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Adult education among members of a North Vancouver labour union Brown, Maria Johanna 1972

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a ADULT EDUCATION AMONG MEMBERS OF A NORTH VANCOUVER LABOUR UNION by MARIA J. BROWN B.A., University of British Columbia,. 1971 I A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Faculty of Education (Adult Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1972 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Maria J. Brown Department of Adult Education The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date September.27, 1972 ABSTRACT This study,surveyed the education and information seeking activities of Local 389 of the Canadian Union of Pub lic Employees covering the period from March 19 71 to March 19 72. One hundred and three respondents were interviewed in a random sample of 141 union members. Participation rates were estab lished for union education, labour education, other adult edu cation, self-directed learning projects, and other information seeking activities. Socio-economic and psycho-social charac teristics of participants and non-participants in these various educational activities were also studied. In view of the repeatedly expressed union assump tions that unions are responsible for all educational needs of rank and file members, this study also established how im portant members of Local 389 perceived their union's role to be in providing education in four different areas: union edu cation, vocational education, labour education and leisure time education. It was found that the members studied accep ted the union's role in providing union education, rejected the union's role in providing labour and leisure time educa tion, and were divided in their opinion about the union's role, in providing vocational education, depending on their formal level of education. Only the poorly educated, unskilled mem bers studied were willing to accept union responsibility for vocational training. ii iii In view of the surprisingly large amount of self-learning reported by the respondents, a t-test found that there was no significant difference in mean hours spent in self-directed projects for participants and non-participants in formal courses. Participation in union education was found to be limited to active union .members only (8.74 per cent of the respondents). No participation in labour education was re ported by the respondents studied, while 35.92 per cent par ticipated in other adult education courses. Participation in self-directed learning projects and in other information seek ing activities was high, with percentages of 99.03 and 96.12 respectively. Union participation (the extent to which a mem ber participates in the life of the union), age and sex were found to be significant factors for participation or non-participation in formal courses. No significant differences were found in types of subjects in which respondents in dif ferent occupational categories were interested. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I. INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose of the Study 3 Scope of the Study 4 Definitions and Terms 5 Plan of the Study 6 II. A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. ...... 7 Introduction 7 Union Attitudes to Education 7 Participation Rates 9 Characteristics of Participants and Participants. . . .11 Attitudes of Adult Educators 13 Attitudes of Union Members Toward Their Local and Its Activities 4 Summary 17 III. METHODOLOGY 8 Introduction 1Construction of the Instrument 1The Pilot Study 22 Revision of the Instrument 24 Data Collection 5 The PopulationSampling Method and Description of Subjects 26 Field Procedures 28 Data AnalysisIV. ANALYSIS OF DATA 30 IntroductionUnivariate AnalysisCharacteristics of the Sample .30 Bivariate Analysis 33 Perceived Importance of the Union's Responsibility for EducationExtent of Participation 36 Union Education 3Labour Education 8 Adult EducationSelf-Directed Learning Projects 40 iv V Chapter Page Other Information Seeking Activities 42 Characteristics Related to Participation 44 Other Factors Related to Participation . . 63 Factors Inhibiting Participation in Union Education . 66 Reasons for Formal Participation in Adult Education . 68 Multivariate Analysis 69 Multiple Regression Analysis 6V. SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION ......... 73 Introduction .7Summary of Findings 7Implications for Union Education. ...... .... 78 Implications for Adult Education 7Conclusion .... 80 REFERENCES 82 APPENDIX 5 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Participation Scores in Hours of Educational Level of Respondents in the Pilot Study. 23 2. Means, Standard Deviations and Range of Sample Characteristics 32 3. Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Perceived Importance of the Union's Role in Providing Four Types of Education 34 4. Distribution of Number and Mean Number of Educational Activities by Four Occupational Categories 37 5. Distribution of Mean Number of Hours Participation in Educational Activities by Four Occupational Categories 9 6. Distribution of Union Education Courses by Four Occupational Categories 46 7. Distribution of Adult Education Courses by Four Occupational Categories 47 8. Distribution of Self-Directed Learning Projects by Four Occupational Categories 49 9. Distribution of Sources for Other Information Seeking Activities by Four Occupational Categories.. 51 10. Percentage Distribution of Participants and Non-Participants by Four Categories of Union Participation 54 11. Percentage Distribution of Participants and Non-Participants in General Adult Education by Four Age Categories 55 12. Percentage Distribution of Participants and Non-Participants in General Adult Education by Sex 56 vi vii Table Page 13. Percentage Distribution of Respondents in Four Occupational Categories by Level of Education. . 58 14. Correlation Coefficients for All Respondents 60 15. Multiple Correlation Coefficients Between Six Socio-Economic Characteristics and Types of Participation 70 16. Percentage of Variance in Types of Participation Accounted for by Selected Characteristics of Respondents 71 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Education provided for labour union members is a separate branch of adult education, meeting the specialized educational need of labourers, as other adult education agencies meet the needs of farmers, businessmen, and others (Mire, I960). Tradi tionally, therefore, labour union education programs have been concerned with labourers as union members only, restricting content to those subjects which were of direct practical im portance to the maintenance of the institution they served. Such "tool" subjects as shop steward training, collective bar gaining, organization and administration of a democratic insti tution, labour union history and others have made up the bulk of the educational content, in the belief ". . .that there are many internal union matters and problems related to policy which can be handled adequately only through the union's own program." (Hepworth, 1960). A recent study showed that there is a shift away from the strictly function point of view and that labour education is beginning to be concerned with the worker as an individual member of society. (Robinson 1969). Confirming this trend, for instance, is Kertheimer's Handbook for Trade Union Program mers, Exploring the Arts (1968), and a recent report of the Labour Education Information Center (N.I.L.E. 1968), which stated: 1 2 Labour education programs are in tended to enable workers to function more effectively as unionists, to help them understand their society and ful^ fill their obligations as citizens, and to prompt individual development. And as early as 1960, Joseph Mire, Executive Director of N.I.L.E. stated that "Unions have a responsibility to the educational needs of rank and file members." (1960). As yet no studies have been undertaken to solicit the opinion of rank and file members as to their educational needs and preferences, nor is there any great agreement between union leadership and union educators in the matter of union responsibility and the educational needs of members (Rogin and Rachlim, 1960) . There is a tendency on the part of adult edu cators to assume that those who are less educated than themselves need "upgrading" or need their values changed to resemble more nearly those of the middle classes (Carlson, 1971). As Wert-heimer puts it, "One of the big challenges for unions is how to stimulate millions of members and win them away from the easy chair and television. . ."(Wertheimer> 1968). But is that what union members want? Do they themselves see such a 'challenge' as the legitimate responsibility of the union to which they be long? The fact that it has proven so difficult to entice members of the manual labour force to participate in non-vocational adult education programs might well argue the reverse. The present study is an attempt to help determine what union members think about labour education; to what extent they 3 participate in union and labour education or in any other forms of adult education; to what extent they engage in self-educa tion and other forms of information seeking activities or whether they think they need educating at all. Purpose of the Study Participation in formal educational activities may not be an unbiased indicator of whether or not an individual or a class of individuals is interested in learning. Most of the emphasis on patterns of learning has been from the point of view of participation in institutional settings, neglecting largely the possibility that a great deal of deliberate learning may take place outside of institutional settings. Bearing this in mind, the present study will seek to answer the following questions: 1. Do union members believe that labour unions have a responsibility to meet their educational needs apart from union-related knowledge and skills? 2. To what extent do union members par ticipate in five types of educational activi ties including a) union education b) labour education c) other adult education d) self-directed learning projects and e) other information seeking activities? 3. Is there a difference in the nature and number of learning activities of various types engaged in by union members in different occu pational categories? 4 4. Is there a difference in the charac teristics of members who do and members who do not participate in adult education? 5. If one includes all educational acti vities an adult engages in under adult learning, what personal characteristic will be the best single predictor of whether or not an individual union member is likely to participate in adult learning? Scope of the Study The Canadian Labour Congress has undertaken an overall study designed to discover the extent of the edu cational services provided for union members by provincial federations, labour councils, national and international unions, and by union locals across Canada. All this information is being collected from the point of view of the union organizations. The present study is designed to determine how union members react to and participate in these union-directed educational activities, in other forms of educational activities, in self-directed learn ing projects, or in any other kind of information seeking activities. Since union Locals are far from uniform regarding size, job categories and educational activities, no attempt will be made to generalize from the randomly selected sample interviewed to a population other than the Locals which this sample actually represents, and Locals comparable to it in size, make-up and activity. 5 Definition of Terms Union education is education that fosters the growth of the union movement by providing members with the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for effective participation in union activities. Such educational opportunities are, for pur poses of this study, offered only by unions and union-affiliated organi zations. Labour education is education concerned with the im provement of workers' individual capabilities to function with-' in society; courses in labour education are administered by many groups such as unions, government agencies and university departments. Adult education is all educational activity, outside of formal schooling, consciously and systematically organized by an educational agent for purposes of imparting knowledge, infor mation or skills. This includes union and labour education un less otherwise stated. Self-directed learning projects are those learning activities which are deliberately planned and executed by the learner himself without the formal aid of an educational agent, outside of any institutional setting, and at which the learner spends a minimum of seven hours or more. 6 Other information seeking activities are those tem porary attempts at finding information an individual decides he wants or needs at any given moment, which may be sparked by an interest in politics, in current events, in contemporary issues, by job requirements, etc., but which are not part of a systematic learning project. Plan of the Study Chapter II consists of a review of the related liter ature. In Chapter III all aspects of methodology are discussed, such as the construction of the instrument to be used, the Pilot Study, and data analysis to be employed. Chapter IV is devoted to the analysis of the data collected, while in Chapter V the findings from the analysis are used to answer the questions posed in Chapter I. In Chapter V implications for union education and for adult education in general also are discussed, as well as a concluding statement given. CHAPTER II A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Introduction This chapter discusses the literature related to union and labour education, both from attitudinal and participatory points of view. Special attention is given to union attitudes to education, to participation rates in union, labour and other adult education courses, to characteristics of participants and non-participants, to attitudes of adult educators in general to wards the lower socio-economic citizenry, and to the attitudes of union members themselves towards their union Local and its activities. Union Attitudes to Education No research has been done regarding the participation of labour union members in any form of adult education in Canada, and few such studies have been carried out in the United States. The latter have been, for the most part, of an historical and philosophical nature. The most recent of these, Labor Education in the United States: A Survey of Adult Education Opportunities for Labor, differs from all previous efforts in that it has "attempted with some success to compile statistics for some kinds of (educational) activities." (Rogin and.Rachlin, 1968). Some of its findings are that labour education in the United States is 7 8 fragmented, and that this fragmentation generally extends to the organizations of labour educators, so that the latter are not drawn together to enable them to exchange views and exper iences. The authors suggest that possibly labour educators can not do this if they are to take their unionism seriously. We will come back to this later. In general, according to this study, union leadership in the national unions and the state federations does not understand and support education. Three factors were cited to explain this lack of support and under standing: 1. The inability of union educators to interpret union education to the leadership. 