UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

An analysis of collective investigation as an adult education method Titterington, Lee 1990-12-31

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1990_A2 T57.pdf [ 5.7MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0064610.json
JSON-LD: 1.0064610+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0064610.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0064610+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0064610+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0064610+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0064610 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0064610.txt
Citation
1.0064610.ris

Full Text

AN ANALYSIS OF COLLECTIVE INVESTIGATION AS AN ADULT EDUCATION METHOD BY LEE TITTERINGTON B . S . W . , The U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y , 1975 M . S . W . , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t and Higher Education) We accept t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September ©  1990  Lee T i t t e r i n g t o n  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make  it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  for  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of sf£>L?cr  £2><<>Cd7/QA)  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6  (2/88)  ABSTRACT  The  purpose of t h i s  of non-formal  increased  Collective  an  and  Through  critically  Learning occurs through  ability  i s an  The c o n c e p t o f i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e was  to  identify  and  participants.  A  study.  transform hypothesized  experience.  u s e d as t h e b a s i s f o r  C.I. provided a  vehicle  developed  to  application  of  the  describe  T h i s model draws upon  and  learning  learning  reality."  model was  regarding  potential  identify,  facing  literature  describe  non-formal,  problems  of problem f o r m u l a t i o n .  adult  formulate  "social shared  form  (C.I.)/  everyday  the process  C.I.  adult,  their  s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n and  framework w h i c h g u i d e d t h i s  to  C.I., p a r t i c i p a n t s  question  the  w h e t h e r one  investigation  individual's  investigation  group e d u c a t i v e p r o c e s s . isolate  t o determine  adult education, c o l l e c t i v e  significantly problems.  s t u d y was  "practice in  the  through  a  work  the  knowledge,"  an  environment,  to  collective  educational  process. The  study  examine t h e individual's group  was  traditional didactic  used  affect  a  o f an  problem compared approach  lecture),  quasi-experimental  and  intensive  research  C.I. workshop e x p e r i e n c e  formulation a b i l i t i e s . with  two  to  adult  2)  control education  The  groups:  to on  experimental 1)  a  (pre-readings  a non-treatment c o n t r o l  ii  design  group.  more and The  lecture method was not seen as an alternative method to teach problem formulation but was used as another group.  type of control  The data source was representative samples of child  welfare personnel employed i n British Columbia. A l l groups were pre and posttested, using a semi-structured instrument. research  hypotheses  centered  around  Nine  learner  information-production and problem formulation strategies were tested by ANCOVA.  The results were significant i n several  instances, allowing for the rejection of four of the original nine null hypotheses.  However, i n a l l nine instances the C.I.  group scored the highest, suggesting a general trend. The  results  experience  showed the collective  investigation workshop  significantly increased participant production of  information. The workshop group also demonstrated a significant increase i n specific, occupational information which was used for individual problem formulation. Workshop training for other applications of the production of information, (identification of contextual variables and problem solving) was not provided. The scores i n these applications did not significantly increase. In addition, the findings showed that a significant difference exists between the perceptions of the C.I. group and the Lecture group.  The individuals  activities  and  i n the C.I. group perceived the  structured  interaction  of  collective  investigation to be beneficial to their learning. However, this study showed no impact on qualitative aspects of learning.  iii  Based on these findings, i t was concluded that collective investigation affected group communication and encouraged the development of supportive networks. investigation  promoted individual  Furthermore, collective  confirmation and  enhanced  "personal power" providing effective motivation for learning. The opportunity to practice new  s k i l l s during the collective  investigation process also developed performance strategies. Since such outcomes affect instructional design and the practice of non-formal adult education, they merit consideration among the  range  of  adult  education  educators.  iv  methods  available to  adult  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  ii V  TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES  ix  LIST OF FIGURES  xi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  xii V  CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION  1  Research Question  3  Purpose of the study  3  CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW Collective C.I.  Investigation  Characteristics  6 6 7  L e a r n i n g Outcomes  9  P r a c t i c e Knowledge  14  C o g n i t i v e S t r a t e g i e s and Context  15  Problem Formulation  17  Summary  20  v  CHAPTER 3: FRAMEWORK and CONCEPTUAL MODEL  22  I n d i v i d u a l C o n s t r u c t i o n of Meaning  23  Problem Formulation Model  27  Summary  37  CHAPTER 4: METHODOLOGY  39  Summary  39  Instrument Development  40  Design  46  I n t e r n a l V a l i d i t y of Design  47  External V a l i d i t y  49  Experimental Group  50  C o n t r o l Group #1  51  C o n t r o l Group #2  53  Research P o p u l a t i o n  54  D e s c r i p t i o n of Sample.  55  Data C o l l e c t i o n  58  Test R e l i a b i l i t y  60  Hypotheses  63  Analysis  65  vi  6  CHAPTER 5: RESULTS  68  Total Production of Information  68  Information Classification  73  Occupational Specific  73  Knowledge of Self  77  Knowledge of Others  81  Participant Application of Information  85  Problem Formulation  85  Identification of Contextual Variables  89  Problem Solution  92  SOLO Taxonomy  95  Participant Perceptions of Approach.. 98 Summary  100  CHAPTER 6: Discussion and Conclusion.... 104 Summary of Study  104  Interpretation of Hypotheses Testing. 106 Limitations of Study  121  Theoretical Implications  123  Implications for Practice  127  Future Research  132  vii  REFERENCES  134  APPENDICES (A - G)  138  A . Statements of Informed Consent  139  B. Case Examples  145  C . Response Items  147  D. SOLO Taxonomy  150  E.  Class Intervals  152  F.  Group Regression C o e f f i c i e n t s  154  viii  LIST OF TABLES Table  Page  4:1  SOLO S c o r i n g  4:2  Completed L e v e l of Formal E d u c a t i o n  46 Participant 56  4:3  Formal E d u c a t i o n R e l a t e t o C h i l d C a r e . . . 5 6  4:4  Years of Experience  4:5  Age of Respondents  57  4:6  Gender of Respondents  57  4:7  Averaged Interjudge  4:8  Summary of Hypotheses and T e s t s  67  5:1  T o t a l P r o d u c t i o n of Information  69  5:2  Summary Table of A d j u s t e d Y Sums of Squares and V a r i a n c e s f o r P r o d u c t i o n of Information  71  5:3  t Test  72  5:4  Occupational S p e c i f i c  5:5  Summary Table of A d j u s t e d Y Sums of Squares and V a r i a n c e s f o r O c c u p a t i o n a l Information  76  t Test (Occupational Information)  77  5:6  ...56  Agreement  (SOLO)....62  (Production of Information) Information  74  Specific  5:7  Knowledge of S e l f  78  5:8  Summary Table of A d j u s t e d Y Sums of Squares and V a r i a n c e s f o r Knowledge of S e l f  80  5:9  Knowledge of Others  82  5:10  Summary Table of A d j u s t e d Y Sums of Squares and V a r i a n c e f o r Knowledge of Others  84  ix  5:11  Raw Score  (Problem Formulation)  5:12  Summary Table of A d j u s t e d Y Sums of Squares and V a r i a n c e s Problem Formulation  5:13  t Test  5:14  Raw Score  5:15  Summary Table of A d j u s t e d Y Sums of Squares and V a r i a n c e s Contextual Variables  for  (Problem Formulation)  86  88 89  (Contextual V a r i a b l e s ) for  90  91  5:16  Raw Scores (Problem S o l u t i o n )  93  5:17  Summary Table of A d j u s t e d Y Sums of Squares and V a r i a n c e s f o r Problem S o l u t i o n  94  5:18  SOLO Taxonomy Scores  96  5:19  Summary Table of A d j u s t e d Y Sums of Squares f o r SOLO TAxonomy  97  5:20  Helpful Factors for Learning  99  5:21  Summarization of Hypotheses  101  x  L I S T OF FIGURES  Figure  Page  1  Process of C o l l e c t i v e  2  E d u c a t i v e Process of  Investigation  8  Information R e s t r u c t u r e  22  3  C o n s t r u c t i o n of Meaning  26  4  P r e s e n t a t i o n of Problem Formulation Model A Model f o r C o n s i d e r i n g C o l l e c t i v e Investigation  28  Research Design  48  5 6  xi  35  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would like to thank K j e l l Rubenson for his guidance and patience in the development and completion of this project.  I would also like to gratefully acknowledge the many helpful suggestions of Dan Pratt and Michael Chandler, the other members of my dissertation committee.  My wife Susan provided emotional support and c r i t i c a l assistance to edit the manuscript.  Without her on-going help this project  would have been very d i f f i c u l t .  Finally, I wish to acknowledge the Board of Directors, staff and volunteers of the British Columbia Federation of Foster Parent Associations, who made the study possible.  xii  INTRODUCTION  This  study  examined  the  learning  outcomes  promoted  by  collective investigation (C.I.). Collective investigation i s an adult, non-formal, group educative central principles of C.I. needs  satisfaction,  and  Several of the  (active participant involvement, personal  principles of adult education. education method may  process.  development)  are  basic  An analysis of C.I. as an adult  be of interest to adult educators as the  process relates to several of the principles that guide the practice of adult education. Gelpi (1979) believes that adult education  research  should  investigate the educational contributions of "everyday l i f e . " From  a  similar  perspective,  Cropley  (1977)  stresses  the  importance of innovative methods in non-formal education  by  emphasizing information organization, recall of information and subsequent communication with other people for the purpose of learning. identifying  In a later document, he states the importance of "...the  learning  process  which  leads  to  the  development of attitudes and s k i l l s v i t a l for lifelong learning, including...the ability to organize and order information and the a b i l i t y to make inferences" (Cropley, 1980, p. 210).  1  While  recognizing  the  value  of  formal  education,  Cropley  and  a l s o b e l i e v e a d u l t l e a r n i n g occurs through non-formal C.I.  is  composed  of  community  participation  collective  analysis,  the  following  and  elements:  exploration  to develop  of  Gelpi  methods.  1)  active  problems,  2)  a b e t t e r understanding of  the  problems and the u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r a l causes of the  problems,  and  long-term  3)  collective  action  problem s o l u t i o n s 1982).  aimed  at  method;  can be c o n s i d e r e d as an a d u l t  individuals  teaching  c o n n e c t i n g everyday problems and a d u l t The content  of  and  ( S o c i e t y f o r P a r t i c i p a t o r y Research i n A s i a ,  Collective investigation  education  short-term  C . I . revolves  community  peers,  education.  around problems  identified  the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  C . I . methods may i n c l u d e some or a l l of  following:  discussions,  surveys,  fact-finding  materials, work  group  tours,  in  three  challenges  ways:  meetings,  production  and p o p u l a r t h e a t r e .  methods  facilitator  public  of  C . I . differs 1)  existing  the  participants'  audio-visual  role  group  of  perceptions,  the p r o c e s s i n t e n t i s toward t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the  the  open-ended  from other  "critical"  by  the 2)  participant's  " s o c i a l r e a l i t y , " and 3) the p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n t r o l the content of the e d u c a t i o n a l The  activity.  collective  investigation  process  f o r m u l a t i o n , where p a r t i c i p a n t s i d e n t i f y social reality,  and analyze  l e a r n i n g from s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n  2  involves  problem their  and shared  experience  (Society  for  P.R.  in  Asia,  1985).  Problem  f o r m u l a t i o n both s p e c i f i e s the problem and c r i t i c a l l y the  underlying  exists  is  cause.  necessary  Understanding how and why in  p l a n n i n g ways  to  solve  questions a problem  it.  Problem  f o r m u l a t i o n may l e a d t o the r e d e f i n i t i o n of the i n i t i a l problem, which c o u l d " f i x and determine" the steps or sequencing used f o r problem s o l u t i o n this of  (Schon,  1987).  The b a s i c  premise u n d e r l y i n g  study i s t h a t exposure t o the i n t e r a c t i v e group a  collective  investigation  i n d i v i d u a l ' s problem f o r m u l a t i o n  process  will  activities affect  an  abilities.  Research Question  To  what  extent  investigation  and  process  in  what  affect  an  way  does  the  individual's  collective ability  to  formulate problems?  Purpose of the Study  The  purpose  of  this  study  was  to  determine  whether  C.I.  s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d the a b i l i t y t o formulate problems and i n t h i s way, examine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of one non-formal a d u l t e d u c a t i o n method.  In the l a s t s e v e r a l years the C . I .  3  process  has been a topic and discussion item for many adult education conferences and seminars (Conchelos and Kassam, 1981). One area of debate relates to a lack of quantitative data upon which to evaluate process outcomes. One aim of the study concerns the need to increase knowledge within the broad area of non-formal adult teaching.  Cropley  (1980) believes that research i s needed to help identify the "relationship between different kinds of learning in different settings and the outcomes in terms of personal satisfaction and self-development"  (p.211).  Appropriate research findings may  help to determine what kinds of education are most appropriate for certain kinds of development. general  issues presented  by  This study addresses  Cropley,  Gelpi and  others  the by  exploring a type of non-formal, innovative educational method (collective investigation) which i s assumed to promote the group production, organization and communication of information.  A quasi-experimental research design was used to examine the j  affect of an intensive C.I. workshop experience on individual's problem formulation a b i l i t i e s . compared  with:  1)  a  more  The workshop experience  traditional  approach  to  was  adult  education, (pre-readings and didactic lecture), and 2) a non-treatment control group. The C.I. discussions provided the content for teaching problem formulation. The lecture method  4  was not primarily seen as an alternative instructional choice to teach problem formulation but was rather used as another type of control group. participants  Based on the workshop content developed by the  in the C.I. workshop, information about problem  formulation was presented to the Lecture group through a lecture and pre-readings. The presentation of the dissertation proceeds as follows: A literature review of relevant materials i s presented in Chapter 2  to provide direction  for the study.  The  third  chapter  describes the framework and conceptual model used in the study. Chapter 4 presents the study's instrument development, design, data collection, hypotheses and method of analysis. of the analyses are presented in Chapter 5,  The results  followed by the  f i n a l chapter which discusses the results, limitations of the research, theoretical and practical implications, conclusions and areas for future research.  5  CHAPTER 2  LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter examines two topics: 1) the previous  research  regarding C.I., and 2) the concept of "practice knowledge", an application of adult learning in the work environment. The work environment  can be seen as a component of everyday l i f e and a  context for non-formal education.  The presented topics focus  on the particular elements that have the greatest relevance to the  original  research  question.  C.I.  i s described  followed by a discussion of the acquired Similarly,  practice  knowledge  is  first,  learning outcomes.  defined,  leading  to  a  description of cognitive strategies for problem formulation.  Collective Investigation Formal education curricula are often planned in advance by content  experts  and  standardized  in  a  bureaucracy.  By  comparison, the content of C.I. can seldom be pre-planned and i s often negotiated between participants and facilitators (Brown, 1985).  The  C.I.  process  implies  a  different  education  perspective from that of formal adult education, asking that  6  participants  be  "co-learners."  both  interdependent  "programmers"  and  Successful C.I. i s based on two-way discussions  rather than one-way communication from teacher to student. The next section describes  the basic characteristics of a C.I.  process.  The Characteristics of C.I. The  following  are five  basic  characteristics of a C.I.  process: 1) The problem i s defined, analyzed and solved by the community, through active participation, 2) The goal of C.I. i s the transformation  of social reality,  improving the lives of the people involved, 3) C.I. can create a greater awareness of participants' resources and motivate the individuals for development, 4) The process  facilitates  an accurate  analysis  of social  reality, and 5) The f a c i l i t a t o r i s a committed participant and learner (Hall, 1979). These  characteristics  facilitator  guide  the  action  of  the C.I.  who works with the group to problem solve and  generate knowledge. The role of the facilitator, while creating a group atmosphere of trust and safety, i s to pose " c r i t i c a l ,  7  hard questions while leaving the final decisions up to the constituency...while at  hand  bringing a fresh perspective to the problem  through technical  know-how and analytical s k i l l s "  (Society for P.R. in Asia, 1982, p.40).  Figure 1 illustrates  the process of collective investigation.  Figure 1 ; Process of Collective Investigation (Society for Participatory Research, 1982, p . 8)  Problem Why i s a Solution Needed?  ^  ,  What are the Causes of the Problem? What Solution could be Instituted? -i/  Who w i l l Benefit from the Solution?  What New Problems are Created? si/  Unacceptable  —  '  Acceptable: Problem Definition / Action Product.  8  Collective investigation i s a systematic effort to examine a problem  from  definition product."  a l l perspectives  prior  to commitment  of the problem, which then  to a  leads to an "action  This product i s the basis for further problem solving  activities.  For example, women i n a Mexican barrio were  delighted that a badly needed medical doctor had been provided. However, C.I. facilitators critically various  examine their  investigative  unemployment, housing  encouraged the women's group to general  methods.  insufficient  and poor nutrition  clean  living  conditions  The group water  through  realized  supply,  that  inadequate  created health problems that a  medical doctor alone would not solve.  While the group was  pleased with the access to the doctor, they began to organize and demand more social services (Society for P.R. i n Asia, 1982).  Learning Outcomes  The material in this section i s drawn from research regarding "participatory research." Unfortunately, the name participatory research i s misleading, because those who have developed the concept have blurred the distinctions between research, education and community development.  Related  literature in the topic area has tended simultaneously to report  9  on  research  societal  implications,  impact  confusion.  on  broad  development  However,  educational issues,  "processes  most  outcomes  thereby  closely  and  creating  related  to  i n v e s t i g a t i o n can be i d e n t i f i e d s e p a r a t e l y i n any p a r t i c i p a t o r y research a c t i v i t y "  (Society  m a t e r i a l presented  in this  for P.R. i n Asia, section  1982,  p.2).  has i d e n t i f i e d the  The  learning  outcomes which may be a s s o c i a t e d with C . I . . Swantz process how t o  (1975)  identified  for participants: solicit  writing,  other's  four p o s s i b l e  1)  ideas;  process.  benefits;  2)  skills  and 4)  i n question  and  creation  a common t h i n k i n g  of p o s s i b l e  derived  from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a C . I . p r o c e s s :  sharing  between p a r t i c i p a n t s ;  based  on  2)  self-respect;  creation 3)  answering,  p r o c e s s i n g d a t a ; 3)  of  C o l l e t t a (1976) p r o v i d e s a l i s t  mutual  a C.I.  l e a r n i n g about communication and  responding t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ,  self-analysis  outcomes of  of  1) an  benefits  information affiliation,  motivation  through  acknowledgment of p a r t i c i p a n t o p i n i o n s ; 4) commitment and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y through a c t i v e involvement; and 5)  identification  of l e a d e r s h i p and o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s a t a l o c a l  level.  These e d u c a t i o n a l and m o t i v a t i o n a l elements were i d e n t i f i e d from statements made by p a r t i c i p a n t s at f i n a l meetings, which may have i n f l u e n c e d the d a t a .  F u r t h e r design concerns r e l a t e t o a  l a c k of c o n t r o l groups f o r adequate comparison.  10  Other authors believe that the C.I. process could encourage the "learning of new ways of perceiving reality" (Fernandes and Tandon,  1983, p.  9).  Beginning  with  people's  concrete  experience, C.I. includes both analysis and action aimed at change (Society for P.R. in Asia, 1982). Hudson (1980) supports this view, suggesting that C.I. may increase understanding of potential  alternatives.  Tandon  (1981) suggests  that C.I.  develops increased knowledge about the particular social setting leading to a new self-image and increased potential to learn and act.  "The learning process related...to the form of activity  which makes for grass roots self-reliance and, ...the formation of a world-view" (Rahman, 1984, pg. 85). The above mentioned research ignores the issue that the participant's situations may be characterized by uncertainty, disorder and indeterminacy, limiting the capacity for mobilization of personal The  documents  investigative  suggest activity  that  participation i n a  leads  to  empowerment  regardless of availability of personal Nevertheless,  resources. collective  and  change  resources.  i t i s interesting to connect Rahman's concept  of "world-view" to Leontiev's levels of "activity" for deeper understanding.  Leontiev (1978) also believes that through  reflection on the surrounding world, the individual reproduces properties  of the environment  that  have  survival  value.  Activity may become conscious through collective communication  11  of the o b j e c t - n a t u r e , c r e a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r n a l "tensions" or " c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , " which may be used as m o t i v a t i o n . In a s i m i l a r manner, S h r i v a s t a v a and Tandon (1982) argue t h a t C . I . r a i s e s awareness through a d i a l o g u e between f a c i l i t a t o r and participant, subjective that  reality.  the  learning  promoting c r i t i c a l  process  possibilities  to  play  by promoting the  understanding of  social  for  of  objective  The S o c i e t y f o r P . R . i n A s i a "strives  process  examination  problems,  liberating  development their  of  a  in  the  critical  s t r u c t u r a l causes and (1985)  suggests t h a t a C . I . process c o u l d p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n f o r  social  involves  educators  helping  learners  contradictions  which  problems,  build  to  alternatives.  the  34).  