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The characteristics of participants in an Indian adult education program Blunt, Adrian 1972

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THE CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS IN AN INDIAN ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM by ADRIAN BLUNT B. E d . , University of British Columbia, May, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL F U L F I L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE D E G R E E OF MASTER. OF AR.TS In the Faculty of Education we accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard: THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA M A Y , 1972 In presenting th i s thes i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i lment o f the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r e e l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes i s for scho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on of th i s thes is f o r f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Depa rtment of The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to identify and describe certain socio-economic and socio-psychological characteristics which differentiate the Indian adult education participant from the non-participant, and which collec-tively contribute to an understanding of Indian adult education participation. The study was conducted on the Mount Currie Indian Reserve in the Pemberton Valley of Brit ish Columbia, The analytical survey method was used and data was collected by means of structured interviews with a random sample of eighty-six adult band members. Two hypotheses were tested to determine whether or not there were any statistically significant differences between adult education participants and non-participants with respect to seventeen socio-economic and thirteen socio-psychological variable characteristics. A third hypothesis was tested to determine whether or not there were any significant differences between the variables studied when they were considered simultaneously or independently as predictors of participation. Of the eighty-six respondents, fourty-two had enrolled in an adult education class during the preceding three years and were classed as part ici-pants. Statistically significant differences were found between the participants and non-1 participants with respect to eight of the socio-economic characteristics studied including sex, wish for further adult education participation, social participation, occupational prestige of desired job, occupational prestige of desired vocational.training, receipt of educational assistance, receipt of unemployment insurance assistance, and total annual income. Of the socio-psychological characteristics studied, statistically significant differences were found between the participant's and non-participant's levels of alienation. i i activism, trust, family integration, and attitudes towards education. The most powerful single predictor of participation was found to be alienation, with the least alienated being those most likely to participate. However, five other variables including total annual income, number of . children, social participation, trust and integration with relatives when con-sidered simultaneously were found to be more powerful as joint predictors of participation than any single independent variable. i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am indebted to the members of my thesis committee, D r . James E . Thornton, D r . Gary J . Dickinson and D r . Coolie Verner for their guidance, cr i t ic ism, and encouragement. Additionally I am grateful for the generous assistance granted to me by the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, and for the Cooperation of the Howe Sound School Distr ic t . In particular I wish to record my gratitude to M r . Don McKinnon, Regional Supervisor of Adult Education, (D. I. A . N . D . ) and M r . Robert El l i son , Director of Adult Education, School District No. 48 (Howe Sound). For granting me permission to conduct the study in their community I would like to thank Chief Adam James and the councillors of the Mount Currie Band. Final ly , I would like to acknowledge the assistance of my interviewer Gary Jones of the Sechelt Band, and for her invaluable secretarial assistance, Miss Karen Grieve. iv T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S P A G E A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S iv C H A P T E R I . . . I N T R O D U C T I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I . S T A T E M E N T O F T H E P R O B L E M 1 II. H Y P O T H E S E S . . . . . . . . . . 2 III. D E F I N I T I O N O F T E R M S 3 I V . T H E S T U D Y S E T T I N G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 V . T H E S A M P L E 5 I V . D A T A C O L L E C T I O N 6 VI I . D A T A A N A L Y S I S 7 VIII . P L A N O F T H E S T U D Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 C H A P T E R II. . . . . . R E V I E W O F T H E R E L A T E D L I T E R A T U R E . 9 I. S O C I O - E C O N O M I C F A C T O R S R E L A T E D T O N O N -I N D I A N P A R T I C I P A T I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 II. S O C I O - E C O N O M I C F A C T O R S R E L A T E D T O T H E P A R T I C I P A T I O N O F E T H N I C , R E L I G I O U S A N D LOW S T A T U S GROUPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 III. . S O C I O - P S Y C H O L O G I C A L F A C T O R S R E L A T E D T O P A R T I C I P A T I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 I V . S U M M A R Y . . . . 20 C H A P T E R I I I . . . . . C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F P A R T I C I P A N T S A N D N O N - P A R T I C I P A N T S 22 I. S O C I O - E C O N O M I C C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personal Charac te r i s t i c s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Educat ional C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Soc ia l Charac te r i s t i c s 31 Occupational C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 34 Income C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 v P A G E II. S O C I O - P S Y C H O L O G I G A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S . . . . . . . . 45 Soc ia l Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Al ienat ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Achievement Orientat ion 50 A c t i v i s m 51 Trus t 52 Occupational P r imacy 53 Integration Wi th Relat ives 54 Cu l tu ra l Attitudes 56 Fac to r Ana lys i s of Soc io -Psycho log ica l Scales 60 III; T H E C O M B I N E D I N F L U E N C E O F S O C I O - E C O N O M I C A N D S O C I O - P S Y C H O L O G I C A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S . . . 69 I V . S U M M A R Y . 72 C H A P T E R IV S U M M A R Y A N D C O N C L U S I O N S 75 I . S U M M A R Y 76 II. C O N C L U S I O N S 79 Soc io -Economic Cha rac t e r i s t i c s 79 O : ~ r » ~ , _ ~ l 1 : 1 /~n ~ ~ O O u u u u - I o y u i u i u g i t a i u w i a u c i i o u i - o . . . . . . O i Predic t ion of Par t ic ipa t ion 83 III. I M P L I C A T I O N S 85 Implicat ions for P r o g r a m Planning 85 Implicat ions for Fur the r Research 88 B I B L I O G R A P H Y 90 A P P E N D I X A 94 A P P E N D I X B 98 v i L I S T O F T A B L E S T A B L E P A G E 1 Chi-Square Values and Contingency Coefficients for Dis t r ibu t ions by Part ic ipant Categories for Seventeen Soc io -Economic V a r i a b l e s . o 23 2 T - V a l u e s and Product Moment Cor re l a t i on Coefficients for D i s t r ibu t ion by Part icipant Categories for F i v e Selected Soc io -Economic V a r i a b l e s . „ 24 3 Percentage Dis t r ibu t ion of Respondents by Sex . o 25 4 Percentage Di s t r i bu t ion of Respondents by M a r i t a l o Status 26 5 Percentage Dis t r ibu t ion of Respondents by Age 26 6 Percentage Dis t r ibu t ion of Respondents by Number of Ch i ld ren 27 7 Percentage Di s t r ibu t ion of Respondents by Yea r s of Schooling Completed 29 8 Percentage Dis t r ibu t ion of Respondents by Expressed W i s h for Fu r the r Adult Educat ion Par t ic ipa t ion 30 9 Percentage Dis t r ibu t ion of Respondents by Soc ia l Par t ic ipa t ion Scale Score 32 10 Percentage Di s t r ibu t ion of Respondents by Exper ience L i v i n g Off Reserve 33 11 Percentage Dis t r ibu t ion of Respondents by Church Attendance o , 34 12 Percentage Di s t r ibu t ion of Respondents by Posi t ion in Labour F o r c e o 35 13 Percentage Dis t r ibu t ion of Employed Respondents by Occupational Prest ige of M a i n Job , , . 36 14 Percentage Dis t r ibu t ion of B. C. Labour F o r c e and Employed Respondents by Occupational Pres t ige 37 15 Percentage Distr ibution, of Respondents by Occupational Prest ige of D e s i r e d Job 38 v i i . T A B L E P A G E 16 Percentage Dis t r ibu t ion of Respondents by Occupational Prest ige of D e s i r e d Voca t iona l T r a i n i n g . . „ 39 17 Percentage Dis t r ibu t ion of Respondents in Receipt of Educat ional Ass i s tance , . . . . . . . . . 41 . 18 Percentage Di s t r ibu t ion of Respondents in Receipt of Ass is tance f rom the Unemployment Insurance C o m m i s s i o n 42 19 Percentage Di s t r ibu t ion of Respondents i n Receipt of Soc ia l Welfare Ass i s tance . 43 20 Percentage Di s t r ibu t ion of Respondents by To ta l Annual Income 44 21 Chi-Square Values and Contingency Coefficients for Di s t r ibu t ion by Part icipant Categories for Eight Soc io-Psycholog ica l V a r i a b l e s 45 22 T - V a l u e s and Product Moment C o r r e l a t i o n Coe-fficients for Di s t r ibu t ion by Part icipant Categories for Thi r teen Soc io-Psycho log ica l V a r i a b l e s . o „ . . „ 46 23 Di s t r i bu t ion of Respondents by Soc i a l Distance Quotients . „ . . 47 24 Percentage Dis t r ibu t ion of Respondents by Al iena t ion Scale Score . . . . 49 25 Percentage Di s t r ibu t ion of Respondents by A c t i v i s m Scale Score . 51 26 Percentage Dis t r ibu t ion of Respondents by T r u s t Scale Score 52 27 Percentage Di s t r ibu t ion of Respondents by Occupational P r i m a c y Scale Score 54 28 Percentage Dis t r ibu t ion of Respondents by Integration W i t h Relat ives Scale Score 55 v i i i T A B L E P A G E 29 Percentage Dis t r ibu t ion of Respondents by Attitude Towards Educat ion Index Score 57 30 Percentage Dis t r ibu t ion of Respondents by Attitude Towards T i m e Index Score 58 31 Percentage Dis t r ibu t ion of Respondents by Attitude Towards Employment Index Score 59 32 Srole Anomia Scale Fac to r Loadings 61 33 K a h l A c t i v i s m Scale Fac to r Loadings 62 34 K a h l T r u s t Scale Fac to r Loadings 63 35 Fac to r 1: Goald Orientat ion (A) 64 36 Fac to r 2: Soc ia l Perception (A) 65 37 Fac to r 1: Goal Orientat ion (B) 66 38 Fac to r 2: Soc ia l Percept ion (B) " 67 39 Fac to r 3: Dependency 68 40 Percentage of V a r i a t i o n i n Par t ic ipa t ion E x -plained and the Fac to r s Account ing for the V a r i a t i o n 70 41 Product Moment Cor re l a t ion Coefficients of Fac to r s Account ing for V a r i a t i o n i n P a r t i c i -pation 71 L I S T O F F I G U R E S ix C H A P T E R I • I N T R O D U C T I O N A great deal of public and governmental attention has recent ly been focused on the soc i a l c i rcumstances of Canada's native Indians, By many c r i t e r i a , inc luding income, education, employment, and levels of l i v i n g and health standards the Indians are a d i s t inc t ive , disadvantaged ethnic group. The great majori ty of Indian communit ies are charac ter ized by v io lence , a l coho l i sm, high mor ta l i ty rates and s o c i a l attitudes that are frequently in te r -preted as being apathetic and a n t i - s o c i a l . W i t h the intention of combatting poverty on Indian rese rves the Department of Indian Affa i rs and Nor thern Development has init iated severa l economic, education and soc ia l development 'programs. In cooperation with other federal and- p rov inc i a l government programs adult education programs are being conducted to es tabl ish in Indian communities ' the knowledge, s k i l l s and motivations r equ i red for Indian people to ini t ia te , and accommodate to, those soc ie ta l behavioural changes requi red to achieve the t rans i t ion of a community f rom poverty to economic and soc i a l w e l l being. I. S T A T E M E N T O F T H E P R O B L E M In B r i t i s h Columbia there has been a large increase in the number of on- reserve adult education c lasses conducted . 1 C lass enrol lments have •••Adrian Blunt and Donald P. M c K i n n o n , "Adul t Educat ion i n B r i t i s h Columbia for B . C . Status Indians ," Adult Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia , Journal of Educat ion of the Facul ty of Educat ion of the Un ive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia , 18 (Winter , 1971), pp. 7 - 1 7 . 1 2 increased from 592 part icipants in the academic year 1965 - 1966, to 2 ,500 in 1969 - 1970. The great majori ty of these c lasses have been authorized by the Department of Indian Affa i rs and Nor the rn Development and adminis tered under contractual agreements with public school d i s t r i c t s . No studies of Indian par t ic ipat ion in on- reserve adult education c lasses have been conducted, and the absence of such basic e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h is a factor l i m i t i n g the planning and operat ional capabi l i t ies of those agencies organiz ing Indian adult education ac t iv i t i e s . In order for p rogram planning to be effective the planners must be aware of the factors associated with thei r c l ients ' par t ic ipat ion patterns. Addi t iona l ly , it is essent ia l for the development of a theory of adult education par t ic ipat ion that there be a continuing search for , and invest igat ion of, factors thought to be influencing par t ic ipa t ion . T h i s necessitates the jTGpl lCSuiGn. Ox. ITCG Cc* JTCI! S t l i d 1 C 3 V/I t l i t lxGoC ^ITOu-poj G i_I C Ii £ 3 nCtiVC Ili - d i d l X S f net previous ly invest igated. The purpose of this study is to identify and descr ibe cer ta in s o c i o -economic and soc io -psycho log ica l factors which differentiate the Indian adult education' part icipant from the Indian non-par t ic ipant . II. H Y P O T H E S E S The fol lowing three hypotheses represent the theore t ica l basis upon which the study was conceptualized and conducted. Each of the hypotheses w i l l be tested in the appropriate nul l form in those sections of the study concerned with the analysis of the data. 1. There are soc io-economic differences between those Indians who part icipate in adult education classes and those who do not par t ic ipa te . 3 2. There are soc io-psycholog ica l differences between those Indians who part icipate in adult education classes and , those who do not par t ic ipa te . 3. In predic t ing par t ic ipa t ion a combination of soc io-economic and soc io-psycholog ica l va r iab les when considered simultaneously, w i l l have greater predict ive power than var iab les considered independently. IH . D E F I N I T I O N O F T E R M S Cer t a in te rms used in this study requ i re specif ic def ini t ion. These t e rms are : 1. Mount C u r r i e Indian Band M e m b e r . A person reg i s te red as being of Indian status on the Department of Indian Affa i rs and Nor the rn Development nominal r o l l or band l i s t for the Mount C u r r i e Indian band. 2. Par t ic ipant . A n adult band member who had enrol led i n at least one adult education course dur ing the preceding three y e a r s . 3. Non-par t ic ipant . An adult band member who had not been enro l led in an adult education course dur ing the preceding three yea r s . I V . T H E S T U D Y S E T T I N G The study tested the three prev ious ly stated hypotheses on the Mount C u r r i e Indian rese rve which is located approximately s i x mi l e s east of the v i l l age of Pemberton, in the Pemberton V a l l e y in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 4 The residents of the Pemberton V a l l e y have been the subject of three recent s t u d i e s . 3 T h e i r isolated r u r a l community one hundred mi le s north east of Vancouver , is bounded by mountains which prevent te levis ion reception and make radio recept ion poor. It was not un t i l 1965 that the r a i l access to the vallejr established in 1918 was supplemented by the opening of a g rave l road which was paved in 1970. Two p r i m a r y indus t r ies , agr icul ture and fores t ry are the economic base of the community. The Mount C u r r i e Indian band belongs to the Inter ior Sa l i sh t r ibe and the band's native language is L i l l o o e t . 3 As of the f i r s t of January, 1970, the band's nominal r o l l l i s ted a total of 904 reg i s te red band members , 759 of whom were considered to be permanent residents of the r e s e r v e . W i t h approximately 135 households Mount C u r r i e is the s ixth largest Indian community in B r i t i s h Co lumbia . In 1967 as part of a soc io-economic survey of the Pemberton V a l l e y , V e r n e r and D i c k i n s o n conducted th i r ty- two in terviews with heads of households 2 Gary D ick in son , " A n Ana ly t i c a l Survey of the Pemberton V a l l e y in B r i t i s h Columbia Wi th Specia l Reference to Adult Educa t ion , " (unpublished E d . D . d isser ta t ion , The Un ive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia , Vancouver , 1968); Gary D i c k i n s o n and Coolie V e r n e r , Community Structure and Par t ic ipat ion  in Adult Educat ion, (Vancouver : Facul ty of Educat ion, The Un ive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia , 1968); Cool ie V e r n e r and Gary Dick inson , A Soc io -Economic Survey of the Pemberton V a l l e y in B r i t i s h Columbia , (Vancouver : Facu l ty of Educat ion, The Un ive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia , 1968). 3 W i l s o n Duff, The Impact of the White M a n , ( V i c t o r i a ; P r o v i n c i a l Museum, T964) , p. 48. on the Mount C u r r i e reserve . 4 " They concluded that: In a l l aspects of education, occupation, and income, the Indian sample lagged behind the l eve l of development reached by the non-Indians . . .The re was some evidence to indicate that thei r si tuation is improv ing s l igh t ly . The present condition of the va l l ey economy suggests that the status of the Indians w i l l r e m a i n marg ina l un t i l they achieve higher levels of education and job t r a i n i n g . 5 Adult Educat ion c lasses sponsored by the Department of Indian Affa i rs and Nor thern Development and adminis tered under contractual agreements by the Howe Sound School D i s t r i c t have been conducted on the Mount C u r r i e r ese rve on a regular basis since 1967 . 6 P rev ious ly c lasses were conducted on the rese rve and adminis tered d i r ec t ly by the Department of Indian A f f a i r s . Classes conducted for the general public in Pemberton by the Howe Sound School d i s t r i c t are also open to Indian par t ic ipa t ion . V. T H E S A M P L E A random sample of 150 names was drawn f rom the total population of band members aged between eighteen and s ix ty . F r o m the 150 randomly selected names, 86 completed in terviews were conducted. Two persons selected for inc lus ion in the sample were incarcera ted , one was deceased, five persons were away attending vocat ional t r a in ing p rograms , twenty-four decl ined to be interviewed and the r emain ing th i r ty- two individuals were not r e s id ing on the r e se rve dur ing the per iod i n which the interviews were conducted. 4 Cool ie V e r n e r and Gary Dick inson , A Soc io -Economic Survey of the Pemberton V a l l e y in Br i t i sh Columbia , (Vancouver: Facu l ty of Educat ion, The Un ive r s i ty of Br i t i sh Columbia , 1968). 5 I b i d . , p. 91 . 6 See Table 1, Appendix. A . 6 VI„ D A T A C O L L E C T I O N The analyt ical survey method was used, with data being col lected by means of s t ructured in terviews conducted by an Indian college student and the w r i t e r dur ing the month of July 1971. The in terview schedule was of a s i m i l a r nature to the instrument used i n the AKDA soc io-economic surveys under the Canada Land Inventory. 7 A s i n the A R D A interview schedule soc io-economic data was obtained under the broad categories of personal , educational , s o c i a l , occupational and economic informat ion . Soc io-psychologica l data was obtained i n the areas of a l ienat ion, soc ia l dis tance, achievement orientat ion and attitudes towards education, employment and t i m e . Soc i a l par t ic ipat ion was measured by the Chapin Soc ia l Par t ic ipat ion Scale , 8 al ienation by the Srole Anomia Scale, 9 and s o c i a l distance was measured by the Bogardus Soc ia l Dis tance S c a l e . 1 0 The dimensions of achievement orientat ion were investigated by the use of four scales developed by K a h l i n studies conducted in M e x i c o and B r a z i l . 1 1 Attitudes towards 7 C o o l i e V e r n e r , Planning and Conducting A Survey: A Case Study, (Ottawa: R u r a l Development Branch, Department of F o r e s t r y and R u r a l Development, 1967), pp. 7-12. 8 F . S. Chapin, Soc ia l Par t ic ipa t ion Sca le , (Minneapo l i s : Un ive r s i t y of Minneapol is P res s , 1938). 9 L e o Sro le , " S o c i a l Integration and Cer t a in C o r o l l a r i e s : An Exp lo ra to ry Study, " A m e r i c a n Soc io log ica l Review, 21 ( A p r i l , 1956), pp. 709-716. 1 0 E . S . Bogardus, Soc ia l Dis tance , (Yel low Spr ings , Ohio: Ant ioch P re s s , 1959). i : L Joseph A . K a h l , "Some Measurements of Achievement Or ien ta t ion , " A m e r i c a n Journal of Sociology, 70 (May , 1965), pp. 669 - 681. 7 education, employment and t ime were investigated by indexes based upon Kluckhohn's m e t h o d o l o g y , 1 3 and used by H a n n i n 1 3 in a study of par t ic ipat ion in voluntary s o c i a l organizations in Ojibway v i l l a g e s . The in terview schedule was pre-tested with ten status Indian adult students to ensure the c l a r i t y of the questions and statements, and to assess the length of t ime requ i red to conduct the in te rv iew. VII . D A T A A N A L Y S I S Mul t iva r i a t e tabulations of the data were conducted, and the d i s t r i -butions of part icipants and non-part icipants with respect to each of twenty-five out of the total of th i r ty independent va r iab les considered were tested by the ch i square s t a t i s t i c . 1 4 The nu l l hypothesis of no s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant difference was tested at the .05 and .01 levels of s igni f icance . The strength of the re la t ionships between the dependent va r i ab l e and each of the independent va r i ab les was measured by the coefficient of contingency C . Nineteen of the total number of th i r ty independent va r i ab le s were submitted to a t-test analysis and product moment co r re la t ion coefficients were produced to measure the re la t ionships between these v a r i a b l e s . 1 5 1 3 F lo rence R . Kluckhohn, Var i a t ions in Value Orienta t ions , (Evanston: Row, Peterson and C o . , 1961). 