UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Adult education among members of a North Vancouver labour union Brown, Maria Johanna 1972

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1972_A8 B77.pdf [ 4.55MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0064611.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0064611-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0064611-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0064611-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0064611-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0064611-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0064611-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0064611-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0064611.ris

Full Text

a  ADULT EDUCATION AMONG MEMBERS OF A NORTH VANCOUVER LABOUR UNION  by  MARIA J . BROWN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,. 1971  I  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n the F a c u l t y of Education (Adult Education)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming r e q u i r e d standard  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1972  to the  In  presenting  this  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y I  shall  f u r t h e r agree  for scholarly by h i s of  this  written  fulfilment of  the U n i v e r s i t y of  make  it  British  freely available  that permission  for  the requirements  Columbia,  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  for  It  financial  is understood gain s h a l l  that  copying o r  Maria J. Brown  Adult  Education  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  this  Columbia  September.27, 1972  for  that  study. thesis or  publication  not be allowed without my  permission.  Department o f  I agree  purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  A B S T R A C T  This study,surveyed  the education and  information  seeking a c t i v i t i e s of Local 389 of the Canadian Union of Publ i c Employees covering the period from March 19 71 to March 19 72. One hundred and three respondents were interviewed i n a random sample of 141 union members.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n rates were estab-  lished for union education, labour education, other adult education, s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning projects, and other seeking a c t i v i t i e s .  information  Socio-economic and psycho-social  charac-  t e r i s t i c s of p a r t i c i p a n t s and non-participants i n these various educational a c t i v i t i e s were also studied. In view of the repeatedly expressed  union assump-  tions that unions are responsible for a l l educational needs of rank and f i l e members, this study also established how  im-  portant members of Local 389 perceived t h e i r union's role to be i n providing education i n four d i f f e r e n t areas: cation, vocational education, labour education and time education.  It was  union eduleisure  found that the members studied accep-  ted the union's role i n providing union education, rejected the union's role i n providing labour and leisure time educat i o n , and were divided i n their opinion about the union's role, in providing vocational education, depending on their formal l e v e l of education.  Only the poorly educated, u n s k i l l e d mem-  bers studied were w i l l i n g to accept union r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for vocational t r a i n i n g . ii  iii  In view o f the s u r p r i s i n g l y l e a r n i n g r e p o r t e d by the respondents,  l a r g e amount o f s e l f a t - t e s t found  that  there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n mean hours spent i n self-directed projects for participants i n formal  and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s  courses. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union education was found  l i m i t e d to a c t i v e union .members only respondents).  (8.74 per cent o f the  No p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l a b o u r e d u c a t i o n was r e -  p o r t e d by the respondents ticipated  s t u d i e d , w h i l e 35.92 per cent par-  i n other a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s .  self-directed  Union p a r t i c i p a t i o n  ber p a r t i c i p a t e s  i n the l i f e  found to be s i g n i f i c a n t participation  Participation in  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s and i n o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n seek-  i n g a c t i v i t i e s was h i g h , with percentages respectively.  to be  o f 99.03 and 96.12  (the extent to which a mem-  o f the u n i o n ) , age and sex were  factors  i n formal c o u r s e s .  f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r nonNo s i g n i f i c a n t  differences  were found i n types of s u b j e c t s i n which respondents f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s were  interested.  i n dif-  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I.  II.  Page  INTRODUCTION  1  Purpose o f the Study Scope o f the Study D e f i n i t i o n s and Terms P l a n of the Study  3 4 5 6  A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. . . . . . .  7  Introduction 7 Union A t t i t u d e s t o E d u c a t i o n 7 P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates 9 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f P a r t i c i p a n t s and P a r t i c i p a n t s . . . .11 A t t i t u d e s o f A d u l t Educators 13 A t t i t u d e s of Union Members Toward T h e i r L o c a l and I t s A c t i v i t i e s 14 Summary 17 III.  IV.  METHODOLOGY  18  Introduction C o n s t r u c t i o n of the Instrument The P i l o t Study R e v i s i o n o f the Instrument Data C o l l e c t i o n The P o p u l a t i o n Sampling Method and D e s c r i p t i o n of S u b j e c t s F i e l d Procedures Data A n a l y s i s  18 18 22 24 25 25 26 28 28  ANALYSIS OF DATA  30  Introduction Univariate Analysis C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Sample Bivariate Analysis P e r c e i v e d Importance o f the Union's R e s p o n s i b i l i t y for Education Extent of P a r t i c i p a t i o n Union E d u c a t i o n Labour E d u c a t i o n Adult Education S e l f - D i r e c t e d Learning Projects iv  30 30 .30 33 33 36 36 38 38 40  V  Chapter  Page  Other Information Seeking A c t i v i t i e s 42 Characteristics Related to P a r t i c i p a t i o n 44 Other Factors Related to P a r t i c i p a t i o n . . 63 Factors Inhibiting P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Union Education . 66 Reasons f o r Formal P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Adult Education . 68 Multivariate Analysis 69 Multiple Regression Analysis 69 V.  SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . 73 Introduction .73 Summary of Findings 73 Implications f o r Union Education. . . . . . . . . . . 78 Implications for Adult Education 78 Conclusion . . . . 80  REFERENCES  82  APPENDIX  85  LIST OF TABLES  Table 1. 2. 3.  4.  5.  6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  11.  12.  Page P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scores i n Hours of Educational Level of Respondents i n the P i l o t Study.  23  Means, Standard Deviations and Range of Sample Characteristics  32  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Perceived Importance of the Union's Role i n Providing Four Types of Education  34  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Number and Mean Number of Educational A c t i v i t i e s by Four Occupational Categories  37  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Mean Number of Hours P a r t i c i p a t i o n in Educational A c t i v i t i e s by Four Occupational Categories  39  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Union Education Courses by Four Occupational Categories  46  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Adult Education Courses by Four Occupational Categories  47  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Self-Directed Learning Projects by Four Occupational Categories  49  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Sources for Other Information Seeking A c t i v i t i e s by Four Occupational Categories.. 51 Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Participants Non-Participants by Four Categories of Union P a r t i c i p a t i o n  and 54  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Participants and Non-Participants i n General Adult Education by Four Age Categories  55  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Participants and Non-Participants in General Adult Education by Sex  56  vi  vii  Table 13.  Page Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents i n Four O c c u p a t i o n a l C a t e g o r i e s by L e v e l of E d u c a t i o n . f o r A l l Respondents  58  14.  Correlation  15.  M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Between Six Socio-Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Types of P a r t i c i p a t i o n  70  Percentage of V a r i a n c e i n Types of P a r t i c i p a t i o n Accounted f o r by S e l e c t e d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Respondents  71  16.  Coefficients  .  60  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  Education provided for labour union members i s a separate branch of adult education, meeting the s p e c i a l i z e d educational need of labourers, as other adult education agencies meet the needs of farmers, businessmen, and others (Mire, I960).  Tradi-  t i o n a l l y , therefore, labour union education programs have been concerned with labourers as union members only, r e s t r i c t i n g content to those subjects which were of d i r e c t p r a c t i c a l importance to the maintenance of the i n s t i t u t i o n they served. Such " t o o l " subjects as shop steward t r a i n i n g , c o l l e c t i v e bargaining, organization and administration of a democratic i n s t i tution, labour union h i s t o r y and others have made up the bulk of the educational content, in the b e l i e f ". . .that there are many internal union matters and problems related to p o l i c y which can be handled adequately only through the union's own program." (Hepworth, 1960). A recent study showed that there i s a s h i f t  away from  the s t r i c t l y function point of view and that labour education is beginning to be concerned with the worker as an i n d i v i d u a l member of society. for  (Robinson 1969).  Confirming this trend,  instance, i s Kertheimer's Handbook for Trade Union Program-  mers, Exploring  the Arts  (1968), and a recent report of the Labour  Education Information Center  (N.I.L.E. 1968), which stated: 1  2 Labour e d u c a t i o n programs are i n tended to enable workers to f u n c t i o n more e f f e c t i v e l y as u n i o n i s t s , to help them understand t h e i r s o c i e t y and f u l ^ f i l l t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s as c i t i z e n s , and to prompt i n d i v i d u a l development. And  as e a r l y as 1960,  s t a t e d that "Unions of  Joseph M i r e , E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of N.I.L.E.  have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the e d u c a t i o n a l needs  rank and f i l e members."  (1960).  As yet no s t u d i e s have been undertaken  to  solicit  the o p i n i o n of rank and f i l e members as to t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l needs and p r e f e r e n c e s , nor i s there any great agreement between union l e a d e r s h i p and union educators i n the matter of union r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the e d u c a t i o n a l needs of members (Rogin Rachlim, 1960) .  There  i s a tendency  c a t o r s to assume that those who  on the p a r t  of a d u l t edu-  are l e s s educated than  themselves  need "upgrading" or need t h e i r values changed to resemble n e a r l y those of the middle c l a s s e s heimer puts i t , "One to  and  ( C a r l s o n , 1971).  of the b i g c h a l l e n g e s f o r unions  more  As Werti s how  s t i m u l a t e m i l l i o n s of members and win them away from the easy  c h a i r and t e l e v i s i o n . union members want?  . ."(Wertheimer> Do they themselves  1968).  But i s t h a t what  see such a ' c h a l l e n g e '  as the l e g i t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the union to which they belong? of  The  f a c t t h a t i t has proven  so d i f f i c u l t  the manual labour f o r c e to p a r t i c i p a t e  e d u c a t i o n programs might w e l l argue  i n non-vocational adult  the r e v e r s e .  The present study i s an attempt union members t h i n k about  to e n t i c e members  to help determine what  labour e d u c a t i o n ; to what extent they  3  participate  i n union and labour e d u c a t i o n or i n any other forms  o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ; to what extent they engage i n s e l f - e d u c a t i o n and other forms of i n f o r m a t i o n seeking whether they t h i n k they need e d u c a t i n g  a c t i v i t i e s or  at a l l .  Purpose of the Study P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n formal e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s may not be  an unbiased  i n d i c a t o r o f whether or not an i n d i v i d u a l or a  class of individuals  i s interested i n learning.  Most o f the  emphasis on p a t t e r n s of l e a r n i n g has been from the p o i n t o f view o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l settings, neglecting  l a r g e l y the p o s s i b i l i t y  that a great d e a l o f d e l i b e r a t e l e a r n i n g  may take p l a c e o u t s i d e of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n mind, the p r e s e n t study w i l l  settings.  Bearing  seek to answer the f o l l o w i n g  questions: 1. Do union members b e l i e v e t h a t labour unions have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to meet t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l needs apart from u n i o n - r e l a t e d knowledge and s k i l l s ? 2. To what extent do union members part i c i p a t e i n f i v e types o f e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i ties including a) b) c) d) e)  this  union e d u c a t i o n labour e d u c a t i o n other a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s and other i n f o r m a t i o n seeking a c t i v i t i e s ?  3. Is there a d i f f e r e n c e i n the nature and number o f l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s of v a r i o u s types engaged i n by union members i n d i f f e r e n t occupational categories?  4  4. Is there a d i f f e r e n c e i n the charact e r i s t i c s o f members who do and members who do not p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d u l t education? 5. I f one i n c l u d e s a l l e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s an a d u l t engages i n under a d u l t l e a r n i n g , what p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w i l l be the best s i n g l e p r e d i c t o r of whether or not an i n d i v i d u a l union member i s l i k e l y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d u l t learning?  Scope o f the Study The  Canadian Labour Congress has undertaken an  o v e r a l l study  designed  to d i s c o v e r the extent  c a t i o n a l services provided f e d e r a t i o n s , labour and by union  o f the edu-  f o r union members by p r o v i n c i a l  c o u n c i l s , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l unions,  l o c a l s across  Canada.  A l l this  information i s being  c o l l e c t e d from the p o i n t o f view o f the union present study  i s designed  and p a r t i c i p a t e i n these i n other ing  organizations.  to determine how union  members r e a c t to  union-directed educational  forms o f e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ,  activities,  i n self-directed learn-  p r o j e c t s , or i n any other k i n d of i n f o r m a t i o n  seeking  activities. Since union  L o c a l s are f a r from uniform  s i z e , job c a t e g o r i e s and educational a c t i v i t i e s ,  regarding no attempt  w i l l be made to g e n e r a l i z e from the randomly s e l e c t e d sample interviewed  to a p o p u l a t i o n  sample a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t s , s i z e , make-up and a c t i v i t y .  other  The  than the L o c a l s which  this  and L o c a l s comparable to i t i n  5  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Union  education  i s education  t h a t f o s t e r s the growth  of the union movement by p r o v i d i n g members w i t h skills union  and a t t i t u d e s necessary activities.  poses of t h i s  the knowledge,  for effective participation in  Such e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e , f o r pur-  study,  o f f e r e d only by unions and u n i o n - a f f i l i a t e d  organi zations.  Labour  education  i s education  provement o f workers' i n d i v i d u a l in  s o c i e t y ; courses  capabilities  i n labour e d u c a t i o n  many groups such as unions,  concerned w i t h  the im-  to f u n c t i o n w i t h - '  are a d m i n i s t e r e d  government agencies  by  and u n i v e r s i t y  departments.  Adult of formal  education  i s a l l educational a c t i v i t y ,  outside  s c h o o l i n g , c o n s c i o u s l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d by  an e d u c a t i o n a l  agent f o r purposes o f i m p a r t i n g  mation or s k i l l s . l e s s otherwise  T h i s i n c l u d e s union  knowledge, i n f o r -  and labour e d u c a t i o n un-  stated.  Self-directed  learning  projects  are those  learning  a c t i v i t i e s which are d e l i b e r a t e l y planned and executed by the l e a r n e r h i m s e l f without  the formal  o u t s i d e of any i n s t i t u t i o n a l  a i d o f an e d u c a t i o n a l  agent,  s e t t i n g , and at which the l e a r n e r  spends a minimum o f seven hours or more.  6 Other porary attempts  information at f i n d i n g  seeking  activities  i n f o r m a t i o n an i n d i v i d u a l decides he  wants or needs at any g i v e n moment, which may interest  in politics,  be sparked by an  i n c u r r e n t events, i n contemporary  by job requirements, e t c . , but which learning  are those tem-  issues,  are not p a r t o f a s y s t e m a t i c  project.  Plan of the Study Chapter II c o n s i s t s of a review of the r e l a t e d ature.  liter-  In Chapter I I I a l l aspects of methodology are d i s c u s s e d ,  such as the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the instrument to be used, the P i l o t Study, and data a n a l y s i s to be employed. to  Chapter  IV i s devoted  the a n a l y s i s of the data c o l l e c t e d , w h i l e i n Chapter V the  f i n d i n g s from the a n a l y s i s are used to answer the q u e s t i o n s posed in for  Chapter I.  In Chapter V i m p l i c a t i o n s  f o r union e d u c a t i o n and  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l a l s o are d i s c u s s e d , as w e l l as a  c o n c l u d i n g statement g i v e n .  