UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An electronic airborne display system Stewart, Ian 1979

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AN ELECTRONIC AIRBORNE D I S P L A Y SYSTEM BY IAN STEWART B . A . S c , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a t e r l o o , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF A P P L I E D SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Depar tmen t o f E l e c t r i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d . THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1979 (c) I a n S t e w a r t , 1979 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department nf E l e c t r i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date A p r i l 12, 1979. i i ABSTRACT An e l e c t r o n i c a i r b o r n e d i s p l a y s y s t e m (EADS) was d e s i g n e d and t e s t e d . The EADS d e s i g n e d p r o v e d t o have s e v e r a l a d v a n t a g e s o v e r c u r r e n t a n a l o g t y p e c o c k p i t d i s p l a y s . These a r e : i ) r e d u c e d c o c k p i t c o n g e s t i o n , i i ) d e c r e a s e d p i l o t r e a c t i o n t i m e , i i i ) i n c r e a s e d f l e x i b i l i t y i n c o c k p i t i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , i v ) d e c r e a s e d c o m p l e x i t y i n h a r d w a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g r o u n d b a s e d t e s t i n g and s i m u l a t i o n , and v ) r e d u c e d o v e r a l l c o s t o f c o c k p i t i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e h a r d w a r e and s o f t w a r e d e s i g n , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and t e s t i n g o f t h i s EADS i s g i v e n . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i L I S T OF ILLUSTRATIONS v i L I S T OF TABLES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT i x I . INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 O v e r v i e w o f E l e c t r o n i c A i r b o r n e D i s p l a y s 1 1.2 R e v i e w o f p r e v i o u s w o r k i n EADS 9 1.3 Scope o f t h e s i s 12 I I . SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 14 2 . 1 O v e r a l l s y s t e m d e s c r i p t i o n 14 2 . 2 D a t a A c q u i s i t i o n U n i t 18 2 . 3 C e n t r a l P r o c e s s i n g U n i t 22 2 . 3 . 1 G e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f CPU 22 2 . 3 . 2 CPU h a r d w a r e d e s c r i p t i o n 25 2 . 3 . 2 . 1 S e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a 25 2 . 3 . 2 . 2 F i n a l CPU c o n f i g u r a t i o n 27 2 . 3 . 2 . 3 DFM i n t e r f a c e 30 2 . 3 . 2 . 4 P i l o t E n t r y D e v i c e 32 2 . 3 . 3 CPU s o f t w a r e d e s c r i p t i o n 33 2 . 3 . 3 . 1 S o f t w a r e d e v e l o p m e n t t o o l s 33 2 . 3 . 3 . 2 R e a l - t i m e e x e c u t i v e 34 2 . 3 . 3 . 3 Command Mode 38 2 . 3 . 3 . 4 D i s p l a y Mode 40 i v 2 . 3 . 3 . 5 U p d a t e Mode 43 2 . 4 D i s p l a y P r o c e s s i n g U n i t 44 2 . 4 . 1 G e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f DPU 44 2 . 4 . 2 DPU macro commands 45 2 . 4 . 3 DPU h a r d w a r e d e s c r i p t i o n 50 2 . 4 . 3 . 1 ALU f o r m a t 56 2 . 4 . 3 . 2 B r a n c h f o r m a t 58 2 . 4 . 3 . 3 Common f i e l d s 59 2 . 5 V e c t o r G e n e r a t o r 61 2 . 5 . 1 G e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r 61 2 . 5 . 2 Ha rdware s e l e c t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n 62 I I I . SYSTEM PERFORMANCE 66 3 .1 O v e r a l l s y s t e m p e r f o r m a n c e 66 3 . 2 R e a l - t i m e e x e c u t i v e p e r f o r m a n c e 74 3 .3 D i s p l a y p r o c e s s o r p e r f o r m a n c e 75 3 . 4 V e c t o r g e n e r a t o r p e r f o r m a n c e 76 I V . CONCLUSIONS AND DIRECTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 77 4 . 1 C o n c l u s i o n s 77 4 . 2 D i r e c t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h 79 REFERENCES 80 APPENDIX A CPU F l o w c h a r t s 83 APPENDIX B CPU P r o g r a m L i s t i n g s 90 APPENDIX C DPU M i c r o i n s t r u c t i o n F i e l d s 138 V APPENDIX D CPU B l o c k D i a g r a m s 141 APPENDIX E DPU S c h e m a t i c s 144 APPENDIX F DPU C o n t r o l S t o r e L i s t i n g s 157 APPENDIX G V e c t o r G e n e r a t o r S c h e m a t i c s 165 L I S T OF ILLUSTRATIONS F i g u r e 1 P o i n t p l o t t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n 3 F i g u r e 2 D i s p l a y o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r 4 F i g u r e 3 D i s p l a y o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h d i s p l a y p r o c e s s o r 5 F i g u r e 4 B l o c k d i a g r a m o f EADS d i s p l a y o r g a n i z a t i o n 6 F i g u r e 5 Sys t em b l o c k d i a g r a m 15 F i g u r e 6 C e n t r a l i z e d v s d i s t r i b u t e d s y s t e m 16 F i g u r e 7 i CPU and DAU t i m i n g d u r i n g a r e f r e s h c y c l e 19 F i g u r e 8 B l o c k d i a g r a m o f DAU 21 F i g u r e 9 T y p i c a l d i s p l a y c y c l e 23 F i g u r e 10 S t a t e d i a g r a m o f d i s p l a y c y c l e 24 F i g u r e 11 P h o t o g r a p h o f c o m p l e t e s y s t e m 29 F i g u r e 12 B l o c k d i a g r a m o f DFM i n t e r f a c e 30 F i g u r e 13 D i a g r a m o f p i l o t e n t r y d e v i c e 32 F i g u r e 14 D i a g r a m of RDYC l i s t 36 F i g u r e 15 Command h a n d l e r t a b l e c o n f i g u r a t i o n 38 F i g u r e 16 S t r u c t u r e o f d i s p l a y t a s k s 41 F i g u r e 17 L i s t o f DPU commands 46 F i g u r e 18 B i t s l i c e a r c h i t e c t u r e 51 F i g u r e 19 B l o c k d i a g r a m o f DPU 53 F i g u r e 20 i M i c r o i n s t r u c t i o n f i e l d s 55 F i g u r e 21 S t r u c t u r e o f ALU s l i c e 56 F i g u r e 22 S t r u c t u r e o f m i c r o s e q u e n c e r s l i c e 60 F i g u r e 23 B l o c k d i a g r a m o f v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r 63 F i g u r e 24 P h o t o g r a p h o f t a k e - o f f f o r m a t 70 F i g u r e 25 P h o t o g r a p h o f e n g i n e d a t a f o r m a t F i g u r e 26 P h o t o g r a p h o f l a n d i n g f o r m a t v i i i L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e 1 C o m p a r i s o n o f e x i s t i n g a i r b o r n e d i s p l a y s y s t e m s . 73 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k a l l t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who have a s s i s t e d me i n c o m p l e t i n g t h i s t h e s i s . S p e c i a l t h a n k s t o my s u p e r v i s o r D r . M . R . I t o f o r h i s c o n s t a n t a i d and encouragement t h r o u g h o u t t h i s w o r k . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k D r . P . D . L a w r e n c e f o r h i s many h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s . I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k my w i f e , K a r e n , f o r t he t i m e and e f f o r t she s p e n t i n t y p i n g and d r a w i n g f o r t h i s t h e s i s . G r a t e f u l acknowledgement i s made to t h e N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l o f Canada f o r f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t t h r o u g h P o s t g r a d u a t e S c h o l a r s h i p n o . 1560 and o p e r a t i n g g r a n t n o . 6 7 - 9 0 5 4 . 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 OVERVIEW OF ELECTRONIC AIRBORNE D I S P L A Y SYSTEMS B e f o r e t a k i n g an i n - d e p t h l o o k a t e l e c t r o n i c a i r b o r n e d i s p l a y s , l e t us f i r s t d e s c r i b e what e x a c t l y an e l e c t r o n i c a i r b o r n e d i s p l a y i s . The e l e c t r o n i c a i r b o r n e d i s p l a y (EADS) i s an i n s t r u m e n t u sed by t h e p i l o t o f an a i r c r a f t t o p r o v i d e h i m w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d t o f l y t h e p l a n e i n an e f f i c i e n t and s a f e manne r . The e l e c t r o n i c d i s p l a y d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s t h e s i s d i s p l a y s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n now h a n d l e d b y a n a l o g i n s t r u m e n t s s u c h as t h e a i r s p e e d i n d i c a t o r , a t t i t u d e i n d i c a t o r , r a t e o f d e s c e n t i n d i c a t o r and many o t h e r a n a l o g t y p e d i s p l a y s . T h i s EADS i s known as a m u l t i f u n c t i o n d i s p l a y b e c a u s e i t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y d i s p l a y s s e v e r a l t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , a s i n g l e d i s p l a y may g i v e t h e p i l o t i n f o r m a t i o n abou t t h e p l a n e ' s a t t i t u d e , a i r s p e e d and h e a d i n g . E l e c t r o n i c a i r b o r n e d i s p l a y s e x p l o i t t h e p i l o t ' s a b i l i t y t o q u i c k l y a s s i m i l a t e a n a l o g t y p e i n f o r m a t i o n by d i s p l a y i n g a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n an a n a l o g f o r m . To do t h i s , e l e c t r o n i c d i s p l a y s must use a d i s p l a y d e v i c e w h i c h a l l o w s dynamic d i s p l a y o f a n a l o g t y p e s y m b o l o g y . A t p r e s e n t , t h e c a t h o d e r a y t u b e (CRT) i s t h e o n l y d e v i c e o f r e a s o n a b l e c o s t and r e l i a b i l i t y w h i c h meets t h i s c r i t e r i a . The p l a s m a p a n e l has begun to a p p e a r ; h o w e v e r , i t s c o s t and r e s o l u t i o n a r e s t i l l i n f e r i o r t o t h e CRT. T h e r e a r e t h r e e methods u s e d t o g e t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e 2 C R T . These a r e commonly known as p o i n t p l o t t i n g , s t r o k e w r i t t e n and r a s t e r s c a n . The p o i n t p l o t t i n g d i s p l a y g e n e r a t e s i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s c r e e n by i l l u m i n a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l p o i n t s on t h e s c r e e n , d e f i n e d i n t h e c o - o r d i n a t e s p a c e o f t h e d i s p l a y . The s t r o k e w r i t t e n d i s p l a y g e n e r a t e s i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s c r e e n by m o v i n g t h e CRT beam a c r o s s t h e d i s p l a y f r o m a p a i r o f s t a r t c o - o r d i n a t e s t o a p a i r o f end c o - o r d i n a t e s w i t h t h e beam on o r o f f . The r a s t e r s c a n method e n t a i l s s w e e p i n g t h e beam a c r o s s t h e s c r e e n , l i n e b y l i n e , u n t i l t h e s c r e e n has b e e n c o m p l e t e l y c o v e r e d . The beam i s t u r n e d on when t h e beam p a s s e s a p o i n t on t h e s c r e e n w h i c h i s t o be v i s i b l e t o t h e p i l o t , t h e n t h e beam i s a g a i n t u r n e d o f f . I n a l l m e t h o d s , t h e d i s p l a y i s c o n t i n u o u s l y r e w r i t t e n o r r e f r e s h e d . The r e f r e s h r a t e must be h i g h e n o u g h , on t h e o r d e r o f 50 c y c l e s / s e c , t o p r e v e n t s c r e e n f l i c k e r . The minimum r a t e a t w h i c h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n needs t o be r e f r e s h e d b e f o r e f l i c k e r i s a p p a r e n t t o t h e p i l o t depends on a number o f f a c t o r s . These i n c l u d e t h e p i l o t ' s a g e , l i g h t w a v e l e n g t h , b r i g h t n e s s , b r i g h t n e s s v a r i a t i o n , r e t i n a l l o c a t i o n , l i g h t - t o - d a r k r a t i o and t h e s i z e o f t h e f l i c k e r i n g o b j e c t [ 1 ] . The use o f s t r o k e w r i t t e n d i s p l a y s has g e n e r a l l y b e e n t h e r u l e w i t h t h e more r e c e n t EADS t o d a t e . The s t r o k e w r i t t e n d i s p l a y o f f e r s b e t t e r r e s o l u t i o n and t h e absence o f a l i a s i n g common t o r a s t e r s c a n d i s p l a y s [ 6 ] , [ 3 ] , [ 4 ] . I n o r d e r t o u p d a t e t h e CRT, t h e r e must be some c o n t r o l c i r c u i t r y d r i v i n g the d i s p l a y . S e v e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e a v a i l a b l e and t h e s e c a n be b r o k e n down i n t o t h r e e 3 c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . The f i r s t and by f a r t h e s i m p l e s t i s shown i n f i g u r e 1. COMPUTER T E I E Y AXIS INTENSITY X AXIS ">i CRT F i g u r e 1. P o i n t p l o t t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n I n t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e compute r must c o n s t a n t l y r e f r e s h t h e d i s p l a y e d i m a g e . The ma jo r p r o b l e m w i t h t h i s s y s t e m i s t h a t t h e compute r must spend a g r e a t d e a l o f i t s t i m e r e f r e s h i n g t h e s c r e e n , t h u s l i m i t i n g i t s t i m e f o r u s e f u l w o r k . T h i s c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s commonly t e rmed a p o i n t p l o t t i n g d i s p l a y , s i n c e t h e compute r must s p e c i f y a p o i n t , t h e n i n t e n s i f y t h e beam. Symbols a r e g e n e r a t e d by i n t e n s i f y i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s equence o f c o - o r d i n a t e p a i r s [ 2 ] . The s e c o n d o r g a n i z a t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o t he f i r s t e x c e p t t h a t a v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r has b e e n a d d e d . A b l o c k d i a g r a m o f t h i s d i s p l a y a r c h i t e c t u r e i s shown i n f i g u r e 2 . The v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r shown i n t h i s f i g u r e a c c e p t s t h e s t a r t and end c o - o r d i n a t e p a i r s o f t h e v e c t o r o r l i n e segment t o be d r a w n . The v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r t h e n moves t h e beam, t r a c i n g ou t 4 X COMPUTER X.Y.Z VALUES^ VECTOR — — ^ _ „ . . _ _ . _ , GENERATOR INTENSITY: Y F i g u r e 2 . D i s p l a y o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r the l i n e segment w i t h t h e beam on o r o f f d e p e n d i n g on t h e c o m p u t e r ' s command. W i t h t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e compute r i s now r e l i e v e d o f c a l c u l a t i n g the p o i n t s a l o n g t h e l i n e segment w h i c h a r e t o be i n t e n s i f i e d . B o t h a n a l o g and d i g i t a l t y p e v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r s a r e a v a i l a b l e . These w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l i n CHAPTER I I . T h i s c o n f i g u r a t i o n s t i l l s u f f e r s f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t t h e compute r must s u p p l y a l l o f t h e c o - o r d i n a t e s d u r i n g e a c h r e f r e s h o f t h e s c r e e n [ 2 ] , [ 3 ] . The t h i r d and most p o w e r f u l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s shown i n f i g u r e The d i s p l a y p r o c e s s i n g u n i t ( D P U ) shown i n t h i s f i g u r e , r e d u c e s t h e l o a d on t h e c e n t r a l p r o c e s s i n g u n i t (CPU) by c o n t i n u a l l y u p d a t i n g t h e s c r e e n b a s e d on t h e i n f o r m a t i o n s t o r e d i n t h e d i s p l a y f i l e memory(DFM) . The CPU i s now o n l y r e q u i r e d t o u p d a t e t h e d i s p l a y f i l e when i t w i s h e s t o change t h e c u r r e n t d i s p l a y e d i m a g e . As i n t h e p r e v i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n , some t y p e o f v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r i s u sed t o g e n e r a t e t h e l i n e segments on t h e 3 . 5 DISPLAY R L E G P U DISPLAY PROCESSOR VECTOR GENERATOR B E A M $H CRT F i g u r e 3 . D i s p l a y o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h d i s p l a y p r o c e s s o r s c r e e n . The d i s p l a y p r o c e s s o r may be c a p a b l e o f p e r f o r m i n g t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s s u c h as r o t a t i o n , s c a l i n g and t r a n s l a t i o n . T h i s a g a i n r e d u c e s t h e o v e r h e a d on t h e CPU b u t a t t he expense o f i n c r e a s e d h a r d w a r e c o m p l e x i t y [ 2 ] , [ 4 ] . The l a s t o r g a n i z a t i o n i s f o u n d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e s t r o k e w r i t t e n d i s p l a y c o n f i g u r a t i o n . The d i s p l a y p r o c e s s o r i n t h e c a s e o f a r a s t e r s c a n d i s p l a y may be as s i m p l e as an a d d r e s s r e g i s t e r and beam c o n t r o l w h i c h c y c l e s t h r o u g h t h e d i s p l a y f i l e ( s c r e e n memory) and t u r n s t h e beam on when a b i t i n t he d i s p l a y f i l e memory i s s e t . I n a d d i t i o n to p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and d i s p l a y i n g i t on t h e s c r e e n , t h e r e must be some method o f g a t h e r i n g d a t a f r o m a r o u n d the p l a n e . T h i s c a n be done i n one o f two w a y s . I n t h e f i r s t c a s e t h e c e n t r a l p r o c e s s i n g u n i t i n t h e s y s t e m g a t h e r s t h e 6 d a t a i t s e l f . I n t h e s e c o n d c a s e a s e p a r a t e p r o c e s s i n g u n i t , t h e d a t a a c q u i s i t i o n u n i t ( D A U ) , i s u sed to g a t h e r t h e d a t a . The s e c o n d s y s t e m t h u s f u r t h e r r e d u c e s the o v e r h e a d on t h e CPU i n t h e s y s t e m . The EADS d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s t h e s i s u se s t h e DAU a p p r o a c h . F i g u r e 4 g i v e s a b l o c k d i a g r a m o f t h i s s y s t e m , i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e DAU, C P U , and D P U . DAU DFM CPU DPU VECTOR GENERATOR F i g u r e 4 . B l o c k d i a g r a m o f EADS d i s p l a y o r g a n i z a t i o n The EADS s h o u l d a l l e v i a t e s e v e r a l p r o b l e m s t h a t e x i s t w i t h c u r r e n t a n a l o g i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . The most c r i t i c a l p r o b l e m w i t h c u r r e n t a n a l o g i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n i s t h e use o f a l a r g e number o f d e d i c a t e d i n s t r u m e n t s . D i s p l a y i n g o f a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n , a l l t h e t i m e , t e n d s t o o v e r b u r d e n t h e p i l o t and i n c r e a s e h i s r e a c t i o n t i m e . I n f o r m a t i o n i s o f t e n r e d u n d a n t o r n o t r e q u i r e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r phase o f f l i g h t [ 5 ] . O f t e n , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h m i l i t a r y a i r c r a f t , a s e r i o u s c o n g e s t i o n p r o b l e m a r i s e s i n t r y i n g t o f i t a l l t h e i n s t r u m e n t s i n a l i m i t e d s p a c e i n v i e w o f t h e p i l o t [ 6 ] . 7 The t h i r d p r o b l e m w i t h c o n v e n t i o n a l a n a l o g d i s p l a y s i s t h e i r i n f l e x i b i l i t y . Once a c o c k p i t o r g a n i z a t i o n h a s b e e n d e c i d e d upon and t h e d e s i g n p r o g r e s s e s , l i t t l e c a n be done t o change t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n f o r m a t w i t h o u t a s u b s t a n t i a l c o s t and t i m e i n v e s t m e n t [ 7 ] . The f o u r t h p r o b l e m e x i s t s b e c a u s e o f t h e c h a n g i n g r o l e o f t h e p i l o t . W i t h modern day a i r c r a f t , t h e p i l o t ' s r o l e i s s h i f t i n g d i r e c t i o n f rom t h a t o f an a c t i v e c o n t r o l e l emen t t o t h a t o f a f l i g h t m o n i t o r . H o w e v e r , c u r r e n t a n a l o g i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n was d e s i g n e d f o r t h e c o n t r o l mode p i l o t n o t t h e m o n i t o r i n g mode p i l o t . C u r r e n t d i s p l a y s l a c k a d e q u a t e s t a t u s and w a r n i n g s y s t e m s f o r t h i s new r o l e [ 9 ] . 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S e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n must now be g i v e n to t h e c o s t o f c o n v e n t i o n a l a n a l o g i n s t r u m e n t s when e v a l u a t i n g the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h go i n t o the c o c k p i t . We c a n summar ize t h e s e p r o b l e m s as f o l l o w s : 1) i n c r e a s e d p i l o t w o r k l o a d due t o l a r g e number o f d i s c r e t e i n s t r u m e n t s . 2) c o c k p i t c o n g e s t i o n p r o b l e m s f o r t h e same r e a s o n . 3) i n f l e x i b i l i t y i n m a k i n g i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n c h a n g e s . 4) i n s t r u m e n t s l a c k s u f f i c i e n t s t a t u s and w a r n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . 5) i n s t r u m e n t s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o t e s t . 6) r e l i a b l e i n s t r u m e n t s a r e e x p e n s i v e . 9 1.2 REVIEW OF PREVIOUS WORK I N ELECTRONIC AIRBORNE DISPLAYS The p r i n c i p a l r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s on e l e c t r o n i c a i r b o r n e d i s p l a y s have b e e n made by v a r i o u s m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Work on e l e c t r o n i c a i r b o r n e d i s p l a y s (EADS) o r e l e c t r o n i c a t t i t u d e d i s p l a y i n d i c a t i o n (EADI) r e a l l y b e g a n i n t h e l a t e 1 9 6 0 ' s . The e f f o r t s t h e n were a imed a t d i s p l a y s f o r v e r t i c a l t a k e - o f f and l a n d i n g ( V / T O L ) and v e r t i c a l s h o r t t a k e - o f f and l a n d i n g ( V / S T O L ) a i r c r a f t [ 1 0 ] , [ 1 1 ] , [ 1 2 ] , [ 1 3 ] . The r e a s o n s f o r t h e emphas i s on EADS a t t h a t t i m e was t h e i n c r e a s i n g number o f p a r a m e t e r s w h i c h the p i l o t had t o d e a l w i t h i n f l y i n g a V / T O L o r V/STOL a i r c r a f t , a l o n g w i t h t h e i m p a i r m e n t o f f l i g h t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s due t o t h e a e r o d y n a m i c q u a l i t i e s needed i n a p l a n e o f t h i s n a t u r e . W i t h t h e a d v e n t o f EADS, i t was hoped t h a t t he p i l o t w o r k l o a d c o u l d be r e d u c e d b y t h e use o f m u l t i p l e x e d d i s p l a y s p r o v i d i n g t h e p i l o t w i t h e s s e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n a more e a s i l y a s s i m i l a t e d f o r m . D i s p l a y s d e v e l o p e d a t t h a t t i m e t o o k t h e f o r m o f a h a r d w i r e d d i g i t a l compute r and r a s t e r s c a n t y p e d i s p l a y s [ 1 4 ] . The s y s t e m s were c o n f i g u r e d s i m i l a r t o f i g u r e 2 w i t h t h e v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r r e p l a c e d by t h e d i s p l a y memory f o r t h e r a s t e r s c a n c o n f i g u r a t i o n . As m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e , t h i s l e d t o p r o b l e m s o f o v e r l o a d i n g t h e m a i n c o m p u t e r . The need f o r EADS a g a i n g o t a b o o s t i n t h e e a r l y s e v e n t i e s as t h e m i l i t a r y b e g a n emphas i s on a l l - w e a t h e r t a k e - o f f and l a n d i n g s y s t e m s [ 1 5 ] . Much o f t h e work was done by t h e N a t i o n a l A v i a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s E x p e r i m e n t a l C e n t r e (NAFEC) unde r t h e h e a d i n g o f A l l - W e a t h e r L a n d i n g Sys tems ( A W L S ) . Some work was 10 a l s o u n d e r t a k e n by t h e B o e i n g A i r p l a n e Company. The m a i n t h r u s t o f t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s was t o r e d u c e t h e p i l o t w o r k l o a d d u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t f l y i n g , l a n d i n g and t a k e - o f f c o n d i t i o n s . From t h i s p o i n t o n , w o r k on t h e FADS a p p r o a c h h a s b e e n s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g . EADS c a n p r o v i d e s e v e r a l a d v a n t a g e s o v e r t h e e x i s t i n g a n a l o g c o n t r o l s : 1) r e d u c e d p i l o t w o r k l o a d t h r o u g h t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n and more f l e x i b l e d i s p l a y s . 2) r e d u c e d c o c k p i t c o n g e s t i o n p r o b l e m s due to i n f o r m a t i o n i n t e g r a t i o n . 3) f l e x i b l e d i s p l a y s y s t e m s t o a l l o w e f f i c i e n t i n s t r u m e n t m o d i f i c a t i o n s . 4) s u f f i c i e n t a u t o m a t i o n i n d e t e c t i n g a b n o r m a l f l i g h t s i t u a t i o n s . 5) e f f i c i e n t s y s t e m t e s t i n g due to t h e d i g i t a l n a t u r e and m o d u l a r i t y o f d e s i g n . 