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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Adult education content and processes in Hong Kong (1990-1997) Man, Yuen-Ying Christine 1990-12-31

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ADULT EDUCATION CONTENT AND PROCESSES IN HONG KONG (1990-1997) by YUEN YING CHRISTINE MAN B . S . S c , The Chinese U n i v e r s i t y o f Hong Kong, 1983 Dip.Ad.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1986  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t and H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1990 © Y u e n Y i n g C h r i s t i n e Man, 1990  In presenting  this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference  and study. I further agree that permission for extensive  copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or by his or her representatives.  It is understood  that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  A t  3mi i t n  s  r a t ;  '-  V e  r A d u l t & Higher E d u c a t i o n  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6 (2/88)  November 22, 1990.  ii  ABSTRACT  A d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s shaped by the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l historical  context  i n which  i t occurs.  and  Hong Kong i s  c o n f r o n t i n g immense s o c i a l change as i t w i l l cease t o be a  colony  of  the  United  Kingdom  and  become  a  Special  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Region o f t h e People's R e p u b l i c o f China i n 1997.  The r e v e r s i o n o f s o v e r e i g n t y t o China i n  i s a l r e a d y changing t h e p o l i t i c a l , context  although  the  s o c i a l , and  Sino-British  Joint  1997  cultural  Declaration  ( i n i t i a l l e d on September 26, 1984 and f o r m a l l y took, e f f e c t on May  27,  1985)  stipulated  t h a t Hong Kong's  existing  c a p i t a l i s t system and l i f e - s t y l e would remain unchanged f o r 50 y e a r s a f t e r 1997.  However, by 1989,  i t was  clear  t h a t what people were " t h i n k i n g " o r " b e l i e v i n g " about the s i t u a t i o n was h a v i n g a more p o t e n t e f f e c t on Hong Kong than legal  documents o r s l o g a n s such  systems."  "one  country,  two  Thus, t h i s study was l a r g e l y couched w i t h i n a  phenomenological The  as  frame o f r e f e r e n c e .  situation  of  Hong Kong  i s unprecedented  and  p e o p l e f a c e u n c e r t a i n t y as they e n t e r t h e run-up t o 1997. The " c i t y o f j i t t e r s " i s undergoing a p r o c e s s o f d e c o l o n i z a t i o n on the one hand and i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h Mainland China on t h e o t h e r .  A d u l t e d u c a t i o n h e l p s people p r e p a r e f o r  change, but a t the same time, i s shaped by p e o p l e ' s i d e a s  iii  of what t h e be  p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n i s and what t h e f u t u r e w i l l  like. The purposes 1. To  o f t h i s study were:  o b t a i n e s t i m a t e s concerning the  anticipated  changes i n t h e c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s e s o f a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education  (ACE)  i n t h e run-up t o  1997.  2. To e s t a b l i s h the e x t e n t t o which  socio-demographic  v a r i a b l e s o f respondents e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e i n e s t i m a t e s ( c o n c e r n i n g the a n t i c i p a t e d changes i n the c o n t e n t processes of  and  ACE).  3. To e s t a b l i s h the e x t e n t t o which t h e  political  o r i e n t a t i o n s of respondents explained variance i n e s t i m a t e s ( c o n c e r n i n g the a n t i c i p a t e d changes i n t h e c o n t e n t processes of  and  ACE).  4. To examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between r e s p o n d e n t s " e m i g r a t i o n i n t e n t i o n s " and t h e i r e s t i m a t e s  1  (concerning  t h e a n t i c i p a t e d changes i n the c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s e s of ACE) . T h i s was an ex p o s t f a c t o study i n which 122 Hong Kong a d u l t e d u c a t o r s completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s which asked them to  make  processes  estimates of  concerning  adult  the  education.  future Following  r e s e a r c h e r examined the e x t e n t t o which t h e socio-demographic  characteristics  content this,  and the  respondents'  (and p o l i t i c a l  orien-  t a t i o n s ) explained v a r i a n c e i n e s t i m a t e s (concerning the  iv  c o n t e n t and  processes of adult  education).  Respondents c l a i m e d t h a t i n the run-up t o 1997, people staying, ies"  and  i n t e r e s t s i n "Management," "China S t u d -  "Business  strongly.  for  & Commerce" programs w i l l  They b e l i e v e d  increase  t h a t p e o p l e l e a v i n g Hong Kong  t e m p o r a r i l y o r l e a v i n g permanently w i l l be g r e a t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n " T e c h n i c a l T r a i n i n g " programs but t h e i r i n t e r e s t s in  "Law," "China  Studies"  and  "Social  Sciences"  will  d e c r e a s e . Respondents thought t h a t i n the run-up t o  1997,  the use  will  o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n methods and  increase  ( g e n e r a l l y and  techniques  i n the w o r k p l a c e ) . They c l a i m e d  that there w i l l a l a r g e r increase  i n the use o f "Courses  By Computer" i n Hong Kong g e n e r a l l y and i n the workplace. Age and e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n of respondents were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i r e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g the ticipated  no  significant  a s s o c i a t i o n between respondents' p o l i t i c a l  orientations  and  changes  their  intentions"  in  ACE.  estimates. significantly  There  Nor  were  related  was  an-  their to  "emigration  estimates.  It  appears t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , the s t r u c t i o n a l - f u n c t i o n a l approach to a d u l t education w i l l  remain.  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER I :  V viii X xi  HISTORICAL ROOTS OF EDUCATION IN HONG  KONG Founding o f t h e Colony The B r i t i s h A d m i n i s t r a t i o n E s t a b l i s h e d B r i t i s h E d u c a t i o n f o r Chinese Defining Adult Education Purposes o f t h e Study CHAPTER I I : CONTEMPORARY ADULT EDUCATION P h i l o s o p h i c a l Background and V a l u e Systems.. Confucianism, Dr Sun Yat-sen and the Chinese Order S o c i a l and E d u c a t i o n a l Change i n Hong Kong A g e n c i e s and Programs Professionalization  1 1 3 10 17 17 21 21 21 28 34 38  CHAPTER I I I : THE SINO-BRITISH JOINT DECLARATION Background P o l i t i c a l Analysis of the Declaration H i s t o r i c a l Meanings t o Hong Kong Uniqueness o f t h e S i t u a t i o n  44 44 48 52 54  CHAPTER IV: REACTIONS OF THE COLONY S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l Echoes Repercussions i n Education  59 59 68  vi  CHAPTER V: SCENARIOS FOR THE FUTURE The"Continuing P r o s p e r i t y " S c e n a r i o The "Wait and See" S c e n a r i o The " I t ' s A l l Over" S c e n a r i o  72 73 74 75  CHAPTER V I : INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT Item C o n s t r u c t i o n Conceptual Bases f o r S o c i o demographic Q u e s t i o n s Languages and Forms  77 77  P i l o t Study. CHAPTER V I I : METHOD Population M a i l i n g of Questionnaires Data P r o c e s s i n g and A n a l y s i s CHAPTER V I I I : RESULTS Effect of History Reliability , R e l i a b i l i t y Results Response Rate C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Respondents Men's and Women's E s t i m a t e s and Their P o l i t i c a l Orientations Purpose One Purpose Two Purpose Three Respondents' P o l i t i c a l O r i e n t a t i o n s and T h e i r Views Concerning t h e Purposes of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Purpose Four Respondents' I n t e n t i o n s and T h e i r E s t i m a t e s Concerning Others' I n t e n t i o n s Respondents' I n t e n t i o n s and Involvement i n China P r o j e c t s June 4 I n c i d e n t and Respondents' Estimates  81 85 86 89 89 90 91 96 96 98 99 101 101 103 108 113 118  121 122 125 127 128  vii  CHAPTER IX: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION Summary Conclusions... Discussion  130 131 134 140  REFERENCES  150  APPRENDIX A: Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s A d m i n i s t e r e d During Study o f Hong Kong A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Content and P r o c e s s e s . . 155 APPENDIX B: Newspaper Coverage o f May 28, 1989 — P e o p l e Marched i n Hong Kong f o r Democracy i n China  243  APPENDIX C: Newspaper F r o n t Page o f June 4, 1989 — T i a n a n m e n Square I n c i d e n t  244  APPENDIX D: Newspaper F r o n t Page o f June 5, 1989 — M a s s R a l l y and General S t r i k e C a l l e d F o r i n Hong Kong.  245  APPENDIX E: Newspaper F r o n t Page o f June 6, 1989 — S t o c k Market Plunged and Chinese Banks i n Hong Kong Made Run On  246  viii  L I S T OF  T a b l e 1: T a b l e 2: T a b l e 3: T a b l e 4:  T a b l e 5:  T a b l e 6:  TABLES  The 45 s u b j e c t items i n P a r t I o f the questionnaire  78  A d u l t e d u c a t i o n Methods and Techniques  80  Dimensions shaping t h e s o c i o demographic p r o f i l e o f respondents  82  L i s t o f q u e s t i o n s f o r examining  the  p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s o f respondents....  83  The f o u r forms o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n two s e t s t h a t v a r y by item o r d e r and language.  86  Socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f respondents  102  Men and women a d u l t e d u c a t o r s ' e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g changes i n a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n (ACE) and t h e i r p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s  104  Respondents* e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g changes i n ACE, t h e i r p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s and r a n k i n g o f purposes o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  110  I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between respondents' socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h e i r leaving or s t a y i n g estimates and e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g changes i n ACE  115  T a b l e 10: I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between respondents' p o l i t i c a l orientations, their e m i g r a t i o n i n t e n t i o n s and e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g changes i n ACE  120  T a b l e 7:  T a b l e 8:  T a b l e 9:  ix  T a b l e 11: I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between respondents' r a n k i n g o f purposes o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and t h e i r p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s  121  T a b l e 12: Respondents' i n t e n t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g l e a v i n g o r s t a y i n g i n Hong Kong and t h e i r estimates concerning other residents' intentions  125  T a b l e 13: Respondents• i n t e n t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g l e a v i n g o r s t a y i n g i n Hong Kong and the e x t e n t o f t h e i r involvement i n China p r o j e c t s  127  T a b l e 14: Respondents' e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g other residents' intentions i n the run-up t o 1997 and t h e date they returned questionnaires  128  LIST OF FIGURES  F i g u r e 1. Schematic p o r t r a y a l o f main elements i n a study o f a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n (ACE) i n Hong Kong (1990-1997)  19  F i g u r e 2. Ways o f c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g t h e " s t a t e " and " s o c i e t y "  25  F i g u r e 3. P a u l s t o n ' s model o f c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l change  29  F i g u r e 4. Respondents' e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e a n t i c i p a t e d changes i n t h e c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s e s o f ACE (1990-1997)  109  F i g u r e 5. Respondents' socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e i r e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e a n t i c i p a t e d changes i n ACE (1990-1997)  114  F i g u r e 6. Respondents' p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s and t h e i r e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e a n t i c i p a t e d changes i n ACE (19901997)  119  F i g u r e 7. Respondents' p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s and t h e i r views c o n c e r n i n g t h e purposes o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  123  F i g u r e 8. Respondents' e m i g r a t i o n i n t e n t i o n s and t h e i r e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e a n t i c i p a t e d changes i n ACE (19901997)  124  F i g u r e 9. Respondents' e m i g r a t i o n i n t e n t i o n s and t h e i r e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g others' intentions  126  xi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I wish t o express my deep a p p r e c i a t i o n t o P r o f e s s o r Roger B o s h i e r , my a d v i s o r , f o r h i s v i g o r o u s as w e l l as r i g o r o u s guidance.  I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o Dr Tom Sork, Dr  Dan P r a t t and Dr John C o l l i n s f o r t h e i r a d v i c e and s u p p o r t . S p e c i a l thanks go t o a l l f r i e n d s who gave me a hand i n t h e survey, e s p e c i a l l y M i s s C h r i s t i n e Yeung, Mr Desmond Lee, Mr  C h a r l e s Wong, M i s s N.P. Lee, Mrs Miranda Wong, Dr  Therese Shak, Mr A u g u s t i n e Chong and Mr Yat-bong Ma.  I  a l s o acknowledge P r o f e s s o r Gordon Selman, who i s always a t e a c h e r and a f r i e n d o f mine.  1  CHAPTER I HISTORICAL ROOTS OP EDUCATION IN HONG KONG  Founding o f t h e Colony Hong land  Kong,  w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f 5,658,800  a r e a o f o n l y 1,071 square k i l o m e t r e s  Annual  Report,  village  1989, p. 329),  tiny  Kong  fishing  Before t h e B r i t i s h  in  occupation  1841, Hong Kong was under t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n  Qing the  a  (Hong  a t t h e s o u t h - e a s t e r n end o f i m p e r i a l China  the nineteenth century. in  was  in a  of the  Dynasty, an Empire e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e Manchu i n 16th c e n t u r y .  The Manchu government was seen as an  o p p r e s s o r o f t h e Han people, the l a r g e s t e t h n i c group i n China.  Throughout  Manchus,  the t r i c e n t e n n i a l  reign  t h e r e had been numerous r e b e l l i o n s  of  the  waged  by  t h e Hans. The century  Qing as  government. trade  a  Empire  began t o  result  of  Except  with  severe  long  i n the  f o r Chinese merchants who  started  t h e West from Canton and  counterparts been  other  was  still  ports  (Cheng, 1986),  been i s o l a t e d from t h e o u t s i d e  technology  i n mid-19th  corruption  southern China i n t h e 14th c e n t u r y had  decline  i n t h e West.  A t t h a t time,  China  world.  underdeveloped compared  to  Britain  a t r a d i n g p a r t n e r o f China, and "China t r a d e  of  Its its had was  2  p a r t o f the expansion o f the B r i t i s h economy (Cheng, from  1986,  p. 72).  As B r i t a i n had  overseas"  imported  opium  I n d i a t o China f o r exchange o f Chinese t e a ,  silk  and o t h e r goods, China had s u f f e r e d a l o s s o f f i n a n c e s . Many  Chinese  people  deteriorated. opium  smoked  Tension  opium,  and  their  grew as China d e c i d e d t o s t o p t h e  t r a d e but B r i t a i n wished t o c o n t i n u e .  no o t h e r way The  two  is  known  to  health  settle  There  the d i s p u t e but through a  empires fought a g a i n s t each o t h e r i n 1840. as the  Opium War.  was war. This  China, w i t h i t s backward  weaponry and c o r r u p t government o f f i c i a l s , l o s t t h e war, and  was f o r c e d  to  with B r i t a i n i n The  treaty  s i g n t h e "unequal" T r e a t y  o f Nanking  1842. was  regarded  as  "unequal"  by  Chinese  h i s t o r i a n s because they c l a i m e d i t was e n f o r c e d upon the weak,  powerless  territory Under  and  that  empire  f o r the  o t h e r commercial  treaty,  Hong Kong  Island  to  the B r i t i s h  o c c u p a t i o n o f Hong Kong was  Two  resulted larger the  in  wars  from was  I t seemed t h a t  promote t r a d e w i t h China  subsequent  of snatching  benefits  perpetuity  purposes—to  Britain.  purpose  between China  and  two more "unequal" t r e a t i e s  colony.  in  aim  of  commercial  (Cheng,  p o r t i o n o f t e r r i t o r y had been added  British  ceded  the  for  China.  These two t r e a t i e s  1986).  Britain in  had  which  to were:  a  expand "The  3  Convention part  o f Peking i n 1860 under which t h e  southern  o f t h e Kowloon p e n i n s u l a and S t o n e c u t t e r s  Island  were ceded i n p e r p e t u i t y ; t h e Convention o f 1898 which the  t h e New T e r r i t o r i e s  (comprising  92 p e r  t o t a l l a n d area o f t h e t e r r i t o r y ) were  Britain  f o r 99  years  from 1  July  cent  of  leased  to  1898"  (A  Agreement between t h e Government o f t h e U n i t e d of  Great  Britain  Government Future  The 1843  first  Northern  Ireland  t h e People's R e p u b l i c  Draft  Kingdom and  o f China  the  on t h e  o f Hong Kong, 1984, p . l ) .  The  in  of  and  under  British  Administration  Established  h i s t o r y o f Hong Kong as a B r i t i s h c o l o n y when S i r Henry P b t t i n g e r  Governor.  was  appointed  The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  general  government  British  colonies.  s t r u c t u r e commonly  act  as  h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n Hong  has  supreme  The Queen a p p o i n t s  authority.  He  the  built found  a  Kong.  heads  began  on in  Governor  a a l l to  The Governor  the administration  w h i l e b e i n g the t i t u l a r Commander-in-Chief o f the B r i t i s h Forces  s t a t i o n e d i n Hong Kong.  The  L e t t e r s Patent  and t h e Royal I n s t r u c t i o n s make  up t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f Hong Kong. established  "separation  These two  o f powers"  government machinery o f Hong Kong. defined  the  role  and  powers  of  in  documents  forming  The L e t t e r s the  the  Patent  Governor  and  4  o u t l i n e d t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e E x e c u t i v e and L e g i s l a t i v e Councils.  Besides  t h e powers  i n legislation,  the  Governor  may a p p o i n t judges t o t h e Supreme and D i s t r i c t  Courts.  The Royal  I n s t r u c t i o n s gave  membership and procedures o f t h e two process  of l e g i s l a t i o n .  details  of the  C o u n c i l s , and t h e  "The S t a n d i n g  Orders  of the  L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , made under t h e a u t h o r i t y o f Royal I n s t r u c t i o n XXIII, p r o v i d e how B i l l s a r e t o be passed" (Hong Kong Annual Report,  1989, p.  24).  The E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l i s t h e p u b l i c body As  policy-making  i n Hong Kong w i t h t h e Governor as i t s p r e s i d e n t . s t i p u l a t e d i n t h e Royal I n s t r u c t i o n s , t h e  Governor  s h o u l d c o n s u l t t h e c o u n c i l , but i s a l l o w e d t o d i s r e g a r d the  Council's advice.  the  power  I n t h a t case, t h e Governor  t o make f i n a l d e c i s i o n s  on  has  policies.  But  i n almost a l l s i t u a t i o n s , "The G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i l — t h e Governor  acting  Council—is  Hong  i n c o n s u l t a t i o n with Kong's c e n t r a l  and  the  Executive  most  important  e x e c u t i v e a u t h o r i t y " (Hong Kong Annual Report,  1989, p.  25) . With  t h e Governor's p r e s i d e n c y ,  the  Legislative  C o u n c i l f u n c t i o n s as t h e law-making body i n Hong After this Queen  Kong.  g e t t i n g t h e Governor's a s s e n t , a b i l l passed l e g i s l a t u r e becomes an o r d i n a n c e . may  Although  d i s a l l o w an o r d i n a n c e , i t seems  that  in the Hong  5  Kong, i n most c a s e s , has autonomy i n l e g i s l a t i o n Kong Annual Report,  1989).  When t h e B r i t i s h e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r i n 1843, Hong Kong was s t i l l by  farmers,  (Hong  fishermen  administration  a small v i l l a g e  and  their  inhabited  families.  The  p o p u l a t i o n i n 1841 was o n l y 5,000 ( H a r r i s , 1988, p. 3 ) . At  that  time,  traditional  the B r i t i s h  Chinese community i n a  from t h e Qing Empire. the  rulers  had  to  territory  T h i s Chinese community  face  divided inherited  t r a d i t i o n s o f a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e Emperor, h i s laws,  and  the  royal  counterpart  bureaucracy.  which  upholds  Unlike  teachings,  emphasizes  its  individualism,  c u l t u r e , under t h e time-honoured  Western Chinese  influence of Confucian  family  ties  in  uniting  i n d i v i d u a l s , and l e g i t i m i z e s t h e p a t e r n a l i s t i c r u l e the  Emperor.  ranked  Chinese s o c i e t y i n i m p e r i a l  according  businessmen,  to  craftsmen,  a  hierarchy farmers,  of and  they  might become government o f f i c i a l s  of  times  was  classes  of  intellectuals.  I n t e l l e c t u a l s were a t t h e apex o f t h e h i e r a r c h y  all  a  after  because passing  s u c c e s s i v e p u b l i c examinations a t t h e town, county,  province,  and  Emperor). elite  Therefore,  class  generally  the Capital  (presided  over  i n t e l l e c t u a l s belonged  o f t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese s o c i e t y  r e s p e c t e d by common p e o p l e .  Good  by  the  to the and  were  education  6  (mainly  a  writings  t u t o r - s t u d e n t form o f  study  on  Confucian  lead  to  promising  and o t h e r c l a s s i c s ) might  prospects  i n t h e r u l i n g c l a s s through a  national  examination  system.  In  comprehensive  sum,  traditional  Chinese people a r e s u b j e c t s o f an Emperor, s u b o r d i n a t e s of  a c e n t r a l i z e d bureaucracy, and members o f a  clan.  A  discernible  democracies  difference  with  i s t h a t t h e concept o f " l o y a l  British  imperial  governed Hong Kong by  Chinese  bureaucracy. descending  government  Harris concept  (1988)  with  pointed  of p o l i t i c a l  Western opposition"  does n o t e x i s t i n t h e Chinese mind ( H a r r i s , The  1988).  replacing a  people  out  that  "the  power has  long  been  (p. 32).  o f f i c i a l s were a p p o i n t e d "from above,"  in  regulations  general  should  s e t by  the  "popular c o n t r o l " situation.  "administrative  observe  officials.  the  rules  The  theory  (p. 31) d i d n o t a p p l y t o t h e  Harris  described  state,"  in  an  colonial  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Chinese p o l i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " Government  family  Hong which  and and of  Chinese  Kong  as  an  "the  ancient  t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese bureaucracy merged w i t h t h e B r i t i s h colonial  bureaucracy"  (pp. 5-6). There has  been  no  p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , no d i r e c t e l e c t i o n s o f members t o t h e E x e c u t i v e and  Legislative  Councils, but t h i s  adminis-  t r a t i v e s t a t e i s s t a b l e l a r g e l y because o f " i t s e f f e c t i v e  7  l e g i t i m a c y both t o t h e l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n and t o C h i n a " (p.. 6) . As  i t was a c o l o n i a l government, few  Chinese  had  access t o the policy-making process a t the beginning of the  British  the  British  administration.  r u l i n g group d i d n o t  participation Executive 1844,  1926  encourage  i n the e a r l y y e a r s o f the c o l o n y .  and L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l s  b u t i t was not u n t i l  Council  K i n g (1984) c l a i m e d  had  were  1880 t h a t  Chinese Both t h e  assembled i n  the L e g i s l a t i v e  t h e f i r s t Chinese member, and  that the Executive  that  C o u n c i l had one.  not  After  until World  War I I , Chinese p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e two C o u n c i l s began to  increase s t e a d i l y .  traditional  Chinese  King a l s o p o i n t e d  out t h a t  Confucian p o l i t i c a l  the  culture " i s  more p a r o c h i a l - s u b j e c t than p a r t i c i p a n t i n n a t u r e , " and "the  o r d i n a r y people l a c k an  towards part  politics  of  active  self-orientation  i n Hong Kong" (p. 133). T h i s  t h e reason f o r t h e phenomenon  of  forms  political  apathy o f Chinese p e o p l e i n Hong Kong. Political The  Orientations concepts o f " p a r o c h i a l - s u b j e c t " and " p a r t i c i -  pant" p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e s come from the study o f Almond and Verba (1963). I n t h e i r book, The C i v i c C u l t u r e ; A t t i t u d e s and that  the  Democracy  term  i n Five Nations,  political  culture  Political  they s t a t e d  "refers  t o the  8  specifically  political  orientations—attitudes  toward  the p o l i t i c a l system and i t s v a r i o u s p a r t s , and a t t i t u d e s toward t h e r o l e o f t h e s e l f i n t h e s y s t e m . . . I t o f o r i e n t a t i o n s toward a and p r o c e s s e s "  (p.  c u l t u r e i n one  of  special set  13) .  of  They employed  i t s many meanings:  o r i e n t a t i o n toward s o c i a l o b j e c t s "  i s a set  social the  objects  concept o f  "psychological  (Almond & Verba, 1963,  p. 14) . To them, the p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e o f a s o c i e t y r e f e r s t o "the p o l i t i c a l  system as i n t e r n a l i z e d i n t h e  tions,  and  (Almond  feelings, & Verba,  evaluations  of  its  cogni-  population"  1963, p. 14). O r i e n t a t i o n r e f e r s t o :  the internalized aspects of o b j e c t s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t i n c l u d e s (1) ' c o g n i t i v e o r i e n tation, * that i s , knowledge o f and b e l i e f about t h e p o l i t i c a l system, i t s r o l e s and t h e incumbents o f t h e s e r o l e s , i t s i n p u t s , and i t s outputs ( 2 ) ' a f f e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n , • or f e e l i n g s about t h e p o l i t i c a l system, i t s r o l e s , personnel, and performance, and (3)'evalua t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , ' t h e judgments and o p i n i o n s about p o l i t i c a l o b j e c t s that t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e t h e combination o f v a l u e s t a n d a r d s and c r i t e r i a w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n and f e e l i n g s . (Almond & Verba, 1963, p. 15) The P a r o c h i a l - S u b j e c t  P o l i t i c a l Culture i s defined  as: a type o f p o l i t i c a l culture i n which a substantial portion of the population has rejected the e x c l u s i v e claims of d i f f u s e t r i b a l , v i l l a g e , o r f e u d a l a u t h o r i t y and has developed a l l e g i a n c e toward a more complex  9  p o l i t i c a l system w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d central governmental s t r u c t u r e s . T h i s i s t h e c l a s s i c case o f kingdom b u i l d i n g o u t o f r e l a t i v e l y u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d u n i t s . (Almond & Verba, 1963, p. 23) The P a r t i c i p a n t P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e r e f e r s t o one: i n which t h e members o f t h e s o c i e t y t e n d t o be e x p l i c i t l y o r i e n t e d t o t h e system as a whole and t o both t h e p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s and p r o c e s s e s . . . I n d i v i d u a l members of the p a r t i c i p a n t p o l i t y may be f a v o r a b l y or unfavorably o r i e n t e d t o the various c l a s s e s o f p o l i t i c a l o b j e c t s . They tend t o be o r i e n t e d toward an " a c t i v i s t " r o l e o f t h e s e l f i n the p o l i t y , though t h e i r f e e l i n g s and e v a l u a t i o n s o f such a r o l e may v a r y from acceptance t o r e j e c t i o n . (Almond & Verba, 1963, p. 19) The c o l o n i a l bureaucracy has been a b l e t o c a p t u r e t h e a l l e g i a n c e o f t h e Chinese community i n Hong Chinese community i s a p a t h e t i c King  (1984)  argued  that  to politics  t h e primary  government i s t o a c h i e v e a  i n general.  concern  maximum l e v e l  1  achieve  that  administerization  to  1  politicization"  political  stability  "administrative  goal  of the  of p o l i t i c a l  s t a b i l i t y i n o r d e r t o f o s t e r economic growth. to  Kong. The  The method  i s  "the  of p o l i t i c s ; i t i s the a n t i t h e s i s (p. 133). He a s c r i b e d Hong i n t h e l a s t hundred y e a r s  absorption"  of p o l i t i c s .  Kong's t o the  This  process through which the B r i t i s h g o v e r n i n g e l i t e co-opt o r a s s i m i l a t e t h e n o n - B r i t i s h socio-economic  is a  10  elite into the political-administrative d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g b o d i e s , t h u s a t t a i n i n g an e l i t e i n t e g r a t i o n on the one hand and a l e g i t i m a c y o f p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y on the o t h e r . (King, 1984, p. 144) In  sum,  the B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has been a b l e t o  maintain  political  colonial  bureaucracy headed by a group of e l i t e  than  years.  140  stability  i n Hong  B r i t i s h Education  Kong  p r o s p e r i t y i n Hong Kong,  The B r i t i s h model  the  of  Education,  planning i n 1920  and  which  f o r the  primary and  advises  formulating  (Hong Kong  i n Hong K o n g — T h e established education—a ( H a r r i s , 1988,  in  was  University  1911,  and  significant  only  "gave  i n a u g u r a t e d i n 1963  Kong,' as  constituent colleges: C o l l e g e and U n i t e d  a  in  College.  on  formed  a  It  was  British-style  in a British  an American  Asia College,  In  university  Kong.  federal university  New  was  one  of Hong  factor  Board  Chap. 9 ) .  p. 59) . About 50 y e a r s l a t e r ,  U n i v e r s i t y o f Hong  the  the government  Report, 1989,  t h e e a r l y 20th c e n t u r y , t h e r e  Chinese secondary  education p o l i c y ,  Annual  and  administration  e d u c a t i o n had been imported t o Hong Kong, and of  f o r more  stability  had t o d e v i s e a formal e d u c a t i o n system community.  a  f o r Chinese  In an attempt t o a c h i e v e p o l i t i c a l economic  through  'colony'"  The  Chinese  style,  was  with three Chung  The Shaw C o l l e g e was  Chi added  11  t o the u n i v e r s i t y u n i v e r s i t y , as income mainly Report, 1989, Besides primary  and  a  i n 1988  as the f o u r t h  college.  self-governing corporation,  from  The  draws i t s  government g r a n t s (Hong Kong Annual  Chap. 9 ) . government secondary  provision, schools  there  are  receiving  other  financial  a s s i s t a n c e from the government under t h e codes o f  aid.  There a r e a l s o p r o v i d e r s i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . The  six-  y e a r p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n has been government s c h o o l s and  free  o f charge  i n nearly a l l aided schools since  September, 1971 (Hong Kong Annual Report, There a r e f o u r main  in a l l  types  1989, p. 117).  o f secondary s c h o o l s i n Hong  Kong: Anglo-Chinese Grammar S c h o o l s o f f e r a f i v e - y e a r secondary course  in  subjects  a broad range  leading  Education instruction  to  the  Examination is  of  academic  Hong  Kong  (HKCEE).  mainly E n g l i s h .  and  cultural  Certificate  of  medium  of  The  Some o f  the  Schools  p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s w i t h s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s i n t h e HKCEE with  a two-year  sixth-form  course  of  matriculation  l e a d i n g t o the Hong Kong Advanced L e v e l Examination which s e c u r e s admission t o the U n i v e r s i t y o f Hong Kong and o t h e r t e r i t a r y l e v e l courses.  Others o f f e r a one-year  form  course  t o s t u d e n t s who  wish t o s i t f o r the  Kong  H i g h e r L e v e l Examination t o  attain  sixthHong  admission  to  12  the  Chinese U n i v e r s i t y o f Hong Kong.  Chinese M i d d l e S c h o o l s also offer a five-year  secondary  c o u r s e . But Chinese i s t h e prime medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n , and  E n g l i s h i s secondary.  Most o f them a l s o  offer  one-year M i d d l e S i x course o f m a t r i c u l a t i o n l e a d i n g the  a to  Hong Kong H i g h e r L e v e l Examination.  S e c o n d a r y T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l s p r o v i d e a f i v e - y e a r secondary c o u r s e l e a d i n g t o t h e HKCEE w i t h an emphasis on and commerical s u b j e c t s . the  Graduates  w i t h good r e s u l t s i n  HKCEE may c o n t i n u e t h e i r s t u d i e s i n Form  technical  education  s c h o o l s provide students with a  and i n t r o d u c e them t o t e c h n i c a l  vocational  training.  in  Secondary One t o  subjects.  In  Secondary  cent  of  After  completing  Three  skills  are  Secondary  Three,  Institutes  give  completed a t s c h o o l . into  the  credit  30  students  may  year  an  join  institutes.  for technical  of  per  associated  subjects  Moreover, s t u d e n t s can seek  second  the  studies.  a p p r e n t i c e s h i p schemes w i t h  will  for  technical  the curriculum involves t e c h n i c a l  craft  of  Four and F i v e , about  part-time day-release courses a t t e c h n i c a l  entry  or i n  general  Forty percent  curriculum  approved  Six  institutes.  Prevocational  future  technical  approved  direct craft  a p p r e n t i c e s h i p (Hong Kong Annual Report, 1989, Chap. 9 ) .  13  E d u c a t i o n Commission In  1984,  an E d u c a t i o n Commission was  appointed  by  the government t o study the o v e r a l l development o f e d u c a t i o n a l system i n Hong Kong. its  Report No.  1 i n 1984,  No.  the  The Commission i s s u e d  2 i n 1986  and No.  3  in  1988. Government includes Hong  three U n i v e r s i t i e s  Kong  Education  in  tertiary  education  (the t h i r d one c a l l e d  U n i v e r s i t y of Science  Polytechnics,  offers  provision  and  The  Technology),  two  technical i n s t i t u t e s , three Colleges  and  one T e c h n i c a l Teacher's  College  t r a i n i n g programs o f non-graduate  primary and secondary  of  which  teachers  for  schools.  The t h i r d u n i v e r s i t y , The Hong Kong U n i v e r s i t y S c i e n c e and Technology,  established in April,  1988.  I t w i l l have i t s f i r s t student i n t a k e i n October,  1991.  It  is  science  a  was  of  u n i v e r s i t y which p l a c e s and technology,  heavy  as i t s name  Hong Kong i s moving i n t o the 90's,  emphasis  suggests.  While  i t s p o p u l a t i o n needs  g r e a t e r p r o v i s i o n o f u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n t o cope t h e r a p i d l y changing  on  with  environment.  Open E d u c a t i o n The admitted The  Open  L e a r n i n g I n s t i t u t e o f Hong  i t s f i r s t round o f s t u d e n t s  concept  o f "open e d u c a t i o n , " as  Kong  (OLI)  i n August,  1989.  defined  in  the  14  E d u c a t i o n - Commission Report No. specific,  covering  s t u d i e s " and  1 (1984), i s  basic l i t e r a c y to  "non-age  tertiary  level  i t s aims are  manifold and include remedial learning, providing second chance o p p o r t u n i t i e s for obtaining qualifications, updating and keeping abreast of developments in fields where knowledge i s expanding r a p i d l y , and fulfilling i n d i v i d u a l personal development needs (p. 71). But  the  modelled  on  Education  i d e a o f s e t t i n g up UK  Open U n i v e r s i t y was  Commission  emphasized  university  rejected 1  explained  why  s u i t a b l e f o r Hong Kong.  the  Open  it  education  2 (1986), the  a UK-styled  by  whereas  the importance o f p r o v i d i n g open  Commission not  open  i n i t s Report No.  i n Hong Kong. In i t s Report No.  was  an  Education University Hong  Kong  would have t o bear a g r e a t f i n a n c i a l c o s t t o run an  open  university.  Secondly, i t l a c k s academic and  expertise,  and  for  needs.  local  appropriate network  recommended  and  technical  b i l i n g u a l teaching materials T h i r d l y , there  environments  f o r home  is  a  to  is  to  be  established.  study.  Thus  post-secondary  levels.  programs In  at  the  the  January  of  Lastly,  t h a t a consortium model o f open  established to provide  cater  shortage  o f study c e n t r e s would be r e q u i r e d i f  university  be  Firstly,  an  a  open Report  education secondary 1988,  the  15  government a p p o i n t e d a P l a n n i n g Committee t o p r e p a r e f o r the  establishment of  OLI.  This  degree-awarding  institution, O L I , w i l l o f f e r a second chance f o r t h o s e who have been unable t o go on t o f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n a f t e r l e a v i n g s c h o o l , as w e l l as o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r workers and managers t o update their q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and skills and f o r p e r s o n a l development (Hong Kong Annual Report, 1989, p. 131) . E n t r y f o r t h e OLI i s open t o a l l a d u l t s who must be aged 18 y e a r s o r over. tertiary the is  level  language English,  proficiency.  The OLI p r o v i d e s programs a t t h e  through d i s t a n c e  used  e d u c a t i o n means.  As  i n i n s t r u c t i o n and l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s  students  are  expected  to  have  language  The concept o f open l e a r n i n g i s new i n Hong  Kong. Success persistence.  i n an  open  learning  Completing a degree  program  program  requires  a t OLI  will  t a k e s i x y e a r s . But many people a r e i n need o f a second chance  f o r higher education.  Institute  primarily  used  a  In  August,  responses from t h e community.  application  forms had been  the  "first-come-first-serve"  c r i t e r i o n t o admit t h e f i r s t round o f s t u d e n t s . were good  1989,  sent  out and  But t h e r e  About the  70,000  Institute  d e c i d e d t o use l o t s (drawn by computers) t o a l l o c a t e p l a c e s f o r a p p l i c a n t s . The f i r s t s t u d e n t i n t a k e OLI c o u l d a c c e p t was l e s s than 4, 000.  But t h e I n s t i t u t e planned t o i n c r e a s e  16  t h e i n t a k e every y e a r w h i l e , a t the same time, s t r e n g t h ening the teaching capacity. Post-secondary C o l l e g e s In  the  founded  p u b l i c s e c t o r , the  in  1956  Humanities,  other  Sciences  disciplines.  institution  but  There  two  colleges  Social  and  I t a l s o p r o v i d e s diploma  academic  are  College  and o f f e r s degree c o u r s e s i n  Sciences,  Administration.  Baptist  fully  It  funded  is  by  College.  Hong  Kong  Shue Yan  R e g i s t e r e d i n 1976,  College  offers  a four-year  the  government. post-secondary  College  Colleges  and  t h e Hong Kong diploma  Lingnan Shue  program  Yan  without  government  f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . Lingnan  registered  i n 1978  assistance  i n r u n n i n g i t s two-year s i x t h - f o r m  and r e c e i v e s  in  autonomous  r e g i s t e r e d under the Post Secondary  Ordinance:  &  Business  courses  an  government-approved  Arts  was  College  government  was  financial courses  and the two-year p o s t - s i x t h - f o r m h i g h e r diploma c o u r s e . Graduates fifth  o f the h i g h e r diploma c o u r s e may  enter  y e a r c o u r s e l e a d i n g t o an honours diploma.  the But  t h e f i f t h y e a r s t u d e n t s do not get f i n a n c i a l  assistance  from t h e government (Hong Kong Annual Report,  1989, Chap.  9) .  Other p o s t - s e c o n d a r y c o l l e g e s are  private  operating i n the  sector.  Although  t h e r e are a number o f  higher  education  17  institutions  catering to the learning  needs  of the  p o p u l a t i o n , c o m p e t i t i o n i s keen a t the post-secondary  and,  u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l s o f study. Defining Adult The  Education  term a d u l t e d u c a t i o n has been v a r i o u s l y d e f i n e d .  Darkenwald and Merriam  provided t h i s rather  inclusive  definition: Adult education i s a process whose major s o c i a l r o l e s are adult status undertake sustained learning a c t i v i t i e s bringing about changes attitudes, values, or s k i l l s  whereby persons characteristic of systematic and f o r t h e purpose o f in knowledge, (1982, p. 9 ) .  In t h i s study, a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n Hong Kong r e f e r s t o a l l l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s o r g a n i z e d o u t s i d e t h e formal education  system  f o r men  and  women  who  have  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a t home o r a t work. Most a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s occur i n i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r p e o p l e who have completed what Darkenwald and Merriam e d u c a t i o n (p.  12) .  which p r o v i d e  formal e d u c a t i o n .  programs This i s  (1982) r e f e r t o as c o n t i n u i n g  I n Hong Kong, a d u l t e d u c a t i o n means  c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n as w e l l . Purposes o f the Study In 1997 a new h i s t o r i c a l  phase w i l l b e g i n  i n Hong  Kong. S i n c e t h e s i g n i n g o f t h e S i n o - B r i t i s h J o i n t  Dec-  l a r a t i o n , t h e r e have been profound changes i n the s o c i o political  context.  The s i t u a t i o n o f Hong  Kong i s un-  18  precedented.  