to  become them,  confidence  action  aware to  and  of  "task  uses the  reflection is  to  get  and l i m i t s  of the  activity  cultural their  examine  Freire  a grasp  of  need  with  along  refer  Engestrom the  own  action  (1972),  term "praxis" t o  and a c t i o n .  (p.324).  the  research  primary c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . . . t h r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n s i n v o l v e d i n the a c t i v i t y "  f u n c t i o n which  of  to  From a s i m i l a r p e r s p e c t i v e ,  relationship  suggests  (p.  have a s o c i a l  oppress  w i t h many other e d u c a t o r s , the  them"  role  states  Mezirow  a c t i o n and t h a t  overcoming  a  (1982)  and  to  (1987)  state  and  people  He b e l i e v e s t h a t the  locus  can only be p r o p e r l y d e f i n e d  after  e x t e n s i v e p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n .  12  Conclusion  The m a j o r i t y of the w r i t i n g s c i t e d above suggest i n d i v i d u a l learning  gain  is  linked  to  a  group  educative  process:  p a r t i c i p a n t s g a i n knowledge of p r a c t i c e s k i l l s and p e r c e p t i o n of reality.  However,  the  extent  of  the  learning  gain  process by which i t may occur has not been addressed. the  reported  collective  outcomes  of  much of  the  literature  and  the  Although revolve  on  i n v e s t i g a t i o n and development of consensus r e g a r d i n g  the problem d e f i n i t i o n ,  the l e a r n i n g process  problem f o r m u l a t i o n has been i g n o r e d .  for accomplishing  While not  acknowledging  the p o s s i b l e  indeterminacy of the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s s i t u a t i o n , much  emphasis  also  is  possibilities.  placed  next  i n d i v i d u a l and group section  of  the  empowerment  review  discusses  elements of p r a c t i c e knowledge i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a  discussion  of the c o g n i t i v e  The  on  s t r a t e g i e s used f o r problem f o r m u l a t i o n .  13  Practice  Knowledge  Schon (1983), discussing the concept of practice knowledge, emphasizes experimentation in instruction to u t i l i z e logical or empirical knowledge in work situations. He proposes 3-steps for "reflection i n action" to determine the elements i n practice knowledge. The f i r s t i s "exploratory experiment": action taken to  see what follows.  Following  this  i s the "move-testing  experiments": a specific action to produce an intended effect. On  the simplest  level,  i f an action achieves the intended  outcome i t i s affirmed, i f not, the action i s negated. third type of strategy  i s "hypothesis testing."  The  Hypothesis  testing occurs through the process of elimination where the individual  successively  competing hypotheses.  produces  conditions  to  disprove  Schon's work has several limitations.  Specific cognitive strategies related to experimental activity are ignored.  As well, the individual's emotional perceptions of  and reactions to the experimentation are neglected. From another perspective, Schein (1973) attempts to deal with the issue of uncertain occupational situations and knowledge by discussing the difference between basic and applied science. He states that i t should be possible to convert a "convergent knowledge base" to "divergent practice" application,  14  but does not d e s c r i b e the theory or technique t o accomplish t h i s task.  H a l l (1979) d e a l s w i t h ambiguous s i t u a t i o n s by suggesting  p r a c t i c e knowledge c o n t i n u a l l y develops through a c y c l e of t h r e e phases: 1) the p r o d u c t i o n and implementation of s o c i a l and  experience,  problems  2)  e l a b o r a t i o n of  encountered  through  a p p l i c a t i o n of those t h e o r i e s resultant  verification  theories  the  relations  a r i s i n g from those  experiences,  and  3)  in social practice testing,  and  correction.  He  the with  believes  that  i n d i v i d u a l s "do not a c q u i r e knowledge of t h i n g s about t h a t which t h e i r p r a c t i c e has not yet given them the need or o p p o r t u n i t y of f i n d i n g out" ( H a l l , connected  to  cognitive  1979, p . 406).  context,  the  While p e r s o n a l m o t i v a t i o n  discussion  s t r a t e g i e s by which t h i s  is  does  not  include  is the  accomplished.  Context and Cognitive Strategies  B a l t e s and Nesselroade universality  in  patterns  influence  of c o n t e x t u a l  Scribner  (1986)  cognition, consider  also  (1984), while t e n d i n g t o focus on the of  adult  development,  determinants on knowledge argues  the  importance  of  specify  acquisition. context  s t a t i n g there are three c o n t e x t u a l work v a r i a b l e s  when examining  problem f o r m u l a t i o n :  c r i t e r i a ; the amount of e f f o r t  1)  the  least  on to  effort  needed by the i n d i v i d u a l f o r the  p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n of p r a c t i c a l t a s k s i n the  15  i n t e r e s t s of s i m p l i c i t y , 2) s e t t i n g and task s p e c i f i c  knowledge,  boundaries f o r work and what needs t o be known may be in  functional  requirements  relationship;  novices  support t h e i r  progress  Scribner's position  f o r the  task,  l e a r n under the  and 3)  novice-expert  guidance  through adjustment  of  developed  of  others  task  difficulty.  suggests "that p e r c e p t i o n and a c t i o n  i n continuous dependence on the environment and t h e r e f o r e be  understood  (Scribner,  without  1986,  p.  an  understanding  23).  Boud  l i m i t a t i o n of S c r i b n e r ' s and B a l t e s the impact of emotions.  et  of  al  (1985)  1978;  h i s t o r y provides information.  cognitive  Leontiev,  "tools"  (eg.  1978).  is  interaction These  emphasize  research;  writing)  s t r a t e g i e s i n two sociocultural  f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n of  Second, the immediate s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a l c o n t e x t  transmitted with  experienced  more  to  novice  experienced  individuals  Information r e g a r d i n g  problem members  define  solvers of  i n t e r a c t i o n between novice and expert  and r e g u l a t e  i n f o r m a t i o n are a v a i l a b l e ,  implies:  through  social  s t r a t e g i e s i n accordance w i t h s o c i o c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s .  experience  a  processes.  First,  structures individual cognitive strategy. tools  cannot  environment"  and N e s s e l r o a d ' s  The s o c i a l experience may a f f e c t c o g n i t i v e (Vygotsky,  occur  An i n d i v i d u a l ' s emotional r e a c t i o n may  d i s t o r t p e r c e p t i o n and i n f l u e n c e  ways  the  who  groups.  the  joint  The  1) new i d e a s or  2) one i n d i v i d u a l has knowledge of or  w i t h the new i n f o r m a t i o n , 3) another i n d i v i d u a l does  16  not have the knowledge, and 4) some form of communication connects the two individuals (Rogers and Kincaid, 1983). The nature of the information-exchange relationship among individuals determines the conditions by which an individual transmits  information.  Most  people  depend  mainly  on a  subjective evaluation of information that i s conveyed to them from other individuals like themselves who have adopted the information (Rogers and Kincaid, 1983). information imitation.  diffusion  process  results  This suggests that the from  modelling and  If this i s the case, one important contextual issue  is the process by which individuals examine and define problems that they are confronted with.  The next section describes the  specific strategies used in problem formulation.  Problem Formulation  Maier (1930) characterized problem formulation as changes i n "organization and meaning," believing that a problem which i s similar to one that was solved i n the past may c a l l solution by similarity.  up a  In a later work, he states, "the parts  or experiences must be combined i n a certain manner and a direction or way the problem i s attacked seems to be a factor which determines the nature of the combination" (Maier, 1931, p. 143).  Kahney (1986) has built upon Maier's seminal  17  documentation. information  He  believes  provided  at  that  the  beginning  knowledge  retrieved  experience  w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r type  internalize problems,  the this  from  long-term  "structure" allows  individuals  the  of  of the  of  a  augment problem  memory.  With  the with  enough  problem, i n d i v i d u a l s may problem.  individual  to  In  gather  every-day  information  d u r i n g the process of s o l v i n g a problem and f i t the s o l u t i o n  to  the o r i g i n a l presented i n f o r m a t i o n .  The r e a l achievement c o n s i s t s i n r e a l i z i n g t h a t the s i t u a t i o n i s not i n as good o r d e r as it l o o k s ; t h a t i t should be improved. Under these circumstances the process i s often a t r a n s i t i o n from an and-sum or from a superficially s t r u c t u r e d view t o a more adequate one. . . To e n v i s a g e , t o put the r i g h t problem, i s o f t e n a f a r more important achievement than t o s o l v e a set t a s k . (Wertheimer, 1959, p . 242)  By f o r m u l a t i n g the problem more p r o d u c t i v e l y , d i s c r e e t phases of the s o l u t i o n t h a t change the s t r u c t u r e of the s i t u a t i o n as a whole  or  change  (1957),  Scheerer  believe  the  people  and  essence  perceive  particular  certain  Huling of  the  qualities  significant (1960)  and  can  or  available  segments for  Argyris  of  separation  et  is  al.  the  tasks into  (1982) b e l i e v e s t h i s  a r e s u l t of the d i s j u n c t i o n between a p e r s o n ' s  18  occur.  Lave  problem f o r m u l a t i o n  tasks  and moveable segments.  parts  Polya (1984)  way as  some  having  detachable occurs  experience  as  and  his  or  her  premises  "biography,"  about  conclusions. results  the  allowing  problem,  individual  make  inferences  concept  describes  through a maze of  the  possible  might take i n a problem s o l u t i o n method. reduce the  difference  between the  the g o a l s t a t e through measures Maier (1930). closely  subgoals, then focus  be  If  the g o a l .  the  worked on  by  and  goal  "states."  steps  of  analogy.  One method attempts t o s t a t e and  s i m i l a r i t y , as suggested by  is  known,  a time.  it  can be  solutions. allowing  decomposed  the  individual  Yet another method i s  The s t r u c t u r e  of  one  into  The sub-goals  f o r m u l a t i o n of the presented  can to  problem  previously  solved  problem.  l i m i t a t i o n of the above mentioned r e s e a r c h i s the  One  possible  d i f f i c u l t y of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of l a b o r a t o r y experiments the i n f e r e n c e s  The  an i n d i v i d u a l  current perceived  independently,  i s s u e at  problem guides the  Guilford  draw  Another method r e l a t e s t o working  which imply p o s s i b l e  on one  solving  create  The problem i s transformed i n t o a s t a t e t h a t more  resembles  backward.  to  Anderson (1985) suggests t h a t problem f o r m u l a t i o n  from a search process  "search"  the  (of which  are based) to everyday problems. (1965)  proposes  four  cognitive  d e s c r i b e the problem f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s .  strategies  to  1) F l u e n t t h i n k i n g :  r e t r i e v a l from memory of u n i t s , r e l a t e d c o r r e l a t e s or systems i n response  to certain specifications,  a b i l i t y t o search d i f f e r e n t  2) F l e x i b l e t h i n k i n g :  the  c l a s s e s of memory f o r i n f o r m a t i o n  used i n both d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g and f o r d e v e l o p i n g a convergent answer,  3)  produce  Insight:  systems  Evaluation:  Sudden t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s  which  provide  a  Elaborative a b i l i t i e s  of  scheme of  or  information  to  model,  4)  i m p l i c a t i o n to  and  determine  what i s p r o p e r . From a problem  different formulation  principles knowledge Corte  perspective,  rather about  (1980),  guaranteeing  as  than  a  the  believes  solution  to  (1981)  "meta-goal,"  specific  planning i n who  Wilensky  involving  information,  general.  This  general  interprets  which  is  encodes  s i m i l a r to  heuristics,  a problem, i n c r e a s e  p r o b a b i l i t y through p r o v i s i o n of an e f f e c t i v e  general  while the  search  De not  solution strategy.  Summary  The l i t e r a t u r e review i n the chapter r e l a t e d s t u d i e s from two distinct  fields:  adult  education  Problem f o r m u l a t i o n depends individuals's information.  organization Problematic  and  cognitive  on c o n t e x t u a l and/or situations  psychology.  i n f o r m a t i o n and the  reorganization are  that  restructured into  more "productive" v i s i o n , which i s used to implement a aimed a t e f f e c t i v e l y  of  d e f i n i n g the i n i t i a l i s s u e .  a  strategy  Fluent and/or  f l e x i b l e t h i n k i n g may allow the i n d i v i d u a l t o i n v e s t i g a t e h i s or her r e a l i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o problems.  20  If  the  outcomes  of  the  problem are  fixed  and c l e a r ,  the  a c t i o n d e c i s i o n i s u s u a l l y presented as an i n s t r u m e n t a l problem (Scribner, problem  1986).  are  I t can be argued t h a t when the outcomes of a  unclear,  there  is  no  "problem" t o  a c t i o n d e c i s i o n can r e a d i l y be a p p l i e d . to  formulate  critical  problems,  features,  further testing  is  examine  individual  knowledge  no  issue,  tentative  identify  solutions  for  needed.  Collective investigation facilitate  and  and  T h e r e f o r e , an a b i l i t y  a problematic  consequences  solve  is  an e d u c a t i o n a l approach used  development  and p e r c e p t i o n  of  in  reality.  the  areas  Practice  of  to  practice  knowledge,  a  concept r e l a t e d t o everyday problems, should be examined w i t h i n v a r i o u s c o n t e x t s , some of which may i n c l u d e - o c c u p a t i o n , group interactions, strategies.  individual  emotional  reaction  and  cognitive  L e o n t i e v (1978) suggests emphasis should be p l a c e d  on the i n t e r p l a y between i n t e r n a l operations and e x t e r n a l r e a l i t y throughout the problem f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s . from  the  above  discussion  of  the  relevant  framework and c o n c e p t u a l model of t h i s i n the next c h a p t e r .  21  Departing  literature,  study w i l l be  the  presented  CHAPTER 3  FRAMEWORK and CONCEPTUAL MODEL  The of  first  this  two c h a p t e r s  study  as  have o u t l i n e d t h e b r o a d  illustrated  by F i g u r e  considerations  2.  Figure 2; Educative Process of Information Restructure  Collective Investigation  To  remain c o n s i s t e n t with the  focused  on t h e  the  -  the development  the  construction  basis  for  conceptual  of  C.I. literature,  i n d i v i d u a l meaning,  the  framework  of  is  of  individual  between  model  and  o f a p r o b l e m f o r m u l a t i o n model w h i c h p r o v i d e d  interpretation  discussion  relationship  Information Restructure/ Reorganization  following:  -  the  •>  $ Educational Experience  the  the  construction  literature  presented.  22  learning process. of  review,  After  meaning,  the  framework  and  I n d i v i d u a l C o n s t r u c t i o n of Meaning  This  dissertation  takes  a constructivist  position  that  meanings are contextual and personally constructed. Individuals mediate this construction with the help of verbal signs which have meanings (Vygotsky, 1978). When an individual reflects on an experience i t may become meaningful. continuous  "Experience rests on  synthesis of recognition, either of  selfsameness  (identity) or of similarity (type)" (Schultz and Luckmann, 1974, p. 229).  They further state:  I trust the world as i t has been known by me w i l l continue further and the stock of knowledge...will continue to preserve i t s fundamental validity...From this assumption follows...that I can repeat past successful acts. So long as the structure of the world can be taken as constant, as long as my previous experience i s valid, my ability to operate on the world in this or that manner remains in principle preserved. (Schultz and Luckmann, 1974, p. 7) Although every experience encompasses the atypical by virtue of  i t s uniqueness,  elements  by  (1978),  the  the  individual  generating familiarity. application  of  types  suppresses  i t s atypical  According to Natanson necessarily  "irrelevant" features of the objects we experience.  23  suppresses  T y p i f i c a t i o n i s the g e n e r i c term f o r an a b s t r a c t process whose c e n t r a l accomplishments i s the experience of the f a m i l i a r . . . i n the r e s u l t s of typification one i s a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e the boundaries of one's world: the strange i s c o n s t i t u t e d and a p p r o p r i a t e d as a l i m i t of the f a m i l i a r . (Natanson, 1973, p. 140)  The world of experience i s n e c e s s a r i l y t y p i f i e d and S c h u l t z (1973)  has  shown  organization translating statement,  of  that  the  typical  experience,  experience Rogers  (1983)  c o n s i s t s of s k i l l s  not  into  is  a  essential  mere  Furthering  within  this  and u s e f u l knowledge t h a t once l e a r n e d , i s  provides  reality,  of  " h a b i t u a l knowledge"  "on hand" i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s t h a t are experienced. knowledge  the  consequence  knowledge.  believes that  to  the means  detailing  f o r determining  concerns  T h i s stock of one's  and r e f l e c t i n g  location  interests.  R e a l i t y i n v o l v e s i n t e r a c t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l and environmental s t i m u l u s , as the i n d i v i d u a l a c t s on the stimulus and i n t e r p r e t s it  i n terms  (Individual  of <=>  previous  knowledge.  Stimulus),  the  From  arrow  this  pointing  perspective towards  the  s t i m u l u s r e p r e s e n t s a s s i m i l a t i o n and the arrow p o i n t i n g towards the  individual  represents  accommodation,  where  previous  knowledge i s m o d i f i e d ( G u i l f o r d , 1965). Accommodation occurs i n response  to  expectation.  incomplete  assimilation  or  contradiction  with  In a sense, the stimulus " a c t s " on the i n d i v i d u a l ,  but t h e a c t i o n i s i n the i n d i v i d u a l .  Engestrom (1987) b e l i e v e s  such c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n s occur through r e f l e c t i v e  24  mediation.  The  act of  stimulus  reflecting  to  communication cultural  the  upon  broader,  (internal  development  the  relationship  general  context  of  the  occurs  given  through  and e x t e r n a l t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l ) .  of  symbols  (used  The  f o r a b s t r a c t i o n and  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of thought) i s t h e r e s u l t of a s u p e r - i n d i v i d u a l , c o l l e c t i v e process. exchange  with  Only through a r e l a t i o n s h i p and i n f o r m a t i o n  other  relate to reality  people  does  (Engestrom,  an  individual  learn  how  to  1987).  T h i s i m p l i e s n o t o n l y a p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r c h a n g e between t h e individual  and  individual  of m u l t i p l e aspects  erroneous  ideas  Consequently, the  society  that  every  but a  dynamic  interaction  o f what  i s "known,"  eventually disappear individual  within the  experience  or are  including  transformed.  not only  determines  s t o c k o f knowledge, b u t a l s o p r e s c r i b e s a t y p e o f knowledge  (Rogers, What stock  1983). emerges  as problematic  o f knowledge.  knowledge  acquired  implies  I f an i n d i v i d u a l through  provide the necessary  past  automatic  specific has a  living  response.  new  gaps  i n the  experience,  may . n o t be  able  to  An a w a r e n e s s o f t h i s  l a c k i n k n o w l e d g e may p r o v i d e t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a f e l t n e e d t o learn. Figure  I n summary, w h i l e 3 illustrates  recognizing this  i s a fluid  t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f meaning  been d i s c u s s e d above.  25  process,  a n d what h a s  Figure 3; Construction of Meaning  New Experience  Typification Organization Experience  Stock of  y  of  Knowledge  \  Adequate  Inadequate  1  1  Assimilation  Accommodation  i  I  Conceptualization  Knowledge  i  gap  F e l t Need t o  A problem creates very  least,  previous  a  chance  reliance  on  an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e x p e r i e n c e to  observe.  existing  A dialectic  conceptual  conjunction with  either  internal reflection  h a b i t u a l or d i a l e c t i c  identifies  elements  as  they  cognitive appear  his  the  when and  experimentation  (Kolb,  h i s t o r y and c o n t e x t ; t h a t m a t r i x f o r r e f l e c t i o n  26  results  1984).  activity, in  or at  interpretation  symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s h i f t s through c o g n i t i v e in  Learn  or is  Through  the i n d i v i d u a l her  personal  t h e n compared  with  a personal  stock  of  e v a l u a t i o n unless the with  the  presented  knowledge.  Gaps a r e  sufficient  reinforced ability  to  and  problem.  deal  If  with  the  a  C.I.  heightened t o share their  past  a  to  movement  is  model  (based  Any  and  in  the  strategies.  experience  attempt  to  the  through  opportunity  generalize  a  on  precisely Jarvis,  as  1987  the  illustrated. and  Kolb,  27  dynamic  headings i t experience  The  1984)  o c c u r as a r e s u l t  process.  through  c a n be c r i t i c i z e d b e c a u s e o f  i n c o n s i s t e n c y between  p r o b l e m f o r m u l a t i o n as i t may investigation  likely  Model  It i s unlikely that a l l individuals w i l l  idealized 4  "self"  i n c o r p o r a t e t h e knowledge g a i n e d by o t h e r s  identifies.  Figure  the  transform  process, i n order to i l l u s t r a t e i t ,  the  motivation  with problem f o r m u l a t i o n  vehicle  experience.  individual  deal  I f t h e s t o c k o f knowledge  awareness o f problems combined w i t h  and  by  s i m i l a r tasks i n the f u t u r e .  i s concerned  provides  occurs,  to  increased confidence  Problem Formulation  T h i s study  gap  problem,  growth c o n s i s t s of  to perform  revealed  s t o c k o f knowledge i s i n a d e q u a t e  p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r l e a r n i n g . is  not  of a  model  in  illustrates collective  Figure 4; Presentation of Problem Formulation Model  Problem  Observation/ Experience Reflection Existing Conceptualization Generalization  T e s t i n g o f New C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n (Hypotheses)  ->  Definition  of  Problem  Observation/Experience  The  following  text  process begins with the or the  has r e l e v a n c e features  to the  f o r the  of the  describes  the  recognition individual.  model  in  detail.  This  t h a t a problem i s s u e  exists  As p r e s e n t e d  problem are i s o l a t e d  in Figure  and t y p i f i e d  according  f a m i l i a r experiences t h a t the person can r e c o g n i z e .  a l l o w s f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e and  28  3,  This  determination  of the adequency of the stock of knowledge.  If relevance or  recognition i s not perceived or i f the individual's previous stock of knowledge i s sufficient to deal with the issue, i t i s unlikely that any new learning w i l l occur (Jarvis, 1987) as the individual has a previously formed concept. argued  that  the  simple  comprehension  However, i t can be of  incoming  data  necessitates the processing of information, which may mean the translation of the data into a form more meaningful to the individual. Through interaction like what occurs in C.I., the translation of information about the problem i s socially defined and that definition i s supported.  As Leontiev (1978) believes, meaning  is objectified through ordinary language which could help set the stage for Schon's concept of "exploratory experiment."  A  problem i s acknowledged and based on the stock of knowledge, a previous method of solution may be tried to see i f the solution is applicable. Existing Conceptualization  When individuals understand or are able to use some portion of their  stock of knowledge, there  socio-cultural  reality  (Jarvis,  i s continuity with  1987).  Experience  self-reinforcement to the existing stock of knowledge.  