UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Integration" and "the integration of faith and learning Badley, Kenneth Rea 1986

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"INTEGRATION" AND "THE INTEGRATION OF FAITH AND LEARNING" by K e n n e t h Rea B a d l e y B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f S a s k a t c h e w a n , 1974 B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y o f R e g i n a , 1975 M.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y o f R e g i n a , 1980 M.C.S., Regent C o l l e g e , V a n c o u v e r , 1983 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( P h i l o s o p h y o f E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (g) O c t o b e r , 1986 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of f^^JL>^Ur\^^ Cj^j^hjnr^JL Pp\^y The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date 6 (3/81) A b s t r a c t T h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o d e t e r m i n e what use t h e t e r m " i n t e g r a t i o n " has i n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e , s p e c i f i c a l l y as i t a p p e a r s i n t h e p o p u l a r p h r a s e i n C h r i s t i a n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , " t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f f a i t h and l e a r n i n g . " C h a p t e r I r e c o r d s t h a t many e d u c a t o r s see w i d e s p r e a d d i s i n t e g r a t i o n i n c o n t e m p o r a r y e d u c a t i o n . T h i s p e r c e i v e d d i s i n t e g r a t i o n has l e d t o many c a l l s and p r o p o s a l s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n . W h i l e e d u c a t o r s p e r c e i v e t h i s i n c r e a s e d need f o r i n t e g r a t i o n , what " i n t e g r a t i o n " means i s l e s s and l e s s c l e a r . By s u r v e y i n g a c t u a l u s a g e i n e d u c a t i o n a l w r i t i n g , t h i s t h e s i s d i s t i n g u i s h e s f o u r g e n e r a l s e n s e s o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " : f u s i o n , i n c o r p o r a t i o n , c o r r e l a t i o n , and d i a l o g i c a l ( i n A p p e n d i x A and C h a p t e r I I I ) . I t t h e n e x p l o r e s f u r t h e r t y p i c a l e l e m e n t s o f m e a n i n g i n e d u c a t i o n a l u s e s o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " ( C h a p t e r I V ) . C h a p t e r s I I I and IV r e v e a l and d i s c u s s a number o f p o i n t s o f c o n t e n t i o n b e t ween e d u c a t o r s as t o t h e " m e a n i n g o f i n t e g r a t i o n . " C h a p t e r V i d e n t i f i e s f i v e m ain s o u r c e s of t h e c o n f u s i o n t h a t o f t e n a c c o m p a n i e s u s e s of " i n t e g r a t i o n . " I t i s a p o s i t i v e t e r m and f r e q u e n t l y i s e m p l o y e d p r i m a r i l y f o r i t s v a l u e as a s l o g a n . D i f f e r e n t e d u c a t o r s g i v e " i n t e g r a t i o n " a t l e a s t t h r e e d i f f e r e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l m e a n i n g s . The same word i s u sed t o d e n o t e b o t h p r o c e s s e s and end s t a t e s . I t i s a p o l y m o r p h o u s t e r m whose meaning i s not c l e a r u n t i l what i s b e i n g i n t e g r a t e d i s s p e c i f i e d . I t i s a t e r r a t h a t i n v i t e s c o n c e p t i o n - b u i l d i n g , t h o u g h c o n c e p t i o n s a r e r a r e l y a n n o u n c e d a s s u c h ; u s u a l l y e d u c a t o r s ' v i s i o n s o f w h a t o u g h t t o b e c o m e c l o a k e d a s d e f i n i t i o n s o f t e r m s . " T h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f f a i t h a n d l e a r n i n g " s u f f e r s f r o m e v e r y w e a k n e s s t h a t " i n t e g r a t i o n " i t s e l f e n c o u n t e r s . I t s p o p u l a r i t y i n c e r t a i n s e c t o r s o f c h u r c h e d u c a t i o n i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e w h e n c o n s i d e r e d i n i t s h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t : s o m e b r a n c h e s o f t h e c h u r c h t h a t o n c e l a r g e l y a b a n d o n e d h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a r e now t r y i n g t o e x p r e s s a new i n t e r e s t i n i t . " I n t e g r a t i o n " i s a c h o i c e w o r d t o s e r v e a s a s l o g a n t h a t e x p r e s s e s a c e r t a i n c o n c e p t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n e d u c a t i o n . B e y o n d i t s f u n c t i o n a s a s l o g a n , a n d d e s p i t e t h e o t h e r p r o b l e m s t h a t f r e q u e n t l y a c c o m p a n y i t s u s e , " i n t e g r a t i o n " d o e s h a v e u s e i n e d u c a t i o n , p a r t l y b e c a u s e i n t e g r a t i o n i s a n i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t i n e d u c a t i o n . TABLE OF CONTENTS C h a p t e r I : INTEGRATION AND "THE INTEGRATION OF FAITH AND LEARNING" I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 A. The I m p o r t a n c e o f I n t e g r a t i o n 3 1, Cosmos o r Chaos: C o n c e r n o v e r D i s i n t e g r a t i o n . 4 a. A h i s t o r y o f e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t s . . . 4 b. C u r r e n t c r i t i c i s m o f c u r r i c u l u m . 8 2, C a l l s f o r I n t e g r a t i o n 26 3, The P o p u l a r i t y o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " 28 B. " I n t e g r a t i o n " : A C o n f u s i n g , Ambiguous C o n c e p t 29 C. The P a u c i t y o f R e f l e c t i o n on " I n t e g r a t i o n " . . 31 E n d n o t e s 35 C h a p t e r I I : PROCEDURE AND LIMITS I n t r o d u c t i o n 45 A. A Note on L i n g u i s t i c Method 47 1 . Why a L i n g u i s t i c A n a l y s i s 48 2. The Uses o f A n a l y s i s 52 3. What i s E n t a i l e d i n A n a l y s i s 55 B. L i m i t s 56 E n d n o t e s 61 C h a p t e r I I I : LOGICAL SCHEMATA OF "INTEGRATION" I n t r o d u c t i o n 64 A. F u s i o n 65 B. I n c o r p o r a t i o n . 68 C. C o r r e l a t i o n 72 D. D i a l o g i c a l 74 E. D i s c u s s i o n 76 E n d n o t e s 76 i v C h a p t e r IV: THE CONCEPT OF "INTEGRATION" I n t r o d u c t i o n 78 A. The C o n c e p t o f " I n t e g r a t i o n " 79 1 . A Note on Meaning and D e f i n i t i o n 79 2. C o g n a t e Terms and R e l a t e d C o n c e p t s 80 3. "An E x p l o r a t o r y C o n c e p t " 83 a. Making 84 b. P a r t s and Wholes 84 c. L e v e l s 87 d. O r g a n i z i n g P r i n c i p l e s , P u r p o s e s and Themes 88 e. B r e a d t h , S u i t a b i l i t y , and Adequacy 96 B. D e f i n i t i o n s o f I n t e g r a t i o n 100 1. " C u r r i c u l u m as L o c u s D e f i n i t i o n s " 102 2. " P e r s o n as L o c u s D e f i n i t i o n s " 103 3. I n t e r a c t i v e D e f i n i t i o n s 106 E n d n o t e s 108 C h a p t e r V: ANALYSIS OF SOURCES OF CONFUSION I n t r o d u c t i o n 113 A. " I n t e g r a t i o n " : A P o s i t i v e Term 114 B. P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s . . . 123 1. Wholeness and A d j u s t m e n t 124 2. The L o g i c a l and t h e P s y c h o l o g i c a l 129 C. I n t e g r a t i o n : P r o c e s s , S t a t e , o r A c h i e v e m e n t . . 138 D. " I n t e g r a t i o n " : A P o l y m o r p h o u s Term 143 E. C o n c e p t s and C o n c e p t i o n s o f I n t e g r a t i o n . . . . 145 1. The C o n c e p t - C o n c e p t i o n D i s t i n c t i o n 146 2. C o n c e p t s o f I n t e g r a t i o n and I n t e g r a t i v e C o n c e p t i o n s 152 F. Some P r e l i m i n a r y C o n c l u s i o n s 157 E n d n o t e s 159 v C h a p t e r V I : THE INTEGRATION OF FAITH AND LEARNING I n t r o d u c t i o n 167 A. Usage 168 1. F r e q u e n c y o f use and P o p u l a r i t y 169 2. Forms and P r o b l e m s 170 B. Meaning 174 1. The H i s t o r i c a l C o n t e x t 176 2. C o n t e m p o r a r y E x p r e s s i o n s o f a D e s i r e f o r I n t e g r a t i o n 181 3. A S p e c i f i c C o n c e p t i o n o f " I n t e g r a t i o n " . . . . 191 C. U t i l i t y 195 1. " I n t e g r a t i o n " as a S l o g a n 196 2. " I n t e g r a t i o n " as a U s e f u l E d u c a t i o n a l C o n c e p t 201 3. The I m p o r t a n c e o f I n t e g r a t i o n / " I n t e g r a t i o n " . 203 E n d n o t e s . 205 BIBLIOGRAPHY 210 APPENDIX A: THE USES OF "INTEGRATION" . 245 APPENDIX B: RANKING CONCEPTIONS OF INTEGRATION . . . 289 v i L i s t of F i g u r e s F i g u r e 5.1 T y p e s o f C o n c e p t i o n s 155 F i g u r e 5.2 F o u n d a t i o n a l L e v e l C o n c e p t i o n s . 156 F i g u r e B - l L e v e l s o f C o n c e p t i o n s 305 v i i CHAPTER I INTEGRATION AND "THE INTEGRATION OF FAITH AND LEARNING" Does not t h e w o r s t e v i l f o r a s t a t e a r i s e f r o m a n y t h i n g t h a t t e n d s t o r e n d i t a s u n d e r and d e s t r o y i t s u n i t y , w h i l e n o t h i n g does i t more good t h a n w h a t e v e r t e n d s t o b i n d i t t o g e t h e r and make i t one. - P l a t o , The R e p u b l i c , 5. As t h e q u o t a t i o n f r o m P l a t o i n d i c a t e s , i n t e g r a t i o n i s n e i t h e r a new i d e a nor an i d e a o f c o n c e r n e x c l u s i v e l y t o e d u c a t o r s . F o r t h a t m a t t e r , t h e d e s i r e f o r w h o l e n e s s , u n i t y , harmony, and i n t e g r i t y d i d n o t b e g i n w i t h P l a t o ; a l l p e o p l e a t a l l t i m e s i n h i s t o r y have s h a r e d t h e s e c o n c e r n s . T h i s " p a s s i o n f o r u n i t y , " a c c o r d i n g t o a t l e a s t one a c c o u n t , i s " i n v e t e r a t e , u n i v e r s a l , and e n d e m i c . " [ 1 ] One c u r r e n t e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e " p a s s i o n f o r u n i t y " i s t h e t e r m " i n t e g r a t i o n . " The n o t i o n of " i n t e g r a t i o n , " o r , r a t h e r , a s u b - c l a s s o f i t — " e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n " - - i s t h e s u b j e c t o f t h i s s t u d y . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e p h r a s e t h a t has become so p o p u l a r i n C h r i s t i a n e d u c a t i o n — " t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f f a i t h and l e a r n i n g " — i s o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t h e r e . One w i s h i n g t o s t u d y s u c h a t e r m , however, must have more c o n v i n c i n g r e a s o n s t h a n t h a t i d e a s o f u n i t y , harmony and i n t e g r i t y a r e a p p a r e n t l y u n i v e r s a l and a g e l e s s . T h r e e s u c h - 1 -r e a s o n s come t o mind and i t i s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f them t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s t h e f o c u s o f t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s c h a p t e r . B r i e f l y , t h e s e r e a s o n s a r e as f o l l o w s : A) " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s a p o p u l a r term i n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e . The p h r a s e " t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f f a i t h and l e a r n i n g " has i n c r e a s e d i n p o p u l a r i t y s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e key t e r m . From s u c h f r e q u e n c y of usage or p o p u l a r i t y , one a d d u c e s t h a t " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s an i m p o r t a n t e d u c a t i o n a l c o n c e p t ; B) " i n t e g r a t i o n " f r e q u e n t l y i s ambiguous and a s o u r c e o f c o n f u s i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e ; C) " i n t e g r a t i o n , " i n e d u c a t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n s , has been examined v e r y l i t t l e . A p r i o r q u e s t i o n t o " I s i n t e g r a t i o n d e s i r a b l e ? " i s "What i s i n t e g r a t i o n ? " As S t e p h e n s o n o b s e r v e s , words f i g u r i n g c e n t r a l l y i n d i s a g r e e m e n t s f r e q u e n t l y r e q u i r e c l a r i f i c a t i o n b e f o r e t h e q u e s t i o n s a t i s s u e c an be a n s w e r e d . [ 2 ] " I n t e g r a t i o n " c e r t a i n l y f i g u r e s c e n t r a l l y i n many a r g u m e n t s , y e t much c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t i s s t i l l r e q u i r e d . M u s g r a ve, i n f a c t , n o t e s t h i s f e a t u r e of " i n t e g r a t i o n " s p e c i f i c a l l y . He w r i t e s t h a t "when one knows what i s i m p l i e d by i n t e g r a t i o n t h e q u e s t i o n may a l s o be a n s w e r e d , i s i t w o r t h w h i l e ? " [ 3 ] In t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , more s t u d y o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s i n o r d e r . W h i l e " t h e i n t e g r a t i o n of f a i t h and l e a r n i n g " i s o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t h e r e i n , t h e most f r u i t f u l way t o examine i t a p p e a r s t o be t o a p p r o a c h t h e g e n e r a l term - 2 -" i n t e g r a t i o n " f i r s t , t h e n t o f o c u s on t h e p r o b l e m a t i c p h r a s e . B o t h e x a m i n a t i o n s a r e c o n d u c t e d w i t h one p r i m a r y o b j e c t i n vi e w : t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t " i n t e g r a t i o n " f u n c t i o n s u s e f u l l y i n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e and ought t o be r e t a i n e d i n d i s c u s s i o n s o f c u r r i c u l u m . A. THE IMPORTANCE OF INTEGRATION G i v e n t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n i s s u c h an i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t i n g e n e r a l , i t s h o u l d come as a s u r p r i s e t o none t h a t e d u c a t o r s i n t h i s c e n t u r y have c o n c e r n e d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h i t t o t h e d e g r e e t h a t t h e y h a v e . Many, i n f a c t , a r g u e t h a t s u c h a c o n c e r n i s q u i t e p r o p e r , s i n c e e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n i s a c o n c e p t i n t e r r e l a t e d w i t h c u r r i c u l u m s e q u e n c i n g , c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r , t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g i e s , and, some c l a i m , m e n t a l h e a l t h . T h e r e a r e f o u r o b v i o u s a rguments f a v o r i n g t h e c l a i m t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t . One argument, and as n o t e d , p o s s i b l y t h e w e a k e s t , i s t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n i n g e n e r a l i s i m p o r t a n t . But t h r e e s t r o n g e r a r guments come t o mind. F i r s t , t h e r e i s and has been f o r some t i m e g r e a t c o n c e r n o v e r e d u c a t i o n a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . S e c o n d , t h i s p e r c e i v e d unhappy s t a t e o f a f f a i r s has e l i c i t e d a number o f c a l l s f o r i n t e g r a t i o n . E d u c a t o r s p e r s i s t i n demanding t h a t c u r r i c u l a be i n t e g r a t e d or c o n t r i b u t e t o i n t e g r a t i o n . T h i r d , and a g a i n a c o n s e q u e n c e of t h e unhappy - 3 -s i t u a t i o n t h a t many p e r c e i v e i n c o n t e m p o r a r y e d u c a t i o n , e d u c a t o r s h a v e made a g r e a t n u m b e r o f c u r r i c u l a r a t t e m p t s a t some s o r t o f i n t e g r a t i o n , s o many a t t e m p t s i n f a c t t h a t a f e w w r i t e r s h a v e b e g u n t o t a k e n o t e o f t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " i n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e . T o e s t a b l i s h t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " a s a n e d u c a t i o n a l c o n c e p t , t h e n , t h r e e a r g u m e n t s a r e p r e s e n t e d , t h e f i r s t b e i n g a n o v e r v i e w o f c o n c e r n a b o u t e d u c a t i o n a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . T h e s e c o n d a n d t h i r d a r g u m e n t s f o l l o w t h e f i r s t v e r y b r i e f l y i n t h i s c h a p t e r a n d a r e m o r e f u l l y d e v e l o p e d i n C h a p t e r ; I I I , t h e s c h e m a t a o f u s e s ( a n d A p p e n d i x A, t h e e x t e n s i v e l i s t o f u s e s ) . 1. C o s m o s o r C h a o s : C o n c e r n o v e r D i s i n t e g r a t i o n a . A b r i e f h i s t o r y o f e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t s A b r i e f s k e t c h o f d e v e l o p m e n t s i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n t h e l a s t f i v e c e n t u r i e s p r o v i d e s a v a l u a b l e b a c k g r o u n d t o p r e s e n t - d a y c o n c e r n a b o u t " e d u c a t i o n a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , " a t t a c k s o n c e r t a i n c u r r i c u l u m s t r u c t u r e s , a n d t h e c o n s e q u e n t c a l l s f o r v a r i o u s k i n d s o f e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n . I n h i s s t u d y o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f c o n c e p t s , W i l s o n , i n f a c t , p o i n t s o u t t h a t s i n c e c o n c e p t s do n o t o p e r a t e i n a s o c i a l v a c u u m , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o c o n s i d e r t h e s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h t h e y a r e u s e d . I n l i g h t o f t h i s , h e n o t e s t h e b e n e f i t t o a c o n c e p t u a l a n a l y s i s o f i d e n t i f y i n g a n y u n d e r l y i n g a n x i e t i e s t h a t m i g h t be r e l a t e d - - p e r h a p s c a u s a l l y — t o p e o p l e ' s u s e o f - 4 -c e r t a i n c o n c e p t s . [ 4 ] T r a c i n g e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t s t h r o u g h r e c e n t c e n t u r i e s w i l l r e v e a l t h e s o u r c e s o f some o f t h e a n x i e t i e s u n d e r l y i n g c o n t e m p o r a r y e d u c a t i o n w i t h i t s c o n c e r n f o r i n t e g r a t i o n . I f one b e g i n s a s u r v e y o f e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g t h e R e n a i s s a n c e , one must c o n s i d e r s c h o l a s t i c i s m as a b a c k g r o u n d . [ 5 ] Any p r o p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s c h o l a s t i c i s m seems c o n t i n g e n t upon g r a s p i n g C h r i s t i a n a t t i t u d e s a t t h e t i m e o f d e c l i n i n g Roman power. One l i n e o f argument f r e q u e n t l y h e a r d i n t h e e a r l y M e d i e v a l c h u r c h was t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y o u ght t o have n o t h i n g t o do w i t h i t s s u r r o u n d i n g c u l t u r e . T e r t u l l i a n c l e a r l y e x p r e s s e s t h i s v i e w : What i s t h e r e i n common between A t h e n s and J e r u s a l e m ? between t h e Academy and t h e C h u r c h ? . . . away w i t h a l l p r o j e c t s f o r a ' S t o i c ' , a ' P l a t o n i c ' o r a ' D i a l e c t i c C h r i s t i a n i t y ' . . . The Son o f God was b o r n , I am n o t ashamed o f i t b e c a u s e i t i s s h a m e f u l ; The Son o f God d i e d , i t i s c r e d i b l e f o r t h e v e r y r e a s o n t h a t i t i s s i l l y ; and, h a v i n g been b u r i e d , He r o s e a g a i n , i t i s c e r t a i n b e c a u s e i t i s i m p o s s i b l e . [ 6 ] Jerome, a n o t h e r c h u r c h l e a d e r , e x p r e s s e s a v i e w much l i k e T e r t u l l i a n ' s when he a s k s , "How can H o r a c e go w i t h t h e p s a l t e r , V i r g i l w i t h t h e g o s p e l s , C i c e r o w i t h t h e a p o s t l e ? " [ 7 ] One wants t o warn t h a t s u c h C h r i s t i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s d i d n o t end w i t h T e r t u l l i a n and Jerome. They a r t i c u l a t e d so f o r c e f u l l y t h e i r s t r o n g a n t i p a t h y t o w a r d any s o r t o f d i a l o g u e between C h r i s t i a n and n o n - C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f t h a t t h e y a t t r a c t e d a f o l l o w i n g t h a t has p e r s i s t e d t h r o u g h o u t - 5 -C h r i s t i a n h i s t o r y , a f a c t t h a t w i l l l a t e r come t o b e a r on t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f " t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f f a i t h and l e a r n i n g . "[7 ] The v i e w s o f T e r t u l l i a n and Jerome were n o t h e l d u n a n i m o u s l y i n t h e e a r l y C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h however, and as e a r l y as t h e f o u r t h and f i f t h c e n t u r i e s s u c h men as C l e m e n t o f A l e x a n d r i a and O r i g e n were a t t e m p t i n g t o r e c o n c i l e C h r i s t i a n i t y w i t h c l a s s i c a l G r e e k and Roman p h i l o s o p h y . B a s i n g a c u r r i c u l u m on t h e Q u a d r i v i u m and T r i v i u m , t h e y d e m o n s t r a t e d an e a r l y f o r m o f s c h o l a s t i c i s m and l a i d t h e f o u n d a t i o n s f o r t h e s o r t o f C h r i s t i a n p h i l o s o p h i z i n g w h i c h r e a c h e d i t s z e n i t h i n Thomas A q u i n a s ' a t t e m p t t o r e c o v e r A r i s t o t l e and make Greek p h i l o s o p h y more p a l a t a b l e t o W e s t e r n E u r o p e a n C h r i s t i a n s i n t h e h i g h m i d d l e a g e s . The g o a l o f Thomas, and Thomism a f t e r him, was n o t h i n g l e s s a m b i t i o u s t h a n t h e s y n t h e s i s o f t h e o l o g y w i t h a l l k n o w l e d g e . [ 9 ] As w i l l be n o t e d l a t e r i n t h i s s t u d y , Thomas.' i n f l u e n c e was f e l t w i d e l y u n t i l the R e n a i s s a n c e and, i n some c i r c l e s , i s s t i l l f e l t t o t h e p r e s e n t day. I t i s i n t o t h i s m i l i e u t h a t t h e s c i e n t i f i c s p i r i t o f R e n a i s s a n c e l e a r n i n g and e x p l o r a t i o n came and, i n e v i t a b l y , d i d n o t f i t . Some C a t h o l i c s blame t h e P r o t e s t a n t R e f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e c h u r c h ' s d i m i n i s h i n g c o n t r o l o v e r e d u c a t i o n . [ 1 0 ] F o r w h i c h e v e r r e a s o n , c h u r c h dogma c o u l d no l o n g e r make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e , f o r i t s j o b o f s y n t h e s i s based on t h e o l o g y was a l r e a d y done. - 6 -M e d i e v a l s p e c u l a t i o n s were no l o n g e r a d e q u a t e t o t h e new t a s k o f d i s c o v e r i n g t h e w o r l d . And s o , f o r some f i v e o r s i x c e n t u r i e s men saw i t as t h e i r t a s k t o expand t h e s t o c k o f knowledge t h r o u g h s c i e n c e and t r a v e l . S i m u l t a n e o u s l y , t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e c h u r c h upon t h e e v e r y d a y e x p e r i e n c e o f o r d i n a r y p e o p l e d e c l i n e d and, t o a g r e a t e r d e g r e e t h a n had been t h e c a s e f o r c e n t u r i e s , p r e s e n t l i f e on e a r t h became more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e a n t i c i p a t e d f u t u r e l i f e i n h e a v e n . R e a s o n , r a t h e r t h a n a u t h o r i t y , became t h e measure o f e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l m a t t e r s . By t h e e i g h t e e n t h and n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , t h e r e was a new mood i n t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s w h i c h worked i t s e l f o u t as an i n t e r e s t i n n a t u r a l s c i e n c e and i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s . T h e s e new i n t e r e s t s were a c c o m p a n i e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n A m e r i c a , by a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l o s s o f i n t e r e s t i n t r a i n i n g m i n i s t e r s f o r t h e c h u r c h . [ 1 1 ] Such s c h o o l s as H a r v a r d and P r i n c e t o n , f o r example, w h i c h had been f o u n d e d by P u r i t a n s , s h i f t e d i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t o become u n i v e r s i t i e s w h i c h v i e w e d t h e whole r e a l m o f knowledge as t h e i r p r o p e r d o m a i n . [ 1 2 ] The e l e c t i v e s y s t e m was i n t r o d u c e d t o r e p l a c e t h e f i x e d c u r r i c u l u m , and s u c h i n s t i t u t i o n s as Y a l e , M i c h i g a n , and V i r g i n i a l e d t h e way t o w a r d o f f e r i n g a new t y p e o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, i t was d u r i n g t h i s t i m e i i t h a t t h e word " i n t e g r a t i o n " f i r s t began t o a p p e a r i n e d u c a t i o n a l w r i t i n g . I n a m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s w r i t t e n a t t h e - 7 -T e a c h e r ' s C o l l e g e o f C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y i n 1899 and t i t l e d "The D o c t r i n e o f C o r r e l a t i o n o f S t u d i e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , " Guy M a x w e l l c a l l e d f o r . . . t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e n a t u r a l r e l a t i o n s e x i s t i n g among t h e v a r i o u s d e p a r t m e n t s o f human a c t i v i t y and s u c h an a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h o s e d e p a r t m e n t s f o r t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e c h i l d t h a t a l l h i s kn o w l e d g e s h a l l s t a n d c l e a r l y i n mind i n i t s t r u e r e l a t i o n t o t h e who l e and e a c h i n i t s p a r t s . [ 1 3 ] J u s t a y e a r b e f o r e M a x w e l l w r o t e h i s t h e s i s a t C o l u m b i a , A l e x i s B e r t r a n d p u b l i s h e d L' E n s e i g n e m e n t I n t e g r a l e m p l o y i n g t h e t e r m " i n t e g r a t i o n . " [ 1 4 ] E v e n t h i s r e f e r e n c e was p r e c e d e d by H e r b e r t S p e n c e r ' s use o f i t i n a r e f e r e n c e t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h i n h i s P r i n c i p l e s o f P s y c h o l o g y i n 1855.[15] W i t h o u t g o i n g i n t o g r e a t h i s t o r i c a l and e t y m o l o g i c a l d e t a i l a t t h i s p o i n t , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o .see t h a t s i m u l t a n e o u s w i t h t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e d e c l i n e o f o l d e r v i e w s o f k n o w l e d g e , whether T h o m i s t i c o r o t h e r w i s e , t h e r e came a r i s e i n i n t e r e s t i n e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n . T h i s i s not t o a r g u e t h a t e d u c a t o r s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y saw a b o u t them d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , b u t n o n e t h e l e s s an i n t e r e s t was b e g i n n i n g t o t a k e f o r m . [ 1 6 ] I n t h e p r e s e n t c e n t u r y , t h i s i n t e r e s t would b l o s s o m t w i c e , t h e s e c o n d b l o s s o m i n g i n c l u d i n g i n t e r e s t i n " t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f f a i t h and l e a r n i n g . " b. C u r r e n t c r i t i c i s m o f c u r r i c u l u m The p r e c e d i n g b r i e f h i s t o r y o f d e v e l o p m e n t s i n e d u c a t i o n does n o t i n i t s e l f a c c o u n t f o r t h e g r e a t i n t e r e s t - 8 -i n e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n e v i d e n t i n t h i s c e n t u r y . T h a t i n t e r e s t i s b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d i f one e x a mines t h e s o r t s o f c r i t i c i s m t h a t have been d i r e c t e d a t s c h o o l s and e s p e c i a l l y a t s u b j e c t - and d i s c i p l i n e - b a s e d c u r r i c u l a i n t h e l a s t f i f t y y e a r s . R i c h a r d P r i n g , i n f a c t , a r g u e s t h a t t h e r e i s a good j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r e x p l o r i n g t h i s n e g a t i v e a n g l e . He w r i t e s : A u s e f u l way t o b e g i n ( b e f o r e one s e e k s t o f i n d some c o h e r e n c e i n o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e many d i f f e r e n t c l a i m s f o r an i n t e g r a t e d c u r r i c u l u m ) i s t o l i s t a l m o s t a t random t h e s o r t s o f c r i t i c i s m l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t a c u r r i c u l u m t h a t i s f r a g m e n t e d i n t o i s o l a t e d t e a c h i n g u n i t s o f d i s t i n c t s u b j e c t - m a t t e r s , and t h u s t h e s o r t s o f p r o b l e m t h a t a more i n t e g r a t e d c u r r i c u l u m i s i n t e n d e d t o meet. I t o f t e n i s t h e c a s e t h a t one u n d e r s t a n d s what a p e r s o n means by u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e k i n d o f p r o b l e m t h a t i s w o r r y i n g him. What i s meant by an i n t e g r a t e d c u r r i c u l u m depends p a r t l y upon t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t i t i s aimed t o meet. [17'] P r i n g h i m s e l f l i s t s a number o f s u c h c r i t i c i s m s , some o f w h i c h a r e i n c l u d e d i n what f o l l o w s . T h r e e a p p r o a c h e s a r e t a k e n h e r e t o a r e v i e w o f t h e s e c r i t i c i s m s : f i r s t , a s a m p l i n g i s p r e s e n t e d o f t h e n e g a t i v e l a n g u a g e u s e d by c r i t i c s o f modern e d u c a t i o n ; s e c o n d , some c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c i s m i s examined more c l o s e l y ; t h i r d , f i v e s p e c i f i c c r i t i c i s m s o f c u r r i c u l a a r e t r e a t e d . i . The l a n g u a g e o f t h e a t t a c k on s u b j e c t s A t t e n d i n g t o P r i n g ' s s u g g e s t i o n , t h e f o l l o w i n g i s " a l m o s t [ a ] random" l i s t o f c r i t i c i s m s d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t s p e c i a l i z e d , t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y s u b j e c t - and d i s c i p l i n e - b a s e d - 9 -c u r r i c u l a : " f r a g m e n t a t i o n " " d i s i n t e g r a t i o n " [ 1 8 ] " b a r r i e r s " " p i g e o n - h o l i n g " " a r t i f i c i a l l i m i t s " " f r e q u e n t i r r e l e v a n c e t o r e a l p r o b l e m s " [ 1 9 ] " h o t c h - p o t c h " " p r o d u c t s o f h a p h a z a r d a d d i t i o n " [ 2 0 ] " a r b i t r a r y " " c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n " " a i m l e s s w a n d e r i n g s i n t h e mere b y p a t h s o f k n o w l e d g e " [ 2 1 ] " a t o m i z a t i o n / a t o m i s t i c " " e d u c a t i o n a l c o n s t i p a t i o n " "a g l u t o f u n a s s i m i l a t e d and u n r e l a t e d i d e a s " " e l e m e n t i s t i c " [ 2 2 ] " u n d i g e s t e d lumps o f i n f o r m a t i o n " " s p l i n t e r i n g " " f i s s i o n a r y t e n d e n c i e s " " c u l t u r a l and e d u c a t i o n a l d i s p e r s a l " " c u r s e o f d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n " " s h r e d s and p a t c h e s " "a s e v e r e , i l l i b e r a l l i m i t i n g o f e d u c a t i o n " " g r o w i n g a g g r e g a t i o n o f c o u r s e s " " a c a d e m i c i s l a n d s " [ 2 3 ] - 10 -" m y s t i f y i n g " " d e t a c h e d " " b i t s and p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n " " o s s i f i e d " "mere a g g r e g a t i o n s o f d e p a r t m e n t s " " t r i v i a l i t y and i s o l a t i o n . " [ 2 4 ] Such a l i s t makes f o r i n t e r e s t i n g r e a d i n g and m i g h t e a s i l y be e x t e n d e d , but a s e c o n d , more s y s t e m a t i c a p p r o a c h i s p e r h a p s more i n o r d e r as a means o f c a t c h i n g t h e s p i r i t o f t h e c r i t i c i s m t h a t has been d i r e c t e d a t s u b j e c t - and d i s c i p l i n e - b a s e d c u r r i c u l a . i i . F u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f c r i t i c i s m S p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n and t h e s u b j e c t - or d i s c i p l i n e - b a s e d c u r r i c u l u m have been m a t t e r s f o r a t t a c k t h r o u g h o u t t h i s c e n t u r y . In a p a s s a g e now f r e q u e n t l y q u o t e d , W h i t e h e a d l a m e n t s t h e " f a t a l d i s c o n n e c t i o n o f s u b j e c t s t h a t k i l l s t h e v i t a l i t y o f o u r modern c u r r i c u l u m . " [ 2 5 ] B o t h J a s p e r s and O r t e g a y G a s s e t n o t e t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f modern e d u c a t i o n and s c i e n c e . [ 2 6 ] The H a r v a r d R e p o r t d e c r i e s t h e d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n and p a r c e l i n g o f l e a r n i n g " i n t o a m y r i a d o f s p e c i a l t i e s . " [ 2 7 ] R a c h e l S h a r p e comments on s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f knowledge i n t h e t y p e o f c u r r i c u l u m t h a t u s u a l l y a c c o m p a n i e s s u c h s p e c i a l i z a t i o n : S c h o o l knowledge i s e x p e r i e n c e d as r e i f i e d , f r a g m e n t e d and d i s p a r a t e c o l l e c t i o n s o f u n p r o b l e m a t i c ' f a c t s . ' The g r o u n d s o f s u c h - 11 -knowledge u s u a l l y r e m a i n h i d d e n , t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o r a r b i t r a t i n g between d i f f e r e n t knowledge c l a i m s r a r e l y b e i n g e x p o s e d t o c r i t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n . " [ 2 8 ] In a s i m i l a r v e i n , James q u e s t i o n s t h e p u r p o s e s o f a r b i t r a r i l y d i v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l t i m e i n t o "spasms o f t h i r t y , f o r t y , o r f o r t y - f i v e m i n u t e s , p u n c t u a t e d by t h e c l a n g i n g o f b e l l s . " She f o l l o w s t h i s q u e r y w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n , "How do we r e c o n c i l e t h i s p l a n n e d i n c o h e r e n c e w i t h o u r knowledge o f t h e d i f f e r e n t r h y t h m s o f l e a r n i n g d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s have . . . ? " [ 2 9 ] A w e l l - k n o w n c o n s e r v a t i v e A m e r i c a n c r i t i c d e p l o r e d t h e same s i t u a t i o n e a r l i e r i n t h i s c e n t u r y , a l b e i t f o r d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s . R.M. H u t c h i n s a s k e d why i t was " t h a t t h e c h i e f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e h i g h e r l e a r n i n g [was] d i s o r d e r . " [ 3 0 ] At a n o t h e r p o i n t , he o f f e r s an i l l u m i n a t i n g m e t a p h o r : The modern u n i v e r s i t y may be compared w i t h an e n c y c l o p e d i a . The e n c y c l o p e d i a c o n t a i n s many t r u t h s . I t may c o n s i s t o f n o t h i n g e l s e . But i t s u n i t y c an be f o u n d o n l y i n i t s a l p h a b e t i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t . The u n i v e r s i t y i s i n much t h e same c a s e . I t has d e p a r t m e n t s r u n n i n g f r o m a r t t o z o o l o g y b u t n e i t h e r t h e s t u d e n t s n o r t h e p r o f e s s o r s know a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n o f one d e p a r t m e n t a l t r u t h to a n o t h e r , and what t h e r e l a t i o n o f d e p a r t m e n t a l t r u t h s t o t h o s e i n t h e domain o f a n o t h e r d e p a r t m e n t may b e . [ 3 1 ] Such c o m p l a i n t s c a n s t i l l be h e a r d . A f t e r n o t i n g t h a t " d i v e r s i t y — n o t c o h e r e n c e — h a s become t h e ' g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e ' i n . . . a c a d e m i c p l a n n i n g , " B o y e r n o t e s t h a t ". . . we have a few r e q u i r e m e n t s w h i c h s t a n d l i k e ' p i l l a r s ' among 'the c r u m b l e d r u i n s ' o f t h e p a s t , s u r r o u n d e d by a s p r a w l i n g ' s h a n t y town' we c a l l ' e l e c t i v e s ' where s t u d e n t s r a n d o m l y can - 12 -wander i n and o u t . " [ 3 2 ] I n s i m i l a r l a n g u a g e , a n o t h e r A m e r i c a n , w r i t i n g i n 1956, n o t e d t h i s i n d i c t m e n t : " t h e c u r r i c u l u m o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s i s a p a t c h w o r k o f u n r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s d e v o i d o f any c o n s i s t e n t p r i n c i p l e o f o r d e r o r c l a r i t y , e i t h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l o r m o r a l . " [ 3 3 ] T h e s e c i t a t i o n s b e g i n t o make c l e a r t h e unhappy s i t u a t i o n p e r c e i v e d by many i n e d u c a t i o n . The f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n one might g e t on r e a d i n g s u c h c r i t i c i s m s i s t h a t n o t h i n g good a t a l l can be s a i d f o r p r e s e n t - d a y s u b j e c t - b a s e d c u r r i c u l a . M a n i f e s t l y , c r i t i c s see d i s i n t e g r a t i o n and f r a g m e n t a t i o n on many s i d e s when t h e y view t h e c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l s c e n e . I n g e n e r a l , and r a t h e r s i m p l y , s u c h p e r v a s i v e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n m i g h t be s e e n as t h e r e a s o n t h e r e a r e so many c a l l s f o r " i n t e g r a t i o n . " L e s s s i m p l y , a good way t o summarize t h e view many t a k e o f t h i s p r e s e n t s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i s by a b r i e f e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p h r a s e "knowledge e x p l o s i o n , " a p h r a s e many w r i t e r s use but few seem t o c o n s i d e r f o r i t s f u l l d e s c r i p t i v e v a l u e . T h i s p h r a s e i s most o f t e n u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e g r e a t i n c r e a s e i n th e s t o c k o f knowledge i n t h e p e r i o d s i n c e t h e R e n a i s s a n c e o r s i n c e t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n . Inasmuch as t h e s t o c k o f knowledge has i n c r e a s e d e x p o n e n t i a l l y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , s u c h a d e s c r i p t i o n seems a p p r o p r i a t e . Y e t , a n o t h e r s e n s e o f " e x p l o s i o n " i s u s u a l l y i g n o r e d by c r i t i c s who m i g h t b u t t r e s s t h e i r a r g u m e n t s f u r t h e r were t h e y t o c o n s i d e r i t : t h e s e n s e - 13 -t h a t t h i n g s have come a p a r t and a r e now s c a t t e r e d and i n a s t a t e o f g r e a t d i s o r d e r . C e r t a i n l y t h e t h r u s t o f t h e q u o t e d c r i t i c i s m s i s i n a c c o r d w i t h t h i s s e n s e o f " e x p l o s i o n . " i i i . S p e c i f i c c r i t i c i s m s o f c u r r i c u l a Even a few c i t a t i o n s , o r a b r i e f comment on "knowledge e x p l o s i o n , " however, do n o t do j u s t i c e t o t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e c r i t i c i s m d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s u b j e c t - b a s e d c u r r i c u l a . The s o r t o f o r c h e s t r a t e d a t t a c k t h a t has come i n r e c e n t y e a r s w a r r a n t s more s y s t e m a t i c a t t e n t i o n . A number of d i s c r e t e c l a i m s have been made by c r i t i c s r e g a r d i n g t h e n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s o f s u b j e c t - b a s e d c u r r i c u l a : 1) s u c h c u r r i c u l a l e a d t o " r e a l i s t " v i e w s o f knowledge and i g n o r e t h e s o c i a l or " i n v e n t e d " n a t u r e o f knowledge; 2) s u c h c u r r i c u l a a r e u s e d i n t h e p e r p e t u a t i o n o f a c e r t a i n s o c i a l o r d e r , s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f a p r i v i l e g e d p l a c e f o r t h e e d u c a t e d ; 3) s u c h c u r r i c u l a and d e p a r t m e n t a l s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n h i n d e r t h e growth o f knowledge by f o s t e r i n g c o m p e t i t i o n and i s o l a t i o n ; 4) s t u d e n t s become c o n f u s e d a b o u t what t h e y a r e s u p p o s e d t o be l e a r n i n g — e s p e c i a l l y b e c a u s e o f s i t u a t i o n s #1 and #3 above; 5) u l t i m a t e l y , s t u d e n t s s u f f e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . T h i s l i s t c o u l d be e x t e n d e d , but t h e above a r e f i v e main c r i t i c i s m s d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t s u b j e c t - b a s e d c u r r i c u l a . B e f o r e l a u n c h i n g an e x a m i n a t i o n o f s u c h c r i t i c i s m s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e a number o f l i m i t s o r f e a t u r e s o f 14 -t h e s e c r i t i c i s m s . F i r s t , t h e f i v e a r e a s o f c r i t i c i s m l i s t e d p a t e n t l y a r e n o t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s b ut have been p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s f a s h i o n s i m p l y f o r e a s e o f t r e a t m e n t . S e c o n d , a l l c r i t i c i s m s o f t h i s s o r t do n o t o r i g i n a t e f r o m t h e same s o u r c e . The f i r s t two, f o r example, a r e u s u a l l y o f f e r e d t o g e t h e r , b u t t h o s e e d u c a t o r s most c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e f i r s t two f r e q u e n t l y g i v e l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e l a s t two, and v i c e v e r s a . The above comment r e g a r d i n g s o u r c e s n o t w i t h -s t a n d i n g , much o f t h e c r i t i c i s m i n q u e s t i o n o r i g i n a t e d w i t h and i n i t i a l l y c e n t e r e d a r o u n d one book, Knowledge and  C o n t r o l . e d i t e d by M i c h a e l F.D. Young i n 1971.[34] The f i n a l remark t h a t n e c e s s a r i l y must p r e c e d e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e s e c r i t i c i s m s o f s u b j e c t - and d i s c i p l i n e - b a s e d c u r r i c u l u m , and p e r h a p s t h e most i m p o r t a n t t o t h e r e a d e r , i s t h i s : t h e s e c r i t i c i s m s and t h e i r s u p p o r t i n g a r g u m e n t s s i m p l y w i l l be r e p o r t e d h e r e , l a r g e l y w i t h o u t e v a l u a t i o n . The c u r r i c u l u m and k n o w l e d g e . The most i m p o r t a n t c r i t i c i s m d i r e c t e d a t t h e s u b j e c t - b a s e d c u r r i c u l u m , and one somewhat a n t i c i p a t e d by t h e f o r e g o i n g l i s t o f p h r a s e s and words, i s t h a t a s u b j e c t - b a s e d c u r r i c u l u m c a n n o t o r does not a d e q u a t e l y a c c o u n t f o r t h e n a t u r e o f k n o w l e d g e . " C a n n o t " i n t i m a t e s an argument t h a t f o c u s e s on e p i s t e m o l o g y w h i l e "does n o t " a n t i c i p a t e s more o f a s o c i o l o g i c a l a rgument. The two a r e n o t so n e a t l y s e p a r a b l e i n p r a c t i c e and c o n s e q u e n t l y w i l l be d e a l t w i t h l a r g e l y as a p i e c e h e r e . A n o t a b l e f e a t u r e o f - 15 -t h i s d e b a t e has been t h a t t h e a t t a c k on s u b j e c t - o r d i s c i p l i n e - b a s e d c u r r i c u l a i s f r e q u e n t l y i n s e p a r a b l e f r o m a t t a c k s on P a u l H i r s t ' s forms o f knowledge t h e s i s o r P h i l i p P h e n i x ' s r e a l m s o f meaning t h e s i s . One i s l e d t o wonder i f some have e q u a t e d H i r s t ' s o r P h e n i x ' s schemas w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l methods o f c u r r i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n . Warnock has n o t e d t h e f r e q u e n t s u g g e s t i o n t h a t . . . H i r s t ' s a r g u m e n t s f o r t h e f o r m s o f k n o w l e d g e a r e , t h o u g h g r e a t l y d r e s s e d up, r e a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e a r g uments f o r o l d - f a s h i o n e d s u b j e c t s as t h e y a l r e a d y e x i s t i n s c h o o l s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , i n t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f w h i c h t e a c h e r s have a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t . [ 3 5 ] In Knowledge and C o n t r o l , Young, t o o , o f f e r s c r i t i c i s m o f H i r s t : S t a r t i n g f r o m c e r t a i n a_ p r i o r i a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ( o r f o r m s ) o f knowledge ( H i r s t , 1 9 69), t h e i r [ t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h e r s ' ] c r i t i c i s m s f o c u s e i t h e r on new t o p i c - b a s e d s y l l a b i w h i ch n e g l e c t t h e s e 'forms o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g 1 or on new c u r r i c u l a f o r t h e s o - c a l l e d "Newsom c h i l d " w h i c h t h e y a r g u e a r e c o n s c i o u s l y r e s t r i c t i n g them from a c c e s s t o t h o s e forms o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h i c h i n t h e p h i l o s o p h e r ' s s e n s e a r e ' e d u c a t i o n . ' The p r o b l e m w i t h t h i s k i n d o f c r i t i q u e i s t h a t i t a p p e a r s t o be b a s e d on an a b s o l u t i s t c o n c e p t i o n o f a s e t o f d i s t i n c t f orms of knowledge w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d c l o s e l y t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a r e a s o f t h e a c a d e m i c c u r r i c u l u m and t h u s j u s t i f y , r a t h e r t h a n examine, what a r e no more t h a n t h e s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l c o n s t r u c t s o f a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o s t r e s s t h a t i t i s not ' s u b j e c t s , ' w h i c h H i r s t r e c o g n i z e s as t h e s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d ways t h a t t e a c h e r s o r g a n i z e knowledge, b ut f o r m s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h a t i t i s c l a i m e d a r e ' n e c e s s a r i l y ' d i s t i n c t . The p o i n t I w i s h t o make h e r e i s t h a t u n l e s s s u c h n e c e s s a r y d i s t i n c t i o n s or i n t r i n s i c l o g i c s a r e t r e a t e d as p r o b l e m a t i c , p h i l o s o p h i c a l c r i t i c i s m c a n n o t examine t h e a s s u m p t i o n s o f a c a d e m i c c u r r i c u l a . [ 3 6 ] - 16 -O t h e r s have c r i t i c i z e d H i r s t a l o n g s i m i l a r l i n e s but i t i s t h i s p a s s a g e w h i c h l a r g e l y s e t s t h e s t a g e f o r l a t e r c r i t i c i s m . Young a r g u e s a t o t h e r p o i n t s as w e l l t h a t knowledge i s a s o c i a l - h i s t o r i c a l p r o d u c t , n o t a n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g phenomenon. I n h i s d e b a t e w i t h John W h i t e , f o r example, he a s s e r t s t h a t "knowledge [ i s ] c o n s t i t u t e d by t h e a c t i o n s o f men i n e d u c a t i o n a l and o t h e r s e t t i n g s , and [he s e e s ] t h e s e s e t t i n g s as l o c a t e d i n o u r h i s t o r y . " [ 3 7 ] T h i s v i e w o f knowledge as a p r o d u c t o f human a c t i v i t y i s o s t e n s i b l y a t v a r i a n c e w i t h H i r s t ' s " a b s o l u t i s t " v i e w o f k n o w l e d g e . The q u e s t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f fo r m s o f k n o w l e d g e — h i s t o r i c a l l y d e v e l o p e d o r l o g i c a l l y n e c e s s a r y — h a s been p u r s u e d by many o u t s i d e o f Knowledge and C o n t r o l as w e l l . B r e n t , f o r example, a s k s i f t h e fo r m s d e v e l o p e d f o r t u i t o u s l y and a c c i d e n t a l l y o r i f t h e y a r e t h e " l o g i c a l l y n e c e s s a r y p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f any human w o r l d . " [ 3 8 ] A f t e r s t y l i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i d e a o f fo r m s o f knowledge a " c o n s e r v a t i v e r e s p o n s e o f a c a d e m i c v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s , " H o l l y c a l l s i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e " i n e v i t a b i l i t y o r e s s e n t i a l i t y " o f s a i d f o r m s . [ 3 9 ] I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t a l l a r e not p l e a s e d w i t h " r e c e i v e d " v i e w s o f kn o w l e d g e . The r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n r e m a i n s as t o whether H i r s t h i m s e l f v i e w s t h e f o r m s o f knowledge i n t h e r e a l i s t t e r m s o t h e r s i mpute t o him. I t does w a r r a n t m e n t i o n h e r e , however, t h a t H i r s t and - 17 -P e t e r s a d v o c a t e a k i n d o f i n t e g r a t i o n i n a t l e a s t one p i e c e o f t h e i r w o r k . [ 4 0 ] C u r r i c u l a and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . The s e c o n d c r i t i c i s m — t h a t s u b j e c t - and d i s c i p l i n e - b a s e d c u r r i c u l a and t h e v i e w s o f knowledge i m p l i c i t i n them h e l p m a i n t a i n t h e p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n o f t h o s e w i t h e d u c a t i o n — i s e x p r e s s e d by K e d d i e i n t h i s manner: . . . i t seems t h a t one use t o w h i c h t h e s c h o o l p u t s knowledge i s t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t s u b j e c t s r e p r e s e n t t h e way a b o u t w h i c h t h e w o r l d i s n o r m a l l y known i n an ' e x p e r t ' as o p p o s e d t o a 'commonsense' mode o f k n o w i n g . T h i s e s t a b l i s h e s and m a i n t a i n s n o r m a t i v e o r d e r i n and w i t h i n s u b j e c t s , and a c c r e d i t s as s u c c e s s f u l t o t h e w o r l d o u t s i d e s c h o o l t h o s e who can m a s t e r s u b j e c t s . The s c h o o l may be seen as m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s o c i a l o r d e r t h r o u g h t h e t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d c a t e g o r i e s o f i t s s u p e r o r d i n a t e s who p r o c e s s p u p i l s and knowledge i n m u t u a l l y c o n f i r m i n g w a y s . [ 4 1 ] T h i s h i e r a r c h y between " e x p e r t " and "commonsense" knowledge i s e xamined f u r t h e r by Young h i m s e l f : Academic c u r r i c u l a . . . i n v o l v e a s s u m p t i o n s t h a t some k i n d s and a r e a s o f knowledge a r e much more ' w o r t h w h i l e ' t h a n o t h e r s : t h a t as soon as p o s s i b l e a l l k nowledge s h o u l d become s p e c i a l i z e d and w i t h minimum e x p l i c i t e m p h a s i s on t h e r e l a t i o n s between t h e s u b j e c t s s p e c i a l i z e d i n and between t h e s p e c i a l i s t t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d . [ 4 2 ] I t i s b e c a u s e o f t h i s w i d e s p r e a d p r e d i s p o s i t i o n f o r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n t h a t Young, i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n , c a l l s f o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e " s c i e n t i f i c " and t h e " r a t i o n a l " as l e g i t i m i z i n g c a t e g o r i e s . [ 4 3 ] Y e a r s a f t e r t h i s c a l l , Young w r o t e w i t h W h i t t y , as f o l l o w s : - 18 -. . . s c h o o l s u b j e c t s t e n d t o r e p r e s e n t e d u c a t i o n as r e l a t i v e l y d i s c r e t e b o d i e s o f k n owledge, l a r g e l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s between t e a c h e r s and t a u g h t , and e x p e r i e n c e d as a s e t o f h u r d l e s t h r o u g h w h i c h s t u d e n t s have t o pass,, d i r e c t e d and a s s e s s e d a t e a c h s t a g e by t h e r e p o s i t o r y o f knowledge . . . [44] In t h e a l r e a d y - c i t e d d e b a t e w i t h John W h i t e , Young e c h o e s t h e " e x p e r t v e r s u s commonsense" p o l a r i t y n o t e d by K e d d i e , t h i s t i m e a r g u i n g t h a t a f o r m s o f knowledge t h e s i s h e l p s s u s t a i n a h i e r a r c h y between t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e . [ 4 5 ] B a s i l B e r n s t e i n p u r s u e s t h e q u e s t i o n , "How a r e f o r m s o f e x p e r i e n c e , i d e n t i t y and r e l a t i o n e v o k e d , m a i n t a i n e d and c h a n g e d by t h e f o r m a l t r a n s m i s s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l knowledge and s e n s i t i v i t i e s ? " [ 4 6 ] By u s i n g t h e c o n c e p t o f a c o d e — t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h shape c u r r i c u l u m , pedagogy and e v a l u a t i o n — B e r n s t e i n i s a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h two p o s s i b l e and opposed? t e n d e n c i e s , one t o w a r d " c o l l e c t i o n " and t h e o t h e r t o ward " i n t e g r a t i o n . " Where s t r o n g b o u n d a r y m a i n t e n a n c e e x i s t s , B e r n s t e i n l a b e l s t h e code a " c o l l e c t i o n " c o d e ; c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t s a r e n o t i n c l o s e r e l a t i o n t o e a c h o t h e r . Where s u b j e c t b o u n d a r i e s a r e w e a k — c o n t e n t s o p e n — B e r n s t e i n c a l l s t h e code " i n t e g r a t i v e . " H a v i n g e s t a b l i s h e d t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , however i n a d e q u a t e i t m i g h t be t o d e s c r i b e a l l t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f c l a s s r o o m r e a l i t y , B e r n s t e i n t h e n a r g u e s t h a t c o l l e c t i o n c o d e s ( r e g a r d i n g c u r r i c u l a ) p r e v e n t s t u d e n t s f r o m g r a s p i n g t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i o u s c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t s . L a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g l e a d s t o a l a c k o f power. Thus s c h o o l s u b j e c t s p l a y a r o l e i n s o c i a l - 19 -c o n t r o l . A d d i t i o n a l l y , s t r o n g i n s u l a t i o n between s u b j e c t s r e l e g a t e s c ommunity-based or commonsense knowledge t o an i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n and t h u s r e n d e r s i t i r r e l e v a n t . I m p l i c i t i n t h e i r r e l e v a n c e o f o u t s i d e - o f - s c h o o l knowledge i s t h e h i e r a r c h y t h a t K e d d i e and Young b o t h i d e n t i f y . Where s t r o n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( c o l l e c t i o n c o d e s ) e x i s t s , a u t h o r i t y s t r u c t u r e s a r e s t r o n g e r ; where t h e r e i s i n t e g r a t i o n , a u t h o r i t y s t r u c t u r e s a r e w e a k e r . [ 4 7 ] C o m p e t i t i o n and i s o l a t i o n . The c r i t i c i s m t h a t t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n t h a t u s u a l l y a c c o m p a n i e s a s u b j e c t - or d i s c i p l i n e - b a s e d c u r r i c u l u m l e a d s t o c o m p e t i t i o n and i s o l a t i o n i s m has come f r o m a wide r a n g e o f c r i t i c s . In i t s most b a s i c f o r m , t h e argument r u n s a p p r o x i m a t e l y l i k e t h i s : P r e m i s e 1: S u b j e c t d i v i s i o n s i n a c u r r i c u l u m l e a d t o d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n . P r e m i s e 2: D e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n l e a d s t o c o m p e t i t i o n and c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t o c o - o p e r a t i o n among d e p a r t m e n t s . [ 4 8 ] P r e m i s e 3: C o - o p e r a t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n a r e b o t h n e c e s s a r y f o r e x p a n s i o n and i m p a r t a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e . C o n c l u s i o n : B o t h r e s e a r c h and e d u c a t i o n a r e i m p a i r e d by d i s c i p l i n a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l a . [ 4 9 ] Numerous r e a s o n s a r e g i v e n f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s phenomenon. F i r s t , as t h e f o r e g o i n g h i s t o r i c a l s u r v e y made c l e a r , t h e r e i s s u b s t a n t i a l c o m m e r c i a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s s u r e p l a c e d on u n i v e r s i t i e s ( p r e s s u r e w h i c h f i l t e r s down i n t o s e c o n d a r y and even j u n i o r - s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s ) t o t r a i n - 20 -s p e c i a l i s t s and t h u s t o s p e c i a l i z e . H u t c h i n s c a l l s t h i s a " v o c a t i o n a l i s m " w h i c h l e a d s t o " t r i v i a l i t y and i s o l a t i o n " and Hong i d e n t i f i e s i t as a " s e v e r e l i m i t i n g o f e d u c a t i o n t o t r a i n i n g i n e x c l u s i v e a r e a s . . ." [ 5 0 ] Loomer d e s c r i b e s one a s p e c t o f t h i s p r o b l e m i n p a r t i c u l a r l y h a r s h t e r m s : . . . i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e g r i t y i n v o l v e s t h e i d e a o f w h o l e n e s s , o f u n i t y , w h e r e i n t h e s e v e r a l d i s c i p l i n e s t h a t make up a u n i v e r s i t y a r e s y n t h e s i z e d . The i d e a l o f i n t e g r i t y i n v o l v e s s y n t h e s i s o f t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f man's e x p e r i e n c e w i t h h i s w o r l d b e c a u s e t h e y a r e a s p e c t s o f any one i n d i v i d u a l . I f we r e q u i r e d a p r o s p e c t i v e f a c u l t y a p p o i n t m e n t t o be c o n c e r n e d a b o u t i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e g r i t y , we would be a s k i n g him t o r e l a t e two o r more f i e l d s o f s p e c i a l i z e d i n q u i r y . But a l l we ask f o r a t p r e s e n t i s t h a t t h e p r o s p e c t i v e p r o f e s s o r be c o m p e t e n t . We i m p l y t h e r e b y t h a t t h e p r o f e s s o r as a d i v i d e d or c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z e d s e l f c a n be b o t h an a d e q u a t e member o f a f a c u l t y and a t r u e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f th e i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e . [ 5 1 ] W h i l e Loomer a d m i t s t h a t c o m p e t e n t s c i e n t i s t s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e f u n d o f human k n o w l e d g e , he a r g u e s t h a t t h e y f r e q u e n t l y do n o t u n d e r s t a n d how o r why t h e y have c o n t r i b u t e d . O t h e r s have n o t e d t h e t e n d e n c y t o w a r d , and r e s u l t s o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n as w e l l , p e r h a p s t h e most n o t a b l e among them, C.P. Snow i n The Two C u l t u r e s . Snow d i s t i n g u i s h e s between l i t e r a r y and s c i e n t i f i c p e o p l e who have "so l i t t l e i n common" i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y o r m o r a l l y . One wants t o c a u t i o n t h a t even i n P l a t o ' s R e p u b l i c t h e p o e t s and p h i l o s o p h e r s were s e t a t o d d s . What Snow has i d e n t i f i e d i s not a new p r o b l e m . Y e t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s t h a t " t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e o f t h e whole o f W e s t e r n s o c i e t y i s - 21 -i n c r e a s i n g l y b e i n g s p l i t i n t o two p o l a r g r o u p s . " [ 5 2 ] Snow i s a r g u i n g more t h a n mere d i v i s i o n , as t h e t i t l e makes c l e a r . H i s p o i n t i s t h a t t h e r e a r e , i n t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s e n s e [ h i s t e r m , p. 9] a c t u a l l y two d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s d e v e l o p i n g — two c u l t u r e s t h a t have as l i t t l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e a c h o t h e r a s , s a y , t r i b a l P o l y n e s i a n s and s o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a n s have o f ea c h o t h e r . One wants t o c r e d i t Snow w i t h making a more a c c u r a t e a p p r a i s a l o f t h e s i t u a t i o n t h a n one o f h i s c r i t i c s who v i e w s h i s d e b a t e w i t h L e a v i s as n o t h i n g more t h a n a " g e n t l e m a n ' s q u a r r e l . " [ 5 3 ] A c c o r d i n g t o Snow, t h e "two c u l t u r e s p r o b l e m " i s r e l a t e d t o two t h i n g s : 1) a " f a n a t i c a l b e l i e f " i n s p e c i a l i z a t i o n ; 2) t h e t e n d e n c y t o l e t " s o c i a l f o r m s c r y s t a l l i z e . " T h a t i s : "once a t h i n g l i k e a c u l t u r a l d i v i d e g e t s e s t a b l i s h e d , a l l t h e s o c i a l f o r c e s o p e r a t e t o make i t n o t l e s s r i g i d , b u t more s o . " [ 5 4 ] The s i m i l a r i t y between Snow's o b s e r v a t i o n s and t h e ar g u m e n t s o f t h e s o c i o l o g i s t s o f e d u c a t i o n d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i s i n t e r e s t i n g i f f o r no o t h e r r e a s o n t h a n t h a t The Two C u l t u r e s p r e c e d e d Knowledge and  C o n t r o l by some y e a r s , and t h e two r e s p e c t i v e c e n t r a l f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t s u c h d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l v i e w p o i n t s . [ 5 5 ] W h i l e t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f " t h e two c u l t u r e s " i s i n t e r e s t i n g — a n d one wants t o a g r e e w i t h Snow and t h e s o c i o l o g i s t s o f e d u c a t i o n t h a t t h e m a t t e r i s s e r i o u s — t h e d i s c u s s i o n so f a r has f o c u s e d o n l y on t h e f i r s t two p r e m i s e s - 22 -o f t h e argument as o u t l i n e d (on page 2 0 ) . W i t h o u t m i n i m i z i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i v o r c e i t s e l f , i t i s p e r h a p s more i m p o r t a n t t o any c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n what t h e d i v o r c e i s a l l e g e d t o l e a d t o among e d u c a t o r s and r e s e a r c h e r s , and, u l t i m a t e l y , s t u d e n t s . S p e c i a l i s t s t e n d t o " s h a r p e n t h e i r s p e c i a l t i e s r a t h e r t h a n b r o a d e n i n g t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . " [ 5 6 ] The r e s u l t i n g i g n o r a n c e o f f i e l d s o t h e r t h a n o ne's own l e a d s t o a f e a r and r e s i s t a n c e t o i n t e g r a t i v e e f f o r t s o f any s o r t . [ 5 7 ] The a d v a n c e o f knowledge t h r o u g h r e s e a r c h i s h i n d e r e d b e c a u s e i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r s l a c k what Newman c a l l e d " e n l a r g e m e n t o f t h e mind" and what P e t e r s c a l l s " c o g n i t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e " — t h e b r o a d e d u c a t i o n a l base t h a t f a c i l i t a t e s t a k i n g t h e w i d e r v i e w — a n d t h e s p r e a d o f knowledge t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n i s h i n d e r e d b e c a u s e s c h o o l s t a k e on an a i r o f e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l x e n o p h o b i a w h i c h r e n d e r s s t u d e n t s i n c a p a b l e o f v i e w i n g t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m as t h e p a r t s o f an o r g a n i c w h o l e . [ 5 8 ] D i s i n t e g r a t i o n and t h e i n h i b i t i o n o f l e a r n i n g . The f i n a l two c r i t i c i s m s o f s u b j e c t - b a s e d c u r r i c u l a m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r — t h a t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s t u d e n t s ' l e a r n i n g i s i n h i b i t e d and t h a t , u l t i m a t e l y , s t u d e n t s ' m e n t a l w e l l - b e i n g can be t h r e a t e n e d — a r e t r e a t e d t o g e t h e r h e r e b e c a u s e t h e y a r e so c l o s e l y r e l a t e d . One o f t h e more a r t i c u l a t e e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e c r i t i c i s m i s t h a t g i v e n by L i n d e m a n . He w r i t e s , . . . i t i s [ i n j u n i o r h i g h - s c h o o l ] t h a t t h e p u p i l - 23 -f i r s t comes i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d t e a c h e r s who know some s i n g l e f i e l d o r s u b j e c t - m a t t e r but know p r a c t i c a l l y n o t h i n g a b o u t o t h e r s u b j e c t s nor a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t s . The f l o o d o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r w h i c h now d e s c e n d s upon p u p i l s i n r i v u l e t s s t r e a m i n g from a c a d e m i c d e p a r t m e n t s , e a c h w i t h i t s own l a b e l , and e a c h i n t u r n demanding a s e p a r a t e l o y a l t y b e g i n s t h e f i r s t o f t h o s e v i c i o u s s e p a r a t i o n s i n o u r e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m w h i c h k e e p s l e a r n i n g f r o m b e i n g an i n t e g r a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . [ 5 9 ] I t i s f r o m a n o t h e r e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e way a s t u d e n t m ight e x p e r i e n c e u n i v e r s i t y t h a t t h e t i t l e o f t h e p r e s e n t s e c t i o n , "Cosmos or C h a o s , " comes. A f t e r d i s c u s s i n g how t h e o l o g y was t h e " c o n c e p t u a l cement" t h a t h e l d t h e c u r r i c u l u m t o g e t h e r i n t h e m e d i e v a l u n i v e r s i t y and how t h e r e i s now no s u c h cement i n t h e modern " m u l t i v e r s i t y , " T a y l o r n o t e s t h a t t h e c l a s h i n g o f v a l u e s , l a n g u a g e s , and m e t h o d o l o g i e s o f d i s p a r a t e d i s c i p l i n e s r e s u l t s i n an o v e r a l l v i e w o f c h a o s i n p l a c e o f t h e m e d i e v a l cosmos. C o n t i n u i n g , he a s s e r t s t h a t i t s h o u l d be no s u r p r i s e t h a t p o s t - s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t s " f e e l n o t o n l y b e w i l d e r e d but e x p o s e d t o s c h i z o i d t e n d e n c i e s i n [ t h e i r ] i n t e l l e c t u a l e n v i r o n m e n t . " [ 6 0 ] Wise s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s o u r c e o f s u c h p r o b l e m s may be l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n i t s e l f : . . . we may c r e a t e o n l y a mind t o r n a g a i n s t i t s e l f and u n a b l e t o use what i t knows b e c a u s e i t s e e s o n l y c h a o t i c d i v e r s i t y , f r a g m e n t s o f knowledge w h i c h p a r a l y z e r a t h e r t h a n c a t a l y z e human r e s o u r c e s . [ 6 1 ] W h i l e T a y l o r o n l y i n t i m a t e s a c o n n e c t i o n between d e s t r u c t i v e c u r r i c u l a r d i v e r s i t y — w h a t m i g h t w e l l be l a b e l e d " e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n " - - a n d t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h o f t h e s t u d e n t , o t h e r s a r g u e t h i s c o n n e c t i o n more - 24 -e x p l i c i t l y . P h e n i x , f o r example, a r g u e s t h a t one o f t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m i s t o r u n c o u n t e r t o f o r c e s o f d e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n and f r a g m e n t a t i o n , and, more n o t a b l y , t h e " s o u r c e s o f m e a n i n g l e s s n e s s i n c o n t e m p o r a r y l i f e . " [ 6 2 ] A n o t h e r w r i t e r s e e s " c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n " n o t o n l y as p e d a g o g i c a l l y d i s i n t e g r a t i v e b u t a c t i v e l y "so o p p o s e d t o t h e n a t u r a l t e n d a n c y o f i n t e g r a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t t h e l e a r n e r ' s e n t i r e p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n m i g h t be i n h i b i t e d o r i m p a i r e d . " [ 6 3 ] A u b r e y e c h o e s t h i s l i n e of argument. He s p e a k s o f t h e f u t i l i t y o f d i s c u s s i n g " e d u c a t i o n as a p r o c e s s [ f o r ] d e v e l o p i n g i n t e g r a t e d p e r s o n a l i t y " when t h e s t u d e n t i s b e i n g " v i c t i m i z e d by a p r o c e s s t h a t l e a d s t o more c o n f u s i o n t h a n wisdom, t o a s e p a r a t e d a r r a y o f k n o w l e d g e s n e v e r b r o u g h t i n t o f r u i t f u l r e l a t i o n t o e a c h o t h e r .."[64] D i x a r g u e s t h a t t h e p r o c e s s a c t u a l l y goes one s t e p f u r t h e r : i n t e g r a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r s o c i e t y t o be i n t e g r a t e d . [ 6 5 ] p r e v i o u s l y becomes t h e f i r s t p r e m i s e f o r a f u r t h e r argument t h a t r u n s a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s : T h u s , t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e argument p r e s e n t e d P r e m i s e 1: S u b j e c t - b a s e d c u r r i c u l a f r u s t r a t e s t u d e n t s a t t e m p t s t o l e a r n . P r e m i s e 2: E p i s t e m o l o g i c a l f r u s t r a t i o n l e a d s t o d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . P r e m i s e 3: I n d i v i d u a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n l e a d s t o s o c i a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . C o n c l u s i o n : S u b j e c t - b a s e d c u r r i c u l a l e a d t o s o c i a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . - 25 -Though t h e c o n n e c t i o n t o s o c i a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n i s n o t t h e f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y , i t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t some see t h e i n f l u e n c e o f c u r r i c u l u m s t r u c t u r e and i t s r e l a t i o n t o i n t e g r a t i o n s p r e a d i n g t h i s w i d e l y . 2. C a l l s f o r I n t e g r a t i o n One o f t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s t a t e o f d i s a r r a y p e r c e i v e d by so many e d u c a t o r s has been t o c a l l f o r i n t e g r a t i o n o f one s o r t or a n o t h e r . T h e s e c a l l s have come f r o m e d u c a t o r s i n d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s , w o r k i n g a t d i f f e r e n t g r a d e l e v e l s f r o m p r i m a r y t o p o s t - g r a d u a t e , and o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e . "To a v o i d s c a t t e r i n g , s t u d i e s s h o u l d be i n t e r r e l a t e d , so t h a t t h e body o f one's knowledge c a n be one . . ." p r e d a t e s any o f t h e c r i t i c a l comments a l r e a d y c i t e d ; i t was w r i t t e n by a c l a s s i c a l Roman, Marc u s V i t u v i u s P o l l i o . [ 6 6 ] I t i s c l e a r t h a t as u n i t y and w h o l e n e s s i n g e n e r a l a r e n o t new c o n c e p t s , n e i t h e r a r e e d u c a t i o n a l u n i t y and w h o l e n e s s . T h i s i n t e r e s t p e r s i s t s i n t o t h e p r e s e n t c e n t u r y where t h e r e have been two i d e n t i f i a b l e peaks o f i n t e r e s t i n i n t e g r a t i o n , one f r o m a b o u t 1930-50 and t h e o t h e r from a b o u t 1965 to t h e t i m e o f w r i t i n g . Such i n t e r e s t w a r r a n t s a t t e n t i o n . Numerous e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h i s i n t e r e s t c a n be f o u n d i n e d u c a t i o n a l books and j o u r n a l s . Dewey, f o r example, w r o t e as e a r l y as 1902 t h a t t h e - 26 -. . . body o f knowledge i s i n d e e d one, i t i s a s p i r i t u a l o r g a n i s m . To a t t e m p t t o chop o f f a member h e r e and amputate an o r g a n t h e r e i s t h e v e r i e s t i m p o s s i b i l i t y . The p r o b l e m i s not one o f e l i m i n a t i o n , . b u t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n ; o f s i m p l i f i c a t i o n not t h r o u g h d e n i a l and r e j e c t i o n b u t t h r o u g h h armony.