2. The inability to integrate education into the total union activity. 3. The acceptance, by union educators, of inferior status within the union. a The decentralization of labour education was cited by one labour education director interviewed as a major source of weakness of the whole educational enterprise of the unions. The authors conducted their survey from the organizational point of view, collecting data where and if available from enrolment fig ures, which were far from uniform and complete, and . . .while it is not possible to say how many unionists are actually involved in labor education, it is clear that only a small percentage participate in any given year. The one great advantage of labour education as the authors see it, is that it has at least a chance to involve in education 9 those adults who are conspicuously absent from formal adult education programs, the blue-collar workers. The same point of view is expressed by Joseph Mire, Executive Director of the National Institute for Labor Education, when he states: It is largely through labor organizations that workers appear as actual or potential con sumers of education. Efforts to reach workers through general adult education groups and pro grams have, with few exceptions, been unsuccess ful. (1960). Participation Rates One study, investigating the learning habits of Ameri can adults, found that the most frequently cited obstacles which prevented adults from participating in adult education were fin ancial constraints (43%), busy schedules (391), and lack of physi cal energy at the end of the day (37%) (Johnston and Rivera, 1965). Women identified more obstacles than men, older adults more than younger, persons from lower socio-economic positions more than persons from higher ones. The authors, using the data from a national sample survey undertaken by the National Opinion Research Center, and consisting of three successive waves of data collec tion, analyzed interviews made with 11,597 households (90 per cent of the probability sample) to provide a comprehensive over view of the numbers and characteristics of adults engaged in studies of various subjects, the methods of study employed, and the institutional settings within which instruction was received. 10 Self-directed learning projects were treated as a residual cate gory, but the authors found that so many people at one time or another engage in self-planned learning that they came to the conclusion that "self-instruction is probably the most over looked avenue of activity in the whole field of adult education." Subjects in the home and family life area were studied more often without than with the help of an instructional agent; 80 per cent of those interviewed who studied gardening, for instance, did so independently. But other areas, too, provided ample opportunity for self - instruction: 60 per cent of those who studied, a foreign language, 50 per cent of those who studied music, and 44 per cent of those who studied speed reading did so without benefit of for mal instruction. Allen Tough of Toronto found that in his survey of adult's learning projects 68 per cent of all projects were self-planned and executed, and that another nine per cent were of a mixed nature, i.e., partially self-planned and executed, and par tially relying on help from others (Tough, 1970). Tough and his research team carefully interviewed small samples from seven pop ulations: blue-collar factory workers (N=10) , men and women from the lower end of the white-collar scale (N=10, 10), female element ary school teachers (N=6), social science professors (N=10), mun icipal politicians (N=10) , and upper-middle class women with pre school children (N=10). Although the samples were too small to allow for generalization to the populations from which they were randomly drawn, an interesting phenomenon emerged when mean number 11 of hours spent at each learning project reported was tabulated: the mean number of hours for the factory workers, none of whom had gone beyond Grade Twelve in high school, was higher at 146 than for the lower white-collar men (111) or women (48), ele mentary school teachers (42) , and the upper-middle class mothers (47), but not as high as that for the politicians (190) or the professors (171). Although the highly suggestive nature of the questions in the Tough interview schedule render these findings somewhat suspect, they indicate the possibility that although blue-collar workers do not participate in formal adult education programs to a great extent, they may participate in learning in dependently. Since most previous studies have concentrated their attention on the institutional settings in which adults participate in learning, such individual efforts may have gone undetected. Characteristics of Participants and Non-Participants Another group of researchers approaching the study of adult education through its potential clientele concentrated its efforts on the city of Oakland, California, using both descriptive and analytic methods (London, Wenkert and Hagstrom, 1963). Apart from conducting a survey of sponsoring agencies, modes of instruc tion and types of program being offered, this team used a matched sample of participants and non-participants in order to trace the connection between adult education participation and such socio economic and psycho - social characteristics as types of vocation, 12 jobs, prior educational attainment, leisure time pursuits and others. Heavy emphasis was placed on differences between the higher and lower socio-economic groups. These researchers con firmed the usual phenomenon that level of formal education is the best single predictor of whether or not a person is likely to participate in adult education, as also reported by Brunner (1959), Booth (1961), Verner and Newberry (1965), Watson et al. (1963) and Dickinson (1971). Booth, treating data obtained by the Bureau of Census 1957 Current Population Survey (U.S.A.) with a ratio technique,, found that the non-participant is most often found in that por tion of the population which is 45 years or older, has less than a high school education, and is either in the lower echelons of the labour force or not in the labour force. Johnston and Rivera (1965) found that the participant in icollege and university ex tension courses was almost exclusively a person with one or two years of college already. Dickinson, however, studying patterns of participation in a public night school program in Surrey, British Columbia, found little of no difference in the percent age rate of drop-outs with less than a Grade Eight education and those with high school or even one or two years of university edu cation, indicating that those with more education are sometimes just as likely to drop out as those with less (1966). Delle-field (1965) , studying the aspirations of low socio-economic status adults, found that non-participation was primarily due to 13 the fact that such adults do not regard education as the means of realizing their life goals. This concurs with the conclusion of Watson et al. (1963), previously cited, and Cram (1965) be low. Dellefield sees the gap between the educated and the non-educated growing as a result of the fact that adult education seeks to fulfill its purpose as defined by the educators rather than by the to-be-educated. Attitudes of Adult Educators Cram, investigating the attitude of Co-operative Ex tension educators towards the lower socio-economic citizenry found that one of the barriers to be overcome by Extension ad ministrators was the assumption that: . . .all people are dissatisfied with some aspect of their life situation, and whenever occasions present themselves, the people will take advantage of any education al opportunities which are made available to them. Research reveals that many of the low income people do not feel dissatisfied with their present status in life. This rather sweeping 'revelation' was supported by cit ing one document only. London et al. (1963)put the blame for the blue-collar workers' lack of participation squarely on the shoulders of the adult educators (in the United States) for per petuating a number of myths about the semi-skilled and low-skilled worker in a way that inhibits these people's entrance in to institutionalized educational activities. Some of these myths are: 14 1. Workers are naturally apathetic to wards society and its institutions. 2. Workers are not capable of sustained intellectual effort and therefore are not able to benefit from continuing education. 3. Blue-collar workers do not have an interest in or appreciation of education. 4. Intellectual ability is demonstrated early in life -- if it does not appear then it never will. 5. People lose the ability to learn with increasing age. If such opinions are really as prevalent as the Oakland study indicates, it seems that, ironically, greatly priority ought to be assigned to educating the adult educators. Attitudes of Union Members Towards Their Local and Its Activities There is, however, another aspect to the question of the union member's participation in union and labour education, and this is related to the rank and file union member's attitude towards his union in general rather than to his attitude towards education in particular. As mentioned above, Rogin and Rachlin (1968), commenting on the fragmentary state of labour union edu cation in the United States, remarked that possibly labour union educators could not draw together and share ideas and experiences if they were to take their unionism seriously. The implication that there is an inherent paradox between participation in the 15 life of the union and participation in labour union education was not enlarged upon by the authors and remained somewhat puzzling to the present writer until reading another study entitled The Local Union (Sayles and Strauss, 1967). This latter study did not deal with labour union education at all, but with rank and file as well as leadership views on the Union Local and its activities. The authors used a "behaviour al approach," based on participant (in union activities) obser vation and on informal interviewing in 20 local unions (in the United States). No use was made of statistical sampling tech niques, but projective tests were used to elicit members' re actions towards their union and its activities. The findings presented relate primarily to unions in the manufacturing indus tries, but also involved were the building trades and some white-collar unions; the findings seem to apply quite closely to these latter groups as well. The authors found a deep-seated ambivalence between allegiance to the union and apathy or even hostility towards it. The overwhelming majority of the members supported the union's economic activities, but, with the exception of the "active minority," showed little or no interest in the union's internal life. The researchers detected a subconscious sense of shame --the American middle class ideal is one of self-sufficiency and of individual initiative. Being a member of a union, [which is often not a voluntary state of affairs], brings home to a worker 16 that as an individual he is weak and powerless, and the union is partly blamed for getting him into this dilemma. The result is some hostility as well as loyalty towards the union. For a small group, the authors found, the union is a way of life; for the majority it is but a method of economic representation, albeit an important one. For them it is only a means to an end, a way of gaining greater security on the j-ob, certainly not a great social movement. The vast majority of the members readily accept the union's economic functions, but deny its social purpose. And herein lies the crux. The dichotomy between labour union educators' views of the union's responsibility . . .to enable workers to function more effectively as unionists, to help them understand their society and ful fil their obligations as citizens, and to prompt individual development. . . (Mire, 1960) and rank and file union members' denial of the union's social purpose (and so, by extension, the union's responsibility to educate them), must be resolved before the problem of rank and file participation in labour education can be successfully dealt with. As long as union members do not perceive education to be the legitimate concern of their union they are not likely to participate in labour union sponsored education. 