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UBC Theses and Dissertations

"As women and as citizens" : clubwomen in Vancouver 1910-1928 Weiss, Gillian M. 1983

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"AS WOMEN AND AS CITIZENS": CLUBWOMEN IN VANCOUVER 1910-1928 by GILLIAN WEISS B.A.(Hons.), U n i v e r s i t y Of A d e l a i d e , 1976 M.A.(Ed-), U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department Of S o c i a l And E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1983 © G i l l i a n Weiss, 1 9 8 3 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head of my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s or h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Department Of S o c i a l And E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e : November 1983 i i A b s t r a c t In t h e t h i r t y y e a r s p r i o r t o 1910, an a c t i v e m i n o r i t y of women, not o n l y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , but a c r o s s Canada and i n B r i t a i n and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , had i n c r e a s i n g l y u s e d t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o move o u t s i d e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s p h e r e of home and f a m i l y and i n t o a more p u b l i c and p o l i t i c a l r o l e . Con- c u r r e n t l y , t h e y d e v e l o p e d and pr o p o u n d e d a p h i l o s o p h y t o s u p p o r t t h i s move i n t o p u b l i c l i f e . I t was b a s e d on t h e n o t i o n of woman's t r a d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n o f p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l and s p i r i t u a l n u r t u r e , but was w i d e n e d t o i n c l u d e n ot j u s t t h e i n d i v i d u a l home but t h e e n t i r e community. M a t e r n a l f e m i n i s t s , as t h e s e women have r e c e n t l y been t e r m e d , were d e t e r m i n e d t o use and e x t e n d t h e i r womanly s k i l l s and i n f l u e n c e t h r o u g h o u t s o c i e t y f o r what t h e y p e r c e i v e d t o be t h e b e t t e r m e n t of a l l . By 1910, m a t e r n a l f e m i n i s t i d e o l o g y had d e v e l o p e d t o a p o i n t where p r o m o t i o n of i t s t e n e t s was no l o n g e r t h e major g o a l of o r g a n i z e d clubwomen., These women now t u r n e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o c o n v i n c i n g s o c i e t y t h a t t h e i r r o l e was not s i m p l y as a u x i l i a r y w o r k e r s i'n-reform but as f u l l p a r t n e r s ; n o t as mere h e l p e r s d i s p e n s i n g c h a r i t y t o t h o s e i n need but as c i t i z e n s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e w o r k i n g of s o c i e t y i n much b r o a d e r and de e p e r ways. In t h e e i g h t e e n y e a r s t o 1928, t h e i r a t t e n t i o n was c o n c e n t r a t e d on a t t e m p t s t o e x t e n d t h e i r c i t i z e n s h i p p owers, t o g a i n b o t h t h e r i g h t and t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n f l u e n c e l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t w o u l d i n t u r n c o n v e r t t h e g o a l s o f m a t e r n a l f e m i n i s m i n t o r e a l i t y . I n t h i s t h e y a c h i e v e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of s u c c e s s . The w i n n i n g o f s u f f r a g e was f o l l o w e d by a s p a t e o f l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t gave women g r e a t e r c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r own l i v e s and t h o s e of t h e i r c h i d r e n , more p e r s o n a l and f i n a n c i a l autonomy w i t h i n m a r r i a g e , t h a t a f f e c t e d t h e i r t r e a t m e n t i n t h e work w o r l d and t h a t p r o v i d e d h e a l t h and s u p p o r t f o r t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t i m e s of need. They a l s o worked h a r d a t e d u c a t i n g t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r n o n - o r g a n i z e d s i s t e r s i n p a r l i a m e n t a r y p r o c e d u r e , p u b l i c s p e a k i n g and c u r r e n t e v e n t s i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y m i g h t h a v e • t h e s k i l l and c o n f i d e n c e t o a d e q u a t e l y p l a y t h e more p u b l i c r o l e t h a t t h e y e n v i s i o n e d f o r t h e m s e l v e s . But w i t h i n a few y e a r s o f g a i n i n g t h e l e g i s l a t i o n t h e y 1 sought t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l momentum t h a t had been b u i l d i n g s i n c e t h e l a s t d e c a d e s o f t h e p r e v i o u s c e n t u r y d i e d away and clubwomen were l e f t w i t h o u t any c l e a r c u ' t g o a l s t o p u r s u e and i n a s t a t e o f c o n f u s i o n as t o why t h e y f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s i n s u c h a p o s i t i o n . T h i s t h e s i s e x a m i n e s s i x V a n c o u v e r women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h p l a y e d a l e a d i n g r o l e i n t h e q u e s t f o r r e f o r m i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t h e y e a r s from 1910 t o 1928. I t c o n s i d e r s t h e s t r u c t u r e and o p e r a t i o n a l methods of each as w e l l as t h e i r s p e c i f i c r e f o r m g o a l s , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o m o t h e r s ' p e n s i o n s and minimum wage l e g i s l a t i o n . I t c l a r i f i e s t h e image and a s p i r a t i o n s t h a t V a n c o u v e r clubwomen had of and f o r t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e i r d u a l r o l e s as women and as c i t i z e n s . I t ex a m i n e s i n some d e t a i l t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of rank and f i l e c lubmembers as w e l l as a c o r e of t h i r t y - t h r e e women who a r e i d e n t i f i e d as f o r m i n g a network of l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n and between t h e f i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1910-1928. T a b l e of C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of T a b l e s v i L i s t of F i g u r e s v i i L i s t of A b b r e v i a t i o n s v i i i 1 "SETTING THE CONTEXT": WOMEN AND REFORM IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 1 2 "AN INVESTMENT IN CIV I C WELFARE": VANCOUVER WOMEN'S CLUBS, 1910-1928 35 3 "WOMANHOOD AND CITIZENSHIP":VANCOUVER WOMEN'S PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR ROLE 105 4 "DECISIVE ACTION AND NOT EMPTY PROMISES": WOMEN AND SOCIAL LEGISLATION 1910-28 152 5 "THE SACREDNESS OF MOTHERHOOD": MOTHERS' PENSIONS LEGISLATION, 1919-25 -.207 6 '"THE BRIGHTEST WOMEN OF OUR LAND": CHARACTERISTICS OF VANCOUVER CLUBWOMEN" 243 7 "DRESSED UP WITH NO PLACE TO GO"?: THE SUCCESS AND FAILURE OF THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY WOMEN'S MOVEMENT 279 BIBLIOGRAPHY 296 APPENDIX A: NCWC WOMEN'S PLATFORM 1920 314 APPENDIX B: MARY ELLEN SMITH'S PLATFORM 1918 317 APPENDIX C: OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS 319 v i L i s t o f T a b l e s 1. Women S c h o o l T r u s t e e s P r i o r t o 1930 i n V i c t o r i a and V a n c o u v e r i 38 2. Membership o f V i c t o r i a and V a n c o u v e r LCW 1897-1932 45 3. LCW Members who were O f f i c e r s of and D e l e g a t e s from A f f i l i a t e d S o c i e t i e s 191 0, 1915, 1920, 1925 47 4. LCW S t a n d i n g Committees 1914 51 5. UWC S t a n d i n g C o m m i t t e e s , 1911-1925 65 6. V a n c o u v e r NEL, Com m i t t e e s and C o n v e n o r s 1921 .76 7. P r o v i n c i a l NEL S t a n d i n g C o m m i t t e e s and C o n v e n o r s , 1925- 27 7 6 8. WF S t a n d i n g C o m m i t t e e s , 1917-21 .".91 9. Types o f S h a r e h o l d e r s i n Women's B u i l d i n g 1912-23 ....97 10. I n d i v i d u a l S h a r e h o l d e r s Women's B u i l d i n g 1912-23 97 11. C o r p o r a t e S h a r e h o l d e r s Women's B u i l d i n g 1912-1923 ....99 12. P e r c e n t of t h e Male and Female P o p u l a t i o n 10 Y e a r s of Age and O v e r , Employed i n G a i n f u l O c c u p a t i o n s , by P r o v i n c e s , f o r Census Y e a r s 1881-1921 172 13. Number o f Women Employed i n V a r i o u s O c c u p a t i o n s i n V a n c o u v e r , V i c t o r i a , T o r o n t o and M o n t r e a l 1921 ...176 14. P e r c e n t of t h e Female Work F o r c e i n S e l e c t e d C i t i e s and O c c u p a t i o n a l C a t e g o r i e s , 1921 177 15. P e r c e n t of t h e Female Work F o r c e i n S e l e c t e d C i t i e s and O c c u p a t i o n s , 1921 179 16. C o s t of L i v i n g C a l c u l a t i o n f o r M e r c a n t i l e ' O c c u p a t i o n s 1919 188 17. C o s t of L i v i n g C a l c u l a t i o n f o r L a u n d r y , D y e i n g and Dry C l e a n i n g O c c u p a t i o n s 1 91 9 191 18. Minimum Wage B o a r d R u l i n g s 1918-19 192 19. M o t h e r s * P e n s i o n s D e l e g a t i o n March 21, 1918 217 20. M o t h e r s ' P e n s i o n s D e l e g a t i o n J a n u a r y 14, 1919 221 21. Combined D e l e g a t i o n t o M o t h e r s ' P e n s i o n s Commission J a n u a r y 20, 1920 222 22. M o t h e r s ' P e n s i o n s i n S e l e c t e d P r o v i n c e s Compared 1921 231 v i i L i s t of F i g u r e s 1. L e v e l s of membership w i t h i n t h e V a n c o u v e r L o c a l C o u n c i l of Women 1914 52 2. The V a n c o u v e r Women's B u i l d i n g , 752 T h u r l o w S t . - 1928 101 3. L o c a l A r e a B o u n d a r i e s , V a n c o u v e r 262 v i i i L i s t of A b b r e v i a t i o n s BPL B r i t i s h P r o g r e s s i v e League CCF Commonwealth C o o p e r a t i v e F e d e r a t i o n CPMA C i v i l i a n P e n s i o n e d M o t h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n HBC Hudson's Bay Company IODE I m p e r i a l O r d e r of D a u g h t e r s of t h e E m p i r e LCW L o c a l C o u n c i l of Women MWB Minimum Wage B o a r d MWL Minimum Wage League NCWC N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f Women of Canada NEL New E r a League PABC P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Sp. C o l l . S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n , The L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a TLC T r a d e s and Labo u r C o u n c i l UWC U n i v e r s i t y Women's C l u b VCA V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s VON V i c t o r i a n O r d e r of N u r s e s WBAM Women's B e n e f i t A s s o c i a t i o n of t h e Maccabees WCB W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d WCTU Woman's C h r i s t i a n Temperance U n i o n WILPF Women's I n t e r n a t i o n a l League f o r Peace and Freedom WF Women's Forum YWCA Young Women's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n 1 C h a p t e r 1 "SETTING THE CONTEXT": WOMEN AND REFORM IN BRITISH COLUMBIA The i d e a of a Women's B u i l d i n g , a c l u b r o o m , m e e t i n g and w o r k s p a c e f o r a l l t h e women's g r o u p s i n V a n c o u v e r , was c o n c e i v e d i n 1911. From t h a t y e a r u n t i l 1927 when t h e V a n c o u v e r Women's B u i l d i n g was opened i n t h e c i t y ' s West End t o t h e accompaniment of much pomp and ceremony and a g r e a t f e e l i n g of p r i d e and a c h i e v e m e n t , h u n d r e d s of V a n c o u v e r women fr o m a v a r i e t y of women's c l u b s worked i n d e f a t i g a b l y t o r a i s e p u b l i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s of t h e i r g o a l , t o g a i n s u p p o r t from t h e male b u s i n e s s community and t o amass t h e t e n s of t h o u s a n d s of d o l l a r s needed t o t u r n t h e i r dream i n t o b r i c k s and m o r t a r . T h e i r B u i l d i n g was t o be a v i s i b l e s i g n o f t h e new woman of t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y and her expanded r o l e i n modern s o c i e t y . W i t h i n i t s h a l l s and boardrooms t h e y w o u l d d e v e l o p t h e s t r a t e g i e s and programs by w h i c h a renewed s o c i e t y would be b u i l t - a s o c i e t y i n w h i c h j u s t i c e and e q u a l i t y f o r t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n w o u l d r e s u l t i n j u s t i c e and a b e t t e r l i f e f o r a l l . The B u i l d i n g was a decade and a h a l f i n t h e c r e a t i o n , and d u r i n g t h i s t i m e t h e campaign f o r t h e r e n e w a l of s o c i e t y was c a r r i e d on w i t h e q u a l f e r v o r . Midway t h r o u g h t h e p e r i o d t h e f e m a l e f r a n c h i s e was won and t h i s was f o l l o w e d i n r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n by a m u l t i t u d e o f o t h e r l e g i s l a t i v e r e f o r m s . I r o n i c a l l y , by 1927 when t h e B u i l d i n g was a t l a s t open and r e a d y t o house i t s busy w o r k e r s t h e y had a l r e a d y a c h i e v e d most of 2 t h e i r r e f o r m g o a l s . F o r t h e ne x t dozen y e a r s i t s t o o d , i n c r e a s i n g l y u n d e r - u t i l i z e d and e x p e n s i v e t o run w h i l e clubwomen c a s t a r o u n d a l m o s t a i m l e s s l y t o r e c a p t u r e t h e r e f o r m i s t s p i r i t and o p t i m i s m o f e a r l i e r y e a r s and a r e f o r m g o a l as c l e a r c u t and p r e s s i n g as t h a t w h i c h had m o t i v a t e d them two d e c a d e s e a r l i e r . But t h e r e was none. L i k e t h e Women's B u i l d i n g w h i c h had o u t l i v e d i t s u s e f u l n e s s by t h e t i m e i t was f i n a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d , t h e women's movement of t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s s u c c e e d e d so w e l l i n i t s e f f o r t s t o e x t e n d f e m a l e i n f l u e n c e i n t o t h e p u b l i c s p h e r e t h a t i t made c o n t i n u e d a c t i v i t y v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . The s u c c e s s of o r g a n i z e d women i n p r o m o t i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e of motherhood and t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r women t o be p u b l i c l y a c t i v e on i t s b e h a l f e n s u r e d t h a t f a m i l i a l v a l u e s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d mechanisms t o p r o t e c t them were f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n s o c i e t y , r e n d e r i n g women's own c o n t i n u e d a c t i v i t y no l o n g e r n e c e s s a r y o r d e s i r a b l e . Because clubwomen a c h i e v e d t h e i r aims so e f f e c t i v e l y t h e y f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s no l o n g e r needed i n t h e i r p u b l i c r o l e . T h i s t h e s i s examines t h e a c t i v i t i e s of a g r o u p of V a n c o u v e r women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s whose members were s p e c i f i c a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h a c h i e v i n g and t h e n e x e r c i z i n g t h e i r c i t i z e n s h i p r i g h t s on b e h a l f o f women and c h i l d r e n between 1910 and 1928. B o t h b e f o r e and a f t e r t h i s e i g h t e e n y e a r p e r i o d , a m u l t i t u d e of women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n c e r n e d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h a v a r i e t y of i s s u e s w h i c h a f f e c t e d s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l and o f t e n women and c h i l d r e n i n p a r t i c u l a r . C o n t i n u i t y b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e p e r i o d and i n 3 terms b o t h of c l u b i n v o l v e m e n t and p u b l i c a g i t a t i o n f o r r e f o r m c a n n o t be d i s c o u n t e d , but t h e s t u d y w i l l be c o n f i n e d t o t h e p e r i o d 1910-28 i n an a t t e m p t t o examine and e x p l a i n t h e v e r y s t r o n g e m p h a s i s on t h e d u a l c o n c e r n s of womanhood and c i t i z e n s h i p d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s . The a d v a n t a g e s of s u c h a f o c u s , i n t e r m s of e n l a r g i n g our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h i s a s p e c t of t h e e a r l y women's movement w i l l , i t i s hoped, o u t w e i g h t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f u n d e r - e s t i m a t i n g t h e c o n t i n u i t i e s i n women's o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Many of t h e clubmembers, and some of t h e c l u b s , were a c t i v e i n t h e b a t t l e f o r s u f f r a g e but t h i s w i l l not be i n t e r p r e t e d e i t h e r as t h e major end g o a l of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , n or as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t , but r a t h e r as one a c h i e v e m e n t a l o n g t h e way; an a c h i e v e m e n t t h a t f a c i l i t a t e d and i n s p i r e d f u r t h e r a c t i o n i n t h e o v e r a l l r e f o r m movement, t h e u l t i m a t e g o a l o f w h i c h was t h e improvement, even p e r f e c t i o n o f s o c i e t y , t h r o u g h t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women i n t h e d e c i s i o n m aking and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s e s . A number of q u e s t i o n s i m m e d i a t e l y s p r i n g t o mind. What d i d clubwomen hope t o a c h i e v e b o t h i n ter m s of i n d i v i d u a l r e f o r m s and i n ter m s of t h e i r i m p a ct on s o c i e t y as a whole? What methods d i d t h e y use i n p u r s u i t o f t h e s e g o a l s ? What s u c c e s s e s d i d t h e y e n j o y ? Were l a r g e numbers of women i n v o l v e d o r a s m a l l s e l e c t g r o u p ? D i d t h e y work a l o n e o r d i d t h e y have t h e s u p p o r t of s o c i e t y as a whole? Why d i d t h e y r e a c h a s t a l e m a t e i n t h e m i d - 1920' s from w h i c h t h e y were u n a b l e t o e x t r i c a t e t h e m s e l v e s ? The f o c u s of t h e s t u d y , and t h e r e f o r e t h e q u e s t i o n s t o be a s k e d can be n a r r o w e d and r e f i n e d by an e x a m i n a t i o n of e x i s t i n g s t u d i e s . 4 In o t h e r words, what do we a l r e a d y know about women, t h e i r ' a c t i v i t i e s , t h e i r r o l e s , t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y i n th e f i r s t q u a r t e r of t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y ? The p o t e n t i a l and t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e s t u d y o f women i n h i s t o r i c c o n t e x t has been c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e p a s t d e c a d e . The g r o w t h of t h e modern f e m i n i s t movement and a b r o a d e n i n g of t h e b o u n d a r i e s of what i s u n d e r s t o o d by the te r m " s o c i a l h i s t o r y " have n e c e s s i t a t e d r e a s s e s s m e n t and f u r t h e r s t u d y of t h e r o l e s t h a t women have p l a y e d i n t h e deve l o p m e n t of modern s o c i e t y . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , h i s t o r y has d e a l t w i t h power - p o l i t i c a l , f i n a n c i a l , m i l i t a r y ; power t h a t was w i e l d e d p u b l i c l y and, i n a l l but a few i n s t a n c e s , by men. The "new" s o c i a l h i s t o r y , of w h i c h women's h i s t o r y i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t , has r e j e c t e d t h i s f o r m e r a p p r o a c h t o t h e p a s t and has been more c o n c e r n e d t o r e v e a l and a n a l y z e a c t i v i t i e s , e x p e r i e n c e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t have e x i s t e d a l o n g s i d e p u b l i c power s t r u c t u r e s . R a t h e r t h a n l o o k i n g a t g o v e r n m e n t s , p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s and p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e new s o c i a l h i s t o r y and women's h i s t o r y b o t h have t u r n e d t h e i r s i g h t s t o w a r d s " t h e c a u s a l p a t t e r n s , t h e p s y c h o d y n a m i c s o f p r i v a t e p l a c e s : t h e h o u s e h o l d , t h e f a m i l y , t h e bed, t h e n u r s e r y . . . " and t o o t h e r v a r i a b l e s , o f t e n i g n o r e d by c o n v e n t i o n a l a c c o u n t s , l i k e g e n d e r , c l a s s , p r o c e s s e s of s o c i a l 5 change and p o p u l a r b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s . 1 In l i t t l e more t h a n a d e c a d e , C a n a d i a n and A m e r i c a n women's h i s t o r y has been e n r i c h e d by a s t i l l g r o w i n g body of b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l , h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s of i t s p r e v i o u s l y " n e g l e c t e d m a j o r i t y . " 2 E a r l y i n t e r e s t i n C a n a d i a n women's h i s t o r y c e n t r e d on women's emergence from t h e p r i v a t e s p h e r e of home and f a m i l y i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and i n t o t h e more p u b l i c w o r l d of women's c l u b s and o r g a n i z e d r e f o r m . S m a l l , l o c a l c h u r c h g r o u p s were amongst t h e f i r s t p u b l i c women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e i r g o a l s d i r e c t e d o u t w a r d t o w e l f a r e and m i s s i o n a r y work i n f o r e i g n l a n d s , r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e needy c l o s e r t o home. 3 M i t c h i n s o n has c l a i m e d t h a t t h e s e women d i d not see t h e m s e l v e s as a p a r t of t h e "women's movement" w h i c h was a l r e a d y s t r o n g i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and b e g i n n i n g t o grow i n Canada. M i d d l e - c l a s s and c o n s e r v a t i v e , t h e y d i d n o t s h a r e t h e f e a r s a b o u t t h e s t a t e of t h e i r own s o c i e t y t h a t would soon m o t i v a t e o t h e r women's g r o u p s . I f t h e y d i d l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l work w i t h i n Canada, t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r i o r t o t h e 1880's d i d a t 1 C a r r o l S m i t h R o s e n b e r g , "The New Woman and t h e New H i s t o r y , " F e m i n i s t S t u d i e s 3:1/2 ( F a l l 1975) pp. 184-94; V e r o n i c a S t r o n g - Boag, " R a i s i n g C l i o ' s C o n s c i o u s n e s s : Women's H i s t o r y and A r c h i v e s i n Canada," A r c h i v a i a 6 (Summer 1978) pp. 70-71; E l i a n e L e s l a u S i l v e r m a n , " W r i t i n g C a n a d i a n Women's H i s t o r y , '1970-82: an H i s t o r i o g r a p h i c a l A n a l y s i s , " C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l Review 63:4 (December 1982) p. 514. 2 E l i a n e S i l v e r m a n , " W r i t i n g C a n a d i a n Women's H i s t o r y , " p. 513 n o t e s t h a t a l m o s t 200 a r t i c l e s and books i n women's h i s t o r y have a p p e a r e d i n Canada i n t h e l a s t dozen y e a r s . 3 Wendy M i t c h i n s o n , " C a n a d i a n Women and C h u r c h M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t i e s : A S t e p Towards I n d e p e n d e n c e , " A t l a n t i s 2:2 p a r t 2 ( S p r i n g 1977) pp. 57-75. 6 l e a s t b r i n g them out of t h e c o n f i n e s o f t h e home - a new e x p e r i e n c e f o r many. S h i e l d e d by t h e r e s p e c t a b i l i t y of t h e c h u r c h , t h e y were a b l e t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s k i l l s and g a i n c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r own a b i l i t i e s . M i t c h i n s o n and S t r o n g - B o a g b o t h c r e d i t t h e s e e a r l y c h u r c h g r o u p s w i t h l a y i n g t h e g r o u n d work f o r t h e l a t e r p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l women's a s s o c i a t i o n s . * And p r o l i f e r a t i o n i t was, f o r by t h e 1890's, m i d d l e - c l a s s women were b a n d i n g t o g e t h e r i n u n p r e c e d e n t e d numbers t o p r e s e r v e and s t r e n g t h e n a s o c i e t y t h a t t h e y f e l t was s e r i o u s l y t h r e a t e n e d by r a p i d i m m i g r a t i o n , i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and u r b a n i z a t i o n and t h e s o c i a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h t h e s e f o r c e s were c r e a t i n g . 5 The Young Women's C h r i s t i a n O r g a n i z a t i o n (YWCA) and t h e Woman's C h r i s t i a n Temperance U n i o n (WCTU), a l r e a d y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , began t o s p r e a d a c r o s s Canada a t t h i s t i m e w i t h l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l and n a t i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n s . The N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Women of Canada (NCWC) w h i c h was t o become t h e C a n a d i a n women's r e f o r m o r g a n i z a t i o n p a r e x c e l l e n c e was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1893 and i m m e d i a t e l y began t o o r g a n i z e l o c a l C o u n c i l s a c r o s s t h e n a t i o n , * I b i d . , p. 58; V e r o n i c a S t r o n g - B o a g . " S e t t i n g t h e S t a g e : N a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e Women's Movement i n t h e l a t e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y , " i n A l i s o n P r e n t i c e and Susan Mann T r o f i m e n k o f f , e d s . , The N e g l e c t e d M a j o r i t y : E s s a y s i n C a n a d i a n Women's H i s t o r y ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r d , 1977), p. 87. 5 See V e r o n i c a S t r o n g - B o a g , The P a r l i a m e n t of Women: The N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Women of Canada 1893-1929 ( O t t a w a : N a t i o n a l Museums of Canada, 1976), c h . 1 . f o r a more d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e f o r c e s w h i c h p r o m p t e d women t o o r g a n i z e . 7 t o be f o l l o w e d s h o r t l y by t h e Women's I n s t i t u t e s . 6 I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e were numerous l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n c e r n e d w i t h i m p r o v i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r good f a m i l y l i f e , and e s t a b l i s h i n g s y s t e m s of c h i l d and f a m i l y w e l f a r e . The r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d much o f t h i s a c t i v i t y was t h e i d e o l o g y t h a t has become most commonly known as " m a t e r n a l f e m i n i s m . " Not a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d p h i l o s o p h y but r a t h e r composed of a c l u s t e r of c o n n e c t e d b e l i e f s and g o a l s , m a t e r n a l f e m i n i s m was g i v e n i m p e t u s by t h e g e n e r a l r e f o r m c l i m a t e of t h e C a n a d i a n p r o g r e s s i v e e r a of 1880-1929. W i t h o u t a c t u a l l y naming i t as s u c h , S t r o n g - B o a g has e f f e c t i v e l y d e s c r i b e d m a t e r n a l f e m i n i s m , i t s b a s e s and i t s a i m s , i n a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h prompted C a n a d i a n women t o o r g a n i z e a t t h e t u r n of t h e c e n t u r y . 7 One c r u c i a l f a c t o r was t i m e . To be a c t i v e o u t s i d e of t h e home r e q u i r e d f reedom from women's t r a d i t i o n a l home t a s k s . 8 The g r o w t h o f u r b a n i z a t i o n and 6 I b i d . , c h . 2; T e r r e n c e M o r r i s o n , " T h e i r P r o p e r S p h e r e : F e m i n i s m , t h e F a m i l y and C h i l d - C e n t r e d S o c i a l Reform i n O n t a r i o , 1875- 1900," O n t a r i o H i s t o r y 68:1 (March 1976) pp. 45-64 and 68:2 (June 1976) pp. 65-74. Nancy Sheehan, "Temperance, t h e WCTU and E d u c a t i o n i n A l b e r t a , 1905-1930" (Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1 980); Wendy M i t c h i n s o n , "The Woman's C h r i s t i a n Temperance U n i o n ; A S t u d y i n O r g a n i z a t i o n , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of Women's S t u d i e s 4 ( M a r c h / A p r i l 1981 ) pp. 143-56; C a r o l D e n n i s o n , "The Women's I n s t i t u t e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1909-1946: H o u s e w i v e s 'For Home and C o u n t r y ' " (M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1983). 7 V e r o n i c a S t r o n g - B o a g , P a r l i a m e n t of Women, c h . 1. 8 See R u t h S c h w a r t z Cowan, "The ' I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n ' i n t h e Home: H o u s e h o l d T e c h n o l o g y and S o c i a l Change i n t h e T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y , " T e c h n o l o g y and C u l t u r e 1.7 (1976) pp. 1-23; S h e i l a Rothman, Woman's P r o p e r P l a c e : A H i s t o r y o f C h a n g i n g I d e a l s and P r a c t i c e s 1870 t o t h e P r e s e n t ( N e w Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s , 1978), pp. 14-21. J e n n i f e r S t o d d a r t and V e r o n i c a S t r o n g - B o a g , "...And T h i n g s Were G o i n g Wrong a t Home," A t l a n t i s 1:1 ( F a l l 1975) pp. 38-44; B a r b a r a R o b e r t s , "'A Work o f E m p i r e ' : C a n a d i a n R e f o r m e r s and B r i t i s h Female I m m i g r a t i o n , " i n L i n d a K e a l e y , e d . , A Not U n r e a s o n a b l e C l a i m : Women and Reform i n Canada, I 8 8 0 ' s - l 9 2 0 s ( T o r o n t o : The Women's'Press, 1979), pp. 185-201; 8 h o u s e h o l d t e c h n o l o g y and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of d o m e s t i c h e l p p r o v i d e d some measure of freedom. More i m p o r t a n t l y , women who became i n v o l v e d i n r e f o r m were not t i e d down by t h e r e s p o n s i b l i t i e s of c h i l d r a i s i n g . The m a j o r i t y were e i t h e r s i n g l e or had f a m i l i e s p a s t t h e age when t h e y r e q u i r e d c o n s t a n t c a r e . E d u c a t i o n was i m p o r t a n t t o o . I n c r e a s e d e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r o d u c e d women w i t h t h e c o n f i d e n c e and a b i l i t y t o f u n c t i o n o u t s i d e of t h e home and w h i l e women met w i t h s t r o n g r e s i s t a n c e when t h e y t r i e d t o e n t e r t r a d i t i o n a l male p r o f e s s i o n s s u c h as m e d i c i n e and l a w , s e p a r a t e and o f t e n new p r o f e s s i o n s were opened t o them - n u r s i n g , t e a c h i n g , home e c o n o m i c s , l i b r a r y p r o f e s s i o n s , and s o c i a l s c i e n c e j o b s . 