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An analysis of collective investigation as an adult education method 1990

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AN ANALYSIS OF COLLECTIVE INVESTIGATION AS AN ADULT EDUCATION METHOD BY LEE TITTERINGTON B . S . W . , The Univers i ty of Calgary, 1975 M.S .W. , The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Adminis trat ive , Adult and Higher Education) We accept t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1990 © Lee T i t t e r i n g t o n In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of sf£>L?cr £2><<>Cd7/QA) The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was t o determine whether one form of non-formal a d u l t education, c o l l e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n ( C . I . ) / s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y t o formulate problems. C o l l e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s an a d u l t , non-formal, group e d u c a t i v e p r o c e s s . Through C.I., p a r t i c i p a n t s i d e n t i f y , i s o l a t e and c r i t i c a l l y q u e s t i o n t h e i r " s o c i a l r e a l i t y . " L e a r n i n g occurs through s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n and shared e x p e r i e n c e . The concept of i n d i v i d u a l experience was used as the b a s i s f o r the framework which guided t h i s study. C.I. p r o v i d e d a v e h i c l e t o i d e n t i f y and t r a n s f o r m everyday problems f a c i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s . A hypothesized model was developed t o d e s c r i b e the process of problem f o r m u l a t i o n . T h i s model draws upon the l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g C.I. and " p r a c t i c e knowledge," an a p p l i c a t i o n of a d u l t l e a r n i n g i n the work environment, t o d e s c r i b e p o t e n t i a l l e a r n i n g through a c o l l e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . The study used a quasi-experimental r e s e a r c h d e s i g n t o examine the a f f e c t of an i n t e n s i v e C.I. workshop experience on i n d i v i d u a l ' s problem f o r m u l a t i o n a b i l i t i e s . The experimental group was compared wi t h two c o n t r o l groups: 1) a more t r a d i t i o n a l approach t o a d u l t education (pre-readings and d i d a c t i c l e c t u r e ) , and 2) a non-treatment c o n t r o l group. The i i lecture method was not seen as an alternative method to teach problem formulation but was used as another type of control group. The data source was representative samples of child welfare personnel employed in British Columbia. A l l groups were pre and posttested, using a semi-structured instrument. Nine research hypotheses centered around learner information-production and problem formulation strategies were tested by ANCOVA. The results were significant in several instances, allowing for the rejection of four of the original nine null hypotheses. However, in a l l nine instances the C.I. group scored the highest, suggesting a general trend. The results showed the collective investigation workshop experience significantly increased participant production of information. The workshop group also demonstrated a significant increase in specific, occupational information which was used for individual problem formulation. Workshop training for other applications of the production of information, (identification of contextual variables and problem solving) was not provided. The scores in these applications did not significantly increase. In addition, the findings showed that a significant difference exists between the perceptions of the C.I. group and the Lecture group. The individuals in the C.I. group perceived the activities and structured interaction of collective investigation to be beneficial to their learning. However, this study showed no impact on qualitative aspects of learning. i i i Based on these findings, i t was concluded that collective investigation affected group communication and encouraged the development of supportive networks. Furthermore, collective investigation promoted individual confirmation and enhanced "personal power" providing effective motivation for learning. The opportunity to practice new skills during the collective investigation process also developed performance strategies. Since such outcomes affect instructional design and the practice of non-formal adult education, they merit consideration among the range of adult education methods available to adult educators. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS V LIST OF TABLES i x LIST OF FIGURES x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i i V CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1 Research Question 3 Purpose of the study 3 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 6 C o l l e c t i v e Invest igat ion 6 C . I . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 7 Learning Outcomes 9 Prac t i ce Knowledge 14 Cognit ive Strategies and Context 15 Problem Formulation 17 Summary 20 v CHAPTER 3: FRAMEWORK and CONCEPTUAL MODEL 22 Ind iv idua l Construct ion of Meaning 23 Problem Formulation Model 27 Summary 37 CHAPTER 4: METHODOLOGY 39 Summary 39 Instrument Development 40 Design 46 Internal V a l i d i t y of Design 47 External V a l i d i t y 49 Experimental Group 50 Contro l Group #1 51 Contro l Group #2 53 Research Population 54 Descr ipt ion of Sample. 55 Data C o l l e c t i o n 58 Test R e l i a b i l i t y 60 Hypotheses 63 Analys i s 65 v i 6 CHAPTER 5: RESULTS 68 Total Production of Information 68 Information Classification 73 Occupational Specific 73 Knowledge of Self 77 Knowledge of Others 81 Participant Application of Information 85 Problem Formulation 85 Identification of Contextual Variables 89 Problem Solution 92 SOLO Taxonomy 95 Participant Perceptions of Approach.. 98 Summary 100 CHAPTER 6: Discussion and Conclusion.... 104 Summary of Study 104 Interpretation of Hypotheses Testing. 106 Limitations of Study 121 Theoretical Implications 123 Implications for Practice 127 Future Research 132 v i i REFERENCES 134 APPENDICES (A - G) 138 A. Statements of Informed Consent 139 B. Case Examples 145 C. Response Items 147 D. SOLO Taxonomy 150 E . Class Intervals 152 F . Group Regression Coef f i c i ent s 154 v i i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 4:1 SOLO Scoring 46 4:2 Completed Level of P a r t i c i p a n t Formal Education 56 4:3 Formal Education Relate to C h i l d C a r e . . . 5 6 4:4 Years of Experience . . . 56 4:5 Age of Respondents 57 4:6 Gender of Respondents 57 4:7 Averaged Interjudge Agreement (SOLO). . . .62 4:8 Summary of Hypotheses and Tests 67 5:1 T o t a l Production of Information 69 5:2 Summary Table of Adjusted Y Sums of Squares and Variances for Production of Information 71 5:3 t Test (Production of Information) 72 5:4 Occupational Spec i f i c Information 74 5:5 Summary Table of Adjusted Y Sums of Squares and Variances for Occupational Information 76 5:6 t Test (Occupational Spec i f i c Information) 77 5:7 Knowledge of Se l f 78 5:8 Summary Table of Adjusted Y Sums of Squares and Variances for Knowledge of Se l f 80 5:9 Knowledge of Others 82 5:10 Summary Table of Adjusted Y Sums of Squares and Variance for Knowledge of Others 84 i x 5:11 Raw Score (Problem Formulation) 86 5:12 Summary Table of Adjusted Y Sums of Squares and Variances for Problem Formulation 88 5:13 t Test (Problem Formulation) 89 5:14 Raw Score (Contextual Variables) 90 5:15 Summary Table of Adjusted Y Sums of Squares and Variances for Contextual Var iables 91 5:16 Raw Scores (Problem Solution) 93 5:17 Summary Table of Adjusted Y Sums of Squares and Variances for Problem Solut ion 94 5:18 SOLO Taxonomy Scores 96 5:19 Summary Table of Adjusted Y Sums of Squares for SOLO TAxonomy 97 5:20 Helpfu l Factors for Learning 99 5:21 Summarization of Hypotheses 101 x LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Process of C o l l e c t i v e Invest igat ion 8 2 Educative Process of Information Restructure 22 3 Construct ion of Meaning 26 4 Presentat ion of Problem Formulation Model 28 5 A Model for Considering C o l l e c t i v e Invest igat ion 35 6 Research Design 48 x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Kjell Rubenson for his guidance and patience in the development and completion of this project. I would also like to gratefully acknowledge the many helpful suggestions of Dan Pratt and Michael Chandler, the other members of my dissertation committee. My wife Susan provided emotional support and critical assistance to edit the manuscript. Without her on-going help this project would have been very difficult. Finally, I wish to acknowledge the Board of Directors, staff and volunteers of the British Columbia Federation of Foster Parent Associations, who made the study possible. x i i INTRODUCTION This study examined the learning outcomes promoted by collective investigation (C.I.). Collective investigation is an adult, non-formal, group educative process. Several of the central principles of C.I. (active participant involvement, needs satisfaction, and personal development) are basic principles of adult education. An analysis of C.I. as an adult education method may be of interest to adult educators as the process relates to several of the principles that guide the practice of adult education. Gelpi (1979) believes that adult education research should investigate the educational contributions of "everyday l i f e . " From a similar perspective, Cropley (1977) stresses the importance of innovative methods in non-formal education by emphasizing information organization, recall of information and subsequent communication with other people for the purpose of learning. In a later document, he states the importance of identifying "...the learning process which leads to the development of attitudes and skills vital for lifelong learning, including...the ability to organize and order information and the ability to make inferences" (Cropley, 1980, p. 210). While 1 recogniz ing the value of formal education, Cropley and G e l p i a l so be l ieve adult l earning occurs through non-formal methods. C . I . i s composed of the fol lowing elements: 1) ac t ive community p a r t i c i p a t i o n and explorat ion of problems, 2) c o l l e c t i v e a n a l y s i s , to develop a better understanding of the problems and the underlying s t r u c t u r a l causes of the problems, and 3) c o l l e c t i v e act ion aimed at short-term and long-term problem so lut ions (Society for P a r t i c i p a t o r y Research i n A s i a , 1982). C o l l e c t i v e inves t iga t ion can be considered as an adult education method; i n d i v i d u a l s teaching community peers, connecting everyday problems and adult education. The content of C . I . revolves around problems i d e n t i f i e d by the p a r t i c i p a n t s . C . I . methods may include some or a l l of the fo l lowing: group discuss ions , publ ic meetings, open-ended surveys, f a c t - f i n d i n g tours , production of aud io -v i sua l mater ia l s , and popular theatre . C . I . d i f f e r s from other group work methods i n three ways: 1) the " c r i t i c a l " ro l e of the f a c i l i t a t o r challenges ex i s t ing p a r t i c i p a n t s ' percept ions , 2) the process intent i s toward transformation of the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s "soc ia l r e a l i t y , " and 3) the par t i c ipant s contro l the content of the educational a c t i v i t y . The c o l l e c t i v e inves t iga t ion process involves problem formulat ion, where par t i c ipant s i d e n t i f y and analyze t h e i r s o c i a l r e a l i t y , l earning from s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n and shared 2 experience (Society for P.R. i n A s i a , 1985). Problem formulation both spec i f i e s the problem and c r i t i c a l l y questions the underlying cause. Understanding how and why a problem ex i s t s i s necessary i n planning ways to solve i t . Problem formulation may lead to the r e d e f i n i t i o n of the i n i t i a l problem, which could "fix and determine" the steps or sequencing used for problem so lu t ion (Schon, 1987). The basic premise underlying t h i s study i s that exposure to the i n t e r a c t i v e group a c t i v i t i e s of a c o l l e c t i v e inves t iga t ion process w i l l a f fec t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s problem formulation a b i l i t i e s . Research Question To what extent and i n what way does the c o l l e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n process a f fec t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y to formulate problems? Purpose of the Study The purpose of t h i s study was to determine whether C . I . s i g n i f i c a n t l y increased the a b i l i t y to formulate problems and i n t h i s way, examine the effect iveness of one non-formal adult education method. In the l a s t several years the C . I . process 3 has been a topic and discussion item for many adult education conferences and seminars (Conchelos and Kassam, 1981). One area of debate relates to a lack of quantitative data upon which to evaluate process outcomes. One aim of the study concerns the need to increase knowledge within the broad area of non-formal adult teaching. Cropley (1980) believes that research is needed to help identify the "relationship between different kinds of learning in different settings and the outcomes in terms of personal satisfaction and self-development" (p.211). Appropriate research findings may help to determine what kinds of education are most appropriate for certain kinds of development. This study addresses the general issues presented by Cropley, Gelpi and others by exploring a type of non-formal, innovative educational method (collective investigation) which is assumed to promote the group production, organization and communication of information. A quasi-experimental research design was used to examine the j affect of an intensive C.I. workshop experience on individual's problem formulation abilities. The workshop experience was compared with: 1) a more traditional approach to adult education, (pre-readings and didactic lecture), and 2) a non-treatment control group. The C.I. discussions provided the content for teaching problem formulation. The lecture method 4 was not primarily seen as an alternative instructional choice to teach problem formulation but was rather used as another type of control group. Based on the workshop content developed by the participants in the C.I. workshop, information about problem formulation was presented to the Lecture group through a lecture and pre-readings. The presentation of the dissertation proceeds as follows: A literature review of relevant materials is presented in Chapter 2 to provide direction for the study. The third chapter describes the framework and conceptual model used in the study. Chapter 4 presents the study's instrument development, design, data collection, hypotheses and method of analysis. The results of the analyses are presented in Chapter 5, followed by the final chapter which discusses the results, limitations of the research, theoretical and practical implications, conclusions and areas for future research. 5 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter examines two topics: 1) the previous research regarding C.I., and 2) the concept of "practice knowledge", an application of adult learning in the work environment. The work environment can be seen as a component of everyday l i f e and a context for non-formal education. The presented topics focus on the particular elements that have the greatest relevance to the original research question. C.I. is described fi r s t , followed by a discussion of the acquired learning outcomes. Similarly, practice knowledge is defined, leading to a description of cognitive strategies for problem formulation. Collective Investigation Formal education curricula are often planned in advance by content experts and standardized in a bureaucracy. By comparison, the content of C.I. can seldom be pre-planned and is often negotiated between participants and facilitators (Brown, 1985). The C.I. process implies a different education perspective from that of formal adult education, asking that 6 participants be both interdependent "programmers" and "co-learners." Successful C.I. is based on two-way discussions rather than one-way communication from teacher to student. The next section describes the basic characteristics of a C.I. process. The Characteristics of C.I. The following are five basic characteristics of a C.I. process: 1) The problem is defined, analyzed and solved by the community, through active participation, 2) The goal of C.I. is the transformation of social reality, improving the lives of the people involved, 3) C.I. can create a greater awareness of participants' resources and motivate the individuals for development, 4) The process facilitates an accurate analysis of social reality, and 5) The facilitator is a committed participant and learner (Hall, 1979). These characteristics guide the action of the C.I. facilitator who works with the group to problem solve and generate knowledge. The role of the facilitator, while creating a group atmosphere of trust and safety, is to pose "critical, 7 hard questions while leaving the final decisions up to the constituency...while bringing a fresh perspective to the problem at hand through technical know-how and analytical skills" (Society for P.R. in Asia, 1982, p.40). Figure 1 illustrates the process of collective investigation. Figure 1 ; Process of Collective Investigation (Society for Participatory Research, 1982, p. 8) Problem Why is a Solution Needed? ^ , What are the Causes of the Problem? What Solution could be Instituted? -i/ Who will Benefit from the Solution? What New Problems are Created? si/ Unacceptable — ' Acceptable: Problem Definition / Action Product. 8 Collective investigation is a systematic effort to examine a problem from a l l perspectives prior to commitment to a definition of the problem, which then leads to an "action product." This product is the basis for further problem solving activities. For example, women in a Mexican barrio were delighted that a badly needed medical doctor had been provided. However, C.I. facilitators encouraged the women's group to critically examine their general living conditions through various investigative methods. The group realized that unemployment, insufficient clean water supply, inadequate housing and poor nutrition created health problems that a medical doctor alone would not solve. While the group was pleased with the access to the doctor, they began to organize and demand more social services (Society for P.R. in Asia, 1982). Learning Outcomes The material in this section is drawn from research regarding "participatory research." Unfortunately, the name participatory research is misleading, because those who have developed the concept have blurred the distinctions between research, education and community development. Related literature in the topic area has tended simultaneously to report 9 on research impl i ca t ions , broad educational outcomes and s o c i e t a l impact on development i ssues , thereby creat ing confus ion. However, "processes most c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to i n v e s t i g a t i o n can be i d e n t i f i e d separately i n any p a r t i c i p a t o r y research a c t i v i t y " (Society for P.R. i n A s i a , 1982, p . 2 ) . The mater ia l presented i n t h i s sect ion has i d e n t i f i e d the l earn ing outcomes which may be associated with C . I . . Swantz (1975) i d e n t i f i e d four poss ib le outcomes of a C . I . process for p a r t i c i p a n t s : 1) l earning about communication and how to s o l i c i t o ther 's ideas; 2) s k i l l s i n question answering, w r i t i n g , responding to quest ionnaires , and processing data; 3) s e l f - a n a l y s i s benef i t s ; and 4) creat ion of a common th ink ing process . C o l l e t t a (1976) provides a l i s t of poss ib le benef i ts der ived from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a C . I . process: 1) information sharing between p a r t i c i p a n t s ; 2) creat ion of an a f f i l i a t i o n , based on mutual se l f - respec t ; 3) motivation through acknowledgment of p a r t i c i p a n t opinions; 4) commitment and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y through act ive involvement; and 5) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of leadership and organizat ion of i n d i v i d u a l s at a l o c a l l e v e l . These educational and motivat ional elements were i d e n t i f i e d from statements made by par t i c ipant s at f i n a l meetings, which may have inf luenced the data . Further design concerns r e l a t e to a lack of c o n t r o l groups for adequate comparison. 10 Other authors believe that the C.I. process could encourage the "learning of new ways of perceiving reality" (Fernandes and Tandon, 1983, p. 9). Beginning with people's concrete experience, C.I. includes both analysis and action aimed at change (Society for P.R. in Asia, 1982). Hudson (1980) supports this view, suggesting that C.I. may increase understanding of potential alternatives. Tandon (1981) suggests that C.I. develops increased knowledge about the particular social setting leading to a new self-image and increased potential to learn and act. "The learning process related...to the form of activity which makes for grass roots self-reliance and, ...the formation of a world-view" (Rahman, 1984, pg. 85). The above mentioned research ignores the issue that the participant's situations may be characterized by uncertainty, disorder and indeterminacy, limiting the capacity for mobilization of personal resources. The documents suggest that participation in a collective investigative activity leads to empowerment and change regardless of availability of personal resources. Nevertheless, i t is interesting to connect Rahman's concept of "world-view" to Leontiev's levels of "activity" for deeper understanding. Leontiev (1978) also believes that through reflection on the surrounding world, the individual reproduces properties of the environment that have survival value. Activity may become conscious through collective communication 11 of the object -nature , creat ing i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r n a l "tensions" or "contradict ions ," which may be used as mot ivat ion. In a s i m i l a r manner, Shrivastava and Tandon (1982) argue that C . I . ra i s e s awareness through a dialogue between f a c i l i t a t o r and p a r t i c i p a n t , promoting c r i t i c a l examination of object ive and subject ive r e a l i t y . The Society for P.R. i n A s i a (1982) states that the process "strives to play a l i b e r a t i n g r o l e i n the l earn ing process by promoting the development of a c r i t i c a l understanding of s o c i a l problems, t h e i r s t r u c t u r a l causes and p o s s i b i l i t i e s for overcoming them" (p. 34). Mezirow (1985) suggests that a C . I . process could provide education for s o c i a l ac t ion and that educators have a s o c i a l act ion funct ion which involves helping learners to become aware of the c u l t u r a l contrad ic t ions which oppress them, to research t h e i r own problems, to b u i l d confidence and to examine ac t ion a l t e r n a t i v e s . From a s i m i l a r perspect ive , F r e i r e (1972), along with many other educators, uses the term "praxis" to r e f e r to the r e l a t i o n s h i p of r e f l e c t i o n and a c t i o n . Engestrom (1987) suggests the "task i s to get a grasp of the need state and primary c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . . . t h r o u g h discussions with people involved i n the a c t i v i t y " (p.324). He bel ieves that the locus and l i m i t s of the a c t i v i t y can only be properly defined a f ter extensive p a r t i c i p a n t observation and d i scuss ion . 