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Elders’ teachings on indigenous leadership : leadership is a gift Young, Alannah Earl 2006

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ELDERS’ TEACHINGS ON INDIGENOUS LEADERSHIP:LEADERSHIP IS A GIFTbyALANNAH EARL YOUNGBA, The University of Winnipeg, 1990A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES(Educational Studies)THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAApril, 2006©Alannah Earl Young, 2006AbstractThis qualitative study introduces a variety of considerations to help understand ways inwhich Indigenous Knowledge broadens the existing dominant views of leadership. IndigenousElders, as a source of Indigenous Knowledge provide intergenerational leadership through thesharing of their teachings, oral histories and experiences. For this study I examined theculturally relevant Indigenous leadership program that is offered within the non-creditLonghouse Leadership Program (LLP) at the First Nations House of Learning (FNHL) at theUniversity of British Columbia (UBC), taught by Elders, cultural leaders and educators. Throughthe telling of oral histories, nine Elders and cultural educators who work with the FNHLcommunity shared their views on Indigenous leadership presenting historical examples ofIndigenous leadership and recommending pedagogy for the current Longhouse leadershipprogram. Their cultural teachings are resources for Indigenous leadership pedagogy that istransformative. The Elders’ teachings on Indigenous leadership are transformational becausethey identify and deconstruct colonial structures and support the self determined leadershipgoals of local communities. The teachings are: knowing the history of the land and educatingothers; reclaiming culture and living the teachings; culture as a support for individuals, familiesand communities; leadership as a gift-step forward demonstrating community responsibilities;and wholistic pedagogy all which is transformational when delivered within an anti racismeducation framework. These teachings are consistent with those found more generally in theacademic literature, emphasizing leadership grounded in the cultural teachings that supportsliving Aboriginal communities and coalition building for change.11TABLE OF CONTENTSAbstract IiTable of contents iiiPreface viAcknowledgements XCHAPTER ONE: ELDERS TEACHINGS ON INDIGENOUS LEADERSHIP:LEADERSHIP IS A GIFTIntroduction 1Culture and leadership at FNHL: Scope of the study 4Background 5Longhouse Leadership Program 6Purpose 7Elders 8Position of the Researcher 9Theoretical Framework 11CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE INDIGENOUS LEADERSHIP:WHAT THE SCHOLARS SAY 16Promoting Positive Indigenous KnowledgeLeadership Based on Cultural Values 17Promoting Decolonization and Self-determination of Aboriginal peoples 19Inclusion of Aboriginal Historical Perspectives 24Focus on Indigenous Community Service 28Summary of Literature 30111CHAPTER THREE: QUALITATIVE METHODOLOGY:CONVERSATIONS WITH STORYTELLERS 31Research Design 31Research Question 35Method 35Oral History 36Case Study 37Participant Selection and Access 38Data Collection 38Data Analysis 39CHAPTER FOUR: FINDINGS: WHAT THE ELDERS SAID 43Sty-Wet-Tan: A Living Curriculum 43The Elders Speak 44Leadership 44Nine themesi) Inclusion of Aboriginal Historical Perspectives 51ii) Promoting Positive Cultural 1K 54iii) Decolonizing and Self determined Education 57iv) Focus on Community Service 60v) Indigenous Wholism— Relevance 62vi) Respect 67vii) Responsibility 68viii) Relationships 68ix) Reciprocity 69Summary 70CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS:A TRANSFORMATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR INDIGENOUS LEADERSHIP:PROVIDE RELEVANT CULTURAL CONTENT AND EXPERIENTIALWHOLISTIC PEDAGOGY 72Relevant Cultural Content 72Place 73Life Stories 74Identity 74Cultural Ceremonies 75Diverse Opportunities for leadership 76ivWholistic experiential Learning .76Transformative Leadership 78CHAPTER SIX: BENEFIT AND LIMITS OF THE STUDY 79Summary 81Closing acknowledgements 82References 83AppendicesAppendix A (Letter of Initial Contact) 102Appendix B (Interview Consent Form) 103Appendix C (Interview Script) 105Appendix D (University of British CoIumbiaIFNHL Memo) 106Appendix E (Cultural Competency Guide) 108Appendix F (Indigenous Pattern of Education) 110Appendix G (First Nations House of Learning House Posts) 111Appendix H (Longhouse Leadership Program) 113VPrefaceFragile FreedomsFragile Freedoms are the delicate balanceacts played by the indian act politicians and thecanadian government bureaucrats in the plushcarpeted offices of the inner governmentalchambers. A game that affects the original menand women who have survived unrecognized from1492-1 992. The games that continue to deny theoriginal people the right to self determination.Fragile Freedoms is the backlash that furtherdenied freedoms to the warriors at Wounded Kneeand Kanasatake.Fragile Freedoms is the fragility of the papermade from the disappearing grasses of the rainforests of south america, the herb medicines ofthe amerikan continent, the air that we breathe,the water as it drips its final drops, our skin as itslowly blotches and disintegrates from the radiatedpollutants in the air that affects this whole planet.Fragile Freedoms is the delicate hope for thepossibility of making this time forward as thebeginning of healing.“‘Bear (1996)KesponayCOPYRIGHT (2006>viFour Direction lskwewMacKenzie (2000)Knowledge KeepersPresent day opportunities may suggest that it may be my turn to lead our people on a pathtowards greater relief for the many social ills and systemic injustices our people face daily.These lessons of conflict resolution through leadership and consensus are sharedresponsibilities of we Aboriginal people. Only good can come from the renewed application ofthese tools in our every day lives, under the ever-loving guidance of these great men andwomen I am privileged to call my Ancestors. From the north bank of their traditional territory (onwhich they now call the Fraser River), this direct descendant of the First People of this landsurveys with great pride the band of “little listeners” convened .. .this Elder quietly speaks.O’Siem (p.86-7)Mearns (2002)viiAs this study comes full circle I am at home during this winter solstice season with fourgenerations of my family. The land, the river and the Muskeg Inniwak community (SwampyCree) reconnect me to my Indigenous genealogy. I acknowledge that I am supported by mygenealogy, through my dreams and my extended familial relationships. I acknowledge that Icome from a family of leaders and educators so this topic of Indigenous leadership andeducation also connects me to my genealogy.I reflect on the Elders transmission of knowledge through the interview process for thisstudy. I am humbled by my learning and acknowledge with great respect the relationships withthe Elders in this study and that I am responsible for my own interpretations of the stories theyso generously shared with me. I will share one experience here. It is late last spring, sage andbitterroot picking season. These plant medicines are the helpers required for the annualsummer ceremonial season. We drive up to the interior of BC to interview two Elders, who alsohappen to be our adopted parents in the traditional Indigenous way. The interview process issecondary to the seasonal work that needs to be done. First we have to go to get the sage andbitterroot on the mountainside, as the bitter root has to be cleaned right away in order to preparethe medicine properly. We set up outside where the Elders prepare to transmit their leadershipknowledge to the four generations present as we prepare the medicines. The trains are theregular sounds in the background and the wind and dry mountainous desert surround us. TheElder storytellers talk to us about the local mountains. The father, the daughter andgranddaughter are illustrated within the mountain ranges and are the witnesses. The stories thatthe mountains contain remind us to listen to our Elders. The stories, ceremonies and languagesare held within the land and along with them are the Teachings.The Teachings provide us with leadership foundations and understandings. I reflect onthe series of dreams I had where I am moving towards the Sundance ceremony. I am listeningto the songs as the sound informs the direction I need to go. I am confident that I will get therebut worry that I am not there yet. Along the way Judge Steve Point, a Sto:Io Elder, culturalleader and the current British Columbia treaty commissioner is in a downtown eastside schoolviiiplayground. We gather together as a collective to listen and see which direction the sacredsongs are coming from so we can move in the right direction.It takes all year to prepare for the ceremony. It is a way of life that expresses Indigenousways of being in the world. For me the Sundance ceremony connects us to the land andexpresses the values and collective visions for a better future. Indigenous knowledge and waysof life such as the Sundance and Mediwiwin Teachings inform both my leadership andeducational roles. From my perspective, leaders are really skabayos or helpers who rememberand enact the community values and lead or embody the ways in which the good life path isexpressed. I dreamed that as a collective we followed the sacred songs. The songs expressour connection to all of Creation and reflect the Teachings of the Ancestors.ixAcknowledgementsMediwiwin Language Camp PrayerNimishoo Gun ezhi-gikeniminaanGichi Manidoo, Maamawi Gichi ManidooGun gakina gegoo gigikendaanGun gakina gegoo gigii-giizhitoonAho! Nimishoo, ganawaabamishinMakakakinimigoot indizhinikaaz, gaye Amisk in doodemNimishoo- Nizhaagwiiwii NidinigaasAh! Gizhemandoo, zhawenimishinBagideniminishin gakina gegoo ezhi-banaajichigeyaanZhawenim ishinGizhemanidoo nimishoomisZhawenimishin Mino-inenimishinNi zaagi’aa NimishoomisGichi-Manidoo ZhawenimishinBenton-Benai (1997)I gratefully acknowledge my family in the picture above. We come from OpaskwayakCree Nation in Manitoba. Thank you to the Hilda Young scholarship and theOpaskwayak Education Authority for awarding me with funding. This work alsoacknowledges my extended family, friends and the FNHL community.Chi meegwetch to the Elder Ogimauhwak in this study, the ceremonial societies and theAncestors for the gifts of artistry, love and perseverance during times of beauty and inthe face of great losses.This work is inspired by Melody Ozawa Anankonz Young and the visions of the GoodWay Life. My hope is that this study perpetuates the transference of cultural knowledgeknowing that the integrity of the Ancestors’ work is embedded in theTeachings of All My Relations.xCHAPTER ONEELDERS’ TEACHINGS ON INDIGENOUS LEADERSHIP:LEADERSHIP IS A GIFTAs a person who has been involved in Indigenous politics, it is important that leadershipprograms be based on Indigenous cultural teachings and offer new approaches to Indigenousleadership in the future. A leadership that shifts the focus away from mainstream hierarchicalleadership models and forces us to think about our roles and responsibilities in societies in alight that encourages participatory, egalitarian forms of leadership. The responsibilities ofIndigenous academics are to articulate how cultural teachings can play a significant role incontributing to the building and rebuilding of communities (Rauna Kuokkanen, 2002. p.9).IntroductionFor the past forty years Indigenous education literature has indicated that Aboriginal1students require relevant cultural content and pedagogy in order to become effective changeagents, educators and leaders (Alfred, 2005; Cajete, 1994; Ermine, 1998; Hawthorn, 1966;Isbister, 1998; Smith, 2000). This qualitative study explores how culture informs Indigenousleadership from the Indigenous Elders’ perspectives who work at the First Nations House ofLearning’s Longhouse community located at the University of British Columbia.Indigenous LeadershipThe term Indigenous describes groups of people who have unique cultural expressionsdifferent from dominant or colonial groups. Sustainable connections to the land that predatecolonial contact are one of the unique features of Indigeneity. Collectivist-based expressions ofdiverse linguistic groups are other distinguishable features. Leadership is described as aprocess in which people influence others to accomplish objectives by applying their particularhistories, genealogies, values, beliefs, ethics and skills. Indigenous leadership demonstratesknowledge of Indigenous paradigms such as collective value orientations and facilitates theintergenerational transmission of Indigenous knowledge through language, ceremony and oralhistories and stories, Indigenous leaders practice local protocols, genealogies and safe ethical1 The terms Aboriginal, First Nations, Native, Indian and Indigenous are meant to be inclusiveand describe the descendants of the original peoples in North America.1community service practices. Indigenous leaders balance inner self with in the collective’sinterests. Indigenous leadership consisted of development of individual human talent to providefor the basics necessities of collective survival: life, guardianship, healing, leading and teaching.In Anishnabe culture there were no central authoritarian figures. The leaders or ogimauh werechosen for particular projects and the council of learned Elders instructed the people on mattersthat ensured their survival (Johnson, 1995).Culture Indigenous WoridviewsThe term culture is used here as the accumulated shared learning of a group based onmillennia of communal expertise. Culture defines the human inter-relationships within individualand community contexts. Indigenous cultural values are the ideas about what a group identifiesas important, such as inter-relatedness that extends beyond human relations, the centrality ofspirituality, and the exploration of one’s unique gifts via deep inward reflection (Ermine, 1995,Dumont, 1990). I am using the term culture to describe an Aboriginal worldview (paradigm) thatinforms our ways of thinking (epistemology), knowing (ontology) and guiding our interactions(axiology) with the world (Wilson, 2001; Steinhauer, 2002). These diverse Indigenousparadigms or Indigenous knowledge systems contribute to the field of leadership and educationfor all peoples. Indigenous Knowledge systems are ecologically centred and affirm the interrelationships between people, communities and ecosystems (Nadeau, 2005).Comm unityCommunity is defined here as sets of relationships with shared elements specific toparticular land bases and resource management practices that differ from the current óolonialand nation state status. The substance of shared elements varies widely, from a situation, tointerest, to lives and values. Within Aboriginal communities there are conflicting ideologies andcultural expressions yet there are particular ideologies that can define common and unifyingassumptions such as the depth to which a person is linked to their own Aboriginal values and2their commitments to community service. For example An-Nee-Benham and Napier (2002)state,wisdom and vision are attributed to leaders who consistently adhere to cultural valuesand maintain strong spiritual connections to the land and languages (p. 136).Public EducationAccording to Statistics Canada (2001), 4.5 percent of Aboriginal students compared tol6percent of the general population graduate from post-secondary institutions.2Aboriginalstudents are under-represented in post-secondary education for a variety of historical and sociopolitical reasons (Ah-Nee-Benham & Napier, 2002; Bishop, 2005; Wotherspoon, 1998). Thislack of representation may be attributed to a history of cultural genocide policies practiced inCanada since the 1600’s (Chrisjohn, 1997; Ing, 2001; Nadeau, 2003). As a result, accurateAboriginal cultural and historical perspectives are excluded from most Canadian educationcurriculum and Indigenous leadership research regarding the cultural aspects of educationadvocated by Indigenous education leaders remains limited (Ah-Nee-Benham, 2003; Johnson,1997; RCAP, 1996; Storm, 2005). For Indigenous peoples, the purpose of education is tocultivate self-knowledge, foster core personal development of whole human beings andenhance leadership capacities within communities.The Hawthorn Report (1966), the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1996) andAboriginal scholarly literature advocate appropriate cultural education and pedagogy thatprovides students with contemporary education and effective cultural leadership skills requiredfor working in Indigenous contexts (Bagordo, 2000; Battiste, 2000; Maenette-Benham & Napier,2002). As it is, few post-secondary institutions provide in-depth studies of Indigenousleadership (Alfred, 1999; Begaye, 2002; McFarlane, 2000).This study addresses this imbalance by exploring the roles that culture plays in informingthe post-secondary Longhouse Leadership program offered by the First Nations House of2 htt ://www. bcstats.Qov. bc.caldatalcenol /abor/aj main. htm3Learning (FNHL) at the University of British Columbia (UBC) from the perspectives of Eldersand cultural educators who work with the Indigenous community at UBC.This study is organized into six chapters. Chapter one provides the scope, and purposefor the study while simultaneously introduces the background of the research site, the positionof the researcher and outlines the theoretical framework for this study. Chapter two provides aliterature review of Indigenous scholars writing on Indigenous leadership. Chapter threediscusses the methodology, the data collection and data analysis. Chapter four presents asummary of the findings. Chapter five provides discussion and recommendations. Chapter sixoutlines the benefits and limits of the study and as well as summarizes the study.Culture and leadership at First Nations House of Learning:Scope of the studyThe purpose of this investigation is to explore how culture informs Indigenous leadershipprogram development in the context of the Longhouse Leadership Program (LLP) and otheractivities offered by the First Nations House Learning’s (FNHL) student services. Throughinterviews with nine Elders and cultural educators, with personal observations and reflections Iaffirmed that cultural knowledge informs Indigenous leadership at the FNHL in several ways. Inthis study, Indigenous cultural knowledge affirms the importance of self-knowledge and includesthe knowledge of families, extended families and land relationships. This study likewise affirmsthat Indigenous cultural knowledge informing leadership includes collective value orientations,intergenerational transmission of Indigenous knowledge through Elders, language, ceremonyand oral histories and stories. Other cultural knowledge important for Indigenous leadership areknowledge of local protocols and histories and leaders who must demonstrate safe, ethicalcommunity service practices. Further, this study affirms that cultural knowledge enhancesleadership education training at the FNHL. This study looks at culture as the continuation ofdiverse knowledge, beliefs and behaviours of Indigenous individuals, nations and communitieswhile examining leadership in the FNHL contexts.4BackgroundThe First Nations House of Learning was established in 1987 with a mandate to ensurethat university resources are made accessible to First Nations students and communities and toimprove the university’s ability to accommodate the First Nations community at UBC. Since1993, FNHL has been housed within the First Nations Longhouse, an award winning buildingbased on Coast Salish architecture that serves as a home away from home for UBC’sIndigenous community. The Sty-Wet-Tan space provides teaching mechanisms that informbasic place-based knowledge and 1K protocols. The Sty-Wet-Tan hall’s house posts provideplace-based education that reflects the diversity of Aboriginal peoples. Our Elder, Tsimlano,wanted the FNHL to reflect the diversity of Indigenous peoples through the different houseposts. The house posts represent a variety of nations in what is now known as BritishColumbia. Providing teachings related to place based Indigenous Knowledge (1K), these houseposts offer cultural stories that influence and reinforce teachings relevant for leadership. In thismanner, the house posts influenced my interpretations of the Elders’ stories and I will return tothem later. The FNHL remains committed to heightening awareness about Aboriginal issues,promoting Indigenous leadership on campus and providing a positive environment founded onFirst Nations cultures and philosophies based on the Longhouse Teachings of Respect,Responsibility, Reverence and Relationship (FNHL brochure, 2003). These teaching valueswere derived and modified for the current context from the Kirkness and Barnhardt articleentitled “The four R’s in higher learning: Respect, Relevance, Reciprocity and Relationship”(1991) and were identified as a result of a two-year consultation with Elders and FNHLcommunity members. These cultural values continue to guide the work at the FNHL and providefoundational principles for the Longhouse Leadership Program and this research study.5Longhouse Leadership ProgramThe Longhouse Leadership Program (LLP) is a non-credit student program specific toIndigenous contexts and perspectives. It consists of three core seminars, four electiveworkshops and a six-hour service-learning component. The program was established in 2000because the academic training offered to students did not adequately address leadershiptraining required for working within Indigenous contexts. During its first three years, funding forthe program came from the UBC Equity Office’s Equity Enhancement Fund. It is now fundedcompletely by the FNHL.The LLP provides relevant Indigenous leadership training necessary for promotingleadership on campus and introduces skills for working in and understanding Indigenouscontexts. Through collaboration with the FNHL student services, UBC’s various faculties andUBC student services departments, the program provides leadership opportunities includingworkshops and opportunities for service learning. The program introduces the protocol ofacknowledging the Traditional Musqueam Nation Territory where UBC is located; thusdemonstrating respect for the original peoples of this area. The LLP teaches about the localIndigenous language and cultural values as important leadership practices and demonstratesthe cultural aspects of using the Musqueam greeting, EchuaII, and singing the public Georgefamily song, Teswanic slolem, of the Coast Salish during each of its LLP sessions. The sweatlodge teachings are a part of the LLP and it is important to continue them even though they areceremonial practices from outside the local Nations. These cultural ceremonies are open to allpeoples whereas many of the local ceremonial practices have restricted membershiprequirements. FNHL received permission from Elder Tsimlano, who is from Musqueam toperform the sweat lodge ceremony in their Traditional Territory. We currently have culturaleducators who provide this service and their genealogies are located within those ceremonialtraditions. The cultural ceremonies such as burnings, smudges and wellness talking circles areavailable to students outside of the LLP as the program has time constraints and is a non-creditprogram. The LLP meets two or three times a month during lunch hour and has a six hour6service learning component. The service learning requires students to work towards positivechange in communities and report back to the LLP utilizing the cultural values of respect,relationship, responsibility and reverence. The LLP also offers workshops that introduce nonviolent communication skills, respectful research strategies, human rights and values, strengthsin diversity, political leadership for contemporary contexts, inclusive relationships, identity andbelonging and values as foundation for leadership. Despite all the relevant values promoted bythe LLP, the cultural aspect of the program requires development to articulate how culturalteachings can play a significant role in Indigenous leadership, in general and specifically, fromthe Elders’ perspectives within the FNHL community. This study provides an opportunity for thatdevelopment.PurposeThe primary purpose of this qualitative study is to articulate the role culture plays inIndigenous leadership from the perspectives of respected FNHL community Elders and culturaleducators. This information will inform FNHL program development and will introduce a varietyof considerations to help understand ways in which Indigenous cultural knowledge andperspectives can expand the existing views of leadership.Elders and cultural educators who work with the FNHL community describe the role ofculture in Indigenous leadership through sharing their oral histories, life experiences, culturalvalues and knowledge. These narratives and stories contribute to our understanding ofIndigenous leadership because they provide living local oral histories about leadership that aregenerally not written down. By examining how culture informs such leadership, we can begin tounderstand the values inherent in Indigenous cultural knowledge and create pedagogy that willfurther meet the cultural requirements of the LLP at the FNHL.There is little research from Indigenous perspectives on Indigenous researchmethodologies or on how culture informs leadership. This research is based on ten years ofwork with Elders at the FNHL education site, located within the traditional and unceded7territories of the Coast Salish and in particular the Musqueam territory. This knowledge iscrucial in defining my role as a visitor and a researcher. For example, in order to find out whatthe needs of the community are, I researched the historical and cultural background in which theeducation site is situated before I began this study. I refer to this as an informal pre-study phasethat is based on relationship building. I established respectful relationships with Elders at theFNHL community and learned about their unique gifts on a personal basis. This relationshipbuilding phase informed me as to which Elders could benefit from and accommodate this study.This strategy demonstrates a willingness to understand and support the cultural ways of livingand leading. As a result of spending time with Elders, I am able to assist the facilitation ofElders sharing their unique leadership abilities because I am familiar with their gifts. Theirleadership gifts are functionally and situationally specific, and by documenting them, this studyprovides research on Indigenous Knowledge and leadership while contributing to the ongoingcommunal history and knowledge of the FNHL community.EldersIn many Indigenous contexts, Elders are considered leaders, consultants and teachers.The collective of Elders in a community are considered the authoritarian body because of theircombined expertise and wisdom (Johnson, 1995). Not all old people are Elders as many Eldersare the ones who know the protocols associated with cultural teachings and demonstrate themin appropriate ways. Archibald (2005) says that Elders are chosen by the people in theircommunity. They are accepted, listened to and are usually good speakers (White as cited byNeel, 1992). They live according to cultural teachings and transmit these teachings to others.Joseph Couture (1991) describes an Elder as having a strong sense of responsibility bothtowards self and community. Elders are the historians, philosophers and teachers of traditionand heritage. They teach us how to make meaning of history, make connections to the presentconditions and indicate safe directions to pursue, so that the people’s history can be sustainedand advanced (p.36). Wisdom is a virtue that Elders demonstrate by example so others may8learn from their lived experiences. Adherence of core spiritual values and demonstration ofcomplex understanding in a variety of situations are other considerations. Medicine (1987)elaborates on the role of Elders in education. She states that:.only by comprehending the cultural background of contemporary Indian communitiesin which the school is situated can we understand the role of Elders in educationenterprises...