CHAPTER II A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  Introduction T h i s chapter d i s c u s s e s the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to union and  labour e d u c a t i o n , both from a t t i t u d i n a l  p o i n t s o f view.  and p a r t i c i p a t o r y  S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n i s given to union a t t i t u d e s  to e d u c a t i o n , to p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s i n union, labour and other a d u l t e d u c a t i o n courses, to c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s , to a t t i t u d e s of a d u l t educators wards the lower  socio-economic  i n general t o -  c i t i z e n r y , and to the a t t i t u d e s  of union members themselves towards t h e i r union L o c a l and i t s activities.  Union A t t i t u d e s to E d u c a t i o n No r e s e a r c h has been done r e g a r d i n g the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of labour union members i n any form of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  i n Canada,  and  few such  s t u d i e s have been c a r r i e d out i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  The  l a t t e r have been, f o r the most p a r t , o f an h i s t o r i c a l and  p h i l o s o p h i c a l nature.  The most recent of t h e s e , Labor  in  A Survey  for  the United Labor,  States:  differs  Education  from a l l p r e v i o u s e f f o r t s  "attempted w i t h some success of  of Adult  to compile  (educational) a c t i v i t i e s . "  (Rogin  7  Opportunities  i n t h a t i t has  statistics  and.Rachlin,  of i t s f i n d i n g s are that labour education  Education  f o r some kinds 1968).  Some  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i s  8  fragmented,  and t h a t t h i s  fragmentation g e n e r a l l y extends to  the o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f labour e d u c a t o r s , so that the l a t t e r are not drawn together to enable them to exchange views and experiences.  The authors suggest  that p o s s i b l y labour educators  not do t h i s i f they are to take t h e i r unionism will  come back to t h i s l a t e r .  We  In g e n e r a l , a c c o r d i n g to t h i s  study, union l e a d e r s h i p i n the n a t i o n a l unions f e d e r a t i o n s does not understand  seriously.  can-  and the s t a t e  and support e d u c a t i o n .  f a c t o r s were c i t e d to e x p l a i n t h i s  Three  l a c k o f support and under-  standing: 1. The i n a b i l i t y of union educators t o i n t e r p r e t union e d u c a t i o n t o the l e a d e r s h i p . 2. The i n a b i l i t y t o i n t e g r a t e e d u c a t i o n i n t o the t o t a l union a c t i v i t y . 3. The acceptance, by union e d u c a t o r s , o f i n f e r i o r s t a t u s w i t h i n the union. a  The one  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f l a b o u r e d u c a t i o n was c i t e d by  l a b o u r e d u c a t i o n d i r e c t o r i n t e r v i e w e d as a major source o f  weakness o f the whole e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e o f the unions. authors conducted view, c o l l e c t i n g  The  t h e i r survey from the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o i n t o f data where and i f a v a i l a b l e from enrolment  fig-  u r e s , which were f a r from uniform and complete, and . . .while i t i s not p o s s i b l e to say how many u n i o n i s t s are a c t u a l l y i n v o l v e d i n l a b o r e d u c a t i o n , i t i s c l e a r that o n l y a s m a l l percentage p a r t i c i p a t e i n any g i v e n year. The  one great advantage o f labour e d u c a t i o n as the authors see  it,  i s t h a t i t has at l e a s t a chance to i n v o l v e  i n education  9  those adults who  are conspicuously absent from formal adult  education programs, the b l u e - c o l l a r workers.  The same point  of view i s expressed by Joseph Mire, Executive Director of the National Institute for Labor Education, when he states: It i s largely through labor organizations that workers appear as actual or p o t e n t i a l consumers of education. E f f o r t s to reach workers through general adult education groups and programs have, with few exceptions, been unsuccessful. (1960).  P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates One study, investigating the learning habits of American adults, found that the most frequently cited obstacles which prevented adults from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n adult education were f i n ancial constraints (43%), busy schedules (391), and lack of physical energy at the end of the day (37%)  (Johnston and Rivera, 1965).  Women i d e n t i f i e d more obstacles than men,  older adults more than  younger, persons from lower socio-economic positions more than persons from higher ones.  The authors, using the data from a  national sample survey undertaken by the National Opinion Research Center, and consisting of three successive waves of data c o l l e c t i o n , analyzed interviews made with 11,597 households  (90 per  cent of the p r o b a b i l i t y sample) to provide a comprehensive overview of the numbers and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of adults engaged in studies of various subjects, the methods of study employed, and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l settings within which i n s t r u c t i o n was received.  10  Self-directed learning projects were treated as a residual category, but the authors found that so many people at one time or another engage i n self-planned learning that they came to the conclusion that " s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n i s probably the most overlooked avenue of a c t i v i t y i n the whole f i e l d of adult education." Subjects i n the home and family l i f e area were studied more often without than with the help of an i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent; 80 per cent of those interviewed who studied gardening, for instance, did so independently. for  But other areas, too, provided ample opportunity  self - instruction:  60 per cent of those who studied, a foreign  language, 50 per cent of those who studied music, and 44 per cent of those who studied speed reading did so without benefit of formal i n s t r u c t i o n .  A l l e n Tough of Toronto found that i n his survey  of adult's learning projects 68 per cent of a l l projects were s e l f planned and executed, and that another nine per cent were of a mixed nature, i . e . , p a r t i a l l y self-planned and executed, and part i a l l y r e l y i n g on help from others (Tough, 1970).  Tough and h i s  research team c a r e f u l l y interviewed small samples from seven populations:  b l u e - c o l l a r factory workers (N=10) , men and women from  the lower end of the white-collar scale (N=10, 10), female ary  element-  school teachers (N=6), s o c i a l science professors (N=10), mun-  icipal politicians  (N=10) , and upper-middle  school children (N=10).  class women with pre-  Although the samples were too small to  allow for generalization to the populations from which they were randomly drawn, an interesting phenomenon emerged when mean number  11  of hours spent at each learning project reported was tabulated: the mean number of hours for the factory workers, none of whom had gone beyond Grade Twelve i n high school, was higher  at 146  than for the lower white-collar men (111) or women (48), elementary school teachers  (42) , and the upper-middle class mothers  (47), but not as high as that for the p o l i t i c i a n s professors (171).  (190) or the  Although the highly suggestive nature of the  questions i n the Tough interview schedule render these findings somewhat suspect, they indicate the p o s s i b i l i t y that although b l u e - c o l l a r workers do not p a r t i c i p a t e i n formal adult education programs to a great extent, they may p a r t i c i p a t e i n learning i n dependently.  Since most previous studies have concentrated t h e i r  attention on the i n s t i t u t i o n a l settings i n which adults p a r t i c i p a t e in learning, such i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t s may have gone undetected.  Characteristics of Participants and Non-Participants Another group of researchers approaching  the study of  adult education through i t s p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t e l e concentrated i t s e f f o r t s on the c i t y of Oakland, C a l i f o r n i a , using both descriptive and analytic methods (London, Wenkert and Hagstrom, 1963).  Apart  from conducting a survey of sponsoring agencies, modes of instruction and types of program being offered, this team used a matched sample of participants and non-participants i n order to trace the connection between adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n and such socioeconomic and psycho - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as types of vocation,  12  jobs, p r i o r educational attainment, l e i s u r e time pursuits and others.  Heavy emphasis was placed on differences between the  higher and lower socio-economic  groups.  These researchers con-  firmed the usual phenomenon that l e v e l of formal education i s the best single predictor of whether or not a person i s l i k e l y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n adult education, as also reported by Brunner (1959), Booth (1961), Verner and Newberry (1965), Watson et al. (1963) and Dickinson  (1971).  Booth, treating data obtained by the Bureau of Census 1957 Current Population Survey  (U.S.A.) with a r a t i o  technique,,  found that the non-participant i s most often found i n that port i o n of the population which i s 45 years or older, has less than a high school education, and i s either i n the lower echelons of the labour force or not i n the labour force.  Johnston and Rivera  (1965) found that the p a r t i c i p a n t i n icollege and u n i v e r s i t y extension courses was  almost exclusively a person with one or two  years of college already.  Dickinson, however, studying patterns  of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a public night school program i n Surrey, British  Columbia, found l i t t l e of no difference in the percent-  age rate of drop-outs with less than a Grade Eight education and those with high school or even one or two years of u n i v e r s i t y education, indicating that those with more education are sometimes just as l i k e l y to drop out as those with less (1966). field  (1965) , studying the aspirations of low  Delle-  socio-economic  status adults, found that non-participation was primarily due to  13  the fact that such adults do not regard education as the means of  r e a l i z i n g their l i f e goals.  This concurs with the conclusion  of Watson et al. (1963), previously c i t e d , and Cram (1965) below.  D e l l e f i e l d sees the gap between the educated and the non-  educated growing as a result of the fact that adult education seeks to f u l f i l l  i t s purpose as defined by the educators rather  than by the to-be-educated. Attitudes of Adult Educators Cram, investigating the attitude of Co-operative Extension educators towards the lower socio-economic c i t i z e n r y found that one of the barriers to be overcome by Extension administrators was the assumption  that:  . . . a l l people are d i s s a t i s f i e d with some aspect of their l i f e s i t u a t i o n , and whenever occasions present themselves, the people w i l l take advantage of any educational opportunities which are made available to them. Research reveals that many of the low income people do not feel d i s s a t i s f i e d with their present status i n l i f e . This rather sweeping 'revelation' was supported by c i t ing  one document only.  London et al. (1963)put the blame f o r  the b l u e - c o l l a r workers' lack of p a r t i c i p a t i o n squarely on the shoulders of the adult educators (in the United States) for perpetuating a number of myths about the semi-skilled and lows k i l l e d worker i n a way that i n h i b i t s these people's entrance i n to are:  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d educational a c t i v i t i e s .  Some of these myths  14  1. Workers are n a t u r a l l y a p a t h e t i c towards s o c i e t y and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s . 2. Workers are not capable of s u s t a i n e d i n t e l l e c t u a l e f f o r t and t h e r e f o r e are not able to b e n e f i t from c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . 3. B l u e - c o l l a r workers do not have an i n t e r e s t i n or a p p r e c i a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n . 4. I n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y i s demonstrated e a r l y i n l i f e -- i f i t does not appear then i t never w i l l . 5. People l o s e the a b i l i t y i n c r e a s i n g age. If  to l e a r n w i t h  such o p i n i o n s are r e a l l y as p r e v a l e n t as the Oakland  study  i n d i c a t e s , i t seems t h a t , i r o n i c a l l y , g r e a t l y p r i o r i t y ought to  be assigned to educating  the a d u l t  educators.  A t t i t u d e s of Union Members Towards T h e i r L o c a l and  There i s , however, another the union member's p a r t i c i p a t i o n  education (1968),  to the q u e s t i o n of  i n union and  and this i s r e l a t e d to the rank and towards h i s union  aspect  Its A c t i v i t i e s  labour  education,  f i l e union member's a t t i t u d e  i n general r a t h e r than to h i s a t t i t u d e  in particular.  towards  As mentioned above, Rogin and R a c h l i n  commenting on the fragmentary  s t a t e o f labour union  c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , remarked t h a t p o s s i b l y labour educators if  c o u l d not draw together and  they were to take t h e i r unionism  share  ideas and  seriously.  The  eduunion  experiences  implication  t h a t there i s an i n h e r e n t paradox between p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n the  15  life  o f the union and p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n labour union e d u c a t i o n  was not e n l a r g e d upon by the authors and remained p u z z l i n g to the p r e s e n t w r i t e r u n t i l e n t i t l e d The Local latter  Union  r e a d i n g another  study  (Sayles and S t r a u s s , 1967).  This  study d i d not d e a l w i t h l a b o u r union e d u c a t i o n a t a l l ,  but with rank and f i l e  as w e l l as l e a d e r s h i p views  Union L o c a l and i t s a c t i v i t i e s . al  somewhat  The authors used a "behaviour-  approach," based on p a r t i c i p a n t  ( i n union a c t i v i t i e s )  v a t i o n and on i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w i n g United S t a t e s ) .  on the  i n 20 l o c a l unions  obser( i n the  No use was made o f s t a t i s t i c a l sampling tech-  n i q u e s , but p r o j e c t i v e t e s t s were used to e l i c i t  members' r e -  a c t i o n s towards t h e i r union and i t s a c t i v i t i e s .  The f i n d i n g s  presented r e l a t e p r i m a r i l y to unions  i n the manufacturing  t r i e s , but a l s o i n v o l v e d were the b u i l d i n g collar  u n i o n s ; the f i n d i n g s  latter  groups  indus-  trades and some white-  seem to apply q u i t e c l o s e l y to these  as w e l l .  The authors found a deep-seated  ambivalence  a l l e g i a n c e to the union and apathy or even h o s t i l i t y  between towards i t .  The overwhelming m a j o r i t y o f the members supported the union's economic a c t i v i t i e s ,  b u t , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the " a c t i v e  m i n o r i t y , " showed l i t t l e life.  i n the union's  internal  The r e s e a r c h e r s d e t e c t e d a subconscious sense o f shame --  the American of  or no i n t e r e s t  individual  middle c l a s s i d e a l i s one o f s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and initiative.  Being a member o f a union,  [which i s  o f t e n not a v o l u n t a r y s t a t e o f a f f a i r s ] , b r i n g s home to a worker  16  that as an i n d i v i d u a l he i s weak and powerless, and the union is  p a r t l y blamed f o r g e t t i n g him i n t o t h i s dilemma.  is  some h o s t i l i t y as w e l l as l o y a l t y towards the u n i o n . For  way o f l i f e ;  a small group,  The r e s u l t  the authors found, the union i s a  f o r the m a j o r i t y i t i s but a method of economic  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , a l b e i t an important one.  For them i t i s o n l y  a means to an end, a way o f g a i n i n g g r e a t e r s e c u r i t y on the j-ob, of  c e r t a i n l y not a g r e a t s o c i a l movement.  The v a s t m a j o r i t y  the members r e a d i l y accept the union's economic  but deny i t s s o c i a l purpose. dichotomy  And h e r e i n l i e s  functions,  the crux.  between labour union e d u c a t o r s ' views  The  of the union's  responsibility . . .to enable workers to f u n c t i o n more e f f e c t i v e l y as u n i o n i s t s , to h e l p them understand t h e i r s o c i e t y and f u l f i l t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s as c i t i z e n s , and to prompt i n d i v i d u a l development. . . (Mire, and rank and f i l e  1960)  u n i o n members' d e n i a l o f the union's  social  purpose  (and so, by e x t e n s i o n , the union's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to  educate  them), must be r e s o l v e d b e f o r e the problem  file  participation  o f rank and  i n labour e d u c a t i o n can be s u c c e s s f u l l y  d e a l t w i t h . As long as union members do not p e r c e i v e e d u c a t i o n to  be the l e g i t i m a t e concern of t h e i r union they are not l i k e l y  to  participate  i n labour union sponsored e d u c a t i o n .  17  Summary In g e n e r a l , the p i c t u r e which emerges from the ature can be summed up best by summarizing Johnston and R i v e r a  (1965): l e a r n i n g and  the f i n d i n g s of  education  are p e r c e i v e d  i n r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t ways by persons on d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l ladder. less,  Lower c l a s s a d u l t s not only v a l u e  they assess  i t s worth s t r i c t l y  advantages to be gained statement or not may by  education.  liter-  rungs of  education  i n terms of the t a n g i b l e  from i t . Whether one  agrees w i t h  depend i n p a r t on what one  the  understands  the  CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY  Introduction T h i s chapter's f i r s t s e c t i o n i s concerned w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the instrument, the i n f o r m a t i o n to be c o l l e c t e d and the s c a l e s used,  the way i n which v a l i d i t y  were e s t a b l i s h e d by a p i l o t of  the instrument.  and r e l i a b i l i t y  study, and the subsequent  revision  The next s e c t i o n g i v e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f  the p o p u l a t i o n from which the random sample was drawn, the sampling method used, a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s u b j e c t s , and f i e l d procedures u t i l i z e d , methods used  f o l l o w e d by a s e c t i o n d e s c r i b i n g the  f o r a n a l y z i n g the data  collected.  