UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The police and higher education Kilcup, Gerald Brenton 1983

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THE P O L I C E AND H I G H E R EDUCATION By GERALD BRENTON K I L C U P B.A., W i l f r e d L a u r i e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 6 T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S ( D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA M a r c h , 1 9 8 3 © G e r a l d B r e n t o n K i l c u p , 1 9 8 3 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 2-6 (3/81) i i A B S T R A C T During the past ten (10) years i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t , both w i t h i n p o l i c e c i r c l e s and the academic community, has been shown i n the development of e d u c a t i o n a l , t r a i n i n g and p r o f e s s i o n a l development programs d i r e c t e d at the p o l i c e s e r v i c e . T h i s t h e s i s e x p l o r e s the c u r r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between h igher e d u c a t i o n and the p o l i c e j examines the r a t i o n a l e f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s ; e v a l u a t e s c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h r e l e v a n t to the impact of upgrading s tandards f o r the p o l i c e and prov ides a c r i t i q u e of c u r r e n t thought and r e s e a r c h on the t o p i c . Three d i s t i n c t but r e l a t e d i s s u e s r e l e v a n t to e d u c a t i o n a l upgrading are e x p l o r e d . These i s sues i n v o l v e an examinat ion of the c u r r e n t r o l e of the p o l i c e , t h e i r a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l crime and the growing e x p e c t a t i o n s of the p u b l i c f o r more and b e t t e r s e r v i c e j the i n f l u e n c e of p o l i c e unionism i n s u p p o r t i n g or i n h i b i t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l upgrading and t h i r d l y , the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the concept of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m as i t r e l a t e s to the changing i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the p o l i c e f u n c t i o n w i t h i n s o c i e t y . i i i The r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d i n c l u d e s an assessment of the c o n t r i b u t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from s t u d i e s conducted i n both Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h i s r e s e a r c h i s r e l a t e d to the p r o l i f e r a t e e f f o r t s that e x i s t i n Canada aimed at improv ing the c a l i b r e of p o l i c e performance through h i g h e r r e c r u i t m e n t and s e l e c t i o n s t a n d a r d s , e d u c a t i o n a l requ irements and p r o f e s s i o n a l development programs. The i n a d e q u a c i e s of c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h to p r o v i d e meaningfu l data to e i t h e r support or d i r e c t these a c t i v i t i e s are d i s c u s s e d . The t h e s i s concludes wi th an e v a l u a t i o n of the c u r r e c t vacuum i n Canadian r e s e a r c h on t h i s t o p i c and proposes the development of r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s t h a t w i l l p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o the complex and impor tant r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v a r i a b l e s i m p a c t i n g on h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and p o l i c e per formance . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE I S T A T E M E N T O F T H E P R O B L E M 1 I I A R E V I E W O F T H E L I T E R A T U R E 11 I I I T H E R E L A T I O N S H I P B E T W E E N E D U C A T I O N A N D T R A I N I N G 3 2 I V T H E R O L E D F T H E P O L I C E 4 0 A N C I L L A R Y I S S U E S : (1) P O L I C E P R O F E S S I O N A L I S M ( 2 ) P O L I C E U N I O N I S M V C O N C L U S I O N S 61 V I B I B L I O G R A P H Y • 71 V With thanks t o Sarah Crowe, S t e p h a n i e Hennessy, I s a k s s o n and Genie MacNurtery whose a s s i s t a n c e has b e x t r e m e l y v a l u a b l e i n the development of t h i s paper. T H E P O L I C E AND H I G H E R E D U C A T I O N PAGE 1 S T A T E M E N T O F T H E P R O B L E M In the past ten y e a r s a q u i e t r e v o l u t i o n has occured i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n f o r the p o l i c e . The r e v o l u t i o n has i n v o l v e d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t and p r o l i f e r -a t i o n of c r i m i n o l o g y , c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e and p o l i c e s c i e n c e programs of v a r y i n g degrees of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and q u a l i t y on u n i v e r s i t y , community c o l l e g e and p o l i c e academy campuses a c r o s s the n a t i o n . The p o p u l a r i t y and support of these programs have a l l o w e d them to spread as a p a r t of the o v e r a l l growth, development and expan-s i o n of community c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s w i t h o u t c r i t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n . These programs have been su p p o r t e d by an i l l - d e f i n e d consensus t h a t e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g , no m a t t e r how p o o r l y d e f i n e d , i s a key to competence, e n l i g h t e n e d problem s o l v i n g and p r o f e s s i o n -a l i s m f o r the p o l i c e . R e c e n t l y however, t h e r e has been a mounting s u s p i c i o n t h a t the c o n c e p t u a l and s u b s t a n -t i v e c o n t e n t and q u a l i t y of many of these programs cannot meet the growing c o m p l e x i t y of the p o l i c e f u n c t i o n i n s o c i e t y . ' ' T H E P O L I C E AND H I G H E R E D U C A T I O N PAGE 2 I n f l u e n c e s from the U n i t e d S t a t e s j concerns w i t h r i s i n g crime r a t e s , i n c r e a s e d exposure to the problems f a c i n g the p o l i c e , c o u r t s and c o r r e c t i o n a l s e r v i c e s j changing p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s to crime and o f f e n d e r s and t h e e s c a l a t i n g c o s t s of a d m i n i s t e r i n g the c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e system have a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o a growing i n t e r e s t i n the e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g of the p o l i c e . While e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t some c o n s i d e r a t i o n has been g i v e n