29  acts The  the as  e v i d e n c e f o r p o s s e s s i n g a c o n c e p t may ability issue  to distinguish applies  from  that  that  be weak, r e q u i r i n g o n l y an  t o which elements  to  which  they  do  of a not  problematic apply.  For  e x a m p l e , t o p o s s e s s t h e c o n c e p t o f "abuse" c o u l d r e q u i r e no more than  the  ability  presence  to  of abuse.  the l o g i c a l  say  "abuse"  when  confronted  with  S t r o n g e r evidence might i n v o l v e the grasp of  or grammatical  use o f t h e term  ("abuse" c a n o n l y  a v e r b o r a noun, n o t a p r o p e r name), f a c t u a l k n o w l e d g e children  tend  to  become a b u s i v e  d e f i n e or g i v e the essence of  the  concept  identification to  the  to  others)  of the term.  possession,  the  o f i n f o r m a t i o n may  or  the  (abused  ability  Regardless of the  reference  scheme  to  depth  used  p r o v i d e an a u t o m a t i c  be  for  response  the presented information.  Reflection  Some p e o p l e manner  to  e x p l o r e some o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s i n a  reframe  understanding. other times, is  a  of  i t may  be  issue  deep and  knowledge  profound. of  to  a  new  based  on  a  current perception,  each  s t o c k of knowledge t o  bear  reflection.  30  However, i f m e a n i n g  experience,  and  b r i n g h i s / h e r unique  the experience through  leading  be o f a s u p e r f i c i a l n a t u r e , o r a t  interpretation  previous  individual will on  problem  R e f l e c t i o n may  subjective  synthesis  the  conscious  The  strength  point, of  of  collective  as the process  investigation  allows the  may begin at  s h a r i n g and group e x p l o r a t i o n  each i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t ' s e x p e r i e n c e s .  details  seven l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i v i t y .  the l e v e l  this  Mezirow (1981)  The f i r s t four r e l a t e  to  of consciousness whereby i n d i v i d u a l s become aware of  t h e i r experiences  w h i l e the l a t t e r three l e v e l s are regarded as  c r i t i c a l consciousness ( J a r v i s , 1987). upon experience  at  one  I n d i v i d u a l s may r e f l e c t  or more l e v e l s ,  r e f l e c t i o n i n c l u d e the s t r a t e g y  of  but  higher  levels  of  generalization.  Generalization  Beliefs the  and i n f e r e n c e s  stage  of  experiments" action  is  further  or  generalization. are  likely  attempted  reflection  successful,  about the problem are developed  to  for  Schon's  occur at  (1983)  this  may be r e q u i r e d t o  "move-testing  level.  a intended e f f e c t .  If  with  A  specific  unsuccessful,  reframe the  a hypothesis may be d e v e l o p e d / c o n f i r m e d .  issue.  If  Acceptance  r e j e c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n i s based on p r o b a b i l i t y , u s i n g some  c r i t e r i o n of " c e r t a i n t y / v a l i d i t y , " (both i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t a l based). about  In everyday what  reality  use is  this  denotes  likely  to  be.  a perceived This  conviction  probability  is  i n f e r r e d by the i n d i v i d u a l from evidence of what i s known, p l u s  31  knowledge  of  factors  knowledge i n v o l v e s  not  yet  determined.  The  judgements about one's s e l f  adequacy  (Rogers,  of  1983).  When the individual considers resuming t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d a c t i v i t y at a given p o i n t , t o some extent he or she looks at the i m p l i c a t i o n s about the c o n s i s t e n c y and c e r t a i n t y of h i s o r her self. Although "break-off" points involve p r a g m a t i c , s i t u a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , above a l l they attempt to v a l i d a t e a s e l f as the core meaning of human experiences (Rogers, 1983, p . 45. )  V a l i d a t i o n may occur through communication (group and  development  "we-relation."  what  Involving  participation, constitution  of  "grounds of  Schultz  (1973)  refers  mutual  awareness  and  for  describing  intersubjectivity  determined" (Rogers, 1983, p . 6 4 ) . knowledge  and v a l u e  in  system r u l e s ,  by a s s e s s i n g p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s . sharing  evaluate  the  of  knowledge issues  and  under  to  as  sympathetic  specifying  everyday  a  lives  the are  I n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n i s based on which a l l o w f o r  which may prove c o r r e c t or i n c o r r e c t .  the  and  activity)  predictions  P r e d i c t i o n s are deduced  The process of C . I . allows  experiences examination.  co-operatively If  the  to  "group  c o n v i c t i o n " about the c e r t a i n t y / v a l i d i t y of the i n f o r m a t i o n i s complete, the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be b e l i e v e d  32  by  an i n d i v i d u a l t o be c o r r e c t i s  reverse  is  true  if  the  group  l i k e l y t o be h i g h , w h i l e believes  the  the  information  is  incorrect.  Testing of New Conceptualization (Hypotheses)  Using d e d u c t i o n and/or i n d u c t i o n , the component of  testing  new c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s i n v o l v e s the combination of a number of elements t o  form a coherent h y p o t h e s i s ,  which can be  a c c o r d i n g t o the standards used by the i n d i v i d u a l . and  "tested"  Consequences  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a c t i o n are examined, attempting t o  each  particular  hypothesis  successfully  to  hypothesis  is  subsequent  action l i k e l y occurs.  may b e g i n a g a i n . allows  for  the  the  adapted,  issue.  If  a  particular  a problem d e f i n i t i o n and  If unsuccessful,  the  Schon's (1983) concept of "hypothesis e l i m i n a t i o n of  adapt  competing  hypotheses  process testing"  based  on  information presented. Through  the  group  experience  of  C.I.,  a  co-operative  d e f i n i t i o n of the r e l a t i v e "truth" or sense of c o n v i c t i o n about the h y p o t h e s i s can be f u r t h e r e d . terms of s p e c i f i c  criteria,  C o r r e c t n e s s must be d e f i n e d i n  which the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v o l v e d i n  the process d e s c r i b e f o r themselves.  Inferences  are d e r i v e d  from c o n v i c t i o n i n terms of the r e l a t i v e frequency w i t h which  33  the inference yields correct conclusions.  Judgements are made  about the value of the hypothesis against some standard which i s then applied in practice.  Problem Definition  Once the issue has been defined  in a productive manner by  the individual, the problem becomes instrumental.  Alternatives  for action can be determined, consequences identified and course  of  possible  action  chosen.  With this comes evaluation  re-examination of  the  selection i f the  a and  action i s  unacceptable. This ends the discussion of the problem formulation model. The  next  section  discusses  the  relationship  between  the  literature review, framework and problem formulation model. Literature Review. Framework and Model  Figure  5  formulation, conceptual  illustrates focusing  topics  on  a  model the  presented.  for  considering  interrelationships The  clusters  of  problem of  items  the are  separated for possible discussion purposes but in actuality are interactive by nature of the educative experience.  34  Figure 5; A Model for Considering Collective Investigation  1  COLLECTIVE INVESTIGATION A. £ INDIVIDUAL CONSTRUCTION < OF MEANING  \l  B.  COGNITIVE -> STRATEGIES 71 /  N  /  N  /  PROBLEM FORMULATION L_  J  D.  Collective formulation  CONTEXTUAL VARIABLES  investigation (C)  directly  potentially  and/or  affects  indirectly.  problem  The  interactive  p r o c e s s may s i m p l y r e i n f o r c e e x i s t i n g c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s the  individual.  individual strategies on t h e  Alternatively,  construction (B) , w i t h i n  literature  that  construction  the  interface  of  the  review of  the  meaning  confines of  effect (A)  of  Chapters  the 2  m e a n i n g may a f f e c t  between  environmental  cognition.  Which  means  that  if  information,  an i n d i v i d u a l may i n s e r t  35  the  may be  mediated  and/or context  and  3,  it  h e l d by  cognitive (D). can  Based be  seen  problem f o r m u l a t i o n  stimulus currency  and of  by  at  individual reality  information into  the  is  environment as well as extract information from i t .  Rogers'  (1983) concept of a stock of knowledge (A) provides a means for determining one's location in reality and may prompt motivation to learn.  As a result of typification, the stock of knowledge  may be f e l t to be inadequate and the knowledge gap encourages the need to learn. Motivation to learn may influence cognitive strategies information Contextual  (B) as detailed by Guildford (1965), encouraging processing  and  adaptation  variables include  group  to  the  context  dynamics, interpersonal  bonding, integration, and other situational elements. result  of  successful  (D).  operationalization  of  the  As a problem  formulation model (C), individual meaning may be changed (A) or contextual variables could be affected (D) as task specific information could be increased or an existing peer relationship could be altered.  The  point to be made i s that collective  investigation has the potential to affect problem formulation in several ways. However, i t i s obvious that collective investigation methods are not the only way to transmit content.  Didactic approaches  do emphasize and reinforce information previously read. confronted definitions  When  with a mass of information encompassing details, and  examples, the didactic  abbreviates and summarizes the important  lecture synthesizes, information.  Along  with this, information from other sources not readily available  36  to  the  learners  i n f o r m a t i o n or However, approach,  didactic  learn.  assumptions  of  The and  by  presented.  the  the  issue  preparation  for  methodology  the  a  one-way  of  of  important the  to  the  process if  the  variables  as  assumptions u n d e r l y i n g the  chapter  to  communication  correct.  investigation  leading  clarify  i s transmitted  becomes  interconnectedness  next  can  of p a r t i c i p a n t c o n t r o l  investigation)  F i g u r e 5 are  collective  use  method  review.  information that  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e  the  This  through  methods  The  collective  illustrated  be  s p e c i f i c points  selecting  audience to (through  can  the  process which  were  presented  provides  presentation  model  of  the  in  research  the  research  hypotheses.  Summary  So  far,  this  study  has  examined  individual  experience,  several  contextual determinants, a v a i l a b l e cognitive  and  operationalization  the  concept  of  framework  investigation problems. identify  of a problem f o r m u l a t i o n model.  i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e was which  guided  affects Collective  and  participants.  this an  u s e d as  study,  functional  the  examining  individual's  investigation  transform  strategies  basis how  ability provided problems  formulate vehicle  facing  These problems r e p r e s e n t types of e x p e r i e n c e ,  37  the  collective  to a  for  The  to the as  a r e s u l t of i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c o n t e x t . i s s o c i a l l y d e f i n e d , supported and t a u g h t .  The context  A hypothesized model  d e s c r i b e d the process of problem f o r m u l a t i o n .  T h i s model draws  upon c o g n i t i v e psychology t o d e s c r i b e p o t e n t i a l l e a r n i n g through a collective  educational process.  the r e s e a r c h methodology of t h i s  38  The next c h a p t e r study.  presents  CHAPTER 4  METHODOLOGY  A short summary of the research design begins the chapter. Then the instrument  development, research design  (including  validity controls and descriptions of test groups), sample, and data collection procedures are described.  Following this, the  hypotheses are presented leading to the selected method for data analysis.  Summary  Twenty-four individuals representative of the caregivers i n British Columbia were pre and posttested using an instrument developed by independent content experts.  The research design  used three groups - a non-treatment control, a group exposed to problem formulation through a workshop and a group exposed to problem formulation through pre-readings and a didactic lecture. The  pre and posttest interviews consisted of two pairs of  similar, but different, case situations that could occur i n the participant's everyday l i f e .  The items of information produced  by the participants i n response to the pre and posttest were compiled and then classified by knowledge type.  39  These  classifications and  were f u r t h e r examined a c c o r d i n g t o a p p l i c a t i o n  participant  problem  use.  One a p p l i c a t i o n r e l a t e d  formulation strategy,  contextual  variables  solution specified.  used  a  second  and the  to  third  to  perceived  identification  category  to  of  problem  The q u a l i t y of response was determined by  use of the SOLO taxonomy and p a r t i c i p a n t p e r c e p t i o n of e d u c a t i v e approach was a l s o s c o r e d .  ANCOVA was used f o r a n a l y s i s of  eight  hypotheses, w h i l e an independent-samples t t e s t was used f o r the ninth  hypothesis.  Instrument Development  Prestudy  A small pre-study to  the  initiation  examples  of  this  (Appendix B) ,  (Appendix process  (eight  D) ,  were  of  several  format.  Using  questions  i n d i v i d u a l s with  interviewed.  experience)  research.  interview  w i t h no C . I . experience years  i n d i v i d u a l s ) was undertaken p r i o r  Other c h i l d  (same gender,  were  also  the  four  case  and SOLO Taxonomy  exposure welfare  relative  interviewed  to  the  C.I.  practitioners age,  using  number of the  same  Comparison of the prestudy r e s u l t s showed t h a t both the  case examples and the SOLO taxonomy were a p p r o p r i a t e instruments for  this  study.  40  Main Study  Development and s e l e c t i o n by  an  independent  workers,  foster  panel  parents  of the  of  case s i t u a t i o n s  seven  and c h i l d  content care  experts  perceived r e a l i t y  Selection  factors:  (the p o t e n t i a l of encountering such i s s u e s  was deemed r e l a t i v e l y  high),  -  r e l a t i v e l y noncomplex language,  -  high  likelihood  (social  workers) .  c r i t e r i a of the case examples i n v o l v e d s e v e r a l  -  were made  of  (jargon-free),  participant  identification  with  the  problem, -  problems i n v o l v e d s e v e r a l p o t e n t i a l  -  s e v e r a l e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s impact on the  -  opportunity cognitive  The  for  of  problem(s),  differentiated  levels  examples  situations  were chosen  that  caregivers  to  represent  potential  may encounter  encountered throughout the course of t h e i r everyday  Response production response.  of  complexity.  f o u r case  problematic  demonstration  issues,  was of  measured i n two ways: specific  information  1)  items  the and  have  lives.  total 2)  or  score  or  quality  of  R e f e r r i n g back t o the model f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of 41  problem  formulation  measurement construction  of  5),  (Figure  several  of meaning  the  factors  responses  influencing  enabled  individual  (A.):  -  types of i n f o r m a t i o n  used,  -  p a s t experiences u t i l i z e d ,  -  a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s a f f e c t i n g  and problem f o r m u l a t i o n .  To f u r t h e r o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the model, measurement of responses for cognitive  strategies  (B.)  focused  on:  -  c l a r i f i c a t i o n of  issues,  -  process and d e s c r i p t i o n of i s s u e d e f i n i t i o n ,  -  c o n n e c t i o n between i n f o r m a t i o n used and d e s c r i p t i o n of  In a s i m i l a r manner,  problem f o r m u l a t i o n  and  (C.)  was  issue.  measured  by: -  reflection  -  b e n e f i t s of c h o i c e ,  -  p o s s i b l e consequences, and  -  resolution  Finally,  upon p o s s i b l e causes of problem i s s u e ,  of  ,  issue.  contextual  variables  description  of:  -  unknowns i n the  potential  issue,  42  (D.)  were  measured  by  a  -  use of a l l i n f o r m a t i o n needed f o r problem d e s c r i p t i o n ,  -  use of  -  f e e l i n g s of p e r s o n a l "comfort" with problem s o l u t i o n .  "expert" peers w i t h i n the group, and  The panel determined the  seventeen p o s s i b l e  items  (Appendix  C) t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y use when c o n s i d e r i n g the presented  case examples.  possible  seventeen  categories data.  P a r t i c i p a n t s mentioning more of  items  were then  were  scored  generated  on the  higher. basis  of  the  Conceptual the  compiled  The seventeen items were d i v i d e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e  classes:  -  S p e c i f i c Occupational Information,  -  Knowledge of S e l f and  -  Knowledge of O t h e r s .  As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, evaluated  for  cognitive  the  quality  sequencing,  (adverb/adjective),  the of  interview  the  context,  contrast,  responses were  response.  Factors  conventional  imagery,  integrated  such  of  the  L e a r n i n g Outcome was used.  classification, (SOLO),  the  developed  The SOLO was chosen  Structure  impact  of  and  F o r the Observed  by Biggs and C o l l i s  for i t s  as  descriptors  i n n o v a t i v e use of metaphor or symbolism were measured. purpose  also  (1982)  wide a p p l i c a b i l i t y and  emphasis on the s t r u c t u r a l complexity of the outcome r e s p o n s e s .  43  The  levels  of  characteristics number of  the  SOLO  taxonomy  from concrete  to  o r g a n i z i n g dimensions;  are  ordered  abstract,  terms  of  w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g  with self-generated  p r i n c i p l e s used at the most complex l e v e l . as  in  relating  The SOLO l e v e l s are  follows: 1.  P r e - s t r u c t u r a l . In r e l a t i o n s h i p to p r e r e q u i s i t e s given i n the q u e s t i o n , answers are denying, tautological t r a n s d u c t i v e , bound to s p e c i f i c s .  2.  Uni-structural. "generalizations" aspect.  3.  Multi-structural. The answers generalizations only i n terms of l i m i t e d and independent a s p e c t s .  4.  R e l a t i o n a l . C h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n d u c t i o n and generalizations within a given or experienced context u s i n g r e l a t e d a s p e c t s .  5.  Extended A b s t r a c t . Deduction and i n d u c t i o n . Generalizations to situations not experienced or given i n the p r e r e q u i s i t e s of the q u e s t i o n (Biggs and C o l l i s , 1982, p p . 24 & 25)  Biggs and C o l l i s used t o c a t e g o r i z e  The only  answers i n terms  the the and  contain of one reveal a few  (1982) suggest t h a t four main dimensions be responses:  1) D i f f e r e n t c a p a c i t i e s of memory - An i n d i v i d u a l needs t o t h i n k about  more  items  at  once  in  order  to  make  a  response than t o make a u n i - s t r u c t u r a l response, 2) I n t e r r e l a t i o n between item cue and response  44  -  A  relational  pre-structural  response  cue,  multistructural  while  a  relevant features  has  no l o g i c a l  connection with  response  identifies  the  several  but does not connect them,  3) C o n s i s t e n c y w i t h i n a response and the r e l a t i v e n e c e s s i t y f o r c l o s u r e w i t h i n the response,  and  4) The i n t e r a c t i o n of the f i r s t three dimensions,  affecting  the  general o v e r a l l structure.  Several  possible  limitations  of  the  SOLO should be  noted.  Poor t e s t wording can c r e a t e p a r t i c i p a n t c o n f u s i o n and l e a d a low e v a l u a t i o n of performance. nature of  P r i o r experience w i t h the t a s k  and  the  The  p e r c e i v e d time f a c t o r t o answer questions  pressures  if  the  the  t a s k may a f f e c t  individual  is  to  the  i n a hurry,  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l l i n f o r m a t i o n .  level  of  response.  may a l s o  create  preventing c a r e f u l  A f i n a l weakness r e l a t e s  to  the concern t h a t the SOLO does not r e c o g n i z e the p o s s i b i l i t y of emotional  interference.  In  accordance  Biggs  and C o l l i s  with  the  (1982),  evaluation good use  of  procedure the  suggested  quality  by  components  added an a d d i t i o n a l .25 t o t h e i r SOLO s c o r e , w h i l e v e r y good use added  .50.  "Good use"  and  "very good  use"  through s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of judges.  were  determined  The s c a l e used f o r  s c o r i n g the q u a l i t y of response i s presented i n Table  45  4:1.  Table 4:1  SOLO Scoring  Level  Score  1. la.  Prestructural transitional  1 1.5  2. 2a.  Unistructural transitional  2 2.5  3. 3a.  Multi-structural transitional  3 3.5  4. 4a.  Relational transitional  4 4.5  5  Extended Abstract  5  The next section describes the research design used.  Design Individuals in the experimental group and the Lecture control group were presented with two pretest case examples prior to workshop involvement or didactic lecture. Within one week after the  treatment,  a posttest  was given  (two additional  case  examples) and individuals from both groups were asked to reflect upon their educational experience. Both groups were facilitated by the same staff person.  A narrative description of the  46  workshop and l e c t u r e w i l l  be presented  later  in this  section  along w i t h the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the p o p u l a t i o n and sample. A  third  group  (n  =  8) ,  not  exposed  to  either  experience o r the l e c t u r e , were p r e - and p o s t t e s t e d same time p e r i o d and a c t e d as a c o n t r o l . with  no  prior  i l l u s t r a t e s the  exposure  of  problem  the  group  w i t h i n the  A l l t h r e e groups began  formulation.  Figure  6  design.  F i g u r e 6; Research D e s i g n '  Group 1:  Pretest - Collective Investigation - Posttest  Group 2:  P r e t e s t — Pre-Reading & L e c t u r e  Posttest  Group 3:  Pretest  Posttest  no treatment  I n t e r n a l V a l i d i t y of the Design  Cook and Campbell  (1983)  d e t a i l many "threats"  v a l i d i t y i n quasi-experimental research.  to i n t e r n a l  S e v e r a l common t h r e a t s  t o f i e l d s t u d i e s and compensatory c o n t r o l s are d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s section.  Issues  of  testing  and i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n i n v a l i d a t i o n  were c o n t r o l l e d by the s i m i l a r i t y of the case examples and use  47  of  standardized  open-ended  interview  questions.  The  same-  r e l a t i v e time sequence between pre and p o s t t e s t f o r a l l groups decreased  maturation  participant  problems.  sensitization  to  It  the  is  test  recognized  may  have  that  enhanced  performance. There  was  individuals  one were  "drop  out"  involved.  in  this  study.  Respondent  Originally,  "A" l e f t  the  26  province  immediately a f t e r the C . I . workshop and was u n a v a i l a b l e f o r the posttest audio  interview.  taping  of  Equipment f a i l u r e respondent  "P."  prevented  successful  Randomization  of  the  i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o "treatment" groups was not p o s s i b l e due t o the community outreach focus of the s u p p o r t i v e agency and h i s t o r i c a l events which may have o c c u r r e d between the i n t e r v i e w s and c o u l d have a f f e c t e d the r e s u l t s . serious  statistical  Although non-randomization p r e s e n t s  r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h i s  be tempered by e t h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . be c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e t o each s p e c i f i c Initially,  the  Random s e l e c t i o n  development  r e g i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the five  groups w i t h i n the  s t u d y , the i s s u e must  of  the  groups  could within  agency.  organizational structure  of the B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n of F o s t e r Parent A s s o c i a t i o n s (B.C.F.F.P.A.)  i n d i c a t e d i n t e r e s t i n the p r o c e s s .  