People are f a c i n g g r e a t u n c e r t a i n t i e s i n the  run-up t o 1997  and  adult education w i l l  undoubtedly  be  i n f l u e n c e d by what people t h i n k about i t . There were f o u r purposes  o f the  study:  1. To o b t a i n e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g the a n t i c i p a t e d changes i n t h e c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s e s of a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n t h e run-up t o  1997.  2. To e s t a b l i s h the e x t e n t t o which t h e  socio-demographic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f respondents e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e i n e s t i m a t e s ( c o n c e r n i n g the a n t i c i p a t e d changes i n the c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s e s o f a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n ) . 3. To e s t a b l i s h the e x t e n t t o which p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s of respondents  explained variance i n e s t i m a t e s  (concern-  i n g t h e a n t i c i p a t e d changes i n the c o n t e n t and  processes  of  adult/continuing education).  4. To examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the  respondents'  " e m i g r a t i o n i n t e n t i o n s " and t h e i r e s t i m a t e s  (concerning  t h e a n t i c i p a t e d changes i n the c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s e s o f adult/continuing education). T h i s r e p o r t deals with the h i s t o r y describes educators  how 1  a survey  estimates  c o n t e n t and  was  of  "1997"  and  conducted t o examine a d u l t  c o n c e r n i n g p o s s i b l e changes i n  the  processes of a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education i n  Hong Kong. F i g u r e 1 shows the independent v a r i a b l e s employed i n the  study.  and dependent  19  B INDEPENDENT VARIABLES  DEPENDENT  Dimension 1  Respondents  VARIABLES  I  Emigration intentions of HK population  Dimension 2  Contents  Socio-demographic Characteristics * Sex *Age *Professional concern in A C E *Role in A C E *Educational qualifications "Views concerning purposes of Ad E d Political Orientations  •Staying i n H K  of  •Leaving H K temporarily  ACE  *Affective * Cognitive •Evaluative  Processes  Emigration intentions •Staying in H K •Leaving H K temporarily •Leaving H K permanently  •Leaving H K permanently  of  ACE •Methods •Techniques  Figure 1, Schematic portrayal of main elements in a study of adult /continuing education (ACE) in Hong Kong (1990-1997).  20  There were t h r e e s e t s of independent v a r i a b l e s , each r e l a t e d t o t h e f o u r purposes o f the study. the  socio-demographic  their  political  characteristics  orientations  and  They concerned  of  respondents,  their  "emigration  intentions." There were two main dependent v a r i a b l e s .  The  first  was respondents' e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g the f u t u r e c o n t e n t o f a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n and the second concerned the future processes of adult/continuing education. i t i s important t o note t h a t t h i s dimension  However  ( 2 , F i g u r e 1)  o f t h e dependent v a r i a b l e was always made w i t h r e f e r e n c e to the  "emigration  intentions"  of three c a t e g o r i e s of  people ( s t a y i n g , l e a v i n g HK t e m p o r a r i l y , l e a v i n g HK p e r manently) . adult  Thus the main dependent v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d  education content  and  processes  deemed t o be  i n t e r e s t to three kinds of p e o p l e — t h o s e  of  s t a y i n g , those  l e a v i n g HK t e m p o r a r i l y and those l e a v i n g permanently.  21  CHAPTER I I CONTEMPORARY ADULT EDUCATION P h i l o s o p h i c a l Background and Value Adult  education  Systems  i s part of the t o t a l  educational  e n t e r p r i s e b u t has i t s own purpose and p h i l o s o p h y . are  two  general  education. kind she  arguments  There  i n the philosophy  One i s t h a t e d u c a t i o n develops  a  of  certain  o f person t o f i t i n t o t h e s o c i e t y i n which he o r lives.  people  to  The o t h e r p o s i t s t h a t change s o c i e t y .  education  These two  enables  arguments  become t h e e q u i l i b r i u m and c o n f l i c t  paradigms  sociology  upon  of  education.  Based  have  in  these  the two  paradigms, c o n c e p t u a l frameworks have been developed f o r s t u d y i n g e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l change ( P a u l s t o n , 1977; La Belle,  1986).  Confucianism,  Dr Sun Yat-sen  and t h e Chinese  Order  B e f o r e any s o c i a l change t h e o r y i s used t o a n a l y z e the  e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t i n Hong Kong, a study  cultural  and h i s t o r i c a l  Chinese  people  values.  Confucianism  background  i n Hong Kong have has  f o r more than  2,000 y e a r s .  values  form  which  structure.  i s necessary. inherited  dominated  the basis  order.  The  Confucian  Chinese  ideology  I t c o n t a i n s a s e t o f moral of a  Moral v a l u e s a r e used  s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  of i t s  socio-political  t o govern  t h e whole  Each i n d i v i d u a l  has h i s  22  o r h e r moral o b l i g a t i o n s . A  s u b j e c t s h o u l d be  C o n f u c i a n man  A  son s h o u l d  loyal  possesses  t o the  obey h i s f a t h e r .  ruler.  The  ideal  c e r t a i n moral q u a l i t i e s .  He  s h o u l d d i s c i p l i n e h i m s e l f b e f o r e keeping h i s f a m i l y w e l l . Then, he can r u l e h i s c o u n t r y i n a p r o p e r way and a c h i e v e w o r l d l y peace. The i s to  develop  perfect ruler. ruler of  and a t t a i n Great Harmony (a  M o r a l i t y i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o a good  An i d e a l o r p e r f e c t too.  "philosopher kings"  resembles  in  Plato's  i s emphasized  concept  Republic.  i n the C o n f u c i a n  But,  socio-  order.  The C o n f u c i a n s o c i e t y i s founded Each  the  k i n g s s h o u l d have more wisdom than m o r a l i t y .  r u l e o f man  political  s o c i e t y depends upon a good  This expectation  philosopher The  u l t i m a t e aim o f C o n f u c i a n i s m  good r u l e r s  society).  finally  individual  has f i l i a l  and  on moral  fraternal  values.  affection.  A l l e g i a n c e t o the r u l e r i s an i n d i s p e n s a b l e o b l i g a t i o n . That  o b l i g a t i o n had j u s t i f i e d a b s o l u t e  China  f o r more than 2, 000 y e a r s . The  monarchism  in  concept o f democracy  d i d not emerge u n t i l the l a t e 19th c e n t u r y when Western l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c thoughts came t o  China t o g e t h e r w i t h  i m p e r i a l i s t g u n f i r e . A b s o l u t e monarchism was the 1911 R e v o l u t i o n , l e d by Dr  Sun  f a t h e r o f the R e p u b l i c of China, in  which  the  Manchu  Dynasty  ended w i t h  Yat-sen, the founding and the  was  republicans,  overthrown  by  the  23  Han n a t i o n a l i s t s . in  The  history  o f modern China thus began  1911. China  longer  had  period  preserved absolute than  Western  democracies  contract  theory  One  i t s Western are  monarchism counterparts  derived  which appeared  for  from  i n the  a  did.  the  social  17th  century.  n o t a b l e p r o p o s i t i o n i n the s o c i a l c o n t r a c t  theory  i s t h a t t h e r e i s a c l e a r s e p a r a t i o n o f concepts between "society" together to  and  "state."  Men  are born  and  then  i n " s o c i e t y " which Hobbes and Locke  as " s t a t e o f n a t u r e . "  live  referred  The Hobbesian (1968) s t a t e o f  n a t u r e i s q u i t e m i s e r a b l e as d e s c r i b e d i n h i s L e v i a t h a n . Men a r e h e l p l e s s , But Locke argued with  desperate, and f i g h t w i t h t h a t a l l men  each  are f r e e , e q u a l , and  n a t u r a l r i g h t s i n the s t a t e o f n a t u r e .  one may  violate others  of h i s o r h e r own  1  other. born  However,  natural r i g h t s while i n pursuit  interests.  T h e r e f o r e , a r u l e r , be i t  a k i n g o r i n Hobbesian terms, a S o v e r e i g n , i s needed t o protect  the  contract  natural  rights  of  people.  A  social  e x i s t s between the r u l e r and the r u l e d .  The  common people s u r r e n d e r p a r t of t h e i r n a t u r a l r i g h t s t o t h e r u l e r and h i s o r her government who their  should  l i v e s and p r o p e r t y by law enforcement.  protect If  r u l e r f a i l s t o p r o t e c t the people's n a t u r a l r i g h t s , or  she w i l l be ousted by the p e o p l e .  This  forms  the he the  24  concept  of  contract  "state."  The  contributions  of  t h e o r y t o western democracy a r e i t s  social emphases  on p e o p l e ' s n a t u r a l r i g h t s , t h e f u n c t i o n o f government, the  r u l e o f law, and t h e consent o f t h e m a j o r i t y . There  "state"  i s no c l e a r  i n Confucian  well-being  separation  of "society"  socio-political structure.  He  rules l i k e a father i n  a f a m i l y and must be s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e d . p o l i t i c a l o r d e r i s m a i n t a i n e d by  The whole s o c i o -  moral v a l u e s .  r u l e r i s immoral, t h e r e i s no c o n t r o l upon him.  harmonious  her proper  relation  when a son obeys h i s f a t h e r ruler. had  T h i s i s why  been  China.  the  with  others.  strong  like  a  A  highly centralized  the Confucian  o f community  i t s Western c o u n t e r p a r t s equal;  community  system  each i d e n t i f y i n g and c o n t r i b u t i n g  horizontal integration  vertical  i s achieved  bureaucracy i n imperial  society  "horizontal integration," sense  Each  and t h e r u l e d submit t o t h e  dominating p o l i t i c a l  However,  encourage  as  However,  r o l e and m a i n t a i n s  i n t e g r a t i o n o f f a m i l i a l and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s  a  I f the  i d e a l C o n f u c i a n s o c i e t y i s a h i e r a r c h i c a l one.  i n d i v i d u a l plays h i s or a  The  o f a s t a t e i s dependent upon a good r u l e r who  governs w i t h d i v i n e r i g h t s .  an  and  among  does  i . e . developing people.  which oneself  treat as  I t i s not a l l men  part  of  to collective efforts.  i s lacking,  not  t h e Chinese  a  When  people  25  hardly achieve with the  s o l i d a r i t y i n c h a l l e n g i n g and b a r g a i n i n g  r u l i n g a u t h o r i t y . When one attempts t o q u e s t i o n  t h e a u t h o r i t y , he o r she w i l l be doomed as The  rebellious.  C o n f u c i a n p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e c a n be r e g a r d e d  parochial-subject  one (see Chap. I , p. 8) .  as  a  The c o n c e p t  o f " L o y a l o p p o s i t i o n " does not e x i s t i n the C h i n e s e mind. Representative societies, "state" Contract  democracy  but not i n China. and " s o c i e t y "  theory  Social  i s popular Figure  in  pluralistic  2 shows how t h e  are conceptualized  i n Social  and C o n f u c i a n i s m .  contract  theory  State Ruler/government  Confucian s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l order  State & Society  I  Great Harmony  !  Worldly peace /t  r  Good government  Well-kept families  Society People r e t a i n part o f t h e i r natural r i g h t s  Figure 2 .  Self-disciplined individuals  Ways o f conceptualizing the " s t a t e " and  "society"  26  In the s o c i a l c o n t r a c t t h e o r y , people have a l r e a d y formed  a  society  before  they  surrender  p a r t of  n a t u r a l r i g h t s t o the r u l e r or government. some n a t u r a l r i g h t s themselves.  their  They r e t a i n  On the o t h e r hand, t h e  Confucian s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l order s t a r t s with  self-disci-  p l i n e d i n d i v i d u a l s and moves upward t o f a m i l i e s ,  govern-  ment, W o r l d l y peace, Great Harmony and, a t l a s t , the s t a t e as w e l l as  society.  C o n f u c i a n v a l u e s emphasize i n t e g r a t i o n of an vidual ' s reform  life  and  the  state's  In  imperial  granaries to deal with disasters. long  are solved  China,  o f t e n used t a x c u t s o r food r e l i e f  out  by  the government of the  national  economic problems and  natural  Most of the v i c t i m s were peasants been an  Social  is a political  Problems o f s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t i e s  p o l i t i c a l means.  has  well-being.  o r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , i n t h i s case,  matter.  indi-  a g r i c u l t u r a l country.  as  China  Intellectuals,  t h e upper s o c i a l c l a s s , seldom asked f o r s o c i a l t r a n s f o r mation which would upset the e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l T h i s would mean a c h a l l e n g e t o the emperor. who had p o l i t i c a l i d e a l s s h o u l d  wait  government  a  officials  through  Intellectuals  u n t i l they  national  system.  became  examination  system. Ideas not  o f democracy and socioeconomic  reform  did  f l o u r i s h i n China u n t i l the l a t e 19th c e n t u r y when  27  Dr Sun  advocated  (Nationalism,  his  "Three  People's  Principles"  Democracy, and t h e People's  as h i s p o l i t i c a l  i d e a l f o r a new China.  Livelihood)  Although  most  of h i s f o l l o w e r s were m o b i l i z e d by a n a t i o n a l i s t i c to  zeal  r e p a t r i a t e t h e Manchu r u l e r s , he s t r i v e d t o end  time-honoured republican  a b s o l u t e monarchism and r e p l a c e i t by  government.  Besides  democracy,  for  peasants  s c a t t e r e d around t h e v a s t mainland o f China.  about  l a n d reform t o a l l e v i a t e  land  reform  c o u l d be  the  he  pleaded  ideas  the  also  plight  regarded  as  a  of His  early  s o c i a l i s m i n China. However, h i s i d e a l s f o r a new China c o u l d n o t be r e a l i z e d i n h i s l i f e t i m e because o f p o l i t i c a l t u r m o i l and t h e f a c t t h a t d e m o c r a t i c v a l u e s i n t h e Chinese mind. hardly for  a  unified  warlords  and  had no r o o t s  U n t i l h i s death i n 1925, China nation,  but  imperialist  rather  a battlefield  adventurers.  f o l l o w e r s d i d manage t o b u i l d a new  was  political  But h i s  o r d e r from  the r u i n s o f an o l d China. The S o v i e t E x p e r i e n c e The the  R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n i n 1917 l e d by  Lenin  B o l s h e v i k s had g r e a t i n f l u e n c e i n China.  intellectuals  were  inspired  them thought t h a t i t c o u l d  by i t s s u c c e s s .  i n modern  China.  Chinese Most o f  s e r v e as a model f o r China.  The May F o u r t h Movement i n 1919 was movement  and  the  first  student  Students and i n t e l l e c t u a l s  28  opposed i m p e r i a l i s t i n v a d e r s and these  immediate  Movement was  political  regarded  as  warlords.  appeals,  the  panacea f o r China.  May  The R u s s i a n  from  Fourth  a c u l t u r a l movement.  o f the Movement p l e a d e d f o r "democracy" a  Apart  Members  and " s c i e n c e " as  R e v o l u t i o n had spread  communist i d e o l o g y t o China. The Communist P a r t y o f China was  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1921.  was  impressed  Even i n h i s l a t e y e a r s , Dr  by t h e S o v i e t e x p e r i e n c e .  s o c i a l i s m might be a way  t o save  He thought t h a t  China.  The Communist P a r t y c l a i m e d t h a t s o c i a l i s m be  the  way  revolution process  f o r a new led  China.  challenged proposal beginning  the  Class  Confucian  The  Communist  v a l u e s and  put  social  engineering.  of  social  transformation i n  between  Communist  Party  establishing  led  a new  "state" by  Mao  That  and  be  a the  ideology forward  marked China  a the  and  a  "society."  Zedong  regime i n 1949.  and  would  for  separation  should  struggle  by the Communist P a r t y  t o a c h i e v e t h a t end.  Sun  The  succeeded  T h i s i s now  in known  as the People's R e p u b l i c o f China. S o c i a l and E d u c a t i o n a l Change i n Hong Kong The  s t a t u s of Hong Kong, b e i n g a B r i t i s h  remained i n t a c t d u r i n g t h e s e changes (the 1911 1949 R e v o l u t i o n s ) . Hong Kong has by  an  efficient  colonial  colony, and  the  l o n g been a d m i n i s t e r e d  bureacucracy  t h a t co-opted  a  29  group o f Chinese e l i t e .  This  bureaucracy  succeeded  in  b r i n g i n g f o r t h long-term p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y i n Hong Kong accompanied by  steady  economic growth.  A B r i t i s h model  of e d u c a t i o n h e l p e d d e v e l o p a Chinese e l i t e t o e n t e r t h e r u l i n g c l a s s . I t p r e p a r e d an e l i t e f o r p o l i t i c a l  succes-  sion. Paulston's  (1977) c o n c e p t u a l framework o f s o c i a l and  e d u c a t i o n a l change i s w e l l - s u i t e d t o a n a l y z e t h e s i t u a t i o n i n Hong Kong ( F i g u r e 3 ) .  Paradigms  Equilibrium Theories  Evolutionary  — Neo-evolutionary m  Structuralfunctionalists  1  —Systems  Figure 3.  Conflict Theories  r-Marxian  -Neo-Marxian  Culturalrevitalization  AnarchisticUtopian  Paulston's model o f c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g s o c i a l and educational change.  30  S t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l i s t t h e o r y under the e q u i l i b rium  paradigm  can be used  to  illustrate  o f s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l change i n Hong (1977)  pointed  out  that  " f o c u s on t h e homeostatic which  societies  The C o n f u c i a n a  balancing  values  Kong.  Paulston  structural-functionalists  or balancing  maintain  t h e problem  a 'uniform  and p o l i t i c a l  mechanisms  state'"  by  (p. 379).  c u l t u r e p r o v i d e such  mechanism f o r a u n i f o r m s t a t e i n Hong Kong.  There has not  been any  acute c o n f l i c t between  Chinese  and non-Chinese i n the h i s t o r y o f Hong Kong (except the case i n t h e 1966-67 t u r m o i l , induced by the  spread  the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n the mainland). functionalists  also  have  a  "strong  Structural-  conservative bias  toward the u n d e s i r a b i l i t y o f a l l  but 'adaptive  (Paulston,  make a d a p t i v e  1977,  p.  379).  p o s s i b l e , t h e system w i l l adjustments.  In  that  i s to help i n d i v i d u a l s of  the  society"  an  only  case,  conservative  elitist  are developed through  model o f  the  change  incremental  cultural p.  tradition  380).  British social education  class  have  community. Chinese  been elites  e d u c a t i o n a l system and  co-opted i n t o the bureaucracy. but  change'"  t h e f u n c t i o n of e d u c a t i o n  p r e s e r v e "the  t r a n s p l a n t e d i n t o the Chinese  privilege,  admit s m a l l  ( P a u l s t o n , 1977,  In Hong Kong, a system and  To  of  E l i t e s enjoy  structural-functionalists  power  contend  later and that  31  social  inequality  c o n t r i b u t i o n s and that  societies,  to  the  difference  as r e f l e c t e d by s o c i a l and  arises  not  due  out  basically  of  the  out  of  educational  the  vested  needs  of  interests  of  individuals  o r groups" ( P a u l s t o n , 1977, p. 380).  inequality  continues  to  c o n t r i b u t i n g h i s o r her own is  inevitable  exist  as  and i n d i v i d u a l  British  Social  survival  While economic p r o s p e r i t y the  everybody  efforts.  t h e s u r v i v a l and w e l l - b e i n g of  for  The  in  inequality  depends  upon  society. i s the primary  r u l e r s i n Hong  Kong,  In t h a t t h e o r y , e d u c a t i o n  preparing  skilled  entrepreneurs  and  the  modernization"  (p.  381).  vocational  on  objective  the  role  of  capital  t h e o r y i s based upon s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l  assumptions. role  Social  keeps  e d u c a t i o n can be e x p l a i n e d by the use of human theory.  of  t a l e n t s of each i n d i v i d u a l . They argue  "inequality  stratification  is  purposes  has a  manpower,  like  for  This  in  innovators,  social-economic  i s why  i s emphasized  "critical  training  both  for  the formal  and nonformal e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s o f Hong Kong. The of e d u c a t i o n  i s to  mobilize  human r e s o u r c e s f o r a f u l l  development o f c a p i t a l i s m i n Hong Kong. aim,  consensus There  may  rather  To  achieve  that  than c o n f l i c t i s encouraged.  are some reasons why  be not a p p l i c a b l e  aim  t o Hong  the C o n f l i c t  Kong.  Confucian  paradigm values  32  encourage Social  vertical  integration  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n which  actions  to  below"  may  Without  institute upset  a  collective  "revolutionary  change  political  o f community  or  E q u i t y and j u s t i c e  o f a good r u l e r  and h i s government.  not been many  will  from order.  horizontal  Confucianism f o c u s e s on t h e moral  of i n d i v i d u a l s .  mation  relations.  requires  t h e harmonious  concept  integration,  of social  conduct  be t h e concern  B e s i d e s , t h e r e have  encouraging examples o f s o c i a l  i n China s i n c e t h e 1911 R e v o l u t i o n .  transforIndeed t h e  C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n 1960s caused many p e o p l e t o f l e e China and t a k e r e f u g e i n Hong Kong. Hong  Kong  has p l a y e d a v e r y a c t i v e r o l e  i n the  political  development o f China s i n c e t h e t u r n  of the  century.  It  i s not  culturally  tied  has  as a haven  served  years.  to  China.  Dr Sun Yat-sen  activities Revolution.  i n Hong  only  geographically but But  this  tiny  Kong  during  and a f t e r  sought  t h e 1911  s a n c t u a r y from t h e  with the  F o r them, Hong Kong was a p l a c e where they  years,  for  and the R e p u b l i c a n s had numerous  c o l o n y i n t h e i r p r o t r a c t e d war  not a l l o w e d i n China  territory  f o r p o l i t i c a l dissidents  The Communists  new i d e a s and b r i n g  also  Nationalists. c o u l d spread  i n new hopes. These a c t i v i t i e s were but t o l e r a t e d i n the colony.  For  freedom o f speech has been an a s s e t o f Hong Kong  33  and t h e p r e s s i s renowned f o r the v i g o u r and e x t e n t o f i t s a c t i v i t i e s . I t asks  people t o t o l e r a t e  o t h e r s who have  a d i f f e r e n t mind. The s o c i e t y encourages consensus r a t h e r than  conflict. Against  education  this  background,  contemporary  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s p l u r a l i s t i c  I n s t i t u t i o n s and educators have t h e l i b e r t y t o programs goals. and  f o r a variety  t h e e d u c a t i o n system  tradition.  nature. conduct  o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and  I n Hong Kong, consensus i s t h e r u b r i c  Adult education  adult  i s built  social  of society  on a B r i t i s h model.  f o l l o w s a s t r o n g l i b e r a l and h u m a n i s t i c  Moreover, t h e c o l o n y has been i n d u s t r i a l i z e d  rapidly after  World War  competency-based  II.  adult  Vocational  education  training  strengthened  and the  p r o g r e s s i v e and b e h a v i o u r a l  influences i n the f i e l d .  There  discussions of  have  philosophy  n o t been  many  ( E l i a s & Merriam, 1980) among a d u l t e d u c a t o r s  i n Hong Kbng. Few attempts were made t o develop philosophers  i n the f i e l d .  y i e l d e d many  examples  i n the T h i r d  which  have c o n f l i c t i n g  to  societies  c u l t u r a l or a  society  socioeconomic which  The r a d i c a l  honours consensus,  moving  However,  analytic  t r a d i t i o n has  World.  contexts.  i n f l u e n c e on a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . is  analytic  I tapplies  v a l u e s , e.g. i n As  Hong Kong i s  i t has had l i t t l e w h i l e Hong Kong  toward 1997, and s o c i o p o l i t i c a l changes can  34  be  a n t i c i p a t e d , r a d i c a l a d u l t education i s apt t o s p r i n g  up. Agencies In  Hong  education  Kong,  and Programs  adult  overlap.  education  A l a r g e number  and of  programs have been s e t up t o h e l p people knowledge  and  sharpen t h e i r s k i l l s  completed  formal  education.  qualification  i s v i t a l to  advancement.  Therefore,  running  agencies  and  increase t h e i r  after  they  have  Moreover, an e d u c a t i o n a l  academic  and  many a g e n c i e s  c e r t i f i c a t e , diploma  continuing  and degree  professional are  actively  programs  for  adults. The types o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a g e n c i e s i n Hong Kong can be d e s c r i b e d by u s i n g  Schroeder's  (1970) t y p o l o g y .  Four t y p e s o f agencies a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n terms o f t h e primacy o f t h e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n examples i n Hong Kong. of  Man  f u n c t i o n . They have  their  (1988) p r o v i d e d a b r i e f review  a d u l t 'education i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e t e r r i t o r y . Type I Agencies were e s t a b l i s h e d t o s e r v e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f a d u l t s — a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s a c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n . (Schroeder, 1970, p. 37) In  Hong Kong, Type I Agencies  Education Learning University  Section  include  o f Hong Kong Government,  I n s t i t u t e o f Hong Kong, t h e Open o f E a s t A s i a , Macau, and a huge  proprietary schools.  the  Adult  the  Open  College  of  number  of  They o f f e r l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s  35  t o a d u l t s who seek b a s i c , and h i g h e r , r e c r e a t i o n a l professional  and  education.  Type I I Agencies were e s t a b l i s h e d t o s e r v e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f youth which have assumed t h e added r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y s e r v i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f a d u l t s — a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s a secondary f u n c t i o n . (Schroeder, 1970, p. 37) In Hong Kong, Type I I Agencies of  Extramural  and  the  a r e t h e Departments  Studies of the U n i v e r s i t y of  Chinese U n i v e r s i t y o f Hong Kong,  Professional  &  Continuing  Education  of  Hong  Kong  Centre  for  Hong  Kong  P o l y t e c h n i c , C i t y P o l y t e c h n i c o f Hong Kong, D i v i s i o n o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n o f Hong Kong B a p t i s t C o l l e g e , Hong Kong  Shue  Yan  postsecondary  College  colleges.  (Night They  School) provide  and  other  liberal  and  v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n programs t o a d u l t s d u r i n g day and night  time. Type I I I Agencies were e s t a b l i s h e d t o s e r v e both e d u c a t i o n a l and n o n e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f the c o m m u n i t y — a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s an a l l i e d f u n c t i o n employed t o f u l f i l l o n l y some o f t h e needs which agencies r e c o g n i z i n g as t h e i r responsibility. (Schroeder, 1977, p. 37) Type  Education  I I I Agencies Unit  i n Hong  Kong  o f Radio T e l e v i s i o n Hong  Council  Libraries,  Museum,  S c i e n c e Museum, S o c i a l W e l f a r e  Hong  refer  City  Hall  of  Hong  t o the  Kong,  Urban  Kong,  Space  Department o f  Kong Government, The Family P l a n n i n g  Association  36  o f Hong Kong. the  needs  In t h e i r educational a c t i v i t i e s t o  of  t h e community,  many  meet  participants  are  adults. Type IV Agencies were e s t a b l i s h e d t o s e r v e t h e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s (economic, i d e o l o g i c a l ) o f special groups—adult education is a subordinate f u n c t i o n employed p r i m a r i l y t o further t h e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s o f t h e agency i t s e l f . (Schroeder, 1977, p. 37) In Hong Kong, Type IV Agencies c o v e r a wide of  business  cultural  and  industry,  organizations.  Productivity  Council,  welfare,  Examples The  Hong  religious are  and  Hong  Kong  Kong  Management  A s s o c i a t i o n , T e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t e s and T r a i n i n g of  range  Centres  Vocational  T r a i n i n g C o u n c i l , Hang Seng  School  Commerce(Extra  Mural Programme), Kwun Tong  Vocational  Training  Centre  Technology,  (Night S c h o o l ) , Hong Kong  The B r i t i s h C o u n c i l ,  Goethe-Institut,  Education  Chinese  Alliance  o f Japan,  Caritas Adult  S e r v i c e , Hong Kong Young  Association, Young  College  Christian  Office,  and  Women's  D i v i s i o n of Continuing Education Men's  of  Francaise,  Japan I n f o r m a t i o n & C u l t u r a l  Consulate-General  of  Association  Higher  Christian of  The  and  The  Dharmasthiti C u l t u r a l College. Programs  o f f e r e d by t h e s e a g e n c i e s c o v e r  range o f academic and p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t s . program  areas  a r e languages,  business  a  wide  Most p o p u l a r  and  commerce,  37  technical several  t r a i n i n g , and hobbies. teaching  Some  agencies  have  c e n t r e s throughout t h e t e r r i t o r y  d e l i v e r t h e i r programs.  Some o f t h e s e evening  to  teaching  c e n t r e s are i n premises r e n t e d from primary and secondary schools t o hold classes. of adult education  V a r i o u s methods and t e c h n i q u e s  are employed t o d e l i v e r the programs.  A l t h o u g h t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s r o o m o r a l t e a c h i n g i s o f t e n used in  many a d u l t  introduced  education  programs,  some a g e n c i e s  have  a v a r i e t y o f methods and t e c h n i q u e s t o t h e i r  participants.  Method  concerns  the organization  of  l e a r n e r s f o r e d u c a t i o n whereas t e c h n i q u e s p e c i f i e s a k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l e a r n e r and the l e a r n i n g t a s k (Verner,  1964).  Individual apprenticeship  methods  include  and c o u r s e s  correspondence  by computer,  while  study, group  methods i n c l u d e c l a s s , t u t o r i a l d i s c u s s i o n group, forum, workshop,  exhibitions  and p u b l i c  education  campaigns.  Examples o f t e c h n i q u e s a r e r o l e p l a y , e d u c a t i o n a l games, debate, s i m u l a t i o n , l e c t u r e , group d i s c u s s i o n , demonstrat i o n , f i e l d t r i p s , and case s t u d i e s . respondence  and c l a s s  meeting  I n Hong Kong, c o r -  a r e t h e most  popular  methods. Techniques such as t u t o r i a l group d i s c u s s i o n s , demonstrations, and case s t u d i e s a r e e x t e n s i v e l y used i n programs. Programs o f f e r e d by The Open L e a r n i n g I n s t i t u t e are d e l i v e r e d by d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n means. Other a g e n c i e s  38  may  p r o v i d e programs by classroom  distance education.  i n s t r u c t i o n as w e l l as  Some agencies have s e a s o n a l  or b i -  annual i n t a k e o f p a r t i c i p a n t s w h i l e o t h e r s admit p e o p l e t o t h e i r programs c o n t i n u o u s l y throughout the y e a r . methods and  techniques  d e s c r i b e d by V e r n e r w i l l be  The used  f o r forming a p a r t o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e items o f the survey later. Professionalization Adult education  i n Hong Kong has been a p r o f e s s i o n  r a t h e r than a s o c i a l movement.  A d u l t educators  concern  themselves w i t h e f f i c i e n c y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n s e r v i n g the  learner's  "clearly  needs.  defined  A  p r o f e s s i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  career  paths, rewards, and a coherent  knowledgebase" (Boshier, 1985, p. 3) even though the f i e l d of adult education To p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e  is still  plagued by m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n .  adult education  r e q u i r e s a crew o f  t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l t h a t can g i v e l e a d e r s h i p t o the In Hong Kong, s u s t a i n e d e f f o r t s t o t r a i n a d u l t have come l a t e .  Adult  education  i n c l u d e d as an e l e c t i v e course f o r graduate the School o f E d u c a t i o n , It  Education,"  was  educators  There i s no graduate program o f a d u l t  e d u c a t i o n i n Hong Kong.  Kong.  field.  called  The "An  j o i n t l y organized  has once been students  in  Chinese U n i v e r s i t y o f Hong Elective  Course  in  Adult  by the Hong Kong A s s o c i a -  t i o n f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n and the School o f E d u c a t i o n ,  39  The  Chinese U n i v e r s i t y of  Hong  Kong.  Content  of  the  program i n c l u d e d i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , a d u l t l e a r n i n g , i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques, c i v i c education f o r a d u l t s and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n Hong Kong. Speakers i n t h a t course for  were  drawn  from  the  Continuing Education.  Hong  In  the  Kong A s s o c i a t i o n  past, p r a c t i t i o n e r s  who wished t o study a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a t no c h o i c e but t o go overseas.  On  have been r e c e n t  developments  training  for  programs  j o i n t e f f o r t s and  the l o c a l  scene,  i n running  practitioners  local  a university  had there  indigenous  through  overseas  endeavors.  1. Diploma i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n : T h i s i s a program j o i n t l y o r g a n i z e d by the Department o f Higher the  Administrative, Adult  Education,  U n i v e r s i t y of  Department o f  Extramural  U n i v e r s i t y o f Hong Kong, and Kong A s s o c i a t i o n f o r round o f the graduated  i n 1986.  t e a c h i n Hong Kong,  Studies,  in  1984  program  and  Chinese  by the  Hong  The  first  Education.  With the f a c u l t y from the  The  co-sponsored  Continuing  program s t a r t e d  B r i t i s h Columbia  &  and UBC  students coming  provided  to  systematic  t r a i n i n g f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n the t h e o r i e s and t e c h n i q u e s of adult education.  I t enabled them  training in different institutional 2.  Basic  Training  Course  for  t o conduct  adult  settings.  Teachers  of  B e g i n n i n g i n 1975, t h i s course was j o i n t l y  Adults: sponsored  40  by the  Department  University  of  Extramural  The  of Hong Kong and t h e Hong Kong  f o r Continuing Education. theory  Studies,  Chinese  Association  I t offered basic training  and methods of a d u l t t e a c h i n g and  learning  i n - s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s o f a d u l t s and people i n t e r e s t e d adult  education.  Education  T h i s course g a i n e d support  Department  Participants  who  of  Hong  Kong  in to in  from the  Government.  had a s a t i s f a c t o r y attendance  in  the  c o u r s e c o u l d a p p l y f o r h a l f - f e e r e f u n d from t h e E d u c a t i o n Department. 3.  Action  Pilot  L e a r n i n g Program:  Training  Personnel, renamed  which  in  techniques education  Course  1984 and in  began to  Formerly  for in  approaches  Nonformal  1980,  introduce to  known  this  as  Education program  participants adult  urban s e t t i n g s (Wong,  the  and  to  was new  nonformal  1986).  With  support o f t h e German A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n  the (DW)  and the l e a d e r s h i p o f the A s i a n South P a c i f i c Bureau o f Adult Education by  (ASPBAE) S e c r e t a r i a t , i t was  organized  t h e Department o f Nonformal E d u c a t i o n o f  Thailand,  t h e Singapore A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n the  Hong  Kong A s s o c i a t i o n f o r  Continuing  Education.  P a r t i c i p a n t s were nonformal and a d u l t e d u c a t o r s Kong and o t h e r Southeast 3-week  program,  they  Asian countries. paid v i s i t s  to  and  i n Hong  During  various  this adult  41  e d u c a t i o n a g e n c i e s i n Hong Kong, Bangkok and New  l e a r n i n g and  these  Singapore.  exchange o f e x p e r i e n c e took p l a c e  guided v i s i t s .  T h i s program was  an  in  example  of  regional joint training. Apart education Trained  from  programs,  a g e n c i e s do t h e i r own  many  other  t r a i n i n g of  their  adult  trainers.  t r a i n e r s from the above programs o f t e n  p l a n n e r s and in  these  become  t e a c h e r s f o r t r a i n i n g of t r a i n e r s programs  own  workplace.  For example,  some  of  the  graduates o f the Diploma i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n formed p a r t of  the  Adult  teaching Education"  team i n the offered  Higher Education Service.  "Introductory  by the  Course  Caritas  Adult  To and  More p r a c t i t i o n e r s are b e i n g  t r a i n e d as more people are j o i n i n g the a d u l t  education  profession.  therefore  A professional association  was  established  to co-ordinate  t r a i n e r s and  t o promote t r a i n i n g among p r a c t i t i o n e r s .  Schroeder tions  (197 0)  regarded  as a type of l e a d e r s h i p  education.  In  terms  a s s o c i a t i o n represents tors,  the e f f o r t s o f  i n a process  Merriam, 1982,  the  professional organization  leadership, interests  The  Continuing  Education  association  in  Hong  serves  Kong.  I t was  associai n adult  a professional  of adult  c a l l e d "advocacy"  p. 28).  Hong  of  experienced  educa-  (Darkenwald  Kong A s s o c i a t i o n as  a  & for  professional  established  in  1975  42  to  co-ordinate  Hong Kong. of  adult/continuing  I t works t o  educational  r e s o u c e s , and well  as  needs  to  education  promote p u b l i c  services  and  participation  support o f a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g  i t s inception,  understanding  and o b j e c t i v e s ,  encourage p u b l i c  agencies i n  education.  as  Since  t h e A s s o c i a t i o n has o r g a n i z e d a number o f  t r a i n i n g programs and i n t e r n a t i o n a l / r e g i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e s for adult/continuing surveys  on  e d u c a t o r s . I t conducts seminars and  adult/continuing  education  policies  and  p r e p a r e s r e p o r t s t o a d v i s e t h e government. E v a l u a t i o n and research  i n adult/continuing  emphases  of  the  Association of  Adult  Council with  Association's  are  the  (ASPBAE)  f o r Adult Education international  and  the  (ICAE) t o  adult  main  publications.  has j o i n e d the A s i a n South P a c i f i c Education  the  education  The Bureau  International  maintain  education  links  community.  Members o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n a r e a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t o r s coming from a l l t y p e s o f a g e n c i e s . The p r o s p e c t f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e in  field  Hong Kong w i l l depend on r e s e a r c h and t h e t r a i n i n g o f  adult educators. scientific  knowledge o f t h e f i e l d i s as  consolidating solid  To b u i l d a body o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l  and  important  as  experiences of t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e .  foundation of systematic,  improve t h e s t a t u s o f t h e f i e l d .  t e s t e d knowledge  A  will  P r a c t i t i o n e r s w i l l then  43  be a b l e t o develop a c a r e e r i n resources  adult  education.  can be used t o develop t h e f i e l d .  the  environment  f o r research  of  the  will  field  be  f o r c e s p l a y i n g i n t h e run-up  More  However,  and  f u r t h e r development  shaped  by s o c i o p o l i t i c a l  t o 1997. The  J o i n t D e c l a r a t i o n s i g n e d i n 1984  Sino-British  had g r e a t i m p l i c a t i o n s  f o r s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l development i n Hong Kong.  44  CHAPTER I I I THE  SINO-BRITISH JOINT DECLARATION  Background People problem  in  in  Hong Kong began t o  the  early  1980s.  discuss  the  1997  For 150 y e a r s , people  have a c c e p t e d the f a c t t h a t Hong Kong i s a B r i t i s h c o l o n y and China would not a c t r a s h l y t o take the t e r r i t o r y back. A l t h o u g h the t h r e e  "unequal t r e a t i e s " (see Chapter I, p.  2) forming the Colony were s i g n e d two R e v o l u t i o n s  led  Communists  (1949),  territory.  A f t e r the  by the did  not  i n i m p e r i a l times, the  R e p u b l i c a n s (1911) and the result  in  regaining  the  1949 R e v o l u t i o n , the Communists d i d  r e c o v e r a l l c o n c e s s i o n s taken by f o r e i g n powers d u r i n g the Manchu  Dynasty.  The "problem"  of  Taiwan i s t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t  from  t h a t o f Hong Kong. Taiwan s t i l l bears the name " R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a " e s t a b l i s h e d by the R e p u b l i c a n s and Dr Sun sen a f t e r t h e 1911 R e v o l u t i o n .  Yat-  In e a r l y 1920's, Dr  Sun  r e o r g a n i z e d the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a r t y of r e p u b l i c a n s i n t o the  N a t i o n a l i s t Party.  A f t e r h i s death,  Chiang  kai-  shek took t h e l e a d e r s h i p both o f the c o u n t r y and p a r t y , and  began  Communists.  a  long  In 1949,  political  struggle  with  t h e Communist P a r t y succeeded  s e i z i n g power and e s t a b l i s h i n g a regime c a l l e d  the in  People's  45  Republic which  of  China. The N a t i o n a l i s t s f l e d  i s an  mainland,  i s l a n d on t h e s o u t h e a s t e r n  and  to  Taiwan,  end  of the  c o n t i n u e d t h e i r regime i n t h e name o f  " R e p u b l i c o f China." However, these two t i n y c i t i e s on t h e f a r south s i d e of t h e c o u n t r y , Hong Kong and Macau (a Portuguese c o l o n y founded as  i n the  concessions  held they  that  16th c e n t u r y ) ,  nor a  case l i k e Taiwan.  