C o n s t r u c t i o n o f the Instrument In order to f a c i l i t a t e for  the purpose  o f the study, i t was d e c i d e d to d e s i g n a s t r u c -  tured i n t e r v i e w schedule. validity  the c o l l e c t i o n o f data r e q u i r e d  The problems o f the r e l i a b i l i t y and  o f an instrument designed s p e c i f i c a l l y  for a single  study are d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h by a v a r i e t y o f a r t i c l e s and books on the s u b j e c t , e.g., S e l l i t z , Moser (1967) and o t h e r s . motives  Jahoda et al. (1967),  Not o n l y the a t t i t u d e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s  and p e r c e p t i o n s o f the respondents  equal importance,  are important, o f  and i n f l u e n c i n g the responses, are the a t t i -  tudes, e x p e c t a t i o n s , motives  and p e r c e p t i o n s o f the i n t e r v i e w e r 18  19  (Kahn and Cannell, 1968).  Since questions can obtain only such  information that the respondent i s able and w i l l i n g to give, the interviewer must be aware of the fact that many people have never learned to make the inferences necessary  to an ade-  quate verbal report ( S e l l i t z , Jahoda et al.  Cannell  3  1967).  and Kahn (1968) c i t e three conditions necessary  for successful  interviewing: 1. The a c c e s s a b i l i t y condition: does the respondent have the required data i n conscious form? 2. The cognitive condition: does the respondent understand what i s required of him? 3. The motivating condition: i s the respondent w i l l i n g to give the required information? Special care was taken i n formulating the questions  i n order  to meet the requirements for these three conditions. The instrument  used to c o l l e c t the data about par-  t i c i p a t i o n i n 1) union education, 2) labour education, 3) other adult education, 4.) s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning projects, and 5) other information seeking a c t i v i t i e s , was a structured i n t e r view schedule  constructed by the w r i t e r .  tions e l i c i t i n g information concerning  It consisted of ques-  the usual demographic  data such as l ) occupation, 2) age, 3) marital status, 4)level of education,  3) number of children l i v i n g at home, 6) number  of years of union membership, and 7) sex of respondent, as well as questions about educational p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the aforementioned a c t i v i t i e s .  The Chapin Scale of Social P a r t i c i p a t i o n , a  20 standard t e s t , scores on which have been found to c o r r e l a t e with socio-economic al,  s t a t u s , income and o c c u p a t i o n (Bonjean et  1967), was used to determine  were s o c i a l l y .  how a c t i v e the respondents  In a d d i t i o n , a union p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c a l e  c o n s t r u c t e d , measuring  frequency of attendance  i n g s , at committee meetings and/or l o c a l  was  at union meet-  executive  meetings,  in  o r d e r t o a r r i v e at a measure of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l i f e  of  the Union L o c a l .  to  determine whether or not respondents  mation  A " r e a d e r s h i p " index was a l s o c o n s t r u c t e d , read the u n i o n  infor-  m a t e r i a l s , how much time they spent r e a d i n g these, and  whether o r not they passed on i n f o r m a t i o n from these m a t e r i a l s to  other union members.  it  g r a d u a l l y became c l e a r t h a t t h i s index was at best o f doubt-  ful  validity,  (During the course o f the i n t e r v i e w s  as t h i s year  (1972) turned out to be the n e g o t i -  a t i n g year f o r Lower Mainland  l o c a l s o f CUPE.  N e a r l y a l l mem-  bers i n t e r v i e w e d read the news sheets a s s i d u o u s l y , where i n other years they might not have done so to the same e x t e n t . Consequently In 389  the Index was not used  i n the data  analysis).  o r d e r to f i n d out whether the members o f L o c a l  accept the assumption  t h a t unions are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f rank and f i l e members, a f o u r - f o l d was i n c l u d e d designed to a s c e r t a i n how important b e l i e v e d union r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  respondents  to be i n the areas o f :  1.  Union  education.  2.  Vocational education.  scale  21  3. Education f o r c i t i z e n s h i p and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i n t h i s study d e f i n e d as labour education. 4. The 6.  L e i s u r e time  education.  answer to each of the questions  . .'very important'  responsibility'.  to 1.  . . ' d e f i n i t e l y not the  These ' b e l i e f  union's  questions, e s p e c i a l l y i n  areas 3 and 4, r e l e a s e d much l a t e n t h o s t i l i t y union, not generated  ranged from  by any of the other  towards  the  questions.  L a s t l y , a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n of the Adolph and Whaley s c a l e , measuring a t t i t u d e Occupations Age,  towards union e d u c a t i o n , was  included.  were c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to the B l i s h e n S c a l e •  e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l and m a r i t a l s t a t u s c a t e g o r i e s were  used by the 1961  Canada Census.  terview schedule). of the instrument,  (See Appendix f o r complete i n -  To e s t a b l i s h the r e l i a b i l i t y a pilot  those  study was  undertaken,  and  validity  the  result  of which i s d i s c u s s e d below. In summary, the independent v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d i n the instrument were:  number of years membership i n the  union p a r t i c i p a t i o n , s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the f o u r v a r i a b l e s , a t t i t u d e towards union  union,  'belief  education, occupation,  age,  m a r i t a l s t a t u s , formal l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n , number of c h i l d r e n living  at home and  sex of respondent.  The  dependent v a r i a b l e s  were:  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union e d u c a t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n  our e d u c a t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ,  in lab-  participation  22  in self-directed  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n other i n -  formation s e e k i n g a c t i v i t i e s  and  t o t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a l l par-  t i c i p a t i o n being scored at hours per year f o r the 12-month p e r i o d under  The  Pilot  survey.  Study Before proceeding w i t h the p i l o t  to t e s t the r e l i a b i l i t y the schedule was  to a panel o f judges  an a d u l t education p r o f e s s o r and seven  graduate  consisting  of  students i n  s c r u t i n i z e d i t c l o s e l y and made v a l u a b l e  suggestions and recommendations. c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the schedule. used  undertaken  and v a l i d i t y of the i n t e r v i e w schedule,  submitted  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , who  study  These were subsequently i n -  The  r e v i s e d schedule was  then  to i n t e r v i e w e i g h t members o f the same p o p u l a t i o n from  which the random sample was sample.  drawn, but not b e l o n g i n g to the  During the course o f the i n t e r v i e w s , i t became c l e a r  t h a t C a n n e l l and Kahn's three c o n d i t i o n s f o r s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r viewing were b e i n g adequately met:  the respondents  d i d indeed  have the r e q u i r e d data i n conscious form, they understood what was  being r e q u i r e d of them, and  give the r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n .  they were able and w i l l i n g Most o f them a c t u a l l y  to  enjoyed  the i n t e r v i e w . The age;  respondents  ranged  from  24 to 62 years of  t h e i r formal e d u c a t i o n v a r i e d from e i g h t to 16 years o f  completed  schooling.  T h e i r occupations ranged  from n i g h t j a n -  i t o r to b u s i n e s s manager f o r the s c h o o l board.  Six were male,  23  two were female.  Only one of them had ever taken a labour  education course, and none had taken a union education course during the period covered by the survey. Two had taken other adult education courses.  But without exception they a l l took  part in s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning projects, spending anywhere from a low 30 to a high 1,100 hours during that 12-month period.  Table I shews the p a r t i c i p a t i o n scores i n hours i n the  various educational a c t i v i t i e s by educational l e v e l of the respondents.  TABLE 1 PARTICIPATION SCORES IN HOURS BY EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF EIGHT RESPONDENTS IN THE PILOT STUDY  RESP.  LEVEL OF EDUCATION  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  12 14 13 11 12 11 8 16  UNION EDUCATION 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  OTHER LABOUR ADULT EDUCATION EDUCATION 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 80 0 0 0 40  SELF-DIRECTED PROJECTS TOTAI 615 1100 50 550 100 250 120 30  It i s not possible, with such a small sample, to make any inferences about educational l e v e l and p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  The  respondent with the highest educational level reported the lowest  622 1100 50 630 100 250 120 70  24  number o f hours i n s e l f - d i r e c t e d respondent  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s , but the  with the second h i g h e s t e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l a t t a i n e d  the h i g h e s t score i n s e l f - d i r e c t e d it  learning projects.  Nor i s  p o s s i b l e to make any i n f e r e n c e s as t o what extent the  respondents'  b e l i e f i n union  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r education i n -  f l u e n c e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union e d u c a t i o n , s i n c e none o f the respondents  had taken any union education courses.  The dicho-  tomy which Messrs. Sayles and Strauss mentioned, o f a c c e p t i n g the union's  economic f u n c t i o n s w h i l e r e j e c t i n g i t s s o c i a l  t i o n s , d i d appear to a l a r g e e x t e n t . ables n e a r l y s p l i t down the middle continuum  'very important'.  responsibility.  The f o u r ' b e l i e f  func-  vari-  towards both ends o f the  . .6, ' d e f i n i t e l y not the union's  . .1, w i t h the b e l i e f t h a t the union should be  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g union e d u c a t i o n and v o c a t i o n a l educ a t i o n towards the high end o f the s c a l e , w h i l e the other two areas o f e d u c a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  (labour and l e i s u r e  time  education) were r e j e c t e d o u t r i g h t as d e f i n i t e l y not the union's business.  Some respondents  became q u i t e h o s t i l e at the thought  of any i n t r u s i o n on the p a r t of the union lives,  a tendency which continued  into their p r i v a t e  to be expressed  d u r i n g the  entire interviewing period.  R e v i s i o n o f Instrument One a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n was suggested of the e i g h t i n t e r v i e w s , i n c o n n e c t i o n with  by the r e s u l t s  the s u r p r i s i n g l y  25  l a r g e number of s e l f - d i r e c t e d p r o j e c t s : e l e c t to study 'on t h e i r own courses  were c l o s e d ones, t h i s one was  Although  of L o c a l 398  formal  population.  The  participation  p o p u l a t i o n were the members  of CUPE w i t h a membership o f 873  i s an unusual  of employees,  (November, 1971)..  L o c a l , c o n s i s t i n g of f i v e d i f f e r e n t  and comprising  l a t t e r f e a t u r e made the L o c a l e s p e c i a l l y  suitable of the very  L o c a l s counting among i t s members both b l u e - c o l l a r  w h i t e - c o l l a r workers.  The  groups  i n s i d e as w e l l as o u t s i d e work-  f o r purposes of the p r e s e n t study, s i n c e i t i s one few  questions  '  The  The  a l l other  choose,  education.  Data C o l l e c t i o n  ers.  respondents  i n c l u d e d as an open q u e s t i o n ,  i n order to d i s c o v e r what f a c t o r s i n h i b i t  This  do  when i n most t o p i c s they  are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e ?  in adult  why  and  f i v e d i f f e r e n t groups were:  (1) employees o f the North Health Unit; (2) employees of the School of North Vancouver ( D i s t r i c t No. 44);  Shore Board  (3) employees of the C i t y of North Vancouver; (4) employees of the D i s t r i c t North Vancouver; and (5; employees of the North C e n t e n n i a l R e c r e a t i o n Centre.  of  Vancouver  26  Since group one c o n s i s t e d o f f i v e nembers o n l y , a l l Health I n s p e c t o r s , one of whom was  about to r e t i r e ,  i t was  decided not to i n c l u d e t h i s group i n the p o p u l a t i o n from which the sample was  drawn.  The members from group  five  were combined with those o f group f o u r , s i n c e t h i s was they were r e p r e s e n t e d i n the membership l i s t .  how  For the pur-  pose o f the study, then, there were three groups: 1, the North Vancouver School Board (N = 215); 2, the C i t y of North Vancouver  (N =  230); 3, the D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver (N = 421), w i t h a t o t a l membership of 868, both male (N = 631) and female (N = 237). The L o c a l i s f a i r l y a c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l l y .  It avails  i t s e l f of the programs p r o v i d e d by the Western R e g i o n a l E d u c a t i o n Department  o f CUPE which puts on weekend seminar at l e a s t  times a y e a r .  The r e g i o n a l head o f f i c e  three  i s i n Vancouver, where  most o f these seminars are h e l d , making i t easy f o r members to attend i f they wish to do so.  As w i l l become c l e a r , only a  s m a l l number of members make use of the o p p o r t u n i t i e s  provided  them. Sampling method and d e s c r i p t i o n o f s u b j e c t s . A 15 per cent s t r a t i f i e d random sample was of random d i g i t s ,  resulting  drawn, u s i n g a t a b l e  i n a sample of 126 names.  Fifteen  a l t e r n a t e names were randomly drawn to o f f s e t p o s s i b l e  sample  m o r t a l i t y , g i v i n g a t o t a l of 141 p o t e n t i a l respondents.  Once  27 the sample was drawn, no f u r t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n was made between the d i f f e r e n t groups.  The sample, i n c l u d i n g the a l t e r n a t e s ,  c o n s i s t e d o f 113 male and 28 female s u b j e c t s ,  ranging be-  tween 19 and 72 years o f age, w i t h a mean age o f 43.97 and a s.d. o f 13.18. and  labourer  T h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s ranged from garbage man  i n a survey crew (26 on the B l i s h e n  Index), to  accountant and j u s t i c e o f the peace (68 on the B l i s h e n from j a n i t o r and t r u c k design  Index),  d r i v e r (29 on the B l i s h e n Index) to  t e c h n i c i a n and e l e c t r i c a l  inspector  Index), w i t h a l l the n e c e s s a r y gradations  (55 on the B l i s h e n i n between (mean  38.81, S.D. 10.55), thus g i v i n g a f a i r spread between blue and white c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s .  Only union members who had been w i t h  the L o c a l f o r at l e a s t 12 months were i n c l u d e d i n the sample, s i n c e the survey covered a p e r i o d o f 12 months, from March 1971 u n t i l March 1972.  Formal l e v e l o f education  ranged from g i x t o  20 years o f s c h o o l i n g , w i t h a mean of 11.32, S.D. 2.71. One hundred and three completed, 73.05 per cent the 38 u n s u c c e s s f u l  interviews  were s u c c e s s f u l l y  of the t o t a l sample.  attempts was as f o l l o w s :  Distribution of one was deceased;  three were too busy (one o f these h e l d two j o b s ) ; nine were not i n t e r e s t e d and r e f u s e d  to be i n t e r v i e w e d  o u t r i g h t ; one had gone  to England f o r the summer, and f o u r were l a i d  o f f but retained  t h e i r membership i n the L o c a l i n the hope of being they were, however, not a v a i l a b l e f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g . ing 20 had l e f t  rehired; The remain-  t h e i r employ and were no longer members o f L o c a l  28  398  o f CUPE.  When the l a r g e number o f people i n c l u d e d i n the  membership l i s t who were i n e f f e c t no longer members, were q u e r i e d , some embarrassment r e s u l t e d : L o c a l l e a d e r s h i p had purposely membership l i s t  i t turned  r e t a i n e d these  out t h a t the  names i n t h e i r  because of the pending s a l a r y n e g o t i a t i o n s --  t h e i r s t r e n g t h i s i n numbers!  So due to l o c a l union  the number o f a c t u a l respondents was s m a l l e r than i t  politics otherwise  might have been. F i e l d procedures. terviews  The w r i t e r conducted a l l i n -  p e r s o n a l l y , a f t e r making i n i t i a l  c o n t a c t by  telephone,  or where t h i s was not p o s s i b l e , by a d i r e c t house c a l l . attempt t o i n t e r v i e w a s u b j e c t was abandoned unless reason was obtained  No  a definite  why a p o t e n t i a l respondent c o u l d not o r  would not be i n t e r v i e w e d .  Data A n a l y s i s The  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia's MV-TAB and TRIP  programs were used t o analyze constructed  B i v a r i a t e t a b l e s were  t o a r r i v e at percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n s  mean number o f f i v e types union  the data.  education,  of e d u c a t i o n a l  labour e d u c a t i o n ,  o f number and  a c t i v i t i e s (including  a d u l t education,  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s , and other i n f o r m a t i o n seeking of t o t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n by four e d u c a t i o n a l  self-directed  a c t i v i t i e s ) and  c a t e g o r i e s , as w e l l as  t a b l e s showing percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s and nonp a r t i c i p a n t s by union  participation, social participation,  occu-  29 p a t i o n , age, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , formal e d u c a t i o n , number of c h i l d r e n at home and sex. applicable. lating  Chi-squares  were c a l c u l a t e d where  A c o r r e l a t i o n matrix was a l s o c o n s t r u c t e d c o r r e -  a l l dependent and independent  variables.  M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n techniques were used to f i n d : (a) how much p r e d i c t i v e power the p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s (occup a t i o n , age, formal e d u c a t i o n , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , number of c h i l d r e n at home and sex) have as a s e t ; (b) whether the bel i e f v a r i a b l e s add anything to what the p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s cont r i b u t e to p r e d i c t i o n about union  e d u c a t i o n ; and (c) which i n -  dependent v a r i a b l e s are s i g n i f i c a n t  i n prediction for partici-  p a t i o n i n union e d u c a t i o n , other a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ,  self-directed  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s , other i n f o r m a t i o n seeking a c t i v i t i e s and total  participation. Finally,  a t - t e s t was performed to see i f the mean  scores i n s e l f - d i r e c t e d a d u l t education significantly  learning projects for participants i n  ( i n c l u d i n g union and labour edcuation)  differed  (at the .05 l e v e l ) from t h a t f o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n adult education. The  i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d by these s t a t i s t i c a l methods  was then used to answer the questions posed i n Chapter  I.  CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF DATA  Introduction T h i s chapter i s devoted to the a n a l y s i s o f the data collected.  U n i v a r i a t e , b i v a r i a t e and m u l t i v a r i a t e methods were  used to d e s c r i b e  the respondents; the p e r c e i v e d  the union's r o l e i n meeting the e d u c a t i o n a l ents;  the extent  (union education,  importance o f  needs o f the respond-  of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f i v e e d u c a t i o n a l labour  education,  d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s and other  other  activities  a d u l t education,  information  seeking  selfactivi-  t i e s ) and i n t o t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t e d to p a r t i c i p a t i o n and n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; other  f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; as w e l l as socio-economic and  psycho-social  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s accounting  p a r t i c i p a t i o n scores.  A t - t e s t was performed to see i f mean  number o f hours i n s e l f - d i r e c t e d p r o j e c t s union, labour  f o r variance i n  and a d u l t education  for participants in  differed significantly  from  that o f n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Univariate  Analvsis C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Sample.  Table 2 p r o v i d e s  a summary d e s c r i p t i o n o f the sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The respondents reported  an average length  union o f s l i g h t l y over nine y e a r s . union p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c a l e  o f membership i n the  T h e i r mean score  on the  (measuring frequency of attendance 30  31  at union meetings,  at s p e c i a l committee meetings and/or  e x e c u t i v e meetings) was 7.62, and on the s o c i a l (Chapin) s c a l e 8.3. s c a l e s , measuring union's  local  participation  T h e i r mean s o c r e s on the f o u r f o l d  b e l i e f i n t h e i r p e r c e i v e d importance  'belief o f the  r o l e i n p r o v i d i n g f o u r types o f e d u c a t i o n (union, vo-  cational,  labour and l e i s u r e time education),were  respective-  l y 4.75, 3.92, 2.34, and 1.63, w i t h the s c a l e ranging from 6 1.  T h e i r mean score on the a t t i t u d e towards union e d u c a t i o n  (Adolph and Whaley, m o d i f i e d ) s c a l e was w e l l over 57, w i t h a range o f 24 - 78, w h i l e the s c a l e i t s e l f ranged T h e i r occupations averaged  from  38.81 on the B l i s h e n Index  21 to 78. (range  26 - 68), and they r e p o r t e d a mean age o f over 43 y e a r s . average  Their  l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n was s l i g h t l y over 11 years o f com-  p l e t e d s c h o o l i n g , and they had a mean number o f 1.34 c h i l d r e n still  l i v i n g a t home.  32  TABLE 2 SUMMARY TABLE OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS  CHARACTERISTIC  MEAN  S.D.  Years membership i n the union  9.03  7.04  1  - 26  Union p a r t i c i p a t i o n , attendance at regular meetings, committees and executive meetings  7.62  15. 60  0  - 55  Social p a r t i c i p a t i o n (Chapin Scale)  8.30  11. 62  0  - 51  4.75 3.92 2.34 1.63  1. 27 1.90 1. 81 1.43  1 1 1 1  -  Attitude to union education (Adolph and Whaley)  57. 63  14. 37  24  - 78  Occupation  38. 81  10. 55  26  - 68  Age  43. 97  13. 18  19  - 72  Level of education (years completed)  11. 32  2. 71  6  - 20  1.34  1. 34  0  - 6  RANGE  Perceived importance of ^ union's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r : Union Education Vocational Education Labour Education Leisure Time Education  (Blishen Index)  Number of children at home  Measurement of b e l i e f i n importance of union's role i n providing education i n these four areas: Very important Quite important Somewhat important Not important Undecided D e f i n i t e l y not the union's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (This last item allowed  -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 for expression of h o s t i l i t y )  6  - 6 - 6 - 6  33  Bivariate Analysis P e r c e i v e d Importance o f Union R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Education.  In order to f i n d out how union members p e r c e i v e d  the importance  of the union's  role  i n p r o v i d i n g f o u r types  of education -- union e d u c a t i o n , v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , l a b o u r e d u c a t i o n and l e i s u r e time education -- a b i v a r i a t e compiled, g i v i n g a percentage p e r c e i v e d importance  t a b l e was  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f respondents  i n these f o u r e d u c a t i o n a l areas  by  (Table  3). The overwhelming m a j o r i t y of the respondents  accepted  union r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r union e d u c a t i o n , but r e j e c t e d any not i o n of union r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e d u c a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g s o c i a l and p r i v a t e l i v e s : degrees  of importance  their  85 out of the 103 c l a i m e d v a r y i n g  f o r union r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n union edu-  c a t i o n ; the same number r e j e c t e d union r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l e i s u r e time education u n e q u i v o c a l l y , and 6 3 d i d so f o r union responsibility  ir. the s o c i a l realm  (labour education) .  Only  three members d i d not b e l i e v e the union was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r union e d u c a t i o n .  The f i g u r e s were l e s s c l e a r c u t f o r the area  of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , w i t h 6 9 out o f 103 b e l i e v i n g responsibility  i n t h i s area was important, seven  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y unimportant,  that  union  declaring  one being undecided,  such  and 26 c l a i m -  ing that v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n was d e f i n i t e l y not the union's responsibility. significant.  In t o t o , the response  r a t e was  statistically  Because the responses were somewhat  f o r the v o c a t i o n a l area, a separate c h i square was comparing b e l i e f i n union r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  ambipuous calculated  for vocational  train-  34  TABLE 3 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY PERCEIVED IMPORTANCE OF THE UNION'S ROLE IN PROVIDING FOUR TYPES OF EDUCATION (This scale to be tipped, s t a r t i n g with 6) TYPE UNION NO. \  DEGREE OF IMPORTANCE Definitely not 1  3  2.91  OF  EDUCATION LABOUR NO. \  LEISURE NO. %  63  61.16  85  82.52  .97  2.91  0  0.00  6.79  2.91  VOCATIONAL NO. %  26  25.24  2.91  Undecided  2  Not Important  3  12  Somewhat Important  4  16N 15.53  1 2 N 11.65  14  13.59  Quite Important  5  34 ^33.02  35 \ 33.98  15  14.56  Very Important  6  35 ' 33.98  22  5  4.87  4  103  100  103  TOTAL MEAN SCORES  103  11.65  100 4.75  7  J  21.37  103  100 3.92  Chi square = 178.60,  1.94  7  4.87  2.34 d.f. =15,  6.79  3.88 100 1.63  p < .001  35  ing w i t h that f o r union e d u c a t i o n , which y i e l d e d a c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e of 24.11  s i g n i f i c a n t at the  Much h o s t i l i t y was asked how  important  .05  level.  generated  when respondents  they b e l i e v e d union r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  i n p r o v i d i n g labour and assumption t h a t they  leisure  education.  Given  have an a l l - e m b r a c i n g  t h e i r s o c i e t y and  as c i t i z e n s , and 1960)  fulfill  to prompt i n d i v i d u a l  they have c o n s p i c u o u s l y f a i l e d  unions'  . .to help  their obligations  development," (Mire, to convince  f i l e membership w i t h any degree of s u c c e s s . members o f L o c a l 389  the  to be  responsibility  f o r the e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f t h e i r members, ". them understand  were  the rank  Certainly  and  the  of CUPE d i s a g r e e v e r y s t r o n g l y w i t h  the  assumption. I t must be understood  t h a t the respondents  d i d not  deny the e x i s t e n c e of t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l needs, they o n l y n i e d union r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r meeting these needs i n labour  education and  leisure  time e d u c a t i o n .  participation  in self-directed  extent of  their  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s and  other  i n f o r m a t i o n seeking a c t i v i t i e s suggests bers are w e l l . a b l e to look a f t e r they p e r c e i v e them, and vant resources  t h a t rank and  t h e i r own  f i n d the  Again,  the  S a y l e s , of a c c e p t i n g the  bat denying  i t s social  f i l e mem-  e d u c a t i o n a l needs as  t h a t they can and w i l l  temy r e p o r t e d by Strauss and  ly cinfirmed.  The  as the need f o r them a r i s e s .  economic f u n c t i o n  de-  f u n c t i o n was  reledicho-  union's stronq-  36  Extent c f P a r t i c i p a t i o n .  Of the 103 respondents i n -  terviewed, nine (8.741) had taken a t o t a l of 19 union education courses.  None had taken any labour education courses  (the only member interviewed who had taken a labour education course appeared  i n the p i l o t study -- the course i n question  was a course i n T r a f f i c Engineering).  Thirty-seven respondents  (35.921) had taken an aggregate of 82 adult education courses, exclusive of union and labour education. out of the 103 respondents  One hundred and two  (99.03%) took part i n a t o t a l of  396 s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning projects, while 99 (96.12%) engaged in 345 other information seeking a c t i v i t i e s . Table 4, showing the percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of the respondents  i n four occupational categories according to the  Blishen Index by p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the various educational a c t i v i t i e s , shows that the t o t a l mean number of a c t i v i t i e s increases as the members move up the s o c i a l ladder:  Group I  (Blishen Index 20 - 29, N=35) took part i n 264 a c t i v i t i e s with a mean number of 7.54.  Group II (Blishen Index 30 - 39, N=28)  took part i n 217 a c t i v i t i e s with a mean numeber of 7.75. Group III (Blishen Index 40 - 49, N=15) took part i n 125 a c t i v i t i e s with a mean number of 8.25, while Group IV (Blishen Index 50 and over, N=25) t o t a l l e d 236 a c t i v i t i e s with a mean number of 9.44. Union Education.  Only nine of the 103 respondents  (8.74%) participated i n union education courses between March 1971  and March 1972, the period covered by the survey.  They  TABLE 4 DISTRIBUTION OF NUMBER AND MEAN NUMBER OF EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES BY FOUR OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES (BLISHEN INDEX)  EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY  Group I (20 - 29) N » 35  Group III (40 - 49) N = 15  Group II (30 - 39) N = 28  Group IV (50 and Over) N = 25  TOTAL N = 103  No. Mean No, No. Mean No. No. Mean No. No. Mean No. No. Mean No. UNION EDUCATION LABOUR EDUCATION  .23 0 0  .28 0  0  .20 0  0  0  19 0  .18  0 0  OTHER ADULT EDUCATION  20  .57  20  .71  14  .93  28  1.12  SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING PROJECTS  133 3.80  112  4.00  55  3.67  96  3.84  396 3.83  OTHER INFORMATION SEEKING ACTIVITIES. 103 2.94  77  2.75  53  3.53  112 4.48  345 3.35  TOTAL EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES  82  .79  w  ^ 264 7.54  217  7.75  125  8.25 . 236 9.44  842 8.17  38  took  a t o t a l o f 19 courses.  scheduled as a day-long course.  seminar,  i n union e d u c a t i o n . Procedures;  Union  A r b i t r a t i o n Procedures; lations;  to  Courses  Economics;  course hours per  Parliamentary  Procedures  participated  i n were:  Shop Stewart  Job Evaluation;  Labour E d u c a t i o n . ticipated  w i t h seven  was  Table 3 shows t h a t only members o f Group IV d i d not  participate Bargaining  Each union e d u c a t i o n course  Training;  Labour-Management  and P o l i t i c a l  Re-  Economics.  None of the respondents  had par-  i n labour e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g the p e r i o d from March  1971  March 19 72. A d u l t Education  cation) .  ( E x c l u s i v e o f Union and Labour Edu-  T h i r t y - s e v e n respondents  t o t a l of 82 c o u r s e s . the 103 respondents  Mean number was  74.97.  (35.92%) p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a of hours p a r t i c i p a t e d  i n by  Table 5 shows that there i s a  c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n the mean number of course hours f o r the f o u r o c c u p a t i o n a l groups:  Group I and Group IV are r e l a -  t i v e l y s i m i l a r , w i t h means -of 70.51 and 68.04 r e s p e c t i v e l y , while Group I I I has a mean o f 122.47, p r a c t i c a l l y l a r g e as the mean of 61.29  f o r Group I I I .  twice as  Courses  participted  i n were i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Plant and animal sciences zoology); Scientific biology); Psychology;  subjects  Education;  (chemistry,  human relations;  Vocational-technical child  (botany, agriculture, physics,  social  mathematics,  skills;  courses; professional care;  horticulture,  competence;  TABLE 5 OURS OF PARTICIPATIO N EDUCATIONALACTIVITIES IN MEAN NUMBEROF H BY FOUR OCCUPATIONAL iEGORIES CAT (BLISHEN INDEX) EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY  Group I Group II Group III (20 - 29) (30 - 39)- (40 - 49) N = 35 N = 28 N = 15  Group IV (50 and Over) N = 25  TOTAL N = 103  UNION EDUCATION  1.6  2  1.4  0  1.26  LABOUR EDUCATION  0  0  0  0  0  ADULT EDUCATION  70.51  61.29  122.47  68.04  74.97  655.17  625.64  612.00  638.52  636.82  OTHER INFORMATION SEEKING ACTIVITIES 78.37  110.82  245.93  229.68  148.32  TOTAL EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES  791.61  978.40  936.64  857.78  SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING PROJECTS  802.69  40  Sports  and games; outdoor  Needlework, Physical rescue;  sewing;  studies;  Social  studies;  Music;  dancing;  Cooking;  history  and  safety  ethics;  and geography;  mythology;  mental  health;  politics; literature;  Foreign  languages;  Business  management;  law;  economics.  Projects.  One hundred and two  (99.03%) took p a r t in-, a t o t a l o f 396 s e l f - d i r e c t e d  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s during  the p e r i o d covered by the survey.  number o f hours spent at these p r o j e c t s was 638.81. at the means f o r the d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l w i l l be seen that the t o t a l mean i s very means f o r each group: 612.0  and  homemaking;  guidance;  events;  subjects;  photography;  singing;  S e l f - d i r e c t e d Learning respondents  and c r a f t s ;  philosophy;  catering;  Counselling,  Language  arts  health and f i t n e s s f i r s t aid;  Religious  Current  activities;  groups  Mean  Looking (Table  5)  it  c l o s e to the i n d i v i d u a l  655.1/ f o r Group I; 625.64 f o r Group I I ;  f o r Group I I I , and 638.52 f o r Group IV, i n d i c a t i n g that  41  level  of o c c u p a t i o n e x e r t s l i t t l e or no d i f f e r e n c e on p a r t i c i -  pation in self-directed projects.  Areas of i n t e r e s t  for self-  d i r e c t e d p r o j e c t s were: Sports  and  Current Small motor  games;  events;  engine repair cycle);  Home repairs; improvement Needle Child  public  affairs; and maintenance  sewing;  raising;  arts  and c r a f t s ;  Scientific  Music;  pet vocab-  first  aid;  travel;  and engineering and- emotional  skills;  subjects;  health;  personal  problems;  landscaping; construction;  singing;  property  studies;  ethics;  Painting;  art;  architecture;  code;  development;  dancing;  Religious  Criminal  speaking;  human r e l a t i o n s ; social  Gardening; Building;  public  subjects;  f i t n e s s ; safety;  geography;  Technical  photography;  subjects;  and physical  Psychology;  Mental  nature  and l i t e r a t u r e ; building;  History;  boat,  education;  Plant and animal sciences; keeping and breeding;  Health  (car,  woodworking; carpentry; home projects; decorating; furniture;  work,  Language ulary  politics;_  court  philosophy;  procedures;  42  Lodge  ceremonies;  Bookkeeping;  conduction  accounting;  of  meetings;  business  management.  Other Information Seeking A c t i v i t i e s . respondents seeking  (96.12%) engaged i n a t o t a l  activities  o f 345  Ninety-nine information  w i t h a mean number o f hours spent of 148.32.  Means f o r the f o u r groups r e s p e c t i v e l y are 78.37, 110.82, 245.93 and 229.68 hours. ing  activities  i n information  were:  Public  meetings;  Special  meetings  Municipal PTA  Sources u t i l i z e d  (job r e l a t e d ) ;  and d i s t r i c t  and home-school  Public  library;  School  library;  UBC  meetings;  meetings;  library;  Respondents' Musea;  art  Resource  own  library;  galleries; persons;  District Travel  council  of North  Vancouver  information  Specialized News media  books  Research  Centre;  brochures; and  (newspaper,  journals; radio,  television).  seek-  43  In summary, members participated  of L o c a l 389 o f CUPE i n t e r v i e w e d  i n the v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g the  p e r i o d of March 1971 to March 1972 as f o l l o w s : Union e d u c a t i o n : 8.74 per cent, w i t h a mean number of hours of 1.26. Labour e d u c a t i o n : none o f the respondents p a r t i c i p a t e d i n labour e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g the peri o d under study. Adult e d u c a t i o n ( e x c l u s i v e o f union education): 35.92 p e r cent w i t h a mean number o f hours o f 74.97. S e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s : 99.03 p e r cent with a mean number o f hours of 636.81. Other i n f o r m a t i o n seeking a c t i v i t i e s : 96.12 per cent with a mean number o f hours o f 148.32. Total participation:  100 p e r c e n t , w i t h a mean  number o f hours o f 857.79. To r e t u r n to Joseph Mire statement  (1960) once a g a i n , h i s  that: ". . . i t has now become axiomatic t h a t the best way to reach workers i s through t h e i r union, s i n c e i t p r o v i d e s a n a t u r a l , conv e n i e n t and p r a c t i c a l channel f o r e d u c a t i o n a l group c o n t a c t s , "  may have to be r e - e v a l u a t e d i n the l i g h t o f the f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study.  Even i f one r e s t r i c t s 'education' to formal  participation  i n groups, the f a c t remains that at l e a s t the members 389  of Local  of CUPE do not see t h e i r union as the " n a t u r a l , convenient  and p r a c t i c a l channel"  f o r t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l group  activities.  44 Given that only 8 . 7 4 per cent o f the members i n t e r v i e w e d  par-  3 5 . 