to d e f i n i n g d i f f e r e n t r o l e s f o r two y e a r community c o l l e g e programs, f o u r year u n i v e r s i t y programs and p r o f e s s i o n a l / t e c h n i c a l programs of p o l i c e c o l l e g e s and academies, i t i s c l e a r t h a t d i s t i n c t i o n s between "academic e d u c a t i o n " , " t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g " and " p r o f e s s i o n a l development" are p o o r l y c o n c e i v e d . The r a p i d growth of c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e / p o l i c e s c i e n c e programs combined w i t h the u n c e r t a i n t y about the n a t u r e of the p o l i c e t a s k , has p e r m i t t e d a l l c a t e g o r i e s of i n -s t i t u t i o n s t o e n t e r the f i e l d . The r e s u l t has been t o c o nfuse the p u r s u i t o f academic c r e d i b i l i t y w i t h the expendiency of t e c h n i c a l "how t o " c o u r s e s and programs. In a modest sense, the o r i e n t a t i o n towards the p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s of c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e , as an T H E P O L I C E AND H I G H E R E D U C A T I O N PAGE 3 academic d i s c i p l i n e w i t h i n the u n i v e r s i t y system, has f l a u n t e d the e s t a b l i s h e d o r d e r l y boundaries of t r a d i -t i o n a l academic d i s c i p l i n e s . In e f f e c t , the trend has r e l e g a t e d academic e n q u i r y to a scramble f o r the c r e d -i b i l i t y of pragmatism. As Newman s t a t e d i n 1979, " C r i m i n a l j u s t i c e programs have become academic e n t i t i e s b u i l t around a problem, not a d i s c i p l i n e . " 2 While the concerns expressed in j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s and commission r e p o r t s c en tre on the l a r g e r i s s u e s a f f e c t i n g the p o l i c e , most of the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed i d e n t i f i e d p o l i c e r e c r u i t i n g , educat ion and t r a i n i n g as pr imary v e h i c l e s f o r the improvement of the q u a l i t y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p o l i c e per formance . While a search of the l i t e r a t u r e has not r e v e a l e d any s i g n i f i c a n t e m p i r i c a l ev idence on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and p o l i c e performance the l i t e r a t u r e over -whelmingly supports the t h e s i s that h igher educat ion i s mandatory i f p o l i c i n g i s to adapt to the changing economic and s o c i a l demands of the f u t u r e . While t h i s p o s i t i o n can be and i s supported by r a t i o n a l and l o g i c a l argument ( i t seems to make sense) there i s an acute need to deve lop c r i t i c a l r e s e a r c h programs T H E P O L I C E AND H I G H E R E D U C A T I O N PAGE 4 t h a t c a n p r a g m a t i c a l l y e x a m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and p o l i c e p e r f o r m a n c e and p r o v i d e c r i t e r i a t h a t w i l l e n h a n c e t h e q u a l i t y o f r e c r u i t m e n t , s e l e c t i o n and t r a i n i n g d e c i s i o n s . At t h e r e c r u i t m e n t l e v e l i n C a n a d a t h e r e i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n among p o l i c e a g e n c i e s ( R . C . M . P . , P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e , M u n i c i p a l P o l i c e ) c o n c e r n i n g mimimum s t a n d a r d s . T h e h i g h s c h o o l d i p l o m a c o u p l e d w i t h p h y s i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s and s u p p o r t e d by s u b j e c t i v e t e s t s , i n t e r v i e w s and c h a r a c t e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s c o n s t i -t u t e s t h e s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e p r o c e s s i n g a p p l i c a n t s f o r e n t r y i n t o t h e p o l i c e s e r v i c e . W h i l e some p o l i c e d e p a r t m e n t s e x p r e s s g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t i n a t t r a c t i n g c a n d i d a t e s who p o s s e s s h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ( c o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y c r e d e n t i a l s ) no p o l i c e a g e n c y i n C a n a d a a c t i v e l y r e c r u i t s a t t h i s l e v e l . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e i n C a n a d a t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h e p o l i c e a t t h e e n t r y , o r r e c r u i t m e n t l e v e l a r e n o t r e q u i r e d b e y o n d t h e h i g h s c h o o l d i p l o m a and t h a t l i f e e x p e r i e n c e ( s e l d o m d e f i n e d ) i s more a c c e p t a b l e . T H E P O L I C E AND H I G H E R E D U C A T I O N PAGE 5 W h i l e t h i s phenomenon may be r e l a t e d t o t h e g e n e r a l s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c w i t h p o l i c i n g s e r v i c e s j a c c e p t a n c e o f a n a r r o w d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e p o l i c e f u n c t i o n by many s e n i o r p o l i c e m a n a g e r s j a n d / o r t o t h e s u b s t a n t i a l c o n f i d e n c e t h a t i s imbued t o p o s t -e m p l o y m e n t t r a i n i n g and p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t t h e r e i s t h e need f o r a c o m p a r a t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n , u s i n g m e a n i n g f u l p e r f o r m a n c e c r i t e r i a , t o t e s t t h e p e r f o r m -a n c e l e v e l s o f h i g h s c h o o l v e r s u s u n i v e r s i t y r e c r u i t e d p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . A t t h e t r a i n i n g l e v e l t h e r e i s l i t t l e t h a t d i f f e r -e n t i a t e s p o l i c e t r a i n i n g a c r o s s C a n a d a . A t b e s t t h e r e a r e t h r e e v a r i a t i o n s t h a t s e e b a s i c p o l i c e t r a i n i n g r a n g e f r o m a c o m p l e t e l y i s o l a t e d " i n - h o u s e " e n v i r o n m e n t t o one t h a t i s i n t e g r a t e d , t o a m o d e s t d e g r e e , w i t h " m a i n s t r e a m " e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The f i r s t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as t h e " I n - H o u s e T r a i n i n g C e n t r e " T h i s m o d e l i s r e f l e c t e d w i t h i n a number o f l a r g e m u n i c i p a l p o l i c e d e p a r t m e n t s and t h e R . C . F I . P . I t p l a c e s t h e r e c r u i t d i r e c t l y w i t h i n a t r a i n i n g e x p e r i e n c e d e v e l o p e d , c o n t r o l l e d and s t a f f e d T H E P O L