S e l e c t i o n of  the t h r e e groups f o r t h i s study (one experimental group and two control  groups)  possible bias.  was based on a random d i g i t  table  to  prevent  I t should be noted t h a t the l e c t u r e , c o n t r o l and  48  n o n - t e s t e d groups were o f f e r e d the C . I . s e r v i c e a f t e r the study was completed.  As  far  groups  as  to  rivalry  it  lead  of  is to  known, the  no communication o c c u r r e d  possibility  participants.  of  treatment  Equalization  of  the  between  diffusion  treatments  time element were e v a l u a t e d by an independent group of  or and  content  e x p e r t s and was determined t o be s i m i l a r .  External Validity  Threats  to  interaction  of  selection  and  treatment  were  reduced by o f f e r i n g the workshops at the time convenience of the individuals, Settings  historical  potential  place  government  of  easy  access  in  their  office  space).  community.  (well-lighted,  Although  short-term  e f f e c t s c o u l d have i n f l u e n c e d the treatment  literature  cautious  a  were s i m i l a r f o r both treatment groups  ventilated  the  at  causal  review  did  not  relationship  learning gain.  provide  between  The next  groups.  49  evidence  the  section  C.I.  to  effect,  refute  treatment  details  the  a  and three  E x p e r i m e n t a l Group  C.I.  Group  One of the experimental groups was exposed  to  the  collective  (8 p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s )  investigation  component  through a two day t r a i n i n g workshop (9am t o 5pm). group i n t e r e s t  and involvement,  Depending on  the minimum time f o r the  a c t i v i t y was 14 hours of i n t e n s e group i n t e r a c t i o n . facilitator  had approximately  i n v o l v i n g groups.  of C . I .  8 years  of  practical  group  The agency experience  The focus of the f a c i l i t a t o r i n the workshops  was:  -  r e c o g n i t i o n and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of problem i s s u e ( s ) ,  -  acknowledgement  -  potential  of the  examination  issue(s), of  relationships  problem i s s u e s -  need f o r  solution,  -  possible  causes of the problem,  -  possible  -  b e n e f i t s of the p o s s i b l e  -  consequences of  -  c l a r i f i c a t i o n of major p o i n t s  -  group r e f l e c t i o n on a l l of the  solutions, solutions,  solutions,  50  above,  between two or more  -  refraining i s s u e s ,  as r e q u i r e d ,  -  summarization, as r e q u i r e d ,  -  developing  -  testing potential  i n f e r e n c e s and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s  regarding issues,  hypotheses,  Control Groups  Lecture Group T r a i n i n g i n problem f o r m u l a t i o n f o r the approximated  the  training  for  L e c t u r e group (8 p a r t i c i p a n t s ) the  experimental  lecture.  group  the  first  group  group.  The  experimental  was exposed t o s i m i l a r content as  (C.I.),  through  a  3  hour  didactic  The content developed by the experimental group i n the  workshop was used as the content f o r the  lecture.  P r e r e a d i n g s were given t o the L e c t u r e group. described  control  the  process  of  problem  These  formulation  readings  and  took  approximately 8 t o 11 hours t o read and understand, although depth  of  comprehension  is  not  known.  i n d i c a t e d the p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d read the The purpose of the readings were t o : conceptual all  information  participants  stimulate  for  received  participant the  l e a r n e r i n t e r e s t and 4)  51  same  Posttest  the  interviews  materials. 1)  supply the  acquisition, "base"  relevant 2)  ensure  information,  3)  "mimic" one of the t r a d i t i o n a l  a s p e c t s of formal e d u c a t i o n . opportunity  W i t h i n the l e c t u r e s e t t i n g ,  f o r group i n t e r a c t i o n was  provided,  little  although  the  p a r t i c i p a n t s were encouraged t o ask q u e s t i o n s f r e e l y throughout the p r e s e n t a t i o n .  The opening agenda l i s t e d what was going t o  be p r e s e n t e d and how t h a t r e l a t e d t o the r e a d i n g s .  The language  was c o n v e r s a t i o n a l , h i g h l i g h t i n g the key p o i n t s and concepts of problem  formulation.  The  lecture  consisted  of  information  related to:  -  problem f o r m u l a t i o n ,  -  o t h e r group' experiences w i t h the C . I . p r o c e s s ,  -  t e c h n i q u e s f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of problem i s s u e s ,  -  information ordering techniques,  -  d i v e r g e n t and convergent t h i n k i n g ,  -  development of techniques t o l i n k and connect  -  t e c h n i q u e s f o r problem f o r m u l a t i o n ,  -  i s o l a t i o n of  issue,  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  causes,  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l possible -  solutions,  consequences, benefits  of s o l u t i o n .  52  solutions,  information,  While the  principles  identified  by the  curriculum  mirrored  the process of the experimental group, the "hands-on" f l a v o u r of the  first  group was  not  present  in  the  second  group.  e x p e r i e n t i a l involvement of group 1 was the e s s e n t i a l between the groups. formulation;  The  difference  The l e a r n i n g components present i n problem  reflection,  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n and hypothesis  testing  had t o be developed without the help of the group i n the  lecture  situation. It group  is  important t o note t h a t the C . I . group and the L e c t u r e  were  Although i t  not  specifically  trained  would be p o s s i b l e  in  f o r an i n d i v i d u a l t o  the p r o v i d e d t r a i n i n g t o a s o l u t i o n , t h i s examine earlier,  the  effects  once  instrumental.  A  action-product Solution  is  an  of  of  is  the  of  collective determined  study was designed  the  definition  As  problem  is  seen  investigation from  solving." generalize  investigation.  defined,  problem  generally  various alternatives  collective  issue  "problem  the  to  stated becomes  as  the  process.  consequences  of  action.  Control Group #2  The non-treatment c o n t r o l group (8 p a r t i c i p a n t s ) characteristics  t o the two experimental groups.  53  had s i m i l a r  No treatment  was p r o v i d e d , but t h i s group was both p r e t e s t e d over the same time p e r i o d as the other  and p o s t t e s t e d  groups.  The next s e c t i o n d e t a i l s the r e s e a r c h p o p u l a t i o n and samples used  in  the  study,  including  homogeneous  and  heterogeneous  characteristics.  Research Population  The  research  was  conducted  in  Southern  British  Columbia,  u s i n g e x i s t i n g groups w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of B.C.  F e d e r a t i o n of  F o s t e r Parent A s s o c i a t i o n s  These groups v o l u n t e e r education,  support  givers within t h e i r area. approximately  three  region.  groups  The  (B.C.F.F.P.A.).  at a l o c a l or r e g i o n a l l e v e l  and advocacy  to are  services  to  the  other  to  provide  child  care  There are ten geographic r e g i o n s w i t h ten  local  composed  associations of  foster  within  parents,  each social  workers and c h i l d c a r e workers. Based  upon  a  random  sample  (B.C.F.F.P.A.,  1987)  of  199  i n d i v i d u a l s of the approximate 2,300 members i n the p o p u l a t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e .  54  The a n a l y s i s  showed  t h a t c a r e g i v e r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the 1987 B . C . F . F . P . A .  survey  were between 30 and 50 years  o l d and had completed t h e i r  school  not  college.  formal  child  education,  respondents  had  but some  m a j o r i t y of the respondents  About care  half  education  high  of  the  and  the  had over two years of experience  in  c h i l d care. R e g i o n a l groups i n v i t e agency personnel t o work w i t h i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r area.  A l l three groups had an equal p o s s i b i l i t y  assignment  any  into  individuals  had  of  prior  the  test  groups  experience  of  f o r m u l a t i o n before the r e s e a r c h study. t o complete regarding  and  training  none in  of  the  problem  Respondents were asked  a demographic q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n highest  formal  educational  level  achieved,  formal  e d u c a t i o n r e l a t e d t o c h i l d c a r e , experience w i t h c h i l d c a r e , and  of  age  gender.  D e s c r i p t i o n o f Research Sample  Tables  4:2,  demographics  4:3,  4:4,  regarding  4:5,  completed  education r e l a t e d to c h i l d care, gender,  and  respectively.  55  4:6  formal  years  of  detail  the  groups  education,  formal  experience,  age and  Table 4:2 Completed Level of Formal Education  C.I.  Lecture  Control  some high School  2  2  3  High School  2  1  2  Some College or University  2  2  2  Degree  1  2  1  Post Graduate  1  1  0  Table 4:3 Formal Education Related to Child Care C.I.  Lecture  Control  Yes  4  5  3  No  4  3  5  Table 4:4 Years of Experience i n Child Care C.I.  Lecture  Control  under 2  0  0  1  2-5  4  3  3  6-10  2  2  2  over 10  2  3  2  56  Table 4:5 Age of Respondents C.I.  Lecture  Control  under 30  1  0  0  31 - 40  1  2  3  41 - 50  3  3  5  over 50  3  3  0  Table 4:6 Gender of Respondents  C.I.  The  Lecture  Control  Male  3  4  4  Female  5  4  4  sample group of twenty-four  used  in this  study  was  representative (p<.05) of the larger population of care givers on the following characteristics: 50% attended or completed high school education (r=.45), 23 of the respondents were aged 30 and older (r=.80), 50% indicated formal child care education (r=.45)  /  23 of the respondents had more than two years experience (r=.80). The  next  section describes the operationalization of the  model, presenting how the data were collected across a l l groups.  57  Data C o l l e c t i o n  Method  S e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s were a u d i o - t a p e r e c o r d e d . a  relatively  questions,  non-directive  interviewing  paraphrasing, connecting,  style  Using  (open-ended  summarizing) e f f o r t s  made t o minimize the i m p o s i t i o n of s t r u c t u r e .  Exception to  were this  came from s p e c i f i c i n t e r v i e w e r questions intended t o c l a r i f y and e x p l o r e broader i s s u e s of c o n c e r n .  All  i n t e r v i e w s began w i t h the f o l l o w i n g  request:  I'm about t o hand you a d e s c r i p t i o n of a s i t u a t i o n t h a t you might have come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h or c o u l d come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h . Please read the m a t e r i a l because I w i l l ask you a few q u e s t i o n s afterwards about your o p i n i o n of the situation. Two  short  case  examples  were  presented  p a r t i c i p a n t , who was asked to choose one.  face  down t o  Interviewer  the  questions  were: 1)  Do you t h i n k t h e r e i s a problem here? i f y e s ; p l e a s e o u t l i n e o r d e f i n e the problem as you perceive i t .  2)  How d i d you c l a r i f y the problem i n your mind?  3)  Can you expand on the steps or the process you took o u t l i n e or d e f i n e the problem?  58  to  4)  You have used some i n f o r m a t i o n i n d e f i n i n g the problem you have j u s t presented t o me. Would you p l e a s e o u t l i n e what ideas or i n f o r m a t i o n you used?  5)  How d i d you decide on what i n f o r m a t i o n you would use?  6)  What kinds of decision?  7)  D e s c r i b e , i f you c a n , the connection or r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n f o r m a t i o n you used and your d e s c r i p t i o n of the problem?  8)  How d i d you make the connection between the i n f o r m a t i o n you used and your d e s c r i p t i o n of the problem?  9)  Have you used a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n you needed?  10)  What are the causes (as you see  11)  In r e f l e c t i n g back upon your d e s c r i p t i o n , can d e s c r i b e p o s s i b l e consequences of your choice?  12)  What are the p o s s i b l e  13)  Was p r e v i o u s knowledge necessary t o d e f i n e the problem?  14)  Are t h e r e any unknowns i n the problem? i f yes; p l e a s e d e s c r i b e .  15)  Is the problem you have o u t l i n e d f o r me s i m i l a r t o p a s t experiences or other problems you have encountered?  16)  How would you d e a l w i t h or r e s o l v e the  17)  Can you expand upon the steps or process you would take t o d e a l w i t h or r e s o l v e the problem?  18)  Are you comfortable w i t h your c h o i c e d e a l w i t h the problem?  19)  P l e a s e o u t l i n e any other p o s s i b l e the problem?  20)  Is t h e r e anything e l s e you would l i k e t o t e l l me about the problem you have d e s c r i b e d or anything we have discussed?  i n f o r m a t i o n d i d you use  it)  to  come t o  your  of the problem? you  b e n e f i t s of your choice?  59  issue?  of  how you would  solutions  you see  for  Interviews analysis  of  f o r the content  reliability,  three  pretest for  each  independent  groups ended a t interview  this  question  p o i n t and  began.  For  judges were used t o v e r i f y  the  number of i n f o r m a t i o n items used and the q u a l i t y of the response (scores).  The type  (classification),  of  as  i n f o r m a t i o n used was  was  the  a p p l i c a t i o n of  then the  determined information  (purpose). All  p o s t t e s t i n t e r v i e w s began w i t h the same statement  pretest,  u s i n g two  consideration. (age  of  s i m i l a r , but d i f f e r e n t ,  case  as the  examples  for  The items used i n the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t cases  the  child,  gender,  behaviour) were c o r r e l a t e d .  possible  ethnic  issues,  child  The Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n between the  primary r e s e a r c h e r and the f i r s t judge was .92; the second,  .91;  and  were  the  third,  identical. Lecture  .91  (n= 4,  p<.05).  Interview  questions  I n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n both the C . I . group and the  group were  then  asked t o  describe  factors  that  were  p e r c e i v e d t o be h e l p f u l or h i n d e r i n g i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g . The  next s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s the t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y .  Test Reliability  Three independent according to:  judges  scored the  transcribed interviews  1) the p r o d u c t i o n of items of i n f o r m a t i o n ,  60  application contextual and,  2)  of  information  used  in  problem  formulation,  v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d and problem s o l u t i o n  the  taxonomy.  quality  of  The judges  the  response  in relation  specified  to  the  SOLO  were:  -  a graduate student  i n the f a c u l t y of S o c i a l Work at  -  the E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of the B . C . F . F . P . A . ,  -  a D i s t r i c t Manager of  the  Ministry  of  U.B.C.,  and  Social  Services  use  the  and  Housing.  These  " a s s i s t a n t s " were t r a i n e d i n the  instrument and.were research.  not i n v o l v e d i n any p r e v i o u s  .89;  are q u i t e  research  f a c e t of  the  The Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n  between the primary r e s e a r c h e r and the f i r s t second,  of  and the  acceptable  third,  .88;  (n=4,  f o r data of t h i s  judge was  p<.05). kind  These  .87;  the  figures  (Biggs  and C o l l i s ,  produced by the  respondents  1982).  After  the  informational  items  were c o m p i l e d , the raw scores were reduced t o c l a s s e s a c c o r d i n g to  the  "type"  1-Occupational 3-Knowledge  of  information  specific  of  researcher-judge  that  each  item  i n f o r m a t i o n ; 2-Knowledge  Others. agreement  It  can  be  noted  i n c r e a s e d with t h i s  61  represented: of  self  and;  that  the  categorization.  The correlation of production of information between the primary researcher and the f i r s t judge was .94; the second, .95; and the third, .94, (n=4, p<.02). Biggs and Collis response i s crucial  (1982) believe interjudge r e l i a b i l i t y of for the SOLO Taxonomy.  The agreement  regarding the levels of the SOLO taxonomy were also satisfactory as Table 4:7 illustrates.  Table 4:7  Averaged Interjudge Agreement (SOLO)  Agree N percent  253 88  Half Level Diff. 25 8  One Level Diff. 8 3  More than One Level 2 1  Eighty-eight percent of the transcribed interviews were coded the same way, with a half-level difference being the next most common, one level next and more than one level in only 1% of the cases.  The correlation of the SOLO measures between the primary  researcher and the f i r s t judge was .88; the second, .89; and the third, .88; (n= 4, p<.05) respectively. This level of agreement is considered to be acceptable according to Biggs and Collis (1982) .  62  To t h i s instrument presentation collection.  point,  this  development, of  the  chapter data  has  presented,  collection,  p o p u l a t i o n and r e s e a r c h  in  order:  research sample,  the  design, and data  The next s e c t i o n l i s t s the r e s e a r c h hypotheses t h a t  were t e s t e d and the a n a l y s i s used, i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r Chapter 5, which w i l l present the r e s u l t s  of the  study.  Hypotheses The nine  null  which the t e s t i n g  hypotheses  listed  below  are i n the  order i n  i s r e p o r t e d i n Chapter 5.  HI:  The d i f f e r e n c e of a d j u s t e d means of the groups produced i n f o r m a t i o n does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y v a r y .  H2:  The d i f f e r e n c e of a d j u s t e d means of the groups i n o c c u p a t i o n a l s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y vary.  H3:  The d i f f e r e n c e of a d j u s t e d means of the groups knowledge of s e l f does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y v a r y .  in  H4:  The d i f f e r e n c e of a d j u s t e d means of the groups knowledge of others does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y v a r y .  in  H5:  The d i f f e r e n c e of a d j u s t e d means of the groups i n problem f o r m u l a t i o n does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y v a r y .  63  in  H6:  The d i f f e r e n c e of adjusted means of the identification of contextual variables significantly vary.  groups in does not  H7:  The d i f f e r e n c e of a d j u s t e d means of the groups i n problem s o l u t i o n does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y v a r y .  H8:  The d i f f e r e n c e of a d j u s t e d means of the groups SOLO measure does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y v a r y .  H9:  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e of scores between the experimental groups on f a c t o r s t h a t were p e r c e i v e d t o be h e l p f u l or h i n d e r i n g i n the s u b j e c t ' s l e a r n i n g .  on  the  Specific Definitions Produced i n f o r m a t i o n - The s t a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n items used by the participants. P a r t i c i p a n t s may respond t o the case examples by u s i n g t h r e e types of i n f o r m a t i o n items: 1) irrelevant i t e m s , 2) r e l e v a n t items c o n t a i n e d i n the o r i g i n a l case example, and 3) r e l e v a n t items and p r i n c i p l e s t h a t are not g i v e n but which are i m p l i c i t . (Biggs and C o l l i s , 1982) Occupational s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n - One subset of produced information which includes; appropriate child welfare knowledge, c h i l d development/behaviour information and knowledge of governmental p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s . Knowledge of s e l f - A second subset of produced i n f o r m a t i o n which i n c l u d e s ; r e c o g n i t i o n of p r i o r educative i n f o r m a t i o n ; awareness of p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s and a b i l i t i e s . Knowledge of o t h e r s - The t h i r d subset of produced i n f o r m a t i o n which includes; organizational and professional r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , s o c i e t a l , c u l t u r a l and f a m i l i a r i n f o r m a t i o n items. Problem f o r m u l a t i o n - A d a p t a t i o n or recombination of i n f o r m a t i o n items i n t o a s t r u c t u r e f o r problem d e f i n i t i o n . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s environmental determinants which formulation strategy.  64  - A b i l i t y to may effect  identify problem  Problem s o l u t i o n - A l t e r n a t i v e ways of d e a l i n g w i t h or r e s o l v i n g p r e s e n t e d problems. SOLO measure - S t r u c t u r e of p a r t i c i p a n t responses t o s p e c i f i c t a s k s which may r e l a t e t o g e n e r a l i z e d i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g . F a c t o r s p e r c e i v e d t o be h e l p f u l or h i n d e r i n g - P a r t i c i p a n t b e l i e f s r e g a r d i n g the u s e f u l n e s s of e d u c a t i v e approach.  Analysis  One-way ANCOVA w i t h one c o v a r i a t e , the p r e t e s t ,  was used  the method of a n a l y s i s f o r e i g h t of the hypotheses. small  sample  sensitive similar,  size,  test  of  the the  c o v a r i a t e was hypotheses,  used t o as  Given the  achieve  pretest  as  a more  scores  were  but not e q u a l .  C o n c e p t u a l l y , the c o v a r i a t e i s viewed as an a t t r i b u t e of i n d i v i d u a l s who belong t o two o r more groups. Assuming the within-groups r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are homogeneous, one may t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s among groups a f t e r a d j u s t i n g for, or p a r t i a l i n g out, the e f f e c t of the c o v a r i a t e (Pedhazur, 1982, p . 5 4 1 ) .  In  this  study,  the  data  fulfil  these  requirements  (see  Appendix F ) , as t h e r e i s homogeneity of v a r i a n c e ( w i t h i n chance, the  regression  lines  have  the  same  slope).  A  separate  independent-samples t t e s t was used t o t e s t the n i n t h h y p o t h e s i s regarding p a r t i c i p a n t ' perceptions.  65  Cook and Campbell  (1983)  caution against  the use  of ANCOVA  i n q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s without i n c l u d i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n of the  possible  measurement  differences.  In  this  operationally  identical  used.  is  It  error  and  the  pretest  case,  measures,  believed  as  that  the  the  Possible  similarities  of  specific  demographics,  education,  settings  selection  bias  and  relatively  short time  span trait  increased  sensitization  possible  pretest  it  is  known,  the  structure  and and  are minimized by occupational  gender),  instability,  p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked about p o s s i b l e as  design  research  orientation.  (approximately  between t e s t s reduced p o s s i b l e  were  from f a t i g u e  (formal e d u c a t i o n , age,  are  same q u e s t i o n s  differences  experience,  posttest  (community based, i n f o r m a l ) and v o l u n t e e r  While the  far  and  selection  research  i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n used minimized p o s s i b l e maturation.  assumed  one week)  it  may have  effects.  The  behaviour change and as of  behaviours  of  the  p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d not change d u r i n g the t e s t p e r i o d .  Table  4:8  , lists  the  summary  of  the  hypotheses  under  c o n s i d e r a t i o n and c o r r e s p o n d i n g s t a t i s t i c s and t e s t s which are p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter 5.  66  Table 4;8 Summary of Hypotheses and Tests  Hypotheses  Production of Information Specific Classification of Information Application of Classes  Raw Score  ANCOVA  HI  H2 - H4  H5 - H7  SOLO Taxonomy  H8  Participant perceptions  H9  x - i n c l u d e d i n content of chapter 5  67  t test  CHAPTER 5  RESULTS  The five sections of this chapter present the results as illustrated by Table 4:8, concerning: 1) total production of information, 2) classification of information, 3) participant application of classes, 4) SOLO scoring, and 5) participant perceptions of educative approach.  Total Production of Information  Table 5:1 l i s t s each participant's raw pretest and posttest scores, including means and standard deviations for the three groups.  The alphabetic  letters  participants.  