1 3 D a n i e l J . Hannin, "Selected Fac to r s Assoc ia ted with the Par t ic ipa t ion of Adult Ojibway Indians in F o r m a l Voluntary Organizat ions , " (Unpublished P h . D . d i sse r ta t ion , The Un ive r s i ty of W i s c o n s i n , 1967). 1 4 James B je r r ing , et a l . , U B C . M V T A B : Mul t iva r i a t e Contingency Tabulat ions , (Vancouver: The Un ive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Centre , 1970). 1 5 James B je r r i ng and Paul Seagraves, UBC. TRIP : Triangular-Regress ion Package, (Vancouver : The Un ive r s i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Centre , 1970). 8 The t -values and cor re la t ion coefficients were tested for signif icance at the .05 and .01 l e v e l s . Stepwise r eg re s s ion analysis of these same nineteen var iab les was conducted with F probabi l i t ies at the . 10 l eve l of significance to d i scover which va r i ab le s were co l l ec t ive ly associated with par t ic ipat ion and might be worthy of further invest igat ion in future s t u d i e s . 1 6 F i v e of the soc io -psycho log ica l scales used in the study were submitted to factor analysis ind iv idual ly , and c o l l e c t i v e l y . 1 7 T h i s analysis was under-taken to determine f i r s t l y whether or not each scale was unidimensional , and secondly when a l l the scales were considered s imultaneously, whether or not each scale was a dis t inct d imens ion . VIII . PLAN O F T H E S T U D Y <-r-«i_ _ : ~ - — r,. T - l - „ ^ : „ „ 4 - ~ _ ; , ,<-- .-^^l. , ^ .t-l ~„ 1 H C O L U u y i a j . C J J U I . L C U i u t u r n I - U C I [ J L G X o . m c u i c i a n I I R I U U U ^ U U U , includes a statement of the p rob lem, a desc r ip t ion of the study setting and a report of the procedures used in drawing the sample and co l lec t ing and analyzing the data. The second chapter is a r ev iew of the re la ted l i t e ra tu re . Chapter three consists of an analysis of the data. A compar i son is made between par t ic ipants and non-part icipants by soc io-economic and s o c i o -psychologica l va r i ab les ; combinations of va r i ab les are analyzed to predict par t ic ipat ion, and the factor analysis of five soc io -psycho log ica l sca les i s repor ted . The f inal chapter consists of a summary of the study. Addi t ional tables and the interview schedule are included i n the appendix. 1 6 Ib id . 1 7 Jason H a l m , U B C . B M D X 72: Fac to r A n a l y s i s , (Vancouver : The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Centre, 1970). C H A P T E R II R E V I E W O F T H E R E L A T E D L I T E R A T U R E A search of the related l i te ra ture revealed only one study of Indian par t ic ipat ion; a study of Ojibway par t ic ipa t ion in fo rma l voluntary o rgan iza -t ions . Th i s rev iew wil l , therefore , summar i ze the related par t ic ipat ion l i t e r a -ture under three broad categories commencing with the soc io-economic charac te r i s t i c s of non-Indian adult education and community soc i a l p a r t i c i p a -t ion . The second category w i l l deal with the par t ic ipat ion charac te r i s t i c s of ethnic, r e l ig ious and low soc io-economic status groups. The final sect ion w i l l be a rev iew of the l i te ra ture concerned with soc io -psycho log ica l factors re la ted to par t ic ipa t ion . I . S O C I O - E C O N O M I C F A C T O R S R E L A T E D T O N O N - I N D I A N P A R T I C I P A T I O N Par t ic ipa t ion r e s e a r c h in adult education has revealed that many factors inc luding sex, education, occupation, income and age a l l contribute towards the identif icat ion of adult education p a r t i c i p a n t s . 1 A c c o r d i n g to V e r n e r and Newber ry , sex is a de te rmining factor i n par t ic ipa t ion in r e l a t ion to age and soc i a l s t a t u s . 2 Women of high soc io -economic status l i v i n g in urban areas are known to part icipate to a far greater 1 Edmund de S„ Brunner, et a l . An Overview of Adult Educat ion Research , (Chicago: The Adult Educat ion Assoc i a t i on of the U . S . A . , 1959); Coolie V e r n e r and John A . Newber ry J r . , "The Nature of Adult Pa r t i c ipa t i on , " Adult Educat ion, 8 (Summer , 1958), pp. 208 - 222. 2 V e r n e r and Newber ry , op. c i t . , p . 211 9 10 extent than women of low soc io-economic status l i v i n g in r u r a l a reas . Severa l extensive studies have determined that the ra t io of the sexes i n public school adult education c lasses i s about 65 per cent males to 35 per cent f e m a l e s . 3 M a r i t a l status has also been found to be related to par t ic ipa t ion with m a r r i e d people par t ic ipat ing to a greater extent than the s i n g l e . 4 The stage i n the fami ly cycle i s also know to influence par t ic ipat ion with r u r a l females being influenced m o s t . 5 The most effective predic tor of par t ic ipat ion appears to be the extent of fo rmal education experience as measured in years of school ing . Many studies have determined that the greater the length of previous school ing, the greater the l ike l ihood of an indiv idual par t ic ipat ing i n adult education p r o g r a m s . 6 Houle states that this i s not a s imple cause and effect re la t ionship , rather it i s a compl ica ted , complementary , evolv ing process , with education developing an ind iv idua l ' s awareness of the extent of l ife and knowledge; this expanded con-sciousness in turn i s an incentive for h i m to seek further educational ac t iv i t i e s . 7 3 Co E . Chapman, "Some Charac t e r i s t i c s of Adult P a r t - T i m e Students," Adult Educat ion, 10 (Autumn, 1959), pp. 27 - 41; J . W . C . Johnstone and R . J . R i v e r a , Volunteers for Lea rn ing , (Chicago: Aldine Publ ishing C o . , 1956), p . 84; E . H . M i z r u c h i and L . M . V a n a r i a , "Who Part ic ipates i n Adul t Educa t i on?" , Adult Educat ion, 10 (Spring, 1960), pp. 141 - 143. 4 C„ O. Houle, The Inquiring M i n d , (Madison: The U n i v e r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n P res s , 1961), p . 6. 6 V e r n e r and Newber ry , L o c . c i t . 6 Brunner, et a l . , p . 96; Johnstone and R i v e r a , op. c i t . , p. 7; Jack London, Robert Wenker t , and W a r r e n O. Hags t rom, Adult Educat ion and Soc i a l C l a s s , (Berkeley: Survey Research Centre , The Un ive r s i ty of Ca l i fo rn i a , 1963), p . 42; V e r n e r and Newber ry , op. c i t . , p . 218. 7 Houle , op. c i t . , p . 71. 11 The educational l eve l of part icipants i s known to have important impl ica t ions for adult education insti tutions and p rogramming . 8 Those part icipants with a high school education or less tend to e n r o l l in public school p rograms , whi ls t the higher education institutions attract those with more than a high school education. Occupation and income have both been identified as important factors contr ibut ing to the descr ip t ion of adult education p a r t i c i p a n t s . 9 It, has also been noted that occupational status and income are to a major extent determined by fo rma l education e x p e r i e n c e , 1 0 which as stated e a r l i e r appears to be the most important single predic tor of par t ic ipa t ion . Brunner conf i rms the existence of a s t r ong re la t ionship between occupation and par t ic ipa t ion whils t noting that public school programs attract part icipants f rom a wide range of o c c u p a t i o n s . 1 1 White c o l l a r worke r s , housewives, and professionals were reported by V e r n e r and Newber ry to part icipate in public school programs to a greater propor t ional extent than thei r numbers in community p o p u l a t i o n s . 1 2 In their analysis of r e sea rch V e r n e r and Newber ry state that p a r t i -cipat ion is high f rom the late twenties, or th i r t i e s , to the ea r ly fifties when V e r n e r and Newber ry , op. c i t . , p . 216. 9 Brunner, et a l . , L o c . c i t . , London, Wenkert , and Hags t rom, op. c i t . , p. 41; V e r n e r and Newber ry , L o c . c i t . 1 0 Johnstone and R i v e r a , op. c i t . , pp. 98 - 100; V e r n e r and Newber ry , op. c i t . , p. 2.19; London, Wenkert and Hags t rom, op. c i t . , pp. 84 - 86~ 1 1 Brunner, e t a l . , l o c . c i t . 1 2 V e r n e r and Newber ry , op. c i t . , p . 216. a decline in par t ic ipat ion general ly o c c u r s . 1 3 They state that propor t ional ly more younger adults and propor t ional ly fewer older adults part icipate in public school programs than their representat ion in the community . Community soc i a l par t ic ipat ion is known to be a significant predic tor of par t ic ipat ion in adult e d u c a t i o n . 1 4 A c c o r d i n g to V e r n e r and Newber ry approximately 60 per cent of the adult population do not part icipate in the fo rma l organizations of their c o m m u n i t i e s . 1 5 Houle noted that length of res idence in the community was also re la ted to p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 1 6 Informal par t ic ipat ion appears to be more prevalent in r u r a l areas whi l s t f o r m a l par t ic ipat ion occurs more frequently i n the urban s e t t i n g . 1 7 R e f e r r i n g to the significant differences between the patterns of fo rma l soc ia l par t ic ipat ion i n r u r a l and urban areas, V e r n e r and Newberry stated that, " R u r a l communit ies tend to have less c l e a r l y defined and complicated dis t inct ions among people so that par t ic ipat ion genera l ly c rosses a l l l i n e s . " 1 8 Dick inson identified nine soc io-economic charac te r i s t i c s among non-Indians that were s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant i n desc r ib ing differences between part icipants and non-part icipants in adult education act ivi t ies in the Pemberton V a l l e y . 1 9 The nine cha rac te r i s t i c s were age, number of ch i ld ren 1 4 Brunner, et a l . , op. c i t . , pp. 102 - 114. 1 5 V e r n e r and Newber ry , op. c i t . , p . 209. 1 6 Houle, op. c i t . , p . 6. 1 7 Brunner, et a l . , op. c i t . , p. 108. 1 8 V e r n e r and Newber ry , op. c i t . , p . 211. 1 9 J . Ga ry Dick inson , " A n Ana ly t i c a l Survey of the Pemberton V a l l e y in Br i t i sh Columbia W i t h Special Reference to Adult E d u c a t i o n , " (Unpublished E d . D . d i sser ta t ion , The Un ive r s i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia , 1968). 13 at home, b i r th -p lace , number of years in the area, number of related fami l ies l i v i n g in Pemberton, f a rm or non-farm resident , father 's education perceived adequacy of s k i l l s and des i re for further education. Those who part icipated in fo rma l organizations were more active adult education par t ic ipants , a lso par t ic ipat ion appeared to be related to loca l i ty of res idence in the v a l l e y . The younger respondents, those with more ch i ldren , those whose fathers had more education, the f a rm population, and those born i n Pemberton and having more kinship ties in the va l l ey were in general found to be more l i k e l y to part icipate in adult education ac t iv i t i e s . A c c o r d i n g to Booth non-par t ic ipat ion is most l i k e l y to occur in that port ion of the population which is 45 yea r s of age and over, has less than a high school education, and which i s in the lowest categories of the labour f o r c e . 2 0 In addition to the above general iza t ions , Booth also stated that there appeared to be tendencies for non-part icipants to be females rather than males regardless of their educational achievement, to be those who did not complete high school or college ra ther than those who d id , to be r u r a l ra ther than urban, and to be non-white rather than white . II. S O C I O - E C O N O M I C F A C T O R S R E L A T E D T O T H E P A R T I C I P A T I O N O F E T H N I C , R E L I G I O U S A N D L O W S T A T U S GROUPS Hannin found that Ojibway men and women part icipated i n f o r m a l voluntary v i l l age organizations i n approximately the same r a t i o . 2 1 Age , 2 0 A lan Booth, " A Demographic Considerat ion of N o n - P a r t i c i p a t i o n , " Adult Educat ion, 11 (Summer, 1961 ), pp. 223 - 229. 2 1 Dan i e l J . Hannin, "Selected Fac to r s Assoc ia ted with the Par t ic ipat ion of Adult Ojibway Indians in F o r m a l Voluntary Organ iza t ions , " (Unpublished P h . D . d isser ta t ion , The Un ive r s i ty of W i s c o n s i n , 1967). m a r i t a l status, education, frequency of v i s i t i n g re la t ives and friends and mass media and non-Indian contacts appeared not to be s ignif icant ly related to par t ic ipat ion i n v o l u n t a r y organizat ions . Those charac te r i s t i c s that were re la ted to organizat ional par t ic ipat ion included l eve l of l i v i n g , occupational status, and attendance at adult education courses and at church s e r v i c e s . The number of ch i ld ren at home and at school were found to be s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant with male par t ic ipat ion i n fo rmal voluntary organizations but not wi th female par t ic ipa t ion . Ma les with no ch i ld ren par t ic ipated less than males wi th seve ra l ch i ld ren and women with few ch i ld ren par t ic ipated more than women with s eve ra l ch i ld ren . The Ojibway part icipants and non-part icipants both ranked adult education ac t iv i t ies as the most important objective of voluntary Indian organizat ions . Anderson and N i e m i commenting upon the low par t ic ipat ion of Indians i n educational programs stated that thei r lack of experience in par t ic ipat ion in community affairs as s o c i a l and ethnic equals inhibited their par t ic ipa t ion in adult e d u c a t i o n . 2 2 Speaking of the disadvantaged genera l ly , the authors stated that they part icipate through casual , c lose , and p r i m a r y group r e l a t ion -ships involv ing s m a l l kinship, loca l i ty or fr iendship groups. In a study of the Pemberton V a l l e y , V e r n e r and Dick inson interviewed every fifth head of household on the Mount C u r r i e Indian r e s e r v e . 2 3 Of the 32 Indian respondents, ten (32.3 %) reported having attended an adult education course dur ing the preceding three y e a r s . The education, occupation, and income ^ D a r r e l l Anderson and John A . N i e m i , Adult Education and the Disadvantaged Adul t , (New Y o r k : E R I C Clearninghouse on Adult Educat ion, Syracuse , 1969), p. 37. 2 3 Coolie V e r n e r and Gary D i c k i n s o n , A Soc io -Economic Survey of the Pemberton V a l l e y i n B r i t i s h Columbia , (Vancouver : Facul ty of Educat ion, The Unive r s i ty of Br i t i sh Columbia , 1968). of the Mount C u r r i e Indians were reported to be at levels far lower than those of the neighbouring non-Indians, and the study concluded that the Mount C u r r i e Indians l ived under conditions of re la t ive depr iva t ion . If the low soc io-economic status of the Indian were considered in re la t ion to descr ip t ions of non-par t ic ipants , one would expect there to be few, i f any Indians par t ic ipa t ing in adult education ac t iv i t i e s . Brunner stated that: Those who have less than an eighth grade education, are over 55 years of age, are labourers and se rv ice w o r k e r s , and those with low economic status and a subsistence l eve l of l i v i n g are l i k e l y to part icipate less in adult e d u c a t i o n . 2 4 V e r n e r and Newber ry repor t that judging by factors of education and status, par t ic ipat ion patterns among black A m e r i c a n s are s i m i l a r to those of white A m e r i c a n s . 2 5 However , blacks with low incomes, and low levels of education, have higher levels of par t ic ipa t ion than their white counterparts . Those cu l tu ra l groups with low levels of soc i a l contact with their surrounding communit ies tend to maintain thei r native cu l tu ra l patterns which general ly exclude extensive associa t ional membersh ip . Female members of such groups part icipate in non-church re la ted ac t iv i t ies to a l e s s e r extent than do the male members and those organizations supported are usual ly those supporting and maintaining the group's t rad i t ional cu l tu ra l v a l u e s . 3 6 Rel ig ious aff i l ia t ion has also been found to influence par t ic ipa t ion , with Cathol ics being s ignif icant ly less active in non-church related o rgan iza -tions than Protestants, but more active in church related organizations than 2 4 Brunner, et a l . , p. 98 3 5 V e r n e r and Newber ry , op. c i t . , p . 212. 2 6 Ibid. Protestants . Genera l ly , Protestants part icipate more than C a t h o l i c s . 3 7 The great major i ty of the Mount C u r r i e Indian band are according to the r ecords of the Department of Indian Af fa i r s and Nor the rn Development, Roman Ca tho l i c s . III. S O C I O - P S Y C H O L O G I C A L F A C T O R S R E L A T E D T O P A R T I C I P A T I O N Goard and Dick inson invest igat ing the influence of education and age on par t ic ipa t ion i n r u r a l adult education reported that part icipants and non-part icipants held different attitudes toward c h a n g e . 2 8 T h e i r findings wi th regard to the influence of education complied with London's analysis that those with higher leve ls of education have experienced success with change. Hence they w i l l have more favourable attitudes towards c h a n g e . 2 9 By a l l c r i t e r i a for esia.folisli.iiig the posi t ion of groups in a s o c i o -economic c lass sys tem, Indians as a group are obviously members of the l o w e r - l o w e r c l a s s . A c c o r d i n g to M i l l e r this is the only soc io-economic c lass which i s actually hostile to education as i t conflicts with the i r c lass v a l u e s . 3 3 2 7 Ibid. 2 8 Dean S. Goard and Gary D ick in son , The Influence of Educat ion  and Age on Par t ic ipat ion in R u r a l Adult Educat ion, (Vancouver : Facu l ty of Educat ion, The Un ive r s i ty of B r i t i s h Co lumbia , 1968). 2 9 London, Wenkert and Hags t rom, op. c i t . , pp. 121 - 125. 3 0 H . L . M i l l e r , Par t ic ipa t ion of Adults in Educat ion: A F o r c e F i e l d A n a l y s i s , (Boston: Centre for the Study of L i b e r a l Educat ion for Adu l t s , 1967), P ~ 9 : The lower - lower class is concerned with the immediate fulf i l lment of their needs and is pes s imis t i c about the future. Educat ion demands an investment of t ime and effort of the participant to reach a nebulous future benefit. These value posit ions are incompatible and must exert some negative influence on par t ic ipa t ion . F r i e d m a n commenting on par t ic ipat ion and program value orientations has stated that as par t ic ipa t ion is voluntary i t might be expected to v a r y according to the degree of compat ib i l i ty which exists between the value o r i e n -tations of the p rogram and those of the ind iv idua l . 3 1 The extent and nature of Indian par t ic ipa t ion in adult education c lasses may then be a ref lec t ion of cer ta in values being held by individuals in the Indian community, and one might expect to d i scover that those band members whose values were c lose ly re la ted to the values of the dominant society would part icipate to a greater extent than others . When individuals cannot gain access to the means they requi re to reach thei r goals in l i fe , and those goals and the obstacles to their achieve-ment are cu l tu ra l ly and s o c i a l l y determined, anomia r e s u l t s . 3 2 It was once thought that anomia was so le ly an urban phenomenon but M e i r and Be l l have concluded otherwise: 3 1 E„ A . F r i e d m a n , "Changing Value Orientations in Adult L i f e . " Soc io log ica l Backgrounds of Adult Educat ion, Robert W . Burns ( e d . ) , (Chicago: Centre for the Study of L i b e r a l Educat ion for Adul t s , 1964), p. 44. 3 2 D . M e i r and W . B e l l , "Anomia and Dif ferent ia l Acces s to the Achievement of L i f e Goals , " A m e r i c a n Soc io log ica l Review, 24 ( A p r i l , 1959), pp. 189 - 202. In fact, we may expect considerable despair in the near future among members of an ag r i cu l tu r a l , non- indus t r ia l , non-urbanized population with low l i v i n g standards - the densely settled "underdeveloped a reas" . F o r these people increas ing ly accept configurations of life goals involv ing po l i t i c a l freedom and economic development. . . .whi le facing severe obstacles as they attempt to achieve these l ife goals . Th i s is p r ec i s e ly the breeding ground of a n o m i a . 3 3 MacDonald and C la r e have observed a slight inverse re la t ionship between education and alienation in a study of two Nova Scotia f ishing c o m m u n i t i e s . 3 4 A stronger inverse re la t ionship between educational at tain-ment and al ienation was noted by Dick inson i n a study of r u r a l adults in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 3 5 A recent study noted that a significant change in anomia scores was recorded by a group of r u r a l Appalachian adults enrol led in an adult basic education program of four months d u r a t i o n . 3 8 The resea rchers stated that their findings imp l i ed that the students saw education as a means of r emov ing obstacles which were preventing them f rom achieving their l i fe goals . 3 3 I b i d . , p. 190. 34 A . A . MacDonald and W . B. C l a r e , The Relat ionship Between  F i s h e r i e s Technology and Community Soc ia l Structure , (Antigonish: St. F r a n c i s X a v i e r Un ive r s i t y , 1967). 3 5 Gary Dick inson , "Al iena t ion Among R u r a l Adults of Low Educat ional Attainment, " Adult Educat ion, 21 ( F a l l , 1970), pp. 3 - 13. 3 7 H . Rose and J . Hensley , "The Relat ionship Between Anomia and Par t ic ipat ion in Adult Basic Educa t i on , " (A paper read at the Annual Adult Educat ion Resea rch Conference, New Y o r k , Feb rua ry 2nd - 5th, 1971). In a study of change in Indian communities, i t was noted that Indians who said that they r ea l i zed a low l eve l of education was an obstacle to earning a good l i v i n g may be those most amenable to soc i a l change as they were the least a l i e n a t e d . 3 7 It would follow then that those Indians with the lowest leve ls of alienation may be those most l i k e l y to part icipate in adult education ac t iv i t i e s . A significant inverse re la t ionship between anomia and par t ic ipa t ion in the A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension Serv ice and area vocat ional schools was revealed by M a r s h , Dolan and R i d d i c k . 3 8 A th i rd bureaucracy, the Employment Secur i ty C o m m i s s i o n , was found to be not s ignif icant ly re la ted with anomia . The authors hypothesized that this was so because the highly alienated were most often out of work and therefore had more frequent contacts with the c o m m i s s i o n . A n invest igat ion of par t ic ipa t ion i n an ag r i cu l tu ra l cooperative organizat ion revealed the existence of a re la t ionship between levels of alienation and p a r t i -In a study of the re la t ionship betv/een al ienation and race and education in a s m a l l southern, United States community, i t was d i scovered that education was of greater signif icance as a factor contr ibut ing to an explanation of alienation amongst whites than it was of b l a c k s . 