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Delay-throughput analysis of inter- and intra-MAN voice and data integrated traffic in IEEE 802.6 MAN.. Wong, William Y. L. 1995-12-31

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DELAY-THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS OF INTER- AND INTRA-MAN VOICE AND DATA INTEGRATED TRAFFIC IN IEEE 802.6 MAN BASED PCN . by WILLIAM Y. L. WONG B.Sc(EE), University of Manitoba, 1992 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLffiD SCffiNCE  in T H E FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February 1995 © William Y. L . Wong, 1995  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis  in  University of  freely available for  fulfilment  of  the  this thesis for  department  or  his  or  scholarly purposes may be her  representatives.  It  permission.  of  Pj&^kifAi  ^ (TTV^  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  7*L  1 ?  for  an advanced  Library shall make  agree that permission for  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not  Department  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  reference and study. I further  copying of  by  partial  IAI^IKI^  is  granted  by the  understood  that  it  extensive  head of copying  my or  be allowed without my written  Abstract This thesis focuses on a proposed IEEE 802.6 Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) based distributed communication architecture for supporting the Personal Communication Services (PCS). Future-generation telecommunications systems are intended to combine all kinds of networks (wireline or wireless) and services (data, voice, video, graphics, etc.) into one single universal personal communications system. An IEEE 802.6 MAN-based distributed Personal Communication Network (PCN) architecture is introduced in this thesis, and network performance analysis based on this architecture is presented. Isochronous (voice) traffic will be transported by high priority queue-arbitrate (QA) slots instead of by using the more conventional pre-arbitrated (PA) slots. Consequently, the highest priority Q A slots will be used to transport signalling traffic while the lowest priority Q A slots will be used to transport data traffic. Since analytical models are not available, simulation models have been developed to evaluate the transmission delay of voice and data packets for both inter- and intra-MAN traffic. From these simulation models, nodal transmission delay is found to be depended on the physical location of the transmitting node and traffic levels within the network. Inter-MAN traffic nodal transmission delay is additionally dependent on the connection scheme of homogeneous bridges which interconnect different MANs. With CCITT Q.931 used as the signalling protocol for call setup, the Q A access for isochronous traffic (QAAIT) call setup and clearing is simpler and faster than the PA access for isochronous traffic (PAAIT), Q A access avoids specific channel allocation and call clearing. Although QAAIT has its advantages in call setup and clearing, its use under light traffic load only is advised. Under heavy traffic loads PAAIT is advised, since the later case provides bounded packet transmission delay at all times by controlling network call access.  ii  /  Table of Contents Abstract  ii  List of Figures  vi  List of Tables  ix  Acknowledgment Chapter 1  x Introduction  1  r  Section 1.1  Background and Motivation  1  Section 1.2  P C N Architecture Based on IEEE 802.6 M A N  2  Section 1.3  Outline of The Thesis  5  Chapter 2 Section 2.1  Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.6 M A N The IEEE 802.6 M A N  6 6  2.1.1  The IEEE 802.6 M A N architecture  6  2.1.2  The distributed queue access protocol  8  Section 2.2  Slot Reuse Schemes  11  2.2.1  Destination Release  11  2.2.2  Previous Slot Information (PSI)  11  Section 2.3  Modelling and Simulation of the DQDB Protocol  13  2.3.1  DQDB protocol model  13  2.3.2  Simulation models  14  2.3.3  Simulation results  iii  . .  15  Chapter 3  Delay Analysis of Q A Access for Integrated Intra-MAN Voice and Data Traffic  Section 3.1  19  Voice-Data Integration  19  3.1.1  Voice clipping  20  Section 3.2  Simulation Models  Section 3.3  Simulation Results  ; . . . . . . .  3.3.1  Simultaneous voice calls arrival without silence deletion  3.3.2  Exponentially distributed voice call arrivals without silence  22 24 24  deletion  28  3.3.3  Exponentially distributed voice call arrivals with silence deletion  32  3.3.4  Exponentially distributed voice calls arrival for different voice coding rate with silence deletion  Chapter 4  34  Delay Analysis of Q A Access for Inter- and Intra-MAN Voice and Data Integrated Traffic within a Backbone M A N Network  42  Section 4.1  Homogeneous Bridges Connection Scheme  43  Section 4.2  Simulation Model  46  Section 4.3  Preliminary Simulation Results  46  Section 4.4  Statistical Results for The Six-MAN Network  50  Section 4.5  General Results of The Inter- and Intra-MAN Traffic within a  Section 4.6 4.6.1  Backbone M A N Network  56  Call Setup Delay  61  Signalling protocol  61  4.6.2  Call setup procedure  63  4.6.3  Performance analysis  63  Summary and Conclusions  65  Chapter 5 Section 5.1  Results Summary  65  Section 5.2  Suggestions for Future Work  67  Appendix A References  Source Code  69 104  List of Figures Figure 1. IEEE 802.6 M A N based distributed PCN architecture  3  Figure 2. M A N interconnection within-a backbone M A N  4  Figure 3. DQDB dual-bus configuration  6  Figure 4. Frame and slot format in DQDB M A N  7  Figure 5. Uniform destination distribution for data packets in a DQDB M A N  16  Figure 6. Geometric destination distribution for data packets in a DQDB M A N  17  Figure 7. Active voice station model  20  Figure 8. Voice clipping probability vs. number of ready-to-transmit voice stations  22  Figure 9. Mean voice packet waiting delay vs. Q A voice Throughput  25  Figure 10. Percentage of voice packets discarded vs. Q A voice Throughput  26  Figure 11. Mean data packet waiting delay vs. Q A data Throughput for various voice throughput  27  Figure 12. Mean packets waiting delay vs. nodes locations  27  Figure 13. Mean voice packet waiting delay vs. Q A voice Throughput  29  Figure 14. Percentage of discarded voice packet vs. Q A voice Throughput  29  Figure 15. Mean data packet waiting delay vs. Q A data Throughput for various voice Throughput  30  Figure 16. Mean packet waiting delay vs. node location Figure 17. Percentage of discarded voice packets vs. number of voice calls per node  31 . . . 34  Figure 18. Mean data packet waiting delay vs. Q A data Throughput for various number of active voice calls with voice coding rate of 64 kbps  vi  35  Figure 19. Mean data packet waiting delay vs. Q A data Throughput for various number of active voice calls with voice coding rate of 32 kbps  36  Figure 20. Mean data packet waiting delay vs. Q A data Throughput for various number of active voice calls with voice coding rate of 16 kbps  36  Figure 21. Mean data packet waiting delay vs. Q A data Throughput for various number of active voice calls with voice coding rate of 4 kbps  37  Figure 22. Mean data packet waiting delay vs. Q A data Throughput with different numbers of active voice calls per node for various voice coding rates  38  Figure 23. Relation between voice coding rate and number of active voice calls activated . 40 Figure 24. Geographical location of access MANs within a backbone M A N  42  Figure 25. Illustration of three homogeneous bridges connection  43  Figure 26. Illustration of four homogeneous bridges connection  44  Figure 27. Physical representation of a backbone M A N network  45  Figure 28. Mean inter-MAN data packet transmission delay vs. total Q A data traffic for 32 kbps voice coding rate  47  Figure 29. Mean intra-MAN data packet transmission delay vs. total Q A data traffic for 32 kbps voice coding rate  48  Figure 30. Mean inter-MAN data packet transmission delay vs. total Q A data traffic for 4 kbps voice coding rate  48  Figure 31. Mean intra-MAN data packet transmission delay vs. total Q A data traffic for 4 kbps voice coding rate  49  Figure 32. Mean inter-MAN packets waiting delay over homogeneous bridges  52  Figure 33. Mean inter-MAN packet transmission delay via different bridges  53  vii  Figure 34. Mean intra-MAN packets transmission delay vs. nodes locations  54  Figure 35. Mean inter-MAN data packet transmission delay vs. nodes locations  55  Figure 36. Mean inter-MAN voice packet transmission delay vs. nodes locations  56  Figure 37. Mean inter- and intra-MAN data packet transmission delay vs. total data traffic for 75% inter-MAN traffic  . 57  Figure 38. Mean inter- and intra-MAN data packet transmission delay vs. total data traffic for 50% inter-MAN traffic  58  Figure 39. Mean inter- and intra-MAN data packet transmission delay vs. total data traffic for 25% inter-MAN traffic  58  Figure 40. Mean inter-MAN voice packet transmission delay vs. total Q A voice traffic for various levels of inter-MAN traffic  59  Figure" 41. Mean intra-MAN voice packet transmission delay vs. total Q A voice traffic for various levels of inter-MAN traffic  59  Figure 42. Call setup procedure of Q.931 protocol for PA access. For Q A access, signalling involving the Bandwidth Manager and VCI is eliminated  viii  62  List of Tables Table 1. Slot Access Control Field coding  8  Table 2. Behavior of nodes in Figure 3  11  Table 3. Example of PSI  12  Table 4. Results summary of simultaneous and exponential voice calls arrival without silence detection  31  Table 5. Comparison between models with and without silence deletion  33  Table 6. Q A voice Throughput achieved for various voice coding rates and number of active voice calls  39  Table 7. Delay comparison for different voice coding rate voice stations  41  Table 8. Mean inter- and intra-MAN voice packet transmission delay for 50 voice calls per node  50  Table 9. A typical simulation results for the six-MAN network  51  Table 10. Data packet transmission delay and throughput achieved for different voice throughput levels  60  Table 11. Mean inter-MAN call setup delay vs. background PA throughput over 2 transitional MANs  64  Table 12. Mean intra-MAN call setup delay vs. background PA throughput  ix  64  Acknowledgment I would like to take this opportunity to thank my research supervisor, Dr. R. W. Donaldson, for his guidance, suggestions and support in producing this thesis. I would also like to thank my family and friends for their encouragement and support in my graduate studies. Special thanks to my colleagues and staff in the department for their kindness and help during my studies in U B C . At last, but not least, thanks to the Canadian Institute of Telecommunications Research for continued support of this research.  Chapter 1. Introduction Section 1.1 Background and Motivation The B-ISDN ( Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network ) concept supports telecommunications involving universally available integrated broadband communications networks and services. The B-ISDN is intended to provide an integrated network capable of gathering information from variety sources and delivering it to designated destinations regardless of the service type. The B-ISDN is designed to be capable of handling all kinds of services, including data, voice, video and graphics. Personal Communication Services ( PCS's ) are expected to have a continuing growth via B-ISDN in the coming decades. The PCS concept enables people to call other people irrespective of the geographical location of either party, using only callee's personal identification number ( PIN ). PCS access to the B-ISDN is via both wireline and wireless terminals [1]. The Personal Communication Network ( PCN ) which supports PCS's must be capable of the following [2]: • carrying many types of traffic; • being integrated with current and future wireline communication networks; • serving a mass market in urban areas; • operating efficiently in sparsely populated areas; • operating indoors, outdoors, and in vehicles; • serving terminals which may move at high speed; The many distinctive features and potential demands required for the P C N suggests that the centralized communication architectures may not be suitable for implementing the PCN. The  l  Chapter 1.  Introduction  predicted growth in mobile subscribers requires that cell dimensions be reduced substantially from the size currently used in mobile radio system, to improve spectral efficiency through frequency reuses. Reduction in cell radii will increase handoff rates. With the BTS antenna in these microcells situated a few meters above ground, a 20-30 dB drop in signal level can occur at street corners when a mobile terminal ( M T ) loses line-of-sight with the BTS. As a result of the increased processing load arising from the growing demand for wireless access, together with the necessity of a fast handoff due to the propagation effects discussed above, current centralized network and control architectures are probably unsuitable for future PCN's. A distributed communication architecture based on the IEEE 802.6 M A N ( Metropolitan Area Network ) has been proposed for implementing the PCN. The proposed architecture of IEEE 802.6 M A N will be discussed in the next section, and all the analyses in this thesis are based on this architecture. Not surprisingly, MANs are expected to be a significant element in the evolution towards B-ISDN.  Section 1.2 PCN Architecture Based on IEEE 802.6 MAN The proposed IEEE 802.6 M A N based distributed PCN architecture is shown in Figure 1. The M A N has two 155 Mbps buses, one for each direction of transmission. Several base stations ( BSs), Local Area Networks ( LANs ), and Private Branch Exchange ( PBXs ) are connected to a M A N node and are subnetworks of the M A N . Each M A N node functions as an interface to enable subnetworks to access the local M A N . Consequently, information between subnetworks can be exchanged within the local M A N , which then serves as a distributed switch. Interconnection of adjacent MANs enables coverage of an entire Metropolitan Area ( M A ) as shown in Figure 2.  Initially, the relatively few MANs deployed in the M A would be  2  Chapter 1.  Introduction  interconnected via point-to-point homogeneous bridges.  As the deployed number of MANs  Integrated traffic |  Base station controller & heterogeneous network bridge  Figure 1. IEEE 802.6 MAN based distributed PCN architecture  rises, network manageability would necessitate the use of a centralized higher-speed multiport bridge — a B-ISDN switch at a Central Office ( C O ). Since the existing connection-oriented telecommunication networks will continue to exist for many years, an Interworking Unit ( rWU ) at the CO should have the functionality to support both A T M and Synchronous Transfer Mode ( S T M ) switching fabrics. Additionally, a backbone M A N could interconnect these access MANs using homogeneous bridges to form a cluster ( see Figure 2 ). An IWU would then connect the backbone MAN(s) in a M A . If neighboring access MANs within a cluster are also bridged, call set up and inter-MAN handoff would be simplified, and reliability against bridge failure would be enhanced [1].  3  Chapter 1.  Introduction  Gateway to B-ISDN & existing narrowband networks IWU switching node  0 Homogeneous network bridge  Figure 2. MAN interconnection within a backbone MAN [1]  The IEEE 802.6 M A N provides two modes of access control to the dual bus. These are Queue arbitrated ( Q A ) and Pre-Arbitrated ( PA ), which use Q A and PA slots for access, respectively.  Q A access is controlled by the Distributed Queueing protocol ( details of the  protocol are provided in chapter 2 ) and would be used typically to provide non-isochronous services, such as data or graphics. PA access would be used to provide isochronous services, such as real-time voice or video [3]. Although allocation of PA slots involves some overhead, PA access provides a constant packet transmission delay at any time. On the other hand, Q A access provides a variable packet transmission delay with a simpler access method. In this thesis, QA access is used to provide all services in order to achieve full statistical multiplexing. The main advantage of using the 802.6 M A N as the base-site interconnection network is that not only can it readily interface to the current wireline public network facilities, but it  4  Chapter 1.  Introduction  is also capable of implementing the Asynchronous Transfer Mode ( A T M ) for interworking between B-ISDNs and MAN-based PCNs. Since the cell format of A T M is similar to 802.6 M A N , the interworking between two networks is simplified and the transition to A T M will be relatively easy and inexpensive. In that case, the use of the 802.6 M A N as a transit network for ATM-based B-ISDN appears not only as a stepping stone in the evolution, but also as a more permanent solution [4].  Section 1.3 Outline of The Thesis In chapter 2, the IEEE 802.6 M A N with distributed queue dual bus ( DQDB ) operation is described. The DQDB protocol with Q A access will be evaluated along with two slot reuse schemes, Destination Release  and Previous Slot Informati  data packet transmission. Different types and levels of user traffic are considered. Transmission of voice and data integrated traffic using Q A access on a single M A N is described and analyzed in chapter 3.  Voice and data packet waiting delay is evaluated for  different user traffic levels and different speech encoding/decoding rate at voice stations. In chapter 4, transmission delay of voice and data integrated traffic using Q A access for Inter- and Intra-MAN will be evaluated. Various level of inter-MAN traffic, different user traffic levels and different speech encoding/decoding rates at voice stations is also considered in the analysis.  For completeness, comparison of call setup delay between Q A access isochronous  traffic and PA access isochronous traffic is presented. A summary of the main results is presented in Chapter 5, together with suggestions for further work.  5  Chapter 2. Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.6 M A N In order to understand the working of IEEE 802.6 M A N , the M A N architecture and protocol mechanisms are reviewed in this chapter. The general performance of the DQDB protocol using Q A access with and without slot reuse schemes, including Destination Release and PSI, are compared using simulation models designed solely for data packet transmission.  Section 2.1 The IEEE 802.6 MAN 2.1.1 The I E E E 802.6 M A N architecture The DQDB medium access control ( M A C ) protocol has been standardized by the IEEE 802.6 committee as part of its M A N standard. The DQDB protocol is intended for use with a dual-bus configuration as illustrated in Figure 3.  Unidirectional bus A  Unidirectional bus B  Figure 3. DQDB dual-bus configuration  As shown in Figure 3, each node is connected to two unidirectional buses which transmit in opposite directions. A node accesses the right-moving bus to send packets to nodes on its right and the left-moving bus for nodes on its left. Two head nodes are responsible for generating  6  Chapter 2.  Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.6 MAN  slots on two buses. Transmission on each bus consists of a steady-stream of fixed-size slots with a length of 53 octets. The 53 octet length was chosen for compatibility with A T M . Nodes read and copy data from the slots and gain access to the bus by writing to empty slots. Streams of slots are controlled by a 125 //sec-clock. Two head stations generate multiple slots to the shared medium every 125 //sec; the number of slots generated per clock cycle depends on the physical data rate. Figure 4 shows the frame and slot format for the DQDB M A N .  Frame 53 octet 53 octet 53 octet Header slot slot slot  53 octet 53 octet slot slot  ACF BUSY SL_TYPE lbit  1 bit  PSR  SEGMENT  RESERVED REQUEST  1 bit  PAD  2 bits  52 octets  3 bits  SEGMENT PAYLOAD  QA SEGMENT HEADER VCI  PAYLOAD TYPE  20 bits  2 bits  SEGMENT PRIORITY 2 bits  HCS 8 bits  48 octets  Figure 4. Frame and slot format in DQDB MAN  Each 53-octet slot contains a 1-octet Access Control Field ( A C F ) and a 52-octet segment. The A C F contains five fields that control access to slots. The B U S Y bit indicates whether or not the slot contains information ( BUSY=1, NOT BUSY=0 ). The S L _ T Y P E bit indicates whether the slot is a Q A slot ( SL_TYPE=0 ) or a Pre-Arbitrated ( PA ) slot ( SL_TYPE=1 ). Table 1 shows the slot state with respect to the combinations of B U S Y and S L _ T Y P E . The PSR bit indicates whether the segment in the previous slot may be cleared ( PSR=1 ) or not ( PSR=0 ). The REQUEST field contains three REQ bits which are used in the operation of the three priority  7  Chapter 2.  Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.6 MAN  level distributed queue access mechanism. The remaining 52 octets of the slot are divided into a 4-octet Q A segment header and a 48-octet payload. The Q A segment header contains four fields. The 20-bit Virtual Channel Identifier ( V C I ) provides a means to identify the virtual channel to which the Q A segment belongs. A single VCI space is shared by all services. The V C I value corresponding to all bits being set to one is the default value of the connectionless M A C service provided by the M A C Convergence Function. All nodes shall use the default connectionless VCI for both transmission and reception of Q A segments. The 2-bit Payload_Type field indicates the nature of the data to be transferred. The 2-bit Segment_Priority field is reserved for future use with Multiport Bridging. The 8-bit Header Check Sequence ( HCS ) field provides for detection of errors and correction of single-bit errors in the Q A segment header [3].  BUSY  SL_TYPE  Slot State  0  0  Empty Q A slot  0  1  Reserved  1  0  Busy Q A slot  1  1  PA slot  Table 1. Slot Access Control Field coding [3]  Normally, PA slots are use to carry isochronous traffic ( e.g. voice, video ) while Q A slots carry data traffic. For PA slots, some arbitration function must be used to allocate a dedicated sequence of slots for each stream of data and this function has not yet been standardized. In this thesis Q A access only will be employed for all traffic types.  2.1.2 The distributed queue access protocol The 802.6 medium access control technique is the distributed-queue dual-bus ( DQDB ) protocol. The DQDB layer is independent of the physical layer. Therefore, a variety of DQDB  8  Chapter 2.  Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.6 MAN  networks can be implemented using the same access layer but operating at different rates over different transmission system [5]. Three common transmission systems for DQDB M A N are as follows: • ANSI DS3: transmits at 44.736 Mbps. • ANSI SONET ( CCITT S D H ): transmits at 155.52 Mbps and above. • CCITT G.703: transmits at 34.368 Mbps and 139.264 Mbps. In this thesis, we will consider the ANSI SONET transmission system as the foundation of our DQDB protocol analysis. Distributed queueing is a media access protocol that controls the access of Q A slots on the DQDB bus. The DQDB protocol is well suited for handling bursty traffic. The operation of the DQDB protocol involves use of two control fields: the B U S Y bit indicates whether or not a slot is used, and the REQUEST field indicates when a segment has been queued for access. Each node, by counting the number of requests it receives and unused slots that pass, can determine the number of segments queued ahead of it. Therefore, whenever a node has a segment for transmission, the node uses this count to determine its position in the distributed queue. This counting operation establishes a single queue across the subnetwork of segments queued for access to each bus [3]. The behavior of each node, refer to Figure 3, is summarized in Table 2 ( in this table, we are referring to A as the transmitting bus and B as the request bus ).  9  Chapter 2.  Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.6 MAN  (a) Behavior of Node 1: (i) At time when it is ready to issue the next Q A slot on bus A  No preceeding requests outstanding  One or more preceeding  Issue a free Q A slot  Issue a free Q A slot and reduce preceeding requests by one  Insert data into the Q A slot; any following requests become preceeding request  Issue a free Q A slot and reduce preceeding requests by one  Node 1 has no data to  requests outstanding  send Node 1 has a Q A segment to send  (ii) At time when Node 1 receives the next Q A slot on bus B  Incoming slot does not contain a request  Incoming slot contains a request Add 1 to preceeding  Node 1 has no data to send  —  requests Node 1 has a segment to send  Add 1 to following requests  —  (b) Behavior of Node x: (i) At time when it observes a free Q A slot on bus A  No preceeding request outstanding Node x has no data to send  Let free slot pass  One or more preceeding request outstanding Let free slot pass and reduce preceeding request by one  Node x has a Q A  Inset data into the Q A slot;  Let free slot pass and  segment to send and  any following requests  reduce preceeding request  has issued a request on  become preceeding requests  by one  bus B  10  Chapter 2.  Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.6 MAN  (ii) At time when Node x observes a Q A slot on bus B Incoming slot contains a request Node x does not have an outstanding request  Add 1 to preceeding requests  Node x has a Q A segment to send and has issued a request for that segment  Add 1 to following requests  Node x has a Q A segment to send and has not issued a request for that segment  Add 1 to preceeding requests  Incoming slot does not contain a request —  Insert request into the passing slot  Table 2. Behavior of nodes in Figure 3 [5]  Section 2.2 Slot Reuse Schemes In order to investigate the efficiency of Q A access to the DQDB M A N , two slot reuse  schemes, Destination Release and Previous Slot Informati slot reuse are compared. 2.2.1 Destination Release In Destination Release slot reuse, every destination station releases slots for further reuse by downstream stations. This scheme offers maximum possible usage of capacity. However, the complexity of the receiver hardware is increased, the access protocol becomes more complicated and the delay at every station increases. 2.2.2 Previous Slot Information (PSI) PSI, introduced by Sharon and Segall [6], is a more adaptive scheme and less efficient than Destination Release, but will perform slot reuse without delay and without increasing the  11  Chapter 2.  Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.6 MAN  hardware complexity. PSI utilizes the fact that a station is always listening to the bus in order to find messages destined to itself, and that every station reads the destination of every passing slot. PSI is based on a comparison of the destination addresses of consecutive slots. The scheme employs a reuse flag R in the slot's A C F ( Access Control Field ). Flag R is set by a transmitting node in any slot whose destination is beyond the destination of the packet that was received and retransmitted in the previous slot. If a busy slot, B=l, is received, a station a performs reuse if both the destination of the previous received slot is located before a and R=0. The setting R=0 implies that the destination of the current slot is located before the destination of the previous slot. If station a reuses the slot and if the destination of the current slot is beyond the destination of the previous slot, R is set to 1. A simple example of PSI is given in Table 3. This example indicates the value of the Destination Address ( D A ) and the R bit of four consecutive slots travelling to stations connected to the bus in the order a, f3, 7, 8; station a transmits to station (3, and station 7 transmits to 8 starting with the second slot.  Slot  1  0  2  3  Stns  DA  R bit  DA  R bit  DA  R bit  DA  R bit  a  NULL  0  1  0  1  0  P P  0  NULL  P P  0  P 7  NULL  0  1  8  1  8  0  8  NULL  0  P P P P  1  8  1  0  0  Table 3. Example of PSI [6] Since slot 0 remains empty, its D A is represented as N U L L and its R bit remains 0. Station a sets the R bit of slot 1 since the N U L L address of slot 0 is considered upstream to all stations, and a transmits in slot 1 to p.  Since the R bit is set, slot 1 will never be reused. When a  12  Chapter 2.  Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.6 MAN  transmits in slot 2, it does not set the R bit because it does not transmit to a station beyond the destination of slot 1. Station 7 knows that slot 1 is destined to /3 which is before itself, and so observing that the R bit of slot 2 is not set, it can reuse slot 2 to transmit data to 8. But it sets the R bit because it transmits to station 8 which is beyond f3. Thus slot 2 can never be reused again. Finally, both stations a and 7 transmit in slot 3 and neither transmits to a station beyond their last transmitted packet destinations, f3 and 8 respectively, so R bit is not set.  Section 2.3 Modelling and Simulation of the DQDB Protocol 2.3.1 D Q D B protocol model  The DQDB protocol serves a distributed collection of queues; usual service order in each queue is first-in, first-out ( FIFO ). Since the access control mechanisms of two buses are identical we discuss the access control of bus A only. Consider that node a has a data packet to send to node /3 which is downstream of node a. Node a sends a request on Bus B to the head node of Bus A to obtain an empty slot on Bus A for packet transmission. At each node, a queue of each priority level is formed and two counters, ReQuest Counter ( R Q C ) and CountDown Counter ( C D C ) for each queue are employed to track the status of the distributed queue of Bus A . The R Q C is used to track the number of slots requested by the downstream stations while the C D C is used for transmission queueing. For example, when a station sees the request bit of a slot set on Bus B , then station increments its RQC by one. After a station sends its request, the value of its RQC is transferred to its C D C and its RQC is reset to zero. The C D C is now decremented for each passing idle slot on Bus A until it reaches zero, when the station is then allowed to transmit in the next idle slot. While awaiting transmission on Bus A , the R Q C continues to increment for any new request made by downstream stations 13  Chapter 2.  Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.6 MAN  on Bus B. Evidently, each station will only have one and only one packet of information in the system queue at any time, because a new request is not allowed until the current data packet has been transmitted. 2.3.2 Simulation models In this preliminary analysis, we only consider the transmission of one-way single-priority level traffic (i.e. data traffic ) on a DQDB M A N . Three models are developed for performance comparison: (1) standard DQDB M A N , (2) DQDB M A N with PSI slot reuse, and (3) DQDB M A N with Destination Release slot reuse. A l l simulation models are written in SIMSCRIPT H.5 [7]. The simulation model for standard DQDB M A N is built exactly as described in the last section.  However, modifications are needed for PSI-DQDB M A N and Destination Release-  DQDB M A N models. In addition to the standard DQDB M A N model, the PSI-DQDB M A N model introduces a R , bit and a reuse bit in the A C F in each slot, and two memory units to keep track of the previous slot address received ( PSAR ) and the previous slot address transmitted ( PSAT ) in each node. The two memories, PSAR and PSAT, are used to control the setting of R bit in the current slot and determine whether or not the current slot can be reused. Each node continuously updates the two memories as each slot passes that node. If a node has not transmitted in the previous slot, its PSAR will equal its PSAT. PSAR may not be equal PSAT if a node has transmitted in an empty slot or has reused a slot. The R bit may be set only if a node transmits either in an empty slot or by reusing a slot, as described earlier in section 2.2.2. Implementing the Destination Release DQDB M A N model is simpler. The B U S Y bit in the A C F is reset to 0 once a node copies the information from a Q A slot which is addressed to that  14  Chapter 2.  Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.6 MAN  node. Apart from these differences, the following assumptions are common to all three models: i. The data rate on each bus is 155 Mbps ii.  Slot length is 53 octets (424 bits)  iii.  Slot transmission time is 2.73 //s  iv. Nodes are evenly distributed along the bus v. Successive nodes are separated by 3 slots vi. The number of buffers available to each node is 30 vii. A l l message are 1 slot in duration viii. Inter-arrival time of data packets at each node is exponentially distributed ix. Each node has the same Poisson arrival rate x. The number of nodes, excluding two head stations, is 100 ( 50 nodes per bus ) xi. Simulation time equals to 50,000 slots Since PSI performance is highly dependent on the traffic destination distribution, two bursty data traffic models have been simulated for completeness. Thefirstone is the uniform destination traffic distribution; the second is the geometric destination traffic distribution. The probability function, P(x), of a geometric distribution is as follows:  p( ) = 0(1 - ey-  x = 1,2,3,...  1  x  where 9 is the degree of traffic locality [8]. We selected 6 to be 0.9, to simulate traffic with a high degree of locality.  2.3.3 Simulation results Simulation results plotted in Figures 5 and 6 show mean packet delay versus throughput. Mean packet delay is defined as the elapsed time from when a packet enters the station buffer until that packet is successfully transmitted. Figure 5 shows the uniform destination distribution results while Figure 6 shows the geometric destination distribution results.  15  Chapter 2.  Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.6 MAN  (a) Overview for low and high traffic levels 20 18  Destination Release-MAN PSI-MAN standard M A N  16 T3  14  1 12 o  10  S3  8 6 4 2 0.3  0.4  0.5  0.6  0.7  1.1  0.9  0.8  QA data throughput  (b) Zoom in for high traffic level  20  d?992  1  0.994  1  0.996  1  1  0.998  1  1  1.002  r  1.004 1.006  QA data throughput Figure 5. Uniform destination distribution for data packets in a D Q D B M A N  16  Chapter 2.  Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.6 MAN  (a) Overview for low and high traffic levels  20 18  Destination Release-MAN PSI-MAN standard M A N  **—  16 14 12 10 8 6 4  Jt 0.3  0.4  0.5  0.6  0.7  0.8  0.9  1.1  QA data throughput  (b) Zoom in for high traffic level  d?992 0.994 0.996 0.998  1  1.002 1.004 1.006  QA data throughput Figure 6. Geometric destination distribution for data packets in a D Q D B M A N  17  Chapter 2.  Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.6 MAN  From Figures 5a and 6a, one observes that all three simulation models have approximately the same mean packet delay at traffic levels below 0.95, for both uniform and geometric traffic. However, under heavy traffic ( above 0.95 ), Figures 5b and 6b show that the PSI slot reuse scheme shows some improvement in the packet waiting delay with respect to the Q A throughput. The Destination Release slot reuse scheme shows even a better improvement in the packet waiting delay with respect to the Q A data throughput than the PSI. At a given delay value, the two slot reuse schemes do not result in much improvement in throughput (i.e. less than 10 percent). The PSI slot reuse scheme shows less improvement in geometric destination traffic than in uniform destination traffic , once a station transmitted its current packet, say in slot 1, slot 2 is either occupied or idle while passing the station. When the address memories are updated prior to arriving at slot 2, the updated addresses have a very high probability at being less than the station's address because the upstream stations' packet addresses are highly localized. Therefore the probability of having a set reuse bit, R, in the slot where the station transmitted its next packet is increased considerably for geometrically distributed destination traffic. This result occurs because a station is allowed only one packet in the DQDB system queue at any time. If a station were not limited to having at most one packet in the system queue, the performance of PSI in geometrically distributed destination traffic would be better than in uniformly distributed destination traffic. The results in Figures 5 and 6 suggest that it is not worthwhile to implement either slot reuse schemes DQDB M A N , since either one complicates the implementation and could introduce processing delay.  18  Chapter 3. Delay Analysis of QA Access for Integrated Intra-MAN Voice and Data Traffic Voice packets have different transmission requirements from data packets. To preserve the integrity of a conversation, voice packets must be delivered within a maximum delay time comparable to the period between generation of consecutive voice packets. Some loss of voice packet is tolerable. On the other hand, data packets can undergo longer and variable delay but no loss [9]. Base on these properties of voice and data packet transmission requirements, a system model is built for voice and data integrated traffic in a IEEE 802.6 M A N . The model allows for use of different values of key parameters such as speech digitizing rate, voice stations activation time and bandwidth available for Q A access.  Section 3.1 Voice-Data Integration It is assumed that a fixed number of voice calls is activated at each node for each simulation, and these calls will remain active throughout the simulation. Each voice call independently alternates between a talkspurt period and a silence period; these are independent exponentially distributed random variables with mean l/o;=1.5 s and l//x=2.25 s, respectively. Therefore, the probability, P(t->s), that a voice call which changes from talkspurt to silence in / seconds is  P(t v-> s) = 1 -  e~  af  and from silence to talkspurt is  P(s >-•<) = 1 - e'* * 1  19  Chapter 3.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Integrated Intra-MAN Voice and Data Traffic  Figure 7 shows the transition probabilities of the associated two-state Markovian model.  Figure 7. Active voice station model [9]  One sees that the transition probabilities of the above two-state Markovian model are highly depended on / . Figure 7 shows that the transitional probabilities increase exponentially as the time variable / increases and conversely for the non-transitional probabilities. The longer the time a call remains in one state, the greater the tendency to change. Since voice packets can tolerate losses, we assume that if a voice packet cannot be transmitted within a constant time  period t, the voice packet will be discarded. Our choice of t=5.5 ms is to ensure compatib with the air interface which has 5.5 ms frame length.  3.1.1 Voice clipping Voice clipping occurs only if the number of ready-to-transmit voice stations within a frame period exceeds the number of slots/frame . For each active voice call in the model, we assume that talkspurt and silence periods alternate independentiy with exponential probability density functions /(r) and g(r) respectively, where a and p are constants and / ( r ) = ae g(r) = pe  20  Chapter 3. Delay Analysis of QA Access for Integrated Intra-MAN Voice and Data Traffic  From these two probability density functions, we can determine the probability, P(t), that an active voice station is in talkspurt mode at any arbitrary time instant. With the help of P(t), we can then determine the voice clipping probability for a specific transmission system. Since functions/and g are independent, the joint probability density /I(TI, T ) 2  = /(fiM^)  and oo oo  P{t) = P(n  >T ) = J  J  0  T  2  h{T ,T )dr dT 1  2  1  2  2  OO oo  = J  J  0  T  afie-( ^ dr dr aTl+  ]  x  2  2  OO  oo  0 OO  T  2  = fi J  e-^ ^dr +a  2  o  Oi  + fl  Voice clipping occurs whenever more stations are in talkspurt mode than there are Q A slots available.  As a result, the voice clipping probability, P , for N active voice stations and k, c  slots/frame, available is as follows:  - I E (f)P(t) (l-P(t)) ° ~ \ T=k+1 T  P r  N  T  {0  where ( )P(t) (l N  T  — P(t)) ~ N  T  ,N>k ,N<k  is the probability of having T out of N number of voice stations  in talkspurt mode.  21  Chapter 3. Delay Analysis of QA Access for Integrated Intra-MAN Voice and Data Traffic  Figure 8 shows the voice clipping probability versus the number of ready-to-transmit voice stations. For the values of constants listed earlier, P(t)=0.4, in which case k=2x2010 slots/frame/2 buses for a 5.5 ms frame length of 424 bit per slot at 155 Mbps transmission rate.  4500  4600  4700  4800  4900  5000  5100  5200  5300  Number of ready-to-transmit voice stations Figure 8. Voice clipping probability vs. number of ready-to-transmit voice stations  Section 3.2 Simulation Models Voice and data traffic are assigned access levels priority 1 and 0, respectively. Priority 2, the highest level, is reserved for control signalling. Three priority levels are established by operating three queues, one for each level. Within each level, the performance characteristics described above are maintained. Waiting packets acquire access as soon as capacity becomes available; however, access priority is always given to packets in higher level queues.  22  Chapter 3.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Integrated Intra-MAN Voice and Data Traffic  Since voice packets are discarded if not be transmitted within 5.5 ms, the implementation of a DQDB counter mechanism will be sightly more complicated than for data only networks. According to the counters mechanism discussed in section 2.3.1, each node tracks the number of preceding and following requests for its downstream stations in each priority level. Therefore, if a voice packet at one particular node is discarded, its priority 1 countdown counter and request transmission for the next packet cannot just simply be reset. For example, let us consider two nodes, a and j3, with (3 located downstream from a. Assume that there is only one voice packet in node a and several voice packets in node f3 awaiting transmission. Consider node a at the instant when no following request ( RQC=0 ) is received for voice traffic from downstream stations and the priority level 1 C D C is reset because its last voice packet is discarded; then its next transmission request will be the request for the data packet which located at the head of the data packet queue, since node a does not have any voice packet awaiting transmission. Possibly, node a may transmit its requested data packet while node /3 still has voice packets waiting for transmission since the priority 1 level C D C is reset and R Q C is equal to zero in node a. Consequently, the priority accessing scheme is violated. In order to preserve priority accessing, preceding requests, if any, will be added to the following requests (i.e. the value of C D C is added to RQC ) for each discarded packet in each priority level before the next packet makes request for transmission. Hence, the problem of the above example will be solved.  In our model, all voice call destinations are predetermined and are uniformly distributed among destination nodes.  Since voice packet delay is our primary concern, all voice call  connections are assumed to be established at the beginning of any simulation. Moreover, each voice call will remain active throughout each simulation run. Except for the differences in parameter values, the following assumptions apply to all simulation models. These models are  23  Chapter 3.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Integrated Intra-MAN Voice and Data Traffic  developed for two way traffic for more realistic analysis; packets are sent on bus A or B, as appropriate: i. The transmission rate on each bus is 155 Mbps ii. iii.  Slot length is 53 octets ( 424 bits ) Slot transmission time is 2.73 ps  iv. Nodes are evenly distributed along the bus v. Successive nodes are separated by 3 slots vi. Twenty buffers are available at each node for data packets vii. A l l packet lengths, including voice and data, equal 1 slot in duration viii. Inter-arrival time of data packet at each node is exponentially distributed ix. Each node has the same Poisson arrival rate x. The number of nodes including two head stations equals 50 xi. Each node has the same number of active voice calls xii. Priority is given to voice packets xiii. Any voice packet that cannot be transmitted within 5.5 ms will be discarded Simulation models are written in SIMSCRIPT II.5 [7]. Statistics are compiled after an initial period of 10,000 slots. Analysis is performed for various values of the following parameters: (1) speech digitizing rate of voice stations, (2) percentage of system bandwidth available for Q A access, and (3) activation time for voice calls.  Section 3.3 Simulation Results 3.3.1 Simultaneous voice calls arrival without silence deletion The simulation model used here is based on the assumption that all voice calls arrive simultaneously at the beginning of the frame and remain in the talkspurt period throughout the simulation ( without silence deletion ). The voice coding rate is 64 kbps; thus each voice station generates a voice packet every 6.0 ms.  i  24  Chapter 3. Delay Analysis of QA Access for Integrated Intra-MAN Voice and Data Traffic  Figure 9 shows the mean waiting delay for a voice packet versus the Q A voice throughput . 1  2  Since all voice packets enter M A N nodes at the same time, an increase in M , the number of voice packets, transmitted results initially in a proportional increase in the mean waiting delay. As M increases further, the mean voice packet waiting delay remains at 3 ms because further increase in the number of voice calls ( voice packets ) will only increase the number of discarded voice packets; these are packets cannot be transmitted within the 5.5 ms time limit as shown in Figure 10. There will not be any significant change in either the waiting delay or throughput as M increases beyond some limit. Figure 10 shows that the number of voice calls that the network can accommodate is about 3600 within an acceptable value of 2% discarded voice packets under the assumption of simultaneous voice calls arrival without silence deletion.  - vc=number of voice calls per node - voice calls initiated simultaneously — B —  B 2.5  5  V(  vc= VC=  -  =90 .JS vc=110 ;=100 =70 -  ''YC 6 ) -  oo  1  -  •Z3 -  05  I  1.5  Mo a 0  V( =40 -  -  w  1  'o >  1 0.5 0  -  - vc=20  60  85  110  135 160 185 210 235 QA voice Throughput (Mbps)  260  285  Figure 9. Mean voice packet waiting delay vs. QA voice Throughput  1  waiting delay is calculated from the time a packet enter a node until it is transmitted.  2  the voice throughput is calculated only for the segment payload excluding the overheads.  25  310  Chapter 3. Delay Analysis of QA Access for Integrated Intra-MAN Voice and Data Traffic  30 <2  i i i i i ii  i i i i i ii  i i i i i ii  vc=number of voice calls per node voice calls initiated simultaneously —B-  25  M  o ctj ft  a o  2  0  >  T3  ID  15  T3  10 gp  S o S3  Vvc=20  vc=40  OH  0 60  vc=60  vci70  \  85  110  135 160 185 210 235 QA voice Throughput (Mbps)  260  285 31  Figure 10. Percentage of voice packets discarded vs. QA voice Throughput  Figure 11 shows the mean data packet waiting delay versus the Q A data throughput for different voice throughput levels. Voice calls are initiated simultaneously at the beginning of the simulation. As expected, data packet waiting delay increases as the network's voice throughput increases for the same data throughput. Figure 12 shows a typical example of the mean waiting delay of data and voice packets with respect to the nodes' locations. Node 1 and 50 are the head of bus ( H B ). One sees that both voice and data packet mean waiting delay varies among the nodes. Nodes located near HBs have less delay than nodes located near the buses midpoints.  26  Chapter 3.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Integrated Intra-MAN Voice and Data Traffic  voice calls initiated simultaneously voice Throughput=224Mbps — — voice Throughput= 192Mbps —e— voice Throughput=128Mbps — — voice Throughput=64Mbps —•— voice Throughput=OMbps e  B  125 175 225 QA data Throughput (Mbps)  275  Figure 11. Mean data packet waiting delay vs. QA data Throughput for various voice throughput  Figure 12. Mean packets waiting delay vs. nodes locations  ( 27  Chapter 3.