Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Reconstructing historical abundances of exploited marine mammals at the global scale Christensen, Line Bang 2006

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
ubc_2006-0408.pdf [ 10.48MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0074892.json
JSON-LD: 1.0074892+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0074892.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0074892+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0074892+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0074892+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0074892 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0074892.txt
Citation
1.0074892.ris

Full Text

RECONSTRUCTING HISTORICAL ABUNDANCES OF EXPLOITED MARINE M A M M A L S A T THE G L O B A L S C A L E  by  LINE B A N G CHRISTENSEN B.Sc, The University of British Columbia, 2004.  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF SCIENCE  in  THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Resource Management and Environmental Studies)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 2006 © Line Bang Christensen, 2006  Abstract The relationship between humans and marine mammals extends back for centuries and covers a multitude of facets; literature and spirituality, necessities (food) and luxuries (corsets). Their exploitation history changed from small-scale hunting for food/fur, to large commercial ventures for oil, to limited hunting as marine mammals became the poster child for environmental movements. The International Whaling Commission, national and regional bodies assess the current status of marine mammals. Information on stock size relative to carrying capacities is, however, hard to come by. Assessments to date have been limited to a relatively small number of stocks/species because data quality, availability and politics. To address concerns over stock status, the analyses have to be expanded to all exploited populations.  Employing a Bayesian approach to stochastic stock reduction analysis, I construct probability distributions over historical stock sizes. The method allows me to use historical catch time series to estimate a distribution over population parameters, the intrinsic rate of growth and carrying capacity, that give rise to extant populations. I tested this stock reconstruction approach on simulated data sets generated from a reference model, and then applied it to available catch and abundance data. Simulation tests indicate that parameter estimates were unbiased.  Globally, I find that aggregated information on all marine mammal populations indicate a decline of 22% (0-62%) in numbers, and 76% (58-86%) in biomass. The decline has been greatest for the great whales, with a 64% (40-79%) decline in numbers, ii  and an 81% (69-89%) decline in biomass. M y estimates are consistent with published estimates of carrying capacity. These estimates are intended to provide a status overview, rather than direct management advice, affording us the ability to begin calculating how humans have impacted these large fauna in their marine ecosystems.  The International Convention on the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW) predicates that stocks must be maintained at their most productive levels. Also, a moratorium on whaling exists, awaiting better science. This represents the fundamental conflict in interest between pro-whaling nations and those with moral/ethical opposition to whaling, intent on upholding the moratorium. Results in this thesis indicate that the Japanese hunt of minke whales could increase and abide by the ICRW, yet the majority of western IWC signatories want to see commercial hunting banned altogether.  iii  Table of Contents Abstract Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures List of Appendices Acknowledgements Dedication CHAPTER 1 General introduction and thesis objectives 1.1 Thesis objectives 1.2 History of Marine Mammal Hunting 1.2.1 Early hunting 1.2.2 Modern Whaling 1.2.3 Reporting catches 1.3 History of Marine Mammal Management 1.3.1 International Governance 1.3.2 National Governance CHAPTER 2 Marine Mammal Stochastic Stock Reduction Analysis 2.1 Methods 2.1.1 Data sources 2.1.2 Production model 2.1.3 Stochastic Stock Reduction Analysis 2.2 Application to simulated data 2.2.1 Estimating parameters - single stock 2.2.2 Estimating parameters - aggregated stocks 2.2.3 Struck-but-loss ratios CHAPTER 3 Population Traj ectories 3.1 Population trajectories of exploited cetaceans 3.1.1 Great whales Sei whale, Balaenoptera  borealis  35  Southern Right whale, Eubalaena australis Sperm whale, Physeter catodon Fin whale, Balaenoptera  37 38  physalus  39.  Gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus Blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus Bowhead whale, Balaena mysticetus '. Eden/Bryde's and Bryde's whale, Balaenoptera edeni and brydei Humpback whale, Megaptera novaengliae Common minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata Antarctic minke whale, Balaenoptera bonaerensis North Atlantic right whale, Eubalaena glacialis North Pacific right whale, Eubalaena japonica 3.1.2 Smaller whales and large dolphins Short-finned pilot whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus Baird's beaked whale, Berardius bairdii Beluga, Delphinapterus  •  i' iv vi vii x xi xii 1 3 3 3 5 8 9 9 13 14 14 14 15 16 20 25 27 30 33 35 35  leucas  42 44 47 48 50 52 54 55 56 58 58 59 60  Killer whale, Orcimts orca Long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas Northern bottlenose whale, Hyperoodon ampullatus False killer whale, Pseudorca crassidens  62 64 66 67  IV  Narwhal, Monodon  monoceros  68  3.1.3 Smaller Dolphins and Porpoises Pantropical spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuate! Spinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris Short beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis Dall's porpoise, Phocoenoides dalli Bottlenose dolphin, Tursitops truncatus Northern right whale dolphin, Lissodelphis borealis Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena Atlantic white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus acutus 3.2 Population trajectories of exploited pinnipeds 3.2.1 True seals : Ribbon seal, Histriophoca fasciata Ringed seal, Pusa hispida Southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonine Gray seal, Halichoerus grypus Harp seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus Hooded seal, Cystophora cristata Bearded seal, Erignathus barbatus Harbour seal, Phoca vitulina Largha or spotted seal, Phoca largha 3.2.2 Eared seals Antarctic far seal, Arctocephalus gazelle South African and Australian far seal, Arctocephalus pusillus Northern far seal, Callorhinus ursinus South American sea lion, Otaria flavenscens New Zealand fur seal, Arctocephalus forsteri California sea lion, Zalophus californianus Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus 3.2.3 Walrus 110  71 71 73 74 76 77 79 80 83 85 85 85 86 89 90 91 94 96 97 98 100 100 102 103 104 105 106 108  Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus  110  3.3 The big picture 3.3.1 Marine mammal catches 3.3.2 Marine mammal numbers 3.3.3 Marine mammal biomass 3.3.4 The great whales CHAPTER 4 Discussion 4.1 Data 4.2 Methodology 4.3 Results 4.4 Conclusion Literature Cited Appendix 1 Species list Appendix 2 Model input Appendix 3 R code Appendix 4 Abundances of species with no documented exploitation Appendix 5 Catch data Appendix 6 Catch data sources  v  ••  •  114 115 119 122 125 128 128 131 138 146 147 184 188 194 198 201 228  List of Tables Table 1-1: Species for which the IWC has published abundance estimates (IWC, 2006) Table 3-1. Definition of confidence ID's, their meanings and associated proportion of K Table 3-2. Populations of sei whales Table 3-3. Population of Southern right whales Table 3-4. Population of sperm whales Table 3-5. Populations of fin whales Table 3-6. Populations of gray whales Table 3-7. Populations of the blue whales Table 3-8. Population of Arctic bowhead whales Table 3-9. Populations in the Eden/Bryde whale complex Table 3-10. Populations of humpback whales Table 3-11. Populations of common minke whales Table 3-12. Population of Antarctic minke whales Table 3-13. Population of North Atlantic right whales Table 3-14. Population of North Pacific right whales Table 3-15. Populations of short-finned pilot whales Table 3-16. Populations of Baird's beaked whales Table 3-17. Population of beluga whales Table 3-18. Populations of killer whales Table 3-19. Populations of long-finned pilot whales Table 3-20. Population of northern bottlenose whales Table 3-21. Populations of false killer whales : Table 3-22. Populations of narwhals Table 3-23. Populations of pantropical spotted dolphins Table 3-24. Populations of spinner dolphins Table 3-25. Populations of short beaked common dolphins Table 3-26. Populations of dalls porpoises Table 3-27. Populations of bottlenose dolphins Table 3-28. Population of northern right whale dolphins Table 3-29. Populations of harbour porpoises Table 3-30. Populations of Atlantic white-sided dolphins Table 3-31. Populations of ribbon seals Table 3-32. Populations of ringed seals Table 3-33. Population of southern elephant seals Table 3-34. Populations of gray seals Table 3-35. Populations of harp seals Table 3-36. Populations of hooded seals Table 3-37. Populations of bearded seals Table 3-38. Populations of harbour seals Table 3-39. Populations of largha or spotted seals Table 3-40. Population of Antarctic fur seals Table 3-41. Population table for the South African and Australian fur seal Table 3-42. Populations of Northern fur seals Table 3-43. Populations of South American sea lions Table 3-44. Populations of California sea lions Table 3-45. Populations of Steller sea lions Table 3-46. Populations of walruses Table 3-47. Catch by species since 1800 Table 4-1: Available published and predicted carrying capacities / pre-exploitation abundances  VI  10 34 35 37 38 40 43 45 47 48 50 53 55 56 57 58 59 61 62 65 66 68 69 72 73 75 77 78 79 81 84 85 87 89 90 92 94 96 97 98 101 102 103 105 107 108 110 126 143  List of Figures Figure 2-1. There is no bias in the sample model for the r and K parameters 22 Figure 2-2. Bias in the sample model assuming both observation and process errors 23 Figure 2-3. Bias estimates for the r and K parameters 24 Figure 2-4. Simulated and estimated population trajectories with a) some recovery and b) no/limited recovery 26 Figure 2-5. Boxplots for the bias ratios for r and K estimated for a single stock 27 Figure 2-6. Simulated and estimated population trajectories for the aggregated populations 29 Figure 2-7. Boxplots for the bias ratios for r and K for the aggregated population 30 Figure 2-8. The effect of struck-but-loss rates on estimating K 31 Figure 3-1. Sample population trajectory 34 Figure 3-2. Population trajectories for North Atlantic sei whales 36 Figure 3-3. Population trajectories for North Pacific sei whales 36 Figure 3-4. Population trajectories for Southern Hemisphere sei whales 37 Figure 3-5. Population trajectory for Southern right whales 38 Figure 3-6. Population trajectories for sperm whales 39 Figure 3-7. Population trajectories for North Atlantic fin whales 40 Figure 3-8. Population trajectories for North Pacific fin whales 41 Figure 3-9. Population trajectories for Southern Hemisphere fin whales 41 Figure 3-10. Population trajectories for Northeastern Pacific gray whales 43 Figure 3-11. Population trajectories for Northwestern Pacific gray whales 44 Figure 3-12. Population trajectory for North Atlantic blue whales 45 Figure 3-13. Population trajectory for North Pacific blue whales 46 Figure 3-14. Population trajectory for Southern Hemisphere blue whales 46 Figure 3-15. Population trajectory for Arctic bowhead whales 47 Figure 3-16. Population trajectory for the North Pacific Eden/Bryde whale complex 49 Figure 3-17. Population trajectory for the Southern Hemisphere Eden/Bryde whale complex 49 Figure 3-18. Population trajectory for North Atlantic humpback whales 51 Figure 3-19. Population trajectory for North Pacific humpback whales 51 Figure 3-20. Population trajectory for Southern Hemisphere humpback whales 52 Figure 3-21. Population trajectory for North Atlantic minke whales 53 Figure 3-22. Population trajectory for North Pacific minke whales 54 Figure 3-23. Population trajectory for Antarctic minke whales 55 Figure 3-24. Population trajectory for North Atlantic right whales 56 Figure 3-25. Population trajectory of North Pacific right whales 57 Figure 3-26. Population trajectory for Japanese short-finned pilot whales 59 Figure 3-27. Population trajectory for Japanese Baird's beaked whales 60 Figure 3-28. Population trajectory for beluga whales 61 Figure 3-29. Population trajectory for North Atlantic killer whales 63 Figure 3-30. Population trajectory for North Pacific killer whales 63 Figure 3-31. Population trajectory for Southern Hemisphere killer whales 64 Figure 3-32. Population trajectory for Faroe Island long-finned pilot whales 65 Figure 3-33. Population trajectory for Northwest Atlantic (Newfoundland) pilot whales 66 Figure 3-34. Population trajectory for northern bottlenose whales 67 Figure 3-35. Population trajectory for Japanese false killer whales 68 Figure 3-36. Population trajectory for Canadian Baffin Bay narwhals 70 Figure 3-37. Population, trajectory for Hudson Bay narwhals 70 Figure 3-38. Population trajectory for Greenlandic Baffin Bay narwhals 71 Figure 3-39. Population trajectory for Eastern Tropical Pacific pantropical spotted dolphins 72 Figure 3-40. Population trajectory for Japanese pantropical spotted dolphins 73 Figure 3-41. Population trajectory for Eastern Tropical Pacific spinner dolphins ; 74 max  max  max  max  vii  Figure 3-42. Population trajectory for Eastern Tropical Pacific short beaked common dolphins 75 Figure 3-43. Population trajectory for Northwest Atlantic short beaked common dolphins 76 Figure 3-44. Population trajectory for Japanese dalls porpoises 77 Figure 3-45. Population trajectory for Northwest Atlantic bottlenose dolphins 78 Figure 3-46. Population trajectory for Japanese bottlenose dolphins 79 Figure 3-47. Population trajectory for northern right whale dolphins 80 Figure 3-48. Population trajectory for Greenlandic harbour porpoises 81 Figure 3-49. Population trajectory for North Sea harbour porpoises 82 Figure 3-50. Population trajectory for Baltic harbour porpoises 82 Figure 3-51. Population trajectory for Western North Atlantic harbour porpoises 83 Figure 3-52. Population trajectory for Northwest Atlantic white-sided dolphins 84 Figure 3-53. Population trajectory for Bering Sea ribbon seals 86 Figure 3-54. Population trajectory for North Atlantic / Arctic ringed seals 87 Figure 3-55. Population trajectory for Baltic ringed seals 88 Figure 3-56. Population trajectory for North Pacific / Arctic ringed seals 88 Figure 3-57. Population trajectory for southern elephant seals 89 Figure 3-58. Population trajectory for Icelandic gray seals 90 Figure 3-59. Population trajectory for Scottish gray seals 91 Figure 3-60. Population trajectory for West Ice (East Greenland) harp seals 92 Figure 3-61. Population trajectory for Northwest Atlantic harp seals 93 Figure 3-62. Population trajectory for White Sea harp seals 93 Figure 3-63. Population trajectory for Jan Mayen hooded seals 95 Figure 3-64. Population trajectory for Northwest Altantic hooded seals '. 95 Figure 3-65. Population trajectory for Bering/Chukchi bearded seals 96 Figure 3-66. Population trajectory for California harbour seals 97 Figure 3-67. Population trajectory for Bering largha/spotted seals 99 Figure 3-68. Population trajectory for Northeast Pacific largha/spotted seals 99 Figure 3-69. Population trajectory for Okhotsk Sea largha/spotted seals 100 Figure 3-70. Population trajectory for Antarctic fur seals 101 Figure 3-71. Population trajectory for the South African fur seal 102 Figure 3-72. Population trajectory for Northern fur seals : 104 Figure 3-73. Population trajectory for South American sea lions 105 Figure 3-74. Population trajectory for California sea lion 107 Figure 3-75. Population trajectory for Eastern Alaska Steller sea lions 109 Figure 3-76. Population trajectory for Western Alaska Steller sea lions 109 Figure 3-77. Population trajectory for Chukchi / Bering Sea walruses 111 Figure 3-78. Population tracjectory for East Greenlandic walruses Ill Figure 3-79. Population trajectory for Northwater walruses 112 Figure 3-80. Population trajectory for Spitsbergen walruses 112 Figure 3-81. Population trajectory for West Greenlandic walruses 113 Figure 3-82. Trends in marine mammal biomass and abundance from 1800 - 2001. T 115 Figure 3-83. World catch of marine mammals, in numbers (thin line) and biomass (thick line) from 1750 to 2001. The decline in catchy by weight clearly precedes the decline by numbers 116 Figure 3-84. Average weight of marine mammals caught during 1530 - 2001, calculated as a moving average over 31 years 117 Figure 3-85. Average weight of marine mammals caught during 1900 - 2001, estimated from total weight of mammals caught relative to numbers caught 118 Figure 3-86. Decline in numbers of marine mammals from 1800 to 2001 119 Figure 3-87. Marine mammal global abundance in numbers 120 Figure 3-88. Global aggregated abundance of cetaceans and pinnipeds, (in numbers) from 1800 to 2001.121 Figure 3-89. Decline in the biomass of marine mammals 122 Figure 3-90. Marine mammal global abundance in biomass aggregated by groups from 1800 to 2001 .... 123 Figure 3-91. Marine mammal global abundance by cetaceans and pinnipeds, from 1800-2001 124 Figure 3-92. Decline in great whales numbers and biomass from 1800 to 2001 125  viii  Figure 3-93. Sequential depletion of the great whale and average body weight of landed animals Figure 4-1. Population trajectories for the Western Alaska population of Steller sea lions  IX  List of Appendices  Appendix 1  Species list  Appendix 2  Model input  Appendix 3  R code  Appendix 4  Abundance of marine mammals with no documented exploitation  Appendix 5  Catch data  x  Acknowledgements Thank you to my supervisor Steve Martell, for the great advice, the challenges and all the fun in between. To Jordan Beblow, who briefly acted as my research assistant and made the never-ending data manageable. To Kristin Kaschner, for the initial work that spurred this project. Thank you to my committee: Carl Walters for the inspiration and the fishing trips, Andrew Trites, for showing me a thing or two about fieldwork, sea lions and a stinky minke, and Daniel Pauly for making sure the big picture never faded. Thank you to the people who make this place, the ladies and gents of the fisheries centre. In particular to Megan and Meaghan - the early morning workouts and late evening wineouts. To Rob, Bob and Nathan - I think I called you my big brothers of fisheries at some point. To Tiphaine, Pamela and Michelle - for being marine mammal obsessed and much too fun to party with. To Jennifer, Sarah, Chad, Megan, Collette, Kerrie, Divya and Pramod for the chit-chats and all the fun.  Thank you to my parents Ellen and Villy, and my sister Anne. Also thank you to my family in Denmark - all the Bang's and Christensen's who remind me who I am.  And last, but not least, thank you to my best friends - Christine Meggy, Daina Pedwell and Brad Tindall because the world does not, as they remind me, revolve around fish and whales, but around dinner parties, traveling, stilettos, martini's, friends, dancing, interior decorating, partying, clothes, wine, kittens, discussions, boating, men, cars, cooking, bbq'ing, baking, play fighting, laughing and ... well, remembering to have fun.  xi  Dedication This work is dedicated to my father's family; the fishermen and their wives who have lived with the North Sea in their homes. M y great-grandparents Jorgen Christian (Krsenfus) and Anne Marie Christensen, my grandparents Martin (Maggefus, Magge Frasnde) and Gudrun Christensen, my uncle Jorgen and father Villy Christensen.  xn  CHAPTER 1  General introduction and thesis objectives  The relationship between man and marine mammal extends back for centuries and covers a multitude of facets, from the literary adventures of Moby Dick (Melville, 1851) and First Nations' folklore/spirituality, to the necessities of life: blubber for light and food, fur for warmth, bladders for water carriers, and the luxuries: blubber for soap and perfume and baleen for corsets. The dynamics driving this relationship, as well as the relationship itself, has since changed drastically. Sven Foyn, a Norwegian, spurred much of the development that initiated the period referred to as modern whaling which saw changes in technology and targeting beginning in the 1860s (Tonnessen, 1982). The great whales were reduced to the sum of their products: oil and baleen winning out over food, clothing and culture. It was a change from a hunt dominated by cultural identity to one dominated by a lifestyle en masse for the crews of larger commercial operations.  The question becomes how has this impacted marine mammal populations and the ecosystems they live in? Marine food webs have been fished down and with the exploitation, dynamics in the oceans have been radically altered (Christensen, 1996, Pauly et al, 1998). But how much and what are the relative differences, in numbers and biomasses, of these top fauna of our marine ecosystems. This has not been quantified on a global scale, and I attempt to fill this gap in our knowledge. In addition, shifting baselines (Pauly, 1995) make for a world where it becomes difficult to imagine oceans full of whales - which surely influences management goals. A s a consequence of anthropogenic impacts, the current capacity of the oceans and its ability to support past marine mammal abundance levels is unknown. 1  In this thesis I have reconstructed population trajectories for documented exploited marine mammal species and stocks at the scale of ocean basins. This is done to help decipher what has happened to the stocks, defined as groups of animals of the same species occupying separate areas, over the last decades, and the scale at which exploitation has affected their abundances. B y quantifying marine mammal population histories, it is possible to begin to calculate how humans have impacted their marine ecosystem food webs over time. I want to stress that the population trajectories developed are meant to be used in the context described above. Applying them within the context of management could be inappropriate because the scale at which they are assessed and reconstructed is too coarse. In addition, while single species assessment is the International Whaling Commission's (IWC) method of choice, the consequences of managing species that naturally co-exist and potentially affect each other (e.g. krill, minke whales and crabeater seals as described by Mori and Butterworth, 2005) in this manner should be considered. Walters et al. (2005) explain how managing all species at maximum sustainable yield is technically challenging because of complex ecosystem interactions that are not fully understood.  Stakeholders need to think about what population status objectives for marine mammal populations ought to be. Should populations be maintained at their most productive levels (as predicated by the International Convention on the Regulation of Whaling) or should the goal be to conserve and/or rebuild marine mammal stocks? This work is intended to set the stage so that stakeholders can make informed decisions when facing those options.  2  1.1 Thesis objectives  In this thesis, my objectives are to quantify the history of marine mammal populations, in terms of both numbers and biomass, subsequent to the commencement of hunting, on a global scale. I intend to do this for all exploited marine mammal populations with sufficient abundance and catch data. For each species, population trajectories are carried back to the year of the first documented hunting.  In the remainder of chapter 1,1 attempt to briefly summarize the history of marine mammal hunting. In Chapter 2, I describe the method I have selected to analyze the species histories, and evaluate potential bias in the method. Chapter 3 presents the results for exploited marine mammal species, and aggregated results for all marine mammals, including those that have not been subject to documented hunting. Chapter 4 presents a discussion of the data obtained, methodology developed and results generated.  1.2 History of Marine Mammal Hunting 1.2.1  Early hunting  The beginnings of aboriginal subsistence whale hunting are unknown. In the arctic, hunting of bowheads was documented in Greenland from 800-1000 years ago, in Alaska the hunt dates back even farther (Reeves, 2002). In Korea, evidence of hunting dates back to a sandstone carving from 6000 B C showing a whale being harpooned from a boat (Baker and Clapham, 2002). The Neolithic times likely marked the beginning of subsistence hunting for seals, sea lions, walruses and sea otters (Baker and Clapham,  3  2002). In Northern Scandinavia, the hunt for ringed seals dates back to some 6000 - 4000 years before present (Nygaard, 1989).  In the 11 century whaling developed into an industry, as documented by tax th  records, led by the Basques who hunted the Northern Right Whale in the Bay of Biscay (Aguilar, 1986, Clapham et al, 1999, Baker and Clapham, 2002). B y the end of the sixteenth century this whaling had expanded into the New World, with Basque boats hunting bowhead and right whales in Labrador (Baker and Clapham, 2002). Following in their footsteps and often with Basque harpooners, whaling was expanded into the Arctic by the Dutch and Germans, the British, and French (Baker and Clapham, 2002). In the early seventeenth century the Basque boats migrated to Spitsbergen, where they found Dutch, English, German, Danish and Norwegian whalers (Isachsen, 1929).  Marine mammals were hunted using a variety of techniques, many of them local to specific areas. One of the most common methods for the capture of whales was the harpoon-line-float contraption; here, hunters in boats could follow the harpooned whale, which would both be slowed down and marked by the float (Mitchell et al, 1986). Other techniques included the harpoon-line-fast boat, the 'Nantucket sleighride', where the harpoon line remained attached to the boat, electrocution, netting, drugs and poisons, gas injection and rifles (Mitchell et al, 1986). A n interesting hunting method was developed in the Philippines where mainly Bryde and Pygmy Bryde whales are hunted in Pamilacan by men who jump with big hooks from boats and onto the animals. This method likely evolved from the manta ray hunt and dates back at least to the early 20 century (Reeves, th  4  2002). The last technique is the mechanically propelled harpoon, the device that brought with it modern whaling, with its extreme capability, i.e., range, power and precision.  1.2.2  Modern Whaling  "Optimism is a good characteristic, but if carried to an excess, it becomes foolishness. We are prone to speak of the resources of this country as inexhaustible; this is not so." - Theodore Roosevelt (1907)  Modern whaling emerged rapidly, precipitated by an ingenious development by a Norwegian, Sven Foyn, in the late 1800s. Foyn's invention marked the beginning of the period of massive over-exploitation of many of the world's great whales. Foyn equipped a steam boat with a bow-mounted canon capable of firing an exploding grenade harpoon (Tonnessen, 1982, Mitchell et al., 1986). The harpoon would bury itself inside the mammal, the grenade would explode, and the dying whale, fastened to the boat by the harpoon line, was secured (T0nnessen, 1982). And in this manner modern whaling saw its beginning in Norway's northernmost county, Finnmark (Tonnessen, 1982). According to Tonnessen (1982), modern whaling can be split into three categories: the Finnmark whaling described above (1864-1904), global whaling (1883-1924), and pelagic whaling (1925-1986). I would add a fourth period (1986-present) of scientific whaling and continued commercial Norwegian whaling. In modern whaling, steam boats allowed boats to go further and faster, the harpoon made whaling safer and more efficient. This would eventually lead to expansion both in terms of species caught and also into new  5  areas. The aggressive sperm whales and the cold Antarctic waters were no longer feared by the whalers dry on their bigger, quicker boats. The major development that made large-scale pelagic whaling possible was the introduction of floating factory ships supplied by steam catcher boats. Slips and winches moved flensing, the removal of blubber in long strips from the whale carcass, from an outboard 'round' procedure, where the whale, attached to the side of the boat, rolled around in the water as it was flensed, to an on-board 'long' undertaking, where steam winches pulled up strips of blubber that men with flensing knives separated from the carcass much like it was done when shorebased, improving the processing efficiency (Isachsen, 1929). The on-board processing of blubber, in big boilers allowed even more freedom, as whales no longer had to be towed to shore within a limited amount of time. Lastly, the development of technology, from radio, planes to spot whales, GPS, and so forth helped find whales as they became increasingly sparse.  Both nationally and internationally, Norwegians were the pioneers of modern whaling. They formed the crew on most early expeditions, and maintained their positions as the best captains and harpooners for the bulk of the whaling years. The three companies that opened up Antarctic whaling were either entirely owned, or started and managed by Norwegians. The pioneers in that region were three Norwegians all heralding from Sanderfjord: C A . Larsen (see below), Christen Christensen, who developed one of the first two floating factory steamships and worked with the refinement and transport of oil (Tonnessen, 1982), and Adolf Amandus Andersen, who began western Antarctic whaling, though on a much smaller scale and less influentially  6  than the two others (Tannessen, 1982). The Compania Argentina de Pesca Sociedad Anonima (Pesca), established at Grytviken in South Georgia can be named as the pioneer of modern Antarctic whaling and was initiated by Captain C. A . Larsen, who also acted as technical leader and whaling manager (Hart, 2004).  But the scale of the whaling operations proved too much for the oceans, and Thomas Huxley's (1883) statement that "all the great sea-fisheries are inexhaustible" once again proved itself incorrect. The reason the scale and magnitude of the decline was possible was the ability of the operations to switch between species. This allowed the stocks to be almost completely depleted as the opearations remained profitable for much longer than they would otherwise have had (e.g., Southern blue whales). However, according to Schneider and Pearce (2004), the 1986 moratorium was the result mainly of market forces, in terms of cost increasing per unit effort as stocks decreased, and to a lesser extent the influence of environmental organizations.  Presently, aboriginal subsistence hunting is allowed in a number of smaller communities. Seal 'culling' programs are in place in Canada, and seals are caught for subsistence purposes in a number of small communities. Whaling, as it existed before the moratorium, is gone. Norway, with its original abstention to the moratorium, still legally hunts minke whales. Japan has a legal scientific whaling program which has often found itself accused of being a disguise for a commercial whaling operation. Iceland was readmitted to the IWC in 2002, under a clause stating that commercial hunting could recommence in 2006 warranting adherence to IWC hunting-regulations (Anon., 2002). The political forces at work in the whaling debate are complex. It is worth noting that the 7  Wakayama school district in Japan has re-introduced whale meat in school lunches (Head, June 19, 2005) and Norway has been unable to fill their quotas in 2006 (Black, July 13, 2006). The 2006 IWC meeting saw the following declaration passed, which included the following:  FURTHER NOTING that the moratorium, which was clearly intended as a temporary measure is no longer necessary, that the Commission adopted a robust and risk-averse procedure (RMP) for calculating quotas for abundant stocks of baleen whales in 1994 and that the IWC's own Scientific Committee has agreed that many species and stocks of whales are abundant and sustainable whaling is possible CONCERNED that after 14 years of discussion and negotiation, the IWC has failed to complete and implement a management regime to regulate commercial whaling  DECLARE our commitment to normalize the functions of the IWC based on the terms of the ICRW and other relevant international law, respect for cultural diversity and traditions of coastal peoples and the fundamental principles of sustainable use of resources, and the need for science-based policy and rulemaking that are accepted as the world standard for the management of marine resources " - St Kitts and Nevis Declaration, IWC Meeting 58  1.2.3  Reporting catches  Whaling operators have reported their landings since the late 1860s (Schneider and Pearce, 2004). In 1929, the Whaling Committee of the International Council for the Study of the Sea (later renamed the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea) recommended that the Norwegian government create an institution, Komiteen for  8  Internasjonal hvalfang-statistiskk, the Committee for Whaling Statistics or the Bureau of International Whaling Statistics (BIWS), appropriately located in Sanderfjord, to collect, collate and annually publish global statistics on the industry, including catches, effort and financial statistics (The Committee for Whaling Statistics, 1930, Grieves, 1972). When the IWC was set up, Article VII of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW) included provisions to ensure that data was transmitted to BIWS (Grieves, 1972).  In other marine mammal hunts, catches may be documented by hunters, and possibly submitted to and recorded by national governments and institutions. National programs aimed at interviewing members of whaling/sealing communities to extrapolate catch estimates, exist in some subsistence hunting nations. However, the accuracy of these estimates is variable, and their feasibility is usually dependent on annual funding.  1.3 History of Marine Mammal Management 1.3.1  International Governance  According to the ICRW, signed in 1946, whale stocks are "great natural resources" and management should aim at "achieving the optimum level of whale stocks" for future generations, as is in "the interest of the nations of the world". Part of the ICRW's mandate was the creation of an international management body, the IWC. The ICRW was ratified and came into force in 1948, and 1949 marked the first meeting of the IWC. Since then, the commission has met, on average, on an annual basis. In keeping with the objectives of the ICRW, the IWC placed a moratorium on all commercial  9  whaling in 1986. The moratorium was instituted to allow recovery for severely depleted stocks and in order to enable scientists to complete a comprehensive evaluation of all stocks. This was done to ensure that the resources could be managed in accordance to ICRW regulations, aimed at keeping abundances at the levels that are postulated to produce the maximum sustained yield. This work was to be completed by 1990 at which time whaling would resume and follow well outlined catch limit rules (see section 4.2). Assessments have been started for all species, but the commission has only agreed to publish abundance information for 11 stocks from 7 species (6 great whales and pilot whales; Table 1-1) - the remaining stocks/species have either not been assessed in detail, and/or the estimates have been deemed to have too much statistical uncertainty.  Table 1-1: Species for which the IWC has published abundance estimates (IWC, 2006). Year(s) to which the estimate applies Population Species Minke Whales  Blue Whales Fin Whales Gray Whales Bowhead Whales Humpback Whales  Southern Hemisphere North Atlantic North West Pacific and Okhotsk Sea Southern Hemisphere North Atlantic Eastern North Pacific Western North Pacific Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Seas stock  1982/83- 1988/89* 1987-95 1989-90 1980-2000 1969-1989 1997/98 Current 1993  Western North Atlantic  1992/93  1988 Southern Hemisphere south of 60S in summer (i.e., incomplete) Central and Eastern North Atlantic 1989 Pilot Whales * This is now considered unreliable because of newer surveys, indicating a significantly smaller population than was previously estimated  The main reasons for this shortcoming are the complexity and difficulty of the task due mostly to data limitations. It also relates, however, to the political situation and corresponding changes in objectives of some of the IWC member countries. Public  10  attitudes in these countries have shifted dramatically with the development of environmental consciousness, partly due to the campaigns of non-governmental organizations (NGO's) (Raustiala, 1997). In particular, Greenpeace's "Save the Whale" campaign gathered considerable media attention. The plight of the whales came to symbolize the state of the environment, and the participation of NGO's in IWC meetings grew rapidly (Oberthur, 1998). This marks a shift in values, whales have again become more than a resource, their intelligence is admired and they are attributed existence value. In fact, this has put a number of countries directly at odds with the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling to which they are signatories.  I just want to briefly suggest some of the reasons why the comprehensive assessments of the great whale stocks have not yet been completed. When the. IWC finishes the assessments, a legal re-opening of whaling follows. This is something a shrinking proportion of IWC signatories, currently roughly half, are opposed to. Many new countries have joined the IWC, even though they have no historical whaling ties for this reason. Japan has been accused of 1) leveraging development aid, and 2) presenting whales in the light of easting fish that would otherwise be available for human consumption, to encourage (poorer) nations to join and vote with the pro-whaling delegation (Kaschner and Pauly, 2004). Japan and Norway would like to see whaling legally resume in line with ICRW. The fact remains, that the status quo is not bad, the anti-whalers have a moratorium and the pro-whalers are still whaling, but it can not last because the IWC becomes ineffectual as an institution. Japan has its scientific whaling program, which is opposed, but legal, and Norway did not sign the moratorium, so they  11  can legally hunt, and Iceland re-joined the IWC with a clause to allow hunting. The antiwhaling countries currently have a maintained ban on whaling as they would like, and are unwilling to accept any form of commercial scale hunting. As I see it, a change is needed in the underlying political framework. Tough decisions must be made before the IWC falls apart because all confidence in the institution is lost.  The ethical and moral  arguments against whaling must be brought forward for discussion; the reliance on deferring science that effectively will never be complete is not sustainable. There exists a conflict in interest between those who do and those who do not believe that whaling should continue, and i f there is to be a global perspective on the issue, it must be discussed. As it stands, the international convention sanctions whaling, while at the same time the international management board vetoes it.  I do not intend this to be a comprehensive critique of the IWC, nor do I profess to know all the intricacies of the workings, or of all the Commission's work. In addition, this thesis deals with all exploited marine mammal populations, not just those that fall within the jurisdiction of the IWC. Along with the IWC, the North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission ( N A M M C O ) , which deals with the conservation, management and study of marine mammals in the North Atlantic Ocean, is an international management body. Otherwise, responsibility is delegated to individual countries to manage marine mammal populations within their exclusive economic zones. This, of course is problematic for management as marine mammals do not respect national borders, often cover more than one exclusive economic zone and well into the high seas, and often do not have clearly identified migration patterns.  