[67] K a r l J a s p e r s c a l l e d f o r a j o i n i n g o f hands between s c i e n c e and p h i l o s o p h y so t h a t mankind c o u l d be g u i d e d a l o n g " t h e p a t h t o a u t h e n t i c t r u t h . " [ 6 8 ] As a n o t h e r example, K e r r w r i t e s t h a t . . . we need t o c o n s i d e r t h e t y p e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t s h o u l d o b t a i n b o t h w i t h i n and between t h e main a r e a s o f knowledge . .. . t h e t h e o r y o f knowledge r a i s e s many q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e mind and t h e n a t u r e o f k n o w l e d g e . [ 6 9 ] In t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o I n t e g r a t e d S c i e n c e , G r a t z w r i t e s t h a t t h e r e a s o n an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h i s n e c e s s a r y i s t h a t " i n t h e r e a l w o r l d o f l i f e , n a t u r e and t h i n g s , t h e r e i s no a r t i f i c i a l s e p a r a t i o n o f p h y s i c s , c h e m i s t r y , m i c r o b i o l o g y , o r p h y s i o l o g y . " [ 7 0 ] Y e t a n o t h e r w r i t e r c a l l s f o r t h e c o n v i c t i o n " t h a t we a r e i n d e e d s t u d y i n g a u n i f i e d cosmos" and n o t s i m p l y an a s s o r t m e n t o f d i s c r e t e e n t i t i e s . [ 7 1 ] Numerous o t h e r c i t a t i o n s might be p r o v i d e d i n an a t t e m p t t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e c a s e t h a t e d u c a t o r s d e s i r e i n t e g r a t i o n and t h a t " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s an i m p o r t a n t e d u c a t i o n a l c o n c e p t . To do so h e r e would be s u p e r f l u o u s however, as b o t h C h a p t e r I I I and A p p e n d i x A d e a l more e x p l i c i t l y and c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y w i t h t h e s o r t s o f p r o p o s a l s a d v o c a t e d under t h e g e n e r a l name " i n t e g r a t i o n . " - 27 -3. The P o p u l a r i t y o f " I n t e g r a t i o n " As i l l u s t r a t e d i n A p p e n d i x A, i n t e g r a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n has been s o u g h t i n so many ways t h a t i t i s now q u i t e a p p r o p r i a t e t o c a l l i t a " p o p u l a r " c o n c e p t . A s c a t t e r e d few w r i t e r s have n o t e d t h i s r i s e i n p o p u l a r i t y . [ 7 2 ] C i c c o r i c o makes c l e a r i n h i s s u r v e y o f t h e c o n c e p t ' s h i s t o r y i n e d u c a t i o n a l use t h a t t h i s p o p u l a r i t y i s r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t ( t h o u g h t h e c o n c e p t i t s e l f i s n o t ) . S p e n c e r u s e d t h e t e r m i n h i s 1855 volume, P r i n c i p l e s o f P s y c h o l o g y and James d i d t h e same i n 1896 i n h i s P r i n c i p l e s o f P s y c h o l o g y . In a m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s done a t C o l u m b i a i n 1899 ( c i t e d a b o v e ) , M a x w e l l d i s c u s s e d c o r r e l a t i o n as i n t e g r a t i o n . Where the p r e v i o u s c e n t u r y saw o n l y i n f r e q u e n t , i f i n c r e a s i n g use o f t h e t e r m , one has o n l y t o f o l l o w C i c c o r i c o ' s s u r v e y o f t h e f o r t y o r so y e a r s t o t h e 1930's and 1940's t o see. t h e f i r s t peak o f i n t e r e s t i n i n t e g r a t i o n and g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n t h a t o c c u r r e d a t t h a t t i m e . [ 7 3 ] Some a r g u e t h a t i n t e r e s t has not waned s i n c e t h a t t i m e and o t h e r s say a n o t h e r z e n i t h i s b e i n g r e a c h e d i n t h i s d e c a d e . T h a t d e b a t e i s o f l e s s i m p o r t a n c e , however, t h a n t h e f a c t t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n has a c h i e v e d g r e a t p o p u l a r i t y and i m p o r t a n c e i n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e . Hong n o t e s L i n d e m a n ' s a p p r a i s a l t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n has become a " b i g word" i n e d u c a t i o n . [ 7 4 ] D i x i m p l i e s as much when he s e t s h i s own use o f f f r o m a l l o t h e r u s e s where " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s " j u s t a n o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l s l o g a n . " [ 7 5 ] G a n g e l n o t e s h i s h e s i t a t i o n - 28 -a b o u t u s i n g t h e terra b e c a u s e i t has been u s e d "so f r e q u e n t l y . . . t h a t one wonders a b o u t t h e e x t e n t o f i t s p r e s e n t i m p a c t . " [ 7 6 ] As e a r l y as 1937, Knudsen had o b s e r v e d an i n c r e a s e i n usage and t h e n added somewhat s a r c a s t i c a l l y " t h a t o n l y a p a r t i c u l a r l y o b t u s e e d u c a t o r o r one q u i t e i n s e n s i b l e t o h a p p e n i n g s i n t h e f i e l d w ould f a i l t o a c c e p t i n t e g r a t i o n as a key word i n p r e s e n t day e d u c a t i o n . " [ 7 7 ] In h i s p a r t o f one o f t h e h a n d f u l o f b o o k - l e n g t h s t u d i e s f o c u s i n g e x c l u s i v e l y on " i n t e g r a t i o n , " L i ndeman d e m o n s t r a t e d by means o f a l i s t t h a t " i n t e g r a t i o n " had been put t o some d i v e r s e u s e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l w r i t i n g . [ 7 8 ] B o t h H o p k i n s and Knudsen w r o t e b e f o r e 1940; t h e s i t u a t i o n d e s c r i b e d by them, i f i t has c h a n g e d , has c h anged so t h a t " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s now even more p o p u l a r . The h i s t o r i c a l method,, w h i l e i t i s an a p p r o p r i a t e way t o t r a c e t h e r i s e o f p o p u l a r i t y o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " as a c o n c e p t , does n o t d e m o n s t r a t e a d e q u a t e l y th e w i d t h o f t h a t p o p u l a r i t y . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e f i n a l e v i d e n c e t h a t " e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n " i s an i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t r e c e i v e s i t s f u l l d e v e l o p m e n t i n C h a p t e r I I I w i t h i t s s c h e m a t a o f l o g i c a l f o r m s o f i n t e g r a t i o n ( a n d i n i t s complement, A p p e n d i x A w i t h i t s s u b s t a n t i a l l i s t o f a c t u a l u s e s o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " ) . B. "INTEGRATION"; A CONFUSING AND AMBIGUOUS CONCEPT The o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s u s e d w i d e l y i s - 29 -a c c o m p a n i e d , i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f a few e d u c a t o r s , by a s e c o n d i m p o r t a n t o b s e r v a t i o n : s p e c i f i c i t y i s l o s t as usage i n c r e a s e s . To b e g i n h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , C o n n o l e q u o t e s a p a r t i c u l a r l y n e g a t i v e a p p r a i s a l o f t h e s t a t e o f usage o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " : L i k e 'democracy,' ' l i b e r t y , ' ' f r a t e r n i t y , ' and o t h e r e m o t i v e t e rms so f r e q u e n t l y u s e d as s l o g a n s , b a n n e r s and r a l l y i n g c r i e s , b u t w h i c h i n c o n c r e t e a p p l i c a t i o n r e v e a l l i t t l e but t h e i r a m b i g u i t i e s ; ' i n t e g r a t i o n ' as g e n e r a l l y u s e d i s a l m o s t m e a n i n g l e s s . [ 7 9 ] Both Knudsen and Hong j o i n Lindeman ( i n t h e H o p k i n s ' s t u d y ) i n n o t i n g t h a t i n c r e a s e d use l e a d s t o l o s s o f p r e c i s i o n . [ 8 0 ] D r e s s e l a r g u e s a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s as w e l l . He w r i t e s : The r e a l d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e word " i n t e g r a t i o n " r e s t s i n t h e m u l t i p l i c i t y o f i n t e r r e l a t e d meanings w h i c h p e r m i t i t s use i n r e f e r e n c e t o many and d i f f e r i n g s i t u a t i o n s but w h i c h may r e s u l t i n a m b i g u i t y w h i c h i n t e r f e r e s w i t h a r e a s o n e d d i s c u s s i o n . [ 8 1 ] P r i n g t o o , n o t e s t h i s f a c t where he s t a t e s t h a t " i n t e g r a t e d c u r r i c u l u m i s an i m p r e c i s e t e r m t h a t c o v e r s a r a n g e o f c u r r i c u l u m r e s p o n s e s t o s h o r t c o m i n g s o f s u b j e c t - b a s e d c u r r i c u l u m o r g a n i z a t i o n . " [ 8 2 ] F o r a l l i t s a m b i g u i t y , however, i t i s i m p l i c i t i n c o n t i n u e d wide usage t h a t e d u c a t o r s s t i l l c o n s i d e r t h e t e r m a c e n t r a l one. I n 1952, B l a c k m e r c a l l e d i t "a; much a b u s e d b ut s t i l l i n d i s p e n s i b l e t e r m . " [ 8 3 ] D r e s s e l v o i c e s t h e same c o n c l u s i o n : . . . i t i s a s l o g a n w i t h s u c h a wide r a n g e o f c o n n o t a t i o n as t o h i n d e r o r b l o c k c o m m u n i c a t i o n . Y e t , i n t e g r a t i o n , l i k e o r i e n t a t i o n , a r t i c u l a t i o n , a d j u s t m e n t , and m a t u r a t i o n , e v o k e s s u c h a - 30 -f u n d a m e n t a l s e t o f r e l a t e d i d e a s t h a t i t s use c o n t i n u e s d e s p i t e t h e c o n f u s i o n . [ 8 4 ] W h i l e t h e s e two w r i t e r s r e p r e s e n t t h e m i d d l e o f t h e c e n t u r y more t h a n t h e y r e p r e s e n t t h e p r e s e n t d e c a d e , c o n t i n u e d p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e t e r m i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n s d e s c r i b e d by them o b t a i n t o t h i s d a y . I t i s t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f a number o f e d u c a t i o n a l w r i t e r s t h a t w i t h s u c h c o n f u s i o n s u r r o u n d i n g " i n t e g r a t i o n " i t i s a t e r m t h a t s h o u l d be u s e d w i t h c a r e . Hong, f o r example, w r i t e s t h a t . . . one may p r o p e r l y r a i s e t h e q u e s t i o n : What i s meant by i n t e g r a t i o n i n l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n ? The same d i s i n t e g r a t i o n w h i c h prompts t h e p r e s e n t w i d e s p r e a d i n s i s t e n c e upon i n t e g r a t i v e remedy r e s u l t s a l s o i n a p l u r a l i s t i c , c o n f u s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n i t s e l f . [ 8 5 ] U l t i m a t e l y , t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s a* c o n f u s i n g and ambiguous c o n c e p t i n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e , can be gauged o n l y by one w i l l i n g t o examine a c t u a l u s a g e o f t h e c o n c e p t i n e d u c a t i o n a l w r i t i n g s . [ 8 6 ] C. THE PAUCITY OF REFLECTION ON "INTEGRATION" D e s p i t e t h e wide usage o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " and t h e g r e a t d e a l o f c o n f u s i o n f r e q u e n t l y a t t e n d i n g s a i d u s a g e , t h e r e has been r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e r e f l e c t i o n on t h e a c t u a l use o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " as a_ c o n c e p t i n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e . I f one d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h o s e who c a l l f o r i n t e g r a t i o n o r o t h e r w i s e - 31 -c l a i m i t as a f e a t u r e or g o a l o f a c u r r i c u l u m t h e y have d e v e l o p e d , t h o s e who o f f e r a d e f i n i t i o n of " i n t e g r a t i o n , " and t h o s e who examine " i n t e g r a t i o n " as a c o n c e p t , o n e - f i n d s t h a t t h o s e who f o c u s on e x p l i c a t i n g t h e c o n c e p t i t s e l f c o n s t i t u t e t h e s m a l l e s t g r o u p , and t h e f i r s t g r o u p n a m e d — t h o s e who use i t a p p a r e n t l y w i t h o u t r e f l e c t i o n — t h e l a r g e s t . [ 8 7 ] Hong goes so f a r as t o c a l l s u c h e x p l i c i t s t u d i e s o f t h e p r o b l e m o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " r a r e . [ 8 8 ] W h i l e one m i g h t t h i n k i m p o r t a n c e a l o n e — o r c e r t a i n l y i m p o r t a n c e p l u s t h e c o n f u s i o n g e n e r a t e d i n u s e — w o u l d w a r r a n t and p r e c i p i t a t e a good d e a l o f r e f l e c t i v e d i s c u s s i o n , s u c h d i s c u s s i o n has not been f o r t h c o m i n g . T h i s l a c k o f d i s c u s s i o n p e r h a p s l e a d s t o o r a l l o w s many t h i n g s but t h e most i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e p r e s e n t p u r p o s e i s t h a t i t f a c i l i t a t e s t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e c o n f u s i o n and a m b i g u i t y t h a t p o i n t e d t o t h e need f o r d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . Some mi g h t a r g u e t h a t a l a c k o f d i s c u s s i o n does more t h a n m e r e l y " f a c i l i t a t e " c o n t i n u a t i o n . Inasmuch as s i l e n c e r e g a r d i n g usage may c o n s t i t u t e a p p r o v a l , t h i s argument r u n s , a l a c k o f d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s e q u a l t o some k i n d o f agreement t h a t t h e r a n g e o f meaning o f t h e c o n c e p t has been a g r e e d upon by a l l c o n c e r n e d , and use o f t h e c o n c e p t i n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e may t h e r e f o r e p r o c e e d . The c o m p a r a t i v e l y r a r e s t u d i e s o f i n t e g r a t i o n done t h u s f a r w a r r a n t some d i s c u s s i o n f o r a t l e a s t two r e a s o n s . - 32 -F i r s t , s u c h d i s c u s s i o n h e l p s s i t u a t e t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . More i m p o r t a n t , v i z - a - v i z t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s c h a p t e r , s u c h a d i s c u s s i o n or r e v i e w u n d e r l i n e s t h e need f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y t o be c a r r i e d o u t . A number o f major s t u d i e s o f i n t e g r a t i o n , n o t a l l w i t h t h e same p u r p o s e , have been a t t e m p t e d s u c c e s s f u l l y i n th e l a s t f i f t y y e a r s . The S o c i e t y f o r C u r r i c u l u m Study s h o u l d p r o b a b l y be c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e f i r s t , I n t e g r a t i o n : I t s  Meaning and A p p l i c a t i o n , e d i t e d by L e v i Thomas H o p k i n s i n 1937. The same y e a r t h i s s t u d y a p p e a r e d , Roger J o s e p h C o n n o l e c o m p l e t e d h i s d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n ( c i t e d a b o v e ) a t t h e C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y o f A m e r i c a , A Study o f t h e C o n c e p t o f  I n t e g r a t i o n i n P r e s e n t - D a y C u r r i c u l u m M a k i n g . 1942 saw a s e c o n d d i s s e r t a t i o n , t h a t o f D.A. B r o o k s c i t e d a t t h e commencement o f t h i s c h a p t e r . Next, Roy J . D e f a r r a r i ' s major s t u d y , I n t e g r a t i o n i n C a t h o l i c C o l l e g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s , a p p e a r e d i n 1950.[89] P r o b a b l y more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h i s book, w i t h i t s n a r r o w e r f o c u s , was t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r th e S t u d y o f E d u c a t i o n ' s The I n t e g r a t i o n of E d u c a t i o n a l  E x p e r i e n c e s i n 1958, under t h e e d i t o r s h i p of N e l s o n B. H e n r y , who a l s o e d i t e d t h e 5 1 s t Yearbook o f t h e same s o c i e t y some y e a r s e a r l i e r . [ 9 0 ] Two major s t u d i e s o f i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y a p p e a r e d i n t h e 1970's. The f i r s t , c a l l e d s i m p l y I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t v . was s p o n s o r e d by t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Eco n o m i c C o - o p e r a t i o n and Development (OECD) and e d i t e d by a - 33 -t e a m o f s c h o l a r s d r a w n f r o m v a r i o u s OECD n a t i o n s . T h i s 1 9 7 0 v o l u m e , a l r e a d y c i t e d h e r e i n , p a i d s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o p r o b l e m s o f t e a c h i n g a n d r e s e a r c h i n u n i v e r s i t i e s . T h e s e c o n d , e d i t e d by K o c k e l m a n s a n d a l s o a l r e a d y c i t e d h e r e i n , a p p e a r e d i n 1 9 7 9 a s I n t e r d i s c i p 1 i n a r i t y a n d H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n I t e x a m i n e d t h e h i s t o r y o f i n t e r d i s c i p i i n a r i t y , a n d p r o v i d e d s o m e j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r i t . O n e B r i t i s h v o l u m e w a r r a n t s m e n t i o n t h o u g h i t l a c k s t h e p r o m i n e n c e o f , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e H o p k i n s o r H e n r y v o l u m e s . T h i s i s a b r i e f c o l l e c t i o n o f e s s a y s , I n t e g r a t e d S t u d i e s i n t h e S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l , e d i t e d b; D a v i d W a r w i c k a n d p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 7 3 . [ 9 1 ] O n e f u r t h e r s l i m v o l u m e a p p e a r e d i n 1 9 8 1 a s C r e a t i n g a n I n t e g r a t e d  C u r r i c u l u m — T h e H i g h e r i n " H i g h e r " E d u c a t i o n . [ 9 2 j F i n a l l y , o n e r e c e n t v o l u m e w r i t t e n f r o m a n e x p l i c i t l y t h e o l o g i c a l v i e w p o i n t n e e d s l i s t i n g : T o w a r d a H a r m o n y o f F a i t h a n d  L e a r n i ng , e d i t e d by K e n n e t h 0 . G a n g e l i n 1 9 8 3 . [ 9 3 ] N u m e r o u s o t h e r a r t i c l e s a n d c h a p t e r s w i t h i n b o o k s m i g h t b e m e n t i o n e d b u t m o s t , l i k e t h e b o o k s n a m e d , c o n s i s t e n t l y f a l l s h o r t i n o n e a r e a o f c o n c e r n : r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o t h e way " i n t e g r a t i o n " w o r k s a s  c o n c e p t . T h e b o o k s n a m e d l a r g e l y c o n c e n t r a t e o n h i s t o r i e s o i n t e g r a t i o n , a t t e m p t s a t i n t e g r a t i o n , p r o b l e m s w i t h a n d r e a s o n s f o r i n t e g r a t i o n , b u t r e f l e c t i v e c o m m e n t s o n " i n t e g r a t i o n " a r e f e w . A n d , a s H o n g p o i n t s o u t , t h o r o u g h s t u d i e s o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " a r e r a r e . [ 9 4 ] T h e d i s t i n c t i o n - 34 -between i n t e g r a t i o n and " i n t e g r a t i o n " w h i c h i s i m p l i e d i n t h e t i t l e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s an i m p o r t a n t one f o r , w h i l e t h e r e a r e many d i s c u s s i o n s o f i n t e g r a t i o n , t h e r e a r e few o f " i n t e g r a t i o n . " T h r o u g h o u t t h i s s t u d y , r e f e r e n c e i s made t o t h e few e x t a n t d i s c u s s i o n s . To summarize and r e v i e w t h e ar g u m e n t s o f t h i s c h a p t e r , t h r e e a s p e c t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e p o i n t t o t h e need f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y o f t h e c o n c e p t " i n t e g r a t i o n . " F i r s t , i t i s an i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t , b o t h i n g e n e r a l usage and i n e d u c a t i o n a l u s a g e . T h i s i m p o r t a n c e i s d e m o n s t r a t e d by c o n c e r n a b o u t d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , by numerous c a l l s f o r i n t e g r a t i o n , and by f r e q u e n t a t t e m p t s t o d e s i g n o r imple m e n t i n t e g r a t i v e c u r r i c u l a . S e c o n d , " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s a c o n f u s i n g and ambiguous c o n c e p t . Though t h i s argument r e m a i n s i n c o m p l e t e u n t i l l a t e r i n t h e t h e s i s , i t i s n o n e t h e l e s s a l r e a d y c l e a r t h a t t h e t e r m e n g e n d e r s a good d e a l o f t r o u b l e i n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e . T h i r d , " i n t e g r a t i o n " has been t h e s u b j e c t o f l i t t l e r e f l e c t i o n . Many d i s c u s s i n t e g r a t i o n but few a t t e n d t o how " i n t e g r a t i o n " f u n c t i o n s as a c o n c e p t i n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e . H o r a c e M. K a l l e n , "The M e a n i n g s o f U n i t y Among t h e S c i e n c e s , " P h i l o s o p h y and P h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h 6 (J u n e 1946):493-95; see a l s o D a n i e l Ammen B r o o k s , The C o n c e p t o f - 35 -I n t e g r a t i o n ( P i t t s b u r g h : U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , 1942), pp. 9-31,38-104. ^ C h a r l e s L. S t e p h e n s o n , "The N a t u r e o f E t h i c a l D i s a g r e e m e n t , " i n R e a d i n g s i n P h i l o s o p h i c a l A n a l y s i s , e d. H e r b e r t F e i g l and W i l f r i d S e l l a r s (New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1 9 4 9 ) , p. 587. P..W. Musgrave,. " I n t e g r a t i o n and S o c i a l S c i e n c e , " E d u c a t i o n a l P h i l o s o p h y and T h e o r y 7,1 ( M a r c h 1975):32. ^ J o h n W i l s o n , T h i n k i n g W i t h C o n c e p t s ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , pp. 33-34. ^The c h o i c e t o r e c o u n t d e v e l o p m e n t s b e g i n n i n g more r e c e n t l y t h a n c l a s s i c a l G r e e k and Roman c u l t u r e i s made on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t c l a s s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s t r e a t e d more f u l l y t h a n i s p o s s i b l e h e r e i n W i l l i a m B a r c l a y , E d u c a t i o n a l I d e a l s  i n t h e A n c i e n t W o r l d ( L o n d o n : C o l l i n s , 1959); F r e d e r i c k A.G. Beck, Greek E d u c a t i o n ( L o n d o n : Methuen, 1964); and Howard Hong, e d . , I n t e g r a t i o n i n t h e C h r i s t i a n L i b e r a l A r t s C o l l e g e ( N o r t h f i e l d , M i n n e s o t a : S t . O l a f C o l l e g e P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) . ^From C h a p t e r 7 o f "The P r e s c r i p t i o n A g a i n s t H e r e t i c s , " c i t e d i n J.V. Langmead C a s s e r l y , The C h r i s t i a n i n  P h i l o s o p h y ( L o n d o n : F a b e r and F a b e r , 1949), pp. 21-22. 7 L e t t e r s , . x x i i , 29, c i t e d i n L e l a n d Ryken, T r i u m p h s o f  t h e I m a g i n a t i o n (Downers G r o v e : I n t e r - V a r i s t y P r e s s , 1 9 79). Q See, f o r example, Lev S h e s t o v , A t h e n s and J e r u s a l e m , t r a n s . B e r n a r d M a r t i n ( A t h e n s , O h i o : O h i o U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) . F o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s mood, see a l s o B a r c l a y ( p p . 192-223); C.S. L e w i s " C h r i s t i a n i t y and C u l t u r e , " i n C h r i s t i a n R e f l e c t i o n s ( G r a n d R a p i d s : Eerdmans, 1967), pp. 12-36; D o r o t h y L. S a y e r s , C h r i s t i a n L e t t e r s t o a  P o s t - C h r i s t i a n W orld ( G r a n d R a p i d s : Eerdmans, 1969). H. R i c h a r d N i e b u h r t r a c e s t h e " C h r i s t a g a i n s t c u l t u r e " i d e a f r o m the p a t r i s t i c p e r i o d t o t h e p r e s e n t day i n C h r i s t and  C u l t u r e (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, 1951), pp. 45-82. ^Hong, pp. 15-16. A l s o see G a b r i e l Compayre, A b e l a r d  and the O r i g i n and E a r l y H i s t o r y o f U n i v e r s i t i e s (New Y o r k : AMS P r e s s , 1969); C h a r l e s Homer H a s k i n s , The R i s e o f  U n i v e r s i t i e s ( I t h a c a : C o r n e l l , 1 9 2 3 ) ; E t i e n n e G i l s o n , The S p i r i t o f M e d i e v a l P h i l o s o p h y (New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r s , 1940); R a l p h M c l n e r n i , "Beyond t h e L i b e r a l i n The Seven L i b e r a l A r t s i n t h e M i d d l e Ages, ed . , D a v i d L. Wagner ( B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y 1 9 83), pp. 248-72. A r t s , " P r e s s , - 36 -i U S e e B e r n a r d T. R a t t i g a n , A C r i t i c a l S t u d y o f the  G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n Movement ( W a s h i n g t o n : C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y of A m e r i c a P r e s s , 1952), pp. 8-11. I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, some P r o t e s t a n t s a r e even w i l l i n g t o t a k e t h e blame ( o r c r e d i t ) f o r t h i s l o s s o f c o n t r o l . See M a r v i n K. M a y e r s , L a w r e n c e A. R i c h a r d s and R o b e r t Webber, R e s h a p i n g E v a n g e l i c a l  H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n ( G r a n d R a p i d s : Z o n d e r v a n , 1972), pp. 13-25. •'••''More d e t a i l s on t h e s e c h a n g e s a r e a v a i l a b l e i n Hong, pp. 17-36; D a n i e l T a n n e r , S e c o n d a r y C u r r i c u l u m (New Y.ork: M a c m i l l a n , 1971), pp. 40-83; Myron B. B l o y , J r . , "The B i b l i c a l C h a l l e n g e t o t h e Academy," C h r i s t i a n i t y and C r i s i s 34,2 ( F e b r u a r y 18, 1974):19-22; t h e " H a r v a r d R e p o r t , " G e n e r a l  E d u c a t i o n i n a F r e e S o c i e t y ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 5 ) , pp. 36-45; and C a r n e g i e F o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e Advancement o f T e a c h i n g , M i s s i o n s o f the C o l l e g e C u r r i c u l u m (San F r a n c i s c o : J o s s e y - B o s s , 1977), pp. 150-163. D.G. Tewksbury o f f e r s much more on t h e r e l i g i o u s o r i g i n s o f A m e r i c a n c o l l e g e s . See The F o u n d i n g o f A m e r i c a n  C o l l e g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s B e f o r e t h e C i v i l War (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a , 1932), c h a p t e r TT A C h r i s t i a n C r i t i q u e o f t h e I n t e r - V a r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 2 ) , i n f l u e n c e i n t h e u n i v e r s i t y A l s o see C h a r l e s H a b i b M a l i k , U n i v e r s i t y (Downers G r o v e : on t h e d e c l i n e o f C h r i s t i a n ( p p . 1 5 -32,70-84). l ^ M a x w e l l q u o t e d i n Edward A. C i c c o r i c o , " I n t e g r a t i o n i n the C u r r i c u l u m , " Main C u r r e n t s 27,2 (November-December 1970):60. l * C h a r l e s W. Knudsen, "What do E d u c a t o r s Mean by ' I n t e g r a t i o n ' ? " H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l Review 7 ( J a n u a r y 1937):16. 1 5 I b i d . , p. 16. 1 6 M o r e d e t a i l e d a p p r a i s a l o f t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y e d u c a t i o n a p p e a r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e t h e s i s : i n t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e p r e s e n t c h a p t e r ; i n t h e d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f " t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f f a i t h and l e a r n i n g " i n C h a p t e r V I ; and i n t h e b r i e f i n t r o d u c t o r y d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e v a r i o u s " c u r r i c u l a r a t t e m p t s " l i s t e d i n A p p e n d i x A. F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e f o r e g o i n g s u r v e y l e a v e s o f f w i t h t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . l ^ R i c h a r d P r i n g , Knowledge and S c h o o l i n g ( L o n d o n : Open Books, 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 100 ( h e r e a f t e r c a l l e d " P r i n g , 1 9 7 6 " ) . l ^ M o r e e d u c a t i o n a l w r i t e r s employ t h e s e two t e r m s t h a n any o t h e r s . See, f o r example, S i d n e y J . F r e n c h , " F o r e w o r d . " i n Hong ( e d . ) , p. v i i i ; P h i l i p H. P h e n i x , Realms o f Meaning (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1964), pp. 36-7; H a r r y S. B r o u d y , Joe - 37 -R. Burnett, and B. O t h a n i e l Smith, Democracy and E x c e l l e n c e  i n American Secondary Education (Chicago: Rand-McNally, 1963), p, 11; Alan R. Blackmer, ed., General Education i n  School and C o l l e g e (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1952), p. 31; Marcel B o i s o t , " D i s c i p l i n e and I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y , " i n I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y : Problems of  Teaching and Research i n U n i v e r s i t i e s , ed. Leo A p o s t e l et a l . (Washington: OECD Press, 1972), p. 89. ^ N o t e d by Richard P r i n g , "Curriculum I n t e g r a t i o n , " i n The Philosophy of E d u c a t i o n , ed. R.S. P e t e r s (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1973), pp. 123,126 ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as " P r i n g , 1973"). 20 Richard Charles W h i t f i e l d , D i s c i p l i n e s of the  C u r r i c u l u m (London: McGraw-Hill, 1971), pp. 214-215. ^ T h e o d o r e Hsi-En Chen, "Toward I n t e g r a t i o n , " J o u r n a l  of Higher E d u c a t i o n 12 (June 1941):308. Mentioned by Desmond Co n n e l l y , "On the I n t e g r a t i o n of School L e a r n i n g , " E d u c a t i o n  Canada 12,4 (December 1972):25. Alexander M e i k l e j o h n , The  L i b e r a l C o l l e g e (Boston: M a r s h a l l Jones, 1920), p. 49. 9 9 •^Troy Organ, "Philosophy as I n t e g r a t o r i n General E d u c a t i o n , " J o u r n a l of Higher E d u c a t i o n 21 (December 1950):478; E.V. Sayers, E d u c a t i o n a l Issues and U n i t y of  Experience (New York: Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia, 1929), p. 38. 2 3Hong, pp. 2,3,4,13,116-117,125. Goeffrey E s l a n d , "Teaching and L e a r n i n g as the O r g a n i z a t i o n of Knowledge," i n Knowledge and C o n t r o l , ed . Michael F.D. Young (London: C o l l i e r - M a c m i l l a n , 1971), p. 75; Arno A. B e l l a c k , "Knowledge S t r u c t u r e and the C u r r i c u l u m , " i n Education and the S t r u c t u r e of Knowledge, ed. S t a n l e y Elam (Chicago: Rand-McNally, 1964), p. 263; Algo D. Henderson, V i t a l i z i n g L i b e r a l Education (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1944); Robert May nard Hutchins, The Higher  Learning i n America (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1936), p. 14. A d d i t i o n a l complaints can be found i n the recent r e p o r t of the A s s o c i a t i o n of American C o l l e g e s ' P r o j e c t on R e d e f i n i n g the Meaning and Purpose of B a c c a l a u r e a t e Degrees [as r e p o r t e d i n The C h r o n i c l e of Higher Education 21,22 (February 13, 1985)]. The r e p o r t ' s authors employ such phrases as the f o l l o w i n g to express t h e i r dismay with contemporary American c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n : "unhappy d i s a r r a y " (p. 13), " c u r r i c u l a r i ncoherence" (p. 14), "an unending s e r i e s of d i s c r e t e e d u c a t i o n a l events" (p. 22). 9 S ^ A l f r e d North Whitehead, The Aims of Education - 38 -( L o n d o n : W i l l i a m s and N o r g a t e , 1 9 3 2 ) , p. 10. 2 6 ] ( a r l J a s p e r s , The P e r e n n i a l Scope o f P h i l o s o p h y (New Y o r k : P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1 9 4 9 ) , pp. 179-80; J o s e O r t e g a y G a s s e t , M i s s i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 4 ) , pp. 89-91, and R e v o l t o f t h e Masses (New Y o r k : N o r t o n , 1932), pp. 110-130. 2 7 P . 56. 28 R a c h e l S h a r p e , Knowledge, I d e o l o g y and t h e P o l i t i c s  o f S c h o o l i n g ( L o n d o n : RKP, 1 9 8 0 ) , p. 147. 29 C h a r i t y James, Young L i v e s a t S t a k e ( L o n d o n : C o l l i n s , 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 16. 3 0 H u t c h i n s , p. 94. 3 1 I b i d . , p. 95. J i E r n e s t L. B o y e r , " Q u a l i t y and t h e Campus: The H i g h S c h o o l / C o l l e g e C o n n e c t i o n , " C u r r e n t I s s u e s i n H i g h e r  E d u c a t i o n 24 (September 1 9 8 0 ) : 9 . 3 3 W i l l i a m O l i v e r S t a n l e y , E d u c a t i o n and S o c i a l  I n t e g r a t i o n (New Y o r k : T e a c h e r ' s C o l l e g e , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. v. 3 ^ C i t e d a b o v e . Mary Warnock c o r r e c t l y o b s e r v e s t h a t the "most r a d i c a l f o r m o f t h e a t t a c k [on s u b j e c t s ] i s t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l a r g u m e n t " and t h a t t h e b e s t known p r o p o n e n t s o f t h a t argument were i n c l u d e d i n Knowledge and C o n t r o l ; see S c h o o l s o f Thought ( L o n d o n : F a b e r and F a b e r , 1977), p. 106. 3 5 I b i d . 3 ^ M i c h a e l F.D. Young, " C u r r i c u l a , T e a c h i n g , and L e a r n i n g as the O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Knowledge" i n Knowledge and  C o n t r o l , p. 23. O "7 John White and M i c h a e l Young, "The S o c i o l o g y o f K n o w l e d g e , " E d u c a t i o n f o r T e a c h i n g 98 (Autumn 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 7. 3 ^ A l l e n B r e n t , "The S o c i o l o g y o f Knowledge and E p i s t e m o l o g y , " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s 23,2 ( 1 9 7 5 ) : 2 1 7 . 3 ^ D o u g l a s H o l l y , Beyond C u r r i c u l u m ( L o n d o n : H a r t - D a v i s , M a c G i bbon, 1 9 7 3 ) , p. 127. 4 0 P a u l H i r s t and R i c h a r d S. P e t e r s , The L o g i c o f  E d u c a t i o n ( L o n d o n : RKP, 1 9 7 0 ) , pp. 71-73. - 39 -4 1 N e l l K e d d i e , " C l a s s r o o m Knowledge," i n M.F.D. Young, p. 156. / 9 C u r r i c u l a , T e a c h i n g , and L e a r n i n g as t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Knowledge," p. 34. 4 3 P . 3. 4 4 G e o f f W h i t t y and M i c h a e l F.D. Young, E x p l o r a t i o n i n t h e P o l i t i c s o f S c h o o l Knowledge ( N a f f e r t o n , U.K.: N a f f e r t o n Books, 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 7. 4 ^ White and Young, p. 7. ^ B a s i l B e r n s t e i n , "On t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and F r a m i n g o f E d u c a t i o n a l E x p e r i e n c e , " i n M.F.D. Young, p. 47. 