I C E AND H I G H E R E D U C A T I O N PAGE 6 by s e n i o r members of the p o l i c e department and l o c a t e d w i t h i n p o l i c e owned f a c i l i t i e s . Programs range i n l eng th from s i x (6) weeks to t w e n t y - s i x (26) weeks and are p r i m a r i l y s t r u c t u r e d to p r o v i d e t r a i n i n g i n the t e c h n i c a l / l e g a l / p h y s i c a l aspects of p o l i c i n g . These b a s i c programs are u s u a l l y supported by a p e r i o d of p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g s u p e r v i s e d by s e n i o r cons tab le s of the department . The emphasis i s on h i s t o r i c a l and t r a d i t i o n a l methodo log i e s , s k i l l development and values p r a c t i c a l exper ience as a pr imary l e a r n i n g v e h i c l e . A second model i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as the " C e n t r a l i z e d P o l i c e T r a i n i n g C e n t r e " . T h i s model i s r e f l e c t e d w i t h i n a number of p r o v i n c e s in which p o l i c e t r a i n i n g s e r v i c e s are p r o v i d e d by a c e n t r a l p o l i c e academy to a number of m u n i c i p a l departments and p r o v i n c i a l f o r c e s . Programs range i n l ength from f i f t e e n (15) weeks to t h i r t y (30) weeks and are s t r u c t u r e d to p r o v i d e t r a i n i n g i n the t e c h n i c a l / l e g a l / p h y s i c a l aspects of p o l i c i n g . While these i n s t i t u t i o n s are p r i m a r i l y c o n t r o l l e d by the p o l i c e p r o f e s s i o n , i n t e r a c t i o n s by o ther agenc ies are of ten encouraged and o r c h e s t r a t e d . However, the use of i n s t r u c t o r s , guest T H E POLICE AND HIGHER E D U C A T I O N PAGE 7 l e c t u r e r s , and f a c u l t y from s u r r o u n d i n g a g e n c i e s , c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s i s u s u a l l y i n a support r o l e and i s o f ten r e s t r i c t e d to t o p i c s r e l a t e d to the p r a c t i c a l requirements of p o l i c i n g . The t h i r d Canadian v a r i a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as the "Integrated P o l i c e T r a i n i n g C e n t r e " . T h i s model i s r e f l e c t e d w i t h i n a number of p r o v i n c e s i n which p o l i c e t r a i n i n g s e r v i c e s are p r o v i d e d w i t h i n the p h y s i c a l environment of a community c o l l e g e , or as i s the case i n Quebec and B r i t i s h Columbia , a P r o v i n c i a l I n s t i t u t e . Programs range i n l eng th from t h i r t y (30) weeks to three (3) y e a r s . While the major c u r r i c u l u m focus c o n t i n u e s to belong to the t e c h n i c a l / l e g a l / p h y s i c a l cont inuum, some pr imary i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n t o c u r r i c u l u m from the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and humanit ies does take p l a c e . P o l i c e s tudents are l e s s i s o l a t e d p h y s i c a l l y and do have the o p p o r t u n i t y to exper ience i n t e l l e c t u a l e n q u i r y through an i n t e r a c t i o n with o ther s tudents in a l e s s r e s t r i c t i v e and more open env ironment . Subsequent to the b a s i c r e c r u i t programs the Canadian p o l i c e o f f i c e r has a v a i l a b l e to him a range of T H E P O L I C E AND H I G H E R E D U C A T I O N PAGE 8 advanced and s p e c i a l i s t t r a i n i n g programs that support h i s work ass ignments and c a r e e r development . C o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r the p o l i c e o f f i c e r w i t h i n the c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y system, whi l e modest ly supported w i t h i n some p o l i c e a g e n c i e s , does not r e c e i v e major economic or moral support e i t h e r from the p o l i c e p r o f e s s i o n or from the network of h igher e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The R . C . M . P . i s the l e a d e r i n t h i s f i e l d i n t h a t i t does p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n a l l eave to a s m a l l number of o f f i c e r s each y e a r . Most of the programs supported by t h i s e n t e r p r i s e are r e l a t e d more to the development of p r o f e s s i o n a l academic s k i l l s ( law, bus ines s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a c c o u n t i n g , s c i e n c e ) than to the s tudy of major p o l i c i n g i s s u e s . T h i s pragmat ic approach to the u t i l i z a t i o n of the r e s o u r c e s of i n s t i t u t i o n s of h igher educat ion to support t r a i n i n g and p r o f e s s i o n a l development programs has been argued to be more e f f e c t i v e i n s u p p o r t i n g p o l i c e performance than the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l requ irements at the en try l e v e l . However, t h i s argument i s u s u a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d by a p r e c o n c e i v e d d e f i n i t i o n of "what counts" as performance and by a THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 9 narrow d e f i n i t i o n of "what counts" as the p o l i c e f u n c t i o n . In most of the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed arguments f o r and a g a i n s t h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s degen-e r a t e i n t o debate c o n c e r n i n g these two i s s u e s , the prope r r o l e f o r p o l i c e w i t h i n a f r e e s o c i e t y ; and the impact of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n on p o l i c e performance. They u s u a l l y l e a d t o a s t a l e m a t e o r degenerate f u r t h e r t o l e n g t h y debates over t r i v i a . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l attempt to c l a r i f y the i s s u e s s u r r o u n d i n g the c o n t r o v e r s y between h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and the p o l i c e , address i n a s y s t e m a t i c f a s h i o n the i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s t h a t impact on the r e l a t i o n s h i p , and propose a r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g y to t e s t f o r the impact of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n on p o l i c e performance. T H E P O L I C E AND H I G H E R E D U C A T I O N PAGE 10 R E F E R E N C E S Lawrence W. Sherman, The Q u a l i t y of  P o l i c e E d u c a t i o n , The N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y Commission on Hi g h e r E d u c a t i o n (San F r a n c i s c o : J o s s e y - Ba s s , 1978). Donald 3. Newman, Pr o c e e d i n g s o f the  N a t i o n a l Symposium on Hi g h e r E d u c a t i o n f o r  P o l i c e O f f i c e r s (Washington: The P o l i c e F o u n d a t i o n , 1979), p . 54. THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 11 A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Ques t ions by some p o l i c e managers, academics , the media and concerned c i t i z e n s r e g a r d i n g the a b i l i t y of the p o l i c e to cope with the changing demands and growing c o m p l e x i t i e s of modern s o c i e t y cont inue to be a sked . In some j u r i s d i c t i o n s , the a b i l i t y and w i l l i n g -ness of s e n i o r p o l i c e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to examine t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s , improve the q u a l i t y of t h e i r p e r s o n n e l and to p r o v i d e informed l e a d e r s h i p are under c h a l l e n g e . M a r t i n , i n 1979, concluded that the p o l i c e community has not been keeping abreas t of c u r r e n t s o c i a l t rends and consequent ly w i l l be a "community soon to be so under-educated that i t s c a p a c i t y to meet more e x a c t i n g ta sks w i l l become more and more suspect by the p u b l i c . " ' ' From another p e r s p e c t i v e , Tenney, i n 1971, p r e s e n -ted a c r i t i c a l argument a g a i n s t h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n programs. While he was p r i m a r i l y c r i t i c i z i n g the c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e programs, he s t a t e s t h a t , "the c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l emphasis i s the r e s u l t of a wish on the p a r t of p o l i c e p r a c t i t i o n e r s to ga in power, s t a t u s , and THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 12 p r e s t i g e f o r t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e i m p r o v e -ment o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e l e v e l s " . 2 G r o s s , i n 1 9 7 3 , a l s o a r g u e d a g a i n s t a d v a n c e d e d u c a t i o n f o r an o c c u p a t i o n w h e r e m o s t r o u t i n e p o l i c e work d o e s n o t r e q u i r e a m i n d s h a r p e n e d by a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n . He b e l i e v e s t h a t s u c h men become f r u s t r a t e d b e c a u s e o f a l a c k o f m e n t a l s t i m u l a t i o n and s o o n l e a v e t h e r a n k s f o r more c h a l l e n g i n g p o s i t i o n s . 3 I n r e c e n t y e a r s , t h e s e a r g u -m e n t s h a v e b e e n c h a l l e n g e d on t h e b a s i s o f a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n t r i c a t e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f t h e p o l i c e f u n c t i o n . H o w e v e r , t h e s e b e l i e f s a r e s l o w t o d i e as t h e y e n j o y s u p p o r t f r o m a w i d e c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f p o l i c e p r a c t i t i o n e r s . W h i l e l i m i t e d s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n c o m p l e t e d on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f e d u c a t i o n on p e r f o r -mance l e v e l s , t h e r e h a s n o t b e e n a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t u d y on t h e i s s u e . 4 , 5 T e n n e y ' s 1971 r e p o r t i n c l u d e d a b r i e f s u r v e y o f 238 g r a d u a t e s f r o m v a r i o u s p o l i c e s c i e n c e c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e p r o g r a m s . W h i l e 93% r e s p o n d e d t h a t t h e i r e d u c a t i o n was w o r t h w h i l e , 62% f o u n d t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n had l i t t l e v a l u e i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n s a s p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . T e n n e y ' s c o n c l u s i o n was t h a t c o l l e g e THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 13 g r a d u a t e s i n l a w e n f o r c e m e n t a r e f r u s t r a t e d . 6 i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e w h e t h e r t h e f r u s t r a t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o t h e a b i l i t y t o u t i l i z e h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n t h e p o l i c e r o l e o r i f t h e f r u s t r a t i o n i s more r e l a t e d , as G r a n t a r g u e s , t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and f u n c t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f t h e p o l i c e a g e n c y i t s e l f . ' 7 W h i l e t h e r e has been a d r a m a t i c i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f p o l i c e o f f i c e r s r e t u r n i n g t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a t t h e c o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l i n r e c e n t y e a r s , t h e r e i s no h a r d e v i d e n c e t h a t t h i s has c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o p o l i c e p e r f o r m a n c e . ^ W e i n e r , i n 1 9 7 6 , n o t e d t h a t h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i s o f t e n p e r c e i v e d and more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o an e l e v a t i o n o f t h e s t a t u s o f p o l i c i n g f r o m an o c c u p a t i o n t o a p r o f e s -s i o n and t h a t t h i s c o n t r i b u t e s more t o t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e p o l i c e r o l e t h a n on e x p a n s i o n o r c h a n g e . 9 Some o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d a r g u e s t h a t h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n d o e s n o t a s s i s t t h e p o l i c e t o mee t t h e demands o f t h e i r r o l e s s i n c e t h e r e d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be a m a j o r s h i f t i n t h e p r i m a r y c r i m e c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e p o l i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n . ^ 0 In f a c t , i t i s a r g u e d t h a t t h e o r g a n -i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p o l i c e and t h e p r e v a i l i n g THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 14 crime c o n t r o l models negate any impact which h i g h e r educat ion may have . T e r r i s , i n 1967, noted that the q u e s t i o n o f what s o c i e t y i s a s k i n g the p o l i c e o f f i c e r to do i s a m b i g u o u s . ^ U n t i l a c i r c u m s c r i b e d r o l e f o r the p o l i c e i s e s t a b l i s h e d , i t w i l l be i m p o s s i b l e to educate them f o r a d e f i n i t i v e t a s k . Th i s i n p a r t , may p r o v i d e some e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the l a c k of de f ined goa ls f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i g h e r educat ion and the p o l i c e . Grant has argued tha t the e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c e r o l e of crime c o n t r o l and the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s of most p o l i c e departments have n u l l i f i e d any e f f e c t s which educat ion might have induced .