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Integrated Intra-MAN Voice and Data Traffic  Slots are generated from HBs travel along the buses unidirectionally; nodes located near HBs ( upstream nodes ) therefore will have a better chance for bus access than will nodes located at the bus midpoint.  3.3.2 Exponentially distributed voice call arrivals without silence deletion The simulation model used here is based on the same assumptions as in the previous section except that the voice call arrival times are Poisson. Time separation occurs between successive voice calls, and improvements in both voice and data waiting delay are expected as a result. Figure 13 shows the mean voice packet waiting delay versus the Q A voice throughput for both simultaneous and exponential voice call arrival models. The Poisson arrivals result in large improvements in mean waiting delay relative to the delay for simultaneous arrivals. Also, the Q A voice throughput achieved under Poisson arrivals is higher than the simultaneous voice call arrival model because more voice packets are transmitted within the 5.5 ms time limit as the number of voice calls increases. The mean voice packet waiting delay limits at 5.5 ms under Poisson arrivals, as expected. Figure 14 shows the percent discarded voice packets versus throughput.  One sees that  the number of voice calls that the network can accommodate is approximately 4200 within an acceptable 2% discarded rate.  Under Poisson arrivals, the network can accommodate  approximately 600 more voice calls than with the simultaneous call arrival model.  28  Chapter 3. Delay Analysis of QA Access for Integrated Intra-MAN Voice and Data Traffic  QA voice throughput (Mbps) Figure 13. Mean voice packet waiting delay vs. QA voice Throughput  30 25  •«—»  <0 M  & cu 20 o u 'o >  - vc=number of voice calls per node ; voice calls initiated exponentially — • —  'v ;=120  :  ; •  -  15  '•3 o o  10 -  s o  &  vc =100  -  o  -  -vc=20  0 60  85  vc =40  \  110  vc=60  \  135  160  185  vc= 70  v ;=80  \, \  210  235  /vc=i 0  260  285 3 10  QA voice Throughput (Mbps) Figure 14. Percentage of discarded voice packet vs. QA voice Throughput  29  Chapter 3.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Integrated Intra-MAN Voice and Data Traffic  Figure 15 shows the mean data packet waiting delay versus data throughput for different voice throughput levels for both simultaneous and exponential voice call arrival models. The mean waiting delay is lower for the exponentially distributed voice call arrivals. However, both models result in the same ( asymtotic ) maximum data throughput levels.  4 3.5  r— :  /• /  '-_  2.5 2  .3  1.5 1  3 OS  T3  voice calls initiated exponentially voice calls initiated simultaneously voice Throughput=64Mbps • voice Througnput=128Mbps • / voice Throughput^ 192Mbps • '[• voice Througnput=224Mbps o 1 4 / / / /  4  3 60  ,  1 1 1  / / / /  :  /  /  :/ /  '  - S  '  :  / *  r  r l 1 T  /  f  1  r  /  0.5 f  0, 25  1 1 1 1  75  •  •/T| •—  +  125 175 225 QA data Throughput (Mbps)  275  Figure 15. Mean data packet waiting delay vs. QA data Throughput for various voice Throughput  Figure 16 shows that the mean packet waiting delay varies among nodes. Upstream nodes have more rapid access to the bus than do nodes located in the middle of the bus.  30  Chapter 3. Delay Analysis of QA Access for Integrated Intra-MAN Voice and Data Traffic  "3 •53 a, S3  Figure 16. Mean packet waiting delay vs. node location The results of the simultaneous and exponential voice call arrivals without silence deletion are summarized in Table 4 below.  Number of  QA voice throughput achieved Mean voice packet waiting delay  voice calls in the  voice packets (%)  (ms)  (Mbps)  Percentage of discarded  exponential  simultaneous  exponential  simultaneous  exponential  simultaneous  voice calls  voice calls  voice calls  voice calls  voice calls  voice calls  arrival  arrival  arrival  arrival  arrival  arrival  1000  64.012  64.012  0.018  0.711  0  0  2000  127.996  127.996  0.022  1.424  0  0  3000  192  192  0.041  2.102  0  0  3500  223.986  224.014  0.057  2.409  0  0  4000  255.992  243.527  0.163  2.694  0  4.86  4500  267.688  248.608  0.546  2.798  5.22  13.64  5000  276.375  254.087  1.992  2.886  13.55  20.55  network  Table 4. Results summary of simultaneous and exponential voice calls arrival without silence detection  31  Chapter 3. Delay Analysis of QA Access for Integrated Intra-MAN Voice and Data Traffic  The results of this section shows clearly the need for simulations which include the effects of random call arrivals.  3.3.3 Exponentially distributed voice call arrivals with silence deletion In this section, results using a simulation model with Poisson voice call arrivals with silence deletion are presented, to show how silence deletion affects networking performance. In the previous two models, all voice calls remained active and in talkspurt mode throughout the simulations. Now we assume that all voice calls are remain active throughout the simulation but that each voice call alternates independendy between a talkspurt and a silence period, with exponentially distributed random durations of means 1.5 s and 2.25 s, respectively. Voice packets are generated every 6.0 ms ( voice coding rate=64 kbps ) from those voice calls in a talkspurt period.  As shown previously in this chapter, the probability that an active voice call is in  talkspurt mode at an arbitrary time instant equals 0.4; therefore, we assume that 40% of all voice calls are in talkspurt mode and that the remaining 60% are in silence mode at the beginning of each simulation. Each voice call alternates between silence and talkspurt according to time intervals randomly chosen from two independent exponentially distributed random distributions. Silence deletion prevents a voice call from generating a packet for a specific period of time and will not have any effect on the mean packet delay for any given Q A voice ( talkspurt ) throughput value. Consequently, the mean voice and data packet waiting delays are identical to those obtained earlier without silence deletion. Table 5 shows some examples of the number of voice calls needed to achieve listed Q A voice throughputs with their respective mean voice packet waiting delays for exponentially distributed voice call arrivals with and without silence detection.  32  Chapter 3.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Integrated Intra-MAN Voice and Data Traffic  Q A voice throughput (Mbps)  Number of voice calls needed to achieve the throughput  Mean voice packet waiting delay (ms)  with silence deletion  without silence deletion  with silence deletion  without silence deletion  127  5000  2000  0.022  0.022  192  7500  3000  0.039  0.041  256  10000  4000  0.159  0.f63  Table 5. Comparison between models with and without silence deletion  It is almost impossible to achieve an exact match on the Q A voice throughputs for a given number of voice calls for the two models used. The matching between the Q A voice throughput and corresponding number of voice calls in Table 5 is a good approximation. The mean waiting delays for two cases are almost equal. Therefore, we can conclude that silence deletion will not affect the mean voice and data packet waiting delay with respect to Q A voice throughput. On the contrary, the number of voice calls that the network can accommodate with silence deletion must be larger than the one without silence deletion. The network can accommodate approximately 10500 voice calls with an acceptable 2% discarded voice packets with silence deletion, as shown in Figure 17. This is more than double in comparison to the case without silence deletion.  33  Chapter 3.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Integrated Intra-MAN Voice and Data Traffic  Number of voice calls per node Figure 17. Percentage of discarded voice packets vs. number of voice calls per node  3.3.4 Exponentially distributed voice calls arrival for different voice coding rate with silence deletion In this section, we consider the effect of voice coding rate on voice and data packet delay in the network. The simulation models are basically the same as the one in previous section. Each node has the same number of voice calls with Poisson arrivals.  A l l voice calls are  assume to be active throughout the simulations and they alternate between talkspurt and silence period independently with exponentially distributed random durations of means 1.5 s and 2.25 s, respectively. As before, 40% of the randomly chosen voice calls are in talkspurt and the other 60% in silence at the beginning of each simulation. However, the time between two successively generated voice packets at a voice station is not fixed at 6.0 ms ( 64 kbps) because we are varying the voice coding rate of the voice station. Therefore, the time between two successive voice packets in a voice station is 6.0 ms for 64  34  Chapter 3.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Integrated Intra-MAN Voice and Data Traffic  kbps voice coding rate, 12.0 ms for 32 kbps voice coding rate, 24.0 ms for 16 kbps voice coding rate and so on. As before, voice packets not transmitted within 5.5 ms will be discarded. Figures 18 to 21 show the mean data packet waiting delay versus the Q A data throughput for different numbers of active voice calls and different voice coding rates. These curves show clearly that a reduction in the voice coding rate leaves more capacity for data packet transmission.  1.2  M oo  a  voice coding rate = 64 kbps voice voice calls cansper pernode=70 node=70—•voice calls per node=60 voice calls per node=40 voice calls per node=20 voice calls per node=0  0.8  -4—»  •a  Z  0.6  o  3 3  0.4  T3 ID  0.2  T70  210  230  250  270  QA data Throughput (Mbps)  Figure 18. Mean data packet waiting delay vs. QA data Throughput for various number of active voice calls with voice coding rate of 64 kbps  35  Chapter 3. Delay Analysis of QA Access for Integrated Intra-MAN Voice and Data Traffic  1.2  5? 13  voice coding rate = 32 kbps voice calls per node=70 voice calls per node=60 voice calls per node=40 voice calls per node=20 voice calls per node-0  T3  oo (3 •S3 <u  m  u  a. •a  210 230 250 270 QA data Throughput (Mbps) Figure 19. Mean data packet waiting delay vs. QA data Throughput for various number of active voice calls with voice coding rate of 32 kbps  1.2  jl? 13  voice coding rate =16 kbps voice vuiuc icalls ^aiisper per node=70 node=70 —« voice calls per node=60 voice calls per node=40 voice calls per node=20 voice calls per node=0  -o oo  .a •a u  m  o CS  ft  3  03  210  230  250  270  QA data Throughput (Mbps) Figure 20. Mean data packet waiting delay vs. QA data Throughput for various number of active voice calls with voice coding rate of 16 kbps  36  310  Chapter 3.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Integrated Intra-MAN Voice and Data Traffic  1.2  13  voice =4 kbps voice coding couuig rate rate = tKc voice calls ner node=70 voice calls per node=70 — voice calls per node=60 voice calls per node=40 voice calls per node=20 voice calls per node=0  cd O c&d cd 03  10  230  250  270  QA data Throughput (Mbps)  Figure 21. Mean data packet waiting delay vs. QA data Throughput for various number of active voice calls with voice coding rate of 4 kbps  Figure 22 shows the mean data packet waiting delay versus the Q A data throughput for different voice coding rates with 20 and 70 active voice calls activated per node. Reduction of the voice coding rate from 64 to 4 kbps increases the maximum Q A data throughput from 280 to 305 Mbps. With 70 active voice calls per node, the Q A data throughput increases from 200 to 300 Mbps as the voice coding rate is reduced from 64 to 4 kbps.  37  Chapter 3. Delay Analysis of QA Access for Integrated Intra-MAN Voice and Data Traffic  (a) 20 voice calls per node 1.2  voice calls per node=20,4 kbps voice calls per node=20, 16 kbps voice calls per node=20, 32 kbps voice calls per node=20, 64 kbps  0.8  t  0.6 0.4 0.2  <2  250 270 QA data Throughput (Mbps)  310  (b) 70 voice calls per node 1.2  voice calls per node=70, 4kbps voice calls per node=70, 16kbps voice calls per node=70, 32kbps voice calls per node=70,64kbps ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^  150 190 230 QA data Throughput (Mbps)  310  Figure 22. Mean data packet waiting delay vs. QA data Throughput with different numbers of active voice calls per node for various voice coding rates  38  Chapter '3. Delay Analysis of QA Access for Integrated Intra-MAN Voice and Data Traffic  There is a simple relationship between the voice coding rate and the number of active voice calls, as follows, where Ri denotes the voice coding rate, Ni denotes the number of active voice calls and C is a constant:  i?l/Vi = R N 2  2  = C  From this equation, one sees that the mean data packet waiting delay curve for 64 kbps voice and 20 voice calls per node is the same as the mean data packet waiting delay curve for 32 kbps voice and 40 voice calls per node. Both configurations give the same Q A voice throughput in the network and the corresponding curves of mean data packet delay versus Q A data throughput overlay each other, as shown in Figure 23. Similar comments apply for other sets of curves. Simulation results of the Q A voice throughput achieved for different voice coding rates and number of voice calls activated are summarized in Table 6.  number of  Q A voice Throughput achieved ( Mbps )  voice calls  64 kbps  32 kbps  16 kbps  4 kbps  1000  25.970  12.771  6.345  1.657.  2000  51.659  25.769  12.830  3.229  3000  78.246  38.524  19.625  4.913  3500  89.617  44.536  22.376  5.784  Table 6. QA voice Throughput achieved for various voice coding rates and number of active voice calls  39  Chapter 3. Delay Analysis of QA Access for Integrated Intra-MAN Voice and Data Traffic  1.2  voice calls per node=40,16kbps voice calls per node=40, 32 kbps voice calls per node=20, 32 kbps voice calls per node=20, 64 kbps  T3  •o  •agf  •a  ? ft  es  CS T3 CO 4—»  10  230  250  270  310  QA data Throughput 0Mbps)  Figure 23. Relation between voice coding rate and number of active voice calls activated  Because the voice coding rate at the network stations primarily affects the Q A voice throughput achieved in the network, the maximum number of voice calls a network can accommodate within an acceptable 2% of discarded voice packets range may vary with voice coding rate. The network can hold approximate 21000 voice calls for 32 kbps voice coding rate, 42000 voice calls for 16 kbps voice coding rate and 168000 voice calls for 4 kbps voice coding rate. These numbers are based on the assumptions of our simulation models. Since the voice coding rate limits the Q A voice throughput achieved in the network for a fixed number of active voice calls, the mean voice packet waiting delay versus the Q A voice throughput remains the same as before and is as shown in Figure 13. However, for a fixed number of voice calls activated in the network, the time from when a voice station encodes a voice cell to the time of decoding at the destination may vary substantially with voice coding  40  Chapter 3.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Integrated Intra-MAN Voice and Data Traffic  rate. Table 7 shows two typical examples of 1000 active voice calls ( 20 voice calls per node for 50 nodes ) and 3500 active voice calls in the network.  number of voice calls in network  1000  3500  voice cell  total elapse time  decoding  (ms)  packet waiting delay (ms)  propagation delay (ms)  6.0  0.012  t  6.0  12.012+t  32  12.0  0.010  t  12.0  24.010+t  16  24.0  0.010  t  24.0  48.010+t  4  96.0  0.009  t  96.0  192.009+t  64  6.0  0.016  t  6.0  12.016+t  32  12.0  0.013  t  12.0  24.013+t  16  24.0  0.011  t  24.0  48.011+t  4  96.0  0.009  t  96.0  192.009+t  voice coding rate (kbps)  voice cell encoding time (ms)  64  mean voice  time (ms)  Table 7. Delay comparison for different voice coding rate voice stations  As shown in Table 7, the voice coding rate of a voice station plays a very important role in the total elapse time for transmitting a voice cell since the propagation delay, t, is almost constant for all cases in uniform destination distribution and the variation of mean voice waiting delay is very small compared to the encoding/decoding time.  41  Chapter 4. Delay Analysis of Q A Access for Inter- and Intra-MAN Voice and Data Integrated Traffic within a Backbone M A N Network In this chapter, voice and data packet transmission delays will be analyzed for both interand intra-MAN traffic. Inter-MAN traffic is that flowing on two or more DQDB MANs within a backbone M A N network; intra-MAN traffic is confined to one access DQDB M A N only. The number of homogeneous bridges connecting each access M A N depends on its physical location within the backbone M A N network, as illustrated in Figure 24.  0 Homogeneous network bridge Figure 24. Geographical location of access MANs within a backbone M A N In Figure 24, six access M A N are connected to adjacent MANs and to a backbone M A N . Four homogeneous bridges connect both M A N 5 and M A N 6 which are located in the middle of the M A N cluster. Each of the other four access MANs has three homogeneous connecting bridges. According to this connection scheme, any inter-MAN traffic need only go through two homogeneous bridges, at most, in order to reach the destinated M A N within a backbone M A N network. Details of the homogeneous bridges connection scheme are provided next.  42  Chapter 4.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Inter-and Intra-MAN Voice and  Data Integrated Traffic within a Backbone MAN Network  Section 4.1 Homogeneous Bridges Connection Scheme From the previous chapter we know that the upstream nodes have a transmission advantage over the downstream nodes; therefore, bridge connections are arranged according to this property in order to reduce the overall delay, including bridge delay. For MANs 1 to 4, two of the three bridges connect to the two neighborhood MANs while the third bridge is used to direct packets to the remaining three MANs via the backbone M A N . The bridge connected to the backbone M A N will have a heavier traffic load than the other two bridges provided that the inter-MAN traffic is uniformly distributed among the six access M A N . Therefore, we connected the bridge with the heaviest traffic load as the head node of the access M A N , as shown in Figure 25.  Unidirectional bus A  Unidirectional bus B  Homogeneous bridge  Figure 25. Illustration of three homogeneous bridges connection  For M A N 5 and M A N 6, three of the four bridges are connect to the three neighborhood MANs and the fourth bridge is used to deliver packets to the other two MANs via the backbone M A N . With four bridges, we can actually put one more bridge port into the access M A N or simply connect the fourth bridge to either one of the other three bridge ports. In our connection scheme, we implemented the latter scheme, for simplicity. Since upstream nodes provide a transmission  43  Chapter 4.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Inter- and Intra-MAN Voice and  Data Integrated Traffic within a Backbone MAN Network  advantage, the fourth bridge is connected to the head bridge port for the neighboring M A N . As a result, two head bridge ports will be responsible for delivering inter-MAN traffic destinated to four access MANs ( each bridge port for two access MANs ), as illustrated in Figure 26.  Unidirectional bus A  Unidirectional bus B  Homogeneous bridge  Figure 26. Illustration of four homogeneous bridges connection  Each bridge port functions as a node, with the same nodal media access mechanism. Twenty buffers were used for each priority level in each bridge port in our model. In our simulations, the processing delay and the propagation delay of the bridges are neglected. Each of these delays would typically be less than 0.25 ms. Figure 27 shows the physical arrangement and bridge connections of six access MANs within a backbone M A N network in our model.  44  Chapter 4.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Inter- and Intra-MAN Voice and  Data Integrated Traffic within a Backbone MAN Network  Figure 27. Physical representation of a backbone M A N network  45  Chapter 4.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Inter- and Intra-MAN Voice and  Data Integrated Traffic within a Backbone MAN Network  Section 4.2 Simulation Model Each node of each access M A N within the backbone M A N network is basically the same as the previous models except that now a predetermined level of voice calls and data packets in each node will be inter-MAN traffic. Inter-MAN traffic occurs at random. The destination node and the destination M A N for all inter-MAN traffic of each access M A N is uniformly distributed among the two hundred and fifty nodes in the other five access M A N s . Since the DQDB Q A protocol allows only three priority access levels and since the highest priority level is reserved for control signalling, inter-MAN and intra-MAN traffic priorities are equal. A l l assumptions from the previous simulation models apply for each access M A N within the backbone M A N network. Inter-MAN voice call destination are paired. For example, a voice call initiated in M A N 1, node 26 with destination at M A N 5, node 4 must be paired with a voice call from M A N 5, node 4 to M A N 1, node 26. A l l voice calls are processed to have silence deletion with a steady-state talkspurt probability of 0.4. Each of the six backbone M A N bridge port functions as an access M A N node. Sixty time slots separate successive bridge ports ( nodes) in the backbone M A N . Twenty buffers serve each priority level at each backbone M A N node. A n extremely high level of inter-MAN traffic will cause some lost packets, because of limited buffer queue capacity. The source code of the backbone M A N network simulation model is provided in Appendix A. The model is written in SIMSCRBPT H.5 [7].  Section 4.3 Preliminary Simulation Results In a preliminary analysis, the packet mean delay of inter-MAN and intra-MAN packets was  46  Chapter 4.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Inter- and Intra-MAN Voice and  Data Integrated Traffic within a Backbone MAN Network  investigated for a fixed percentage of inter-MAN voice and data traffic. Voice coding rates of 32 and 4 kbps were used, with 50 voice calls activated in each node. A total of 300 x 50 = 15000 voice calls were active at any time in the six-MAN network. Figures 28 and 29 show the mean inter- and intra-MAN data packet transmission delay  3  versus the total Q A data traffic for 32 kbps voice coding. Figures 30 and 31 show the mean 4  inter- and intra-MAN data packet transmission delay versus the total Q A data traffic for 4 kbps voice coding.  A  S  3  1 — • — i —  170  190  1  — n —  210  1  .  — n —  230  1  — i —  250  r  270  290  310  Total QA data traffic (Mbps) 4  Figure 28. Mean inter-MAN data packet transmission delay vs. total QA data traffic for 32 kbps voice coding rate  Mean transmission delay is calculated from the time a packet enters the buffer of a node until it reaches the destinated node. Total QA data traffic is the sum of inter- and intra-MAN data traffic per single access M A N .  47  Chapter 4.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Inter- and Intra-MAN Voice and  Data Integrated Traffic within a Backbone MAN Network  T3 SS O  voice coding rate = 32 kbps number of voice calls per node = 501 inter-MAN traffic=0% — * inter-MAN traffic=25%—•inter-MAN traffic=50%— 1.5 inter-MAN traffic=75%—•-  o o CS ft CS CS  z  < CS  a es  Total QA data traffic (Mbps) Figure 29. Mean intra-MAN data packet transmission delay vs. total QA data traffic for 32 kbps voice coding rate  voice coding rate = 4 kbps number of voice calls per node = 50 inter-MAN traffic=25% — • — inter-MAN traffic=50% —4— 2.5 inter-MAN traffic=75% — • — inter-MAN traffic=100% 1  g  ft  3  < CD  Total QA data traffic (Mbps) Figure 30. Mean inter-MAN data packet transmission delay vs. total QA data traffic for 4 kbps voice coding rate  48  310  Chapter 4.