4 7 I b i d . , pp. 47-69. F o r f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e ' r e p r o d u c t i o n m e t a p h o r ' see J e a n Anyon, " S o c i a l C l a s s and S c h o o l K nowledge," C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y 11,1 ( 1 9 8 1 ) : 3 - 4 1 ; Thomas S. P o p k e w i t z " "The L a t e n t V a l u e s o f t h e D i s c i p l i n e - C e n t e r e d C u r r i c u l u m , " T h e o r y and R e s e a r c h i n  S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n 5,1 ( 1 9 7 7 ) : 4 1 - 6 0 ; D e n i s Lawton, " S o c i o l o g y , Knowledge, and t h e C u r r i c u l u m " i n C l a s s , C u l t u r e and t h e C u r r i c u l u m ( L o n d o n : RKP, 19 7 5 ) , pp. 52-69. 4 ^ Edwin E. A u b r e y , f o r example, a r g u e s t h a t s p e c i a l i z a t i o n l e a d s to " m u t u a l r e c r i m i n a t i o n " w i t h i n u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t i e s . " S c i e n t i a , S c i e n t i f i c Method, and R e l i g i o n , " i n L i b e r a l L e a r n i n g and R e l i g i o n , e d . Amos N. W i l d e r (New Yo r k : H a r p e r and B r o t h e r s , 1951), p. 31. W a l t e r M o b e r l y n o t e s t h a t new d i s c i p l i n e s - - " g a t e c r a s h e r s " — a r e v i e w e d w i t h s u s p i c i o n by t h o s e w i t h i n a d e p a r t m e n t a l Z i e t g e i s t . The C r i s i s i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y ( L o n d o n : SCM, 1949), p. 179. 49 D.W. Bolam, " I n t e g r a t i n g t h e C u r r i c u l u m : A Case S t u d y i n t h e H u m a n i t i e s , " P a e d a g o g i c a E u r o p a e a 6 ( 1 9 7 0 - 7 1 ) : 1 5 8 ; C a r l R. Hausman, " D i s c i p l i n e and I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y , " i n I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y and H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , ed. J o s e p h J . Koc k e l m a n s ( U n i v e r s i t y P a r k , P e n n s y l v a n i a : P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 2; M u z a f e r S h e r i f , " C r o s s d i s c i p l i n a r y C o - o r d i n a t i o n i n t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , " i n K o c k e l m a n s , pp. 177-223. H u t c h i n s , p.. 43; Hong, p. 125; see pp. 33-58 i n Hong f o r t h e f u l l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e S t . O l a f ' s f a c u l t y argument. ^ B e r n a r d M. Loomer, " R e l i g i o n and t h e Mind o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y , " i n W i l d e r , pp. 162-63. - 40 -52 C.P. Snow, The Two C u l t u r e s ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964), pp. 2-3. E . F . Schumacher a d d r e s s e s t h i s same m a t t e r i n t e r m s o f t h e c o n t r o l o f s c i e n c e by what he c a l l s "wisdom." See A G u i d e f o r t h e P e r p l e x e d ( T o r o n t o : F i t z h e n r y and W h i t e s i d e , 1977), pp. 50-56; S m a l l i s B e a u t i f u l ( L o n d o n : A b a c u s , 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 64-83. 53 Pamela McCorduck, "An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e H u m a n i t i e s w i t h P r o f e s s o r P t o l e m y , " The C h r o n i c l e o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n 11,20 ( F e b r u a r y 9, 1 976):32. 54 Snow, pp. 1,17. F o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e v i e w s o f Snow, see F r a n k Raymond L e a v i s , Two C u l t u r e s ? The S i g n i f i c a n c e of  C.P. Snow ( L o n d o n : C h a t t o and Windus, 1962); and C h a r l e s F e t h e , " C u r r i c u l u m T h e o r y : A P r o p o s a l f o r U n i t y , " E d u c a t i o n a l  T h e o r y 27 ( S p r i n g 1977):100-102. C h a r l e s A. B e a r d , The N a t u r e o f t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (New Y o r k : S c r i b n e r s , 1 9 3 4 ) , pp. 137-38. See a l s o O r t e g a y G a s s e t , R e v o l t o f t h e M a s s e s , p. 110, where he n o t e s t h a t t h o s e w i t h a " c u r i o s i t y f o r t h e g e n e r a l scheme o f k n o w l e d g e " a r e f r e q u e n t l y c r i t i c i z e d as d i l e t t a n t e s . 5 7 W h i t f i e l d , pp. 226-28; Hugh G. P e t r i e , "Do You See What I See: The E p i s t e r a o l o g y o f I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y I n q u i r y , " J o u r n a l o f A e s t h e t i c E d u c a t i o n 10 ( J a n u a r y 1976):33; F r e n c h , pp. v i i - x i ; W a l t e r R. L y n n , " I n t e g r a t i n g L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n i n E n g i n e e r i n g , " L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n 63,2 ( 1 9 77): 253-58 . See a l s o C l i v e Beck who c y n i c a l l y n o t e s t h a t i t "pays an a c a d e m i c t o d e v e l o p and d e f e n d a n a r r o w t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n d r e s s e d up i n an e x c l u s i v e t e c h n i c a l l a n g u a g e . In t h i s way he i s a b l e t o have h i s a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d . . . and a c q u i r e a band o f d i s c i p l e s " ( p . 8 ) , E d u c a t i o n a l P h i l o s o p h y and T h e o r y ( B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown, 1 9 7 4 ) . A l s o see h i s " E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s and t h e C u l t o f S p e c i a l i z a t i o n , " E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s 5 ( W i n t e r 1974):189-96. 5 8 John Henry C a r d i n a l Newman, The I d e a o f a U n i v e r s i t y ( L o n d o n : Longmans, G r e e n , 1917), D i s c o u r s e V I I , C h a p t e r 1 ( p . 134); R i c h a r d S. P e t e r s , E t h i c s and E d u c a t i o n ( L o n d o n : George A l l e n and Unwin, 1 9 6 6 ) , pp. 31-32,43-45. 59 E.C. L i n d e m a n , " I n t e g r a t i o n as an E d u c a t i o n a l C o n c e p t , " i n I n t e g r a t i o n : I t s M e a n i n g and A p p l i c a t i o n , ed. L e v i Thomas H o p k i n s (New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n C e n t u r y C r o f t s , 1 9 3 7 ) , p. 32. ^ Loomer c o i n s t h e word " p l u r i v e r s i t y " to e x p r e s s h i s - 41 -view t h a t t h e p e o p l e who make up t h e u n i v e r s i t y a l l o p e r a t e i n i s o l a t i o n f r o m e a c h o t h e r ( p p . 151 - 5 8 ) . " M u l t i v e r s i t y " i : K e r r , The Uses o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963), pp. 9-18,135-37; " I n t e g r a t i v e P r i n c i p l e s and t h e " Main C u r r e n t s 25 (May - June 1969):129; " I n t e g r a t i v e E d u c a t i o n f o r a 0 7 " T e a c h e r ' s C o l l e g e R e c o r d 67 (March 1966):392-95; F r a n c i s A. S c h a e f f e r , E s c a p e from Reason (Downers G r o v e , I l l i n o i s : I n t e r - V a r s i t y , 1 9 6 8 ) , pp. 30-79. borrowed f r o m C l a r k ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d A l a s t a i r M. T a y l o r , E d u c a t i o n a l P r o c e s s see a l s o Gene Wise, D i s i n t e g r a t e d W o r l d 61 62 Wise, p. 392. P h e n i x , p. 5. ^ C h a r l e s o f C u r r i c u l u m , " 1 9 5 4 ) : 8 5 . 64 H. C o n n e l l y , " I n t e g r a t i o n i n t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n S c h o o l and S o c i e t y 80 (September 18, A u b r e y , p. 31 65 L e s t e r H. D i x , P h i l o s o p h y , " T e a c h e r ' s 66 " I n t e g r a t i o n i n t h e L i n c o l n S c h o o l C o l l e g e R e c o r d 37 ( 1 9 3 6 ) : 3 6 5 - 6 6 . C i t e d by F. Eby and C. Ar r o w o o d , H i s t o r y and  P h i l o s o p h y of E d u c a t i o n : A n c i e n t and Modern (New Y o r k P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 67 1 9 4 0 ) , p. 551. John Dewey, The E d u c a t i o n a l S i t u a t i o n ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 0 2 ) , p. 89. 6 8 J a s p e r s , pp. 179-80. 69 John F. K e r r , "The P r o b l e m o f C u r r i c u l u m R e f o r m , " i n C h a n g i n g the C u r r i c u l u m ( L o n d o n : U n i v e r s i t y o f London P r e s s , 1968) D a v i s , p. 27 70 P a u l i n e G r a t z , I n t e g r a t e d S c i e n c e ( P h i l a d e l p h i a 1 9 6 6 ) , p- 4. 71 .M. R e i s e r , "The C o m m u n i c a t i o n o f I n t e g r a t e d C u r r e n t s 20 (November - December 1963):29. O l i v e r L Knowledge." Main 7 2 See f o r example, D. C o n n e l l y , p. 23; John D. C a r t e r and B r u c e N a r r a m o r e , I n t e g r a t i o n o f P s y c h o l o g y and T h e o l o g y ( G r a n d R a p i d s : Z o n d e r v a n , 1979), p. 13. T h i s s h o r t l i s t o f w r i t e r s who n o t e t h e p o p u l a r i t y of " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s e x t e n d e d i n C h a p t e r V, S e c t i o n A. 73 C i c c o r i c o , p. 60; Knudsen, pp. 15-16. - 42 -7 4 H o n g , p. 4. 7 5 D i x , p. 363. 76 K e n n e t h 0. G a n g e l , e d . , " P r e f a c e " i n Toward a Harmony  of F a i t h and L e a r n i n g ( F a r m i n g t o n H i l l s , M i c h i g a n : W i l l i a m T y n d a l e C o l l e g e P r e s s , 1983), p. v i i i . 7 7 K n u d s e n , pp. 15-16. 78 Pp. 21-22. 79w. H a r d i n Hughes, " S t r a i g h t and C r o o k e d T h i n k i n g About I n t e g r a t i o n , " N a t i o n s S c h o o l s 16 ( 1 9 3 5 ) : 2 7 - 2 8 , c i t e d i n Roger J o s e p h C o n n o l e , A S t u d y o f t h e C o n c e p t o f I n t e g r a t i o n  i n P r e s e n t - D a y C u r r i c u l u m - M a k i n g ( W a s h i n g t o n : C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y o f A m e r i c a P r e s s , 1937), p. 1. S^Hong, p. 4; Knudsen, pp. 15-16; L i n d e m a n , p. 21. 81 P a u l L. D r e s s e l , "The Meaning and S i g n i f i c a n c e o f I n t e g r a t i o n , " i n The I n t e g r a t i o n of E d u c a t i o n a l E x p e r i e n c e s , ( 5 7 t h Y e a r b o o k o f t h e NSSE, P a r t I I I ) , e d . N e l s o n B. Henry ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , pp. 77-8. 8 2 P r i n g , 1976, p. 103. 8 3 P . 31.. 8 4 D r e s s e l , p. 7. 85Hong, p. 117. 86 T h a t e x a m i n a t i o n o f u s a g e a p p e a r s as A p p e n d i x A, and t h u s t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s s e c o n d " c o n f u s i o n and a m b i g u i t y " argument must a w a i t i t s c o m p l e t i o n . C h a p t e r V and VI a l s o c o n t a i n much d i s c u s s i o n r e l e v a n t t o t h e c o n c e r n w i t h a m b i g u i t y and c o n f u s i o n . 8 7M . A r e a and M. V i c e n t i n i - M i s s o n i n o t e t h i s i n v e r s e p r o p o r t i o n between use and d i s c u s s i o n of " i n t e g r a t i o n . " See "A R e f l e c t i o n on some M e a n i n g s o f ' I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y ' and ' I n t e g r a t i o n ' Among t h e S c i e n c e s , " E u r o p e a n J o u r n a l of  S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n 3,2 ( A p r i l - June 1981):118. 8 8 H o n g , p. 5. 89 W a s h i n g t o n : C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y o f A m e r i c a P r e s s , 1950. 9 0 G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n ( 5 1 s t Y e a r b o o k o f t h e NSSE, p t . 1) - 43 -( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 5 2 ) . 91 L ondon: U n i v e r s i t y o f London, 1973 . 9 2 r l a r l a n C l e v e l a n d , Mary J i m J o s e p h s , John N i c h o l s , Susan G u r e w i t s c h . C u r r e n t I s s u e s i n H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n S e r i e s , 1981, #2 ( W a s h i n g t o n : A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 8 1 ) . 9 3 F a r m i n g t o n H i l l s , M i c h i g a n : W i l l i a m T y n d a l e C o l l e g e P r e s s . 9 4 E a r l i e r s t u d i e s may, i n p r i n c i p l e , be e x c u s e d f o r t h i s o m i s s i o n , as t h e p r o b l e m o f c o n f u s i o n and a m b i g u i t y was not as g r e a t when many o f t h e s e e a r l y s t u d i e s a p p e a r e d as i t i s a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . - 44 -CHAPTER•II PROCEDURE AND LIMITS I t m i g h t be t h o u g h t t h a t t h e o b v i o u s way o f b e g i n n i n g a s t u d y i n t h e p h i l o s o p h y of e d u c a t i o n would be t o f o r m u l a t e a d e f i n i t i o n . . . and t o see whether t h i s would f i t a l l e xamples . . . . To p r o c e e d i n t h i s way . . . would r e v e a l a c e r t a i n i n s e n s i t i v i t y to one o f t h e main c o n t e n t i o n s o f t h e r e c e n t ' r e v o l u t i o n i n p h i l o s o p h y ' . . . - R.S. P e t e r s , E t h i c s and E d u c a t i o n , p. 23. The o v e r a l l p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s was s t a t e d on page 3: t o d i s c o v e r w h ether t h e term " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s a u s e f u l e d u c a t i o n a l t e r m . C o n c e p t u a l c l a r i t y r e g a r d i n g " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s p r e r e q u i s i t e t o , and a l a r g e p a r t o f , any e v a l u a t i o n o f u t i l i t y . Such c l a r i t y i s w o r t h g a i n i n g i n i t s own r i g h t , b u t , as w e l l , i t w i l l f a c i l i t a t e f u r t h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p o p u l a r but p r o b l e m a t i c p h r a s e , " t h e i n t e g r a t i o n of f a i t h and l e a r n i n g . " H a v i n g two o b j e c t s i n view f o r t h e t h e s i s - - o n e n e c e s s a r i l y p r i o r t o t h e o t h e r — n e e d not .induce a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l n i g h t m a r e . L a t e i n t h e t h e s i s , when t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e key term " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s c o m p l e t e , t h e p h r a s e by which; " i n t e g r a t i o n " has made i t s way i n t o t h e l a n g u a g e o f C h r i s t i a n e d u c a t i o n w i l l be e x p l o r e d f u r t h e r . The f i n a l p o r t i o n ; o f t h a t e x p l o r a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f a d i r e c t answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n r a i s e d by t h e h y p o t h e s i s , t h e ' - 45 -• i , I ; | q u e s t i o n o f u t i l i t y . M e a n w h i l e t h e s t u d y w i l l p r o c e e d by e x a m i n i n g a b r o a d r a n g e o f a c t u a l o c c u r r e n c e s of " i n t e g r a t i o n " i n e d u c a t i o n a l l a n g u a g e . These u s e s , w h i c h a p p e a r i n A p p e n d i x A as p h r a s e s and s e n t e n c e s , i n most c a s e s a r e c i t e d o r p a r a p h r a s e d f r o m t h e i r o r i g i n a l s o u r c e s . The i n i t i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s e o c c u r e n c e s i n C h a p t e r I I I w i l l be a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r l o g i c a l f o r m o r s e n s e - - h o w a r e t h e p r o p o s e d c o n s t i t u e n t s s a i d t o be j o i n e d ? C h a p t e r I I I t h u s c o n t a i n s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e n t e n c e t y p e s o r s c h e m a t a . Two i m p o r t a n t d i r e c t i o n s o f e x p l o r a t i o n n a t u r a l l y f l o w f r o m t h e s c h e m a t i z a t i o n o f u s e s i n C h a p t e r I I I . The f i r s t t o be t r e a t e d h e r e w i l l c o n s i s t o f a t h o r o u g h a n s w e r , i n C h a p t e r I V , t o t h e q u e s t i o n " W i t h what does i n t e g r a t i o n have t o d o ? " T h a t i s : t h e q u e s t i o n of m e a n i n g . T h a t c h a p t e r w i l l e x a m i n e t h e f u n c t i o n o f o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s and p u r p o s e s as i n t e g r a t o r s , t h e n o t i o n s of a d e q u a c y and b r e a d t h , and t h e r e l a t i o n s b etween p a r t s and w h o l e s . C h a p t e r IV w i l l c o n c l u d e w i t h a r e v i e w of some d e f i n i t i o n s o f i n t e g r a t i o n o f f e r e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e . F o r two r e a s o n s , t h a t r e v i e w o f d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l a t t e n d e s p e c i a l l y t o t h e " l o c u s " o f i n t e g r a t i o n . F i r s t , one of t h e key d e b a t e q u e s t i o n s i n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e i s w h e t h e r i n t e g r a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e i n c u r r i c u l a o r i n p e o p l e . S e c o n d , a m b i g u i t y r e g a r d i n g t h e l o c u s o f i n t e g r a t i o n i s a p p a r e n t l y one of t h e c h i e f s o u r c e s - 46 -o f t h e c o n f u s i o n s u r r o u n d i n g " t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f f a i t h and l e a r n i n g . " The s e c o n d i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n f l o w i n g f r o m . t h e C h a p t e r I I I schemata of u s e s i s t h a t o f s o u r c e s o f c o n f u s i o n . C h a p t e r V w i l l c o n s i s t of d i s c u s s i o n s o f f i v e a s p e c t s o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " i n u s e : " i n t e g r a t i o n " as a p o s i t i v e t e r m , p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n n o t a t i o n s o f i n t e g r a t i o n , i n t e g r a t i o n as a p r o c e s s or a p r o d u c t , " i n t e g r a t i o n " as a p o l y m o r p h o u s t e r m , and t h e c o n c e p t / c o n c e p t i o n d i s t i n c t i o n a p p l i e d t o " i n t e g r a t i o n . " C h a p t e r VI examines " t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f f a i t h and l e a r n i n g " as a s p e c i f i c b u t t y p i c a l c a s e o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " g e n e r a t i n g p r o b l e m s i n u s e . The o r i g i n , h i s t o r y , and p r e s e n t r a n g e o f usage of t h e p h r a s e a r e exam i n e d , a l o n g w i t h i t s u t i l i t y i n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e . A. A NOTE ON LINGUISTIC METHOD The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y has been s t a t e d : t o examine a s p e c i f i c c o n c e p t t h a t i s w i d e l y used i n e d u c a t i o n a l w r i t i n g ; What do p e o p l e mean by " i n t e g r a t i o n " ? How does i t f u n c t i o n ? Why does i t g e n e r a t e c o n f u s i o n ? As a l r e a d y i n d i c a t e d , t h e a p p r o a c h t a k e n h e r e i n i s t h a t o f a c o n c e p t a n a l y s i s a l o n g t h e l i n e s a d v o c a t e d i n b r o a d o u t l i n e by W i t t g e n s t e i n and r e f i n e d and used s u c c e s s f u l l y i n v a r i o u s - 47 -f i e l d s o f s t u d y s i n c e . T h r e e q u e s t i o n s a r i s e w i t h r e g a r d t o c a r r y i n g o u t s u c h an a n a l y s i s i n an a t t e m p t to u n d e r s t a n d " i n t e g r a t i o n . " F i r s t , why s h o u l d t h i s a p p r o a c h be used? S e c o n d , t o what d e g r e e has t h i s a p p r o a c h been u s e d s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t h e p a s t ? T h i r d , what does t h i s a p p r o a c h e n t a i l ? 1 . Why a L i n g u i s t i c A n a l y s i s ? The p r o b l e m i s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e meaning o f a t e r m . Why i s a c o n c e p t a n a l y s i s t h e b e s t a p p r o a c h t o t h i s p r o b l e m ? " I n t e g r a t i o n " i s one o f t h a t c l a s s o f words t h a t has a l w a y s v e x e d p h i l o s o p h e r s . One o f t h e r e a s o n s some words have been p e r s i s t e n t l y v e x i n g i s m e n t i o n e d by W i t t g e n s t e i n i n The B l u e and Brown Books: The i d e a t h a t i n o r d e r t o g e t c l e a r a b o u t t h e meaning of a g e n e r a l term one had t o f i n d t h e common e l e m e n t i n a l l i t s a p p l i c a t i o n s has s h a c k l e d p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; f o r i t has n o t o n l y l e d t o no r e s u l t , but a l s o made t h e p h i l o s o p h e r d i s m i s s as i r r e l e v a n t t h e c o n c r e t e c a s e s , w h i c h a l o n e c o u l d have h e l p e d him t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e usage of t h e g e n e r a l t e r m . [ l ] As R.S. P e t e r s n o t e s , what W i t t g e n s t e i n p o i n t s o u t i n t h i s p a s s a g e . . . i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f t h e s o r t s o f terms i n whi c h p h i l o s o p h e r s a r e i n t e r e s t e d ; f o r t h e y a r e u s u a l l y v e r y g e n e r a l t e r m s , which have d e v e l o p e d a l i f e of t h e i r own i n a v a r i e t y of c o n t e x t s . They have s e l d o m been c o n s c i o u s l y e r e c t e d t o p e r f o r m a l i m i t e d f u n c t i o n i n a c o n f i n e d s y s t e m . [ 2 ] P e t e r s c o n t i n u e s by n o t i n g t h a t " e d u c a t i o n " i s "a c o n c e p t of - 48 -t h i s s o r t . " One wants t o add, so t o o i s " i n t e g r a t i o n . " [ 3 ] W i t t g e n s t e i n a r g u e d t h a t s u c h c o n c e p t s a r e e s p e c i a l l y r e s i s t a n t t o e x p l i c a t i o n i f t h e y a r e p u l l e d o u t o f t h e i r n a t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c c o n t e x t s and a n a l y z e d i j i v a c u o . I t i s t h e p h i l o s o p h e r ' s t a s k t o " b r i n g words back from t h e i r m e t a p h y s i c a l t o t h e i r e v e r y d a y u s e " and t h u s t o u n t a n g l e q u e s t i o n s o f m e a n i n g . [ 4 ] W h i l e " i n t e g r a t i o n " p e r h a p s does not r a n k i n i m p o r t a n c e w i t h t h e words W i t t g e n s t e i n had i n m i n d — w o r d s l i k e " k n o w l e d g e , " " b e i n g , " " I " and " n a m e " — t h e l e s s o n r e m a i n s f o r anyone w a n t i n g t o examine i t s meaning: do n o t remove i t f r o m usage e x p e c t i n g t h u s t o d i s c o v e r t h e e s s e n c e o f i t s meaning. To do s o , a c c o r d i n g t o W i t t g e n s t e i n , i s t o e n g e n d e r f u r t h e r c o n f u s i o n b e c a u s e t h e n t h e l a n g u a g e i s " l i k e an e n g i n e i d l i n g " r a t h e r t h a n one t h a t i s d o i n g work (#132).. I t i s l a n g u a g e on h o l i d a y ( # 3 8 ) . The p h i l o s o p h e r ' s aim i s " t o shew t h e f l y t h e way o u t o f t h e f l y - b o t t l e " (#309) and t o do so r e q u i r e s t h a t words be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l c o n t e x t s . W i t t g e n s t e i n o f f e r s a number o f c o n c e p t s and d i s t i n c t i o n s t o a i d i n s o l v i n g t h e p r o b l e m of t h e f l y c a u g h t i n t h e f l y - b o t t l e . The most i m p o r t a n t i s h i s o b s e r v a t i o n — i n t i m a t e d i n The B l u e and Brown Books c i t a t i o n a b o v e — t h a t " t h e meaning o f a word i s i t s use i n t h e l a n g u a g e " ( # 4 3 ) . T h i s i d e a , w h i c h has now a c h i e v e d s l o g a n s t a t u s , l i e s a t t h e h e a r t of W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s l a t e r work and b e a r s h e a v i l y on t h e - 49 -p r e s e n t c o n c e r n a b o u t " i n t e g r a t i o n . " I n t h e same p a r a g r a p h i n The P h i l o s o p h i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s f r o m w h i c h t h e above r e m a r k was c i t e d , W i t t g e n s t e i n makes a n o t h e r comment o f t e n m i s s e d by h i s r e a d e r s : t h a t s o m e t i m e s t h e m e a n i n g o f a word c a n be f o u n d by p o i n t i n g t o an o b j e c t , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e word " t r i a n g l e . " One w a n t s t o be m i n d f u l o f t h a t r e m a r k w h i c h so many o f W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s r e a d e r s have m i s s e d . B u t t h e p o i n t o f i n t e r e s t h e r e i s s t i l l t h a t " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s t h e s o r t o f word W i t t g e n s t e i n had i n mind when he w r o t e t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e p a r a g r a p h — a word d e m a n d i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f i t s c o n t e x t . A t no p o i n t does W i t t g e n s t e i n c l a i m t h a t a l l w o r d s ' m e a n i n g s a r e t h e i r u s e i n t h e l a n g u a g e ; he does c l a i m t h a t t h i s i s t h e c a s e f o r many words . W i t t g e n s t e i n o f f e r s two f u r t h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o a s t u d y s u c h as t h e p r e s e n t o n e. T h e s e a r e h i s n o t i o n s o f l a n g u a g e - g a m e s and o f f o r m s o f l i f e . By " l a n g u a g e - g a m e , " W i t t g e n s t e i n means t h o s e c o n t e x t s o r e n v i r o n m e n t s i n w h i c h l a n g u a g e i s u s e d and by w h i c h l a n g u a g e comes t o have m e a n i n g . He names a number o f e x a m p l e s o f s u c h games: r e a d i n g a p l a n o r d i a g r a m p l a y - a c t i n g g u e s s i n g p r a y i n g g r e e t i n g - 50 -c u r s i n g a s k i n g t h a n k i n g d e s c r i b i n g an o b j e c t g i v i n g o r d e r s r e p o r t i n g an e v e n t t e l l i n g j o k e s . ( # 2 3 ) He makes c l e a r t h a t t h e l i s t may be e x t e n d e d , and one t h i n k s o f e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e , or more s p e c i f i c a l l y , c u r r i c u l u m i n t e g r a t i o n d i s c o u r s e , as a language-game. H i s own d e f i n i t i o n of a game r u n s t h u s : " l a n g u a g e and t h e a c t i o n s i n t o w h i c h i t i s woven" ( # 7 ) . To u n d e r s t a n d " i n t e g r a t i o n , " on W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s a c c o u n t t h e n , w i l l r e q u i r e more t h a n e x a m i n i n g j u s t a word. As he s t a t e s l a t e r i n t h e I n v e s t i g a t i o n s . "One c a n n o t g u e s s how a. word f u n c t i o n s . One has t o look, a t i t s use and l e a r n f r o m t h a t " (#340, emphasis h i s ) . W i t t g e n s t e i n does n o t s t o p a t t h e n o t i o n o f a language-game; he p r o p o s e s t h a t one must a l s o l o o k a t t h e form o f l i f e t h a t g i v e s r i s e t o any p a r t i c u l a r language-game i f one wants to u n d e r s t a n d t h e l i n g u i s t i c c o n s t i t u e n t s o f t h a t game (#19). T o u l m i n d e s c r i b e s W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s n o t i o n o f a form o f l i f e as "a l a r g e r c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s " t h a n t h e language-game. He w r i t e s : . . . a l a n g u a g e game d e r i v e s i t s e f f e c t i v e p o i n t f r o m b e i n g g e a r e d i n t o o t h e r , n o n l i n g u i s t i c . a c t i v i t i e s . In t h e l a s t r e s o r t , t h e n , we s h a l l - 51 -u n d e r s t a n d t h e meaning o f an e x p r e s s i o n a r i g h t — a n d so be i n a p o s i t i o n t o g i v e an a d e q u a t e a n a l y s i s o f i t — o n l y i f we see i t i n t h e c o n t e x t , f i r s t , of t h e l a n g u a g e games by wh i c h t h e e x p r e s s i o n i s put t o use; and t h e n , of t h e forms of l i f e f r o m w h i c h t h e s e l a n g u a g e games d e r i v e t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . [ 5 ] A page l a t e r , T o u l m i n r e p e a t s h i s p o i n t t h a t t h e " u n i t of s i g n i f i c a n c e " f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e meaning o f terms i s " t h e o v e r a l l syndrome or c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f s t a n d a r d b e h a v i o r . " [ 6 ] In t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r o f t h i s s t u d y , b o t h W i l s o n and P r i n g were n o t e d f o r t h e i r h a v i n g p o i n t e d o u t t h a t e x a m i n i n g t h e s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , d i s c o v e r i n g t h e u n d e r l y i n g a n x i e t i e s , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s o r t s of p r o b l e m s w o r r y i n g p e o p l e a r e n e c e s s a r y i n g r e d i e n t s i n g r a p p l i n g w i t h t h e meanings o f d i f f i c u l t t e r m s . Though t h e y do n o t do so i n so many words, b o t h W i l s o n and P r i n g a r e r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t l anguage-games a r i s e i n c e r t a i n f orms o f l i f e and t h o s e forms o f l i f e must be e n c o u n t e r e d by anyone w a n t i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d a p r o b l e m term l i k e " i n t e g r a t i o n . " [ 7 ] 2. The Uses o f A n a l y s i s What has come t o be known as " l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s " has o f t e n , f r e q u e n t l y r i g h t l y , been c r i t i c i z e d f o r p a y i n g t o o l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p u r s u i t s and c o n c e r n s o f p h i l o s o p h y — e p i s t e m o l o g y , e t h i c s , a e s t h e t i c s , m e t a p h y s i c s and so o n — i n i t s s e a r c h f o r c l a r i t y i n l a n g u a g e . Even t h e h a r s h e s t c r i t i c s o f a n a l y t i c p h i l o s o p h y , however, admit t h a t p h i l o s o p h y and many o t h e r f i e l d s have r e a p e d b e n e f i t s b e c a u s e - 52 -of t h e e f f o r t s o f l i n g u i s t i c p h i l o s o p h e r s . L e i s e r , not a c r i t i c of a n a l y t i c p h i l o s o p h y , o f f e r s t h i s argument i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s s t u d y o f c u s t o m : T h i s a p p r o a c h has been e n o r m o u s l y f r u i t f u l i n a number of f i e l d s i n r e c e n t p h i l o s o p h y . Time a f t e r t i m e p h i l o s o p h e r s have f o u n d t h a t a n c i e n t p h i l o s o p h i c a l p u z z l e s have been s o l v e d when t h e c o n f u s i o n s c a u s e d by o v e r p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n s o f c o n c e p t s whose edges a r e more p r o p e r l y b l u r r e d were e x p o s e d f o r what t h e y were. No doubt many o f t h o s e d e f i n i t i o n s s e r v e d v e r y u s e f u l p u r p o s e s ; but many of them, b e c a u s e o f t h e i r a r t i f i c i a l i t y and b e c a u s e of t h e v i o l e n c e t h e y d i d t o l i n g u i s t i c u s a g e s , have t e n d e d t o c o n f u s e and o b s c u r e what m i g h t o t h e r w i s e have been r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r . [ 8 ] T h i s q u o t a t i o n i s n o t i n t e n d e d as a h i d d e n argument t h a t " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s a term t h a t "might o t h e r w i s e have been r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r , " t h o u g h i t i s d e f i n i t e l y c o n f u s e d and o b s c u r e d i n meaning. • The p o i n t i s s i m p l y t h a t a l i n g u i s t i c a p p r o a c h can u s u a l l y be o f s e r v i c e where c o n c e p t s a r e c o n f u s e d and ambiguous. S o l t i s a g r e e s w i t h L e i s e r ' s c l a i m r e g a r d i n g t h e u s e f u l n e s s of a n a l y s i s : . . . a n a l y s i s and w o r l d - v i e w making may work i n tandem. The t e c h n i q u e s o f a n a l y s i s may be used t o c l a r i f y and make more p r e c i s e and i n t e l l i g i b l e t h e b r o a d and c o m p r e h e n s i v e c o n c e p t s o f s y n o p t i c p h i l o s o p h i c s y s t e m s . [ 9 ] S h o r t l y a f t e r making t h i s remark, S o l t i s i n t r o d u c e s a metaphor o f a s c i e n t i s t who u s e s a m i c r o s c o p e and a n o t h e r who u s e s a t e l e s c o p e . One's e f f o r t s a r e s p e n t i n " c h a r t i n g t h e u n i v e r s e " and t h e o t h e r ' s i n d i s c o v e r i n g m i n u t e d e t a i l s o f s i n g l e o r g a n i s m s . Y e t , S o l t i s a r g u e s , t h e work o f t h e s e two i s n ot n e c e s s a r i l y i n o p p o s i t i o n and n e i t h e r i s t h e work o f - 53 -t h e l i n g u i s t i c p h i l o s o p h e r i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h a t of t h e p h i l o s o p h e r w i t h o t h e r i n t e r e s t s . He n o t e s t h a t . . .. t h e f r u i t f u l use o f one does not p r e c l u d e or deny t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e use o f t h e o t h e r ; nor does i t c a n c e l t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e y may be u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n o r i n some o t h e r c o m p l e m e n t a r y way.