[and by understanding this information] we all benefit (p.150-i).In these common sense ways, I have learned more about the local Indigenous ways ofknowing and leading. My role as a researcher is based on these experiences. In addition, I wasinformed by the literature and the identified needs of the FNHL community and the LLP inparticular. These sources identified the need to document and provide research on Indigenousperspectives on leadership. Ah-Nee-Benham et al. (2003) say that not enough work has beendone in this area emphasizing its importance for our common knowledge and for thedevelopment of our Nations and future leaders, “to examine how First Nations educatorsdescribe their own leadership development” (p.149). This research documents the perspectivesof Elders at the FNHL community and provides a basic understanding about how culture informsIndigenous leadership through nine in-depth interviews.Position of the ResearcherI am an Anishnabe Cree person and a band member of the Opasqwayak Cree Nation.Opaskwayak describes the landscape of the high bluff over the Carrot River in north-westernManitoba. My standpoints are informed by Nehiyow- a Cree word, which describes the peoplefrom my region as “humans who seek knowledge from the four directions” (Cardinal, 2005). Ilocate myself in the urban context and as a practitioner of cultural ceremonies of both biologicalparents. My matrilineal genealogy consist of intergenerational leadership locations and thusinforms my momi tun ay chi kun eak This Cree term describes the wisdom that comes fromwithin and from this place seeks to reflect the voices of the Ancestors (Spence, personalcommunication, UBC. 2005).9I have a BA from the University of Winnipeg, and received training from the NativeEducation Centre in sexual abuse counselling. I am trained in body-centered complex trauma,body-mind psychotherapy and movement and expressive art therapies. I develop educationalhealing programs for community based organizations that combine the training I received withIndigenous knowledge (1K) principles. Since 1995, I have been a counsellor for the FNHLstudent services and co-coordinate the FNHL’s LLP. I wanted to complete a research study thatwould contribute to the understanding of Indigenous theory, methodology and practice for thecommunity in which I work and study. My interest in the topic is based on the need to expand1K discourse and address cultural competency in Canadian Indigenous leadership studies.Therefore, the study focus I adopt arises from a particular political Indigenous culturalconsciousness. My intention is to become competent at raising the political culturalconsciousness in Aboriginal leadership discourse through the exploration of this study.I have developed a guide that addresses Indigenous cultural competency principles forself-determined leadership based on the study’s findings (See Appendix E). This guide is a briefsummary of the cultural considerations for those interested in the development of Indigenousleadership and helps to locate me in relation to my ideas about leadership. This reciprocalgesture was developed in response to the literature that indicates that Indigenous researchersand those involved in Indigenous contexts need to have a sense of who they are and wherethey come from in terms of self, culture, beliefs, values, life experiences, memories, dreams,participation in ceremony, community service and language revitalization (Steinhauer, 2001).Absolon and Willet (2004) suggest that the intersection of personal narrative, voices andrepresentation necessitates self location in Indigenous research and the guide may assistresearchers and those involved in Indigenous research contexts to develop their own selflocations and self concepts as leaders. This guide may assist individuals, communities, andresearchers to continue to re-claim and re-articulate the value of individual and communal voiceas valid knowledge construction processes in contemporary leadership development. The10researcher’s personal location, the use of counter-stories and narratives in Indigenous researchcontribute to knowledge production and are both political and personal.The position of this research is to challenge the history of the colonialist narrative andadvocate for the development of a leadership consciousness that moves beyond assimilationistand neo-colonial agendas (Askren, 2005). My cultural experience includes training in a numberof Aboriginal spiritual traditions or genealogies. For example, I have been adopted in specificcultural ways that create new extended familial relationships. These relationships by protocolrequire extensive reciprocal responsibilities, such as the commitment to the development of aculturally appropriate community leadership that is consistent within the extended family values.These traditional and spiritual genealogies provide me with intimate knowledge of 1K principlesthat form the foundation for my own leadership development as a mother, family member,community facilitator, counsellor, leadership coordinator, and academic. This research ispossible at this time because of my insider knowledge and position as a counsellor who isinvolved with the FNHL student services, cultural activities and the LLP.I consulted with community members for at least four years during the pre-study phaseto ensure that this research reflects the community’s identified needs. I have been workingwithin the FNHL community for ten years and am familiar with many cultural practices within myown cultural traditions and with other Indigenous cultural protocols.My personal contexts and the larger Indigenous historical context of surviving 500 yearsof colonization, racism, oppression and cultural denigration and the vision of criticaltransformative education also inform and shape my work as a researcher and are reflected inthe theoretical frameworks to which I am drawn.Theoretical FrameworkThis research will draw upon critical theory for analytic guidance (Fanon, 1968; Foucault,2000; Freire, 1997; Giroux, 2002; Gramsci, 1995; Habermas, 1998). Aspects of Foucault’s workon power and its influence on definitions of truth challenge the concept of objectivity in research.11I declare my subjectivity by declaring my position as a researcher in the previous section.Habermas’s (1998) utopian visioning is consistent with visioning for change, a better future forthe seven generations, which is also an Anishnabe Indigenous prophesy. Fanon’s work ondecolonizing the mind is an important process for understanding the historical contexts and theimpacts of internalized colonization. Paolo Freire’s (1997) work on conscientization and praxissupport the goals of self-determination and sovereignty. Gramsci’s (1995) work on hegemonicdiscourses identifies which ideologies are taken for granted as knowledge and for whatpurposes they are employed. 1K is the taken for granted knowledge that I am centralizing in thisstudy. Critical theorists emphasize values such as social justice and democracy and focusattention to issues of power and interest in their analyses. Instead of distancing themselvesfrom advocacy, many critical theorists disapprove of research pursued for solely intellectualreasons. The outcomes of value-laden activities in research, whether implicit or explicit, are toinform, assess and make positive change (Maclvor, 2004; Smith, 2005). From this perspective,critical theory’s goal is transformation.I locate this work within the tradition of Indigenous wholistic theory. I am in philosophicalagreement with post colonial and critical theory approaches in that I am engaged in bringingvoice to a subjugated people through an analysis of the colonial processes and constructions ofknowledge that have muted their voices. However, I do not employ them exclusively as thefocus is primarily on Indigenous Knowledge within its own right, as testimonies to an Indigenouswholistic theory and allow the Elders’ narratives speak for themselves. Indigenous wholistictheory considers all the aspects of a given situation and includes the aspects of mind, body,heart and spirit. (I spell “wholistic” with the “w” to emphasize wholeness.) Indigenous wholistictheory is the most encompassing or relevant theory for this study because it is the mostappropriate theory to consider when working with First Nations communities and because itreflects the participants woridviews. When using Indigenous wholistic theory the focus is onconnection, relationship and balance through consciousness (Laura and Heaney, 1990).Examining imbalanced relationships for potentials to restore balance inevitably leads to a12questing of the status quo (Marsden, 2005). Engaging in the “good way”, a way that reflects theprinciples and values of Indigenous wholism, are often common ways of knowing, being anddoing Indigenous research. For this study, enhancing relationships is the focus as is Indigenouswholistic theory.Indigenous peoples’ interests, experiences, and knowledge must be at the center ofresearch methodologies. Bishop (2005), Ermine (1995), Hampton (1995) and Lanigan (1998)describe the need for research to reflect Aboriginal pedagogy and provide leadership thataccurately reflects the inherent right to be ourselves, to be self determined, to enhance ourcultural knowledge, and to enhance our abilities and visions to be self-sustaining communities.Aboriginal scholar Lester Rigney (1997) states:In research we can begin to shift the construction of knowledge to one that does notcompromise Indigenous identity and Indigenous principles of independence, unity, andfreedom from racism (p. 119).Critical race theory (CRT) is an approach developed for and by those within legaleducation systems. CRT provides useful principles to other fields of study. One of the essentialstrategies of this theory is that of counter-storytelling. Counter-storytelling or oral historieschallenge the construction of knowledge by shifting the focus away from mainstreamperspectives (Mathur, 2004). In this research, privileging Indigenous oral histories providescounter-hegemonic discourses in order to influence change. In effect, the counter-storytellingapproach reclaims the central position for Indigenous people as the expert knowledgeproducers in this particular context.Dei (2005) acknowledges that the political project of anti-racism is to destabilizeconventional knowledge and modes of producing knowledge and work towards transforminglocal communities. This transformation includes connection to politically progressive leadershippractices that begins with an examination of cultural principles. This study utilizes aspects ofcritical theory within an anti-racism education framework. The oral histories are sites ofinterventions that reveal racist relationships in Canada and, for those interested in social justice,can provide reflexive strategies for change.13Institutions providing Indigenous leadership training must focus on developing respectfulIndigenous community partnerships, provide community capacity development and advocate forappropriate change. Some of the challenges for leaders in Indigenous contexts are to developcontemporary processes based on the local territory’s cultural principles and practices. Thisresearch is informed by these CRT principles and focuses on how 1K principles shared by theElders in this study can provide theoretical frameworks for both critical reflection and action.The transmission of knowledge in Indigenous research carries rigorous ethicalstandards because the researchers are accountable to the community and to the culturalteachings, as well as to the regular academic mainstream standards. The oral histories,reflections, cultural values and principles shape this approach to research in order to ensuresignificance to the community. In order to understand this field, the following is an overview ofhow 1K has been systematically marginalized but is now being used as a framework forresearch.1K has been, for the most part, politically positioned within Western knowledge sites asprimitive, irrelevant or exotic (Colorado, 1988). These political positions attempt to equate 1Kwithin cultural exoticism and relegate 1K to a peripheral status away from the real work ofknowledge construction. These responses marginalize 1K and the exotic responses lead to asuperficial understanding and exploit aspects of Indigenous culture without due consideration orunderstanding of the knowledge upon which 1K traditions are based (Deloria, 1995; Steinhauer,2002; Smith, 2005). In the literature reviewed, scholars discuss the research conversation withinthe colonial history of Aboriginal oppression and the need to put more emphasis on 1K culturalvalues as foundational to the transformation process.My research demonstrates how aspects of 1K provide relevant, reciprocal andrelational research that serves a local community. 1K principles, as articulated by the Elders,create a framework that guides this process and demonstrates how 1K-centered research canwork.14There are several principles that Indigenous scholars consider to be relevant inresearch. One principle is that Indigenous peoples are diverse, are connected with diverselands and articulate diverse expressions of their inter-connected cultural relationships (Atleo,2004; Cajete, 1994; Weenie, 1998). Another principle includes the time-tested world views thatrepresent communal, wholistic and interrelated living (Archibald, 2003; Deloria, 1995; Smith,2000). Responsible ecological stewardship praxis inherent in Indigenous ways of knowing andleading are other features relevant in research (Borrows, 2002; Maclvor, 1995; Menzies, 2001).Also important is that leadership is shared and situation-specific and is influenced by historicaland relational contexts (Armstrong, 2003; Ah-Nee-Benham & Napier 2002; Johnson, 1997).Finally, self-determined Indigenous leadership and decolonizing education are seen ascontributing factors that enhance 1K systems and the ability to be self-sustaining, diversecommunities (Battiste, 2000; Ah-Nee-Benham, Johnson & Van Alstine, 2003; Marker, 2000).These are some examples of 1K framework principles required for conductingappropriate research methodologies in this context. The 1K framework principles, outlinedabove inform this study’s methodological research approach and are based on the literaturereviewed in chapter two.15CHAPTER TWOREVIEW OF THE LITERATURE:WHAT THE SCHOLARS SAYThe history of the leadership literature describes leadership qualities from the standpointof behavioural, trait and contingent theories (Bensimon, 1989; Cronin, 1984; King 1990). Thesetheories describe leadership behaviours and traits and the conditions necessary for achieving acommon goal. According to Bensimon (1989) social power theories emphasize a one-wayinfluence while social exchange theories focus on mutually influencing, reciprocal relationshipsthat are generally informed by the followers’ expectations. Kellerman (1984) asserts thattransactional leaders engage in exchange of resources. Such leaders depend on the followers’needs and the ability to fulfill their expectations. Bensimon (1989) and Rodgers (1992) describecultural and symbolic leadership as theories that strive to maintain or re-interpret a group’sshared beliefs and meanings as it influences how individual leaders perform. Theaforementioned literature is restricted by its focus on the leader as the point person in ahierarchy, the leader’s accumulation of power and the ability to fulfill the followers’ expectations.This limited survey of the leadership literature reviewed indicates that leadership is consideredfrom the implicit perspectives of what individual leaders consider as meaningful and whatactions flow from those understandings (Benisom et al., 1998). Benisom elaborates:By explicitly considering other leadership qualities outside one’s familiar culturalgrouping, one will expand their understandings and choices available for leadershipconsiderations (p.23).This study explores transformational leadership components and promotes leadershipunderstandings and choices from Indigenous perspectives.The Indigenous scholarly literature reviewed describes leadership as both an individualand collective journey (Depree; 1994). Reyes (1993) describes leadership as a movementtowards a vision, change, growth or goal. Ryan (2003) describes critical leadership education asa politic that will enable individuals to resist oppressive practices and seek out self determined16forms of community. Arden & Wall (1990) and Coyhis (1993) describe Indigenous leadership asboth a place of engagement and interaction between people, which is spiritual and literal. Green(1992) reports that:Leadership is linked to Indigenous peoples’ historical struggle concerning the spirit ofsovereignty, that quality of being in control of social, educational and economicconditions (p. 36).This study focuses on the transformational leadership aspects because of the lack ofresearch available on the topic. Additionally, the study documents local cultural perspectivesthat can inform Indigenous leadership programming within an educational institution. Theliterature reviewed provides four emergent themes for relevant educational Indigenousleadership programming. They are:• Promoting positive 1K leadership based on cultural values;• Promoting decolonising education & self-determination of Aboriginal peoples;• Including Aboriginal historical perspectives;• Focusing on Indigenous community service.Promoting Positive 1K Leadership Based on Cultural ValuesThis study is situated within a higher learning education context. Kirkness & Barnhardt(1991) state that universities need to respect the cultural integrity of First Nations students andcommunities. Kuokkanen (2004) agrees that respect for cultural integrity or 1K requiresacademic leaders to move beyond institutional epistemic ignorance and move towards morerespectful, reciprocal engagements with 1K in academic institutions. She argues that to effectchange, the university must meet its academic obligations by critically examining its own culturalvalues evident in hegemonic discourse and move towards concrete educational change. 1K isinformed by cultural values and protocols inherent in Indigenous epistemes such as maintainingrespectful, responsible and reciprocal relationships. The examination of our own cultural valuescan provide insights to how we provide respectful culturally competent or relevant education.17Smith (2005) suggests a reflexive process will assist in the identification of our ownvalues and intentions that can clarify and inform research. The reflexive process respectscultural and self knowledge. Furthermore, self-reflection will better prepare students tounderstand the cultural negotiation required for change. For example, a student’s reflection onhow values provide a foundation for leadership reported:Our values are the backbone to our actions and behaviours which are the basis on howwe treat others. Leadership is not just about ideas, creativity and visions, it springs fromour beliefs and convictions which are the motivational drive of our determination.(Longhouse Leadership evaluations, 2004).Researchers, students and others involved in forming allies for change are encouragedto reclaim their own lineage of cultural teachings to inform such transformations. Thecommunity’s self-determined objectives for change vary greatly from region to region and yetthere are distinguishable characteristics that can provide a guide or beginning framework toidentify culturally competent education and research for change.Positive 1K frameworks are characterized by wholism, interrelatedness, orality and thesignificance of lived experience and genealogy-land relations (Archibald, 2003). While there aresimilarities in the principles or frameworks of 1K, in practice they are unique in their expressionsto lands, communities, cultures and languages. Numerous Indigenous scholars reiterate theresponsibility of researchers to respect these unique differences by ensuring that the self-determined objectives of Indigenous communities are well represented (Battiste, 2000;Castellano, 2000; Smith, 1999).1K frameworks also consider relationships with self, family, community, nations andcreation as integral to leadership development (Armstrong, 2003; Atleo, 2004; Castellano, 2000;Ermine, 1998; Kawagley, 1995). 1K is contextual, decolonising, empowering, ethical andbeneficial to the community, and includes cultural protocol and cultural teachings (Archibald,2003; Battiste, 2002). 1K highly regards the perspectives of Elders as they provide us withvaluable cultural information required for the understanding and promotion of positiveIndigenous leadership.18Restoule (2001) affirms using Anishnabe teachings to inform identity research. He writesthat Anishnabe cultural teachings or Bimaadiziwin are for living a good life and suggests that 1Kand research methods mean entering a relationship with research participants whose teachingsare the codes or values that guide the process. The cultural teachings provide values thatinform leadership development and contribute to our understandings of Indigenous leadershipfrom the perspectives of Indigenous people.Cultural teachings provide valuable contributions to the development of Indigenousleadership literature and insight to positive Indigenous identity and leadership practices. Culturalvalue principles can be thought of as the how to of personal conduct, moral beliefs andconvictions such as maintaining respectful, responsible, relationships.This research provides Indigenous leaders and those involved with leadership methodsof validating 1K inherent in Indigenous cultures. The storytellers give guidance on how to enactappropriate, respectful cultural values that inform their leadership practice.Examining the role of culture in Indigenous leadership at the FNHL, we begin tounderstand the ethics and values inherent in local Indigenous cultures and then createpedagogy that can be enacted to affect change. Beatrice Medicine (1987) stresses “at thisjuncture, it is hoped that we do not reflect the corruption we see in dominant society but look toour own personal and tribal ethics and values and enact them” (p.86). Promoting positive 1Kbased on cultural values as articulated by Indigenous cultural narratives in this study informsleadership specific to the FNHL community.Promoting decolonization and self-determination of Aboriginal peoplesAdopting a decolonizing education agenda is critical for Indigenous leadership programsas these emerging leaders work to change the conditions for Aboriginal people and to restorerelationships with non-Aboriginal peoples. Those involved with leadership have been impactedby colonizing histories and need to build a critical awareness to influence positive change.19Education theorists agree with the need to engage in the decolonizing discourse, to criticallyexamine history and its impacts (Barman, 1999; LaRoque, 1998; Mohanty, 2003; Smith, 2000).Makokis (2001) states:A decolonising agenda will give meaning to the present context so that First Nations canact from a position of conscious awareness to gain freedom from oppression. Theparticipants [in her study] all spoke to the importance of traditional or cultural teachingsin order to decolonise themselves. The people need to know they can heal fromcenturies of oppression by active engagements with values based on cultural practices.The values could be utilized as a foundation for community action or community serviceand provide for intergenerational leadership development based on the principles ofgenuine caring, sharing, honesty and determination (p. 186).A decolonizing framework for leadership could include intersecting interdisciplinary conceptssuch as described by Naomi Adelson (2001) in her article “Re-imaging Aboriginality; anAboriginal response to social suffering”:If social suffering derives an outcome of colonial and post colonial histories ofdisenfranchisement and attempts to eradicate a cultural history, then a response to thatsuffering must include the reconstitution and the reaffirmation of social identity... aspeople to re-imagine and renegotiate their political and social worlds (p.97).Social suffering and responses to it are social and political phenomena that can providedecolonizing perspectives in leadership education. Among Indigenous Canadians, socialsuffering is a part of the history and politics of Canada and is apparent in the social healthsciences and education indexes as well as in the literature. As many critical theorists observe,a solid reflection on suffering must give way to concrete solutions for change that includeredefining Aboriginal identity. The forms of human suffering include the collective as well as theindividual and the modes of experience inform both local and global contexts. Kleinman et al.