9 A l l of t h e s e new a r e a s were c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t r a d i t i o n a l f e m a l e t a s k s o f n u r t u r i n g ; an e x t e n s i o n of " m o t h e r i n g " from t h e home t o t h e p u b l i c s p h e r e . In t h i s exodus from t h e home women were e n c o u r a g e d by m a s c u l i n e m o d e l s . The p r o g r e s s i v e e r a p r o d u c e d men suc h as James L. Hughes and J o h n J . K e l s o who a l s o p r e s s e d f o r t h e s o r t of community a c t i v i t y on b e h a l f of t h e p o o r , t h e weak and t h e h e l p l e s s t h a t 9 V e r o n i c a S t r o n g - B o a g , "Canada's Women D o c t o r s : F e m i n i s m C o n s t r a i n e d , " i n K e a l e y , A Not U n r e a s o n a b l e C l a i m , pp. 109-130; Wayne R o b e r t s , " ' R o c k i n g t h e C r a d l e f o r t h e W o r l d ' : The New Woman and M a t e r n a l F e m i n i s m , T o r o n t o , 1877-1914," K e a l e y , A Not U n r e a s o n a b l e C l a i m , pp. 27-40; M a r g a r e t G i l l e t , We Walked V e r y W a r i l y : A H i s t o r y of Women a t M c G i l l ( M o n t r e a l : Eden P r e s s Women's P u b l i c a t i o n , 1981). 9 women's c l u b s were b e g i n n i n g t o u n d e r t a k e . 1 0 R e l i g i o u s b e l i e f t o o was a f a c t o r . I n t h e mid y e a r s of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i t i n i t i a l l y drew women from t h e i r homes and i n t o women's c l u b s . By t h e c l o s e of t h e c e n t u r y t h e r i s e of t h e s o c i a l g o s p e l movement l e d b o t h male and f e m a l e c h u r c h members t o c r u s a d e f o r a v a r i e t y of s o c i a l r e f o r m s . 1 1 F i n a l l y , s i m i l a r f a c t o r s were i n f l u e n c i n g A m e r i c a n and E u r o p e a n s o c i e t y . Through p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s and t r a v e l , many C a n a d i a n women were aware of t h e s i t u a t i o n e l s e w h e r e and were a b l e t o r e l a t e b o t h p r o b l e m s and p r o j e c t e d s o l u t i o n s i n o t h e r s o c i e t i e s t o t h o s e i n t h e i r own. T e r r e n c e M o r r i s o n has d e a l t more s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e t e n e t s and d e v e l o p m e n t of m a t e r n a l f e m i n i s m t h a t r e s u l t e d from t h e g u l f between t h e s t a t e of s o c i e t y i n t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and m i d d l e - c l a s s p e r c e p t i o n s of what i t c o u l d and s h o u l d be. He has a l s o i d e n t i f i e d a s e p a r a t e and i n many r e s p e c t s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f orm of f e m i n i s m - e q u a l ' r i g h t s f e m i n i s m . S u p p o r t e r s of t h i s i d e o l o g y p u r s u e d t h e g o a l , a p p a r e n t l y s i m p l e b u t i n r e a l i t y c o m p l e x , of t o t a l e q u a l i t y between men and women. By t h e e a r l y y e a r s of t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y v i r t u a l l y a l l C a n a d i a n women r e f o r m e r s b e l o n g e d t o t h e f o r m e r g r o u p . They saw t h e 1 0 A whole s e p a r a t e l i t e r a t u r e e x i s t s on t h e t o p i c . F o r i n s t a n c e , see B r u c e M. C a r t e r , "James L. Hughes and t h e G o s p e l of E d u c a t i o n " (Ed.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o , 1966); Andrew J o n e s and L e o n a r d Rutman, In t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d : J . J . K e l s o and C h i l d W e l f a r e i n O n t a r i o ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 981). T e r r e n c e M o r r i s o n , "The C h i l d and Urban S o c i a l Reform i n L a t e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y O n t a r i o " (Ph.D. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o , 1971) and N e i l S u t h e r l a n d , C h i l d r e n i n E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y 1880-1920: F r a m i n g t h e T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y C o n s e n s u s ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1976) d e a l w i t h r e f o r m more g e n e r a l l y . 1 1 R i c h a r d A l l e n , The S o c i a l P a s s i o n : R e l i g i o n and S o c i a l Reform i n Canada, 1914-1928 ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1965). 1 0 f a m i l y as a " l i f e s a v i n g i n s t i t u t i o n " and v e n t u r e d o u t s i d e of t h e home as "spokesmen f o r a new f a m i l i a l o r d e r i n s o c i e t y . " 1 2 As t h e y edged beyond d o m e s t i c i t y , t h e y sought t o p e r f o r m f o r t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y t h e same t a s k s of m o t h e r i n g and m a i n t e n a n c e t h a t t h e y p e r f o r m e d w i t h i n t h e i r own homes. A l t h o u g h t h e y used t h e word " e q u a l i t y " , t o them t h e v o t e was p r i m a r i l y a t o o l t o e n s u r e t h e s u c c e s s of t h e i r r e f o r m o b j e c t i v e s . M o r r i s o n has p o i n t e d o ut t h a t t h e b a s i c d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e two t y p e s of f e m i n i s m l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e q u a l r i g h t s f e m i n i s t s made demands t h a t can j u s t l y be c l a s s e d as r a d i c a l b e c a u s e o f t h e f a r r e a c h i n g e f f e c t s t h e y w o u l d have had on s o c i e t y had t h e y been c a r r i e d o u t , w h i l e m a t e r n a l f e m i n i s t s were " c o n s e r v a t i v e i n impulse"'; t h e i r demands were d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s p r e s e r v i n g and p e r f e c t i n g t h e s t a t u s quo. M o r e o v e r , t h e r a d i c a l s seem t o have been drawn from a l l l e v e l s of s o c i e t y w h i l e t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e s were l a r g e l y m i d d l e c l a s s i n b o t h s t r u c t u r e and s t y l e . 1 3 T h i s d i f f e r e n c e has a l s o been n o t e d by Wayne R o b e r t s i n a b i o g r a p h i c s t u d y of t h e e a r l y women's movement i n T o r o n t o . The t h r e e women he d e s c r i b e s as r a d i c a l s , E m i l y Stowe, A u g u s t a S t o w e - G u l l e n and F l o r a M a c d o n a l d D e n i s o n , were p r o f o u n d l y s e p a r a t e d from p r o g r e s s i v e r e f o r m e r s l i k e H e l e n MacMurchy, F l o r e n c e Gooderham H u e s t i s and C o n s t a n c e H a m i l t o n . 1 " M o r e o v e r , t h e l a t t e r were a c t i v e a t an e a r l i e r p e r i o d . One o r two of t h e T e r r e n c e M o r r i s o n , " T h e i r P r o p e r S p h e r e , " p a r t 1, p. 51. I b i d . , p a r t 2, p. 72. Wayne R o b e r t s , " S i x New Women: A G u i d e t o t h e M e n t a l Map of Women R e f o r m e r s i n T o r o n t o , " A t l a n t i s 3:3 (Autumn 1977) pp. 145- 67. 11 more - a g g r e s s i v e C a n a d i a n f e m i n i s t s of t h e l a t e r p e r i o d , f o r i n s t a n c e N e l l i e M cClung i n A l b e r t a and H e l e n G r e g o r y M a c G i l l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , m e n t i o n e d f e m a l e e q u a l i t y p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e l e g a l s e n s e b u t t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s were framed i n m a t e r n a l f e m i n i s t t e r m s , and so t h e y s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . 1 5 I n a l a t e r s t u d y , R o b e r t s f a i l s t o make t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between e q u a l r i g h t s and m a t e r n a l f e m i n i s m and c o n s e q u e n t l y blames " t h e c o n t r a d i c t o r y n a t u r e of m a t e r n a l f e m i n i s t a s p i r a t i o n s . . . f o r t h e u l t i m a t e l y d i s a p p o i n t i n g and l i m i t e d i d e o l o g i c a l and p o l i t i c a l g a i n s made by t h e f i r s t s e l f c o n s c i o u s g e n e r a t i o n of women's a c t i v i s t s i n C a n a d i a n H i s t o r y . " 1 6 The s u f f r a g e campaign has been t h e f o c u s of numerous s t u d i e s b o t h i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and i n Canada, t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e w i n n i n g of t h e v o t e came t o be seen as c e n t r a l t o t h e e a r l y women's movement by some w r i t e r s . 1 7 T h i s r e s u l t e d from two f a c t o r s . F i r s t , some women i n t h e e a r l y women's movement came t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e v o t e would be t h e f i n a l r e f o r m t h a t t h e y w o u l d have t o f i g h t f o r . They b e l i e v e d t h a t once t h e f r a n c h i s e was 1 5 See E l s i e M a c G i l l , My Mother t h e J u d g e : A B i o g r a p h y of Judge H e l e n G r e g o r y M a c G i l l ( T o r o n t o : R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1955); N e l l i e M c C l u n g , I n Times L i k e These, 2nd e d . , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by V e r o n i c a S t r o n g - B o a g ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 972) . 1 6 Wayne R o b e r t s , " R o c k i n g t h e C r a d l e f o r t h e W o r l d , " p. 45. 1 7 The s t a n d a r d d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s o f s u f f r a g e i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s r e s p e c t i v e l y a r e C a t h e r i n e C l e v e r d o n , The Woman S u f f r a g e Movement i n Canada, ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1950) r e p r i n t e d i n f974 w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by Ramsay Cook, and E l e a n o r F l e x n e r , C e n t u r y of S t r u g g l e : The Woman's R i g h t s Movement i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ( M a s s a c h u s e t t s : B e l k n a p P r e s s , 1968). 1 2 t h e i r s , t h e r e f o r m and r e g e n e r a t i o n of s o c i e t y w o u l d be a s s u r e d ; woman w o u l d be man's e q u a l and would have t h e power t o l e g i s l a t e t h e w o r l d back t o r i g h t s . S e cond, some f e m i n i s t h i s t o r i a n s , s e e k i n g t o e x p l a i n t h e r e s u r g e n c e of f e m i n i s m i n r e c e n t y e a r s , and s e a r c h i n g a t t h e same t i m e f o r t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l r o o t s , n a t u r a l l y d i s p l a y e d an i n t e r e s t i n t h e e a r l i e r women's movement. They t o o f o c u s s e d on t h e s u f f r a g e campaign as b e i n g t h e a r e a of women's h i s t o r y most o b v i o u s l y r e l a t e d t o t h e p r e s e n t day c o n c e r n s f o r e q u a l r i g h t s . Many of t h e s e s t u d i e s , however, s u f f e r e d from l i m i t a t i o n s b o t h p r a c t i c a l and c o n c e p t u a l . They t e n d e d t o a c c e p t a t f a c e v a l u e t h e c l a i m s of t h e s u f f r a g i s t s t h a t t h e v o t e w o u l d i n d e e d r e s u l t i n major s o c i e t a l change and t h e y l i m i t e d t h e i r e x a m i n a t i o n s t o t h e campaign i t s e l f , b o t h i n terms of c h r o n o l o g y and as a movement d i v o r c e d from o t h e r a s p e c t s of e v e r y d a y l i f e . Thus t h e a p p a r e n t f a i l u r e of s u f f r a g e t o a c h i e v e m a j o r changes i n s o c i e t y l e f t them a t somewhat of a l o s s . They had no way of e x p l a i n i n g how s u c h an a p p a r e n t l y v i g o r o u s and a g g r e s s i v e c ampaign had s u c h l i t t l e v i s i b l e (as f a r as t h e y were c o n c e r n e d ) r e s u l t s , . o r why t h e v i g o r and e n t h u s i a s m a p p e a r e d t o d i e so r a p i d l y ( t o t h e i r way of t h i n k i n g ) once t h e v o t e was won. The r e s u l t , i n the C a n a d i a n c o n t e x t , was a r e l i a n c e on u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , even g l i b , c o n c l u s i o n s as t o t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e " f a i l u r e " of t h e e a r l y women's movement, s u c h as " l a c k of v i s i o n " , s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d m a n i p u l a t i o n by male p o l i t i c i a n s , an undue emphasis on t h e m a t e r n a l r o l e and f a i l u r e t o d e v e l o p a 1 3 f e m i n i s t c r i t i q u e of e x i s t i n g s o c i e t y . 1 8 A m e r i c a n w r i t e r s t o o , l i k e A i l e e n K r a d i t o r and W i l l i a m O ' N e i l l t e n d e d t o c r i t i c i z e A m e r i c a n women s u f f r a g i s t s f o r s h a l l o w n e s s of v i s i o n . 1 9 Each of t h e s e f a c t o r s had some im p a c t on t h e a c t i v i t i e s of o r g a n i z e d women, but none i s s u f f i c i e n t t o e x p l a i n t h e p o s t - s u f f r a g e s i t u a t i o n . P a r t of the p r o b l e m l i e s i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n of f e m i n i s m . Some f e m i n i s t h i s t o r i a n s have e q u a t e d demands f o r t h e v o t e w i t h demands f o r t o t a l e q u a l i t y and have t h e r e f o r e assumed t h a t t h e g r a n t i n g of t h e v o t e s h o u l d have r e s u l t e d i n much g r e a t e r e q u a l i t y between t h e s e x e s t h a n was a c t u a l l y t h e c a s e . B e c a use t h e y d i d not u n d e r s t a n d o r be c a u s e t h e y i g n o r e d t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between m a t e r n a l and e q u a l r i g h t s f e m i n i s m t h e y l o o k e d f o r t h e wrong r e s u l t s . The ' m a j o r i t y of s u f f r a g i s t s were m a t e r n a l f e m i n i s t s , s t r i v i n g t o p e r f e c t t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i e t y r a t h e r t h a n t o remake i t i n a new m o l d , t h e r e f o r e i t s h o u l d n o t be s u r p r i s i n g t h a t no r a d i c a l c h a n g e s o c c u r r e d once t h e y had won th e v o t e . More r e c e n t l y a g r o u p t h a t C a r o l B a c c h i has l a b e l l e d "new r e v i s i o n i s t s " has begun t o a r g u e t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d women w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t of t h e i r t i m e r a t h e r t h a n 1 8 L i n d a H a l e , "The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Woman S u f f r a g e Movement, 1890- 1917" (M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1977), p. 26; G l o r i a G e l l e r , "The Wartime E l e c t i o n s A c t of 1917 and t h e C a n a d i a n Woman's Movement," A t l a n t i s 2:1 ( F a l l 1976) pp. 105-6; C a r o l B a c c h i , " L i b e r a t i o n D e f e r r e d : t h e I d e a s of t h e E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n S u f f r a g i s t s , 1877-1913," H i s t o i r e S o c i a l e / S o c i a l H i s t o r y 10:20 (November 1977) p. 434. 1 9 A i l e e n K r a d i t o r , The I d e a s of t h e Woman S u f f r a g e Movement (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965); W i l l i a m O ^ N e i l l , E v e r y o n e was B r a v e : a H i s t o r y of F e m i n i s m i n A m e r i c a ( C h i c a g o : Q u a d r a n g l e B o o k s , 1969). 1 4 j u d g i n g them by p r e s e n t i s t s t a n d a r d s . 2 0 Thus some s t u d i e s , l i k e B a c c h i ' s own " F i r s t Wave F e m i n i s m " a r e coming t o see s u f f r a g i s t s i n a s l i g h t l y more r a d i c a l l i g h t t h a n p r e v i o u s l y . The m a t e r n a l f e m i n i s t d e s i r e " t o p r e s e r v e t h e f a m i l y a nd..not [ t o ] c h a l l e n g e t h e p r i o r i t y o f woman's m a t e r n a l f u n c t i o n " was, t h e new r e v i s i o n i s t s a r g u e , a b a s i c a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e move. However, t h e y a r e now coming t o see t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s t h r u s t by women r e f o r m e r s t o w a r d s a more p u b l i c r o l e i n p r e s e r v i n g t h e p r i m a c y of motherhood a s r a d i c a l b e c a u s e i t i n v o l v e d a s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n s i o n o f women's p r e v i o u s l y a c c e p t e d r o l e . The q u e s t i o n of whether n o n - r a d i c a l change t o o k p l a c e a f t e r s u f f r a g e i s , however, a n o t h e r m a t t e r , and one t h a t has r e c e n t l y engaged t h e i n t e r e s t of a number of w r i t e r s . A decade ago, a s t u d y by t h e A m e r i c a n w r i t e r J . S t a n l e y Lemons v e n t u r e d i n t o t h e f i e l d of p o s t - s u f f r a g e r e f o r m a c t i v i t y . 2 1 I t s aim was t o i n v e s t i g a t e A m e r i c a n f e m i n i s m i n t h e 1920's, a c o n s c i o u s d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e heavy e m p h a s i s on s u f f r a g e t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d most o t h e r c o n t e m p o r a r y s t u d i e s . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e s e s t u d i e s , C a r o l B a c c h i , " F i r s t Wave F e m i n i s m ; H i s t o r y ' s Judgement," i n Norma G r i e v e and P a t r i c i a Grimshaw, e d s . , A u s t r a l i a n Women: F e m i n i s t P e r s p e c t i v e s ( M e l b o u r n e , O x f o r d U n i v e r s t y P r e s s , 1981 ) . B a c c h i h e r s e l f has a l m o s t r e v e r s e d h e r o p i n i o n s s i n c e t h e m i d - 1970' s. Her r e c e n t monograph L i b e r a t i o n D e f e r r e d ? The I d e a s o f t h e E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n S u f f r a g i s t s , 1877-1918 ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1983) r e p r e s e n t s i m i d p o i n t between h e r p r e s e n t and f o r m e r o p i n i o n . See a l s o E l l e n D u B o i s , "The R a d i c a l i s m o f t h e Woman S u f f r a g e Movement: N o t e s Toward t h e R e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f N i n e t e e n t h - C e n t u r y F e m i n i s m , " F e m i n i s t S t u d i e s 3:1/2 ( F a l l 1975) pp. 63-71 and D u B o i s , F e m i n i s m and S u f f r a g e : The Emergence of an I n d e p e n d e n t Woman's Movement i n A m e r i c a , 1848-1869 ( I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978) . J . S t a n l e y Lemons, The Woman as C i t i z e n : S o c i a l F e m i n i s m i n t h e 1920's ( U r b a n a , I l l i n o i s : U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) . 1 5 Lemons c o n c l u d e d t h a t f e m i n i s m d i d not d i e a f t e r s u f f r a g e b u t r a t h e r t h a t m a t e r n a l f e m i n i s m c o n s t i t u t e d an i m p o r t a n t l i n k i n t h e r e f o r m c h a i n from t h e P r o g r e s s i v e e r a t o t h e New D e a l . Women's a c t i v i t y , he c l a i m e d , s l o w e d i n t h e mid-1920's f o l l o w i n g t h e Supreme C o u r t d e c i s i o n w h i c h r e v e r s e d much newly e n a c t e d s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n and t h e d e f e a t of the P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y i n t h e 1924 e l e c t i o n s . But he i d e n t i f i e d o r g a n i z e d s o c i a l f e m i n i s t s as one of t h e few segments of s o c i e t y t h a t c o n t i n u e d t o promote r e f o r m d u r i n g a p e r i o d when t h e l a r g e r P r o g r e s s i v e movement was f r a g m e n t i n g under t h e p r e s s u r e s of w o r l d - w i d e i s s u e s of war and p e a c e . Up u n t i l t h e mid 1920's, Lemons i d e n t i f i e d as h i g h a l e v e l of a c t i v i t y as i n t h e p r e - s u f f r a g e p e r i o d . I t was o n l y a f t e r t h i s t i m e , he c l a i m e d , t h a t s u c c e s s i n r e f o r m began t o e l u d e f e m i n i s t s , f o r c i n g them o n t o t h e d e f e n s i v e u n t i l t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h e New D e a l . 2 2 D u r i n g t h i s l a t t e r p e r i o d , " i n s t e a d of b e i n g a b l e t o c o u n t t h e number of r e f o r m s won t h e y o f t e n had t o be s a t i s f i e d w i t h p r e v e n t i n g m i s c h i e f . " 2 3 Some r e c e n t C a n a d i a n s t u d i e s have t a k e n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h . R a t h e r t h a n s p e c i f i c a l l y f o l l o w i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s of o r g a n i z e d clubwomen i n t h e t r a d i t i o n of S t r o n g - Boag' s The P a r l i a m e n t of Women, t h e y have a p p r o a c h e d p o s t - s u f f r a g e a c t i v i t y from t h e p o i n t of v i e w of c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s t o women's r o l e i n s o c i e t y w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n c h a n g i n g g o a l s and p r a c t i c e s and have t r a c e d t h e r a p i d r i s e of t h e c h i l d r a i s i n g 2 2 I b i d . , c h s . 7,8. 2 3 I b i d . , p. 229. 1 6 " e x p e r t " i n t h e y e a r s a f t e r t h e F i r s t W o r l d War. 2" S t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by b e h a v i o r i s m and t h e new s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , d o c t o r s , t e a c h e r s , and t h e "new p r o f e s s i o n a l s " i n f i e l d s l i k e s o c i a l w e l f a r e and p s y c h o l o g y blamed h a p h a z a r d t r a d i t i o n a l c h i l d r a i s i n g methods f o r many of s o c i e t y ' s i l l s and c l a i m e d t h a t o n l y t h e y c o u l d show m o t h e r s t h e c o r r e c t s c i e n t i f i c methods of c h i l d r a i s i n g t h a t w o u l d p r o d u c e a new g e n e r a t i o n of h e a l t h y w e l l a d j u s t e d c i t i z e n s . 2 5 "A new v i s i o n of s o c i e t y r e q u i r e d a new f a m i l y , t h e mother s u b m i s s i v e t o a n a t i o n a l i d e o l o g y of o r d e r , " c l a i m s S i l v e r m a n but q u e s t i o n s w h e t h e r women's a c q u i e s c e n c e t o the demands o f t h i s new, h o m e - c e n t r e d r o l e was as g e n e r a l as i t a p p e a r e d . 2 6 A l o n g w i t h a d v i c e from p r o f e s s i o n a l s , d e s t i t u t e m o t h e r s i n t h e 1920's were i n c r e a s i n g l y o f f e r e d f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , no l o n g e r as c h a r i t y but by t h e s t a t e , as "payment f o r s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d " i n b r i n g i n g up f u t u r e c i t i z e n s . I n . t h e s e c o n d h a l f of the 1910's most p r o v i n c e s p a s s e d M o t h e r s ' P e n s i o n l e g i s l a t i o n . S t r o n g - B o a g has n o t e d t h a t " t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s t a t e c h o s e t o V e r o n i c a Strong-Boag,. " I n t r u d e r s i n t h e N u r s e r y : C h i l d c a r e P r o f e s s i o n a l s Reshape"' t h e Y e a r s One t o f i v e , 1 920-1940," i n J o y P a r r e d . , C h i l d h o o d and F a m i l y i n C a n a d i a n H i s t o r y ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d & S t e w a r t , 1982), pp. 160-178; Norah L e w i s , " A d v i s i n g t h e P a r e n t s : C h i l d r e a r i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t h e I n t e r w a r Y e a r s " (Ed.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1980). See P a t r i c i a Rooke and R u d i S c h n e l l , " C h i l d W e l f a r e i n E n g l i s h Canada, 1920-1943," S o c i a l S e r v i c e Review 5:33 (September 1981) pp. 485-506; Rooke and S c h n e l l , "The R i s e and D e c l i n e of B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a P r o t e s t a n t C h i l d r e n ' s Homes as Woman's Domain 1850-1930," A t l a n t i s 7:2 ( S p r i n g 1982) pp. 21-35; James S t r u t h e r s , "A P r o f e s s i o n i n C r i s i s : C h a r l o t t e W h i t t o n and C a n a d i a n S o c i a l S e r v i c e i n t h e 1930's," C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l R e v iew, 62:2 (June 1981) pp. 169-85. E l i a n e S i l v e r m a n , " W r i t i n g C a n a d i a n Women's H i s t o r y , " p. 518. 1 7 r e c o g n i z e needy f e m a l e c i t i z e n s a l m o s t s o l e l y i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y as m o t h e r s r e f l e c t e d how f a r women had y e t t o g o . " 2 7 But clubwomen's s u p p o r t o f and d e l i g h t a t t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f p e n s i o n s , i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a t l e a s t , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y p l a c e d f a r more s t r e s s on t h e f a c t t h a t t h e m a t e r n a l r o l e was b e i n g p u b l i c l y r e c o g n i s e d t h a n on t h e i s s u e o f whether o r not women were a c h i e v i n g g r e a t e r i n d e p e n d e n c e and freedom as p e r s o n s . L i k e w i s e , t h e w o r k p l a c e i n t h e 1920's was t h e t a r g e t f o r l e g i s l a t i o n , i n t h e form of minimum wages and r u d i m e n t a r y i n s p e c t i o n and c o n t r o l of f a c t o r i e s , w h i c h clubwomen p r a i s e d as an advance but w h i c h many w o r k i n g women f o u n d made l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e i r s o c i a l and economic s t a t u s . 2 8 P e r h a p s one of t h e c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n t h e s e a r e a s l i e s i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n o f b o t h t h e p r o b l e m s and t h e s o l u t i o n s by m i d d l e - c l a s s m a t e r n a l f e m i n i s t r e f o r m e r s and t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s women who were t h e o b j e c t s o f t h e fo r m e r r e f o r m V e r o n i c a S t r o n g - B o a g , "Canada's E a r l y E x p e r i e n c e w i t h Income S u p p l e m e n t s : The I n t r o d u c t i o n o f M o t h e r s ' A l l o w a n c e s , " A t l a n t i s 4:2 ( S p r i n g 1972) p. 43; see a l s o S t r o n g - B o a g , '"Wages f o r Housework': M o t h e r s ' A l l o w a n c e s and the B e g i n n i n g s of S o c i a l S e c u r i t y i n Canada," J o u r n a l of C a n a d i a n S t u d i e s 14:1 ( S p r i n g 1 979), pp. 24-34. See Susan Mann T r o f i m e n k o f f , "102 M u f f l e d V o i c e s : Canada's I n d u s t r i a l Women i n t h e 1880's," A t l a n t i s 3:1 (Autumn 1977) pp. 66-83; L i n d a Bohen, "Women Wo r k e r s i n O n t a r i o : A S o c i o - L e g a l H i s t o r y , " U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o F a c u l t y of Law Review 31 (Au g u s t 1973) pp. 45-74; Graham S. Lowe, " C l a s s , J o b and Gender i n t h e C a n a d i a n O f f i c e , " L a b o u r / L e T r a v a i l l e u r 10 (Autumn 1982) pp. 11- 37; S t a r R o s e n t h a l , "Union M a i d s : O r g a n i z e d Women Workers i n V a n c o u v e r , 1900-1915," B C S t u d i e s 41 ( S p r i n g 1979) pp. 36-55; J e a n S a n g s t e r , "The 1907 B e l l T e l e p h o n e S t r i k e : O r g a n i z i n g Women W o r k e r s , " L a b o u r / L e T r a v a i l l e u r 3 (1978) pp. 109-30. 18 a c t i v i t y . As S t r o n g - B o a g has p o i n t e d o u t , "The a l l - t o o - f a m i l i a r h a r d s h i p s of b l u e c o l l a r l a b o u r e n e r g i z e d a new g e n e r a t i o n o f women w o r k e r s " w h i l e m a t e r n a l f e m i n i s t r e f o r m e r s s i g n a l l y f a i l e d t o do s o . 2 9 The i d e a l i s m of m a t e r n a l f e m i n i s m was a remnant of a p r e v i o u s g e n e r a t i o n and w o r l d v i e w t h a t a p p e a r s t o have been u n a b l e t o a d a p t t o a c h a n g i n g s o c i a l and economic o r d e r w h i c h c r e p t upon i t unawares j u s t as i t s p r o p o n e n t s began t o f e e l t h a t t h e y were a c h i e v i n g s u c c e s s . Some A m e r i c a n s have d e a l t w i t h a t t i t u d e s t o women and t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o s o c i e t a l c h anges as p a r t o f t h e b r o a d e r s t u d y o f c h a n g i n g sex r o l e s i n t h e p a s t c e n t u r y . B a r b a r a W e l t e r ' s s t u d y of t h e " c u l t o f t r u e womanhood" s t o o d a l o n e i n t h i s f i e l d f o r n e a r l y two d e c a d e s . 3 0 L a t e r s t u d i e s c o n f i r m e d h e r f i n d i n g s t o a c e r t a i n d e g r e e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e q u a l i t i e s t h a t came t o be seen as d e s i r a b l e i n a woman i n t h e m i d d l e of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . But i t s c h i e f weakness l a y i n t h e f a c t t h a t i t d i d not a l l o w women any a c t i v e p a r t i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r own r o l e ; W e l t e r saw f e m a l e r o l e s as l a r g e l y a male i m p o s i t i o n . More r e c e n t s t u d i e s have a t t e m p t e d t o a n a l y z e sex r o l e s w i t h i n a much b r o a d e r c o n t e x t . P e t e r F i l e n e i n H i m / H e r / S e l f , f o r i n s t a n c e , i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e of s t u d y i n g b o t h male and f e m a l e r o l e s t o g e t h e r , p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t c h a n g e s i n r o l e were not s i m p l y a r e s u l t of s o c i e t a l change but were i n f l u e n c e d a l s o V e r o n i c a S t r o n g - B o a g , "The G i r l o f t h e New Day: C a n a d i a n W o r k i n g Women i n t h e 1920's," L a b o u r / L e T r a v a i l l e u r 4(1979) p.163. B a r b a r a W a l t e r , "The C u l t of T r u e Womenhood, 1820-1860," A m e r i c a n Q u a r t e r l y 18:2, p a r t 1 (Summer 1966) pp. 151-74. 1 9 by t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of c h a n g i n g p e r c e p t i o n s and a c t i o n s of t h e s e x e s , t h e m s e l v e s . 