12  1.3.2  National Governance  National institutions also collect data on catch, incidental mortality and abundance of marine mammals as well as carrying out stock assessments to comply with national regulations. In the United States, this is done by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adimistations' Office of Protected Resources in accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Magnus-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act. In Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) manages marine mammal populations.  Similarly, the rest of the world has marine mammal regulations specific to each country and its perceived need for management actions. Data on most marine mammals are collected by such groups and by university research groups, e.g. the Marine Mammal Research Unit at the University of British Columbia, Canada and the Sea Mammal Research Unit at St. Andrews, Scotland.  13  CHAPTER 2  Marine Mammal Stochastic Stock Reduction Analysis  This chapter describes the modeling approach used to estimate population trajectories for the exploited marine mammal populations. Trajectories begin at the onset of recorded harvest, which is assumed to be the actual onset of hunting for these purposes. Thus, the population size at this initial time is assumed to be the 'preexploitation' population size or the carrying capacity of the environment for this species. A l l models are run to year 2001 only (rather than to 2006) because of limitations in data availability, and for the sake of consistency.  2.1 Methods 2.1.1  Data sources  The catch data used originates from the International Whaling Commission's Bureau of International Whaling Statistics. These data of catch records, by species and date, along with additional, but inconsistent information on, e.g., sex, length, weight and expedition dates. Other sources of catch data used in this thesis are mainly transcribed log-book entries from expeditions, and information collected or estimated nationally by individual governments and institutions. To find this information, Jordan Beblow and I conducted an extensive literature search. A l l catch and abundance data we could find and access were added to an existing database on recent abundance information for all marine mammal species that was set up by Kristin Kaschner (Kaschner, 2004). The database now contains information on catches and abundances through time, broken down by areas where they were reported. Model input abundance data is listed in Appendix 4, and 14  the catch data in Appendix 5. The great whales were either assessed over their entire range, or were split into applicable stocks by the North Atlantic, North Pacific and Southern Hemisphere oceans. Exceptions to this are the gray whales, which were assessed by the Northwestern and Northeastern Pacific. The smaller mammals, which tend to have smaller ranges, were assessed by ocean basins where possible and otherwise by regions with reported catch, e.g. Japanese waters, West Ice (off East Greenland's coast), Newfoundland, Eastern Tropical Pacific, Baltic Sea and so on.  2.1.2  Production model  The production model is one of the simplest population models; it is a logistic growth model that assumes no errors in reported catch:  (1)  where N is numbers, for r  m a x  is the maximum intrinsic rate of population growth, K is the  carrying capacity, C is observed catch, and t is the subscript for time. The production model depends on K , the carrying capacity which makes it density-dependent. To evaluate the population size ( N  msy  ) that maximizes production, we take the derivative of  the yearly population change, N +i - N , with respect to N , then set it to zero to find the t  t  t  inflection point and solve:  2r dN.  max  N K  (2)  = 0  which gives us: 15  (3)  The International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW) specifies that marine mammal populations must be managed at their optimal population sizes, where production is maximized. This means that stocks should be maintained at the N level that is half their carrying capacity (3). The biological reference point B  m s y  m s y  , is taken  to be N y times the mean weight of the adults of the species. mS  To estimate the r  max  and K parameters as set up in (1), it is necessary for stock to  have exhibited historical variation in size (Hilborn and Walters, 1992), i.e., we need to observe recovery in order to resolve confounding between r  m a x  and K . There is a tradeoff  between these two parameters, in that a catch history, especially i f that history is a oneway-trip, can be explained as either a highly productive small stock or a large stock with low productivity. Data to distinguish between these populations are often found in recovery and rebuilding information. This is a point we need to be very aware of, as many of the marine mammal stock histories follow from one-way-trip catch data, the result of increasing effort and declining catch per effort.  2.1.3  Stochastic Stock Reduction Analysis  Population trajectories are modeled for all marine mammal species for which exploitation levels have been recorded. To do this we employ stock reduction analysis (SRA), a method first introduced by Kimura and Tagart (1982). S R A allows the use of historical catch time series to estimate a range of possible population parameters (r , max  16  K), that give rise to extant populations. Given the available data and our objective to determine stock size over time, we implement a production model based on the logistic model of population dynamics and driven by removal information:  A^=A^+r  m a x  A^(l-^K'-C,  (4)  N,=K  (5)  where N is the number of mammals in the population at time t (1,2, ... z, where z is the t  number of years for which we have data), r  m a x  is net production, i.e., growth + new  production - mortality; K is pre-exploitation numbers or carrying capacity; N] is assumed to be K at the onset of harvest; C is the catch, in numbers, at time t, and w are t  t  independent process errors at time t. SRA generates a single population trajectory dependent on the selected parameter values of r single population trajectory conditional on r  max  m a x  and K . A stochastic S R A generates a  , K and a random anomaly sequence w . A t  more interesting question is determining the probability of a stock being at the observed abundance level(s) at time(s) t, given the observed removal information and the assumption that the stock followed a stationary production relationship with mean r  max  and mean carrying capacity K , with realistic variation in these parameters.  Bayesian stochastic S R A (SSRA) (Walters et al, 2006) proceeds, by (1) generating several thousand trajectories of N ' s by randomly drawing from a prior t  distribution of r  max  , K and w values, and (2) simulating the N sequence conditional on t  t  the observed catches (C ). (3) For each simulated N sequence calculating the likelihood t  t  17  of having obtained the observed abundances (y ). (4) resampling each of the trajectories t  with sample probability proportional to its likelihood, giving us a posterior probability density for the parameters of interest.  To implement the SSRA as outlined above, I used the following procedure. First, draw values for r assumed for r  max  max  , K and w from prior distributions. A normal prior distribution was t  , with mean 0.04 (standard deviation (SD) = 0.04) for cetaceans, 0.02  (SD = 0.02) for sperm whales and 0.12 (SD=0.06) for pinnipeds, (default mean values are from Wade, 1998). K was drawn from a uniform prior distribution between 'reasonable' population size bounds that gives rise to extant populations in the deterministic case (i.e., w = 0). Lastly, w 's were drawn from a random normal distribution with mean 0 and t  t  standard deviation = a (these are the process error terms). A total error term, K = 0.1 was w  specified and distributed amongst process errors r = yjl~-~p*4K and observation errors w  , where p determines the proportion of the error allocated to each error term (0.3 < p < 0.6) depending on the certainty associated with the observed abundances, y 's. t  A population trajectory was then generated using equations (5) and (4) above.  The likelihood of obtaining the observed abundances, y , was calculated as: t  z  log(cT ) + ^-log(2;r) r  2  +: * 2o=l  y  where n is the number of abundance observations, a is the standard deviation in the y  abundance estimate, the observation error. z is the lognormal residual: t  18  z, = log(/V,)-log(v,)  The r  m a x  (7)  and K combination and their associated likelihood were stored, and the  above steps repeated 50,000 times. At this point, the procedure had produced a prior distribution of population trajectories. The next step was to resample these trajectories based on their associated importance weights. This was done using the importance sampling procedure recommended by Schnute (1994) and McAllister and Ianelli (1997). The posterior probably density function was calculated by resampling from the set of trajectories stored above, with sample probability proportional to the importance weights/likelihoods.  Lastly, I calculated summary statistics including the marginal posterior for K. The marginal distributions are used to calculate the most likely estimate (the median), along with the 95% credible interval of the distribution values for K . This was done using the quantile function in R (R Development Core Team, 2005). I also calculated how much K-N the population has been depleted, i.e., depletion =  — * 100%. K  I have programmed all of the calculations discussed above in the statistical programming language R (R Development Core Team, 2005), and the code can be found in Appendix 3.  The biggest advantage to this model, as compared to frequentist methods, is that it allows us to be explicit about the uncertainties in our estimate conditional on the assumed values of p and K. The main reason I have selected the logistic model is that it requires 19  only limited input data, a catch time series and one or more absolute abundance estimates and that it has a minimal number of parameters. Often for the marine mammal populations, this is all the data that are available.  2.2 Application to simulated data  To evaluate the potential bias in the model, I generated a set of simulated data using the production model described above and a time-series following the expansion and collapse trend that many of the marine mammal hunts underwent. I then ran the SSRA with the catch data and between one and three absolute abundance estimates all between the years 1970 and 2000 (with simulated observation error) to see i f the model can reproduce the carrying capacity and intrinsic rate of growth parameters used to generate the simulated observed abundance estimates, within some reasonable bound. This is the first of two test conditions. The second test condition identifies whether the model can handle aggregated stocks, i.e., i f there are two or more distinct stocks occupying a single ocean that are aggregated and assessed as one stock. These two test conditions are run under two sets of realistic catch scenarios. The first represents a oneway trip, i.e., little or no allowance is made for recovery of the stock, whereas the second catch history allows some recovery in stock size, with catches stopping in 1986, when the whaling moratorium came into effect.  To check for relative bias in the estimates of both for r  max  and K , I created  boxplots of the log2 ratios between estimated and observed parameter values. Note that a bias-ratio of mean of zero indicates no bias, an upward bias-ratio of 1 indicates  20  overestimation of the parameter value by a factor of 2, and a downward bias-ratio of 1 indicates underestimation of the parameter value by a factor of 2.  First, to check that the model was set up correctly without bias, I set up a population with K= 160,000 and for r  m a x  = 0.04 and assumed no observation error when  generating the abundance observations. In the estimation model, I assumed observation errors accounted for only 10% of the total error (K), while process errors accounted for the remaining 90%. Total error K = 0.1, observation error has mean = 0 and standard deviation = a  = -Jproportion  standard deviation =r„.  *4K  =  Vo.01*0.1 , and process error, mean = 0 and  0.1 . When I do this, there was no bias in the r  m a x  or K  estimates, which indicated that my estimation model is capable of regenerating the simulated parameters (Figure 2-1).  I then added observation error to the simulated data, with mean = 0 and standard deviation =a  = Vo.3*0.1, with K = 0.1. The process errors, mean = 0 and standard  deviation = T = Vo.l*0.7 , made up the remaining 70% of K. I found that the model W  became just slightly biased, accepting a few more underestimates for the r  m a x  parameter  and correspondingly a few more overestimates for the K parameter (Figure 2-2). However, i f I tightened the prior on the intrinsic rate of growth from mean = 0.04, standard deviation = 0.04 to standard deviation = 0.02, the estimates are unbiased (Figure 2-2). This is because we are telling the model to place more trust in the 0.04 estimate of r ax, m  countering the effects of the observation errors that cause the estimated trajectories  to deviate from the real trajectory. 21  o in  CO  CO CD  E  m  o d  CM  o  o in  r max  K  Figure 2-1. There is no bias in the sample model for the r ^ and K parameters, set at 0.04 and 160,000 when assuming no observation error and a prior on the r parameter with mean = 0.04 and standard deviation = 0.04. NOTE: A median of 0 indicates no bias; a value of +/- 1 indicates an over/underestimate by a factor of 2. max  22  (b)  o 10  XJ  "co £  o o  CO CD  In 0  CN  o  o  r max  r max  K  Figure 2-2. (a) there is a slight bias the sample model for the r (set at 0.04) and K (set at 160,000) parameters when assuming both observation and process errors. The r parameter is slightly underestimated (with a prior on r with mean 0.04 and standard deviation = 0.04) and the K parameter is slightly overestimated, (b) the bias disappears when the prior on r is narrowed to mean = 0.04 and standard deviation 0.02. The solids line in the boxes represent the median bias. max  max  max  max  23  The estimate of a parameter will always lie between its true value and the prior placed on it when using Bayesian statistics. Consequently, I found that when I use slightly higher or lower estimates for in the r  r  m a  x,  I got negative or positive biases, respectively,  parameter, and an ensuing bias in the K parameter (Figure 2-3).  m a x  (b)  (a)  T3 0) CO E  -•—»  CD  m  m  o  o  o o  o o  in o  m  CM  o  o  r max  r max  K  K  Figure 2-3. Bias estimates for the r and K parameters with K = 160,000 and (a) r = 0.036 and (b) r = 0.044. The estimates are (a) positively and (b) negatively biased because the estimates for r fall between the real r and the prior on r (mean = 0.04, standard deviation 0.04). max  max  max  max  max  max  24  2.2.1  Estimating parameters - single stock  I set up the simulation-estimation model and ran it 100 times. The model was run with true values of K = 185,000 and r  m a x  = 0.042 K = 0.1, of which 30% is attributed to  observation error and 70% to process error, i.e., a = Vo. 1*0.3 and r y  w  = Vo.1*0.7 to  simulate the catch and observed abundance estimates using a logistic model equivalent to the one provided above assuming both process and observation errors present. The result of each simulation-estimation process was an estimated r  m a x  and K value and an  associated population trajectory. The result of the entire simulation estimation process is a distribution over the most likely estimates for the net growth (r  max  ) and carrying  capacity/pre-exploitation numbers (K) parameters. A sample simulation estimation result is seen in Figure 2-4 for each of the two scenarios, i.e., with some and no/limited recovery. The box-plots indicating relative bias in the for r  m a x  and K parameter estimates,  for the 'some recovery' scenario, are shown in Figure 2-5. They indicate that there is negative bias (-0.1) in the  r  m a  x  parameter as expected because it is higher than the mean,  and consequently we also see a positive bias (0.07) in the K parameter.  25  1850  1870  1890  1910  1930  1950  1970  1990  1950  1970  1990  Year  1850  1870  1890  1910  1930 Year  Figure 2-4. Simulated and estimated population trajectories with a) some recovery and b) no/limited recovery. The solid line represents the most likely estimate for the species population trajectory, the dotted lines represents the 95% credible interval around that trajectory, and the dots are the abundance estimates used to estimate model parameters. The dot-dash line is the 'real' simulated population trajectory, and the vertical lines are the catch data the population was subjected to.  26  d  T3 0  co E  in CD CM CD O  d  r max  K  Figure 2-5. Boxplots for the bias ratios for r (0.042) and K (185,000) estimated for a single stock. r is negatively biased because of the effects of the prior pulling the estimated r parameter towards the prior on r that has mean = 0.04 and standard deviation = 0.04. As a result, the K parameter is positively biased. max  max  max  max  2.2.2  Estimating parameters - aggregated stocks  The second robustness issue we need to address is how the model functions when data from several stocks are aggregated (both in terms of catches and abundance numbers) into a single entity on which we perform our assessment. This is done in most of this thesis, because of the lack of geographic information, beyond ocean basins, for most of the catches. To evaluate this, I again use the production model and set up three separate stocks and give each of them catch histories and run them to produce 3 abundance estimates. The simulation-estimation model was run 100 times, with the  r  m a  x  parameter for the three stocks set at 0.038, 0.036, and 0.044 respectively, with carrying  27  capacities of 15,000, 130,000 and 40,000 respectively, K = 0.1, of which 30% is attributed to observation error and 70% to process error, i.e., a  = Vo. 1*0.3 and r = Vo.l*0.7 . w  A sample simulation-estimation result is seen in Figure 2-6 for each of the two scenarios, i.e., with some and no/limited recovery. The box-plots indicating relative bias in the for r  max  and K parameter estimates, for the 'some recovery' scenario, are shown in Figure  2-7. The bias plot indicates that when compared to a mean of 0.036 (the r for the largest stock), the estimated r  m a x  max  parameter  parameter positively biased (0.1) because the  prior pushes the estimate toward 0.04. The K parameter estimate, however, is unbiased.  28  15  3.0  <  2.5 2.0  10  1.5 1.0  0> E  5  ^  CD S  0.5 0.0 1850  1870  1890  1910  1930  1950  1970  d  0  n  15  1990  Year  3.0  ™  2.0  >  -I  o 05 E  r  10  5 5  1.0  ?  CD &  0.5  d  0.0 1850  1870  1890  1910  1950  1930  1970  0  1990  Year  Figure 2-6. Simulated and estimated population trajectories for the aggregated populations with a) some recovery and b) no/limited recovery. The solid line represents the most likely estimate for the species population trajectory, the dotted lines represents the 95% credible interval around that trajectory, and the red dots are the abundance estimates used to hone in the estimates. The dot-dash line is the 'real' simulated population trajectory, and the vertical lines are the catch data the population was subjected to.  29  in o  •a £  E  00 CD CN  o If)  o  r max  K  Figure 2-7. Boxplots for the bias ratios for r (0.038, 0.036, 0.044) and K (15,000, 130,000, 40,000) for the aggregated populations. The r m a x parameter is biased slightly upward (0.1) when compared to the 'real' value 0.036 (the r m a x value for the largest population), because the prior on r m a x (mean = 0.04, standard deviation = 0.04) drives it upwards. The K parameter, however, is unbiased. m a l  2.2.3  Struck-but-loss ratios  During water-based hunting for marine mammals, an animal is often struck, e.g., with a harpoon or shot on an ice-floe, but may be lost, e.g., it may be wounded but manage to swim away, or the boat could sink. Of these animals, the ones that end up dying because the actions of hunters should be counted in our analyses. They are, however, often not accounted for. Especially in earlier catch records such rates are rarely, if ever seen although they are now being collected at least for the ongoing regulated subsistence whaling hunts. The rate at which this happens is called the struck-but-loss 30  rate. It has been speculated to be as high as 35% for many of the great whaling enterprises. Whitehead (2002) used a correction factor of 1.5 on early sperm-whale catches, to account for amongst others oil/whale ratio, whales caught but not processed and wrecked ships (Whitehead, 2002). The IWC used a struck-but-loss rate of 35% in their comprehensive assessment of southern right whale (IWC, 2001, Baker and Clapham, 2004).  Adding a struck-but-loss rate increases the estimates of K proportionally to that rate (Baker and Clapham, 2004). In Figure 2-8 I ran a simulation model to check this and we clearly see that the observed and predicted increase in K virtually mirror each other, indicating that an increase in catches of a certain percentage will produce an increase in K of the same percentage i f struck-but-loss rates are constant over time  150  r  100 K  obs pred  50  0 0  0.1  0.2  0.3  0.4  0.5  Struck-but-lost rate Figure 2-8. The effect of struck-but-loss rates on estimating K. The solid line represents an increase in K by the struck-but-loss rate, and the dashed line shows the increase in K found by running a simulation with the struck-but-loss rate applied to catches.  31  •I decided not to include a default struck-but-loss rate for this thesis because I am looking to find the documented, and thus minimum, decline that has occurred. The true decline is likely much larger due to a confluence of factors, struck-but-loss rates, non-, under- and misreporting. This is especially true for the subsistence hunts for which struck-but-loss rates are likely high, but for which there rarely exists good data; in fact most often there are no data at all for these hunts.  32  CHAPTER 3  Population Trajectories  The following chapter presents the results of the stochastic stock reduction analysis (SSRA) for marine mammal populations for which I have documented catch figures and where absolute abundance information was available. The results are presented in two ways, first in a table showing the year in which harvesting began, the initial and current population sizes and the percent decline (if any) in the population. The second display is a figure such as Figure 3-1, which has as its x-axis years from the onset of harvest up to 2001, and as the y-axis population numbers. The figure shows: (1) the most likely estimate of the population trajectory for the stock represented by the solid dark line; (2) the 95% credible intervals on this trajectory represented by the dotted light lines; (3) the available absolute abundance estimates represented by the dots, and (4) catches in vertical bars with their associated scale on the secondary y-axis. Information on sizes and sources and confidence in the abundance points can be found in Appendix 2. For each population, the stock's initial size, the year that estimate applies to (the year where  harvesting  began),  the  2001  population  size  and  the  level  of  K-N depletion =  — *100% are given in a table. Lastly, for all populations K, the total K  error, was assumed to be 0.1, with the proportion associated with observation errors determined as shown in Table 3-1. Information on all abundance numbers used as input to the model and their associated CID's can be found in Appendix 2. If more than one abundance estimate exists for the species, I use the highest associated CID.  33  60 0.8  r  1  in < o  0.6  50  h H  40  CO  CN  <  _ 0.4  H  h  CD  30  20  o O  E 0.2  h 10  0  0.0 1910  1920  1930  1940  1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure 3-1. Sample population trajectory. The solid line indicates the most likely population trajectory (the median of the posterior), the stippled lines the 95% credible interval,,the vertical lines the catches applied, and the dots the abundances estimates to which the analyses are tuned.  Table 3-1. Definition of confidence ID's, their meanings and associated proportion of observation error. Confidence Meaning ID Dedicated marine mammal survey with known survey area (map or clearly 1 defined area) and information about uncertainties (CV, SD) Dedicated marine mammal survey, without definite area description or map 2 and information about uncertainties (CV, SD) Survey without area description or time period, but giving a range (i.e., min 3 to max estimate) Very general estimate, no specific time period or area, no uncertainties 4 (mostly secondary references) Outdated general estimates, guesstimates or inferred from other species and 5 unknown.  34  K attributed to Proportion of K 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5  3.1 Population trajectories of exploited cetaceans 3.1.1  Great whales  Sei whale, Balaenoptera borealis  The sei whale can be found in all the world's oceans, preferring subpolar-tropical water temperatures (Kawamura, 1974, Horwood, 1987, COSEWIC, 2003, Kaschner, 2004). Sei whale hunting is documented from 1885 in the North Atlantic, and 1904 in the North Pacific and Southern Hemispheres (Table 3-2). A s the stocks of blue and fin whales were depleted, the sei whale became the main target of whalers in the Antarctic (Reeves et al, 2003). A l l three stocks of sei whales are depleted, the North Atlantic stock by 34% (Table 3-2, Figure 3-2), the North Pacific stock by 79% (Table 3-2, Figure 3-3), and the Southern Hemisphere stock by 84% (Table 3-2, Figure 3-4). Overall, this represents a global decline by 80% for the sei whale population (Table 3-2).  Table 3-2. Populations of sei whales Start of Pre-exploitation numbers Ocean Basin doc. (Mean, 95% CI) huntes 10600( 7420- 18800) North Atlantic 1885 North Pacific 1904 68400 ( 54600- 85600) 167000(157000- 190000) Southern 1904 Hemisphere 246000 (227000 - 294000) Global 1885  35  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI)  Depleted by (%)  6990 ( 5240- 9240) 14700 ( 8040-25100) 27400(14500-41400)  34 79 84  49090 (41300-75700)  80  20  n  8  CO  < o  w  15 CM  CO 3 T3  £  <  10  H  4 o CD  O  0)  E 3  0  0 1890  1910  1930  1970  1950  1990  Year Figure 3-2. Population trajectories for North Atlantic sei whales  <  o  in  ro 3  > C CD  E 3  1910  1930  1970  1950 Year  Figure 3-3. Population trajectories for North Pacific sei whales  36  1990  Southern Right whale, Eubalaena australis  The Southern right whale inhabits the Southern Hemisphere, preferring polarsubtropical temperature ranges (Ohsumi and Kasamatsu, 1983, Hamner et al, 1988, Kaschner, 2004). The stock has been depleted by 92%, numbering over 86,000 whales in 1785 and falling to its current level of approximately 6,700 individuals (Table 3-3, Figure 3-5). There is some evidence of recovery in this right whale stock (Figure 3-5) (Bannister, 2001, Reeves et al, 2003).  Table 3-3. Population of Southern right whales Pre-exploitation numbers Ocean Basin Start of doc. hunt (Mean, 9 5 % CI) 1785 86100 (73400-98300) Southern Hemisphere  37  2001 numbers (Mean, 9 5 % CI) 6740 (4580- 11100)  Depleted by (%) 92  1780  1810  1840  1870  1900  1930  1960  1990  Year Figure 3-5. Population trajectory for Southern right whales  Sperm whale, Physeter catodon  The sperm whale ranges throughout the world's oceans, in polar to tropical water (Kasuya and Miyashita, 1988, Davis et al, 1998, Jaquet and Gendron, 2002). The population has declined by 61%, from an estimated 1 million to 376,000 individuals globally since exploitation began in 1800 (Table 3-4, Figure 3-6). Sperm whales remain a highly valued species for their meat in Japan (Reeves et al, 2003).  Table 3-4. Population of sperm whales Pre-exploitation Start of Ocean Basin numbers doc. hunt (Mean, 9 5 % CI) 957000 (751000 1350000) Global 1800  38  2001 numbers (Mean, 9 5 % CI)  Depleted by(%)  376000 (296000 476000)  61  20 < o  r  15  -i  40  H  30 CO  ro 3 T3  I  <  20  10  o "co O  cu E 3  10  °  0  tM!l!i!Miini|i;iiititf .ti! iMlmiii! I  1800  1830  1860  1890  1920  1950  1980  Year  Figure 3-6. Population trajectories for sperm whales  Fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus  Fin whales are endemic to all the world's oceans and range from polar to tropical waters (Zerbini et al, 1997, Rice, 1998, Kasamatsu et al, 2000, Aguilar, 2002, Kaschner, 2004). They have declined by approximately 24% in the North Atlantic (Table 1-1, Figure 3-7), 53% in the North Pacific (Table 3-5, Figure 3-8), and 96% in the Southern Hemisphere (Table 3-5, Figure 3-9), where they are a rare sight today (Reeves et al, 2003). Globally, they have declined by 86% since 1876 (Table 3-5).  39  Table 3-5. Populations of fin Start of Ocean Basin doc. hunt North Atlantic 1876 1903 North Pacific 1904 Southern Hemisphere Global 1876  1880  whales Pre-exploitation numbers (Mean, 9 5 % CI)  2001 numbers (Mean, 9 5 % CI)  Depleted by (%)  72900 ( 54900- 111000) 64500 ( 49600- 88000) 625000 (469000 - 737000)  55700(42200- 68200) 30600(15300- 43900) 23300(14700- 49100)  24 53 96  762000 (574000 - 936000)  109600 (72200- 161000)  86  1900  1920  1940  1960  Year  Figure 3-7. Population trajectories for North Atlanticfinwhales  40  1980  2000  9 < o w CD 3  8 6 5  C  4  H  3  E  2  ^  1  3  4  7  >  CU  5  i  3  oo <  2  ~  ^  CD  O  1  0 1900  1920  1940  1960  1980  2000  Year  Figure 3-8. Population trajectories for North Pacific fin whales  8  r  6  h  40  lO  < o  H  30 CO  CD 3  > u c  < o  4  H  h  20 o -*-» CD  O  CD  10  E 3  0 1910  1930  1950  1970  Year  Figure 3-9. Population trajectories for Southern Hemisphere fin whales  41  1990  Gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus  In the last 300 - 400 years, the North Atlantic gray whale went extinct (Reeves et al, 2003), however, I do not have catch information so I can not reconstruct the historical abundance of that population. In the north Pacific, two separate stocks of gray whales are recognized. Both stocks range from subpolar to subtropical waters (Gardner and ChavezRosales, 2000, Jones and Swartz, 2002, Weller et al, 2002, Deecke, 2004, Kaschner, 2004), but behaving quite differently in terms of abundance. The Northeastern Pacific stock is recovering from the exploitation that began back in 1600, with the current population only 25% below the estimate of carrying capacity (Table 3-6, Figure 3-10). The rapid growth in the last 1990s (Figure 3-10) cannot be replicated in the model, indicating that either immigration is occurring, or the carrying capacity of the species and/or the maximum intrinsic rate of growth have increased. The abundance estimates themselves do not appear to be suspect, having been estimated from a shore-based station near Monterey, California, in a consistent manner. The Northwestern Pacific stock is not faring so well; exploitation began in 1890 and at current the stock is depleted by 96%. It currently numbers only a few hundreds. (Table 3-6, Figure 3-11). Questions of genetic bottlenecks must be considered (Swartz et al, 2006). Globally, gray whales have declined by 35%.  42  Table 3-6. Populations of gray whales Pre-exploitation numbers Ocean Start of Basin doc. hunt (Mean, 95% CI) 21200 (18700-25500) Northeast 1600 Pacific 1890 3400 ( 2880- 3580) Northwest Pacific 24600 (21600-29100) Global 1600  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI) 15800(14600- 17800) 136 (  97 -  Depleted by(%) 25  187)  96  15936(14700- 18000)  35  30 co <  o  CO  _ >  T3  7 §  25  5  20  4 15  3  10 E 3  6  2  5  .1  0  i i i i i I I i I i I i i M  1600  i i i i i i i  1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 Year  Figure 3-10. Population trajectories for Northeastern Pacific gray whales  43  0  CM  <  o CO  O  Blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus  Blue whales roam the world's oceans, ranging from polar to tropical waters (Zerbini et al, 1997, Perry et al, 1999, Kaschner, 2004). In the North Atlantic, hunting began in 1868, and it has reduced the population size by 95% (Table 3-7, Figure 3-12). In the North Pacific, hunting commenced in 1903, but stocks have recovered to 46% of their estimated carrying capacity (Table 3-7, Figure 3-13). In the Southern Hemispherea a bleak picture emerges: whaling began in 1904, and in 2001 the population estimated to be less than 1% of its original size (Table 3-7, Figure 3-14) and likely not recovering. Globally, this amounts to a depletion level of 99% for the blue whales.  44  Table 3-7. Populations of the blue whales Pre-exploitation numbers Ocean Basin Start of (Mean, 95% CI) doc. hunt North Atlantic North Pacific Southern Hemisphere Global  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI)  1868 1903 1904  7430 ( 5920 - 8480) 5850 ( 4590 - 8640) 327000 (298000 - 359000)  367( 263 - 551) 3180 (2230-4140) 1180( 885 - 1490)  1868  340000 (309000-376000)  4730(3378-6180)  Deplete d by (%) 95 46 99.6 99  co <  o  __  CM  CO  < o  _ "> T3 C  o CO  O  0)  E 3  1870  1890  1910  1930  1950  Year  Figure 3-12. Population trajectory for North Atlantic blue whales  45  1970  1990  1900  1920  1940  1960  1980  2000  Year  Figure 3-13. Population trajectory for North Pacific blue whales  < o __  40  r  40  30  h  30 co  CO  _ >  T3 C  a)  •|  <  20  20  h  o to O  10  10  3  o  1910  1930  1950  1970  Year  Figure 3-14. Population trajectory for Southern Hemisphere blue whales  46  1990  Bowhead whale, Balaena mysticetus  Bowhead whales occurs only in the Northern Hemisphere, where they are limited to polar waters (Klinowska, 1991, Jefferson et al, 1993, Kaschner, 2004). According to the IWC, five stocks, which were all hunted heavily, comprise this population (Reeves et al, 2003). I estimate that the aggregate population has declined by 89%, although it is displaying some recent recovery (Table 3-8, Figure 3-15).  Table 3-8. Population of Arctic bowhead whales Pre-exploitation numbers Ocean Basin Start of (Mean, 95% CI) doc. hunt 89000 (67000- 114000) Arctic 1650  15  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI) 9450(7500- 10800)  Depleted by(%) 89  30  r  < o  I  25 20  10  CN <  o > T3  "  (D  15 — sz o ro  5  10 O  E  5 0  m y 1650  1700  1750  1800  1850  Year Figure 3-15. Population trajectory for Arctic bowhead whales  47  1900  1950  2000  0  Eden/Bryde's and Bryde's whale, Balaenoptera edeni and brydei  These whales are also globally distributed, and prefer subtropical - full tropical water (Nemoto, 1959, Ohsumi, 1977, Cummings, 1985, Klinowska, 1991, Kaschner, 2004). In the North Atlantic, catches of Eden/Bryde whales are documented starting in 1925, but a complete absence of abundance data makes assessment impossible. In fact the species is listed as data deficient on the IUCN red list. The resemblance of this species to the sei whale has also caused some confusion in reporting, in addition to misreporting by whalers from the former Soviet Union. The numbers I do have, however, indicate the following: in the North Pacific, hunting started in 1946 and it has depleted the population by 21% (Table 3-9, Figure 3-16). In the Southern Hemisphere, the estimated decline from the whaling initiated in 1909 is only 3% (Table 3-9, Figure 3-17). Globally this gives a decline of 10% (Table 3-9).  Table 3-9. Populations in the Eden/Bryde whale complex Pre-exploitation Start of Ocean Basin numbers doc. hunt (Mean, 9 5 % CI) No information North Atlantic 1925 52200( 41800- 64800) North Pacific 1946 94100( 69800-126000) Southern 1909 Hemisphere 146000(112000- 191000) Global 1909  48  2001 numbers (Mean, 9 5 % CI)  Depleted by (%)  No information 41100(30900- 53500) 91300 (66700- 123000)  No info 21 3  132000 (97600- 177000)  10  < o  n  20  i  15 CM  CD  <  _ '>  O  10  C  o O  0 E  1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure 3-16. Population trajectory for the North Pacific Eden/Bryde whale complex  7  15  6  < o  1  5  10  CM  -a >  4  C  3  "  <  2  o CO  5  2  .Q  E Z3  1 I 1910  1930  II  1950  0 1970  1990  Year Figure 3-17. Population trajectory for the Southern Hemisphere Eden/Bryde whale complex  49  O  Humpback whale, Megaptera novaengliae  Humpback whales range from polar to tropical waters globally (Winn and Reichley, 1985, Clapham, 2002, Hamazaki, 2002, Kaschner, 2004). Although the stocks were intensively hunted, they are all showing signs of recovery (Figure 3-18, Figure 3-19, Figure 3-20). The North Atlantic population is depleted by 23%, the North Pacific by 57%> and in the Southern Hemisphere humpbacks are down 89% (Table 3-10). Globally, this amounts to a 82% depletion (Table 3-10).  Table 3-10. Populations of humpback whales Pre-exploitation numbers Ocean Basin Start of doc. hunt (Mean, 9 5 % CI) 1664 North Atlantic 16200( 11300- 33300) 16500 ( 10500- 24100) North Pacific 1900 1904 199000(144000-228000) Southern Hemisphere 1664 232000 (166000-285000) Global  50  2001 numbers (Mean, 9 5 % CI) 12400( 9950- 15300) 7170( 5260- 9700) 22500(16300-34000)  Depleted by(%) 23 57 89  42070 (31500-59000)  82  1910  1930  1950  1970  1990  Year Figure 3-20. Population trajectory for Southern Hemisphere humpback whales  Common minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata  The common minke whale occurs in the Northern Hemisphere (North Atlantic and Pacific stocks), and in the Indian Ocean, part of the Southern Ocean (dwarf stock) (Reeves et al, 2003). I do not have numbers for the latter stock. The hunt for minke whales began relatively late, in 1926 in the North Atlantic and in 1940 in the North Pacific (Table 3-11). M y estimates show that both populations have shown signs of recovery, with the North Atlantic stock depleted by 26% and the North Pacific stock by 32%) (Table 3-11, Figure 3-21, Figure 3-22). Minke whales are currently hunted from  52  Norway, Iceland and Greenland in the North Atlantic, and in the North Pacific by the Japanese. Globally, the common minke whales have been depleted by 27% (Table 3-11).  Table 3-11. Populations of common minke whales Pre-exploitation numbers Ocean Start of (Mean, 95% CI) Basin doc. hunt 211000(159000-284000) North 1926 Atlantic 47000( 36700- 60300) North 1940 Pacific 258000(196000-344000) 1926 Global  1930  1940 1950  1960  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI) 157000(118000-210000) 31900( 23900- 41400)  32  189000(142000-251000)  27  1970  1980  Year  Figure 3-21. Population trajectory for North Atlantic minke whales  53  Depleted by (%) 26  1990 2000  1940  1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year F i g u r e 3-22.  Population trajectory for North Pacific minke whales  Antarctic minke whale, Balaenoptera bonaerensis  It has only been within the last decade that the distinctness between the common and antarctic minke whale has been recognized (Reeves et al, 2003). The Antarctic minke whale ranges from polar to tropical waters in the Southern hemisphere (Ribic et al, 1991, Rice, 1998, Murase et al, 2002, Kaschner, 2004). Whaling for minkes was only initiated in 1921, after the larger species of baleen whales had begun to collapse. While they were hunted intensively, they still have a very large population and have begun recovering, although they are still hunted in the Antarctic by the Japanese, resulting in a depletion of 16% (Reeves et al, 2003), (Table 3-12, Figure 3-23).  54  Table 3-12. Population of Antarctic minke whales Pre-exploitation numbers Ocean Basin Start of (Mean, 95% CI) doc. hunt 379000 (300000 - 478000) Southern 1921 Hemisphere  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI) 318000 (250000-404000)  Depleted by (%) 16  Mllil  1920  1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year  Figure 3-23. Population trajectory for Antarctic minke whales  North Atlantic right whale, Eubalaena glacialis  The North Atlantic right whale ranges from subpolar to tropical waters (Mitchell et al, 1983, Gaskin, 1991, Kenney, 2002, Kaschner, 2004). The species may be nearing extinction, having been hunted since 1530 with a current population size in the low hundreds, about 3% of pre-exploitation numbers (Table 3-13, Figure 3-24).  