4 0 The most 3 7 J . G . E l l i o t t , A Study of the Changes Wi th in Fou r Indian Communit ies Over a T h r e e - Y e a r Pe r iod , (Antigonish: St. F r a n c i s X a v i e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1970). 3 8 C . P. M a r s h , R . Dolan J r . , and W . C . R idd ick , "Anomia and Communicat ion Behaviour: The Relat ionship Between Anomia and U t i l i z a t i o n of Three Public B u r e a u c r a c i e s , " R u r a l Sociology, 32 (1967), pp. 435 - 455. 3 9 J . P . C l a r k e , " M e a s u r i n g Al iena t ion Wi th in a Soc ia l Sys tem" , A m e r i c a n Soc io log ica l Review, 24 (1959), pp. 189 - 202. 4 0 R . Middle ton , "Al iena t ion , Race and Educa t ion , " A m e r i c a n Soc io log ica l Review, 28 (December , 1963), pp. 973 - 977. significant factor for blacks was thei r r a c i a l status as negroes. It was found that highly educated blacks were almost as l i ke ly as poorly educated blacks to share a high incidence of p e s s i m i s m about l i f e . K i l l i a n and G r i g g us ing the Srole Anomia scale reported that they found l i t t le difference between the anomia scores of highly educated blacks and blacks with low levels of e d u c a t i o n . 4 1 IV. S U M M A R Y F r o m the review of the re la ted l i te ra ture it would appear that non-Indian adult education part icipants might be expected to be middle aged, male rather than female, m a r r i e d rather than s ingle , and employed rather than unemployed. They would have more educational experience, be more active i n community s o c i a l organizat ions, and be of higher s o c i a l status than non-par t ic ipants . In t e rms of soc io -psycho log ica l cha rac te r i s t i c s the part icipants would be expected to share lower levels of al ienation and more favourable attitudes towards education and employment than those held by non-par t ic ipants . The search of the l i te ra ture failed to r evea l the existence of any studies of Indian adult education par t ic ipat ion, and only one study of Indian par t ic ipa t ion i nvo lun ta ry soc i a l organizations was found. It is not possible therefore to draw upon any e m p i r i c a l r e sea rch to support general izat ions about the nature of Indian adult education par t ic ipa t ion . The studies of ethnic and low status groups have revealed that factors such as r e l i g i o n , s o c i a l i so la t ion, and group rela t ionships may influence 4 1 L . M . K i l l i a n and C . M . G r i g g , " U r b a n i s m , Race and A n o m i a , " A m e r i c a n Journal of Sociology, 67 ( M a y , 1962), pp. 661 - 665. par t ic ipat ion. In view of the unique soc ia l h i s tory of the Indian in Canadian society with regard to these three factors it would appear l i k e l y that Indian par t ic ipat ion patterns may more c lose ly resemble those of non-Indian disadvantaged groups than more affluent non-Indian groups. C H A P T E R III C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F P A R T I C I P A N T S AND N O N - P A R T I C I P A N T S The f i r s t sect ion of this chapter consists of a compar i son of p a r t i -cipants and non-part icipants by soc io-economic va r i ab les under the broad categories of personal , education, s o c i a l , occupational and income cha rac t e r i s t i c s . In the second section part icipants and non-part icipants are compared by the soc io -psycho log ica l va r iab les of soc i a l dis tance, al ienation, achievement orientat ion, and cu l tu ra l attitudes towards education t ime and employment . A factor analysis of the five soc io -psycho log ica l scales used to measure al ienation and achievement orientat ion is also repor ted . The f inal sections of the chapter are devoted to a predic t ion analysis u t i l i z i n g both soc io-economic and soc io -psycho log ica l v a r i a b l e s , and a summary of the chapter. I. S O C I O - E C O N O M I C C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S A summary of the seventeen independent soc io-economic var iab les studied and the s t a t i s t i ca l tests conducted on them are shown in Table 1 and Table 2. The chi -square tests conducted revealed that s t a t i s t i ca l ly significant differences existed between part icipants and non-part icipants by the va r i ab le s of sex, w i s h for further adult education par t ic ipat ion, occupational prest ige of des i red job, occupational prest ige of des i r ed vocat ional t ra in ing , receipt of educational assis tance, receipt of unemployment insurance assistance and total annual income. (Table 1) The var iab les soc i a l par t ic ipat ion and total annual income were found by t-test analysis to be s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant in d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between part icipants and non-part icipants . (Table 2) 22 23 T A B L E 1 C H I - S Q U A R E V A L U E S A N D C O N T I N G E N C Y C O E F F I C I E N T S F O R DISTRIBUTIONS BY P A R T I C I P A N T C A T E G O R I E S F O R S E V E N T E E N S O C I O - E C O N O M I C V A R I A B L E S Cha rac t e r i s t i c C h i -Square d . f . P C I. P E R S O N A L : Sex 9.2013 1 < .001 .309 M a r i t a l Status 3.6475 2 N . S . Age 7.559 3 N . S . Number of Ch i ld ren 3.94 3 N . S . II. E D U C A T I O N A L : Y e a r s of school ing 2 .425 3 N . S . W i s h for further adult education par t ic ipa t ion 7.607 1 < .01 .284 III. S O C I A L : Soc i a l par t ic ipat ion 2.212 3 N . S . Off - reserve l i v i n g experience 0 .5 1 N . S . Church attendance 0.592 1 N . S . I V . O C C U P A T I O N A L : Labour force category- 5.3556 2 N . S . Occupational prestige 2 .120 1 N . S . Occupational prest ige of des i red job 8.4 1 < .01 .296 Occupational prest ige of des i red vocat ional t ra in ing 7.3897 1 < .05 .281 V . I N C O M E : Educat ional assistance 4.978 1 < .05 .232 Unemployment Insurance Ass i s t ance 8.236 1 < .01 .294 Soc i a l Welfare assistance 1.264 1 N . S . To t a l annual income 6.193 1 < .02 .258 T A B L E 2 T - V A L U E S A N D P R O D U C T M O M E N T C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S F O R DISTRIBUTION BY P A R T I C I P A N T C A T E G O R I E S F O R F I V E S E L E C T E D S O C I O - E C O N O M I C V A R I A B L E S Charac t e r i s t i c t-value d . f . P r P Age 1.5.11 84 N . S . - .0062 N . S . Number of Ch i ld ren .112 83 N . S . .1742 N . S . Y e a r s of Schooling - .932 84 N . S . .0945 N . S . Soc ia l Par t ic ipat ion -2 .6 61 <.01 .3291 <.01 T o t a l Annual Income 1.847 60 <.06 - .0289 N . S . Personal C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Sex. Although there were propor t ional ly more females (52.3 %) than males ( 47.7 %) i n the sample , the d is t r ibut ions of respondents by sex and par t ic ipa t ion category r evea l the proport ion of female part icipants to be con-s iderably greater than the proport ion of male par t ic ipants . (Table 3) Of the part icipants 30.9 per cent were male and 69.1 per cent were female, whi ls t 63.6 per cent of the non-part icipants were male and 36.4 per cent were female . The difference i n the dis t r ibut ions between the two groups was s i g -nificant at the .001 leve l of s igni f icance . The nul l hypothesis of no s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant difference between part icipants and non-part icipants was therefore re jec ted . The coefficient of contingency (C = .309) revealed the existence of a T A B L E 3 P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY S E X Sex To ta l Par t ic ipants . Non-Par t ic ipants N o . % N o . % N o . % Male 41 47.7 13 30.9 28 63.6 Female 45 52.3 29 69.1 16 36.4 T O T A L 86 100.0 42 100.0 44 100.0 X 3 = 9.2013, d . f . = 1, p < . 0 0 1 . C = .309 s t rong re la t ionship between the va r iab les indicat ing that the respondent 's sex did influence their par t ic ipa t ion in adult education ac t iv i t i e s . m a r r i e d 30.2 percent were single and 9.3 percent were ei ther widowed, d ivorced or separated. (Table 4) Of the part icipants 57.1 percent were m a r r i e d and 38.1 percent were s ingle , as compared to the non-part icipants 63.7 percent of whom were m a r r i e d and 22 .7 percent who were s ingle . The difference in the dis t r ibut ions between the two groups was tested by the chi -square s ta t is t ic and was found to be not s t a t i s t i ca l ly significant at the .05 l eve l of s ignif icance. The nu l l hypothesis of no significant difference was therefore accepted indicat ing that m a r i t a l status did not appear to influence the respondents' decis ions to part icipate in adult education c l a s se s . A g e . The respondents ages ranged from less than 24 to over 45 years of age. (Table 5) A quarter of the respondents were under 24, while 14- percent were over 45 years of age. The part icipants as a group were T A B L E 4 P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY M A R I T A L S T A T U S M a r i t a l Status T o t a l Part icipants Non-Par t ic ipants N o . % N o . % N o . /o Single 26 30.2 16 38.1 10 22 .7 M a r r i e d 52 60.5 24 57.1 28 63.7 Other 8 9.3 2 4.8 . 6 13.6 T O T A L 86 100.0 42 100.0 44 100.0 X 2 = 3,6475, d 0 fo = 2, N . S . T A B L E 5 P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY A G E Age To ta l Part icipants Non-Par t ic ipants N o . % N o . % N o . % 18 - 24 22 25 .6 16 28 .1 6 13.6 25 - 34 34 39.5 14 33.3 20 45.4 35 - 44 18 20.9 6 14.3 12 27 .3 45 and over 12 14.0 6 14.3 6 13.7 T O T A L 86 100.0 42 100.0 44 100.0 X 2 = 7.559, d . f . '= 3, N . S . t - 1.511, d . f. = 84, N . S . 27 younger than the non-par t ic ipants . Some 61.4 per cent of the part icipants were below the age of 35 as compared to 59 percent for the non-par t ic ipants . A chi -square test of the differences in the d i s t r ibu t ion yie lded a value of 7.559, which i s not significant at the .05 l e v e l . A t-test was con-ducted to compare the mean ages of the two groups. The t probabi l i ty of 1.511 obtained was not significant at the.05 l eve l , and a co r re la t ion coefficient (r . = - .0062) revealed a non-significant re la t ionship between age and p a r t i c i -pation indicat ing that age appeared to have no influence on the respondents ' dec i s ion to par t ic ipate . The nul l hypothesis of no significant difference between part icipants and non-part icipants by the va r i ab l e of age was accepted. Number of C h i l d r e n . The non-part icipants as a group had more ch i ld ren than had the par t ic ipants . (Table 6) The mean number of ch i ld ren n - 1 A r>T T ? a P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY N U M B E R O F C H I L D R E N Number of To ta l Part icipant Non-Par t ic ipant Ch i ld r en N o . % N o . % N o . 0 22 22 .6 12 28 .6 10 22 .7 1 - 2 21 24 .4 13 30.9 8 18.2 3 - 4 31 36.1 11 26.2 20 45.5 5 or more 12 16.9 . 6 14.3 6 13.6 T O T A L 86 100.0 42 100.0 44 100.0 X 2 = 3.94, d . f. = 3, N . S . t = .112, d . f. = 83, N . S. 28 per part icipant parent was 4.12 and per non-part icipant parent was 4 .77 . Fi f ty-nine percent of the non-part icipants had three or more ch i ld ren as c o m -pared to 40.5 percent of the par t ic ipants . Repor t ing no ch i ld ren were 28.6 percent of the part icipants and 22.7 percent of the non-part icipants while repor t ing one or two ch i ld ren were 30.9 percent of the part icipants and 18.2 percent of the non-par t ic ipants . Th i s difference between the groups may be accounted for by women with large fami l ies being unable to leave their homes to par t ic ipate . Hannin found such a re la t ionship influenced the par t ic ipat ion of Ojibways in voluntary soc ia l o rgan i za t i ons . 1 The difference in the dis t r ibut ions proved to be not s ta t i s t i ca l ly s i g -nificant at the .05 l e v e l of s ignif icance when tested by the chi -square s ta t i s t ic . A t-test of the differences i n the mean number of ch i ld ren between the two groups was computed and the t -value obtained (t = .112) was not significant at the .05 l e v e l . The nul l hypothesis of no s ta t i s t ica l ly significant difference was accepted. A product moment co r re la t ion coefficient ( r = .1742) indicated a low l e v e l of associa t ion existed between respondents ' numbers of ch i ld ren and par t ic ipa t ion . A s expected a high co r re l a t ion (r = .55) was found between age and numbers of ch i ld ren . Educat ional C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Y e a r s of Schooling Completed . The extent of school ing reported"by the respondents ranged f rom less than eight to over eleven yea r s , and the median was between eight and nine y e a r s . (Table 7) 1 Dan ie l J . Hannin, "Selected F a c t o r s Associa ted with the Par t ic ipa t ion of Adult Ojibway Indians in F o r m a l Voluntary Organiza t ions" , (Unpublished P h . D . d i sser ta t ion , Un ive r s i ty of W i s c o n s i n , 1967). T A B L E 7 P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY Y E A R S O F S C H O O L I N G C O M P L E T E D Y e a r s of To ta l Part icipants Non-Par t ic ipants Schooling N o . % N o . % N o . % L e s s than 8 20 23 .3 7 16.6 13 29 .6 8 - 9 25 2 9 . 0 12 28 .6 13 29 .6 10 - 11 21 24 .4 • 12 28 .6 9 20 .4 M o r e than 11 20 23 ,3 11 26.2 9 20 .4 T O T A L 86 100.0 42 100.0 44 100.0 X 3 = 2 .425, d . f. = 3, N . S . t = - .932, d . f . = 84, N . S . The part icipants had completed a mean of 9.54 years of schooling as compared to 8.77 years completed by the non-par t ic ipants . Some 54.8 percent of the part icipants had completed ten or more years of school ing whi ls t only 40.8 percent of the non-part icipants had achieved that l e v e l of educational exper ience . It would seem that those respondents with the most years of school ing completed were more l i k e l y to part icipate i n adult education ac t iv i t i e s . Th i s re la t ionship was expected; however, the difference i n the dis t r ibut ions between the two groups was not great enough to be s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant at the .05 l eve l when tested by the chi -square test . A t-test was conducted and the t value obtained (t = .932) confirmed the dec is ion to accept the nu l l hypothesis of no significant difference. A co r re l a t ion coefficient obtained (r = .0945) revealed there was only a slight re la t ionship between par t ic ipa t ion and number of years of school ing completed. Educat ional experience did not appear to influence the dec is ion of the respondents to par t ic ipate . W i s h for further adult education par t ic ipa t ion . Over 63 percent of the total number of respondents indicated that they would l ike to attend some future adult education ac t iv i ty . (Table 8) The great major i ty of the p a r t i c i -pants (78.6 %) stated that they wished to attend further adult education c lasses as compared with half of the non-par t ic ipants . It would appear,therefore, that T A B L E 8 P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY E X P R E S S E D WISH F O R F U R T H E R A D U L T E D U C A T I O N P A R T I C I P A T I O N To ta l N o . % Part icipants N o . % Non-Par t ic ipants N o . % Wished adult education D i d not w i sh adult education T O T A L 55 63.9 31 36.1 33 78.6 9 21 .4 86 100.0 42 100.0 22 22 44 50.0 50.0 100.0 X 2 = 7.607, d . f. = 1 , p < . 0 1 . C = .284 . the respondents held a high l e v e l of sat isfact ion with the experience of adult education par t ic ipat ion and the experience was also considered favourably by a large propor t ion of non-par t ic ipants . The difference in the dis t r ibut ions was found to be significant at the .01 l eve l of significance and the nu l l hypothesis of no significant difference was re jected. The coefficient of contingency C obtained (C =.284) indicated that a s trong re la t ionship existed between par t ic ipat ion and the des i re for further par t ic ipa t ion . The respondents indicated an interest in attending a wide range of adult education ac t iv i t i e s : 17.44 percent reported basic education in teres ts , 11.68 percent homemaking, 16.28 percent handicrafts , and 9.3 percent reported an interest in attending Indian studies and native language c l a s ses . There was no s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant difference between part ic ipants and non-participants by type of adult education in teres t . Soc ia l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Soc ia l Par t i c ipa t ion . The Chapin Soc ia l Par t ic ipat ion Scale was used to measure par t ic ipa t ion in fo rma l voluntary soc ia l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 2 M o r e than half of the respondents reported that they d id not part icipate in any voluntary s o c i a l organizations dur ing the twelve months preceding the study. The scale scores of those who had part ic ipated were r e l a t i ve ly low with only 17. 5 percent of the respondents sco r ing more than ten scale points . (Table 9) F i f ty percent of the part icipants and 59.1 percent of the n o n - p a r t i c i -pants reported that they d id not part ic ipate in any fo rma l voluntary o rgan iza -t ions . Scor ing over ten on the Chapin Scale were 23.8 percent of the 2 F . S. Chapin, Soc ia l Par t ic ipa t ion Scale , (Minneapol i s : U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota P re s s , 1938). Amongst those organizations reported by the respondents as functioning on the rese rve were the Adult Education Commit tee , Athlet ic Club, Health and Welfare Commit tee , Homemakers Club, Parent-Teacher Assoc ia t ion , Youth Counc i l , and the Band C o u n c i l . T A B L E 9 P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY S O C I A L P A R T I C I P A T I O N S C A L E S C O R E Soc ia l To t a l Part icipants Non-Par t ic ipants Par t ic ipat ion N o . % N o . % N o . % 0 47 53.6 21 50.0 26 59.1 1 - 5 13 15.1 6 14.3 7 15.9 6 - 10 11 12.8 5 11.9 6 13.6 M o r e than 10 15 17.5 10 23 .8 5 11.4 T O T A L 86 100.0 42 100.0 44 100.0 X2= 2 .313 , d . f. = 3, N . S . t = - 2 . 6 , d . f. 61, p < .01 part icipants and 11.4 percent of the non-par t ic ipants . Some 14.3 percent and 11.9 percent of the part icipants scored between one and f ive , and s i x and ten respec t ive ly , whi ls t 15.9 percent and 13.6 percent of the non-part icipants had scores in those ca tegor ies . C l e a r l y the part icipants were more ac t ively engaged in fo rmal organizations than were non-par t ic ipants . However , the difference in the dis t r ibut ions when tested by the chi -square statis was not s ta t i s t ica l ly s i g n i f i -cant at the .05 l e v e l . A t-test was computed to ve r i fy the finding of no s i g n i f i -cant difference. The t value obtained (t = -2 0 6) was significant at the .01 leve l and the dec i s ion was made to reject the nu l l hypothesis of no significant difference. A cor re la t ion coefficient obtained (r = .33) was also significant at the .01 l eve l indicat ing that those respondents who part icipated i n fo rmal voluntary soc i a l organizations were those most l i k e l y to part icipate i n adult education ac t i v i t i e s . It was noted that the cor re la t ion coefficient obtained between soc i a l par t ic ipat ion and the var iab le numbers of ch i ldren was posit ive and significant at the .01 l eve l ( r = .33) . However, the re la t ionship between adult education par t ic ipat ion and numbers of ch i ld ren was not s ta t i s t ica l ly signif icant . (Appendix A , Table 1) Th i s finding suggests that those respondents with ch i ld ren may prefer par t ic ipat ing in voluntary soc i a l organizations ra ther than par t ic ipat ing in adult education ac t iv i t i e s . Off - reserve res idence . A lmos t 40 percent of the respondents reported that they had at some t ime l i v e d off r e s e r v e . (Table 10) A l a rge r propor t ion T A B L E 10 P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY E X P E R I E N C E L I V I N G O F F R E S E R V E L i v i n g Exper ience N o . % N o . % N o . % Have l ived off r e se rve 34 39.5 15 35.7 19 . 43 .2 Have not l ived off r e se rve 52 60 .5 27 64.3 . 25 56.8 T O T A L 86 100.0 42 100.0 44 100.0 X 2 .= .50 , d . f. = 1, N . S. of non-part icipants (43.2 %) than part icipants (35.7 %) had l ived off r e s e r v e . The difference in the dis t r ibut ions was not s t a t i s t i ca l ly significant at the .05 l e v e l , and the nu l l hypothesis of no significant difference was accepted. It i s possible that those who had l ived off the r e se rve may have been unable to adjust to thei r new m i l i e u and had chosen to re turn , or a l ternat ively they had never intended l i v i n g off - reserve permanently. It was not possible to determine f rom the data whether par t ic ipants were any more l i k e l y than non-part icipants to be successful in adjusting to off- reserve res idency . Church attendance. Of the total number of respondents one- thi rd attended church pe r iod ica l ly , while two- th i rds did not attend church at a l l . (Table 11) A s l ight ly g rea t e r propor t ion of non-part icipants (36.4 %) than T A B L E 11 P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY C H U R C H A T T E N D A N C E Church To ta l Part icipants Non-Par t ic ipants Attendance N o . /o N o . % N o . % Attend 28 32.6 12 ' 28.6 16 36.4 Do not attend 58 67.4 30 71.4 28 63.6 T O T A L 86 100.0 42 100.0 44 100.0 X 2 = .592, d . f. = 1, N . S . part icipants (28.6 %) attended. Th i s difference in the dis t r ibut ions between the groups was not s t a t i s t i ca l ly significant and the nu l l hypothesis of no significant difference between the groups was accepted. Occupational Charac te r i s t i c s Posi t ion in the labour force . Only 45. 3 percent of the respondents had been employed dur ing the twelve months preceding the study. (Table 12) Housewives accounted for 27.9 percent and the unemployed 26.8 percent of the remainder of the sample . Of the non-part icipants 56.8 percent had been employed and 18.2 percent had been unemployed while 33.3 percent of the T A B L E 12 P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY POSITION IN L A B O U R F O R C E Posi t ion To ta l Par t ic ipants Non-Par t ic ipants N o . % N o . 7o N o . % Housewives 24 27.9 13 31.0 11 25 .0 Unemployed 23 26.8 15 35.7 8 18.2 Employed 39 45.3 14 33.3 25 56.8 T O T A L 86 100.0 42 100.0 44 100.0 X 2 = 5.3556, d . f. = 2, N . S . part icipants had been employed and 35.7 percent had been unemployed. A ' • ~ — f - * - " v u UVA„J,_.