[10] T h i s a p p r o a c h t o " f i n d i n g t h e meaning of a t e r m " — t h a t i s , c l e a r i n g up c o n f u s i o n s u r r o u n d i n g t h e use of a t e r m — h a s been used s u c c e s s f u l l y i n many c o n t e x t s . L e i s e r ' s a n a l y s i s o f " c u s t o m " i s not t h e o n l y example from p h i l o s o p h y . H a r e ' s work The Language o f M o r a l s and Weldon's The V o c a b u l a r y o f P o l i t i c s a r e b o t h named by L e i s e r as examples o f s u c c e s s f u l a n a l y s e s o f p r o b l e m a t i c c o n c e p t s . [ 1 1 ] To name a n o t h e r f i e l d , T h i s e l t o n has u s e d t h e method f r u i t f u l l y i n B i b l i c a l h e r m e n e u t i c s . [ 1 2 ] A g r e a t number of examples come t o mind i n t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n . In t h e p a s t t w enty y e a r s e d u c a t o r s have s h a r p e n e d s u c h c e n t r a l n o t i o n s as " e d u c a t i o n , " " t e a c h i n g , " " l e a r n i n g , " " m a s t e r y " and many o t h e r c o n c e p t s t o o p l e n t i f u l t o enumerate h e r e . In E t h i c s and E d u c a t i o n ( a l r e a d y c i t e d h e r e i n ) , P e t e r s p r o v i d e s one of t h e c e n t r a l works i n t h e c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f " e d u c a t i o n . " In d o i n g s o , he employs a l i n g u i s t i c m e t h o d o l o g y . " I n t e g r a t i o n , " l i k e " e d u c a t i o n , " i s one o f t h o s e c o n c e p t s w i t h b l u r r e d edges t h a t , b e s i d e s n e e d i n g c l a r i f i c a t i o n , would be s u i t a b l y a p p r o a c h e d by means o f a l i n g u i s t i c m e t h o d o l o g y . - 54 -3. What i s E n t a i l e d i n A n a l y s i s ? The s a l i e n t f e a t u r e of a l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s of a term i s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f a c t u a l usage o f t h a t t e r m . The schemata t h a t a p p e a r i n C h a p t e r I I I , based as t h e y a r e on t h e s u r v e y o f usage i n A p p e n d i x A, a r e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f s u c h an e x a m i n a t i o n . H a v i n g g a t h e r e d a c t u a l u s e s o f a t e r m , one i s i n a p o s i t i o n t o f i n d o u t what t h e p e o p l e who use t h e te r m mean by i t . In t h e c a s e o f " i n t e g r a t i o n , " one w i l l a l s o be i n a p o s i t i o n t o f i n d o u t why s u c h c o n f u s i o n s u r r o u n d s t h e use o f t h e t e r m , and, f i n a l l y , how i t works i n " t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f f a i t h and l e a r n i n g . " T h i s a p p r o a c h a p p e a r s t o be s i m i l a r t o t h a t t a k e n by B r o o k s i n h i s e a r l i e r d i s s e r t a t i o n but i n f a c t i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . He began by r e p o r t i n g on d i c t i o n a r y u sage and t h e n gave t h e l a r g e s t p a r t o f h i s work o v e r t o d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t " i n t e g r a t i o n " was a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c e p t t h r o u g h o u t t h e h i s t o r y of W e s t e r n t h o u g h t i n most f i e l d s of i n t e r e s t . S i m i l a r i t y between h i s s t u d y and t h e p r e s e n t one i s t h u s m i n i m a l ; B r o o k s wanted t o s y n t h e s i z e h i s f i n d i n g s " i n t o a c o n s i s t e n t and h a r m o n i o u s c o n c e p t " and t h e n t o " s u g g e s t p o s s i b l e l i n e s o f a p p l i c a t i o n i n t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n . " [ 1 3 ] The p r e s e n t s t u d y i s ba s e d on t h e f i n d i n g t h a t t h e r e have been so many a p p l i c a t i o n s made o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " s i n c e B r o o k s ' t i m e t h a t l i t t l e c o n s i s t e n c y or harmony r e m a i n t o be had r e g a r d i n g t h e word's meaning. T h e r e may be a s i m i l a r i t y • o f - 55 -p u r p o s e between t h e p r e s e n t t h e s i s and t h a t of C o n n o l e , t h o u g h t h e r e i s a c l e a r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e . H i s a p p r o a c h t o usage i s t o sample " d e f i n i t i o n s o f i n t e g r a t i o n f o u n d i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f e d u c a t o r s " a t t h e t i m e o f w r i t i n g . [ 1 4 ] Such s a m p l i n g o f d e f i n i t i o n s i s but a s m a l l p a r t o f t h i s t h e s i s ( A p p e n d i x A ) ; more i m p o r t a n t h e r e a r e t h e s a m p l e s o f a c t u a l u s a g e . B. LIMITS F i v e main l i m i t s w i l l be i n e f f e c t t h r o u g h o u t t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The most i m p o r t a n t i s t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n or c u r r i c u l u m i n t e g r a t i o n , and, ; u l t i m a t e l y , i n t e g r a t i o n i n C h r i s t i a n e d u c a t i o n a r e of much g r e a t e r c o n c e r n h e r e t h a n o t h e r k i n d s o f i n t e g r a t i o n . T h i s i s n o t a s i m p l e m a t t e r s i n c e , as w i l l become c l e a r p r e s e n t l y , p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n and t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f knowledge b o t h a r e t h e c o n c e r n s o f e d u c a t o r s and a r e o f t e n i n t e r c o n n e c t e d w i t h c u r r i c u l a r u s e s o f t h e c o n c e p t . [ 1 5 ] D e s p i t e any o b v i o u s c o n n e c t i o n s t o t h e p r e s e n t subject;,i' o f n e c e s s i t y , t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f knowledge c a n n o t be a f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y . The s e c o n d l i m i t i s t h a t 1 p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n i s i • : o f g r e a t e r c o n c e r n i n t h i s s t u d y t h a n e i t h e r s e c o n d a r y or e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n . T h i s i s not a c r u c i a l m a t t e r , however, - 56 -s i n c e usage of t h e c o n c e p t i s not a l w a y s t i e d t o a s p e c i f i c l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n . The t h i r d l i m i t i s t h a t t h i s s t u d y w i l l n o t a t t e n d i n much d e t a i l t o u s e s o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " t h a t a r e r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r . C o n f u s i n g and ambiguous u s e s a r e more t h e c o n c e r n . " R a c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n " i n s c h o o l s , f o r example, n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g i t s s t a t u s as a d i v i s i v e p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l q u e s t i o n , i s not t h e s o u r c e o f s e m a n t i c p r o b l e m s . On t h e o t h e r hand, " t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f s c i e n c e and h u m a n i t i e s " i s t h o r o u g h l y p r o b l e m a t i c as r e g a r d s meaning. A few c u r r i c u l a r u s e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r , however. F o r example, t h e i n t e g r a t i o n of b o t a n y and z o o l o g y c o u r s e s t o y i e l d " b i o l o g y " i s p r o b l e m a t i c t o few. The p r e s e n t s t u d y w i l l f o c u s on more d i f f i c u l t u s e s . A f o u r t h l i m i t w h i c h i s t i e d t o t h e t h i r d i n v o l v e s t h a t group of p h r a s e s where " f a i t h , " " t h e o l o g y , " and " C h r i s t i a n i t y , " a r e u s e d . T h e s e u s e s a r e but a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f what one f i n d s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n . But " i n t e g r a t i o n " a p p e a r s i n a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t h e l a n g u a g e o f C h r i s t i a n e d u c a t i o n . Thus, what might a p p e a r t o be d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e a t t e n t i o n w i l l be g i v e n t o s u c h u s e s i n t h i s t h e s i s , e s p e c i a l l y t oward t h e end. F i f t h , t h i s s t u d y w i l l a v o i d e n t a n g l e m e n t w i t h n o t i o n s o f i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y e x c e p t i n t h o s e c a s e s where i t has s u f f i c i e n t b e a r i n g on i n t e g r a t i o n t o w a r r a n t m e n t i o n . - 57 -F r e q u e n t l y , c u r r i c u l u m p r o p o s a l s l a b e l e d " i n t e g r a t i v e , " or r e p o r t e d t o f o s t e r i n t e g r a t i o n a l s o e n t a i l i n t e r d i s c i p l i n -a r i t y ( o r " t r a n s - , " "non-," a - , " " m u l t i - , " " c r o s s - d i s c i p l i n -a r i t y " ) . T h i s f a m i l y o f words g e n e r a t e s i t s own s h a r e o f c o n f u s i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e . I t i s not w i t h i n t h e sc o p e of t h i s s t u d y t o examine t h i s a d d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t i n d e p t h . I n s t e a d , t h i s s t u d y w i l l s i m p l y r e p o r t t h a t c a s e s l i s t e d a r e c l a i m e d t o be examples of or a t t e m p t s a t i n t e g r a t i o n , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r a l l e g e d s t a t u s w i t h r e g a r d t o i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y . I t m i g h t be a r g u e d t h a t i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y as a whole i s an example o f a t t e m p t i n g t o b r i n g e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n . K a v a l o s k i does j u s t t h i s . He w r i t e s t h a t . . . i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y e d u c a t i o n aims a t b e i n g an i n t r i n s i c a l l y i n t e g r a t i v e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r the s t u d e n t ; i . e . , . e n c o u r a g e s t h e s t u d e n t t o p e r c e i v e t h e v a r i o u s components o f human knowledge w i t h i n some l a r g e r h o l i s t i c f ramework. He t h e n q u o t e s K o c k e l m a n s from "Why I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y ? " t o th e e f f e c t t h a t i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y aims a t " c o n t r i b u t i n g t o th e r e s t o r a t i o n of t h e u n i t y of t h e s c i e n c e s , and i n t h e l o n g ,'ihun, t o t h e u n i t y of our w o r l d v i e w . " [ 1 6 ] In w r i t i n g t h u s , i 'i " ; i f C a v a l o s k i p r e s e n t s t h e u s u a l l y - a c c e p t e d p l a c e m e n t of i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y v i s - a - v i s i n t e g r a t i o n . O t h e r j 1 d i s c u s s i o n s , w h i c h need o n l y be n o t e d , f o l l o w t h e same l i n e s j • ; as h i s . [ 1 7 ] A n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s t r e n d i s Thompson, who i d e n t i f i e s t h e two: i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r -! - 58 -i t y . [ 1 8 ] Much f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n s of i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y a r e p r o v i d e d i n two books c i t e d a t t h e c l o s e o f t h e i n i t i a l c h a p t e r , t h o s e e d i t e d by K o c k e l m a n s , and by A p o s t l e e t a l , b o t h e n t i t l e d I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y . F i n a l l y , a number o f f u r t h e r comments a b o u t t h e u s e s p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I I I and t h e l i s t i n g o f A p p e n d i x A a r e w a r r a n t e d b e f o r e p r e s e n t i n g them. F i r s t , w h i l e t h e l i s t i s no t e x h a u s t i v e i t i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . T h o u s a n d s o f c u r r i c u l a r e xamples might be c i t e d i n a l l i f a c o m p l e t e l i s t o f usage were t h e o b j e c t . To d e v e l o p s u c h a l i s t i s a r g u a b l y n ot w o r t h w h i l e . S e c o n d , t h e examples t h a t a r e c i t e d a r e p r e s e n t e d i n a somewhat c l a s s i f i e d f a s h i o n . Many d i f f e r e n t s c h emata a r e a v a i l a b l e t o c l a s s i f y t h e u s e s o f " i n t e g r a t i o n . " The s y s t e m used h e r e i s b a s e d r o u g h l y on t h e l o g i c of each use of " i n t e g r a t i o n " o r t h e t y p e o f j o i n i n g i m p l i e d or r e p o r t e d . P a r t A l i s t s f o u r common u s e s ( s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , and numerous o r d i n a r y l a n g u a g e u s e s ) and t h r e e s p e c i f i c a l l y e d u c a t i o n a l u s e s ( h o r i z o n t a l , v e r t i c a l , p r a c t i c a l ) . P a r t s B and C t r e a t " f u s i o n " and " i n c o r p o r a t i o n " s e n s e s (where two or more t h i n g s a r e j o i n e d ) . P a r t D l i s t s v a r i o u s themes, t o p i c s , p r o j e c t s and p r o b l e m s as a t t e m p t s t o b r i n g a b o u t i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h i n c u r r i c u l a . P a r t E d e a l s w i t h c o r r e l a t i o n (where s u b j e c t and d i s c i p l i n e d i s t i n c t i o n s r e m a i n b ut c o n n e c t i o n s between f i e l d s a r e made). A number o f k i n d s of i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y - 59 -" b o r r o w i n g " a r e m e n t i o n e d i n P a r t F. P a r t G d e a l s w i t h t h a t c l a s s o f u s e s of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h i s s t u d y , t h o s e u s e s , where t h e o l o g y , f a i t h , o r r e l i g i o n a r e s a i d t o be " i n t e g r a t e d " w i t h some d i s c i p l i n e or a c t i v i t y . The b u l k of A p p e n d i x A i s r e d u c e d i n C h a p t e r I I I by means o f a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a few s e n t e n c e s c h e m a t a . The s i m p l e r , and w i d e r c a t e g o r i e s o f C h a p t e r I I I f a c i l i t a t e q u i c k movement i n t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w i n C h a p t e r s IV, V, and V I . T h i r d , n o t a l l t h e examples of usage a p p e a r i n g i n A p p e n d i x A or C h a p t e r I I I c o n t a i n t h e word " i n t e g r a t i o n " or a c o g n a t e t h e r e o f . A l l examples do, however, o c c u r i n c o n t e x t s where i n t e g r a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d , i m p l i e d , p r o m i s e d as an outcome, o r o t h e r w i s e s a i d t o be i n v o l v e d . In l i g h t o f t h i s , n o t a l l t h e s t a t e m e n t s t h a t a p p e a r a r e a c t u a l q u o t a t i o n s f r o m s o u r c e s ; a few a r e summaries or c a p s u l e e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e t y p e o f i n t e g r a t i o n b e i n g c l a i m e d or a d v o c a t e d i n any g i v e n s o u r c e . B r o o k s , i n h i s 1942 d i s s e r t a t i o n , n o t e d t h i s l i m i t as w e l l , c i t i n g t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f " f i n d i n g numerous q u o t a t i o n s f r o m e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c u s s i o n s w h i c h use t h e p r e c i s e term ' i n t e g r a t i o n ' . " [ 1 9 ] W h i l e i t i s much e a s i e r to f i n d s u c h u s e s f o r t y y e a r s l a t e r , t h e " f a c t o r o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " B r o o k s c o n c l u d e d was n e c e s s a r y w i l l a l s o be a f a c t o r h e r e i n a t some p o i n t s . F o u r t h , t h e f o l l o w i n g e x amples, even t h o u g h t h e y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n r o u g h l y c l a s s i f i e d f o r m , s h o u l d n ot be t a k e n t o - 60 -r e p r e s e n t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s . T h e r e a r e many o v e r l a p s and p o i n t s o f i n t e r s e c t i o n between t h e t y p e s l i s t e d . F i n a l l y , even b e f o r e commencing the s c hemata o f u s e s , one n o t e needs t o be made ab o u t t h e term " i n t e g r a t i o n . " T h i s t e r m has been t a k e n by some to r e f e r t o narrow c u r r i c u l a r p r o p o s a l s w h i c h most o t h e r w r i t e r s c a l l by some o t h e r more s p e c i f i c name t h a n " i n t e g r a t i o n . " Weeks, f o r example, w h i l e r e c o g n i z i n g t h e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , wide use of " i n t e g r a t i o n , " w i s h e s t o r e s e r v e t h e word f o r a t t e m p t s t o i n t e g r a t e t h e e n t i r e c u r r i c u l u m . A n y t h i n g l e s s t h a n t h a t , she c a l l s " c o r r e l a t i o n . " [ 2 0 ] T h r o u g h o u t t h e s c hemata i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r and t h e l i s t i n A p p e n d i x A, (and i n d e e d , t h r o u g h o u t most of t h e t h e s i s ) " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s used i n i t s g e n e r a l , u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , w i d e s t s e n s e . To do so i s not as c a r e l e s s as i t a t f i r s t may a p p e a r ; one needs t o use one word or a n o t h e r u n t i l some work of c l a r i f i c a t i o n i s c o m p l e t e . E v e n t u a l l y , more p r e c i s e usage w i l l be p o s s i b l e . I f n o t , a t l e a s t t h o s e u s i n g " i n t e g r a t i o n " can be more i n f o r m e d as t o i t s l i m i t a t i o n s and w e a k n e s s e s . Ludwig W i t t g e n s t e i n , The B l u e and Brown Books (New Y o r k : H a r p e r , 1965), pp. 19-20. ^ E t h i c s , p., 23. 3 F a i l u r e t o n o t i c e t h i s f e a t u r e o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " may, i n f a c t , have l e d some e a r l i e r s t u d i e s o f i n t e g r a t i o n o f f t h e t r a c k . - 61 -4 Ludwig W i t t g e n s t e i n , The P h i l o s o p h i c a l  I n v e s t i g a t i o n s , t r a n s . G.E.M. Anscombe (New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1953)-, p a r a g r a p h #116. T e x t n o t a t i o n i n t h e form "#116" i s used t h r o u g h t h e r e m a i n d e r of t h i s s e c t i o n . S t e p h e n T o u l m i n , " C o n c e p t s and t h e E x p l a n a t i o n o f Human B e h a v i o r , " i n Human A c t i o n , e d . T h e o d o r e M i s c h e l (New Y o r k : Academic P r e s s , 1969), p. 74. G.P. Baker and P.M.S. H a c k e r , i n agreement w i t h T o u l m i n , c a l l a f o r m o f l i f e a " p a t t e r n o f a c t i v i t y " ( p . 136).. W i t t g e n s t e i n : U n d e r s t a n d i n g  and Meaning ( O x f o r d : B l a c k w e l l , 1 9 80). 6 :P. 75. W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s d i s t i n c t i o n between " s u r f a c e grammar" (what i s u s u a l l y known as grammar) and " d e p t h grammar" a l s o r e l a t e s t o t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between a language-game and a form of l i f e ( # 6 64). F o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f l a n g u a g e games and forms o f l i f e , see t h e f o l l o w i n g : Max B l a c k , " L e b e n s f o r m and S p r a c h s p i e l i n W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s L a t e r Work," i n W i t t g e n s t e i n  and H i s Impact on C o n t e m p o r a r y T h o u g h t , e d . E l i s a b e t h L e i n f e l l n e r , Werner L e i n f e l l n e r , A d o l f Hubner, and H a l B e r g h e l ( V i e n n a : H o l d e r , P i c h l e r , Tempsky, 1978), pp. 325-31; J.F.M. H u n t e r , "Forms of L i f e i n W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s P h i l o s o p h i c a l  I n v e s t i g a t i o n s , " i n E s s a y s on W i t t g e n s t e i n , e d. E.D. Klemke ( U r b a n a : U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1971), pp. 273-97; W i l l i a m Warren B a r t l e y , W i t t g e n s t e i n (New Y o r k : L i p p e n c o t t , 1973), pp. 170-73; D a l l a s H i g h , Language, P e r s o n s , and B e l i e f (New Y o r k : O x f o r d , 1967), pp. 99-130; Norman M a l c o l m , " W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s P h i l o s o p h i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s , " i n W i t t g e n s t e i n , e d. George P i t c h e r ( S o u t h Bend: U n i v e r s i t y o f N o t r e Dame P r e s s , 1966), pp. 65-103; P.F. S t r a w s o n , "Review of W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s P h i l o s o p h i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s , " i n P i t c h e r , e d . , pp. 22-64; Anthony Kenny, W i t t g e n s t e i n ( L o n d o n : P e n g u i n , 1973), pp. 159-77. 8 B u r t o n M. L e i s e r , Custom, Law and M o r a l i t y ( G a r d e n C i t y , New Y o r k : A n c h o r - D o u b l e d a y , 1969), p. 8. 9 J o n a s F. S o l t i s , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e A n a l y s i s o f  E d u c a t i o n a l C o n c e p t s ( R e a d i n g , Mass.: A d d i s o n - W e s l e y , 1968), p. 82. 10 S o l t i s , p. 83. 11 L e i s e r , pp. 8-9. The Language o f M o r a l s ( O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 64). The V o c a b u l a r y o f P o l i t i c s (Hammondsworth, U.K.: P e n g u i n , 1 9 5 5 ) . 12 Anthony C. T h i s e l t o n , The Two H o r i z o n s ( G r a n d R a p i d s : - 62 -Eerdmans, 1980), see e s p e c i a l l y pp. 407-15. 1 3 P . v i i . 14 C o n n o l e , p. i x . One wants a l s o t o n o t e t h a t C o n n o l e ' s i n t e r e s t was i n a movement, not a c o n c e p t , and t h a t f i f t y y e a r s have p a s s e d s i n c e he w r o t e h i s t h e s i s . ^ S u c h s t u d i e s o f t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f knowledge as t h e f o l l o w i n g w a r r a n t m e n t i o n : O l i v e r L. R e i s e r , The I n t e g r a t i o n  o f Human Knowledge ( B o s t o n : S a r g e n t , 1958); W i l l i a m O l i v e r M a r t i n , The O r d e r and I n t e g r a t i o n o f Knowledge (Ann A r b o r : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) . N e i t h e r of t h e s e volumes d i s p l a y s any i n t e r e s t i n e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n ( a s i t i n v o l v e s t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g a t l e a s t ) . Thus, i n l i m i t i n g t h e i r f o c u s s o l e l y t o e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n , t h e y a r e n o t m e n t i o n e d a g a i n h e r e i n . 16 V i n c e n t C. K a v a l o s k i , " I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y E d u c a t i o n and H u m a n i s t i c A s p i r a t i o n , " i n K o c k e l m a n s , p. 224. 17 W h i t f i e l d , p. 227; C. James ( t h r o u g h o u t ) ; W o l f r a m W. Swoboda, " D i s c i p l i n e s and I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y , " i n K o c k e l m a n s , pp. 49-92; J e a n P i a g e t , "The E p i s t e m o l o g y of I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y R e l a t i o n s h i p s , " i n A p o s t e l e t a l , pp. 127-39. 18 G l e n n S. Thompson, " I n t e g r a t i o n Works," C l e a r i n g  House 15 ( 1 9 4 0 ) : 2 2 6 - 2 8 . ^ B r o o k s , p. v i i i . 20 Ruth Mary Weeks, "A C o r r e l a t e d C u r r i c u l u m " (Monograph #5 of t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f T e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h ) (New Y o r k : D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y , 1936), p. 5. - 63 -CHAPTER I I I LOGICAL SCHEMATA OF "INTEGRATION" " T h e r e ' s g l o r y f o r y o u . " " I d o n ' t know what you mean by ' g l o r y , ' " A l i c e s a i d . Humpty Dumpty s m i l e d c o n t e m p t u o u s l y . "Of c o u r s e you d o n ' t - - t i l l I t e l l y ou. I meant ' t h e r e ' s a n i c e knock-down argument f o r y o u ' . " "But g l o r y d o e s n ' t mean 'a n i c e knock-down argument,'" A l i c e o b j e c t e d . "When I use a word," Humpty Dumpty s a i d , i n r a t h e r a s c o r n f u l t o n e , " i t means j u s t what I c h o o s e i t t o m e a n — n e i t h e r more nor l e s s . " "The q u e s t i o n i s , " s a i d A l i c e , "whether you can make words mean so many t h i n g s . " - C a r r o l l , T h r o u g h t h e L o o k i n g G l a s s : , C h. 6. Most e d u c a t i o n a l u s e s o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " can be s c h e m a t i z e d i n t o a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number of f o r m s . The s i m p l e s t r e d u c t i o n — t o a s i n g l e l o g i c a l f o r m — i s t h i s : [ I n t e g r a t i o n e n t a i l s t h e j o i n i n g o f ] A + B. W h i l e t h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s a c c u r a t e i n a g e n e r a l way f o r many u s e s o f i n t e g r a t i o n , as s u c h a s i m p l e r e d u c t i o n i t has two w e a k n e s s e s : f i r s t , i t l o o k s l i k e an a t t e m p t t o p i n p o i n t some k i n d of e s s e n t i a l or common meaning s h a r e d by a l l u s e s of t h e w o rd--the v e r y t h i n g W i t t g e n s t e i n warned a b o u t ; s e c o n d , i t does l i t t l e t o c l a r i f y t h e s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s s u r r o u n d i n g many of t h e e d u c a t i o n a l u s e s o f " i n t e g r a t i o n . " - 64 -I t i s t h u s n e c e s s a r y to d e v i s e s l i g h t l y more p r e c i s e s c h e m a t a . A s u r v e y of u s e s of " i n t e g r a t i o n " s u c h as t h a t a p p e a r i n g as A p p e n d i x A i n d i c a t e s t h e e x i s t e n c e of a t l e a s t f o u r d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e , i f sometimes o v e r l a p p i n g , c l a s s e s of a l l e g e d e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n : i n c o r p o r a t i o n , f u s i o n , c o r r e l a t i o n , d i a l o g i c a l . In what f o l l o w s , t h e s e f o u r c l a s s e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n l o g i c a l f o r m , b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d i n t u r n , and i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h e x a m p l e s . A. FUSION The g e n e r a l l o g i c a l f o r m of f u s i o n i n t e g r a t i o n p r o p o s a l s i s as f o l l o w s : A + [ i s f u s e d w i t h ] B = [and r e s u l t s i n ] C. Used i n t h i s way, " f u s i o n " means t h a t two ( o r more) e l e m e n t s f l o w or mesh t o g e t h e r t o become one new e n t i t y . [ 1 ] On f i r s t b l u s h , t h e o r i g i n a l e l e m e n t s must l o s e t h e i r i d e n t i t y . A c t u a l a t t e m p t s a t i n t e g r a t i o n show t h a t t h i s i s not a l w a y s t h e c a s e . T h e r e f o r e , a s e c o n d schema i s p r e s e n t e d , w h i c h a t t e n d s t o t h e f a c t t h a t i n many f u s i o n a t t e m p t s A and B r e t a i n some of t h e i r o r i g i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h u s r e m a i n c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z a b l e f o l l o w i n g f u s i o n : A + B = AB. When " f u s i o n " i s used i n t h i s way, i t a l l o w s more e x p l i c i t l y t h a t f u s e d e l e m e n t s may r e t a i n i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . - 6 5 -A number of c o n d i t i o n s a p p l y t o f u s i o n i n t e g r a t i o n : 1. A and B a r e u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d (by t h e makers o f any g i v e n c u r r i c u l u m p r o p o s a l ) t o be of r o u g h l y e q u a l i m p o r t a n c e . 2. A and B a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y , t h o u g h t h e y a r e t y p i c a l l y , l o g i c a l l y s i m i l a r . In t h e c a s e of c u r r i c u l u m i n t e g r a t i o n p r o p o s a l s , t h i s i m p l i e s t h a t A and B a r e o f t e n from s i m i l a r f o r m s o f k n o w l e d g e . [ 2 ] 3. A c o r o l l a r y o f t h e f i r s t c o n d i t i o n i s t h a t p r o p o s a l s t o i n t e g r a t e t h i n g s t h a t a r e n o t l o g i c a l l y s i m i l a r a r e l e s s c l e a r as t o how t h e two e l e m e n t s a r e t o be j o i n e d . 4. The number o f c o n s t i t u e n t s i s f r e q u e n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n two. T h u s , t h e f o r m A + B + C + D . . . . i s n o t u n u s u a l i n f u s i o n i n t e g r a t i o n p r o p o s a l s . 5. Such f u s i o n may o c c u r a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . [ 3 ] T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d by means of r e f e r e n c e t o c a s e s . P r o p o s a l s f o r i n t e g r a t e d s c i e n c e u s u a l l y i n v o l v e t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f b i o l o g y , c h e m i s t r y , and p h y s i c s ( A p p e n d i x A, # 8 c ) . T h a t t h e s e t h r e e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s a r e a l l p a r t of t h e same form of knowledge i s d e b a t e d by a l m o s t no one. F u r t h e r , few q u e s t i o n t h a t t h e t h r e e have been s u c c e s s f u l l y f u s e d i n v a r i o u s c u r r i c u l u m o f f e r i n g s ( a s " g e n e r a l s c i e n c e , " " i n t e g r a t e d s c i e n c e , " and so o n ) . T h u s , w h i l e e l e m e n t s s u c h as g e o l o g y and a s t r o n o m y might be added, i t i s s a f e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t a model c a s e of f u s i o n - 66 -i n t e g r a t i o n i s : B i o l o g y + C h e m i s t r y + P h y s i c s = S c i e n c e . T h i s c a s e i l l u s t r a t e s two o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s named above: t h e f u s e d e l e m e n t s a r e l o g i c a l l y s i m i l a r (#2) and more t h a n two e l e m e n t s a r e i n v o l v e d ( # 4 ) . R e g a r d i n g t h e f i f t h c o n d i t i o n named, t h e f u s i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e a r e a s o f s c i e n t i f i c e n d e a v o r to f o r m i n t e g r a t e d s c i e n c e i l l u s t r a t e s a h i g h e r l e v e l o f i n t e g r a t i o n t h a n , f o r example, t h e f u s i o n o f b o t a n y and z o o l o g y t o y i e l d b i o l o g y . The a b s e n c e o f t h e s e c o n d c o n d i t i o n ( t h a t A and B a r e u s u a l l y of t h e same l o g i c a l form) i s i l l u s t r a t e d by p r o p o s a l s s u c h as t h o s e f o r t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e and e x p r e s s i v e a r t s (#9f),. s c i e n c e and l a n g u a g e a r t s (#9g), or f a i t h and l e a r n i n g ( # 4 3 a ) . One wonders i m m e d i a t e l y what i s meant by su c h p r o p o s a l s : "How a r e A and B t o be j o i n e d when t h e y a r e so d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r a l l y ? " W h i l e s u c h p r o p o s a l s meet t h e i n i t i a l c o n d i t i o n — n e i t h e r i s i m p l i e d as b e i n g more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e o t h e r — w h y and how t h e two e l e m e n t s i n each c a s e a r e t o be f u s e d i s n o t c l e a r . P e r h a p s t h o s e making the p r o p o s a l d e s i r e t o a c c o m p l i s h two p e d a g o g i c a l ends t h r o u g h a s i n g l e a c t i v i t y . I f s u c h a d e s i r e i s b e h i n d t h e s e p r o p o s a l s , t h e n one m i g h t want t o a p p l y a t a s k - a c h i e v e m e n t a n a l y s i s as a means o f a n s w e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n whether o r not s u c h a t t e m p t s a r e , or even can be, i n t e g r a t i v e . F o r t h e moment, s i m p l y n o t i n g t h i s d i f f i c u l t y w i t h s u c h p r o p o s a l s - 67 -must s u f f i c e ; i n C h a p t e r V and V I , s u c h v a r i a t i o n s from p a r a d i g m c a s e s o f f u s i o n w i l l be examined f u r t h e r . W i t h o u t i m p l y i n g a n y t h i n g a b o u t e i t h e r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o r t h e a d v i s a b i l i t y o f f u s i n g t h e r e s p e c t i v e e l e m e n t s , a number o f o t h e r p r o p o s a l s f r o m A p p e n d i x A t h a t t a k e t h e form o f f u s i o n i n t e g r a t i o n f o l l o w : #9b H e a l t h e d u c a t i o n + h e a l t h c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n . #9h S o c i a l s t u d i e s + E n g l i s h . #91 A r t + home e c o n o m i c s + music + i n d u s t r i a l a r t s . #10 H i g h s c h o o l + c o l l e g e . W h i l e i n c l u s i o n h e r e or i n A p p e n d i x A does not i m p l y t h a t any o f t h e s e c o m b i n a t i o n s can be f u s e d s u c c e s s f u l l y , e a c h o f t h e s e examples does s e r v e t o i l l u s t r a t e f u r t h e r t h o s e c o n d i t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f f u s i o n p r o p o s a l s n o t e d i n t h e f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n . B. INCORPORATION P r o p o s a l s f o r i n c o r p o r a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n g e n e r a l l y t a k e t h i s f o r m : , A i s i n c o r p o r a t e d I n t o B. I n c o r p o r a t i o n may be t h o u g h t o f as a f o r m o f i n t e g r a t i o n s e p a r a t e f r o m f u s i o n or s i m p l y as a s u b s e t o f f u s i o n , f o r i t does e n t a i l a f u s i n g o f i t h e c o n s t i t u e n t e l e m e n t s . What s e t s i t a p a r t f r o m a p a r a d i g m c a s e o f f u s i o n i s t h a t i n c o r p o r a t i o n - 68 -seems t o i m p l y t h a t one e l e m e n t d i s a p p e a r i n t o , d i s s o l v e i n , or i n f i l t r a t e t h e o t h e r . The f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e u s u a l l y i m p l i e d i n p r o p o s a l s f o r i n c o r p o r a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n : 1 . A and B a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y of e q u a l i m p o r t a n c e . 2 . A and B can be s i m i l a r or d i f f e r e n t i n l o g i c a l n a t u r e . 3. B can r e m a i n l a r g e l y unchanged or be s u b s t a n t i a l l y t r a n s f o r m e d as a r e s u l t o f t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f A ( t h a t i s : t h e r e a r e v a r y i n g d e g r e e s of s a t u r a t i o n o f B by A ) . 4. B c o n t i n u e s t o f u n c t i o n h a r m o n i o u s l y s u b s e q u e n t t o t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f A ( i f i n t e g r a t i o n t r u l y does o c c u r ) . 5. I n c o r p o r a t i o n may o c c u r a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s , f r o m t h e s i n g l e c o u r s e t o t h e e n t i r e c u r r i c u l u m . A c a s e a p p e a r i n g i n A p p e n d i x A i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s : D e n t a l h e a l t h i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e e n t i r e c u r r i c u l u m ( # 1 2 b ) . [ 4 ] Where d e n t a l h e a l t h i s i n t e g r a t e d i n t o o t h e r c o u r s e s , i t i s vie w e d as i m p o r t a n t , but a r g u a b l y l e s s so t h a n o t h e r c u r r i c u l u m a r e a s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , d e n t a l h e a l t h has a l o g i c a l / f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m E n g l i s h , M a t h e m a t i c s and S o c i a l S t u d i e s ; i n f a c t , i t i s not c l e a r w i t h i n what form o f k n owledge, i f any, d e n t a l h e a l t h m ight a p p r o p r i a t e l y be c l a s s i f i e d . The c u r r i c u l u m w i l l n o t be a l t e r e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y by t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f d e n t a l h e a l t h . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e c u r r i c u l u m w i l l c o n t i n u e t o f u n c t i o n as s m o o t h l y as b e f o r e , d e s p i t e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of d e n t a l h e a l t h . [ 5 ] The q u e s t i o n m i g h t be r a i s e d r e g a r d i n g w hether or n o t - 69 -" i n t e g r a t i o n " i s the a p p r o p r i a t e t e r m t o d e s c r i b e an a t t e m p t t o see d e n t a l h e a l t h i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a whole c u r r i c u l u m . F o r c e d t o r e f l e c t a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s , one s e e s t h a t , w h i l e s u c h an a t t e m p t has t h e form or a p p e a r a n c e o f i n t e g r a t i o n , i t may, i n d d e d , not b_e_ i n t e g r a t i o n . Wherever d e n t a l h e a l t h were to a p p e a r i n the c u r r i c u l u m , say i n an E n g l i s h c o u r s e or a S c i e n c e c o u r s e , i t would s t i l l be e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e as d e n t a l h e a l t h ; t h a t i s : i t may be a c o n j u n c t i o n of two t h i n g s , an i n t e r j e c t i o n o f one t h i n g i n t o a n o t h e r , or an i n t e r r u p t i o n of one t h i n g by a n o t h e r , but i t w i l l n ot be i n c o r p o r a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n . [ 6 ] T h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s l e a d s one t o wonder i f t h e common ( c u r r i c u l u m ) s e n s e s o f h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n do not come c l o s e r t o r e p r e s e n t i n g p a r a d i g m c a s e s of i n c o r p o r a t i o n t h a n does t h e example o f d e n t a l h e a l t h . O t h e r examples i l l u s t r a t e o t h e r p o s s i b l e s t a t e s t h a t m i ght o b t a i n w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s named. When L e n i n p r o p o s e s t o t r a n s f o r m t h e s c h o o l i n t o a weapon f o r t h e communist r e g e n e r a t i o n of s o c i e t y , he i s s u g g e s t i n g , f i r s t , t h a t "A," the p u r p o s e of r e g e n e r a t i o n , i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n "B," t h e c u r r i c u l u m e x t a n t a t the t i m e of i n c o r p o r a t i o n . [ 7 ] S e c o n d , he i s p r o p o s i n g s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n l o g i c a l f o r m ( a p u r p o s e ) from t h a t i n t o w h i c h i t i s to be i n c o r p o r a t e d (a s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m ) . T h u s , e i t h e r a p u r p o s e or a c o n t e n t a r e a may be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a c u r r i c u l u m . - 70 -T h i r d , t h e c u r r i c u l u m i s not t o r e m a i n unchanged; i t i s t o be s a t u r a t e d by M a r x i s t i d e a s t o a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e d e g r e e , u n l i k e t h e d e n t a l h e a l t h p r o p o s a l , whose a d v o c a t e s , one s u s p e c t s , e x p e c t a t b e s t o c c a s i o n a l r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e i r p o i n t of view, t h a t i s : a low d e g r e e of s a t u r a t i o n or t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m . More examples come t o mind w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e i n c o r p o r a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n . . A p r o p o s a l i s made t o i n t e g r a t e f i n e a r t s c o u r s e s i n t o o t h e r c o u r s e s (#12d), l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n i n t o e n g i n e e r i n g e d u c a t i o n (#13a) and i n t o m e d i c a l e d u c a t i o n (#13b). The i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f c o n s e r v a t i o n i n t o t h e e n t i r e c u r r i c u l u m i s p r o p o s e d as a way t o p r e v e n t i t s becoming a s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t , t h e l e a s t d e s i r a b l e c o u r s e of a c t i o n i n t h e view of t h o s e p r o p o s i n g i t ( # 1 2 a ) . The a p p a r e n t o b j e c t i n t h e p r o p o s a l i s t h a t s t u d e n t s w i l l become c o n s c i o u s t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n r e l a t e s t o a l l t h e a r e a s of t h e c u r r i c u l u m (a p r o p o s a l w h i c h , by t h e way, c o n t a i n s d e f i n i t e p r e s c r i p t i v e d i m e n s i o n s ) . In each o f t h e c a s e s j u s t l i s t e d , as i n t h o s e d i s c u s s e d a bove, t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n t o w h i c h t h e m a t e r i a l s i n q u e s t i o n a r e i n t e g r a t e d w i l l be t r a n s f o r m e d t o some d e g r e e . - 71 -C. CORRELATION The u s u a l f o r m of c o r r e l a t i o n i n t e g r a t i o n p r o p o s a l s i s as f o l l o w s : A i s shown t o be r e l a t e d t o B (by n o t i n g p o i n t s o f i n t e r s e c t i o n or common i n t e r e s t ) . C o r r e l a t i o n i s t h u s c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m f u s i o n / i n c o r p o r a t i o n , f o r i n c o r r e l a t i o n n o t h i n g i s j o i n e d . I n s t e a d o f f u s i n g e l e m e n t s or c u r r i c u l u m a r e a s , i n c o r r e l a t i o n i n t e g r a t i o n p o i n t s of c o n t a c t a r e n o t e d , u s u a l l y by t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . W h i l e f u s i o n and i n c o r p o r a t i o n a r e s t r u c t u r a l - f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h e n , c o r r e l a t i o n i n t e g r a t i o n i s a p e d a g o g i c a l o r s t r a t e g i c a c t i v i t y . Inasmuch as n o t h i n g i s j o i n e d , some might want even t o w i t h h o l d t h e t i t l e . " i n t e g r a t i v e " f r o m c o r r e l a t i o n p r o p o s a l s . A n o t h e r f o r m o f c o r r e l a t i o n i n t e g r a t i o n i s as f o l l o w s : A i s r e l a t e d t o B t h r o u g h C. " P e r s p e c t i v a l i n t e g r a t i o n " (where many d i m e n s i o n s of l i f e a r e r e l a t e d t h r o u g h a w o r l d - v i e w ) seems t o f i t t h i s c o r r e l a t i v e schema. At a l o w e r l e v e l , c o u r s e s s u c h as H i s t o r y a l s o s e r v e t o r e l a t e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y more t h a n one o t h e r d i s c p i l i n e . [ 8 ] A number o f c o n d i t i o n s u s u a l l y a p p l y t o c o r r e l a t i o n i n t e g r a t i o n p r o p o s a l s : 1. A i s u s u a l l y s i m i l a r t o B, e i t h e r i n form or i n a r e a o f i n t e r e s t ( i n a s m u c h as t h e r e a r e g r o u n d s f o r c o m p a r i s o n - 72 -or c o n t a c t ) . 2. N e i t h e r A nor B i s n e c e s s a r i l y t a k e n t o be more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e o t h e r . 3. A g i v e n s u b j e c t or d i s c i p l i n e a r e a m ight be r e l a t e d i n c o r r e l a t i v e f a s h i o n t o any number o f o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s o f k n o w l e d g e . A p a r a d i g m c a s e o f c o r r e l a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n i s t h a t s o r t o f n o t i n g o f h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s t h a t t e a c h e r s o f l i t e r a t u r e do as a m a t t e r of c o u r s e i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g . H i s t o r y i s not made s e c o n d a r y by i m p l i c a t i o n ; i f t h e s u b j e c t a t hand i s l i t e r a r y and t h e m e n t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s e n h a n c e s t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , t h e n n o t h i n g a t a l l i s i m p l i e d a b o u t h i s t o r y , e x c e p t p e r h a p s i t s i m p o r t a n c e t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of l i t e r a t u r e . T h o s e s i m i l a r p r o p o s a l s c l a i m e d t o be h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t i v e may a l s o f i t i n t o t h e l o g i c a l c l a s s o f c o r r e l a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n . [ 9 ] The c o r r e l a t i o n o f h i s t o r y and l i t e r a t u r e happen t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e c a s e where th e " i n t e g r a t e d " e l e m e n t s a r e s i m i l a r ( c o n d i t i o n #1). The i m p a c t o f e t h i c s on s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h ( A p p e n d i x A, #28c) i l l u s t r a t e s t h e o p p o s i t e s t a t e of a f f a i r s : t h e two e l e m e n t s have m u t u a l i n t e r e s t but t h e y r e p r e s e n t two d i s t i n c t f orms of k n o w l e d g e . [ 1 0 ] Examples t h a t m i g h t be added to t h e c a s e s m e n t i o n e d i n c l u d e s u c h as t h e f o l l o w i n g : #26a The r e l a t i o n s h i p between b i o l o g y and c h e m i s t r y . #26c The c o n n e c t i o n between g e o l o g y and g e n e r a l - 73 -s c i e n c e . #29 The i n c i d e n t a l p o i n t i n g out of c o n n e c t i o n s between e v e n t s , c h a n g e s , p r o c e s s e s , i d e a s or methods i n f i e l d s o t h e r t h a n t h e f i e l d w h i c h i s t h e f o c u s o f t h e c o u r s e i n q u e s t i o n . E ach of t h e c a s e s named d e m o n s t r a t e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a r e s p e c t f o r d i s c i p l i n a r y b o u n d a r i e s and an a w a r e n e s s t h a t a c a d e m i c d i s c i p l i n e s i m p i n g e on e ach o t h e r and on o r d i n a r y l i f e a t many p o i n t s . On t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of i n t e g r a t i o n , t h e r e i s no need t o a b o l i s h t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s t r a d i t i o n a l l y drawn between t h e f o r m s o f knowledge; i n f a c t , t h o s e f o r m s a r e s e c u r e d . [ 1 1 ] D. DIALOGICAL D i a l o g i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o c o r r e l a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n e x c e p t i n one i m p o r t a n t r e g a r d : l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t y , w h i c h was n o t e d as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t y p i c a l l y s h a r e d by t h e e l e m e n t s t o be r e l a t e d i n c o r r e l a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n , i s n o t t y p i c a l l y r e q u i r e d f o r d i a l o g i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n . The b a s i c f o r m of p r o p o s a l s f o r d i a l o g i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n i s as f o l l o w s : A i s b r o u g h t t o b e a r on B o r B i s done i n a way p r e s c r i b e d by A. - 74 -The c o n d i t i o n s t h a t u s u a l l y a p p l y t o d i a l o g i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1. A and B a r e u s u a l l y o f d i f f e r e n t l o g i c a l f o r m . Thus, u n l i k e c o r r e l a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n , i n t e r s e c t i o n s o f i n t e r e s t and p o i n t s o f c o m p a r i s o n c a n n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be i d e n t i f i e d . 2. One o f t h e two components i s u s u a l l y an a c t i v i t y o r d i s c i p l i n e and t h e o t h e r i s u s u a l l y an e t h i c a l , p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s , o r p r o c e d u r a l c l a i m o r s e t o f c l a i m s . An i l l u s t r a t i o n o f d i a l o g i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n may ( a g a i n ) be a v a i l a b l e i n t h e example of S o v i e t e d u c a t i o n . E v e r y a s p e c t o f s c h o o l i n g i s t o be b r o u g h t i n t o l i n e w i t h t h e p u r p o s e o f f u r t h e r i n g M a r x i s t r e v o l u t i o n . T h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y g o a l b e a r s on s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a t t e n d a n c e p o l i c i e s , t h e s e l e c t i o n , s e q u e n c i n g and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t s , t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t e a c h e r s , t e a c h i n g methods, and so on. M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t i d e o l o g y i s b r o u g h t t o b e a r i n a c o m p r e h e n s i v e way on e d u c a t i o n . O t h e r examples a p p e a r i n g i n A p p e n d i x A i n c l u d e t h e i m p a c t [ r e a d " d i a l o g i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n " ] o f e t h i c s on m e d i c a l p r a c t i c e (#28b) and on s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h ( # 2 8 c ) , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n e d u c a t i o n t o s u i t t h e d e m o c r a t i c i d e a l ( # 1 5 a { i i } ) , and p o s s i b l y t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n i t y and l e a r n i n g (#43b), a c a s e t i g h t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e f o c u s o f C h a p t e r V I . - 75 -E. DISCUSSION The f o u r - p a r t d i v i s i o n s u g g e s t e d h e r e goes some way a l r e a d y t o making c l e a r why c o n f u s i o n so f r e q u e n t l y a c c o m p a n i e s t h e use o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " : t h e k i n d o f i n t e g r a t i o n i n t e n d e d i n p r o p o s a l s and d e s c r i p t i o n s i s r a r e l y s p e c i f i e d . S u r v e y i n g and s c h e m a t i z i n g c a s e s i s a u s e f u l e x e r c i s e i n i t s own r i g h t , b u t much more t h a n t h a t i s r e q u i r e d f o r one t o u n d e r s t a n d a d e q u a t e l y how " i n t e g r a t i o n " w orks. T h u s , t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y now becomes one o f d e t a i l e d e x p l o r a t i o n i n s t e a d of s u r v e y and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r p u r s u e s i n more d e t a i l t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e "meaning of i n t e g r a t i o n . " T h e s e d i s t i n c t i o n s r e f l e c t o r d i n a r y E n g l i s h usage more c l o s e l y t h a n do t h e ERIC d e f i n i t i o n s r e p o r t e d i n C h a p t e r IV. 2 S t i p u l a t i n g l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t y may a l s o i m p l y t h a t f u s i o n p r o p o s a l s a r e somewhat l i k e c o r r e l a t i o n p r o p o s a l s i n a t l e a s t one r e s p e c t . 3 See examples i n A p p e n d i x A (#8a-c, #9a-m, #10) and th e d i s c u s s i o n of l e v e l s i n C h a p t e r IV. 4 S e e a l s o u s e s #1, #2, #4, #6, #7, #12, and #13 i n A p p e n d i x A f o r f u r t h e r examples o f i n c o r p o r a t i o n . ^ I n f a c t , one wonders how r e a l i s t i c a r e t h o s e p r o p o s i n g t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f d e n t a l h e a l t h i n t o t h e whole c u r r i c u l u m . I t seems t h a t d e n t a l h e a t l h w i l l be t h e l o s e r i f c u r r i c u l u m - w i d e i n c o r p o r a t i o n were a t t e m p t e d , f o r t h e s u b j e c t - a r e a t e a c h e r , i n E n g l i s h , S c i e n c e , or S o c i a l S t u d i e s , - 76 -f o r example, even were he not h a r d - p r e s s e d t o t h i n k of how t o i n c o r p o r a t e d e n t a l h e a l t h i n t o h i s a r e a , i s g o i n g t o be h a r d - p r e s s e d t o b r e a k o l d h a b i t s and t h i n k of t h e t o p i c a t a l l . 6 The r e a s o n t h a t t h e t e r m " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s s t i l l u sed w i l l become more c l e a r i n C h a p t e r V. 1 See A p p e n d i x A, #15a. M a r x i s t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s t h u s d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m d e n t a l h e a l t h v i s a v i s t h e f i r s t c o n d i t i o n : t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n t e l e m e n t s . 8 See P h i l i p P h e n i x ' s Realms o f M e aning ( t h r o u g h o u t ) f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i n t e g r a t i v e f u n c t i o n of s u c h d i s c i p l i n e s as H i s t o r y (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1 9 6 4 ) . 9 As n o t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n may a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e i n c o r p o r a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n . 1 0 C . P . Snow would say t h e y r e p r e s e n t two d i f f e r e n t w o r l d s . 11 T h a t d i s t i n c t i o n s between f o r m s o f knowledge r e m a i n u n c h a l l e n g e d i n c o r r e l a t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r H i r s t ' s argument t h a t t h e f o r m s o f knowledge t h e s i s does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y v i t i a t e any p r o s p e c t s f o r i n t e g r a t i o n . See P a u l H i r s t , " C u r r i c u l u m I n t e g r a t i o n " i n Knowledge and t h e  C u r r i c u l u m ( L o n d o n : RKP, 1974), pp. 132-71. - 77 -CHAPTER IV. THE MEANING OF "INTEGRATION" The man who s e e s a l l l i f e as b u s i n e s s , or as s c i e n c e , o r as p o e t r y i s o b v i o u s l y l a c k i n g i n r e a l i n t e g r a t i o n b e c a u s e he f i n d s h i m s e l f u n a b l e t o d e a l w i t h a v e r y wide r a n g e o f l i f e t h a t does n o t f i t h i s o v e r s i m p l i f i e d p i c t u r e . - T y l e r , p. 111. H a v i n g c a t a l o g u e d i n C h a p t e r I I I and A p p e n d i x A most of t h e e d u c a t i o n a l u s e s o f " i n t e g r a t i o n , " i t i s now p o s s i b l e t o t a k e f u r t h e r s t e p s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f c l a r i f y i n g t h e c o n c e p t , and, u l t i m a t e l y , o f u n r a v e l i n g " t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f f a i t h and l e a r n i n g " as w e l l . F i r s t , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o a s k , "What i s t h e meaning o f ' i n t e g r a t i o n ' ? " "What i s ' i n t e g r a t i o n ' a b o u t ? " " W i t h what does t h e c o n c e p t have t o do?" The f i r s t p a r t o f t h e answer t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a p p e a r s as S e c t i o n A f o l l o w i n g , "The C o n c e p t o f I n t e g r a t i o n . " F o l l o w i n g t h a t , i n S e c t i o n B, a r e v i e w o f some a t t e m p t s t o d e f i n e t h e c o n c e p t i s p r e s e n t e d . T h i s r e v i e w s e r v e s a number of p u r p o s e s . F i r s t , i t a c t s as a measure a g a i n s t w h i c h t o compare t h e f r u i t s o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f meaning i n S e c t i o n A. I s t h i s s t u d y w o r k i n g a l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d l i n e s o r i s i t somehow o f f t h e mark? More n o t a b l y , s u r v e y i n g d e f i n i t i o n s a p p e a r i n g i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e s e r v e s a f u n c t i o n - 78 -s i m i l a r t o one o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f C h a p t e r I I I ( a n d A p p e n d i x A ) : i t u n d e r l i n e s t h e w i d e r a n g e o f p o s s i b l e f o r m s or m e a n i n g s t h a t " i n t e g r a t i o n " t a k e s o r c a r r i e s In e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e . A d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s r a n g e o f u s a g e w i l l p r o v i d e an i m p o r t a n t l i n k b e t w e e n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g and t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s o f c o n f u s i o n t h a t a p p e a r s a s C h a p t e r V . A . THE CONCEPT OF " I N T E G R A T I O N " 1. A N o t e on M e a n i n g and D e f i n i t i o n The o b j e c t i o n m i g h t be r a i s e d t h a t " m e a n i n g , " a s i t a p p e a r s i n t h e c h a p t e r t i t l e , s h o u l d be e n c l o s e d i n q u o t a t i o n m a r k s . T h i s i s n o t a t r i f l i n g o b j e c t i o n . " M e a n i n g " h a s been t h e s u b j e c t o f much s t u d y i n t h e p a s t few d e c a d e s and i t i s by no means s e t t l e d y e t what " m e a n i n g " m e a n s . G i v e n t h i s u n s e t t l e d s i t u a t i o n among s c h o l a r s , t h e f o l l o w i n g c o u r s e o f a c t i o n a p p e a r s t o be t h e w i s e s t . F i r s t , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o be c l e a r a b o u t what one means when one s p e a k s o f t h e " m e a n i n g " o f a t e r m s u c h a s " i n t e g r a t i o n . " R e c o g n i z i n g t h i s n e e d , t h e s e c o n d s e n t e n c e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i n c l u d e s c l a r i f y i n g q u e s t i o n s : " W i t h what d o e s t h e c o n c e p t h a v e t o d o ? " and "What i s ' i n t e g r a t i o n ' a b o u t ? " S e c o n d , one must make c l e a r t h a t t h e p h r a s e " t h e m e a n i n g o f i n t e g r a t i o n " i s i n t e n d e d more i n t h e s e n s e o f " t h e m e a n i n g s . . . " t h a n " t h e m e a n i n g . . . " - 79 -In f a c t , t h i s view of meaning i s i m p l i c i t i n Chapters II and I I I where both the note on l i n g u i s t i c method and the schema of forms i n d i c a t e that there i s not j u s t one " r e a l , " " t r u e " or " o f f i c i a l " "meaning of ' i n t e g r a t i o n . ' " Worded d i f f e r e n t l y , t h i s study i s not a search f o r "the d e f i n i t i o n " or essence of a word but r a t h e r i s an examination of: usage, both e s t a b l i s h e d and new.fl] T h i r d , one i s wise, to note other d i s c u s s i o n s of meaning which bear on, and i n some cases, provide j u s t i f i c a t i o n s for,, the view of meaning assumed h e r e i n . [ 2 ] An i l l u m i n a t i n g e x e r c i s e which helps one become c l e a r about the meaning of a term i s to l i s t or examine cousined terms, both cognates and r e l a t e d concepts. Such a l i s t h elps l o c a t e the key concept w i t h i n a f i e l d . In Chapters V and VI, that l o c a t i o n w i l l go some way to e x p l a i n the recent p o p u l a r i t y of "the i n t e g r a t i o n of f a i t h and l e a r n i n g . " For the moment, i f the key concept i s taken as " i n t e g r a t i o n , " one can q u i c k l y see the f o l l o w i n g : i V- • " I n t e g r a t i o n " i n t e g r a t e tense of verb. 2. Cognate Terms and Related Concepts i n t e g r a t e d simple past tense of verb; a c t s a d l j e c t i v a l l y , completed process, s t a t e achieved.! i n t e g r a t i v e a d j e c t i v e (process) i n t e g r a t i n g present p a r t i c i p l e (process i m p l i e d ) - 80 -i n t e g r a l e s s e n t i a l p a r t of whole i n t e g r i t y c o n s i s t e n c y o f b e l i e f , word, and a c t i o n o v e r t i m e i n t e g e r a whole number.[3] M o m e n t a r i l y l i m i t i n g d i s c u s s i o n t o t h e f i r s t f o u r e n t r i e s o f t h e l i s t r e v e a l s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f words h a v i n g " i n t e g r a t e " as t h e i r r o o t t h a t w i l l r e c e i v e d e t a i l e d a t t e n t i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r b u t i s w o rthy o f m e n t i o n a t t h i s p o i n t : some fo r m s o f t h e c o n c e p t c l e a r l y have t o do w i t h end s t a t e s w h i l e o t h e r s c l e a r l y have t o do w i t h p r o c e s s e s . A number o f d i f f e r e n t f a m i l i e s o f c o n c e p t s a r e r e l a t e d t o i n t e g r a t i o n . A l i s t o f t h e s e c o n c e p t s e c h o e s some i d e a s a l r e a d y e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n of " C a l l s f o r I n t e g r a t i o n " i n C h a p t e r I . I t a l s o a n t i c i p a t e s t h e s u r v e y o f p r o p o s a l s f o r i n t e g r a t i o n t h a t a p p e a r s as A p p e n d i x A. One f a m i l y o f t e r m s has t o do w i t h harmony: u n i t y , o r g a n i c , w h o l e n e s s , h o l i s t i c , h e a l t h , a d j u s t m e n t , c o - o p e r a t i o n , b a l a n c e d , o r g a n i z e d , u n i f i e d . - 81 -R e l a t e d t o t h e s e c o n c e p t s i s a n o t h e r s e t h a v i n g t o d o w i t h p a r t s , w h o l e s , d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , a n d s u c h c o n c e p t s a s " m e a n i n g , " " s i g n i f i c a n c e , " a n d " s y n t h e s i s " : d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , c a t a l o g u i n g , o r d e r i n g , a n a l y s i s . S t i l l a n o t h e r f a m i l y o f u s e s h a s t o d o w i t h t h e j o i n i n g o f o n e t h i n g t;o a n o t h e r : f u s i o n , i n c o r p o r a t i o n , m i x i n g . A f o u r t h f a m i l y o f r e l a t e d t e r m s f r e q u e n t l y c o n n e c t e d t o c u r r i c u l u m i n t e g r a t i o n i s t h a t f a m i l y c o n t a i n i n g v a r i a t i o n s on t h e i d e a o f d i s c i p l i n e : i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y / a r i t y , t r a n s d i s c i p l i n a r y / a r i t y , m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y / a r i t y , a - d i s c i p l i n a r y / a r i t y , c r o s s - d i s c i p l i n a r y / a r i t y . [ 4 ] M a n y o f t h e w o r d s a n d p h r a s e s r e p o r t e d i n C h a p t e r I ' s s u r v e y o f c r i t i c i s m o f s u b j e c t - b a s e d c u r r i c u l u m m i g h t b e g a t h e r e d l o o s e l y u n d e r t h e c o n c e p t " d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , " o m i t t e d i m m e d i a t e l y a b o v e i n t h e l i s t o f c o g n a t e t e r m s b u t o b v i o u s l y - 82 -r e l a t e d to " i n t e g r a t i o n : " d i s i n t e g r a t e d i s i n t e g r a t e d d i s i n t e g r a t i v e d i s i n t e g r a t i n g . Much r e m a i n s t o be s a i d a b o u t many o f t h e s e c o n c e p t s . F o r now, i t i s n e c e s s a r y o n l y t o comment on t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h i s b a r e s u r v e y o f c o g n a t e and c o u s i n e d t e r m s . T h a t u s e f u l n e s s i s m a i n l y t h a t t h e a t t e m p t t o f i l l o u t t h e c o n c e p t o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s p l a c e d o r l o c a t e d i n i t s f i e l d o f u s a g e . S uch p l a c e m e n t i s n e c e s s a r y i f one i s t o u n d e r s t a n d p r o p e r l y t h e meaning o f " i n t e g r a t i o n . " 3. "An E x p l o r a t o r y C o n c e p t " A s h o r t answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n , " W i t h what does ' i n t e g r a t i o n ' have t o d o ? " might w e l l r e a d t h u s : I n t e g r a t i o n u s u a l l y has t o do w i t h t h e making o f an o r g a n i c , h a r m o n i o u s l y f u n c t i o n i n g whole from d i s c r e t e o r eve n d i s p a r a t e p a r t s . T h i s p r o c e s s o f i n t e g r a t i o n c an t a k e p l a c e a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . I t a l w a y s i s based on some o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e , p u r p o s e , o r theme. Some bas e s a r e a b l e t o f a c i l i t a t e g r e a t e r b r e a d t h t h a n some o t h e r b a s e s . L i k e w i s e , some b a s e s s u r p a s s o t h e r s i n t h e d i m e n s i o n o f s u i t a b i l i t y ( o r a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s ) t o t h a t w h i c h i s b e i n g i n t e g r a t e d . B r e a d t h and s u i t a b i l i t y a r e - 83 -t h e two e l e m e n t s c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e adeq u a c y of a b a s i s . The harmony o r i n t e g r a t i o n f i n a l l y a c h i e v e d i s u s u a l l y r e s u l t o f and i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h a t a d e q u a c y . Each o f t h e u n d e r l i n e d t e r m s w i l l now be g i v e n d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t u r n , w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t d e g r e e o f a t t e n t i o n b e i n g g i v e n t o t h e m a t t e r o f o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s , p u r p o s e s and themes. a. " M a k i n g " T h i s v e r b m i g h t e a s i l y be r e p l a c e d by " c o n s t r u c t i n g , " " b u i l d i n g , " " b r i n g i n g " t o g e t h e r , " " p u t t i n g t o g e t h e r , " " a s s e m b l i n g , " and o t h e r s u c h p h r a s e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , no v e r c h o s e n f o r t h i s p a r t o f a d e s c r i p t i o n of " i n t e g r a t i o n " w i l l s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m t h a t a r i s e s : whether and t o what d e g r e e i n t e g r a t i o n i s a p r o c e s s , an end s t a t e , o r b o t h . A l t h o u g h t h o r o u g h t r e a t m e n t o f t h i s p r o b l e m f o l l o w s i n C h a p t e r V i n the " P r o c e s s - P r o d u c t " d i s c u s s i o n , t h e p r o b l e m b e a r s m e n t i o n h e r e i n a s m u c h as i t must a p p e a r i n any e x p l i c a t i o n o f " i n t e g r a t i o n . " F o r now, i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f making a whole, whether c o m p l e t e d o r n o t , i s e n t a i l e d a t some p o i n t i n t h e c o n c e p t of " i n t e g r a t i o n . " b. " P a r t s and W h o l e s " Making a h a r m o n i o u s l y - f u n c t i o n i n g whole f r o m i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s i s t h e b u s i n e s s o f i n t e g r a t i o n o f any k i n d . In f a c t , some w r i t e r s f o c u s e x c l u s i v e l y on t h i s a s p e c t o f - 84 -i n t e g r a t i o n when t h e y d e f i n e " i n t e g r a t i o n . " [ 5 ] W h i l e one wants t o a g r e e t h a t h a r m o n i o u s j o i n i n g i s a n e c e s s a r y a s p e c t o f i n t e g r a t i o n , one wants a l s o t o c a u t i o n t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n i n v o l v e s much more. A u s e f u l a p p r o a c h t o t h e m a t t e r o f p a r t s and w h o l e s i n c u r r i c u l u m i n t e g r a t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y i s p r o v i d e d by o b s e r v i n g p a r a l l e l s w i t h t h e n a t u r e o f p e r s o n a l i t y o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n . [ 6 ] B r o udy d e f i n e s p e r s o n a l ( o r p e r s o n a l i t y ) i n t e g r a t i o n as " t h e u n i f y i n g o f a c t i o n s o r v a l u e s so t h a t t h e y b l e n d r a t h e r t h a n c o n f l i c t . " [ 7 ] T h u s , h i s c o n c e p t c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t e s t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l meaning o f " i n t e g r i t y . " H o p k i n s o f f e r s a d e f i n i t i o n w h i c h a n t i c i p a t e s t h e d e f i n i t i o n s t h a t a p p e a r l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r but. i s p r e s e n t e d h e r e b e c a u s e i t b e a r s so d i r e c t l y on t h e m a t t e r o f p a r t s and w h o l e s . I n h i s vie w , " p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n " has t o do w i t h . . . t h e i n t e r n a l a s p e c t s o f b e h a v i o r e x h i b i t e d by an i n d i v i d u a l i n r e s o l v i n g t h e c o n f l i c t s w h i c h a r i s e w i t h i n h i s movements i n h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . When t h e i n t e r n a l a s p e c t s o f t h e movement a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by w h o l e n e s s , t h a t i s , when t h e i n d i v i d u a l o p e r a t e s as a c o n n e c t e d whole t o a s p e c t s o f e x p e r i e n c e , or when h i s p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l , and i n t e l l e c t u a l movements a r e i n o r g a n i c r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t makes f o r maximum f u n c t i o n a l u s e , he i s s a i d t o be i n t e g r a t e d . [ 8 ] In H o p k i n s ' d e f i n i t i o n , t h e " b l e n d i n g " o f w h i c h Broudy w r o t e i s s e e n n o t as a b l e n d i n g o f a c t i o n s and v a l u e s , but a much n a r r o w e r c o n c e p t i o n o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . Two y e a r s a f t e r - 85 -t h e above c i t a t i o n a p p e a r e d , H o p k i n s spoke ( i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e book he e d i t e d ) o f r e s o l v i n g " d i s t u r b a n c e s " and t h e n a r g u e d t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n t e g r a t i o n and i n t e l l i g e n c e . [ 9 ] Watson's view i s w o r t h n o t i n g h e r e as w e l l . P r e c e d i n g H o p k i n s by a few y e a r s , he spoke o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l w h o l e n e s s o r o n e n e s s as t h e " b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r i n t o a p e r f e c t e d e x i s t e n c e t h e p a r t s o f a c h i l d . " [ 1 0 ] I t i s not n e c e s s a r y t o q u o t e f u r t h e r w i t h r e g a r d t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n . I t i s c l e a r by t h i s p o i n t t h a t one's p e r s o n a l i t y c a n be e i t h e r a h a r m o n i o u s o r a d i s o r d e r l y w h o l e . The a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o m p a r i s o n f o r c u r r i c u l u m l i e s i n t h i s : i n c u r r i c u l u m i n t e g r a t i o n as w e l l , i t seems t o be t h e c a s e t h a t p a r t s c a n go t o g e t h e r t o make e i t h e r a h a r m o n i o u s o r a d i s o r d e r l y w h ole. To r e c a l l a g a i n t h e s u r v e y o f c r i t i c i s m i n t h e o p e n i n g c h a p t e r , a p r i m a r y f e a t u r e o f t h a t c r i t i c i s m i s t h e c l a i m t h a t t h e s u b j e c t - b a s e d c u r r i c u l u m i s a t o m i s t i c and d i s o r d e r l y , n o t a c o h e s i v e w h o l e . L i k e a p e r s o n a l i t y , a c u r r i c u l u m must be a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f c o m p e t i n g v a l u e s and f o r c e s . W h i l e r e s o l u t i o n o f c o n f l i c t s i s n o t t h e o n l y i s s u e i n t e g r a t i o n i n v o l v e s , i t s t i l l i s i m p o r t a n t . B e l l a c k adds an a d d i t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n by n o t i n g t h a t t h e p a r t s o f a c u r r i c u l u m must r e t a i n some autonomy w i t h o u t l e a d i n g t o " a n a r c h y i n t h e w h o l e . " [ 1 1 ] - 86 -S i n c e i n t e g r a t i o n e n t a i l s more t h a n p a r t s and w h o l e s , one must move on t o o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . However, a t l e a s t t h r e e a d d i t i o n a l c o n n e c t i o n s w i l l be n o t e d b e f o r e l e a v i n g o f f : The i s s u e o f p a r t s and w h o l e s i s r e l a t e d t o t h e m a t t e r of l e v e l s , t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l w h o l e n e s s , and t o d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . c. " L e v e l s " The a s p e c t o f l e v e l s o f i n t e g r a t i o n has a r i s e n once a l r e a d y i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e l o g i c a l f o r m s o f i n t e g r a t i o n i n C h a p t e r I I I . Examples o f l e v e l s o f i n t e g r a t i o n c a n be drawn f r o m many a r e a s , i n c l u d i n g s c i e n c e and s o c i o l o g y . S c i e n c e t e a c h e s t h a t h a r m o n i o u s f u n c t i o n i n g or i n t e g r a t i o n may o c c u r a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e c e l l , t h e o r g a n i s m , o r t h e group.. In t h e a r e a o f s o c i o l o g y , G e r a r d m e n t i o n s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n t e g r a t i o n a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r t h e s o c i e t a l l e v e l . [ 1 2 ] G e r a r d ' s s o c i o l o g i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n i s a c o r r e c t one t h o u g h h i s way o f p r o c e e d i n g f r o m t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i n t o U t o p i a n s p e c u l a t i o n a b o u t t h e i n e v i t a b l e movement to w a r d more i n t e g r a t i o n i n a l l s o c i e t i e s i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . Two f a c e t s o f l e v e l s o f i n t e g r a t i o n , however, c a n be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f o l l o w i n g h i s o b s e r v a t i o n , and t h e s e r e n d e r h i s i d e a s a c o n t r i b u t i o n . F i r s t , t h e t r i o — c e l l , o r g a n i s m , g r o u p — c o u l d be e x t e n d e d i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n , v i z . t o t h e p a r t s o f t h e c e l l , o r t o t h e n a t i o n o r w o r l d o f w h i c h t h e g r o u p i s a p a r t . S e c o n d , what i s a whole a t one l e v e l i s o n l y a p a r t a t - 87 -t h e n e x t a s c e n d i n g l e v e l . The p r o b l e m s o f c u r r i c u l u m i n t e g r a t i o n m e n t i o n e d i n the p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n c an be s e e n i n a new l i g h t when l e v e l s a r e c o n s i d e r e d . I n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f any c o u r s e t h e r e w i l l be p r e s s u r e s t o a d d r e s s a g r e a t number more i s s u e s and a s p e c t s t h a n p o s s i b l y c a n be a d d r e s s e d . I n f a c t , t h e s e p r e s s u r e s (and t h e need t o r e c o n c i l e c o n f l i c t i n g demands on th e t i m e a v a i l a b l e ) o c c u r a t t h e n a r r o w e r l e v e l o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s p e r i o d o r t h e u n i t and, w i d e r t h a n t h e c o u r s e e v e n , a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m f o r an e n t i r e y e a r , f o u r y e a r s , o r t w e l v e y e a r s . What i s t o be r e t a i n e d and what i s t o be j e t t i s o n n e d i s , p a t e n t l y , a key c u r r i c u l u m i s s u e . Y e t , t o say so i s n o t t o be t r i t e , f o r i n t e g r a t i o n o f any s o r t may h i n g e on t h e s u c c e s s f u l e x e c u t i o n o f t h i s a s p e c t o f c u r r i c u l u m - m a k i n g : t h e t a s k o f r e c o n c i l i n g p a r t s t o y i e l d h a r m o n i o u s w h o l e s a t e a c h l e v e l . N a t u r a l l y , a t any l e v e l where i n t e g r a t i o n i s a p o s s i b i l i t y , d i s i n t e g r a t i o n i s a l s o a p o s s i b i l i t y . I n t e g r a t i o n i n v o l v e s more even t h a n p a r t s , w h o l e s , and l e v e l s , and s o , a g a i n o u t o f n e c e s s i t y , t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s must be c u r t a i l e d , t h i s t i m e so t h a t a more c e n t r a l a s p e c