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Adult education content and processes in Hong Kong (1990-1997) 1990

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ADULT EDUCATION CONTENT AND PROCESSES IN HONG KONG (1990-1997) by YUEN YING CHRISTINE MAN B.S.Sc, The Chinese Uni v e r s i t y of Hong Kong, 1983 Dip.Ad.Ed., The Unive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1990 ©Yuen Ying C h r i s t i n e Man, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of A t 3 m i n i s t r a t ; ' - V e r Adult & Higher Education The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date November 22, 1990. DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT Adult education i s shaped by the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l context i n which i t occurs. Hong Kong i s confronting immense s o c i a l change as i t w i l l cease to be a colony of the United Kingdom and become a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China i n 1997. The reversion of sovereignty to China i n 1997 i s already changing the p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , and c u l t u r a l context although the S i n o - B r i t i s h J o i n t Declaration ( i n i t i a l l e d on September 26, 1984 and formally took, e f f e c t on May 27, 1985) s t i p u l a t e d that Hong Kong's e x i s t i n g c a p i t a l i s t system and l i f e - s t y l e would remain unchanged f o r 50 years a f t e r 1997. However, by 1989, i t was c l e a r that what people were "thinking" or " b e l i e v i n g " about the s i t u a t i o n was having a more potent e f f e c t on Hong Kong than l e g a l documents or slogans such as "one country, two systems." Thus, t h i s study was l a r g e l y couched within a phenomenological frame of reference. The s i t u a t i o n of Hong Kong i s unprecedented and people face uncertainty as they enter the run-up to 1997. The " c i t y of j i t t e r s " i s undergoing a process of decoloni- zation on the one hand and integration with Mainland China on the other. Adult education helps people prepare f o r change, but at the same time, i s shaped by people's ideas i i i of what the present s i t u a t i o n i s and what the future w i l l be l i k e . The purposes of t h i s study were: 1. To obtain e s t i m a t e s concerning the a n t i c i p a t e d changes i n the content and processes of adult/continuing education (ACE) i n the run-up to 1997. 2. To e s t a b l i s h the extent to which socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s of respondents explained variance i n e s t i m a t e s (concerning the anticipated changes i n the content and processes of ACE). 3. To e s t a b l i s h the extent to which the p o l i t i c a l orientations of respondents explained variance in e s t i m a t e s (concerning the anticipated changes i n the content and processes of ACE). 4. To examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between respondents 1 "emigration intentions" and t h e i r e s t i m a t e s (concerning the a n t i c i p a t e d changes i n the content and processes of ACE) . This was an ex post facto study i n which 122 Hong Kong adult educators completed questionnaires which asked them to make estimates concerning the future c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s e s of adult education. Following t h i s , the researcher examined the extent to which the respondents' socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (and p o l i t i c a l o r i e n - tations) explained variance i n e s t i m a t e s (concerning the i v content and processes of adult education). Respondents claimed that i n the run-up to 1997, f o r people staying, i n t e r e s t s i n "Management," "China Stud- i e s " and "Business & Commerce" programs w i l l increase strongly. They believed that people leaving Hong Kong temporarily or leaving permanently w i l l be g r e a t l y i n t e r - ested i n "Technical Training" programs but t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n "Law," "China Studies" and " S o c i a l Sciences" w i l l decrease. Respondents thought that i n the run-up to 1997, the use of adult education methods and techniques w i l l increase (generally and i n the workplace). They claimed that there w i l l a l a r g e r increase i n the use of "Courses By Computer" i n Hong Kong generally and i n the workplace. Age and educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n of respondents were s i g - n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r estimates concerning the an- t i c i p a t e d changes i n ACE. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t association between respondents' p o l i t i c a l o rientations and t h e i r estimates. Nor were t h e i r "emigration intenti o n s " s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to estimates. I t appears that, i n general, the s t r u c t i o n a l - f u n c t i o n a l ap- proach to adult education w i l l remain. V TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS V LIST OF TABLES v i i i LIST OF FIGURES X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i CHAPTER I: HISTORICAL ROOTS OF EDUCATION IN HONG KONG 1 Founding of the Colony 1 The B r i t i s h Administration Established 3 B r i t i s h Education f o r Chinese 10 Defining Adult Education 17 Purposes of the Study 17 CHAPTER I I : CONTEMPORARY ADULT EDUCATION 21 Philosophical Background and Value Systems.. 21 Confucianism, Dr Sun Yat-sen and the Chinese Order 21 So c i a l and Educational Change i n Hong Kong 28 Agencies and Programs 34 Pr o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n 38 CHAPTER I I I : THE SINO-BRITISH JOINT DECLARATION 44 Background 44 P o l i t i c a l Analysis of the Declaration 48 H i s t o r i c a l Meanings to Hong Kong 52 Uniqueness of the Si t u a t i o n 54 CHAPTER IV: REACTIONS OF THE COLONY 59 S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l Echoes 59 Repercussions i n Education 68 v i CHAPTER V: SCENARIOS FOR THE FUTURE 72 The"Continuing Prosperity" Scenario 73 The "Wait and See" Scenario 74 The " I t ' s A l l Over" Scenario 75 CHAPTER VI: INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT 77 Item Construction 77 Conceptual Bases f o r Socio- demographic Questions 81 Languages and Forms 85 P i l o t Study. 86 CHAPTER VII: METHOD 89 Population 89 Mailing of Questionnaires 90 Data Processing and Analysis 91 CHAPTER VIII: RESULTS 96 E f f e c t of History 9 6 R e l i a b i l i t y , 98 R e l i a b i l i t y Results 99 Response Rate 101 Ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Respondents 101 Men's and Women's Estimates and Their P o l i t i c a l Orientations 103 Purpose One 108 Purpose Two 113 Purpose Three 118 Respondents' P o l i t i c a l Orientations and Their Views Concerning the Purposes of Adult Education 121 Purpose Four 122 Respondents' Intentions and Their Estimates Concerning Others' Intentions 125 Respondents' Intentions and Involvement i n China Projects 127 June 4 Incident and Respondents' Estimates 128 v i i CHAPTER IX: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION 130 Summary 131 Conclusions... 134 Discussion 140 REFERENCES 150 APPRENDIX A: Questionnaires Administered During Study of Hong Kong Adult Education Content and Processes. . 155 APPENDIX B: Newspaper Coverage of May 28, 1989 — P e o p l e Marched i n Hong Kong f o r Democracy i n China 243 APPENDIX C: Newspaper Front Page of June 4, 1989 —Tiananmen Square Incident 244 APPENDIX D: Newspaper Front Page of June 5, 1989 —Mass Ra l l y and General S t r i k e C a l l e d For i n Hong Kong. 245 APPENDIX E: Newspaper Front Page of June 6, 1989 — S t o c k Market Plunged and Chinese Banks i n Hong Kong Made Run On 246 v i i i L IST OF TABLES Table 1: The 45 subject items i n Part I of the questionnaire 78 Table 2: Adult education Methods and Techniques 80 Table 3: Dimensions shaping the socio- demographic p r o f i l e of respondents 82 Table 4: L i s t of questions f o r examining the p o l i t i c a l orientations of respondents.... 83 Table 5: The four forms of questionnaires i n two sets that vary by item order and language. 86 Table 6: Socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of respondents 102 Table 7: Men and women adult educators' estimates concerning changes i n adult/continuing education (ACE) and t h e i r p o l i t i c a l o rientations 104 Table 8: Respondents* estimates concerning changes i n ACE, t h e i r p o l i t i c a l o r ientations and ranking of purposes of adult education 110 Table 9: I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between respondents' socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h e i r leaving or staying estimates and estimates concerning changes i n ACE 115 Table 10: I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between respondents' p o l i t i c a l orientations, t h e i r emigration intentions and estimates concerning changes i n ACE 120 i x Table 11: In t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between respondents' ranking of purposes of adult education and t h e i r p o l i t i c a l o rientations 121 Table 12: Respondents' intentions concerning leaving or staying i n Hong Kong and t h e i r estimates concerning other residents' intentions 125 Table 13: Respondents• intentions concerning leaving or staying i n Hong Kong and the extent of t h e i r involvement i n China projects 127 Table 14: Respondents' estimates concerning other residents' intentions i n the run-up to 1997 and the date they returned questionnaires 128 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Schematic portrayal of main elements i n a study of adult/continuing education (ACE) i n Hong Kong (1990-1997) 19 Figure 2. Ways of conceptualizing the "state" and "society" 25 Figure 3. Paulston's model of conceptualizing s o c i a l and educational change 29 Figure 4. Respondents' estimates concerning the ant i c i p a t e d changes i n the content and processes of ACE (1990-1997) 109 Figure 5. Respondents' socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e i r estimates concerning the anticipated changes i n ACE (1990-1997) 114 Figure 6. Respondents' p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s and t h e i r estimates concerning the antic i p a t e d changes i n ACE (1990- 1997) 119 Figure 7. Respondents' p o l i t i c a l o rientations and t h e i r views concerning the purposes of adult education 123 Figure 8. Respondents' emigration intentions and t h e i r estimates concerning the antic i p a t e d changes i n ACE (1990- 1997) 124 Figure 9. Respondents' emigration intentions and t h e i r estimates concerning others' intentions 126 xi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my deep appreciation to Professor Roger Boshier, my advisor, f o r h i s vigorous as well as rigorous guidance. I am also g r a t e f u l to Dr Tom Sork, Dr Dan Pratt and Dr John C o l l i n s f o r t h e i r advice and support. Special thanks go to a l l friends who gave me a hand i n the survey, e s p e c i a l l y Miss C h r i s t i n e Yeung, Mr Desmond Lee, Mr Charles Wong, Miss N.P. Lee, Mrs Miranda Wong, Dr Therese Shak, Mr Augustine Chong and Mr Yat-bong Ma. I also acknowledge Professor Gordon Selman, who i s always a teacher and a f r i e n d of mine. 1 CHAPTER I HISTORICAL ROOTS OP EDUCATION IN HONG KONG Founding of the Colony Hong Kong, with a population of 5,658,800 i n a land area of only 1,071 square kilometres (Hong Kong Annual Report, 1989, p. 329), was a t i n y f i s h i n g v i l l a g e at the south-eastern end of imperial China i n the nineteenth century. Before the B r i t i s h occupation i n 1841, Hong Kong was under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Qing Dynasty, an Empire established by the Manchu i n the 16th century. The Manchu government was seen as an oppressor of the Han people, the l a r g e s t ethnic group i n China. Throughout the t r i c e n t e n n i a l reign of the Manchus, there had been numerous r e b e l l i o n s waged by the Hans. The Qing Empire began to decline i n mid-19th century as a r e s u l t of severe corruption i n the government. Except for Chinese merchants who started trade with the West from Canton and other ports of southern China i n the 14th century (Cheng, 1986), China had long been i s o l a t e d from the outside world. I t s technology was s t i l l underdeveloped compared to i t s counterparts i n the West. At that time, B r i t a i n had been a trading partner of China, and "China trade was 2 part of the expansion of the B r i t i s h economy overseas" (Cheng, 1986, p. 72). As B r i t a i n had imported opium from India to China f o r exchange of Chinese tea, s i l k and other goods, China had suffered a loss of finances. Many Chinese people smoked opium, and t h e i r health deteriorated. Tension grew as China decided to stop the opium trade but B r i t a i n wished to continue. There was no other way to s e t t l e the dispute but through a war. The two empires fought against each other i n 1840. This i s known as the Opium War. China, with i t s backward weaponry and corrupt government o f f i c i a l s , l o s t the war, and was forced to sign the "unequal" Treaty of Nanking with B r i t a i n i n 1842. The treaty was regarded as "unequal" by Chinese h i s t o r i a n s because they claimed i t was enforced upon the weak, powerless empire f o r the purpose of snatching t e r r i t o r y and other commercial benefits from China. Under that treaty, Hong Kong Island was ceded i n perpetuity to B r i t a i n . I t seemed that the aim of the B r i t i s h occupation of Hong Kong was f o r commercial purposes—to promote trade with China (Cheng, 1986). Two subsequent wars between China and B r i t a i n had resu l t e d i n two more "unequal" t r e a t i e s i n which a lar g e r portion of t e r r i t o r y had been added to expand the B r i t i s h colony. These two t r e a t i e s were: "The 3 Convention of Peking i n 1860 under which the southern part of the Kowloon peninsula and Stonecutters Island were ceded i n perpetuity; the Convention of 1898 under which the New T e r r i t o r i e s (comprising 92 per cent of the t o t a l land area of the t e r r i t o r y ) were leased to B r i t a i n f o r 99 years from 1 Ju l y 1898" (A Draft Agreement between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great B r i t a i n and Northern Ireland and the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Future of Hong Kong, 1984, p . l ) . The B r i t i s h Administration Established The h i s t o r y of Hong Kong as a B r i t i s h colony began i n 1843 when S i r Henry Pbttinger was appointed the f i r s t Governor. The administration was b u i l t on a general government structure commonly found i n a l l B r i t i s h colonies. The Queen appoints a Governor to act as her representative i n Hong Kong. The Governor has supreme authority. He heads the administration while being the t i t u l a r Commander-in-Chief of the B r i t i s h Forces stationed i n Hong Kong. The Letters Patent and the Royal Instructions make up the c o n s t i t u t i o n of Hong Kong. These two documents established "separation of powers" i n forming the government machinery of Hong Kong. The Letters Patent defined the r o l e and powers of the Governor and 4 outlined the structure of the Executive and L e g i s l a t i v e Councils. Besides the powers i n l e g i s l a t i o n , the Governor may appoint judges to the Supreme and D i s t r i c t Courts. The Royal Instructions gave d e t a i l s of the membership and procedures of the two Councils, and the process of l e g i s l a t i o n . "The Standing Orders of the L e g i s l a t i v e Council, made under the authority of Royal I n s t r u c t i o n XXIII, provide how B i l l s are to be passed" (Hong Kong Annual Report, 1989, p. 24). The Executive Council i s the pub l i c policy-making body i n Hong Kong with the Governor as i t s president. As s t i p u l a t e d i n the Royal Instructions, the Governor should consult the coun c i l , but i s allowed to disregard the Council's advice. In that case, the Governor has the power to make f i n a l decisions on p o l i c i e s . But i n almost a l l s i t u a t i o n s , "The Governor-in-Council—the Governor acting i n consultation with the Executive C o u n c i l — i s Hong Kong's ce n t r a l and most important executive authority" (Hong Kong Annual Report, 1989, p. 25) . With the Governor's presidency, the L e g i s l a t i v e Council functions as the law-making body i n Hong Kong. Af t e r getting the Governor's assent, a b i l l passed i n t h i s l e g i s l a t u r e becomes an ordinance. Although the Queen may disallow an ordinance, i t seems that Hong 5 Kong, i n most cases, has autonomy i n l e g i s l a t i o n (Hong Kong Annual Report, 1989). When the B r i t i s h established t h e i r administration i n 1843, Hong Kong was s t i l l a small v i l l a g e inhabited by farmers, fishermen and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . The population i n 1841 was only 5,000 (Harris, 1988, p. 3). At that time, the B r i t i s h r u l e r s had to face a t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese community i n a t e r r i t o r y divided from the Qing Empire. This Chinese community in h e r i t e d the t r a d i t i o n s of allegiance to the Emperor, h i s laws, and the royal bureaucracy. Unlike i t s Western counterpart which upholds individualism, Chinese culture, under the time-honoured influence of Confucian teachings, emphasizes family t i e s i n u n i t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s , and l e g i t i m i z e s the p a t e r n a l i s t i c r u l e of the Emperor. Chinese society i n imperial times was ranked according to a hierarchy of classes of businessmen, craftsmen, farmers, and i n t e l l e c t u a l s . I n t e l l e c t u a l s were at the apex of the hierarchy because they might become government o f f i c i a l s a f t e r passing a l l successive p u b l i c examinations at the town, county, province, and the Cap i t a l (presided over by the Emperor). Therefore, i n t e l l e c t u a l s belonged to the e l i t e c l a s s of t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese society and were generally respected by common people. Good education 6 (mainly a tutor-student form of study on Confucian writings and other c l a s s i c s ) might lead to promising prospects i n the r u l i n g c l a s s through a comprehensive national examination system. In sum, t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese people are subjects of an Emperor, subordinates of a c e n t r a l i z e d bureaucracy, and members of a family cla n . A d i s c e r n i b l e d i f f e r e n c e with Western democracies i s that the concept of " l o y a l opposition" does not e x i s t i n the Chinese mind (Harris, 1988). The B r i t i s h governed Hong Kong by replacing an imperial Chinese government with a c o l o n i a l bureaucracy. Harris (1988) pointed out that "the descending concept of p o l i t i c a l power has long been c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Chinese p o l i t i c a l thinking" (p. 32). Government o f f i c i a l s were appointed "from above," and people i n general should observe the rules and regulations set by the o f f i c i a l s . The theory of "popular c o n t r o l " (p. 31) did not apply to the Chinese s i t u a t i o n . Harris described Hong Kong as an "administrative state," i n which "the ancient t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese bureaucracy merged with the B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l bureaucracy" (pp. 5-6). There has been no p o l i t i c a l party, no d i r e c t e l e c t i o n s of members to the Executive and L e g i s l a t i v e Councils, but t h i s adminis- t r a t i v e state i s stable l a r g e l y because of " i t s e f f e c t i v e 7 legitimacy both to the l o c a l population and to China" (p.. 6) . As i t was a c o l o n i a l government, few Chinese had access to the policy-making process at the beginning of the B r i t i s h administration. King (1984) claimed that the B r i t i s h r u l i n g group d i d not encourage Chinese p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the early years of the colony. Both the Executive and L e g i s l a t i v e Councils were assembled i n 1844, but i t was not u n t i l 1880 that the L e g i s l a t i v e Council had the f i r s t Chinese member, and not u n t i l 1926 that the Executive Council had one. A f t e r World War I I , Chinese p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the two Councils began to increase s t e a d i l y . King also pointed out that the t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese Confucian p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e " i s more parochial-subject than p a r t i c i p a n t i n nature," and "the ordinary people lack an active s e l f - o r i e n t a t i o n towards p o l i t i c s i n Hong Kong" (p. 133). This forms part of the reason for the phenomenon of p o l i t i c a l apathy of Chinese people i n Hong Kong. P o l i t i c a l Orientations The concepts of "parochial-subject" and " p a r t i c i - pant" p o l i t i c a l cultures come from the study of Almond and Verba (1963). In t h e i r book, The C i v i c Culture; P o l i t i c a l A ttitudes and Democracy i n Five Nations, they stated that the term p o l i t i c a l culture " r e f e r s to the 8 s p e c i f i c a l l y p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s — a t t i t u d e s toward the p o l i t i c a l system and i t s various parts, and a t t i t u d e s toward the r o l e of the s e l f i n the system...It i s a set of ori e n t a t i o n s toward a s p e c i a l set of s o c i a l objects and processes" (p. 13) . They employed the concept of culture i n one of i t s many meanings: "psychological o r i e n t a t i o n toward s o c i a l objects" (Almond & Verba, 1963, p. 14) . To them, the p o l i t i c a l culture of a society r e f e r s to "the p o l i t i c a l system as i n t e r n a l i z e d i n the cogni- t i o n s , f e e l i n g s , and evaluations of i t s population" (Almond & Verba, 1963, p. 14). Orientation r e f e r s to: the i n t e r n a l i z e d aspects of objects and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t includes (1) 'cognitive o r i e n - t a t i o n , * that i s , knowledge of and b e l i e f about the p o l i t i c a l system, i t s ro l e s and the incumbents of these r o l e s , i t s inputs, and i t s outputs ( 2 ) ' a f f e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n , • or f e e l - ings about the p o l i t i c a l system, i t s r o l e s , personnel, and performance, and (3)'evalu- a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , ' the judgments and opin- ions about p o l i t i c a l objects that t y p i c a l l y involve the combination of value standards and c r i t e r i a with information and f e e l i n g s . (Almond & Verba, 1963, p. 15) The Parochial-Subject P o l i t i c a l Culture i s defined as: a type of p o l i t i c a l culture i n which a sub s t a n t i a l portion of the population has rejected the exclusive claims of d i f f u s e t r i b a l , v i l l a g e , or feudal authority and has developed allegiance toward a more complex 9 p o l i t i c a l system with s p e c i a l i z e d c e n t r a l governmental structures. This i s the c l a s s i c case of kingdom b u i l d i n g out of r e l a t i v e l y u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d u n i t s . (Almond & Verba, 1963, p. 23) The P a r t i c i p a n t P o l i t i c a l Culture r e f e r s to one: i n which the members of the society tend to be e x p l i c i t l y oriented to the system as a whole and to both the p o l i t i c a l and administrative structures and processes...Individual members of the p a r t i c i p a n t p o l i t y may be favorably or unfavorably oriented to the various classes of p o l i t i c a l objects. They tend to be oriented toward an " a c t i v i s t " r o l e of the s e l f i n the p o l i t y , though t h e i r f e e l i n g s and evaluations of such a r o l e may vary from acceptance to r e j e c t i o n . (Almond & Verba, 1963, p. 19) The c o l o n i a l bureaucracy has been able to capture the alleg i a n c e of the Chinese community i n Hong Kong. The Chinese community i s apathetic to p o l i t i c s i n general. King (1984) argued that the primary concern of the government i s to achieve a maximum l e v e l of p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y i n order to fos t e r economic growth. The method t o a c h i e v e t h a t g o a l i s " t h e 1 a d m i n i s t e r i z a t i o n 1 of p o l i t i c s ; i t i s the a n t i t h e s i s to p o l i t i c i z a t i o n " (p. 133). He ascribed Hong Kong's p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y i n the l a s t hundred years to the "administrative absorption" of p o l i t i c s . This i s a process through which the B r i t i s h governing e l i t e co-opt or assimilate the non-British socio-economic 10 e l i t e into the p o l i t i c a l - a d m i n i s t r a t i v e decision-making bodies,thus a t t a i n i n g an e l i t e i n t e g r a t i o n on the one hand and a legitimacy of p o l i t i c a l authority on the other. (King, 1984, p. 144) In sum, the B r i t i s h administration has been able to maintain p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y i n Hong Kong through a c o l o n i a l bureaucracy headed by a group of e l i t e f o r more than 140 years. B r i t i s h Education f o r Chinese In an attempt to achieve p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y and economic prosperity i n Hong Kong, the administration had to devise a formal education system f o r the Chinese community. The B r i t i s h model of primary and secondary education had been imported to Hong Kong, and the Board of Education, which advises the government on planning and formulating education p o l i c y , was formed i n 1920 (Hong Kong Annual Report, 1989, Chap. 9). In the early 20th century, there was only one u n i v e r s i t y i n Hong Kong—The Univ e r s i t y of Hong Kong. I t was established i n 1911, and "gave a B r i t i s h - s t y l e e d u c a t i o n — a s i g n i f i c a n t factor i n a B r i t i s h 'colony'" (Harris, 1988, p. 59) . About 50 years l a t e r , The Chinese U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong,' i n an American s t y l e , was inaugurated i n 1963 as a federal u n i v e r s i t y with three constituent colleges: New Asia College, Chung Chi College and United College. The Shaw College was added 11 to the u n i v e r s i t y i n 1988 as the fourth college. The u n i v e r s i t y , as a self-governing corporation, draws i t s income mainly from government grants (Hong Kong Annual Report, 1989, Chap. 9). Besides government provision, there are other primary and secondary schools re c e i v i n g f i n a n c i a l assistance from the government under the codes of a i d . There are also providers i n the private sector. The s i x - year primary education has been free of charge i n a l l government schools and i n nearly a l l aided schools since September, 1971 (Hong Kong Annual Report, 1989, p. 117). There are four main types of secondary schools i n Hong Kong: Anglo-Chinese Grammar Schools o f f e r a five-year secondary course i n a broad range of academic and c u l t u r a l subjects leading to the Hong Kong C e r t i f i c a t e of Education Examination (HKCEE). The medium of i n s t r u c t i o n i s mainly English. Some of the Schools provide students with s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s i n the HKCEE with a two-year sixth-form course of matriculation leading to the Hong Kong Advanced Level Examination which secures admission to the Univ e r s i t y of Hong Kong and other t e r i t a r y l e v e l courses. Others o f f e r a one-year s i x t h - form course to students who wish to s i t f o r the Hong Kong Higher Level Examination to a t t a i n admission to 12 the Chinese Univ e r s i t y of Hong Kong. C h i n e s e M i d d l e S c h o o l s also o f f e r a five-year secondary course. But Chinese i s the prime medium of i n s t r u c t i o n , and English i s secondary. Most of them also o f f e r a one-year Middle Six course of matriculation leading to the Hong Kong Higher Level Examination. S e c o n d a r y T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l s provide a five-year secondary course leading to the HKCEE with an emphasis on t e c h n i c a l and commerical subjects. Graduates with good r e s u l t s i n the HKCEE may continue t h e i r studies i n Form Six or i n te c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e s . P r e v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s provide students with a general education and introduce them to te c h n i c a l s k i l l s f o r future vocational t r a i n i n g . Forty percent of the curriculum i n Secondary One to Three are t e c h n i c a l subjects. In Secondary Four and Five, about 30 per cent of the curriculum involves t e c h n i c a l studies. A f t e r completing Secondary Three, students may j o i n approved c r a f t apprenticeship schemes with associated part-time day-release courses at te c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e s . I n s t i t u t e s w i l l give c r e d i t f o r t e c h n i c a l subjects completed at school. Moreover, students can seek d i r e c t entry into the second year of an approved c r a f t apprenticeship (Hong Kong Annual Report, 1989, Chap. 9). 13 Education Commission In 1984, an Education Commission was appointed by the government to study the o v e r a l l development of the educational system i n Hong Kong. The Commission issued i t s Report No. 1 i n 1984, No. 2 i n 1986 and No. 3 i n 1988. Government provision i n t e r t i a r y education includes three U n i v e r s i t i e s (the t h i r d one c a l l e d The Hong Kong Unive r s i t y of Science and Technology), two Polytechnics, t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e s , three Colleges of Education and one Technical Teacher's College which o f f e r s t r a i n i n g programs of non-graduate teachers f o r primary and secondary schools. The t h i r d u n i v e r s i t y , The Hong Kong Un i v e r s i t y of Science and Technology, was established i n A p r i l , 1988. I t w i l l have i t s f i r s t student intake i n October, 1991. I t i s a u n i v e r s i t y which places heavy emphasis on science and technology, as i t s name suggests. While Hong Kong i s moving into the 90's, i t s population needs greater pr o v i s i o n of u n i v e r s i t y education to cope with the r a p i d l y changing environment. Open Education The Open Learning I n s t i t u t e of Hong Kong (OLI) admitted i t s f i r s t round of students i n August, 1989. The concept of "open education," as defined i n the 14 Education - Commission Report No. 1 (1984), i s "non-age s p e c i f i c , covering basic l i t e r a c y to t e r t i a r y l e v e l studies" and i t s aims are manifold and include remedial learning, providing second chance opportunities f o r obtaining q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , updating and keeping abreast of developments i n f i e l d s where knowledge i s expanding r a p i d l y , and f u l f i l l i n g i n d i v i d u a l personal development needs (p. 71). But the idea of s e t t i n g up an open u n i v e r s i t y modelled on UK Open Unive r s i t y was rejected by the Education Commission i n i t s Report No. 1 whereas i t emphasized the importance of providing open education i n Hong Kong. In i t s Report No. 2 (1986), the Education Commission explained why a UK-styled Open Un i v e r s i t y was not s u i t a b l e for Hong Kong. F i r s t l y , Hong Kong would have to bear a great f i n a n c i a l cost to run an open u n i v e r s i t y . Secondly, i t lacks academic and t e c h n i c a l expertise, and b i l i n g u a l teaching materials to cater f o r l o c a l needs. Thir d l y , there i s a shortage of appropriate environments fo r home study. L a s t l y , a network of study centres would be required i f an open u n i v e r s i t y i s to be established. Thus the Report recommended that a consortium model of open education be established to provide programs at the secondary and post-secondary l e v e l s . In January 1988, the 15 government appointed a Planning Committee to prepare f o r the establishment of O L I . This degree-awarding i n s t i t u t i o n , O L I , w i l l o f f e r a second chance for those who have been unable to go on to further education a f t e r leaving school, as well as opportunities f o r workers and managers to update t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and s k i l l s and f o r personal development (Hong Kong Annual Report, 1989, p. 131) . Entry f o r the OLI i s open to a l l adults who must be aged 18 years or over. The OLI provides programs at the t e r t i a r y l e v e l through distance education means. As the language used i n i n s t r u c t i o n and learning materials i s English, students are expected to have language p r o f i c i e n c y . The concept of open learning i s new i n Hong Kong. Success i n an open learning program requires persistence. Completing a degree program at OLI w i l l take s i x years. But many people are i n need of a second chance f o r higher education. In August, 1989, the I n s t i t u t e p r i m a r i l y used a " f i r s t - c o m e - f i r s t - s e r v e " c r i t e r i o n to admit the f i r s t round of students. But there were good responses from the community. About 70,000 a p p l i c a t i o n forms had been sent out and the I n s t i t u t e decided to use l o t s (drawn by computers) to a l l o c a t e places f o r applicants. The f i r s t student intake OLI could accept was l e s s than 4, 000. But the I n s t i t u t e planned to increase 16 the intake every year while, at the same time, strength- ening the teaching capacity. Post-secondary Colleges In the p u b l i c sector, the Baptist College was founded i n 1956 and o f f e r s degree courses i n Arts & Humanities, Sciences, S o c i a l Sciences and Business Administration. I t also provides diploma courses i n other academic d i s c i p l i n e s . I t i s an autonomous i n s t i t u t i o n but f u l l y funded by the government. There are two government-approved post-secondary colleges registered under the Post Secondary Colleges Ordinance: Hong Kong Shue Yan College and Lingnan College. Registered i n 1976, the Hong Kong Shue Yan College o f f e r s a four-year diploma program without government f i n a n c i a l assistance. Lingnan College was reg i s t e r e d i n 1978 and receives government f i n a n c i a l assistance i n running i t s two-year sixth-form courses and the two-year post-sixth-form higher diploma course. Graduates of the higher diploma course may enter the f i f t h year course leading to an honours diploma. But the f i f t h year students do not get f i n a n c i a l assistance from the government (Hong Kong Annual Report, 1989, Chap. 9) . Other post-secondary colleges are operating i n the pr i v a t e sector. Although there are a number of higher education 17 i n s t i t u t i o n s catering to the learning needs of the population, competition i s keen at the post-secondary and, u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l s of study. D e f i n i n g A d u l t E d u c a t i o n The term a d u l t e d u c a t i o n has been v a r i o u s l y defined. Darkenwald and Merriam provided t h i s rather i n c l u s i v e d e f i n i t i o n : Adult education i s a process whereby persons whose major s o c i a l r o l e s are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of adult status undertake systematic and sustained learning a c t i v i t i e s f o r the purpose of bringing about changes i n knowledge, atti t u d e s , values, or s k i l l s (1982, p. 9). In t h i s study, adult education i n Hong Kong r e f e r s to a l l learning a c t i v i t i e s organized outside the formal education system f o r men and women who have r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s at home or at work. Most adult education a c t i v i t i e s occur i n i n s t i t u t i o n s which provide programs for people who have completed formal education. This i s what Darkenwald and Merriam (1982) r e f e r to as c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n (p. 12) . In Hong Kong, adult education means continuing education as well. P u r p o s e s o f t h e S t u d y In 1997 a new h i s t o r i c a l phase w i l l begin i n Hong Kong. Since the signing of the S i n o - B r i t i s h J o i n t Dec- l a r a t i o n , there have been profound changes i n the socio- p o l i t i c a l context. The s i t u a t i o n of Hong Kong i s un- 18 precedented. People are facing great uncertainties i n the run-up to 1997 and adult education w i l l undoubtedly be influenced by what people think about i t . There were four purposes of the study: 1. To obtain e s t i m a t e s concerning the ant i c i p a t e d changes i n the content and processes of adult/continuing education i n the run-up to 1997. 2. To e s t a b l i s h the extent to which the socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of respondents explained variance i n e s - t i m a t e s (concerning the anticipated changes i n the content and processes of adult/continuing education). 3. To e s t a b l i s h the extent to which p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s of respondents explained variance i n e s t i m a t e s (concern- ing the ant i c i p a t e d changes i n the content and processes of adult/continuing education). 4. To examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the respondents' "emigration intentions" and t h e i r e s t i m a t e s (concerning the ant i c i p a t e d changes i n the content and processes of adult/continuing education). This report deals with the h i s t o r y of "1997" and describes how a survey was conducted to examine adult educators 1 estimates concerning possible changes i n the content and processes of adult/continuing education i n Hong Kong. Figure 1 shows the independent and dependent v a r i a b l e s employed i n the study. 19 B INDEPENDENT VARIABLES DEPENDENT VARIABLES I Dimension 1 Dimension 2 Respondents Socio-demographic Characteristics * Sex *Age *Professional concern in A C E *Role in A C E *Educational qualifications "Views concerning purposes of Ad Ed Political Orientations *Affective * Cognitive •Evaluative Emigration intentions •Staying in HK •Leaving H K temporarily •Leaving HK permanently Emigration intentions of HK population •Staying inHK •Leaving H K temporarily •Leaving H K permanently Contents of ACE Processes of ACE •Methods •Techniques Figure 1, Schematic portrayal of main elements in a study of adult /continuing education (ACE) in Hong Kong (1990-1997). 