9 2 per cent who  par-  ticipated  i n union  education,  ticipated  i n other  a d u l t education  fact  that these members denied  bility  courses,  coupled  t h a t the union  w i t h the  has a r e s p o n s i -  f o r t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l needs apart from u n i o n - r e l a t e d  knowledge and s k i l l s u n i o n s they  against  might do w e l l to reassess where  can best employ t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l  resources,  to a v o i d  dis-  appointment and waste o f e d u c a t i o n a l men, money and m a t e r i a l s i n the f u t u r e . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Related seen i n the p r e v i o u s tional activities tional  level  As was  s e c t i o n , the mean number o f t o t a l educa-  engaged i n i n c r e a s e s w i t h  a r i s e i n occupa-  (see Table 3 ) : Group Group Group Group  The f i g u r e s  to P a r t i c i p a t i o n .  I II III IV  -----  7.54 7.75 8.25 9.44  s  are l e s s c l e a r when we look at the means f o r each  i n d i v i d u a l e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , except i n the case of other a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , where the means are as f o l l o w s : Group Group Group Group  I II III IV  -----  .57 .71 .93 1.12  showing too an i n c r e a s e i n mean number o f a d u l t education ses engaged i n with a r i s e cates t h a t o c c u p a t i o n i n a d u l t education cational  level.  This  indi-  does e x e r t some i n f l u e n c e on p a r t i c i p a t i o n  courses  activities.  i n occupational  cour-  and on the t o t a l spectrum o f edu-  45  When we look at the nature ties is  the four o c c u p a t i o n a l  not c l e a r .  courses  Table  o f the e d u c a t i o n a l  groups p a r t i c i p a t e d i n , the s i t u a t i o n  6 shows a breakdown of the union  engaged i n by the four o c c u p a t i o n a l  the h i g h e s t  activi-  groups.  education Group IV,  on the B l i s h e n Index, d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e at a l l .  Of the three groups who d i d , a l l p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a course on Union Training ures.  Economics. t  Groups I and II took p a r t i n Shop  Stewart  and Groups I and I I I took p a r t i n Bargaining  Proced-  Only Group I I I p a r t i c i p a t e d i n Parliamentary  and P o l i t i c a l  Economy.  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n union  Since only nine education,  nothing  respondents out of 103 d e f i n i t i v e can be s a i d  about a p o s s i b l e c o n n e c t i o n between o c c u p a t i o n a l participation  i n union  education.  Procedures  l e v e l and  There were simply  not enough  p a r t i c i p a n t s to make any meaningful i n f e r e n c e s . Table  7 shows a breakdown o f a d u l t education  other than union  e d u c a t i o n by o c c u p a t i o n a l  groups p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ,  subjects  l e v e l . ' A l l four  and, as can be seen  from the t a b l e , no s t a r t l i n g d i f f e r e n c e s are r e v e a l e d i n the types  o f subjects  the respondents i n the d i f f e r e n t  groups engaged i n . tific  occupational  A l l groups p a r t i c i p a t e d i n courses  i n scien-  s u b j e c t s , i n v o c a t i o n a l - t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s , i n s p o r t s and  games, and a l l but Group I i n a r t s and c r a f t s . not enough evidence that o c c u p a t i o n a l  to make s p e c i f i c  level  exerts  little  Again,  there i s  i n f e r e n c e s , but i t seems or no i n f l u e n c e on what  s u b j e c t an i n d i v i d u a l may be i n t e r e s t e d i n .  TABLE 6 DISTRIBUTION OF UNION EDUCATION COURSES BY FOUR OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES (BLISHEN INDEX)  BLISHEN INDEX  UNION EDUCATION COURSES  Group I 20-29 N = 35  Bargaining Procedures Union Economics Shop Stewart Training Arbitration Procedures  Group II 30 - 39 N = 28  Union Economics Shop Stewart Training Job Evaluation Labour Management Relations  Group I I I 40 - 49 N = 15  Union Economics Bargaining Procedures Job Evaluation Parliamentary Procedures Political Economics  Group IV 50 and over N = 25  No P a r t i c i p a t i o n  47  TABLE 7 DISTRIBUTION OF ADULT EDUCATION COURSES 1 OTHER THAN UNION EDUCATION BY FOUR OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES (BLISHEN INDEX)  BLISHEN INDEX  GENERAL ADULT EDUCATION COURSES  Group I 20 - 29 N = 35  Plant and Animal Sciences Scientific Subjects Vocational-technical Subj eats Education and Child Cave Subjects Sports and Games Current Events/Politics  Group II 30 - 39 N = 28  Scientific Subjects Vocational-technical Subjects Sports and Games Physical Health and Safety Subjects Arts and Crafts Music Language and L i t e r a t u r e  Group I I I 40 - 49 N = 15  Scientific Subjects Vocational-technical Sports and Games Cooking Business Management Arts and Crafts  Group IV 50 and over N = 25  Scientific subjects Vocational-technical subjects Sports and Games Arts and Crafts Physical Health and Safety Current Events/Politics Religious Studies  Subjects  48  The  same phenomenon holds when one  showing a breakdown of s e l f - d i r e c t e d occupational  level.  There i s a core of s u b j e c t areas  groups pursue l e a r n i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y ,  and  games,  pair  and  crafts,  maintenance,  subjects. ing  and  small  gardening  Groups I, II and  engine  and  Subjects,  maintenance,  landscaping,  common core, the types  and  of s e l f - d i r e c t e d  re-  musical  aspects  Architecture.  sports  home  and  IV s t u d i e d v a r i o u s  and Painting  i n which  c o n s i s t i n g of:  (which i n c l u d e s beer and wine making), Technical  neering  8,  at Table  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s by-  all  arts  looks  of  and Apart  CookEngi-  from  the  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s respond-  ents p a r t i c i p a t e d i n seem l a r g e l y a matter of p e r s o n a l i d i o s y n crasy and  circumstances:  demand t h a t one  l e a r n s how  possessing  a home and having  to cope i n these  areas.  I t does not seem t h a t o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e whatsoever on the type  be s a i d from the data  l e v e l exerts  of l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t an  dual i s l i k e l y to pursue on h i s own,  a family  but n o t h i n g  any  indivi-  definite  a v a i l a b l e other than t h a t the study  can sup-  p o r t s the f i n d i n g s of A l l e n Tough. Table a l resources seeking  respondents u t i l i z e d  activities.  same sources to say,  9 shows a breakdown of the types i n t h e i r other  A l l occupational  i n t h e i r quests  l e v e l exerts no  i n f l u e n c e on  the type  engaged i n or i n f o r m a t i o n a l resources  information-  information  l e v e l s u t i l i z e much the  for information.  t h a t f o r members o f L o c a l 389  of  at l e a s t ,  It sec s n  occupational  of information utilized.  safe  seeking  TABLE 8 DISTRIBUTION OF SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING PROJECTS BY FOUR OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES  BLISHEN INDEX  SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING  Group I 20 - 29 N = 35  Scientific Subjects Sports and Games Technical and Engineering Subjects Education and Child Care Plant and Animal Subjects Arts and Crafts Cooking Physical Health and Safety Mental Health Small Engine Maintenance Home Repair/Maintenance Social Studies Human Relations Gardening and Landscaping Construction and Building Music Painting and Architecture Criminal Code/Court Procedures  Group II 30 - 39 N = 28  Scientific Subjects Sports and Games Technical and Engineering Plant and Animal Subjects Arts and Crafts Cooking Small Engine Maintenance Home Repair/Maintenance Gardening and Landscaping Construction and Building Music Painting and Architecture  PROJECTS  Subjects  TABLE 8 (Continued)  BLISHEN INDEX  SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING  PROJECTS  Group I I I 40 - 49 N = 15  Sports and Games Plant and Animal Subj eats Arts and Crafts Physical Health and Safety Small Engine Maintenance Home Repair and Maintenance Social Studies Gardening and Landscaping Construction and Building Music Current Events/Politics Bookkeeping and Accounting  Group IV 50 and over N = 25  Sports and Games Technical and Engineering Subjeats Education and Child Care Plant and Animal Subjects Arts and Crafts Cooking Physical Health and Safety Small Engine Maintenance Home Repair and Maintenance Gardening and Landscaping Music Painting and Architecture Criminal Code/Court Procedures Language and L i t e r a t u r e Lodge Rituals/Parliamentary Procedures for Meetings  51  TABLE 9 DISTRIBUTION OF OTHER SOURCES FOR OTHER INFORMATION SEEKING ACTIVITIES BY FOUR OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES (BLISHEN INDEX)  BLISHEN INDEX  S O U R C E S  Group I 20 - 29 N = 35  Resource Persons Musea/Art Galleries PTA/Rome School Meetings Municipal and D i s t r i c t Council Meetings Hews Media Public Library Respondent 's Own Library School Library Specialized Books/Journals Travel Information Brochures  Group II 30 - 39 N = 28  Resource Persons Musea/Art Galleries PTA/Rome School Meetings Public Meetings Municipal and D i s t r i c t Council Meetings Special Meetings (Job-related) Public Library Respondent 's Own Library UBC Library School Library News Media Specialized Books/Journals  Group I I I 40 - 49 N = 15  Resource Persons Musea/Art Galleries PTA/Rome School Meetings Public Meetings Municipal and D i s t r i c t Council Meetings Public Library School Library Respondent 's Own Library D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver Research Centre News Media Specialized Books/Journals  52  TABLE 9 (Continued)  BLISHEN INDEX Group IV 50 and over N = 25  S O U R C E S Resource Persons Muse a/Art Galleries PTA/Rome School Meetings Public Meetings Municipal and D i s t r i c t Council Meetings Special Meetings (Job-related) Public Library School Library Respondent 's Own Library Court House Library News Media Specialized Books/Journals  53  In summary, there seems to be some i n d i c a t i o n that o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l does make a d i f f e r e n c e to the number of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n courses  ( e x c l u s i v e o f union education)  pated i n by the respondents, courses  and that the mean t o t a l number o f  and e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s  occupational  level  occupational l e v e l  partici-  engaged i n i n c r e a s e s as .the  r i s e s . There i s no evidence, however, t h a t i s a f a c t o r i n type o f union  courses, other a d u l t education courses  education  and s e l f - d i r e c t e d  learn-  ing p r o j e c t s engaged i n or type o f other i n f o r m a t i o n sources utilized. B i v a r i a t e t a b l e s were c a l c u l a t e d and c h i - s q u a r e s computed  f o r the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s by p a r t i c i p a n t s  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t education union p a r t i c i p a t i o n social participation  i n c l u d i n g union  and non-  education:  (frequency of attendance at meetings); (Chapin S c a l e ) ; o c c u p a t i o n ; age; m a r i t a l  s t a t u s ; formal l e v e l o f education; number o f c h i l d r e n at home and sex.  The only t a b l e s which y i e l d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t  chi-square  value at the .05 l e v e l were p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s by union p a r t i c i p a t i o n , by age and by sex, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t only union p a r t i c i p a t i o n , age and sex were d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s among p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a l l a d u l t educ a t i o n courses Table  among our  respondents.  10 shows the percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n by p a r t i c i p a n t s  and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a l l a d u l t education participation categories.  courses by four union  54  TABLE 10 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS IN ADULT EDUCATION (INCLUDING UNION EDUCATION) COURSES BY FOUR UNION PARTICIPATION CATEGORIES  UNION PARTICIPATION CATEGORIES  PARTICIPANTS '  No. 9  14. 56  No. % 24 23.30  28.16  45  43.69  9.71  18  17.48  2.91  15  15.53  1. 2.  16 - 25  16  15. 53  29  3.  26 - 35  8  7.77  10  4.  36 and  over  13  12.62  TOTAL  46  44.66  TOTAL  No. 15  Up to 15  level,  8.74  NON-PARTICIPANTS  3 57  55. 34  d . f . 3,  Chi-square  v a l u e 10.675,  p  Chi-square  v a l u e was 10.675, s i g n i f i c a n t  103  100  < .02  a t the .02  i n d i c a t i n g t h a t those union members w i t h a h i g h s c o r e on  the union p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c a l e are. more l i k e l y to be p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n courses than those with a low s c o r e scale.  on the  In other words, union members who tend to be a c t i v e i n  union a f f a i r s  a l s o tend to be a c t i v e i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n as f a r  as members o f L o c a l 389 o f CUPE are concerned. Table 11 shows the age d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a l l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  courses.  55  TABLE 11 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS IN ADULT EDUCATION (INCLUDION UNION EDUCATION) COURSES BY FOUR AGE CATEGORIES  AGE CATEGORIES  PARTICIPANTS No. %  NON-PARTICIPANTS No. %  TOTAL No.  1.  15 - 34  16  34.78  11  19.30  27  26.21  2.  35 - 44  12  26.09  11  19.30  23  22.33  3.  45 - 54  15  32.61  16  28.07  31  30.09  4.  55 and  over  3  6.52  19  33.33 .  22  21.37  TOTAL  46  100  57  C h i square v a l u e 11.596,  100  d . f . 3,  103  100  p < .01  Chi square value was 11.596, d . f . 3, s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l ,  i n d i c a t i n g t h a t among our respondents  o l d e r union  members tend to be l e s s a c t i v e i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n than younger ones.  As Table 11 shows, 60.87 per cent  ( c a t e g o r i e s l and 2) o f  those 44 years o f age and younger were p a r t i c i p a n t s per cent who were n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s .  a g a i n s t 38.60  In the 45 years  and o l d e r  c a t e g o r i e s 39.13 per cent p a r t i c i p a t e d a g a i n s t 61.40 per cent who d i d n o t . Table 12 shows the percentage pants  d i s t r i b u t i o n of p a r t i c i -  and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s by sex o f the respondents.  56  TABLE 12 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS IN ADULT EDUCATION (INCLUDING UNION EDUCATION) COURSES BY SEX OF THE RESPONDENTS  SEX CATEGORIES  PARTICIPANTS No. I  NON-PARTICIPANTS No.. %  TOTAL No. %  FEMALE  16  66.67  8  33.33  24  100  M A L E  30  38.00  49  62.00  79  100  Chi  square  v a l u e 5.02,  Of the 24 female participated  d.f.  respondents,  1,  p < .05  16 or 66.67 per cent  a g a i n s t e i g h t or 33.33 p e r cent who d i d n o t .  the 79 male respondents,  30 or 38.00 per cent  a g a i n s t 49 or 62 per cent who d i d n o t .  Of  participated  C h i square computed  was 5.02, s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l , with one degree o f freedom, f o r a c r i t i c a l value o f 3.84.  For the respondents  i n t e r v i e w e d at l e a s t , sex i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n determining whether or not an i n d i v i d u a l i s l i k e l y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n adult education -- more women than men, r e l a t i v e l y speaking, were  participants. The  d i s t r i b u t i o n of participants  and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s  by o c c u p a t i o n , s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , m a r i t a l status,^number o f children  at home and l e v e l of formal education d i d not y i e l d  57  significant  c h i squares  values at the .05 l e v e l .  item sounds c o n t r a r y to e x p e c t a t i o n s ature, but  The l a t t e r  a c c o r d i n g to the l i t e r -  i t must be,borne i n mind t h a t on the whole the  respondents  were f a i r l y w e l l educated,  w i t h a mean number o f  years o f s c h o o l i n g completed o f over  11 years  Clearly,  i n t e r v i e w e d had a f o r -  mal  the bulk o f the respondents  e d u c a t i o n o f between 9 and 16 y e a r s .  respondents and  For t h i s  t h e r e i s not enough spread betv/een  the h i g h l y educated  (Table 1 3 ) .  group o f  the p o o r l y  t o a l l o w formal e d u c a t i o n to be a  d e c i d i n g f a c t o r i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n or n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A t - t e s t was performed t o l e a r n i f the mean- score in mal  self-directed  learning projects for participants i n for-  adult education  (union and o t h e r a d u l t education)  at  584.61 d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  at  678.95.  significant  courses  from t h a t f o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s  The t - s c o r e was 1.103, d.f. 101, which was not at the .05 l e v e l .  In summary, the q u e s t i o n of whether or not there i s a difference i n characteristics  o f union members who do and  union members who do not p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ses can be answered as f o l l o w s : 389 to  of CUPE are concerned,  in  as f a r as members o f L o c a l  members who p a r t i c i p a t e are l i k e l y  be men or women, w i t h a h i g h e r r e l a t i v e percentage  who are under 45 years the l i f e  cour-  o f age and who are a c t i v e  of t h e i r Union L o c a l .  o f women,  participants  TABLE 13 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS IN FOUR OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES BY LEVEL OF EDUCATION  LEVEL OF EDUCATION  OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES BLISHEN INDEX  Up to 8 No.  %  9-11 No.  %  12 No.  13 - 16 %  17 and up  No.  %  No.  %  Total No.  20 - 29  9  8.74  13  12.62  8  7.77  4  3.88  1  0.97  35  33.98  I I . 30 - 39  9  8.74  9  8.74  5  4.85  5  4,85  0  0.00  28  27.18  .97  5  4.85  4  3.88  5  4.85  0  0.00  15  14.57  .97  2  1.94  6  5.82  15  14.57  1  0.97  25  24.27  19.42  29  28.15  23  22.32  29  28.15  2  103  100.00  I.  I I I . 40 - 49 IV. 50 and Over TOTAL  20  1.94  oo  59  We  w i l l next c o n s i d e r the c o r r e l a t i o n s between a l l  dependent and  independent v a r i a b l e s , and  are s i g n i f i c a n t f o r 103 of s i g n i f i c a n c e .  The  o b s e r v a t i o n s at the  dependent v a r i a b l e s  i n union e d u c a t i o n , i n other a d u l t learning projects,  i s o l a t e those which  are:  levels  participation  i n other i n f o r m a t i o n seeking  are a l l the socio-economic  t e r i s t i c s of the respondents:  .01  education, i n s e l f - d i r e c t e d  and t o t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l c a t e g o r i e s . variables  .5 and  activities,  The  independent  and p s y c h o - s o c i a l charac-  years membership i n the  union,  union p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c o r e s , s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c o r e s , the four  ' b e l i e f v a r i a b l e s , scores on the a t t i t u d e to union edu-  c a t i o n s c a l e , o c c u p a t i o n , age, m a r i t a l  status,  c a t i o n , number o f c h i l d r e n at home and  sex.  l e v e l o f edu-  T a b l e 14 shows the c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x . values are .19  Critical  and  .26  respectively.  