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Inter- and Intra-MAN Voice and  Data Integrated Traffic within a Backbone MAN Network  13  a o  voice coding rate = 4 kbps number of voice calls per node = 50 inter-MAN traffic=0% — * — inter-MAN traffic=25% — i i — inter-MAN traffic=50% — • — inter-MAN traffic=75% -  ID  03 ft  3 03  z <  S •  OS  .3  310  Total QA data traffic (Mbps) H  Figure 31. Mean intra-MAN data packet transmission delay vs. total QA data traffic for 4 kbps voice coding rate  The mean inter- and intra-MAN voice packet transmission delay with different percentages 5  of inter-MAN traffic and the two voice coding rates for 50 voice calls per node are summarized in Table 8. Since there is a limited buffer space in each bridge port, the voice throughput achieved may be less than the percent inter-MAN traffic might suggest. Moreover, the voice throughput achieved is calculated excluding any overheads. As shown in Table 8, the inter- intra-MAN voice packet transmission delays depend not only on their respective traffics, but also on the total traffic achieved in the network ( i.e. the summation of the inter- and intra-MAN voice traffics ). For example, the fifth entry of the mean intra-MAN voice packet transmission delay in Table 8 is equal to 0.153 ms with a 32.209 Mbps intra-MAN voice traffic; on the other hand, the second entry of the mean intra-MAN voice  The value of the voice packet transmission delay is obtained close to the network's capacity.  49  Chapter 4. Delay Analysis of QA Access for Inter- and Intra-MAN Voice and Data Integrated Traffic within a Backbone MAN Network  packet transmission delay is equal to 0.159 ms with a 7.983 Mbps intra-MAN voice traffic. The latter entry has a longer mean transmission delay than the fifth entry with its smaller intra-MAN voice traffic. This result can be explained by the fact that the total network voice traffic for the second entry is more than 1.5 times that for the fifth entry. Therefore, the mean intra-MAN voice packet transmission delay in the second entry is larger than for the fifth entry.  voice coding rate (kbps)  32  4  mean interMAN voice packet  mean intraMAN voice packet  tx. delay (ms)  tx. delay (ms)  % interMAN traffic  interMAN voice thraffic (Mbps)  intraMAN voice traffic (Mbps)  total voice traffic (Mbps)  total sourcedestination voice throughput (Mbps)  100  62.025  0  62.025  29.841  1.224  0.0  75  47.176  7.983  55.159  31.010  1.024  0.159  50  31.047  16.167  47.214  31.047  0.735  0.151  25  16.043  24.134  40.177  32.132  0.680  0.151  0  0  32.209  32.209  32.209  0.0  0.153  100  7.843  0  7.843  3.772  0.990  0.0  75  5.875  1.070  6.945  3.835  0.899  0.160  50  4.163  1.986  6.149  4.028  0.733  0.152  25  2.248  2.802  5.050  4.066  0.687  0.151  0  0  4.071  4.071  4.071  0.0  0.152  Table 8. Mean inter- and intra-MAN voice packet transmission delay for 50 voice calls per node  Section 4.4 Statistical Results for The Six-MAN Network The following statistics are obtained from one typical simulation result with 50 active voice calls per node for 32 kbps voice coding; The mean data packet Poisson arrival rate per node is  50  Chapter 4.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Inter- and Intra-MAN Voice and  Data Integrated Traffic within a Backbone MAN Network  8500 packets/sec, with 25% inter-MAN traffic. Table 9 summarizes relevant delay and throughput results.  inter-MAN voice throughput (Mbps)  8.006  inter-MAN voice packet tx. delay (ms)  0.677  intra-MAN voice throughput (Mbps)  24.017  intra-MAN voice packet tx.delay (ms)  0.147  total voice throughput (Mbps)  39.711  inter-MAN data throughput (Mbps)  45.043  inter-MAN data packet tx. delay (ms)  0.681  intra-MAN data throughput (Mbps)  135.129  intra-MAN data packet tx. delay (ms)  0.171  total data throughput (Mbps)  225.091  total network throughput (Mbps)  264.802  Table 9. A typical simulation results for the six-MAN network  Figure 32 shows the mean inter-MAN voice and data packet waiting delay over the homogeneous bridges for each access M A N . Bridge 1 connects to the backbone M A N and is located at the head of one bus, bridge 2 is located in the middle of each access M A N , while bridge 3 is another bridge located at the head of another M A N bus.  51  Chapter 4.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Inter- and Intra-MAN Voice and  Data Integrated Traffic within a Backbone MAN Network  Figure 32. Mean inter-MAN packets waiting delay over homogeneous bridges  As shown in Figure 32, the mean packet waiting delay in bridge 2 ( the bridge located in the middle of each access M A N ) is higher than at the bridges located at the head of two buses ( bridges 1 and 3 ). Therefore, it is useful to route much of the inter-MAN traffic through the homogeneous bridges located at the head of bus. Figure 33 shows the mean inter-MAN voice and data packet transmission delay via different bridges. The locations of bridges 1, 2 and 3 are as before. Figure 32 shows the packet waiting delay of different bridges, while Figure 33 shows the packet transmission delay that via the same bridges as in Figure 32.  52  Chapter 4.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Inter- and Intra-MAN Voice and  Data Integrated Traffic within a Backbone MAN Network  Bridge Figure 33. Mean inter-MAN packet transmission delay via different bridges  From figure 33, the mean inter-MAN voice and data packet transmission delay via bridge 2 is less than the packet transmission delay via the other two bridges because of the physical location of bridge 2, and because the packet waiting delay is negligible compared to the propagation delay. From the data obtained for Figure 33, the mean time a packet spends in the backbone M A N is approximately 0.5 ms. It is shown in the previous chapter that the upstream nodes have a transmission advantage over the nodes located in the middle of two buses in that the waiting delay of a packet at upstream nodes is smaller than for the middle nodes. However, Figure 33 together with Figure 32 shows that the propagation delay is relatively large compared to the waiting delay of a packet; therefore, the transmission delay of the uniformly distributed destination intra-MAN voice and data packets with respect to the nodes' locations will have a shape as shown in Figure 34. A l l  53  Chapter 4.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Inter-and Intra-MAN Voice and  Data Integrated Traffic within a Backbone MAN Network  six access MANs have the same shape of intra-MAN packets transmission delay, we only show the data for one access M A N , access M A N 1.  Figure 34. Mean intra-MAN packets transmission delay vs. nodes locations As expected, the transmission delays for both intra-MAN voice and data packets are larger at the upstream nodes than for the nodes located in the middle of the buses. The reason why the voice packet transmission delay curve is not as smooth as the data packet transmission delay curve in Figure 34 is because the number of voice calls activated in each node is not large enough to uniformly spread the voice call destinations of a node among the remaining 49 M A N nodes. The inter-MAN voice and data packet transmission delay will depend not only on the nodes' locations, but also on the connection scheme for the homogeneous bridges that connect to each access M A N . Figure 35 shows the inter-MAN data packet transmission delay with respect to the nodes locations. Access MANs 1 to 4 have exactly the same homogeneous bridges connection scheme, and access MANs 5 and 6 have connection schemes which are identical to each other.  54  Chapter 4.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Inter- and Intra-MAN Voice and  Data Integrated Traffic within a Backbone MAN Network  Therefore, we plot only one curve for access M A N s 1 to 4 and one curve for access M A N s 5 and 6.  S 85"  •fl  0.9  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  0.85  0 - 4  1  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I I  I  I  I  I  I  I  Access MAN 5,6Access MAN 1-4-  §  I  I  5  10  15  20  25  30  35  40  45  50  Node Figure 35. Mean inter-MAN data packet transmission delay vs. nodes locations  In Figure 35, node 1 is closest to the homogeneous bridge connected to the backbone M A N , while node 50 is the farthest node from the backbone M A N . For access M A N s 1 to 4, three out of the five other M A N s require inter-MAN traffic to be route through the backbone M A N . Since the destination M A N traffic is uniformly distributed, the nodes further away from the backbone M A N will have larger transmission delays than nodes closer to the backbone M A N , as shown in Figure 35. For access M A N s 5 and 6, the homogeneous bridges connection scheme divides the uniformly distributed destination M A N traffic relatively even among the four bridges, and the fluctuation in nodal delay is not as large as access M A N 1 to 4. Moreover, the nodal inter-MAN packet transmission delay for access M A N s 5 and 6 also preserved the shape as the intra-MAN packet transmission delay.  55  Chapter 4.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Inter-and Intra-MAN Voice and  Data Integrated Traffic within a Backbone MAN Network  x  Figure 36 shows the inter-MAN voice packet transmission delay with respect to the node locations; this figure reflects the same general characteristics as in Figure 35.  Figure 36. Mean inter-MAN voice packet transmission delay vs. nodes locations  For this typical simulation in this chapter, the percentage of discarded voice packets in the bridge ports is equal to 0.0014%, whereas the percentage of discarded data packets is 0.165%. Recall that voice packets are not retransmitted, whereas data packets are retransmitted.  Section 4.5 General Results of The Inter- and Intra-MAN Traffic within a Backbone MAN Network In this section, the inter- and intra-MAN voice and data packet transmission delay for different throughput and inter-MAN traffic levels are presented. In order to achieve the desired voice throughput, the assumption of 50 voice calls per node in the previous section is waived.  56  Chapter 4.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Inter- and Intra-MAN Voice and  Data Integrated Traffic within a Backbone MAN Network  Instead, additional active voice calls per node are simulated for higher voice throughput. Figure 37 to 39 show the mean inter- and intra-MAN data packet transmission delay versus the total Q A data traffic for different voice throughputs and different inter-MAN traffic levels. Figures 40 and 41 show the mean inter- and intra-MAN voice packet transmission delay versus the total Q A voice traffic for different inter-MAN traffic levels. 6  4  75% inter-MAN traffic inter-MAN data packet — intra-MAN data packet — voice traffic=6.9Mbps voice traffic=55.2Mbps voice traffic=99.2Mbps  3.5 13 T3  3  c o on  u  to  M o  CO CL.  C  Total Q A data traffic  (Mbps)  Figure 37. Mean inter- and intra-MAN data packet transmission delay vs. total data traffic for 75% inter-MAN traffic  Total QA voice traffic is the sum of inter- and intra-MAN voice traffic per single access MAN.  57  Chapter 4.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Inter- and Intra-MAN Voice and  Data Integrated Traffic within a Backbone MAN Network  4  is 13  50% inter-MAN traffic inter-MAN data packet 3.5 intra-MAN data packet voice traffic=o. 1Mbps voice traffic=47.2Mbps 3 voice traffic=93.6Mbps  fl O  % ft  cd  83  T3  Total QA data traffic ^(Mbps) Figure 38. Mean inter- and intra-MAN data packet transmission delay vs. total data traffic for 50% inter-MAN traffic  4 co  5 13 fl CO  s CO  to  o cd ft cd i  cd  s o  3.5 ; 3 2.5  :  25 % inter-MAN traffic inter-MAN data packet intra-MAN data packet voice traffic=5.1Mbps • voice traffic=40.2Mbps • voice traffic=80.0Mbps •  '•  '-  '-  1  -  2  1  (  >  .  «  i  -  t r  :  i  1.5 1  1  -  •  0.5 T  100  Sit p »  1: P •  -*  150  200 250 Total QA data traffic (Mbps) 4  Figure 39. Mean inter- and intra-MAN data packet transmission delay vs. total data traffic for 25% inter-MAN traffic  58  -  300  Chapter 4.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Inter- and Intra-MAN Voice and  Data Integrated Traffic within a Backbone MAN Network  "33  •o e  Q  75% inter traffic—f 50% inter traffic 25% inter traffic  cS  D. <o O  '3>  .3 Total QA voice traffic (Mbps) Figure 40. Mean inter-MAN voice packet transmission delay vs. total QA voice traffic for various levels of inter-MAN traffic  13  co  4} M o CS p. t> o  'S  >  cS  fa .3 Total QA voice traffic (Mbps) Figure 41. Mean intra-MAN voice packet transmission delay vs. total QA voice traffic for various levels of inter-MAN traffic  59  Chapter 4.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Inter- and Intra-MAN Voice and  Data Integrated Traffic within a Backbone MAN Network  Table 10 summarizes the maximum data throughput achieved and its respective data packet transmission delay for various voice throughput levels. Note that the total throughput ( voice and data ) falls as the voice throughput increases since voice packet overheads throughput also increases as the voice throughput increases. Packet overheads are excluded for the entries of voice throughput in Table 10.  Voice throughput (Mbps)  Maximum data throughput achieved (Mbps)  Total throughput (Mbps)  Mean intra-MAN data packet tx. delay (ms)  Mean inter-MAN data packet tx. delay (ms)  102.87  195.08  297.95  2.27  5.04  127.32  167.77  295.09  2.55  5.60  153.04  139.84  292.88  3.23  6.96  178.64  112.01  290.65  4.14  8.78  202.96  85.47  288.43  5.70  11.89  230.16  55.65  285.81  8.90  18.30  255.54  27.71  283.25  19.81  40.11  270.03  9.25  279.28  36.94  74.38  Table 10. Data packet transmission delay and throughput achieved for different voice throughput levels  With the assumptions and restrictions of our simulation model, the backbone M A N network can accommodate approximately 185 active voice calls per node for 64 kbps voice coding rate with an acceptable 2% discarded voice packets for a 25% inter-MAN traffic level network. This loading represents 9250 active voice calls per M A N and 55500 active voice calls per six-MAN network. For a 50% inter-MAN traffic level network, the system can accommodate approximately 175 active voice calls per node, 8750 per M A N and 52500 per six-MAN network. For a 75% inter-MAN traffic, the system can accommodate approximately 160 active voice calls per node,  60  Chapter 4.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Inter- and Intra-MAN Voice and  Data Integrated Traffic within a Backbone MAN Network  8000 per M A N and 48000 per six-MAN network. All delays show in Figures 37 to 41, inclusive, are less than 1.0 ms provided that the Q A throughput is limited below some maximum value.  Section 4.6 Call Setup Delay In this section, we compare the call setup delay of isochronous Q A and PA traffic. The setup delay for Q A access is expected to be smaller than for PA since Q A avoids the complexity and the delay for the Bandwidth Manager ( B W M ) and VCI to allocate valid PA slots. Moreover, Q A access for isochronous traffic eliminates the call clearing process required to release PA bandwidth reserved for voice calls.  '  4.6.1 Signalling protocol Below, we explore the possibility of using CCITT Q.931 as the call setup protocol for the MAN-based P C N network.  The choice of CCITT Q.931 as the signalling protocol is based  on its adoption for the ISDN User-Network Interface ( U N I ) . Because this signalling protocol and call control procedures are designed for wireline networks with centralized switching to enable exchange of control signals between fixed points, it is suitable for implementation in the connection-oriented M A N . In CCITT Q.931, call establishment is initiated when the caller sends a SETUP message across the UNI. Upon receipt of the SETUP message, the network returns a SETUP A C K N O W L E D G E message to the caller. The caller then sends any remaining call information in an INFORMATION message. After receiving this message, the network sends a C A L L PROCEEDING message to the caller. Upon receiving ALERTING indication initiated at the called address, the network sends an ALERTING message to the caller. The network then sends a C O N N E C T message to the caller upon receiving a C O N N E C T indication from the  61  Chapter 4.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Inter- and Intra-MAN Voice and  Data Integrated Traffic within a Backbone MAN Network  called party. Call setup is completed after the caller sends a C O N N E C T  ACKNOWLEDGE  message to the network [10]. If PA slots are used to transfer isochronous traffic, the network's Signalling Termination ( ST ), Bandwidth Manager & V C I Serve ( N M ) and H O B start to exchange information for allocating an isochronous channel for the caller after the ST receives the SETUP message from the caller. The ST will then send the SETUP A C K N O W L E D G E message back to the caller if and only if an isochronous channel is successfully allocated for that caller. The allocation of an isochronous channel for the called party is similar to that for the caller, except that the request for an isochronous bandwidth is initiated by the ST only after a channel has been allocated for the caller. The ST and N M could be located anywhere on the bus [10]. Figure 42 shows the call setup procedures between the caller and callee.  Data Base  Bandwidth Manager & VCI ,HOB  Figure 42. Call setup procedure of Q.931 protocol for PA access. For QA access, signalling involving the Bandwidth Manager and VCI is eliminated.  62  Chapter 4.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Inter- and Intra-MAN Voice and  Data Integrated Traffic within a Backbone MAN Network  If Q A slots are used to transfer isochronous traffic, the delay and complexity of PA channel allocations for the caller and callee during call setup can be eliminated. 4.6.2 Call setup procedure From [2], we know that an overlapping call setup procedure provides a lower mean call setup delay than a sequential call setup procedure. The overlapping call setup procedure reduces the setup time by processing isochronous channel setup and the second information phase at the same time ( see [2] for more details ). Therefore, we expect that reduction in call setup delay for Q A access for isochronous traffic over PA access will be greater with sequential call setup than in an overlapping setup procedure. 4.6.3 Performance analysis As before, the network configuration consists of 50 nodes uniformly distributed in each access M A N , with two successive nodes is separated by 3 slots transmission time. Mean nodal processing delay is 100 fxs for each signalling message. The length of the SETUP message is assumed to be 5 slots and that of other signalling messages is 1 slot. Signalling messages are transferred in the highest Q A access priority (i.e. priority 2 ) for the network. Results in Table 11 and 12 are obtained from the simulation results of the best signalling architecture ( which collocates the HOB and N M ) in [2] for mean call setup delay versus the 7  background PA throughput. To show the effects of limited Q A capacity for signalling traffic, we have assumed the significant bandwidth (i.e. more than 200 Mbps ) is unavailable for Q A access, but is instead used for PA access. Otherwise, all signalling traffic delay for Q A access is constant and, in all cases, less than 0.2 ms.  7  Call setup delay represents the duration from the time the caller initiates the call to the time the SETUP message reaches the callee. If  PA access is used, allocation of PA channel for caller is included in the delay.  63  Chapter 4.  Delay Analysis of QA Access for Inter- and Intra-MAN Voice and  Data Integrated Traffic within a Backbone MAN Network  1 Background PA throughput (Mbps)  Mean call setup delay (ms) PA access isochronous traffic Sequential  Overlapping  Q A access isochronous traffic  204.0  7.72  4.95  4.03  240.8  8.62  5.52  4.48  256.6  8.88  5.68  4.61  273.8  9.52  6.00  4.83  Table 11. Mean inter-MAN call setup delay vs. background PA throughput over 2 transitional M A N s  Background PA throughput (Mbps)  Mean call setup delay (ms) PA access isochronous traffic Sequential  Overlapping  Q A access isochronous traffic  204.0  3.19  2.88  2.27  240.8  3.53  3.18  2.49  256.6  3.62  3.27  2.56  273.8  3.84  3.45  2.67  Table 12. Mean intra-MAN call setup delay vs. background PA throughput  As expected, the mean Q A access call setup delay for isochronous traffic is smaller than the mean PA access setup delay regardless of the call setup procedures used. Since the mean delay for Q A access of isochronous packets increases as the traffic throughput increases, it is wise to implement Q A access for isochronous traffic under light traffic load and to implement PA access for isochronous traffic under heavy traffic. PA access guarantees bounded delay by denying admission to any packets for which isochronous slots are not available.  64  Chapter 5. Summary and Conclusions To handle the increasing communication traffic loads which result from the rapid growth in demand for Personal Communications Services, a distributed switching network architecture based on the IEEE 802.6 M A N with a distributed queue dual bus ( DQDB ) protocol is proposed. This distributed network has several potential advantages relative to current centralized network architectures for supporting PCS. Performance analysis of the proposed network is needed. Accordingly, network delay versus throughput performance for mixed data and real-time voice traffic is determined using computer simulations.  Section 5.1 Results Summary The efficiency of the DQDB protocol is analyzed first by comparing its delay-vs-throughput performance with and without slot reuse. Two slot reuse schemes,  PSI and Destination  are employed for the comparison. Simulation results indicate that performance with slot reuse is not much improved relative to non-reuse when implemented under light traffic load. Slot reuse schemes provide some reduction in packet delay under heavy traffic load, but do not provide any significant improvement in throughput. The added implementation complexity associated with slot reuse does not seem worthwhile when DQDB is employed. Packet transmission delay for inter- and intra-MAN integrated voice and data traffic was evaluated in detail, using Queue-Arbitrated ( Q A ) access only. Q A slots with priority 1 access ( the middle level) are used for transporting voice traffic in our simulation models. Q A slots with x  the lowest priority access (level zero ) are used to transport data traffic and Q A slots with the highest priority ( level two ) would be used to transport control signalling. Simulation results  65  Chapter 5.  Summary and Conclusions  prove that the waiting delay of a packet is negligible compared to the propagation delay of the packet. Since Q A access is used for packets transfer, packet transmission delay for each priority level will depend not only on its own priority level traffic, but also on higher priority level traffic. The homogeneous bridge schemes employed for M A N interconnection affect inter-MAN packet transmission delay. The four-bridge connection scheme proposed preserves the same packet transmission delay characteristics for inter-MAN traffic as for intra-MAN traffic. As voice throughput increases from 103 to 270 Mbps, the total throughput ( voice plus data ) varies from 298 to 279 Mbps with a two percent bound on dropped voice packets. Mean inter- and intra-MAN delays vary from 5.0 and 2.3 ms, respectively, at 103 Mbps voice throughput to 74.4 and 36.9 ms at 270 Mbps voice throughput. Call setup and clearing delays are compared for Queue-Arbitrated Access Isochronous Traffic ( QAAIT ) and Pre-Arbitrated Access Isochronous Traffic ( P A A I T ) . QAAIT call setup excludes the complex and time consuming process of isochronous channel allocation, and is simpler and faster than for PAAIT. Call clearing involves release of the isochronous channel after call 1  completion, and can be omitted for QAAIT. Although QAAIT has faster call setup and clearing than PAAIT, use of Q A access is most appropriate under light traffic loading. Use of PA access under heavy traffic loading is recommended, to provide a bounded packet transmission delay by limiting channel access. Q A access results in delays which may become unbounded as traffic levels increases.  66  Chapter 5.  