20 There were three sets of independent v a r i a b l e s , each r e l a t e d to the four purposes of the study. They concerned the socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of respondents, t h e i r p o l i t i c a l orientations and t h e i r "emigration i n t e n t i o n s . " There were two main dependent v a r i a b l e s . The f i r s t was respondents' estimates concerning the future content of adult/continuing education and the second concerned the future processes of adult/continuing education. However i t i s important to note that t h i s dimension (2, Figure 1) of the dependent v a r i a b l e was always made with reference to the "emigration intentions" of three categories of people (staying, leaving HK temporarily, leaving HK per- manently) . Thus the main dependent v a r i a b l e s involved adult education content and processes deemed to be of i n t e r e s t to three kinds of people—those staying, those leaving HK temporarily and those leaving permanently. 21 CHAPTER II CONTEMPORARY ADULT EDUCATION Philosophical Background and Value Systems Adult education i s part of the t o t a l educational enterprise but has i t s own purpose and philosophy. There are two general arguments i n the philosophy of education. One i s that education develops a c e r t a i n kind of person to f i t into the society i n which he or she l i v e s . The other p o s i t s that education enables people to change society. These two arguments have become the equilibrium and c o n f l i c t paradigms i n the sociology of education. Based upon these two paradigms, conceptual frameworks have been developed f o r studying education and s o c i a l change (Paulston, 1977; La Be l l e , 1986). Confucianism, Dr Sun Yat-sen and the Chinese Order Before any s o c i a l change theory i s used to analyze the educational context i n Hong Kong, a study of i t s c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l background i s necessary. The Chinese people i n Hong Kong have i n h e r i t e d Confucian values. Confucianism has dominated Chinese ideology f o r more than 2,000 years. I t contains a set of moral values which form the basis of a s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l structure. Moral values are used to govern the whole s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l order. Each i n d i v i d u a l has h i s 22 or her moral obl i g a t i o n s . A son should obey h i s father. A subject should be l o y a l to the r u l e r . The i d e a l Confucian man possesses c e r t a i n moral q u a l i t i e s . He should d i s c i p l i n e himself before keeping h i s family w e l l . Then, he can r u l e h i s country i n a proper way and f i n a l l y achieve worldly peace. The ultimate aim of Confucianism i s to develop good r u l e r s and a t t a i n Great Harmony (a perfe c t s o c i e t y ) . Morality i s indispensable to a good r u l e r . An i d e a l or perfect society depends upon a good r u l e r too. This expectation resembles the concept of "philosopher kings" i n Plato's Republic. But, philosopher kings should have more wisdom than morality. The r u l e of man i s emphasized i n the Confucian socio- p o l i t i c a l order. The Confucian society i s founded on moral values. Each i n d i v i d u a l has f i l i a l and f r a t e r n a l a f f e c t i o n . Allegiance to the r u l e r i s an indispensable o b l i g a t i o n . That o b l i g a t i o n had j u s t i f i e d absolute monarchism i n China f o r more than 2, 000 years. The concept of democracy di d not emerge u n t i l the l a t e 19th century when Western l i b e r a l democratic thoughts came to China together with i m p e r i a l i s t gunfire. Absolute monarchism was ended with the 1911 Revolution, led by Dr Sun Yat-sen, the founding father of the Republic of China, and the republicans, i n which the Manchu Dynasty was overthrown by the 23 Han n a t i o n a l i s t s . The h i s t o r y of modern China thus began i n 1911. China had preserved absolute monarchism f o r a longer period than i t s Western counterparts did. Western democracies are derived from the s o c i a l contract theory which appeared i n the 17th century. One notable proposition i n the s o c i a l contract theory i s that there i s a c l e a r separation of concepts between "society" and "state." Men are born and then l i v e together i n "society" which Hobbes and Locke r e f e r r e d to as "state of nature." The Hobbesian (1968) state of nature i s quite miserable as described i n h i s Leviathan. Men are helpless, desperate, and f i g h t with each other. But Locke argued that a l l men are free, equal, and born with natural r i g h t s i n the state of nature. However, one may v i o l a t e others 1 natural r i g h t s while i n pursuit of h i s or her own i n t e r e s t s . Therefore, a r u l e r , be i t a king or i n Hobbesian terms, a Sovereign, i s needed to protect the natural r i g h t s of people. A s o c i a l contract e x i s t s between the r u l e r and the ruled. The common people surrender part of t h e i r natural r i g h t s to the r u l e r and h i s or her government who should protect t h e i r l i v e s and property by law enforcement. I f the r u l e r f a i l s to protect the people's natural r i g h t s , he or she w i l l be ousted by the people. This forms the 24 concept of "state." The contributions of s o c i a l contract theory to western democracy are i t s emphases on people's natural r i g h t s , the function of government, the r u l e of law, and the consent of the majority. There i s no c l e a r separation of "society" and "state" i n Confucian s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l structure. The well-being of a state i s dependent upon a good r u l e r who governs with divine r i g h t s . He rules l i k e a father i n a family and must be s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e d . The whole socio- p o l i t i c a l order i s maintained by moral values. I f the r u l e r i s immoral, there i s no control upon him. However, an i d e a l Confucian society i s a h i e r a r c h i c a l one. Each i n d i v i d u a l plays h i s or her proper r o l e and maintains a harmonious r e l a t i o n with others. A v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n of f a m i l i a l and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i s achieved when a son obeys h i s father and the ruled submit to the r u l e r . This i s why a highly c e n t r a l i z e d bureaucracy had been the dominating p o l i t i c a l system i n imperial China. However, the Confucian society does not encourage "horizontal i n t e g r a t i o n , " i . e . developing a strong sense of community among people. I t i s not l i k e i t s Western counterparts which t r e a t a l l men as equal; each i d e n t i f y i n g oneself as part of a community and contributing to c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t s . When hori z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n i s lacking, the Chinese people 25 hardly achieve s o l i d a r i t y i n challenging and bargaining with the r u l i n g authority. When one attempts to question the authority, he or she w i l l be doomed as r e b e l l i o u s . The Confucian p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e can be regarded as a parochial-subject one (see Chap. I, p. 8) . The concept of "Loyal opposition" does not e x i s t i n the Chinese mind. Representative democracy i s popular i n p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t i e s , but not i n China. Figure 2 shows how the "sta t e " and "so c i e t y " are conceptualized i n S o c i a l Contract theory and Confucianism. Social contract theory Confucian s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l order State Ruler/government Society People retain part of their natural rights State & Society I Great Harmony ! Worldly peace /t Good government r Well-kept families Self-disciplined individuals Figure 2 . Ways of conceptualizing the "state" and "society" 26 In the s o c i a l contract theory, people have already formed a society before they surrender part of t h e i r natural r i g h t s to the r u l e r or government. They r e t a i n some natural r i g h t s themselves. On the other hand, the Confucian s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l order s t a r t s with s e l f - d i s c i - p l i n e d i n d i v i d u a l s and moves upward to f a m i l i e s , govern- ment, Worldly peace, Great Harmony and, at l a s t , the state as well as society. Confucian values emphasize inte g r a t i o n of an i n d i - v i d u a l ' s l i f e and the state's well-being. S o c i a l reform or transformation, i n t h i s case, i s a p o l i t i c a l matter. Problems of s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t i e s are solved by p o l i t i c a l means. In imperial China, the government often used tax cuts or food r e l i e f out of the national granaries to deal with economic problems and natural d i s a s t e r s . Most of the victims were peasants as China has long been an a g r i c u l t u r a l country. I n t e l l e c t u a l s , the upper s o c i a l c l a s s , seldom asked for s o c i a l t r a n s f o r - mation which would upset the e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l system. This would mean a challenge to the emperor. I n t e l l e c t u a l s who had p o l i t i c a l i d e als should wait u n t i l they became government o f f i c i a l s through a national examination system. Ideas of democracy and socioeconomic reform d i d not f l o u r i s h i n China u n t i l the l a t e 19th century when 27 Dr Sun advocated h i s "Three People's P r i n c i p l e s " (Nationalism, Democracy, and the People's Livelihood) as h i s p o l i t i c a l i d e a l for a new China. Although most of h i s followers were mobilized by a n a t i o n a l i s t i c zeal to r e p a t r i a t e the Manchu r u l e r s , he s t r i v e d to end the time-honoured absolute monarchism and replace i t by a republican government. Besides democracy, he also pleaded f o r land reform to a l l e v i a t e the p l i g h t of peasants scattered around the vast mainland of China. His ideas about land reform could be regarded as early s o c i a l i s m i n China. However, h i s ideals f o r a new China could not be r e a l i z e d i n h i s l i f e t i m e because of p o l i t i c a l turmoil and the f a c t that democratic values had no roots i n the Chinese mind. U n t i l h i s death i n 1925, China was hardly a u n i f i e d nation, but rather a b a t t l e f i e l d f o r warlords and i m p e r i a l i s t adventurers. But h i s followers d i d manage to b u i l d a new p o l i t i c a l order from the ruins of an old China. The Soviet Experience The Russian Revolution i n 1917 l e d by Lenin and the Bolsheviks had great influence i n China. Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s were in s p i r e d by i t s success. Most of them thought that i t could serve as a model f o r China. The May Fourth Movement i n 1919 was the f i r s t student movement i n modern China. Students and i n t e l l e c t u a l s 28 opposed i m p e r i a l i s t invaders and warlords. Apart from these immediate p o l i t i c a l appeals, the May Fourth Movement was regarded as a c u l t u r a l movement. Members of the Movement pleaded f o r "democracy" and "science" as a panacea f o r China. The Russian Revolution had spread communist ideology to China. The Communist Party of China was established i n 1921. Even i n h i s l a t e years, Dr Sun was impressed by the Soviet experience. He thought that so c i a l i s m might be a way to save China. The Communist Party claimed that socialism should be the way f o r a new China. Class struggle and a revolu t i o n l e d by the Communist Party would be the process to achieve that end. The Communist ideology challenged the Confucian values and put forward a proposal f o r s o c i a l engineering. That marked the beginning of s o c i a l transformation i n China and a separation between "state" and "society." The Communist Party led by Mao Zedong succeeded i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a new regime i n 1949. This i s now known as the People's Republic of China. S o c i a l and Educational Change i n Hong Kong The status of Hong Kong, being a B r i t i s h colony, remained i n t a c t during these changes (the 1911 and the 1949 Revolutions) . Hong Kong has long been administered by an e f f i c i e n t c o l o n i a l bureacucracy that co-opted a 29 group of Chinese e l i t e . This bureaucracy succeeded i n bring i n g f o r t h long-term p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y i n Hong Kong accompanied by steady economic growth. A B r i t i s h model of education helped develop a Chinese e l i t e to enter the r u l i n g c l a s s . I t prepared an e l i t e f o r p o l i t i c a l succes- si o n . Paulston's (1977) conceptual framework of s o c i a l and educational change i s w e l l - s u i t e d to analyze the s i t u a t i o n i n Hong Kong (Figure 3). Paradigms Equilibrium Theories Conflict Theories Evolutionary r-Marxian — mNeo-evolutionary -Neo-Marxian Structural- functionalists Cultural- r e v i t a l i z a t i o n 1—Systems Anarchistic- Utopian Figure 3. Paulston's model of conceptualizing social and educational change. 30 S t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l i s t theory under the e q u i l i b - rium paradigm can be used to i l l u s t r a t e the problem of s o c i a l and educational change i n Hong Kong. Paulston (1977) pointed out that s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l i s t s "focus on the homeostatic or balancing mechanisms by which s o c i e t i e s maintain a 'uniform state'" (p. 379). The Confucian values and p o l i t i c a l culture provide such a balancing mechanism for a uniform state i n Hong Kong. There has not been any acute c o n f l i c t between Chinese and non-Chinese i n the h i s t o r y of Hong Kong (except the case i n the 1966-67 turmoil, induced by the spread of the C u l t u r a l Revolution i n the mainland). S t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l i s t s also have a "strong conservative bias toward the u n d e s i r a b i l i t y of a l l but 'adaptive change'" (Paulston, 1977, p. 379). To make adaptive change possible, the system w i l l only admit small incremental adjustments. In that case, the function of education i s to help i n d i v i d u a l s preserve "the c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n of the society" (Paulston, 1977, p. 380). In Hong Kong, a conservative B r i t i s h s o c i a l c l a s s system and an e l i t i s t model of education have been transplanted into the Chinese community. Chinese e l i t e s are developed through the educational system and l a t e r co-opted into the bureaucracy. E l i t e s enjoy power and p r i v i l e g e , but s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l i s t s contend that 31 s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y i s due to the d i f f e r e n c e of contributions and t a l e n t s of each i n d i v i d u a l . They argue that " i n e q u a l i t y as r e f l e c t e d by s o c i a l and educational s t r a t i f i c a t i o n a r i s e s b a s i c a l l y out of the needs of s o c i e t i e s , not out of the vested i n t e r e s t s of i n d i v i d u a l s or groups" (Paulston, 1977, p. 380). S o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y continues to e x i s t as everybody keeps on contributing h i s or her own e f f o r t s . S o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y i s i n e v i t a b l e and i n d i v i d u a l s u r v i v a l depends upon the s u r v i v a l and well-being of society. While economic prosperity i s the primary objective f o r the B r i t i s h r u l e r s i n Hong Kong, the r o l e of education can be explained by the use of human c a p i t a l theory. The theory i s based upon s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l assumptions. In that theory, education has a " c r i t i c a l r o l e i n preparing s k i l l e d manpower, innovators, entrepreneurs and the l i k e f o r social-economic modernization" (p. 381). This i s why t r a i n i n g f o r vocational purposes i s emphasized i n both the formal and nonformal educational settings of Hong Kong. The aim of education i s to mobilize human resources f o r a f u l l development of ca p i t a l i s m i n Hong Kong. To achieve that aim, consensus rather than c o n f l i c t i s encouraged. There are some reasons why the C o n f l i c t paradigm may be not applicable to Hong Kong. Confucian values 32 encourage v e r t i c a l i ntegration of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . S o c i a l transformation which requires c o l l e c t i v e actions to i n s t i t u t e "revolutionary change from below" may upset the harmonious p o l i t i c a l order. Without a concept of community or ho r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n , Confucianism focuses on the moral conduct of i n d i v i d u a l s . Equity and j u s t i c e w i l l be the concern of a good r u l e r and hi s government. Besides, there have not been many encouraging examples of s o c i a l t r a n s f o r - mation i n China since the 1911 Revolution. Indeed the Cu l t u r a l Revolution i n 1960s caused many people to f l e e China and take refuge i n Hong Kong. Hong Kong has played a very active r o l e i n the p o l i t i c a l development of China since the turn of the century. I t i s not only geographically but also c u l t u r a l l y t i e d to China. But t h i s t i n y t e r r i t o r y has served as a haven f o r p o l i t i c a l d i s s i d e n t s f o r years. Dr Sun Yat-sen and the Republicans had numerous a c t i v i t i e s i n Hong Kong during and a f t e r the 1911 Revolution. The Communists sought sanctuary from the colony i n t h e i r protracted war with the N a t i o n a l i s t s . For them, Hong Kong was a place where they could spread new ideas and bring i n new hopes. These a c t i v i t i e s were not allowed i n China but tol e r a t e d i n the colony. For years, freedom of speech has been an asset of Hong Kong 33 and the press i s renowned for the vigour and extent of i t s a c t i v i t i e s . I t asks people to t o l e r a t e others who have a d i f f e r e n t mind. The society encourages consensus rather than c o n f l i c t . Against t h i s background, contemporary adult education i s characterized by i t s p l u r a l i s t i c nature. I n s t i t u t i o n s and educators have the l i b e r t y to conduct programs f o r a v a r i e t y of organizational and s o c i a l goals. In Hong Kong, consensus i s the r u b r i c of society and the education system i s b u i l t on a B r i t i s h model. Adult education follows a strong l i b e r a l and humanistic t r a d i t i o n . Moreover, the colony has been i n d u s t r i a l i z e d r a p i d l y a f t e r World War I I . Vocational t r a i n i n g and competency-based adult education strengthened the progressive and behavioural influences i n the f i e l d . There have not been many discussions of a n a l y t i c philosophy ( E l i a s & Merriam, 1980) among adult educators i n Hong Kbng. Few attempts were made to develop a n a l y t i c philosophers i n the f i e l d . The r a d i c a l t r a d i t i o n has yielded many examples i n the Third World. I t applies to s o c i e t i e s which have c o n f l i c t i n g values, e.g. i n c u l t u r a l or socioeconomic contexts. As Hong Kong i s a society which honours consensus, i t has had l i t t l e influence on adult education. However, while Hong Kong i s moving toward 1997, and s o c i o p o l i t i c a l changes can 34 be anticipated, r a d i c a l adult education i s apt to spring up. Agencies and Programs In Hong Kong, adult education and continuing education overlap. A large number of agencies and programs have been set up to help people increase t h e i r knowledge and sharpen t h e i r s k i l l s a f t e r they have completed formal education. Moreover, an educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n i s v i t a l to academic and professional advancement. Therefore, many agencies are a c t i v e l y running c e r t i f i c a t e , diploma and degree programs f o r adults. The types of adult education agencies i n Hong Kong can be described by using Schroeder's (1970) typology. Four types of agencies are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n terms of the primacy of the adult education function. They have t h e i r examples i n Hong Kong. Man (1988) provided a b r i e f review of adult 'education i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the t e r r i t o r y . Type I Agencies were established to serve the educational needs of a d u l t s — a d u l t education i s a c e n t r a l function. (Schroeder, 1970, p. 37) In Hong Kong, Type I Agencies include the Adult Education Section of Hong Kong Government, the Open Learning I n s t i t u t e of Hong Kong, the Open College of Un i v e r s i t y of East Asia, Macau, and a huge number of proprietary schools. They o f f e r learning opportunities 35 to adults who seek basic, and higher, r e c r e a t i o n a l and professional education. Type II Agencies were established to serve the educational needs of youth which have assumed the added r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y serving the educational needs of a d u l t s — a d u l t education i s a secondary function. (Schroeder, 1970, p. 37) In Hong Kong, Type II Agencies are the Departments of Extramural Studies of the Unive r s i t y of Hong Kong and the Chinese U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong, Centre f o r Professional & Continuing Education of Hong Kong Polytechnic, C i t y Polytechnic of Hong Kong, D i v i s i o n of Continuing Education of Hong Kong Baptist College, Hong Kong Shue Yan College (Night School) and other postsecondary colleges. They provide l i b e r a l and vocational education programs to adults during day and night time. Type III Agencies were established to serve both educational and noneducational needs of the community—adult education i s an a l l i e d function employed to f u l f i l l only some of the needs which agencies recognizing as t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . (Schroeder, 1977, p. 37) Type III Agencies i n Hong Kong r e f e r to the Education Unit of Radio T e l e v i s i o n Hong Kong, Urban Council L i b r a r i e s , C i t y H a l l of Hong Kong, Space Museum, Science Museum, S o c i a l Welfare Department of Hong Kong Government, The Family Planning Association 36 of Hong Kong. In t h e i r educational a c t i v i t i e s to meet the needs of the community, many p a r t i c i p a n t s are adults. Type IV Agencies were established to serve the s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s (economic, i d e o l o g i c a l ) of sp e c i a l g r o u ps—adult education i s a subordinate function employed p r i m a r i l y to further the s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s of the agency i t s e l f . (Schroeder, 1977, p. 37) In Hong Kong, Type IV Agencies cover a wide range of business and industry, welfare, r e l i g i o u s and c u l t u r a l organizations. Examples are Hong Kong Prod u c t i v i t y Council, The Hong Kong Management Association, Technical I n s t i t u t e s and Training Centres of Vocational Training Council, Hang Seng School of Commerce(Extra Mural Programme), Kwun Tong Vocational Traini n g Centre (Night School), Hong Kong College of Technology, The B r i t i s h Council, A l l i a n c e Francaise, Goethe-Institut, Japan Information & C u l t u r a l O f f i c e , Consulate-General of Japan, Caritas Adult and Higher Education Service, Hong Kong Young Women's C h r i s t i a n Association, D i v i s i o n of Continuing Education of The Chinese Young Men's C h r i s t i a n Association and The Dharmasthiti C u l t u r a l College. Programs offered by these agencies cover a wide range of academic and p r a c t i c a l subjects. Most popular program areas are languages, business and commerce, 37 t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g , and hobbies. Some agencies have several teaching centres throughout the t e r r i t o r y to d e l i v e r t h e i r programs. Some of these evening teaching centres are i n premises rented from primary and secondary schools to hold classes. Various methods and techniques of adult education are employed to d e l i v e r the programs. Although t r a d i t i o n a l classroom o r a l teaching i s often used i n many adult education programs, some agencies have introduced a v a r i e t y of methods and techniques to t h e i r p a r t i c i p a n t s . Method concerns the organization of learners f o r education whereas technique s p e c i f i e s a kind of r e l a t i o n s h i p between the learner and the learning task (Verner, 1964). Individual methods include correspondence study, apprenticeship and courses by computer, while group methods include c l a s s , t u t o r i a l discussion group, forum, workshop, exhibitions and public education campaigns. Examples of techniques are r o l e play, educational games, debate, simulation, lecture, group discussion, demonstra- t i o n , f i e l d t r i p s , and case studies. In Hong Kong, cor- respondence and cla s s meeting are the most popular methods. Techniques such as t u t o r i a l group discussions, demonstrations, and case studies are extensively used i n programs. Programs offered by The Open Learning I n s t i t u t e are d e l i v e r e d by distance education means. Other agencies 38 may provide programs by classroom i n s t r u c t i o n as well as distance education. Some agencies have seasonal or b i - annual intake of p a r t i c i p a n t s while others admit people to t h e i r programs continuously throughout the year. The methods and techniques described by Verner w i l l be used fo r forming a part of the questionnaire items of the survey l a t e r . P r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n Adult education i n Hong Kong has been a profession rather than a s o c i a l movement. Adult educators concern themselves with e f f i c i e n c y and effectiveness i n serving the learner's needs. A profession i s characterized by " c l e a r l y defined career paths, rewards, and a coherent knowledgebase" (Boshier, 1985, p. 3) even though the f i e l d of adult education i s s t i l l plagued by marginalization. To p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e adult education requires a crew of t r a i n e d personnel that can give leadership to the f i e l d . In Hong Kong, sustained e f f o r t s to t r a i n adult educators have come l a t e . There i s no graduate program of adult education i n Hong Kong. Adult education has once been included as an e l e c t i v e course f o r graduate students i n the School of Education, The Chinese U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong. I t was c a l l e d "An E l e c t i v e Course i n Adult Education," j o i n t l y organized by the Hong Kong Associa- t i o n f o r Continuing Education and the School of Education, 39 The Chinese U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong. Content of the program included introduction to adult education, adult learning, i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques, c i v i c education f o r adults and adult education i n Hong Kong. Speakers i n that course were drawn from the Hong Kong Association fo r Continuing Education. In the past, p r a c t i t i o n e r s who wished to study adult education at a u n i v e r s i t y had no choice but to go overseas. On the l o c a l scene, there have been recent developments i n running indigenous t r a i n i n g programs for p r a c t i t i o n e r s through overseas j o i n t e f f o r t s and l o c a l endeavors. 1. Diploma i n Adult Education: This i s a program j o i n t l y organized by the Department of Administrative, Adult & Higher Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia and the Department of Extramural Studies, The Chinese U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong, and co-sponsored by the Hong Kong Association f o r Continuing Education. The f i r s t round of the program started i n 1984 and students graduated i n 1986. With the f a c u l t y from UBC coming to teach i n Hong Kong, the program provided systematic t r a i n i n g f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n the theories and techniques of adult education. I t enabled them to conduct adult t r a i n i n g i n d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . 2. Basic Training Course f o r Teachers of Adults: Beginning i n 1975, t h i s course was j o i n t l y sponsored 40 by the Department of Extramural Studies, The Chinese U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong and the Hong Kong Association f o r Continuing Education. I t offered basic t r a i n i n g i n theory and methods of adult teaching and learning to i n - s e r v i c e teachers of adults and people interested i n adult education. This course gained support from the Education Department of Hong Kong Government. Pa r t i c i p a n t s who had a s a t i s f a c t o r y attendance i n the course could apply f o r h a l f - f e e refund from the Education Department. 3. Action Learning Program: Formerly known as the P i l o t T raining Course f o r Nonformal Education Personnel, which began i n 1980, t h i s program was renamed i n 1984 to introduce p a r t i c i p a n t s to new techniques and approaches to adult and nonformal education i n urban settings (Wong, 1986). With the support of the German Adult Education Association (DW) and the leadership of the Asian South P a c i f i c Bureau of Adult Education (ASPBAE) Secretariat, i t was organized by the Department of Nonformal Education of Thailand, the Singapore Association for Continuing Education and the Hong Kong Association f o r Continuing Education. P a r t i c i p a n t s were nonformal and adult educators i n Hong Kong and other Southeast Asian countries. During t h i s 3-week program, they paid v i s i t s to various adult 41 education agencies i n Hong Kong, Bangkok and Singapore. New learning and exchange of experience took place i n these guided v i s i t s . This program was an example of regional j o i n t t r a i n i n g . Apart from these programs, many other adult education agencies do t h e i r own t r a i n i n g of t r a i n e r s . Trained t r a i n e r s from the above programs often become planners and teachers for t r a i n i n g of t r a i n e r s programs i n t h e i r own workplace. For example, some of the graduates of the Diploma i n Adult Education formed part of the teaching team i n the "Introductory Course To Adult Education" offered by the Caritas Adult and Higher Education Service. More p r a c t i t i o n e r s are being t r a i n e d as more people are j o i n i n g the adult education profession. A professional association was therefore established to co-ordinate the e f f o r t s of experienced t r a i n e r s and to promote t r a i n i n g among p r a c t i t i o n e r s . Schroeder (197 0) regarded professional associa- t i o n s as a type of leadership organization i n adult education. In terms of leadership, a professional a s s o c i a t i o n represents the i n t e r e s t s of adult educa- t o r s , i n a process c a l l e d "advocacy" (Darkenwald & Merriam, 1982, p. 28). The Hong Kong Association f o r Continuing Education serves as a professional a s s o c i a t i o n i n Hong Kong. I t was established i n 1975 42 to co-ordinate adult/continuing education agencies i n Hong Kong. I t works to promote pu b l i c understanding of educational needs and objectives, services and resouces, and to encourage public p a r t i c i p a t i o n as well as support of adult/continuing education. Since i t s inception, the Association has organized a number of t r a i n i n g programs and int e r n a t i o n a l / r e g i o n a l conferences f o r adult/continuing educators. I t conducts seminars and surveys on adult/continuing education p o l i c i e s and prepares reports to advise the government. Evaluation and research i n adult/continuing education are the main emphases of the Association's p u b l i c a t i o n s . The Association has joined the Asian South P a c i f i c Bureau of Adult Education (ASPBAE) and the International Council f o r Adult Education (ICAE) to maintain l i n k s with the i n t e r n a t i o n a l adult education community. Members of the Association are adult/continuing educators coming from a l l types of agencies. The prospect for p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of the f i e l d i n Hong Kong w i l l depend on research and the t r a i n i n g of adult educators. To b u i l d a body of ph i l o s o p h i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c knowledge of the f i e l d i s as important as consolidating experiences of t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . A s o l i d foundation of systematic, tested knowledge w i l l improve the status of the f i e l d . P r a c t i t i o n e r s w i l l then 43 be able to develop a career i n adult education. More resources can be used to develop the f i e l d . However, the environment f o r research and further development of the f i e l d w i l l be shaped by s o c i o p o l i t i c a l forces playing i n the run-up to 1997. The S i n o - B r i t i s h J o i n t Declaration signed i n 1984 had great implications f o r s o c i a l and educational development i n Hong Kong. 44 CHAPTER III THE SINO-BRITISH JOINT DECLARATION Background People i n Hong Kong began to discuss the 1997 problem i n the early 1980s. For 150 years, people have accepted the f a c t that Hong Kong i s a B r i t i s h colony and China would not act rashly to take the t e r r i t o r y back. Although the three "unequal t r e a t i e s " (see Chapter I, p. 2) forming the Colony were signed i n imperial times, the two Revolutions led by the Republicans (1911) and the Communists (1949), d i d not r e s u l t i n regaining the t e r r i t o r y . A f t e r the 1949 Revolution, the Communists did recover a l l concessions taken by foreign powers during the Manchu Dynasty. The "problem" of Taiwan i s t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t from that of Hong Kong. Taiwan s t i l l bears the name "Republic of China" established by the Republicans and Dr Sun Yat- sen a f t e r the 1911 Revolution. In early 1920's, Dr Sun reorganized the revolutionary party of republicans into the N a t i o n a l i s t Party. A f t e r h i s death, Chiang k a i - shek took the leadership both of the country and party, and began a long p o l i t i c a l struggle with the Communists. In 1949, the Communist Party succeeded i n s e i z i n g power and e s t a b l i s h i n g a regime c a l l e d People's 45 Republic of China. The N a t i o n a l i s t s f l e d to Taiwan, which i s an is l a n d on the southeastern end of the mainland, and continued t h e i r regime i n the name of "Republic of China." However, these two t i n y c i t i e s on the f a r south side of the country, Hong Kong and Macau (a Portuguese colony founded i n the 16th century), are neither counted as concessions nor a case l i k e Taiwan. The Communists held that Hong Kong and Macau are f a i t accompli and they are questions " l e f t over from the past" (Sino- B r i t i s h J o i n t Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong, 1984, p. 1) or "legada pelo passado" (Declaracao Con junta Do Governo Da Republica Portuguesa E Do Governo Da Republica Popular Da China Sobre A Questao De Macau, 1987, p. 1). This meant that China would solve the problem of the two colonies by p o l i t i c a l (negotiations) rather than l e g a l ( international resolution) means. The past should not i n t e r f e r e with the present. Settlement of the questions of Hong Kong and Macau must wait f o r a r i p e opportunity. In 1967, there was p o l i t i c a l unrest i n Hong Kong because of the C u l t u r a l Revolution i n mainland China. The seeds of the Revolution had spread to the Colony and many l e f t i s t a c t i v i t i e s rocked the c o l o n i a l government. Most people feared an imminent Chinese take-over. Others emigrated. But doubts soon 46 passed. Chinese a u t h o r i t i e s d i d not state any wish to take the colony back at t h i s time. Thus, the c o l o n i a l government remained i n c o n t r o l . A f t e r the turbulent years i n the l a t e 1960's, Hong Kong began to prosper. No one worried about the future of Hong Kong i n the l a t e 1970's because of i t s booming economy. 