„- v '"/u/ " i; . j - — . . . - \ . - •• housewives. The difference in the dis t r ibut ions can be explained i n part by the fact that a large proport ion of the part icipants (69.1 %) were female, and 38.1 percent were under 25 years of age and in an area where employment oppor-tunities are to be found almost exc lus ive ly in the p r i m a r y industr ies of fores t ry and agr icul ture there are few jobs for the young, and even fewer for females . The difference in the dis t r ibut ions produced a chi -square value of 5.3556 which i s not significant at the .05 l e v e l . Consequently the nu l l hypothesis of no significant difference was accepted. A l s o there was no s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant difference between the employed part icipants and non-part icipants by the number of months they had been employed. Occupational pres t ige . The respondents ' occupations were c lass i f i ed i n dec i les accord ing to the Blishen soc io-economic occupational index. 3 M o r e than half of the respondents ' occupations so c lass i f ied fe l l in the tenth deci le which i s the category including unsk i l l ed manual labouring occupations. (Table 13). T A B L E 13 P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F E M P L O Y E D R E S P O N D E N T S BY O C C U P A T I O N A L P R E S T I G E O F M A I N JOB Occupational Prest ige i n Blishen To ta l Par t ic ipants Non-Par t ic ipants Dec i l e s N o . 7o N o . % N o . % 4 - 9 19 48.7 9 64.3 10 40 .0 10 20 51.3 5 35.7 15 60 .0 T O T A L 39 100.0 14 100.0 25 100.0 X 2 = 2 .120, d . f. - 1, N . S. Employed part icipants reported p r inc ipa l occupations which were of higher prest ige than those reported by non-par t ic ipants . Some 64.3 percent of the part icipants as compared to 40 percent of the non-part icipants reported being employed in occupations categorized i n Blishen deci les of nine and h igher . Only 35.7 percent of the employed part icipants reported being in the lowest dec i le while 60 percent of the employed non-part icipants reported occupations in that category. 3 Bernard R . Bl ishen, " A Soc io -Economic Index for Occupations in Canada", Canadian Review of-Sociology and Anthropology, 4 (Feb . 1967), pp. 41 - 53~ F r o m the dis t r ibut ions it would appear that part icipants enjoy higher occupational prest ige than non-part icipants , however the difference i n the dis t r ibut ions was not sufficient to be s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant at the .05 l e v e l . The nu l l hypothesis of no significant difference was therefore accepted. The dis t r ibut ions of the B. C . labour force and the employed respon-dents by occupational prest ige r evea l that where only twelve percent of the p r o v i n c i a l labour force are employed in the lowest status occupations categorized i n the tenth deci le of the Bl ishen Index,over half (51.3 %) of the employed respondents held jobs c lass i f i ed i n that status category. (Table 14) T A B L E 14 P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F B. C . L A B O U R F O R C E A N D E M P L O Y E D R E S P O N D E N T S BY O C C U P A T I O N A L P R E S T I G E Occupational Prest ige B. C . L a b o u r 4 Tota l Indian i n Blishen Dec i l e s F o r c e Respondents % % 1 - 3 20 ,0 0 .0 4 - 9 68 .0 48.7 10 12.0 51.3 T O T A L S 100.0 100.0 Sixty-eight percent of the p rov inc i a l labour force were employed in occupations rated in and between the fourth and nineth dec i les of the Blishen index as compared to 48.7 percent of the respondents. None of the respondents repor ted 4 I b i d . , p. 52. employment in high status occupations rated i n the top three Bl ishen index dec i les while 19 percent of the p r o v i n c i a l labour force held such posi t ions . The imbalance in the d is t r ibut ions can be attributed to many factors inc luding the i so la t ion and l imi t ed employment opportunities of the Pemberton V a l l e y , combined with the respondents' low levels of education and vocat ional s k i l l s „ Occupational prestige of des i r ed job- Almos t half (48.8 %) of the respondents reported a par t icu la r job that they des i red to have. (Table 15) T A B L E 15 P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY O C C U P A T I O N A L P R E S T I G E O F D E S I R E D JOB Occupational Prest ige of D e s i r e d Job i n To ta l Part icipants Non-Par t ic ipants Blishen Dec i l e s N o . % N o . % N o . % 1 - 5 15 17.5 12 28 .6 3 6.8 6 - 1 0 27 31.3 9 21 .4 18 41 .0 No response 44 51.2 21 50.0 23 52.2 T O T A L S 86 100.0 42 100.0 44 100.0 X 2 = 8.4, d . f. = 1, P < o 01 C = .296 The part icipants reported des i red jobs of higher occupational prestige than those reported by non-par t ic ipants . Only 6.8 percent of the non-part icipants as compared to 28 .6 percent of the part icipants des i red jobs which were placed i n the top five Blishen index d e c i l e s . A chi -square test of the dis t r ibut ions produced a value of 8.4 which was significant at the .01 l e v e l . The nul l hypothesis of no significant difference i n the dis t r ibut ions between the groups was therefore re jec ted . A strong positive' associa t ion between par t ic ipat ion and the occupational prestige of the respondents' des i red jobs was c l e a r l y indicated by the coefficient of contingency C ( C = .296). The high proport ion of no responses was due i n part to the number of housewives and older respondents who stated that they did not want future employment . Occupational prest ige of des i r ed vocat ional t r a in ing . A lmos t half (45.4 %) of the respondents reported a vocat ional t r a in ing p rogram that they would l i ke to take. (Table 16) Approx imate ly the same proport ion of p a r t i c i -pants (45.2 %) and non-part icipants (45.4 %) reported a des i re to take a T A B L E 16 ' P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY O C C U P A T I O N A L P R E S T I G E O F D E S I R E D V O C A T I O N A L T R A I N I N G Occupational Prest ige of D e s i r e d T r a i n i n g in T o t a l Part icipants Non-Par t ic ipants Bl ishen Dec i l e s N o . % N o . % N o . % 4 - 6 18. 20 .9 13 30.9 5 11.3 7 - 1 0 21 24 .5 . 6 14.3 15 34.1 No Response 47 54.6 23 54.8 24 54.6 T O T A L 86 100.0 42 100.0 44 100.0 X 2 = 7.3897, d . f. = 1, p < .05 C = .281 par t i cu la r vocat ional t r a in ing p r o g r a m . Of the part icipants 30.9 percent selected a t r a in ing program which would lead to employment categorized on the Blishen index in the fourth, fifth and sixth dec i les which include sk i l l ed white co l l a r and blue co l l a r w o r k e r s . Only 11.3 percent of the non-part icipants selected t ra in ing programs leading to such high prestige occupations. T h i r t y - f o u r percent of the non-par t ic ipants , as compared to 14.3 percent of the part icipants chose t ra in ing programs which would lead to employment in low prest ige occupations as categorized by the Bl ishen index deci les seven, to ten. Part icipants c l e a r l y chose courses leading to occupations of higher prestige than those chosen by non-part icipants 0 Th i s difference between the two groups was found to be s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant at the . 05 l eve l when tested by the chi -square s ta t i s t i c . The nul l hypothesis of no significant difference between the two groups was re jected. A strong re la t ionship between p a r t i c i -pation and the occupational prestige of the respondents ' des i red vocat ional t r a in ing program was revealed by the coefficient of contingency C ( C =.281) The high proport ion of no responses was due to the number of house-wives , and older respondents who stated that they had no des i re for vocat ional t ra in ing , and those respondents who had already rece ived t r a in ing . Income Charac t e r i s t i c s Educat ional ass is tance . Some 20 .9 percent of the total number of respondents had rece ived some f inancia l assistance f rom the Department of Indian Affa i r s and Nor the rn Development or the Department of Canada Manpower to attend a fu l l - t ime vocat ional or Basic T r a i n i n g for S k i l l s Development p rogram dur ing the twelve months preceding the study. (Table 17) Of the part icipants 30.9 per cent had rece ived educational assis tance while only 11.4 percent of the non-part icipants had rece ived such ass is tance . The p a r t i -cipants c l e a r l y included a greater propor t ion of recent fu l l - t ime vocat ional 41 T A B L E 17 P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S IN R E C E I P T O F E D U C A T I O N A L A S S I S T A N C E Educat ional T o t a l Par t ic ipants Non-Par t ic ipants Ass i s tance N o , % N o . % N o . % Received assistance 18 20.9 13 30.9 5 11.4 D i d not rece ive assistance 68 79,1 29 69.1 39 88.6 T O T A L 86 100.0 42 100.0 44 100.0 X 2 = 4.978, d . f. = 1, p < . 0 5 . C = .232 t ra in ing par t ic ipants . A chi -square value of 4.978 was obtained for the dis t r ibut ions between the two groups. T h i s value is significant at the .05 l eve l of s ignif icance and the nu l l hypothesis of no significant difference was re jected. That par t ic ipa t ion i n adult education and vocat ional t r a in ing programs were c lose ly associated was confirmed by the coefficient of contingency C (C = .232). Unemployment insurance ass is tance . Only 12.8 percent of the respondents had rece ived f inancia l assistance f rom the Unemployment Insurance C o m m i s s i o n ( U . I. C . ) dur ing the twelve months preceding the study. (Table 18) The greatest proport ion of those r ece iv ing assis tance were non-par t ic ipants , 22.7 percent of whom had rece ived benefits as compared to 2 .4 percent of the par t ic ipants . The difference in the dis t r ibut ions may be accounted for by the fact that a l a rge r proport ion of non-part icipants than part icipants were employed in the p r i m a r y industr ies i n seasonal jobs of low occupational p res t ige . Lay-of fs and seasonal work stoppages i n these p r i m a r y industr ies would resul t i n regula r contacts with the U . I. C . for that pa r t i cu la r 42 T A B L E 18 P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S IN R E C E I P T O F A S S I S T A N C E F R O M T H E U N E M P L O Y M E N T I N S U R A N C E COMMISSION U . I. C To ta l Part icipants Non-Par t ic ipants Ass i s tance N o . % No» % No„ % Received assistance 11 12.8 1 2.4 10 22.7 D i d not rece ive assistance 72 83.7 40 95.2 32 72.7 No response 3 3.5 1 2.4 2 4.6 T O T A L 86 100o0 42 100.0 44 100.0 X 2 = 8.236, d . f. = 1, p < .01. C = .294 employment group. The difference i n the dis t r ibut ions was s t a t i s t i ca l ly significant at the .01 l e v e l of s ignif icance and the nu l l hypothesis of no significant difference was re jec ted . The coefficient of contingency C value obtained (C = .294) was interpreted as indicat ing a s t rong inverse re la t ion ex is t ing between pa r t i c ipa -t ion and the receipt of U . I. C . benefits. Soc ia l welfare ass is tance . F i f t y - seven percent of the respondents reported having rece ived some s o c i a l welfare f inancia l assistance i n the twelve months preceding the study. (Table 19) The largest proport ion of welfare rec ip ients were par t ic ipants , 64.3 percent of whom had rece ived s o c i a l welfare payments dur ing the preceding twelve months as compared to half of the non-participantso The dis t r ibut ions ref lect the extent to which non-part icipants were more frequently employed, and when unemployed were r ece iv ing assistance f rom the U . I. C . and thus were d isqual i f ied f rom rece iv ing soc i a l welfare benefits. T A B L E 19 P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S IN R E C E I P T O F S O C I A L W E L F A R E A S S I S T A N C E Soc ia l Welfare To t a l Par t ic ipants Non-Par t ic ipants Ass i s tance N o . % N o . % N o . % Received S . W . 49 57.0 27 64.3 22 50.0 D i d not rece ive S . W . 33 38.4 14 33.3 19 43.2 No response 4 4.6 1 2 .4 3 6.8 T O T A L 86 100.0 42 100.0 44 100.0 X 2 = 1.264, d . f. = 1, N . S . The difference in the d is t r ibut ions proved to be not s t a t i s t i ca l ly significant at the . 05 l eve l of s ignif icance and the nul l hypothesis of no significant difference was accepted. T o t a l annual income. Only 74.4 per cent of the respondents reported thei r total annual incomes . (Table 20) Repor t ing incomes of less than $2,500 T A B L E 20 P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY T O T A L A N N U A L I N C O M E Annual Income To ta l Part icipants Non-Par t ic ipants N o . % N o . % N o . % $2,499 and less 33 38.4 23 54.8 10 27 .7 $2, 500 and more 31 36.0 12 28 .6 19 43.2 No response 22 25 .6 7 16.6 15 34.1 T O T A L 86 100.0 42 100.0 44 100.0 X 2 = 6.193, d . f. = 1, p < . 0 2 . C = .258 per annum were 54 c 8 percent of the part icipants and 27.7 percent of the non-par t ic ipants . Only 28.6 percent of the part icipants reported incomes of $2,500 per annum or more as compared to a3.2 percent of the non-par t ic ipants . T h i s difference i n the dis t r ibut ions when tested by the chi -square s ta t is t ic was found to be s ta t i s t ica l ly signif icant at the .02 l eve l of s igni f icance . A t-test was computed to ver i fy the finding of a significant difference and the t-value obtained (t- 1.847) was signif icant at the .06 l e v e l . A s this probabi l i ty was v e r y close to the .05 l eve l and there were only 60 degrees of freedom in the t-test, the dec i s ion was made to reject the nu l l hypothesis of no significant difference. The re la t ionship between par t ic ipa t ion and total annual income was assessed by the coefficient of contingency C . (C = .258) A s t rong re la t ionship was revealed to exis t between the va r i ab les and the dis t r ibut ions revealed the associat ion to be inve r se . A product moment co r re la t ion coefficient obtained ( r = - . 0 3 ) was not significant at the .05 l eve l indicat ing that the associa t ion was not l i n e a r . The difference in income levels between part icipants and n o n - p a r t i c i -pants may be due l a rge ly to the super ior employment r eco rd of the non-part icipants over part icipants and the l a rge r propor t ion of non-part icipants than part icipants r ece iv ing unemployment insurance benefits ra ther than s o c i a l welfare assis tance when unemployed. Tak ing a $2, 500 per annum income l eve l as a poverty income cut-off point ( a definit ion which would fa l l within the boundaries of the Economic Counc i l of Canada's definit ion of poverty for a r u r a l fami ly of f o u r 5 ) , it i s c lear that a large propor t ion of the m a r r i e d respondents must be l i v i n g at the poverty l e v e l . 5 W . E . M a m i ( e d . ) , Poverty and Soc ia l Po l icy in Canada, (Toronto: Copp C l a r k , 1970). 45 II. S O C I O - P S Y C H O L O G I C A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S A summary of the thir teen independent soc io -psycho log ica l va r i ab le s studied, and the s ta t i s t ica l tests conducted on them are shown i n Table 21 and Table 22 . S ta t i s t ica l ly significant differences between part icipants and non-part icipants by the var iables alienation scale score , a c t i v i sm scale score and attitude to education index score were revealed by the Chi-Square test ana lys i s . (Table 21) A s t rong re la t ionship between each of these var iab les and p a r t i c i -pation was confirmed by the coefficient of contingency C values obtained. T A B L E 21 C H I - S Q U A R E V A L U E S AND C O N T I N G E N C Y C O E F F I C I E N T S F O R DISTRIBUTION BY P A R T I C I P A N T C A T E G O R I E S F O R E I G H T S O C I O - P S Y C H O L O G I C A L V A R I A B L E S Cha rac t e r i s t i c Chi-Square d . f . p C Al ienat ion Scale Score 15.6814 4 .01 .393 A c t i v i s m Scale Score 13.2243 4 .02 .364 T r u s t Scale Score 5.1238 4 N . S . Occupational P r imacy Scale Score 5.07 3 N . S . Integration with Relat ives Scale Score 4.0649 2 N . S . Attitude to Educat ion Index Score 12.5878 2 .01 .356 Attitude to T i m e Index Score 2.889 5 N . S . Attitude to Employment Index Score 1.728 3 N . S . 46 T A B L E 22 T - V A L U E S A N D P R O D U C T M O M E N T C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S F O R DISTRIBUTION BY P A R T I C I P A N T C A T E G O R I E S F O R T H I R T E E N S O C I O - P S Y C H O L O G I C A L V A R I A B L E S Charac t e r i s t i c t -value d . f . P r P Soc ia l Distance Quotient - E n g l i s h .195 82 N . S . - .0642 N . S . Soc ia l Dis tance Quotient - Swedes , .325 84 N . S . - .1099 N . S . Soc ia l Dis tance Quotient - A m e r i c a n s .509 84 N . S . - .0596 N . S . Soc ia l Distance Quotient - Chinese .593 84 N . S . - .0986 N . S . Socia l .Dis tance Quotient - Non Indians i n the Pemberton V a l l e y -1.662 68 N . S . .0082 N . S . Al iena t ion Scale Score 3.907 83 < .001 - .3057 < .01 A c t i v i s m Scale Score -3 .393 84 < .001 .3457 < .01 T r u s t Scale Score -2 .529 83 < .01 .3136 < .01 Occupational P r i m a c y Scale Score -1 .771 76 N . S . .1873 N . S . Integration with Relat ives Scale Score -2 .471 79 < .01 .2917 < .01 Attitude to Educat ion Index Score -2 .6 83 < .01 .1925 N . S . Attitude to T i m e Index Score .063 83 N . S . .008 N . S . Attitude to Employment Index Score - .729 84 N . S . .083 N . S . The t-test analysis revealed that the participants differed significantly from non-participants with regard to their scores on the alienation, activism, trust, and integration with relatives scales and the attitude to education index. (Table 22) Statistically significant product moment correlation coefficients were obtained confirming the existence of a strong linear relationship between participation and the alienation, activism, trust and integration with relatives scale score variables. Social Distance The attitudes of the respondents towards each of four ethnic groups and one locality group was examined by the Bogardus Social Distance Scale. 6 The mean scores of the participants and non-participants are shown in Table 23. T A B L E 23 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SOCIAL DISTANCE QUOTIENTS Group Participants Non-Participants t value p = .05 English 2.81394 2.88371 .195 N.S. Swedes 3.06976 3.18605 .325 N.S. Americans 2.99999 3.20929 .509 N.S. Chinese 3.86046 4.13952 .593 N.S. Non-Indians in the Pemberton Valley 2.46511 2.04650 -1.662 N.S . 6 E . S. Bogardus, Social Distance, (Yellow Springs, Ohio: Antioch Press, 1959). ~~ 48 There were no s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant differences at the .05 l eve l of significance between the scores of part icipants and non-part icipants with respect to each of the five groups. The least s o c i a l distance expressed by the respondents was towards non-Indians in the Pemberton V a l l e y . The greatest s o c i a l distance expressed was towards the Chinese . W i t h one exception part icipants expressed less soc ia l distance towards each of the groups than the non-par t ic ipants . The exception was the soc i a l distance expressed by non-part icipants towards non-Indians i n the Pemberton V a l l e y . Th i s exception may be attributable to the fact that non-part icipants had more contacts than part icipants had with the v a l l e y ' s non-Indians through l o c a l employment . The s o c i a l distance scores of the respondents were found to be con-s iderably higher than those reported by D i c k i n s o n . 7 ' The difference may ref lect the changes i n attitudes ot the Mount C u r r i e Indians resu l t ing f rom an increase in the number of contacts with non-Indians as a resul t of the Pember-ton V a l l e y ' s highway being improved . Al te rna t ive ly the difference may be due to the use of an Indian in te rv iewer for the large major i ty of in terv iews for this study, and the u t i l i za t ion by Dick inson of a non-Indian in t e rv iewer . S ta t i s t i ca l ly significant in t e r -co r re l a t ions at leve ls of s ignif icance greater than .01 were obtained between the expressed attitudes of the respondents towards the five groups. (Appendix A , Table 2) These findings s t rongly indicate that the respondents shared common feelings of great s o c i a l distance f rom a l l five of the groups cons idered . 7 J . Gary D i c k i n s o n , " A n Ana ly t i c a l Survey of the Pemberton V a l l e y in Br i t i sh Columbia with Specia l Reference to Adult E d u c a t i o n , " (Unpublished E d „ D . d i sse r ta t ion , Un ive r s i ty of B r i t i s h Co lumbia , 1968). Aliena t ion The five i tem Scro le Anomia Scale was used to measure al ienation. 8 Respondents were asked whether they agreed or disagreed with each of five statements. Agreement with a statement indicated that the respondent was alienated in t e rms of that component of a l ienat ion. A high scale score indicates a high l eve l of al ienat ion. The d is t r ibu t ion of the respondents ' scores did not v a r y great ly on the sca le . In the lowest of the five scale categories indicat ing a low l e v e l of al ienation were the scores of 18.6 per cent of the respondents,and in the highest category indicat ing a high l eve l of al ienat ion were the scores of 13.9 percent of the respondents^(Table 24) T A B L E 24 P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY A L I E N A T I O N S C A L E S C O R E Al iena t ion Scale To ta l Part icipants Non-Par t ic ipants Score N o . % N o . % N o . % 1 16 18.6 11 26.2 5 11.4 2 22 25 .6 16 38.1 6 13.6 3 19 22 .1 8 19.0 11 25 .0 4 17 19.8 3 7.1 14 31.8 5 12 13.9 4 9.6 8 18.2 T O T A L S 86 100.0 42 100.0 44 100.0 X 2 = 15.6814, d . f. = 4, p < . 0 1 . C = .393 t = 3.907, d . f. 83, p < .001 8 Leo Sro le , "Soc i a l Integration and Cer ta in C o r o l l a r i e s : An Exp lo ra to ry Study", A m e r i c a n Soc io log ica l Review, X X I ( A p r i l , 1956), pp. 709 - 716. The part icipants scored lower on the scale than the non-par t ic ipants . A lmos t two-thirds of the participants had scores in the two lowest categories of the alienation scale as compared with a quarter of the non-par t ic ipants . In the two highest categories of the scale were the scores of 16.7 percent of the part icipants and half of the non-par t ic ipants . The median was in the th i rd of the five categories where the scores of 19 percent of the part icipants and a quarter of the non-part icipants were r eco rded . The differences in the d i s t r ibu t ion produced a chi -square value of 15.6814 which i s significant at the .01 l eve l of s igni f icance . A t-value of 3.907 was computed, which is significant at the .001 l e v e l . The nu l l hypothe-s i s of no significant difference between part icipants and non-part icipants was rejected as the part icipants had s ignif icant ly lower scores on the al ienation sca le . The re la t ionship between par t ic ipa t ion and al ienation scale scores was found to be s t rong, inverse and significant at the .01 l eve l (r = - .3507) . Such a re la t ionship was expected and concurs with conclusions drawn f rom previous r e sea rch that those who are least alienated w i l l be those most l i k e l y to part icipate in adult education ac t iv i t es . Achievement Orientat ion K a h l has identified four separate components of achievement or ien ta -t ion which he measured with scales ca l led A c t i v i s m , T r u s t , Occupational P r i -macy and Integration Wi th R e l a t i v e s . 9 E a c h scale consists of a se r i es of statements to which the respondents were asked to agree or d i sagree . The responses to the i tems were then totalled for each sca le . 