^2 L i t t l e ev idence e x i s t s tha t p o l i c e o f f i c e r s wi th u n i v e r s i t y degrees w i l l make b e t t e r d e c i s i o n s than o f f i c e r s wi thout academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . ^ However, r e s e a r c h does e x i s t that supports a p o s i t i v e r e s u l t of h i g h e r educat ion f o r the p o l i c e . In 1975, Moore i n v o l v e d graduates of Mich igan S t a t e ' s c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e program i n another s t u d y . He d i s -covered t h a t of the p o l i c e g r a d u a t e s , the m a j o r i t y had remained w i t h i n the same area of employment and tha t over BB% responded t h a t t h e i r e d u c a t i o n had been a p o s i t i v e f a c t o r in t h e i r c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t . ^ THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 15 F i n e g a n , i n 1976, conducted a study of the B a l t i m o r e / M a r y l a n d p o l i c e department, comparing c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s w i t h n o n - c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s , and d i s c o v e r e d t h a t based on d e p a r t m e n t a l e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a , c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s were c o n s i s t e n t l y r a t e d h i g h e r than t h e i r n o n - c o l l e g e educated c o l l e a g u e s . 15 Sanderson, i n 1977, i n the Los Angeles P o l i c e Department, s u b s t a n t i a t e d Finegan's s t u d y . His study group was composed of 150 c o l l e g e educated o f f i c e r s who graduated from the Academy i n 1965. Of t h a t group, 117 were s t i l l w i t h the department i n 1975. Sanderson's r e s u l t i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o l l e g e educated p e r s o n n e l were b e t t e r i n the f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : 1. Those w i t h c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n s performed b e t t e r at the P o l i c e Academy. 2. S u s t a i n e d c o m p l a i n t s showed an i n v e r s e c o r r e l a -t i o n w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s a c h i e v e d . The s u s t a i n e d r a t e f o r g r a d u a t e s was 1/5 o f the non g r a d u a t e s . 3. Absenteeism was i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d to the amount of e d u c a t i o n . C o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s used 50% fewer s i c k days and had 50% fewer on-duty i n j u r i e s . 4. Of the o f f i c e r s who r e s i g n e d , 95% had no c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n . 5. There was a d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n between promotion and e d u c a t i o n . 1 ^ THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 16 The r e p o r t of the N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y Commission on Higher E d u c a t i o n f o r P o l i c e O f f i c e r s sponsored by the P o l i c e Foundat ion and of ten r e f e r r e d to as , the P o l i c e Foundat ion Report (Sherman, 1978) s t a t e s : "We b e l i e v e that the l i k e l i h o o d of change w i l l be i n c r e a s e d i f p o l i c e o f f i c e r s are educated i n a wide v a r i e t y of d i s c i p l i n e s and c u r r i c u l u m s , we t h e r e f o r e , oppose any attempt to e s t a b l i s h or r e q u i r e c o l l e g e educated o f f i c e r s to pursue any of three models of the s p e c i a l i z e d p o l i c e e d u c a t i o n program. A broad g e n e r a l educat ion should p r o v i d e j u s t as sound a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r p o l i c e work as m a j o r i n g in c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e (as e i t h e r a l i b e r a l a r t or p r o f e s s i o n a l educat ion) and perhaps an even b e t t e r b a s i s f o r i n s t i t u -t i o n a l change, s i n c e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n may do a b e t t e r job of t e a c h i n g s tudents to use knowledge to s o l v e prob lems . We encourage s tudents o r i e n t -ed to p o l i c e c a r e e r s to c o n s i d e r major ing i n t r a d i t i o n a l l i b e r a l a r t s and s c i e n c e d i s c i p l i n e s as w e l l as in o ther t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s . For the f u t u r e , however, most p o l i c e educat ion w i l l prob-ab ly be p r o v i d e d i n s p e c i a l i z e d , ' d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d ' programs".' ' ' 7 The b a s i c t h r u s t of the r e p o r t i s a r e j e c t i o n of the so c a l l e d " p a r a - p r o f e s s i o n a l " approach to c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e which i s deemed to be l i t t l e more than v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g l a r g e l y d u p l i c a t i n g the e f f o r t s of most p o l i c e academies . T h i s approach too o f t en dominates e x i s t i n g programs at Canadian community c o l l e g e s and, i n some c a s e s , i n c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e programs at u n i v e r s i t i e s . THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 17 In Canada, the B . C . P o l i c e Commission Task Force on P o l i c e T r a i n i n g (1974) i d e n t i f i e d three major ob-j e c t i v e s that should be produced from any e d u c a t i o n a l / t r a i n i n g program: (1) t e c h n i c a l competence! (2) a n o r m a l i z a t i o n o f p o l i c e e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g so that i t c o i n c i d e s with e x i s t i n g a d u l t educat ion o p p o r t u n i -t i e s and (3) c r u c i a l i n t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n , encouraging an atmosphere i n which the c o n s t a b l e i n t e r n a l i z e s b e l i e f s i n f a i r n e s s and j u s t i c e i n our system and l e a r n s to understand a t t i t u d e s and responses which w i l l be met on the j o b . 