1997 was the date only recorded i n land leases on New T e r r i t o r i e s granted to investors. I t existed on paper and i n most people's minds, but few mentioned i t i n t h e i r d a i l y conversations. Negotiation about a post-1997 Hong Kong was a c u i bono matter as i t alludes to u n c e r t a i n t i e s . People generally hoped to maintain the status quo and enjoy t h e i r s o c i a l and economic well-being. But they were s t i l l facing a due date. Foreign and l o c a l investors needed to know what would happen when the land leases expired i n 1997. In the early 1980' s, people became anxious about the future of Hong Kong. In 1982, B r i t a i n decided to open discussion with China i n order not to "deter investment and damage confidence" i n Hong Kong (Draft Agreement, 1984, p. 2). Formal exchanges between the two governments regarding the 1997 question began i n September 1982 when the B r i t i s h Prime Minister, Mrs Margaret Thatcher, v i s i t e d B e i j i n g . She was convinced that the three t r e a t i e s forming the Colony were s t i l l l e g a l and wished to negotiate with the Chinese government on the basis of 47 them. However, as the t r e a t i e s were "unequal" i n Chinese eyes, Chinese top leaders, e s p e c i a l l y Deng Xiaoping, d i d not recognize them and objected to discussions based upon them. Therefore, negotiations were only conducted on the premise that Hong Kong should maintain i t s prosperity and s t a b i l i t y i n future. No representative from Hong Kong was included i n the negotiations. Only the Chinese and the B r i t i s h governments sent delegates to the negotiating table. The Governor spoke as one of the B r i t i s h delegates but not for Hong Kong. The Chinese government regarded Hong Kong as i t s t e r r i t o r y and the r e s o l u t i o n of i t s destiny a matter f o r i n t e r n a l , not i n t e r n a t i o n a l , a f f a i r s . Therefore, i t d i d not deal with any voices from Hong Kong. The negotiations were not premised on the extension of the t r e a t i e s since China would not t o l e r a t e further foreign r u l e i n i t s t e r r i t o r y a f t e r 1997. At l a s t , the two p a r t i e s agreed to discuss what p o l i t i c a l form Hong Kong would take while being part of the People's Republic. B r i t a i n had to work out a plan acceptable to the Parliament and i t s people. I t could not a f f o r d a large i n f l u x of immigrants from Hong Kong, but i t had to convince the in t e r n a t i o n a l community that i t was not handing Hong Kong people over to Communist r u l e . Moreover, i t looked forward to good r e l a t i o n s with China and the opening of the 48 huge Chinese market to i t s exports. These concerns complicated the negotiating process which la s t e d f o r two years. F i n a l l y i n December, 1984, an agreement on the future of Hong Kong was reached. The text, including three Annexes and Memoranda, took the form of a White Paper and was named "A Draft Agreement between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great B r i t a i n and Northern Ireland and the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Future of Hong Kong," published i n London and Hong Kong at the same time. The Chinese c a l l e d i t the " S i n o - B r i t i s h J o i n t Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong" and had i t published by Xinhua News Agency (Hong Kong Branch), a de facto Chinese o f f i c i a l representative i n Hong Kong. P o l i t i c a l Analysis of the Declaration The S i n o - B r i t i s h J o i n t Declaration aimed at recon- c i l i n g a c a p i t a l i s t Hong Kong with a s o c i a l i s t China by using the concept of "one country, two systems." I t ends the B r i t i s h r u l e by 30 June, 1997 and recovers Chinese j u r i s d i c t i o n over the t e r r i t o r y . A Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) of the People's Republic of China w i l l be established and a Basic Law of the HKSAR promulgated by the National People's Congress w i l l define the r u l i n g of the t e r r i t o r y . I t was claimed that Hong Kong people can r e t a i n t h e i r 49 c a p i t a l i s t s t y l e of l i v i n g f or 50 years a f t e r 1997 and the People's Republic w i l l not implement s o c i a l i s t p o l i c i e s i n the t e r r i t o r y . A 50-year period w i l l be granted to keep the c a p i t a l i s t society i n t a c t . Chinese o f f i c i a l s argued that the standard of l i v i n g i n the mainland w i l l catch up with that of Hong Kong i n h a l f a century's time. There i s no need f o r Hong Kong people to worry about an immediate convergence of Hong Kong and China i n 1997. The J o i n t Declaration allows t h i s b u f f e r period f o r an ultimate i n t e g r a t i o n of Hong Kong into China. I t w i l l terminate i n 2047. Using Special Administrative Regions to reunify divided t e r r i t o r i e s i s regarded as a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e c i s i o n . A r t i c l e 31 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China promulgated i n 1982 said that The state may e s t a b l i s h s p e c i a l administrative regions when necessary. The systems to be i n s t i t u t e d i n s p e c i a l administrative regions s h a l l be prescribed by law enacted by the National People's Congress i n the l i g h t of the s p e c i f i c conditions. (Foreign Language Press, 1983, p. 27) This notion of s p e c i a l administrative regions sent a s i g n a l to people watching the S i n o - B r i t i s h negotiations. The Chinese c o n s t i t u t i o n had set the path f o r r e u n i f y i n g divided t e r r i t o r i e s such as Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau. 50 The Communists hope that Hong Kong w i l l act as an example f o r Taiwan, which seems a more d i f f i c u l t case f o r r e u n i f i c a t i o n . The concept of "one country, two systems," used by China to solve the 1997 problem, captures the arrangements f o r integra t i n g heterogeneous s o c i e t i e s into one nation. The Chinese hoped that "success" i n Hong Kong w i l l induce the Taiwan N a t i o n a l i s t s to the negotiation table. In that case, the Communists claim they w i l l allow Hong Kong to "enjoy a high degree of autonomy, except i n foreign and defence a f f a i r s which are the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the Central People's Government" (Joint Declaration, 1984, p. 2). The HKSAR can keep i t s status as a free port and i t s laws cu r r e n t l y i n force. The i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of the society i s supposed to remain unchanged. The HKSAR has policy-making power over education, among other matters, such as a l l o c a t i o n of resources, administration and ac c r e d i t a t i o n . People can decide on t h e i r own education, including study outside the HKSAR. But one important thing to note i s that Hong Kong w i l l remain an "administrative" l o c a l i t y only. This does not mean "independence." Chinese o f f i c i a l s c o n s i s t e n t l y made i t c l e a r that the B r i t i s h should return Hong Kong, i t s t e r r i t o r y and people together, to China. Then, the ce n t r a l government gives autonomy, according to Basic Law, to the administration of HKSAR. The HKSAR 51 i s by i t s e l f not a p o l i t y . Using an administrative cap to subsume a divergent society under the national f l a g i s a Chinese version of "one country, two systems." B r i t a i n served i t s own i n t e r e s t s and made a good bargain i n the negotiations. I t has taken the most and given the l e a s t . Although i t has to administer the t e r r i t o r y up to 1997, i t serves as a good partner of China. As China continues i t s open p o l i c y , B r i t a i n gains a huge market fo r i t s exports. The J o i n t Declaration asks B r i t a i n to run a prosperous and stable Hong Kong and return i t , without any changes, to China on 1 J u l y 1997. B r i t a i n w i l l end i t s ru l e by 1997 but d i d r e l i e v e the anxiety of l o c a l and foreign investors. The J o i n t Declaration authorizes the c o l o n i a l government to grant land leases expiring i n 2047. Moreover, B r i t a i n convinced the i n t e r n a t i o n a l community that the J o i n t Declaration does not send Hong Kong people to Communist r u l e . The future HKSAR w i l l enjoy a high degree of autonomy and i t s government and l e g i s l a t u r e " s h a l l be composed of l o c a l inhabitants" (Joint Declaration, 1984, p. 7). The J o i n t Declaration causes no fear of a large i n f l u x of immigrants to B r i t a i n . The B r i t i s h government has not granted the r i g h t of abode i n the United Kingdom to a l l holders of B r i t i s h Dependent T e r r i t o r i e s C i t i z e n s (BDTCs) passports i n Hong Kong. The J o i n t Declaration 52 s t i p u l a t e s that a l l Hong Kong Chinese are Chinese nationals, though some of them may have BDTCs passports. A l l BDTCs passports w i l l expire on 30 June, 1997, and holders cannot keep t h e i r BDTCs status s t a r t i n g 1 J u l y 1997. They can get a B r i t i s h Nationals (Overseas) passport a f t e r that date. This type of passport i s nothing more than a t r a v e l document. I t contains no r i g h t of abode and consular protection can only be invoked i n t h i r d countries, but not i n China. This arrangement a l l e v i a t e s B r i t i s h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Hong Kong people a f t e r 1997. H i s t o r i c a l Meanings t o Hong Kong The S i n o - B r i t i s h J o i n t Declaration ends the h i s t o r y of Hong Kong p a r t i t i o n from China. Before the years of separation, Hong Kong was a barren land with a t i n y population. The B r i t i s h took i t and b u i l t a p o l i t i c a l system t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t from China's. A B r i t i s h model of education f i t s people i n t h i s c a p i t a l i s t society. The economy grows and booms continuously. Hong Kong can ascribe i t s success to the detachment from China. The place i s small and p o l i t i c a l l y insulated from the mainland. But i t s people enjoy and love freedom. Hong Kong i s geographically connected to China. The population l a r g e l y depends on the motherland f o r water and food imports. But the dependent c i t y 53 has a place i n the h i s t o r y of modern China. During the formative years of modern China, Hong Kong served as a harbour of refuge f o r r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t s . Many who had made a narrow escape from China stayed i n the colony. To the mainlanders, Hong Kong i s a place of other j u r i s d i c t i o n . Facing the foreigners ( B r i t i s h r u l e r s ) , they might voice opinions not i n tune with Chinese orthodoxy. This freedom of speech provided outlets and protection f o r those who had changed China. The 1911 and 1949 Revolutions resulted i n not only p o l i t i c a l but i d e o l o g i c a l transformation. Many Republicans and then Communists survived because Hong Kong sheltered them. The colony allows voices which sound l i k e heresy i n the mainland. The society values freedom of expression and i t s education system supports t h i s . The return of Hong Kong to China a f t e r 1997 could close the door for d i s s i d e n t s . When Hong Kong comes under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of China, l o c a l inhabitants are worrying about the extent to which they can keep t h e i r freedom of expression. They cannot e a s i l y provide s h e l t e r to dissidents coming from the mainland. The J o i n t Declaration w i l l change the h i s t o r i c a l p o s i t i o n of Hong Kong thereafter. 54 Uniqueness of the S i t u a t i o n Hong Kong has a d i f f e r e n t ethos than other Chinese c a p i t a l i s t communities, such as Taiwan and Singapore. Unlike Taiwan, Hong Kong i s not burdened with a mission to maintain a Chinese p o l i t i c a l "legitimacy." Both Singapore and Hong Kong are i n t e r n a t i o n a l c i t i e s but the l a t t e r i s not a m u l t i c u l t u r a l one. Hong Kong faces no challenges of m u l t i r a c i a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . I t i s renowned for free trade and an open market. There are ample opportunities f o r entrepreneurs, adventurists and t a l - ented people from a l l over the world. But i t i s incomparable to Shanghai i n 1940s, which was hardly a u n i f i e d t e r r i t o r y patched up with concessions. The B r i t i s h Hong Kong government runs an e f f i c i e n t administra- t i o n and keeps an e f f e c t i v e p u blic order. Rule of law i s honoured and human r i g h t s are, i n general, respected i n l e g a l matters. The non-interventionism i n economy f a c i l i - tates foreign investment and l o c a l production. Huge in t e r n a t i o n a l corporations and small businesses cater to t h e i r own markets. Hong Kong grows with a c a p i t a l i s t c u l t u r e which prompts consumption and encourages free competition. The powerful mass media helps promote novel products and images of "public f i g u r e s . " People adopt a pragmatic approach to l i f e . As Hong Kong i s densely- populated, everyone scrambles for a l i v i n g space. People 55 usually work hard because they believe i n " s u r v i v a l of the f i t t e s t . " Time i s so precious that "busy" i s a word f o r l i f e . But i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s , Hong Kong i s too weak to decide on i t s own. The Vietnamese refugee problem i s an i n t e r n a t i o n a l issue but Hong Kong has had to shoulder the burden of looking a f t e r Vietnamese refugees f o r more than 15 years. Even though Hong Kong people are not w i l l i n g to receive "boat people" anymore, they should wait f o r B r i t a i n to negotiate with the i n t e r n a t i o n a l community. They can do nothing to stop the i n f l u x of refugees. The arrangement for the future of Hong Kong i n the J o i n t Declaration i s novel i n the h i s t o r y of mankind. The J o i n t Declaration does not encourage the formation of a sovereign nation-state. Also i t does not introduce a process of decolonization which happened very often i n 1950s and 1960s (Kuan & Lau, 1989). Instead of g i v i n g independence, i t tra n s f e r s the sovereignty of a c a p i t a l i s t system to i t s s o c i a l i s t motherland at a designated date. This c a p i t a l i s t system w i l l become a subset of the mother s o c i a l i s t country. The inte g r a t i o n does not encourage an immediate convergence of systems but ostensibly allows c a p i t a l i s m to continue f o r 50 years. This c a p i t a l i s t oasis w i l l be ruled by the Basic Law. People i n Hong Kong are facing a dilemma. Many are aiming at democracy for a decolonized society. But Hong 56 Kong i s not going to be an independent country. People who have been f i g h t i n g f o r democracy under c o l o n i a l r u l e may encounter resistance from the Communists i n future. The s i t u a t i o n of Hong Kong i s incomparable with that of other newly-independent countries. I t i s not technologi- c a l l y backward and faces no problem of development i n ad- m i n i s t r a t i o n . I t has established a sophisticated and e f f i c i e n t bureaucracy f o r administering the t e r r i t o r y . I t s education system has succeeded i n producing an e l i t e . Hong Kong p o l i t i c a l leaders are not looking f o r s e l f - r u l e or waiting f o r the mainlanders to set up a s o c i a l i s t model. They are required to run a c a p i t a l i s t administra- t i o n within the frame of "autonomy" given by the motherland. Autonomy i s a great word fo r the Communist r u l e r s . I t has been used to show the Communists' willingness to r e c o n c i l e the differences between ethnic groups, r e l i g i o n s , and s o c i e t i e s i n the country. The Tibet Autonomous Region i s assumed to be an example of ethnic and r e l i g i o u s r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . But many Tibetans are s t i l l unhappy with the Communist c e n t r a l government. P o l i t i c a l turmoil i s evident from time to time. However, Hong Kong i s unlike Tibet. I t w i l l not become an autonomous region but a s p e c i a l administrative region. Although the HKSAR i s supposed to enjoy a high degree of autonomy, i t has not been given a c l e a r p i c t u r e of 57 how autonomous i t w i l l become. The J o i n t Declaration l e f t many questions unanswered. But the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the concept of autonomy w i l l determine the destiny of the HKSAR. Clark (1989) dealt with the problem of autonomy f o r Hong Kong under the Basic Law. He stated that In order to conceptualize the forms of autonomy we w i l l follow the approach of Gordon L. Clark. Clark has divided the concept into two p r i n c i p l e s : i n i t i a t i o n and immunity. The power of i n i t i a t i o n deals with where p o l i c i e s are i n i t i a t e d , while the power of immunity deals with whether these powers are subject to scrutiny by higher governmental organs. Immunity also deals with the form the s c r u t i n y takes i f i t e x i s t s at a l l . (p.154) These two p r i n i c i p l e s : i n i t i a t i v e and immunity are formulated from a l e g a l perspective. In arguing about the autonomy of a future HKSAR, Clark concluded that economic and p o l i t i c a l , rather than purely l e g a l , f a c t o r s w i l l decide the pattern.* While Hong Kong should struggle f o r greater i n i t i a t i o n and stronger immunity, people do not forget that the "one country, two systems" format w i l l l a s t for only 50 years. Hong Kong should ultimately be integrated into China. Autonomy w i l l cease to be an issue f o r discussion. This uniqueness of s i t u a t i o n characterizes what the Club of Rome c a l l e d the "human gap." I t means "the 58 distance between growing complexity and our capacity to cope with i t " (Boktin, Elmandjra & Malitza, 1979, p. 6). The "one country, two systems" format i s an invention spurred from necessity. I t comes into being because the p o l i t i c a l circumstances require i t . But whether t h i s format can work s u c e s s f u l l y or not i s s t i l l unknown. I t i s only a concept f o r a n a l y s i s . People have no experience with i t . But Hong Kong people are bound to accept i t without conditions. Nobody can project what h i s or her l i f e w i l l a c t u a l l y look l i k e a f t e r 1997. To many people, the 1997 problem f l a r e s l i k e a catastrophe and they cannot deal with i t by "maintenance learning." Many are forced to go through a process of "learning by shock" (Botkin, Elmandjra & Malitza, 1979, p. 10). But t h i s kind of shock learning often becomes a p a i n f u l experience and costs people much time and energy. 59 CHAPTER IV REACTIONS OF THE COLONY S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l Echoes The S i n o - B r i t i s h J o i n t Declaration reduced the guesswork by investors i n Hong Kong. No extended B r i t i s h r u l e a f t e r 1997 would be allowed. The designation of a 50-year buffer period c l a r i f i e d some of the uncertainties cloaking Hong Kong's future. The B r i t i s h and Hong Kong governments spared no e f f o r t s to promote the J o i n t Declaration to Hong Kong people and the world. The Chinese and B r i t i s h governments declared that they would cooperate to implement the J o i n t Declaration. The S i n o - B r i t i s h J o i n t L i a i s o n Group, s t i p u l a t e d i n the J o i n t Declaration, was then established to serve t h i s purpose. Many people prepared for d r a f t i n g the Basic Law, which was dubbed the "mini- c o n s t i t u t i o n " of the HKSAR. There were two kinds of reactions to the J o i n t Declaration. Some people were happy to see Hong Kong returning to the motherland i n 1997. Many were panic- s t r i c k e n because they believe that Communists are ruthless masters. They had no confidence i n the Communist government, which, to them, had a h i s t o r y of repressing d i s s i d e n t s . Reminders of the C u l t u r a l Revolution (1966-1976) alarmed people. Many l o c a l 60 inhabitants had witnessed the a t r o c i t i e s of Communists during p o l i t i c a l purges against s o l d i e r s , bureaucrats, and c i v i l i a n s . Some were victims of these purges and had f l e d to Hong Kong. They cannot forget the past and w i l l think of leaving the t e r r i t o r y before the Chinese f l a g i s r a i s e d . The r i c h are a f r a i d of l o s i n g t h e i r money a f t e r 1997. Hong Kong has r a p i d l y developed during the l a s t two decades into one of Asia's leading f i n a n c i a l centres. On the other hand, China has had a planned economy since 1949, and adopted a so- c a l l e d "open" p o l i c y only ten years ago. The pace of development i n the mainland lags f a r behind that i n the colony. Hong Kong people enjoy a standard of l i v i n g much higher than t h e i r counterparts i n China. When Hong Kong becomes part of China, i t w i l l be easier f o r the mainlanders to come to Hong Kong. I t i s claimed that t h e i r jealousy w i l l cause the Chinese government to check the growth of wages and freedoms (e.g. to t r a v e l abroad) people now enjoy (Hicks, 1989). Freedom of expression i s v i t a l to i n t e l l e c t u a l p u rsuits. C r e a t i v i t y and i n i t i a t i v e grow when people are free to choose t h e i r careers and improve t h e i r q u a l i t y of l i f e . Individualism, market economy, and r u l e of law shape an open society i n which people are working f o r t h e i r own good. This type of society v a r i e s dramatically 61 from a s o c i a l i s t one where Communist ideology and the Party's i n s t r u c t i o n s permeate d a i l y l i f e . Hong Kong people are used to a c l e a r separation of government and p r i v a t e l i f e . People who have been free f o r so long are r e s i s t a n t to tightened c o n t r o l . The advent of 1997 causes people to wonder about the extent to which they can enjoy c i v i c l i b e r t i e s . Fear of Communist interference has driven many inhabitants to emigrate. The r i c h go away with c a p i t a l needed for l o c a l investment. The departure of the middle c l a s s has slashed inland revenue as they are heavy tax bearers i n terms of income and consumption. At t h i s time of writing, a "brain-drain" had emerged because the well-educated are moving to other countries i n large numbers. There are no o f f i c i a l records of how many residents have emigrated since the signing of the Sino- B r i t i s h J o i n t Declaration, but the government estimates that about 40 to 50 thousand people are emigrating every year. Migration of these b e t t e r - o f f people w i l l undermine the socioeconomic well-being of the colony. People often r e f e r to t h i s d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n as a "confidence problem. " People need to be assured that they w i l l not lose t h e i r freedoms and property a f t e r 1997. For those who are unable or unwilling to leave, democratization should be achieved i n a decolonized 62 Hong Kong. A pro-democracy movement started e a r l y i n the 1980's when the government issued the White Paper e n t i t l e d " D i s t r i c t Administration i n Hong Kong" i n 1981. The Paper demonstrated the government's intent to improve administration at d i s t r i c t l e v e l and encourage inhabitants' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t s . But the value of the Paper i s the c a l l f o r el e c t i o n s of some members to the D i s t r i c t Boards, which were set up f o r advising l o c a l administration. People viewed t h i s move as an important step i n l o c a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . They began discussions on how el e c t i o n s can help promote democracy i n Hong Kong where the majority of c i t i z e n s are said to have been p o l i t i c a l l y apathetic. Another White Paper e n t i t l e d "The Further Development of Representative Government i n Hong Kong" (1984) t r i e d to tackle the problem of "representation" i n Hong Kong. A c o l o n i a l government can hardly claim to represent the people. The B r i t i s h set up a c o l o n i a l bureaucracy to r u l e . The l e g i s l a t u r e i s not composed of representatives elected by people, but a c l u s t e r of e l i t e people hand-picked by the government to serve as "appointed members." This kind of l e g i s l a t u r e i s not a manifestation of "representative democracy." But t h i s White Paper stated the government's wishes to "represent a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y the views of the people of Hong Kong, and 63 which i s more d i r e c t l y accountable to the people of Hong Kong" (p. 3). I t advocated the development of a repre- sentative government i n Hong Kong. This step can be considered as a reformation at the c e n t r a l rather than l o c a l ( d i s t r i c t ) l e v e l . The government made a break- through by introducing some members int o the L e g i s l a t i v e Council through i n d i r e c t e l e c t i o n s i n 1985. At f i r s t the L e g i s l a t i v e Council was composed of members elected by the e l e c t o r a l college and functional constituencies, respec- t i v e l y , members appointed by the Governor, and o f f i c i a l members. This l e g i s l a t u r e then began to include some representative elements. But a representative democracy i s derived from d i r e c t e l e c t i o n s . The government was too cautious to hold d i r e c t e l e c t i o n s i n 1985. The Paper kept the option for d i r e c t e l e c t i o n open and promised to review i t i n 1987. There are some reasons why the government has reservations about d i r e c t e l e c t i o n s . Hong Kong has no t r a d i t i o n of party p o l i t i c s and, as a r e s u l t , l o c a l i n - habitants are regarded as being p o l i t i c a l l y apathetic. I t i s claimed that a change i n the composition of the L e g i s l a t i v e Council w i l l cause d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n p o l i t i c a l t r a d i t i o n and i n s t a b i l i t y i n society. A f t e r the b i r t h of the S i n o - B r i t i s h J o i n t Declaration i n 1984, any plans fo r p o l i t i c a l development should be kept i n accordance 64 with the Basic Law, promulgated by China i n 1990. Any d r a s t i c or fundamental changes i n the p o l i t i c a l system w i l l be harmful to a smooth t r a n s i t i o n to 1997. B r i t a i n i s not w i l l i n g to take the r i s k because i t wants to protect i t s own i n t e r e s t s and also look a f t e r the economic prosperity and s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y of Hong Kong u n t i l 30 June 1997. Pro-democracy supporters were anxious to hold d i r e c t e l e c t i o n s i n 1988. They thought that d i r e c t e l e c t i o n s would give people an opportunity to know what democracy means. They argued that p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n should be encouraged i n the t e r r i t i o r y . While Hong Kong w i l l be allowed to keep i t s c a p i t a l i s t system fo r 50 years (as s a i d i n the J o i n t Declaration), pro-democracy supporters s t r i v e d to i n h i b i t intervention from the mainland. They claim that a l e g i s l a t u r e composed of d i r e c t l y elected members w i l l safeguard the i n t e r e s t s of l o c a l inhabitants. Pro-democracy supporters have an i d e a l : the future HKSAR should have a community of c i v i c - minded residents, and the government and l e g i s l a t u r e of HKSAR should be accountable to the people. Therefore, before 1997 the L e g i s l a t i v e Council has to include members who can t r u l y represent the people. Although there were demands for d i r e c t e l e c t i o n s to the L e g i s l a t i v e Council i n 1988, the B r i t i s h administration halted the push f o r 65 p o l i t i c a l reform i n Hong Kong. C r i t i c s concluded that B r i t a i n stayed i n a neutral p o s i t i o n because of pressure from China to check the democratization movement (Cheng, 1989) . Since 1985, Chinese o f f i c i a l s have r e i t e r a t e d that people asking f o r p o l i t i c a l reforms should bear i n mind the need to converge with the Basic Law. Hong Kong should not go too f a r i n changing the p o l i t i c a l system. The future HKSAR w i l l be administered according to the Basic Law. B r i t a i n should return the t e r r i t o r y as i t has been f o r 150 years to China i n 1997. The Green Paper e n t i t l e d "The 1987 Review of Development i n Representative Government" represented a B r i t i s h withdrawal from "democratization." The Paper dealt with the controversy of d i r e c t e l e c t i o n s i n a low key manner. Introducing a d i r e c t l y elected element into the L e g i s l a t i v e Council i n 1988 was treated as an option f o r reforming the Council. Hong Kong people were asked to give t h e i r comments on the options to the Survey O f f i c e set up by the government. Although the pro-democracy supporters had been f i g h t i n g hard to mobilize the p u b l i c , they l o s t the b a t t l e . The White Paper e n t i t l e d "The Development of Representative Government: The Way Forward" issued i n 1988 concluded that time was not r i p e to hold d i r e c t e l e c t i o n s for the L e g i s l a t i v e Council i n 1988. People should wait u n t i l 1991 when the L e g i s l a t i v e 66 Council w i l l then have a number of d i r e c t l y elected members. The pro-democracy movement did not reduce t h e i r e f f o r t s . A number of p o l i t i c a l groups were formed to voice t h e i r opinions about how democratization should proceed. These groups can roughly be divided i n t o three sections: conservative, moderate and l i b e r a l . Members include some L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l l o r s , businessmen, professionals, educators and community workers. Each section had plans f o r p o l i t i c a l reform. They sent t h e i r views to the Basic Law Consultative Committee regarding the f i r s t d r a f t (issued A p r i l 1988) and second d r a f t (issued February 1989) of the Basic Law. Two themes i n the d r a f t s caught t h e i r attention. The f i r s t r e l a t e d to the method fo r s e l e c t i n g the Chief Executive of the HKSAR. The second was concerned with the method fo r c o n s t i t u t i n g the l e g i s l a t u r e a f t e r 1997. Discussions were focused on when the l e g i s l a t u r e would have d i r e c t l y elected members and when the Chief Executive would be elected by universal suffrage. Arguments varied on the percentage of d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y elected members a f t e r 1997 and whether a bicameral system would be s u i t a b l e for Hong Kong. There were vigorous debates i n the Basic Law Drafting Committee where members were coming from Hong Kong and China to 67 work out the d r a f t s together. Consensus had to be reached so that the Basic Law can ensure Hong Kong people a c l e a r p o l i t i c a l future. The Basic Law was f i n a l l y promulgated i n March 1990. While the pro-democracy movement worked f o r an open and free p o l i t i c a l i d e n t i t y i n Hong Kong, a campaign was waged to open " e x i t options." Although the debate on r i g h t of abode i n the UK f o r three m i l l i o n B r i t i s h passport holders i n Hong Kong had abated a f t e r the b i r t h of the J o i n t D e c l a r a t i o n , the community s t i l l remembered t h i s dormant r i g h t . There was frequent p o l i t i c a l lobbying i n the B r i t i s h Parliament. B r i t a i n would f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to grant three m i l l i o n people r i g h t of abode i n UK though i t was deemed by many as a moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . On the other hand, these three m i l l i o n people may not be able or w i l l i n g to s e t t l e i n UK, but such "a pledge was thought to be " p o l i t i c a l insurance" against an alleged Communist threat. U l t i - mately a new " n a t i o n a l i t y package" f o r Hong Kong B r i t i s h passport holders was issued i n December 1989. About 225,000 Hong Kong people holding B r i t i s h Dependent T e r r i t o r y C i t i z e n s (BDTCs) passports are supposed to be granted f u l l B r i t i s h passports. But t h i s r i g h t i s only f o r a p r i v i l e g e d e l i t e , including the well-educated people, the professionals, and those who have "close t i e s " 68 with B r i t a i n . The average c i t i z e n may f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to b e n e f i t from the package. People continue to f i g h t f o r a l a r g e r package to include more BDTC passport holders. They w i l l need the coverage to strengthen t h e i r confidence to stay i n Hong Kong. Repercussions i n Education The emigration of well-educated people caused a "brain-drain." Among the emigrants, many were u n i v e r s i t y graduates who had previously occupied middle and top management positions i n government and business organizations. Vacancies l e f t by them are hard to f i l l because i t takes time and energy to t r a i n people. As Hong Kong follows a B r i t i s h e l i t i s t model of education, the departure of u n i v e r s i t y graduates weakens the socioeco- nomic development i n the t e r r i t o r y . The Hong Kong government t r i e d to cope with t h i s i n a v a r i e t y of ways. On the one hand, i t gave favourable employment conditions to emigrants who l e f t to gain c i t i z e n s h i p i n another country and then returned to Hong Kong. On the other hand, i t expanded the provi s i o n of higher and adult/ continuing education. The Unive r s i t y of Science and Technology and the Open Learning I n s t i t u t e of Hong Kong were established to produce more degree-holders and q u a l i f i e d people. "1997" has had a great impact on adult/continuing 69 education i n Hong Kong. People have to prepare f o r a t r a n s i t i o n from c o l o n i a l r u l e to i n t e g r a t i o n with China. For a person who has been l i v i n g i n a free society f o r many years, the prospect of such a t r a n s i t i o n i s sobering. Although the HKSAR w i l l be given a high degree of autonomy, Chinese o f f i c i a l s have constantly r e i t e r a t e d that Hong Kong i s a part of China. The Chinese government w i l l not t o l e r a t e intervention from foreign countries concern- ing the p o l i t i c a l development i n Hong Kong. The future of Hong Kong w i l l be deemed a purely i n t e r n a l a f f a i r of China. But as China tightens i t s control of Hong Kong, people lose confidence i n the future. Facing t h i s "human gap, " (between the unprecedented s i t u a t i o n of Hong Kong and people's capacity to cope with i t ) people might f i n d maintenance or shock learning inadequate. In t h i s case, "innovative learning" would help. Botkin, Elmandjra and Malitza (1979) asserted that "innovative leaning i s a necessary means of preparing i n d i v i d u a l s and s o c i e t i e s to act i n concert i n new s i t u a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y those that have been, and continue to be, created by humanity i t s e l f " (p.12). There are two features of innovative learning: a n t i c i p a t i o n and par- t i c i p a t i o n . While maintenance learning i s reactive by nature, a n t i c i p a t i o n r e f e r s to a proactive e f f o r t to make plans f o r future. Anticipatory learning asks people 70 to imagine scenarios and look f o r long-term desirable a l t e r n a t i v e s i n dealing with awkward s i t u a t i o n s . P a r t i c i - pation i s both a r i g h t and a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . People should p a r t i c i p a t e i n the decision-making processes of t h e i r schools, workplace, and community. P a r t i c i p a t o r y learning urges people to f i n d out t h e i r r i g h t s , a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r interests> exchange values and f e e l i n g s with, others, and work out together what i s good f o r one and the other. The theme of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n innovative learning i s of much s i g n i f i c a n c e to the people of Hong Kong. People begin to be aware of the importance of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . This awareness has come along with the promotion of c i v i c education. C i t i z e n s h i p t r a i n i n g i s one of the major functions of adult education. The t r a n s i t i o n period to 1997 i s h i s t o r i c i n the development of adult/ continuing education (ACE) i n Hong Kong. People know that ACE w i l l be important for i n d i v i d u a l s to upgrade t h e i r knowledge and s k i l l s i n order to deal with changes i n l i f e . But they often forget the s o c i a l implications of adult education f o r that t r a n s i t i o n period. In discussing Eduard Lindeman's contributions to the development of theory and philosophy i n adult education, Brookfield (1984) pointed out that the s o c i a l relevance of adult education has often been neglected by 71 p r a c t i t i o n e r s . What Lindeman has contributed to the f i e l d i s to introduce the concept "andragogy" at a time e a r l i e r than Malcolm Knowles did. His c r i t i c a l evaluation of the meaning of experience i n adult l i f e preceded the work of Paulo F r e i r e . To Lindeman, adult education can be used "as a force to counter the threats posed by demagogy, dominance, and d i c t a t o r s h i p " (p.191). Adult education works fo r democracy, which e n t a i l s p a r t i c i p a - t i o n of an informed c i t i z e n r y i n s o c i a l action. Adult educators should not only hold a service o r i e n t a t i o n but attend to the s o c i a l purposes of the f i e l d . Adult educators i n Hong Kong have been urged to pay attention to the process of s o c i a l change i n the run-up to 1997. But they are part of the community and have t h e i r own p o l i t i c a l orientations and these w i l l l i k e l y influence t h e i r perception of developments i n the f i e l d . 72 CHAPTER V SCENARIOS FOR THE FUTURE In one respect, the future of Hong Kong has already been designated i n the S i h o - B r i t i s h J o i n t Declaration. Some believe Hong Kong i s doomed to disappointment; some think otherwise. P o l i t i c i a n s , educators, businessmen and the common people are looking f o r ways to deal with changes i n the 1990's. Society must progress even though changes may not be p o s i t i v e . People have drives to l i b e r a l i z e society, but a democratized Hong Kong would be d i f f i c u l t f o r China to co n t r o l . While people are f i g h t i n g f o r democracy i n Hong Kong, they are warned by China not to change the p o l i t i c a l system so much, (e.g. a l e g i s l a t u r e composed by a l l d i r e c t l y elected members) . The Chinese government would l i k e to see the p o l i t i c a l system remain e s s e n t i a l l y the same as i t was i n c o l o n i a l times. However, i f Hong Kong i s to remain stable and prosperous, people w i l l work hard f o r future development. Socioeconomic as well as p o l i t i c a l development need v i s i o n s . P o l i t i c i a n s , educators and businessmen have t h e i r own v i s i o n s of the future of Hong Kong. But v i s i o n s must be based upon concrete s i t u a t i o n s . Scenarios help c r y s t a l l i z e v i s i o n s and, concerning 1997, three have emerged. 