68  indicate  the individual  Table 5:1 Total Production of Information C.I. post  pre  Control  Lecture pre  post  pre  post  B  100  154  J  51  60  S  78  75  C  82  105  K  70  77  T  70  70  D  120  93  L  58  58  U  95  101  E  124  135  M  75  67  V  96  90  F  52  98  N 161  155  W  71  38  G  88  94  0  X 185  203  H  186  207  I  116 868  94  94 125  Y  53  44  161  Q 130 R 109  94  Z  70  66  1047  748  730  718  687  Pretest: C.I.  Lecture  Control  Mean  108.5  93.5  89.8  S.D.  36.8  35.5  38.3  Grand Mean  97.3,  S.D 37.8  Posttest: C.I.  Lecture  Control  Mean  130.9  91.3  85.9  S.D.  34.4  31.8  48.4  Grand Mean  102.3,  S . D . 39.5  69  With  the  consistent group.  exception increase  of  respondent  i n p r o d u c t i o n of  "D," t h e r e  is  a  general  i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the C . I .  Scores i n both the L e c t u r e and C o n t r o l group e i t h e r  i n c r e a s e d or d e c r e a s e d .  While the mean d i f f e r e n c e  between the  p r e - p o s t t e s t s c o r e s of the L e c t u r e group and the C o n t r o l group remained r e l a t i v e l y  the  same,  the mean d i f f e r e n c e  group i n c r e a s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y .  of  As noted, respondent  the C . I .  "D" i s  the  o n l y C . I . p a r t i c i p a n t t o decrease on t h i s measure of p r o d u c t i o n of  information.  "D" d e s c r i b e s  w i t h a 10 y e a r o l d daughter." questions  describes  daughter,  which  response,  accounting  a  may  sexual have for  herself  as  One of  the  assault  triggered the  poor  "a n e u r o t i c posttest  against an  a  10  emotionally  posttest  result  mother  interview year  old  reactive of  this  subject.  Hi:  The  difference  of  adjusted  means  of  the  groups  in  produced i n f o r m a t i o n does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y v a r y .  Table  5:2  provides  an ANCOVA summary of  the  results  of  a  comparison of the d i f f e r e n c e of a d j u s t e d means of the t h r e e t e s t groups.  70  T a b l e 5:2  Summary T a b l e of A d j u s t e d Y Sums of Squares and  V a r i a n c e s f o r T o t a l P r o d u c t i o n of  SS E r r o r s of Estimate  Information  Source  df  Adjusted Y Between Groups Adjusted Y  2  3361.1  1680.5  W i t h i n Groups  20  6813.2  340.7  Total  22  10174.3  C.I. O r i g i n a l Y means A d j u s t e d Y means  As  the  F-ratio  130.9 119.8  Mean Square  Lecture  a  4.9  p  <.05  Control  91.3 95.1  demonstrated  F  85.9 93.3  significant  difference,  a  c o r r e l a t e d - s a m p l e s t t e s t was used t o compare the a d j u s t e d means of  the  three  analysis  groups.  indicated  demonstrated  Table 5:3 that  significantly  shows the  participants greater  in  gains  relationship. the in  C.I.  The group  production  of  i n f o r m a t i o n when compared to the L e c t u r e and the C o n t r o l groups. The d i f f e r e n c e s are not  between the L e c t u r e group and the C o n t r o l group  significant.  71  Table 5;3 t Test (Production of Information)  Groups  t score  p value  C.I.  - Lecture  +2.57  <.02  C.I.  - Control  +2.76  <.0l  Lecture - Control  + .19  *  * not s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l  The  next  section  of  this  chapter  examines  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the p r o d u c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n .  72  the  data  by  Information Classification  The  i n f o r m a t i o n a l items assessed by the panel of judges were  categorized  according to:  2-Knowledge  of  self  1-Occupational s p e c i f i c  and 3-Knowledge  of  others.  information; This  section  p r e s e n t s the raw scores and ANCOVA r e s u l t s f o r each of the  three  classes.  Occupational Specific Information  Occupational  information  development/behaviour knowledge H) the  specific  information,  to  child  of M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l S e r v i c e s  policies, pre  relates  and  practice, posttest  information  standard d e v i a t i o n s  appropriate welfare  by  classified  individual  and  knowledge,  and Housing ( M . S . S . &  and support s e r v i c e s . responses  child  T a b l e 5:4 as  group.  occupational Means  f o r the pre and p o s t t e s t are i n c l u d e d .  73  lists  and  Table 5:4 Occupational Specific Information Lecture  C.I. pre B C D E F G H I  post  83 58 81 72 36 79 139 89  111 70 68 99 74 85 163 138  637  808  J K L M N 0 Q  R  Control pre  pre  post  post  39 53 32 55 116 74 101 91  48 63 33 57 120 81 112 61  S 52 T 42 U 70 V 76 W 48 X 143 y 39 z 54  51 47 72 67 20 159 27 50  561  575  524  493  Pretest •• C.I. Mean 79.6 S.D. 27.5 Grand Mean  Lecture Control 65.6 70.1 28.4 31.6 71.8, S.D. 29.2,  Posttest: C.I. Mean 101.0 S.D. 32.3 Grand Mean  Lecture Control 71.8 61.6 28.5 40.3 78.1, S.D. 33.7,  74  Almost  every  production  of  information  information. increased,  individual  of  the  a lesser extent,  C o n t r o l s c o r e s decreased The group mean of  the  related  The m a j o r i t y  but t o  in  the  C.I. to  while  three  substantial been  the  C . I . group s u b s t a n t i a l l y  "D," "R" and  previously.  Respondent  scores  also  information.  increased,  Respondent "R," s t a t e d  a n g r y . . . i t s o r t of b u i l d s up i n s i d e . . .  The p o s t t e s t score of° respondent the p r e t e s t .  and  "W," demonstrated  a  "D" has that  "picks i n f o r m a t i o n from a p r o b l e m . . . o n gut f e e l i n g s . . . y o u of get  the  consistent.  decrease i n p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s .  mentioned  occupation  m a j o r i t y of  i n occupational s p e c i f i c  respondents;  increased  specific  L e c t u r e group  both the L e c t u r e and C o n t r o l remain almost Only  group  he sort  and you d e c i d e . "  "W" was almost 50% lower than  That i n d i v i d u a l d e s c r i b e d " c r i t e r i a of  importance  from a moral b a s i s " and r e a c t e d very e m o t i o n a l l y t o the i s s u e of sexuality.  H2:  The d i f f e r e n c e  of  adjusted  occupational  specific  means  of  the  information  groups does  in not  significantly vary.  Table  5:5  specific  summarizes  the  ANCOVA  information.  75  statistics  on  occupational  Table 5;5 Summary Table of Adjusted Y Sums of Squares and Variances for Occupational Information  Source  Adjusted Y Between Groups Adjusted Y Within Groups Total  df  Sums of Squares of Errors of Estimate  2  2543.2  1271.6  20 22  4996.4 7539.6  249.8  C.I.  Original Y means Adjusted Y means  Mean Square  Lecture  101 92.3  71.9 73.8  F  p  5.1 <.05  Control  61.6 68.4  The C.I. group showed a significantly greater increase than the Lecture group and the Control group (see Table 5:6).  Again  the difference between the Lecture group and the Control was not significant.  76  Table 5:6 t Test (Occupational Specific Information)  Groups  t score  p value  C.I. - Lecture  +2.1  <.05  C.I. - Control  +2.9  <.01  Lecture - Control  + .7  *  * not significant at .05 level  Knowledge of Self The second information classification category to be examined was that of knowledge of self.  This class of response includes  knowledge of boundaries for self and others, personal attitudes and a b i l i t i e s , recognition of prior educative information and relationship of caregiver to foster child and own family. Table 5:7 presents the raw scores for this category.  77  Table 5 ; 7 Knowledge of Self C.I.  Control  Lecture pre  post  pre  post  J  1  2  S  16  8  19  K  6  5  T  23  16  6  7  L  13  10  U  6  7  E  22  22  M  11  8  V  6  7  F  4  3  N  19  17  W  12  9  G  0  0  0  9  3  X  12  24  H  23  26  Q  9  2  Y  1  2  I  11  11  R  5  15  Z  1  3  76  103  73  62  77  77  pre  post  B  1  15  C  9  D  Pretest: C.I.  Lecture  Control  Mean  9.5  9.1  9.6  S.D.  8.3  5.1  7.1  Grand Mean  9.4,  S.D.  6.8,  Posttest: C.I.  Lecture  Control  Mean  12.9  7.8  9.6  S.D.  8.6  5.5  6.7  Grand Mean 10.1,  S.D. 6.9,  78  The  group  mean  pretest  scores  knowledge of s e l f v a r i a b l e .  are  very  similar  on  the  There was a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n the  mean p o s t t e s t score of the C . I . group and a s l i g h t decrease the L e c t u r e group. their  use  class.  of,  Most i n d i v i d u a l s i n the C . I . group i n c r e a s e d  o r maintained the  use  of,  information i n  this  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t Respondent "B" i n c r e a s e s  dramatically strategy  in this  as  one  behaviour...I  category. of  have  dealing with  made  it  This i n d i v i d u a l  "observing some  i d e n t i f y the i s s u e . . . p u t t i n g then  in  things  describes  in  interpretations  it  i n categories,  by examining the  the  her  child's  in  order  to  weighing i t and  consequences  of  their  actions." Most of the decreased Control the  scores  i n the  use  of the respondents of  showed a s l i g h t  greatest  different posttest;  increase  selective  knowledge of increase.  self,  encoding  myself  the  Respondent " X , " who showed  process  at  the  describes time  of  scene as an observer and i t ' s  watching an a c t before m e . . . I  relate  it  to  situations  i n the p o s i t i o n of the  draw c o n c l u s i o n s and come t o one t h a t f e l t  H3:  w h i l e many of  among the c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s ,  "I v i s u a l i z e the  experiences...putting  i n the L e c t u r e group  or  a  the like past  person  to  comfortable."  The d i f f e r e n c e of a d j u s t e d group means i n knowledge of self  does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y v a r y .  79  T a b l e 5:8 d e t a i l s the ANCOVA r e s u l t s .  Table 5:8 Summary Table of Adjusted Y Sums of Squares and Variances for Knowledge of Self  Source  df  Adjusted Y Between Groups 2 Adjusted Y W i t h i n groups 20 Total 22  SS E r r o r s  Mean Square of E s t i m a t e  F  98.5  49.3  1.7  595.9 694.4  29.8  C.I.  Lecture  Control  12.9 12.8  7.8 8.0  9.6 9.7  O r i g i n a l Y means A d j u s t e d Y means  >.05  The F - r a t i o i s not s i g n i f i c a n t , p r e v e n t i n g the r e j e c t i o n of the  hypothesis.  third  The next  classification  of  part  of  produced  others.  80  this  section  information,  examines  the  knowledge  of  Knowledge of Others  T h i s measure i n c l u d e s :  knowledge  and procedures and the p r o f e s s i o n a l and  resources.  concerns,  Also  included  c u l t u r a l and h e r i t a g e  relationships,  r e l a t i o n s h i p to items  issues  colleagues  regarding  as  well  as  policies  societal perceived  such as the c h i l d and h i s or her f a m i l y of o r i g i n  and the c a r e g i v e r ' s individual's  are  of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  pre  knowledge of others  f a m i l y and the c h i l d . and  posttest  scores  Table 5 : 9 l i s t s in  the  ( i n c l u d i n g means and S . D . ) .  81  category  the of  Table 5;9  Knowledge of Others  C.I. pre  Control  Lecture pre  post  post  pre  post  B  16  28  J  16  10  S  10  16  C  15  16  K  11  9  T  5  7  D  33  18  L  13  15  U  19  21  E  30  14  M  9  2  V  14  16  F  12  21  N  31  18  W  11  9  G  9  9  0  11  10  X  30  20  H  24  18  Q  10  11  Y  13  15  I  16  12  R  13  18  Z  15  13  155  136  114  93  117  117  Pretest: C.I.  Lecture  Mean  19.4  14.3  14.6  S.D.  8.1  5.0  6.9  Grand mean  16.1,  Control  S . D . 6.7  Posttest: C.I, Mean  17  S.D.  5.6  Grand Mean  Control  Lecture 11.6  14.6  5.0  4.6  14.4,  S.D.  82  5.1  There  is  a g e n e r a l decrease  i n production  of  information  i n v o l v i n g knowledge of others i n the C . I . group and the L e c t u r e group.  The scores  decrease,  but  identical.  the  Control  pre and p o s t t e s t  The grand  posttest. reported  the  in  mean  also  group e i t h e r means  u s i n g the  for this  decreases  Respondent " N , " who showed the problem f o r m u l a t i o n  increase  group are  slightly greatest  strategy  or  in  the  decrease,  of  "whatever  stuck my b r a i n as b e i n g the most important p a r t of i t would be considered  the  issue...based  your  past  experience,  own  on p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . . . t h r o u g h something  that  relates  to  the  p r o b l e m . . . w h a t h i t s h a r d e s t , " r e l y i n g on emotional r e a c t i o n .  H4:  The d i f f e r e n c e  of  a d j u s t e d means  of  the  groups  in  knowledge of others does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y v a r y .  T a b l e 5:10 presents the t e s t summary f o r t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  83  T a b l e 5;10  Summary T a b l e of A d j u s t e d Y Sums of Squares and V a r i a n c e s f o r Knowledge of Others  Source  df  Adjusted Y Between groups 2 Adjusted Y Within groups 20 Total 22  SS Errors  Mean Square of Estimate  F  56.4  28.2  1.2  479.1 535.5  C.I. Original Y means Adjusted Y means  >.05  24  Lecture  17 15.9  p  11.6 12.2  Control 14.6 15.1  Again, i t i s impossible to reject the fourth hypothesis given the F-ratio of the ANCOVA.  Collective investigation seems not  to result in an increase of information concerning knowledge of others in this study.  Conclusion  The process of collective investigation promoted significant change in the area concerned with specific occupational  84  information.  Change i n the other two information classes,  knowledge  self  of  significant.  and  knowledge  of  others,  were not  The next section deals with the application of the  produced information.  Participant Application of Information  The interview questions were designed to reflect three areas of  research  concern:  problem  formulation,  participant  identification of contextual variables used i n formulation of an issue and problem solution.  The following sections report the  raw scores on production of information i n these three areas.  Problem Formulation Problem formulation refers to the adaptation or recombination of  information  items  problem definition.  into an individualistic  structure for  Table 5:11 l i s t s the participant pretest  and posttest scores applied to problem formulation along with means and S.D..  85  Table 5;11  Raw Score (Problem Formulation)  C.I. pre  Lecture  post  Control  post  pre  pre  post  B  44  75  J  19  21  S  34  36  C  38  64  K  30  30  T  28  23  D  52  59  L  24  20  U  34  37  E  50  64  M  24  26  V  44  34  F  18  31  N  52  41  W  20  10  G  32  47  0  33  27  X  74  102  H  80  102  46  41  Y  16  16  I  53  75  Q R  36  35  Z  22  12  367  517  264  241  272  270  Pretest: C.I.  Lecture  Control  Mean  45.9  33.0  34.0  S.D.  19.5  10.6  17.3  Grand mean  38,  S.D.  15.8  Posttest: C.I.  Lecture  Control  Mean  64.6  30.1  33.8  S.D.  19.6  7.7  27.7  Grand mean  42.8,  S.D.  86  18.3  All  o f t h e C . I . g r o u p i n c r e a s e d i n t h e use o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r  problem f o r m u l a t i o n .  By c o m p a r i s o n , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e  of  the  L e c t u r e group decreased  of  the  control  C.I.  group  showed  small  increases.  increased,  while  both  remained r e l a t i v e l y large  gain  on  facts...absorb have to  consistent.  this them,  adopt the  the  solution  most  is  analyze  important  needed,  try  go  through  adjusted  5:12  explores  the  Control  analyze  all  a the  and  means  relationship  87  I've find  and t r y  decided out  I  that  what  a  the  instituted."  p r o b l e m f o r m u l a t i o n does not  Table  and t h e  " I , " who showed  "I  out...once  H5:  of  Lecture  the  information, review everything  s h o u l d be  difference  half  The g r o u p mean o f  stated:  c a u s e s a r e a n d how s o l u t i o n s  The  while  i t . . . p r i o r i z e everything  fact  to  the  application,  Respondent  variable,  h e a r d and t r y t o  get  in this  scores  of  the  significantly  further.  groups vary.  in  Table 5;12 Summary Table of Adjusted Y Sums of Squares and Variances for Problem Formulation  Source  df  SS E r r o r s of E s t i m a t e  Adjusted Y between groups 2 Adjusted Y w i t h i n groups 20 Total 22  Mean S q u a r e  F  p  1174.4  587.2  7.5  <.05  1571 2745.4  78.6  C.I. O r i g i n a l Y means A d j u s t e d Y means  As  the  F-ratio  Lecture  64.6 51.9  demonstrated  30.1 37.1  a  Control 33.8 39.4  significant  difference,  f u r t h e r t t e s t s were a g a i n u s e d t o compare t h e a d j u s t e d means o f the t h r e e groups. significantly Lecture  group  The a n a l y s i s  greater and  gains  showed t h a t t h e C . I . g r o u p h a d  i n problem  the Control.  The  L e c t u r e a n d C o n t r o l was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . comparisons.  The f i f t h  hypothesis  formulation  difference  study.  88  the  between  the  T a b l e 5:13 l i s t s  c a n be r e j e c t e d  f o r m u l a t i o n i s p o s i t i v e l y a f f e c t e d by a c o l l e c t i v e approach i n t h i s  than  these  as problem  investigation  Table 5;13 t Test (Problem Formulation)  Groups  t score  C.I. - Lecture C.I. - C o n t r o l Lecture - Control  * not  The  next  significant  part  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  of  this  p  3.1 2.6 -.5  at  .05  value  <.02 <.01 *  level  section deals  with  the  participant  contextual v a r i a b l e s f o r problem  formulation.  Identification of Contextual Variables  This  relates  to  the  participants'  ability  c o n t e x t u a l determinants which e f f e c t e d t h e i r problem strategy.  Table  statistics  on  5:14  lists  the  this variable.  89  individual  scores  to  identify  formulation and  summary  Table 5;14  Raw Score (Contextual Variables)  C.I. pre  Lecture  post  pre  Control  post  B 45 C 30 D 53 E 53 F 20 G 27 H 57 I 40  53 24 24 45 39 25 62 72  J 22 K 25 L 22 M 31 N 65 0 45 Q 28 R 61  23 35 23 28 68 46 30 56  325  344  299  309  S T U V W X Y Z  pre  post  26 32 40 40 37 76 12 32  25 30 41 35 17 64 14 26  295  252  Pretest: Mean S.D. Grand mean  C.I. 40.6 12.8  Lecture 37.4 16.3  Control 36.9 17.1  38.3, S.D. 15.4  Posttest: Mean S.D. Grand mean  C.I. 43.0 17.2  Lecture 38.6 15.4  Control 31.5 14.8  37.7, S.D. 15.8,  90  Many of  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n the C . I . group and the  Control  decreased i n the use of c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s , w h i l e most of Lecture  group  increased  slightly.  Grand  means  are  the  almost  identical.  H6:  The d i f f e r e n c e of a d j u s t e d means of the groups i n use of c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y v a r y .  Table 5:15  illustrates  the ANCOVA summary and f i n d i n g s .  T a b l e 5;15 Summary T a b l e of A d j u s t e d Y Sums of Squares and Variances f o r Contextual V a r i a b l e s  Source  df of  Adjusted Y Between groups 2 Adjusted Y W i t h i n groups 20 Total 22  SS E r r o r s Estimate  Mean Square  326.1  163.1  2590.6 2916.7  129.5  C.I. O r i g i n a l Y means A d j u s t e d Y means  43 41.2  91  Lecture 39 39.7  F  1.3  Control 32 33  p  >.05  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e preventing section  a c r o s s t h e t h r e e g r o u p s was  r e j e c t i o n of the hypothesis.  concludes the analysis  The n e x t p a r t  of the produced  found, of t h i s  information.  Problem Solution  Problem with  solution  or resolving  individual applied  scores  t o problem  refers  to the alternative  the presented problem. (and summary  Table  statistics)  solution.  92  ways o f  dealing  5:16 l i s t s t h e  of the information  Table 5;16 Raw Scores (Problem Solution)  C.I.  pre  Control  Lecture  post  pre  post  pre  post  B  11  26  J  10  16  S  18  14  C  14  17  K  15  12  T  10  17  D  15  10  L  12  15  U  21  23  E  21  26  M  20  13  V  12  21  F  14  28  N  44  46  W  14  11  G  19  22  0  16  21  X  35  37  H  49  43  35  23  Y  25  14  I  33  14  Q R  33  34  Z  16  28  176  186  185  180  151  165  Pretest • C.I.  Lecture  Control  Mean  22.0  23.1  18.9  S.D.  12.0  11.7  7.6  Grand mean  21.3,  S.D.  C.I.  Lecture  Control  23.3  22.5  20.6  9.5  11.1  8.1  10. 4  Posttest: Mean S.D.  Grand mean 2 2 . 2 ,  S.D.  93  9.6  The  majority  of i n d i v i d u a l s  s l i g h t l y i n t h i s category.  i n a l l the groups  increased  P r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t means a r e v e r y  s i m i l a r f o r a l l groups.  H7:  The d i f f e r e n c e of a d j u s t e d means of the groups i n problem s o l u t i o n does not  s i g n i f i c a n t l y vary.  T a b l e 5:17 l i s t s the t e s t summary.  Table 5;17 Summary Table of Adjusted Y Sums of Squares and Variances for Problem Solution  Source  Adjusted Y Between groups Adjusted Y W i t h i n groups Total  O r i g i n a l Y means A d j u s t e d Y means  df  SS E r r o r s of Estimate  Mean Square  2  9 .5  4.9  20 22  1937 .1 1946 .6  96.9  F  C.I.  Lecture  Control  23.3 23.6  22.5 21.9  20.6 21.5  94  p  As evidenced by Table 5:17,  produced i n f o r m a t i o n seems not  be a p p l i e d t o problem s o l u t i o n  in this  to  study.  Conclusion  Statistical  analyses  support  the  conclusion  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the c o l l e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n p r o c e s s affects  problem f o r m u l a t i o n .  identification solution.  of  contextual  Information variables  was  or  not  used  positively applied  for  The next s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s the a n a l y s i s of the  of p a r t i c i p a n t  that  to  problem quality  response.  SOLO Taxonomy (Raw Scores)  Table  5:18  lists  the  pretest  and  posttest  scores  of  the  p a r t i c i p a n t s a c c o r d i n g to the SOLO Taxonomy, i n c l u d i n g means and standard  deviations.  95  T a b l e 5;18  SOLO Taxonomy Scores  C.I.  Lecture  pre  post  B 19.5 C 21 D 23 E 25.25 F 18 ,G 20 H 26.75 I 21  24.25 22.5 19 25.25 21.5 19.25 26.75 22  J K L M N 0 Q R  174.5 180.5  pre  post  18 19.25 17.5 20.5 23 22.25 19.5 21  20 17.5 18.5 16 24.25 21.25 22.5 18  161  158  Control pre post S T U V W X Y Z  21.5 19 24 24 21 24.75 14.5 18.75  22.25 19 23.5 22.75 17 23.75 12 19  167.5 159.3  Pretest: Mean S.D. Grand Mean  C.I. 21.8 2.8  Lecture 20.1 1.8  Control 20.9 3.2  21, S.D. 2.8  Posttest: Mean S.D.  C.I. 22.6 2.6  Grand Mean  20.7, S.D.  Lecture 19.8 2.6  96  3.3  Control 19.9 3.8  I n d i v i d u a l pre and p o s t t e s t scores w i t h i n the groups v a r i e d . Group means are very s i m i l a r and the between groups was  H8:  observed range  small.  The d i f f e r e n c e  of  a d j u s t e d means of  SOLO measure does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  T a b l e 5:19  difference  p r e s e n t s the t e s t  the  groups on  the  vary.  summary.  Table 5;19 Summary Table of Adjusted Y Sums of Squares and Variances for SOLO Taxonomy  Source  Adjusted Y Between Groups Adjusted Y W i t h i n Groups Total  df  SS E r r o r s of Estimate  2  16 .6  20 22  113 .8 130 .4  C.I. O r i g i n a l Y means A d j u s t e d Y means  22.6 22  97  Mean Square  Lecture 19.8 20.4  F  Control 19.9 19.9  p  The  F-ratio is  hypothesis. collective different  not s i g n i f i c a n t ,  p r e v e n t i n g r e j e c t i o n of  the  Q u a l i t y of response appears not t o be e f f e c t e d investigation. facet  of  the  The next research  section  regarding  will the  present  by a  participant  p e r c e p t i o n s of the e d u c a t i v e approach.  Participant Perceptions of Educative Approach  To c o n t i n u e e x p l o r a t i o n of the educative approach, a separate independent-samples t t e s t was conducted on the C . I . group and the L e c t u r e group. that  they  P a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o i d e n t i f y  perceived  to  be  helpful  or  l e a r n i n g , which are l i s t e d i n Table 5:20.  hindering  in  H9:  their  To be i n c l u d e d , the  f a c t o r s had t o be mentioned by at l e a s t two of the e i g h t in  factors  people  the group as suggested by Borgen and Amundson (1984).  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e of scores  between  the experimental groups on f a c t o r s t h a t were perceived" t o be h e l p f u l or h i n d e r i n g i n the s u b j e c t ' s  98  learning.  Table 5;20 Identified Helpful Factors  Factors  C.I.  Group i n t e r a c t i o n Content of workshop F a c i l i t a t o r Style S t r u c t u r e d approach t o problems Group a c t i v i t i e s  8 8 7 7 6  -  Lecture s t y l e Information about problem s o l v i n g Positive attitude  —  3  —  2 2  36  7  Total  Individuals  i n the  which they c o n s i d e r e d m a j o r i t y of factors  participants  C . I . group d i d not to  be h i n d e r i n g t o t h e i r  approach of  the  to  By  and consequently  Lecture  group  were unable  several  no  unwilling  For those who chose t o  s t y l e and content was c o n s i d e r e d  99  helpful.  