17 Summary In general, the picture which emerges from the liter ature can be summed up best by summarizing the findings of Johnston and Rivera (1965): learning and education are perceived in radically different ways by persons on different rungs of the social ladder. Lower class adults not only value education less, they assess its worth strictly in terms of the tangible advantages to be gained from it. Whether one agrees with the statement or not may depend in part on what one understands by education. CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY Introduction This chapter's first section is concerned with the construction of the instrument, the information to be collected and the scales used, the way in which validity and reliability were established by a pilot study, and the subsequent revision of the instrument. The next section gives a description of the population from which the random sample was drawn, the sampling method used, a description of the subjects, and field procedures utilized, followed by a section describing the methods used for analyzing the data collected. Construction of the Instrument In order to facilitate the collection of data required for the purpose of the study, it was decided to design a struc tured interview schedule. The problems of the reliability and validity of an instrument designed specifically for a single study are discussed at length by a variety of articles and books on the subject, e.g., Sellitz, Jahoda et al. (1967), Moser (1967) and others. Not only the attitudes, expectations motives and perceptions of the respondents are important, of equal importance, and influencing the responses, are the atti tudes, expectations, motives and perceptions of the interviewer 18 19 (Kahn and Cannell, 1968). Since questions can obtain only such information that the respondent is able and willing to give, the interviewer must be aware of the fact that many people have never learned to make the inferences necessary to an ade quate verbal report (Sellitz, Jahoda et al. 3 1967). Cannell and Kahn (1968) cite three conditions necessary for successful interviewing: 1. The accessability condition: does the respondent have the required data in conscious form? 2. The cognitive condition: does the respond ent understand what is required of him? 3. The motivating condition: is the respond ent willing to give the required information? Special care was taken in formulating the questions in order to meet the requirements for these three conditions. The instrument used to collect the data about par ticipation in 1) union education, 2) labour education, 3) other adult education, 4.) self-directed learning projects, and 5) other information seeking activities, was a structured inter view schedule constructed by the writer. It consisted of ques tions eliciting information concerning the usual demographic data such as l) occupation, 2) age, 3) marital status, 4)level of education, 3) number of children living at home, 6) number of years of union membership, and 7) sex of respondent, as well as questions about educational participation in the aforemen tioned activities. The Chapin Scale of Social Participation, a 20 standard test, scores on which have been found to correlate with socio-economic status, income and occupation (Bonjean et al, 1967), was used to determine how active the respondents were socially. In addition, a union participation scale was constructed, measuring frequency of attendance at union meet ings, at committee meetings and/or local executive meetings, in order to arrive at a measure of participation in the life of the Union Local. A "readership" index was also constructed, to determine whether or not respondents read the union infor mation materials, how much time they spent reading these, and whether or not they passed on information from these materials to other union members. (During the course of the interviews it gradually became clear that this index was at best of doubt ful validity, as this year (1972) turned out to be the negoti ating year for Lower Mainland locals of CUPE. Nearly all mem bers interviewed read the news sheets assiduously, where in other years they might not have done so to the same extent. Consequently the Index was not used in the data analysis). In order to find out whether the members of Local 389 accept the assumption that unions are responsible for the educational needs of rank and file members, a four-fold scale was included designed to ascertain how important respondents believed union responsibility to be in the areas of: 1. Union education. 2. Vocational education. 21 3. Education for citizenship and social responsibility, in this study defined as labour education. 4. Leisure time education. The answer to each of the questions ranged from 6. . .'very important' to 1. . .'definitely not the union's responsibility'. These 'belief questions, especially in areas 3 and 4, released much latent hostility towards the union, not generated by any of the other questions. Lastly, a modified version of the Adolph and Whaley scale, measuring attitude towards union education, was included. Occupations were classified according to the Blishen Scale • Age, educational level and marital status categories were those used by the 1961 Canada Census. (See Appendix for complete in terview schedule). To establish the reliability and validity of the instrument, a pilot study was undertaken, the result of which is discussed below. In summary, the independent variables included in the instrument were: number of years membership in the union, union participation, social participation, the four 'belief variables, attitude towards union education, occupation, age, marital status, formal level of education, number of children living at home and sex of respondent. The dependent variables were: participation in union education, participation in lab our education, participation in adult education, participation 22 in self-directed learning projects, participation in other in formation seeking activities and total participation, all par ticipation being scored at hours per year for the 12-month period under survey. The Pilot Study Before proceeding with the pilot study undertaken to test the reliability and validity of the interview schedule, the schedule was submitted to a panel of judges consisting of an adult education professor and seven graduate students in adult education, who scrutinized it closely and made valuable suggestions and recommendations. These were subsequently in corporated into the schedule. The revised schedule was then used to interview eight members of the same population from which the random sample was drawn, but not belonging to the sample. During the course of the interviews, it became clear that Cannell and Kahn's three conditions for successful inter viewing were being adequately met: the respondents did indeed have the required data in conscious form, they understood what was being required of them, and they were able and willing to give the required information. Most of them actually enjoyed the interview. The respondents ranged from 24 to 62 years of age; their formal education varied from eight to 16 years of completed schooling. Their occupations ranged from night jan itor to business manager for the school board. Six were male, 23 two were female. Only one of them had ever taken a labour education course, and none had taken a union education course during the period covered by the survey. Two had taken other adult education courses. But without exception they all took part in self-directed learning projects, spending anywhere from a low 30 to a high 1,100 hours during that 12-month per iod. Table I shews the participation scores in hours in the various educational activities by educational level of the respondents. TABLE 1 PARTICIPATION SCORES IN HOURS BY EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF EIGHT RESPONDENTS IN THE PILOT STUDY OTHER LEVEL OF UNION LABOUR ADULT RESP. EDUCATION EDUCATION EDUCATION EDUCATION SELF-DIRECTED PROJECTS TOTAI 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 14 13 11 12 11 8 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 80 0 0 0 40 615 1100 50 550 100 250 120 30 622 1100 50 630 100 250 120 70 It is not possible, with such a small sample, to make any inferences about educational level and participation. The respondent with the highest educational level reported the lowest 24 number of hours in self-directed learning projects, but the respondent with the second highest educational level attained the highest score in self-directed learning projects. Nor is it possible to make any inferences as to what extent the respondents' belief in union responsibility for education in fluenced participation in union education, since none of the respondents had taken any union education courses. The dicho tomy which Messrs. Sayles and Strauss mentioned, of accepting the union's economic functions while rejecting its social func tions, did appear to a large extent. The four 'belief vari ables nearly split down the middle towards both ends of the continuum 'very important'. . .6, 'definitely not the union's responsibility. . .1, with the belief that the union should be responsible for providing union education and vocational edu cation towards the high end of the scale, while the other two areas of educational responsibility (labour and leisure time education) were rejected outright as definitely not the union's business. Some respondents became quite hostile at the thought of any intrusion on the part of the union into their private lives, a tendency which continued to be expressed during the entire interviewing period. Revision of Instrument One additional question was suggested by the results of the eight interviews, in connection with the surprisingly 25 large number of self-directed projects: why do respondents elect to study 'on their own when in most topics they choose, courses are readily available? Although all other questions were closed ones, this one was included as an open question, in order to discover what factors inhibit formal participation in adult education. Data Collection ' The population. The population were the members of Local 398 of CUPE with a membership of 873 (November, 1971).. This is an unusual Local, consisting of five different groups of employees, and comprising inside as well as outside work ers. The latter feature made the Local especially suitable for purposes of the present study, since it is one of the very few Locals counting among its members both blue-collar and white-collar workers. The five different groups were: (1) employees of the North Shore Health Unit; (2) employees of the School Board of North Vancouver (District No. 44); (3) employees of the City of North Vancouver; (4) employees of the District of North Vancouver; and (5; employees of the North Vancouver Centennial Recreation Centre. 26 Since group one consisted of five nembers only, all Health Inspectors, one of whom was about to retire, it was decided not to include this group in the population from which the sample was drawn. The members from group five were combined with those of group four, since this was how they were represented in the membership list. For the pur pose of the study, then, there were three groups: 1, the North Vancouver School Board (N = 215); 2, the City of North Vancouver (N = 230); 3, the District of North Vancouver (N = 421), with a total membership of 868, both male (N = 631) and female (N = 237). The Local is fairly active educationally. It avails itself of the programs provided by the Western Regional Education Department of CUPE which puts on weekend seminar at least three times a year. The regional head office is in Vancouver, where most of these seminars are held, making it easy for members to attend if they wish to do so. As will become clear, only a small number of members make use of the opportunities provided them. Sampling method and description of subjects. A 15 per cent stratified random sample was drawn, using a table of random digits, resulting in a sample of 126 names. Fifteen alternate names were randomly drawn to offset possible sample mortality,giving a total of 141 potential respondents. Once 27 the sample was drawn, no further distinction was made between the different groups. The sample, including the alternates, consisted of 113 male and 28 female subjects, ranging be tween 19 and 72 years of age, with a mean age of 43.97 and a s.d. of 13.18. Their occupations ranged from garbage man and labourer in a survey crew (26 on the Blishen Index), to accountant and justice of the peace (68 on the Blishen Index), from janitor and truck driver (29 on the Blishen Index) to design technician and electrical inspector (55 on the Blishen Index), with all the necessary gradations in between (mean 38.81, S.D. 10.55), thus giving a fair spread between blue and white collar occupations. Only union members who had been with the Local for at least 12 months were included in the sample, since the survey covered a period of 12 months, from March 1971 until March 1972. Formal level of education ranged from gix to 20 years of schooling, with a mean of 11.32, S.D. 2.71. One hundred and three interviews were successfully completed, 73.05 per cent of the total sample. Distribution of the 38 unsuccessful attempts was as follows: one was deceased; three were too busy (one of these held two jobs); nine were not interested and refused to be interviewed outright; one had gone to England for the summer, and four were laid off but retained their membership in the Local in the hope of being rehired; they were, however, not available for interviewing. The remain ing 20 had left their employ and were no longer members of Local 28 398 of CUPE. When the large number of people included in the membership list who were in effect no longer members, were queried, some embarrassment resulted: it turned out that the Local leadership had purposely retained these names in their membership list because of the pending salary negotiations --their strength is in numbers! So due to local union politics the number of actual respondents was smaller than it otherwise might have been. Field procedures. The writer conducted all in terviews personally, after making initial contact by telephone, or where this was not possible, by a direct house call. No attempt to interview a subject was abandoned unless a definite reason was obtained why a potential respondent could not or would not be interviewed. Data Analysis The University of British Columbia's MV-TAB and TRIP programs were used to analyze the data. Bivariate tables were constructed to arrive at percentage distributions of number and mean number of five types of educational activities (including union education, labour education, adult education, self-directed learning projects, and other information seeking activities) and of total participation by four educational categories, as well as tables showing percentage distribution of participants and non-participants by union participation, social participation, occu-29 pation, age, marital status, formal education, number of children at home and sex. Chi-squares were calculated where applicable. A correlation matrix was also constructed corre lating all dependent and independent variables. Multiple regression techniques were used to find: (a) how much predictive power the personal variables (occu pation, age, formal education, marital status, number of children at home and sex) have as a set; (b) whether the be lief variables add anything to what the personal variables con tribute to prediction about union education; and (c) which in dependent variables are significant in prediction for partici pation in union education, other adult education, self-directed learning projects, other information seeking activities and total participation. Finally, a t-test was performed to see if the mean scores in self-directed learning projects for participants in adult education (including union and labour edcuation) differed significantly (at the .05 level) from that for non-participants in adult education. The information obtained by these statistical methods was then used to answer the questions posed in Chapter I. CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF DATA Introduction This chapter is devoted to the analysis of the data collected. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate methods were used to describe the respondents; the perceived importance of the union's role in meeting the educational needs of the respond ents; the extent of participation in five educational activities (union education, labour education, other adult education, self-directed learning projects and other information seeking activi ties) and in total participation; the characteristics related to participation and non-participation; other factors related to participation and non-participation; as well as socio-economic and psycho-social characteristics accounting for variance in participation scores. A t-test was performed to see if mean number of hours in self-directed projects for participants in union, labour and adult education differed significantly from that of non-participants. Univariate Analvsis Characteristics of the Sample. Table 2 provides a summary description of the sample characteristics. The respondents reported an average length of membership in the union of slightly over nine years. Their mean score on the union participation scale (measuring frequency of attendance 30 31 at union meetings, at special committee meetings and/or local executive meetings) was 7.62, and on the social participation (Chapin) scale 8.3. Their mean socres on the fourfold 'belief scales, measuring belief in their perceived importance of the union's role in providing four types of education (union, vo cational, labour and leisure time education),were respective ly 4.75, 3.92, 2.34, and 1.63, with the scale ranging from 6 -1. Their mean score on the attitude towards union education (Adolph and Whaley, modified) scale was well over 57, with a range of 24 - 78, while the scale itself ranged from 21 to 78. Their occupations averaged 38.81 on the Blishen Index (range 26 - 68), and they reported a mean age of over 43 years. Their average level of education was slightly over 11 years of com pleted schooling, and they had a mean number of 1.34 children still living at home. 32 TABLE 2 SUMMARY TABLE OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS CHARACTERISTIC MEAN S.D. RANGE Years membership in the union 9. 03 7. 04 1 - 26 Union participation, attendance at regular meetings, committees and executive meetings 7. 62 15. 60 0 - 55 Social participation (Chapin Scale) 8. 30 11. 62 0 - 51 Perceived importance of ^ union's responsibility for: Union Education Vocational Education Labour Education Leisure Time Education 4. 3. 2. 1. 75 92 34 63 1. 1. 1. 1. 27 90 81 43 1 1 1 1 - 6 - 6 - 6 - 6 Attitude to union education (Adolph and Whaley) 57. 63 14. 37 24 - 78 Occupation (Blishen Index) 38. 81 10. 55 26 - 68 Age 43. 97 13. 18 19 - 72 Level of education (years completed) 11. 32 2. 71 6 - 20 Number of children at home 1. 34 1. 34 0 - 6 Measurement of belief in importance of union's role in providing education in these four areas: Very important - 6 Quite important  5 Somewhat important - 4 Not important - 3 Undecided - 2 Definitely not the union's responsibility - 1 (This last item allowed for expression of hostility) 33 Bivariate Analysis Perceived Importance of Union Responsibility for  Education. In order to find out how union members perceived the importance of the union's role in providing four types of education -- union education, vocational education, labour education and leisure time education -- a bivariate table was compiled, giving a percentage distribution of respondents by perceived importance in these four educational areas (Table 3). The overwhelming majority of the respondents accepted union responsibility for union education, but rejected any no tion of union responsibility for education concerning their social and private lives: 85 out of the 103 claimed varying degrees of importance for union responsibility in union edu cation; the same number rejected union responsibility for leisure time education unequivocally, and 63 did so for union responsibility ir. the social realm (labour education) . Only three members did not believe the union was responsible for union education. The figures were less clear cut for the area of vocational training, with 69 out of 103 believing that union responsibility in this area was important, seven declaring such responsibility unimportant, one being undecided, and 26 claim ing that vocational education was definitely not the union's responsibility. In toto, the response rate was statistically significant. Because the responses were somewhat ambipuous for the vocational area, a separate chi square was calculated comparing belief in union responsibility for vocational train-34 TABLE 3 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY PERCEIVED IMPORTANCE OF THE UNION'S ROLE IN PROVIDING FOUR TYPES OF EDUCATION (This scale to be tipped, starting with 6) DEGREE OF IMPORTANCE TYPE OF EDUCATION UNION NO. \ VOCATIONAL NO. % LABOUR NO. \ LEISURE NO. % Definitely not 1 3 2.91 26 25.24 63 61.16 85 82.52 Undecided 2 2.91 .97 2.91 0 0.00 Not Important 3 12 11.65 7 6.79 2.91 1.94 Somewhat Important 4 16N 15.53 12N 11.65 14 13.59 7 6.79 Quite Important 5 34 TOTAL ^33.02 35 Very Important 6 35 ' \ 33.98 15 14.56 4.87 33.98 22 J 21.37 5 4.87 4 3.88 103 100 103 100 103 100 103 100 MEAN SCORES 4.75 3.92 2.34 1.63 Chi square = 178.60, d.f. =15, p < .001 35 ing with that for union education, which yielded a chi-square value of 24.11 significant at the .05 level. Much hostility was generated when respondents were asked how important they believed union responsibility to be in providing labour and leisure education. Given the unions' assumption that they have an all-embracing responsibility for the educational needs of their members, ". . .to help them understand their society and fulfill their obligations as citizens, and to prompt individual development," (Mire, 1960) they have conspicuously failed to convince the rank and file membership with any degree of success. Certainly the members of Local 389 of CUPE disagree very strongly with the assumption. It must be understood that the respondents did not deny the existence of their educational needs, they only de nied union responsibility for meeting these needs in labour education and leisure time education. The extent of their participation in self-directed learning projects and other information seeking activities suggests that rank and file mem bers are well.able to look after their own educational needs as they perceive them, and that they can and will find the rele vant resources as the need for them arises. Again, the dicho-temy reported by Strauss and Sayles, of accepting the union's economic function bat denying its social function was stronq-ly cinfirmed. 36 Extent cf Participation. Of the 103 respondents in terviewed, nine (8.741) had taken a total of 19 union edu cation courses. None had taken any labour education courses (the only member interviewed who had taken a labour education course appeared in the pilot study -- the course in question was a course in Traffic Engineering). Thirty-seven respondents (35.921) had taken an aggregate of 82 adult education courses, exclusive of union and labour education. One hundred and two out of the 103 respondents (99.03%) took part in a total of 396 self-directed learning projects, while 99 (96.12%) engaged in 345 other information seeking activities. Table 4, showing the percentage distribution of the respondents in four occupational categories according to the Blishen Index by participation in the various educational activities, shows that the total mean number of activities increases as the members move up the social ladder: Group I (Blishen Index 20 - 29, N=35) took part in 264 activities with a mean number of 7.54. Group II (Blishen Index 30 - 39, N=28) took part in 217 activities with a mean numeber of 7.75. Group III (Blishen Index 40 - 49, N=15) took part in 125 activities with a mean number of 8.25, while Group IV (Blishen Index 50 and over, N=25) totalled 236 activities with a mean number of 9.44. Union Education. Only nine of the 103 respondents (8.74%) participated in union education courses between March 1971 and March 1972, the period covered by the survey. They TABLE 4 DISTRIBUTION OF NUMBER AND MEAN NUMBER OF EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES BY FOUR OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES (BLISHEN INDEX) EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY Group I (20 - 29) N » 35 Group II (30 - 39) N = 28 Group III (40 - 49) N = 15 Group IV (50 and Over) N = 25 TOTAL N = 103 No. Mean No, No. Mean No. No. Mean No. No. Mean No. No. Mean No. UNION EDUCATION .23 .28 .20 19 .18 LABOUR EDUCATION 00 000000 00 OTHER ADULT EDUCATION 20 .57 20 .71 14 .93 28 1.12 82 .79 SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING PROJECTS 133 3.80 112 4.00 55 3.67 96 3.84 396 3.83 OTHER INFORMATION SEEKING ACTIVITIES. 103 2.94 77 2.75 53 3.53 112 4.48 345 3.35 w TOTAL ^ EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES 264 7.54 217 7.75 125 8.25 . 236 9.44 842 8.17 38 took a total of 19 courses. Each union education course was scheduled as a day-long seminar, with seven course hours per course. Table 3 shows that only members of Group IV did not participate in union education. Courses participated in were: Bargaining Procedures; Union Economics; Shop Stewart Training; Arbitration Procedures; Job Evaluation; Labour-Management Re lations; Parliamentary Procedures and Political Economics. Labour Education. None of the respondents had par ticipated in labour education during the period from March 1971 to March 19 72. Adult Education (Exclusive of Union and Labour Edu  cation) . Thirty-seven respondents (35.92%) participated in a total of 82 courses. Mean number of hours participated in by the 103 respondents was 74.97. Table 5 shows that there is a considerable difference in the mean number of course hours for the four occupational groups: Group I and Group IV are rela tively similar, with means -of 70.51 and 68.04 respectively, while Group III has a mean of 122.47, practically twice as large as the mean of 61.29 for Group III. Courses participted in were in the following areas: Plant and animal sciences (botany, agriculture, horticulture, zoology); Scientific subjects (chemistry, physics, mathematics, biology); Psychology; human relations; social skills; Vocational-technical courses; professional competence; Education; child care; TABLE 5 MEAN NUMBER OF HOURS OF PARTICIPATION BY FOUR OCCUPATIONAL i (BLISHEN INDEX) IN EDUCATIONAL CATEGORIES ACTIVITIES EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY Group I (20 - 29) N = 35 Group II (30 - 39)-N = 28 Group III (40 - 49) N = 15 Group IV (50 and Over) N = 25 TOTAL N = 103 UNION EDUCATION 1.6 2 1.4 0 1.26 LABOUR EDUCATION 0 0 0 0 0 ADULT EDUCATION 70.51 61.29 122.47 68.04 74.97 SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING PROJECTS 655.17 625.64 612.00 638.52 636.82 OTHER INFORMATION SEEKING ACTIVITIES 78.37 110.82 245.93 229.68 148.32 TOTAL EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES 802.69 791.61 978.40 936.64 857.78 40 Sports and games; outdoor activities; Needlework, sewing; arts and crafts; photography; Physical health and fitness subjects; safety and rescue; first aid; Religious studies; philosophy; ethics; Social studies; history and geography; mythology; Music; dancing; singing; Cooking; catering; homemaking; Counselling, guidance; mental health; Current events; politics; Language and literature; Foreign languages; Business management; law; economics. Self-directed Learning Projects. One hundred and two respondents (99.03%) took part in-, a total of 396 self-directed learning projects during the period covered by the survey. Mean number of hours spent at these projects was 638.81. Looking at the means for the different occupational groups (Table 5) it will be seen that the total mean is very close to the individual means for each group: 655.1/ for Group I; 625.64 for Group II; 612.0 for Group III, and 638.52 for Group IV, indicating that 41 level of occupation exerts little or no difference on partici pation in self-directed projects. Areas of interest for self-directed projects were: Sports and games; Current events; public affairs; politics;_ Small engine repair and maintenance (car, boat, motor cycle); Home repairs; woodworking; carpentry; home improvement projects; decorating; furniture; Needle work, sewing; arts and crafts; photography; Child raising; education; Plant and animal sciences; nature subjects; pet keeping and breeding; Language and literature; public speaking; vocab ulary building; Scientific subjects; Health and physical fitness; safety; first aid; History; geography; travel; Psychology; human relations; social skills; Technical and engineering subjects; Mental and- emotional health; personal problems; Gardening; landscaping; Building; construction; property development; Music; singing; dancing; Religious studies; ethics; philosophy; Painting; art; architecture; Criminal code; court procedures; 42 Lodge ceremonies; conduction of meetings; Bookkeeping; accounting; business management. Other Information Seeking Activities. Ninety-nine respondents (96.12%) engaged in a total of 345 information seeking activities with a mean number of hours spent of 148.32. Means for the four groups respectively are 78.37, 110.82, 245.93 and 229.68 hours. Sources utilized in information seek ing activities were: Public meetings; Special meetings (job related); Municipal and district council meetings; PTA and home-school meetings; Public library; School library; UBC library; Respondents' own library; Musea; art galleries; Resource persons; District of North Vancouver Research Centre; Travel information brochures; Specialized books and journals; News media (newspaper, radio, television). 43 In summary, members of Local 389 of CUPE interviewed participated in the various educational activities during the period of March 1971 to March 1972 as follows: Union education: 8.74 per cent, with a mean number of hours of 1.26. Labour education: none of the respondents participated in labour education during the per iod under study. Adult education (exclusive of union edu cation): 35.92 per cent with a mean number of hours of 74.97. Self-directed learning projects: 99.03 per cent with a mean number of hours of 636.81. Other information seeking activities: 96.12 per cent with a mean number of hours of 148.32. Total participation: 100 per cent, with a mean number of hours of 857.79. To return to Joseph Mire (1960) once again, his statement that: ". . .it has now become axiomatic that the best way to reach workers is through their union, since it provides a natural, con venient and practical channel for educational group contacts," may have to be re-evaluated in the light of the findings of this study. Even if one restricts 'education' to formal participation in groups, the fact remains that at least the members of Local 389 of CUPE do not see their union as the "natural, convenient and practical channel" for their educational group activities. 44 Given that only 8.74 per cent of the members interviewed par ticipated in union education, against 35.92 per cent who par ticipated in other adult education courses, coupled with the fact that these members denied that the union has a responsi bility for their educational needs apart from union-related knowledge and skillsunions might do well to reassess where they can best employ their educational resources, to avoid dis appointment and waste of educational men, money and materials in the future. Characteristics Related to Participation. As was seen in the previous section, the mean number of total educa tional activities engaged in increases with a rise in occupa tional level (see Table 3): Group I -- 7.54 s Group II -- 7.75 Group III -- 8.25 Group IV -- 9.44 The figures are less clear when we look at the means for each individual educational activity, except in the case of other adult education, where the means are as follows: Group I -- .57 Group II -- .71 Group III -- .93 Group IV -- 1.12 showing too an increase in mean number of adult education cour ses engaged in with a rise in occupational level. This indi cates that occupation does exert some influence on participation in adult education courses and on the total spectrum of edu cational activities. 