6) g r e a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y due t o s y s t e m r e d u n d a n c y . One o f t h e b i g g e s t r e c e n t e f f o r t s made i n t h i s a r e a i s t h e D i g i t a l A v i o n i c s I n f o r m a t i o n Sys t em (DAIS) p r o j e c t . T h i s p r o g r a m has b e e n u n d e r t a k e n a t t h e A i r f o r c e A v i o n i c s L a b o r a t o r y a t W r i g h t - P a t t e r s o n A i r f o r c e B a s e , O h i o [ 1 6 ] . The m a i n t h r u s t b e h i n d t h e DAIS p r o g r a m was t o d e v e l o p a Hot Bench w h i c h w o u l d have s u f f i c i e n t f l e x i b i l i t y t o e x p l o r e a l l c o n c e p t s o f e l e c t r o n i c a v i o n i c s i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m s . A n o t h e r ma jo r e f f o r t i s i n p r o g r e s s a t t h e C o l l i n s R a d i o Group o f R o c k w e l l I n t e r n a t i o n a l . T h i s s y s t e m i s c a l l e d t h e D i g i t a l F l i g h t Management Sys tem ( D F M S ) [ 1 8 ] . I n t h i s s y s t e m , d i s p l a y o f i n f o r m a t i o n f l i g h t management and a i r c r a f t c o n t r o l a r e h a n d l e d by d u p l i c a t e d d i g i t a l f l i g h t management c o m p u t e r s . 11 The EADS d i s p l a y s y s t e m s r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e s e and o t h e r p r o j e c t s have r e s u l t e d i n t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e b e n e f i t s m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y . H o w e v e r , some d e f i c i e n c i e s s t i l l e x i s t . The most s e v e r e o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s b e i n g t h e expense i n v o l v e d i n d e v e l o p i n g s u c h a s y s t e m . The s e c o n d d e f i c i e n c y l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t t o d a t e the E A D S ' s d e v e l o p e d have a t t e m p t e d t o c e n t r a l i z e t h e f u n c t i o n s o f d i s p l a y , c o n t r o l and f l i g h t management, and d a t a a c q u i s i t i o n i n t o one c o m p u t e r , w i t h p e r h a p s a d i s p l a y p r o c e s s o r to h a n d l e some o f t h e d i s p l a y l o a d . T h i s l e a d s to s e v e r e p r o b l e m s i n r e l i a b i l i t y and a g a i n c o s t . A l s o t h e EADS c a n n o t t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t s made i n c e r t a i n a r e a s o f d i g i t a l t e c h n o l o g y w i t h o u t a s i g n i f i c a n t r e d e s i g n o f t h e s y s t e m . F i n a l l y , t e s t i n g c a n become a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b l e m i n a complex c e n t r a l i z e d s y s t e m , s i n c e i t becomes more d i f f i c u l t t o n a r r o w down a d e f e c t i v e a r e a . 12 1.3 SCOPE OF THESIS The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t h e d e s i g n o f a new EADS w h i c h a l l e v i a t e s t h e p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d p r o b l e m s , w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e m a i n t a i n i n g t h e a d v a n t a g e s o b t a i n e d o v e r a n a l o g t y p e d i s p l a y s a l r e a d y a c h i e v e d i n EADS. The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f t h e s e d e s i g n o b j e c t i v e s : 1) r e d u c e c o c k p i t i n s t r u m e n t c o n g e s t i o n . 2) d e c r e a s e p i l o t r e a c t i o n t i m e b y : 2 . 1 ) d i s p l a y i n g o n l y t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r phase o f f l i g h t . 2 . 2 ) d e c r e a s i n g a n g l e o f eye movement r e q u i r e d t o s c a n a l l i n s t r u m e n t s . 2 . 3 ) d i s p l a y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n a f o r m s u i t a b l e f o r t h e p i l o t ' s r e q u i r e d a c t i o n s . 2 . 4 ) d i s p l a y i n g w a r n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n an a t t e n t i o n - g e t t i n g m a n n e r . 2 . 5 ) u s i n g s y m b o l s w h i c h b e t t e r p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n d i s p l a y e d . 3) i n c r e a s e f l e x i b i l i t y i n c o c k p i t i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n by m a k i n g changes i n d i s p l a y f o r m a t t o be made more e a s i l y t h a n i n c u r r e n t i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . 4) d e s i g n s y s t e m components i n a d i s t r i b u t e d f a s h i o n , t h u s e n a b l i n g changes i n v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s a t a l a t e r d a t e w i t h o u t e f f e c t i n g p e r f o r m a n c e o f r e m a i n i n g s e c t i o n s and a l s o i n c r e a s i n g r e l i a b i l i t y i n d u p l i c a t e d s y s t e m s . 5) t h e s y s t e m s h o u l d show a s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n i n i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n c o s t s . 6) d e c r e a s e t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f equ ipmen t r e q u i r e d to d r i v e i n s t r u m e n t s i n s i m u l a t i o n e q u i p m e n t . 7) i n c r e a s e ease o f t e s t a b i l i t y . 13 The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s y s t e m i t s e l f i s found i n C h a p t e r I I w h i c h d e a l s w i t h t h e p u r p o s e and d e s i g n o f t he v a r i o u s e l e m e n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e EADS d e s c r i b e d b y t h i s t h e s i s . C h a p t e r I I I g i v e s a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t he p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e EADS d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r I I . C h a p t e r I V c o n t a i n s t h e c o n c l u s i o n s a r r i v e d a t b y t h e d e s i g n and t e s t i n g o f t h i s EADS, a l o n g w i t h d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . The A p p e n d i c e s c o n t a i n t h e s o f t w a r e f l o w c h a r t s and l i s t i n g s , f i r m w a r e l i s t i n g s and c i r c u i t s c h e m a t i c s f o r t h e EADS d e s c r i b e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e c h a p t e r s . 14 CHAPTER I I SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 2 . 1 OVERALL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION A b l o c k d i a g r a m o f t he EADS d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s shown i n f i g u r e 5 . As s e e n i n f i g u r e 5 , t h i s EADS h a s a d i s t r i b u t e d p r o c e s s i n g a r c h i t e c t u r e w h i c h a t t e m p t s t o c i r c u m v e n t some o f t h e p r o b l e m s e x p e r i e n c e d w i t h c e n t r a l i z e d d e s i g n s . The a d v a n t a g e s o f s u c h an o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . The s y s t e m , shown i n f i g u r e 5 , c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e m a i n p r o c e s s i n g u n i t s . The f i r s t o f t h e s e u n i t s i s t h e D a t a A c q u i s i t i o n U n i t (DAU) whose m a i n j o b i s t o a c q u i r e d a t a f rom v a r i o u s e l e m e n t s f rom a round t h e p l a n e . These e l e m e n t s w o u l d i n c l u d e a t t i t u d e d a t a , e n g i n e d a t a , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s d a t a , and d a t a f rom t h e f l i g h t d i r e c t o r (on b o a r d n a v i g a t i o n compute r ) i f one i s a v a i l a b l e . The i n f o r m a t i o n , r e a d v i a s e v e r a l I / O p o r t s a t t a c h e d t o the DAU, i s s t o r e d i n a d e d i c a t e d s h a r e d s t o r a g e a r e a known as t h e D a t a S t o r e Memory (DSM) . The DAU s o f t w a r e i s s t o r e d i n ROM. The DSM i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e a d i n t u r n by t h e C e n t r a l P r o c e s s i n g U n i t (CPU) b a s e d on p i l o t r e q u e s t s e n t e r e d v i a t h e P i l o t E n t r y D e v i c e ( P E D ) . The CPU p r o c e s s e s the i n f o r m a t i o n , c h e c k i n g f o r f a u l t s and f o r m a t t i n g t h e d a t a i n a manner w h i c h c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e D i s p l a y P r o c e s s i n g U n i t ( D P U ) . Once t h e d a t a has b e e n p r o c e s s e d , t h e CPU w r i t e s t h e n e c e s s a r y DPU commands o u t t o t h e D i s p l a y F i l e Memory ( D F M ) . The DPU r e a d s the DPU commands s t o r e d i n the DFM and r e f r e s h e s t h e CRT v i a a c o - o r d i n a t e d r i v e n v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r . DAU PROGRAM STORE CPU PROGRAM STORE EXTERNAL DEVICES DAU DAI fA RAM STORE AREA MEMORY CENTRAL ROCESSING UNIT EXTERNAL PILOT ENTRY CONTROL DEVICE F i g u r e 5. S y s t e m b l o c k d i a g r a m DISPLAY FILE @ t DISPLAY PROCESSING "UNIT VECTOR GENERATOR 16 The CRT i s r e f r e s h e d a t a r a t e o f 50 H z , t h u s p r e v e n t i n g f l i c k e r and g i v i n g t h e m o v i n g e l e m e n t s on t h e s c r e e n a l o o k o f c o n t i n u o u s m o t i o n . The d i s t r i b u t e d n a t u r e o f t h e s y s t e m o f f e r s s e v e r a l a d v a n t a g e s o v e r more c e n t r a l i z e d d i s p l a y s y s t e m s . The f i r s t a d v a n t a g e c a n be i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e . (a) F i g u r e 6 . C e n t r a l i z e d v s D i s t r i b u t e d I n s y s t e m ( a ) , i f a f a i l u r e o c c u r s , t h e r e m a i n i n g p r o c e s s o r c a n h a n d l e t h e l o a d . H o w e v e r , t h e s y s t e m w i l l n o t f u n c t i o n p r o p e r l y s h o u l d t h i s l a t t e r p r o c e s s o r d e v e l o p a f a u l t . I n t h e d i s t r i b u t e d n e t w o r k i n (b) , s e v e r a l modu le s may f a i l and t h e s y s t e m w i l l s t i l l f u n c t i o n p r o p e r l y as l o n g as one modu le o f e a c h t y p e r e m a i n s f u n c t i o n i n g . 17 The d i s t r i b u t e d s y s t e m a l s o e n a b l e s t h e d e s i g n e r t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances i n s p e c i f i c modu le s w i t h o u t a m a jo r r e d e s i g n on t h e r e m a i n i n g m o d u l e s . F i n a l l y , t h e d i s t r i b u t e d s y s t e m i s somewhat e a s i e r t o t e s t t h a n t h e c e n t r a l i z e d s y s t e m . The t h r e e u n i t s i n t h i s s y s t e m c a n be t e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y and l o g i c a l l y removed f rom t h e s y s t e m to. a l l o w an e m u l a t o r t o f u n c t i o n i n i t s p l a c e . The use o f l o w c o s t m i c r o c o m p u t e r s f o r t h e s e d i s t r i b u t e d u n i t s r e d u c e s t h e o v e r a l l c o s t o f t h e s y s t e m compared t o more complex c e n t r a l i z e d d i s p l a y s y s t e m s . 18 2 . 2 DATA ACQUISITION UNIT (DAU) L i t t l e emphas i s was p l a c e d on t h e a c t u a l d e s i g n o f t h e D A U . I t was f e l t t h a t t h e d e s i g n o f t h e DAU w o u l d be f a i r l y r o u t i n e and t h u s g r e a t e r b e n e f i t c o u l d be a c h i e v e d by s p e n d i n g t h e t i m e on t h e r e m a i n i n g u n i t s . H o w e v e r , t h e f o l l o w i n g i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a p o s s i b l e c o n f i g u r a t i o n f o r t h e D A U . As m e n t i o n e d i n t h e l a s t s e c t i o n , t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e DAU i s t o g a t h e r d a t a f rom v a r i o u s e l e m e n t s a r o u n d t h e p l a n e . The s a m p l i n g r a t e r e q u i r e d i s l e s s t h a n 10 t i m e s p e r s e c . T h i s f i g u r e , as a r e s u l t o f s e v e r a l s t u d i e s , i s s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f dynamic a i r b o r n e d a t a on a C R T [ 1 9 ] . K e e p i n g t h i s s a m p l i n g r a t e i n m i n d , we f i n d t h a t an 8 b i t m i c r o c o m p u t e r s u c h as t h e I n t e l 8085 c o u l d h a n d l e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n t a s k . The m i c r o c o m p u t e r w o u l d c o n t r o l s e v e r a l m u l t i p l e x e d a n a l o g t o d i g i t a l c o n v e r t e r s t o s ample t h e a n a l o g d a t a f r o m a r o u n d t h e p l a n e . B e c a u s e t h e d a t a r e a d by t h e CPU i s e x p e c t e d to be i n 16 b i t f o r m , t h e DAU must f o r m a t t h e d a t a i n 16 b i t words when w r i t i n g i t i n t o t h e DSM. A p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e DAU and t h e CPU i n t h e s h a r i n g o f t h e DSM. S i n c e t h i s i s a m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e r e s o u r c e o n l y one p r o c e s s i n g u n i t may use i t a t any one t i m e . H o w e v e r , i f we l o o k a t t h e r e l a t i v e t i m e s a t w h i c h e a c h u n i t r e q u i r e s t h e DSM we c a n see a s o l u t i o n . When t h e DPU i s i n a c t i v e , t h e CPU l o a d s new changes i n t o t h e DFM. D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i n t i m e , t h e CPU does n o t r e q u i r e a c c e s s t o t h e DSM; t h e r e f o r e we c a n a l l o w a c c e s s to t h e DSM b y t h e DAU w i t h o u t f e a r o f r e s o u r c e c o n f l i c t . T h u s , by b u f f e r i n g the d a t a o b t a i n e d b y 19 t h e DAU d u r i n g t h e t i m e t h e CPU i s r e a d i n g the DSM and t h e n u n l o a d i n g the b u f f e r i n t o the DSM when t h e CPU i s u p d a t i n g t h e DFM, we c a n s u c c e s s f u l l y a v o i d t h e c o n f l i c t . The d e s i g n o f t h e DSM memory i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e DFM e x c e p t t h a t t h e CPU and DAU s h a r e t h e memory p o r t s r a t h e r t h a n t h e CPU and D P U . The d e s i g n o f t h e DFM w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n , so we need n o t d w e l l on t h e d e s i g n o f t h e DSM h e r e . The DAU i s a s l a v e t o t h e C P U . The CPU s t a r t s t h e DAU d u r i n g t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e d i s p l a y r e f r e s h c y c l e and t e l l s t h e DAU when a c c e s s to t he DSM i s a v a i l a b l e . F i g u r e 7 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e t i m i n g o f t h e DAU and CPU o p e r a t i o n s d u r i n g a r e f r e s h c y c l e . START OF DISPLAY REFRESH CYCLE V DAU BUFFERS DATA CPU READS DSM DPU FINISHES REFRESHING SCREEN AND SIGNALS CPU DAU LOADS DSM CPU UPDATES DFM OTHER TASKS START OF NEXT DISPLAY REFRESH CYCLE OTHER TASKS F i g u r e 7 . CPU and DAU t i m i n g d u r i n g a r e f r e s h c y c l e The p r o g r a m f o r t he DAU c a n be s t o r e d i n ROM. M o d i f y i n g t he DAU f o r new i n s t r u m e n t s o r f o r new p l a n e s w i l l o n l y r e q u i r e t h e r e p l a c e m e n t o f t h e ROM p r o g r a m memory. T h i s f l e x i b i l i t y s h o u l d l e a d t o s i g n i f i c a n t s a v i n g s i n d o w n - t i m e and u p g r a d i n g 20 c o s t s . The DAU e x t e r n a l b u s s e s may a l s o be pu t i n h i g h impedance s t a t e so t h a t a n o t h e r d e v i c e c a n be u sed e i t h e r f o r t e s t i n g o r f o r d u p l i c a t e d s y s t e m s . F o r s i m u l a t i o n , i t i s o n l y n e c e s s a r y t o s u p p l y t h e i n s t r u m e n t d a t a i n d i g i t a l f o r m t o t h e DSM. Thus c o s t l y a n a l o g equ ipmen t t o d r i v e t h e c o c k p i t d i s p l a y s d u r i n g s i m u l a t i o n i s n o t r e q u i r e d . F i g u r e 8 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e b a s i c e l e m e n t s r e q u i r e d by t h e D A U . PROGRAM STORE I DSM BUFFER RAM 8085 R/W A8:15 ALE ADO:7 8 1 ADDRESS BUS TO DSM He T. , CONTROL FROM CPU DATA BUS TO DSM IADDRESS SELECT 8 "7 16 I / O DECODE ~~T~ 8 TRANSDUCERS DIGITAL DEVICES F i g u r e 8. B l o c k d i a g r a m o f DAU 256 - N CHANNEL A/D T N DIGITAL PORTS %— 256-N Nx8 8 ro 22 2 . 3 CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) 2 . 3 . 1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CPU As m e n t i o n e d i n S e c t i o n 2 . 1 , t h e C P U ' s m a i n f u n c t i o n i s t o r e t r i e v e d a t a f rom the DSM and t r a n s f o r m i t i n t o m e a n i n g f u l DPU commands t o be s t o r e d i n t h e D F M . The CPU must e x e r c i s e t h i s f u n c t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f commands r e c e i v e d f rom t h e P i l o t E n t r y D e v i c e ( P E D ) . The CPU c a n a l s o c h e c k d a t a f rom the DSM a g a i n s t a d a t a b a s e , s t o r e d i n ROM, f o r t h e s p e c i f i c p l a n e and m i s s i o n t h a t i t i s b e i n g u sed f o r . On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e c h e c k s , i t c a n warn t h e p i l o t o f any m a r g i n a l o r f a u l t y c o n d i t i o n s . The CPU may a l s o be i n v o l v e d w i t h o t h e r t a s k s , i f CPU t i m e i s a v a i l a b l e . K e e p i n g t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i n m i n d , we c a n see how t h e CPU c a n be c o n f i g u r e d i n t o f o u r o p e r a t i n g modes . These a r e te rmed t h e D i s p l a y Mode , U p d a t e Mode , Command Mode , and C o n t r o l M o d e . The CPU w i l l spend a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f i t s t i m e i n t h e D i s p l a y M o d e . I n t h i s mode, t h e CPU w i l l r e a d i n f o r m a t i o n f rom the DSM, m o d i f y i t , and s t o r e the r e s u l t a n t DPU commands i n t h e d i s p l a y f i l e b u f f e r . The CPU w i l l a l s o copy any s t a t i c d a t a s u c h as l a b e l s and s c a l e s i n t o the d i s p l a y f i l e b u f f e r . The i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s e d b y t h e CPU i s b a s e d on t h e d i s p l a y commands r e c e i v e d f rom the p i l o t . The i n f o r m a t i o n s t o r e d i n t h e d i s p l a y f i l e b u f f e r w i l l t h e n be l o a d e d i n t o t h e t h e DFM when t h e DPU r e l i n q u i s h e s t h e DFM a t t h e end o f t h e d i s p l a y r e f r e s h . T h i s s t a t e i s known as i s t h e Upda te Mode . F i g u r e 9 i l l u s t r a t e s a t y p i c a l d i s p l a y c y c l e . A 50Hz r e a l t i m e c l o c k s i g n a l s t h e s t a r t o f t h e r e f r e s h 23 START OF DISPLAY REFRESH CYCLE v DPU FINISHES REFRESHING SCREEN AND SIGNALS CPU V START OF NEXT DISPLAY REFRESH CYCLE V DPU REFRESHES CRT CPU READS DSM DAU BUFFERS DATA Y7777s DPU IS IDLE. CPU LOADS DFM T0yy\ DAU LOADS DSM OT F i g u r e 9. T y p i c a l d i s p l a y c y c l e c y c l e t o t h e D P U . T h i s s i g n a l a l s o i n d i c a t e s to t he CPU t h a t i t s h o u l d s t a r t r e a d i n g and p r o c e s s i n g any i n f o r m a t i o n f rom t h e DSM r e q u i r e d b y t h e p i l o t and s t o r i n g the r e s u l t a n t DPU commands as w e l l as any s t a t i c l a b e l s o r s c a l e s i n t h e d i s p l a y f i l e b u f f e r . When t h i s i s c o m p l e t e , t h e t i m e r e m a i n i n g c a n be s p e n t on o t h e r l o w p r i o r i t y t a s k s n o t y e t p r o c e s s e d . The DPU s i g n a l s t h e CPU when i t has c o m p l e t e d r e f r e s h i n g the d i s p l a y . The CPU now h a s e x c l u s i v e use o f t he DFM and u p d a t e s t h e DFM f r o m the d i s p l a y f i l e b u f f e r . A g a i n , on e x i t i n g t h e Upda te Mode , any t i m e r e m a i n i n g b e f o r e t h e n e x t r e f r e s h c y c l e i s u sed t o h a n d l e o t h e r l o w p r i o r i t y t a s k s . The Command Mode i s t r e a t e d as t h e CPU b a c k g r o u n d t a s k , o r l o w e s t p r i o r i t y t a s k i n the s y s t e m . I n t h i s mode, t h e CPU r e c e i v e s commands f rom the PED and queues the r e q u e s t e d t a s k i n l i s t s o f t a s k s t o be e x e c u t e d . The p o s i t i o n o f a t a s k i n the 24 l i s t i s dependen t on i t s p r i o r i t y . T a s k s o f h i g h e r p r i o r i t y w i l l be s e r v i c e d b e f o r e t h o s e o f l o w e r p r i o r i t y . The C o n t r o l Mode encompasses the t i m e t h e CPU spends i n r u n n i n g the t a s k s r e q u e s t e d by t h e p i l o t . F i g u r e 10 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s e modes d i a g r a m m a t i c a l l y . F i g u r e 10 . S t a t e d i a g r a m o f d i s p l a y c y c l e 25 2 . 3 . 2 CPU HARDWARE DESCRIPTION 2 . 3 . 2 . 1 SELECTION C R I T E R I A T h r e e m a i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t when s e l e c t i n g t h e CPU h a r d w a r e c o n f i g u r a t i o n . The f i r s t o f t h e s e i s t h e DPU command word w i d t h . I t was d e c i d e d , f o r r e a s o n s e x p l a i n e d i n s e c t i o n 2 . 4 . 2 , t o use a 16 b i t w i d e DPU command. T h i s word w i d t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l s u i t e d t o a 16 b i t p r o c e s s o r ; t h i s b y i t s e l f does n o t r u l e ou t an 8 b i t p r o c e s s o r . The s e c o n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n was t h a t t h e CPU s h o u l d have an e f f e c t i v e r e a l - t i m e e x e c u t i v e to h a n d l e t h e m u l t i p l e p r i o r i t y , m u l t i p l e t a s k n a t u r e o f t he CPU as d e s c r i b e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . E a r l i e r w o r k done on a s i m i l a r r e a l - t i m e e x e c u t i v e f o r a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e 8 b i t p r o c e s s o r , t h e I n t e l 8 0 8 5 , p r o d u c e d a r e a l - t i m e e x e c u t i v e t o o s l o w f o r t h i s s y s t e m . C o n s i d e r i n g t h i s , as w e l l as t h e r e d u c e d t h r o u g h p u t due to t h e 16 b i t w i d e DPU commands, t h e d e c i s i o n was made t o use a 16 b i t C P U [ 2 0 ] . The t h i r d c o n s i d e r a t i o n was t h a t t h e CPU s h o u l d have t h e f a c i l i t y t o do 16 b i t m u l t i p l i c a t i o n and d i v i s i o n i n w e l l unde r 100 u s e e . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s c r i t e r i a i s o b v i o u s , s i n c e t h e CPU does s e v e r a l a r i t h m e t i c o p e r a t i o n s on t h e d a t a i t r e c e i v e s f r o m the DSM. T h i s c r i t e r i a l i m i t s t h e s e l e c t i o n o f c h i p s t o t h o s e w i t h b u i l t i n h a r d w a r e o r mic rop rog rammed m u l t i p l y and d i v i d e i n s t r u c t i o n s . The p r o c e s s o r w h i c h b e s t s u i t e d t h e s e g o a l s was t h e T I 9 9 0 0 , 16 b i t m i c r o p r o c e s s o r . T h e r e were t h r e e m a i n r e a s o n s f o r s e l e c t i n g t h e T I9900 o v e r t h e r e m a i n i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s , t h e I n t e l 8 0 8 6 , M o t o r o l a 6 8 0 9 , Z i l o g - Z 8 0 0 0 , N a t i o n a l ' s PACE and I M P , and 26 G I ' s C P 1 6 0 0 I 2 1 ] . The m a i n r e a s o n f o r s e l e c t i n g t h e T I9900 was i t s r e g i s t e r a r c h i t e c t u r e . U n l i k e t he o t h e r p r o c e s s o r s , t h e 9900 h a s t h r e e w o r k i n g r e g i s t e r s m a i n t a i n e d i n the CPU w i t h p r o g r a m and d a t a r e g i s t e r s r e s i d i n g i n e x t e r n a l memory. T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n h a n d l e s c o n t e x t s w i t c h e s b o t h e f f i c i e n t l y and r a p i d l y , t h u s m a k i n g t h i s a r c h i t e c t u r e v e r y s u i t a b l e f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r e a l - t i m e e x e c u t i v e [ 2 2 ] . The s e c o n d r e a s o n f o r s e l e c t i n g t h e T I9900 o v e r t h e r e m a i n i n g d e v i c e s was t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e d e v i c e and t h e r e l a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t t o o l s . A t t h e t i m e o f CPU s e l e c t i o n , o n l y t h e P A C E , I M P , 9900 and CP1600 were i n f u l l s c a l e p r o d u c t i o n , and o f t h e s e , o n l y t h e T I9900 o f f e r e d a 4 s l o t c h a s s i s , e x t e n d e r b o a r d , memory e x p a n s i o n and p r o t o t y p i n g b o a r d s . The t h i r d r e a s o n f o r s e l e c t i n g the TI9900 was t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a T e k t r o n i x 8002 d e v e l o p m e n t s y s t e m s u p p o r t i n g t h e 9 9 0 0 . A l t h o u g h n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s y s t e m f o r t h i s t h e s i s , f u t u r e e f f o r t s w i t h t h i s EADS c o u l d be done on t h e T e k t r o n i x 8 0 0 2 , once a d d i t i o n a l memory f o r t h e 8002 was a v a i l a b l e . 