t o f i n t e g r a t i o n m i g h t be e x a m i n e d . d. " O r g a n i z i n g P r i n c i p l e s , P u r p o s e s and Themes" The most i m p o r t a n t p h r a s e i n t h e expanded s t a t e m e n t of t h e c o n c e p t o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " g i v e n e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s " o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e or p u r p o s e o r theme." The - 88 -i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s p h r a s e d e r i v e s f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t t h e o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e , p u r p o s e o r theme c o n s t i t u t e s t h e b a s i s o r f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e i n t e g r a t i o n b e i n g s o u g h t i n any g i v e n c a s e . I f a number o f i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s a r e t o be j o i n e d i n t h e making of a wh o l e , a t any l e v e l , t h e r e must be some framework, r e a s o n , c e n t e r , or g r o u n d . Dewey d e s c r i b e s t h e g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e P l a t o a t t a c h e d t o o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s and p u r p o s e s : P l a t o ' s s t a r t i n g p o i n t i s t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s o c i e t y depends u l t i m a t e l y upon knowledge o f t h e end o f e x i s t e n c e . I f we do n o t know i t s end, we s h a l l be a t t h e mercy o f a c c i d e n t and c a p r i c e . U n l e s s we know t h e end, t h e good, we s h a l l have no c r i t e r i o n f o r r a t i o n a l l y d e c i d i n g what t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r e w h i c h s h o u l d be pr o m o t e d , n o r how s o c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s a r e t o be o r d e r e d . We s h a l l have no c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e p r o p e r l i m i t s t o d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s — w h a t he c a l l e d j u s t i c e — a s a t r a i t o f b o t h i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . [ 1 3 ] W i t h o u t d i s c l o s i n g t h e s o r t o f p e s s i m i s m Dewey a t t r i b u t e s t o P l a t o , O'Hara p o i n t s t o t h e same c o n c e r n when he w r i t e s t h a t t h e . . . h i g h e s t t y p e o f i n t e g r a t i o n may be c o n s i d e r e d as t h a t w h i c h p r e v a i l s when among t h e p a r t s t o be i n t e g r a t e d t h e r e e x i s t s a dominant p a r t or e l e m e n t , n a t u r a l l y s u i t e d t o t a k e t h e p o s i t i o n o f a n u c l e u s , and a b o u t w h i c h o t h e r e l e m e n t s c a n be o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r r e l a t i v e v a l u e s o r c a p a c i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e n u c l e u s . I n t h i s t y p e o f i n t e g r a t i o n , t h e r e i s a s t r o n g u n i t y d e r i v e d f r o m t h e n a t u r a l a d h e r e n c e o f t h e v a r i o u s p a r t s e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y t o t h e n u c l e u s . [ 1 4 ] Knowledge o f t h e "end o f e x i s t e n c e " and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a " n u c l e u s " a r e n o t o r g a n i z i n g b a s e s o f e q u a l i m p o r t a n c e . But - 89 -t h e y b o t h f u n c t i o n t o g i v e a u n i t y o f d i r e c t i o n t o an e n t e r p r i s e . In t h e same way t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n i n g e n e r a l demands an o r g a n i z i n g b a s i s , so e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n makes t h a t demand a l s o . R e c a l l i n g C h a p t e r I a g a i n , one o f t h e d o m i n a n t themes o f t h e c r i t i c i s m r e v i e w e d was t h a t modern s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a , whether s u b j e c t - b a s e d o r n o t , u s u a l l y l a c k any c e n t r a l o r g a n i z i n g p u r p o s e , p r i n c i p l e , o r d i r e c t i o n . One w r i t e r s e e s t h e p r o b l e m as a l a c k o f " o r d e r i n g s c h e m a s . " [ 1 5 ] A n o t h e r l a m e n t s t h e a b s e n c e of any " o r d e r i n g p r i n c i p l e . " [ 1 6 ] I n r e c o u n t i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f an i n t e g r a t i v e a t t e m p t a t B e r k e l e y , Tussman w r i t e s t h a t "a d o m i n a t i n g i d e a must come f i r s t . " [ 1 7 ] He a l l o w s t h a t i t c a n be an e x a m i n a t i o n o f an h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d , or p r o b l e m , an i s s u e , o r a theme, but t h e program must be b a s e d on a " s i n g u l a r c u r r i c u l a r c o n c e p t i o n . " [ 1 8 ] P e t r i e l a b e l s t h i s " i d e a d o m i n a n c e " and a r g u e s t h a t i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y e n q u i r y f o r i t s own s a ke w i l l p r o b a b l y f a i l u n l e s s some p r i n c i p l e o r s e n s e o f m i s s i o n d o m i n a t e s t h e e n q u i r y . [ 1 9 ] D i x c a l l s f o r a new " s y n t h e s i s [ o r ] new p h i l o s o p h y w h i c h w i l l a g a i n o r g a n i z e men's a c t i v i t i e s by p r o v i d i n g s u f f i c i e n t c l a r i t y and p r o m i s e t o engage t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e . " [ 2 0 ] B r o u d y , B u r n e t t , and S m i t h c a l l f o r a greement upon . . . a c o m p r e h e n s i v e and s y s t e m a t i c view o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m f o r common, g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n — a view w h i c h a l l o w s us t o o r g a n i z e our t h o u g h t s , our t e c h n i q u e s , and our enormous e n e r g i e s and - 90 -r e s o u r c e s . [ 2 1 ] In e f f e c t , a l l t h e s e e d u c a t i o n a l w r i t e r s a r e i d e n t i f y i n g t h e same t h i n g : t h e need f o r a b a s i s f o r i n t e g r a t i o n . They a r e a l l a r g u i n g t h a t t h i n g s c a n n o t be j o i n e d t o g e t h e r h a r m o n i o u s l y w i t h o u t some o v e r a r c h i n g p u r p o s e , p r i n c i p l e or theme, what b o t h Bloom and D r e s s e l name " i n t e g r a t i v e t h r e a d s . " [ 2 2 ] Many, o f t h e p r o p o s a l s m e n t i o n e d i n A p p e n d i x A a r e i n t e n d e d t o be d i r e c t r e s p o n s e s t o c a l l s s u c h as t h o s e j u s t m e n t i o n e d and c i t e d . A few examples a r e q u o t e d f r o m t h e "themes, p r o j e c t s , p r o b l e m s " s e c t i o n : 1. o u t g r o u p s ( u s e #16b) 2. A m e r i c a n West (16d) 3. e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n (17b) 4. w o r l d hunger s i t u a t i o n ( 1 7 a ) 5. s i d e w a l k s (16 h ) 6. a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b e h a v i o r ( 1 8 b ) . In e a c h c a s e , t h e theme a r o u n d w h i c h t h e u n i t i s o r g a n i z e d i s i n t e n d e d t o s e r v e as an i n t e g r a t i n g b a s i s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , none o f t h e s e examples t h a t so c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b a s e s f i t n e a t l y i n t o t h e F u s i o n -I n c o r p o r a t i o n - C o r r e l a t i o n - D i a l o g i c a l schema o f C h a p t e r I I I . P e r h a p s a theme s u c h as "The A m e r i c a n West" compels c o r r e l a t i o n . Or p e r h a p s t h e p a r a d i g m s o f C h a p t e r I I I i l l u s t r a t e a t y p e o f e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e whereby a m u t u a l i t y o f methods or a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t a l l o w s f o r f u s i o n - 91 -of s u b j e c t a r e a s o r c o r r e l a t i o n between them. C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o b l e m w i l l resume s h o r t l y . M e a n w h i l e , o t h e r p r o p o s a l s abound i n c u r r i c u l u m l i t e r a t u r e . One d e p i c t s a v i e w o f man as a b i o l o g i c a l o r g a n i s m i n a c u l t u r a l - p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t t o s e r v e as t h e g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e . [ 2 3 ] A n o t h e r c u r r i c u l u m p r o p o s e d has a n t h r o p o l o g y as a c o r e . [24] A t h i r d p r o p o s a l comes w i t h p h i l o s o p h y a t t h e c e n t e r , w h i l e a f i n a l example e n v i s i o n s a c u r r i c u l u m . . . u n i f i e d and d o m i n a t e d by a s i n g l e i n t e r e s t , a s i n g l e p u r p o s e , — t h a t o f so u n d e r s t a n d i n g human l i f e as t o be r e a d y and e q u i p p e d f o r t h e p r a c t i c e o f i t . [ 2 5 ] In t h i s c o n t e x t , t h e H a r v a r d R e p o r t a l s o comes t o mind w i t h i t s c l e a r p l e a a t t h e end o f t h e o p e n i n g c h a p t e r : Thus ; t h e s e a r c h c o n t i n u e s and must c o n t i n u e f o r some o v e r - a l l l o g i c , some s t r o n g , n o t e a s i l y b r o k e n frame w i t h i n w h i c h b o t h c o l l e g e and s c h o o l may f u l f i l l t h e i r a t once d i v e r s i f y i n g and u n i t i n g t a s k s . T h i s l o g i c must be wide enough t o embrace t h e a c t u a l r i c h n e s s and v a r i e g a t i o n o f modern l i f e — a r i c h n e s s p a r t l y , i f n o t w h o l l y , r e f l e c t e d i n t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f our p r e s e n t e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m . I t must a l s o be s t r o n g enough t o g i v e g o a l and d i r e c t i o n t o t h i s s y s t e m . [ 2 6 ] A r e a d i n g o f e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s many more p r o p o s e d b a s e s f o r i n t e g r a t i o n . [ 2 7 ] Common t o a l l t h e s e p r o p o s a l s i s t h e p r o m i s e o f i n t e g r a t i o n . In no c a s e i s t h e p r o m i s e a c c o m p a n i e d by a g u a r a n t e e , a f e a t u r e o f s u c h p r o p o s a l s t o be n o t e d s h o r t l y i n d i s c u s s i n g a d e q u a c y . I t i s n e c e s s a r y now, however, t o move f r o m t h e s e e x a m ples t o c o n s i d e r t h r e e f u r t h e r a s p e c t s o f o r g a n i z i n g p u r p o s e s , - 92 -p r i n c i p l e s and themes: t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between a p r i n c i p l e , a p u r p o s e and a theme; b r e a d t h ; and a d e q u a c y . I t i s n e c e s s a r y a t some p o i n t t o e x p l a i n why o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s , p u r p o s e s and themes have been s p o k e n o f t h u s f a r as t h o u g h s e p a r a t e . Some s o r t o f d i s t i n c t i o n seems i n o r d e r h e r e but i t i s n o t an e a s y d i s t i n c t i o n t o make. A p a r a d i g m c a s e o f a " p r i n c i p l e " as i t i s b e i n g used h e r e , would be the Roman C a t h o l i c c u r r i c u l u m b a s e d s o l e l y on th e Summa T h e o l o g i c a o f S t . Thomas A q u i n a s . A l l t h e o r i e s , s p e c u l a t i o n s , , and i d e a s must be measured a g a i n s t Thomas' work. Th u s , " p r i n c i p l e " i s t a k e n h e r e t o mean s o m e t h i n g e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l i n n a t u r e . I n t h e c a s e o f Thomas' work, t h e p r i n c i p l e i s s i m p l y one o f c o m p a r i s o n : t h e Summa and t h e w o r l d - v i e w c o n t a i n e d t h e r e i n s e r v e as an e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l y a r d s t i c k . A c u r r i c u l u m b a s e d on a " p r i n c i p l e " i s t h u s a c u r r i c u l u m b a s e d on a v i e w o f t h e n a t u r e o f k n o w l e d g e . A g a i n , t h e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s o f c l a s s i f y i n g t h e pa r a d i g m examples i n C h a p t e r I I I on t h i s t r i - p a r t i t e schema. F u s i o n i n t e g r a t i o n ( i f i t i s t o be s u c c e s s f u l ) u s u a l l y demands e i t h e r s i m i l a r i t y o f s t r u c t u r e o r c o m m o n a l i t y o f i n t e r e s t among t h e e l e m e n t s t o be j o i n e d . Where s t r u c t u r a l and f o r m a l d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t , i n c o r p o r a t i o n or c o r r e l a t i o n may be p o s s i b l e i f a common i n t e r e s t o r c o n c e r n c an be f o u n d . I s t h e word " p r i n c i p l e " s t r e t c h e d beyond r e a s o n h e r e when so many c a s e s a r e subsumed under i t ? One may r e s p o n d - 93 -t h a t i t i s n o t i f t h e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l e l e m e n t (common m e t h o d o l o g y o r common i n t e r e s t i n t h i s c a s e ) i s n o t e d . O t h e r w i s e , one m i g h t want t o add to " o r g a n i z i n g p u r p o s e s , p r i n c i p l e s and themes" s o m e t h i n g l i k e " p o i n t s o f i n t e r s e c t i o n " or "common methods." L e a v i n g t h e s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r a moment ( o t h e r s w i l l a p p e a r s h o r t l y ) , i t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o e x p l o r e how a " p u r p o s e " and a "theme" a i d i n b r i n g i n g i n t e g r a t i o n . A " p u r p o s e " i s b e t t e r t h o u g h t o f as t h e e d u c a t i o n a l or p e d a g o g i c a l end t o w a r d w h i c h a c u r r i c u l u m i s d i r e c t e d . Such a p u r p o s e w o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n c l u d e any r e f e r e n c e t o the n a t u r e o f k n o w l e d g e . A model c a s e o f s u c h a c u r r i c u l u m would be one t h a t i s d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e t h e s o l e p u r p o s e of making s t u d e n t s aware o f t h e w o r l d e n v i r o n m e n t a l c r i s i s o r f o o d c r i s i s . C u r r i c u l a d e s i g n e d s o l e l y t o t r a i n a c t o r s , m u s i c i a n s , c a r p e n t e r s , bus d r i v e r s , c h u r c h m i n i s t e r s , or m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s , would l i k e w i s e be ba s e d on an o r g a n i z i n g " p u r p o s e . " I f an o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e c o u l d be s a i d t o be p r i m a r i l y e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l : " t h a t on t h e b a s i s o f w h i c h , " t h e n a p u r p o s e - o r i e n t e d c u r r i c u l u m would be p r i m a r i l y p r a c t i c a l : t h a t " f o r w h i c h . " A theme, f i n a l l y , i s b e s t t h o u g h t o f as t h a t " a r o u n d w h i c h " a c u r r i c u l u m i s o r g a n i z e d . A theme p r o v i d e s a s t r a t e g y t o g i v e c o h e r e n c e t o a c u r r i c u l a r u n i t . I t m i g h t be as n a r r o w as "The Uses o f P l a s t i c i n S o c i e t y " o r as wide as - 94 -"Man and H i s W o r l d " b u t i t must s e r v e t o u n i t e t h e v a r i o u s f a c e t s or e l e m e n t s o f t h e p o r t i o n o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n q u e s t i o n . A number of q u e s t i o n s a r i s e c o n c e r n i n g p r o p o s a l s w h i c h e n v i s i o n i n t e g r a t i o n r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e m e s . F i r s t , a r e d i s c i p l i n a r y b o u n d a r i e s r e s p e c t e d when a c u r r i c u l u m i s o r g a n i z e d t h e m a t i c a 1 1 y . Where t h o s e b o u n d a r i e s a r e r e s p e c t e d , and no c r i t i c i s m o f d i s c i p l i n a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t h e r e b y i m p l i e d , w i l l t h e c u r r i c u l a r r e s u l t be s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t e g r a t i v e t o w a r r a n t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e a l t e r n a t i v e , t h e m a t i c f o r m o f o r g a n i z a t i o n ? I s t h e r e a " n a t u r a l a d h e r e n c e " b etween t h e a r e a s c o n n e c t e d by t h e t h e m e , o r a r e t h e c o n n e c t i o n s t h a t r e s u l t f o r c e d ? Some r e f e r t o t h e harmony t h a t o b t a i n s i n any c u r r i c u l u m b a s e d on a p r i n c i p l e , p u r p o s e or theme as " i n t e g r a t i o n " ( a n d o t h e r s s i m p l y c a l l i t w e l l - p l a n n e d e d u c a t i o n ) . On t h i s a c c o u n t , s u c h a l a b e l m i g h t be a t t a c h e d t o a c l e a r l y p u r p o s e f u l s u b j e c t - b a s e d c u r r i c u l u m as e a s i l y a s t o any o f t h e p r o p o s e d c u r r i c u l a l i s t e d as e x a m p l e s i n A p p e n d i x A. T h e s e q u e s t i o n s and i s s u e s a n t i c i p a t e t h e d i s c u s s i o n of " a d e q u a c y " w h i c h f o l l o w s s h o r t l y . A M a r x i s t c u r r i c u l u m p r o v e s somewhat d i f f i c u l t t o c l a s s i f y on t h e schema j u s t p r e s e n t e d . However, e x p l o r i n g t h e s o u r c e s o f t h a t d i f f i c u l t y i s a u s e f u l e x e r c i s e . I t i s m a n i f e s t t o many t h a t M a r x i s t , o r a t l e a s t S o v i e t , e d u c a t i o n i s e d u c a t i o n f o r a p u r p o s e . But t h e r e i s a body o f t h e o r y - 95 -l e a d i n g back b e f o r e Marx t o H e g e l t h a t , many a r g u e , i n c l u d e s a t h e o r y of knowledge and h i s t o r y as w e l l as t h e more o b v i o u s v i e w s o f p o l i t i c s and e c o n o m i c s . T h i s o s t e n s i b l y e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n of M a r x i s t t h o u g h t r e n d e r s t h e o t h e r w i s e e a s i l y - c l a s s i f i a b l e S o v i e t e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m a d i f f i c u l t e n t i t y . P e r h a p s , s i n c e S o v i e t e d u c a t i o n c l e a r l y i s " e d u c a t i o n w i t h a p u r p o s e , " i t i s b e t t e r t o ad m i t t h a t t h e s u g g e s t e d t h r e e - p a r t schema ( p u r p o s e , p r i n c i p l e , theme) does n o t t a k e i n t o n e a t a c c o u n t a l l c a s e s t h a t one m i g h t e n c o u n t e r i n e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e . F u r t h e r , some c a s e s p o s s e s s f e a t u r e s o f more t h a n one k i n d of b a s i s . Such an a d m i s s i o n p r e c l u d e s t h e n e c e s s i t y of v i o l e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . U n c l a s s i f i a b l e c a s e s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , t h e p u r p o s e - p r i n c i p l e -theme d i s t i n c t i o n i s a u s e f u l one and w i l l be used a g a i n l a t e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s a f a c t t h a t f o r i n t e g r a t i o n t o o c c u r t h e r e must be some b a s i s , and i n most p r o p o s a l s t h a t b a s i s i s a p u r p o s e , a p r i n c i p l e , or a theme. e. B r e a d t h , S u i t a b i l i t y , Adequacy Where some o r g a n i z i n g p u r p o s e s and p r i n c i p l e s a r e q u i t e r e s t r i c t e d , o t h e r s a r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y w i d e - r a n g i n g . F o r example, w h i l e " s i d e w a l k s " might c o n s t i t u t e an a d e q u a t e b a s i s or theme f o r an e n q u i r y o f a few h o u r s ' or d a y s ' d u r a t i o n , i t i s o b v i o u s l y not wide enough t o s e r v e as t h e f o u n d a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e f o r an e n t i r e c u r r i c u l u m . On t h e o t h e r hand, a number o f examples come t o mind where one p r i n c i p l e or - 96 -p u r p o s e gave or g i v e s d i r e c t i o n t o a whole y e a r o f s t u d y or t o an* e n t i r e e d u c a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m . One t h i n k s of c a s e s where u n i f y i n g c o n c e p t s , some o b v i o u s l y much more r e s t r i c t i v e t h a n o t h e r s , a r e meant t o g u i d e an e n t i r e s e n i o r - h i g h or c o l l e g e c u r r i c u l u m . G r e e k e d u c a t i o n comes t o mind w i t h i t s g o a l o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a good c i t i z e n . [ 2 8 ] One r e c a l l s a l s o ; t h e m e d i e v a l u n i v e r s i t y w i t h i t s i n t e g r a t i o n b a s e d on t h e o l o g y f u n c t i o n i n g as t h e c o r e and measure o f t h e r e s t o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m . A t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y example i s p r o v i d e d by t h e C o l l e g e of t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o w h i c h Chen n o t e s as an example o f a c u r r i c u l u m o r g a n i z e d f o r one p u r p o s e : t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of an " i n t e l l i g e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c o n t e m p o r a r y e n v i r o n m e n t and c u l t u r e . " [ 2 9 ] One m i g h t n o t e t h e example a g a i n , as does P a c e , of a c a d e m i e s i n t e n d e d f o r t h e t r a i n i n g o f m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s . [30'] I t i s a p p a r e n t i n a l l t h e s e i l l u s t r a t i o n s t h a t o r g a n i z i n g p u r p o s e s , p r i n c i p l e s and themes must s e r v e as t h e b a s e s f o r i n t e g r a t e d c u r r i c u l a o f a v a r i e t y o f b r e a d t h s , f r o m t h e " s i d e w a l k " u n i t t o t h e e n t i r e s y s t e m of e d u c a t i o n i n ah c l i e n t G r e e c e or m e d i e v a l E u r o p e . B e s i d e s b r e a d t h , any b a s i s f o r i n t e g r a t i o n must a l s o m e e t . t h e c o n d i t i o n o f s u i t a b i l i t y or a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s . Bloom o f f e r s an e x t e n d e d but v e r y i l l u s t r a t i v e metaphor w h e r e i n he u s e s " i n t r i n s i c " t o r e f e r t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t any b a s i s f o r i n t e g r a t i o n must s u i t t h a t w h i c h i s b e i n g i n t e g r a t e d . ! - 97 -The t a s k o f p u t t i n g t o g e t h e r a j i g - s a w p u z z l e may c l a r i f y t h e p o i n t . The u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e i s t o put t o g e t h e r t h e p u z z l e . I f a p i c t u r e of t h e c o m p l e t e d p u z z l e i s p r i n t e d on t h e c o n t a i n e r , t h i s — t h e end r e s u l t — m a y be used by t h e p u z z l e r t o g u i d e e a c h s t e p of h i s a s s e m b l y . U s u a l l y , however, t h e p i c t u r e i s n o t i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l t o p r o v i d e a l l t h e n e c e s s a r y c l u e s and many p u z z l e r s r e f u s e t o use t h e p i c t u r e . One p e r s o n may s o r t o u t and a s s e m b l e a l l of t h e edge p i e c e s , t h e r e b y p r o v i d i n g a frame i n w h i c h t o work. A n o t h e r may s e p a r a t e p i e c e s a c c o r d i n g t o c o l o r , s h a d i n g , or d i s t i n c t i v e marks, l i n e s , or f i g u r e s . Most p u z z l e r s w i l l use s e v e r a l or a l l o f t h e s e d e v i c e s i n p i e c i n g t o g e t h e r s e c t i o n s of t h e p u z z l e . T h u s , c o l o r , l i n e , s h a d i n g , and o t h e r s u c h c l u e s p r o v i d e i n t e g r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e s a t l e v e l s l o w e r t h a n t h e u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e . N o t i c e , however, t h a t t h e s e l e s s e r i n t e g r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e s a r e n o t i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e f i n a l i n t e g r a t i o n ; c o l o r , l i n e , and s h a d i n g have an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e e f f e c t of t h e f i n a l i n t e g r a t i o n . In c o n t r a s t , t h e i n d i v i d u a l who u n d e r t a k e s p a i n s t a k i n g l y t o p a i r p i e c e s by shape has c h o s e n a p r o c e d u r e i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e f i n a l g o a l . W i t h o u t some s u c h p r i n c i p l e s as t h o s e o f c o l o r , s h a d i n g , l i n e , and t h e l i k e , t h e a s s e m b l y of a complex j i g - s a w would become an a l m o s t e n d l e s s t r i a l - a n d - e r r o r t a s k . Use* of t h e p r i n c i p l e s e a s e s t h e t a s k and adds t o t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f d e t a i l i n th e f i n a l r e s u l t . Our example s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e b u i l d i n g up o f any complex whole p r o c e e d s b e s t when i n t e g r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e s i n t r i n s i c t o t h a t whole can be i d e n t i f i e d and us e d t o r e l a t e t h e p a r t s . [ 3 1 ] Bloom's p o i n t i s a s i m p l e s t r a t e g i c one: some i n t e g r a t i v e b a s e s a r e more s u i t a b l e and t h e r e f o r e more a d e q u a t e t h a n o t h e r s . The i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e c o n c e p t " i n t e g r a t i o n " t h a t a p p e a r e d n e a r t h e commencement o f t h i s c h a p t e r i n c l u d e d t h e c l a i m t h a t t h e i n t e g r a t i o n f i n a l l y a c h i e v e d was p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e adequacy o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b a s i s o f t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n . The c o n d i t i o n of a d e q u a c y , i t was n o t e d t h e r e , r e q u i r e s o f an i n t e g r a t i v e b a s i s b o t h b r e a d t h and - 98 -s u i t a b i l i t y . N e i t h e r s u i t a b i l i t y nor b r e a d t h i s s u f f i c i e n t by i t s e l f t o b r i n g a b o u t i n t e g r a t i o n by means o f a p r i n c i p l e , ' p u r p o s e o r theme; a d e q u a c y demands b o t h . E x p l o r i n g a d e q u a c y i n t h i s way l e a d s i n e v i t a b l y t o a r e e x a m i n a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m p r o p o s a l s meant t o f o s t e r i n t e g r a t i o n . C h a p t e r I n o t e d t h a t one of t h e a r g u m e n t s o r i g i n a l l y g i v e n as a r e a s o n t o d e v e l o p g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n was t h a t " n a r r o w - v o c a t i o n a l i s m " and " o c c u p a t i o n a l s p e c i a l i s m " were h i n d e r i n g t h e e f f o r t s o f t h o s e who wanted t o see s t u d e n t s g a i n a t r u l y " l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n . " Y e t , m i l i t a r y and v o c a t i o n a l " e d u c a t i o n " - - w h a t many c a l l " t r a i n i n g " — a r e l i s t e d h e r e as e x a m p l e s o f i n t e g r a t i o n b a s e d on an o r g a n i z i n g p u r p o s e or p r i n c i p l e . T h e r e seems t o be a c o n t r a d i c t i o n between t h e a r g u m e n t s f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n and t h e i n c l u s i o n h e r e of s p e c i a l i z e d i n s t i t u t i o n s as e x a m p l e s o f i n t e g r a t i o n . The p r i n c i p l e o r p u r p o s e on w h i c h m i l i t a r y and v o c a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l a a r e b a s e d may be a d e q u a t e i n b r e a d t h as a b a s i s f o r m i l i t a r y and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g — a s s u m i n g a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s f o r t h e m o m e n t — b u t f a l l s h o r t o f t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n h e l d by a d v o c a t e s o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . [ 3 2 ] Bloom's q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g s u c h t r a i n i n g would i n v o l v e t h e a s s u m p t i o n j u s t m e n t i o n e d : w h e t h e r or n o t t h e p r i n c i p l e o f i n t e g r a t i o n was " i n t r i n s i c " t o t h e o v e r a l l g o a l s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m . I n summary, t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t any b a s i s f o r i n t e g r a t i o n be a d e q u a t e e n t a i l s two f u r t h e r c o n d i t i o n s , - 99 -n e i t h e r o f w h i c h i s s u f f i c i e n t i n i t s e l f . F i r s t , t h e b a s i s , whether p r i n c i p l e , p u r p o s e , or theme, must be b r o a d enough t o s u p p o r t t h e segment o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m meant t o c o h e r e a r o u n d i t . S e c o n d , t h a t b a s i s must s u i t t h e m a t e r i a l s , o r be " i n t r i n s i c " [ a p p r o p r i a t e ] t o them. Where t h e s e two c o n d i t i o n s a r e met, g r e a t e r harmony r e s u l t s i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m . One f i n a l comment i s i n o r d e r h e r e as w e l l , b e f o r e p a s s i n g on t o c o n s i d e r v a r i o u s d e f i n i t i o n s o f i n t e g r a t i o n t h a t have been o f f e r e d . W i t h o u t w i s h i n g t o p r e j u d g e , one s u s p e c t s t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n does n o t a l w a y s r e s u l t f r o m i m p l e m e n t i n g t h o s e p r o p o s a l s c l a i m e d t o be i n t e g r a t i v e . Many t i m e s s o m e t h i n g h a v i n g t h e c u r r i c u l a r t r a p p i n g s of i n t e g r a t i o n may o c c u r w i t h o u t e v e r a c h i e v i n g t r u e i n t e g r a t i o n . As a l r e a d y i n d i c a t e d , t h e hope o f i n t e g r a t i o n i s a l w a y s imbedded i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f i n t e g r a t e d e d u c a t i o n ; t h e g u a r a n t e e o f i n t e g r a t i o n i s n o t . B. DEFINITIONS OF INTEGRATION H a v i n g o f f e r e d a c o n c e p t o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " and expanded on i t s c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s , i t would now be h e l p f u l t o s u r v e y some d e f i n i t i o n s o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " f r o m e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e . Once a g a i n , t h i s i s not meant as an a t t e m p t t o f i n d " t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f i n t e g r a t i o n . " F o r two r e a s o n s , s e a r c h i n g f o r " t h e d e f i n i t i o n " would l i k e l y be f r u i t l e s s i n - 100 -t h e c a s e o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " : f i r s t , t h e u s u a l f u n c t i o n o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " i n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e may be t h a t o f a s l o g a n ( i n w h i c h c a s e , t h e o n l y f r u i t y i e l d e d by a d e f i n i t i o n would be f r u s t r a t i o n ) ; s e c o n d , a s i n g l e d e f i n i t i o n y i e l d s l i t t l e r e a l i n s i g h t i n t o t h e usage o f t h e t e r m anyway. S t i l l , e x a m i n i n g o t h e r a t t e m p t s t o d e f i n e t h e c o n c e p t and n o t i n g t h e i r emphases w i l l r e v e a l much a b o u t t h e v a r i e t i e s of work t h e t e r m i s r e q u i r e d t o do i n l a n g u a g e . E x a m i n i n g a t t e m p t s t o d e f i n e " i n t e g r a t i o n " may a l s o be i n s t r u c t i v e i n t h a t i t w i l l p o i n t o u t p i t f a l l s t o be a v o i d e d i n l a t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e c o n c e p t . A r e v i e w o f d e f i n i t i o n s of " e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n " m i g ht be o r g a n i z e d i n a number of d i f f e r e n t ways. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme f o l l o w e d below i s c h o s e n b e c a u s e one o f the p e r s i s t e n t l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l a s p e c t s o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s th e " l o c u s " o f i n t e g r a t i o n — w h e r e does i n t e g r a t i o n t a k e p l a c e , w i t h i n p e o p l e or w i t h i n c u r r i c u l a ? T h r e e k i n d s of answers a r e u s u a l l y g i v e n t o t h a t q u e s t i o n . Some e d u c a t o r s view " i n t e g r a t i o n " as a p r o c e s s t h a t happens i n p e o p l e ( p s y c h o l o g i c a l , p e d a g o g i c a l ) . O t h e r s v i e w i t as a s t a t e of a f f a i r s t h a t o b t a i n s i n a c u r r i c u l u m ( e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l ) . A t h i r d group o f e d u c a t o r s r e c o g n i z e a c o n n e c t i o n between t h e two and c o n s e q u e n t l y a r g u e t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n i n v o l v e s b o t h c u r r i c u l a and s t u d e n t s ' c o n s c i o u s n e s s . [ 3 3 ] The d e f i n i t i o n s f o l l o w i n g a r e t r e a t e d i n t h r e e s e c t i o n s t o r e f l e c t t h e s e - 101 -t h r e e emphases.