1 8 They argued that the t h i r d f a c t o r r e q u i r e d a view of the r o l e of the p o l i c e i n our s o c i e t y that d i f f e r e d from the t r a d i t i o n a l . The d i f f i c u l t y of p r e p a r i n g c o n s t a b l e s f o r t h i s new r o l e i s t h a t the task i s c o n s t a n t l y chang ing . Thus , "there i s a need to produce c o n s t a b l e s who do not view change wi th abhorance but who welcome the c h a l l e n g e o f chang-i n g demands i n an e v o l v i n g s o c i e t y . " ^ Subsequent to c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s , the Task Force conc luded wi th a recommendation t h a t p laced high emphasis on the t e c h n i c a l p r o f e s s i o n a l a spec t s o f p o l i c i n g , w h i l e c o n c u r r e n t l y i n s t i t u t i o n a l -THE P O L I C E AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 18 i z i n g t h i s model w i t h i n the broader c o n t e x t of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . One model t h a t has e v o l v e d , the J u s t i c e I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h C olumbia, has n o r m a l i z e d p o l i c e p r o f e s s i o n a l development and p o l i c e t r a i n i n g w i t h i n the spectrum of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . While t h i s has achieved two o b j e c t i v e s e s t a b l i s h e d by the Task F o r c e , i t has not a c h i e v e d the p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e of p r o v i d i n g the l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n background. A r e v i e w of o t h e r post secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada, p o l i c e academies, c o l l e g e s , community c o l l e g e s , u n i v e r s i t y c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e programs, and u n i v e r s i t y i n t e r n a l e d u c a t i o n programs, i n d i c a t e s t h a t the paradox between e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g has not been r e s o l v e d . 2 0 In most t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s as w e l l as a l l community c o l l e g e s , emphasis on the broad l i b e r a l academic d i s c i p l i n e s i s a secondary p r i o r i t y . I t may w e l l be t h a t t h i s dilemma cannot be r e s o l v e d w i t h i n one i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g . I t may be more a p p r o p r i a t e t o view the components of e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g and p r o f e s s i o n a l development as d i s t i n c t and d i s c r e e t u n i t s each w i t h i t s own i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 19 to make w i t h o u t the n e c e s s i t y of encompassing them w i t h i n any one p a r t i c u l a r e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n . A model t h a t w i l l be proposed l a t e r i n t h i s paper w i l l s uggest a continuum of development f o r p e r s o n n e l as they pursue c a r e e r s i n the p o l i c e s e r v i c e . Perhaps p o l i c e e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g should be viewed i n the c o n t e x t of o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s , such as law, m e d i c i n e , s o c i a l work and t e a c h i n g . These p r o f e s s i o n s have g e n e r a l l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l components t h a t are r e q u i r e d as p r e - r e q u i s i t e s f o r e n t r y i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n a l or t r a i n i n g component of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d i s c i p l i n e s . I t may be time t o c o n s i d e r a s i m i l a r model f o r the p o l i c e s e r v i c e . A minor adjustment t h a t might have a major impact, would be the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of minimum re q u i r e m e n t s f o r e n t r y i n t o the p o l i c e s e r v i c e at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . While t h i s would p r e s s u r e e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c e t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s t o become more adept at d e v e l o p i n g the p r o f e s s i o n a l / t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , i t c o u l d g a i n a p o p u l a t i o n of r e c r u i t s t h a t would b r i n g to the p o l i c i n g t a s k , however d e f i n e d , the i n g r e d i e n t s c o n s i d e r e d so i m p o r t a n t i n the THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 20 B r i t i s h Columbia Task Force r e p o r t . While t h i s sounds a t t r a c t i v e i n t h e o r y no hard evidence e x i s t s at t h i s time to support such a major s h i f t i n r e c r u i t i n g p r a c t i c e s . The l i t e r a t u r e on h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g i n Canada i s l i m i t e d , y et a number of w r i t e r s have been a d d r e s s i n g the i s s u e s f o r y e a r s . M a r i n , i n 1978, addressed the Canadian P o l i c e T r a i n e r s Conference, s t a t i n g : " . . . i f we accept t h a t p o l i c e o f f i c e r s a r e l e f t w i t h the e s s e n t i a l t a s k of s o c i a l c o n t r o l i n a p e r i o d of i n c r e a s i n g t u r m o i l , p r e s e r v a t i o n of our c o n s t i t u t i o n a l guarantees and e x e r c i s e broad d i s c r e t i o n , sometimes i n v o l v i n g l i f e and d e a t h , the need f o r p o l i c e o f f i c e r s who are i n t e l l i g e n t , a r t i c u l a t e , mature and knowledgeable about s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i s ap p a r e n t . This need i s not t h e r e f o r e about to be r e a l i z e d u n l e s s we up-grade the l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e d of c a n d i d a t e s and young r e c r u i t s . " 2 1 G r ant, w r i t i n g i n the C r i m i n a l Law Q u a r t e r l y , i d e n t i f i e s the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n a t t e m p t i n g t o p r o v i d e the substa n c e of a l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of e x i s t i n g t r a i n i n g modelsj THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 21 Research i n Canada and the U . S . A . throws doubt on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p o l i c e i n -s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g as a means of a f f e c t i n g a t t i t u d e s and p e r s p e c t i v e because , i n a c l o s e d s e t t i n g , l e a r n i n g takes p lace i n the sa fe and s u p p o r t i v e atmosphere of i n s i d e r s who tend to emphathize with and conf i rm p r e -j u d i c e s l e a r n e d on the j o b . T h i s seems to be t r u e no mat ter how broad and l i