27 2 . 3 . 2 . 2 F I N A L CPU CONFIGURATION Thus t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n f o r a CPU was a TI9900 s i n g l e b o a r d c o m p u t e r . T h i s b o a r d , t h e TM990/100M was a l s o p u r c h a s e d w i t h a 4 s l o t c h a s s i s ( T M 9 9 0 / 5 1 0 ) , two p r o t o t y p i n g c a r d s (TM990/512) f o r d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e DPU and v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r , an e x t e n d e d memory c a r d ( T M 9 9 0 / 2 0 1 ) , and a t r i p l e o u t p u t power s u p p l y . A p h o t o g r a p h o f t h e c o m p l e t e s y s t e m i s shown i n f i g u r e 1 1 . A more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e DPU, v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r and CRT w i l l be g i v e n l a t e r . The TM990/100M b o a r d c o n t a i n s a TMS9900 16 b i t C P U , 256 words o f TMS4042-2 s t a t i c RAM, e x p a n d a b l e t o 512 w o r d s , and IK w o r d s o f EPROM e x p a n d a b l e to 4K w o r d s . The b o a r d a l s o c o n t a i n s a TMS9901 p rog rammab le s y s t e m i n t e r f a c e and a TMS9902 a s y n c h r o n o u s c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c o n t r o l l e r . A b l o c k d i a g r a m o f t h e TM990/100M b o a r d i s shown i n A p p e n d i x D . The CPU i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g d r i v e n by a 3MHz c l o c k , g i v i n g a m a c h i n e c y c l e t i m e o f 3 3 3 n s e c . The TM990/201 memory e x p a n s i o n b o a r d c o n t a i n s 4K w o r d s o f TMS4045 s t a t i c RAM e x p a n d a b l e t o 8K w o r d s and 8K w o r d s o f TMS 2716 EPROM e x p a n d a b l e t o 16K w o r d s . The RAM and EPROM memory c o n f i g u r a t i o n s a r e s w i t c h s e l e c t a b l e . A b l o c k d i a g r a m o f t h e memory e x p a n s i o n b o a r d i s g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x D . The c o m p l e t e s y s t e m power r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e +5 v o l t s a t 3 .26 amps, +12 v o l t s a t 0 .46 amps, and - 1 2 v o l t s a t 0 . 2 0 amps. These r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e met by a LAMBDA L O T - W - 5 1 5 2 - A t r i p l e o u t p u t , open frame s u p p l y . The - 5 V s u p p l y , r e q u i r e d b y t h e v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r and DPU, i s r e g u l a t e d f rom - 1 2 V s u p p l i e d t o the DPU b o a r d . 30 2 . 3 . 2 . 3 DFM INTERFACE The CPU must communica te w i t h two s h a r e d r e s o u r c e s , t h e DSM and t h e D F M . As m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , l i t t l e w o r k was done on the DAU s i d e . H o w e v e r , t h e i n t e r f a c e t o the DSM w i l l be v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e DFM. T h e r e f o r e , o n l y t h e DFM i n t e r f a c e w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l h e r e . F i g u r e 12 g i v e s a d e t a i l e d b l o c k d i a g r a m o f t h e DFM i n t e r f a c e . A p p e n d i x E c o n t a i n s t h e s c h e m a t i c s f o r t h i s i n t e r f a c e . R/W LOGIC CPU ADDR DPU ADDR V " 7 1 A 12 CPU DATA 1 6 / DISPLAY R L E MEMORY B U F F E R 1 6 ^ 1 6 / DFM DMA F i g u r e _ _ 1 2 . B l o c k d i a g r a m o f DFM i n t e r f a c e On i n i t i a l s y s t e m s t a r t u p , c o n t r o l o f t h e DFM i s g i v e n t o t h e C P U . As s e e n i n f i g u r e 12 , t h e r e a d / w r i t e c o n t r o l l o g i c e n a b l e s t h e CPU a d d r e s s on to the DFM a d d r e s s b u s b y s e l e c t i n g the CPU s i d e o f t h e m u l t i p l e x o r . I t a l s o e n a b l e s t h e CPU d a t a 31 on t o t h e DFM d a t a bus b y e n a b l i n g t h e t r i - s t a t e b u f f e r . The CPU t h e n i n i t i a l i z e s t h e DFM, i e . , w r i t e s t h e i n i t i a l DPU commands i n t o t h e DFM. C o n t r o l o f t h e DFM i s t h e n g i v e n t o the DPU on t h e s t a r t o f t h e r e f r e s h c y c l e . T h i s t r a n s f e r o f c o n t r o l i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by a CPU command t o s t a r t t h e DPU on i t s r e f r e s h c y c l e . The a d d r e s s m u l t i p l e x o r now s e l e c t s t h e 12 b i t a d d r e s s f r o m t h e D P U . N o t e t h a t o n l y 10 b i t s a r e c u r r e n t l y u s e d . The o t h e r two b i t s a l l o w f o r t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e DPU t o 4K w o r d s a t a l a t e r d a t e . The d a t a b u f f e r i s now d i s a b l e d t o p r e v e n t any CPU d a t a d i s r u p t i n g t h e D P U ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e D F M . On c o m p l e t i o n o f t he d i s p l a y r e f r e s h , t h e DPU r e t u r n s c o n t r o l o f t h e DFM t o t h e CPU. The CPU w i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e g a i n c o n t r o l o f t h e DFM a t t h e s t a r t o f t h e n e x t d i s p l a y r e f r e s h even i f a f a u l t o c c u r s i n t h e DPU and no c o n t r o l i s r e t u r n e d . The DFM i s c u r r e n t l y made up o f f o u r I n t e l 2114 , l k x 4 b i t s t a t i c RAMS. These RAMs h a v e a minimum a c c e s s t i m e o f 450 n s e c , w h i c h i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h b o t h t h e CPU and the DPU i n s t r u c t i o n c y c l e t i m e s . 32 2 . 3 . 2 . 4 PILOT ENTRY DEVICE The P i l o t E n t r y D e v i c e (PED) i s c o n n e c t e d t o an i n p u t p o r t on t h e C P U . C u r r e n t l y , a CRT t e r m i n a l w i t h f u l l k e y b o a r d and RS232C t y p e f u l l - d u p l e x d a t a l i n k i s b e i n g u s e d to e m u l a t e t he P E D . The t e r m i n a l i s l i n k e d t o t h e CPU v i a t h e TMS9902 a s y n c h r o n o u s c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c o n t r o l l e r . H o w e v e r , i n p r a c t i c e t h e PED w i l l most l i k e l y c o n s i s t o f a s e t o f p rog rammab le f u n c t i o n k e y s s i m i l a r t o t h a t shown i n f i g u r e 1 3 . F i g u r e 1 3 . D i a g r a m o f p o s s i b l e PED c o n f i g u r a t i o n E a c h k e y w i l l r e p r e s e n t a p a r t i c u l a r f l i g h t phase r e q u i r i n g a s u b s e t o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s to be d i s p l a y e d . The k e y s w i l l l i g h t when d e p r e s s e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r e x e c u t i o n . An end o f command k e y w i l l be p r e s e n t , w h i c h must be d e p r e s s e d t o s i g n a l t h e CPU t h a t t h e p r e v i o u s k e y d e p r e s s e d i s t o be e x e c u t e d . T h i s c i r c u m v e n t s a c c i d e n t a l k e y h i t s . A c l e a r command k e y w i l l a l s o be p r e s e n t , f o r o b v i o u s r e a s o n s . A h a r d w a r e r e s e t k e y w i l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r s y s t e m r e s t a r t s , a f t e r f a t a l s y s t e m e r r o r s have b e e n d e t e c t e d . A d d i t i o n a l k e y s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e t o a l l o w t h e p i l o t t o s e l e c t i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u m e n t s . 33 2 . 3 . 3 CPU SOFTWARE 2 . 3 . 3 . 1 SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT TOOLS The CPU s o f t w a r e was g e n e r a t e d u s i n g s e v e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t t o o l s . The s o f t w a r e f o r t h e CPU was w r i t t e n and a s s e m b l e d on the AMDAHL 4 7 0 / V . A s s e m b l y was a c c o m p l i s h e d u s i n g a r e s i d e n t c r o s s a s s e m b l e r d e v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i s C P U . The c r o s s a s s e m b l e r f o r t h e 9900 was w r i t t e n u s i n g t h e g e n e r a l a s s e m b l e r GASS w h i c h was w r i t t e n f o r t h e IBM 370 /VM a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b y W. D e t t w i l e r [ 2 3 ] . The o b j e c t code was t h e n debugged i n s m a l l modu le s b y l o a d i n g t h e s e modu le s i n t o t h e RAM r e s i d e n t on t h e memory e x p a n s i o n b o a r d , and t h e n u s i n g t h e T M 9 9 0 / 4 0 1 - 1 TIBUG m o n i t o r to v e r i f y t h e c o d e . Once the code was t e s t e d i t was a g a i n c r e a t e d on the 470 and down l o a d e d v i a an ANN ARBOUR t e r m i n a l and a 1200 baud l i n k , t o an I n t e r n a t i o n a l M i c r o s y s t e m s M1000 PROM programmer where t h e code was l o a d e d i n t o EPROM. The TIBUG m o n i t o r a l l o w e d f a s t , e f f i c i e n t s o f t w a r e d e v e l o p m e n t b y s u p p l y i n g t h e c a p a b i l i t y t o l o a d memory, r e a d memory, s i n g l e s t e p , s e t b r e a k p o i n t s and s e a r c h . 34 2 . 3 . 3 . 2 R E A L - T I M E EXECUTIVE The CPU s o f t w a r e i s c e n t e r e d a r o u n d a m u l t i p l e p r i o r i t y , m u l t i p l e t a s k t y p e r e a l - t i m e e x e c u t i v e . The c h o i c e o f t h i s t y p e o f e x e c u t i v e was b a s e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g a s s u m p t i o n s made abou t t h e s y s t e m : 1) m u l t i p l e number o f t a s k s . 2) v a r i a b l e number o f t a s k s p e r p r i o r i t y . 3) p r i o r i t y changes d e f e r r e d w h i l e t h e t a s k i s q u e u e d . 4) i n t e r r u p t s a r e c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y queued f o r t a s k s o f i d e n t i c a l p r i o r i t y l e v e l s . 5) maximum number o f t a s k s t h a t w i l l be queued a t any one t i m e i s 10 . 6) h a r d w a r e i n t e r r u p t s c a n be s i m u l t a n e o u s , bu t o n l y s i n g l e t a s k p e r p r i o r i t y . 7) o n l y 16 l e v e l s o f h a r d w a r e i n t e r r u p t s a r e a l l o w e d . B e f o r e d e s c r i b i n g t h i s e x e c u t i v e i n d e t a i l , l e t us f i r s t l o o k b r i e f l y a t t h e j o b o f a r e a l - t i m e e x e c u t i v e . The r e a l - t i m e e x e c u t i v e l o o k s a f t e r t h e s c h e d u l i n g o f t a s k s i n t h e s y s t e m . When an i n t e r r u p t o c c u r s , t h e t a s k w h i c h was r u n n i n g a t t h e t i m e o f t h e i n t e r r u p t i s p r e - e m p t e d . T h i s t a s k , and t h e t a s k a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i n t e r r u p t a r e q u e u e d . The h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y t a s k i s t h e n s t a r t e d by t h e s c h e d u l e r . T a s k s w h i c h have b e e n p r e - e m p t e d and queued a r e i n a r e a d y p r e - e m p t e d o r RDYP s t a t e and i n t e r r u p t i n g t a s k s w h i c h have b e e n queued a r e i n a r e a d y - b l o c k e d o r RDYB s t a t e . T a s k s w h i c h a r e p r e - e m p t e d by t a s k s o f t h e same p r i o r i t y a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o have a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y t h a n t h e p r e - e m p t i n g t a s k . T h i s i m p l e m e n t s c h r o n o l o g i c a l q u e u i n g o f t a s k s o f t h e same p r i o r i t y l e v e l . 35 A t a s k may a l s o r e l i n q u i s h . T h i s o c c u r s when t h e t a s k h a s r u n t o c o m p l e t i o n . On r e l i n q u i s h i n g , t h e r e a l - t i m e e x e c u t i v e t h e n s c h e d u l e s o r a l l o c a t e s c o n t r o l t o t h e n e x t h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y t a s k i n t h e q u e u e . The r e a l - t i m e e x e c u t i v e f o r t h i s s y s t e m t a k e s a d v a n t a g e o f t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t he TI9900 t o d e v e l o p a n e f f i c i e n t e x e c u t i v e r e q u i r i n g a s m a l l amount o f s t o r a g e (164 w o r d s o f p r o g r a m s t o r e ) . To i l l u s t r a t e t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e e x e c u t i v e l e t us t a k e t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e . Suppose t h a t t h e CPU i s c u r r e n t l y i n t he Command Mode . When an i n t e r r u p t o c c u r s , t h e v a l u e o f t h e c u r r e n t p r o g r a m c o u n t e r , s t a t u s r e g i s t e r , and the l o c a t i o n o f t h e c u r r e n t r e g i s t e r s e t a r e s a v e d i n t h e new R 1 4 , R 1 5 , and R13 r e g i s t e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y . P r o g r a m e x e c u t i o n t h e n b e g i n s a t a l o c a t i o n s p e c i f i e d i n t h e i n t e r r u p t v e c t o r t a b l e i n t h e l o w e r end o f memory. The a d d r e s s o f t h e new r e g i s t e r s e t i s a l s o s p e c i f i e d i n t h i s t a b l e . Once i n t o the new t a s k , t h e p r i o r i t y o f t h e p r e - e m p t e d t a s k i s s a v e d and t h e p r i o r i t y o f t h e p r e - e m p t i n g t a s k s e t u p . The p r o g r a m t h e n b r a n c h e s t o t h e i n t e r r u p t s e r v i c e r o u t i n e . The i n t e r r u p t r o u t i n e f i r s t queues t h e p r e - e m p t e d t a s k . T h i s i s done b y i n s e r t i n g t h e t a s k ' s r u n s t a t u s i n f o r m a t i o n ( i e . , c u r r e n t p r o g r a m c o u n t e r , c u r r e n t r e g i s t e r l o c a t i o n , c u r r e n t s t a t u s r e g i s t e r and p r i o r i t y ) i n t o a l i n k e d l i s t . F i g u r e 14 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s l i n k e d l i s t . The t a s k ' s p o s i t i o n i n the l i s t i s dependen t on i t s p r i o r i t y , t h a t i s t o s ay t h e h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y i s a t t h e f r o n t and the l o w e s t p r i o r i t y i s a t t h e t a i l . I f t a s k s o f t h e same p r i o r i t y a l r e a d y 36 RDYC PRIORITY STATUS OLD PC O L D W P 0 0 0 PRIORITY STATUS OLD PC OLD W P 0 F i g u r e 14 . D i a g r a m o f RDYC l i s t e x i s t , t h e new t a s k w i l l be i n s e r t e d a f t e r t a s k s o f t h e same p r i o r i t y . Once t h e p r e - e m p t e d ( R D Y P ) t a s k i s q u e u e d , t h e p r e - e m p t i n g (RDYB) t a s k a l s o g e t s queued i n t h e same manne r . The s c h e d u l e r now a l l o c a t e s c o n t r o l t o t h e t a s k a t t h e head o f t h e l i s t and removes i t s s t a t u s f r o m t h e l i s t . The s t a t u s o f t h i s p r o g r a m i s resumed and the CPU b e g i n s e x e c u t i o n a t t h e s p e c i f i e d l o c a t i o n s . N o t e t h a t t h e p r e - e m p t e d t a s k may be a t t h e head o f t h e l i s t . The l i n k e d l i s t on w h i c h t h e t a s k s a r e queued i s c a l l e d a RDYC l i s t s i n c e i t h a n d l e s b o t h RDYB and RDYP t a s k s . The i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e t a s k s t o r e d i n the queue i s o f t e n c a l l e d t h e t a s k s t a t e v e c t o r ( T S V ) . F l o w c h a r t s d e s c r i b i n g t h e e x e c u t i v e c a n be found i n A p p e n d i x A . As c a n be s e e n f rom t h e p r e v i o u s d e s c r i p t i o n a l l i n t e r r u p t s , b o t h h a r d w a r e and s o f t w a r e , a r e queued by t h e e x e c u t i v e when t h e y o c c u r . S i m u l t a n e o u s h a r d w a r e i n t e r r u p t s a r e h a n d l e d b y t h e TMS9901 . T h i s c h i p g e n e r a t e s an i n t e r r u p t c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y d e v i c e c u r r e n t l y r e q u e s t i n g s e r v i c e . Once t h e e x e c u t i v e has queued t h i s 37 i n t e r r u p t t h e r e m a i n i n g l o w e r p r i o r i t y d e v i c e s r e q u e s t i n g s e r v i c e a r e t h e n queued i n a s i m i l a r manner . 38 2 . 3 . 3 . 3 COMMAND MODE The C P U ' s b a c k g r o u n d t a s k i s t h e Command M o d e . I n t h i s mode, t h e CPU m o n i t o r s t he PED, w a i t i n g f o r commands f r o m the p i l o t . Command k e y s w h i c h a r e d e p r e s s e d a r e echoed and b u f f e r e d u n t i l an end-of -command k e y i s d e t e c t e d . Once t h i s l a t t e r k e y i s d e t e c t e d , t h e command h a n d l e r compares t h e k e y s e n t e r e d t o a s e t o f t a b l e s s t o r e d i n EPROM. These t a b l e s a r e l i n k e d t o g e t h e r s u c h t h a t a v a l i d command w i l l end up a t a f i n a l t a b l e w i t h a p o i n t e r to t he t a s k s t a t e v e c t o r o f t h a t command. The command h a n d l e r g e n e r a t e s a s o f t w a r e i n t e r r u p t t o queue i t s e l f and t h e new t a s k i n t h e RDYC l i s t . The use o f a t a b l e - d r i v e n command h a n d l e r and r e a l - t i m e e x e c u t i v e g i v e s t h e CPU t h e f l e x i b i l i t y r e q u i r e d f o r t h e EADS. Commands a r e e a s i l y u p d a t e d o r appended to a s y s t e m s u c h as t h i s . To add a command, one s i m p l y e n t e r s t h e command code i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t a b l e s and d e c i d e s upon t h e p r i o r i t y and s t a t u s o f t h e t a s k t o be e x e c u t e d by t h i s command. No o t h e r work i s r e q u i r e d . As an example o f t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e command h a n d l e r r e f e r t o f i g u r e 1 5 . TYPE CHAR CON EOT TABLE! *see example i n t e x t TYPE CHAR EOT NEXT TABL EOC D EOT T5V NODE F i g u r e 1 5 . Command h a n d l e r t a b l e c o n f i g u r a t i o n 39 When t h e k e y s ED a r e d e p r e s s e d , f o l l o w e d by an end-of -command k e y , t h e command h a n d l e r w i l l c h e c k t a b l e 1. I f an E i s f o u n d , i t w i l l c h e c k f o r an end-of -command (EOC) s t a t u s w o r d . I f a CONTINUE(CON) t y p e i s f o u n d , t h e n t h e word f o l l o w i n g t h e E i s assumed t o be t h e a d d r e s s o f t h e t a b l e c o n t a i n i n g t h e p o s s i b l e n e x t k e y s . The compute r t h e n r e p e a t s t h e s e a r c h on t h e n e x t t a b l e . T h i s c o n t i n u e s u n t i l an EOC s t a t u s i s f o u n d o r an end o f t a b l e (EOT) i s r e a c h e d . I f an end-of -command s t a t u s i s r e a c h e d t h e command h a n d l e r t h e n sends i t s TSV t o t h e e x e c u t i v e . I f an EOT s t a t u s i s r e a c h e d , an e r r o r w a r n i n g i s s e n t t o t h e p i l o t and the command h a n d l e r w a i t s f o r t h e c o r r e c t e d command. F l o w c h a r t s and d i a g r a m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e Command Mode c a n be found i n A p p e n d i x A . 40 2 . 3 . 3 . 4 D I S P L A Y MODE The m a j o r i t y o f t h e CPU t i m e w i l l l i k e l y be s p e n t i n t h e D i s p l a y Mode . I n t h i s mode, t h e CPU g a t h e r s i n f o r m a t i o n f rom t h e DSM, p r o c e s s e s t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , and s t o r e s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a l o n g w i t h o t h e r a s s o c i a t e d DPU commands i n the d i s p l a y f i l e b u f f e r . E a c h d i s p l a y f o r m a t r e q u e s t e d by t h e p i l o t h a s s e v e r a l d i s p l a y t a s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . P o i n t e r s t o t h e s e t a s k s a r e l o a d e d i n t o a d i s p l a y t a s k b u f f e r , when t h e p i l o t r e q u e s t s a p a r t i c u l a r f o r m a t . A r e p e t i t i o n c o u n t e r i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a c h g roup o f t h e s e d i s p l a y t a s k s . T h i s i n f o r m s t h e CPU o f how o f t e n t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s t o be p r o c e s s e d . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e d i s p l a y c y c l e , t h e CPU s t a r t s s c a n n i n g the d i s p l a y t a s k b u f f e r , shown i n f i g u r e 16 . The r e p e t i t i o n c o u n t e r , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a c h t a s k , i s t h e n l o g i c a l l y i n v e r t e d and anded w i t h t he c u r r e n t r e p e t i t i o n c o u n t , w h i c h i s u p d a t e d a f t e r e a c h r e f r e s h c y c l e . T h i s method e n a b l e s t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a t a i l o r e d u p d a t e f r e q u e n c y ( i e . , 0003 w o u l d cause an u p d a t e once e v e r y 4 r e f r e s h c y c l e s ) . A z e r o r e s u l t f rom t h i s o p e r a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s d i s p l a y t a s k s h o u l d be p r o c e s s e d by t h e CPU and t h e r e s u l t i n g DPU commands l o a d e d i n t o t h e d i s p l a y f i l e b u f f e r . D i s p l a y t a s k s a r e s t r u c t u r e d as i n f i g u r e 16 . POINTER REPCOUNT TASK ADDR 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 4 0 0 2 0 41 T Y P E DATA 0 3 DATA EOT TO OTHER DISPLAY TASKS F i g u r e 16 . S t r u c t u r e o f d i s p l a y t a s k s The t y p e f i e l d , shown i n f i g u r e 16 , s p e c i f i e s t h e t y p e o f d i s p l a y t a s k t o f o l l o w . The f o l l o w i n g a r e t h e c u r r e n t d i s p l a y t a s k t y p e s : 03 - g e n e r a t e s a l i s t o f s t a t i c DPU commands 04 - c a u s e s a jump t o a d i s p l a y d a t a u p d a t e r o u t i n e 05 - g e n e r a t e s a l i s t o f dynamic d a t a i n RAM FE - s p e c i f i e s an end o f t a s k S t a t i c DPU commands r e s i d e i n EPROM and c o n t a i n t h e n e c e s s a r y DPU commands t o draw l a b e l s and s t a t i c s y m b o l s on t h e d i s p l a y . Dynamic d a t a r e s i d e s i n RAM and i s u s u a l l y u p d a t e d f rom a d i s p l a y d a t a u p d a t e r o u t i n e w h i c h r e a d s t h e DSM, p r o c e s s e s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n and s t o r e s i t i n RAM. The e n d - o f - t a s k t y p e s i m p l y i n d i c a t e s t o t h e d i s p l a y t a s k h a n d l e r t h a t t h e end o f a d i s p l a y t a s k h a s b e e n r e a c h e d . 42 The d i s p l a y u p d a t e r o u t i n e s m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e a r e t h e k e y e l e m e n t s o f t h e d i s p l a y t a s k h a n d l e r . These r o u t i n e s l o o k a f t e r r e a d i n g t h e r e q u i r e d d a t a f r o m t h e DSM, c h e c k i n g t h e d a t a f o r e r r o r c o n d i t i o n s and p r o c e s s i n g t h e d a t a t o a r r i v e a t t h e r e q u i r e d DFM commands. The d i s p l a y t a s k h a n d l e r l o a d s t h e r e q u i r e d DPU commands g e n e r a t e d by e a c h d i s p l a y t a s k i n t o a d i s p l a y f i l e b u f f e r . I n the d i s p l a y f i l e b u f f e r , DPU commands a r e p r e c e d e d by t h e number o f commands and t h e s t a r t i n g l o c a t i o n o f t h e s e commands i n t h e DFM t o a l l o w random u p d a t e o f t he DFM. Once the d i s p l a y t a s k h a n d l e r has s canned t h e c o m p l e t e d i s p l a y t a s k b u f f e r , i t r e l i n q u i s h e s i t s e l f t o t h e r e a l - t i m e e x e c u t i v e and any r e m a i n i n g l o w p r i o r i t y t a s k s a r e p r o c e s s e d b e f o r e the s t a r t o f t h e U p d a t e M o d e . 43 2 . 3 . 3 . 5 UPDATE MODE The U p d a t e Mode b e g i n s once t h e DPU h a s f i n i s h e d r e f r e s h i n g t h e s c r e e n ( F i g u r e 9 ) . The DPU s i g n a l s t h e CPU o f t h i s e v e n t b y g e n e r a t i n g a l e v e l 6 i n t e r r u p t . T h i s a l l o w s t h e d i s p l a y t a s k h a n d l e r w h i c h i s a t a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y l e v e l t o f i n i s h . I n t h e U p d a t e Mode , t h e CPU i n s e r t s t h e DPU commands s t o r e d i n t h e d i s p l a y f i l e b u f f e r i n t o t h e DFM a t t he a d d r e s s e s s p e c i f i e d i n t h e l o c a t i o n s p r e c e d i n g each s e t o f DFM commands s t o r e d i n t h e d i s p l a y f i l e b u f f e r . Once t h i s i s c o m p l e t e d , t h e u p d a t e mode r e l i n q u i s h e s t o any r e m a i n i n g l o w e r p r i o r i t y t a s k s . F l o w c h a r t s f o r t he r o u t i n e s p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d c a n be found i n A p p e n d i x A a t t h e end o f t h i s r e p o r t . The p r o g r a m l i s t i n g s f o r t h e CPU a r e l o c a t e d i n A p p e n d i x B . 44 2 . 4 D I S P L A Y PROCESSING UNIT (DPU) 2 . 4 . 1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION As m e n t i o n e d i n S e c t i o n 2 . 