45 When we look at the nature of the educational activi ties the four occupational groups participated in, the situation is not clear. Table 6 shows a breakdown of the union education courses engaged in by the four occupational groups. Group IV, the highest on the Blishen Index, did not participate at all. Of the three groups who did, all participated in a course on Union Economics. Groups I and II took part in Shop Stewart Training t and Groups I and III took part in Bargaining Proced ures. Only Group III participated in Parliamentary Procedures and Political Economy. Since only nine respondents out of 103 participated in union education, nothing definitive can be said about a possible connection between occupational level and participation in union education. There were simply not enough participants to make any meaningful inferences. Table 7 shows a breakdown of adult education subjects other than union education by occupational level. ' All four groups participated in adult education, and, as can be seen from the table, no startling differences are revealed in the types of subjects the respondents in the different occupational groups engaged in. All groups participated in courses in scien tific subjects, in vocational-technical subjects, in sports and games, and all but Group I in arts and crafts. Again, there is not enough evidence to make specific inferences, but it seems that occupational level exerts little or no influence on what subject an individual may be interested in. TABLE 6 DISTRIBUTION OF UNION EDUCATION COURSES BY FOUR OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES (BLISHEN INDEX) BLISHEN INDEX UNION EDUCATION COURSES Group I 20-29 N = 35 Bargaining Procedures Union Economics Shop Stewart Training Arbitration Procedures Group II 30 - 39 N = 28 Union Economics Shop Stewart Training Job Evaluation Labour Management Relations Group III 40 - 49 N = 15 Union Economics Bargaining Procedures Job Evaluation Parliamentary Procedures Political Economics Group IV 50 and over N = 25 No Participation 4 7 TABLE 7 DISTRIBUTION OF ADULT EDUCATION COURSES 1 BY OTHER THAN UNION EDUCATION FOUR OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES (BLISHEN INDEX) BLISHEN INDEX GENERAL ADULT EDUCATION COURSES Group I 20 - 29 N = 35 Plant and Animal Sciences Scientific Subjects Vocational-technical Subj eats Education and Child Cave Subjects Sports and Games Current Events/Politics Group II 30 - 39 N = 28 Scientific Subjects Vocational-technical Subjects Sports and Games Physical Health and Safety Subjects Arts and Crafts Music Language and Literature Group III 40 - 49 N = 15 Scientific Subjects Vocational-technical Subjects Sports and Games Cooking Business Management Arts and Crafts Group IV 50 and over N = 25 Scientific subjects Vocational-technical subjects Sports and Games Arts and Crafts Physical Health and Safety Current Events/Politics Religious Studies 48 The same phenomenon holds when one looks at Table 8, showing a breakdown of self-directed learning projects by-occupational level. There is a core of subject areas in which all groups pursue learning independently, consisting of: sports and games, arts and crafts, small engine maintenance, home re pair and maintenance, gardening and landscaping, and musical subjects. Groups I, II and IV studied various aspects of Cook ing (which includes beer and wine making), Technical and Engi neering Subjects, and Painting and Architecture. Apart from the common core, the types of self-directed learning projects respond ents participated in seem largely a matter of personal idiosyn crasy and circumstances: possessing a home and having a family demand that one learns how to cope in these areas. It does not seem that occupational level exerts any influence whatsoever on the type of learning project an indivi dual is likely to pursue on his own, but nothing definite can be said from the data available other than that the study sup ports the findings of Allen Tough. Table 9 shows a breakdown of the types of information al resources respondents utilized in their other information seeking activities. All occupational levels utilize much the same sources in their quests for information. It secns safe to say, that for members of Local 389 at least, occupational level exerts no influence on the type of information seeking engaged in or informational resources utilized. TABLE 8 DISTRIBUTION OF SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING PROJECTS BY FOUR OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES BLISHEN INDEX SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING PROJECTS Group I Scientific Subjects 20 - 29 Sports and Games N = 35 Technical and Engineering Subjects Education and Child Care Plant and Animal Subjects Arts and Crafts Cooking Physical Health and Safety Mental Health Small Engine Maintenance Home Repair/Maintenance Social Studies Human Relations Gardening and Landscaping Construction and Building Music Painting and Architecture Criminal Code/Court Procedures Group II Scientific Subjects 30 - 39 Sports and Games N = 28 Technical and Engineering Subjects Plant and Animal Subjects Arts and Crafts Cooking Small Engine Maintenance Home Repair/Maintenance Gardening and Landscaping Construction and Building Music Painting and Architecture TABLE 8 (Continued) BLISHEN INDEX SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING PROJECTS Group III Sports and Games 40 - 49 Plant and Animal Subj eats N = 15 Arts and Crafts Physical Health and Safety Small Engine Maintenance Home Repair and Maintenance Social Studies Gardening and Landscaping Construction and Building Music Current Events/Politics Bookkeeping and Accounting Group IV Sports and Games 50 and over Technical and Engineering Subjeats N = 25 Education and Child Care Plant and Animal Subjects Arts and Crafts Cooking Physical Health and Safety Small Engine Maintenance Home Repair and Maintenance Gardening and Landscaping Music Painting and Architecture Criminal Code/Court Procedures Language and Literature Lodge Rituals/Parliamentary Pro cedures for Meetings 51 TABLE 9 DISTRIBUTION OF OTHER SOURCES FOR OTHER INFORMATION SEEKING ACTIVITIES BY FOUR OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES (BLISHEN INDEX) BLISHEN INDEX SOURCES Group I 20 - 29 N = 35 Resource Persons Musea/Art Galleries PTA/Rome School Meetings Municipal and District Council Meetings Hews Media Public Library Respondent 's Own Library School Library Specialized Books/Journals Travel Information Brochures Group II 30 - 39 N = 28 Resource Persons Musea/Art Galleries PTA/Rome School Meetings Public Meetings Municipal and District Council Meetings Special Meetings (Job-related) Public Library Respondent 's Own Library UBC Library School Library News Media Specialized Books/Journals Group III 40 - 49 N = 15 Resource Persons Musea/Art Galleries PTA/Rome School Meetings Public Meetings Municipal and District Council Meetings Public Library School Library Respondent 's Own Library District of North Vancouver Research Centre News Media Specialized Books/Journals 52 TABLE 9 (Continued) BLISHEN INDEX SOURCES Group IV 50 and over N = 25 Resource Persons Muse a/Art Galleries PTA/Rome School Meetings Public Meetings Municipal and District Council Meetings Special Meetings (Job-related) Public Library School Library Respondent 's Own Library Court House Library News Media Specialized Books/Journals 53 In summary, there seems to be some indication that occupational level does make a difference to the number of adult education courses (exclusive of union education) partici pated in by the respondents, and that the mean total number of courses and educational activities engaged in increases as .the occupational level rises. There is no evidence, however, that occupational level is a factor in type of union education courses, other adult education courses and self-directed learn ing projects engaged in or type of other information sources utilized. Bivariate tables were calculated and chi-squares computed for the following variables by participants and non-participants in adult education including union education: union participation (frequency of attendance at meetings); social participation (Chapin Scale); occupation; age; marital status; formal level of education; number of children at home and sex. The only tables which yielded a significant chi-square value at the .05 level were participants and non-participants by union participation, by age and by sex, indicating that only union participation, age and sex were distinguishing character istics among participants and non-participants in all adult edu cation courses among our respondents. Table 10 shows the percentage distribution by participants and non-participants in all adult education courses by four union participation categories. 54 TABLE 10 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS IN ADULT EDUCATION (INCLUDING UNION EDUCATION) COURSES BY FOUR UNION PARTICIPATION CATEGORIES UNION PARTICIPATION CATEGORIES PARTICIPANTS NON-PARTICIPANTS TOTAL 1. Up to 15 ' No. 9 8.74 No. 15 14. 56 No. 24 % 23.30 2. 16 - 25 16 15. 53 29 28.16 45 43.69 3. 26 - 35 8 7.77 10 9.71 18 17.48 4. 36 and over 13 12.62 3 2.91 15 15.53 TOTAL 46 44.66 57 55. 34 103 100 Chi-square value 10.675, d.f. 3, p < .02 Chi-square value was 10.675, significant at the .02 level, indicating that those union members with a high score on the union participation scale are. more likely to be participants in adult education courses than those with a low score on the scale. In other words, union members who tend to be active in union affairs also tend to be active in adult education as far as members of Local 389 of CUPE are concerned. Table 11 shows the age distribution of participants and non-participants in all adult education courses. 55 TABLE 11 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS IN ADULT EDUCATION (INCLUDION UNION EDUCATION) COURSES BY FOUR AGE CATEGORIES AGE CATEGORIES PARTICIPANTS NON-PARTICIPANTS TOTAL No. % No. % No. 1. 15 - 34 16 34.78 11 19.30 27 26.21 2. 35 - 44 12 26.09 11 19.30 23 22.33 3. 45 - 54 15 32.61 16 28.07 31 30.09 4. 55 and over 3 6.52 19 33.33 . 22 21.37 TOTAL 46 100 57 100 103 100 Chi square value 11.596, d.f. 3, p < .01 Chi square value was 11.596, d.f. 3, significant at the .01 level, indicating that among our respondents older union members tend to be less active in adult education than younger ones. As Table 11 shows, 60.87 per cent (categories l and 2) of those 44 years of age and younger were participants against 38.60 per cent who were non-participants. In the 45 years and older categories 39.13 per cent participated against 61.40 per cent who did not. Table 12 shows the percentage distribution of partici pants and non-participants by sex of the respondents. 56 TABLE 12 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS IN ADULT EDUCATION (INCLUDING UNION EDUCATION) COURSES BY SEX OF THE RESPONDENTS SEX CATEGORIES PARTICIPANTS NON-PARTICIPANTS TOTAL No. I No.. % No. % FEMALE 16 66.67 8 33.33 24 100 MALE 30 38.00 49 62.00 79 100 Chi square value 5.02, d.f. 1, p < .05 Of the 24 female respondents, 16 or 66.67 per cent participated against eight or 33.33 per cent who did not. Of the 79 male respondents, 30 or 38.00 per cent participated against 49 or 62 per cent who did not. Chi square computed was 5.02, significant at the .05 level, with one degree of freedom, for a critical value of 3.84. For the respondents interviewed at least, sex is a significant factor in determin ing whether or not an individual is likely to participate in adult education -- more women than men, relatively speaking, were participants. The distribution of participants and non-participants by occupation, social participation, marital status,^number of children at home and level of formal education did not yield 57 significant chi squares values at the .05 level. The latter item sounds contrary to expectations according to the liter ature, but it must be,borne in mind that on the whole the respondents were fairly well educated, with a mean number of years of schooling completed of over 11 years (Table 13). Clearly, the bulk of the respondents interviewed had a for mal education of between 9 and 16 years. For this group of respondents there is not enough spread betv/een the poorly and the highly educated to allow formal education to be a deciding factor in participation or non-participation. A t-test was performed to learn if the mean- score in self-directed learning projects for participants in for mal adult education (union and otheradult education) courses at 584.61 differed significantly from that for non-participants at 678.95. The t-score was 1.103, d.f. 101, which was not significant at the .05 level. In summary, the question of whether or not there is a difference in characteristics of union members who do and union members who do not participate in adult education cour ses can be answered as follows: as far as members of Local 389 of CUPE are concerned, members who participate are likely to be men or women, with a higher relative percentage of women, who are under 45 years of age and who are active participants in the life of their Union Local. TABLE 13 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS IN FOUR OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES BY LEVEL OF EDUCATION OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES BLISHEN INDEX LEVEL OF EDUCATION Up to 8 9-11 12 13 - 16 17 and up Total I. 20 - 29 No. % No. % No. % 9 8.74 13 12.62 8 7.77 No. % No. % No. 4 3.88 1 0.97 35 33.98 II. 30 - 39 III. 40 - 49 9 8.74 9 8.74 5 4.85 5 4,85 0 0.00 28 27.18 .97 5 4.85 4 3.88 5 4.85 0 0.00 15 14.57 IV. 50 and Over .97 2 1.94 6 5.82 15 14.57 1 0.97 25 24.27 TOTAL 20 19.42 29 28.15 23 22.32 29 28.15 2 1.94 103 100.00 oo 59 We will next consider the correlations between all dependent and independent variables, and isolate those which are significant for 103 observations at the .5 and .01 levels of significance. The dependent variables are: participation in union education, in other adult education, in self-directed learning projects, in other information seeking activities, and total participation in all categories. The independent variables are all the socio-economic and psycho-social charac teristics of the respondents: years membership in the union, union participation scores, social participation scores, the four 'belief variables, scores on the attitude to union edu cation scale, occupation, age, marital status, level of edu cation, number of children at home and sex. Table 14 shows the correlation matrix. Critical values are .19 and .26 respectively. Underlined values are significant at the .05 or .01 level. There is a significant correlation between social participation and years of member ship in the union, but little importance can be attached to that. The next significant correlation, at the .01 level, is between age and years membership in the union with an r. of .47. That make?sense, since scores on both variables in crease simultaneously. The negative correlation between martial status and years membership in the union, signifi cant at the .05 level, simply tells us that there are more married union members among our respondents than single ones. TABLE 14 CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS OF ALL VARIABLES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1. 