Hong Kong and Macau  are questions  a r e n e i t h e r counted  " l e f t over  The Communists  a r e f a i t accompli from  the past"  and  (Sino-  B r i t i s h J o i n t D e c l a r a t i o n on t h e Q u e s t i o n o f Hong Kong, 1984, p. 1) o r "legada p e l o passado" (Declaracao Con j u n t a Do Governo Da R e p u b l i c a R e p u b l i c a Popular Da 1987,  Portuguesa  China  Sobre  p. 1 ) . T h i s meant t h a t  E  Do  Governo Da  A Questao  China would  De Macau, solve  the  problem o f t h e two c o l o n i e s by p o l i t i c a l ( n e g o t i a t i o n s ) r a t h e r than l e g a l The  ( i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e s o l u t i o n ) means.  past should not i n t e r f e r e with  Settlement  the  o f t h e q u e s t i o n s o f Hong Kong and Macau must  wait f o r a r i p e opportunity.  I n 1967, t h e r e was p o l i t i c a l  u n r e s t i n Hong Kong because o f t h e C u l t u r a l i n mainland China. spread t o t h e Colony the  colonial  Chinese  present.  The  seeds  Revolution  of the Revolution  and many l e f t i s t a c t i v i t i e s  had  rocked  government. Most people f e a r e d an imminent  take-over.  Others  emigrated.  But doubts  soon  46  passed. Chinese a u t h o r i t i e s d i d not s t a t e any wish t o take the c o l o n y back a t t h i s time. Thus, the c o l o n i a l government remained i n c o n t r o l . A f t e r the t u r b u l e n t y e a r s i n t h e l a t e 1960's, Hong Kong began t o p r o s p e r . No one w o r r i e d about t h e f u t u r e o f Hong Kong i n the l a t e 1970's because o f i t s booming land It  economy.  1997  l e a s e s on New  was  the date o n l y  T e r r i t o r i e s granted  recorded to  in  investors.  e x i s t e d on paper and i n most p e o p l e ' s minds, but  few  mentioned i t i n t h e i r d a i l y c o n v e r s a t i o n s . N e g o t i a t i o n about a post-1997 Hong Kong was a c u i bono matter as i t a l l u d e s t o hoped  to maintain  the  u n c e r t a i n t i e s . People g e n e r a l l y s t a t u s quo and enjoy t h e i r s o c i a l  and economic w e l l - b e i n g . due d a t e .  But they  were  still  facing a  F o r e i g n and l o c a l i n v e s t o r s needed t o know what  would happen when the l a n d l e a s e s  expired i n  1997.  In  t h e e a r l y 1980' s, people became anxious about t h e f u t u r e of Hong Kong.  In 1982, B r i t a i n d e c i d e d t o open d i s c u s s i o n  w i t h China i n o r d e r not c o n f i d e n c e " i n Hong Formal regarding  1997  and damage  Kong ( D r a f t Agreement, 1984,  exchanges the  t o " d e t e r investment  between  the  two  q u e s t i o n began i n  governments  September  when t h e B r i t i s h Prime M i n i s t e r , Mrs Margaret visited  Beijing.  t r e a t i e s forming  the  She  was  Colony  convinced  p. 2 ) .  that  were s t i l l l e g a l  1982  Thatcher, the and  three wished  to n e g o t i a t e w i t h the Chinese government on t h e b a s i s  of  47  them.  However,  Chinese  eyes,  Xiaoping,  did  discussions were  only  as  the t r e a t i e s  Chinese t o p not  leaders,  recognize  based upon them. conducted  were  them  "unequal"  in  especially and  Therefore,  on t h e premise  Deng  objected  to  negotiations  that  Hong  Kong  s h o u l d m a i n t a i n i t s p r o s p e r i t y and s t a b i l i t y i n f u t u r e . No the  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from Hong Kong was i n c l u d e d  negotiations.  Only  t h e Chinese  and t h e B r i t i s h  governments s e n t d e l e g a t e s t o t h e n e g o t i a t i n g t a b l e . Governor for  spoke as one o f t h e B r i t i s h d e l e g a t e s  Hong Kong.  The Chinese  government  Kong as i t s t e r r i t o r y and t h e r e s o l u t i o n a  matter  for internal,  not  in  The  b u t not  r e g a r d e d Hong of  i t s destiny  international,  affairs.  T h e r e f o r e , i t d i d not d e a l w i t h any v o i c e s from Hong Kong. The n e g o t i a t i o n s were not premised the t r e a t i e s s i n c e China  would  on t h e e x t e n s i o n o f not t o l e r a t e  foreign rule i n i t s t e r r i t o r y  a f t e r 1997.  two p a r t i e s agreed t o d i s c u s s  what p o l i t i c a l  further  At l a s t , the form Hong  Kong would take w h i l e b e i n g p a r t o f t h e People's R e p u b l i c . B r i t a i n had t o work out a p l a n a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e P a r l i a m e n t and  i t s people.  immigrants  I t c o u l d not a f f o r d a l a r g e i n f l u x o f  from Hong Kong, but i t had t o c o n v i n c e t h e  i n t e r n a t i o n a l community t h a t i t was not handing Hong Kong people over t o Communist r u l e . Moreover, i t l o o k e d forward to  good r e l a t i o n s  with  China  and t h e opening  of the  48  huge Chinese  market  complicated two y e a r s . the  t o i t s exports.  These  t h e n e g o t i a t i n g p r o c e s s which  concerns  lasted  for  F i n a l l y i n December, 1984, an agreement  future  of  Hong  Kong  was  reached.  i n c l u d i n g t h r e e Annexes and Memoranda,  The  on  text,  took t h e form o f  a White Paper and was named "A D r a f t Agreement  between  the  Britain  Government o f t h e U n i t e d Kingdom o f Great  and N o r t h e r n I r e l a n d and t h e Government o f t h e People's Republic  of  published  in  China  on  the  Future  of  Hong  London and Hong Kong a t t h e  Kong,"  same  time.  The Chinese c a l l e d i t t h e " S i n o - B r i t i s h J o i n t D e c l a r a t i o n on t h e Q u e s t i o n o f Hong Kong" and had i t p u b l i s h e d  by  Xinhua News Agency (Hong Kong Branch), a d e f a c t o Chinese official  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n Hong Kong. P o l i t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f the D e c l a r a t i o n  The S i n o - B r i t i s h J o i n t D e c l a r a t i o n aimed a t r e c o n ciling by  a  using  c a p i t a l i s t Hong Kong w i t h the  concept  of  "one  a  s o c i a l i s t China  c o u n t r y , two systems."  I t ends t h e B r i t i s h r u l e by 30 June, 1997 and Chinese j u r i s d i c t i o n Special  over t h e t e r r i t o r y .  Administrative  Region  t h e HKSAR promulgated  Congress  will  define  I t was c l a i m e d t h a t Hong  by  the  and a  the ruling  Kong  A Hong Kong  (HKSAR) o f t h e People's  R e p u b l i c o f China w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d of  recovers  National of  people  B a s i c Law People's  the t e r r i t o r y . can r e t a i n t h e i r  49  c a p i t a l i s t s t y l e o f l i v i n g f o r 50 y e a r s a f t e r 1997 the  People's  policies  Republic w i l l  not  i n the t e r r i t o r y .  implement  and  socialist  A 50-year p e r i o d  will  be  g r a n t e d t o keep t h e c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y i n t a c t .  Chinese  officials  i n the  argued  that the standard of l i v i n g  mainland w i l l c a t c h up w i t h t h a t o f Hong Kong i n h a l f a c e n t u r y ' s time. to and  There i s no need f o r Hong Kong  worry about an immediate convergence o f China i n 1997.  buffer period i n t o China. Using divided decision. People's  Hong  Kong  allows  this  i n t e g r a t i o n o f Hong  Kong  The J o i n t D e c l a r a t i o n  f o r an u l t i m a t e  people  I t w i l l t e r m i n a t e i n 2047. Special  Administrative  territories Article Republic  Regions  i s regarded as 31  of  the  a  to  reunify  constitutional  Constitution  o f China promulgated i n  of  the  1982  said  that The state may establish special administrative r e g i o n s when n e c e s s a r y . The systems to be instituted in special a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g i o n s s h a l l be p r e s c r i b e d by law enacted by t h e National People's Congress i n the l i g h t of the specific c o n d i t i o n s . ( F o r e i g n Language P r e s s , 1983, p. 27) This notion  of special administrative  regions sent  a s i g n a l t o p e o p l e watching t h e S i n o - B r i t i s h n e g o t i a t i o n s . The  Chinese c o n s t i t u t i o n had s e t t h e path f o r r e u n i f y i n g  d i v i d e d t e r r i t o r i e s such as Taiwan, Hong  Kong and Macau.  50  The Communists hope t h a t Hong Kong w i l l a c t as an example for  Taiwan,  which  seems  a  more  difficult  case f o r  r e u n i f i c a t i o n . The concept o f "one c o u n t r y , two systems," used by China t o s o l v e arrangements  f o r i n t e g r a t i n g heterogeneous  i n t o one n a t i o n . Kong  will  t h e 1997 problem, c a p t u r e s t h e societies  The Chinese hoped t h a t " s u c c e s s " i n Hong  induce  t h e Taiwan N a t i o n a l i s t s  to  the  n e g o t i a t i o n t a b l e . In t h a t case, the Communists c l a i m they w i l l a l l o w Hong Kong t o "enjoy a h i g h degree o f autonomy, except i n  foreign  and  defence  affairs  which  are  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the C e n t r a l People's Government" (Joint  D e c l a r a t i o n , 1984, p. 2 ) . The HKSAR  s t a t u s as a f r e e p o r t and i t s The  can keep i t s  laws c u r r e n t l y i n f o r c e .  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s o c i e t y i s supposed t o remain  unchanged.  The HKSAR  education,  among o t h e r  resources,  has  p o l i c y - m a k i n g power  matters,  administration  Kong w i l l does  as a l l o c a t i o n o f  and a c c r e d i t a t i o n .  can d e c i d e on t h e i r own e d u c a t i o n , the HKSAR.  such  But one important  over  People  i n c l u d i n g study o u t s i d e  t h i n g t o note i s t h a t Hong  remain an " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e " l o c a l i t y o n l y .  not  mean  "independence."  Chinese  This  officials  c o n s i s t e n t l y made i t c l e a r t h a t the B r i t i s h should r e t u r n Hong Kong, Then, to  its territory  the c e n t r a l  and people t o g e t h e r , t o China.  government g i v e s autonomy,  according  B a s i c Law, t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f HKSAR.  The HKSAR  51  is  by i t s e l f  not a p o l i t y .  U s i n g an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  cap  t o subsume a d i v e r g e n t s o c i e t y under t h e n a t i o n a l f l a g i s a Chinese v e r s i o n o f "one c o u n t r y , two Britain bargain given  served  systems."  i t s own i n t e r e s t s and made a good  i n t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s . I t has t a k e n t h e most and the l e a s t .  Although  i t has t o a d m i n i s t e r  t e r r i t o r y up t o 1997, i t s e r v e s China. As China c o n t i n u e s  return  t o run  good p a r t n e r  i t s open p o l i c y , B r i t a i n  a huge market f o r i t s e x p o r t s . Britain  as a  anxiety  The J o i n t D e c l a r a t i o n asks  end i t s r u l e by 1997 but d i d r e l i e v e t h e  of local  and f o r e i g n  investors.  The J o i n t  t h e c o l o n i a l government t o g r a n t  l a n d l e a s e s e x p i r i n g i n 2047. Moreover, B r i t a i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l community t h a t t h e J o i n t  does n o t send  its local  gains  a prosperous and s t a b l e Hong Kong and  Declaration authorizes  future  of  i t , w i t h o u t any changes, t o China on 1 J u l y 1997.  Britain will  the  the  Hong  convinced  Declaration  Kong people t o Communist  rule.  The  HKSAR w i l l enjoy a h i g h degree o f autonomy  and  government and l e g i s l a t u r e " s h a l l be inhabitants" The  (Joint  Declaration,  composed  1984, p. 7 ) .  J o i n t D e c l a r a t i o n causes no f e a r o f  i n f l u x o f immigrants t o B r i t a i n .  of  a  large  The B r i t i s h government  has n o t g r a n t e d t h e r i g h t o f abode i n t h e U n i t e d Kingdom to a l l holders  o f B r i t i s h Dependent T e r r i t o r i e s C i t i z e n s  (BDTCs) p a s s p o r t s i n Hong  Kong.  The J o i n t  Declaration  52  stipulates  that  all  Hong  Kong  n a t i o n a l s , though some o f them A l l BDTCs p a s s p o r t s w i l l  They can  get  date.  nothing  a  no  more  than  alleviates  Kong p e o p l e a f t e r  of  but not  in  Joint  tiny  o f Hong Kong p a r t i t i o n  population.  political  only  China.  be  This  system  The  ends  the  from China.  Before  the  British  totally  Kong  Declaration  y e a r s o f s e p a r a t i o n , Hong Kong was a  I t contains  1997.  Sino-British  history  is  B r i t i s h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Hong  H i s t o r i c a l M e a n i n g s t o Hong The  passport  c o n s u l a r p r o t e c t i o n can  i n t h i r d countries,  arrangement  (Overseas)  t r a v e l document.  r i g h t o f abode and  invoked  T h i s type  and  starting 1 July  B r i t i s h Nationals  passport a f t e r that  Chinese  30 June, 1997,  BDTCs s t a t u s  a  are  may have BDTCs p a s s p o r t s .  e x p i r e on  h o l d e r s cannot keep t h e i r 1997.  Chinese  a  barren  took  different  i t and  from  land with built  China's.  a A  B r i t i s h model of e d u c a t i o n f i t s people i n t h i s c a p i t a l i s t society.  The  economy  grows  and  booms c o n t i n u o u s l y .  Hong Kong can a s c r i b e i t s success t o the detachment China. from  The the  freedom. China. for  The  water  place  i s small  mainland. Hong  Kong  population and  food  But is  and p o l i t i c a l l y i t s p e o p l e enjoy  geographically  from  insulated and  love  connected t o  l a r g e l y depends on the motherland imports.  But the dependent c i t y  53  has a p l a c e i n the h i s t o r y f o r m a t i v e y e a r s of as  a  harbour  modern  of  foreigners  freedom o f  tune  speech  who  had  Revolutions  Kong  had made a  of other  (British  During  the  served  f o r r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s and  Many who  place  o p i n i o n s not i n  those  China, Hong  s t a y e d i n the c o l o n y .  Hong Kong i s a the  modern China.  refuge  political activists. from China  of  narrow  To t h e  escape  mainlanders,  jurisdiction.  rulers),  they  w i t h Chinese  Facing  might v o i c e  orthodoxy.  This  p r o v i d e d o u t l e t s and p r o t e c t i o n f o r  changed  resulted  China. in  The  not  i d e o l o g i c a l transformation.  only  1911  and  1949  political  Many R e p u b l i c a n s  but  and  then  Communists s u r v i v e d because Hong Kong s h e l t e r e d them.  The  c o l o n y a l l o w s v o i c e s which  the  mainland.  The  sound l i k e  close  in  s o c i e t y v a l u e s freedom of e x p r e s s i o n and  i t s e d u c a t i o n system supports The  heresy  this.  r e t u r n of Hong Kong t o China a f t e r 1997  the door f o r d i s s i d e n t s .  under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of China,  When Hong  Kong  of  expression.  They  comes  l o c a l i n h a b i t a n t s are  w o r r y i n g about the e x t e n t t o which they can keep freedom  could  cannot  easily  s h e l t e r t o d i s s i d e n t s coming from the mainland.  their provide  The J o i n t  D e c l a r a t i o n w i l l change the h i s t o r i c a l p o s i t i o n o f Hong Kong t h e r e a f t e r .  54  Uniqueness  o f the S i t u a t i o n  Hong Kong has a d i f f e r e n t ethos than o t h e r Chinese capitalist  communities,  such  as Taiwan and  Singapore.  U n l i k e Taiwan, Hong Kong i s not burdened w i t h a m i s s i o n to  maintain  a  Chinese  political  "legitimacy."  Both  Singapore and Hong Kong a r e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c i t i e s but the latter  i s not a m u l t i c u l t u r a l one.  Hong Kong f a c e s no  challenges of m u l t i r a c i a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . for  free  t r a d e and  opportunities ented  people  incomparable unified  an  open market.  I t i s renowned  There  are  ample  f o r e n t r e p r e n e u r s , a d v e n t u r i s t s and from  a l l over  t o Shanghai  territory  the  world.  i n 1940s, which  patched  up  with  But was  tal-  i t is  hardly  concessions.  a  The  B r i t i s h Hong Kong government runs an e f f i c i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and keeps an e f f e c t i v e p u b l i c o r d e r . Rule o f law i s honoured  and human r i g h t s a r e , i n g e n e r a l , r e s p e c t e d i n  l e g a l m a t t e r s . The n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n i s m i n economy f a c i l i tates  foreign  investment  and  local  production.  Huge  i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s and s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s c a t e r t o their  own  markets.  c u l t u r e which competition.  Hong Kong grows w i t h a  prompts consumption  and  encourages  free  The p o w e r f u l mass media h e l p s promote n o v e l  p r o d u c t s and images o f " p u b l i c f i g u r e s . " pragmatic  capitalist  approach  to l i f e .  People adopt a  As Hong Kong i s d e n s e l y -  p o p u l a t e d , everyone scrambles f o r a l i v i n g space.  People  55  u s u a l l y work hard because they b e l i e v e i n " s u r v i v a l o f t h e fittest." life.  Time i s so p r e c i o u s t h a t "busy" i s a word f o r  But i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s , Hong Kong i s t o o  weak t o d e c i d e on i t s own.  The Vietnamese r e f u g e e problem  i s an i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s s u e but Hong Kong has had t o s h o u l d e r t h e burden o f l o o k i n g a f t e r Vietnamese r e f u g e e s f o r more than 15 y e a r s . Even though Hong Kong people a r e not w i l l i n g t o r e c e i v e "boat p e o p l e " anymore, they s h o u l d w a i t f o r B r i t a i n t o negotiate with the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  community.  They can do n o t h i n g t o s t o p t h e i n f l u x o f r e f u g e e s . The arrangement f o r t h e f u t u r e o f Hong Kong i n t h e J o i n t D e c l a r a t i o n i s n o v e l i n t h e h i s t o r y o f mankind.  The  J o i n t D e c l a r a t i o n does not encourage t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a sovereign nation-state.  A l s o i t does not i n t r o d u c e a  p r o c e s s o f d e c o l o n i z a t i o n which happened 1950s and 1960s (Kuan & Lau, 1989).  very often i n  Instead of g i v i n g  independence, i t t r a n s f e r s t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f a c a p i t a l i s t system t o i t s s o c i a l i s t motherland a t a d e s i g n a t e d date. T h i s c a p i t a l i s t system w i l l become a subset o f t h e mother s o c i a l i s t country.  The i n t e g r a t i o n does not encourage an  immediate convergence o f systems but o s t e n s i b l y  allows  c a p i t a l i s m t o c o n t i n u e f o r 50 y e a r s . T h i s c a p i t a l i s t o a s i s w i l l be r u l e d by the B a s i c  Law.  People i n Hong Kong a r e f a c i n g a dilemma.  Many a r e  aiming a t democracy f o r a d e c o l o n i z e d s o c i e t y .  But Hong  56  Kong i s not g o i n g t o be an independent c o u n t r y .  People  who  have been f i g h t i n g f o r democracy under c o l o n i a l r u l e  may  encounter r e s i s t a n c e from the Communists i n f u t u r e .  The  s i t u a t i o n o f Hong Kong i s incomparable w i t h t h a t  o t h e r newly-independent c o u n t r i e s .  of  I t i s not t e c h n o l o g i -  c a l l y backward and f a c e s no problem o f development i n administration. efficient  I t has  established  a  sophisticated  bureaucracy f o r administering  I t s education  the  and  territory.  system has succeeded i n p r o d u c i n g an e l i t e .  Hong Kong p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s are not l o o k i n g f o r s e l f r u l e o r w a i t i n g f o r the mainlanders t o s e t up a s o c i a l i s t model. tion  They are r e q u i r e d t o run a c a p i t a l i s t  within  motherland. rulers.  It  the  frame  of  "autonomy"  administra-  given  Autonomy i s a g r e a t word f o r the has  been  used  to  show  the  by  the  Communist  Communists'  w i l l i n g n e s s t o r e c o n c i l e the d i f f e r e n c e s between e t h n i c groups, r e l i g i o n s , and  societies  T i b e t Autonomous Region  i n the c o u n t r y .  i s assumed t o be an example o f  e t h n i c and r e l i g i o u s r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . are s t i l l unhappy w i t h the  Hong Kong i s u n l i k e T i b e t . but  a  Tibetans  from time t o time. It will  not  However, become  special administrative  A l t h o u g h the HKSAR i s supposed t o o f autonomy, i t has not  But many  Communist c e n t r a l government.  P o l i t i c a l turmoil i s evident  autonomous r e g i o n  The  been  given  enjoy a  high  a clear  an  region. degree  p i c t u r e of  57  how autonomous i t w i l l  become.  The J o i n t D e c l a r a t i o n  l e f t many q u e s t i o n s unanswered. But the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the  concept  o f t h e HKSAR.  of  autonomy  Clark  autonomy f o r Hong Kong  w i l l determine t h e d e s t i n y  (1989) d e a l t w i t h under  t h e problem o f  t h e B a s i c Law.  He s t a t e d  that In order t o conceptualize t h e forms of autonomy we w i l l f o l l o w t h e approach of Gordon L. C l a r k . C l a r k has d i v i d e d the concept i n t o two p r i n c i p l e s : i n i t i a t i o n and immunity. The power o f i n i t i a t i o n d e a l s w i t h where p o l i c i e s are i n i t i a t e d , w h i l e t h e power o f immunity d e a l s w i t h whether t h e s e powers a r e s u b j e c t t o s c r u t i n y by h i g h e r governmental organs. Immunity a l s o d e a l s w i t h the form the s c r u t i n y t a k e s i f i t e x i s t s a t a l l . (p.154) These two p r i n i c i p l e s : i n i t i a t i v e and immunity a r e formulated the  autonomy  economic  and  factors should  will  Kong  o f a f u t u r e HKSAR, political, decide  struggle  immunity, two  from a l e g a l p e r s p e c t i v e .  In arguing  Clark  rather  t h e pattern.*  than  concluded purely  While  for greater i n i t i a t i o n  about that legal,  Hong  Kong  and  stronger  p e o p l e do n o t f o r g e t t h a t t h e "one  country,  systems" format w i l l l a s t should  ultimately  be  f o r o n l y 50 y e a r s . integrated  into  Hong China.  Autonomy w i l l cease t o be an i s s u e f o r d i s c u s s i o n . This  uniqueness o f s i t u a t i o n  characterizes  what  the Club o f Rome c a l l e d t h e "human gap." I t means " t h e  58  d i s t a n c e between growing c o m p l e x i t y and our c a p a c i t y t o cope  w i t h i t " ( B o k t i n , Elmandjra & M a l i t z a ,  6).  The  "one  c o u n t r y , two  systems"  i n v e n t i o n s p u r r e d from n e c e s s i t y . because  the p o l i t i c a l  whether  this  circumstances require  format can work s u c e s s f u l l y  unknown.  People  have no e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i t . But  I t i s only a  concept  bound t o a c c e p t i t w i t h o u t  of  "learning  1979,  p. 10).  by  forced  shock"  But t h i s  energy.  is  analysis.  to  flares  i t by  can  o f shock  like  a  "maintenance  go through  becomes a p a i n f u l e x p e r i e n c e and c o s t s and  But  not  Nobody  ( B o t k i n , Elmandjra kind  being  Hong Kong p e o p l e  problem  c a t a s t r o p h e and they cannot d e a l w i t h Many a r e  an  a c t u a l l y look l i k e a f t e r  To many people, the 1997  learning."  for  p.  is  it. or  conditions.  p r o j e c t what h i s o r her l i f e w i l l 1997.  format  I t comes i n t o  still  are  1979,  a  process  & Malitza,  learning often people  much time  59  CHAPTER IV REACTIONS OF THE COLONY S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l Echoes The  Sino-British  guesswork British  Joint Declaration  by  investors  rule  after  designation  of  a  in  Hong  1997  reduced  Kong.  would  be  No  the  extended  allowed.  The  50-year b u f f e r p e r i o d c l a r i f i e d some  of the u n c e r t a i n t i e s c l o a k i n g  Hong  Kong's f u t u r e .  The  B r i t i s h and Hong Kong governments  spared no  e f f o r t s to  promote the J o i n t D e c l a r a t i o n  Hong Kong  people  the w o r l d . that  The Chinese  they  would  Declaration. stipulated  The  e s t a b l i s h e d t o serve  There  Declaration.  t h i s purpose.  ruthless  two  was  then  Many people p r e p a r e d  kinds  of  reactions  to  the  Joint  Some people were happy t o see Hong  masters.  they They  dissidents. (1966-1976)  1997.  believe had  Communist government, which,  Revolution  Group,  the HKSAR.  because  repressing  Liaison  Joint  which was dubbed the " m i n i -  r e t u r n i n g t o t h e motherland i n stricken  and  declared  the  J o i n t Declaration,  B a s i c Law,  of  were  t o implement  Sino-British Joint the  f o r d r a f t i n g the  B r i t i s h governments  cooperate  in  constitution"  and  to  no  that  Many were  t o them, had  alarmed  panic-  Communists  confidence  Reminders  Kong  of  people.  in  are the  a h i s t o r y of the  Cultural  Many  local  60  i n h a b i t a n t s had w i t n e s s e d t h e a t r o c i t i e s o f Communists during p o l i t i c a l and c i v i l i a n s .  purges  against s o l d i e r s , bureaucrats,  Some were v i c t i m s o f t h e s e purges and had  f l e d t o Hong Kong. They cannot f o r g e t t h e p a s t think of leaving the t e r r i t o r y before the  and w i l l  Chinese  flag  i s r a i s e d . The r i c h a r e a f r a i d o f l o s i n g t h e i r money a f t e r 1997. Hong Kong has r a p i d l y developed d u r i n g t h e l a s t two decades i n t o one o f A s i a ' s l e a d i n g f i n a n c i a l c e n t r e s . On t h e o t h e r hand, China has had a planned economy s i n c e 1949, and adopted a s o - c a l l e d "open" p o l i c y o n l y t e n y e a r s ago. The pace o f development i n t h e mainland l a g s that i n the colony.  Hong Kong  o f l i v i n g much h i g h e r than When Hong Kong becomes  people enjoy  f a r behind a  standard  t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n China.  p a r t o f China, i t w i l l be e a s i e r  f o r t h e mainlanders t o come t o Hong Kong. t h a t t h e i r j e a l o u s y w i l l cause  the  I t i s claimed  Chinese government  t o check t h e growth o f wages and freedoms (e.g. t o t r a v e l abroad) people now enjoy Freedom o f pursuits.  (Hicks,  expression  1989).  i s vital  to  intellectual  C r e a t i v i t y and i n i t i a t i v e grow when p e o p l e a r e  f r e e t o choose t h e i r c a r e e r s and improve t h e i r of l i f e .  I n d i v i d u a l i s m , market economy, and r u l e o f law  shape an open s o c i e t y i n which people a r e working own  good.  quality  This  type  of society  varies  for their  dramatically  61  from  a  socialist  Party's  one  where Communist i d e o l o g y and  i n s t r u c t i o n s permeate d a i l y  p e o p l e a r e used t o a c l e a r private  life.  life.  the  Hong Kong  s e p a r a t i o n o f government  and  People who have been f r e e f o r so l o n g a r e  r e s i s t a n t t o t i g h t e n e d c o n t r o l . The advent o f 1997 causes p e o p l e t o wonder about the e x t e n t t o which they can enjoy civic  liberties. Fear  of  Communist i n t e r f e r e n c e has  i n h a b i t a n t s t o emigrate.  driven  many  The r i c h go away w i t h c a p i t a l  needed f o r l o c a l investment. The d e p a r t u r e o f the middle c l a s s has s l a s h e d i n l a n d revenue as they a r e bearers  i n terms of income  and  heavy t a x  consumption.  At t h i s  time o f w r i t i n g , a " b r a i n - d r a i n " had emerged because well-educated numbers.  are  There  moving t o  are  no  the  other c o u n t r i e s i n  official  large  r e c o r d s o f how  many  r e s i d e n t s have emigrated s i n c e the s i g n i n g o f the S i n o B r i t i s h J o i n t D e c l a r a t i o n , but  the government  t h a t about 40 t o 50 thousand people year.  M i g r a t i o n of  undermine People  the  often  these  a r e e m i g r a t i n g every  better-off  socioeconomic w e l l - b e i n g refer  to this  estimates  difficult  people  will  of the colony. situation  as  a  " c o n f i d e n c e problem. " People need t o be a s s u r e d t h a t they w i l l not l o s e t h e i r freedoms and p r o p e r t y a f t e r For  those who  democratization  are unable or u n w i l l i n g  should  be a c h i e v e d i n  a  to  1997. leave,  decolonized  62  Hong Kong. 1980's  when  entitled 1981. to  A pro-democracy movement s t a r t e d e a r l y i n t h e the  government i s s u e d  "District  Administration  the in  White  Hong  Paper  Kong"  The Paper demonstrated t h e government's improve  administration  encourage  inhabitants'  districts. elections  at  district  participation  intent  level in  But t h e v a l u e o f t h e Paper i s t h e c a l l  for  o f some members t o t h e D i s t r i c t Boards, which  this  move  as  an  political participation. elections  and  their  were s e t up f o r a d v i s i n g l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . viewed  in  important  step  People  in  local  They began d i s c u s s i o n s on how  can h e l p promote democracy i n Hong Kong where  the m a j o r i t y o f c i t i z e n s a r e s a i d t o have been p o l i t i c a l l y apathetic.  Another White Paper e n t i t l e d  Development o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e  Government  (1984) t r i e d t o t a c k l e t h e problem i n Hong Kong. to  represent  A c o l o n i a l government t h e people.  b u r e a u c r a c y t o r u l e . The representatives  elected  "The  Further  i n Hong  Kong"  of "representation" can  hardly  claim  The B r i t i s h s e t up a c o l o n i a l l e g i s l a t u r e i s not composed by people, but a  cluster  e l i t e p e o p l e hand-picked by t h e government t o s e r v e "appointed  members."  manifestation  of of as  T h i s k i n d o f l e g i s l a t u r e i s not a  o f " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e democracy."  But t h i s  White Paper s t a t e d t h e government's wishes t o " r e p r e s e n t a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y t h e views o f t h e p e o p l e o f Hong Kong, and  63  which  i s more d i r e c t l y a c c o u n t a b l e t o t h e p e o p l e o f Hong  Kong" (p. 3 ) . I t advocated t h e development o f a r e p r e sentative  government  c o n s i d e r e d as a local  (district)  i n Hong Kong.  reformation level.  This  step  can be  a t t h e c e n t r a l r a t h e r than  The government made a  break-  through by i n t r o d u c i n g some members i n t o the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l through i n d i r e c t e l e c t i o n s i n 1985. A t f i r s t t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l was composed o f members e l e c t e d by t h e e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e and f u n c t i o n a l c o n s t i t u e n c i e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , members appointed members.  by  t h e Governor, and o f f i c i a l  T h i s l e g i s l a t u r e then began t o  include  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e elements. But a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  some  democracy  i s d e r i v e d from d i r e c t e l e c t i o n s . The government was t o o cautious  to  hold d i r e c t  e l e c t i o n s i n 1985.  The Paper  kept t h e  o p t i o n f o r d i r e c t e l e c t i o n open and promised  t o review i t i n 1987. There  a r e some  reservations  reasons  about d i r e c t  why  t h e government  has  e l e c t i o n s . Hong Kong has no  t r a d i t i o n o f p a r t y p o l i t i c s and, as a r e s u l t ,  local i n -  h a b i t a n t s are regarded as b e i n g p o l i t i c a l l y a p a t h e t i c . I t is  claimed  that  a change  i n t h e composition  of the  L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l w i l l cause d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n p o l i t i c a l t r a d i t i o n and i n s t a b i l i t y i n s o c i e t y .  A f t e r the b i r t h of  the  Sino-British Joint Declaration  i n 1984, any p l a n s  for  p o l i t i c a l development should be kept i n accordance  64  with the Basic  Law, promulgated by China  d r a s t i c o r fundamental changes w i l l be harmful t o a  i n 1990. Any  i n t h e p o l i t i c a l system  smooth t r a n s i t i o n t o 1997. B r i t a i n  i s not w i l l i n g t o t a k e the r i s k because i t wants t o p r o t e c t its  own  interests  and a l s o  look  after  t h e economic  p r o s p e r i t y and s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y o f Hong Kong u n t i l 30 June 1997. Pro-democracy direct  elections  supporters i n 1988.  were  anxious  to  hold  They thought t h a t d i r e c t  e l e c t i o n s would g i v e people an o p p o r t u n i t y  t o know what  democracy means. They argued t h a t p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n s h o u l d be encouraged i n t h e t e r r i t i o r y . While Hong Kong w i l l be a l l o w e d t o keep i t s c a p i t a l i s t system f o r 50 y e a r s (as  said  i n the  supporters mainland.  Joint  Declaration),  strived to inhibit They  claim  that  pro-democracy  intervention  from t h e  a l e g i s l a t u r e composed o f  d i r e c t l y e l e c t e d members w i l l s a f e g u a r d t h e i n t e r e s t s o f local  inhabitants.  Pro-democracy s u p p o r t e r s  have an  i d e a l : t h e f u t u r e HKSAR should have a community o f c i v i c minded o f HKSAR  r e s i d e n t s , and t h e  government  and l e g i s l a t u r e  should be a c c o u n t a b l e t o the p e o p l e .  Therefore,  b e f o r e 1997 the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l has t o i n c l u d e members who can t r u l y r e p r e s e n t  t h e p e o p l e . Although t h e r e were  demands f o r d i r e c t e l e c t i o n s t o t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l i n 1988, t h e B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n h a l t e d t h e push f o r  65  political  reform  i n Hong Kong. C r i t i c s  concluded  that  B r i t a i n s t a y e d i n a n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n because o f p r e s s u r e from China t o check the d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n movement (Cheng, 1989) . S i n c e 1985, Chinese o f f i c i a l s have r e i t e r a t e d t h a t people asking  f o r p o l i t i c a l reforms s h o u l d bear i n mind  t h e need t o converge w i t h t h e B a s i c Law.  Hong Kong s h o u l d  not go too f a r i n changing the p o l i t i c a l system. The f u t u r e HKSAR w i l l be a d m i n i s t e r e d  according  to  B r i t a i n s h o u l d r e t u r n the t e r r i t o r y as 150  y e a r s t o China The  Green  in  the B a s i c  Law.  i t has been f o r  1997.  Paper  entitled  "The  1987  Review  of  Development i n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Government" r e p r e s e n t e d a B r i t i s h withdrawal  from  "democratization."  d e a l t w i t h the c o n t r o v e r s y o f key manner. I n t r o d u c i n g  a  The  direct elections  Paper i n a low  d i r e c t l y e l e c t e d element i n t o  t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l i n 1988 was f o r r e f o r m i n g the C o u n c i l .  t r e a t e d as an o p t i o n  Hong Kong people were asked  t o g i v e t h e i r comments on the o p t i o n s t o the Survey O f f i c e s e t up  by the government.  s u p p o r t e r s had  been  Although  fighting  hard t o  p u b l i c , they l o s t the b a t t l e . The "The  White  mobilize  The  concluded t h a t time was not  t o h o l d d i r e c t e l e c t i o n s f o r the People s h o u l d wait u n t i l  the  Paper e n t i t l e d  Development o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Government:  Forward" i s s u e d i n 1988  1988.  t h e pro-democracy  Way ripe  Legislative Council  1991  when the  in  Legislative  66  Council  will  then have  a  number  of d i r e c t l y  elected  members. The  pro-democracy  efforts.  A  to  t h e i r opinions  voice  should into  proceed.  These  include  businessmen, workers.  Law. The  groups  about  groups  some  how  can  were formed  democratization  roughly  be  divided  t h e i r views  second d r a f t  first  the  to  Councillors,  educators  Each s e c t i o n had p l a n s  sent  Two  Legislative  professionals,  Committee r e g a r d i n g and  of p o l i t i c a l  reduce t h e i r  t h r e e s e c t i o n s : c o n s e r v a t i v e , moderate and l i b e r a l .  Members  They  number  movement d i d not  the  for  and  community  p o l i t i c a l reform.  Basic  Law  Consultative  f i r s t d r a f t (issued A p r i l  ( i s s u e d February 1989)  of  themes i n the d r a f t s caught t h e i r  the  with  the method f o r c o n s t i t u t i n g the l e g i s l a t u r e a f t e r  1997.  have  The  second was  Chief  concerned  Discussions  of the HKSAR.  Basic  attention.  r e l a t e d t o the method f o r s e l e c t i n g the  Executive  1988)  were focused on when the  directly  elected  elected  by  would  when  Chief  Executive  would  Arguments  v a r i e d on the percentage o f  indirectly  be  members and  legislature  e l e c t e d members a f t e r  b i c a m e r a l system would be s u i t a b l e were v i g o r o u s debates i n the where members were coming  the  universal  1997  suffrage.  directly and  whether  f o r Hong Kong.  B a s i c Law from Hong  and a  There  D r a f t i n g Committee Kong and  China t o  67  work out t h e d r a f t s t o g e t h e r . Consensus had t o be so t h a t the B a s i c  Law can ensure Hong Kong people a c l e a r  p o l i t i c a l future. i n March  reached  The B a s i c Law was  f i n a l l y promulgated  1990.  While the pro-democracy movement worked f o r an open and  free  political identity  in  Hong  Kong, a campaign  was waged t o open " e x i t o p t i o n s . " Although t h e debate right  of  abode i n the UK  for  three  million  on  British  p a s s p o r t h o l d e r s i n Hong Kong had abated a f t e r the b i r t h of  the  still  Joint  Declaration,  lobbying i n the B r i t i s h  would f i n d  moral  responsibility.  million  people may  but  such "a  insurance" mately a  an  was  other  hand,  thought  to  a l l e g e d Communist  was  these  be  a  three  to s e t t l e  in  "political  threat. U l t i -  i s s u e d i n December 1989.  Kong people  Territory Citizens  holding  privileged  British  About  Dependent  (BDTCs) p a s s p o r t s are supposed t o be  granted f u l l B r i t i s h passports. a  people  " n a t i o n a l i t y package" f o r Hong Kong B r i t i s h  passport holders 225,000 Hong  the  million  Britain  deemed by many as  not be a b l e or w i l l i n g  pledge  against  new  On  frequent  Parliament.  i t d i f f i c u l t to grant three  r i g h t o f abode i n UK though i t was  for  community  remembered t h i s dormant r i g h t . There was  political  UK,  the  elite,  But t h i s r i g h t i s o n l y  including  the  well-educated  people, t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s , and those who have " c l o s e t i e s "  68  with B r i t a i n .  The average c i t i z e n may f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t  t o b e n e f i t from the package.  People c o n t i n u e t o f i g h t f o r  a l a r g e r package t o i n c l u d e more BDTC p a s s p o r t h o l d e r s . They w i l l need the coverage t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e t o s t a y i n Hong Kong. Repercussions The  emigration  "brain-drain." graduates  i n Education  of well-educated  people  positions  organizations.  a  Among the emigrants, many were u n i v e r s i t y  who had p r e v i o u s l y o c c u p i e d  management  caused  middle  i n government  and  and t o p business  V a c a n c i e s l e f t by them a r e hard t o f i l l  because i t t a k e s time and energy t o t r a i n Kong f o l l o w s a B r i t i s h e l i t i s t  people.  As Hong  model o f e d u c a t i o n , t h e  d e p a r t u r e o f u n i v e r s i t y graduates weakens t h e s o c i o e c o nomic  development  i n the  territory.  The Hong  Kong  government t r i e d t o cope w i t h t h i s i n a v a r i e t y o f ways. On t h e one hand, i t gave f a v o u r a b l e employment c o n d i t i o n s t o emigrants  who l e f t  to gain c i t i z e n s h i p  c o u n t r y and then r e t u r n e d t o  Hong Kong.  hand, i t expanded t h e p r o v i s i o n o f  higher  c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y Technology and t h e Open L e a r n i n g were  of  Institute  in  another  On t h e o t h e r and a d u l t / Science  o f Hong Kong  e s t a b l i s h e d t o produce more d e g r e e - h o l d e r s  qualified  and  and  people.  "1997" has had a g r e a t impact  on a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g  69  education  i n Hong Kong.  People have t o p r e p a r e f o r a  t r a n s i t i o n from c o l o n i a l r u l e t o i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h China. For a p e r s o n who has been l i v i n g i n a f r e e s o c i e t y f o r many years,  the  prospect  of  such a t r a n s i t i o n  is  sobering.  A l t h o u g h the HKSAR w i l l be g i v e n a h i g h degree o f autonomy, Chinese o f f i c i a l s have c o n s t a n t l y r e i t e r a t e d Kong i s a p a r t of  China.  The  t h a t Hong  Chinese government w i l l  not t o l e r a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n from f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s c o n c e r n i n g the p o l i t i c a l development i n Hong Kong. The f u t u r e o f Hong Kong w i l l be deemed a p u r e l y i n t e r n a l a f f a i r o f China. But as China t i g h t e n s i t s c o n t r o l o f Hong Kong, p e o p l e l o s e confidence Facing  i n the  future.  t h i s "human gap, "  (between the unprecedented  s i t u a t i o n o f Hong Kong and p e o p l e ' s c a p a c i t y t o cope w i t h it)  people  might  find  maintenance  inadequate. In  this  help.  Elmandjra  Botkin,  case,  or  shock  learning  " i n n o v a t i v e l e a r n i n g " would and  M a l i t z a (1979) a s s e r t e d  t h a t " i n n o v a t i v e l e a n i n g i s a n e c e s s a r y means o f p r e p a r i n g individuals  and  s o c i e t i e s to  act  i n concert  s i t u a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y those t h a t have been, and t o be, c r e a t e d by humanity  itself"  (p.12).  