[34] These i n l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e w e l l ( C h a p t e r V, B ) . same t h r e e d i v i s i o n s w i l l a p p e a r l o g i c a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e b a t e as 1. " C u r r i c u l u m as L o c u s " D e f i n i t i o n s A t y p i c a l e x p r e s s i o n of t h e view t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n o c c u r s i n c u r r i c u l a or i n knowledge a p p e a r s i n W e b s t e r ' s D i c t i o n a r y : "The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t e a c h i n g m a t t e r t o i n t e r r e l a t e or u n i f y s u b j e c t s u s u a l l y t a u g h t i n s e p a r a t e a c a d e m i c c o u r s e s or d e p a r t m e n t s . " [ 3 5 ] The d e f i n i t i o n s o f f e r e d by t h e ERIC R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e r u n a l o n g s i m i l a r l i n e s . The f o u r main d e s c r i p t o r s r e l a t e d t o t h i s s t u d y a r e as f o l l o w s : " f u s e d " has t o do w i t h t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s o f two or more s u b j e c t s . " u n i f i e d " has t o do w i t h t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f b o u n d a r i e s between o l d s u b j e c t s w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t new s u b j e c t s a r e f o r m e d . " i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y " has t o do w i t h t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f two or more d i s c i p l i n e s . " i n t e g r a t e d " " s y s t e m a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t and p a r t s i n t o a m e a n i n g f u l p a t t e r n . " [ 3 6 ] W h i l e t h e l a s t term named may adm i t o f t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f p e o p l e , t h e f i r s t t h r e e c l e a r l y have t o do w i t h knowledge p r i m a r i l y . [ 3 7 ] W i t h i n e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , one f i n d s many d e f i n i t i o n s o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " where c u r r i c u l u m i s t a k e n as t h e l o c u s . A g a i n , much of t h e c r i t i c i s m s u r v e y e d i n C h a p t e r I i s - 102 -c r i t i c i s m of c u r r i c u l u m . D u r y e a , f o r an a d d i t i o n a l example, s e e s d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n as t h e o p p o s i t e o f i n t e g r a t i o n and c a l l s f o r s p e c i a l i s t s t o draw t o g e t h e r so t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e i r s p e c i a l i t i e s m i ght become c l e a r . [ 3 8 ] O t h e r e d u c a t o r s w r i t e a b o u t a p p l y i n g knowledge t o " r e a l " p r o b l e m s or e x p l o r i n g p r o b l e m s by means o f t h e t o o l s and c o n c e p t s o f f e r e d by more t h a n one d i s c i p l i n e . [ 3 9 ] The c u r r i c u l u m , not t h e s t u d e n t ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , c l e a r l y i s t a k e n as t h e l o c u s of i n t e g r a t i o n i n t h e s e p r o p o s a l s . O u t s i d e s p e c i f i c a l l y e d u c a t i o n a l t h o u g h t , t h e r e has been a l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f a t t e m p t s t o u n i f y knowledge by v a r i o u s s y s t e m s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . C o u n e l i s has s u r v e y e d s e v e r a l dozen s u c h schemas f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e , i n c l u d i n g n o t o n l y t h o s e o f Thomas A q u i n a s , Dewey, P l a t o , Bacon and H e g e l , b u t many l e s s known a t t e m p t s s u c h as t h o s e o f Wundt, Comte and Bentham. The b r e a d t h o f h i s s t u d y u n d e r l i n e s t h e v a r i e t y o f b a s e s and d i s t i n c t i o n s p e o p l e have employed i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o make s e n s e o f t h e u n i v e r s e o f k n o w l e d g e . [ 4 0 ] 2. " P e r s o n as L o c u s " D e f i n i t i o n s Many o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n s of " i n t e g r a t i o n " e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e view t h e p e r s o n as t h e l o c u s o f i n t e g r a t i o n . Among t h e s e , two d e f i n i t e l i n e s o f t h o u g h t a r e i d e n t i f i a b l e : one l i n e e m p h a s i z e s p e r s o n a l i t y a d j u s t m e n t and t h e o t h e r - 103 -e m p h a s i z e s the s t u d e n t ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n of a m e a n i n g f u l e d u c a t i o n a l whole from t h e v a r i o u s e l e m e n t s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m , what one w r i t e r d e s c r i b e s as "a c o n s c i o u s p r o c e s s i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n t i n u a l l y s e e k s t o o r g a n i z e and i n t e r r e l a t e a l l h i s e x p e r i e n c e s i n new m e a n i n g f u l w a y s . " [ 4 1 ] T h o s e who e m p h a s i z e a d j u s t m e n t e i t h e r a t t h e s o c i a l or p e r s o n a l l e v e l s e e , w i t h v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f c l a r i t y , what t a s k s t h e s c h o o l o ught t o do. Hanna and Lang, f o r example, l i s t i n t h e E n c y c l o p e d i a o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h s p e c i f i c t h i n g s s c h o o l s must do i f t h e y a r e " t o l e a d i n t h e t a s k of i n t e g r a t i n g our v a l u e s y s t e m , " i f t h e y a r e " t o s e r v e t h e l o c a l and t h e l a r g e r community i n f o s t e r i n g i n t e g r a t i o n , " and i f t h e y a r e " t o p r o v i d e an e n v i r o n m e n t f a v o r a b l e t o i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y . " [ 4 2 ] M e g r o t h and Washburne, who view i n t e g r a t e d l e a r n i n g as " t h a t i n w h i c h t h e h e a r t , t h e head, and t h e hands work t o g e t h e r , " d e s c r i b e i n t e g r a t e d l e a r n i n g — o r i t s a b s e n c e — b y means of s u c h c o n t r a s t s as "wholesome and o r g a n i s m i c " g r o w t h , as o p p o s e d t o " p a r t s o m e and d i s o r g a n i z e d " e x p e r i e n c e ; and t h e i n d i v i d u a l making "a whole o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e , " as opposed t o a l l o w i n g s e p a r a t e e x p e r i e n c e t o r e m a i n d i s c r e t e . [ 4 3 ] T h e i r summary of e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n i s w o r t h c i t i n g a t l e n g t h b e c a u s e t h e y see a r e l a t i o n between t h e c u r r i c u l u m and t h e s t u d e n t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y a d j u s t m e n t , a r a r e l y - m a d e c o n n e c t i o n i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f i n t e g r a t i o n : - 104 -. . . t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e i n t e g r a t i o n i n t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s w i l l r e v e a l i t s e l f a t t h e f i r s t l e v e l i n a c o n s t a n t a t t e m p t t o o r g a n i z e f a c t s i n t o some s e n s i b l e a r r a n g e m e n t , t o h y p o t h e s i z e and c o n s t a n t l y t o c h e c k t h e h y p o t h e s i s i n t u r n . At t h e s e c o n d l e v e l i n t e g r a t i o n w i l l r e v e a l i t s e l f i n a c o n t i n u o u s a t t e m p t t o make s e n s e o f f e e l i n g s , e m o t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s so t h e y make, a c o h e r e n t and dynamic w h o l e . And a t t h e t h i r d l e v e l t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i l l c o n s t a n t l y r e v i s e h i s i n n e r e n v i r o n m e n t i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e o u t e r e n v i r o n m e n t as he o b s e r v e s i t , and a c t on t h i s r e v i s i o n so t h a t t h e d a t a he e n c o u n t e r s a r e i n v e s t e d f o r him w i t h f o r c e and meaning. And a g a i n , t h e i n d i v i d u a l who i s e x p e r i e n c i n g i n t e g r a t e d l e a r n i n g w i l l have a s e n s e o f d i r e c t i o n , a s e n s e t h a t t h e d y n a m i c s o f h i s e n v i r o n m e n t s a r e p u l l i n g t o g e t h e r and n o t a p a r t . " [ 4 4 ] Watson's d e f i n i t i o n r u n s a l o n g v e r y s i m i l a r l i n e s . He w r i t e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n . . . i n v o l v i n g w h o l e n e s s or o n e n e s s or b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r i n t o a p e r f e c t e d e x i s t e n c e t h e p a r t s o f a c h i l d t h a t s t a r t o f f some i n one d i r e c t i o n and some i n a n o t h e r and w h i c h have t o be bound t o g e t h e r i f i t c a n be d o n e . [ 4 5 ] Among t h o s e who view i n t e g r a t i o n as a d a p t a t i o n o r a d j u s t m e n t w i t h i n and t o one's e n v i r o n m e n t , a s m a l l number of w r i t e r s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e a b i l i t y t o i n t e g r a t e among c o m p e t i n g v a l u e s and demands e q u a l s " i n t e l l i g e n c e . " [ 4 6 ] I f i n t e g r a t i o n e q u a l s " i n t e l l i g e n t , o n g o i n g , i n t e r a c t i n g , a d j u s t i n g b e h a v i o r , " as H o p k i n s d e f i n e s i t , t h e n t h e p h r a s e " e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n " may make s e n s e b ut " c u r r i c u l u m i n t e g r a t i o n " p r o b a b l y does n o t . V e r y c l e a r l y , H o p k i n s (and Knudsen and o t h e r s w i t h him) s e e s i n t e g r a t i o n as s o m e t h i n g t h a t t a k e s p l a c e i n p e o p l e , n o t i n knowledge or c u r r i c u l a . - 105 -3. I n t e r a c t i v e D e f i n i t i o n s Two m e t h o d s p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s t o r e c o n c i l e t h e c o n f l i c t i n g v i e w s r e g a r d i n g t h e " l o c u s " o f i n t e g r a t i o n . One i s t o p o i n t o u t t h a t a w o r d l i k e " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s c a p a b l e o f d o i n g m o r e t h a n o n e j o b o f l i n g u i s t i c w o r k a n d i t c a n be u s e d t o mean b o t h i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y a d j u s t m e n t a n d i n t e g r a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m . A s e c o n d m e t h o d i s t o a r g u e t h a t c u r r i c u l u m i n t e g r a t i o n a n d p e r s o n a l i t y a d j u s t m e n t a r e s o m e h o w r e l a t e d . A f e w w r i t e r s n o t e t h e l i n g u i s t i c a s p e c t s o f t h e c a s e . O t h e r s , some o f whom v i e w t h e l i n g u i s t i c a c c o u n t a s a n e a s y way o u t o f d i f f i c u l t y , a r g u e t h a t c u r r i c u l u m i n t e g r a t i o n a n d p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t a r e r e l a t e d . [ 4 7 ] W h e e l e r , f o r o n e , a r g u e s t h a t s u c h a r e l a t i o n e x i s t s . He c a u t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f m a k i n g c l e a r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c u r r i c u l u m a n d p e r s o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n , a n d t h e n a d d s t h a t e d u c a t o r s m u s t r e m e m b e r t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n i s s o m e t h i n g t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s t h e m s e l v e s a c h i e v e o r do n o t a c h i e v e . T h o u g h i n t e g r a t i o n may be e n c o u r a g e d by t h e way i n w h i c h c o n t e n t i s o f f e r e d , i t i s d e p e n d e n t on t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h l e a r n e r s t h e m s e l v e s s e e t h e p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n t e g r a t i o n i s n o t s o m e t h i n g w h i c h c a n be p r o d u c e d f o r l e a r n e r s , t h o u g h t h e y c a n be h e l p e d by s u i t a b l e a r r a n g e m e n t o f " l e a r n i n g - e x p e r i e n c e s - w i t h - c o n t e n t . " I n a n y e v e n t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o i n t e g r a t e i d e a s , r a t h e r t h a n s u b j e c t m a t t e r . [ 4 8 ] W h e e l e r ' s c o m m e n t s r e c a l l t h e a t t a c k s made o n s u b j e c t - b a s e d - 106 -c u r r i c u l u m , t h e k e r n e l o f w h i c h i s t h a t u n s u i t a b l e c u r r i c u l a r a r r a n g e m e n t s h i n d e r s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o s e e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e a r e a s o f k n o w l e d g e . A n o t h e r w r i t e r e c h o e s W h e e l e r ' s m a i n l i n e s o f t h o u g h t b u t s t i p u l a t e s t h a t w h a t i s k n o w n m u s t i s s u e f o r t h i n p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r , a n i d e a o n e s u s p e c t s m u s t b e i m p l i c i t i n " t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f f a i t h a n d l e a r n i n g " a s w e l l . T e a d w r i t e s t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n i n v o l v e s t h e a b i l i t y . . . t o s e e r e l a t i o n s h i p s n o t r e a d i l y o b v i o u s , t o s e e how w h a t i s k n o w n c a n b e i n t e g r a t e d t o s o m e r e a s o n a b l e e x t e n t i n a n a t u r a l w a y i n t o a c o h e r e n t , m e a n i n g f u l o v e r v i e w r e l a t e d t o c r e a t i v e c o n d u c t . . . . d i s c o v e r s o m e u n d e r l y i n g u n i t y a b o u t t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e s e l f , o f s o c i e t y , a n d o f t h e c o s m o s . [ 4 9 ] T e a d i s p r e s e n t i n g h e r e a n i d e a a l m o s t i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m " p r a c t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n " ( u s e #7 ) a s r e v i e w e d i n A p p e n d i x A . He i s s i m p l y c a l l i n g f o r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g t o l i f e ' s s i t u a t i o n s . Two f e a t u r e s o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " h a v e b e c o m e v e r y c l e a r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . F i r s t , t h e c o n c e p t u n p a c k s i n a c o m p l e x w a y ; i t i s n o t s i m p l e t o d e f i n e . S e c o n d , a n d a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e f i r s t , d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e u s e " i n t e g r a t i o n " t o m e a n d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s . I n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i t i s w o r t h e x p l o r i n g f u r t h e r t h e c o n f u s i o n t h a t o f t e n a r i s e s w h e n p e o p l e t a l k a b o u t i n t e g r a t i n g a c u r r i c u l u m o r i n t e g r a t i n g f a i t h a n d l e a r n i n g . - 1 0 7 -" E s t a b l i s h e d " and "new" i s R o b e r t E n n i s ' d i s t i n c t i o n . L o g i c i n T e a c h i n g ( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1969), p. 153. 2 G i l b e r t R y l e , "The T h e o r y o f M e a n i n g , " i n The I m p o r t a n c e o f L anguage, e d . Max B l a c k ( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1 962), pp. 147-69; I s r a e l S c h e f f l e r , The Language o f E d u c a t i o n ( S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s : C h a r l e s C. Thomas, 1964), pp. 11-35; Max Bla-ck, "The D e f i n i t i o n of S c i e n t i f i c M ethod," i n P r o b l e m s o f A n a l y s i s ( I t h a c a : C o r n e l l , 1 9 54), pp. 3-23; H.P. G r i c e , " M e a n i n g , " The P h i l o s o p h i c a l  Review 66,3 ( 1 9 5 7 ) : 3 7 7 - 8 8 . L e w i s B. Mayhew d i s c u s s e s t h e c o n n e c t i o n between i n t e g r a t i o n and i n t e g r i t y . " I l l u s t r a t i v e C o u r s e s and Programs i n C o l l e g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s , " i n The I n t e g r a t i o n o f  E d u c a t i o n a l E x p e r i e n c e s (The 5 7 t h Y e a r b o o k o f t h e NSSE, p t . 3 ) , ed. N e l s o n B. Henry ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1958), p. 221. 4 F o r f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n o f t e r m s i n v o l v i n g t h e r o o t " d i s c i p l i n e , " see B o i s o t , Hausman, Swoboda, C. James, K o c k l e m a n s , C l e v e l a n d . ^ Knudsen c l a i m s t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n i s " t h e f o r m a t i o n o f w h o l e s from p a r t s " ( p . 17);. D r e s s e l w r i t e s t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n e n t a i l s t h e " i n t e r d e p e n d e n t p a r t s o f a l a r g e r whole r e l a t [ i n g ] o r [ b e i n g ] b r o u g h t i n t o h a r m o n i o u s r e l a t i o n w i t h one a n o t h e r " ( p p . 1 0 - 1 1 ) . O t h e r p a r a l l e l s do a v a i l t h e m s e l v e s ; f o r example, t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f m o l e c u l e s , t h e b i o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f o r g a n i s m s , and s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n . F o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of p a r t s and w h o l e s i n i n t e g r a t i o n , see P a u l R. Hanna and A r c h D. L a n g , " I n t e g r a t i o n , " i n E n c y c l o p e d i a o f E d u c a t i o n a l  R e s e a r c h , e d . W a l t e r S. Munroe (New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1952), pp. 589-90 and A r t h u r R. K i n g and J o hn A. B r o w n e l l , The C u r r i c u l u m and t h e D i s c i p l i n e s o,f Knowledge (New Y o r k : W i l e y , 1966), pp. 59-63. ; ; 7 H a r r y S. B r o u d y , B u i l d i n g a P h i l o s o p h y o f E d u c a t i o n ( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1954), p. 69. 8 1 i L e v i Thomas H o p k i n s , "Arguments F a v o r i n g I n t e g r a t i o n , " T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e R e c o r d 36 ( A p r i l 1935):604. 9 1937, pp.. 3-19. ! ^ G o o d w i n Watson, "Ah I n t e g r a t e d C u r r i c u l u m f o r t h e I n t e g r a t i o n o f C h i l d r e n from t h e S t a n d p o i n t of P s y c h o l o g y , " N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , P r o c e e d i n g s and A d d r e s s e s 69 - 108 -( 1 9 3 1 ) : 4 7 2 . 1 1 B e l l a c k , p. 266. R.W. G e r a r d , " H i g h e r L e v e l s of I n t e g r a t i o n , " S c i e n c e 95 ( M arch 27, 1942):309-13; A.B. N o v i k o f f , "The C o n c e p t o f I n t e g r a t i v e L e v e l s and B i o l o g y , " S c i e n c e 101 ( 1 9 4 5 ) : 2 0 9 - 1 5 ; W a l t e r F. D e x t e r , "A C o l l e g e P r e s i d e n t ' s V i e w p o i n t of an I n t e g r a t e d C u r r i c u l u m f o r t h e I n t e g r a t i o n o f C h i l d r e n , " N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n . P r o c e e d i n g s and A d d r e s s e s 69 ( 1 9 3 1 ) : 5 7 9 - 8 1 ; A l i s t a i r M. T a y l o r , " I n t e g r a t i v e P r i n c i p l e s i n Human S o c i e t y , " i n I n t e g r a t i v e P r i n c i p l e s i n Modern T h o u g h t , ed . Henry Margeneau (New Y o r k : Gordon and B r e a c h , 1972), pp. 215-42. 13 J o h n Dewey, Democracy and E d u c a t i o n (New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1916), p. 81. ^ C h a r l e s M. O'Hara, "A P l a n o f C u r r i c u l a r I n t e g r a t i o n f o r t h e C a t h o l i c C o l l e g e , " The N a t i o n a l C a t h o l i c E d u c a t i o n a l  A s s o c i a t i o n B u l l e t i n 85 ( A u g u s t 1 9 3 8 ) : 2 2 9 . C i t e d i n R a t t i g a n , p. 174. • ^ T a y l o r , " I n t e g r a t i v e P r i n c i p l e s and t h e E d u c a t i o n a l P r o c e s s , " p. 129. ^ H u t c h i n s , The H i g h e r L e a r n i n g i n A m e r i c a , p. 94. ^ J o s e p h Tussman, E x p e r i m e n t a t B e r k e l e y (New Y o r k : O x f o r d , 1969), p. 52. 1 8 P p . 52,14. 19 P e t r i e , 1976, p. 2. See a l s o C o n n o l e , p. 5. In "Towards t h e I n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n s o f E d u c a t i o n , " E d u c a t i o n a l T h e o r y 13 (1963),. R o n a l d G. J o n e s a r g u e s t h a t s u c h a p r i n c i p l e i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t f o r i n t e g r a t i o n but i t i s n e c e s s a r y ( p . 7 5 ) . 2 0 D i x , p. 64. A l s o see B r o u d y , p. 71. 21 Democracy and E x c e l l e n c e , p. 42. B e n j a m i n S. Bloom, " I d e a s , P r o b l e m s and Methods o f I n q u i r y , " i n The I n t e g r a t i o n o f E d u c a t i o n a l E x p e r i e n c e s (The 5 7 t h Y e a r b o o k o f t h e NSSE, p t . 3 ) , ed. N e l s o n B. Henry ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 91; P a u l L. D r e s s e l , " I n t e g r a t i o n : An E x p a n d i n g C o n c e p t , " i n Henry, 1958, p. 261. Bloom i n c l u d e s any " i d e a , p r o b l e m , method, or d e v i c e " by w h i c h l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s a r e r e l a t e d . D r e s s e l s u g g e s t s t h a t c o n c e p t s , p r i n c i p l e s , s k i l l s , v a l u e s and - 109 -methods a r e a l l a b l e t o f u n c t i o n as i n t e g r a t i v e t h r e a d s . 9 o ^ J A r n o l d B i n d e r , D a n i e l S t o k o l s and R a l p h C a t a l a n o , " S o c i a l E c o l o g y : An E m e r g i n g D i s c i p l i n e , " J o u r n a l o f  E n v i r o n m e n t a l E d u c a t i o n 7,2 ( 1 9 7 5 ) : 3 2 - 4 3 . Thomas L. Dynneson, "Can A n t h r o p o l o g y R e v o l u t i o n i z e P u b l i c S c h o o l C u r r i c u l u m ? " (Ames, Iowa: Iowa Academy of S c i e n c e , 1 9 7 3 ) . 2 5Organ:,- " P h i l o s o p h y as I n t e g r a t o r , " pp. 477-78; M e i k l e j o h n , p. 49. Wise a l s o l i s t s t h e " p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l i f e " as a s u f f i c i e n t o r g a n i z i n g p u r p o s e ( p . 9 3 ) . Chen names th e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c o n t e m p o r a r y e n v i r o n m e n t and c u l t u r e ( p p . 9 - 1 0 ) . 2 6 P. 40. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , P a u l L. D r e s s e l and L e w i s B. Mayhew l i s t b o t h " t h e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l i f e " and "good c i t i z e n s h i p " as e x a m ples o f i n a d e q u a t e o r g a n i z i n g p u r p o s e s f o r a c u r r i c u l u m . In t h e i r t u r n , t h e y s u g g e s t l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g as a s u f f i c i e n t l y wide b a s i s . See G e n e r a l  E d u c a t i o n : E x p l o r a t i o n s i n E v a l u a t i o n ( W a s h i n g t o n : A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n , 1 954), pp. 267-78. See O r g a n ' s comments on t h e i r p r o p o s a l , i n "The P h i l o s o p h i c a l B a s i s f o r I n t e g r a t i o n , " i n The I n t e g r a t i o n o f E d u c a t i o n a l E x p e r i e n c e s (The 5 7 t h Y e a r b o o k of t h e NSSE, p t . 3 ) , e d . N e l s o n B. Henry ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 958), pp. 8-9. 27 I n " I n t e g r a t i o n i n H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , " Organ a l l o w s t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n m i g h t d e r i v e f r o m a c o n c e p t s u c h as law, c a u s e , or e v o l u t i o n ( J o u r n a l o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n 26 ( A p r i l 1 9 5 5 ) : 1 8 5 ) . T y l e r s u g g e s t s " c h r o n o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n , movement from c o n c r e t e t o a b s t r a c t , and movement fr o m s i m p l e r e a c t i o n s t o complex r e a c t i o n s . " R a l p h W. T y l e r , " C u r r i c u l u m O r g a n i z a t i o n , " i n The I n t e g r a t i o n o f E d u c a t i o n a l  E x p e r i e n c e s (The 5 7 t h Y e a r b o o k o f t h e NSSE, p t . 3 ) , e d . N e l s o n B. Henry ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 58), pp. 52-3. 2 8 Hong, pp. 6-14. He c a u t i o n s t h a t l a t e r G reek e d u c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y a t A t h e n s , had o t h e r p u r p o s e s s u c h as " p e r s o n a l a d v a n c e m e n t " and " i n d i v i d u a l e x c e l l e n c e . " 29 Chen, pp. 309-10. 30 C. R o b e r t P a c e , " E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s , " i n The  I n t e g r a t i o n o f E d u c a t i o n a l E x p e r i e n c e s (The 5 7 t h Y e a r b o o k o f t h e NSSE, p t . 3 ) , e d . N e l s o n B. Henry ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , pp. 69-83. 31 Bloom, p. 90. - 110 -3 2 i n t h i s r e g a r d , Hong w r o t e i n 1956: "The t e c h n i c a l r o l e of t h e e n g i n e e r , t h e p h y s i c i a n , or t h e p h y s i c i s t i s one w h i c h s a t i s f i e s t o some e x t e n t t h e s e a r c h of t h e i n d i v i d u a l f o r p u r p o s e and u n i t y i n l i f e . But t h e i n a d e q u a c y of t h e s i n g l e g o a l o f t e c h n i c a l competence has r e c e n t l y been r e c o g n i z e d by s c i e n t i s t s and t h e s c h o o l s w h i c h t r a i n s c i e n t i s t s " ( p p . 38-9.) • ^ • ^ I n t e r e s t i n g l y , a few w r i t e r s do n o t i c e t h a t t h e s e v a r i o u s a n s wers a r e p o s s i b l e . T.R. M c C o n n e l l , " G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n : An A n a l y s i s , i n G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n (The 5 1 s t Y e a r b o o k o f t h e NSSE, p t . 1 ) , e d . N e l s o n B. Henry ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o Press., 1952), ( p . 11) and D r e s s e l ("Meaning and S i g n i f i c a n c e , " pp. 6-7) n o t e i t i n p a s s i n g , as does B e r t i s E. C a p e h a r t , " I l l u s t r a t i v e C o u r s e s and Programs i n S e l e c t e d S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s , " i n The I n t e g r a t i o n o f  E d u c a t i o n a l E x p e r i e n c e s (The 5 7 t h Y e a r b o o k of t h e NSSE, p t . 1 ) , e d . N e l s o n B. Henry ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1958), p. 217. 3 4 A f o u r t h c l a s s m i g h t a r g u a b l y be added on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s f r e q u e n t l y u s e d and even d e f i n e d w i t h o u t a p p a r e n t r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t i t m i g h t have t o do w i t h p e o p l e or w i t h knowledge or w i t h b o t h . 3 5 w e b s t e r ' s T h i r d New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y ( S p r i n g f i e l d , Mass.: M e r r i a m , 1 9 8 1 ) . 3 6 E R I C T h e s a u r u s ( P h o e n i x : Oryx P r e s s , 1 9 8 2 ) . As n o t e d i n C h a p t e r I I I , t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s do n o t r e f l e c t t h e c a t e g o r i e s d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . J'Numerous ERIC s e a r c h e s f a i l e d t o p r o d u c e a s i n g l e c i t a t i o n t h a t had t o do w i t h b o t h c u r r i c u l u m i n t e g r a t i o n and p e r s o n a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n . T h i s may i n d i c a t e e i t h e r a l a c k o f s u c h r e s e a r c h o r a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h o s e who c o m p i l e d t h e ERIC t h e s a u r u s . The p r e s e n t a u t h o r s u s p e c t s t h e l a c k o f c i t a t i o n s r e s u l t s f r o m a l a c k o f w r i t i n g and r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a . 3 8 E . D . D u r y e a , J r . , " I n t e g r a t e d Knowledge i n t h e C u r r i c u l u m , " E d u c a t i o n a l R e c o r d 33 ( O c t o b e r 5 2 ) : 5 6 3 - 7 . o Q 7 A r c a and V i c e n t i n i - M i s s o n i , p. 117; Bolam, p. 159. F o r f u r t h e r e x a m p l e s , see a l s o C a r t e r and N a r r a m o r e , p. 13; M u s g r a v e , pp. 32-35. 4 0 J o h n S t e v e C o u n e l i s , " E d u c a t i o n About E d u c a t i o n , " E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s 9 ( W i n t e r 1979) :409-12. - Ill -4 ^ D r e s s e l , " I n t e g r a t i o n : An E x p a n d i n g C o n c e p t , " p. 251. D r e s s e l ' s v i e w s a r e n o t e d a g a i n i n C h a p t e r V where " P r o c e s s " and " P r o d u c t " a r e d i s c u s s e d . The a d j u s t m e n t and pedagogy d i s t i n c t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r V as w e l l . 4 2 P. 598. 4 3 E.G. M e g r o t h and V.Z. Washburne, " I n t e g r a t i o n i n E d u c a t i o n , " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h 43 ( O c t o b e r 1 949):82-4. 44 Pp. 86-87. 4 5 P. 472.. A l s o see B r o u d y , (1954),. pp. 68-71 and Chen, pp. 307-9. Broudy w r i t e s ( p . 68) o f ". . . t h e o r g a n i z i n g o f one's e n e r g i e s f o r s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n " b e c a u s e one c a n n o t " a c t u a l i z e e v e r y p o s s i b i l i t y " and b e c a u s e " f l i t t i n g f r o m one f l o w e r t o a n o t h e r i s so o f t e n a c c o m p a n i e d by s t r o n g f e e l i n g s of d r i f t and i n n e r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . " 4 6 Knudsen, pp.18-19; L e v i T. H o p k i n s , " V i e w p o i n t , " pp. 2-9. 4 7 I t i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e c a s e t h a t o n l y one o f t h e s e v i e w s i s r i g h t . 4 8 D.K. W h e e l e r , C u r r i c u l u m P r o c e s s ( L o n d o n : U n i v e r s i t y o f London P r e s s , 1 973), p. 259. 4 9 Ordway T e a d , " P h i l o s o p h i c U n i f i c a t i o n and t h e C o l l e g e C u r r i c u l u m , " Main C u r r e n t s 8 ( 1 9 5 1 ) : 1 7 ( e m p h a s i s h i s ) . - 112 -CHAPTER V ANALYSIS OF SOURCES OF CONFUSION In t h e o l d d a y s , d ays as o l d as t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y — t h e young l o v e r would on o c c a s i o n p r o v e t h e a r d e n c y o f h i s l o v e by deeds o f v a l o r . I f h i s t r u e l o v e were w i t h i n s i g h t when h e r b e a u t y was q u e s t i o n e d by a n o t h e r man, he m i g h t j u s t b r e a k h i s h e a d - - t h e o t h e r man's head, I m e a n — t h e n t h a t p r o v e d t h a t h i s — t h e f i r s t f e l l o w ' s — g i r l was a p r e t t y g i r l . But i f t h e o t h e r f e l l o w b r o k e h i s h e a d - - n o t h i s own, you know, but t h e o t h e r f e l l o w ' s — t h e o t h e r f e l l o w t o t h e s e c o n d f e l l o w , t h a t i s , b e c a u s e o f c o u r s e t h e o t h e r f e l l o w would o n l y be t h e o t h e r f e l l o w t o him, n o t t h e f i r s t f e l l o w w h o — w e l l , i f he b r o k e h i s head, t h e n h i s g i r l - - n o t t h e o t h e r f e l l o w ' s b u t t h e f e l l o w who was t h e - - L o o k h e r e , i f A b r o k e B's head, t h e n A's g i r l was a p r e t t y g i r l ; but i f B b r o k e A's head, t h e n A's g i r l was n o t a p r e t t y g i r l , but B's g i r l was. - Jerome K. Jerome ( 1 8 9 5 - 1 9 2 7 ) . [ 1 ] I t i s c l e a r f r o m t h e f o r e g o i n g c h a p t e r s t h a t c o n f u s i o n s u r r o u n d s " i n t e g r a t i o n . " In e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e , b o t h as i t i s us e d and as i t i s d e f i n e d , t h i s t e r m i s g i v e n a g r e a t d e a l o f work t o do, so much work, a c c o r d i n g t o a t l e a s t one o b s e r v e r , "as t o be s u s p e c t . " [ 2 ] C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e word has l o s t some o f i t s o r i g i n a l s p e c i f i c i t y , and many p e o p l e u s i n g i t now r e g u l a r l y p r e c e d e t h e i r use o f i t w i t h t h e w a r n i n g t h a t i t has l o s t b o t h power and p r e c i s i o n b u t t h a t t h e r e i s no r e p l a c e m e n t a v a i l a b l e . - 113 -T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l examine some s p e c i f i c s o u r c e s of t h e c o n f u s i o n s u r r o u n d i n g " i n t e g r a t i o n " and " t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f f a i t h and l e a r n i n g . " What p r o c e s s e s a r e a t work when s u c h l a n g u a g e i s used t h a t i t can g e n e r a t e so many p r o b l e m s ? In what f o l l o w s , f i v e s o u r c e s o r a r e a s o f c o n f u s i o n a r e t r e a t e d . F i r s t , " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s examined as a p o s i t i v e v a l u e t e r m and as a s l o g a n . N e x t, v a r i o u s p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i m e n s i o n s o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " a r e c o n s i d e r e d : t h e i n v a s i o n o f m e n t a l h e a l t h c o n n o t a t i o n s i n t o e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l u s a g e ; t h e e v a s i o n of t h e same; and t h e l o g i c a l / p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e b a t e ( " l o c u s d e b a t e " ) . A t h i r d major s e c t i o n t r e a t s " i n t e g r a t i o n " as a term open b o t h t o p r o c e s s and t o p r o d u c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , a f t e r a s h o r t d i s c u s s i o n o f " i n t e g r a t i o n " as a p o l y m o r p h o u s t e r m , t h e c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h an e x t e n d e d d i s t i n c t i o n between c o n c e p t s and c o n c e p t i o n s . A. "INTEGRATION": A POSITIVE TERM An i m p o r t a n t , and p e r h a p s t h e most o b v i o u s o b s e r v a t i o n one c o u l d make a b o u t " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s t h a t i t i s a p o s i t i v e t e r m . As n o t e d i n C h a p t e r IV, i t has t o do w i t h c o h e r e n c e , harmony, u n i t y and w h o l e n e s s . I t i s no wonder t h a t t h e word has been u s e d so w i d e l y i n many f i e l d s of d i s c o u r s e , e d u c a t i o n p r o m i n e n t among them. I t i s a l s o no - 1 1 4 -wonder t h a t s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e i n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e now e n t a i l s t h e i n c l u s i o n of a c o d i c i l p o i n t i n g out t h a t one knows t h e word's l i m i t a t i o n s b e f o r e one s a y s much more a b o u t i t . [ 3 ] E v i d e n c e t h a t " i n t e g r a t i o n " has p o s i t i v e v a l u e c o n n o t a t i o n s abounds i n e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e . I t i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y , w h i c h i s v i e w e d as c o s m e t i c and o n l y a p a r t i a l - e f f o r t . [ 4 ] I t i s a l s o c o n t r a s t e d w i t h a c u r r i c u l u m where knowledge i s d i v i d e d i n t o s e c t o r s w h i c h "do n o t r e l a t e t o r e a l l i f e . " [ 5 ] I t i s e x t o l l e d b e c a u s e i t i s b e t t e r t h a n " c o n v e n t i o n a l t e a c h i n g . " [ 6 ] In t h e a r e a o f t h e " i n t e g r a t i o n o f f a i t h and l e a r n i n g " s p e c i f i c a l l y , one w r i t e r c o n t r a s t s " r e a l i n t e g r a t i o n " w i t h t h r e e poor s u b s t i t u t e s : 1) mere " i n t e r a c t i o n o f f a i t h and l e a r n i n g , a d i a l o g , " 2) c o n j u n c t i o n s , or u n h o l y a l l i a n c e s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c r i t i q u e s o f m a t e r i a l w i t h o u t t h e p r o v i s i o n o f more s a t i s f a c t o r y e x p l a n a t i o n s , 3) d i s j u n c t i o n s where i n s t e a d o f i n t e r e s t i n c u l t u r e and human a c h i e v e m e n t t h e r e i s a " m i l i t a n t p o l e m i c a g a i n s t s e c u l a r l e a r n i n g and s c i e n c e and c u l t u r e . " [ 7 ] In f a c t , " i n t e g r a t i o n [ o f f a i t h and l e a r n i n g ] " i s even c l a i m e d as a g o a l by some p e o p l e b e t t e r known f o r t h e i r m i l i t a n t a n t i - s e c u l a r p o l e m i c t h a n f o r t h e i r d e s i r e t o embrace s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y t h e human f u n d o f k n o w l e d g e . [ 8 ] - 115 -\ A r t i c l e t i t l e s t e l l a s t o r y of t h e i r own. In 1935, " I n t e g r a t i o n : P o t e n t i a l l y t h e Most S i g n i f i c a n t F o r w a r d S t e p i n t h e H i s t o r y o f A m e r i c a n S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n " a p p e a r e d i n a C a l i f o r n i a j o u r n a l . [ 9 ] More r e c e n t l y , even Mother Goose has f o u n d h e r way i n t o t h e i n t e g r a t e d c u r r i c u l u m . [ 1 0 ] L i k e " c r e a t i v e , " " i n n o v a t i v e , " " d e m o c r a t i c " and many o t h e r words i n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e , " i n t e g r a t i o n " has a c h i e v e d what m i g h t be c a l l e d " s e m a n t i c s t a r s t a t u s . " H a v i n g a c h i e v e d t h a t s t a t u s , " i n t e g r a t i o n " p r o v i d e s what J a c q u e s E l l u l c a l l s " t h e n o u r i s h m e n t o f [ a ] s o c i e t y . " [ 1 1 ] Some e d u c a t o r s have n o t e d how " i n t e g r a t i o n " has come t o n o u r i s h e d u c a t i o n a l s o c i e t y . P r i n g o b s e r v e s how v a r i o u s S c h o o l s - C o u n c i l r e p o r t s v i e w e d i n t e g r a t e d c u r r i c u l a as " h o l i s t i c " compared t o t h e " f r a g m e n t a t i o n " o f s u b j e c t - b a s e d c u r r i c u l a . [ 1 2 ] In t h e i r s e l f - s t u d y r e p o r t , , t h e St.. O l a f ' s C o l l e g e f a c u l t y n o t e t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n "seems t o be a u n i v e r s a l l y r e c o g n i z e d g o a l . " [ 1 3 ] G a n g e l w r i t e s t h a t t h e s p e c i f i c p h r a s e " i n t e g r a t i o n o f f a i t h and l e a r n i n g " has become " a l m o s t a s y m b o l " o r "a r a l l y i n g c r y w h i c h b r i n g s nods o f a p p r o v a l f r o m f a i t h f u l m u l t i p l i e d h u n d r e d s o f t e a c h e r s ."[14 ] A n o t h e r e d u c a t o r c a u t i o n s t h a t , i n h i s w r i t i n g s , " i n t e g r a t i o n " i s n o t " j u s t a n o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l s l o g a n . " [ 1 5 ] Knudsen's o b s e r v a t i o n i s c l e a r l y a c c u r a t e : " o n l y a p a r t i c u l a r l y o b t u s e e d u c a t o r or one q u i t e i n s e n s i b l e t o h a p p e n i n g s i n t h e f i e l d " w