12 Conclusion The majori ty of the wri t ings c i t e d above suggest i n d i v i d u a l l earn ing gain i s l inked to a group educative process: p a r t i c i p a n t s gain knowledge of prac t i ce s k i l l s and perception of r e a l i t y . However, the extent of the l earning gain and the process by which i t may occur has not been addressed. Although the reported outcomes of much of the l i t e r a t u r e revolve on c o l l e c t i v e inves t iga t ion and development of consensus regarding the problem d e f i n i t i o n , the learning process for accomplishing problem formulation has been ignored. While not acknowledging the poss ib le indeterminacy of the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s s i t u a t i o n , much emphasis i s a l so placed on i n d i v i d u a l and group empowerment p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The next sect ion of the review discusses elements of p r a c t i c e knowledge i n preparation for a d i scuss ion of the cogni t ive s trategies used for problem formulat ion. 13 P r a c t i c e Knowledge Schon (1983), discussing the concept of practice knowledge, emphasizes experimentation in instruction to utilize logical or empirical knowledge in work situations. He proposes 3-steps for "reflection in action" to determine the elements in practice knowledge. The first is "exploratory experiment": action taken to see what follows. Following this is the "move-testing experiments": a specific action to produce an intended effect. On the simplest level, i f an action achieves the intended outcome i t is affirmed, i f not, the action is negated. The third type of strategy is "hypothesis testing." Hypothesis testing occurs through the process of elimination where the individual successively produces conditions to disprove competing hypotheses. Schon's work has several limitations. Specific cognitive strategies related to experimental activity are ignored. As well, the individual's emotional perceptions of and reactions to the experimentation are neglected. From another perspective, Schein (1973) attempts to deal with the issue of uncertain occupational situations and knowledge by discussing the difference between basic and applied science. He states that i t should be possible to convert a "convergent knowledge base" to "divergent practice" application, 14 but does not describe the theory or technique to accomplish t h i s task . H a l l (1979) deals with ambiguous s i tuat ions by suggesting p r a c t i c e knowledge cont inua l ly develops through a cyc le of three phases: 1) the production and implementation of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and experience, 2) e laborat ion of theories a r i s i n g from those problems encountered through the experiences, and 3) the a p p l i c a t i o n of those theories i n s o c i a l prac t i ce t e s t i n g , with resu l tant v e r i f i c a t i o n and c o r r e c t i o n . He bel ieves that i n d i v i d u a l s "do not acquire knowledge of things about that which t h e i r p r a c t i c e has not yet given them the need or opportunity of f ind ing out" ( H a l l , 1979, p. 406). While personal motivation i s connected to context, the d iscuss ion does not inc lude the cogni t ive s trateg ies by which t h i s i s accomplished. Context and Cognitive Strategies Baltes and Nesselroade (1984), while tending to focus on the u n i v e r s a l i t y i n patterns of adult development, speci fy the inf luence of contextual determinants on knowledge a c q u i s i t i o n . Scr ibner (1986) a lso argues the importance of context on c o g n i t i o n , s ta t ing there are three contextual work var iab le s to consider when examining problem formulation: 1) l eas t e f f o r t c r i t e r i a ; the amount of e f for t needed by the i n d i v i d u a l for the psycho log ica l re -organizat ion of p r a c t i c a l tasks i n the 15 i n t e r e s t s of s i m p l i c i t y , 2) se t t ing and task s p e c i f i c knowledge, boundaries for work and what needs to be known may be developed i n funct iona l requirements for the task, and 3) novice-expert r e l a t i o n s h i p ; novices l earn under the guidance of others who support t h e i r progress through adjustment of task d i f f i c u l t y . S c r i b n e r ' s p o s i t i o n suggests "that perception and act ion occur i n continuous dependence on the environment and therefore cannot be understood without an understanding of the environment" (Scr ibner , 1986, p . 23). Boud et a l (1985) emphasize a l i m i t a t i o n of Scr ibner ' s and Baltes and Nesselroad's research; the impact of emotions. An i n d i v i d u a l ' s emotional reac t ion may d i s t o r t perception and inf luence cogni t ive processes. The s o c i a l experience may af fect cogni t ive s trateg ies i n two ways (Vygotsky, 1978; Leontiev, 1978). F i r s t , s o c i o c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y provides "tools" (eg. writ ing) for the organizat ion of informat ion . Second, the immediate s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a l context s tructures i n d i v i d u a l cogni t ive strategy. Information regarding too l s i s transmitted to novice problem solvers through i n t e r a c t i o n with more experienced members of s o c i a l groups. These experienced i n d i v i d u a l s define and regulate the j o i n t s tra teg ies i n accordance with s o c i o c u l t u r a l pat terns . The i n t e r a c t i o n between novice and expert impl ies : 1) new ideas or information are a v a i l a b l e , 2) one i n d i v i d u a l has knowledge of or experience with the new information, 3) another i n d i v i d u a l does 16 not have the knowledge, and 4) some form of communication connects the two individuals (Rogers and Kincaid, 1983). The nature of the information-exchange relationship among individuals determines the conditions by which an individual transmits information. Most people depend mainly on a subjective evaluation of information that is conveyed to them from other individuals like themselves who have adopted the information (Rogers and Kincaid, 1983). This suggests that the information diffusion process results from modelling and imitation. If this is the case, one important contextual issue is the process by which individuals examine and define problems that they are confronted with. The next section describes the specific strategies used in problem formulation. Problem Formulation Maier (1930) characterized problem formulation as changes in "organization and meaning," believing that a problem which is similar to one that was solved in the past may call up a solution by similarity. In a later work, he states, "the parts or experiences must be combined in a certain manner and a direction or way the problem is attacked seems to be a factor which determines the nature of the combination" (Maier, 1931, p. 143). Kahney (1986) has built upon Maier's seminal 17 documentation. He bel ieves that i n d i v i d u a l s augment the information provided at the beginning of a problem with knowledge r e t r i e v e d from long-term memory. With enough experience with a p a r t i c u l a r type of problem, i n d i v i d u a l s may i n t e r n a l i z e the "structure" of the problem. In every-day problems, t h i s allows the i n d i v i d u a l to gather information during the process of so lv ing a problem and f i t the so lu t ion to the o r i g i n a l presented information. The r e a l achievement consis ts i n r e a l i z i n g that the s i t u a t i o n i s not i n as good order as i t looks; that i t should be improved. Under these circumstances the process i s often a t r a n s i t i o n from an and-sum or from a s u p e r f i c i a l l y s tructured view to a more adequate one. . . To envisage, to put the r i g h t problem, i s often a far more important achievement than to solve a set task. (Wertheimer, 1959, p. 242) By formulating the problem more product ive ly , d i scree t phases of the so lu t ion that change the s tructure of the s i t u a t i o n as a whole or change c e r t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t parts can occur. Polya (1957), Scheerer and Huling (1960) and Lave et a l . (1984) be l i eve the essence of problem formulation i s the way some people perceive the tasks or segments of tasks as having p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t i e s ava i lab le for separation in to detachable and moveable segments. Argyr i s (1982) bel ieves t h i s occurs as a r e s u l t of the d i s junc t ion between a person's experience and 18 his or her "biography," al lowing the i n d i v i d u a l to create premises about the problem, make inferences and draw conc lus ions . Anderson (1985) suggests that problem formulation r e s u l t s from a search process through a maze of "states." The "search" concept describes the poss ib le steps an i n d i v i d u a l might take i n a problem so lut ion method. One method attempts to reduce the d i f ference between the current perceived state and the goal state through measures of s i m i l a r i t y , as suggested by Maier (1930). The problem i s transformed in to a state that more c l o s e l y resembles the goa l . Another method re la te s to working backward. I f the goal i s known, i t can be decomposed in to subgoals, which imply poss ib le so lut ions . The sub-goals can then be worked on independently, al lowing the i n d i v i d u a l to focus on one issue at a time. Yet another method i s problem so lv ing by analogy. The structure of one previous ly solved problem guides the formulation of the presented problem. One l i m i t a t i o n of the above mentioned research i s the poss ib le d i f f i c u l t y of genera l i za t ion of laboratory experiments (of which the inferences are based) to everyday problems. G u i l f o r d (1965) proposes four cogni t ive s trateg ies to describe the problem formulation process. 1) Fluent t h i n k i n g : r e t r i e v a l from memory of u n i t s , re la ted corre la tes or systems i n response to c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , 2) F l e x i b l e t h i n k i n g : the a b i l i t y to search d i f f e r e n t c lasses of memory for information used i n both divergent th inking and for developing a convergent answer, 3) Ins ight: Sudden transformations of information to produce systems which provide a scheme or model, and 4) Evaluat ion: Elaborat ive a b i l i t i e s of impl i ca t ion to determine what i s proper. From a d i f f e r e n t perspect ive , Wilensky (1981) in t erpre t s problem formulation as a "meta-goal," invo lv ing general p r i n c i p l e s rather than s p e c i f i c information, which encodes knowledge about planning i n general . This i s s i m i l a r to De Corte (1980), who bel ieves general h e u r i s t i c s , while not guaranteeing the so lut ion to a problem, increase the so lu t ion p r o b a b i l i t y through prov i s ion of an e f fec t ive search s trategy . Summary The l i t e r a t u r e review i n the chapter re la ted studies from two d i s t i n c t f i e l d s : adult education and cogni t ive psychology. Problem formulation depends on contextual information and the i n d i v i d u a l s ' s organizat ion and/or reorganizat ion of that informat ion . Problematic s i tuat ions are res tructured in to a more "productive" v i s i o n , which i s used to implement a strategy aimed at e f f e c t i v e l y def in ing the i n i t i a l i s sue . Fluent and/or f l e x i b l e th ink ing may allow the i n d i v i d u a l to invest igate h i s or her r e a l i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to problems. 20 I f the outcomes of the problem are f ixed and c l e a r , the ac t ion dec i s ion i s usual ly presented as an instrumental problem (Scr ibner , 1986). I t can be argued that when the outcomes of a problem are unclear , there i s no "problem" to solve and no ac t ion dec i s ion can r e a d i l y be appl i ed . Therefore, an a b i l i t y to formulate problems, examine a problematic i s sue , i d e n t i f y c r i t i c a l features , consequences and tentat ive so lut ions for further t e s t i n g i s needed. C o l l e c t i v e inves t iga t ion i s an educational approach used to f a c i l i t a t e i n d i v i d u a l development i n the areas of prac t i ce knowledge and perception of r e a l i t y . Prac t i ce knowledge, a concept r e l a t e d to everyday problems, should be examined wi th in various contexts , some of which may include - occupation, group i n t e r a c t i o n s , i n d i v i d u a l emotional react ion and cogni t ive s t r a t e g i e s . Leontiev (1978) suggests emphasis should be placed on the i n t e r p l a y between i n t e r n a l operations and external r e a l i t y throughout the problem formulation process . Departing from the above d iscuss ion of the relevant l i t e r a t u r e , the framework and conceptual model of t h i s study w i l l be presented i n the next chapter. 21 CHAPTER 3 FRAMEWORK and CONCEPTUAL MODEL The f i r s t two c h a p t e r s have o u t l i n e d the b r o a d c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h i s s tudy as i l l u s t r a t e d by F i g u r e 2 . Figure 2; Educative Process of Information Restructure To remain c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the C . I . l i t e r a t u r e , the framework f o c u s e d on the f o l l o w i n g : - the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l meaning, and - the development o f a problem f o r m u l a t i o n model which p r o v i d e d the b a s i s f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . A f t e r the d i s c u s s i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f meaning, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , framework and c o n c e p t u a l model i s p r e s e n t e d . C o l l e c t i v e - I n v e s t i g a t i o n $ E d u c a t i o n a l E x p e r i e n c e •> I n f o r m a t i o n R e s t r u c t u r e / R e o r g a n i z a t i o n 22 Individual Construction of Meaning This dissertation takes a constructivist position that meanings are contextual and personally constructed. Individuals mediate this construction with the help of verbal signs which have meanings (Vygotsky, 1978). When an individual reflects on an experience i t may become meaningful. "Experience rests on continuous synthesis of recognition, either of selfsameness (identity) or of similarity (type)" (Schultz and Luckmann, 1974, p. 229). They further state: I trust the world as i t has been known by me will continue further and the stock of knowledge...will continue to preserve its fundamental validity...From this assumption follows...that I can repeat past successful acts. So long as the structure of the world can be taken as constant, as long as my previous experience is valid, my ability to operate on the world in this or that manner remains in principle preserved. (Schultz and Luckmann, 1974, p. 7) Although every experience encompasses the atypical by virtue of its uniqueness, the individual suppresses its atypical elements by generating familiarity. According to Natanson (1978), the application of types necessarily suppresses "irrelevant" features of the objects we experience. 23 T y p i f i c a t i o n i s the generic term for an abstract process whose central accomplishments i s the experience of the f a m i l i a r . . . i n the r e s u l t s of t y p i f i c a t i o n one i s able to recognize the boundaries of one's world: the strange i s constituted and appropriated as a l i m i t of the f a m i l i a r . (Natanson, 1973, p. 140) The world of experience i s necessarily t y p i f i e d and Schultz (1973) has shown that the t y p i c a l i s e s s e n t i a l to the organization of experience, not a mere consequence of t r a n s l a t i n g experience into knowledge. Furthering t h i s statement, Rogers (1983) believes that "habitual knowledge" consists of s k i l l s and useful knowledge that once learned, i s "on hand" i n a l l situations that are experienced. This stock of knowledge provides the means for determining one's lo c a t i o n within r e a l i t y , d e t a i l i n g concerns and r e f l e c t i n g i n t e r e s t s . R e a l i t y involves i n t e r a c t i o n of the in d i v i d u a l and environmental stimulus, as the i n d i v i d u a l acts on the stimulus and interprets i t i n terms of previous knowledge. From t h i s perspective (Individual <=> Stimulus), the arrow pointing towards the stimulus represents assimilation and the arrow pointing towards the i n d i v i d u a l represents accommodation, where previous knowledge i s modified (Guilford, 1965). Accommodation occurs i n response to incomplete assimilation or contradiction with expectation. In a sense, the stimulus "acts" on the i n d i v i d u a l , but the action i s i n the i n d i v i d u a l . Engestrom (1987) believes such cognitive functions occur through r e f l e c t i v e mediation. 24 The a c t of r e f l e c t i n g upon the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the g i v e n s t i m u l u s t o the broader, g e n e r a l c o n t e x t occurs through communication ( i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l t o the i n d i v i d u a l ) . The c u l t u r a l development of symbols (used f o r a b s t r a c t i o n and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of thought) i s the r e s u l t of a s u p e r - i n d i v i d u a l , c o l l e c t i v e p r o c e s s . Only through a r e l a t i o n s h i p and i n f o r m a t i o n exchange w i t h other people does an i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n how t o r e l a t e t o r e a l i t y (Engestrom, 1987). T h i s i m p l i e s not onl y a p s y c h o l o g i c a l interchange between the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y but a dynamic i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l of m u l t i p l e aspects of what i s "known," i n c l u d i n g erroneous i d e a s t h a t e v e n t u a l l y disappear o r are transformed. Consequently, every i n d i v i d u a l experience not o n l y determines the s t o c k of knowledge, but a l s o p r e s c r i b e s a type of knowledge (Rogers, 1983). What emerges as probl e m a t i c i m p l i e s s p e c i f i c gaps i n the st o c k of knowledge. I f an i n d i v i d u a l has a new experi e n c e , knowledge a c q u i r e d through past l i v i n g may . not be ab l e t o p r o v i d e the necessary automatic response. An awareness of t h i s l a c k i n knowledge may pr o v i d e the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a f e l t need t o l e a r n . In summary, wh i l e r e c o g n i z i n g t h i s i s a f l u i d p r o c e s s , F i g u r e 3 i l l u s t r a t e s the c o n s t r u c t i o n of meaning and what has been d i s c u s s e d above. 25 Figure 3; Construction of Meaning New E x p e r i e n c e T y p i f i c a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n o f E x p e r i e n c e S tock of Knowledge y \ Adequate Inadequate 1 1 A s s i m i l a t i o n Accommodation i I C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n Knowledge gap i F e l t Need t o L e a r n A prob lem c r e a t e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e x p e r i e n c e o r a t the v e r y l e a s t , a chance t o o b s e r v e . A d i a l e c t i c r e s u l t s when p r e v i o u s r e l i a n c e on e x i s t i n g c o n c e p t u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and s y m b o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s h i f t s through c o g n i t i v e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h i n t e r n a l r e f l e c t i o n ( K o l b , 1984) . Through e i t h e r h a b i t u a l o r d i a l e c t i c c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t y , the i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i f i e s e lements as they appear i n h i s o r her p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y and c o n t e x t ; t h a t m a t r i x f o r r e f l e c t i o n i s then compared 26 w i t h a p e r s o n a l stock of knowledge. Gaps are not r e v e a l e d by e v a l u a t i o n u n l e s s the stock of knowledge i s inadequate t o d e a l w i t h the presented problem. I f a gap o c c u r s , m o t i v a t i o n p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r l e a r n i n g . I f the s t o c k of knowledge i s s u f f i c i e n t t o d e a l w i t h the problem, the " s e l f " i s l i k e l y r e i n f o r c e d and growth c o n s i s t s of i n c r e a s e d c o n f i d e n c e i n the a b i l i t y t o perform s i m i l a r t a s k s i n the f u t u r e . Problem Formulation Model T h i s study i s concerned w i t h problem f o r m u l a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . C.I. p r o v i d e s a v e h i c l e t o t r a n s f o r m experience through heightened awareness of problems combined wi t h the o p p o r t u n i t y t o share and i n c o r p o r a t e the knowledge gained by o t h e r s through t h e i r p a s t e x p e r i e n c e . Any attempt t o g e n e r a l i z e a dynamic p r o c e s s , i n ord e r t o i l l u s t r a t e i t , can be c r i t i c i z e d because of i n d i v i d u a l movement and i n c o n s i s t e n c y between the headings i t i d e n t i f i e s . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l experience the i d e a l i z e d model p r e c i s e l y as i l l u s t r a t e d . The model i n F i g u r e 4 (based on J a r v i s , 1987 and Kolb, 1984) i l l u s t r a t e s problem f o r m u l a t i o n as i t may occur as a r e s u l t of a c o l l e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n p r o c e s s . 