1 , t h e D P U ' s m a i n t a s k i s t o r e a d DPU commands s t o r e d i n the DFM and r e f r e s h the CRT d i s p l a y v i a a c o - o r d i n a t e d r i v e n v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r . The CRT i s r e f r e s h e d a t a r a t e o f 50Hz t o p r e v e n t s c r e e n f l i c k e r . The DPU i s s t a r t e d by t h e CPU and h a l t s i t s e l f once a l l commands i n t h e DFM h a v e b e e n p r o c e s s e d . F o r r e a s o n s t o be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e DPU i s c o n f i g u r e d a r o u n d an AMD2900 s e r i e s b i t - s l i c e m i c r o s e q u e n c e r and a r i t h m e t i c and l o g i c u n i t ( A L U ) . The s o f t w a r e f o r t h i s a r c h i t e c t u r e c a n be s e p a r a t e d i n t o two l e v e l s . The h i g h e s t l e v e l i s commonly t e rmed t h e macro l e v e l . The DPU commands make up t h e macro l e v e l i n s t r u c t i o n s e t . The l o w e s t l e v e l i s t e rmed t h e m i c r o l e v e l . The p rog rams w r i t t e n a t t h i s l e v e l , u s i n g t h e m i c r o i n s t r u c t i o n s a v a i l a b l e , make up t h e f i r m w a r e f o r t he D P U . The t e r m f i r m w a r e i s u sed i n s t e a d o f s o f t w a r e s i n c e i n s t r u c t i o n s a t t h i s l e v e l a r e s t r o n g l y l i n k e d t o t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e m a c h i n e , b u t y e t c a n be e a s i l y a l t e r e d i f d e s i g n changes a r e n e e d e d . 45 2 . 4 . 2 DPU MACRO COMMANDS The use o f a m i c r o p r o g r a m m a b l e a r c h i t e c t u r e e n a b l e s t h e d e s i g n o f o n e ' s own macro i n s t r u c t i o n s e t . The d e s i g n o f t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s e t i n v o l v e s s e v e r a l h a r d w a r e / s o f t w a r e t r a d e o f f s i n t h e D P U . These t r a d e o f f s i n c l u d e t h e amount o f s o f t w a r e and i t s d e v e l o p m e n t t i m e , speed o f e x e c u t i o n , and w r i t i n g t i m e and h a r d w a r e c o s t , c o m p l e x i t y , s i z e and r e l i a b i l i t y . The d e s i g n o f t h e DPU macro command s e t f o r t h i s EADS was b a s e d l a r g e l y on t h e work done i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a DPU macro command s e t f o r t h e s p a c e s h u t t l e [ 1 9 ] . T h i s w o r k was c a r r i e d ou t a t t h e C h a r l e s S t a r k D r a p e r L a b o r a t o r y i n M a s s a c h u s e t t s . As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , a 16 b i t macro word w i d t h was d e c i d e d u p o n . The 16 b i t w i d t h was c h o s e n b e c a u s e o f i t s c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h t h e C P U . O n l y one CPU w o r d i s r e q u i r e d f o r e a c h DPU command. A l s o , t h e 16 b i t word w i d t h a l l o w s t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f a good DPU i n s t r u c t i o n s e t f o r a 10 b i t X 10 b i t d i s p l a y c o - o r d i n a t e s p a c e . A l i s t o f t h e DPU commands i s g i v e n i n f i g u r e 1 7 . As shown i n f i g u r e 17 , t h e DPU commands c a n be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s , v e c t o r commands and c o n t r o l commands. The v e c t o r commands a r e t h o s e commands w h i c h a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e m o v i n g o f t h e beam on t h e s c r e e n . The c o n t r o l commands a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e s equence i n w h i c h the DPU commands, c o n t a i n e d i n t h e DFM, a r e e x e c u t e d . The DPU commands i n e a c h o f t h e s e two g r o u p s c o n s i s t o f a 4 b i t opcode and a 12 b i t a r g u m e n t . The opcode e n a b l e s t h e DPU t o s e l e c t t h e c o r r e c t m i c r o r o u t i n e needed t o i n t e r p r e t a p a r t i c u l a r 0 3 4 OPCODE 15 ARGUMENT NOP JUMP TO SUBROUTINE 0 0 0 1 SUBROUTINE ADDRESS NOT USED 0 0 1 0 DRAW SYMBOL 0 0 1 1 SYMBOL ROM ADDRESS SET BRIGHTNESS 0 1 0 0 BRIGHTNESS L E V E L BRANCH 0 1 0 1 BRANCH ADDRESS NOT USED 0 1 1 0 HALT SHORT VECTOR 1 0 0 0 X CO-ORDINATE 1 0 0 1 V\% Y CO-ORDINATE 010 V\U DRAW SHORT VECTOR SYMBOL ROM 1 1 o o \MU - F RETURN FROM SUBROUTINE 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 NOT USED 1 1 1 0 NOT USED 1 1 1 1 F i g u r e 1 7 . L i s t o f DPU commands 47 macro i n s t r u c t i o n . The argument mean ing depends on the p a r t i c u l a r opcode b e i n g e x e c u t e d . The v e c t o r commands c o n s i s t o f 1) draw s h o r t v e c t o r 2) l o a d 10 b i t X c o - o r d i n a t e 3) l o a d 10 b i t Y c o - o r d i n a t e 4) draw v e c t o r 5) s e t beam b r i g h t n e s s 6) draw s y m b o l The V / l b i t ( v i s i b l e / i n v i s i b l e ) , f o u n d i n s h o r t v e c t o r and d raw v e c t o r commands, c o n t r o l s t h e beam i n t e n s i t y . I f t h e b i t i s s e t t o 1, t h e beam i s i n t e n s i f i e d when t h e v e c t o r i s drawn and t h u s w i l l be v i s i b l e on t h e s c r e e n . I f t h i s b i t i s s e t t o 0 , t h e beam w i l l be moved to t h e n e x t l o c a t i o n b u t no v e c t o r w i l l be v i s i b l e on t h e s c r e e n . The R / A ( r e l a t i v e / a b s o l u t e ) b i t d e t e r m i n e s w h e t h e r t h e v e c t o r w i l l be d rawn r e l a t i v e t o the c u r r e n t l o c a t i o n o r r e l a t i v e t o t h e a b s o l u t e [ 0 , 0 ] l o c a t i o n . T h i s [ 0 , 0 ] l o c a t i o n i s t h e l o w e r , l e f t hand c o r n e r o f t h e s c r e e n . T h u s , i f t h e R / A b i t i s a 1, t h e v a l u e o f t h e a rgument w i l l be added t o t h e c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n t o a r r i v e a t t h e new beam p o s i t i o n . O t h e r w i s e t h e c o - o r d i n a t e s w i l l be t r e a t e d as a b s o l u t e . The s h o r t v e c t o r was s e l e c t e d t o e n a b l e t h e DPU t o d raw v e c t o r s h a v i n g a maximum l e n g t h o f 16 d i v i s i o n s i n e i t h e r o r b o t h X and Y c o - o r d i n a t e s w i t h one DPU command. T h i s p r o v e s t o be a g r e a t memory s a v e r when d r a w i n g s y m b o l s w h i c h r e q u i r e many s h o r t v e c t o r s . 48 The l o a d 10 b i t X and 10 b i t Y commands, p l u s d raw v e c t o r command, e n a b l e s t h e u s e r to span t h e t o t a l c o - o r d i n a t e s p a c e o f t h e s c r e e n . The l o a d X and l o a d Y commands a r e s e p a r a t e f rom the d raw v e c t o r command t o e n a b l e t h e DPU t o move t h e beam s e v e r a l t i m e s a l o n g one a x i s w i t h o u t r e s p e c i f y i n g t h e v a l u e o f t h e o t h e r a x i s . The s e t b e a m - b r i g h t n e s s command e n a b l e s t h e DPU t o s e l e c t how b r i g h t t h e beam a p p e a r s when i n t e n s i f i e d on t h e s c r e e n . T h i s i n s t r u c t i o n i s u s e f u l i n m a i n t a i n i n g c o n s t a n t b r i g h t n e s s v e c t o r s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r l e n g t h . T h i s i n s t r u c t i o n i s a l s o u s e f u l i n h i g h l i g h t i n g w a r n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s c r e e n . The d raw s y m b o l command e n a b l e s t he DPU t o a c c e s s t h e s y m b o l ROM a t t h e s p e c i f i e d l o c a t i o n and t o e x e c u t e t h e DPU commands b e g i n n i n g a t t h i s l o c a t i o n . The s h o r t v e c t o r commands s t o r e d i n t h i s ROM h a v e a d i f f e r e n t opcode t o e n a b l e the DPU t o s t a y i n t h e ROM when e x e c u t i n g t h e s e i n s t r u c t i o n s . The NOP command r e t u r n s t h e DPU t o t h e n e x t command i n t h e DFM. The c o n t r o l g roup c o n s i s t s o f t h e b r a n c h i n s t r u c t i o n , jump t o s u b r o u t i n e i n s t r u c t i o n , r e t u r n f rom s u b r o u t i n e i n s t r u c t i o n , and NOP i n s t r u c t i o n . The b r a n c h i n s t r u c t i o n e n a b l e s t h e DPU t o jump t o a s p e c i f i e d l o c a t i o n i n the DFM. T h i s i n s t r u c t i o n i s u s e f u l i n j u m p i n g o v e r a r e a s o f code s t o r e d i n t h e DFM t h a t c o n t a i n DPU s u b r o u t i n e s . The jump t o s u b r o u t i n e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s o e n a b l e s t he DPU t o jump t o a s p e c i f i e d l o c a t i o n i n t h e D F M . H o w e v e r , t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e n e x t i n s t r u c t i o n to be e x e c u t e d on r e t u r n i n g f rom the 49 s u b r o u t i n e i s s t o r e d i n a r e t u r n a d d r e s s r e g i s t e r . O n l y one l e v e l o f s u b r o u t i n i n g i s a l l o w e d . T h i s i n s t r u c t i o n i s e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l i n s a v i n g DPU code where r e p e t i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s s u c h as r u l e r s a r e t o be d r a w n . The r e t u r n f rom s u b r o u t i n e i n s t r u c t i o n b e g i n s e x e c u t i o n a t t h e l o c a t i o n p r e v i o u s l y s t o r e d i n the r e t u r n a d d r e s s r e g i s t e r . F i n a l l y , t h e NOP i n s t r u c t i o n c a u s e s a b r a n c h to t h e F e t c h r o u t i n e i n t h e m i c r o c o d e . T h i s c a u s e s a r e t u r n f rom t h e draw s y m b o l m i c r o r o u t i n e . I t c a n a l s o be used as a 3 m i c r o i n s t r u c t i o n c y c l e w a i t when e x e c u t e d o u t s i d e o f t h e d raw s y m b o l r o u t i n e . O t h e r DPU command t y p e s were c o n s i d e r e d b u t were n o t i n c l u d e d due t o t h e h a r d w a r e c o m p l e x i t y r e q u i r e d and t h e i r l i m i t e d u s e f u l n e s s to t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a i r b o r n e g r a p h i c s . These t y p e s i n c l u d e d g e n e r a t e c i r c l e , d raw dashed l i n e , r o t a t e s y m b o l and b r a n c h on compare . A l t h o u g h n o t i m p l e m e n t e d a t t h i s t i m e , DPU opcodes a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r o t h e r p o s s i b l e i n s t r u c t i o n s . These c o u l d i n c l u d e s e t s c a l e and r e s e t beam, w h i c h c o u l d be i m p l e m e n t e d w i t h some a d d i t i o n a l h a r d w a r e [ 2 4 ] , [ 2 5 ] . 50 2 . 4 . 3 DPU HARDWARE As a l l u d e d t o e a r l i e r , t h e t a s k o f r e f r e s h i n g t h e d i s p l a y i s s i m p l e and v e r y s p e c i a l i z e d . The DPU must r e f r e s h t h e d i s p l a y b a s e d on commands i t r e a d s f rom the DFM. The e x e c u t i o n o f t h e s e commands must be done q u i c k l y w i t h as l i t t l e h a r d w a r e o v e r h e a d as p o s s i b l e . To t a i l o r a c o n v e n t i o n a l , g e n e r a l p u r p o s e m i c r o c o m p u t e r s y s t e m , c o n t a i n i n g an 8 o r 16 b i t m i c r o p r o c e s s o r c h i p and a s s o c i a t e d h a r d w a r e , f o r t h i s j o b w o u l d be a cumbersome t a s k i n d e e d . A g r e a t d e a l o f t h e power i n h e r e n t i n s u c h a g e n e r a l p u r p o s e s y s t e m w o u l d go u n u s e d . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e w o u l d be s p e n t i n d e b u g g i n g a h a r d w i r e d s y s t e m t o do t h e j o b . Once s u c h a s y s t e m was d e s i g n e d i t w o u l d be v e r y i n f l e x i b l e i n t e rms o f a d d i n g more f a c i l i t i e s t o t h e s y s t e m a t a l a t e r d a t e . The f l e x i b i l i t y and ease o f change c a n , h o w e v e r , be met w i t h o u t t h e i n e f f i c i e n c i e s i n h e r e n t i n a g e n e r a l p u r p o s e m i c r o c o m p u t e r , b y t h e use o f a m i c r o p r o g r a m m a b l e a r c h i t e c t u r e [ 2 6 ] . The mic rop rog rammed a r c h i t e c t u r e y i e l d s a mach ine d e s i g n s p e c i a l i z e d enough t o p r o d u c e e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n o f i t s f a c i l i t i e s , y e t f l e x i b l e enough t o accomoda te f u t u r e c h a n g e s . The a d v e n t o f b i t - s l i c e f a m i l i e s , s u c h as t he AMD2900 s e r i e s , e n a b l e s t h e d e s i g n e r t o meet t h i s c r i t e r i a w i t h o u t t h e l a r g e d e s i g n and t e s t i n g o v e r h e a d r e q u i r e d i n a h a r d w i r e d m a c h i n e . A b i t - s l i c e p r o c e s s o r i s b u i l t u s i n g a s e t o f L S I components t h a t o p e r a t e on 4 b i t chunks o r s l i c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n . F i g u r e 18 shows t h e b a s i c a r c h i t e c t u r e o f a 51 b i t - s l i c e p r o c e s s o r [ 2 7 ] F i g u r e 18 . B i t s l i c e a r c h i t e c t u r e As c a n be s e e n , t h e b i t - s l i c e p r o c e s s o r c o n s i s t s o f two s e c t i o n s . One s e c t i o n i s b u i l t a r o u n d t h e ALU e l e m e n t and m a n i p u l a t e s t h e d a t a . The o t h e r s e c t i o n i s b u i l t a r o u n d t h e m i c r o s e q u e n c e r e l emen t and h a n d l e s t h e c o n t r o l and s e q u e n c i n g o f t h e m i c r o i n s t r u c t i o n s . A t t h e t i m e o f t h e DPU d e s i g n , s i x b i t - s l i c e f a m i l i e s were a v a i l a b l e . These were the M o n o l i t h i c M e m o r i e s 6 7 0 1 / 6 7 1 1 0 , I n t e l 3000 s e r i e s , Advanced M i c r o D e v i c e s 2900 s e r i e s , F a i r c h i l d ' s M a c r o - l o g i c s e r i e s , Texas I n s t r u m e n t ' s 74S481 /82 and SBP0400 and t h e M o t o r o l a 10800 s e r i e s . The s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a u sed f o r t he DPU was as f o l l o w s : 1) A v a i l a b i l i t y 2) 4 b i t - s l i c e a r c h i t e c t u r e t o r e d u c e c h i p c o u n t 52 3) C a p a b i l i t y f o r 200 n sec c y c l e t i m e f o r f u t u r e speed enhancements 4) An i n t e r n a l r e g i s t e r f i l e The F a i r c h i l d and I n t e l s e r i e s a r e o n l y 2 b i t s w i d e . The Texas I n s t r u m e n t ' s s e r i e s and t h e M o t o r o l a s e r i e s l a c k an i n t e r n a l r e g i s t e r f i l e . T h i s l e a v e s t h e AMD2900 s e r i e s p r o c e s s o r . T h i s p r o c e s s o r p r o m i s e d a l o w c h i p c o u n t when i n t e r f a c e d t o t h e AMD2909 m i c r o s e q u e n c e r , was c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e , and c o u l d meet t h e 200 n s e c c y c l e t i m e r e q u i r e m e n t . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , t h e AMD2901 ALU and AMD2909 m i c r o s e q u e n c e r were s e l e c t e d as t h e b a s i c e l e m e n t s i n t h e D P U . A b l o c k d i a g r a m o f t h e DPU i s shown i n f i g u r e 19 and t h e c i r c u i t s c h e m a t i c s f o r t h e d i s p l a y p r o c e s s o r c a n be f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x E . I n o r d e r t o a l l o w t h e use o f a v a i l a b l e EPROM f o r t h e c o n t r o l s t o r e o f t h e D P U , t h e c y c l e t i m e was i n c r e a s e d t o t w i c e the CPU c y c l e t i m e o r 666 n s e c . The DPU was h o w e v e r , d e s i g n e d to a l l o w a 200nsec c y c l e t i m e s h o u l d f a s t e r PROMs come a v a i l a b l e . As s u g g e s t e d e a r l i e r , t h e m i c r o i n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e mic rop rogrammed m a c h i n e a r e s t r o n g l y l i n k e d t o t h e m a c h i n e a r c h i t e c t u r e . I t i s b e s t t h e n to i n c l u d e t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e DPU f i r m w a r e w i t h t h a t o f t h e h a r d w a r e c o n f i g u r a t i o n . F i r s t l e t us t r a c e t h r o u g h t h e e x e c u t i o n o f a DPU command, r e f e r r i n g t o t h e d i a g r a m i n f i g u r e 19 . A DPU command i s r e a d f rom t h e DFM d u r i n g t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e p r e v i o u s m i c r o i n s t r u c t i o n . The a d d r e s s o f t h i s DPU command i s h e l d i n t h e 10 b i t macro a d d r e s s r e g i s t e r . The uppe r 4 b i t s o f t h e MEMC C P U r ADDR BUSL 12- 3 C P U D A T A 1 2:1 • s J 2 D F M M L P X ^ 12 MACRO ]fiDDR REG 10 F LRJ He "To L^: <'16 [ B U F F E R | : SYMBOL R O M 16 S Y M B O L [ADDR REG ,'16 12 LONG L A T C H SHORT X L A T C H uSEQ 10 n o CONTROL STORE 20 | PIPELINE REGISTER SHORT Y L A T C H CONTROL L A T C H 8 PNTENSITYI L A T C H /12 A L U A L U QON' MEMORY CONTROL L A T C H CONTROL - C = - M E M C ROL R A M P CONTROL -LC CLOCK CONTROL ICON 12 INTENSITY CONTROL ICON. M D no '10' C L x b M '10 " no t M D V t "lO Y a F i g u r e 1 9 . B l o c k d i a g r a m o f DPU 1-<* 10 M D t '10 LO 54 command a r e padded w i t h 4 r i g h t m o s t z e r o s p r o v i d i n g t h e 8 b i t e n t r y a d d r e s s o f t h e m i c r o r o u t i n e u sed t o r e a l i z e t h i s DPU command. T h i s scheme l i m i t s t h e maximum number o f m i c r o i n s t r u c t i o n s t o 16 i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r e a c h DPU command. The r e m a i n i n g 12 b i t s o f t h e DPU command a r e l o a d e d i n t h e argument l a t c h e s . E a c h o f t h e s e l a t c h e s s t o r e s t h e argument o f a p o s s i b l e DPU command f o r m . These argument l a t c h e s w i l l l a t e r be used as ALU s o u r c e o p e r a n d s . The e n t r y a d d r e s s fo rmed f rom t h e uppe r f o u r b i t s o f t h e DPU command i s p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h e m i c r o s e q u e n c e r t o p o i n t t o t h e s t a r t i n g a d d r e s s o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e m i c r o r o u t i n e . E a c h m i c r o i n s t r u c t i o n f e t c h e d f rom c o n t r o l s t o r e i s l o a d e d i n t o a 20 b i t p i p e l i n e r e g i s t e r ( i n s t r u c t i o n r e g i s t e r ) w h i c h e n a b l e s f e t c h i n g o f t h e n e x t m i c r o i n s t r u c t i o n w h i l e e x e c u t i n g t h e c u r r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n . A d d r e s s i n g o f t h e r e s t o f t h e m i c r o r o u t i n e i s done b y t h e m i c r o s e q u e n c e r unde r c o n t r o l o f t he NXT f i e l d i n t h e m i c r o i n s t r u c t i o n . T h e r e a r e two b a s i c m i c r o i n s t r u c t i o n f o r m a t s . E a c h o f t h e s e f o r m a t s have s e v e r a l f i e l d s w h i c h c o n t r o l t h e d e v i c e s t h a t make up t h e p r o c e s s i n g u n i t . The two f o r m a t s and t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g f i e l d s a r e shown i n f i g u r e 2 0 . A d e t a i l e d b reakdown o f e a c h f i e l d c a n be found i n A p p e n d i x C . The f i r s t f o r m a t i s u sed f o r a r i t h m e t i c o p e r a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g t h e A L U . The e n a b l e b i t e n a b l e s t h e c l o c k t o the ALU w h i c h i s n o r m a l l y h e l d i n a s t o p p e d mode. The s e c o n d f o r m a t i s u s e d t o imp lemen t p r o g r a m c o n t r o l s u c h as b r a n c h i n g , o r h a l t i n g t h e p r o c e s s o r t o w a i t f o r a v e c t o r to 55 0 • 2 3 5 6 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 13 1 5 16 18 X A L S ALD REG SEL MEM INC NXT E "a B BRANCH ADDRESS MEM INC NXT 0 9 1011 1 2 1 3 1 5 1 6 . 1 8 1 9 F i g u r e 2 0 . M i c r o i n s t r u c t i o n f i e l d s be d r a w n . 56 2 . 4 . 3 . 1 ALU FORMAT F i g u r e 21 shows t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e AMD2901 ALU s l i c e . T h r e e o f t h e s e s l i c e s make up t h e 12 b i t ALU u s e d i n t h i s s y s t e m . »l »l »! F i g u r e 2 1 . S t r u c t u r e o f ALU s l i c e The ALU f u n c t i o n s a r e decoded i n t h e 2901 h a r d w a r e , b a s e d on t h e DPU command c u r r e n t l y b e i n g e x e c u t e d . T h i s r e d u c e s t h e m i c r o c o d e o v e r h e a d i n c h e c k i n g f o r r e l a t i v e o r a b s o l u t e v e c t o r s and n e g a t i v e o r p o s i t i v e o f f s e t s . The ALU f u n c t i o n s decoded a r e a d d , s u b t r a c t and p a s s . The p a s s a l l o w s d a t a s e l e c t e d by t h e ALU s o u r c e t o b y p a s s t h e ALU and go d i r e c t l y t o t h e d e s t i n a t i o n . 57 T h i s i s c o n v e n i e n t when l o a d i n g t h e macro a d d r e s s r e g i s t e r . f r o m the r e t u r n - f r o m - s u b r o u t i n e r e g i s t e r o r t h e b r i g h t n e s s D / A f r o m the b r i g h t n e s s l a t c h . The ALU s o u r c e o p e r a n d s ( A L S ) may be s e l e c t e d f rom t h e argument l a t c h e s , o r t h e macro a d d r e s s r e g i s t e r . Two o t h e r s i g n a l s a r e a l s o decoded f rom the ALU s o u r c e f i e l d . These a r e t h e h a l t s t r o b e , u s e d t o i n d i c a t e an end o f r e f r e s h c y c l e , and t h e l o a d symbo l a d d r e s s s t r o b e , u s e d t o l o a d t h e s y m b o l ROM a d d r e s s r e g i s t e r on a d raw s y m b o l command. These s o u r c e s a r e o p e r a t e d upon by t h e ALU a l o n g w i t h t h e d a t a s t o r e d i n 4 o f t h e 16 g e n e r a l p u r p o s e r e g i s t e r s i n t h e A L U . The g e n e r a l p u r p o s e r e g i s t e r i s s e l e c t e d b y t h e 2 b i t r e g i s t e r s e l e c t f i e l d (REG S E L ) . The ALU o u t p u t d e s t i n a t i o n (ALD) may be any o f t h e 4 g e n e r a l p u r p o s e r e g i s t e r s u s u a b l e as ALU s o u r c e s , t h e b r i g h t n e s s c o n t r o l , t h e macro a d d r e s s r e g i s t e r o r t he X and Y c o - o r d i n a t e l a t c h e s o f t h e v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r . T h r e e b i t s ( 0 - 2 ) a r e l e f t a v a i l a b l e i n t h e ALU f o r m a t f o r f u t u r e enhancement o f m i c r o c a p a b i l i t i e s . 58 2 . 4 . 3 . 2 BRANCH FORMAT The b r a n c h f o r m a t i s u sed t o e x e c u t e u n c o n d i t i o n a l m i c r o i n s t r u c t i o n b r a n c h e s , and t o c o n t r o l t he v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r . The 8 b i t b r a n c h a d d r e s s s p e c i f i e d i n the b r a n c h f o r m a t i s c o n n e c t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e 2909 m i c r o s e q u e n c e r . I f t h e NXT f i e l d s p e c i f i e s a b r a n c h , t h e n t h i s a d d r e s s i s p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h e m i c r o s e q u e n c e r and a d d r e s s e s t h e n e x t m i c r o i n s t r u c t i o n t o be e x e c u t e d i n m i c r o s t o r e . The b r a n c h f o r m a t a l s o c o n t a i n s t h e v e c t o r c o n t r o l b i t . When t h i s b i t i s s e t , t h e v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r e x e c u t e s a v e c t o r draw o p e r a t i o n on t h e CRT. T h i s o p e r a t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n s e c t i o n 2 . 5 . 2 . 59 2 . 4 . 3 . 3 COMMON F I E L D S Common t o a l l m i c r o i n s t r u c t i o n f o r m a t s a r e t h e MEM, I N C , NXT, and ENAB f i e l d s . A l l o p t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e f i e l d s as w e l l as t h o s e m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y c a n be found i n A p p e n d i x C . The MEM f i e l d i s a 2 b i t f i e l d w h i c h s e l e c t s e i t h e r t he DFM o r s y m b o l ROM as t h e memory c o n t a i n i n g t h e c u r r e n t DFM command i n s t r u c t i o n . The INC f i e l d c o n t r o l s t h e i n c r e m e n t i n g o f t h e DFM a d d r e s s r e g i s t e r and symbo l ROM a d d r e s s r e g i s t e r . The ENAB f i e l d e n a b l e s o r d i s a b l e s t h e ALU c l o c k , so t h a t d a t a i s n o t d e s t r o y e d when e x e c u t i n g b r a n c h f o r m a t i n s t r u c t i o n s . The NXT f i e l d c o n t r o l s f r o m where and how t h e m i c r o s e q u e n c e r w i l l s e l e c t t h e n e x t m i c r o i n s t r u c t i o n a d d r e s s . F i g u r e 22 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e AMD2909 m i c r o s e q u e n c e r . The m i c r o s e q u e n c e r c o n t a i n s a f o u r i n p u t m u l t i p l e x e r t h a t i s u sed t o s e l e c t e i t h e r t h e opcode d e r i v e d e n t r y a d d r e s s , t h e b r a n c h a d d r e s s f r o m t h e b r a n c h f o r m a t , t h e m i c r o p r o g r a m c o u n t e r ( t h e n e x t s e q u e n t i a l a d d r e s s ) o r a s u b r o u t i n e s t a c k , a s t he s o u r c e o f t h e n e x t m i c r o i n s t r u c t i o n a d d r e s s [ 2 8 ] . T h i s m u l t i p l e x e r i s c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e f o u r b i t NXT f i e l d . D u r i n g a r e s e t o p e r a t i o n , t h e m i c r o s e q u e n c e r a d d r e s s i s s e t t o z e r o t h u s c a u s i n g the i n i t i a l i z a t i o n r o u t i n e i n c o n t r o l s t o r e t o be e x e c u t e d on t h e n e x t c l o c k c y c l e . The m i c r o c o d e u sed f o r t h e c u r r e n t v e r s i o n o f t h e DPU command l i s t c a n be found i n A p p e n d i x F . F i g u r e 2 2 . S t r u c t u r e o f m i c r o s e q u e n c e r s l i c e 61 2 . 