(1997) advocate for a new kind of discourse to inform our collective consciousness and practicalaction that moves beyond individual pity, victimization and collective pathology framing.Adelson (2001) suggests social reorganization is necessary:Leadership improvements must take place in conjunction with the attainment ofeconomic and political autonomy on Indigenous controlled land bases. Until thoseprocesses are advocated for and realized, the colonization legacy will continue. (p.97)The decolonization process in this context can begin with addressing our individual andshared social and political histories. Decolonization requires critically informed reflections and20includes identified shared cultural values that address changes today. Critically informedreflections must focus on strategic collective movements to create the required changes as wehave all been impacted by colonialism (Alfred, 2005). The term decolonization in this contextfocuses on local living communities to articulate the values that inform the respective individualand communal histories. For example, appropriate advocacy is required at the local level tosupport the reinstatement of traditional values and self-determined practices to addressproactive change in contemporary contexts. In university contexts certain interdisciplinaryapproaches such as critical race theory and social suffering are other examples of decolonizingapproaches because they combine self and collective value orientations that can informcoalitions for change in contemporary contexts.Decolonizing education promotes self-determination. Understanding self-determinationfrom First Nations perspectives is critical for understanding effective, contextual leadership.Self-determined strategies are also necessary for leadership program development at Canadianuniversities. While theorists like Fanon (1968) have established that decolonization requirescritically informed self reflection, I argue that 1K, based on collective cultural values, is a keycomponent to any meaningful change. Indian Control of Indian Education (1972) describes self-determination as having local jurisdictional power to develop self-governance systems whilecontributing to healthy Nations. Alfred (1999) agrees, stating that a critical component of self-determination for Indigenous peoples is “educating a new leadership that has access to thespiritual resources and personal power that come from living according to the teachings”(p.141). He locates this educational task within a process of returning to traditional governance,recovering language, economic self-sufficiency and Nation-to-Nation relations with the state.Recovering leadership from self-determined traditional governance principles is a project thatrequires an understanding of Indigenous cross-cultural principles while maintaining respectful,reciprocal relationships to the local cultures, languages and communities.Self-determination is an imperative element in a program for understanding effectiveleadership for Indigenous peoples and for leadership program development. The goals of the21self-determination agenda and decolonizing leadership education program development are tocontribute to the vision of practical, culturally relevant values and self-sustaining Nation buildingthrough capacity building. This vision is seen as a local, national and collective endeavor thathas transformative outcomes, that is, promotes positive practical change at the community leveland addresses the systemic balance of powers (Daes, 1997; Dei, 2005; Razack, 2002).Henderson (2000) believes that we need to dream and realize new visions in the old ways.These visions and changes must enhance and improve local First Nations self-determinedoutcomes.Quality Indigenous leadership programming requires the promotion of self-determined,decolonizing education agendas from Aboriginal perspectives. Local Indigenous perspectivesprovide crucial information about specific Aboriginal epistemes and can balance theuniversalistic claims about Aboriginal cultures that are often too generalized to effect change.These approaches will promote awareness of historical perspectives and ideologies; promoteawareness about the change required in the relationship between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginalpeoples; and promote local Indigenous cultural knowledge and awareness as importantcontributions to transforming the leadership landscape in Canada.Some examples of self-determined Indigenous cultural knowledge include: the “good lifeway” and consciousness of reciprocal relational responsibilities. Each Native culture has its ownversion of the “good life way”. In Anishnabe, it is bimaadziwin, or the “good life path”; for theCree of the Northern prairies, it is miyowicehtowin, which translates to “having good relations”; itis sken-nen kowa— maintaining peace between peoples — for the Iroquois; and the Navahohave a word, hozho, for walking in beauty, walking in a sacred manner, or walking with apeaceful heart. Common to these different versions of the “good life way” are the lived values ofrelations, beauty and balance (Nadeau, 2003). This articulation describes the cultural principlesthat provide the foundations required for change; however, it is the local community projects thatwill determine how they will be enacted.22Taiaiake Alfred’s Wasase (2005) describes the Onkwehoewe (Original peoples) warriorceremony and provides examples of contemporary action strategies. He argues for:change among Indigenous peoples that is rooted in traditional philosophies and values,but which draws from many different social and political strategies to challenge thecolonial, or Settler, society’s dominance of Indigenous lives and land. The warriorceremony also alters the balance of political and economic power to re-create social andphysical space for Indigenous freedom. (http://www.taiaiake.com/home/index.htm)One of the challenges he describes in creating leadership models is to determine which culturalvalues will inform a given context and create change through actions that will address theimbalance of power in society.In summary, the agenda for local self determined projects must identify which culturalvalues will generate solutions that provide health, freedom and justice. Equitable access to andappropriate management of shared land resources are other considerations. Effectiveleadership development in academic contexts needs to transform these identified sites ofstruggle as potential sites of intervention if it is to provide competent leaders. One of the siteswhere interventions could occur includes Canadian education institutions. Champagne &Strauss (2002) caution that just as it is important to reflect First Nations values and approachesto leadership in contemporary contexts, one must take care to select First Nations descriptionsof historical perspectives and ideologies:While critiques against historical colonialism and present day policies are necessary theyshould not dominate Native scholarship. Arguments about colonialism are about non-Indian forms of domination over Indian communities. This is part of the Indiancommunities’ history but puts non-Indian history and policy in central focus, while oftenleaving the Indian role in history and preservation of community in the background.Putting living Indian communities and Nations in the forefront of the intellectual agendaof Native American studies [leadership] will establish the foundation of interdisciplinarydevelopment (p. 8).Battiste and Henderson (2000) also suggest a critical exploration of cultural teachingsand values could provide a foundation from which to approach this vision. Additionally,privileging local or Aboriginal cultural context-specific perspectives will provide accuracy andbring focus to develop actions strategies for the changes required. This research is informed bya balance of these visions and approaches.23Inclusion of Aboriginal Historical PerspectivesThe Hawthorn Report (1966) refers to two styles of leadership. One is characteristic of abusiness cultural model, a leadership style practiced in governing the Indian Act. This model isregarded as less effective than local approaches to traditional cultural (1K) Aboriginal leadership(p. 246), which have communal focuses and are contrasted here with the individual focus ofeconomic or capitalistic culture (Preston, 1975; Petrone, 1990; Schouls, 2002). Both styles ofleadership inform the Indigenous leadership contexts today. However, Aboriginal voices abouthistory, education and leadership are lacking in the literature in general.One of the reasons for this lack of literature is that Indigenous cultures are primarilybased on oral traditions and the text-based cultures have recorded a relatively one-sidedaccount of the history of Canada since 1492. Indigenous peoples were instrumental in theinception of Western democracy processes but have not benefited from equitable treatment untilas recently as the 1960’s (Mohawk & Lyons, 1992). The Iroquois confederacy was an operativedemocratic constitution that outlined the development of Western democracies (Ah-NeeBenham 1999; Grinde, 1991). The enforced silence on the topic continues to impact thepolitical, educational and social leadership contributions of Aboriginal peoples. It was not untilthe 1960’s that Aboriginal peoples were able to have a say in their own futures due to thelegislated policies enforced by governments to undermine Aboriginal leadership and cultures(Ah-Nee-Benham, 2000).The contexts of Canadian history in which leadership was undermined and thelegitimization of 1K leadership from First Nations perspectives are critical themes in a leadershipprogram. For example, the Indian Act is a Canadian legislative act imposed on Aboriginalpeoples that has adversely affected Aboriginal leadership praxis. The Indian Act has createdbarriers to Aboriginal leadership development and accountability because it inhibits Aboriginalpeoples’ freedom to make decisions such as local self-governing policies.24Strategically, Canadian governments have systematically gained control over FirstNations peoples by a variety of attacks such as the enforcement of rigid political legislations andpolicies designed to maintain control of and exert dominance over Aboriginal peoples’ lives(Boyco, 1995; Memmo, 1965; Neu, 2003). Failure to comply with these policies resulted inimprisonment and tactics of cultural genocide to undermine First Nations self -determinedleadership (Chrisjohn, 1997; Dickason, 1992; Miller, 1996). I am using genocide to mean:acts committed with the intent to destroy a national, ethnical, racial or religious group orby means of deliberately inflecting conditions of life on the group calculated to physicallydestroy the group in whole or in part (httD://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/D penoci.htm).Leadership programs need to critically examine the Canadian history of culturalgenocide and the global history of cultural genocide in general in order to become effectiveagents of change. Chrisjohn (1997) emphasizes that cultural genocide is a collective act andinjury, and suggests that an educated leadership could inform the required collective responseto these injustices. Chrisjohn (1997) believes that cultural genocide is not about competingideologies, but rather about inheriting a history of crimes committed against humanity andappeals to the changes required to address ongoing injustice. Chrisjohn’s directive is thatleaders need to be well aware of the charter on political and civil rights (1 960s) and the UnitedNations convention on genocide (1949) to create pro-active change in attitudes, beliefs andaction.Other examples of imposed legislation that have eroded Aboriginal leadership practicesinclude the enforcement of the residential school system. Since the late nineteenth and earlytwentieth centuries, the residential school system prepared Indian children to assimilate throughracist segregation policies enforced by the Indian Act. The residential schooling and subsequentEuro-cultural education adversely affected and continues to affect generations of Aboriginalstudents (Fontaine, 2002; Ing, 2001). As the result of entrenched racism and lack of positivecultural education, the majority of First Nations students currently leave school well before highschool completion (Wotherspoon, 1998). The conventional Euro-cultural education systemremains ill-equipped to overcome high rates of Aboriginal education dropouts due to the lack of25Aboriginal content, cultural curricula, and personnel (Brown, 2004; Bressette, 2000; Butler,1999; Maclvor, 1995). Substantial attention, therefore, has turned to the importance ofincorporating Aboriginal culture, training and personnel into the school system for effectiveeducation for the next generation of leaders (The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples,1996).The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP) (1996), volume one, chapter twoentitled “Restructuring the Relationship”, outlines the need for transforming the relationshipbetween Aboriginals and non-Aboriginal peoples. Historical features of Canadian federalismprovide unique legal concerns that are not widely understood by Canadians. For example, thetwo row wampum belt (1600s) was a covenant of the agreement of First Nations as self-determined sovereign nations. In order to understand and transform or restore the Canadianrelationships, Aboriginal historical perspectives require a decolonizing approach:that goes beyond the politics of inclusion, which may leave the dominant structures intact, to a politic of accountability: An accountability that traces our relations of privilegecomplicity and then examine our difference in the interests of change.. .as long as wesee ourselves as not implicated in relations of power, as innocent, we cannot begin towalk the path of social justice and to thread our way through the complexities of power(Razack, 1998. p. 170).Razack (2002) suggests a critical examination of the Canadian historical mythology, thestories told about a nation’s origins and history, to provide us with understandings of theconstructions of white power behind Canada’s national imaginary. Unmapping the landscapesprior to 1492, she asks the question what was the land called before it was mapped? We beginto see which perspectives are excluded and how this effectively shuts those perspectives out ofthe national story and out of any claims for equal citizenship. The historical perspectives ofIndigenous peoples provide some insight on how the maps of the past inform the presentcontext and present innovative challenges for egalitarian leadership training. The challengebegins with individual and collective projects that critically examine our own cultural values andhistories to transform approaches to leadership.26Makokis (2001) provides an example of how historical contexts can inform the currentsituation and points to some directions for future quality Indigenous leadership initiatives basedon her critical analysis of her individual and community concepts of leadership. She states:We must critically examine our current reality and.. .acknowledge that our history doesnot begin with the arrival of the Europeans but rather our beliefs, values andphilosophies are embedded in our own historical stories, languages and in our ownceremonial settings (p.1-5).Calliou (1995) provides an example of how history and 1K can inform Indigenousleadership. She draws guidance from Indigenous plains circular pedagogy to address antiracismand peacekeeping pedagogies, based on the Iroquois “Great Law of Peace”. Balancing culturalvalues of unconditional consensus decision-making, participatory democracy, equality,compassion, respect, reverence, and courage shapes the Great Law of Peace. TheKaswentha, also known as the Two Row Wampum, represents the Nation-to-Nation agreement(1600s) to live in peaceful relations with each other. The wampum belt has two rows of purplewampum beads, is made from quahog shells that are separated by rows of white wampumbeads made from Atlantic whelk shells. Each string represents the clan heads and leaders’agreements and is woven together by the shells. This historic wampum belt records not only ahistoric treaty agreement but a powerful vision for respectful co-existence between Aboriginaland non-Aboriginal peoples in North America. The British North American Act or theConstitution Act of 1867 reaffirms Nation-to-Nation status and the basic tenets represented bythe Two Row Wampum Treaty.Photo Credit - Kanatiiosh- TwoRowPhoto©1 99827The two rows of purple beads further symbolize that two nations of people in separatevessels travel down the river, parallel from each other. The Aboriginal peoples are in theircanoes. This symbolizes their leadership and culture, their laws, their traditions, their customsand other life ways. The non-Native people are in their own ships, which symbolize their culture,their laws, their traditions, their customs and other life ways. Each Nation shall stay in theirvessels and travel the river side-by-side. Neither Nation will try to steer the vessels of the other,nor interfere or impede the travel of the other (Jemison, 1998). The restoration of therelationship theme could include discourses on mixed race identities and address powerimbalances as commonalities that inform coalitions for change (AlIen, 1989; Kenny, 2000;Lawrence, 2004).Reaffirming 1K cultural values such as the ones mentioned earlier could provide relevantstarting places for meaningful leadership discourse. Additionally, Schouls (2002) proposesrelational pluralism as another relevant leadership consideration in his book “ShiftingBoundaries: Aboriginal identity, pluralist theory and the politics of self government’, hediscusses on Aboriginal identity and the politics of self-government. Pluralist discourse iscontextually defined, open to renegotiation, driven by local needs in mutual trust and justice andshows that self-government is not only about preserving cultural and national differences butmust focus on equalizing current imbalances in power to allow Aboriginal peoples to constructtheir own identities and approaches to leadership and provides alternatives for informedleadership discourse in Canada.Focus on Indigenous Community ServiceIt is important to offer appropriate, professional and cultural Indigenous leadershipprogramming that will meet the needs of Aboriginal students in post secondary institutionsettings. Aboriginal communities have identified the need for relevant leadership that serves thecommunity’s best interest. Community for the purpose here is defined as a group of people who28share a local regional area, identify with Indigenous ideologies and have an interest inintersecting Indigenous leadership development.McFarlane (2000) infers that Aboriginal leaders have set themselves the task ofrebuilding their nations, “it seems that the future will call for more, not less of the traditional styleof leadership” (p.77). This means that appropriate leadership programs need to reflect theneeds and ‘traditional’ or cultural values of the community they serve. For example, if post-secondary institutions want First Nations leaders to attend their institutions, they will also needto provide more informed programs that include Canadian history from Aboriginal perspectivesthat promote an understanding of community based or local self-determination leadershipagendas. Existing leadership programs focus on political training for capacity building forcommunities. However, several theorists state that there need to be more programs forleadership that are community based and built on cultural values (Alfred, 1999; Bagordo, 2000;Brown, 2004; Ah-Nee-Benham & Mann, 2003; Benai-Benton, 1979; Borrows, 2003; Johnson &VanAistine, 2003; Greenall, Loizides & Wuttunee, 2003; Makokis, 2001; Restoule, 2001; Ross,2000).In “The Renaissance of American Indian Higher Education: Capturing the Dream”(2003), Johnson et al., identify important leadership qualities to include fluid relationships basedon shared leadership. Such leadership is “focused more on a community of skilled individualsinvolved in a process that contributes to the good of the community” (p.151). Johnson et aldescribe other leadership values as “a commitment to serving the community and education askey to cultural survival and self-determination” (p.152). The authors also highlight practical skillsand lessons learned. A leader will train to:• Become an ambassador for Native community concerns;• Maintain a positive attitude and deep commitment to education of, for and byIndigenous peoples;• Translate theory into practice so that formal education is of practical benefit to Nativecommunities;29• Translate what they have learned into culturally acceptable community practice; and• Possess self-confidence and pride in Indigenous heritage and must exhibit thisattitude through care and concern for self and family and community (p.159-60).Summary of literatureBased on the literature reviewed, the following themes were produced for this study: promotionof positive 1K leadership based on cultural values; inclusion of Aboriginal historical perspectives;decolonizing and self-determined education; and focus on community service. A brief survey ofthe history of Indigenous leadership was given in this chapter. Indigenous leadership considerscollective orientations, local communities, land bases, language and inter-generationalgenealogy, ceremonial and wholistic pedagogy as important 1K features. A focus ontransformational leadership as described by Aboriginal cultural leaders or Elders was identifiedas a focus for this study. Oral histories and counter-stories provide Indigenous intergenerationalperspectives on how culture informs Indigenous leadership for the FNHL community contexts.In this research, I have privileged Indigenous oral histories because they provide counterhegemonic discourses in order to inform and inspire change. In effect the counter-storytellingapproach reclaims the central position for Indigenous people as the expert knowledgeproducers in this particular context.30CHAPTER THREEQUALITATIVE METHODOLOGY:CONVERSATIONS WITH STORYTELLERSThis chapter outlines the methodology employed in this study. The research design,research question and theoretical framework will be presented, followed by a description of thedata collection. The chapter concludes with a description of the data analysis. This researchaddresses a how question about a complex contemporary leadership phenomena, in whichhistorical contextual conditions are critical. A case study was used to guide the researchdesign, data collection and data analysis (Yin, 2003). Indigenous leadership requires anunderstanding of the complex historical, social, political and educational conditions that createthe contemporary context. This study used a qualitative design with a case study approach thatincorporates oral histories as counter-stories to address this complex topic.Research designThe role of culture in Aboriginal leadership development is explored through nine in-depth interviews. Eight participants were interviewed twice for approximately one hour perinterview, while one participant was interviewed once. The interviews investigated how culturalaspects and processes were factors in the participant’s leadership development. Theinterviewee’s cultural contributions to the LLP and FNHL activities were additional factors. Theidentification of cultural factors was explored to determine how culture supported the leadershipdevelopment from the expert interviewee’s perspective. The main research question was: Howdoes culture inform Indigenous leadership? The secondary research questions were designedto prompt discussions on cultural theoretical and practical applications. The questions wereused as guidelines as my role as researcher was to follow the Elders’ lead and to drawleadership lessons from their stories and experiences.The participants were from two generations of Indigenous Elders and cultural educators.Three have reached retirement age. All are Aboriginals who live in BC and have extensive31cultural knowledge based on their lived experiences. Furthermore, all participants haveexperience in advisory capacities in a wide variety of organizations. Based on their work withcommunity organizations and post-secondary institutions, the interviewees are recognized asexperts within the FNHL community. The storytellers gave permission to use their real names.The storytellers outlined the following brief descriptions of themselves:• Larry Grant is from xw@m@thkw@y’@m (Musqueam) and Coast Salish, as theanthropologists call the people. He is a sessional instructor in the First Nations languageprogram at UBC, where he teaches H@n’q’@min’@m’ language. He is the currentFNHL Elder in Residence and provides guidance to the LLP and teaches protocols tothe FNHL community. He is a former band counsellor, a grandfather, and a sXwayxw@ybig house dancer.• Norma Rose Point is from Musqueam and has worked for the Musqueam educationcommittee since 1965. She is retired and has worked for the Vancouver School Boardand numerous community health organizations in Vancouver. She is the Elder inResidence for post secondary institutions at the FNHL, British Columbia’s Institute forTechnology (BCIT) and the UBC Institute for Aboriginal Health. She is currently a post-secondary student, foster mother and grandmother.• Gerry Oleman, Saa HiiI Thut is from the Stl’atl’imx nation, he is a sXwayxw@y big housedancer and grandfather. He works for the UBC Institute for Aboriginal Health and UBCmedicine initiatives. He was a chief band counsellor for Chilaith, Seton Lake and hecurrently works for the Indian Residential School Survivor Society (IRSSS). He was anElder in residence at BCIT and continues to run its sweat lodges.• Hopokeltun is Musqueam and Coastal Salish, he is a great-grandfather, grandfather,sXwayxw@y big house dancer and traditional speaker. He has worked for theVancouver School Board for over twenty five years and is a trial support co-ordinator forIRSSS for the last six years. He has worked for the LLP and the FNHL. He providesprotocol and ceremonial guidance for many of the cultural events at the FNHL.• N’kixw’stn James is a member of the Lytton First Nations from Lytton, BC. She belongsto the NhIa’ka’pmx Nation of the BC Interior Salish. She has a MEd in Adult Educationfrom UBC and now teaches in her own community. She worked as a Resident Elder atthe First Nations House of Learning, where she trained women on the sweat lodgeceremony. Some of these women became sweat lodge keepers themselves andconduct women wellness circles at UBC. N’kixw’stn sincerely believes in living withspirituality and teaches young women and children about it. She prays that spiritualitywill become the foremost important part of everyone’s life in the future.• Sahnbadis is of Mi’kmaq descent. He has an MA and is an Elder in Residence at theFNHL. He facilitates men’s sweat lodges and weilness circles. He is a traditional redblanket man in the Lakota Sundance tradition. He has worked with numerous health andeducational organizations in Canada and the USA and specializes in cultural education.32• Shirley Bear (Minqwon-Minqwon) is Wabanagii and has worked with the UBC SummerSciences and Elders in Residence program at the FNHL and initiated the women’s fullmoon wellness circles. She was instrumental in the advocacy that led to Bill C-31, the1985 act to amend the Indian Act, and is featured in the film, Keepers of the Fire. She isa great-grandmother and a multimedia and performance artist. She has worked withVancouver Aboriginal youth on an arts based education program called Drawing fromWithin, which incorporated traditional plant medicine use.• White Cloud is an Anishnabe Metis grandmother who has been involved in numerousAboriginal health organizations and was a chief counsellor for a BC band. She isinvolved with the Institute for Aboriginal Health, the UBC sweat lodges and the womens’full moon ceremonies. She is a cultural ceremonialist and provides wholistic wellnessapproaches to Aboriginal communities, internationally, nationally, provincially and withlocal communities.• Lee Brown is from the Tsalagi and wolf clan aniwaya, he is a post-doctoral fellow andsessional education instructor at UBC. He has been involved in an Aboriginal educationcommunity and the Round Lake cultural treatment centre for over twenty five years. Hehas run mens’ weilness circles at the FNHL and participates in the LLP and sweat lodgeceremonies.The research is relevant because the FNHL community identified the topic of this researchproject through a number of community discussions. The Elders’ presence was a consistentrecommendation from a variety of student service contexts, hence provided the selection of theElder participants for this study. The discussions identified the need for more Elder involvementin leadership development and cultural curriculum.Appropriate cultural protocols were observed before the interview began, with theoffering of tobacco and blankets or baskets. The Elders determined where the interview was tobe held while I provided refreshments. These protocols were followed to create a context thatwas culturally appropriate and supportive of the interview process. The protocols respectedAboriginal contexts and enabled an Aboriginal process to produce Aboriginal content. TheElders’ life experiences are the oral histories that provide leadership lessons in this study. Semistructured reflective interviews were conducted and the questions were used as a guideline andasked at an appropriate time during each interview. Sterling (1997) and Brown (2004) suggestthat the questions used should relate to the content, context and process during the interview, tofollow the natural flow of the conversation and allow for silence as a part of the process. TheElders answered the questions with personal stories and reflections, although they often did not33answer the questions directly, directing me instead by letting me know what they thought wereimportant leadership stories. It was my responsibility as a researcher to derive implicit andexplicit leadership meanings from their reflections and not become a nuisance with numerousquestions. Some of the Elders thought I was not reading the meaning of their stories and theytried a variety of other stories and reflections based on their experiences to help me tounderstand what they were saying.The interviews were held at the FNHL, in restaurants, in their homes and outside in thenatural environment. It was my responsibility to follow the Elders’ lead and provide a respectfulrelationship where they were in control of the interview process and the information theyprovided. The Elders defined what the terms Indigenous, culture and leadership meant in theirown ways. Not all of the Elders conceptualized themselves as leaders, which I believe is inaccordance with the traditional values of humility. For example, one Elder storytelleremphasized the importance of humility, that leaders do not put themselves above the people orbring shame to the people. Another storyteller felt that the term ‘helper’ was more reflective ofhis understanding of what Indigenous leadership is.One of the interviews did not record on one side of the tape and I had to rely on my oraltradition skills, to remember the stories from my heart memory (Holmes as cited by Archibald,2005). Heart-memory to me describes the meaning making processes that are derived from thestory’s principles. This is done with the core of our beings and this implicit knowledge must beapplied to the current contexts. Woodrow Morrison (2006) a Haidagwai Elder storyteller saidthat you must take the words inside and sense what they mean within your heart to see if theyare true. I wrote the stories down and used my heart’s memory skills based on the culturalteachings and I recited it back to the storyteller for verification.34Research QuestionThe primary research question was: How does culture inform Indigenous leadership?The following guiding questions are based on the leadership literature and discussions withFNHL community members:• How do you describe Indigenous leadership?