73 The "Continuing Prosperity" Scenario About 62 percent of the population have stayed i n Hong Kong. Lower c l a s s people d i d not have enough money or knowledge and s k i l l s to emigrate. They are p e s s i m i s t i c about the future but can do nothing to change i t . Most are not concerned about who i s i n government but only care about whether they can go to work everyday and get paid every month. Junior c i v i l servants worry that t h e i r super- annuation fund may not be redeemed a f t e r retirement. Dis- c i p l i n a r y forces, e.g. p o l i c e and c o r r e c t i o n a l services, are plagued by low morale because those who give orders have changed. Some businessmen who have previously traded with China are staying to look for more opportunities i n the Chinese market. They believe that good prospects emerge from China's open i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade p o l i c y . Hong Kong i s a free port that serves as a bridge between China and western traders. The a i r p o r t i s overcrowded with busy f l i g h t s and hotels are f u l l y booked. Horse races continue and stock markets boom. Bids for r e a l estate h i t the record p r i c e s . Older people stay because emigration i s too d i f f i c u l t at t h e i r stage of l i f e . I t i s not easy f o r them to adopt a new l i f e - s t y l e . They do not worry about the new government because such a change does not mean too much 74 to them. They have been p o l i t i c a l l y apathetic f o r years and would not ask f o r things from the government. A minority of people are pleased that Hong Kong has returned to i t s motherland. People believe that the HKSAR enjoys a high degree of autonomy while being part of China. Hong Kong continues to prosper. The "Wait and See" Scenario I t i s 1997 and about 20 percent of the population have l e f t Hong Kong temporarily. The middle c l a s s people have sought c i t i z e n s h i p i n a foreign country. They come back to Hong Kong a f t e r getting a foreign passport. Most of them are professionals and businessmen who have no confidence i n the HKSAR but are reluctant to give up what they have established i n Hong Kong. They stay as long as the s i t u a t i o n remains good. But precautionary measures have been adopted. They have transferred most of t h e i r savings to the country i n which they have c i t i z e n s h i p and purchased one-year round open a i r - t i c k e t s to i t . Some deposit foreign currencies i n banks within Hong Kong. I f nothing happens, they t r a v e l i n and out Hong Kong re g u l a r l y . Once the stock market plunges, banks are run on or the People Liberation Army begin to march into the town, they j u s t take t h e i r passports and board the planes. As the "brain drain" deepens, the government and many business organizations a t t r a c t "brain-drainers" to stay 75 i n Hong Kong to work by good pay package. Once Hong Kong i s f i n i s h e d , a number of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e organizations are emptied out. Many faces disappear on once the busiest s t r e e t s . The " I t ' s A l l over" Scenario About 18 percent of the population have l e f t Hong Kong permanently. The upper and upper-middle c l a s s people are a f r a i d of l o s i n g t h e i r wealth and freedoms. Ten b i l l i o n d o l l a r s have l e f t f o r Canada, A u s t r a l i a , the US and B r i t a i n . A HKSAR currency has replaced the former B r i t i s h Hong Kong d o l l a r . People are forced to convert t h e i r cash in t o HKSAR d o l l a r s at the China Bank. Entre- preneurs are "advised" to invest i n China projects i n order to prove t h e i r "patriotism." There are c a l l s on t e l e v i s i o n , radio and newspapers f o r people to buy HKSAR government bonds. The government controls foreign ex- change. The HKSAR money cannot be brought i n and out Hong Kong f r e e l y . Those who wish to leave Hong Kong f o r any reason should apply for an e x i t v i s a even though they hold B r i t i s h Nationals (Overseas) passports. Pay increases are frozen and s t r i k e s banned. Neighbourhood v i g i l a n c e com- mittees are established f o r reporting " p l o t s " to subvert the People's Republic. The People L i b e r a t i o n Army i s stationed i n a l l former B r i t i s h barracks. D r i l l runs on the October 1 National Day. Public services such as 76 sewage, garbage disposal and transportation have d e t e r i o - rated because workers are poorly paid and the "brain d r a i n " has taken away s k i l l e d administrators. Schools lack experienced teachers and p u b l i c h o s p i t a l s are short of doctors and nurses. Corruption plagues government depart- ments. E l e c t i o n s are held but only those candidates who have been "screened" by the Central People's Government can run f o r o f f i c e . The economy stagnates. These three scenarios contain elements that were incorporated i n t o a survey conducted to achieve the purposes of t h i s study. The survey was concerned with the impact of 1997 on the shape of ACE. I t s impact was examined by asking adult educators to estimate how the i n t e r e s t s i n the content of ACE w i l l vary f o r the three kinds of people: those staying, those leaving Hong Kong temporarily, or those leaving permanently. Respondents were also asked to estimate how the use of the processes (methods and techniques) of ACE w i l l increase or decrease i n Hong Kong generally and i n t h e i r workplace. As "1997" i s a p o l i t i c a l problem, the survey also investigated the extent to which the p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s of adult educators would influence t h e i r estimates and views concerning the development of the f i e l d . 77 CHAPTER VI INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT A survey was c a r r i e d out to study how the 1997 problem influenced the development of adult/continuing education (ACE) i n Hong Kong. The questionnaire consisted of three parts. The f i r s t l i s t e d the content and the second the processes of ACE. The content of ACE r e f e r r e d to a number of academic or p r a c t i c a l subjects covered by ACE programs. The processes of ACE r e f e r r e d to methods and techniques (Verner, 1964). The t h i r d part of the questionnaire concerned the sociodemographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of respon- dents. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e f e r r e d to t h e i r background i n ACE (years of service, professional concern and r o l e ) , t h e i r views concerning the purposes of adult education and t h e i r p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . The purposes of adult education were Boshier's (1985) s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n , s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , s o c i a l change and t e c h n i c a l competence. P o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s r e f e r r e d to Almond & Verba's (1963) cognitive, a f f e c t i v e and evaluative o r i e n t a t i o n s towards the p o l i t i c a l context. Item Construction Part I of the questionnaire contained items about the content of adult education. There were 45 subject items arrayed i n nine categories. Table 1 shows a l l subject items 78 Table 1 The 45 Subject Items i n Part I of the questionnaire. Languages Chinese English Japanese French German Language Language Language Language Language Home Gardening Hobby Handicrafts Hobbies Fashion Design Chinese Calligraphy Hobby Photography China Chinese Trade Legal System China Studies Chinese Arts Chinese Philosophy Chinese History Accounting & Auditing Business & Commerce Advertising /Marketing International Trade Investment Planning Banking Practice Company Law Property Law Law Criminal Law Labour Law in H.K. Hong Kong Taxation Law Social Religious & Work Ethno-cultural Studies Social Sciences Moral Education Health Education Civic Education Training of Trainers Management Human Office Resources Management Management Supervisory Management Worker Training Technical Training Computer Chef Carpentry Mechanical Technology Training Engineering Driving Applied Sciences Biomedicine C i v i l Environmental Human Information Engineering Science Geography Management (Ecology) 79 i n Part I. These subject items were selected because of t h e i r popularity i n Hong Kong. Many ACE i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r programs about them. "China Studies" was added because of an antic i p a t e d increase i n contacts with China i n the run-up to 1997. In the questionnaire, these 45 subject items were systematically d i s t r i b u t e d throughout Part I of the questionnaire. For example, Item 1 was Chinese Language, Item 2 Home Gardening, Item 3 China Trade... Respondents were i n v i t e d to use a f i v e - p o i n t L i k e r t scale (Wiersma, 1986) to show the extent to which i n t e r e s t i n each subject (e.g. Information Management) w i l l decrease strongly, decrease, remain e s s e n t i a l l y the same, increase or increase strongly. Respondents were asked to estimate the extent to which the i n t e r e s t ( i n each subject) of people staying i n Hong Kong, those leaving Hong Kong temporarily or those leaving Hong Kong permanently w i l l decrease or increase. They gave t h e i r answers by c i r c l i n g one of the f i v e responses (from "decrease strongly" to "increase s t r o n g l y " ) . Part II of the questionnaire comprised items about the processes of adult education. The 18 process items were selected because of t h e i r frequent use i n ACE programs. Nine of them were methods; nine were techniques. 80 Table 2 shows a l l process items i n Part I I . Table 2 Adult Education Methods and Techniques Methods Techniques Correspondence Study Role Play Class Educational Games Exhibitions Debate Apprenticeship Simulation Tutorial Discussion group Lecture Public Education campaign Group Discussion Courses By Computer Demonstration Forum Field Trips Workshop Case Studies The 18 process items were l i s t e d as one method followed by one technique. For example, Item 1 was Correspondence study, Item 2 Role play, Item 3 Cla s s . . . Respondents were asked to estimate whether the use of these methods and techniques w i l l decrease or increase i n Hong Kong g e n e r a l l y and i n t h e i r workplace. They gave t h e i r estimates by c i r c l i n g one of the f i v e response categories: Decrease Strongly, Decrease, Remain Essen- t i a l l y The Same, Increase, Increase Strongly. 81 Conceptual Bases f o r Sociodemographic Questions Part III of the questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the sociodemographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of respondents. Questions concerned the age, sex and educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of respondents. Respondents were also asked i f ACE i s t h e i r primary or secondary p r o f e s s i o n a l concern or i f they are p r i m a r i l y a planner or teacher. These categories were derived from Boshier's (1985) Conceptual Framework fo r Analyzing the Train i n g of Trainers and Adult Educators. Respondents were also asked to report how many years they had worked f u l l or part-time i n ACE. They were also asked to rank ( i n order of importance to them) the four purposes of adult education i n Boshier's (1985) model. The most important was to be ranked "1," the next "2," and so on. Table 3 shows the categories derived from the Boshier's model. The remaining parts of the questionnaires dealt with the p o l i t i c a l o rientations of respondents. At the beginning, respondents were asked to estimate the percentages of residents who w i l l (i) leave Hong Kong permanently; ( i i ) leave Hong Kong temporarily and ( i i i ) stay i n Hong Kong i n the run-up to 1997. Then they answered questions about t h e i r p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . Questions 82 Table 3 Dimensions shaping the sociodemographic p r o f i l e of respondents Primacy of Role Role occupied Purposes in ACE in ACE of ACE Primary Planner Social professional integration concern Social responsibility Social change Secondary Teacher Technical professional competence concern were derived from Almond and Verba's (1963) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e and evaluative o r i e n t a t i o n s towards the p o l i t i c a l context. Table 4 shows categories from Almond and Verba's model and questions associated with each o r i e n t a t i o n . Respondents were also asked to i n d i c a t e the extent to which they were involved i n China trade, China exchanges or any pr o j e c t s with China. F i n a l l y , they were asked about t h e i r own i n t e n t i o n s : to stay, leave Hong Kong temporarily or leave permanently i n the run-up to 1997. The c o g n i t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n questions were cast on a 83 Table 4 List of questions for examining the political orientations of respondents Political Questions Orientations on I. Cognitive - know about the functions of the Executive and Legislative Councils in Hong Kong - know about the difference between HK-style capitalism & "Chinese" (i.e. PRC) socialism - know why and how the Sino-British Joint Declaration was signed - know about the content of the Sino-British Joint Declaration - know about the content of the Draft Basic Law II. Affective - feel about the performance of the present Governor since he assumed office - feel about what has happened as a result of the signing of the Sino-British Joint Declaration - feel about the proposal for direct elections for Legislative Council in 1988 - feel about the current proposal for direct elections for Legislative Council in 1991 - feel about the democracy movement in Hong Kong III. Evaluative - feel about what will happen in 1997 and beyond - feel the extent to which you are able to control the forces that shape the nature of your life - tell the extent to which the Legislative Councillors can represent your interests - be a registered voter or not - have ever given opinions or suggestions on the Draft Basic Law to the Basic Law Consulative Committee - going to give opinions or suggestions on the Draft Basic Law to the Basic Law Consultative Committee or not 84 seven-point scale. For example, No. 3 asked "How much do you f e e l you know about the dif f e r e n c e s between Hong Kong-style c a p i t a l i s m and 'Chinese' ( i . e . PRC) s o c i a l - ism?" Respondents would check: An Immense Amount, Very Much, Much, A Moderate Amount, L i t t l e , Very L i t t l e , Almost Nothing. For questions which concerned a f f e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n , respondents also picked an answer from seven choices. The present Governor's performance was rated from Very Good, Good, S a t i s f a c t o r y , No Feeling One Way Or The Other, F a i r , Poor to Very Poor. In other questions, f e e l i n g s about people and things were indicated as: Extremely Optimis- t i c / P o s i t i v e , Very O p t i m i s t i c / P o s i t i v e , S l i g h t l y O p t i - m i s t i c / P o s i t i v e , No Feeling One Way Or The Other, S l i g h t l y Pessimistic/Negative, Very Pessimistic/Negative, Ex- tremely Pessimistic/Negative. For questions on evaluative o r i e n t a t i o n , respon- dents were asked to choose one out of s i x responses. These responses could be: Very Much Control/Involved, Much Control/Involved, Moderate Control/Moderately Involved, L i t t l e Control/Involved, Very L i t t l e Control/Involved, No Control/Involved At A l l . They s a i d yes or no i n a l t e r n a t i v e questions. The complete questionnaire i s contained i n Appendix A. 85 Languages and Forms The questionnaire had a Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n to cater to those respondents whose English might not be good enough to comprehend the questions. Besides, i t was pos s i b l e f o r respondents to get t i r e d at a p a r t i c u l a r item a f t e r they had responded to several questions already. Therefore, a second form of the o r i g i n a l questionnaire ( c a l l e d Form A) was developed. I t was named Form B. The order of a l l content and process items from Form A was reversed i n Form B. For example, Chinese Language was Item 1 and Information Management Item 45 i n Form A. But i n Form B, Information Management became Item 1 and Chinese Language Item 45. The same procedure was applied to process items too. Correspondence Study was Item 1 and Case Studies Item 18 i n Part II of Form A. But i n Form B, Case Studies became Item 1 and Correspondence Study Item 18. Both Form A and Form B had t h e i r Chinese versions. The Chinese Form A was named Form C and Chinese Form B named Form D. Table 5 shows the four forms i n two sets that vary by item order and language. P r i o r to conducting a s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , a l l the "reversed" items (Form B) were " f l i p p e d " so as to become compatible with the item order i n Form A. 86 Table 5 The four forms of questionnaires in two sets that vary by item order and language English Chinese Items Form A Form C 1-H5 printed i n printed in blue colour yellow colour Items Form B Form D 45-1 printed in printed in gold colour pink colour P i l o t Study While the f i r s t d r a f t of the questionnaire was being written, i t was taken to Charles Wong and N.P. Lee to check the content v a l i d i t y . In t h i s context, content v a l i d i t y concerned the extent to which the "content" and "process" items adequately represented the f i e l d of adult/continuing education i n Hong Kong. Charles Wong and N.P. Lee were experienced man and woman adult educators from Hong Kong. They had worked as programers f o r years i n Extramural Studies Departments of The Chinese U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong and U n i v e r s i t y 87 of Hong Kong. To check the content v a l i d i t y , they had to determine whether some items were redundant or i f other important ones had been l e f t out. A f t e r t h e i r examination, a l l items were confirmed except f o r some minor changes. For example, some items were renamed f o r c l a r i t y and the "Applied Science" category was strength- ened. The amended d r a f t English and i t s Chinese version were taken to Miranda Wong to check the t r a n s l a t i o n . Miranda Wong, formerly a senior s o c i a l worker from Hong Kong, was a graduate of the UBC Diploma i n Adult Education. She was i n v i t e d to determine the extent to which the Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n corresponded with the English version. Moreover, she examined questions i n Part I I I , to see i f , from her perspective as a Hong Kong woman, they "made sense." A f t e r her examination, the Chinese d r a f t was revised. Some questions were rephrased f o r b r e v i t y and some response categories reworded f o r better understanding. The f i n a l d r a f t was completed i n l a t e March, 1989. Later the "reverse-order-numbering" i n Forms C and D would have to be compatible with Forms A and B. D i f f e r e n t colours were used to a l e r t the researcher to the "item-numbering" issue. 88 The four questionnaires: English (Forms A and B) Chinese (Forms C and D) are contained i n Appendix A. 89 CHAPTER VII METHOD Population The population surveyed consisted of members of the Hong Kong Association f o r Continuing Education (HKACE), graduates and students of three rounds of the UBC Diploma i n Adult Education (in Hong Kong) and heads of some major adult education i n s t i t u t i o n s . Just over 170 subjects were selected and each of them was mailed a copy of the questionnaire. A dime was thrown to decide who was the f i r s t one to get which form of the questionnaire. "Heads" stood f o r Form A and " t a i l s " f o r Form B. As a r e s u l t , the f i r s t name appearing on the membership l i s t of the HKACE got Form B, the second one Form A and the t h i r d one Form B again. Those who had Chinese names and addresses on the l i s t got Chinese versions. But Chinese Forms C and D were also alternated amongst the "Chinese names" on the l i s t . (At the time of the study, the author was Honorary Secretary of the HKACE and thus personally acquainted with about 3 0 percent of the members. She thus knew whether English or Chinese would be the preferred language i n many cases.) The same procedure was applied to the three rounds of Diploma graduates and students too. But they a l l got the English versions because they were assumed to understand the 90 questions w e l l . Heads of adult education i n s t i t u t i o n s got a l t e r n a t e forms A and B (English) as well. M a i l i n g o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s A l l questionnaires were air-mailed from Vancouver to Hong Kong i n mid-April, 1989. A cover l e t t e r explaining the purposes of the survey and a l e a f l e t introducing the UBC diploma and graduate programs i n adult education were enclosed with each copy of the questionnaire. (Folk wisdom claimed that Hong Kong people are more i n c l i n e d to complete a questionnaire i f i t i s accompanied by a souvenir or a d d i t i o n a l information of i n t e r e s t . ) Respondents were asked to return the completed questionnaire i n the self-addressed envelope attached. The questionnaire d i d not bear the name of the respondent but a number was coded on i t s back page. I t was explained i n the cover l e t t e r that the code number was used to record how many questionnaires had been sent and to count how many people d i d not reply. Follow-up l e t t e r s would then be sent to non-respondents. Replies were anonymous and kept i n s t r i c t confidence. A due date was not s p e c i f i e d but a prompt reply encouraged. The return address was the mail-box of the HKACE i n Hong Kong. C h r i s t i n e Yeung of the HKACE helped c o l l e c t the questionnaires as they were returned. 91 Data Processing and Analysis Three data cards, each containing 80 columns, were used f o r each respondent. The f i r s t three columns of Card One recorded respondents' i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The f i r s t r e - spondent was coded as "001." The fourth column marked respondents' gender, "1" fo r male and "2" fo r female. The f i f t h and s i x t h columns recorded respondents' actual age. Suppose that respondent 088 was aged 35, thus "35" was printed on columns 5 and 6. Columns 7 to 20 were used to record respondents' socioeconomic data and columns 21 to 44 respondents' answers to p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n ques- t i o n s . The score of the f i r s t subject item "Chinese Language: staying" was recorded on Column 51. Remember that Forms B and D had t h e i r item order "reversed." While "Information Management: staying" was the f i r s t item i n Forms B and D, a step was added to avoid complication. The score of "Chinese Language: staying" i n every Form B and D was pri n t e d on Column 51 as well. Then the score of "Chinese Language: leaving temporarily" was put down on Column 52 and "Chinese Language: leaving permanently" on Column 53. I f respondents d i d not c i r c l e a response category, then the column was marked "0." I f the "Decrease" category was c i r c l e d , then "2" was pri n t e d on the column. Coding of responses to subject items continued u n t i l Column 79. Column 80 was marked "1" fo r Card One. 92 The f i r s t s i x columns of Card Two were l e f t blank. Then scores of subject items continued to be marked on Column 7 up to Column 79. Column 80 of Card Two was marked "2.11 Then the f i r s t s i x columns of Card Three were l e f t blank again and scores of subject items continued to be marked on column 7. The f i r s t process score: "Correspondence Study: i n Hong Kong" was marked on Column 44 of Card Three. The same arrangement was made to record the score of "Cor- respondence Study: i n Hong Kong" i n every Form B and D i n Column 44 even though the f i r s t process item i n Forms B and D was "Case Studies: i n Hong Kong." The score of the l a s t process item "Case Studies: i n my workplace" was recorded on Column 79 and column 80 was marked "3" f o r Card Three. A word-processing program was used to transmit data from coding forms to a computer. Besides the data f i l e , a c o n t r o l f i l e was written up to prepare data f o r SPSS ( S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l Sciences) a n a l y s i s . The control f i l e t o l d SPSS to i d e n t i f y columns f o r v a r i a b l e s , declare missing values, and define value l a b e l s . A "Compute" command was used to average the scores f o r each content/process category. For example, scores of Chinese Language, English Language, Japanese Language, French Language and German Language (for people staying) were added together and divided by f i v e i n order to y i e l d 93 a t o t a l score of "LANGSTAY," meaning "Languages f o r people staying." As well, a t o t a l score f o r "MTHTOTWP" (Methods used i n my workplace) was produced by summing over the responses f o r Correspondence Study, Class, E x h i b i t i o n s , Apprenticeship, T u t o r i a l Discussion Group, Public Educa- t i o n Campaigns, Courses By Computer, Forum and Workshop, and d i v i d i n g them by nine. Moreover, a "compute" command was made to form age groups (e.g. 20 to 30, 30 to 40) based upon respondents' actual age. "Frequencies" were cal c u l a t e d f o r sex, age groups, p r o f e s s i o n a l concern, r o l e , educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , overseas degrees, " o r i g i n a l d i s c i p l i n e s " and respondents' "emigration i n t e n t i o n s . " Such a procedure was done i n order to check i f there was any error i n coding the data. For example, i f "3" appeared i n the "sex" column, i t would in d i c a t e a problem because only "1" was used f o r male and "2" f o r female. "Crosstabs" were executed to c a l c u l a t e the percent- ages of men and women i n such v a r i a b l e s as age, profes- s i o n a l concern, educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n , overseas degrees, " o r i g i n a l d i s c i p l i n e " and "emigration inten- t i o n s . " Tabulations from "frequencies" and "crosstabs" were used to i d e n t i f y the sociodemographic c h a r a c t e r i s - t i c s of respondents. A "means" command was executed i n order to examine the differences between men and women on 94 each content and process v a r i a b l e (e.g. Business & Commerce) f o r each kind of person (staying, leaving tem- p o r a r i l y or leaving permanently). Tabulations from the "d e s c r i p t i v e s " command which yielded mean scores of each content and process category f o r the three kinds of people were used to o u t l i n e a map of what the respondents thought about the ant i c i p a t e d changes i n content and processes of ACE i n Hong Kong. "Co r r e l a t i o n " was used to check the i n t e r n a l consistency of each content and process category f o r the three kinds of people. A " t - t e s t " was c a l c u l a t e d to measure the t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y of the instrument. " C o r r e l a t i o n " commands were again executed to check i f there was any s i g n i f i c a n t association between respon- dents' sociodemographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (e.g. age, pro f e s s i o n a l concern, e t c . ) , t h e i r estimates concerning other residents' "emigration intentions" and t h e i r estimates concerning changes i n ACE. "Co r r e l a t i o n " was also used to examine the association between respondents' p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , t h e i r "emigration i n t e n t i o n s " and t h e i r estimates concerning the changes i n ACE. The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between respondents' p o l i t i c a l o r i e n - t a t i o n s and t h e i r ranking of the purposes of adult education were also examined. A "means" command was executed i n order to f i n d out 95 the mean percentages of people who were thought to be staying, leaving temporarily or leaving permanently with respect to the respondents' own "emigration in t e n t i o n s . " Moreover, such a command was also used to compute the mean degree of involvement i n China projects (ranging from "not involved at a l l " to "very much involved") f o r each kind of respondent who was intending to stay, leave temporar- i l y or leave permanently. In a l l above operations, the s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l was set at .05 f o r one-tailed or .01 fo r two-tailed t e s t s . 96 CHAPTER VIII RESULTS Effect of History Campbell and Stanley (1963) i n t h e i r i n f l u e n t i a l a n a l y s i s of quasi and true experimental designs l i s t e d a v a r i e t y of factors that threaten the i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of experimental research. Although t h i s was an ex post facto study, the data c o l l e c t i o n process was po s s i b l y d i s t o r t e d by the i n t r u s i o n of the massacre i n Tiananmen Square, China on June 4, 1989. Following the death of the former Secretary General of the Communist Party, Hu Yao-bang, i n mid-April, 1989, massive student movements demanding democracy and oppos- ing corruption were ac t i v e i n B e i j i n g and other major c i t i e s of China. Students who pleaded f o r the democratization of China got support from people i n Hong Kong. Pro-democracy advocates i n Hong Kong echoed t h e i r counterparts' appeal f o r an open and democratic China. Some had even gone to B e i j i n g to v i s i t students on a hunger s t r i k e at the Tiananmen Square. Newspapers reported that about 1.5 m i l l i o n people marched i n Hong Kong on Sunday, May 28, 1989 i n support of the students at the Tiananmen Square (see Appendix B). Tension between the Chinese government and students s i t t i n g i n the Tiananmen 97 Square grew i n l a t e May, 1989. M a r t i a l law was declared and students were ordered to withdraw from the Square. Before dawn on June 4, the government resolved to clamp down on t h i s "chaos" by force of arms. Newspapers reported that numerous students and c i t i z e n s i n B e i j i n g were massacred by troops (see Appendix C) . June 4 became a black day f o r Chinese people. The June 4 Incident had a great impact upon Hong Kong. Newspapers reported that hundreds of thousands of people r a l l i e d to voice g r i e f and indignation and a general s t r i k e was c a l l e d f o r to mourn the dead i n B e i j i n g (see Appendix D) . Many Hong Kong people were panic-stricken and shocked by the a t r o c i t i e s of the Communists. The stock market plunged and thousands of people withdrew money from Chinese banks (see Appendix E) . I t appeared that confidence i n the future of Hong Kong dropped sharply a f t e r June 4. I t was suggested that many who planned to stay i n Hong Kong had changed t h e i r minds and would leave. Some sped up t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r emigration. Business got hurt badly. The June 4 Incident appeared to a f f e c t the psychology of Hong Kong people and threatened the i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of t h i s study. By June 4, 1989, 50 questionnaires had been returned. A f t e r June 4, another 72 completed ques- ti o n n a i r e s were secured. Thus, before d e t a i l i n g any 98 r e s u l t s , we should explain what was done to examine the extent to which the June 4 Incident influenced the r e s u l t s of t h i s survey. A procedure was added to d i s t i n g u i s h between questionnaires returned before or a f t e r June 4. Questionnaires received a f t e r June 4 were marked "After June 4" on t h e i r back page. As noted above, respondents were being asked to make estimates concerning the number (i n percentage) of people who would stay i n Hong Kong a f t e r 1997, leave temporarily (between 1989 and 1997) or leave permanently. P r i o r to June 4, the phenonmenon under i n v e s t i g a t i o n ( p r o b a b i l i t y of leaving) was reasonably stable. But, a f t e r June 4, i t appeared that many people would be r e v i s i n g t h e i r estimates. R e l i a b i l i t y In e a r l y August, 28 questionnaires (seven f o r each form and each language) were sent to a group of i n s t r u c t o r s at the Car i t a s Centre f o r Further and Adult Education- -Caine Road Day and Night Schools. This was the f i r s t step of a t e s t / r e t e s t procedure to check the r e l i a b i l i t y of the instrument. R e l i a b i l i t y comprises " s t a b i l i t y , dependability and p r e d i c t a b i l i t y " (Kerlinger, 1973, p.443). An instrument i s r e l i a b l e i f i t can produce consistent r e s u l t s over repeated measurements. The two P r i n c i p a l s of the Schools, Yat-bong Ma and Augustine 99 Chong, d i s t r i b u t e d and c o l l e c t e d the questionnaires. Questionnaires returned were anonymous but marked with the date and place of b i r t h of the respondents. Three weeks l a t e r , respondents were asked to do the r e t e s t . Two copies from the t e s t and r e t e s t bearing the same date and place of b i r t h were matched together. One subject d i d not do the r e t e s t . Therefore, 27 v a l i d cases were used f o r computing the r e s u l t s . R e l i a b i l i t y Results The r e l i a b i l i t y of the instrument was checked by examining i t s i n t e r n a l consistency and s t a b i l i t y - o v e r - time. Internal Consistency The i n t e r n a l consistency of each content and process category, and respondents' p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s was measured by c a l c u l a t i n g c o e f f i c i e n t alpha f o r each item using a l l v a l i d cases. R e c a l l that the "Languages" score was derived by summing over responses concerning a l l f i v e languages (Chinese, English, Japanese, French and German) and d i v i d i n g by f i v e to y i e l d a scale score. C o e f f i c i e n t alpha examines i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s within the sc a l e . Those studying Business could reasonably be expected to be interested i n a l l f i v e facets of the "Business & Commerce" category (e.g. Accounting & Auditing, International Trade,...) but the same assump- 100 t i o n could not be made f o r languages. For example, someone int e r e s t e d i n English would not ne c e s s a r i l y be also in t e r e s t e d i n Japanese, French or German. Thus i t was no sur p r i s e to f i n d that the strongest alpha scores (denoting considerable i n t e r n a l consistency) were on "Management" (mean alpha .43) and "Law" (mean alpha .41). The smallest, but s t i l l acceptable, mean alphas were on "Languages" ( .27) and "Hobbies" ( .28). I t was also notable that respondents made more i n t e r n a l l y consistent estimates f o r people thought to be staying than f o r those i n the two "leaving" categories. Indeed, the highest alpha c o e f f i c i e n t s were those associated with estimates about people thought to be staying. The two exceptions to t h i s concerned "Hobbies" and "Technical T r a i n i n g . " Test/Retest Responses gathered from the " t e s t " and " r e t e s t " done by the 27 subjects at Car i t a s Schools were co r r e l a t e d . The right-hand column i n Table 8 shows the mean s t a b i l i t y - o v e r - t i m e c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r a l l categories. Most of these Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were regarded as high (greater than .70). A l l but one c o e f f i c i e n t (Applied Sciences: staying) were over .50. The instrument was stable over time. 101 Response Rate October 20 was the cu t - o f f date f o r c o l l e c t i n g returned questionnaires f o r the main study. U n t i l then, 95 subjects had returned t h e i r questionnaires. The response rate was 56 percent. There were 24 copies of E n g l i s h Form A returned, 22 of English Form B, 24 of Chinese Form C and 25 of Chinese Form D. Data from these 95 subjects and another 27 from the r e l i a b i l i t y procedure y i e l d e d a t o t a l of 122. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Respondents The population consisted of 83 men and 39 women adult educators. Table 6 shows t h e i r socio-demographic char- a c t e r i s t i c s . Many (37.7 percent) were i n t h e i r 30s. The majority (59.2 percent) regarded adult/continuing educa- t i o n as t h e i r secondary professional concern. Almost h a l f of them (49.5 percent) claimed to be a planner and the other h a l f (50.5 percent) a teacher. Most of them s a i d they had a u n i v e r s i t y education. Many (34.4 percent) had u n i v e r s i t y degrees plus a d d i t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Among those who had overseas degrees, a s l i g h t majority (25.7 percent) got them from the United Kingdom while 20 percent were from Canada and another 20 percent from Taiwan. More than a quarter (27.1 percent) of these adult educators regarded Business and Commerce as t h e i r o r i g i n a l d i s c i - p l i n e while 23.7 percent had Arts & Humanities. About 102 Table 6 Socio-demographic characteristics of respondents Characteristics Men Women Total n % n % n % Age 83 68.0 20-30 23 27.7 30-W 32 38.6 40-50 19 22.9 50-60 8 9.6 60 and up 1 1.2 Professional concern 81 67.5 Primary 31 38.3 Secondary 50 61.7 Role 71 66.4 Planner 41 57.7 Teacher 30 42.3 Educational qualifiication 83 68.0 Form 5 — Form 6 or 7 2 2.4 Post-secondary 13 15.7 Part of a university degree 8 9.6 University degree overseas "' 19 22.9 University degree from HK 11 13.3 University degree & add qual 30 36.1 Overseas degrees 26 74.3 United Kingdom 6 23.1 Canada 6 23.1 United States 4 15.4 Australia & New Zealand 1 3.8 Taiwan 5 19.2 Japan — — Southeast Asia 1 3.8 Europe 1 3.8 China 2 7.7 Original Discipline 81 68.6 Arts & Humanities 17 21.0 Natural Sciences 8 9.9 Social Sciences 9 11.1 Business & Commerce 24 29.6 Technical Education 8 9.9 Education 11 13.6 Medical & Health 1 1.2 Computer — — Home Economics — — Theology 1 1.2 Trade Union Education 1 1.2 Law 1 1.2 In the run-up to 1997, intending to: 80 67.2 stay in Hong Kong 31 38.8 leave temporarily 31 38.8 leave permanently 18 225 39 32.0 122 100.0 15 38.5 38 31.1 14 35.9 46 37.7 8 20.5 27 22.1 2 5.1 10 8.2 1 .8 x2 = 2.23 sig= .69 39 32.5 120 100.0 18 46.2 49 40.8 21 53.8 71 59.2 x2= .39 sig= .53 36 33.6 107 100.0 12 33.3 53 49.5 24 66.7 54 50.5 x2=4.76 sig= .03 39 32.0 122 100.0 3 7.7 3 2.5 3 7.7 5 4.1 8 20.5 21 17.2 3 7.7 11 9.0 6 15.4 25 20.5 4 10.3 15 12.3 12 30.8 42 34.4 x2=9.81 sig= .13 9 25.7 35 100.0 3 33.3 9 25.7 1 11.1 7 20.0 2 22.2 6 17.1 _ 1 2.9 2 22.2 7 20.0 1 11.1 1 2.9 1 2.9 1 2.9 2 5.7 x2=5.58 sig= .69 37 31.4 118 100.0 11 29.7 28 23.7 _ „ 8 6.8 8 21.6 17 14.4 8 21.6 32 27.1 _ _ 8 6.8 6 16.2 17 14.4 1 2.7 2 1.7 1 2.7 1 .8 1 2.7 1 .8 1 2.7 2 1.7 „ 1 .8 1 .8 x2=16.74 sig= .12 39 32.8 119 100.0 24 61.5 55 46.2 10 25.6 41 34.5 5 12.8 23 19.3 x2=5.53 sig= .06 103 h a l f of the respondents (46.2 percent) claimed that they were intending to stay i n Hong Kong i n the run-up to 1997. Ove r a l l , the respondents were young u n i v e r s i t y graduates taking adult/continuing education as t h e i r second profession. Table 6 shows the ways i n which the 83 men and 39 women surveyed d i f f e r e d with respect to t h e i r socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences except with respect to the "professional r o l e " (planner or teacher) occupied. Of the 83 men nearly 60 percent were planners, whereas of the 39 women, only one t h i r d were planners. Thus, the women were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n c l i n e d to be teachers than were the men (X2=4.76, p< .03). Men's and Women's Estimates and Their P o l i t i c a l Orientations Table 7 shows the respondents' estimates concerning how the i n t e r e s t s i n ACE vary f o r people staying, leaving temporarily or leaving permanently. I t also shows what respondents s a i d about whether the use of methods or techniques w i l l increase or decrease. Table 7 also shows mean " p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n " scores f o r the 122 respon- dents . Regarding the content and processes, three was considered the midpoint of the scale ("Remain E s s e n t i a l l y The Same"). Means greater than three indicated that 104 Table 7 Men and Women adult educators' estimates concerning changes in adult/continuing education (ACE) and their political orientations CONTENT n MEN X S.D. n WOMEN X S.D. F SigF Languages staying= 82 3.27 .42 38 3.24 .61 .14 .71 leaving temporarily= 82 3.30 .40 38 3.31 .68 .02 .90 leaving permanently= 82 3.34 .51 38 3.36 .68 .02 .88 Hobbies staying= 80 3.05 .30 38 3.18 50 2.91 .09 leaving temporarily^ 80 3.11 .45 38 3.19 .62 .66 .42 leaving permanently= 80 3.17 .55 38 3.44 .72 5.04 .03 China Studies staying= 81 3.45 .52 38 3.61 .60 2.17 .14 leaving temporarily = 81 2.81 .52 38 3.02 .60 3.82 .05 leaving permanently= 81 2.59 .68 38 2.85 .66 3.95 .05 Business & Commerce staying= 80 3.41 .59 38 3.53 .70 .97 .33 leaving temporarily= 80 3.30 .59 38 3.37 .68 .31 .58 leaving permanently= 79 3.33 .69 38 3.45 .79 .69 .41 Law staying= 80 3.30 59 38 3.46 .72 1.69 .20 leaving temporarily= 79 '' 2.75 59 38 2.99 52 4.80 .03 leaving permanently= 80 2.55 .72 38 2.70 59 1.26 .26 Social Sciences staying= 80 3.24 .58 39 3.45 .49 3.93 .05 leaving temporarily = 79 2.87 .52 39 3.06 .40 3.91 .05 leaving permanently= 79 2.82 .60 39 2.92 50 .84 .36 Management staying= 79 3.46 .61 38 3.70 .72 3.65 .06 leaving temporarily = 79 3.05 .55 28 3.16 .62 .90 .34 leaving permanently= 79 3.06 .64 38 3.05 .75 .14 .91 Technical Training staying= 79 3.31 .44 38 3.47 58 2.98 .09 leaving temporarily= 79 3.63 .50 38 3.55 .64 .51 .48 leaving permanently= 79 3.80 59 38 3.81 .86 .01 .94 Applied Sciences staying= 82 3.18 .44 37 3.36 .57 3.46 .07 leaving temporarily= 80 3.18 .45 37 3.21 .45 .16 .69 leaving permanently= 80 3.21 53 37 3.20 52 .05 .94 PROCESSES Methods In H.K. generally= 81 3.61 .44 38 3.69 .61 .68 .41 In my workplace = 81 3.43 .41 38 3.52 .40 1.48 .23 Techniques In H.K. generally= 80 3.49 .51 37 3.54 59 .23 .64 In my workplace = 80 3.37 .47 37 3.43 .44 .42 .52 POLITICAL ORIENTAT- IONS Cognitive Orientations 82 4.51 .92 Affective Orientations 83 4.65 .78 Evaluative Orientations 83 2.67 .47 39 4.02 .73 8.51 .01 39 4.40 .69 2.86 .09 38 2.50 .48 3.26 .07 105 respondents thought that i n t e r e s t s w i l l increase, or v i c e versa. S.D.'s were consistent across a l l content and process categories. Table 7 shows how men and women surveyed d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r estimates concerning changes i n ACE as f a r as the three types of people: staying, leaving HK temporarily or leaving permanently were concerned. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences except f o r a few "Content" categories. F i r s t l y , with respect to the "Hobbies: leaving permanently," the mean score of the 80 men surveyed was 3.17 while the 38 women respondents produced a mean score of 3.44. Thus, the women were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n c l i n e d than men (F=5.04, p< .03) to think that the i n t e r e s t s i n "Hobbies" of people leaving permanently w i l l increase. Secondly, regarding the "China Studies: leaving temporarily," the 81 men surveyed y i e l d e d a mean score of 2.81 whereas f o r the 38 women respondents, i t was 3.02. The men were more i n c l i n e d than women (F=3.82, p< .05) to believe that the i n t e r e s t s i n "China Studies" of people leaving temporarily w i l l decrease. Again, f o r the "China Studies: leaving permanently," the mean score of the 81 men surveyed was 2.59 and that of the 38 women 2.85. Thus, the men were more i n c l i n e d than women (F=3.95, p< .05) to think that the i n t e r e s t s i n "China Studies" of people leaving permanently w i l l decrease. 106 T h i r d l y , concerning the "Law: leaving temporarily," the mean score of the 79 men surveyed was 2.75 and that of the 38 women 2.99. Thus, the men were more i n c l i n e d than women (F=4.80, p< .03) to believe that the "Law" i n t e r e s t s of people leaving temporarily w i l l decrease. Fourthly, with respect to the "Soci a l Sciences: staying," the 80 men surveyed produced a mean score of 3.24 and the 39 women surveyed 3.45. Thus, the women were more i n c l i n e d than men (F=3.93, p< .05) to think that the i n t e r e s t s i n "S o c i a l Sciences" of people staying w i l l increase. Again, f o r the " S o c i a l Sciences: leaving temporarily, 1 1 the mean score of the 79 men surveyed was 2.87 and that of the 39 women 3.06. Thus, the men were more i n c l i n e d than women (F=3.91, p< .05) to believe that the i n t e r e s t s i n "Soci a l Sciences" of people leaving temporarily w i l l decrease. Regarding the p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , cognitive o r i e n t a t i o n r e f e r s to how much the respondents knew about the people and things involved i n the p o l i t i c a l process. The "Cognitive o r i e n t a t i o n " score was cal c u l a t e d by adding up responses to questions No. 2, No. 3, No. 4, No. 5 and No. 6 i n Part III and averaging them (d i v i d i n g the t o t a l by f i v e ) . A l l these questions had a seven-point response scale: An Immense Amount, Very Much, Much, A Moderate Amount, L i t t l e , Very L i t t l e , Almost Nothing. "An Immense amount" was coded 7 and "Almost Nothing" 1. 107 Thus, four was considered the midpoint of the score (A Moderate Amount). Means were above four. This indicated that respondents claimed to know "a moderate amount" to "much" about people and things i n the p o l i t i c a l process. But the men claimed to be more i n c l i n e d than women (F=8.51, p< .01) to know more about people and things i n the p o l i t i c a l process. There was greater disagreement among men (S.D.= .92) than was among women (S.D.= .73). A f f e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n r e f e r s to how much the respondents favoured the people and things involved i n the p o l i t i c a l process. The " A f f e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n " score was cal c u l a t e d by adding responses to questions No. 7, No. 8, No. 9, No. 10 and No. 11 i n Part I I I and averaging them (d i v i d i n g the t o t a l by f i v e ) . A l l these questions had a seven-point response scale: Very good/Extremely O p t i m i s t i c / P o s i t i v e , Good/Very O p t i m i s t i c / P o s i t i v e , S a t i s f a c t o r y / S l i g h t l y O p t i m i s t i c / P o s i t i v e , No Feeling One Way Or The Other, F a i r / S l i g h t l y Pessimistic/Negative, Poor/Very Pessimistic/Negative, Very Poor/Extremely Pessimistic/Negative. Thus, four was considered the mid- point of the score (No Feeling One Way Or The Other) . Means were above four. This indicated that respondents were more i n c l i n e d to favour the people and things involved i n the p o l i t i c a l process. Evaluative o r i e n t a t i o n r e f e r s to how f a r the 108 respondents involved themselves i n the p o l i t i c a l process. Involvement could range from active p a r t i c i p a t i o n to passive subordination. The "Evaluative o r i e n t a t i o n " score was c a l c u l a t e d by adding up responses to questions No. 12, No. 13, No. 15, No. 16, No. 17 and No. 18 i n Part III and averaging them (dividing the t o t a l by six) . Question No. 12 had a seven-point response scale, No. 13 and No. 15 had 6 but No. 16, No. 17 and No. 18 had 2. The highest point of scale i n average was 4.2 and 2.6 was considered the mid-point. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ferences between men and women on the A f f e c t i v e and Evaluative o r i e n t a t i o n scores. S.D. 's were consistent i n the A f f e c t i v e and Evaluative o r i e n t a t i o n s . Purpose One R e c a l l that the f i r s t purpose of the study was to obtain estimates concerning the ant i c i p a t e d changes i n the content and processes of ACE i n the run-up to 1997 (see the highlighted part of Figure 4) . Table 8 shows respondents' estimates concerning changes i n ACE, t h e i r p o l i t i c a l o rientations and rankings concerning the purposes of adult education. Regarding the content, a l l category scores (e.g. Languages) were ca l c u l a t e d by adding up the response scores from each subject item, e.g. "Chinese Language," "English Language," "Japanese Language," "French Language" and "German Language" as per 109 B INDEPENDENT VARIABLES Respondents Socio-demographic Characteristics * Sex *Age *Professional concern in A C E *Role in A C E •Educational qualifications *Views concerning purposes of Ad Ed Political Orientations *Affective "Cognitive "Evaluative Emigration intentions •Staying in HK •Leaving H K temporarily •Leaving H K permanently DEPENDENT VARIABLES I I Dimension 1 Emigration intentions of HK population •Staying in HK •Leaving HK temporarily •Leaving H K permanently Dimension 2 Contents of ACE Processes of ACE •Methods •Techniques Figure 4, Respondents' estimates concerning the anticipated changes in the content and processes of A C E (1990-1997). 110 Table 8 Respondents' estimates concerning changes in ACE, their political orientations and ranking of purposes of adult education Anticipated changes in Possible range Observed range X S.D. n Internal consistency Reliability test/retest CONTENT Languages staying= leaving temporarily= leaving permanently= 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 2.0-4.8 1.2-4.6 1.0-4.8 3.26 3.30 3.35 .49 50 57 120 120 120 .28 .27 .27 .76 .73 .90 Hobbies staying= leaving temporarily= leaving permanently= 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 2.0-4.4 1.2-4.2 1.2-1.8 3.09 3.14 3.25 .38 51 .62 118 118 118 .25 .29 .29 51 .65 .75 China Studies staying= leaving temporarily= leaving permanently= 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 1.8-4.6 1.2-4.2 1.0-4.4 350 2.88 2.67 55 .56 .68 119 119 119 .31 .26 .29 .75 .67 .85 Business & Commerce staying= leaving temporarily= leaving permanently= 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 1.6-5.0 1.2-4.6 1.2-5.0 3.45 3.32 3.37 .63 .62 .72 118 118 117 .45 .38 .39 .83 .79 .77 Law staying = leaving temporarily= leaving permanently= 1.0-5.0 , 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 1.8-5.0 1.2-4.0 1.2-4.8 3.35 2.83 2.60 .64 .58 .68 118 117 118 .48 .39 .37 .63 .59 .71 Social Sciences staying= leaving temporarily= leaving permanently= 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 1.4-4.6 1.6-4.4 1.4-4.6 3.31 2.94 2.85 .56 .49 51 119 118 118 .42 .29 .27 .76 56 .67 Management staying= leaving temporarily= leaving permanently= 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 2.0-5.0 1.2-4.4 1.0-4.8 3.54 3.09 3.06 .66 .57 .67 117 117 117 51 .39 .33 .54 .72 .65 Technical Training staying= leaving temporarily= leaving permanently= 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 1.6-5.0 2.0-4.8 1.4-5.0 3.36 3.61 3.80 50 55 .69 117 117 117 .33 .36 .39 .83 .82 .81 Applied Sciences staying = leaving temporarily= leaving permanently= 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 1.6-5.0 1.(5-4.4 1.2-4.4 3.23 3.19 3.21 .49 .45 52 119 117 117 .34 .21 .16 .44 59 .76 PROCESSES Methods In H.K. generally= In my workplace = 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 1.2-4.8 2.2-4.6 3.64 3.46 50 .41 119 119 .32 .23 .66 .70 Techniques In H.K. generally= In my workplace = 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 1.2-4.9 2.1-4.9 3.51 3.39 53 .46 117 117 .39 .33 .71 .74 POLITICAL ORIENTATIONS Cognitive Orientations Affective Orientations Evaluative Orientations 1.0-6.8 1.0-7.0 1.0-4.2 2.6-6.8 2.8-6.8 1.5-3.8 4.35 4.57 2.61 .89 .76 .48 121 122 121 .45 .20 .20 .85 53 52 PURPOSES OF AD ED Social integration Social responsibility Social change Technical competence 1.0-4.0 1.0-4.0 1.0-4.0 1.0-4.0 1.0-4.0 1.0-4.0 1.0-4.0 1.0-4.0 2.80 2.66 2.93 2.43 1.11 1.1 1.19 1.28 122 122 122 122 - - I l l the three categories of people: staying, leaving tempo- r a r i l y or leaving permanently and averaging them (di v i d i n g the t o t a l by f i v e ) . Respondents estimated that the i n t e r e s t s of people staying w i l l be i n c l i n e d to increase i n a l l subjects, but more strongly i n Management (X=3.54, S.D. = .66); China Studies (X=3.50, S.D.= .55); Business & Commerce (X=3.45, S.D.= .63). They guessed that the i n t e r e s t s of people leaving temporarily w i l l increase strongly i n Technical Training (X=3.61, S.D.= .55), but decrease i n Law (X=2.83, S.D. = .58) ; China Studies (X=2.88, S.D.=.56) and S o c i a l Sciences (X=2.94, S.D.= .49) . Again, respondents believed that the i n t e r e s t s of people leaving permanently w i l l increase strongly i n Technical Training (X=3.80, S.D.= .69) but decrease strongly i n Law (X=2.60, S.D.= .68) and China Studies (X=2.67, S.D.= .68). S.D.'s were consistent i n a l l content categories. Regarding the processes, the "Method" scores were cal c u l a t e d by adding up the response scores from "Correspondence Study," "Class," " E x h i b i t i o n s , " "Appren- t i c e s h i p , " " T u t o r i a l Discussion Group," "Public Education Campaign," "Courses By Computer," "Forum" and "Workshop," and averaging them (di v i d i n g the t o t a l by nine). The "Technique" scores were ca l c u l a t e d by adding up the response scores from "Role Play," "Educational Games," 112 "Debate," "Simulation," "Lecture," "Group Discussion," "Demonstration," " F i e l d T r i p s " and "Case Studies," and averaging them (di v i d i n g the t o t a l by nine) . Respondents thought that there w i l l be an o v e r a l l increase i n the use of methods and techniques i n Hong Kong generally and i n the workplace. But the increase i n HK generally w i l l be greater than that i n the workplace. S.D.'s were consistent across a l l methods and techniques. Respondents claimed that the use of adult education methods such as "Courses By Computer" w i l l strongly increase i n Hong Kong generally (X=4.10, S.D.= .65) and i n the workplace (X=4.02, S.D.= .62). They believed that the use of "Apprenticeship" w i l l remain e s s e n t i a l l y the same i n the workplace (X=3.00, S.D.= .79). Respondents thought that compared to most of the adult education methods, the use of "Class," which i s a t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l method, w i l l tend to increase i n Hong Kong generally (X=3.52, S.D.= .75) and i n the workplace (X=3.44, S.D.= .72). Moreover, they claimed that there w i l l be an increase i n the use of "Lecture," a t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l technique, i n Hong Kong generally (X=3.46, S.D.= .74) and i n the workplace (X=3.35, S.D.= .64). Concerning the p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , respondents claimed to know "a moderate amount" to "much"(X=4.35, 113 S.D.= .89) about the people and things involved i n the p o l i t i c a l process. They tended to be "happy" with (X=4.57, S.D.= .76) these people and things but d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y (X=2.61, S.D.= .48) i n the p o l i t i c a l process. The spread of scores i n the Evaluative o r i e n t a t i o n (S.D.= .48) was l e s s than that i n the Cognitive (S.D.= .89) and A f f e c t i v e (S.D.= .76) ones. With respect to the purposes of adult education, one meant f i r s t p r i o r i t y , two second, three t h i r d and four fourth. Technical competence (X=2.43, S.D.=1.28) was ranked f i r s t ; S o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (X=2.66, S.D.=1.11) second; Social integration (X=2.80, S.D.=1.11) t h i r d and S o c i a l change (X=2.93, S.D.=1.19) fourth. There was greater disagreement concerning Technical competence (S.D.=1.28) than i n the other three purposes. Purpose Two Rec a l l that the second purpose of the study was to e s t a b l i s h the extent to which sociodemographic v a r i a b l e s of respondents explained variance i n estimates (see the highlighted part of Figure 5). Table 9 shows the i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s between respondents' sociodemographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e i r estimates concerning changes i n ACE. Those c o e f f i c i e n t s marked with one or two a s t e r i s k s were s i g n f i c a n t l y associated. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t a s sociation between Age and 114 INDEPENDENT VARIABLES B C DEPENDENT VARIABLES Respondents Socio-demographic Characteristics * Sex *Age •Professional concern in A C E *Role in A C E •Educational qualifications •Views concerning purposes of Ad Ed Political Orientations •Affective •Cognitive •Evaluative Emigration intentions •Staying in HK •Leaving HK temporarily •Leaving H K permanently Dimension 1 Emigration intentions of HK population •Staying in H K •Leaving H K temporarily •Leaving H K permanently Dimension 2 Contents of ACE Processes of ACE •Methods •Techniques Figure 5. Respondents' socio-demographic characteristics and their estimates concerning the anticipated changes in A C E (1990-1997). 115 Table 9 Intercorrelations between respondents' socio-demographic characteristics, their leaving or staving estimates and estimates concerning changes in ACE Correlations Socio-demographic Characteristics Leaving or Staying Estimates Age Professional Years Years Education Permanent Temporary Staying concern full-time part-time qualification % % % CONTENT Total "Languages" scores stay in H.K. = leave HK temporarily = leave HK permanently = .25' -.02 -.00 .02 .01 .03 .27 .09 .09 .11 .03 .08 .22* .03 -.08 -.17 -.16 -.06 -.04 .03 -.04 .13 .09 .07 Total "Hobbies" scores stay in H.K. = leave HK temporarily= leave HK permanently= .27* .15 .15 .14 .12 .13 .01 -.06 -.02 -.01 .24 .24 .12 .08 .05 .08 -.15 -.17 -.14 -.12 -.07 .03 .15 .14 Total "China Studies" scores stay in H.K. = leave H.K. temporarily= leave H.K. permanently= .13 .02 .02 .06 -.07 -.09 .27 -.09 -.05 .19 .25 .22 .28" .17 .18 -.22* -.26* -.16 -.17 -.05 .01 .23* .17 .08 Total "Business & Commerce" scores stay in H.K. = leave H.K. temporarily= leave H.K. permanently= .24' .15 .08 -.01 .02 .11 .29 .08 .03 -.03 .15 .15 .28' .23* .12 -.30" -.16 -.07 -.14 .02 .05 .27* .08 .02 Total "Law" scores stay in H.K= leave H.K. temporarily = leave H.K. permanently= .00 -.06 -.08 -.01 .06 .09 .27 -.07 -.11 -.03 .18 .17 .12 .19 .14 -.21 -.16 .02 -.14 -.03 .01 .22 .10 -.03 Total "Social Sciences" scores stay in H.K. = leave H.K. temporarily= leave H.K. permanently= .16 .20 .15 .07 .06 .04 .27 -.04 -.02 .05 .14 .11 .16 .11 .07 -.26* -.13 .01 -.04 .10 .02 .20 .01 -.03 Total "Management" scores stay in H.K. = leave H.K. temporarily= leave H.K. permanently = .18 .10 .07 -.01 .03 .09 .21 -.03 .00 -.10 .15 .23 .25* .11 .08 -.23' -.10 -.10 -.02 .09 .09 .16 -.00 -.01 Total "Technical Training" scores stay in H.K. = leave H.K. temporarily= leave H.K. permanently= .17 .13 .09 -.01 .06 .10 .07 .01 .07 -.15 -.06 .08 .16 .04 .00 -.13 -.18 -.09 .02 .05 -.07 .07 .10 .11 Total "Applied Sciences" scores stay in H.K. = leave H.K. temporarily3 leave H.K. permanently= .16 .20 .10 -.04 -.04 -.05 .20 .10 .09 -.12 .09 .04 .19 .05 .02 -.17 -.25* -.07 .04 .07 -.03 .10 .11 .06 PROCESSES Total "Methods" scores In H.K. generally= In my workplace = -.03 .02 -.01 -.05 .08 .04 .09 .08 .29" .31" -.22 -.05 -.11 .05 .19 .01 Total Techniques" scores In H.K. generally3 In my workplace = -.07 -.02 -.00 -.01 .14 .03 -.09 -.02 .28* .24* -.20 -.05 .03 .13 .11 -.04 POLITICAL ORIENTATIONS Cognitive Orientations Affective Orientations Evaluative Orientations .11 .02 .16 .06 .03 .07 .28 .20 .22 .19 .03 .18 .21* .03 .14 -.03 .02 -.03 -.17 .03 -.11 .15 -.02 .12 Note. Years full time and Years part-time mean the number of years respondents spent in serving ACE. Permanent %, Temporary % and Staying % mean the estimated percentages of residents who will leave or stay in HK in the run-up to 1997. *p< .05, "p< .01. 116 Business & Commerce scores f o r people staying (r=.24, p< .05); between Educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n and Languages fo r people staying (r=.22, p< .05); between Educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n and Business & Commerce f o r people leaving temporarily (r=.23, p< .05). The association between Educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n and the estimated use of tech- niques i n the workplace (r=.24, p< .05) was regarded as s i g n i f i c a n t too. In the p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , there was a s i g n i f i c a n t a s s ociation between Educational q u a l i f i c a - t i o n and Cognitive o r i e n t a t i o n (r=.21, p< .05). There was a s i g n i f i c a n t association between the estimated percentage of residents leaving permanently and i n t e r e s t i n China Studies f o r people staying (r=-.22, p< .05); between the estimated percentage of residents leaving permanently and i n t e r e s t i n Management f o r people staying (r=-.23, p< .05). Again, the ass o c i a t i o n between the estimated percentage of residents staying and China Studies f o r people staying (r=.23, p< .05) was s i g n i f i c a n t as w e l l . Compared to younger respondents, the older ones thought that f o r people staying, the i n t e r e s t i n "Languages" (r=.25, p< .05) and "Hobbies" (r=.27, p< .05) would increase s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than that i n other programs. Respondents with higher educational q u a l i f i - cations made s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher estimates concerning 117 the perceived i n t e r e s t i n Languages (r=.22 f o r those staying), i n China Studies (r=.28 f o r those staying), i n Business & Commerce (r=.28 f o r those staying and r=.23 f o r those leaving temporarily), i n Management (r=.25 f o r those staying) than d i d those with lower educational q u a l i f i - cations. There was a moderate association between the "leaving permanently percentage" estimates and the i n t e r e s t i n China Studies f o r people leaving temporarily (r=-.26, p< .05) and f o r those staying (r=-.22, p< .05); between "leaving permanently percentage" estimates and the i n t e r e s t i n S o c i a l Sciences f o r people staying (r=-.26, p< .05); between "leaving permanently percent- age" estimates and the i n t e r e s t i n Applied Sciences f o r people leaving temporarily (r=-.25, p< .05) . The associa- t i o n between "staying percentage" estimates and the i n t e r e s t i n Business & Commerce fo r people staying (r=.27, p< .05) was regarded as moderate too. Respondents with higher educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s thought that there would be a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r increase i n i n t e r e s t (for people staying) i n "China Studies" (r=.28, p< .01) and "Business & Commerce" (r=.28, p< .05) than d i d respondents with lower educa- t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The better educated respondents believed that there would be a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r increase i n the use of 118 adult education methods (between now and 1997) than d i d the l e s s e r educated respondents. This applied to methods as used " i n Hong Kong generally" (r=.29, p< .01) and " i n the workplace" (r=.31, p< .01) , and techniques as used " i n Hong Kong generally" (r=.28, p< .05). There was a strong association between the "leaving permanently percentage" estimates and the i n t e r e s t i n Business & Commerce f o r people staying (r=-.30, p< .01). Respondents thought that when more people were going to leave Hong Kong permanently, there would be a s i g n i f i - c a ntly l a r g e r decrease i n i n t e r e s t (for people staying) i n "Business & Commerce." Purpose Three R e c a l l that the t h i r d purpose of the study was to e s t a b l i s h the extent to which the p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s of respondents explained variance i n estimates (see highlighted part of Figure 6) . Table 10 shows the i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s between respondents' p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s (Almond & Verba's "Cognitive, " A f f e c t i v e , " and "Evalu- a t i v e " orientations) and t h e i r estimates concerning the changes i n ACE. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n between v a r i a b l e s although the c o r r e l a t i o n s between "Evaluative o r i e n t a t i o n " and "Languages" and "Hobbies" (for people staying) approached s i g n i f i c a n c e . 119 INDEPENDENT VARIABLES Respondents Socio-demographic Characteristics * Sex *Age •Professional concern in A C E •Role in A C E •Educational qualifications •Views concerning purposes of Ad Ed Political Orientations •Affective •Cognitive •Evaluative Emigration intentions •Staying in H K •Leaving H K temporarily •Leaving HK permanently B C DEPENDENT VARIABLES I Dimension 1 Emigration intentions of HK population •Staying in H K •Leaving HK temporarily •Leaving HK permanently Dimension 2 Contents of ACE Processes of ACE •Methods •Techniques Figure 6. Respondents' political orientations and their estimates concerning the anticipated changes in A C E (1990-1997). 120 Table 10 Intercorrelations between respondents' political orienations, their emigration intentions and estimates concerning changes in ACE Correlations Cognitive Affective Evaluative Emigration Orientations Orientations Orientations Intentions CONTENT Languages staying= Business & Commerce staying= Law staying Social Sciences staying Management staying Technical Training staying Applied Sciences staying= .10 .13 .20 -.15 leaving temporarily= .14 - .05 .04 - .13 leaving permanently = .12 .05 .14 -.15 Hobbies staying= .02 .07 .21 -.16 leaving temporarily3 .15 .04 .12 - .10 leaving permanently = .11 .04 .10 - .12 China Studies staying= .10 .04 .12 .01 leaving temporarily= - .01 - .04 .01 - .03 leaving permanently = .06 .04 .04 .01 .04 -.00 .09 -.12 leaving temporarily = .00 - .06 .03 - .01 leaving permanently = .04 -.06 .04 -.01 .01 -.13 -.04 -.09 leaving temporarily = .05 - .04 - .08 .08 leaving permanently = .06 -.01 .01 .10 .06 -.01 .04 -.10 leaving temporarily = .01 - .04 .00 - .03 leaving permanently3 .13 .03 .11 - -01 .04 .01 -.01 -.11 leaving temporarily3 - .05 .01 - .11 - -01 leaving permanently3 .02 .07 -.02 -.05 ..08 .04 .05 -.13 leaving temporarily3 .02 - .04 - .01 - .13 leaving permanently3 .11 -04 .06 -.19 -.03 .03 .04 -.17 leaving temporarily3 .02 - .09 .03 - .14 leaving permanently3 .08 - .03 .06 - .14 PROCESSES Methods In H.K. generally3 - .01 In my workplace = - .02 Techniques In H.K. generally3 - .02 In my workplace = - .07 - .06 .03 .01 - .02 .10 - .12 - .03 .05 - .07 - .02 .08 - .13 121 Respondents' P o l i t i c a l Orientations and Their Views Concerning the Purposes of Adult Education In a separate procedure we also examined how the p o l i t i c a l o rientations of respondents would associate with t h e i r views concerning the purposes of adult education. Table 11 shows the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between respondents' ranking of the purposes of adult education and t h e i r p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . Table 11 Intercorrelations between respondents' ranking of purposes of adult education and their political orientations Correlations Social Social Social Technical Cognitive Affective Evaluative integration responsibility change competence orientations orientations orientations PURPOSES OF AD ED Social integration 1.00 Social responsibility - .17 1.00 Social change - .25" .03 1.00 Technical competence .08 -.24** -.36** 1.00 POLITICAL ORIENTATIONS Cognitive orientations .10 -.01 -.10 .13 1.00 Affective orientations .09 .18 -.06 .04 .49** 1.00 Evaluative orientations -.02 .02 .03 .05 .55** 31" 1.00 ** r > .22, p< .01 There was no s i g n i f i c a n t a s sociation between v a r i - ables where t h e i r c o e f f i c i e n t s are not flagged with an 122 a s t e r i s k . Those marked with two a s t e r i s k s were s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . Readers should r e c a l l (see the highlighted part of Figure 7) that t h i s part of the analysis was designed to examine r e l a t i o n s h i p s between respondents' p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s (as concerned with Almond and Verba's model) and t h e i r views concerning the purposes of adult education (as construed by Boshier). Thus we were p r i m a r i l y interested i n the c o r r e l a t i o n s shown i n the twelve c e l l s on the lower l e f t corner of the matrix (Table 11) . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences although the c o r r e l a t i o n between Almond and Verba's " A f f e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n " and " S o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " scores ap- proached s i g n i f i c a n c e . Purpose Four The fourth purpose of the study was to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the respondents' "emigration inten- t i o n s " (staying^ leaving Hong Kong temporarily or leaving permanently i n the run-up to 1997) and t h e i r estimates con- cerning changes i n ACE (see highlighted part of Figure 8) . The r i g h t hand column of Table 10 shows the i n t e r c o r r e - l a t i o n s between respondents' "emigration intent i o n s " and t h e i r estimates concerning the changes i n ACE. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t association between v a r i a b l e s . 123 INDEPENDENT VARIABLES Respondents Socio-demographic Characteristics * Sex *Age •Professional concern in ACE *Role in ACE •Educational qualifications •Views concerning purposes of Ad Ed Political Orientations •Affective •Cognitive •Evaluative Emigration intentions •Staying in HK •Leaving HK temporarily •Leaving HK permanently B C DEPENDENT VARIABLES I Dimension 1 Emigration intentions of HK population •Staying in HK •Leaving HK temporarily •Leaving HK permanently Dimension 2 Contents of ACE Processes of ACE •Methods •Techniques Figure 7. Respondents' political orientations and their views concerning education. the purposes of adult 124 INDEPENDENT VARIABLES Respondents Socio-demographic Characteristics * Sex *Age •Professional concern in A C E •Role in A C E •Educational qualifications •Views concerning purposes of Ad Ed Political Orientations •Affective •Cognitive •Evaluative Emigration intentions •Staying in HK •Leaving H K temporarily •Leaving H K permanently B C DEPENDENT VARIABLES I Dimension 1 Emigration intentions of HK population •Staying in H K •Leaving H K temporarily •Leaving H K permanently Dimension 2 Contents of ACE Processes of ACE •Methods •Techniques Figure 8. Respondents' emigration intentions and their estimates concerning the anticipated changes in A C E (1990-1997). 125 Respondents' Intentions and Their Estimates Concerning Others' Intentions In a separate procedure we also examined the re l a t i o n s h i p s between respondents' "emigration inten- t i o n s " (staying, leaving Hong Kong temporarily or leaving permanently) and t h e i r estimates of the o v e r a l l popula- t i o n ' s "emigration intentions" (see the highlighted part of Figure 9). Table 12 shows what respondents s a i d about t h e i r "emigration intentions" concerning stay- ing or leaving and t h e i r estimates concerning percentages of residents who w i l l also be staying, leaving temporarily or permanently. Table 12 Respondents' intentions concerning leaving or staving in Hong Kong and their estimates concerning other residents' intentions In the run-up to Respondents' estimates concerning percentages of residents who will 1997, respondents intending to: stay in H.K. leave H.K. leave H.K. temporarily permanently n X S.D. X S.D. X S.D. stay in H.K. 52 46 66.44 22.73 1734 13.41 16.73 12.49 leave H.K. temporarily 39 35 61.62 25.06 19.26 15.24 18.74 16.05 leave H.K. permanently 22 19 64.86 16.16 16.09 10.66 17.96 11.10 F= 51 F= .42 F= .25 sigF= .59 sigF= .66 sigF= .77 For the 52 respondents who intended to stay, the mean percentage of residents whom they guessed w i l l be staying too was 66.44 (S.D.=22.73) . For the 126' INDEPENDENT VARIABLES Respondents Socio-demographic Characteristics * Sex *Age •Professional concern in ACE •Role in ACE •Educational qualifications •Views concerning purposes of Ad Ed Political Orientations •Affective •Cognitive •Evaluative Emigration intentions •Staying in HK •Leaving HK temporarily •Leaving HK permanently B C DEPENDENT VARIABLES I Dimension 1 Emigration intentions of HK population •Staying in HK •Leaving HK temporarily •Leaving HK permanently Dimension 2 Contents of ACE Processes of ACE •Methods •Techniques Figure 9, Respondents' emigration intentions and their estimates concerning others' intentions. 127 39 respondents who intended to leave temporarily, the mean percentage of people staying they guessed was 61.62 (S.D.=25.06). For the 22 respondents who intended to leave permanently, the mean percentage (staying) e s t i - mated was 64.86 (S.D.=16.16). But the respondents' own intentions had no e f f e c t on t h e i r estimates concerning the percentages of other people who w i l l be staying (F= .52, p< .59), leaving temporarily (F= .42, p< .66), or leaving permanently (F= .25, p< .77). Respondents' Intentions and Involvement i n China Proj ects Table 13 shows the re l a t i o n s h i p s between respon- dents' "emigration intentions": staying, leaving Hong Kong temporarily or leaving permanently and t h e i r involvement i n China projects. Table 13 Respondents' intentions concerning leaving or staving in Hong Kong and the extent of their involvement in China projects In the run-up to Extent of respondents' involvement in China trade, China exchanges 1997, surveyed respondents intending to: or any projects with China Range X S.D. n stay in Hong Kong 1.0-6.0 2.58 1.56 55 leave Hong Kong temporarily 1.0-6.0 2.76 1.43 41 leave Hong Kong permanently 1.0-6.0 2.35 1.37 23 Three point f i v e (3.5) was considered the midpoint. The three means were below 3.5. Thus, respondents tended to be " l i t t l e " to "moderately" involved i n China pro j e c t s . 128 Their intentions concerning staying or leaving (F= .57) had no e f f e c t on t h e i r involvement i n China projects. June 4 Incident and Respondents' Estimates Table 14 shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the date respondents returned questionnaires and t h e i r estimates concerning other residents' intentions of staying or leaving. Table 14 Respondents' estimates concerning other residents' intentions in the run-up to 1997 and the date they returned questionnaires Respondents estimated Date questionnaires returned that in the run-up to 1997 ' Before June 4 After June 4 (n=48) (n=68) X S.D. X S.D. F S'gF % of residents will stay in H.K. 66.88 21.10 62.90 22.84 .91 .34 % of residents will leave H.K. temporarily 14.88 11.75 20.03 14.12 4.35 .04 % of residents will leave H.K. permanently 18.04 14.98 17.22 12.15 .11 .75 For the purpose of t h i s analysis the 48 before and the 68 a f t e r June 4 "staying" estimates were compared and F - r a t i o s calculated; the before and a f t e r "leaving temporarily" estimates were compared as were the "leaving permanently" ones. The June 4 Incident (F=4.35, p< .04) had a 129 s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on "leaving temporarily" estimates. But f o r our 122 respondents, i t appeared that the June 4 Incident had l i t t l e or no impact on "staying" or "leaving permanently" estimates but resulted i n a s i g n i f i c a n t upward s h i f t i n estimates concerning the percentage who would leave temporarily. 130 CHAPTER IX SUMMARY/ CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION Readers are reminded that, from one perspective, t h i s was a phenomenological study. Although there i s an "objective" r e a l i t y emerging i n Hong Kong, no l e g a l or p o l i t i c a l documents or processes can disguise the f a c t that " r e a l i t y " i s what i t i s construed to be. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y the case i n Hong Kong where "confidence" i s so vulnerable to the predations of rumour, s u p e r s t i t i o n and t r a d i t i o n . There was much discussion about who would leave and estimates concerning these matters became part of the " r e a l i t y " shaping Hong Kong i n the run-up to 1997. Indeed, i t i s no exaggeration to claim that what people think i s " r e a l i t y " i s more important than any "objective" a n a l y s i s . R e c a l l that t h i s study was couched within a phenomenological frame of reference. I t d i d not claim to measure any "objective r e a l i t y " concerning the future of adult education i n Hong Kong but r e l i e d on subjective estimates concerning the future content and processes of adult education. The respondents were a l l adult educators. While 50 percent claim they w i l l leave Hong Kong before 1997, others w i l l l i k e l y occupy leadership p o s i t i o n s where they w i l l greatly influence the content 131 and processes of ACE. There i s a good chance that what these adult educators think may happen w i l l a c t u a l l y come about. Thus, t h e i r views concerning the future of ACE i n Hong Kong w i l l be an important determinant of the future. Summary R e c a l l that 122 respondents completed question- naires. There were altogether 83 men and 39 women adult educators. Overall, they were young u n i v e r s i t y graduates taking ACE as t h e i r second profession. Of the 83 men nearly 60 percent were planners, whereas of the 39 women, only one t h i r d were planners. The women were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n c l i n e d to be teachers than were the men. Rec a l l that there were four purposes of the study: 1. To obtain e s t i m a t e s concerning the ant i c i p a t e d changes i n the content and processes of ACE i n the run- up to 1997. 