3 1 Thus he s e e s t h e emphasis on a n u r t u r i n g f e m i n i n e r o l e w i t h i n t h e home as b a l a n c e d by t h e i n c r e a s i n g demands f o r a s s e r t i v e m a s c u l i n i t y w i t h i n t h e male s p h e r e o f b u s i n e s s and p u b l i c l i f e i n t h e t h i r d q u a r t e r o f t h e l a s t c e n t u r y . B u t , he m a i n t a i n s , by t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , t h e A m e r i c a n dream of r a g s - t o - r i c h e s s u c c e s s t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l e f f o r t became i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o s s i b l e t o a t t a i n and a t e n s i o n began t o grow between t h e forme r male and f e m a l e s p h e r e s and r o l e s w h i c h , i n t u r n , became l e s s and l e s s a b l e t o answer t h e needs o f t h e s e x e s . M a l e f r u s t r a t i o n i n t h e f a c e of g r o w i n g c o r p o r a t e and b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e s was t o some e x t e n t p u r g e d by t h e a g g r e s s i o n of t h e F i r s t W o r l d War and t h e r e s u l t was a change i n sex r o l e s i n t h e 1920's, c u l m i n a t i n g i n t h e i d e a of t h e c o m p a n i o n a t e m a r r i a g e i n w h i c h b o t h p a r t n e r s would p l a y a more e q u a l r o l e i n c r e a t i n g a p r o t e c t i v e and s u p p o r t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t f o r t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . But su c h a change r e q u i r e d t i m e f o r c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f b e l i e f s and p e r c e p t i o n s and f o r w o r k i n g o u t new d i v i s i o n s i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and t i m e was w o r k i n g a g a i n s t t h e new men and women of t h e 20's. Few, F i l e n e c l a i m s , managed t o make t h e change w i t h any s u c c e s s b e f o r e t h e sudden o n s e t of t h e g r e a t d e p r e s s i o n s e t s o c i e t y once more on i t s h e e l s and pushed c o n c e r n f o r c h a n g i n g sex r o l e s i n t o t h e b a c k g r o u n d ; t h e s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l was now utmost i n the 3 1 P e t e r F i l e n e , H i m / H e r / S e l f : Sex R o l e s i n Modern A m e r i c a (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e , J o v a n o v i t c h , 1974). 3 2 I b i d . , c h . 5. 20 n a t i o n ' s c o l l e c t i v e p s y c h e . 3 2 H i m / H e r / S e l f s t a n d s a l o n e i n a t t e m p t i n g t o c h a r t and e x p l a i n t h e cha n g e s i n t h e r o l e s of b o t h s e x e s ; most s t u d i e s have c o n f i n e d t h e m s e l v e s t o women's r o l e s a l o n e . C a r l D e g l e r , f o r i n s t a n c e , i d e n t i f i e s what he c a l l s a b a s i c t e n s i o n between women's r o l e s as i n d i v i d u a l s and as m o t h e r s . 3 3 The h i s t o r i c f a m i l y , he c l a i m s depended " f o r i t s e x i s t e n c e and c h a r a c t e r on women's s u b o r d i n a t i o n " and d e s p i t e a l l a t t e m p t s i n t h e p a s t c e n t u r y t o i n c r e a s e f e m a l e autonomy and e q u a l i t y he n o t e s t h a t women's l i v e s a r e s t i l l , i n t h e ma i n , shaped a r o u n d t h e f a m i l y . S h e i l a Rothman has a l s o d e a l t w i t h t h e e f f e c t of c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s a b o u t women and t h e r o l e s t h e y p l a y i n s o c i e t y . 3 " She se e s t h e i d e o l o g y o f e d u c a t e d motherhood l e a d i n g t o p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y on t h e p a r t o f A m e r i c a n women once t h e v o t e was won. But when woman-supported l e g i s l a t i o n , s u c h as t h e T921 Shepard-Towner A c t w h i c h was i n t e n d e d t o r e d u c e t h e i n f a n t and m a t e r n a l m o r t a l i t y r a t e s , and a c t s t o c o n t r o l h o u r s and work c o n d i t i o n s , widows' p e n s i o n s and t h e l i k e d i d not d e v e l o p as a n t i c i p a t e d , she sees women s l i p p i n g back once more i n t o a p r e d o m i n a n t l y d o m e s t i c r o l e , a l b e i t a d i f f e r e n t one t o t h a t o f t h e p r e v i o u s g e n e r a t i o n . L i k e F i l e n e , she has i d e n t i f i e d a much g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s on woman as w i f e and companion i n t h e 1920's t h a n had been t h e c a s e i n t h e p r e v i o u s c e n t u r y . 3 3 C a r l N. D e g l e r , At Odds: Women and F a m i l y i n A m e r i c a f r o m t h e R e v o l u t i o n t o t h e P r e s e n t (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1980) . 3" S h e i l a Rothman, Woman's P r o p e r P l a c e , p. 177. 21 W i l l i a m C h a f e ' s s t u d y p u r p o s e l y • d e a l t w i t h t h e p e r i o d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e w i n n i n g of t h e f r a n c h i s e , i n an a t t e m p t t o c o r r e c t what D e g l e r has c a l l e d " t h e s u f f r a g e o r i e n t a t i o n o f women's r i g h t s s t u d i e s " . 3 5 C h a f e s u r v e y s women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i t i c s , i n d u s t r y , p r o f e s s i o n s and o t h e r a s p e c t s of A m e r i c a n l i f e i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y and a c c o u n t f o r c h a n g i n g s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l r o l e s i n t h e p o s t - s u f f r a g e p e r i o d . He c o n c l u d e s t h a t women f a i l e d t o a c h i e v e e q u a l i t y w i t h s u f f r a g e b e cause t h e y " s e r i o u s l y o v e r - e s t i m a t e d t h e im p a c t of t h e b a l l o t on t h e s t r u c t u r e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e s e x e s . " 3 6 N e v e r t h e l e s s , he does n ot see t h i s f a i l u r e as t h e end of women's p u b l i c a c t i v i t y , m e r e l y as y e t a n o t h e r f a c t o r t h a t e f f e c t e d c o n t i n u i n g change and devel o p m e n t i n women's sex r o l e s . 3 7 S t u d i e s of c h a n g i n g sex r o l e s have not p r o d u c e d a c o m p l e t e answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f what r e f o r m - m i n d e d women d i d a f t e r s u f f r a g e , n or of t h e i m p a c t t h a t t h e i r a c t i o n s , o r l a c k of them, had on t h e w i d e r s o c i e t y . But t h e y have i l l u m i n a t e d i m p o r t a n t Quoted i n E s t e l l e Freedman, "The New Woman: C h a n g i n g V i e w s of Women i n t h e 1920's," J o u r n a l of A m e r i c a n H i s t o r y 61 (September 1974) p. 392. W i l l i a m C h a f e , The A m e r i c a n Women: Her C h a n g i n g S o c i a l Economic and P o l i t i c a l R o l e s , ' 1920-1970 (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972). E l a i n e T y l e r May, G r e a t E x p e c t a t i o n s : M a r r i a g e and D i v o r c e i n P o s t V i c t o r i a n A m e r i c a ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1980); W i l l i a m L e a c h , T r u e Love and P e r f e c t U n i o n (New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s , ' 1980); L o i s S c h a r f , To Work and t o Wed: Female Employment, F e m i n i s m and t h e G r e a t D e p r e s s i o n ( W e s t p o i n t , Conn.: Greenwood P r e s s , 1973). Two r e c e n t C a n a d i a n s t u d i e s of t h e same ge n r e but d e a l i n g w i t h a much e a r l i e r t i m e p e r i o d a r e S y l v i a Van K i r k , "Many Tender T i e s " : Women i n F u r Trade S o c i e t y ( W i n n i p e g : Watson & Dwyer, 1980) and J e n n i f e r Brown, S t r a n g e r s i n B l o o d : F u r T r a d e Company F a m i l i e s i n I n d i a n C o u n t r y ( V a n c o u v e r : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e s s , 1980). 22 c o n t i n u i t i e s as w e l l as d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s between t h e end of t h e p r o g r e s s i v e e r a and t h e s t a r t of t h e modern e r a . B o t h F i l e n e and Rothman have n o t e d i m p o r t a n t changes i n e x p e c t a t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s and r o l e s i n t h e 1920's w h i c h h e l p t o e x p l a i n t h e s o r t s of a c t i v i t i e s t h a t women engaged i n as w e l l as t h e r e s u l t s of t h e s e a c t i o n s . They a l s o c l a r i f y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e changes d i d not t a k e p l a c e s o l e l y i n r e l a t i o n t o women; major c h a n g e s t o o k p l a c e t h a t a f f e c t e d t h e whole of s o c i e t y , i n s t i t u t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s , i n p r i v a t e l i f e and i n p u b l i c l i f e , f o r men, women and c h i l d r e n . These A m e r i c a n s t u d i e s a r e v a l u a b l e t o C a n a d i a n h i s t o r i a n s f r om t h e p o i n t of v i e w of i n d i c a t i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h as w e l l as i n i n d i c a t i n g b r o a d t r e n d s and i n f l u e n c e s i n A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y . However, t h e y must be used w i t h c a u t i o n i n t h e C a n a d i a n c o n t e x t f o r n e i t h e r s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s nor b r o a d t r e n d s were i d e n t i c a l i n t h e two c o u n t r i e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e s e t - b a c k t h a t A m e r i c a n r e f o r m e r s r e c e i v e d w i t h t h e Supreme C o u r t d e c i s i o n s on l e g i s l a t i o n s u c h as t h e Shepard-Towner A c t was not p a r a l l e l e d i n Canada, n e i t h e r was t h e movement i n t h e 1920's t o w a r d changed sex r o l e s so p r o n o u n c e d . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d a t t h i s p o i n t p e r h a p s t h a t t h e d i c h o t o m y w h i c h e x i s t s between t h e F r e n c h and E n g l i s h s e c t o r s of C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y i s a l s o t o be f o u n d i n t h e w r i t i n g of t h e h i s t o r y of i t s women. T h i s i s p a r t l y due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r e w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n d i f f e r i n g s i t u a t i o n s and d i f f e r i n g s e q u e n c e s of e x p e r i e n c e s f o r women i n t h e two s o c i e t i e s and makes c o m p a r i s o n s 23 between t h e two d i f f i c u l t , i f not i m p o s s i b l e . The movement by m i d d l e - c l a s s women out of t h e home a t t h e end of t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y t h a t has been t h e c e n t r e of so many E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n s t u d i e s was not so p r o n o u n c e d i n Quebec. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s e women t o o formed o r g a n i z a t i o n s , had a s p i r a t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e d changes i n a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e i r r o l e s as women, w i v e s and m o t h e r s . T h e i r e x p e r i e n c e has formed t h e b a s i s f o r a l i v e l y and e x p a n d i n g l i t e r a t u r e . The r o l e of women i n r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s has been seen as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e l i m i t e d c h o i c e s of i m m i g r a t i o n , d o m e s t i c s e r v i c e o r m a r r i a g e and c o n t i n u a l p r e g n a n c y , o f f e r i n g some measure of autonomy and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of a b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n . 3 8 And t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between nuns and o r g a n i z e d g r o u p s of laywomen a t t h e end of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and b e g i n n i n g of t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y has been seen as r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e g r o w t h of a c e r t a i n measure of s o c i a l f e m i n i s m b e f o r e r e a c t i o n from t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e and p o w e r f u l c h u r c h and c l e r g y b r o u g h t t h e movement t o a h a l t a f t e r " W o r l d War O n e . 3 9 The r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n of L ' h i s t o i r e des femmes au Quebec d e p u i s q u a t r e s i e c l e s , has marked a m i l e s t o n e i n women's D a n i e l l e J u t e a u - L e e , "Les R e l i g i e u s e s du Quebec: l e u r i n f l u e n c e s u r l a v i e p r o f e s s i o n e l l e des femmes, 1908-1954," A t l a n t i s 5:2 ( S p r i n g 1980) pp. 22-33; D. Suzanne C r o s s , "The N e g l e c t e d M a j o r i t y : t h e C h a n g i n g R o l e of Women i n N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y M o n t r e a l , " i n L i n d a K e a l e y , e d . , The N e g l e c t e d M a j o r i t y , pp. 67- 86; M i c h e l i n e Dumont-Johnson, "Les communautes r e l i g i e u s e s e t l a c o n d i t i o n f e m i n i n e , " R e c h e r c h e s s o c i o g r a p h i q u e s 19:1 ( j a n v i e r - a v r i l 1978) pp. 79-102. M a r t a D a n y l o w y c z , " C h a n g i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p s : Nuns and F e m i n i s m i n M o n t r e a l , 1890-1925," " H i s t o i r e S o c i a l e / S o c i a l H i s t o r y 14:28 (November 1981) pp. 213-234; M a r i e L a v i g n e , Y o l a n d e P i n a r d and J e n n i f e r S t p d d a r t , "The F e d e r a t i o n N a t i o n a l e S a i n t - J e a n - B a p t i s t e and t h e Woman's Movement i n Quebec," i n L i n d a K e a l e y , e d . , A Not U n r e a s o n a b l e C l a i m , pp. 71-88. 24 h i s t o r y , b o t h i n sc o p e and a p p r o a c h . " 0 C o v e r i n g c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s of work, r e p r o d u c t i o n , p u b l i c p o l i c y , l e g a l s t a t u s , i d e o l o g y and c u l t u r e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e l i v e s of women, t h e a u t h o r s have r e j e c t e d t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d p e r i o d i z a t i o n and i n s t e a d o r d e r e d t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e i r s t u d y a r o u n d c a t e g o r i e s t h a t r e l a t e more c l o s e l y t o women and t h e i r c h a n g i n g r o l e s w i t h i n s o c i e t y . A number of q u e s t i o n s t h e n , a r e s u g g e s t e d by t h e l i t e r a t u r e , w h i c h may be p u r s u e d t h r o u g h a s t u d y of women's r e f o r m a c t i v i t y i n t h e p e r i o d 1910-1928. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s w e l l s u i t e d as a c a s e s t u d y f o r t h e C a n a d i a n c o n t e x t . As t h e f o u r t h p r o v i n c e t o g a i n t h e f e m a l e f r a n c h i s e i t can be seen as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e - i t was n e i t h e r a r a d i c a l l e a d e r n or a t a i l - e n d f o l l o w e r coming i n t o l i n e m e r e l y b e c a u s e s u f f r a g e was a f a i t a c c o m p l i e l s e w h e r e . The o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o w h i c h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a women b e l o n g e d and t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e y worked f o r r e f o r m were c o m p a r a b l e o r i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e a c r o s s t h e n a t i o n - t h e L o c a l C o u n c i l of Women (LCW), WCTU, Women's I n s t i t u t e s , s u f f r a g e , p o l i t i c a l and c i t i z e n s h i p s o c i e t i e s . T h r o u g h n a t i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n s and p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s , women t h r o u g h o u t E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Canada were i n t o u c h w i t h e a c h o t h e r ' s a c t i v i t i e s and s h a r e d common g o a l s . The r e s u l t s of t h e i r a c t i v i t y i n t h e form of new l e g i s l a t i o n and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s f o r women and c h i l d r e n 4 0 Le C o l l e c t i f C l i o , L ' H i s t o i r e des femmes au Quebec d e p u i s q u a t r e s i e c l e s , ( M o n t r e l : Les Q u i n z e , 1982). \ 25 were a l s o s i m i l a r a c r o s s t h e n a t i o n . The q u e s t i o n of m o t h e r s ' p e n s i o n s , e q u a l g u a r d i a n s h i p , c hanges i n d i v o r c e and m a r r i a g e l aws and minimum wages f o r women, f o r i n s t a n c e , came b e f o r e t h e l e g i s l a t u r e s of most p r o v i n c e s i n t h e 1920's. D e s p i t e t h e c l a i m s of H e l e n M a c G i l l i n 1928 t h a t " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . . . f r o m b e i n g t h e most backward of P r o v i n c e s , t o d a y l e a d s i n s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n " , t h i s was o b v i o u s l y not t h e c a s e . " ' T h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e r e s t of E n g l i s h Canada, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e f i v e p r o v i n c e s west of Q uebec." 2 C o n c e n t r a t i o n on a s i n g l e c i t y w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e f a c i l i t a t e s a d e e p e r e x p l o r a t i o n of t h e m o t i v e s , methods and i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n r e f o r m . V a n c o u v e r ' s p o s i t i o n as t h e major u r b a n c e n t r e i n t h e p r o v i n c e ^ and t h e t h i r d l a r g e s t c i t y i n Canada a l s o a l l o w s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t o be made i n t h e n a t i o n a l and even i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . The e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e s a f a i r l y c o m p r e h e n s i v e a c c o u n t and e x p l a n a t i o n of many a s p e c t s of t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y women's movement, but some gaps e x i s t and some q u e s t i o n s have e i t h e r been answered u n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y o r r e m a i n as y e t unanswered. An e x a m i n a t i o n of a g r o u p of s i m i l a r y e t d i s t i n c t 4 1 H e l e n M a c G i l l , Laws f o r Women and C h i l d r e n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( V i c t o r i a : n.p., 1928) p. 6. 4 2 The m a r i t i m e p r o v i n c e s and Quebec were g e n e r a l l y s l o w e r t o a c t . F o r e x a m p l e , Nova S c o t i a d i d n o t p a s s M o t h e r s ' P e n s i o n s l e g i s l a t i o n u n t i l 1930, Quebec d i d so i n 1937 and New B r u n s w i c k , a l t h o u g h i t had an a c t on t h e books i n 1930, d i d not a c t u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e any p e n s i o n s t i l l 1940. On t h e o t h e r hand a l l p r o v i n c e s , e x c e p t P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d and New B r u n s w i c k had women's minimum wage l e g i s l a t i o n by 1920, but Nova S c o t i a and Quebec d i d not a p p o i n t r e g u l a t o r y b o a r d s u n t i l 1927 and 1930 r e s p e c t i v e l y . 26 women's c l u b s a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l o f f e r s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o f i l l some gaps and p u r s u e s u c h q u e s t i o n s . T h i s t h e s i s c o n c e r n s i t s e l f w i t h f o u r such a r e a s . The f i r s t i s s o c i a l c l a s s and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between and w i t h i n c l a s s t h a t form t h e s t r u c t u r a l f o u n d a t i o n s of s o c i e t y . The m a j o r i t y of women i n v o l v e d i n r e f o r m have been c a t e g o r i z e d as m i d d l e c l a s s by a number o f s t u d i e s . But r e f o r m was d i r e c t e d n o t o n l y a t f a c t o r s w h i c h p r e d o m i n a n t l y a f f e c t e d m i d d l e - c l a s s women's own l i v e s but a l s o a t p r o b l e m s w h i c h e x i s t e d f o r w o r k i n g - c l a s s women. M o r r i s o n has c l a i m e d t h a t i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y m a t e r n a l f e m i n i s m " h e l p e d m i d d l e c l a s s women i n t h e f e m i n i s t movement t o r e c o n c i l e t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i r own c l a s s i n t e r e s t i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s t a t u s quo w i t h t h e u r g i n g s o f a h u m a n i t a r i a n c o n s c i e n c e . The end r e s u l t was a form of s o c i a l a c t i o n d e s i g n e d t o a l t e r n ot s o c i e t y but s o c i e t y ' s v i c t i m s . ' " 1 3 By t h e 1920's, women s t i l l had no c l e a r and c o n c i s e p h i l o s o p h y of an e q u a l i t y t h a t w o u l d t r a n s c e n d b o t h sex and c l a s s , b u t t h e i r c o n c e r n f o r r e f o r m s s u c h as t h e minimum wage and m o t h e r s ' p e n s i o n s seems t o have been b a s e d on more t h a n s i m p l y a w i s h t o p r e s e r v e t h e s t a t u s quo f o r t h e m s e l v e s , a t l e a s t i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o n t e x t . Clubwomen d i d not ap p e a r c o n s c i o u s l y t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between r e f o r m f o r t h e m s e l v e s and r e f o r m f o r w o r k i n g - c l a s s women, p o s s i b l y b e cause t h e y h e l d so s t r o n g l y t h e i d e a of t h e oneness o f womanhood. In o t h e r words, t h e i r b e l i e f i n t h e t e n e t s o f m a t e r n a l f e m i n i s m a p p e a r s t o have " 3 T e r r e n c e M o r r i s o n , " T h e i r P r o p e r S p h e r e , " pp. 73-74. 27 been so s t r o n g t h a t i t c o u l d sometimes overcome t h e i r a wareness of c l a s s , a t l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y . W o r k i n g - c l a s s women t o o , from t i m e t o t i m e , f e l t a sense of t h e s i s t e r h o o d of a l l women t h a t prompted them t o e n l i s t t h e a i d of o r g i v e s u p p o r t t o m i d d l e - c l a s s clubwomen i n s p e c i f i c c a m p a i g n s . T h e i r m o t i v a t i o n f o r s e e k i n g r e f o r m s s u c h as m o t h e r s ' p e n s i o n s and minimum wages stemmed from t h e d e s i r e t o remove some of t h e w o r s t h a r d s h i p s of t h e i r e v e r y d a y l i v e s and t o a c h i e v e f o r t h e m s e l v e s some measure of j u s t i c e and t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o l i v e d e c e n t l y . C l a s s f a c t o r s n o r m a l l y k ept t h e two g r o u p s f a r a p a r t p h y s i c a l l y , s o c i a l l y , e c o n o m i c a l l y and i d e o l o g i c a l l y , but t h e r e was some o v e r l a p and c o - o p e r a t i o n on i s s u e s t h a t were p e r c e i v e d as i m p o r t a n t by b o t h , a l b e i t f o r d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s . What f a c t o r s needed t o be i n o p e r a t i o n t o a l l o w t h i s c o - o p e r a t i o n ? How d i d e a c h g r o u p p e r c e i v e t h e o t h e r d u r i n g p e r i o d s when no c o - o p e r a t i o n was t a k i n g p l a c e ? Was i t o n l y a f e e l i n g o f s i s t e r h o o d t h a t b r o u g h t them t o g e t h e r o r was t h e s u p p o r t o f male p r e s s u r e g r o u p s j u s t as i m p o r t a n t and welcome? 4 4 Those s t u d i e s t h a t p l a c e t h e m a j o r i t y of women c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e f o r m as " m i d d l e - c l a s s " have t e n d e d t o l o o k l a r g e l y a t l e a d e r s r a t h e r t h a n a t rank and f i l e m embers. 4 5 Were b o t h g r o u p s i d e n t i c a l o r d i d t h e l a t t e r r e p r e s e n t a d i f f e r e n t s t r a t u m of 4 4 E s t e l l e Freedman, " S e p a r a t i s m as S t r a t e g y : Female I n s t i t u t i o n B u i l d i n g and A m e r i c a n F e m i n i s m , 1870-1930," F e m i n i s t S t u d i e s 5:3 ( F a l l 1979) p. 524. 28 s o c i e t y and d i d t h e y p e r h a p s b r i n g s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s and g o a l s to- c l u b d i r e c t e d r e f o r m ? I n t h e C a n a d i a n c o n t e x t " m i d d l e - c l a s s " i s used t o d e s c r i b e a l m o s t h a l f of t h e p o p u l a t i o n ; i t i n c l u d e s wide d i f f e r e n c e s i n economic c o n d i t i o n s , r e l i g i o n , e d u c a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s , s o c i a l s t a t u s and i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t y . An a t t e m p t a t a more p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n or d e s c r i p t i o n of b o t h clubmembers and c l a s s would seem a p p r o p r i a t e . " 6 The s e c o n d theme f o l l o w s c l o s e l y from t h e s e l a s t q u e s t i o n s and c o n c e r n s t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e c l u b s and t h e i r methods o f w o r k i n g . S t r o n g - B o a g has shown i n h e r s t u d y of t h e NCWC b o t h t h e s t r u c t u r e i t had and t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t a r o s e from i t . LCW's i n V a n c o u v e r and V i c t o r i a were amongst ' t h e most a c t i v e r e f o r m a s s o c i a t i o n s i n t h e p r o v i n c e i n t h e se c o n d and t h i r d d e cades o f t h e c e n t u r y . A l s o of some i m p o r t a n c e , b e c a u s e of t h e i r age and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n s , were t h e WCTU, I m p e r i a l O r d e r of D a u g h t e r s of t h e Empire (IODE), YWCA and Women's I n t e r n a t i o n a l League f o r Peace and Freedom (WILPF). There were a l s o a number of s m a l l but a c t i v e l o c a l c l u b s t h a t were formed i n t h e l a t e r V e r o n i c a S t r o n g - B o a g , P a r l i a m e n t of Women, c h . 4; C a r o l B a c c h i , L i b e r a t i o n D e f e r r e d ? p. 5; Wayne R o b e r t s , " ' R o c k i n g t h e C r a d l e f o r t h e W o r l d ' " , p. 26; Di a n n e C r o s s l e y , "The B.C. L i b e r a l P a r t y and Women's Re f o r m s , " i n B a r b a r a Latham and C a t h y K e s s , e d s . , I n Her Own R i g h t : S e l e c t e d E s s a y s on Women's H i s t o r y i n B.C." ( V i c t o r i a : Camosun C o l l e g e , 1 9 8 0 ) p~! 2 30; N e i l S u t h e r l a n d , C h i l d r e n i n E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y : F r a m i n g t h e T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y C o n s e n s u s ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o P r e s s , f 9 7 6 ) , p. 1 4. C a r o l D e n n i s o n , "Women's I n s t i t u t e s i n B.C.," p. 65 and E l i a n e S i l v e r m a n , " W r i t i n g C a n a d i a n Women's H i s t o r y , " p. 525, have b o t h q u e s t i o n e d t h e d e f i n i t i o n ( o r l a c k o f i t ) of t h e te r m ' m i d d l e - c l a s s ' and whe t h e r i n d e e d t h e m a j o r i t y of c l u b women were from t h i s l e v e l of s o c i e t y . 29 y e a r s of t h e s u f f r a g e campaign and a f t e r t h e v o t e was won p a r t i c u l a r l y i n V a n c o u v e r and V i c t o r i a - t h e New E r a League, t h e Woman's Forum, t h e P i o n e e r P o l i t i c a l E q u a l i t y L eague, t h e Women V o t e r s ' L eague, t h e B r i t i s h P r o g r e s s i v e League, U n i v e r s i t y Women's C l u b s , t o name a few. Each was i n d e p e n d e n t a l t h o u g h many were a f f i l i a t e d w i t h e ach o t h e r . I n t h e i r p u r s u i t o f r e f o r m , t h e s e c l u b s w o u l d most commonly p r e p a r e a r e s o l u t i o n w h i c h w o u l d t h e n be s e n t t o one o r a l l o f t h e o t h e r g r o u p s f o r d i s c u s s i o n and endorsement and f i n a l l y f o r w a r d e d t o t h e m u n i c i p a l o r p r o v i n c i a l government. T h i s w o u l d o f t e n be f o l l o w e d by a d e p u t a t i o n t o C i t y H a l l o r t o V i c t o r i a w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from some or a l l of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I n some c a s e s i t took v e r y l i t t l e p r e s s u r e of t h i s k i n d b e f o r e l e g i s l a t i o n was p a s s e d o r b y - l a w s c h a n g e d . I n o t h e r s , c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e and o f t e n a c r i m o n i o u s d e b a t e between government and women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s was n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e any r e f o r m was f o r t h c o m i n g . S t r o n g - B o a g has p o i n t e d o ut t h e weakness o f t h i s method a t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l , b e c a u s e of t h e s i z e of the NCWC, t h e wide range of i n t e r e s t s i t t r i e d t o r e p r e s e n t and t h e r i g i d i t y of i t s e x e c u t i v e s t r u c t u r e . " 7 Were t h e same p r o b l e m s a p p a r e n t a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ? C e r t a i n l y t h e f i r s t two f a c t o r s were n ot as s t r o n g . Membership numbers were o b v i o u s l y s m a l l e r and t h e r e was g r e a t e r u n i t y i n t h e sense t h a t most of t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s had s i m i l a r r e f o r m g o a l s whereas a f f i l i a t e s of NCWC r e p r e s e n t e d t h e whole s p e c t r u m of women's c l u b s . The LCW, " 7 V e r o n i c a S t r o n g - B o a g , P a r l i a m e n t o f Women, pp. 409-24. 