in  continue  There are  f e a t u r e s of i n n o v a t i v e l e a r n i n g : a n t i c i p a t i o n and ticipation. nature,  two par-  While maintenance l e a r n i n g i s r e a c t i v e by  anticipation refers  make p l a n s  new  to a proactive  effort  to  f o r f u t u r e . A n t i c i p a t o r y l e a r n i n g asks p e o p l e  70  t o imagine s c e n a r i o s and  look  for  long-term  desirable  a l t e r n a t i v e s i n d e a l i n g w i t h awkward s i t u a t i o n s . p a t i o n i s both a  right  should p a r t i c i p a t e  and a  responsibility.  i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  t h e i r s c h o o l s , workplace, and community. learning  urges  articulate feelings f o r one  people  their  to  Partici-  find  out  People  processes  of  Participatory their  i n t e r e s t s > exchange  rights,  values  and  with, o t h e r s , and work out t o g e t h e r what i s good and t h e o t h e r .  The theme of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n n o v a t i v e l e a r n i n g i s of  much s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the people of  begin  to  be  aware  of  the  Hong  importance  p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s awareness has  Kong. People of  political  come a l o n g w i t h  promotion o f c i v i c e d u c a t i o n . C i t i z e n s h i p t r a i n i n g  the i s one  o f t h e major f u n c t i o n s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . The t r a n s i t i o n period  t o 1997  i s h i s t o r i c i n the development o f a d u l t /  c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n (ACE) i n Hong Kong. People ACE  will  be  important  know t h a t  f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o upgrade  their  knowledge and s k i l l s i n o r d e r t o d e a l w i t h changes i n l i f e . But t h e y  often  f o r g e t the s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f  adult  education f o r that t r a n s i t i o n period. In d i s c u s s i n g Eduard Lindeman's c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the development o f t h e o r y and p h i l o s o p h y i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , Brookfield of  adult  (1984) p o i n t e d out t h a t the s o c i a l education  has  often  been  relevance  neglected  by  71  practitioners.  What  Lindeman  f i e l d i s t o i n t r o d u c e the  has c o n t r i b u t e d  t o the  concept "andragogy" a t a time  e a r l i e r than Malcolm Knowles d i d . H i s c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n o f the meaning of e x p e r i e n c e i n a d u l t work o f  Paulo  Freire.  be used "as a  force  To Lindeman, t o counter  demagogy, dominance, and e d u c a t i o n works tion  o f an  life  preceded  adult education  the t h r e a t s posed  d i c t a t o r s h i p " (p.191).  f o r democracy, which e n t a i l s  informed  citizenry  e d u c a t o r s s h o u l d not o n l y  in social  can by  Adult  participa-  action. Adult  h o l d a s e r v i c e o r i e n t a t i o n but  a t t e n d t o the s o c i a l purposes o f the A d u l t educators  the  field.  i n Hong Kong have been urged t o  pay  a t t e n t i o n t o the p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l change i n the run-up to  1997. But they are p a r t o f the community and  have t h e i r  own p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s and these w i l l l i k e l y i n f l u e n c e t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of developments i n the  field.  72  CHAPTER V SCENARIOS FOR THE FUTURE  In  one r e s p e c t , t h e  already  been  designated  Declaration.  Some  disappointment;  future  think  e d u c a t o r s , businessmen  Hong  Kong  i n the S i h o - B r i t i s h  believe  some  of  Hong  has Joint  Kong  i s doomed t o  otherwise.  Politicians,  and the common people a r e l o o k i n g  f o r ways t o d e a l w i t h changes i n t h e 1990's.  Society  must p r o g r e s s even though changes may not be p o s i t i v e . People  have  drives  democratized Hong c o n t r o l . While Hong  Kong,  political  society,  but a  Kong would be d i f f i c u l t f o r China t o  people a r e f i g h t i n g  they  system  to liberalize  are warned  f o r democracy i n  by China n o t t o change t h e  so much, (e.g. a l e g i s l a t u r e composed  by a l l d i r e c t l y e l e c t e d members) . The Chinese government would l i k e t o see the p o l i t i c a l system remain e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same  as i t was i n c o l o n i a l t i m e s .  However,  i f Hong  Kong i s t o remain s t a b l e and prosperous, people w i l l work h a r d f o r f u t u r e development.  Socioeconomic  political  visions.  development  e d u c a t o r s and businessmen f u t u r e o f Hong concrete  Kong.  situations.  need  as w e l l as Politicians,  have t h e i r  own v i s i o n s o f the  But v i s i o n s  must be based upon  Scenarios help c r y s t a l l i z e v i s i o n s  and, c o n c e r n i n g 1997, t h r e e have emerged.  73  The " C o n t i n u i n g P r o s p e r i t y " S c e n a r i o About 62 p e r c e n t o f the p o p u l a t i o n have s t a y e d i n Hong Kong.  Lower c l a s s people d i d not have enough money  or knowledge and s k i l l s t o emigrate.  They a r e p e s s i m i s t i c  about t h e f u t u r e but can do n o t h i n g t o  change i t . Most  a r e not concerned about who i s i n government but o n l y c a r e about whether they can go t o work everyday  and g e t p a i d  every month. J u n i o r c i v i l s e r v a n t s worry t h a t t h e i r superannuation fund may not be redeemed a f t e r r e t i r e m e n t . D i s c i p l i n a r y f o r c e s , e.g. p o l i c e and c o r r e c t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , a r e plagued by low morale because those who  give orders  have changed. Some  businessmen who  have p r e v i o u s l y t r a d e d w i t h  China are s t a y i n g t o l o o k f o r more o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e Chinese market.  They b e l i e v e t h a t good p r o s p e c t s emerge  from China's open i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e p o l i c y .  Hong Kong  i s a f r e e p o r t t h a t s e r v e s as a b r i d g e between China western  t r a d e r s . The  airport  i s overcrowded w i t h  and busy  f l i g h t s and h o t e l s are f u l l y booked. Horse r a c e s c o n t i n u e and s t o c k markets boom. B i d s f o r r e a l e s t a t e h i t t h e r e c o r d prices. O l d e r people s t a y because e m i g r a t i o n i s t o o d i f f i c u l t a t t h e i r stage o f l i f e .  It  them  to  adopt a new  They do not worry about the  new  life-style.  i s not  easy  for  government because such a change does not mean t o o much  74  t o them. and  They have been p o l i t i c a l l y a p a t h e t i c f o r y e a r s  would  n o t ask f o r t h i n g s  from  t h e government. A  m i n o r i t y o f people a r e p l e a s e d t h a t Hong Kong has r e t u r n e d t o i t s motherland.  People b e l i e v e t h a t t h e HKSAR enjoys  a h i g h degree o f autonomy w h i l e b e i n g p a r t o f China.  Hong  Kong c o n t i n u e s t o p r o s p e r . The "Wait and See" S c e n a r i o I t i s 1997 and about 20 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n have l e f t Hong Kong t e m p o r a r i l y .  The middle c l a s s people have  sought c i t i z e n s h i p i n a f o r e i g n c o u n t r y . They come back to of  Hong Kong a f t e r g e t t i n g a them  foreign  passport.  Most  a r e p r o f e s s i o n a l s and businessmen who have no  c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e HKSAR but a r e r e l u c t a n t t o g i v e up what they have e s t a b l i s h e d i n Hong Kong. the s i t u a t i o n remains good.  They s t a y as l o n g as  But p r e c a u t i o n a r y measures  have been adopted. They have t r a n s f e r r e d most o f t h e i r s a v i n g s t o t h e c o u n t r y i n which they have c i t i z e n s h i p and purchased  one-year round open a i r - t i c k e t s t o i t .  Some  d e p o s i t f o r e i g n c u r r e n c i e s i n banks w i t h i n Hong Kong. I f nothing  happens,  regularly.  they  travel  i n and o u t Hong  Kong  Once t h e s t o c k market plunges, banks a r e r u n  on o r t h e People L i b e r a t i o n Army b e g i n t o march i n t o t h e town, they j u s t take t h e i r p a s s p o r t s and board t h e p l a n e s . As t h e " b r a i n d r a i n " deepens, t h e government  and many  business organizations a t t r a c t "brain-drainers" t o stay  75  i n Hong Kong t o work by good pay package.  Once Hong Kong  i s f i n i s h e d , a number o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s are  emptied out. Many f a c e s d i s a p p e a r on once t h e b u s i e s t  streets. The " I t ' s A l l o v e r " S c e n a r i o About Kong  18 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n have l e f t  permanently.  The upper  and  upper-middle  people are a f r a i d of l o s i n g t h e i r wealth Ten b i l l i o n  and  Hong class  freedoms.  d o l l a r s have l e f t f o r Canada, A u s t r a l i a , t h e  US and B r i t a i n .  A HKSAR c u r r e n c y has r e p l a c e d t h e former  B r i t i s h Hong Kong d o l l a r .  People a r e f o r c e d t o c o n v e r t  t h e i r cash i n t o HKSAR d o l l a r s a t t h e China Bank.  Entre-  p r e n e u r s a r e " a d v i s e d " t o i n v e s t i n China p r o j e c t s i n o r d e r to  prove  their  "patriotism."  There  are  calls  on  t e l e v i s i o n , r a d i o and newspapers f o r p e o p l e t o buy HKSAR government bonds. change.  The government c o n t r o l s f o r e i g n  ex-  The HKSAR money cannot be brought i n and out Hong  Kong f r e e l y .  Those who  wish t o l e a v e Hong Kong f o r any  reason s h o u l d a p p l y f o r an e x i t v i s a even though t h e y h o l d B r i t i s h N a t i o n a l s (Overseas) p a s s p o r t s . Pay i n c r e a s e s a r e f r o z e n and s t r i k e s banned.  Neighbourhood v i g i l a n c e com-  mittees are e s t a b l i s h e d f o r r e p o r t i n g " p l o t s " to subvert the  People's Republic.  The  People L i b e r a t i o n Army i s  s t a t i o n e d i n a l l former B r i t i s h b a r r a c k s . the  October  1 National  Day.  Public  D r i l l runs on  services  such  as  76  sewage, garbage d i s p o s a l and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n have d e t e r i o r a t e d because workers are p o o r l y p a i d and the " b r a i n d r a i n " has  taken  away  skilled  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . Schools  lack  e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s and p u b l i c h o s p i t a l s a r e s h o r t o f d o c t o r s and n u r s e s . C o r r u p t i o n plagues government d e p a r t ments.  E l e c t i o n s a r e h e l d but o n l y t h o s e c a n d i d a t e s  who  have been "screened" by the C e n t r a l People's Government can run f o r o f f i c e . These  three  incorporated  The economy s t a g n a t e s . s c e n a r i o s c o n t a i n elements  into  a  survey  purposes o f t h i s study. The impact  of  1997  on  the  conducted  to  t h a t were  achieve  the  survey was concerned w i t h the  shape  o f ACE.  I t s impact  examined by a s k i n g a d u l t e d u c a t o r s t o e s t i m a t e  was  how  the  i n t e r e s t s i n the c o n t e n t o f ACE w i l l v a r y f o r the t h r e e kinds  o f p e o p l e : those s t a y i n g , t h o s e l e a v i n g  temporarily,  or those  l e a v i n g permanently.  were a l s o asked t o e s t i m a t e how (methods and  t h e use  Hong  Kong  Respondents  of the  processes  t e c h n i q u e s ) of ACE w i l l i n c r e a s e or decrease  i n Hong Kong g e n e r a l l y and i n t h e i r workplace.  As "1997"  i s a p o l i t i c a l problem, the survey a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d the extent  to  educators  which would  the  political  influence  orientations  their  c o n c e r n i n g the development o f t h e  estimates field.  of  adult  and  views  77  CHAPTER VI INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT  A survey was c a r r i e d out t o study how the 1997 i n f l u e n c e d the development of a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g (ACE)  i n Hong Kong. The  parts.  The  first  questionnaire  listed  p r o c e s s e s o f ACE.  the  education  consisted of three  c o n t e n t and  The c o n t e n t of ACE  problem  the  second  the  r e f e r r e d t o a number  o f academic o r p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t s covered by ACE programs. The  p r o c e s s e s o f ACE  (Verner,  1964).  r e f e r r e d t o methods and  The  third  part  of  the  techniques  questionnaire  concerned the sociodemographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f r e s p o n d e n t s . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e f e r r e d t o t h e i r background i n ACE  (years o f s e r v i c e , p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n c e r n and  role),  t h e i r views c o n c e r n i n g the purposes o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and their political education social  were  Boshier's  responsibility,  competence. &  orientations.  Verba's  Political (1963)  The  (1985)  social  change  of  adult  integration,  and  technical  r e f e r r e d t o Almond  a f f e c t i v e and  o r i e n t a t i o n s towards the p o l i t i c a l  evaluative  context.  Construction  P a r t I o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e content of  social  orientations  cognitive,  Item  purposes  adult education.  c o n t a i n e d items about the  There were 45 s u b j e c t  items  a r r a y e d i n n i n e c a t e g o r i e s . T a b l e 1 shows a l l s u b j e c t items  78  Table 1 The 45 Subject Items i n Part I o f the questionnaire.  Chinese Language  English Language  Languages Japanese Language  Home Gardening  Hobby Handicrafts  Hobbies Fashion Design  China Trade  Company Law  Social Work  Chinese Philosophy  Business & Commerce I n t e r n a t i o n a l Investment Advertising Trade Planning /Marketing Law Criminal Law  Property Law Religious & Ethno-cultural Studies  Training of T r a i n e r s  Human Resources Management  Computer Technology  Chef Training  Biomedicine  Chinese Calligraphy  China Studies Chinese Arts  Chinese Legal System  Accounting & Auditing  French Language  Labour Law i n H.K.  S o c i a l Sciences Moral Education  Management Office Management  Health Education  Supervisory Management  Technical Training Carpentry Mechanical Engineering  Applied Sciences Civil Environmental Engineering Science (Ecology)  Human Geography  German Language  Hobby Photography  Chinese History  Banking Practice  Hong Kong Taxation Law  Civic Education  Worker Training  Driving  Information Management  79  i n Part I. These  subject  their popularity  items  were  i n Hong Kong.  o f f e r programs about  them.  selected  because  Many ACE  of  institutions  "China S t u d i e s " was  added  because o f an a n t i c i p a t e d i n c r e a s e i n c o n t a c t s w i t h China i n t h e run-up t o 1997. In t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e s e 45 s u b j e c t items were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d throughout Part  I of the questionnaire.  Chinese  Language, Item  F o r example,  2 Home Gardening,  Item  Item  1 was  3 China  Trade... Respondents were i n v i t e d t o use a f i v e - p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e (Wiersma, 1986) t o show t h e e x t e n t t o which i n t e r e s t in  each  subject  (e.g. I n f o r m a t i o n Management)  will  d e c r e a s e s t r o n g l y , decrease, remain e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same, increase or increase strongly.  Respondents were asked t o  e s t i m a t e t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e i n t e r e s t ( i n each s u b j e c t ) of p e o p l e s t a y i n g i n Hong Kong, t h o s e l e a v i n g Hong Kong t e m p o r a r i l y o r t h o s e l e a v i n g Hong Kong permanently decrease o r increase.  They gave t h e i r answers by c i r c l i n g  one o f t h e f i v e responses "increase  (from "decrease s t r o n g l y " t o  strongly").  P a r t I I o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e comprised items the processes of adult education. were  will  selected  because  of t h e i r  about  The 18 p r o c e s s items frequent  use  i n ACE  programs. Nine o f them were methods; n i n e were t e c h n i q u e s .  80  Table  2 shows a l l p r o c e s s  items i n Part I I .  Table 2 Adult Education Methods and Techniques  Methods  Techniques  Correspondence Study  Role Play  Class  Educational Games  Exhibitions  Debate  Apprenticeship  Simulation  T u t o r i a l Discussion group  Lecture  Public Education  Group Discussion  campaign  Courses By Computer  Demonstration  Forum  Field Trips  Workshop  Case Studies  The followed  18 p r o c e s s by  items were l i s t e d  one t e c h n i q u e .  Correspondence study,  as  F o r example,  one  method  Item  1 was  Item 2 R o l e p l a y , Item 3 C l a s s . . .  Respondents were asked t o e s t i m a t e  whether t h e u s e  of  t h e s e methods and t e c h n i q u e s w i l l d e c r e a s e o r i n c r e a s e i n Hong Kong g e n e r a l l y and i n t h e i r w o r k p l a c e . their  estimates  by c i r c l i n g  one o f t h e f i v e  They gave response  categories:  Decrease S t r o n g l y , Decrease, Remain  tially  Same,  The  Increase,  Increase  Essen-  Strongly.  81  C o n c e p t u a l Bases f o r Sociodemographic  Questions  Part I I I of the questionnaire c o n s i s t e d of questions concerning  the  respondents.  sociodemographic Questions  characteristics  concerned  the  age,  e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f respondents. were a l s o  asked  i f ACE  is their  primary  of  sex  and  Respondents or  secondary  p r o f e s s i o n a l concern o r i f they a r e p r i m a r i l y a p l a n n e r or t e a c h e r . These c a t e g o r i e s were d e r i v e d from B o s h i e r ' s (1985) Conceptual Framework f o r A n a l y z i n g t h e T r a i n i n g o f T r a i n e r s and A d u l t E d u c a t o r s . Respondents were a l s o asked t o r e p o r t how many y e a r s they had worked f u l l o r p a r t - t i m e in  ACE.  They  importance adult  were  to  also  asked  them)  to  the  rank  four  ( i n order purposes  e d u c a t i o n i n B o s h i e r ' s (1985) model.  important was t o be ranked  The  of of  most  "1," the next "2," and so on.  T a b l e 3 shows t h e c a t e g o r i e s d e r i v e d from t h e B o s h i e r ' s model. The remaining p a r t s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d e a l t w i t h the  political  orientations  beginning,  respondents  percentages  o f r e s i d e n t s who  permanently;  of  were  respondents. asked  will  to  At  the  estimate  the  ( i ) l e a v e Hong Kong  ( i i ) l e a v e Hong Kong t e m p o r a r i l y and ( i i i )  s t a y i n Hong Kong i n the run-up t o 1997. q u e s t i o n s about t h e i r p o l i t i c a l  Then they answered  o r i e n t a t i o n s . Questions  82  Table 3 Dimensions  shaping the sociodemographic  p r o f i l e o f respondents  Primacy o f Role i n ACE  Role occupied i n ACE  Purposes o f ACE  Primary professional concern  Planner  Social integration  Social responsibility  Social change  Secondary professional concern  Technical competence  Teacher  were d e r i v e d from Almond and Verba's (1963) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of  cognitive,  affective  and  evaluative  orientations  towards t h e p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t . T a b l e 4 shows c a t e g o r i e s from Almond and Verba's w i t h each  model and q u e s t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d  orientation.  Respondents were a l s o asked t o i n d i c a t e t h e e x t e n t to  which  exchanges  they  were i n v o l v e d i n  China  trade,  China  o r any p r o j e c t s w i t h C h i n a . F i n a l l y , t h e y were  asked about t h e i r own i n t e n t i o n s :  t o s t a y , l e a v e Hong Kong  t e m p o r a r i l y o r l e a v e permanently  i n the  run-up t o 1997.  The c o g n i t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n q u e s t i o n s were c a s t on a  83  Table 4 List of questions for examining the political orientations of respondents Political Orientations  Questions on  I. Cognitive  - know about the functions of the Executive and Legislative Councils in Hong Kong - know about the difference between HK-style capitalism & "Chinese" (i.e. PRC) socialism - know why and how the Sino-British Joint Declaration was signed - know about the content of the Sino-British Joint Declaration - know about the content of the Draft Basic Law  II. Affective  - feel about the performance of the present Governor since he assumed office - feel about what has happened as a result of the signing of the Sino-British Joint Declaration - feel about the proposal for direct elections for Legislative Council in 1988 - feel about the current proposal for direct elections for Legislative Council in 1991 - feel about the democracy movement in Hong Kong  III. Evaluative  - feel about what will happen in 1997 and beyond - feel the extent to which you are able to control the forces that shape the nature of your life - tell the extent to which the Legislative Councillors can represent your interests - be a registered voter or not - have ever given opinions or suggestions on the Draft Basic Law to the Basic Law Consulative Committee - going to give opinions or suggestions on the Draft Basic Law to the Basic Law Consultative Committee or not  84  seven-point s c a l e .  F o r example, No. 3 asked "How  much  do you f e e l you know about t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between Hong Kong-style c a p i t a l i s m ism?" Respondents  and 'Chinese'  would  ( i . e . PRC)  social-  check: An Immense Amount, Very  Much, Much, A Moderate Amount, L i t t l e , Very L i t t l e , Almost Nothing. For q u e s t i o n s which concerned a f f e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n , respondents a l s o p i c k e d an answer from seven p r e s e n t Governor's performance  was r a t e d  c h o i c e s . The  from Very Good,  Good, S a t i s f a c t o r y , No F e e l i n g One Way Or The Other, F a i r , Poor  t o Very  Poor.  In o t h e r q u e s t i o n s , f e e l i n g s  p e o p l e and t h i n g s were i n d i c a t e d as:  Extremely  t i c / P o s i t i v e , Very O p t i m i s t i c / P o s i t i v e ,  about  Optimis-  Slightly  Opti-  m i s t i c / P o s i t i v e , No F e e l i n g One Way Or The Other, S l i g h t l y Pessimistic/Negative, tremely For  Very  Pessimistic/Negative,  Ex-  Pessimistic/Negative. questions  dents  were asked  These  responses  on e v a l u a t i v e t o choose  could  orientation,  respon-  one out o f s i x r e s p o n s e s .  be: Very Much C o n t r o l / I n v o l v e d ,  Much Control/Involved, Moderate Control/Moderately Involved, Little No  C o n t r o l / I n v o l v e d , Very  Control/Involved  alternative  A t A l l . They  questions.  c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix  L i t t l e Control/Involved,  A.  The complete  s a i d y e s o r no i n questionnaire i s  85  Languages and Forms The  questionnaire  had a Chinese  translation  to  c a t e r t o t h o s e respondents whose E n g l i s h might n o t be good enough t o comprehend possible item  the questions.  f o r respondents  after  already.  they  had  Therefore,  a  B e s i d e s , i t was  t o get t i r e d  responded  to  second  form  at a particular  several of  questions  the  original  q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( c a l l e d Form A) was developed. I t was named Form Form  B.  The o r d e r o f a l l c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s items from  A was  reversed  Language was in  Form A.  Item 1 and  i n Form B.  F o r example, Chinese  Item 1 and I n f o r m a t i o n Management Item 45 But i n Form B, I n f o r m a t i o n Management became  Chinese Language Item 45.  was a p p l i e d t o p r o c e s s items t o o . was Item A.  But  Correspondence  Study  1 and Case S t u d i e s Item 18 i n P a r t I I o f Form i n Form  Correspondence had  The same p r o c e d u r e  their  B,  Case  S t u d i e s became  Study Item 18.  Chinese v e r s i o n s .  Item  1  and  Both Form A and Form The Chinese Form  named Form C and Chinese Form B named Form D.  A Table  B was 5  shows t h e f o u r forms i n two s e t s t h a t v a r y by item o r d e r and language.  P r i o r to conducting a s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s ,  a l l t h e " r e v e r s e d " items (Form B) were " f l i p p e d " so as t o become c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e item o r d e r i n Form A.  86  Table The  5 four forms o f questionnaires i n two sets that vary  by  item  order and language  Items 1-H5  Items 45-1  English  Chinese  Form A  Form C  printed i n blue colour  printed i n yellow colour  Form B printed i n gold colour  Form D printed i n pink colour  Pilot While being Lee  the  Study  f i r s t d r a f t of the questionnaire  w r i t t e n , i t was t a k e n t o C h a r l e s Wong t o check t h e c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y .  content  validity  "content" the  concerned  In  t h e extent  and " p r o c e s s " items  and  this to  adequately  was N.P.  context, which  the  represented  f i e l d o f a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n Hong  Kong.  C h a r l e s Wong and N.P. Lee were e x p e r i e n c e d man and woman adult  educators  from Hong Kong.  They had  programers f o r y e a r s i n E x t r a m u r a l of  The C h i n e s e  U n i v e r s i t y o f Hong  Studies  worked  as  Departments  Kong and U n i v e r s i t y  87  of  Hong  Kong.  To  check  the c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y ,  they  had t o determine whether some items were redundant o r i f o t h e r important ones had examination,  been  left  out.  a l l items were c o n f i r m e d  minor changes.  After  except  For example, some items were  their  f o r some  renamed f o r  c l a r i t y and t h e " A p p l i e d S c i e n c e " c a t e g o r y was s t r e n g t h ened. The amended d r a f t E n g l i s h were  and i t s Chinese v e r s i o n  t a k e n t o Miranda Wong t o check  the  translation.  Miranda Wong, f o r m e r l y a s e n i o r s o c i a l worker from Hong Kong, was  a graduate  o f the  UBC  Diploma  in  Education.  She was  which  Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n corresponded  the  English Part  version.  III,  i n v i t e d t o determine t h e e x t e n t  t o see i f ,  Chinese  rephrased  with  from her p e r s p e c t i v e as  d r a f t was  for  to the  Moreover, she examined q u e s t i o n s  Kong woman, they "made sense." the  Adult  A f t e r her  revised.  b r e v i t y and  Some  some  a  in  Hong  examination,  questions  response  were  categories  reworded f o r b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The 1989.  final  draft  was  completed  in  late  March,  L a t e r t h e "reverse-order-numbering" i n Forms C  D would  have  to  be  compatible w i t h  Forms  A  and  and B.  D i f f e r e n t c o l o u r s were used t o a l e r t t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o t h e "item-numbering"  issue.  88  The Chinese  four  questionnaires:  English  (Forms C and D) a r e c o n t a i n e d  (Forms A and i n Appendix A.  B)  89  CHAPTER V I I METHOD  Population The the  p o p u l a t i o n surveyed c o n s i s t e d o f  Hong  Kong A s s o c i a t i o n  for  members  Continuing  of  Education  (HKACE), graduates and s t u d e n t s o f t h r e e rounds o f UBC  Diploma  i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n ( i n Hong Kong) and heads  o f some major a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s .  Just  170 s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d and each o f them was a  copy  decide  of the questionnaire. who  was  questionnaire. Form  B.  Form A and t h e names  versions.  A dime  was  over mailed  thrown  the f i r s t one t o g e t which form o f  to the  "Heads" s t o o d f o r Form A and " t a i l s " f o r  As a r e s u l t ,  membership l i s t  Chinese  the  the f i r s t  name a p p e a r i n g on the  o f t h e HKACE got Form B, t h e second third and  one Form B a g a i n . addresses  on  Those  the l i s t  got  who  one had  Chinese  But Chinese Forms C and D were a l s o a l t e r n a t e d  amongst t h e  "Chinese names" on the l i s t .  (At t h e time  of  the study, t h e a u t h o r was Honorary S e c r e t a r y o f t h e HKACE and t h u s p e r s o n a l l y  acquainted  with  about  3 0 percent  of t h e members. She thus knew whether E n g l i s h o r would be the p r e f e r r e d  language  in  Chinese  many cases.)  The  same procedure was a p p l i e d t o the t h r e e rounds o f Diploma g r a d u a t e s and s t u d e n t s t o o .  But they a l l got t h e E n g l i s h  v e r s i o n s because they were  assumed t o  understand  the  90  questions w e l l .  Heads  of adult education  institutions  got a l t e r n a t e forms A and B ( E n g l i s h ) as w e l l . Mailing of Questionnaires A l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a i r - m a i l e d to  Hong  Kong  explaining  the  introducing adult  i n mid-April,  1989.  A  from Vancouver cover  purposes o f t h e survey and  t h e UBC diploma and graduate  education  letter  a  leaflet  programs  were e n c l o s e d w i t h each copy  in  of the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e . ( F o l k wisdom c l a i m e d t h a t Hong Kong p e o p l e a r e more i n c l i n e d t o complete a q u e s t i o n n a i r e accompanied of  by  interest.)  completed attached.  a  souvenir  or  Respondents  i fi t i s  a d d i t i o n a l information  were  asked  t o return the  questionnaire i n the self-addressed The  questionnaire  the respondent b u t a  number  I t was e x p l a i n e d i n the  envelope  d i d n o t bear t h e name o f  was coded on i t s back page.  cover l e t t e r  t h a t the code number  was used t o r e c o r d how many q u e s t i o n n a i r e s had been s e n t and  t o count how many p e o p l e d i d n o t r e p l y .  l e t t e r s would then  be s e n t  were  anonymous  and kept  date  was n o t s p e c i f i e d  Follow-up  t o non-respondents.  in strict but a  confidence.  C h r i s t i n e Yeung o f t h e HKACE h e l p e d  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s as they were  A due  prompt r e p l y encouraged.  The r e t u r n address was t h e mail-box o f t h e HKACE Kong.  Replies  returned.  i n Hong  c o l l e c t the  91  Data P r o c e s s i n g and A n a l y s i s Three d a t a c a r d s , each c o n t a i n i n g 80 columns, were used f o r each respondent.  The f i r s t t h r e e columns o f Card  One r e c o r d e d respondents' i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . spondent was coded as "001."  The f i r s t r e -  The f o u r t h column marked  r e s p o n d e n t s ' gender, "1" f o r male and "2" f o r female. The f i f t h and s i x t h columns r e c o r d e d respondents' a c t u a l age. Suppose t h a t respondent  088 was aged 35, t h u s "35" was  p r i n t e d on columns 5 and 6.  Columns 7 t o 20 were used t o  r e c o r d respondents' socioeconomic d a t a and columns 21 t o 44 r e s p o n d e n t s ' answers t o p o l i t i c a l tions.  The s c o r e o f t h e f i r s t  orientation  subject  ques-  item  "Chinese  Language: s t a y i n g " was r e c o r d e d on Column 51.  Remember  t h a t Forms B and D had t h e i r item o r d e r " r e v e r s e d . " While " I n f o r m a t i o n Management: s t a y i n g " was t h e f i r s t  item i n  Forms B and D, a s t e p was added t o a v o i d c o m p l i c a t i o n . The s c o r e o f "Chinese Language: s t a y i n g " i n e v e r y Form B and D was p r i n t e d on Column 51 as w e l l .  Then t h e s c o r e o f  "Chinese Language: l e a v i n g t e m p o r a r i l y " was p u t down on Column 52 and "Chinese Language: l e a v i n g permanently" on Column 53. category,  I f respondents then  t h e column  d i d not c i r c l e was  marked  a  response  "0."  I f the  "Decrease" c a t e g o r y was c i r c l e d , then "2" was p r i n t e d on the  column. Coding o f responses t o s u b j e c t items c o n t i n u e d  u n t i l Column 79.  Column 80 was marked "1" f o r Card One.  92  The f i r s t  s i x columns of Card Two  were l e f t b l a n k .  Then  s c o r e s o f s u b j e c t items c o n t i n u e d t o be marked on Column 7 up t o Column 79. Column 80 of Card Two Then t h e f i r s t  was marked  s i x columns o f Card Three were l e f t  "2.  11  blank  a g a i n and s c o r e s o f s u b j e c t items c o n t i n u e d t o be marked on column 7.  The  first  Study: i n Hong Kong" was  process score:  "Correspondence  marked on Column 44 o f Card Three.  The same arrangement was made t o r e c o r d t h e s c o r e o f "Correspondence Study: i n Hong Kong" i n every Form B and D i n Column 44 even though the f i r s t and D was last  p r o c e s s item i n Forms B  "Case S t u d i e s : i n Hong Kong." The s c o r e o f t h e  process  item  "Case S t u d i e s : i n my  workplace"  was  r e c o r d e d on Column 79 and column 80 was marked "3" f o r Card Three. A word-processing  program was used t o t r a n s m i t d a t a  from c o d i n g forms t o a computer. B e s i d e s the d a t a a control  f i l e was  w r i t t e n up t o p r e p a r e d a t a f o r SPSS  ( S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ) The  control  variables, labels.  file declare  file,  told  SPSS  missing  to  identify  values,  and  analysis.  columns define  for  value  A "Compute" command was used t o average the s c o r e s  f o r each c o n t e n t / p r o c e s s c a t e g o r y .  For example, s c o r e s  of Chinese Language, E n g l i s h Language, Japanese Language, French Language and German Language ( f o r p e o p l e s t a y i n g ) were added t o g e t h e r and d i v i d e d by f i v e i n o r d e r t o y i e l d  93  a t o t a l s c o r e o f "LANGSTAY," meaning "Languages f o r p e o p l e staying."  As w e l l , a t o t a l s c o r e f o r "MTHTOTWP" (Methods  used i n my  workplace)  was  produced by summing over t h e  r e s p o n s e s f o r Correspondence  Study, C l a s s ,  Exhibitions,  A p p r e n t i c e s h i p , T u t o r i a l D i s c u s s i o n Group, P u b l i c Educat i o n Campaigns, Courses By Computer, Forum and Workshop, and d i v i d i n g them by n i n e .  Moreover, a "compute" command  was made t o form age groups (e.g. 20 t o 30, 30 t o 40) based upon respondents' a c t u a l  age.  " F r e q u e n c i e s " were c a l c u l a t e d f o r sex, age  groups,  p r o f e s s i o n a l concern, r o l e , e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , o v e r s e a s degrees, " o r i g i n a l d i s c i p l i n e s " and r e s p o n d e n t s ' "emigration i n t e n t i o n s . "  Such a procedure was  done i n  o r d e r t o check i f t h e r e was any e r r o r i n c o d i n g t h e d a t a . F o r example, i f "3" appeared i n t h e "sex" column, i t would i n d i c a t e a problem because o n l y "1" was used f o r male and "2" f o r female. " C r o s s t a b s " were executed t o c a l c u l a t e t h e p e r c e n t ages o f men sional  and women i n such v a r i a b l e s as age,  concern,  educational discipline"  qualification, and  profesoverseas  degrees,  "original  "emigration  tions."  T a b u l a t i o n s from " f r e q u e n c i e s " and " c r o s s t a b s "  were used t o i d e n t i f y the sociodemographic t i c s of respondents.  A "means" command was  inten-  characterisexecuted i n  o r d e r t o examine the d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women on  94  each  content  and p r o c e s s  variable  (e.g. Business  &  Commerce) f o r each k i n d o f person  ( s t a y i n g , l e a v i n g tem-  p o r a r i l y o r l e a v i n g permanently).  T a b u l a t i o n s from t h e  " d e s c r i p t i v e s " command which y i e l d e d mean s c o r e s o f each c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s c a t e g o r y f o r the t h r e e k i n d s o f p e o p l e were used t o o u t l i n e a map o f what t h e respondents  thought  about t h e a n t i c i p a t e d changes i n c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s e s o f ACE  i n Hong Kong. "Correlation"  was  used  to  check  the  internal  c o n s i s t e n c y o f each c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s c a t e g o r y f o r t h e three  kinds  o f people.  A "t-test"  was c a l c u l a t e d t o  measure t h e t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . " C o r r e l a t i o n " commands were a g a i n executed t h e r e was any s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n dents'  sociodemographic  t o check i f  between  characteristics  respon-  ( e . g . age,  p r o f e s s i o n a l concern, e t c . ) , t h e i r e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g other  residents'  "emigration  intentions"  and  their  e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g changes i n ACE. " C o r r e l a t i o n " was a l s o used t o examine t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between respondents' p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , t h e i r " e m i g r a t i o n i n t e n t i o n s " and their  estimates  concerning  t h e changes  i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between respondents' tations  and t h e i r  ranking  i n ACE. The  political  o f t h e purposes  of  orienadult  e d u c a t i o n were a l s o examined. A "means" command was executed i n o r d e r t o f i n d o u t  95  t h e mean p e r c e n t a g e s o f people who were thought t o be s t a y i n g , l e a v i n g t e m p o r a r i l y o r l e a v i n g permanently w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e respondents' own " e m i g r a t i o n i n t e n t i o n s . " Moreover, such a command was a l s o used t o compute t h e mean degree o f involvement i n China p r o j e c t s ( r a n g i n g from "not i n v o l v e d a t a l l " t o "very much i n v o l v e d " ) f o r each k i n d o f respondent who was i n t e n d i n g t o s t a y , l e a v e temporari l y o r l e a v e permanently.  I n a l l above o p e r a t i o n s , t h e  s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l was s e t a t .05 f o r o n e - t a i l e d o r .01 for two-tailed  tests.  96  CHAPTER VIII RESULTS  E f f e c t of H i s t o r y Campbell  and S t a n l e y (1963) i n t h e i r  influential  a n a l y s i s o f q u a s i and t r u e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n s  listed  a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s that threaten the i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of experimental facto  r e s e a r c h . Although t h i s was an  study, the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e s s was  ex  post  possibly  d i s t o r t e d by the i n t r u s i o n o f t h e massacre i n Tiananmen Square,  China on June 4,  F o l l o w i n g t h e death  1989. o f t h e former S e c r e t a r y G e n e r a l  o f t h e Communist P a r t y , Hu Yao-bang, i n m i d - A p r i l , 1989, massive s t u d e n t movements demanding democracy and opposi n g c o r r u p t i o n were a c t i v e i n B e i j i n g cities  of  China.  democratization of Hong Kong. their China.  Students China  got  who  o t h e r major  pleaded  for  s u p p o r t from  Pro-democracy advocates  c o u n t e r p a r t s ' appeal  and  f o r an  the  people i n  i n Hong Kong echoed open and  democratic  Some had even gone t o B e i j i n g t o v i s i t  on a hunger s t r i k e a t the Tiananmen Square.  students  Newspapers  r e p o r t e d t h a t about 1.5 m i l l i o n p e o p l e marched i n Hong Kong on Sunday, May  28, 1989  Tiananmen Square  i n s u p p o r t o f t h e s t u d e n t s a t the  (see Appendix B). T e n s i o n between t h e  Chinese government and  s t u d e n t s s i t t i n g i n t h e Tiananmen  97  Square  grew  i n l a t e May, 1989.  and s t u d e n t s  M a r t i a l law was d e c l a r e d  were o r d e r e d t o withdraw from t h e Square.  B e f o r e dawn on June 4, t h e government r e s o l v e d t o clamp down on t h i s "chaos" by f o r c e o f arms. Newspapers r e p o r t e d that  numerous  students  and  citizens  i n Beijing  were  massacred by t r o o p s (see Appendix C) . June 4 became a b l a c k day f o r C h i n e s e p e o p l e . The June 4 I n c i d e n t had a g r e a t impact upon Hong Kong. Newspapers r e p o r t e d t h a t hundreds o f thousands o f p e o p l e r a l l i e d t o v o i c e g r i e f and i n d i g n a t i o n and a g e n e r a l s t r i k e was c a l l e d f o r t o mourn t h e dead i n B e i j i n g  (see Appendix  D) . Many Hong Kong p e o p l e were p a n i c - s t r i c k e n and shocked by t h e a t r o c i t i e s o f t h e Communists. plunged  and  thousands  Chinese  banks  The s t o c k market  o f p e o p l e withdrew  (see Appendix  E) .  It  money  from  appeared  that  c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e f u t u r e o f Hong Kong dropped s h a r p l y a f t e r June 4.  I t was suggested t h a t many who p l a n n e d t o s t a y  i n Hong Kong had changed t h e i r minds and would l e a v e . Some sped up t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e m i g r a t i o n .  Business got  hurt badly. The June 4 I n c i d e n t appeared t o a f f e c t t h e p s y c h o l o g y of Hong Kong p e o p l e and t h r e a t e n e d t h e i n t e r n a l o f t h i s study.  By June 4, 1989,  validity  50 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s had  been r e t u r n e d . A f t e r June 4, another 72 completed questionnaires  were s e c u r e d .  Thus,  before  detailing  any  98  r e s u l t s , we s h o u l d e x p l a i n what was done t o examine t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e June 4 I n c i d e n t i n f l u e n c e d t h e r e s u l t s of  this  survey.  A procedure  was added  to distinguish  between q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e t u r n e d b e f o r e o r a f t e r June 4. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e c e i v e d a f t e r June 4 were marked " A f t e r June 4" on t h e i r back page. As  noted above, respondents  were b e i n g  asked  to  make e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e number ( i n percentage) o f people  who would s t a y i n Hong Kong a f t e r 1997,  leave  t e m p o r a r i l y (between 1989 and 1997) o r l e a v e permanently. Prior  t o June  (probability after  June  4, t h e phenonmenon under  o f l e a v i n g ) was r e a s o n a b l y 4,  revising their  i t appeared  investigation stable.  t h a t many p e o p l e  But,  would be  estimates. Reliability  In e a r l y August, 28 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (seven f o r each form and each language) were s e n t t o a group o f i n s t r u c t o r s a t t h e C a r i t a s Centre -Caine  f o r F u r t h e r and A d u l t  Road Day and N i g h t  Schools.  Education-  T h i s was t h e f i r s t  s t e p o f a t e s t / r e t e s t procedure t o check t h e r e l i a b i l i t y of the instrument. dependability p.443).  and  R e l i a b i l i t y comprises predictability"  An instrument  i s reliable  "stability,  ( K e r l i n g e r , 1973, i f i t can produce  c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s over r e p e a t e d measurements. P r i n c i p a l s o f the Schools,  The two  Yat-bong Ma and A u g u s t i n e  99  Chong,  distributed  and  collected  the  questionnaires.  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e t u r n e d were anonymous but marked w i t h t h e d a t e and p l a c e o f b i r t h o f the respondents.  Three weeks  l a t e r , respondents were asked t o do t h e r e t e s t . Two c o p i e s from t h e t e s t and r e t e s t b e a r i n g t h e same date and p l a c e o f b i r t h were matched t o g e t h e r . the  retest.  Therefore,  computing t h e  27  One  valid  s u b j e c t d i d not  cases  were used  do for  results. R e l i a b i l i t y Results  The  reliability  examining  of the  i t s internal  instrument  c o n s i s t e n c y and  was  checked  by  stability-over-  time. Internal  Consistency  The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f each c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s category,  and  respondents'  political  orientations  was  measured by c a l c u l a t i n g c o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a f o r each item using a l l v a l i d cases.  R e c a l l t h a t t h e "Languages" s c o r e  was d e r i v e d by summing over responses c o n c e r n i n g a l l languages and  five  (Chinese, E n g l i s h , Japanese, French and German)  dividing  by  five  to  yield  a  scale  score.  C o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a examines i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e scale.  Those  expected "Business  to  studying be  &  Business  interested Commerce"  could  in a l l five  category  (e.g.  reasonably facets  of  Accounting  be the &  A u d i t i n g , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Trade,...) but t h e same assump-  100  t i o n c o u l d n o t be made f o r languages. interested  i n English  would  F o r example, someone  not n e c e s s a r i l y  i n t e r e s t e d i n Japanese, French o r German.  be  also  Thus i t was no  s u r p r i s e t o f i n d t h a t the strongest alpha scores (denoting c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y ) were on "Management" (mean  alpha  smallest,  .43) and "Law"  but s t i l l  (mean a l p h a  acceptable,  "Languages" ( .27) and  .41).  mean a l p h a s were on  "Hobbies"  ( .28). I t was a l s o  n o t a b l e t h a t respondents made more i n t e r n a l l y e s t i m a t e s f o r people thought those  i n t h e two  highest  alpha  t o be  staying  "leaving" categories.  consistent than  for  Indeed,  the  c o e f f i c i e n t s were t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  e s t i m a t e s about people thought t o exceptions to  The  this  be  s t a y i n g . The two  concerned "Hobbies" and " T e c h n i c a l  Training." Test/Retest Responses done  by  the  correlated.  g a t h e r e d from t h e " t e s t " 27  subjects  at  Caritas  and  "retest"  S c h o o l s were  The r i g h t - h a n d column i n T a b l e 8 shows t h e  mean s t a b i l i t y - o v e r - t i m e c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r a l l c a t e g o r i e s . Most  of  these  Pearson  product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n  c o e f f i c i e n t s were r e g a r d e d as h i g h ( g r e a t e r t h a n A l l b u t one c o e f f i c i e n t ( A p p l i e d  .70).  S c i e n c e s : s t a y i n g ) were  over .50. The instrument was s t a b l e over t i m e .  101  Response Rate October returned then,  20  was t h e c u t - o f f date  questionnaires  f o r the  95 s u b j e c t s had r e t u r n e d  main  their  The response r a t e was 56 p e r c e n t .  for  collecting  study.  Until  questionnaires.  There were 24 c o p i e s  o f E n g l i s h Form A r e t u r n e d , 22 o f E n g l i s h Form B, 24 o f Chinese  Form  C and 25 o f Chinese Form D.  t h e s e 95 s u b j e c t s and another  27 from t h e  Data  from  reliability  p r o c e d u r e y i e l d e d a t o t a l o f 122. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Respondents The p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f 83 men and 39 women a d u l t educators. acteristics.  T a b l e 6 shows t h e i r socio-demographic  char-  Many (37.7 p e r c e n t ) were i n t h e i r 30s. The  m a j o r i t y (59.2 p e r c e n t ) regarded a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g educat i o n as t h e i r secondary p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n c e r n . Almost h a l f o f them other  (49.5 p e r c e n t ) c l a i m e d t o be a p l a n n e r and t h e  half  (50.5 p e r c e n t ) a t e a c h e r .  t h e y had a u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n .  Most o f them s a i d  Many (34.4 p e r c e n t ) had  u n i v e r s i t y degrees p l u s a d d i t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .  Among  t h o s e who had o v e r s e a s degrees, a s l i g h t m a j o r i t y (25.7 p e r c e n t ) g o t them from t h e U n i t e d Kingdom w h i l e 20 p e r c e n t were from Canada and another 20 p e r c e n t from Taiwan. More than a q u a r t e r (27.1 p e r c e n t ) o f t h e s e a d u l t  educators  r e g a r d e d B u s i n e s s and Commerce as t h e i r o r i g i n a l pline  while  23.7 p e r c e n t had A r t s & Humanities.  disciAbout  102 Table 6 Socio-demographic characteristics of respondents Characteristics  Men n  %  Women n  % 100.0 31.1 37.7 22.1 8.2 .8 x = 2.23 sig= .69  32.5 46.2 53.8  120 49 71  100.0 40.8 59.2 x = .39 sig= .53  36 12 24  33.6 33.3 66.7  107 53 54  100.0 49.5 50.5 x =4.76 sig= .03  39 3 3 8 3 6 4 12  32.0 7.7 7.7 20.5 7.7 15.4 10.3 30.8  122 3 5 21 11 25 15 42  100.0 2.5 4.1 17.2 9.0 20.5 12.3 34.4 x =9.81 sig= .13  35 9 7 6 1 7 1 1 1 2  100.0 25.7 20.0 17.1 2.9 20.0 2.9 2.9 2.9 5.7 x =5.58 sig= .69  83 23 32 19 8 1  68.0 27.7 38.6 22.9 9.6 1.2  39 15 14 8 2  Professional concern Primary Secondary  81 31 50  67.5 38.3 61.7  39 18 21  Role Planner Teacher  71 41 30  66.4 57.7 42.3  Educational qualifiication Form 5 Form 6 or 7 Post-secondary Part of a university degree University degree overseas University degree from HK University degree & add qual  83 — 2 13 8 19 11 30  68.0  "'  Total n 122 38 46 27 10 1  Age 20-30 30-W 40-50 50-60 60 and up  2.4 15.7 9.6 22.9 13.3 36.1  % 32.0 38.5 35.9 20.5 5.1  Overseas degrees United Kingdom Canada United States Australia & New Zealand Taiwan Japan Southeast Asia Europe China  26 6 6 4 1 5 — 1 1 2  74.3 23.1 23.1 15.4 3.8 19.2 — 3.8 3.8 7.7  9 3 1 2  25.7 33.3 11.1 22.2  2 1  22.2 11.1  Original Discipline Arts & Humanities Natural Sciences Social Sciences Business & Commerce Technical Education Education Medical & Health Computer Home Economics Theology Trade Union Education Law  81 17 8 9 24 8 11 1 — — 1 1 1  68.6 21.0 9.9 11.1 29.6 9.9 13.6 1.2 — — 1.2 1.2 1.2  37 11  31.4 29.7  8 8  21.6 21.6  6 1 1 1 1  16.2 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7  In the run-up to 1997, intending to: stay in Hong Kong leave temporarily leave permanently  80 31 31 18  67.2 38.8 38.8 225  39 24 10 5  _  2  2  2  2  2  _  _  „  _  „  118 28 8 17 32 8 17 2 1 1 2 1 1  100.0 23.7 6.8 14.4 27.1 6.8 14.4 1.7 .8 .8 1.7 .8 .8 x =16.74 sig= .12 2  32.8 61.5 25.6 12.8  119 55 41 23  100.0 46.2 34.5 19.3 x =5.53 sig= .06 2  103  half  o f t h e respondents (46.2 percent) c l a i m e d t h a t they  were i n t e n d i n g t o s t a y i n Hong Kong i n t h e run-up t o 1997. Overall,  t h e respondents  graduates second  were  young  t a k i n g a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n as t h e i r  profession.  T a b l e 6 shows t h e ways i n which t h e  83 men and 39 women surveyed d i f f e r e d their  socio-demographic  "professional role"  of  83  t h e 39 women,  60  respect t o There were  except w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e  (planner  men n e a r l y  with  characteristics.  no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  the  university  o r teacher) occupied.  Of  p e r c e n t were p l a n n e r s , whereas  o n l y one t h i r d were p l a n n e r s .  Thus,  t h e women were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n c l i n e d t o be t e a c h e r s than were t h e men (X =4.76, p< .03). 2  Men's  and Women's  E s t i m a t e s and Orientations  Their  Political  T a b l e 7 shows t h e respondents' e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g how t h e i n t e r e s t s i n ACE v a r y f o r p e o p l e s t a y i n g , t e m p o r a r i l y o r l e a v i n g permanently. respondents  leaving  I t a l s o shows what  s a i d about whether t h e use o f methods  techniques w i l l increase o r decrease.  or  T a b l e 7 a l s o shows  mean " p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n " s c o r e s f o r t h e 122 r e s p o n dents . Regarding  the content  and p r o c e s s e s ,  t h r e e was  considered the midpoint of the s c a l e  ("Remain E s s e n t i a l l y  The  three indicated that  Same").  Means  greater  than  104 Table 7 Men and Women adult educators' estimates concerning changes in adult/continuing education (ACE) and their political orientations MEN  WOMEN  CONTENT n  X  S.D.  n  X  S.D.  F  SigF  Languages staying= leaving temporarily= leaving permanently=  82 82 82  3.27 3.30 3.34  .42 .40 .51  38 38 38  3.24 3.31 3.36  .61 .68 .68  .14 .02 .02  .71 .90 .88  Hobbies staying= leaving temporarily^ leaving permanently=  80 80 80  3.05 3.11 3.17  .30 .45 .55  38 38 38  3.18 3.19 3.44  50 .62 .72  2.91 .66 5.04  .09 .42 .03  China Studies staying= leaving temporarily = leaving permanently=  81 81 81  3.45 2.81 2.59  .52 .52 .68  38 38 38  3.61 3.02 2.85  .60 .60 .66  2.17 3.82 3.95  .14 .05 .05  Business & Commerce staying= leaving temporarily= leaving permanently=  80 80 79  3.41 3.30 3.33  .59 .59 .69  38 38 38  3.53 3.37 3.45  .70 .68 .79  .97 .31 .69  .33 .58 .41  Law staying= leaving temporarily= leaving permanently=  80 79 80  3.30 2.75 2.55  59 59 .72  38 38 38  3.46 2.99 2.70  .72 52 59  1.69 4.80 1.26  .20 .03 .26  Social Sciences staying= leaving temporarily = leaving permanently=  80 79 79  3.24 2.87 2.82  .58 .52 .60  39 39 39  3.45 3.06 2.92  .49 .40 50  3.93 3.91 .84  .05 .05 .36  Management staying= leaving temporarily = leaving permanently=  79 79 79  3.46 3.05 3.06  .61 .55 .64  38 28 38  3.70 3.16 3.05  .72 .62 .75  3.65 .90 .14  .06 .34 .91  Technical Training staying= leaving temporarily= leaving permanently=  79 79 79  3.31 3.63 3.80  .44 .50 59  38 38 38  3.47 3.55 3.81  58 .64 .86  2.98 .51 .01  .09 .48 .94  Applied Sciences staying= leaving temporarily= leaving permanently=  82 80 80  3.18 3.18 3.21  .44 .45 53  37 37 37  3.36 3.21 3.20  .57 .45 52  3.46 .16 .05  .07 .69 .94  PROCESSES Methods In H.K. generally= In my workplace =  81 81  3.61 3.43  .44 .41  38 38  3.69 3.52  .61 .40  .68 1.48  .41 .23  Techniques In H.K. generally= In my workplace =  80 80  3.49 3.37  .51 .47  37 37  3.54 3.43  59 .44  .23 .42  .64 .52  POLITICAL ORIENTATIONS Cognitive Orientations Affective Orientations Evaluative Orientations  82 83 83  4.51 4.65 2.67  .92 .78 .47  39 39 38  4.02 4.40 2.50  .73 .69 .48  8.51 2.86 3.26  .01 .09 .07  ''  105  respondents thought t h a t i n t e r e s t s w i l l i n c r e a s e , o r v i c e v e r s a . S.D.'s  were c o n s i s t e n t  a c r o s s a l l c o n t e n t and  process categories. T a b l e 7 shows how men and women surveyed d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g changes i n ACE as f a r as t h e t h r e e t y p e s o f p e o p l e : s t a y i n g , l e a v i n g HK t e m p o r a r i l y o r leaving  permanently  were  significant  differences  categories.  Firstly,  leaving  concerned.  except with  permanently,"  for a  respect  t h e mean  There  were  few  no  "Content"  t o t h e "Hobbies:  s c o r e o f t h e 80 men  surveyed was 3.17 w h i l e t h e 38 women respondents produced a mean s c o r e o f 3.44.  Thus, t h e women were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  more i n c l i n e d than men (F=5.04, p< .03) t o t h i n k t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t s i n "Hobbies" o f p e o p l e l e a v i n g permanently w i l l increase.  Secondly,  regarding  t h e "China  Studies:  l e a v i n g t e m p o r a r i l y , " t h e 81 men surveyed y i e l d e d a mean s c o r e o f 2.81 whereas f o r t h e  38  women respondents, i t  was 3.02. The men were more i n c l i n e d than women (F=3.82, p< .05) t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t s i n "China S t u d i e s " of p e o p l e for  leaving  temporarily w i l l decrease.  t h e "China S t u d i e s : l e a v i n g permanently,"  score  Again, t h e mean  o f t h e 81 men surveyed was 2.59 and t h a t o f t h e 38  women 2.85.  Thus, t h e men were more i n c l i n e d t h a n  women  (F=3.95, p< .05) t o t h i n k t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t s i n "China Studies"  o f people  leaving  permanently  will  decrease.  106  T h i r d l y , c o n c e r n i n g t h e "Law: l e a v i n g t e m p o r a r i l y , " t h e mean s c o r e o f t h e 79 men surveyed was 2.75 and t h a t o f t h e 38 women 2.99. Thus, t h e men were more i n c l i n e d than women (F=4.80, p< .03) t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e "Law" i n t e r e s t s o f people l e a v i n g temporarily w i l l decrease. respect t o the "Social Sciences:  Fourthly, with  s t a y i n g , " t h e 80 men  surveyed produced a mean s c o r e o f 3.24 and t h e 39 women surveyed 3.45.  Thus, t h e women were more i n c l i n e d  than  men (F=3.93, p< .05) t o t h i n k t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t s i n " S o c i a l S c i e n c e s " o f people s t a y i n g w i l l the  "Social  Sciences:  leaving  increase. temporarily,  Again, f o r 11  t h e mean  s c o r e o f t h e 79 men surveyed was 2.87 and t h a t o f t h e 39 women 3.06.  Thus, t h e men were more i n c l i n e d t h a n women  (F=3.91, p< .05) t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t s i n " S o c i a l S c i e n c e s " o f people l e a v i n g t e m p o r a r i l y w i l l Regarding  the p o l i t i c a l  orientations,  decrease. cognitive  o r i e n t a t i o n r e f e r s t o how much t h e respondents knew about t h e p e o p l e and t h i n g s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . The  "Cognitive  o r i e n t a t i o n " score  was c a l c u l a t e d by  adding up responses t o q u e s t i o n s No. 2, No. 3, No. 4, No. 5 and No. 6 i n P a r t I I I and a v e r a g i n g them ( d i v i d i n g t h e t o t a l by f i v e ) .  A l l these  q u e s t i o n s had a s e v e n - p o i n t  response  scale:  An Immense  Amount, Very Much, Much, A  Moderate  Amount, L i t t l e , Very  L i t t l e , Almost  Nothing.  "An Immense amount" was coded 7 and "Almost N o t h i n g " 1.  107  Thus, f o u r (A  was  considered  Moderate Amount).  the midpoint  Means were  of the score  above  four.  This  i n d i c a t e d t h a t respondents c l a i m e d t o know "a moderate amount" t o "much" about people and t h i n g s i n the p o l i t i c a l process.  But t h e men c l a i m e d t o be more i n c l i n e d  than  women (F=8.51, p< .01) t o know more about p e o p l e and t h i n g s i n t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . There was g r e a t e r disagreement among men (S.D.= .92) than was among women (S.D.= .73). Affective  orientation refers  to  how  much  respondents f a v o u r e d t h e p e o p l e and t h i n g s i n v o l v e d the  political  process.  The  "Affective  the in  orientation"  s c o r e was c a l c u l a t e d by adding responses t o q u e s t i o n s No. 7, No. 8, No. 9, No. 10 and No. 11 i n P a r t I I I and a v e r a g i n g them ( d i v i d i n g t h e t o t a l by f i v e ) .  A l l these questions  had a s e v e n - p o i n t response s c a l e :  Very  Optimistic/Positive,  Good/Very  Satisfactory/Slightly  good/Extremely  Optimistic/Positive,  Optimistic/Positive,  No F e e l i n g  One Way Or The Other, F a i r / S l i g h t l y P e s s i m i s t i c / N e g a t i v e , Poor/Very  Pessimistic/Negative,  Very  Poor/Extremely  P e s s i m i s t i c / N e g a t i v e . Thus, f o u r was c o n s i d e r e d t h e midpoint  o f t h e s c o r e (No F e e l i n g One Way Or The Other) .  Means were above f o u r . T h i s were more i n c l i n e d  indicated  t o favour the  t h a t respondents  people  and t h i n g s  involved i n the p o l i t i c a l process. Evaluative  orientation  refers  t o how  far  the  108  respondents i n v o l v e d themselves Involvement c o u l d passive  III  and  13, No.  averaging  Q u e s t i o n No. 12 had  The  15 had  highest  was  The  active p a r t i c i p a t i o n to "Evaluative  orientation"  c a l c u l a t e d by adding up responses t o q u e s t i o n s  12, No.  and No.  from  subordination.  s c o r e was No.  range  i n the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s .  them  point  16, No.  (dividing  17 and No. the  18 i n P a r t  total  by  six) .  a s e v e n - p o i n t response s c a l e , No.  6 but No.  considered  significant  15, No.  16,  of s c a l e the  No. in  17 and No.  18 had  average was 4.2  mid-point.  d i f f e r e n c e s between  There men  and  and  13 2. 2.6  were  no  women on  the  A f f e c t i v e and E v a l u a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s c o r e s . S.D. 's were c o n s i s t e n t i n the A f f e c t i v e and E v a l u a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s . Purpose  One  R e c a l l t h a t t h e f i r s t purpose o f t h e study was  to  o b t a i n e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e a n t i c i p a t e d changes i n t h e c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s e s o f ACE the  highlighted part  shows  respondents' e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g changes i n ACE,  their  orientations  Figure  and  purposes o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . category adding e.g.  s c o r e s (e.g. up  t h e response  rankings  Table  concerning  the  Regarding t h e c o n t e n t , a l l  Languages)  were  calculated  by  s c o r e s from each s u b j e c t item,  "Chinese Language," " E n g l i s h  Language," "French  4) .  (see  8  political  of  i n t h e run-up t o 1997  Language," "Japanese  Language" and "German Language" as per  109  B INDEPENDENT VARIABLES  DEPENDENT  I Dimension 1  Respondents  Emigration intentions of HK population  VARIABLES  I Dimension 2  Contents  Socio-demographic Characteristics * Sex *Age *Professional concern in A C E *Role in A C E •Educational qualifications *Views concerning purposes of Ad Ed Political Orientations  •Staying in H K  of  •Leaving H K temporarily  ACE  *Affective "Cognitive "Evaluative  Processes  Emigration intentions •Staying in H K •Leaving H K temporarily •Leaving H K permanently  •Leaving H K permanently  of  ACE •Methods •Techniques  Figure 4,  Respondents' estimates concerning the anticipated changes in the content and processes of A C E (1990-1997).  110 Table 8 Respondents' estimates concerning changes in ACE, their political orientations and ranking of purposes of adult education Anticipated changes in  X  CONTENT Languages staying= leaving temporarily= leaving permanently=  1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0  2.0-4.8 1.2-4.6 1.0-4.8  3.26 3.30 3.35  .49 50 57  120 120 120  .28 .27 .27  .76 .73 .90  Hobbies staying= leaving temporarily= leaving permanently=  1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0  2.0-4.4 1.2-4.2 1.2-1.8  3.09 3.14 3.25  .38 51 .62  118 118 118  .25 .29 .29  51 .65 .75  China Studies staying= leaving temporarily= leaving permanently=  1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0  1.8-4.6 1.2-4.2 1.0-4.4  350 2.88 2.67  55 .56 .68  119 119 119  .31 .26 .29  .75 .67 .85  Business & Commerce staying= leaving temporarily= leaving permanently=  1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0  1.6-5.0 1.2-4.6 1.2-5.0  3.45 3.32 3.37  .63 .62 .72  118 118 117  .45 .38 .39  .83 .79 .77  Law staying = leaving temporarily= leaving permanently=  1.0-5.0 , 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0  1.8-5.0 1.2-4.0 1.2-4.8  3.35 2.83 2.60  .64 .58 .68  118 117 118  .48 .39 .37  .63 .59 .71  Social Sciences staying= leaving temporarily= leaving permanently=  1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0  1.4-4.6 1.6-4.4 1.4-4.6  3.31 2.94 2.85  .56 .49 51  119 118 118  .42 .29 .27  .76 56 .67  Management staying= leaving temporarily= leaving permanently=  1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0  2.0-5.0 1.2-4.4 1.0-4.8  3.54 3.09 3.06  .66 .57 .67  117 117 117  51 .39 .33  .54 .72 .65  Technical Training staying= leaving temporarily= leaving permanently=  1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0  1.6-5.0 2.0-4.8 1.4-5.0  3.36 3.61 3.80  50 55 .69  117 117 117  .33 .36 .39  .83 .82 .81  Applied Sciences staying = leaving temporarily= leaving permanently=  1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0  1.6-5.0 1.(5-4.4 1.2-4.4  3.23 3.19 3.21  .49 .45 52  119 117 117  .34 .21 .16  .44 59 .76  PROCESSES Methods In H.K. generally= In my workplace =  1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0  1.2-4.8 2.2-4.6  3.64 3.46  50 .41  119 119  .32 .23  .66 .70  Techniques In H.K. generally= In my workplace =  1.0-5.0 1.0-5.0  1.2-4.9 2.1-4.9  3.51 3.39  53 .46  117 117  .39 .33  .71 .74  POLITICAL ORIENTATIONS Cognitive Orientations Affective Orientations Evaluative Orientations  1.0-6.8 1.0-7.0 1.0-4.2  2.6-6.8 2.8-6.8 1.5-3.8  4.35 4.57 2.61  .89 .76 .48  121 122 121  .45 .20 .20  .85 53 52  PURPOSES OF A D ED Social integration Social responsibility Social change Technical competence  1.0-4.0 1.0-4.0 1.0-4.0 1.0-4.0  1.0-4.0 1.0-4.0 1.0-4.0 1.0-4.0  2.80 2.66 2.93 2.43  1.11  122 122 122 122  S.D.  1 1 .1 1.19 1.28  n  Internal consistency  Reliability test/retest  Possible Observed range range  -  -  Ill  the three c a t e g o r i e s of people:  s t a y i n g , l e a v i n g tempo-  r a r i l y o r l e a v i n g permanently and a v e r a g i n g them ( d i v i d i n g the  total  by  interests  of  five).  Respondents e s t i m a t e d  people  staying  will  be  i n c r e a s e i n a l l s u b j e c t s , b u t more s t r o n g l y (X=3.54, S.D. = .66); Business that will  &  interests  increase  S.D.= .55),  of  strongly  people  the  inclined  to  i n Management  (X=3.50, S.D.= .55);  Commerce (X=3.45, S.D.=  the  Studies  China S t u d i e s  that  .63). They leaving  i n Technical  guessed  temporarily  T r a i n i n g (X=3.61,  b u t decrease i n Law (X=2.83, S.D. = .58) ; China  (X=2.88, S.D.=.56) and S o c i a l S c i e n c e s  (X=2.94,  S.D.= .49) . A g a i n , respondents b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f p e o p l e l e a v i n g permanently w i l l i n c r e a s e Technical  Training  (X=3.80,  strongly  i n Law (X=2.60, S.D.=  (X=2.67,  S.D.=  content  .68).  S.D.'s  S.D.=  .69)  .68) were  strongly i n  but  and  decrease  China  Studies  consistent  ina l l  categories.  Regarding t h e p r o c e s s e s , t h e "Method" s c o r e s calculated  by  adding  up  the  response  scores  were from  "Correspondence Study," " C l a s s , " " E x h i b i t i o n s , " "Apprent i c e s h i p , " " T u t o r i a l D i s c u s s i o n Group," " P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n Campaign," "Courses By Computer," "Forum" and "Workshop," and  a v e r a g i n g them  "Technique"  scores  response s c o r e s  ( d i v i d i n g the t o t a l were  calculated  from "Role P l a y , "  by  by n i n e ) . adding  "Educational  The  up t h e Games,"  112  "Debate," " S i m u l a t i o n , "  "Lecture,"  "Group D i s c u s s i o n , "  "Demonstration," " F i e l d T r i p s " and  "Case S t u d i e s , " and  a v e r a g i n g them ( d i v i d i n g t h e t o t a l by nine) . Respondents thought t h a t t h e r e w i l l be an o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e i n t h e use o f methods and t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e workplace.  in  Hong  Kong g e n e r a l l y and  But t h e i n c r e a s e i n HK g e n e r a l l y  be g r e a t e r than t h a t i n t h e  workplace.  c o n s i s t e n t a c r o s s a l l methods and  S.D.'s  will were  techniques.  Respondents c l a i m e d t h a t t h e use o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n methods  such  as  "Courses  By  Computer" w i l l  strongly  i n c r e a s e i n Hong Kong g e n e r a l l y (X=4.10, S.D.=  .65) and  i n t h e workplace (X=4.02, S.D.=  .62). They b e l i e v e d t h a t  the use o f " A p p r e n t i c e s h i p " w i l l remain e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same i n t h e workplace (X=3.00, S.D.= .79). Respondents thought t h a t compared t o most o f t h e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n methods, t h e use o f " C l a s s , " which i s a t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l method, w i l l tend t o i n c r e a s e in  Hong Kong g e n e r a l l y  workplace  (X=3.52, S.D.=  (X=3.44, S.D.=  .72).  .75) and i n t h e  Moreover, they  claimed  t h a t t h e r e w i l l be an i n c r e a s e i n t h e use o f " L e c t u r e , " a  traditional  generally  instructional  (X=3.46,  S.D.=  technique,  .74)  and  i n Hong  i n the  Kong  workplace  (X=3.35, S.D.= .64). Concerning t h e p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , respondents claimed  t o know "a moderate amount" t o "much"(X=4.35,  113  S.D.= .89) political  about t h e p e o p l e and t h i n g s i n v o l v e d i n t h e process.  They tended  t o be "happy"  with  (X=4.57, S.D.= .76) t h e s e p e o p l e and t h i n g s b u t d i d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y (X=2.61, S.D.= .48) i n the p o l i t i c a l process.  The  orientation Cognitive With one  spread  (S.D.=  of  scores  .48) was  i n the  less  than  (S.D.= .89) and A f f e c t i v e  Evaluative  that  i n the  (S.D.= .76) ones.  r e s p e c t t o t h e purposes o f a d u l t  education,  meant f i r s t p r i o r i t y , two second, t h r e e t h i r d  four  fourth.  T e c h n i c a l competence  was  ranked  first;  Social  S.D.=1.11) second; S o c i a l third There  and was  Social  responsibility  integration  change  greater  (X=2.43,  and  S.D.=1.28) (X=2.66,  (X=2.80, S.D.=1.11)  (X=2.93, S.D.=1.19) f o u r t h .  disagreement  concerning  Technical  competence (S.D.=1.28) than i n t h e o t h e r t h r e e purposes. Purpose Two R e c a l l t h a t t h e second purpose o f t h e study was t o e s t a b l i s h t h e e x t e n t t o which sociodemographic v a r i a b l e s of  respondents e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e i n e s t i m a t e s (see t h e  highlighted part of Figure 5). correlations  between  T a b l e 9 shows t h e i n t e r -  respondents'  sociodemographic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e i r e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g changes i n ACE.  Those c o e f f i c i e n t s marked w i t h one o r two a s t e r i s k s  were s i g n f i c a n t l y  associated.  There was a s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n between Age and  114  B INDEPENDENT VARIABLES  DEPENDENT  Dimension 1  Respondents  Emigration intentions of HK population  C VARIABLES  Dimension 2  Contents  Socio-demographic Characteristics * Sex *Age •Professional concern in A C E *Role in A C E •Educational qualifications •Views concerning purposes of Ad E d Political Orientations  •Staying in H K  of  •Leaving H K temporarily  ACE  •Affective •Cognitive •Evaluative  Processes  Emigration intentions •Staying in H K •Leaving H K temporarily •Leaving H K permanently  •Leaving H K permanently  of  ACE •Methods •Techniques  Figure 5. Respondents' socio-demographic characteristics and their estimates concerning the anticipated changes in A C E (1990-1997).  115 Table 9 Intercorrelations between respondents' socio-demographic characteristics, their leaving or staving estimates and estimates concerning changes in A C E Leaving or Staying Estimates  Socio-demographic Characteristics Correlations Age  Professional concern  Years full-time  Years part-time  Education qualification  Permanent Temporary  Staying  %  %  %  .22* .03 -.08  -.17 -.16 -.06  -.04 .03 -.04  .13 .09 .07  .12 .08 .05  .08 -.15 -.17  -.14 -.12 -.07  .03 .15 .14  .28" .17 .18  -.22* -.26* -.16  -.17 -.05 .01  .23* .17 .08  .27* .08 .02  CONTENT Total "Languages" scores stay in H.K. = leave HK temporarily = leave HK permanently =  .25' -.02 -.00  .02 .01 .03  .27 .09 .09  .11 .03 .08  Total "Hobbies" scores stay in H.K. = leave HK temporarily= leave HK permanently=  .27* .15 .15  .14 .12 .13  .01 -.06 -.02  -.01 .24 .24  Total "China Studies" scores stay in H.K. = leave H.K. temporarily= leave H.K. permanently=  .13 .02 .02  .06 -.07 -.09  .27 -.09 -.05  .19 .25 .22  Total "Business & Commerce" scores stay in H.K. = leave H.K. temporarily= leave H.K. permanently=  .24' .15 .08  -.01 .02 .11  .29 .08 .03  -.03 .15 .15  .28' .23* .12  -.30" -.16 -.07  -.14 .02 .05  .00 -.06 -.08  -.01 .06 .09  .27 -.07 -.11  -.03 .18 .17  .12 .19 .14  -.21 -.16 .02  -.14 -.03 .01  .22 .10 -.03  Total "Social Sciences" scores stay in H.K. = leave H.K. temporarily= leave H.K. permanently=  .16 .20 .15  .07 .06 .04  .27 -.04 -.02  .05 .14 .11  .16 .11 .07  -.26* -.13 .01  -.04 .10 .02  .20 .01 -.03  Total "Management" scores stay in H.K. = leave H.K. temporarily= leave H.K. permanently =  .18 .10 .07  -.01 .03 .09  .21 -.03 .00  -.10 .15 .23  .25* .11 .08  -.23' -.10 -.10  -.02 .09 .09  .16 -.00 -.01  Total "Technical Training" scores stay in H.K. = leave H.K. temporarily= leave H.K. permanently=  .17 .13 .09  -.01 .06 .10  .07 .01 .07  -.15 -.06 .08  .16 .04 .00  -.13 -.18 -.09  .02 .05 -.07  .07 .10 .11  Total "Applied Sciences" scores stay in H.K. = leave H.K. temporarily leave H.K. permanently=  .16 .20 .10  -.04 -.04 -.05  .20 .10 .09  -.12 .09 .04  .19 .05 .02  -.17 -.25* -.07  .04 .07 -.03  .10 .11 .06  PROCESSES Total "Methods" scores In H.K. generally= In my workplace =  -.03 .02  -.01 -.05  .08 .04  .09 .08  .29" .31"  -.22 -.05  -.11 .05  .19 .01  Total Techniques" scores In H.K. generally In my workplace =  -.07 -.02  -.00 -.01  .14 .03  -.09 -.02  .28* .24*  -.20 -.05  .03 .13  .11 -.04  .11 .02 .16  .06 .03 .07  .28 .20 .22  .19 .03 .18  .21* .03 .14  -.03 .02 -.03  -.17 .03 -.11  .15 -.02 .12  Total "Law" scores stay in H.K= leave H.K. temporarily = leave H.K. permanently=  3  3  POLITICAL ORIENTATIONS Cognitive Orientations Affective Orientations Evaluative Orientations  Note. Years full time and Years part-time mean the number of years respondents spent in serving ACE. Permanent %, Temporary % and Staying % mean the estimated percentages of residents who will leave or stay in HK in the run-up to 1997. *p< .05, "p< .01.  116  Business  & Commerce s c o r e s  f o r people s t a y i n g  (r=.24,  p< .05); between E d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n and Languages f o r p e o p l e s t a y i n g (r=.22, p< .05); between qualification temporarily  Educational  and B u s i n e s s & Commerce f o r p e o p l e l e a v i n g (r=.23, p<  .05).  The a s s o c i a t i o n between  E d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n and t h e e s t i m a t e d use o f t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e workplace (r=.24, p< .05) was r e g a r d e d as s i g n i f i c a n t too.  I n t h e p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , t h e r e was  a s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n between E d u c a t i o n a l  qualifica-  t i o n and C o g n i t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n (r=.21, p< .05). There  was  a significant  association  between t h e  e s t i m a t e d percentage o f r e s i d e n t s l e a v i n g permanently and i n t e r e s t i n China S t u d i e s f o r p e o p l e s t a y i n g (r=-.22, p< .05);  between  the estimated  percentage  of  residents  l e a v i n g permanently and i n t e r e s t i n Management f o r p e o p l e s t a y i n g (r=-.23, p< .05).  Again, t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between  t h e e s t i m a t e d percentage o f r e s i d e n t s s t a y i n g and China S t u d i e s f o r p e o p l e s t a y i n g (r=.23, p< .05) was s i g n i f i c a n t as w e l l . Compared thought  that  "Languages"  t o younger f o r people (r=.25,  respondents, staying,  p< .05)  the older  the  interest  and "Hobbies"  ones in  (r=.27, p<  .05) would i n c r e a s e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than t h a t i n o t h e r programs.  Respondents w i t h h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l  c a t i o n s made s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r  estimates  qualificoncerning  117  the  perceived interest  i n Languages  (r=.22  f o r those  s t a y i n g ) , i n China S t u d i e s (r=.28 f o r those s t a y i n g ) , i n B u s i n e s s & Commerce (r=.28 f o r those s t a y i n g and r=.23 f o r t h o s e l e a v i n g t e m p o r a r i l y ) , i n Management (r=.25 f o r t h o s e s t a y i n g ) than d i d those cations.  There was  "leaving  permanently  i n t e r e s t i n China (r=-.26, p< between  w i t h lower e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i -  a moderate a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e percentage"  estimates  and  the  S t u d i e s f o r people l e a v i n g t e m p o r a r i l y  .05) and f o r those s t a y i n g  "leaving  permanently  (r=-.22, p<  percentage"  and t h e i n t e r e s t i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e s f o r (r=-.26, p< .05);  .05);  estimates  people  staying  between " l e a v i n g permanently p e r c e n t -  age" e s t i m a t e s and the i n t e r e s t i n A p p l i e d S c i e n c e s f o r p e o p l e l e a v i n g t e m p o r a r i l y (r=-.25, p< .05) . The a s s o c i a tion  between  "staying  percentage"  estimates  and  i n t e r e s t i n B u s i n e s s & Commerce f o r people s t a y i n g p<  .05) was  the  (r=.27,  regarded as moderate t o o .  Respondents w i t h h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s thought  that  there  increase  in  interest  Studies"  (r=.28,  (r=.28, tional  p<  .05)  p<  would  be  a  ( f o r people  .01)  and  significantly staying)  "Business  &  in  larger "China  Commerce"  than d i d respondents w i t h lower  educa-  qualifications.  The b e t t e r educated respondents b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r e would be a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r i n c r e a s e i n t h e use o f  118  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n methods (between now and 1997) than d i d the  l e s s e r educated respondents.  T h i s a p p l i e d t o methods  as used " i n Hong Kong g e n e r a l l y " (r=.29, p< .01) and " i n the workplace" (r=.31, p< .01) , and t e c h n i q u e s as used " i n Hong Kong g e n e r a l l y "  (r=.28, p< .05).  There was a s t r o n g a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e " l e a v i n g permanently  p e r c e n t a g e " e s t i m a t e s and t h e i n t e r e s t i n  B u s i n e s s & Commerce f o r p e o p l e s t a y i n g (r=-.30,  p< .01).  Respondents thought t h a t when more p e o p l e were g o i n g t o l e a v e Hong Kong permanently,  t h e r e would be a s i g n i f i -  c a n t l y l a r g e r decrease i n i n t e r e s t  ( f o r people staying)  i n " B u s i n e s s & Commerce." Purpose  Three  R e c a l l t h a t t h e t h i r d purpose  o f t h e study was t o  e s t a b l i s h t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e p o l i t i c a l of  respondents  explained variance  h i g h l i g h t e d p a r t o f F i g u r e 6) .  orientations  i n e s t i m a t e s (see  T a b l e 10 shows t h e i n t e r -  c o r r e l a t i o n s between respondents' p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s (Almond & Verba's  "Cognitive,  " A f f e c t i v e , " and " E v a l u -  a t i v e " o r i e n t a t i o n s ) and t h e i r e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e changes i n ACE. between  variables  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t although  the  association  correlations  " E v a l u a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n " and "Languages" and ( f o r p e o p l e s t a y i n g ) approached  significance.  between "Hobbies"  119  B INDEPENDENT VARIABLES  DEPENDENT  VARIABLES  I  Dimension 1  Respondents  C  Emigration intentions of HK population  Dimension 2  Contents  Socio-demographic Characteristics * Sex *Age •Professional concern in A C E •Role in A C E •Educational qualifications •Views concerning purposes of Ad E d Political Orientations  •Staying in H K  of  •Leaving H K temporarily  ACE  •Affective •Cognitive •Evaluative  Processes  Emigration intentions •Staying in H K •Leaving H K temporarily •Leaving H K permanently  •Leaving H K permanently  of  ACE •Methods •Techniques  Figure 6. Respondents' political orientations and their estimates concerning the anticipated changes in A C E (1990-1997).  120 Table 10 Intercorrelations between respondents' political orienations, their emigration intentions and estimates concerning changes in ACE Correlations  Cognitive Orientations  Affective Orientations  Evaluative Orientations  Emigration Intentions  CONTENT Languages staying= leaving temporarily= leaving permanently =  .10 .14 .12  .13 - .05 .05  .20 .04 .14  -.15 - .13 -.15  Hobbies staying= leaving temporarily leaving permanently =  .02 .15 .11  .07 .04 .04  .21 .12 .10  -.16 - .10 - .12  China Studies staying= leaving temporarily= leaving permanently =  .10 - .01 .06  .04 - .04 .04  .12 .01 .04  .01 - .03 .01  Business & Commerce staying= leaving temporarily = leaving permanently =  .04 .00 .04  -.00 - .06 -.06  .09 .03 .04  -.12 - .01 -.01  Law staying leaving temporarily = leaving permanently =  .01 .05 .06  -.13 - .04 -.01  -.04 - .08 .01  -.09 .08 .10  Social Sciences staying leaving temporarily = leaving permanently  .06 .01 .13  -.01 - .04 .03  .04 .00 .11  -.10 - .03 - -01  Management staying leaving temporarily leaving permanently  .04 - .05 .02  .01 .01 .07  -.01 - .11 -.02  -.11 - -01 -.05  Technical Training staying leaving temporarily leaving permanently  ..08 .02 .11  .04 - .04 -04  .05 - .01 .06  -.13 - .13 -.19  Applied Sciences staying= leaving temporarily leaving permanently  -.03 .02 .08  .03 - .09 - .03  .04 .03 .06  -.17 - .14 - .14  3  - .01 - .02  - .06 - .02  .03 .10  .01 - .12  3  - .02 - .07  - .03 - .02  .05 .08  - .07 - .13  3  3  3  3  3  3  3  3  PROCESSES Methods In H.K. generally In my workplace = Techniques In H.K. generally In my workplace =  121  Respondents' P o l i t i c a l O r i e n t a t i o n s and T h e i r Views Concerning t h e Purposes o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n In  a s e p a r a t e procedure  political with  we a l s o  examined how t h e  o r i e n t a t i o n s o f respondents would  their  education.  views  c o n c e r n i n g t h e purposes  associate of  adult  T a b l e 11 shows t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between  respondents'  r a n k i n g o f t h e purposes  and t h e i r p o l i t i c a l  o f adult education  orientations.  Table 11 Intercorrelations between respondents' ranking of purposes of adult education and their political orientations Correlations  Social Social integration responsibility  Social change  Technical Cognitive Affective Evaluative competence orientations orientations orientations  PURPOSES OF AD ED Social integration  1.00  Social responsibility  - .17  1.00  Social change  - .25"  .03  1.00  Technical competence POLITICAL ORIENTATIONS Cognitive  .08  -.24**  -.36**  orientations  .10  -.01  -.10  .13  .09  .18  -.06  .04  .49**  -.02  .02  .03  .05  .55**  1.00 1.00  Affective orientations Evaluative orientations ** r > .22, p< .01  1.00  31"  1.00  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n between v a r i a b l e s where t h e i r c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e n o t f l a g g e d w i t h an  122  a s t e r i s k . Those marked w i t h two a s t e r i s k s were s i g n i f i c a n t a t the  .01  level.  Readers s h o u l d r e c a l l Figure  7) t h a t t h i s  (see the h i g h l i g h t e d p a r t  p a r t of  the a n a l y s i s was  designed  t o examine r e l a t i o n s h i p s between r e s p o n d e n t s ' orientations model)  and  education  (as  concerned  t h e i r views  in  political  Almond and  Verba's  c o n c e r n i n g the purposes o f a d u l t  (as c o n s t r u e d  primarily interested  with  by  Boshier).  Thus  we  the c o r r e l a t i o n s shown  the  There  were  correlation  orientation"  and  no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between Almond and "Social  were  in  t w e l v e c e l l s on the lower l e f t c o r n e r o f the m a t r i x 11) .  of  the  (Table  although  Verba's " A f f e c t i v e  responsibility"  scores  ap-  proached s i g n i f i c a n c e . Purpose Four The  f o u r t h purpose o f the study was  t o examine the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the respondents' " e m i g r a t i o n i n t e n t i o n s " ( s t a y i n g ^ l e a v i n g Hong Kong t e m p o r a r i l y permanently i n the run-up t o 1997) c e r n i n g changes i n ACE The  or leaving  and t h e i r e s t i m a t e s con-  (see h i g h l i g h t e d p a r t o f F i g u r e 8) .  r i g h t hand column o f T a b l e 10 shows the  intercorre-  l a t i o n s between respondents' " e m i g r a t i o n i n t e n t i o n s "  and  t h e i r e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g the changes i n ACE.  was  no  s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n between v a r i a b l e s .  