9 Joseph A . K a h l , "Some Measurements of Achievement Or i en t a t i on , " A m e r i c a n Journal of Sociology, 70 ( M a y , 1965), pp. 669 - 681. 51 A c t i v i s m . Higher scores on the A c t i v i s m Scale indicate a wi l l ingness on the part of the respondent to make plans and ac t ive ly engage in actions to achieve his goals in l i f e . The dis t r ibut ions of part icipants and non-part icipants by their A c t i v i s m Scale scores shows that part icipants scored higher on the scale than non-part ic ipants . (Table 25) Some 64.3 percent of the part icipants T A B L E 25 P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY A C T I V I S M S C A L E S C O R E A c t i v i s m Scale To ta l Part icipants Non-Par t ic ipants Score N o . % N o . % N o . 1 * 2 17 18.8 6 14.3 11 25 .0 3 16 18.6 4 9 .5 12 27 .3 4 14 16.3 5 11.9 9 20 .4 5 18 20 .9 11 26.2 7 15.9 6 21 24 .4 16 38.1 5 11.4 T O T A L S 86 100.0 42 100.0 44 100.0 X 2 = 13.2243, d . f. = 4, P < .02 C = .364 t = -3 .393 , d . f. = 84, P < .001 had scores in the top two A c t i v i s m Scale score categories as compared to 27 .3 percent of the non-par t ic ipants . In the lowest two categories of the scale were the scores of 14.3 percent of the part icipants and 25 .0 per cent of the non-par t ic ipants . The dis t r ibut ions between the groups were tested by the chi -square s ta t is t ic and found to be s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant at the .02 l eve l of s igni f icance . The dec i s ion to reject the nu l l hypothesis was ve r i f i ed when a t-test on the data produced a t-value of -3 .393 which i s significant at the .001 l eve l of s igni f icance . A cor re la t ion coefficient ( r - .3457) significant at the .01 l eve l revealed that there was a s t rong posi t ive re la t ionship between par t ic ipat ion and A c t i v i s m Scale s c o r e . It would appear that those who scored higher on the A c t i v i s m Scale indicat ing a determinat ion to plan and work towards achieving thei r goals , were those most l i k e l y to part icipate in adult education ac t iv i t i e s . T r u s t . The T r u s t Scale measures a respondents ' bel ief in the t rust worthiness of people, and his faith in human re la t ionsh ips . A high scale score indicates a wi l l ingness to t rust and r e l y upon others . The scores of 23 .8 per cent of the participants and 43 .3 per cent of the non-part icipants f e l l into the lower half of the scale score ca tegor ies . (Table 26) Scores in T A B L E 26 P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY T R U S T S C A L E S C O R E T r u s t Scale T o t a l Par t ic ipants Non-Par t ic ipants Score N o . % N o . % N o . % 1 - 2 16 18.6 5 11.9 11 25 .0 3 13 15.1 5 11.9 8 18.3 4 16 18.6 7 16.7 9 20 .4 5 18 20 .9 11 26.2 . 7 15.9 6 23 26.8 14 33.3 9 20 .4 T O T A L S 86 100.0 42 100.0 44 100.0 X 2 = 5.1238, d . f. = 4, N . S . t = -2 .529 , d . f. = 83, p < .01 the highest category were recorded by 33.3 per cent of the part icipants and 20 .4 per cent of the non-par t ic ipants . The par t ic ipants ' scores were concentrated i n the higher scale score categories while the scores of non-part icipants were concentrated in the lower scale ca tegor ies . Although the part icipants appeared to be more t rus t ing than non-part icipants the differences between the dis t r ibut ions as tested by the chi -square s ta t is t ic was not s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant at the. 05 l e v e l of s ignif icance. However a t-test (t = -2.529) revealed a s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant difference at the ,.01 l e v e l between the mean scale scores of the part icipants and non-par t ic ipants . The nu l l hypothesis of no significant difference was consequently re jec ted . The cor re la t ion coefficient between T r u s t Scale and score and pa r t i c ipa -t ion ( r = .3136) was significant at the .01 l eve l indicat ing that those r e spon-dents who tended to trust others and have faith in re la t ionships appeared to be those most l i ke ly to part icipate i n adult education ac t iv i t i e s . A s trong inverse r e l a t ionsh ip^ r = - .45) between the al ienation and trust scale va r i ab le s was found, further indicat ing that the soc io -psycho log ica l cha rac te r i s t i c s of the part icipant include being less alienated f rom and more t rus t ing of others than the non-par t ic ipant . Occupational P r i m a c y . The Occupational P r i m a c y Scale measures the extent to which occupational success i s a p r io r i t y i n l ife for the respondent. The higher the scale score the greater the extent to which occupational success i s a p r i o r i t y i n l i f e . Of the part icipants 26.2 percent had scores in the lower half of the scale categories as did 47.7 percent of the non-par t ic ipants . (Table 27) The scores of 73.8 percent of the part icipants and 52.3 percent of the non-part icipants were recorded in the upper half of the s ca l e . The dis t r ibut ions indicate that part icipants were incl ined to place a higher emphasis on occupational success than non-par t ic ipants . However , T A B L E 27 P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY O C C U P A T I O N A L P R I M A C Y " S C A L E S C O R E Occupational P r i m a c y To ta l Part icipants Non-Par t ic ipants Scale Score N o . N o . % N o . % 1 11 12.8 4 9 .5 7 15.9 2 21 24 .4 7 16.7 14 31.8 3 44 51.2 24 57.1 20 45.5 4 10 H . 6 7 16.7 3 6.8 T O T A L S 86 100.0 42 100.0 44 100.0 X 2 = 5.07, d . f. = 3, N . S . t = - 1 . 7 7 1 , d . f. = 76, N . S . the chi -square value of 5.07 obtained for the dis t r ibut ions was not significant at the .05 l eve l of s igni f icance . A l s o the t-value obtained (t = -1.771) was not significant at the .05 l e v e l . Although the tests indicated that part icipants d id tend to place more importance on occupational success than non-part icipants the findings were not s t a t i s t i ca l ly significant and the nu l l hypothesis of no significant difference was accepted. The product moment co r r e l a t i on coefficient (r = „ 1873) between Occupational P r i m a c y Scale score and par t ic ipa t ion was not significant at the .05 l eve l indicat ing that the re la t ionship between the des i re to be successful occupationally was not s ignif icant ly associated with the dec i s ion to par t ic ipate . Integration W i t h Re la t ives . The Integration W i t h Relat ives scale measures a respondent 's independence f rom his r e l a t i v e s . A high scale . scbre indicates a high degree of independence. Of the respondents, 44.2 per cent had scores i n the highest category, 34.9 per cent of the scores were in the middle in t e rva l , and 20.9 percent had low s c o r e s . (Table 28) F i f ty percent of the participants had scores in the highest scale score category, 35.1 percent had scores in the m i d - s c a l e category and 11.9 percent had the lowest possible s c o r e s . The non-par t ic ipants ' scores were more evenly dis t r ibuted than those of the par t ic ipants , 38.6 percent had scores in the highest scale score category, 31.8 percent in the m i d - s c a l e category and 29.6 percent had scores in the lowest scale score category. T A B L E 28 P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY I N T E G R A T I O N W I T H R E L A T I V E S S C A L E S C O R E Integration with Relat ives Scale To t a l Part icipants Non-Par t ic ipants Score N o . % N o . % N o . % 1 18 20.9 5 11.9 13 29 .6 2 30 34.9 16 38.1 14 31.8 3 38 44.2 21 50.0 17 38.6 T O T A L S 86 100.0 42 100.0 44 100.0 X 2 = 4.0649, d . f. = 2, N . S . t. = - 2 . 4 7 1 , d . f. =79 , p < .01 The dis t r ibut ions show part icipants to be more independent of the i r re la t ives than non-par t ic ipants . However , the differences in the dis t r ibut ions when tested by the chi -square s ta t is t ic proved to be not s t a t i s t i ca l ly s i g n i f i -cant at the .05 l eve l of s ignif icance. A t-test of the differences between the mean scores of the groups produced a t -value of -2 .471 which was significant at the .01 l e v e l . The nul l hypothesis of no s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant difference was re jec ted . 56 A strong posit ive re la t ionship between par t ic ipat ion and scores obtained on the Integration With Rela t ives scale was revealed by the obtained cor re la t ion coefficient, ( r = =2917: p < .01) T h i s finding indicates that those who are independent of the influence of re la t ives are more l i k e l y to part icipate in adult education ac t iv i t i e s . The degree of independence f rom appears, therefore, to influence the dec i s ion to par t ic ipa te . Cu l tu r a l At t i tudes . Three indexes developed by Hannin, and based upon Kluckhohn's methodology for del ineat ing cu l tu ra l or ientat ion prof i les were used to assess the respondents ' attitudes towards education, employment and t i m e . 1 0 Wi th in each index a concept was assigned three problem si tuat ions, each problem si tuat ion had three alternative responses . The respondents were requ i red to choose a posi t ion they thought to be advisable or co r rec t f rom statements phrased in the th i rd person . A high score on the indexes indicates a contem-porary soc i a l attitude favourable to the concept while low scores indicate more t rad i t ional attitudes less favourable to the concept. Attitude Towards Educat ion . The scores of the respondents on a t r i -partite d i s t r ibu t ion show 43 percent had index scores in the highest category, 41.9 percent had mid index scores and 15.1 percent had scores in the lowest category. (Table 29) The major i ty of respondents recorded favourable attitudes towards the contemporary concept of the value of education. F lo rence R . Kluckhohn, Var ia t ions in Value Orientat ions, (Evanston: Row, Peterson and C o . , 1961); Dan ie l J . Hannin, "Selected Fac to r s Assoc ia t ed Wi th The Par t ic ipa t ion of Adult Ojibway Indians in F o r m a l Voluntary O r g a n i z a -t ions" , (Unpublished P h . D . d isser ta t ion , Un ive r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n , 1967). T A B L E 29 P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY A T T I T U D E T O W A R D S E D U C A T I O N I N D E X S C O R E Attitude Towards Educat ion Index To ta l Part icipants Non-Par t ic ipants Score N o , % N o . % N o . % 1 - 2 13 15.1 3 7.2 10 22.7 3 - 4 36 41.9 13 31 .0 23 52.2 5 - 6 37 43 .0 26 61.8 11 25 .1 T O T A L S 86 100.0 42 100.0 44 100.0 X 2 = 12.5878, d . f. = 2 , p < .01 C = . 3 5 6 t = - 2 . 6 , d . f. = 83, p < .01 Over half (61.8 %) of the part icipants had scores i n the highest index categories , 31 percent had scores i n the m i d index categories and only 7.2 percent had scores in the lowest ca tegor ies . Of the non-part icipants 25 .1 percent had scores in the highest categories and 22 .7 percent had scores which fe l l in the lowest ca tegor ies . The part icipants c l e a r l y held more favourable and contemporary attitudes towards education than the n o n - p a r t i c i -pants. A chi -square test of the differences in the dis t r ibut ions between the two groups revealed s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant differences at the . 01 l e v e l . The dec i s ion to reject the nu l l hypothesis was confirmed when a t -value (t = -2 .6) also significant at the .01 l eve l was obtained. A coefficient of contingency C value of .356 confirmed the existence of a significant associat ion between the two v a r i a b l e s . However , the co r re l a t ion coefficient obtained between par t ic ipat ion and the attitude to education index scores was not significant at the .05 l eve l indicat ing that the re la t ionship was not l i n e a r . It appears that having a contemporary, favourable, attitude towards education does influence the dec is ion to part icipate in adult education ac t iv i t i e s . Attitude Towards T i m e . Some 35.7 percent of the part icipants and 36.4 percent of. the non-part icipants recorded scores in the two highest Attitude Towards T i m e Index categories . (Table 30) A l a rge r propor t ion of non-part icipants (43.2 %) than part icipants (33.4 %) had scores in the two T A B L E 30 P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY A T T I T U D E T O W A R D S T I M E I N D E X S C O R E Attitude Towards Tota l Par t ic ipants Non-Par t ic ipants T i m e Index Score N o . % N o . % N o . % 1 12 13.9 8 19.0 4 9 .0 2 10 11.6 5 11,9 5 11,4 3 14 16.3 7 16.7 7 15.9 4 19 22 .1 7 16.7 12 27 .3 5 20 23 .3 9 21 .4 11 2 5 . 0 6 11 12.8 6 14.3 5 11.4 T O T A L S 86 100.0 42 100.0 44 100.0 X 3 .= 2.8947, d . f. = 5, N . S. t = .063, d . f. = 83, N . S. middle index categories while 30.9 percent of the part icipants and 20 .4 percent of non-part icipants had scores in the two lowest categories of the index. The dis t r ibut ions r evea l that part icipants appeared to hold s l ight ly less favourable and less contemporary attitudes towards t ime than non-par t ic ipants . The differences in the dis t r ibut ions between the groups was not s ta -t i s t i c a l l y significant at the .05 l e v e l . A n obtained t-value of .063 also proved to be not significant at the .05 l e v e l , and the nu l l hypothesis of no significant difference between the two groups was accepted. Attitude Towards Employment . Only slight differences were apparent in the dis t r ibut ions of part icipants and non-part icipants by their Attitude Towards Employment Index s c o r e s . Half of the part icipants had scores in the top two categories of the index as compared to 43.2 percent of the non-par t ic ipants . (Table 31) The scores of 23.8 percent of the part icipants and a quarter of the non-part icipants fe l l in the lower half of the index. T A B L E 31 P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION O F R E S P O N D E N T S BY A r T , r P T r P T T T V L T X J X X X X U X V X i i-rryui x w Vr j A D F l C "N /TDT LiiVJU>u» O J 1 V U i . A l 1—' -L i -c r<rw T7 \~f V - " ^ > A V . A J Attitude Towards Employment Index To ta l Part icipants Non-Par t ic ipants Score N o . % N o . % N o . % 1 - 3 21 24 .4 10 23.8 11 25 .0 4 25 29 .1 11 26.2 14 31.8 5 18 20 .9 10 23.8 8 18.2 6 22 25 .6 11 26.2 11 25 .0 T O T A L S 86 100.0 42 100.0 44 100.0 X 2 = 0.5835, d . f. = 3, N . S. t = - . 7 2 9 , d . f. = 84, N . S. It would appear that part icipants had s l ight ly more favourable attitudes towards employment than non-part ic ipants , however, the differences in the dis t r ibut ions between the two groups was not s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant at the .05 60 l e v e l . A t-test also found no s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant difference between the groups and the product moment co r re la t ion (r = . 0838) revealed only a v e r y weak re la t ionship between the two v a r i a b l e s . The nu l l hypothesis of no s i g n i f i -cant difference between the two groups was accepted. Fac to r Ana lys i s of Soc io -Psycho log ica l Sca les . The five soc io -psycho log ica l scales used in the study were factor analysed both ind iv idua l ly and co l lec t ive ly to determine whether or not each scale was unidimensional , and whether or not each scale was a dis t inct d imension when a l l the scales were analyzed s imultaneously. The factor analysis p rogram u t i l i zed employed an orthogonal rotat ion of the axis and squared mult iple cor re la t ions inserted as i n i t i a l communali ty est imates i n the p r inc ipa l d i a g o n a l . 1 1 Srole Anomia S c a l e . 1 3 Only one factor was extracted f rom the five i tem Srole sca le . (Table 32) A l l five i tems i n the scale had factor loadings of .41 and greater indicat ing that each of the i tems in the scale made a significant contr ibution to the d imens ion , and the scale was un id imens iona l . Sl ight ly more than a quar ter (25.78 %) of the total var iance was attributable to the one factor ext racted. 1 1 Jason H a l m , U . B . C . B M D X . 72: Fac to r A n a l y s i s , (Vancouver : The Un ive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Centre , 1970). 1 3 S ro l e , l o c . c i t . T A B L E 32 S R O L E A N O M I A S C A L E F A C T O R L O A D I N G S Item Statement Fac to r Loading 1„ The r e ' s l i t t le use w r i t i n g to government off ic ials .50 because often they are not r e a l l y interested in the problems of the Indian. 2 . Nowadays a person has to l ive pretty much today .41 and let tomorrow take care of i t se l f . 3. * Inspite of what some people say, l ife for the Indian .60 i s getting worse , not better . 4. It 's hard ly fa i r to b r ing ch i ld ren into the wor ld .48 wi th the way things look for the future. 5. These days a person doesn't r e a l l y know who he .53 can count on. Propor t ion of total var iance = 25.78 % * Note: Statement s l ight ly modified f rom the o r ig ina l Srole i t e m . K a h l A c t i v i s m S c a l e . 1 3 One factor was extracted f rom the s i x i tem A c t i v i s m sca le . (Table 33) Of the s i x i t ems , five had factor loadings of .58 and greater , and the s ixth had a factor loading of . 34 . F i v e of the i tems therefore, were making significant contributions to the sca le , and 41.49 per-cent of the total var iance was accounted for by the one factor ext racted. 1 3 K a h l , l o c ; c i t . The A c t i v i s m and T rus t Scale Fac to r loadings f rom K a h l ' s studies of Achievement Orientat ion in M e x i c o and B r a z i l are repor ted i n Table 33 and Table 34. T A B L E 33 K A H L A C T I V I S M S C A L E F A C T O R L O A D I N G S Item N o . Statement M e x i c o B r a z i l M t . C u r r i e 1. M a k i n g plans only brings unhappiness - . 63 - . 74 - .58 because plans are hard to f u l f i l l . 2 . * It doesn't make much difference who you - . 58 - . 6 5 - . 3 4 elect to the band counci l for nothing w i l l change. 3 „ * Wi th things as they are today, a smar t - . 6 7 - . 6 3 - . 6 7 person ought to think only about the present and not w o r r y about what is going to happen tomor row. 4. It's important to make plans for one's .46 .73 l i f e , and not just what accept what comes . 5. The secret of happiness i s , not expecting - . 61 - . 4 7 - . 82 too much out of l i fe , and being content with what comes along. 6. * It i s v e r y important to make plans for the .41 .62 future, w e l l i n advance. Proport ion of total var iance = 41.49% * Note: Statement s l ight ly modified from the o r ig ina l K a h l i t e m . K a h l T r u s t Sca le . Of the s ix i tems in the T r u s t scale only three had significant factor loadings . (Table 34) Three i tems had factor loadings of .29 and l e s s , and three had factor loadings of .57 and grea te r . The scale was unidimensional with the one factor extracted accounting for 28 .7 percent of the v a r i a n c e . T A B L E 34 K A H L T R U S T S C A L E F A C T O R L O A D I N G S Item N o . Statement M e x i c o B r a z i l M t . C u r r i e 1. It i s not good to let your re la t ives know - . 6 6 - .78 - .22 everything about your life because they might take advantage of you . 2 . * Mos t people are not grateful i f you are - . 67 - . 5 5 - . 8 7 are kind to them. 3. Mos t people are fa i r and do not t ry to .38 .70 get away with something. 4 . * People help each other not because i t ' s - . 62 - . 1 0 the r ight thing to do, but because they hope to gain something. 5. Y o u can only trust people whom you know - . 4 0 - . 5 7 w e l l . 6. It i s not good to let your friends know - .71 - . 74 - . 2 9 everything about your l i f e , for they might take advantage of you . Propor t ion of total var iance = 28.70 % * Note: Statement s l ight ly modified f rom the o r i g ina l K a h l i t e m . The K a h l Occupational P r i m a c y and Integration Wi th Relat ives scales were found to have eigen values which were too low for de termining commun -a l i t i es when the scales were analyzed ind iv idua l ly . 1 4 1 4 K a h l , l o c . c i t . 64 K a h l Achievement Orientat ion Sca les . A l l four of the K a h l scales were factor analyzed co l lec t ive ly and two factors were extracted after ro ta t ion. The i tems e l ig ib le for inc lus ion in each factor were those which had factor loadings of .40 or greater after ro ta t ion. Two factors accounting for 27 .85 percent of the total var iance were extracted. They were label led Goal Orientat ion (A) and Soc ia l Perception ( A ) . The f i r s t factor , Goal Orientat ion (A) consists of s ix i t ems , five having been selected f rom the A c t i v i s m scale and one i tem f rom the T r u s t sca le . (Table 35) F a c t o r one accounted for just over one-fifth (20.79%) of the total v a r i a n c e . T A B L E 35 F A C T O R 1: G O A L O R I E N T A T I O N (A) Item Statement Fac to r Loading 1. It i s not good to let your friends know everything about your l i f e , because they might take advantage of you . .41 2 . M a k i n g plans only brings unhappiness because plans are hard to f u l f i l l . .61 3. Wi th things as they are today, a smar t person ought to think only about the present and not w o r r y about what i s going to happen tomor row. .62 4. It's important to make plans for one's l i f e , and not just accept what comes . .62 5. The secret of happiness i s , not expecting too much out of l i fe and being content with what comes along. .78 6. It i s v e r y important to make plans for the future, we l l in advance. .66 Propor t ion of va r iance = 20.79 % 65 Soc ia l Perception (A), the second factor extracted is compr i sed of four i tems (Table 36) Three i tems were selected f rom the T rus t sca le , and . the fourth was f rom the Occupational P r imacy sca le . Fac to r two accounted for 7„06 percent of the total v a r i a n c e . T A B L E 36 F A C T O R 2: S O C I A L P E R C E P T I O N (A) Item Statement Fac to r Loading 1. Mos t people are not grateful i f you are kind to them. .76 2 . Mos t people are fair and do not t ry to get away with something. . 80 3. Y o u can only trust people you know w e l l . .52 4. The most important qual i t ies of a r e a l man are determinat ion and ambit ion to get ahead. .49 Proport ion of total va r iance = 7.06 % Of the 19 i tems in the four K a h l sca les , two trust scale i t ems , one a c t i v i s m scale i t em, three of the four occupational p r i m a c y scale i t ems , and a l l three integrat ion with re la t ives scale i tems were excluded f rom the factors se lected. Where K a h l by factor analysis had d iscovered four dimensions of achievement orientat ion this study found only two. Anomia and Achievement Orientat ion Sca les . The Srole scale and the four K a h l scales were factor analyzed co l l ec t ive ly and three factors were extracted after ro ta t ion . The cumulative proport ion of the total var iance contributed by the three factors is 30.46 percent . The factors were label led Gpal Orientat ion (B), Soc ia l Perception (B), and Dependency. oo Fac to r one Goal Orientat ion (B), consis ts of s i x i tems and c lose ly resembles the f i r s t factor extracted f rom the analysis of the four K a h l sca les , Goal Orientat ion ( A ) . (Table 38) Of the s ix i t ems , four were f rom the A c t i v i s m sca le , and one i tem came f rom each of the Anomia and T r u s t sca les . A lmos t one-fifth (19.95 %) of the total va r iance was contributed by this f i r s t fac tor . T A B L E 37 F A C T O R 1: G O A L O R I E N T A T I O N (B) Item Statement Fac to r Loading 1. Nowadays a person has to l ive pretty much for today and let tomorrow take care of i t se l f . . 