The  helpful  s t y l e and a  helpful  claimed  or  factors  comparison,  L e c t u r e group i d e n t i f i e d  from the  any  learning.  facilitator  problems.  h i n d e r i n g or h e l p f u l f a c t o r s . lecture  identify  i n d i v i d u a l s were able t o i d e n t i f y  individuals  occurred  —  i n v o l v i n g group p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  structured  Five  Lecture  fewer factors. learning  to  state  respond,  Obviously, is  while  interesting  to  such i n f o r m a t i o n i s note  that  between the p e r c e p t i o n s the  C.I.  group  interaction p<.001).  to  a  perceived  Consequently, The  preparation  for  the  next the  substantial  of the two groups. the  be b e n e f i c i a l  rejected.  highly  to  difference  and  learning  summarizes  interpretation  of  exists  structured  (t=8.7,  n i n t h and f i n a l hypothesis  section  it  The i n d i v i d u a l s i n  activities their  subjective,  the  the  df=6, may be  chapter,  results,  to  in be  p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter S i x .  Summary  ANCOVA was  used  to  test  e f f e c t s of the c o l l e c t i v e  separate  hypotheses  about  the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n process on i n d i v i d u a l ' s  a b i l i t y t o formulate problems. null  9  Table 5:21 p r e s e n t s the numbered  hypotheses, between group comparisons and c o r r e s p o n d i n g p  value.  100  T a b l e 5;21  Hypotheses  Summary of Hypotheses  Between groups  p value  rejection of n u l l  -  Lecture Control  <.05 <.02 <.01  yes  C.I. C.I. C.I. C.I.  Lecture Control  <.05 <.05 <.01  yes  -  H3  >.05  no  H4  >.05  no  <.05 <.02 <.01  yes  H6  >.05  no  H7  >.05  no  H8  >.05  no  <.001  yes  HI  H2  H5  C.I. C.I.  H9  In  C.I.  a  -  -  strict  Lecture Control  Lecture  sense,  four  hypotheses  However, the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d a c o n s i s t e n t  can be  rejected.  s l i g h t tendency f o r  the C . I . group t o out perform the L e c t u r e and C o n t r o l groups on the remaining f i v e measures.  Only knowledge of o t h e r s  f o r both the C . I . group and the L e c t u r e group.  101  decreases  The  "production of  positively  i n f o r m a t i o n " v a r i a b l e does appear t o  effected  by c o l l e c t i v e  investigation.  The C . I .  group showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r gains than d i d e i t h e r Lecture  or  the  Control  groups.  between the L e c t u r e group and the  be  No d i f f e r e n c e  was  the  found  Control.  The "produced i n f o r m a t i o n " v a r i a b l e was c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o t h r e e classes. specific  Significant information.  results  were  seen  in  occupational  Subsequent t t e s t s i n d i c a t e d the C . I .  group showed g r e a t e r i n c r e a s e s than e i t h e r the L e c t u r e or the Control  groups.  Again the  C o n t r o l groups was not  The  "application  of  t  score  between the  L e c t u r e and  significant.  the  information"  c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o t h r e e sub-measures. seen i n problem f o r m u l a t i o n .  variable  was  also  S i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were  The C . I . group showed  greater  g a i n s than e i t h e r the L e c t u r e group or the C o n t r o l group. difference  The t  e x i s t e d between the L e c t u r e and C o n t r o l groups.  t e s t comparing the C . I . and the L e c t u r e groups on the  "participant also  No  perception  of  educative  significant.  102  process"  variable  was  As a consequence question  can  investigation production  of  be  of these a n a l y s e s ,  answered  experience specific,  problem f o r m u l a t i o n .  with in  the  confidence.  this  study  occupational  original The  collective  promotes  increased  information,  The next chapter i n t e r p r e t s the  103  research  used  for  results.  CHAPTER 6  DISCUSSION and CONCLUSION  Summary of Study  This study focused attention on a group educative process, collective investigation.  The literature i n the area generally  claims broad and sweeping learning outcomes.  A methodological  problem with much of the previous research was that these studies relied on data collected only after the process had occurred, raising findings.  questions concerning the validity  of the  This study overcame this problem by collecting data  before and after treatment.  Another important methodological  decision for this study was to collect data from a group exposed to problem formulation through a didactic lecture, supplemented by pre-readings. In this manner, "pure" lecture techniques were compared to collective investigation.  As stated before, this  was to use the Lecture group as a form of control. The C.I. f a c i l i t a t o r challenged participants to examine their existing  conceptualizations  for internal  consistency,  representation of validity and reflection of the "actual" world. Within an atmosphere based upon trust and relationships of  104  mutual  respect  participating, Participants  for the  were  the  perceptions  C.I. asked  and  facilitator to  discuss  opinions  acted  problems  of  those  as  a  "critic."  for  which  their  p r i o r knowledge was a p p r o p r i a t e and adequate.  Activities  the  understanding  group were aimed at  interpretation. interpersonal This lecturer  there  s h a r i n g of p a r t i c i p a n t s '  the  pattern  didactic  transmission  of  quickly  efficiently  and  development  Consequently,  communication to  the  can  group.  information  was  a  high  reactions  be  possible  communication. acquisition centralized,  The  degree  with  to  be  through  control  format  was  one person  (the  as the  Discussion  was  directed  facilitator)  a  of  clarify towards  of v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n and communication was as  the  accomplished  allowing p a r t i c i p a n t s to  lecture  of  and meanings.  contrasted  p a r t i c i p a n t behaviour and l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s . p r i m a r i l y q u e s t i o n and answer,  and  Teaching was approached as  procedure  as  of  within  highly  directed  message  around  learner  flow. Nine  research  hypotheses  centered  i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o d u c t i o n and problem f o r m u l a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s were  investigated.  eight  caregivers  B r i t i s h Columbia. workshop,  The sample employed  within  consisted the  of  three  c h i l d welfare  that  groups  of  system of  One group was i n v o l v e d i n an i n t e n s i v e C . I .  stressing participant interaction.  105  The second group  was exposed t o a d i d a c t i c l e c t u r e u s i n g problem f o r m u l a t i o n as the c o n t e n t . ANCOVA  The t h i r d group r e c e i v e d no treatment.  was  pre-selected  used  to  analyze  significance  the  level  of  s i g n i f i c a n t i n several instances,  test .05.  the  C.I.  group  The  with  results  a  were  a l l o w i n g f o r the r e j e c t i o n of  four of the o r i g i n a l nine n u l l hypotheses. instances  results  scored  the  However, i n a l l nine  highest,  suggesting  a  possible trend. The  remaining  interpretation  of  considerations. limitations results finally,  to  of  sections the  data,  This w i l l the  the  of  chapter  including  will  selected  present  the  overall  and p r a c t i c e  of  implications adult  an  theoretical  be followed by a d i s c u s s i o n  study,  theory  this  of  the  of  the  education  and  suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h .  Interpretation of Hypotheses Testing Total Production of Information (Hi)  Participants greater  gains  in in  the  C.I.  group demonstrated  p r o d u c t i o n of  group and the C o n t r o l group.  i n f o r m a t i o n than  significantly the  Lecture  T h i s r e s u l t i s d i s c u s s e d i n terms  of:  106  - the nature of the group structure, - diffusion of innovations within a group, and - experiential learning.  Nature of Group Structure  The  nature  information networks  of the C.I. group  created  a decentralized  flow which may have affected the communication  of the group.  Another  possible  effect  of low  centrality and nonauthoritarian leadership i s increased group morale  (Colleta,  1976).  Although  this  study  did not  specifically address morale, the significant scores regarding participant perception of the C.I. process and content imply the group well-being experience.  was consistently high as a result  of the  The next section addresses the issue of information  flow i n small groups.  Diffusion of Innovations  An interpretation of the results may relate to the process by which information  i s communicated among group members.  As  discussed i n the literature review, learning requires more than presentation  of knowledge  as the learners  actively  make  decisions regarding acceptance or rejection of new information  107  (Jarvis,  1987).  New  information  concerning  innovations  (collective investigation) may create uncertainty related to the expected consequences of adopting and using the concepts to be learned.  People can  seldom be  certain that an  innovation  represents a superior alternative to previous practice.  The  cognitive operation of evaluation i s concerned with decisions about the "weighs"  "goodness" of the  presented  items of information.  Evaluation  information  judgements  and  makes  regarding i t . Appropriate methods of adult education provide an opportunity for reducing uncertainty and developing information processing. The  information  embodied  in  the  innovation  (collective  investigation) represents the possible solution to the group's problems, providing learning motivation.  Once the educational  process  about  has  reduced  the  uncertainty  the  expected  consequences to a tolerable level, the participant's decision concerning  adoption or rejection of the concept can be made  (Rogers and Kincaid, 1983). The perception of the relative advantage of the innovation is compared to  existing values, past experience  and needs.  C.I. provided an opportunity for peer discussion and evaluation, increasing the "observability" of the process and likelihood of adoption.  The  act of discussion uses communication which  implies relationships as the individuals are linked by the flow  108  of p a t t e r n e d i n f o r m a t i o n t o form networks 1983).  The more communication t h a t  meaningful personal  content),  bonds  the  more  and group  (Rogers and K i n c a i d ,  occurs  likely  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y on  they  integration.  are  to  Using F i g u r e  bonding and group dynamics can be seen as c o n t e x t u a l (Box  D of  model),  investigation  and  as  process.  d i f f i c u l t y of use)  such  may  impact  Complexity of  the  lecture  did  collective  process  (perceived  not  adoption.  permit  practice  relying  on  the  The l e c t u r e method i s  strengths  of  the  basic  facts  or  facilitator  makes  motivating  through  instructional provide  and  the  associations.  the  content  definition  objectives opportunity  beginning  the  process  response,  question  of  Ideally,  meaningful of  the  somewhat  pre-readings  p r e s e n t a t i o n s t y l e of the f a c i l i t a t o r t o s t r e s s the of  variables  the content may have been seen as too complex or  of no use t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s . limited,  the  and the degree t o which the i n n o v a t i o n may be  didactic  consequently,  5,  the  experimented w i t h are other f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g The  develop  importance  the  and  and  competent  intrinsically  problem,  specified  and s p e c i f i e d  situations.  T h i s may  for  attention  increased  i n f o r m a t i o n encoding.  and answers  to  By prompting  may p r o v i d e immediate  and l e a r n i n g r e i n f o r c e m e n t .  109  stimuli,  feedback  Experiential Learning  If the  one accepts the r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s , C . I . group may have c r e a t e d the  the d i f f u s i o n process of o p p o r t u n i t y f o r improved  i n f o r m a t i o n d i s c o v e r y and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n the framework of experimental l e a r n i n g . emphasize  personal  unlimited content. occurs  through  While the goals of e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g  growth, Kolb  the  techniques  can be  applied  to  (1984) b e l i e v e s e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g  adaptive  dialectics,  creating  confrontation  between the i n d i v i d u a l ' s conceptual i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of s o c i a l r e a l i t y . literature  review,  T h i s may, as d i s c u s s e d i n the  occur through the  connecting  which are p a r t of the o r i g i n a l experience  of  the  ideas  and those which have  r e s u l t e d d u r i n g r e f l e c t i o n upon e x i s t i n g knowledge and a t t i t u d e s (Guildford,  1965).  New i n f o r m a t i o n i s  associated  with  those  elements of the p r e - e x i s t i n g knowledge t h a t are r e l e v a n t .  The  s i t u a t i o n commonly serves as a cue f o r r e t r i e v a l i n any content area. as  It  is  possible,  conceptions Figure  5,  u s e f u l t h a t as many d i s t i n c t a s s o c i a t i o n s as and  immediate learning  collective  connections (Boud et  al,  investigation  might  not  1985). uses  brain-storming, psychoanalytic free a s s o c i a t i o n , or  s t r u c t u r e d experiences  lead  to  Returning techniques  new to of  c r e a t i v e drama  t o generate d i v e r g e n t thought  110  be made  for  processing. to  The c o g n i t i v e  generate  construction problem  divergent of  meaning  formulation  interactive  strategies thought (Box A)  (Box  (Box B of the model)  may  influence  individual  and/or o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n  C).  In  this  relationship,  C.I.  of the  e f f e c t s of the model can be seen.  A note of c a u t i o n should be i n t e r j e c t e d at t h i s p o i n t . the  used  group  information,  showed  one wonders  greater  gains  about the  in  choice  of  While  production the  of  information.  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t group pressure t o conform may have d i s t o r t e d individual  perception.  As  a  result  of  group  consensus,  i n d i v i d u a l s may have c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r views to be i n c o r r e c t and judged the group t o be c o r r e c t , and  the t e s t r e s u l t s .  influenced  by  both t h e i r  decisions  Although p a r t i c i p a n t s c l a i m e d not t o  "experts"  s o c i a l conformists  affecting  within  the  group,  r a t h e r than " c r i t i c a l  C.I.  may  be  produce  thinkers."  Type of Information Produced (H2-H4)  The  classification  of i n f o r m a t i o n can be seen as a subset of  t o t a l information production.  The t h r e e hypotheses were t e s t e d  r e g a r d i n g : 1) s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , 2) knowledge of self,  and 3) knowledge of o t h e r s .  information  significantly  significantly C o n t r o l group.  greater  changed.  increase  Of t h e s e ,  The C . I .  than the  This r e s u l t i s discussed 111  only o c c u p a t i o n a l group  showed  a  L e c t u r e group and the i n terms  of:  -  work r o l e & i d e n t i t y ,  -  p e r s o n a l power.  and  Work Role and Identity  The f i r s t  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of why only one type of  information  changed may r e l a t e t o the work r o l e and p a r t i c i p a n t m o t i v a t i o n for  requesting  the  workshops.  Posttest  interviews  determined  t h a t a l l of the p a r t i c i p a n t s came t o the workshops t o l e a r n t a s k related  information.  represent  an  involvement,  important personal  (Gelphi,  1979).  disturbed  if  perceive 1983).  as  Work or  they  life  event  sense of  Concerned were unable  central  to  an  their  occupation terms  be  seen  to  of  interpersonal  satisfaction  and  self-identity  practitioners  may  have  to  in  can  account  professional  for  become  processes  competence  they  (Schon,  As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , t h i s u n c e r t a i n t y may have c o n t r i b u t e d  t o a d o p t i o n of the presented  innovations.  Personal Power  The second involves  consideration  the development  related  t o work r o l e  of p e r s o n a l power.  112  and  identity  Returning to  the  framework  (Figure  5),  it  can  be  seen  that  through  problem  f o r m u l a t i o n (Box C ) , p a r t i c i p a n t s may have r e c o g n i z e d the of  possible  action  and  modified  their  previous  ( c o n s t r u c t i o n of meaning - Box A) a c c o r d i n g t o new The  C.I.  group c o n t r o l l e d  the  process  of  the  group c o n t r o l  develop c o n d i t i o n s  establishes  knowledge  expectations.  and content  workshop, choosing t o d e a l with work r e l a t e d i s s u e s . view  extend  a basis  of  the  A positive  upon which  f o r l e a r n i n g , namely, c o n f i r m a t i o n of  to  their  past experience and empowerment.  P e r s o n a l c o n f i r m a t i o n may have  o c c u r r e d through the development  of the communication network,  as i n d i v i d u a l s shared i n f o r m a t i o n .  A l l of the p a r t i c i p a n t s  the C . I . group acknowledged t h a t group i n t e r a c t i o n was  in  helpful  to t h e i r l e a r n i n g . C r i t i c a l examination of o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n enables the development  of  concept  internal  extent their  of to  personal  power,  locus  which i n d i v i d u a l s  environment,  as  of  which can be connected control.  see  themselves  contrasted  with  designed t o i n f l u e n c e t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s . taken r e s p o n s i b i l i t y objectives  and taken  This as  taking  relates  to  the  to  the  manipulated by direct  action  I n d i v i d u a l s may have  f o r h e l p i n g the group t o formulate common initiative  in  group w i t h the means f o r achievement.  p r o v i d i n g members Internally  of  the  controlled  persons tend t o see themselves as c o n t r o l l i n g reinforcements and consequently,  i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r l i f e c o n d i t i o n and meaning.  113  The c o n t e x t of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m and i n c r e a s e d competence c o u l d then  be  change  a in  content  factor the  of  in  three  the  understanding categories  workshop  the  of  different  information  and the  structured  amounts  studied.  The  approach t o  the  problems was mentioned by the m a j o r i t y of C . I . p a r t i c i p a n t s helpful  learning  mentioned more,  factors.  leading  to  Occupational greater  information  effects.  The  Personal  growth control  knowledge  of  individual  self  toward and  development  knowledge  and c o n t r o l of  intervention.  of  of  work i s  Individuals  is  was  focused  occupational  others  as  affiliation  motive and c o - o p e r a t i v e work r e l a t e d concerns may have individual  of  goals.  limited  while  more a c c e s s i b l e could  for  test  i m p l i c a t i o n s of developed hypotheses w i t h i n the r e l a t i v e  the safety  of the group s i t u a t i o n .  A p p l i c a t i o n and Use of Information (H5 -H7)  The  three  hypotheses  tested:  1)  problem  formulation,  2)  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s and 3) problem s o l u t i o n . All  three  information.  represent  possible  As w i t h hypotheses 2 - 4 ,  i n f o r m a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y changed. C.I.  group  applications  had  significantly  of  produced  only one a p p l i c a t i o n of  The a n a l y s i s showed t h a t greater  gains  in  problem  f o r m u l a t i o n than the L e c t u r e group and the C o n t r o l group. 114  the  The  "one out of three" i s s u e can be e a s i l y understood as n e i t h e r the C.I.  group nor the  L e c t u r e group were t r a i n e d  in  contextual  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n procedures and problem s o l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . workshop ended a t  the  p r i o r to solution.  point  of  definition  The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n  -  p r e r e q u i s i t e i n f o r m a t i o n , and  -  performance  of  problem, a  The step  addresses:  strategies.  P r e r e q u i s i t e Information  To be a b l e t o apply i n f o r m a t i o n assumes p r e r e q u i s i t e knowledge and performance knowledge. (verbal  information)  To a c q u i r e p r e r e q u i s i t e  involves  a cognitive  search f o r  m a t e r i a l which was p e r s o n a l l y coded a c c o r d i n g t o narrative retrieval  and  imagistic  (Guilford,  group were exposed formulation.  1965). to  comprehension  knowledge  for  relevant  prescriptive, retention  and  Both the C . I . group and the L e c t u r e  prerequisite  i n f o r m a t i o n about  problem  I f t h i s i s the c a s e , the a f f e c t s of C . I . shown i n  F i g u r e 5 r e l a t e t o the i s s u e of performance 115  strategies.  Performance Strategies The results suggest that the crucial difference between the groups and their application of information i s at the level of performance strategy.  This supports the theoretical framework  (Figure 5) when considering the "circular" effects of problem formulation.  Through  problem  formulation  (Box  C),  the  participants are made more aware of contextual information (Box D), and associated personal meanings (Box A), both of which may become more explicit. learn  problem  exercises explicit  If the task for the participants i s to  formulation  skills,  (grounded in their than  "abstract  own  theory"  the  practical  experiences) as  presented  may  workshop be more  through  the  didactic lecture. Operationalization of problem formulation may influence cognitive strategies and may  effect construction of  meaning. Performance strategies link stored conceptualizations with new information through integration in order to practice a s k i l l (Guilford, 1965). At the simplest level, individuals within the group might think through the steps involved in putting a plan into practice.  Using problem formulation, a more systematic  form of mental rehearsal could be based on guided  imagery.  Participants are led through the problem formulation steps: why i s a solution needed, what are the causes of the problem, what solution  could  be  instituted, 116  who  will  benefit, what  new  problems are c r e a t e d and what are the consequences of  action.  As the p l a n i s v i s u a l i z e d , the a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n may become more e x p l i c i t . under  consideration,  visual  portrayal  practice C.I.  Although i t may depend on the p a r t i c u l a r content  skills.  abstractions  of  links  and  such  as  the  maps  interconnections  While s i m i l a r content  and L e c t u r e groups,  concept  was used  and  stimulate i n both  the  C . I . format allowed r e h e a r s a l  of  p r e r e q u i s i t e knowledge and the o p p o r t u n i t y t o model the s k i l l  to  be p r a c t i s e d .  Increase  After seven  i n Q u a l i t y of Response  exposure  hypotheses  to  the  were  two  used  (H8)  educative  to  test  processes,  the  "how much" was  first  learned.  Hypothesis 8 concerned how w e l l " q u a l i t y of the i n f o r m a t i o n " was learned.  P a r t i c i p a n t responses were scored a c c o r d i n g t o  l e v e l s and p a r t i c i p a n t use of c o g n i t i v e sequencing, descriptors  (adverb/adjective),  contrast,  metaphor or symbolism (Biggs and C o l l i s , not  support  difference  of  the  hypothesis  between the  " q u a l i t y of  instruction  concerning to:  1)  there  was  and use  of  T h i s study does no  significant  groups.  The i s s u e of  strategies refer  as  conventional  imagery  1982).  five  the  information" r a i s e s  "meta-learning."  a person's  knowledge  an aspect  Meta-learning about h i s  own mental processes and 2) the a c t i v e c o n t r o l of those 117  or her  p r o c e s s e s t o l e a r n new i n f o r m a t i o n and s k i l l s . the  Society  for  P.R.  in  Asia  (1985)  that  I t i s c l a i m e d by meta-learning  promoted a f t e r exposure t o the C . I . e x p e r i e n c e . i n t e g r a t e d new i n f o r m a t i o n with or  experience,  connections  and  and  through  made  The C . I . group  p r e v i o u s l y a c q u i r e d knowledge  the  inferences.  