There  123  B INDEPENDENT VARIABLES  DEPENDENT VARIABLES I  Dimension 1 Respondents  C  Emigration intentions of HK population  Dimension 2 Contents  Socio-demographic Characteristics * Sex *Age •Professional concern in ACE *Role in ACE •Educational qualifications •Views concerning purposes of Ad Ed Political Orientations  •Staying in HK of  •Leaving HK temporarily ACE  •Affective •Cognitive •Evaluative Emigration intentions •Staying in HK •Leaving HK temporarily •Leaving HK permanently  Processes  •Leaving HK permanently  of  ACE  •Methods •Techniques  Figure 7. Respondents' political orientations and their views concerningthe purposes of adult education.  124  B INDEPENDENT VARIABLES  DEPENDENT  VARIABLES  I  Dimension 1  Respondents  C  Emigration intentions of HK population  Dimension 2  Contents  Socio-demographic Characteristics * Sex *Age •Professional concern in A C E •Role in A C E •Educational qualifications •Views concerning purposes of A d E d Political Orientations  •Staying in H K  of  •Leaving H K temporarily  ACE  •Affective •Cognitive •Evaluative  Processes  Emigration intentions •Staying in H K •Leaving H K temporarily •Leaving H K permanently  •Leaving H K permanently  of  ACE •Methods •Techniques  Figure 8. Respondents' emigration intentions and their estimates concerning the anticipated changes in A C E (1990-1997).  125  Respondents' I n t e n t i o n s and T h e i r E s t i m a t e s Others' Intentions In  a  separate  relationships  procedure  between  we  respondents'  also  Concerning  examined t h e  "emigration  inten-  t i o n s " ( s t a y i n g , l e a v i n g Hong Kong t e m p o r a r i l y o r l e a v i n g permanently) and t h e i r e s t i m a t e s o f t h e o v e r a l l  popula-  t i o n ' s " e m i g r a t i o n i n t e n t i o n s " (see t h e h i g h l i g h t e d p a r t of  Figure 9).  about ing  Table  12  shows  what respondents  t h e i r "emigration i n t e n t i o n s "  or  leaving  percentages  and  their  concerning  estimates  o f r e s i d e n t s who w i l l  also  said stay-  concerning be s t a y i n g ,  l e a v i n g t e m p o r a r i l y o r permanently. Table 12 Respondents' intentions concerning leaving or staving in Hong Kong and their estimates concerning other residents' intentions In the run-up to 1997, respondents intending to:  Respondents' estimates concerning percentages of residents who will stay in H.K. n  leave H.K. temporarily  leave H.K. permanently  X  S.D.  X  S.D.  X  S.D.  stay in H.K.  52  46  66.44  22.73  1734  13.41  16.73  12.49  leave H.K. temporarily  39  35  61.62  25.06  19.26  15.24  18.74  16.05  leave H.K. permanently  22  19  64.86  16.16  16.09  10.66  17.96  11.10  F= 51 sigF= .59  For  t h e 52  respondents  the  mean percentage  of  will  be s t a y i n g t o o was  F= .42 sigF= .66  who  residents 66.44  intended whom t h e y  (S.D.=22.73) .  F= .25 sigF= .77  t o stay, guessed For the  126'  B INDEPENDENT VARIABLES  DEPENDENT  VARIABLES  I  Dimension 1 Respondents  C  Emigration intentions of HK population  Dimension 2 Contents  Socio-demographic Characteristics * Sex *Age •Professional concern in ACE •Role in ACE •Educational qualifications •Views concerning purposes of Ad Ed Political Orientations  •Staying in HK  of  •Leaving HK temporarily ACE  •Affective •Cognitive •Evaluative  Processes  Emigration intentions •Staying in HK •Leaving HK temporarily •Leaving HK permanently  •Leaving HK permanently  of  ACE •Methods •Techniques  Figure 9, Respondents' emigration intentions and their estimates concerning others' intentions.  127  39 respondents who i n t e n d e d t o l e a v e t e m p o r a r i l y , t h e mean percentage  o f p e o p l e s t a y i n g they guessed  (S.D.=25.06).  was 61.62  F o r t h e 22 respondents who i n t e n d e d  l e a v e permanently,  t h e mean percentage  mated was 64.86 (S.D.=16.16).  (staying)  to  esti-  But t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' own  i n t e n t i o n s had no e f f e c t on t h e i r e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f o t h e r p e o p l e who w i l l be s t a y i n g (F= .52, p< .59), l e a v i n g t e m p o r a r i l y (F= .42, p< .66), o r l e a v i n g permanently  (F= .25, p< .77).  Respondents' I n t e n t i o n s and Involvement Proj ects Table  13 shows t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s  dents' "emigration intentions": Kong  temporarily  or leaving  between  staying, permanently  i n China respon-  l e a v i n g Hong and t h e i r  involvement i n China p r o j e c t s . Table 13 Respondents' intentions concerning leaving or staving in Hong Kong and the extent of their involvement in China projects In the run-up to 1997, surveyed respondents  Extent of respondents' involvement in China trade, China exchanges  intending to:  or any projects with China Range  X  S.D.  n  stay in Hong Kong  1.0-6.0  2.58  1.56  55  leave Hong Kong temporarily  1.0-6.0  2.76  1.43  41  leave Hong Kong permanently  1.0-6.0  2.35  1.37  23  Three p o i n t f i v e (3.5) was c o n s i d e r e d t h e m i d p o i n t . The t h r e e means were below 3.5. Thus, respondents tended t o be " l i t t l e " t o "moderately" i n v o l v e d i n China p r o j e c t s .  128  T h e i r intentions concerning staying o r leaving had  no e f f e c t on t h e i r involvement i n China June 4 I n c i d e n t Table  (F= .57)  projects.  and Respondents' E s t i m a t e s  14 shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the  respondents concerning  returned questionnaires other  residents'  date  and t h e i r e s t i m a t e s  intentions  of staying or  leaving. Table 14 Respondents' estimates concerning other residents' intentions in the run-up to 1997 and the date they returned questionnaires  Respondents estimated that in the run-up to 1997 '  Date questionnaires returned Before June 4  After June 4  (n=48) X  (n=68)  S.D.  S.D.  X  F  S'gF  % of residents will stay in H.K.  66.88  21.10  62.90  22.84  .91  .34  % of residents will leave H.K. temporarily  14.88  11.75  20.03  14.12  4.35  .04  % of residents will leave H.K. permanently  18.04  14.98  17.22  12.15  .11  .75  For  t h e purpose o f t h i s  analysis  and the 68 a f t e r June 4 " s t a y i n g "  48 b e f o r e  e s t i m a t e s were compared  and F - r a t i o s c a l c u l a t e d ; t h e b e f o r e temporarily"  the  and a f t e r " l e a v i n g  e s t i m a t e s were compared as were the  "leaving  permanently" ones. The  June  4  Incident  (F=4.35,  p< .04) had a  129  significant  effect  on  "leaving temporarily"  But f o r our 122 respondents,  estimates.  i t appeared t h a t t h e June 4  I n c i d e n t had l i t t l e o r no impact on " s t a y i n g " o r " l e a v i n g permanently"  estimates  but  resulted in a  significant  upward s h i f t i n e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e percentage would l e a v e t e m p o r a r i l y .  who  130  CHAPTER IX SUMMARY/ CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION  Readers a r e reminded t h a t , from one p e r s p e c t i v e , t h i s was  a  phenomenological  study.  Although  there  i s an  " o b j e c t i v e " r e a l i t y emerging i n Hong Kong, no l e g a l political that  or  documents o r p r o c e s s e s can d i s g u i s e t h e f a c t  "reality"  particularly  i s what i t i s c o n s t r u e d t o be.  This i s  t h e case i n Hong Kong where " c o n f i d e n c e " i s  so v u l n e r a b l e t o t h e p r e d a t i o n s o f rumour, s u p e r s t i t i o n and t r a d i t i o n .  There was much d i s c u s s i o n about who would  l e a v e and e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e s e matters became p a r t o f t h e " r e a l i t y " shaping Hong Kong i n t h e run-up t o 1997. Indeed, i t i s no e x a g g e r a t i o n t o c l a i m t h a t what people t h i n k i s " r e a l i t y " i s more important than any " o b j e c t i v e " analysis. Recall  that  phenomenological  this  study  was  frame o f r e f e r e n c e .  couched  within  a  I t d i d not c l a i m t o  measure any " o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y " c o n c e r n i n g t h e f u t u r e o f adult  education  i n Hong Kong but r e l i e d  on s u b j e c t i v e  e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e f u t u r e c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s e s o f adult  education.  educators.  While  The  respondents  were  a l l adult  50 p e r c e n t c l a i m they w i l l l e a v e Hong  Kong b e f o r e 1997, o t h e r s w i l l l i k e l y occupy l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n s where they w i l l g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e t h e c o n t e n t  131  and p r o c e s s e s o f ACE.  There i s a good chance t h a t what  t h e s e a d u l t e d u c a t o r s t h i n k may happen w i l l a c t u a l l y come about.  Thus, t h e i r views c o n c e r n i n g t h e f u t u r e o f ACE i n  Hong Kong w i l l be an important determinant o f the f u t u r e . Summary Recall naires.  that  122 respondents  completed  question-  There were a l t o g e t h e r 83 men and 39 women a d u l t  educators.  O v e r a l l , they were young u n i v e r s i t y graduates  t a k i n g ACE as t h e i r second p r o f e s s i o n . Of the 83 men n e a r l y 60 p e r c e n t were p l a n n e r s , whereas o f t h e 39 women, o n l y one t h i r d were p l a n n e r s . The women were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n c l i n e d t o be t e a c h e r s than were t h e men. R e c a l l t h a t t h e r e were f o u r purposes  o f t h e study:  1. To o b t a i n e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e a n t i c i p a t e d changes i n t h e c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s e s o f ACE i n t h e r u n up t o 1997. 2 . To e s t a b l i s h the e x t e n t t o which  socio-demographic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f respondents e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e i n e s t i m a t e s ( c o n c e r n i n g the a n t i c i p a t e d changes i n t h e c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s e s o f ACE). 3.  To e s t a b l i s h  the extent  o r i e n t a t i o n s o f respondents  t o which  political  explained variance i n e s t i -  m a t e s ( c o n c e r n i n g the a n t i c i p a t e d changes i n t h e c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s e s o f ACE). 4. To examine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e respon-  132  dents*  "emigration  (concerning  the  p r o c e s s e s of  intentions"  and  their  a n t i c i p a t e d changes i n the  estimates content  and  ACE).  With r e s p e c t t o purpose one, respondents c l a i m e d t h a t i n the  run-up t o 1997,  people s t a y i n g w i l l  become more  i n t e r e s t e d i n "Management," "China S t u d i e s , " ness & Commerce" programs.  and  "Busi-  They b e l i e v e d t h a t  people  l e a v i n g Hong Kong t e m p o r a r i l y or l e a v i n g permanently w i l l be g r e a t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n " T e c h n i c a l T r a i n i n g " programs but their  interest in  Sciences"  "Law," "China  programs w i l l  Studies"  and  "Social  decrease.  Respondents thought t h a t i n the run-up t o 1997, use  of  adult  education  methods  and  the  techniques  will  i n c r e a s e i n Hong Kong g e n e r a l l y and i n the workplace. They claimed  t h a t t h e r e w i l l a l a r g e r i n c r e a s e i n the use  "Courses By Computer" i n Hong Kong g e n e r a l l y and  of  i n the  workplace. With r e s p e c t  t o purpose two,  which concerned  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the respondents' socio-demographic characteristics mixed. the  and  their  In g e n e r a l ,  estimates.  were The  not  f u l l - t i m e or  related  following  relationships were  the  r e s u l t s were  respondents' " p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n c e r n "  y e a r s they worked as  educators  estimates,  present:  to  part-time  content  statistically  or  adult process  significant  133  Age: Compared thought  to  that  younger  for  respondents,  people  staying,  the  the  older  ones  interest  in  "Languages," "Hobbies" and "Business & Commerce" programs would  increase  significantly  more than  that  i n other  programs. Educational  Qualification;  Respondents w i t h h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s believed  that  t h e r e would  be  a  significantly  larger  i n c r e a s e i n i n t e r e s t ( f o r people s t a y i n g ) i n "Languages," "China S t u d i e s , " "Business & Commerce" and "Management" programs  than  qualifications.  d i d respondents  with  lower e d u c a t i o n a l  The b e t t e r educated respondents b e l i e v e d  t h a t t h e r e would be a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r i n c r e a s e i n t h e use o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n methods and t e c h n i q u e s (between and 1997)  now  than d i d the l e s s e r educated respondents. T h i s  a p p l i e d t o methods and t e c h n i q u e s as used " i n Hong Kong g e n e r a l l y " and " i n the workplace." The t h i r d purpose concerned the r e l a t i o n s h i p between respondents' p o l i t i c a l  o r i e n t a t i o n s and  e s t i m a t e s con-  c e r n i n g the a n t i c i p a t e d changes i n ACE. I t was found t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n between respondents' p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s and t h e i r e s t i m a t e s . But i n another a n a l y s i s , respondents were found t o know "a moderate amount" t o "much" about p e o p l e and t h i n g s  134  i n the p o l i t i c a l process. with  the  political  They were found t o be "happy"  process.  However,  they  did  not  With r e g a r d t o purpose f o u r , which concerned  the  participate actively ini t .  relationship tions"  and  between their  respondents'  "emigration  estimates concerning  the  inten-  anticipated  changes i n ACE, i t was found t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t association  between t h e i r  "emigration  intentions"  and  estimates. The  June  4  I n c i d e n t had  a  significant  effect  on  respondents' e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g the percentage o f those "leaving  temporarily."  questionnaire estimates  after  concerning  Respondents who  the  June  those  4  who  t e m p o r a r i l y than d i d those who  completed  Incident would  completed  made  leave  the  higher  Hong  Kong  i t p r i o r t o the  June 4. Conclusions Hong Kong  i s widely  because o f the v o l a t i l e  known as political  "jitters situation  city" and  and great  a n x i e t y evoked by the June 4 I n c i d e n t i n China, t h e r e i s no guarantee i n 1989)  t h a t e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e f u t u r e (made  w i l l h o l d t r u e by 1997.  l i m i t a t i o n , the respondents they  can  i n f l u e n c e the  Despite t h i s p o s s i b l e  occupy p o s i t i o n s from where  f u t u r e , and  i t i s possible to  i n t e r p r e t our r e s u l t s from a v a r i e t y of p e r s p e c t i v e s .  135  With r e s p e c t t o purpose one, estimates  concerning  the  which was  anticipated  c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s e s o f ACE, we may  to obtain  changes  in  the  conclude t h a t t h e r e  would not be any d r a s t i c change i n the c o n t e n t o f ACE i n t h e run-up t o 1997 as a n t i c i p a t e d by our a d u l t e d u c a t o r s . The s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l approach, which has i n f l u e n c e d t h e c o n t e n t of ACE  f o r y e a r s , w i l l c o n t i n u e t o guide t h e  development o f the f i e l d . a d u l t educators increase  E s t i m a t e s g a t h e r e d from t h e s e  i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e might be a  in interest  i n "Languages,"  "China  larger  Studies,"  "Business & Commerce," "Law," "Management," and " T e c h n i c a l T r a i n i n g " programs, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r p e o p l e s t a y i n g . A d u l t e d u c a t o r s b e l i e v e d t h a t people who w i l l be s t a y i n g i n t h e run-up t o 1997 w i l l r e l y on t h e s e programs t o cope w i t h t h e unique s i t u a t i o n o f Hong Kong. A l l t h e s e programs w i l l c o n t i n u e t o prepare s k i l l e d manpower and  entrepre-  neurs f o r promoting economic p r o s p e r i t y i n Hong Kong. They w i l l h e l p m o b i l i z e human r e s o u r c e s f o r a f u l l development of  c a p i t a l i s m i n t h e run-up t o  1997.  Pragmatism i n e d u c a t i o n w i l l p r e v a i l as l o n g as t h e structural-functional  approach  takes  the  lead.  "China  S t u d i e s " programs would be i n c r e a s e d i n o r d e r t o meet the l e a r n i n g needs o f people s t a y i n g . More c l o s e c o n t a c t s w i t h China c o u l d be a n t i c i p a t e d when 1997 the o t h e r hand, "Law"  approaches.  But on  programs seemed not u s e f u l f o r those  136  l e a v i n g Hong Kong permanently. Our survey showed t h a t w i t h r e s p e c t t o those s t a y i n g and l e a v i n g , the b i g g e s t mean d i f f e r e n c e s were on "China S t u d i e s " and "Law."  Respondents  tended t o t h i n k t h a t t h e r e w i l l be a l a r g e r i n c r e a s e i n i n t e r e s t i n "China S t u d i e s " ( f o r those s t a y i n g ) (X=3.50) but  interest  i n "Law"  ( f o r those  (X=2.60) would tend t o decrease. s u r p r i s e but educators  does suggest  will  be  leaving  permanently)  This result  t h a t , between now  d e a l i n g with  i s not a and  1997,  l e a r n e r s motivated  by  concerns shaped as much by " e m i g r a t i o n i n t e n t i o n s " as the u s u a l program c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  T h i s i s a modern example  of  preoccupation  the  historic  Hong  Kong  instrumental functions of education.  with  the  Moreover, program  p l a n n e r s w i l l l i k e l y take i n t o account the " e m i g r a t i o n i n tentions"  of  l e a r n e r s when making  " F u n c t i o n a l " t y p e s of programs w i l l dominate t h e c o n t e n t o f ACE  program d e c i s i o n s . likely  continue to  i n the run-up t o  1997.  Regarding the p r o c e s s e s of ACE, i t appears t h a t t h e r e w i l l be an o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e i n t h e use o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n methods and t e c h n i q u e s .  In o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n the "com-  p e t i t i v e n e s s " o f Hong Kong amongst o t h e r Southeast A s i a n countries,  resources  educated p o p u l a t i o n .  s h o u l d be  utilized  E f f e c t i v e ACE  t o support  an  programs s h o u l d  be  o r g a n i z e d f o r a d u l t s t o h e l p them f i g h t w i t h j o b o b s o l e s cence.  I f Hong Kong s h o u l d remain a v a l u a b l e a s s e t t o  137  China,  there  increase  the  must be  a great  deal  " p r o d u c t i v i t y " of  of ACE  Hong  programs  Kong.  to  Moreover,  f a c i n g the c h a l l e n g e s o f a growing p o p u l a t i o n and advanced technology o f ACE  i n the 90*s, the c i t y r e q u i r e s more p r o v i s i o n  programs t o s a t i s f y  needs.  T h i s was  larger  increase  a vast pool  p o s s i b l y why  of  educational  respondents a n t i c i p a t e d a  i n "Courses By  Computer" i n Hong Kong  g e n e r a l l y and i n the workplace. They p r o b a b l y b e l i e v e t h a t such a method would break through the t r a d i t i o n a l  con-  s t r a i n t s i n program d e l i v e r y and p r o v i d e more a c c e s s  to  learning opportunities for adults. With  respect  to  purpose  two,  which  was  to  e s t a b l i s h the e x t e n t t o which socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s o f respondents e x p l a i n e d v a r i e n a c e  i n e s t i m a t e s , we  may  c o n c l u d e t h a t o n l y e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n appeared t o be r e l a t e d t o e s t i m a t e s . significantly  associated  p o s s i b l e estimates.  Our r e s u l t s showed t h a t age with  only  three  out  of  was 31  I t had almost no impact on e s t i m a t e s .  Whether the respondents c o n s i d e r e d ACE t o be t h e i r p r i m a r y o r secondary p r o f e s s i o n a l concern was r e l a t e d t o any o f the e s t i m a t e s .  not  significantly  Nor was  the number o f  y e a r s working as a f u l l or p a r t - t i m e a d u l t educator r e l a t e d t o any e s t i m a t e s .  Only " h i g h e s t e d u c a t i o n a l  qualifica-  t i o n " appeared t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h mates.  In g e n e r a l , those w i t h h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n  esti-  qualifi-  138  c a t i o n s thought t h a t t h e r e would be a l a r g e r i n c r e a s e i n interest  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y i n "China S t u d i e s " and  "Business  & Commerce") than d i d those w i t h lower e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i fications. Maybe  those  with  university  degrees  are  more  committed t o e d u c a t i o n and aware o f the f u t u r e i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h China than t h o s e w i t h lower e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a tions.  They p r o b a b l y t h i n k t h a t t h e s e programs ("China  Studies"  and  "mainland  "Business  &  Commerce")  are  central  to  r e l a t i o n s " and maintenance o f Hong Kong as a  major f i n a n c i a l ^ c e n t r e i n A s i a . Regarding the p r o c e s s e s of ACE, a d u l t e d u c a t o r s w i t h higher educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  anticipated  use  and  of  adult  education  methods  that  techniques  i n c r e a s e ( g e n e r a l l y and i n t h e workplace) .  the will  As more a d u l t  e d u c a t o r s have p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g , they w i l l know the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f u s i n g s u i t a b l e methods and t e c h n i q u e s t o facilitate  adult  learning.  There  will  be  further  development i n e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g y i n o r d e r t o c a t e r to  the e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f a growing p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e  90s. The Open L e a r n i n g I n s t i t u t e of Hong Kong i s a good example.  I t t r i e s t o s u r p a s s the h u r d l e s o f c l a s s r o o m  teaching.  I t uses a l l k i n d s o f methods and t e c h n i q u e s i n  distance education.  The use of Cable TV i n the 90s  will  p r o v i d e more e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o a l l s e c t o r s o f  139  the p o p u l a t i o n . Other ACE  a g e n c i e s may  have t o l o o k f o r human and  m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s t o d e v i s e methods and t e c h n i q u e s f o r t h e i r programs. Funds a r e r e q u i r e d f o r b u i l d i n g premises, language l a b o r a t o r i e s , workshops, and c o n v e n t i o n rooms. A d u l t e d u c a t o r s need t o conduct r e s e a r c h on a d u l t t e a c h i n g and program p l a n n i n g .  To a s s i s t t h e s e ACE a g e n c i e s , t h e  government w i l l have t o f o r m u l a t e a comprehensive p o l i c y for  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n the  90s.  With r e s p e c t t o purpose t h r e e , which was t o e s t a b l i s h t h e e x t e n t t o which p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s o f  respondents  e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e i n e s t i m a t e s , we may conclude t h a t the respondents*  political  orientations  cantly r e l a t e d to t h e i r estimates.  were not  signifi-  But i t appeared  that  a d u l t educators with higher educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s tended t o know more about the people and t h i n g s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s than those w i t h lower e d u c a t i o n a l qualf ications.  The more e d u c a t i o n they had, the more they  were concerned w i t h the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . But most of them did  not a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p o l i t i c a l Although  there  was  no  significant  process.  association  between a d u l t e d u c a t o r s ' p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s and t h e i r views c o n c e r n i n g the purposes adult  educators  were  c o n c e r n i n g the purposes  found  of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , to  be  these  quite conservative  of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  They viewed  140  " T e c h n i c a l competence" as the most and " S o c i a l change" t h e l e a s t important purpose of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . They were more concerned w i t h h e l p i n g a d u l t l e a r n e r s a c q u i r e knowledge and s k i l l s r a t h e r than changing ACE  the s o c i e t y .  To them,  i s more o f a p r o f e s s i o n than a s o c i a l movement.  1997  approaches,  democracy  and  many Hong Kong people  promoting  civic  are  education.  As  demanding But  adult  educators are l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n p l a y i n g a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e i n s o c i a l change than p r o v i d i n g the " s e r v i c e " of ACE learners.  People a r e used t o a s t a b l e s o c i e t y and  hope t o m a i n t a i n the s t a t u s quo.  to  they  They w i l l t a k e y e a r s t o  develop a sense o f s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . With r e s p e c t t o purpose f o u r , which was the  relationship  intentions"  and  respondents'  between t h e their  respondents'  e s t i m a t e s , we  may  t o examine "emigration  conclude  that  " e m i g r a t i o n i n t e n t i o n s " d i d not i n f l u e n c e  t h e i r estimates.  Whether t h e respondents  would l i k e  to  l e a v e Hong Kong t e m p o r a r i l y , l e a v e permanently, o r s t a y , was not r e l a t e d t o t h e i r views c o n c e r n i n g the a n t i c i p a t e d changes i n the c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s e s o f ACE up t o  i n the run-  1997. Discussion Going  evidence  beyond the p r e s e n t d a t a ,  there i s a  priori  f o r the f a c t t h a t people a r e g o i n g t o be  very  i n t e r e s t e d i n t e c h n i c a l o r v o c a t i o n a l programs t h a t can  141  enhance t h e i r e m p l o y a b i l i t y 1997  approaches,  relying  on  future.  ACE  those  intending  programs t o  deal  of  "maintenance  vocational  be  be  with u n c e r t a i n t i e s  in  because  of  t h a t our  economic  knowledge and are  couched w i t h i n The  the  emphasis of  on  reactive the  Hong Kong s u r v i v e s mainly  prosperity  skills  and  "Technical  people  looked  to  T r a i n i n g " programs  i n d e v e l o p i n g the economy. For  l e a v i n g Hong Kong t e m p o r a r i l y  "Technical  adult  a c t i o n d e s i g n e d t o cope w i t h  "Business & Commerce" and  t h o s e who  still  seem  As  to  learning."  unique s i t u a t i o n of Hong Kong.  nently,  stay  o r t e c h n i c a l programs i s a k i n d  r a t h e r than p r o a c t i v e  for  to  However, the f u t u r e shape o f ACE  educators a n t i c i p a t e d w i l l context  or e m i g r a t i o n p r o s p e c t s .  or  perma-  T r a i n i n g " programs are thought t o  be  i n s t r u m e n t s which s o l v e d a i l y problems of emigrants. Those l e a v i n g do not appear t o be l o o k i n g f o r long-term a l t e r n a t i v e s but  j u s t responding t o immediate problems.  I f the c o n t e n t of ACE i n the run-up t o 1997 to  the  learning  needs  of  people  who  are  i s to cater driven  by  " e m i g r a t i o n i n t e n t i o n s , " t h e r e c o u l d be an imbalance i n the development o f the f i e l d . that only received  While program p l a n n e r s t h i n k  t e c h n i c a l or v o c a t i o n a l by  adult  learners,  programs may  they  are  be  encouraged  o r g a n i z e more programs i n t h i s type than i n o t h e r s .  well to As  the c o n t e n t of ACE i s overwhelmed by the " f u n c t i o n a l " type  142  o f programs, ACE i n Hong Kong w i l l o n l y s e r v e t o m a i n t a i n the s t a t u s quo and f a i l t o g i v e people new i d e a s as t o what they can cope w i t h t h e changes i n t h e run-up t o 1997. Although people  might  Hong Kong need  has become a " j i t t e r s  "innovative  learning"  city,"  (Botkin, E l -  mandjra & M a l i t z a , 1979) t o d e a l w i t h c h a l l e n g e s .  They  s h o u l d make f o r e c a s t s and long-term p l a n n i n g . T h i s i s what a n t i c i p a t i o n i n "innovative  l e a r n i n g " means. The o t h e r  element o f " i n n o v a t i v e l e a r n i n g " i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In t h i s regard,  remember  that  our a d u l t  educators'  political  o r i e n t a t i o n s were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r estimates.  Nor was t h e r e evidence  t h a t o u r respondents  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the p o l i t i c a l process.  Nor d i d they view  " S o c i a l change" as t h e most important  purpose o f a d u l t  education.  Most o f them had u n i v e r s i t y degrees and a r e  thus p a r t o f the " e l i t e . "  They d i d n o t seem t o be v e r y  i n t e r e s t e d i n the s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . Nevertheless people's  t h e June  civic  4  Incident  consciousness  and  aroused  Hong  stimulated  p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the community.  Kong  active  I f ACE i n Hong  Kong i s t o h e l p people cope w i t h s o c i a l change i n the r u n up t o 1997,  e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r the B a s i c Law was promulgated  and a p a t t e r n o f p o l i t i c a l development has been o u t l i n e d , t h e r e i s a sense educators  i n which Hong Kong w i l l depend upon a d u l t  t o take  leadership  and make  ACE  a  social  143  movement. Our  survey  showed  qualifications  had  concerning  anticipated  the  an  that  respondents'  impact  upon  educational  their  changes  i n ACE.  estimates The  more  educated people w i l l p o s s i b l y l o o k f o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n ACE i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n a b e t t e r q u a l i t y o f l i f e than t h e l e s s educated.  This thinking coincides with a popular  b e l i e f i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t h a t the more educated more from ACE than uneducated people. only gather  data  from  benefit  I f our survey c o u l d  the w e l l - e d u c a t e d  educators,  we  s h o u l d admit t h i s was one of the l i m i t a t i o n s o f our survey. In to  find  o r d e r t o e n l a r g e the scope of i n q u i r y , a survey out what the a d u l t  changes i n the c o n t e n t and conducted.  l e a r n e r s thought  about  processes  should  of ACE  the be  When we compare the r e s u l t s o f the s u r v e y s o f  t h e a d u l t e d u c a t o r s on the one hand and t h a t o f the a d u l t learners  on  the  o t h e r , we  may  secure  e s t i m a t e o f a n t i c i p a t e d changes i n ACE.  a  comprehensive  However, r e s u l t s  of our p r e s e n t survey r e p r e s e n t e d the views o f those will  who  occupy f u t u r e l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n s i n ACE. I f we have t o l o o k a f t e r the l e a r n i n g needs o f a l l  sectors Institute  of  the  will  population, be  a good  then  indicator  the  Open  Learning  o f whether ACE  important t o the e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged.  The  is  large  l i n e - u p s f o r OLI e n r o l l m e n t forms suggested t h a t t h e r e are  144  many people w i t h lower  education q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  (or no  e d u c a t i o n a t a l l ) are eager f o r a c c e s s t o h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . Nobody doubts the importance of ACE t o Hong Kong, but t h e r e must  be  ways  to  help  people  overcome  barriers  to  p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Although i t i s t o o e a r l y t o a s s e s s the work by OLI, i t has c r e a t e d new hopes f o r people and, i n a democratizes education.  As Hong Kong f a c e s 1997,  way,  and the  need t o m a i n t a i n t r a d i t i o n a l freedoms, we have t o make our s o c i e t y open.  A p r e r e q u i s i t e o r c o r o l l a r y f o r an open  s o c i e t y i s t o open e d u c a t i o n t o a l l . An open s o c i e t y ensures the freedom f o r people t o move i n and out of i t .  The  " c o n f i d e n c e problem" has d r i v e n  l o c a l p e o p l e t o go away w h i l e some " b r a i n - d r a i n e r s " have come back t o work. By 1990, t h e r e was a shortage o f s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r s and the government a l l o w e d employers t o import l a b o u r e r s from abroad. they  look  to  integration, generation.  ACE and  There i s a f r e e flow o f people and  for  skills  emigrant  training,  re-integration  immigrant and  idea-  The c o n t e n t o f ACE w i l l become p l u r a l i s t i c  i n o r d e r t o c a t e r t o the e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f the new old  populations.  As l o n g as people are a l l o w e d t o s t a y  or go away f r e e l y , new s o c i a l problems w i l l emerge. must  be  residents  ways and  generations.  to  and  reconcile  non-residents,  the the  differences older  and  There  between younger  T o p i c s l i k e community development, f a m i l y  145  e d u c a t i o n , and environmental emphases i n ACE. &  p r o t e c t i o n c o u l d become new  Programs i n " S o c i a l Work," " R e l i g i o u s  E t h n o - c u l t u r a l S t u d i e s , " and  "Environmental  Science  ( E c o l o g y ) " w i l l be i n c r e a s e d i n the c o n t e n t o f ACE, is  c u r r e n t l y overwhelmed  subjects.  by  technical  and  which  vocational  These programs are not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the  economy but are c e n t r a l t o s o c i a l development. ACE s h o u l d have a "balanced" c o n t e n t which h e l p s people b u i l d a b e t t e r s o c i e t y and p r o g r e s s w i t h i n i t . Many a d u l t educators i n Hong Kong o f t e n t h i n k of what they can do f o r China.  They f e e l the need t o c o n t r i b u t e  t h e i r e x p e r t i s e i n ACE t o the mainland. population education  in  China  for a  awaiting  great  There i s a huge  education.  number  of  people  To  provide  depends  upon  e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t methodologies i n program d e l i v ery.  Few  would underestimate  t h e development o f ACE.  the impact of s c i e n c e upon  Hong Kong o c c u p i e s a f a v o u r a b l e  p o s i t i o n i n promoting e d u c a t i o n because o f i t s a c c e s s t o advanced e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h o l o g y program i d e a s .  the  processes,  which  computers, c a b l e TV and considerable  receptivity  to  new  In r e c e n t y e a r s , much has been done t o  improve t h e p r o c e s s e s o f ACE. of  and  Apart from the "hardware"  refers  to  devices  such  as  a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s , t h e r e has been  a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o the  "software"  of  the  p r o c e s s e s , i . e . programming methods and t e c h n i q u e s o f i n -  146  struction. educators making This  As a r e s u l t o f p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g , i n Hong Kong  a r e g e t t i n g more i n t e r e s t e d i n  program p l a n n i n g and  means  that  they  adult  instruction  look  "scientific."  for rational  models  for  s y s t e m a t i c p l a n n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s d e v e l oped  on  the  research. are  basis  of  tested  knowledge  derived  from  They know t h a t o n l y when "hardware" f a c i l i t i e s  compatible  with  t h e methods  and  techniques,  then  e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n can t a k e p l a c e . The knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t a d u l t  educators  i n Hong Kong possess a r e u s e f u l f o r t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n China.  B e s i d e s , t h e r e has r e c e n t l y been a t r e n d t h a t many  ACE a g e n c i e s i n Hong Kong o f f e r programs i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h overseas e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s .  On t h e one hand,  t h e s e programs p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o some Hong Kong people who a r e unable t o study o v e r s e a s .  On the  o t h e r hand, they w i l l a l s o g i v e access t o l e a r n e r s coming from China i n f u t u r e .  Such a mode o f program d e l i v e r y ,  based upon t h e Hong Kong e x p e r i e n c e , can be adapted i n China. I t i s important f o r l o c a l a d u l t e d u c a t o r s t o m a i n t a i n a "Hong Kong i d e n t i t y " i n the run-up t o 1997.  This w i l l  h e l p s t r e n g t h e n t h e independent s t a t u s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s o f ACE i n Hong Kong. that  a  professional  association,  There i s a p o s s i b l i t y like  The  Hong  Kong  147  A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , w i l l become one the many r e g i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s o f China, e.g. the ones i n Shanghai o r Shenzhen. autonomy a f t e r 1997, own  of  s i m i l a r to  I f Hong Kong can r e t a i n  the A s s o c i a t i o n may  still  make i t s  d e c i s i o n s about i t s o b j e c t i v e s and a c t i v i t i e s .  Then  i t can c o n t i n u e t o r e p r e s e n t  the p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s  o f l o c a l a d u l t e d u c a t o r s and  improve the s t a t u s o f  ACE.  To work f o r a "Hong Kong i d e n t i t y " r e q u i r e s commitment and d e l i b e r a t e e f f o r t s of p r a c t i t i o n e r s . On the one hand, they s h o u l d c o n s o l i d a t e themselves by d i v e s t i n g p r e j u d i c e s  and  b i a s e s , and work f o r the i n t e r e s t s o f a d u l t l e a r n e r s  and  the w e l l - b e i n g of the Hong Kong s o c i e t y . On the o t h e r hand, w h i l e Hong Kong f l a u n t s as an " i n t e r n a t i o n a l c i t y , " l o c a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s are o b l i g e d t o s t r e n g t h e n the t i e s w i t h the i n t e r n a t i o n a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n community. w i t h new  To keep a b r e a s t  developments i n r e s e a r c h and p r a c t i c e i s the r e -  s p o n s i b i l i t y of p r o f e s s i o n a l  associations.  If  profes-  s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s can demonstrate t h a t they know what the  l e a r n i n g needs o f a d u l t  needs can  be  met  l e a r n e r s are  satisfactorily,  and  then they may  b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o remain independent a f t e r While people are s t i l l the June 4 I n c i d e n t , can  do  to help  there  i n great  anxiety  i s much t h a t c i v i c  them cope w i t h the  how  situation.  these have a  1997. because o f education People's  r e a c t i o n s toward the democracy movement i n China b e f o r e  148  and a f t e r June 4 d i d t e l l the world t h a t Hong Kong c i t i z e n s could unite together working  towards  f o r combating s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e  democracy.  Their  concern  for  and the  p o l i t i c a l development i n China was not merely because they were Chinese but a l s o they b e l i e v e d t h a t what had happened i n China c o u l d occur i n Hong Kong. the  politically  apathetic  T h i s empathy has d r i v e n  Hong  Kong  people  to  come  t o g e t h e r t o d i s c u s s what t h e i r s o c i e t y s h o u l d be l i k e i n t h e run-up t o 1997.  A f t e r June 4, the worry about f u t u r e  has s t i m u l a t e d people, r e g a r d l e s s o f sex, age,  occupation,  income and e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n , t o h o l d forums and seminars a t s c h o o l s , parks, T.V.  and r a d i o s t a t i o n s , and  on newspapers. In the s e a r c h f o r the meaning o f democracy, p e o p l e have undergone a l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s directed,  while  having  political  that i s  leaders,  workers and c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t o r s a c t i n g as  self-  community  facilitators.  T h i s k i n d o f l e a r n i n g experience e n r i c h e s the scope o f ACE, which  is  programs.  no  longer Civic  important a s p e c t  confined  education o f ACE  to  will  institutional-based continue  i n the run-up t o  to  be  one  1997.  O v e r a l l , the f u t u r e development o f ACE w i l l be woven i n t o the s o c i o p o l i t i c a l p r o g r e s s i n Hong Kong. Even though the  f u t u r e o f Hong Kong w i l l much be  i n f l u e n c e d by  the  p o l i c y o f China, what people t h i n k about the r e a l i t y w i l l c e r t a i n l y determine t h e i r way  of l i f e .  I f p e o p l e have  149  c o n f i d e n c e i n f u t u r e , then many w i l l  s t a y and they  look  t o ACE as a means t o m a i n t a i n t h e s t a t u s quo. But i f t h e m a j o r i t y a r e p e s s i m i s t i c w i t h the HKSAR and l e a v e Hong Kong permanently, then t h e r e w i l l be d r a s t i c changes i n ACE, which s h o u l d be r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n a way t o h e l p t h e s t a y i n g people d e a l w i t h t h e " d i s a s t e r . "  That would be a g r e a t  c h a l l e n g e t o our a d u l t educators  i n t h e run-up t o 1997.  150  REFERENCES  A d r a f t agreement between t h e government o f t h e U n i t e d Kingdom o f Great B r i t a i n and Northern I r e l a n d and t h e government o f t h e People's R e p u b l i c o f China on the Future o f Hong Kong (white p a p e r ) . (1984, September). Hong Kong: Government P r i n t e r . Almond, G. A., & Verba, S. (1963). The c i v i c c u l t u r e : Pol i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s and democracy i n f i v e n a t i o n s . P r i n c e t o n , NJ: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . B o s h i e r , R. (1985). Conceptual framework f o r a n a l y z i n g the training of t r a i n e r s and a d u l t educators. Convergence. 