55  Table 3-13. Population of North Atlantic right whales Pre-exploitation numbers Start of Ocean Basin (Mean, 95% CI) doc. hunt 14100(10100-27800) North Atlantic 1530  Depleted by(%) 97  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI) 368 (257 - 469)  30  30  h  25  25  15  20  20  I  15  15  CO  o *  o -*—»  05  ^  -  10 o  -  5  rrrnnriTrrfi i r i T r n n i T T T r  o  10  CD _Q  E =  5 0  i  i i  1530  i i i rT  1590  1650  1710  1770  1830  1890  1950  J  2010  Year Figure 3-24. Population trajectory for North Atlantic right whales. NOTE: catches are plotted as a line instead of histograms for visual ease.  North Pacific right whale, Eubalaena japonica  The North Pacific right whale ranges from subpolar to subtropical waters (Jefferson et al, 1993, Tynan et al, 2001, Kenney, 2002, Kaschner, 2004). This species is faring slightly better than its North Atlantic cousins, with current population numbers of about 1300, and depleted by 86% since hunting began in 1835 (Table 3-14). 56  Table 3-14. Population of North Pacific right whales Pre-exploitation numbers Start of Ocean Basin doc. hunt (Mean, 95% CI) 1835 9720(8540- 12600) North Pacific  20  r  15  h  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI) 1340 (679-2070)  Depleted by(%) 86  30  co <  o  25 20  CO  _  s  H  10  15 o CO  10  0  E  5  3  Q  0  Lj- iini|lllililll|:iM[|lll|IIHilMI|ll[illlM|IM|[|[lljlllilMH|!lll  1830  1850 1870 1890 1910 1930 1950 1970 1990 Year  Figure 3-25. Population trajectory of North Pacific right whales  57  O  3.1.2  Smaller whales and large dolphins  Short-finned pilot whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus  The short-finned pilot whale is found throughout the worlds' oceans, and ranges from polar to warm temperature waters (Smith et al, 1986, Payne and Heinemann, 1993, Wade and Gerrodette, 1993, Davis et al, 1998, Reeves et al, 2003, Kaschner, 2004). Catches are not well documented in Japan, and are much smaller than the estimated population size and so no significant decrease in abundance is estimated (Table 3-15, Figure 3-26).  Table 3-15. Populations of short-finned pilot whales Ocean Start of Pre-exploitation numbers Basin doc. (Mean, 95% CI) hunt Japan 56400( 46700- 67100) 1948 226400(163000-507000) Global 1948  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI)  Depleted by (%)  54700( 45300- 65200) 225000(161000-505000)  3 1  58  9  7 < o  ro > C  CD  8  6  7  5  6  4  5  3  4  O  3  ro O  2  2  E  _Z3  CM <  1 0  1 _  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure 3-26. Population trajectory for Japanese short-finned pilot whales  Baird's beaked whale, Berardius bairdii  Baird's beaked whale is found in the North Pacific, and it inhabits polar to subtropical waters (Reeves and Mitchell, 1993, Kasuya, 2002, D'Amico et al, 2003, Kaschner, 2004). The Japanese stock of Baird's beaked whale has been hunted since 1907 and is showing a decline of 28% in numbers (Table 3-16, Figure 3-27); the global stock is down 26%.  Table 3-16. Populations of Baird's beaked whales Ocean Start of Pre-exploitation numbers Basin doc. (Mean, 95% CI) hunt Japan 1907 9010(7080- 11800) Global 1907 9670(7410- 12800)  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI)  Depleted by (%)  6450 (5010- 8230) 7110 (5340-9200)  28 26  59  20  r  15  h  -I  40  CO  < o  30  CO  _ >  s T3 C  20 o  10  —*  CO  O  E  5  10  h  3  0 1910  1930  1950  1970  1990  Year  Figure 3-27. Population trajectory for Japanese Baird's beaked whales  Beluga, Delphinapterus leucas  The beluga whale's distribution is circumpolar in the Northern Hemisphere (Watts et al, 1991, Rice, 1998, O'Corry-Crowe, 2002, Kaschner, 2004). The IWC currently recognizes 29 beluga stocks. However for this assessment, I have added up the catches and assessed the belugas as a single stock. This means that, while local depletion of isolated populations, for example in Cook Inlet and Ungava Bay, is evident, the stock as a whole, which experienced a significant decline, currently has a steady population level (Table 3-17, Figure 3-28). For the west Greenlandic stock, catch data exists stretching back to 1862, although with some holes. As recommended by Heide-Jorgensen and Rosing-Avid (2002), who complied and summarized the west Greenlandic catch  60  data, I have interpolated numbers to fill such gaps, because: "for population modeling in will be necessary to interpolate years without reported catches, to spread out the average figures over the years involved and to assume some level of harvesting before 1862" (Heide-J0rgensen and Rosing-Asvid, 2002). However, I decided to begin the catches in 1862 as no indication of previous substantial hunts exists.  Table 3-17. Population Ocean Start of Basin doc. hunt Global 1862  of beluga whales Pre-exploitation numbers (Mean, 95% CI)  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI)  Depleted by (%)  170000(115000 289000)  96500 (71200 132000)  43  30  I  25  i  5  15 20  H  4  Ic  H  3  CO  CD  E  15  5 0  -*o-» 2  10  L. iihllii I 1860  1880  1900  1920  1940  Year  Figure 3-28. Population trajectory for beluga whales  61  1960  1980  -  1  J  0  2000  cp  CO  O  Killer whale, Orcinus orca  Killer whales have a circumglobal distribution, and range from polar to tropical waters (Jefferson et al, 1993, Kasamatsu et al, 2000, IWC/BIWS, 2001, Ford, 2002, Kaschner, 2004). While some populations are hunted, the species appears to be doing fine. In the North Atlantic hunting started in 1954, and current numbers are only reduced by 8% remaining right around the 10,000 individuals (Table 3-18, Figure 3-29). In the North Pacific and Southern Hemisphere, where hunting started in 1935 and 1953, respectively, the populations are depleted at 16 and 2% respectively (Table 3-18, Figure 3-30, Figure 3-31). Globally, this represents a decline of 5% for killer whales (Table 3-18).  Table 3-18. Populations of Ocean Start of Basin doc. hunt North 1954 Atlantic 1935 North Pacific Southern 1953 Hemisphere 1935 Global  killer whales Pre-exploitation numbers (Mean, 95% CI)  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI)  Depleted by(%)  9990 ( 7550- 13300)  9210( 6840- 12400)  8  5140 ( 3720- 7090)  4340( 3230- 5850)  16  26400 (19600 - 35800)  25700(18900- 35000)  3  50000 (35600-72100)  47800 (33700 - 69200)  5  62  20  30  co  25  <  o  15 20  co  •g > s T3  10  15  h  10  CD  E  o co O  5 i , ,  0 1960  1970  0 1980  1990  2000  Year F i g u r e 3-29.  Population trajectory for North Atlantic killer whales  8  n  20  i  15  CO  < o  w CO  Z} 1 0  >  CD  E  -5 CO  C  O  2  h  Zi  0  0 1940  1950  1960  1970  1980  Year F i g u r e 3-30.  Population trajectory for North Pacific killer whales  63  1990  2000  40  100  CO  < o  80  30 H  £  60  20  o  40™ CD  |  10  i  0  20 0  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year Figure 3-31. Population trajectory for Southern Hemisphere killer whales  Long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas  The long-finned pilot whale has a global distribution, from polar to warm temperate waters (Findlay et al, 1992, Jefferson et al, 1993, Kasamatsu and Joyce, 1995, Kaschner, 2004). The Faroe Island population, which has a long traditional catch history beginning in 1709, is only slightly depleted at 5%, indicating that this hunt must be sustainable (Table 3-19, Figure 3-32). Off Newfoundland, however, the population seems to be significantly depleted, having dropped 61% in numbers (Table 3-19, Figure 3-33). Globally, this represents a decline of 7% for long-finned pilot whales (Table 3-19).  64  Table 3-19. Populations of long-finned pilot whales Start of Pre-exploitation numbers Ocean Basin (Mean, 95% CI) doc. hunt 1709 813000(710000- 895000) Faroe Islands Central and Eastern North Atlantic 57800( 50800- 67100) Northwest 1947 Atlantic (Newfoundland) 1070000 (824000 - 1300000) Rest of the world  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI)  Depleted by (%)  773000(668000- 864000)  5  22400( 12900-  < O  w CO  _ '> T3 C  CD  E  Z2  61  7  995000 (744000 - 1230000)  9 ID  33900)  -1  5  8 7 6  co <  5 4  o  2 H O  3 2 1 III  0  1700  1740  1780  1820  1860  1900  i 1940 1980  Year  Figure 3-32. Population trajectory for Faroe Island long-finned pilot whales  65  o  Northern bottlenose whale, Hyperoodon ampullatus  The northern bottlenose whale is only found in the North Atlantic, in warm temperate to polar waters (Benjaminsen and Christensen, 1979, Jefferson et al., 1993, D'Amico et al., 2003, Kaschner, 2004). The stock, which has recorded catches all they way back to 1584 is depleted by 16%, and currently numbering just under 50,000 individuals (Table 3-20, Figure 3-34).  Table 3-20. Population of northern bottlenose whales Ocean Start of Pre-exploitation numbers (Mean, 95% CI) Basin doc. hunt 1584 57800 (44200 - 84700) North Atlantic  66  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI)  Depleted by (%)  48800 (37600 - 64300)  16  9  30  r  8  25 20  OJ  15 — JZ  o ro  •4—»  10 O 5 i  1580  i i i i i r r r n i  1630  1680  H T T T T T T T T T  1730  1780  1830  0  i i i i t r  1880  1930  1980  Year  Figure 3-34. Population trajectory for northern bottlenose whales  False killer whale, Pseudorca crdssidens  The false killer whale is at home in all the world's oceans, in warm temperate to tropical waters (Miyazaki and Wada, 1978, Wade and Gerrodette, 1993, Stacey et al, 1994, de Boer and Simmonds, 2003, Kaschner, 2004). The Japanese sub-population is the only stock for which I have catch data. Documented hunting here commenced in 1965, and has had only a slight impact on the stock, with current numbers depleted by 6% (Table 3-21, Figure 3-35). However, this may be a vast underestimate as the stock is likely still hunted. Globally, the population is depleted by 1% (Table 3-21).  67  T a b l e 3-21.  Populations of false killer whales  Ocean  Start of  Basin  doc.  Pre-exploitation numbers (Mean, 95% CI)  2001  numbers  Depleted  (Mean, 95% CI)  by  16600(13100- 21000) 57100 (24900-241000)  3 1  (%)  hunt  Japan Global  1965 1965  17100(13600- 21600) 57600 (25400 - 242000)  30 co  h  25  ra 20 ro  CM <  3  '>  5  C CD  O  15 2 10  "  CD  O  E 3  0 1970  1980  1990  2000  Year F i g u r e 3-35.  Population trajectory for Japanese false killer whales  Narwhal, Monodon monoceros  The narwhal is endemic to the Northern Hemisphere, and occurs in polar water (Jefferson et al, 1993, Heide-Jorgensen, 2002, Kaschner, 2004). Narwhals have been hunted extensively for hundreds, or thousands of years. The Northeast Atlantic 68  population of Norway (Svalbard) is largely extinct (Hrynyshyn, 2004), the species hunted by the Vikings for their long unicorn-like horns that made these creatures seem almost mythical (Pluskowski, 2004). The Canadian Baffin Bay stock, hunted since 1977, is depleted by 10% (Table 3-22, Figure 3-36). The Greenlandic Baffin Bay stock is faring much worse, at only 38% of its population size in 1977 (Table 3-22, Figure 3-38). The Hudson Bay stock does not look much better, with a depletion level of 66% since documented hunting began in 1977 (Table 3-22, Figure 3-37). Each of these stocks are still being hunted, and are facing continuous decline. Globally, the stocks have decreased by 24% since 1977 (Table 3-22).  Table 3-22. Populations of narwhals Pre-exploitation numbers Ocean Basin Start of (Mean, 95% CI) doc. hunt 48000(38600- 59800) Baffin Bay Canada 1977 1977 10500 ( 8920- 12400) Hudson Bay 17800(15200- 21000) 1977 Baffin Bay Greenland 94600 (77500- 115000) Global 1977  69  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI) 43000 (33500 - 54800) 3580 ( 2640- 4910) 6820 ( 5010- 9310)  Depleted by  71700 (56000-90800)  24  (%) 10 66 62  6  r--'  -l  6  1  4  < o __  ra CD 13  _ >  T3 C  4  N  o 3  h  0)  i  2  H  1  o ro  O  -O  E 3  o  o 1980  1990  2000  Year Figure 3-36. Population trajectory for Canadian Baffin Bay narwhals  7  20  co  6  <  o _>  15  h  5 CM  CD  _ > K  T3 C  <  H  4  2  10 3  o CD  2  CD  E  5  h  3  1 0  0 1980  1990 Year  Figure 3-37. Population trajectory for Hudson Bay narwhals  70  2000  O  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure 3-38. Population trajectory for Greenlandic Baffin Bay narwhals  3.1.3  Smaller Dolphins and Porpoises  Pantropical spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata  The pantropical spotted dolphin, true to its name, ranges over the tropical waters of the world's oceans (Miyazaki et al, 1974, Fiedler and Reilly, 1994, Hamazaki, 2002, Kaschner, 2004). The eastern tropical stock, caught as by-catch in the tuna fisheries of the Eastern Tropical Pacific and documented since 1959, is depleted and at only 38% of its original population size (Table 3-23, Figure 3-39). In Japan, where the species is caught commercially, with catch data going back to 1970, the population seems steady  71  (Table 3-23, Figure 3-3). This could again be an issue of the Japanese limiting data availability as indications are this hunt is ongoing. Finding reliable documentation has, however, proved difficult. Globally, the stock is depleted by 57% (Table 3-23).  Table 3-23. Populations of pantropical spotted dolphins Ocean Start of Pre-exploitation numbers (Mean, 95% CI) Basin doc. hunt 4590000 (3740000 - 5740000) Eastern 1959 Tropical Pacific 455000( 368000- 574000) Japan 1970 5060000 (4110000 - 6410000) Global 1959  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI)  Depleted by (%)  1730000 (1350000 - 2190000)  62  449000( 362000- 568000) 2200000 (1720000 - 2850000)  1 57  72  -I 40  H  30 CM <  H  20  o ro O  10  0  0 1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure 3-40. Population trajectory for Japanese pantropical spotted dolphins  Spinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris  The spinner dolphin occurs in tropical waters of the oceans (Miyazaki and Wada, 1978, Davis et al, 1998, De Boer, 2000, Perrin, 2002, Kaschner, 2004). The spinner dolphin is caught as incidental by-catch in the tuna fishery in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Since 1959, this has resulted in a 29% drop in population numbers (Table 3-24, Figure 3-41). Globally, the decline is 28% (Table 3-24).  Table 3-24. Populations of spinner dolphins Ocean Start of Pre-exploitation numbers (Mean, 95% CI) Basin doc. hunt 2630000 (2130000 - 3260000) Eastern 1959 Tropical Pacific 2660000 (2150000 - 3360000) Global 1959  73  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI)  Depleted by (%)  1880000 (1480000 - 2350000)  29  1910000 (1500000 - 2450000)  28  40  r  30  h  ~~l  20  i  15 <  £  10  20  o  -+—*  CD  O  10  0  • 1960  1970  1990  1980  0  2000  Year  Figure 3-41. Population trajectory for Eastern Tropical Pacific spinner dolphins  Short beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis  The short beaked common dolphin is found all the world's oceans, from cold temperate to tropical waters (Selzer and Payne, 1988, Rice, 1998, Perrin, 2002, Kaschner, 2004). They are taken as by-catch in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, although at documented levels the population has only decreased by 4% since 1959 (Table 3-25, Figure 3-42). In Japanese waters, the dolphin is killed incidentally as by-catch of various fisheries, but a commercial hunt also exists. Since 1989, this has caused a 7% drop in population levels (Table 3-25, Figure 3-43). Again, finding reliable catch data from Japanese waters has been a struggle, and the decline is probably larger. Globally, the population has decreased by 3% (Table 3-25).  74  Table 3-25. Populations Ocean Start of Basin doc. hunt Eastern 1959 Tropical Pacific Northwest 1989 Atlantic Global  of short beaked common dolphins Pre-exploitation numbers (Mean, 95% CI) 3290000 (2630000 - 3910000)  40800(  32600-  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI)  Depleted by (%)  3160000(2510000 - 3780000)  4  37900(  51100)  3940000 (3030000 - 5660000)  29800 -  48200)  7  3800000 (2910000 - 5530000)  3  -I  30 25 2 0 co < o 15 — o •I—'  10 O  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure 3-42. Population trajectory for Eastern Tropical Pacific short beaked common dolphins  75  is  4  h  1  h  1990  2000 Year  Figure 3-43. Population trajectory for Northwest Atlantic short beaked common dolphins  Dall's porpoise, Phocoenoides dalli  Dall's porpoises are found in the North Pacific, from subpolar to warm temperate waters (Jones et al, 1987, Jefferson, 1988, Miyashita and Kasuya, 1988, Kaschner, 2004). This porpoise is mainly taken as a commercial catch, but by-catch is also a significant source of mortality. The Dall's porpoise in Japan is depleted by some 48% since hunting commenced in 1963 (Table 3-26, Figure 3-44). This is a stock for which good catch data are available from Japan. On a global scale, Dall's porpoise populations are depleted by 24% (Table 3-26).  76  Table 3-26. Populations of dalls porpoises Ocean Start of Pre-exploitation numbers (Mean, 95% CI) Basin doc. hunt Japan 724000(593000- 899000) 1963 1440000 (941000 - 1660000) Global 1963  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI)  Depleted by (%)  378000(236000- 561000) 1090000 (584000- 1320000)  48 24  Bottlenose dolphin, Tursitops truncatus  The bottlenose dolphin ranges throughout the oceans in cold-temperate to full tropical waters (Jefferson et al, 1993, Wells and Scott, 1999, Wells and Scott, 2002, Kaschner, 2004). The bottlenose dolphin has been caught in small quantities off the 77  California coast for live-capture, but is otherwise mostly killed as incidental by-catch although a commercial hunt has gone on in Japan, and most likely continues although I again have no acess to reliable numbers. In the Northwest Atlantic, the decrease in abundance stands at only 5% since 1950 (Table 3-27, Figure 3-45). However the dip is recent, so the stock is declining. In Japan, the decline is rather insignificant, at only 2% since 1966 (Table 3-27, Figure 3-46).  Table 3-27. Populations of bottlenose dolphins Start of Pre-exploitation numbers Ocean (Mean, 95% CI) Basin doc. hunt 32000( 25500- 40500) Northwest 1950 Atlantic 176000(139000-222000) Japan 1966 524000 (405000 - 779000) Global 1950  5  r  4  h  Depleted by(%)  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI) 30400( 23800 - 38800)  5  173000(136000-219000) 519000 (400000-774000)  2 1  CM  3  £  <  h  2  2  JZ O  ~  CO  O  I  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  Year  Figure 3-45. Population trajectory for Northwest Atlantic bottlenose dolphins  78  2000  < o CD  •g '> T3  30  30  25  25  20  20 C M < o  15  15 — o  c CD  E 3  -t—'  10  10  5  H  CO  O  5 0  0 1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure 3-46. Population trajectory for Japanese bottlenose dolphins  Northern right whale dolphin, Lissodelphis borealis  The northern right whale dolphin is found only in the North Pacific, where it lives in subpolar - subtropical waters (Bjorge et al., 1991, Kaschner, 2004). The population is depleted at some 68% of its 1978 abundance (Table 3-28, Figure 3-47).  Table 3-28. Population of northern right whale dolphins Pre-exploitation numbers Ocean Basin Start of (Mean, 95% CI) doc. hunt 408000(345000-491000) North Pacific 1978  79  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI) 277000 (203000 - 369000)  Depleted by (%) 32  Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena  The harbour porpoise is endemic to the Northern Hemisphere, and occur from subpolar to warm temperate waters (Gaskin et al, 1993, Read and Westgate, 1997, Raum-Suryan and Harvey, 1998, Kaschner, 2004). The porpoise is hunted commercially in Greenlandic and Baltic waters, and taken as by-catch in the North Sea and Western North Atlantic. In Greenlandic waters, the population, hunted since 1900, is severely depleted at 89% (Table 3-29, Figure 3-48). In the North Sea, the population is declining, having been depleted by 21% since 1950 (Table 3-29, Figure 3-49). In the Baltic, the species has been caught since 1716, is showing recovery and is now at 52% of its original population size (Table 3-29, Figure 3-50). In the western North Atlantic (Newfoundland  80  and New England), the population has, since 1989, been declining by 17% (Table 3-29, Figure 3-51). Globally, this means harbour porpoises are depleted by 24% (Table 3-29).  Table 3-29. Populations of harbour porpoises Ocean Start of Pre-exploitation numbers Basin doc. (Mean, 95% CI) hunt 47700( 35300- 71000) Greenland 1900 North Sea 324000 (263000-401000) 1950 1716 78400 ( 40500 - 146000) Baltic 127000 ( 97800- 166000) Western 1989 North Atlantic 704000 (479000 - 997000) Global  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI)  Depleted by (%)  5090( 0- 11800) 257000(195000-335000) 40500( 30800- 50200) 106000 ( 76800 - 145000)  89 21 48 17  535000(345000 - 755000)  24  Atlantic white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus acutus  The Atlantic white-sided dolphin, is as its name indicates, found in the North Atlantic, and it inhabits subpolar to warm temperate waters (Sergeant et al, 1980, Selzer and Payne, 1988, Leopold and Couperus, 1995, Hamazaki, 2002, Kaschner, 2004). In Northwest Atlantic waters it is depleted by a minimal 4% since 1950 (Table 3-30, Figure 3-52). Catch data for the Faroe Islands exists (Appendix 5) but I have yet to come across an abundance estimate for this area. Globally, the decline of Atlantic white-sided dolphins is limited at 1% (Table 3-30).  83  Table 3-30. Populations of Atlantic white-sided dolphins Ocean Basin Start of Pre-exploitation numbers (Mean, 95% CI) doc. hunt 21000(15300- 28600) Northwest 1950 Atlantic - USA 103000 (52300-217000) Global 1950  Depleted by (%)  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI) 20100(14400- 27700)  4  102000 (51400-216000)  1  30 25 20 15 o 10 5 0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  Year Figure 3-52. Population trajectory for Northwest Atlantic white-sided dolphins  84  2000  ro O  3.2 Population trajectories of exploited pinnipeds  3.2.1  True seals  Ribbon seal, Histriophoca fasciata  The ribbon seal is found in the North Pacific, in polar-subpolar waters (Jefferson et al, 1993, Fedoseev, 2002, Mizuno et al, 2002, Kaschner, 2004). Their hunting history includes both commercial and subsistence catch, beginning in 1950. The population declined in numbers in the 1960s, but have since recovered and are now at 97% of their 1950 population size (Table 3-31, Figure 3-53). Globally, the ribbon seal population is at 99% of carrying capacity (Table 3-31).  Table 3-31. Populations of ribbon seals Pre-exploitation numbers Start of Ocean Basin doc. hunt (Mean, 95% CI) 135000(113000- 164000) Bering Sea 1950 505000 (363000 - 664000) 1950 Global  85  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI) 131000(111000- 154000) 501000 (361000-654000)  Depleted by(%) 3 1  Ringed seal, Pusa hispida  The ringed seal is found in the Northern Hemisphere, in polar-subpolar waters (Miyazaki, 2002, Kaschner, 2004). The population was hunted on a subsistence basis in the North Pacific, and commercially elsewhere. In the North Atlantic/Arctic the population has declined in abundance by 55% since 1954, and the process of recovery seems to have started (Table 3-32, Figure 3-54). In the Baltic, the population is depleted, with current numbers at 5% of the 1909 abundance level (Table 3-32, Figure 3-55). I had to run 150,000 simulations, instead of 50,000, because the model was having a hard time reconciling the data. I suspect there are gaps in hunting records, but have no other sources of catch data. In the North Pacific/Arctic, the decline in abundance seems to have been  86  very slight, and a depletion level of only 1% registers (Table 3-32, Figure 3-56). Globally, the decline in ringed seal abundance is 27% (Table 3-32).  Table 3-32. Populations of ringed seals Ocean Start of Pre-exploitation numbers Basin (Mean, 95% CI) doc. hunt 3810000(2790000 - 5570000) North 1954 Atlantic / Arctic 150000( 130000- 161000) Baltic 1909 4610000 (3430000 - 5820000) North 1903 Pacific / Arctic 8570000(6350000 - 11600000) Global 1903  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI)  Depleted by(%)  1710000 (  72700-2600000)  55  8150 ( 4670- 11300) 4570000 (3400000 - 5780000)  95 1  6290000 (3480000 - 8390000)  27  87  20  r  15  h  10  < o  8  CD  <  3  •g ^>  10  h A O 4 TO  0)  E 3  2 -  0 1910  1930  1950  1970  1  0  1990  Year Figure 3-55. Population trajectory for Baltic ringed seals  6 CD  <  O  w CD  40  5 30 co <  4  3  > T3  o  20  3  C  CU  E 3  o CD  2  O  10 1 0 1900  1920  1940  1960  1980  Year Figure 3-56. Population trajectory for North Pacific / Arctic ringed seals  88  2000  Southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonine The southern elephant seal roams the southern oceans, and ranges from polar to tropical waters (Boyd and Arnbom, 1991, Ling and Bryden, 1992, Hindell et al, 1999, Bradshaw et al, 2002, Kaschner, 2004). Population numbers have been relatively steady since 1820, with only a 1% reported decline, although a cumulative total of over 1.2 million animals have been killed (Table 3-33, Figure 3-57).  Table 3-33. Population of southern elephant seals Pre-exploitation numbers Ocean Start of (Mean, 9 5 % CI) Basin doc. hunt 739000 (550000- 1070000) Southern 1820 Hemisphere  2001 numbers (Mean, 9 5 % CI) 733000 (549000 - 997000)  Depleted by(%) 1  20  r  - | 20  15  -  i  Co  ^  1820  1850  1880  1910  1940  Year  Figure 3-57. Population trajectory for southern elephant seals  89  1970  2000  15  Gray seal, Halichoerus grypus  Gray seals occur in the North Atlantic, in subpolar to cold temperate waters (Jefferson et al, 1993, Hall, 2002, Kaschner, 2004). In Icelandic waters the population has declined 65% form its 1950 levels (Table 3-34, Figure 3-58). In Scottish waters, on the other hand, the population was only minimally affected and is at 98% of its 1950 abundance (Table 3-34, Figure 3-59). This gives a global decline of a limited 4% (Table 3-34).  Table 3-34. Populations of gray seals Ocean Basin Start of Pre-exploitation numbers (Mean, 95% CI) doc. hunt 16500( 12600- 22000) Iceland 1950 115000( 84900- 156000) Scotland 1950 299000(226000 - 393000) Global 1950  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI)  Depleted by (%)  5800( 0- 12000) 113000 ( 83000- 154000) 286000 (211000-381000)  65 2 4  -I  20  15 CM <  H  10 o CO  O  1950  1960  1970  1980 Year  Figure 3-58. Population trajectory for Icelandic gray seals  90  1990  2000  < o  20  r  40  15  h  30 CM  co  <  T3  I  20  10  o 03  .o  10  E  O  Zi  0  0  _1_  1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure 3-59. Population trajectory for Scottish gray seals  Harp seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus  The harp seal lives in the polar to cold temperate waters of the Northern Hemisphere (Reijnders et al,  1993, Kaschner, 2004). The West Ice stock (East  Greenland), while depleted, is showing signs of recovery and is at 62% of its 1946 abundance (Table 3-35, Figure 3-60). In the Northwest Atlantic, the population appears to be declining, with current numbers indicating a 43% decline since 1895 (Table 3-35, Figure 3-61). The White Sea stock has been depleted by 60% since 1897, but is showing signs of recovery (Table 3-35, Figure 3-62). Globally, this corresponds to a decline of 36% (Table 3-35).  91  Table 3-35. Populations of harp seals Ocean Basin Start of Pre-exploitation numbers (Mean, 95% CI) doc. hunt West Ice (East 1946 627000( 406000 1110000) Greenland) Northwest 1895 6840000 ( 506000011000000) Atlantic (the front and gulf) 1897 5570000( 4740000White Sea 6430000) 17800000(14300000Global 1895 23500000)  20  r  15  h  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI)  Depleted by (%)  388000( 223000495000) 3930000 (2990000 5160000) 2230000(16000002960000) 11300000 (891000013600000)  43  60 36  5  <  o  38  4  CO  •g >  T3 C  3  10  h "I  o  o  2 ~ CO O  CD -O  £  5  h  -i  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  Year Figure 3-60. Population trajectory for West Ice (East Greenland) harp seals  92  2000  1  V  20 CO  <  O  w  15  CD  3  >  5  C  CD XI  £  10 h  5  h  3  0  _ 1900  1920  1940  1960  1980  2000  1980  2000  Year Figure 3-61. Population trajectory for Northwest Atlantic harp seals  CD  < O  CD  3  ;>  T3 CD Xi  E 3  1900  1920  1940  1960  Year Figure 3-62. Population trajectory for White Sea harp seals  93  Hooded seal, Cystophora cristata  Hooded seals live in the North Atlantic Ocean, in polar to cold temperate water (Kovacs and Lavigne, 1986, Reijnders et al, 1993, Kaschner, 2004). The Jan Mayen stock has been depleted by 68% since 1940, but has begun to show signs of recovery (Table 3-36, Figure 3-63). The Northwest Atlantic stock is depleted by 20%, and recovering from a hunt that began in 1946 (Table 3-36, Figure 3-64). Globally, the hooded seal is depleted by 50% (Table 3-36).  Table 3-36. Populations of hooded seals Ocean Start of Pre-exploitation numbers Basin (Mean, 95% CI) doc. hunt 1170000 ( 788000- 1740000) Jan 1940 Mayen 607000( 461000- 844000) Northwest 1946 Atlantic 1780000 (1250000 - 2580000) Global 1940  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI)  Depleted by (%)  403000(147000- 689000)  68  488000(364000- 627000)  20  891000 (511000- 1320000)  50  94  20 < o  15  CD  3  >  s  T3  10  0  E 3  0 1940  1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure 3-63. Population trajectory for Jan Mayen hooded seals  40 to <  o  30  w  co <  CD  3  •o >  H  T3 C  20 3 CD  O  0  H  E 3  1950  1960  1970  1980  Year  Figure 3-64. Population trajectory for Northwest Altantic hooded seals  95  1990  2000  10  Bearded seal, Erignathus barbatus  The bearded seal is found in the Northern hemisphere, in polar-subpolar waters (Reijnders et al, 1993, Kovacs, 2002, Kaschner, 2004). In the Bering/Chukchi Sea, where it is caught in a subsistence hunt, the bearded seal population has been declining since 1966 and is currently depleted by 24% (Table 3-37, Figure 3-65). Globally, this means that the bearded seal is depleted by 11% (Table 3-37).  Table 3-37. Populations of bearded seals Ocean Start of Pre-exploitation numbers (Mean, 95% CI) Basin doc. hunt 298000 (227000 - 382000) Bering / 1966 Chukchi Global 1966 668000 (357000 - 642000)  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI)  Depleted by(%)  226000(121000-321000)  24  596000(251000-581000)  11  40  9  <  o Number of individual;  in  30  -  8  —  7 6  -  20  10  -  5  ...  4 3  -  2 1 0  0 1970  1980  1990 Year  Figure 3-65. Population trajectory for Bering/Chukchi bearded seals  96  2000  o  Harbour seal, Phoca vitulina  The harbour seals ranges from subpolar to warm temperate waters in the Northern Hemisphere (Burns, 2002, Kaschner, 2004). The California stock has been depleted by 8% (Table 3-38, Figure 3-66), however, the global population is at 99% of carrying capacity (Table 3-38).  Table 3-38. Populations of harbour seals Pre-exploitation numbers Ocean Basin Start of (Mean, 95% CI) doc. hunt 33500 ( 26800- 41900) California 1991 384000 (377000-422000) Global 1991  5 < o CO  '> T3 C  Depleted by (%) 8 1  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI) 30700 ( 24100- 39000) 381000 (374000-419000)  20  r  4  15 CM <  3 10  o  2  -i—»  CO  O  0  E 3  1 -  0 1991  2000  1995 Year  Figure 3-66. Population trajectory for California harbour seals  97  1  0  Largha or spotted seal, Phoca largha  The largha or spotted seal ranges from polar to warm temperate waters in the North Pacific (Burns, 2002, Kaschner, 2004). The Bering Sea population showed a decline due to hunting, but has recovered to 94% of its 1965 abundance (Table 3-39, Figure 3-67). In the Northeast Pacific waters off Alaska, the population, which is subjected to a subsistence hunt with documented catches since 1966, is depleted by 60% (Table 3-39, Figure 3-68). The Sea of Okhotsk population shows a similar trend to the Bering Sea population, with documented hunting also commencing in 1965, including a period of decline followed by recovery leaving the population at only a 6% decline (Table 3-39, Figure 3-69).  Table 3-39. Populations of largha or spotted seals Ocean Start of Pre-exploitation numbers (Mean, 9 5 % CI) Basin doc. hunt Bering 1965 215000(166000-281000) Sea Northeast 1966 80600( 64600- 106000) Pacific (Alaska) 1965 232000(178000-303000) Sea of Okhotsk Global 1965 532000 (413000-695000)  98  2001 numbers (Mean, 9 5 % CI)  Depleted by (%)  202000 (147000 - 268000)  6  32800( 11500- 54600)  59  205000 (144000 - 267000)  12  444000(307000 - 594000)  17  30  6  < o  25  5  75  20  4 co < o  •g S  15 h o  "  10  2  E  I  1  5  0  0 1970  1980  1990  2000  Year Figure 3-67. Population trajectory for Bering largha/spotted seals  20 < o in  r  15  co  >  5 C  10 h  CD  E 3  0 1970  1980  1990 Year  Figure 3-68. Population trajectory for Northeast Pacific largha/spotted seals  99  2000  CO  O  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year Figure 3-69. Population trajectory for Okhotsk Sea largha/spotted seals  3.2.2  Eared seals  Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazelle  The Antarctic fur seal lives in polar and subpolar waters in the Southern Hemisphere (Ribic et al, 1991, Reijnders et al, 1993, Kaschner, 2004). The population has recovered remarkably from its most depleted levels in the 1830s. However, this population is a bit of a problem case: documented catches start in 1790 and end by 1830, but almost 100 years elapsed before the population began recovering at a significant rate. 100  However, when this recovery began, the population exploded. The model compensates for the 100 year low recovery by setting the for r  m a x  parameter low which means I may be  overestimating K . Moreover, I cannot reproduce the strong increase seen in recent decades.  Table 3-40. Population of Antarctic fur seals Ocean Start of Pre-exploitation numbers Basin (Mean, 95% CI) doc. hunt Southern 1580000(1010000- 1970000) 1790 Hemisphere  101  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI)  Depleted by (%)  1270000 (901000 - 1680000)  20  South African and Australian fur seal, Arctocephaluspusillus  The South African and Australian fur seal occurs in warm temperate to subtropical waters in the Southern Hemisphere (Reijnders et al., 1993, Kaschner, 2004). The species showed some decline, but seems to be well on its way to full recovery, with a current population size of 91% of the 1900 abundance level (Table 3-41, Figure 3-71). Globally, this species has been depleted by 9% (Table 3-41).  Table 3-41. Population table for the South African and Australian fur seal 2001 numbers Ocean Start of Pre-exploitation numbers (Mean, 95% CI) (Mean, 95% CI) Basin doc. hunt 1740000 (1380000 - 2270000) 1580000 (1270000 - 1970000) South Africa 1900 1620000 (1300000 - 2020000) 1780000 (1410000 - 2320000) Global  30  Depleted by (%) 9 9  9  r  8  25 to "co  __ 20  % c  15  7 6  <  5 4  o -I—»  2  3  10  . Q  E  3  2  5  1 0  0 1900  1920  1940  1960  Year Figure 3-71. Population trajectory for the South African fur seal  102  1980  2000  CO  O  Northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus  The Northern fur seal lives in the subpolar to cold temperate waters of the North Pacific (Gentry, 1981, Baba et al, 2000, Gentry, 2002, Kaschner, 2004). The Pribilof population, which counts for the majority of the population, saw a precipitous decline in the late 1800s, but has since had time to recover. The current population is depleted by 1% from its 1786 pre-exploitation level (Table 3-42, Figure 3-72). Globally, the species is also depleted by 1% (Table 3-42). The Pribilof population accounts for the majority of the total population, with separate population found on the Commander, Kuril, Robben and San Miguel Islands.  Table 3-42. Populations of Northern fur seals Ocean Start of Pre-exploitation numbers (Mean, 95% CI) Basin doc. hunt 1390000 (1290000 - 2300000) 1786 Pribilof 1730000 (1620000 - 2650000) Global 1786  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI)  Depleted by (%)  1290000 (1530000 - 1680000) 1630000 (1860000 - 2030000)  1 1  103  1780  1810  1840  1870  1900  1930  1960  1990  Year Figure 3-72. Population trajectory for Northern fur seals  South American sea lion, Otaria flavenscens  The South American sea lion occurs in polar to subtropical waters in the Southern Hemisphere (Jefferson et al., 1993, Reijnders et al., 1993, Kaschner, 2004). The North Patagonian / Falklands population faced a huge decline in numbers after hunting began in 1930, but have seen limited recovery since them and are now at 49% of their original population size (Table 3-43, Figure 3-73).  104  Table 3-43. Populations of South American sea lions Ocean Basin Start of Pre-exploitation numbers doc. (Mean, 95% CI) hunt 1930 110000 ( 86200- 141000) North Patagonia (Falklands) 290000 (226000-381000) 1930 Global  20  Depleted by (%)  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI) 52200( 32600- 95400)  53  232000(173000- 335000)  20  r  15  £  10  0 1930  1940  1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year Figure 3-73. Population trajectory for South American sea lions  New Zealand fur seal, Arctocephalus forsteri  The New Zealand fur seals occupies subpolar to warm temperate waters, around New Zealand and South Australia (Jefferson et al., 1993, Kaschner, 2004).  As  documented, the exploitation history of this species is remarkable. In New Zealand, 105  340,000 fur seals were thought to have been killed between 1804 and 1813 (Matlin, 1998). After this there are no documented catches until 1991-1996 where 6,416 fur seals were reported killed as bycatch in the hoki fishery (Manly et al, 2002). This has to be reconciled with an abundance estimate of 40,000 fur seals in New Zealand in the early 1980s (Reijnders et al, 1993), although this estimate is considered out of date and the population may be somewhat higher (60,000+) (Matlin, 1998). I cannot reconstruct this population trajectory. I find that the population should have recovered to much higher levels i f they were at a population level where they could have sustained a hunt of 340,000 individuals. Historical population size for the New Zealand fur seal population has been estimated at 1,250,000 (Richards, 1994, Matlin, 1998). However, I can not reproduce this number and end up with a population of 40,000 individuals given their documented exploitation history. There are two possible explanations for this: (1) either the catches are not well documented or (2) there has been a massive change in carrying capacity for the species. The catch history seems plausible, though given the history of fur seal hunting in the Antarctic (Hart, 2004), I believe it more likely that there was a change in carrying capacity, likely due to interspecific competition and biological changes in the ecosystem.  California sea lion, Zalophus californianus  The California sea lion is endemic to North Pacific waters, and occurs in warm temperate and tropical waters (Heath, 2002, Kaschner, 2004). The California stock has  106  seen a 6% decline, a result of the species being taken as by-catch in a number of fisheries (Table 3-44, Figure 3-74). Globally, this accounts for 5% depletion in the species (Table 3-44).  Table 3-44. Populations of California sea lions Ocean Start of Pre-exploitation numbers (Mean, 9 5 % CI) Basin doc. hunt 176000(123000- 194000) California 1980 225000(156000-247000) 1980 Global  2001 numbers (Mean, 9 5 % CI)  Depleted by (%)  165000(113000- 183000) 214000(146000-236000)  6 5  5 4  2 1 0  0  ± 1980  2000  1990 Year  Figure 3-74. Population trajectory for California sea lion  107  ~  Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus  The Stellar sea lion inhabits the subpolar and cold temperate waters of the North Pacific (Rice, 1998, Baba et al, 2000, Kaschner, 2004). The Eastern Alaska stock is doing quite well, with limited depletion of only 3% since 1912. This is very different for the Western Alaska stock, which has been depleted by 64% since 1959 (Table 3-45, Figure 3-75, Figure 3-76 ). Globally, Steller sea lions have declined by 43% from 1800 to 2001. This estimate also includes the Russian and the California/Oregon/Washington populations. See section 4.2 for a discussion on the Western Alaska population trends.  