process,  uncovered  However,  causal  although  t r a n s c r i p t s show the C . I . group tended t o make d e c i s i o n s on c o g n i t i v e  strategy  no s t a t i s t i c a l collective  is  r a t h e r than emotional response,  the based  there  is  support f o r the c l a i m made i n the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t  investigation  promotes m e t a - l e a r n i n g .  P a r t i c i p a n t P e r c e p t i o n o f Experience (H9)  As d i s c u s s e d C.I.  i n the  literature  group p e r c e i v e d the a c t i v i t i e s  review,  participants  in  the  of and i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the  f a c i l i t a t o r t o be b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e i r l e a r n i n g .  Individuals i n  the C . I . group d i d not i d e n t i f y any f a c t o r s t h a t h i n d e r e d t h e i r learning.  By comparison, fewer i n d i v i d u a l s i n the L e c t u r e group  i d e n t i f i e d h e l p f u l f a c t o r s and the m a j o r i t y c l a i m e d no l e a r n i n g occurred. An i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n may d e r i v e from the C . I . f a c i l i t a t o r ' s encouragement of the s h a r i n g of 118  meanings  and understandings w i t h i n the group. The workshop was o r g a n i z e d and s t r u c t u r e d t o promote f e e l i n g s of comfort, c h a l l e n g e and acceptance. spent  a  great  participants  deal  to  talk  W i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t , the of  to  time  each  discussion  was  established  group i n t e n t i o n s ,  hearing  the  discussion  always  to  challenge  expressed  1985).  of  these  attention  feelings  listening  other.  clearly  concerns  towards  but the the  framework to  the  for  the  originally  f a c i l i t a t o r was open and  f o r the  directing  stated,  facilitator  and p e r c e p t i o n s  to  (Boud e t  this to al,  The l e c t u r e , by comparison, i s not designed t o d e a l w i t h  Another educative  concerns.  interpretation  of  the  approach may suggest  learning.  Based  on  the  differing differing  assumed  group  "return"  "forward-looking" b e l i e f s  happen as  of  of  a result the  example,  one's  actions.  opinions  motivations  individual projects  For  encouraging  As p r e v i o u s l y  a base  facilitator  and  participants  issues.  provides  The  related  viewpoints  i n d i v i d u a l emotional  force  safety,  for  a  person  observed  the  about what c o u l d  The net  that  towards  effort,  psychological  C . I . group c o u l d p r o v i d e d i r e c t i o n f o r if  on  high  learning. levels  of  p a r t i c i p a t i o n are rewarded with high l e v e l s of peer  recognition  and  his  confirmation,  this  experience  may strengthen  b e l i e f l i n k i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n and a d e s i r e d outcome.  or  Transcripts  from the L e c t u r e group i n d i c a t e no p e r c e i v e d o p p o r t u n i t y t o 119  her  develop  a  potential  group  prevented shared e x p e r t i s e  "culture."  This  i n terms of o f f i c i a l  loss  may  have  and u n o f f i c i a l  r u l e s w i t h i n the group t h a t c o u l d encourage l e a r n i n g , l e a d i n g t o a sense of i s o l a t i o n and apathy.  Conclusion  In  agreement  Society  for  increases  with  P.R.  existing  in  Asia  C.I.  literature  1982),  collective  communication through the  development  (Tandon  investigation of  which promotes e f f e c t i v e d i f f u s i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n . evaluation  and v a l i d a t i o n ,  the  possibility  for  1981;  a  network,  Through peer persuasion  to  adopt the process was i n c r e a s e d , enhancing l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t y . Information i s made e x p l i c i t , p e r m i t t i n g p r a c t i c e of a p p l i c a t i o n strategies. Although d i f f e r e n t result  types of  of the C . I . p r o c e s s ,  emphasized  specific,  i n f o r m a t i o n were produced as  the content  occupational  a  used by the C . I . group  information.  This  focus  on  p r a c t i c e i s s u e s may p r o v i d e a common group g o a l t h a t  contributes  and  risk-taking  influences  atmosphere.  the  development  of  a  supportive,  The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s k i l l p r a c t i c e w i t h i n the C . I . 120  group may promote the p r o c e s s i n g of v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n used f o r problem f o r m u l a t i o n . this  c o n t r a r y to p r e v i o u s  research,  study showed no impact on q u a l i t a t i v e aspects of l e a r n i n g .  T h i s concludes The  However,  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s  of the  next s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s the l i m i t a t i o n s of the  study.  research.  Limitations of Study  The  problem of  determining  the  limitations  of  this  study  r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y t o the demonstrated v a r i a t i o n i n s k i l l s settings.  It  involves  individual's cognitive  the  question  strategies,  of  how t o  best  across  assess an  given t h a t these s k i l l s  are  not employed independently of the context i n which the problem is  embedded  (Scribner,  1986).  To the  extent t h a t  i s s u e s may prompt some problem s o l v i n g p r o c e s s , how  experimental  evidence  can  be  situational  the q u e s t i o n of  applied  to  cognitive  f u n c t i o n i n g i n everyday l i f e tends not t o a r i s e as an e m p i r i c a l issue. In  this  aspects: task  1)  research, task  selected  the  issue  generalizability  for  study  of  generalization  and the  (problem  has  extent t o which  formulation)  shares  two the some  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h other t a s k s i n v o l v i n g problem s o l v i n g , and 2)  the assumption of some i n t e r i n d i v i d u a l commonalities 121  of  strategy ability  i n o r d e r t o make statements about problem f o r m u l a t i o n on the b a s i s of the  performances research  are  design  permitting  s m a l l number of  examined. appears  cautious  Given  the  consistent  i n d i v i d u a l s whose  known l i t e r a t u r e ,  with  generalization.  previous  The  small  large for significance  not  and i t  is  experimental research i s studies.  quasi-experimental  recognized  that  study.  nature This  of  study was  by comparison,  "true"  more powerful than q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l  An a d d i t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n may r e l a t e  "artificial" this  have t o be  Randomization of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s  possible  size  t o appear.  Another l i m i t a t i o n i n v o l v e s the nature of research.  research,  sample  remains p r o b l e m a t i c i n the sense t h a t any d i f f e r e n c e s  the  the  group  didactic served  lecture  the  t o the  somewhat  approach used  function  of  a  in  second  " c o n t r o l " group, a l l o w i n g f o r comparison w i t h the C . I . method. I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a f a c i l i t a t o r u s i n g the l e c t u r e method would actively  prevent  stimulate techniques. will  interaction  activity  between  through  a  With these l i m i t a t i o n s  d e a l w i t h the  i s s u e of  individuals,  variety i n mind,  theoretical  research.  122  of the  but  would  instructional next  implications  section for  this  Theoretical  Implications  The r e s u l t s of t h i s r e s e a r c h are p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o some theoretical  i s s u e s w i t h i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n which d e a l w i t h a d u l t  learning.  An  examination  expanded b a s i s  for greater  of  the  -  Discussion  the  provide  adult  will  an  learner  focus  on  the  areas:  a d a p t a t i o n t o everyday l i f e ,  - practice  could  understanding of  and improved a p p l i e d p r a c t i c e . f o l l o w i n g two  issues  and  knowledge  A d a p t a t i o n t o Everyday L i f e  An example of how the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s may be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h other t h e o r e t i c a l theory  of  adult  adaptation  to  Vygotsky's  l e a r n i n g as presented  everyday  "It  level  is  by Engestrom (1987) and  Engestrom's  the  of  theory  the  distance  "zone  level  potential  problem  solving...in  development  collaboration  1987, p . 8 8 ) . 123  with  as  is of  between  as determined by independent  and the  (Engestrom,  of  life.  definition  (1978)  development." development  p e r s p e c t i v e s can be demonstrated through the  based  proximal  the  actual  problem s o l v i n g  determined  more  on  capable  through peers"  In  the  context  of  l i t e r a t u r e review,  everyday  life,  as  discussed  in  the zone of proximal development i m p l i e s  i n c r e a s e d use of e x i s t i n g  knowledge as w e l l as the  the the  development  of i n t e r p e r s o n a l and i n t r a p e r s o n a l knowledge, i n a c o l l a b o r a t i v e relationship. knowledge  Cropley  to  serve  as  (1977) the  sees  basis  for  f u r t h e r l e a r n i n g and r e l e a r n i n g .  the  need  for  a continuous  He s t a t e s ,  existing  process  of  "individuals w i l l  need t o a c q u i r e knowledge not only of the f a c t s and p r o c e s s e s of their  society's  technological  and s o c i a l  organization,  but  of  themselves, of other people and of t h e i r own and other c u l t u r e s " (Cropley,  1977,  perspective, develop  resulting  change.  In  instability, be  general.  Gelpi  (1979)  adopts  a  similar  b e l i e v i n g t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l methods should s t r i v e  individuals  tensions  should  p.13).  a  who from  are  able  rapid  future  The  in  world  relation  results  of  adapt  economic,  new concepts of s e l f  applied  to  of  to  social  personal  the  personal  and  cultural  and  emotional  and understanding of to  this  other study  people show  to  and  that  oneself, life  in  collective  i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s an e d u c a t i o n a l method t h a t promotes a p p l i c a t i o n of  i n f o r m a t i o n and the  development  of  interpersonal  An i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s s t u d y ' s r e s u l t s imitation section  are p a r t of  will  examine  within occupational  the the  suggest m o d e l l i n g and  adoption process concepts  situations. 124  of  networks.  of  C.I.  m o d e l l i n g and  The next imitation  Practice Knowledge  In  a  practice  situation,  an  individuals'  s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d and are l a r g e l y a r e s u l t informational worker (Schon,  by  cues  others  1987).  (contextual in  the  variables)  t h i s suggests t h a t job a t t i t u d e s  are  of normative and  communicated t o  work environment,  W i t h i n a work c o n t e x t ,  attitudes  the  p a r t i c u l a r y peers  r e t u r n i n g t o F i g u r e 5,  a r i s e i n p a r t from the elements  of the work environment t h a t co-workers somewhat  unconsciously  call  suggested  in  and used  to  For example,  an  attention  Chapter  3,  to  this  in  their  everyday  talk.  i n f o r m a t i o n may become  o r g a n i z e experience  As  typified  (individual construction).  i n d i v i d u a l c a r e g i v e r may have d i f f i c u l t y i n communicating w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l worker w i t h i n an o f f i c e . with other c a r e g i v e r s , result,  similar difficulties  In  conversations  may be n o t e d .  As a  the o r i g i n a l communication i s s u e may be t y p i f i e d as an  interpersonal problem."  difficulty  or  the  Either typification,  may i n f l u e n c e  f u t u r e work  Engestrom b e l i e v e s  social  regardless  worker's of the  "personal  correctness,  experiences.  teaching  and l e a r n i n g are moving w i t h i n  the zone of p r o x i m a l development only when they aim a t c r e a t i o n of  new c u l t u r a l - h i s t o r i c a l forms of  "activity."  is  neither  set  reaction  nor a complex  of  Such l e a r n i n g  reactions,  but  the  i n d i v i d u a l ' s a c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of m a t e r i a l o b j e c t s and t h e i r 125  images  (Rogers,  relationships and motives  1983).  and i s  Activity is  facilitated  always  by communication.  of an i n d i v i d u a l , the purposes,  o p e r a t i o n are the  principal  included i n  components  of  social  The needs  t a s k s and means of activity  (Vygotsky,  1978) . In o t h e r words,  by f r e q u e n t l y  t a l k i n g about and e v a l u a t i n g  c e r t a i n aspects of the work context (Box D of the model), members cue one another about the elements  (Box  A)  knowledge  then  becomes the  assimilation strategy  or  in  the  work  - Box C ) .  environment.  which  for  to  occurs  as  The  judgement  new  Such a t h e o r e t i c a l  support f o r the model (Figure 5 ) , interaction  importance and "meaning" of  basis  accommodation  group  stock  of  decisions  of  experience  (cognitive  interpretation  provides  suggesting t h e r e i s a c i r c u l a r a  result  of  the  collective  i n v e s t i g a t i o n approach. M o d e l l i n g and i m i t a t i o n then can be c o n s i d e r e d as a form of constructivism,  as the  i n d i v i d u a l produces  i n t e r n a l cues of f e e l i n g ,  what i s  and c o n t r o l s ,  p e r c e i v e d through v i s u a l and  a u d i t o r y o b s e r v a t i o n of e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i .  Inner and outer cues  are c o o r d i n a t e d t o conform to the o b s e r v a t i o n s . sense t h a t  Schon's  (1983)  "reflection-in-action"  The c o l l e c t i v e  investigation  process  sharing  information  about  of  It i s may  in  this  develop.  promoted the c r e a t i o n and the  "action  ( r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o c r i t e r i a 126  from  process" judgements  of  "certainty/validity").  I f the p r e v a i l i n g C . I . l i t e r a t u r e  is  t o be b e l i e v e d , the "action product" ( d e s i r e d l e a r n i n g outcomes) may a l s o  be  subsequently  d e t a i l the p o t e n t i a l of  encouraged.  impact of t h i s  The next  section  r e s e a r c h upon the  will  practice  adult i n s t r u c t i o n .  Implications for Practice  The  next  utility  of  limitations  question the  to  be  findings.  regarding  addressed  While remaining  generalization  s e c t i o n w i l l examine some of the and  concerns  of  -  instructional  -  l e a r n e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and  -  the r o l e of the  practical  cognizant  the  of  findings,  the this  i n s t r u c t i o n a l practice issues  areas of C . I . debate r a i s e d by t h i s  focus on the f o l l o w i n g three  the  study.  Discussion w i l l  areas:  design,  facilitator.  Instructional Design  The  facilitator  begins  instructional  design  by  recognizing  t h a t concepts are s i t u a t i o n a l , open, frames of r e f e r e n c e . reference  frames  are  individually  constructed  and m i n i m a l l y  a b s t r a c t i n the sense t h a t they remain c l o s e t o the 127  These  learner's  existing life-world.  This begins to address a possible area of  debate within the f i e l d regarding the foundation of C.I. as a non-formal begins  adult education method.  with  the  practice  Production of knowledge  situation,  starting  from  reality  perception and incorporating participant viewpoints. "This  implies that  the  proper  unit  of  developmentally  effective, expansive instruction i s not a discrete task, but a whole cycle of activity generation" (Engstrom, 1987, p. 188). To  remain consistent with Figure 5,  the design of a C.I.  activity should f i r s t transform an individual's concern to find the general relationship of the problem within the system of objects, then model the problem to examine the question in a graphic or symbolic concrete  problem  fashion which i s then developed  having  a  method  of  solution.  into a Such  a  perspective makes a direct connection to meaningful experiences or concerns; a important objective for the practice of adult education (Jarvis, 1987; Mezirow, 1981). Learner Participation  Adult learners are seldom called upon to formulate their own goals in an educational event and thus are confronted with only a part of the problem, that of the solution.  128  The "open problem"  used by c o l l e c t i v e  i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n c l u d e s i t s own j u s t i f i c a t i o n ,  p r o v i d i n g m o t i v a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n .  The r e s u l t s of t h i s  study  suggest the need t o f i r s t c r e a t e a motive f o r l e a r n e r s and then to  disclose  the  intermediate The  possibility  and " i n d i r e c t "  goal  is  for  conditions  of  relations  within  of  reaching  the  goal  through  objectives.  an i n d i v i d u a l t o  analyze  the  originating  a problem, h e l p i n g him or her t o understand the  subject  field.  For  example,  the a  communication problem between a s o c i a l worker and c a r e g i v e r can be understood w i t h i n the system,  with  problem  may  system."  its be  A  general  mandated a  of  restrictions,  worker  (in  addition  manifestation  communication  symptomatic of i n e f f e c t i v e legal  inequalities.  singular  lack  context of  child  The  communication  of  a a  welfare  "problematic child  may  be  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y and p r o c e d u r e ,  or p o s s i b l e to  about  the  class bias  a simple  on the  p a r t of  misunderstanding).  the  Problems  need not be blamed on the i n h e r e n t i n f e r i o r i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l , but  rather  empowerment  on  an  through  unequal  power  reflection  perspectives.  129  and  structure, transformation  encouraging of  their  The Role of the Facilitator  The and  C . I . p r o c e s s and content i s determined by the it  is  system  of  through  the  guidance  intermediate  interaction.  objectives  of  new  the  facilitator  that  is  structured  by  the  group  In t h i s study, the f a c i l i t a t o r acted as a "bridge"  between i n f o r m a t i o n c l i q u e s flow  of  participants  information  w i t h i n the  through  homogeneity of the group a i d s  group  group t o  stimulate  process  tasks.  i n the p r o d u c t i o n of  through development of communication networks.  the The  information  The more s i m i l a r  the group, the more l i k e l y t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n d i f f u s i o n w i l l occur within  the  participants  with  subsequent  development  i n t e r p e r s o n a l bonds (Rogers and K i n c a i d , 1983). increase  the  participants and  "trailability" are reassured  about  the the  The bonding may  information,  value  of  the  as  The  skills.  t h i s may promote the use of e v a l u a t i o n s  (Box B) a n d / o r i n f l u e n c e  i n d i v i d u a l meaning  the  information  become more w i l l i n g t o p r a c t i c e problem f o r m u l a t i o n  Using F i g u r e 5,  a  of  of  skills  (Box A ) .  nature of o r a l communication used by the f a c i l i t a t o r  considerable  meaning-system  effect  on  (Scribner,  the  1984).  transmission  of  the  has  cultural  Language r e f l e c t s c u l t u r e ,  so  t h a t the language used becomes one of the s i g n s by which o t h e r s l o c a t e people i n s o c i a l for  consideration,  structure.  This raises a f i n a l  t h a t of c l a s s and c u l t u r e o b s t a c l e s  130  to  issue  f a c i l i t a t o r communication w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t s . investigation  situations  In many c o l l e c t i v e  the f a c i l i t a t o r may o r i g i n a t e i n a  d i f f e r e n t c l a s s s t r u c t u r e than the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  The i n e q u a l i t y  of c l a s s may a f f e c t the group process and formation of by " s i l e n c i n g " those who f e e l However, most  the  relevance theory.  inferior.  f a c i l i t a t o r may be i n a p o s i t i o n  pertinent  questions  and use  of  due to  the  knowledge  access t o  collective  to  raise  the  i n f o r m a t i o n on  the  investigation  methods  In a d d i t i o n , d i f f u s i o n theory suggests t h a t the  actively  choose  themselves Kincaid,  in  to  the  discovery  1983).  meaning-systems,  adopt  Through  information, of  their  use  participants  of  can  language both  people  participating  contexts  (Rogers to  perceive  and  by and  determine the  class  o r i g i n s and estimate the r e l i a b i l i t y of the f a c i l i t a t o r and the information belief  gained.  Such a b e l i e f  i n the a b i l i t i e s  remains  committed  and d i g n i t y of a d u l t l e a r n e r s .  to  the  In t h i s  r e s e a r c h , the l e v e l of communication between the C . I . group and the f a c i l i t a t o r seemed t o r e l y on the way i n which the community saw the the  service  degree of  high).  that  facilitator  commitment to the  The next  section  could provide  a r t i c u l a t e d group g o a l s  concludes  this  f u t u r e r e s e a r c h t h a t might be undertaken.  131  (positive)  study  and d e a l s  and (very with  Future Research  The  findings  investigation issue  not  of  this  study  have  shown  that  a f f e c t s i n d i v i d u a l problem f o r m u l a t i o n .  addressed  directly  in  this  study  was  could affect  learning,  it  C.I.  workshop was  examine process are  affected  useful  not  i n s t r u c t i o n a l sequencing of  the  It  specific  i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  would be i n t e r e s t i n g  condition.  contextual  use of another taxonomy f o r measures the  analyzing sufficient objective Does  lengthy the  time  data.  reliability process  collective  period  and  this  particular  difficulty  agreement situation,  to in  provided a  more  desirable.  p r o v i d e a good p r e d i c t o r  That q u e s t i o n remains t o be seen.  for  education  T h i s study should  be r e p l i c a t e d w i t h i n other occupations and across 132  be  study would be the  problem f o r m u l a t i o n w i t h i n other non-formal a d u l t programs?  might  determinants.  potential  for standardization i s investigation  This  of q u a l i t y of response  Although i n t e r j u d g e in  to  t o i d e n t i f y which v a r i a b l e s  S p e c i f i c recommended improvements on t h i s  avoid  to In  addressed.  what  As d i f f e r e n t  i n the f u t u r e .  related variables,  under  specific  would appear worthwhile  i d e n t i f y and t e s t c o n t e n t - r e l a t e d c o r r e l a t e s a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , the s p e c i f i c  One  the  content of the p r e - r e a d i n g s and d i d a c t i c l e c t u r e . material  collective  various  community  contexts,  perhaps  involving  larger  numbers  of  participants. Occupational  skills  can be  seen to  be embedded i n :  s o c i a l u n i t t h a t shapes an i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e a c t i o n s i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n of s e l f . may be culture  interconnected and  with  personal  r e g a r d i n g the process  and 2)  about  Further  the  skills  organizational  research  is  needed  of r e f l e c t i o n and work.  Another r e s e a r c h i s s u e r e l a t e s t o the " a c t i o n - p r o d u c t " of collective  investigation  process.  After  a problem has  d e f i n e d and becomes i n s t r u m e n t a l , the problem s o l v i n g may a l s o p r o v i d e l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s  f o r the  the been  activities  participants.  The "problem s o l u t i o n " aspects which may conclude a investigation  the  the  Learning occupational  learning  growth.  1)  collective  process would be worthy of f u r t h e r s t u d y .  F i n a l l y , another r e s e a r c h area r e l a t e s t o r e t e n t i o n of problem formulation s t r a t e g i e s . longitudinal results study a t  I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o examine  by r e - t e s t i n g  s i x months a f t e r  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s of  t h e i r exposure  determine l o n g term e f f e c t s .  133  t o the  experience  the this to  REFERENCES  Anderson, J . R. C o g n i t i v e Psychology. and C o . , 1985. Argyris, C. Reasoning, J o s s e y - B a s s , 1982.  Learning  New York: W. H . Freeman  and A c t i o n .  