27 Figure 4; Presentation of Problem Formulation Model Problem O b s e r v a t i o n / E x p e r i e n c e E x i s t i n g C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n R e f l e c t i o n G e n e r a l i z a t i o n T e s t i n g o f New C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n (Hypotheses) -> D e f i n i t i o n o f Problem Observation/Experience The f o l l o w i n g t e x t d e s c r i b e s the model i n d e t a i l . T h i s p r o c e s s b e g i n s w i t h the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t a problem i s s u e e x i s t s o r has r e l e v a n c e f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . As p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 3 , t h e f e a t u r e s of the problem are i s o l a t e d and t y p i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o the f a m i l i a r e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t the person can r e c o g n i z e . T h i s a l l o w s f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the e x p e r i e n c e and d e t e r m i n a t i o n 28 of the adequency of the stock of knowledge. If relevance or recognition is not perceived or i f the individual's previous stock of knowledge is sufficient to deal with the issue, i t is unlikely that any new learning will occur (Jarvis, 1987) as the individual has a previously formed concept. However, i t can be argued that the simple comprehension of incoming data necessitates the processing of information, which may mean the translation of the data into a form more meaningful to the individual. Through interaction like what occurs in C.I., the translation of information about the problem is socially defined and that definition is supported. As Leontiev (1978) believes, meaning is objectified through ordinary language which could help set the stage for Schon's concept of "exploratory experiment." A problem is acknowledged and based on the stock of knowledge, a previous method of solution may be tried to see i f the solution is applicable. Existing Conceptualization When individuals understand or are able to use some portion of their stock of knowledge, there is continuity with the socio-cultural reality (Jarvis, 1987). Experience acts as self-reinforcement to the existing stock of knowledge. The 29 evidence f o r p o s s e s s i n g a concept may be weak, r e q u i r i n g o n l y an a b i l i t y t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h a t t o which elements of a p r o b l e m a t i c i s s u e a p p l i e s from t h a t t o which they do not apply. For example, t o possess the concept of "abuse" c o u l d r e q u i r e no more than the a b i l i t y t o say "abuse" when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the presence of abuse. Stronger evidence might i n v o l v e the grasp of the l o g i c a l or grammatical use of the term ("abuse" can o n l y be a verb or a noun, not a proper name), f a c t u a l knowledge (abused c h i l d r e n tend t o become abusive t o others) or the a b i l i t y t o d e f i n e or g i v e the essence of the term. Regardless of the depth of the concept p o s s e s s i o n , the r e f e r e n c e scheme used f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n may p r o v i d e an automatic response t o the p r e s e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n . R e f l e c t i o n Some people e x p l o r e some of t h e i r experiences i n a c o n s c i o u s manner t o reframe the problem i s s u e l e a d i n g t o a new understanding. R e f l e c t i o n may be of a s u p e r f i c i a l nature, or a t o t h e r times, i t may be deep and profound. However, i f meaning i s a s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of experience, based on a s y n t h e s i s of p r e v i o u s knowledge and c u r r e n t p e r c e p t i o n , each i n d i v i d u a l w i l l b r i n g h i s / h e r unique s t o c k of knowledge t o bear on the experience through r e f l e c t i o n . 30 The strength of c o l l e c t i v e inves t iga t ion may begin at t h i s po in t , as the process allows the sharing and group explorat ion of each i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t ' s experiences. Mezirow (1981) d e t a i l s seven l eve l s of r e f l e c t i v i t y . The f i r s t four r e l a t e to the l e v e l of consciousness whereby i n d i v i d u a l s become aware of t h e i r experiences while the l a t t e r three l eve l s are regarded as c r i t i c a l consciousness ( J a r v i s , 1987). Indiv iduals may r e f l e c t upon experience at one or more l e v e l s , but higher l eve l s of r e f l e c t i o n include the strategy of genera l i za t ion . Generalization B e l i e f s and inferences about the problem are developed with the stage of genera l i za t ion . Schon's (1983) "move-testing experiments" are l i k e l y to occur at t h i s l e v e l . A s p e c i f i c ac t ion i s attempted for a intended e f f e c t . I f unsuccessful , fur ther r e f l e c t i o n may be required to reframe the i s sue . I f success fu l , a hypothesis may be developed/confirmed. Acceptance or r e j e c t i o n of information i s based on p r o b a b i l i t y , using some c r i t e r i o n of " c e r t a i n t y / v a l i d i t y , " (both i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t a l based). In everyday use t h i s denotes a perceived conv ic t ion about what r e a l i t y i s l i k e l y to be. This p r o b a b i l i t y i s i n f e r r e d by the i n d i v i d u a l from evidence of what i s known, plus 31 knowledge of factors not yet determined. The adequacy of knowledge involves judgements about one's s e l f (Rogers, 1983). When the i n d i v i d u a l considers resuming taken-for-granted a c t i v i t y at a given po in t , to some extent he or she looks at the impl icat ions about the consistency and cer ta in ty of h is or her s e l f . Although "break-off" points involve pragmatic, s i t u a t i o n a l cons iderat ions , above a l l they attempt to va l ida te a s e l f as the core meaning of human experiences (Rogers, 1983, p . 45. ) V a l i d a t i o n may occur through communication (group a c t i v i t y ) and development of what Schultz (1973) re fers to as a "we-relat ion." Involving mutual awareness and sympathetic p a r t i c i p a t i o n , "grounds for descr ib ing and spec i fy ing the c o n s t i t u t i o n of i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y i n everyday l i v e s are determined" (Rogers, 1983, p .64) . Ind iv idua l ac t ion i s based on knowledge and value system r u l e s , which allow for pred ic t ions which may prove correct or i n c o r r e c t . Predic t ions are deduced by assessing poss ib le a l t e r n a t i v e s . The process of C . I . allows the sharing of knowledge and experiences co-operat ive ly to evaluate the issues under examination. I f the "group convic t ion" about the c e r t a i n t y / v a l i d i t y of the information i s complete, the p r o b a b i l i t y that the information w i l l be be l ieved 32 by an i n d i v i d u a l to be correct i s l i k e l y to be h igh , while the reverse i s true i f the group bel ieves the information i s i n c o r r e c t . Testing of New Conceptualization (Hypotheses) Using deduction and/or induct ion , the component of t e s t i n g new conceptual izat ions involves the combination of a number of elements to form a coherent hypothesis, which can be "tested" according to the standards used by the i n d i v i d u a l . Consequences and impl i ca t ions for act ion are examined, attempting to adapt each p a r t i c u l a r hypothesis to the i ssue . I f a p a r t i c u l a r hypothesis i s success fu l ly adapted, a problem d e f i n i t i o n and subsequent ac t ion l i k e l y occurs. I f unsuccessful , the process may begin again. Schon's (1983) concept of "hypothesis test ing" allows for the e l iminat ion of competing hypotheses based on information presented. Through the group experience of C . I . , a co-operat ive d e f i n i t i o n of the r e l a t i v e "truth" or sense of conv ic t ion about the hypothesis can be furthered. Correctness must be defined i n terms of s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a , which the p a r t i c i p a n t s involved i n the process describe for themselves. Inferences are der ived from conv ic t ion i n terms of the r e l a t i v e frequency with which 33 the inference yields correct conclusions. Judgements are made about the value of the hypothesis against some standard which is then applied in practice. Problem Definition Once the issue has been defined in a productive manner by the individual, the problem becomes instrumental. Alternatives for action can be determined, consequences identified and a course of action chosen. With this comes evaluation and possible re-examination of the selection i f the action is unacceptable. This ends the discussion of the problem formulation model. The next section discusses the relationship between the literature review, framework and problem formulation model. Literature Review. Framework and Model Figure 5 illustrates a model for considering problem formulation, focusing on the interrelationships of the conceptual topics presented. The clusters of items are separated for possible discussion purposes but in actuality are interactive by nature of the educative experience. 34 Figure 5; A Model for Considering Collective Investigation 1 COLLECTIVE INVESTIGATION A . £ INDIVIDUAL CONSTRUCTION < OF MEANING \ l B . COGNITIVE -> STRATEGIES 71 / / / N N PROBLEM FORMULATION L_ J D. CONTEXTUAL VARIABLES C o l l e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t s prob lem f o r m u l a t i o n (C) d i r e c t l y a n d / o r i n d i r e c t l y . The i n t e r a c t i v e p r o c e s s may s i m p l y r e i n f o r c e e x i s t i n g c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s h e l d by the i n d i v i d u a l . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the e f f e c t may be media ted by i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f meaning (A) a n d / o r c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s (B) , w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s o f the c o n t e x t (D) . Based on t h e l i t e r a t u r e rev i ew of Chapters 2 and 3, i t can be seen t h a t c o n s t r u c t i o n o f meaning may a f f e c t problem f o r m u l a t i o n a t t h e i n t e r f a c e between e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t i m u l u s and i n d i v i d u a l c o g n i t i o n . Which means t h a t i f the c u r r e n c y o f r e a l i t y i s i n f o r m a t i o n , an i n d i v i d u a l may i n s e r t i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o the 35 environment as well as extract information from i t . Rogers' (1983) concept of a stock of knowledge (A) provides a means for determining one's location in reality and may prompt motivation to learn. As a result of typification, the stock of knowledge may be felt to be inadequate and the knowledge gap encourages the need to learn. Motivation to learn may influence cognitive strategies (B) as detailed by Guildford (1965), encouraging information processing and adaptation to the context (D). Contextual variables include group dynamics, interpersonal bonding, integration, and other situational elements. As a result of successful operationalization of the problem formulation model (C), individual meaning may be changed (A) or contextual variables could be affected (D) as task specific information could be increased or an existing peer relationship could be altered. The point to be made is that collective investigation has the potential to affect problem formulation in several ways. However, i t is obvious that collective investigation methods are not the only way to transmit content. Didactic approaches do emphasize and reinforce information previously read. When confronted with a mass of information encompassing details, definitions and examples, the didactic lecture synthesizes, abbreviates and summarizes the important information. Along with this, information from other sources not readily available 36 t o the l e a r n e r s can be presented. T h i s method can c l a r i f y i n f o r m a t i o n or s p e c i f i c p o i n t s through review. However, d i d a c t i c methods use a one-way communication approach, s e l e c t i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s t r a n s m i t t e d t o the audience t o l e a r n . The i s s u e of p a r t i c i p a n t c o n t r o l of process (through c o l l e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n ) becomes important i f the assumptions of the interconnectedness of the v a r i a b l e s as i l l u s t r a t e d by F i g u r e 5 are c o r r e c t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the assumptions u n d e r l y i n g the model and the c o l l e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n process were presented i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the next chapter which p r o v i d e s the r e s e a r c h methodology l e a d i n g t o the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h hypotheses. Summary So f a r , t h i s study has examined i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e , s e v e r a l c o n t e x t u a l determinants, a v a i l a b l e c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s and the o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of a problem f o r m u l a t i o n model. The concept of i n d i v i d u a l experience was used as the b a s i s f o r the framework which guided t h i s study, examining how c o l l e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n a f f e c t s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y t o formulate problems. C o l l e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n p r o v i d e d a v e h i c l e t o i d e n t i f y and t r a n s f o r m f u n c t i o n a l problems f a c i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s . These problems r e p r e s e n t types of experience, as 37 a r e s u l t of i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of context. The context i s s o c i a l l y def ined, supported and taught. A hypothesized model described the process of problem formulat ion. This model draws upon cogni t ive psychology to describe p o t e n t i a l l earn ing through a c o l l e c t i v e educational process. The next chapter presents the research methodology of t h i s study. 38 CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY A short summary of the research design begins the chapter. Then the instrument development, research design (including validity controls and descriptions of test groups), sample, and data collection procedures are described. Following this, the hypotheses are presented leading to the selected method for data analysis. Summary Twenty-four individuals representative of the caregivers in British Columbia were pre and posttested using an instrument developed by independent content experts. The research design used three groups - a non-treatment control, a group exposed to problem formulation through a workshop and a group exposed to problem formulation through pre-readings and a didactic lecture. The pre and posttest interviews consisted of two pairs of similar, but different, case situations that could occur in the participant's everyday l i f e . The items of information produced by the participants in response to the pre and posttest were compiled and then classified by knowledge type. These 39 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were further examined according to a p p l i c a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a n t use. One app l i ca t ion re la ted to perceived problem formulation strategy, a second to i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of contextual var iab le s used and the t h i r d category to problem so lu t ion s p e c i f i e d . The q u a l i t y of response was determined by use of the SOLO taxonomy and p a r t i c i p a n t perception of educative approach was a l so scored. ANCOVA was used for analys i s of e ight hypotheses, while an independent-samples t t es t was used for the n inth hypothesis . Instrument Development Prestudy A small pre-study (eight ind iv idua l s ) was undertaken p r i o r to the i n i t i a t i o n of t h i s research. Using the four case examples (Appendix B) , interview questions and SOLO Taxonomy (Appendix D) , several i n d i v i d u a l s with exposure to the C . I . process were interviewed. Other c h i l d welfare p r a c t i t i o n e r s with no C . I . experience (same gender, r e l a t i v e age, number of years of experience) were a lso interviewed using the same format. Comparison of the prestudy resu l t s showed that both the case examples and the SOLO taxonomy were appropriate instruments for t h i s study. 40 Main Study Development and se lec t ion of the case s i tuat ions were made by an independent panel of seven content experts ( s o c i a l workers, fos ter parents and c h i l d care workers) . Se lec t ion c r i t e r i a of the case examples involved several fac tors : - perceived r e a l i t y (the p o t e n t i a l of encountering such issues was deemed r e l a t i v e l y h igh) , - r e l a t i v e l y noncomplex language, ( jargon-free) , - high l i k e l i h o o d of par t i c ipant i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the problem, - problems involved several po ten t ia l i s sues , - several external condit ions impact on the problem(s), - opportunity for demonstration of d i f f e r e n t i a t e d l eve l s of cogn i t ive complexity. The four case examples were chosen to represent p o t e n t i a l problematic s i tuat ions that caregivers may encounter or have encountered throughout the course of t h e i r everyday l i v e s . Response was measured i n two ways: 1) the t o t a l score or product ion of s p e c i f i c information items and 2) q u a l i t y of response. Referr ing back to the model for cons iderat ion of 41 problem formulation (Figure 5 ) , the responses enabled measurement of several factors in f luenc ing i n d i v i d u a l construct ion of meaning ( A . ) : - types of information used, - past experiences u t i l i z e d , and - a t t i tudes and values a f f ec t ing problem formulat ion. To further operat ional ize the model, measurement of responses for cogni t ive s trateg ies (B.) focused on: - c l a r i f i c a t i o n of i s sues , - process and d e s c r i p t i o n of issue d e f i n i t i o n , and - connection between information used and d e s c r i p t i o n of i s sue . In a s i m i l a r manner, problem formulation (C.) was measured by: - r e f l e c t i o n upon poss ib le causes of problem i ssue , - benef i ts of choice , , - poss ib le consequences, and - r e s o l u t i o n of i s sue . F i n a l l y , contextual var iab les (D.) were measured by a d e s c r i p t i o n of: - p o t e n t i a l unknowns i n the i s sue , 42 - use of a l l information needed for problem d e s c r i p t i o n , - use of "expert" peers within the group, and - f ee l ings of personal "comfort" with problem s o l u t i o n . The panel determined the seventeen poss ib le items (Appendix C) that an i n d i v i d u a l could p o t e n t i a l l y use when cons ider ing the presented case examples. Par t i c ipants mentioning more of the poss ib le seventeen items were scored higher. Conceptual categories were then generated on the basis of the compiled data . The seventeen items were d iv ided in to the fo l lowing three c lasses : - S p e c i f i c Occupational Information, - Knowledge of Se l f and - Knowledge of Others. As prev ious ly mentioned, the interview responses were a lso evaluated for the q u a l i t y of the response. Factors such as cogni t ive sequencing, context, conventional descr ip tors (adverb/adject ive) , contrast , imagery, integrated impact and innovative use of metaphor or symbolism were measured. For the purpose of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , the Structure of Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO), developed by Biggs and C o l l i s (1982) was used. The SOLO was chosen for i t s wide a p p l i c a b i l i t y and emphasis on the s t r u c t u r a l complexity of the outcome responses. 43 The l e v e l s of the SOLO taxonomy are ordered i n terms of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from concrete to abstract , with an increas ing number of organiz ing dimensions; with sel f -generated r e l a t i n g p r i n c i p l e s used at the most complex l e v e l . The SOLO l eve l s are as fo l lows: 1. P r e - s t r u c t u r a l . In r e l a t i o n s h i p to the prerequis i t e s given i n the quest ion, the answers are denying, t a u t o l o g i c a l and transduct ive , bound to s p e c i f i c s . 2. U n i - s t r u c t u r a l . The answers contain "generalizations" only i n terms of one aspect. 3. M u l t i - s t r u c t u r a l . The answers revea l general izat ions only i n terms of a few l i m i t e d and independent aspects. 4. R e l a t i o n a l . Characterized by induct ion and general izat ions wi th in a given or experienced context using re la ted aspects . 5. Extended Abstrac t . Deduction and induct ion . Genera l i za t ions to s i t u a t i o n s not experienced or given i n the prerequis i t e s of the question (Biggs and C o l l i s , 1982, pp. 24 & 25) Biggs and C o l l i s (1982) suggest that four main dimensions be used to categorize responses: 1) D i f f erent capac i t i e s of memory - An i n d i v i d u a l needs to th ink about more items at once i n order to make a r e l a t i o n a l response than to make a u n i - s t r u c t u r a l response, 2) I n t e r r e l a t i o n between item cue and response - A 44 p r e - s t r u c t u r a l response has no l o g i c a l connection with the cue, while a m u l t i s t r u c t u r a l response i d e n t i f i e s several re levant features but does not connect them, 3) Consistency with in a response and the r e l a t i v e necess i ty for c losure wi th in the response, and 4) The i n t e r a c t i o n of the f i r s t three dimensions, a f f ec t ing the general o v e r a l l s t ruc ture . Several poss ib le l i m i t a t i o n s of the SOLO should be noted. Poor tes t wording can create p a r t i c i p a n t confusion and lead to a low evaluat ion of performance. P r i o r experience with the task and the nature of the task may af fect the l e v e l of response. The perceived time factor to answer questions may a lso create pressures i f the i n d i v i d u a l i s i n a hurry, preventing c a r e f u l cons iderat ion of a l l information. A f i n a l weakness re la te s to the concern that the SOLO does not recognize the p o s s i b i l i t y of emotional in ter ference . In accordance with the evaluation procedure suggested by Biggs and C o l l i s (1982), good use of the q u a l i t y components added an a d d i t i o n a l .25 to t h e i r SOLO score, while very good use added .50. "Good use" and "very good use" were determined through subject ive i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of judges. The scale used for scor ing the q u a l i t y of response i s presented i n Table 4:1. 