Table 3-45. Populations of Steller sea lions Start of Pre-exploitation numbers Ocean (Mean, 95% CI) Basin doc. hunt 1912 33000( 26700 - 63500) Eastern Alaska 95300 ( 87700- 101000) Western 1959 Alaska 143000(129000- 180000) Global 1912  108  2001 numbers (Mean, 95% CI)  Depleted by(%)  31900 (26300-38600)  3  34000 (28900 - 40300)  64  81400 (70700-94400)  43  < o w  CO  CD 3  <  •g '> T3  c  o -I—•  CD  O  CD  E 3  1910  1930  1950  1970  1990  Year  Figure 3-75. Population trajectory for Eastern Alaska Steller sea lions  20  -i  < o  ~  40  30  15  CO  CM <  3  O  ^  > T3  10  20  h  o  -*—'  CO  0  E  O  5  H  h  10  3  0  0 1960  1970  1980  1990  Year Figure 3-76. Population trajectory for Western Alaska Steller sea lions  109  2000  3.2.3  Walrus  Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus  The walrus is endemic to the polar waters of the Northern Hemisphere (Rice, 1998, Kastelein, 2002, Kaschner, 2004). The Spitsbergen and Franz Josef Land population is depleted by 98%, while the West Greenlandic stock is depleted by 91% of its 1900 abundance, and the Northwater population is at 60% of its 1950 population (Table 3-46, Figure 3-80, Figure 3-81, Figure 3-79). The Chukchi/Bering Sea population is at 68% of its 1869 population, and the East Greenlandic population is at 94% of its 1950 population (Table 3-46, Figure 3-77, Figure 3-78). Globally, the species is depleted by 47% (Table 3-46), this estimate includes the Northwest Atlantic and Laptev Sea population.  Table 3-46. Populations of walruses Ocean Start of Pre-exploitation numbers (Mean, 9 5 % CI) Basin doc. hunt 265000 (204000 - 408000) Chukchi1869 Bering 1950 1090 ( 813 - 1470) East Greenland 4380 ( 2980 - 7680) Northwater 1950 Spitsbergen 1660 82100 ( 53900- 90300) & Franz Josef Land 1900 11100 ( 7040- 16400) West Greenland 1660 378000 (268000 - 527000) • Global  110  2001 numbers (Mean, 9 5 % CI)  Depleted by (%)  181000(112000-247000)  32  1030 (  753 -  1440)  6  1760 ( 2080 (  13601760-  2290) 3070)  60 98  1040 (  758-  1410)  91  201000(131000-271000)  47  lO  < o  CO  >  CD  E 3  1870  1890  1910  1930  1950  1970  1990  Year Figure 3-77. Population trajectory for Chukchi / Bering Sea walruses  20  10  r  CM  <  8  O  15 co  6  •g > s  o  10  CO  4 CD  E  2  0  0  l 1950  1960  1970  1980  Year Figure 3-78. Population tracjectory for East Greenlandic walruses  111  1990  2000  O  -I  20  H  15  H  10  i  5  CO  < o  to  6  h  CO  •g > c CD JD  E  0  0 1950  1960  1970  1990  1980  2000  Year Figure 3-79. Population trajectory for Northwater walruses  100  40  r  CO  o  80  30  CO  •I  o  60  *  H  T3  20 o CO  40  O  10  JD  §  20 o  i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i n i T V Ii i ii f 1660  1710  1760  1810  1860  Year Figure 3-80. Population trajectory for Spitsbergen walruses  112  1910  1960  2010  0  113  3.3 The big picture  Population trajectories were generated for all marine mammals with documented exploitation histories. This represents 45 of the 115 marine mammal species globally. Figure 3-82 shows a summary of the results of the analysis. Marine mammal abundance has declined 22% (0-62%) in numbers, and 76% (58-86%) in biomass from 1800 to 2001. Cumulative catches over the same time period have totaled 74.5 million in numbers, corresponding to 135.6 million tonnes (t) in biomass. The world catch offish in the 1970s was between 60 and 64 million t/year, increasing to around 80 million t/year between 1985 and 1995 (Christensen, 2006). In 1930 and 1937, marine mammal landings totaled over 4 and 3.7 million t respectively. This illustrates how huge these hunts were, especially when compared to the fisheries catches, which, during that early period, would have been much smaller than now. Marine mammal abundance in 1800 was 125 million t, which is a small fraction of the overall estimate of fish biomass, estimated at 800 billion t (S. Jennings, CEFAS, pers. comm to V . Christensen; 2006) and even up to 2 trillion t (V. Christensen, Fisheries Centre, U B C , pers. comm; 2006).  114  4.5  140  1800  1850  1900  1950  2000  Years  Figure 3-82. Trends in marine mammal biomass and abundance from 1800 - 2001. The thick line shows abundance in biomass, the stippled line shows abundance in numbers over time. The thin line shows catch in biomass and the medium line shows catch in numbers over time.  3.3.1 Marine mammal catches  The earliest documented catch I have acquired is for the year 1530, when 300 North Atlantic right whales were estimated to have been caught (Aguilar, 1986 and Reeves, 1999). However, it is not until the late 1700s that the size of marine mammal hunts becomes significant (Figure 3-83). The total number documented marine mammals caught, since 1530 is 74,537,339 (135,641,639 t) of which 73,042,166 (131,239,231 t) were caught after 1800. The average weight of individuals caught (biomass/numbers) is very high up until the late 1700s, when a drastic decline occured, due to the onset of fur seal catches which strongly increased numbers caught, but only slightly increased the catch in weight (Figure 3-84). From the late 1700s to the early 1900s, catch in both numbers and biomass are relatively low, albeit with some fluctuations. This likely just 115  identifies the start of reporting for a number of hunted stocks. The spike beginning in 1821 is important, however, as it represents a drastic increase in the catch of Antarctic fur seals coupled with the beginning of the Southern elephant seal hunt. The next interesting feature of this graph is the development that happened from the early 1900s until the Second World War, where biomass increases disproportionably to numbers caught. This, or course, is because great whales increasingly figure in catches. In particular, it is due to catch of the biggest and heaviest of the species, the blue whale.  116  25 -,  20 J  15  4  10  A  5  1530  1580  1630  1680  1730  1780  1830  1880  1930  1980  Figure 3-84. Average weight of marine mammals caught during 1530 - 2001, calculated as a moving average over 31 years. The average weight is estimated from total weight of mammals caught relative to numbers caught.  A drop is noted in catch in weight and by numbers under the First World War, and again in 1931, although only by weight (Figure 3-83). In 1930, the second largest annual catch of blue whales (the 1937 season holds the record) virtually flooded the market, leading to a crisis that saw vastly reduced catches (T0nnessen, 1982). During the Second World War, catches dropped again as a large portion of the whaling fleet was converted to tankers and transport ships (Tonnessen, 1982). The only great whale species that did not experience a large decline in catches was the sperm whale; in fact in 1943, it made up 38% of the world's marine mammal catch by biomass. The decline in catches was not so precipitous for the smaller marine mammals, many of which were caught for subsistence. After WWII, catches increased both by numbers and weight, although more so by numbers, indicating that the greatest whales were already depleted, and the whaling fleets were forced to target the smaller species. 117  The total biomass caught declines rapidly in the 1960s, followed by a collapse in catch by numbers. This collapse is much bigger in terms of biomass than numbers, indicating depletion of the great whales. In 1986, when the IWC moratorium on whaling came into force, catch by weight is severely reduced, while numbers caught begins increasing again, indicating increased catches of smaller mammals, and/or perhaps better documentation of smaller mammal catches. Figure 3-85 clearly shows the buildup in average weight of the catch as the great whales were hunted in great numbers especially in the Southern Hemisphere. This was followed by a declining trend, indicating that these large mammals made up a declining proportion of the total catch.  8  1900  1920  1940  1960  1980  2000  Years  Figure 3-85. Average weight of marine mammals caught during 1900 - 2001, estimated from total weight of mammals caught relative to numbers caught.  118  3.3.2  Marine mammal numbers  Figure 3-86 shows the abundance of marine mammals in numbers from 1800 2001. Abundance levels have been declining steadily, with a total decline of 22% (062%) between 1800 and 2001. In terms of numbers, the total population went from 76 (58-115) to 60 (44-93) million. The 2001 abundance marks a bit of an increase from the 1983 numbers of 56.4 million, which equaled a of 28% depletion from 1800.  140  r  120 100 <?  80 -  20 0  I  1800  ' 1850  ' 1900  ' 1950  L  2000  Years  Figure 3-86. Decline in numbers of marine mammals from 1800 to 2001. The solid line is the median, and the dotted lines represent the 95% credible intervals.  The decline in the groups that make up the marine mammal populations is shown in Figure 3-87. True seals constitute the greatest proportion of marine mammal numbers,  119  decreasing from 1900 to the 1980, but increasing in abundance since. The smaller dolphins and porpoises have declined since the 1960s. The eared seals and walrus declined up till about 1900, since then they have shown signs of recovery. The abundance trend for the smaller whales and larger dolphins seems steady, while the great whales have decreased since the early 1900s.  45 •(1) True seals  40  -(2) Smaller dolphins and porpoises  35  •(3) E a r e d seals and walrus 30 • (4) Smaller whales and larger dolphins  CD  < o  25  (2)  •(5) Great whales  K  CD  E  20  =J  z  15  (3) 10 5  1800  1850  1900  1950  2000  Years  Figure 3-87. Marine mammal global abundance in numbers.  Figure 3-88 shows abundance for cetaceans and pinnipeds. Pinnipeds, clearly decline earlier than the cetaceans, leveling off in the 1970s, and increasing again from the 1980s on. The cetaceans show a remarkable trend consistent with rapid over-exploitation; their abundance was reduced from 24.5 million animals in 1958 to 18.8 million in 1977,  120  which is a 22% decline in 20 years. The cetacean population seems to have leveled off since the late 1970s, and has even increased slightly in recent years.  55  30  r  50  27  45  24  40  g,  21  35  18  0 JD  E  E c —30 .E ? CO •D  3  C  —  2  CD <  15 co o c •«-  °  .9-  0  JD  5  'c c  12  •Pinnipeds  20  CD 0 O CO 0  O  Cetaceans  15  10  + 3  0  0 1800  1820  1840  1860  1880  1900  1920  1940  1960  1980  2000  Years Figure  3-88. Global aggregated abundance of cetaceans and pinnipeds, (in numbers) from 1800 to 2001.  121  3.3.3  Marine mammal biomass  This section examines what has happened to marine mammal abundance in terms of biomass. The graphs are like the above except for the change in units. This lets us appreciate the true dominance of the great whales in the ecosystems. Figure 3-89 shows the decline in biomass of 76% (58-86%) for aggregated marine mammal population from 1800 to 2001. It is evident that the great whales, although accounting for only 5% of the total numbers of marine mammals in 1800, account for the vast majority, 92%, of the total marine mammal biomass  The decline is staggering, with current great whale  biomass making up 72% of the total biomass and 2% of the total numbers.  180  r  160 . :  140 h  20 0 ' 1800  ' 1850  ' 1900  ' 1950  L  2000  Years Figure 3-89. Decline in the biomass of marine mammals. The solid line is the median, and the dotted lines represent the 95% credible interval.  122  Figure 3-90 shows the decline by mammal groups from 1800 to 2001. The great whales constitute the greatest to marine mammal abundance by weight. Although the decline by numbers for this group did not look remarkable (Figure 3-87), the decline in biomass is very pronounced (Figure 3-90, see next section). True seal and smaller dolphin and porpoise biomass has declined proportionally to their respective abundance in numbers. The smaller whales and larger dolphin biomass and the eared seals and walrus are slowly declining over time (Figure 3-90).  123  Figure 3-91 shows the decline in biomass for pinnipeds, and cetaceans. It is apparent that the bulk of the decline is occurring in the cetacean population. The pinnipeds, while also declining, have done so at a much lesser rate.  120 \ \ 100  80  60  •Pinnipeds  40  Cetaceans  \ 20  0  0 1800  1820 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 Years  Figure 3-91. Marine mammal global abundance by cetaceans and pinnipeds, from 1800-2001.  124  ^  3.3.4  The great whales  In the sections above it has become clear that the great whales make up the majority of marine mammal biomass and have experienced the greatest rate and magnitude of depletion. Figure 3-92 shows the scale of decline: great whale biomass declined at a greater rate and to a greater extent than the corresponding numbers from 1800 to 2001, indicating that the largest whales were hunted first.  5  4  CD 0  °  12 a>  n  1 2-  z  1 -  0  -  160 r 140 120 -  2 100 < o C in u> n  E o  80 60 -  35 40 20 0 1800  1850  1900 Years  1950  2000  Figure 3-92. Decline in great whales numbers and biomass from 1800 to 2001. The solid lines are the medians and the dotted lines the 95% credible intervals.  125  The total number of whales caught since 1800 by species are listed in Table 3-47. In Figure 3-93 I have plotted the catches of the five species that were caught in the greatest amounts since 1900. It is evident that sequential depletion of the great whales has occurred. First to go were the blue whales, followed by the fin, sperm and sei whale. The latter peaking species is the minke whale, which only started to be caught in large quantities in the 1970s, and collapsed when the moratorium cames into effect, although the catch can be seen to be increasing again. The solid line in Figure 3-93 is the average weight of the whales caught, and it saw an increase up till the 1930's as blue whales comprised larger and larger portions of the catch. Since then, the average weight of whales caught has declined, with a precipitous trough during the Second World War. There is a slight increase in average weight in 1987-89, when fin whales accounted for a relatively larger portion of the limited reported catch.  Table 3-47. Catch by species since 1800 Catches since 1800 Species 1,014,449 Sperm whale 872,524 Fin whale 373,870 Blue whale 295,885 Sei whale  Species Minke whale Humpback whale Right whale Bowhead whale  126  Catches since 1800 280,341 253,080 107,052 55,293  90  m •  Average weight  • • •  75  fin sperm blue sei minke  50  40  30 63  a  D) <D  E 45  5  0)  20 2  o  e > <  O 30  10  15  1900  1920  1940  1960  1980  2000  Years  Figure 3-93. Sequential depletion of the great whale and average body weight of landed animals  127  CHAPTER 4  Discussion  This section is divided into three sections to discuss the data, methodology and results, respectively. The overriding message in this section is that the results are only as good as the data, and the data are often incomplete. Howevver, they are the best available documentation of the history of marine mammal populations. Paraticularly, the data are too sparse to investigate finer details of the historical changes in abundance associated with natural and anthropogenic affect.  4.1 Data  The primary limitations I have encountered in conducting the analyses in this thesis had to do with data availability and reliability. The early hunts were not documented, and much of the history of sealing remains a mystery. In this section, I will explore the causes and explanations for some of the obstacles that have presented themselves.  Regarding availability of abundance data, one of the species for which there were major problems was the Antarctic minke whales. There have been significant problems with the estimation of their stock size due to conflicting trends in the data collected. The International Decade of Cetacean Research (IDRC), now the Southern Ocean Whale and Ecosystem Research (SOWER) circumpolar cruises, 1982/83-1988/89 led to the IWC Science Committee agreeing that the best estimate of minke whale abundance in the Antarctic was 761,000 (95% C L : 510,000 - 1,140,000) in 1991 (IWC, 1991, Tamura and 128  Ohsumi, 2000). Branch (2001) estimated that from the 1878/79-1983/83 and 1985/861990/91 IDRC/SOWER surveys the best estimates of abundance were 608,000 (c.v. 0.130) and 766,000 (c.v. 0.091) respectively (Branch and Butterworth, 2001). The 1991/92-1997/98, SOWER third circumpolar cruises resulted in an estimate of abundance of 268,000 (c.v. 0.093), although the survey is considered incomplete (Branch and Butterworth, 2001, IWC, 2002). The updated estimate for the 1991//92-2000/01 was reported at 312,000 (IWC, 2003). Erring on the side of caution, I chose to use the 312,000  estimate  in my analysis. The Scientific  Committee, however, while  acknowledging a decline in minke abundance estimates, is not concluding that minke whale abundance in the Southern Hemisphere is actually declining (IWC, 2003). A number of hypotheses for the differences have been suggested, the two most important of which were: 1) open areas sighting rates decreasing because an increased proportion of minke whales within pack-ice, which is affected by climatological connections, and 2) distributional changes in minke whale stocks due to shifts in sea ice extent (Branch, 2006, IWC, 2006). For my SSRA, the implications of having uncertain estimates will affect the estimate of total biomass of this species, but given the limited catches (Figure 3-23, Appendix 5) the population trend, while variable in magnitude dependent on the absolute size of the population, would follow the same trend (i.e., my results will not be significantly altered).  The problem I faced when attempting to assess the North Atlantic Bryde's whales, for which catch data exists beginning in 1925 (Table 3-9, Appendix 5), was that no abundance estimate is available for this stock. This meant that the probability of a  129  population trajectory could not be calculated for the species in this region. This means that any changes in numbers over time for this stock is not reflected in the estimated global trend, and also the estimated absolute size of all marine mammal abundances does not include the North Atlantic bryde's whale.  The California sea lion has been hunted for subsistence for almost 5,000 years. However, there are only a very limited amount of historical catch records (NMFS, 2003). In fact, catch data are only available from 1980 on (Figure 3-74, Appendix 5). This means that the trend generated by the U.S. pup count index which has been increasing since the late 1970s (NMFS, 2003) cannot be reproduced by my SSRA. As well, it seems that El Nino drastically reduced pup production in three years since 1980 (DeLong et al, 1991, N M F S , 2003). However, there is not enough trend information on abundances for the SSRA, which would otherwise be able to capture this trend, to pick it up. Again, the 'real' trend for this species will not be reflected in my SSRA. However, the relative size of this population to the aggregate mammal group means that the importance of missing this information is limited.  Given the nature of water-based mammal hunts, where animals are readily lost from sight, occurrences of struck-but-lost animals are unavoidable. It is most likely that the magnitude of struck-but-loss rates has declined over time. The rates likely decreased as the efficiency of hunting methods and technology improved, and reporting systems became increasingly organized. In terms of our model predictions, the carrying capacity (K) would be underestimated and there will be downward bias on recovery goals, because a larger number of mammals have been removed from the stock than documented. 130  Conversely, the intrinsic rate of growth (r  max  ), would tend to be overestimated. This is  structural problem, because of the way the logistic equation is set up. The addition to a N year's population depends on the term r  max  (l  -) for population size N in year t. If K is t  K underestimated the ratio of N to K will downwardly bias the density dependence term, t  and the r  m a x  parameter will be inflated artificially.  Thus struck-but-loss rates could have profound effects on the results in this model. To add these effects, I would have had to either estimate the rates based on very limited information (if any) on these rates over time, i.e., employ guesswork, or I would have had to increase the number of parameters estimated. However, the already limited information that this data set contains led me to steer away from this path. M y estimates can, however, in their current form be seen as approximating a minimum rate of decline for marine mammal populations, which is likely to be larger because of undocumented exploitation and issues like the struck-but-loss rate. This is my main motivation for not including struck-but-loss ratios in the SSRA  4.2 Methodology  To assemble the population reconstructions I employed a production model that assumed logistic growth. The method was chosen because of its limited data requirements (catch information and indices of absolute abundance, both in numbers). Although effort data exists for many hunts, problems with the influence of technological development and the lull in catches during the Second World War make these very unreliable indices (i.e., capture probabilities have presumably increased over time, 131  biasing catch rate indices) and so I have chosen not to use them. In addition, for many of the species no indication of age or sex are given for catch numbers, which means that I can not use age- or sex-structured models.  The major problems I ran into are the effects of working with data describing trajectories that are essentially 'one-way trips', i.e., the population trends are determined by decline, with no subsequent recovery. Thus, several explanations may exist for the observed data, all consistent with the maximum net growth and carrying capacity tradeoff (i.e., the catches could be taken from a large slow-growing population or from a small fast-growing population). Fortunately, I had some auxiliary data for likely net recruitment rates in both cetaceans and pinnipeds, and thus could somewhat constrain the estimates in the form of a prior on rm . There are some species where recovery has occurred (e.g. ax  North Pacific and Southern Hemisphere sei whales and Being Sea ribbon seal), and in these cases the time series do provide information about r  m a x  and K . However, some  species (such as the blue whale) have shown no recovery over the last 20 years under the moratorium, and yet there have been no documented catches. If illegal catching is going on (Baker and Palumbi, 1994) then it could be that the hunt is impeding the recovery, and estimated model parameters will be biased downwards in net recruitment and upward carrying capacity.  The IWC's catch limit algorithm (CLA) is based on a surplus production model, p much like the SSRA, set up as P = P _ + r(l t  t  — ) - C,_, , where P is the population 2  x  t  K in year t, Q is the catch in year t, r is the productivity parameter, and K = P (Cooke, 0  132  1999). According to Cooke (1999), adding age-structure or a time-lag (either to age at fishing or reproduction), as well as the exponent of 2 in the equation, does not significantly impact the performance or behavior of the model. The C L A performs well for management purposes, for which it uses a control law which sets the total allowable P catch at TAC = brP (— - a), where ' a ' and 'b' are intercept and slope parameters of the K t  plot of P, vs. T A C (Cooke, 1999). The IWC has set the V parameter at 54% of K , as a safety measure to ensure that the population does not drop below its most productive level due to scientific error in estimating relative stock size. Thus, if the size of the stock reaches 54% or less of its K , hunting is banned to allow recovery.  Stock reduction analysis (SRA) and its extension, stochastic stock reduction analysis (SSRA), as methods, were described by Walters et al. (2006), who applied the models to Fraser River white sturgeon and Georgia Strait lingcod. Simiarly, M . K . McAllister assessed the Gulf of Mexico Snapper for the Southeast Fisheries Science Centre's Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR) workshop on the Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper (SEDAR 07) and found high density-dependence, a surprising insight, in juvenile mortality rates, a critical step to assessing the effects of the shrimp fishery bycatch (Walters et al, 2006). In fact, Walters et al. (2006) state that " S R A should be a required assessment component rather than a methodology for use only in data-poor situations", adding to confidence in my SSRA framework. However, there were some situations, related to non-stationary effects, where the structural assumptions of the SSRA, led to an inability to replicate documented observations of and trends in abundance. 133  A first example of the consequences of the omission of non-stationary effects, (i.e., systematic changes in r  m a x  and K ) is provided by the assessment of the Western  Alaska Steller sea lion population. These mammals have been studied in depth, and their population numbers have been estimated since 1956 (Trites and Larkin, 1996, Trites, Fisheries Centre, U B C , pers. comm., 2006). These sea lions are known to have increased from the late 1950s up until the early 1970s, after which they went into a precipitous decline (Figure 4-1). Given the documented catch history (Figure 3-76, Appendix 5), I have been unable to reproduce the population trajectory reported by Trites and Larkin (1996) (Figure 4-1). There are a number of hypotheses as to the explanation for the declining abundance of the stock, including the nutritional stress hypothesis that pin the decline on changes in prey availability and consequent changes in diet to include less 'healthy' food (Trites and Larkin, 1996, Rosen and Trites, 2000, Trites and Donnelly, 2003). Other hypotheses include incidental take, legal and illegal shooting, changes in carrying capacity due to environmental variation (e.g. climate change) and other changes in productivity, as well as disease and predation. Guenette et al. (in press) suggest that the decline is best explained by a combination of effects including fishing, predation, competition, and ocean productivity. While there is controversy as to the relative merits of the hypotheses, the decline is agreed on. This represents a case that my SSRA is unable to reproduce, and more complex modeling is required to model the non-stationary effects.  134  300  0 -I 1950  1  1  1  1960  1970  1980  -i  1990  1  2000  1  2010  Years F i g u r e 4-1. Population trajectories for the Western Alaska population of Steller sea lions with the solid line representing estimates from Trites and Larkin (1996) and A.W. Trites (Fisheries Centre, UBC, pers. Comm.., 2006), and the stippled line representing this study.  A less understood situation in which non-stationary effects perplexes historical assessments is for the Northeast Pacific gray whale, whose population trends are very well documented. The history of exploitation and recovery for this species is bewildering. The whale has a very long catch history, that begins in 1660 and is still ongoing, with a cumulative total of over 73,000 whales caught (Table 3-6, Appendix 5). The problem for the eastern North Pacific gray whale is that recent abundance information suggests a high intrinsic rate of growth. However, given the decline in catches 100 years ago, there is a lag, with recovery happening slowly, that is not consistent with that hypothesis (Punt et al, 2004).  135  The problem with this stock is that it is violating the assumptions of the production model I employ, i.e., there are likely systematic changes in K and/or  r a m  X  Similar conclusions have been drawn by other authors, and it is generally accepted that a density-dependent population trajectory models cannot explain the abundance trends (Lankester and Beddington, 1986, Butterworth et al, 2002, Punt et al, 2004). To resolve these disparities, it is necessary for either the 1988 carrying capacity to be twice the 1846 size, or 1846 to 1900 commercial catches must be overestimated by a factor of 2.5, or estimated subsistence catches prior to 1846 must be underestimated by a factor of 3 (Butterworth et al, 2002). Perhaps, more plausible are some of explanations for why these models have been unable to reconcile catch histories and abundance information, including changes in carrying capacity over time and the presence cyclic population dynamics (Butterworth et al, 2002, Witting, 2003, Punt et al, 2004).  Gray whale assessments have been conducted in two ways. The first method involves shortening the modeled time period, Wade (2002) constrained analysis to the 1967-1996 time period, Punt et al (2004) began their models in either 1930 or 1968, and using Bayesian statistics to assess the likelihood of different trajectories (Punt and Butterworth, 2002, Wade, 2002, Punt et al, 2004). This hinges on the age-structure of the populations being stable at the starting year. Given the low catches in this time period this is a reasonable assumption, and the robustness of the models under varying starting years further backs this up (Punt and Butterworth, 2002, Punt et al, 2004).  The methodology of the second for of assessments involves inertial dynamics as described by Witting (2003). Here, the dynamic equations of the assessment model are 136  altered, such that life history traits become density-dependent and specific to whales at time of birth. That is, each whale has its own set of intrinsic values (determined by the state of the population at its time of birth relative to a reference level), which remains constant over time, but differs between animals allowing for cyclical patterns in abundance (Witting, 2003, Punt et al, 2004). The resulting population estimations were able to reconcile the catch histories and recent abundance information (Witting, 2003). The main differences in the models pertain the assessment time frame and to future predictions, where either a decline (Witting, 2003) or a steady-state is predicted (Punt et al, 2004).  Again, this is a case for which my SSRA becomes too simplistic, and the necessity of more complex models or differently structured models is evident. The implications of the discrepancies for the global model are, however, limited given overall consistency with a trend that indicates the population is well on its way to full recovery.  The problem with non-stationary effects in model parameters can also been seen when looking at carrying capacity estimates generated by D N A analyses. Roman and Palumbi (2003) use this method to generate a pre-exploitation estimate of 360,000 fin whales in the North Atlantic. To generate such numbers in SSRA, the reported catches would have to have been consistently underestimated by a factor of 10. There could be a number of reasons for the apparent discrepancies. Traditional knowledge offers some indications that marine mammal abundances may have varied by orders of magnitude over relatively short periods in time (Maschner et al, in review). The concept of the existence of a single carrying capacity may thus be overly simplistic as we have seen in 137  this section. If this is indeed the case, the framework on which most management objectives are based will have to be reconsidered. However, there is, in most cases, not enough information in available data to conclude this. This does raise an interesting question of whether all the estimates of carrying capacity I am generating could occur simultaneously given the varying onsets of exploitation.  4.3 Results  To validate my results, I compared the estimates of carrying capacity from this study with published estimates (Table 4-1). Of the 24 specie/stock/area combinations with published carrying capacity estimates, 16 have estimates that fall within the 95% confidence limits I generated for the equivalent specie/stock combination. These are Southern Hemisphere sei whales, North Pacific sei whales, Southern right whales, sperm whales, Southern Hemisphere fin whales, North Atlantic fin whales, Northern Hemisphere humpback whales, North Pacific humpback whales, North Pacific right whales, Newfoundland's  long finned pilot whales, Northern bottlenose  whales,  Pantropical spotted dolphins in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, Bering sea ribbon seals, the Falkland stock of South American sea lions in North Patagonia, Californian California sea lions, and Spitsbergen stock of walrus. O f the remaining 8, 3 come very close. These are the North Pacific fin whales, the Eastern Tropical Pacific spinner dolphins and the Okhotsk sea largha seals.  I estimate the North Pacific fin whale carrying capacity to be 64,500 (49,600 88,000). This can be compared to the historical abundance estimated by Ohsumi and  138  Wada (1974), set at 42,000 to 45,000 whales based on a population model incorporating catch and abundance data (Ohsumi and Wada, 1974, Carretta et al, 2004). That estimate falls just below the lower confidence bound of my estimate, 49,600.  For the Eastern Tropical Pacific spinner dolphin, my pre-exploitation estimate is 2,630,000 (2,130,000 - 3,260,000), which differs only marginally from a published estimate of 2,008,000 (Smith, 1983). The differences may be due to problems with estimating the size of by-catch and allocating dolphin by-catch to spinner or spotted dolphins. Given the level of uncertainty, this estimate is close.  For the largha seal in the Sea of Okhotsk, I estimated a carrying capacity of 232,000 (178,000 - 303,000). Fedoseev's (1970) estimate of 170,000 is just below my lower 95% credible interval, 178,000. The estimate of 170,000 is based on late 1960s aerial surveys of the area, which I consider an estimate of carrying capacity because hunting in the Okhotsk Sea is documented as beginning only in 1965. Perhaps the slightly smaller estimate of Fedoseev (1970) is due to it pertaining to a period after the onset of the hunt.  The remaining 5 species warrant some explanation. We begin with the gray whale, for which my total estimate for the Northern Hemisphere is 24,600 (15,900 29,000), while the published estimate is 45,000 (Nowak and Walker, 1991). The discrepancy here is due to the data violating the structural model assumptions of the SSRA, i.e., there are likely systematic changes in K and/or r expect to underestimate the size of this population.  139  max  . , (see section 4.2), and I  For blue whales, my Northern Hemisphere estimate was 14,500 (10,510 - 17,120), which is to be compared with a published estimate of 20,100 (Nowak and Walker, 1991). However, Nowak's (1991) estimates are from a general reference book "Walker's mammals of the world", citing another mammal handbook (Yochem and Leatherwood, 1985). However, I can not make the numbers cited there add to 20,100. I find that, given the number of estimates listed, the total would be 9,100-10,600, which falls within our 95% credible interval. In the Southern Hemisphere population, my estimate is 327,000 (298,000 - 359,000) and Nowak's (1991) is 200,000, which is again cited from Yochem (1985). Yochem (1985) also reference an estimate of "more than 200,000" by (Rice, 1978), and also mention that (Gambell, 1976) examined 5 sources to give an estimate of 150,000-210,000. The discrepancy may be due to the non-recovery of the stock, which in the absence of hunting, is suggesting a very low intrinsic rate of growth for these animals. If this rate is negatively biased, the result would be a positive bias in the carrying capacity parameter. In the Southern Hemisphere, my SSRA predicts that at least some recovery should be occurring given the ban on hunting blue whales. However, continued hunting is likely still threatening the species (Baker and Palumbi, 1994). According to my SSRA, the annual human induced mortality required to circumvent recovery of the  Antarctic blue whales would be equal to N r (l t  JV  max  - ) , which for the current  K population would be (N, = 1180, r  m a x  = 0.01, K = 327,000) between 11 and 12 whales  per year. Anything higher than this level would result in stock declines. So the question becomes: is the annual human induced mortality, including ship strikes, entanglement,  140  hunting, etc., this high or is the intrinsic rate of growth just very low, or are we seeing a combination of effects?  The next species, for which a divergence between this model and published estimates exists, is the Southern Hemisphere humpback whale. I estimate the carrying capacity of this species to be 199,000 (144,000 - 228,000), while the published estimate is 100,000 (Nowak and Walker, 1991). This was taken from Johnson and Wolman (Johnson and Wolman, 1982), who state that the original Southern Hemisphere humpback whale size was "about 100,000". However, no reference for how this was calculated is given.  The last stock for which my estimates of historical stock size differ is for the Spitsbergen stock of Walrus. M y carrying capacity estimate was 82,100 (53,900 90,300), while the published estimate by Weslawski et al. (2000) is 25,000. However, the authors of that estimate mention that walrus hunting was i l l documented, and their estimate is considered a guesstimate based on the population size of Franz Joseph Land relative to the size of that area. M y estimate covers both Franz Joseph Land and Spitsbergen, but is based on the assumption that the total catch of 90,740 animals, which does not include subsistence harvest (Ross, 1993), was split evenly in the time period 1660-1911. There is a lot of uncertainty in these estimates, which likely explains the quite significant differences.  In conclusion, Table 4-1 serves as a good validation of the model, and given the uncertainties (section 4.1 and 4.2) inherent in this kind of analysis on a global scale, I am  141  confident the method is contextually appropriate and may be used with due consideration of uncertainty in catch and abundance estimates. Recall that these estimates are not generated for management purposes, but for the purposes of looking at the overall trends in marine mammal abundance.  142  T a b l e 4-1:  Available published and predicted carrying capacities / pre-exploitation abundances  Species - O c e a n basin ( S H =  Onset of  Predicted pre-exploitation  Published C a r r y i n g capacities  Southern hemisphere, N H =  recorded  n u m b e r s (95%  (P = Pacific)  Northern hemisphere, E T P =  harvest  level)  Eastern T r o p i c a l Pacific)  (year)  Sei whale - S H  1904  167,000(157,000-190,000)  200,000'  Sei w h a l e - N P  1904  68,400 ( 5 4 , 6 0 0 -  70,000" (P), 4 2 , 0 0 0 " ' ( N P ) , 5862,000 (NP)  Southern right whale  1785  86,100 ( 7 3 , 4 0 0 - 9 8 , 3 0 0 )  Sperm whale  1800  957,000 ( 7 5 1 , 0 0 0 - 1,350,000)  1,100,000'"  Fin w h a l e - S H  1904  625,000 (469,000 - 737,000)  600,000'  F i n whale - N A  1876  72,900 ( 5 4 , 9 0 0 - 111,000)  30,000 - 50,000  Confidence  85,600)  iilb  80,000"'  c  100,000 88,000)  XV1  ", 50,000 -  xviv  F i n whale - N P  1903  64,500(49,600-  42,000-45,000  G r a y whale  1600  24,600(15,900-29,000)  45,000'  B l u e whale - S H  1904  327,000 (298,000 - 359,000)  200,000', 200,000 210,000 xvd  v  xvc  , 150,000-  xvc  B l u e whale - N H  1868  14,500(10,510-17,120)  20,100',9,100-10,600  B o w h e a d whale  1650  89,000 (67,000 - 114,000)  50,000 ", 74,000™', 43,000'  H u m p b a c k whale - S H  1904  199,000(144,000-228,000)  100,000'  H u m p b a c k whale - N H  1664  32,700 ( 2 1 , 8 0 0 - 5 7 , 4 0 0 )  50,000'  H u m p b a c k whale - N P  1664  16,500 ( 1 0 , 5 0 0 -  15,000  N o r t h Pacific right whale  1835  9,720 ( 8 , 5 4 0 - 1 2 , 6 0 0 )  11,000+  Long-finned pilot whale Newfoundland  1947  57,800 ( 5 0 , 8 0 0 - 6 7 , 1 0 0 )  60,000" (Newfoundland)  Northern Bottlenose whale - N A  1584  57800 (44200 - 84700)  4 0 , 0 0 0 - 100,000 (Eastern NA)  24,100) N P  xvc  v  (North P)  Vl  (Northeast P)  ,v  x v b  Pantropical spotted d o l p h i n ETP  1959  4,590,000 ( 3 , 7 4 0 , 0 0 0 5,740,000)  5,590,000"' (Eastern T r o p i c a l Pacific)  Spinner d o l p h i n - E T P  1959  2,630,000 ( 2 , 1 3 0 , 0 0 0 3,260,000)  2,008,000"' (Eastern T r o p i c a l Pacific)  R i b b o n seal - B e r i n g sea  1950  1 3 5 , 0 0 0 ( 1 1 3 , 0 0 0 - 164,000)  120,000"" ( B e r i n g sea)  Largha - Okhotsk  1965  232,000(178,000-303,000)  170,000"'" ( O k h o t s k )  South A m e r i c a n sea lion Falklands  1930  110,000 ( 8 6 , 2 0 0 - 1 4 1 , 0 0 0 )  137,000"' (Falklands)  C a l i f o r n i a sea lion - C a l i f o r n i a  1980  155,000(123,000-194,000)  1 4 5 , 0 0 0 ( U S A and M e x i c o Pacific coast), 6 7 , 0 0 0 ( U S Stock)  v  xv  xvi  W a l r u s - Spitsbergen  1660  82,100 ( 5 3 , 9 0 0 - 9 0 , 3 0 0 )  2 5 , 0 0 0 " (Spitsbergen) xv  i = ( N o w a k and W a l k e r , 1991), i i = ( H o r w o o d , 2002), i i i = ( T i l l m a n , 1977) and (Carretta et al, 2003), iiib = (Ohsumi and W a d a , 1974), i i i c = (Baker and C l a p h a m , 2004), iv = ( N M F S , 1991) and ( A n g l i s s and L o d g e , 2003), v = (Ohsumi and W a d a , 1974) and (Carretta et al, 2004), v i = ( R i c e , 1978) and ( C a l a m b o k i d i s et al, 1997), v i i = ( W o o d b y and B o t k i n , 1993) and (Finley, 2001), v i i i = (Hacquebord and Leinenga, 1994), ( W e s l a w s k i et al, 2000), ( W o o d b y and B o t k i n , 1993), ( A n g l i s s et al, 2001), ( M i t c h e l l and Reeves, 1981), (Finley, 2001) and ( R u g h et al, 2003), ix = (Whitehead, 2002), x = (Mercer, 1975), x i = ( S m i t h , 1983), x i i = (Burns, 1994), x i i i = ( M i z u n o et al, 2002) and (Fedoseev, 1970), x i v = (Dans et al, 2004) ( G o d o y , 1963), x v = ( L e B o e u f et al, 1983, Reijnders et al, 1993), x v i = (Carretta et al, 2003), x v i i = ( W e s l a w s k i et al, 2000), x v i i i = (Sergeant, 1977), x v i v = (Sigurjonsson, 1995). x v b =(Nowak and W a l k e r , 1991), (Benjaminsen and Christensen, 1979), x v c = ( Y o c h e m and L e a t h e r w o o d , 1985), x v d = ( G a m b e l l , 1976).  