2 . To e s t a b l i s h the extent to which socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of respondents explained variance i n e s - t i m a t e s (concerning the ant i c i p a t e d changes i n the content and processes of ACE). 3. To e s t a b l i s h the extent to which p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s of respondents explained variance i n e s t i - mates (concerning the anticipated changes i n the content and processes of ACE). 4. To examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the respon- 132 dents* "emigration intentions" and t h e i r e s t i m a t e s (concerning the anticipated changes i n the content and processes of ACE). With respect to purpose one, respondents claimed that i n the run-up to 1997, people staying w i l l become more interested i n "Management," "China Studies," and "Busi- ness & Commerce" programs. They believed that people leaving Hong Kong temporarily or leaving permanently w i l l be g r e a t l y interested i n "Technical Training" programs but t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n "Law," "China Studies" and " S o c i a l Sciences" programs w i l l decrease. Respondents thought that i n the run-up to 1997, the use of adult education methods and techniques w i l l increase i n Hong Kong generally and i n the workplace. They claimed that there w i l l a larger increase i n the use of "Courses By Computer" i n Hong Kong generally and i n the workplace. With respect to purpose two, which concerned the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the respondents' socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e i r e s t i m a t e s , the r e s u l t s were mixed. In general, respondents' "professional concern" the years they worked as f u l l - t i m e or part-time adult educators were n o t r e l a t e d to content or process estimates. The following s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were present: 133 Age: Compared to younger respondents, the older ones thought that f o r people staying, the i n t e r e s t i n "Languages," "Hobbies" and "Business & Commerce" programs would increase s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than that i n other programs. Educational Q u a l i f i c a t i o n ; Respondents with higher educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s believed that there would be a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r increase i n i n t e r e s t (for people staying) i n "Languages," "China Studies," "Business & Commerce" and "Management" programs than d i d respondents with lower educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The better educated respondents believed that there would be a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r increase i n the use of adult education methods and techniques (between now and 1997) than did the l e s s e r educated respondents. This applied to methods and techniques as used " i n Hong Kong generally" and " i n the workplace." The t h i r d purpose concerned the r e l a t i o n s h i p between respondents' p o l i t i c a l o rientations and estimates con- cerning the anticipated changes i n ACE. I t was found that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t association between respondents' p o l i t i c a l o rientations and t h e i r estimates. But i n another analysis, respondents were found to know "a moderate amount" to "much" about people and things 134 i n the p o l i t i c a l process. They were found to be "happy" with the p o l i t i c a l process. However, they d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n i t . With regard to purpose four, which concerned the r e l a t i o n s h i p between respondents' "emigration inten- t i o n s " and t h e i r estimates concerning the a n t i c i p a t e d changes i n ACE, i t was found that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e i r "emigration i n t e n t i o n s " and estimates. The June 4 Incident had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on respondents' estimates concerning the percentage of those "leaving temporarily." Respondents who completed the questionnaire a f t e r the June 4 Incident made higher estimates concerning those who would leave Hong Kong temporarily than d i d those who completed i t p r i o r to the June 4. Conclusions Hong Kong i s widely known as " j i t t e r s c i t y " and because of the v o l a t i l e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n and great anxiety evoked by the June 4 Incident i n China, there i s no guarantee that estimates concerning the future (made i n 1989) w i l l hold true by 1997. Despite t h i s possible l i m i t a t i o n , the respondents occupy p o s i t i o n s from where they can influence the future, and i t i s possible to i n t e r p r e t our r e s u l t s from a v a r i e t y of perspectives. 135 With respect to purpose one, which was to obtain estimates concerning the anticipated changes i n the content and processes of ACE, we may conclude that there would not be any d r a s t i c change i n the content of ACE i n the run-up to 1997 as anticipated by our adult educators. The s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l approach, which has influenced the content of ACE f o r years, w i l l continue to guide the development of the f i e l d . Estimates gathered from these adult educators indicated that there might be a la r g e r increase i n i n t e r e s t i n "Languages," "China Studies," "Business & Commerce," "Law," "Management," and "Techni- c a l T r a i n i n g " programs, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r people staying. Adult educators believed that people who w i l l be staying i n the run-up to 1997 w i l l r e l y on these programs to cope with the unique s i t u a t i o n of Hong Kong. A l l these programs w i l l continue to prepare s k i l l e d manpower and entrepre- neurs f o r promoting economic prosperity i n Hong Kong. They w i l l help mobilize human resources f o r a f u l l development of c a p i t a l i s m i n the run-up to 1997. Pragmatism i n education w i l l p r e v a i l as long as the s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l approach takes the lead. "China Studies" programs would be increased i n order to meet the learning needs of people staying. More close contacts with China could be ant i c i p a t e d when 1997 approaches. But on the other hand, "Law" programs seemed not useful f o r those 136 leaving Hong Kong permanently. Our survey showed that with respect to those staying and leaving, the biggest mean d i f - ferences were on "China Studies" and "Law." Respondents tended to think that there w i l l be a la r g e r increase i n i n t e r e s t i n "China Studies" (for those staying) (X=3.50) but i n t e r e s t i n "Law" (for those leaving permanently) (X=2.60) would tend to decrease. This r e s u l t i s not a surprise but does suggest that, between now and 1997, educators w i l l be dealing with learners motivated by concerns shaped as much by "emigration intentions" as the usual program considerations. This i s a modern example of the h i s t o r i c Hong Kong preoccupation with the instrumental functions of education. Moreover, program planners w i l l l i k e l y take into account the "emigration i n - tentions" of learners when making program decisions. "Functional" types of programs w i l l l i k e l y continue to dominate the content of ACE i n the run-up to 1997. Regarding the processes of ACE, i t appears that there w i l l be an o v e r a l l increase i n the use of adult education methods and techniques. In order to maintain the "com- pe t i t i v e n e s s " of Hong Kong amongst other Southeast Asian countries, resources should be u t i l i z e d to support an educated population. E f f e c t i v e ACE programs should be organized f o r adults to help them f i g h t with job obsoles- cence. I f Hong Kong should remain a valuable asset to 137 China, there must be a great deal of ACE programs to increase the " p r o d u c t i v i t y " of Hong Kong. Moreover, facing the challenges of a growing population and advanced technology i n the 90*s, the c i t y requires more p r o v i s i o n of ACE programs to s a t i s f y a vast pool of educational needs. This was possibly why respondents a n t i c i p a t e d a l a r g e r increase i n "Courses By Computer" i n Hong Kong generally and i n the workplace. They probably believe that such a method would break through the t r a d i t i o n a l con- s t r a i n t s i n program d e l i v e r y and provide more access to learning opportunities f o r adults. With respect to purpose two, which was to e s t a b l i s h the extent to which socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s of respondents explained varienace i n estimates, we may conclude that only educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n appeared to be r e l a t e d to estimates. Our r e s u l t s showed that age was s i g n i f i c a n t l y associated with only three out of 31 possible estimates. I t had almost no impact on estimates. Whether the respondents considered ACE to be t h e i r primary or secondary professional concern was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to any of the estimates. Nor was the number of years working as a f u l l or part-time adult educator r e l a t e d to any estimates. Only "highest educational q u a l i f i c a - t i o n " appeared to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y associated with e s t i - mates. In general, those with higher education q u a l i f i - 138 cations thought that there would be a larger increase i n i n t e r e s t ( p a r t i c u l a r l y i n "China Studies" and "Business & Commerce") than d i d those with lower educational q u a l i - f i c a t i o n s . Maybe those with u n i v e r s i t y degrees are more committed to education and aware of the future i n t e g r a t i o n with China than those with lower educational q u a l i f i c a - t i o n s . They probably think that these programs ("China Studies" and "Business & Commerce") are c e n t r a l to "mainland r e l a t i o n s " and maintenance of Hong Kong as a major f i n a n c i a l ^ centre i n Asia. Regarding the processes of ACE, adult educators with higher educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a n t i c i p a t e d that the use of adult education methods and techniques w i l l increase (generally and i n the workplace) . As more adult educators have professional t r a i n i n g , they w i l l know the s i g n i f i c a n c e of using s u i t a b l e methods and techniques to f a c i l i t a t e adult learning. There w i l l be further development i n educational technology i n order to cater to the educational needs of a growing population i n the 90s. The Open Learning I n s t i t u t e of Hong Kong i s a good example. I t t r i e s to surpass the hurdles of classroom teaching. I t uses a l l kinds of methods and techniques i n distance education. The use of Cable TV i n the 90s w i l l provide more educational opportunities to a l l sectors of 139 the population. Other ACE agencies may have to look f o r human and material resources to devise methods and techniques f o r t h e i r programs. Funds are required f o r b u i l d i n g premises, language labora t o r i e s , workshops, and convention rooms. Adult educators need to conduct research on adult teaching and program planning. To a s s i s t these ACE agencies, the government w i l l have to formulate a comprehensive p o l i c y f o r adult education i n the 90s. With respect to purpose three, which was to e s t a b l i s h the extent to which p o l i t i c a l o rientations of respondents explained variance i n estimates, we may conclude that the respondents* p o l i t i c a l orientations were not s i g n i f i - c antly r e l a t e d to t h e i r estimates. But i t appeared that adult educators with higher educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s tended to know more about the people and things involved i n the p o l i t i c a l process than those with lower educational qualf i c a t i o n s . The more education they had, the more they were concerned with the p o l i t i c a l process. But most of them did not a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p o l i t i c a l process. Although there was no s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n between adult educators' p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s and t h e i r views concerning the purposes of adult education, these adult educators were found to be quite conservative concerning the purposes of adult education. They viewed 140 "Technical competence" as the most and " S o c i a l change" the l e a s t important purpose of adult education. They were more concerned with helping adult learners acquire knowledge and s k i l l s rather than changing the society. To them, ACE i s more of a profession than a s o c i a l movement. As 1997 approaches, many Hong Kong people are demanding democracy and promoting c i v i c education. But adult educators are l e s s interested i n playing a leadership r o l e i n s o c i a l change than providing the "service" of ACE to learners. People are used to a stable society and they hope to maintain the status quo. They w i l l take years to develop a sense of s o c i a l transformation. With respect to purpose four, which was to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the respondents' "emigration intenti o n s " and t h e i r estimates , we may conclude that respondents' "emigration intentions" d i d not influence t h e i r estimates. Whether the respondents would l i k e to leave Hong Kong temporarily, leave permanently, or stay, was not r e l a t e d to t h e i r views concerning the ant i c i p a t e d changes i n the content and processes of ACE i n the run- up to 1997. Discussion Going beyond the present data, there i s a p r i o r i evidence f o r the f a c t that people are going to be very interested i n t e c h n i c a l or vocational programs that can 141 enhance t h e i r employability or emigration prospects. As 1997 approaches, those intending to stay seem to be r e l y i n g on ACE programs to deal with un c e r t a i n t i e s i n future. However, the future shape of ACE that our adult educators anticipated w i l l be s t i l l couched within the context of "maintenance learning." The emphasis on vocational or t e c h n i c a l programs i s a kind of reactive rather than proactive action designed to cope with the unique s i t u a t i o n of Hong Kong. Hong Kong survives mainly because of economic prosperity and people looked to "Business & Commerce" and "Technical Training" programs fo r knowledge and s k i l l s i n developing the economy. For those who are leaving Hong Kong temporarily or perma- nently, "Technical Training" programs are thought to be instruments which solve d a i l y problems of emigrants. Those leaving do not appear to be looking f o r long-term a l t e r - natives but j u s t responding to immediate problems. I f the content of ACE i n the run-up to 1997 i s to cater to the learning needs of people who are driven by "emigration intentions," there could be an imbalance i n the development of the f i e l d . While program planners think that only t e c h n i c a l or vocational programs may be well received by adult learners, they are encouraged to organize more programs i n t h i s type than i n others. As the content of ACE i s overwhelmed by the " f u n c t i o n a l " type 142 of programs, ACE i n Hong Kong w i l l only serve to maintain the status quo and f a i l to give people new ideas as to what they can cope with the changes i n the run-up to 1997. Although Hong Kong has become a " j i t t e r s c i t y , " people might need "innovative learning" (Botkin, E l - mandjra & Malitza, 1979) to deal with challenges. They should make forecasts and long-term planning. This i s what a n t i c i p a t i o n i n "innovative learning" means. The other element of "innovative learning" i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In t h i s regard, remember that our adult educators' p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y associated with t h e i r estimates. Nor was there evidence that our respondents p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the p o l i t i c a l process. Nor did they view "S o c i a l change" as the most important purpose of adult education. Most of them had u n i v e r s i t y degrees and are thus part of the " e l i t e . " They did not seem to be very interested i n the s o c i a l implications of adult education. Nevertheless the June 4 Incident aroused Hong Kong people's c i v i c consciousness and stimulated active p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the community. I f ACE i n Hong Kong i s to help people cope with s o c i a l change i n the run- up to 1997, e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r the Basic Law was promulgated and a pattern of p o l i t i c a l development has been outlined, there i s a sense i n which Hong Kong w i l l depend upon adult educators to take leadership and make ACE a s o c i a l 143 movement. Our survey showed that respondents' educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s had an impact upon t h e i r estimates concerning the anticipated changes i n ACE. The more educated people w i l l possibly look f o r opportunities i n ACE i n order to maintain a better q u a l i t y of l i f e than the l e s s educated. This thinking coincides with a popular b e l i e f i n adult education that the more educated benefi t more from ACE than uneducated people. I f our survey could only gather data from the well-educated educators, we should admit t h i s was one of the l i m i t a t i o n s of our survey. In order to enlarge the scope of inquiry, a survey to f i n d out what the adult learners thought about the changes i n the content and processes of ACE should be conducted. When we compare the r e s u l t s of the surveys of the adult educators on the one hand and that of the adult learners on the other, we may secure a comprehensive estimate of anti c i p a t e d changes i n ACE. However, r e s u l t s of our present survey represented the views of those who w i l l occupy future leadership positions i n ACE. I f we have to look a f t e r the learning needs of a l l sectors of the population, then the Open Learning I n s t i t u t e w i l l be a good i n d i c a t o r of whether ACE i s important to the educationally disadvantaged. The large line-ups f o r OLI enrollment forms suggested that there are 144 many people with lower education q u a l i f i c a t i o n s (or no education at a l l ) are eager f o r access to higher education. Nobody doubts the importance of ACE to Hong Kong, but there must be ways to help people overcome b a r r i e r s to p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Although i t i s too early to assess the work by OLI, i t has created new hopes f o r people and, i n a way, democratizes education. As Hong Kong faces 1997, and the need to maintain t r a d i t i o n a l freedoms, we have to make our society open. A p r e r e q u i s i t e or c o r o l l a r y f o r an open society i s to open education to a l l . An open society ensures the freedom f o r people to move i n and out of i t . The "confidence problem" has driven l o c a l people to go away while some "brain-drainers" have come back to work. By 1990, there was a shortage of s k i l l e d labourers and the government allowed employers to import labourers from abroad. There i s a free flow of people and they look to ACE f o r s k i l l s t r a i n i n g , immigrant int e g r a t i o n , and emigrant r e - i n t e g r a t i o n and idea- generation. The content of ACE w i l l become p l u r a l i s t i c i n order to cater to the educational needs of the new and old populations. As long as people are allowed to stay or go away f r e e l y , new s o c i a l problems w i l l emerge. There must be ways to rec o n c i l e the differences between residents and non-residents, the older and younger generations. Topics l i k e community development, family 145 education, and environmental protection could become new emphases i n ACE. Programs i n "So c i a l Work," "Religious & Ethno-cultural Studies," and "Environmental Science (Ecology)" w i l l be increased i n the content of ACE, which i s c u r r e n t l y overwhelmed by t e c h n i c a l and vocational subjects. These programs are not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the economy but are c e n t r a l to s o c i a l development. ACE should have a "balanced" content which helps people b u i l d a better society and progress within i t . Many adult educators i n Hong Kong often think of what they can do for China. They f e e l the need to contribute t h e i r expertise i n ACE to the mainland. There i s a huge population i n China awaiting education. To provide education f o r a great number of people depends upon e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t methodologies i n program d e l i v - ery. Few would underestimate the impact of science upon the development of ACE. Hong Kong occupies a favourable p o s i t i o n i n promoting education because of i t s access to advanced educational techology and r e c e p t i v i t y to new program ideas. In recent years, much has been done to improve the processes of ACE. Apart from the "hardware" of the processes, which r e f e r s to devices such as computers, cable TV and audio-visual aids, there has been considerable attention given to the "software" of the processes, i . e . programming methods and techniques of i n - 146 s t r u c t i o n . As a r e s u l t of professional t r a i n i n g , adult educators i n Hong Kong are getting more interested i n making program planning and i n s t r u c t i o n " s c i e n t i f i c . " This means that they look f o r r a t i o n a l models f o r systematic planning and i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques devel- oped on the basis of tested knowledge derived from research. They know that only when "hardware" f a c i l i t i e s are compatible with the methods and techniques, then e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n can take place. The knowledge and experiences that adult educators i n Hong Kong possess are useful for t h e i r counterparts i n China. Besides, there has recently been a trend that many ACE agencies i n Hong Kong o f f e r programs i n co-operation with overseas educational i n s t i t u t i o n s . On the one hand, these programs provide educational opportunities to some Hong Kong people who are unable to study overseas. On the other hand, they w i l l also give access to learners coming from China i n future. Such a mode of program de l i v e r y , based upon the Hong Kong experience, can be adapted i n China. I t i s important f o r l o c a l adult educators to maintain a "Hong Kong i d e n t i t y " i n the run-up to 1997. This w i l l help strengthen the independent status of pr o f e s s i o n a l associations of ACE i n Hong Kong. There i s a p o s s i b l i t y that a professional association, l i k e The Hong Kong 147 Association f o r Continuing Education, w i l l become one of the many regional associations of China, e.g. s i m i l a r to the ones i n Shanghai or Shenzhen. I f Hong Kong can r e t a i n autonomy a f t e r 1997, the Association may s t i l l make i t s own decisions about i t s objectives and a c t i v i t i e s . Then i t can continue to represent the professional i n t e r e s t s of l o c a l adult educators and improve the status of ACE. To work for a "Hong Kong i d e n t i t y " requires commitment and d e l i b e r a t e e f f o r t s of p r a c t i t i o n e r s . On the one hand, they should consolidate themselves by d i v e s t i n g prejudices and biases, and work for the i n t e r e s t s of adult learners and the well-being of the Hong Kong society. On the other hand, while Hong Kong flaunts as an " i n t e r n a t i o n a l c i t y , " l o c a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s are obliged to strengthen the t i e s with the i n t e r n a t i o n a l adult education community. To keep abreast with new developments i n research and p r a c t i c e i s the re- s p o n s i b i l i t y of professional associations. I f profes- s i o n a l associations can demonstrate that they know what the learning needs of adult learners are and how these needs can be met s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , then they may have a better p o s i t i o n to remain independent a f t e r 1997. While people are s t i l l i n great anxiety because of the June 4 Incident, there i s much that c i v i c education can do to help them cope with the s i t u a t i o n . People's reactions toward the democracy movement i n China before 148 and a f t e r June 4 did t e l l the world that Hong Kong c i t i z e n s could unite together f o r combating s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e and working towards democracy. Their concern f o r the p o l i t i c a l development i n China was not merely because they were Chinese but also they believed that what had happened i n China could occur i n Hong Kong. This empathy has driven the p o l i t i c a l l y apathetic Hong Kong people to come together to discuss what t h e i r society should be l i k e i n the run-up to 1997. A f t e r June 4, the worry about future has stimulated people, regardless of sex, age, occupation, income and educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n , to hold forums and seminars at schools, parks, T.V. and radio s t a t i o n s , and on newspapers. In the search f o r the meaning of democracy, people have undergone a learning process that i s s e l f - d i rected, while having p o l i t i c a l leaders, community workers and continuing educators acting as f a c i l i t a t o r s . This kind of learning experience enriches the scope of ACE, which i s no longer confined to i n s t i t u t i o n a l - b a s e d programs. C i v i c education w i l l continue to be one important aspect of ACE i n the run-up to 1997. O v e r a l l , the future development of ACE w i l l be woven into the s o c i o p o l i t i c a l progress i n Hong Kong. Even though the future of Hong Kong w i l l much be influenced by the p o l i c y of China, what people think about the r e a l i t y w i l l c e r t a i n l y determine t h e i r way of l i f e . I f people have 149 confidence i n future, then many w i l l stay and they look to ACE as a means to maintain the status quo. But i f the majority are p e s s i m i s t i c with the HKSAR and leave Hong Kong permanently, then there w i l l be d r a s t i c changes i n ACE, which should be reconstructed i n a way to help the staying people deal with the "d i s a s t e r . " That would be a great challenge to our adult educators i n the run-up to 1997. 150 REFERENCES A d r a f t agreement between the government of the United Kingdom of Great B r i t a i n and Northern Ireland and the government of the People's Republic of China on the Future of Hong Kong (white paper). (1984, September). Hong Kong: Government P r i n t e r . Almond, G. A., & Verba, S. (1963). The c i v i c c u l t u r e : Po- l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s and democracy i n f i v e nations. P r i n - ceton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Boshier, R. (1985). Conceptual framework f o r analyzing the t r a i n i n g of t r a i n e r s and adult educators. Convergence. 28.(3-4) , 3-21. Botkin, J . W., Elmandjra, M., & Malitza, M. (1979). 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Hallenbeck (Eds.), Adult education: Outlines of an emerging f i e l d of u n i v e r s i t y study (pp. 27-39). Washington, D.C.: Adult Education Association of the USA. Wiersma, W. (1986). Research methods i n education (4th ed.). Newton, Mass: A l l y n and Bacon, Inc. Wong, S. (1986). Southeast Asian urban t r a i n i n g course. Convergence. 19(1), 17-19. Appendix A: Questionnaires Administered During Study of Hong Kong Adult Education Content and Processes 155 ADULT AND CONTINUING EDUCATION IN HONG KONG ( F o r m A ) 1 How do y o u t h i n k t h e i n t e r e s t s of people who a t t e n d a d u l t and c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d by e v e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a p p r o a c h of 1997? A n d t o wha t e x t e n t w i l l p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t s be c o l o u r e d by t h e i r i n t e n t i o n t o s t a y i n Hong K o n g , l e a v e t e m p o r a r i l y , o r l e a v e p e r m a n e n t l y ? P l e a s e l ook at e a c h of t h e s u b j e c t s ( e . g . C h i n e s e l a n g u a g e ) l i s t e d b e l o w and c i r c l e a r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r y t o i n d i c a t e the e x t e n t t o w h i c h y o u t h i n k i n t e r e s t i n i t w i l l i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e f o r t h o s e i n t e n d i n g t o s t a y i n Hong K o n g , l e a v e t e m p o r a r i l y , o r l e a v e p e r m a n e n t l y . T h e r e a r e no r i g h t o r w r o n g a n s w e r s and a l l we wan t i s y o u r " b e s t e s t i m a t e " c o n c e r n i n g wha t w i l l h appen b e t w e e n now and 1997. Th ink of a i l a d u l t l e a r n e r s i n g e n e r a l , who w i l l a t t e n d a b r o a d a r r a y of f o r m a l and n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s i n Hong K o n g , not j u s t t h o s e w h o m y o u a r e p e r s o n a l l y f a m i l i a r w i t h . 1 . C h i n e s e L a n g u a g e For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving, temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain E-j-jentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving, permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 2.Home G a r d e n i n g For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 3.China T r a d e For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 156 A2 4.Accounting & A u d i t i n g For those staying Decrease Decrease interest will strongly For those leavinq. Decrease Decrease temporarily interest will strongly For those leaving Decrease Decrease permanently interest will strongly Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase Increase Increase strongly Increase strongly Increase strongly 5.Company Law For those staying Decrease interest will strongly For those leavinq Decrease temporarily interest will strongly For those leaving Decrease permanently interest will strongly Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same 6 . S o c i a l Work For those staying Decrease interest will strongly For those leaving Decrease temporarily interest will strongly For those leaving Decrease permanently interest will strongly Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same T r a i n i n g of For those staying interest will T r a i n e r s Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease Decrease strongly Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same 157 A3 8 . C o m p u t e r T e c h n o l o g y For those staying Decrease interest will strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly B i o m e d i c i n e For those staying . interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving, temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease bLrongly Decrease Remain Essentially Ihc same Increase •Increase strongly I C E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e For those staving interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For Ihosc leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving, permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase 11 . Hobby. H a n d i c r a f t s For those staying Decrease Interest will strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 158 A4 1 2 .Chinese L e g a l S y s t e m For those staving Decrease interest will strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 1 3 . A d v e r t i s i n g / M a r k e t i n g For those staying Decrease interest will strongly Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same 1 4 . P r o p e r t y Law For those staying Interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will For those leaving permanenlly interest will Decrease strongly Decrease strongly Decrease Decrease Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase Increase strongly Increase strongly 1 5 . R e l i g i o u s & E t h n o - c u l t u r a l S t u d i e s For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease Decrease strongly Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease Decrease strongly Remain Increase Increase Essentially . strongly the same 159 A5 16. Human Resour.ees For those staving interest will Management Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leavinq temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 17. C h e f T r a i n i n g . For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leavinq temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leavinq permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly ° 1 8 . C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g For those staying Decrease interest will strongly Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same For those leavinq temporarily interest will Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same For those leaving, permanently interest will Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same 19.Japanese Language For those staying Decrease interest will strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leavinq permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 160 A6 2 0.Fashion D e s i g n For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same Z K C h i n e s e A r t s ( e . g . f i l m , t h e a t r e , p a i n t i n g ) Decrease Remain For those staving interest will Decrease strongly Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leavinq temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For tho3e leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 22. I n t e r n a t i o n a l T r a d e For those staying Decrease interest will strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leavinq permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 23. C r i m i n a l Law For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 161 A7 24.Moral Education For those staving interest will Decrease Decrease strongly Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease strongly Decrease Decrease Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase Increase strongly Increase strongly 25.0ffice Management For those staying interest will For those leaving, temporarily interest will For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease Decrease strongly Decrease Decrease strongly Decrease Decrease strongly Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase Increase Increase strongly Increase strongly Increase strongly 26. Carpentry For those staying, interest will Decrease Decrease strongly Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will For those Leaving, permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease strongly Decrease Decrease Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase Increase strongly Increase strongly 27.Environmental Science(Ecology) For those staying, interest will For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease Decrease strongly Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly A8 28.French L a n g u a g e For those sjayjoa interest will Decrease strongly 162 Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For tho-jc leaving temporarily interest will For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease strongly Decrease Decrease Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase Increase strongly Increase strongly 2 9.Chinese C a l l i g r a p h y For those staying Decrease interest will strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease strongly Decrease Decrease Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase Increase strongly Increase strongly 3 0.Chinese P h i l o s o p h y For those slaying. Decrease Decrease interest will strongly For those leaving Decrease Decrease temporarily interest will strongly For those leaving. Decrease Decrease permanently interest will strongly Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase Increase Increase strongly Increase strongly Increase strongly 31 . I n v e s t m e n t P l a n n i n g For those staying Decrease Decrease interest will strongly For those leaving Decrease Decrease temporarily interest will strongly Remain Increase Increase Fssentially strongly the same Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same For those leaving, permanently interest will Decrease Decrease strongly Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly A9 163 32.Labour Law i n For those slaying, interest will H.K. For those leaving temporarily interest will For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same 33 . H e a l t h Education For those staying Decrease interest will strongly ("or Ihose leaving Decrease temporarily interest will strongly For those leaving Decrease permanently interest will strongly Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same 3 4 . S u p e r v i s o r y Management For those staying Decrease interest will strongly For those leaving Decrease temporarily interest will strongly For those leaving Decrease permanently interest will strongly 35. Mechanical E n g i n e e r i n g For those staying Decrease interest will strongly For those leaving Decrease temporarily interest will strongly For those leaving Decrease permanently interest will strongly Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same 164 36.Human G e o g r a p h y For those staying interest will For those leaving temporarily interest will For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease strongly Decrease strongly Decrease Decrease Decrease Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase Increase A10 Increase strongly Increase strongly Increase strongly 3 7 .German L a n g u a g e For those staying- interest will For those leaving temporarily interest will For those leaving, permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease strongly Decrease strongly Decrease Decrease Decrease Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase Increase Increase strongly Increase strongly Increase strongly 38.Ho'bby. P h o t o g r a p h y For those staying interest will For those Iftavinn temporarily interest will For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same 3 9 . C h i n e s e H i s t o r y For those staying interest will For those leaving temporarily interest will For Ihose leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease strongly Decrease strongly Decrease Decrease Decrease Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase Increase Increase strongly Increase strongly Increase strongly 165 A l l 40.Banking P r a c t i c e For those staying Decrease interest will strongly For those leaving Decrease temporarily interest will strongly For those leaving Decrease permanently interest will strongly Decrease Remain increase Increase Essentially strongly the same Decrease Remain Increase Increase . Essentially strongly the same Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same 41.Hong Kong T a x a t i o n Law For those staying Decrease interest will strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 4 Z . C i v i c Education For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 43.Worker T r a i n i n g For those staving interest will For those leavinq temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease strongly Decrease Decrease Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase increase strongly Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same A12 166 4 4 . D r i v i n g For those staving interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 4 5 . I n f o r m a t i o n Management For those stayino Decrease interest will strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same (Continued on next page) 167 A13 To what e x t e n t w i l l u s e of t h e f o l l o w i n g a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n p r o c e s s e s i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e b e t w e e n now and 1997 i n Hong Kong g e n e r a l l y and i n y o u r w o r k p l a c e ? 