• How do you describe Indigenous culture?• How do you describe the relationship between culture and leadership?• What cultural values, principles and practices inform your leadership?• What cultural components would you like to see within an Indigenous student leadershipprogram at university?• How can a leadership program address cultural needs within a context that respectscultural diversity such as the LLP?• How do you envision the LLP cultural components evolving?• What specific cultural aspects are important for the LLP?For the second interview, the following questions were designed to build on the content of thefirst interviews and to further support the process:• What led you to working with the FNHL community? Will you describe, in your ownwords, the work you do with the FNHL?• How did you acquire your cultural knowledge?• Were there particular events, dreams or teachings that assisted you in your leadershipdevelopment?• What changes have you observed as a result of the cultural teachings you received?• How does the lack of cultural connection affect youth today? What are theintergenerational effects? What are the implications for the future?• What was the role of cultural values in your leadership development?• How did the cultural teachings and stories you received influence the relationships inyour life? (As a child, youth, adult and Elder-in-training.)• What do you know now about cultural education and leadership that you did not knowbefore? How could this information and/or other cultural teachings be incorporated intoteachings for Indigenous sovereign nationhood and governance?• If you were to explain to other educators about the role culture plays in Indigenousstudent leadership development, how would you justify the cultural activities in acurriculum at UBC?• How are values meaningful and why is it important to have cultural activities included inthe curriculum?MethodA qualitative research design that utilizes a case study approach and oral histories ascounter-stories was chosen for this study because these research tools provide culturallyappropriate elements that help best facilitate the process. A qualitative design was the best fit35for addressing the complex topic of contemporary Indigenous leadership for the FNHL/UBCcommunity context. The qualitative design allowed an in-depth critical exploration of how cultureinforms Indigenous leadership through the available knowledge of the expert oral histories.Creswell (1998) believes that a topic needs to be explored when theories are unavailable toexplain the topic of research. Another rationale for the selection of a qualitative study isparticipant receptivity and comfort with the investigative process used (Creswell, 1998, p. 17).The research was conducted with respect for the participants or storytellers who wereinterviewed because they were interviewed in the cultural context in which they were familiar.The storytellers have experience with the FNHL community and consequently can provideinformed insider perspectives relevant to the FNHL. Additionally, the storytellers werecomfortable with the investigative process because it was based on their expertise of thestoryteller’s lived experiences, oral history and cultural knowledge.Oral historyAboriginal oral history accounts provide relevant socio-political and educationalimplications for Aboriginal communities and educational institutions (Cruikshank, 1994; Bertaux,1981). The qualitative research process employed to collect such information provides a modelof responsible research by respecting appropriate cultural conduct in an Aboriginal setting usingsuch an appropriate qualitative research methodology, it is possible to facilitate relevantresearch that addresses change and benefits Aboriginal communities (Smith, 1999).In addition to providing a model for research, oral history methodology was also drawnupon and used as a guide to interact with the Elders’ stories. Oral history research seeks torecord people’s experience over their life span and seeks to extract meaning among stories andvalidate the knowledge, experience and expertise of the storyteller (Cruickshank, 1994). Oralhistories that provide counter historical aspects or counter histories can help motivate a cultureunder threat and encourage the revival of cultural traditions and convey them to current andfuture generations of all peoples (Slim & Thompson, 1995. p. 38). The storytellers’ oral histories36provided examples of leadership stories and it was my responsibility to derive leadershipmeanings based on their lived experiences. Their oral histories encouraged people to revitalizetheir cultural traditions and through their stories we can all learn from their leadershipexperiences.This study engages with Jo-ann Archibald’s (2005) principles for storywork research tomake meaning of oral histories while honoring the Elders at the same time. The storyworkprinciples of respect, responsibility, reverence, reciprocity, wholism, inter-relatedness andsynergy require an intimate understanding and years of commitment to understand and applythem to life and to Indigenous research methods.Case studyMcMillan (2003) says, “The term case study is identified as a type of qualitative researchbecause it can provide an in depth study of a single entity using qualitative multiple sources togather data” (p. 271). Merriam (1998) writes,A qualitative inquiry is best served by a case study approach when there is a holistic orinductive process, when there is an emphasis on description and interpretation, and iswithin a bounded context that has a pragmatic application (p.21).This research falls within the category of the case study (Cresswell, 1998) because theresearcher reviewed multiple sources via Elder interviews within the bounded context or entity,the First Nations Ionghouse community — with the goal of applying the research towards thedevelopment of the cultural aspect of the LLP.In other case study approaches, the individual oral histories themselves are the casestudies (Yin, 2003), but in this study, I use the FNHL as a single entity case. Multiple oralhistories within the FNHL case study convey a fullness of context, character, voice andexperience or information that is not readily accessible by other research approaches.The participants make information available through their narratives, stories andexpertise on the role culture plays in Indigenous leadership, providing relational stories based37on lived experiences and acquired knowledge. These oral histories bring local knowledge todiscussions on the role that culture plays in Aboriginal leadership relevant for this context.Participant selection and accessInformal pre-study interviews were conducted with FNHL community members to ensurethat an appropriate topic and appropriate participants were selected. A list of possibleparticipants was developed in consultation with the Acting Director of the FNHL, StudentServices and the research project advisor. LLP participants who graduated from the programwere not selected because the central focus of the study is on cultural dimensions; recognizedElders with cultural expertise were recommended instead.Additionally, FNHL cultural protocols include that direction be sought from recognizedElders who are familiar with the FNHL community. The purpose of the research was explainedduring informal meetings with the Elders and then they were invited to interview. Indigenouscross-cultural, inter-generational and gender representation were other participant selectionconsiderations. Elders’ familiarity with me and their availability and willingness to participate inthe study were additional factors.Data collectionThe data was collected from seventeen one-hour interviews. The interviews providedinformation to help explore and develop theoretical considerations and were supported withempirical data such as personal reflections (Yin, 2003). The interviews were tape-recorded withpermission. Indigenous cultural protocols were observed and notes taken when allowed by thecultural setting. The tapes were transcribed and submitted for reading and editing by theparticipants and then were used for analysis.38Data AnalysisThe data analysis in this case study consists primarily of identifying descriptions,emergent themes, concepts and assertions based on the content of the oral stories. Anindividual case-by-case analysis phase was used, followed by a cross-case analysis phase(Cresswell 1998. p.63), in order to deepen the understanding of how culture informs Indigenousleadership. Participants were given multiple opportunities for discussion and feedback duringthe first and second interviews. Discussion and feedback opportunities were also providedthroughout the cross-case analysis and interpretive phases so that participants could reviewtheir own transcripts by providing corrections, and feedback via informal meetings, ongoingface-to-face conversations, telephone conversations and the mail. The storytellers offeredcorrections and comments such as preference for name use and spelling on the language usedand additions to their oral counter-stories. Once this was done I considered how the Sty-Wet-Tan cultural space could assist in interpreting the data. The cultural symbols prominent in thephysical space of the FNHL were important in developing my understanding of the stories.The cross-case analysis phase included a summary of all nine interviews. The cross-case summaries provided a sense of the direction of the study. Participants made namepreferences and chose to use their English name or their cultural names.The interpretive phase provided an opportunity to explore the meaning of the datacollected. For the interpretive phase of the study, a power point presentation was developed topresent the initial emergent themes. The themes that were talked about in the interviews wereutilized, and presented back to the participants to ensure validation of interpretation of the data.For example, in the data collection phase, the participants referred to the importance ofseasonal cycles, the life cycle and the natural elements of earth, air, water and fire as naturalteachers or leaders. The heuristic frameworks mentioned in the interviews provided culturallyappropriate mechanisms to present the data analysis to the participants. I also considered thecultural symbols located in the Sty-Wet-Tan space and the leadership teachings from the oralhistories (data) were reinforced by my understanding of the house posts. The house posts39provided a cultural framework to analyse the data and reinforced my leadership understandingsabout places, peoples and stories. Other 1K frameworks mentioned were Indigenous wholismprinciples, which seek to consider all aspects of a situation such as the intellectual, physical,emotional and spiritual dimensions (Brown, 2004; Graveline, 1998; Hampton, 1995; Marsden2005; Urion, 1995).The leadership values and principles referred to by the participants provided examplesof Indigenous knowledge frameworks which I incorporated into the organization of the dataduring the interpretive phase. This process provided additional member checking opportunitiesto validate the themes in the interpretative phase of the research.The participants were invited to become involved in the research process and in decisionmaking about the data and analysis because research that is a shared, reciprocal process isconsidered a culturally appropriate way to conduct Indigenous inquiry (Slim & Thompson, 1995).Triangulation of the data was provided by: member checking at the first and second interviews;by providing transcripts for revisions throughout the process; by re-reviewing the literature; andusing the qualitative data analysis ATLAS.ti program and to analyse the findings.I was aware that the interpretive phase provided socio-political relevance because theparticipants addressed commonalities such as history of racism and ongoing oppression in theirlife experiences. I was also conscious that the goals of research must help inform and addresscommunity issues and concerns in ways that reflect a culturally relevant approach to thecollection, analysis and discussion of knowledge (Crazy Bull, 2004; Sandelowski, 2000).Therefore, because the participants address historical and ongoing socio-political andeducational oppression, I used these themes as organizational features and brought theinterpretations back to the participants for their review. This research analysis process wasutilized in a way that is meaningful for the participants (Smith, 2005). For example, the oralhistory below provides leadership Iearnings that describe some of the challenges incontemporary First Nations leadership contexts. Outlining the importance of knowing abouthistory, places, peoples and culturally relevant pedagogical approaches, Gerry Oleman reflects:40I am from a small community called the Seton Lake Indian Band, but its real name isChilaith, which means by the lake. I can remember, I knew that there was a chief in thecommunity and in those days the people looked up to chiefs.As I grew up I went to residential schools and after I left there I started to look atcommunity different and I wanted to be involved. I remember, don’t know how old I was,in my twenties, when I was elected on to council - community council.So it was my first encounter to leadership and I didn’t know what I was doing. I canremember thinking, “oh I am going to learn now’ and of course I was thinking traditionalteachings. Organization and leadership and planning and that was what my fantasy[was] about, was what I was going to see. As I got involved, I quickly learned that whatthey were doing was the very start of the operation of the Indian Act, that it was comingnow to the community because before that it was the Indian agent that would come inand tell them when to build houses what to do and they seemed to have a lot of power.So all of sudden now the Department of Indian Affairs (DIA) was starting to talk aboutcore funding and the administration of dollars and then I seen that that was what thechief and council were doing, but it wasn’t about the community per se, it was dollars forthe community, but it was about how to deal with this aspect.And I remember I was disappointed at the time because that’s all it was. Administrating,it wasn’t talking about the community and the needs and what was going on and so Iwas thinking that this is wrong.So when I thought about the leadership at the House of Learning, I started to think of thevalue of tradition, teaching cultural traditions. That the traditions promote harmony andweliness in households and in our communities and with the language and with thelearning and I started to see the value of that as whole education, as an insurance policyfor the future, as contributors for the children and the grandchildren and that there issomething going to be there for them even after we are long gone. And that wasingrained in the leadership.I started thinking, okay, so how do we train leaders. ..The clan mothers would chose theleaders. And the clan mothers were appointed. You know because they had to have atrust-worthy mind. That they are not going to say you know, I want my son to be chosen,but that everybody knew that their mind was for their people and for the land. Becausethat was one of the laws was to have a good mind.This storyteller shares his experience of leadership challenges and the need to reclaimrespectful, traditional cultural values to form the foundations for healthy family and communitydevelopment. The transformation needed requires decolonizing and self-determinedapproaches that are based on traditional cultural values. The Elder’s oral life stories in thisstudy advocates for leadership to know the history of peoples and places and promote relevantcultural pedagogy within an antiracism education framework. The leadership work the41storytellers advocate is transformative and contributes to the leadership work required inuniversities.42CHAPTER FOURFINDINGS: WHAT THE ELDERS SAIDThe Elders talked at length about the nature of Indigenous leadership. Using theirterminology, I identifiedlO5 categories using the Atlas.ti qualitative data analysis program. Thecategories were then grouped into nine themes based on their similarities and the contexts inwhich the storytellers used the terms. My choice of the themes is influenced by the literature,the storytellers’ oral histories and the Longhouse Teachings. I chose to use the phrases fromthe interviews to represent the themes and noticed that the themes the Elders storytellers talkedabout were very similar to the literature review themes. The themes are: i) including Aboriginalhistorical perspectives- know the history of the land and educate others; ii) promoting positivecultural 1K - reclaim culture-live the teachings; iii) providing decolonizing and self determinededucation - culture supports individuals, families and communities; iv) focusing on communityservice- leadership is a gift - step forward to demonstrate community responsibilities; v)wholism - relevance, vi) respect; vii) responsibility, viii) relationships and ix) reciprocity.However there are a number of inter-related ideas and principles that flow among these themesthat are not easily separated. I include here my interpretation of the FNHL Sty-Wet-Tan Hallhouse posts and cultural teachings to help me understand the Elders’ stories, since wherelearning takes place influences what is learned. As I strive to understand the Elders’ stories, Imust, therefore, consider how the Sty-Wet-Tan Hall house posts and other construction detailshelped me to organize the complex, interrelated themes of the stories.Sty-Wet-Tan: A Living CurriculumThe First Nations House of Learning is a 2,043 square meter Coast Salish-stylelonghouse building constructed of West Coast red cedar logs named Sty-Wet-Tan, a Musqeaumterm which means the spiritual power of the west wind. It is the first of its kind on a NorthAmerican university campus. It serves as an intellectual, social, spiritual and cultural home forIndigenous students attending UBC. Our Elders here teach us the importance of respectfully43sharing our knowledge and our home with others and to serve as hosts. The Longhouse hasbeen described as a symbol of love and the belief in a spiritual power that makes all thingspossible. In creating this home away from home, having a physical place for learning in thetraditional way has been a dream that has become a reality. Elder Tsimlano teaches that whenwe gather together we form a circle and join hands in reverence. In joining hands, hold your leftpalm upwards to reach back to receive the teachings of the Ancestors. Hold your right palmdownward to pass these teachings on to the younger generation. In this way, the FNHLprovides a place where the teachings of the Ancestors continue the circle of humanunderstanding, which grows stronger (Kirkness, 2001). Thus, the Longhouse is a “livingcurriculum” that teaches and promotes core values and which influence how I interpret theElders’ stories. There are several features of the Longhouse that have particular significance:the house posts, the carved doors, and the roof beams, which I interpret in a way similar to thestorywork principles articulated by Jo-ann Archibald (2005). In the following section I haveinterpreted the FNHL carved cedar house posts, Longhouse Teachings and the storytellers’ oralhistories. As I engaged with the Elders’ stories, I also explored the Longhouse Teachingscontained within the FNHL house posts located in Sty-Wet-Tan hail.The Elders SpeakThe crucial background elements of the Sty-Wet-Tan space reinforced the stories of the Eldersand influenced my interpretation of them. In the following section, the storytellers describeIndigenous leadership. From this, the nine themes that characterize their views can bediscerned.LeadershipHopokeltun says that all people have the capacity for leadership based on theirgenealogies and gifts they have as individuals, in their families, within their communities and asNation representatives.44Hopokeltun states:I think for me there is only leadership.. .alI leadership is based on the geographic locationand language of the people ‘round the world.. .1 think it’s an integral part of Indigenouslife and education. It’s all about leadership, it’s about knowing and understanding whoyou are and where you fit not only as an individual but where you fit as a family member,where you fit as someone who belongs, as someone who is a part of the community andthe communities that you are connected to. The guiding principle of being a good leaderfor my mother was someone who valued other people not only as human beings, but fortheir special gifts that [they] have to share with others. And if I was to be good leaderthen I had to understand myself as a good follower. So my early development in terms ofleadership revolved around who I am...Indigenous cultural leadership, it’s built into the language, so historically followers andleaders are constantly being reinforced by language.. .and the understanding of whereyou fit in.. .So in our language in terms of leadership, in terms of culture, I am taught whoI am and what my responsibility is in that position. Not only as an individual, but where Ifit, in birth order in my immediate family and within my larger extended family as well...The storytellers believe that leadership responsibility means developing your whole selfas a person and as a person within a collective. The collective includes a specific land baseand perspectives on how to be in a good relationship with one’s self, with the community andwith the land. The cultural expressions of these relationships include: using the traditionallanguage, adopting cultural ceremonies based on dreams, presenting particular body language,and holding thoughts or prayers. These features that distinguish knowledge for Indigenousleadership contexts were woven throughout the storytellers’ oral histories.Many of the storytellers believe that an ongoing process of self-discovery is required foractivism to make positive changes in community contexts. They urge that this process beconsistently revisited, recommitted and revised according to the unique gifts given to individuals.Each must know how their gifts can be utilized in coalitions for strategic change. The storytellersacknowledge that these movements towards change must reflect local concerns, land ethicsand values consistent with 1K frameworks.Gerry Oleman explains:It is serious stuff, leadership. We are affecting the earth, we are affecting each other, itis so serious. Like when you know when you are being initiated, you really take that toyour core, what this means, then you take it seriously. When you figure out how to dothat, that’s a life change and affects how you are in relationships, as a parent, spouse,45co-worker or in the case of a cultural ceremonial person and you become initiated whenyou are worthy.See that’s where we fall or fail today is we don’t have moral or compassionate guidelinesfor the people. Now you get a degree and often in our communities those people are putinto leadership positions. When potlatch was outlawed there was heavy racist principleshappening on our BC peoples, and when I started to hear these old guys talking aboutnot being able to talk, about not being able to ride above deck in a ferry, or beingarrested for being, practicing cultural ways, not being able to vote and do this and that, Ican see the impact of all of that in our leadership today.You know my big concern is when we send people to universities and colleges is whenthey come home, are they going to be able to sit up all night in ceremonies, are theygoing to give a feast, save for years and give it away. Are they still going to have thosecore beliefs? If not we are losing them and we have a serious problem; losing ouridentities, so that’s what I see. Indicators of cultural identity loss occur when we don’tsupport culture as valuable and it’s like we have the trappings of First Nationsprogramming but they are still following [the] mainstream.My brother and I remember, my uncles told us he showed us the mountains and he toldus you take of them, it’s yours, you know over that mountain and the other side of themountain that river that now has become a lake that’s yours too. So we were politicizedthat way by people who weren’t identified as leaders, like chief and council. People hadin their mind that there was something wrong happened here and that they were takenfor a ride by the government, given reserves and those early guys, it was not just thereserve, it’s all these mountains for as far as you can see, you know that’s where wehunt and gather...We teach our values and our philosophies the way we think in regards to our connectionto the Earth. Because in technology they are talking about forestry about technology Iknow used wrongly hurts the Earth...l work in institutions now, in higher learning.. .1 amthere to teach what happened and educate students what we have to offer.Culture informs leadership by providing values about how to interact in relationships,both with humans and non-humans. Values such as respect and connection were referencedby many of the storytellers. Each of the storytellers included the value of relationship as primaryand that the quality of the relationship is highly regarded within an Indigenous wholisticframework. For example, Lee Brown elaborates:The primary role of culture is to provide values and provide the methods by which wefind our gift and have a good strong community within the values [that] are foundationalto good leadership. Primary value which I already mentioned, which is relationship and itseems to me that relationship is a core value and that all our other values such asrespect and kindness and cooperation and sharing and caring, all the good values thatwe have are aspects of relationship. So relationship is the central core value and that therole of culture is that it teaches how to be related. Related first to ourselves, related tothe spiritual realm, related to the family, the community and the world around us, and theenvironment.46The best leadership is leadership of people who are not really trying to be leaders butwho are trying to be helpers. Helper is really the word I prefer. It’s a really good word. Iremember that story I heard about Sitting Bull when he went to Washington, DC and hewas told [about] the leadership of the United States, and he saw that the people in theleadership were very rich and powerful. He said this is a government that would lead tocorruption and I think that sums up the Native ideas that leadership should be nowealthier than anybody else. The role of leadership should not separate you from thepeople; it should make you a part of the people. Anything that separates you from thepeople is not good; it’s because our primary value is relationship, that we are related,anything that stops relationship is not good. I think this is directly opposed to theleadership in dominant society.The end result can become where they use the leadership as a position of power toachieve or to get things for themselves. I think the biggest thing is where they getincredible amounts of money and that’s not really our concept of leadership, it’s not myconcept of leadership... A real leader leads in such away that the potentiality of all thepeople comes forward and is manifested. A poor leader leads in such a way that onlytheir own potentiality is manifested and some leaders even oppress the group and try toactually limit the potentiality