143  The only other aggregated estimate of global scale abundance and biomass estimates I have come across was for 'cetaceans', and it was divided into the North Atlantic, North Pacific and Southern Hemisphere (Tamura, 2003). Tamura and Ohsumi's (2003) global estimate of cetacean biomass was just over 34 million t, whereas my estimate is 25 million t (19 - 35 million t). Their estimates fall within my confidence limits. However, there are some obvious reasons for the differences. The main difference lies with the estimate of minke whale abundance. Despite the evidence of ambiguity in mine whale abundance estimates, and recent evidence suggested a significantly smaller stock size that was estimated in 1991 (IWC, 1991, Tamura and Ohsumi, 2000) (as discussed in 4.1), Tamura and Ohsumi (2003) are using the estimate of 761,000 minke whales in the Southern Hemisphere. Additionally, they are using an estimate of global sperm whale abundance of 523,778, which is significantly higher than my estimate of 376,000. This estimate for sperm whale ignores the recent work of Whitehead (2002), who analyzed available abundance estimates extensively and came up with a 'best' current estimate of 361,400, which depends on scaling localized abundance estimates by primary productivity to generate a global estimate. I find that, i f I use Tamura and Ohsumi's (2003) estimates for Sperm and Antarctic minke abundance my estimate of global cetacean biomass increases to 30.7 million t, which is close to, although still below their number.  Tamura and Ohsumi (2003) work attempted to estimate prey consumption for cetaceans, to quantify competition with commercial fisheries. Their report has been heavily critizised by Holt (2006), who identifies a number of unjustified assumptions and  144  leaps of faith and alleges that they are over inflating their estimates to scale up the problem. This takes us back to the context of management. At this years IWC meeting, the St. Kitts and Nevis declaration was passed, including this segment:  "...ACCEPTING that scientific research has shown that whales consume huge quantities offish making the issue a matter offood security for coastal nations and requiring that the issue of management of whale stocks must be considered in a broader context of ecosystem management since ecosystem management has now become an international standard ..." - St. Kitts and Nevis Declaration, IWC Meeting 58  This is exactly the argument that Tamura and Ohsumi (2003) make. This argument has led to a number of papers by Kaschner and colleagues on overlap between mammals and fisheries (Kaschner and Pauly, 2004, Kaschner et al., in press), and most recently to a paper looking at this issue historically with the abundance trends presented in this paper (Kaschner et al., 2006). Kaschner and Pauly (2004) conclude that spatial overlap of marine mammals and commercial fishery operations are low, and finds no evidence of competition on a global scale. In Kaschner et al. (2006) we conclude that marine mammals are being replaced by fisheries as top consumers in almost all of the areas where they intersect. This stands in stark contrast to the report by Tamura (2003) and the St. Kitts and Nevis declaration. It is my hope that this thesis will lead to more of this kind of work, where marine mammals are seen in context of their histories and biology.  145  4.4 Conclusion  In this thesis I have found that globally aggregated information on all marine mammal populations indicate a decline of 22% (0-62%) in numbers, and 76% (58-86%) in biomass. The decline has been greatest for the great whales, which were exposed to sequential declines dependent on animal size and speed. Globally, the aggregated great whale populations have declined by 64% (40-79%) by numbers, and 81% (69-89%) in terms of biomass. These estimates are consistent with published estimates of carrying capacities.  146  Literature Cited Aguilar, A . (1986) A review of old basque whaling and its effect on the right whales Eubalaena glacialis of the North Atlantic In: Right whales: Past and Present status - Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Special issue 10 (eds. Brownell, R. L . J., Best, P. B . and Prescott, J. H.) IWC, Cambridge, U K , 191-200. Aguilar, A . (2002) Fin Whale - Balaenoptera physalus In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wtirsig, B. and Thewissen, J. G. M.) Academic Press, 435-438. Allen, R. L . (1985) Dolphins and the purse-seine fishery for yellowfin tuna In: Marine Mammals and Fisheries (eds. Beddington, J. R., Beverton, R. J. H . and Lavigne, D.) Allen and Unwin, Boston, 236-252. Angliss, R. P., DeMaster, D. P. and Lopez, A . L . (2001) U.S. Alaska Marine Mammal Stock Assessments - 2001. U.S. Department of Commerce NMFS-AFSC-124, 207 p. Angliss, R. P. and Lodge, K . L . (2002) U.S. Alaska Marine Mammal Stock Assessments - 2002. U.S. Department of Commerce NOAA-TM-NMFS-AFSC-133, 224 p. Angliss, R. P. and Lodge, K . L . (2003) U.S. Alaska Marine Mammal Stock Assessments - 2003. U.S. Department of Commerce NOAA-TM-NMFS-AFSC-144, 231 p. Anon. (1969) Hunting statistics based on the Greenlanders' list of game caught in Greenland. Ministeriet for Gronland, Copenhagen, 40 p. Anon. (1993) Conservation plan for the northern fur seal Callorhinus ursinus. N O A A , Silver Springs, M D , 83 p. Anon. (1999), Southern Sea Lion. Falklands Conservation. http://www.falklandsconservation.eom/wildlife/species_reports/sealion.html#Anc hor4 Anon. (1999), Species Composition: Southern Elephant Seal, Mirounga leonina. Polar Meteorology group - Ohio State University, http://polarmet.mps.ohiostate.edu/ASPIRE_99/seals/science/eleph.htm Anon. (2001) Atlantic seal hunt: 2001 management plan. DFO. http://www.dfompo.gc.ca/seal-phoque/reports-rapports/mgtplan-plangest001/mgtplanplangest2001_e.htm  147  Anon. (2001), Estimated annual pinniped bycatch by species and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) area. International Marine Mammal Association Inc. (EVIMA). http://www.imma.org/seallist.html Anon. (2001), Seal Conservation Society, http://www.pinnipeds.org/species/ Anon. (2001), Seals caught off Greenland 1954-1996. High North Alliance. http://www.highnorth.no/statistik/greenlandseal.htm Anon. (2001), Seals caught on the East and West Ice 1946-1998. High North Alliance. http://www.highnorth.no/statistik/norwayseal.htm. Anon. (2001), Whales caught off the Faroe Islands 1584 - 2000. High North Alliance. http://www.highnorth.no/statistik/faroewhale.htm. Anon. (2002) Iceland Readmitted to Commission. Environmental Policy and Law 32, 256-257. Anon. (2002) Pacific Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens): Alaska Stock. N O A A stock assessment report 6. Anon. (2004), Northern Fur Seal Exploitation. N O A A . http://nmml.afsc.noaa.gov/AlaskaEcosystems/nfshome/nfsexploitation.html Anon. (2004), Pilot whale cathes in teh Faroe Islands 1900 - 2000. Department of Foreign Affairs, Faroes Islands, Torshavn. http://www.whaling.fo/numberswhalingandani.htm Anon. (2005), The conservation of whales in the 21st century. Government of New Zealand. http://www.doc.govt.nz/Conservation/001~Plants-andAnimals/003~Marine-Mammals/Whales/100~Conservation-of-whales-in-the21 st-century/050~ Whale-numbers.asp#c20-southern-whaling Anon. (2005), The tuna-dolphin issue. N O A A . http://swfsc.nmfs.noaa.gov/PRD/PROGRAMS/DolphinStock/tdissue.html Anon. (2006) Aallaaniartunut atassuteqaat pisanillu nalunaarsuiffiit, Jaginformation og fangsregistering. Piniarneq 2006. http://www.nanoq.gl/upload/dff/piniarneq%202006.pdf Antonelis, G. A . , York, A . E., Robson, B . W., Towell, R. G. and Fowler, C. W. (1996) Population assessment, Pribilof Islands, Alaska. U.S. Dep. Commer. N O A A Tech. Memo. NMFS-AFSC-69, 9-30.  148  Arnould, J. P. Y . (2002) Southern fur seals - Arctocephalus spp. In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. R , Wiirsig, B. and Thewissen, H . G. M.) Academic Press, San Diego, U S A , 1146-1151. Baba, N . , Boltnev, A. I. and Stus, A . I. (2000) Winter migration of female northern fur seals Callorhinus ursinus from the Commander Islands. Bulletin of the National Research Institute of Far Seas Fisheries, 37, 39-44. Baba, N . , Nitto, H . and Nitta, A. (2000) Satellite tracking of young Steller sea lion off the coast of northern Hokkaido. Fisheries Science 66, 180-181. Baker, C. S. and Clapham, P. J. (2002) Marine Mammal Exploitatation: Whales and Whaling In: Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change, Vol. 3: Causes and consequences of global environmental change (eds. Douglas, P. I.) John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, 446-450. Baker, C. S. and Clapham, P. J. (2004) Modelling the past and future of whales and whaling. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19, 365-371. Baker, C. S. and Palumbi, S. R. (1994) Which Whales Are Hunted? A Molecular Genetic Approach to Monitoring Whaling. Science 265, 1538-1539. Bannister, J. (2001) Status of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) off Australia. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management, Special issue 2, 103-110. Barlow, J. (1997) Preliminary estimates of cetacean abundance off California, Oregon, and Washington based on a 1996 ship survey and comparisons of passing and closing modes. Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service Admin. Rept. LJ-97-11, 25. Barnes, R. H . (1996) Sea Hunters of Indonesia: Fishers and Weavers ofLamalera, Clarendon Press, Oxford, U K . Bass, C. (2005) Japan's Dall's porpoise hunt: A quarter of a century as the largest cetacean kill in the world. Environmental Investigation Agency 4. Benjaminsen, T. and Christensen, I. (1979) The natural history of the bottlenose whale Hyperoodon ampullatus (Forster) In: Behaviour of Marine Animals (eds. Winn, H. E. and Olla, B. L.) Plenum Press, New York, 143-164. Best, P. B. (1976) A review of world sperm whale stocks. F A O A C M R R / M M / S C / 8 Rev. 1. Best, P. B. (1987) Estimates of the landed catch of right whale (and other whalebone) whales in the American fishery. Fishery Bulletin 85, 403-418. 149  Bigg, M . A . (1984) Sighting and kill data for the Steller lion (Eumetopias jubatus) and California sea lion (Zalophus calif ornianus) in British Columbia, 1892-1982, with some records from Washington and Southeastern Alaska. D F O Canadian Data Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences No. 460. Bigg, M . A . and Wolman, A . A . (1975) Live-capture killer whale (Orcinus orca) fishery, British Columbia and Washington, 1962-73. J. Fish. Res. Board. Can. 32, 12131221. Bjorge, A., Brownell, R. L . J., Perrin, W. F. and Donovan, G. P. (1991) Significant direct and incidental catches of small cetaceans. International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee (unpublished), 87 p. Black, R. (July 13, 2006), Norway's whale catch falls short. B B C News. http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/science/nature/5175970.stm Bloch, D., Desportes, G., Zachariassen, M . and Christensen, I. (1996) The Northern bottlenose whale in the Faroe Islands, 1584-1993. Journal of Zoology (London) 239, 123-140. Bonner, W. N . (1981) Southern fur seals - Arctocephalus In: The Walrus, Sea Lions, Fur Seals and Sea Otter - Handbook of Marine Mammals, Vol. 1 (eds. Ridgway, S. H . and Harrison, R. H.) Academic Press, London, 161-208. Bonner, W. N . (1990) The Natural History of Seals, Facts On File Inc., New York. Borchers, D. L., Butterworth, D. S. and Kasamatsu, F. (1990) Southern hemisphere whale abundance estimates south of 30°S derived from IWC/IDCR survey and Japenese scouting vessel data (SC/42/SHMil8). International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee Meeting (unpublished). Born, E. W. (2005) An assessment of the effects of hunting and climate on walruses in Greenland. University of Oslo. Born, E. W., Gjertz, I. and Reeves, R. R. (1995) Population assessment of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus L.). NorskPolarinstitutt Meddelelser, 138, 1-99. Born, E. W., Teilman, J. and Riget, F. (1998) Abundance of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in the Kong Oscars, Fjord, Scoresby Sund and adjacent areas, eastern Greenland In: Ringed seals in the North Atlantic, Vol. 1 (eds. Heide-Jorgensen, M . P. and Lydersen,C.) 152-166. Bowen, W. D., Myers, R. A . and Hay, K . (1987) Abundance estimation of a dispersed dynamic population hooded seals Cystophora cristata in the northwest Atlantic. Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences 44, 282-295. 150  Boyd, I. L . and Arnbom, T. (1991) Diving behavior in relation to water temperature in the southern elephant seal foraging implications. Polar Biology 11, 259-266. Bradshaw, C. J. A., Hindell, M . A., Michael, K . J. and Sumner, M . D. (2002) The optimal spatial scale for the analysis of elephant seal foraging as determined by geolocation in relation to sea surface temperatures. ICES Journal of Marine Science 59, 770-781. Braham, H. W. (1991) Endangered whales: status update. Unpublished document on file at National Marine Mammal Lab., N M F S , N O A A , 56 p. Branch, T. A. (2006) Possible reasons for the appreciable decrease in abundance estimates for the Antarctic minke whales from the IDCR/SOWER surveys between the second and third sets of cruises (SC/58/IA4). International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee, St Kitts and Nevis. Branch, T. A . and Butterworth, D. S. (2001) Estimates of abundance south of 60 degree S for cetacean species sighted frequently on the 1978/79 to 1997/98 IWC/IDCRSOWER sighting surveys. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 3, 251-270. Branch, T. A. and Butterworth, D. S. (2001) Southern hemisphere minke whales: standardized abundance estimates from the 1978/79 to 1997/98 IDCR-SOWER surveys. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 3, 143-174. Briggs, L. and Fowler, C. W. (1984) Table and figures of the basic population data for northern fur seals of the Pribilof Islands. N M F S National Marine Mammal Laboratory. Brownell, R. L. J., Yablokov, A . V . and Zemmsky, V . A. (1998 (unpublished)) USSR pelagic catches of North Pacific sperm whales, 1949-1979: Conservation implications. IWC SC/50/CAWS27. Buckland, S. T., Bloch, D., Cattanach, K . L., Gunnlaugsson, T., Hoydal, K., Lens, S. and Sigurjonsson, J. (1993) Distribution and abundance of long-finned pilot whales in the North Atlantic, estimated from NASS-87 and NASS-89 data In: Biology of Northern Hemisphere Pilot Whales - Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Special issue 14 (eds. Donovan, G. P., Lockyer, C. H . and Martin, A. R.) IWC, Cambridge, U K , 33-49. Buckland, S. T. and Breiwick, J. M . (2002) Estimated trends in abundance of eastern Pacific gray whales from shore counts. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4, 41-48.  151  Buckland, S. T., Breiwick, J. M . , Cattanach, K . L . and Laake, J. L. (1993) Estimated population size of the California gray whale. Marine Mammal Science 9, 235-49. Buckland, S. T., Cattanach, K. L . and Miyashita, T. (1992) Minke whale abundance in the northwest Pacific and the Okhotsk Sea, estimated from 1989 and 1990 sighting surveys. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 42, 387-392. Burns, J. J. (1981) Bearded seal - Erignathus barbatus (Erxleben, 1777) In: The Walrus, Sea Lions, Fur Seals and Sea Otter - Handbook of Marine Mammals, Vol. 2 (Eds. Ridgway, S. H. and Harrison, R. J.) Academic Press, London, 145-170. Burns, J. J. (1981) Ribbon seal - Phoca fasciata In: Seals - Handbook of Marine Mammals, Vol. 2 (eds. Ridgway, S. H . and Harrison, R. J.) Academic Press, London, 89-110. Burns, J. J. (1994), Ribbon Seal. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. http://www.adfg.state.ak.us/pubs/notebook/marine/rib-seal.php Burns, J. J. (2002) Harbor seal and spotted seal - Phoca vitulina and P. largha In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wtirsig, B. and Thewissen, J. G. M.) Academic Press, 552-560. Biisch, B. C. (1985) The War against the Seals, McGill-Queen's University Press, Kingston and Montreal. Butterworth, D. S., Borchers, D. L., Chalis, S. and DeDecker, J. B. (1995), Estimation of abundance for Southern Hemisphere blue, fin, sei, humpback, sperm, killer, and pilot whales from the 1978/79 to 1990/91 IWC/IDCR sighting survey cruises, with extrapolations to the area south of 30° for the first five species based on Japanese scouting vessel data. (SC/46/SH24). Lnternational Whaling Commission - Scientific Commitee Meeting, (unpublished), 54p. Butterworth, D. S., Korrubel, J. L. and Punt, A . E. (2002) What is needed to make a simple density-dependent response population model consistent with data for eastern North Pacific gray whales? Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4, 63-76. Calambokidis, J. and Barlow, J. (2004) Abundance of blue and humpback whales in the eastern North Pacific estimbated by capture-recapture and line-transect methods. Marine Mammal Science 20, 63-85. Calambokidis, J., Chandler, T., Schlender, L., Rasmussen, K. and Steiger, G. H. (2001) Research on humpback and blue whales off California, Oregon, and Washington in 2000. Southwest Fisheries Science Center 32.  152  Calambokidis, J., Steiger, G. H., Straley, J. M . , Quinn, T., Herman, L. M . , Cerchio, S., Salden, D. R., et al. (1997) Abundance and population structure of humpback whales in the North Pacific basin. Southwest Fisheries Science Center 50ABNF500113, 72 p. Carrara, I. S. (1952) Lobos Marinos, pingiiinos y guaneras de las costas del litoral maritimo e Islas adyacentes de la Repiiblica Argentina. Tech. Rep. Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional de L a Plata, La Plata, Argentina. Carretta, J. V . , Barlow, J., Forney, K . A., Muto, M . M . and Baker, J. (2001) U.S. Pacific Marine Mammal Stock Assessments - 2001. U.S. Department of Commerce NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-317, 280 p. Carretta, J. V . , Forney, K . A., Muto, M . M . , Barlow, J., Baker, J., Hanson, B. and Lowry, M . (2004) U.S. Pacific Marine Mammal Stock Assessments - 2004. U.S. Department of Commerce NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-375, 361 p. Carretta, J. V . , Forney, K . A., Muto, M . M . , Barlow, J., Baker, J. and Lowry, M . (2003) U.S. Pacific Marine Mammal Stock Assessments - 2003. U.S. Department of Commerce NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-358, 291 p. Carretta, J. V., Muto, M . M . , Barlow, J., Baker, J., Forney, K . A . and Lowry, M . (2002) U.S. Pacific Marine Mammal Stock Assessments - 2002. U.S. Department of Commerce NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-317, 290 p. Christensen, I. (1988) Distribution, movements and abundance of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Norwegian coastal waters, 1982-1987, based on questionnaire surveys. In: North Atlantic Killer Whales, Vol. 11 (eds. Sigurjonsson, J. and Leatherwood, S.) Marine Institute Reykjavic, Reykjavik, 79-88 p. Christensen, I., Haug, T. and Oien, N . (1992) Seasonal distribution, exploitation and present abundance of stocks of large baleen whales (Mysticeti) and sperm whales, Physeter macrocephalus, in Norwegian and adjacent waters. ICES Journal of Marine Science 49, 341-355. Christensen, I., Jonsgard, A . and Rorvik, C. J. (1977) Some notes concerning the bottlenose fishery in the North Atlantic after the second world war, with particular reference to the westward expansion. Rep. int. Whal. Commn. 27, 226-227. Christensen, V . (1996) Managing fisheries involving predator and prey species. Reviews in Fish Biology & Fisheries 6, 1-26. Clapham, P. J. (2002) Humpback whale - Megaptera novaeangliae In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wursig, B. and Thewissen, J. G. M.) Academic Press, 589-592. 153  Clapham, P. J. and Baker, C. S. (2002) Whaling, Modern In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wiirsig, B . and Thewissen, J. G. M.) Academic Press, 1328-1329. Clapham, P. J., Leatherwood, S., Szczepaniak, I. and Brownell, J., Robert L. (1997) Catches of humpback and other whales from shore stations at Moss Landing and Trinidad, California, 1919-1926. Marine Mammal Science 13, 368-394. Clapham, P. J., Young, S. B. and Brownell, R. L. (1999) Baleen whales: conservation issues and the status of the most endangered populations. 29, 37 p, http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/mam/1999/00000029/00000001/art0 0035--%. Marine Mammal Commission. (2003) Annual Report to Congress 2003. http://www.mmc.gov/reports/annual/pdf/2003annualreport.pdf Cooke, J. G. (1999) Improvement of fishery-management advice through simulation testing of harvest algorithms. 56, 797. i  Cosens, S. E., Qamukaq, T., Parker, B., Dueck, L . P. and Anardjuak, B . (1997) The distribution and numbers of bowhead whales, Balaena mysticetus, in northern Foxe Basin in 1994. Canadian Field Naturalist 111, 381-388. COSEWIC (2003) COSEWIC assessment and status report on the sei whale Balaenoptera borealis in Canada., COSEWIC, Ottawa. COSEWIC (2004) COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Narwhal Monodon monoceros in Canada, COSEWIC, Ottawa. Culik, B. (2002), Review on small cetaceans: distribution, behaviour, migration and threats. Convention on Migratory Species CMS UNEP. http://www.wcmc.org.uk/cms/reports/small_cetaceans/index.htm Cummings, W. C. (1985) Bryde's whale Balaenoptera edeni Anderson, 1878 In: The Sirenians and Baleen whales - Handbook of Marine Mammals, Vol. 3 (eds. Ridgway, S. H. and Harrison, R.) Academic Press, Longon, 137-154. Cummings, W. C. (1985) Right whales: Eubalaena glacialis (Muller, 1776) and Eubalaena australis (Desmoulins, 1822) In: Handbook of Marine Mammals, Vol. 3 (eds. Ridgway, S. H. and Harrison, R. J.) Academic Press, London, 275-304. D'Amico, A., Keane, E., MacLeod, C. D., Mitchell, G., Ward, J. and Hough, D. (2003) Development of a beaked whale global database to determine habitat preferences. In: Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference of the European Cetacean Society, Vol. 17 (Ed: Evans, P. G. H.) ECS, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands. 154  da Silva, C. Q., Zeh, J. E., Madigan, D., Laake, J., Rugh, D. J., Baraff, L., Koski, W. R., et al. (2000) Capture-recapture estimates of bowhead whale population size using photo-identification data. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2, 4561. Dahlheim, M . E. and Heyning, J. E. (1999) Killer whales Orcinus orca (Linnaeus, 1758) In: The Second Book of Dolphins and the Porpoises - Handbook of Marine Mammals, Vol. 6 (eds. Ridgway, S. H . and Harrison, R. H.) Academic Press, London, 281-322. Dans, S. L., Crespo, E. A., Pedraza, S. N . and Alonso, M . K . (2004) Recovery of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) population in northern Patagonia. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 61, 1681-1690. Davis, R. W., Fargion, G. S., May, N . , Leming, T. D., Baumgartner, M . F., Evans, W. E., Hansen, L. J., Mullin, K . D . (1998) Physical habitat of cetaceans along the continental slope in the northcentral and Western Gulf of Mexico. Marine Mammal Science 14, 490-507. de Boer, M . N . (2000) A note on cetacean observations in the Indian Ocean Sanctuary and the South China Sea, Mauritius to the Philippines, April 1999. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2, 197-200. de Boer, M . N . and Simmonds, M . P. (2003) WDCS/Greenpeace Survey Report Small cetaceans along the coast of Wales and Southwest England. Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society (WDCS) 41 p. Deecke, V . (2004) Update COSEWIC status report on the grey whale Eschrichtius robustus (Pacific population) In: COSEWIC assessment and status report on the grey whale Eschrichtius robustus in Canada, (eds. Canada., COSEWIC.) Ottawa, iv + 36 p. DeLong, R. L., Antonelis, G. A., Oliver, C. W., Stewart, B . S., Lowry, M . S. and Yochem, P. K . (1991) Effects of the 1982-1983 El Nino on several population parameters and diet of California sea lions on the California Channel Islands In: Pinnipeds, and El Nino: Responses to environmental stress (eds. Trillmich, F. and Ono, K . A.) Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 166-172. DeMaster, D. P., Miller, D., Henderson, J. R. and Coe, J. M . (1985) Conflicts between marine mammals and fisheries off the coast of California In: Marine Mammals And Fisheries (eds. Beddington, J. R., Beverton, R. J. H . and Lavigne, D. M.) Allen & Unwin Publishers, London, 111-118. DFO (2004), The harp seal. DFO. http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/zone/underwater_sousmarin/hseal/seal-phoquee.htm 155  Doidge, D. W. and Finley, K . J. (1994) Status of the Baffin Bay population of beluga, Delphinapterus leucas. Canadian Field Naturalist 107, 533-546. Dorofeev, S. V . (1956) Stocks of Greenland seals and their utilization (Translated from Russian by the Fisheries Research Board of Canada Translation), Ser. No. 113, 56-59. Doroshenko, N . V . (2000) Soviet whaling for blue, gray, bowhead and right whales in the North Pacific Ocean, 1961-1979. Center for Russian Environmental Policy, Marine Mammal Council 96-103. Du Pasquier, T. (1986) Appendix 7: Historical Catches of Right Whales by Area. IWC, Special issue 10, 27-31. Duck, C. (2005) Monitoring the U K seal populations. Sea Mammal Research Unit, 40 p. Evans, W. E. (1994) Common dolphin, white-bellied porpoise (Delphinus delphis, Linnaeus, 1758) In: The First Book of Dolphins - Handbook of Marine Mammals, Vol. 5 (eds. Ridgway, S. H . and Harrison, R. J.) Academic Press, San Diego, 191224. Fay, F. H., Eberhardt, L. L., Kelly, B . P., Burns, J. J. and Quakenbush, L. T. (1997) Status of the Pacific walrus population, 1950-1989. Marine Mammal Science 13, 537-565. Fay, F. H., Kelly, B. P. and Sease, J. L. (1989) Managing the exploitation of Pacific walruses: A tragedy of delayed response and poor communication. Marine Mammal Science 5, 1-16. Fedoseev, G. (2002) Ribbon seal - Histriophoca fasciata In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wiirsig, B. and Thewissen, H . G. M.) Academic Press, San Diego, U S A , 1027-1030. Fedoseev, G. A . (1970) Distribution and numbers of seals of Sakhalin Island. Izvestiya TINRO 71, 319-324 (Translated from Russian by Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 1973, Translation Series, 2400). Fiedler, P. C. and Reilly, S. B . (1994) Interannual variability of dolphin habitats in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. II. Effects on abundances estimated from tuna vessel sightings, 1975-1990. Fishery Bulletin 92, 451-463. Findlay, K. P., Best, P. B., Ross, G. J. B. and Cockcroft, V . G. (1992) The distribution of small odontocete cetaceans off the coasts of South-Africa and Namibia. South African Journal of Marine Science 12, 237-270.  156  Fink, C. and Lavigne, D. (2005) Seals and Sealing in Canada. IWAF 20. Finley, K . J. (2001) Natural history and conservation of the Greenland whale, or bowhead, in the northwest Atlantic. Arctic 54, 55-76. Finley, K . J., Bradstreet, M . S. W. and Miller, G. W. (1990) Summer feeding ecology of harp seals (Phoca groendandica) in relation to Arctic cod (Boreogadus saidd) in the Canadian high Arctic. Polar Biology 10, 609-618. Ford, J. K . B . (2002) Killer whale - Orcinus orca In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wiirsig, B. and Thewissen, J. G. M.) Academic Press, 669676. Forney, K . A., Barlow, J., Muto, M . M . , Lowry, M . , Baker, J., Stinchcomb, C. and Carretta, J. V . (2000) U.S. Pacific Marine Mammal Stock Assessments - 2000. U.S. Department of Commerce NMFS-SWFSC-300, 276 p. Frost, K . J. (1985) The ringed seal (Phoca hispida) In: Marine mammal species accounts, Vol. 7 (eds. Burns, J. J., Frost, K . J. and Lowry, F. L.) Alaska Department of Fish & Game, 96. Frost, K . J. (1998) Harvest report: statewide summary for the eastern Bering Sea beluga population, 1995-97. Alaska Beluga Whale Committee Rep. 98-1,15. Frost, K. J., Lowry, L. F. and Carroll, G. (1993) Beluga whale and spotted seal use of a coastal lagoon system in the northeastern Chukchi Sea. Arctic 46, 7-16. Frost, K . J., Lowry, L . F., Gilbert, J. R. and Burns, J. J. (1988) Ringed seal monitoring: relationships of distribution and abundance to habitat attributes and industrial activities. U.S. Dep. Interior, Minerals Management Service. Contract no 84ABC-00210, 101 p. Frost, K . J. and Suydam, R. (1995) Harvests of beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, in Alaska, 1987-1994. Alaska Beluga Whale Committee Rep. 14 p. Gambell, R. (1976) World whale stocks. Mammal Review 6, 41-53. Gardner, S. C. and Chavez-Rosales, S. (2000) Changes in the relative abundance and distribution of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) in Magdalena Bay, Mexico during an El Nino event. Marine Mammal Science 16, 728-738. Garrigue, C , Dodemont, R., Steel, D. and Baker, S. (2004) Organismal and 'gametic' capture-recapture using microsatellite genotyping confirm low abundance and reproductive autonomy of humpback whales on the wintering grounds of New Caledonia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 274, 251-262. 157  Gaskin, D. E. (1991) A n update on the status of the right whale Eubalaena glacialis in Canada. Canadian Field Naturalist 105, 198-205. Gaskin, D. E., Yamamoto, S. and Kawamura, A . (1993) Harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena (L.) in the coastal waters of northern Japan. Fishery Bulletin 91, 440454. Gentry, R. L . (1981) Northern fur seal - Callorhinus ursinus (Linnaeus, 1758) In: The Walrus, Sea Lions, Fur Seals and Sea Otter - Handbook of Marine Mammals, Vol. 1 (eds. Ridgway, S. H . and Harrison, R. J.) Academic Press, London, 143159. Gentry, R. L . (2002) Northern fur seal - Callorhinus ursinus In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wiirsig, B . and Thewissen, H. G. M.) Academic Press, San Diego, U S A , 813-817. George, J. C , Zeh, J. and Clark, C. (2004) Abundance and population trend (1978-2001) of western Arctic bowhead whales surveyed near Barrow, Alaska. Marine Mammal Science 20, 755-773. George, J. C , Zeh, J., Suydam, R. and Clark, C. (2002) Population size of the BeringChukchi-Beaufort Seas stock of bowhead whales, Balaena mysticetus, based on the 2001 census off Point Barrow, Alaska. IWC SC/54/BRG5, 13 p. Gerrodette, T. (1999) Preliminary estimates of 1998 abundance of four dolphin stocks in . the eastern tropical Pacific. Southwest Fisheries Science Center LJ-00-12, 20 p. Gerrodette, T. (2000) Preliminary estimates of 1999 abundance of four dolphin stocks in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Southwest Fisheries Science Center LJ-00-12, 22 p. Gjertz, I. and Wiig, 0 . (1995) Distribution and abundance of walruses (Odobenus romarus) in Svalbard In: Whales, seals, fish and man - Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Biology of Marine Mammals in the North East Atlantic, Tromso, Norway, 29 November - 1 December 1994, Vol. 4 (eds. Blix, A . S., Walloe, L. and Ulltang, 0.) Elservier, Amsterdam - Lausanne - New York Oxford - Shannon - Tokyo, 203-209. Godoy, J. C. (1963) Fauna Silvestre.Consejo. Federal de Inversiones. Serie Evaluacion de los Recursos Naturales de la Argentina (Buenos Aires) 8, 1-299. Gosho, M . E., Rice, D. W. and Breiwick, J. M . (1984) The Sperm Whale, Physeter macrocephalus. Marine Fisheries Review 46, 54-64. Grass, F. S., Parke, J. C , Kirkman, H . N . , Christensen, V., Roddey, O. F., Wade, R. V., Knutson, C , et al. (1993) Tetrasomy-9p - Tissue-Limited Idic(9p) In A Child 158  With M i l d Manifestations And A Normal Cvs Result - Report And Review. American Journal Of Medical Genetics 47, 812-816. Grieves, F. L . (1972) Leviathan, the International Whaling Commission and Conservation as Environmental Aspects of International Law. The Western Political Quarterly 25, 711-725. Guenette, S., Heymans, S.J.J., Christensen, V . , and Trites, A.W.T. (in press) Ecosystem models show combined effects of fishing, predation, competition, and ocean productivity on Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences p. 000 Gunnlaugsson, T. and Sigurjonsson, J. (1990) NASS-87: Estimation of whale abundance based on observations made onboard Icelandic and Faroese survey vessels. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 40, 481-483. Hacquebord, L . (1999) The hunting of the Greenland right whale in Svalbard, its interactions with climate and its impact on the marine ecosystem. Polar Research 18, 375-382. Hacquebord, L. and Leinenga, R. (1994) The ecology of Greenland whale in relation to whaling and climate change in 17th and 18th centuries. Tijdschrift voor Geschiendenis 107 (in Dutch), 415-438. Hall, A. (2002) Gray Seal - Halichoerus grypus In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wursig, B. and Thewissen, J. G. M.) Academic Press, 522524. Hamazaki, T. (2002) Spatiotemporal prediction models of cetacean habitats in the midwestern North Atlantic ocean (from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, U.S.A. to Nova Scotia, Canada). Marine Mammal Science 18, 920-939. Hammill, M . O. and Stenson, G. B. (2003) Harvest simulations for 2003-2006 harp seal management plan. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research 2003/058, 33 p. Hamner, W. M . , Stone, G. S. and Obst, B . S. (1988) Behavior of southern right whales, Eubalaena australis, feeding on the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba. Fishery Bulletin 86, 143-150. Harkonen, T. J., Stenman, O., Jiissi, M . , Jiissi, I., Sagitov, R. and Verevkin, M . (1998) Population size and distribution of the Baltic ringed seal (Phoca hispida botnica) In: Ringed seals in the North Atlantic, Vol. 1 (eds. Heide-Jorgensen, M . P. and Lydersen, C.) 167-180.  159  Hart, I. B . (2004) Pesca, A history of the Pioneer Modern Whaling Company in the Antarctic, Aidan Ellis Publishing, Devon, 564 p. Hauksson, E. (1987) The status of the Icelandic seal populations. Coastal Seal Symposium. Oslo, 91-104. Hay, K . A . (1982) Aerial line-transsect estimates of abundance of humpback, fin, and long-finned pilot whales in the Newfoundland-Labrador area In: Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Vol. 32 (eds. Donovan, G. P.) IWC, Cambridge, U K , 475-486. Head, J. (June 19, 2005) Japan pushes whale meat revival. B B C News. http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4106688.stm Healey, B . P. and Stenson, G. B. (2000) Estimating pup production and population size of northwest Atlantic harp seal (Phoca groenlandica). DFO Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat 2000/081, 27 p. Heath, C. B . (2002) California, Galapagos, and Japanese sea lions In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wiirsig, B. and Thewissen, H . G. M.) Academic Press, San Diego, U S A , 180-186. Heide-J0rgensen, M . P. (2002) Narwhal - Monodon monoceros In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wiirsig, B . and Thewissen, J. G. M.) Academic Press, 783-787. Heide-J0rgensen, M . P. and Rosing-Asvid, A . (2002) Catch statistics for belugas in West Greenland 1862-1999. NAMMCO Sci. Publ. 4, 127-142. Hilborn, R. and Walters, C. J. (1992) Quantitative Fisheries Stock Assessment, Chapman & Hall, New York. 570 p. Hill, P. S., DeMaster, D. P. and Lopez, A. L . (1998) U.S. Alaska Marine Mammal Stock Assessments - 1998. N M F S 167 p. Hindell, M . A., McConnell, B. J., Fedak, M . A., Slip, D. J., Burton, H . R., Reijnders, P. J. H . and McMahon, C. R. (1999) Environmental and physiological determinants of successful foraging by naive southern elephant seal pups during their first trip to sea. Canadian Journal of Zoology 77, 1807-1821. Hobbs, R. C. and Jones, L. L. (1993) Impacts of high seas driftnet fisheries on marine mammal populations in the North Pacific. International North Pacific Fisheries Commission Bulletin, 409-434.  160  Hobbs, R. C. and Rugh, D. J. (1999) The abundance of gray whales in the 1997/98 southbound migration in the eastern North Pacific. (SC/51/AS10). IWC Scientific Committee (unpublished), 13 p. Hobbs, R. C , Rugh, D. J. and DeMaster, D. P. (2000) Abundance of belugas, Delphinapterus leucas, in Cook Inlet, Alaska, 1994-2000. Marine Fisheries Review 62,37-45. Hobbs, R. C , Rugh, D. J., Waite, J., Breiwick, J. M . and DeMaster, D. P. (1996) Preliminary estimate of the abundance of gray whales in the 1995/1996 southbound migration. (SC/48/AS9). IWC Scientific Committee (unpublished), Aberdeen. Holt, R. S. and Sexton, S. N . (1990) Monitoring trends in dolphin abundance in the Eastern Tropical Pacific using research vessels over a long sampling period analyses of 1988 data. In: Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Vol. 40 (eds. Donavan, G. P.) IWC, Cambridge, U.K., 471 -476. Holt, S.J. (1986) Aspects of the assessment and regulation of Bryde's whale in the northwest Pacific. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 36, 257-262. Holt, S. J. (2006) Whales Competing? A n analysis of the claim that some whales eat so much that they threaten fisheries and the survival of other whales. 86 p. http://assets.panda.org/downloads/iwc_holt_report_eng.pdf#search=%22S.J.%20 Holt%20tamura%20ohsumi%22 Horwood, J. (1987) The sei whale: Population biology, ecology & management, Croom Helm, London, New York, Sydney, 387 p. Horwood, J. (2002) Sei whale - Balaenoptera borealis In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wiirsig, B. and Thewissen, J. G. M.) Academic Press, 1069-1071. Hoyt, E. (1990) Orca: the Whale Called Killer, E. P. Dutton, Inc., New York, N Y , 291 p. Hrynyshyn, J. (2004) Canada's narwhal whale: A species on the edge. Canadian Marine Environment Protection Society. IATTC (2006) Annual Report of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission. IATTC ISSN: 0074-1000, 100 p. ICES (1990) Report of the working group on Harp and Hooded seals. ICES, C M Ass. 8. ICES (1991) Report of the joint ICES/NAFO working group on Harp and Hooded seals ( C M 1991). ICES Conference. International Council of the Exploration of the Sea. 161  ICES (1994), Report of the joint ICES/NAFO working group on Harp and Hooded seals ( C M 1994/Assess:5). ICES Conference. International Council of the Exploration of the Sea. ICES (1999) Report of the joint ICES/NAFO working group on Harp and Hooded seals ( C M 1999/ACFM:7). International Council of the Exploration of the Sea 1999/ACFM:7. ICES (2003), Report of the joint ICES/NAFO working group on Harp and Hooded seals (ICES C M 2004/ACFM:06). ICES Conference. International Council of the Exploration of the Sea, Arkhangelsk Russia. Innes, S., Heide-Jorgensen, M . P., Laake, J. L., Laidre, K . L., Cleator, H . J., Richard, P. and Stewart, R. E. A . (2002) Surveys of belugas and narwhals in the Canadian High Arctic in 1996. N A M M C O Sci. Publ. 4, 169-190. Isachsen, G. (1929) Modern Norwegian Whaling in the Antarctic. Geographical Review 19, 387-403. IWC (1969) Appendix VI: Report of the Special Meeting on Sperm Whale Biology and Stock Assessments. IWC 19, 39-84. IWC (1984) Report of the Sub-Committee on Small Cetaceans In: Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Vol. 34 (eds. Donovan, G. P.) IWC, Cambridge, U K , 144-160. IWC (1987) Report of the Sub-Committee on Small Cetaceans. In: Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Vol. 37 (eds. Donovan, G. P.) IWC, Cambridge, U K , 121-128. IWC (1989) Report of the Sub-Committee on Small Cetaceans In: Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Vol. 39 (eds. G.P. Donovan) International Whaling Commission, Cambridge, U K , 117-1129. IWC (1991) Report of the Sub-Committee on Southern Hemisphere Minke Whales Annex E In: Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Vol. 41 (eds. Donovan, G. P.) IWC, Cambridge, U K , 113-131. IWC (1992) Report of the Comprehensive Assessment Special Meeting on North Atlantic Fin Whales. Report of the International Whaling Commission 4 2 , 595-606. IWC (1993) Report of the Special Meeting of the Scientific Committee on the Assessment of Gray Whales, Seattle, 23-27. International Whaling Commission 43,241-259. 