5 VECTOR GENERATOR 2 . 5 . 1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION The v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r must a c c e p t X and Y c o - o r d i n a t e s f r o m the DPU and on command f rom t h e DPU, d raw a l i n e o f s p e c i f e d i n t e n s i t y b e t w e e n the p r e v i o u s l y s u p p l i e d c o - o r d i n a t e s and t h e most r e c e n t l y s u p p l i e d c o - o r d i n a t e s , i e . , t he s t a r t and end c o - o r d i n a t e s . The v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r s h o u l d t h e n t r e a t t h e l a s t end c o - o r d i n a t e s as t h e new s t a r t c o - o r d i n a t e s and be r e a d y t o a c c e p t t h e new end c o - o r d i n a t e s . The g e n e r a t e d l i n e s h o u l d be s t r a i g h t , s h o u l d b e g i n and end a t t h e d e s i r e d l o c a t i o n s , and t h e i n t e n s i t y s h o u l d be r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t a l o n g t h e l i n e . T h e r e a r e two p o s s i b l e a p p r o a c h e s t o v e c t o r g e n e r a t i o n . E i t h e r t h e p o i n t s on a s t r a i g h t l i n e a r e c a l c u l a t e d d i g i t a l l y and t h e l i n e t h e n drawn by i l l u m i n a t i n g t h e s e p o i n t s , o r an a n a l o g c i r c u i t moves t h e CRT beam a l o n g t h e s p e c i f i c l i n e . The l a t t e r method was c h o s e n f o r t h e r e a s o n s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . 62 2 . 5 . 2 HARDWARE SELECTION AND DESCRIPTION The d e s i g n c r i t e r i a f o r t he v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r u sed i n t h e EADS were 1) s i m p l i c i t y o f h a r d w a r e 2) l o w DPU o v e r h e a d 3) l i m i t e d number o f a d j u s t m e n t s 4) smooth l i n e s 5) c a p a b i l i t y f o r f u t u r e speed enhancement The d i g i t a l methods c o n s i d e r e d were t h e D i g i t a l D i f f e r e n t i a l A n a l y z e r ( D D A ) , t h e S y m m e t r i c a l DDA, and t h e B i n a r y R a t e M u l t i p l i e r ( B R M ) [ 3 ] , [ 2 ] , [ 4 2 ] , [431• A l l o f t h e s e methods p r o d u c e a l i s t o f c o - o r d i n a t e s w h i c h a r e used t o a p p r o x i m a t e t h e r e q u i r e d l i n e segmen t . The ma j o r p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e s e methods were i n h e r e n t l o w s p e e d , some DPU o v e r h e a d r e q u i r e d t o s e t up t h e v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r , and l i n e s l a c k i n g v i s u a l s m o o t h n e s s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e BRM. The a n a l o g methods c o n s i d e r e d were t h e i n t e g r a t i o n m e t h o d , e x p o n e n t i a l m e t h o d , and t h e <\, l -o<method [2] , [3] , [42] , [43] . The p r o b l e m w i t h t h e s e methods was t h e number o f s e n s i t i v e a l i g n m e n t s r e q u i r e d b y t h e g e n e r a t o r . Of t h e s e m e t h o d s , t h e °^ , 1-o< method seemed t h e most p r o m i s i n g . T h i s method p r o v e d v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y i n the J o i n t E n r o u t e T e r m i n a l Sys t em ( J E T S ) d e v e l o p e d by CAE I n d u s t r i e s i n M o n t r e a l [ 1 7 ] . F i g u r e 23 g i v e s a b l o c k d i a g r a m o f t h e v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r [ 3 ] . To d e s c r i b e i t s o p e r a t i o n c o n s i d e r t h e e q u a t i o n o f a s t r a i g h t l i n e : M D C M D A Yb C ON 64 X = X a ( l - o i ) + XboC Y = Ya(l-«<.) + Yb-rf-where [ X a , Y a ] a r e t h e s t a r t i n g c o - o r d i n a t e s and [ X b , Y b ] a r e t h e end c o - o r d i n a t e s . The v a l u e s o f t h e c o - o r d i n a t e p a i r [ X , Y ] t r a c e ou t t h e d e s i r e d l i n e asoCmoves f r o m 0 t o 1. R e f e r r i n g t o f i g u r e 2 3 , we see t h a t m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o f o^ . and 1-°^ i n t h e e q u a t i o n i s o b t a i n e d by u s i n g m u l t i p l y i n g d i g i t a l t o a n a l o g c o n v e r t e r s (MDAC) . The r e c e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e s e d e v i c e s a t l o w c o s t makes the c i r c u i t q u i t e a t t r a c t i v e . A l s o t he ramp g e n e r a t e d b y t h e i n t e g r a t o r shown i n t h e d i a g r a m need n o t be p a r t i c u l a r l y l i n e a r . To g e n e r a t e t h e v e c t o r , t h e s t a r t i n g c o - o r d i n a t e s Xa and Y a a r e l o a d e d i n t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e l a t c h e s and t h e end c o - o r d i n a t e s Xb and Yb a r e s i m i l a r l y l o a d e d . The vo l t ageo4 . i s t h e n s e t t o 0 and the s w i t c h I i s c l o s e d . The CRT beam i s on w h i l e t h e ramp r i s e s f r o m 0 t o 1, i f t h e l i n e segment i s t o be i n t e n s i f i e d . I n p r a c t i c e , t h e r e i s some d e f l e c t i o n l a g when a c c e l e r a t i n g the beam. S i m i l a r l y , some o s c i l l a t i o n s o c c u r when d e c e l e r a t i n g the beam. To a v o i d t h i s p r o b l e m the ramp i s s t a r t e d b e l o w 0 and c o n t i n u e d p a s t 1. The beam i s t h e n t u r n e d on a t 0 t o g i v e t h e CRT t i m e t o overcome t h e d e f l e c t i o n l a g and t u r n e d o f f a t 1 t o a l l o w t h e beam t i m e t o s e t t l e w i t h t he beam o f f . I n i t i a l l y i t was t h o u g h t t h a t i t w o u l d be b e n e f i c i a l t o l o a d t h e end c o - o r d i n a t e s Xb and Yb w i t h t h e new s t a r t c o - o r d i n a t e s and t h e n sweep thet<.ramp down f rom 1 t o 0 . T h i s w o u l d a l l e v i a t e t h e n e c e s s i t y o f r e l o a d i n g t h e two c o - o r d i n a t e p a i r s and r e s e t t i n g t h e r amp. 65 H o w e v e r , one d rawback w i t h t h e c^, I-** method i s t h a t t h e e q u a t i o n : V. + V = 1 must be k e p t t r u e t o w i t h i n 1 p a r t i n 1024 f o r a c c e p t a b l e r e s u l t s . I t was found t h a t t h e e q u a t i o n c o u l d a l w a y s be met f o r one s i d e . o f t h e ramp, e i t h e r g o i n g f rom 0 t o 1 o r f r o m 1 t o 0 , b u t n o t b o t h . A n o t h e r d r awback w i t h t h e oC, l-o( method i s t h a t t h e l i n e i n t e n s i t y i s dependen t on t h e l i n e l e n g t h f o r a c o n s t a n t ramp s p e e d . T h i s p r o b l e m was overcome by a d d i n g a DPU command w h i c h s e t t h e d r i v i n g v o l t a g e on t h e i n t e g r a t o r . T h i s t h e n a l l o w e d c o n t r o l o v e r t h e ramp speed and t h u s c o n t r o l o f l i n e i n t e n s i t y on t h e s c r e e n . T h e r e f o r e , f o r l o n g l i n e s t h e ramp v o l t a g e i s s e t l o w , and f o r s h o r t l i n e s i t i s s e t h i g h e r . T h i s method a l s o a l l o w s c e r t a i n p a r t s o f t h e s c r e e n to be b r i g h t e r t h a n o t h e r s , i f t h a t i s d e s i r e d . The f i n a l d e s i g n s c h e m a t i c i s shown i n A p p e n d i x G . I n o r d e r t o r e d u c e t h e number o f DPU commands r e q u i r e d t o draw a v e c t o r , t h e DPU m i c r o c o d e d draw r o u t i n e s a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e s e t t h e beam and copy t h e o l d end c o - o r d i n a t e s i n t o t h e new s t a r t c o - o r d i n a t e s so t h a t o n l y one c o - o r d i n a t e p a i r need be s p e c i f i e d f o r e a c h v e c t o r g e n e r a t i o n . The CRT u s e d t o d i s p l a y t h e s e v e c t o r s was a T e k t r o n i x 602 CRT d i s p l a y . T h i s CRT had a two p h o s p h o r s c r e e n o f 8x10 cm u s u a b l e a r e a . 66 CHAPTER I I I SYSTEM PERFORMANCE 3 .1 OVERALL SYSTEM PERFORMANCE The o v e r a l l s y s t e m p e r f o r m a n c e c a n b e s t be d e s c r i b e d by l o o k i n g a t how t h e s y s t e m measures up to e a r l i e r d e s i g n s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n a c o m p a r i s o n g i v e n i n t a b l e 1. A r e d u c t i o n i n c o c k p i t a r e a r e q u i r e m e n t s by a t l e a s t a f a c t o r o f f i v e was r e a l i z e d o v e r c o n v e n t i o n a l c o c k p i t i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . F i g u r e 11 shown e a r l i e r i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s s i z e r e d u c t i o n , when compared w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f c o n v e n t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . The s y s t e m , e v e n when d u p l i c a t e d , w i l l r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s p a n e l a r e a t h a n c u r r e n t l y r e q u i r e d b y t h e a n a l o g i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . A l t h o u g h p i l o t r e a c t i o n t i m e measurements were n o t made, i t h a s b e e n shown f rom p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s t h a t t h e p i l o t r e a c t i o n t i m e c a n be d e c r e a s e d b y : 1) D i s p l a y i n g o n l y t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r phase o f t h e f l i g h t [ 2 9 ] , [ 3 0 ] . 2) D e c r e a s i n g t h e a n g l e o f eye movement r e q u i r e d t o see a l l i n s t r u m e n t s [ 2 9 ] , [ 3 0 ] . 3) D i s p l a y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n a f o r m s u i t a b l e f o r t h e p i l o t ' s r e q u i r e d a c t i o n s [ 9 ] . 4) D i s p l a y i n g w a r n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n an a t t e n t i o n g e t t i n g f a s h i o n [ 3 1 ] . 5) U s i n g s y m b o l s w h i c h b e t t e r r e p r e s e n t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n d i s p l a y e d [ 9 ] . F i g u r e s 2 4 , 2 5 , and 26 g i v e examples o f t h e t y p e s o f d i s p l a y f o r m a t s p o s s i b l e w i t h the EADS. F i g u r e 24 c o u l d r e p r e s e n t t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r t a k e o f f ; f i g u r e 25 m i g h t r e p r e s e n t a s e t o f e n g i n e p a r a m e t e r s ; and f i g u r e 26 c o u l d r e p r e s e n t t h e 67 g l i d e s l o p e and g l i d e p a t h f o r an i n s t r u m e n t l a n d i n g s y s t e m ( I L S ) . N o t i c e t h a t t h e s e f i g u r e s i l l u s t r a t e t h a t t h i s s y s t e m i s c a p a b l e o f d i s p l a y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r p a r t i c u l a r f l i g h t p h a s e s , r a t h e r t h a n d i s p l a y i n g a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a l l t he t i m e as i n c o n v e n t i o n a l a i r c r a f t . The a n g l e o f eye movement r e q u i r e d t o s c a n t h e s e d i s p l a y s i s 20 d e g r e e s . T h i s i s c o n s i d e r a b l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e 90 d e g r e e s o r g r e a t e r t h a t i s c u r r e n t l y r e q u i r e d i n some c o m m e r c i a l a i r c r a f t , and t h e 40 d e g r e e s r e q u i r e d b y t h e s p a c e s h u t t l e d i s p l a y s y s t e m [ 3 2 ] . A l t h o u g h n o t i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f i g u r e s , w a r n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n c a n be d i s p l a y e d i n an a t t e n t i o n g e t t i n g f a s h i o n w i t h t h i s EADS. The w a r n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n c a n be h i g h l i g h t e d by u s i n g a b r i g h t e r beam, o r c a n be made t o f l a s h w i t h t h e use o f t h e r e p e t i t i o n c o u n t . F i g u r e 26 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e a b i l i t y t o d i s p l a y i n f o r m a t i o n i n a f o r m s u i t a b l e f o r t h e p i l o t ' s r e q u i r e d a c t i o n s . T h i s f i g u r e c o u l d r e p r e s e n t t h e g l i d e s l o p e ( t h e h o r i z o n t a l b a r ) and t h e g l i d e p a t h ( t h e v e r t i c a l b a r ) t o a runway ( b r i g h t s q u a r e ) e q u i p p e d w i t h an I L S . The p i l o t w o u l d t h e n move the b a r s u n t i l t h e y i n t e r s e c t e d t h e s q u a r e to p u t t h e p l a n e on i t s p r o p e r l a n d i n g c o u r s e . F i g u r e 24 shows t h e a b i l i t y t o choose s y m b o l s w h i c h b e t t e r r e p r e s e n t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n d i s p l a y e d . The r i g h t v e r t i c a l r u l e c o u l d i n d i c a t e t h e a l t i t u d e o f t h e p l a n e , t h e l e f t v e r t i c a l r u l e c o u l d i n d i c a t e t h e v e r t i c a l s p e e d , t h e t o p h o r i z o n t a l r u l e c o u l d i n d i c a t e t h e a i r s p e e d and t h e c e n t r e e l e m e n t s c o u l d r e p r e s e n t 68 t h e p l a n e a t t i t u d e . These s y m b o l s b e t t e r r e p r e s e n t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y d i s p l a y t h e n t h e s i m p l e c l o c k f a c e a n a l o g t y p e d i s p l a y u s u a l l y u s e d . A maximum o f 256 d i f f e r e n t s y m b o l s c a n be u s e d . T h i s f i g u r e i s t w i c e t h e a l l o w a b l e number o f s y m b o l s i n t h e s p a c e s h u t t l e d i s p l a y s y s t e m . A good d e a l o f f l e x i b i l i t y i n c o c k p i t i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n changes i s p r o v i d e d b y t h i s s y s t e m . A d i s p l a y f o r m a t s u c h as f i g u r e 24 r e q u i r e d o n l y 3 man days t o i m p l e m e n t . The d i s t r i b u t e d s y s t e m c o n f i g u r a t i o n worked w e l l . A l t h o u g h no t h o r o u g h r e l i a b i l i t y t e s t i n g was d o n e , once f u l l y d e b u g g e d , t h e s y s t e m s u f f e r e d no f a t a l e r r o r s and seemed r e m a r k a b l y i n s e n s i t i v e t o s u r r o u n d i n g e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c n o i s e and power s u p p l y t r a n s i e n t s g e n e r a t e d b y o t h e r equ ipment on t h e same t e s t b e d . The s y s t e m shows a s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n i n c o s t o v e r c u r r e n t a n a l o g t y p e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . The t o t a l s y s t e m c o s t was $2200 , e x c l u d i n g t h e d a t a a c q u i s i t i o n equ ipment and t h e CRT. T h i s c a n be compared t o t h e p r i c e o f $500 - $700 f o r a s i n g l e a n a l o g a l t i t u d e i n d i c a t o r a l o n e . The ease o f t e s t i n g t h i s s y s t e m was v e r i f i e d d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l d e s i g n p e r i o d . E a c h u n i t i n t h e d i s t r i b u t e d a r c h i t e c t u r e was i n d i v i d u a l l y d e s i g n e d and debugged b e f o r e f i n a l t e s t i n g i n t h e c o m p l e t e s y s t e m . Thus the a b i l i t y t o t e s t e a c h o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s s h o u l d ease t h e b u r d e n o f o v e r a l l s y s t e m t e s t i n g . A d e c r e a s e i n c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e equ ipmen t r e q u i r e d t o s i m u l a t e a p l a n e e q u i p p e d w i t h t h i s d i s p l a y was a l s o r e a l i z e d . 69 T h i s d e c r e a s e i n c o m p l e x i t y i s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t i t o n l y t o o k s i x s m a l l 10 l i n e r o u t i n e s t o s i m u l a t e d a t a f o r t h e d i s p l a y s shown i n f i g u r e s 2 4 , 2 5 , and 2 6 . F i g u r e 2 4 . P h o t o g r a p h o f t a k e - o f f f o r m a t F i g u r e 2 5 . P h o t o g r a p h o f e n g i n e d a t a f o r m a t F i g u r e 2 6 . P h o t o g r a p h o f l a n d i n g f o r m a t 73 EADS DIAS [6] ELANDIS [34] DFMS [18] Space S h u t t l e D i s p l a y System[32] C o n v e n t i o n a l A i r c r a f t I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n [40] Nunber o f D i s t r i b u t e d P r o c e s s o r s 3 >7 2 2 2 * Co m p l e x i t y o f D i s t r i b u t e d Elements MEDIUM HIGH MEDIUM HIGH HIGH LOW A b i l i t y t o D i s p l a y S e l e c t e d I n f o r m a t i o n YES YES NO YES YES NO Re q u i r e d Scan A n g l e (°) <20 <20 <40 <20 <40 <90 C o c k p i t Area R e q u i r e d by D i s p l a y ( s q . i n 25 *** > 100 » 54 . *** > 100 *** > 100 *** > 800 R e f r e s h Rate VARIABLE VARIABLE VARIABLE VARIABLE 55Hz CONTINUOUS Vol ume Re q u i r e d by P r o c e s s i n g Eq uipment ( c u . i n . ) 420 ** 3400 ** ** *** 8000 Nunber o f A l l o w a b l e Symbols 256 ** 0 ** 128 * V i s i b l e S c r e e n A d d r e s s a b i l i t 1024x 1024 ** 1024x 1024 ** 1024x 731 * F l e x i b i l i t y HIGH HIGH MEDIUM HIGH HIGH LOW Co s t o f P r o c e s s i n g and D i s p l a y Equipment($) 5000 *** >100000 *** >20000 *** >100000 *** >100000 *** > 10000 * I n f o r m a t i o n n o t a p p l i c a b l e ** I n f o r m a t i o n n o t a v a i l a b l e *** E s t i m a t e d from p u b l i s h e d l i t e r a t u r e T a b l e 1. Comparison o f e x i s t i n g d i s p l a y systems. 74 3 . 2 R E A L - T I M E EXECUTIVE PERFORMANCE The r e a l - t i m e e x e c u t i v e r e q u i r e s abou t 164 words o f PROM and abou t 46 w o r d s o f RAM. The e x e c u t i v e r e q u i r e s 550 usee + N X 10 usee t o queue an i n t e r r u p t and r e t u r n t o t h e c u r r e n t t a s k , where N i s t h e number o f t a s k s c u r r e n t l y i n t he q u e u e . The e x e c u t i v e r e q u i r e s 138 usee + N X 10 u s e e to r e l i n q u i s h a t a s k and s t a r t a new o n e . These memory r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r t h a n t h e 8096 words o r more r e q u i r e d by t h e D I A S , E L A N D I S , and DFMS s y s t e m s [ 6 ] , [ 3 4 ] , [ 1 8 ] . The e x e c u t i v e c a n queue up t o 12 t a s k s , b e f o r e f i l l i n g t h e RDYC l i s t . T h i s was j u d g e d a c c e p t a b l e b a s e d on t h e 10 t a s k l i m i t s e t i n t h e d e s i g n c r i t e r i a . H o w e v e r , t h e number o f t a s k s t h a t c a n be h a n d l e d c a n be e x t e n d e d i f n e e d e d . 75 3 . 3 D I S P L A Y PROCESSOR PERFORMANCE The AMD2900 was w e l l s u i t e d t o the DPU d e s i g n . The d e s i g n was r e a l i z e d on one TM990/512 p r o t o t y p i n g c a r d . T h i s i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e r e d u c t i o n i n space when compared to the ELANDIS r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a DEC GT40 s y s t e m [ 3 4 ] . The c y c l e t i m e o f t he DPU was s e t a t 666 n s e c o r t w i c e t h a t o f t h e CPU b o a r d . T h i s was c h o o s e n t o a l l e v i a t e t h e n e c e s s i t y o f h a v i n g a c l o c k g e n e r a t o r e x c l u s i v e l y f o r t h e DPU and to a l l o w t h e use o f t h e s l o w e r i 2 7 0 8 EPROM as t h e c o n t r o l s t o r e . A f a s t e r c o n t r o l s t o r e w o u l d a l l o w f u l l u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e speed o f t h e DPU i f needed i n t h e f u t u r e . The DPU t o v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r i n t e r f a c e r e q u i r e s t h e use o f 52 c o n n e c t i o n s . These c o n n e c t i o n s were made u s i n g w i r e wrap c o n n e c t o r s , w i t h o u t a g r o u n d p l a n e . I t was f o u n d t h a t s e v e r a l s o f t e r r o r s were g e n e r a t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e n o i s e a c r o s s t h i s i n t e r f a c e . These e r r o r s o c c u r e d a t a r a t e o f abou t one i n 10**5 v e c t o r s . These e r r o r s a r e n o t f a t a l s i n c e t h e s c r e e n i s r e f r e s h e d e v e r y 20 m s e c . These e r r o r s c o u l d be r e d u c e d by u s i n g an i n t e r c o n n e c t i n g p a t h w i t h a g r o u n d p l a n e . 76 3 . 4 VECTOR GENERATOR PERFORMANCE The v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r p e r f o r m a n c e was a d e q u a t e . H o w e v e r , some enhancement i n t h e speed o f t h e v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r w o u l d be d e s i r a b l e . The v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r t a k e s 40 usee to d raw a v e c t o r a t a maximum ramp speed o f 7X10**5 v o l t s p e r s e c . The r e f e r e n c e v o l t a g e f o r t h i s speed i s 8 . 2 v o l t s , t h e l e v e l f o r t h e h i g h e s t v e c t o r s p e e d . T h i s v e c t o r speed c o r r e s p o n d s to a s c r e e n w r i t i n g speed o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10**3 m / s e c . The c h a r a c t e r s t o o k an a v e r a g e t i m e o f 400 u s e c / c h a r a c t e r . I t w o u l d be d e s i r a b l e t o r e d u c e t h i s t i m e b y abou t 30% to a l l o w more c h a r a c t e r s on t h e s c r e e n a t one t i m e . The T e k t r o n i x 602 d i s p l a y u sed gave a c c e p t a b l e r e s u l t s . H o w e v e r , d i s p l a y s on t h e s c r e e n a p p e a r e d q u i t e d i m d u r i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f h i g h a m b i e n t l i g h t . O t h e r t y p e s o f CRTs w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e s c r e e n f i l t e r s w o u l d h e l p r e s o l v e t h i s p r o b l e m [ 3 2 ] . The v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r and d i s p l a y were a b l e t o p r o d u c e l i n e s w h i c h c o u l d be r e s o l v e d down t o one p a r t i n 5 1 2 . T h i s r e s o l u t i o n i s l i m i t e d by t h e s p o t w i d t h o f t h e beam. The l i n e a r i t y o f t h e g e n e r a t e d v e c t o r s was on t h e a v e r a g e 10% f o r any 2cm o f t he s c r e e n . The g r e a t e s t e r r o r o c c u r i n g n e a r t h e uppe r r i g h t hand c o r n e r w h i c h r e q u i r e s t h e l a r g e s t v o l t a g e o u t p u t f rom t h e X and Y d r i v e r s . 77 CHAPTER I V CONCLUSIONS AND DIRECTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 4 . 1 CONCLUSIONS The e l e c t r o n i c a i r b o r n e d i s p l a y s y s t e m d e s i g n e d e x h i b i t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g a d v a n t a g e s o v e r c o n v e n t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n : 1) C o c k p i t i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n a r e a was r e d u c e d by a f a c t o r o f a t l e a s t 40 o v e r t y p i c a l c o m m e r c i a l s y s t e m s . 2) The e l e c t r o n i c d i s p l a y s y s t e m was d e s i g n e d t o a l l o w i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n t o be c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o f l i g h t p h a s e s , o n l y one o f w h i c h i s d i s p l a y e d a t any one t i m e . T h i s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n r e d u c e s the amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n d i s p l a y e d t o t h e p i l o t b y a f a c t o r o f abou t f i v e o v e r c o n v e n t i o n a l c o c k p i t i n s t r u m e n t s . 3) The a n g l e o f eye movement r e q u i r e d t o s c a n a l l i n s t r u m e n t s was r e d u c e d b y 70 d e g r e e s o v e r t h a t o f c o n v e n t i o n a l a n a l o g t y p e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . 4) The d i s p l a y p r o c e s s o r i n t h e s y s t e m e n a b l e d t h e use o f symbo logy w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d the i n f o r m a t i o n b e i n g d i s p l a y e d to t h e p i l o t i n a f o r m more s u i t a b l e t h a n c o n v e n t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . 5) W a r n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n c a n be d i s p l a y e d i n a more a t t e n t i o n - g e t t i n g f a s h i o n t h a n c u r r e n t a n a l o g t y p e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e use o f b l i n k i n g and i n c r e a s e d i n t e n s i t y o n s e l e c t i v e p a r t s o f t h e s c r e e n . 