28.(3-4) , 3-21. B o t k i n , J . W., Elmandjra, M., & M a l i t z a , M. (1979). No l i m i t s t o l e a r n i n g : B r i d g i n g t h e human gap. Oxford: Pergamon P r e s s . B r o o k f i e l d , S. (1984). The c o n t r i b u t i o n of Eduard Lindeman t o t h e development o f t h e o r y and p h i l o s o p h y in adult education. Adult Education Quarterly. 34(4), 185-196. Campbell, D. T., & S t a n l e y , J . C. (1963). Experimental and q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s e a r c h . Chicago: Rand McNally. Cheng, D. W. L. (1986). The a s p e c t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l commercial relations. I n A. Y. H. Kwan & D. K. K. Chan ( E d s . ) , Hong Kong s o c i e t y : A r e a d e r (pp. 71-88). Hong Kong: W r i t e r s & P u b l i s h e r s ' C o o p e r a t i v e .  151  Cheng, J . Y. S. (1989) . The 1988 D i s t r i c t Board e l e c t i o n s . In K. Cheek-Milby & M. Mushkat (Eds.), Hong Kong: The c h a l l e n g e o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n (pp. 116-149). Hong Kong: The U n i v e r s i t y o f Hong Kong. Clark, D. J . (1989). A h i g h degree o f autonomy under the B a s i c Law: An a n a l y s i s . In K. Cheek-Milby & M. Mushkat (Eds.), Hong Kong: The challenge of transformation (pp. 153-188). Hong Kong: The U n i v e r s i t y o f Hong Kong. Darkenwald, G. G., & Merriam, S. B. (1982). A d u l t e d u c a t i o n : Foundations o f P r a c t i c e . New York: Harper & Row, P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . D e c l a r a c a o c o n i u n t a do governo da R e p u b l i c a Portuguesa e do governo da R e p u b l i c a p o p u l a r da China sobre a guestao de Macau ( t e x t o r u b r i c a d o ) . (1987, March). Macau: Firma Nam Kwong. District Administration i n Hong Kong (white paper). (1981, J a n u a r y ) . Hong Kong: Government P r i n t e r . E d u c a t i o n Commission. (1984, O c t o b e r ) . Report Hong Kong: Government P r i n t e r .  No.  1.  E d u c a t i o n Commission. (1986, A u g u s t ) . Report Hong Kong: Government P r i n t e r .  No.  2.  E l i a s , J . L., & Merriam, S. B. (1980). Philosophical f o u n d a t i o n s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . F l o r i d a : Robert E. K r i e g e r P u b l i s h i n g Co., I n c . Government I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s . (1989). Hong Kong 1989 (annual r e p o r t ) . Hong Kong: Government P r i n t e r .  152  H a r r i s , P. (1988). Hong Kong: A study i n b u r e a u c r a c y and p o l i t i c s . Hong Kong: M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h e r s (HK) L t d . H i c k s , G. L. (1989) . Hong Kong countdown. Hong Writers' & Publishers' Cooperatives. Hobbes, T. (1968). L e v i a t h a n . K e r l i n g e r , F. N. r e s e a r c h (2nd Winston.  Kong:  B a l t i m o r e : Penguin Books.  (1973). Foundations of behavioral e d . ) . New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and  King> A. Y. C. (1984). A d m i n i s t r a t i v e absorption of politics i n Hong Kong: Emphasis on t h e g r a s s r o o t s l e v e l . In A. Y. C. K i n g & R. P. L. Lee ( E d s . ) , S o c i a l l i f e and development i n Hong Kong (pp. 127-146) . Hong Kong: The Chinese U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Kuan, H. C., Lau, S. K. (1989). The c i v i c s e l f in a changing p o l i t y : The case o f Hong Kong. In K. CheekM i l b y & M. Mushkat. (Eds.), Hong Kong: The c h a l l e n g e o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n (pp. 91-115). Hong Kong: The U n i v e r s i t y o f Hong Kong. La B e l l e , T. J . (1986). Nonformal e d u c a t i o n i n L a t i n America and t h e C a r r i b e a n : S t a b i l i t y , reform. o r revolution? New York: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s . Man, C. Y. Y. (Ed.). (1988). D i r e c t o r y o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n Hong Kong (2nd e d . ) . Hong Kong: Hong Kong Association f o r Continuing Education. P a u l s t o n , R. G. (1977). S o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l change: c o n c e p t u a l frameworks. Comparative e d u c a t i o n review. June/October, 370-395.  153  P l a t o (1960). The R e p u b l i c (F. M. C o r n f o r d , T r a n s . ) . York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .  New  R e f e r e n c e papers f o r the B a s i c Law o f the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic o f China ( d r a f t ) . (1989, F e b r u a r y ) . Hong Kong: S e c r e t a r i a t o f the C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee f o r the B a s i c Law of the HK Special Administrative Region o f the People's R e p u b l i c o f China. Schroeder, W. L. (1970). A d u l t e d u c a t i o n defined and d e s c r i b e d . In R. M. Smith, G. F. Aker, & J . R. Kidd (Eds.) , Handbook o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n (pp. 25- 43) . New York: The Macmillan Company. S i n o - B r i t i s h -joint d e c l a r a t i o n on the Q u e s t i o n of Hong Kong ( i n i t i a l l e d t e x t ) (1984, September). Hong Kong: Xinhua News Agency (Hong Kong Branch). The  c o n s t i t u t i o n o f the People's R e p u b l i c o f China (promulgated f o r implementation on December 4, 1982). B e i j i n g : F o r e i g n Languages P r e s s .  The  development o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government: The way forward (white p a p e r ) . (1988, F e b r u a r y ) . Hong Kong: Government P r i n t e r .  The d r a f t B a s i c Law o f the Hong Kong S p e c i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Region o f the People's R e p u b l i c of China ( f o r s o l i c i t a t i o n of o p i n i o n s ) . (1988, A p r i l ) . Hong Kong: The D r a f t i n g Committee f o r the B a s i c Law. The  f u r t h e r development o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government i n Hong Kong (white paper) . (1984, November) . Hong Kong: Government P r i n t e r .  154  The 1987 review o f developments i n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government (green paper) . (1987, May) . Hong Kong: Government Printer. Verner, C. (1964). D e f i n i t i o n o f terms. In G. Jensen, A. A. L i v e r i g h t , & W. H a l l e n b e c k (Eds.), A d u l t e d u c a t i o n : O u t l i n e s o f an emerging f i e l d o f u n i v e r s i t y study (pp. 27-39). Washington, D.C.: A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e USA. Wiersma, W. (1986). Research methods i n e d u c a t i o n (4th e d . ) . Newton, Mass: A l l y n and Bacon, Inc. Wong, S.  (1986). Southeast A s i a n urban t r a i n i n g c o u r s e .  Convergence. 19(1), 17-19.  Appendix A:  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s A d m i n i s t e r e d D u r i n g Study o f Hong Kong  Adult Education Content and Processes  ( Form A ) 1  155 A D U L T A N D CONTINUING E D U C A T I O N IN HONG KONG H o w d o y o u t h i n k t h e i n t e r e s t s of people w h o a t t e n d a d u l t a n d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n w i l l b e i n f l u e n c e d b y e v e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a p p r o a c h of 1 9 9 7 ? A n d t o w h a t e x t e n t w i l l p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t s be c o l o u r e d b y t h e i r i n t e n t i o n t o s t a y in Hong K o n g , l e a v e t e m p o r a r i l y , o r l e a v e p e r m a n e n t l y ? P l e a s e l o o k at e a c h o f t h e s u b j e c t s ( e . g . C h i n e s e l a n g u a g e ) l i s t e d b e l o w and c i r c l e a r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r y to i n d i c a t e the extent to which you think i n t e r e s t i n i t w i l l i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e f o r t h o s e i n t e n d i n g t o s t a y i n Hong K o n g , l e a v e t e m p o r a r i l y , or leave permanently. T h e r e a r e no r i g h t o r w r o n g a n s w e r s a n d a l l w e w a n t i s y o u r " b e s t e s t i m a t e " c o n c e r n i n g w h a t w i l l h a p p e n b e t w e e n n o w a n d 1 9 9 7 . T h i n k of a i l a d u l t l e a r n e r s i n g e n e r a l , w h o w i l l a t t e n d a b r o a d a r r a y of f o r m a l a n d n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s i n H o n g K o n g , not j u s t t h o s e w h o m y o u a r e p e r s o n a l l y familiar with.  1.Chinese Language For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving, temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain E-j-jentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving, permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  2.Home G a r d e n i n g For those staying interest will  3.China T r a d e For those staying interest will  A2 156  4.Accounting & A u d i t i n g For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leavinq. temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leavinq temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  5.Company Law For those staying interest will  6 . S o c i a l Work For those staying interest will  T r a i n i n g of T r a i n e r s For those staying interest will  A3  157  8. Computer T e c h n o l o g y For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving, temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease bLrongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially Ihc same  Increase  •Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For Ihosc leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving, permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase  1 1 . Hobby. H a n d i c r a f t s For those staying Interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Biomedicine For those staying . interest will  ICEnglish Language For those staving interest will  A4  158  12.Chinese L e g a l For those staving interest will  System Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  13.Advertising/Marketing For those staying interest will  1 4 . P r o p e r t y Law For those staying Interest will For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanenlly interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Increase  Increase strongly  Increase  Increase strongly  15.Religious & Ethno-cultural Studies For those staying Decrease Decrease interest will strongly For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  .  A5  159  16. Human Resour.ees Management For those staving interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leavinq temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leavinq temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leavinq permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly °  For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leavinq temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving, permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leavinq permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  17. C h e f T r a i n i n g . For those staying interest will  18.Civil  Engineering  19.Japanese  Language  A6 160  20.Fashion D e s i g n For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Increase  Increase strongly  ZKChinese Arts(e.g.film, theatre, painting) For those staving Decrease Decrease Remain Essentially interest will strongly the same For those leavinq temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For tho3e leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leavinq permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  22. I n t e r n a t i o n a l For those staying interest will  23. C r i m i n a l  Trade  Law  A7 161  24.Moral  Education  For those staving interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving, temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those staying, interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those Leaving, permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  2 5 . 0 f f i c e Management  26.  Carpentry  27.Environmental  Science(Ecology)  For those staying, interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  A8 162  28.French L a n g u a g e For those sjayjoa interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For tho-jc leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  30.Chinese P h i l o s o p h y For those slaying. interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving. permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Fssentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving, permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  29.Chinese C a l l i g r a p h y For those staying interest will  31 . I n v e s t m e n t P l a n n i n g For those staying interest will  A9 163  3 2 . L a b o u r Law i n H.K. For those slaying, interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  ("or Ihose leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  33.Health Education For those staying interest will  34.Supervisory For those staying interest will  35. M e c h a n i c a l For those staying interest will  Management  Engineering  A10 164  36.Human  Geography  For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those stayinginterest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving, permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those Iftavinn temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For Ihose leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  37.German  Language  Increase  strongly  38.Ho'bby. P h o t o g r a p h y  39.Chinese  History  All 165  40.Banking P r a c t i c e For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  increase  Increase strongly  Remain . Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  4Z.Civic Education For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  43.Worker T r a i n i n g For those staving interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Increase  increase strongly  For those leavinq temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Increase  Increase strongly  41.Hong Kong T a x a t i o n For those staying interest will  Law  Remain Essentially the same  A12 166  44.Driving For those staving interest will  Decrease  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  45.Information For those stayino interest will  Management Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  (Continued  on n e x t  page)  A13  167  T o w h a t e x t e n t w i l l u s e of t h e f o l l o w i n g a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n p r o c e s s e s i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e b e t w e e n n o w a n d 1 9 9 7 i n Hong K o n g g e n e r a l l y and in y o u r w o r k p l a c e ? 1. CORRESPONDENCE STUDY Decrease  In Hong Kong  Decrease  generally w i l l  strongly  In my workplace will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Decrease strongly  2 . ROLE P L A Y In Hong Kong generally w i l l  In my workplace will  3. CLASS In Hong Kong generally w i l l  In my workplace will  4. E d u c a t i o n a l  Remain  Increase  Essentially the same  Remain Essentially the same  Increase strongly  Increase  Increase strongly  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Games  In Hong Kong generally w i l l  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  In my workplace will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decreasfl  Decrease  5. EXHIBITIONS In Hong Kong generally w i l l  In my workplace Will  strongly  Remain Essentially  the some  Increase  Increase strongly  A14  6. DEBATE In Hong Kong generally will  168  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  In my workplace will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  7. APPRENTICESHIP In Hong Kong generally will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  In my workplace will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Increase  Increase strongly  8. SIMULATION In Hong Kong generally will In my workplace will  9. IUrORIAL DISCUSSION GROUP In Hong Kong Decrease generally will strongly In my workploce  Decrease  will  strongly  10.LECTURE In Hong Kong generally will  In my workplace will  11.Public  Education  In Hong Kong generally will In my workplace will  Decrease  Remain  Essentially the same  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Campaigns (e.g.  Clean  Hong  Kong)  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  A15 169 12.GROUP DISCUSSION In Hong Kong generally w i l l  In my workplace will  1 3 . C O U R S E S BY COMPUTER In Hong Kong generally w i l l  In my workplace will  14. DEMONSTRATION In Hong Kong generally w i l l  In my workplace will  15.FORUM In Hong Kung generally w i l l  In my workplace will  16.FIELD TRIPS In Hong Kong generally w i l l  In my workplace will  17. WORKSHOP In Hong Kong generally w i l l  In my workplace will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase -  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase . strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  strongly  A16 170 1 8 . C A S E STUDIES In Hong Kong generally w i l l  In my workplace will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  ( CONTINUED ON NEXT P A G E )  171  NOW  PLEASE ANSWER THESE BACKGROUND QUESTIONS. REMEMBER—YOUR NAME I S NOT REQUIRED.  What i s your sex?  Male  What i s your age ( i n years)?  j  I 1  Female  | \  years  In your l i f e , do you regard adult/continuing education as being your primary ( i . e . most important) or secondary p r o f e s s i o n a l concern? (Check only one box) ADED/CE i s my PRIMARY p r o f e s s i o n a l concern ADED/CE i s my SECONDARY p r o f e s s i o n a l concern What i s your r o l e i n adult/continuing education? (Check only one box)  • •  P r i m a r i l y a PLANNER (e.g. Administrator/Programer/Policy-maker) P r i m a r i l y a TEACHER (e.g. Tutor/Lecturer/Counsellor)  For how many years have you worked as a f u l l or part-time a d u l t / continuing educator? F u l l time: \  I year(s)  \  I year(s)  Part-time:  What i s the highest educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n you hold? (Check only one box) No formal q u a l i f i c a t i o n Completed Form 5  , '  ,  Completed Form 6 or Form 7 Post-secondary or p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n only: (e.g. V o c a t i o n a l School diplomas, Business diplomas, e t c . ) , Completed part of a u n i v e r s i t y degree or diploma  ,  Completed a u n i v e r s i t y degree or diploma: Degree/diploma obtained from a u n i v e r s i t y overseas Where? _______ Degree/diploma obtained from a u n i v e r s i t y i n H.K Completed a u n i v e r s i t y degree or diploma and some a d d i t i o n a l post-secondary q u a l i f i c a t i o n (e.g. B.B.A. and C e r t i f i e d Accountant, B.A. and Dip. Ed., e t c . )  What do you r e g a r d as your f i r s t ( o r o r i g i n a l ) academic d i s c i p l i n e o r f i e l d of s t u d y ( e . g . a c c o u n t i n g , l a n g u a g e s , s o c i o l o g y , e d u c a t i o n , n u r s i n g , e n g i n e e r i n g , home economics, e t c . ) ?  F o r you, what i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t purpose of a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education? Rank t h e s e purposes. ( F o r example, i f you t h i n k s o c i a l change i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t , p l a c e 1 i n the box, then use 2, 3, 4 f o r o t h e r boxes.) Social integration ( e . g . h e l p i n g people " f i t i n " t o Hong Kong)  i I  i 1  Social responsibility (e.g. c i t i z e n s h i p )  i I  > j  S o c i a l change ( e . g . f o r democracy)  i I  i I  T e c h n i c a l competence (e.g. s k i l l s t r a i n i n g )  i |  i I  YOU'VE N E A R L Y F I N I S H E D .  NOW  ABOUT  WE  WANT TO  ASK  SOME Q U E S T I O N S  1997.  How many c u r r e n t r e s i d e n t s o f Hong Kong w i l l l e a v e permanently, t e m p o r a r i l y , o r s t a y — b e t w e e n now a n d 1 9 9 7 ? Please p l a c e your b e s t e s t i m a t e s i n each o f the f o l l o w i n g boxes. We o n l y want your b e s t guess but make them add up t o 100%. Between now  and  1997,  \  "| -% w i l l l e a v e  Between now  and  1997,  t  1  % w i l l leave temporarily.  Between now  and  1997,  I  3  % will  total=  100  permanently.  s t a y i n Hong Kong.  %  How much do you f e e l you know about t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e E x e c u t i v e and L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l s i n Hong Kong? (Check o n l y one box) An immense amount Very much Much A moderate amount Little Very  [=3 little  Almost n o t h i n g  173 How much do you f e e l you know about t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between Hong Kongs t y l e c a p i t a l i s m and " C h i n e s e " ( i . e . PRC) s o c i a l i s m ? (Check o n l y one box) An immense amount  j  |  |  j  Very much Much A moderate amount Little Very  little  Almost n o t h i n g How much do you f e e l you know about why and how t h e S i n o - B r i t i s h D e c l a r a t i o n was s i g n e d ? (Check o n l y one box)  Joint  An immense amount Very much  1  I  Much  |  |  I  I  A moderate amount Little Very l i t t l e Almost n o t h i n g How much do you f e e l you know about t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e S i n o - B r i t i s h J o i n t D e c l a r a t i o n ? (Check o n l y one box) An immense amount Very much Much A moderate amount Little Very  little  Almost n o t h i n g How much do you f e e l you know about t h e c o n t e n t of t h e D r a f t B a s i c Law? (Check o n l y one box) An immense amount Very much Much A moderate amount Little Very  little  Almost n o t h i n g  20^ 174  7. How do you f e e l about t h e performance of t h e p r e s e n t Governor s i n c e he assumed o f f i c e ? (Check o n l y one box) Very good performance  I  1  Good performance  I  1  S a t i s f a c t o r y performance  I  j  F a i r performance  |  |  Poor performance  J  |  Very poor performance  I  I  No f e e l i n g one way o r t h e o t h e r  8. How do you f e e l about what has happened as a r e s u l t o f t h e s i g n i n g of t h e S i n o - B r i t i s h J o i n t D e c l a r a t i o n ? (Check o n l y one box) Extremely  |  {  No f e e l i n g one way o r t h e o t h e r 1  I  Slightly pessimistic  j  I  Very p e s s i m i s t i c  j  |  Extremely p e s s i m i s t i c  I  I  Very  optimistic  optimistic  Slightly  optimistic  9. Even though i t n e v e r came t o f r u i t i o n , how d i d you f e e l about t h e p r o p o s a l f o r d i r e c t e l e c t i o n s f o r t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l i n 1988? (Check o n l y one box) Extremely Very  positive  positive  Slightly  positive  No f e e l i n g one way o r t h e o t h e r Slightly  negative  Very n e g a t i v e Extremely  negative  10. How do you f e e l about t h e c u r r e n t p r o p o s a l f o r d i r e c t e l e c t i o n s L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l i n 1991? (Check o n l y one box) Extremely  positive  [  1  I  I  No f e e l i n g one way o r t h e o t h e r  I  1  S l i g h t l y negative  I  I  Very n e g a t i v e  1  j  Extremely  |  j  Very p o s i t i v e Slightly  positive  negative  f o r the  175 11. How do you f e e l about t h e democracy movement i n Hong Kong? (Check o n l y one box) Extremely p o s i t i v e Very p o s i t i v e Slightly  positive  No f e e l i n g one way o r t h e o t h e r Slightly  negative  Very n e g a t i v e Extremely negative 12. O v e r a l l , how do you f e e l about what w i l l happen i n 1997 and beyond (Check o n l y one box) Extremely o p t i m i s t i c Very o p t i m i s t i c Slightly optimistic No f e e l i n g one way o r t h e o t h e r Slightly  pessimistic  Very p e s s i m i s t i c Extremely p e s s i m i s t i c 13. To what e x t e n t do you f e e l you a r e a b l e t o c o n t r o l t h e f o r c e s shape t h e n a t u r e o f your l i f e ? (Check o n l y one box)  that  Very much c o n t r o l Much c o n t r o l Moderate c o n t r o l Little  control  Very l i t t l e  control  No c o n t r o l a t a l l 14. To what e x t e n t a r e you i n v o l v e d i n C h i n a t r a d e , C h i n a exchanges, o any p r o j e c t s w i t h China? (Check o n l y one box) Very much i n v o l v e d Much  involved  Moderately Little  involved  involved  Very l i t t l e  involved  Not  at a l l  involved  22/ 176  15. To what e x t e n t can the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l l o r s r e p r e s e n t They can r e p r e s e n t my i n t e r e s t s : (Check o n l y one box)  your i n t e r e s t s ?  Very much  CZJ CZI  Much Moderately Little Very  little  Not a t a l l 16. Are you a r e g i s t e r e d v o t e r ?  I  No 17. Have you e v e r g i v e n any o p i n i o n s o r s u g g e s t i o n s t o the B a s i c Law C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee?  I  on the D r a f t B a s i c  Law  [=• 1  No 18. Are you g o i n g t o g i v e o p i n i o n s o r s u g g e s t i o n s t o the B a s i c Law C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee?  1  on the D r a f t B a s i c  Law  No 19. I n t h a t run-up t o 1997,  are you i n t e n d i n g t o : (Check o n l y one  s t a y i n Hong Kong l e a v e Hong Kong t e m p o r a r i l y l e a v e Hong Kong permanently  Thank  you  very  much.  box)  ( F o r m B) 1  177 A D U L T A N D CONTINUING E D U C A T I O N IN HONG KONG How d o y o u t h i n k t h e i n t e r e s t s o f p e o p l e w h o a t t e n d a d u l t a n d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n w i l l b e i n f l u e n c e d b y e v e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a p p r o a c h ot 1 9 9 7 ? A n d t o what extent w i l l p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t s be c o l o u r e d by t h e i r i n t e n t i o n t o s t a y in Hong K o n g , l e a v e t e m p o r a r i l y , o r l e a v e p e r m a n e n t l y ? P l e a s e l o o k a t e a c h o f t h e s u b j e c t s (e.g.Management? l i s t e d b e l o w a n d c i r c l e a response c a t e g o r y t o indicate the extent t o which you think i n t e r e s t i n it w i l l i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e f o r t h o s e i n t e n d i n g t o s t a y i n Hong K o n g , l e a v e t e m p o r a r i l y , or leave permanently. T h e r e a r e no r i g h t o r w r o n g a n s w e r s a n d a l l w e want i s y o u r " b e s t e s t i m a t e " c o n c e r n i n g w h a t w i l l h a p p e n b e t w e e n n o w a n d 1 9 9 7 . Think of H i a d u l t l e a r n e r s i n g e n e r a l , w h o w i l l a t t e n d a b r o a d a r r a y of f o r m a l a n d n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s i n Hong K o n g , not j u s t t h o s e w h o m y o u a r e p e r s o n a l l y familiar with.  1. Information Management For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those staying Interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Driving  Worker T r a i n i n g  B2  178  4. C i v i c Education For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  for those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those staving interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Increase strongly  5. Hong Kong Taxation Law  6. Banking P r a c t i c e  7. Chinese History  B3 179 8. Hobby Photography,.. For those staving interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leavinq temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase  1 1 .Mechanical Engineering For those staying Interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leavinq permanently Interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  9. German Language For those staying interest will  1 0 . Human Geography For those staying interest will  180  12. S u p e r v i s o r y Management For those staying interest will  B4  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  13. H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  14. Labour Law i n Hong Kong For those staying Interest will For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently Interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  15. Investment P l a n n i n g For those sJayjng. Interest will  181  16. C h i n e s e P h i l o s o p h y For those staying interest will  B5  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  For those leaving tempgrarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  17. C h i n e s e C a l l i g r a p h y For those staying interest will  18. F r e n c h Language For those staying interest will  19.Environmental S c i e n c e ( E c o l o g y ) For those staving Decrease interest will strongly  Increase  strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  B6  182  20. Carpentry For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For Uiose staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving, permanently interest will  Decreasestrongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  21. O f f i c e Management  22. Moral Education.  23. Criminal Law  B7  183 24. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Trade For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  25. C h i n e s e A r t s ( e . g . f i l m , t h e a t r e , p a i n t i n g ) For those stavina interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those slaying, interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  26. F a s h i o n D e s i g n  27. Japanese Language  B8  184  2 8 . C i v i l Engineering For those slaving, interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those slavj_g, interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those lejyjng. temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving, permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  29. Chef T r a i n i n g  3 0 . Human Resources Management  31 . R e l i g i o u s & E t h n o - c u l t u r a l Studies For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strungly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  B9 185  3 2 . P r o p e r t y Law For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  33.Advertising/Marketing For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving, permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  34. C h i n e s e L e g a l System For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  35. Hobby H a n d i c r a f t s For those siayjno. interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those lfiayjno. temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  BIO 186  36. E n g l i s h Language For those staying  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  interest will  Decrease strongly  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving, permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly.  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  37.Biomedicine  38 .Computer technology  39. T r a i n i n g of Trainers  B11 187  4 0 . S o c i a l Work For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  increase strongly  For those leaving, temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily Interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Increase  Increase strongly  41 . Company Law For those staving interest will  42. A c c o u n t i n g & A u d i t i n g For those staving interest will  43. C h i n a T r a d e For those staying interest will  Remain Essentially the same  B12 188  44. Home G a r d e n i n g For those staying interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  45. C h i n e s e Language For those staying interest will  Decrease  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving temporarily interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  For those leaving permanently interest will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  (Continued  on n e x t  page)  B 13 189 T o w h a t e x t e n t w i l l u s e of t h e f o l l o w i n g a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n p r o c e s s e s i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e b e t w e e n n o w and 1997 i n Hong Kong g e n e r a l l y and in y o u r w o r k p l a c e ? 1. C A S E S T U D I E S In Hong Kong  Decrease  generally w i l l  strongly  Decrease  Remain  Increase  Essentially  Increase strongly  the same  In my workplace will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially  Increase  Increase strongly  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  increase strongly  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  the same 2. WORKSHOP In Hong Kong generally w i l l  In my workplace will  3. FIELD TRIPS In Hong Kong generally w i l l  In my workplace will  4.  FORUM In Hong Kong generally w i l l  In my workplace will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Decrease strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  5. DEMONSTRATION In Hong Kong generally w i l l  Decrease strongly  Decrease  In my workplace will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  B14  190  6. COURSES BY COMPUTER In Hong Kong generally will I n my workplace will 7. GROUP DISCUSSION In Hong Kong generally will I n my workplace will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  8. P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n Campaigns ( e . g . C l e a n Hong Kong)  In Hong Kong generally will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  In my workplace will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  increase strongly  9. LECTURE In Hong Kong generally will  In my workplace will  10.TUTORIAL DISCUSSION GROUP In Hong Kong Decrease generally will strongly In my workplace will  11.SIMULATION In Hong Kong generally will  In my workplace will  B15  191 ^.APPRENTICESHIP In Hong Kong generally w i l l  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  generally w i l l  Increase strongly  In my workplace will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  In Hong Kong generally w i l l  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  In my workplace will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  In my workplace will  13.DEBATE In Hong Kong  14.EXHIBITIONS In Hong Kong generally w i l l  In my workplace will  1 5 . E d u c a t i o n a l Games  16.CLASS In Hong Kong generally w i l l  In my workplace will  17.ROLE P L A Y In Hong Kong generally w111  In my workplace will  B16 192 1 8 . C O R R E S P O N D E N C E STUDY In Hong Kong generally w i l l  In my workplace will  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  Decrease strongly  Decrease  Remain Essentially the same  Increase  Increase strongly  ( CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE )  193  NOW  PLEASE ANSWER THESE BACKGROUND QUESTIONS. REMEMBER—YOUR NAME IS NOT REQUIRED.  What i s your sex?  Male  What i s your age (in years)?  \  \  I  I  Female  \  years  In your l i f e , do you regard adult/continuing education as being your primary (i.e. most important) or secondary professional concern? (Check only one box) ADED/CE i s my PRIMARY professional concern ADED/CE i s my SECONDARY professional concern  1  1  What i s your role in adult/continuing education? (Check only one box) Primarily a PLANNER (e.g. Administrator/Programer/Policy-maker)  r——i I '  Primarily a TEACHER (e.g. Tutor/Lecturer/Counsellor) For how many years have you worked as a f u l l or part-time adult/ continuing educator? Full time: 1  | year(s)  Part-time:  I year(s)  What i s the highest educational qualification you hold? (Check only one box) No formal qualification .., Completed Form 5  ,  Completed Form 6 or Form 7 Post-secondary or professional qualification only: (e.g. Vocational School diplomas, Business diplomas, etc.), Completed part of a university degree or diploma  ,  Completed a university degree or diploma: Degree/diploma obtained from a university overseas Where? Degree/diploma obtained from a university in H.K  ________ ,  Completed a university degree or diploma and some additional post-secondary qualification (e.g. B.B.A. and Certified Accountant, B.A. and Dip. Ed., etc.)  194  What do you r e g a r d a s your f i r s t ( o r o r i g i n a l ) academic d i s c i p l i n e o r f i e l d o f study ( e . g . a c c o u n t i n g , languages, s o c i o l o g y , e d u c a t i o n , n u r s i n g , e n g i n e e r i n g , home economics, e t c . ) ?  For you, what i s the most i m p o r t a n t purpose o f a d u l t / c o n t i n u i n g education? Rank these purposes. ( F o r example, i f you t h i n k s o c i a l change i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t , p l a c e 1 i n the box, then use 2, 3, 4 f o r o t h e r boxes.) Social integration ( e . g . h e l p i n g people " f i t i n " t o Hong Kong)  i I  i |  Social responsibility (e.g. c i t i z e n s h i p )  i 1  > I  S o c i a l change ( e . g . f o r democracy)  i -t I I  T e c h n i c a l competence (e.g. s k i l l s t r a i n i n g )  i |  YOU'VE N E A R L Y F I N I S H E D .  I )  NOW WE WANT TO ASK SOME Q U E S T I O N S  ABOUT 1 9 9 7 .  How many c u r r e n t r e s i d e n t s o f Hong Kong w i l l l e a v e permanently, t e m p o r a r i l y , o r s t a y — b e t w e e n now a n d 1997? Please p l a c e your best e s t i m a t e s i n each o f the f o l l o w i n g boxes. We o n l y want your best guess but make them add up t o 100%. Between now and 1997,  )  *| % w i l l l e a v e  Between now and 1997,  |  j % w i l l leave temporarily.  Between now and 1997,  1  | % will  total=  100  permanently.  s t a y i n Hong Kong.  %  How much do you f e e l you know about the f u n c t i o n s o f the E x e c u t i v e and L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l s i n Hong Kong? (Check o n l y one b o x ) An immense amount Very much Much A moderate amount Little Very  little  Almost n o t h i n g  \  J  195 How much do you f e e l you know about t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between Hong Kongs t y l e c a p i t a l i s m and " C h i n e s e " ( i . e . PRC) s o c i a l i s m ? (Check o n l y one box) An immense amount  [  |  Very much Much A moderate amount Little Very  little  Almost n o t h i n g How much do you f e e l you know about why and how t h e S i n o - B r i t i s h D e c l a r a t i o n was s i g n e d ? (Check o n l y one box) An immense amount  1  I  Very much  I  1  Much  \  |  A moderate amount  I  I  Little  I  I  Very l i t t l e  1  1  Joint  Almost n o t h i n g How much do you f e e l you know about t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e S i n o - B r i t i s h J o i n t D e c l a r a t i o n ? (Check o n l y one box) An immense amount Very much  |  I  I  I  Much A moderate amount Little Very  little  Almost n o t h i n g How much do you f e e l you know about t h e c o n t e n t of t h e D r a f t B a s i c Law? (Check o n l y one box) An immense amount Very much Much A moderate amount Little Very  little  Almost n o t h i n g  20 196  7. How do you f e e l about t h e performance of t h e p r e s e n t Governor s i n c e he assumed o f f i c e ? (Check o n l y one box) Very good performance Good performance  I  I  Satisfactory  \  \  F a i r performance  |  |  Poor performance  1  \  Very poor performance  |  |  performance  No f e e l i n g one way o r t h e o t h e r  8. How do you f e e l about what has happened as a r e s u l t of t h e s i g n i n g of t h e S i n o - B r i t i s h J o i n t D e c l a r a t i o n ? (Check o n l y one box) Extremely  optimistic  |  |  Very o p t i m i s t i c  |  I  Slightly optimistic  \  J  No f e e l i n g one way o r t h e o t h e r |  1  Slightly pessimistic  |  I  Very p e s s i m i s t i c  |  |  Extremely  pessimistic  9. Even though i t never came t o f r u i t i o n , how d i d you f e e l about t h e p r o p o s a l f o r d i r e c t e l e c t i o n s f o r t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l i n 1988? (Check o n l y one box) Extremely  positive [ZD  Very p o s i t i v e Slightly positive  I  »  |  |  No f e e l i n g one way o r t h e o t h e r S l i g h t l y negative Very n e g a t i v e Extremely  negative  10. How do you f e e l about the c u r r e n t p r o p o s a l f o r d i r e c t e l e c t i o n s L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l i n 1991? (Check o n l y one box) |  I  I  \  No f e e l i n g one way o r t h e o t h e r  I  1  S l i g h t l y negative  I  1  Extremely  positive  Very p o s i t i v e Slightly  positive  Very n e g a t i v e Extremely  negative  f o r the  210  197  11. How do you f e e l about t h e democracy movement i n Hong Kong? (Check o n l y one box) Extremely p o s i t i v e  ]  \  Very p o s i t i v e Slightly  positive  No f e e l i n g one way o r t h e o t h e r Slightly  negative  Very n e g a t i v e Extremely negative 12. O v e r a l l , how do you f e e l about what w i l l happen i n 1997 and beyond? (Check o n l y one box) Extremely o p t i m i s t i c  |  |  Very o p t i m i s t i c  |  |  Slightly optimistic  I  I  No f e e l i n g one way o r t h e o t h e r Slightly  pessimistic  Very p e s s i m i s t i c Extremely p e s s i m i s t i c 13. To what e x t e n t do you f e e l you a r e a b l e t o c o n t r o l the f o r c e s shape t h e n a t u r e o f your l i f e ? (Check o n l y one box)  that  Very much c o n t r o l Much c o n t r o l Moderate c o n t r o l Little  control  Very l i t t l e  control  No c o n t r o l a t a l l 14. To what e x t e n t a r e you i n v o l v e d i n C h i n a t r a d e , C h i n a exchanges, o r any p r o j e c t s w i t h China? (Check o n l y one box) Very much i n v o l v e d Much  involved  Moderately Little  involved  Very l i t t l e Not  involved  involved  involved at a l l  22 6 198  i 5 . To what e x t e n t can the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l l o r s r e p r e s e n t They can r e p r e s e n t my i n t e r e s t s : (Check o n l y one box)  your i n t e r e s t s  Very much Much Moderately Little Very  \  |  little  Not a t a l l 16. Are you a r e g i s t e r e d v o t e r ' Yes No 17. Have you e v e r g i v e n any o p i n i o n s or s u g g e s t i o n s t o the B a s i c Law C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee?  on the D r a f t B a s i c  Law  Yes No 18. Are you g o i n g t o g i v e o p i n i o n s or s u g g e s t i o n s t o the B a s i c Law C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee?  on the D r a f t B a s i c  Law  Yes No 19. In t h a t run-up t o 1997,  a r e you i n t e n d i n g t o : (Check o n l y one  s t a y i n Hong Kong l e a v e Hong Kong t e m p o r a r i l y l e a v e Hong Kong permanently  Thank  you  very  much.  I  I  box)  ft 18 4 * 43 $  4 f A 36 r  ft  8 A 4 i*. * «* Aft Ml $  ®4 OS «3A-i, ftiL* a - » *  % is ink**.* m & * # « « u . * a - b . i i i  *  ft  ?  *  4  £  #  * • i - i *  2  j » 4  »  *  & a  *  is-Sifc  a  i i / i t f i *  Mm*.  