30 of c o u r s e , a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d a wide range of c l u b s . The t h i r d f a c t o r may w e l l be i m p o r t a n t . The e x e c u t i v e s of n e a r l y a l l t h e s e c l u b s a p p e a r t o have been formed from a s i n g l e g r o u p of women. That i s , t h e names o f t h e e x e c u t i v e members a r e v e r y s i m i l a r from c l u b t o c l u b a l t h o u g h t h e a c t u a l p o s i t i o n h e l d v a r i e d . Was i t t h e c a s e t h a t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as i n t h e n a t i o n a l c o n t e x t , a s m a l l g r o u p imposed t h e i r i d e a s on a l a r g e r c l u b membership? Or was i t t h e c a s e t h a t a g r o u p w i t h g r e a t e r l e a d e r s h i p s k i l l s , a b i l i t y o r commitment g r a v i t a t e d n a t u r a l l y i n t o p o s i t i o n s of l e a d e r s h i p ? Was t h e r i g i d i t y t h a t S t r o n g - B o a g i d e n t i f i e d , a f a c t o r i n c l u b o r g a n i z a t i o n a t t h i s l e v e l ? Was i t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s l o w i n g down of a c t i v i t y t h a t i s e v i d e n t by t h e mid- 1920' s? Or was t h i s due t o o t h e r f a c t o r s , s u c h as a d i m i n u t i o n of sympathy and s u p p o r t on t h e p a r t of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s once t h e y r e a l i z e d t h a t a women's b l o c v o t e was no t h r e a t p o l i t i c a l l y ? Was i t due s i m p l y t o a weakening of t h e s t r e n g t h o r number of r e f o r m demands i n g e n e r a l ? Or d i d a l l f a c t o r s have some e f f e c t ? A t h i r d i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t i n t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t o f p e r i o d i z a t i o n . T r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r i a n s have l o o k e d a t t h e 1920's i n two ways. I f t h e i r i n t e r e s t i s p r i m a r i l y p o l i t i c a l o r e c o n o m i c , t h e y have seen i t as a r e l a t i v e l y q u i e t i n t e r v a l between t h e two w o r l d - s h a t t e r i n g e v e n t s of t h e G r e a t War and t h e D e p r e s s i o n , o r , i f t h e y have been more s o c i a l l y o r i e n t e d t h e y have p o r t r a y e d t h e p e r i o d , o f t e n s u p e r f i c i a l l y and a l m o s t s i m p l e - m i n d e d l y as t h e J a z z Age, t h e R o a r i n g T w e n t i e s , a t i m e of p r o h i b i t i o n , F o r d s and F l a p p e r s . J o a n K e l l y - G a d o l has p o i n t e d 31 out t h a t p e r i o d s i n h i s t o r y and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e have p r e v i o u s l y been a s s e s s e d from t h e p o i n t of v i e w of men, b u t s i g n i f i c a n t t u r n i n g p o i n t s need not have t h e same impact f o r one sex as f o r t h e o t h e r . " 8 T h e r e f o r e , a l t h o u g h t h e War and t h e D e p r e s s i o n had some im p a c t on women's r e f o r m a c t i v i t i e s , i t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o examine t h e p e r i o d o u t s i d e of t h e s e r i g i d b o u n d a r i e s i f we a r e t o u n d e r s t a n d women's h i s t o r y a n d, more p a r t i c u l a r l y , t h e de v e l o p m e n t of t h e women's movement a t t h i s t ime. An o v e r - s t r o n g e m p h a s i s on s u f f r a g e <by some women's h i s t o r i a n s has a l s o m i l i t a t e d a g a i n s t a t r u e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e movement as a w h o l e . To l o o k a t women o n l y b e f o r e o r a f t e r s u f f r a g e i s t o see o n l y h a l f o f t h e p i c t u r e . The m a j o r i t y o f women's r e f o r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e t h e v o t e was won, some of them many y e a r s b e f o r e . P r o - s u f f r a g e a g i t a t i o n was o n l y one of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and, once t h i s had been a c h i e v e d t h e y moved on t o o t h e r r e f o r m . L e i l a Rupp has s u g g e s t e d t h e v a l u e o f u s i n g t h e themes and c o n c e p t u a l frameworks so f a r d e v e l o p e d by s t u d i e s i n n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y women's h i s t o r y f o r e x p l o r i n g p r e v i o u s l y u n t o u c h e d t o p i c s i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . " 9 C e r t a i n l y we must be a r i n mind t h a t women i n t h e 1920's had s t r o n g c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h t h e Joan K e l l y - G a d o l , "The S o c i a l R e l a t i o n o f t h e S e x e s : M e t h o d o l o g i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s of Women's H i s t o r y , " S i gns 1:4 Summer 1976) pp. 810-12. L e i l a Rupp, " R e f l e c t i o n s on T w e n t i e t h - C e n t u r y A m e r i c a n Women's H i s t o r y , " R e v i e w s i n A m e r i c a n H i s t o r y 9:2 (June 1981) p. 275. 32 p r e v i o u s c e n t u r y . The m a j o r i t y o f clubmembers were b o r n i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e y grew t o m a t u r i t y and d e v e l o p e d t h e i r own p e r s o n a l b e l i e f s and v a l u e s under t h e i n f l u e n c e of n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s o c i e t y . I f we a l s o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t s t u d i e s l i k e t h o s e of F i l e n e and Rothman t h a t p i n p o i n t t h e 1920's as a ti m e o f major change i n sex r o l e s , t h e o r e t i c a l l y i f not a l w a y s i n p r a c t i c e , t h e n we s h o u l d d e f i n i t e l y be l o o k i n g a t clubwomen of t h e p e r i o d 1910-1928 as t h e g e n e r a t i o n who spanned t h i s m a jor change. From t h e p o i n t of v i e w o f women t h e n , t h e 1920's was not a q u i e t i n t e r v a l between more i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s but a s i g n i f i c a n t p e r i o d i n i t s own r i g h t . The f o u r t h and f i n a l theme c o n c e r n s t h e p r o b l e m of g e n e r a t i o n s . Many clubwomen o f t h e p e r i o d were m i d d l e aged, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e l e a d e r s most of whom had been a c t i v e f o r a decade and sometimes more, b e f o r e s u f f r a g e and o t h e r r e f o r m s were won. The q u e s t i o n of age i s i m p o r t a n t . D i d t h e s e women become p u b l i c l y a c t i v e b e c ause t h e y had grown up i n a p e r i o d when r a d i c a l f e m i n i s t s were more numerous and when t h e p r o g r e s s i v e e r a and i t s r e f o r m s were i n f u l l s w i n g ? Was t h e i r a c t i v i s m a c o n t i n u a t i o n of p a t t e r n s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e i r e a r l y y e a r s ? Or had t h e y o n l y moved i n t o c l u b work as t h e i r f a m i l i e s grew p a s t e a r l y c h i l d h o o d and needed l e s s and l e s s of t h e i r t i m e ? D i d t h e y come t o have more t i m e because t h e i r h u s b a n d s , by m i d d l e age, were f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s o r p r o f e s s i o n s and c o u l d a f f o r d t o p r o v i d e them w i t h h o u s e h o l d h e l p and t h e new h o u s e h o l d t e c h n o l o g y t h a t was becoming a v a i l a b l e ? Or were t h e s e women w e l l - e d u c a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s who had ne v e r 33 a c t u a l l y t a k e n j o b s but i n s t e a d t u r n e d t h e i r e n e r g i e s from an e a r l y age t o c l u b w o r k as an u n p a i d and s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e ? P r o b a b l y a l l t h r e e f a c t o r s were s i g n i f i c a n t . F i n a l l y , what ab o u t younger women, t h o s e between t h e ages o f , sa y , t w e n t y and t h i r t y - f i v e ? D i d t h e y f o l l o w t h e o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n i n t o c l u b l i f e and r e f o r m work? B o t h C a n a d i a n and A m e r i c a n s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t numbers of them wo u l d have been w e l l e d u c a t e d and t r a i n e d f o r c a r e e r s i n t h e e x p a n d i n g but s t i l l l i m i t e d s p h e r e open t o women - t e a c h i n g , n u r s i n g , l i b r a r i a n s h i p , j o u r n a l i s m and so on. They p r o b a b l y worked u n t i l m a r r i a g e but t h e n s e t t l e d down i n t o m o therhood and housework. D i d t h e y have t i m e f o r c l u b w o r k , even i f t h e y wanted t o be i n v o l v e d i n i t ? Or d i d t h e y eschew t h e c l u b w o r l d of t h e i r m o t h e r s t o t a l l y , p r e f e r r i n g t h e r o l e of c o m p a n i o n a t e w i f e and mother, s e e i n g t h e m s e l v e s as members of a new g e n e r a t i o n o f women h a v i n g l i t t l e o r n o t h i n g i n common w i t h t h e i r m o t h e r s ? E s t e l l e Freedman s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e d e c l i n e i n f e m i n i s m i n t h e 1920's i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e d e v a l u a t i o n of women's c u l t u r e i n g e n e r a l and s e p a r a t e f e m a l e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n p a r t i c u l a r as women t r i e d t o a s s i m i l a t e i n t o male i n s t i t u t i o n s i n s t e a d of w o r k i n g f o r e q u a l i t y t h r o u g h t h e i r o w n . 5 0 D i d younger women f o l l o w t h i s p a t h ? S t r o n g - B o a g has n o t e d t h a t o l d e r f e m i n i s t s o f t e n f e l t b e t r a y e d by t h e yo u n g e r women of t h e 1920's, i n d i c a t i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e of a wide gap between t h e v a l u e s and b e l i e f s o f t h e two g e n e r a t i o n s . 5 1 T h i s i s a n o t h e r p o s s i b l e 5 0 E s t e l l e Freedman, " S e p a r a t i s m as S t r a t e g y , " p. 524. 5 1 V e r o n i c a S t r o n g - B o a g , P a r l i a m e n t of Women, p. 413. 34 e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e d e c l i n e i n r e f o r m a c t i v i t y d u r i n g t h e 20's. W i t h no younger women coming up t h r o u g h t h e r a n k s t o t a k e o v e r l e a d e r s h i p , t h e r e must n e c e s s a r i l y have been a slow-down i n a c t i v i t y as t h e l e a d e r s aged and r e t i r e d . C l a s s , c l u b s t r u c t u r e , p e r i o d i z a t i o n and t h e a p p a r e n t l a c k of c o n t i n u i t y between g e n e r a t i o n s i n t h e se c o n d decade of t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y have been i d e n t i f i e d as i m p o r t a n t themes i n t h e s t u d y of women i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n h i s t o r y . They a r e themes w h i c h r a i s e a m u l t i t u d e of q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e methods, m o t i v a t i o n and a s p i r a t i o n s o f women r e f o r m e r s i n t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . A c r i t i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n o f s u c h themes i n t h e c o n t e x t of a s t u d y of s e l e c t e d women's c l u b s i n V a n c o u v e r s h o u l d e n a b l e us t o o f f e r some answers and t o make some f u r t h e r a s s e s s m e n t s of t h e s h o r t and l o n g t e r m e f f e c t s t h a t r e f o r m - minded women had on t h e s o c i e t y i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e d and f o r w h i c h t h e y had s u c h h i g h h opes. 35 C h a p t e r 2 "AN INVESTMENT IN CI V I C WELFARE": VANCOUVER WOMEN'S CLUBS, 1910~1928 The i n i t i a l movement of women, i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , from t h e narrow s p h e r e of t h e home t o t h e w i d e r s p h e r e of p u b l i c l i f e was a c c o m p l i s h e d i n l a r g e p a r t by means of women's c l u b s . So t o o was t h e f u r t h e r p u s h f o r e q u a l i t y t h a t t o o k p l a c e i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y as women's demands f o r e q u a l i t y of c i t i z e n s h i p became more s t r i d e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e w e s t e r n w o r l d . The women of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were a p a r t o f t h i s movement. L i k e many of t h e i r s i s t e r s a c r o s s Canada, i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s of A m e r i c a and i n B r i t a i n , t h e y seemed t o g a i n a new momentum as t h e s e c o n d decade of the new c e n t u r y began. I n t h e i r q u e s t f o r t h e means t o c a r r y out t h e i r d e s i r e d r o l e as c i v i c h o u s e k e e p e r s , t h e y e x t e n d e d and r e v i t a l i z e d t h e i r c l u b n e t w o r k . 1 Many women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f f e r e d members scope and o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a wide range o f r e f o r m - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s . Amongst V a n c o u v e r c l u b s , a g r o u p of h a l f a dozen s t a n d o ut as u n i q u e i n ter m s of t h e i r g o a l s and l e v e l s of a c t i v i t y . The a i m s , s t r u c t u r e and methods of o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s e c l u b s w i l l f o rm t h e b a s i s o f t h i s c h a p t e r . 1 See L i n d a H a l e , "The BC Woman S u f f r a g e Movement", f o r a d i v i s i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a campaign i n t o two d i s t i n c t p e r i o d s , b e f o r e and a f t e r 1910. 36 By 1910, c l u b l i f e was a l r e a d y a f a c t o r i n t h e l i f e of t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s u r b a n woman i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . R u r a l women t o o j o i n e d c l u b s , but t h e s p a r s e n e s s of p o p u l a t i o n o u t s i d e of t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d of t h e p r o v i n c e and t h e s o u t h e r n t i p of V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , as w e l l as t h e rug g e d n a t u r e of most of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s t e r r a i n , m i t i g a t e d a g a i n s t l a r g e s c a l e o r g a n i z a t i o n of women. C o u n t r y c e n t r e s , l a r g e and s m a l l , o f t e n s u p p o r t e d women's c h u r c h g r o u p s o r Women's I n s t i t u t e s , but t h e f o c u s of t h e s e g r o u p s was on l o c a l i s s u e s , t r a d i t i o n a l p h i l a n t h r o p y , and women's r o l e w i t h i n t h e home. P r o m o t i n g a p u b l i c r o l e f o r women and s e e k i n g l e g i s l a t i v e change was n o t t h e i r m a j o r g o a l . 2 Urban women, t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y of whom l i v e d i n or n e a r t h e two ma j o r c i t i e s of V i c t o r i a and V a n c o u v e r , had f a r g r e a t e r c h o i c e i n t e r m s of w h i c h c l u b s t h e y c o u l d and woul d j o i n . H i s t o r i c a l l y , c h u r c h a s s o c i a t e d c l u b s were t h e f i r s t t o draw women o u t s i d e o f t h e home and w e l l b e f o r e 1910 many of t h e l a r g e r p r o t e s t a n t c h u r c h e s had a s s o c i a t e d s o c i e t i e s . C a t h o l i c women t o o were t o be f o u n d i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s a t t a c h e d t o c h u r c h - r u n i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e S t . P a u l ' s H o s p i t a l and S t . Anne's C o n v e n t . The YWCA, WCTU and t h e O r d e r of K i n g s ' D a u g h t e r s had been a c t i v e f o r w e l l o v e r a d e c a d e , g i v i n g scope t o t h o s e women w i t h a c o n c e r n f o r t h e e x t e n s i o n of C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y and c h a r i t y t h r o u g h o u t s o c i e t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s . T h e r e were c l u b s t o o , whose c o n c e r n was m u t u a l 2 F o r d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i d e o l o g y o f t h e Woman's I n s t i t u t e s see C a r o l D e n n i s o n "The Women's I n s t i t u t e s i n B.C.," c h . 1 . 37 s u p p o r t and f i n a n c i a l h e l p f o r women a l o n g t h e l i n e s of male L o d g e s , f o r i n s t a n c e t h e Women's B e n e f i t A s s o c i a t i o n of t h e Maccabees (WBAM). Founded i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1892, by 1920 i t b o a s t e d o v e r 200,000 members i n N o r t h A m e r i c a and r a n a s u c c e s s f u l i n s u r a n c e b e n e f i t scheme f o r members and t h e i r d e p e n d e n t s . C u l t u r a l c l u b s of many k i n d s a l s o f l o u r i s h e d , f o r i n s t a n c e t h e A r t , H i s t o r i c a l and S c i e n t i f i c C l u b , Women's M u s i c a l C l u b , and t h e S t u d i o C l u b i n V a n c o u v e r , and t h e H i s t o r i c a l , A r t and L i t e r a r y S o c i e t i e s i n V i c t o r i a . A c t i n g as an u m b r e l l a o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r some th o u g h not a l l o f t h e s e women's c l u b s was t h e LCW, c o n n e c t i n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a women, t h r o u g h t h e NCWC w i t h women a c r o s s Canada and t h e w o r l d . W h i l e t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e s e g r o u p s had l i t t l e o r no i n t e r e s t i n e x t e n d i n g women's p u b l i c r o l e , two, t h e LCW and t h e WCTU, had been v e r y a c t i v e i n t h e s e a r e a s f o r some t i m e , l o b b y i n g b o t h f o r t h e v o t e and f o r c h a n g e s i n l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t t h e y c o n s i d e r e d was d i s c r i m i n a t o r y t o women. 3 The o n l y major change t h a t t h e y managed t o a c h i e v e p r i o r t o 1910 was t h e r i g h t f o r women t o v o t e f o r and h o l d o f f i c e on S c h o o l B o a r d s . Women i n t h e o l d e r c i t y o f V i c t o r i a seemd more i n c l i n e d o r a b l e t o work f o r and t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e of t h i s new r i g h t b e f o r e 1910 t h a n t h e i r s i s t e r s i n the newer c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . A f t e r t h i s p e r i o d t h o u g h , t h e i m p e t u s f o r r e f o r m as w e l l as much of t h e l e a d e r s h i p of women's movement s h i f t e d t o V a n c o u v e r (see T a b l e 1 ) . 3 H a l e , " S u f f r a g e , " Ch. 1. 38 T a b l e 1 Women S c h o o l T r u s t e e s P r i o r t o . 1 9 3 0 i n V i c t o r i a and V a n c o u v e r V i c t o r i a V a n c o u v e r Mrs M a r i a G r a n t Mrs D. R e i d 1895-96 1898-99 1899-1900 Mrs M a r i e McNaughton 1912-15 Mrs H e l e n G r a n t Mrs I r e n e Moody 1896-1903 1916-20 Mrs Dora M a c a u l a y Mrs M a r g a r e t J e n k i n s 1910-27 1897-98 Mrs A.E. Angus 1902-19 1920-21 M i s s Agnes Deans Cameron < Mrs F r a n c e s Eva H o p k i n s 1906 1923-28 Mrs A n n i e B. J a m i e s o n 1928-34. P o i n t Grey S o u t h V a n c o u v e r Mrs H.W. R i g g s Mrs A. Woods 1924-25 1914-16 Mrs A.E. McPhee Mrs P. E a s t h o p e 1914-18 1 926-27 Mrs E. W a t e r s 1923-25 Mrs M. C a m p b e l l 1 928 S o u r c e : V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d . A n n u a l R e p o r t 1928 pp. 9-10, 174-75, 194. * P o i n t G r e y and S o u t h V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d s were amalgamated w i t h V a n c o u v e r i n 1928. 39 T h r e e f a c t o r s h e l p e d e f f e c t , t h e change of f o c u s from one c i t y t o t h e o t h e r . The f i r s t was t h e r a p i d g r o w t h of V a n c o u v e r . D u r i n g t h e f i v e y e a r p e r i o d from 1908-1912 V a n c o u v e r ' s p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d 85% from 66,000 t o 122,000. In t h e decade p r i o r t o 1908 V a n c o u v e r had s l o w l y t a k e n o v e r from V i c t o r i a as t h e b u s i n e s s c e n t r e of t h e p r o v i n c e but t h i s sudden and s u b s t a n t i a l l e a p forw.ard p l a c e d h e r v e r y o b v i o u s l y i n t h e l e a d . 4 By 1922 t h e g r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a h e l d one t h i r d of t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e e n t i r e p r o v i n c e . 5 A sense o f e x c i t e m e n t and p r o g r e s s g r i p p e d V a n c o u v e r i t e s i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s of t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y ; a f e e l i n g t h a t on t h e edge of t h e f r o n t i e r a new c i t y , w h i c h s y m b o l i z e d a l l t h a t was modern and p r o g r e s s i v e , b i g g e r and b e t t e r , was g r o w i n g day by day. T h i s s e n s e , not o n l y of w a t c h i n g a c i t y grow, but b e i n g a p a r t of i t was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e j i n g l e t h a t was t o be h e a r d on many a r e s i d e n t ' s l i p s as t h e f i r s t decade of t h e new c e n t u r y drew t o a c l o s e . In 1910, V a n c o u v e r t h e n W i l l have 100,000 men. Move h e r , move h e r , Who? V a n c o u v e r ! 6 A l t h o u g h t h e y d i d n ' t r a t e a m e n t i o n , h a l f o f t h o s e "100,000 men" were of c o u r s e women. Many s h a r e d t h e sense o f o p t i m i s m t h a t i n f e c t e d t h e male h a l f of t h e p o p u l a t i o n u n t i l t h e economic b u s t R o b e r t M c D o n a l d , " B u s i n e s s L e a d e r s i n E a r l y V a n c o u v e r , 1886- 1914", ( U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Ph.D T h e s i s , 1977), pp. 25-28; M a r g a r e t Ormsby, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A H i s t o r y ( V a n c o u v e r ; M a c M i l l a n Co, 1958), pp. 354-56. I b i d . , p. 418. Quoted i n A l a n M o r l e y , V a n c o u v e r : From M i l l t o w n t o M e t r o p o l i s ( V a n c o u v e r : M i t c h e l l P r e s s " 1961), p~i 121. 40 of 1912 s e t t h e c i t y back on i t s h e e l s . 7 Many of them had t r a v e l l e d h a l f w a y a c r o s s t h e c o n t i n e n t , even h a l f w a y a c r o s s the w o r l d , w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s t o be a p a r t of t h e g r o w i n g new c i t y and t h e y b r o u g h t w i t h them t o t h e i r c l u b s t h e same e n t h u s i a s m t h a t t h e i r male r e l a t i v e s b r o u g h t t o t h e c i t y ' s b u s i n e s s l i f e . The s e c o n d f a c t o r w h i c h h e l p e d t o p l a c e V a n c o u v e r i n the f o r e f r o n t of p r o v i n c i a l r e f o r m c o n c e r n e d l e a d e r s h i p of women's c l u b s . Those V a n c o u v e r women who moved i n t o l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n s i n e s t a b l i s h e d c l u b s or who e s t a b l i s h e d new g r o u p s a f t e r t h e t u r n of t h e c e n t u r y were, on t h e w h o l e , y o u n g e r t h a n t h e f o r m e r l e a d e r s , many of whom had been a c t i v e f o r l o n g p e r i o d s . A l s o , t h e y were o f t e n r e l a t i v e l y newly a r r i v e d i n t h e c i t y . 8 The age d i f f e r e n c e was not a f u l l g e n e r a t i o n but was n e v e r t h e l e s s s u f f i c i e n t t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e newcomers as p a r t of a c o h o r t whose e x p e r i e n c e and o u t l o o k were somewhat d i f f e r e n t t o t h a t of t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s . 9 V i c t o r i a w i t h i t s more s t a t i c p o p u l a t i o n d i d n o t e x p e r i e n c e a s i m i l a r change i n l e a d e r s h i p . The V i c t o r i a LCW, f o r example, c o n t a i n e d , as l a t e as 1920, a c o r e of women who had been i n t h o s e p o s i t i o n s f o r up t o t w e n t y y e a r s . The i n t e r e s t s of t h e new l e a d e r s had a much w i d e r base t h a n t h o s e of t h e i r f o r e r u n n e r s . 1 0 S u f f r a g e was an i m p o r t a n t p a r t of t h e i r 7 M a r g a r e t Ormsby, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A H i s t o r y , 367, 384. 8 The t e n V a n c o u v e r women whom H a l e i d e n t i f i e s as b e i n g s u f f r a g e l e a d e r s and who were a l s o a c t i v e i n e x t e n d i n g o t h e r a s p e c t s of women's c i t i z e n s h i p , were a l l b o r n e l s e w h e r e . Seven a r r i v e d between 1902 and 1911; t h e o t h e r t h r e e a r r i v e d between 1889 and 1892; H a l e , " S u f f r a g e " , pp. 145-46. 9 The mean b i r t h y e a r of H a l e ' s f i r s t g r o u p of s u f f r a g e w o r k e r s i s 1.851 w h i l e t h a t of t h e t e n V a n c o u v e r women of t h e s e c o n d g r o u p i s 1872. 41 p l a t f o r m as i t had been w i t h t h e o l d e r l e a d e r s but so t o o was t h e e x t e n s i o n o f women's i n f l u e n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e p u b l i c r e a l m . They p l a c e d as much i f not more i m p o r t a n c e on c h a n g i n g l e g i s l a t i o n f o r women and c h i l d r e n and e d u c a t i n g women t o t a k e an e q u a l p l a c e i n p u b l i c and p o l i t i c a l l i f e a s t h e y d i d on g a i n i n g t h e v o t e . To them t h e f r a n c h i s e was not s i m p l y a t o o l by means of w h i c h o t h e r r e f o r m s w o u l d a u t o m a t i c a l l y be g a i n e d ; i t was one of many i s s u e s w h i c h r e q u i r e d t h e i r a c t i v e s u p p o r t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The t h i r d f a c t o r , w h i c h added new l i f e t o t h e p r o v i n c e - w i d e s u f f r a g e campaign and e n c o u r a g e d r e f o r m - m i n d e d women of a l l t y p e s was t h e g e n e r a l u p s u r g e i n t h e women's movement t h r o u g h o u t t h e w e s t e r n w o r l d a f t e r a b o u t 1910. The women of n e i g h b o u r i n g W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e were g r a n t e d t h e f r a n c h i s e i n s t a t e e l e c t i o n s i n O c t o b e r of t h a t y e a r - t h e f i r s t e x t e n s i o n of f e m a l e v o t i n g r i g h t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s i n c e 1896. W i t h i n . Canada i t s e l f , c a m p a i gns f o r t h e v o t e were underway i n s e v e r a l p r o v i n c e s , t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e p r a i r i e women b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e . 1 1 M e a n w h i l e , i n B r i t a i n , t h e r a d i c a l S u f f r a g e t t e s had begun t o 1 0 Susan C r e a s e , who was a f o u n d i n g member of t h e V i c t o r i a LCW i n 1894, was p r e s i d e n t from 1911-21 and a g a i n from 1923-32. On h e r r e t i r e m e n t from t h e p o s i t i o n she was 76. 1 1 See C a r o l B a c c h i , " D i v i d e d A l l e g i a n c e s : The Response of Farm and L a b o r Women t o S u f f r a g e , " i n L i n d a K e a l e y , e d . , A Not U n r e a s o n a b l e C l a i m , pp 89-107; V e r o n i c a S t r o n g - B o a g , " C a n a d i a n F e m i n i s m i n t h e 1920s: The Case of N e l l i e L. M c C l u n g , " J o u r n a l of C a n a d i a n S t u d i e s 12:4 (Summer 1977) pp. 58-68. 42 a t t r a c t not o n l y n a t i o n a l but i n t e r n a t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n . 1 2 The women of V a n c o u v e r , w o r k i n g i n l o o s e c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e i r s i s t e r s i n V i c t o r i a and New W e s t m i n s t e r and o c c a s i o n a l l y w i t h g r o u p s from t h e l a r g e r i n t e r i o r c i t i e s l i k e V e r n o n and N e l s o n , were c o n c e r n e d w i t h o n l y a p r o v i n c i a l c a m p a i g n . 1 3 N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e y were v e r y much aware o f , and f r e q u e n t l y i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s a c r o s s Canada. They a l s o f o l l o w e d w i t h i n t e r e s t ' , t h o u g h n ot a l w a y s w i t h a g r e e m e n t , t h e ca m p a i g n s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t a i n . 1 " V a n c o u v e r women c o n c u r r e d w i t h t h e S u f f r a g e t t e s ' aims but c o u l d not condone t h e i r r a d i c a l methods. In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by 1910 t h e n , i t was t h e women's c l u b s of Vancouver, who l e d t h e p r o v i n c e i n t h e f i e l d of r e f o r m b o t h i n te r m s of t h e e n e r g y o f t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p and a l s o i n t h e s i z e and number o f r e f o r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A g r o u p o f s i x c l u b s s t a n d o ut from t h e r e s t by v i r t u e of t h e i r e m p h a s i s on t h e e x t e n s i o n of women's r o l e i n t h e l i f e o f t h e community. The L o c a l C o u n c i l of Women (LCW), t h e U n i v e r s i t y Women's C l u b (UWC), t h e New E r a League (NEL) and i t s o f f s h o o t t h e B r i t i s h P r o g r e s s i v e League ( B P L ) , t h e Women's Forum (WF) and t h e V a n c o u v e r Women's B u i l d i n g Company s h a r e d a common g o a l i n t h a t t h e y a l l aimed, by e d u c a t i o n and example t o widen and s t r e n g t h e n woman's r o l e i n See Duncan Crow, The E d w a r d i a n Woman (London: George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1971), C h i - ! 5,13, f o r an a c c o u n t of t h e B r i t i s h s i t u a t i o n ; see a l s o Deborah Goreham, " E n g l i s h M i l i t a n c y and t h e C a n a d i a n S u f f r a g e Movement," A t l a n t i s 1:1 ( F a l l 1 975), pp. 83- 112. B ecause t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t p l a c e d t h e p r o v i n c i a l f r a n c h i s e o u t s i d e t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the f e d e r a l government, women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t p r o v i n c i a l c a m p aigns w o u l d be more l i k e l y t o s u c c e e d t h a n a s i n g l e n a t i o n a l c a m p a i g n . V a n c o u v e r U n i v e r s i t y Women's C l u b . M i n u t e Book 1911-16. M e e t i n g h e l d J a n u a r y 10,1914. ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as UWC M i n u t e s . ) 43 p u b l i c l i f e and t o i n f l u e n c e l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d women and c h i l d r e n . They were not a l l u n i q u e t o V a n c o u v e r . V i c t o r i a had b o t h an LCW and a UWC. LCW's were a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e t u r n of t h e c e n t u r y i n V e r n o n , New W e s t m i n s t e r , and N e l s o n , and l a t e r i n Nanaimo. Though t h e i r common g o a l drew them t o g e t h e r , e ach c l u b had some u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The NEL, BPL, and WF were r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l c l u b s w h i c h b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r a v a r i e t y of women f o r t h e e x p r e s s p u r p o s e o f w i n n i n g and e x e r c i s i n g t h e i r powers of c i t i z e n s h i p and i n f l u e n c i n g s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . The UWC, a l s o a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l c l u b , drew women t o g e t h e r ?by v i r t u e of t h e i r common u n i v e r s i t y e x p e r i e n c e . The q u e s t f o r c i t i z e n s h i p and l e g i s l a t i v e change was o n l y one amongst s e v e r a l o f i t s a i m s . 1 5 The LCW's ma j o r p u r p o s e was t o s e r v e as a c o - o r d i n a t o r of a l l women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r g o a l s and t o p r e s e n t a u n i t e d women's o p i n i o n on a m u l t i t u d e of q u e s t i o n s and p r o b l e m s i n s o c i e t y . But d e s p i t e t h e b r o a d scope o f a c t i v i t i e s u n d e r t a k e n by t h e UWC and LCW t h e r e was n e v e r t h e l e s s a s t r o n g e m p h a s i s i n b o t h c l u b s on women's p u b l i c r o l e ; so s t r o n g i n f a c t , t h a t a t t i m e s i n t h e p e r i o d 1910-1928 t h i s t y p e of a c t i v i t y drew t h e major p o r t i o n of c l u b i n t e r e s t and e f f o r t . M o r e o v e r , a ne t w o r k of women h e l d many of th e key p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e f i v e c l u b s and i n s p i r e d and g u i d e d t h e c l u b a c t i v i t i e s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y a l m o s t formed a c l u b w i t h i n - a - c l u b . T h i s same s o r t of ne t w o r k d i d not seem t o e x i s t i n V i c t o r i a where c l u b s t e n d e d t o work more s e p a r a t e l y . F o r 1 5 Tami A d i l m a n , "E'vlyn F a r r i s and t h e U n i v e r s i t y Women's C l u b , " i n B a r b a r a Latham and C a t h y K e s s , e d s . , I n Her Own R i g h t , p. 151. 