6) I n c r e a s e d f l e x i b i l i t y i n c o c k p i t i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n o v e r c o n v e n t i o n a l a n a l o g t y p e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n was r e a l i z e d by a l l o w i n g changes i n i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n to be made i n s o f t w a r e r a t h e r t h a n i n h a r d w a r e as w i t h c o m m e r c i a l s y s t e m s . 7) A r e d u c t i o n i n t h e o v e r a l l s y s t e m c o s t compared to e a r l i e r d i s p l a y s y s t e m s ( s e e t a b l e 1) was a l s o r e a l i z e d . 8) The d i s t r i b u t e d n a t u r e o f t h e s y s t e m e n a b l e s enhancements i n s u b s e c t i o n s o f t h e s y s t e m w i t h o u t t he need f o r change i n the r e m a i n i n g s u b s e c t i o n s . 78 O n l y t h r e e s e c t i o n s o f t he EADS d e s c r i b e d h e r e were a c t u a l l y i m p l e m e n t e d - t h e CPU, DPU and v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r . S e v e r a l d i s p l a y f o r m a t s were d e v e l o p e d i n o r d e r t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h i s s y s t e m . These were shown i n t h e s e c t i o n on s y s t e m p e r f o r m a n c e . An a r e a w h i c h showed some weakness i n t h i s d e s i g n was the speed o f t h e v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r . I t was shown t h a t t h e a v e r a g e t i m e to draw a c h a r a c t e r was 400 u s e e . T h i s speed l i m i t s t h e number o f c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h c a n be d i s p l a y e d on t h e s c r e e n t o abou t 45 c h a r a c t e r s . T h i s number may p r o v e to be too l o w i n t h e f i n a l s y s t e m . A l t h o u g h n o t m e n t i o n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t h e r e p o r t , s e v e r a l c o m m e r c i a l and p r i v a t e p i l o t s were g i v e n a chance t o comment on t h i s s y s t e m . Some r e l u c t a n c e t o a c c e p t t h e s w i t c h f r o m a c o m p l e t e s e t o f a n a l o g i n s t r u m e n t s t o a s i n g l e d i s p l a y s y s t e m was v o i c e d . H o w e v e r , t h e o v e r a l l f e e l i n g was t h a t a s y s t e m o f t h i s n a t u r e w o u l d p r o v e b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e p i l o t i n r e d u c i n g h i s w o r k l o a d and d e c r e a s i n g h i s r e a c t i o n t i m e i n emergency s i t u a t i o n s . 79 4 . 2 DIRECTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH I t i s hoped a t t h i s t i m e t h a t r e s e a r c h and d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l c o n t i n u e on t h i s s y s t e m . The a r e a s s h o w i n g t h e g r e a t e s t need f o r f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t a r e : (1) G e n e r a t i n g a c c e p t a b l e d i s p l a y f o r m a t s f o r t h e p i l o t . (2) I m p r o v i n g t h e speed o f t h e v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r . (3) D e v e l o p i n g a c o m p l e t e s e t o f m o n i t o r i n g r o u t i n e s t o e n a b l e t h e CPU t o d e t e c t p o s s i b l e emergency c o n d i t i o n s . (4) E n h a n c i n g s y s t e m r e l i a b i l i t y b y d e v e l o p i n g t o t a l s y s t e m i n t e g r i t y c h e c k s and s e l f t e s t i n g r o u t i n e s f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s i n t h e s y s t e m . (5) D e v e l o p i n g a r e l i a b l e p a c k a g i n g scheme to meet a i r b o r n e s a f e t y c r i t e r i a . (6) R e s e a r c h i n t o t h e symbo logy r e q u i r e d t o b e s t i l l u s t r a t e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n b e i n g d i s p l a y e d . (7) R e s e a r c h i n t o new d i s p l a y s o t h e r t h a n the CRT t o i m p r o v e the r e a d a b i l i t y u n d e r v a r i o u s a m b i e n t l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s . 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S t o u t , Handbook o f O p e r a t i o n a l A m p l i f i e r C i r c u i t D e s i g n , M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, New Y o r k , ( 1 9 7 6 ) . 83 APPENDIX A NITIALIZATIO HALT DPU INITIALIZE SYSTEM POINTERS SET UP FREE NODES FOR RDYC LIST COPY PROM COPY OF RAM INTO RAM I SET UP 50Hz REAL TIME CLOCK SETUP COMMAND HANDLER PRIORITY WAIT FOR A KEY TO BE ENTERED VIA PED "IS IT A CLEAR COMMAND CLEAR BUFFER BUFFER VALUE OF KEY HIT (DECQD^ 86 RESET BUFFER POINTER GET FIRST TABLE ENTRY FLAG COMMAND —» RESET CHARACTER ERROR BUFFER IS-CHAFOIN < E U F F E R = THIS TABLE^ENJRY- " J YES ,IS-CHAR7""AN-LOC 'YES INC TO NEXT ENTRY IN TABLE 1 (COMMAND HANDLER) NO GET NEXT TABLE INC BUFFER POINTER COPY TRSV INTO NODE INSERT NODE CNTO RDYC LIST 87 INTERRUPT SERVICE ROUTINE (INTRSV) GET A FREE NODE FOR RDYC LIST SAVE TISV IN NODE ON RDYC LIST GET ANOTHER FREE MODE SAVE TRSV IN NODE ON RDYC LIST GET HIGHEST PRIORITY RDYC TASK LOAD UP NEW TSV REMOVE NODE FROM RDYC LIST INSERT NODE IN FREE LIST ISPATCH TASK DISPLAY s i l O D E ^ 88 SET UP DISPLAY MODE PRIORITY FOR INTERRUPT SERVICE ROUTINE ^INTERRUPT SERVICE*) ^ « R O U T I ENABLE DPU TO START REFRESH CYCLE SET POINTER TO TOP OF DISPLAY TASK BUFFER  IF NOT ONE OF REMAINING TYPES DISPLAY ERROJ^-GO TO NEXT lENTRY IN BUFFER SET UP UPDATE PRIORITY FOR INTERRUPT SERVICE ROUTINE SET POINTER TO TOP OF DISPLAY FILE BUFFER GET DFM START ADDRESS I GET NUf DPU COM! FO 4BER OF 1ANDS TO .LOW COPY C INTO DMMANDS DFM 90 APPENDIX B 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS 16 17 IS 19 20 21 22 23 ********************************************************************** * * ELECTRONIC AIRBORNE DISPLAY SYSTEM VERSION 1.0 ********************************************************************** ) 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 1000 33 34 1000 35 1000 36 1000 37 1000 38 1000 39 1000 41 1000 42 1000 43 1000 44 1000 45 1000 69 70 71 1000 1000 46 47 49 50 1000 51 1004 52 53 1008 100C 54 55 56 1010 57 1014 58 59 1018 60 101C 1020 61 62 63 64 1024 65 1028 66 67 102C 68 1030 1034 1038 103C 72 1040 73 1042 74 1044 75 1046 76 104A 77 78 104C 79 1050 80 81 1054 82 1058 83 105C 84 105E 85 1062 ¥VVT ODOO 0005 0003 0004 FEOO OAOO 0707 0900 0300 0400 0500 0707 02007000 C800FOOO 0200D1FE C800D1FA 0200D264 C800D1F6 0720D1F4 0200000F C800O160 0200FFFF C800D1FC 0202000C O200D164 C800D162 0201D17C C4010000 0602 1304 05CO 0221000A 10F8 0200D228 C800D226 0200188A 0201DA6A C090 0282FFFF 1304 *******************************A**************************************. * *; * THIS SECTION OF CODE INITIALIZES THE AIRBORNE DISPLAY SYSTEM. THIS *; * ROUTINE IS EXECUTED ON POWER DP AND RESET CONDITIONS. *; * • *; *********************************************************************** BASE DECIMAL ORG X'1000' EOL EQU X'FFFF' EOC EQU X'ODOO' [END OF COMMAND CMDPKIOR EQU 05 jCOMMAND HANDLER PRIORITY DISPRIOR EQU 03 JDISPLAY MODE PRIORITY UPPRIOR EQU 04 ;UPDATE PRIORITY EOT EQU X'FEOO' jEND OF TABLE CLEAR EQU X'OAOO' ;CLEAR COMMAND CERROR EQU X'0707' JCOMMAND ERROR NUMBER EOJ EQU X'.O900" ;END OF JOB VECTR EQU X'0300' ;VECTOR DISPLAY DISUPD EQU X'0400' ;DATA UPDATE DYNINF EQU X'0500' ;DYNAMIC DATA UPDATE DISERR EQU X'0707' jDISPLAY MODE ERROR NUMBER INIT LI RO,X'7000* [SET FIRST WORD IN DISPLAY FILE MOV* RO.DFM ;T0 HALT » LI RO.CHRBUF ;SET CHARACTER BUFFER POINTER MOV* RO.BUFPTR ;TOP OF CHARACTER BUFFER i L I RO.DISBUF ;SET DISPLAY BUFFER POINTER MOV* RO.DSPPTR ;T0 TOP OF DISPLAY BUFFER i SETO* REPCNT ;SET UP DISPLAY REPETITION CNTR ! LI .R0.15 ;SET SOFTWARE PRIORITY TO LOW MOV* RO.CPRIOR jVALUE » LI RO,X'FFFF' jSET RDYC TO MOV* RO.RDYC J EMPTY » LI R2.12 ;NUMBER OF FREE NODES LI RO.FRLST ;SET FREE LIST POINTER MOV* RO.FRLSP ;T0 TOP OF LIST LI Rl,NODES ;AND LOAD UP FREE LIST IHIT1 MOV* R1,*R0 iWITH 12 FREE NODES DEC R2 i JEQ INIT2 ;IF FINISHED GO TO NEXT INIT INCT RO ;INC LIST POINTER AI R1.10 ;ADD OFFSET TO NEXT FREE NODE JMP INIT1 ;ADD NEXT FREE NODE INIT2 LI RO.DTBUP ;SET DISPLAY TASK BUFFER POINTER MOV* RO.DTBUFP ;T0 TOP OF DISPLAY TASK BUFFER J LI RO.RDATAS+2 ;INITIALIZE RAM AREA LI R1, RDATA+2 jBY COPYING PROM COPY INIT3 MOV *R0,R2 ;INTO RAM AREA CI R2,X'FFFF' ;CHECK FOR END OF COPY JEQ INIT4 ;EXIT COPY ROUTINE IF END FOUND ho r 86 1064 C442 MOV E2,»R1 87 1066 05CO INCT SO 88 1068 0SC1 INCT E l 89 106 A 10F8 JMP INIT 3 90 » 91 106C 020C0100 INIT4 LI R12,X'O10O' 92 1070 02010753 LI R1,X*0753' 93 1074 33C1 LDCR R1.15 94 1076 1E00 SBZ 0 95 1078 1003 SBO 3 96 » 97 107A 0300000P LIMI 15 98 99 107E 02E0D020 LUFI CMDWRK 100 1082 0460125C B* CMDHDL ; STORE WORD IN RAM AREA ;INC PROM POINTER ;INC RAM POINTER ;LOOP ;SET UP REAL TIME CLOCK ;F0R 50HZ REFRESH RATE ;L0AD CLOCK ;SET TO INT MODE ;ENABLE CLOCK ;ENABLE ALL INTERRUPTS jLOAD UP NEW WORKSPACE POINTER ;JUMP TO COMMAND HANDLER / 103 ;**»»«*****»««»***»*«****»»***»*••»»«**•**»*»*«**»»*«**»»******«*»*«*** 104 ; * * i 105 ;* THIS SECTION CONTAINS THE TASK SCHEDULER,ALLOCATE, AND DEALLOCATE * 106 ;* ROUTINES. SPRIOR SHOULD CONTAIN THE PRIORITY OP THE INTERRUPTED * 107 ;* TASK. CPRIOR SHOULD CONTAIN THE PRIORITY OF THE INTERRUPTING TASK. * 108 ;* INTRSV IS THE START OF THE INTERRUPT HANDLER• SCHEDLR IS THE START * 109 ;* OF THE SCHEDULER ROUTINE. * 110 ;* * H I *********************************************************************** 113 ; 114 ; * ' 115 ;* ROUTINE TO LOAD PRE-EMPTED TASK AND PRE-EMPTING TASK INTO RDYC ' 116 ;* LIST OP TASK SCHEDULER. 117 ;* 118 ;******«»«**«*»««*«***i>*****4»***»******»»*****»**»»****«*»*«»*«****»* 119 : 120 1086 DOOO INTRSV WORD SCHEDWP ;SET UP URKSPACE POINTER 121 1088 108A WORD INTRSV+4 ;SET UP PC 122 108A 06A010P6 BL* GTFREE ;GET A FREE NODE 123 ! ;POINTED TO BY RO 124 108E 022D001B AI R13.30 ;GET PRE-EMPTED R15 125 1092 C420D1P8 MOV* SPRIOR,*R0 ;SAVE PRE-EMPTED PRIOR 126 1096 05C0 INCT RO ;INC NODE POINTER 127 1098 C41D MOV *R13,*R0 JSAVE PRE-EMPTED R15 128 109A 05C0 INCT RO ;INC NODE POINTER 129 109C 064D DECT R13 ;DEC WORKSPACE POINTER. 130 109E C41D MOV *R13,*R0 ;SAVE PRE-EMPTED R14 131 10 AO 05C0 INCT RO ;INC NODE POINTER 132 10A2 064D DECT R13 ;DEC WORKSPACE POINTER 133 10A4 C41D MOV *R13.*R0 ;SAVE PRE-EMPTED R13 134 10A6 0220FPFA AI R0.-6 ;RESET RO TO TOP OP NODE 135 10AA 06A0110E BL* INSERT ;INSERT NODE IN RDYC LIST 136 10AE 022DFFE6 AI R13.-26 ;RESET R13 TO ORIGINAL VALUE 137 10B2 06A010F6 BL* GTFREE ;GET A FREE NODE POINTED 138 J ;T0 BY RO 139 10B6 C420D160 MOV* CPRI0R,*R0 ;SAVE INTERRUPTING PRIORITY 140 10BA 05C0 INCT RO ;INC NODE POINTER 141 10BC C40F MOV R15,*R0 ;SAVE PRE-EMPTING R15 142 10BE 05C0 INCT RO JINC NODE POINTER 143 10C0 C40E MOV R14,*R0 ;SAVE PRE-EMPTING R14 144 10C2 05C0 INCT RO JIHC NODE POINTER 145 10C4 C40D MOV • R13,*R0 ;SAVE PRE-EMPTING R13 146 10C6 0220FFFA . AI R0.-6 ;RESET RO TO TOP OF NODE 147 10CA 06A0110E BL* INSERT iINSERT NODE INTO RDYC LIST 148 ( jNEXT STATEMENT IS SCHEDULER ISO 1S1 152 153 154 155 156 157 10CE C320D1FC 158 10D2 C81CD160 159 10D6 05CC 160 10D8 C3DC 161 10DA 05CC 162 10DC C39C 163 I0DE 05CC 164 10EO C35C 165 10E2 05CC 166 10E4 C81CD1FC 167 10E8 022CFFF8 168 10EC 06AOU02 169 10FO 026FOOOF 170 10F4 0380 * * * THIS ROUTINE SELECTS THE HIGHEST PRIORITY TASK FROM THE RDYC LIST * * AND DISPATCHS THIS TASK TO THE CPU. * * * SCHEDLR MOV* RDYC.R12 ;GET AODR OF HIGHEST PRIOR TASK MOV* *R12,CPRIOR •.RESTORE CURRENT PRIORITY INCT R12 ;INC NODE POINTER MOV *R12,R15 [RESTORE R15(ST) INCT R12 ;INC NODE POINTER MOV *R12,R14 [RESTORE R14(PC) INCT R12 ;INC NODE POINTER MOV *R12,R13 [RESTORE R13(WP) INCT R12 [INC NODE POINTER MOV* *R12,RDYC [SET RDYC POINTER TO NEW NODE AI R12.-8 [RESET NODE POINTER TO TOP BL* REMOVE [ADD NODE TO FREE LIST OR I R15,X'000F' [SET STATUS TO LOW PRIORITY RTVP [DISPATCH NEW TASK 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 10F6 180 10FA 181 10FE 182 1100 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 1102 191 1106 192 110A 193 H O C C02OD162 O5E0D162 C 0 1 0 045B 0660D162 C2A0D162 C68C 04 5B * * * ROUTINE TO GET A FREE NODE FROM THE FREE L I S T AND SET RO TO THE * * NODE STARTING ADDRESS. * * * GTFREE MOV* INCT* MOV B FRLSP,RO FRLSP *R0,RO *R11 ;R0 GETS ADDRESS OF FREE NODE 1INC FREE LIST POINTER ;GET NODE ADDRESS INTO RO JRETURN * * * ROUTINE TO ADD NODE REMOVED FROM RDYC LIST BACK TO FREE LIST. * REMOVE DECT* MOV* MOV B FRLSP FRLSP,RIO R12,*R10 * R l l [DECREMENT FREE LIST POINTER ;GET ADDR OF NEW FREE POINTER [INSERT FREE NODE ADDR INTO LIST [RETURN 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 HOB 203 1110 204 11H 205 1118 206 207 111A 11 IE 208 1120 209 1122 210 1124 211 212 1126 213 1128 214 112C 215 112E 216 1130 217 1132 218 1136 219 1138 C050 C0A0D1PC 0203D1FC C142 0285FFFP 1308 C112 8101 1105 C0C2 02230008 C093 10F4 C4C0 02200008 C402 045B * ROUTINE TO INSERT A NODE POINTED TO BY RO INTO THE RDYC LIST * IN ORDER OF ITS PRIORIY. INSERT MOV MOV* LI INSERT 1 MOV CI JEQ MOV C JLT • MOV AI MOV JMP INSERT2 MOV AI MOV B *R0,R1 RDYC.R2 R3.RDYC R2.R5 R5.EOL INSERT2 *R2,R4 R1.R4 INSERT2 R2.R3 R3.8 *R3,R2 IHSERTl R0,*R3 R0,8 R2,*R0 *R11 CET PRIORITY OF TASK R2 IS FORWARD POINTER R3 IS BACKWARD POINTER CET NODE WORD CHECK FOR END OF LIST IF SO INSERT NODE GET PRIORITY OF CURRENT NODE CHECK WITH NODE TO BE INSERTED IF LOWER MAGNITUDE (HIGHER PRIORITY) THEN INSERT SET BACK POINTER TO THIS NODE SET UP FORWARD POINTER CHECK NXT NODE INSERT BACKWARD LINK MOVE POINTER TO FWRD LINK INSERT FRWD LINK RETURN CO 222 ,**»»«»*******«««***»***»»***»«***»»********»***»»**** 223 ;* 224 ;* THIS SECTION CONTAINS THE CODE USED TO READ THE DISPLAY TASK PILE 225 j * AND UPDATE THE DISPLAY BUFFER BASED ON THE COMMANDS CONTAINED IN 226 ;* THE FILE.THE DISPLAY TASK FILE IS UPDATED VIA PILOT SCREEN REQUESTS.' 227 ;* DSPLMD IS THE START OF THE DISPLAY MODE. 1 228 ;* THIS CODE STARTS EXECUTION ON AN INTERRUPT FROM THE REAL TIME 229 ;* CLOCK, SIGNALING THE START OF THE DPU DISPLAY CYCLE. 1 230 ;* 231 ;id****************************************************************'*** 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 2B4 113A 113E 1142 1144 1146 114C 1150 1154 1158 115C 1160 1164 1166 1168 116A 116C 1170 1174 1176 1178 117A 117E 1180 1182 1184 1186 1188 118A 118C 118E 1192 1194 1198 119A 1192 11A2 11A6 11A8 11 AC 11AE 11B2 03000001 020C0100 1E00 1D03 C820D160D1F8 02000003 C800D160 02O0D264 C800D1P6 04201086 020C0100 1E18 ID 18 1E00 1D06 0200D22S C120D226 8100 1311 C090 40A0D1F4 1303 05C0 05C0 10F7 05C0 C050 04C2 D0B1 0282FE0O 13F7 02820900 1604 05AOD1K4 0460IOCS 02820300 1320 02820400 1317 02820500 1307 DSPLMD DSPLMD1 DSFLMD2 DISTSK LIMI 1 DISABLE INTERRUPTS L I R12,X'0100' SET, UP CRU BIAS SBZ 0 ENTER INT MODE SBO 3 CLEAR CLOCK INT MOV8 CPRIOR.SPRIOR SAVE PRIORITY LI RO.DISPRIOR LOAD DISPLAY PRIORITY MOV* RO.CPRIOR SET UP CURRENT PRIORITY LI RO.DISBUF RESET DISPLAY BUFFER POINTER MOV* RO.DSPPTR TO TOP OF BUFFER BLWP* INTRSV SCHEDULE INTERRUPTING TASK LI R12,X'0100' SET UP CRU BIAS SBZ X'18' START DPU SBO X'I8' RESET START BIT SBZ 0 SET TO INT MODE SBO 6 ENABLE DPU INT LI RO.DTBUF SET DISPLAY TASK POINTER TO TOP MOV* DTBUFP.R4 LOAD UP TASK BUFFER POINTER C R0.R4 CHECK FOR END OF BUFFER JEQ DISTSK1 EXIT MOV *R0,R2 GET REP COUNT SZC* REPCNT.R2 CHECK IP SUBTASK READY TO DISPLAY JEQ DISTSK IF SO,EXECUTE DISPLAY TASK INCT RO INC DISPLAY TASK POINTER INCT RO TO NEXT TASK ENTRY JMP DSPLMD1 CHECK NEXT ENTRY INCT RO GET TASK BLOCK ADDRESS MOV *R0,R1 ,INTO Rl CLE R2 CLEAR R2 MOVB *R1@,R2 GET BLOCK TYPE CI R2.E0T ,IT IT END OF TASK(EOT) JEQ DSPLMD2 ,IF SO,GET NEXT TASK CI ' R2.E0J ,IS IT END OF JOB(EOJ) JNE DISCHT ,IF NOT THEN CONTINUE INC* REPCNT ; INC REPCOUNTER 8* SCHEDLR •RELINQUISH CI R2.VECTR .CHECK FOR DRAW VECTOR JEQ DISVEC ;IF SO DO IT CI R2.DISUPD [CHECK FOR DATA UPDATE JEQ DISUPDT [IF SO DO IT CI R2.DYNINF [CHECK FOR DYNAMIC DATA JEQ DYNDAT [IF FOUND .INSERT IT INTO BUFFER DISTSK1 DISCHT * • * OTHER ROUTINES ASSOCIATED WITH DISPLAY TASK TYPES CAN BE ADDED HERE * * IN ORDER OF FREQUENCY OF USE. * 11B4 C080 11B6 02000707 11BA 06A0132E 11BE C002 11C0 10E0 ******************* ************** MOV R0.R2 LI RO.DISERR BL* WRITE MOV R2.RO JMP DSPLMD2 ************************************** [SAVE RO [IF NO TYPE FOUND THEN ERROR [DISPLAY ERROR [RESTORE RO [CONTINUE WITH NXT TASK 286 287 • * 288 ;* ROUTINE TO UPDATE DISPLAY BUFFER FROM RAM * 289 ;* INPUT-R1 CONTAINS POINTER TO DISPLAY TASK * 290 • * 291 • *<ii«>*i*it*<«*«i>llitit»*i»l>*lt**tll*<i<<i<iitttt*>lk«**««««*»t<**t««t**<ll****l>< 292 ; 293 11C2 D0B1 DYNDAT MOVB *R1@,R2 ;GET t OF DPU COMMANDS 294 11C4 06C2 SWPB R2 ;INTO LOWER 8 BITS 295 11C6 C191 MOV *R1,R6 [GET RAM ADDRESS OF DATA 296 11C8 05C1 INCT RI ;INC POINTER 297 11CA CODI MOV *R1,R3 [GET DFM ADDRESS 298 11CC 05C1 INCT RI ;INC POINTER 299 11CE C141 MOV R1.R5 [SAVE RI 300 11D0 C046 MOV R6.R1 ;R1 GETS RAM ADDRESS 301 11D2 06A011F8 BL* INSDSP ;INSERT DATA INTO BUFFER 302 11D6 C045 MOV R5.R1 [RESTORE RI 303 11D8 0460118A B* DISTSK+4 [PROCESS NEXT TASK t-c 30} 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 11DC 0581 11DE C091 11E0 05C1 11E2 0692 11E4 0460U8A * * ROUTINE TO OBTAIN DATA FROM DAU AND UPDATE DISPLAY BUFFER * INPUT-R1 CONTAINS DISPLAY TASK BUFFER POINTER * DISUPOT INC MOV INCT BL B* RI •R1.R2 RI *R2 DISTSK+4 jINC DISPLAY TASK POINTER ;GET ROUTINE ADDRESS ;INC POINTER [EXECUTE DISPLAY ROUTINE [PROCESS NEXT DISPLAY TASK O ro 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 11E8 DOBl 327 11EA 06C2 328 11EC C0D1 329 11EE 05C1 330 UFO 06A011F8 331 11F4 0460U8A * * * ROUTINE TO WRITE DISPLAY FILE ADDRESS AND CORRESPONDING DPU COMMAND * * TO GENERATE A VECTOR ON THE DISPLAY INTO THE DISPLAY BUFFER. * * INPUT- * * * *********************************************************************** DISVEC MOVB SWPB MOV INCT BL* B* *R19,R2 R2 *R1,R3 RI INSDSP DISTSK+4 ;R2 GETS NO. OF DPU COMMANDS ;SWAP BYTES JR3 GETS DFM ADDDRESS ;SET RI TO DATA ;INSERT DATA INTO DFM BUFFER ;CET NEXT TASK ENTRY 3 3 3 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 11F8 HFC U P E 1200 1202 1204 1206 1208 120* 120C 120E 1210 1214 C220D1F6 C603 05C8 C602 05CB C611 05C1 0602 1301 10FA 05C8 C808D1F6 04SB * * * » * * • • • • * • * • * • * * * * • * » * • * * * • * t * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ROUTINE TO INSERT DISPLAY FILE INFORMATION INTO THE DISPLAY BUFFER. * * INPUT - RI CONTAINS THE ADDRESS OF THE CONSECUTIVE DPU COMMANDS * * R2 CONTAINS THE NUMBER OF DPU COMMANDS TO BE STORED * * - R3 CONTAINS THE CORRESPONDING DFM ADDRESS * * * ******************************************************** INSDSP MOV* MOV INCT MOV INSDSP1 INCT MOV INCT DEC JEQ JMP INSDSPX INCT MOV* DSPPTR.R8 R3,*R8 R8 R2,*R8 R8 *R1,*R8 RI R2 INSDSPX INS0SP1 R8 R8.DSPPTR • R l l GET CURRENT DISPLAY BUFFER PTR STORE DFM ADDRESS INC BUFFER POINTER STORE NUMBER OF COMMANDS INC BUFFER POINTER STORE DATA INTO DFM BUFFER INC COMMAND POINTER DEC DATA COUNTER IF FINISHED PROCESS NEST TASK ENTRY STORE NEXT COMMAND INC BUFFER POINTER UPDATE DFM BUFFER POINTER GET NEXT TASK ENTRY O -P-356 357 ;* *. 358 [* THE FOLLOWING ROUTINE UPDATES THE DISPLAY FILE ON A DPU INTERRUPT *; 359 ;* 360 361 ; 362 1216 03000001 UPDATE LIMI 1 DISABLE INTERRUPTS 363 12U 020C0100 LI RU.X'OIOO' SET UP CRU BIAS 364 12U 1E00 SBZ 0 ENTER INT MODE 365 1220 1E06 SBZ 6 CLEAR DPU INT 366 1222 C820D160D1F8 M0V9 CPRIOR.SPRIOR SAVE CURRENT PRIORITY 367 122B 02000004 LI RO.UPPRIOR LOAD NEW PRIORITY 368 122C C800D160 MOV* RO.CPRIOR SET NEW PRIORITY 369 1230 04201086 BLWP* INTRSV SCHEDULE TASK 370 1234 0200D264 LI RO.DISBUF GET TOP OF BUFFER 371 1238 C060D1F6 MOV* DSPPTR.Rl Rl GETS ADDRESS OF LAST ENTRY 372 123C 02040001 LI R4.1 INITIALIZE OFFSET COUNT 373 1240 8040 UPDAT1 C RO.Rl CHECK FOR END OF DATA 374 1242 130A JEQ UPDATX IF SO RELINQUISH 375 1244 CODO MOV *R0,R3 GET STARTING ADDRESS IK DFM 376 1246 05C0 INCT RO INC BUFFER POINTER 377 1248 C090 MOV *R0,R2 GET NUMBER OF DPU COMMANDS 378 124A 05C0 INCT RO INC BUFFER POINTER 379 124C C4D0 UPDAT2 MOV *R0,*R3 LOAD DFM 380 124E 05C0 INCT RO INC BUFFER POINTER 381 1250 0602 DEC R2 DEC DATA COUNT 382 1252 13F6 JEQ UPDAT1 IP ZERO CHECK FOR END OF BUFFER 383 1254 05C3 INCT R3 INC DFM POINTER 384 1256 10FA JMP UPDAT2 LOAD NEXT DFM COMMAND 385 1258 046010CE UPDATZ B* .SCUEDLR RELINQUISH o 388 389 ;* *; 390 .* THIS SECTION CONTAINS THE CPU COMMAND HANDLER. THIS ROUTINE ACCEPTS *; 391 • * COMMANDS FROM THE INPUT DEVICE, DECODING THEM AFTER RECEIVING AN *• 392 • * END OF COMMAND(EOC) CHARACTER. THIS ROUTINE THEN SCHEDULES THE *• 393 • * ROUTINE REQUIRED BY ENTERING THE ACCOMPANYING TASK NODE INTO THE *• 394 • * APPROPRIATE SPOT IN THE RDYC LIST. THE ROUTINE THEN BRANCHES TO *. 395 THE TASK SCHEDULER TO DISPATCH THE NEXT TASK. ». 396 • * *; 397 •********************************** I o O N \ 399 . M * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 400 j * ' * 401 ; * ROUTINE TO INPUT A COMMAND CHARACTER AND BUFFER IT IN THE CHARACTER * 402 ; * BUFFER. THE COMMAND I S DECODED WHEN A EOC CHARACTER I S RECEIVED. * 403 ; * * 404 ; * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 4 0 5 406 125C 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 CMDHDL L I M I 1 SET HIGH PRIORITY 407 1260 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 5 L I RO.CMDPRIOR LOAD CURRENT PRIORTY WITH PRIOR 408 1264 C800D160 MOV* RO.CPRIOR OF COMMAND HANDLER 409 1268 0 3 0 0 0 0 F F CMDHDL 1 L I M I r O O P F ' SET TO LOW PRIORITY 410 126C 06A0135A B L * READ GET A CHARACTER 411 1270 06A0132E B L * WRITE ECHO CHARACTER 412 1274 02800DOO C I RO.EOC I S IT EOC CHARACTER 413 1278 1310 JEQ DECODE I F SO,DECODE COMMAND 414 127A 0 2 8 0 0 A 0 0 C I RO,CLEAR IS IT A CLEAR COMMAND 415 127E 1307 JEQ CLRCMD I F SO,CLEAR COMMAND 416 1280 C060D1FA MOV* B U F P T R , R I GET CURRENT BUFFER POINTER 417 1284 D440 MOVB R 0 , * R 1 BUFFER CHARACTER 418 1286 05A0D1FA I N C * BUFPTR INC BUFFER POINTER 419 128A 0 4 6 0 1 2 6 8 B * CMDHDL 1 GET NEXT CHARACTER 420 128E 0200D1FE CLRCMD L I RO.CHRBUF ,GET START OF BUFFER ADDRESS 421 1292 C800D1FA MOV* RO,BUFPTR RESET BUFFER POINTER 422 1296 0 4 6 0 1 2 6 8 B * CMDHDL 1 GET NEXT CHARACTER o 424 . 425 ;* 426 ;* ROUTINE TO DECODE A COMMAND HELD IN THE CHARACTER BUFFER. THE ' 427 J* CORRESPONDING TRSV NODE IS THEN LOADED INTO THE RDYC LIST FOR < 428 ;* EXECUTION AT THE PROPER TIME. THE ROUTINES INSERT, AND GTFREE ARB 429 ;* REQUIRED. ' 430 ;* 431 .A*********************************************** 432 • 433 129A 0201136A DECODE LI RI,TABLE 1 LOAD UP FIRST CHAR TABLE ADDRESS 434 129E 0200D1FE LI RO.CHRBUF RESET CHARACTER 435 12A2 C800D1FA MOV* RO,BUFPTR POINTER 436 12A6 04C2 DECODE1 CLR R2 CLEAR R2 437 12A8 D091 MOVB *R1,R2 GET FIRST WORD 438 12AA O282FE00 CI R2.EOT CHECK FOR END OF TABLE 439 12AE 1322 JEQ DERROR IF SO THEN FLAG ERROR 440 12B0 0561 INC RI INC TABLE POINTER 441 12B2 9411 CB *R1,*R0 CHECK FOR A HATCH 442 12B4 1304 JEQ DMATCH IF SO CHECK FOR EOC 443 12B6 02210003 AI R1.3 SET POINTER TO NEW ENTRY 444 12BA O46012A6 B* DECODEl CHECK NEXT ENTRY 445 12BE 0601 DMATCH DEC RI CHECK TYPE 446 12C0 D091 MOVB *R1,R2 FOR AN EOC 447 12C2 02820D00 CI R2.E0C CHARACTER 448 12C6 1611 JNE NTABLE IF NO EOC,GO TO NXT TABLE 449 12C8 05C1 INCT RI INC TABLE POINTER 450 12CA C051 MOV *R1,R1 RI GETS ADDRESS OF RDYC LIST 451 12CC 06A010F6 DMATCH1 BL* GTFREE GET A FREE NODE 452 12D0 02030004 LI R3,4 SET UP LOOP COUNTER 453 12D4 C411 DLOOP MOV *R1,*R0 MOV INFO TO TRSV NODE 454 12D6 05C0 INCT. RO INC NODE POINTER 455 12D8 05C1 INCT RI ,INC INFO POINTER 456 12DA 060} DEC R3 DEC LOOP COUNTER 457 12DC l&FB JNE DLOOP IF NOT FINISHED THEN LOOP 458 12DE 022orrrs AI RO.-B (SET RO TO START OF NODB 459 12E2 06A0110E BL* INSERT (INSERT NODE INTO RDYC H I T 460 12E6 04601300 B* CMDHLOX (RELINQUISH 461 12EA 05C1 NTABLE INCT RI jGET NEXT TABLE ADDRESS 462 12EC C051 MOV *R1,R1 [INTO RI 463 12EE 0580 INC RO ;GET NXT CHAR 464 12F0 046012A6 B* DECODEl (CHECK NEXT TABLE 465 12F4 02000707 DERROR LI RO,CERROR (LOAD RI WITH ERROR CHAR 466 12F8 06A0132E BL* WRITE (DISPLAY ERROR 467 12FC 0460125C B* CMDHDL (GET NXT CHARACTER 4 ( 9 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 470 ;* ' *; 471 ;* ROUTINE TO QUEUE COMMAND HANDLER BACK UNTO RDYC LIST BEFORE *; 472 ;* RELINQUISHING. *; 473 ;* *; 475 [ 1 476 1300 03000001 CMDHLDX LIMI 1 [DISABLE INTERRUPTS 477 1304 02011326 LI Rl,CMDNODE [SET UP NODE FOR CMDHDL 478 1308 06A010F6 BL* GTFREE ;GET A FREE NODE 479 130C 02030004 LI R3.4 ;SET UP LOOP COUNTER 480 1310 C411 DLOOFl MOV *R1,*R0 [LOAD UP NODE 481 1312 05C0 INCT RO [INC POINTER 482 1314 05C1 INCT Rl [INC POINTER 483 1316 0603 DEC R3 [DEC LOOP COUNTER 484 1318 16FB JNE DLOOPl [IF NOT FINISHED THEN LOOP 485 131A 0220FFF8 AI R0.