1. CORRESPONDENCE STUDY In Hong Kong Decrease generally w i l l strongly Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same In my workplace w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain strongly Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 2 . ROLE P L A Y In Hong Kong generally w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same In my workplace w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same 3 . C L A S S In Hong Kong generally w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same In my workplace w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same 4. E d u c a t i o n a l Games In Hong Kong Decrease generally w i l l strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly In my workplace w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same 5. EXHIBITIONS In Hong Kong generally w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same In my workplace Will Decreasfl Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the some A14 6. DEBATE In Hong Kong generally will Decrease strongly 168 Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly In my workplace will Decrease Decrease Remain strongly Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 7. APPRENTICESHIP In Hong Kong generally will Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same In my workplace will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 8. SIMULATION In Hong Kong generally will Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same In my workplace will Decrease Decrease Remain strongly Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 9. IUrORIAL DISCUSSION GROUP In Hong Kong Decrease generally will strongly Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same In my workploce will Decrease Decrease Remain strongly Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 10.LECTURE In Hong Kong generally will Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same In my workplace will Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same 1 1 . P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n C a m p a i g n s In Hong Kong generally will Decrease strongly ( e . g . C l e a n Hong Kong) Decrease Remain Increase Essentially the same Increase strongly In my workplace will Decrease Decrease Remain strongly Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 12.GROUP DISCUSSION In Hong Kong generally w i l l 169 Decrease Decrease Remain Increase strongly Essentially the same A15 Increase strongly In my workplace w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase - Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same 13.COURSES BY COMPUTER In Hong Kong Decrease generally w i l l strongly Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same In my workplace w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain strongly Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 14. DEMONSTRATION In Hong Kong generally w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same In my workplace w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially . strongly the same 15.FORUM In Hong Kung generally w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same In my workplace w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain strongly Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 16 .F IELD TRIPS In Hong Kong generally w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same In my workplace w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain strongly Essentially the same increase Increase strongly 17. WORKSHOP In Hong Kong generally w i l l Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly In my workplace w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same A16 18 .CASE STUDIES In Hong Kong generally w i l l In my workplace w i l l Decrease strongly Decrease strongly 170 Decrease Decrease Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase Increase strongly Increase strongly ( CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE) 171 NOW PLEASE ANSWER THESE BACKGROUND QUESTIONS. REMEMBER—YOUR NAME IS NOT REQUIRED. What i s your sex? Male j I Female | \ What i s your age ( i n years)? 1 years In your l i f e , do you regard adult/continuing education as being your primary ( i . e . most important) or secondary professional concern? (Check only one box) ADED/CE i s my PRIMARY professional concern ADED/CE i s my SECONDARY professional concern What i s your role i n adult/continuing education? (Check only one box) Primarily a PLANNER (e.g. Administrator/Programer/Policy-maker) Primarily a TEACHER (e.g. Tutor/Lecturer/Counsellor) • • For how many years have you worked as a f u l l or part-time adult/ continuing educator? F u l l time: \ I year(s) Part-time: \ I year(s) What i s the highest educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n you hold? (Check only one box) No formal q u a l i f i c a t i o n , Completed Form 5 ' , Completed Form 6 or Form 7 Post-secondary or professional q u a l i f i c a t i o n only: (e.g. Vocational School diplomas, Business diplomas, etc.), Completed part of a university degree or diploma , Completed a university degree or diploma: Degree/diploma obtained from a university overseas Where? _______ Degree/diploma obtained from a university i n H.K Completed a university degree or diploma and some additional post-secondary q u a l i f i c a t i o n (e.g. B.B.A. and C e r t i f i e d Accountant, B.A. and Dip. Ed., etc.) What do you regard as your f i r s t (or o r i g i n a l ) academic d i s c i p l i n e or f i e l d of study (e.g. accounting, languages, s o c i o l o g y , education, n u r s i n g , engineering, home economics, e t c . ) ? For you, what i s the most important purpose of a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education? Rank these purposes. (For example, i f you t h i n k s o c i a l change i s the most important, place 1 i n the box, then use 2, 3, 4 f o r other boxes.) S o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n i i (e.g. h e l p i n g people " f i t i n " to Hong Kong) I 1 S o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i > (e.g. c i t i z e n s h i p ) I j S o c i a l change i i (e.g. f o r democracy) I I T e c h n i c a l competence i i (e.g. s k i l l s t r a i n i n g ) | I YOU'VE NEARLY F I N I S H E D . NOW WE WANT TO ASK SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT 1997. How many curr e n t r e s i d e n t s of Hong Kong w i l l leave permanently, t e m p o r a r i l y , or s t a y — b e t w e e n now and 1997? P l e a s e place your best estimates i n each of the f o l l o w i n g boxes. We only want your best guess but make them add up to 100%. Between now and 1997, \ "| -% w i l l leave permanently. Between now and 1997, t 1 % w i l l leave t e m p o r a r i l y . Between now and 1997, I t o t a l = 100 3 % w i l l stay i n Hong Kong. % How much do you f e e l you know about the f u n c t i o n s of the Executive and L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l s i n Hong Kong? (Check only one box) An immense amount Very much Much A moderate amount L i t t l e Very l i t t l e Almost nothing [ = 3 173 How much do you f e e l you know about the d i f f e r e n c e s between Hong Kong- s t y l e c a p i t a l i s m and "Chinese" ( i . e . PRC) s o c i a l i s m ? (Check only one box) An immense amount j | Very much Much A moderate amount | j L i t t l e Very l i t t l e Almost nothing How much do you f e e l you know about why and how the S i n o - B r i t i s h J o i n t D e c l a r a t i o n was signed? (Check only one box) An immense amount Very much 1 I Much | | A moderate amount L i t t l e Very l i t t l e I I Almost nothing How much do you f e e l you know about the content of the S i n o - B r i t i s h J o i n t D e c l a r a t i o n ? (Check only one box) An immense amount Very much Much A moderate amount L i t t l e Very l i t t l e Almost nothing How much do you f e e l you know about the content of the D r a f t B a s i c Law? (Check only one box) An immense amount Very much Much A moderate amount L i t t l e Very l i t t l e Almost nothing 2 0 ^ 174 7. How do you f e e l about the performance of the present Governor s i n c e he assumed o f f i c e ? (Check only one box) Very good performance I 1 Good performance I 1 S a t i s f a c t o r y performance I j No f e e l i n g one way or the other F a i r performance | | Poor performance J | Very poor performance I I 8. How do you f e e l about what has happened as a r e s u l t of the s i g n i n g of the S i n o - B r i t i s h J o i n t D e c l a r a t i o n ? (Check only one box) Extremely o p t i m i s t i c | { Very o p t i m i s t i c S l i g h t l y o p t i m i s t i c No f e e l i n g one way or the other 1 I S l i g h t l y p e s s i m i s t i c j I Very p e s s i m i s t i c j | Extremely p e s s i m i s t i c I I 9. Even though i t never came to f r u i t i o n , how d i d you f e e l about the proposal f o r d i r e c t e l e c t i o n s f o r the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l i n 1988? (Check only one box) Extremely p o s i t i v e Very p o s i t i v e S l i g h t l y p o s i t i v e No f e e l i n g one way or the other S l i g h t l y negative Very negative Extremely negative 10. How do you f e e l about the c u r r e n t proposal f o r d i r e c t e l e c t i o n s f o r the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l i n 1991? (Check only one box) Extremely p o s i t i v e [ 1 Very p o s i t i v e I I S l i g h t l y p o s i t i v e No f e e l i n g one way or the other I 1 S l i g h t l y negative I I Very negative 1 j Extremely negative | j 175 11. How do you f e e l about the democracy movement i n Hong Kong? (Check only one box) Extremely p o s i t i v e Very p o s i t i v e S l i g h t l y p o s i t i v e No f e e l i n g one way or the other S l i g h t l y negative Very negative Extremely negative 12. O v e r a l l , how do you f e e l about what w i l l happen i n 1997 and beyond (Check only one box) Extremely o p t i m i s t i c Very o p t i m i s t i c S l i g h t l y o p t i m i s t i c No f e e l i n g one way or the other S l i g h t l y p e s s i m i s t i c Very p e s s i m i s t i c Extremely p e s s i m i s t i c 13. To what extent do you f e e l you are able to c o n t r o l the f o r c e s that shape the nature of your l i f e ? (Check only one box) Very much c o n t r o l Much c o n t r o l Moderate c o n t r o l L i t t l e c o n t r o l Very l i t t l e c o n t r o l No c o n t r o l a t a l l 14. To what extent are you i n v o l v e d i n China t r a d e , China exchanges, o any p r o j e c t s w i t h China? (Check only one box) Very much i n v o l v e d Much i n v o l v e d Moderately i n v o l v e d L i t t l e i n v o l v e d Very l i t t l e i n v o l v e d Not i n v o l v e d a t a l l 22/i 176 15. To what extent can the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l l o r s represent your i n t e r e s t s ? They can represent my i n t e r e s t s : (Check only one box) Very much Much CZJ Moderately CZI L i t t l e Very l i t t l e Not at a l l 16. Are you a r e g i s t e r e d voter? No I I 17. Have you ever given any opinions or suggestions on the D r a f t B a s i c Law to the B a s i c Law C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee? [=• No 1 1 18. Are you going to give opinions or suggestions on the D r a f t B a s i c Law to the B a s i c Law C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee? No 19. In that run-up to 1997, are you i n t e n d i n g t o : (Check only one box) stay i n Hong Kong leave Hong Kong te m p o r a r i l y leave Hong Kong permanently Thank you v e r y much. ( F o r m B ) 1 177 ADULT AND CONTINUING EDUCATION IN HONG KONG How do y o u th i nk t h e i n t e r e s t s of p e o p l e who a t t e n d a d u l t and c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d by e v e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a p p r o a c h ot 1997? A n d t o wha t e x t e n t w i l l p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t s be c o l o u r e d by t h e i r i n t e n t i o n t o s t a y i n Hong K o n g , l e a v e t e m p o r a r i l y , o r l e a v e p e r m a n e n t l y ? P l e a s e l o o k at e a c h of t h e s u b j e c t s (e.g.Management? l i s t e d b e l o w and c i r c l e a r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r y t o i n d i c a t e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h y o u t h i n k i n t e r e s t i n i t w i l l i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e f o r t h o s e i n t e n d i n g t o s t a y i n Hong K o n g , l e a v e t e m p o r a r i l y , o r l e a v e p e r m a n e n t l y . T h e r e a r e no r i g h t o r w r o n g a n s w e r s and a l l we want i s y o u r " b e s t e s t i m a t e " c o n c e r n i n g wha t w i l l h appen b e t w e e n now and 1997. Th ink of H i a d u l t l e a r n e r s i n g e n e r a l , who w i l l a t t e n d a b r o a d a r r a y of f o r m a l and n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s i n Hong K o n g , not j u s t t h o s e w h o m y o u a r e p e r s o n a l l y f a m i l i a r w i t h . 1. Information Management For those staying Decrease interest will strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly Driving For those staying Interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly Worker Training For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 178 B2 4. C i v i c Education For those staying interest will for those leaving temporarily interest will For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease strongly Decrease strongly Decrease Decrease Decrease Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase Increase Increase strongly Increase strongly Increase strongly 5. Hong Kong Taxation Law For those staying Decrease Decrease interest will strongly For those leaving Decrease Decrease temporarily interest will strongly For those leaving Decrease Decrease permanently interest will strongly Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase Increase Increase strongly Increase strongly Increase strongly 6. Banking Practice For those staying interest will For those leaving temporarily interest will For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease strongly Decrease strongly Decrease Decrease Decrease Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase Increase Increase strongly Increase strongly Increase strongly 7. Chinese History For those staving interest will Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease Decrease strongly Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same 179 B3 8. Hobby Photography,.. For those staving interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leavinq temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 9. German Language For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 10. Human Geography For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease strongly Decrease Decrease Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase Increase strongly Increase 1 1 .Mechanical Engineering For those staying Decrease Interest will strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leavinq permanently Interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 180 B4 12. Supervisory Management For those staying interest will Decrease Decrease strongly Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 13. Health Education For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 14. Labour Law i n Hong Kong For those staying Decrease Interest will strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 15. Investment Planning For those sJayjng. Decrease Interest will strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently Interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 181 B5 16. Chinese Philosophy For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 17. Chinese C a l l i g r a p h y For those staying Decrease interest will strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 18. French Language For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving tempgrarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 19.Environmental Science(Ecology ) For those staving interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 182 B6 20. Carpentry For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 21. Office Management For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 22. Moral Education. For Uiose staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving, permanently interest will Decrease- strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 23. Criminal Law For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 183 B7 24. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Trade For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 25. Chinese A r t s (e.g. f i l m , For those stavina interest will t h e a t r e , Decrease strongly p a i n t i n g ) Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 26. Fashion Design For those slaying, interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 27. Japanese Language For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially Increase Increase strongly the same 184 B8 2 8 . C i v i l Engineering For those slaving, interest will Decrease Decrease strongly Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease Decrease strongly Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease Decrease strongly Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 29. Chef Training For those slavj_g, interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease Decrease strongly Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 3 0 . Human Resources Management For those staying Decrease interest will strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those lejyjng. temporarily interest will For those leaving, permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease strongly Decrease Decrease Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase Increase strongly Increase strongly 31 . Religious & Ethno-cultural Studies For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strungly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 185 B9 3 2 .Property Law For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 3 3 .Advertising/Marketing For those staying Decrease interest will strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving, permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 34. Chinese L e g a l System For those staying Decrease interest will strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease strongly Decrease Decrease Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase Increase strongly Increase strongly 35. Hobby H a n d i c r a f t s For those siayjno. interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those lfiayjno. temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly BIO 36. English Language For those staying interest will Decrease strongly 186 Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 37.Biomedicine For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving, permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 38 .Computer technology For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly. Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 39. Training of Trainers For those staying Decrease interest will strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 187 B11 4 0 . S o c i a l Work For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase increase strongly For those leaving, temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 41 . Company Law For those staving interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 42. Accounting & A u d i t i n g For those staving Decrease interest will strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 43. China Trade For those staying interest will For those leaving temporarily Interest will Decrease strongly Decrease strongly Decrease Decrease Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase Increase strongly Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 188 B12 44. Home Gardening For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease Decrease strongly Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 45. Chinese Language For those staying interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly For those leaving permanently interest will Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly ( C o n t i n u e d on n e x t p a g e ) 189 B 13 To what e x t e n t w i l l u s e of t h e f o l l o w i n g a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n p r o c e s s e s i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e b e t w e e n now and 1997 i n Hong Kong g e n e r a l l y and i n y o u r w o r k p l a c e ? 1. CASE STUDIES In Hong Kong Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase generally w i l l strongly Essentially strongly the same In my workplace w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same 2 . WORKSHOP In Hong Kong generally w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase increase strongly Essentially strongly the same In my workplace w i l l Decrease strongly Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same 3 . F IELD TRIPS In Hong Kong generally w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain strongly Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly In my workplace w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same 4. FORUM In Hong Kong generally w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same In my workplace w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same 5. DEMONSTRATION In Hong Kong generally w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same In my workplace w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase strongly Essentially the same Increase strongly 6. COURSES BY COMPUTER In Hong Kong Decrease generally will strongly I n my workplace Decrease will strongly 7. GROUP DISCUSSION In Hong Kong Decrease generally will strongly I n my workplace Decrease will strongly In my workplace Decrease will strongly 9. LECTURE In Hong Kong Decrease generally will strongly In my workplace Decrease will strongly 10.TUTORIAL DISCUSSION GROUP In Hong Kong Decrease generally will strongly In my workplace Decrease will strongly 11.SIMULATION In Hong Kong Decrease generally will strongly B14 190 Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same Increase Increase strongly Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same Decrease Remain Increase Increase Essentially strongly the same 8. P u b l i c Education Campaigns (e.g. Clean Hong Kong) In Hong Kong Decrease Decrease Remain generally will strongly Essentially the same In my workplace will Decrease Decrease Remain Increase increase strongly Essentially strongly the same ^ . A P P R E N T I C E S H I P In Hong Kong generally w i l l Decrease strongly 191 Decrease Remain Essentially the same increase B15 Increase strongly In my workplace w i l l Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase increase strongly 13 .DEBATE In Hong Kong generally w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same In my workplace w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same 14.EXHIBITIONS In Hong Kong generally w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same In my workplace w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same 1 5.Educational Games In Hong Kong generally w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same In my workplace w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain strongly Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly 1 6 . C L A S S In Hong Kong generally w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same In my workplace w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain Increase Increase strongly Essentially strongly the same 17.ROLE P L A Y In Hong Kong generally w111 Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly In my workplace w i l l Decrease strongly Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly B16 18.CORRESPONDENCE STUDY In Hong Kong Decrease generally w i l l strongly 192 Decrease Remain Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly In my workplace w i l l Decrease Decrease Remain strongly Essentially the same Increase Increase strongly ( CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE ) 193 NOW PLEASE ANSWER THESE BACKGROUND QUESTIONS. REMEMBER—YOUR NAME IS NOT REQUIRED. What is your sex? Male \ \ Female I \ What is your age (in years)? I years In your l i f e , do you regard adult/continuing education as being your primary (i.e. most important) or secondary professional concern? (Check only one box) ADED/CE is my PRIMARY professional concern ADED/CE is my SECONDARY professional concern 1 1 What is your role in adult/continuing education? (Check only one box) Primarily a PLANNER r — — i (e.g. Administrator/Programer/Policy-maker) I ' Primarily a TEACHER (e.g. Tutor/Lecturer/Counsellor) For how many years have you worked as a f u l l or part-time adult/ continuing educator? Full time: 1 | year(s) I year(s) Part-time: What is the highest educational qualification you hold? (Check only one box) No formal qualification .., Completed Form 5 , Completed Form 6 or Form 7 Post-secondary or professional qualification only: (e.g. Vocational School diplomas, Business diplomas, etc.), Completed part of a university degree or diploma , Completed a university degree or diploma: Degree/diploma obtained from a university overseas Where? ________ Degree/diploma obtained from a university in H.K , Completed a university degree or diploma and some additional post-secondary qualification (e.g. B.B.A. and Certified Accountant, B.A. and Dip. Ed., etc.) 194 What do you regard as your f i r s t (or o r i g i n a l ) academic d i s c i p l i n e or f i e l d of study (e.g. accounting, languages, s o c i o l o g y , education, n u r s i n g , engineering, home economics, e t c . ) ? For you, what i s the most important purpose of a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education? Rank these purposes. (For example, i f you t h i n k s o c i a l change i s the most important, place 1 i n the box, then use 2, 3, 4 f o r other boxes.) S o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n i i (e.g. helping people " f i t i n " to Hong Kong) I | S o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i > (e.g. c i t i z e n s h i p ) 1 I S o c i a l change i -t (e.g. f o r democracy) I I T e c h n i c a l competence i I (e.g. s k i l l s t r a i n i n g ) | ) YOU'VE NEARLY FINISHED. NOW WE WANT TO ASK SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT 1997. How many current r e s i d e n t s of Hong Kong w i l l leave permanently, t e m p o r a r i l y , or s t a y — between now and 1997? P l e a s e place your best estimates i n each of the f o l l o w i n g boxes. We only want your best guess but make them add up to 100%. Between now and 1997, ) *| % w i l l leave permanently. Between now and 1997, | j % w i l l leave t e m p o r a r i l y . Between now and 1997, 1 | % w i l l stay i n Hong Kong. t o t a l = 100 % How much do you f e e l you know about the f u n c t i o n s of the Executive and L e g i s l a t i v e C o uncils i n Hong Kong? (Check only one box) An immense amount \ J Very much Much A moderate amount L i t t l e Very l i t t l e Almost nothing 195 How much do you f e e l you know about the d i f f e r e n c e s between Hong Kong- s t y l e c a p i t a l i s m and "Chinese" ( i . e . PRC) s o c i a l i s m ? (Check only one box) An immense amount [ | Very much Much A moderate amount L i t t l e Very l i t t l e Almost nothing How much do you f e e l you know about why and how the S i n o - B r i t i s h J o i n t D e c l a r a t i o n was signed? (Check only one box) An immense amount 1 I Very much I 1 Much \ | A moderate amount I I L i t t l e I I Very l i t t l e 1 1 Almost nothing How much do you f e e l you know about the content of the S i n o - B r i t i s h J o i n t D e c l a r a t i o n ? (Check only one box) An immense amount Very much | I Much A moderate amount L i t t l e I I Very l i t t l e Almost nothing How much do you f e e l you know about the content of the D r a f t B a s i c Law? (Check only one box) An immense amount Very much Much A moderate amount L i t t l e Very l i t t l e Almost nothing 20 196 7. How do you f e e l about the performance of the present Governor s i n c e he assumed o f f i c e ? (Check only one box) Very good performance Good performance I I S a t i s f a c t o r y performance \ \ No f e e l i n g one way or the other F a i r performance | | Poor performance 1 \ Very poor performance | | 8. How do you f e e l about what has happened as a r e s u l t of the s i g n i n g of the S i n o - B r i t i s h J o i n t D e c l a r a t i o n ? (Check only one box) Extremely o p t i m i s t i c | | Very o p t i m i s t i c | I S l i g h t l y o p t i m i s t i c \ J No f e e l i n g one way or the other | 1 S l i g h t l y p e s s i m i s t i c | I Very p e s s i m i s t i c | | Extremely p e s s i m i s t i c 9. Even though i t never came to f r u i t i o n , how d i d you f e e l about the proposal f o r d i r e c t e l e c t i o n s f o r the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l i n 1988? (Check only one box) Extremely p o s i t i v e Very p o s i t i v e [ZD S l i g h t l y p o s i t i v e I » No f e e l i n g one way or the other S l i g h t l y negative | | Very negative Extremely negative 10. How do you f e e l about the cu r r e n t proposal f o r d i r e c t e l e c t i o n s f o r the L e g i s l a t i v e Council i n 1991? (Check only one box) Extremely p o s i t i v e | I Very p o s i t i v e I \ S l i g h t l y p o s i t i v e No f e e l i n g one way or the other I 1 S l i g h t l y negative I 1 Very negative Extremely negative 210 197 11. How do you f e e l about the democracy movement i n Hong Kong? (Check only one box) Extremely p o s i t i v e ] \ Very p o s i t i v e S l i g h t l y p o s i t i v e No f e e l i n g one way or the other S l i g h t l y negative Very negative Extremely negative 12. O v e r a l l , how do you f e e l about what w i l l happen i n 1997 and beyond? (Check only one box) Extremely o p t i m i s t i c | | Very o p t i m i s t i c | | S l i g h t l y o p t i m i s t i c I I No f e e l i n g one way or the other S l i g h t l y p e s s i m i s t i c Very p e s s i m i s t i c Extremely p e s s i m i s t i c 13. To what extent do you f e e l you are able to c o n t r o l the f o r c e s that shape the nature of your l i f e ? (Check only one box) Very much c o n t r o l Much c o n t r o l Moderate c o n t r o l L i t t l e c o n t r o l Very l i t t l e c o n t r o l No c o n t r o l a t a l l 14. To what extent are you i n v o l v e d i n China t r a d e , China exchanges, or any p r o j e c t s w i t h China? (Check only one box) Very much inv o l v e d Much i n v o l v e d Moderately i n v o l v e d L i t t l e i n v o l v e d Very l i t t l e i n v o l v e d Not i n v o l v e d at a l l 22 6 198 i 5 . To what extent can the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l l o r s represent your i n t e r e s t s They can represent my i n t e r e s t s : (Check only one box) Very much Much Moderately L i t t l e \ | Very l i t t l e Not at a l l 16. Are you a r e g i s t e r e d voter' Yes No 17. Have you ever given any opinions or suggestions on the D r a f t B a s i c Law to the Basic Law C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee? Yes No 18. 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JJJJ The Hongkong Standard § F O R W A R D WITH H O N G K O N G M O N D A Y , M A Y 29, 1989 SUBSCRIBER'S C O P Y / N O T FOR SALE World marches for China MILLIONS of people all over UM (lob* •bowed their support for China's defiant student! with protests, rallies end starting wl una rally a The worM-wMe were held In call for support INSIDE: • Thfl Changing Face ol China: P l f M l - T k • Editorial; Page 12 •> g those who staned a rasponse to a a  by BeUing tio conanuea their sit-in at Tiananmen Square for the ninth day since the imposition of martial law. The global effort was led ganlaers claimed more man. l.S million people turned op far s rally and procession calling for land and the removal of hardline Premier U Peng. It was the second huge turnout In as many days. On Saturday. 100,000 the students, the Chinese government end to Presi- dent George Bush, accord- ing to orgnnieers. Philip Lam, an organiser of the Cos Angeles demon- stration, said a M-bour EST tbon cooes rt et the Happy Valley race course, raising t i l million tar Betting pro- Mr Sseto Wan. e.Legls- lativa Councillor and a member of the organising were not Mghurjed°^y sranutf from Chinese In addition to Mr Lis *] US does — including Washington. New York. San r^endsco, Los Angelas.- Houston end Boston - since the historic occupation of Beijing's rally this week, as the number of protesters In Tiananmen Square b»t fallen to about 10.000. The students are debating whether to end their sit-in and adopt a new set of tgrtfri in their battle for In Sydney, an < 1,000 demonstrators marched through the ati sou yesterday In sup-port of the student fhlnsas sovereignty In Speakers expressed fcemthat Macau's still undxaftad Basic Law, tn- Potke refused to let the marchers enter the Chtneee consulate build-ings whm they had hoped to present a petition to consular officials. The elm of the demon-stration was to get public attention, so we are still happy ~ said Ms Kills Yin, a 19-year-old Sydney Uni-versity student from Hong-kong who helped organise the rally. -We hove achieved that end we hope It will put International pressure ' onto the Chinese govern-ment to take positive no-tion for e democratic China." I Huff's autonomy for 00 no aiieeia. In Canada, Chinese In Taiwan, thousands of people demonstrated in the Island's two largest doe*. About IftflOO students, celebrities and retired • servicemen marched m a park In downtown Taipei, shouting slogans support-ing the tnatiilsM ffrf^T!1^ and cairytng banners pro-' "Long live free- INS IDE OPENERS Esnrtn Sinclair has hla aay in OPENERS today and tackles bizarre and eccen- tric habits of poli- ticians. Pane I F i l m * Minister Margaret Thatcher roey aack Chancel- l o r of the Exchequer Nigel L a w a o n a n d Foreign Secretary Sir Geoftrey Howe. aooorcUnoj to news- paper reports. This and all-the other news from the United liagiom in our BRITAIN TO- DAY i INDEX TELEPHONES Editorial S-TM2T98 Aeveruetag 3-TW798 ClseMheds 1-7596833 WEATHER: 26'C — 30*C. Hot and gunny. Datatlt on Rana21 "The students to BelJtaJ are *y***"g for the future of all Cmnoee," veteran actor Sun Yueh told the gathering in a speech. Thvg have our full sup- ,. pert of an esrtjmntajd 1.B million poop** who mocchod, In iy In asjpport of the Boiling studenta. Threat of Western loans squeeze on Beijing metrte south of TalpeL-about 10.000 students and (acuity metabets from the National Sun Yet-een Uni-versity took pert B> Tammy Tam In BeiJInfc, JAPAN and 'the United temporarily stop all Joans said a local analyst. How gates have threat " oil loans and Inve.. (pr China as. the govern- bustneesrear stent crisis deepens, ™ ' — - to China, while the US ha* ever a srbrces told ThtJtongkant or cancel joint-venture fflpndcrd yesterday. projects," said tnesourcee. tot counter ectl took to the Soviet Union 6r greater economic and The US and Japan trade cooperation. thtak B ts a good oppor- TT"Japan bat tarormed ' tanlty to bargain vrtth CSlna of.its mtannon to Chine tn many matters,". ment had reached an draw agreement with the Soviet premier Yeo Ylttn to the Union to Increase bilateral State Council met Friday trade substantially. ssld: -Chins would not ba china ts facing aa •eon- Mr Yeo'e speech also afraid of any foreign pree- onuc crisis with galloping triggered speculation thet ^ '— he could become the next dd prune tnmtstsr. while Mr ^Zz. to U Peng •> aet to succeed nimmrred4o*os diagraosd it would Central Military Com-deepen the economic crisis mittas. ^ - • ? ? ^ _ ^ 0 0 * " Meanwhile, the tourday gpedal meeting of the The US , ting has asked its natkmala Japan and the US are also China's .foreign trade to prepare to leave China, exerting pressure to push rne Bret four months of the China away fern the E General Secretary "Mr Xbeo win probably Ziyaog with Prod- not be accused of being the _ I Yang fthflna>*tn gat- head of an anti-party ttng more power tn the chque.".sakl s source. New York, actors Mike FarreU and Ed Aaner and Detroit Bishop Thomas OumbleSon were New b e t t i n g r e c o r d s as season ends B» KM BETTING tcrday at the racing season came to an end >wu» a massive 10-race .pro- gramme at Sba Tin. • But the bopeMtar Uinon dollar day did not material- ise and the 6&0OQ attend- ance feD far snort of the flOOO people who turned up on January J9 to eee the second running of the Invi- tation Cup. .