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/CPV/bodv.htm B.l The African Development Bank financed a development project (BAD/BADEA) towards industrial boat construction (of about 10 in number) with lengths up to 26 meters. 954 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/CPV/profile.htm B.2 Fisheries development projects including: FAO, DFID ICEIDA, EU, and GTZ particularly at the islands of de Fogo and Brava. 2,609 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/CPV o^dv.htm B.4 The African Development Bank financed 5 cold storage facilities the Islands of Santiago, S.Nicolau and S. Antao and office infrastructure at the INDP office at Mindelo. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/CPV/profile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (3,482) FAO web links last accessed 29/06/06. Group II: Columbia 48,005 A.1& A.2 State funded management and research programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/COL/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (5,228) Fishery research and development. (3,984) B.4 Processing and marketing support programs http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/COL/profile.hrm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (33,606) C.3 UN funded rural fisher community development programs towards food security. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/COL/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (5,187) FAO web links last accessed 19/06/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group II: Comoros 740 A.l EU funded monitoring and surveillance programs. 38 htro://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/COM/profile.htm A.2 Fishery research and development support programs. htro://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/COM/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (503) B.2 Technical assistance programs funded by the WB, FAO, JICA, and AfDB. http://www.fao.orB/fi/fcp/fr/COM/profile.htm B.2 Technical assistance from the EU. 59 httt>://www.fao.ors/fi/fcp/fr/COM/profile.htm C.3 EU artisanal fishery funded programs http://www.fao.orB/fi/fcp/fr/COM/profile.htm FAO web links last accessed 19/06/06. Group II: Congo 1361 A.l Fishery management support programs http://www.fao.ora/fi/fcp/fr/COG/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (215) A.2 R&D funded programs in socio-economics and maritime fisheries. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcD/fr/COG/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (164) B.2 Externally ODA funded projects. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcD/fr/COG/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (982) FAO web links last accessed 19/06/06. Group II: Congo Democratic Republic 0 Subsidies assumed to be absent. Information not available. Group II: Costa Rica 27319 A.l Fishery management support programs through INCOPESCA. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/CRI/Drofile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (1,722) A.2 Both domestic and international support (e.g. Taiwan Project '04) programs towards R&D. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/CRJ/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (1,312) B.2 Externally ODA funded projects. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/CRI7bodv.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (7,861) B.4 Processing and marketing support programs http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/CRI/bodv.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (11,068) B.5 Tax exemptions and rebates on fishing inputs including fuel. La Nation newspaper, 12/03/06. Tax exemption programs. (4,480) C.3 Social development fund. 876 La Nation newspaper, 12/03/06. FAO web links last accessed 19/06/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group II: Cote d'lvoire 201,432 A.l Fisheries management support programs. htrp://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/CrV/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (3,263) A.2 Fisheries research and development support programs with both domestic and international funds. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/CIV/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (2,487) B.l & B. 2 Fisheries development project support programs mostly funded by ODAs. httD://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/CrV/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (7,778) Fishery development projects and support services. (14,896) B.3 Fishing port construction with funds from JICA. htrp://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/CrV/profile.htm Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (164,517) B.5 Tax waivers for fishery inputs and outputs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/CrV/Brofile.htm Tax exemption programs. (8,491) FAO web links last accessed 19/06/06. Group II: Croatia 0 Subsidies are assumed to be absent. Information not available. Group II: Cuba 15,204 A . l Fishery management support programs both from domestic and international sources (FAO and UNDP). http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/CUB/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (2,732) B.2 Fishery research and development funded programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/CUB/profile.htm B.2 Technical assistance from bilateral cooperation since the 1960s. Until 1990, as the USSR disintegrated, more infrastructural support is provided by the FAO and the UNDP. httD://www.fao.org/fi/fcD/es/CUB/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (12,472) FAO web links last accessed 29/03/06. Group II: Djibouti 147 A. l Fisheries management support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/DJI/Drofile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (17) B.4 AfDB funded export support programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/DJI/profile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (112) C.3 Program support funds from the Djibouti Agriculture Integrated Fisheries Development Project. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/DJI/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (17) FAO web links last accessed 19/06/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group II: Dominican Republic 8,762 A.l Government support towards the National Directorate for Fisheries for management purposes. 2,353 http://www.fao.org/fi/fcrj/es/DOM/profile.htm A.l Support programs towards CARICOM 29 httD://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/DOM/Drofile.htm A.2 Fishery research and development funded programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/es/DOM/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (414) B.2 Externally funded fishery projects (JICA, Taiwan, FAO etc). http://www.fao.org/fi/fcD/es/DOM/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (2,478) B.4 Marketing support programs towards value addition and standards. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcD/es/DOM/Drofile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (3,489) FAO web links last accessed 29/03/06. Group II: Dominica 1,045 A.l Resource surveys and external cooperation and support from the FAO. httD://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/es/DOM/Drofile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (60) A.2 Fishery research and development funded programs. httD://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/es/DOM/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (46) B.2 JICA Project towards the financing of CARICOM initiatives and technical assistance for fisheries management. 493 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/es/DOM/Drofile.htm B.3 JICA funded fishing port construction programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/es/DOM/profile.htm B.4 JICA funded storage repairs and marketing programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/es/DOM/Drofile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (386) C.3 Rural fisheries infrastructure development & micro finance programs by IFAD & the government. htto://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/es/DOM/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (60) FAO web links last accessed 19/06/06. Group II: Dominica 188,692 A.l Provision of naval patrol vessels from Norway for monitoring and control of marine resources. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/es/ECU/profile.htm A.l & A.2 FAO continue to coordinate and implement projects dealing with fisheries resource management. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/es/ECU/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (29,584) Fishery research and development. (22,546) Fisheries enterprise project in the Galapagos. 1,500 Globefish databank, 13/04/06. B.2 Provision of support programs towards fishing equipments and boats from Japan and previous aid from the EU towards the artisanal sector. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/es/ECU/profile.htm B.2 Technical assistance for capacity building in the small scale fisheries and technical resources/facilities from Belgium. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/es/ECU/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (135,062) FAO web links last accessed 29/03/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group II: Egypt 39,954 A.l Fisheries management programs funded both locally and internationally (e.g. the PERSGA program). httD://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/EGY/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (6,314) A.2 Maritime and fisheries funded research programs http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/EGY/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (4,812) B.3 JICA funded programs in fishing harbor modernization. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/EGY/profile.htm Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (28,828) FAO web links last accessed 20/06/06. Group II: EI Salvador 2,141 A.l Fisheries management support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/es/SLV/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (338) A.2 Central America regional fishery resource evaluations (with biological and socio-economic recommendations) under the PREPAC/OSPESCA project (2001-2005). http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/es/SLV/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (258) B.2 Technical assistance provided by FAO, JICA, Chinese and other overseas development agencies towards fisheries development. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/es/SLV/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (1,545) FAO web links last accessed 28/03/06. Group II: Equatorial Guinea 839 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http_7/www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/es/GNOftodv.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (128) B.2 International cooperation and support programs including FAO, UNDP, CUBA, etc. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/es/GNO/Drofile.hhn Fishery development projects and support services. (584) C.3 Rural small scale fishery development support programs (including Arab Bank support programs). httD://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/es/GNO/bodv.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (127) FAO web links last accessed 20/06/06. Group II: Eritrea 9,916 A.l UNDP funded project for coastal and marine biodiversity conservation of total budget USD 6.1 million. 1,165 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ERI/profile.htm A.l Government support programs in fishery management. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ERI/profile.htm A.l French government funded stock assessment program. 439 htro://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ERI/profiIe.htm B.3 Support programs from ODAs and the AfDB in fishing harbor infrastructures. 3,630 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ERJ/Drofile.htm B.4 Government support programs in processing, marketing and HACCP standards. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ERI/profile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (4,057) C.3 Government support programs in rural credit and artisanal fishery development. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ERI/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (625) FAO web links last accessed 20/06/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group II: Fiji 9,173 A.l & B.l Fisheries management, development and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcrj/en/FJI/Drofile.htm A . l Monitoring and surveillance programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/FJI/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (1,399) Fisheries development support projects from FAO, ODAs and NGOs. (6,386) C.3 Government support programs in rural artisanal fisher development programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/FJI/Drofile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (1,388) FAO web links last accessed 21/06/06. Group II: Gabon 752,634 A . l ADB fishery management and development project. 2,247 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/GAB/profile.htm A. l JICA project high speed naval boat for coastal patrol and surveillance. 28 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/GAB/profile.htm A.2 Marine fisheries research programs http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/GAB/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (1,392) B.l JICA Project towards fishing inputs and equipments. 105 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/FJI/profile.htm B.2 Fisheries development projects from ODAs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/GAB/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (8,341) B.3 JICA fisheries harbor project per year, a non refundable amount of 4732 billion CFA 728,646 httD://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/FJI/profile.htm B.4 IDAF Project (GCP/RAF/198/DEN) funded by DANIDA and implemented by FAO. Subsequently continued by DF1D as the SFLP project (GCP/INT/735/UK). (11,743) C.3 Japanese project funds for rural artisanal fishery development. 132 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/FJI/profile.htm FAO web links last accessed 29/03/06. Group II: Gambia 20,369 A . l LUXDEV surveillance project funds, pro rated by LV. 52 http://www.fao.ore/fi/proiects/7221ux.asp A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/GMB/Drofile.htm Fishery research and development. (1,009) B.2 Project funded by various ODAs and the EU. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/GMB/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (6,043) B.3 ADB funded fishery port construction and development. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/GMB/profile.htm . B.4 DFID project on post harvest spoilage, and other govt, support programs in the provision of ice and oven infrastructure http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/GMB/orofile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (8,508) B.5 Duty waiver on fishery inputs and exports http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/GMB/profile.htm Tax exemption programs. (3,444) http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/GMB/bodv.htm C.3 Support for cooperative credits and rural artisanal fishery development. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/GMB/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (1,313) FAO web links last accessed 21/06/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group II: Georgia 644 A.l World Bank GEF Project on fisheries and ICZM. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/GEO/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (88) A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/GEO/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (67) B.l EU Project for fishery resource development. (402) Fishery development projects and support services. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/GEO/profile.htm C.3 FAO TCP Project TCP/GEO/2904 (A). Support for fishery sector rehabilitation. httD://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/GEO/Drofile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (87) FAO web links last accessed 31/07/06. Group II: Ghana 188,294 A.l Resource surveys by the Marine Fisheries Research Division with support from the FAO and ICCAT. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GHAfoodv.htm A.l FridtjofNansen resource surveys. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/GHA/bodv.htm A.l FAO assistance in the implementation of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fishing. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/GHA/bodv.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (18,128) A.2 DFID funded fisheries research with the National Resources Institute . http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/GHA/bodv.hrm Fishery research and development. (13,815) B.l Support to the fishery sector through fishing input with a total grant of USD $ 5 million from China. Fishing vessel restructuring program partly funded by DANIDA and the Ghanaian government. Dutch grant of 500,000 Euros towards fiberglass boats. 5,662 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/GHA/bodv.htm B.l Special government development funding for fishing input acquisition. 151 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/GHA/bodv.htm B.2 Development projects funded by various ODAs. httD://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/GHA/profile.htm B.2 World Bank fisheries sector's capacity and institutional projects. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/GHA/bodv.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (82,760) B.3 Infrastructure development subsidies towards the Albert Bosomrwe Sam Fishing Harbor Complex funded b y Japan. 2,600 httD://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/GHA/bodv.htm B.4 UNDP pilot project sponsorship towards smoke fish exporting strategy 20 http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GHA/bodv.htm B.4 EU funded initiatives with the fish export sector with storage facilities etc (not included in analysis). Business news, Ghana web April 4th 2006. B.5 Ghanaian government tax breaks about 40% towards fishing inputs httD://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/GHA/bodv.hrm B.5 Subsidies premix fuel to fishers (not included in analysis). http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/GHA/bodv.htm Tax exemption programs. (47,173) C.3 Support for rural artisanal fishery development. httD://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GHA/bodv.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (17,985) FAO web links last accessed 02/04/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD •000) Source(s) of information Group II: Grenada 5364 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. httD://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/GRD/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (85) A.2 CARICOM fisheries research support programs. http://wTvw.fao.ore/fi/fct)/en/GRD/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (65) B.l Technical assistance programs and projects such as those from the FAO. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/GRD/rjrofile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (388) B.3 JICA fishery jetty construction programs. httrj://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/GRD/profile.htm Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (4,280) B.4 JICA funded fishery processing and preservation infrastructure. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/GRD/profile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (546) FAO web links last accessed 21/06/06. Group II: Guatemala 14,246 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/GTM/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (1,217) B.l Technical assistance programs and projects such as those from the FAO. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/GTM/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (7,290) B.5 Tax breaks for fishery inputs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcB/en/GTM/profile.htm Tax exemption programs. (4,155) C.3 Technical assistance to artisanal fishery development http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/GTM/Drofile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (1,584) FAO web links last accessed 21/06/06. Group II: Guinea 21,542 A. l LUXDEV surveillance project funds, pro rated by LV. 170 http://www.fao.ore/fi/proiects/7221ux.asp A. l Training in maritime surveillance, funded by DFID & FAO. 16 N'dia, 2004. A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/GIN/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (3,338) B.2 Fisheries Community development project funded by World Bank. 202 N'dia, 2004. B.3 Wharf and jetty construction funded by JICA and from Cooperation Canadien. 1,721 N'dia, 2004. B.4 Support programs for post harvest spoilage from ADB and JICA. 4,330 N'dia, 2004. B.5 Vessel motorization rebates (both vessels and outboard engines). N'dia, 2004. Tax exemption programs. (11,399) C.3 Rural credit facilities to processors provided by FAO. 366 N'dia, 2004. FAO web links last accessed 21/06/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group II: Guinea Bissau 645 A.l LUXDEV surveillance project funds, pro rated by LV. 1 http://www.fao.org/fi/proiects/7221ux.asp A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GNB/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (234) A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GNB/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (178) C.3 Technical assistance towards rural artisanal fishing sector. httD://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GNB/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (232) FAO web links last accessed 21/06/06. Group II: Guyana 17,618 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. htto://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GUY/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (2,407) A.2 Collaboration and support from CARICOM on fishery research. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GUY/profile.htm A.2 Fisheries research programs. httrj7/www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GUY/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (1,834) B.l Fishery development projects mostly funded by ODA and the multilaterals (FAO and UNDP). http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GUY/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (10,989) C.3 Technical assistance from overseas development agencies to rural fisheries. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GUY/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (2,388) FAO web links last accessed 20/06/06. Group II: Haiti 681 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/HTI/profile.htm A.l The provision of technical resources under marine environment management by UNDP. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/HTI/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (225) A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/HTI/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (172) B.l Capacity building programs from Japan, Taiwan and USA/Canada LASPAU Program http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/HTI/profile.htm B.l Sum of project contributions towards CARICOM mandates, EU fishery project at both Grande Anse and Chardonnieres. 284 http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/HTI/profile.htm FAO web links last accessed 02/04/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group II: India 2,233,648 A.l World Bank support project of for fishery management, research and conservation programs. 160,000 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/rND/profile.htm A. 1 Grants for safety equipments and disaster preparedness. Salagrama, 2004. A. 1 Support programs towards marine reserves and artisanal reefs. Salagrama, 2004. A.l Fishery management programs including regulations and scientific advice. Salagrama, 2004. A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/IND/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (28,246) B.l State investment in fisheries enterprises-Fisheries Development Cooperation. Salagrama, 2004. B.l Grants for buying or modernizing boats and fishing equipments. Salagrama, 2004. B.l Subsidized lending support for trawler development funds. Salagrama, 2004. B.l Subsidized loans from commercial and cooperative banks Salagrama, 2004. Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (88,355) B.2 Support programs toward fisheries development funds. 27,838 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/IND/profile.htm B.3 Support for fishing harbors and processing infrastructure http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/IND/profile.htm B.3 Interest subsidies for modernization of processing plants to achieve conformity with international standards. Salagrama, 2004. Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (1,868,790) B.4 subsidies for infrastructural development including roads, jetties, fuel stations, markets etc. Salagrama, 2004. B.4 Export marketing supporting programs 23,350 Salagrama, 2004. B.5 Income and sales tax exemption for seafood exporters and fishery products and for cooperative societies. 298 Salagrama, 2004. B.5 Increase in fuel price from 1991-1996 led to massive fuel subsidies (not included in analysis). Salagrama, 2004. C.3 Bay of Bengal artisanal fishery development project + welfare programs for local fishers. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/IND/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (36,771) FAO web links last accessed 21/06/06. Group II: Indonesia 343,169 A.l WB, ADB & GEF program funds for fisheries management and enhancement. 24,100 APEC, 2000. A.l Stock assessment programs 46,500 APEC, 2000. A.l Aid from Australia towards illegal fishing. 13,946 Globefish databank, 16/03/06. B.l Development grants towards fisheries enterprise. 36,677 APEC, 2000. B.3 Infrastructure developments and other miscellaneous support programs. 91,200 APEC, 2000. B.4 Investment in cooperatives for fish product promotion and price support. 98,200 C.3 Integrated small scale fishery development. APEC, 2000. Rural fishers' community development programs. (32,546) Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group II: Iran 21237 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/IRN/orofile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. 13,166 A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/lRN/profile.htm Fishery research and development. 10,034 B.l Development support programs towards fisheries enterprise. http ://www. fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/IRN/profi le.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (31,388) Technical assistance for fishery development from the JICA, FAO and UNDP. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/IRN/orofile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (60,111) B.3 Support for fish processing and marketing programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/IRN/profile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (84,635) C.3 Support for rural artisanal fishery development. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/IRN/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (13,063) FAO web links last accessed 20/06/06. Group II: Jamaica 2,827 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/JAM/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (262) B.l Development support programs towards fisheries enterprise. httrj://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/JAM/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (624) B.3 Technical assistance towards jetties, cold storage and marketing programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcrj/en/JAM/profile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (1,681) C.3 Assistance and support programs towards rural artisanal fishery development. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/JAM/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (260) FAO web links last accessed 20/06/06. Group II: Jordan 28 A. 1 Fishery management support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/JOR/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (5) B.2 Technical assistance such as the USAID marine park. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/JOR/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (23) FAO web links last accessed 20/06/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD •000) Source(s) of information Group II: Kenya 9,831 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcn/en/KBN/Drofile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (238) A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/KEN/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (182) B.l Development support programs towards fisheries enterprise. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/KEN/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (568) B.2 Technical and financial assistance projects from ODA and the UN agencies. 8,863 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/KEN/Drofile.htm FAO web links last accessed 21/06/06. Group II: Kiribati 12^ 50 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/KIR/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (1,171) B.l National aid to fishing parastatals (Le Matauri Ltd). http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/KIR/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (2,791) B.2 International donor assistance programs towards fishery development. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/KIR/profile.htm B.2 Oversea aid towards training in fisheries research programs. 863 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/KIR/profile.htm B.4 Storage and processing support programs from state aid. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/KIR/profile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (7,525) FAO web links last accessed 27/06/06. Group II: Latvia 42,941 A. 1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/LVA/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (6,786) A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/LVA/Drofile.htm Fishery research and development. (5,172) B.2 EU pre-accession support programs httD://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/LVA/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (30,983) FAO web links last accessed 27/06/06. Group II: Lebanon 0 Subsidies are assumed to be absent Information not available. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group II: Liberia 1,726 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ora/fi/fcD/en/LBR/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (376) B.5 Fishing input duty waivers. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LBR/profile.htm Tax exemption programs. (977) C.3 Technical assistance to rural artisanal fisheries from the FAO. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcD/en/LBR/Drofile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (373) FAO web links last accessed 22/06/06. Group II: Libya 2,555 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LBY/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (1,450) A.2 COPEMED research surveys http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LBY/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (1,105) FAO web links last accessed 21/06/06. Group II: Lithuania 6,798 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LTU/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (3,858) A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.ora/fi/fcD/en/LTU/Drofile.htm Fishery research and development. (2,940) FAO web links last accessed 21/06/06. Group II: Madagascar 5,110 A. 1 National government and international collaboration in fishery management. 5,110 http://www.wcs.ore/international/marine/marineafri ca/madagascarmarine Web link last accessed 21/11/05. Group II: Malaysia 457,657 A. 1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs. 467 APEC, 2000. A.l MPA support programs 735 APEC, 2000. A.2 Fisheries research programs. 521 APEC, 2000. B.l Subsidized lending to the fishery sector particular for fleet support 11,720 APEC, 2000. B.2 Bilateral and ODA project support assistance. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/MYS/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (282,013) B.4 Subsidized lending towards marketing programs. 1,456 APEC, 2000. B.5 Tax waivers and investment incentives to the fishery sector. Ahmed et al. 2002. B.5 Tax rebates to the fishery sector. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/MYS/profile.htm Tax exemption programs. (160,745) FAO web links last accessed 22/06/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group II: Maldives 40,584 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fct)/en/MDV/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (6,629) A.2 Support programs in R&D (FAD) from national government international donor agencies and Banks (ADB, IFAD, OPEC funds etc). 200 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/MDV/profile.htm B.l Development support projects from DFID and FAO. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/MDV/Drofile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (30,262) B.3 Support programs in fishing port facilities from national government, international donor agencies and Banks (ADB, IFAD, OPEC funds etc). 1,623 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/MDV/profile.htm B.4 Support programs in processing and marketing from national government, international donor agencies and Banks (ADB, IFAD, OPEC funds etc). 1,870 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/MDV/profile.htm FAO web links last accessed 22/06/06. Group II: Marshall Islands 28,513 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/MHL/bodv.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (403) A.2 FAO marine resources management project with birds and sharks in the longline fishery. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/MHiybodv.htm Fishery research and development. (307) B.2 Fishery development projects such as the Amo Atoll project funded by JICA; monitoring vessel support by the US government, NMFS grant of USD 80,000 per year from 1992-1997; JICA overseas fisheries funds USD 1.5 million 2,050 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/MHL/bodv.htm B.2 ADB institutional support program (aid of USD 2.4 million). US provision of patrol vessels amounting to USD 370,000 through the Compact Free Association. NZ training and institutional support programs amounting to USD 48,000. 2,818 httD://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/MHL/bodv.htm B.4 Government funded fishery loin infrastructures, and JICA aid for fisheries infrastructure funding. httD://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/MHL/bodv.htm Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (20,342) B.4 Support programs towards marketing programs. htrp://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/FSM/Drofile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (2,593) FAO web links last accessed 29/07/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group II: Mauritania 140,565 A.l Japanese funds for two naval patrol and research boats: the 'Amrigue' and the El Awam' httB://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/MRT/profiIe.htm A.l German project towards maritime fishery surveillance and enforcement. http://www.fao.ora/fi/fcp/fr/MRT/profile.htm A.l LUXDEV surveillance project funds, pro rated by LV. 260 http://www.fao.ora/fi/proiects/7221ux.asp A.2 Project assistance towards R&D from ORSTROM and Russia with the Centre for Research Marine Research Mauritania. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fct)/fr/MRT/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (1,569) B.l The CEAO bank subsidized financing and support to the fishing sector. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/MRT/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (4,908) B.2 DANIDA and JICA fishery development projects for the small scale sector. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/MRT/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (9,398) B.3 French l'AFD Project (port infrastructure) at Nouakchott-du Port Autome de Nouadhibou. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/MRT/profile.htm Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (103,798) B.4 JICA projects with fish marketing infrastructure at Nouakchott, and other sites http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/MRT/profile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (13,233) B.5 Tax exemptions and fuel subsidies. Milazzo, 1998. Tax exemption programs. (5,357) C.3 Technical assistance to rural artisanal fisheries. htro://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/MRT/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (2,042) FAO web links last accessed 02/04/06. Group II: Micronesia 190,037 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. htto://www.fao.ora/fi/fcp/en/FSM/bodv.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (1,170) A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/FSM/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (892) B.l Government fisheries enterprise programs 23,000 httt>://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/FSM/bodv.htm B.l ADB USD 6.5 million subsidized loan for fleet development 650 http://www.fao.org/fi/fcD/en/FSM/orofile.htm B.2 Development aid from Governments of Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and through the Compact arrangements with the United States. In addition to multilateral aid packages. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcD/en/FSMftodv.htm B.2 Technical cooperation has included the provision of four technical experts and supporting grant-aid to the Fisheries and Maritime Institute in Yap. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcD/en/FSMftodv.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (5,341) B.3 Extension and renovation of fishing ports in Pohnpei and Chuuk. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/FSM/bodv.htm Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (58,984) B.4 International fish marketing freight programs supported by government of Japan and FS of Micronesia. 100,000 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/FSMftodv.htm FAO web links last accessed 31/07/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group II: Mauritius 2,679 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/MUS/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (481) B.2 Aid towards the fishing sector from ODAs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/MUS/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (2,198) FAO web links last accessed 22/06/06. Group II: Morocco 266,245 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/fr/MAR/Drofile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (16,505) A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/fr/MAR/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (12,578) B.l Government fisheries enterprise programs, with support from FAO. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/fr/MAR/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (39,345) B.2 World bank fishery projects and support from other ODAs or bilateral assistance. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/fr/MAR/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (75,351) B.4 Value adding and export support programs from the World Bank. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/MAR/profile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (106,092) C.3 National support programs towards rural fisheries development. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/MAR/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (16,374) FAO web links last accessed 21/06/06. Group II: Mozambique 12,672 A. 1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/MOZ/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (1,297) B.2 Bilateral (JICA, ICEIDA, DAN I DA etc) and multilateral assistance (EU, IFAD etc) programs to the fishery sector. 10,088 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/MOZ/profile.htm B.3 Support program for fishing harbor renovation. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/MOZ/profile.htm C.3 Artisanal rural fishery development support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/MOZ/profile.htm C.3 Artisanal fishery development project funded by AfDB 1,287 http://www.onefish.ore/elobal/index.isp Web links last accessed 27/06/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group II: Myanmar 709,770 A.l National fishery management programs with technical support from FAO and other ODAs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcn/en/MMR/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (43,999) A.2 Fisheries research programs. httD://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MMR/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (33,532) B.l Government fisheries enterprise programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MMR/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (104,888) B.2 Technical assistance from ODAs and aid packages towards fishery development. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcD/en/MMR/Drofile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (200,873) B.4 FAO funded quality control and marketing programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MMR/profile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (282,826) C.3 Artisanal rural fishery development support programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcD/en/MMR/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (43,652) FAO web links last accessed 21/06/06. Group II: Namibia 62,248 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NAM/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (4,880) A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NAM/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (3,719) B.2 ODA and multilateral technical assistance programs in fisheries development. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcD/en/NAM/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (22,280) B.4 Government support programs in quality control and marketing. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NAM/Drofile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (31,369) FAO web links last accessed 19/06/06. Group II: Nauru 331 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NRU/bodvhtm Fisheries management programs and services. (5) A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcD/en/NRU/Drofile.htm Fishery research and development. (4) B.l Government investment in fishery enterprises. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NRUfoodv.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (12) B.2 Japanese projects funded through the Japan Overseas Fish Cooperation Foundation. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NRUfoodv.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (23) B.3 Support program for fishing harbor renovation. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcD/en/NRU/bodv.htm Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (255) B.4 Support programs fish marketing programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcD/en/NRUfoodv.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (32) FAO web links last accessed 31/07/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD •000) Source(s) of information Group II: Nicaragua 7,782 A.l Financial assistance through bilateral overseas development agencies and multilateral organizations for marine conservation (including MPAs). 708 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/es/NIC/profiIe.htm A.l Technical assistance for monitoring, control and surveillance provided by DANIDA. 200 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/es/NIC/profile.htm A.2 Financial assistance through bilateral overseas development agencies and multilateral organizations for fisheries research and development, including pilot projects. 1,559 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/es/NIC/Drofile.htm B.4 Infrastructure support through bilateral overseas development agencies including Japanese JICA and Spanish FAD. 2,674 httD://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/es/NIC/profile.htm B.5 Tax waivers and duty free import of fishery inputs and equipments including exemption from value added tax, fuel and diesel tax. Exemption from export tax on fishery products of about 1.5%. httD://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/es/NIC/bodv.htm Tax exemption programs. (2,642) FAO web links last accessed 23/03/06. Group II: Nigeria 13,659 A.l ADB subsidized loan for fisheries management program. 120 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/NGA/profile.htm A. l Subsidized lending for monitoring, control and surveillance programs from the World Bank. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/NGA/profile.htm A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/NGA/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (11,739) B.2 UN coordinated fishery development projects. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/NGA/profile.htm B.4 Federal support towards quality control and assurance for fishery products. 600 httD://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/NGA/bodv.htm C.3 IFAD and ECOWAS support programs for rural artisanal fishery development. 1,200 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/NGA/profile.htm FAO web links last accessed 22/06/06. Group II: Oman 100,444 A. l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/OMN/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (6,028) The national Fisheries Research Funds for projects in fisheries research. 7,802 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/OMN/profile.htm B.l Government support in fishery enterprises. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/OMN/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (14,369) B.3 Support program for fishing harbor renovation. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/OMN/profile.htm Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (27,519) B.4 Support programs fish marketing programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/OMN/profile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (38,746) C.3 Artisanal rural fishery development support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/OMN/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (5,980) FAO web links last accessed 24/06/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group II: Pakistan 212,605 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/PAK/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (21,904) A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/PAK/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (16,693) B.l Government support in fishery enterprises. httt>://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/PAK/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (52,217) B.2 ODA and multilateral technical assistance programs in fisheries development. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcrj/en/PAK/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (100,001) B.4 Support programs fish marketing programs. 59 http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PAK/profile.htm C.3 Artisanal rural fishery development support programs. httrj://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/PAK/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (21,731) FAO web links last accessed 25/06/06. Group II: Palau 658 A. 1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/PLW/profiIe.