1.00 List of Variables 2. 0.14 1.00 3. 0.23 0.06 1.00 1. Years Membership in Union. 2. Union Participation. 4. 0.06 0.25 -0.03 1.00 3. Social Participation. 4. Belief in Union Resp. (Voc. ed.) 5. 0.19 0.31 0.14 0,27 1.00 5. Belief in Union Resp. (Union ed.) 6. Belief in Union Resp. (Labour ed.) 6. 0.17 0.27 0.18 *0.18 0.33 1.00 7. Belief in Union Resp. (Leisure ed.) •—— 8. Attitude to Union Education. 7. 0.13 0.46 -0.03 0.16 0.29 0.59 1.00 9. Participation in Union Education. — = 10. Participation -in Adult Education. 8. 0.14 0.21 0.17 0.25 0.49 0.42 0.34 1.00 11. Part, in Self-Direc. Learn. Proj. 12. Part, in Infor. Seek. Activities 9. 0.07 0.80 0.06 0.23 0.26 0.28 0.45 0.18 1.00 13. Total. Participation. 14. Occupation. 10. -0.10 0.19 0.09 -0.08 0.06 0.05 -0.02 0.00 0.12 1.00 15. Age. 16. Marital Status. 11. 0.09 -0.12 0.05 -0.14 0.05 0.02 -0.09 -0.30 -0.05 -0.20 1.00 17. Level of Formal Education. 18. Number of Children at Home. \ 12. 0.14 -0.01 0.13 0.01 0.25 0.11 0.11 0.11 -0.03 -0.15 0.21 1.00 19. Sex. 13. 0.08 -0.03 0.12 -0.16 0.15 0.07 -0.04 0.01 -0.01 0.13 0.89 0.48 1.00 14. -0.05 0.10 0.28 -0.09 0.17 0.05 -0.02 0.16 -0.08 0.00 0.05 0.41 0.19 1.00 15. 0.47 0.08 0.08 0.04 -0.08 0.07 0.15 -0.05 0.05 -0.31 -0.01 0.12 -0.08 -0.04 1.00 16. -0.22 0.01 -0.18 -0.10 0.00 -0.03 -0.09 -0.06" -0.09 0.30 0.02 --0.14 0.08 -0.13 -IL12 1.00 17. -0.31 -0.15 0.27 -0.31 -0.10 0.02 -0.11 -0.03 -0.16 0.37 0.00 0.13 0.18 0.41 -0.38 0,22 1.00 18. 0.02 -0.05 0.04 0.11 0.02 0.18 0.06 0.11 0.06 -0.26 0.01 --0.01 -0.09 0.08 -0.02 -0.47 -0. 15 i.oo 19. 0.20 -0.07 -0.02 0.04 -0.06 0.05 0.15 -0.04 0.05 -0.09 0.11 0.08 0.09 -0.47 0.06 -0.15 -o, 20 0.00 1.00 Single underlined values are significant at the .05 level. Double underlined values are significant at the .01 level. 61 There are significant correlations between the four 'belief variables, respectively indicating belief in union responsibil ity for vocational, union, labour and leisure time education, and union participation, which can be explained by the fact that only for the 'active minority1 union participation is high and of those with a high union participation score a significant proportion admitted to union responsibility in all four areas of educational endeavour. There is no significant correlation between scores on the attitude to union education scale and union participa tion, or between attitude to union education scores and actual participation scores in union education. Maybe the lack of correlation here simply reflects the gap between attitude in theory and participation in practice -- nobody likes to admit to a negative attitude. There is, however, a very high corre lation, significant at the .01 level, between participation in union education and union participation, which again highlights the fact that union education is geared to the local leader ship, the 'active minority' again, the only section of the respondents which consistently had a high union participation score. There are significant correlations between attitude to union education and the four belief variables, with the correlation for belief in union responsibility for vocational education significant at the .05 level, and that for the other 62 three significant at the .01 level, and the highest correlation occuring between.attitude to union education and belief in union responsibility for union education, with an r of .50. No significant correlations exist between partici pation in adult education scores or total participation scores in all four types of educational activities, and any of the independent variables. Occupation only correlates significant ly, at the .01 level, with social participation. Marital status correlates significantly, at the .01 level, with participation in adult education, with an r. of .30, indicating that among our respondents more married than single union members were participants. Formal level of education showed significant correlations with years membership in the union, social par ticipation in adult, education, occupation, age and marital status. Taking these one by one, formal level of education correlates negatively, significant at the .01 level, with years membership in the union, indicating that there are rela tively fewer highly educated than poorly educated members among our respondents with long membership standing. Formal level of education correlates positively with social participation, but negatively with belief in union responsibility for vocational training, which is not surprising: the better one is educated the more one is able and willing to assume and accept responsi bility for one's own vocational training. Correlation between formal level of education and participation in adult education 63 is significant at the .01 level, with an r. of .37, which is supported by the literature ad infinitem. Correlation be tween formal level of education and occupation is also posi tive and significant at the .01 level with an r. of .41, which is what one would expect. Finally, there is a significant negative correlation between formal level of education and age, indicating that the highest proportion of poorly educated respondents resides among the older ones. Number of children living at home correlates signifi cantly but negatively at the .01 level of significance, with an r. of -.47, with marital status, which is to be expected in our society. Sex correlates significantly but negatively with occupation, indicating that among the respondents more men than women occupy high positions. Other Factors Related to Participation:Factors In hibiting Formal Participation in Adult Education (Excluding  of union education). One of the single most often cited fac tor inhibiting formal participation in adult education reflec ted the pragmatic nature of the subjects respondents were in terested in, the fact that most of their projects are better suited to a do-it-yourself approach than to the prevailing structured classroom approach. As many as 25 respondents claimed that it would be artificial to take courses in subjects which could be learned more naturally by doing than by learn-64 ing theory. They perceived taking courses as inimical to achieving the results they wanted, or irrelevant, or a waste of time. Their experience with classroom teaching no doubt influenced them to a large extent, and all their answers boiled down to the conviction that practice is better than theory any time. Indeed they hold this truth to be self-evident! Another 25 respondents claimed time as an inhibit ing factor: they were too busy -- with their families, their homes, their union. Ten respondents were prevented from par ticipating because they worked night shifts; several of these indicated they would take courses if they could so at times convenient to them --on week-day mornings, or even on week ends. Nine respondents thought they were too old, although age did not prevent them from learning on their own. This may indicate that the age barrier is more of a social inhibition than a real conviction that advancing age has anything to do with their learning powers: 'School' is associated with young people. This association may also account for the two respondents who claimed it never occurred to them to take courses.. Eight respondents claimed financial reasons for their lack of participation, and two admitted they were too lazy. One respondent cited lack of fluency in the English-language as an inhibiting factor, and another one claimed he did not need courses, 'God told him what to do.' Whatever 65 one may think of this last reason, he certainly made a good job of it: this respondent had a retarded child, and he and his wife taught her to spell, and to read and write simple words and sentences, by means of playing Sovabble, an extreme ly creative approach to a difficult problem. Two respondents resisted taking courses because of the connotation of having to 'better' themselves, which they resented, an attitude which concurs with the findings of Watson, et al. (1963) and Carlson (1971), cited in Chapter I. Two others did not take courses in their areas of inter est because to do so would not have any promotional value in their jobs; again, a highly pragmatic, approach to participation in adult education. Two claimed they were too tired after a .day's work to go to school. Six said the courses available to them in their areas of interest were too elementary: two of these had actually taught courses in their subjects at night school. Three respondents could not take the courses they wanted because of lack of the necessary prerequisites. But 20 respondents did not participate in formal courses be cause of the rigid scheduling and formal classroom atmosphere. As one young man, a 21-year-old labourer with a high school education, related: "Everything is so regulated. We eat, sleep and work by the clock. I want to do some things irregularly, or not all, or just for a while. We have so little initiative left to us in today's society." 66 Many respondents of course cited more than one rea son for not participating, but whatever these reasons, one fact emerges clearly and irrefutably: if adult education practitioners want to attract more participants, a lot more flexibility and imagination are needed, both in the schedul ing of time and in the structuring of courses. The young man's lament cited above may well have greater relevance for persons from the lower socio-economic strata of society than for those from the higher ones, since the nature of their jobs will leave them little or no room for flexibility or for per sonal initiative. Their lives are so regimented already, that they will resist any additional regimentation, even such a supposedly beneficial one as participation in adult education courses. Factors Inhibiting Participation in Union Education. Although no questions were included in the interview schedule about reasons for not participating in union education, respond ents were quick to volunteer this information. Of the non-participants in union education, the majority claimed they were not aware of the fact that their Local offered any such courses. These non-participants were all rank and file mem bers, while of the nine participants, seven either belonged to the Local executive now, or had done so in the past, or served on one or more special committees. Some non-partici pants claimed they would be willing to take union education 67 courses if they were but told about them. In Universities and Unions in Workers' Education, Jack Barbash (1955) asked, . . .it might also be worth while considering ways of reaching rank and file union members directly. With a few ex ceptions, the current Inter-University Labor Committee programs have been directed almost exclusively at union middle leadership on the assumption that a process of percolation will• operate. Is such an assumption justi fied? According to the unsolicited information given the present writer by members of Local 389 of CUPE, such an assumption is far from justified. One respondent, who admitted knowing about CUPE's participation in the programs offered by the Western Regional Education Department of CUPE, stated that most courses and seminars offered are simply not geared to the rank and file members, but are definitely aimed at Local leadership. If the Department were willing to offer courses, say, in the history of the union movement, and the importance of the role played by unions in the past, coupled with courses on how the union could adapt to the rapid changes in society, this respondent would be very interested. But, he continued, this is where present union education falls down; it is still tied to an obsolete boss-worker syndrome, which seems to be perpetuated more by the union leadership than believed in by the union members. Whether this allegation is based on truth or not would have to be established by future research. In the meantime it is obvious that non-participation in union 68 education in Local 389 is at least partly due to a lack of communication between the leadership and the rank and file members. Another reason is simply a matter of hostility. Quite a few members indicated that they do not feel the union Local adequately represents their interests, and they claimed they would not attend a weekend seminar if the Local paid them for it. Since Local 389 represents five differ ent groups of employees, it is perhaps inevitable that some members think their group is under-represented, or their in terests sacrificed tc those of the other groups. Reasons for Formal Participation in Adult Education  Courses (Including Union Education). Question 25 of the inter view schedule dealt with the reasons for participation in union and other adult education courses, as compared to factors in hibiting formal participation. Thirty courses were taken for vocational reasons, either to enable the respondent to become more proficient on the job, or in the hope their efforts would lead to promotion, or both. All the union courses were taken for reasons directly related to the members' enthusiasm for partaking in the life of the union. These (nine) partici pants represented the 'active minority' in union affairs. Only seven course^ were taken for social reasons, because the par ticipants liked to learn with like-minded people. Eight adult 69 education courses were taken for financial reasons; the skills learned in these courses enabled the participants to save money in the future. But 39 adult education courses were taken solely for reasons of private interest, having no prag matic value whatsoever, simply adding to the participant's enjoyment of life, or satisfying some innate curiosity. In summary, 57 reasons given were of a pragmatic nature (including the union reasons,) , while 44 were of a social or personal nature. This confirms Allen Tough's finding that the single most common and important reason why adults learn is the desire to use or apply the knowledge or skill re quired. "Commitment to an action goal comes first -- then the decision to learn as a step forward to achieving the goal more effectively or successfully." (Tough, 1971). Multivariate Analysis Multiple Regression Analysis. For each of the five independent variables (participation in union education, all adult education, self-directed learning projects, other infor mation seeking activities and total participation) a multiple regression analysis was undertaken to ascertain what percent age of the variance in participation scores was accounted for by the six socio-economic characteristics occupation, age, marital status, formal level of education, number of children at home and sex. It was found that, as a set, these six charac teristics accounted for only 2.98 per cent of the variance in 70 union education scores, for 23.49 per cent of the variance in all adult education scores, for only 3.05 per cent of the var iance in self-directed learning projects, for 27.86 per cent of the variance in information seeking scores, and for 10.58 per cent of the variance in total participation scores (see Table 15) all at the .05 level of significance. TABLE 15 MULTIPLE CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN SIX SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS AND TYPES OF PARTICIPATION % OF VARIANCE TYPE OF PARTICIPATION R ACCOUNTED FOR Union Education . 