of others so that their potentiality will be greater. A goodleader tries to get the group to do things that’s why I like the community here at theLonghouse it seems like you do things together. It seems like the community is reallyinnovative and into things. I think that’s the best way where each person has theircontribution that they make and learns from one another. It’s not one person out frontdoing it all the time.I think my practices have been informed by the Elders that I learned to listen to. I had theblessing of an Elder man when I was growing up [who] would often point out whenpeople were leading in inappropriate ways. So then I would see that as an example ofwhat not to do. And he might talk about stories about good leaders in the past, storiesthat contained the values and principles of good leadership I already mentioned. So forinstance if a person was mis-conducting themselves or they were using their position toobtain money for themselves or their family, they might point that out and point out thefact that’s not what leadership is, leadership is service and you give to others.. .With noexpectation of any gain, or any kind of benefit other than the joy of knowing you haddone something good to help the people and that you had done something to strengthenand to perpetuate the culture.I am hoping that my thinking is rising to leadership in the sense of, by getting a PhD andby being able to write and being in the community I think that I am involved in acommunity here at UBC which is really on the cutting edge of a lot of things, a lot ofthought and the cutting edge of Indigenous research and writing and reflecting aboutourselves as an Indigenous community.I am really happy to be a part of that community and I think whatever role I play in thatcommunity, whatever writing I can get done in the community I am hoping that it willhave some influence, that it will help somebody somehow and in some way. What I wantpeople to know is that our culture is important, that our values are important and as goodas anybody else’s. And we have something to offer, not only to ourselves but to otherpeople. I think that the Canadian Journal of Native Education publication that ispublished here is pretty good. A lot of the writing coming out of here is pretty good. Ithink there is a lot of educational leadership happening here. For me it’s really abouthard work, working really hard, trying to focus that work on doing something that ishelpful to the community...47The talk yesterday for education leadership position sounded like and looked to me thatthey spent their lifetime making their career on Indigenous research. All the researchand every research project that they worked on was on Indigenous people in Canadaand when I asked them how is this benefiting the Indigenous community and he didn’thave a response. He said that there may have had some benefits in policy changes.Here’s a guy who got some kind of award from Oxford by studying Native people, butwhat good is it if it doesn’t help anybody.Brown shares his viewson wellness, educational leadership, ethics and reciprocal research:The other hard work that relates to leadership and is very relevant is the work onpurifying yourself.. .because as human beings we have the capacity to get off balancepretty easy. We need to be constantly focusing and examining our intent, especially inpositions of leadership. And examining what it is we are doing in the community and ifwe are in a leadership position why are [we] doing it, who are we doing it for, who’sbenefiting from it?I think for me too there’s a certain amount of temptation in a lot of ways, getting offersfrom outside the community and to play certain roles. I would prefer not to do becausethe non-native community is very eager to cast you in a leadership role and we can endup being something you are not and can end up leading the community. I have seen thishappening to a few people who basically ended up outside the community because ofmy desire to be of service it makes no sense to go outside the community. Because thereal place of service is within the community. Besides I think some of the most excitingthings in the world are happening in the community here.Sahnbadis advocated supporting differences and was mindful of the fact that leadershiptraining should not focus on cultural processes alone because leadership expressions willdepend on the contexts and an individual’s particular gifts. However, prospective leaders wouldbenefit from a survey of distinguishing features of 1K discourses through case studies and localleadership perspectives. Such a survey would enhance recognition and understanding of thedistinguishing features of Indigenous leadership contexts, such as protocols based on local 1Kprinciples.Leadership was also described as an innate form of individual knowledge that is basedon personal experience. Shirley Bear said that leadership was earned through the enactment ofthe values such as respect for fairness and responsible actions demonstrated to individuals, tofamilies and to the community through cultural and creative processes. Bear also spoke aboutthe value of recognizing all the leaders, which is often neglected within communities today.Bear explains:We all have a sort of innate knowledge about our lives, and leadership was somethingearned and not something gained by any other form of popularity. So for us to look at48leadership today, I think a lot of us have neglected to look at the leaders, those reallyearn that respect and that responsibility and that sense of fairness. We would havehonoured the leadership during those times, as we were growing up... since the 1400s.For White Cloud, the adoption of off-shore or contemporary values at the cost oftraditional values was identified as a contributing factor that led to cultural neglect. Storytellerstalked about the balance of both contemporary and traditional values as required knowledge tofunction as effective leaders. They articulated that the values are inherent in the traditionalpractices and are best understood through direct active engagements. Cultural practicesprovide opportunities for continuity through intergenerational role modeling and enacting valuesfor appropriate leadership development in Indigenous contexts. People were recognizedthrough cultural processes. Cultural processes provide opportunities to demonstrateappropriate intergenerational leadership training and collective support. White Cloudencourages a regeneration of cultural processes to invigorate leadership praxis. She states:We owe it to our people, we owe it to ourselves we owe it to the continuity of our people.The teachings that we were given that we need to think seven generations in to thefuture and it has to start with us and so we all have to be responsible for that. In theAboriginal helping field we need to recognize that to support and help to bring our peopleto that place. We need to be role models and leaders to learn and share the culturalteachings and ceremonies.Storytellers touched on a number of other relevant issues. Several of them talked aboutthe influence of female leaders in their lives and the crucial issue of gender balance in thedevelopment of leaders. Hopokeltun illustrated this by talking about the design of the traditionalWest Coast big house structure. The house posts holding up the roof are alternately femaleand male. The genders are equally represented and required for a strong framework to housethe place where community work is done. Other storytellers talked of the value of an experientialcurriculum that could be based on, for example, canoe building and leadership within localcanoe societies. Another storyteller, Hopokeltun, suggested that self awareness, languagefluency and good following skills could be acquired through traditional cultural processes.49Hopokeltun elaborates:I think transference of knowledge is important. How we do that is always a challenge andit should always be changing because it is important. I am happy now that we havetalked because I have defined culture for myself and it is about our values and beliefs.The more we understand about our values and beliefs, the more we understand whatour values and beliefs mean to our own leadership development.Also the study of language and experiential learning, like how to carve a canoe, youdon’t have to get a big tree, and you can give them [students] a knife and say, “here,carve a canoe model”. And tell them to research North West Coast canoes and duringclass time talk about leadership and the roles in the canoe. Who is the skipper, who isthe bow man, who is the paddler, who is responsible for what and then you need canoeguides to do some training on the water, the tides, the currents, the description of thewater, all that.So they make a canoe model whether it is in glass or ten foot or a beautiful or stark one.How do you build a canoe? I think it would be an awesome teaching tool and then theywould learn the importance of balance. Like if you carve a canoe, if they carve themodel and they set it in the water, is it balanced in the water? Is it going to be safe toget into if it has a twist in it?Further enhancing these teachings, learning your peoples’ histories and the relevantgenealogies were consistent themes cited for appropriate leadership development. Thestorytellers agreed that this information is acquired through continual training processes. TheElder storytellers remind us of the importance of knowing the history of places and peoples andthe role of wholistic pedagogy in Indigenous leadership. In response to the major researchquestion, the storytellers regarded cultural education as a transformative approach toIndigenous leadership development. Thus, the role of culture is to provide a transformativeframework for the development of Indigenous leadership. The storytellers agreed that culture inIndigenous leadership is based on understanding such components as local intergenerationalknowledge of genealogy, language and ceremonial practices. These aspects of culture arebased on 1K praxis. They are foundational to developing relevant leadership skills and playimportant roles in the development of positive families, nations and communities. A practicalcommitment to this knowledge over a life time was seen as decolonizing because it contributesto the conscientization process of the individual within the community. For me the Sty-Wet-Tanspace also helps portrays these teachings. I understand that the spiritual power of the west50wind means to listen to the voices of the Ancestors, and that their voices can be heard throughthe places, the stories and the cultural practices.Nine ThemesThe discussions of leadership provided by the Elders’ in their stories suggest ninethemes. As mentioned above, I discerned these themes in reference to Sty-Wet-Tan, theLonghouse, which provides an ever-present living curriculum.Theme One: Including Aboriginal historical perspectives--Know the history of the landand educate others.The storytellers described history as crucial to understanding the present context andproviding foundations for respectful relationships. The storytellers shared personal accounts ofracism and it’s continued impact today. The stories of internalized racism and shared colonialhistories were seen as educational opportunities providing examples of a decolonizing approachto leadership education. In general, the concepts of restoring respectful relationships were thecultural values seen as missing in leadership training. Larry Grant explains:We are a contributing factor in the formation of this country, which is denied by nothaving our culture recognized regardless of how diverse our cultures were and are. Weplayed a major, major role in the structure of Canada. A systematic exclusion of theexistence of Aboriginal culture and languages demonstrates a lack of respect for ourcultures. The culture brings about ceremonies, language, geography, history andmedicines. On the West Coast we have marine engineers who built the canoes, thestructural engineers built the big houses, all of that. Cultural curriculum would identifyhow industrious, self sufficient, reliable and intelligent we were and are.Knowledge of genealogical histories is a consistent theme identified throughout thestorytellers’ oral historical accounts. The storytellers agreed that the past informs presentcircumstances and that future endeavours can be transformed by those experiences. Thecommon lived experiences of the storytellers include histories of oppression, racism and culturalharm.The storytellers also identified the need to reclaim wholistic health through culturaltraining that has resisted the oppression of the past. Oleman relates:51Racism, religion, reservations, residential schools and RCMP;I started talking about these five R’s and how important the teachings about how to liveand where we come from today. We lasted through five hundred years of oppressionand oppressive communication; this is how we got here. This is how I described it wasthe five R’s because I saw them as the core reasons or indicators about why we are theway we are today.Now if I was going to talk about the traditional teachings that you are talking about, thefour R’s, the Longhouse Teachings, they bring about awareness and we have culturalways that people can look at themselves. In our language to say sweat lodge, we sayK’ul’za, it means to look at yourself, and so when you go to the sweat lodge you areactually going there to look at yourself and if you see something wrong, then worktowards changing it.So that would probably be one of the first steps I would do if I was going to train leaders,have a way for them to look at themselves. You were showing me a diagram before andthat’s a good way of doing it. Physically, ceremonially, it would be more like theimportance of having a spiritual way of life. People don’t even think of that today. Thatmeans to me they are disconnected from the spiritual realms. If I can’t see, it has nomeaning. That is a scientific attitude and if it doesn’t make the right splash or if you ask ahundred people then that makes it a scientific fact.When I look at my existence, I see I have a mind, body and spirit. So they all neednourishing. If I don’t have nourishment for my mind, I am not going to have health. If I sitdown and someone is teaching me all this stuff of course I am going to grow.. .So that ishow I started to look at training, say the physical for instance, we teach people how totake care of their body, that means that exercise is part of that, just doing a ritualeveryday of walking, running or yoga or something or anything like that, overall it has aneffect.So leadership must have all these areas covered... I remember I was listening to anElder in Alberta and he was talking about sweetgrass and he was talking about thebraid. He said that is the mind, body and spirit. That is a representation. When youbraid it together it is strong. If you let one go, it starts to unravel, it weakens. It makessense and we believe what makes sense. Then we can reason that we need balance inour mind body and spirit.So there came a time I connected more deeply with what I heard other people say, likethe Elder in Alberta with the three strands, mind, body and spirit. You know this is overyears and years of practise.Larry Grant agreed that loss of respect and lack of appropriate leadership role modelsaffects the social, political and educational conditions today:We want culture in the curriculum because culture brings out who you are. It identifiesyou and that is what is really needed to reverse the degradation of who we are. With theculture comes the language because culture creates the language. You don’t talk aboutsomething you have never done before, you do the deed and then you do the language.Culture is there for self-identity and enhances self worth.Having culture in the curriculum helps the person to identify because the recognition ofculture in curriculum is something that is needed because culture creates the self imageand the self worth. It brings with it the language and with the language you fully52understand exactly what has happened to create the word in the language. That has allbeen taken away from us since the residential school time because prior to theresidential school people existed in this country side by side. The culture also talks toyou about seasonal activities. You know when it is time to go fishing then you don’t waitfor tomorrow to go fishing you go fish today. This whole thing about Indian time is goofy,because our people had to work when it was time to work, not when we felt like it.Culture brings about the understanding of self-sufficiency and all of that is tied into thecultural curriculum, which brings about the relevance of Aboriginal people in theformation of country called Canada. Many of our people through the loss of culture andthe loss of respect of Aboriginal culture occurred through the school system, a lot of thisis a transfer of the knowledge from the original residential school people, that hasdegraded our cultural standards and created a disrespect or dislike for the old culturalways the old ceremonies all the old, or considered old stuff.. .Through the degradation ofculture and values that I believe our young people are not able to carry on an industriouslife, in the sense of success.Grant suggests that the cultural harm suffered by Aboriginal peoples in residentialschools resulted in a form of cultural brainwashing. He believes that culture is a contemporarylife skill which values the stories of creation, the re-creator and the transformer as ways toconvey respect for the resources that feed people and help to restore harmonious relationshipsand overcome difficulties. Grant emphasizes:If you research what goes on with our language, the level of sophistication that is inIndigenous languages is passed on for generation after generation. This occurredwithout one certified linguist, without paper and pencil. Something that ourcontemporaries are not able to grasp and that is the huge thing that keeps our youngpeople out of school because we don’t identify with anything, to me that is what iskeeping our kids out of school. I think they have not gotten beyond the transfer ofknowledge, the degradation effects from the residential school.Grant’s ideas about understanding the history of belief systems is critical for successful identitydevelopment and contributes to leadership. He indicates that oral tradition forms such as oralityare foundational to understanding the 1K epistemologies that can inform leadershipdevelopment. Grant illustrates:When I asked my mom, do we have a church service? She says that’s not ours. I saywhen you say it is not ours what do you mean? She said that’s the white man’s way ofunderstanding how they become where they are. Not ours, we have a different story, wehave a different belief of how we are here...[In the big houses orality is key] it is not a place or worship or religion. When you arespeaking and use that word wholistic in training for leadership, that is what that buildingis, it is wholistic. It is where you live that is where [you] procreate and that is where youwatch people die. We have naming ceremonies in there, you had memorials in thereyou had puberty rights in there, marriages, and it is all part of normal everyday life.53It is not a place of worship although today a lot of younger people bring in organizedspirituality. If you talk about it, sometimes there is a little bending of noses, a little out ofjoint. Because a lot of those big houses were places of residence, many of the things[we] were just talking about took place outside in the field in front of the big houses.That is why you’ll see in some of the old pictures of our village. They have potlatchplatforms out in the middle of the village. They held the potlatches out there in the fallprobably either that or in the springtime. Inside the big house structure it is only sinceanti potlatch legislation came in effect that all of these things moved in doors.When I listen to the Elders and consider the meaning of their stories, I note the housepost by Susan Point that reminds us of the importance of knowing the history of places andpeoples as well as the role of wholistic pedagogy in Indigenous leadership. The storytellerstalked about the importance of including Aboriginal historical perspectives because of a lack ofaccess to this information. This results in a lack of cultural identity and a noticeable absence ofsocial, educational and leadership success.Susan Point is from the Musqeaum Nation and her house post is a carving of the raventransformer figure. The raven transformer sits on a spindle whorl, a circular disk that helps tospin goat or dog hair that reminds me of the teaching that everything in the circle is equal and allgifts are related and integral to the whole. The gifts of the mental, physical, emotional andspiritual realms are still relevant in the stories and teachings today. They require an active reengagement to deepen this core knowledge from within to fully transform their leadershippotential. This reinforces the Elders teachings to “know the history of the land and educatedothers” which can transform your leadership potential.Theme Two: Promoting positive cultural Indigenous Knowledge - Reclaim cultural values- live the teachingsUnderstanding 1K through positive cultural education -- oral histories of Elders, symbolsand storytelling to teach values, for example contribute to the pedagogy of transformativeleadership. Lee Brown believes that cultural values are important pedagogical considerationsthat form a foundation for transformation. He states:I think that all people’s values should be taught. Students should learn something aboutthe values of all people around the world when they go to school and to understand howvalues are different. Just to be aware of what their values are, most people functioning in54the dominant society do not understand their values they don’t have to but oppressedpeople have to be aware of the values of the oppressors. The oppressors do not have tobe aware of their own values or the values of the oppressed because of the powerrelations that are involved in that equation.It’s always difficult to express the extreme diversity of all the students that come touniversity but I think what we can do is identify those cultural universals that peopleagree upon. Practice those as much as possible and allow the diversity to manifestthrough the individuals that are here. If we focus on the universals of prayer, fasting,sharing food, things that almost all tribes do and find ways to do that together. I think thediversity will arise naturally out of the diverse people who are here. We don’t want togive up the cultural universals that we have because people are upset about the culturalspecifics, but somehow deal with the specifics within a universal framework.Quite a few authors I have been reading, you know Cajete, Duran, and many others allsay that our culture is much more universal than anybody thinks, even though there’s atremendous diversity on the surface of the tribes, but if you start looking at what isactually happening, the real values underneath everything that is going on are just aboutthe same from tribe to tribe.So we see that values are the way that people do things; the content or the culture iswhat is being done, the culture seems to vary a lot from tribe to tribe. But the processthe way in which things are done, the values behind all these ceremonies whether theybe coastal ceremonies or whether they are plains or Okanogan style ceremonies, thevalues are basically the same. The differences are on the surface and when get reallydeep into it, the values are the same.Eventually all the ceremonial processes we have always led people towards their gift,ultimately towards finding themselves and accepting, finding the balance and finding thegift and using it. Every tribe has a way of doing this and could look very different fromone tribe to another but the process of what’s happen from tribe to tribe is very similar.Brown talked about the importance of developing self awareness through exploringcultural values. Brown believes that individuals who have the opportunity to explore their valuesand how their values inform their thoughts and actions will, given the opportunity, also developunderstandings about how other forms of leadership operate. Cultural processes give leadersin training opportunities to explore how cultural knowledge and leadership are transmitted inparticular contexts. Brown explains:Culture not only provides the values through which a person can be a good leader, thevalues of service of respect for others and for serving and helping others, it also providesthe institutions by which a person can rise to leadership...Sometimes a community within the culture chooses specific people to become leaders incertain ways because the Elders in their wisdom perceive certain young people havecertain kinds of gifts, talents and abilities and are assisted through cultural processes sothat they can be strengthened and so they can become good strong leaders of thepeople...55I think in the last thirty years we have healed ourselves to an amazing extent. Thealcoholism rates are way less — almost half of what most populations around the world. Ithink we are rewriting our systems of education and our ceremonies are strengthening.People are starting fasting again not by the hundreds, but by the thousands. So thereare a lot of good things happening and I think that an amazing amount of our knowledgestill exists and is coming out. From different places, through different authors I think it’samazing it’s there.I think the number one most important thing is addressed and not only addressed but it’sactually done here. It is understanding the cultural protocols. Another very importantthing is the understanding of respect and relationship. One of the things I really likeabout the LLP and the Longhouse is the respect for the local Indigenous community.The inclusion and the relationship to the Musqeaum community here is a really importantpart of protocol and it teaches the students to observe protocol and to observe respect.So I think protocols and understanding relationship and by learning how to be of serviceto others. I think the LLP models a way of service because the LLP itself is a service tothe community. It’s important for students to see that...I think we need schools where the curriculum is balanced. I think Indigenous people,Canadians and Indigenous peoples around the world have a vision of that and have heldto that vision. To me that is a big part of the major shift that Graham Hingangaroa Smithtalks about that needs to occur. One of the ways I would justify culture in curriculum isthat people are going to [be] working with students and some — in the case of education— people are going to be teaching Indigenous people. I gave a half hour talk in a class ofeducation students that are graduating with a teaching degree last spring. Many of thestudents in the class said it was the only information they got about First Nationsstudents in five years of college, which I thought was terrible because many are going tobe teaching Native students. They need that cultural understanding. Teachers need tobe aware of not only Indigenous cultures but all other cultures in the world. We need tomake the school system where all cultures are respected and the values of all studentsare respected.The values that the students have, the students are able to use those values to promotetheir own learning rather than have to adopt a completely different set of values, which iswhat happens now. Everybody that goes into the system has to adopt Western systemof values of individualistic competition rather than a tribal awareness of cooperation, andhaving a more harmonious way of doing things, we all have to adopt the western world’sway of competitive education. So I think culture should be there. Culture contains thevalues, the values should be made explicit.The house post that most closely relates to this theme is the one by Stan Bevan andKen McNeil, which is about the teaching of transforming ourselves and respecting