U n d e r l i n e d values  s i g n i f i c a n t at the  .05  or .01  There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t  level.  are  c o r r e l a t i o n between s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and years of membership  i n the union, but  that.  The  next  is between age of  .47.  importance can be a t t a c h e d to  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n , at the  That make?sense, s i n c e  status  cant at the  .05  .01  level,  and years membership i n the union w i t h an r .  crease s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . martial  little  scores on both v a r i a b l e s i n -  The n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between  and years membership i n the union, l e v e l , simply t e l l s us that  married union members among our respondents  signifi-  there are more than s i n g l e ones.  TABLE CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  1.  1.00  2.  0.14  1.00  3.  0.23  0.06  1.00  4.  0.06  0.25  -0.03  1.00  5.  0.19  0.31  0.14  0,27  1.00  6.  0.17  0.27  0.18  *0.18  0.33  1.00  -0.03  0.16  0.29  0.59  1.00  •  7.  0.13  —  8  9  10  14  OF ALLVARIABLES 11  12  13  14  15  16  18  19  List of Variables 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.  —  0.46  17  —  =  Years Membership in Union. Union Participation. Social Participation. Belief in Union Resp. (Voc. ed.) Belief in Union Resp. (Union ed.) Belief in Union Resp. (Labour ed.) Belief in Union Resp. (Leisure ed.) Attitude to Union Education. Participation in Union Education. Participation -in Adult Education. Part, in Self-Direc. Learn. Proj. Part, in Infor. Seek. Activities Total. Participation. Occupation. Age. Marital Status. Level of Formal Education. Number of Children at Home. \ Sex.  8.  0.14  0.21  0.17  0.25  0.49  0.42  0.34  1.00  9.  0.07  0.80  0.06  0.23  0.26  0.28  0.45  0.18  1.00  10.  -0.10  0.19  0.09  -0.08  0.06  0.05  -0.02  0.00  0.12  1.00  11.  0.09  -0.12  0.05  -0.14  0.05  0.02  -0.09  -0.30  -0.05  -0.20  1.00  12.  0.14  -0.01  0.13  0.01  0.25  0.11  0.11  0.11  -0.03  -0.15  0.21  1.00  13.  0.08  -0.03  0.12  -0.16  0.15  0.07  -0.04  0.01  -0.01  0.13  0.89  0.48  1.00  14.  -0.05  0.10  0.28  -0.09  0.17  0.05  -0.02  0.16  -0.08  0.00  0.05  0.41  0.19  1.00  15.  0.47  0.08  0.08  0.04  -0.08  0.07  0.15  -0.05  0.05  -0.31  -0.01  0.12  -0.08  -0.04  1.00  16.  -0.22  0.01  -0.18  -0.10  0.00  -0.03  -0.09  -0.06"  -0.09  0.30  0.02  --0.14  0.08  -0.13  -IL12  1.00  17.  -0.31  -0.15  0.27  -0.31  -0.10  0.02  -0.11  -0.03  -0.16  0.37  0.00  0.13  0.18  0.41  -0.38  0,22  1.00  18.  0.02  -0.05  0.04  0.11  0.02  0.18  0.06  0.11  0.06  -0.26  0.01  --0.01  -0.09  0.08  -0.02  -0.47  - 0 . 15  i.oo  19.  0.20  -0.07  -0.02  0.04  -0.06  0.05  0.15  -0.04  0.05  -0.09  0.11  0.08  0.09  -0.47  0.06  -0.15  -o, 20  0.00  Single underlined values are significant at the .05 level. Double underlined values are significant at the .01 level.  1.00  61  There are s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s variables,  respectively  ity for vocational,  between the f o u r  i n d i c a t i n g b e l i e f i n union  union,  labour and  and union p a r t i c i p a t i o n , which can be that  only f o r the  high  'active minority  1  leisure  responsibil-  time  education,  e x p l a i n e d by the  fact  union p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s  and o f those w i t h a h i g h union p a r t i c i p a t i o n  s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n admitted all  'belief  score a  to union r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n  f o u r areas of e d u c a t i o n a l endeavour. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between scores  on the a t t i t u d e  to union e d u c a t i o n s c a l e  t i o n , or between a t t i t u d e  here  participa-  to union e d u c a t i o n s c o r e s and  p a r t i c i p a t i o n scores i n union e d u c a t i o n . correlation  and union  simply r e f l e c t s the gap  Maybe the lack  in practice  to a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e .  There i s , however, a very h i g h  union  the  respondents  had  highlights  to the l o c a l l e a d e r -  m i n o r i t y ' again, the only s e c t i o n  which c o n s i s t e n t l y  corre-  l e v e l , between p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  union e d u c a t i o n i s geared  'active  in  -- nobody l i k e s to admit  e d u c a t i o n and union p a r t i c i p a t i o n , which again  the f a c t that ship,  .01  of  between a t t i t u d e  theory and p a r t i c i p a t i o n  l a t i o n , s i g n i f i c a n t at the  actual  a high union  o f the  participation  score. There are s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s to union e d u c a t i o n and correlation  between  the f o u r b e l i e f v a r i a b l e s ,  with  f o r b e l i e f i n union r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  education s i g n i f i c a n t at the  .05  l e v e l , and  that  attitude the  vocational  f o r the  other  62  three s i g n i f i c a n t  at the .01 l e v e l ,  o c c u r i n g between.attitude union r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  and the h i g h e s t  correlation  to union e d u c a t i o n and b e l i e f i n  f o r union e d u c a t i o n , with an r of .50.  No s i g n i f i c a n t  c o r r e l a t i o n s e x i s t between p a r t i c i -  p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n scores or t o t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l f o u r types o f e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , independent v a r i a b l e s .  Occupation  and any of the  only c o r r e l a t e s  l y , at the .01 l e v e l , w i t h s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . correlates significantly,  scores  significantMarital status  at the .01 l e v e l , w i t h  participation  i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , w i t h an r . of .30, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t among our respondents participants.  more m a r r i e d than s i n g l e union members were Formal l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n showed  significant  c o r r e l a t i o n s with years membership i n the union, s o c i a l  par-  t i c i p a t i o n i n adult, e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , age and m a r i t a l status.  Taking these one by one, formal l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n  c o r r e l a t e s n e g a t i v e l y , s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l ,  with  years membership i n the union, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t there are r e l a tively  fewer h i g h l y educated  our respondents  with  than p o o r l y educated  long membership s t a n d i n g .  members among  Formal l e v e l o f  e d u c a t i o n c o r r e l a t e s p o s i t i v e l y w i t h s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , but n e g a t i v e l y w i t h b e l i e f i n union r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t r a i n i n g , which i s not s u r p r i s i n g : the more one i s able and w i l l i n g bility  for vocational  the b e t t e r one i s educated  to assume and accept r e s p o n s i -  f o r one's own v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g .  formal l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n  C o r r e l a t i o n between i n adult education  63  is s i g n i f i c a n t  at the  .01  l e v e l , w i t h an r . of .37, which i s  supported by the l i t e r a t u r e ad i n f i n i t e m .  Correlation  be-  tween formal l e v e l of education and o c c u p a t i o n i s a l s o t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t  at the  i s what one would expect.  .01  posi-  l e v e l w i t h an r . of .41, which  Finally,  there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t  n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between formal l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n age,  i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f p o o r l y  respondents  and educated  r e s i d e s among the o l d e r ones.  Number o f c h i l d r e n l i v i n g c a n t l y but n e g a t i v e l y at the .01 an r . of -.47,  at home c o r r e l a t e s  l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e , with  w i t h m a r i t a l s t a t u s , which i s to be  i n our s o c i e t y .  Sex  signifi-  expected  c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y but n e g a t i v e l y  w i t h o c c u p a t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t among the respondents men  more  than women occupy h i g h p o s i t i o n s . Other  F a c t o r s R e l a t e d to P a r t i c i p a t i o n : F a c t o r s  In-  hibiting  Formal P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n ( E x c l u d i n g  of union  education).  tor i n h i b i t i n g  One  o f the s i n g l e most o f t e n c i t e d  formal p a r t i c i p a t i o n  ted the pragmatic  i n adult education  nature o f the s u b j e c t s respondents  fac-  reflec-  were i n -  t e r e s t e d i n , the f a c t t h a t most of t h e i r p r o j e c t s are b e t t e r s u i t e d to a d o - i t - y o u r s e l f approach than to the s t r u c t u r e d classroom  approach.  c l a i m e d t h a t i t would be which c o u l d be  As many as 25  artificial  prevailing  respondents  to take courses  in subjects  l e a r n e d more n a t u r a l l y by doing than by  learn-  64  ing theory.  They p e r c e i v e d t a k i n g courses as i n i m i c a l to  achieving  the r e s u l t s they wanted, or i r r e l e v a n t , or a waste  of time.  T h e i r experience w i t h classroom t e a c h i n g no  i n f l u e n c e d them to a l a r g e e x t e n t , and a l l t h e i r  answers  b o i l e d down to the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t p r a c t i c e i s b e t t e r theory any time.  Indeed  they h o l d t h i s  doubt  t r u t h to be  than  self-  evident! Another ing f a c t o r :  25 respondents  claimed time as an  they were too busy -- w i t h t h e i r  inhibit-  families,  their  homes, t h e i r union. Ten respondents were prevented from part i c i p a t i n g because  they worked n i g h t s h i f t s ;  s e v e r a l of these  i n d i c a t e d they would take courses i f they c o u l d so at times convenient to them - - o n ends.  Nine respondents  week-day mornings, thought  or even on week-  they were too o l d , although  age d i d not prevent them from l e a r n i n g on t h e i r own. i n d i c a t e that the age b a r r i e r i s more of a s o c i a l than a r e a l  c o n v i c t i o n t h a t advancing age has  w i t h t h e i r l e a r n i n g powers: young people. respondents who  This  may  inhibition  anything to do  'School' i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n may  a l s o account  f o r the  two  claimed i t never o c c u r r e d to them to take  courses.. E i g h t respondents their lazy.  claimed f i n a n c i a l reasons f o r  l a c k of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and two One  language  respondent  cited  as an i n h i b i t i n g  d i d not need c o u r s e s , 'God  admitted they were too  l a c k of f l u e n c y i n the English-  f a c t o r , and another one claimed he t o l d him what to do.'  Whatever  65  one may  t h i n k of t h i s l a s t reason, he c e r t a i n l y made a good  job of i t :  t h i s respondent  had  a retarded c h i l d ,  and he  and  h i s w i f e taught her to s p e l l , and to read and w r i t e simple words and sentences, by means of p l a y i n g Sovabble, l y c r e a t i v e approach Two  to a d i f f i c u l t  respondents  an extreme-  problem.  r e s i s t e d t a k i n g courses because of  the c o n n o t a t i o n of having to ' b e t t e r ' themselves, which r e s e n t e d , an a t t i t u d e which concurs w i t h the f i n d i n g s Watson, et a l . (1963) and C a r l s o n (1971), c i t e d I.  Two  they  of  i n Chapter  others d i d not take courses i n t h e i r areas o f i n t e r -  est because to do so would not have any promotional value i n t h e i r j o b s ; again, a h i g h l y pragmatic, approach i n adult education.  Two  to p a r t i c i p a t i o n  claimed they were too t i r e d a f t e r a  .day's work to go to s c h o o l .  S i x s a i d the courses  available  to them i n t h e i r areas o f i n t e r e s t were too elementary: of these had night school.  a c t u a l l y taught courses i n t h e i r s u b j e c t s at Three  respondents  c o u l d not take the  they wanted because of l a c k of the necessary d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e  cause  s c h e d u l i n g and formal classroom  of the r i g i d  one young man,  education,  courses  prerequisites.  But 20 respondents  As  two  i n formal courses  be-  atmosphere.  a 21-year-old l a b o u r e r w i t h a h i g h s c h o o l  related:  " E v e r y t h i n g i s so r e g u l a t e d . We eat, s l e e p and work by the c l o c k . I want to do some t h i n g s i r r e g u l a r l y , or not a l l , or j u s t f o r a w h i l e . We have so l i t t l e i n i t i a t i v e l e f t to us i n today's s o c i e t y . "  66  Many respondents  of course c i t e d more than one r e a -  son f o r not p a r t i c i p a t i n g , but whatever these reasons, one fact  emerges c l e a r l y and i r r e f u t a b l y :  i f adult  education  p r a c t i t i o n e r s want to a t t r a c t more p a r t i c i p a n t s , a l o t more flexibility ing  and i m a g i n a t i o n are needed, both  i n the schedul-  of time and i n the s t r u c t u r i n g of c o u r s e s .  The young  man's lament c i t e d above may w e l l have g r e a t e r r e l e v a n c e f o r persons for  from the lower  those  will  socio-economic  s t r a t a o f s o c i e t y than  from the h i g h e r ones, s i n c e the nature  leave them l i t t l e  sonal i n i t i a t i v e . that they w i l l a supposedly  of t h e i r  or no room f o r f l e x i b i l i t y or f o r per-  T h e i r l i v e s a r e so regimented  resist  jobs  already,  any a d d i t i o n a l r e g i m e n t a t i o n , even such  b e n e f i c i a l one as p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n adult  education  courses. Factors Although  I n h i b i t i n g P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Union  Education.  no questions were i n c l u d e d i n the i n t e r v i e w  about reasons  f o r not p a r t i c i p a t i n g  ents were quick to v o l u n t e e r t h i s participants  i n union  schedule  i n union e d u c a t i o n ,  information.  respond-  Of the non-  e d u c a t i o n , the m a j o r i t y claimed  they  were not aware of the f a c t t h a t t h e i r L o c a l o f f e r e d any such courses.  These n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s were a l l rank and f i l e mem-  b e r s , w h i l e o f the nine p a r t i c i p a n t s , seven e i t h e r to  the L o c a l e x e c u t i v e now, or had done  served on one or more s p e c i a l committees. pants  claimed they would be w i l l i n g  belonged  so i n the p a s t , or Some n o n - p a r t i c i -  to take union  education  67 courses i f they were but t o l d about them. and Unions  in Workers'  Education,  In  Universities  Jack Barbash  (1955)  asked, . . . i t might a l s o be worthw h i l e c o n s i d e r i n g ways of r e a c h i n g rank and f i l e u n i o n members d i r e c t l y . With a few exc e p t i o n s , the c u r r e n t I n t e r - U n i v e r s i t y Labor Committee programs have been d i r e c t e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y at union middle l e a d e r s h i p on the assumption t h a t a process o f p e r c o l a t i o n w i l l • o p e r a t e . Is such an assumption j u s t i fied? A c c o r d i n g to the u n s o l i c i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n the p r e s e n t w r i t e r by members of L o c a l 389 o f CUPE, such an i s f a r from j u s t i f i e d .  One  respondent, who  assumption  admitted knowing  about CUPE's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the programs o f f e r e d by the Western R e g i o n a l E d u c a t i o n Department o f CUPE, s t a t e d  that  most courses and seminars o f f e r e d are simply not geared to the  rank and f i l e members, but are d e f i n i t e l y  leadership. say, of  I f the Department were w i l l i n g  i n the h i s t o r y  aimed  at L o c a l  to o f f e r c o u r s e s ,  of the union movement, and the importance  the r o l e p l a y e d by unions i n the p a s t , c o u p l e d w i t h courses  on how  the union c o u l d adapt t o the r a p i d changes  t h i s respondent would be very i n t e r e s t e d . this  i s where p r e s e n t union e d u c a t i o n f a l l s  t i e d to an o b s o l e t e boss-worker  in society,  But, he c o n t i n u e d , down; i t i s s t i l l  syndrome, which seems to be  perpetuated more by the union l e a d e r s h i p than b e l i e v e d i n by the or the  union members.  Whether t h i s a l l e g a t i o n i s based on  not would have to be e s t a b l i s h e d by future  research.  truth In  meantime i t i s obvious that n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union  68  e d u c a t i o n i n L o c a l 389  i s at l e a s t p a r t l y due  to a l a c k o f  communication between the l e a d e r s h i p and the rank and  file  members. Another  reason i s simply a matter of h o s t i l i t y .  Quite a few members i n d i c a t e d t h a t they do not f e e l  the  union L o c a l adequately r e p r e s e n t s t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , and claimed they would not a t t e n d a weekend seminar p a i d them f o r i t . ent  groups  i f the L o c a l  S i n c e L o c a l 389 r e p r e s e n t s f i v e  of employees, i t i s perhaps  members t h i n k t h e i r group  they  differ-  i n e v i t a b l e t h a t some  i s u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d , or t h e i r i n -  t e r e s t s s a c r i f i c e d t c those of the other groups. Reasons f o r Formal Courses  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Adult Education  ( I n c l u d i n g Union E d u c a t i o n ) .  Question 25 of the  inter-  view schedule d e a l t w i t h the reasons f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n u n i o n and other a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s , as compared to f a c t o r s i n hibiting for  formal p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  T h i r t y courses were taken  v o c a t i o n a l reasons, e i t h e r to enable the respondent  become more p r o f i c i e n t  on the j o b , or i n the hope t h e i r  would l e a d to promotion,  or both.  p a r t a k i n g i n the l i f e  efforts  A l l the u n i o n courses were  taken f o r reasons d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the members' for  to  of the u n i o n .  enthusiasm  These (nine) p a r t i c i -  pants r e p r e s e n t e d the ' a c t i v e m i n o r i t y ' i n union a f f a i r s . seven course^ ticipants  were taken f o r s o c i a l reasons, because  l i k e d to l e a r n with l i k e - m i n d e d people.  