44 t h e s e r e a s o n s i t seems a p p r o p r i a t e t o s t u d y t h e c l u b s as a g r o u p d e s p i t e t h e a p p a r e n t d i v e r s i t y . The V a n c o u v e r LCW was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1894, o n l y a month a f t e r t h e b i r t h o f t h e f i r s t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n l o c a l - t h e V i c t o r i a and V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d LCW, and a y e a r a f t e r t h e f o u n d i n g of t h e NCWC. 1 6 T a b l e 2 shows t h a t i n i t i a l l y t h e V a n c o u v e r LCW was c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r t h a n t h e V i c t o r i a LCW, but a l t h o u g h b o t h grew s l o w l y i n t h e f i r s t decade of t h e i r e x i s t e n c e , V a n c o u v e r ' s g r o w t h was c o n s i s t e n t l y l a r g e r . By 1910 t h e two l o c a l s were e q u a l i n terms o f i n d i v i d u a l members and a f f i l i a t e d s o c i e t i e s , but t h e r e a f t e r V a n c o u v e r became and r e m a i n e d t h e l a r g e r o r g a n i z a t i o n . In t h e o r y t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e C o u n c i l , a t a l l i t s l e v e l s , was g r e a t ; i n p r a c t i c e i t was l i m i t e d by t h e need t o o b t a i n c o n s e n s u s o f o p i n i o n from a v a s t number of women who were w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d b o t h p h y s i c a l l y and i d e o l o g i c a l l y . 1 7 Whenever t h e C o u n c i l s made a p u b l i c s t a t e m e n t o r formed a d e l e g a t i o n t o l o b b y f o r r e f o r m , t h e y made m e n t i o n o f t h e f a c t t h a t , by v i r t u e of t h e i r wide membership and h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e , t h e y c o u l d i n d e e d be s a i d t o speak f o r a l l women, but how t r u e was t h i s b e l i e f ? A c l o s e r l o o k a t LCW s t r u c t u r e and s i z e i n Va n c o u v e r 1 6 N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Women of Canada, Y e a r b o o k 1921, p. 373 ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as NCWC Y e a r b o o k ) 1 7 V e r o n i c a S t r o n g - B o a g , P a r l i a m e n t o f Women, c h . 3 . T a b l e 2 Membership of V i c t o r i a and V a n c o u v e r LCW 1897-1932 V i c t o r i a V a n c o u v e r Year Of f i c e r s A f f i l i a t e s O f f i c e r s A f f i l i a t e s 1897 7 27 9 1 7 1 901 9 22 9 9 1 902 10 22 9 1 0 1 903 10 1 7 10 1 5 1 904 10 21 10 21 1 905 10 21 10 20 1906 10 27 10 19 1907 10 29 1 0 20 1 908 10 35 10 25 1 909 no r e t u r n 10 29 1910 1 1 35 10 35 191 1 1 3 34 13 45 1912 1 2 37 1 2 43 1913 1 2 34 1 1 52 1914 1 1 45 1 1 57 1915 10 50 1 1 64 1916 4° 10 + 1917 4° 10* 1918 4° 57 9 + 62 1919 4° 57 10 + 54 1 920 8 44 1 0 55 1 921 10 34 1 0 55 1 922 9 34 1 0 52 1 923 10 34 10 52 1 924 1 1 54 1 1 73 1 925 10 52 1 1 64 1 926 10 49 1 1 68 1 927 8 46 10 68 1928 9 33 10 56 1929 9 44 10 73 1930 9 44 10 71 1 931 9 45 10 70 1 932 9 42 10 62 C o m p i l e d from f i g u r e s i n NCWC Yearbo o k 1897-32. ° p l u s an u n s p e c i f i e d number of v i c e - p r e s i d e n t s + from LCW M i n u t e s 1916-17, 1918-19. 46 i n d i c a t e s t h a t w h i l e t h e c o u n c i l spoke w i t h t h e t a c i t a p p r o v a l of a l a r g e membership o n l y a s m a l l c o r e of women were i n v o l v e d i n g e n e r a t i n g p o l i c y and o p i n i o n . 1 8 The g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f LCW "members" were s i m p l y members of a f f i l i a t e d s o c i e t i e s and had l i t t l e d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e C o u n c i l . Few of them a t t e n d e d r e g u l a r m o n t h l y m e e t i n g s , t h i s was t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f s e l e c t e d d e l e g a t e s from each a f f i l i a t e . Between 1913 and 1915, f o r i n s t a n c e two t o sev e n d e l e g a t e s from e a c h a f f i l i a t e a r e l i s t e d i n LCW r e c o r d s b u t even t h e s e were n e v e r a l l p r e s e n t a t r e g u l a r m e e t i n g s . As t h e y t o t a l l e d some 300 women t h e number wou l d have been i m p r a c t i c a l f o r t h e c o n d u c t of r e g u l a r b u s i n e s s m e e t i n g s . B o t h r e g u l a r and e x e c u t i v e m e e t i n g s were h e l d i n a v a r i e t y o f l o c a t i o n s , most commonly t h e B o a r d of Tr a d e Rooms i n downtown V a n c o u v e r . None of t h e venues would p r o b a b l y have h e l d more t h a n f i f t y p e o p l e , w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t o n l y a s m a l l a t t e n d a n c e was e x p e c t e d and a c h i e v e d . 1 9 T a b l e 3 i n d i c a t e s t h a t some d e l e g a t e s , however, were a c t i v e on t h e e x e c u t i v e and d i d a t t e n d t m e e t i n g s r e g u l a r l y . A n n u a l G e n e r a l M e e t i n g s were a d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r . They were h e l d i n l a r g e b u i l d i n g s , g e n e r a l l y c h u r c h h a l l s , and c o n t i n u e d f o r t h e b e t t e r 1 8 I n 1923, r e f e r e n c e was made t o a n a t i o n a l membership of ' h a l f a m i l l i o n ' , NCWC Yearbook 1923, p.17. I n t h e l o c a l c o n t e x t , LCW p r e s i d e n t M r s . D e s i r e U n s w o r t h spoke i n 1914 of a membership of 5000. L e t t e r t o P r e m i e r M c B r i d e , O c t o b e r 7, 1914. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . P r e m i e r P a p e r s . GR 441 v o l . 61 no. 826 PABC. 1 9 O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e M i n u t e s r e c o r d t h o s e p r e s e n t a t e x e c u t i v e m e e t i n g s . These r a r e l y numbered more t h a n 12 and t h e most u s u a l number was f i v e o r s i x . The c o n s t i t u t i o n recommended by th e NCWC f o r use by LCW's r e q u i r e d o n l y f i v e a s a quorum a t e x e c u t i v e m e e t i n g s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t o n l y a s m a l l a t t e n d a n c e was e x p e c t e d o r d e s i r e d . NCWC Yearbook 1908 pp. x x v i i i - x l . T a b l e 3 LCW Members who were O f f i c e r s of and D e l e g a t e s from A f f i l i a t e d S o c i e t i e s 1910, 1915, 1920, 1925 Name LCW P o s i t i o n Mrs M a r i e McNaughton P r e s i d e n t Mrs J . S t a r k F i r s t V i c e P r e s i d e n t 1910 Mrs W.H. L u c a s T r e a s u r e r Mrs James M a c a u l e y P a s t P r e s i d e n t Mrs E.W. L e e s o n I n d i v i d u a l Member Mrs James M a c a u l e y P a s t P r e s i d e n t Mrs J e a n Macken F i r s t V i c e P r e s i d e n t 1915 Mrs M a r i e McNaughton P a s t P r e s i d e n t Mrs J.O. P e r r y T h i r d V i c e P r e s i d e n t M i s s Edge P a s t P r e s i d e n t Mrs N i n a de P e n c i e r P r e s i d e n t Mrs J.A G i l l e s p i e Second V i c e P r e s i d e n t 1 920 Mrs Wm G o d f r e y T h i r d V i c e P r e s i d e n t Mrs R o b e r t M c N a i r S i x t h V i c e P r e s i d e n t Mrs R o b e r t M c N a i r F o u r t h V i c e P r e s i d e n t 1 925 Mrs W.A. W i l l i s c r o f t F i f t h V i c e P r e s i d e n t Mrs F.G. L e w i s S i x t h V i c e P r e s i d e n t S o u r c e : LCW M i n u t e s 1910-25. p a r t of t h e day w h i l e r e p o r t s from a f f i l i a t e d s o c i e t i e s were r e a d , and numbers of r e s o l u t i o n s d i s c u s s e d and v o t e d on. On t h i s one day a t l e a s t , t h e r e was l i k e l y t o be p r e s e n t a d e l e g a t e from a l l member c l u b s but even t h o u g h " t h i s w o u l d f o r m a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e body i t was s t i l l o n l y a f r a c t i o n o f what t h e LCW c l a i m e d as i t s m e m b e r s h i p . 2 0 I n an e f f o r t t o i d e n t i f y a range of i s s u e s t h a t were of i n t e r e s t and c o n c e r n t o as many members and a f f i l i a t e s as p o s s i b l e , t h e NCWC, between 1898 and 1900, c r e a t e d a number of s t a n d i n g c o m m i t t e e s on a v a r i e t y of i s s u e s and s u g g e s t e d t h a t LCW's do l i k e w i s e . T h e r e i s no r e c o r d o f how soon t h e V a n c o u v e r LCW c o m p l i e d w i t h t h i s s u g g e s t i o n a l t h o u g h i t was p r o b a b l y q u i t e r a p i d l y . T here i s e v i d e n c e t h a t by 1905 a t l e a s t one c o m m i t t e e had been formed and by 1911 f u l l y s i x t e e n were i n o p e r a t i o n . A t b o t h t h e l o c a l and n a t i o n a l l e v e l t h e s e c o m m i t t e e s , w i t h t h e e x e c u t i v e , formed t h e c o r e o f t h e C o u n c i l s . Women w i t h a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n one or more a r e a s now had a c l e a r c u t s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n w h i c h t o work. T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e , however, as t o whether o r not t h i s e n c o u r a g e d more a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by rank and f i l e members. I f i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s e p a r a t e t h e a c t i v e members o f t h e c l u b from t h o s e whose membership was no more t h a n a t e c h n i c a l i t y , i t i s even h a r d e r t o a s s e s s how many of t h e a c t i v e 2 0 F o r i n s t a n c e i n 1918 t h e AGM was h e l d i n t h e F i r s t B a p t i s t C h u r c h , i n 1920 i n St Andrew's C h u r c h Sunday S c h o o l Room, i n 1922 a t Mt P l e a s a n t M e t h o d i s t C h u r c h and i n 1925 a t C a n a d i a n M e m o r i a l C h u r c h . 49 members were s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the a r e a s of l e g i s l a t i v e change and c i t i z e n s h i p f o r women. Between 1910 and 1928, t h e V a n c o u v e r L C W s s t a n d i n g c o m m i t t e e s r a n g e d i n number from n i n e i n 1910 t o t w e n t y i n 1919 w i t h t h e number i n o t h e r y e a r s h o v e r i n g between f o u r t e e n and n i n e t e e n . The number seems t o have depended on t h e p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e membership as t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e t o p i c and o c c a s i o n a l l y on t h e w i l l i n g n e s s of a member t o a c t as c o n v e n o r . Of t h e t o t a l of t h i r t y c o m m i t t e e s t h a t e x i s t e d between 1910 and 1928, n i n e s t a n d o u t b o t h i n term s of t h e i r l o n g e v i t y and th e b r e a d t h of t h e i r a r e a o f c o n c e r n . Together,/they encompassed a l m o s t a l l of what was u n d e r s t o o d as "women's s p h e r e " and amongst them t h e y seem t o have u n d e r t a k e n t h e ma j o r p o r t i o n of t h e work of t h e LCW as a w h o l e . 2 1 They were t h e c o m m i t t e e s t h a t a p p e a r most a c t i v e from r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e M i n u t e s , i n t h e p r e s s , i n t e r m s of d e l e g a t i o n s and r e s o l u t i o n s s e n t t o a p p r o p r i a t e a g e n c i e s , and i n term s o f g o a l s a c h i e v e d . Two of them, Laws f o r Women and C h i l d r e n , and C i t i z e n s h i p a r e of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e t o t h i s s t u d y . As w i t h membership of t h e LCW as a w h o l e , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o a s s e s s j u s t how many members were i n t e r e s t e d i n and a c t i v e on t h e s e c o m m i t t e e s . The o n l y f i g u r e s a v a i l a b l e on c o m m i t t e e numbers a r e t h o s e f o r 1914 a l t h o u g h i t i-s not c l e a r i f t h i s i s a 2 1 These were P u b l i c H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , Home E c o n o m i c s , C i t i z e n s h i p , S u p p r e s s i o n o f O b j e c t i o n a b l e L i t e r a t u r e , E q u a l M o r a l S t a n d a r d s f o r Men and Women, Ca r e of t h e F e e b l e M i n d e d , I m m i g r a t i o n and Laws f o r Women and C h i l d r e n . 50 c o m p l e t e l i s t , (see T a b l e 4) F o r i n s t a n c e , more members may have been added t o c o m m i t t e e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e s m a l l e r o n e s , i f and when needed. F o r t h i s one y e a r a t l e a s t , however, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o make a t e n t a t i v e a s s e s s m e n t of t h e e n t i r e membership and l e v e l of i n v o l v e m e n t of members i n t h e V a n c o u v e r LCW, as i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1. The E x e c u t i v e c o n s i s t e d of e l e v e n women, f o u r of whom were a l s o members of c o m m i t t e e s g i v i n g a t o t a l of e i g h t y - t h r e e who m i g h t be s a i d t o form t h e a c t i v e c o r e of t h e LCW. To t a k e out i n d i v i d u a l membership as d i s t i n c t f rom becoming a member by v i r t u e of membership i n an a f f i l i a t e d c l u b p r o b a b l y i n d i c a t e d a f a i r l y h i g h l e v e l of i n t e r e s t even i f i t d i d n ot i m p l y g r e a t a c t i v i t y . So a r o u n d t h e c e n t r a l c o r e we c a n p l a c e t h e f i f t y - s e v e n i n d i v i d u a l members. At a s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e c e n t r e were t h e some 300 d e l e g a t e s from t h e a f f i l i a t e d s o c i e t i e s . We must assume t h a t most of t h e s e d i d l i t t l e more t h a n a t t e n d t h e A n n u a l M e e t i n g s and v o t e as p e r i n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e i r p r i m a r y s o c i e t i e s . The o u t e r c i r c l e , w h i c h i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d numbered t h o u s a n d s , p l a y e d no more t h a n a p a s s i v e r o l e . These were t h e rank and f i l e members of t h e a f f i l i a t e s , most of whom p r o b a b l y n e v e r had any d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e LCW a t a l l . 2 2 However, t h e y had an i m p o r t a n c e t h a t e x t e n d e d f a r beyond t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t , or" l a c k o f i t , f o r as has been n o t e d , when th e LCW spoke or a c t e d i t d i d so w i t h t h e f u l l w e i g h t of t h i s 2 2 WWW,' December 13, 1917 p. 5. By t h i s t i m e t h e LCW was c l a i m i n g t o r e p r e s e n t 6000 women. 51 T a b l e 4 LCW S t a n d i n g C ommittees 1914 Commi t t e e C o n v e n o r s Members Laws f o r Women and C h i l d r e n Mrs J a n e t Kemp 7 O b j e c t i o n a b l e L i t e r a t u r e Mrs J.O. P e r r y 0 A g r i c u l t u r e f o r Women Mrs A.H. D a v i e s 1 P l a y g r o u n d s Mrs J.M. Brown 1 E q u a l M o r a l S t a n d a r d s Mrs J e a n Macken 7 P u b l i c H e a l t h Dr. B e l l e W i l s o n 1 4 E d u c a t i o n M i s s Gordon 5 P r o b l e m s o f C h i l d h o o d Mrs W.M. Rose 6 Care o f F e e b l e m i n d e d Mrs W.H. S t e e v e s 2 P r e s s Mrs N . I . M c K e c h n i e 0 Immi g r a t i o n Mrs J . M a c a u l e y 9 C i t i z e n s h i p Mrs A l i c e Townley 3 Employment o f Women M i s s H. G u t t e r i d g e 2 Peace and A r b i t r a t i o n Mrs M. H a r o l d 2 A d v e r t i s e m e n t s Mrs W.H. G r i f f i n 0 P r o f e s s i o n s f o r Women M i s s E l i z a b e t h B r e e z e 2 C o n s e r v a t i o n of N a t u r a l Resources' Mrs M. McNaughton 1 F i n e and A p p l i e d A r t s Mrs G. G i l p i n 0 TOTAL 18 62 * T o t a l Number o f c o m m i t t e e members was 80 as f o u r women were s i m u l t a n e o u s l y on two c o m m i t t e e s . S o u r c e : V a n c o u v e r L o c a l C o u n c i l of Women. M i n u t e s 1914. Box 4. Sp. C o l l . ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as LCW M i n u t e s ) . 52 F i g u r e 1 L e v e l s of membership w i t h i n t h e V a n c o u v e r L o c a l C o u n c i l of Women 1914 Members of A f f i l i a t e s D e l e g a t e s from A f f i l i a t e s I n d i v i d u a l Members E x e c u t i v e and Committee Members* 83 57° 302 A p p r o x i m a t e l y 5000 *There were e l e v e n women on t h e e x e c u t i v e and e i g h t y on c o m m i t t e e s . F o u r e x e c u t i v e members were a l s o c o m m i t t e e members and f o u r women b e l o n g e d t o two c o m m i t t e e s . A t t h e t i m e of t h e AGM, t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e were e i g h t y - t h r e e women f i l l i n g 91 p o s i t i o n s on t h e e x e c u t i v e and c o m m i t t e e s . "Three o f t h e s e f i f t y s e ven women were c o m m i t t e e members. 53 combined membership b e h i n d i t . No i n s t a n c e has been f o u n d of an a f f i l i a t e d c l u b c o n t r a d i c t i n g p u b l i c l y any s t a t e m e n t or a c t i o n e n d o r s e d by t h e e x e c u t i v e of t h e LCW. The o c c a s i o n a l w i t h d r a w a l of c l u b s from a f f i l i a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h o u g h t h a t f r o m t i m e t o t i m e some women's c l u b s d i d d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e C o u n c i l , o r a t l e a s t d i d n o t p e r c e i v e any b e n e f i t a c c r u i n g from a f f i l i a t i o n . F o r t h e most p a r t t h e i n n e r c i r c l e o f t h e LCW as w e l l as s o c i e t y a t l a r g e , seem t o have a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e c l u b d i d i n d e e d d i r e c t l y r e p r e s e n t a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of o r g a n i z e d women, and by i m p l i c a t i o n , a l l women, and a f f i l i a t e s seemed c o n t e n t t o a l l o w t h e m s e l v e s t o be used i n t h i s manner. I t i s c l e a r , however, t h a t i n 1914 and p r o b a b l y a t a l l o t h e r t i m e s most of t h e LCW's work was done by a g r o u p numbering l e s s t h a n one h u n d r e d . The Laws and C i t i z e n s h i p c o m m i t t e e s were most d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e x t e n s i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n of f e m a l e i n f l u e n c e t h r o u g h o u t s o c i e t y , but t h e i r i n t e r e s t was not l i m i t e d t o t h e s e a r e a s nor were t h e y t h e o n l y c o m m i t t e e s t o be c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s e i s s u e s from t i m e t o t i m e . The Laws c o m m i t t e e , or t o g i v e i t i t s f u l l t i t l e , Laws f o r t h e B e t t e r P r o t e c t i o n of Women and C h i l d r e n , i n v o l v e d i t s e l f i n p r o m o t i n g new l e g i s l a t i o n and amending t h e o l d i n many a r e a s of p u b l i c w e l f a r e . S u f f r a g e , m o t h e r s ' p e n s i o n s , m a r r i a g e and d i v o r c e , p r o p e r t y r i g h t s , e q u a l g u a r d i a n s h i p of c h i l d r e n , and homestead r i g h t s were some of t h e i s s u e s w h i c h o c c u p i e d i t s members. I t a l s o l o b b i e d f o r o t h e r i s s u e s i n c l u d i n g amendments t o t h e I n f a n t s , J u v e n i l e and I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l A c t s , and t h e War R e l i e f , N u r s e s R e g i s t r a t i o n and I n s u r a n c e and Workman's C o m p e n s a t i o n A c t s . 54 The C i t i z e n s h i p c o m m i t t e e was e q u a l l y b r o a d i n i t s a p p r o a c h t o r e f o r m . A 1918 newspaper p a r a g r a p h d e s c r i b e d i t as f o l l o w s : i t [ d o e s ] not c o n c e n t r a t e a l o n g any one p a r t i c u l a r l i n e but i t s a c t i v i t i e s [ a r e ] e x t e n d e d t o many. The v e r y t e r m ' c i t i z e n s h i p ' i n d i c a t e s t h e b r e a d t h of i t s a c t i v i t i e s and a l m o s t any s u b j e c t p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e w e l f a r e of t h e c i t y m i g h t come under t h e h e a d i n g . . . . One o f t h e f i r s t a ims o f t h e c o m m i t t e e i s t o promote the b e s t i n t e r e s t s of women and c h i l d r e n and t h e y [ s i c ] have been g i v i n g u n d i v i d e d s u p p o r t t o M o t h e r s ' p e n s i o n s and t h e Minimum Wage m e a s u r e s . 2 3 I t was a c t i v e i n p r o m o t i n g t h e i d e a of women's r o l e i n p u b l i c o f f i c e , u r g i n g women t o s t a n d f o r e l e c t i o n o r a p p o i n t m e n t t o t h o s e p o s i t i o n s t h a t were a l r e a d y open t o them on s c h o o l , h o s p i t a l , l i b r a r y and p a r k s b o a r d s and a s s i s t i n g i n t h e i r c a m p a i g n s . I t a l s o a d v o c a t e d t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f women h e a l t h and f a c t o r y i n s p e c t o r s , women p o l i c e o f f i c e r s and women c o u r t o f f i c i a l s i n c a s e s c o n c e r n i n g g i r l s and women. 2" In some y e a r s t h e r e seems t o have been a d i s t i n c t d i v i s i o n between t h e work of the two c o m m i t t e e s w h i l e a t o t h e r t i m e s t h e y worked t o g e t h e r , e i t h e r c o m b i n i n g f o r c e s o r s i m p l y b o t h w o r k i n g on s i m i l a r p r o j e c t s . The f o c u s and d i r e c t i o n of t h e work o v e r t h e y e a r s seems t o have depended l a r g e l y on t h e i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s of the c o n v e n o r s of e i t h e r o r b o t h c o m m i t t e e s . H e l e n G r e g o r y M a c G i l l whose i n t e r e s t i n l e g i s l a t i v e change was p u r s u e d t h r o u g h a number of women's c l u b s and who was e v e n t u a l l y t h e f i r s t woman a p p o i n t e d t o t h e bench of t h e I b i d . June 15, 1918 p.4. In l a t e r y e a r s t h e s e i s s u e s were t a k e n up by t h e E q u a l M o r a l S t a n d a r d s c o m m i t t e e . LCW M i n u t e s November 1, 1926. 55 p r o v i n c i a l j u v e n i l e c o u r t i n 1917, was a t v a r i o u s t i m e s c o n v e n o r of b o t h g r o u p s . 2 5 Born i n O n t a r i o i n 1864, t o a w e a l t h y and e s t a b l i s h e d f a m i l y , she f o u g h t b o t h t r a d i t i o n and h e r p a r e n t s t o become t h e f i r s t woman M a s t e r of A r t s from T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o . A f t e r m a r r i a g e , a c a r e e r i n j o u r n a l i s m and c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s u f f r a g e movement i n San F r a n s i s c o , she was widowed i n 1910. A se c o n d m a r r i a g e t o e x - T o r o n t o U n i v e r s i t y c l a s s m a t e James M a c G i l l b r o u g h t h er t o V a n c o u v e r i n 1902. W h i l e h e r husband p u r s u e d h i s l e g a l c a r e e r w i t h mixed s u c c e s s , H e l e n M a c G i l l d e v o t e d much of h e r t i m e t o a m u l t i t u d e of women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e c i t y . Her p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t was i n l e g i s l a t i v e r e f o r m and she c o n t i n u e d t o use h e r j o u r n a l i s t i c s k i l l s i n t h e c a u s e , w r i t i n g o c c a s i o n a l l y f o r l o c a l p a p e r s as w e l l as p r o d u c i n g a b o o k l e t D a u g h t e r s , Wives and M o t h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w h i c h became Laws f o r Women and C h i l d r e n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n s u b s e q u e n t e d i t i o n s . 2 6 A l t h o u g h she was c o n v e n o r o f t h e LCW Laws and C i t i z e n s h i p c o m m i t t e e s f o r o n l y b r i e f p e r i o d s , H e l e n M a c G i l l was t h e g u i d i n g hand b e h i n d a l l t h e r e s e a r c h and m o n i t o r i n g of e x i s t i n g and p r o p o s e d l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h e s e a r e a s b o t h i n t h e LCW and i n a number of t h e o t h e r c l u b s , t o w h i c h she b e l o n g e d . I n t h e 1920's H e l e n M a c G i l l was c o n v e n o r o f t h e LCW Laws c o m m i t t e e i n 1918, 1920-22 and 1927-28 and c o n v e n o r o f t h e C i t i z e n s h i p c o m m i t t e e i n 1911-13 and 1917. D a u g h t e r s , Wives and M o t h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : some l a w s r e g a r d i n g them"^ ( V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: The Moore P r i n t i n g Co., 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1925); Laws f o r Women and C h i l d r e n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: McBeath, C a m p b e l l P r i n t e r s , 1928, 1935, 1 9 3 9 ) ; see a l s o E l s i e M a c G i l l , My Mother t h e J u d g e , f o r a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n of M a c G i l l ' s l i f e and a c t i v i t i e s . 56 most of her work i n t h e LCW seems t o have been done t h r o u g h t h e Laws c o m m i t t e e and d u r i n g t h i s t i m e t h e C i t i z e n s h i p c o m m i t t e e , under t h e l e a d e r s h i p of M r s . J e a n C a r s o n , a p p e a r e d t o t a k e no new i n i t i a t i v e s r e g a r d i n g t h e e x t e n s i o n of women's r o l e . R a t h e r , i t c o n t i n u e d t o s u p p o r t women i n p u b l i c o f f i c e and t o d i r e c t i t s a t t e n t i o n t o i s s u e s l i k e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a s t r e e t m a r k e t , t h e smoke p r o b l e m i n t h e c i t y and t h e p r o m o t i o n o f c i t i z e n s h i p c l a s s e s i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l s . 2 7 Most of t h e work done by c o m m i t t e e s a p p e a r s t o have been u n d e r t a k e n on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e , but t h e y were a l s o t h e b o d i e s t o whom r e l e v a n t r e s o l u t i o n s from a f f i l i a t e s were r e f e r r e d . They wo u l d c o n s i d e r and i n v e s t i g a t e s u c h r e s o l u t i o n s b e f o r e a c c e p t i n g o r r e j e c t i n g them. A c c e p t a b l e r e s o l u t i o n s were t h e n p r e s e n t e d t o the g e n e r a l membership f o r a v o t e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i s e t h a t w h i l e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and c r e d i t f o r any p r o j e c t was t a k e n by t h e LCW as an o r g a n i z a t i o n , s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e was l a r g e l y due t o t h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l g r o u p s of i n d i v i d u a l women on t h e e x e c u t i v e and c o m m i t t e e s . O n l y when t h e i r work had r e a c h e d a c e r t a i n p o i n t w o u l d i t be p r e s e n t e d t o th e g e n e r a l membership f o r r a t i f i c a t i o n . O c c a s i o n a l l y a t t h i s l e v e l t h e r e w o u l d be l i v e l y d e b a t e , but i t was not o f t e n t h a t r e s o l u t i o n s w h i c h came t h r o u g h c o m m i t t e e were r e j e c t e d . E i t h e r t h e c o m m i t t e e s r e f l e c t e d f a i r l y a c c u r a t e l y t h e f e e l i n g s of t h e g e n e r a l membership, o r , more l i k e l y , t h e g e n e r a l membership was w i l l i n g i n most c a s e s t o a c c e p t t h e c o n s e n s u s t h a t a r o s e a t t h e 2 7 P r o v i n c e , March 6, 1923 p.8. 57 c o m m i t t e e s t a g e . A s e c o n d o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h p l a y e d a s u b s t a n t i a l r o l e i n t h e q u e s t f o r e q u a l i t y of c i v i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r women was t h e V a n c o u v e r U n i v e r s i t y Women's C l u b . By v i r t u e o f i t s s t r u c t u r e , f e m a l e membership, and t h e i s s u e s i n w h i c h i t was b o t h i n t e r e s t e d and a c t i v e , i t must be c l a s s e d w i t h o t h e r women's c l u b s but i n some ways i t was u n d e n i a b l y u n i q u e . T h i s i s t r u e i n r e s p e c t of i t s membership r e q u i r e m e n t s and i t s o r i g i n a l r a i s o n d ' e t r e . 2 8 Founded i n 1907, t h e UWC expanded i n t h e 1910's and 1920's t o become one of t h e most a c t i v e women's c l u b s i n t e r m s of community i n v o l v e m e n t . E v l y n F a r r i s , w i f e of James W. deB. F a r r i s , a s u c c e s s f u l l a w y e r and f u t u r e L i b e r a l p o l i t i c i a n , was t h e mover b e h i n d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e c l u b . W i t h t h e h e l p of M r s . S a i d e e C o l d w e l l and Mrs A u b r e y T. F u l l e r she d r a f t e d a c o n s t i t u t i o n and l o c a t e d f i v e o t h e r u n i v e r s i t y women who were i n t e r e s t e d i n h e r p l a n . At t h i s p o i n t t h e r e was no u n i v e r s i t y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A l l e i g h t c h a r t e r members had o b t a i n e d t h e i r d e g r e e s e l s e w h e r e b e f o r e moving t o V a n c o u v e r . E v l y n F a r r i s h e r s e l f was from t h e M a r i t i m e s . Born i n W i n d s o r , Nova S c o t i a i n 1878, d a u g h t e r of a p r o f e s s o r and c l e r g y m a n a t A c a d i a U n i v e r s i t y , she d e v e l o p e d i n h e r e a r l y y e a r s s t r o n g i d e a s on t h e i m p o r t a n c e of e d u c a t i o n f o r women. By t h e age of t w e n t y - o n e she I t i s a l s o u n i q u e i n t h a t i t has a v i r t u a l l y c o m p l e t e s e t of r e c o r d s p r e s e r v e d i n i t s own a r c h i v e s . 58 had c o m p l e t e d a M a s t e r s d e g r e e i n b o t h P h i l o s o p h y and German a t A c a d i a and was "a de v o u t b e l i e v e r i n women's r i g h t s " , and i n t h e need t o r a i s e women's c o n s c i o u s n e s s so t h a t t h e y might become "a p a r t of t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s w h i c h a f f e c t e d t h e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s of a l l s o c i e t y . " 2 9 The C l u b ' s s t a t e d aims were: To s t i m u l a t e i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y and promote s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e amongst u n i v e r s i t y women, and t o e n c o u r a g e t h e s t u d y of s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s and t o promote c o - o p e r a t i o n , p u b l i c s e r v i c e and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n . 