communitycontexts by understanding cultural protocols. Stan Bevan and Ken McNeil, who represent theTalhltan, Tsmishan, Tlingit and N’isga Nations, carved a post of a human transforming into araven and then back into a human. The raven, a trickster transformer figure, reminds me that weare transformed and educated through our journeys in life. We must remember where we comefrom through the rediscovery of our respective genealogies and honour their cultural56expressions. The raven represents cultural transformation and demonstrates that the good wayteachings must benefit future generations. The promotion of positive 1K, reclaiming and livingthe teachings are identified as important for understanding Indigenous leadership because theyprovide elements of transformation that can inform contemporary contexts. Humility is oftendemonstrated through humour as a form of affection and is a particular learning form thatutilizes metaphor and stories such as the trickster character. Stan Bevan and Ken McNeil’shouse post depicts the human that is transformed by Trickster. We must honour our gifts in lifewith reverence and remember the importance of humility and humour in transforming ourteaching, researching and learning. This house post reminds me that the leader (helper), theteacher (follower) and the learner can be transformed by the cultural values of the localcommunity. This reinforces the Elders’ teaching to “reclaim cultural values and live theteachings.”Theme 3: Providing decolonizing and self-determined education - Culture supportsindividuals, families and communities.Decolonizing and self determined education could provide understandings to facilitatestronger extended familial relationships between all like-minded peoples. Decolonizing and self-determined education approaches could mobilize a culture under threat to reclaim culturalknowledge and values that inform activism for change. Cultural knowledge and values aresources of strength for individuals, families and communities. N’kixw’stn illustrates how knowingabout your history provides knowledge about the land and how the people worked together tocreate a self-determined community. This knowledge is seen as decolonizing because itprovides people with knowledge of history, place and language that could be useful in mobilizingpeople towards local self determined goals. N’kixw’stn states that:Indigenous leadership was hereditary and there are many geographical benches in thatarea and each geographical bench had a chief. They used horses and dogs to movefrom one point or bench to another. So they had to have a leader for each bench. Abench, if you look at a mountain, there’s a straight up and down and then there’s a littlecut off, the geographical area just chipped away a section of the mountain then there’s alittle shelf there. And that’s the bench. And each bench had a chief and his helpers.57The chiefs and counsellors would journey to Skamjeem, Lytton and they would planthings like, my knowledge is from when the European taught Native people to plantvegetables, they would plant things like okay Siska your going to plant corn, Skojeanyour going to plant beans and each bench was selected to grow one product and thatwas spring time and then everybody would go back their places of reign and they woulddo it all summer long and in fall or when it was time to harvest, they bring all theirproduce to the centre again at Skamjeen and what they bring there that’s the leftoversbecause all through the summer when its time to harvest the corn, all the people fromthe other benches would go over to Siska to harvest the corn.Each family from each bench would take the amount of corn that was needed to theirhome and so when it was time to harvest beans, they would all journey to Skojean andthey would harvest there and so what was left they would bring it to the centre toSkamjeen and so who ever came there, like people from Cooks Ferry, Merritt, Lill’owatHope, they would journey there and take what they want and bring it back to theirhomes. That’s how it was done the people where pretty much in charge of the chief.The storytellers provided leadership stories that emphasized working toward providingsafe, healthy individuals and families as important leadership goals because families are thefoundation of the community. The community includes extended family and is fundamental inunderstanding its collective requirements. In response to the major research question, thestorytellers regarded cultural education as a transformative approach to Indigenous leadershipdevelopment. The storytellers agreed that culture in Indigenous leadership is based on theunderstanding of components such as local intergenerational knowledge of genealogy andlanguage and ceremonial practices that are self-determined and informed through millennia ofexperience. These aspects of culture play roles in the development of positive families, nationsand communities and are based on 1K praxis. They are seen as foundational to developingrelevant leadership skills. Maintaining the intention to engage with and apply this knowledgeover a life time was seen as decolonizing because it contributes to the conscientization processof the individual within the extended family community.The storytellers believe that an ongoing embodiment of the cultural teachings is requiredfor activism, to interact and to make positive changes in community contexts, because theseteachings enhance self-determined identity both within the individual and the within collective.They urge that engagement with cultural teachings be consistently revisited, recommitted andrevised to reflect the unique gifts given to individuals and to consider how their gifts can be58utilized in coalitions for local self-determined strategic change. They acknowledge thesemovements towards change must reflect local concerns, land ethics and values consistent with1K frameworks. Oleman shares:The part of the culture I am talking about is the spirit of the culture or the way of life andthe principles [of] the philosophy of our cultures, but I look at mainstream culture.Indiscriminate acts against the earth, people just don’t seem to care about culture. I seeour principles as being healthy. It is better to help than to hurt people. You get morebenefits from that and that’s cultural ways. If you see people hoarding they are nothealthy. Things are not going to get better they are going to get worse if we followmainstream culture. You see the main principles about the way our people thought, theways they interacted with the land and how we need to maintain those principle throughcultural practices and protocols are important for our leadership development.Our leadership needs a lot of development. There are a lot of people sufferingunnecessarily. Suffering in life is a given; we are going to lose people through death,accidents sometimes different things, we are going to be hungry, but unnecessarysuffering where there’s cruelty toward each other and people are dying and they don’thave to die and that kind of stuff. We need leadership, we need inspiration, and we needconfidence because if I trust your mind, I am going to follow you. Because I know youare not going to trick me, I know that you are going to go right to the end with me.Lyle Wilson’s house post reminds me of the importance of extended familialrelationships. Lyle Wilson is from the Hiasla Nation, the house post he carved is the eagle andbeaver, which represents his parents’ family crests or clans. The house post reminds me of theimportance of relationships and extended familial relationships. There is a circular cedar braidaround the eagle’s head that reminds me of the strength of the braid. The three strandsrepresent the mind, body and spirit and represent wholistic approaches to a leadership journey.The braid is stronger than its individual strands and I use this analogy to illustrate Indigenouswholism, which includes the relationships that exist in creation as potential resources forleadership development through the relating of stories, traditional teachings based on placesand life experiences to build healthy extended family relations. The seasonal cycles, the lifecycle and the natural elements of earth, air, water and fire as natural teachers or leaders areexamples of applying local pedagogy that could begin to restore respectful relationships withboth human and nonhuman forms of life on Earth. The house post by Wilson is a physicaldescription of this lesson because it reminds us of the teachings of extended families. This postalso helps to illustrate the storytellers’ leadership stories that emphasized safe, healthy59individuals and families as important leadership goals because families are the foundation of thecommunity. The community includes extended family which is fundamental in understanding itscollective needs. Research that assists communities in articulating their self-determined goalswill provide appropriate service, advocacy and coalition building as important reciprocalleadership contributions. This reinforced the Elders’ teachings that “culture supports individuals,families and communities”.Theme four: Focusing on community service - Leadership is a Gift - Step forward todemonstrate community responsibilitiesMany of the Elder storytellers agreed that to serve the community is both a gift and aresponsibility. Focusing on community service is critical for bringing attention to theoreticaldiscussions and contributes to understandings of transformative leadership practice and informscollective intergenerational leadership orientations. Culture is viewed as healthy resources forcommunity and family living. Leadership skills develop through community cultural processesand protocols. Brown illustrates how culture supports community service:I would describe Indigenous leadership as service to others. I think the real essence ofleadership as we understand it is to be of service to your family, your community, yourclan, your Nation and in a broader sense to all the people. And I think that service anyindividuals is greatest when a person is able to find their own gift and can use it wiselyfor the blessing and the benefit of those around them. I am involved with many culturalactivities such as the powwows it is an exercise in serving and giving to the community,doing something for the community. With no expectation of any gain, or any kind ofbenefit other than the joy of knowing you had done something good to help the peopleand that you had done something to strengthen and to perpetuate the culture.I see my role is to raise awareness to bring not only some culture in the classroom acomplete total change in the way that we are educating people moving from just acognitive to a wholistic approach. The approach itself has to be wholistic and that is ahuge change for people who have been totally focused on the cognitive all their lives.I remember one of the Elders one day pulling out some grass and throwing it into thewind and saying that is how the people are becoming and that is seems like how hiswords are coming true that a lot of people are just like grass blowing in the wind. Theydon’t have a teaching or any kind of way they are going by. I think though even in theurban area a lot of people are finding those ways for themselves. I think people will findtheir way but if they have a teaching there they have more to work with. It’s a question ofwhat a person has to work with to make a good life. To me the teachings are abouthaving a good life and if you have good teachings they can help support you in thosetimes when you need them.60You have to have some kind of discipline and devote time when these things are beingdone on a regular basis. I think that we need something each and everyday and thelarger ceremonies that are in line with the other movements of time that are around us oftime like the movement of the moon and sun. In those times we have to have things thatwe practice, things we actually do, because to have the teachings you need to practicethem, there is a responsibility to them. It is still good to have the teachings but to reallyget the most out of them you have to be using them, practising and living them.N’kixw’stn contributes by stating that leaders demonstrate respectful community responsibilities:A good leader is someone who is willing to lead the people anywhere is feasible tohelping the people. And be willing to go the route themselves. Their beliefs have to bethe same as the mission statement so that when they lead they also believe in the sameas the rest of the people in. Like walk your talk.Practical leadership skills mentioned by the storytellers included developingunderstandings of human nature and how to motivate self and others. Training in makingpresentations, interaction with healthy role models and mentoring opportunities within anIndigenous wholistic framework were also talked about. Norma Rose Point states:After getting to know the people in the FNHL community, I felt more comfortable gettingto know the students and becoming a student myself made a difference. I am really gladI did go back to school. At first, I really didn’t think that I had anything important to sayuntil the Indigenous Graduate Symposium in 2005 a student came to me with tears inher eyes and said that was just great. I never ever knew I had that effect on people. Itwas like when I was in social work we would talk and say things to people you know isright. They are looking for help and you help them. It is like when people say oh it gaveme goose pimples. Like when the warrior dancers from Musqueam this one time I heardthem and it gave me this feeling over my whole self. They gave it a Musqueam word forit and they say there is no translation for that feeling or affect. There is that feeling thatyou can’t put into words, the unspoken word.This is how I do the opening or the farewell. Just say things that will help and give themguidance. People do need guidance to open their hearts and do the right thing forthemselves and the people. It is important to have an understanding of your history.What it means. How it developed. Interpreting what is being taught and to take what isnecessary to carry on with life. You do not do things to yourself or to others that wouldbe harmful. Always being safe and providing a safe atmosphere.I think if leadership had an understanding of human nature as a part of buildingleadership. I think that is part of being taught for leadership is acting the partappropriately and presenting yourself in that part, the way that you carry yourself isimportant. How to act in public, your mannerisms, it doesn’t come natural, it is taughtthrough role modelling and parenting.Chief Walter Harris and his son Rodney from the Gitskan house also spoke to this themethrough their carving of a wolf holding a wolf cub, presented on a post of his matrilineal clan.61The wolf represents the firm foundation of culture based on millennia of expertise. The teachingechoes the many prophesies that we have responsibilities to all the relationships in creation.Responsible interactions with others and the land must include and benefit the seven futuregenerations. Three human figures stand on the wolf head representing the people who come tothe university. They remind me of the importance of ally coalitions for change and equity in oureducation and society building. Two figures are listening and one is speaking, teaching us tolisten twice as much as we speak and with both ears as well as with the heart. This post alsohelps to illustrate the storytellers’ leadership stories that emphasized working towards providingsafe, healthy individuals and families as important leadership goals because families are thefoundation of the community. The community includes extended family and is fundamental inunderstanding its collective needs. Research that assists communities in articulating their self-determined goals will provide appropriate service, advocacy and coalition building as importantreciprocal leadership contributions. This reinforces the Elders teachings to “live the teachings” ofproviding community service.Theme five: Indigenous Wholism — RelevanceIndigenous wholism characterizes Aboriginal epistemologies and pedagogicalapproaches. These ideologies and approaches are relevant to understanding that all aspects ofthe situation are considered, such as the mind, body, spirit and heart and are inter-related inAboriginal ways of knowing and leading. Oleman elaborates:Qwe’el’Chen, what brings everything together like that between a man and a woman andis important for identity and that had a huge influence on my spiritual development, Ibelieve. And I started to think about what holds me together and when I started to thinkin those terms... It is not male or female but it is there, it is a force. And when you make aconnection to that force then you are going to be okay.. .That is where the power of lovecomes from and the respect. When you connect with it, you are okay and when you aredisconnected from it that is where you fall in love with power because we think that weare it. We have this belief that we have power with others and with nature.In order to work towards change, I had to look at myself and heal myself. So somecultural events that helped me were the initiation ceremony to the smoke house hereand my first vision quest had profound effects on me. I had to face myself, mythinking.. .1 had to become responsible for my thinking and my choices. I owned my life.I took ownership of my life.62That realization came to me on deeper levels of my awareness. I wanted to heal myselfso I asked a person who knew how to take people out to fast on the mountain so he tookme there and I was glad they took my clothes away because I may have left the fastingarea as soon as I had to confront my thinking because I was by myself with my mind. Ihad to start taking responsibility for my thoughts and their effects on my being so I had toconfront myself, my thinking. The people came to get me and I was changed. I reallyunderstood at a deeper level what they mean about balancing the mind, body, spirit, itbecame more than a cultural symbol at that point.Cultural symbols are important because they assist in positive identity formation andprovide protection from racism because I am ready to defend my culture because I havesome awareness and experiences that tell me that my culture is positive. Culture andsymbols can help others to understand racism in Canadian history.Positive culture in the curriculum and the learning environment will help students besuccessful. Stories about the trickster, transformer and coyote are some of the otherteaching stories that teach about making mistakes. I remember the story about the oldbasket lady who would collect the children after dark. She taught us to be careful whenthe night was out because she would fatten you up with food and then eat you. Storiesare important because they teach leadership through the characters in the stories. Theyhelp give meaning and are instructional such as the trickster character teaches us whatnot to do. It took me a long time to really understand a lot of the teachings. I hear themover and over again each time I understand a little more...I learned how to discipline myself, and I began to develop my own standards from within.Another thing I did as training was to look after a stick for a week. I had to take care of itand take it wherever I went, if I forgot it somewhere I had to go back and get it. I wantedto heal. I followed the direction of my teacher, those who know how to do ceremonies.The stick was the symbol for life and I learned how to take care of it. It was a way todevelop or train my self-discipline. I share my knowledge gained with others and focuson training that supports healthy families and healthy environments.Leadership and life are considered gifts and culture provides a wholistic framework forthe expression of the gifts. Spirituality expressed in ceremonies provides roles for serving thecommunity responsibly. Developing a spiritual centre, through cultural practices, providesassurance and knowledge of who you are, what your intentions are and which direction you areheading. Developing spiritual connection also helps you move towards a more meaningfulcommunal existence. Sahnbadis contributes:It is important to localize who we are talking about when we begin to talk aboutIndigenous culture specific to North America. We have an awfully difficult job becauselike out here at the university, if ever there was a unique, it long ago became intertwinedwith neighbouring cultures. People have assimilated aspects with good heart and mind.Some find value in something that doesn’t come from their own Indigenous backgroundand if we subject all Indigenous persons by birth and geography as thinking alike thenthat’s a mistake. It wreaks hardship on the people who have tried to become what they63are not. It closes the door to change, which anything culture, anything in order to stayalive it changes...There was a native Blackfoot woman whose background is the same as mine one nativeand one non-native parent, and we had the same complexion problem too. We thoughtabout that and what we developed and she ended up using in her own her ownassociation was a way of accessing for an individual a degree of, for want of a betterterm, assimilation.By looking into different aspects of a person’s existence anywhere, we have a spiritualexistence, we have a vocational existence, we have an educational existence and we sowe use some criteria like that and... it is a good tool. It turned out to be a valuablediagnostic tool which was very valuable in treatment programming because a lot ofpeople don’t realize where they are in that assimilation spectrum, how much of the newculture have they adopted and how much the old culture do they retain and usually thereis a difficulty that people don’t recognize. They don’t really know how come they feelthat way.And it’s because they are making a cultural great leap they are going from one culture toanother that is always hazardous for any people. Whether it be from immigrant ethnicpeople from Europe or other places. Just differing from their origins or Native people forsome, many, many complicated reasons now are adding things from another culture. Soonce you establish that identity diagnostic tool, a way of assessing where you stand,then ask the person, are you comfortable with where you are or is there something youneed to add or change and go from there. That’s why I call it a diagnostic tool becauseyou begin a treatment plan to help people get to where they want to be. And it could beused to decide, what is Indigenous about this tool? Again deciding what’s in the newand what is in the old is involved...I was listening to a talk about the treaty when the Dutch came up the Hudson River tothe Haudenosaunee. They used the wampum belt to show the two streams, one withthe ship in it, the other in a canoe, and Philip Deere said that it made the differences; aperson can’t be in both canoes. And it hit me: I can’t help be but in both canoes. I amborn that way. As painful as it has been to deal with that over time I come to see thatthat’s a gift.I think that’s true of a whole lot of other people who haven’t recognized that inthemselves.. .In order for a person to become a leader, going through that gainingrespect for themselves . . .and what they are what they have to offer and I think that’swhere spirituality comes in. Because I think spirituality supplies that our way of looking atthings transcends boundaries of physical being and we start talking about things thatdon’t have a physical being... Gitchie Manitou is not a physical person, but is very real tous, for example, in our prayers we establish Mishomis spiritual grandparents becausethat’s an immediate we know about them, that they love us and care about us. Byextension of this spiritual relationship, we are then related to all of creation. This is a giftand a responsibility.White Cloud further elaborates on the importance of incorporating our personal and collectivevisions to help guide leadership qualities:You know to find that spirit within and the journey and the path you are here for. ActuallyI like using that and sharing that with people who are searching. I also share that eachin our own tribal backgrounds, it doesn’t matter what tribe you come from whether its64from northern BC, the Prairies or the West Coast or Africa or Mexico or Europe, that weall come from a tribe and all tribes on mother earth we all have our spiritual base. So Iencourage people to seek out that spiritual base within themselves within their tribalgroup because that comes from the very DNA of our being.I believe that is what I was answering to when I went in to that sweat lodge, when Ifinally found this is where I belong this is what I was searching for. I believe that I wasled there in my dreams and everything that I was doing at the time for my own wellbeing. That was a cry coming from the very depths of my being and that is what led meon my journey. I had to go deep into pain before I came out of it and brushed the painoff and then started searching for that spirit within me and that spirit from my people, myown Ancestors. It comes from the DNA of our people and so I believe everybody onMother Earth has that and so if they really searched for that and honour that and workedat finding that place, we would be far happier people...This young man came from northern Vancouver Island and he would phone me and findout when I was doing a ceremony whether it was [at] a sweat or a pipe ceremony. Sofinally I asked him because I was curious as to why he was coming because it was quitea ways you know, it would take hours to come to ceremonies. He said my Elders in ourvillage remember when we used to have sweats and pipes and they sent me out to learnabout it and I selected you and this other man who was my friend to learn from so that iswhy I am tagging you. Every time I hear about you, you know I am here learning. I needto learn these things. It is because I want to take them back to our people and they areCoast Salish people.So I think I was given all that information like that vision way back when for a purpose,because you fast forward quite a few years and here I am on the island and thesearchaeological digs are coming up and this information is coming to me and it is allconnected. I believe there is always a connection to our visions and especially that onewhen I was given that vision of ancient sweat lodges all over Turtle Island and thearchaeological digs are proving that.White Cloud addresses the concerns about the appropriation and exploitation of 1K and culturalexpressions:When I see that, I think that is so sad and I really don’t know to handle it, because whenI see a person of another race coming in and learning and all of a sudden, they areadvertising. I know this one guy, here in Vancouver he advertises that he does sacredceremonies and pipe ceremonies and sweat lodges in the paper. I don’t know where helearned that but it saddens me and he charges for that. It is exploitation. I call this acultural and spiritual exploitation. He is not connected to [the] Aboriginal community atall. I think he caters to the new age groupie people and then you can even look at theweb. I was doing some researching there and I came across this piece of informationand I thought, oh this sounds good and then I read the bio of the guy and he wasn’t evenAboriginal. They always claim that they have this Aboriginal spiritual teacher that gavethem permission to do this. I always question it...I used to do ceremonies with non-Native people and what I would share with them is thatif you want to be a strong spiritual person you owe it to yourself to go back to your tribalarea and your tribal people, your ancient teaching where ever you are from. Your mostpowerful way of being in this world is to take up your own tribal background and yourown spirituality because that sense of tribal being is in your DNA.65I used to get a lot of non Native people really angry with me. This one woman who said Iwant to do what you are doing and I said no, don’t. Go follow your own. Don’t take upwhat I am doing. This is my