173 2.98 All Adult Education .485 23.49 Self-Directed Learning Projects .175 3.05 Information Seeking Activities . 528 27.86 Total Participation .325 10.58 In subsequent multiple regression analyses with each of the independent variables, selected characteristics which contributed significantly at the .05 level (see Table 16) to the variance in participation scores were: 1. For union education: union parti cipation, accounting for 63.21 per cent of the variance. I 71 2. For all adult education: education, which accounted for 13.58 per cent of the vari ance, while education, union participation and marital status combined accounted for 24.13 per cent of the variance. 3. For self-directed learning pro jects: none of the remaining variables contri buted significantly to the variance in partici pation scores. 4. Other information seeking activi ties: none of the remaining variables contributed significantly to the variance. 5. For total participation: occupation by itself accounted for 3.58 per cent of the var iance in participation scores, while none of the remaining variables contributed significantly. TABLE 16 PERCENTAGE OF VARIANCE IN TYPES OF PARTICIPATION ACCOUNTED FOR BY SELECTED CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS ,n 1 1 • 1 f i 1 1,1 I1 i i '• —•———••———————• if -i •' • ' 1 ——mr % OF VARIANCE TYPE OF PARTICIPATION CHARACTERISTICS ACCOUNTED FOR Union Education Adult Education Self-directed Learning Proj ects Other Information Seeking Activities Union Participation Occupation Education Marital Status Union Participation None 63. 21 2.58 65. 79 13.58 4.86 5.69 24.13 None Total Participation Occupation 3.58 72 In summary, it appears that the best single predic tor of whether or not a member of Local 389 of CUPE is like ly to participate in union education is his union participa tion score, or the extent to which he participates in the life of his Local, accounting for 63.21 per cent of the var iance in participation alone. The scores on the four 'be lief scales do not add significantly, at the .05 level, to what the six socio-economic variables and union participation contribute to the variance in union education participation scores. For participation in adult education in general, for mal level of education is the best single predictor, account ing for 13.58 per cent of the variance in participation scores. For self-directed learning projects and other infor mation seeking activities no specific characteristic can be singled out for predictive purposes. The t-test, performed to see whether the mean score in self-directed learning pro jects for participants in union and other adult education courses differed significantly from that of non-participants in these formal courses, showed that there is no significant difference in these means, with a t of 1.103, d.f. 101, at the .10 and .05 level for critical values of 1.290 and 1.660 respectively. This confirms the author's suspicion that for mal participation is not an unbiased indicator of whether or not an individual is interested in continuing learning. i CHAPTER V SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION Introduction The Canadian Labour Congress is currently sponsoring a survey designed to discover the extent of the educational ser vices provided for union members by provincial federations, labour councils, national and international unions, and union locals across Canada. The present study was undertaken to deter mine how union members of Local 389 of CUPE react to and partici pate in these union-directed -activities, in other adult education activities, in self-directed learning projects and in other in formation seeking activities. Five specific questions were pro posed to learn the extent of these members' reaction to and participation in all of these educational activities. These five questions are used to summarize the findings reported in Chapter IV. From these findings, implications for union education and for adult education in general are developed, and a conclusion reached. Summary of Findings 1. Do union members believe that labour unions have a responsibility to meet their education al needs apart from union-related knowledge and skills? A bivariate table was constructed and chi-square value calcu-73 74 lated to measure the extent of union members' belief in the importance of the union's role in providing four types of education, union education, vocational education, labour edu cation and leisure time education. It- was found that the mem bers interviewed conceded the importance of the union's role In providing union education, denied the importance of the union's role in providing labour and leisure time education, and were divided in their belief in the importance of the union's role in providing vocational education, depending on their formal level of education. The chi-square calculated (Table 3) showed that the response rate was significant at 178,60. d.f. 15, at the .001 level. Formal level of education correlated significantly with their belief in the importance of the union's role in providing vocational education at the .01 level. 2. To what extent do union members participate in five types of educational activities including (a) union education (b) labour education (c) other adult education (d) self-directed learning projects (e) other information seeking activities? Bivariate tables were constructed to measure the respondent's participation in each of these educational activities. No chi squares were calculated since these educational activities are not mutually exclusive. It was found that members of Local 389 of CUPE interviewed participated in these activities to the following extent: 75 Union education: 8.74 per cent of the respondents participated with a mean number of hours of 1.29. These par ticipants consisted of the younger (45 years and under), more active union members with a high degree of enthusiasm for par taking in union affairs. Labour education: No participation was reported by any of the respondents studied during the period covered by this survey. Other adult education: 37.86 per cent of the respond ents participated with a mean number of hours of 74.97. These participants were found mostly in the 45 years of age and young er group, with a higher relative percentage of women than men. Self-directed learning projects: 99.03 per cent of the respondents participated, with a mean number of hours of 636.81. Other information seeking activities: 96.12 per cent of the respondents participated with a mean number of hours of 148.32. In toto, the respondents participated 100 per cent, with a mean number of hours of 857.79 in various combinations of educational activities. 3. Is there a difference in the nature and number of the five types of educational acti vities engaged in by union members in different occupational categories? Table 4, giving the distribution of number and mean number of educational activities by four occupational categories, showed 76 that the mean number of adult education courses (exclusive of union education) and of total educational activities en gaged in increases as the occupational level of the partici pant rises. There is, then, a difference in number of edu cational activities engaged in by union members in different occupational categories. Union members of Local 389 of CUPE in higher occupational categories engage in more educational activities and take more adult education courses than do mem bers in lower occupational categories. According to the mul tiple regression analysis, however, occupation accounts for only 3.58 per cent of the variance in total participation scores. No significant difference was found in the nature of educational activities engaged in by respondents in different occupational categories. The type of subject a respondent is likely to be interested in appears largely a matter of personal preference and circumstances. 4. Is there a difference in charac teristics of members who do and members who do not participate in adult education (in cluding union education)? Bivariate tables were constructed and chi squares calculated showing percentage distributions of participants and non-partici pants by union participation, social participation, occupation, age, marital status, formal level of education, number of child ren at home and sex. The only tables which yielded significant 77 chi square values were participants and non-participants by union participation, by age, and by sex. For our respondents, then, according to the bivariate analysis,•the only signifi cant differences in characteristics between participants and non-participants in adult education were in the realms of union participation, age and sex. For predictive purposes, how ever, according to the multiple regression analysis, formal level of education is the most significant characteristic, accounting for 13.58 per cent of the variance in adult educa tion participation scores. 5. If one includes all educational activities an adult engages in under adult learningy what personal characteristic will be the best single predictor of whether or not an individual union member is likely to participate in adult learning? According to the multiple regression analysis, formal level of education was hot a significant variable for predictive purposes in total educational participation scores; neither were any of the other independent variables. Occupation alone accounted for 3.58 per cent of the variance in total participation scores, while the six socio-economic characteristics together accounted for 10.58 per cent of the variance. There is then no personal characteristic which can be said to be the best single predic tor of whether or not a member of Local 389 of CUPE is likely to participate in adult learning, if under adult learning we sub sume all educational and information seeking activities an in dividual union member engages in. 78 Implications for Union Education Complaints by union educators that rank and file mem bers are not interested and do not participate in union educa tion to any great extent will continue until the unions find a way to reach the membership through more direct channels. A process of downward percolation through the Local's leadership does not seem to take place;if the unions are serious about their assumption of responsibility for all the educational needs of rank and file union members they somehow ought to resolve the existing dichotomy between the members' acceptance of the union's economic function and their denial of the union's social function. As long as this dichotomy persists union efforts to provide labour and leisure time education will continue to meet with scant success. Union educators might be better advised to continue the traditional approach, restricting content of pro grams to those subjects which are of direct practical importance to the maintenance of the institution they serve. In summary, union educators ought to reassess, with the help of rank and file opinion surveys, where and how union resources for educa tional purposes can best be employed. Implications for Adult Education If adult educators are serious about their wishing to attract more unskilled and semi-skilled labourers into the ranks of participants, ways ought to be found to design educational 79 opportunities which appeal to such labourers. This study found that the most persistant factor inhibiting formal participation was the rigid scheduling and formal classroom atmosphere prevailing in adult education institutions, coupled with the fact that the subjects which interested the respondents most were of a highly practical nature more conducive to the workshop than to the classroom. If a householder could drop in at a "Householders' Fixit Centre," where for a simple fee payable at the door he could get such immediate, one-shot prac tical instruction in how to deal with any of the many repair and maintenance chores which inevitably crop up in any house hold, many more people might participate in such educational or instructional ventures. Such participation would not neces sitate them to register for a fixed number of weeks at specific times. As far as the respondents of this study are concerned, fewer lectures and more workshops are needed in many subject areas. Why does not some enterprising school board buy an old decrepit house and use that as a workshop for practical instruc tion in how to "fix it?" The fact that so many of the resource people respondents turned to for advice and information were service station attendants, hardware merchants and local build ing supply stores' personnel shows that there are resources little explored and utilized for educational purposes. 80 Conclusion The tendency to divide labour union members into blue-collar and white-collar workers for purposes of assess ing their potential participation in educational activities seems on reflection wholly arbitrary and artificial. Formal participation is not the be-all and end-all of education, and a great deal of educational activity takes place outside of formal programs in institutional settings. Nor is past edu cational performance a trustworthy indicator of future achieve ment. Even those respondents with a low level of formal school ing who had never taken an adult education course were active ly pursuing learning on their own in order to be able to cope with the demands that everyday life imposed upon them. Home owners especially participated in learning activities cease lessly, partly from pragmatic considerations, partly because of the pride they felt in getting a complete piece of work well done. Most of their self-directed projects were concerned with making things as well as with repairing them, satisfying some creative urge which is not otherwise satisfied in our society. The daily job is mostly of a fragmented nature, a seemingly in significant part of a whole a worker can no longer perceive. Ur ban workers especially have lost touch with primary production; they are part of a routine assembly line process which makes their daily work seem unrelated and irrelevant to any unified organic system. This contributes to their lack of enthusiasm 81 for any scheduled courses, which again rob them of initiative and a sense of self-sufficiency. The respondents studied did • not want to be organized for learning, whether by the union or by educational institutions. They wanted to organize their learning themselves, in their own way and in their own time. Having seen some of the products of their abilities, one can only agree with Jack London that singling out those sociologi cal characteristics which determine participation or non-participation in formal institutional settings ". . .ignores the essential quality of the human being as a highly dynamic, self-generating organism who is limited more by his own oppor tunities and definition of the situation than by any inherent biological characteristics." (London, 1965). REFERENCES Adolph, T. and R. F. Whaley. "Attitudes Toward Adult Educa tion," Adult Education, 17: 152-156 (Spring, 196 7). Barbash, Jack. Universities and Unions in Workers' Education. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1955. Blishen, B. R. "A Socio-Economic Index for Occupations in Canada," The Canadian Review of Anthropology, 4: 41-53 (February, 1967). Bonjean, C, R. J. Hill and S. D. McLemore. Sociological Measurement, San Francisco: Chandler Publishing Co., 1967. Booth, Alan. "A Demographic Consideration of Non-Participation," Adult Education, 11: 223-229 (Summer, 1961). Brunner, E. deS.D. S. Wilder, C. Kirchner, and J. S. Newberry, Jr. An Overview of Adult Education Research. Chicago: Adult Education Association, 1959. Carlson, Robert A. The State of the A.rt of Adult Education. The University of Saskatoon, Saskatoon, 1970. Coombs, R. H. and Vernon Davies. "Social Class, Scholastic As piration and Academic Achievement," Pacific Sociological Review, 8: 96-100 (Fall, 1965). Cram, Lee L. The Co-operative Extension Service and the Lower Socio-economic Citizenry. The University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1965. Dellefield, Calvin J. Aspirations of Low Socio-economic Status Adults and Implications for Adult Education. University of California, Los Angeles, 1965. Dickinson, Gary. Education Variables and Participation in Adult Education. Adult Education Research Centre, University of British Columbia, 1971. _^ . Patterns of Participation in a Public Adult ' Night School Program. Adult Education Research Centre, University of British Columbia, 1966. 82 83 Edwards, A. L. Statistical Methods for the Behavioral Sciences. New York: Holt, Rinehart $ Winston, 1964. Goode, W. J. and Paul K. Hatt. Methods in Social Research. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1952. Houle, Cyril. The Inquiring Mind. Madison, Wise: University of Wisconsin Press, 1961. Johnstone, John W. C. and Ramon J. Rivera. Volunteers for Learning. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co., 1965. Kehoe, Mary (Ed.). Labour Unions: An Introductory Course. St. Patrick's College, Extension Department, Ottawa, 1962. "Labour Program at Niagara College," Canadian Labour, 16: 11-12, 24 (December, 1971). Laskin, R. (Ed.). Social Problems: A Canadian Profile. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1964. London, Jack. "Adult Education and Workers' Education in the United States," Workers Education, papers presented at a Conference held in Rewley House, Oxford, 1965. ' , R. Wenkert and W. 0. Hagstrom. Adult Education and-Social Class. Survey Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, 1963. Mire, Joseph.. Labour Education. Inter-University Labor Educa tion Committee, New York: Straus Printing Co., 1956. Oppenheim, A. N. Questionnaire Design and Attitude Measure ment. New York: Basic Books Inc., 1968. Robinson, J. W. "Effects of the Social and Economic Environ ments on Workers' Education: United States and British Examples," Adult Education Journal, 19,3: 172-185, 1969. Rusnell, A. D. Occupation and Adult Education of Non-Farm Residents in Rural British Columbia. M.A. Thesis, Univer sity of British Columbia, 1970. Sayles, Leonard R. and George Strauss. The Local Union. New York: Harcourt, Brace 5 World, Inc., 1967. Smith, H. P. Labour and Learning. Oxford: Alden Press, 1956. Tough, Allen. The Adult's Learning Projects. Toronto, Ont.: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 1971. ! 84 Tough,Allen. Interview Schedule for a Study of Seme Basic Characteristics of Learning Projects in Several Populations. Toronto, Ont.: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 1970 . . Why Adults Learn. Toronto, Ont.: Ontario Insti tute for Studies in Education, 1968. Verner, Coolie. A Conceptual Scheme for the Identification of Processes for Adult Education. Chicago: Adult Education Association, 1962. and John S. Newberry, Jr. "The Nature of Adult Participation," Adult Education, 8: 208-222, 1958. Watson, Gordon (Ed.). No Room At The Bottom. Washington, D.C: National Education Association of the United States, 1963. Wertheirner, Barbara M. Exploring the Arts: A Handbook for Trade Union Program Planners. New York: New York School of Individual and Labor Relations, Cornell University, Divi sion of Extension and Public Service, 1968. Whitehouse, John R. W. College-Centred Labour Education: A Trade Union Approach. Toronto, Ont.: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 1968. . The Implications of College-Centred Labour Education. Toronto, Ont.: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 1969. APPENDIX 86 INTERVIEW SCHEDULE LABOUR UNION EDUCATION SURVEY Respondent's Number 1,3. Card Number One 4. 1 1. How many years have you been a member of your union? 5, 6. 2. On how many committees, if any, have you served during the past 12 months, that is, since March, 1971? 7. 3. How many offices, if any, have you held during that time? 84. How many times during the past 12 months did you attend union meetings? 9,10. Union participation scale (add col. 7 - 10) 11, 12. 5. Chapin Scale; Of what other organizations, beside your union, have you been a member for the past 12 months? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Name of Org. Attendance Financial Committee Offices held Contrib. Member xl x2 x3 x4 x5 0 1 6 11 16 5 10 15 20 1 2 3 4 5 Total score 13, 14. 87 6. Do you read the materials, pamphlets, news sheets, etc. provided by the union? 167. How much time per week would you say you spend reading these materials? 0 - hours per year 0 1-25 hours per year 1 26- 50 hours per year 2 17. actual hrs/yr. 18, 19. 8. Do you pass on what you read in these union publications to other union members? yes - 1 no - 0 20. reading index (add cols. 16, 17, 20 21. 9. How important do you believe is the responsibility of the union to see that you get the education you need a. to help you get better job qualifications? 22. b. to help you become a better union member? 23c. to help you become a better citizen?. 24. d. to help you enjoy your leisure time better? 25very important 6 quite important 5 somewhat important 4 not important 3 undecided 2 definitely not the union's responsibility 1 10. Adolph and Whaley Scale; Instructions: Please read the statements -presented in this form. \Jhen you have completed reading each statement, put an 'X' to the right of the statement if you agree  with it. Leave the space blank if you co net agree  with it. 1. Union education requires too much time and effort. (2.1) 2. The need for union education must exist since there are people who have benefitted by it. (7.2) 3. Union education broadens the mind. (7.84. Union education fulfills personality needs. (7.0) 88 5. Union education is unnecessary, since we can get all the information we need from books or through day-by-day experience. (2.6) 6. I think the controversy about the need for union education is a little exaggerated. (3.8) 7. Union education is fine if you have the time. (5.2) 8. Union education courses lack content and waste time on non-essentials. (3.1) total score 26, 27. Statement 1 28. Statement 2 29. Statement 3 30. Statement 4 31. Statement 5 32. Statement 6 33. Statement 7 34. Statement 8 35. 11. How many courses or workshops in union education, that is, education that fosters the growth of the union movement by providing members with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for effective participation in union activities, have you taken during the past 12 months, since March, 1971? 36. 12. How many courses or workshops in labour education, that is, education concerned with the labour union member's capabili ties to function within society, have you taken since March, 1971? 37. 13. How many adult classes in a public or private school, e.g., night school, have you taken since March, 1971? 38. 14. How many courses in a college or university have you taken since March 1971? 39. 15. How many job training classes have you taken since March, 1971? 4016. How many correspondence courses have you taken since March, 1971? 41. 17. How many classes in a community centre, church, or YMCA have you taken since March, 1971? 42. 18. How many private lessons, such as music lessons, golf lessons or language lessons have you taken since March, 1971? 4319. How many other kind of courses that you can think of have you taken since March, 1971? 44. Total number of courses 45. 20. What was the name of the course or activity you took? Non-participation 0 Union education 1 Labour education 2 Plant and animal sciences 3 Sciences 4 Psychology, human relations, social skills 5 Vocationalrtechnical courses, professional competence 6 Education, child care 7 Sports and games, outdoor activities 8 Needlework, sewing; arts and crafts;photography 9 Physical health and fitness subjects; safety and rescue,- first aid A Religious studies, philosophy, ethics B Social studies, history, geography,mythology C Music, dancing, singing D Cooking, catering, home making E Counselling, guidance, mental health F Current events., politics G Language and literature H Foreign languages I Business management, law, economics J first course 46. second course 47. third course 48. fourth course 49. fifth course 50. 21. Who gave this course or sponsored this activity? Non-participation 0 College/University 1 Private School 3 Business/Industry 4 Church/Synagogue 5 first course 51. YMCA/Community Centre 6 second course 52. Your union local 7 third course 53. A union affiliated organization 8 fourth course 54. Library/museum 9 fifth course 55. Government (Fed., Prov., Municipal) A Other B Don't know C 22. For how many hours was the course scheduled? 56, 57. Non-participation 0 Up to 7 hours 1 first course 58. 8-16 hours 2 second course 59. 17 - 36 hours 3 third course 60. 37 - 72 hours 4 fourth course 61. 73 and over 5 fifth course 62. How many hours did you attend? 63, 64. Non-participation 0 Up to 7 hours 1 first course 65. 8-16 hours 2 second course 66. 17 - 36 hours 3 third course 67. 37 - 72 hours 4 fourth course 68. 73 and over 5 fifth course 69. How many additional hours did you study or read at home for this course? 70, 72. Non-participation 0 Up to 7 hours 1 first course 73. 8-16 hours 2 second course 74. 17 - 36 hours 3 third course 75. 37 - 72 hours 4 fourth course 76. 73 and over 5 fifth course 77. Total number of hrs . (add cols. 70-72, 56-57). 78, 80. RESPONDENT'S NUMBER 1, 3. CARD NUMBER 2 425. Why did you take the course? Non--participation 0 For vocational reasons 1 first course 5. For union reasons 2 second course 6. For social reasons 3 third course 7. For economic reasons 4 fourth course 8. For private interest reasons5 fifth course 9. 26. Did the course satisfy your reasons for taking it? yes - 2 first course 10. no - 1 second course 11. non-participation 0 third course 12. fourth course 13. fifth course 14. 27. Have you in the past 12 months, that is, since March, 1971, tried to learn anything on your own, connected with a sport or hobby maybe, where at least 50% of your motivation to do so was a desire to learn something, and at which you spent at least seven hoursor more? yes - 2 no - 1 15. 28. What, if anything? Non-participation 0 Sports and games 1 Current events, public affairs, politics 2 Cooking, catering, beer and wine making 3 Car, motor cycle and boat engine repair/maintenance . 4 Home repairs, woodworking, carpentry, home improve ment projects, decorating, furniture 5 Needlework, sewing, arts and crafts, photography 6 Child raising, education 7 Plant and animal sciences, nature subjects, pet keeping and breeding 8 Language and literature, public speaking, vocabulary 9 Scientific subjects A Health and physical fitness, safety, first aid B History, geography, travel C Psychology, human relations, social skills D 92 Technical and engineering subjects E Mental and emotional health, personal problems F Gardening, landscaping G Building, construction, property development H Music, singing, dancing I Religious studies, ethics, philosophy J Painting, art, architecture K Criminal code, court procedures L Lodge ceremonies, conduction of meetings M Bookkeeping/accounting, business management N topic number 1 16. topic number 2 17topic number 3 18. topic number A - 19topic number 5 20. topic number 6 21topic number 7 22. topic number 8 23topic number 9 24. topic number lo 25.total number topics 26, 27. 29. How many hours did you spend since March, 1971, on the topics you were trying to learn about? topic number 1 28, 30. topic number 2 31, 33. topic number 3 34, 36. topic number 4 37, 39. topic number 5 40, 42. topic number 6 43, 45. topic number 7 46, 48. topic number 8 49, 51. topic number 9 52, 54. topic number 10 55, 57. topic number 11 58, 60. Total number hrs. in self-directed projects 61, 64. Open question; Why do you prefer to learn about these subjects on your own time rather than take courses on the subject? 30. How many books have you bought in the past 12 months in connection with these topics? 65, 66. 31. How many books have you borrowed in the past 12 months in connection with these topics? 67, 68. 32. How many books have you read altogether in the past 12 months? 69, 70.' 33. Have you bought or borrowed any other learning materials, such as linguaphone records, dictionaries, audio-visual materials or tapes? yes - 2 no - 1 71. What, if any? (post code) 72. 34. How many magazines, if any, do you subscribe to? 73. 35. How many public meetings on contemporary issues, like the Third Crossing or the school referendum, have you gone to since March, 1971? 74. No. of hours spent 75, 76. 36. How many municipal council meetings have you attended since March, 1971? 77No. of hours spent 78, 79. RESPONDENT'S NUMBER 1, 3. CARD NUMBER 3 437. How many PTA meetings have you attended since March, 1971? 5. No. of hours spent 6, 7. 38. How many times have you visited the Public Library to look up something you wanted to know since March, 1971? 8. No. of hours spent 9, 10. 39. How many times since March, 1971, have you visited a museum or art gallery? 11No. of hours spent 12, 13. 40. How many other sources of information have you used that I have not asked about? 14. No. of hours spent 15, 17. Total number of hours information seeking act 18, 20. Total number of hours spent on courses, self-directed projects and other information seeking activities 21, 24. Add cols, card 1, 78-80, card 2, 61-64, and card 3, 16-17 41. What is your job or occupation? (Blishen) 25, 26. 42. How old are you? 27, 28. 15 - 24 1 25 - 34 2 35 - 44 3 45 - 54 4 55 - 64 5 65 and over 6 29. 43. Are you married (1), divorced, separated, widowed (2) or single (3)? 3044. How many years of schooling did you complete? 31, 33. Up to 8 1 9 - 11 2 12 3 13 - 16 4 33. 45. How many of your children, if any, are still living in the home with you? 34. 46. Sex of respondent Male Female 1 2 35. 

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