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (55) B.2 Bilateral and multilateral assistance to the fishing sector. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/PLW/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (250) B.3 State aid towards fishing wharves construction and renovation. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/PLW/profile.htm B.4 State aid towards processing and storage facilities. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/PLW/Drofile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (353) FAO web links last accessed 27/06/06. Group II: Panama 170,965 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PAN/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (10,968) B.2 ODA fishery development projects http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/PAN/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (50,073) B.4 Fishery products export support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/es/PAN/bodv.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (70,502) B.5 Tax rebates to the fishery sector. httD://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/es/P AN/bodv.htm Tax exemption programs. (28,541) C.3 JICA rural fisher community development projects. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/PAN/Drofile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (10,881) FAO web links last accessed 25/06/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group II: Papua New Guinea 77,903 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/PNG/Drofile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (4,158) A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/PNG/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (3,169) B.l Government support in fishery enterprises. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/PNG/Drofile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (9,913) B.2 ODA fishery development programs and donor assistance from IFAD, UN agencies, EU and WB. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/PNG/Drofile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (18,985) B.3 ADB construction of two fishing wharves. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/PNG/profile.htm B.4 INFOFISH support programs in fish product assurance. (26,731) B.5 Duty free imports of fishery inputs/ infrastructure items. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/PNG/bodv.htm Tax exemption programs. (10,821) C.3 GEF-UNDP project on community based fishery management. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/PNG/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (4,126) FAO web links last accessed 25/06/06. Group II: Peru 1,084,293 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/PER/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (531,893) A.2 Fisheries research programs, and the provision of a research vessel. 14,000 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/PER/profile.htm A.2 Fisheries research programs, and the provision of a research cruises. APEC, 2000. B.l Fishery development programs towards modernizing small scale fishery enterprises. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/PER/profile.htm B.l Fleet renewal and modernization programs. APEC, 2000. B.l Subsidized lending support programs to the fishery sector, from FONDEPES. 1,188 APEC, 2000. B.2 Development grants for fisheries enterprises. 1,364 APEC, 2000. B.3 National fund for fisheries port development and renovation programs 6,000 APEC, 2000. B.4 Development grant for fish processing infrastructures. 2,150 APEC, 2000. C.3 Rural artisanal fisher community development programs. APEC, 2000. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/PER/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (527,698) FAO web links last accessed 25/06/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD •000) Source(s) of information Group II: Philippines 405,996 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. httD://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PHL/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (32,815) A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PHL/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (25,009) B.l Subsidized state loan and credit programs towards the fishing sector for mostly equipments. Ahmed et al. 2002. Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (78,228) B.2 Grants and loans towards fishery development from ODA support and other foreign donor contributions. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcrj/en/PHL/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (149,815) B.4 Infrastructure support programs towards ports, markets and price support promotions. 2,180 APEC, 2000. B.5 Tax exemptions towards fishing activities and enterprise development. Tax exemption programs. (85,393) C.3 Small scale fisher integrated development support programs. Ahmed et al. 2002. Rural fishers' community development programs. (32,556) FAO web links last accessed 25/06/06. Group II: Romania 1,103 A. 1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcD/en/ROM/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (124) A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ROM/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (94) B.2 EU Phare funds for fisheries development. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ROM/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (564) Tax (VAT) exemptions for fishing fleets within the Baltic sea. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ROM/bodv.htm Tax exemption programs. (321) FAO web links last accessed 25/06/06. Group II: St. Kitts and Nevis 191 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/KNA/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (23) B.2 ODA projects and other donor assistance to fishery development, including CARICOM regional program funds. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/KNA/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (107) B.5 Duty free concessions on fishery inputs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/KNA/profile.htm Tax exemption programs. (61) FAO web links last accessed 25/06/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD •000) Source(s) of information Group II: St. Lucia 1,519 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/LCA/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (93) A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/LCA/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (71) B.2 ODA (Japan, Canada and France) provides technical assistance to the fishing sector. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/LCA/nrofile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (424) B.4 Fish marketing support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/LCA/profiIe.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (597) B.4 Duty free concessions on fishery inputs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/LC A/t>rofile.htm Tax exemption programs. (242) C.3 Cooperative fishers support programs http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcn/en/LCA/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (92) FAO web links last accessed 25/06/06. Group II: St. Vincent and the Grenadines. 5,084 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/VCT/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (413) A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcn/en/VCT/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (315) B.l Subsidized loans towards fishery investments and enterprises. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/VCT/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (985) B.2 ODA projects and other donor assistance to fishery development. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/VCT/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (1,886) B.5 Duty free concessions on fishery inputs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/VCT/bodv.htm Tax exemption programs. (1,075) C.3 Artisanal cooperative fisher support programs hftp://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/VCTfoodv.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (410) FAO web links last accessed 26/06/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD •000) Source(s) of information Group II: Samoa (Western) 10,641 A. l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/enAVSM/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (651) A.l Tuna research and marine reserve studies. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/WSM/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (496) B.2 ODA projects and other donor assistance to fishery development. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/WSM/orofile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (2,971) B.3 Chinese aid towards fishery harbor complex construction. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/WSM/profile.htm B.4 Japanese aid towards processing, marketing and the rehabilitation of jetties. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/WSM/profile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (4,183) B.5 Tax exemption programs on the export of fishery products. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/WSM/profile.htm Tax exemption programs. (1,694) C.3 FAO/DAN1DA rural community fisheries development project. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/WSM/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (646) FAO web links last accessed 26/06/06. Group II: Sao Tome and Principe. 