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ZO<  241  t  AAA  - pirn  _  •  fcZJ  242  >w * f t J3 *t' i * »s #  %  CD  A  ^  #  :  yfe «js /  W£ - ^  Appendix B: Newspaper Coverage o f May 28, 1 9 8 9 — P e o p l e Marched i n Hong Kong f o r Democracy i n C h i n a A crauc daily suit- ia*i «cck 61< . -..«•! %  JJJJ  The Hongkong Standard § SUBSCRIBER'S C O P Y / N O T FOR SALE  M O N D A Y , M A Y 29, 1989  F O R W A R D WITH H O N G K O N G  World marches for China MILLIONS of people all over UM (lob* •bowed their support for China's defiant student! with protests, rallies end  INSIDE: • Thfl Changing Face ol China: P l f M l - T k • Editorial; Page 12 •>  starting wl una rally a The worM-wMe were held In rasponse to a call for support art by BeUing tio conanuea their sit-in at Tiananmen Squareforthe ninth day since the imposition of martial law. The global effort was led ganlaers claimed more man. l.S million people turned opfars rally and procession calling for land and the removal of hardline Premier U Peng. It was the second huge turnout In as many days. On Saturday. 100,000 tbon cooes rt et the Happy Valley race course, raising t i l million tar Betting proMr Sseto Wan. e.Leglslativa Councillor and a member of the organising were not Mghurjed°^y sranutf from Chinese In addition to Mr L i s  INSIDE  OPENERS Esnrtn Sinclair has hla aay in OPENERS today and tackles bizarre and eccentric habits of politicians. Pane I  g those who staned a  the students, the Chinese government end to President George Bush, according to orgnnieers. Philip Lam, an organiser of the Cos Angeles demonstration, said a M-bour  EST *] US does — including Washington. New York. San r^endsco, Los Angelas.- Houston end Boston - since the historic occupation of Beijing's  F i l m * Minister Margaret Thatcher roey aack Chancellor of the Exchequer Nigel Lawaon and Foreign Secretary Sir Geoftrey Howe. aooorcUnoj to newspaper reports. This and all-the other news from the United in our BRITAIN TODAY i  liagiom  rally this week, as the number of protesters In Tiananmen Square b»t fallen to about 10.000. The students are debating whether to end their sit-in and adopt a new set of tgrtfri in their battle for In Sydney, an < 1,000 demonstrators marched through the ati sou yesterday In support of the student  INDEX Potke refused to let the marchers enter the Chtneee consulate buildings w h m they had hoped to present a petition to consular officials. T h e elm of the demonstration was to get public attention, so we are still happy ~ said Ms Kills Yin, a 19-year-old Sydney University student from Hongkong who helped organise the rally. -We hove achieved that end we hope It will put International pressure fhlnsas sovereignty In ' onto the Chinese government to take positive noSpeakers expressed tion for e democratic fcemthat Macau's still China." undxaftad Basic Law, tnI Huff's autonomy for 00 no aiieeia. In Canada, Chinese  In Taiwan, thousands of people demonstrated in the Island's two largest doe*. About IftflOO students, celebrities and retired • servicemen marched m a park In downtown Taipei, shouting slogans supporting the tnatiilsM ffrf^T! ^ and cairytng banners pro' "Long live free1  "The studentstoBelJtaJ are *y***"g for the future of all Cmnoee," veteran actor Sun Yueh told the gathering in a speech. T h v g have our full sup-  ,. pert of an esrtjmntajd 1.B million poop** who mocchod, In  iy In asjpport of the Boiling studenta.  Threat of Western loans squeeze on Beijing B> Tammy Tam In BeiJInfc, JAPAN and 'the United temporarily stop all Joans said a local analyst. How gates have threat to China, while the US ha* ever a " premier Yeo Ylttn to the oil loans and Inve.. State Council met Friday (pr China as. the govern- bustneesrear ssld: -Chins would not ba stent crisis deepens, ™ ' — afraid of any foreign preesrbrces told ThtJtongkant or cancel joint-venture fflpndcrd yesterday. projects," said tnesourcee. The US , tot counter ectl ting has asked its natkmala Japan and the US are also took to the Soviet Union to prepare to leave China, exerting pressure to push China away fern the 6 r greater economic and T h e US and Japan trade cooperation. thtak B ts a good opporTT"Japan bat tarormed ' tanlty to bargain vrtth CSlna of.its mtannon to Chine tn many matters,".  New  ment had reached an agreement with the Soviet Union to Increase bilateral trade substantially. china ts facing aa •eononuc crisis with galloping '— dd China's .foreign trade to rne Bret four months of the  betting records a s season ends  Racing B » KM BETTING tcrday at the racing season came to an e n d w u » a massive 10-race .programme at Sba Tin. • But the bopeMtar Uinon dollar day did not materialise and the 6&0OQ attendance feD far snort of the flOOO people who turned up on January J9toeee the second running of the Invitation Cup. .-.Nevertheless, yesterday's turnover of )ust under gBsi.gmilnon -was -16 percent upon last year's last-day r e c o r d of 1734 million. .The final race picked op >  Editor nu.nmnuon. a record Ear one race, while the year's total turnover reached SM.lbUUoR despite the loss of orw racing day due to Typhoon Breads. - Royal Hongkong Jockey dub chief executive Major Getteral Guy Wstkina said he was ssxtsflad with the season and with the betting figures. -Of  t  the lov/sr-than-expected. . E n g l i s h - b r e d S a n turnout could have been the tejsnM .of yesterday's champion horse. Irish 'democracy marches which three-year-old Quicken, involved more than a . Away becoming champion stayer award. As the punters streamed pretty good"figure,"*he Out of the tacacourss. the giant - video screen read: "See you - on September Ii." had a meeting washed out, but we've bad some good racing and we've seen  with an enlarged tJ-dar season and, perhaps, the tint blUtco-doUar racing any.  it would draw deepen the economic crisis ^-•??^_^ *" 0 0  Mr Yeo'e speech also triggered speculation thet he could become the next prune tnmtstsr. while Mr U Peng •> aettosucceed nimmrred4o*os diagraosd General Secretary Ziyaog with Prod_ I Yangfthflna>*tngatttng more power tn the  E  metrte south of TalpeLabout 10.000 students and (acuity metabets from the National Sun Yet-een University took pert  Central Military Committas. Meanwhile, the tourday gpedal meeting of the ^ ^Zz. "Mr Xbeo win probably not be accused of being the head of an anti-party chque.".sakl s source.  New York, actors Mike FarreU and Ed Aaner and Detroit B i s h o p Thomas OumbleSon were  Traders brace themselves  TELEPHONES Editorial S-TM2T98 Aeveruetag 3-TW798 ClseMheds 1-7596833  W E A T H E R : 26'C — 30*C. Hot and gunny. Datatlt on Rana21  Appendix C: Newspaper Front Page of June 4, 1989 —Tiananmen Square Incident. 6 AM EDITION  SuntiTtmna  8-PAGE BEIJING SPECIAL  Sunday Morning Post  Vol. XLVNo. 153  HONGKONG, SUNDAY, JUNE 4. 1989  • A n g r lynch soldiers  yp  r  o  t e s t Hall of the People  e  r  T d :  5 - 6 5 2 2 2 2  Price  $3.<X  s • 1,000 a t t a c k G r e to smash barricades deplores' attack  BEIJING BLOODBATH: 57 KILLED BY TROOPS  AT least 57 people were bayonelted or shot U death tod hundreds more wounded in Beijing; early today u tens of thousands of nkfierg smashed their way into Tiananmen Squire to truth the student protest At dawn tanksrolledinto the square crushing the students' flimsy tents and •hooting pro-democracy demonstrators, witnesses •aid, Mac±ine-gunfireraked the square. Two Western reporters ivcre • wounded as the army cleared The area immediately the square. northwest of Tiananmen was The attack capped seven uttered with abandoned and tours of s bloody snack aimed burning military vchicJea. si retaking the square from proFive kilometres from the testers who held itformore square, witnesses saw a light than three weeks m a bed (or po- armoured vehicle plough at uticeJ ISJOIIIL speed into the crowd toforceits fa plosions could be heard way through, leaving at least  Several soldier* were The crowds fought back lynched by the crowds and left fiercely and witnesses said they for dead on the roads swung totaw soldiers lynched by the the square as hundreds of thou- crowds and left sbrdcad on the sands of students agreements road. (ought beck terccty. "1 hare just had my btst rigereae. Tonight we are going to which svnpt aside barricades of die," said a crying worker hnd- oners placed across theroadsby dlcd in the masses at the Monument to the People's Heroes es port desooyed by the deroonsquara. Witnesses said most of the dead wore SQainats. The troops, tn full bank gear and armed In some areas troops apwith rifles, marched a line peared to bold the upper hand, in oibcrs frenzied mobs atBeijing's main artery, shortly tacked troops, and in still other before midnight,firingvoDcys at regular intervals to open the dents peacefully hahedlhe Bow wayforcohuBn* of trucks. armoured trucks. Thefirstblood was shed in The troops walked into the square,firingat they moved, at firstfiringover the heads of protesters but later lowering Some workers around the square tried to burl petrol bombs at the advancing sol-  In a desperate voice, a auras al the hospital, loid Hongkong inquirers that "scores of people" had been admitted with "gunshot wounds". The coodiuoo of many of these people was critical, she a A male nurse, answering the call, also confirmed -several drethi in the hospital, almost all from gunshot wounds. He said the hospital was liaising with other hospitalsforassisace. A doctorfromthe Fusing Hospital in western Beijing, an firing on . . . the hospital had taken in IS dead and so many wounded they bad to be put in garages. A second doctor from soother hospital near the dashes The military convoys coo- nud be had hanAifA 12 dead. One soldier was run over by an verged on the squareftm(bur personnel carrier rusbdirections. Repeatedly they ennorcd ing toward the square and a Swedish visitor. Tom Hsnsson, said be saw three people shot INSIDE dead south of the square. Five people were seen with blood poering out of their  makeshift Statue of Liberty erected-by the students five days ago. Two armoured personnel carriers burned brightly on the edge of the square. It was thefirmtime troops hed openedfinson demonstrators in seven weeks of pro-democracy unrest A Beijing government spokesman said more than i.OOO people rushed to a consuuctioo site lo seize steel bars and bricks, that some people attacked the government residence of Znongnanhai near Tiananmen Square, and the Oreat Hall of the People, the official New China News Agency (NCNA) reported.  Staonly before I am, two  SUNDAY HrOJiCY  SUNDAY UVINGJ  .OukC"  WEATHER  x Today wtto cloudy with some scattered showers. Maal-  barriers gave way to the trucks as they bote down on them. The second truckfiredteai Dcstonstreiors ranfarcover don'', "Oct out of Beijing" at -China, China" as they fied. Witnesses also saw troops firing at windows where protesters were snouting defiant slogans. The soldiers advanced behind construction vehicles which swept aside barricades of buses placed in their path by Tom Mia tier, described ti nsge: "Afewminutes age was s large beirsgt of firing... there are Dot enou|u re being used lo take the wounded away... a pan of the crowd in square is still j... but the crowd has dwindled constdersbrr. "I would say by about 7J per that the army it moving for-  meet "You have to give your life to (he movgcxnL Students tang the uternationala A 10 m high "Goddess of Democracy," a replica of the Statue of Liberty set up by stu" that the governto the o*• A ghjdent thrown debris  an advancing tar* ki e vain ettempt to hen He progress thtui^n Tionenmen Square.  Bush says he deeply deplores decision to use force  once served at US aud the United Stales was i Mr Baker abo said the State Kennebunkpon on the «•••_" Senile Foreign Relation* Comsndtbe consequent loss of life." (to UM restraint in Department had been in touch opments in China by Deputy mittee, sua nr — * " " * " * Chincse troops moved into "I hope China will rapidly ) the student dem with the US Embassy in China, Nauonal Security Adviser Rob- to end the sharing of US miiiBeijing's Tianaamen Square, return to the path of politkal which reported the situation en Gales. lary^and technology with focal point of the nodes l dent* and ecoaonucreformand con"1 think the Chinese Gov- was "quite chaotic now". The White House OBStreiionsfordemocracy, hue ditions of stability so that this knows the position of There is shooting going OCL "I find little surprise thai the force against student demoa- last night Reports indicated at relationship, so important to ernment the United States To tome extent that shooting arms sales to the Chinese Gov- Chinese communists are acting lean 42 people were killed and both' Government,'" Mr Baker said appears to be aimed up io the ernment be limited in response as communists always da," he la s formal statement neocd scores wounded in the subee"You know, the army of Chink air, arthough we do have some to the crackdown. A White House official said calls itself the 'Army of the preliminary reports of by the White House early this • -We have president decided to issue People'. And we think ii would "I don't think we should sh "The violence in Beiiing is demorning Hongkong ume, Mr continue to urge Don-violent re- the statement after receiving be unfortunate, indeed, if the here today... within hours of plorable and all ofus have Bush urged the Chinese Gov- straint and dialogue," Mr Bush the it would He noted the United State* thefirstreallysignificant use of booed tenons on growing vio- 'Army of the People' were used ernment to return to the use of added. "Tragically another more has haphad been enable w confirm any force (against a peaceful demlence in the Chinese capital. Mr lo suppress the people." non-violent mesas to deal with eastraooa by the students)... the student uprising that has I urge a return 10 aoa-viaaeai Bush had remained silent for and try and hypothesise about Mr Baker said US Arthough Mr Baker indicat"I wit) begin working whh rocked Beijingforthe past sev- meantfordealing whh the cured the United Stales preferred staff and other US Dotksaals in ttwuln ," Mr a my colleagues to ensure that at en weeks. not to meddle in China's inter- the Chinese capital had been •firstresponse again*! this bru"It is dear the Chinese Gov"The United States sod the nal eflairt, be said: "I think the warned to stay swsy from "I think we'll have lo see tality, all US military co-operaernment bat chosen to use force People's Republic of China in Beijing. . mrsisyi we have sent, howev- Tiananmen Square. A State De- what happens. We're not sure tion and sharing of technology Speaking on CNN's er, have bomreceivedin the partmeut advisory urging what course this will tike, evenwith the communist governsgainsi Chinese citizens who over the past two decades hive are making a peaceful state- built up through great efforts by Ncwimtkcr Stturdty program spirit in which they have been Americans not lo Irsvcl to now," the secretary said. ment or Chins musi be termiment in favour of democracy," both sides a constructive rela- in Washington. Mr Baker noted sent We've not in effect hern China was still in effect, he addBut on Capitol Hill, Senator nated immediately." Mr Helms the statement said "I deeply tionship, beneficial to both the situation in China had told to mind your own Cd Jesse Helm* of North Carolina, deplore the derision to use force countries," said mr Bush, who turned "ugly and chaotic" and business." Mr Bush abo was briefed in the rankine Reoublican on ihe  WASHINGTON: President George Bush, apparently moved by reports of violence from China, said he "deeply deplored" the Beijing  a  Appendix D: Newspaper F r o n t Page of June b, l9Hb)--Mass R a l l y and G e n e r a l S t r i k e C a l l e d F o r i n Hong Kong  South China Morning Post Vol. XLV No. 154  HONGKONG. MONDAY. JUNE 5. 1989  General: 5-652222 News:.5-652252 Classified: 5-658822  1,400 feared dead, 10,000 hurt Official says Deng has cancer  Troops fire wildly at crowds outside top Beijing hotel • T H E dcitb loll in the People'* Liberation Army'* bruul drive lo cod the pro-democracy demonstration in Beijing it at lean 1,400 people killed u d 10,000 wounded, bospiUJ sources Mid. The Chinese Government lut night .dajmed about 1,000 *oldiers had been wounded in dathc* with what i i tensed "booiiganj" and thai aoorcs of troops bad died, tome burnt in their vehicles and at least one lynched on a light pole.  SENIOS It piag *»r« the steer* km the  other major citie* when newt of the  • IN one of the moil horrifying confrontations, foreigner! watched soldiers tiring repealed volley! from automatic weapon* inio crowd* of resident! who had gathered in front of the Beijing Hotel, afewhundred metre* from Tiananmen Square, at about 10.30 am. l a one aalvo, al leait 30 civilians died, • T A N K S with machine-gun* biasing continued to patrol central Beijing in a snow of force last night but hundred* of thousand* of resident* defied order* to remain indoor* and gathered in (treeti leading to Tiananmen Square. • PROTESTS Oared in al least eight  Ta* •fflclals safe Mr Deng's taaallUna t* serious.  • IN it*firstofficial statement since the bloody crackdown, the Government branded the studentfadmovement a* a "counter-revolutionary rebellion" trying to overthrow the Government and the socialist system. It stressed that the troops' "hali-boar • operation" had been "totally legal" within the provisions of the martial taw declared by Prune Minister U Peng on May 20 to deal with a crowd of frenzied THaVtraaasa a** sasaahttr ahsewl en the (ana efbanthug*. • T H E operation, however, was drede eMUIjImg cttbwaa deplored through the world, with moat yaeleaden expressing shock and dtsbcbcf a! ctaatca at dry a i the level of force used in the bloody ""•Y was lucky," a«M a  Drag gave the- erscr* a a  'My heart is bleeding, they killed my people' w^HrS  • MORE than 200,000 angry and thecked citizen* of Hongkong and Macau took to the streets in mewning for those killed. Organisers o f t rally at the Happy Valky racecourse and a march through territory-wide das* boycotts, n general strike and business su*pension on Wednesday.  Residents defy gunfire  Deaa,S4,k ral Military  MPs say scrap the handover  Filwlihll Has* Hal fa •irthiiat Bat Jang, ha* eta In a etftug ashtf Iii II 111 ay a as***. • & B « S I I M » «  •Teasarsliii,tail llig acaMaadtwegM.il Ii in, Al af aa wart that aawat twe  INSIDB 1*2,3: Ev»wftria**aa P4-B: Mora pscturas HK reacts ' •24: Edrtonai  versity in the s — y aaasyr . mU. a e.aMof the city find vol- witha»sataath with swr haskeys of mariiimvg'ta fireiaSo esso hand and e*e*TJ*» as twe nacnino^nafim Ihie air from aa armoured vehicle captared from troops during yesterday -We waaU al aa aa BanThey diuts the currier lo anal Be* saaaaass. The wasfcion as saying in a statement the actgbbouriat People'* arawaaW alga aa* and sapbroadcast around 11.30 pa. Uaiversity campus, with part is* •frliBti. hat t*M 11 Win aw 11 H i everyHowever, hundred* of one. Maw* ••aryw*a>. Whe thousands of people wore in waaMauta t* a* aa* now? the unci*, and the anger over the previous night'* Into toe maie gate, gma* Wsarea!aearat,"ahaaa*L ' Bar I I I saaa, -W« Late last night, about 100 _ __ poiattc troops charged into a reaiThousaads returned to dcnaal area just ectrfioi* the the Xidan nitersecuoa two gathered outside the camal angry. We asa aal daajna*•uoare, shooting into uar- kilometre* well of the P°*- . ed. The pease* an angry" row alleyway* a* hysterical sqoare tonx StadeaU wore black Ajttewd ga*h**ed • — • wocradutchedtbeu-babsca not and setstfifeto miflnry and people U to the pavekit i*d i w sasrtag aa. meWin l 10 a eaaataftaaasBiaaaa. After the attack, real- and 16 armoured troop car. dents came out again and riers thundered eastwards rwaal*d sergln aaa aaMwi* aiai faaar: A ana la the crawl taacharnwi There ws* p. taunted the soldiers with bum twasrkiiTr awafl sas haad aad tanad l^aaaasgca crawi. u flvaai cries of **tusGtat*\ chy* A venae far dent leader, Bpopaasranarer* tyiag an 21-year-old ^ a i ^ i u i i * ^ way, aai ayes sad aad wat **Wa~tiw4(aatapBat,stsl Beijing mayor Chen three kilometrestoBeijing'* Wa'erkaisi daily.hallway flaars aa L **W* < eh* tnwr* sa-il (W of Beijing craackad aa ta* Xitong had earlier issued an main embassy district and Teacher*' Uai w r y . w«*. Maag IT* .* he **Thay abet bar eavea cr*nalai aws ~ tlataa, even aa aba was H la% IaX to stay isatoen and root *o Theparpaatofthaaartit sirkdwbm troops ahcMtknr «nMn tk«amaasn a a y n - 1 » BwSwV **A girl Is lb* crowd iiaafjaj." aaM tse ssacbar. bsscn to i UCBOQTI . waaunknown but there wars waysstoTbnaausMftiBtfa | ~ ' - - — _ haaH thai bar veaagar wtewaatiwsSaiIssaaraawi a « k h m i t i r i i . th.lr "Parent* saoald stop persistent rumour* that about Jam r,yeaeroay. thbaouldeol Tbvy hev* an aaawi*. bmthat had aaaa ittd, and aaalaat l^sagUasaa Madel^w^haafr their children from going troc^ wembanracaBd Masasa ttal (jastap* Haapatak alTbemwass liariaai A a wba anw K k »a*st- bbar - e eaaw aaaaasnsamMl tSatin n loUJMas.l«aafstaL ^ly a* ^M*t*d " ^ out n street* . . . to avoid fcr some uai w i l y eampos- (Caat^eaPasaACall) waptT toward the Mldlara," a The aeaua In the (Uvatal patlsal ns necessary losses,** Mr as. mlMftag ANORY and defiant residents returned to their barricades but night in an attempt lo keen troops out of the centre of the capital, where a violent charge lo ~ i Square the previous night M left a trail of corpses. Troop* coo turned to rakx oaarmed residents with  Pnai DAVID W ALLEN la Lsaaaa BRITISH Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher bm eight ssid the wat "deeply •hocked" at the horror of event* in Tiananmen Square, while some mcmbers of psruuDcol. espressmp the same shock, suggested that the handover of Quna should  eatsld* aar hanw* la Nanboynaa  Mrs Thatdier who was at her conn try residence of OseuWrs lor the j«ekcnd date on the ntuatioa in Beijing by the Forage Office. A spokesman for 10 Downing Street ntd ~Sbe it waidiing events with great  •aTal  w^as^aa-g w  S^ibTwEa-^  v  Party man General strike called for Wednesday quits over • S bloodshed ANDY HO GENERAL Strike has  lx>uisRraud  A HONOtONO* of the Ounce* C Party. Mr He W  Hundreds of thousands Legislator Martin Lee of aggrieved Che-eung condemned the tn relbes yesterday to ii the dead of the June 4 - , . , 4™«^i^hrifrtTmtfi> beucve it (the  New China New* Agency (NCNA).  r  S ah* Chinese party Go*-  in the left-wing Woi Wd Pao, T« Knag ABO, Afiaj* Pao and Hoa$kon$ EcoaaaiJc Joarm*l In oil statement, Mr He said: "I can't accept the bloody troth that the Chi-  This ta in total contravention with the goal of the party,*' be asid. Mr He who retired from the NCNA several year* ago could not be reached for  THE  Louis Feraud RAR1S  o f C h i n a d r a i n e d o f r e a d y  k of China'* m drained of cash last night after local residents were told lo boycott Chinese banks, good* and tour* to the mainland. Pamphlet* callingforthe boycott were distributed at yesterdsy's mass rally and in Central A simitar call was made in Macau. No iuenhfknboo of the author was given but the 'by two.  -lib a  I of - S , Call)  0'  1  t  Discover Xx>uis\ditton at tke exclusive. I^uu\rwtton stores.  K  Earlier estimates have put the total number of local member* of the CCP al 4,000.  B a n k  1  down)tathe work by a group ofverycMmenwhowaniw cluujtotheu peww and are prepared to sacrifice thousand* and millions of lives. I think ihey lave gone maoV* Ine Governor. Sir David Wihon, expressed "horror anger" si the bloodshed, but stopped short of con deroning the Beijing author'  eminent and army leader* responsible for the crackdown. The Hornkoos coalitjon m support oftheBeiji&i st» dent* yesterday called for a •encral strike, etcept for cssea lis! services incradiBg banking and Government Employees of vital services were urged to wear "There it a very real black armband* when Ibey use in the community of I to work on Wednesday, ajor education institubeen happening," be tion* are ready to respond has ' V appealing for calm. with a territory-wide das* 'It taa boycott on the same day. Thta a general call. We will ask all shop* to dose their doors, aD factonea to strike and all schools to can-  force lo inppreii the  wifMst)  JkfaaastaaasaabaU bar asather* hand," aaU a awoTarattbal | l l l.afcw hkseks freai the aapara, A mmm toU af a twang warkcr **cyettag *• war* hi (C—fa aa Page 2, Cal 1)  yesterday** /alley. put rally at Happy Vt . >be turnout at more than hatfumillion. Police Hongkong  the Chinese authorities'  RMUS  played (bear m-rays. •  tng lha atineae anthorities. Ovcniight a vigil was held outside the Quaesc Embassy and a protest letter was handed in. . Mrs Thatcher, io * suiement, said: "We are aD deeply shocked at me news horn rHi^t H appaflwl by the iasuscriminste ahootlng of  Tneaater claimed probabulkt* Ii killed the students  were percussed from Hongkong's investments. "Do yon want to be usedT*  Yesterday. Monetary Affairs Secretary David Nendka and Commissioner for Securities and Future* Robert Owen urged stock market investors not to panic when the Hongkong market open* today. Mr Nendick i withdraw all their money from Chinese banks as for- think that during unsettled age cash would be used aaa limes, the most sensible thingtatocither stay in the  market If one is already there ortowait if onetanot mere. "I dool tltink thta it the sort of time when people can gel the best value when they come to sefl stock*. Iitaan uncertain period and if* best for the small investor* to leave It to the professionals." Hongkong Slock Eschange chief executive Francis Yuen said yesterday he expected the market, which •bed nearly 20 per cent of its value over the past two weeks, to bee **tremendous I cspect many people.  c a s h  INDEX  mainly fund manager*, would like to get rid of Hongkong nock*,*' be ssid. Added ooc broker: **Tbc stock market will drop tike a MrOwcnssid:"! would suggest people do not make any precipitate moves, and wait to sec how events evolve further." Both he and Mr Nendick appeared to rule out dosing the stock and futures market* today, although they •aid ibey were unable to guarantee it Mr Owen ssid trading in both markets bad been orderly in the past three weeks.  Dtt Votui Ro*d, CaunL T d Rfpubf B » Shopping Arcade, Rcpubr ttj Road. Td ytllTTK bHotrl Shopping Arcadr. T d >-**37J) Rceent Howl Shopping Arcade. •/F. IM  Td i-mvn  Wing. New World O m r r T d J-7Jv*W  LOUTS VUITTON CLASSIFIED POST Pwilk A L*aa> N*kw*_ SwrlenCaM* ! Ski|»wgC«aai  WEATHER  Hot MMI auraiy period* Mas temp /—^i., 30 tsaorae*. f ^ 8MfaD*2.  ; ©  Appendix E: Newspaper F r o n t Page o f June 6, 1 9 8 9 — S t o c k Market Plunged and Chinese Banks i n Hong Kong Made Run On  South China Morning Post  General: 5-652222  News: 5-652252  Classified: 5-658822  HONGKONG, TUESDAY, JUNE 6. 1989  Vol. XLV No. 165  Hongkong unionist arrested trying to flee Beijing Br &Y.WA1 H O N G K O N G unionist Lee Cbeuk-yan, who but week belped carry some of the $2 million delivered lo Beijing protesters, was last night arrested by mainland police just as be was about to board a special Hongkong Governmenl-chartered flight He was taken from I he 123-eeai Dragonair Boeing 737 by two uniformed security officials, who said bis Home Visit Permit bad not been property lnspmed. The oibcr 126 Hongkong residents, businessmen. rere fleeing the Chinese  capital were already on board and arrived at Kai Tak shortly after midnight. Mr Lee is thefirstHongkong resident arrested under martial law provisions. The Hongkong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Democrauc Movement in China fears thai he might become another Lau Shsn-ching. a Hongkong resident arrested in 1982 and serving a 10for" revolutionary** Alliance members, informed of the arrest by a Dragonair pilot, last night marched to Government Himtr drmairting that the Governor, Sir David Wil-  son, and British Prime Min- touch with the embassy wbo ister Margaret Thatcher, know Mr Lee well and have hdp him. great respect for bis efforts lo Alliance leader and Leg- organise and asiin other islative Councillor Sieto lloitgkong people to get to Wah secured a tnertisg with the chartered plane ibis Sir David late last night on the arrest. "As yet we have no conEleven legislators, in- firmation that he has been cluding Mr Sieto. had detained, or by whom," the joined ibe urgent meeting spokesman said. with ibe Governor by mid. Mr Lee, wbo is in his early 30s, has been an activist The British Embassy in for political reform and laBeijing said early today thai bour protection since he it had lodged an inquiry with graduated from the Univerthe Chinese Foreign Mini*- sity of Hongkong in civil enter snd was "taking this up gineering in the 1970s. as a matter of urgency''. He is chsirmsn of ibe A Government spokes- Cloth Making Industry man said: "We have been in Workers' General Ui '  Reports of clash with rival troops • fMBng T A N K S ' a n d troops guarding Beijing's mam Changan A v e n u e last night took up combai p o sitioDi a m i d uncoofirmed accounts of dashes between Army units south of the capital Twenty tanks and .13 truckloads of soldiers took up fighting positions facing cast along Ibe a venae at the major Jianguomenwai intersection, diplomats and witnesses said. A witness ssid small groups offootsoldiers look np positions along the road doac lo a oompooad wbere many foreign diplomats live. Staff from several embasiies have evacuated apartments oearby, dipio-  INSIDE Pufje) 2? Other cities Pacj» 4: EC tnfka off Pnc/n •: UK reaction Pao* *-& HK anger Paget Ui Edrtonal units in at least one other major city - Shenyang in northeast China. Troop deployment in si least su other major cities, including <ih»n|h«i Chengdu, Nanjiag, Wubao, X i a n and Guangzhou, was also reported. Teosioa was high in Shanghai while in Chengdu, troops were said to have fired on unruly mobs. In Guangzhon, barricades have been put up and sources ssid preparations "are now in hand for the institotioa of martial law"  student leaders. An American Embassy official said about 20 of the 400 to M0 US students and teachers look rm an offer to relocate al hotels near the embassy. The embassy bad not advised an evacuation ofBeijmgiisetfby the 1,500 America as living there although traveuen have been warned to avoid China. Mr Gregsoa Edwards of the Australian Embassy ssid 21 Australian, three New Zealand and one Fijian student had moved inioembas•y residences. The Canadian and British embassies also provided refuge for students. "Sporadic shooting continues," said a British Embassy official "We are advising British rtarioaaii, including Hongkong residents, in areas where there axe military particularly Tiananmen Square, to carefully consider thru personal safety".  The troop movement m Beijing came as soldiers contintwuf to pm down indiscriminatelyresidentswho ventured into Tiananmen Square and elsewhere, as The capitaTs 3,000 Japanorthwest towards Beijing ambulances look casualties nese residents and 370 Japafrom the ciry of Tianjin. The to the already congested hos- nese travel Im have not been reason for the troop move- pitals. told to leave but they have meat was unclear. The hteat death toll was been advised to move if they A reliable Chinese mili- ' about 4.000. reliable soured tary source said there was reported, and the number of fighting between military wounded totalled soma "But don't move alone, groups around the Nanyuaa 20,000. travel with others." be said. military air base south of the Meanwhile the AmeriThe French, Swiss, Canadry earlier in the day. He can and other embassy com- dian. Hungarian, Yugoslav, said be could not give de- pounds began providing Italian and Portuguese emtails, but thefightingwas se- shelter for foreign students bassies have also taken mea•t Chinese universitiei, sures to safeguard their nawhere public security offi- tionals in Beijing. cers, sasisted by troops beThe event lhat gripped the populace of the capital was the reported dash between two rival army units in the southern outskirts of Beijing  Price $3.00  Bush suspends all military sales to China  ' There was no violence : secretary of the Chrinian Industrial at alL The passengers were Committee and was beading very shocked and desperateafive-memberdekgauon of ly waiting for him. We did the miiianrp u take 12 mil- stay there for 13 minutes to lion to the mainland protest- wait for him to get the permitsMM to board," Mr Sianers. The captain of the Drsjonsjf craft. Ian Stanley, Mr Stanley said Chinese ssid on arriving ie Kai Tak officials told him lhat Mr earty today thai Mr Lee had Lee was having problem! gone through immigration with his passport. UNITED States President procedure* and was stopped George Bush yesterday conMeanwhile, three Hong- demned the Chinese crackshort of the plane by four kong reporters who returned uniformed officials. down on pro-democrscy borne on an earlier flight last "He tried to board the flight complained that the aircraft but they tried to stop British Embassy had not was ordering an immediate helped them as had been suspension of government said it was necessary, for him promised. military sales •"•j commerto go back to the unmigrnexport of weapons. (Coats ea Page 7, Col t) cial"We deplore the decision 10 useforce,"Mr Bush told a hastily convened news conHe called on Chinese authorities "to avoid violence and to return to their previous policy of  The US has also offered China mote than 13 million tonnes of subsidised wheat since I9S7. It was not clear whether outstanding subsidies were jeopardised by Mr Bush's moves. After reading s intern cm from the White House briefing room, Mr Bush answered questions and said be would not withdraw the US ambassador from Beijing, as some have proposed. Mr Bush, a former US envoy to China, said he also would order US officials to give a "sympathetic review" to sny request by Chinese studentsforan extension of their slay in the US and would offer aisisiance want to see a total break in through the international ibis relationship" with Red Cross. China. Mr Bush said demonstraNonetheless, in antor! swept from Cbina'i thst inTiananmen Square by milicluded tary forces at the weekend between US sad Chinese wen "advocating basic humilitary official*, he said: man rights, including free"We cannot condoee the vi- dom of espression, freedom olent attacks and cannot ig- of the press and freedom of nore the consequences for our relstiooihip with Hc added: "Throughout ins." The Defence Depart- the world we itand with M was unable to provide those who seek greater freedom snd democracy." immediately the value of Mr Bush said he was alwould be effected by the sus- tempting to forge a careful pensioB sjujounced by Mr response to the situation in Bush. China, and had rejected adUeutensm-Colond Rick vice from some wbo recomOboru, s Pcntsgoo spoken mended the withdrawal of man, ssid four projects were the US ambassador. still listed as "continuing", He said the ambassador but that some of the older had been active in monitoring events in Beijing and provided an important reThe four transactions in- source for the US. cluded a US$91 Bullion sale "I don't want to see a toof technology snd assistance tal break in this relationship in October 1913 to build an and I will not encourage a toing the index, languishing almost 40 per cent artillery ammunitioo plant; tal break," be ssid. "When HONGKONG'S itock market plunged nearly 22 per cent yesterday aa investors below its level before the political crisis"! n the sale of 35 avionics kit* lo you sec these kids struggling modernise the electronic for democracy and freedom, rushed to dump shares in Ibe wake of the China erupted in early May. systems on Chinese F-g jet weekend bloodshed in Beijing, prompting Freniied scenes gripped the trading fighters, worth US*5SO mil- this would be a bad lime for predictions thatfinancialcoaadence in the Boor of the Hongkong exchange from the lion; the salt offourMK-46 the United Slates to withcould take months to mend. opening bed, as dealers frantically fielded uxpedoes in February 19(6. draw." Panic idling by local punters and in*' calls from investors unloading stock in re- valued at USSI million, and Until yetterday'i press kntwrpodaboulHiaiJttc^ action to the brutal military crackdown. the sale in Jauary I9S7 of ar- conference, Mr Bush had litvalue of Hongkong shares and sent the key The Hang Seng index plummeted a mas- tillery-locating radar sets tle to say on China as he barometer, the Hang Seng index, wound up a weekend of rest sive 390 poiots in Ibe inorning session, and worth USS62 million. ing 312 points to close at 2,093.61. and relaxation at hit vacaonly recovered aome ground after the It was the Hongkong market's BKond Hongkong Shanghai Bank intervened Colonel Oborn said the lioo home on the Maine beavmt ooc day fall since 1949 and Ibe big- to tupport the market in the afternoon. Pentagon did not have any coast after a four-nation Eugest loas sutce the October I9l7cra*h. leavstatisUca available on on-jo- ropean visit and a NATO int, commercial iransac- summit Former Secretary of Tbe US-Chinese rela- Slate Henry Kissinger, who tionship has blossomed on helpedforgethefirstUS lie economic, military *ad po- with China dunng President litical fronts since form si Richard Nixon'i term, also diplomatic relation! were advised that the president established in 1979. "can't afford emotional Since that time, the Unit- outbursts" in the present sited Slates has sold more than Before Mr Buih anUSS74S million in arms to nounced the suspension of China, most recently a armi salei, Dr Kissinger USSI00 million deal in warned lhat imposing ecowhich Beijing purchased six nomic isncliont would Chinook CH-47D belicop(C—I'd — Psa* 3. Cal I)  Thousands make run on Chinese banks THOUSANDS ef people  Affairs David Naadtck Ntl'ffrfclTi'  -We asset iwnagaa** that any dip isltars, siapU who fr,,'^j^.^ If we an bass a aaaeesattal had sarrewsd tress dM beak Bank, affected by lha 'bay did awl waat ta ran an any aaa* as ear ha atst be |rissaa ta repay LTW'efC^ asdu lag •yateas. It's going to rbaVbaas. (Caafd ea Page J, Cal I) aad Sean -Saa Beak, China (Cewfe M Pass t. Cat I )  Governor seeks meeting with Howe  Press DAVID WALLEN THE Persian Secretary, Sir Geoffrey aeaerftsd as Britain's "shack and oatnaV* Some Tory MPs art In Leaden Hewe, lest asset tsUra»B«^ al want base aaaa hasp •• tan • gMjfasg la aad DAPHNE CHENG lbs alleasl imini Ptp as Cabas ay the designed to convince ibe Prlace end Praacaas af Wake was "aaaabtkGovernment that Britain with British Foreign Secretary, Sir Geoffrey Howe, on the twin crisesforHongkong following the Woody crackdown in China and Ibe arrival of thousands of Vietnamese boat people. Sir David postponed until tomorrow a trip to London because of the weekend bloodshed in Beijing. Yesterday, he met the bead of China i de facto embsisy, Mr X u Jiaiun, lo whom he expressed the full esieni of revulsion felt locally over the use of violence against ciriiens in Beijing,  •tWW DIAMONQ&t DICKSON WATCH t JEWELLERY CO. LTD  CS  WATCH CO.. I TO  PRECISION WATCH CO. LTD.  Over 1,100 boat people sail into H K ANOTHER 1.103 boat people sailed into Hongkong in 20 boats yeilcrday - the highest single figure in one day since 1979. It takes the arrivals in the first five days of June to 3,091 and in the past eight days to 3.697, an average of more than 700 a day. More than 2,000 of the arrivals in the last five days are being held on the Solo Islands with scam shelter, but most of the Vietnamese are being detained off Tai Ah Chau in the boat* they arrived in. while some have been allowed ashore, a no port: Papa 9  must register its protest and horror in a far more effecti ve way than has been done so  "*U  • ••na^whh (W CaJasw. Sen a Mfagcharga jiang- daflaJno  The royal ceupkt had pleased ta v i Feirbaim, a TW Chary* •'•rhsros m »••—•«- ta China (rasa Ne*tme*r I to 6 eeforo going « Coniervative MP, laid: the Foreign Offlco la bear what Sir Geeflrey the Hiagkawg for twe days. "Here we areflauntingour Sir David also asked for the co-operation of Chinese authorities in ensuring the safety of Hongkong people ta the capital, a siatcmenl -aid. Sir David was scheduled lo appear before appear lonwnuw uciurc U^J House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee ( F A Q inquiry into Hongkong.  He has postponed the session until June 13 to allow timeforhim to meet British ministers snd officiali in London. He was trying 10 arrange a meeting with Sir Geoffrey, but sources said nothing had been decided. Sir Geoffrey faced the anger of a number of Conservative rank and file MPs  yesterday, who accused him of making excusesforthe Chinese Govern mem over the massacre in Beijing. He snd Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher will face demands in parliament today to end the "shameful muled response" to the slaughter and lo break off diplomatic relation! with China.  Solidarity set to sweep polls  friendship with China and ma kin | the molt limited condemnation aboul thii most blood-curdling atrociiy"This would never occur in South Africa, yet they, an advanced weapon democracy, we abhor and China we hardly condemn for the worst brutality since Russia invaded Czechoslovskis. Il (Cont'd an Pas* t, Cal 1)  INDEX  cornered him outside the I for candidates rectory of Si Brygida's from the ruling communist Church, a Solidarity strongparty sad its allies, but the hold. ocratic elections siace reaisindcr and all 100 SeaIn Warsaw, Solidarity World War II and possibly ate seats were open to oppo- supporters cheeird and at sition candidates. even ousted top communist least one onlooker broke officials in ibe existing parNone of the early unoffi- Into joyous tears as partial liament cial returns showed commit- results were posted in camThe early returns tabu- nilt candidates winning paign headquarter windows, lated by the Solidarity Citi- racesforthe Senate, raising showing the Solidarity slate zens Committee represented the possibility of a Solidarity drawing between 63 per cent a small number of the more iweep in the tint freely elect- snd 73 per cent of the votes CLASSIFIED POST than 16 million votes cast on ed legislative chamber in the across the board. Sunday. A final official East bloc. With 139 of 1.233 voting count was not expected until The iiate-controlled me- itaiioni in Warsaw report- PaUk S L*fal Nadcaa_ dia reported no voting re- ing. Solidarity candidates Voters telected candi- sults, only turnout figures. for the three Senate scat! dates for the erilling 460In Gdansk. Solidarity from the city led easily. The member Sejm and s new leader Lech Walesa was tak- Solidarity tallies showed all had obtained more than 70 100-member Senste, s i ing a cautious approach. agreed to in reforms worked "Ii'i loo early (fori con- per cent of lhe valid voles Hot wrth aunny pnrioda oui by the Government and gratulaiioni. and we don'l cast. Solidariiy-kd opposition in have complete information 32 de^aae. The numbers were si mitalki earlier this year. yet" he tokJ reporters who ls r in races for Ihe Sejm. Saw Page 2.  WEATHER  COMTF.SSE. THE  HANDMADE  PERFECTION.  

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