way, Aboriginal anyway, how could you claim it. The stuffthat I am doing comes from the very part of who I am. My sense of who I am as anAboriginal person, my grandfathers and grandmother my Ancestors from timeimmemorial. They give me these visions and this is what I come with. I would tell them,I urge you to follow your own spiritual journey.White Cloud elaborates on how ceremony can assist those who are seeking to learn more abouttheir Indigenous cultural expressions;Culture is very powerful and Indigenous culture is something that has come back to ourpeople again and has given us a very strong base of strength to build from, and we havemany people coming to various ceremonies and circles seeking to find out who they areas Indigenous people. They are seeking out their culture and that culture can also defineIndigenous people because we have a particular way of being in the world as Indigenouspeople. We have a different worldview than all the other cultures, some similarities, butour view of culture I think is very unique.I see that it has to start with the family systems and encouraging in supporting thefamilies and children to actively seek out their culture and their traditions and theirspirituality and use that as a source to develop self esteem and confidence and selfdiscipline in who they are. Taking back who they are and all the goodness that comeswith our culture and traditions. Incorporating those teachings in to our schools andcommunities, the culture has to be revived and lived.You know the Anishnabe prophesies where the Elders are sleeping and so the Eldersand the spiritual people have to go back to our traditions and culture and our spiritualityto reclaim that and walk with that and use it as a source of strength. That is a big job.You can not make a person you can lead them gently along and hope that they will takethat up and work with it. You know in my everyday work I see a lot of families wantingthat, they are craving it. They are searching for their identity and some of them still haveto work some of their anger and their shame that was handed down generation aftergeneration. But at least they are reaching out and I even see some of the Elders doingthat. They are acknowledging that I don’t have the cultural and spiritual knowledge asyou have. And these are Elders that are older than I. I encourage them to learn, wehave to start someplace. When I shared my teachings and practices with communitiesthey started to remember their own ceremonies just by listening and participating.These teachings on wholism complement another important feature of Sty-Wet-Tan: thecarved relief doors by Bradley Hunt from the Haisla Nation, which represent the life cycle of thesalmon. This reminds me of the responsible stewardship roles we must employ to maintain theinterconnections of the earth, air, water, fire and non-human forms such as plants and animalsfor the benefit of present and future generations. This knowledge is inherent in the stories ofintergenerational knowledge and must be treated with respect and honour according to theprotocols for protecting 1K from exploitation and consumerist practices that cause harm. Bradley66Hunt’s carved doors remind us of our responsibility to our relatives in creation. Indigenouswholism is relevant pedagogy and is represented in the door carvings. The relevance ofIndigenous wholism is emphasized in the literature reviewed and in the Elders’ stories. Thethemes are described by the storytellers here as inter-related or wholistic concepts and arereflective of 1K epistemes.Theme six: RespectRespecting self, others and the environment were concepts common to the storytellers’reflections on leadership development. Living healthy lifestyles and interacting with culturalknowledge and principles can provide a foundation for sovereign, safe and sober living.Developing a cultural identity tool to assist people to move towards their leadership gifts and torespect their cultural integrity was recommended. Sahnbadis shares:We have respect for all living things. Now if we are to make anything of that as anecessary principle for leadership, then we go ahead and say now what do we do thatwould give a person the ability to respect others? First of all they have to respectthemselves. So self-awareness is important, and now we are back to the diagnostic toolas a starting point. Self-awareness [could be enhanced through the identification anddevelopment of relevant cultural values to enhance leadership competency training].It is that I think leadership is a gift and the people who have it, have a gift. That’s nothelpful to say because you’re trying to develop leadership, you need to go beyond itsomehow and those who aren’t particularly gifted at least give them some tools so theymay be able to function as leaders. And I do have something to say aboutthat.. .leadership goes beyond the ordinary.When I hear stories about respect, I consider the roof beams carved by Don Yeomensfrom the Haida Nation that represent the sea lion and killer whale. They look identical at firstglance, representing the importance of discernment and reciprocal mutually beneficial service,especially in our research relationships with Indigenous communities. These values appear tobe universal goals, yet the methods required for achieving them will have different culturalexpressions. The roof beams reminds us to be respectful of difference in our engagements, tocontinue to cultivate our own core cultural knowledge and to go beyond the ordinary.67Theme seven: ResponsibilityResponsibility to ensure that land resources are kept healthy by sustainable,environmentally-friendly practices was a concern for the storytellers. They suggested that therevitalization of traditional ecological knowledge and creative processes could inform resourcemanagement of benefit to all peoples. This was absolutely crucial. Grant explains:My generation was one of the last to have to move by the seasons... It is like the firststory, because those creatures allowed you to harvest them; they are the creatures thatgive up their life so that your life can carry on and that is the thing about respecting theresource . . .that has been given up just for you.In a male-dominated society it is easy to forget the responsibilities held by women.Several storytellers talked about how influential female leaders are in their lives and that genderbalance was seen as absolutely critical to their development as leaders. One of the storytellersillustrates this by talking about the design of the traditional West Coast big house structure. Thehouse posts that hold up the roof are alternately female and male. The genders are equallyrepresented and required for a strong framework to house the place where responsiblecommunity work is done.Theme eight: RelationshipsThe storytellers identified relationships as a common value. They believe that therestoration of positive healthy relationships can be demonstrated through cultural processes sothat the potential of all people, families and communities is enhanced. They mentioned thatleadership responsibilities include teaching others about cultural identity, protocols andpractices. They agreed that it was important to step forward, to take risks, to demonstratecommunity involvement, develop family support systems and provide advocacy. Bear explains:I think I described how I see as language as culture. What I don’t see these days and Ithink the sense of loss that young people are facing is that there is not as strong senseof cultural awareness because if they didn’t grow up with in their home with their momsor dads and grandparents. Then they can still get misdirected when they start coming ofage and wanting to be part of the community. I feel if they have a solid foundation andyou have given them everything that is possible, they do come around and they have astronger sense of their community.So I think culture in that way plays a large part in the way it is practised in earlychildhood. And we are fortunate to have several people here and there throughout our68country anyway that continue to practise and to look to those who are strong in how theystill use their medicines and how they still use the herbal sciences, in how they respectboth male and female and just generally how they respect themselves as well.I recommend to continue teach about traditional herb and healing practices for culturalprogramming and working with Elders more intimately including outside the institutionalwork. Also art processes such as programs I developed such as the Drawing from Withinwhich utilized a variety of mediums such as art, writing, painting, sculpture, performanceand gardening traditional herbs like tobacco, sweetgrass, st johns wort and promotecommunity protocols for working with local medicines such as cedar and basket making.Many of the students who were involved with those programs have gone on toleadership roles in their communities.N’kixw’stn recommends the following for the FNHL community:Don’t stop having sweat ceremonies don’t stop having warrior [wellness] circles. Youknow don’t stop doing those traditional things because a lot of times an institute wouldgo really strong into the traditional cultural aspects of the Aboriginal people and as timeprogresses then they start to decline and change and go right straight into the Westernculture. And they don’t do those ceremonies anymore so I think it’s really important thatthe FNHL Longhouse never ceases to do those cultural ceremonies. Because it’simportant. I would say culture is really important because the university stands onMusqueam territory. The Musqueam have never said UBC okay this is yours now youcan have it. They haven’t done that. That is still Musqueam territory regardless of howmany years go by or how society has changed. That is a fact. Musqueam territoryshould always be honoured.Relationships are illustrated by the eastern ceremonial doors in Sty-Wet-Tan hall thathave an eagle embossed on the wood doors. It is carved by Lyle Wilson and for me the eaglerepresents the visions for a better future. The aspirations and accomplishments of the FNHLstudent community members are acknowledged by having the door open for the graduates towalk through having been a part of the UBC and the FNHL extended family community. Theyare welcomed back into their respective communities having achieved yet another leadershipstep in their journey. Whether students are together in the hall or apart in their own lives, theyare related to one another, their past, and their future.Theme nine: ReciprocityReciprocity and balance were important values that the storytellers discussed. Theythought it was essential to give back to community and families so that a collective capacity forsharing could evolve. Both leaders and researchers must examine intentions and values thatbenefit the community visions and ideals. Good leaders encourage leadership opportunities for69others in ways that demonstrate positive, balanced respect for self, families and theenvironment. Point relates to this idea of “giving back” by stating:My Uncle Dave who looked after me from the time I was 8 years old. However, I did callhim daddy. He didn’t read or write but was a very good orator, he could sign his name.He was a member of council for a long time and he was very good at starting things,planning things. He was a hard worker. He always looked after his mother. I canremember him going in the blizzard to make sure she was okay. She lived about twoand half miles away. He made sure her wood stove was burning and had a lot of wood.This is what I believe that no matter how old you are you keep going. His mother wasabout ninety something and she would walk and walk. She would walk to town and shewould make sure that when she past by our house it would be lunch time.It was like we as First Nations people always cooked enough for another person in casesomebody came in. That is the way it happened all the time in our home in casesomebody came. People would always feel welcome. We always had enough foranother person and if nobody came it was for the spirit.So generosity at work, and it is part of the way we were taught, to be generous. Youalways helped somebody who needs help. If you do something for people you do itgenerously not to be fake or mean. I was brought up to believe that we have to do agood deed everyday. If we don’t we are going backwards. So this generosity is part oflife. Knowing when to say no and when not to say no, not because of that mean streakbut because there are other priorities like family. But you give back and you do it out ofgenerosity because you want to.I thought of leadership as having purpose in life and being able to make decisions. Youhave a plan of action and then you follow those plans.. .[Like providing] Safety foroneself and the environment around you, that your peers, the animals, what ever wasput on earth you have to take of and I know that as part of the leadership training. Thatwe stay with it and make sure that we stay with it until it’s finishedThis final theme is illustrated by the wood circle floor located in the middle of Sty-Wet-Tan hail that reminds us of the importance of reciprocity and including the gifts of all of creationto help us to become the best human beings possible, and to enhance that ability in others.Through this kind of development, true healthy leadership is possible (George, 1994).SummaryThis chapter outlined the storytellers’ responses to the questions about how cultureinforms Indigenous leadership. The responses express the inter-related and intersectingleadership visions that involve the wholistic well-being of the individual, the family, thecommunities, the land and the cultural expressions of these value orientations as critical70features in Indigenous leadership. The Elders stories suggested nine themes that touched onthe importance of Aboriginal historical perspectives, positive cultural 1K, decolonizing and self-determined education, community service, wholistic pedagogy, respect, responsibility,relationships and reciprocity. To address these issues, a physical space reflecting Indigenouswholistic knowledge was considered crucial to the development of Indigenous pedagogy. At theuniversity, inclusive and flexible discourses supporting Aboriginal cultural content are alsorequired for effective Indigenous leadership development if we are to transform communities.Strong Indigenous leadership will happen by empowering people to reclaim cultural valuesthrough the investigation of local living genealogies, oral histories and reflexive praxis, within anenvironment that supports self-determined changes. It was clear in the Elder’s stories thatleadership is a gift and a responsibility: we must step forward and demonstrate communityresponsibilities.To help me understand my Elders’ teachings more fully, I have used the LonghouseTeachings of respect, reverence, responsibility and relationship as they are embodied in thehouse posts and other features of Sty-Wet-Tan. Doing so, I have found in the storytellers’ oralhistories their thoughts about the role of culture in Indigenous leadership. The Sty-Wet-Tancarvings complement and reinforce the teachings of the Elders, providing students with a rich,supportive environment in which to become strong leaders.The main themes and knowledge gleaned from my interviews with the Elders include thefact that culture supports individuals, families and communities; the importance of knowing thehistory of the land and educating others; the significance of reclaiming culture and living theteachings; and the lesson that leadership is a gift and a responsibility: we must step forward anddemonstrate community responsibilities.71CHAPTER FIVEDISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONSA TRANSFORMATiVE FRAMEWORK FOR INDIGENOUS LEADERSHIP:PROVIDE RELEVANT CULTURAL CONTENT AND EXPERIENTIALWHOLISTIC PEDAGOGYIn this chapter I will discuss relevant cultural content and experiential pedagogy as atransformative framework for Indigenous leadership. I will also restate the problem, summarizethe findings and outline implications for the LLP and for further research. Aboriginal peoples areunder-represented in positive leadership roles in society and post secondary institutions inparticular. To address this imbalance, the literature states that Aboriginal students requirerelevant cultural content and pedagogy within a transformative framework. This studyaddresses these recommendations by examining how culture informs Indigenous leadership byconducting interviews with nine Aboriginal Elders and cultural educators who work at the UBCFNHL. Their oral histories, counter-stories and narratives provide examples of how cultureinforms Indigenous leadership. Their stories also provide suggestions for the ongoingdevelopment of the cultural aspects of the Longhouse Leadership Program. Their oral lifehistories provide practical suggestions for relevant cultural content and experiential pedagogythat could develop opportunities for transformative leadership praxis.Relevant Cultural Content-The first theme expressed by the Elders -- know the history of the land and educateothers -- emphasizes relevant cultural content for Indigenous leadership. Place, life stories,identity, and cultural ceremonies are important for leaders to consider because they providehistorical and cultural knowledge about their physical location. In the case of the Longhouse,the physical structure of the building itself provides important cultural knowledge. The LLP issuccessfully providing much of this relevant cultural content, but could provide additional72opportunities to practice leadership in other contexts and according to a student’s particularskills and talents.PlaceThe Longhouse building provides an example of how physical space enhances thedevelopment of local, relevant and living Indigenous pedagogy. The Sty-Wet-Tan house postsand other features create a living curriculum that illustrate 1K pedagogy that emphasizes place-based knowledge, stories and experiences as central features for a transformative leadershippedagogy. Just as the storytellers emphasized the importance of cultural education (such asknowing the cultural protocols which locate local life stories, experiences and places aspedagogy), the FNHL provides space for relevant cultural pedagogy through culturalceremonies and activities that are informed by such protocols as involving Elders and localcommunities. The physical location of the Longhouse and the performance of culturalceremonies inform potential leaders about the importance of knowing your history andeducating others.We can not overlook the people who are a component of place because culture existswherever you are. This is important because both the Elders and the literature recommendculture and identity as important Indigenous leadership components. Leadership skills areenriched through the intergenerational leading and learning that occurs through contact withElders. Their presence in the FNHL community is important because they model importantexperiential learning that is not captured through text -based learning. Their life stories providerelevant cultural content and pedagogy based on their experiences and cultural knowledgewhich enhance the identity of aspiring leaders.73Life storiesI appreciated the intergenerational leadership learnings the Elders shared through theirexperiences because they successfully lived through generations of racism and their stories area tribute to their resistance to assimilation, demonstrating the resilience of cultural values. Often,Elders’ knowledge is not valued but trivialized as myth or exploited outside their communitiesand in some cases within their own communities. Elders are rarely paid for their knowledge.Supporting Elders in their community interests as well as within institutions was identified as animportant gesture of reciprocity that enhanced relationship building and leadership developmentin the LLP. Developing the concept of a council of Elders or Ogimauhwak leaders may be anoption to for the LLP to explore. Having Elders share their life stories not only teaches importantlessons about their experiences, but allows students to explore their own life stories.IdentityThe development of an Indigenous cultural identity tool was recommended to helppeople look at themselves and set goals that will enhance their Indigenous identity andleadership. In response to this recommendation, I have organized a chart that outlines coreIndigenous cultural elements that enhance identity, leadership competency and incorporates thethemes in this study. Saeed’s (2003) Indigenous pattern of education is included as anotherresource that could enhance Indigenous identity, leadership and cultural competency. Thesewill be available to students in the LLP (See appendix E and F). Sahnbadis was particularlyinfluential in suggesting core elements or components for an Indigenous leadership model:Spirituality is fundamental, for all people. How they get to recognize that could be likeme, by accident, or it could be education or by design but it is essential. We recognizethat those are our primary relationships. For example, first I acknowledge myself, andthen I acknowledge you and then I acknowledge the spiritual, it’s that simple. You haveto be in relationship with these things and develop it in other relationships.AY: So that really helped you in your leadership development?Absolutely. Now that didn’t change what I had already done. I had already been doingthis kind of leadership stuff but I was always like most people who have experienced thiskind of malady. We seem to have two lives going on at the same time, we live in twoworlds. You have that other secret thing that’s always going on, where you are74worthless, and then you are showing to other people how worthy you are. I use theillustration in counselling, you know what gumbies are? They started out as a littlejujube, it’s just a crude form of a person. I draw a triple gumby, three sizes of gumbies.The one on the outside is how we survive- we show that to other people. The one insideis what we really think we are. That’s hidden and it’s tiny and scared. In between thosetwo is where the real healthy person is. Most healthy people are between they don’thave this exaggerated sense of self. Nor do they have this other fearful kind of self. Itsright in between and that’s not to say that they are so wonderful and they always walk agood road. We fluctuate back and forth but never loose sight what’s the line betweenthat’s where we really are.Four elements that we are, one of them is that we are beautiful. We have a sense of ourblessings, belonging, balance and harmony. I find them useful and maybe could bebasic elements for leadership training is recognition of these four or five things to drawon. But basically find out what you think you need to do as a person to get the most oflife, your vocation you choose and whole bunch of complicated things and you put thoseelements in a training program how you train a person using those elements. If youhave this as a goal chances are you find the means to that goal and have Indigenouspeople look within their culture to find what it is they need always recognizing there isgoing to be some people who are going to be saying no do it this way, support that too.I don’t know how it could be done but I think it would be important for the peoplethemselves to be exposed to the necessity of understanding where they stand in termsof their expectations of themselves, like where is this really going? When a person goesto university, they may say well to get a good job but that’s not it all. As a vocationalrehabilitation counsellor, I very often was dealing with people who came fromreservations in North and South Dakota, Montana and in Portland Oregon and theirintention was to make it in Portland Oregon, to be in the mainstream.People make their decisions and their decisions were not my responsibility, except toexpose them to choices. To question choices, why do you think that would be good, orwhy was that better then this other option that is open to you? And to stand by theprinciple, that first you don’t have the right to tell anybody what to do. It’s a convictionthat a person does what he wants to do. What he likes would do better than somethingthat’s more lucrative because in time this is going to provide rewards that are more thanjust the tangible things. They will be a better person, their life will be smoother, their kidswill grow up smarter.The handout chart entitled “Elders’ Teachings on Indigenous leadership” provides a visual guidethat outlines elements of Indigeneity. This guide provides a map for those involved inleadership, Indigenous identity enhancement and wish to further develop their own culturalcompetencies.Cultural ceremoniesThe Elders recommended continuing cultural ceremonial practices and supportingstudents’ cultural interests and gifts. Supporting the cultural diversity and leadership needs of75Indigenous students by including ceremonies from different traditions is important. The Eldersspoke of a fundamental commonality that lies beneath the details of particular traditions, sostudents can engage in particular ceremonies as they create a shared culture through their dailyinteraction. Indigenous students need to know that they and their traditions make significantcontributions to the leadership education of all peoples.Diverse opportunities for leadershipBecause students have diverse community and cultural interests and access, the LLPshould continue to adopt a wholistic, flexible and supportive approach to leadershipdevelopment. For example, students should be able to use their elective workshops foractivities held outside the LLP, according to their particular leadership interests. This mightmean expanding the time for workshops beyond two hours if that is necessary to explore placesor life stories. If the goal is transformative leadership praxis, then the LLP should supportindividuals in finding their gifts for leadership in whatever way works best for them.Wholistic experiential learningRelevant cultural content is greatly enhanced when people are engaged with their mind,body, heart, and spirit. That is, they experience the content rather than simply think about it.The Elders suggested several concrete ways to enhance experiential learning: students couldbuild a canoe and take field trips with cultural facilitators and leaders from local canoe societies;students might use a cultural competency or self-assessment tool to enhance their positivecultural identity and set goals; they might incorporate local and Aboriginal languages in theirprogram, either through taking language courses, integrating their language into the LLP orvolunteering with the First Nations language courses at UBC; and finally, they might learn moreabout traditional environmental ecology and their own genealogy or culturalexpressions/traditions.76Other recommendations for the LLP are to provide intergenerational leadership fortraining youth, include activities for mentoring with Elders and focus on constructing safe, racismfree environments. Wholistic leadership education opportunities include the use of art andcreativity, synergy, experiential and community land-based approaches are recommendationsfor the LLP. These recommendations are outlined in appendix E. The LLP could network theFNHL Elders programming in ways similar to the UBC Humanities 101 initiative and theAboriginal Youth Leadership initiative that offered mentoring with UBC students and are held inthe Musqueam community.Other meaningful cultural activities that require longer time frames but provide excellentexperiential learning should be incorporated. Examples include working with the land and copartnering with existing programs such as Museum of Anthropology’s Musqueam Weavers. Inthis program, traditional weavers demonstrate to school students the processes of working withthe land over the seasons. The Museum also offered a curatorial research opportunity tograduate students to work with the Musqueam community in presenting a contemporary exhibit.In this initiative, students helped with the Musqueam family exhibit To Wash Away the Tears, acontemporary