162  IWC (1996) Report of the Sub-Committee on Southern Hemisphere Baleen Whales Annex E In: Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Vol. 46 (eds. Donovan, G. P.) IWC, Cambridge, U K , 117-131. IWC (1998) Workshop on the comprehensive assessment of right whales. (SC/50/REP4). International Whaling Commission - Scientific Committee Meeting. (unpublished). IWC (2000) Report of the Sub-Committee on Small Cetaceans - Annex I. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2 (Suppl.), 235-61. IWC (2001) Report of the workshop on the comprehensive assessment of right whales: a worldwide comparison. Journal of Cetacean Research & Management 2, 1-61. IWC (2002) Report of the Scientific Committee. Journal of Cetacean Research & Management 4 (Suppl.), 1-92. IWC (2002) Report of the Standing Sub-Committee on Small Cetaceans, Annex K . Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4, 325-338. IWC (2003) Report of the Scientific Committee. Journal of Cetacean Research & Management 5 (Suppl.), 1 -499. IWC (2003) Report of the Sub-Committee on Bowhead, Right, and Gray whales - Annex F. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 5 (Suppl.), 226-247. IWC (2004) Report of the Sub-committee on Small Cetaceans - Annex L In: Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Vol. 56 (eds. International Whaling Commission, Cambridge, U K . IWC (2004), Whale population estimates. International Whaling Commission http://www.iwcoffice.org/conservation/estimate.htm. IWC (2006) Population Table . International Whaling Commission. http://www.iwcoffice.org/conservation/estimate.htm. IWC (2006) Report of the Scientific Commission. Journal of Cetacean Research & Management 8 (Suppl.), 1-302. IWC/BIWS (2001) IWC catch database (1800 - 1999). International Whaling Commission. Jaquet, N . and Gendron, D. (2002) Distribution and relative abundance of sperm whales in relation to key environmental features, squid landings and the distribution of  163  other cetacean species in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Marine Biology 141, 591-601. Jefferson, T. (1988) Phocoenoides dalli. Mammalian Species 319, 1-7. Jefferson, T. A., Leatherwood, S. and Webber, M . A . (1993) Marine Mammals of the World, F A O Species Identification Guide., F A O , Rome, 319 p. Johnson, J. H . and Wolman, A. A . (1982) The humpack whale, Megaptera novaeangliae. Mar. Fish. Rev. 46, 30-37. Jones, L. L . (1990) Incidental take of Dall's porpoise in high seas gillnet fisheries. IWC SC/42/SM12. Jones, L. L., Bouchet, G. C. and Turnock, B. J. (1987) Comprehensive report on the take, biology and status of Dall's porpoise. International North Pacific Fisheries Commission Report 3156, 78 p. Jones, M . L. and Swartz, S. L . (2002) Gray whale - Eschrichtius robustus In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wiirsig, B. and Thewissen, J. G. M.) Academic Press, 524-536. Kapel, F. O. (1971) Undersogelser af Nordatlantens Saebestande. Fiskeriundersogelser 1970. Skrifterfra Danmarks Fiskeri-og Havundersogelser 31, 76-89. Kapel, F. O. (1975) Preliminary notes on the occurrence and exploitation of smaller cetaceain Greenland. J. Fish. Res. Board. Can. 32, 1079-1081. Kapel, F. O. (1986) Trends in harp seal and hooded seal catches in Greenland, 1939-83. NAFO Scientific Counsel Studies 10, 57-65. Kasamatsu, F., Ensor, P., Joyce, G. G. and Kimura, N . (2000) Distribution of minke whales in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen Seas (60 degree W-120 degree W), with special reference to environmental/physiographic variables. Fisheries Oceanography 9, 214-223. Kasamatsu, F. and Joyce, G. G. (1995) Current status of odontocetes in the Antarctic. Antarctic Science 7, 365-379. Kasamatsu, F., Matsuoka, K. and Hakamada, T. (2000) Interspecific relationships in density among the whale community in the Antarctic. Polar Biology 23, 466-473. Kaschner, K . (2004) Modelling and mapping of resource overlap between marine mammals and fisheries on a global scale. Ph.D. thesis, University of British Columbia, 184 p. 164  Kaschner, K., Christensen, L. B., Watson, R., Beblow, J. and Martell, S. J. D. (2006) Mapping top consumers in marine ecosystems past and present: comparative consumption rates of great whales and fisheries (SC/58/E3). International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee. St. Kitts and Nevis. Kaschner, K . and Pauly, D. (2004) Competition between marine mammals and fisheries: Food for thought. The Humane Society of the United States, 28 p. Kaschner, K., Watson, R., Christensen, V., Trites, A . W. and Pauly, D. (accepted) Modeling and mapping worldwide resource overlap between marine mammals and fisheries. Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences. Kastelein, R. A. (2002) Walrus - Odobenus rosmarus In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wiirsig, B. and Thewissen, H. G. M.) Academic Press, San Diego, U S A , 1094-1300. Kasuya, T. (1985) Effect of exploitation on reproductive parameters of the spotted and striped dolphins off the Pacific coast of Japan. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute (Tokyo) 36, 107-138. Kasuya, T. (1985) Fishery/dolphin conflict in the Iki Island aread off Japan. In: Marine mammals and fisheries (eds. Beddington, J. R., Beverton, R. J. H. and Lavigne, D.) George Allen and Unwin, London. Kasuya, T. (1998 (unpublished)) Evidence of statistical manipulations in Japanese coastal sperm whale fishery. IWC SC/50/CAWS10. Kasuya, T. (2002) Giant beaked whales - Berardius bairdii and B. arnuxii In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wiirsig, B. and Thewissen, J. G. M.) Academic Press, 519-522. Kasuya, T. and Miyashita, T. (1988) Distribution of sperm whale stocks in the North Pacific. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute (Tokyo), 31-76. Kasuya, T. and Miyashita, T. (1997) Distribution of Baird's beaked whales off Japan. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 47, 963-968. Kato, H. (2002) Bryde's whale - Balaenoptera edeni and B. brydei. In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wiirsig, B. and Thewissen, J. G. M.) Academic Press, 171-177. Kato, H . and Kasuya, T. (2002) Some analyses on the modern whaling catch history of the western North Pacific stock of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus), with special reference to the Ulsan whaling ground. Journal of Cetacean Research & Management 4, 277-282. 165  Kawamura, A . (1974) Food and feeding ecology of the Southern sei whale. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute (Tokyo) 26, 25 p. Kelly, B . P. (1988) Ringed seal, Phoca hispida In: Selected marine mammals of Alaska. Species accounts with research and management recommendations, (eds. Lentfer, J. W.) Marine Mammal Commission, Washington, D.C., 57-75. Kenney, R. D. (2002) North Atlantic, North Pacific, and Southern Right Whales Eubalaena glacialis, E. japonica, and E. australis In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wiirsig, B. and Thewissen, J. G. M.) Academic Press, 806-813. Kenyon, K . W., Scheffer, V . B. and Chapman, D. G. (1954) A population study of the Alaska fur seal herd. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Sci. Rep. Wildl. 12, 77 p. Kimura, D. K . and. Targat, J.V. (1982) Stock Reduction Analysis, another solution to the catch equations. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1467-1472. Kingsley, M . C. S. (1998) The number of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in Baffin Bay and associated waters In: Ringed seals in the North Atlantic, Vol. 1 (eds. HeideJ0rgensen, M . P. and Lydersen, C.) 181-196. Kingsley, M . C. S. and Reeves, R. R. (1998) Aerial surveys of cetaceans in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 1995 and 1996. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76, 1529-1550. Klinowska, M . (1991) Dolphins, porpoises, and whales of the world: the IUCN red data book, I U C N - The World Conservation Union, I U C N - The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland. 429 p. Knowlton, A . R., Kraus, S. and Kenney, R. D. (1994) Reproduction in North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). Canadian Journal of Zoology 72, 1297-1305. Knox, G. A . (1994) Seals In: The Biology of the Southern Ocean (eds. Knox, G. A.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U K , 141-160. Kovacs, K . M . (2002) Bearded seal - Erignathus barbatus In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wiirsig, B. and Thewissen, J. G. M.) Academic Press, 84-87. Kovacs, K . M . and Lavigne, D. M . (1986) Cystophora cristata. Mammalian Species 258, 1-9. Kraus, S. D., Hamilton, P. K., Kenney, R. D., Knowlton, A . R. and Slay, C. K . (2001) Reproductive parameters of the North Atlantic right whale. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2, 231-236. 166  Laake, J., Rugh, D. J., Lerczak, J. A . and Buckland, S. T. (1994) Preliminary estimates of population size of gray whales from the 1992/93 and 1993/94 shore-based surveys. (SC/46/AS7). IWC Scientific Committee (unpublished), 13 p. Lankester, K . and Beddington, J. R. (1986) A n age-structured population model applied to the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus). IWC 353-358. Lavigne, D. M . (2002) Harp seal - Pagophilus groenlandicus In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wiirsig, B. and Thewissen, H . G. M.) Academic Press, San Diego, U S A , 560-562. Laws, R. M . (1984) Seals In: Antarctic Ecology, Vol. 2 (eds. Laws, R. M.) Academic Press, London, U K , 621-714. Laws, R. M . (1994) History and present status of southern elephant seal population In: Elephant Seals: population ecology, behavior, and physiology (eds. Boeuf, B. J. L. and Laws, R. M.) California University Press, Berkeley - Los Angeles London, 414 p. Laws, R. M . and Hofman, R. J. (1977) Seals and whales of the southern ocean. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (Series B) 279, 81-96. Le Boeuf, B. J., Aurioles, D., Condit, R., Fox, C , Gisiner, R., Romero, R. and Sinsel, F. (1983) Size and distribution of the California sea lion Zalophus californianus population in Mexico. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 43, 7785. Le Boeuf, B. J. and Laws, R. M . (Eds.) (1994) Elephant seals: Population ecology, behavior, and physiology, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA., 414 p. Leopold, M . F. and Couperus, A . S. (1995) Sightings of Atlantic white-sided dolphins Lagenorhynchus acutus near the southeastern limit of the known range in the Northeast Atlantic. Lutra 38, 77-80. Ling, J. K . and Bryden, M . M . (1992) Mirounga leonina. Mammalian Species 391, 1-8. Lubbock, B. (1937) The Arctic Whalers, i-xii. Brown, Son and Ferguson Ltd., Glasgow, 483 p. Lunn, N . J., Stirling, I. and Nowicki, S. N . (1997) Distribution and abundance of ringed (Phoca hispidd) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) in western Hudson Bay. Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences 54, 914-921. MacKenzie, B. R., Alheit, J., Conley, D. J., Holm, P. and Kinze, C. C. (2002) Ecological hypotheses for a historical reconstruction of upper trophic level biomass in the 167  Baltic Sea and Skagerrak. Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences 59, 173-190. Mahoney, B. A . and Shelden, K . E. W. (2000) Harvest history of belugas in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Marine Fisheries Review 62, 124-133. Mangel, M . (1993) Effects of high-seas driftnet fisheries on the northern right whale dolphin, Lissodelphis borealis. Ecological Applications 3, 221-229. Manly, B . F. J., Seyb, A . and Fletcher, D. J. (2002) Bycatch of fur seals (Arctocephalus forsteri) in New Zealand fisheries, 1990/91-1995/96, and observer coverage. Department of Conservation, New Zealand, DOC Science internal series 41, 39 p. Masaki, Y . (1972) Estimation of abundace of whales by means of whale sighting in the Antarctic. Tokyo, IWC. (unpublished). Maschner, H. D. G., Reedy-Maschner, K. L . and Tews, A. M . (in review) Anthropoligical investigations on the decline of the steller sea lion (Eumeopias jubatus) in the Western Gulf of Alaska and Southern Bering Sea". Arctic. Matlin, R. (1998) New Zealand Fur Seals. WWF, W W F - N Z Final Report, 7 p. Melville, H. (1851) Moby Dick or the whale, Penguin (1972), London. Mercer, M . C. (1975) Modified Leslie-Delury population models of the long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melaend) and annual produciton of short-finned squid (Illex illecebrosus) based upon their interaction at Newfoundland. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada 32, 1145-1154. Mercer, M . C. (1975) Modified Leslie-Delury population models of the long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melaend) and annual production of the short-finned squid (Illex illecebrosus) based upon their interaction at Newfoundland. J. Fish. Res. Board. Can. 32, 1145 p. Merrick, R. L., Loughlin, T. R. and Calkins, D. G. (1987) Decline in abundance of the northern sea lion Eumetopias jubatus in Alaska, U S A , 1956-86. Fishery Bulletin 85,351-366. Mitchell, E. (1974) Present status of Northwest Atlantic fin and other whale stocks In: The whale problem: A status report (eds. Schevill, W. E.) Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 109-169. Mitchell, E. and Kozicki, V . M . (1984) Reproductive condition of male sperm whales, Physeter macrocephalus, taken off Nova Scotia. IWC, Special issue 6, 243-252.  168  Mitchell, E., Kozicki, V . M . and Reeves, R. R. (1983) Sightings of right whales Eubalaena glacialis on the Scotian shelf Canada 1966-1972 In: Right whales: Past and Present status - Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Special issue 10 (eds. Brownell, R. L. J., Best, P. B . and Prescott, J. H.) IWC, Cambridge, U K , 83-108. Mitchell, E. D. (1975) Porpoise, dolphin and small whale fisheries of the world. Status and problems. IUCNMonograph 3, 129 p. Mitchell, E. D. and Reeves, R. R. (1981) Catch history and cumulative catch estimates of initial population size of cetaceans in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Rep. int. Whal. Commn. 31, 645-682. Mitchell, E. D. and Reeves, R. R. (1982) Factors affecting abundance of bowhead whales Balaena mysticetus in the eastern Arctic of North America 1915-1980. Biological Conservation 22, 59-78. Mitchell, E. D., Reeves, R. R. and Evely, A. (1986) Bibliography of Whale Killing Techniques, Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Special issue 7. International Whaling Commission, Cambridge. Miyashita, T. (1986) Sightings estimate for the Bryde's whale stock in the Western Pacific. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 36, 249-252. Miyashita, T. (1991) Distribution and preliminary abundance estimates of Pacific whitesided dolphins and northern right whale dolphins. Appendix 6 to Anonymous (1991), scientific review of north Pacific high seas driftnet fisheries. Document J015. Miyashita, T. (1993) Abundance of dolphin stocks in the western North Pacific taken by the Japanese drive fishery. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 43, 417-437. Miyashita, T. (1993) Distribution and abundance of some dolphins taken in the North Pacific driftnet fisheries. International North Pacific Fisheries Commission Bulletin 0, 435-449. Miyashita, T. and Kasuya, T. (1988) Distribution and abundance of Dall's porpoises off Japan. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute (Tokyo) 39, 121-150. Miyazaki, N . (2002) Ringed, Caspian, and Baikal Seals - Pusa hispida, P. caspica, and P. sibirica In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wiirsig, B . and Thewissen, J. G. M.) Academic Press, 1033-1037.  169  Miyazaki, N . , Kasuya, T. and Nishiwaki, M . (1974) Distribution and migration of two species of Stenella in the Pacific coast of Japan. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute (Tokyo), 227-244. Miyazaki, N . and Wada, S. (1978) Observation of cetacea during whale marking cruise in the Western Tropical Pacific, 1976. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute Tokyo, 179-196. Mizuno, A . W., Wada, A., Ishinazaka, T., Hattori, K., Watanabe, Y . and Ohtaishi, N . (2002) Distribution and abundance of spotted seals (Phoca largha) and ribbon seals (Phoca fasciata) in the southern Sea of Okhotsk. Ecological Research 17, 79-96. Moore, S. E., Waite, J. M . , Mazzuca, L. L . and Hobbs, R. C. (2000) Mysticete whale abundance and observations of prey associations on the central Bering Sea shelf. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2, 227-234. Mori, M . and Butterworth, D. S. (2005) Modelling the predator-prey interactions of krill, baleen whales and seals in the Antarctic. IWC Scientific committee paper SC/57/021. Murase, H., Matsuoka, K., Ichii, T. and Nishiwaki, S. (2002) Relationship between the distribution of euphausiids and baleen whales in the Antarctic (35°E - 145°W). Polar Biology 25, 135-145. N A A M C O (1997), Scientific Committee Reviews Whale Sighting Data; Focuses on Role of Marine Mammals in Ecosystem. N A M M C O . http://www.nammco.no/sc5pr2.htm. N A M M C O (2003) The Ringed Seal. Status of Marine Mammals in the North Atlantic, North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, 8 p. NEFSC (2001) Report of the 33rd Northeast Regional Stock Assessment Workshop. Northeast Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service Reference Document 01-19, 36 p. Nemoto, T. (1959) Food of baleen whales with reference to whale movements. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute (Tokyo) 14, 149-290. Nichol, L. M . , Gregr, E. J., Flinn, R., Ford, J. K . B., Gurney, R., Michaluk, L. and Peacock, A . (2002) British Columbia commercial whaling catch data 1908 to 1967: A detailed description of the B.C. historical whaling database. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2396, 83 p.  170  Nilssen, K . T., Pedersen, O. P., Folkow, L. P. and Haug, T. (2000) Food consumption estimates of Barents Sea harp seals In: Whales, harp and hooded seals: major predators in the North Atlantic ecosystem, Vol. 2 (eds. Vikingsson, G. A . and Kapel, F. O.) Scientific Committee, The North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Tromso, 9-28. N M F S (1991) Recovery Plan for the Northern Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis). National Marine Fisheries Service 86 p. N M F S (2003) California sea lion (Zalophus californianus californianus): U.S. Stock. N M F S 1-7. Northridge, S. P. (1991) Driftnet fisheries and their impacts on non-target species: a worldwide review. F A O F A O Fisheries Technical Paper 320, 102 p. Nowak, R. M . and Walker, E. P. (1991) Walker's mammals of the world, ed. 5. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1629 p. Nygaard, S. E. (1989) The Stone Age of northern Scandinavia: A review. Journal of World Prehistory 3, 71 p. O'Corry-Crowe, G. M . (2002) Beluga Whale - Delphinapterus leucas In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wiirsig, B. and Thewissen, J. G. M.) Academic Press, 94-99. Oberthiir, S. (Ed.) (1998) The International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling: From Over-Exploitation to Total Prohibition, Yearbook of International Cooperation on Environment an Development 1998/1999, Earthscan, London, 348 p. Ohsumi, S. (1975) Review of Japanese small-type whaling. J. Fish. Res. Board. Can. 32, 1111-1121. Ohsumi, S. (1977) Bryde's whales in the pelagic whaling ground of the North Pacific In: Sei and Bryde's Whales - Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Special issue 1 (eds. G.P.Donovan), IWC, Cambridge, U K , 140-150. Ohsumi, S. (1980) Catches of sperm whales by modern whaling in the North Pacific. Sperm Whales, Special issue 2, IWC, Cambridge, U K , 11-18. Ohsumi, S. (1981) Further estimation of population sizes of Bryde's whales in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean using sighting data. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 31, 407-415. Ohsumi, S. (1983) Population assessment of Baird's beaked whales in the waters adjacent to Japan. IWC 33,633-641. 171  Ohsumi, S. and Kasamatsu, F. (1983) Recent off-shore distribution of the southern right whale in summer In: Right whales: Past and Present status - Reports of the International Whaling Commission Special issue 10 (eds. Brownell, R. L. J., Best, P. B . and Prescott, J. H.) IWC, Cambridge, U K , 177-186. Ohsumi, S. and Wada, S. (1972) Stock assessment of blue whales in the North Pacific, IWC, 20 p. Ohsumi, S. and Wada, S. (1974) Status of whale stocks in the North Pacific, 1972, IWC, 114-126. Palka, D. (1995) Abundance estimate of the Gulf of Maine harbor porpoise In: Biology of the phocoenids - Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Special issue 16 (eds. Bj0rge, A . and Donovan, G. P.), IWC, Cambridge, U K , 27-50. Palka, D. (2000) Abundance estimate of the Gulf of Maine harbor porpoise based on shipboard and aerial surveys during 1999. N O A A / N M F S / N E F S C 00-07, 29 p. Palka, D., Waring, G. T. and Potter, D. (in review) Abundances of cetaceans and sea turtles in the northwest Atlantic during summer 1995 and 1998. Fishery Bulletin. Palka, D. L., Read, A . J, and Potter, C. (1997) Summary of knowledge of white-sided , dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus) from US and Canadian Atlantic waters. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 47, 729-734. Pauly, D. (1995) Anecdotes And The Shifting Base-Line Syndrome O f Fisheries. Trends In Ecology & Evolution 10, 430-430. Pauly, D., Christensen, V . , Dalsgaard, J., Froese, R. and Torres, F. J. (1998) Fishing down marine food webs. Science 279, 860-863. Payne, P. M . and Heinemann, D. W. (1993) The distribution of pilot whales {Globicephala spp.) in shelf/shelf-edge and slope waters of the Northeastern United States, 1978-1988 In: Biology of Northern Hemisphere Pilot Whales Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Special issue 14 (eds. Donovan, G. P., Lockyer, C. H . and Martin, A . R.), IWC, Cambridge, U K , 51-68. Perrin, W. F. (2002) Common dolphins - Delphinus delphis, D. capensis and D. tropicalis In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wiirsig, B. and Thewissen, J. G. M.) Academic Press, 245-248. Perrin, W. F. (2002) Spinner dolphin - Stenella longirostris In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wiirsig, B. and Thewissen, J. G. M.) Academic Press, 1174-1178.  172  Perry, S. L., DeMaster, D. P. and Silber, G. K . (1999) Special issue: the great whales: history and status of six species sisted as endangered under the U.S. endangered species act of 1973 - The sperm whale. Marine Fisheries Review 61, 59-74. Perry, S. L., DeMaster, D. P. and Silber, G. K . (1999) The status of endangered whales. Marine Fisheries Review 61, 74 p. Pluskowski, A. (2004) Narwhals or unicorns? Exotic animals as material culture in medieval europe. European Journal of Archaeology 7, 291-313. Popov, L. (1982) Status of the main ice-living seals inhabiting inland waters and coastal marine areas of the USSR In: Mammals in the Seas, Vol. 4 (eds. Clark, J. K.) Advisory Committee on Marine Resources Research, Working Party on Marine Mammals, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 361381. Popov, L. A. (1976) Status of main ice forms of seals inhabiting waters of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent to the country marine areas. F A O A C M R R / M M / S C / 5 1 , 17 p. Punt, A . E., Allison, C. and Fay, G. (2004) A n examination of assessment models for the eastern North Pacific gray whale based on intertial dynamics. Journal of Cetacean Research & Management 6, 121-132. Punt, A . E. and Butterworth, D. S. (2002) A n examination of certain of the assumptions made in the Bayesian approach used to assess the eastern North Pacific stock of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus). Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4, 99-110. R Development Core Team (2005) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Raftery, A. E. and Zeh, j . E. (1991) Bayes empirical Bayes estimation of bowhead whale population size based on the visual and acoustic census near Barrow, Alaska, in 1986 and 1988. (SC/43/PS8). International Whaling Commission - Scientific Committee Meeting (unpublished), 51 p. Raftery, A. E., Zeh, J. E. and Givens, G. (1995) Revised estimate of bowhead rate of increase. Rep. Int. Whal. Commn. 45, 158 p. Raum-Suryan, K. L . and Harvey, J. T. (1998) Distribution and abundance of and habitat use by harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, off the northern San Juan Islands, Washington. Fishery Bulletin 96, 808-822. Raustiala, K . (1997) States, NGOs, and International Environmental Institutions. International Studies Quarterly 41, 719-740. 173  Read, A. J. (1999) Harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena (Linnaeus, 1758) In: The Second Book of Dolphins and the Porpoises - Handbook of Marine Mammals, Vol. 6 (eds. Ridgway, S. H . and Harrison, R. H.) Academic Press, London, 323355. Read, A. J., Drinker, P. and Northridge, S. P. (2003) Bycatches of marine mammals in U.S. fisheries and a first attempt to estimate the magnitude of global marine mammal bycatch (SC/55/BC5). International Whaling Commission - Scientific Committee Meeting, (unpublished), Berlin, Germany, 12 p. Read, A. J. and Westgate, A . J. (1997) Monitoring the movements of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) with satellite telemetry. Marine Biology (Berlin) 130, 315322. Reeves, R. R. (1998) Distribution, abundance and biology of ringed seals (Phoca hispida): an overview In: Ringed seals in the North Atlantic, Vol. 1 (eds. HeideJ0rgensen, M . P. and Lydersen, C.), 9-43. Reeves, R. R. (2002) The origins and character of 'aboriginal subsistence' whaling: a global review. Mammal Review 32, 71-106. Reeves, R. R., Breiwick, J. M . and Mitchell, E. D. (1999) History of Whaling and Estimated K i l l of Right Whales, Balaena glacialis, in the Northeastern United States, 1620-1924. Marine Fisheries Review 61, 1-36. Reeves, R. R., Clapham, P. J., Brownell, R. L. J. and Silber, G. K . (1998) Recovery plan for the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus). N M F S 45 p. Reeves, R. R. and Leatherwood, S. (1985) Bowhead whale Balaena mysticetus (Linnaeus, 1758) In: The Sirenians and Baleen whales - Handbook of Marine Mammals, Vol. 3 (eds. Ridgway, S. H . and Harrison, R. H.) Academic Press, London, 305-344. Reeves, R. R., Leatherwood, S., Karl, S. A . and Yohe, E. R. (1985) Whaling results at Akutan (1912-39) and Port Hobron (1927-37.), Alaska. IWC 35, 441-457. Reeves, R. R. and Mitchell, E. (1993) Status of Baird's Beaked Whale, Berardius bairdii. Canadian Field Naturalist 107, 509-523. Reeves, R. R., Mitchell, E. and Whitehead, H. (1993) Status of the Northern Bottlenose Whale, Hyperoodon ampullatus. Canadian Field Naturalist 107, 490-508. Reeves, R. R. and Mitchell, E. D. (1986) American Pelagic Whaling for Right Whales in the North Atlantic. IWC 10, 221 -254.  174  Reeves, R. R., Smith, B. D., Crespo, E. A. and Notarbartolo di Sciara., G. c. (2003) Dolphins, Whales and Porpoises: 2002-2010 Conservation Action Plan for the World's Cetaceans., ix. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U K , 139 p. Reeves, R. R., Stewart, B . S. and Leatherwood, S. (1992) The Sierra Club Handbook of Seals and Sirenians, Sierra Club Books, San Francisco. Reeves, R. R., Swartz, S. L., Wetmore, S. E. and Clapham, P. J. (2001) Historical occurrence and distribution of humpback whales in the eastern and southern Caribbean Sea, based on data from American whaling logbooks. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 3, 117-129. Reeves, R. R., Wenzel, G. W. and Kingsley, M . C. S. (1998) Catch history of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in Canada In: Ringed Seals in the North Atlantic, Vol. 1 (eds. Heide-j0rgensen, M . P. and Lydersen, C.) N A M M C O Scientific Publications, Troms0, Norway, 100-129. Reijnders, P., Brasseur, S., van der Toorn, J., van der Wolf, R., Boyd, I. L., Harwood, J., Lavigne, D. M . , et al. (1993) Seals, fur seals, sea lions, and walrus. Status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN/SSC Specialist Group, International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 89 p. Ribic, C. A., Ainley, D. G. and Fraser, W. R. (1991) Habitat selection by marine mammals in the marginal ice zone. Antarctic Science.3, 181-186. Rice, D. W. (1978) Blue whale In: Marine Mammals of Eastern North Pacific and Arctic Waters (eds. Haley, D.) Pacific Search Press, Seatlle, 30-35. Rice, D. W. (1978) The humpback whale in the North Pacific: distribution, exploitation, and numbers. Marine Mammal Commission Report 77/03. Rice, D. W. (1998) Marine Mammals of the World - Systematics and Distribution, Special publication 4, Special publications of the Society of Marine Mammalogy, 4. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, KS., 231 p. Richard, P. R. (1994) Status of the beluga, Delphinapterus leucas, in Western and Southern Hudson Bay. Canadian Field Naturalist 107, 524-532. Richards, R. (1994) "The upland seal" of the Antipodes and Macquarie Islands: a historian's perspective. Journal of The Royal Society of New Zealand 24, 289-295. Richards, R. (2003) New market evidence on the depletion of southern fur seals: 17881833. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 30, 1-9.  175  Ridgway, S. H . and Harrison, R. J. (eds.) (1981) The Walrus, Sea Lions, Fur Seals and Sea Otter, Academic Press, London, 353 p. Roman, J., and Palumbi, S.R. (2003) Whales before whaling in the North Atlantic. Science 301, 508-510. Roosevelt, Theodore (1907). Seventh Annual Message to Congress, December 3 1907. rd  Rosen, D. A . S. and Trites, A . W. (2000) Pollock and the decline of Steller sea lions: Testing the junk-food hypothesis. 78, 1243 p. Ross, W. G. (1993) Commercial whaling in the North Atlantic sector In: The Bowhead Whale (eds. Burns, J. J., Montague, J.J., and Cowles, C.J.) Society for Marine Mammalogy, Special Publication 2: Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, 511-561. Rugh, D. J., DeMaster, D. P., Rooney, A. P., Breiwick, J., Shelden, K . and Moore, S. (2003) A review of bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) stock identity. Journal of Cetacean Research & Management 5, 267-279. Rugh, D. J. and Shelden, K. E. W. (2002) Bowhead Whale - Balaena mysticetus In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wiirsig, B. and Thewissen, J. G. M.) Academic Press, 129-131. Rugh, D. J., Shelden, K. E. W. and Withrow, D . E. (1995) Spotted seals sightings in Alaska 1992-93. Annual report to the M M P A Assessment Program, Office of Protected Resources, N M F S , N O A A . Schneider, V . and Pearce, D. (2004) What saved the whales? A n economic analysis of 20th century whaling. Biodiversity and Conservation 13, 543-562. Sease, J. L . and Gudmundson, C. J. (2002) Aerial and land-based surveys of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) from the western stock in Alaska, June and July 2001 and 2002. U . S. Department of Commerce (NOAA) N O A A Technical Memorandum NMFS-AFSC-131, 45 p. Sease, J. L., Taylor, B. L., Loughlin, T. R. and Pitcher, K . W. (2001) Aerial and landbased surveys of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska, June and July 1999 and 2000. U.S. Department of Commerce NMFS-AFSC-122, 52 p. Selzer, L. and Payne, P. M . (1988) The distribution of white-sided (Lagenorhynchus acutus) and Common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) vs. environmental features of the continental shelf of the Northeastern United States. Marine Mammal Science 4, 141-153.  176  Sergeant, D. E. (1977) Stocks of fin whales Balaenoptera physalus L. in the North Atlantic ocean. Rep. int. Whal. Commn. 27, 460-473. Sergeant, D. E. (1991) Harp Seals, Man and Ice, Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 114. Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa, 153 p. Sergeant, D. E., St, A. D. J. and Geraci, J. R. (1980) Life history and Northwest Atlantic status of the Atlantic white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus acutus. Cetology 37, 1-12. Shaughnessy, P. D. (1982) The status of seals in south Africa and Nambia In: Mammals in the Seas, Vol. 4 (eds. Advisory Committee on Marine Resouces Research, Working Party on Marine Mammals, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 383-410. Shelden, K . E. W. and Rugh, D. J. (1995) The bowhead whale, Balaena mysticetus: its historic and current status. Marine Fisheries Review 57, 1-20. Shelton, P. A., Stenson, G. B., Sjare, B. and Warren, W. G. (1996) Model estimates of harp seal numbers-at-age for the Northwest Atlantic. NAFO Scientific Council Studies 26, 1-14. Sigurjonsson, J. (1995) On the life history and autecology of North Atlantic rorquals In: Whales, seals, fish and man - Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Biology of Marine Mammals in the North East Atlantic, Tromse, Norway, 29 November -1 December 1994, Vol. 4 (eds. Blix, A . S., Wall0e, L. and Ulltang, 0.) Elsevier, Amsterdam - Lausanne - New York - Oxford - Shannon - Tokyo, 425-441. Sigurjonsson, J. (1997) Whale resources in the North Atlantic and the concept of sustainability. Whaling in the North Atlantic - Economic and Political Perspectives - Proceedings of a conference held in Reykjavik on March 1st, 1997 (eds. Petursdottir, G.), ISBN 9979-54-213-6. Sigurjonsson, J. and Gunnlaugsson, T. (1990) Recent trends in abundance of blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) off west and southwest Iceland, with a note on occurrence of other cetacean species. Rep. int. Whal. Commn. 40, 537-551. Sigurjonsson, J. and Vikingsson, G. A. (1997) Seasonal abundance of and estimated food consumption by cetaceans in Icelandic and adjacent waters. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science 22, 271-287.  177  Smith, R . . C , Dustan, P., Au, D., Baker, K . S. and Dunlap, E. A. (1986) Distribution of cetaceans and sea-surface chlorophyll concentrations in the California currrent. Marine Biology 91, 385-402. Smith, T. (1979) Report of the status of porpoise stocks workshop, August 27-31, 1979. N O A A Southeast Fisheries Center Admin. Rep. LJ-79-41. Smith, T. D. (1983) Changes in size of 3 dolphin, Stenella spp., populations in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Fishery Bulletin 81, 1-14. Smith, T. D., Allen, J., Clapham, P. J., Hammond, P. S., Katona, S., Larsen, F., Lien, J., et al. (1999) A n ocean-basin-wide mark-recapture study of the North Atlantic humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Marine Mammal Science 15, 1-32. Smith, T. D. and Reeves, R. R. (2003) Estimating historic humpback whale removals from the North Atlantic: an update. Journal of Cetacean Research & Management 5,301-311. Smith, T. D., Reeves, R. R., Friday, N . A . and Punt, A. E. (2002) Reconstructing humpback whale populations in the North Atlantic. ICES, C M 2002/L30. Stacey, P. J. and Baird, R. W. (1993) Status of the short-finned pilot whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus, in Canada. Canadian Field Naturalist 107, 481-489. Stacey, P. J., Leatherwood, S. and Baird, R. W. (1994) Pseudorca crassidens. Mammalian Species 456, 1-6. Stenson, G. B . (1994) The status of pinnipeds, in the Newfoundland region. NAFO Scientific Council Studies 21, 115-119. Stenson, G. B . (2003) Harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the North Atlantic: Abundance, removals, and sustainability of removals. In: Harbour porpoises in the North Atlantic, Vol. 5 (eds. Haug, T., Desportes, G., Vikingsson, G. A. and Witting, L.) Tromso, 271-302. Stenson, G. B., Sjare, B. and Wakeham, D. (1999) Catch-at-age of northwest Atlantic harp seals. Research document 99/105, DFO, http://www.dfompo.gc.ca/csas/csas/DocREC/1999/pdf/99_l 05e.pdf. Stevick, P. T., Allen, J., Clapham, P. J., Friday, N . A., Katona, S. K., Larsen, F., Lien, J., et al. (2003) North Atlantic humpback whale abundance and rate of increase four decades after protection from whaling. Marine Ecology Progress Series 258, 263273.  178  Stewart, B. S., Yochem, P. K., DeLong, R. and Antonelis, G. A . (1990) Status and trends in abundance of pinnipeds, on the Southern California, Channel Islands. Third California Islands Symposium. Recent advances in California island research. Proceedings.Ed: Hochberg. Santa Barbara CA. Stoker, S. W. and Krupnik, 1.1. (1993) Subsistence Whaling In: The Bowhead Whale (eds. Burns, J. J., Montague, J.J., and Cowles, C.J.) Society for Marine Mammalogy, Special Publication 2: Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, 579-629. Strange, I. (1979) Sea lion survey in the Falklands. Oryx 15, 175-184. Surkov, S. S. (1957) Distribution and numbers of harp seals in the White Sea. VNJROPINRO 60 p. Surkov, S. S. (1957) On the methods of abundance determination and catch control of the White Sea harp seal. 15, 271-279. Swartz, S. L., Taylor, B. L . and Rugh, D. J. (2006) Gray whale Eschrichtius robustus population and stock identity. Mammal Review 36, 66-84. Tamura, T. (2003) Regional assessment of prey consumption and competition by marine cetaceans in the world In: Responsible Fisheries in Marine Ecosystems (eds. Sinclair, M . and Valdimarsson, G.) Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations & C A B I Publishing, Wallingford, U K , 143-170. Tamura, T. and Ohsumi, S. (1999) Estimation of total food consumption by cetaceans in the world's ocean. Institute of Cetacean Research 15 p. Tamura, T. and Ohsumi, S. (2000) Regional assessments of prey consumption by marine cetaceans in the world. (SC/52/E6). International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee Meeting (unpublished), Adelaide, Australia, 41 p. Teilmann, J. and Dietz, R. (1998) Status of the harbour porpoise in Greenland. Polar Biology 19,211-220. Teilmann, J. and Kapel, F. O. (1998) Exploitation of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in Greenland In: Ringed Seals in the North Atlantic, Vol. 1 (eds. Heide-j0rgensen, M . P. and Lydersen, C.) N A M M C O Scientific Publications, Troms0, Norway, 130-151. The Committee for Whaling Statistics. (1930) International Whaling Statistics, Det Norske Hvalrads Statistiske Publikasjoner, Oslo.  179  Tillman, M . F. (1977) Estimates of population size for the North Pacific sei whale In: Sei and Bryde's Whales - Reports of the International Whaling Commission Special issue 1 (eds. G.P.Donovan) IWC, Cambridge, U K , 98-106. Tillman, M . F. (1984) Report of the Scientific Committee. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 34, 35-181. Tillman, M . F. and Breiwick, J. M . (1983) A note on mark-recapture estimates for North Pacific Bryde's whales. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 33, 443-445. Tonnessen, J. N . a. A . O. J. (1982) The history og modern whaling, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 798 p. Townsend, C. H . (1886) Present condition of the California gray whale fishery. Bull. US Fish. Comm 6, 340-350. Trites, A . W. (1992) Northern fur seals: why have they declined? Aquatic Mammals 18, 3-18. Trites, A. W., Christensen, V . and Pauly, D. (1997) Competition between fisheries and marine mammals for prey and primary production in the Pacific Ocean. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science 22, 173-187. Trites, A. W. and Donnelly, C. P. (2003) The decline of Steller sea lions Eumetopias jubatus in Alaska: a review of the nutritional stress hypothesis. Mammal Review 33, 3-28. Trites, A. W. and Larkin, P. (1996) Changes in abundance of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska from 1956 to 1992: how many were there? Aquatic Mammals 22, 153-166. Trites, A. W. and Pauly, D. (1998) Estimating mean body masses of marine mammals from maximum body lengths. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76, 886-896. Tynan, C. T., DeMaster, D. P. and Peterson, W. T. (2001) Endangered right whales on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. Science (Washington D C) 294, 1894. Urban-Ramirez, J., Rojas-Bracho, L., Perez-Cortes, H., Gomez-Gallardo, A., Swartz, S. L., Ludwig, S. and Brownell, R. L. J. (2003) A review of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) on their wintering grounds in Mexican waters. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 5, 281-295. Vladimirov, V. L. (1994) Recent distribution and abundance levels of whales in Russian far-eastern Seas. Russian Journal of Marine Biology 20, 1-9. 180  Wada, K. (1971) Food and feeding habits of northern fur seals along the coast of Sanriku. Bull. Tokai Reg. Fish. Res. Lab. 64, 1-37. Wade, P. R. (1995) Revised estimates of incidental kill of dolphins (Delphinidae) by the purse-seine tuna fishery in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, 1959-1972. Fishery Bulletin 93, 345-354. Wade,P.R. (1998) Calculating limits to the allowable human-caused mortality of cetaceans and pinipeds. Marine Mammal Science 14:1, 1-37. Wade, P. R. (2002) A Bayesian stock assessment of the eastern Pacific gray whale using abundance and harvest data from 1967-1996. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4, 85-98. Wade, P. R. and Gerrodette, T. (1993) Estimates of cetacean abundance and distribution in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Reports of the Lnternational Whaling Commission 43, 477-493. Walsh, D., Sjare, B . and Miller, E. (2001) Estimates of harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) by-catch in the Newfoundland lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) fishery. 14th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. Vancouver, Canada. Walters, C. J., Christensen, V., Martell, S. J. and Kitchell, J. F. (2005) Possible ecosystem impacts of applying M S Y policies from single-species assessment. Ices Journal Of Marine Science 62, 558-568. Walters, C. J., Martell, S. J. D. and Korman, J. (2006) A stochastic approach to stock reduction analysis. Canadian Journal Of Fisheries And Aquatic Sciences 63, 212223. Waring, G. T., Pace, R. M . , Quintal, J., Fairfield, C. P., Maze-Foley, K., Clapham, P. J., Cole, T. V . N . , et al. (2003) U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Stock Assessments - 2003. U.S. Department of Commerce NMFS-NE-182, 300 p. Waring, G. T., Palka, D. L., Clapham, P. J., Swartz, S., Rossman, M . C , Cole, T. V . N . , Hansen, L . J., et al. (1999) U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Stock Assessments - 1999. U.S. Department of Commerce NMFS-NE-153, 193 p. Waring, G. T., Quintal, J. M . , Fairfield, C. P., Clapham, P. J., Cole, T. V . N . , Garrison, L., Hohn, A . A., et al. (2002) U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Stock Assessments - 2002. U.S. Department of Commerce NMFS-NE-169, 183 p. Warneke, R. M . and Shaughnessy, P. D. (1985) Arctocephalus pusillus, the South African and Australian fur seal: taxonomy, evolution, biogeography, and life  181  history In: Studies of Sea Mammals in South Latitudes (eds. Ling, J. K . and Bryden, M . M.) South Australian Museum, 53-77. Warren, W. G., Shelton, P. A . and Stenson, G. B . (1997) Quantifying some of the major sources of uncertainty associated with estimates of harp seal prey consumption. Part I: Uncertainty in the estimates of harp seal population size. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science 22, 289-302. Watts, P. D., Draper, B . A . and Henrico, J. (1991) Preferential use of warm water habitat by adult beluga whales. Journal of Thermal Biology 16, 57-60. Weller, D. W., Burdin, A . M . , Wiirsig, B., Taylor, B . L . and Brownell, R. L . J. (2002) The western gray whale: A review of past exploitation, current status and potential threats. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4, 7-12. Wells, R. S. and Scott, M . D. (1999) Bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus (Montague, 1821) In: The Second Book of Dolphins and the Porpoises - Handbook of Marine Mammals, Vol. 6 (eds. Ridgway, S. H . and Harrison, R. H.) Academic Press, London, 137-182. Wells, R. S. and Scott, M . D. (2002) Bottlenose dolphin - Tursiops truncatus and T. aduncus In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wiirsig, B. and Thewissen, J. G. M.) Academic Press, 122-129. Weslawski, J. M . , Hacquebord, L., Stempniewicz, L. and Malinga, M . (2000) Greenland whales and walruses in the Svalbard food web before and after exploitation. Oceanologia 42, 37-56. Whitehead, H . P. (2002) Estimates of the current global population size and historical trajectory for sperm whales. Marine Ecology Progress Series 242, 295-304. Whitehead, H. P. (2002) Sperm whale - Physeter macrocephalus In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (eds. Perrin, W. F., Wiirsig, B. and Thewissen, J. G. M.) Academic Press, 1165-1172. Wickens, P. A., David, J. H . M . , Shelton, P. A . and Field, J. G. (1991) Trends in harvest and pup numbers of the South African fur seal: Implications for management. South African Journal of Marine Science 11, 307-326. Winn, H. E. and Reichley, N . E. (1985) Humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski, 1781) In: The Sirenians and Baleen whales - Handbook of Marine Mammals, Vol. 3 (eds. Ridgway, S. H . and Harrison, R.) Academic Press, Longon, 241-273.  182  Witting, L . (2003) Reconstructing the population dynamics of eastern Pacific gray whales ovet the past 150 to 400 years. Journal of Cetacean Research & Management 5, 45-54. Woodby, D. A . and Botkin, D. B. (1993) Stock sizes prior to commercial whaling. Soc. of Mar. Mammalogy Spec. Publ. No. 2, 387-407. Woodley, T. H . and Lavigne, D. M . (1991) Incidental capture of pinnipeds, in commercial fishing gear. International Marine Mammal Association Inc. 91-01, 54 p. WWF (2005) The Big Four - a WWF update on Greenland's efforts with regard to species conservation and nature protection. WWF, 72 p. Yablokov, A . V . and Bogoslovskaya, L . S. (1984) A review of Russian research on the biology and commercial whaling fo the gray whale In: The Gray Whale Eschrichtius robustus (eds. Jones, M . L., Swartz, S. and Leatherwood, S.) Academic Press, London, 465-485. Yatsu, A., Hiramatsu, K. and Hayase, S. (1994) A review of the Japanese squid driftnet fishery with notes on the cetacean bycatch In: Gillnets and Cetaceans - Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Special issue 15 (eds. Perrin, W. F., Donovan, G. P. and Barlow, J.) IWC, Cambridge, U K , 365-379. Yochem, P. K . and Leatherwood, S. (1985) Blue whale Balaenoptera musculus (Linnaeus, 1758) In: The Sirenians and Baleen whales - Handbook of Marine Mammals, Vol. 3 (eds. Ridgway, S. H . and Harrison, R.) Academic Press, Longon, 193-240. Zeh, J. E., Clark, C. W., George, J. C , Withrow, D., Carroll, G. M . and Koski, W. R. (1993) Current population size and dynamics In: The Bowhead Whale, Special Publication 2 (eds. Burns, J. J., Montague, J. J. and Cowles, C. J.), The Society for Marine Mammalogy, Lawrence. Zeh, J. E., George, J. C. and Suydam, R. (1994) Rate of increase, 1978-1993, of bowhead whales, Balaena mysticetus. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 45, 339-344. Zeh, J. E., Raftery, A. E. and Shaffner, A. A . (1995). Revised estimates of bowhead population size and rate of increase. (SC/47/AS/10) International Whaling Commission - Scientific Committee Meeting, (unpublished), 26 p. Zerbini, A . N . , Secchi, E. R., Siciliano, S. and Simoes-Lopes, P. C. (1997) A review of the occurrence and distribution of whales of the genus Balaenoptera along the Brazilian Coast. Reports of the International Whaling Commission, 407-417. 183  Appendix 1  Species list  This is a list of the marine mammal species including their common and scientific names, information on whether exploitation data exists, a Male:Female ratio (expressed as % of the population that is female) and the average weights for females and males in t. Data for the three latter columns are taken from Trites and Pauly (1998).  Scientific name  Common name Sei whale Southern right whale Sperm whale Fin whale Gray whale Blue whale Bowhead whale Eden/Bryde's whale Humpback whale Dwarf minke whale North Atlantic right whale Antarctic minke whale Bryde's whale North Pacific right whale Ribbon seal  Balaenoptera  borealis  Eubalaena  australis  Physeter  catodon  Balaenoptera  physalus  Eschrichtius  robustus  Balaenoptera Balaena  musculus  mysticetus  Balaenoptera  edeni  Megaptera novaeangliae Balaenoptera acutorostrata  Exploited Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y  Male : Female ratio 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  (% 2)  Avg. weight female (t)  Avg. weight male (t)  17.3869 19.576 10.0976 59.8189 15.6528 110.1258 30.7448 16.9047 32.493  16.2347 16.5743 26.9387 51.3614 15.0904 95.3471 31.4056 15.3808 28.3234  0.5  7.0111  6.1213  0.5  24.9599  21.8054  0.5 with  7.0111  6.1213  0.5 0.5 0.5  24.9599 0.0714  21.8054 0.0715 0.0443  0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  0.3267 0.0246 0.1519 0.0922 0.2162 0.1402  0.5428 0.0301 0.1683 0.0922 0.196 0.1086  0.6 0.5  0.031 0.5462  0.0402 0.3823  0.5  0.3303  0.4117  Y Eubalaena  glacialis  Y Balaenoptera  bonaerensis  Balaenoptera  brydei  Eubalaena  japonica  Histriophoca  Ringed seal Southern elephant seal Subantarctic fur seal  Pusa  Gray seal Harp seal Crabeater seal Hooded seal Juan Fernandez fur seal Leopard seal Northern elephant seal  Halichoerus  fasciata  hispida  Mirounga  groenlandicus  N Y Y  carcinophagus  Cystophora  cristata  Arctocephalus  Mirounga  tropicalis grypus  Pagophilus  Hydrurga  Y Y Y  leonina  Arctocephalus  Lobodon  Assessed Y  Y N  philippii  leptonyx  N N  angustirostris  184  0.0407  Walrus Weddell seal Bearded seal Antarctic fur seal South African and Australian fur seal Northern fur seal Pacific white-sided dolphin Pantropical spotted dolphin Risso's dolphin Short-finned pilot whale Southern bottlenose whale Spinner dolphin Striped dolphin Baird's beaked whale Beluga or white whale (sea marshmallow) short beaked common dolphin Dall's porpoise Killer whale Long-finned pilot whale Northern bottlenose whale Bottlenose dolphin Northern right whale dolphin Ross seal Rough-toothed dolphin South American sea lion Southern right whale dolphin False killer whale Fraser's dolphin Harbour porpoise Harbour seal Atlantic spotted dolphin Atlantic white-sided dolphin California sea lion Hooker's or New  Odobenus  rosmarus  Leptonychotes Erignathus  weddellii barbatus  Arctocephalus  gazella  Arctocephalus  Y N Y Y Y  pusillus  Callorhinus  ursinus  Lagenorhynchus obliquidens  Y N  0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6  0.5302 0.1625 0.1998 0.0227  0.6425 0.1541  0.6 0.6  0.059 0.0253  0.054 0.0302  0.5  0.0727  0.0836  0.5 0.5  0.0591 0.2113  0.0717 0.2359  0.5  0.467  0.8189  0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  1.3306 0.0395 0.1145 3.7936  0.8268 0.0431 0.1167 2.4787  0.5  0.2885  0.3375  0.5 0.5 0.5  0.0683 0.0613 1.9738  0.092 0.0613 2.5871  0.5  0.6721  1.0285  0.5 0.5  1.6399 0.1719  1.7382 0.2032  0.5 0.5  0.0683 0.163  0.1411 0.1285  0.5  0.0877  0.0963  0.6  0.1198  0.1026  0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  0.0683 0.4645 0.0954 0.0326 0.0584  0.0547 0.6916 0.0954  0.5  0.0675  0.0654  0.5 0.6 0.6  0.078 0.0856 0.0856  0.1054 0.0621 0.1752  0.1998 0.0307  Y Stenella  attenuata  N Y  Grampus griseus Globicephala macrorhynchus  N Hyperoodon  planifrons  Stenella  longirostris  Stenella  coeruleoalba  Berardius  bairdii  Delphinapterus  Y N Y Y  leucas  Y Delphinus  delphis  Phocoenoides Orcinus  dalli  orca  Globicephala  Y Y Y  melas  Y Hyperoodon Tursiops  ampullatus  truncatus  Lissodelphis  borealis  Ommatophoca Steno  Y Y  rossii  N N  bredanensis  Y Otaria  flavescens  N Lissodelphis Pseudorca  peronii crassidens  Lagenodelphis Phocoena Phoca Stenella  hosei  phocoena  vitulina  Y N Y Y N  frontalis  0.0295 0.0688  Y Lagenorhynchus  acutus  Zalophus  californianus  Phocarctos  hookeri  Y N  185  Zealand sea lion Hourglass dolphin Largha or spotted seal Melon-headed whale Narwhal White-beaked dolphin Guadalupe fur seal Pygmy killer whale Pygmy right whale Pygmy sperm whale Steller sea lion Dwarf sperm whale Finless porpoise Hawaiian monk seal Clymene dolphin Mediterranean monk seal long-beaked common dolphin South American fur seal New Zealand fur seal Galapagos fur seal Pygmy beaked whale Sowerby's beaked whale Stejneger's beaked whale Strap-toothed whale Gervais' beaked whale Ginkgo-toothed beaked whale Gray's beaked whale Hector's beaked whale Andrews' beaked whale Arnoux's beaked whale Blainville's beaked whale Cuvier's beaked whale Hubb's beaked whale Tasman or Shepherd's beaked whale  Lagenorhynchus Phoca  cruciger  largha  Peponocephala Monodon  electra  monoceros  Lagenorhynchus albirostris Arctocephalus Feresa Caperea Kogia  townsendi  attenuata marginata breviceps  Eumetopias  jubatus  Kogia simus Neophocaena phocaenoides Monachus Stenella  schauinslandi clymene  Monachus  ' N Y N Y N N N N N Y N N N N N  monachus  0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  0.0391 0.0389 0.1054 0.2622  0.0295 0.05 0.1036 0.3881  0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5  0.1356 0.0243 0.078 2.1602 0.1766 0.1864 0.1008  0.1467 0.029 0.1169 1.9694 0.1766 0.2136 0.1008  0.5 0.5 0.5  0.0381 0.163 0.0468  0.0429 0.0986 0.0468  0.5  0.2809  0.2488  0.5  0.0683  0.092  0.6 0.6  0.031 0.031  0.029 0.0343  0.6 0.5  0.0187 0.1921  0.0166 0.1768  0.5  0.4622  0.4482  0.5 0.5  0.508 0.7464  0.4018 0.5159  0.5  0.4963  0.2887  0.5 0.5  0.4295 0.527  0.3209 0.4754  0.5  0.3361  0.2515  0.5  0.3625  0.3053  0.5  1.809  1.6561  0.5  0.3901  0.5076  0.5 0.5  0.8863 0.5246  0.7708 0.4145  0.5  0.8863  0.7892  N Delphinus  capensis  N Arctocephalus Arctocephalus Arctocephalus galapagoensis Mesoplodon Mesoplodon  australis forsteri  N N  peruvianus  N N  bidens  N Mesoplodon  stejnegeri  Mesoplodon  layardii  Mesoplodon  europaeus  N N N  Mesoplodon  ginkgodens  Mesoplodon  grayi  Mesoplodon  hectori  N N N  Mesoplodon  bowdoini  N Berardius  arnuxii  N Mesoplodon  densirostris  N Ziphius  cavirostris  Mesoplodon Tasmacetus  carlhubbsi  N N  shepherdi  186  True's beaked whale Longman's beaked whale Spade-toothed beaked whale Perrin's beaked whale Peale's dolphin Dusky dolphin Franciscana Heaviside's dolphin Hector's dolphin Atlantic humpbacked dolphin Australian sea lion Black dolphin Burmeister's porpoise Commerson's dolphin Pacific hump-backed dolphin Irrawaddy dolphin Tucuxi Vaquita Galapagos sea lion Indian hump-backed dolphin Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphin Arabian common dolphin Spectacled porpoise  Mesoplodon  N ""N  mirus  lndopacetus  pacificus  0.5  0.4734  0.4163  0.5  1.2095  0.9279  0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  0.454017 0.454017 0.0586 0.0446 0.0313  0.376908 0.376908 0.0586 0.0553 0.0223  0.5 0.5  0.0327 0.0367  0.0327 0.0298  0.5 0.6  0.0719 0.059  0.082 0.0709  0.5 0.5  0.0304 0.0423  0.0313 0.0423  0.5  0.0295  0.0274  0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  0.0788 0.0697 0.0386 0.0241 0.0856  0.1524 0.1054 0.0386 0.0204 0.0621  0.5  0.0719  0.082  0.5  0.1719  0.2032  0.5  0.0683  0.5  0.051  0.092 0.064  N Mesoplodon  traversii  Mesoplodon  perrini  Lagenorhynchus  australis  Lagenorhynchus  obscurus  Pontoporia blainvillei Cephalorhynchus heavisidii Cephalorhynchus  hectori  N N N N N N N  Sousa teuszii Neophoca cinerea Cephalorhynchus eutropia  N N  Phocoena spinipinnis Cephalorhynchus commersonii  N N N  Sousa  chinensis  Orcaella  brevirostris  Sotalia  fluviatdis  Phocoena  sinus  Zalophus  wollebaeki  Sousa  N N •N N .N .  plumbea  N Tursiops  aduncus  N Delphinus  tropicalis  Phocoena  dioptrica  N  187  Appendix 2 Species - Area (NA = North Atlantic, NP = North Pacific, SH = Southern Hemisphere, G = Global, A = Arctic, NEP = Northeast Pacific, NWP = Northwest Pacific, NWA = Northwest Atlantic) Sei whale - NA Sei whale - NP  Sei whale - SH Right whale - SH Sperm whale - G Fin whale - NA Fin whale - NP Fin whale - SH Gray whale - NEP  1  Model input Carrying Capacity uniform prior (lower bound upper bound)  5,00020,000 5,000150,000 150,000300,000 80,000150,000 500,0001,500,000 40,000100,000 50,000100,000 500,0001,000,000 20,00030 ,000  c I D  5 3  Abundance points the models are fit to for each species (year, number)  Sources  1991,4,000 1995, 9,250 1974, 9,110 1989, 10,300  (Braham, 1991), (Perry et al, 1999), (NAAMCO, 1997) (Tillman, 1977),(Carretta et al, 2001), http://luna.pos.to/whale/iwc chair92 11.ht ml (Borchers etal, 1990), (Klinowska, 1991), (IWC, 1996), (Perry et al, 1999) (Masaki, 1972), (Cummings, 1985), (IWC, 1998), (Perry et al, 1999) (Whitehead, 2002)  1  1965, 40,000  4  1972, 4300  5  1999,361,400  5  1969-1989, 47,300 1973, 16,150 1975, 16,625 1978-1988, 15,178 1900, 19672001, several 1.900, 160 1967, 13,012 1968, 12,244 1969, 12,777 1970, 11,170 1971,9,841 1972, 16,962 1973, 14,817 1974, 13,134 1975, 14,811 1976, 15,950 1977, 17,127 1978, 13,300 1979, 16,581  3 1 3  (IWC, 1992), (Tamura and Ohsumi, 2000), (IWC, 2004) i (Braham, 1991), (Perry et al, 1999) (IWC, 1996, Perry et al, 1999) (Buckland et al, 1993), (Butterworth et al, 2002), (Hobbs and Rugh, 1999), (Tamura and Ohsumi, 2000) (Townsend, 1886), (Buckland et al, 1993), (Butterworth et al, 2002), (IWC, 1989), (Laake et al, 1994),, (Hobbs et al, 1996), (Buckland and Breiwick, 2002),, (Tamura and Ohsumi, 2000), (Hobbs and Rugh, 1999),(Angliss and Lodge, 2003), (IWC, 2003), (Deecke, 2004)  http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/^r/PR2/Stock_Assessment_Program/Cetaceans/Fin_Whale_(CA-OR-WA)/po03finwhalecaorwa.pdf  188  1984,21,942 1985, 20,450 1987,21,113 1992, 17,647 1993,23,109 1995, 22,263 1997, 26,300 1997, 26,635 2001, 18,761 1982, 150  Gray whale - NWP  3,0005,000  4  Blue whale - NA  6,00012,000 4,0008,000 340,000480,000  3  Bowhead whale - A  70,000100,000  4  1978,5189 1980,4998 1981,5756 1982, 7874 1983,7547 1985,6839 1986,11100 1988,7379 1993,9000 2001, 11270 2001, 10660  (Woodby and Botkin, 1993), (Angliss et al, 2001) , (Finley, 2001), (Mitchell and Reeves, 1981), (Vladimirov, 1994, Shelden and Rugh, 1995), (Mitchell and Reeves, 1982), (Finley et al, 1990), (Cosens et al, 1997), (Clapham et al, 1999), (Rugh and Shelden, 2002) , (Zeh et al, 1993), (Tamura and Ohsumi, 2000), (Rugh et al, 2003), (Tillman, 1984), (Reeves and Leatherwood, 1985), (Trites et al, 1997), (Angliss and Lodge, 2003), (Raftery et al, 1995), (da Silva et al, 2000), (Angliss et al, 2001), (Tamura and Ohsumi, 2000), (Weslawski et al, 2000), (Raftery and Zeh, 1991), (Zeh et al, 1995), (Zeh et al, 1994), (George et al, 2002), (George et al, 2004)  Bryde's whale - NP  2  1986, 35,639  3  1975, 89,000  (Miyashita, 1986, Grass et al, 1993, Kato, 2002) (Ohsumi, 1981, Tamura and Ohsumi, 2000)  Humpback whale NA Humpback whale NP Humpback whale SH  20,00080,000 40,000140,000 13,00019,000 10,00025,000 100,000300,000  1  Commmon minke whale - NA Common minke whale - NP  100,000250,000 40,00060,000  3  1992, 1992, 1995, 1999, 1980, 1985, 1995, 1995,  (Stevick et al, 2003), (Waring et al, 2002), (Smith et al, 1999), (Perry et al, 1999) (Calambokidis et al, 2001), (Perry et al, 1999), (Calambokidis et al, 1997) (Butterworth et al, 1995), (IWC, 1996), (Laws and Hofman, 1977), (Tamura and Ohsumi, 1999), (Perry et al, 1999) (IWC, 2004), (Tamura and Ohsumi, 2000)  2  1990, 27570  Blue whale - NP Blue whale - SH  Bryde's whale - SH  5 3  5 5  1995, 330 (NWA only) 1975, 1600 1995, 3300 1980-2000, 900 1995, 1260  11,570 10,600 7000 6000 19,851 20,000 17,000 149,000  (Yablokov and Bogoslovskaya, 1984), (Klinowska, 1991), (Jones and Swartz, 2002) (Perry et al, 1999) (Perry et al, 1999), (Gambell, 1976) (IWC, 2004), (IWC, 1996), (Perry et al, 1999)  (Moore etal, 2000), (Barlow, 1997), (Carretta et al, 2001), (Buckland et al, 1992), (IWC, 2004), (Tamura and Ohsumi, 2000)  189  Antarctic minke whale - SH Right whale - NA  250,000450,000 30,000 40,000 8,000 15,000  1  1995,312,000  (IWC, 2003)  3  (Knowlton et al, 1994), (Perry et al, 1999), (Kraus et al, 2001), (Waring et al, 2002) (Wada, 1971, Klinowska, 1991), (IWC, 1998), (Perry et al, 1999), (Tamura and Ohsumi, 2000)  Short-finned pilot whale - Japan  40,00070,000  1  Baird's beaked whale - Japan Beluga whale Arctic  5,00015,000 50,000400,000  1  1992, 295 1995,291 1970, 225 1990, 1200 1995, 7000 1978- 1987, 9,718 1985,53„608 1985,53,347 1990, 53,347 1990, 6289  5  1999, 92,500  Killer whale - NA  2,00020,000  5  1987, 8600  Killer whale - NP  1,00010,000 10,00060,000 700,000900,000  5  1995,4,000  (Kasuya and Miyashita, 1997, Kasuya, 2002) (Frost era/., 1993, R. Hobbs Beluga abundance in Bering Sea. pers. comm. to Angliss, R. P. National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Seattle, 2000, Hobbs etal, 2000, IWC, 2000, Angliss and Lodge, 2002) (Christensen, 1988, Gunnlaugsson and Sigurjonsson, 1990, Sigurjonsson and Vikingsson, 1997, Dahlheim and Heyning, 1999) (Kaschner, 2004)  5  1990, 24,800  (Branch and Butterworth, 2001)  1  1989,780000  (Buckland et al, 1993)  10,000100,000  5  1980, 13000  (Hay, 1982, Buckland etal, 1993)  20,00090,000 10,00030,000 20,00080,000 5,00020,000 10,00025,000 3,000,0007,000,000 3,000,0007,500,000 1,500,0003,500,000 2,000,0004,000,000  5  1994, 44,500  (Kaschner, 2004)  1  (Miyashita, 1993)  1  1985,16000 1990,16000 1996, 43358  3  2001,3500  (COSEWIC, 2004)  5  2001,6650  (WWF, 2005)  1  1998, 1862559 1999,1377082 1985,438064 1990, 438064 1990, 1651000  (Gerrodette, 1999, Gerrodette, 2000, Culik, 2002) (Miyashita, 1993)  1  1988,3112300 1990,3093300  (Holt and Sexton, 1990, Wade and Gerrodette, 1993, Evans, 1994)  1  1998,37509  (Waring et al, 2002, Palka et al, in review)  Right whale - NP  Killer whale - SH Long-finned pilot whale - Faroe Islands Long-finned pilot whale Newfoundland Northern bottlenose whale - NA False killer whale Japan Narwhal - Baffin Bay Canada Narwhal - Hudson Bay Narwhal - Baffin Bay Greenland Pantropical spotted dolphin - ETP Pantropical spotted dolphin - Japan Spinner dolphin ETP Short beaked common dolphin ETP Short beaked  20,000-  4  1 1  (IWC, 1987, Miyashita, 1993, Stacey and Baird, 1993)  (Innes et al, 2002, COSEWIC, 2004)  190  (Wade and Gerrodette, 1993)  common dolphin NWA Dall's porpoise Japan Bottlenose dolphin -NWA Bottlenose dolphin - Japan Northern right whale dolphin - NP  400,0001,200,000 10,00050,000 100,000250,000 200,000600,000  5  1991,443000  (Bass, 2005)  1  1998, 30633  (Waring etal, 2002)  2  (Miyashita, 1993) (Miyashita, 1991, Hobbs and Jones, 1993, Mangel, 1993, Miyashita, 1993)  Harbour porpoise Greenland Harbour porpoise North Sea Harbour porpoise Baltic Harbour porpoise NWA Atlantic white-sided dolphin - NWA/US Ribbon seal Bering sea  20,00080,000 150,000500,000 5,000100,000 60,000190,000 50040,000 40,000200,000  4  1985, 168792 1990, 168792 1985,307784 1990,307784 1991,247000 1988, 15000  1  1994, 279367  (IWC, 1996, Read, 1999)  1  1994, 36046  (IWC, 1996, Read, 1999)  3  (Kingsley and Reeves, 1998, Palka, 2000, Waring et al, 2002) (Palka, 1995, Palka et al, 1997)  Ringed seal - NA & Arctic Ringed seal - Baltic  2,000,0006,000,000 120,000180,000  3  1995, 101700 1996, 111400 1991, 20400 1992, 20400 1955, 120000 1969, 65000 1975, 95000 1987, 130,000 1985,1289000  Ringed seal - NP & Arctic  3,000,0006,000,000  5  Southern elephant seal - SH Gray seal - Iceland  500,0001,500,000 3,00030,000 50,000200,000 100,0001,200,000 300,00012,000,000  5  Gray seal - Scotland Harp seal - West Ice Harp seal - NWA  60,000  3  5 5  4  (Klinowska, 1991)  1945,25000 1955, 6000 1975, 10000 2001,5500 1986, 4470560  (Burns, 1981, Burns, 1994, Angliss and Lodge, 2002, Fedoseev, 2002)  (Lunn et al, 1997, Born et al, 1998, Kingsley, 1998, Reeves, 1998) (Harkonen et al, 1998, Anon., 2001)  5  1982, 750,000 1990, 664,000 1985, 11600  (Popov, 1982, Frost et al, 1988, Reijnders etal, 1993, Reeves, 1998, Angliss and Lodge, 2002) (Laws, 1984, Knox, 1994, Laws, 1994, Le Boeuf and Laws, 1994) (Hauksson, 1987, Reijnders et al, 1993)  4  2001, 110500  (Duck, 2005)  5  1990,286000  (ICES, 1994, Lavigne, 2002)  5  (Shelton et al, 1996, Warren et al, 1997, Healey and Stenson, 2000, Waring et al, 2002, Hammill and Stenson, 2003) (Dorofeev, 1956, Surkov, 1957, Surkov, 1957, ICES, 1999, Nilssen et al, 2000, Lavigne, 2002)  (Bowen et al, 1987, Reijnders et al, 1993)  Harp seal - White Sea  3,000,0008,000,000  5  Hooded seal - Jan Mayen Hooded seal -  400,0001,800,000 400,000-  4  1990,3100000 1994, 4751000 2000,5200000 1928,3250000 1952,1350000 1959, 1200000 1998, 1750000 1999,2180000 1985, 2000000  4  1984,325000  191  (ICES, 1991, Reijnders etal, 1993)  NWA Bearded seal Bering / Chukchi Sea Harbour seal California Largha or spotted seal, Bering Sea Largha or spotted seal, Northeast Pacific (Alaska) Largha or spotted seal, Sea of Okhotsk Antarctic Fur seal  900,000 200,000400,000 20,00050,000 100,000350,000 30,000150,000  5  1990,425000 1975, 250000 1980,275000  (Stenson, 1994, Waring et al, 2002) (Popov, 1976, Reijnders etal, 1993, Angliss and Lodge, 2002)  1  2000, 30293  (Carretta et al, 2002)  5  1975,225000 1980,135000 1992,59214  (Popov, 1982, Reijnders etal, 1993, Burns, 2002) (Rugh et al., 1995, Angliss and Lodge, 2002)  1  100,000350,000  5  1977, 200000 1985,130000  (Reijnders et al, 1993, Mizuno et al, 2002)  2,500,0003,500,000  5  1930, 100  (Bonner, 1981), (Laws, 1984). (Knox, 1994), (Arnould, 2002)  5  1978, 554,000 1982, 930,000 1990, 1,600,000 1999, 100 1971,850000 1993,1700000 1912,216000 1945,1500000 1983,877000 1990,900000 1997,1002516 1938, 137500 1946,18000 2001,44842  (Shaughnessy, 1982,. Arnould, 2002)  South African and Australian fur seal Northern fur seal  800,0003,000,000 1,000,0002,500,000  South American sea lion, North Patagonia (Falklands) New Zealand fur seal, New Zealand California sea lion, California  80,000180,000  5  400,000500,000 100,000500,000  5  1991,40000  (Reijnders etal, 1993)  5  (Carretta et al, 2002, Heath, 2002) (Stewart et al, 1990, Reijnders et al, 1993)  Steller sea lion Northeast Alaska  10,000100,000  1  Steller sea lion Northwest Alaska  50,000300,000  3  Walrus Chukchi/Bering Sea  100,000600,000  3  1990,113000 1999,182000 1999,209000 1994,30403 1996,31208 1998,31208 1960, 140000 1976, 109800 1978,109800 1990,30525 1991,29405 1992,27299 1994,24136 1996,22210 1999, 34595 2000, 34595 2001,34779 1972,142200 1980,256900 1985,242600  4  (Kenyon et al, 1954, Briggs and Fowler, 1984, Trites, 1992, Reijnders et al, 1993, Antonelis et al, 1996, Hill et al, 1998, Angliss and Lodge, 2003, Anon., 2004) (Carrara, 1952, Godoy, 1963, Dans et al, 2004)  (Hill et al, 1998, Sease et al, 2001, Angliss and Lodge, 2002) (Merrick et al, 1987, Sease etal, 2001, Angliss and Lodge, 2002, Sease and Gudmundson, 2002, Angliss and Lodge, 2003)  (Fay etal,  192  1997)  Walrus - East Greenland Walrus Northwater Walrus Spitsbergen & Franz Josef Land Walrus - West Greenland  5002,000 50010,000 10,00080,000 5,00020,000  5  2001, 1000  (Born, 2005)  5  1999, 1500 2001, 1850 1990, 2000 1993,2000  (Born et al, 1995, Born, 2005)  2001, 1000  (Born, 2005)  2  5  (Gjertz and Wiig, 1995)  193  Appendix 3  # # # # # #  R code  Programmer: Project Name: Date: Version: Comments:  Line Bang Christensen Reconstructing historical marine mammal biomass at the global scale mmsra.dat (Marine Mammal Stock Reduction Analysis) 2005/2006 many RMES 499 - masters thesis  graphics.off() memory.size(4095) seed = round(runif( 1,1,1000)) set.seed(seed) spec = scan("mmsra.dat'',skip=2,what='character',sep-\n',nlines=l) area = scan(''rnmsra.dat'',skip=4,what='character',nlines=l) meanr = scan("mmsra.dat",skip=6,nmax=l) sdr = scan("mmsra.dat",skip=8,nmax=l) kap = scan("mmsra.dat",skip=10,nmax=l) cid = scan("mmsra.dat",skip=12,nmax=l) minK = scan("mmsra.dat",skip=14,nmax=l) maxK = scan("mmsra.dat",skip=16,nmax=l) byr = scan("mmsra.dat",skip=18,nmax=l) nyr = scan("mmsra.dat",skip=20,nmax=l) syr = scan("mmsra.dat",skip=22,nlines=l) yt = scan("mmsra.dat",skip=24,nlines=l) ct = scan("mmsra.dat",skip=26) prop = 0.5 if (cid = 1) if(cid = 2) if (cid == 3) if(cid = 4)  # specie # area # mean r #stdr # total error term # confidence id, used to set prop # minimum carrying capacity # maximum carrying capacity # begin year # end year # survey year # survey - abundance estimates # catch data  #proportion of error attributed to observation errors {prop = {prop = {prop = {prop =  0.3} 0.4} 0.5} 0.5}  sig = sqrt(prop)*sqrt(kap) tau = sqrt(l-prop)*sqrt(kap) yr=byr:nyr n=length(yr) iyr = syr-min(yr)+l ci=matrix(nrow=n,ncol=3) meanEst = vector(length=n)  # std in the residuals for yt (observation error) # process errors  ## "popdy"=function(theta, niter=l, tau=0) #tau here represent process errors. { • r=theta[l,]; k=theta[2,] Nt= matrix(0,nrow=n,ncol=niter); Nt[ 1 ,]=k wt=matrix(rnorm(n*niter)*tau,nrow=n,ncol=niter) like=vector(mode="numeric",length=niter) for(iin l:(n-l)) {  194  aa=r*(l-Nt[i,]/k)*exp(wt[i,]) Nt[i+l,]=Nt[i,]+Nt[i,]*aa-ct[i] Nt[i+l,Nt[i+l,]<0]=0 } #now calculate liklelihood zt = 0 zt=log(Nt[iyr,])-log(yt) #residuals zbar=0  # i.e., absolute abundance estimates  if(niter ==1) like=sum(dnorm(zt,zbar,sig,log=T)) if(niter > 1) like = rowSums(apply(zt,l,dnorm,mean=zbar,sd=sig,log=T)) like[Nt[n,]<=0]=0; like=like-min(like); like[Nt[n,]<=0]=-le70 prior=dnorm(r,mean=meanr,sd=sdr,log=T) pop=list(); pop$Nt=Nt[l:n,]; pop$like=like+prior; pop$wt=exp(wt);return(pop)  "fitmodel"=function() #This gets the maximum likelihood estimates of k and r. { fun=function(theta) popdy(matrix(theta))$like fit=optim(theta,fun,control=list(fnscale=-1, maxit=2000, method="BFGS")) return(fit) "calc Y"=function(Nmax) { b=integer a=l; exponent=0 while(Nmax/a>99){ a = a*10;exponent=exponent+l} b=Nmax/a; b = ceiling(b); while(b%% 10! =0) {b=b+1} if(b==10){b=b/10;exponent = exponent+1} if(b==50|| b==60 || b==70 ||b== 80 ||b== 90){b=b/10;exponent = exponent+1} byval = c(20,l0,5,2,1); i = 3 if (b%%byval[5]==0 && b/byval[5]>=4) {i=5} if (b%%byval[4]==0 && b/byval[4]>=4) {i=4} if (b%%byval[3]==0 && b/byval[3]>=4) {i=3} if (b%%byval[2]==0 && b/byval[2]>=4) {i=2} if (b%%byval[l]=0 && b/byval[l]>=4) {i=l} vals = seq(0,b,by=byval[i]) yaxis=list(); yaxis$vals=vals; yaxis$exponent=exponent; return(yaxis);  "sir"=function(niter=l 000) { rtry=runif(niter,0,(meanr*2)) ktry=runif(niter,minK,maxK) theta=rbind(rtry,ktry) sir=popdy(theta,niter,tau)#generate samples  195  #importance weights p=sir$like; maxp=max(na.omit(p)) #importance weight p=exp(p-maxp); #Must divide by the probability density function for each Ro. p[p=="NA"]=0 ix=sample( 1 :niter,niter,replace=T,prob=p) a = seq(1500,2010,by=10);b=a[a>=(byr-9)] dd = calcY(max(ct)) if(dd$exponent==0)ylabel2="Catch" else if(dd$exponent==l) ylabel2 = "Catch (*10)" else ylabel2 = paste("Catch ( 10 ",dd$exponent,")",sep="") A  for(i in 1 :n) ci[i,] = signif(quantile(sir$Nt[i,ix],c(0.025,0.5,0.975)),3) ninit=ci[l,2] nend=ci[n,2] d=calcY(ci[l,3]) if(d$exponent==0) ylabel="Number of individuals" else if(d$exponent=l) ylabel = "Number of individuals (*10)" else ylabel = paste("Number of individuals (10 ",d$exponent,")",sep="") A  write (ci[l,l],file=paste(spec,area,"popCImin.txt")) for(i in 2:n) write (ci[i,l],file=paste(spec,area,"popCImin.txt"),append=T) write ("\n#Depleted by",file=paste(spec,area,"popCImin.txt"),append=T) depmin = (ci[ 1,1 ]-ci[n, 1 ])/ci[ 1,1 ]* 100 if(depmin>90)depmin=signif(depmin,3) else depmin=signif(depmin,2) write (depmin,file=paste(spec,area,"popCImin.txt"),append=T) write (ci[l,3],file=paste(spec,area,"popCImax.txt")) for(i in 2:n) write (ci[i,3],file=paste(spec,area,"popCImax.txt"),append=T) write ("\n#Depleted by",file=paste(spec,area,"popCImax.txt"),append=T) depmax = (ci[l,3]-ci[n,3])/ci[l,3]*100 if(depmax>90)depmax=signif(depmax,3) else depmax=signif(depmax,2) write (depmax,file=paste(spec,area,"popCImax.txt"),append=T)  #plot confidence intervals xl l(height=4,width=6) par(mar=c(5,4,2,4)) plot(yr,ci[,3]/(10 d$exponent),ylim=c(0,max(d$vals)),xlab="Year", ylab="",type='n',yaxt="n",xaxt="n",frame=F,axes=F) axis(side=l ,at=b,las=l ,tcl=0.5) axis(side=2,tcl=0.5,las=l, at=d$vals);mtext(ylabel,2,line=3) lines(byr:nyr, ci[,3]/(10 d$exponent), col="steelblue",lty=3,lwd=2) lines(byr:nyr, ci[,l]/(10 d$exponent),col="steelblue",lty=3,lwd=2) lines(byr:nyr, ci[,2]/(10 d$exponent),col="darkblue",lwd=2) A  A  A  A  196  points(syr,yt/(10 d$exponent),pch=20,cex=1.8,col="red") par(new=TRUE) plot(yr,ct/(10 dd$exponent),xaxt= n^yaxt="n^xlab=''^ylab^ e=F,axes=F,ylim=c(0,max(dd$vals))) axis(side=4,tcl=0.5,las=l,at=dd$vals); mtext(ylabel2,4,line=2); A  A  M  savePlot(filename=paste(spec,area,"popSimplePlot"), type="wmf',device=dev.cur()) write(ci[l,2],fde=paste(spec,area,"pop.txt")) for(i in 2:n) { write(ci[i,2],file=paste(spec,area,"pop.txt"),append=T) } dep = (ninit-nend)/ninit *100 if(dep>90)dep=signif(dep,3) else dep=signif(dep,2) write("\n#Depleted by",file=paste(spec,area,"pop.txt"),append=T) write(dep,fde=paste(spec,area,"pop.txt"),append=T rm(ci) xll() plot(ktry [ ix], rtry[ ix] ,pch=2 0) savePlot(filename=paste(spec,area,"Posterior"), type="jpg",device=dev.cur()) windows() split.screen(c(2,l)) split.screen(c(l,2),2) screen(l); plot(rtry[ix],type="l",ylab="Intrinsic rate of growth (r)",las=l,main="(a)") screen(3); hist(rtry[ix],xlab="Intrinsic rate of growth (r)",main="(b)",breaks=50) yy=density(rtry[ix].adjust=2,from =0, to =meanr*2) screen(4);plot(yy,xlab="Intrinsic rate of growth (r)",main="(c)") lines(c(0,0,0.1,0.1),c(0,l,l,0),lty=2) #uniform prior distribution xx=seq(0,0.1,by=0.001) yy=dnorm(xx,mean=meanr,sd=sdr) lines(xx,yy,lty=2,col="red") close.screen(all = TRUE) # exit split-screen mode savePlot(filename=paste(spec,area,"R"), type="jpg",device=dev.cur()) #Now plot statistics for carrying capacity K windows() split.screen(c(2,l)) split. screen(c( 1,2),2) screen(l); plot(ktry[ix],type="l",ylab="Carrying capacity",las=l,main="(a)") screen(3); hist(ktry[ix],xlab="Carrying capacity(xl000)",main="(b)",breaks=50) yy=density(ktry[ix],adjust=2,from = minK, to = maxK) screen(4);plot(yy,xlab="Carrying capacity(x 1000)",main="(c)") lines(c(minK,minK,maxK,maxK),c(0,.01 ,.01,0),lty=2) #prior distribution close.screen(all = TRUE) savePlot(filename=paste(spec,area,"K"), type="jpg",device=dev.cur())  # return(sir)  sir( 100000)  197  Appendix 4  Abundances of species with no documented exploitation  The columns in the table below list the species, the range (i.e., entire i f no assessments have been done for any stocks from the species. Otherwise it is listed as rest, and includes estimates of the stocks of the species for which no assessments were conducted). Lastly, the minimum, mean and maximum abundances are given (Kaschner, 2004). Note that I have used the minimum and maximum estimates from (Kaschner, 2004) as proxies for 95% confidence intervals, and included them in my calculations of the aggregated estimates of marine mammal populations.  Specie Subantarctic fur seal Gray seal Harp seal Crabeater seal Juan Fernandez fur seal Leopard seal Northern elephant seal Walrus Weddell seal Bearded sela South African/Australian fur seal Northern fur seal* Pacific white-sided dolphin Pantropical spotted dolphin Risso's dolphin Short-finned pilot whale Southern bottlenose whale  range entire rest rest entire entire entire entire rest entire rest rest rest entire rest entire rest entire  Min 310,000 128,000 4,100,000 10,000,000 15,000 220,000 61,000 14,000 200,000 130,000 30,000 334,000 200,000 6,050 170,000 116,000 450,000  mean 350,000 167,000 4,750,000 12,500,000 18,000 296,454 101,000 14,500 400,000 195,000 40,000 344,000 990,000 19,500 308,000 170,000 560,000  Spinner dolphin Striped dolphin Baird's beaked whale Short beaked common dolphin Dall's porpoise Killer whale Long finned pilot whale Bottlenose dolphin Ross seal  rest entire rest  16,000 1,960,000 330 370,000 348,000 4,700 63,000 240,000 100,000  33,200 2,700,000 660  max 400,000 215,000 5,000,000 20,000,000 30,000 440,000 150,000 15,000 1,000,000 260,000 50,000 354,000 4,200,000 95,600 1,000,000 440,000 700,000 101,000 7,000,000 990  607,000 713,000 8,500 200,000 316,000 130,000  1,700,000 762,000 15,900 337,000 516,000 400,000  rest rest rest rest rest entire  198  Rough-toothed dolphin South American sea lion Southern right whale dolphin False killer whale Fraser's dolphin Harbour porpoise Harbour seal Atlantic spotted dolphin Atlantic white-sided dolphin California sea lion Hooker's or New Zealand sea lion Hourglass dolphin Largha or spotted seal Melon headed whale Narwhal White-beaked dolphin Guadalupe fur seal Pygmy killer whale Pygmy right whale Pygmy sperm whale Dwarf sperm whale Finless porpoise Hawaiian monk seal Clymene dolphin Mediterranean monk seal Long-beaked common dolphin South American fur lion New Zealand fur seal Galapagos fur seal Pygmy beaked whale Sowerby's beaked whale Stejneger's beaked whale Strap-toothed whale Gervais' beaked whale Ginkgo-toothed beaked whale Gray's beaked whale Hector's beaked whale Andrews' beaked whale Arnoux's beaked whale Blainville's beaked whale Cuvier's beaked whale Hubb's beaked whale Tasman or Shepherd's beaked whale True's beaked whale Longman's beaked whale Spade-toothed beaked whale Perrin's beaked whale  entire rest entire rest entire rest rest entire rest rest entire entire rest entire rest entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire  90,000 140,000 50,000 11,800 150,000 42,000 350,000 40,000 37,000 33,000 11,100 100,000 4,500 39,000 14,800 16,000 3,000 20,000 1,000 3,200 8,000 10,000 1,437 12,000 300 20,000 235,000 135,000 30,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 10,000 21,700 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000  199  150,000 180,000 270,000 40,520 300,000 126,800 350,000 80,000 82,300 49,000 12,500 145,000 4,500 51,000 18,300 26,000 7,400 40,000 3,000 5,300 12,500 20,000 1,463 18,000 380 32,000 285,000 150,000 40,000 2,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 15,000 28,000 1,500 1,500 1,500 5,000 1,500 1,500  500,000 240,000 1,000,000 220,000 1,000,000 212,500 380,000 400,000 188,500 53,000 14,000 200,000 4,500 200,000 21,800 60,000 10,000 100,000 10,000 15,000 36,000 40,000 1,500 56,000 470 87,000 320,000 200,000 50,000 5,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 30,000 70,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 10,000 3,000 3,000  Peak's dolphin Dusky dolphin Franciscana Heaviside's dolphin Hector's dolphin Atlantic hump-backed dolphin Australian sea lion Black dolphin Burmeister's porpoise Commerson's dolphin Pacific hump-backed dolphin Irrawaddy dolphin Tucuxi Vaquita Galapagos sea lion Indian hump-backed dolphin Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphin Arabian common dolphin Spectacled porpoise Steller sea lion** *Reijnders, 1993. * Angliss, 2002.  entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire entire rest  1,000 4,039 4,000 1,000 5,300 120 9,300 1,000 5,000 800 2,600 2,600 1,000 77 10,000 600 1,500 5,000 1,000 15,464  200  3,000 10,000 20,000 3,000 7,300 500 10,500 1,500 10,000 1,300 1,300 1,300 3,000 567 14,000 1,200 5,000 10,000 3,000 15,464  10,000 20,000 60,000 5,000 10,000 1,000 11,700 3,000 50,000 5,000 1,100 1,000 10,000 1,073 25,000 2,400 7,500 15,000 10,000 15,464  Appendix 5  Catch data  See appendix 6 for sources.  