-8 [SET RO TO START OF NODE 486 131E 06A0110E BL* INSERT [INSERT NODE INTO RDYC LIST 487 1322 046010CE B* SCHEDLR [RELINQUISH 488 • 489 1326 0005 CMDNODE WORD X'0005' [PRIORITY 490 1328 9A0F WORD X'9A0F' [STATUS 491 132A 125C WORD CMDHDL [TASK ADDRESS 492 132C D020 WORD CMDWRK [WORKSPACE o I » • I THIS SECTION OF CODE CONTAINS THE DEVICE SUPPORT ROOTINES FOR *; ' THB PILOT ENTRY DEVICE(PED) *; t * i 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 ***************************o********************o*****************^ * *; * ROUTINE TO WRITE A CHARACTER TO PED. CHARACTER IS CONTAINED IN UPPER*; * 8 BITS OF RO. A 200 HSEC WAIT IS INSERTED ON A CARRIAGE RETURN *; * INPUT-RO CONTAINS CHARACTER TO BE WRITTEN IN UPPER 8 BITS *; * *. i **«********************«*»*»*»*«****»*****»**«*****«*******«*»******«*«. 510 132E 02OAOEA6 WRITE LI RIO,3750 PED WAIT COUNT 511 1332 020C0080 LI R12,X'80' SET UP CRU BIAS 512 1336 ID 10 SBO 16 SET RTSON 513 1338 1F16 IB 22 TRANSMIT BUFFER EMPTY? 514 133A 16F9 JNE WRITE IF NOT,THEN WAIT 515 133C 3200 LDCR R0,8 SEND CHAR TO PED 516 133E IE 10 SBZ 16 RESET RTSON 517 1340 0980 SRL R0.8 GET CHAR INTO LOWER 8 BITS 518 1342 0280000D CI RO.X'OOOD' IS IT A CR 519 1346 1607 JNE WRITEX IF NOT EXIT 520 1348 0A3A SLA RIO,3 IF NOT WAIT FOR CR 521 134A 1F16 WRITE1 TB 22 IS IT FINISHED? 522 134C 16FE JNE WRITE1 IF NOT WAIT 523 134E 1F17 TB 23 IS IT FINISHED? 524 1350 16FC JNE WRITE1 IF NOT WAIT SOME MORE 525 1352 060A WRITE2 DEC RIO 200 MSEC WAIT FOR CR 526 1354 16FE JNE WRITE2 527 1356 0A80 WRITEX SLA R0.8 MOV CHAR TO UPPER 8 BITS 528 1358 045B B *R11 RETURN TO CALLING ROUTINE f 530 • * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * t * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * t * * 4 531 532 j * ROUTINE TO READ A CHARACTER FROM PED AND STORE IT IN UPPER 8 BITS * 533 • * OF RO 534 j * OUTPUT-RO CONTAINS CHARACTER IN UPPER 8 BITS * 535 • * 536 .A*********************************************** *********************** 537 • 538 135A 020C0080 READ LI R12,X'80' [LOAD CRU BIAS 539 135E 1P15 TB 21 [RECEIVE BUFFER FULL? 540 1360 16FC JNE READ ;IF NOT WAIT 541 1362 04C0 CLE RO [CLEAR RO 542 1364 3600 STCR R0.8 [GET CHAR INTO RO 543 1366 1E12 SBZ 18 [ENABLE RECEIVE BUFFER 544 1368 045B B *R11 [RETURN TO CALLING ROUTINE I—1 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 136A 0 0 4 3 136C 1384 136E 0044 1370 138E 1372 0054 1374 1394 1376 004C 1378 139A 137A 0053 137C 13AA 137E 0045 1380 13A4 1382 FE00 !* * : ;* TABLES FOR PILOT COMMANDS ENTERED VIA FED. • * ******************************************************* TABLE 1 WORD WORD W O R D W O R D WORD WORD W O R D W O R D WORD WORD W O R D W O R D WORD X'0043' TABLE2C X'0044' TABLE2D X'0054' TABLE2T X'004C TABLE2L X'0053' TABLE2S X'0045' TABLE2E X'FEOO' FIRST LETTER ' C NXT TABLE ADDRESS FIRST LETTER 'D' NXT TABLE ADDRESS FIRST LETTER 'T* NXT TABLE ADDRESS FIRST LETTER 'L' NXT TABLE ADDRESS-FIRST LETTER 'S' NXT TABLE ADDRESS FIRST LETTER 'E' NXT TABLE ADDRESS END OF FIRST TABLE 572 1384 0D4C TABLE2C WORD X'OD4C 573 1386 13B0 WORD CTP.CL 574 1388 0D53 WORD X'0D53' 575 138A 13B8 WORD CTP.CS 576 138C FEOO WORD X'FEOO' 3 / / 578 138E 0D54 TABLE2D WORD X'0D54' 579 1390 13C0 WORD CTP.DT 580 1392 FEOO WORD X'FEOO' 581 i 582 1394 0D4P TABLE2T WORD X'0D4F' 583 1396 13C8 WORD CTP.TO 584 1398 FEOO WORD X'FEOO' 585 586 139A 0D46 TABLE2L WORD X'0D46' 587 139C 13D0 WORD CTP.LF 588 139E 0050 WORD X'0050' 589 13A0 13D8 WORD CTP.LP 590 13A2 FEOO WORD X'FEOO* 591 i 592 13A4 0D44 TABLE2E WORD X'0D44' 593 13A6 13E0 WORD CTP.ED 594 I3A8 FEOO WORD X'FEOO' 595 t 596 13AA 0D52 TABLE2S WORD X'0D52' 597 13AC 13E8 WORD CTP.SR 598 13AE FEOO WORD X'FEOO' ;CL, COMMAND ;TASK POINTER ADDRESS jCS COMMAND [TASK POINTER ADDRESS ;END OF TABLE 2C ;DT COMMAND ;TASK POINTER ADDRESS jEND OF TABLE 2D ;T0 COMMAND jTASK POINTER ADDRESS ;END OF TABLE 2T ;LF COMMAND ;TASK POINTER ADDRESS ;LP COMMAND iTASK POINTER ADDRESS ;END OF TABLE 2L jED COMMAND jTASK POINTER ADDRESS ;END OF TABLE 2E ;SR COMMAND ;TASK POINTER ADDRESS jEND OF TABLE 2S 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 6(19 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 * COMMAND TASK BLOCKS FOR COMMANDS ENTERED VIA FED * it********************************************************************* 13BO 0004 13B2 9A0F 13B4 13F0 131)6 D040 13B8 0001 13BA 9A0F 13BC 13FC 13BE D060 13C0 0004 13C2 9A0F 13C4 1404 13C6 D080 13C8 0004 13CA 9A0F 13CC 1418 13CE DOAO 13D0 0004 13D2 9A0F 13D4 1434 13D6 DOCO 13D8 0004 13DA 9A0F 13DC 1440 13DE DOEO 13E0 0004 13E2 9AOF 13E4 144C 13E6 D100 13E8 0001 13EA 9A0F 13EC 1460 13EE D120 CTP.CL CTP.CS CTP.DT CTP.TO CTP.LF CTP.LP CTP.ED CTP.SR WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD 4 X'9A0F' CT.CL CTWP.Cl . X'9A0F' CT.CS CTWP.CS 4 X'9A0F' CT.DT CTWP.DT 4 X'9A0F' CT.TO CTWP.TO 4 X'9A0F' CT.LF CTWP.LF 4 X'9A0F' CT.LP CTWP.LP 4 X'9A0F' CT.ED CTWP.ED 1 X'9A0F' CT.SR CTWP.SR JPRIORITY •.STATUS ;TASK ADDRESS [TASK WORKSPACE [PRIORITY [STATUS [TASK ADDRESS [TASK WORKSPACE [PRIORITY [STATUS [TASK ADDRESS [TASK WORKSPACE [PRIORITY [STATUS [TASK ADDRESS [TASK WORKSPACE [PRIORITY [STATUS [TASK ADDRESS [TASK WORKSPACE [PRIORITY iSTATUS [TASK ADDRESS [TASK WORKSPACE [PRIORITY .•STATUS [TASK ADDRESS [TASK WORKSPACE [PRIORITY [STATUS [TASK ADDRESS [WORKSPACE 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 13F0 653 13F4 654 13F8 655 656 13FC 657 1400 658 659 1404 660 1408 661 140C 662 1410 663 1414 664 665 1418 666 141C 667 1420 668 1424 669 142B 670 142C 671 1430 672 673 1434 674 1438 675 143C 676 677 1440 678 1444 679 1446 680 681 144C 682 1450 683 1454 684 1458 685 145C 686 687 1460 688 1464 * * M * * M * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * T M * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ROUTINES ACCESSED VIA COMMAND TASK POINTERS * 0200147C 06AO1468 046010CE 03000000 04600080 0200AOOO 02029000 0200DA64 06A01468 046010CE 02001480 06A01468 02001484 06A01468 02001488 06A01468 046010CE O2O0148C 06A01468 046010CE 0 2 0 0 1 4 9 0 0 6 A 0 1 4 6 8 046010CB 02001494 06A01468 02001498 06A01468 046010CE 03000001 04601000 CT.CL CT.CS CT.DT CT.TO CT.LP C T . L P I CT.ED CT.SR LI RO.DTP.CL ;GET DISPLAY TASK POINTER ADDRESS BL* DTINSERT jINSERT IT INTO DISPLAY TASK BLOCK B* SCHEDLR RELINQUISH LIMI 0 ;SET PRIOR TO HIGH B* X'0080' ;BRANCH TO MONITOR LI RO.X'AOOO' jY CO-ORD MASK LI R2,X'9000' jX CO-ORD MASK LI RO.DTP.DT ;GET DISPLAY TASK POINTER ADDRESS BL* DTINSERT -.INSERT IT INTO DISPLAY TASK BLOCK B* SCHEDLR RELINQUISH LI RO.DTP.TO jGET DISPLAY TASK POINTER ADDRESS BL* DTINSERT •.INSERT IT INTO DISPLAY TASK BLOCK LI RO.DTP.TOl ;GET NEXT TASK POINTER BL* DTINSERT ;INSERT IT LI R0.DTP.TO2 ;GET NEXT TASK POINTER BL* DTINSERT ; INSERT IT B* SCHEDLR RELINQUISH LI RO.DTP.LF ;GET DISPLAY TASK POINTER ADDRESS BL* ' DTINSERT [INSERT IT INTO DISPLAY TASK BLOCK B* SCHEDLR [RELINQUISH LI RO.DTP.LP (GET DISPLAY TASK POINTER ADDRESS BL* DTINSERT [INSERT IT INTO DISPLAY TASK BLOCK B* SCHEDLR (RELINQUISH LI RO.DTP.EO [GET DISPLAY TASK POINTER ADDRESS BL* DTINSERT [INSERT IT INTO DISPLAY TASK BLOCK LI RO,DTP.EDI [GET NEXT TASK POINTER BL* DTINSERT [INSERT IT INTO DISPLAY TASK BUFFER B* SCHEDLR [RELINQUISH LIMI 1 [SET TO HIGH PRIORITY B* INIT [INITIALIZE SYSTEM 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 1468 C060D226 698 146C C450 699 146E 05CO 700 1470 05C1 701 1472 C450 702 1474 05C1 703 1476 C801D226 704 147A 045B ' ROUTINE TO INSERT A DISPLAY TASK POINTER INTO DTBUP ' ' INPUT-RO CONTAINS ADDRESS OF DISPLAY TASK POINTER ' MOV* DTBUFP.Rl GET FREE BUFFER SPACE MOV *R0,*R1 INSERT REP COUNT INCT RO INC DISPLAY TASK POINTER ADDRESS INCT RI INC DISPLAY BUFFER POINTER MOV *R0,*R1 INSERT DISPLAY TASK ADDRESS INCT RI INC DISPLAY BUFFER POINTER MOV* Rl.DTBUFP RESTORE DISPLAY TASK BUFFER POINTER B *R11 RETURN 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 7H 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 147C 0000 147E 149C 1480 0007 1482 14BE 1484 0007 1486 159C 1488 OOOO 148A 15BC 148C 0008 148E 15E6 1490 OOOO 1492 15FA 1494 0007 1496 1694 1498 OOOO 149A 1796 * * * DISPLAY TASK POINTERS * *************************************************************** DTP.CL DTP.TO WORD WORD WORD WORD DTP.TOl WORD WORD DTP.TO2 WORD WORD DTP.LP DTP.LP DTP. ED WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD WORD DTP.EDI WORD WORD X'0000' DT.CL X'0007' DT.TO X'0007' DT.TOl X'0000' DT.T02 X'0008' DT.LF X'0000' DT.LP X'0007* DT.ED X'0000' DT. EDI REPEAT EVERY REFRESH DISPLAY TASK ADDRESS REPEAT EVERY 7 REFRESHES DISPLAY TASK ADDRESS REPEAT EVERY 7 REFRESHES DISPLAY TASK ADDRESS REPEAT EVERY REFRESH DISPLAY TASK ADDRESS FLASH ON AND OFF EVERY 8 REFRESHES DISPLAY TASK ADDRESS REPEAT EVERY REFRESH DISPLAY TASK ADDRESS REPEAT EVERY 7 REFRESHES DISPLAY TASK ADDRESS REPEAT EVERY REFRESH DISPLAY TASK ADDRESS 00 736 **»»»*««*»********«**»»«*«»«»»»»»*««««»*»*»««*«*«*»*»«^ 737 • * j 738 * DISPLAY TASKS *; 739 * *; 740 741 742 149C 030E DT.CL WORD X'030E' i 13 VECTOR COMMANDS 743 149E F00O WORD X'FOOO' j STARTING ADDRESS IN DFM 744 14A0 AOOP WORD X'AOOF' ; 745 14A2 900F WORD X'900F' j 746 14A4 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' j MOVE BEAM 747 14A6 3000 WORD X'3000' WRITE 0 748 14A8 3007 WORD X'3007' WRITE 1 749 14AA 300B WORD X'300B' WRITE 2 750 14AC 3014 WORD X'3014' WRITE 3 751 14AE 301C WORD X'301C WRITE 4 752 14B0 3022 WORD X'3022' WRITE 5 753 14B2 302A WORD X'302A' WRITE 6. 754 14B4 3033 WORD X*3033' WRITE 7 755 14B6 3038 WORD X'3038' WRITE 8 756 14B8 3042 WORD X'3042' WRITE 9 757 14BA 7000 WORD X'7000' RESET 758 14BC FEOO WORD X'FEOO' END OF TASK 759 > 760 14BE 032D DT.TO WORD X'032D' 3 RULES 761 14C0 FOOO WORD X'FOOO' DFM ADDRESS 762 14C2 5013 WORD X'5013' BRANCH OVER SUBROUTINES 763 14C4 8FE0 WORD X'8FE0' START OF VERTICAL RULE SUBROUTINE 764 14C6 84DF WORD X'84DF' 765 14C8 8C80 WORD X'BCBO' 766 14CA 845F WORD X'B45F' 767 14CC 8EE0 WORD X'8EE0' 768 14CE 84SF WORD X'845F' 769 14D0 8C80 WORD X'8C80' 770 14D2 84DF WORD X'84DF' 771 14D4 D400 WORD X'D400' RETURN 772 14D6 8C1F WORD X'BCIF' START OF HORIZONTAL RULE SUBROUTINE 773 14D8 87E6 WORD X'87E6' 774 14DA 8C04 ' WORD X'8C04' 775 UDC VH WORD X'87E2' 1 776 14DE 8C17 WORD X'8C17' t 777 14E0 87E2 WORD X'87E2' I 778 14E2 8C04 WORD X'8C04' 1 779 14E4 87E6 WORD X'87E6' 780 14E6 D400 WORD X'D400' [RETURN 781 14E8 40FF WORD X'40FF' ;SET BRIGHTNESS 782 14EA 9244 WORD X'9244' [DRAW ALTITUDE RULE 783 14EC A180 WORD X'A180' 784 14EE BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 785 14F0 1001 WORD x ' i o o r ' 786 14F2 1001 WORD X'lOOl' 787 14F4 1001 WORD X'lOOl' 788 14F6 1001 WORD X'lOOl' 789 14F8 8FE0 WORD X'SFEO' 790 UFA 91C0 WORD X'91C0' [DRAW AIRSPEED RULE 791 UFC A1C4 WORD X'A1C4' 792 UFE BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 793 1500 100A WORD X'lOOA' 794 1502 100A WORD X'lOOA' 795 1504 100A WORD X'lOOA' 796 1506 100A WORD X'lOOA' 797 1508 8C1F WORD X'BCIF' 798 150A 9044 WORD X'9044' 799 150C A180 WORD X'A180' 800 150E BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 801 1510 1001 WORD X'1001' 802 1512 1001 WORD X'lOOl' 803 1514 1001 WORD X'1001' 804 1516 1001 WORD X'1001' 80S 1518 8FE0 WORD X'BFEO' 806 151A 7000 WORD X'7000' 807 151C 033D WORD X'033D' 808 151E F058 WORD X'F058' 809 1520 A078 WORD X'A078' 810 1522 9254 WORD X'9254' 811 1524 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 812 1526 3000 WORD X'3000' 813 1528 A0B8 WORD X'A0B8' 814 152A 9254 WORD X'9254' 815 152C BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 816 152E 300B WORD X'300B' 817 1530 A0F8 WORD X'A0F8' 818 1532 9254 WORD X'9254' 819 1534 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 820 1536 301C WORD X'301C 821 1538 A138 WORD X'A138' 822 153A 9254 WORD X'9254' 823 153C BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 824 153E 302A WORD X'302A' 825 1540 A178 WORD X'A178' 826 1542 9254 WORD X'9254' 827 1544 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 828 1546 3038 WORD X'3038' 829 1548 9014 WORD X'9014' 830 1S4A A078 WORD X'A078' 831 154C BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 832 1S4E 300B WORD X'300B' 833 1550 A0B8 WORD X'AOBS' 834 1552 9014 WORD X'9014' 835 1554 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 836 1556 3007 WORD X'3007' 837 1S58 A0F8 WORD X'A0F8' 838 155A 9014 WORD X'9014' 839 155C BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 840 155E 3000 WORD X'3000' 841 1560 A138 WORD X'A138' B42 1562 9014 WORD X'9014' 843 1564 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 844 1566 3007 WORD X'3007' 845 1568 A178 WORD X'A178' 846 156A 9014 WORD X'9014' 847 156C BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 848 156E 300B WORD X'300B' 849 1S70 A1D4 WORD X'A1D4' 850 1572 90B8 WORD X*90B8' 851 1574 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 852 1576 301C WORD X'301C 853 1578 A1D4 WORD X'A1D4' DRAW VERTICAL SPEED RULE SCALE LABELS DFM ADDRESS 834 157A 90F8 WORD X'90F8' i 855 157C BOOO WORD X'BOOO' j 856 157E 3014 WORD X'3014' i 857 1580 A1D4 WORD X'A1D4' i 858 1582 9138 WORD X'9138' i 859 1584 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' i 860 1586 300B WORD X'300B' 861 1588 A1D4 WORD X'A1D4' 862 158A 9178 WORD X'9178' 863 158C BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 864 158E 3007 WORD X'3007' 865 1590 A1D4 WORD X'A1D4' 866 1592 91B8 WORD X'91B8' 867 1594 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 868 1596 3000 WORD X'3000' 869 1598 7000 WORD X*7000' 870 159A FEOO WORD X'FEOO' 871 ; 872 159C 030D DT.T01 WORD X'030D' ATTITUDE SCALES 873 159E FODO WORD X'FODO' 874 15A0 A0F8 WORD X'A0F8' 875 15A2 90CO WORD X'90C0' 876 15A4 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 877 15A6 401F WORD X'401F' 878 15A8 91C0 WORD X'91C0' 879 1SAA B800 WORD X'B800' 880 15AC 40FF WORD X'40FP' 881 15AE A120 WORD X'A120' 882 15B0 9148 WORD X'9148' 883 15B2 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 884 15B4 1001 WORD X'lOOl' 665 15B6 8FE0 WORD X'8FE0' 886 15B8 7000 WORD X'7O0O' 887 15BA FEOO WORD X'FEOO' 888 5 889 15BC 0400 DT.T02 WORD X'040O' SCALE POINTERS 890 15BE 17B2 WORD DR.ALTD ALTITUDE POINTER 891 15C0 0507 WORD X'O507' (RAM DATA 892 13C2 DA6A WORD RD.ALTD 893 15C4 FOES WORD X'FOES' DFM LOCATION 894 15C6 0400 WORD X'0400' VERTICAL SPEED 895 15C8 17CE WORD DR.VRSP 896 15CA 0507 WORD X'0507' RAM DATA 897 15CC DA78 WORD RD.VRSP 898 15CE F0F4 WORD X'F0F4' DFM LOCATION 899 15D0 0400 WORD X'0400' HORIZONTAL SITUATION 900 15D2 17EA WORD DR.HZST 901 15D4 0512 WORD X'0512' RAM DATA 902 15D6 DA86 WORD RD.HZST 903 15D8 FlOO WORD X'FIOO' DFM LOCATION 904 15DA 0400 WORD X'0400' AIR SPEED POINTER 905 15DC 1806 WORD DR.ARSP .DATA PROCESS ROUTINE 906 15DE 0507 WORD X'0507' RAM DATA 907 15E0 OAAA WORD RD.ARSP 908 15E2 F122 WORD X'F122' 909 15E4 FEOO WORD X'FEOO' .END OF TASK 910 15E6 0307 DT.LF WORD X'0307' ;7 DPU COMMANDS 911 15E8 F12E WORD X'F12E' (DISPLAY FILE ADDRESS 912 15EA A080 WORD X'AOBO' 913 15EC 9128 WORD X'9128' 9U 1SEE BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 915 15F0 300B WORD X'300B' 916 15P2 3007 WORD X'3007' 917 15F4 3000 WORD X'3000' 918 15F6 7000 WORD X'7000' 919 15F8 FEOO WORD X'FEOO' 920 S 921 15FA 0400 DT.LP WORD X'0400' 922 15FC 1822 WORD DR.GLSP 923 15FE 0321 WORD X'D321' 924 1600 FOOO WORD X'FOOO' 925 1602 5015 WORD X'5015' 926 1604 8FE0 WORD X'8FE0' 927 1606 8FE0 WORD X'8FE0' 928 1608 8FE0 WORD X'8FE0' 929 160A 8FE0 WORD X'8FE0' 930 160C D400 WORD X'D400' 931 160E 8DE0 WORD X'SDEO' 932 1610 8DE0 WORD X'8DE0' 933 1612 8DE0 WORD X'8DE0' 934 1614 8DE0 WORD X'SDEO' 935 1616 D400 WORD X'D400' 936 1618 8C1F WORD X'BCIF' 937 161A 8C1F WORD X'8C1F' 938 161C 8C1F WORD X'8C1F' 939 161E 8C1F WORD X'SCIF' 940 1620 D400 WORD X'D400' 941 1622 8C0F WORD X'8C0F' 942 1624 8C0F WORD X'8C0F' 943 1626 8C0F WORD X'8C0F' 944 1628 8C0F WORD X'8CDF' 945 162A D400 WORD 'X'D400' 946 162C A110 WORD X'AllO' 947 162E 9130 WORD X'9130' 948 1630 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 949 1632 40IF WORD X'401F' 950 1634 8C1E WORD X'8C1E' 951 1636 8DE0 WORD X'SDEO' 952 1638 8C0F WORD X'8C0F' 953 163A 8FC0 WORD X'SFCO' 954 163C 8DFE WORD X'8DFE' 955 163E 840F WORD X'840F' 956 1640 8FDE WORD X'SFDE' 957 1642 7000 WORD X'7OO0' 958 1644 0505 WORD X'0505' 959 1646 DABS WORD RD.GLSP 960 1648 F040 WORD X'F040' 961 164A 030C WORD X'030C' 962 164C F048 WORD X'F048' 963 164E 1006 WORD X'1006' 964 1650 1006 WORD X'1006' 965 1652 1006 WORD X'1006* 966 1654 1006 WORD X'1006' 967 1656 8DE0 WORD X'8DE0' 968 1658 8C1E WORD X'BClE' 969 165A 1001 WORD X'1001' 970 165C 1001 WORD X'1001' 971 165E 1001 WORD X'1001' DISPLAY COURSE ERROR RESET END OF TASK GLIDE SLOPE AND PATH UPDATE ROUTINE DYNAMIC LOCATION OF GLIDE SLOPE RELATIVE PARTS OF GLIDE SLOPE 972 1660 1001 WORD X'1001' 973 1662 8C0F WORD X'SCOF' 974 1664 7000 WORD X'7O0O' 975 1666 0505 WORD X'0505' 976 1668 DAC2 WORD RD.GLPT 977 166A F05E WORD X'F05E' 978 166C 030C WORD X'030C 979 166E F064 WORD X'F064' 980 1670 1010 WORD X'1010' 981 1672 1010 WORD X'1010' 982 1674 1010 WORD X'1010' 983 1676 1010 WORD X'1010' 984 1678 8C0F WORD X'8C0F' 985 167A 8DE0 WORD X'8DE0' 986 167C 100B WORD X'lOOB' 987 167E 100B WORD X'lOOB' 988 1680 100B WORD X'lOOB' 989 1682 100B WORD X'lOOB' 990 1684 8FC0 WORD X'8FC0' 991 1686 7000 WORD X'7000' 992 1688 0400 WORD X'0400' 993 16SA 1886 WORD DR.HDNG 994 168C 050D WORD X'050D' 995 168E DACA WORD RD.HDNG 996 1690 F07A WORD X'F07A' 997 1692 FEOO WORD X'FEOO' 998 i 999 1694 032B DT.ED WORD X'032B' 1000 1696 FOOO WORD X'FOOO' 1001 1698 500A WORD X'SOOA' 1002 169A 8FE0 WORD X'8FE0' 1003 169C 84DF WORD X'84DF' 1004 169E 8C80 WORD X'8C80' 1005 16A0 845F WORD X'845F' 1006 16A2 8EE0 WORD X'8EE0' 1007 16A4 845F WORD X'845F' 1008 16A6 8C80 WORD X'8C80' 1009 16A8 84DF WORD X'84DF' 1010 16AA D400 WORD X'D400' 1011 16AC A180 WORD X'AIBO' 1012 16AE 9088 WORD X'9088' 1013 16B0 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1014 16B2 1001 WORD X'1001' 1015 16B4 1001 WORD X'1001' 1016 16B6 1001 WORD X'1001' 1017 16B8 1001 WORD X'1001' 1018 16BA 8FE0 WORD X'8FE0' 1019 16BC A180 WORD X'A180' 1020 16BE 9108 WORD X'9108' 1021 16C0 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1022 16C2 1001 WORD X'1001* 1023 16C4 1001 WORD X'1001' 1024 16C6 1001 WORD X'1001' 1025 16C8 1001 WORD X'1001' .026 16CA 8FE0 WORD X'8FE0' .027 16CC A180 WORD X'A180' 028 16CE 9188 WORD X'9188' 029 16D0 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 030 16D2 1001 WORD X'1001' DYNAMIC PART OF GLIDE PATH RELATIVE PART OF GLIDE PATH HEADING ROUTINE DISPLAY ENGINE DATA DFM ADDRESS JMP PAST SUBROUTINES START OF RULE SUBROUTINE START OF MAIN ROUTINE START OF FIRST RULE START OF SECOND RULE START OF THIRD RULE 1031 16D4 1001 WORD 1*1001 ' 1032 16D6 1001 WORD X ' l O O l * 1033 1608 1001 WORD X ' l O O l ' 1034 16DA 8FE0 WORD X ' 8 F E 0 ' 1035 16DC A180 WORD X ' A 1 8 0 ' START OF 1036 16DE 9208 WORD X ' 9 2 0 8 ' 1037 16E0 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1038 16E2 1001 WORD X ' l O O l ' 1039 16E4 1001 WORD X ' l O O l ' 1040 16E6 1001 WORD X ' l O O l ' 1041 16E8 1001 WORD X ' l O O l ' 1042 16EA 8FE0 WORD X ' 8 F E 0 ' 1043 16EC 7000 WORD X ' 7 0 0 O ' 1044 16EE 0351 WORD X*0351 ' LABELS 1045 16F0 F054 WORD X ' F 0 5 4 ' 1046 16F2 A178 WORD X ' A 1 7 8 ' START OF 1047 16F4 9098 WORD X'9098' 1048 16F6 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1049 16F8 3038 WORD X'3038' 8 1050 16FA A138 WORD X ' A 1 3 8 ' 1051 16FC 9098 WORD X'9098' 1052 16FE BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1053 1700 302A WORD X ' 3 0 2 A ' 6 1054 1702 A0F8 WORD X ' A 0 F 8 ' 1055 1704 9098 WORD X ' 9 0 9 8 ' 1056 1706 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1057 1708 301C WORD X ' 3 0 1 C [4 1058 170A A0B8 WORD X ' A 0 B 8 ' 1059 170C 9098 WORD X ' 9 0 9 8 ' 1060 WOE BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1061 1710 300B WORD , X ' 3 0 0 B ' 2 1062 1712 A078 WORD X ' A 0 7 8 ' 1063 1714 9098 WORD X ' 9 0 9 8 ' 1064 1716 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1065 1718 3000 WORD X'3000' ,0 1066 171A 9118 WORD X ' 9 1 1 8 ' START OF 1067 171C A178 WORD X ' A 1 7 8 ' 1068 171B BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1 loot i n o IOIO wimu %• jot c ' 4 1070 1722 9118 WORD X '91 l« ' 1071 1724 A138 WORD X ' A 1 3 8 ' 1072 1726 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1073 1728 3014 WORD X ' 3 0 1 4 ' 3 1074 172A 9118 WORD X ' 9 1 1 8 ' 1075 172C A0F8 WORD X 'AOFS ' 1076 172E BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1077 1730 300B ' WORD X ' 3 0 0 B ' 2 1078 1732 9118 WORD X ' 9 U 8 ' 1079 1734 A0B8 WORD X ' A 0 B 8 ' 1080 1736 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1081 1738 3007 WORD X ' 3 0 0 7 ' 1 1082 173A 9118 WORD X ' 9 1 1 8 ' 1083 173C A078 WORD X ' A 0 7 8 ' 1084 173E BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1085 1740 3000 WORD X'3000' 'o 1086 1742 9198 WORD X ' 9 1 9 8 ' , START OF 1087 1744 A178 WORD X ' A 1 7 8 ' 1088 1746 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1089 1748 3038 WORD X ' 3 0 3 8 ' 1090 174A 9198 WORD X'9198' 1091 174C A138 WORD X'A138* 1092 174E BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1093 1750 302A WORD X*302A' 1094 1752 9198 WORD X'9198' 1095 1754 A0F8 WORD X'A0F8' 1096 1756 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1097 1758 301C WORD X'301C* 1098 175A 9198 WORD X'9198* 1099 175C A0B8 WORD X'AOBS' 1100 175E BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1101 1760 300B WORD X'300B' 1102 1762 9198 WORD X'9198' 1103 1764 A078 WORD X'A078' 1104 1766 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1105 1768 3000 WORD X'3000' 1106 176A 9218 WORD X'9218* 1107 176C A178 WORD X'A178' 1108 176E BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1109 1770 301C WORD X'301C 1110 1772 A138 WORD X*A138' t i l l 1774 9218 WORD X'9218' 1112 1776 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1113 1778 3014 WORD X'3014' 1114 177A A0F8 WORD X'A0F8* 1115 177C 9218 WORD X'9218' 1116 177E BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1117 1780 300B WORD X'300B' 1118 1782 AOBB WORD X*AOB8' 1119 1784 9218 WORD X'9218' 1120 1786 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1121 1788 3007 WORD X'3007' 1122 17BA A078 WORD X'A078' 1123 178C 9218 WORD X'9218' 1124 178E BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1125 1790 3000 WORD X'3000' 1126 1792 7000 WORD X'7000' 1127 1794 FEOO WORD X'FEOO' 1128 1 1129 1796 0400 DT.ED1 WORD X'0400' 1130 1798 184B WORD DR.ENQ 1131 179A 0306 WORD X'0306' 1132 179C F0F4 WORD X'F0F4' 1133 179E 5080 WORD X'5O80' 1134 17A0 8FC7 WORD X'8FC7' 1135 17A2 85F6 WORD X'85F6' 1136 17A4 8FD6 WORD X'8FD6' 1137 17A6 8C0P WORD X'8C0F' 1138 17A8 D400 WORD X'D400' 1139 17AA 0511 WORD X'0511' 1140 17AC DAE4 WORD RD.ENG1 1141 17AE F100 WORD X'FIOO' 1142 17B0 FEOO WORD X'FEOO* START OF LABELS FOR FOURTH RULE I t I BHD Of TASK COLLECT ENCINE DATA ROUTINE ADDRESS POINTER SUBROUTINE DFM ADDRESS END OF SUBROUTINE DYNAMIC DATA 1144 1145 1146 1147 1148 1149 1150 1151 1152 1153 1154 1155 1156 1157 1158 1159 1160 1161 1162 1163 1164 1165 1166 1167 1168 1169 1170 1171 1172 1173 1174 1175 1176 1177 1178 1179 1180 1181 1182 1183 1184 1185 1186 1187 1188 1189 1190 1191 1192 1193 1194 1195 1196 1197 1198 1199 1200 1201 1202 17B2 17B6 17B8 17BC 17BE 17C2 17C6 17C8 17CC 17CE 17D2 17D4 17D8 17DA 17DE 17E2 17E4 17E8 17EA 17EE 17F0 17F4 17F6 17FA 17FE 1800 1804 1806 180A 180C 1810 1812 1816 181A 181C 1820 1822 1826 1828 1B2C 182E 1830 1834 1838 183A 183E 1842 1846 1848 C160D1F4 0A65 0245FFOO 06C5 02250080 0206A000 E185 C806DA6C 04 5B C160D1F4 0A55 0245FF00 06C5 02250080 0206A000 E185 C806DA7A 045B C160D1F4 0A65 02453F00 06C5 022500D8 0206A000 E185 C806DA88 045B C160D1F4 0A4S O245FF0O 06CS O225O0CO 02069000 E185 C806DAAC 045B C160DIF4 0A45 0245FF00 06C5 C1C5 02250080 0206A000 E185 C806DABA O22700C0 02069000 E187 C806DAC2 1* * ;* DISPLAY ROUTINES * (* * • DR.ALTD DR.VRSP DR.H2ST DR.ARSP DR.GLSP MOV* REPCNT.R5 ; GET AIRSPEED SLA R5.6 ; PROCESS IT AND I R5,X'FF00' j GET MS 8 BITS SWPB R5 ; GET B BITS INTO LS BYTE AI R5,X'0O8O' ; LI R6,X'A000' ;R6 GETS Y MASK SOC R5.R6 ORI WITH R5 MOV* R6.RD.ALTD1 LOAD IT B *RII RET HOV* REPCNT.R5 GET VERTICAL SPEED SLA R5.5 PROCESS IT ANDI R5,X'FF00' GET MS 8 BITS SWPB R5 GET 8 BITS INTO LS BYTE AI R5,X'0080' LI R6,X'AO0O' R6 GETS Y MASK SOC R5.R6 ORI WITH R5 MOV* R6.RD.VRSP1 LOAD IT B *R11 RET MOV* REPCNT.R5 GET PITCH SLA R5,X'0006' ANDI R5,X'3F00' PROCESS IT SWPB R5 AI R5,X'00D8' LI R6,X'A0O0' SOC R5.R6 MOV* R6.RD.HZST1 UPDATE IT B *R11 RETURN MOV* REPCNT,R5 GET REPCNT SLA R5.4 PROCESS IT ANDI R5,X'FF00* GET MS SIG BITS SWPB R5 INTO LS BYTE AI R5,X'00C0' LI R6,X'9000' •GET X MASK SOC R5.R6 OR INTO X MASK MOV* R6.RD.ARSP1 .UPDATE SPEED B *R11 ;RET MOV* REPCNT,R5 . ,GET REPCNT SLA R5.4 ;PROCESS IT ANDI R5,X'FF00' jCET MS SIG BITS SWPB R5 ;INTO LS BYTE MOV R5.R7 ;SAVE DATA AI R5,X'O080' ,ADD OFFSET LI R6,X'A000' ;GET Y MASK SOC R5.R6 JOR DATA INTO Y MASK MOV* R6f RD.GLSP+2 ;UPDATE DATA AI R7,X'00C0' [PROCESS NEW DATA LI R6,X'9000' ;GET X MASK SOC R7.R6 ;OR DATA INTO X MASK MOV* R6.RD.GLPT [UPDATE DATA 1203 184C 04 5B B *R11 1204 • 120S 184E C160D1F4 DR. EMC MOV* REPCNT,R5 1206 1852 C1C5 MOV R5.R7 1207 1854 0A65 SLA R5,6 1208 1856 0245FFOO ANDI R5,X'PF0O* 1209 185A 06C5 SWPB R5 1210 185C 02250080 AI R5,X'0080' 1211 1860 0206A000 LI R6,X'A000' 1212 1864 E146 SOC R6.R5 1213 1866 C805DAE4 MOV* R5.RD.ENC1 1214 186 A C805DAF4 MOV* R5.RD.ENG3 1215 186E 0A57 SLA R7.5 1216 1870 0247FF00 ANDI R7,X'FF00' 1217 1874 06C7 SUPB R7 1218 1876 02270080 AI R7,X'0080' 1219 187A E1C6 SOC R6.R7 1220 187C C805OAEC MOV* R5.RD.ENG2 1221 1880 C805DAFC MOV* R5.RD.ENG4 1222 1884 045B B *RU 1223 ft 1224 1886 045B DR.HDHG B *R11 ; RETURN GET SIMULATED DATA SAVE IT PROCESS DATA GET VECTOR DATA INTO 7 MASK 1 STORE DATA ; PROCESS DATA [GET VECTOR DATA INTO Y MASK 1 STORE DATA I STORE DATA ;RETURN ;TO BE ADDED 1226 • ************************** 1227 ;* 1228 • * > START OF PROM COPT 1229 ;* 1230 • ************************** 1231 1888 0000 RDATAS WORD X'OOOO' 1232 ! 