San  Francisco:  B a l t e s , P . B . & N e s s e l r o a d e , J . R. Paradigm L o s t and Paradigm Regained: C r i t i q u e of Dannefer's P o r t r a y a l of Life-span Development Psychology. American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 1984, 4 9 , ( 6 ) , 841-844. Biggs, J . B . & C o l l i s , K. F . Evaluating Learning. New York: Academic P r e s s , 1982. Borgen, W. & Amundson, N . The Experience Scarbough, O n t a r i o : Nelson Canada, 1984.  the of  Quality  of  Unemployment.  Boud, D . , Keogh, R. & Walker, D. (Eds.) Reflection: Experience i n t o L e a r n i n g . London: Kogan Page, 1985.  Turning  B.C.F.F.P.A. F o s t e r Care T r a i n i n g : A Comprehensive Approach -The F i n a l R e p o r t . Vancouver: B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n of F o s t e r Parent A s s o c i a t i o n s , 1987. Brown, D. L . People-Centered Development and Research. Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review, 1985, 55,  Participatory (1), 69 - 75.  Cook, T . D. & Campbell, D. T . Quasi-Experimental Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n C o . , 1983.  Design.  Colletta, N. J . Participatory Research or Participatory Putdown? Reflections on an Indonesian Experiment in Non-Formal E d u c a t i o n . Convergence, 1976, 9., 32-46. Conchelos, G . & Kassam, Y . A B r i e f Review of C r i t i c a l Opinions and Responses on Issues facing Participatory Research. Convergence. 1981, XIV. 3, 52-63. Cropley, A . J . L i f e l o n g Education: New York: Pergamon P r e s s , 1977.  A Psychological  Analysis.  Cropley, A . J . Towards a System of L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n . York: Pergamon Press and Hamburg: Unesco I n s t i t u t e E d u c a t i o n , 1980. 134  New for  De C o r t e , E . Processes of Problem S o l v i n g : Comparison of an American and an European View. I n s t r u c t i o n a l S c i e n c e , 1980, 9, 1 - 13. Engestrom, Y. Learning O r i e n t a - K o n s u l t i t Oy, 1987.  by  Expanding.  Helsinki:  Fernandes, W. & Tandon, R. S o c i a l Research f o r S o c i a l A c t i o n : An Introduction. In W. Fernandes and R. Tandon (Eds.), P a r t i c i p a t o r y Research and E v a l u a t i o n . New D e l h i : Aruna P r i n t i n g P r e s s , 1983. F r e i r e , P. 1972.  C u l t u r a l A c t i o n f o r Freedom. Harmondsworth: Penguin,  Gelpi, E. A Future f o r L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n : V o l s . Hamburg: UNesco I n s t i t u t e of E d u c a t i o n , 1979.  I  & II.  G u i l f o r d , J . P. I n t e l l e c t u a l factors i n Productive Thinking. In M. J . Aschner and C . E . B i s h (Eds.) P r o d u c t i v e t h i n k i n g i n Education. New York: N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n and Carnegie C o r p o r a t i o n , 1965. H a l l , B. Knowledge as a Commodity and P a r t i c i p a t o r y P r o s p e c t s . 1979, 9, (4), 393-408.  Research.  H a l l , B. P a r t i c i p a t o r y Research, Popular Knowledge and Power: A Personal R e f l e c t i o n . Convergence, 1981, XIV, (3), 6 - 17. Hudson, G. Women's P a r t i c i p a t o r y Research i n the Kyshna A r e a . Convergence. 1980, 13, ( 1 - 2 ) , 24-33. J a r v i s , P. Meaningful and Meaningless E x p e r i e n c e : Towards an A n a l y s i s of L e a r n i n g From L i f e . Adult Education Q u a r t e r l y , 1987, 37, (3), 164-172. Kahney, H. Problem Solving: A Cognitive P h i l a d e l p h i a : Open U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1986. K o l b , D. Prentice  Experiential Learning. Hall Inc., 1984.  Englewood  Approach.  Cliffs,  N.  J.:  L a v e , J . et a l . The D i a l e t i c of A r i t h m e t i c i n Grocery Shopping. In B . Rogoff and J . Lave (Eds.) Everyday C o g n i t i o n : Its Development i n S o c i a l Context. Cambridge, M a s s . : Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1984.  135  Leontiev, A. N. The Problem of Activity in Psychology. In J. V. Wertsch (ed.), The Concept of Activity in Soviet Psychology. White Plains, N. Y. : Sharpe, 1978. Maier, N. R. F. Reasoning In Humans: Vol. I, On Direction. Journal of Comprehensive Psychology, 1930, .10, 115 - 143. Maier, N. R. F. Reasoning in Humans, Vol. II, The Solution of a Problem and Its Appearance in Consciousness. Journal of Comprehensive Psychology, 1931, 12., 181 - 194. Mezirow, J. A C r i t i c a l Theory of Adult Learning and Education Adult Education. 1981, 32, 3-24. Mezirow, J. Concept and Action In Adult Education. Education Quarterly. 1985, 35, 142 - 151.  Adult  Natanson, M. Phenomenology and the Social Sciences. Evanson, 111.: Northwestern University Press, 1973. Natanson, M. The Problem of Anonymity in the Thought of Alfred Schultz. In J. Bien (ed)., Phenomenology and the Social Sciences. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1978. Pedhazur, E. J. Multiple Regression in Behavioural Research. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1982. Polya, G. How to Solve It: A New Aspect of Mathematical Method. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1957. Rahman, A. M. Grass-Roots Participation and Self-Reliance: Experiences in South and South East Asia. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., 1984. Rogers, M. Sociology, Ethnomethodology, and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Rogers, E. M. & Kincaid, D. L. York: The Free Press, 1983.  Experience.  Diffusion of Innovations.  New  Scheerer, M. and Huling, M. D. Cognitive Embededness in Pcdblari Solving: A Theoretical and Experimental Analysis. In B. Kaplan & S. Wapner (Eds)., Perspectives in Psychological Theory: Essays in Honor of Heinz Werner. New York: International Universities Press, 1960. Schein, E. 1973.  Professional Education.  136  New  York: McGraw-Hill,  Schon, D. 1983.  The R e f l e c t i v e  Practitioner.  New York: B a s i c Books,  Schbn, D. E d u c a t i n g The R e f l e c t i v e Practitioner. F r a n c i s c o , C a . : Jossey-Bass P u b l i s h e r s , 1987. S c h u l t z A . C o l l e c t e d Papers I : The Problems of S o c i a l The Hague: N i j h o f f , 1973.  San Reality.  S c h u l t z A . & Luckmann, T . The S t r u c t u r e of the L i f e - W o r l d . T r a n s . R. Zaner and H. E n g e l h a r t , Evanston, 111.: Northwestern University Press, 1974. S c r i b n e r , S. Studying Working I n t e l l i g e n c e . In B . Rogoff and J . Lave ( E d s . ) , Everyday C o g n i t i o n : I t s Development i n S o c i a l Context. Cambridge, M a s s . : Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1984. Scribner, S. T h i n k i n g i n A c t i o n : Some C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of P r a c t i c a l Thought. In R. J . Sternberg and R. K. Wagner (Eds.), Practical Intelligence. Cambridge, M a s s . : Cambridge University Press, 1986. S h r i v a s t a v a , 0. & Tandon, R. P a r t i c i p a t o r y T r a i n i n g f o r R u r a l Development. New D e l h i : S o c i e t y f o r P a r t i c i p a t o r y Research i n A s i a , 1982. S o c i e t y f o r P a r t i c i p a t o r y Research Research: An I n t r o d u c t i o n . New Press, 1982.  in Asia. Participatory D e l h i : Rajkamal E l e c t r i c  S o c i e t y f o r P a r t i c i p a t o r y Research i n A s i a . Knowledge and S o c i a l Change. New D e l h i : Rajkanal E l e c t r i c P r e s s , 1985. Swantz, M. L . Research as an E d u c a t i o n a l t o o l Convergence. 1975, 8, 44 - 53.  for  Development.  Tandon, R. P a r t i c i p a t o r y Research i n the Empowerment of Convergence. 1981, XIV. (3), 18 - 25 Wertheimer, 1959.  M.  Productive  Thinking.  New York:  People.  Harper & Row,  W i l e n s k y , R. M e t a - P l a n n i n g : Representing and Using Knowledge About P l a n n i n g i n Problem S o l v i n g and N a t u r a l Language Understanding. C o g n i t i v e S c i e n c e . 1981, 5, 197 - 283. V y g o t s k y , L . S. Mind In S o c i e t y . University Press, 1978. 137  Cambridge, M a s s . :  Harvard  APPENDIX A  STATEMENT OF INFORMED CONSENT  138  APPENDIX A  STATEMENT OF INFORMED CONSENT  I consent to participate in the research project, "An Analysis of Collective Investigation as an Adult Education Method", conducted by Lee Titterington, a graduate student i n the Department of Adult Education, University of British Columbia  I understand that the main purpose of the project i s to examine the affect of collective investigation (an educational method emphasizing structured group discussions and exercises) on my ability to define problematic issues. I understand that the data w i l l be compared to two other groups of caregivers; one group exposed to information about problem formulation through pre-readings and class-room type lecture, and one control group (no information i s given). I understand that this w i l l be measured by: 1)  the number of items of information used, and,  2)  the quality of the response.  I also understand that I w i l l be working with the other members of my Regional Council in an eight-member group; that our group w i l l engage in approximately 14 hours of activity. My total participation time w i l l be approximately 16 hours, including one hour for an interview prior to beginning, and one hour after the session i s completed. I realize the interviews w i l l be recorded for later analysis,, and I w i l l receive a transcript for my own information.  139  Mr. T i t t e r i n g t o n has assured me t h a t my i d e n t i t y w i l l confidential  remain  (that my name w i l l not be used d u r i n g a n a l y s i s of  data and r e p o r t i n g of r e s u l t s ) . any q u e s t i o n s  He has a l s o o f f e r e d t o answer  I may have about the study and i t s  procedures i n  o r d e r t o ensure my f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . Mr.  T i t t e r i n g t o n has a l s o  informed me t h a t  I may r e f u s e  to  p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h a t study, t h a t my s e r v i c e s may be withdrawn at any time f o r any reason I choose,  and t h a t such withdrawal w i l l  i n no way be h e l d a g a i n s t me. Finally,  I acknowledge r e c e i p t of a copy of t h i s  i n c l u d i n g a l l attachments.  Signature  Date  140  statement,  STATEMENT OF INFORMED CONSENT  I consent to participate in the research project, "An Analysis of Collective Investigation as an Adult Education Method," conducted by Lee Titterington, a graduate student in the Department of Education, University of British Columbia  I understand that the main purpose of the project i s to examine the affect of collective investigation (an educational method emphasizing structured group discussions and exercises) on my ability to define problematic issues. I understand that the data w i l l be compared to two other groups of caregivers; one group w i l l be exposed to information about problem formulation through pre-readings and a classroom type lecture, and one control group (no information i s given). I understand that this w i l l be measured by: 1)  the number of items of information used, and,  2)  the quality of the response.  I also understand that I w i l l be part of the audience with the other members of my Regional Council in an eight-member group, that our group w i l l engage in an approximate three hour lecture after pre-readings have been distributed. I realize that the pre-readings may take about 8 - 11 hours to read and work through. My total participation time w i l l be approximately 16 hours, including one hour for an interview prior to beginning, and one hour after the session i s completed. I realize the interviews w i l l be recorded for later analysis and I w i l l receive a transcript for my own information.  141  Mr. T i t t e r i n g t o n has assured me t h a t my i d e n t i t y w i l l confidential  remain  (that my name w i l l not be used d u r i n g a n a l y s i s of  d a t a and r e p o r t i n g of r e s u l t s ) . any q u e s t i o n s  He has a l s o o f f e r e d t o answer  I may have about the study and i t s  procedures i n  o r d e r t o ensure my f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  Mr.  T i t t e r i n g t o n has a l s o  informed me t h a t  I may r e f u s e  to  p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h a t study, t h a t my s e r v i c e s may be withdrawn at any time f o r any reason I choose,  and t h a t such withdrawal w i l l  i n no way be h e l d a g a i n s t me. Finally,  I acknowledge r e c e i p t of a copy of t h i s  i n c l u d i n g a l l attachments.  Signature  Date  142  statement,  STATEMENT OF INFORMED CONSENT I consent t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t , "An A n a l y s i s of  Collective  conducted  by  Lee  Department of  I  Investigation  as  an  Titterington,  a  Adult  graduate  E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of  understand  that  examine the a f f e c t  the  student  British  main purpose  of c o l l e c t i v e  E d u c a t i o n Method,"  of  the  project  investigation  the  data w i l l  one  group  problematic i s s u e s .  be compared to  will  be  two other  exposed  to  the  Columbia  is  to  (an e d u c a t i o n a l  method emphasizing s t r u c t u r e d group d i s c u s s i o n s on my a b i l i t y t o d e f i n e  in  and e x e r c i s e s )  I understand t h a t  groups of  information  caregivers;  about  problem  f o r m u l a t i o n through p r e - r e a d i n g s and a classroom type  lecture,  and one c o n t r o l group (no i n f o r m a t i o n i s  given).  I understand  t h a t t h i s w i l l be measured by: 1)  the number of items of i n f o r m a t i o n used, and,  2)  the q u a l i t y of the  I about part  also  understand t h a t  the of  C . I . process  the  response. I will  not  any  information  from Mr. T i t t e r i n g t o n and w i l l  c o n t r o l group.  I  recognize  other members of my Regional C o u n c i l , hour i n t e r v i e w s .  receive that  act  along w i t h  later  workshop.  I a l s o understand t h a t  analysis  I r e a l i z e the and  I  will  interviews  receive  information.  143  the  I w i l l engage i n two oneupon i n v i t a t i o n from  our C o u n c i l , B . C . F . F . P . A . s t a f f w i l l be a v a i l a b l e to present C.I.  as  a  the  w i l l be r e c o r d e d f o r  transcript  for  my own  Mr. T i t t e r i n g t o n has assured me t h a t my i d e n t i t y w i l l confidential  remain  (that my name w i l l not be used d u r i n g a n a l y s i s of  d a t a and r e p o r t i n g of r e s u l t s ) . any q u e s t i o n s  He has a l s o o f f e r e d t o answer  I may have about the study and i t s  procedures i n  order t o ensure my f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . Mr.  T i t t e r i n g t o n has a l s o  informed me t h a t  I may r e f u s e  to  p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h a t study, t h a t my s e r v i c e s may be withdrawn a t any time f o r any reason I choose,  and t h a t such withdrawal w i l l  i n no way be h e l d a g a i n s t me. Finally,  I acknowledge r e c e i p t of a copy of t h i s  i n c l u d i n g a l l attachments.  Signature  Date  144  statement,  Appendix B, Case Examples (Pretest)  Case example #1. John, a 16 year old foster child, was sexually abused. You were told of the abuse with placement and John has now been i n your home for the last 3 months. He has become very depressed because he i s unable to see his natural family and believes something i s wrong with him because of the molestation. He has come to you to say that he lied - nothing at a l l happened to him and he wants to return to the natural family.  Case situation #2. A six year old female in your home for several child runs back to your heritage, other school during recess.  Vietnamese foster child has been placed years. On the f i r s t day of school, the home in tears. Because of the child's children had taunted and spat on her  145  Appendix B, Case Examples (Posttest)  Case example #3. You have just had David, a 15 year old foster child in your home for the last two months. With placement, you were told that David was sexually abused but you were willing to attempt the placement. Last night your 10 year old daughter has come to you complaining about David. According to your daughter, David fondled her genitals and attempted intercourse. Your daughter was not hurt and although she i s confused by what happened, she s t i l l likes David and does not want him removed from your home.  Case example #4. A seven year old female foster child of Native and Black heritage has been in your home for years. In an argument with your natural child, the foster child i s called several derogatory names because of their heritage. Although your own child has apologized, the foster child comes to you and says, "I hate being Indian".  146  Appendix C Response Items Specific Occupation  Information  1)  knowledge of Ministry Policies legalities, procedures,  2)  social worker support perceived commitment, communication, job knowledge,  3)  technical knowledge (specific to child welfare) sexual abuse/neglect issues, placement concerns/cause, placement separation and grief of child, peer relations to foster child (outside of home), physical housing and arrangement of home, stress, parenting s k i l l s , (nurturance, care, support), house rules, permanency planning for child, supervision of child, counselling s k i l l s (listening, talking, etc.) problem solving,  4)  appropriate child development/behaviour information physical survival needs, past background, peer relationships, behaviours, values/attitudes, self-esteem, age, emotional issues, sibling issues, understanding of self, maturation stages,  147  5)  other resource professionals responsibilities) teachers, psychologists, clergy family, neighbours, f r i e n d s ,  Knowledge o f  (role  Self  6)  cognizance of boundaries f o r s e l f job r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , job r e l a t i o n s h i p s , e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g , confidentiality, alternative action,  7)  prior  8)  personal attitudes values/beliefs, intuition,  9)  personal a b i l i t i e s personal experience, c h i l d care experience, empathy, visualization, emotional r e a c t i o n ,  10)  relationship  of  caregiver  and f o s t e r  11)  relationship  of  caregiver  to  Knowledge o f 12)  and o t h e r s  information readings, non-formal workshops, formal education,  Others B.C.F.F.P.A. policies procedures, c o n f l i c t of r e s o l u t i o n , r e c o g n i t i o n of s t a t u s , 148  child  own f a m i l y  and  13)  relationships to colleagues perceived colleagues' opinions about self, colleagues work history,  14)  perspective toward issue, societal concerns,  15)  culture/heritage concerns race, nationality,  16)  relationship of natural family and foster child,  17)  relationship of care family and foster child,  149  Appendix D SOLO Taxonomy f o r Problem  Formulation  PRESTRUCTURAL avoids question (denial), repeats the question, c l o s u r e b a s e d on t r a n s d u c t i o n , makes i r r e l e v a n t , p e r s o n a l l y b a s e d r e s p o n s e no consistent u s e o f any p r o b l e m formulation strategy, la.  Transition i n a d e q u a t e l y u s e s p o t e n t i a l l y r e l e v a n t datum, a t t e m p t s t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n , but only grasps a s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t .  UNISTRUCTURAL answer b a s e d on one r e l e v a n t a s p e c t o f i n f o r m a t i o n , c o n c l u s i o n i s l i m i t e d and dogmatic, c o n s t r u c t s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f r o m i n c o m p l e t e data o r b a s e d on one r e l e v a n t a s p e c t o f d a t a , make c o n s i s t e n t u s e o f one s t r a t e g y , r e g a r d l e s s o f a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s t o p a r t i c u l a r problem, 2a.  Transition a t t e m p t t o h a n d l e two r e l e v a n t d a t a , b u t i s i n c o n s i s t e n t and r e s u l t s i n no f i r m c o n c l u s i o n being reached,  MULTI-STRUCTURAL several consistent aspects of information are selected, any inconsistencies or c o n f l i c t s are ignored or discounted, no i n t e g r a t i o n o f d a t a , draw a f i r m c o n c l u s i o n b a s e d on s e v e r a l basic aspects of selected information, use of s e v e r a l problem formulation strategies, independently o f each other, can generalize i n terms of limited o r a few independent aspects,  150  3a.  4.  RELATIONAL most o r a l l o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s u s e d , i n t e g r a t i o n through r e l a t i n g concepts, r e c o n c i l e c o n f l i c t i n g hypotheses from i n f o r m a t i o n given, data i s p l a c e d i n t o a system t h a t accounts f o r g i v e n context, i n d u c e t h e m e a n i n g o f an h y p o t h e s i s f r o m c o n t e x t , development of consistent problem formulation strategy, 4a.  5.  Transition any i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s a r e n o t e d , p a r t i a l i n t e g r a t i o n of data, several aspects of data are recognizable, but unable t o r e c o n c i l e the connection,  Transitional recognizes the r e l a t i v i t y of the explanation, but inadequately makes use of abstract p r i n c i p l e s that override context, hint that closure or a f i r m conclusion i s not inevitable,  EXTENDED ABSTRACT explanation o f phenomena (example a s p a r t o f a greater whole), r e c o g n i t i o n t h e example g i v e n i s an i n s t a n c e o f a more g e n e r a l c a s e , h y p o t h e s e s a b o u t examples t h a t have n o t b e e n g i v e n a r e e n t e r t a i n e d (symbolism and m e t a p h o r s ) , c o n c l u s i o n s a r e h e l d open, deduce the meanings of developed abstract hypotheses, reconciliation of c o n f l i c t i n g hypotheses within g e n e r a l terms,  151  Appendix E Class Intervals  The s c o r e s f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n were measured on an i n t e r v a l  scale  of  performance;  low performance  beyond  one  standard d e v i a t i o n from the mean (> -1 S . D . ) , medium performance within  -1  S.D.  to  +1  S.D.  and  high  performance  standard d e v i a t i o n from the mean (> +1 S . D . ) .  beyond  one  Appendix E shows  the c l a s s i n t e r v a l s  f o r p r o d u c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n and the SOLO  Taxonomy,  based  low,  interval,  observed and expected frequencies  on  medium and high  performance.  Class  are d e t a i l e d .  The  i n f o r m a t i o n i s not presented as a p r e l i m i n a r y t e s t f o r the  other  analyses,  but r a t h e r t o  address  the  question  of  normality  per  se.  Production of Information Class Interval 140 up 130-139 120-129 110-119 100-109 90 - 99 80 - 89 70 - 79 - 69 Total  (0-E) E  0  E  0-E  (0-E)  5 1 1  3.6 3.0 1.9  1.4 -2.0 - .9  1.96 4.0 .81  .5 1.3 .4  2 6  4.1 3.7  -2.1 2.3  4.41 5.29  1.1 1.4  3 6 24  1.4 6.3 24.0  2.56 .09  1.8 .01  -  1.6 .3  2  x  2  =6.5  T h i s d a t a does not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y (x =6.5, df=6, p<.05) from a normal-curve model i n which the mean i s 102.3 and s.d.=41. 2  152  SOLO Taxonomy  Class Interval  25 up 23-24.9 21-22.9 19-20.9 17-18.9 -16.9 Total  0  2 4 7 5 4 2 24  E  0-E  3 4.1 4.4 5.3 3.7 3.6 24.1  -1 - .1 2.6 - .3 - .3 -1.6  (O-E) E  (O-E)  2  .33 .002 1.54 .02 .02 .7  1 .01 6.76 .09 .09 2.56 x  2  =2.6  This data does not differ significantly from a normal-curve model i n which the mean i s 20.7 and S.D. i s 3.3 ( x =2.6, df=3, p<.05). 2  153  Appendix F Separate group r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s  1)  P r o d u c t i o n of Information C.I.  Lecture  Control  .88  .88  1.2  within-groups regression  2)  Occupational S p e c i f i c C.I.  Information Control  .91  1.2  within-groups regression  b =1.05 w  Knowledge of S e l f C.I.  Lecture  .83  .60  Control .62  within-groups regression  4)  b=.99  Lecture  .97  3)  f o r ANCOVA  b=.68  Knowledge of Others C.I.  Lecture  .04  .74  Control  within-groups regression 154  .53 b =.44 w  tests  Problem Formulation C.I.  Lecture  Control  .90  1.2  .96 within-groups  Contextual  r e g r e s s i o n b =1.02 w  Variables C.I.  Lecture  .54  .92  within-groups  Control .72  r e g r e s s i o n b =.73 w  Problem S o l u t i o n C.I.  Lecture  -.32  .82  within-groups  Control .63  r e g r e s s i o n b =.38 w  SOLO C.I.  Lecture  Control  .46  1.2  .46 within-groups  r e g r e s s i o n b =.71 w  155  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
United States 18 0
China 4 5
Japan 3 0
Russia 3 0
Australia 1 0
Sweden 1 0
Germany 1 0
Iraq 1 0
United Kingdom 1 0
City Views Downloads
Ashburn 7 0
Unknown 4 4
Shenzhen 3 5
Tokyo 3 0
Saint Petersburg 3 0
Arlington Heights 2 0
Mountain View 2 0
Redmond 2 0
Stockholm 1 0
University Park 1 0
Kansas City 1 0
Los Angeles 1 0
Sunnyvale 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0064610/manifest

Comment

Related Items