3 0 The d e f i n i t i o n o f " e d u c a t i o n " was b r o a d from t h e s t a r t . Members were i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e r o l e and c u r r i c u l u m o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s , b o t h e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y ; t h e y s u p p o r t e d t h e e a r l y schemes f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a u n i v e r s i t y i n t h e p r o v i n c e , and, once i t e v e n t u a l l y came i n t o e x i s t e n c e , s u p p o r t e d i t and i t s f e m a l e s t u d e n t s i n many d i f f e r e n t ways; t h e y p l a y e d an a c t i v e r o l e i n t h e c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n of women g e n e r a l l y and t h e m s e l v e s i n p a r t i c u l a r , on any number of p u b l i c i s s u e s . 3 1 Most i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e y saw t h e i r own e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t as a Tami A d i l m a n , " E v l y n F a r r i s and t h e U n i v e r s i t y Women's C l u b , " p. 148. U n i v e r s i t y Women's C l u b , F o r t y Y e a r s a C l u b , ( t y p e s c r i p t ) , c o m p i l e d by Mrs Hugh Munro, n.d. p.3. ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as UWC, F o r t y Y e a r s ) . See a l s o , P h y l l i s Reeve, 7 5 t h A n n i v e r s a r y : The U n i v e r s i t y Women's C l u b of V a n c o u v e r ( V a n c o u v e r : U n i v e r s i t y Women's C l u b o f V a n c o u v e r , 1982) f o r an o v e r v i e w of t h e C l u b ' s h i s t o r y . I b i d . p.7; Mrs Munro c l a i m e d " t h u s we have made t h e v o i c e of e d u c a t e d o p i n i o n h e a r d and have s h a r e d i n t h e c r e a t i o n of p u b l i c o p i n i o n , w h i c h i s so i n d i s p e n s i b l e a p a r t of a w o r k i n g democracy." 59 t o o l f o r e f f e c t i n g s o c i a l change. The q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r membership was t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f a d e g r e e , c e r t i f i c a t e , o r academ i c s t a n d i n g from a r e c o g n i s e d c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y a f t e r a f o u r y e a r c o u r s e . T h e r e was some d i s c u s s i o n as t o whether t h e s t a n d a r d s h o u l d be l o w e r e d t o i n c l u d e i n c o m p l e t e d e g r e e s o r a t t e n d a n c e a t n o r m a l s c h o o l s but E v l y n F a r r i s b e l i e v e d t h a t " t h e bond o f u n i o n i n what p r a c t i c a l l y amounts t o t h e B.A. d e g r e e i s so s t r o n g and t h e community o f i n t e r e s t s so g r e a t t h a t i t p r o m o t e s t h e s p i r i t of harmony as n o t h i n g e l s e c o u l d . " 3 2 Some y e a r s l a t e r t h e d e c i s i o n t o l i m i t membership was p r a i s e d as " w i s e , i n v i e w of t h e a l r e a d y l a r g e m e m b e r s h i p . " 3 3 By t h e end of i t s f i r s t y e a r , c l u b membership had grown t o t h i r t y - t h r e e . A t t h i s s t a g e m e e t i n g s were h e l d i n members' homes but by 1913 t h e "T Rooms", a c o m m e r c i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t on G r a n v i l l e S t . , became t h e most common m e e t i n g p l a c e and c o n t i n u e d t o be so u n t i l t h e Women's B u i l d i n g opened i n 1 9 2 1 . 3 " From t he f i r s t , m e e t i n g s were s o c i a l o c c a s i o n s as w e l l as f o r the c o n d u c t o f b u s i n e s s and t h u s c o m m e r c i a l t e a r o o m s , h i r e d f o r t h e e v e n i n g , p r o v i d e d a p e r f e c t m e e t i n g p l a c e . B u s i n e s s was d e a l t w i t h f i r s t t h e n members a d j o u r n e d f o r r e f r e s h m e n t s and c o n v e r s a t i o n i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h e n t e r t a i n m e n t i n t h e fo r m o f s o n g s , p o e t r y r e a d i n g s , p l a y s , humorous s k i t s o r , i n a more WWW, December 13, 1917 p.8. S p e c i a l Women's E d i t i o n Sun, March 19, 1913 p.20, ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Women's S u n T i See UWC M i n u t e s g e n e r a l l y . 60 I. s e r i o u s v e i n , d e b a t e s and p a p e r s d e l i v e r e d by members or i n v i t e d g u e s t s . No r e g u l a r a t t e n d a n c e f i g u r e s were k e p t but a t t e n d a n c e seems t o have been h i g h , i n d i c a t i n g t h e s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l i m p o r t a n c e of t h e c l u b t o i t s s m a l l and s e l e c t member s h i p . 3 5 Though women's r e f o r m and p h i l a n t h r o p i c c l u b s were a c c e p t e d as a l e g i t i m a t e a c t i v i t y f o r f e m a l e s , t h e r e seems t o have been some doubt about women b a n d i n g t o g e t h e r p u r e l y on t h e b a s i s of t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t . At l e a s t some men f e l t s o . W r i t i n g f o r t y y e a r s l a t e r a b o u t t h e b a n q u e t , w h i c h she d i d not a t t e n d , Mrs Hugh Munro commented s i n c e i t was t h e f i r s t women's d i n n e r h e l d i n t h e c i t y , i t a r o u s e d a good d e a l of i n t e r e s t as w e l l as some humorous comment by t h e men. 3 6 But t h e a t t i t u d e i s s u p p o r t e d by M i s s A n n i e B. J a m i e s o n who a r r i v e d i n t h e c i t y i n 1913 and was t o spend many y e a r s t e a c h i n g i n V a n c o u v e r H i g h S c h o o l s w h i l s t c o n t i n u i n g h e r a c t i v e membership of UWC and LCW. "Some of our male f r i e n d s were f o n d of c h a f i n g [ s i c ] us and a s k i n g what p a r t i c u l a r p a r t of c r e a t i o n we i n t e n d e d t o improve upon n e x t . " 3 7 A l t h o u g h i n t h e f i r s t few y e a r s t h e r e was no o f f i c i a l s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n t h e UWC f o r t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n and r e f o r m of s o c i a l p r o b l e m s , d i s c u s s i o n s were h e l d , p a p e r s g i v e n , ad hoc I n 1914 a t a r e g u l a r m e e t i n g h e l d i n t h e 'Old C o u n t r y Tea Rooms' t h e r e were "40 members p r e s e n t ( n o t i n c l u d i n g t h e c a t ) " . UWC M i n u t e s Box 1 1911-1916, O c t o b e r 3, 1914. T o t a l membership f o r t h a t y e a r was e i g h t y - t h r e e and a t t e n d a n c e of a b o u t 50% seems t o have been q u i t e common. UWC, F o r t y Y e a r s , p.3. Women's Sun, p.20. 61 c o m m i t t e e s s t r u c k and some a c t i o n t a k e n i n a v a r i e t y o f a r e a s . One of t h e v e r y f i r s t c ompaigns l a u n c h e d was t o e n c o u r a g e e a r l y C h r i s t m a s s h o p p i n g . On t h e s u r f a c e t h i s a p p e a r s t o have been a somewhat t r i v i a l c o n c e r n , h a r d l y w o r t h y of a g r o u p of o b v i o u s l y c ompetent and w e l l q u a l i f i e d women, but i t stemmed as much from a c o n c e r n f o r t h e heavy demands on r e t a i l s t o r e e mployees a t t h i s s e a s o n , as from a need t o e n c o u r a g e e a r l y p l a n n i n g and p u r c h a s i n g by c u s t o m e r s . 3 8 I n l a t e r y e a r s t h e UWC and o t h e r c l u b s , n o t a b l y t h e LCW, showed c o n t i n u i n g c o n c e r n f o r r e t a i l c l e r k s , most of whom were women, and h e l p e d t o o b t a i n l e g i s l a t i o n and b e n e f i t s on t h e i r b e h a l f c o v e r i n g a r e a s such as wages and w e e k l y h a l f - h o l i d a y s . A Laws c o m m i t t e e had a t l e a s t a s e m i - o f f i c i a l e x i s t e n c e by 1.911. H e l e n M a c G i l l was c h a i r m a n from t h i s y e a r u n t i l 1918 and was q u i t e l i k e l y i n s t r u m e n t a l i n f o u n d i n g i t soon a f t e r she j o i n e d t h e UWC i n 1908. A f t e r 1918 a s e r i e s o f c o n v e n o r s took o v e r n o m i n a l l e a d e r s h i p but H e l e n M a c G i l l c o n t i n u e d t o g u i d e t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e c o m m i t t e e f o r t h e n e x t decade. Her i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t y i n t h i s f i e l d a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e f a c t t h a t i n 1914 she was " a p p o i n t e d f o r l i f e as member i n c h a r g e of t h i s phase of t h e C l u b ' s w o r k " . 3 9 The l a c k of o f f i c i a l s t r u c t u r e i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s r e s u l t e d i n some o v e r l a p of c o m m i t t e e work. One example of t h i s , i n f a c t , r e s u l t e d i n t h e f i r s t l e g i s l a t i v e change t h a t t h e c l u b managed P r o v i n c e , December 11, 1908 p.2. UWC M i n u t e s , Box 1 1911-1916, November 13, 1914. 62 t o e f f e c t . I n l a t e 1911 a s p e c i a l c o m m i t t e e was convened under t h e l e a d e r s h i p of E v l y n F a r r i s w i t h t h e i n t e n t of a l t e r i n g l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h p r e v e n t e d women i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a from p r a c t i s i n g a t t h e B a r . " 0 M i s s Mabel F r e n c h , a l a w y e r from New B r u n s w i c k , had been r e f u s e d a d m i s s i o n by t h e B e n c h e r s of t h e p r o v i n c i a l Law S o c i e t y on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t , as a woman she was not a p e r s o n , and t h e r e f o r e was not e l i g i b l e . The d e c i s i o n was u p h e l d by Mr. J u s t i c e A u l a y M o r r i s o n and c o n f i r m e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l C o u r t of A p p e a l . " 1 E v l y n F a r r i s a p p r o a c h e d P r e m i e r Bowser p e r s o n a l l y and t h e c o m m i t t e e s e c u r e d t h e e d i t o r i a l s u p p o r t of t h e P r o v i n c e and t h e N e w s - A d v e r t i s e r . Bowser a g r e e d t o b r i n g i n a B i l l as a government measure i f h i s p a r t y a g r e e d , o r i f s u p p o r t c o u l d n ot be o b t a i n e d , he a s s u r e d h e r t h a t a p r i v a t e member woul d i n t r o d u c e i t . The B i l l was p a s s e d on F e b r u a r y 27, 1912 and t h e women were j u b i l a n t . But as i s so o f t e n t h e c a s e w i t h a l l t h e e f f o r t s made by clubwomen i n t h e p e r i o d , t h e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l a n g u a g e of t h e M i n u t e s g i v e s no i d e a o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d o r the s t r e n g t h of t h e e m o t i o n a l i n v e s t m e n t s u n d e r l y i n g t h e e n d e a v o r , nor of t h e o f t e n b i t t e r p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s between t h e women and t h e p o l i t i c i a n s c o n c e r n e d . " 2 M i s s E d i t h P a t e r s o n , a 1916 g r a d u a t e of Osgoode UWC M i n u t e s , Box 1, 1911-1916, J a n u a r y 27, 1912. Tami A d i l m a n , " E v l y n F a r r i s and t h e U n i v e r s i t y Women's C l u b " , pp. 156-57. Tami A d i l m a n c i t e s a l e t t e r from E v l y n F a r r i s ' son John w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t E v l y n F a r r i s a p p r o a c h e d Bowser f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e on t h e S a t u r d a y m o r n i n g p r e c e d i n g t h e p a s s i n g of t h e B i l l on Tuesday 27 F e b r u a r y , . 1912. But UWC M i n u t e s c l e a r l y s t a t e t h a t Bowser had a l r e a d y been i n t e r v i e w e d by UWC members p r i o r t o t h i s d a t e . UWC M i n u t e s 1911-1916 Box 1, J a n u a r y 13, 1912. 63 H a l l and t h e C l u b ' s c o r r e s p o n d i n g s e c r e t a r y i n t h e same y e a r , was one of t h e f i r s t women t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e of t h e new law. She p r a c t i s e d i n V a n c o u v e r f o r a number of y e a r s , was h o n o r a r y s o l i c i t o r t o t h e V a n c o u v e r C h i l d W e l f a r e League and was t h e Women's C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n ' s c h o i c e f o r t h e l e g i s l a t u r e i n 1920 a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t she c o n t e s t e d t h e e l e c t i o n . " 3 U n t i l 1914, a number of o t h e r c o m m i t t e e s were busy e i t h e r on an ad hoc or c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s . A UWC c o m m i t t e e s a t on t h e B e a u t i f u l V a n c o u v e r A s s o c i a t i o n ; a n o t h e r c o r r e s p o n d e d w i t h t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l on t h e " S o c i a l E v i l " o r p r o s t i t u t i o n ; t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d was a p p r o a c h e d r e g a r d i n g women p h y s i c i a n s t o examine p u b l i c s c h o o l g i r l s . I n r e s p o n s e t o a r e q u e s t from M i s s H e l e n a G u t t e r i d g e , a l a b o r o r g a n i s e r and s u f f r a g e w o r k e r , r e g a r d i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n of some 600 unemployed b u s i n e s s g i r l s i n th e c i t y , M r s. L a u r a J a m i e s o n f u t u r e Commonwealth C o - o p e r a t i v e F e d e r a t i o n (CCF) MLA became t h e UWC r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on a newly formed Women's Employment League. An a c t i v e r o l e was p l a y e d i n f u n d r a i s i n g f o r t h e V a n c o u v e r Women's B u i l d i n g and a c t i v e s u p p o r t was g i v e n t o women, members o r o t h e r w i s e , s t a n d i n g f o r e l e c t i o n o r n o m i n a t i o n t o p u b l i c b o a r d s o r o t h e r g o v e r n i n g b o d i e s . The o n l y s u c c e s s e s i n t h i s l a s t f i e l d were t h e r e - e l e c t i o n of LCW member Mrs. M a r i e McNaughton t o t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d and E v l y n F a r r i s t o t h e S e n a t e and l a t e r t h e B o a r d * 3 E d i t h M. Cuppage, "Women La w y e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " B r i t i sh C o l u m b i a M o n t h l y 15:4 ( J a n u a r y 1920), pp. 8-9. 64 of G o v e r n o r s df t h e newly e s t a b l i s h e d U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n 1915 i t became c l e a r t h a t t h e work of t h e c l u b was s u f f i c i e n t l y v a r i o u s and w i d e s p r e a d t o w a r r a n t some k i n d of permanent c o m m i t t e e s t r u c t u r e and so s i x s e c t i o n s were c r e a t e d ; Laws f o r Women and C h i l d r e n , S o c i a l S e r v i c e , E d u c a t i o n , E c o n o m i c s , C i v i c s and A r t , L i t e r a t u r e and Drama but not a l l s e c t i o n s were c o n t i n u a l l y a c t i v e a s T a b l e 5 i n d i c a t e s . Members were e x p e c t d t o i n t e r e s t t h e m s e l v e s i n one o r two s e c t i o n s o n l y . The A r t , L i t e r a t u r e and Drama s e c t i o n was a l w a y s w e l l s u p p o r t e d b u t i s not r e l e v a n t t o t h i s s t u d y . C i v i c s , under t h e l e a d e r s h i p of M i s s K a t e McQueen, who t a u g h t i n V a n c o u v e r H i g h S c h o o l s f r o m 1912 t o t h e l a t e 1920's, l i m p e d a l o n g f o r t h r e e y e a r s d o i n g l i t t l e , as f a r as t h e M i n u t e s show, e x c e p t t o c o n s i d e r t h e a d v i s a b i l i t y of h o l d i n g a c i t y - w i d e A r b o u r day and by 1918 had d i s a p p e a r e d as a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y . " Many a c t i v i t e s t h a t c o u l d have been i n c l u d e d w i t h i n i t s mandate were e a r l y subsumed by t h e Laws S e c t i o n . The E c o n o m i c s s e c t i o n , under t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f f o u r d i f f e r e n t women was a c t i v e i n 1915-16 and 1922-25." 5 D u r i n g b o t h t h e s e p e r i o d s t h e whole c o u n t r y e x p e r i e n c e d s e v e r e economic p r o b l e m s and i n Va n c o u v e r t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e unemployment amongst women, p a r t i c u l a r l y o f f i c e c l e r k s and young s e m i - s k i l l e d women w o r k e r s . " 6 The Eco n o m i c s s e c t i o n r e a c t e d by b o t h s e e k i n g UWC M i n u t e s , Box 1, 1911-1916, September 9, 1916; C o r r e s p o n d i n g S e c r e t a r y ' s R e p o r t 1916-17; d u r i n g t h e s e t h r e e y e a r s K a t e McQeen a l s o s e r v e d on t h e E d u c a t i o n and Laws c o m m i t t e e s . 1915 M i s s M c l n n i s ; 1916 M r s . W.A. McConkey; 1922-24 M i s s A n n i e B. J a m i e s o n ; 1925 M i s s Edwards. 65 T a b l e 5 UWC S t a n d i n g C o m m i t t e e s , 1911-1925 Committee Y e a r (19..) 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6. 1 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Amendments t o L e g a l P r o f . A c t X V a n c o u v e r B e a u t i f u l X Soc i a l E v i l s X Unemployment X Soc i a l R eform X Laws X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Soc i a l S e r v i c e s X X X X X X X X X E d u c a t i o n X X X X X X X X X X X C i v i c s X X X Ec o n o m i c s X X X X X X A r t , L i t e r a t u r e & Drama X X X X X X X X X X 66 employment f o r non-members and h o l d i n g c l a s s e s i n p o l i t i c a l economy f o r c l u b members." 7 The c l u b a l s o o r g a n i z e d c l a s s e s t o b e t t e r t r a i n women f o r d o m e s t i c s e r v i c e . * 8 T h i s was p r o b a b l y u s e f u l f o r t h e u n t r a i n e d women who t o o k p a r t , h e l p i n g them t o o b t a i n s u b s e q u e n t work. But t h e main b e n e f i c i a r i e s were t h e e m p l o y e r s , t h e clubwomen t h e m s e l v e s and o t h e r women of t h e i r c l a s s , who were a s s u r e d of d o m e s t i c h e l p t h a t was of h i g h e r q u a l i t y t h a n i n t h e p a s t . I n a p e r i o d when d o m e s t i c w o r k e r s , t r a i n e d o r o t h e r w i s e , were becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y h a r d t o f i n d , t h i s was a c o n s i d e r a b l e a d v a n t a g e . " 9 The E d u c a t i o n s e c t i o n , i n i t i a l l y under t h e l e a d e r s h i p of E v l y n F a r r i s , was i n v o l v e d i n a l l a s p e c t s of e d u c a t i o n i n l i n e w i t h t h e c l u b ' s o v e r v i e w of i t s e l f as an o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n t h e s u b j e c t . I t c o n t i n u e d t o s u p p o r t women c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d and kept a w a t c h i n g b r i e f on s c h o o l m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s t h r o u g h Dr. B e l l e W i l s o n , a UWC member who s e r v e d on t h e s c h o o l m e d i c a l s t a f f between 1914 and 1921. E v l y n F a r r i s h e r s e l f was a member of t h e UBC s e n a t e from 1916-1918, and a member of t h e B o a r d of G o v e r n o r s 1919-1929. A n o t h e r member, A n n i e B. J a m i e s o n was I b i d . O c t o b e r 28, 1922; November 11, 1922; f o r d i s c u s s i o n of t h e economic c l i m a t e see James S t r u t h e r s , No F a u l t of T h e i r Own: Unemployment and t h e C a n a d i a n W e l f a r e S t a t e , 1914-1941 ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1983) pp. 4-43. UWC M i n u t e s , Box 1, 1911-16, O c t o b e r 19, 1915. UWC M i n u t e s , Box 1, 1911-16, O c t o b e r 1 9 , 1915. I b i d . November 22, 1924; F e b r u a r y 28, 1925; A p r i l 25, 1925; J a n u a r y 24, 1927; F e b r u a r y 1, 1927; November 15, 1927; J a n u a r y 3, 1928; Mrs. S m e l t s of t h e E d u c a t i o n s e c t i o n t a u g h t t h e s e c l a s s e s . 67 e l e c t e d t o S e n a t e i n 1919 and s e r v e d f o r t h e n e x t t w e n t y y e a r s . Members a l s o gave t h e i r s u p p o r t t o t h e f o r m a t i o n of P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n s and t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of L i t t l e M o t h e r s ' League c l a s s e s i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s 5 0 Of t h e s i x g r o u p s , t h e Laws s e c t i o n was t h e l a r g e s t , b o t h i n t erms of numbers and i n b r e a d t h of i n t e r e s t . I t s b a s i c d i r e c t i o n was s e t by H e l e n M a c G i l l , and as she was s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n v o l v e d i n i t c o u n t e r p a r t i n t h e LCW, t h e c o n c e r n s and a c t i v i t i e s of t h e two g r o u p s were i d e n t i c a l i n many r e s p e c t s . 5 1 T h e r e was a l s o much c o - o p e r a t i o n and j o i n t a c t i v i t y w i t h o t h e r c l u b s s u c h as t h e WF, NEL, t h e S u f f r a g e S o c i e t i e s and t h e J u v e n i l e P r o t e c t i o n S o c i e t y . Thus, e q u a l g u a r d i a n s h i p , minimum wages, m o t h e r s ' p e n s i o n s , m a i n t e n a n c e f o r d e s e r t e d w i v e s , i n h e r i t a n c e , m a r r i a g e and d i v o r c e laws were a l l g r i s t f o r t h i s s e c t i o n ' s m i l l . Out of t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s came H e l e n M a c G i l l ' s s e r i e s of p a m p h l e t s on l a w s f o r women and c h i l d r e n w h i c h s e r v e d b o t h t o a c q u a i n t women of t h e p r o v i n c e w i t h t h e s t a t e of p r o v i n c i a l l a w s a t t h e t i m e and t o form a b a s i s f o r r e f o r m a c t i v i t i e s . F o r most l e g i s l a t i v e r e f o r m s t h e c o m m i t t e e s of t h e v a r i o u s c l u b s campaigned s e p a r a t e l y but s u p p o r t e d each H e l e n L e n s k y j , "A ' S e r v a n t P r o b l e m ' , o r a ' S e r v a n t - M i s t r e s s P r o b l e m ' ? D o m e s t i c S e r v i c e i n Canada 1890-1930," A t l a n t i s 7:1 ( F a l l 1 9 8 1 ) , p.3; J e n n i f e r S t o d d a r t and V e r o n i c a S t r o n g - B o a g , "...And T h i n g s Were G o i n g Wrong a t Home," pp. 39-41; M a r i l y n B a r b e r , "The Women O n t a r i o Welcomed," p. 148. We s t e r n Women's Weekly, March 7, 1918 p.10 ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as WWW; UWC M i n u t e s A p r i l 28, 1917, November 16, 1916, December 9, 1916; F o r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e L i t t l e M o t h e r s ' League see Nora h L e w i s , " A d v i s i n g t h e P a r e n t s , " p. 145 and N e i l S u t h e r l a n d , C h i l d r e n i n E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y , pp.63,87. 68 o t h e r w i t h b a r r a g e s of r e s o l u t i o n s t o t h e goverment. They a l s o c o m b i n e d t o send d e l e g a t i o n s t o i n t e r v i e w MLA's, M i n i s t e r s o r t h e P r e m i e r . The campaign f o r s u f f r a g e a l s o engaged t h e Laws s e c t i o n but i n a l e s s d i r e c t manner. The most a c t i v e r o l e was p l a y e d by t h e s p e c i f i c a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d s u f f r a g e s o c i e t i e s w h i c h l e d t h e campaign a f t e r 1912 when s e v e r a l combined p e t i t i o n s by o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h as t h e WCTU had been u n s u c c e s s f u l . 5 2 The LCW t o o k no p a r t i n t h e s u f f r a g e campaign as a c l u b t h o u g h i t s u p p o r t e d t h e p r i n c i p l e and e n c o u r a g e d i t s members t o t a k e p a r t on a p e r s o n a l b a s i s . 5 3 The UWC was more a c t i v e i n i t s s u p p o r t but w h i l e many members were a c t i v e on t h e i r own b e h a l f i n s u f f r a g e s o c i e t i e s , t h e UWC d i d not p l a c e heavy emphasis on s u f f r a g e a l o n e . L i k e t h e LCW i t saw s u f f r a g e as one more l e g i s l a t i v e change amongst many t o be a c h i e v e d . Thus t h e r e s o l u t i o n " t h a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y Women's C l u b do a l l i n i t s power a t t h e p r e s e n t moment t o f u r t h e r t h e e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t of women," w h i c h was u n a n i m o u s l y c a r r i e d a t a r e g u l a r m e e t i n g of t h e c l u b on May 13, 1916, was a c c o m p a n i e d by a d e c i s i o n t o f o l l o w t h e p o l i c y of t h e U n i t e d S u f f r a g e S o c i e t i e s on t h e f r a n c h i s e r e f e r e n d u m t h a t was t h e n b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d by t h e g o v e r n m e n t . 5 4 I t was a l s o a c c o m p a n i e d by a l e n g t h y r e p o r t from H e l e n M a c G i l l w h i c h i n c l u d e d a s e r i e s of l e g i s l a t i v e amendments t h a t were seen E l s i e M a c G i l l , My Mother t h e Judge,, pp. 117-20; t h e UWC was a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e LCW t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d s t u d i e d . See Mrs M a r i a G r a n t t o P r e m i e r M c B r i d e F e b r u a r y 29, 1912, r e a d e p u t a t i o n of n i n e t y o r g a n i s a t i o n s . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . P r e m i e r P a p e r s . GR 441 v o l . 44 no 272. PABC. 69 as b e i n g e q u a l l y d e s i r a b l e and i m p o r t a n t . I n September of t h e same y e a r M a c G i l l r e p o r t e d t h a t as women's s u f f r a g e "was now a p r a c t i c a l c e r t a i n t y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e " t h e Laws Department would become even more i m p o r t a n t as a v e h i c l e f o r l e g i s l a t i v e change. She s u g g e s t e d t h r e e f u r t h e r a r e a s f o r imm e d i a t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n , e q u a l g u a r d i a n s h i p of c h i l d r e n , p r o v i s i o n f o r widows r e g a r d l e s s of t h e e x i s t e n c e o r not of a husband's w i l l and a B i l l t o f o r c e a d u l t , employed c h i l d r e n t o s u p p o r t t h e i r i n d i g e n t p a r e n t s . 5 5 Two months l a t e r , M i s s A l i c e K e e n l e y s i d e , a c l u b member, p r e s e n t e d a p a p e r on r e f o r m l e g i s l a t i o n p a s s e d i n v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s a f t e r a t t a i n m e n t of women's s u f f r a g e . She r e p o r t e d t h a t The g e n e r a l t r e n d o f woman's b a l l o t i n f l u e n c e a p p a r e n t l y i s t o w a r d more and b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n , a g a i n s t v i c e i n e v e r y form and f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of h i g h e s t womanhood. 5 6 The p o i n t b e i n g , t h a t s u f f r a g e was c l e a r l y seen by t h e s e women, as w e l l as by women i n o t h e r c l u b s , as a v i t a l i s s u e but not as an i s s u e i n i s o l a t i o n . T h e i r aim was a w i d e r d e f i n i t i o n of e q u a l c i t i z e n s h i p and t h e r i g h t t o v o t e was o n l y one a s p e c t of i t . T h i s i s not t o say t h a t c l u b members were not j u b i l a n t a t t h e w i n n i n g o f t h e f r a n c h i s e . On t h e c o n t r a r y . But t h e y were j u s t as happy a b o u t o t h e r l e g i s l a t i v e r e f o r m . H e l e n M a c G i l l C o u n c i l women were s p l i t by p e r s o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s as w e l l as by th e need t o work f o r s u f f r a g e a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l , r a t h e r t h a n n a t i o n a l l e v e l . See V e r o n i c a S t r o n g - B o a g , P a r l i a m e n t of Women, pp. 275-278. UWC M i n u t e s , Box 1, 1911-1916, May 13, 1916. I b i d . , September 9, 1916. 70 r e p o r t e d i n May 1917 t h a t t h e Laws c o m m i t t e e i s g l o a t i n g o v e r t h e s a t i s f a c t o r y a t t a i n m e n t of Woman S u f f r a g e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e E q u a l G u a r d i a n s h i p A c t and t h e D e s e r t e d Wives A c t . F o r y e a r s t h e C l u b has been s t r i v i n g f o r t h i s consummation and v i e w s t h e r e s u l t h a p p i l y . 5 7 I n t h e move t o t h e w i d e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f women as c i t i z e n s t h e UWC was l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e Women's P a r l i a m e n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n a b o u t w h i c h l i t t l e e v i d e n c e has s u r v i v e d e x c e p t t h a t i t s p u r p o s e was " t o form a s o r t of p a r l i a m e n t f o r t h e s t u d y and d i s c u s s i o n of p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s i n p a r t i c u l a r , [ s i c 3 t h o s e r e l a t i n g d i r e c t l y t o women and c h i l d r e n . I n t h i s way f e m i n i n e o p i n i o n may be t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t e d u c a t e d and u n i f i e d . " 5 8 I n 1916, t h e e x e c u t i v e c o m m i t t e e s u g g e s t e d t h a t a m e e t i n g be h e l d of a c e n t r a l c o m m i t t e e of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e p r i n c i p a l women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o form s u c h an a s s o c i a t i o n . H e l e n M a c G i l l , l a w y e r E d i t h P a t e r s o n and t e a c h e r M i s s E . J . Maycock were a p p o i n t e d t o make ar'ragements on b e h a l f of t h e UWC and by November t h e new o r g a n i z a t i o n was o p e r a t i n g . 5 9 Membership of t h e UWC r e m a i n e d r e m a r k a b l y s t a b l e i n t h e f i r s t e i g h t e e n y e a r s of i t s e x i s t e n c e . H a v i n g r e a c h e d f i f t y by 1909, i t r e m a i n e d between t h a t number and e i g h t y w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y of members a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n c l u b a f f a i r s . The y e a r 1925 h e r a l d e d a m ajor change, however. By t h i s ' t i m e t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d and I b i d . , November 25, 1916. I b i d . , S e c r e t a r y ' s R e p o r t 1916-17. D e l i v e r e d May 12, 1917. I b i d . , September 23, 1916. 