1233 188A 9234 RS.ALTD WORD X'9234' 1234 188C A09B RS.ALTD1 WORD X'A09B' 1235 188E BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1236 1890 8FC7 WORD X'8FC7' 1237 1892 8C1D WORD X'8C1D' 1238 1894 8DE7 WORD X'8DE7' 1239 1896 7000 WORD X'700O' 1240 1898 9044 RS.VRSP WORD X'9044' 1241 189A AO 80 RS.VRSF1 WORD X'A08D' 1242 189C BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1243 189E 8DE7 WORD X'8DE7' 1244 18A0 8C1D WORD X'SCID' 1245 18A2 8FC7 WORD X'8FC7' 1246 18A4 7000 WORD X'7000' 1247 18A6 91 AO RS.HZST WORD X'91A0' 1248 18A8 AOEB RS.H2ST1 WORD X'AOEB' 1249 18AA BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1250 18AC 8FE0 WORD X'BFEO' 1251 18AE 8FE0 WORD X'SFEO' 1252 18B0 8FE0 WORD X'8FE0' 1253 18B2 8FE0 WORD X'8FE0' 1254 18B4 8FE0 WORD X'8FE0' 1255 18B6 8C17 WORD X'8C17' 1256 18B8 87EO WORD X*87E0' 1257 18BA 87EO WORD X'87EO* 1258 18BC 8C08 WORD X'8C08* 1259 18BE 8FE0 WORD X'8FE0' 1260 18C0 8FE0 WORD X'8FE0' 1261 16C2 8FE0 WORD X'BFEO' 1262 18C4 SFEO WORD X'SFEO' 126} ISC6 8FE0 WORD X'8FE0' 1264 18CB 7000 WORD X'7000' 1265 18CA A1B4 RS.ARSP WORD X'A1B4' 1266 18CC 9100 RS.ARSP1 WORD X'9100' 1267 18CE BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1268 18D0 8EDE WORD X'8EDE' 1269 18D2 8DC0 WORD X'8DC0' 1270 18D4 8ECF WORD X'8ECF' 1271 18D6 7000 WORD X'7000' 1272 18D8 40FF RS.GLSP WORD X'40FF' 1273 180 A A100 WORD X'AIOO' 1274 18DC 90C0 WORD X'90C0' 1275 16DE BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1276 18E0 7000 WORD X'7000' 1277 18E2 9100 RS.ta.PT WORD X'9100' 1278 18E4 A080 WORD X'AOBO' 1279 18E6 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1280 18E8 7000 WORD X'7000' 1281 18EA A190 RS.HDNG WORD X'A190' 1282 18EC 90C0 WORD X'90C0* 1283 18EE BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1284 18F0 300B WORD X'300B' -.START OF PROM COPT ALTITUDE DATA 1285 18F2 3007 WORD X'3007' 1286 18F4 3000 WORD X'3000' 1287 18F6 A190 WORD X'A190' 1288 18F8 9180 WORD X'9180' 1289 18FA BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1290 18FC 301C WORD X'301C' 1291 18FE 3038 WORD X'3038' 1292 1900 3033 WORD X'3033' 1293 1902 7000 WORD X'7000' 1294 1904 AOOO RS.ENG1 WORD X'AOOO' 1295 1906 9078 WORD X'9078' 1296 1908 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1297 190A 107B WORD X'107B' 1298 190C AOOO RS.ENG2 WORD X'AOOO' 1299 190E 90F8 WORD X'90F8' 1300 1910 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1301 1912 107B WORD X'107B' 1302 1914 AOOO RS.ENG3 WORD X'AOOO' 1303 1916 9178 WORD X'9178' 1304 1918 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1305 191A 107B WORD X'107B' 1306 191C AOOO RS.ENG4 WORD X'AOOO' 1307 191E 91F8 WORD X'91F8' 1308 1920 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1309 1922 107B WORD X'107B' 1310 1924 7000 WORD X'7000' 1311 1926 FFFF WORD X'FFFF' ENGINE POINTER DATA END OF PROM COPT 1313 • ************************************************************** 1314 • * *• 1315 • * RAM STORAGE AREA *; 1316 ;* *• 1317 ************************************************************************. 1318 DOOO ORG X'DOOO' 1319 DOOO 0 0 1 0 SCHEDWF BLOCK 16 [SCHEDULER WORKSPACE 1320 D020 0010 CMDWRJC BLOCK 16 [COMMAND HANDLER WORKSPACE 1321 D040 0010 CTWP.CL BLOCK 16 [CL WORKSPACE 1322 D060 0010 CTWP.CS BLOCK 16 [CS WORKSPACE 1323 D080 0010 CTWP.DT BLOCK 16 [DT WORKSPACE 1324 DO AO 0010 CTWP.TO BLOCK 16 [TO WORKSPACE 1325 DOCO 0010 CTWP.LF BLOCK 16 [LF WORKSPACE 1326 DOEO 0010 CTWP.LP BLOCK 16 [LP WORKSPACE 1327 D100 0010 CTWP.ED BLOCK 16 [ED WORKSPACE 1328 D120 0010 CTUP.SR BLOCK 16 [SR WORKSPACE 1329 DUO 0010 UPDATWS BLOCK 16 [WORKSPACE FOR UPDATE ROUTINE 1330 DUO OOOO CPRIOR WORD 0 [CURRENT PRIORITY 1331 D162 D164 FRLSP WORD FRLST [FREE LIST POINTER 1332 D164 D17C FRLST WORD NODES 1333 D166 D186 WORD NODES+10 1334 D168 D190 WORD NODES+20 1335 D16A D19A WORD NODES+30 1336 D16C D1A4 WORD N0DES+40 1337 DUE DUE WORD NODES+50 1338 D170 D1B8 WORD NODES+60 1339 D172 D1C2 WORD NODES+70 1340 D174 D1CC WORD NODES+80 1341 D176 D1D6 WORD NODES+90 1342 D178 D1E0 WORD NODES+100 1343 D17A D1EA WORD NODES+110 1344 D17C 00 3C NODES BLOCK 60 [FREE NODE AREA 1345 D1F4 FFFF RE PC NT WORD ' X'FFFF' [REPCOUNTER 1346 D1F6 D264 DSPPTR WORD DISBUF [DISPLAY BUFFER POINTER 1347 D1F8 OOOO SPRIOR WORD 00 [PRIORITY SAVE 1348 D1FA DIFE BUFPTR WORD CHRBUF [BUFFER POINTER 1349 D1PC m r RDYC WORD X'FFFF' [RDYC LIST 1350 D I F E 0014 CHRBUF BLOCK 20 [CHARACTER BUFFER 1351 D226 D228 DTBUFP WORD DTBUF [DISPLAY TASK BUFFER POINTER 1332 D228 001E DTBUF BLOCK 30 (DISPLAY TASK BUFFER 1353 D264 0400 DISBUF BLOCK 1024 (DISPLAY BUFFER 1354 DA64 0002 DTP.DT BLOCK 2 [AREA FOR DISPLAY TESTS 1356 • ************************* 1357 i * 1358 ;* RAM DATA 1359 ;* 1360 • ************************* 1361 DA68 OOOO RDATA WORD X'0000' 1362 \ 1363 DA6A 9234 RD.ALTD WORD X'9234' 1364 DA6C A09B RD.ALTD1 WORD X'A09B' 1365 DA6E BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1366 DA 70 8FC7 WORD X'8FC7' 1367 DA72 8C1D WORD X'8C1D' 1368 DA74 8DE7 WORD X'8DE7' 1369 DA76 7000 WORD X'7000' 1370 DA78 9044 RD.VRSP WORD X'9044' 1371 DA7A A08D RD.VRSP1 WORD X'A08D' 1372 DA7C BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1373 DA7E 8DE7 WORD X'8DE7' 1374 DA80 8C1D WORD X'8C1D' 1375 DA82 8FC7 WORD X'8FC7' 1376 DA84 7000 WORD X'7000' 1377 DA86 91A0 BD.BZST WORD X'91A0' 1378 DA88 AOEB RD.HZST1 WORD X'AOEB' 1379 DA8A BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1380 DA8C 8FE0 WORD X'8FE0' 1381 DA8E BFEO WORD X'SFEO' 1382 DA90 8FE0 WORD X'8FE0* 1383 DA92 8FE0 WORD X'SFEO' 1384 DA94 8FE0 WORD X'8FE0* 1385 DA96 8C17 WORD X'8C17' 1386 0A98 87EO WORD X'87E0* 1387 DA9A 87EO WORD X'87EO' 1388 DA9C 8C08 WORD X'8C08' 1389 DA9E 8FE0 WORD ' X'8FE0' 1390 DAAO 8FE0 WORD X'SFEO' 1391 DAA2 8FE0 WORD X'8FE0' 1392 DAA4 8FE0 WORD X'8FE0' 1393 DAA6 8FE0 WORD X'SFEO' 1394 DAA8 7000 WORD X'7000' 1395 OAAA A1S4 RD.ASSP WORD X'A1B4' 1396 DAAC 9100 RD.ARSP1 WORD X'9100' 1397 DAAE BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1398 DABO 8EDE WORD X'8EDE' 1399 DAB 2 8DC0 WORD X'8DC0' 1400 DAB 4 8ECP WORD X'8ECF' 1401 DAB 6 7000 WORD X'7000' 1402 DABB 40FF RD.CLSP WORD X'40FF' 1403 DABA A100 WORD X'AIOO' 1404 DABC 90C0 WORD X'90C0' 1405 DABE BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1406 DACO 7000 WORD X'7000' 1407 DAC2 9100 RD.G1.PT WORD X'9100' 1408 DAC4 A080 WORD X'A080' 1409 DAC6 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1410 DAC8 7000 WORD X'7000' 1411 DACA A190 RD.HDNG WORD X'A190' 1412 DACC 90C0 WORD X'90C0' 1413 DACE BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1414 DADO 300B WORD X'300B' [START OF RAM COPT ALTITUDE DATA 1415 DAD 2 3007 WORD X'3007' 1416 DAD4 3000 WORD X'3000' 1417 DAD6 A190 WORD X'A190' 1418 DAD 8 9180 WORD X'9180' 1419 DADA BOOO WORD X'BOOO* 1420 DADC 301C WORD X'301C 1421 DADE 3038' WORD X'3038' 1422 DAEO 3033 WORD X'3033' 1423 DAE2 7000 WORD X'7000' 1424 DAE4 AOOO ED.ENG1 WORD X'AOOO' 1425 DAE6 9078 WORD X'9078' 1426 DAE8 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1427 DAEA 107B WORD X*107B' 1428 DAEC AOOO RD.ENG2 WORD X'AOOO' 1429 DAEE 90F8 WORD X'90F8' 1430 DAFO BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1431 DAF2 107B WORD X'107B' 1432 DAF4 AOOO RD.ENG3 WORD X'AOOO' 1433 DAF6 9178 WORD X'9178' 1434 DAF8 BOOO WORD X'BOOO' 1435 DAFA 107B WORD X'107B' 1436 DAFC AOOO BD.ENG4 WORD X'AOOO' 1437 DAFE 91F8 WORD X'91F8' 1438 DBOO BOOO WORD X'BOOO* 1439 DB02 107B WORD X*107B' 1440 DB04 7000 WORD X'7000' 1441 DB06 FFFF WORD X'FFFF' ENGINS POINTER DATA END OF RAM COPY 1443 FOOO ORG X'FOOO' [DISPLAY FILE ORIGIN 1444 FOOO 0800 DFM BLOCK 2048 ;DFM 1445 END D E F I N E D V A L U E NAME R E F E R E N C E S 1348 A BUFPTR 54 42 7 CERROR 465 13S0 E CHRBUF 53 41 0 CLEAR 414 420 E CLRCMD 415 406 C CMDHDL 100 409 8 CMDHDL1 419 476 0 CMDHLDX 460 489 6 CMDNODE 477 36 5 CMDPRIOR 407 1320 0 CMDWRK 99 1330 0 CPRIOR 62 652 0 CT.CL 608 656 C CT.CS 613 659 4 CT.DT 618 681 C CT.ED 638 673 4 CT.LF 628 677 0 CT.LP 633 687 0 CT.SR 643 665 8 CT.TO 623 606 0 CTP.CL 573 611 8 CTP.CS 575 616 0 CTP.DT 579 636 0 CTP.ED 593 626 0 CTP.LF 587 631 8 CTP.LP 589 641 8 CTP.SR 597 621 8 CTP.TO 583 1321 0 CTWP.CL 609 1322 0 CTWP.CS 614 1323 0 CTWP.DT 619 1327 0 CTWP.ED 639 1325 0 CTWP.LF 629 1326 0 CTWP.LP 634 1328 0 CTWP.SR 644 1 3 2 4 0 CTWP.TP 6 2 4 433 A DECODE 413 436 6 DECODEl 444 465 4 DERROR 439 1444 0 DFM 51 1353 4 DISBUF 56 268 2 DISCNT 265 47 7 DISERR 281 37 3 DISPRIOR 238 258 6 DISTSK 254 266 A DISTSK1 251 45 0 DISUPD 270 312 C DISUPDT 271 326 8 DISVEC 269 453 4 DLOOP 457 480 0 DLOOP1 484 445 E DMATCH 442 451 C DMATCH1 1150 2 DR.ALTD 890 1180 6 DR.ARSP 905 1205 E DR.ENG 1130 416 418 421 435 420 434 1348 467 491 422 492 139 158 237 239 4 6 4 240 370 1346 303 316 331 1190 2 DR.GLSP 922 1224 6 DR.HDNG 993 1170 A DR.HZST 900 1160 E DR.VRSP 895 233 A DSPLMD 250 4 DSPLMD1 257 256 2 DSFLMD2 263 2B4 1346 6 DSPPTR 57 241 342 742 C DT.CL 713 999 4 DT.ED 731 1129 6 DT.ED1 734 910 6 DT.LF 725 921 A DT.LP 728 760 E DT.TO 716 872 C DT.T01 719 889 C DT.T02 722 1352 8 DTBUP 78 248 1351 1351 6 DTBUFP 79 249 697 697 8 DTINSERT 653 662 666 684 712 C DTP.CL 652 1354 4 DTP.DT 661 730 4 DTP.ED 681 733 8 DTP.EDI 683 724 C DTP.LF 673 727 0 DTP.LP 677 715 0 DTP.TO 665 718 4 DTP.TOl 667 721 8 DTP.T02 669 293 2 DYNDAT 273 46 0 DYNINF 272 35 0 EOC 412 447 43 0 EOJ 264 34 F EOL 206 39 0 EOT 262 438 1331 2 FRLSP 69 179 180 1332 4 FRLST 68 1331 179 6 GTFREE 122 137 451 SO 0 INIT 688 71 C INIT1 76 78 C INIT2 73 83 C INIT3 89 91 C INIT4 85 342 8 INSDSP 301 330 352 E INSDSPX 350 346 2 INSDSP1 351 202 E INSERT 135 147 459 205 8 INSERT1 215 216 0 INSERT2 207 210 120 6 INTRSV 121 242 369 1344 C NODES 70 1332 1333 1339 1340 1341 461 A NT ABLE 448 .363 A RD.ALTD 892 364 C RD.ALTD1 1157 395 A RD.ARSP 907 396 C RD.ARSP1 1187 424 4 RD.ENG1 1140 1213 428 C RD.ENG2 1220 353 371 703 668 670 674 678 682 190 191 478 486 1334 1335 1336 1337 1338 1342 1343 1432 1436 1407 1402 1411 1377 1378 1370 1371 1361 1231 1349 538 190 1345 1233 1234 1265 1266 1294 1298 1302 1306 1277 1272 1281 1247 1248 1240 1241 32 13 42 43 44 45 BD.ENG3 RD.ENG4 RD.CLPT RD.Gl.SP RD.HDNG RD.HZST RD.HZST1 RD.VRSP RD.VRSP1 RDATA RDATAS RDYC READ REMOVE REPCNT RS.ALTD RS.ALTD1 RS.ARSP RS.ARSP1 RS.ENG1 RS.ENG2 RS.ENG3 RS.ENG4 RS.GLPT RS.GLSP RS.HDMG RS.HZST RS.HZST1 RS.VRSP RS.VRSP1 RO RI RIO R U R12 R13 1214 1221 976 959 995 902 1177 897 1167 82 81 65 410 168 59 1205 1202 1198 157 540 253 166 266 203 1150 204 1160 1170 1180 1190 50 51 53 54 56 57 61 62 64 65 68 69 71 74 78 79 81 83 87 125 126 127 128 130 131 133 134 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 179 181 181 202 216 217 218 238 239 240 241 248 250 252 255 256 258 259 280 281 283 36J 368 370 373 375 376 377 378 379 380 407 408 412 414 417 420 421 434 435 441 453 454 458 463 465 480 481 485 515 517 518 527 541 542 652 659 661 665 667 669 673 677 681 683 698 699 701 70 71 75 82 86 88 92 93 202 209 259 261 293 295 296 297 298 299 300 302 312 313 314 326 328 329 347 348 371 373 416 417 433 437 440 441 443 445 446 449 450 450 453 455 461 462 462 477 480 482 697 698 700 701 702 703 191 192 510 520 525 182 193 219 354 528 544 704 1158 1168 1178 1188 1203 1222 1224 91 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 192 234 243 363 511 538 124 127 129 130 132 133 136 145 164 46 E R14 143 162 47 P R15 141 160 34 2 R2 67 72 212 214 264 268 313 315 436 437 35 3 R3 204 212 375 379 36 4 R4 208 209 37 5 R5 205 206 1154 1156 1170 1171 1182 1183 1194 1195 1210 1212 38 6 R6 295 300 1175 1176 1198 1200 39 7 R7 1194 1199 1219 40 8 R8 342 343 41 9 R9 157 E SCHEDLR 267 385 685 319 0 SCHEDWP 120 347 8 SPRIOR 125 237 552 A TABLE 1 433 372 4 TABLE2C • 553 578 E TABLE2D 556 592 4 TABLE2E 568 586 A TABLE2L 562 596 A TABLE2S 565 582 4 TABLE2T 559 362 6 UPDATE 329 0 UPOATWS 38) e UPDATX 374 373 0 UPDAT1 382 379 c UPDAT2 384 38 4 UPPRIOR 367 44 0 VECTR 268 510 E WRITE 282 411 527 6 WRITEX 519 521 A WRITE1 522 524 525 2 WRITE2 526 NO ERRORS POUND IN ABOVE ASSEMBLY 169 83 84 . 86 203 205 208 218 252 253 260 261 262 270 272 280 283 293 294 326 327 345 349 377 381 438 446 447 660 213 214 216 297 328 343 383 452 456 479 483 249 250 372 299 302 1150 1151 1152 1153 1160 1161 1162 1163 1164 1166 1172 1173 1174 1176 1180 1181 1184 1186 1190 1191 1192 1193 1197 1205 1206 1207 1208 1209 1213 1214 1220 1221 1155 1156 1157 1165 1166 1167 1177 1185 1186 1187 1196 1197 1201 1202 1211 1212 1219 1201 1206 1215 1216 1217 1218 344 345 346 347 352 353 487 654 663 671 675 679 366 466 514 138 APPENDIX C 139 X A L S ALD REG SEL MEM INC NXT £ "A B BRANCH ADDRESS p 'A J± MEM INC NXT 0 9 1011 1213 1516 . 1819 BRANCH FORMAT FIELDS BRANCH ADDRESS - 10 b i t m i c r o i n s t r u c t i o n branch a d d r e s s - b i t 9 i s MS DRAW - 0 NOP - 1 s t a r t ramp f o r v e c t o r g e n e r a t o r i n 1/2 c l o c k c y c l e ALU FORMAT FIELDS ALU S o u r c e ( A L S ) - 000 NOP ALU D e s t i n a t i o n - 000 NOP - 001 x S h o r t - 001 X - 010 y S h o r t - 010 Y - O i l Long - O i l PC - 100 Macro a d d r e s s - 100 I n t e n s i t y r e g i s t e r ( P C ) _ m N o t u s e d - 101 H a l t s t r o b e - n o Not used - 110 Load symbol* - ill Not used a d d r e s s - I l l Not used R e g i s t e r S e l e c t - 00,Dummy (REG SEL) _ Q 1 x - 10 Y 11 S u b r o u t i n e r e t u r n a d d r e s s r e g i s t e r COMMON FIELDS 140 Memory Select(MEM) - 00 None Increment C o n t r o l ( I N C ) - 00 None - 01 DFM - 10 Symbol - 11 None ROM - 01 DFM Address - 10 Symbol Address - 11 None Next A d d r e s s C o n t r o l ( N X T ) - 0010 - 0011 Load s t a r t i n g a d d r e s s F e t c h n e x t i n s t r u c t i o n Jump t o s t a r t i n g a d d r e s s Branch - 0100 - 1111 ALU Enable(ENAB) - 0 ALU c l o c k not e n a b l e d - 1 ALU c l o c k e n a b l e d * These s i g n a l s a l t h o u g h n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y ALU s o u r c e s have been p u t here f o r hardware r e d u c t i o n w i t h t h i s approach ** A l t h o u g h o n l y 2 b i t s would n o r m a l l y be r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s f i e l d 4 were used w i t h t he i n t e n t i o n o f e n a b l i n g f u t u r e enhancements t o the m i c r o s e q u e n c e r 141 APPENDIX D TMS 9901 I/O CONNECTOR TMS 9901 BUS CONNECTOR BUFFERS ' • TIM 9904 RESET RAM EPROM TMS 9902 48 MHz i 1 .4 . . • RAM I r u EPROM 1 i: j RS 232 INTERFACE TTY INTERFACE I F TERMINAL CONN. -p-B l ; oGk:-:diagram-:6f - :TM9 9 0 / IPOM E P R O M 'MEMORY STATIC RAM MEMORY h A D D R E S S DECODE &TIMING LOGIC —I X B U F F E R S B U S CONNECTOR B l o c k d i a g r a m o f TM990/201 144 APPENDIX E S3 Sf i • z i .? zs 3/> 33 4* -T IS 2s/sr? Jl Jl 12 38 4* a. S7>/ *Y 3Y 4 ^ it JlL JL 14 IS 2* tSISJ zs 3B 44 tY ZY 2Y 4Y 1FT f 3 : ,4 r 7 DFM ADDRESS " DECODING ~ SZ I 1—1 2P& 3t D-^ i 3*? Q-^ }-^  o I JLl. J 4 s i : r< 0< ? Si 43. 59F /7 A* /*V 47 4S 2o Zl/4 3» ADZ 3>3 '8 i3 It /O I La-ys-2//*. Dl 73 3 ? * 7>3 CS 14 it St . O — Pi • o 3, . * , n IL 4t> 4i 44 5 w 10 if /t. /h /Ii At 43 44 4S 4* 47 43 »? <5 —0" Z//4 7)7 ?t 7>3 14 13 0 4 b it 13 8 9 7o ;//. /Z. /3\ /4<{j£ 7415*4/ Z/J/ 7? U7~ 4tser-L>-/S 74*514/ 79 78 I* 1— 42_ /A. /A. 7S /4 DISPLAY FILE MEMORY: 3>/>/V» 0-VS~+ S6 ' ON 3W. Sneer 2 ps? /Z/ /A* Sn^tr, /?/>4/L /z/7f. SB Sf CioCK-S7 V 7^/ Co I* 13 JO t2-SP er 04 ej>j> Co 3.9 ^/ \z> ^ 74/t,/ \/4 J3_ Co IS , MACRO ADDRESS REGISTER >mflt>DX o: ?/ : r. Sneer 3 op IZ Ms /?P/M M/71 NEXT ADDRESS SELECTION I fit/ $ra*t#rt/lrtn- • Sfm/IO t><T+ Cc S7 3>PlL S«eer S ar fZ O S8 3-—D xi/«vy SS O O DWO:tl+ - ! 58 2>fU. &4 /9 8 f Ao is/38 -tit Ai M /If. JM-4 -W -ah 94 9s 1 3 ^eys- sfe -qtf1—D £Pcs - S3 Ai Si -Hi $3 «. g, T 6 £o-4 SID -O XASt' -oXtw^'" /f3 _ t-siaXy-S3 ••• ... fitter-Z>-i> A L U O P E R A N D  DECODING / V g ^ Q : 5* * 74 lb I $j> BOS ep er Co lS~ /6 f4lU as-EP sr <fA (PA <pj> Co /2> 1L. SYMBOL ADDRESS -REGISTER = 0 Z>YmAi>6:7f /oesr-88 ZyVZ LJS3.79 Jt.0 I—O i W 7 » — S7.» ' <&ssr-1IM^ I I uJ3 cut T. CiA 1* 3> ^ Ml.*-•e^  4 -OyccZeXo • 7 7 / * ! DPU CLOCK CONTROL - D r - v 7 s? .£> CLOCK-S? H- 1 S~77eer 9 /£ BtWf- 57 'o—. If 1> V Cue /<r 3t 4J> 7.S274 3Q 4* 5? Sf CP 1* XV4 ft 7t gp &7 &> Y Bi O 8 -£37 - a * -or 1 • • • -a «• -O 3 - a i INTENSITY CONTROL  LATCH X CO-ORDINATE LATCHES ; ' ! •; U l ~1>PCC' • S//£tST 7/ Of /Z. se 6s.vo o://+Cc S/b II IS /+ S IJ> la w isi 74 *•<> 3 D 3Q-4T> — 49-hi, L^LL. 7± * 4° I ,i 4 5 ID 12L-13 V -/q LSI7S rtfis-V A? 3? m M-1*-4P cm 4^ Slb 1% II JL 14 ID 32> 4J> lb 13174*4 3d 40 St! 7 10 It It ML I* CU; X2> 19 33> ftl  s i V cut 49 •sso vciK4y£>-J P4 -a 3/ -a 32--a i? . -a 34 -Q3S -a 34 -n 38 -a if -a 4o -a a -a *z -a -a JL4 -a *s _ • ^ 6 -0 *-7 -a So Y CO-ORDINATE LATCHES i , . r In 157 APPENDIX F 158 ********************************************** * * * THE FOLLOWING IS THE CONTENTS OF THE CONTROL STORE REQUIRED BY * * THE DPU I N THE E A D S . . * * * *********************************************************************** ADDR MICROCODE COMMENTS *********************************************************************** * * * ROUTINE TO FETCH A DPU COMMAND FROM THE DFM * * * *********************************************************************** 0000 FFFC84 GET DFM COMMAND 0001 FFFC86 LATCH THE DFM DATA 0002 FFFC28 LOAD STARTING ADDRESS AND JUMP *********************************************************************** * * * ROUTINE TO EXECUTE A JUMP TO SUBROUTINE * * * *********************************************************************** 0010 FF0607 STORE OLD PC 0011 FED807 LOAD UP NEW PC 0012 F0009E BRANCH TO FETCH ROUTINE *********************************************************************** * * * ROUTINE TO EXECUTE A DRAW CHARACTER * * * *********************************************************************** 0030 FFFD04 NOP 0031 FFFD06 ENABLE SYMBOL ROM 0032 FFFD04 NOP 0033 FFFD48 LOAD STARTING ADDRESS AND BRANCH *********************************************************************** * * * ROUTINE TO SET INTENSITY L E V E L * * * *********************************************************************** 0040 FEE007 LOAD BRIGHTNESS VALUE 0041 F0009E RETURN TO FETCH ROUTINE *********************************************************************** * * * ROUTINE TO EXECUTE A BRANCH * * * *********************************************************************** 0050 FED807 LOAD NEW PC 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 0051 F0001E BRANCH TO FETCH ROUTINE 159 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 ********************************************************* * * * ROUTINE TO HALT DPU * * * *********************************************************************** 0070 0071 FF4007 F0001E SET HALT FLAG BRANCH TO FETCH ROUTINE *********************************************************************** * * * ROUTINE TO DRAW SHORT VECTOR * * * *********************************************************************** 75 0080 FE4A07 LOAD SHORT X 76 0081 FE9407 LOAD SHORT Y 77 0082 FFFE06 DRAW VECTOR 78 0083 FFFC06 NOP 79 0084 FE0A07 LOAD NEW SHORT X 80 0085 FE1407 LOAD NEW SHORT Y 81 0086 F00206 RESET BEAM 82 0087 FFFC06 NOP 83 0088 FFFC06 NOP 84 0089 FFFC06 NOP 85 0089 F0019E BRANCH TO FETCH I *********************************************************************** * * * ROUTINE TO LOAD LONG VECTOR Y * * * *********************************************************************** 0090 0091 FECA07 F0009E LOAD LONG Y BRANCH TO FETCH ROUTINE *********************************************************************** * * * ROUTINE TO LOAD LONG VECTOR X * * * *********************************************************************** 00A0 00A1 FED407 F0009E LOAD LONG X BRANCH TO FETCH ROUTINE *********************************************************************** * * * ROUTINE TO DRAW VECTOR * * * *********************************************************************** 00B0 00B1 00B2 00B3 00B4 FFFE06 FFFC06 FE0A07 FE1407 F0029E START RAMP NOP LOAD NEW X LOAD NEW Y BRANCH TO FETCH ROUTINE AND RESET BEAM 160 117 • *************************************** 118 • * *• 119 • * ROUTINE TO DRAW SHORT VECTOR I N SYMBOL ROM * ; 120 »* *; 121 • ************************************************************************ 122 123 OOCO FE4B07 LOAD SHORT X 124 00C1 FE9507 LOAD SHORT Y 125 00C2 FFFF06 DRAW VECTOR 126 00C3 FFFD06 NOP 127 00C4 FE0B07 LOAD NEW SHORT X 128 00C5 FE1507 LOAD NEW SHORT Y 129 00C6 F00306 RESET BEAM 130 00C7 FFFF06 NOP 131 00C8 FFFF06 NOP 132 00C9 FFFF06 NOP 133 OOCA F0C11E BRANCH BACK TO DRAW CHARACTER ROUTINE 134 135 • ***********************************************************************• 136 • * *• 137 • * ROUTINE TO EXECUTE A RETURN FROM SUBROUTINE * ; 138 • * *• 139 . ************************************************************************ 140 141 OODO FE5E07 LOAD UP OLD PC 142 00D1 F000A6 INC PC ADDRESS 143 00D2 F0009E BRANCH TO FETCH ROUTINE END OF F I L E 161 1 j ******************************+**************************************** 2 ; * * 3 ; * DPU COMMANDS USED IN SYMBOL ROM TO GENERATE DPU SYMBOLS * 4 ; * * 6 ; 7 ; * 0 * 8 0000 C480 9 0001 CCOF 10 0002 CD80 11 0003 CC1E 12 0004 CF60 13 0005 C5E0 14 0006 0000 15 ; * 1 * 16 0007 C500 17 0008 CCOF 18 0009 C51E 19 OOOA OOOO 20 ; * 2 * 21 OOOB C480 22 OOOC CC08 23 OOOD CD80 24 OOOE CC07 25 OOOF CF60 26 0010 C41E 27 0011 CD80 28 0012 C480 29 0013 OOOO 30 ; * 3 * 31 0014 C480 32 0015 CD80 33 0016 CCOF 34 0017 CF60 35 0018 C596 36 0019 CF60 37 001A C5F7 38 001B OOOO 39 ; * 4 * 40 001C C580 41 001D CCOF 42 001E CEF9 43 001F CD80 44 0020 C494 45 0021 OOOO 46 ; * 5 * 47 0022 C480 48 0023 CD80 49 0024 CC08 50 0025 CF60 51 0026 CC07 52 0027 CD80 53 0028 C49E 54 0029 OOOO 55 ; * 6 * 56 002A C480 57 002B CD80 5 8 0 0 2 C C C 0 8 5 9 0 0 2 D C F 6 0 6 0 0 0 2 E C 4 1 7 6 1 0 0 2 F C C O F 6 2 0 0 3 0 C D 8 0 6 3 0 0 3 1 C 4 9 E 6 4 0 0 3 2 O O O O 6 5 ; * 7 * 6 6 0 0 3 3 C 4 8 0 6 7 0 0 3 4 C D 8 F 6 8 0 0 3 5 C F 6 0 6 9 0 0 3 6 C 5 F E 7 0 0 0 3 7 O O O O 7 1 ; * 8 * 7 2 0 0 3 8 C 4 8 0 7 3 0 0 3 9 C D 8 0 7 4 0 0 3 A C 4 0 8 7 5 0 0 3 B C F 6 0 7 6 0 0 3 C C 4 1 7 7 7 0 0 3 D C C O F 7 8 0 0 3 E C D 8 0 7 9 0 0 3 F C C 1 E 8 0 0 0 4 0 C 4 8 0 8 1 0 0 4 1 O O O O 8 2 ; * 9 * 8 3 0 0 4 2 C 5 E 0 8 4 0 0 4 3 C C O F 8 5 0 0 4 4 C F 6 0 8 6 0 0 4 5 C C 1 6 8 7 0 0 4 6 C D 8 0 8 8 0 0 4 7 C 4 9 7 8 9 0 0 4 8 O O O O 9 0 ; * A * 9 1 0 0 4 9 C 4 8 0 9 2 0 0 4 A C D O F 9 3 0 0 4 B C D I E 9 4 0 0 4 C C 7 6 7 9 5 0 0 4 D C C E O 9 6 0 0 4 E C 5 1 6 9 7 0 0 4 F O O O O 9 8 ; * B * 9 9 0 0 5 0 C 4 8 0 1 0 0 0 0 5 1 C C O F 1 0 1 0 0 5 2 C D O O 1 0 2 0 0 5 3 C C 9 2 1 0 3 0 0 5 4 C E 7 3 1 0 4 0 0 5 5 C E E O 1 0 5 0 0 5 6 C 5 0 0 1 0 6 0 0 5 7 C C 9 3 1 0 7 0 0 5 8 C E 7 3 1 0 8 0 0 5 9 C E E O 1 0 9 0 0 5 A C 4 A 0 1 1 0 0 0 5 B C 5 8 0 1 1 1 0 0 5 C O O O O 1 1 2 ; * C * 1 1 3 0 0 5 D C 4 8 0 1 1 4 0 0 5 E C C O F 1 1 5 0 0 5 F C D 8 0 1 1 6 0 0 6 0 C 7 7 E 117 0061 CD80 118 0062 C4A0 119 0063 0000 120 ; * D 121 0064 C480 122 0065 CCOF 123 0066 CDOO 124 0067 CC93 125 0068 CC17 126 0069 CE73 127 006A CEEO 128 006B C480 129 006C C580 130 00 6D OOOO 131 ; * E * 132 006E C480 133 006F CCOF 134 0070 CD 80 135 0071 C776 136 0072 CDOO 137 0073 C6F7 138 0074 CD 80 139 0075 C480 140 0076 OOOO 141 ; * F * 142 0077 C480 143 0078 CCOF 144 0079 CD80 145 007A C776 146 007B CDOO 147 007C C517 148 007D OOOO 149 ; * M * 150 007E C480 151 007F CCOF 152 0080 CD IE 153 0081 CD OF 154 0082 CC1E 155 0083 C480 156 0084 OOOO 157 ; * 0 * 158 0085 C580 159 0086 CEE5 160 0087 CC05 161 0088 CD05 162 0089 CD 14 163 008A CC14 164 008B CEF4 165 008C C580 166 008D OOOO 167 ; * P * 168 008E C480 169 008F CCOF 170 0090 CDOO 171 0091 CC92 172 0092 CE73 173 0093 CEEO 174 0094 C5D7 175 0095 OOOO 176 ; * T * 177 0096 C580 178 0097 CCOF 179 0098 C6C0 180 0099 CDCO 181 009A C49E 182 009B OOOO 183 • * k > OF F I L E 165 APPENDIX G ; z, D -J D-' so-' iQ-\ 7 Q -\ BO-/oa-< l* . At7Slo . yes-/.SB , 7 1 * 7 i : ft; n O-i / J D-/ f O-! / f D-i /* O-: /7D-,/t O-.v£c o - i /o Sf/eer Z or 3 ; Suaer <3 or 3 

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