b e r a l the s u b s t a n t i v e content of the i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g p u r p o r t s to be.22 Grosman (1975) i n h i s examinat ion of r e c r u i t m e n t and t r a i n i n g programs i n Canada concluded t h a t : "Poor s e l e c t i o n procedures f o r r e c r u i t s , combined with low e d u c a t i o n a l requirements and a p r o m o t i o n - o n l y - f r o m - w i t h i n p o l i c y abets the p r o g r e s s i v e advancement of m e d i o c r i t y . I f p o l i c e departments cannot s u c c e s s f u l l y r e c r u i t and r e t a i n t h e i r share of i n t e l l i g e n t , educated persons , they cannot perform s e n s i t i v e p o l i c y - m a k i n g f u n c t i o n s 2 3 O ' R e i l l y , i n 1977, produced an i n t e n s i v e review of a l l community c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g programs i n e x i s t e n c e i n Canada. The purpose of the study was to c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n from Canadian Community C o l l e g e s and CEGEP's on t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n a l programs des igned f o r p o l i c e o f f i c e r s i n an e f f o r t to determine the r o l e of c o l l e g e programs with r e f e r e n c e to the requirements of p o l i c e t r a i n i n g . O ' R e i l l y ' s c o n c l u -s i o n s are both p e r c e p t i v e and germane to t h i s t o p i c t o d a y . THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 22 1) I n t h e l o n g r u n i t i s p r e f e r a b l e f o r a p o l i c e o f f i c e r t o work t o w a r d a u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e t h a n t o s p e n d an e q u a l amount o f t i m e a t a c o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e and non u n i v e r s i t y t r a n s f e r p r o g r a m . 2) The n a t u r e o f t h e d e g r e e p r o g r a m i s n o t i m p o r t -a n t . S t u d i e s i n C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e as t h e y p r e s e n t l y e x i s t a r e n o t p r o v e n t o be more u s e f u l t o p o l i c e o f f i c e r s t h a n o t h e r p r o g r a m s ( e . g . p h i l o s o p h y , l i t e r a t u r e ) j t h e p o l i c e com-m u n i t y as a w h o l e p r o b a b l y b e n e f i t s f r o m p o l i c e o f f i c e r s w i t h a w i d e v a r i e t y o f a c a d e m i c s k i l l s . 3) Many c o l l e g e s w i l l h a v e t o u n d e r g o a s u b s t a n -t i a l r e - o r i e n t a t i o n i f t h e y a r e t o c o n f o r m t o t h e g u i d e l i n e s . T h i s p r o c e s s may i n v o l v e t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f a new p h i l o s o p h y f o r t h e l a w e n f o r c e m e n t p r o g r a m s , a l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e c u r r i -c u l u m and r e s u l t a n t m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n e n t r a n c e s t a n d a r d s and f a c u l t y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . 2 4 The • ' R e i l l y s t u d y has b e e n s u b s t a n t i a t e d by much o f t h e work c o n d u c t e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o m m i s s i o n on H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n f o r P o l i c e O f f i c e r s e t . a l . , s u p p o r t s t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t a u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e , d i s c i p l i n e u n -s p e c i f i e d , s h o u l d be a m in imum r e q u i r e m e n t f o r e n t r y i n t o t h e p o l i c e s e r v i c e ) t h a t s e r v i n g p o l i c e members s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o e n r o l l on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s i n u n i v e r s i t i e s , o r , i f i n a c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y t r a n s f e r p r o g r a m , t h a t t h i s v e n t u r e s h o u l d be s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d b o t h by l o c a l p o l i c e c o m m i s s i o n s , b o a r d s and g o v e r n -m e n t s ) and t h a t p o l i c e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s s h o u l d THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 23 fo c u s the development of t h e i r e x p e r t i s e i n the r e f i n e d areas of t r a i n i n g and p r o f e s s i o n a l development. While the American r e p o r t r e c e i v e d c r i t i c i s m from the N a t i o n a l Symposium on Hi g h e r E d u c a t i o n f o r P o l i c e O f f i c e r s (1979)25 f o r i t s n e g a t i v e i n d i c t m e n t of the q u a l i t y of e x i s t i n g c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e programs w i t h i n c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , the recommendations r e g a r d -i n g the need f o r u n i v e r s i t y educated p o l i c e o f f i c e r s was not d i s p u t e d , nor was t h e r e any s i g n i f i c a n t e v i d e n c e produced t o sup p o r t the c l a i m . The symposium r e f l e c t e d p r i m a r i l y on concerns r e l a t i n g to how much e d u c a t i o n p o l i c e o f f i c e r s s h o u l d have; what k i n d of e d u c a t i o n i t sh o u l d bej how the p o l i c e s h o u l d get e d u c a t i o n and who sho u l d s e r v e as f a c u l t y f o r the programs. While the q u e s t i o n of the f o u r year degree was d i s p u t e d , the concerns c e n t e r e d on the p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of a c h i e v i n g the o b j e c t i v e . The major s i g n i f i c a n c e of the N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y Commission r e p o r t and the symposium i s t h a t academics and s e n i o r p o l i c e managers engaged i n a d i a l o g u e on i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and the p o l i c e . THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 24 One c o n t e n t i o n of t h i s paper i s tha t such a c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t on the par t of the p o l i c e p r o f e s -s i o n and the academic community i s a s e n s i b l e approach f o r the examinat ion of the i n t r a c a c i e s of the r e l a t i o n -s h i p of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and the p o l i c e . O ' R e i l l y phrases a sound e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y f o r members of the p o l i c e p r o f e s s i o n t h a t should be d i s c u s s e d in such a forum when he s t a t e s : "The i n t e n t of p o s t - s e c o n d a r y educat ion f o r p o l i c e o f f i c e r s i s to g i v e a b e t t e r unders tand-i n g of the nature of