7 1 g r a d u a t i n g a number o f women a n n u a l l y and t h e UWC d e c i d e d t o u n d e r t a k e a membership campaign t o e n c o u r a g e t h i s new g e n e r a t i o n of women t o j o i n them. The l a s t y e a r s f o r w h i c h membership f i g u r e s a r e a v a i l a b l e , 1925 and 1926, show a marked i n c r e a s e d membership. By t h i s t i m e t h o s e e a r l y members who s t i l l r e t a i n e d an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n t h e c l u b were w e l l i n t o m i d d l e age and w h i l e t h e r e had been a s m a l l but s t e a d y i n f u s i o n of younger members o v e r t h e y e a r s , t h i s sudden i n f l u x of members, a f u l l g e n e r a t i o n y o u nger t h a n t h e y o u n g e s t of t h e f o u n d e r s must have had a s t r o n g i m p a c t on t h e atmo s p h e r e and d i r e c t i o n of m e e t i n g s even t h o u g h t h e new members d i d not ap p e a r t o p l a y a v e r y a c t i v e r o l e i n c l u b - l i f e . Even w i t h o u t t h e new members t h e i n i t i a l l e g i s l a t i v e f o c u s of t h e c l u b had g r a d u a l l y d i m i n i s h e d as t h e r e f o r m s t h e y had worked f o r were g r a d u a l l y a c h i e v e d . Now t h e c l u b was t o t u r n i t s a t t e n t i o n t o o t h e r m a t t e r s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e announcement of t h e a p p o i n t m e n t of G.H. Putman and G.M. We i r t o s u r v e y t h e p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l s y s t e m r e d i r e c t e d i t s a t t e n t i o n t o e d u c a t i o n a l m a t t e r s . The New E r a League (NEL) was formed i n O c t o b e r 1916 f o l l o w i n g t h e w i n n i n g o f of t h e p r o v i n c i a l f r a n c h i s e . On t h e o c c a s i o n of i t s f i r s t a n n i v e r s a r y t h e W e s t e r n Women's Weekly c a r r i e d t h e f o l l o w i n g r a t i o n a l e f o r i t s e x i s t e n c e . Many l e a d i n g women who r e a l i s e d t h e power of the b a l l o t , b u t who had been f o r c e d t o work t h r o u g h t h e o l d i n d i r e c t methods t o o b t a i n r e f o r m s , upon v i c t o r y a t t h e p o l l s , i m m e d i a t e l y b r o u g h t i n t o b e i n g t h i s p r o m i s i n g s o c i e t y . . . . [They] a r e f i n d i n g t h a t now t h e b a l l o t i s i n t h e i r hands i t i s t h e s u r e s t weapon t h e y can w i e l d . 6 0 72 The name of t h e c l u b o b v i o u s l y r e f l e c t e d t h e o p t i m i s m t h a t t h e s e women had i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o e x t e n d t h e i r i n f l u e n c e as c i t i z e n s f o r t h e b e n e f i t of t h e community. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e same a r t i c l e l i s t e d f o u r o b j e c t s o f t h e League. 1) t o i n t e r e s t women i n c i v i c , p r o v i n c i a l , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s . 2) To be p a t r i o t i c , e d u c a t i o n a l and b e n e v o l e n t . 3) To o b t a i n w o r l d w i d e e q u a l s u f f r a g e , e q u a l j u s t i c e f o r a l l women and a l l men; p r o t e c t i o n f o r a l l c h i l d r e n ; e q u a l pay f o r e q u a l work; e q u a l m o r a l s t a n d a r d s and w o r l d wide p e a c e . 4) To be n o n - p a r t i s a n and n o n - s e c t a r i a n . A r a t h e r l a r g e b i l l t o f i l l , e s p e c i a l l y Item 3, w h i c h i n f a c t was n e v e r r e a l l y a d d r e s s e d as a c t i v i t i e s o n l y s e l d o m i n c l u d e d n a t i o n a l , l e t a l o n e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s . L i k e t h e name of t h e League, i t s o b j e c t i v e s r e f l e c t e d t h e n o t i o n t h a t now t h e v o t e was won n o t h i n g would s t a n d i n t h e way of women's d e s i r e and a b i l i t y t o r i g h t t h e wrongs o f t h e w o r l d . B u t 4 e v e n i f t h e y were o v e r l y o p t i m i s t i c i t i s c l e a r t h a t League members saw t h e w i n n i n g of s u f f r a g e as o n l y one p a r t of t h e b a t t l e , not as t h e f i n a l v i c t o r y o f t h e war. None of t h e League's r e c o r d s have s u r v i v e d , making c o m p l e t e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of i t s a c t i v i t e s , membership and i n f l u e n c e a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e . Of a l l t h e women's c l u b s o f t h e t i m e , however, i t 6 0 WWW, December 20, 1917, p.7. 73 was t h e one most f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d i n t h e newspaper a c c o u n t s so t h a t some i d e a of i t s o v e r a l l work and sometimes d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t s of s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s have been p r e s e r v e d . F o r t u n a t e l y , t h e NEL was p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o l i f i c i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n of r e s o l u t i o n s , w h i c h i t w o u l d send t o o t h e r c l u b s f o r endorsement b e f o r e f o r w a r d i n g t o c i v i c o r p r o v i n c i a l government so t h a t some c r o s s - c h e c k i s p o s s i b l e i n m i n u t e s of c l u b s s u c h as t h e LCW and UWC and i n t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e f i l e s of t h e P r e m i e r s and some M i n i s t e r s . The e a r l i e s t days of t h e League were not r e c o r d e d i n t h e newspapers so i t i s u n c l e a r j u s t who might be s i n g l e d o ut as t h e p r i m e movers i n i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t . A r e t r o s p e c t i v e a r t i c l e of 1920 l i s t s n i n e t e e n women as f o u n d i n g members and a t l e a s t f o u r of t h e s e c o n t i n u e d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e League u n t i l t h e end of t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s . 6 1 Mrs J e a n Macken c e r t a i n l y p l a y e d a v e r y p r o m i n e n t r o l e as d i d Mrs S u s i e Lane C l a r k . Macken, a widow, was a c t i v e i n t h e WCTU and t h e LCW p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f e q u a l m o r a l s t a n d a r d s f o r men and women. She s e v e r a l t i m e s c h a i r e d t h e LCW c o m m i t t e e on t h i s t o p i c and Mrs. J e a n K. Macken, M rs. J e n n i e S m i t h , Mrs. M a r g a r e t H a r o l d , Mrs. W i l l i a m T u t t y , M r s. A l i c e W i l s o n , S u s i e Lane C l a r k , Mrs R a l p h , M r s . H.G. T a y l o r , M r s. J.O. P e r r y , M r s . P e r c i v a l , M r s . John J a c k s o n , M r s. E l l a C o r e y Benson, M i s s P e l l e y , M i s s A l i c e N o b l e , M r s . G. F o e l l m e r , M r s . C h a r l e s Meek, M r s . Spur and Mrs. Nye. Sun, M a r c h 14, 1920 p. 13. Fo r e x a m p l e , "Womanhood and C i t i z e n s h i p , " WWW, November 30, 1918 p. 1; "Womans O p p o r t u n i t y , " I b i d . , A u g u s t 27, 1921 p.4; "Woman's R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , " I b i d . , September 17, 1921 p.1; "Woman's I n f l u e n c e , " I b i d . , O c t o b e r 8, 1921 p.5; "The Mother i n P u b l i c L i f e , " I b i d . , September 23, 1922 p.4; " E q u a l M o r a l S t a n d i n g , " I b i d . , J a n u a r y 27, 1923, p.3. 74 o c c a s i o n a l l y w r o t e a r t i c l e s f o r t h e l o c a l p r e s s . 6 2 C l a r k was NEL's f i r s t p r e s i d e n t i n 1916-18 and was r e - e l e c t e d i n l a t e r y e a r s . The i m p r e s s i o n g a i n e d from r e p o r t s i s t h a t t h r o u g h o u t t h e 1920's she was t h e o v e r a l l l e a d e r of NEL, i f not i t s f o u n d e r . Her a p p a r e n t p r o m i n e n c e may have been due t o h e r r a t h e r a c i d , f o r c e f u l and d e f i n i t e l y o u t s p o k e n p e r s o n a l i t y r a t h e r t h a n t o h e r p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r members. E l s i e M a c G i l l , i n t h e b i o g r a p h y of her m o t h e r , H e l e n M a c G i l l , d e s c r i b e s h e r s i m p l y as " s h a r p f e a t u r e d and t w a n g y . " 6 3 F o r someone who was so p r o m i n e n t , r e m a r k a b l y l i t t l e i s known a b o u t C l a r k . She was b o r n i n San F r a n c i s c o some t i m e i n t h e 1880's and e v i d e n t l y t a u g h t i n e l e m e n t a r y , s e c o n d a r y and b u s i n e s s s c h o o l s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a f t e r c o m p l e t i n g a u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e f o r t e a c h e r s . She was a l s o i n v o l v e d i n t h e s u f f r a g e movement i n San F r a n c i s c o b e f o r e m a r r y i n g h e r C a n a d i a n husband i n 1906 and moving t o V a n c o u v e r i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . More m i l i t a n t i n h e r demands f o r women's r i g h t s t h a n most clubwomen, she n e v e r t h e l e s s c l u n g t o t h e i d e a t h a t women were somehow " s u p e r i o r " t o men_and t h e r e f o r e had s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s t o o f f e r i n t h e c o n t r o l and o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y . 6 4 I n t e r e s t i n g l y she i s not remembered a t a l l by s u r v i v i n g women who were members of t h e LCW or UWC a l t h o u g h t h o s e who worked w i t h h e r i n t h e 1930's i n t h e WILPF and CCF r e c a l l her as a c t i v e and competent but n e i t h e r warm nor o u t g o i n g i n p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 6 5 T h i s may p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n E l s i e M a c G i l l , My Mother t h e J u d g e , p. 151. P r o v i n c e , F e b r u a r y 19, 1921, p.8. I n t e r v i e w s 9,13,14 J u l y , 1983. 75 h e r l a c k of i m p act on younger c lubmernber s, but t h e f a c t t h a t h e r husband was a p r i n t e r may have p l a c e d h e r on a s o c i a l s t r a t u m j u s t s u f f i c i e n t l y below many clubwomen t o h i d e h e r v i s i b i l i t y . The s i z e of t h e New E r a League i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s . In M arch of 1917 o p t i m i s t i c m e n t i o n was made of a c h i e v i n g a membership of 1000 but i n t h e whole of 1919 o n l y t w e n t y - f o u r new members were s e c u r e d . 6 6 As t h e m a j o r i t y of m e e t i n g s , a t l e a s t a f t e r 1920, were h e l d i n p r i v a t e homes i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t membership e v e r r e a c h e d e x p e c t a t i o n s . The f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e NEL seems t o have been l e s s s t r u c t u r e d t han t h a t of some c l u b s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e LCW and UWC, t h o u g h t h i s may be p a r t l y due t o t h e manner of r e p o r t i n g i n t h e p r e s s . The c l e a r e s t d i f f e r e n c e i s i n t h e l a c k of s t a n d i n g c o m m i t t e e s - no m e n t i o n was made of them u n t i l 1921 when n i n e were l i s t e d , i n c l u d i n g t h e u b i q u i t o u s Laws c o m m i t t e e w i t h H e l e n M a c G i l l a t i t s head. (See T a b l e 6.) I n 1925-27 when s e v e r a l l o c a l NEL's had a f f i l i a t e d t o f o r m a p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s e v e r a l c o m m i t t e e s e x i s t e d a t t h i s l e v e l o f t h e h i e r a r c h y a l s o . (See T a b l e 7.) I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a l l t h e s e c o m m i t t e e s were a c t i v e t h r o u g h o u t t h e l i f e of t h e NEL and s i m p l y not m e n t i o n e d . However, p r e s s r e p o r t s of A n n u a l G e n e r a l M e e t i n g s f a i r l y a p p o i n t e m e n t of c o n s i s t e n t l y r e c o r d t h e e l e c t i o n of t h e e x e c u t i v e and i t seems s t r a n g e t h a t t h e y w o u l d o m i t 8 t o r e c o r d 6 6 P r o v i n c e , March 28, 1917 p.8; WWW, O c t o b e r 25, 1919 p.5. 76 T a b l e 6 V a n c o u v e r NEL, Committees and C o n v e n o r s 1921 Committee Convenor O r g a n i z a t i o n M i s s E. L e S e u e r C i v i c Mrs H.E. Towner P r o v i n c i a l Mrs S t a n l e y Brown I n t e r n a t i o n a l Mrs P e r c i v a l Ways and Means Mrs F o r g i e R e f r e s h m e n t s Mrs P u r r P r e s s Mrs C h a r l e s Meek Rec e p t i o n Mrs J.C. Cowper Laws f o r Women and C h i l d r e n Mrs H e l e n M a c G i l l S o u r c e : P r o v i n c e , December 19, 1921 p.11. T a b l e 7 P r o v i n c i a l NEL S t a n d i n g C o m m i t t e e s and C o n v e n o r s , 1925-27 Commi t t e e 1 925 1 926 1 927 Laws f o r Women and C h i l d r e n Mrs S. C l a r k Mrs H. M a c G i i : . Mrs J . S m i t h E c o n o m i c s Mrs A. Dyson Mrs W. Dyson Mrs A. Dyson E d u c a t i o n . Mrs A. Cooper P r e s s Mrs L. Wisdom R e s o l u t i o n s Mrs J . Macken M o r a l W e l f a r e Mrs J . Cowper S o u r c e s : Sun, J a n u a r y 24, 1925 p.6; Sun, O c t o b e r 23, 1926 p. 14; P r o v i n c e , O c t o b e r 29, 1927 p.8. 77 t h e e l e c t i o n of c o m m i t t e e c o n v e n o r s i f t h i s a l s o t o o k p l a c e . M o r e o v e r , t h e e x i s t e n c e of a c t i v e s t a n d i n g c o m m i t t e e s i s u s u a l l y i n d i c a t e d by t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of some r e p o r t on an a n n u a l , i f not more f r e q u e n t , b a s i s . Such r e p o r t s o n l y a p p e a r e d i n y e a r s when c o m m i t t e e s were m e n t i o n e d as b e i n g i n e x i s t e n c e so i t may w e l l be t h a t much of NEL's work was done on an ad hoc b a s i s . The r a t h e r muddled, u n p r e p a r e d n a t u r e of t h e b u s i n e s s a t many of t h e m e e t i n g s t e n d s t o s u p p o r t t h i s t h e o r y . The NEL r e m a i n e d a s i n g l e V a n c o u v e r - b a s e d o r g a n i z a t i o n u n t i l 1922 when a s i s t e r League was e s t a b l i s h e d i n N o r t h V a n c o u v e r ; a t t h i s p o i n t t h e V a n c o u v e r NEL e x p r e s s e d the hope t h a t t h e e x p a n s i o n would c o n t i n u e t o a p o i n t where b r a n c h e s a c r o s s t h e p r o v i n c e would be j o i n e d i n a c e n t r a l f e d e r a t i o n . 6 7 By t h e end of t h e y e a r a D i s t r i c t NEL had been formed w i t h J e a n Macken as P r e s i d e n t , p r e s u m a b l y t o a c t as a s e n i o r c o - o r d i n a t i n g body. I n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r r e f e r e n c e i s made t o a New W e s t m i n s t e r NEL and t o " d e l e g a t e s from P o i n t G r e y , P o r t Moody and S o u t h V a n c o u v e r . " 6 8 E x a c t l y t h e same t y p e of b u s i n e s s seems t o have been t r a n s a c t e d a t b o t h l o c a l and d i s t r i c t l e v e l s and i n v i e w of NEL members' own comments c o n c e r n i n g " o v e r o r g a n i z a t i o n " i n women's c l u b s i t i s h a r d t o see what t h e NEL hoped t o g a i n by t h i s m o v e . 6 9 Sun, F e b r u a r y 8, 1922 p.6. Sun, September 12, 1922 p.6. P r o v i n c e , November 14, 1922 p.8. M r s . Agnes Cooper v i s i t e d t h e Okanagan and t r i e d t o r a i s e i n t e r e s t i n s t a r t i n g a NEL t h e r e but f o u n d t h a t " l i k e t h e c i t y t h e r u r a l a r e a s a r e 'over o r g a n i z e d ' " . 78 I n l i n e w i t h t h e s t a t e d aims of t h e NEL, t h e a r e a s i n w h i c h i t became i n v o l v e d were numerous and v a r i e d . They r a n g e d from m o t h e r ' s p e n s i o n s , t o t h e s u p p r e s s i o n of d r u g t r a f f i c , t o f o o d c o n s e r v a t i o n d u r i n g t h e war, t o s u p p o r t f o r aged s q u a t t e r s a b o u t t o be e v i c t e d from S t a n l e y P a r k , t o demands f o r u n i o n r a t e s f o r UBC g a r d e n e r s . There was no p u b l i c i s s u e on w h i c h t h e NEL was not p r e p a r e d t o speak o u t . O u t s p o k e n n e s s i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t some p e o p l e would p e r h a p s have a p p l i e d t o t h e m a j o r i t y of clubwomen a t t h i s p e r i o d , but i t seems p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e NEL. M o r e o v e r , a l o n g w i t h i t t h e r e was o f t e n an u n p r e p a r e d n e s s o r l a c k of f o r e t h o u g h t t h a t must have s e r i o u s l y l i m i t e d i t s c r e d i b i l i t y . I n d e e d t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h i s was s o . An e x c e l l e n t example can be f o u n d i n t h e NEL "campaign" a g a i n s t t h e d r u g p r o b l e m . I n i t s e l f t h i s was a l e g i t i m a t e and w o r t h y a r e a of c o n c e r n ; i t was an i s s u e t h a t was t a k e n up by s e v e r a l o t h e r women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g t h e LCW and no doubt t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t f o r r e f o r m f r o m t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , b o t h male and f e m a l e . I t was n o t , however a p r o b l e m f o r w h i c h t h e r e was an i n s t a n t s o l u t i o n . When t h e q u e s t i o n was r a i s e d a t a m e e t i n g , M r s . H.G. T a y l o r , c o n v e n o r of t h e C i v i c s c o m m i t t e e , s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s o l u t i o n m i g h t l i e i n s e n d i n g a p e t i t i o n t o t h e B r i t i s h government a s k i n g t h a t t h e m a n u f a c t u r e of a l l d r u g s be banned t h r o u g h o u t t h e e m p i r e . T h i s s u g g e s t i o n was g r e e t e d w i t h s c o r n by some NEL members who p o i n t e d out t h a t s u c h a move wou l d s e v e r e l y 79 l i m i t t h e s u p p l y of d r u g s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n f o r l e g i t i m a t e p u r p o s e s . Mrs T a y l o r p r o m p t l y w i t h d r e w h e r s u g g e s t i o n but had no a l t e r n a t i v e i d e a s . N e i t h e r d i d - any o t h e r members a t t h a t p o i n t and t h e m e e t i n g t u r n e d t o o t h e r b u s i n e s s . L a t e r i n t h e same m e e t i n g a n o t h e r member, Mr s . S t e l l a B e a t t i e spoke on d r u g a d d i c t s i n t h e c i t y j a i l and a m o t i o n was p a s s e d t h a t some s o r t o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c e n t r e be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r them, p r e s u m a b l y by t h e government, but a g a i n t h e m a t t e r was not p u r s u e d . Some months l a t e r t h e NEL s p o n s o r e d a p u b l i c m e e t i n g on th e s u b j e c t but no a c t i o n f o l l o w e d t h e r a t h e r c o n f u s e d d i s c u s s i o n t h a t t o o k p l a c e , e x c e p t f o r t h e d i s p a t c h of a r e s o l u t i o n t o t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l . S h o r t l y a f t e r , t h e NEL d e c i d e d t h a t f u r t h e r e f f o r t on i t s p a r t was u s e l e s s because t h e p o l i c e were t o blame f o r not e n f o r c i n g t he l a w . 7 0 Thus, t h e NEL's "drug c a m p a i g n " , l i k e many of i t s o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s , c o n s i s t e d of l i t t l e more t h a n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and c o n d e m n a t i o n of a p r o b l e m and r e s o l u t i o n s s e n t t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a u t h o r i t y , u s u a l l y t h e P r e m i e r or t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l . * A l e t t e r t o one of clubwomen's s t a u n c h e s t a l l i e s , L i b e r a l MLA Mary E l l e n S m i t h (widow of f o r m e r MLA R a l p h S m i t h ) f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e s t h e NEL's t e n d e n c y t o o v e r - r e a c t . B e l i e v i n g - t h a t Mary E l l e n S m i t h was a d v o c a t i n g a p o l l t a x on a l l women i n t h e p r o v i n c e , t h e League w r o t e h e r a l e t t e r w h i c h must have been q u i t e s c a t h i n g f o r t h e r e p l y e x p r e s s e d " s u r p r i s e a t t h e t o n e . " 7 0 P r o v i n c e , May 13, 1921 p.10.; Sun, F e b r u a r y 3, 1922 p.6.; I b i d . , F e b r u a r y 10, 1922 p.6.; Sun, December 14, 1923 p.6. 80 M r s . S m i t h d e n i e d h a v i n g done a n y t h i n g more t h a n s a y , i n p a r l i a m e n t a r y c o m m i t t e e , t h a t as "an o l d tame s u f f r a g e t t e " she was w i l l i n g t o t a k e e q u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h men as f a r as t a x a t i o n was c o n c e r n e d . The i n i t i a l m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g may w e l l have a r i s e n o v e r e x a g g e r a t i o n or m i s q u o t a t i o n i n t h e p r e s s but i t shows t h e t e n d e n c y of t h e NEL t o e r u p t w i t h t h e f u l l f o r c e ^ o f r i g h t e o u s i n d i g n a t i o n w i t h o u t f u l l y c h e c k i n g i t s f a c t s . Members may not even have been aware of t h i s i r r i t a b i l i t y f o r t h e f i n a l l e t t e r i n t h i s s e r i e s c l a i m s t h a t t h e y " s i m p l y a s k e d f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n , w i t h o u t any i d e a of h a r s h c r i t i c i s m " . 7 1 I f Mary E l l e n S m i t h , s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e i r a i m s , i f not a member of t h e i r L e a g u e , f o u n d them u n d u l y vehement, how much more so must male p o l i t i c i a n s have done? Some women a t l e a s t t h o u g h t t h a t t h e NEL s h o u l d moderate i t s demands and work d i p l o m a t i c a l l y i n i t s a t t e m p t t o c o n v i n c e t h e government t o amend l e g i s l a t i o n . What i s not c l e a r i s w h e t h e r t h e s e w a r n i n g s came from m o d e r a t e s w i t h i n t h e c l u b or from an o u t s i d e s o u r c e . They may have come from t h e LCW w h i c h c o - o p e r a t e d c l o s e l y w i t h NEL and o t h e r women's c l u b s on t h e i s s u e of m o t h e r s ' p e n s i o n s . R e g a r d l e s s of t h e s o u r c e , t h e NEL was aware of t h e c r i t i c i s m f o r a t one m e e t i n g an unnamed member demanded "Why s h o u l d women have t o t r e a d c a r e f u l l y f o r f e a r o f o f f e n d i n g t h e g o v e r n m e n t ? " 7 2 S e v e r a l y e a r s l a t e r J e a n Macken c h a r a c t e r i s e d t h e LCW as "a back number" and q u o t e d S u s i e Lane I b i d . , J a n u a r y 21, 1927 p.12. I b i d . , J a n u a r y 22, 1919 p.8. 81 C l a r k as s a y i n g " t h e y a r e a f r a i d of t h e men". 7 3 O b v i o u s l y t h e r e d o u b t a b l e Mrs C l a r k was a f r a i d of no one. J e a n Macken, however, d e s p i t e h er contempt f o r t h e LCW, c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t m i l i t a n c y . 7 " The NEL was i n many r e s p e c t s d i f f e r e n t f rom t h e more c o n s e r v a t i v e c l u b s s u c h as t h e LCW and UWC. But w h i l e i t was l e s s c o n s e r v a t i v e , i t was by no means r a d i c a l . R a t h e r , i t was c h a r a c t e r i s e d by t h e b e l i e f t h a t now t h e f r a n c h i s e b e l o n g e d t o women a l l t h e y had t o do was t o p o i n t out what t h e y f e l t was wrong w i t h s o c i e t y t o have i t i n s t a n t l y c h a n g e d . The t h o u g h t f u l , p a i n s t a k i n g and i n c r e d i b l y p e r s i s t e n t c o m m i t t e e work done by t h e LCW and UWC i n p a r t i c u l a r was, on t h e wh o l e , m i s s i n g i n t h e NEL. The p r i n c i p a l e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s were t h e work done on m o t h e r ' s p e n s i o n s , w h i c h w i l l be d e a l t w i t h l a t e r , and t h e Laws c o m m i t t e e work done by H e l e n M a c G i l l . I t was i d e n t i c a l t o t h e work she d i d i n t h e LCW and UWC; one s u s p e c t s t h a t e v e r y r e p o r t she made on amendments a c h i e v e d and new l e g i s l a t i o n s u g g e s t e d , was d e l i v e r e d b e f o r e most, i f not a l l , of t h e women's c l u b s of V a n c o u v e r . These r e p o r t s a r e c l e a r , c o n c i s e , s e t out i n p o i n t form and r e f l e c t b o t h M a c G i l l ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n and t h e l o n g - t e r m , w e l l p l a n n e d campaign she engaged i n . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e r e p o r t s of most NEL m e e t i n g s a r e c o n f u s e d , w i t h arguments out of o r d e r and Sun, September 15, 1923 p.6. J e a n Macken was an a c t i v e member of t h e LCW from a b o u t 1907 t o 1915. She seems t o have d e s e r t e d i t once t h e NEL was formed. S u s i e Lane C l a r k uged women t o "use t h e i r c l a w s " i n t h e f i g h t f o r e q u a l i t y . Sun, September 18, 1918 p.3.; P r o v i n c e , May 31, 1919 p.8. 82 i n c l u d e a v a r i e t y of t o p i c s and i l l - c o n s i d e r e d comment r e l e c t i n g t h e t e n d e n c y of t h e NEL t o r e a c t i n s t a n t l y and w i t h o u t p r e p a r a t i o n t o any i s s u e t h a t c a u g h t i t s a t t e n t i o n . The i s s u e of m o t h e r s ' p e n s i o n s was t h e one t o p i c t h a t t h e NEL managed t o work on c o n s i s t e n t l y and t h o r o u g h l y from t h e f i r s t d ays of i t s e x i s t e n c e u n t i l t h e d e s i r e d l e g i s l a t i o n was p a s s e d i n 1920. A f t e r t h i s t i m e i t m o n i t o r e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e A c t and s u g g e s t e d amendments t o f u r t h e r i m p r o v e i t . S u s i e Lane C l a r k , on b e h a l f of t h e NEL, c o n s i d e r e d i t h e r s p e c i a l p r o j e c t and c l a i m e d t h a t t h e NEL had f i r s t r a i s e d t h e q u e s t i o n of m o t h e r s ' p e n s i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s i s u n t r u e f o r d i s c u s s i o n s of some k i n d of s u p p o r t f o r widowed and d e s e r t e d m o t h e r s had t a k e n p l a c e some y e a r s b e f o r e NEL e x i s t e d , but i t was c e r t a i n l y one of t h e f i r s t p r o j e c t s t h e NEL u n d e r t o o k , t h e one i n t o w h i c h i t pu t most e f f o r t and t h e one whose r e s u l t s were most c l e a r l y v i s i b l e . 7 5 S u s i e Lane C l a r k became t h e de f a c t o l e a d e r of t h e combined women's g r o u p s as f a r as t h i s p i e c e of l e g i s l a t i o n was c o n c e r n e d , and, n e v e r one t o s h r i n k from t a k i n g c r e d i t , she gave l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n t o t h e o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , whose s u p p o r t had p l a y e d no l i t t l e p a r t i n c o n v i n c i n g t h e government t o t r y t h e p e n s i o n scheme. She even went so f a r as t o say t h a t t h e NEL r a t h e r t h a n t h e p o l i t i c i a n s were r e s p o n s i b l e 7 5 The f i r s t modern m o t h e r s ' p e n s i o n s A c t had been p a s s e d i n M i s s o u r i i n 1911; i n 1912 Dr. B e l l e W i l s o n r e a d a paper t o t h e UWC on t h e s u b j e c t , UWC M i n u t e s , F e b r u a r y 24, 1912. In 1913 t h e LCW began t o c o n s i d e r t h e s u b j e c t f o l l o w i n g a r e q u e s t from t h e V i c t o r i a LCW. I t was r e f e r r e d t o t h e Laws c o m m i t t e e and became one of t h a t c o m m i t t e e ' s g o a l s . 83 f o r m o t h e r s ' p e n s i o n s and t h a t Mary E l l e n S m i t h ' s p r e s e n c e i n t h e House d i d not e f f e c t t h e m a t t e r one b i t . 7 6 Not t h e words of a d i p l o m a t . A n o t h e r a r e a i n w h i c h t h e NEL showed some i n t e r e s t , o f t e n i n c o n c e r t w i t h o t h e r women's g r o u p s , was t h e e l e c t i o n of women t o p u b l i c o f f i c e s s u c h as t h e s c h o o l b o a r d and c i t y c o u n c i l . I t e n d o r s e d a number of women c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e s e and o t h e r b o a r d s i n t h e 1910' s and 1920's, t h o u g h few were a c t u a l l y e l e c t e d . The League a l s o a r r a n g e d p u b l i c m e e t i n g s t o w h i c h c a n d i d a t e s , male and f e m a l e , were i n v i t e d t o e x p l a i n t h e i r p l a t f o r m s , and kept up c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e f o r r e l a x a t i o n of t h e p r o p e r t y q u a l i f i c a i t o n w h i c h p r e v e n t e d many women from v o t i n g i n c i v i c e l e c t i o n s . Members were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n h e l p i n g t o c o l l e c t names of newly e n f r a n c h i s e d women f o r t h e p r o v i n c i a l v o t e r s l i s t i n 1 9 1 7 . 7 7 In n e a r l y a l l a r e a s where t h e NEL worked i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s some changes were f o r t h c o m i n g . When i t s p r o t e s t s were u n s u p p o r t e d o r i g n o r e d by o t h e r c l u b s i t had v e r y l i t t l e s u c c e s s and r a r e l y p u r s u e d t h e m a t t e r f o r l o n g . A l t h o u g h members made o c c a s i o n a l c a l l s f o r u n i t y amongst women t h e y d i d not seem t o be w i l l i n g t o f o l l o w t h e i r own a d v i c e . They f i r m l y b e l i e v e d t h a t as women t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d a l l women and P r o v i n c e , December 10, 1920 p.10. re C i v i c C a n d i d a t e s see Sun, J a n u a r y 12, 1921 p.8; P r o v i n c e , December 19, 1921 p. 11; I b i d . , J a n u a r y 11, 1922 p.12; I b i d . , September 9, 1922 p.10; I b i d . , December 15, 1922 p.8; I b i d . , F e b r u a r y 9, 1923 p.8; Sun, September 14, 1923 p.6; I b i d . , November 12, 1926 p.6; r e v o t e r ' s l i s t , P r o v i n c e , A p r i l 18, 1917 p. 8. 84 c h i l d r e n . U n a b l e t o see d i s s e n s i o n w i t h i n t h e y own r a n k s t h e y had no c o n c e p t t h a t t h e whole of s o c i e t y would not , a u t o m a t i c a l l y a g r e e w i t h them. That t h e r e was d i s s e n s i o n i n t h e i r own r a n k s i s c l e a r , t h o u g h t h e r e a s o n f o r i t i s not so a p p a r e n t . I t may have been b a s e d on p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s r a t h e r t h a n i d e o l o g y . I n September 1922, Mrs T h u r s a Morwood C l a r k who had been c o r r e s p o n d i n g s e c r e t a r y of NEL f o r a t l e a s t t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r , r e s i g n e d s u d d e n l y and d e c l i n e d t o g i v e any r e a s o n f o r h e r a c t i o n . At t h e same t i m e , a new c l u b , t h e B r i t i s h P r o g r e s s i v e League ( B P L ) , came i n t o e x i s t e n c e w i t h Morwood C l a r k as i t s p r e s i d e n t . 