45 Table 4:1 SOLO Scoring Level Score 1. Prestructural 1 la. transitional 1.5 2. Unistructural 2 2a. transitional 2.5 3. Multi-structural 3 3a. transitional 3.5 4. Relational 4 4a. transitional 4.5 5 Extended Abstract 5 The next section describes the research design used. Design Individuals in the experimental group and the Lecture control group were presented with two pretest case examples prior to workshop involvement or didactic lecture. Within one week after the treatment, a posttest was given (two additional case examples) and individuals from both groups were asked to reflect upon their educational experience. Both groups were facilitated by the same staff person. A narrative description of the 46 workshop and lec ture w i l l be presented l a t e r i n t h i s sect ion along with the descr ipt ions of the population and sample. A t h i r d group (n = 8) , not exposed to e i ther the group experience or the l e c t u r e , were pre- and posttested wi th in the same time period and acted as a c o n t r o l . A l l three groups began with no p r i o r exposure of problem formulat ion. Figure 6 i l l u s t r a t e s the design. Figure 6; Research Design' Group 1: Pretest - C o l l e c t i v e Invest igat ion - Posttest Group 2: Pretest — Pre-Reading & Lecture Posttest Group 3: Pretest no treatment Posttest In terna l V a l i d i t y of the Design Cook and Campbell (1983) d e t a i l many "threats" to i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y i n quasi-experimental research. Several common threats to f i e l d studies and compensatory controls are discussed i n t h i s s e c t i o n . Issues of t e s t ing and instrumentation i n v a l i d a t i o n were c o n t r o l l e d by the s i m i l a r i t y of the case examples and use 47 of standardized open-ended interview quest ions. The same- r e l a t i v e time sequence between pre and posttest for a l l groups decreased maturation problems. I t i s recognized that p a r t i c i p a n t s e n s i t i z a t i o n to the tes t may have enhanced performance. There was one "drop out" i n t h i s study. O r i g i n a l l y , 26 i n d i v i d u a l s were invo lved . Respondent "A" l e f t the province immediately a f t er the C . I . workshop and was unavai lable for the posttest interview. Equipment f a i l u r e prevented successful audio taping of respondent "P." Randomization of the i n d i v i d u a l s in to "treatment" groups was not poss ib le due to the community outreach focus of the supportive agency and h i s t o r i c a l events which may have occurred between the interviews and could have af fected the r e s u l t s . Although non-randomization presents serious s t a t i s t i c a l r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h i s study, the issue must be tempered by e t h i c a l cons iderat ions . Random se l ec t ion could be counterproductive to the development of the groups wi th in each s p e c i f i c reg ional s tructure of the agency. I n i t i a l l y , f i v e groups wi th in the organizat iona l s tructure of the B r i t i s h Columbia Federation of Foster Parent Assoc iat ions ( B . C . F . F . P . A . ) ind icated in teres t i n the process . Se lec t ion of the three groups for t h i s study (one experimental group and two c o n t r o l groups) was based on a random d i g i t table to prevent poss ib le b i a s . I t should be noted that the l e c t u r e , c o n t r o l and 48 non-tested groups were offered the C . I . service a f t er the study was completed. As f a r as i t i s known, no communication occurred between groups to lead to the p o s s i b i l i t y of treatment d i f f u s i o n or r i v a l r y of p a r t i c i p a n t s . Equa l i za t ion of the treatments and time element were evaluated by an independent group of content experts and was determined to be s i m i l a r . External Validity Threats to i n t e r a c t i o n of se l ec t ion and treatment were reduced by o f f e r i n g the workshops at the time convenience of the i n d i v i d u a l s , at a place of easy access i n t h e i r community. Sett ings were s i m i l a r for both treatment groups ( w e l l - l i g h t e d , v e n t i l a t e d government o f f i c e space). Although short-term h i s t o r i c a l e f fects could have inf luenced the treatment e f f e c t , the l i t e r a t u r e review d i d not provide evidence to refute a cautious causal r e l a t i o n s h i p between the C . I . treatment and p o t e n t i a l l earn ing ga in . The next sect ion d e t a i l s the three groups. 49 Experimental Group C . I . Group One of the experimental groups (8 p a r t i c i p a t i n g ind iv idua l s ) was exposed to the c o l l e c t i v e inves t iga t ion component of C . I . through a two day t r a i n i n g workshop (9am to 5pm). Depending on group i n t e r e s t and involvement, the minimum time for the group a c t i v i t y was 14 hours of intense group i n t e r a c t i o n . The agency f a c i l i t a t o r had approximately 8 years of p r a c t i c a l experience i n v o l v i n g groups. The focus of the f a c i l i t a t o r i n the workshops was: - recogni t ion and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of problem i s sue ( s ) , - acknowledgement of the i s sue ( s ) , - p o t e n t i a l examination of re la t ionsh ips between two or more problem issues - need for s o l u t i o n , - poss ib le causes of the problem, - poss ib le so lu t ions , - benef i ts of the poss ib le so lut ions , - consequences of so lu t ions , - c l a r i f i c a t i o n of major points - group r e f l e c t i o n on a l l of the above, 50 - refraining i s sues , as required , - summarization, as required , - developing inferences and general izat ions regarding i s sues , - t e s t i n g p o t e n t i a l hypotheses, Control Groups Lecture Group T r a i n i n g i n problem formulation for the f i r s t c o n t r o l group approximated the t r a i n i n g for the experimental group. The Lecture group (8 par t i c ipants ) was exposed to s i m i l a r content as the experimental group ( C . I . ) , through a 3 hour d i d a c t i c l e c t u r e . The content developed by the experimental group i n the workshop was used as the content for the l e c t u r e . Prereadings were given to the Lecture group. These readings described the process of problem formulation and took approximately 8 to 11 hours to read and understand, although the depth of comprehension i s not known. Posttest interviews ind ica ted the p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d read the mater ia l s . The purpose of the readings were to: 1) supply the re levant conceptual information for p a r t i c i p a n t a c q u i s i t i o n , 2) ensure a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s received the same "base" information, 3) s t imulate learner in teres t and 4) "mimic" one of the t r a d i t i o n a l 51 aspects of formal education. Within the l ec ture s e t t i n g , l i t t l e opportunity for group i n t e r a c t i o n was provided, although the p a r t i c i p a n t s were encouraged to ask questions f r e e l y throughout the presentat ion . The opening agenda l i s t e d what was going to be presented and how that re la ted to the readings. The language was conversat iona l , h igh l igh t ing the key points and concepts of problem formulat ion. The lec ture consisted of information r e l a t e d to : - problem formulat ion, - other group' experiences with the C . I . process, - techniques for i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of problem issues , - information ordering techniques, - divergent and convergent th ink ing , - development of techniques to l i n k and connect information, - techniques for problem formulation, - i s o l a t i o n of i s sue , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of causes, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l so lu t ions , poss ib le so lu t ions , - consequences, benef i ts of s o l u t i o n . 52 While the p r i n c i p l e s i d e n t i f i e d by the curr iculum mirrored the process of the experimental group, the "hands-on" f lavour of the f i r s t group was not present i n the second group. The e x p e r i e n t i a l involvement of group 1 was the e s sen t ia l d i f ference between the groups. The learning components present i n problem formulat ion; r e f l e c t i o n , genera l i zat ion and hypothesis t e s t i n g had to be developed without the help of the group i n the l ec ture s i t u a t i o n . I t i s important to note that the C . I . group and the Lecture group were not s p e c i f i c a l l y t ra ined i n "problem so lv ing ." Although i t would be poss ib le for an i n d i v i d u a l to general ize the provided t r a i n i n g to a so lu t ion , t h i s study was designed to examine the e f fects of c o l l e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . As stated e a r l i e r , once an issue i s def ined, the problem becomes ins trumenta l . A problem d e f i n i t i o n i s seen as the act ion-product of the c o l l e c t i v e inves t iga t ion process . So lut ion i s general ly determined from the consequences of various a l t erna t ive s of a c t i o n . Control Group #2 The non-treatment contro l group (8 par t i c ipants ) had s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to the two experimental groups. No treatment 53 was provided, but t h i s group was both pretested and posttested over the same time period as the other groups. The next sect ion d e t a i l s the research population and samples used i n the study, inc lud ing homogeneous and heterogeneous c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Research Population The research was conducted i n Southern B r i t i s h Columbia, using e x i s t i n g groups wi th in the organizat ional s tructure of the B . C . Federat ion of Foster Parent Associat ions ( B . C . F . F . P . A . ) . These groups volunteer at a l o c a l or reg ional l e v e l to provide education, support and advocacy services to other c h i l d care g ivers wi th in t h e i r area. There are ten geographic regions with approximately three to ten l o c a l assoc iat ions wi th in each reg ion . The groups are composed of foster parents , s o c i a l workers and c h i l d care workers. Based upon a random sample ( B . C . F . F . P . A . , 1987) of 199 i n d i v i d u a l s of the approximate 2,300 members i n the populat ion , the fo l lowing information i s a v a i l a b l e . The analys i s showed 54 that caregivers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the 1987 B . C . F . F . P . A . survey were between 30 and 50 years o ld and had completed t h e i r high school education, but not co l l ege . About ha l f of the respondents had some formal c h i l d care education and the majori ty of the respondents had over two years of experience i n c h i l d care . Regional groups i n v i t e agency personnel to work wi th in t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r area . A l l three groups had an equal p o s s i b i l i t y of assignment in to any of the t e s t groups and none of the i n d i v i d u a l s had p r i o r experience of t r a i n i n g i n problem formulation before the research study. Respondents were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire to provide information regarding highest formal educational l e v e l achieved, formal education r e l a t e d to c h i l d care , experience with c h i l d care , age and gender. Descr ip t ion of Research Sample Tables 4:2, 4:3, 4:4, 4:5, and 4:6 d e t a i l the groups demographics regarding completed formal education, formal education r e l a t e d to c h i l d care , years of experience, age and gender, r e s p e c t i v e l y . 55 Table 4:2 Completed Level of Formal Education C.I. Lecture Control some high School 2 2 3 High School 2 1 2 Some College or University 2 2 2 Degree 1 2 1 Post Graduate 1 1 0 Table 4:3 Formal Education Related to Child Care C.I. Lecture Control Yes 4 5 3 No 4 3 5 Table 4:4 Years of Experience in Child Care C.I. Lecture Control under 2 0 0 1 2 - 5 4 3 3 6-10 2 2 2 over 10 2 3 2 56 Table 4:5 Age of Respondents C.I. Lecture Control under 30 1 0 0 31 - 40 1 2 3 41 - 50 3 3 5 over 50 3 3 0 Table 4:6 Gender of Respondents C.I. Lecture Control Male 3 4 4 Female 5 4 4 The sample group of twenty-four used in this study was representative (p<.05) of the larger population of care givers on the following characteristics: 50% attended or completed high school education (r=.45), 23 of the respondents were aged 30 and older (r=.80), 50% indicated formal child care education (r=.45)/ 23 of the respondents had more than two years experience (r=.80). The next section describes the operationalization of the model, presenting how the data were collected across a l l groups. 57 Data C o l l e c t i o n Method Semi-structured interviews were audio-tape recorded. Using a r e l a t i v e l y non-direct ive interviewing s ty l e (open-ended quest ions , paraphrasing, connecting, summarizing) e f for t s were made to minimize the imposit ion of s t ructure . Exception to t h i s came from s p e c i f i c interviewer questions intended to c l a r i f y and explore broader issues of concern. A l l interviews began with the fol lowing request: I'm about to hand you a descr ip t ion of a s i t u a t i o n that you might have come into contact with or could come into contact wi th . Please read the mater ia l because I w i l l ask you a few questions afterwards about your opinion of the s i t u a t i o n . Two short case examples were presented face down to the p a r t i c i p a n t , who was asked to choose one. Interviewer questions were: 1) Do you th ink there i s a problem here? - i f yes; please out l ine or define the problem as you perceive i t . 2) How d i d you c l a r i f y the problem i n your mind? 3) Can you expand on the steps or the process you took to out l ine or define the problem? 58 4) You have used some information i n def in ing the problem you have just presented to me. Would you please out l ine what ideas or information you used? 5) How d i d you decide on what information you would use? 6) What kinds of information d i d you use to come to your decis ion? 7) Describe, i f you can, the connection or r e l a t i o n s h i p between the information you used and your d e s c r i p t i o n of the problem? 8) How d i d you make the connection between the information you used and your descr ip t ion of the problem? 9) Have you used a l l the information you needed? 10) What are the causes (as you see i t ) of the problem? 11) In r e f l e c t i n g back upon your d e s c r i p t i o n , can you describe poss ib le consequences of your choice? 12) What are the poss ib le benefits of your choice? 13) Was previous knowledge necessary to define the problem? 14) Are there any unknowns i n the problem? i f yes; please descr ibe . 15) Is the problem you have out l ined for me s i m i l a r to past experiences or other problems you have encountered? 16) How would you deal with or resolve the issue? 17) Can you expand upon the steps or process you would take to deal with or resolve the problem? 18) Are you comfortable with your choice of how you would deal with the problem? 19) Please out l ine any other poss ib le so lut ions you see for the problem? 20) Is there anything e lse you would l i k e to t e l l me about the problem you have described or anything we have discussed? 59 Interviews for the pretest groups ended at t h i s point and ana lys i s of content for each interview question began. For r e l i a b i l i t y , three independent judges were used to v e r i f y the number of information items used and the q u a l i t y of the response (scores) . The type of information used was then determined ( c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) , as was the app l i ca t ion of the information (purpose). A l l post test interviews began with the same statement as the pre te s t , using two s i m i l a r , but d i f f e r e n t , case examples for cons idera t ion . The items used i n the pretest and posttest cases (age of the c h i l d , gender, poss ible ethnic i s sues , c h i l d behaviour) were c o r r e l a t e d . The Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n between the primary researcher and the f i r s t judge was .92; the second, .91; and the t h i r d , .91 (n= 4, p<.05). Interview questions were i d e n t i c a l . Indiv iduals involved i n both the C . I . group and the Lecture group were then asked to describe factors that were perceived to be h e l p f u l or hindering i n t h e i r personal l e a r n i n g . The next sect ion describes the tes t r e l i a b i l i t y . Test Reliability Three independent judges scored the t ranscr ibed interviews according to : 1) the production of items of information, 60 a p p l i c a t i o n of information used i n problem formulat ion, contextual var iab le s considered and problem so lu t ion spec i f i ed and, 2) the q u a l i t y of the response i n r e l a t i o n to the SOLO taxonomy. The judges were: - a graduate student i n the facu l ty of S o c i a l Work at U . B . C . , - the Executive Direc tor of the B . C . F . F . P . A . , and - a D i s t r i c t Manager of the Min i s t ry of S o c i a l Services and Housing. These "assistants" were t ra ined i n the use of the research instrument and.were not involved i n any previous facet of the research. The Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n of production of information between the primary researcher and the f i r s t judge was .87; the second, .89; and the t h i r d , .88; (n=4, p<.05). These f igures are qui te acceptable for data of t h i s kind (Biggs and C o l l i s , 1982). A f t e r the informational items produced by the respondents were compiled, the raw scores were reduced to c lasses according to the "type" of information that each item represented: 1-Occupational s p e c i f i c information; 2-Knowledge of s e l f and; 3-Knowledge of Others. I t can be noted that the researcher-judge agreement increased with t h i s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n . 61 The correlation of production of information between the primary researcher and the first judge was .94; the second, .95; and the third, .94, (n=4, p<.02). Biggs and Collis (1982) believe interjudge reliability of response is crucial for the SOLO Taxonomy. The agreement regarding the levels of the SOLO taxonomy were also satisfactory as Table 4:7 illustrates. Table 4:7 Averaged Interjudge Agreement (SOLO) Agree Half Level One Level More than Diff. Diff. One Level N 253 25 8 2 percent 88 8 3 1 Eighty-eight percent of the transcribed interviews were coded the same way, with a half-level difference being the next most common, one level next and more than one level in only 1% of the cases. The correlation of the SOLO measures between the primary researcher and the first judge was .88; the second, .89; and the third, .88; (n= 4, p<.05) respectively. This level of agreement is considered to be acceptable according to Biggs and Collis (1982) . 62 To t h i s po in t , t h i s chapter has presented, i n order: the instrument development, data c o l l e c t i o n , research design, presentat ion of the population and research sample, and data c o l l e c t i o n . The next sect ion l i s t s the research hypotheses that were tes ted and the analys is used, i n preparat ion for Chapter 5, which w i l l present the re su l t s of the study. The nine n u l l hypotheses l i s t e d below are i n the order i n which the t e s t i n g i s reported i n Chapter 5. Hypotheses HI: The d i f ference of adjusted means of the groups i n produced information does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y vary . H2: The d i f ference of adjusted means of the groups i n occupational s p e c i f i c information does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y vary . H3: The d i f ference of adjusted means of the groups i n knowledge of s e l f does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y vary . H4: The d i f ference of adjusted means of the groups i n knowledge of others does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y vary . H5: The d i f ference of adjusted means of the groups i n problem formulation does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y vary . 63 H6: The d i f ference of adjusted means of the groups i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of contextual var iab les does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y vary . H7: The d i f ference of adjusted means of the groups i n problem so lu t ion does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y vary . H8: The d i f ference of adjusted means of the groups on the SOLO measure does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y vary . H9: There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference of scores between the experimental groups on factors that were perceived to be h e l p f u l or hindering i n the subject ' s l e a r n i n g . Specific Definitions Produced information - The stated information items used by the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Par t i c ipant s may respond to the case examples by using three types of information items: 1) i r r e l e v a n t items, 2) relevant items contained i n the o r i g i n a l case example, and 3) relevant items and p r i n c i p l e s that are not given but which are i m p l i c i t . (Biggs and C o l l i s , 1982) Occupational s p e c i f i c information - One subset of produced information which inc ludes; appropriate c h i l d welfare knowledge, c h i l d development/behaviour information and knowledge of governmental p o l i c i e s and procedures. Knowledge of s e l f - A second subset of produced information which inc ludes; recogni t ion of p r i o r educative information; awareness of personal a t t i tudes , values and a b i l i t i e s . Knowledge of others - The t h i r d subset of produced information which i n c l u d e s ; o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , s o c i e t a l , c u l t u r a l and f a m i l i a r information items. Problem formulation - Adaptation or recombination of information items in to a s tructure for problem d e f i n i t i o n . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of contextual var iab les - A b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y environmental determinants which may e f fec t problem formulation strategy. 