Only  the par-  Eight  adult  69  education courses were taken f o r f i n a n c i a l  reasons; the s k i l l s  l e a r n e d i n these courses enabled the p a r t i c i p a n t s money i n the f u t u r e . taken s o l e l y  to save  But 39 a d u l t e d u c a t i o n courses were  f o r reasons o f p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t , having no prag-  matic v a l u e whatsoever, simply adding to the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s enjoyment of l i f e , In nature or  or s a t i s f y i n g  summary,  some i n n a t e c u r i o s i t y .  57 reasons g i v e n were of a pragmatic  ( i n c l u d i n g the union reasons,) , w h i l e 44 were o f a s o c i a l  personal nature.  T h i s confirms A l l e n Tough's f i n d i n g  the s i n g l e most common and important reason why a d u l t s is  that  learn  the d e s i r e t o use or apply the knowledge or s k i l l r e -  quired.  "Commitment  t o an a c t i o n goal comes f i r s t  -- then  the d e c i s i o n to l e a r n as a step forward t o a c h i e v i n g the g o a l more e f f e c t i v e l y or s u c c e s s f u l l y . "  (Tough, 1971).  Multivariate Analysis M u l t i p l e Regression A n a l y s i s . independent v a r i a b l e s  F o r each o f the f i v e  ( p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union e d u c a t i o n , a l l  adult e d u c a t i o n , s e l f - d i r e c t e d  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s , other  mation seeking a c t i v i t i e s and t o t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was undertaken  infor-  a multiple  to a s c e r t a i n what p e r c e n t -  age of the v a r i a n c e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c o r e s was accounted f o r by the s i x socio-economic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o c c u p a t i o n , age,  m a r i t a l s t a t u s , formal l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n , number o f c h i l d r e n at  home and sex.  teristics  I t was found t h a t , as a s e t , these s i x charac-  accounted  f o r only 2.98 p e r cent o f the v a r i a n c e i n  70  union education scores, f o r 23.49 per cent of the variance i n a l l adult education scores, for only 3.05 per cent of the variance i n s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning projects, for 27.86 per cent of the variance i n information seeking scores, and for 10.58 per cent of the variance i n t o t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n scores (see Table 15) a l l at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e .  TABLE 15 MULTIPLE CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN SIX SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS AND TYPES OF PARTICIPATION  % OF VARIANCE ACCOUNTED FOR  TYPE OF PARTICIPATION  R  Union Education  . 173  2.98  A l l Adult Education  .485  23.49  Self-Directed Learning Projects  .175  3.05  Information Seeking A c t i v i t i e s  . 528  27.86  Total P a r t i c i p a t i o n  .325  10.58  In subsequent multiple regression analyses with each of the independent variables, selected c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y at the .05 level  (see Table 16) to  the variance i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n scores were: 1. For union education: union p a r t i cipation, accounting for 63.21 per cent of the variance.  I  71  2. For a l l adult education: education, which accounted for 13.58 per cent of the v a r i ance, while education, union p a r t i c i p a t i o n and marital status combined accounted f o r 24.13 per cent of the variance. 3. For s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning projects: none of the remaining variables c o n t r i buted s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the variance i n p a r t i c i pation scores. 4. Other information seeking a c t i v i t i e s : none of the remaining variables contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the variance. 5. For t o t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n : occupation by i t s e l f accounted for 3.58 per cent of the variance i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n scores, while none of the remaining variables contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y .  TABLE 16 PERCENTAGE OF VARIANCE IN TYPES OF PARTICIPATION ACCOUNTED FOR BY SELECTED CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS  ,n  1  1  •  1  f  i  1  1  ,  1  I  1  i  i  '•  if  —•———••———————•  TYPE OF PARTICIPATION  -i  •'  CHARACTERISTICS  •  '  1  ——mr  % OF VARIANCE ACCOUNTED FOR  Union Education  Union P a r t i c i p a t i o n Occupation  63. 21 2.58  65. 79  Adult Education  Education Marital Status Union P a r t i c i p a t i o n  13.58 4.86 5.69  24.13  Self-directed Proj ects  Learning None  Other Information Seeking A c t i v i t i e s  None  Total  Occupation  Participation  3.58  72 In summary, i t appears t h a t the best s i n g l e p r e d i c t o r o f whether or not a member o f L o c a l 389 of CUPE i s l i k e l y to p a r t i c i p a t e  i n union e d u c a t i o n i s h i s union  t i o n s c o r e , or the extent t o which he p a r t i c i p a t e s life  o f h i s L o c a l , accounting  The scores on the f o u r 'be-  s c a l e s do not add s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  what the s i x socio-economic  mal  at the .05 l e v e l , to  v a r i a b l e s and union  c o n t r i b u t e to the v a r i a n c e i n union s c o r e s . For p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n the  f o r 63.21 p e r cent o f the var-  iance i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n alone. lief  participa-  education  i n a d u l t education  participation  participation i n general, for-  l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n i s the best s i n g l e p r e d i c t o r , account-  ing f o r 13.58 per cent o f the v a r i a n c e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n scores.  For s e l f - d i r e c t e d  mation seeking a c t i v i t i e s  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s and other no s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  s i n g l e d out f o r p r e d i c t i v e purposes.  courses i n these  differed  significantly  from t h a t o f n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s  formal courses, showed t h a t there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t  .10 and .05 l e v e l  respectively. mal  l e a r n i n g pro-  i n union and other a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  d i f f e r e n c e i n these means, w i t h the  can be  The t - t e s t , performed  to see whether the mean score i n s e l f - d i r e c t e d jects for participants  infor-  f o r c r i t i c a l values o f 1.290 and 1.660  T h i s confirms  participation  not an i n d i v i d u a l  a t of 1.103, d . f . 101, at  the author's  i s not an unbiased  s u s p i c i o n that  i n d i c a t o r o f whether or  i s interested i n continuing learning.  i  for-  CHAPTER V SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION  Introduction The survey  Canadian Labour Congress i s c u r r e n t l y s p o n s o r i n g a  designed  to d i s c o v e r the extent o f the e d u c a t i o n a l s e r -  v i c e s p r o v i d e d f o r union members by p r o v i n c i a l f e d e r a t i o n s , labour c o u n c i l s , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l unions, and union locals  across Canada.  The present  study was undertaken to deter-  mine how union members o f L o c a l 389 o f CUPE r e a c t to and p a r t i c i pate  i n these u n i o n - d i r e c t e d - a c t i v i t i e s ,  activities,  i n self-directed  formation seeking a c t i v i t i e s .  i n other a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s and i n other i n F i v e s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s were pro-  posed to l e a r n the extent o f these members' r e a c t i o n t o and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l of these e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . five  questions  Chapter IV.  These  are used to summarize the f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d i n  From these f i n d i n g s , i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r union  and f o r a d u l t education i n g e n e r a l are developed,  education  and a c o n c l u s i o n  reached.  Summary o f F i n d i n g s 1. Do union members believe that labour unions have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to meet t h e i r educational needs apart from union-related knowledge and s k i l l s ?  A bivariate  t a b l e was c o n s t r u c t e d and c h i - s q u a r e value 73  calcu-  74  l a t e d to measure the extent of union members' b e l i e f i n the importance of the union's e d u c a t i o n , union c a t i o n and bers In  role  i n p r o v i d i n g four types  of  e d u c a t i o n , v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , labour edu-  l e i s u r e time  education.  It- was  found  t h a t the mem-  i n t e r v i e w e d conceded the importance of the union's  role  p r o v i d i n g union e d u c a t i o n , denied the importance of the  union's  r o l e i n p r o v i d i n g labour and  l e i s u r e time  education,  and were d i v i d e d i n t h e i r b e l i e f i n the importance of the union's  r o l e i n p r o v i d i n g v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , depending  t h e i r formal l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n .  The  (Table 3) showed t h a t the response 178,60. d . f . 15,  at the  .001  chi-square  r a t e was  level.  calculated  significant  Formal l e v e l of  c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e i r b e l i e f i n the of the union's .01  on  at  education  importance  r o l e i n p r o v i d i n g v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n at the  level. 2. participate activities (a) (b) (c) (d)  To what extent do union members in f i v e types of educational including union education labour education other adult education s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning projects  (e) other  information  seeking  B i v a r i a t e t a b l e s were c o n s t r u c t e d to measure the participation squares  exclusive.  extent:  No c h i  s i n c e these e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s I t was  of CUPE i n t e r v i e w e d p a r t i c i p a t e d following  respondent's  i n each of these e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s .  were c a l c u l a t e d  not mutually  activities?  found  t h a t members of L o c a l  i n these a c t i v i t i e s  to the  are 389  75  Union e d u c a t i o n :  8.74 p e r cent of the  p a r t i c i p a t e d with a mean number of hours o f 1.29. ticipants  c o n s i s t e d o f the younger  (45 years  respondents These par-  and under), more  a c t i v e union members w i t h a h i g h degree o f enthusiasm t a k i n g i n union  affairs.  Labour e d u c a t i o n : any this  f o r par-  of the respondents  No p a r t i c i p a t i o n was r e p o r t e d by  s t u d i e d d u r i n g the p e r i o d covered by  survey. Other  adult education:  37.86 p e r cent o f the respond-  ents p a r t i c i p a t e d w i t h a mean number of hours of 74.97. p a r t i c i p a n t s were found mostly  i n the 45 years o f age and young-  er group, w i t h a h i g h e r r e l a t i v e percentage Self-directed learning projects: the respondents  These  of women than men. 99.03 p e r cent o f  p a r t i c i p a t e d , w i t h a mean number o f hours o f  636.81. Other  i n f o r m a t i o n seeking a c t i v i t i e s :  of the respondents 148.32.  96.12 per cent  p a r t i c i p a t e d w i t h a mean number o f hours o f  In t o t o , the respondents  participated  100 p e r c e n t ,  w i t h a mean number o f hours of 857.79 i n v a r i o u s  combinations  of e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . 3. Is there a difference in the nature and number of the f i v e types of educational activ i t i e s engaged in by union members in d i f f e r e n t occupational categories?  Table 4, g i v i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f number and mean number o f e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s by four o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s , showed  76  that the mean number of a d u l t education of union  education)  gaged i n i n c r e a s e s pant r i s e s .  courses  and o f t o t a l e d u c a t i o n a l as the o c c u p a t i o n a l  There i s , then,  level  (exclusive  a c t i v i t i e s enof the p a r t i c i -  a d i f f e r e n c e i n number o f edu-  c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n by union members occupational in higher activities bers  categories.  occupational  Union members o f L o c a l 389 o f CUPE  c a t e g o r i e s engage i n more e d u c a t i o n a l  and take more a d u l t education  i n lower o c c u p a t i o n a l  tiple  i n different  categories.  courses According  r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , however, occupation  only 3.58 per cent o f the v a r i a n c e  in total  than do memto the mul-  accounts f o r  participation  scores. No s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e was found i n the nature o f  e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n by respondents i n d i f f e r e n t occupational likely  categories.  The type  of s u b j e c t a respondent i s  to be i n t e r e s t e d i n appears l a r g e l y a matter o f p e r s o n a l  preference  and  circumstances.  4. Is there a difference in charact e r i s t i c s of members who do and members who do not p a r t i c i p a t e in adult education (including union education)?  B i v a r i a t e t a b l e s were c o n s t r u c t e d and c h i squares c a l c u l a t e d showing percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i pants by union p a r t i c i p a t i o n , s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , age,  m a r i t a l s t a t u s , formal  ren at home and sex.  occupation,  l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n , number of c h i l d -  The only t a b l e s which y i e l d e d s i g n i f i c a n t  77  chi  square values were participants and non-participants by  union p a r t i c i p a t i o n , by age, and by sex.  For our respondents,  then, according to the b i v a r i a t e analysis,•the only s i g n i f i cant differences i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s between participants and non-participants i n adult education were i n the realms of union p a r t i c i p a t i o n , age and sex.  For predictive purposes, how-  ever, according to the multiple regression analysis, formal l e v e l of education i s the most s i g n i f i c a n t  characteristic,  accounting for 13.58 per cent of the variance i n adult educat i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n scores. 5. If one includes all educational a c t i v i t i e s an adult engages in under adult learning what personal characteristic will be the best s i n g l e predictor of whether or not an i n d i v i d u a l union member i s l i k e l y to p a r t i c i p a t e in adult learning? y  According to the multiple regression analysis, formal l e v e l of education was hot a s i g n i f i c a n t variable for p r e d i c t i v e purposes in t o t a l educational p a r t i c i p a t i o n scores; neither were any of the other independent variables. for  alone  accounted  3.58 per cent of the variance i n t o t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n scores,  while the s i x socio-economic for  Occupation  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s together  10.58 per cent of the variance.  accounted  There i s then no personal  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which can be said to be the best single predictor  of whether or not a member of Local 389 of CUPE i s l i k e l y to  p a r t i c i p a t e i n adult learning, i f under adult learning we subsume a l l educational and information seeking a c t i v i t i e s an i n dividual union member engages i n .  78  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Union Complaints  Education  by union educators that rank and f i l e mem-  bers are not i n t e r e s t e d and do not p a r t i c i p a t e t i o n to any great extent w i l l  continue u n t i l the unions  way to reach the membership through more d i r e c t process of downward p e r c o l a t i o n through  of  find a  channels.  A  the L o c a l ' s l e a d e r s h i p  does not seem to take p l a c e ; i f the unions t h e i r assumption  i n union educa-  are s e r i o u s about  o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l the e d u c a t i o n a l needs  rank and f i l e union members they somehow ought t o r e s o l v e  the e x i s t i n g dichotomy between the members' acceptance union's  of the  economic f u n c t i o n and t h e i r d e n i a l o f the union's  function.  social  As long as t h i s dichotomy p e r s i s t s union e f f o r t s to  p r o v i d e labour and l e i s u r e time e d u c a t i o n w i l l  continue to meet  w i t h scant s u c c e s s . Union educators might be b e t t e r a d v i s e d t o continue the t r a d i t i o n a l  approach,  restricting  content of pro-  grams to those s u b j e c t s which are o f d i r e c t p r a c t i c a l to  the maintenance of the i n s t i t u t i o n they s e r v e .  importance  In summary,  union educators ought to r e a s s e s s , w i t h the help of rank and file  o p i n i o n surveys, where and how union resources f o r educa-  t i o n a l purposes  can b e s t be employed.  Implications f o r Adult Education If  a d u l t educators are s e r i o u s about  a t t r a c t more u n s k i l l e d and s e m i - s k i l l e d of  t h e i r wishing to  l a b o u r e r s i n t o the ranks  p a r t i c i p a n t s , ways ought to be found to d e s i g n e d u c a t i o n a l  79 o p p o r t u n i t i e s which appeal to such found that the most p e r s i s t a n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n was  the r i g i d  atmosphere p r e v a i l i n g  labourers.  factor  T h i s study  inhibiting  s c h e d u l i n g and  formal  formal  classroom  i n a d u l t education i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  with the f a c t that the s u b j e c t s which i n t e r e s t e d the  respondents  most were of a h i g h l y p r a c t i c a l nature more conducive workshop than to the classroom. i n at a "Householders' F i x i t payable tical  I f a householder  coupled  to the  c o u l d drop  C e n t r e , " where f o r a simple fee  at the door he c o u l d get such immediate, one-shot  i n s t r u c t i o n i n how  prac-  to deal w i t h any of the many r e p a i r  and maintenance chores which i n e v i t a b l y  crop up i n any house-  h o l d , many more people might p a r t i c i p a t e  i n such e d u c a t i o n a l  or  i n s t r u c t i o n a l ventures.  Such p a r t i c i p a t i o n would not  s i t a t e them to r e g i s t e r f o r a f i x e d number of weeks at times. fewer areas.  As  f a r as the respondents  of t h i s  study are  specific  concerned,  l e c t u r e s and more workshops are needed i n many s u b j e c t Why  does not some e n t e r p r i s i n g s c h o o l board buy  d e c r e p i t house and use t h a t as a workshop f o r p r a c t i c a l t i o n i n how people  to " f i x i t ? " The  respondents  an o l d instruc-  f a c t that so many of the r e s o u r c e  turned to f o r advice and i n f o r m a t i o n were  s e r v i c e s t a t i o n a t t e n d a n t s , hardware merchants and ing  neces-  local  build-  supply s t o r e s ' p e r s o n n e l shows that there are resources  little  e x p l o r e d and u t i l i z e d  f o r e d u c a t i o n a l purposes.  