1,132 A. l Stock assessment projects was funded by the EU in the early 1990s and later by Canada. httD://www.fao.org/fi/fcn/fr/STP/Drofile.htm A. 1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs. htto://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/STP/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (173) B.2 Beneficiary of the FAO implemented IDAF Project in West Africa (ended in 1998), funded by DANIDA and the on-going DFID SFLP project. JICA provided fishing inputs and services to the fishing sector. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/STP/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (788) C.3 Artisanal cooperative fisher support programs http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/STP/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (171) FAO web links last accessed 29/03/06. Group II: Saudi Arabia 12,784 A . l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcn/en/SAU/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (2,488) A.2 Marine and fishery research in collaboration with the national fishery agency (Fisheries Affairs Directorate). http://www.fao.org/fi/fcn/en/SAU/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (1,896) B.l National support for fishery development (loans, modernization etc) to the Saudi Fisher company (paras tatals). http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SAU/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (5,932) C.3 Soft loans, grants and technical assistance to the artisanal fishers community sector. httD://www.fao.org/fi/fcD/en/SAU/Drofile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (2,469) FAO web links last accessed 26/06/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD •000) Source(s) of information Group II: Senegal 25,533 A.l LUXDEV surveillance project funds, pro rated by LV. 111 http://www.fao.ore/fi/proiects/7221ux.asp A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/SEN/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (14,376) B.l Support to the restructuring of the Senegalese fishery industry to EU standards. 725 UNEP, 2003. B.2 Fond de Promotion Economique in collaboration with AfDB finances industrial fisheries under medium size enterprises. UNEP, 2003. B.2 Aid towards the fishery sector from bilateral and multilateral assistances. 4,846 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcrj/fr/SEN/Drofile.htm B.4 Export subsidy to the trawling fishing industry and fish market renovation programs 1,711 UNEP, 2002; UNEP, 2003. B.5 Tax reduction for outboards engines, purse seines, and other fishing inputs. 3,353 UNEP, 2003. C.3 Financial support to rural fishers and fishing cooperatives. 411 UNEP, 2003. FAO web links last accessed 26/06/06. Group II: Seychelles 9,430 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/SYC/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (1,641) A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SYC/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (1,250) B.2 FAO technical assistance projects towards fishery development. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/SYC/profile.htm B.2 JICA grant in aid project towards fishery infrastructure enhancement programs. 1,000 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/SYC/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (3,911) C.3 Rural artisanal fisher assistance programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/SYC/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (1,628) FAO web links last accessed 26/06/06. Group II: Sierra Leone 27,541 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/SLE/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (3,007) B.2 Bilateral (such as GTZ) and multilateral (FAO) technical assistance to the fishery sector. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/SLE/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (13,727) B.5 Tax exemptions on boat and gear supplied by the EU AFCOD (Artisanal Fisheries and Community Development) Project. Khan, 1998. Tax exemption programs. (7,824) C.3 Artisanal fishery development project funded by AfDB http://www.onefish.ore/elobal/index.isp C.3 EU AFCOD artisanal fisher assistance programs http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/SLE/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (2,983) Web links last accessed 27/06/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD •000) Source(s) of information Group II: Solomon Islands 10,297 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http ://www. fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/SLB/profi le .h tm Fisheries management programs and services. (1,269) B.l Financial support to parastatals for fishing enterprise development 1,975 Globefish databank, 13/04/06. B.2 Fishery project with assistance from ODA and multilaterals. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/SLB/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (5,793) C.3 National support programs and EU funded projects towards rural fishers and livelihood programs. http://www.fao.orB/fi/fcp/en/SLB/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (1,259) Web links last accessed 27/06/06. Group II: Somalia 6,564 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.orB/fi/fcp/en/SOM/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (1,001) B.2 UNDP/FAO funded development projects. http://www.fao.orE/fi/fcp/en/SOM/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (4,570) B.4 & B.5 The Las Korey canning factory rehabilitation project by UNDP (not included in analysis). http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/SOM/profile.htm C.3 UNDP artisanal fisher development programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/SOM/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (993) Web links last accessed 26/06/06. Group II: South Africa 43,734 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ZAF/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (24,819) A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/ZAF/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (18,915) Web links last accessed 26/06/06. Group II: Sri Lanka 30,725 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcn/en/LKA/profile.hrm Fisheries management programs and services. (12,643) A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/LKA/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (9,635) B.2 ADB fishery resources development project funds. 1,933 http://www.fao.ora/fi/fco/en/LKA/profile.htm B.3 Fishery harbor rehabilitation aid programs funded by China, Japan, USA and ADB. 5,034 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/LKA/profile.htm B.5 Japanese funded program towards storage facilities. 1,480 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcD/en/LKA/Drofile.hrm Web links last accessed 26/06/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group II: Sudan 4,092 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/SDN/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (250) A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/SDN/Drofile.htm Fishery research and development. (191) B.2 ODA (IDRC, JICA etc) and multilateral (FAO, UNDP, etc) assistance support programs. httD://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/SDN/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (1,143) B.4 OPEC/UNDP funded programs in fish storage and transport facilities. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/SDN/profile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (1,609) B.5 Fisheries investment incentive programs including duty waivers and tax exemptions on exports. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/SDN/Drofile.htm Tax exemption programs. (651) C.3 UN technical assistance towards food security and rural fishery development http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/SDN/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (248) FAO web links last accessed 26/06/06. Group II: Suriname 6,210 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/SUR/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (1,032) B.3 Central fishing harbor construction with Belgian assistance 2,454 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/SUR/profile.htm B.4 JICA assistance programs towards storage and processing. 1,700 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/SUR/bodv.htm EU support programs towards artisanal fishermen. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/SUR/profile.htin Rural fishers' community development programs. (1,024) FAO web links last accessed 26/06/06. Group II: Syria 100 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/SYR/bodv.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (100) FAO web link last accessed 26/06/06. Group II: Tanzania 33,698 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/TZA/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (2,642) A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/TZA/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (2,013) B.2 ODA and multilateral development assistance to the fishery sector (fishing inputs mostly) http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/TZA/profile.htin Fishery development projects and support services. (12,061) B.4 Post harvest support programs (Holland, Denmark and FAO). http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/TZA/profile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (16,982) FAO web links last accessed 26/06/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD •000) Source(s) of information Group II: Thailand 323,959 A.l Stock assessment and fishery resource surveys 11,200 APEC, 2000. A.l Fish conservation and coral management programs 5,082 APEC, 2000. A.l Fish stock enhancement programs 5,964 APEC, 2000. A.2 Fisheries research programs. 