Summary and Conclusions  Section 5.2 Suggestions for Future Work There is much future work which would be of interest. Of particular interest are the following issues:  • Performance Analysis for Different Homogeneous Bridges Connection Schemes: In order to optimize the performance of the Backbone M A N network architecture, it may be useful to investigate further the Backbone M A N network performance by relocating the homogeneous bridges for the interconnected MANs or by altering the physical location of the interconnected MANs within the backbone M A N cluster.  • Performance Analysis for Interwoking Between IEEE 802.6 M A N and Heterogeneous Networks: Since a DQDB M A N network acts as an information exchange media for its subnetworks, analysis in interworking between a DQDB M A N network and its subnetworks is essential. For example, it would be useful to investigate the possibility of using A T M network as an interconnection network between interconnected DQDB MANs or using DQDB M A N network as an interconnection network for interconnected A T M networks. It would be useful as well to examine the performance of using heterogeneous bridges for connecting DQDB MANs with different subnetworks ( e.g.  L A N , P B X ).  • Performance and Feasibility of Coexisting PA and Q A Traffic: It would be of interest to examine the feasibility and performance advantages of using Q A access for all traffic types under light loading, while employing PA access for real-time traffic  67  Chapter 5.  Summary and Conclusions  under heavy traffic load. One of the difficulties is the delay which occurs in packing Q A or PA slots for low-bit rate voice coding; this delay is 96 ms for 48-byte PA slots at 4 kbps coding rate. One approach to overcoming the delay is to pack more than one call per cell, which could then involve different parts of a cell having different destinations. The complexity increases considerably, and requires thoughtful analysis of all of the relevant issues.  68  Appendix A  Appendix A Source Code  Backbone M A N network Simulation Model Source Code is written in SIMSCRIPT H.5  69  Appendix A  ID SH SH  ID  u >, Q) ID cG  OrC  *J u d to  JH  Qi C 01-H JH <U <D - cn rH 0) (0 <o c c SH JH - O -H 1 (0 (D O i (0 1 C C i-t I j-i j-i o 01 iO 1 m oi-H E c 1 cn Cn to - H o 1 0) ID C T 3 T ( 1 <u • • • - • 01 -H -rH -H Ql T J SH SH i 3 01 E T3 o> oi - - 1 ID -ri ra Cn Cn>-( H N TJ • <u o> nJ ID c i c c C O O JJ E -H -H -H -H -H • CO to CO C X * to 01 d C tD J-» XicaiDoiaJEXtJ-* XI E E - to T J -H -H T J T J 4J T J T J 4-) C  (0  iD  -H  «3 <a u u >, Sn SH H U ID ID  01 n 0) 01 < u  COf-H rH O) X I  ID <—1 iO  SH  Cn bi 4-i 4-i O i d ) 03 S-i i-4 01 o) a a ai m I 0> OJ 4J O - H - H JH E -rH ) U Cn CnC C : o) o) 01•rH -H ^ ^- ^- Xf i cn 4J 4J rH r-4 a a G^ • 0) C C ra O O O 01 C C-H-H-H (0 0 o tn cn to •H -H C C C < to 01 01 QI ai • C C E E E rH 0) 01 - H - H - H QI E E T> Tt TJ 4-> TJ-OnHH 3 1 I o rH rH tit C0 CO U to to >i iD (D CQ CQ CQ 4-) : S-J  X!  4J (0 ID C -H -H  -H )j -J -  <fl <0  JH JH U JH G  o) o)rao - >1 SH SH I (0 rH rH )H )H tn Cn - H ! 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OJ C 4-1 TJ* + — 1 033 C TJ < T01J 4-C ra CQ fO • O 3 U O • • • >, c 0 - 0 JJ rj <Nra• u c • O 2 2 rH H • 01 X HraggTJ-H4J>> 3 3 iu C X litt 01 F JJ 0) 01 OJ JJ  OJ r* U OJ 01 O SJ H  Appendix A  to U tn cn u O tn cn • tn • u  0) cn  OJ01  OJ rlU ffi  cn u  0) (0  Jj 3  4 1 O  3  TJTJ• U J rHO 3 O TJ• rHCD  O-t 4  in  TJ  rH  H J3 OUrH O TJH . COra +  i n r-j i  + in  +  o + P  rH B1 — g  i P +W p CEN W +  CN  G G  + —G — G G-H  Q  W  -H< —C P pi w +  +  G cn  + C i-t cn  Ol  2  2  P  C  c  2 O  w  *:  03  CQ  c pi P •Pi H < CQ J P > • • u 2 £-• • O  WWH  b< U EH UH< < O E0- > O )  > > > > 4 -1o 4-14-1 4 1 o -t cj4 u-  II  TJ  g  o Jj o o o  rH  TJ  O  4J  rH  a  o O  td at  4 -1 (T J EII > H a u o -4 uJ oO i2 TJ tJ rH  +  u  s O  4-J  II  E  Jj iS  II IGI SoBj o TJ  2  at  4J > • uH oft  o u  G CO  4-J  w  S3 tQ  G  P  < W ta 03  >  2 O  • O  M  i[d^ Cd uh  o  TJ nJ H  iH o UH TJ o  «i rt  its  CQ  w  >  o U  rd  oH P o H O J o  rH  CQ  oOH o  rtf rH  a 0 o  rt 01  4 1 nJ > TH 4 II u1  B u  o i2 TJ  <o a o o  rH  BE  [14  Q  CQ  U a CQ  o  rd  cd  4-t  01 rd  >a i4 o 4 1o O o uTt rd rH  G  M  01  E  01 4.1 a 01 G • H JGU B 0 «J) P OJ * 4 1 G Tt  + P  01  +  4G J  0) 4 1 rd > 4uJ rd  0 4 o  EH O l <0  O  O rH 4J urd 0cnJ ai  X3 rd  td  rd JH  < P  U  OJ  ,c  O  UH  o:  QBJ  JH  G O  <  4-1 rd 3 E  0) 4 1 to «J > 4-t fO JH 4 1 4 u-1 «J to  E- TJ si  u o  G 0)  •  fO X l  - -G G TJ G 4J 4J 4J JJ  X X XJ X3 > > XI X !  » a J o < o a  TJ OJ  C  01  H rHo a  a  o a o o a o o  rH rH  o  rH a  O O  a  O O  a 5 o s O  72  >  CQ to  01  JH a  J < U -TH Ol JJ T) XJ -H JH  E C  td U O  Oi —  G -  < u  rH  nJ  U  G  CQ >  o II < m G• UCd oo E &  O  rd  4 1 G ' HrHpM U-  <  •H g-a J o> 4tn  -H  O TJ E W-  TJ  Pi Pi  H. +  u• OJ U U 43-t XI  G rcl B x  id ^  m +  4uJ' 4-J  4 1 c-  0  J  Ch  Dl OJ  G rdU -4 H 1 01 3oi  G  E-"  > iH OJ  -H >  i4  -X-X  *  to o  S  O J CO  cn OJ  3  M  w  to U  -H  OJ  +  2  01  si 2  to  + td S  2  Q Pi  E  4OJ  G  aS3  Q  H J3 Tl  +  P  •  >  G  Ol  CQ  rd  •H rH TJO rd H J tnG  r>-  CQ  >  (0  E  c  OJ  01  01  CO 2  G 4 1 tn  a  < E-  o + P w  G 4 -1 cn  P  E-  UH«« OJ > <O ] 0  -f in  +  2  4aiJ oi4JOJ4J + rd O > > > O > G 4 -1 4 1 4J 4J 4J 4J 4-1 cn o o u u  rd  o + P w  03  <• U< 2• ^  + in  +  G G  cn +  B  fi  01  0J  3 03  CQ  rta  o o  >  U Ld o p  0)  o  p  >  (0  2  m  P  oi  m  &  CQ  EH < E-  JJOJ aQl AO JJ O  o  CCN +  >  CEN 1w +P * P — + G P+ —G — W G"rH *G G — -H< Gm<KOCQIID -H tf JJQ > K  4 1 0-  tH  + P  + P oj  01  CQ  a: j <<  a  W  O)  B  + in  rHCN1  P" to u to  H J3 TJ  in  rH  in i -> E — E  (QN  \ P  O)  —+ c  o +  +  cn  cn  in  rH i n rH CO rH  01  4 -1 O  to  O — m  E + in  E  C O U  3 TJ  4OJ  cn  • 4-1  G G O fli  U  3 TJ  4 -1 O  4 >  0 cn1  H J  3 TJ  to H J 3• • xJ 3  01  4 -1+ —4. O — in rH m rH Cn rH s  H J  0) JJ  tn m  CO CO  O.J  rd  cn U  0 01  m  to to u O 0J oi to to • cn • o  TJ  4 1• orcnH  to +  • 3  cn u  3 H J  J3-I TJ  TJ  rH  tn u ai cn  rd  G2  <d >  cn S • «J <rj O>l 4 G II 0U)0) 4J -1 OlII G o cn ^ c TJ rd -H j j > 0 E 0 C O OJG o M G • o G > > > OG G M • G -1 4-1 4 P 1 4J 45? -J< O fOGE fiJ 4 I I 01 01 01 uOJ C E G f) • II o rH rH rH C O C 2 4 J 4-J 01 4J a u > o  G  J O 01 40J) 4J0)TJTJ OH rH rH fO u-i TJ  U-l TJ  A3 s  Appendix  A  U TJ Jj Q) CD at 3  OJ  ffj  rtrt -H  rH  •8,5  XI  3 4-1  OJ o S-i m at G  OJXu  tn o  G  • SM +Hh > EH I G <  O OJ  >  0)  WPuU fl- o <! O G OJ M G • • t-t • H  II C B S O II! EH C E E-  tn o cn rd tn oj at  C •H  MVS  a <  OJ U H x to (0 h QiO  ++ 4J Dl t3-4  OJ XI G o -H- rd 4J CO G o cn 0 4-i JJ a oj c0) n D 4J CI G JJ-H OJ TJ 4-1 0COJJ O OHrd U M u 0 rd rd Ql a C 4J • H 01 rd 4-i AJ 4J 3 U rd o rd TJ JJ a rd cn oi 01•H4-J1 4J E rt u-« JJ • O < U O J G 4-1 QJ a rdTt Oi JH GO O rH 4-t rtT) > c QJ M -H rd rH Xt JJ 2 oi G GE O O G atn tcn-H n o m -»H 4-t rl o id OJ G 01 -H rl ITJ 4-t 01 0) O OJ G 4JTt  OJ •H a G G  +  TJ M O O U (0  U  cn oi M rH rH rd -H 01 4J TJ G  *  rH rt 0  G  4J -H I D at A; tn 4-> U-rA u3 rd  E 3  *  ax:U acn OJ -H AS u x; rH •H O s4J«  O C  rt JH rd34-t O J ai  G OlXl ai c 0I-H cn Jj rH 0 3 rH 4J Tt rd u O J E cn at at 3 4-t u • JE cn ran >i o O •H > jJ H at oj a> G -C Xi U H -rl 4-1 4-1 4-t O 3 uj OJ TJ O O 4-1 o j-i rt -H OJ c u CO 4J JJ 01 EHrtoi a rtj JJ rH 4-t >, P OJ DlflJrH ID C rH . -Hffl-H O rd HTj W O rH 4-t W U rt G U 0 +  cn o> Xl  rt u rd >  JJ ) 01 O rH Dl XI 01 rd 4-1 "H  ra  + OJ OJ < tJ <  u to u  o >  ao o- ,  '  Tt G 01  OJ OJ a  + + +  OJ U G O • -H -H a [0 O 4-t X U > 3 OJ + M O O XJ oi JJ rd C > 4-t 01 0) -H JJ XJ o xi o EH 4-1 E UH  x  -1  •* + +  + +  SJ TJ 4J 0 01  D DJ >  a Wl >J rd > o G 01 rd rH G cn rd rH OJ OJ 4J rH rH Sj E c+n 3 rttX» G W u rd tn • -H rd 2 rH• M E JH rH ^1 3 rt ID rt • G > OJ > O P JJ • ai w 2 OJ U U M g Ol S3 -H ID 4-1 H a) O OJ - G • -S > > 0 II • C 2 G G rH td • 01 Ed II CO rH s G rd o ErtM 4J G > U EH oi <-(  H B •  G  •H CO E-  < P OJ O E^  CO W U < OJ CO u IH o>  n cn 01 u 0 Jj  a  m 2 rJ V ~ > D OJ > to o — * r-j 4J O J u T3 cn  rt ii rt -  4Jrt4J 10 oi u tn J > • M H E -H W O 3G UJ 4J OJ O a r-t X! XI O J 4J . II . . ll 4-t 4-t G tn OJ GOJG 01 G >D •-. O O S 3 Tt G Oi rd 4 -1 4J 4J 4J tl JJ tn G oi at at a) OJTJOJTt OJrH 0 HUH rH3 TJ rH rH rH UJ UJ -H rd  11  S  V > td E M EH  G  • G 4-t 01  —  Tt E rt • • 4-t a tn rH TJ rt E O J IJ 0J Tt oi rt TJ >• E• 4J cn uj — . td 0J > > UJ o oi E u II II 3 C U H Xl •J -rJ H -H O O O c G O II 1> rH >n 4J > ~ 1 || .G .G tn II JJ G G V—. oi JJ O 4-t 4-t 2 JJ UJ CJ c to n 4-t  3  u  @  3 C 0  — JJ MO) 01 UJ 4J U J J 01 uj U 3 - 2 3 XI 2 < -Q cn — 4-1 — G 4J tn tJ rd G  > rH rH C at rd ai 4-i u ai  ITJ  •H E •H  cn oi OJ TJ TJ • G  O G G  4J cn +  2  £  -a*  D JJ  1  O) 3— XI cn o > C G  G  CN  D OJ > Cd  cn G— ujX»34-iag • 0i 3 o) XI oi a E JJ • id GNJJX1>OI 01 2 2 cn rH S 4J-H 0) CO — > 2 TJ G UJ a w u J > cu— < Tl rt V 0J M cn toj U •H i w - g c g fl] E 3 — — tn 3J 4-1 EH 2- u 3 3 T) 0)rt— • •XICO E3 O>J • W G Tt axixiTJ4JEo)xx 0) G M E >co >co ->,4J-H>> rd • • N 4-t 4-t > >EJ > > — 2 O to CQ OJ G at a rt co oi NOrdErHO)UJ4J4J •H O Cij &fr •H4.1 0101TJ30IOJ X! 4-i >• CQ> 0) V CQ 0l4JTJC0XlrHrH 01 4J + > UJ TH 4-1 > > > 01 >1 rH 0 to > • 3 rd > rd oi 2 4-1 4-> fl • H Xi TJ 0> 4J 4J 4-1 3 rHTJTJC>iH fJ H -"J rH-H to § rt o >, co TJ JJ o) oi oi uj QJ Di rt 2 H > rd U r^r-ir-A-H (0 UJ (fl H EH tn 3 3rd EH — O J II rd -H  01 O 01 ai ID tn G DJ • £ > a< to• > X £ OJ E • w + M td > EH E • • M 2 H to p t(JJ  rt  a OJ  4-1 -H oi x: o rH -JTt XJ O 0)  3TJ  73  Q OJ  G  rt  rt-  to  rt  •H 4-1  E  s  EH  §  1  11  o  01 II V 4J a -H O a ra O cnJ Dl rt 3 i— 3 UJ OJi  4J CJ  a  O O  rt  | w  to UJ U < QJ td U M o > TJ G Ql X to  aO o  2 tu  •r  4J Dl 01 3 CJJ O -H 4-J JH TJ U Oi OJ O G QJ U -H < U G • rt-H EH E td 01 U W TJ 0) U O 4J < G OJ OJ TJ x: OJ O JJ x: rt o EH 01 "J  + 4- + + + +  Appendix A  3 Xt Xi X! >  XI TJ  — rt 3 4-1 XI co XI — XI TJ  —  4J cn ~TJ TJ  xt Xt Xt  xt — X l TJ > TJ  e  *J cn  >r  TJ  Xt T J Xt rd  — rt  XI XI  • X  3 5,  rt rt  II to <u O <UH C TJ  m 4J 4-> II to at O 0) H d TJ  II O  CO QI OIH  C TJ  £  to to to to to co  >  rrtH rt>1rt > 1 >1 >1 >1 >1 rd rd rt rt <u rH rt rt rd rd  o d d  — o  4J  + o  d to + o in +  c  LTl C4-) O — — + rH ~ tn o i JH 01 m a ai UH *  O C  — 3 Xl i — XI to 2 *y co > a CD —> C —s  d to  »H — WTJ Hi" UH r Q •g JHty 3 10 XI • CO 0 i > E CD E 4-> O > II  U 10  U-i Ol UH TJ 3 CO XI > to II  >  oo  XI  -  4_) Ol C0 TJ C JH TJ rt UH • H U E , UH . . JH  X X to CD 4J 4J > > > > O 01 E 01 4-1 0) 4-1 0) - H  rH  Jj '—1  •—* UH  to  0)  XI  rt > rt JH  O  H C C Hd 01 • • UH C C 4-1 UJ 4-) 4-> tO 3 m. ra JH  d  JH 0)  >  Oi  cd  4->  rd TJ Qi 3  to  3  d  TJ TJ  rt  rt  X  c to  CO CD d  4J  -  -  -  -  -  3 o  JH  01  d  UH 0) T>  o d  O  LTl  0)  u0 )oiI H—H  — UH 3  Oi TJ  2  JH  XI  g  tJH r Xt 3 xttn E 01 to T J —•  TJ  —  jj  •  01  >  Oi 01 4-J  rt rt a  rt  4J  TJ a 3  3  TJ Xt  TJ TJ  rt  rt  X  X  Ql  rH -iH hHHW 4-1 4-J 01 01 Ql  0)  XI fd JH  01  c  01 -  01  d to rd 0  d 01  Cn TJ  Oi xt  OJ  —.  —  Ql OI  JH  01  —XJ  Ql Ol xJ  4-J  -  -  -  v  3 o  -  JH  g  Xl  UH 01 TJ  JH  XI  •  -  >  -ri  UH JH JH 4-i UH Xt Xt tn  3  -  - U  4.1  TJ d Ql  rd E UH . . 3 X X Xl 4-> 4-> XI Ql X t X l > > > > O Ql E 4-> 4-1 JQl l Ql H H0) W  rH -rl  JH  >  01  C  II UH  Ql Q) oi oi d XJ Ql TJ -H-H JH  13 Oi Oi  — „ 3 E O O Xt o d d xi  JH UH  XI  JH  3 Tf Qi JH Xt rt XJ CD XI > > UH II  0)  Ol TJ  JH JH S S OJ X l • — UH . 4-1 —  >  CO  0J  rHi  JH -H UH  OJ c  o d  *  >Xt  S O 01 > — i~  01  >  Oi  rt Vrt a  01 4-1  4-1  rt a  3  3  TJ TJ  xJ x)  rt  rt  X  d to rd o d 01  Ol TJ Xt  4-1  0)  TJ d 0)  v  01  4-J  -  V  -  -v  3 O  74  JH  d  UH  ai TJ  o d d  2 Xt UH + gXt 3 — 2 Xt XI XI i — 01 TJ 2  4-1  CO  rn 3E  cr Tc )n —2 JH UH  3 Xt XI  TJ  ja • TJ XJ rt  4J JH cn OI CD UH xJ UH II II 3  UH - H - H 4-1 UH M H CO 3 Xt X l JH  XI  -  --H  Ql  4-1  rt rt a 3  X)  TJ  jJ tn T J  Q) d UH TJ rt UH id G 3 . -XI X XXI Ql 4J 4-1 XJ > X l Xt O 01 E 01 4-J 01 4-J 01-H  rH JH rH rH UH  UH  'tn  UH  Ql TJ TJ  d  c CD >  E XI O O O XI JH d dTJ . . QI oi d JH OI OI-H  JH 01  tn  rt  Q)  -  JH -  JH 0)  to  X  0  Xl Xl >  4-1  4-J  -  rt > rt  TJ TJ cd  d -  XJ  0) 4-1  01  X) d -  0)  rd TJ a 3  4->  X  4-J  Xl  3 o  s s- - H  VD  o-  o d 4->  • cr  JH •H UH  Xt c  ri —H , JH J Q riH 3UHUH01ro+  JH  X  4-1  Xl >  o d  XI + — m JH +- ~ U H Ql  -ri  UH oi JH JH UH — Xt r H X l UH + i Xt 3 ro  JH  4J  CO  TJ d -  Cn  Xt >  4J  • tn TJ  01 X X > 4J 4J  O E  d  • 4-1 UH  a tn 3 E E 01 XI O 01 TJ tn JH 4-> tn TJ UH || || d JH O 0 - H Q> d d UH • • 4-1 UH c d to 3 4-1 4-1 U X i tn tn - H tn - V U J  CO  JH 01  cr 3 TJ cfd JH Xt XJ g CD to rd • UH  UH  n +  >  UHT,  Qi cn g S UH JH TJ d UH • H T J fd 3 UH rt & XI  X  4-1  >  01 -  d  0) 4J  rt rt a o  TJ TJ  TJ d -  Ol Ol CD  4-1  a2  +  tn +  — r1H  o d  JH JH XI  4-»  UH  o —  Oi xt  — O d  rt  d  0)  4-1  *  JH UH  O d  O d  rt  Oi d  rt d c  CQ  n  —  T JH tl  3 Xt Xt Xt > E O  II  Xi Xt Xt >  to  01  01 UH JH - H  UH  O CO - H E  0)  tn  01  XI  a xt> g  4-1 4-J  tn oi  Q! TJ >  >  01 J-» Tt 01  rHcn4-1014J O TJ Ql rH C • >  2  2 X a 4-i sxt • xt  CO II JH  OJ d > 4J  — rt Xl • Xt X  —  4J  II  —JH  •  UH d 3 4-1 Xt cn Xl — X l TJ >TJ  3 • x i c: XI 4-» XI tn > XJ — XtTt Xt rd  —  UH 3  CD d TJ  n  II  UH  JH 01 UH  4-1  II  UH  01 — UH o UH n  JH O Ql d UH • C 3 4-1 XI co XI " XI XJ > xi Xt rd• Xl X • 4-1 2 XI &Xi S >  JH UH  •H UH  in  O Ql d JH  UH  rH to  > rH 01 -H 0  ? to  >i  II  CN *-D II II  01 — UH o UH d  JH 01  O d  4->  UH  C  3 XI XI XI > — XI Xt  CO — XJ TJ rd • X  2 a s  XI £ >  3 xXti Xi —> XI XI  4-J  •  a  tn  — TJ TJ rd  2 X a 4.1 SXt -•P  u > CO Ql 4-J TJ 0)  • 4-1  >rH rtrt CNII ra>* Od• TJ> rH rt d UH cn rtcn 4-J 4-1 01 0)  01  01  4-1 01 0) - H  UH 01 H  01  Appendix A  o o o  co  ra  >  <u  a)  tn  ra  ra u a)  x:4J  ra  c cu  CO  o  u  Q cjJ  a>  c  4-J  3  0  cu  H  >  o II  01  •  d  d -rl  c  0)  UH  +  • >.  C  4-J  C  01  U J-I OJ  01 JH  ra ra  a  rH  a  UH  o  4-J  II  r-l  CN  H  UH o U3H •C  ^ II  0 0) C SH  X  U3H4Jc Xl CD  Xl — — ra Xl X• X) XI T5 TJ TJ  to rH >1  ra ra ra ra ra 3 tn >i ra 3  CN O  3  c  • A 4-1  CO  a• TJ cu  cu 4J cn tO Ql  i  i-H II rH II  XI G XI 4-* XI to TJ — — TJ XI TJ  0 0J C  c-  U -rlH  01 to 01  — TJ XI TJ  II  cn >i  ra ra 3  *T?  4J  CQ C• TJ 0) O  c  ra oi cn CQ  rH  |3xXi i  -H  4-J  ci  UH 3 4J  2 Xt  to u QJ 01 TJ 0> cn Ql  01 U H rH •rl 01 to Ql  rH  TJ  "H  II  01 C  — TJ XI TJ  XJ to XI — XJTJ TJTJ  XI — xi ra 5 -° % x U 0) — ra s <-* XI • tn S• Xl QJ tn rH >i XI X • 4J  JH u II> — 0) — UH O U3H •c Xt c xt u xt to TJ —  JH O  ra>. rara ra>l rH ra 3 n  3 to 3  E  2. Xt  T II O  rH UH rH rH •H 0)  • u 01  4-J  CO  TJ C• ra C  ra ra to CO  tn 4J 01 Q) 01 TJ cn  axi  -H  01 to 01  ra ra  SH SH  ra  01 T J XI c 4-J 3  o  II  CO  II u  0) 0J  JH  II  II  CO  J4  cu  4-J 0)  xi3  ToJ  4-1 U  rH >O ii  *^x\ >"D J->  -rl 4-J  01 0)  o  JH  u  OJ 0)  0)  cn  O  ra  MU  to to tn cn  0) 01 01 01 T J T J TJ TJ  • <tl o  . . . .  Tj  TJ T J TJ T J  ra  O  .  ra .  C  C  ra ra E E . .  <-i II  rH u u01 fllCJ Ql u ra  A  ra  o ra > 0) T l O O O O SH  4-i Xl  rH  SH  >i Ql Ql ra Q)  Ql  o  4J  ra  r(S UH o  01 T J  co ra  01 01 01  to  UH - H  rH  0)  o ra to t-J SH UH SH JH 4-J O  tn  4-J 4-J 4-J 4-J  X\ C > > > > 4J CO X\ 4-1 3 O 4-1 J-l 4-1 4-1 4-1 V 10 II Xl -4J H 01 (0 JH 3 T J UH 3  M  rax:  A XI CN  Ql  to  —  ETJ  U  JH  £ -rl E - H C XI C XI  XI  o o ra 4-ico C SH • SH 3JH UH CJ Ql rl i-J X - H UH  E  C  01 01  UH•  1X1  u u u SH o o o o cj > > > > 3 o 4-J 4-1 1-J 4-J  a Jn-rl3 T JdUH O O - H UH  *—1 UH  o  4-J  4-J 4J 4-1 CO CO to 0) 01 01 TJ T J T J  01 T J  x\  c -n  ci Tra J Tra Jra E ra e  ra  -rl-  4-1 4-1 4-1 CO to CO 0) oi > • T J CO  u c U cn »M co  TJ TJ  • CO 4-J 4J O 0J JH  c  c: e CO  d  4-J O O > U-I 4J 0) UH  01  01  EH CU CO  inII CMII Ti "o QI  a  II 01 —  U3H uC Xl tn Xi — Xi TJ TJ TJ — ra Xl • Xt• Xu 2  JH  it  -rl  01  C 3 U Xt tn  JH O  c UH C. UH 01  u  — TJ Xt TJ  3 i-i Xt cn  to  %  %  3  115  II  01  TJ  • iJ U HI  Cn C• TJ 01 C  O  to C0  A  -rl  rH -H 01 CQ 01  to D* JH  fll 3  Xt Xl Xt TJ c  s x  w CO 4J CQ 0) Q) >.  % XXrH  4-1  2 Xt  Xt — xi ra 3 Xl TJ • 4-> TJ TJ 2 X — ra s * J iJ Q) tn Xt • S XJ cn i-H Xl• Xu 4J• xt TJ01 >iCO  • X u  in  XI TJ  Xt — xi ra 2 X — ra xt • S• Xl XJ Xt  XI TJ TJ TJ  ra ra1 ra ra  75  O  c•  xi c; XX Xt tn TJ —  c  UH  3 to  0)  3  JH O  XI  01  UH  n  o c d  mII CN 11 Ii O II 0) c —JH II u-i c 01 — 3 iJ UH Co Xt co UH Xt TJ — 3 • Xl XI C TJ TJ XI 4J — ra XI to xt • TJ — Xl X — TJ  ~rH  Xt ra a -° 2 X • u 4J 0) — ra a XI • S Xt 0)Cn rH C>1O XI X • Xt • u 1-J TJ  XJ TJ TJ TJ  rH ra 3 rH  C  Xt i-J XI —to TJ  XI to  1-J  Tj  XI  UH 3 4J  xi ra *H >< s 2• Xl Xl  rH •rl  UH O U3H •C  SH  to JJ cn 01 01 >i  II 4-J OJ  tn >i  0) —  •a  c • ra 3 Tf U  TJ  TJ  4-J W 01 TJ  • +  CC  JH  XIII 4-> 01 C IIO 4-1 — c — c  C  TJ  II  fll d U3H H u.C Xt to Xt — Xt TJ TJ TJ — ra Xt • Xt• i-JX  -i> "rl3  ^  U-4 CO  o  ura CN  SH JH CU CO OJ J-> 11 4-J  ra ra  JH 01 4-1  rH  x  O  CN  M O  II  —. JH II  II 0) —  TJ 0 T J• 4J  C  U T J Coi O  TJTJ  a  a  II  4-J 1-J  —E -nc — E  to  JH T J  SH !H O O O O UH T J UH T J  II -X o  4J 3 E CO JH CO 0) 4J X\  -HII (0T J r-t rH • II ra oi x -rlSH - HU JH  o  4-J  O  -rl U-I  \otlin  >  3  - H H> OJ U 01 TJ  4-J CO  U CO  J-Xt 01 4-> -  c  u>*2  01 01 CO UH 4-J  CO  ra  ra d  CN  u a  4-J  01  u  CO —  C- • c o M U -n — C II  4-J CJ  OJ  ra C—  >  II  a o»  4-J CO  ra—  01  *n U  a  + c  c  Ql  +  u -n ra  oo to  E  U ra cu  x\ 4-1  0 o,3 0  >  JH CU 4-J  CO  fll —  U SH f-j 0) — 0 , JH + 01 4-1 J-J  CN  O  4-J U JH  CII -VII  c —  oII 4J X —  JH  Ql C  4-1  a • oII  u  cn c A -n  >  >,  JH CN II  4J  4-1  J4 OJ 4-J  u  M  0)  II  c  • 4-J 4-) 01  U H "  U CO  ra co • >  ra  JH  JH 0) 4J  a,  U-I  4J CO 01 TJ  ra d  ra  JH 01 4-1  0 JH 01  II  • 4-1  tO 01 TJ  u  ^ dra  H  2X1  i  ra  u  ra  C 01  u  UH UH  ra  4J  c  >  JH 4-J  C  C  UHX! 0 •H 3 TJ  U3H4->C Xl co Xi TJ — XI TJ TJ — ra XI • XI  JCJ J 4-J  4J  ftrH  a)  - M  XI  u 01  c3  U-I  O  inII  0  .x  at  v£II>  >i  C  o >  -  x: u  E  cu  u  o  0)  l/lA 4-JU 4-1 U-I 0) UH c to JH Ura C > ra to • CO U• — > u — ra C 0J J-i at d - a d cj 3 U 4J 4-J -d H 4J rH 3 ~ JH C to u-l — J-l J-l 4J 4J -rl Jj C UH C>O u-i 4-J 4-J a> ScHo O XI UH ra — 4-1 4-1 4-J )-l U-I• •THJ 4-1O "HC-H 4J U-I -rl 01 T J 01 • u 5 II H j £4-JC 3 to u c ra rH a)cu II >1 Q l 3 > H x; C O CO U JH T J UH 4J 4-J 0 3 ra>i a 4J -XII CII xs JH C c •rl TJ O -ri U-I 3 4-J U 3 C 4-J• u 01 rara C 4-J a> O -rl ra CU -c O H  o >  u  — u  CO  01 CJ  4-J  4->  c ii  c  Q.  a.  a.  ai  T> I-D  u  JH OJ  uJH  u  jj  Q.  C OJ  4-J  CO  ra ra u  u  4->  a  Xl  C  U  4-)  SH  cu  4-J  >  u  JH  c:  ij cu  X  >  JH  M aj  ra u  JH  u  JH 4J  4-J  U-I  o o  ra  ra  u  D»  Jjfll c  >  U  JH 4-J  >  JH  TJ 01  u  oo  M  <u  >  o  01  3rcf  1-J  o o  o o  ra  ra 3 to >,  rH  A  TJ  vo • U 11 U 01 O  ro ra 3  CO 4-J 0) 01  % XXrH CO  TJ C• Q J  c  U-H H rH UH 01 H 4J  01 CO to  rH  " 0) to 0)  H  1-1 cn  rH 01  ra Q.  TJ  SH  TJ TJ  3  3 to  01 cn  Ql U  JH  Ql  -H rH >,  UH ra ra rH ra>, Xl rara S >i ra>ira ra >ira Nra raS S S J J J ra ra ra ra ra ra JO  to 3  in cn cn to to to ><  3 XJ XI XJ TJ  Ql  4J X XI  TJ C - - - 0) v V V -  Appendix A  cn u OJ cn tn • CJ OJ cn jj • 3 TJ  *  tn u 01 01  fi  +  o XI u (0 XJ  cn O OJ 01  0) X!  U 3 TJ 4J 0  UJ  tn Jj (0 u 01  O jJ OJ  fi  !Q  o u  *  in  *  0J 0)  Jj 3 o  OJ TJ  JJ  01 ij a  Dl  2 5 CQ i4 U  0  QJ U o  01 XJ  <  E-  >  TJ  fi  * * **  Q>  +  Jj JJ rd (0  o + a oi  Dl 01 0J u o JJ  a  Jj rH QJ rd D) QJ Ql JJ fi m • H 03 0) JJ rd ra 6 tn QJ Q)  fi fi Ql Ql TJTJ  i II i II n — II — — E — E E — E — — •£ — CQ < • CQ • . SJ • JJ JJ Ql JJ Q> Ql 4-1 Ql 4J 4-1fi4J fi fi 3fi3 3 O 3 O O U O O O • U •' • X • X X 4J X 4J 4J > 4J >  VD  XI XJ rd rd  > >  fi  '3 0  u ra 3  to OJ c  o m II o + X II C U X 4-) • 4J 01 QJ . . rH u rO 2 II "H 4-J C O (0 II A3 > TJ JJ E • • ra CQ CQ CQ 4J cq CQ £Q cn  VD  o 4-1  in o + JJ rrj 4J cn G CQ 0]  g  J  4J O 01  C  a w 2  u  u  CQ g g s*j  < CQ  rd 01 4-1 rO  < CQ  4J ft) QJ QJ 01 Q) e rH rH rH rH ft > 4-1 4-1 4J 4J O 4J 0 O u rH rH -H rH iS TJ rH (0  4J rrj  >  4J U CO  o 4-1  I-)  cn  II M  ii  II — II —>  h-j_e-j hj E^E^ cn s v v s G01G01 AJ v v . v m  G  -H  CQ oi  ta-  CQ Q  rn  < Ol  g  & CQ  Q  g  a3J aX td 2  cq  U U id id Qi H o o o o UJ TJ rH  < CQ  U 2 < o CQ C Q  <o  rd  0) 4J rO  OJ C Q rd > 4-1 TJ U G - rO 01 - -  >  4J U fO  x  a td 2 o CQ U  cn cn oi u O SJ a  < CQ  U  <  -  -  - -  01 01 01 u o  JJ  a  O 4-101 >, oraoi Di3>i rHlUtn ITJ3>i H id (O3OI rH>,  fi  SJ 01 cn oi 4J uj o X! 0) rH 4-1 JJ in  +  +  +  +  J. *  01  XI (0  m  01 QJ i tj  (0  +  ra  JJ  o + Q Ui  01 Dl Ql 4J cn G 01 XI cn ra  UJ  *  O rH cn O G  + Id S  cn  ra  EJ  e  4-c1 2 cn W CD 0)  *  a o o  td 2  Ql  II  rH II  SJ UJ  CM II CQ aca o • rH O td MHHg OH • M C < 01 EH fi o rag 4J rH SJ 2  fi fi 4-1 4-1 4J 4J  01 0) TJTJ  X CQ CQ  EH  3  CQ CQ • td E M  fi  fi  • ra Ql 0) E JJ SJ  rd 4-1  4J 01 2  jj ra-H a ra o > 0  x  Ql N  0J QJ 0) QJ r-i. r-i i-i  UJ  V  > td 2 E-  01  a m A  4J O O 4J  < 4Ql-1TJTJ  oII  <  4-1 o rH O tn oII — ii —  <•rtj —< 4-1 TJ 4-1 O TJ O rH (0 rH cn • cn — 4J — rt" o < • rH • OJ tn to Q  o rH rd cn CQ CQ CQ >i CQ CQ CQ cn 3 4J 4-1 4J rH 0) 0) 0) (BrlrlH  ra  XJ o 3 TJ  EraE ra cxJ" cxT  -X  M  c .  ^  G  4Jtn4J4J4J4-l  tnoiQicnoitntn 4J-TJcnojo)OJCJ CJ2*C0TJTJT)TJ rtf TJ U • • • «  OJ u JJ 01 a  - E T J T J T J G G  — GOrd4->TJTJrara TiTiTiTJ O- >Uj jO H -EH<- H- H -H (0 EH jjjj 4 . c n r a- rHa- E 4JTJU . . ucn u. u. U4J c. 4n- ->ur d-_>i 0„Q1_)T jJ_jO._O. _O . .O.i J.i j HrtJ rdoiQitnoioioi > U - H OJHICIIIIH X Jjtd H • T J c n o iToJi Tf lJJGOGJ r XJ-XH:UGJ>U>O>U>U4r-dI H 0 0 1 — •>rd4JTJTJrara THX!4J3 m no. SJ QIUH -H .cnraraESrHoXJ4-i04J4J4-i4-i4-i>, td OJ TJrJT J O O I S J ••••MrNll-HTJujcU4J0JQJ0Jr0OOj ft (N -ll-H G 4JU-H QlOlOJOIrH A(dJj3G rHrHrHrHrH3 4J4-1 + TJ rH Tl rd - H U J f J O U U r a r H O - H U J rH U > , G T J r a G 0 1 r J r H O -H-H-H-rl-HrOJjUJUJ-H rOrHO ui x> iJ ra - Hraii ii > o i T J o o o O r 4 - H O 4-101 • - c n . J j J j f i c n i i x J C > > > > 4 - i M u j T J > , * • OJ 4-J 1 1 IDX!4J3 4J QiTJoracn 4-1 2ocnQj4Jr 4JO4J4J4J4-ii-i cn<d0i3>icn 01VD •H4JrHQja-rHTJ *H010ia)CJrjJQJUH rH rHra>, > OO0J4J-HrHOJj3firHrHrHrHrHtn-H Ql (0310 O 4 - i > r H 0 i x l o o o - H u j rH H 3 0 4 J ^STJrHUJUJ.H QJ (OrH 4 - l r H U J fO 0  +  -H  r  DJ td OJ  3 oi XI > ra O JJ 4J 4J  cn  >  * <cn ra rH  TJ  cn 01  JJ  01 JJ 3 XI ro XJ -H 3 JH O Dl U 4-1 G cn o QJ srH  Q 2  (0 s • g g W td w u  rrj Ol 4-1 cd  4-1 XJ —  C  < Ol D CQ  E  CN  01 01 td - H D i 2 x: TJ O 4J - H CQ JJ t*J E XJ u o SiQ UJ^ cn C 3 O OJ TJ Ql XJ 0) G 4J 4J 0) JH Dl G ra O "H 4-J E oi o ^ rfi 0) c n jj QJ 3 ra XJ XI 4-> < cn  + Jj ro 4-1  0) 4J o  O  (0 E  + Jj (0 4-1 01  > >  II  o  VD  +  td 2 O CQ  U U < < CQ CQ  rO ra 0J 0J  CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ  td 2 O CQ  JJ  3 TJ  0) 01 Dl XJ TJ 4J • "H 2 JJ  01  01  cd cd Q Q O O 2 2  CQ  01 TJ rd 0) XJ  4-J o  4J o  ii  a a  JH  3 TJ  3 TJ  < CQ to w O & CQ CQ  g  G O 4-1 rd JJ  JJ  C C  to  u 2  cn u 01 01  3 O JJ TJ rH . c+ n 4-1 o •— rH O tn vo ~ E o + vo in E o + + SJ SJ rt) ro 4J 4J cn cn  Jj 3 TJ  < oi & CQ  cn u 0J  l  76  C a 3 + — 4-i - T J -.ro  U  • o  ° * J o oj U N 01  ra—ra  * 4-1+ - G O ^ O G 4J c — . cd -u — 01 0QI4-ITJ4-1 U cnuj tl C O - H U J C o -cn r d t n t n o i ro— >C. c> r ,a c n .— + r 04>jx4JJr34_ r E - u — 0 > TJ cn OIT) G — O T H G J J IIJjrHxJG U S H II — 3 0) 4J O X -H II 4J 3 01 01 "J rl * J 01 i J U H ^ G O > 4 J T ' J C rl XJ TJUJ — G • - H - H - H r H 4 J Q I J j G U H - HO T J O I I U J - H J J OJ O - H W - l i +G4-1X llS-tJw W - H o — 4 - i r o o i G O C E OMrnxlxlO) T J G 3 — railll4J4JGMG & T J X f i - H O O - H U J 4J C 3 T J G U J U J - H 4 - l 4 J 4 - l J j f i  o a o o rH o rH  - H Q I  a O  Appendix A  •J. x  at —  UH Ql  3 TJ  < tn 3 XI  1 / 1 V D + 01  OJ  rt d OJ & X ! 0) SH  o — C CQ taa p  D < a  a 2 w CQ O « U < CQ  a 2 u o CQ  u < < CQ  01  T3 d - OJ * -  u  -  oM - ft  *  * *  • JJ  S u t-<  53 CQ CQ Cd  -CQ E H 4 O >CQ X CQ r0 H1CQCQ • CQ CQ V - S d £H O M n rH CQS > d 9 oCQII M W d 4 OJ01 wc 1p •S M d OJ d 01 0)o 01 W0) U H 1 TJ a tTJU aH t4 a tOJ 0) X3! 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O E m 01 01 TJ CJ •r 0 cn XI + ma u •r 00) rt 0 XI SJ a x01: m 4J XJ UJ 4J 0 + + + •r  .  < CQ< 4J X OC CQ Q rH COtil •  -s  O CJ M EH CQ 4J 01 S u 01 OJ d d TJ TJ  O+ P  V)  + d 4J UI  2 CQ S EH  < CQ X CQ cq w  s II < CQ X CQ CQ VD W II rH E OHM d < EJ d 0 P OJ OJ 01  78  1  EH  V  >  CQ EH 01  xl  O 3TJ  0 d d 4-1 tn cq 0 • V JH — Ql O 4J d d • 3 d 0 401 J u. — rj CQ OJ • JH J H •> m 4d-1 C CQ Q 0II 3 ll — O—O 0 0 d • d • x • d 4-1 d 4-1 • UI — > 4J UI CQ Q— C CQ CQ • JH TJ JH Ol d 0 4J rt 4-i1 cJ d 3 0 3 0 A u O O — . 0 • o d x oi JH d• 4J > > 4 -> •Q• CQ C O C — CQ CQ TJ TJ rt 4J Qi 4J01  11 <-1 +CN 4 0  a oT CO A < 401J 40J 01 >, m 3  rt rt  X Xt XI  >  UJ  O d d 4J m CQ 0 • V fl) JH — Od 4J d • 3 d 0 4m -1 0• —o CQ 01 • JH SJ • 0) CQ 0 •iJ CQ II 3 — "o 0 0 d CJ• d• d • X C 4J 4J. 4J 01 CO — CQ — CQ CQ CQ • • JJ TJ H 4O-1J d J01 rt d 4J 3 d 0 3 0 A 0 0 — U • O X• oi O C d. 4J• JJ • 4J QQ CC QQ 01 CC  E JHXI 01 UJ < 3 4-1 XI O XI rH > m V < — 01 Xl 2  1  1  T) J TJ 4J 01 401  X m 4J >iXI rt Xt 3 CO -H  O a d 4J m < JH 01 d 3 O (J O 01 rH JH II > < CQ 40-1 CQ rH O tn 4J 1  O d a 401J < u OJ 4-> d 3 O O 0rH OJ II SJ < DP 40-1 cq rH O CO 4J  rtj rH Oi rH pj TJ CtJTj > TJ P TJ 01 • COco • rt cn >iCQ >iCQ >i rt CQ rt CQ 3 3 3 rH UJ CO -H -H  rt  — < — 4J < 0 — 4J rH < O ID U — 0H 01 — < rH — — < • m < <; 4-J TJJ— T O l• O4JH0  JH 01 — UJ JH UJ 0) 3 UJ Xt uj Xl 3 >X> — Xt 01 > Ol— TJ 2 -H a iH S Xl • Tf• 4J CO TJ 01 ra T3 > 11 >11  . 0) rH 01 — rH Xt Xt 4J TJ 0) — ai 11 - O O TJ < • rH d • • OJ XI < < m • CQ rH 2 - 4-1 4J . -H pp 2 a —O O CN COG II § g > <<HH 11 — ll cq• JHoicQcQSrHrtjrt; • cQ CO O —— — < JH CQ UJ cQ II M 01 • • oi 11 uj 11 — e-» — OJOJ rH < . CO 4-1 CQ UJJHXIJHOI— • a a 3 uj 0>Xt — O C— Q XI j> Oiuj uj uj IJOJES 01 2 • • < rH XJ UJ — UH 3 U j a c Q C Q 01 OJ CN — M JH > 3 01 3 XI uj E3 CQ CQ 2 < H OJ —XJ OlXJ XI 3 aE 01 OJ• UJ cnUJ OIXJTJXI >X1CQTJ UJ 0 1 > - H > — XI CQ TJ rt ll 2 3 3 T J — >H — 2>— rtE l - r H T J X l 2 a — 01 • • a Xt XXlrJTJ CQ — < SXJ .Sjg>,NXX 4J • > >Xtrt>,E - fO -H4J4J TJ O D • • (0 • 4-1 rH to xt Xt d rH CPQ O (OTJ-HrH-H 0)UH>> 01 TJ 3 rt m — 4-1 TJ d 01 d 01 — OJ OJ rt-HTJ-HTJ >Xt4J4-i rH 4 N H 4 J > > > > > X » X > 0 J 0 1 C O >HH II • -rH — 0) 01 TJ jjcuoiaioifliaiuj 01 4J 4J 4J 4J 4J 4J <; u UJ -o 4J -H 3 ra O rH O rH > XI XI m 11 • > — X! DP < DP UJ CQ. 4J Ol uj-H CQ  rt CQ ra  Appendix A  +  + + + + Ql  X\  xt  4-1  H.  JJ  ftt TJ Ql 4 rd1 U  Hj.  Di TJ  01  u  0)  Xt  X! ffl  tn 3  o •  ffl > JJ  0) Dl 01 d  4J 0 o TJtn  01 («  o tn  ro o fl o  4-1  Ql J j XI -H SJ S-I Q) U JS tn 4-(0 i Ql TJ SJ  JJ  *J 4 O-J tn  tn 2 tn 2 oi g u O 0 1 SJ d  oc  —  rG —r lU J3 — rl rtlCQOJXtQJUJ JJ4-1 Q — u j X ) U J UJ QI CJ 0"4J Xt U J 3 U J tn O 0rtJj3Tj3Xt 1XI—XtXt 3u Jj f lJj cuujxixixtxt xi u j XI XI Xt TJ Xi X3TJ-TJ— XI Xi — T) — X t TJ -- X — x li Xx liTr l oX xt Xi txirJ TJ • • • 2 X! i TJ -ri 2 < -II E TJ d < B >i — oro- H s • «J o O rl II It • u H E II UH rl 01 01— rfj-cdoioirHTjc: O OJ JJ 4J 4 C O OJ 1-1H IIT J II ll ll014-1 .IMHH <<< —  d  4J —  01Od — <• . d JJ4-1 0101 4 c-<1—; 3 •  JJ  0)  O  X4 1 —  — JH OJ  3 XI X! XI TJ  O d d  >i cd  4-1 >, cn  — 0) OJ 0) O 4-1 d uj _ O TJ TJ d fl Di 0 O d • E d s) C. —SJU J3 _Sj 01 — > c d oi-H fa XI Xt Xt jj C 0i1 Q UJ xt u j u j 01 Xt — 4 1 > COO 4l Xt 0) u j c 1 O d M —UJ x i UJ 3 UJ 4 1 cn 4-i - H > d B D 3 > 3 XI "J > 0 1 — O Oi 4tnJ OO•O ijJH J II CO JJ XI — X ! X ! 3 0) 01 d td Ol X d N 0) O 2 01XXI c VD 3 UJ i XIX iXX! i >X ! XtXI 2 4-13 EHJ cn 4J x • H cn 4 -1 d — N-n cn - H ro a u j > . > — xt > o JJ Li-) EH O U > tH — • Jj UJ T J P X3i XI — TTJl — > C fl-H + X i ro d XI 4J XI — + Q. U• 0) CCQfJ QJ 3 — fl O xt x i ro xt • x t rJ • E Oi ll Xt O 3 4-1 4 ) -»roUU JJ XI 4 1 d+ d 01 C • o 0) GUJ01tnrt:rt;4J4-l4Jri:rH —C0XIE •4TJ 0 1 - Xt • - • 2 XI " Q d o 3 3 Xl • TJ 4-1 QJ o TCf > rl 4J3 l A O to T J C § S N C n X ) r t ! 4J4-1000 < O O r H r H r H j "j l— Xt TJ d TJ TJ -1 4-r1d d d d d CQ TJ — o Ero-n B • ti o —0CJ1 4o ro • — X i • • H H 0 1 ffl ffl u<! xt 4 1 ro q TJ o • O rH CQ rtlXlTJCJtotn 4 > 4 i LT) 4 -1 TJ CQ Xl E tn • SJ > ll >ll - H• 4-tnJ OJ C • d d X cn o TJ O —1 X ocQ -TJTJTJ < < < d O A cn — d + O U J CCJ TJ d •rl X N n p -1 SJ O4-) JJ ITS O < rt! • • • P H A — 0 0 d cn c • >4-1 —A E >i • 01 -rl . 4 II <<-HTJoiog>4-i 014-1 - c- r H • O• JJoj oi oi >r ioO t— n O > 1 4J 4J tn UJ jj Xl XI 4-1 Jj UJ TJ (OCX 0 0 4Joi4j u 4tnJ — 4 -1 CQ• 0 ro -H 0) X ! XI O OSJJ 4O1 O4-> >II >II ll ll ll tn TJ oi 3 — TJ 01 C J J d J j O H 2 2 4 J H r H . rt| rd rH UJ rH -)• 4-) UJ XI O rd TJ CUJfJr-H <<<< ai 4 cn — CQ • UJ 3 - H r H d a r f r . ; . • 01 rt! a UJ XI d • rO • ujcncn«ri*r,4-J4-'4-i • IH TJ 4-1 2 d oujrji.HgS-H>Tt4-iCQ 0 3 XI - X >— XI 0) O • E E)TJTJT )TJTJTJ 0 C 3 4-)4-IOOOJJ ll 0)01 X JJ O X • XI -H XI > C 4-1 tn .OJCQtQcQtQCQCQCQCQCQ ro •roro tn 0roXl 0 0 4->xirt:rt: o O H H H O J + Q • O 01 JH — 4-1 JJ CQ >i SH SH XI cnX! • • H H (i » oi 4J <!m C Xt 4 1 Xt X>CQCQCQCQCQCQCQCQCQ CQ E > CO Xt E tn Xt xl U O UH CQ CJ — XI TJ 0) 01 01 £ 4 1 4 J UJ rt! U (0 4-1 4 1 TJ tn A II 3 • X i d E < >TiTJ <<< 3 O 3 tn Xl > Uo —(J > > . E4J4J4J4J4J4J4J4J4J 3 4OJ -1 Eoi 3 rH 1—1 QJ 3 UJ J •J J rJO cQOIOJQlQJQlOlOiaiOIQ) rH C CQ O < < • • - O HOfl— O EH S3 OJJ4-1 ro > CQ 01 UJ Jj r J CJ i ^ u•t — n O O 0)4-1 J] k H H H H H H H H H H O d jj M0icn4J• d• r J• o -i QJi juOr O •rl OJ - H c 4 -11 O 4 -1o 4 13X l U J drH • O O XX I-J UJ rO 0 • d Ol Kt! <irj.HHd33cpJliJ • • C 4 x ro 3 tn - H 1 4-> 4-1 UJ U i-H 0 + 4-Jo > XI 3 4-1 tJ 4 -11 3UJ D l T t g g - H > TJ > CQ 0) 4-1 UJ O 4 >, 4-U 0 1 rH4-J O > U 0 ) flrH V cn X • X4-1 I QlfflCQCQCQCQCQCQCQCQ tn O rO X) 0 1 01 0) >1 01 .>CQCQCQCQCacacacacQ >i SJ IJ XI >iEH CQ 3 D rH A — X O > 0 1 C Q t n 4-t xt 4-1 > cn Ql) 0JJ 1 0 ) ^ ro ^ 3rd tn rHro 0 < 4-1 TJ <4J E4J4-)4->4-l4-l4-l4-!4-l4-) £ro 3 4J CJ CO 4-1 01 TJ • >Q)Q)Q)QlQIOJQlQlQ)a) u j QI 0) UJ rH > B Tj O rH (0 CnCQ •rHrHrHrHrHr-lrHrHrHi-l H TJ rO TJ tn - H a> 01CQ • TJ >i • CQ > EH tn ro CQ CQ CJ CQ CQ 3 CQ CQ 01 QJ CQ CQ 01 UJ - H 4 > 4 1 0 1 xi o 0) 3Tl 01  2 gn  O  u  1  u  V.  c  ro  + d (0 E m to  f  l  J  >  II  o fl o  II TH O II  Ql d  d o JJ tn tn  CD TJ  -1 Ql 01 4 0 )  d <  0) • 4J  1  ro ro  ro  ro  bit  XI tn Ai -H u X! < 0 4-i X i + + + •».  UJ  < h  d  (0  SJ  0JJ 1  •  QJ  — O  Xt Xl >  — < Co  rj  oV  ro ro  c  4 tn1  OJ O  —  Ql UJ 3 Xt  0  X -f  rt—  H to ^  JJ  >l 01 3  0) Xt 4-i d i 3 4OJ o tn  fl  d  4-1 X(0!  IJ  >  CJ  u o (C 3  X >, 4J tn3 4-1 Xt CJ 01 4-> CJ 01 tn  JJ  ro  tn  d ft) 0 Q) -H X  +  o VD  oi  d (0 E CQ CQ +  JJ  cfi  Qi tn Dl 3 O Xt E o tn -C TJ SJ Q> (tJ 4- 3 QI  01  4oJ  4OJ  01  X!  tn  < rt CO U M O >  3 TJ  OJ  C 3 4-1 O -rJ u Xi  EH CO td U  SJ  o  0)  <-)  sy  JH CJ  4 d-1  3 O 4J -H  O Xt X >i  JJ  0 V 0 d  ai  4-i 6V 3 4 3 01-1 Xt xt xt 01 4-1 OJ OJ Xl JJ  tn  U 01 X3I 4J  EJ  d 4 -1 — 01 O  >  — d to • • d  CO rj — — rt! O JH QJ d 01 rt! d — UJ — JH E - 4J SH 3 JH 0 ) < - UcnJ 0 Q X) J UXt J U0 J) UJ D<UJ XI UJ JH 3 TJ 3  3  rt XI O Ol Xl —X! X! tu u-, xt XI X! XI UJ Xt Xt XI TJ X 3 T3 • TJ — E - Xt — TJ — Xi - XiXtTJXlXl - Xt XI (0 XI • -a • • - z  d Q 4-l1 3 0 01 u X -  4-1 Jj 4-> CJ OJ U J tfl U3J UQl  JH  Ql  3 Xl Xt Xl TJ  0 d d IJ 01  0 d d  O V • 0— d 0 4-1 d tn 4dtnJ CQJH• — OJ CQ 4-1 • d  c  & Xt 4-1 XI 01 xt Ql CQ JH 4 -> — >1 CJ 01 TJ TJ O 4 J Ol 0 d fl d Jj 4 J — JH 3 JJ d CQ 01 d • E -H Ql O Xt rJ 01 3 • d J 4d-1 U uj 3 d O JH 1 O 0 4 d • Xt 1 4 1 >i — tn > d A 3 3 D 3 Xi 4 1 O Q i tn 1 1 01 0 01 ro 0 Xi XJ E T(0 O J d -H a S • — O 11 — O O 01 3 xi Xi Xi x•d4-1 O JH II II . 4J to d O O U JH td — >i Dl rCHJ •C 01 d 01 — Xi > XI C Q d • E 0 4-i d 11 UH CQ CQ H E 4-1 X N 4 1 O >4-1 3 0 XI — d 01 01Ol - H 01 ro d • X X CQ > XI — M tn 4J. JJ • 0 — > E— 01 - H TJ M H C• fl-H 6> O -J -IIH IITl II II 4 -t1n d 4J 4J CQ XI XI + d QJ-H CJ CQ • d JH 01 4Oi 4 O + xi ro JJ U J fl d 401J CQ • CQ S X! CQ rj CQ CQ CQ — Xt rH — 4 1 Di 0II 4 1 — XI 4 J O J 3 — 3 4 1 d a> — CQ CQ JHO Xt• II1 O 01 41 Q> cn cncQCQiO -i»-i4-icQrH 0 • ro UH xt O • cn C — O 0 3 TJ SH 4Cuj CQ -1 3 4J 4-1 0 0 • 11 d § ti "J3X1 Xt d TJ TJ — >1 — A O d > • E TJ UJ ai dC 4J 0c cn Xi CQ CQ O O01 rtH H — d d m XtTJ d-TJ ro 0 d N O — O ro • n tr nH QJ > CQ rd TJ JJ O d XI • r H r H 01 JH O . • CQ CQ XI Tl 0) 01 tn • 4-1 rCHJ •d 4Jcn —0 - H tn T J 4-1 4-1 LTl 4J TJ CQ xi 4J • ro rO rH tn - H fl d d x 0 CQ • TJ T J T J CQ CQ CQ d O A tn Xt E tn X lJ H TJ c — d JJ UJ 3 d U d 01 401J •>4-1 —A E JH ro O CQ CQ JJ • - 3 rH fl— 0 0 TJ O — 4J X O 4J d O •H T J Ol 1Ol > c4n-1 >, .d x QUJ i 3xt—0 •T J Q) 4J • C • • QI >i 0 cn 0 O ro >, 4J 4J JH D'Xi 4 J 3 rH —A ro 1 11 ro O O u ro u — O 4 1 • 4 J 01 4 J • r H O j 0 > 01 uj jj xi XI >II > II 0) CQ d JH -n Qi XI O JJ rH 4J 4-1 UJ Xt d TJ TJ -1rl 1 1 • CQ U 4J d JH O - H 2 2 4 CQ CO CQ CQ — CQ d O Ol X * • 01 • u 0) 01 . 3 Xt • rd TJ . U H *d rH U H 1—1 d 4J 01 oi xt > d • CQ d X id • XI CQ CQ 4J -1 JJ• llrH TJ> — > TJ 4J CQ 0 ) TJ TJ Tj 4-14-1 U3J r H 4 1 O 40-1 40 • E 4 . . . . E TJ TJ TJ 4 XJ u Xt 4-1 X -1 H O. QiCQCQCQCQCQCQCQCQCQ rd 01 4-1 JH d 3 >i 0-1 4 0-1 H H O J JH O cn • XI - H Xt 0E —Xi tn 4-1 X 01 H 01 CQ Xt 4Jtn cn 01 01 > QJ JH — 4 >i >, 0 rU d Xt Xt U r -1 CQ L/1 CCQQ E• O 4J -O 1 X >CQCQCQCGCQCQCQCQCQ UJJJ CCQQ 3 >i 01 01 01 tn 4d >1 > ^ D Xi XI C Q ro JJ JH xt rjj — 4J 4dJ UH • rd 4J O CQ c3 CQ CQ CQ 3 O A 11 3 • n tn CQ tn tn tn UJ jj > XI . g 4-1 4J 4J 4J 4 -1 4-1 4-1 4J 4J 3 4 1 4 1 TJ 0 ) JH SJ u CQ CQ JJ . - O rJ fl— d CQ C Q 01 01 O J O J O J Q J "H Q l > 01 01 01 01 rH 01 Xl 01 3 U H r01H JH• 3 >i 03 rH ai >, u tn O H O rd Ql 0 0d > C Q XlrHUJrH Ql4-1XI CQ Jj rH rHrH rH CJ -rl roTJQltn3- HUJ r H C J 4 J U J r H 4 1 01 0 r o • — d QI cn 3 rH OJ4-1rl rH x CQ rH • O O U 4J 0) tn 4-1 3 <0 4J d 3 • U 3 tn - H CQ c O OJ 4-1 • 01 01 d d rd >i >, U xt U JH 01 X rJH d 0 > TJ > CQ Qi. 4-C1 4-1 4J 3 rd O rd Xt 4 1 4 J 4 1 01 G ffl H H JH JH XI O O 3 >1 >1 4-> u 01 u CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ ro — cn cn TJ 4-1 4J > 0 r3 D Sh CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ JH >IT) Tl >I 0)tnXi cn) 3 CQ rQ 3 rH o >i UHroTJTJrdQi3UJ 01 CQ 0) Ql Ql D co J 01 O4 O 4J * J 4-J 4-1 4-1 4-1 4J rHroro3 T J tn - H 0) rHcn >JH r3 H JH 0) 0)01OJ OJ Q) 0)UJ 0) rH 0) 4J 01 OJ • CO 01 TJ H TJ ro CQ >i C Q CJ TJ > CQ CQ 01 CQ cd 3 TJ CQ CQ cd Tj ai rd 3 ; *  — JJ JJ 01 01 UJ  (0  01 TJ > XI xi >1  O d  i  •8-  1  ro  ro roro ro  1  ro ro  ro ro  4-1 0)  CQ to & CQ  4J 0)  79  9 to >  CQ* a to  p  s  X  cd 2 Q CQ  to  U  u  2 Q  ffl  X,  1  ro ro  !=> CQ  9 >  1  ro  < to  <  s  fl 0 0  CQ  TJ  d 01  - ^  -  -  tn 0 0) 0  JH  - - fl  H  Appendix A  i < O — 4-J rHrt!O Dl UH — O CO < rH — O < T J. C— • <*J T ITJt < NO • Q) ,fdr , CO  < *J •uo < >, O H  • m < TJ — TJ  3 > < o o : . 4JHH O » m  j | j; H oi < < i E- — • • _M <  •  CNCN  CQ CQ  3 JH u-i Xt JH 3 UH in r-j Xt u-i -o u-i UH CQ DP JH UJ u-i 3UH • CQ CQ 3 3 3 UH — Xt D l X t X i X l CQ UH Xt Xt XI CQ T J C UH  JH 01 aa OJ Qi E' XI — QJ TJ CJ XI 3 U CJ Tt TJ Xt itJ 3 OlTl -<H TJ — — QJ <tJ £ xt a x i TJ — u — z rd-H X X r — I 01 4-1 4-1 x i - H Tt xt z a Q) UH XI X l TJ JH Tt • < ETJ 3 O 4-1 4-> J-> C Xlrt>,E •TXtJ XI rH O X l QJ QJ >, l Ql 4-J ffl • • 10 • 4JT J rH rHU J rH Tt C O T) H ^ 0 ) r H -H Tt > | H Ql TtriQl Ci at01UH ID UH ft! ID C O 4-) (0 - H Tl - H TJ s? rH tj fd fd rd 3 o  O ov • a — — d 0 O 4> C ri cn ri c <C 4J 4J . CO CO JH — — Ql <• <•! ri4J JH JH 3 01 at O -1 4-1 0 o 4 A c ri • 3 3 0< 0 0 0) O CJ CJ In C X CQ e X 4-1 4-1 CQ CQ CQ CQ E CQ CQ O <! JH E T J UH JH o a at JH rd H i-i UH O 4-1 ri 3 rH A O O — rd u 4> - O SH Uri4 X rd • XIJCQ 4-1 SH C 3 > 1 -1 4-t 01 CCJ CO CQ 4 3 CQ Xl CD 3D CO — A3 C QJrt! fd 3 CO QJ JH at U -H H fd fd CD 0) 3 CO 4C-1 Ql « >i 3 rd 0 3 01 u rd >!ro 0* Ql 3 JH CQ CQ  —  0) N  II  4oJ  01  <!  0)  >i  ra 3 ra  iH  ai CQ  CQ cd CQ UH  3  3 — Xt tn  Ot Xt 01 —u Qt 3  XIUH > u Xt UH JH > 3  1  •H 01 — Xt DlXt rt! CN CNco UH oi Xt Xt JH UH Cn > - H > 3 3 — XI Xt H Xt Xt Xt JH > > Xt >,2  TJ Tl — JH Tl 2 Tl • « rd  • II —  CN ~ -  2 «! a JJ E O CQ • rH CQ Tl4-at< 4-i 4-i 4-i 4> CQ COnH —Tt CQ — CJ JJ Oi oi Ot at < N3 rfd U •—I •—I rH '  JH + 0) — JH UH JH UH 01 0) — 3"-< UH JH XtUH UH Q l 3 UH UH XI l X>t X3 — Xt rt! XI 3 at > 4O-J T Xt 4o-J — D i —J XI rt! — TJ 2 4J — O l Tt • H rt! — Oi — 01 01 O — 4-i JH g <! E 4-i rt! Tt 2 < rH < 0 Xt • . 01 4-J rH -4-t rH rHrt!O rl § CN E — O 01 —. TJ 01 CN Jj' CD 4-J H XI ' rt! rH — — < TJ 1) 01 — O 01 4 » U H — rtJrH rt! 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XX ra 3 4J • > > x t r a >-ag>iNHX U 010)— TJ Xira>iS"-HOl4-t4-) TJ SH TJ •asra-HXX COo E O CQ • . ra • 4 -1 rH CO xi X l CO — Qi • rH CQ OId TJ H H - H CO 0 ) U H > > H O & 33i X ra rtjNora • --H ra • j - i3Q i u H X tX! x i 4-» CQ C O — 4 t TJ ri 0 1 C 0 1 TJ 3 r C W • -H 4 1 T J -rt r H 01 Tf CQ rt| — QlN H C D (d-HTJ-HTJ >Xl4J4J01 4-1 >l 0101 OJTJCcitCQt'DXlH-iiJ C O 4> Xr 4->>>>>>XlXl010i >t atrH U UH IH 4-1ra-HTJ-HTJXlXlOJ 0ra 1 0 > H H ra TJ • - H ra •H 3 ra TJ rH rH oi 4-1 ri uQt UH COT JTJJ01 1 1 -1 1H 4-1 4-J3 rH TJ 0 OX1TJ Ql4-l4-l4->4-l4-l4-! 3 rHTJ >1tH ra H Q4 IO i a4 iQ l Q4 J O l4 UrH-HTJ 4-1 >XlTJJHQ1010)0t0JQtUH TJ • H 3 ra CJrHrHrHrHrHrH-H 01 • TJraU>-ir-t^r~^f-\ -i'Hrara CO ITJUH ra > UH ra CN O XX irH CQ 3 TJ >i ii > lt S CQ u-i rH TJ o • > O 3 TJ TJ 3C C CQ ra ra rHra rH >1 • CQ UH C -H ra ra ra fi 01 QI 3 4-1 UH at 0) ra 01 01  JH 0) — + JH 0) 3 UH TH Xt UH Xt 3 > Xt — Xt 0) i >- tJ — D o rt! — TJ 2CO 4O > - — 4rt! -rl Sa -J H E 4-1 rHrt!O Xt • rt! •H 01 4-1 rH • 4-1 CN E — o CO — TJ 01 -H rtJrH < TJ OJ rH .C0<rt!4-> (dTJ JH rH T J — -4-10 >> OJ - Tjrt!>,OrH II II U H — ra-idrHoi CQ UHrt! •CDrHCO H H C HQ 34J 4-1 TJ 01 —rt!I I - XtO OOTJrt!* XtrH i-H ri ' • CN rHrtJrt! JHo >CD Ol-CQrHE -4-14-1 — • -H C Q 2 a — 00 0) VrtJ CQCII<E><rHrH CQ - H — S • • 4.) C O co — CN I I • U -CQCQO 3 H Z —CQOiCQCQEHrtJrt! XJ -g SHCQUHCQIIIHOI • • X >I UH UH  1  1  rt!  UH — UH in  l  Q)  80  If  U H — 3— SH II rtJZS UH j j at — • OCQ 30lXtaiUHSHCNEE H — X|UH>UHUH0)2 . •  — 4-i CQ < 4-1-  xt JH  2 2  c -rt JH 01 Jj 4 -1 01 c  cn OJNSn>303Xt XIUH—U4HECQCQ H3UHacQCQ i—Oi — co < ! - H Q) — Xt D i X t X t 3 — .OlUHOlXITlXt>XlCQTJri rt! <N CN UH UH O I > - H > — XI C Q TJ id 3U • I1233TJ— JH — 2>— I D E xt ra < N ~ < X l X l - H T J X t 2 a — 01 - • xt a . 2 < 23- X t Xt Jn TJ • a•ICJ-H4J4J S >i N X X> i <4-» >>Xtra>lE XI> s• H o cQ CQ o ra TJ .- .HrHa -.H4 C-Oi H0 )t Uo H x i>x>t •riCOo CQ 01 — 4J TJCulriQlT53 x : 4-i CQ — QI 0>ra-HTJ-HTJ>Xl4-l4-lC O 4-1 > > > > X I X> I H 01 0 >l otrH T J rt! • - HN H 4 - ) >ra H1 ra riQI01TJOl4-)4-l4-l4J4J4J 3 rH TJ rauuHTJJ-ioioiataiQiQiuH H - H Tt rauH ra m o XJ 1 •>xt o1 > C C Q Q- HUH ri• C 4-1 UH 0)-ri l  -H  Appendix A  *  + + + +  01 x:  4-1  4-1  3 TJ  CO  TJ Q) 4J rd  tn  SJ  tn 3 o fli • C CQ  +  QI  Cn tn o 3 E -Q o x: TJ  XI rd  E CQ CQ  in rO >  m  S-i  + in  +  o  Dl  O >  cn  rt o  UJ  PH  cn 0J  2  Qi  tn TJ rd 0 OJ •H x:  4J  rd  o G  *  0 ro 3 4-) 0) x; c 4J rd X! U  fi  +  ro  tn rO  o  4-1  Ck o o  tn  + Q  fi cn  S-i  cu u Xi  CQ 4-1 o  JH OJ  X! 4J cd  tn  u  2  *  a  s cn u O OJ  o c c 4-> tn  u OG xi  cn •H u x i rd 4-> X !  U-l  + + +  TJ  OJ  fi QJ  *  a  2  o 0  +  X E-<  CJ S  0)  fH G rd E CQ CQ VD II  o  CN II  rH rH CQ • CQ CQ OJ £ 0 O CO 4J  fi fi cn cn u  4-1  V  a fi> o e O CO  4-> 4J TJ Q) OJ OJ TJ rH (0  o  II CQ  §JH O  o 4-1  cq s  cn a-—CO i rH A CQ TJ 4-1 01 TJ o cO  E-  CO  0>  CO  —  _  01 TJ > Xl  — Jj  >  O  c  4->  >  fi Xt  CO  W  . >  O)  —  O  c  +  c  S-H  4-1 >  • E a-H D) fi 01 u QJ cn 4-J 4-1 — O rd OJ C TJ  O G G  4J ~ cn 0  0 II  — O  fi  a fi  - H tn 3 4-1 N cn - H • to >i • VJ U J TJ — fO G X rH 4-1 4-1 01 3 — T J TJ 01 cn • U J Xt O rd TJ TJ — 01 U J X t fi • <tj > XI 0 3 Xt • X • XI --J CQ • O X) 4-1 XJ 4-1 Xt > C 4-1 CQ £ > Xt E cn Xt XI II fi • > O — > XI SJ D > O > CQ CO U J Jj rH CQ C •H 0* rH 4-1 -~4J r i O - H Z Z U - H H X C Q H o o x i rH UH rd oi C Q G - H r H G r t ! < ! G o a j 4 - i • • fi 4-1 4-1 4J UJ U rH 4-1 3 4 j f i U H C Q . H g g - r H > T J > C Q 01 4J g D1HH N O Xt 11 fd — tn 0 rd Xt cn X CO . > C Q C Q C Q C Q C Q C Q C Q C Q C Q JH > , T J TJ >IEJ rH V OJCQCQCQCQCQCQCQCQCQ — X O rd 4-1 4-1 JH>• X I oi 10 N CQ 4-> E 4 J 4 J 4 J 4 - I 4 J 4 - I 4 - I 4 - I 4 - I 3 4J • > o ) 0 ) 0 ) o i o j o > o > o i o i a ) U J rH oi ro id rH rH 01 3 QJ cn 3 U J cn rO TJ cn - H fl) fO >i • CQ > (0 CQ CQ OJ 3 tQ CQ tn CQ rd U J - H 0J —  G  x  m  a—fi  1  U Xt  <  SH  C —  X  U J — Jj X J JH013U JSH UJ uj XJ U J 3  *r, cn 014-1 f-t D — XJ UJ O-UJ  O  fi  CO  ^1  Z> — X  «J  <  rH  >1  >l  >1  >i t :ro>i  !*a 81  rt Q  OJ 4J C 3 O o •  JJ  >  ; 4J 4J 4J i . • QI 0) oi >, • 1—I rH rH 10 TJ  J •Tro to  E-, —  .  4- XI ro — Xt 4-i O • rO C | X J G fi CQ 4.) T l CQ tn  0  0  0) TJ TJ TJ T) TJ TJ  N -H  OJ 61 U  fi fi tn rd  C  II CO 3 O o u  — H Q Ll ll CQ cn • • • • — CQ CQ CQ JH <! CQ CQ CQ OJ •  0  cn - H rO  SJ  UJ  UJ 01 XX3I! UJ 3 XI X l TJ Xt XI E TJ O Ji cn U J -H  Xi rJ  G  T5  —a O 3  G  •  • TJ  G TJ 4-1 flj tn • — X rju jj x i OJ X I  ro X  Xt xt  UJ  JJXI  S cn x i rH fl) 3 U J cd T J tn - H  G  4-1 cn  TJ Tt  4J 01  >i 0 x t ro 0  >, JJ  1)  4-1 tn  G --H 01 4J > cn 4-) - n — O Oi 0 0) G  ui ri S 4-1 X HH Cn 4-1  CQ CQ  <; <;0) . cr 4fi_> <4_> <. u. tr• cn o rt x O J  cd ro 3 cn cn cn tn  S  4J Ql  o — JH V 0) — 4-1 4J O O C fi O rH 3 • 11 cn o fi u 4-1 CO 4-1 • X — o ps 4J CQ rH > >  E  >i N X • rd - H 4-1 4-i 4.1 rH cn X) XJ cn 01 U J > > 0) T J 3 ^ > XJ 4 J 4-1 > X i X ! 01 01  N  O 4-1  Xt — 1 0 > c  Ql  C 4-1 4-1 cn cn —  S  fi fi • E a fi fi 01  —  OJ TJ  TJ  0)  G ro  O  >, fO  1  CO SH  CQ CQ CQ CQ  CQ T J CQ T J  Xt TJ  O r-l r-\ r-{  rH > 01 • CQ CQ  i  J  3  XI XI  0) JH 4-1 Ql 0)  CQ fO • cnCd(0 4-10(0ro4-1 xTJi CQ  CQ o CQ II II —  Xt 3 > Xl — xt  4-1  UH  -  a—ro>,4-l 4J  4-J  Xi o 3 TJ  JJ OJ  U  0)  rtJj3TJ3Xl U J Ql OJ Xt — X ! XJ 3 SH Cn " J Xt Xt XJ X l Xt UH Xt XI XJ TJ Xt X 3 TJ • TJ — Xt EJ XI — TJ — XI TJ 0 -XtXi'UJXiXt - X I Xt (d Xt • Xt r J TJ • • • 2 Xl 1 c O JH Tl - H 2 < U 01 E TJ C < H 4-1 >1 — • 4-1 O rd - H E . cn ra 0 X fi 0 JH ll II • 4-1 rH fi CQ 4-1 3 n U J — — - H CO Ql • > O CQ CQ C 0) CN rH Tj G ii • U 0 JH 4-i 4-i - H TJ II II II 4-1 OJ CQ • C 0) O O II II to 4-1 CQ 0" • U J rH rH CQ CQ CQ — 0) fi U H to ro CQ CQ 4J i J 4J CQ fH 0 3 TJJH 4-)3 4J4J O O O - ll A O fi> tOXtCQCQOO H H H J l — O (0 • — X I - • rH rH tn tn co 01 cQ O • CQ CQ Xt TJ OJ co co 4-1 4J i n C X 0 CQ • TJ TJ TJ CQ CO CQ fi 0 A • 4-1 A JJ rO O CQ CQ . • . 3 rH _ E fl) 4-1 • fi • • JH OJ N 0 cn O c > 4J • O O 4-J CO 4-1 • r H O J ai u id u — 0 cn CQ fiSH G J H O - H 2 2 4-1 —1X. CQ• • — CQ G -H O 1 01 CQ fi O U J m - H E S - H > TJ 4-1 CQ 0) • E 4-1 rH U • • • • E JH O cn •OJCQCQCQCQCQCQCQCQCQ 01 JH — 4-J X t - C Q C Q C Q C Q C Q c a c a c a c Q JJ 4-1 UH CQ U 4J O UJ C • <0 • E 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-> 4-1 4-1 4-1 3 rH SJJH C Q O J O l O i f l l O ) OJ Ql Q> Ql 0) O H O 4J 4-1 XI 014-1 • u G 3 uj X rd 3 cn " H 4-1 JH 0 > 4-1 O 0) •Xt cn CQ 3 D rH CQ cn OJ OJ 01  fi  G  X!  OJ UH UH  fi fi 4-1 — cno — fi CQ • . fi JH 4-1 Qicn 4-1— fi CQ 3 •  >i CO  3 01 O CO  —  < O OH G  O  >  xt > xt — - XJ XJ CO X I • Xt rH - Xl • • • 2 Xt i > TJ -rH 2 5] -II TJ fi < E >i — E <0 - H 2 . ro o O > > • 4J rH G JH ll ll - H tn oi • OUH G0J TJG II CQCQ-rHTJ<N<N>4-l — Jj j j 4-1 > > 11 11 II CO O C D O O II 11 G u j ,_, ,_, CQCQCQCQ • UJC0t0CQCQ4-l4-l4-l - r H fi 3 4J4JOOOJH II 4JXJCQCQ O O Q> — COX! • • H H Dl D) Dl 4J ffl — X l TJ 0) cn cn G *-> CQ > T J T J CQCQCQ fi O A id O CQ CQ • • • O rH o JH 4J • G • • J H O J > I U C O O II01C04J • r H C N O J U r O O 3UH UH  +  OJ  0) u-i  fi  a xi — x i X I> P —x i TJ a c XI X i TJ XI XI  C  fi  JH  O  JH fi. ~JHU Hfi JH 0J W 4-1 01 XI OJ U J W cn U-I X ! U-l U-l M — U H XI U-4 3 E 0- fi > fi Xt CO JH X I — X I Xt 2 0) X i XI XI Xt  OJ  m  —  O V  XI X! XI  —  O M  JH  01  4-1 01 C0 4-> OJ 01 SH cn  M  tq u; u —  JH  P XI  U  cn 4-1 o  U  OJ X3! 4-1  EH  X >i 4-> CO  W  QJ  Xi 3 4-1 O  *  CO  OJ  u  +  fi  OJ  XJ  Q,  < rt  VD  *  P O  U  o  tn cu 0) TJ  4-1 -H t) X l  W W  to  0  CL)  JH  0) 4-1 fi  EH  O  (J  (J cn oi TJ cn  XJ  JH  01 w rH OJ  cn >i  ro ro  Appendix A  OJ —  XI U H XX 3 TtXt J j  •H  E  -H  r-l )H  OJ  — UH rH 3 . XX — XI CQ T J JJ O V rH 01 UH  —  — [ Q — 4-i C Q O — 4-) r H (fl O 0 1 4-1 H — 0 01 — C Q >-H C Q • 0 1 C O C Q 4-1 TJ — • 4J O T J C Q >1 O r H n J • <d r H 0 1 rH 01 —  XI  01 T J D l — T J 2 JH  X t • TJ TJ fd II  E  • 4-1 01 OJ TJ II  • CD  4-> T J 0 J — C Q O O TJ CQ •  01 —  C  •  CQ 4-> O  — CQ — 4-1 CQ O — 4-J 4-> r H CQ O -H 0 1 4-1 r H — — •B H C Q r OH 0 1 C Q r H — .01CQCQ4-1 r JH H TJ — • 4-1 O > O J - T J C Q N O r H UH— r d . f d r H C O U H C Q • O J H 01 — H 3 4 J 4-) T J O l — C Q X l O O O T J C Q XtrH H C • - < N "H  01 CQ CN  2 CQ CQ  ry  -<N  >co  CO-CQ-HZ  —  --HCQ2<  V C Q  4-icQ O C Q  CQ 4-> O  CM  CQ CQ TJ fd  ^O II  3  OJ  rd Q i  c  4-J  CO  CQ SH Q)  o  C  3 0 o U  A  c  X  4J 01 CQ CQ CQ  E  SH 0 OJ SH  C 3 0 U  4-J U  —  CQ  4-J  C oi  C CQ 4J • 01 JH — 01 CQ 4 - ) • C  U  U 01  C • 3 O ry Q l  > CO  U SH  V CQ  X CQ 4J CQ  .  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XI C Q rd C Q E UH UHfllX l T J XI T XI J C Q T J C 3 U 0 u (TJ 4-J 4-1 4-) • 3 3 C 0 T J - H T J — X t (0 o X t PH O C Q X l X t T J — *H — 2— 01 r d E 4-J 0 r H C Q X I X I - H T J X l S a >, N . • TJ TJ ? rd Xt Xt oi — TJTJJHTJ • <j S c d -H x X 0 01 — OJ X t r d > i 2 • r H 0 1 i-1 4 J rT J& o rtJ B) N o id • • r d - 4 J 0 ) UH O X l - H 0 4-) x ! 4 J TJ 3 PH • - H 4-1 T j H H - H CI XX oi to Q i T J C o j c a i T j X t 4-> 4-1 0 1 4 J rH 0 O U H r H 4 - > f d - H T J - H T J XI X l Q i O i > i r H h T l r H r H r d 01 4J •H 3 rd O X I T J OI4-I4J4-I4-I4-I 4-1 o TJ 3 r H T J 01 4.) r H - H T J >,H TJ >xiTJ-Hai0J0J0J0J 0 ) U H • T J I t U r H r H r H r H r H 01 (0 0 1 r d UH in i d >1-H CQ 3TJ rH TJ n? CQ UH fd r d 3 0) 3TJ H T J >i rd fd O J -H H  rH  JH  +  JH  UH JH UH 01 3 UH  Ol Ql  T J • -H 10 > H rauuHTJJHOJQJQJQlQlOJUH CCIJ01TJ014J4-14-14J4-14-1  m 01 1 a .  C  H  Ja  01  4-1  ra  QI  rauH 3 r H -H 3 ITJ U>-*--*<-\<-\r-irAT^  O Xl >. > XI  CQ  cQ UH  4J UH 0 1 -H  -H  Appendix A  3  X 2 -  -  QJ  S Xt"-' — * 3 IJ C Xt" OJ « J 0 oj Xt UJ  — TJ 1  JH  -r  3  OITJ  3X1 H T J Xt XI JJ T J XI T ) 3 Xt r O T J o xt • • — 2 II Xt T t H 2 < - T J T J C O 0 ) T l  UH UJ  o o II i t II o < ; 11 n <j < J J 4 J U O <:<! o o rH 4-1 4J r H r H CI o 0 01 cn rH rH s ~ I 01 01  H  10 II : — C <! 3 4J - 0  tO E  o  ro  2  —  Q t II  ox (  I I T J 4-i I  rO  1—I 1 — I H H H H r  0) X! 4J  4-1  JJ  0 ) —) J u j oi 3 U J X I UJ X I 3 > XI — X t 0) > Dl — Tt 2  +  UJ  CQ  4-1 O  • *J  xJ C O T l OJ rrj T j > > II I I  D  H CQ  0 0 01 m  01 H 2 • 3 CQ g CQ • CQ TJ CQ T J — rO  1 S  •flJ-H 4 - J • 4S- J >r ,H N0 ) XX t - H 01 O J UH > C 0J T J 3 • H T t > X l 4-1 > > Xt X t 0 1 O J QJ QJ UJ '" *™ ' 1  H  H • CQ CQ d (0 E  4.) XX t >  U H —UH r H 3 s XI — X 1 C Q T l l J O V r H 01  CQ  m  H  • CQ CO O CQ CQ S rH C Q C Q C Q II >H r j ) • .  H 1 - 1  OJ  - 0 tJ  Xt Xl 3 XI > X t > — Xt — 2 >  rJJH  CN  1  JJ  0)  UH  r H C Q — - < N• CQ 2 4J <  3 X l X l  > d  -H  JJ  O S  rH . CO C Q — C Q CQ —  J j 01  4-1  •Q>  01 d U J 01 3 U X t fO xt a  > X >l 01  -H  O 4J  rH CN N I I 2 - H  — C Q  JH  oi 3 UJ X l u j X I 3 TJ XI — X I 0) TJ Ol — T J 2  g  O O  CQ 4J  O  r toH C4 .Q1 rOH OJ XJH ) • — O C/l — . 4J C Q r H C Q T J 0 1 . COC QC Q4 J TJ0I T J — - 4 J O f t J T J T J C Q > i O r H II II CQ r O - r O r H O l r H CQ . Q l r H C n — M r H r H 4 - 1 T J 01 — C Q — s s 1 O O T J C Q r H r H d • • CN CQ CQ CO . C Qr H 2 — 4J4J 0J . - H C Q 2 < > C Q O O U J ffl C Q -C! H —I I Sa S • . C 4Q JO r0 H1 r0 H1 3 Xt l l • ( D S H — C Q O I C Q C Q M O I C Q C Q X! JHCQUHCQIIE--— • • TJ 01 I I UJ II — II C Q OJ C N UH — 3 — JH — - 2 2 C u j j - i X t J H O l J j O t a a - H JH 0) 3 0 J X 1 0 I U J f l J 2 S S X I "H T J "H «H "H < • • JH 4-1 01 d JH X I u n — UJ 3 UJ S C Q C Q UJ QJ 0 ) T J 3 0 J 3 X 1 3 • C Q C Q  QJ  C 4J CO A ~ O  d  d 4J 01  -  • U  CO —C O —Q JT J T J X JHt T« JJ > l S - r H C--H 0 4 - l 4X- Xl C Q N O r O • • fO - i J O J u j X t X t- H x: • - H 4-1 T J "H r H - H 01 T J 3 0 J 0 ) O i T J d O ) d Q J T t X t 4 - i 4 - i C O 4-1 >1 i - UH U H3r H 4 - <l 0 (fl - H T J - H T j X t XT t t r 0H J 01 r H ro 0 ) O X t T J O > 4 - l 4 - l 4 J 4 - J 4 - J 4 - J 3 r H >X1TJJHO)010)010JQIUJ rH-H • T J (0 U r H r H r H r H r H r H - H r O UH CQ C Q UH  rO 3 T t UH r H T t fO rO QJ - H 01  0 d  O U  u flj  0  TJ d (0  01 CQ  — C Q gg i McoU 4-i • 3 O C Q X t r H C Q X  a >  TJ 0) 4J CO •  01 —  fO 4J O 4-J  x: 4-J 01 4 - 1 QJ X ) C O 0 -) H 3 r H T J 4-1 rH-H T J ( 0 UJ flj 01  >l  — C Q  4-1  E  II - -  H  OJ UJ JH UJ UJ Q ) UJ 3 UJ 3 X t "J  -H  r H CQ  a. . —4J  2 B  4-J  01 CQ  cO  +  JH UJ UJ  J j a X I • —— CQ C Q JJ 4J O O rH rH 0] 01 — — CQ pq . • CM H 2  1  u j j —O J 3 Dl X t T t X t  XX l lT J OX IlT JXX tIC X Q T IJ X T J ->H T J — T J — J — JH — 2 — C J - r H T J X 1 2 a >  -ag  I C dQ — 3 Xt TJrO r O E xt . 