80 Conclusion The  tendency to d i v i d e labour union members i n t o  b l u e - c o l l a r and w h i t e - c o l l a r workers f o r purposes of assessing  their potential p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n educational  seems on r e f l e c t i o n wholly  arbitrary  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s not the b e - a l l and  and  activities  artificial.  Formal  e n d - a l l of e d u c a t i o n ,  and  a great deal of e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y takes p l a c e o u t s i d e of formal programs i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . c a t i o n a l performance a t r u s t w o r t h y ment. ing  Even those  who  had  ly pursuing  owners e s p e c i a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e d  school-  course were a c t i v e -  i n order to be  with the demands t h a t everyday l i f e  achieve-  l e v e l of formal  an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  l e a r n i n g on t h e i r own  i s past edu-  i n d i c a t o r of f u t u r e  respondents w i t h a low  never taken  Nor  able to cope  imposed upon them.  in learning a c t i v i t i e s  Home cease-  l e s s l y , p a r t l y from pragmatic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , p a r t l y because of  the p r i d e they  done.  felt  i n g e t t i n g a complete p i e c e of work w e l l  Most of t h e i r s e l f - d i r e c t e d p r o j e c t s were concerned  with  making t h i n g s as w e l l as w i t h r e p a i r i n g them, s a t i s f y i n g some c r e a t i v e urge which i s not otherwise The  d a i l y job i s mostly  satisfied  i n our s o c i e t y .  of a fragmented n a t u r e , a seemingly i n -  s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t o f a whole a worker can no  longer p e r c e i v e .  ban workers e s p e c i a l l y have l o s t touch w i t h primary they  are p a r t of a r o u t i n e assembly l i n e process  t h e i r d a i l y work seem u n r e l a t e d and o r g a n i c system.  irrelevant  T h i s c o n t r i b u t e s to t h e i r  Ur-  production;  which makes  to any  unified  l a c k of enthusiasm  81  f o r any scheduled c o u r s e s , which again rob them of and a sense o f s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . not  want to be o r g a n i z e d  learning  The respondents s t u d i e d d i d •  for learning,  or by e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s .  initiative  whether by the union  They wanted to o r g a n i z e t h e i r  themselves, i n t h e i r own way  and i n t h e i r own  Having seen some o f the products of t h e i r a b i l i t i e s , only agree w i t h Jack London t h a t cal  characteristics  s i n g l i n g out those  which determine p a r t i c i p a t i o n  participation  i n formal i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g s  the  quality  essential  self-generating  (London,  ". . .ignores  than by any  1965).  can  sociologi-  dynamic,  i s l i m i t e d more by h i s own  t u n i t i e s and d e f i n i t i o n o f the s i t u a t i o n biological characteristics."  one  or non-  of the human being as a h i g h l y  organism who  time.  oppor-  inherent  R E F E R E N C E S  Adolph, T. and R. F. Whaley. " A t t i t u d e s Toward Adult Educat i o n , " Adult Education, 17: 152-156 ( S p r i n g , 196 7 ) . Barbash, Jack.  New  Universities  York:  and  Unions  Harper and B r o t h e r s ,  B l i s h e n , B. R.  in  Workers'  Education.  1955.  "A Socio-Economic Index f o r Occupations i n  Canada," The  (February,  Canadian  Review  1967).  of  Anthropology,  4:  41-53  Bonjean, C , R. J . H i l l and S. D. McLemore. Sociological Measurement, San F r a n c i s c o : Chandler P u b l i s h i n g Co.,  1967.  Booth, A l a n . "A Demographic C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f N o n - P a r t i c i p a t i o n , " Adult Education, 11: 223-229 (Summer, 1961). Brunner, E. deS.D. S. W i l d e r , C. K i r c h n e r , and J . S. Newberry, Jr.  An  Overview  of  Adult  Education  The  State  of  Adult Education A s s o c i a t i o n , Carlson,  Robert A.  Research.  1959.  the  A.rt of  The U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatoon, Saskatoon,  Chicago:  Adult  Education.  1970.  Coombs, R. H. and Vernon Davies. " S o c i a l C l a s s , S c h o l a s t i c Asp i r a t i o n and Academic Achievement," Pacific Sociological Review, 8: 96-100 ( F a l l , 1965). Cram, Lee  L.  The  Co-operative  Extension  Socio-economic Citizenry. Madison, 1965.  Service  and  the  Lower  The U n i v e r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n ,  D e l l e f i e l d , Calvin J. Aspirations of Adults and Implications for Adult  Low Socio-economic Status Education. U n i v e r s i t y of  Dickinson,  and  California,  Los Angeles,  Gary.  Education  1965.  Variables  Participation  in  Adult  Education. A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Research C e n t r e , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1971. _^  '  .  Patterns  of  Participation  in  a Public  Adult  Night School Program. A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Research C e n t r e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966.  82  83  Edwards, A. L.  New York:  Statistical  Methods  for the Behavioral  Sciences.  H o l t , R i n e h a r t $ Winston, 1964.  Goode, W. J . and Paul K. H a t t . Methods i n Social New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1952. Houle, C y r i l . The I n q u i r i n g Mind. of Wisconsin P r e s s , 1961.  Research.  Madison, W i s e :  University  Johnstone, John W. C. and Ramon J . R i v e r a . Volunteers f o r Learning. Chicago: A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1965. Kehoe, Mary  St.  (Ed.).  Labour  Unions:  An Introductory  "Labour Program at N i a g a r a C o l l e g e , " Canadian 24 (December, 1971). Laskin,  Course.  P a t r i c k ' s C o l l e g e , E x t e n s i o n Department,  R.  York:  (Ed.).  Social  Problems:  Ottawa, 1962.  Labour,  A Canadian  16:  Profile.  McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1964.  11-12, New  London, Jack. "Adult E d u c a t i o n and Workers' E d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , " Workers Education, papers p r e s e n t e d at a Conference h e l d i n Rewley House, Oxford, 1965. '  , R. Wenkert and W. 0. Hagstrom. Adult Education and-Social Class. Survey Research Center, U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , 1963.  M i r e , Joseph.. Labour Education. t i o n Committee, New York: Oppenheim, A. N.  ment.  I n t e r - U n i v e r s i t y Labor EducaStraus P r i n t i n g Co., 1956.  Questionnaire  New York:  Design  and Attitude  B a s i c Books Inc., 1968.  Measure-  Robinson, J . W. " E f f e c t s o f the S o c i a l and Economic E n v i r o n ments on Workers' E d u c a t i o n : U n i t e d States and B r i t i s h Examples," Adult  Education  Journal,  19,3:  172-185, 1969.  R u s n e l l , A. D. Occupation and Adult Education Residents in Rural B r i t i s h Columbia. M.A.  s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970.  of Non-Farm T h e s i s , Univer-  S a y l e s , Leonard R. and George S t r a u s s . The Local York: H a r c o u r t , Brace 5 World, Inc., 1967. Smith, H. P.  Labour  and Learning.  Oxford:  Union.  New  Alden P r e s s , 1956.  Tough, A l l e n . The A d u l t ' s L e a r n i n g P r o j e c t s . T o r o n t o , Ont.: O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n , 1971.  !  84  Tough,Allen.  Interview C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  Toronto, Ont.: 1970 .  Schedule Learning  for a Study of Seme Projects in Several  Ontario Institute for Studies in Education,  . Why Adults Learn. Toronto, Ont.: tute for Studies in Education, 1968.  Verner, Coolie. Processes  A Conceptual  for  Association,  Basic Populations.  Adult  1962.  Scheme  Education.  f o r the  Chicago:  and John S. Newberry, J r . P a r t i c i p a t i o n , " Adult Education, 8:  Ontario  Insti-  Identification  of  Adult Education  "The Nature of Adult 208-222, 1958.  Watson, Gordon (Ed.). No Room At The Bottom. Washington, D.C: National Education Association of the United States, 1963. Wertheirner, Barbara M.  Exploring Planners.  the  Arts:  A Handbook  for  New York: New York School of Individual and Labor Relations, Cornell U n i v e r s i t y , D i v i sion of Extension and Public Service, 1968. Trade  Union  Program  Whitehouse, John R. W.  College-Centred  Labour  Toronto, Ont.: for Studies i n Education, 1968.  Trade  Union  .  The  Implications  Toronto, Ont.: Studies i n Education, 1969.  Labour  Education.  Education:  A  Ontario Institute  Approach.  of  College-Centred  Ontario Institute for  A P P E N D I X  86  INTERVIEW SCHEDULE LABOUR UNION EDUCATION SURVEY Respondent's Number 1,3. Card Number One 4.  1  1. How many years have you been a member of your union? 5, 6. 2. On how many committees, if any, have you served during the past 12 months, that is, since March, 1971? 7. 3. How many offices, if any, have you held during that time? 8. 4. How many times during the past 12 months did you attend union meetings? 9,10. Union participation scale (add col. 7 - 10) 11, 12. 5. Chapin Scale; Of what other organizations, beside your union, have you been a member for the past 12 months? Name of Org. Attendance Financial Committee Offices held Contrib. Member 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x2  xl  x3  x4  x5  Total score 13, 14. 0  1 6 11 16  5 10 15 20  1 2 3 4 5  87  6. Do you read the materials, pamphlets, news sheets, etc. provided by the union? 16. 7. How much time per week would these materials? 0 - hours per year 1-25 hours per year 26- 50 hours per year  you say you spend reading 0 1 2  17.  actual hrs/yr. 18, 19. 8. Do you pass on what you read in these union publications to other union members? yes - 1 no - 0 20. reading index (add cols. 16, 17, 20 21. 9. How important do you believe is the responsibility of the union to see that you get the education you need a. to help you get better job qualifications? 22. b. to help you become a better union member? 23. c. to help you become a better citizen?. 24. d. to help you enjoy your leisure time better? 25. very important 6 quite important 5 somewhat important 4 not important 3 undecided 2 definitely not the union's responsibility 1 10. Adolph and Whaley Scale; Instructions: Please read the statements -presented in this form.  \Jhen you have completed reading each statement, put an 'X' to the right of the statement if you agree with it. Leave the space blank i f you co net agree with it.  1.  Union education requires too much time and effort.  (2.1)  2. The need for union education must exist since there are people who have benefitted by it. 3. Union education broadens the mind.  (7.2) (7.8)  4. Union education fulfills personality needs.  (7.0)  88 5. Union education is unnecessary, since we can get all the information we need from books or through dayby-day experience. 6. I think the controversy about the need for union education is a little exaggerated. 7. Union education is fine if you have the time. 8. Union education courses lack content and waste time on non-essentials. total score Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 Statement 5 Statement 6 Statement 7 Statement 8  (2.6) (3.8) (5.2) (3.1)  26, 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.  11. How many courses or workshops in union education, that is, education that fosters the growth of the union movement by providing members with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for effective participation in union activities, have you taken during the past 12 months, since March, 1971? 36. 12. How many courses or workshops in labour education, that is, education concerned with the labour union member's capabilities to function within society, have you taken since March, 1971? 37. 13. How many adult classes in a public or private school, e.g., night school, have you taken since March, 1971? 38. 14. How many courses in a college or university have you taken since March 1971? 39. 15. How many job training classes have you taken since March, 1971? 40. 16. How many correspondence courses have you taken since March, 1971? 41.  17. How many classes in a community centre, church, or YMCA have you taken since March, 1971? 42. 18. How many private lessons, such as music lessons, golf lessons or language lessons have you taken since March, 1971? 43. 19. How many other kind of courses that you can think of have you taken since March, 1971? 44. Total number of courses  45.  20. What was the name of the course or activity you took? Non-participation 0 Union education 1 Labour education 2 Plant and animal sciences 3 Sciences 4 Psychology, human relations, social skills 5 Vocationalrtechnical courses, professional competence 6 Education, child care 7 Sports and games, outdoor activities 8 Needlework, sewing; arts and crafts;photography 9 Physical health and fitness subjects; safety and rescue,- first aid A Religious studies, philosophy, ethics B Social studies, history, geography,mythology C Music, dancing, singing D Cooking, catering, home making E Counselling, guidance, mental health F Current events., politics G Language and literature H Foreign languages I Business management, law, economics J first course second course third course fourth course fifth course 21. Who gave this course or sponsored this activity? Non-participation College/University  0 1  46. 47. 48. 49. 50.  Private School Business/Industry Church/Synagogue YMCA/Community Centre Your union local A union affiliated organization Library/museum Government (Fed., Prov., Municipal) Other Don't know  3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C  first course second course third course fourth course fifth course  22. For how many hours was the course scheduled? Non-participation Up to 7 hours 8 - 1 6 hours 17 - 36 hours 37 - 72 hours 73 and over How many hours did you attend? Non-participation Up to 7 hours 8 - 1 6 hours 17 - 36 hours 37 - 72 hours 73 and over  0  1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5  51. 52. 53. 54. 55.  56, 57.  first course second course third course fourth course fifth course  58. 59. 60. 61. 62.  63, 64. first course second course third course fourth course fifth course  65. 66. 67. 68. 69.  How many additional hours did you study or read at homefor this course? 70, 72. Non-participation 0 Up to 7 hours 1 first course 73. 8 - 1 6 hours 2 second course 74. 17 - 36 hours 3 third course 75. 37 - 72 hours 4 fourth course 76. 73 and over 5 fifth course 77. Total number of hrs . (add cols. 70-72, 56-57). 78,80.  RESPONDENTS ' NUMBER  1, 3.  CARD NUMBER 2 25. Why did you take the course? Non-participation 0 For vocational reasons 1 For union reasons 2 For social reasons 3 For economic reasons 4 For private interest reasons5  4.  first course second course third course fourth course fifth course  5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  26. Did the course satisfy your reasons for taking it? yes - 2 first course 10. no - 1 second course 11. non-participation 0 third course 12. fourth course 13. fifth course 14. 27. Have you in the past 12 months, that is, since March, 1971, tried to learn anything on your own, connected with a sport or hobby maybe, where at least 50% of your motivation to do so was a desire to learn something, and at which you spent at least seven hoursor more? yes - 2 no - 1 15. 28. What, if anything? Non-participation 0 Sports and games 1 Current events, public affairs, politics 2 Cooking, catering, beer and wine making 3 Car, motor cycle and boat engine repair/maintenance . 4 Home repairs, woodworking, carpentry, home improvement projects, decorating, furniture 5 Needlework, sewing, arts and crafts, photography 6 Child raising, education 7 Plant and animal sciences, nature subjects, pet keeping and breeding 8 Language and literature, public speaking, vocabulary 9 Scientific subjects A Health and physical fitness, safety, first aid B History, geography, travel C Psychology, human relations, social skills D  92 Technical and engineering subjects E Mental and emotional health, personal problems F Gardening, landscaping G Building, construction, property development H Music, singing, dancing I Religious studies, ethics, philosophy J Painting, art, architecture K Criminal code, court procedures L Lodge ceremonies, conduction of meetings M Bookkeeping/accounting, business management N topic number 1 topic number 2 topic number 3 topic number A topic number 5 topic number 6 topic number 7 topic number 8 topic number 9 topic number lo .total number topics  16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26, 27.  29. How many hours did you spend since March, 1971, on the topics you were trying to learn about? topic number 1 topic number 2 topic number 3 topic number 4 topic number 5 topic number 6 topic number 7 topic number 8 topic number 9 topic number 10 topic number 11  28, 30. 31, 33. 34, 36. 37, 39. 40, 42. 43, 45. 46, 48. 49, 51. 52, 54. 55, 57. 58, 60.  Total number hrs. in selfdirected projects 61, 64. Open question; Why do you prefer to learn about these subjects on your own time rather than take courses on the subject?  30. How many books have you bought in the past 12 months in connection with these topics? 65, 66. 31. How many books have you borrowed in the past 12 months in connection with these topics? 67, 68. 32. How many books have you read altogether in the past 12 months? 69, 70.' 33. Have you bought or borrowed any other learning materials, such as linguaphone records, dictionaries, audio-visual materials or tapes? yes - 2 no - 1 71. What, if any? (post code) 72. 34. How many magazines, if any, do you subscribe to? 73. 35. How many public meetings on contemporary issues, like the Third Crossing or the school referendum, have you gone to since March, 1971? 74. No. of hours spent 75, 76. 36. How many municipal council meetings have you attended since March, 1971? 77. No. of hours spent 78, 79.  RESPONDENTS ' NUMBER  1, 3.  CARD NUMBER 3  4.  37. How many PTA meetings have you attended since March, 1971? 5. No. of hours spent  6, 7.  38. How many times have you visited the Public Library to look up something you wanted to know since March, 1971? 8. No. of hours spent 9, 10. 39. How many times since March, 1971, have you visited a museum or art gallery? 11. No. of hours spent 12, 13.  40. How many other sources of information have you used that I have not asked about? 14. No. of hours spent 15, 17. Total number of hours information seeking act 18, 20. Total number of hours spent on courses, self-directed projects and other information seeking activities 21, 24. Add cols, card 1, 78-80, card 2, 61-64, and card 3, 16-17 41. What is your job or occupation? (Blishen) 42. How old are you? 15 - 24 1 25 - 34 2 35 - 44 3 45 - 54 4 55 - 64 5 65 and over 6 43. Are you married (1), divorced, separated, widowed (2) or single (3)? 44. How many years of schooling did you complete? Up to 8 1 9 - 11 2 12 3 13 - 16 4 45. How many of your children, if any, are still living in the home with you? 46. Sex of respondent Male 1 Female 2  25, 26. 27, 28.  29. 30. 31, 33. 33.  34.  35.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0064611/manifest

Comment

Related Items