64 Problem so lu t ion - A l t e r n a t i v e ways of deal ing with or reso lv ing presented problems. SOLO measure - Structure of p a r t i c i p a n t responses to s p e c i f i c tasks which may re la t e to general ized information process ing. Factors perceived to be he lp fu l or hindering - P a r t i c i p a n t b e l i e f s regarding the usefulness of educative approach. Analysis One-way ANCOVA with one covar ia te , the pre tes t , was used as the method of analys i s for eight of the hypotheses. Given the small sample s i z e , the covariate was used to achieve a more s ens i t i ve t e s t of the hypotheses, as pretest scores were s i m i l a r , but not equal . Conceptual ly , the covariate i s viewed as an a t t r i b u t e of i n d i v i d u a l s who belong to two or more groups. Assuming the within-groups regress ion coe f f i c i en t s are homogeneous, one may t e s t d i f ferences among groups a f ter adjust ing f o r , or p a r t i a l i n g out, the e f fect of the covar iate (Pedhazur, 1982, p.541). In t h i s study, the data f u l f i l these requirements (see Appendix F ) , as there i s homogeneity of variance (within chance, the regress ion l i n e s have the same s lope) . A separate independent-samples t tes t was used to tes t the n inth hypothesis regarding p a r t i c i p a n t ' percept ions . 65 Cook and Campbell (1983) caution against the use of ANCOVA i n quasi-experimental studies without inc lud ing a d e s c r i p t i o n of the poss ib le measurement error and assumed se l ec t ion d i f f erences . In t h i s case, the pretest and posttest are opera t iona l ly i d e n t i c a l measures, as the same questions were used. I t i s bel ieved that the research design and instrumentation used minimized poss ible bias from fat igue and maturation. Poss ib le s e l ec t ion di f ferences are minimized by s i m i l a r i t i e s of demographics, (formal education, occupational s p e c i f i c education, experience, age, and gender), research set t ings (community based, informal) and volunteer o r i e n t a t i o n . While the r e l a t i v e l y short time span (approximately one week) between tes t s reduced poss ible t r a i t i n s t a b i l i t y , i t may have increased poss ib le pretest s e n s i t i z a t i o n e f f e c t s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked about poss ible behaviour change and as f a r as i t i s known, the s tructure of behaviours of the p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d not change during the tes t per iod . Table 4:8 , l i s t s the summary of the hypotheses under cons iderat ion and corresponding s t a t i s t i c s and tes t s which are presented i n Chapter 5. 66 Table 4;8 Summary of Hypotheses and Tests Hypotheses Raw ANCOVA t Score t e s t Production of HI Information S p e c i f i c C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of H2 - H4 Information A p p l i c a t i o n of H5 - H7 Classes SOLO Taxonomy H8 P a r t i c i p a n t perceptions H9 x - included i n content of chapter 5 67 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS The five sections of this chapter present the results as illustrated by Table 4:8, concerning: 1) total production of information, 2) classification of information, 3) participant application of classes, 4) SOLO scoring, and 5) participant perceptions of educative approach. Total Production of Information Table 5:1 lists each participant's raw pretest and posttest scores, including means and standard deviations for the three groups. The alphabetic letters indicate the individual participants. 68 Table 5:1 Total Production of Information C . I . Lecture Contro l pre post pre post pre post B 100 154 J 51 60 S 78 75 C 82 105 K 70 77 T 70 70 D 120 93 L 58 58 U 95 101 E 124 135 M 75 67 V 96 90 F 52 98 N 161 155 W 71 38 G 88 94 0 94 94 X 185 203 H 186 207 Q 130 125 Y 53 44 I 116 161 R 109 94 Z 70 66 868 1047 748 730 718 687 Pretes t : C . I . Mean 108.5 S.D. 36.8 Lecture 93.5 35.5 Contro l 89.8 38.3 Grand Mean 97.3, S.D 37.8 Post tes t : C . I . Mean 130.9 S.D. 34.4 Lecture 91.3 31.8 Control 85.9 48.4 Grand Mean 102.3, S.D. 39.5 69 With the exception of respondent "D," there i s a general cons is tent increase i n production of information for the C . I . group. Scores i n both the Lecture and Contro l group e i ther increased or decreased. While the mean di f ference between the pre-post tes t scores of the Lecture group and the Contro l group remained r e l a t i v e l y the same, the mean di f ference of the C . I . group increased s u b s t a n t i a l l y . As noted, respondent "D" i s the only C . I . p a r t i c i p a n t to decrease on t h i s measure of production of informat ion . "D" describes herse l f as "a neurot ic mother with a 10 year o l d daughter." One of the posttest interview questions describes a sexual assault against a 10 year o ld daughter, which may have tr iggered an emotionally reac t ive response, accounting for the poor posttest r e s u l t of t h i s subject . H i : The d i f ference of adjusted means of the groups i n produced information does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y vary . Table 5:2 provides an ANCOVA summary of the r e s u l t s of a comparison of the d i f ference of adjusted means of the three t e s t groups. 70 Table 5:2 Summary Table of Adjusted Y Sums of Squares and Variances for T o t a l Production of Information Source df SS Errors Mean Square F p of Estimate Adjusted Y Between Groups 2 3361.1 1680.5 4.9 <.05 Adjusted Y Within Groups 20 6813.2 340.7 T o t a l 22 10174.3 C . I . Lecture Control O r i g i n a l Y means 130.9 91.3 85.9 Adjusted Y means 119.8 95.1 93.3 As the F - r a t i o demonstrated a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f erence , a correlated-samples t t es t was used to compare the adjusted means of the three groups. Table 5:3 shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p . The ana lys i s ind ica ted that par t i c ipant s i n the C . I . group demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater gains i n production of information when compared to the Lecture and the Contro l groups. The d i f ferences between the Lecture group and the Contro l group are not s i g n i f i c a n t . 71 Table 5;3 t Test (Production of Information) Groups t score p value C . I . - Lecture +2.57 <.02 C . I . - Control +2.76 <.0l Lecture - Control + .19 * * not s i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l The next sect ion of t h i s chapter examines the data by c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the production of information. 72 Information Classification The informational items assessed by the panel of judges were categorized according to: 1-Occupational s p e c i f i c information; 2-Knowledge of s e l f and 3-Knowledge of others . This sect ion presents the raw scores and ANCOVA resu l t s for each of the three c l a s se s . Occupational Specific Information Occupational information re la tes to appropriate c h i l d development/behaviour information, c h i l d welfare knowledge, knowledge of M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l Services and Housing (M.S.S. & H) p o l i c i e s , p r a c t i c e , and support serv ices . Table 5:4 l i s t s the pre and posttest responses c l a s s i f i e d as occupational s p e c i f i c information by i n d i v i d u a l and group. Means and standard deviat ions for the pre and posttest are inc luded . 73 Table 5:4 Occupational Specific Information C.I. Lecture Control pre post pre post pre post B 83 111 J 39 48 S 52 51 C 58 70 K 53 63 T 42 47 D 81 68 L 32 33 U 70 72 E 72 99 M 55 57 V 76 67 F 36 74 N 116 120 W 48 20 G 79 85 0 74 81 X 143 159 H 139 163 Q 101 112 y 39 27 I 89 138 R 91 61 z 54 50 637 808 561 575 524 493 Pretest • • C.I. Lecture Control Mean 79.6 70.1 65.6 S.D. 27.5 28.4 31.6 Grand Mean 71.8, S.D. 29.2, Posttest: C.I. Lecture Control Mean 101.0 71.8 61.6 S.D. 32.3 28.5 40.3 Grand Mean 78.1, S.D. 33.7, 74 Almost every i n d i v i d u a l i n the C . I . group increased production of information re la ted to s p e c i f i c occupation informat ion. The majority of the Lecture group scores a lso increased, but to a l e s ser extent, while the majority of the Contro l scores decreased i n occupational s p e c i f i c information. The group mean of the C . I . group subs tant ia l l y increased, and both the Lecture and Control remain almost cons i s tent . Only three respondents; "D," "R" and "W," demonstrated a subs tant ia l decrease i n posttest r e s u l t s . Respondent "D" has been mentioned prev ious ly . Respondent "R," stated that he "picks information from a problem. . .on gut f e e l i n g s . . . y o u sort of get a n g r y . . . i t sort of bu i lds up i n s i d e . . . and you decide." The post tes t score of° respondent "W" was almost 50% lower than the pre te s t . That i n d i v i d u a l described " c r i t e r i a of importance from a moral basis" and reacted very emotionally to the issue of s e x u a l i t y . H2: The d i f ference of adjusted means of the groups i n occupational s p e c i f i c information does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y vary . Table 5:5 summarizes the ANCOVA s t a t i s t i c s on occupational s p e c i f i c information. 75 Table 5;5 Summary Table of Adjusted Y Sums of Squares and Variances for Occupational Information Source df Sums of Squares of Mean F p Errors of Estimate Square Adjusted Y Between Groups 2 2543.2 1271.6 5.1 <.05 Adjusted Y Within Groups 20 4996.4 249.8 Total 22 7539.6 C.I. Lecture Control Original Y means 101 71.9 61.6 Adjusted Y means 92.3 73.8 68.4 The C.I. group showed a significantly greater increase than the Lecture group and the Control group (see Table 5:6). Again the difference between the Lecture group and the Control was not significant. 76 Table 5:6 t Test (Occupational Specific Information) Groups t score p value C.I. - Lecture C.I. - Control Lecture - Control +2.1 <.05 +2.9 <.01 + .7 * * not significant at .05 level Knowledge of Self The second information classification category to be examined was that of knowledge of self. This class of response includes knowledge of boundaries for self and others, personal attitudes and abilities, recognition of prior educative information and relationship of caregiver to foster child and own family. Table 5:7 presents the raw scores for this category. 77 Table 5;7 Knowledge of Self C . I . Lecture Contro l pre post pre post pre post B 1 15 J 1 2 S 16 8 C 9 19 K 6 5 T 23 16 D 6 7 L 13 10 U 6 7 E 22 22 M 11 8 V 6 7 F 4 3 N 19 17 W 12 9 G 0 0 0 9 3 X 12 24 H 23 26 Q 9 2 Y 1 2 I 11 11 R 5 15 Z 1 3 76 103 73 62 77 77 Pretes t : C . I . Mean 9.5 S.D. 8.3 Grand Mean 9.4, Lecture 9.1 5.1 S.D. 6.8, Control 9.6 7.1 Post tes t : C . I . Mean 12.9 S.D. 8.6 Lecture 7.8 5.5 Grand Mean 10.1, S.D. 6.9, Control 9.6 6.7 78 The group mean pretest scores are very s i m i l a r on the knowledge of s e l f v a r i a b l e . There was a s l i g h t increase i n the mean posttest score of the C . I . group and a s l i g h t decrease i n the Lecture group. Most i n d i v i d u a l s i n the C . I . group increased t h e i r use of , or maintained the use of, information i n t h i s c l a s s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that Respondent "B" increases dramat ica l ly i n t h i s category. This i n d i v i d u a l describes her strategy as one of "observing things i n the c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r . . . I have made some in terpre ta t ions i n order to i d e n t i f y the i s s u e . . . p u t t i n g i t i n categories , weighing i t and then deal ing with i t by examining the consequences of t h e i r ac t ions ." Most of the scores of the respondents i n the Lecture group decreased i n the use of knowledge of s e l f , while many of the Contro l showed a s l i g h t increase . Respondent "X," who showed the greatest increase among the contro l subjects , describes a d i f f e r e n t s e l ec t ive encoding process at the time of the post tes t ; "I v i s u a l i z e the scene as an observer and i t ' s l i k e watching an act before m e . . . I r e la t e i t to s i tuat ions or past e x p e r i e n c e s . . . p u t t i n g myself i n the p o s i t i o n of the person to draw conclusions and come to one that f e l t comfortable." H3: The d i f ference of adjusted group means i n knowledge of s e l f does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y vary. 79 Table 5:8 d e t a i l s the ANCOVA r e s u l t s . Table 5:8 Summary Table of Adjusted Y Sums of Squares and Variances for Knowledge of Self Source df SS Errors Mean Square F of Estimate Adjusted Y Between Groups 2 Adjusted Y Within groups 20 T o t a l 22 98.5 595.9 694.4 49.3 29.8 1.7 >.05 O r i g i n a l Y means Adjusted Y means C . I . 12.9 12.8 Lecture 7.8 8.0 Control 9.6 9.7 The F - r a t i o i s not s i g n i f i c a n t , preventing the r e j e c t i o n of the hypothesis . The next part of t h i s sect ion examines the t h i r d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of produced information, knowledge of o thers . 80 Knowledge of Others This measure inc ludes: knowledge of organizat iona l p o l i c i e s and procedures and the profess ional r e l a t i o n s h i p to colleagues and resources . Also included are items regarding s o c i e t a l concerns, c u l t u r a l and heritage issues as we l l as perceived r e l a t i o n s h i p s , such as the c h i l d and his or her family of o r i g i n and the careg iver ' s family and the c h i l d . Table 5:9 l i s t s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s pre and posttest scores i n the category of knowledge of others ( inc luding means and S . D . ) . 81 Table 5;9 Knowledge of Others C . I . Lecture Contro l pre post pre post pre post B 16 28 J 16 10 S 10 16 C 15 16 K 11 9 T 5 7 D 33 18 L 13 15 U 19 21 E 30 14 M 9 2 V 14 16 F 12 21 N 31 18 W 11 9 G 9 9 0 11 10 X 30 20 H 24 18 Q 10 11 Y 13 15 I 16 12 R 13 18 Z 15 13 155 136 114 93 117 117 Pretes t : C . I . Mean 19.4 S .D. 8.1 Grand mean Lecture 14.3 5.0 16.1, S.D. 6.7 Control 14.6 6.9 Post tes t : C . I , Mean 17 S.D. 5.6 Grand Mean Lecture 11.6 5.0 14.4, S.D. 5.1 Contro l 14.6 4.6 82 There i s a general decrease i n production of information i n v o l v i n g knowledge of others i n the C . I . group and the Lecture group. The scores i n the Control group e i ther increase or decrease, but the pre and posttest means for t h i s group are i d e n t i c a l . The grand mean also decreases s l i g h t l y i n the pos t te s t . Respondent "N," who showed the greatest decrease, reported using the problem formulation strategy of "whatever stuck my b r a i n as being the most important part of i t would be considered the i s s u e . . . b a s e d on personal exper ience . . . through your own past experience, something that re la te s to the problem.. .what h i t s hardest," r e l y i n g on emotional r e a c t i o n . H4: The di f ference of adjusted means of the groups i n knowledge of others does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y vary . Table 5:10 presents the tes t summary for t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . 83 Table 5;10 Summary Table of Adjusted Y Sums of Squares and Variances f o r Knowledge of Others Source df SS Errors Mean Square F p of Estimate Adjusted Y Between groups 2 56.4 28.2 1.2 >.05 Adjusted Y Within groups 20 479.1 24 Total 22 535.5 C.I. Lecture Control Original Y means 17 11.6 14.6 Adjusted Y means 15.9 12.2 15.1 Again, i t is impossible to reject the fourth hypothesis given the F-ratio of the ANCOVA. Collective investigation seems not to result in an increase of information concerning knowledge of others in this study. Conclusion The process of collective investigation promoted significant change in the area concerned with specific occupational 84 information. Change in the other two information classes, knowledge of self and knowledge of others, were not significant. The next section deals with the application of the produced information. Participant Application of Information The interview questions were designed to reflect three areas of research concern: problem formulation, participant identification of contextual variables used in formulation of an issue and problem solution. The following sections report the raw scores on production of information in these three areas. Problem Formulation Problem formulation refers to the adaptation or recombination of information items into an individualistic structure for problem definition. Table 5:11 lists the participant pretest and posttest scores applied to problem formulation along with means and S.D.. 85 Table 5;11 Raw Score (Problem Formulation) C . I . Lecture Contro l pre post pre post pre post B 44 75 J 19 21 S 34 36 C 38 64 K 30 30 T 28 23 D 52 59 L 24 20 U 34 37 E 50 64 M 24 26 V 44 34 F 18 31 N 52 41 W 20 10 G 32 47 0 33 27 X 74 102 H 80 102 Q 46 41 Y 16 16 I 53 75 R 36 35 Z 22 12 367 517 264 241 272 270 Pretes t : C . I . Lecture Control Mean 45.9 33.0 34.0 S.D. 19.5 10.6 17.3 Grand mean 38, S.D. 15.8 Post tes t : C . I . Lecture Contro l Mean 64.6 30.1 33.8 S.D. 19.6 7.7 27.7 Grand mean 42.8, S.D. 18.3 86 A l l o f the C . I . group i n c r e a s e d i n the use o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r prob lem f o r m u l a t i o n . By c o m p a r i s o n , the m a j o r i t y o f the s c o r e s o f the L e c t u r e group d e c r e a s e d i n t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n , w h i l e h a l f o f the c o n t r o l showed s m a l l i n c r e a s e s . The group mean o f the C . I . group i n c r e a s e d , w h i l e bo th the L e c t u r e and the C o n t r o l remained r e l a t i v e l y c o n s i s t e n t . Respondent " I , " who showed a l a r g e g a i n on t h i s v a r i a b l e , s t a t e d : "I a n a l y z e a l l the f a c t s . . . a b s o r b them, adopt the i n f o r m a t i o n , rev i ew e v e r y t h i n g I have h e a r d and t r y t o a n a l y z e i t . . . p r i o r i z e e v e r y t h i n g and t r y t o ge t the most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o u t . . . o n c e I ' v e d e c i d e d t h a t a s o l u t i o n i s needed, t r y t o go through and f i n d out what the causes a r e and how s o l u t i o n s s h o u l d be i n s t i t u t e d . " H5: The d i f f e r e n c e o f a d j u s t e d means o f the groups i n prob lem f o r m u l a t i o n does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y v a r y . T a b l e 5:12 e x p l o r e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p f u r t h e r . 87 Table 5;12 Summary Table of Adjusted Y Sums of Squares and Variances for Problem Formulation Source df SS E r r o r s Mean Square F p of Estimate A d j u s t e d Y between groups 2 1174.4 587.2 7.5 <.05 A d j u s t e d Y w i t h i n groups 20 1571 78.6 T o t a l 22 2745.4 C.I. L e c t u r e C o n t r o l O r i g i n a l Y means 64.6 30.1 33.8 A d j u s t e d Y means 51.9 37.1 39.4 As the F - r a t i o demonstrated a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , f u r t h e r t t e s t s were again used t o compare the a d j u s t e d means of the t h r e e groups. The a n a l y s i s showed t h a t the C.I. group had s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r gains i n problem f o r m u l a t i o n than the L e c t u r e group and the C o n t r o l . The d i f f e r e n c e between the L e c t u r e and C o n t r o l was not s i g n i f i c a n t . Table 5:13 l i s t s t hese comparisons. The f i f t h hypothesis can be r e j e c t e d as problem f o r m u l a t i o n i s p o s i t i v e l y a f f e c t e d by a c o l l e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n approach i n t h i s study. 88 Table 5;13 t Test (Problem Formulation) Groups t score p v a l u e C.I. - L e c t u r e 3.1 <.02 C.I. - C o n t r o l 2.6 <.01 L e c t u r e - C o n t r o l -.5 * * not s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l The next p a r t of t h i s s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h the p a r t i c i p a n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s f o r problem f o r m u l a t i o n . Identification of Contextual Variables T h i s r e l a t e s t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y c o n t e x t u a l determinants which e f f e c t e d t h e i r problem f o r m u l a t i o n s t r a t e g y . Table 5:14 l i s t s the i n d i v i d u a l scores and summary s t a t i s t i c s on t h i s v a r i a b l e . 89 Table 5;14 Raw Score (Contextual Variables) C.I. Lecture Control pre post pre post pre post B 45 53 J 22 23 S 26 25 C 30 24 K 25 35 T 32 30 D 53 24 L 22 23 U 40 41 E 53 45 M 31 28 V 40 35 F 20 39 N 65 68 W 37 17 G 27 25 0 45 46 X 76 64 H 57 62 Q 28 30 Y 12 14 I 40 72 R 61 56 Z 32 26 325 344 299 309 295 252 Pretest: C.I. Lecture Control Mean 40.6 37.4 36.9 S.D. 12.8 16.3 17.1 Grand mean 38.3, S.D. 15.4 Posttest: C.I. Lecture Control Mean 43.0 38.6 31.5 S.D. 17.2 15.4 14.8 Grand mean 37.7, S.D. 15.8, 90 Many of the par t i c ipant s i n the C . I . group and the Contro l decreased i n the use of contextual v a r i a b l e s , while most of the Lecture group increased s l i g h t l y . Grand means are almost i d e n t i c a l . H6: The d i f ference of adjusted means of the groups i n use of contextual var iab les does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y vary . Table 5:15 i l l u s t r a t e s the ANCOVA summary and f ind ings . Table 5;15 Summary Table of Adjusted Y Sums of Squares and Variances for Contextual Var iab les Source df SS Errors Mean Square F p of Estimate Adjusted Y Between groups 2 326.1 163.1 1.3 >.05 Adjusted Y Within groups 20 2590.6 129.5 T o t a l 22 2916.7 C . I . Lecture Contro l O r i g i n a l Y means 43 39 32 Adjusted Y means 41.2 39.7 33 91 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a c r o s s the t h r e e groups was found, p r e v e n t i n g r e j e c t i o n of the hy p o t h e s i s . The next p a r t of t h i s s e c t i o n concludes the a n a l y s i s of the produced i n f o r m a t i o n . Problem Solution Problem s o l u t i o n r e f e r s t o the a l t e r n a t i v e ways of d e a l i n g w i t h or r e s o l v i n g the presented problem. Table 5:16 l i s t s the i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e s (and summary s t a t i s t i c s ) of the i n f o r m a t i o n a p p l i e d t o problem s o l u t i o n . 92 Table 5;16 Raw Scores (Problem Solution) C . I . Lecture Contro l pre post pre post pre post B 11 26 J 10 16 S 18 14 C 14 17 K 15 12 T 10 17 D 15 10 L 12 15 U 21 23 E 21 26 M 20 13 V 12 21 F 14 28 N 44 46 W 14 11 G 19 22 0 16 21 X 35 37 H 49 43 Q 35 23 Y 25 14 I 33 14 R 33 34 Z 16 28 176 186 185 180 151 165 Pretest • C . I . Lecture Control Mean 22.0 23.1 18.9 S.D. 12.0 11.7 7.6 Grand mean 21.3, S.D. 10. 