40 2. It i s not good to let your re la t ives know everything about your l i f e , because they might take advantage of you . - . 4 5 3„ Wi th things as they are today a smar t person ought to think only about the present and not w o r r y about what i s going to happen tomor row. - . 7 4 4. It's important to make plans for one's l i f e , and not just accept what comes, - . 5 7 5. The secre t of happiness i s , not expecting too much out of l i f e , and being content with what comes a long. - . 83 6. It i s v e r y important to make plans for the future, w e l l in advance. - . 5 0 Propor t ion of total va r iance = 19. 95 % The second factor extracted, Soc ia l Perception (B), was ident ica l with the second factor extracted f rom the factor analysis of the four K a h l sca les , Soc ia l Perception ( A ) . The factor was compr i sed of four i t ems , three f rom the T r u s t scale and one f rom the Occupational P r i m a c y sca le , (Tab l e 38) The proport ion of the total var iance accounted for by factor two was 5.94 percent . T A B L E 38 F A C T O R 2: S O C I A L P E R C E P T I O N (B) Item Statement F a c t o r Load ing 1. Mos t people are not grateful i f you are kind to them, - . 7 3 2 . Mos t people are fa i r and do not t ry to get away with something. - . 7 8 3 V m i pan nnl-sr fi-iist" nponlp irnn WiriW wp.l 1 - S 3 ^ . ~ . J C - - * - ! J . . . . 4. The most important qual i t ies of a r e a l man are determinat ion and ambit ion to get ahead. - . 51 Propor t ion of total var iance = 5.94 % Dependency, the th i rd factor extracted consists of s i x i t ems . (Table 39) A l l three of the Integration W i t h Relat ives Scale i tems were included, with two Srole Anomia Scale Items and one A c t i v i s m Scale i t e m . Sl ight ly less than one-twentieth (4.57 %) of the total var iance was accounted for by the th i rd factor . T A B L E 39 F A C T O R 3: D E P E N D E N C Y Item - Statement Fac to r Loading 1 . The re ' s l i t t le use wr i t i ng to government off icials because often they aren't r e a l l y interested i n the problems of the Indian. .46 2 . In spite of what some people say, l ife for the Indian is getting worse , not better. .52 3. M a k i n g plans only brings unhappiness because plans are hard to f u l f i l l . - . 5 3 4. When looking for a job, a person ought to look for work near his parents, even i f that means g iv ing up a good job e l sewhere . - . 6 0 5. When you are i n trouble only a re la t ive can be depended upon to help you out. - . 4 5 6. If you have the chance to choose someone to work with you on a job, it i s always better to choose a re la t ive than a s t ranger . - . 5 0 Propor t ion of total var iance = 4.57 % F r o m this analysis it would appear that three areas of soc io -psychologica l phenomena re la ted to anomia and achievement orientat ion can be ident if ied. The f i r s t area Goa l Orientat ion (B) is a d imens ion with compon-ents r e l a t ing to personal planning, sat isfact ion with l i fe and feelings of secur i ty . Soc ia l Perception (B) the second area identified i s . c o m p r i s e d of statements re la t ing to the interpretat ion of the soc ia l actions and interests of o thers . F i n a l l y there i s an area label led Dependency in which there are elements of p e s s i m i s m , f a m i l i a l dependency and he lp lessness . III. T H E C O M B I N E D I N F L U E N C E O F S O C I O - E C O N O M I C A N D S O C I O - P S Y C H O L O G I C A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S Eighteen independent va r i ab les were analyzed i n a stepwise r eg re s s ion analysis p r o g r a m 1 5 to test the hypothesis that i n the predic t ion of par t ic ipat ion there would be no s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant difference between the predict ive power of a group of soc io-economic and soc io -psycho log ica l va r i ab les considered s imultaneously and the predict ive power of va r i ab les considered independently. A n analysis of the va r iab les with a d i s c r i m i n a t i n g F probabi l i ty value of .05 resul ted i n the al ienation and s o c i a l par t ic ipat ion scale score va r iab les being selected as significant p r ed i c to r s . The two va r i ab les accounted for 17.34 percent of the va r i a t ion i n the in the dependent va r i ab le par t ic ipa t ion leaving 82.66 percent of the va r i a t i on attributable to factors other than al ienation and soc i a l par t ic ipat ion scale s co re s . A s the s ize of the study sample was r e l a t ive ly s m a l l , and the study was explora tory i n nature it was considered appropriate to continue the a n a l y s i s wi th an F probabi l i ty of „ 10. In order of their choice by the step-wise mul t ip le r eg re s s ion p rog ram, the va r i ab le s selected at the . 10 l e v e l of s ignif icance were Soc ia l Par t ic ipa t ion scale sco re , Independence f rom Rela t ives scale score , total annual income, number of ch i ld ren and T r u s t scale s c o r e . Co l l ec t i ve ly these five va r i ab le s contributed 30.82 percent of the va r i a t i on i n par t ic ipa t ion . (Table 40) 1 5 James B je r r ing and Paul Seagraves, U . B. C . T R I P : T r i a n g u l a r Regress ion Package, (Vancouver: The Un ive r s i t y of Br i t i sh Columbia C o m -puting Centre , 1970). 70 T A B L E 40 P E R C E N T A G E O F V A R I A T I O N IN P A R T I C I P A T I O N E X P L A I N E D A N D T H E F A C T O R S A C C O U N T I N G F O R T H E V A R I A T I O N F . probabi l i ty : Cumulat ive P e r -Inclusion Step F i n a l Step Regress ion Step N o . V a r i a b l e Cent of V a r i a t i o n Expla ined .0276 .0303 2 Soc ia l Par t ic ipa t ion 17.34 * .0674 .0146 3 Independence f rom Relat ives 20.66 * .0649 .0028 4 To ta l Income 23.95 * .0424 .0105 5 Number of Ch i ld r en 27.80 * .0267 .0063 6 T r u s t Scale 30.82 Cumulat ive percent of va r i a t ion explained includes the va r i a t i on contributed by the al ienation scale score va r i ab le which was selected at Step 1 and rejected at Step 6 The al ienation scale score va r i ab le with an F probabi l i ty of .0012 was the f i r s t va r i ab le selected f rom amongst the eighteen independent va r i ab le s studied. The inc lus ion of the trust scale score va r i ab le in the group of predic tor va r i ab le s by step number s ix of the p rogram resul ted in the re jec t ion of the al ienation scale score va r i ab le which at that stage i n the analysis had an F probabi l i ty of .2095. Th i s means that the best single pred ic tor of p a r t i c i -pation i s a l ienat ion. Co l l ec t i ve ly the five va r i ab les d i scussed were more strongly associated with par t ic ipat ion, and they accounted for the major part of the va r i a t i on that had been contributed e a r l i e r by al ienation as a single predic tor v a r i a b l e . The hypothesis of no s t a t i s t i ca l ly significant difference between the predic t ive power of a group of soc io-economic and s o c i o -71 psychological variables considered simultaneously and the predictive power of variables considered independently was rejected at the .10 level of significance. A matrix of the product moment correlation coefficients of the five predictor variables is produced in Table 4 1 . Total annual income and number of children were highly correlated with each other and with social participation but not with adult education participation and indepence from relatives.(Table 41) T A B L E 41 PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS OF FACTORS ACCOUNTING FOR VARIATION IN PARTICIPATION 1 2 3 4 5 6 I . participation 1.00 2 . Social Participation Scale Score .33 1.00 3. Independence from Relatives Scale Score .29 .12 1.00 4. Total Income - . 0 3 .43 .06 1.00 5. Number of Children .17 .34 .08 .41 1.00 6. Trust Scale Score .31 .35 . 2 2 * .28 - . 11 1.00 Note: Correlation coefficients underlined are significant at the .01 level; the asterisk indicates significance at the .05 level . I V . S U M M A R Y Eight soc io-economic charac te r i s t i c s studied including sex, wish for further adult education par t ic ipat ion, soc i a l par t ic ipat ion, occupational prestige of des i red job, occupational prestige of des i red vocat ional t ra in ing , receipt of educational assistance, receipt of unemployment insurance a s s i s -tance, and total annual income were found to differentiate between part icipants and non-par t ic ipants . Sex was re la ted to par t ic ipat ion with females p a r t i c i -pating to a far greater extent than ma le s . A s a group the part icipants appeared sat isf ied with the experience of par t ic ipat ion as a large proport ion of them reported that they wished to part icipate in further adult education ac t iv i t i e s . Those respondents who part icipated in f o r m a l voluntary soc i a l organizations were found to be those most l i ke ly to be adult education p a r t i c i -pants with the exception of respondents with large fami l ies who appeared to choose soc i a l par t ic ipat ion rather than adult education par t ic ipa t ion . Although it was not possible to differentiate between part ic ipants and non-part icipants by their posi t ion i n the labour force or their occupational prest ige, part icipants were found to hold higher status employment and vocat ional t r a in ing aspirat ions than non-par t ic ipants . A l a rge r propor t ion of part icipants than non-part icipants reported having rece ived educational assistance funds for pre-voca t iona l and vocat ional t ra in ing , but fewer p a r t i c i -pants than non-part icipants had rece ived unemployment insurance benefits and the part icipants had lower total annual incomes than the non-par t ic ipants . No s ta t i s t ica l ly significant differences were found between p a r t i c i -pants and non-part icipants by their m a r i t a l status, age, number of ch i ld ren , years of schooling, off- reserve l i v i n g experience, church attendance, labour force category, occupational prestige and receipt of s o c i a l welfare ass is tance . Of the soc io -psycho log ica l measures used in the study the Al iena t ion , A c t i v i s m , T rus t and Integration with Relat ives scales and the Attitude to Education index differentiated between part icipants and non-par t ic ipants . The part icipants were found to have lower levels of al ienation, to be more t rus t ing of others, to be more act ively involved in t r y ing to achieve their goals , to be more independent of their re la t ives and to hold more contemporary s o c i a l attitudes favourable to education than the non-par t ic ipants . Although the part icipants were more inc l ined to seek occupational success than n o n - p a r t i c i -pants, this d is t inc t ion between the two groups was not s ta t i s t i ca l ly signif icant . The respondents shared common attitudes of soc i a l distance towards the E n g l i s h , Swedes, A m e r i c a n s , and Chinese as ethnic groups, and also towards the non-Indians of the Pemberton V a l l e y as a loca l i ty group. No s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant differences were found between the part icipants and non-part icipants by their scores on the Occupational P r imacy Scale and the Attitude Towards T i m e and Employment indexes. The unidimensional i ty of the Sro le Anomia and the K a h l A c t i v i s m and Trus t scales was confirmed by an indiv idual factor analysis p rog ram. A global factor analysis of the four scales measur ing the four dimensions of achievement orientation as defined by K a h l , resul ted in only two dimensions of achievement orientat ion being identif ied: Goal Orientat ion (A) and Soc ia l Perception ( A ) . Where K a h l had identified by factor analysis four dimensions of achievement orientat ion, this study found only two. A global analysis of the five soc io -psycho log ica l scales resul ted in the identif ication of three areas of soc io-psycholog ica l phenomena related to anomia and achievement or ien ta -t ion which were te rmed Goa l Orientat ion (B), Soc ia l Percept ion (B), and Dependency. Aliena t ion scale score was found to be the most powerful single va r i ab le predict ing par t ic ipa t ion . However , the five va r i ab les of total annual income, number of ch i ld ren , Soc i a l Par t ic ipa t ion , T r u s t , and Integration W i t h Relat ives scale scores , when considered s imultaneously, were found to be more strongly associated with par t ic ipat ion and therefore, more powerful as joint predic tors of par t ic ipat ion than any single independent v a r i a b l e . C H A P T E R IV S U M M A R Y A N D C O N C L U S I O N S Recently there has been a great deal of national interest in the plight of the Canadian Indian. The Department of Indian Af fa i r s and Nor thern Development has been engaged in developing new, and expanding ex is t ing s o c i a l development programs to combat Indian poverty. In B r i t i s h Columbia there has been a large increase i n the number of on- reserve adult education c lasses conducted . 1 The great major i ty of these c lasses have been authorized by the Department of Indian Affa i rs and Nor thern Development and adminis tered under contractual agreements with public school d i s t r i c t s . No studies of Indian adult education par t ic ipat ion have been conducted U L I U L L I ^ J - O ia xitllC O J L I I L J X J L x ^ ct x i^ouuiui uv anauic \.\J g L U U C CllH-l C I O O X O L U l l U O U planning and adminis te r ing Indian adult education ac t iv i t i e s . The purpose of this study is to identify and descr ibe cer ta in soc io -economic and soc io-psycholog ica l charac te r i s t i c s which differentiate Indian adult education part ic ipants f rom non-part icipants and which co l l ec t ive ly con-tribute to an understanding of Indian par t ic ipa t ion . 1 A d r i a n Blunt and Donald P . M c K i n n o n . "Adul t Educat ion for B . C . Status Indians, " Adult Educat ion in B r i t i s h Columbia , Journal of Educat ion , Un ive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia , N o . 18, (Winter , 1971), pp. 7 - 17. 75 76 I. S U M M A R Y D u r i n g the month of July 1971, data were col lected by means of s t ructured interviews f rom a random sample of e igh ty-s ix adult members of the Mount C u r r i e Indian Band in the Pemberton V a l l e y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia . Of the e igh ty-s ix respondents, fourty-two had part icipated in an adult education c lass dur ing the three years preceding the study and were c lass i f ied as p a r t i c i -pants. Socio-economic data were obtained under the broad categories of personal , educational, s o c i a l , occupational and income informat ion . Soc io -psychologica l data were obtained in the areas of al ienation, s o c i a l distance, achievement orientat ion, and attitudes to education, employment and t ime . Bivar ia te tables were produced compar ing the part icipants and non-part icipants by seventeen soc io-economic and thir teen soc io -psycho log ica l v a r i a b l e s . A chi -square test of the nu l l hypothesis of no significant difference was used to compare the differences i n the dis t r ibut ions between the two g r o u p s . 2 Subsequently, a measure of the associa t ion between the dependent and each of the twenty-five independent va r i ab le s was obtained by computing the coefficient of contingency C . T- tes t s were conducted on eighteen independent va r i ab les to test the nu l l hypothesis of no significant difference between the means of the va r i ab le s for part icipants and non -pa r t i c ipan t s . 3 Product moment 2 James Bje r r ing , et a l . , UBC. M V T A B : Mul t iva r i a t e Contingency Tabulat ions, (Vancouver : The Un ive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Centre , 1970). ^ames B j e r r i n g and Paul Seagraves, U B C . T R I P : T r i a n g u l a r Reg re s -s ion Package, (Vancouver: The Un ive r s i ty of Br i t i sh Columbia Computing Centre , 1970). cor re l a t ion coefficients were also computed for these eighteen va r i ab les to test the signif icance of l inear re la t ionships between the var iab les and between each independent va r i ab le and the dependent v a r i a b l e . F i v e of the soc io -psycho log ica l scales used in the study were factor analysed individual ly and co l lec t ive ly to determine whether or not each scale was unid imensional , and when a l l the scales were considered s imultaneously whether or not each scale was a dis t inct d i m e n s i o n . 4 F i n a l l y , a stepwise r eg re s s ion analysis was conducted to test the hypothesis of no significant difference between the predict ive power of a group of independent va r i ab les associated with par t ic ipat ion and indiv idual independent v a r i a b l e s . 5 The re la t ionship of each independent va r i ab l e to par t ic ipat ion was presented in the form of a nu l l hypothesis proposing that i n t e rms of that va r i ab le there was no s ta t i s t ica l ly significant difference at the .05 or the .01 l e v e l between part icipants and non-par t ic ipants . S ta t i s t i ca l ly significant differences between the two groups were found on eight of the soc io-economic and five of the soc io-psycholog ica l va r iab les analysed. Of the soc io-economic va r i ab le s sex, wish for further adult educa-tion par t ic ipat ion, soc i a l par t ic ipa t ion , occupational prestige of des i red job, occupational prestige of des i red vocat ional t ra in ing , receipt of educational ass is tance, receipt of unemployment insurance assistance and total annual income differentiated between part icipants and non-par t ic ipants . ^a son H a l m , U B C . B M D X 72: Fac to r A n a l y s i s , (Vancouver : The Un ive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Centre, 1970). 5 B j e r r i n g and Seagraves, l o c . c i t . No s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant differences were found between participants and non-part icipants by their m a r i t a l status, age, number of ch i ld ren , years of school ing, off- reserve l i v ing exper ience, church attendance, labour force category, occupational prestige and receipt of s o c i a l welfare ass is tance . Of the soc io -psycho log ica l va r i ab les the scales measur ing al ienation, a c t i v i s m , t rust and integration with re la t ives together with the index assess ing attitudes towards education produced s ta t is t ical ly significant differences between part icipants and non-par t ic ipants . The nu l l hypothesis of no significant d i f fe r -ence between the two groups was accepted for their expressed soc i a l distance towards four eithnic groups and one loca l i ty group and thei r attitudes towards t ime and employment The Srole A n o m i a 6 and the K a h l 7 A c t i v i s m and T rus t scales were found to be un id imens iona l . Two dimensions of achievement orientat ion were ident i -fied and label led Goal Orientat ion (A) and Soc ia l Percept ion ( A ) . Where K a h l had identified four dimensions of achievement orientat ion in major studies eon-ducted in M e x i c o and B r a z i l , this study found only two. A global analysis of the five soc io -psycho log ica l sca les used in the study resul ted i n the identification of three dis t inct areas of soc io -psycho log ica l phenomena re la ted to anomia and achievement orientat ion which were label led Goa l Orientat ion (B), Soc ia l Perception (B), and Dependency. 6 L e o Sro le , " S o c i a l Integration and Cer t a in C o r o l l a r i e s : A n Exp lo ra to ry Study. " A m e r i c a n Soc io log ica l Review, X X I ( A p r i l , 1956), pp. 709 - 716. 7 Joseph A . K a h l , "Some Measurements of Achievement Or i en t a t i on , " A m e r i c a n Journal of Sociology, 70 (May , 1965), pp. 669 - 681. 79 Although the most important single predic tor of par t ic ipa t ion was the alienation scale score va r i ab l e , the five va r i ab les total annual income, number of ch i ld ren , and Socia l Par t ic ipa t ion , T rus t , and Independence F r o m Relat ives Scale scores when considered s imultaneously were found to be more powerful as joint p r ed i c to r s . The nu l l hypothesis of no significant difference between the predic t ive power of a group of soc io-economic and soc io -psycho log ica l va r i ab le s considered s imultaneously and the predic t ive power of va r i ab le s considered independently was rejected at the .10 l eve l of s ignif icance. II C O N C L U S I O N S Soc io -Economic Charac te r i s t i c s The findings of this study revealed the part icipants to be female ra ther than male , to be active i n v o l u n t a r y s o c i a l organizat ions , and to be w i l l i n g to attend future adult education c l a s ses . The vocat ional t r a in ing courses and the jobs des i red by the part icipants were s ignif icant ly more prest igious than those des i red by non-par t ic ipants , and a far greater proport ion of part icipants than non-part icipants were r ece iv ing vocat ional t ra in ing , as revealed by the i r receipt of educational assistance funds. Signif icant ly more non-part icipants than part icipants rece ived unemployment insurance benefits and though s i m i l a r proport ions of the two groups rece ived soc i a l welfare assistance the total annual incomes of the part icipants were s ignif icant ly lower than those of the non-par t ic ipants . M a r i t a l status did not influence par t ic ipat ion decis ions and, although part icipants tended to be younger adults and to have fewer ch i ld ren than non-par t ic ipants , these were not s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant differences d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between the two groups. Part icipants had s l igh t ly less off - reserve l i v i n g experience and more educational experience than non-par t ic ipants , but these »u were r e l a t ive ly minor differences between them. A l s o fa i l ing to differentiate between the two groups were the c r i t e r i a of frequency of attending church , posit ion i n the labour force , and occupational pres t ige . In regard to the lat ter there was a tendency for the part icipants to hold higher status jobs than the non-par t ic ipants . Many of the findings of this study regarding the re la t ionship between par t ic ipat ion and cer ta in soc io-economic factors differ f rom the findings of non-Indian par t ic ipa t ion studies. The ra t io of the sexes par t ic ipat ing i n Mount C u r r i e adult education c lasses (69.1 % female to 30.9 % male) were the reverse of those expected for non-Indians (65 % male to 35 % female) in public school adult education c l a s s e s . 