Species Onset of hunt 1530 1531 1532 1533 1534 1535 1536 1537 1538 1539 1540 1541 1542 1543 1544 1545 1546 1547 1548 1549 1550 1551 1552 1553 1554 1555 1556 1557 1558 1559 1560 1561 1562 1563 1564  Right whale NA  Northern bottlenose whale NA  Gray whale NEP  Bowhead Arctic  Walrus Spitsbergen  Hump -back NA  Long finned pilot faroe  Harbour porpoise baltic  Right whale SH  1530 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300  1584  1600  1650  1660  1664  1709  1716  1785  201  1565 1566 1567 1568 1569 1570 1571 1572 1573 1574 1575 1576 1577 1578 1579 1580 1581 1582 1583 1584 1585 1586 1587 1588 1589 1590 1591 1592 1593 1594 1595 1596 1597 1598 1599 1600 1601 1602 1603 1604 1605 1606 1607 1608 1609 1610 1611  300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 0  3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160  202  1612 1613 1614 1615 1616 1617 1618 1619 1620 1621 1622 1623 1624 1625 1626 1627 1628 1629 1630 1631 1632 1633 1634 1635 1636 1637 1638 1639 1640 1641 1642 1643 1644 1645 1646 1647 1648 1649 1650 1651 1652 1653 1654 1655 1656 1657 1658  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0  160 160 160 160  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160  25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25  203  1659 1660 1661 1662 1663 1664 1665 1666 1667 1668 1669 1670 1671 1672 1673 1674 1675 1676 1677 1678 1679 1680 1681 1682 1683 1684 1685 1686 1687 1688 1689 1690 1691 1692 1693 1694 1695 1696 1697 1698 1699 1700 1701 1702 1703 1704 1705  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160  25 532 532 532 532 532 533 533 533 533 533 1032 1032 1032 1033 1033 1033 1033 1033 1033 1034 1216 1216 1216 1216 1216 1216 1216 1216 1215 1215 748 748 748 748 748 748 747 747 747 747  959 959 959 959 959 959  360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360  204  7 30 17 26 7 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 0 0 0 0 0 0 26 26 26 26 26 26 16 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26  1706 1707 1708 1709 1710 1711 1712 1713 1714 1715 1716 1717 1718 1719 1720 1721 1722 -1723 1724 1725 1726 1727 1728 1729 1730 1731 1732 1733 1734 1735 1736 1737 1738 1739 1740 1741 1742 1743 1744 1745 1746 1747 1748 1749 1750 1751 1752  118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 0  0 0 0 5 0 4 0 1 0 3 3 2 0 7 5 3 2 6 1 2 4 0 4 2 0 0 3 0 3 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 3 3 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 6 0 3 0 1 0 2  160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 260 260  958 958 958 958 585 585 585 585 585 585 584 584 584 628 566 566 566 566 566 566 565 564 564 564 524 524 524 524 524 524 523 522 522 522 812 812 812 812 812 812 812 811 812 812 633 633 633  360 •360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360  205  26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34  655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 -655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655  34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 42 21 21  655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655  1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 605 605 605 605 605 605 605 605 605 605 605 605  1753 1754 1755 1756 1757 1758 1759 1760 1761 1762 1763 1764 1765 1766 1767 1768 1769 1770 1771 1772 1773 1774 1775 1776 1777 1778 1779 1780 1781 1782 1783 1784 1785 1786 1787 1788 1789 1790 1791 1792 1793 1794 1795 1796 1797 1798 1799  0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0  260 260 .260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260  633 633 634 634 634 634 635 550 550 550 550 550 550 552 552 552 552 513 513 513 513 513 513 514 514 513 513 454 454 454 454 454 454 453 454  260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260  219 219 219 219 219 219 219 220 219  454 454 219  360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360  206  21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 29 29 29 26 26 26 26 26 26 29 29 29 29 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 33 40 38  655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655  605 605 605 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 306 135 135 135 135 135 135 135 135 135 135 135 135 135 135  74 74 74 74 74 236  135 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  236 236 236 235 19 19 19 18 18  1800 1801 1802 1803 1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 1809 1810 1811 1812 1813 1814 1815 1816 1817 1818 1819 1820 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830 1831 . 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 5 -4 - 0 7 0 3 3 0 0 2 6 0 0 2 2 2 0 2 2 8 2 0 2 7 0 5 1 4 2 6 6  260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 328  51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 50 50 754 754 754 754 754 754 755 755 755 756 1072 1072 1072 1072 1072 1072 1072 1073 1074 1074 596 596 596 596 596 596 595 595 595 596 170 170 170 170 170 170 170  360 '360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360  207  38 29 29 29 57 • 57 57 57 57 57 61 61 61 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 27 27 27 47 70 57 59 81 79 102 87 120 113 106 106 120 98 111 134 126 126 107 121 118  655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 480 414 788 618 359 629 661 1101 738 997 997 859 991 1277  30 30 30 30 30 884 884 884 884 884 30 30 30 29 29 365 365 365 365 366 973 973 973 972 972 1026 1026 1026 1026 1026 3035 3035 3035 3034 3034  1683 1222 1408 656 886 650 689 798 1381 1073 337 710  5007 5007 5007 5006 5006 3307 3307 3307 3306 3306 1118 1118  1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871. 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  4 1 3 5 1 6 14 0 9 7 6 6 3 9 12 6 8 14 4 4 2 10 6 6 7 12 2 16 2 10 17 12 17 43 161 387 580 223 886 1497 1174 1062  0 0 0 0 0  1325 1971 2443 2601 2394  328 328 328 328 258 258 258 258 686 686 686 686 686 686 576 576 576 576 576 328 328 328 328 328 329 329 329 329 225 140 140 140 153 141 130 130 138 147 141 129 99 99 99 99 99 60 40  169 187 741 2212 1043 2854 952 311 147 147 225 608 519 395 480 331 477 608 764 729 773 690 557 780 281 343 290 238 342 217 411 220 406 561 516 323 123 241 457 250 322 242 209 184 332 394 228  360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360  208  87 142 124 184 162 331 325 291 391 489 419 441 355 317 270 223 289 293 374 354 522 335 240 192 186 211 188 244 300 288 274 283 260 287 278 211 289 348 388 466 206 156 130 147 174 197 278  655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655 655  1436 1436 1441 875 875 875 1732 875 875 875 2194 869 880 1166 1166 693 844 996 1452 1166 1166 842 1100 1094 1336 2089 1292 589 1138 1319 545 869 2297 2154 2033 1902 2000 1775 1825 1649 1901 1401 456 720 456 176 302  1118 1118 1119 359 358 358 358 359 300 300 300 301 301 285 285 285 285 286 160 160 160 160 159 97 97 97 97 96 104 104 104 104 105 111 111 111 112 112 169 169 169 169 169 83 83 83 82  1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 24 20 21 12 0 11 2 5 0 0 0 0 0 i 0 1 2  2779 2399 2883 2145 2106 2255 2158 1952 1754 1557 1252 1295 1172 1334 1278 1385 1172 883 677 687 685 680 679 677 679 677 685 677 677 680  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0  678 678 681 1 2 2 2 4 0 0 2 4 0 5 0 0 3  40 40 40 41 41 41 41 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 49 30 20 20 28 22 22 22 25 36 36 169 77 68 47 38 35 26 25 20 64 44 112 24 63 39 125  282 165 165 177 357 282 189 96 178 132 102 122 85 112 139 77 42 5343 27 65 25 23 35 27 33 33 9 39 12 41 53 35 14 0 60 17 32  360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  245 246 382 355 329 380 426 700 852 751 606 438 290 331 265 303 217 124 110 36 40 30 31 15 16 46 65 7 171 176  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  27 21 21  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  91 157 116 97 47 34 81 55 24 17 11  15 24 53 36 18 20  26 20 31 8 17 9  209  655 655 655 655 655 655 788 0 481 204 566 221 410 302 1793 734 1324 1650 669 168 291 1203 397 263 848 153 802 1076 473 1047 0 468 348 0 480 17 266 2386 1282 959 178 652 1633 886 2093 3362 2847  225 632 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  82 9 9 9 8 8 13 13 13 12 12 16 87 93 67 59 132 82 11 57 25 29 17 53 . 20 20 0 5 0 0 7 16 21 1 1 0 2 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 2 0 14 0 0  1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 2 0 0 75 74 71 71 71 71 71 73 72 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 85 89 89 87 91 90 72 72 1  77 121 119 0 30 22  0 0 0 4 0 0 0 2  9 19 26 11 13 44 38 39 59 122 98 148 196 173 212 147 180 210 176 220 250 201 214 151 153 182 178 184 171 165 187 184  0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0  183 181 136 168 171 169 170 171 159  38 26 14 8 23 20 21 8 11 23 23 11 41 9 36 11 5 5 2 33 17 20 15 24 14 24 12 27 32 66 26 45 57 54 45 92 111 17 27 30 26 19 18 25 17 28 29  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  8 4 8 10 8 11 13 23 19 28 40 3 8 6 1 2 2 12 9 3 5 2 6 2 3 4 10 11 18 32 32 16 15 15 11 15 19 36 38 28 16 21 24 24 12 6 14  210  4475 1931 1037 1386 1555 1040 1939 587 955 562 2836 1242 2100 2010 885 1816 2085 2619 1426 1795 1892 1813 2204 1364 1620 1485 1973 1650 1395 388 1015 511 1050 673 1086 531 898 1192 1673 2775 2909 2652 1689 1921 2595 1676 1450  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 9 11 34 11 49 19 3 79 4 1356 727 374 . 82 348 161 4 0 78 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001  Species Onset of hunt 1786 1787 1788 1789 1790 1791 1792 1793 1794 1795 1796 1797 1798 1799 1800 1801 1802 1803 1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 1809  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  151 180 162 169 0 0 44 92 43 79 125 124 115 112  3 2 0 0 3 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  23 18 30 27 50 52 46 57 45 66 55 48 48 76  7 12 9 9 3 2 1 0 2 0 3 2 2 2  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Sperm  Elephant seal SH  Right whale NP  1790  1800  1820  1835  0 11000 22000 33000 44000 55000 66000 77000 88000 99000 110000 104500 99000 93500 88000 82500 77000 71500 66000 60500  827 827 827 827 827 827 827 827 827 827  Northern fur seal  Antarctic fur seal  1786 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781  211  1738 1260 917 722 1572 808 1201 228 1524 1162 815 608 588 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Beluga  Blue whale NA  Walrus Chukchi -Bering  Fin whale NA  1862  1868  1869  1876  1810 1811 1812 1813 1814 1815 1816 1817 1818 1819 1820 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830 1831 •1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856  48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48781 48780 48780 48780 48780 48780 48780 48780 48780 48780 48780 48780 48780 48780 48780  55000 49500 44000 38500 33000 27500 22000 16500 11000 5500 0 320000 284444 248888 213332 177776 142220 106664 71108 35552 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  48780 48780 48780 48780 48780 48780 48780 48780  0 0 0 0 0  48780 48780 48780 48780 48780 48780 . 48780 48780 48780  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  944 944 944 944 944 944 944 944 944 944 3866 3866 3866 3866 3866 3866 3866 3866 3866 3866 4467 4467 4467 4467 4470 7598 5814 7996 5801 6600 6943 7009 7288 7347 6142 6949 4190 5313 4751 4442 4088 4382 3471 4535 3243 3197 3562  11495 11495 11495 11495 11495 11495 11495 11495 11495 11495 11495 11495 11495 11495 11495 11495 11495 11495 11495 11495 11495 11495 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494  205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205  212  1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894  48780 48780 48780 48780 48780 48780 48780 48780 48780 48780 48780 4367 4430 8686 119871 114155 114346 116410 111493 100172 89520 114863 119068 114136 115445 115393 96096 122405 128064 133015 136388 139693 132475 69673 73974 54151 38202 76871  1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903  71137 74571 43532 46599 50980 57661 46722 45198 46292  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  3452 3606 4022 3243 3033 . 2449 2862 2833 1811 1811 1911 2076 2109 2428 1827 1975 1810 1914 1817 1656 1470 1470 1470 998 1065 1025 906 906 906 906 906 906 906 562 562 562 562 562 562 562 562 562 562 689 689 689 689  11494 1149411494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494 11494  205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 205  213  234 237 426 242 369 468 249 657 625 505 513 413 733 806 1115 652 592 832 694 487 446 393 291 672 417 445 317 330 423 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400  30 17 36 20 40 36 0 0 42 28 76 90 113 221 101 0 0 60 149 90 68 14 101 67 122 116 196 309 385 284 240 294 246 49 79 409  12000 12000 12000 12000 12000 12000 12000 12000 12000 12000 12000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4000 4000 4000 4000  3 8 40 40 50 52 250 0 0 475 650 320 346 188 391 43 47 113 79 112 778 436 505 338 358 360 475 513  1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950  42134 39688 35712 31000 33147 28507 25697 12671 3764 2406 2735 3947 6468 8170 34890 27821 26648 23681 31156 15920 17219 19860 22131 24942 31099 40068 42500 49524 49336 54550 53468 57296 52446 55180 58364 60473 65263 95013 150 117184 47652 76964 64523 61447 70142 70990 60204  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  689 689 689 689 689 689 155 302 619 561 964 919 1097 513 1092 1219 873 796 912 740 950 1475 1775 1441 1989 2852 1311 597 903 1844 2209 2481 5621 7463 5479 5511 4671 5641 4957 5580 2614 1899 4550 8742 11217 9016 10409  11494 11494 11494 0 0 0 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500. 5500 5500 5500  205 205  400 400  694 900  4000 4000  205 205 205 205 12 0 11 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0  400 240 109 161 98 300 448 596 670 600 450 210 540 1140 3700 4600 4955 4374 4550 4550 5461 4836 4036 5012 3850 4122 4512 3703 3796 3563 3645 3623 3668 4159 4286 4166  181 146 129 163 41 68 72 47 45 37 3 0 3 0 77 7 45 48 129 55 49 34 72 78 91 54 62 60  4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  25 10 31 57 15 26 3 3 5 1 10 14 36 39 110 79 55  0 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000  0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  214  4196 3774 4201 3838 3914 3797 3623 3615 3525  1202 1623 380 483 760 867 653 637 494 739 601 366 77 0 605 477 845 534 1139 1818 2455 2674 2917 1483 1228 1098 1199 527 656 874 496 358 462 1331 654 665 154 71 120 341 612 541 1144 1205 1742 1328 1502  1951 1952  50771 63922  0 0  1953 1954  66669 63882 65453 122826 93618 78919 57810 40616 95974 77915 85254 64206 51020 52472 50229 46893 32817 36307 27338 33173 28482 33027 29148 23096 28444 24885 25762 25000 25000 25000 25000 25000 25000 1605 1605 1605 1605 1605 1605 1605 1605 1605 1605 1605 1380  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  18710 11558 10058 18010 16702 18590 20911 21846 21298 20344 22793 24695 33321 31994 26177 28752 26424 26308 27934 25521 23115 20370 22305 ,. 22041 21045 17134 12722 11065 8536 2092  5500 5500  1 0  5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1456 621 414 463 400 200 191 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  215  18 431 431 1984 424 619 722 432 568 407 382 408 316 386 538 792 707 1369 1088 1640 855 1064 1425 1066 964 1623 1197 1031 1059 1163 1754 1580 1205 1468 1178 1267 1284 842 1297 1517 1172 1039 1346 1118 1235 1063 1165  53 15 15 16 13 9 11 7 7 0 0 1 0 3 1 1 2 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 2 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 • 0 0 0 0 0 0  8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 5166 4433 3508 2974 2475 2630 3717 2287 2375 1847 2410 2812 2843 2872 2615 3643 4260 3838 4344 4271 5553 6670 6378 5835 10272 8917 12500 12500 12500 12500 9000 8600 6000 4000 4600 5000 6003 4259  1372 727 614 530 586 481 722 528 426 413 463 504 347 385 700 902 1117 1093 916 1094 761 696 381 410 383 518 308 711 730 468 410 356 277 281 218 85 89 77 82 19 18 22 14 22 12 19 13  1998 1999 2000 2001  Species Onset of hunt 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915  0 0 0 0  1558 1193 750 781  0 0 5 8  0 0 0 0  Sei whale NA  Gray whale NWP  Harp seal NWA  Harp seal White sea  1885 771 61 206 144 5 213 0 0 0 0 0 106 513 547 117 39 22 33 59 31 36 326 151 232 223 299 134 108 203 288 0  1890  1895  1897  27 27 24 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 21 2  249000 249000 249000 249000 249000 249000 249000 249000 249000 249000 249000 249000 249000 249000 249000 249000 249000 159000 159000 159000 159000  60089 75355 55347 37246 38211 65873 20124 28715 20000 19209 24941 20185 26872 24978 36432 51699 67919 26937 51736  0 0 0 0  1241 948 1237 643  0 0 0 0  4810 7757 6114 5000  11 9 7 13  Hump -back whale NP  Walrus West Green -land  SA/ SAus fur seal  Harbour porpoise Greenland  Fin whale NP  Blue whale NP  1900  1900  1900  1900  1903  1903  11 105 0 287 281 0 58 0 24 103 29 60 383 166 725 141  14 11 59 5 65 202  5291 5303 5052 6389 3890 7870 9733 6575 5925 5936 4498 6891 7829 9032 4815 1391  285 285 285 285 285 285 285 285 285 550 550 550 550 550 550 550  345 690 0 272 0  225 264 0 96 0  345 352 217 974  26 57 97 243 348 116 208 108  69 110 37 34 11 52 68 27 102 61  216  978 879 1041 870  1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962  6 0 154 305 481 91 160 255 216 317 399 185 200 209 72 60 82 30 187 132 158 173 106 59 0 51 52 45 33 33 12 20 69 80 39 267 57 166 123 158 100 87 102 93 55 79 57  2 2 10 4 3 3 6 17 17 150 58 49 28 19 16 17 16 11 55 35 103 15 55 31 110 62 106 104 0 30 22 9 19 26 11 13 44 38 39 59 122 98 148 196 173 212 147  159000 159000 159000 159000 159000 159000 159000 159000 159000 159000 159000 159000 159000 159000 159000 159000 159000 159000 159000 159000 159000 159000 159000 159000 27500 27500 27500 27500 27500 27500 332500 332500 332500 332500 332500 332500 325292 291070 285351 350687 402167 260148 316455 330846 295288 201646 330273  42218 39370 128044 150940 203387 129992 163375 231073 314026 469447 371262 360788 368427 185390 310295 254058 258837 256942 225493 245529 213130 185491 84444 138799 12965 134059 5362 34931 25409 85484  132 53 20 59 395 101 82  102 15 16 217 32 52 64  225 227 822 996 1116 278 429 622 73 99 121 276 505 262 247 121 215 161 97 64 116 65 11  195 52 70 168 138 282 168 249 182 328 85 71 97 470 545 629 526 625 547 319 303 272  79778 162735 159886 210427 216164 230477 154222 106562 166637 118982  29 22 155  448 498 334 270  98 122 68 128 115 279 194 253 328 487 470 297 501 1312  95 39 280 283 284 288 200 413 206 195 353 114 124 117  97068 134261 135229 110452 107605 107617 117163  217  2726 8691 9630 12419 14545 12842 15104 16306 19488 19901 15417 15960 17825 12683 928 812 823 9826 3624 2842 16210 17150 13063 19427 11374 13900 20126 22784 20020 17522 19252 22043 14387 15592 29487 37833 37449 33760 35094 39869 43186 46111 33164 35823 42842 49601 46176  550 550 550 430 430 430 430 430 620 620 620 620 620 620 800 800 800 820 600 600 580 1090 680 981 660 980 580 770 390 440 330 470 130 260 265 380 550 715 915 880 915 1040 565 775 1145 795 872  798 783 720 563 703 470 394 385 490 801 823 579 418 1128 707 496 413 568 775 941 788 879 682 703 663 1183 819 594 540 169 350 274 491 441 489 681 1159 1221 2167 2132 2238 2225 2696 2499 2140 1954 2080  100 82 27 57 145 53 36 64 74 228 286 198 223 528 148 23 17 15 67 163 54 69 41 15 49 76 15 15 4 10 10 34 53 19 18 72 122 142 207 142 151 143 125 149 86 92 112  1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992  30 104 95 62 121 485 573 150 490 328 156 14 366 13 138 29 98 103 100 71 100 95 38 40 20 10 2 0 0 0  1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  180 210 176 220 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  353937 352650 245326 331980 340382 201596 297034 265548 238322 137661 134828 156564 182899 178742 169793 180490 181706 191131 229815 198547 87555 62254 44701 56914 89536 137280 112105 110755 107196 126516 85078 125944 136946 326715 415931 452328 427401 284252 379713  95250 82870 25678 33317 35237 35251 30496 34379 36292 43573 43081 36883 40447 42665 41707 36344 48531 51702 61031 75960 82089 73971 80050 80149 64797 70999 42877 52285 53308 44115 49016 51572 43328 50570 41418 15034 37150 51127 49516  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  54 73 48 43 20 35 99 37 46 62 62 50 82 100 48 59 74 55 76 63 54 60 51 35 63 59 59 58 59 58 242 243 268 178 245 171 185 195  55842 55059 64860 49270 66339 72302 76413 83701 78955 80553 82551 67753 75306 62623 77712 73097 75624 76400 76400 76400 34000 34000 34000 34000 34000 34000 34000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 60000  0  118  0  2339 280 310 5 0 0 2 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  218  910 1065 930 940 1130 1531 1340 1360 1390 1260 860 740 655 527 1000 795 1075 1220 995 850 910 855 860 690 605 550 395 495 550 595 680 1716 1135 1682 1550 2051 1830 1607 2216  3183 2907 2293 1909 1320 625 637 761 467 466 176 43 26 34 18 4 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  443 140 134 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0  0  2559 4084  Speci es Onset of hunt 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939  Ringed seal NP&A  Sei whale NP  Sei whale SH  Fin whale SH  Blue whale SH  Hump -back whale SH  Bairds beaked whale Japan  Bryde's whale SH  Ringed seal Baltic  Steller sea lion E Alaska  1903 4512 0 0 0 0 0 0 5527 5500 8912 6521 6557 4306 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4800 6500 6800 7450  1904  1904  1904  1904  1904  1907  1909  1909  1912  39 0 2 0 0 2 156 375 236 369 243 723 440 607 743 534 569 474 390 493 642 522 587 599 312  0 97 0 0 215 346 225 49 201 351 393 218 181 199 195 367 107 150 139 390 672 440 1255 553 2123 465 359 44  4 104 93 122 295 437 694 1916 4724 5211 4779 6076 2916 2213 3148 3658 5677 2563 4289 3909 5654 10488 7017 5841 7679 13234 11159 3337  11 51 68 106 245 212 387 1235 2505 2774 5127 5636 4387 3173 2046 2009 3002 4521 6774 4918 6966 6422 8665 10106 13900 18726 30457 6659  10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 0 0 0 0 0 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000  0 2627 750 4089 0 0 0 0 0 0 220 1885 2706 2827 1956 1663 1142  5509 7823 13205 10289 15759 29312 21376 19303  18983 17432 16612 17870 14598 15119 14127  15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 14 14 14 14 14 14  3 0 73 188 85 0 66 26 0 32 16 17 0 2 11 84 29 60 31 59 27 14 0  35 26 324 186 804 285 133 138  180 311 441 1391 3407 5810 8077 10371 11101 10103 7589 3760 577 153 191 393 562 370 1690 1556 1362 2448 1846 1290 1369 1026 1434 420 506 1079 3277 4901 8806 7192 3810 293  2117 25800 0 0 0 0 0 0  733 842 418 372 391 301 386 348 449 553 677  11518  219  0 0 0 0 7 36 0 0  6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000  1359 1068 1357 1128 923 786 623 3867 2585 3249 1245  1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2318 3103 2148 5388 2743 8814 12433 17278 38693 20950 21376 23695 21029 23752 15936 15707 17848 15954 15713 7606 6951 8781 6628 5599 5836 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 3750 4140  432 641 256 354 736 74 573 532 706 959 639 771 1314 809 1057 804 1054 882 1549 1820 1239 943 2067 2581 3661 3185 4478 6113 5749 5158 3723 2698 2326 1856 1280 508 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  128 51 86 231 102 119 490 810 788 1504 1157 1638 1849 1576 825 908 1972 3617 3076 4698 6409 7285 6968 10906 21963 21298 17611 16367 11311 10802 9371 7376 4536 4885 4311 1997 1875 590 101 65 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  4387 1226 980 933 2479 9430 14746 22006 19965 20636 20068 24050 23971 28568 27505 30932 28373 27817 27477 25578 27296 27074 17910 14197 7958 3919 3882 3079 3762 3120 8498 2337 1823 1340 1010 232 8 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0  1754 51 127 • 38 1361 3646 9083 7122 7731 6240 7035 5147 4002 2888 2270 2023 1715 1769 1250 936 1743 1143 1748 1508 3347 1477 665 462 674 920 834 538 7 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  562 178 227 174 263 461 248 254 461 5869 5355 4582 3492 2952 3898 6338 3149 4774 8065 15774 14902 7179 3745 843 269 2203 1093 929 5 1 1700 3 0 9 4 8 4 4 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  220  14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 76 95 197 242 322 270 230 258 297 186 229 186 147 133 145 160 189 172 171 107 117 138 113 118 86 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 55 238 157 100 23 0 7 0 0 0 34 29 41 9 10 70 136 681 428 151 89 8 33 19 488 . 3 322 467 418 639 501 302 420 211 162 320 333 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2950 2950 2950 2950 2950 2950 2950 2950 2950 2950 2950 2950 2950 2950 2950 2950 2950 2950 2950 2950 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  134 111 208 45 97 293 304 275 113 359 2110 231 252 311 180 275 339 521 1103 3288 2050 812 1386 1015 952 548 227 70 15 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001  4707 5398 3777 3797 723 781 530 628 0 0 0 0 0 9567 9567  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  40 58 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 62 62  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Species Minke whale SH  Bryde whale NA  SA sea Killer Minke Minke whale whale whale NA lionN Patagonia NP NP  Hooded Bryde seal Jan whale Mayen NP  Onset of 1921 hunt 1921 1 1922 0 1923 0 1924 0 1925 0 1926 1927 0 1928 0 0 1929 1930 0 1931 0 1932 0 0 1933 1934 0 1935 0 0 1936 1937 0 0 1938 1939 0 1940 0 1941 0 1942 0 1943 0  1925  1926  1930  1935 1940  1940  8 4 0 6 28 0 0 0 0 3 3 6 1353 918 552 2124 2148 1627  6492 6492 6492 6492 6492 6492 6492 6492 6492 6492 6493 6493 6493 6493  3 3 3 26 26 26 26 26 26  15000 15000 15000 15000  95 184 243 183  221  1946  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Harp seal West Ice 1946  2 2 2 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46  Hooded seal NWA . 1946  1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991  0 0 0 0 0 1 0 4 6 12 0 36 45 11 11 4 3 3 21 119 60 81 389 1115 610 767 915 4161 6584 8543 7885 7185 8676 6000 6156 7897 7142 7903 7301 6680 5568 5567 4969 273 241 330 327 288  1363 1797 1.92E+03 2601 3628 3995 2035 2861 3414 2525 3591 4402 3782 3741 4457 3210 3409 3345 3473 3469 3007 2759 2532 2586 3186 2822 2706 2648 3041 2447 2141 2178 2553 2254 1970 2430 2463 2282 2419 2341 1228 1152 526 463 148 90 100 107  6493 6493 6493 6492 6492 6492 6492 6492 6492 6492 6492 6492 6492 6492 6492 6492 6492 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  26 26 44 51 78 95 65 107 99 108 147 101 111 108 98 72 101 59 55 64 103 172 139 111 36 25 29 15 5 3 2 5 1 2 1 5 2 6 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  168 10 0 0 266 193 244 343 489 414 371 446 567 696 812 629 586 443 409 605 737 608 666 621 555 631 1045 1017 1108 1423 938 931 855 1281 1497 1315 1305 1135 1226 775 745 449 380 304 0 2 0 0  222  15000 15000 56409 56409 56409 56409 56409 69429 69429 69429 69630 69773 53491 53639 53592 53961 54331 47955 48118 47933 47722 47114 32538 32215 32147 31897 32199 30994 22043 27126 27613 28280 8129 21091 21805 25849 13870 14526 17888 1942 1927 5814 7820 14112 9187 181 1236 2542  71 159 107 143 243 280 412 47 2 95 27 43 301 305 407 172 504 210 74 8 63 63 541 459 509 1289 571 1099 1733 1803 1829 1316 966 1397 1124 863 802 697 709 357 317 317 0 0 0 0  36070 36070 36070 36070 36070 39590 39590 39590 40097 39813 27608 27596 27813 27598 27788 23502 23491 23505 23402 23348 18567 18570 18690 18625 18703 11217 15272 11996 14873 5254 12842 17191 16919 15449 13875 15951 12213 7995 2564 1156 5331 15819 17163 4429 6292 6695  7500 7500 7500 7500 10500 10500 10500 10500 12694 12444 11686 12094 12192 12060 12430 11846 11590 12284 14870 14144 19142 18716 18284 19144 18324 18768 20266 20808 21102 22858 23960 23002 22770 22724 31058 30990 32296 19310 17728 14188 13796 13333 11000 11000 636 6321  1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001  209 342 389 380 564 665 801 776 642 708  330 330 330 440 440 438 389 439 440 440  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 21 100 77 100 100 100 42 101  8793 384 4744 933 811 934 6332 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 43 50  9633 3520 8193 8206 6427 2161 1884 803 12343 2992  Walrus Walrus BottleE Green- North- nose water dolphin land NWA  Species Long finned pilot whale NWA  Short finned pilot whale Japan  Ribbon Gray Gray seal seal seal Scotland Bering Iceland  Onset of 1947 hunt 1947 0 215 1948 1949 0 172 1950 3102 1951 1952 3155 3584 1953 1954 2298 6612 1955 9794 1956 1957 7831 1958 789 1959 1725 1960 1957 6262 1961 1962 150 1963 221 1964 2849 1965 1520 887 1966 1967 739 204 1968 1969 123 155 1970 4 1971 1972 0 1973 0  1948  1950  1950  1950  1950  1950  725 890 715 618 335 460 75 61 297 174 197 144 168 133 80 228 217 288 199 237 166 130 152 181 91 0  75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 13075 13075 13075 13075 13075 13075 13075 75 75 75 75 75 75  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 293 568 593 767 404 449 524 579 404 557 415 483  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180  223  119 19 149 857 25754 7058 10148 201 10 140  1950  Harbour porpoise North Sea 1950  Atlantic whitesided dolphin NWA (US) 1950  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75  406 122 274 96 146 344 85 28 488 1366 782 0 0 982 1645 0 586 393 828 1760 1615 1327 935 1274 567 662 500 500  0 0 0 3154 2785 2648 3028 2833 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8  Spinner Short Species Killer Ringed Killer Panwhale tropical ETP whale seal beaked spotted SH NA&A NA common ETP dolphin ETP 1954 1959 1959 1959 Onset of 1953 1954 hunt 21 1953 1954 11 30758 13 1955 33 37986 27 54 46527 40 1956 1957 75 44888 48 110 48010 39 1958 55 51625 69 16305 6452 728 1959 64 349835 138426 15619 1960 149822 82 0 154094 111 387807 153451 17314 1961 1962 1 142931 124 157183 62196 7018  224  ..  180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 145 145 145 145 145 145 145 145 145  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 72 115 130 101 107 18 22 73 435 390 394 74 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6630 6727 5230 5257 6573 7099 7421 7566 7308 6762 5731 4974 3840 3226 2867  Steller Dall's sea lion porpoise W Japan Alaska  False killer whale Japan  1959  1965  1963  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 41 154 205 240 80 114 140 34 69 26 26  Largha or spotted seal Bering 1965  3271 3271 3271 3271  1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001  10 1 9 5 0 6 23 23 9 22 55 47 24 29 77 49 916 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  163459 172164 160673 168229 144587 153456 160356 169882 164302 167753 177444 173834 172851 171869 181232 190757 282493 229671 231809 226393 221962 139099 129086 70000 70000 70000 70000 70000 70000 70000 69945 132216 72560 90309 80387 82108 83453 80425 78615  90 80 105 163 37 86 232 247 59 30 1 9 2 3 15 102 227 57 20 5 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  175380 284791 334874 272465 182559 165969 317914 300764 173135 254642 141410 90783 99696 68250 21631 19096 11981 22614 20608 19123 7017 17854 34064 72109 54664 40541 57428 35194 13826 6531 1896 2161 1811 1363 1765 639 611 730 903  69396 112689 132506 107812 72237 65672 125795 119009 68508 100760 18598 18561 18526 16888 10440 7193 7160 9240 8673 7056 5416 13165 15832 30568 16384 22338 23547 12330 8853 4838 1233 1362 1099 897 889 671 555 537 841  7830 12715 14951 12165 8151 7410 14194 13428 7730 11369 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 6597 2211 3349 1504 1036 7409 7143 24307 24634 16176 14353 5029 3458 3652 311 252 201 158 181 466 120 287 343  3271 3271 3271 3271 3271 3271 3271 3271 3271 3271 417 418 418 418 418 1560 1058 1149 863 1963 1711 1590 1074 655 244 44 31 31 31 580 518 447 370 210 195 209 209 200 230  225  9040 9440 9180 7980 5150 6020 7020 8060 5210 5190 7230 6470 7350 9899 9358 8426 6843 6920 12629 18736 17056 13119 13617 18234 26611 40367 32113 24895 14332 11403 14318 15947 12396 16100 18540 11385 14807 16171 16650  2 0 0 5 0 1 5 2 0 0 0 0 35 445 395 245 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Species Larga or Bearded spotted seal Chukchi seal Okhotsk Onset of 1965 hunt 1965 8000 8000 1966 1967 8000 1968 8000 8000 1969 1970 8000 1971 8000 1972 8000 1973 8000 1974 8000 8000 1975 1976 8000 1977 8000 8000 1978 8000 1979 1980 8000 8000 1981 1982 8000 1983 0 1984 0 0 1985 1986 0 1987 0 1988 0 1989 0 0 1990 1991 0 1992 0 1993 0 1994 0 1995 0 1996 0 1997 0 0 1998 0 1999 2000 0 0 2001  Bottlenose dolphin Japan  1966  1966  Largha or spotted seal NEP 1966  7472 8309 5627 3758 4292 3244 2781 2793 2856 2420 3769 5954 6788 6788 6788 6788 6788 6788 6788 6788 6788 6788 6788 6788 6788 6788 6788 6788 6788 6788 6788 6788 6788 6788 6788 6788  460 13 14 2 1 0 0 84 35 38 0 899 1012 565 2756 18 131 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 986 986 1000 1000 1000 5265 5265 5265 5265 5265 5265 5265 5265 5265 5265 5265 5265  Gray seal Sable Island  PanNarwhal tropical Baffin spotted Canada Japan  Narwhal Hudson  1967  1970  1977  1977  1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1720 1720 1720 1720 1720 1720 1720 1720 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40 364 132 72 275 98 342 76  1645 0 448 206 0 102 468 344 756 0 1058 0 3799 2945 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 629 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  245 261 309 324 366 382 333 258 298 247 145 234 326 258 355 305 318 344 237 267 236 357 378 547 415  245 273 371 376 434 426 355 312 330 261 215 286 358 292 393 345 346 356 277 321 326 407 700 665 631  226  Species Onset of harvest 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001  Narwal Baffin Greenland 1977 387 612 377 462 609 461 439 666 256 237 505 500 312 1057 587 587 614 995 485 691 745 775 863 600 673  Northern right whale dolphin NP  California sea lion Califonia  Short beaked common dolphin NWA  Harbour porpoise WNA  Harbour seal California  1978  1980  1989  1989  1991  355 355 1007 982 8599 10044 13547 18581 18892 19443 22128 31820 28746 12449 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1571 45 0 4327 2469 2359 4288 2722 3207 0 0 0 0 0 948 773 1093 1468 1443 1527 1613 1291  540 893 229 259 273 163 96 212 525 17 195 273 126  2304 7543 2015 3488 1826 2207 1705 1861 1979 1251 399 21 0  601 1204 475 227 228 296 349 392 662 415 329  227  Appendix 6  Specie Antarctic fur seal Atlantic whitesided dolphin Baird's beaked whale  Catch data sources  Area Southern Hemisphere Northwest Atlantic Japan  Bearded seal  Chukchi sea  Beluga  Arctic  Blue whale  North Atlantic  Blue whale  North Pacific Southern Hemisphere Northwest. Atlantic  Blue whale Bottlenose dolphin Bottlenose dolphin Bowhead whale Bryde's whale Bryde's whale Bryde's whale California sea lion Dall's porpoise Elephant seal False killer whale Fin whale Fin whale Fin whale  Japan Arctic Southern Hemisphere North Atlantic North Pacific California Japan Southern Hemisphere Japan North Atlantic North Pacific Southern Hemisphere  Sources (Richards, 2003, Mori and Butterworth, 2005) (Waring et al, 2003) (Ohsumi, 1975, Ohsumi, 1983, Klinowska, 1991, Reeves and Mitchell, 1993, IWC, 2004) (Burns, 1981, Ridgway and Harrison, 1981, Angliss and Lodge, 2002) (Mitchell, 1975, Doidge and Finley, 1994, Richard, 1994, Frost and Suydam, 1995, Frost, 1998, Mahoney and Shelden, 2000, Angliss and Lodge, 2002, Heide-Jorgensenand Rosing-Asvid, 2002) (Sigurjonsson and Gunnlaugsson, 1990, Sigurjonsson, 1995, Sigurjonsson, 1997, Reeves et al., 1998, IWC/BIWS, 2001) (Ohsumi and Wada, 1972, IWC/BIWS, 2001, Nichol et al, 2002, Carretta et al, 2004) (IWC/BIWS, 2001, Anon., 2005) (Waring et al, 2003) (Kasuya, 1985) (Ross, 1993, Stoker and Krupnik, 1993, Woodby and Botkin, 1993, Hacquebord, 1999, IWC/BIWS, 2001) (IWC/BIWS, 2001) (IWC/BIWS, 2001) (Tillman and Breiwick, 1983, Holt, 1986) (DeMaster et al, 1985, Reijnders et al, 1993, Forney et al, 2000, Anon., 2001, Carretta et al, 2003) (Jones, 1990, Northridge, 1991, Yatsu et al, 1994, IWC, 2002, Bass, 2005) (Reeves et al, 1992, Laws, 1994, Le Boeuf and Laws, 1994, Anon., 1999) (Kasuya, 1985) (Mitchell, 1974, IWC/BIWS, 2001, Waring et al, 2003) (Doroshenko, 2000, IWC/BIWS, 2001, Nichol et al, 2002, Angliss and Lodge, 2003) (IWC/BIWS, 2001)  228  Gray seal Gray seal Gray seal Gray whale Gray whale Harbour Porpoise Harbour Porpoise Harbour Porpoise Harbour Porpoise Harbour seal Harp seal Harp seal  Iceland Scotland Sable Island Northeast Pacific Northwest Pacific Baltic sea Greenland North Sea Northwest Atlantic California Northwest Atlantic White Sea  Hooded seal  West Ice Jan Mayen Northwest Atlantic  Humpback whale  North Atlantic  Humpback whale  North Pacific Southern Hemisphere  Harp seal Hooded seal  Humpback whale Killer whale Killer whale Killer whale Largha or spotted seal Largha or spotted seal Largha or spotted seal Long finned pilot whale Long finned pilot whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Narwhal Narwhal Narwhal  North Pacific Southern Hemisphere North Atlantic  (Anon., 2001) (Bonner, 1990) (Anon., 2001, Waring et al, 2003) (IWC, 1993, Urban-Ramirez etal, 2003) (Kato and Kasuya, 2002) (MacKenzie et al, 2002) (Anon., 1969, Kapel, 1971, Kapel, 1975, Mitchell, 1975, Teilmann and Dietz, 1998, Stenson, 2003, Anon., 2006) (Stenson, 2003) (NEFSC, 2001, Read et al, 2003, Stenson, 2003) (Forney et al, 2000, Carretta et al, 2003) (Kapel, 1986, Stenson et al, 1999, Anon., 2001, Walsh et al, 2001, Read et al, 2003, DFO, 2004, Fink and Lavigne, 2005) (Sergeant, 1991, ICES, 2003) (Kapel, 1986, Anon., 2001, Anon., 2001, Fink and Lavigne, 2005) (ICES, 1990) (Kapel, 1986, Reijnders etal, 1993, Anon., 2001) (IWC/BIWS, 2001, Reeves et al, 2001, Smith et al, 2002, Smith and Reeves, 2003) (Clapham et al, 1997, IWC/BIWS, 2001, Nichol et al, 2002, Calambokidis and Barlow, 2004) (IWC/BIWS, 2001, Clapham and Baker, 2002, Garrigue et al, 2004, Anon., 2005) (Bigg and Wolman, 1975, Mitchell, 1975, Ohsumi, 1975, Hoyt, 1990) (Mitchell, 1975, Hoyt, 1990) (Mitchell, 1975, Hoyt, 1990)  Bering sea  (Popov, 1982)  Okhotsk sea  (Popov, 1982)  Northeast Pacific  (Angliss and Lodge, 2002)  Faroe Islands Northwest Atlantic Southern Hemisphere North Atlantic  (Anon., 2004)  North Pacific Baffin Bay Canada Hudson Bay Baffin Bay -  (Mercer, 1975) (IWC/BIWS, 2001) (IWC/BIWS, 2001) (IWC/BIWS, 2001, Allison (IWC, pers. comm. to Caretta, J.V. et al, 2003.), Angliss and Lodge, 2003, Carretta et al, 2003) (COSEWIC, 2004) (COSEWIC, 2004) (COSEWIC, 2004)  229  Greenland Northern bottlenose whale Northern fur seal Northern right whale dolphin Pantropical spotted dolphin Pantropical spotted dolphin Ribbon seal  Right whale Right whale Right whale Ringed seal Ringed seal Ringed seal Sei whale Sei whale Sei whale Short beaked common dolphin Short beaked common dolphin Short finned pilot whale South African / Australian fur seal South American sea lion  Sperm whale Spinner dolphin Steller sea lion Steller sea lion Walrus Walrus Walrus  North Atlantic North Pacific  (Anon., 2006) (Lubbock, 1937, Mitchell, 1975, Christensen et al., 1977, Reeves et al, 1993, Bloch et al, 1996) (Busch, 1985, Anon., 1993, Angliss and Lodge, 2003)  North Pacific Eastern Tropical Pacific  (Mangel, 1993, Yatsu et al, 1994)  Japan Bering sea  (IWC, 1984, Kasuya, 1985) 0 (Aguilar, 1986, Reeves and Mitchell, 1986, Reeves et al, 1999, IWC/BIWS, 2001, Commission, 2003)  North Atlantic Southern Hemisphere North Pacific North Pacific and Arctic Baltic sea North Atlantic and Arctic North Atlantic North Pacific Southern Hemisphere Eastern Tropical Pacific Northwest Atlantic  (Smith, 1979, Allen, 1985, Wade, 1995, IATTC, 2006)  (Du Pasquier, 1986, IWC/BIWS, 2001) (Reeves et al, 1985, Best, 1987, IWC/BIWS, 2001, Nichol et al, 2002, Angliss and Lodge, 2003) (Frost, 1985, Kelly, 1988, Reeves etal, 1998, Angliss and Lodge, 2002) (Harkonenera/., 1998) (Reijnders et al, 1993, Reeves et al, 1998, Teilmann and Kapel, 1998, NAMMCO, 2003) (Horwood, 1987, IWC/BIWS, 2001) (IWC/BIWS, 2001, Nichol et al, 2002, Carretta et al, 2003) (IWC/BIWS, 2001) (Wade, 1995, IATTC, 2006) (Waring et al, 1999, Waring et al, 2003)  Japan  (Ohsumi, 1975)  South Africa  (Warneke and Shaughnessy, 1985, Wickens et al, 1991, Reijnders et al, 1993)  North Patagonia  Global Eastern Tropical Pacific East Alaska West Alaska Spitsbergen Chukchi-Bering sea West Greenland  (Strange, 1979, Anon., 1999, Dans et al, 2004) (IWC, 1969, Best, 1976, Ohsumi, 1980, Gosho etal, 1984, Mitchell and Kozicki, 1984, Christensen et al, 1992, Barnes, 1996, Sigurjonsson, 1997, Brownell etal, 1998 (unpublished), Kasuya, 1998 (unpublished), Perry et al, 1999, Carretta et al, 2001, IWC/BIWS, 2001, Nichol et al, 2002, Reeves, 2002, Waring et al, 2002, Anon., 2005) (Wade, 1995, Anon., 2005, IATTC, 2006) (Bigg, 1984, Merrick et al, 1987) (Woodley and Lavigne, 1991, Angliss and Lodge, 2003) (Ross, 1993) (Fay et al, 1989, Anon., 2002) (Born, 2005)  230  Walrus Walrus  East Greenland Northwater  (Born, 2005) (Born, 2005)  231  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
United States 91 5
Russia 51 0
China 35 11
United Kingdom 18 0
Canada 7 0
Germany 2 48
Norway 2 0
Japan 2 0
Ukraine 1 0
France 1 0
Brazil 1 0
India 1 0
Estonia 1 0
City Views Downloads
Unknown 77 48
Clarks Summit 27 0
Wilkes Barre 15 0
Hangzhou 13 0
Ashburn 7 0
Beijing 6 2
Montreal 6 0
Silver Spring 5 0
New York 4 0
Jacksonville 4 0
London 4 0
Shanghai 4 0
Shenzhen 3 9

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0074892/manifest

Comment

Related Items