4 Post tes t : C . I . Lecture Contro l Mean 23.3 22.5 20.6 S.D. 9.5 11.1 8.1 Grand mean 22.2, S.D. 9.6 93 The majority of individuals i n a l l the groups increased s l i g h t l y i n t h i s category. Pretest and posttest means are very s i m i l a r for a l l groups. H7: The difference of adjusted means of the groups i n problem solution does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y vary. Table 5:17 l i s t s the tes t summary. Table 5;17 Summary Table of Adjusted Y Sums of Squares and Variances for Problem Solution Source df SS Errors Mean Square F p of Estimate Adjusted Y Between groups 2 9 .5 4.9 Adjusted Y Within groups 20 1937 .1 96.9 Total 22 1946 .6 C.I. Lecture Control O r i g i n a l Y means 23.3 22.5 20.6 Adjusted Y means 23.6 21.9 21.5 94 As evidenced by Table 5:17, produced information seems not to be appl ied to problem so lut ion i n t h i s study. Conclusion S t a t i s t i c a l analyses support the conclus ion that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the c o l l e c t i v e inves t iga t ion process p o s i t i v e l y a f fec t s problem formulat ion. Information was not appl ied to i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of contextual var iab les or used for problem s o l u t i o n . The next sect ion presents the analys i s of the q u a l i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t response. SOLO Taxonomy (Raw Scores) Table 5:18 l i s t s the pretest and posttest scores of the p a r t i c i p a n t s according to the SOLO Taxonomy, inc lud ing means and standard dev ia t ions . 95 T a b l e 5;18 SOLO Taxonomy Scores C.I. Lecture Control pre post pre post pre post B 19.5 C 21 D 23 24.25 22.5 19 E 25.25 25.25 F 18 21.5 ,G 20 19.25 H 26.75 26.75 I 21 22 J K L M N 0 Q R 18 20 19.25 17.5 17.5 18.5 20.5 16 S 21.5 T 19 U 24 V 24 22.25 19 23.5 22.75 17 23 24.25 W 21 22.25 21.25 X 24.75 23.75 19.5 22.5 Y 14.5 12 21 18 Z 18.75 19 174.5 180.5 161 158 167.5 159.3 Pretest: Mean S.D. C.I. 21.8 2.8 Lecture 20.1 1.8 Control 20.9 3.2 Grand Mean 21, S.D. 2.8 Posttest: Mean S.D. C.I. 22.6 2.6 Lecture 19.8 2.6 Control 19.9 3.8 Grand Mean 20.7, S.D. 3.3 96 Ind iv idua l pre and posttest scores wi th in the groups v a r i e d . Group means are very s i m i l a r and the observed range d i f ference between groups was smal l . H8: The d i f ference of adjusted means of the groups on the SOLO measure does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y vary . Table 5:19 presents the tes t summary. Table 5;19 Summary Table of Adjusted Y Sums of Squares and Variances for SOLO Taxonomy Source df SS Errors Mean Square F p of Estimate Adjusted Y Between Groups 2 16 .6 Adjusted Y Within Groups 20 113 .8 T o t a l 22 130 .4 C . I . Lecture Contro l O r i g i n a l Y means 22.6 19.8 19.9 Adjusted Y means 22 20.4 19.9 97 The F - r a t i o i s not s i g n i f i c a n t , preventing r e j e c t i o n of the hypothesis . Qual i ty of response appears not to be ef fected by c o l l e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The next sect ion w i l l present a d i f f e r e n t facet of the research regarding the p a r t i c i p a n t perceptions of the educative approach. Participant Perceptions of Educative Approach To continue explorat ion of the educative approach, a separate independent-samples t tes t was conducted on the C . I . group and the Lecture group. Par t i c ipant s were asked to i d e n t i f y factors that they perceived to be he lp fu l or hindering i n t h e i r l e a r n i n g , which are l i s t e d i n Table 5:20. To be inc luded , the fac tors had to be mentioned by at l east two of the eight people i n the group as suggested by Borgen and Amundson (1984). H9: There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference of scores between the experimental groups on factors that were perceived" to be h e l p f u l or hindering i n the subject ' s l e a r n i n g . 98 Table 5;20 Identified Helpful Factors Factors C . I . Lecture Group i n t e r a c t i o n 8 - Content of workshop 8 -F a c i l i t a t o r Sty le 7 -Structured approach to problems 7 -Group a c t i v i t i e s 6 — Lecture s ty l e — 3 Information about problem so lv ing - 2 P o s i t i v e a t t i tude — 2 T o t a l 36 7 Indiv iduals i n the C . I . group d id not i d e n t i f y any factors which they considered to be hindering to t h e i r l e a r n i n g . The major i ty of i n d i v i d u a l s were able to i d e n t i f y several h e l p f u l fac tors i n v o l v i n g group p a r t i c i p a t i o n , f a c i l i t a t o r s t y l e and a s tructured approach to problems. By comparison, fewer p a r t i c i p a n t s of the Lecture group i d e n t i f i e d h e l p f u l f a c t o r s . F ive i n d i v i d u a l s from the Lecture group claimed no l earn ing occurred and consequently were unable or unwi l l ing to state hindering or h e l p f u l f ac tor s . For those who chose to respond, l e c ture s ty l e and content was considered h e l p f u l . 99 Obviously , while such information i s h ighly subject ive , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that a substant ia l d i f ference ex i s t s between the perceptions of the two groups. The i n d i v i d u a l s i n the C . I . group perceived the a c t i v i t i e s and s tructured i n t e r a c t i o n to be b e n e f i c i a l to t h e i r l earning (t=8.7, df=6, p<.001). Consequently, the ninth and f i n a l hypothesis may be r e j e c t e d . The next sect ion summarizes the chapter, i n preparat ion for the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s , to be presented i n Chapter S ix . Summary ANCOVA was used to tes t 9 separate hypotheses about the e f fec t s of the c o l l e c t i v e inves t iga t ion process on i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y to formulate problems. Table 5:21 presents the numbered n u l l hypotheses, between group comparisons and corresponding p va lue . 100 Table 5;21 Summary of Hypotheses Hypotheses Between p r e j e c t i o n groups value of n u l l HI C . I . C . I . - Lecture - Control <.05 <.02 <.01 yes H2 C . I . C . I . - Lecture - Control <.05 <.05 <.01 yes H3 >.05 no H4 >.05 no H5 C . I . C . I . - Lecture - Control <.05 <.02 <.01 yes H6 >.05 no H7 >.05 no H8 >.05 no H9 C . I . - Lecture <.001 yes In a s t r i c t sense, four hypotheses can be re j ec t ed . However, the r e s u l t s ind icated a consistent s l i g h t tendency for the C . I . group to out perform the Lecture and Contro l groups on the remaining f ive measures. Only knowledge of others decreases for both the C . I . group and the Lecture group. 101 The "production of information" var iab le does appear to be p o s i t i v e l y ef fected by c o l l e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The C . I . group showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater gains than d i d e i ther the Lecture or the Control groups. No d i f ference was found between the Lecture group and the C o n t r o l . The "produced information" var iab le was categorized in to three c l a s se s . S i g n i f i c a n t re su l t s were seen i n occupational s p e c i f i c information. Subsequent t tes ts ind ica ted the C . I . group showed greater increases than e i ther the Lecture or the Contro l groups. Again the t score between the Lecture and Contro l groups was not s i g n i f i c a n t . The "appl icat ion of the information" v a r i a b l e was a lso categorized in to three sub-measures. S i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were seen i n problem formulat ion. The C . I . group showed greater gains than e i ther the Lecture group or the Contro l group. No d i f ference exis ted between the Lecture and Contro l groups. The t t es t comparing the C . I . and the Lecture groups on the "part ic ipant perception of educative process" v a r i a b l e was a l so s i g n i f i c a n t . 102 As a consequence of these analyses, the o r i g i n a l research question can be answered with confidence. The c o l l e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n experience i n t h i s study promotes increased production of s p e c i f i c , occupational information, used for problem formulat ion. The next chapter in terpre t s the r e s u l t s . 103 CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION and CONCLUSION Summary of Study This study focused attention on a group educative process, collective investigation. The literature in the area generally claims broad and sweeping learning outcomes. A methodological problem with much of the previous research was that these studies relied on data collected only after the process had occurred, raising questions concerning the validity of the findings. This study overcame this problem by collecting data before and after treatment. Another important methodological decision for this study was to collect data from a group exposed to problem formulation through a didactic lecture, supplemented by pre-readings. In this manner, "pure" lecture techniques were compared to collective investigation. As stated before, this was to use the Lecture group as a form of control. The C.I. facilitator challenged participants to examine their existing conceptualizations for internal consistency, representation of validity and reflection of the "actual" world. Within an atmosphere based upon trust and relationships of 104 mutual respect for the perceptions and opinions of those p a r t i c i p a t i n g , the C . I . f a c i l i t a t o r acted as a " c r i t i c . " P a r t i c i p a n t s were asked to discuss problems for which t h e i r p r i o r knowledge was appropriate and adequate. A c t i v i t i e s wi th in the group were aimed at the development of understanding and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Consequently, there was a high degree of in terpersona l sharing of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' react ions and meanings. This communication pattern can be contrasted with the l e c t u r e r to the d i d a c t i c group. Teaching was approached as a transmiss ion of information procedure to be accomplished as qu ick ly and e f f i c i e n t l y as poss ible through c o n t r o l of the p a r t i c i p a n t behaviour and learning condi t ions . Discuss ion was p r i m a r i l y question and answer, al lowing p a r t i c i p a n t s to c l a r i f y communication. The l ec ture format was d irec ted towards a c q u i s i t i o n of verbal information and communication was h ighly c e n t r a l i z e d , as one person (the f a c i l i t a t o r ) d i rec ted message flow. Nine research hypotheses centered around learner information-product ion and problem formulation s trateg ies that were inves t iga ted . The sample consisted of three groups of e ight caregivers employed wi th in the c h i l d welfare system of B r i t i s h Columbia. One group was involved i n an intens ive C . I . workshop, s t ress ing p a r t i c i p a n t i n t e r a c t i o n . The second group 105 was exposed to a d i d a c t i c l ec ture using problem formulation as the content. The t h i r d group received no treatment. ANCOVA was used to analyze the tes t re su l t s with a pre - se lec ted s ign i f i cance l e v e l of .05. The re su l t s were s i g n i f i c a n t i n several instances , al lowing for the r e j e c t i o n of four of the o r i g i n a l nine n u l l hypotheses. However, i n a l l nine instances the C . I . group scored the highest , suggesting a poss ib le t rend . The remaining sections of t h i s chapter w i l l present an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the data, inc lud ing selected t h e o r e t i c a l cons iderat ions . This w i l l be followed by a d i scuss ion of the l i m i t a t i o n s of the study, the o v e r a l l impl icat ions of the r e s u l t s to the theory and prac t i ce of adult education and f i n a l l y , suggestions for further research. Interpretation of Hypotheses Testing Total Production of Information (Hi) P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the C . I . group demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater gains i n production of information than the Lecture group and the Control group. This r e s u l t i s discussed i n terms of : 106 - the nature of the group structure, - diffusion of innovations within a group, and - experiential learning. Nature of Group Structure The nature of the C.I. group created a decentralized information flow which may have affected the communication networks of the group. Another possible effect of low centrality and nonauthoritarian leadership is increased group morale (Colleta, 1976). Although this study did not specifically address morale, the significant scores regarding participant perception of the C.I. process and content imply the group well-being was consistently high as a result of the experience. The next section addresses the issue of information flow in small groups. Diffusion of Innovations An interpretation of the results may relate to the process by which information is communicated among group members. As discussed in the literature review, learning requires more than presentation of knowledge as the learners actively make decisions regarding acceptance or rejection of new information 107 (Jarvis, 1987). New information concerning innovations (collective investigation) may create uncertainty related to the expected consequences of adopting and using the concepts to be learned. People can seldom be certain that an innovation represents a superior alternative to previous practice. The cognitive operation of evaluation is concerned with decisions about the "goodness" of items of information. Evaluation "weighs" the presented information and makes judgements regarding i t . Appropriate methods of adult education provide an opportunity for reducing uncertainty and developing information processing. The information embodied in the innovation (collective investigation) represents the possible solution to the group's problems, providing learning motivation. Once the educational process has reduced the uncertainty about the expected consequences to a tolerable level, the participant's decision concerning adoption or rejection of the concept can be made (Rogers and Kincaid, 1983). The perception of the relative advantage of the innovation is compared to existing values, past experience and needs. C.I. provided an opportunity for peer discussion and evaluation, increasing the "observability" of the process and likelihood of adoption. The act of discussion uses communication which implies relationships as the individuals are linked by the flow 108 of patterned information to form networks (Rogers and K i n c a i d , 1983). The more communication that occurs ( p a r t i c u l a r l y on meaningful content) , the more l i k e l y they are to develop personal bonds and group i n t e g r a t i o n . Using Figure 5, the bonding and group dynamics can be seen as contextual var iab le s (Box D of model), and as such may impact the c o l l e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n process. Complexity of the process (perceived d i f f i c u l t y of use) and the degree to which the innovation may be experimented with are other factors a f f ec t ing adoption. The d i d a c t i c l ec ture d i d not permit p r a c t i c e and consequently, the content may have been seen as too complex or of no use to the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The lec ture method i s somewhat l i m i t e d , r e l y i n g on the strengths of the pre-readings and presentat ion s ty l e of the f a c i l i t a t o r to s tress the importance of bas ic facts or assoc ia t ions . I d e a l l y , the competent f a c i l i t a t o r makes the content meaningful and i n t r i n s i c a l l y motivat ing through d e f i n i t i o n of the problem, s p e c i f i e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l object ives and spec i f i ed s i t u a t i o n s . This may provide the opportunity for increased at tent ion to s t i m u l i , beginning the process of information encoding. By prompting response, question and answers may provide immediate feedback and l earn ing reinforcement. 109 Experiential Learning I f one accepts the research r e s u l t s , the d i f f u s i o n process of the C . I . group may have created the opportunity for improved information discovery and transformation with in the framework of experimental l e a r n i n g . While the goals of e x p e r i e n t i a l l earn ing emphasize personal growth, the techniques can be appl ied to un l imi ted content. Kolb (1984) bel ieves e x p e r i e n t i a l l earn ing occurs through adaptive d i a l e c t i c s , creat ing confrontat ion between the i n d i v i d u a l ' s conceptual i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and symbolic representat ion of s o c i a l r e a l i t y . This may, as discussed i n the l i t e r a t u r e review, occur through the connecting of the ideas which are part of the o r i g i n a l experience and those which have re su l t ed during r e f l e c t i o n upon ex i s t ing knowledge and at t i tudes (Gui ld ford , 1965). New information i s associated with those elements of the p r e - e x i s t i n g knowledge that are re levant . The s i t u a t i o n commonly serves as a cue for r e t r i e v a l i n any content area . I t i s useful that as many d i s t i n c t assoc iat ions be made as p o s s i b l e , as immediate connections might not lead to new conceptions and learning (Boud et a l , 1985). Returning to Figure 5, c o l l e c t i v e inves t iga t ion uses techniques of bra in-s torming , psychoanalytic free as soc ia t ion , crea t ive drama or s tructured experiences to generate divergent thought for 110 process ing . The cogni t ive s trategies (Box B of the model) used to generate divergent thought may inf luence i n d i v i d u a l cons truct ion of meaning (Box A) and/or o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of problem formulation (Box C ) . In t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , the i n t e r a c t i v e e f fects of the model can be seen. A note of caut ion should be in t er j ec t ed at t h i s po in t . While the C . I . group showed greater gains i n production of informat ion, one wonders about the choice of the information. I t i s poss ib le that group pressure to conform may have d i s t o r t e d i n d i v i d u a l percept ion. As a r e s u l t of group consensus, i n d i v i d u a l s may have considered t h e i r views to be i n c o r r e c t and judged the group to be c o r r e c t , a f f ec t ing both t h e i r dec is ions and the t e s t r e s u l t s . Although par t i c ipant s claimed not to be inf luenced by "experts" wi th in the group, C . I . may produce s o c i a l conformists rather than " c r i t i c a l th inkers ." Type of Information Produced (H2-H4) The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of information can be seen as a subset of t o t a l information product ion. The three hypotheses were tested regarding: 1) s p e c i f i c occupational information, 2) knowledge of s e l f , and 3) knowledge of others . Of these, only occupational information s i g n i f i c a n t l y changed. The C . I . group showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater increase than the Lecture group and the Contro l group. This r e s u l t i s discussed i n terms of: 111 - work r o l e & i d e n t i t y , and - personal power. Work Role and Identity The f i r s t cons iderat ion of why only one type of information changed may r e l a t e to the work ro le and p a r t i c i p a n t motivat ion for request ing the workshops. Posttest interviews determined that a l l of the par t i c ipant s came to the workshops to l earn task r e l a t e d information. Work or an occupation can be seen to represent an important l i f e event i n terms of in terpersonal involvement, personal sense of s a t i s f a c t i o n and s e l f - i d e n t i t y (Gelphi , 1979). Concerned p r a c t i t i o n e r s may have become d is turbed i f they were unable to account for processes they perceive as c e n t r a l to t h e i r profess ional competence (Schon, 1983). As stated e a r l i e r , t h i s uncertainty may have contr ibuted to adoption of the presented innovations. Personal Power The second cons iderat ion re la ted to work r o l e and i d e n t i t y involves the development of personal power. Returning to the 112 framework (Figure 5 ) , i t can be seen that through problem formulation (Box C ) , par t i c ipant s may have recognized the extend of poss ib le ac t ion and modified t h e i r previous knowledge (construct ion of meaning - Box A) according to new expectat ions. The C . I . group c o n t r o l l e d the process and content of the workshop, choosing to deal with work re la ted i s sues . A p o s i t i v e view of the group contro l establ ishes a basis upon which to develop condit ions for l earn ing , namely, confirmation of t h e i r past experience and empowerment. Personal confirmation may have occurred through the development of the communication network, as i n d i v i d u a l s shared information. A l l of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the C . I . group acknowledged that group i n t e r a c t i o n was h e l p f u l to t h e i r l e a r n i n g . C r i t i c a l examination of occupational information enables the development of personal power, which can be connected to the concept of i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l . This re la te s to the extent to which i n d i v i d u a l s see themselves as manipulated by t h e i r environment, as contrasted with taking d i r e c t ac t ion designed to inf luence t h e i r surroundings. Indiv iduals may have taken r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for helping the group to formulate common object ives and taken i n i t i a t i v e i n providing members of the group with the means for achievement. In terna l ly c o n t r o l l e d persons tend to see themselves as c o n t r o l l i n g reinforcements and consequently, in f luenc ing t h e i r l i f e condi t ion and meaning. 113 The context of profess ional ism and increased competence could then be a fac tor i n understanding the d i f f e r e n t amounts of change i n the three categories of information s tudied . The content of the workshop and the s tructured approach to the problems was mentioned by the majority of C . I . p a r t i c i p a n t s as h e l p f u l l earn ing fac tor s . Occupational information was mentioned more, leading to greater e f f ec t s . The a f f i l i a t i o n motive and co-operat ive work re la ted concerns may have focused i n d i v i d u a l growth toward development of occupational goals . Personal c o n t r o l and knowledge of others i s l i m i t e d while knowledge of s e l f and contro l of work i s more access ib le for i n d i v i d u a l in t ervent ion . Indiv iduals could t e s t the impl i ca t ions of developed hypotheses within the r e l a t i v e safety of the group s i t u a t i o n . A p p l i c a t i o n and Use of Information (H5 -H7) The three hypotheses tested: 1) problem formulat ion, 2) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of contextual var iab les and 3) problem s o l u t i o n . A l l three represent poss ib le appl ica t ions of produced informat ion . As with hypotheses 2 - 4 , only one a p p l i c a t i o n of information s i g n i f i c a n t l y changed. The analys i s showed that the C . I . group had s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater gains i n problem formulation than the Lecture group and the Control group. The 114 "one out of three" issue can be e a s i l y understood as ne i ther the C . I . group nor the Lecture group were t ra ined i n contextual i d e n t i f i c a t i o n procedures and problem so lut ion techniques. The workshop ended at the point of d e f i n i t i o n of problem, a step p r i o r to s o l u t i o n . The fol lowing sect ion addresses: - p r e r e q u i s i t e information, and - performance s t ra teg ie s . P r e r e q u i s i t e Information To be able to apply information assumes prerequ i s i t e knowledge and performance knowledge. To acquire prerequ i s i t e knowledge (verbal information) involves a cogni t ive search for re levant mater ia l which was personal ly coded according to p r e s c r i p t i v e , narra t ive and imagis t i c comprehension for re tent ion and r e t r i e v a l ( G u i l f o r d , 1965). Both the C . I . group and the Lecture group were exposed to prerequi s i t e information about problem formulat ion. I f t h i s i s the case, the af fects of C . I . shown i n Figure 5 r e l a t e to the issue of performance s t ra teg i e s . 