8 Where studies of non-Indians had found fo rma l educational exper ience, occupation, a g e , 9 and m a r i t a l s t a t u s , 1 0 to be s i g n i f i -cantly related to par t ic ipat ion, this study fai led to conf i rm the existence of such re la t ionships to Indian adult education par t ic ipa t ion . A l s o ra ther than part icipants tending to have higher annual incomes than non-part ic ipants , as i s the case with non-Indian par t ic ipants , the Mount C u r r i e part icipants were found to have lower annual incomes than non-par t ic ipants . 8 C . E . Chapman, "Some Charac t e r i s t i c s of Adult P a r t - T i m e Students," Adult Educat ion, 10 (Autumn, 1959), pp. 27 - 41; J . W . C . Johnstone and R . J . R i v e r a , Volunteers F o r Lea rn ing , (Chicago: Aldine Publ ishing C o . , 1965), p . 84; E . H . M i z r u c h i and L . M . V a n a r i a , "Who Part icipates in Adult Educa t ion?" , Adult Educat ion, 10 (Spr ing , 1970), pp. 141 - 143. 9 Edmund de S. Brunner, et a l . , An Overview of Adult Educat ion Research , (Chicago: Adult Educat ion Assoc ia t ion of the U . S . A . , 1959); Cool ie V e r n e r and John A . Newber ry J r . , "The Nature of Adult Par t ic ipa t ion , " Adult Educat ion, 8 (Summer, 1958), pp. 208 - 222. 1 0 C . O. Houle , The Inquir ing M i n d , (Madison , The Un ive r s i ty of W i s c o n s i n P res s , 1961), p . 6. 81 In a study of non-Indian adult education par t ic ipat ion in the Pemberton ' V a l l e y nine soc io-economic and two s o c i a l in te r -ac t ion charac te r i s t i c s were found to differentiate between part icipants and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . 1 1 In this study two of those same cha rac t e r i s t i c s , soc i a l par t ic ipat ion and des i re for further education and t ra in ing , were found to differentiate between the Pemberton V a l l e y ' s Indian part icipants and non-part icipants and two others, age and number of ch i ld ren , did not. No evidence was found to support ei ther of the general izat ions based upon studies of minor i ty groups in the United States of A m e r i c a that female members of cu l tu ra l groups with low soc i a l contact with surrounding c o m m u n i -t ies par t ic ipated less in non-church related act ivi t ies than men, and that re l ig ious aff i l iat ion influenced p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 1 2 It was noted that where Hannin found that amongst other factors age, m a r i t a l status and l eve l of education were not s ignif icant ly re la ted to the par t ic ipat ion of Ojibways in f o r m a l vo lun -tary soc ia l o r g a n i z a t i o n s 1 3 these same three factors were not related to adult education par t ic ipa t ion on the Mount C u r r i e r e s e r v e . That few soc io-economic differences were found between part icipants and non-part icipants i s further evidence supporting the findings of previous studies that, " r u r a l communit ies tend to have less c l ea r ly defined and c o m p l i -cated dis t inct ions among people so that par t ic ipa t ion genera l ly c rosses a l l l i n e s . " 1 4 1 1 J . G a r y D ick in son , " A n Ana ly t i c a l Survey of the Pemberton V a l l e y W i t h Specia l Reference to Adult E d u c a t i o n , " (Unpublished E d . D . d isser ta t ion , The Un ive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia , 1968). 1 2 V e r n e r and Newber ry , op. c i t . , p. 212. 1 3 Dan i e l J . Hannin, "Selected Fac to r s Assoc ia ted with the Par t ic ipa t ion of Adult Ojibway Indians i n F o r m a l Volun ta ry Organ iza t ions , " (Unpublished Ph.Do d i sse r ta t ion , Un ive r s i ty of W i s c o n s i n , 1967). 1 4 V e r n e r and Newber ry , op. c i t . , p . 211. 82 Soc io-Psycho log ica l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In terms of the soc io -psycho log ica l charac te r i s t i c s studied the p a r t i -cipants were less alienated, seeing fewer obstacles to the achievement of thei r l ife goals than non-part ic ipants , and they were more act ively involved than non-part icipants in attempting to reach their goals . In contrast to the non-par t ic ipants , the part icipants were also found to be more t rus t ing of others, and to have faith in their re lat ionships with others whi ls t also being r e l a t ive ly independent of their r e l a t i ves . Although not s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant , the part icipants placed greater importance on occupational success in l i fe , an observation which is supported by the previous ly reported des i re s held by them for vocat ional t r a in ing and s k i l l e d employment which were s ignif icant . The attitudes of the part icipants towards education were found to be more contem-porary and more favourable than those held by the non-part ic ipants ; however, the two groups d id not differ with r ega rd to thei r assessed attitudes towards t ime and employment. Both groups were found to share attitudes of great s o c i a l distance towards four ethnic groups studied and towards the non-Indians of the Pemberton V a l l e y . A picture emerges of the part icipant as being ambit ious, r e l a t i ve ly independent of r e l a t ives , w i l l i n g to trust and cooperate with others, wish ing to have sk i l l ed employment, aware of the value of education and w i l l i n g to part icipate in adult education c lasses , and v e r y aware of the soc i a l gap between h imse l f as an Indian and other ethnic groups and his non-Indian neighbours i n the Pemberton V a l l e y . In contrast the non-part icipant is less ambit ious, he sees too many obstacles to prevent h i m from achieving higher goals and he is not inc l ined to make greater efforts to succeed. Consequently, he accepts lower goals and l e s se r rewards than others, he remains c lose ly attached to h is extended fami ly re la t ives and he does not trust others or have faith in his dealings with them. L i k e the part icipant he i s v e r y aware of the s o c i a l differences between himself , and other ethnic groups, and his non-Indian neighbours. Although the findings of this study did not give d i rec t support to previous r e sea rch regarding the existence of an inverse re la t ionship between educational attainment and a l i e n a t i o n , 1 5 inverse re la t ionships between adult education par t ic ipat ion and al ienation, and attitude towards education and alienation were found. The re la t ionships found in this study between pa r t i c ipa -t ion, al ienation, soc i a l par t ic ipat ion, trust and a c t i v i s m are such that they support the broad general izat ion which can be drawn from E l l io t t s findings that those Indians who are least alienated are those most amenable to s o c i a l c h a n g e . 1 6 Predic t ion of Par t ic ipat ion F i v e va r iab les were selected by stepwise r eg re s s ion a n a l y s i s 1 7 as being joint predic tors of par t ic ipa t ion . The s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant in te r -re la t ionships between these var iab les were a i l found to be posit ive and they are represented d iag rammat ica l ly in F igu re 1. • Soc ia l Par t ic ipa t ion , T r u s t and Integration with Relat ives influenced par t ic ipat ion through d i rec t associa t ion while number of ch i ld ren and total annual income were influential through an indirect associa t ion . It would appear that the greater the extent of the individuals par t ic ipat ion in voluntary soc i a l organizations 1 5 A . A . MacDonald a n d W . B. C l a r e , The Relat ionship Between F i s h e r i e s  Technology and Community Soc ia l St ructure , (Ant igonish: St. F r a n c i s X a v i e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1967).; Gary D ick inson , "Al iena t ion Among R u r a l Adults of Low Educat ional Attainment", Adult Educat ion, 21 (1970), pp. 3-13. 1 6 J . G . E l l i o t t , A Study of the Changes Wi th in F o u r Indian Communi t ies Over a Three Y e a r Per iod , (Ant igonish: St. F r a n c i s X a v i e r Un ive r s i t y , 1970). 1 7 B j e r r i n g and Seagraves, l o c . c i t . F I G U R E 1 I N T E R - R E L A T I O N S H I P S O F P R E D I C T O R V A R I A B L E S Soc ia l Par t ic ipat ion Number of Ch i ld ren P -Adult Educat ion Par t ic ipa t ion 3 " I T r u st To t a l Annual Income •t Integration with Relat ives < > Relat ionship s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant at .01 l e v e l . > Relat ionship s t a t i s t i ca l ly significant at . 05 l e v e l . the more t rus t ing he or she i s of others, and the greater his or her degree of independence f rom re la t ives the greater the l ike l ihood of the dec i s ion being made to part icipate in adult education ac t iv i t i e s . Influencing s o c i a l pa r t i c ipa -t ion were total annual income, number of ch i ld ren and t rust , the lat ter being influenced by total annual income, independence f rom re la t ives , and s o c i a l par t ic ipa t ion . The combined influences of these five va r iab les accounts for thir ty-one per cent of the var iance in par t ic ipa t ion . I l l , I M P L I C A T I O N S Implicat ions for P r o g r a m Planning One apparent impl ica t ion to be drawn f rom the findings of this study concerns the p rogram planners knowledge of Indian par t ic ipants . T h e i r s o c i o -economic charac te r i s t i c s may differ widely f rom those of non-Indian p a r t i c i -pants. Therefore planning decis ions for Indian programs ought to be based on those c r i t e r i a found to be related to Indian par t ic ipat ion and not based on those c r i t e r i a known to be re la ted to non-Indian par t ic ipat ion and thought to apply to Indian par t ic ipa t ion . To gain an accurate assessment of the Indian communi ty ' s adult education interests and needs, and the factors influencing par t ic ipat ion, the p rogram planner ought to sys temat ica l ly conduct surveys of Indian par t ic ipants . Bear ing i n mind the diff icul t ies facing the p rogram planner in gaining the knowledge and es tabl ishing the re la t ionships requ i red to provide programs for the Indian community, the involvement of Indian community members ea r ly in the planning process would appear to be e s s e n t i a l . 1 8 A . Blunt and D . M c K i n n o n , l o c . c i t . A Mount C u r r i e band adult education committee works with the Howe Sound School D i s t r i c t Adult Educat ion D i r e c t o r and the Regional Supervisor of Adult Educat ion, D . I . A . N . D . to plan programs for the Mount C u r r i e band. Mos t of the l o c a l adminis t ra t ion for c lasses i s the respons ib i l i ty of an Indian adult education coordina tor . By involv ing representat ives of the community to the fullest p r ac t i ca l extent i n a l l aspects of planning and conducting the p rogram, the dangers of mis in te rp re t ing the communi ty ' s needs w i l l be m i n i m i z e d and the planning decis ions reached w i l l be more l i k e l y to achieve the fullest possible p a r t i c i -pation. Few soc io-economic b a r r i e r s to par t ic ipat ion were identified in the study. That part icipants were more l i k e l y to be female than male may indicate that the p rov i s ion of programs for males requi res spec ia l considerat ion by the p rogram planner . Indian rese rves seldom have the fac i l i t i es for technica l or vocat ional s k i l l s c lasses which genera l ly attract large numbers of male p a r t i -cipants, so the p rov i s ion of al ternative c lasses which requi re less plant or expensive equipment such as p las t ic and glass fibre construct ion to replace metalwork and welding may be necessa ry . A l t e rna t ive ly , mobile technica l workshops or the u t i l i za t ion of any l o c a l indus t r i a l plan and p remises might be employed to provide par t - t ime technical c lasses for Indian ma le s . In v iew of the fact that the Department of Indian Af fa i r s and Nor the rn Development meets the fu l l cost of adminis t ra t ive and tui t ion expenses and a v e r y large propor t ion of the costs for mate r ia l s for adult education c l a s ses , there are no major f inancial obstacles to Indian par t ic ipa t ion . However , as the part icipants i n the study were found to have lower annual incomes than non-part ic ipants , and many of the part icipants were l i v i n g at the poverty l e v e l , any significant t r ans -fer of f inancia l r e spons ib i l i ty for c lasses f rom the Department of Indian Af fa i r s and Nor thern Development to the part icipant would l i k e l y place a f inancia l burden on many part icipants and would probably resul t i n a decl ine in par t ic ipa t ion . The part icipants were found to be more independent of their re la t ives than non-part ic ipants , therefore to increase par t ic ipat ion of the p rogram planner might have to consider es tabl ishing s m a l l in formal c lasses with part icipants being sought f rom wit l i in an extended family group. The c lasses might be held i n 87 the homes of the fami ly group and, i f successful , might be expanded to include two or more extended family groups. Other soc io -psycho log ica l factors found to influence par t ic ipat ion when considered co l l ec t ive ly suggest that a s o c i a l c l imate of mutual t rust , individual s e l f - r e l i ance , and wi l l ingness to part icipate in the community 's s o c i a l organizations i s conducive to adult education par t ic ipa t ion . The p rogram planner might further the development of such a community s o c i a l c l imate by ensur ing that adult education ac t iv i t ies are seen to be supplementing the ro l e s of ex is t ing community organizat ions, ra ther than being seen as an ac t iv i ty introduced into the community without consultation and competing for par t ic ipants . One of the most important needs identified by this study is the i m p r o v e -ment of s o c i a l re la t ions between the Indian band and other ethnic groups. The respondents i n the study were found to share common feelings of great s o c i a l distance f rom other ethnic groups and the i r non-Indian neighbours. F o r the Indian to part icipate fully i n Canadian society is i s essent ia l that he regard others and be regarded by them as a different but equal member of soc ie ty . The understanding and experiences requi red to achieve this might be developed by i nc reas ing the number of s o c i a l l y beneficial contacts between band members and other groups through educational ac t iv i t i e s . Ways to increase these con-tacts might include the p rov i s ion of cer ta in integrated adult education c l a s ses , c lasses in Indian h is tory and culture for non-Indians us ing Indian resource people, educational exchange v i s i t s between Indian and non-Indian community groups, Indian representat ion in c i v i c af fa i rs , p a r t i c u l a r l y on education committees and school boards. Al iena t ion was found to be the single most important predic tor of par t ic ipat ion with part icipants being the least al ienated. It i s most important , therefore, that the part icipants faith in adult education be rewarded with success . 88 I f vocat ional t ra in ing classes are conducted when employment opportunities are not being created, i f vocat ional s k i l l s are taught but the l i f e - s k i l l s t r a in ing of how to seek and keep a job are neglected, and i f academic upgrading c lasses are conducted without adequate counsel l ing se rv ices and further educational '• opportunities being provided, then the part icipant w i l l lose faith in adult education as a means towards the achievement of his goals . A par t ic ipant ' s lack of success w i l l deter others, his success w i l l encourage others to p a r t i c i -pate. It i s essent ia l therefore, that adult education programs be an in tegra l part of the total effort to improve life in the Indian community . Programs must be careful ly planned to supplement those of the other agencies work ing in the community. E c o n o m i c development, improved housing and sanitation, improved health se rv ices , and expanded transportat ion and communications se rv ices are a l l facets of the integrated development provis ions requi red to combat Indian poverty. E a c h of these developments creates adult l ea rn ing needs in the community for which the adult education program planner must design appropriate learning exper iences . In the absence of a w e l l integrated adult education program those adults educated to welcome and effect change may find only f rus t ra t ion and despa i r . Implicat ions for Fur the r Resea rch . The findings of any s m a l l explora tory study of a previous ly uninvestigated soc ia l science problem are open to doubt. On these grounds the rep l i ca t ion of this study wi th a l a rge r sample, a more sophisticated r e s e a r c h instrument and a more detailed analysis of the data is warranted to determine whether or not the findings of this study can be general ized to other Indian communi t ies . L i t t l e i s known about the Indian as an adult l ea rne r . C l e a r l y r e s e a r c h is / needed to increase our understanding of the problems and dif f icul t ies he encounters as an adult education part icipant . The findings of such studies would be useful 89 to program planners work ing to provide the most appropriate and effective means of conducting educational p rograms in Indian communi t i e s . The development of more r e l i ab le means of measur ing attitudes on a t r ad i t iona l -value to contemporary-value continuum would be useful to assess the stage of s o c i a l development reached by a community and to identify the communi ty ' s educational needs. Fur the r r e sea rch is also requ i red to c l a r i fy the nature of the in te r - re la t ionships between those factors found to influence Indian par t ic ipat ion. . It i s possible that the factors influencing par t ic ipat ion might be manipulated by p rogram planners to increase par t ic ipa t ion . The sparc i ty i n this study of soc io-economic factors differentiat ing between part icipants and n o n - p a r t i c i -pants and the findings i n t e rms of soc io -psycho log ica l factors indicates the need for further invest igat ion of par t ic ipa t ion us ing soc io -psycho log ica l mea -su re s . F i n a l l y , beyond desc r ib ing and analyzing par t ic ipa t ion cha rac t e r i s t i c s , i t i s important that those adult education programs conducted be evaluated. Investigations into the nature of the actual l ea rn ing experiences provided which assess the effectiveness of the ins t ruc t iona l techniques and devices u t i l i zed are r equ i red to ass is t in de termining the nature and extent of cu l tura l influences upon Indian adult l ea rn ing . B I B L I O G R A P H Y Anderson, D a r r e l l and John A. N i e m i . Adult Educat ion and the Disadvantaged Adul t . New Y o r k : E R I C Clearinghouse on Adult Educat ion, Syracuse , 1969. B je r r ing , James and Paul Seagraves. U B C . TRIP : T r i angu la r Regress ion Package. Vancouver : The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Centre , 1970. B je r r ing . James, et a l . UBC. M V T A B : Mul t i va r i a t e Contingency Tabula t ions . Vancouver : The Un ive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Centre , 1970. Bl i shen , Bernard R . , " A Soc io -Economic Index for Occupations in Canada", Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 4: 41 - 53, Feb rua ry , 1967. Blunt, A d r i a n and Donald P. M c K i n n o n . "Adul t Educat ion for B. C . Status Indians, " Adult Education in B r i t i s h Columbia , Journal of Educat ion, Un ive r s i ty nf B r i t i s h Columbia . No , 18, Winter,. 1971 oo. l - 17. Bogardus, E . S . , Soc ia l Dis tance . Y e l l o w Spr ings , Ohio: Ant ioch P r e s s , 1959. Booth, A l a n . " A Demographic Considera t ion of Non-Par t ic ipa t ion , " Adult Educat ion, 11 :223 - 229, Summer , 1961. Brunner, Edmund de S . , et a l . A n Overview of Adult Educat ion Resea rch . Chicago: The-Adult Education Assoc ia t ion of the U . S. A . , 1959. Campbe l l , W i l l i a m G i l e s . F o r m and Style i n Thes i s W r i t i n g . Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n C o . , 1939. Chapin, F . S. Soc ia l Par t ic ipa t ion Sca le . Minneapo l i s : U n i v e r s i t y of Minneapol is P re s s , 1938. Chapman, C . E . "Some Charac te r i s t i c s of Adult P a r t - T i m e Students", Adult Educat ion, 10: 27 - 41, Autumn, 1959. C l a r k e , J . P. "Measu r ing Al iena t ion Wi th in a Soc ia l Sys tem" , A m e r i c a n Soc io log ica l Review, 24: 189 .- 202, 1959. 90 Dick inson , G a r y . "Al iena t ion Among R u r a l Adults of Low Educat ional Achievement" , Adult Educat ion, 21: 3 - 1 3 , F a l l , 1970. D ick in son , J . G a r y . " A n Ana ly t i c a l Survey of the Pemberton V a l l e y in B r i t i s h Columbia Wi th Special Reference to Adult Educa t ion" . Unpublished E d . D . d isser ta t ion , The Un ive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia , Vancouver , 1968. D ick in son , G a r y , and Cool ie V e r n e r . Community Structure and Par t ic ipat ion in Adult Educat ion . Vancouver : Facu l ty of Education, The Un ive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia , 1968. Duff, W i l s o n . The Impact of the White M a n . V o l . 1 of The Indian H i s to ry of  B r i t i s h Co lumbia . V i c t o r i a ; P r o v i n c i a l Museum, 1964. E l l i o t t , J . G . A Study of the Changes Wi th in Four Indian Communit ies over  a T h r e e - Y e a r Pe r iod . Ant igonish: St. F r a n c i s X a v i e r Un ive r s i t y , 1970. F r i e d m a n , E . A . "Changing Value Orientat ions in .Adul t L i f e , " Soc io log ica l Backgrounds of Adult Educat ion. Burns, Robert W , ( e d . ) . Chicago: Center for the Study of L i b e r a l Educat ion for Adul t s . 