memorial to Maggie Pointe.Other partnering projects could include First Nations Studies Program initiatives thatwork with communities and the Inter-Health and Human Services courses such as the one inethno-botany. Projects such as these, adapted to students’ own creativity, course work andinterests become part of their personal reflections on leadership.One of the strongest experiences shared by students in the LLP is that of racism. Thispainful experience can provide a learning opportunity to develop strong leadership bydeveloping an antiracism educational framework. This approach is advocated in the literature(see Eber Hampton and Verna St. Denis (2002), Literature Review on Racism and the Effectson Aboriginal Education), and by the Elders through their oral histories. The denial of racismand its effects is a problem that represses Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students, regardless oftheir academic success or social competencies, because it denies Aboriginal experiences and77basic human rights (p. 39-40). No one can reach their fullest human potential in an environmentof racism. Students must be provided with the educational tools to deconstruct racist ideologyand habits, practice critical thinking and actively promote strategies for change. Aboriginaleducation calls for antiracist education and culturally relevant pedagogy that will transformleadership education.Transformative LeadershipThe life stories of the Elders whom I interviewed contribute to the ongoing history of theFNHL and the development of the LLP. Their oral histories provide culturally relevant pedagogythat can be used to develop core and seminar workshops for the LLP. Core implicit knowledgecan be developed by promoting life stories, experiences and places as pedagogy forintergenerational learning and leading. The leadership challenges outlined in this study are toknow our histories, provide decolonizing education to unpack the tools of colonization, andadvocate for the self-determination of community development based on positive 1K culturalvalues. The storytellers’ oral histories provide examples of the applications of Indigenouswholism theory to leadership. As the Elder storytellers in this study suggest, the promotion of lifeexperiences, stories and places as pedagogy is required to meet the leadership challenges.The promotion of life stories and experiences and places as relevant cultural pedagogy is infact, transformative leadership praxis.78CHAPTER SIXBENEFITS AND UMITS OF THE STUDYThis study was intended to assist post-secondary Aboriginal students with theirleadership development at UBC by providing Indigenous perspectives on how culture informsthe Longhouse Leadership Program. It also contributes to the research literature in Indigenousleadership developmentAs a direct aid to Indigenous leadership education, the study helps to identify importantcultural features to be included in the LLP. The objective of the LLP is to introduce educationalleadership perspectives within a cultural Indigenous Knowledge framework. The Eldersinterviewed pointed to the importance of respectful relationships with the land, language,cultural ceremonies and wholistic praxis, consistent with 1K literature. This study confirms thatby providing education on the protocols of cultural activities, language use and wholisticprocesses, the LLP addresses the need for appropriate wholistic cultural programs that reflectIndigenous shared values, synergy and experiential learning. Teaching these protocols andcultural values, even within a limited time, enhances the students’ experiences as they begin todevelop their own leadership potential. Although the LLP facilitates the diversity of studentneeds by encouraging different interests and by being flexible, it must continue to monitor how itcan best accommodate busy students in a non-credit program.As a contribution to the literature, this study provides critical cultural understandings ofleadership from Aboriginal perspectives through the use of oral histories. This researchdemonstrates responsible, respectful, relevant research by and for Indigenous researchers andcontributes to the understanding of the dimensions of social, cultural and spiritual aspects ofIndigenous wholism and Indigenous leadership praxis at the local level. In these small ways,the storytellers and I have worked towards the transformation of Indigenous leadershipeducation by bringing together their wisdom and the university wisdom.79The study is strengthened by my role as an employee at the FNHL and an activeparticipant in traditional Indigenous culture. As an “insider,” I am sensitive to cultural subtletieswhen interpreting the stories and cultural symbols, although as an Anishnabe it is possible that Iinterpret features differently from a Musqueam. The study is small, however, and restricted to aparticular place so any generalizations outside the LLP and the FNHL are tentative at best.However, it may be no coincidence that the themes of my Elders’ stories are similar to thoseidentified in the literature. I limited my study to nine Elders, and although I spent much time withthem, I did not include in this study observation of their work elsewhere. There were no formalco-researchers with whom to corroborate or discuss my findings and interpretations.Finally, the systemic changes required in societal attitudes, beliefs and actions demandbroader educational approaches based on values that focus on transformation, anti racism andaction strategies as priorities. The reflexive process combined with decolonizing agendas aretime consuming and not always amenable to short term research agendas, although shortstudies are still worthwhile strategies for community capacity building that benefit the futuregenerations.A limitation to many academic studies is that once completed they sit on a shelf,accessible only to those in the university and not to others. To disseminate the findings fromthis study more widely, one could videotape the Elders’ stories or develop curriculum materialson a CD to enhance intergenerational learning. I have developed a cultural competency andidentity guide or handout that may be helpful for those in communities who are consideringleadership development. The handout is a way for me to help others begin Indigenousleadership discussions.80SummaryThis project has outlined the research site which is the First Nations Longhouse; thepurpose and rationale of the study; the research design and question; methodology and theoriesused for this study. This was followed by the results of the study and recommendations.A summary of the findings in this study include that culture assists with positive identityformation and belonging and develops the ability to positively cope with change and developrelevant pedagogy that reflects local self determined agendas. This includes language usedetermined by the local communities. Provisions for an Aboriginal physical space and culturalpedagogies provide the foundations and mechanisms for relevant Aboriginal leadership training.Culture within an anti-racism education framework can address the need for a decolonizingapproach to education by providing knowledge about where we come from, where we are nowand where we want to go individually, within families and collectively. Decolonizing educationcan provide us with critical thinking skills to examine the impacts of colonialism, reclaim ourcultural identities, language preferences and create coalitions for change. Cultural expressionspromote positive, inclusive local community values and require wholistic wellness training fordecolonizing and self-determined leadership education. This study presents the position thatIndigenous roles in history and the preservation of local communities be promoted by puttingliving Aboriginal communities and Nations in the forefront of the Indigenous leadershipeducation agenda. The Elders’ perspectives on Indigenous leadership affirmed that the culturalteachings can play a significant role in contributing to the building and rebuilding ofcommunities. The Elders’ oral histories and stories affirm that transformative Indigenousleadership is a gift.This study documents the perspectives of two generations of Elders and cultural leaderswho are familiar with the First Nations House of Learning community. The storytellers’ oralhistories and perspectives help us understand how culture informs Indigenous leadership ingeneral and assists in the further development of transformative leadership pedagogy for theLonghouse Leadership Program at UBC.81YesterdayIt isn’t possible to write about our artWithout connecting it to our ancientcustoms. The juxtaposition of contemporaryMaterials with the ancient soul brings intoFocus the truth of who we are.Many of our ancient traditions in North,South and Central America wereMatrilineal which held the power to bondFamilies.Families living together encouragedcommunities to work together. Both womenAnd men were honoured for their individualachievements.The collectivity of the honours served toachieve a balance of status and power,thereby ensuring a more orderly community.Bear (1985)RelationshipsHealing is coming into relationship with our own wholenessKnowing that our wholeness includes father sky and mother earthAnd goes beyond the farthest star nations relative in the nightWholeness is knowing that we are related to the skyThrough breathAnd the breath of lifeKnowing that we are related to the earthThrough our fleshThat is of the earthAnd the things that grow from the earthKnowing that we are related to the waterAnd that river flows in us as bloodAs the pulsating feeling of heartKnowing that we are related to the fire of Grandfather sunThrough the fire of thought that is mindKnowing that we are related to our ancestorsAnd that we represent them in this world.Knowing that we are related to the plantsThrough the power to grow that is in usAs it is in a seedKnowing that we are related to the stone peopleWho are within us as boneTo heal is to be in good relationship with all these relativesWithout judgementWith the knowledge thatWe are one Great Spirit in many bodies.Brown (2002)82ReferencesAbsolon, K., & Willet, C. 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Indian Education from the tribal perspective: A Follow-up survey ofamerican Indian tribal leaders. US; New York.Wildcat, B. (1995). Successful leaders of first nations schools in alberta. University of Alberta(Canada).Wilson, A. (2000). Power in practice: Adult education and the struggle for knowledge andpower in society (ist ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Wilson, S. (2001). What is an indigenous research methodology? Canadian Journal of NativeEducation, 25(2), 175— 179.Witi, N. (1998). Promoting self-esteem, defining culture. Canadian Journal of Native Education,22(2), 260 — 273.Wotherspoon, T., & Butler, J. (1999). Informal Learning: Cultural Experiences andEntrepreneurship among Aboriginal People. NALL Working Paper #04. Canada; Ontario.Wotherspoon, T., & Schissel, B. (1998). Marginalization, Decolonization and Voice: Prospects100for Aboriginal Education in Canada. Canada; Saskatchewan.Wright, D. (1998). Preparing First Nations Students for College: The Experience of theSquamish Nation of British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 22(1), 85—92.Yin, R. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods (3d ed.). Thousand Oaks, Calif:Sage Publications.Young, A. (2002). Longhouse student leadership program. The Longhouse News,9(1)9—10.101THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA______APPENDIX A Letter of Initial ContactJDepartment of Edocational Studies_ __ __Mailing addresThe Role of Culture in Indigenous Leadership 2125 Main Mall. Vancouver, BC. Canada V6T 1Z4Fe!’ 4-8’2-5r4Principal Investigator: Jo-ann Archibald 604-X22-4244Associate ProfessorEducational Studies, UBC604-822-5286Co-investigator Alannah YoungGraduate Student,Educational Studies, UBC604-822-0963Dear_________________I am currently conducting a body of research that may be of interest to you. I amexploring the topic on the role culture plays in Indigenous leadership and is part of athesis project for a Masters of Arts degree in Educational Studies with the Ts”KelProgram at the University of British Columbia (UBC).I am interested in discussing this topic with you because you have expertise as anIndigenous cultural educator or Elder who has worked with the First Nations House ofLearning (FNHL) at UBC. I would like to ask you about any reflection, thoughts andexperiences you have regarding the role of culture in Indigenous leadership. Yourparticipation would consist of two interviews for 1-2 hours each.The information you share will help in the development of a leadership programat FNHL. As a co-ordinator of the Longhouse Leadership Program (LLP), I am aware ofyour involvement with the cultural programs at UBC. Your expertise is valuable and Iwould like to provide an opportunity for you to discuss your ideas and suggestions on thetopic in detail.If you have any questions about this research or the interview process, pleasecontact me, Alannah Young, or my theses supervisor, Jo-ann Archibald, at the numbersnoted above. If you choose to participate in this study, please indicate by signing theconsent form and returning it to me in the enclosed, self-addressed envelope or by callingme to indicate your interest. I will follow up with you by telephone in the next twoweeks.Thank you for considering this important request for your assistance.Respectfully,Alannah Young, Opasqwayak Nation1986 West MallVancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z2102THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAAPPENDIX B Interview Consent FormThe Role of Culture in Indigenous Leadership O(parHnCnt f ld catknal hxIiesM.uhiw acdrc:2[25 Main \4HAugust 10, 2004 Vn:oue BC. [nada Vbf [IAiei 225T’-[FxO4212i4Principal Investigator: Jo-ann Archibald, ise eeacAssociate ProfessorEducational Studies, IJBCCo-investigator: Alannah Young, Graduate StudentEducational Studies, UBC604-822-0963Thank you very much for agreeing to participate in this research inquiry. Thetopic of the project is the role of culture in Indigenous leadership. This research projectis being conducted as a part of a thesis project for Alannah Young’s Masters of Artsdegree in Educational Studies with the Ts’ ‘Kel program at the University of BritishColumbia (UBC). This research project examines the role culture plays in Indigenousleadership. The study aims to provide an increased awareness of the role of culture inIndigenous leadership by interviewing Indigenous cultural educators and Elders who arefamiliar with First Nations House of Learning (FNHL). It is hoped that by collection andsharing the experiences of Elders and cultural educators who work in this environment, abody of knowledge will be made available to educators and will assist in the ongoingdevelopment of the FNHL Longhouse Leadership Program (LLP).Your participation will involve 2 interview sessions, for 1-2 hours each, over aperiod of 6 months. You will be asked to share your thoughts on the topic question:what role does culture play in Indigenous leadership? The first interview will betranscribed and you will be invited to provide comments or additional reflections ontranscribed interview during the second interview. You will be invited to give feedback,make comments and ask questions at any time during the process. If you wish to haveyour comments held in confidence, that will be respected and you may request the taperecording to stop at any time. You are not required to give feedback and you maywithdraw from participating in this process at anytime without any negativeconsequences whatsoever.If you have any questions about this research or the interview process, pleasecontact me, Alannah Young, or my thesis advisor, Jo-ann Archibald, at the numbersnoted above. If you have any concerns about your treatment or rights as a participant inthis research you may contact the Office of Research Services at IJBC, 604-822-8598.Your identity will be kept confidential unless you provide permission for your nameto be used in the final report. You do not waive any of your legal rights by signing thisconsent form and you may change your decision at anytime. I will provide you withanother consent form on which you may indicate that change. Before the thesis ispublished, I’ll ask you again for your authorization.103If an oral consent to participate in this research inquiry is more appropriate, thiswill be provided for you.Should you experience any distress as a result of participating in this project youmay also reach me at the above number and a resource list for your consultation will beprovided.After 5 years the original tape recordings of your oral history accounts that maybe produced as part of our discussions will be returned to you or destoyed bydemagnitization unless you request to have the tapes stored in a specific location withspecific access requirements.By signing below that you give consent to participate in the study “The Role ofCulture in Indigenous Leadership”.You understand that by signing this consent form you do not waive any of yourlegal rights by signing and you may change your decision to participate at any time.Signature of Participant_________________________________Date____________________ ____ _____________________ORAL CONSENT OPTIONParticipant has given oral consent to participate in the study “The Role of Culture inIndigenous Leadership”.Printed name of Participant________________________________Co investigators Signature__________________________________Date_____ __________Journal Entry__________________________________________Co Investigator:Alannah Young1985 West MallVancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z2104THE UNIVERSETY OF BRITISK COLUMBIAflepartrnent .f idncatona Stodicsircs:22S Marn -1APPENDIX C Van.ouer. 3( ‘amda Vht Z4Tel M22-4Interview Script [-ahttpiia cxThe Role of Culture in Indigenous LeadershipAugust 10, 2004Thank you once again for agreeing to participate in this research inquiry. Thetopic of the project is the role culture plays in Indigenous leadership, and is a part of athesis project for a Masters of Arts degree in Educational Studies with the Ts’ ‘Kelprogram at the University of British Columbia. This interview script is provided so thatyou may reflect on the project’s topic. You will be asked share your thoughts and storieson the question: “What role culture plays in Endigenous leadership?”Other questions you might like to reflect on include:• How would you describe Indigenous leadership?• How would you describe Indigenous culture?• How would you describe the relationship between culture and leadership?• What cultural values, principles and practices have informed (your) leadershipdevelopment?• What cultural components would you like to see with in an Indigenous leadershipprogram (FNHIJLLP)?• How can an Indigenous leadership program address cultural needs and respectcultural diversity within a post secondary context?105THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAAppendix 0 Letters: First Nations House of LearningI)partmiit f Eduatknai Studies.1ilhng dres.2125 Ma,. M:flH C :nda \ai LL4hi: (,04X22-531Fax; Cl422-424-4hip:/1wwwe11 edu ic.:aTo: Madeleine MaclvorActing DirectorFirst Nations House of Learning, UBCFrom: Alannah YoungGraduate StudentEducational Studies, UBCRE: Alannah Young — Thesis ProjectThe Role Culture Plays in Indigenous LeadershipMasters of Arts degree in Educational StudiesDecember 4, 2004Dear Madeleine MaclvorI am conducting a body of research on how culture informs Indigenousleadership. This is part of a thesis project for a Masters of Arts degree in EducationalStudies with the Ts”kel Program at the University of British Columbia (UBC).I have submitted the enclosed proposal to you, the acting director of the FirstNations House of Learning at UBC. The information gathered for this study will help inthe development of a leadership program at FNHL. As a co-ordinator of the LonghouseLeadership Program (LLP), I would like to formally acknowledge your informalparticipation in the shaping of this study.If you have any questions about this research proposal please contact me, AlannahYoung, or my theses supervisor, Jo-ann Archibald, at the numbers noted above.Alannah Young106THE UNIVERSIW OF BRITISH COLUMBIAFirst Nations House of LearningThe Looghouse, UBC1985 West MallVancouver, BC Canada V6T I Z2Tel: (604) 822-8940Fax: (604) 822-8944)Ittp//www. lUnhous,LLhcaMEMODate: December 3, 2004To: Alannah YoungGraduate StudentEducational Studies, UBCFrom: Madeleine MaclvorActing DirectorFirst Nations House of Learning, UBCRE: Alannah Young — Thesis ProjectThe Role culture Plays in Indigenous LeadershipMasters of Arts degree in Educational StudiesDear Alannah,Thank you for the opportunity to review your proposal, and I am delighted that you areinvestigation the role of culture in Aboriginal Leadership.The First Nations House of Learning is pleased to be able to contribute in some smallway to this project because of the benefits to the leadership program, and to your owndevelopment as a researcher.Respectfully,Madeleine MacivorMM:lh107Appendix E Cultural Competency and Identity GuideIndigenousLeade.rthipOur indua re ,nsthy is to becomethe best bwnn brings pOsSlbks .nd kenhance that aLy in olhe,s. Throeiqb thiakind olckvdapnen n,e healthy leader..hip is possible.•:Ie,Lsce:Indigenous Teachings aretransfurmatiunal hecaute theyprovide Ieadauhip pedagogy that:Redaiesr Thdigennus lee4.svbip threasc,iurilpedago-Psizsv.c4ti.eit Lisa,rekap to aiIrgenou.1,wlides consexaial hieeculcanicid.wri4nca. the oflie ir4—,deat. lbs..I)e.lunisea & Sdf-detemrinesdjsco.sion uJZuse suço,ts ssJs..knil,m ..sd smrn1as.sFce-,,ses en co,usw?u se,,zcestepforw%rsL d Ji.nsmta ..s.ongshJstie.Tx’exssftnmative Leadership is informed bycollective values and outcomes that movetowards equality and social changeRelevanceRelatsonshipsReciprocityResponsibility(Ben1h&1t&K11kness !991)RespectReverence(LLP, 2OOtResearch is a process of snaking relativesTsepa 2003It is important Indigenous leadership progremsbe based on lndienous cultural teachings andoffer new approaches to lndigeno3,s leadershipin the future. It is the responsibility ofIndigenouspeoples to articulate how coltumlteachings can play a significant role incontriiwtlng to the bsslWing and rabidWing oftheir communities.Loadersiap zs anindivdna1 vdcoilsctsvso raciamsovsrngsiyLIrcuh itwaIcompsts?v2w5 &panLlYr ident7yshch bsnsfitsgecaratwns.108Cultural competency and identity guide (continued)ElderWinter ,7.7 Land Interaction ‘ // Community Service“s/ // Kno., the Ids*o,y jthe had edjara\ / Lradhip ag—sApforwwd &\ ( dey,&msaystecommwuty,usmmrnsThhi4es.‘LlOC2l Peoetrch ) j Relationhmp ulthn\ Ep’tvn’ma Lpamuig j \ Coroumty Ctpacity DeveIpmnt JSiistanlp rv.lmenr cilt v1u.eoTtia.a1 Ecology Rspcctfol ResearchAdult BirthFallYouthSummer/ uitnrai Pr Indigenous Knowledge / Language & Genealogy \/ // Reckbnczdguut wthaes-Uw U ahJigs ‘ / Cukwe supposes sn4vzduaIofwnilies &Wholiotic ieamog COilITUSflhlJSc/lnoutLangUaeo )promotes bbe1a& harmony Is franformotlona1Appendix F Indigenous Pattern of Education109Core components for an Indigenous leadership pragramPromote life experiences, and places as pedagogy.SpringOTT2.uopranpJOUJaflBJsnou4puuyAppendix G First Nations House of Learning House Posts and Sty-Wet-Tan Hall-IPoint(Musqueam)McNeil WilsonBevan (Haisla)(Tahltan-TIingit,Tsimshian, Nisqa ‘a)Harris(Gitksan)111ceremonial door and circlePhotos & Graphics by Phillip Manuel (2006)112F1i Yeoman, Haida Don Yeoman, HaidaBradley Hunt, HaislaSty-Wet- IAppendix H: FNHL Longhouse Leadership ProgramFirst Nations House ofLearningLonghouse Student Leadership Program, 2005-2006Program Principles:The principles of respect, relationships, responsibility, and reverence form the foundationof this program.Respect begins with self and ripples out to embrace family, community, nations, thenatural world, and the Creator.Relationships speak to our connection to all of creation and the Creator, We value thegifts and teachings that come to us through our relations with everyone.Responsibility enhances well-being and westrengthen it by honouring protocols, caringfor ourselves and others, and creating asafe, healthy, inclusive environment.Reverence brings together respect and thesacred. We respect the spiritual realm andits place in learning.Certificate Requirements:For a certificate complete: 3 coreseminars, 4 elective workshops, and 12hours of service learning over two years.Core Seminars:I. Longhouse Teachings. Wednesday, September 21, 2005, 12:00 — 2:00 p.m., Sty-Wet-Tan. This introductory interactive session will explore the concept ofleadership, introduce Longhouse leadership principles of respect, relationships,responsibility, and reverence and provide dynamic team building exercises.2. Service and Leadership. Thursday, January 12, 2006, 12:00 — 2:00 p.m., StyWet-Tan. This workshop links leadership to service. Opportunities for servicelearning will be explored.3. Hands Back, Hands Forwardfor Leadership. Thursday, March 30, 2006, 12:00-- 2:00 pm., Sty-Wet-Tan. This workshop will reflect on leadership teachings andexplore how these teachings can help us in future leadership roles. Certificateswill also he presented to those who have completed the program.113Elective Workshops:A total of 4 workshops may be selected from the offerings of the Longhouse Student LeadershipProgram workshops listed below or the UBC Leadership Program 2005-6.http://students.ubc.caJleadership/prorams.cfmLonghouse Student Leadership Program Workshops: October, 2005-March, 2006.• Thursday, October 20, 2005: Non-Violent Communication Workshop, 12:00— 2:00 p.m.,Sty-Wet-Tan. Facilitators: Alannah Young and Teresa Howell.• Sunday, October 23, 2005: Sweat lodge Teachings, 8:30 — 10:00a.m., Elder’s Lounge.Ceremony will follow (10:00a.m. — 3:00 p.m.) Facilitators: Alannah Young, MadeleineMacivor, Tim Michel, Lee Brown, and Eduardo Jovel.• Thursday, October 27, 2005: Building Inclusive Relationships: Identity and belonging.12:00 — 2:00p.m., Sty-Wet-Tan. Facilitators: Michelle La Flemme, Rosalin Hanna, GrahamSmith, and Chief Bobby Joseph.• Tuesday, Nov 10,2005: Values as a Foundation for Leadership, 12:00-2:00 p.m. Cosponsored by UBC student leadership development office. Sty-Wet-Tan. Facilitators: SteveNg and Alannah Young.• Thursday, November 17, 2005: Respectful Research Strategies. Union of BC Chiefspresentation on research initiatives in BC. 12:00-2:00 p.m. Sty-Wet-Tan. Facilitator. JodyWoods.• Saturday, January 14, 2006: UBC Student Development Leadership Conference. UBC.Participants can attend the workshops, present or volunteer to organize the conference.http://students.ubc.caIIeadership/programs.cfm?pae=conference• Thursday, January 19, 2006: 12:00 — 2:00 p.m., Leadership for Contemporary Contexts:Leadership in Action. Sty-Wet-Tan. Facilitators: Judge Steven Point.• Tuesday February 28, 2006: 12:00-2:00 p.m., Storywork and Emotional Leadership.Facilitator Chief Ian Campbell.• Wednesday, March 15, 2006: Human Rights and Values: Strengths in Leadership andDiversity, 12:00 — 2:00p.m. Co-sponsored by UBC Equity and Access & Diversity offices.Sty-Wet-Tan. Facilitators: Maura DaCruz, OmiSoore Dryden, and Alannah Young.Service Learning:The Longhouse Student Leadership Program is built on the belief that leadership involves makingpositive change, so service is an integral part of the program. Students complete a total of 12hours of service learning in a setting of their choice. Students will work with staff who will helpidentify and facilitate the service learning experience. Possible service learning opportunitiesinclude:• Organizing and facilitating workshops at the Longhouse• Taking a leadership role in Longhouse events• Presenting at career fairs or conferences• Creating curriculum for S-Takya Child Care Centre• Volunteering with educational organizations or community centres.For more information about the Longhouse Leadership Program contact:Alannah Young, CounsellorFirst Nations House of LearningPhone: (604) 822-0963Email: aeyounc@interchane.ubc,ca114

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