-.Nevertheless, yester- day's turnover of )ust under gBsi.gmilnon -was -16 percent upon last year's last-day record of 1734 million. .The final race picked op Racing Editor nu.nmnuon. a record Ear one race, while the year's total turnover reached SM.lbUUoR de- spite the loss of orw racing day due to Typhoon Breads. - Royal Hongkong Jockey dub chief executive Major Getteral Guy Wstkina said he was ssxtsflad with the season and with the bet- ting figures. the lov/sr-than-expected. turnout could have been the tejsnM .of yesterday's 'democracy marches which involved more than a . En g l i s h - b r e d San champion horse. Irish three-year-old Quicken, . Away becoming pretty good" figure,"* he champion stayer award. As the punters streamed Out of the tacacourss. the giant - video screen read: "See you - on September Ii . " -Of t had a meeting washed out, but we've bad some good racing and we've seen with an enlarged tJ-dar season and, perhaps, the tint blUtco-doUar racing any. Traders brace themselves 6 A M EDITION Appendix C: Newspaper Front Page of June 4, 1989 —Tiananmen Square Incident. SuntiTtmna Sunday Morning Post 8-PAGE BEIJING SPECIAL Vol. XLVNo. 153 HONGKONG, SUNDAY, JUNE 4. 1989 T d : 5 - 6 5 2 2 2 2 Price $3.<X • A n g r y p r o t e s t e r s • 1,000 a t t a c k G r e a t • A r m y u s e s t r u c k s • B u s h ' d e e p l y l y n c h s o l d i e r s H a l l o f t h e P e o p l e t o s m a s h b a r r i c a d e s d e p l o r e s ' a t t a c k BEIJING BLOODBATH: 57 KILLED BY TROOPS AT least 57 people were bayonelted or shot U death tod hundreds more wound- ed in Beijing; early today u tens of thousands of nkfierg smashed their way into Tiananmen Squire to truth the student protest At dawn tanks rolled into the square crushing the students' flimsy tents and •hooting pro-democracy demonstrators, witnesses •aid, Mac±ine-gun fire raked the square. Two Western reporters ivcre • wounded as the army cleared the square. The attack capped seven tours of s bloody snack aimed si retaking the square from pro- testers who held it for more than three weeks m a bed (or po- uticeJ ISJOIIIL fa plosions could be heard Several soldier* were lynched by the crowds and left for dead on the roads swung to the square as hundreds of thou- sands of students agreements (ought beck terccty. "1 hare just had my btst rig- ereae. Tonight we are going to die," said a crying worker hnd- dlcd in the masses at the Monu- ment to the People's Heroes es squara. Witnesses said most of the dead wore SQainats. The troops, tn full bank gear and armed with rifles, marched a line Beijing's main artery, shortly before midnight, firing voDcys at regular intervals to open the way for cohuBn* of trucks. The troops walked into the square, firing at they moved, at first firing over the heads of protesters but later lowering Some workers around the square tried to burl petrol bombs at the advancing sol- makeshift Statue of Liberty erected-by the students five days ago. Two armoured personnel carriers burned brightly on the edge of the square. It was the firm time troops hed opened fins on demonstra- tors in seven weeks of pro-de- mocracy unrest A Beijing government spokesman said more than i.OOO people rushed to a con- suuctioo site lo seize steel bars and bricks, that some people at- tacked the government resi- dence of Znongnanhai near Tiananmen Square, and the Oreat Hall of the People, the of- ficial New China News Agency (NCNA) reported. The military convoys coo- verged on the square ftm (bur directions. Repeatedly they INSIDE SUNDAY HrOJiCY SUNDAY UVINGJ .OukC" W E A T H E R x Today wtto cloudy with some scat- tered showers. Maal- The area immediately northwest of Tiananmen was uttered with abandoned and burning military vchicJea. Five kilometres from the square, witnesses saw a light armoured vehicle plough at speed into the crowd to force its way through, leaving at least The crowds fought back fiercely and witnesses said they taw soldiers lynched by the crowds and left sbrdcad on the road. which svnpt aside barricades of oners placed across the roads by port desooyed by the deroon- In some areas troops ap- peared to bold the upper hand, in oibcrs frenzied mobs at- tacked troops, and in still other dents peacefully hahedlhe Bow armoured trucks. The first blood was shed in In a desperate voice, a auras al the hospital, loid Hongkong inquirers that "scores of people" had been admitted with "gunshot wounds". The coodiuoo of many of these peo- ple was critical, she a A male nurse, answering the call, also confirmed -several drethi in the hospital, almost all from gunshot wounds. He said the hospital was liaising with other hospitals for assis- ace. A doctor from the Fusing Hospital in western Beijing, an firing on . . . the hospital had taken in IS dead and so many wounded they bad to be put in garages. A second doctor from so- other hospital near the dashes nud be had hanAifA 12 dead. One soldier was run over by an ennorcd personnel carrier rusb- ing toward the square and a Swedish visitor. Tom Hsnsson, said be saw three people shot dead south of the square. Five people were seen with blood poering out of their barriers gave way to the trucks as they bote down on them. The second truck fired teai Dcstonstreiors ran far cover don'', "Oct out of Beijing" at -China, China" as they fied. Witnesses also saw troops firing at windows where pro- testers were snouting defiant slogans. The soldiers advanced behind construction vehicles which swept aside barricades of buses placed in their path by Tom Mia tier, described ti nsge: "A few minutes age was s large beirsgt of firing... there are Dot enou|u re being used lo take the wounded away... a pan of the crowd in square is still j... but the crowd has dwindled constdersbrr. "I would say by about 7J per meet "You have to give your life to (he movgcxnL Students tang the uternationala A 10 m high "Goddess of Democracy," a replica of the Statue of Liberty set up by stu- " that the govern- to the o*- Staonly before I am, two that the army it moving for- • A ghjdent thrown debris an advancing tar* ki e vain ettempt to hen He progress thtuî n Tionenmen Square. Bush says he deeply deplores decision to use force WASHINGTON: President George Bush, apparently moved by reports of violence from China, said he "deeply deplored" the Beijing force against student demoa- la s formal statement neocd by the White House early this morning Hongkong ume, Mr Bush urged the Chinese Gov- ernment to return to the use of non-violent mesas to deal with the student uprising that has rocked Beijing for the past sev- en weeks. "It is dear the Chinese Gov- ernment bat chosen to use force sgainsi Chinese citizens who are making a peaceful state- ment in favour of democracy," the statement said "I deeply deplore the derision to use force sndtbe consequent loss of life." Chincse troops moved into Beijing's Tianaamen Square, focal point of the nodes l dent* OBStreiions for democracy, hue last night Reports indicated at lean 42 people were killed and scores wounded in the subee- once served at US "I hope China will rapidly return to the path of politkal and ecoaonuc reform and con- ditions of stability so that this relationship, so important to both' aud the United Stales was i (to UM restraint in ) the student dem • -We have continue to urge Don-violent re- straint and dialogue," Mr Bush added. "Tragically another I urge a return 10 aoa-viaaeai meant for dealing whh the cur- A White House official said the president decided to issue the statement after receiving more tenons on growing vio- lence in the Chinese capital. Mr Bush had remained silent for "The United States sod the People's Republic of China over the past two decades hive built up through great efforts by both sides a constructive rela- tionship, beneficial to both countries," said mr Bush, who in Beijing. . Speaking on CNN's Ncwimtkcr Stturdty program in Washington. Mr Baker noted the situation in China had turned "ugly and chaotic" and "1 think the Chinese Gov- ernment knows the position of the United States Government,'" Mr Baker said "You know, the army of Chink calls itself the 'Army of the People'. And we think ii would be unfortunate, indeed, if the 'Army of the People' were used lo suppress the people." Arthough Mr Baker indicat- ed the United Stales preferred not to meddle in China's inter- nal eflairt, be said: "I think the mrsisyi we have sent, howev- er, have bom received in the spirit in which they have been sent We've not in effect hern told to mind your own business." Mr Baker abo said the State Department had been in touch with the US Embassy in China, which reported the situation was "quite chaotic now". There is shooting going OCL To tome extent that shooting appears to be aimed up io the air, arthough we do have some preliminary reports of Kennebunkpon on the «•••_" opments in China by Deputy Nauonal Security Adviser Rob- en Gales. The White House He noted the United State* had been enable w confirm any Mr Baker said US staff and other US Dotksaals in the Chinese capital had been warned to stay swsy from Tiananmen Square. A State De- partmeut advisory urging Americans not lo Irsvcl to China was still in effect, he add- Cd Mr Bush abo was briefed in arms sales to the Chinese Gov- ernment be limited in response to the crackdown. "I don't think we should sh here today... within hours of the first really significant use of force (against a peaceful dem- eastraooa by the students)... and try and hypothesise about Senile Foreign Relation* Com- mittee, sua nr — * " " * " * to end the sharing of US miii- larŷ and technology with "I find little surprise thai the Chinese communists are acting as communists always da," he "The violence in Beiiing is de- plorable and all of booed us have it would has hap- ttwuln ," Mr a "I think we'll have lo see what happens. We're not sure what course this will tike, even now," the secretary said. But on Capitol Hill, Senator Jesse Helm* of North Carolina, the rankine Reoublican on ihe "I wit) begin working whh my colleagues to ensure that at • first response again*! this bru- tality, all US military co-opera- tion and sharing of technology with the communist govern- ment or Chins musi be termi- nated immediately." Mr Helms Appendix D: Newspaper Front Page of June b, l9Hb)--Mass Rally and General Strike Called For i n Hong Kong South China Morning Post General: 5-652222 News:.5-652252 Classified: 5-658822 HONGKONG. MONDAY. JUNE 5. 1989 Vol. XLV No. 154 1,400 feared dead, 10,000 hurt Troops fire wildly at crowds outside top Beijing hotel Official says Deng has cancer SENIOS It piag *»r« the steer* km the • THE dcitb loll in the People'* Liberation Army'* bruul drive lo cod the pro-democracy demonstration in Beijing it at lean 1,400 people killed u d 10,000 wounded, bospiUJ sources Mid. The Chinese Government lut night .dajmed about 1,000 *oldiers had been wounded in dathc* with what i i tensed "booiiganj" and thai aoorcs of troops bad died, tome burnt in their vehicles and at least one lynched on a light pole. • IN one of the moil horrifying confrontations, foreigner! watched soldiers tiring repealed volley! from automatic weapon* inio crowd* of resident! who had gathered in front of the Beijing Hotel, a few hundred metre* from Tiananmen Square, at about 10.30 am. la one aalvo, al leait 30 civilians died, • T A N K S with machine-gun* biasing continued to patrol central Beijing in a snow of force last night but hundred* of thousand* of resident* defied order* to remain indoor* and gathered in (treeti leading to Tiananmen Square. • PROTESTS Oared in al least eight other major citie* when newt of the • IN it* first official statement since the bloody crackdown, the Government branded the student fad movement a* a "counter-revolutionary rebellion" trying to overthrow the Government and the socialist system. It stressed that the troops' "hali-boar • operation" had been "totally legal" within the provisions of the martial taw declared by Prune Minister U Peng on May 20 to deal with a crowd of frenzied thug*. • THE operation, however, was deplored through the world, with moat leaden expressing shock and dtsbcbcf a! the level of force used in the bloody Ta* •fflclals safe Mr Deng's taaallUna t* serious. 'My heart is bleeding, they killed my people' w^HrS Drag gave the- erscr* a a THaVtraaasa a** sasaahttr ahsewl en the (ana efban- drede eMUIjImg cttbwaa ctaatca at dry a i yae- ""•Y was lucky," a«M a • MORE than 200,000 angry and thecked citizen* of Hongkong and Macau took to the streets in mewning for those killed. Organisers o f t rally at the Happy Valky racecourse and a march through Filwlihll Has* Hal fa •irthiiat Bat Jang, ha* eta In a etftug ashtf I i i II 111 ay a as***. • & B « S I I M » « territory-wide das* boycotts, n general strike and business su*pension on Wednesday. •Teasarsliii,tail llig acaMaadtwegM.il Ii in, Al af aa wart that aawat twe eatsld* aar hanw* la Nanboynaa Deaa,S4,k ral Military Residents defy gunfire y aaasyr mU a eaM-mlMftag ANORY and defiant resi- dents returned to their barricades but night in an attempt lo keen troops out of the centre of the capital, where a violent charge lo ~ i Square M left a INSIDB 1*2,3: Ev»wftria**aa P4-B: Mora pscturas HK reacts ' •24: Edrtonai versity in the s — . . . of the city find vol- witha»sataath with swr has- nacninô na fim iaSo hand and e*e*TJ*» as twe keys of m riiimvg'ta fire ess Ihie air from aa armoured vehicle captared from troops during yesterday ion as saying in a statement broadcast around 11.30 pa. However, hundred* of thousands of people wore in the unci*, and the anger over the previous night'* the previous night trail of corpses. Troop* coo turned to rakx oaarmed residents with Late last night, about 100 _ _ _ troops charged into a reai- Thousaads returned to dcnaal area just ectrfioi* the the Xidan nitersecuoa two •uoare, shooting into uar- kilometre* well of the row alleyway* a* hysterical sqoare tonx wocradutchedtbeu-babsca not and set and people U to the pave- st fife to miflnry Win l 10 a They diuts the currier lo the actgbbouriat People'* Uaiversity campus, with Into toe maie gate, gma* poiattc gathered outside the cam- P°*- - . StadeaU wore black -We waaU al aa aa Ban- anal Be* saaaaass. The wasfc- arawaaW alga aa* and sap- part is* •frliBti. hat t*M 11 Win aw 11 H i every- one. Maw* ••aryw*a>. Whe waaMauta t* a* aa* now? Wsarea!aearat,"ahaaa*L ' Bar I I I saaa, -W« After the attack, real- and 16 armoured troop car- . dents came out again and riers thundered eastwards taunted the soldiers with bum cries of **tusGtat*\ chy* A venae far Beijing mayor Chen three kilometres to Beijing'* Xitong had earlier issued an main embassy district and There ws* p. al angry. We asa aal daajna*- ed. The pease* an angry" Ajttewd ga*h**ed • — • •aTal kit i*d i w sasrtag aa. me- eaaataftaaasBiaaaa. n aaa aaMwi* aiai faaar: MPs say scrap the handover Pnai DAVID W ALLEN la Lsaaaa BRITISH Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher bm eight ssid the wat "deeply •hocked" at the horror of event* in Tiananmen Square, while some mcm- bers of psruuDcol. espress- mp the same shock, suggest- ed that the handover of Quna should Mrs Thatdier who was at her conn try residence of OseuWrs lor the j«ekcnd date on the ntuatioa in Bei- jing by the Forage Office. A spokesman for 10 Downing Street ntd ~Sbe it waidiing events with great crawi. u flvaai to stay isatoen and root *o Theparpaatofthaaartit bsscn to i UCBOQTI . waaunknown but there wars "Parent* saoald stop persistent rumour* that their children from going troc^ wembanracaBd Mas- out n street* . . . to avoid fcr some uai w i l y eampos- ns necessary losses,** Mr as. Bpopaasrana- dent leader, 21-year-old ^ a i ^ i u i i * ^ Wa'erkaisi of Beijing craackad aa ta* Teacher*' Uai w r y . w«*. Maag cr*nalai aws ~ sirkdwbm troops ahcMtknr «nM tk« aasn H la% IaX waysstoTb about Jam A ana la the crawl taacharnwi awafl sas haad aad tanad l̂ aaaasgca way, aai ayes sad aad wat **Wa~tiw4(aatapBat,stsl L **W* < eh* tnwr* sa-il (W IT.** he **Thay abet bar eavea tlataa, even aa aba was rwaal*d sergl- twasrkiiTr rer* tyiag an daily.hallway flaars aa played (bear m-rays. • naausMftiBtfa n am aayn-1» BwSwV **A girl Is lb* crowd iiaafjaj." aaM tse ssacbar. ŵ aŝ aa-g yeaeroay. | ~ ' - - — _ haaH thai bar veaagar wtewaatiwsSaiIssaaraawi a«k w hm i t ir i i . th.lr r, thbaouldeol Tbvy hev* an aaawi*. bmthat had aaaa ittd, and aaalaat l̂ sagUasaa Mad- e l ^ w ^ h a a f r alTbemwass S^ibTwEa-^ »* -b-eawaassml tan loUJMas.l«aafstaL v ^ ^ " ^ lx>uisRraud RMUS Louis Feraud RAR1S liariaai A a wba nw K kast ar eaas a ana MS tin ttal (jastap* Haapatak ly a*M*t*d (Caat^eaPasaACall) waptT toward the Mldlara," a The aeaua In the (Uvatal patlsal Party man General strike called for Wednesday quits over bloodshed w i f M s t ) JkfaaastaaasaabaU bar asather1* hand," aaU a awoTarattbal | l l l.afcw hkseks freai the aapara, A mmm toU af a twang warkcr **cyettag *• war* hi (C—fa aa Page 2, Cal 1) tng lha atineae anthorities. Ovcniight a vigil was held outside the Quaesc Embas- sy and a protest letter was handed in. . Mrs Thatcher, io * suie- ment, said: "We are aD deep- ly shocked at me news horn rHi^t H appaflwl by the iasuscriminste ahootlng of -lib a I of -S , Call) • S ANDY HO GENERAL Strike has yesterday** /alley put >be A HONOtONO* of the Ounce* C Party. Mr He W New China New* Agency (NCNA). in the left-wing Woi Wd Pao, T« Knag ABO, Afiaj* Pao and Hoa$kon$ Eco- aaaiJc Joarm*l In oil statement, Mr He said: "I can't accept the bloody troth that the Chi- rally at Happy Vt . . turnout at more than hatfu- million. Police Hongkong force lo inppreii the This ta in total contra- vention with the goal of the party,*' be asid. Mr He who retired from the NCNA several year* ago could not be reached for Earlier estimates have put the total number of local member* of the CCP al 4,000. Legislator Martin Lee Che-eung condemned the the Chinese authorities' Hundreds of thousands of aggrieved tn relbes yesterday to ii the dead of the June 4 r - , . , t S 4™«^i^hrifrtTmtfi>  1 beucve it (the ah* Chinese party Go*- down) ta the work by a group eminent and army leader* ofverycMmenwhowaniw responsible for the crack- cluuj to theu peww and are down. prepared to sacrifice thou- The Hornkoos coalitjon sand* and millions of lives. I m support oftheBeiji&i st» think ihey lave gone maoV* dent* yesterday called for a Ine Governor. Sir David •encral strike, etcept for cs- Wihon, expressed "horror sea lis! services incradiBg anger" si the bloodshed, banking and Government but stopped short of con Employees of vital ser- vices were urged to wear black armband* when Ibey K to work on Wednesday, ajor education institu- tion* are ready to respond with a territory-wide das* boycott on the same day. Thta a general call. We will ask all shop* to dose their doors, aD factonea to strike and all schools to can- deroning the Beijing author' "There it a very real use in the community of I has been happening," be ' V appealing for calm. 'It taa B a n k o f C h i n a d r a i n e d o f r e a d y c a s h Tneaater claimed proba- bulkt* k of China'* m THE drained of cash last night after local residents were told lo boycott Chinese banks, good* and tour* to the mainland. Pamphlet* calling for the boycott were distributed at yesterdsy's mass rally and in Central A simitar call was made in Macau. No iuenhfknboo of the author was given but the 'by two. Ii killed the students were percussed from Hongkong's investments. "Do yon want to be usedT* Yesterday. Monetary Af- fairs Secretary David Nendka and Commissioner for Securities and Future* Robert Owen urged stock market investors not to pan- ic when the Hongkong mar- ket open* today. withdraw all their money Mr Nendick i from Chinese banks as for- think that during unsettled age cash would be used aaa limes, the most sensible thing ta to cither stay in the market If one is already there or to wait if one ta not mere. "I dool tltink thta it the sort of time when people can gel the best value when they come to sefl stock*. Ii ta an uncertain period and if* best for the small investor* to leave It to the profess- ionals." Hongkong Slock Es- change chief executive Fran- cis Yuen said yesterday he expected the market, which •bed nearly 20 per cent of its value over the past two weeks, to bee **tremendous I cspect many people. mainly fund manager*, would like to get rid of Hongkong nock*,*' be ssid. Added ooc broker: **Tbc stock market will drop tike a MrOwcnssid:"! would suggest people do not make any precipitate moves, and wait to sec how events evolve further." Both he and Mr Nendick appeared to rule out dosing the stock and futures mar- ket* today, although they •aid ibey were unable to guarantee it Mr Owen ssid trading in both markets bad been or- derly in the past three weeks. INDEX CLASSIFIED POST Pwilk A L*aa> N*kw*_ SwrlenCaM* ! Ski|»wgC«aai WEATHER Hot MMI auraiy period* Mas temp / — ^ i . , 30 tsaorae*. f ^ 8MfaD*2. 0 ' Discover Xx>uis\ditton at tke exclusive. I^uu\rwtton stores. Dtt Votui Ro*d, CaunL T d Rfpubf B » Shopping Arcade, Rcpubr ttj Road. Td ytllTTK bHotrl Shopping Arcadr. T d >-**37J) Rceent Howl Shopping Arcade. Td i-mvn • /F . IM Wing. New World Omrr T d J-7Jv*W LOUTS VUITTON ; © Appendix E: Newspaper Front Page of June 6, 1989—Stock Market Plunged and Chinese Banks i n Hong Kong Made Run On South China Morning Post General: 5-652222 News: 5-652252 Classified: 5-658822 HONGKONG, TUESDAY, JUNE 6. 1989 Vol. XLV No. 165 Price $3.00 Hongkong unionist arrested trying to flee Beijing Br &Y.WA1 HONGKONG unionist Lee Cbeuk-yan, who but week belped carry some of the $2 million delivered lo Beijing protesters, was last night ar- rested by mainland police just as be was about to board a special Hongkong Govern- menl-chartered flight He was taken from I he 123-eeai Dragonair Boeing 737 by two uniformed secu- rity officials, who said bis Home Visit Permit bad not been property lnspmed. The oibcr 126 Hongkong residents, businessmen. capital were already on board and arrived at Kai Tak shortly after midnight. Mr Lee is the first Hong- kong resident arrested under martial law provisions. The Hongkong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Dem- ocrauc Movement in China fears thai he might become another Lau Shsn-ching. a Hongkong resident arrested in 1982 and serving a 10- for" rere fleeing the Chinese revolutionary** Alliance members, in- formed of the arrest by a Dragonair pilot, last night marched to Government Himtr drmairting that the Governor, Sir David Wil- son, and British Prime Min- ister Margaret Thatcher, hdp him. Alliance leader and Leg- islative Councillor Sieto Wah secured a tnertisg with Sir David late last night on the arrest. Eleven legislators, in- cluding Mr Sieto. had joined ibe urgent meeting with ibe Governor by mid. The British Embassy in Beijing said early today thai it had lodged an inquiry with the Chinese Foreign Mini*- ter snd was "taking this up as a matter of urgency''. A Government spokes- man said: "We have been in touch with the embassy wbo know Mr Lee well and have great respect for bis efforts lo organise and asiin other lloitgkong people to get to the chartered plane ibis "As yet we have no con- firmation that he has been detained, or by whom," the spokesman said. Mr Lee, wbo is in his ear- ly 30s, has been an activist for political reform and la- bour protection since he graduated from the Univer- sity of Hongkong in civil en- gineering in the 1970s. He is chsirmsn of ibe Cloth Making Industry Workers' General Ui ' : secretary of the Chrinian Industrial Committee and was beading a five-member dekgauon of the miiianrp u take 12 mil- lion to the mainland protest- ers. The captain of the Drsjonsjf craft. Ian Stanley, ssid on arriving ie Kai Tak earty today thai Mr Lee had gone through immigration procedure* and was stopped short of the plane by four uniformed officials. "He tried to board the aircraft but they tried to stop said it was necessary, for him to go back to the unmigrn- ' There was no violence at alL The passengers were very shocked and desperate- ly waiting for him. We did stay there for 13 minutes to wait for him to get the per- mitsMM to board," Mr Sian- Mr Stanley said Chinese officials told him lhat Mr Lee was having problem! with his passport. Meanwhile, three Hong- kong reporters who returned borne on an earlier flight last flight complained that the British Embassy had not helped them as had been promised. (Coats ea Page 7, Col t) Bush suspends all military sales to China UNITED States President George Bush yesterday con- demned the Chinese crack- down on pro-democrscy Reports of clash with rival troops • fMBng T A N K S ' a n d troops guarding Beijing's mam Changan Avenue last night took up combai p o sitioDi a mid uncoo- firmed accounts of dash- es between Army units south of the capital Twenty tanks and .13 truckloads of soldiers took up fighting positions fac- ing cast along Ibe a venae at the major Jianguomen- wai intersection, diplo- mats and witnesses said. A witness ssid small groups of foot soldiers look np positions along the road doac lo a oompooad wbere many foreign diplomats live. Staff from several em- basiies have evacuated apartments oearby, dipio- INSIDE Pufje) 2? Other cities Pacj» 4: EC tnfka off Pnc/n •: UK reaction Pao* *-& HK anger Paget Ui Edrtonal units in at least one other major city - Shenyang in northeast China. Troop de- ployment in si least su other major cities, including <ih»n|h«i Chengdu, Nan- jiag, Wubao, Xian and Guangzhou, was also report- ed. Teosioa was high in Shanghai while in Chengdu, troops were said to have fired on unruly mobs. In Guangzhon, barri- cades have been put up and sources ssid preparations "are now in hand for the in- stitotioa of martial law" northwest towards Beijing from the ciry of Tianjin. The reason for the troop move- meat was unclear. A reliable Chinese mili- tary source said there was fighting between military groups around the Nanyuaa military air base south of the dry earlier in the day. He said be could not give de- tails, but the fighting was se- The troop movement m Beijing came as soldiers con- tintwuf to pm down indis- criminately residents who ventured into Tiananmen Square and elsewhere, as ambulances look casualties to the already congested hos- pitals. The hteat death toll was ' about 4.000. reliable soured reported, and the number of wounded totalled soma 20,000. Meanwhile the Ameri- can and other embassy com- pounds began providing shelter for foreign students •t Chinese universitiei, where public security offi- cers, sasisted by troops be- •tWW DIAMONQ&t DICKSON WATCH t JEWELLERY CO. LTD CS WATCH CO. I TO PRECISION WATCH CO. LTD. student leaders. An American Embassy official said about 20 of the 400 to M0 US students and teachers look rm an offer to relocate al hotels near the embassy. The embassy bad not advised an evacuation ofBeijmgiisetfby the 1,500 America as living there al- though traveuen have been warned to avoid China. Mr Gregsoa Edwards of the Australian Embassy ssid 21 Australian, three New Zealand and one Fijian stu- dent had moved inioembas- •y residences. The Canadian and British embassies also provided refuge for stu- dents. "Sporadic shooting continues," said a British Embassy official "We are advising British rtarioaaii, including Hongkong resi- dents, in areas where there axe military particu- larly Tiananmen Square, to carefully consider thru per- sonal safety". The capitaTs 3,000 Japa- nese residents and 370 Japa- nese travel Im have not been told to leave but they have been advised to move if they was ordering an immediate suspension of government military sales •"•j commer- cial export of weapons. "We deplore the decision 10 use force," Mr Bush told a hastily convened news con- He called on Chinese authorities "to avoid vio- lence and to return to their previous policy of want to see a total break in ibis relationship" with China. Nonetheless, in an- thst in- cluded between US sad Chinese military official*, he said: "We cannot condoee the vi- olent attacks and cannot ig- nore the consequences for our relstiooihip with ins." The Defence Depart- M was unable to provide immediately the value of The US has also offered China mote than 13 million tonnes of subsidised wheat since I9S7. It was not clear whether outstanding subsi- dies were jeopardised by Mr Bush's moves. After reading s intern cm from the White House brief- ing room, Mr Bush an- swered questions and said be would not withdraw the US ambassador from Bei- jing, as some have proposed. Mr Bush, a former US envoy to China, said he also would order US officials to give a "sympathetic review" to sny request by Chinese students for an extension of their slay in the US and would offer aisisiance through the international Red Cross. Mr Bush said demonstra- tor! swept from Cbina'i Tiananmen Square by mili- tary forces at the weekend wen "advocating basic hu- man rights, including free- dom of espression, freedom of the press and freedom of would be effected by the sus- pensioB sjujounced by Mr Bush. Ueutensm-Colond Rick Oboru, s Pcntsgoo spoken man, ssid four projects were still listed as "continuing", but that some of the older Thousands make run on Chinese banks THOUSANDS ef people HONGKONG'S itock market plunged nearly 22 per cent yesterday aa investors rushed to dump shares in Ibe wake of the weekend bloodshed in Beijing, prompting predictions that financial coaadence in the could take months to mend. Panic idling by local punters and in*' kntwrpodaboulHiaiJttc^ value of Hongkong shares and sent the key barometer, the Hang Seng index, ing 312 points to close at 2,093.61. It was the Hongkong market's BKond beavmt ooc day fall since 1949 and Ibe big- gest loas sutce the October I9l7cra*h. leav- ing the index, languishing almost 40 per cent below its level before the political crisis"! n China erupted in early May. Freniied scenes gripped the trading Boor of the Hongkong exchange from the opening bed, as dealers frantically fielded calls from investors unloading stock in re- action to the brutal military crackdown. The Hang Seng index plummeted a mas- sive 390 poiots in Ibe inorning session, and only recovered aome ground after the Hongkong Shanghai Bank intervened to tupport the market in the afternoon. "But don't move alone, travel with others." be said. The French, Swiss, Cana- dian. Hungarian, Yugoslav, Italian and Portuguese em- bassies have also taken mea- sures to safeguard their na- tionals in Beijing. The event lhat gripped the populace of the capital was the reported dash be- tween two rival army units in the southern outskirts of Beijing (Caafd ea Page J, Cal I) Affairs David Naadtck Ntl'ffrfclTi' -We asset iwnagaa** that If we an bass a aaaeesattal ran an any aaa* as ear has at lag •yateas. It's going to The four transactions in- cluded a US$91 Bullion sale of technology snd assistance in October 1913 to build an artillery ammunitioo plant; the sale of 35 avionics kit* lo modernise the electronic systems on Chinese F-g jet fighters, worth US*5SO mil- lion; the salt of four MK-46 uxpedoes in February 19(6. valued at USSI million, and the sale in Jauary I9S7 of ar- tillery-locating radar sets worth USS62 million. Colonel Oborn said the Pentagon did not have any statisUca available on on-jo- int, commercial iransac- Tbe US-Chinese rela- tionship has blossomed on economic, military *ad po- litical fronts since form si diplomatic relation! were established in 1979. Since that time, the Unit- ed Slates has sold more than USS74S million in arms to China, most recently a USSI00 million deal in which Beijing purchased six Chinook CH-47D belicop- Hc added: "Throughout the world we itand with those who seek greater free- dom snd democracy." Mr Bush said he was al- tempting to forge a careful response to the situation in China, and had rejected ad- vice from some wbo recom- mended the withdrawal of the US ambassador. He said the ambassador had been active in monitor- ing events in Beijing and provided an important re- source for the US. "I don't want to see a to- tal break in this relationship and I will not encourage a to- tal break," be ssid. "When you sec these kids struggling for democracy and freedom, this would be a bad lime for the United Slates to with- draw." Until yetterday'i press conference, Mr Bush had lit- tle to say on China as he wound up a weekend of rest and relaxation at hit vaca- lioo home on the Maine coast after a four-nation Eu- ropean visit and a NATO summit Former Secretary of Slate Henry Kissinger, who helped forge the first US lies with China dunng President Richard Nixon'i term, also advised that the president "can't afford emotional outbursts" in the present sit- Before Mr Buih an- nounced the suspension of armi salei, Dr Kissinger warned lhat imposing eco- nomic isncliont would (C—I'd — Psa* 3. Cal I) any dip isltars, siapU who had sarrewsd tress dM beak dust be |rissaa ta repay rbaVbaas. Bank, affected by lha fr,,'^j^.^ LTW'efC^ 'bay did awl waat ta - (Cewfe M Pass t. Cat I) aad Sean Saa Beak, China Governor seeks meeting with Howe Press DAVID WALLEN In Leaden aad DAPHNE CHENG with British Foreign Secre- tary, Sir Geoffrey Howe, on the twin crises for Hongkong following the Woody crack- down in China and Ibe ar- rival of thousands of Viet- namese boat people. Sir David postponed un- til tomorrow a trip to Lon- don because of the weekend bloodshed in Beijing. Yesterday, he met the bead of China i de facto em- bsisy, Mr Xu Jiaiun, lo whom he expressed the full esieni of revulsion felt local- ly over the use of violence against ciriiens in Beijing, THE Persian Secretary, Sir Geoffrey aeaerftsd as Britain's "shack and oatnaV* Hewe, lest asset tsUra»B«^ al want base aaaa hasp •• tan • gMjfasg la lbs alleasl imini Ptp as Cabas ay the Prlace end Praacaas af Wake was "aaaabtk- Some Tory MPs art "*U • ••na^whh (W CaJasw. charga daflaJno Sen  Mfagjiang- The royal ceupkt had pleased ta v TW Chary* •'•rhsros m »••—•«- ta China (rasa Ne*tme*r I to 6 eeforo going « the Foreign Offlco la bear what Sir Geeflrey the Hiagkawg for twe days. Sir David also asked for the co-operation of Chinese authorities in ensuring the safety of Hongkong people ta the capital, a siatcmenl -aid. Sir David was scheduled lo appear before appear lonwnuw uciurc Û J House of Commons For- eign Affairs Committee (FAQ inquiry into Hong- kong. He has postponed the session until June 13 to al- low time for him to meet British ministers snd offi- ciali in London. He was trying 10 arrange a meeting with Sir Geoffrey, but sources said nothing had been decided. Sir Geoffrey faced the an- ger of a number of Conser- vative rank and file MPs yesterday, who accused him of making excuses for the Chinese Govern mem over the massacre in Beijing. He snd Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher will face demands in parliament to- day to end the "shameful muled response" to the slaughter and lo break off diplomatic relation! with China. designed to convince ibe Government that Britain must register its protest and horror in a far more effecti ve way than has been done so i Feirbaim, a Coniervative MP, laid: "Here we are flaunting our friendship with China and ma kin | the molt limited condemnation aboul thii most blood-curdling atro- ciiy- "This would never occur in South Africa, yet they, an advanced weapon democra- cy, we abhor and China we hardly condemn for the worst brutality since Russia invaded Czechoslovskis. Il (Cont'd an Pas* t, Cal 1) Over 1,100 boat people sail into HK ANOTHER 1.103 boat peo- ple sailed into Hongkong in 20 boats yeilcrday - the highest single figure in one day since 1979. It takes the arrivals in the first five days of June to 3,091 and in the past eight days to 3.697, an average of more than 700 a day. More than 2,000 of the arrivals in the last five days are being held on the Solo Islands with scam shelter, but most of the Vietnamese are being detained off Tai Ah Chau in the boat* they arrived in. while some have been allowed ashore, a no port: Papa 9 Solidarity set to sweep polls ocratic elections siace World War II and possibly even ousted top communist officials in ibe existing par- liament The early returns tabu- lated by the Solidarity Citi- zens Committee represented a small number of the more than 16 million votes cast on Sunday. A final official count was not expected until Voters telected candi- dates for the erilling 460- member Sejm and s new 100-member Senste, s i agreed to in reforms worked oui by the Government and Solidariiy-kd opposition in talki earlier this year. I for candidates from the ruling communist party sad its allies, but the reaisindcr and all 100 Sea- ate seats were open to oppo- sition candidates. None of the early unoffi- cial returns showed commit- nilt candidates winning races for the Senate, raising the possibility of a Solidarity iweep in the tint freely elect- ed legislative chamber in the East bloc. The iiate-controlled me- dia reported no voting re- sults, only turnout figures. In Gdansk. Solidarity leader Lech Walesa was tak- ing a cautious approach. "Ii'i loo early (fori con- gratulaiioni. and we don'l have complete information yet" he tokJ reporters who cornered him outside the rectory of Si Brygida's Church, a Solidarity strong- hold. In Warsaw, Solidarity supporters cheeird and at least one onlooker broke Into joyous tears as partial results were posted in cam- paign headquarter windows, showing the Solidarity slate drawing between 63 per cent snd 73 per cent of the votes across the board. With 139 of 1.233 voting itaiioni in Warsaw report- ing. Solidarity candidates for the three Senate scat! from the city led easily. The Solidarity tallies showed all had obtained more than 70 per cent of lhe valid voles cast. The numbers were si mi- ls r in races for Ihe Sejm. INDEX CLASSIFIED POST PaUk S L*fal Nadcaa_ WEATHER Hot wrth aunny pnrioda 32 de^aae. Saw Page 2. COMTF.SSE. T H E H A N D M A D E P E R F E C T I O N .

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