2,379 APEC, 2000. B.2 Subsidized loans towards industrial fishery development 67,254 APEC, 2000. B.4 Post harvest and quality control programs. 66,960 B.5 Duty tax exemption on fishery inputs and outputs. Ahmed et al. 2002. Tax exemption programs. (119,544) C.3 Programs to assist small scale fisher communities. Ahmed et al. 2002. Rural fishers' community development programs. (45,576) Group II: Togo 7,921 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ors/fi/fcp/fr/TGO/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (865) B.2 Bilateral and multilateral development assistance to the fishery sector. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/TGO/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (3,948) B.5 Fishery inputs and export waivers and concessions. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/TGO/profile.htm Tax exemption programs. (2,250) C.3 FED artisanal fishery development project. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/TGO/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (858) FAO web links last accessed 26/06/06. Group II: Tonga 2,640 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/TON/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (188) A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/TON/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (143) B.l Fishery enterprise and parastatals development http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/TON/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (449) B.2 Aid and assistance from FAO, UNDP, EU, USAID, JICA, AUSAID and CIDA. Aids have variously been concerned with the provision of technical assistance and capital aid. Amount represents Australian Tonga fishery development project. 650 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/TON/bodv.htm B.4 Fish marketing support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/TON/bodv.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (1,210) FAO web links last accessed 31/07/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD •000) Source(s) of information Group II: Trinidad and Tobago 7321 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ora/fi/fcp/en/TTO/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (431) B.l Loans, fishing equipments and other economic incentives towards fisheries enterprise development. hrtp://www.fao.ora/fi/fcp/en/TTO/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (1,028) B.2 Bilateral and multilateral development assistance to the fishery sector. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/TTO/nrofile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (1,968) B.4 JICA support programs for fish processing facilities. http://www.fao.ora/fi/fcp/en/TTO/nrofile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (2,772) Fishing input duty waivers and exemption http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/TTO/profile.htm Tax exemption programs. (1,122) FAO web links last accessed 26/06/06. Group II: Tunisia 65,292 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ora/fi/fcp/fr/TUN/Drofile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (4,473) B.2 FAO/UNDP technical assistance to the fishery sector. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/TUN/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (20,423) B.3 Support programs to major fishing ports. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/TUN/profile.htm B.4 National development programs for fishery product quality assurance. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/fr/TTJN/nrofile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (28,755) B.5 Fiscal incentives including waivers and tax concessions according to national investment code. http://www.utap.ore.tn/htmlane/pech aar/bas 1 6.htm Tax exemption programs. (11,641) Web links last accessed 27/06/06. Group II: Turkey 140,039 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/TUR/profile.htm A.l Fisheries monitoring support programs. 561 OECD, 2004. A.2 Fisheries research programs. 1,185 OECD, 2004. B.2 Japanese grants in aid project 500 http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/TUR/Drofile.htm B.2 Technical assistance from multilateral agencies. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/TUR/profile.htm B.3 State fishing port development programs http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/TUR/Drofile.htm B.3 Fisheries infrastructure support programs 23,826 OECD, 2004. B.4 State programs towards fishery products quality assurance. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/TUR/profile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (113,823) C.3 Social welfare programs for fishermen. 144 www.abes.eov.tr/tarama/tarama files/08/08AT Annotated.htm Web links last accessed 27/06/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD •000) Source(s) of information Group II: Ukraine 190,658 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. htto://www.fao.ors/fi/fcp/en/UKR/Drofile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (19,648) A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/UKR/Drofile.htm Fishery research and development. (14,974) B.l Public investment in fisheries enterprises. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/UKR/Drofile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (46,840) B.2 Multilateral assistance from FAO and UNDP in fishery development projects. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/UKR/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (89,703) C.3 State funds towards fishing cooperatives. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/UKR/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (19,493) FAO web links last accessed 27/06/06. Group II: Uruguay 5,120 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/URY/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (5,120) FAO web links last accessed 27/06/06. Group II: Vanuatu 27,275 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fco/en/VUT/Drofile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (3,431) B.l State support programs towards fishery enterprise development. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/VUT/bodv.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (8,179) B.2 Bilateral and multilateral assistance (FAO, UNDP, etc.) programs in fisheries development and management. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/VUT/bodv.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (15,665) FAO web links last accessed 27/06/06. Group II: Venezuela 259,898 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/VEN/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (16,673) B.l ODA support programs and other donor contributions (EU, FAO) towards fishery development http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/VEN/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (76,120) B.4 INFOPESCA programs in fish quality control and marketing. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcD/es/VEN/profile.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (107,175) B.5 Tax exemption programs towards fishing investments. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/VEN/profile.htm Tax exemption programs. (43,388) C.3 Support programs towards rural fisher cooperatives. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/VEN/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (16,542) FAO web links last accessed 27/06/06. Subsidy program description Amounts (USD '000) Source(s) of information Group II: Vietnam 380,692 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ors/fi/fcp/en/VNM/profile.htm A.l Fisheries management programs and services. 507 APEC, 2000. A.2 Fisheries research programs. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcrj/en/VNM/orofile.htm Fishery research and development. (48,850) B.l Public investment in fisheries enterprises. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcB/en/VNM/profile.htm B.l State fishery enterprise development and promotional investment programs. 33,663 APEC, 2000. B.l Preferential loan programs towards fishery investment enterprises. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcp/en/VNM/profile.htm B.2 ODA (NORAD, DANIDA, AusAID, etc) and multilateral assistance (EU, FAO, WB etc) programs in fishery development. htto://www.fao.ors/fi/fcp/en/VNM/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (292,641) B.3 State support in fishing harbor infrastructure programs. http://www.fao.ors/fi/fcp/en/VNM/profile.htm B.3 Support programs to major fishing ports. 5,031 APEC, 2000. FAO web links last accessed 27/06/06. Group II: Yemen 83,832 A.l Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.ors/fi/fcp/en/YEM/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (5,744) B.2 Support programs with technical assistance from ODAs (JICA) and donor agencies (UN, EU, Islamic Bank, WB etc) for fishery development. http://www.fao.ors/fi/fcp/en/YEMftodv.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (26,222) B.4 Support programs with technical assistance for processing and storage facilities. http://www.fao.ore/fi/fcB/en/YEMftodv.htm Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (36,920) B.5 Tax exemptions for the fisheries inputs and outputs. http://www.fao.ors/fi/fcp/en/YEM/profile.htm Tax exemption programs. (14,946) FAO web links last accessed 27/06/06. 

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