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CQ rH CQ X t X J X J X J — XI - — X I OJ 4J 01 o P> — X l X t > ' X l - 2 — X t O J X O x i xXti — T• jXJ x j ^ a r a T>,XJ j-rH CQ ioJ V XJ 4-J V Xt X t XXtJ X—J TTJ J XJ• S 2 < rdN>X -)HNX4!J XI - r01 H CO UJ co XI> rH J O >• ,<r SE roH X—t > > Xt• rd• (0 • 4J tj o i X—l T J T J XXJ JT C ' 0 rH 1 t O Uto H o rd — o r a • - ra - 4 J T J - - H P tn to- — O ( O T J r H r H H f J l T j H 3 <u *-i TJGoidoi>x:xjrH 4-1 2014-1 TJ-HH-H (IITJXX Pi <j CQ to a N o>TJdaic<uxi4-Jxi >,rH XJ 2 M QJC0-HTJ-HT)X|4JXlrH 4J rfl -H TJ QJ XI TJ X I — to rH rO g - to rHrH 4-l>>>>>Xl XJCO — UJ XJ rd 0 J 4 J 4 J 4 J 4 J 4 - J 4 - > r 0) H > u o CQUJXJ 0 l 4 J 4 J 4 J 4 J 4 J 4 J r H CQ3Tjrja>OiOi0)0IOi-HUH 4J .pTJ-HOIOlOlOlOlflJ-rHUj CQ rH • X I ra U r H r H r H r H r H r H U J - H tn CQ 0) XI O X! >irH U Xt (0 -H XI - "H II -H > O TJ D XI o rH TJTJ > OJ (0 (0 fl) UJ CO UJ - H 4J -JH oj  tJ JH  2  a  O  0 Sa Oio oi Oi0 2 Di -H  1  01  d o TJ  O 01 1  JH  OJ JH  1  JH  tn O - 4-1  — Tt CQTJ • (0 tn >i  01  0 Tj D  1  - 4-)  O TJ D  C  CQ D* 4-J OJ  0) O  OJ d  C0)N  rH O II CJ  O  d o TJ D 01 1  1  4J H O J >  TJ  01  JH OJ 4-1 d P  rt CQ  0)  d C 0 TJ0  "3*  < CQ  JH 0) 4J d P o rH (J II • — D CQ 01  1  X  0)  < CQ  — <  CO  4J o — — rH — CQ CQ CO — CQ 4J 4J - CQ 4J O  —  E— — CO • (N 2 TJ-H>,2g>"H d H — E -H UH II UH UH UJ —  -  • CN S|  CQ  cn  2  X OJ — 4J 4J TJ OJ 0J TJ rH rH rrj  >, (0  >  -  •H v.D  01  XI  >i ra  a  01  •  01 >  o  Dl TJ  C J-4 JH 4J OJ OJ• OJ Di4-» d TJ d P p O JH UO •U XI  Tj 4J 4J Tj 01 01 (0 rH rH  QJco  o c  — <! CQ O CQ •  -H CQ n CQ 4-> u o O rH rH tn tn 4-1  O  jJ -H J-l U XJ TJ XJ O S A —  01  0 -2  01  —  JH  O  O rH 4J rH 01  1  • 01  ro  A tn  II — — CQ CQ 4J  JH IIt-i—II OJ 4C-> O O d 3 d• OJ • O U OJ Dl • DiTJ X TJ -H  0) Dl  X DlTj 4J Tj -H >-H SH XI Xl -  Dn'-H  CQ  2 a E  1  TJ  VD  JH OJIJ XJ - 4J  O  — u rt! • CQ 0  0  — rH — CQ CQ 01 — CQ i J 4J - CQ 4J O  JH — O  OJ — Dirt!  - 4J -H d < 3 S  CQ  i  C  O K  o H D) o> CO rH 0)  fl)  Appendix A  JH 3 U H 3 — Q > Xt UH Xt <D U H Xl 3 Xt N CJHI 3un>XtXiXi >Xi •H o un Xt — Xt — Ut3H un XI XI > XI 3X1X1 — XI  ,  Xi  1  L>  XI XI > -XI • XI XI — TJXI XI XI XIXt • > > xtro>, O lU Tt -r-t r-l -H JJ COTt(ttc-Hat c T J -H H^>>>> (0 Tj CU 4- 4-J 4 - 4-J TJ JH CI O J OJ OJ fd O *—I •—I i—i •—i 1  UH QJ UH  JH pun OJ Xl u-t . . •4 JH U HHXtXI3XIXtXI H OJ U Q U H TJ XI TJ •4 U H XI 3—XI — 3 3 XI XI TJXI a XI XI Xl — xa xi TJ • xt a xi — T t x t 2 3 TJ XI Tt • < Xt rtl >i2 3 rd • • rd j r f j - H in Tt a cu H 4J ID - r H Tj - - H -  4-) O J tn u WTJ-H 3 QJ > X! Xt TJ XI JJ Xi H I > xi xi l3TJJJCialQ>Q)CDQW d > U I  J  to ;  1  r-t X J  UH 01 U H JH 3 U H 3 0) Xt U H X) N JH unxt 3 Xt • r l 01 U H Xt Xt Xt tn U H 3 TJ Xt TJ UH UJ xt — Xt — 3 3 Xt Xt TJ Xl XI Xt XtXt —Xt XI XtTt • Xt • XI XI — TJ Xi Tj TJ Xt TJ • Xtrtt>, 3 X ^ 43rH o id • • rd a1 4J XtXt fdr H > c,4nr JH 4-J Tt - H r H • 01 Tt C 01 01 TJ O fd rH 4-1 fd -H TJ ' IUH S TJ rd TJ O J 4-> 4 - * 4-1 4-JJ QJ TJ JH 01 01 O XI —  OJ  rH  5 -  (0 UHHHH.  JH O 3 TJ  4->  rH  rH  cd <d 3 «  TJ fd ^  rd fd  3  n  TJ-H T«J 3fd  85  tq  — o  H  -  H  Appendix A * + + 01 X! 4-J  4-> rd  +  TJ  QJ  4-1 ro u o  01  .4-1  -H rH—  td  SH 3 OJXI UH X l U H J  un 3 XI 01 - H Tl UJXIXIUH QH 3 X l X l U J SH 3 J X I X I > 3 01-H • > X I > — Xt UH II xJ — XJ — XI X i UH — x l  JnXt  S-i  Ql —  s  rH Xt  OJ  ft  XI  id 4-1 o 4J  u o id TJ H H H O l t J - H 3 O id -014-1 xJSQ)Cfl)>X!XtrH 4-1 2 N 0 1 C O - H r a . H r d X t 4 - J X t r H to >1-H Xl H H 4rd- l > > > > > X l 01 X>l f OU rd r-i ga . 01 o — UH XJ O J 4 - J 4 - ) 4 J 4 J 4 J 4 - l r H 3 Tf CQ3XJSJQ)Q)OJO)0)0)-HUJ H XJ 4J • X t fCJ CJ I—1 I—1 I—1 »—1 rH rH UJ -H rd rd CO >1-H Ol Xt LD u x t (0 3 TJ -ri > xt o rH TJ > UJ id id tn —  XJ C id - H C >, i d 2< E b ] • UJ 3 -H • -H rH g II B XI > 4-1 II 01 II — H X i "H O TJ rH f-" XI Dl i—1 SH II SH 0) II TJ 01 01 — QJ UH — OJ IJUHSHUHUHSHE:  — UH OJ UH 3 QJ - H SH3UH3X|UH  id  XJ  COUH  3TJX1TJ—XIUH—xJ  IIXtUHUHXt — X l — X l X t 3 X 1 T J — TJ 3 3 X t X t T J X l X l T J X l — <0 CQ X i X l X t X ! — XI - — X I 0) * 4J V Xt Xt TJ - X I - 2 >iX! N X O XtXi—TJXl2acdTJ-H4J rH — TJ TJ XI TJ • g B rH 01 XI OlXt X i r d ^ E - CUCOUHXI oro • - rd •4JTJ-H3 2QI4-I TJ'HrH-HC0T5x:X|rH < N QJTJC;OJCQ)X|4JX|rH E-HrH4->rd-HTj.Hrr)Xl Xlfd — co rd oi TJ CJ CQUHTJ Ol4-J4-J4-J4J4-J4-JrH •3TJSHQIQIQJQJOJ0J-HUH 01X1 rd UrHrHrHrHrHrHUH-H O Xt H Xt O TJ > 01 UH to  &  CQ  4->  01 UH  01 0)  cn cn ai u U cd  XI id  JH  01 4-1 C 01  *  u rd ft TJ Xt  <d > 01  3  Ol  33 rd ro  Q  rt  +  CQ  CQ  4-J SH  o 3 TJ CO  TJ C Ol  4-J  o o  rd  4-J  CO  TJ TJ rd (0  3  ft  E-  CO oi cn £ 3 XI  w E3 CQ  -H  4-J  3 rl 0 01 rl x : 4-1 CQ o CQ C CJ (0 ca  §  CQ  CQ W  8  +  a - -  i-  XJ 2  - > >XJ  a  CQ  4-J SH O 3 rH T J  1 U  CN U J XI "o '  fd T3  J-  ft Q 3 01 H 3 4. Xt UH || . c Xt «H — TJ Q Xt 3 X l TJ TJ XI — fd (. — Xt OJ • fl >iXi N X C ID TJ - H 4J T rH 01 XI X • OJ oi UH XI 4-J TJ - H 3 C CO TJ X ! Xt rH 401 Xt 4-1 X l rH 01 TJXI XJ rtJ >,r01 TJ U (0 4-J 4-1 rH 3 TJ O 01 01 "H UH H Tj 4-J *—I — * I UH - H fd fd 01 >irH rd oi 3 T J jg, o  ft  rd rd  86  2  • c C • H ro 0) II  CQ 0 C cJ fd E  rt CQ CQ s  4-1 Ql  01 OJ-H  c  4-J 4-J 4-1 Tj 01 01 0) TJ rH rH rH fd  s XJ  UH UH JH  < CQ n O II  UH UH 0) 01 TJ TJ  ft  —  3 xt XI Xt TJ — Xt Xt •  rt  • E IH CUE-TJ • OJ  II  2?  CQ CQ a a  JH  u o  += *  < CQ 4J CQ o CJ rH S to H -CQ o •  QJ  01 tn  X!  CQ CO CQ 4-J • - pa 4-i o ^ 4-1 O rH  I C ffi « , „ -H r H B II W 3 II 01 II — xt — TJ — JH H JH II JH Ol J H Xt OJ — oi U J II > UH JH UH u j _ UJ OJ u j 3 Jj q; 3 UJ 3 Xt QJ - H Xt UH Xt Xt UH XI 3 X t X t U H JH XI Xt Xt > 3 OJ TH . > Xt > — Xt UH || X J — Xt — X i X i UH — x J XI > X t X t X t 3 X 1 fd >Xl > 3 3X1 » XI XI > — Xt QJ X / XI XI — T J >iXt N 4-1 XI XI XI T J • rt rd > - H X ) rH 01 X i . . 4J 01 01 UH > H H - H 01 TJ - H 3 C01C0l>x!XtrH - H TJ - H TJ XI 4-1 Xt rH > > > > Xt Xt (0 01 > CJ H XJ QJ 4-14-J 4-J 4-J 4J 4-J rH 3 TJ J-l 01 01 01 01 01 01 - H UH (0 U r H  +  CQ B  JH  -C o o  to 2  0) JH SH O  y  CO  C  QI  §  to >-rH id O 3 TJ rH TJ 4J id id 01 r>|H rd 01 >i 01 TJ rd >i rH XJ rd rd rd  +  to id rd oi  £  01 C OJ o SH CJ  CQ  CO CJ 01  XI (0 Ol-H 0) JH 4-1 (0 C > JH OJ  4-J - H  Q)  &  u rd ft TJ Xt  o 4-1  3  QJ Dl X! C  4J CJ C Q)  CQ to  rd 4J o  +  Q W  JH  g Xo! 4J E  4J  UHOI QIXtUHXlXlUHSH DH UH N JH un xt 3 X t X t 3 ( U H 3 3.H0lUHXtXtXtTJXtuH|| .  OJ  (J rd  oi  a  END.T  4-J  -H E  xi tn 3 o Qi c Ql Dl O  XI  MAN=m bridg slotA 1 to  > -H Dl  D-  SH QJ >UJ  3 5  br EN  to  a  -H  3 - H 01 3 Xt 01 UH X l tN Xt UH UH XI XI > X I X t X t 3 X 1 cd ll>33XIXl—Xt • >Xt — • — X l X l > -XI • 2 — X t CU X CQ V X i X t — ' D X l S a > i X t N 4-J 4-i X l X ! XI TJ • § g rd > - H X i O — > > X l rd > , X ••-« mxt rHXi • • (0 • 4J 01 CO UH >  to jJ o  — TJ 2 — CQ CQ O — CQ • • C CQ • CN XJ • • H 2  01 C  • IIH 0 H1 EII — I ISU Xt 3 — Tj — 14 M x t SH II JH OJ H X) OJ — - 0) UH | | > II u j SH UJ UH — — u j oi u j 3 k c  O rH 01  to  in  ne ne  Xt  1  5;  O  QJ Dl Dl QJ O D14-I TJ -H CO rl £  BR o  —  SHXI Ol— UHOI U J N S J  m  rH  4-J• O rH to  4_J  -H E -H  0 — — rH — CQ CQ oi — pa 4-J 4-1 - CQ 4-1 o O 2 4-1 O rH  E — CQ — — CQ • O CQ • <N J-4 • H 2 OJ > i 2 < > w (0 <* B • **-»  JH  3 TJ  4J JH rd CU X! X!  lways  — TJ CQ O • C TJ tJH CO C  CQ  he ead  CQ i-i o — — rH — CQ PQ tn — CQ 4-J 4J - CQ 4J O 0 2 U O H rH 3 O rH tO CO B rH to -  Appendix A  —  4-1  fl O rH  rH <  T JJ « Trd TJ >>  4-J  -on  TJ tn TfOJTJOJ II II  < < — rH t <: tn  • s • -s TJ — s  -< < 4-1  -  < ~ ~  •J  r  S tx> a =c = 3 u un3 D Xi!J x-TJ 3 Xi rrj 5 —— oi< }X t TJT d«J£XJ Qt 3 XI XI -H TJ XI n; jj XI XI 0) TJ C oi aCxionoi oi >, H T J 5 O3 m nJ in TJ fd rd rd 3 tn 0)  II fN 2 — II -  TJ TJ  N-H  u-i  N  i-H  UH >  OJ JH —  • <  -H  J  0) -H H 4-J > >  Ql  4-1 JH  o >  87  -H  QJ  >  "rH  >  OJ  Z  CJ  OJ OJ UHZ UH — UH OJ  JH  <J  Z  UH  > H H  O T J 01 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-> 4-> HXJJHOIQJQJOJOIQIU  JH  <  —- OJ OJ  UH 0) <  >  • } •OI  OJ —  f  (JXJ rHX t ozj —S~E X >tXt3 < TJ q 3 xt — - X XIl *H > >•Xt— ErdTJE (tJ D S i X 4-iX -1 3 3 H00) —X IXIrjiX t-1*X> J TJ4ui trdtn-HXJ4-i X at 01 J> 3 3 3J -HTJTJ X T JtTX XI oi 3 X 2 > t xi 3 ( >X >I. X.lTjrrd a • 3 (d Tj rH TJ C flj Tt C —  •J  01  „ UH JH  -J  -4-14-1 : o o . > 4-1 r  <j < <  UH  UH OJ H UH > "H  •J  ! tn  OJ II UH ||  iw „  JH >  JJ  I Ol Ol  OJ <: •< - 4-1 4-1  o j >< rH4-i rHtn tn 3 • o - -  • — -H  II - H u Z d — c OJ a JH - H UH s M  i -.sis'!  H  tn  OJ  — o o  •  Ej  T TfOJJTJtn II  II  II  <  4-1  c; o o  II  0)  II  >  4-> 4-J ( OJ ;  3 X JJ —rtJ a 3 U X l3X tX )T D< X1TO X d. J I Joi —T Xt3301D Xtt rD I T J X t T J — i x * > < n Xt n tn J H X I XI OJ TJ d 4-i rd -H ci an — UH OJ  TJ TJ  UH  H  •  -H TJ  —  OJ  <d E  4J 4J  H  TJ-H H ' H <D T J --H T J J  HrOJHOIOlOlOJOJOJUH  t i u-iTJrd 3 njrd>i tn rH rd rd 3 tn rd rd l - HH TJ >irH  TJ TJ  Appendix A  Xl  3  d) > Cn—• 0 — 4 rH < < 01 4-> r- O t  ; S  O  H  rH < O CT 4J rH -Of)  TJ OJ rd TJ  x) to TJ OJ fd XJ TJ — TJ < .  II  —  3 O O  j >  i to co  -  II  XJ —  o  o  H TJ UH UH ui JH Xt UH• — u-i 3 14< OJ TJ 3 ai 3 X 1 ] UH — X t D l X l X i X XJ XI TJ .£ • H XJ — T * ~ 2 . 7  3 — JH - ^ JH fll I) XI OJ u j | -  H Xl  <  CN ( N  3 TJ  C  -TJ  4Jtn<;  xi a,  •i • • -> X X DUO  •> XI XI OJXJCdJfidi'dXlJ-ij-Jcnjj  < | N - H 4-» fd -i • -H fd d) co T J ai 4J u  iJ 4  rH -H XJ S r H rd u-i rd « 3 TJ rH XJ rd rd  ^ < <• - Ol CM  01 3 XI D l X l XI d) XTJl X l > xt a TJ C < bi > Xt S TJ cd I 3Tf ~ > — fd E -xtXi-HTJXiS — Ql • • >. N X X rd - H 4-i 4-> - H tn X l XI . rdTJ-H OIUH > > oi C oi ' TJ fl Xl 3 TJ H Tt OJ fd - H > X l 4-1 4-1 I 4J > > x t xt oi di : , ^ ^ ^ \ I Ql UH r3 rd U H H r  >>>  c  ii  fll || UH UH ~ 3 UH J H X I 3 0) X I . . H XJ  <  4J 4-J O O  • r [I — JH — g < < • • JH 01 JH — 01 UH Ql < CN CN  U § •0 JH XI UH —UH 3 UH CN § H 01 TJ 3 01 3 0 UH — X I D l X t Xt Xt H UH cii XI TJ XI T J XI S T J S 3 D i T J - H TJ 5 Xt TJ — JH — % — cu rd E j XI - H xJ XI 2 S td-H x 3 TJ rH T J XI fd >» • rH cn 4J i J • ro 4-> OJ UH XI XI TJ •' D) TJ 3 QJ Tj X l 4-1 4-1 TJ Xt XI OJ OJ !  g ——  4  3 u XI rd  -< <  4-1 T J oi — < O O TJ <  4-> tn tn  H  G  m • - E >,2 «  II  • E <  -  xJ <  - i-J u  3 <  TJ cn TJ oi rd TJ  >II > II  O  <  tn CN  I  ti x  • g  3 U XI fd XI X) XJ  a  I  >  tn >, fd 3 o  3  u  O  3  .  >  Xj  :  OJ «  -  3 —  3 E ll i  to *  1  JH II JH dl — E li XI 01 UH JH — H > UH UH fll < H XI  5 3 2 -  N JH > 3 OJ 3 - H OJ Xt D l X l tn UH o> x i TJ XI u j UH tin > C 3 3 TJ — • Xt Xt - H T J •J XI Xt r H T J . a 3 > > Xt fd > l S § O fd T J - H (0 • rH-H '4-1 TJ C 1) oi rd - H OJ G XJ - H •J rH 4-> > > > > H rd n T J oi 4 -J T J JH ( 01 01 01 3 fd U r -  TJ-H T J fd  rd  88  3  —  •  4  CN  2  XI UH CN ; XI 3 > XI  g  >, N x • «J -H 4-1 4-1 rH tO X l CO OJ UH > 01 TJ 3 TJ > XI 4-1 > XI XI 01  OJ OJ u  Appendix A  a OJ o  Ol  CO 1  3  01  U O MI-J u-i — 0) jQOH M O Ol > UJ 3 JJTJ — 3 X ! 0 1 -H TJ X ! X ! U UJJ XISj TJCO X>•! —>  ^ > 3 E- ~ ~ XI -  1  0II X>l  TJ'd § g CO g >>•*-> o g n cn  0  c  O  . o  O  ll  O II  o o > ll  O O O II  11  ||  —  II CQ II —  4-1  CQ O CQCQCQ-Ur-i  -H 11 -H a  oi  SJ  TJ JIHH i  01  cn to cq  CN  OJ  -H  II  -  X t T J tJ ll > X l  II — • U C Q C-1 Q -H 0 1 uj o 4 > >TJ c Ol O O II II -  C  O — II CQ —O1< rHCO 1 — I CQ cn  - cn cQ CQ  —  IIDJCQJJJJJJOW  1 4J 4j o O O -CQCQ 0 O H H r i  1*JUHH cn co cn 1 O O cn  i  0)  CQ ;<JS CQCQCQ • TJ ' g g CQ CQ • O » . • J-i >, Ol C -CQCQrHCNQiOnjTj •  • • OJ 01  0 1 Oi >i O „ U T J CO • — ri-Hr-i X CQ O JJ > XI T J > CQ  01 4J •  3 O OJ  JJ  3 3 OJ X3i CO u j — X J O i X l X l u j OJ X> XtTJ XI  uj 3 Xl Xt  (N 2 „ „ < g TJ C  -H 0) TJ U3J 3 OITJ-HTJTJ Xt Xt TJ — JJ — 2 — 0 1 . <0. XI XI -H TJ Xt 23 > | N TJ TJ i j TJ • < N  >i  3 TJ rH TJ fO IO CO 3  CI  E  O  3 u Xt rd XI  Xt rO N S g <C-H X X rd • • ro • . rH cn X ! Xt rH cn TJ 3 >, I flj-r ra TJ Xt  a  4-) 4-) 4> - OJ UJ U TJ -H : 01 1 rH O OJ TJ cn4-1 01 4J 43 J rH Tj 0 4-> 4-1 4 TfljJ IJJ1J rH40->).-J4JOJ rH OJ OJ -HTJ >,rJ TJ (XI XI 0 1 01rHra U rH ,J rO rO 1 3 TJ : rH TJ I O  to  4-J  C rH OJ w  ro co ;  0)  5^ O  3  JJ  Xt  <B  U  4-1  tt  cn cn SJ 3 XI Xt u cn  001 ) O  JJ  O-H  a  89  4J X ! 4J  Appendix A  0) OJ tn Cn TJ TJ  UJ Jj Xi Sj 0) ~ 3 QJ Xt 0) UJ )-| Xl UJ > UH UH OJ Xt «H — UH 3 U-l > 3 OJ 3 Xt UH  — Xt DiXi X! 3 01 Xt TJ Xt > Xt 0I>-H  cn o m xt u >- JH JH Xt HI Ll iJ TJ i 3 cn Xl i rH  J-l rH OJ <C  QJ  3 U-l  rrj TJ cn - H  i  JH  4-> (fl  QJ  x: x:  2  E  o x;  3 4->  c 01 oi c cn c oi O SH cj cn >, u 3 u N o (fl Xt (0 J H JH Xt 3 4J HJ TJ rH cn Xl (fl Q J 3 u-i  rH Jj  —  JH  OJ x:  I > tn - H 1 b o (fl 01 II g Cn< ( II TJ 4-J £ O  01 TJ Xl-H ^ g  90  CJ g 4J 4J 4J 4J dl - X JjrH rHrH rH  . QJ  M  rH  QJ Q| Q)  "  Appendix A  •9 3 XI 3 Tt XJ — Xl 01 TJ TJ  TJ to TJ O J  TJ TJ  fO Tj > > II  II  o  xJ CJ ro TJ  0)  >>  OJ  ro  CM << - 4J 4J —  TJ  <  < 4-> 4-1 rtj  J •O  — < — O O DXJ <: • <HH d ll • OJ > JJ to co  O O to to  J OJ  u-i 0) XI ) 2 3 3 DiTJ J g^^TJo E XJ Xl -H TJ «. — TJ TJ SH TJ  E  J rH 01 XI XI 0 Q) D TJ 3 3 J> XI 4-) 4-> > xt xt <u  : oi rj  UJ > >  N  CJ :t  XJ•  o  ro  ro •  TJ UJ3 -TJ Drog xi xi  XI X ! <3 — — d ro  n  UJ UJ  u  aro TJ  TJ  01  TJ  IJ j J TJ UJ UHHr  i  ro  UJ  rrj rrj  to 3 TJ >, r—i TJ ro ro ra 3 o  • 3 ra UHHHr  Xl  < OJ OJ  • JJ OJ u Tt : ; OJ OJ TJ j I rH -r4 tO d  xt TJ  • I  d  — xJ ro 01 ro g  • ro  TJ <  xi xt a  £  t :  J i-H -H  E-r  t0  xx  XJ J 3A  rQ  H Q)dQJ'6xi4J4Ji J T J - r J x t x t X t oi 0)i :ro ,  fl) XJ  TJ OJ  oi 4-i rH Tt CO rH -H TJ N r H  3  4J 4-1 4  ro uj ro ro t STJ :  U XI TJ JH Ql 0) i  3  XI 3 TJ Xt — Xt a) xt Ol —  to  ro  0 4-1 rH rtj O 01 4-1 rH - O 01  TJ Oi >  TJ>  2rH  II II -4-14-1 5 O O ) 01  0)  <—-  J  -H TJ XI  i  fi  01  II  Xt S  3 XI Xt  o  to  M SJ X l UJ H Ql TJ 30) 3 XJ 3 0 uj — x i Ui XI X l Xt J UJ ai XIT i XI T J X t E TJ 3 3 OiTJ 3 XI TJ -H TJ  < 4-i rH  rQ O  II -  X l S TJ ro s > - ro B 2 — oi • • 2 X X . (0 -H 4J 4J r-. tn XJ XJ  —  o  4J o  <; o  d • -H u II u  11  8,£ rHrtjO 0) 4J rH - O 01  •O  — <! o o . > 4J rH rH 0) 01  JJ — E < < UJ XJ3 —JJ Q J JJJrt! — O•J O•J 3 01 X! 0) UJ Q -i Jj XI UJ J QJ TJ 3 0) 3 X) 3 2 0 U H — XIOiXJ XJ Xt a J UJ OJ XJTJ XJ TJXt S TJ d 3 u 3 3 DITJ H TI — TI — TJ ro ra j XlTJ QIrog  a TJ d  3 > XI 4-1 4-1 > X l X l 0> 0)  E  UJ QJ 3 uj Xt UJ  rH < C CO 4J r- O t  a  xi  J J  UJ  3  JXtTJ I H xJ rfl  SJ 01  >. N (0 TJ -H r TJ d < OJro-H T Jn QJ UJ > > * 4J > > i D Tt 3  4J 4J  J XJ XJ OJ QJ 3  Xt UJ Xt 3 TJXt  11  —  UJ |  3 0) 3 X ! u 3 OiXlXt : TJ XJ > J ai X!  i i si > ! 3 TJ —  4 4J 4-1 C0 4-> d 0) d 0) 1 1 N rJ O ) H H Ifl HI 4-1 r j TJ m XI TJ 0) 4J 4J 4. 4 H - H T J >,rH XlTJ JJ a> oi <  - to  TJ 01 ro TJ 11 II  J - O  — . o - -  J  B 3 TJ d n E TJ ro  XJ 0)  - — rt! < 4J 4J O  . OJ rH  0)  - 3 — JJ XJ SJfl)I) XJ 0)  — CM Ol  3 Xt Xt  3  >,2  3  g rt: <  > - ro  2  TJ XI O  3  o  Cj  sua ja •a .a >  2  T j 01  U  xtaro 3  A  I  1  uj || -  UH jj xt SH i 3 QJ rQ OJ w Xl UJ > uj u XJ UJ — UJ ; J > 3 01 3 l) — X t O l X t XI 3 2 J QJ Xt TJ XJ > rQ a TJ d i 01 > - H > — A S TJ «J 2 >• — « g r, 3 3 TJ • X I X ) •r4TJ Xt 2 xt JJ xt • < E >i N f< X M XJ XJA . ro. ro> , g• • (fl -H 4J 4-1 4-1 rH 01 XJ Xt 2 > > 01 OJ UJ > > 0 Tt-H rH-H 01 TJ 3 TJ d OJ dTJ > XJ 4J 4J t i) ro -H TJ -H> x t)> xil-\ l-\oi oi1 : j > > > > n TJ O i I J 4j J T J JHI (4 i Q J OJ UJ ; 3 ro U r-  Z  2 3  ro  to  J0) H I-rJI U UH J £|| 3 - ;  i  3  UA  01  Xt  U .  0) ^  d  OJ OJ  IJ XI "J TJ UJ u •J JJ XJ UJ — uj ; Hfl)Xt 3 01 3x i x i a — 0 uj — x t OlXt d H UH CJ Xt TJ- XJ - ^TJ 3 U - T t (fl 3 3 OlTJ -H TJ xi j XI TJ — JJ — xi aro • X X J. a XJ TJ x t 2 1 4J 4J 01 J T) JH Tt -a XI Xt -H < Xt ro > , E o xt J 3 l) Ttxt4-1 4J 0)Xi4J 4 3 X l Xt  01  Ql >1 F 1 I 1  QJ  II  N JJ > 3 -H 0) — rQ UH Q) XJ — UJ uj O) !> S  2 5 0)  C  3 3 TJ — . XI XI -H TJ XJ X l SH TJ 5 > > A (fl  M  -H  3 O (0 TJ* -4-J TJ d 11 0) (0-H rH 4J > >  M H ro 0 TJ 01 4J 4J H xJ SH 0) 0)  r  (fl 0)  H TJ  >,rH  ro ro  91  OJ  UH —  uj  3  3 (0  o  O  rH rH  Appendix A  u 01 —  UJUJ3 uj!JOJ XI U 3J TJXlX) — Cn —J CP T XJ 2 3  XI +  <!  4o-J to  I II  o d 0 cn1  — — 4J 4J 14 JH  -H 4-1  mA  JH XI  TJ d rd o V  §  CQ  CQ CQ  JJ 01 JJ at d 3 3. O 3 rH U rH O ~ 0* < 0) <-ry JJ 01 O > O SH C Q O to O  4J  O II —-  I U 4J  - 4-» - 4-J  3 co co tn to co co — XJ — TJ >i >i >i >i >i >i co < Tt < TJ id (d(drordrdrd^>iCO • fd tn • co cn >irt >i 333333<d>. - ( r H r H r H r H r H 3 fd ro <o 3 n 3 rdrdrdrdrdrd-HS IttrH ItJ rd f0  -H  >SJ II  •JH0) c 3 O a D*  X  01 II U 11 — — O o d d • . 01 01 Dl DiTJ  CN TJ C fd  -TJ-H H1 XI Jj XSH -  O  x  4>-  4J4J  4J 4-1 4>- 4-1  4J  -UHH U>4-H1  o CQ  ZJ  o J3 H Xt CO o 0 4-J C O  o  ra XI E-  4J  TJ XJ to rd 3  OJ  rd  4-1  <  ra ra <. U QJ  2 rtoH <—uO •U a 2 - • • ry — 2 rt X cu O g SH CQ E Q tn QSH l < ! 0) OJ 01CO . — > H) < !• rQ JH rC UH rQ Jr>Hdi fd, J0 3 d rt r3H C rt Q o 3 > II 0 fd o3 rd >i X CJ u ^ • rd 3 X 1  g££ 4-1 —•4J 4J 4J  *  4.  1  u Cd O P  rt CQ  a o 0  TJ  u w  rt CQ tn tn QJ U O  a - - - JH 01 - - - a  +  x  JaH QI to TJ X! TJ ^ E  CO OJ  o + CN  SH  o • CQ d O CO 3 CJ XI rd to TJ xs 01 fd SH 3 O OJ 4-J xt to SuH to01 cn 3 01 Xt + TJ 01 to x!  4. -H 4J  o CO  1 rd  OCO J (J U H o o +  in  at  4-1  s a  4-1  O cn +  QJH l D) Ql  fd a O o  -H  g  JH 3 TJ  J>rH d  4d> -  4-1  CQ CO CQ  to ot Xt rd  *  •4 H-1  < — CQ 01 O CQ CQ• O i O H • SH TJ m JH ai — s 01 d JH < 2 Xt- O a E d 3 3 O  •H O I H-4J (U4J •H I — 4J  4=  U O  4-1  Xt - 2  C  4. +  Xt SH tn 3 0 at d ai Dl O E o X! OJ x:  TJ-H H JH h Xt  o  CQ rt! CQ CQ ai Di 4-J CQ • O • JH TJ SH cn cu r SJ Q < 2d d 3 3 3 0 2 O SOU — CJ • B cn < • D • X QJ CQ 2 CQ |  *  4 -1 rd at Dl TJ  s S — TJ (0  — O o c 4-J Xt c • • Q J AII 01 Dl L / l DiTJ  c0  4J  ra rd  0) cn TJ  PP  4J  H  Xt >  2  4-1 4-1  1  *  XI  TJ  O a)  4J  TJ Qt  2 B — CQ CQ  •HSJ  C 3 O u  4J  o  a  TJ JH XI  — • -H• 4-1  UJ JJ 4J  H  +  OJ x:  4 -J rd  O J Cn TJ  d QJ Cn TJ  Q)  X  1  *  o d  O -H A J-XI 4 — o  CQ CQ  TJ TJ (0  XI XI E -< < D <; < o o Ql UH •>1JHH CN • 0 CO CO 3 § 2*ra2 2 Xl XI TJ d — a <: <! Ufll H CJrt! ) JH C N C N SH 0Jj Ql d uj at (0 xi xi a — TJ XI S XJ d 3 CJ o X) iD 2 - 41 it E xi a TJ TJ u XI fd E id -H X X C O T af . r H C O 4-1 4-t 4C-iO QJ Tj 3 jj o X! 4-i Tj CUXI TJ XI XI QJ 4-J<U > CO1 r H o T J H H rd 0) to 3 r H TJ 4O-JJ 4O-1J U H >1tH rH-H id uj TJrd (0 3 Tl >• id rd TJ rd 3 CO  TJ d 10  SH Xt  SH XI  . 4J  II  Ql D) TJ  O c 01 cn Tl  >H £ Xl • rt< T j C O < U . Tj OJ O 10 T j C N r H rC HO  _.  o d  TJ c fd o A  U JH H  Q +Ui  xt  01 rH rd  + d 0)  X i-<  4 -1 d  2 CQ O 0) 0 d 0) Dl TJ XI SH OJ d OJ TJ  a o o  + w E  01  §  EH  r H JH CO U H 4-J 0 arHO 4-J t O 10 r H A CQ 4-J TJ 4O -1 r01H Ttfd  II  CQ  CQ r H U tj C N 11 o 0 11 a c V o • d o > • d o d d • r Hr H (0 fd OJ ii - E B E DiCQ at § 9 EII TJ 2 -H O (0 S Xt cn SH 01  UH  4J 4-1  4-OJ1  4-oi1 4-1atr4Q-1HJ TJfdXJ  CO UH  -S.2  3 XJ  XI 3 Xt 3 TJ Xt — Xl QJ TJ Di-  OJ >  ^ <  2  O  O ~  xJ tu fd xJ > >  - 2 2! O r H < a rH 01 • B < dl —  I  >  . - r H 2 I SH 2 < • C M S il — rt!  4J  -H  O  • O J r H %~ 4-i TJ oi — «C < O O o o x) < rH rH j • o oi ra ; CQ r H - -  O  . > 4J  OJ  — UH 2MJH>3CU3X|U.  3 -H 01 —X! DlXt Xt ; CNScn 4HQJXlTJXt>j:  II—UHUHDl>-H>—J  —  OJ  CN CN  CN §  JH  §  — Xt DlXt XI 4-J CN U H U H Ql Xt TJ Xt TJ 3 U XI E TJ d XI fd O 2 3 3 DiTJ -H TJ — r H a xt xiTJ — U — 2— QJ (0 S xi a • to B XI Xt H xJXt 2 g > i N • • J H TJ a s r d H X X TJ TJ Xl r d >ig •rH 01 . - . (0 4-J UH Xt Xl XJ i—I 01 TJ 3  i  •r? ^ 1  - — < 3 3TJ — r i — 2 t N 2 < -XlXt-HTJXl2a-3 4-tfNXlXtSHTJ ' S S I E C>2>>Xli0^iBjr. rd-H 4-i 4-i < C O E O r d T J - H r H - H t o 'rc H t O Xt Xt -—4-J QlrO-HTJ-HTJ TJ d QJ d OJ O J U H > > TJ 3 CN Z II t g a N r H 4 - l > > > > > > Xt S — 0 1 T J O J 4 J 4 J 4 - J 4xtxt - J 4 -OJ1 QJ 4 : rtJUHxJSHQlOlOJOIOIt Tt • 3 (d U H H H H H r d oi xt rd m O Xi u-i Xt O  U3HQIItJHXIu XtQl JH Xt U H xJ UH Xl UH —U. 01 XJ 3 QJ 3 UH — XI DlXl U3HDlTJ-H at Xt TJ Xt "T  U3H—01JH3XtXI JHJHUH—QlJH3—4 .rt!. Xt UJ xt UJ U HQJrt! XtUH —UH 3 U Tt 3 QJ 3 Xt H  n g 3QiXiQ>uHj t O — XtUH>UHUHfl v O l XI " 4 H 3 u-  W  TJ Q J fd TJ II II  4343H— < TJ 4J  rfHH 4-J CO CO . o - -  O H  ;  4-J  Xt TJ — U — 2 TJ SH TJ • < Xl rd >,E • • rd •  Xt-H TJ Xt  4J 4J H -H. OJ — Xt TJ r4J 4-1 I O J Xt Tt Q l 4 r H - H > l H xt QJ QJ fd: UH fd rd t -H Xtx) Xtfd SUH r( 3 TJ :  4-1 4J  O  XJ  3xl r H TJ fd rd i  JH  o 3 cn fd 3  a  92  1  QJ OJ QJ OJ  1  Appendix A  3 XI TJ XI — XI CJ Tt tn —  4J CO 4-J rH  U UJJ  O —  rH CQ O xJ co xJ cu  Xt CO x t cu (tl TJ  II II  ' H  o ° - H m 3 CQ co s  >> XtCQ  CQ § — rH CO  rH og CQ CQ  CN CQ CQ — o  UH II UJ CU OUJJ-| J^UJ — >UJU JJ 3<" 1U 0 Xt" i JJ > 3 0 i 0 ) — XID l XXIl Xt> xt 9 i u j at XI cu ii — E uj — 0 — U i Jj J j JJ 3 XI <U  TJ  t u j tj) > ! 3 TJ —  ) fd XJ i Tj  -H  — JJCQ— CQ <JJ <D • • fll CQ CN CN U JJ XJ—UJUJ U U J Jo UJ01— XJXX3 D01l X l 3 H UJfllX l TJ XI^ 5 1 TJ CX3l Ufd 3 3 DiTJ-H xJ -  a  xt g XJ CO u > — co S  r-  C '  a Xt TJ —  C — CU * • 3>INO • J o u J >  S  U —2  — CU fd  S >i C O  TJ  B  -  UJ > QJ id -m 4J JJ > >s • 3 CO UHHHHHHT  >, N -H J QJ 3 4> o>>$  H TJ CO 1 TJ >irH -i CO < 0I  3 JJ fll Xt OJ D QJ X l U DiTJ UJ 3 Ol TJ — 3 Xt -H TJ XI Xt UJ JJ X) X t T t 3 XI rOTt — o XI • • — 2 -  JJ UJUU  —Tj 1  UJ  II TJ -H a  xi s — TJ TJ C < S O fd -rH 2 •  Xt QJ-H  C B II it • tJ . o H 01 $ rH II xJ SJ 0 ) JH CQ -1 CQ G QJIr I — IIDl UH 4-J 4 -ri TJ I CQ — TJ O O II II -ri JH rH rH c jj  Xl  OJ CO CO CQ CQ  . •.,CO4-1Tj TJ 01 „ _  > a >i  XJ  SJ JJ  rO O CQ CQ  I 4 -1 • rH CN 01 C I > CJ o CO -. 3 QJ rH O  93  $ XX XX - X)  10  O  O  O  <0 4J 4-J  3 O rH XI rH Ql rH rH • TJ 4-JfllTJ TJ TJ TJ TJ  -  § 11 JH  — <d Id O  CO >,  Tj  JH  XJ  -H -H  P XI rd m xJ •J O id • • QJ C OJ TJ ' rOTJ -HTJ -H TJ Xt • 3n ro x J " U X l TJ l J XI TJ M C QJ QJ QJ Ql Ql  (0 H SxJ rH TJ rO rd (  id id t  TJ xt TJ xt -H TJ  Z00 DiTJa 3 XI XI Tt —  - 3 <0 U r H r H r H r H r H r -  rH TJ I CO rd :  rH X J  I QJ 3 Xt 3 1 D i X l Xt Xt  • co u  3  a  CO - H X X x i a xt -H xi s 3 TJ JH TJ • g • U OJ u j Xt Xt ' X> TJ H «l rH -ri T) 3 QjTJ(-oicoj'axi*-J4-Jc I 4-J c O - H x J - H x J X l X t QJ QJ  rtj-r-i 4-1 4-J rH 01 XI XX cu TJ 3 > XI c Xt X i cu cu : > rH rH J  U UJJ OJ>  • XI I Xt i JJ 3 QJ 3 XI u - . < _ j £ 5 i — XtDlXt XI I u j CJ Xt TJ XI > XI < T t £ i u j Ql > - X I S T J ro I 3 Tt " " > — ro e 5 — CJ • • X X . XI XI -H T l Xt E 6 . rfl -H 4-J -U rH co Xt Xt n uj > > ) rO TJ r JJ TJ 3 J X) C < > XI 4-J ' Oi ro - m > XI Xt QJ QJ >i i CU 3 rH T)  )  Lt Xt g Jj Xt TJ  —  o  H 4-JOJ OJ H TJ (0 U r-  Appendix A  XI UH XI 3 > X!  Xl 3 T J Xt — Xt  CQ CQ 0— . rH CQ O 01 4-J rH - O 01 —• 2 rH CQ oi 2 cQ 4J E - 4- O CQ a — rH 01  QJ T J D I TJ  CQ O — 4J CQ O  2  4-) rH  TJ QJ rd TJ > >  Tj VI Tj OJ rd TJ  a a  TJ M T J QJ fd T J  • S CQ « -  TJ CQ  >i2  1  Xt CQ CQ - 4-1 4-1 4-J T J ai — cQ — o o 0 O Tt CQ • I U H H H c ii •fM>4J0im 01 • — rH 2 - O - -  DM —  I OJ TJ 3 QJ 3 X! DlXt XI I un ~X1TJ i u-i QJ Xl XI TJ ^ J 3 DiTJ a Xt  TJ —  3 XI Xt - H TJ XI *  X) TJ ( X! TJ I TJ ffj I  1  CQ CQ • * J QJ CQ CN CN H ~  3 OJ  s  —  uj ~ 3 „ UH MX) JH 3 QJ Xl QJ t-i — Ol CN UH Q) CQ 2 2 3 u-i • H > 3 Ql 3 Xt u-i CN E S U — Xt DlXlXt 3 •4 OJ XI TJ Xt I Ol > - H > TJ c a 3 3T J — J-t — > xt • XI XI • H TJXI a — Xt E T J id -1 XI XI JH T j • < E >i N X X x i m > , s • (d - H 4-J 4J 4-J rH 01 XI XI 3 > > 01 OJ U-I > > TJ G QJ G QJ TJ 3 I) «J - H TJ - H TJ > Xt 4-> 4-> J > > > > > Xt XI 01 QJ fd oj I 4_J 4J II TJ 0J 4 -> TJ U < -H -ri Tj IfllfllUH J fd U r 0J XI d m u XI  2  — m 13  cu  m e  3 u (0  Xt xt  . rH 01 4-1 4-1 J OJ U-. Xt Xt a TJ 3 1) TJ XI 4-J 4-1 C 3 XI XI Ql Ql : T5 H rH ( J 4-1 ; 1)fllUH  a  • QJ 4-J TJ  aa  a  II  -H  ija o  >  rH g —  —  CQ CQ 4-J 4-1  01 — CQ CQ o O O TJ CQ • > 4-J  o  EH § E  g  jl  oi  01 J —I3 — ^i — E CQ CQ •i «H JHXI SH Ql SH — • • 3flJXl OJUH 01 CQ fN fN L) XI UH XJ UH -J JH XI UH — U H H OJ TJ 3 01 3 i UH — XJ DiXI TJ ^ T J G 3 U XI fd H UH 01 Xl Xt Xl — QJ fd e 3 3 DiTJ - H TJ a XI X) — JH — xt a XI -H TJ Xt J TJ JH TJ • 3 >i N • • XI fd N E 3 fd • • fd • E fd-H X x 01 TJ £ 01 • rH 01 4-J 4-1 H 4J fd -H TJ 'H4-1 OJ UH XI XI 01 TJ 3 rd rd QI J-J 11 Xt TJ01 4J 4-1 4-1 4J 01 TJ XI 4-J 4-J•S C -rH T J 01 J XtTJ JJ OJ OJ OJ OJTJ XI XI 01fll TJ rH rHrH-H TJ >irH H TJ fd (J rH rH rH rH rd UH <d rd 4-J 4-J QJ OJ U J  2 2a  cn  a  94  . _  2a  2>>  G  H 4J >  • 01 TJ OJ 4 I UH xJ JH < ' 3 (0 U r  i  rd QJ  r  QJ II uj || _ UJ — 3 — J4 UJ Jj Xl JH 0) 3 OJ XI OJ UJ XI U J > U J U H XJ UH — U H 3 i > 3 OJ 3X1 ) —XI DlXl XI QJ XJ T J XI > n — u- i Dl > -H > - CQ 3 3 LJ. • Xt XtT J — JH — 2 -J CN Xt Xt - H XJ x i SH T•J rd ' 3 S J < 01 XI J TJ « GJ O>i J G 01 01 rd - H TJ - H xt  XiS  •H Tj cd cd <  1  grin  >  >  >  >  Appendix A  E- d < *J Q oi  01 4J <D 01 S-I 01  Wrtj4H 3 M — Xt a — oi  Ms cn  O*TJ  flE- «U2H T)A3 O I  3 • c - XI ft , - oi E d T J 01 4-1 O 4J 01 1  S-l u 01 co CD oi > OlrH CD XI S-l 4-1 CO CD C -H Dl-H S-i CD CO 4-1 oi CD DJ CO O CO - o  • 4J TJ 01 JH CO T l T i 01 JH (0 O  - CD CO - J-l CD  -fit  M O o c  i ; i !  - II II < w w CO PH > M O O O M d d d 4JHH . . . o CO II • d d d 4-1 <! CD E E E >-i  1 4-1 TJ 1 01 TJ "H  O J-l 4-1 TJ OJ II 01 CO Tj Tj — 4-1 J-I cO o < C-H . C 4-) 3 UH 4-1 • 0 0 O -rH r-4 O 0) rH C CO • > 01 -H - X O Z 4J E 4-1 4-1 < > 0) 01 OJ  d in 3 4-1 oxt O 3  3 XJ 4J 4J 4J 4J rH TJ 01 01 01 0) CO <0 rH rH rH rH  XI UH Xt 3 TJ X!  TJ TJ CO II  co 0) TJ II  4-i TJ 01 — CQ CQOO 00TJCQ '>IJHH rH C ll . OJ • O CO CO ^ td rH ^ . c oi r 01 II 4 . UH — 3 — JH — £l CO CO UH JH XI JH 01 In — • • 3 01X101UJ0ICQO1OJ Xi UH TJ UH UH u ' JH X i UH — u j 3 u 0lTJ30i3Xt3Z2 UH —XI OlXIXtXt < UH OiXtTJXtTJXtSTJ d 3 OITJ'-HTJ — T3 — TJ <0 XlTJ— JH—Z — 0) CO E Xl-HTJXlZa>iN • • TJJHTJ ' < S C O - H X X 4J It! > l g - H 014J i J Ol Ut nj..f0-4J0iujxiXi -HO TJ TJ-HrH-HC0TJ3 X ! 4-) Xt OITJ d O I d 01 T5 XI 4-1 4-1 CO 4-1 4J(0-HTJ--HTJXtXlCDOl> -H O CO TJ rH rH cO 41 4J 01 4-1 4-1 (J U 4-t 4-1 3 rH TJ 0) SHOlOlflJOJQlQIUJ H - H T J >,H Ur-ir-i^-t^-tr-ir-i-H C0UJ<0(0 01 rH TJ <0 CO CO 3 01 fO rO * ! rarorororOrOrONco r H r H r H r H r H r H 3 (0 rOrOtOrOrOrOrHj 1  — CQ 4J O  95  O 01 JH > 1  CQ 1-1 JH O 3  3 4-> i O U t U CO • JH I O 4-1 4 CD Xi JH 3 4 > CO QJ 1  Appendix A  OJ  c  c  • «  a E 4-» • tn X  II —  — O O C  o  d <d ft) U C E O  —  C  II •  TJ C TJ (0 rd E  a «; — C Q S 4J C Q • — o • M  i C 3  Ti r H TJ tn ro • 2  • X OJ « 4 - 1 JH  x  OJ  iJ oj XJ 4J c C 3  a  3  o  4-> E O U >— u •  A < • cr O • X C J  • TJ  tn • TJ tn N t f T) S » <d id Q ro rd  < TJ  3  3  TJ 4 tnJ 4-ttn  ! i_i 4-» 4 J I QJ QJ QJ H H H  G 4-> tn d 2 rd  TJ  c: p P o O (J  o ! o o  .>>  > —  t  •3 nj  3  TJ TJ-H CJ id 3  XI EX ! rH TJ to ll A 4-> > 4-t 4J O  C  U -H CD X i  TJ-H H E ro tn u d tn ro  •H H TJ 4-t  96  -H 4-J >, O 4J 4-t rd -H o ro to 3 rd s-4 JH I H JH • 3 4 J 4 J •«H J . cn X ! TJ HQ E 0) 0) 3 TJ 3X1 •H E TJ co ro o cn 0) 4 - 1 -H > > 4J o > E 4->  QJ QJ «H JH I—i -H  —  TJ  a 4-1 tn  a  cd p: 4 j in V E > > > o • C X 4-1 4 J 4 J •J • 4 - J O J O J O J I C > H H H  3  -X  CJ  L/l — < " d • X 0)  CN II  A d d O ft) rd c C E E t C X X i 4-) 4-) t J ( Ol > > r-  rH U OJ tn 4-) - 4J c 2 d 3 < 3 o E o u  CN — A C o rd C  E  (3 X 4J 4J tn >  97  Appendix A  U XI X >i  —  &H +  4J —  M  3  W  —  fi O  C  XI S — oi W tfTJ § 01 T) i fl) o - XI Q . •  Is OJ 01  -  -Q > ui —  >a  5  C  O  E  o CQ — • CQ  Ol ai  CN 4J  T J T J o C 01 C N II 4-1  — tn j CQ CQ ri CQ cQ 4J 4-» - U i ) O O -H s J O O H H tn  A  fi 3 —- O O U  4-1  —  fll  2  4-> 01  SH 4-1  _Q > CQ  OJ  > >  HO  ll ll -  o o J4HH  CQ 44J CQ 5 4J 4J (  O O rO rrHH rH r H 01 C  3  CO  1)  rH  CJ  rH  TJ  P  rt o rO u  d  i  II C Q E 3 — 4J — - CQ O CQ 4 4J r H • 01  u  A 4J  a-  u  cj CD CO Jj JJ  a*  4J  TJ  P  O cn o cO ^ > i SH SH t CO 4-1 4J 1  rt  rQ O P tj cn  JH T J N E -  4J  -4rQ  01 P 01 4J 0) >,  rt  i  ro to  rH CO 01 CO 3 >1 rH CO co 3 o  0  3 fO S 4-i r H UH r H QJ 01 U  U  1  0> 4J 01 Xi U 0  Xt 3  rt P  O U  n in T^  • O  4J (0 (S SH 3 4J  O  0) O >1 rH  A  — O  • U TJ oj 3 3 tn 4J «i Tj TJ - - co tn • C 2 2 3 . . oi 3 OJ J J co o a • >ifllDl O E C C J ifl U T J u -  X X 4J 4J  4-1  o  CQ — • CQ <N 4-1  * j C Q C Q 3 TJ TJ r  • O  TS C TJ fO <0 E  a—  0  1  U as o o  -2 S  OJ OJ Q> OJ OJ C  — E  01 E C T J CJ 4-1  14 01  C Q rt - g G J CQ CQ > CQ CQ • • 5 • • > i « OJ o • rH <N CO U D l U S C Q 4J rrj . _ . 01 -H X C Q rH rH  O r H  cn cn  01  4-i —  4-J  4J 01  4J 01 01 01  2  s CQ CQ O CQ JH O 01 JH S OJ rH s flj  C  Q i •  •4  4-> >  -  II C Q  4J  U XI CQ  0) 01  S  —  C  A  £8  >i O  XI  E C 0) 4J  M  >i C  —  4J  < UH g 3  I 01 0)  U-l  r  \1 o c  — 0  c tn  — o  c  rt rt 4J  rt  4J  CO  —  E  CQ  X  r H  JH  O  It  4J  P  CN —  0 rt  1  01  2  • C C 4J 4J 01  <  S  U  • D  • • uoixoi VQ4JJH o  CN  2  a m4J U-l  UJ -H  b  1  CN  •  cn -  n  —  •  s  w  U  rt -fl)(J TJ C 2 4-1 C 2-aa C 3 in a — O  a  4J  O  01  >t  rrj  01 3 >.  3  r0  01  01 01  • C  4J  <; 01 4J  fl) U J 01 - H  2  rO  rt  i£II>rt . 01 4J 0) fl) r H r H4Jr  a  H  01  2 0  •r  0)  4-1 r H r H r HrO 0) 3 £5  01  as 3 >i (0 >i 01 (0 3 S >• 3 <tJ >i 01 (0 r( OH r 3H cO N (0  c 0 TJ  CO  3  cO  3  cO  OJ JH 01 01  >i O ra 3 4J CO O  Ol  a  JH -H U 0) 01 x! 0) 4J  CQ  EH  P  C/l  >  2 O M  0*  01  * *  TJ QJ  H  rt  EJ  w c n 01  X!  +  u -  0  SH  - a  98  +  -  +  -4-1 O  SJ  4-1 x:  OJ  > CQ  • W  -a rt  0  H  01 01  *  fl)  TJ OJ TJ 01 TJ  CQ CQ W  rtw 01  M  H  0  0 rt  a  0 0  CQ  11  a  Ui kJ  11  0 c • c- 0 J CQ 2 • c 11 C 0 w ti C rO CQ • 0 r H S 0 flj E wrt4.) CQ oj E 0 (0 H 11 0 rt E r H 4-1 i o • 0 ro II P c 4J 01 r H 01 0) « M H U ro 01 4J T J T>1 J E rH C O cO 4J 4-1 TJ 3 4-1 4-1 4J 4J 01 OJ TJ r H fll OJ 01 0) (0 CO  rt  r H  rt  rH  a  4J >  0 SH r H 01  — 01 — CQ > CQ  CQ  S j 4J Ti IIfll01 TJ — 4J JH C O  01  EJ  0  rt fl) - X 0  rH JH II U J  4-1 P UJ 4-1 CQ O O - H O•  CQ  II CQ  >  cn ai  a a  + 4->  rtrtc  rt  W  E  CQ  4-1  rt  rt  cn 2  .  II  4J  4J  as  >M  1  C SH CQ • UJ 4-1  +  3  E 3  — JH T J  — E ll 0 0 —  01  a  3 rH 0 tn  0  4J rd * + *  rO  O  4J  r H 4-1  -  *  01 rm fl) H O 3 0 u JH r H  xs  TJ  — D  Xt E 3 01 OJ  rt c  as ci  axt>  — CO  OJ TJ UH as UJ .  JJ  01- OO  Xi  01 01 4J  a  rO •  -  0  - U <D  01 -HT3  01  C  E-I  + P w  01  01 EH  - 0»  TJ  *  + 0  •01 nj > C rd  U  M XI cO  &  EH  E • 4J 4J 4J 01 OJ 01 OJ  • N  CO  0) u  CQ E5  W H  --H JH  DI-H  0) 01 rC 4J 4J 0)  >  4-1 X 01  0)  cOTJ  P  01  — 0 Pu O COrtj P 0 1/1 U • CN E < U ' U A — • • 0* CN • • O II cd X 01 0 rt rt x 01 V Q 4-) JH C ro P 4J JH  a — 01n  X! oi <d  0) * H r H JH  01 4J  4-1 r H U 0)  CQ  01 JH OJ  2  rt 0 •H  w+ W O W in 0  M  01 0)  co oiO l r a) H 0) XI JJ U rrj C  UH 0  <  rt  >  rt CO  -2 2a  _ rt  +  JH JH 01  OJ TJ O  — CQ CQ •  rt 0 O rt Cv. •  01  01  xt ra CO >  4J  — O O C  • rH •  +  3 O  JH ll II —  rH 11  CN  O 4J  TJ -  0)  • rt 01 4 -1-  X  4.  TJ JH rO  4J c 01  co —  1  ro  C  4J JH  jj C O  X  CQ  Xt  4J  C -  X  p >  0  *  01  aO — E  TJ 4J P C rt a rt  O  rt4-iXflifliO) -4J4J4J n 4 J H H H  -  2  C  E < E — • 4J — CQ X 0 CQ • 4J r H . JH — 01 JH fll v 0) 4J  -014J  <  4-1 E 01 •  +  3  0) JH  *J  C  2a  * *  1  cn -  E  rt C  - rt rt CO  JH II  4J 01  C •  • • • cr O C C C X O J rtrOQ4JJH  Ql  OJ O  01  CN H A  H  — O  3  01 UJ r  rH  • C 4J 4J 01  G co tn-2 a4JcG3 2 E 3 0 m a — o u  C.ajfljQJ 4J4J4J 11 C H H H  JH  O  t  cn p rH O 11 "z 0 0 g o C— 0) 0  P  O O  2 4.1 < rt  TJ4J  in  4J  ~ O O rt rt •  — CcnjHfl) • rH • Jj  1  C  4-1  X 4 J<:- —s C Q • 0- ~ — CQ •  TdJ 2 24c- 1jC ragpo — o CJ  JH  3  4J  CQ  0  01  C C  4-i C O  fll 4-1  SH  to u  TJ  —  —  — O O rt  rd  3  X  11  CQ  tl  1  rt rt  4J 01  4-1 E 01 .  'X  E• <4-1! — E —CQ  —  O  01 O JH II II —  S JH — o  X O CQ • 4J r H • rJ — oi JJ OJ  tn <  D  O  2  ro 4-1  2 S CJ  C• — C C as  oi -  CM 2  t H  OJ  11 O  O  D  OJ O JH II  rt 4-1  E  J H rt 4J O 4-t C top O  rH  ll — — O O C C •  C 4J  fll  C  O  u  01  rt  CQ  C  CQ  — 0 rt  |  —  — o  _J  c c  4-1  01  ^ 0 1  4J  0  s  * 3  H  4-1 O 4-1  V  01 A  E  CQ 4J 4-1 OJ O rH  EJ  3  TJ TJ CO cn >1 CO 3  ai  (0 0  TJ  • >  r H CJ  0) r H  >  •S  01  UJ O  01  rH  2 4J E 4J a > oi 01 CQ-H  Appendix A  oi  G 4J 4J CQ CQ -  G  o  01  -  0 co  CQ CQ -  4-1  E  E  • o a x 4. • c  4-»  G  • r4 Sj 01 n QJ 4-i Xt - 4-J C C 2 m o S in —  4 SJ CU 1 OJ u  s  3 o  (j  (N A  G P o O U u •1  G > >  v o  C  • x cu  I 4J 4J 4J  i a> OJ ai  1  rd rd 3  >, O  rd  1 CQ >i rd fli  0)  m  A  a O O 01 E  TJ > U S  M  i+  >i  E-  Di  + XJ  0  CQ  TJ  E 01 4J  01  id 01  Ol TJ  Tt jj XI UJ u • Ql fd Tt XI • H rd G — > — id CQ rd" • QJ 4-J >i Ol O O CQ >i — rdxt G — rH CQ CQ4-i rd T J • CQ co4-J 4-1 O H v OJ XIu G 4 J - o 0 rH 01 U XJ 4-1 o 2 CO TJ - It • 01 01 - II XI — fd TJ -H II tn s 3 TJ rd* - > CQ 2 CQ Ol • — U QJ O E QJ CQ - J J o rd P rH — Tt CQ CQ • XI • A — C CQ CQ OJ J 01 - S OJ OJ cn o J Oi rd 3 - • a 01 Q U TJ — G TJ TJ 4-i ±J -H >, G -H G O J J rd O rd J J rH X l > Xt rH 4J CQ II II II II II 0) fN • Tt 0) • rdXt U TJ 01 TJ TH UII Hrd 10 xJ >1 X) rd Tt 4-1 4-1 4-J 4-J 4-J XJ > 3 ra oi oi 01 01 01 Ql TJ H >, rd 4J rd a  XJ 4-J 0)  c  G  4J  C O 4-  u  O  JJ  G  4-J  CQ + O in  ry JJ OJ o  UJ  II 3 3Xt O CO  u Xi 4-J  >  OJ  CUXi 0 TJ  rH 3  Dl Dl rd >i >1  3  rd  3  rd  X  4-J C 01 4-1  — Xt  2  < 2 E — S ai —  >  QJ —  «*w H  a E  a  p ai XI 4-1 CO > >, fd E  N 4-J  -H o> .X u QJ P rd uj uj xtCO V DI JJ U J  rH  O TJ Ql Jj uj > i in Jj > in OJ • © U J 10 o  4-1 01  0  O S  G —  O E  4-1  >  Jj rH -H  • >>  4-J 4-1 4-1  JQJOJ01  >,  >  —  G>>> C  4-J 4-J 4J  4 J Q I 0 J 0 J > ,  C rH Jj OJ CQ 01 4-1  4-1  CQ - 4-J C TJ - 2 G G G 2 3 3 O rd < S O U m — co • cr CN G • X 01  II id p! O •  V E > > C X  cn  in •  mrHrHrHfOro  S I %  H  2  G  E  o  o  S —  a  o o G G  G  G  G G  4-1 01 JH  Jj CO OJ - 4-1  ll ll  O 4-1l  G P  CQ • O JJ U 01 •  p O  rt! —  <•  JJ  4-J OJ G 4-J P G O P  U O • U D • O J X J J 4-J > > 1  CO  II  4J  JJ  >  4-1 4-J 4-J  4-J 01 01 fll C > H H H  o G  4-J 4-1 01 01  Cn  G G  TJ  a P  01  TJ TJ rd  > rH  TJ G TJ id fd E  II 1  4J £ 01 4-J  - Dl  JJ 0)  3 01  X  rd II u  rH  XI 3 CO O  X  >  4-1 4-1 >1> >  rd fd  3 4J  <H  0)  JJ  X! 4-1  4->  Q) Ql  fd rH rH  CQ — • CQ JJ • 01 J J 4-J 01 G 4J  II O u CQ • 4-J ry O CU rH Jj 01 > —  >* o  fd 4J 3 O rd Ol  2  a >. id  Q J 01  3  a rd O  QJ  o  o  UH  O P U O • U  3 rH  rd  G  P o u  4J  X  oi  >  2  id o— id c ruo o G E O II • • rH — G X CQ 4J 4-J 4-J 01 > O O - 11 4-J  C Q O 4-1 •  o cr rH Ql  4-J  cO  • X  OJ 4J  > > O UH II -H  C  0  X  4J 01  • X  b o  99  G  TJ  G  O O rd o II G E C Q GX 4-1 4-J o O 01 ll 4J  O  G  ro  01  A  2  Q uJ O 4-J  D  o G  U  G  o o  o  >,  S TJ — TJ CQ rd  01  '  rd  UH  EH  01  CQ  4-J 4-J J J 01 0 P  01  01  >i rd rd td XJ  U 0)  ll  X  oi i-JX O  X  CO  o  1  Oi 01fli Di rd 3  EH  Jj u > >  G  >JH Q)  >, oi- Sa Ea Di o Ql O Dl rd 3 2 — oi a TJ UH rH E TJ - H 01 rd — rd CQ •  J-l 2 O 01  3  jj fll  4-t  G  > G A —rH  rH C II 3 — o  a  4-1  < O  TJ o S  CQ CQ 01 • TJ 01 • xt T J >i p!TJ >, > nj <d O rd rd •H  C  O U  JH 0 4-J  G rH P  b o  G 3  CU  rtj  U  EH  JJ  C  4-J  0) 4J  >  o G 4-J 01  <  X  CO  O — 01 >1 C• O G ro C •  01  G  4-J 0)  <  0  QJ <d  4-1  JaJ  cr  G  CO  4-J  D"  3  TJ C rd o V O  >  ry U CU  co cq  0J  G  4J  Cn G  <•  J J•  TJ G id o V  G  -  C  p > • — u Xl TJ < • 4-) oi E S-4 • ry > O fd u cP J Jj U 0) Jcu 4 J > rH O UPJ M s O -. HDI U J oi - n H G II i U XI E-X\ rH TJ II p — II co ii A 4-J 3 OO — X > 4J 4-1 O O U G O 4J > -H 4-> >1 O 4-1 J J • • G X G • i-J rd - H o rd x\ 4-J 4J C UJ oi 3 fd J J J J <H U JJ • 3 4-J 4-J > CO 4-1 O J-H - CO 01 •H 01 . 01 Xt TJ 4-J U J E 01 01 P TJ QJ - H E TJ oi rd rH OJ 01 4-J -H > > 4-J  QJ 4-1 J-4  4-J  Xl 01 >  4-J  a a E  01 QJ H  O G  CO + o in  O G o • II G A 4-J — CO  G  2  H  J  4-1  II -  • C  fll  m  J-J 4-J  >+  o G  O  G  X  4-1  — P  SOU•  g — u - CQ • X  O  TJ -4-1 G G2 G P ra a P o S o u in — U • CN cQ • ry A • X 0) o p; 4-i j-t  0  O U  > +  CO  - 2 G D : o o  !  "  £  01  c P  C  -4-1  X 4J < • 4-J • J-4 > rH J-l 01 Dl QJ 4-1  O  G  O— °  1  > 4-1  QJ  i JJ §uj  E > >  >,  JJ  o m  ^ r—I J-l 01 J Dl CU J J  fN CQ a jj  CQ  o G  o G  JJ  01  G  O•  s o u - u  •  CQ  jj OJ  4-1  u 2  3 — u  <! o c  XJ > CQ >i id  G  G  4-1 01  01  CQ  o G  G G-  rH Id <d 3  i  4J  • JH  4-1 <  XI - 4-1 C G 2 G 3 id < p o  rH f-l f-{ id CQ  I  CQ O  C Q 4J O  - 2  I 4-1 4-1 4-1 i QJ -01 01  r-i  =  X  • CQ — <  v  E > > > • X 4-J 4-> 4-1  S-33 4-J  > r-l J-l 01 CQ 0) 4-1  fN C • X QJ II ra pi 4-J t-i  >  i 4-) SH > > >  E — S  X G 4-J rtj •  4-1  CQ • 0 • X Q) O Cri 4-J In  ;P G o3  S —  • O CQ — < • CQ X 4-1 < • O • M 4-1 O > C H JH OJ > rH J Xt - 2 G P C 2 < P O -a 2a Gp o3 U3s O u SOU i — u • m — CQ • ry  4-» O > H  > c-4-J  —  3  rd  0J  TJ  O O 4-J  G rH  01  O 4-J TJ TJ D'TJ fd Q l fd 3 JH 01  a o o  Appendix A  tn 0) in n  II  o O G  O G  o  d  d  d  cn  u o n 11  G  4-J  tn  <  <  u cu u c p o U  SH  tn  II  cu  4-J  Jj 4-J cn ll  —o CTm o "DO ~OC CT JH ll G SH II G J->  dE  tn  C  4J tn  G • • G  a  cn v  E  n  II — — 0 o G G • • G  tn  CT a> o SH ll ll — — 0  rd  O  G  c •  4XJ  G G• 4-J 4-J tn  o  tn  -  G  n  tn  O  T II  CD  a a E  E  4J tn  • 4J Cti X  SH cu - QJ 4-J  S g — CQ  i-J C P  cP  C  II  g  4 J rH 01 rH QJ Ql C-O rH rd cn 3 >i cd u cn cd 3  CU  d  2ii 4-J  QJ rd cn  cu  a  aE  E  —  4-J JH  4 C-JJ 4-J OJ H H  II  4  SH  <  G  SH OJ  G  4-J  OJ  4-J  JH 4J 0 tn  G P O  O  CN 2  O G  CT QJ o SH II II —  —  G  — o  4J cn  G  2  g  O G  G 4J  O  ll  CT  O  tn X - 4-1  3  4-J cn  •  JH  g o  — cn CJ rH - 2 rd II 2 <•  G  JH O  0 1 oll JH  C E  tn  -  a E — CQ s — • o 4j — <; II 2  G  S— <; •  x  c o < • 4-J • rH - JH — G tn JH QJ  SH Q)  4-J  4-J - QJ 4-1 TJ tn 2 4-J P rd 2 E PG o  G  n -a  P O  OJ U C • • • CT cd X QJ G Q 4J U  a— — a  c  u  o • i n S CQ U CM • • CT ii rd oi x JH ot V Q 4-J O C  U  P  E • 4-J 4J 4J • X Ql QJ QJ  rd CJ G  rd  <  G  0  JH  at  4-J  rd  C P O  P E  u  CT  cn  01 o  c d  JH — O  cn  at  II  x: • 4J 0 c  O G  •  DH'H  tj  • 4J c 4cnJ »cn  4-J 4-J rd  G  G rH id II  — <•  X 4-J 4.J o a  CQ w  • JH  cn JH 01 0) 4-J 2 4-J  TJ G  a  d  u  QJ  a CO  01 JH  2 O  a rt  CO  E-  >1  a CT  cn  C O  9 >  rd P o in — CM CQ o o • A • • CT X 01 4J JH G O  tn  CQ  n P  G  AJrd>c;rdcnc-HC COOJ U H at - H• >• 6 QJ 4 -J rdTJ TJ <d Hto ED. - H • - > cu  e  o -H 4J cn Ql rH 01 rQ  6 — • CQ  4.  CO rH P  4J 4J cn 4-J QJ QJ 01 >i 4-J 4J 01 0) 0) CO rH rH rH rd cn II C 4-J rH rH rH tn rH rH rH rd cn 2 4J 3 >i 3 >i OJ rd 01 UH rd cn cn <d 3 cn - H rd 3 >, tn 0) rd t*. cn 01 rd cn at rd 3 rd >, tn 3 rd 01 rd 3 rd rd 3 rd rd C  4-J 4-J 4-J cn  d  TJ  X 4J  II — — 0 0 G G • • G  4-J  • • G  a — CQ  —C  • fd  0 G  d rd S  p 0  E  rd  cn  —  —o  O G  4-J  cn  II  iOnJ a— o u CQ U • —C 04. X•QJCToA  V rd Q o G X• 4-J QJ i J H  4J 4-J 4-J cn  G rd  c  in E  d  4-J  cn  CQ — X• 4-J 4J o <| rH o •< SH • — rH • tn JH QJ cn SH Tj - QJ - Ql 4-J G 2 4-J 2 4-J P cd G E P 2 P O  -s c  o  4J  0 iJ — <  TJ 4-J G tn id 2  o U U • • • CT O rt X Qt C! D 4-J SH  in OJ A  4-)  rd cn UH -rH  4J rH tn in• C  C • X• 4-J CU 4-J CU CU  C 4 J H H H  E  rd E  -  V rd Q 4J SH  tn >i <0 cn 3 >i rd rd 3  E  TJ  z 4-> G a G P — Uo u• u i gal D CM II — G rt• x• CT a> TJ C  id  EQ E — • 4J — < X o < •  —  • 0 4J 4 x o <: • 4-J - rH . 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P  - o cn E CQ '  C  CN —  11 rd c  • 3  «P P  X E P o 4J — O U V CQ U •  d  4-J 4 4-1 01 ( CO rH r  1 SH 01  H  c  11 rd O E  v  •  a  :  4  P  0  u  - QJ 4-J 5 4J P P o  I  n  - o  c  u  n -a c rd 2 E —  :  100  P  P O  a o u CQ U • — • • D*  in g CM II  £ rt X QJ cd D. 4J JH E C • 4J 4-1 4-J 1  V  O  • X QJ 01 01 G 4-J rH rH rH  <d 3 E rH 0) UH rd CO UJ -r4  rH rd >, to rd 3 fd > co H 3 id > , « rd rH 3 rd ? rdrH 3 5 >fd r rd 3 rd 0 ' I 3 4-J  <  o <! • • rH • V4 0) 4J v 01 4J TJ C Q 2 4-J cl  X G Ortj• 4-J • rH • JH G tn JH QJ 4J 01 4-1 T ) to 2 4-t G  G co jj  —  1 I]  rd co 3 >i rH rd to  n  x 4J  -  —  3 a c  P  E P o i — O U J CQ U  •  G  S a—  cd 2  in E CM — ll C V id o E G • ro - X II G 4J  G P P O  O U U • • • CT rt X QJ Q 4l JH CQ  4-) 4-J 4-J 0J 01 QJ rH rH rH  G P ! P O • O U  /MAN  Appendix A  ro  JJ <U 4J C -H  0)  > o  ro  ro ro >1  E  o  0) TJ  c  c  d  OJ  0) E o  ro  di  CD  01 O X! A 4J ~  U-l O  ro £ Xi V  CO  ro  >1 CN CO + r-l d OJ jJ T3 cn d •  2  VD  0  3  TJ  >  TJ d  ro  OJ  CD TJ  E  CD b> a j j ro P  ft E O CJ  JJ o TJ  -• VD  +  JJ O  CN to  co• -H ci 4-1 JJ XI 2 . QI . TJ -x ro m >1 • U - H X i >i (tJ > to rd ft • ro VD rH t> >, oi • ro — co TJ E H * rd • 3 0) — Dl CO TJ 0) > > Oi + + rd - • TJ - ~ -H + + -+ ro JJ 0) xt ro JJ + 4-1 E jj QI — QI ro u 4-i rd M -H d d M u — > •H -H 4J (d •» r*i • • • d ft >i >>'H >, ro • • • • — X ! rH >i >i > TJ S 0) rd id • JJ (d VD TJ rH rH >, rd rH TJ QJ QJ C0 O Ql CO .  ro 13 ro 4)  TJ TJ  01 Dl TJ JJ XI >i  ro  OJ TJ > Dl TJ JJ XI Ql d  01 TJ  d dTJ arH i - H toTJTJ C0>Dl roroQ TJ CJ J TJ • • • QJ + E E Di E Di - > 3XJ+ — - . ro to -H — + JJ ai — + + - - X I Dl 0) TJ Ol + + + * TJ Jj -H ro JJroJJ + xi JJ JJ CJ JJ Qi -XI 4J 4J U 4J + rd • ro •dH -dH -dH - d H >,-H>-H • • • • rd • > T J T J T J > rH >, • • • • • Qi rd >i >i >i >i >tTJ rH rd ro ro ro ro > QI rH ^-{^-{r-{r-^ • TJ 01 0) 0) 0) OJ QJ TJ TJ TJ TJ TJ TJ Ol • t> d d • • TJ d • ro ro o i Oi-rj ro DI 01 01 > > U OJ > E E <a <a XI E «  >  ro r-j OJ TJ  s ro H 01 TJ  c  ro OJ E ©  cn > ro  OJ O A —ui TJ — d ro •H JJ UJ 4J C - -H •  Uj O  Xi 4-1  d ro OJ E CJ X 4-1  >  jj d  OJ H Tj  JJ 4J d -H  Dl VD >  ro ro ro ft E O u  TJ  >i  >i  0) TJ  d  ro  «  a  o  >  >1  01 O A —  o  0) © Xi A 4J —  ro 01 E  ro  C  0)  ID >  ro  >i CO  01 0J TJ 3 4-1 TJ P  ft E O U  JJ O  d  ro ro 4-1 N  o d  ro  4-1  0) E  P  TJ d  0)  Xi tJ  Di VD >  II  ui JJ o  cn OJ Dl Ti  ft E O u  4J  01 M V  d cd  ffl  01  ft  >1  ro  Q) TJ  TJ  TJ d -H UJ  ui  ro  QJ  OJ  01  jj  JJ  JJ  CO CD Jj  to CJ Jj  JJ Ql to QJ Jj  d M  © A  CN + rJ d 4J Ui CO • P 2 ~ VD  ai O JJ 4J •  O 4J  rH 3 d  II •J  VD  OJ Di TJ  0  4J  ci  >.  >i  OJ T>  Ql TJ TJ  o 4-1  11 Jj E . « O o o JJ O  II Jj E W 0 o  Ui  ft 0  JJ  ll J JJ O  JJ o o UJ TJ  IS  ro jj  d  + CN d 4J to •  TJ >I rd  VD  01  0  4J rH II J  ft  ro  >  3  o TJ  CN + d 4J CO  ft  II J JJ O  ft  O JJ O O O rH UJ TJ  4J  ft E o o  0  J>1  n  ft o o  JJ O O UJ TJ  JH O UJ  n VD  Ql Xi  ft O o  O TJ  xt  o 4-1 X i 4-1  ft  ft o o  Ui  s  M J —  jj 4J d  JJ  3  -  ro  01  oi + d 4J tn •  >  ro  i—i 0) TJ d  —  C O ro  d  J  TJ d ro -H Jj  VD  O 4J  ro 01  TJ  101  o  ro 0  4-1 JH  ft  E O o  ^ |  JH 4J  0 d 4J x: rJ 4J ii  01 ft o o rH  d JH  O ( 2 TJ  JH O  0) Dl TJ JJ Xt  di 01 > ii 3 4J ro d  ft  rH II jj Ui O  E O u  JJ O  3  ui  — CO 4J OJ Jri u ro  J — JH 01 j-i d -H  ~ >i  ro  0) Tt  rH OJ Tj d  0) u  d  >i ro  0) E  01 0  rH  Ql TJ  UJ O  -  T! ><  ro ro  ro  VD  o 4J  ft  JJ  d  d rd Ql E  Ui  oi x: 4-1  Ql Xi 4J  CO ro  TJ d © •H A UH CN  — J  ft  E o U  s0)  0) E  OJ  s>1 57  rH 01 TJ  Ui  - CN CN + d 4-1 CO  >i OJ ro + rH d 01 TJ 4-1 TJ to d >i • ro ro 2 QJ rH E Oi O TJ 4J x i 4J Dl rJ -rH Ql > 3 4J ro II d  OJ E II 4-1 ft Ui 01 o J O rH O JJ TJ rH o JH o o O uj I 2 TJ  Ui  OJ  JH OJ 4-1 d -H  .  TJ  OJ  o >  d  —  JH QJ 4-1 d  OJ Tt d  >,  d roo ro Ql . S o A ai — x: w 4-1 rJ TJ d JH •H Ql UJ 4J d  OJ  JJ 01 4-1 d  TJ  UJ o  ff  W OJ + i~i d — Jj QJ CO JH  UJ  j  TJ  01 TJ II  - OJ  ft  O  CD JH  >1  TJ d © •H A UJ —  d -H  01 Dl TJ  rJ  J  0) xi  JH Ql 4J d  ft ro ro  Ui  OJ E  JJ 01  >t  0) TJ TJ  m JJ Xl O VD 4-1 X i  cd 4-1  CN  d  . ro JH  >i rd  CN  ro ft 4 -1 ro ro ro  rH ai > TJ d >i ro nj 2 Ql rH E OJ O TJ 4Jxi 4-1 Dl rH-H 01 > 3 J-» ro ii P  E II 4-1 ft Ui 01 o J O rH O JJ TJ rH O JH o O O UJ UJ TJ  ft  >  rH  4-1 OJ -X u  E  to  ro ro ro  >  U  ui 0) TJ TJ  Ql TJ  Xl  •-J  OJ xi u  >  >i rd  ai Di TJ  OJ E  A  CO cd  di o 01 > 4J ii 3 4-i ro p d TH II H E w o o UH u JJ O  4-> 0J  3  IJ  ro  o  QJ TJ o id  JH 01 4-1 d  —  OJ TJ  rH  E P o d 4J xi  Ui p  CJ Ol TJ  XI  Ql TJ  d d ro© ro Ql . QJ E © S A C XQiJ Ui XD i 4J 4J  Ui  ro  2  di OJ > 3 4J ro II d  jj JJ o o O uj UJ TJ  O 4-1 o o r-l  d TJ  O 4J X i  VD  >  d  ro  ro  OJ TJ  0J Di TJ  >i rd  ro  01  CN  VD  UJ o  UJ O  -  ro  O  01 E  o A  ro  S  >, ro rH 0) TJ d  Ql TJ  TJ d © -H A  QJ Tt  ' Ui  ro  4J 01  >  >i ro  xi 4J  >,  ro Jj 4J d -H  OJ  01  TJ  co rH rH oi U  0  p  rH QJ TJ d ro 2 oi E o 4J x i 4J  O o  0) TJ TJ  XI  JJ XI  J  01  ro  ro  JJ Xt  >1  A  OJ Di Tj  Ui  d  0) E  jj 4-1 d  —-  u -H o >  JJ  d  CO rd  >i  d  TJ d rd 01 E  — rd JJ 4-1 d  JJ 4J d -H  01  sOJ  >  Ql Xi 4J  QJ Dl TJ  JJ XI  d  ro  >  O 4J X i 4J  vo  O -H 0) JJ 4J II 4J XI P  Ui  o  d rd ai E  Tl  Xi ui 4J -H 4-> ft M 3 01 O o O rH O Jj UJ TJ rH O o o o UJTJ rH rJ  J  ro  XI  O rH OJ JJ 4-1 114-1 Xl J P  CN  QJ u  o  d ro o QJ • E © A Ql — XJ M 4J -  01  TJ d  ro 01  TJ d rd Ql E  0 d  ro  xi  ro  J  OJ TJ  W  Tj  ro  ro  >i  01 Dl TJ  Ql TJ O d  jj 4-1 d  TJ*  rd 4J rd TJ  J>1  01  jj 4J  o A  ro ft  CD Dl TJ  O 4-1  ro  ro  rd  Ui  Ui  E  u  d TJ  *J Ui  M U  ft  JJ  01 TJ  jj 4J d  M 0  4J cd TJ  JJ 0) CO OJ Jj  ? 0?1 ?  to  01 JJ  ro ft ro  ft  >  ro  ro  u rrj Pi  >i  J"  >  W  4-1 CJ  OJ  VD  3  Ql CD TJ 3 4J >  Ui  d  CD  ro  -  d  2  ro  jj 4J d  01  X!  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O O Xi 4-J rH • Ql M TJ flj JH P OJ ;> JH 0) C 4-J • 4J 4J G CJ Ol c c - rH• TJ • H - H 4J • • u 4-1 - H  G  01 > , « TJ (0 —  JHJH OIOJ +  •  JH JH  4-1  u:  4-> 4-1  rH flj > >  N  X  4-1  -4  rrj JH JH Q)  >• ti o -H O  oi flJ Ti 4-1 o fll C TJ  +  Ui  Ql • 4-1 JH  (0 JH j.)  - f + r - K * * *  .  o o o  ti  ft ftop df  u  4J  •H  UH  O  c n f t f t t n E E E E  G  JH > • © JH 4-1 • 4-) O Xt G D C © • -H <1J rH Ol  > P  4J  U  0) rH cn cn cn --, \ P cn cn xt 4J 4J \ cn cn oi oi cn OJ 4-i ,X M 4-J TJ o o o o 0 rHCfjflJrHcntncncn  >1  O  • >,TJ cO • rH [D 0) TJ -  SH  u  cn p  x;  -  x +  4 J O 3 3 J H T J  4-lLnOrHGGroJH • i I-H cn • ro ro i-i tn . w c u 4-J O • E 4-1 4J O 01 flJrHEpCDOltn-H TjcnSGAJAJcnxJ + • G — O U -H • X E - \ fljro04J u3---XftftJJH0i • G X 4J > TJ II M flj — 4J . . . 0J u 0 s • QI 01 oi 4j ro -HXrdUOiOiroft O J - I 4 J - H T J T J JH |> > • rd O - H - H • • II  E ' O ' ^ J H J H J H U 3 Xt XI SH G  X i-i cn 11 11 11 11rooi > TJ • 0 E 11 TJ > • • u JJ 3 • • [ 3 SflJQi t O p D ^ C Q C Q aft 4JU4J4J4JU1-11-1 <UQiaio)O)0)<i)0J  ro ro ro ft O  JH JJ  ro ti O to to O  DJ  a  cn  VD OJ  +  ti  4-1 to  z X tJ 3 cn <U G  G JJ  ft  Appendix A  4.  cn E  01 E 01 6  01 TJ JH  TJ CJ XJ  u tn  co u tn -H TJ  ta  u  -H  xJ 4-J m  -X  u + <c  a  — £ U -ri  u QJ .x u ro  •• o o o rH  m 3 TJ XI XI TJ *  -f 01 3 xJ 4-1  0  *  Q) 4-1 £  a  fO 4-1 rd TJ  0  o o o  JJ  W 4J — 01 0) M N U -ri rO  a  01 U •rH 0 + >  4=  Jj 0) 01 UJ 3 UJ X! 3 4-J XI  *  N JJ  tn  tn 0) Ol XJ  OJ  Ol TJ  •H JJ  Xl  JH  01 •• JJ 4-J JH fli •• £ 01 O U 0) UJ G OJ U J 01 U J u d UJ QJ X) 4-> 3 .X 01 XI U JJ . 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X TJ fll u A; UJ rg UJ o * 0 0) tO Ft'HH4J oi nJ O ro ro 3 4-J > 4-) T J X! O O 4-1 4-J * 4-J 3t  3 3 XI XI XI > £  -H  4-1 01 a oi ro x J £ 01 - 4-J « <D  -H JJ  XI  -ri 01 01 U J  OJ 4-1 rrj C  OJ TJ  01 g  J T J  01 •• — 4J £ 3 O U •  >  J —  01 J-l — £ X:-H  1° Jj 4J E •ri • TJ • >i rO  rO  +  +  3  5 T J  +  4-J  3  a  m  4-J 0 3 4-J  E E *  O  a o  QJ o TJ O o £ o  a  103  a  •J  -r< JJ M O uj TJ  cn  a  o O o rH + J  >1 oi rO 3 rH QJ 4J TJ  X!  O X O 4-1 rH rO  4-J  &d — rO — J TJ 0) v • O i W Ol TJ — > -ri Ql rO JH OI  XI TJ • -ri 01 CO JH E - H XI >• rO• + •> >I-H  01 G  >3  -H  rH 4-J  O  a  4-1 o G 01 01 Ql G  4-J 3  s  a 3 O  «  o 4->  a O -a H  O M rH 01  E o jj  a  0 o -  X!  -  JH  Cj o TJ  a  E 01  JH JH  3 3 XI XI 01 01  >  QJ O 3TJ  JH X !  •ri 4J  O 4J  E  01  Q)  !£  01 oi 01 Jj TJ  OJ 3 XI 01 TJ Q)  a On -H  O X! O rH 3 TJ  XI >  E o  a  E QJ  JH JH  0) 0) 3 XI 01 TJ  4-1 0 G  3 XI 01 TJ  01  JH UH JH JH  01 QJ UH UH 3 3 XI XI XI X l >  4-1 01 01 -ri JH x ! •ri iJ  >  4-J 01 01 -ri  CT JH  QJ UH  >i JH  0) 0 >  E o  >1  JH  CT JH  >t JH  0) o >  4-1 o G  >  4-J 01 01 -ri 1  UH 3 XI cn  X!  >i  01 01 UJ UJ  >  + W c 4-1 • D JH 01 0)  >  di > rd  C  JH  a  E 01  4-1 Q» o  CT JH  01 TJ  0) >  >i 4J  X  -H  CT JH  UH  *  QJ >i + TJ rO • > rH + • 0) GTJ rO TJ •• QJ • N E £ fd fO rH - 0) 0) « E TJ  3  w  CT JH  0)  ra > +  X! 4J  W  O 4-1 E tn 01 Ql  VD 0 4-J  JH T J  a O o  II  a  O JH O 0 0 rHUH TJ  3 XI X! >  0) X! 0 3 TJ  JHX:  •ri 4-J  >i  Q) 0  > JH  O 4-1 E oi Ql Ql JH T J  Bibliography  i  References  [1] Andrew D. Malyan, Leslie J. Ng, Victor C. M . Leung and Robert W. 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