115 Performance Strategies The results suggest that the crucial difference between the groups and their application of information is at the level of performance strategy. This supports the theoretical framework (Figure 5) when considering the "circular" effects of problem formulation. Through problem formulation (Box C), the participants are made more aware of contextual information (Box D), and associated personal meanings (Box A), both of which may become more explicit. If the task for the participants is to learn problem formulation skills, the practical workshop exercises (grounded in their own experiences) may be more explicit than "abstract theory" as presented through the didactic lecture. Operationalization of problem formulation may influence cognitive strategies and may effect construction of meaning. Performance strategies link stored conceptualizations with new information through integration in order to practice a s k i l l (Guilford, 1965). At the simplest level, individuals within the group might think through the steps involved in putting a plan into practice. Using problem formulation, a more systematic form of mental rehearsal could be based on guided imagery. Participants are led through the problem formulation steps: why is a solution needed, what are the causes of the problem, what solution could be instituted, who will benefit, what new 116 problems are created and what are the consequences of a c t i o n . As the plan i s v i s u a l i z e d , the ava i lab le information may become more e x p l i c i t . Although i t may depend on the p a r t i c u l a r content under cons iderat ion , abstract ions such as concept maps and v i s u a l p o r t r a y a l of l i n k s and interconnections st imulate p r a c t i c e s k i l l s . While s i m i l a r content was used i n both the C . I . and Lecture groups, the C . I . format allowed rehearsa l of p r e r e q u i s i t e knowledge and the opportunity to model the s k i l l to be p r a c t i s e d . Increase i n Qua l i ty of Response (H8) A f t e r exposure to the two educative processes, the f i r s t seven hypotheses were used to tes t "how much" was learned. Hypothesis 8 concerned how wel l "quali ty of the information" was learned. P a r t i c i p a n t responses were scored according to f i v e l e v e l s and p a r t i c i p a n t use of cogni t ive sequencing, conventional descr ip tors (adverb/adject ive) , contrast , imagery and use of metaphor or symbolism (Biggs and C o l l i s , 1982). This study does not support the hypothesis as there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference between the groups. The issue of "quali ty of the information" ra i se s an aspect of i n s t r u c t i o n concerning "meta-learning." Meta- learning s trateg ies r e f e r to : 1) a person's knowledge about his or her own mental processes and 2) the act ive contro l of those 117 processes to l earn new information and s k i l l s . I t i s claimed by the Society for P.R. i n A s i a (1985) that meta-learning i s promoted a f ter exposure to the C . I . experience. The C . I . group integrated new information with previous ly acquired knowledge or experience, and through the process, uncovered causal connections and made inferences . However, although the t r a n s c r i p t s show the C . I . group tended to make decis ions based on cogni t ive strategy rather than emotional response, there i s no s t a t i s t i c a l support for the c la im made i n the l i t e r a t u r e that c o l l e c t i v e inves t iga t ion promotes meta- learning. P a r t i c i p a n t Perception of Experience (H9) As discussed i n the l i t e r a t u r e review, p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the C . I . group perceived the a c t i v i t i e s of and i n t e r a c t i o n with the f a c i l i t a t o r to be b e n e f i c i a l to t h e i r l e a r n i n g . Indiv iduals i n the C . I . group d i d not i d e n t i f y any factors that hindered t h e i r l e a r n i n g . By comparison, fewer i n d i v i d u a l s i n the Lecture group i d e n t i f i e d h e l p f u l factors and the majority claimed no l earn ing occurred. An i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n may der ive from the C . I . f a c i l i t a t o r ' s encouragement of the sharing of meanings 118 and understandings wi th in the group. The workshop was organized and s tructured to promote fee l ings of comfort, safety , challenge and acceptance. Within t h i s context, the f a c i l i t a t o r spent a great deal of time l i s t e n i n g and encouraging p a r t i c i p a n t s to t a l k to each other. The framework for the d i scuss ion was always c l e a r l y re la ted to the o r i g i n a l l y e s tab l i shed group in tent ions , but the f a c i l i t a t o r was open to hearing the concerns of the par t i c ipant s and d i r e c t i n g d i scuss ion towards these i s sues . As previous ly s tated, t h i s a t tent ion to fee l ings provides a base for the f a c i l i t a t o r to chal lenge expressed viewpoints and perceptions (Boud et a l , 1985). The l e c t u r e , by comparison, i s not designed to deal with i n d i v i d u a l emotional concerns. Another i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the d i f f e r i n g group opinions on educative approach may suggest d i f f e r i n g motivations towards l e a r n i n g . Based on the assumed "return" for e f f o r t , the i n d i v i d u a l projects "forward-looking" b e l i e f s about what could happen as a r e s u l t of one's ac t ions . The net psycholog ica l force of the C . I . group could provide d i r e c t i o n for l e a r n i n g . For example, i f a person observed that high l eve l s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n are rewarded with high l eve l s of peer recogni t ion and conf irmat ion, t h i s experience may strengthen h is or her b e l i e f l i n k i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n and a des ired outcome. Transcr ip t s from the Lecture group ind icate no perceived opportunity to 119 develop a p o t e n t i a l group "culture." This loss may have prevented shared expert ise i n terms of o f f i c i a l and u n o f f i c i a l ru le s wi th in the group that could encourage l earn ing , leading to a sense of i s o l a t i o n and apathy. Conclusion In agreement with e x i s t i n g C . I . l i t e r a t u r e (Tandon 1981; Society for P .R. i n A s i a 1982), c o l l e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n increases communication through the development of a network, which promotes e f f ec t ive d i f f u s i o n of information. Through peer evaluat ion and v a l i d a t i o n , the p o s s i b i l i t y for persuasion to adopt the process was increased, enhancing l earn ing opportunity . Information i s made e x p l i c i t , permitt ing prac t i ce of a p p l i c a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . Although d i f f e r e n t types of information were produced as a r e s u l t of the C . I . process, the content used by the C . I . group emphasized s p e c i f i c , occupational information. This focus on p r a c t i c e issues may provide a common group goal that contr ibutes and inf luences the development of a support ive , r i s k - t a k i n g atmosphere. The opportunity for s k i l l prac t i ce wi th in the C . I . 120 group may promote the processing of verbal information used for problem formulat ion. However, contrary to previous research, t h i s study showed no impact on q u a l i t a t i v e aspects of l e a r n i n g . This concludes the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s of the study. The next sect ion presents the l i m i t a t i o n s of the research. Limitations of Study The problem of determining the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s study r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y to the demonstrated v a r i a t i o n i n s k i l l s across s e t t i n g s . I t involves the question of how to best assess an i n d i v i d u a l ' s cogni t ive s t ra teg ies , given that these s k i l l s are not employed independently of the context i n which the problem i s embedded (Scribner , 1986). To the extent that s i t u a t i o n a l issues may prompt some problem so lv ing process, the question of how experimental evidence can be appl ied to cogni t ive funct ioning i n everyday l i f e tends not to ar i s e as an empir i ca l i s sue . In t h i s research, the issue of genera l i za t ion has two aspects: 1) task g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y and the extent to which the task se lected for study (problem formulation) shares some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with other tasks invo lv ing problem s o l v i n g , and 2) the assumption of some i n t e r i n d i v i d u a l commonalities of 121 strategy i n order to make statements about problem formulation a b i l i t y on the basis of the small number of i n d i v i d u a l s whose performances are examined. Given the known l i t e r a t u r e , the research design appears consistent with previous research, permit t ing cautious genera l i za t ion . The small sample s i ze remains problematic i n the sense that any di f ferences have to be large for s ign i f i cance to appear. Another l i m i t a t i o n involves the nature of quasi-experimental research. Randomization of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study was not poss ib le and i t i s recognized that by comparison, "true" experimental research i s more powerful than quasi-experimental s tud ies . An a d d i t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n may re la t e to the somewhat " a r t i f i c i a l " nature of the d i d a c t i c l ec ture approach used i n t h i s study. This group served the funct ion of a second "control" group, al lowing for comparison with the C . I . method. I t i s u n l i k e l y that a f a c i l i t a t o r using the l ec ture method would a c t i v e l y prevent i n t e r a c t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l s , but would st imulate a c t i v i t y through a v a r i e t y of i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques. With these l i m i t a t i o n s i n mind, the next sect ion w i l l deal with the issue of t h e o r e t i c a l impl icat ions for t h i s research. 122 Theore t i ca l Implications The r e s u l t s of t h i s research are p a r t i c u l a r l y re levant to some t h e o r e t i c a l issues wi th in adult education which deal with adult l e a r n i n g . An examination of the issues could provide an expanded bas is for greater understanding of the adult learner and improved appl ied p r a c t i c e . Discussion w i l l focus on the fo l lowing two areas: - adaptation to everyday l i f e , and - p r a c t i c e knowledge Adaptat ion to Everyday L i f e An example of how the research f indings may be integrated with other t h e o r e t i c a l perspectives can be demonstrated through the theory of adult l earning as presented by Engestrom (1987) and adaptation to everyday l i f e . Engestrom's theory i s based on Vygotsky's (1978) d e f i n i t i o n of the "zone of proximal development." "It i s the distance between the ac tua l development l e v e l as determined by independent problem so lv ing and the l e v e l of p o t e n t i a l development as determined through problem s o l v i n g . . . i n co l l abora t ion with more capable peers" (Engestrom, 1987, p . 8 8 ) . 123 In the context of everyday l i f e , as discussed i n the l i t e r a t u r e review, the zone of proximal development implies the increased use of e x i s t i n g knowledge as wel l as the development of in terpersona l and intrapersonal knowledge, i n a c o l l a b o r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . Cropley (1977) sees the need for e x i s t i n g knowledge to serve as the basis for a continuous process of further l earn ing and re l earn ing . He s tates , " indiv iduals w i l l need to acquire knowledge not only of the facts and processes of t h e i r soc i e ty ' s technolog ica l and s o c i a l organizat ion , but of themselves, of other people and of t h e i r own and other cultures" (Cropley, 1977, p .13) . Ge lp i (1979) adopts a s i m i l a r perspect ive , b e l i e v i n g that educational methods should s t r i v e to develop i n d i v i d u a l s who are able to adapt to the personal tensions r e s u l t i n g from rap id economic, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l change. In a future world of personal and emotional i n s t a b i l i t y , new concepts of s e l f and understanding of oneself , should be appl ied i n r e l a t i o n to other people and l i f e i n genera l . The re su l t s of t h i s study show that c o l l e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s an educational method that promotes a p p l i c a t i o n of information and the development of in terpersonal networks. An i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s study's re su l t s suggest modell ing and i m i t a t i o n are part of the adoption process of C . I . The next sect ion w i l l examine the concepts of modell ing and i m i t a t i o n wi th in occupational s i t u a t i o n s . 124 Practice Knowledge In a p r a c t i c e s i t u a t i o n , an i n d i v i d u a l s ' a t t i tudes are s o c i a l l y constructed and are l a r g e l y a r e s u l t of normative and informat ional cues (contextual var iables) communicated to the worker by others i n the work environment, p a r t i c u l a r y peers (Schon, 1987). Within a work context, re turning to Figure 5, t h i s suggests that job at t i tudes ar i s e i n part from the elements of the work environment that co-workers somewhat unconsciously c a l l a t tent ion to i n t h e i r everyday t a l k . As suggested i n Chapter 3, t h i s information may become t y p i f i e d and used to organize experience ( i n d i v i d u a l cons truct ion) . For example, an i n d i v i d u a l caregiver may have d i f f i c u l t y i n communicating with a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l worker wi th in an o f f i c e . In conversations with other careg ivers , s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s may be noted. As a r e s u l t , the o r i g i n a l communication issue may be t y p i f i e d as an in terpersona l d i f f i c u l t y or the s o c i a l worker's "personal problem." E i t h e r t y p i f i c a t i o n , regardless of the correctness , may inf luence future work experiences. Engestrom bel ieves teaching and learning are moving wi th in the zone of proximal development only when they aim at crea t ion of new c u l t u r a l - h i s t o r i c a l forms of " a c t i v i t y . " Such l earn ing i s ne i ther react ion nor a complex set of reac t ions , but the i n d i v i d u a l ' s ac t ive transformation of mater ia l objects and t h e i r 125 images (Rogers, 1983). A c t i v i t y i s always included i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i s f a c i l i t a t e d by communication. The needs and motives of an i n d i v i d u a l , the purposes, tasks and means of operat ion are the p r i n c i p a l components of a c t i v i t y (Vygotsky, 1978) . In other words, by frequently t a l k i n g about and evaluat ing c e r t a i n aspects of the work context (Box D of the model), group members cue one another about the importance and "meaning" of elements (Box A) i n the work environment. The stock of knowledge then becomes the basis for judgement dec is ions of a s s i m i l a t i o n or accommodation to new experience (cognit ive strategy - Box C ) . Such a t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n provides support for the model (Figure 5) , suggesting there i s a c i r c u l a r i n t e r a c t i o n which occurs as a r e s u l t of the c o l l e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n approach. Model l ing and i m i t a t i o n then can be considered as a form of cons truct iv i sm, as the i n d i v i d u a l produces and c o n t r o l s , from i n t e r n a l cues of f e e l i n g , what i s perceived through v i s u a l and auditory observation of external s t i m u l i . Inner and outer cues are coordinated to conform to the observations. I t i s i n t h i s sense that Schon's (1983) "re f l ec t i on - in -ac t ion" may develop. The c o l l e c t i v e inves t iga t ion process promoted the crea t ion and sharing of information about the "action process" (reconstruct ion of information according to c r i t e r i a judgements 126 of " c e r t a i n t y / v a l i d i t y " ) . I f the p r e v a i l i n g C . I . l i t e r a t u r e i s to be be l i eved , the "action product" (desired learning outcomes) may a lso be subsequently encouraged. The next sect ion w i l l d e t a i l the p o t e n t i a l impact of t h i s research upon the prac t i ce of adult i n s t r u c t i o n . Implications for Practice The next question to be addressed concerns the p r a c t i c a l u t i l i t y of the f ind ings . While remaining cognizant of the l i m i t a t i o n s regarding genera l izat ion of the f ind ings , t h i s sec t ion w i l l examine some of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r a c t i c e issues and areas of C . I . debate ra i sed by t h i s study. Discuss ion w i l l focus on the fo l lowing three areas: - i n s t r u c t i o n a l design, - l earner p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and - the r o l e of the f a c i l i t a t o r . Instructional Design The f a c i l i t a t o r begins i n s t r u c t i o n a l design by recogniz ing that concepts are s i t u a t i o n a l , open, frames of reference. These reference frames are i n d i v i d u a l l y constructed and minimally abstract i n the sense that they remain c lose to the l e a r n e r ' s 127 existing life-world. This begins to address a possible area of debate within the field regarding the foundation of C.I. as a non-formal adult education method. Production of knowledge begins with the practice situation, starting from reality perception and incorporating participant viewpoints. "This implies that the proper unit of developmentally effective, expansive instruction is not a discrete task, but a whole cycle of activity generation" (Engstrom, 1987, p. 188). To remain consistent with Figure 5, the design of a C.I. activity should first transform an individual's concern to find the general relationship of the problem within the system of objects, then model the problem to examine the question in a graphic or symbolic fashion which is then developed into a concrete problem having a method of solution. Such a perspective makes a direct connection to meaningful experiences or concerns; a important objective for the practice of adult education (Jarvis, 1987; Mezirow, 1981). Learner Participation Adult learners are seldom called upon to formulate their own goals in an educational event and thus are confronted with only a part of the problem, that of the solution. The "open problem" 128 used by c o l l e c t i v e inves t iga t ion includes i t s own j u s t i f i c a t i o n , prov id ing motivation and d i r e c t i o n . The re su l t s of t h i s study suggest the need to f i r s t create a motive for learners and then to d i s c lo se the p o s s i b i l i t y of reaching the goal through intermediate and "indirect" objec t ives . The goal i s for an i n d i v i d u a l to analyze the o r i g i n a t i n g condit ions of a problem, helping him or her to understand the r e l a t i o n s wi th in the subject f i e l d . For example, a communication problem between a s o c i a l worker and caregiver can be understood wi th in the general context of the c h i l d welfare system, with i t s mandated i n e q u a l i t i e s . The communication problem may be a s ingular manifestation of a "problematic system." A lack of communication about a c h i l d may be symptomatic of i n e f f e c t i v e administrat ive p o l i c y and procedure, l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s , or poss ib le c lass bias on the part of the worker ( in add i t ion to a simple misunderstanding). Problems need not be blamed on the inherent i n f e r i o r i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l , but rather on an unequal power s truc ture , encouraging empowerment through r e f l e c t i o n and transformation of t h e i r perspect ives . 