7 8 The h o n o r a r y p r e s i d e n t s , M rs. J e n n i e S m i t h and M r s . A l i c e . W i l s o n were b o t h v e t e r a n s of V a n c o u v e r c l u b l i f e and c u r r e n t members of NEL. They c o n t i n u e d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . Mrs B a r b a r a C h i p p e n d a l e , t h e h o n o r a r y v i c e - p r e s i d e n t , was a f o r m e r t r e a s u r e r of NEL but seemed t o have no f u r t h e r c o n t a c t w i t h t h e c l u b a f t e r t h i s t i m e . N e i t h e r d i d Mrs Morwood C l a r k . The BPL, c o n t r a r y t o i t s name was e x c e e d i n g l y c o n s e r v a t i v e . W i t h i t s m o t t o of " S e r v i c e not S e l f " and i t s g o a l of " h i g h i d e a l s and t o work f o r a h i g h e r c i v i l i z a t i o n " , i t was i n t e n d e d t o be e d u c a t i o n a l and s t r i c t l y n o n - p o l i t i c a l . 7 9 A number of i t s members f o l l o w e d i t s f o u n d e r from t h e r a n k s of t h e NEL. Membership numbers were n e v e r m e n t i o n e d but m e e t i n g s were a l w a y s i n members' homes so p r e s u m a b l y i t was a s m a l l c l u b . Those Sun, September 8, 1922 p.6.; I b i d . , September 15, 1922 p.6. Sun, September 8, 1922 p.6. 85 members named i n p r e s s r e p o r t s were m o s t l y not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o t h e r women's c l u b s e x c e p t f o r t h o s e who had d e f e c t e d from NEL. S u r p r i s i n g l y t h o u g h , i n 1923 J a n e t Kemp of t h e LCW and t h e Women's Forum and I r e n e Moody, LCW member and f o r m e r V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l T r u s t e e , were members, a t l e a s t f o r t h a t y e a r , and c o n v e n o r s r e s p e c t i v e l y o f t h e Laws and S c h o o l B o a r d c o m m i t t e e s . 8 0 The BPL's s p h e r e of i n t e r e s t was v e r y n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t o f t h e NEL, b u t w i t h a more c o n s e r v a t i v e o u t l o o k . Thus t h e y s u p p o r t e d i n p r i n c i p l e t h e same r e f o r m s but a l s o promoted t h e s e g r e g a t i o n of t h e s e x e s - i n h o s p i t a l s , p r o p o s e d d r u g t r e a t m e n t c e n t r e s and even i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s . 8 1 They were p r o - e u g e n i c s and s t r o n g l y a n t i - o r i e n t a l . 8 2 And w h i l e t h e y demanded i n t e r v e n t i o n i n s u c h a r e a s as r e g u l a t i o n of h o u r s o f work and wages t h e y were v e r y much a g a i n s t t h e p r o p o s a l t o e s t a b l i s h a Community C h e s t t o c o - o r d i n a t e and a d m i n i s t e r r e l i e f work b e c a u s e " i t t a k e s a l l l o v e and p e r s o n a l t h o u g h t out of c h a r i t y " . 8 3 T h i s comment s u g g e s t s t h a t f a r from b e i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e "new e r a " members c l u n g t o n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c o n c e p t s o f women's r o l e i n p h i l a n t h r o p i c and r e f o r m work. 8 0 P r o v i n c e , November 14, 1923 p.8. 8 1 P r o v i n c e , December 12, 1922 p.8; Sun, December 10, 1924 p.6; I b i d . , A p r i l 7, 1926 p.6. 8 2 I b i d . , December 11, 1923 p.6; P r o v i n c e , O c t o b e r 9, 1923 p. 8. 8 3 I b i d . , J a n u a r y 15, 1924 p.6; P a t r i c i a Rooke and R.L. S c h n e l l , " C h i l d W e l f a r e i n E n g l i s h Canada, 1920-1948," t r a c e t h e g r o w i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of s o c i a l w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s i n Canada but n o t e t h a t even i n t h e l a t e 1920's o l d a t t i t u d e s t o " c h a r i t y " had not been c o m p l e t e l y e r a d i c a t e d , pp.492-93. 86 Between 1.923 and 1926 s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s came t o t a k e on s e e m i n g l y e q u a l i m p o r t a n c e w i t h b u s i n e s s m e e t i n g s f o r t h e BPL. B r i d g e was t h e most p o p u l a r form of e n t e r t a i n m e n t . I n 1926 T h u r s a Morwood C l a r k r e t i r e d as p r e s i d e n t t h o u g h she r e m a i n e d i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e League as h o n o r a r y p r e s i d e n t . Membership d e c l i n e d o v e r t h e n e x t y e a r and t h e BPL f i n a l l y c o mbined w i t h t h e NEL i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r i n t h e hope t h a t t h e merger w o u l d g i v e b o t h c l u b s added i m p e t u s . 8 " T h i s was not t o be, however. Through'1928 t h e NEL l i m p e d a l o n g w i t h e v e r d e c r e a s i n g numbers and a t t h e end of t h a t y e a r t h e p r e s s c e a s e d t o r e c o r d t h e i r m e e t i n g s . E x a c t l y when t h e NEL went o u t of e x i s t e n c e i s not c l e a r . I t was s t i l l s t r u g g l i n g a l o n g i n 1937 w i t h H e l e n a G u t t e r i d g e as s e c r e t a r y and i n 1943 w i t h S u s i e Lane C l a r k s t i l l h o l d i n g t h e p r e s i d e n c y . A f t e r t h i s d a t e however no f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s have been f o u n d . 8 5 The LCW, UWC and NEL were c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h c h a n g i n g t h e l a w , and t h u s s o c i e t y , so t h a t women would have a more e q u a l and e f f e c t i v e r o l e w i t h i n i t . T e a c h i n g women what t h e i r r o l e i n t h e new e r a was, and how t o make t h e most of i t , was a l s o one of t h e i r a ims but i t t o o k a s e c o n d a r y p l a c e . One women's o r g a n i z a t i o n , however, r e v e r s e d t h e s e p r i o r i t i e s and p u t e d u c a t i o n f o r and p a r t i c i p a t i o n as c i t i z e n s ahead of a g i t a t i o n f o r r e f o r m . Formed i n O c t o b e r 1912, t h e Women's Forum (WF) hoped 8 " P r o v i n c e , September 28, 1927 p.16. 8 5 L i n d a H a l e , "The B.C. Woman S u f f r a g e Movement," p.149; V a n c o u v e r Women's B u i l d i n g D i a r y 1943, p.46. m i c r o f i l m 1943-41 VCA. 87 t o o r g a n i z e and u n i t e t h e women r a t e p a y e r s of V a n c o u v e r " w i t h t h e a i m of d e a l i n g e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h t h o s e p u b l i c q u e s t i o n s t h a t a f f e c t them both- as women- and as c i t i z e n s " . 8 6 The m u n i c i p a l f r a n c h i s e f o r women i n V a n c o u v e r was s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d by a p r o p e r t y q u a l i f i c a t i o n but n e v e r t h e l e s s i t d i d e x i s t and t h e WF i n t e n d e d t o make t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e use of i t . Women were r e q u i r e d t o h o l d p r o p e r t y t o t h e v a l u e of $300 t o be e l i g i b l e f o r t h e v o t e ; v e r y few d i d . I f a p r o p e r t y was h e l d i n j o i n t names, w h i c h was a somewhat more l i k e l y s i t u a t i o n f o r some women, o n l y one v o t e p e r h o l d i n g was a l l o w e d . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t i n t h i s a r e a , where women d i d a l r e a d y have some v o t i n g r i g h t s , t h e r e was n e v e r t h e l e v e l of a g i t a t i o n o r s t r i d e n c y t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s e d t h o s e women who sought t h e p r o v i n c i a l f r a n c h i s e and change i n p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . T h i s was due i n p a r t , no d o u b t , t o t h e f a c t t h a t m u n i c i p a l government was seen by b o t h men and women as " l e s s i m p o r t a n t " t h a n p r o v i n c i a l g overnment; women were n o t so d r i v e n t o a c q u i r e t h e f u l l f r a n c h i s e and men were not so t h r e a t e n e d a t t h e t h o u g h t of t h e i r g e t t i n g i t . The s e v e n member f o u n d i n g e x e c u t i v e o f t h e WF were a l l a c t i v e i n t h e LCW, one of t h e more c o n s e r v a t i v e o f the c l u b s d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s s t u d y . On t h e o t h e r hand f o u r of them b e l o n g e d t o t h e P i o n e e r P o l i t i c a l E q u a l i t y League ( P P E L ) , one of t h e o l d e s t s u f f r a g e s o c i e t i e s i n t h e c i t y , and s e v e r a l b e l o n g e d t o o t h e r a c t i v e women's c l u b s so i t c o u l d e q u a l l y be a r g u e d t h a t 6 Women's Sun, p.6. 88 i n e a ch of t h e i r c l u b s t h e y d e a l t w i t h a d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t of t h e i r d r i v e f o r e q u a l c i t i z e n s h i p . The c o r e of WF was composed of members of what m i g h t be termed a network o f a c t i v e women who b e l o n g e d t o a t l e a s t one but o f t e n t h r e e o r f o u r o t h e r c l u b s c o n c e r n e d w i t h v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of womanhood and c i t i z e n s h i p . 8 7 The WF's a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n on m a t t e r s a t t h e m u n i c i p a l l e v e l i n d i c a t e s how i m p o r t a n t t h e s e c i v i c v o t i n g r i g h t s were t o women, l i m i t e d as t h e y were. The c l u b had no d e s i r e t o d i s s i p a t e i t s s t r e n g t h by d i r e c t i n g i t where i t had no i n f l u e n c e . L a u r a J a m i e s o n e m p h a s i z e d d u r i n g a membership campaign t h a t t h e WF so u g h t t o r e p r e s e n t t h e women of t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y i n a l l m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o women as c i t i z e n s of t h e community..., so u g h t t o s t u d y l o c a l p r o b l e m s i n a l l d e p a r t m e n t s o v e r w h i c h t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y has c o n t r o l , a n d . . . t o improve c o n d i t i o n s by t h e d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o f t h e v o t e and by e d u c a t i n g p u b l i c o p i n i o n a l o n g t h e h i g h e s t l i n e s . 8 8 W i t h i n bounds of t h i s p l a t f o r m t h e WF had t h r e e s p e c i f i c p l a n k s : e q u a l pay f o r e q u a l work, e q u a l s u f f r a g e , and e q u a l m o r a l s t a n d a r d s f o r men and women. 8 9 The l a s t two seemed t o occupy most of t h e i r , e n e r g i e s . S e v e r a l y e a r s l a t e r i t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s p h e r e of i n t e r e s t be wi d e n e d t o i n c l u d e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i v e q u e s t i o n s but many members f e l t t h a t t h i s was 4 P r e s i d e n t Mrs J a n e t Kemp (LCW), v i c e - p r e s i d e n t s Mrs A.H. D a v i e s (LCW), Mrs H e l e n M a c G i l l (LCW, UWC, NEL, P P E L ) , Mrs W i l l i a m McConkey (LCW, UWC, P P E L ) , Mrs J e n n i e S m i t h (LCW, PPEL, NEL, B P E L ) , t r e a s u r e r Mrs Watt H. Morrow (LCW, P P E L ) , s e c r e t a r y Mrs Mary E l l e n S m i t h (LCW, P P E L ) , Women's Sun, p.6. P r o v i n c e , March 10, 1915 p.8. WWW, December 13, 1917 p.4. Sun, June 22, 1918 p.4. 89 i n a p p r o p r i a t e . 9 0 N e v e r t h e l e s s , from t i m e t o t i m e t h e WF d i d l e n d i t s s u p p o r t , a t l e a s t i n p r i n c i p l e , and o c c a s i o n a l l y i n p r a c t i c e , t o l e g i s l a t i v e i s s u e s . T h r o u g h o u t i t s e x i s t e n c e t h e WF kept a f a i r l y low p u b l i c p r o f i l e a l t h o u g h i t worked v e r y c l o s e l y w i t h t h e c i t y c o u n c i l i n what a p p e a r s t o have been a s u c c e s s f u l p a r t n e r s h i p . A l t h o u g h i t was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1912, i t s a c t i v i t i e s were not p u b l i c i z e d u n t i l 1914. At t h i s t i m e r e p o r t s of i t s m e e t i n g s began t o ap p e a r i n t h e p r e s s and a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t was made t o e x t e n d t h e membership. T h e r e were two c l a s s e s o f membership - a c t i v e and a s s o c i a t e - w i t h o n l y t h o s e who had t h e c i t y f r a n c h i s e h a v i n g t h e p r i v i l e g e of v o t i n g and h o l d i n g t h e t i t l e D i r e c t o r . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of t h e WF was, l i k e t h a t of t h e LCW and th e NEL i n l a t e r y e a r s , c l e a r c u t and h i e r a r c h i c a l . Forums were e s t a b l i s h e d i n most of t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t ; by 1915 N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , B u r n a b y , Broadwiew and S o u t h V a n c o u v e r had a c t i v e g r o u p s . W i t h i n V a n c o u v e r i t s e l f t h e r e was a g r o u p i n each of t h e e i g h t wards and a V a n c o u v e r WF composed o f d e l e g a t e s from e a c h . 9 1 A C e n t r a l WF s e r v e d as a c o - o r d i n a t i n g body f o r a l l t h e l o c a l s . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o e s t i m a t e membership but i n 1922 t h e V a n c o u v e r WF c o m p l a i n e d t h a t membership was o n l y 200 whereas "Owing t o t h e c i v i c n a t u r e of t h e Forum e v e r y p u b l i c s p i r i t e d woman s h o u l d b e l o n g t o i t . " T h i s , i t was e s t i m a t e d , would t a k e membership up t o a r o u n d 9 1 There was even a WF e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1915 i n R e v e l s t o k e . The WF hoped e v e n t u a l l y t o have a g r o u p i n e a c h m u n i c i p a l i t y t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e . 90 2000. 9 2 W i t h i n t h e l o c a l WF's s t a n d i n g c o m m i t t e e s c o n s i d e r e d t o p i c s of l o n g - t e r m i n t e r e s t as w e l l as some i s s u e s o f p a s s i n g c o n c e r n . T a b l e 8 shows t h o s e c o m m i t t e e s m e n t i o n e d between 1917 and 1921. I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e C i t y C o u n c i l , P o l i c e C o u r t and S c h o o l B o a r d c o m m i t t e e s e x i s t e d more o r l e s s c o n t i n u o u s l y as t h e s e were t h e a r e a s i n w h i c h t h e WF was c o n s t a n t l y b u s y . The Forum's p r i m a r y a r e a of c o n c e r n , however, seems t o have been i n e x t e n d i n g women's i n f l u e n c e on and a p p o i n t m e n t o r e l e c t i o n t o p u b l i c g o v e r n i n g b o d i e s , f o r example, c i t y c o u n c i l and s c h o o l , p a r k s , h o s p i t a l and o t h e r b o a r d s . 9 3 T h e i r p r e s s u r e i n t h i s a r e a r e s u l t e d i n t h e w i d e n i n g o f t h e c i t y f r a n c h i s e i n 1917 t o a l l o w t h o s e women a l r e a d y e n f r a n c h i s e d t o c o n t e s t p o s i t i o n s on t h e c o u n c i l . 9 " S e v e r a l f e m a l e c a n d i d a t e s c o n t e s t e d o r c o n s i d e r e d c o n t e s t i n g e l e c t i o n s i n t h e n e x t few y e a r s but w i t h o u t s u c c e s s . 9 5 The Forum a l s o a r r a n g e d p u b l i c m e e t i n g s p r i o r t o c i v i c e l e c t i o n s a t w h i c h c a n d i d a t e s were i n v i t e d t o d i s c u s s t h e i r p l a t f o r m s and m e e t i n g s a t w h i c h p u b l i c b o a r d s e x p l a i n e d WWW, A p r i l 1, 1922 p.3. At t h e AGM i n 1915 a r e s o l u t i o n was p a s s e d t h a t women be r e p r e s e n t e d on a l l b o a r d s t h a t had t h e e x p e n d i t u r e of p u b l i c m o n i e s . Some months l a t e r a c o m m i t t e e was formed t o i n v e s t i g a t e w h i c h b o a r d s a l r e a d y had women on them. P r o v i n c e , September 15, 1915 p.8. I b i d . , March 10, 1917 p.8. Mrs D.M. MacKay i n 1920 and 1922 and Mrs A n n i e W i l s o n i n 1921. 91 T a b l e 8 WF S t a n d i n g C o m m i t t e e s , 1917-21 Y e a r Committee 1917 1918 1 9 1 9 1 920 1 921 P l a t f o r m XX XX XX C i t y C o u n c i l XX XX XX P o l i c e C o u r t XX XX XX XX S c h o o l B o a r d XX XX Ways and Means XX XX XX P a t r i o t i c Work XX P r e s s XX L i b r a r y XX H i g h C o s t of L i v i n g XX C h i n e s e H o u s i n g XX XX Laws and P a r l i a m e n t a r y XX XX XX S o c i a l S e r v i c e XX XX T a x a t i o n XX XX C h i l d W e l f a r e XX S o u r c e : P r o v i n c e , 1917-21 92 t h e r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n s t h e y had t a k e n . 9 6 The Forum t o o k s e r i o u s l y i t s e d u c a t i v e r o l e and s p e a k e r s were r e g u l a r l y a s k e d t o i n s t r u c t members i n v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f l o c a l c u r r e n t a f f a i r s and p o l i c i e s . The WF i t s e l f r a n a program f o r t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c as w e l l as i t s own members, d e s i g n e d t o promote good c i t i z e n s h i p and advance p u b l i c w e l f a r e . 9 7 A l t h o u g h t h e WF d i d not see i t s r o l e as e x t e n d i n g t o p r o v i n c i a l m a t t e r s , on two i s s u e s i t d i d l e n d s u p p o r t t o o t h e r women's o r g a n i s a t i o n s . Members j o i n e d d e l e g a t i o n s t o t h e government on t h e q u e s t i o n of a Minimum Wage A c t ; c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t one of t h e i r g o a l s was e q u a l pay f o r e q u a l work t h i s i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . 9 8 The Forum was a l s o i n f a v o u r of m o t h e r s ' p e n s i o n s and j o i n e d t h e d e l e g a t i o n w h i c h spoke f o r most of t h e o r g a n i z e d women of the p r o v i n c e on t h e m a t t e r . 9 9 I n t h e ab s e n c e of any p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n on t h e s u b j e c t i t was m u n i c i p a l r e l i e f d e p a r t m e n t s t h a t c a r r i e d t h e b r u n t o f s u p p o r t i n g d e s t i t u t e m o thers and t h e i r c h i l d r e n , so a g a i n t h e e x c u r s i o n somewhat ^ o u t s i d e of t h e i r n o r m a l f i e l d o f a c t i v i t y i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . F o r example, t h e s c h o o l b o a r d e x p l a i n e d i t s p o l i c y on r e t r e n c h m e n t . See P r o v i n c e , May 3, 1916 p.8. P r o v i n c e , May 21, 1921 p.10; Sun, O c t o b e r 29, 1921 p.6. P r o v i n c e , F e b r u a r y 9, 1918 p.8; I b i d . , March 10, 1918 p.2; Sun, September 21, 1918 p.4. Sun, December 20, 1919 p.4; I b i d . , J a n u a r y 17, 1920 p.4; P r o v i n c e , March 16, 1918 p.8; I b i d . , November 22, 1919 p.10; I b i d . , J a n u a r y 17, 1920 p.8. 93 I n 1922 t h e newspapers c e a s e d t o p r i n t a c c o u n t s of WF m e e t i n g s t h o u g h whether i t c e a s e d t o f u n c t i o n a t t h i s t i m e i s u n c e r t a i n . T h e r e i s no m e n t i o n of i t e i t h e r a f t e r t h i s p e r i o d i n any o t h e r c l u b ' s r e c o r d s . Why d i d i t d i s a p p e a r so s u d d e n l y ? T h e r e i s no a p p a r e n t r e a s o n but a t a more g e n e r a l l e v e l women's c i t i z e n s h i p a c t i v i t i e s i n a l l of t h e i r c l u b s began t o l o s e some momentum by 1923 and i n t h e f o l l o w i n g f i v e y e a r s a l l but d i s a p p e a r e d . The WF was n o t a t t h e c e n t r e of women's c i t i z e n s h i p and l e g i s l a t i v e demands even a t t h e h e i g h t of i t s a c t i v i t y so i t may be t h a t as women's i n t e r e s t began t o s l a c k e n i t was one of t h e f i r s t t o l o s e membership and c o n s e q u e n t l y t o d i s c o n t i n u e i t s a c t i v i t y . The women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s d i s c u s s e d so f a r were not t h e o n l y ones w i t h an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n women and c i t i z e n s h i p between 1910 and 1928. They were, however, t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t . Many o t h e r c l u b s whose major r e a s o n f o r e x i s t e n c e was f a r removed from l e g i s l a t i v e and c i t i z e n s h i p i s s u e s l e n t s u p p o r t on s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s ; t h e WCTU, t h e WILPF, t h e IODE and t h e Women's I n s t i t u t e s , b e n e f i t c l u b s l i k e t h e Women's B e n e f i t A s s o c i a t i o n of t h e Maccabees, m i x e d membership s o c i e t i e s l i k e t h e C h i l d W e l f a r e A s s o c i a t i o n and p o l i t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s l i k e t h e P i o n e e r P o l i t i a l E q u a l i t y League and t h e L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e women's c l u b s a l l j o i n e d w i t h them a t one t i m e o r a n o t h e r i n p u r s u i t of common g o a l s . T h e r e were t o o a number o f c l u b s whose i n t e r e s t s c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h o s e of t h e f o u r l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s but w h i c h were t h e m s e l v e s q u i t e s m a l l and t h e r e f o r e o f l i t t l e 94 i n f l u e n c e . Amongst t h e s e was t h e S o u t h V a n c o u v e r Women V o t e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , w h i c h i n f a c t became t h e S o u t h V a n c o u v e r WF i n 1915, t h e V o t e r s ' E d u c a t i o n League, o f w h i c h I can f i n d m e n t i o n o n l y i n 1917, t h e Women's Freedom League and t h e C i t i z e n ' s U n i o n w h i c h a l s o a p p e a r b r i e f l y i n 1920 and 1918-19 r e s p e c t i v e l y . ' 0 0 The V a n c o u v e r Women's C i v i c L eague, w h i c h came i n t o b e i n g e a r l y i n 1923 may have been a re-vamped WF; i t s aims were s i m i l a r and Mrs D.M.MacKay, l a t e o f t h e WF was t h e f o u n d i n g p r e s i d e n t . 1 0 1 I n O c t o b e r 1924 t h e C i v i c League changed i t s name t o t h e Women V o t e r s ' League and f i v e s t a n d i n g c o m m i t t e e s were f o r m e d , P o l i c e C o u r t , Membership, C i t y C o u n c i l , P u b l i c i t y and N a t u r a l - i z a t i o n . 1 0 2 By 1925 c o m m i t t e e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h b o t h p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l a f f a i r s had been added, s u g g e s t i n g t h a t p u r e l y m u n i c i p a l c o n c e r n s were not enough t o a t t r a c t membership. 1 0 3 I n t h i s y e a r t h e League a g a i n changed i t s name t o League of Women V o t e r s and a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e T o r o n t o a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e same name. 1 0" By t h e end of 1925, however, i t t o o d i s a p p e a r e d from m e n t i o n i n t h e p r e s s . One f u r t h e r women's o r g a n i z a t i o n d e s e r v e s m e n t i o n . The V a n c o u v e r Women's B u i l d i n g Co. L t d . a t t r a c t e d many members and s h a r e h o l d e r s from t h e c l u b s a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d . I t a l s o s e r v e d as a p u b l i c and p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n of t h e s p i r i t of t h e women's 1 0 0 P r o v i n c e , March 27, 1917 p.8; I b i d . , May 22, 1917 p.8; Sun, September 9, 1920 p.8; I b i d . , May 1, 1919 p.3; WWW, O c t o b e r 12, 1918 p.4. » 1 0 1 P r o v i n c e , J a n u a r y 10, 1923 p.12. 1 0 2 Sun, O c t o b e r 11, 1924 p.8.; I b i d . , November 15, 1924 p.6. 1 0 3 P r o v i n c e , J a n u a r y 10, 1925 p.8. 1 0 4 I b i d . , F e b r u a r y 14, 1925 p.8. 95 movement t h r o u g h t h e b u i l d i n g w h i c h i t was c r e a t e d t o c o n s t r u c t . The n o t i o n of a b u i l d i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h e use of women's c l u b s a r o s e i n l a t e 1910 when two c l u b s , w i t h i n days of each o t h e r , f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h o u t a r e g u l a r m e e t i n g p l a c e . H e l e n M a c G i l l , a member of b o t h c l u b s , i s c r e d i t e d w i t h s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e women of V a n c o u v e r t a k e s t e p s t o a c q u i r e a b u i l d i n g of t h e i r own "where our s o c i e t i e s can meet and n o t f i n d t h e m s e l v e s s u d d e n l y on t h e s t r e e t . " ' 0 5 The i d e a was r e c e i v e d e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y and by F e b r u a r y 1911 t h e Women's C l u b B u i l d i n g S o c i e t y had been formed • and a l l women's c l u b s i n t h e c i t y i n v i t e d t o j o i n . H e l e n M a c G i l l was t h e f i r s t p r e s i d e n t . She was t o h o l d t h i s o f f i c e and rema i n t h e p r i m e i n s t i g a t o r of t h e p r o j e c t u n t i l i t s demise d u r i n g t h e Second W o r l d War. By A p r i l , t h e V a n c o u v e r Women's B u i l d i n g Company L i m i t e d was a l e g a l e n t i t y , i n c o r p o r a t e d a t $200,000 w i t h 8000 common s h a r e s a t $25 pa r v a l u e . 1 0 6 Soon a f t e r t h e company p u r c h a s e d t h e T a i t r e s i d e n c e a t 752 T h u r l o w S t r e e t f o r $25,000 and t h i s gave them some rooms of t h e i r own a l t h o u g h p o r t i o n s o f t h e b u i l d i n g were r e n t e d t o t h e YWCA and t h e C i t y C r e c h e . 1 0 7 The main aim a t t h i s t i m e was t o pay o f f t h e mortgage and e r e c t a b u i l d i n g of t h e i r own d e s i g n t h a t w o u l d be s u i t a b l e f o r t h e v a r i o u s needs and 1 0 5 E l s i e M a c G i l l , My Mother t h e J u d g e , p. 129. 1 0 6 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . R e g i s t r a r o f Companies. A r t i c l e s of I n c o r p o r a t i o n F i l e no. 432/10 ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Women's B u i l d i n g F i l e ) . The o r i g i n a l c l u b s t h a t formed t h e s o c i e t y and l a t e r t h e company were t he Women's C a n a d i a n C l u b , Women's E d u c a t i o n a l C l u b , LCW, UWC, V a n c o u v e r G r a d u a t e N u r s e s A s s o c i a t i o n , V a n c o u v e r Women's P r e s s C l u b , G i r l ' s A u x i l l i a r y of Va n c o u v e r G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l , PPEL, T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y C l u b , and Women's M u s i c a l C l u b . 1 0 ? E i s i e M a c G i l l , My Mother t h e J u d g e , p. 130. 96 a c t i v i t i e s of t h e member c l u b s . To t h i s end a ma j o r f u n d - r a i s i n g e f f o r t was l a u n c h e d . A number of f u n c t i o n s were h e l d , t h e most s p e c t a c u l a r b e i n g a " l i v i n g w h i s t " , p r e s e n t e d a t t h e E x h i b i t i o n B u i l d i n g , " w i t h a deck of g o r g e o u s l y costumed p l a y e r s , t h e f a c e c a r d s w i t h t h e i r sumptuous e q u i p a g e s and c a n o p i e s p r o v i d i n g a b e a u t i f u l r i c h s h o w . " 1 0 8 H e l e n M a c G i l l saw t h e V a n c o u v e r Women's B u i l d i n g as "one g r e a t a m a l g a m a t i o n of women's c l u b s w i t h an a g g r e g a t e membership of 5 0 0 0 . " 1 0 9 But i n f a c t i t was a s m a l l number of i n d i v i d u a l s , w i t h H e l e n M a c G i l l h e r s e l f a t t h e i r h ead, who made t h e d e s i r e t o b u i l d t h e i r own home a r e a l i t y . T h r o u g h o u t i t s e x i s t e n c e , t h e number of s h a r e s owned by i n d i v i d u a l s was a l w a y s i n e x c e s s of t h o s e h e l d by c l u b s , as i n d i c a t e d by T a b l e 9. Most of t h e s e p r i v a t e l y h e l d s h a r e s were i n f a c t s i n g l e s h a r e s ; a t $25 each t h e y were not w i t h i n e v e r y b o d y ' s r e a c h . The f a c t t h a t t h e y c o u l d be p u r c h a s e d o v e r a t e n month p e r i o d a t $2.50 a month g i v e s some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e c o s t . N e v e r t h l e s s , a number of s h a r e h o l d e r s , h o u s e w i v e s , n u r s e s , t e a c h e r s and businesswomen of s m a l l means, g r a d u a l l y p a i d o f f t h i s sum w h i l e a few of t h e i r w e a l t h i e r s i s t e r s bought l a r g e r h o l d i n g s . (See T a b l e 10) U n t i l 1923 a l l s h a r e h o l d e r s were women's c l u b s o r i n d i v i d u a l women. In t h a t y e a r t h e f i r s t man, George E. T r o r e y , manager of B i r k s J e w e l l e r s i n G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t j o i n e d t h e i r r a n k s . No doubt many 1 0 8 I b i d . 1 0 9 Women's Sun, March 19, 1913 p.1. T a b l e 9 Types of S h a r e h o l d e r s i n Women's B u i l d i n g 1912-23 S h a r e h o l d e r s Y e a r Y e a r Y e a r 1912 1916 1 923 C o r p o r a t e 1 3 20 37 I n d i v i d u a l 61 101 180 T o t a l 74 121 217 T a b l e 10 I n d i v i d u a l S h a r e h o l d e r s Women's B u i l d i n g 1912-23 1912 1916 1923 No. Of S h a r e s H e l d S h a r e - H o l d e r s T o t a l S h a r e s S h a r e - H o l d e r s T o t a l S h a r e s S h a r e - H o l d e r s T o t a l S h a r e s 20 1 20 1 20 1 2 1 1 2 10 1 10 3 30 2 20 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 7 1 7 1 7 6 1 6 5 3 1 5 1 5 4 8 32 1 1 44 1 7 68 3 2 6 2 6 2 1 1 22 1 3 26 22 44 1 40 40 66 66 1 37 1 30 61 1 12 101 222 1 87 334 S o u r c e T a b l e s 9 and 10: Women's B u l d i n g F i l e 1912-23. 98 of t h e women were c u s t o m e r s of h i s s t o r e . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r s a number of b u s i n e s s m e n and comp a n i e s were p e r s u a d e d t o buy s h a r e s , i n c l u d i n g one Lung Tong, a merchant from C h i n a t o w n . He to o must have had c u s t o m e r s who were Women's B u i l d i n g members, f o r i t i s h a r d t o see what o t h e r i n t e r e s t he c o u l d have had i n t h e p r o j e c t . Many o t h e r male s h a r e h o l d e r s were r e l a t e d t o Women's B u i l d i n g m e m b e r s . 1 1 0 T a b l e 11 shows t h a t from t h e e a r l i e s t d a y s , f o u r c l u b s s t a n d o u t as maj o r c o r p o r a t e s h a r e h o l d e r s , t h e LCW,UWC, t h e Women's M u s i c a l C l u b and t h e Women's C a n a d i a n C l u b . The p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t and commitment o f t h e s e c l u b s p r o b l a b y came from a c o m b i n a t i o n of f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g t h e i r s i z e , t h e i r p r e s t i g e as w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d p h i l a n t h r o p i c , s o c i a l o r c u l t u r a l c l u b s and t h e s o c i a l o r e d u c a t i o n a l s t a n d i n g of some, i f not a l l , of t h e i r membership. S m a l l e r c l u b s , by t h e i r n a t u r e had not th e same need f o r m e e t i n g s p a c e , n o r , as was t h e c a s e w i t h t h e LCW and UWC, f o r o f f i c e s p a c e . T h i s i s no dou