1964. Goard , D e a n S . , and Gary D i c k i n s o n . The Influence of Educat ion and Age  on Par t ic ipa t ion in R u r a l Adult Educat ion . Vancouver : Facul ty of Educat ion, The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia , 1968. H a l m , Jason. UBC. B M D X 72: Fac to r A n a l y s i s . Vancouver : The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Centre , 1970. Hannin, Dan ie l J . "Selected F a c t o r s Assoc ia ted with the Par t ic ipa t ion of Adult Ojibway Indians in F o r m a l Voluntary Organ iza t ions . " Unpublished P h . D . d i sser ta t ion , The Un ive r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n , 1967. Houle, C . O. The Inquiring M i n d . Mad i son : The Un ive r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n P res s , 196T Johnstone, J . W . C. and R . J . R i v e r a . Volunteers F o r L e a r n i n g . Chicago: Aldine Publ ishing C o . , 1965. K a h l , Joseph A . "Some Measurements of Achievement Or i en t a t i on , " A m e r i c a n Journal of Sociology, 70: 669 - 681, M a y , 1965. K i l l i a n , L . M . , and C . M . G r i g g , " U r b a n i s m , Race and A n o m i a " , A m e r i c a n Journal of Sociology, 67: 661 - 665, M a y , 1962. Kluckhohn , F lo rence R . Var i a t ions in Value Orienta t ions . Evanston: Row, Peterson and C o . , 1961. London, Jack, Robert Wenkert , and W a r r e n O . H a g s t r o m . Adult Educat ion  and Soc ia l C l a s s . Berke ley: Survey Resea rch Center , The Un ive r s i t y of Ca l i fo rn i a , 1963. MacDona ld , A . A . , a n d W . B. C l a r e . The Relat ionship Between .F i she r i e s Technology and Community Soc ia l S t ruc ture . Ant igonish: St. F r a n c i s X a v i e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1967. Mann, W . E . ( e d . ) , Poverty and Soc i a l Po l i cy in Canada, (Toronto: Copp C l a r k , 1970) M a r s h , C . P . , R . Dolan J r . , and W . C . R idd ick . "Anomia and Communicat ion Behaviour: The Relat ionship Between Anomia and the U t i l i z a t i on of Three Public B u r e a u c r a c i e s , " R u r a l Sociology, 22: 435 - 455, 1967. M e i r , D . , and W . B e l l . " A n o m i a and Dif fe ren t ia l A c c e s s to the Achievement of L i f e G o a l s " , A m e r i c a n Soc io log ica l Review, 24 : 189 - 202, A p r i l , 1959. Middle ton , R . "Al iena t ion , Race , and Educat ion" , A m e r i c a n Soc io log ica l Review, 28: 973 - 977, December , 1963. M i l l e r , Delber t C . Handbook of Resea rch Des ign and Soc ia l Measurement . New Y o r k : Dav id M c K a y C o . , 1964. M i l l e r , H . L . Par t ic ipa t ion of Adults i n Educat ion: A F o r c e F i e l d A n a l y s i s . Boston: Center for the Study of L i b e r a l Educat ion for Adul t s , 1967. M i z r u c h i , E . H 0 and L . M . V a n a r i a . "Who Part ic ipates in Adult Educat ion?" , Adult Educat ion, 10: 141 - 143, Spr ing , 1960. Rose, H . , a n d j . Hens ley . "The Relat ionship Between A n o m i a and P ar t ic ipa t ion in Adult Basic Educat ion" . Paper read at the Annual Adult Educat ion Resea rch Conference, New Y o r k , F e b r u a r y 2nd - 5th, 1971. Sro le , L e o . "Soc i a l Integration and Cer t a in C o r o l l a r i e s : A n Exp lo ra to ry Study," A m e r i c a n Soc io logica l Review, 21: 709 - 716, A p r i l , 1956. V e r n e r , C o o l i e . Planning and Conducting a Survey: A Case Study. Ottawa: R u r a l Development Branch, Department of F o r e s t r y and R u r a l Development, 1967. V e r n e r , Cool ie and Gary D i c k i n s o n . A Soc io -Economic Survey of the Pemberton V a l l e y i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia . Vancouver : Facu l ty of Educat ion, The Un ive r s i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia , 1968. V e r n e r , Cool ie and John A . Newber ry J r . , "The Nature of Adult P a r t i c i p a t i o n , " Adult Educat ion, 8:208 - 222, Summer , 1958. 94 A P P E N D I X A T A B L E P A G E 1 Type and Number of Adult Educat ion Courses Held on the M t . C u r r i e Indian Reserve 1968 - 1971 95 2 Product Moment Cor re l a t i on Coefficients for Nineteen Va r i ab l e s „. 96 APPENDIX A TABLE 1 TYPE AND NUMBER OF ADULT EDUCATION COURSES HELD ON THE MT. CURRIE INDIAN RESERVE 1968 - 19711 Type of Course 1968-69 1969-70 1970-71 No. Held No. Held No. Held Homemaking 4 6 3 Native Handicrafts 3 12 11 Native Language 1 1 0 Job Oriented 1 1 5 General Interest 4 0 4 Totals 13 20 . 23 The courses were administered by School District No. 48 (Howe-Sound) under contractual agreements with the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. The duration of the courses varied greatly according to the needs of the participants. 96 A P P E N D I X A P R O D U C T - M O M E N T C O R R E L A T I O N V a r i a b l e N o . 1 . 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 lo 1.00 2. .17 LOO 3. -.00 .55 1.00 4. .09 -.45 -.68 1.00 5. -.35 .04 .22* . .11 1.00 6. .33 .33 .03 .14 -.33 1.00 7. .31 -.11 -.19 .16 ' -.45 .35 1.00 8. .34 .04 -.17 .11 -.51 .30 .51 1.00 9. .19 -.13 -.23* .13 -.20 .07 .30 .37 1.00 10. .29 -.08 -.37 .17 -.34 .12 .22* .36 .26* 11. -.06 -.14 -.07 -.01 .11 -.27* -.29 -.14 -.09 12. -.11 -.15 .03 .01 .16 -.23* -.25* -.34 -. 16 13. -.16 -.03 .21 -.05 .18 -.21 -.13 -.34 -.22* 14. .01 -.13 -.14 .05 -.12 -.21 -.26* -.10 -.00 15. -.10 .00 .09 -.06 .13 -.30 -.21* -.24* -.11 16. .19 -.15 -.36 .18 -.28 -.03 .08 .31 .28 17. .01 .19 -.17 .15 -.13 .28 .18 .21 .01 18. .08 .09 .12 .00 -.10 .19 .32 .06 .10 19. -.03 .41 .22 -.06 -.11 .43 .27* .11 -.16 Note: Significant co r re la t ion coefficients at the .01 l eve l are under l ined. Significant co r re l a t ion coefficients at the .05 l eve l are marked with an a s t e r i sk . T A B L E 2 C O E F F I C I E N T S F O R N I N E T E E N V A R I A B L E S 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1.00 - .02 1.00 - . 14 .70 1.00 - . 2 5 * .56 .80 1.00 .04 .61 .54 .33 1.00 - . 1 4 .61 .78 .83 .36 1.00 .40 .08 .01 - .01 .15 .12 1.00 .05 - . 14 - . 08 .03 - . 1 7 .06 .07 1.00 - . 2 1 * - .32 - . 1 0 .00 - . 3 7 .10 - . 1 6 .15 .06 - .19 - . 12 - .02 - . 2 5 * .02 - . 04 .28* L i s t of F a c t o r s : 1. Adult Educat ion Par t ic ipat ion 2 . N o . of Ch i ld ren 3. Age 4. Y e a r s Schooling 5. Al ienat ion 6. Soc ia l Par t ic ipat ion 7. T r u s t 8. A c t i v i s m 9. Occupational P r i m a c y 10. Integration with Relat ives 11. Soc ia l Distance B r i t i s h 12. Soc ia l Distance Swedes 13. Soc ia l Distance A m e r i c a n s 14. , Soc i a l Distance Pemberton V a l l e y Non-Indians 15. Soc ia l Distance Chinese 16. Attitude towards Educat ion 17. Attitude towards T i m e 18. Attitude towards Employement 19. Income A P P E N D I X B P A G E M t . C u r r i e Indian Band Education Par t ic ipa t ion Interview Schedule „ 99 99 APPENDIX B U.B.C./D.I.A. 1971 Respondent's Number Respondent's Band Number MOUNT CURRIE INDIAN BAND EDUCATION PARTICIPATION INTERVIEW SCHEDULE Respondent's Name Record of V i s i t s : Date Time Comments F i r s t Second T h i r d I n t erview and F i e l d Check: O f f i c e Coding: F i n a l Check: / 1 IDENTIFICATION DATA Respondent's Number 1, 3. Data Card Number - 4 . 1 Respondent's Band Number 5 , 7. Respondent's Father's Band Number 8 , 1 0 . •START INTERVIEW HERE 1. Sex 1 . Male 2. Female 2. What i s your marital status? 1. Single 2 . Married 3. Widowed, divorced or separated 3. How many children do you have? 4 . How old wore you on your last birthday? 1. 15 -24 2 . 25 -34 3. 35 -44 4 . 4 5 - 54 5. 55 -64 6 . 65+ 5. How many years of schooling have you completed? 1. 5 2. 6 -8 3. 9-11 4 . 12 5. 1 3 - 1 5 ( 1 - 5 years un ive r s i ty ) 11 , 12. 1 3 , 1 4 . 15,16. 17. 1 8 , 1 9 . 20 . 1 2 1 2 i 1 2 3 4 b 6 1 2 3 4 c 6. 16+ ( d e c or above) 6. Did you ever attend residential school? 1. Yes 2 . No If yes, for how many years? 21 . 22 ,23 , 2 7. D i d you ever a t t end p u b l i c s c h o o l ? 1.- Yes 24. 1 2 . No 2 I f y e s , f o r how many y e a r s ? 2 5 , 2 6 . 8. Were you ever a s tudent on the D . I . A . High Schoo l Board ing Program? 1. Yes 27. 1 2 . No , 2 I f y e s , f o r how many y e a r s ? 2 8 , 2 9 . 9. Have you taken any academic upgrad ing courses o f f t l ie reserve, s i n c e you l e f t s choo l? 1. Yes 30. 1 2 . No 2 I f y e s , which c o u r s e , o r c o u r s e s , d i d you take? 1. B . T . S . D . . Grades 0-6 (1st. Course) . 3 1 . 1 2 . " " 6-8 2 3. 1 1 1 1 . ' 8-10 3 4 . " 1 1 10-12 4 (2nd Course) 32 . 2 3 4 (3rd Course) 33 3 4 D i d y o u complete the l a s t upgrad ing course you took? 1. Yes 34. 1 2 . No 2 10. Have you taken any v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g courses? 1. ' Yes 35. 1 2 . No I f y e s , wh ich c o u r s e , o r c o u r s e s , have you taken? 36 ,37 . •_ : 38 ,39 . D i d YOU complete the v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g course? 1. Yes 40 . 1 2. No 2 11 . Have you a t tended any a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s on the r e se rve d u r i n g the l a s t th ree yea r s? 1. Yes 4 1 . 1 2 . No 2 I f yes', which c o u r s e , or c o u r s e s , have you taken? (Hand respondent ca rd l i s t i n g c o u r s e s ) . (68-69) 42 ,46 . 1968-69 1969-70 1970-71 (69-70) 4 7 , S I . (70 -71) S2,56. 102 1 1 . (contd) Have you a t t ended any a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s o f f the r e se rve d u r i n g the l a s t t h ree yea r s? 1. Yes , 57. 1 2 . No 2 I f y e s , wh ich course o r courses have you taken? 5 8 , 6 1 . ( P a r t i c i p a t i o n Index Score) 6 2 , 6 3 . SROLE SCALE P l e a s e s t a t e whether you agree or d i s a g r e e w i t h each o f the f o l l o w i n g : s t a tements : Agree D i sag ree o f f i c i a l s because o f t e n they a r e n ' t r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the problems o f the I n d i a n . 64 . 1 0 13 . Nowadays a pe r son l ias t o l i v e p r e t t y much f o r today and l e t tomorrow take care o f i t s e l f . 65 . 1 0 14. In s p i t e c f what some people say , l i f e f o r the Ind ian i s g e t t i n g worse , net b e t t e r . 66 . 1 , 0 15. I t ' s h a r d l y f a i r t o b r i n g c h i l d r e n i n t o the world, w i t h the way t h i n g s l o o k f o r the f u t u r e . . 67 . 1 0 16. These days a person doesn ' t r e a l l y know . who lie can count on . 68 . 1 0 T o t a l S c a l e Score 69 . 4 103 START DATA CARD 2 Respondent's Number Data Card Number 17. CHAPIN SCALE (Hand" Respondent Card Listing Organizations} Would you please t r / to re c a l l which of these organizations you have belonged to i n the past. year. 1, 3. 4. Name of Organization Atten-dance Finan-c i a l con-tribution Member of Com-mittee Offices Held • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Total ( X I ) (X?.) (X3) (X4) pes) Total Score ,6. KAHL SCALE _ Please state whether you agree or disagree with each of the -following statements. Agree Disagree 18. It i s not good to let your relatives know . everything about your l i f e , because they might take advantage of you. 8.. 0 1 19. Most, people are not grateful i f you are kind to them. 9. 0 1 20. Most people are f a i r and do not try to get away with something. 10. 1 0 1 0 4 A^ree. Disagree 2 1 . People help each other not because i t ' s the right tiring to do, but because they hope to gain something. 1 1 . 0 1 2 2 . You can only trust people you know well. 1 2 . 0 1 2 3 . It is not good to let your friends know everything about your l i f e , because they might take advantage of you. 1 3 . 0 1 Total 1 4 . 2 4 . Making plans only bring unhappiness because plans are hard to f u l f i l l . 1 5 . 0 1 2 5 . It doesn't make much difference who you elect to the band council for nothing w i l l change. 1 6 . 0 1 2 6 . With tilings as they are today, a smart person ought to think only about the • present and not worry about what is ... going to .happen tomorrow. 1 7 . 0 1 2 7 . It's important to make plans for one's l i f e , and not just accept what comes. 1 8 . 1 0 9 0 "TV.^ (- .^^•-.-•r-.i- ' "k .-.^i-. i r-.^ r- r~ Ir* -V- .-. -. ~~ - ~ ~ too much out of l i f e , and. being content with what comes along. 1 9 . 0 1 . 2 9 . It i s very important to make plans for the future, well in advance. 2 0 . 1 .0 Total 2 1 . . 3 0 . A person's job should come f i r s t , even i f i t means giving up time from recreation. . 2 2 . 1 0' 3 1 . Looking-at a man's success i n his job i s . not the best way to judge him as a man. 2 3 . 0 1 3 2 . The most important qualities of a real man are determination and ambition to get ahead. 2 4 . 1 0 3 3 . The most important thing for a parent to do i s to help his children get further ahead than lie did. 2 5 . . 1 0 Total 2 6 . Agree Disagree 34. When looking f o r a job, a person ought to look f o r work near his parents, even i f that means giving up a good job elsewhere. 27. 35. When you are i n trouble, only a r e l a t i v e can be depended upon to help you out. 28. 36. I f you have the chance to choose someone to work with you on a job, it . i s always better to choose a r e l a t i v e than a stranger. 29. Total 30. 31, 34. 37. BOGARDUS SCALE ' This section of the interview i s concerned with the ways you might f e e l about d i f f e r e n t groups. Do not give your reactions to the best, or to the worst members of the group that you have known, but think of the picture that you have of the whole group. I w i l l t e l l you the name of the group, and then you t e l l me how many of the categories on t h i s card you would "go along with" f o r each group. (Hand respondent card) (Indicate by marking X i n the appropriate boxes). Category 35. En p i i sh 36. Swedes 37. Americans 38. . Non-Indians i n the Pemberton V a l l e y 39. Chinese To Close Kinship . By Marriage To Go Places With As Personal Friends To Live Next To As Neighbours-To Work With On A Job i To -Become A Canadian C i t i z e n To Be A V i s i t o r i n Canada • -To Be Kept Out. of Canada English 35. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Swedes 36. 1 2 3 4 5 & 7 Americans 37. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Non-Indians i n the Pemberton Valley 38. 1 2 3 4 5 0 7 Chinese 59. 1 2 3 4 5 0 7 106 7 Please l i s t e n t o the f o l l o w i n g statements, and t e l l me which ones you agree w i t h . 38. Three boys were t a l k i n g about education. 1. One boy s a i d t h a t he thought he would be a l l r i g h t w i t h a couple o f years High School. People who completed High School d i d not seem t o be any b e t t e r o f f i n the v i l l a g e . 2. A second boy s a i d t h a t he would t r y t o complete a l l h i s High School and thought he would succeed b e t t e r i n l i f e . 3. A t h i r d s a i d t h a t he was going to s t a y at s c h o o l as long as he c o u l d and p o s s i b l y go t o C o l l e g e or U n i v e r s i t y . The more education the b e t t e r he s a i d . Which boy would you say was r i g h t ? 1, 2 or 3? (CIRCLE THE NUMBER) 40. 39. A man from the Indian O f f i c e gave a t a l k on Education. A f t e r h i s t a l k there was much d i s c u s s i o n . x. W J I C wuuicui s a i a uicn, yuui i^ jjcwpxc J I C C U J U I I I C education today, but people w i t h a l o t o f Education don't seem to be any b e t t e r o f f i n the v i l l a g e . 2. One man s a i d t h a t people have a b e t t e r chance t o earn a l i v i n g w i t h a good education. 3. A t h i r d s a i d t h a t education does not seem t o make a man work harder or b e t t e r . Lots o f men are earning good money without much education. Which person would you support i n t h i s d i s -cussion? 1, 2 or 3? (CIRCLE THE NUMBER) 41. 40. Three men were t a l k i n g about the education of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 1. One man s a i d he wanted them w e l l educated because people w i t h a good education wrere considered more important i n the v i l l a g e . 107 40. (contd) 2. A second s a i d t h a t some education i s needed but the people who do th i n g s f o r the v i l l a g e are not w e l l educated. 3. A t h i r d s a i d t h a t f o r the type of l i f e and work v i l l a g e people do, there were a l o t more important t h i n g s than education. Which o f these three do you t h i n k i s r i g h t ? 1, 2 or 3? (CIRCLE THE NUMBER 42. T o t a l 43. 41. Would you be prepared t o move away from Mount C u r r i e t o get a b e t t e r job? 1. Yes 44. 1 2. No 2 3. Undecided 3 42. Would you l i k e t o take some k i n d o f up-grading o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g course? 1. Yes 45. 1 2. No 2 3. Undecided 3 I f y es, what course, or courses would you l i k e t o take? 46,47. 43. Would you l i k e t o take any a d u l t education courses other than upgrading or v o c a t i o n a l ? 1. Yes 48. 1 2. No 2 I f yes, which courses? 49,50. 44. Do you t h i n k Indians get enough, not enough, or too much help from the government? 1. Enough 51. 1 2. Not enough 2 3. Too much 3 108 9 Please l i s t e n to the f o l l o w i n g statements and t e l l me which ones you agree w i t h . 45. Three men were s i t t i n g i n a f r i e n d ' s house. They were t a l k i n g about how times are changing. 1. One man s a i d that we can't hunt and f i s h l i k e i n the o l d days but people have a b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y to make a l i v i n g today. I t i s b e t t e r today. 2. The second man s a i d t h a t be l i k e d the o l d days, but times are changing. We have t o go with, a • few changes but not too many. 3. A t h i r d man s a i d he thought i t was b e t t e r i n the o l d days because a man c o u l d hunt and f i s h to make a l i v i n g . He had l e s s w o r r i e s i n those days. Which man i n your o p i n i o n i s r i g h t ? 1, 2, or 3? (CIRCLE THE NUMBER) 52. 46. Three teenagers were s i t t i n g around t a l k i n g about the f u t u r e . 1. One s a i d i t was b e t t e r i n h i s f a t h e r ' s time. I t was e a s i e r to make a l i v i n g . There were l e s s w o r r i e s and more time to spend w i t h f r i e n d s . 2. The second teenager s a i d t h i n g s are not t h a t much d i f f e r e n t . People had t h e i r ups and downs . i n the o l d days too. He thought he would make out i n l i f e about the same as h i s f a t h e r . 3. The t h i r d s a i d i f a man worked hard and took advantage of the o p p o r t u n i t i e s he would be b e t t e r o f f today. He thought he would be b e t t e r o f f than h i s f a t h e r . Which teenager do you t h i n k speaks the t r u t h ? 1, 2 or 3? (CIRCLE THE NUMBER) 53. 47. A f t e r a band c o u n c i l meeting three women were t a l k i n g . 1. One woman s a i d a few changes were necessary i n the v i l l a g e but too many changes might s p o i l i t . 2. The second woman s a i d why are people always t a l k i n g about changes. I l i k e our v i l l a g e the way i t i s . We don't have t o always f o l l o w other people. 3. A t h i r d woman s a i d she was g l a d to hear people t a l k i n g about changes. I f we don't make changes, we j u s t get f a r t h e r and f a r t h e r behind. Which woman do you t h i n k i s r i g h t ? 1, 2, or 3? (CIRCLE THE NUMBER) 54. T o t a l 55. 10 48. P l a c e these courses i n the o rde r t ha t you t h i n k they are most needed on t h i s r e s e r v e . (Hand respondent c a r d s ) . P l a c e the ones t h a t you t h i n k are needed most a t the top o f the l i s t , and the ones t ha t are needed l e a s t a t the bot tom. 56. 57. 58 . 59. 60 . 6 1 . 62 . 63 . 64. 49 . Have you ever l i v e d o f f r e se rve? ( E x c l u d i n g s c h o o l a t tendance) 1. Yes 65 . 1 2. No 2 I f y e s , f o r how many years? 6 6 , 6 7 . 50. D i d you v i s i t V a n v - u u v c r d u r i n g the la.st 12 months? 1. Yes 68 . 1 2. No 2 I f y e s , how many v i s i t s d i d you make? 6 9 , 7 0 . I f y e s , why do you u s u a l l y v i s i t Vancouver? 71 . 1 1. Shopping 2 2. V i s i t i n g 3 3. H o l i d a y 4 4 . H o s p i t a l - H e a l t h • 5 5. School R e l a t e d V i s i t 6 6. Job R e l a t e d V i s i t 7 7. D . I . A . R e l a t e d V i s i t 8 8. Other Reasons ( s p e c i f y ) 51 . Do you a t t end church? 1. Yes 72. 1 2. No 2 I f y e s , how o f t e n do you a t tend? " 1. Once pe r week, o r more 73. 1 2. 2-3 t imes pe r month 2 3. Once pe r month 3 4 . R a r e l y 4 11 START DATA CARD 3 Respondent's Number Data Card Number L i s t e n t o the f o l l o w i n g statements and t e l l me which you agree w i t h . 52. A man was l o o k i n g f o r a j o b . He had three c h o i c e s . 1. - One boss was f a i r , p a i d good wages, worked the men hard and d i d not a l l o w any time o f f except Saturday and Sunday. 2. The second boss p a i d average wages, d i d not make the men work as hard and allowed the men t o take a few days o f f . 3. The t h i r d boss p a i d lower wages and l e t the men work when they wanted. What job would you advise the man to take? 1, 2 or 3? (CIRCLE THE NUMBER) 53. A placement o f f i c e r gave a t a l k on jo b s . TU^ Al • ,r-r-~J A*- ~X"-I 1 , _ 1 _ _ C . L . 1. One man s a i d t h a t he was not a f r a i d o f work, but work i s not e v e r y t h i n g . A man should have enough time t o hunt, f i s h and v i s i t h i s f r i e n d s . 2. A second man s a i d t h a t he c o u l d work as hard as anyone but thought i t b e t t e r i f a man c o u l d get o f f a few e x t r a days. 3. A t h i r d man s a i d t h a t a man should be ready t o work every day and not want the e x t r a days o f f . Which man do you t h i n k i s r i g h t ? 1, 2 or 3? (CIRCLE THE NUMBER) 54. There was a job open f o r a school j a n i t o r . The man would have t o s t a r t at 4 p.m. and the teacher would send a monthly r e p o r t on h i s work to the School Board O f f i c e . 1. One man s a i d he c o u l d do the job w e l l but thought i n the v i l l a g e i t was b e t t e r t o set your own hours and he c o u l d see no need f o r a monthly r e p o r t . 12 54. (contd) 2. A second agreed t h a t a man should set h i s own hours but he d i d not mind the r e p o r t . 3. The t h i r d s a i d t h a t he d i d not mind s t a r t i n g at 4 p.m. and. he a l s o d i d not mind the monthly r e p o r t . Which, man do you t h i n k i s best s u i t e d to be a school j a n i t o r ? 1, 2 or 3? (CIRCLE THE NUMBER) 7 T o t a l 8 55. How many months d i d you work d u r i n g the l a s t twelve months? 9,10 56. (Number o f months unemployed) 11,12 57. What was your main job? 15,15 16,17 58. How many different jobs have you had du r i n g the l a s t 12 months? 18,19 59. I f you c o u l d choose to have any job you wanted what would you choose? 20,22 60. What was your take home pay from employment d u r i n g the l a s t 12 months? $ 23,27 61. D i d you r e c e i v e any income from the Unemployment Insurance Commission d u r i n g the l a s t 12 months? 1. Yes 28 2. No I f yes, f o r how many months d i d you r e c e i v e U.I.C. payments? 29,30 How much d i d you r e c e i v e ? $ 31,34 Did you r e c e i v e any e d u c a t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e from Canada Manpower or the D.I.A. w h i l e on an upgrading o r v o c a t i o n a l course, d u r i n g the l a s t 12 months? 1. Yes 35 2. No I f yes, f o r how many months d i d you r e c e i v e a s s i s t a n c e ? 36,37 How much d i d you r e c e i v e ? $ . 38,41 13 1 62. D i d you r e c e i v e any income from the Workmens Compensation Board d u r i n g the l a s t 12 months? 1. Yes 42. 1 2. No 2 I f y es, f o r how many months d i d you r e c e i v e W.C.B. Payments? 43,44. How much d i d you r e c e i v e ? $ 45,48. 63. D i d you r e c e i v e any income from Family Allowance Payments during the l a s t 12 months? 1. Yes 49. 1 2. No 2 I f y es, f o r how many months? 50,51. How much d i d you r e c e i v e ? $ 52,55. 64. D i d you r e c e i v e any S o c i a l Welfare A s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g the l a s t 12 months? 1. Yes 56. 1 2. No 2 I f y es, f o r how many months d i d you r e c e i v e S o c i a l Welfare payments? 57,58. How much d i d you r e c e i v e ? $ 59,62. 65. D i d you r e c e i v e income from any other sources d u r i n g the l a s t 12 months? 1. Yes 63. 1 2. No 2 I f y es, s p e c i f y source. 64,65. How much d i d you re c e i v e ? $ 66,69. 66. T o t a l Income f o r l a s t 12 months $ 70,74. 

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