129 The Role of the Facilitator The C . I . process and content i s determined by the p a r t i c i p a n t s and i t i s through the guidance of the f a c i l i t a t o r that the system of intermediate object ives i s s tructured by group i n t e r a c t i o n . In t h i s study, the f a c i l i t a t o r acted as a "bridge" between information c l iques within the group to st imulate the flow of new information through group process tasks . The homogeneity of the group aids i n the production of information through development of communication networks. The more s i m i l a r the group, the more l i k e l y that information d i f f u s i o n w i l l occur wi th in the p a r t i c i p a n t s with subsequent development of in terpersona l bonds (Rogers and K i n c a i d , 1983). The bonding may increase the " t r a i l a b i l i t y " of the information, as the p a r t i c i p a n t s are reassured about the value of the information and become more w i l l i n g to prac t i ce problem formulation s k i l l s . Using Figure 5, t h i s may promote the use of evaluations s k i l l s (Box B) and/or inf luence i n d i v i d u a l meaning (Box A ) . The nature of o r a l communication used by the f a c i l i t a t o r has a considerable e f fect on the transmission of the c u l t u r a l meaning-system (Scribner, 1984). Language r e f l e c t s c u l t u r e , so that the language used becomes one of the signs by which others locate people i n s o c i a l s t ruc ture . This ra i ses a f i n a l issue for cons iderat ion , that of c lass and cu l ture obstacles to 130 f a c i l i t a t o r communication with p a r t i c i p a n t s . In many c o l l e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i tuat ions the f a c i l i t a t o r may or ig inate i n a d i f f e r e n t c las s s tructure than the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The inequa l i ty of c las s may a f fec t the group process and formation of knowledge by "si lencing" those who f ee l i n f e r i o r . However, the f a c i l i t a t o r may be i n a p o s i t i o n to r a i s e the most pert inent questions due to access to information on the relevance and use of the c o l l e c t i v e inves t iga t ion methods and theory. In a d d i t i o n , d i f f u s i o n theory suggests that the people a c t i v e l y choose to adopt information, p a r t i c i p a t i n g by themselves i n the discovery of t h e i r contexts (Rogers and K i n c a i d , 1983). Through use of language to determine meaning-systems, p a r t i c i p a n t s can both perceive the c las s o r i g i n s and estimate the r e l i a b i l i t y of the f a c i l i t a t o r and the information gained. Such a b e l i e f remains committed to the b e l i e f i n the a b i l i t i e s and d ign i ty of adult l earners . In t h i s research, the l e v e l of communication between the C . I . group and the f a c i l i t a t o r seemed to r e l y on the way i n which the community saw the service that f a c i l i t a t o r could provide (posi t ive) and the degree of commitment to the a r t i c u l a t e d group goals (very h igh ) . The next sect ion concludes t h i s study and deals with future research that might be undertaken. 131 Future Research The f indings of t h i s study have shown that c o l l e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n af fects i n d i v i d u a l problem formulat ion. One i ssue not addressed d i r e c t l y i n t h i s study was the s p e c i f i c content of the pre-readings and d i d a c t i c l e c t u r e . As d i f f e r e n t mater ia l could af fec t l earn ing , i t would appear worthwhile to i d e n t i f y and tes t content-re lated corre la tes i n the future . In a s i m i l a r fashion, the s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l sequencing of the C . I . workshop was not addressed. I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to examine process re la ted v a r i a b l e s , to i d e n t i f y which var iab le s are af fected under what s p e c i f i c cond i t i on . This might be usefu l i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of contextual determinants. S p e c i f i c recommended improvements on t h i s study would be the use of another taxonomy for measures of q u a l i t y of response to avoid the lengthy time period and p o t e n t i a l d i f f i c u l t y i n analyz ing the data . Although interjudge agreement provided s u f f i c i e n t r e l i a b i l i t y i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n , a more objec t ive process for s tandardizat ion i s d e s i r a b l e . Does c o l l e c t i v e inves t iga t ion provide a good pred ic tor for problem formulation with in other non-formal adult education programs? That question remains to be seen. This study should be r e p l i c a t e d with in other occupations and across various 132 community contexts , perhaps invo lv ing larger numbers of p a r t i c i p a n t s . Occupational s k i l l s can be seen to be embedded i n : 1) the s o c i a l un i t that shapes an i n d i v i d u a l ' s react ions and 2) the i n d i v i d u a l ' s perception of s e l f . Learning occupational s k i l l s may be interconnected with learning about the organizat iona l cu l ture and personal growth. Further research i s needed regarding the process of r e f l e c t i o n and work. Another research issue re la tes to the "action-product" of the c o l l e c t i v e inves t iga t ion process. Af ter a problem has been defined and becomes instrumental , the problem so lv ing a c t i v i t i e s may a lso provide learning opportunit ies for the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The "problem solut ion" aspects which may conclude a c o l l e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n process would be worthy of further study. F i n a l l y , another research area re la tes to re tent ion of problem formulation s t ra teg i e s . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to examine the l o n g i t u d i n a l r e s u l t s by r e - t e s t i n g of the p a r t i c i p a n t s of t h i s study at s ix months a f ter t h e i r exposure to the experience to determine long term e f f ec t s . 133 REFERENCES Anderson, J . R. Cognit ive Psychology. New York: W. H. Freeman and C o . , 1985. A r g y r i s , C . Reasoning, Learning and A c t i o n . San Franc i sco : Jossey-Bass, 1982. 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Lave ( E d s . ) , Everyday Cognit ion: I ts Development i n S o c i a l Context. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univers i ty Press , 1984. Scr ibner , S. Thinking i n Ac t ion : Some C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of P r a c t i c a l Thought. In R. J . Sternberg and R. K. Wagner ( E d s . ) , P r a c t i c a l In te l l i gence . Cambridge, Mass. : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1986. Shr ivas tava , 0. & Tandon, R. P a r t i c i p a t o r y T r a i n i n g for Rural Development. New D e l h i : Society for P a r t i c i p a t o r y Research i n A s i a , 1982. Society for P a r t i c i p a t o r y Research i n A s i a . P a r t i c i p a t o r y Research: An Introduct ion. New D e l h i : Rajkamal E l e c t r i c Press , 1982. Society for P a r t i c i p a t o r y Research i n A s i a . Knowledge and S o c i a l Change. New D e l h i : Rajkanal E l e c t r i c Press , 1985. Swantz, M. L . Research as an Educational t o o l for Development. Convergence. 1975, 8, 44 - 53. Tandon, R. P a r t i c i p a t o r y Research i n the Empowerment of People. Convergence. 1981, XIV. (3), 18 - 25 Wertheimer, M. Productive Thinking . New York: Harper & Row, 1959. Wilensky, R. Meta-Planning: Representing and Using Knowledge About Planning i n Problem Solving and Natural Language Understanding. Cognit ive Science. 1981, 5, 197 - 283. Vygotsky, L . S. Mind In Society . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1978. 137 APPENDIX A STATEMENT OF INFORMED CONSENT 138 APPENDIX A STATEMENT OF INFORMED CONSENT I consent to participate in the research project, "An Analysis of Collective Investigation as an Adult Education Method", conducted by Lee Titterington, a graduate student in the Department of Adult Education, University of British Columbia I understand that the main purpose of the project is to examine the affect of collective investigation (an educational method emphasizing structured group discussions and exercises) on my ability to define problematic issues. I understand that the data will be compared to two other groups of caregivers; one group exposed to information about problem formulation through pre-readings and class-room type lecture, and one control group (no information is given). I understand that this will be measured by: 1) the number of items of information used, and, 2) the quality of the response. I also understand that I will be working with the other members of my Regional Council in an eight-member group; that our group will engage in approximately 14 hours of activity. My total participation time will be approximately 16 hours, including one hour for an interview prior to beginning, and one hour after the session is completed. I realize the interviews will be recorded for later analysis,, and I will receive a transcript for my own information. 139 Mr. T i t t e r i n g t o n has assured me that my i d e n t i t y w i l l remain c o n f i d e n t i a l (that my name w i l l not be used during analys i s of data and report ing of r e s u l t s ) . He has a lso offered to answer any questions I may have about the study and i t s procedures i n order to ensure my f u l l understanding. Mr. T i t t e r i n g t o n has a lso informed me that I may refuse to p a r t i c i p a t e i n that study, that my services may be withdrawn at any time for any reason I choose, and that such withdrawal w i l l i n no way be held against me. F i n a l l y , I acknowledge rece ipt of a copy of t h i s statement, i n c l u d i n g a l l attachments. Signature Date 140 STATEMENT OF INFORMED CONSENT I consent to participate in the research project, "An Analysis of Collective Investigation as an Adult Education Method," conducted by Lee Titterington, a graduate student in the Department of Education, University of British Columbia I understand that the main purpose of the project is to examine the affect of collective investigation (an educational method emphasizing structured group discussions and exercises) on my ability to define problematic issues. I understand that the data will be compared to two other groups of caregivers; one group will be exposed to information about problem formulation through pre-readings and a classroom type lecture, and one control group (no information is given). I understand that this will be measured by: 1) the number of items of information used, and, 2) the quality of the response. I also understand that I will be part of the audience with the other members of my Regional Council in an eight-member group, that our group will engage in an approximate three hour lecture after pre-readings have been distributed. I realize that the pre-readings may take about 8 - 11 hours to read and work through. My total participation time will be approximately 16 hours, including one hour for an interview prior to beginning, and one hour after the session is completed. I realize the interviews will be recorded for later analysis and I will receive a transcript for my own information. 141 Mr. T i t t e r i n g t o n has assured me that my i d e n t i t y w i l l remain c o n f i d e n t i a l (that my name w i l l not be used during ana lys i s of data and report ing of r e s u l t s ) . He has a lso offered to answer any questions I may have about the study and i t s procedures i n order to ensure my f u l l understanding. Mr. T i t t e r i n g t o n has a lso informed me that I may refuse to p a r t i c i p a t e i n that study, that my services may be withdrawn at any time for any reason I choose, and that such withdrawal w i l l i n no way be held against me. F i n a l l y , I acknowledge rece ipt of a copy of t h i s statement, i n c l u d i n g a l l attachments. Signature Date 142 STATEMENT OF INFORMED CONSENT I consent to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the research pro jec t , "An Analys i s of C o l l e c t i v e Invest igat ion as an Adult Education Method," conducted by Lee T i t t e r i n g t o n , a graduate student i n the Department of Education, Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia I understand that the main purpose of the project i s to examine the a f fec t of c o l l e c t i v e inves t iga t ion (an educational method emphasizing structured group discussions and exercises) on my a b i l i t y to define problematic i ssues . I understand that the data w i l l be compared to two other groups of careg ivers ; one group w i l l be exposed to information about problem formulation through pre-readings and a classroom type l e c t u r e , and one contro l group (no information i s g iven) . I understand that t h i s w i l l be measured by: 1) the number of items of information used, and, 2) the q u a l i t y of the response. I a lso understand that I w i l l not receive any information about the C . I . process from Mr. T i t t e r i n g t o n and w i l l act as part of the contro l group. I recognize that along with the other members of my Regional C o u n c i l , I w i l l engage i n two one- hour interviews . I a lso understand that upon i n v i t a t i o n from our C o u n c i l , B . C . F . F . P . A . s ta f f w i l l be ava i lab le to present the C . I . workshop. I r e a l i z e the interviews w i l l be recorded for l a t e r analys i s and I w i l l receive a t r a n s c r i p t for my own information. 143 Mr. T i t t e r i n g t o n has assured me that my i d e n t i t y w i l l remain c o n f i d e n t i a l (that my name w i l l not be used during analys i s of data and report ing of r e s u l t s ) . He has a lso of fered to answer any questions I may have about the study and i t s procedures i n order to ensure my f u l l understanding. Mr. T i t t e r i n g t o n has a lso informed me that I may refuse to p a r t i c i p a t e i n that study, that my services may be withdrawn at any time for any reason I choose, and that such withdrawal w i l l i n no way be held against me. F i n a l l y , I acknowledge rece ipt of a copy of t h i s statement, i n c l u d i n g a l l attachments. Signature Date 144 Appendix B, Case Examples (Pretest) Case example #1. John, a 16 year old foster child, was sexually abused. You were told of the abuse with placement and John has now been in your home for the last 3 months. He has become very depressed because he is unable to see his natural family and believes something is wrong with him because of the molestation. He has come to you to say that he lied - nothing at a l l happened to him and he wants to return to the natural family. Case situation #2. A six year old female Vietnamese foster child has been placed in your home for several years. On the first day of school, the child runs back to your home in tears. Because of the child's heritage, other school children had taunted and spat on her during recess. 145 Appendix B, Case Examples (Posttest) Case example #3. You have just had David, a 15 year old foster child in your home for the last two months. With placement, you were told that David was sexually abused but you were willing to attempt the placement. Last night your 10 year old daughter has come to you complaining about David. According to your daughter, David fondled her genitals and attempted intercourse. Your daughter was not hurt and although she is confused by what happened, she s t i l l likes David and does not want him removed from your home. Case example #4. A seven year old female foster child of Native and Black heritage has been in your home for years. In an argument with your natural child, the foster child is called several derogatory names because of their heritage. Although your own child has apologized, the foster child comes to you and says, "I hate being Indian". 146 Appendix C Response Items Specific Occupation Information 1) knowledge of Ministry Policies legalities, procedures, 2) social worker support - perceived commitment, communication, job knowledge, 3) technical knowledge (specific to child welfare) sexual abuse/neglect issues, placement concerns/cause, placement separation and grief of child, - peer relations to foster child (outside of home), physical housing and arrangement of home, - stress, parenting skills, (nurturance, care, support), house rules, - permanency planning for child, supervision of child, - counselling skills (listening, talking, etc.) - problem solving, 4) appropriate child development/behaviour information physical survival needs, past background, peer relationships, behaviours, values/attitudes, self-esteem, age, emotional issues, sibling issues, - understanding of self, - maturation stages, 147 5) o t h e r r e s o u r c e p r o f e s s i o n a l s ( r o l e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ) t e a c h e r s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , c l e r g y f a m i l y , n e i g h b o u r s , f r i e n d s , Knowledge o f S e l f 6) c o g n i z a n c e o f boundar i e s f o r s e l f and o t h e r s - j ob r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , job r e l a t i o n s h i p s , e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g , c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n , 7) p r i o r i n f o r m a t i o n r e a d i n g s , n o n - f o r m a l workshops, f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , 8) p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e s v a l u e s / b e l i e f s , i n t u i t i o n , 9) p e r s o n a l a b i l i t i e s - p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , c h i l d c a r e e x p e r i e n c e , empathy, - v i s u a l i z a t i o n , e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n , 10) r e l a t i o n s h i p o f c a r e g i v e r and f o s t e r c h i l d 11) r e l a t i o n s h i p o f c a r e g i v e r t o own f a m i l y Knowledge o f O t h e r s 12) B . C . F . F . P . A . p o l i c i e s p r o c e d u r e s , c o n f l i c t o f r e s o l u t i o n , r e c o g n i t i o n o f s t a t u s , 148 13) relationships to colleagues perceived colleagues' opinions about self, - colleagues work history, 14) perspective toward issue, societal concerns, 15) culture/heritage concerns race, nationality, 16) relationship of natural family and foster child, 17) relationship of care family and foster child, 149 Appendix D SOLO Taxonomy f o r Problem Formulation PRESTRUCTURAL avoids q u e s t i o n ( d e n i a l ) , r e p e a t s the q u e s t i o n , c l o s u r e based on t r a n s d u c t i o n , makes i r r e l e v a n t , p e r s o n a l l y based response no c o n s i s t e n t use of any problem f o r m u l a t i o n s t r a t e g y , l a . T r a n s i t i o n i n a d e q u a t e l y uses p o t e n t i a l l y r e l e v a n t datum, attempts t o answer the q u e s t i o n , but o n l y grasps a s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t . UNISTRUCTURAL - answer based on one r e l e v a n t aspect of i n f o r m a t i o n , - c o n c l u s i o n i s l i m i t e d and dogmatic, c o n s t r u c t s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n from incomplete data or based on one r e l e v a n t aspect of data, make c o n s i s t e n t use of one s t r a t e g y , r e g a r d l e s s of app r o p r i a t e n e s s t o p a r t i c u l a r problem, 2a. T r a n s i t i o n - attempt t o handle two r e l e v a n t data, but i s i n c o n s i s t e n t and r e s u l t s i n no f i r m c o n c l u s i o n being reached, MULTI-STRUCTURAL - s e v e r a l c o n s i s t e n t aspects of i n f o r m a t i o n a re s e l e c t e d , any i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s or c o n f l i c t s are i g n o r e d o r dis c o u n t e d , - no i n t e g r a t i o n of data, draw a f i r m c o n c l u s i o n based on s e v e r a l b a s i c aspects of s e l e c t e d i n f o r m a t i o n , use of s e v e r a l problem f o r m u l a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s , independently of each other, can g e n e r a l i z e i n terms of l i m i t e d o r a few independent asp e c t s , 150 3a. T r a n s i t i o n any i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s are noted, p a r t i a l i n t e g r a t i o n of data, s e v e r a l aspects of data are r e c o g n i z a b l e , but unable t o r e c o n c i l e the con n e c t i o n , 4. RELATIONAL most or a l l of i n f o r m a t i o n i s used, - i n t e g r a t i o n through r e l a t i n g concepts, r e c o n c i l e c o n f l i c t i n g hypotheses from i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n , data i s p l a c e d i n t o a system t h a t accounts f o r g i v e n c o n t e x t , induce the meaning of an hypothesis from c o n t e x t , development of c o n s i s t e n t problem f o r m u l a t i o n s t r a t e g y , 4a. T r a n s i t i o n a l - r e c o g n i z e s the r e l a t i v i t y of the e x p l a n a t i o n , but i n a d e q u a t e l y makes use of a b s t r a c t p r i n c i p l e s t h a t o v e r r i d e c o n t e x t , h i n t t h a t c l o s u r e or a f i r m c o n c l u s i o n i s not i n e v i t a b l e , 5. EXTENDED ABSTRACT e x p l a n a t i o n of phenomena (example as p a r t of a g r e a t e r whole), r e c o g n i t i o n the example gi v e n i s an i n s t a n c e of a more g e n e r a l case, - hypotheses about examples t h a t have not been g i v e n are e n t e r t a i n e d (symbolism and metaphors), c o n c l u s i o n s are h e l d open, deduce the meanings of developed a b s t r a c t hypotheses, r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of c o n f l i c t i n g hypotheses w i t h i n g e n e r a l terms, 151 Appendix E Class Intervals The scores for the production of information were measured on an i n t e r v a l scale of performance; low performance beyond one standard dev ia t ion from the mean (> -1 S . D . ) , medium performance wi th in -1 S.D. to +1 S.D. and high performance beyond one standard dev ia t ion from the mean (> +1 S . D . ) . Appendix E shows the c la s s i n t e r v a l s for production of information and the SOLO Taxonomy, based on low, medium and high performance. Class i n t e r v a l , observed and expected frequencies are d e t a i l e d . The information i s not presented as a prel iminary tes t for the other analyses , but rather to address the question of normality per se. Production of Information Class In terva l 0 E 0-E (0-E) 2 (0-E) E 140 up 5 3.6 1.4 1.96 .5 130-139 1 3.0 -2.0 4.0 1.3 120-129 1 1.9 - .9 .81 .4 110-119 100-109 2 4.1 -2.1 4.41 1.1 90 - 99 6 3.7 2.3 5.29 1.4 80 - 89 70 - 79 3 1.4 1.6 2.56 1.8 - 69 6 6.3 - .3 .09 .01 T o t a l 24 24.0 x 2 =6.5 This data does not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y (x 2=6.5, df=6, p<.05) from a normal-curve model i n which the mean i s 102.3 and s.d.=41. 152 SOLO Taxonomy Class Interval 0 E 0-E (O-E)2 (O-E) E 25 up 2 3 -1 1 .33 23-24.9 4 4.1 - .1 .01 .002 21-22.9 7 4.4 2.6 6.76 1.54 19-20.9 5 5.3 - .3 .09 .02 17-18.9 4 3.7 - .3 .09 .02 -16.9 2 3.6 -1.6 2.56 .7 Total 24 24.1 x2 =2.6 This data does not differ significantly from a normal-curve model in which the mean is 20.7 and S.D. is 3.3 ( x2 =2.6, df=3, p<.05). 153 Appendix F Separate group r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r ANCOVA t e s t s 1) Production of Information C . I . Lecture Control .88 .88 1.2 within-groups regression b=.99 2) Occupational Spec i f i c Information C . I . Lecture Control .97 .91 1.2 within-groups regression bw=1.05 3) Knowledge of Se l f C . I . Lecture Control .83 .60 .62 within-groups regression b=.68 4) Knowledge of Others C . I . Lecture Control .04 .74 .53 within-groups regression bw=.44 154 Problem Formulation C . I . Lecture Control .96 .90 1.2 within-groups regress ion bw=1.02 Contextual Var iables C . I . Lecture Control .54 .92 .72 within-groups regress ion bw=.73 Problem Solut ion C . I . Lecture Control - .32 .82 .63 within-groups regress ion bw=.38 SOLO C . I . Lecture Control .46 .46 1.2 within-groups regress ion bw=.71 155

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