j u s t i c e and s o c i a l c o n t r o l i n s o c i e t y and the f u n c t i o n s of the law enforcement f u n c t i o n w i t h i n s o c i e t y . F u r t h e r , p o l i c e o f f i c e r s shou ld be i n t r o d u c e d to the s tudy of the c u l t u r e o f , and va lue system of our s o c i e t y , t o g e t h e r with an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the d i v e r s i t y of l e g i t i m a t e forms of e x p r e s s i o n of tha t c u l t u r e and of those va lue sys tems . Although these are the b a s i c s t u f f of l i f e , and l i v i n g i n a t h r i v i n g s o c i e t y , the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of these can be enhanced by a study of the l i b e r a l a r t s and the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s : l i t e r a -t u r e , l anguage , p h i l o s o p h y , p s y c h o l o g y , s o c i o l o g y , a n t h r o p o l o g y . Major f a c e t s of modern l i f e are a p p r o p r i a t e f i e l d s f o r s tudy f o r p o l i c e o f f i c e r s : p o l i t i c s . . . e n g i n g e e r i n g and s c i e n c e . . . a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . . . communica-t i o n s . . . The purpose of the c o l l e g e i s to open up the s tudent to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s that each o f these realms of knowledge can be brought to p o l i c e work i f they are exp lored i n d e p t h . " ^ 6 THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 25 While t h i s statement of i n t e n t i o n i s indeed a d m i r a b l e i t o n l y c o n t i n u e s t o add to the a l r e a d y burdensome r h e t o r i c i n s u p p o r t of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . I t does not o f f e r e v i d e n c e t h a t the investment of time and money produces s i g n i f i c a n t d i v i d e n d s i n the q u a l i t y of p o l i c e performance. E f f e c t i v e performance i s c o n t i n g e n t upon a good f i t between the t a s k s t o be performed, the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l approach to the group p e r f o r m i n g the t a s k and the knowledge, s k i l l and e x p e r i e n c e of the members of the group. What i s the a v a i l a b l e e v i d e n c e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and p o l i c e performance has provoked c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n o v e r the past few y e a r s . Do b e t t e r educated i n d i v i -d u a l s make b e t t e r p o l i c e o f f i c e r s than the l e s s e r educated? The q u e s t i o n i s complex and f a r from r e s o l u -t i o n . A s e a r c h o f the l i t e r t u r e r e v e a l s two dimensions t h a t e x a c e r b a t e the deb a t e . The most obvious r e l a t e s t o the i s s u e i d e n t i f i e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s paper. The l a c k of c l a r i t y and agreement on what c o n s t i t u t e s the substance of the b e h a v i o r s a p p r o p r i a t e t o the p o l i c e f u n c t i o n has made i t d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h c r i t e r i a THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 26 a p p r o p r i a t e t o the measurement of performance. The second, assuming e f f e c t i v e p o l i c e performance e x i s t s w i t h i n c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s , i n v o l v e s the se a r c h f o r c r i t e r i o n and p r e d i c t o r data a p p r o p r i a t e to the examin-a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and p o l i c e p e r f o r m a n c e . ^ C a s c i o , r e p o r t i n g i n the J o u r n a l of P o l i c e S c i e n c e and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , suggested t h a t h i g h e r l e v e l s of f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n tend t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h fewer i n j u r i e s , fewer d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n s , l e s s time o f f f o r s i c k n e s s and fewer p h y s i c a l f o r c e a l l e g a t i o n s by the p u b l i c . 2 8 While none of the performance r a t i n g d imensions were r e l a t e d to the amount of f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n possessed by the s u b j e c t s , C a s c i o a l s o suggested t h a t the observed c o r r e l a t i o n s c o u l d be due t o o t h e r v a r i a b l e s , eg. age, l e n g t h of s e r v i c e , n a t i v e i n t e l l i g e n c e or m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . In a l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d s t u d y , the C h i e f of P o l i c e of V e n t u r a , C a l i f o r n i a , r e p o r t e d on the o p e r a t i o n of h i s f o r c e which d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s t h r e e years had c o n t a i n e d a h i g h e r p ercentage of u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e s . THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 27 In 1970, 34 o f the 44 patrolmen had B a c h e l o r ' s or Master's d e g r e e s . Of the r e m a i n i n g t e n , s i x had two year s at a c o l l e g e and were working towards a f o u r year B a c h e l o r ' s degree. The C h i e f r e p o r t e d t h a t the p u b l i c gave c r e d i t t o the c o l l e g e educated policemen f o r more courteo u s t r e a t m e n t , and f o r the s u c c e s s f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of c r i m e , and these i n t u r n he s a i d , i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c c o n f i d e n c e and r e s p e c t f o r the p o l i c e f o r c e . He f u r t h e r noted t h a t the o f f i c e r s w i t h degrees were more mature and had g r e a t e r s e l f d i s c i p l i n e than o t h e r p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . He found t h a t they were a b l e to r i s e above the i n s u l t s o f t e n aimed at the p o l i c e , and d i d not o v e r e a c t under s t r a i n as much as d i d t h e i r l e s s educated c o l l e a g u e s . M o t i v a t i o n of the graduates seemed s t r o n g e r than t h a t of o t h e r members, and they seemed more d e d i c a t e d t o s e r v i n g the community.29 In summary, the ba l a n c e of the l i t e r a t u r e on t h i s s u b j e c t i n d i c a t e s t h a t p o l i c e performance, assuming c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s , i s m u l t i f a c e t e d and t h a t t h e r e are a m u l t i p l i c i t y of f a c t o r s t h a t impact on performance. The problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o n t r o l l i n g i n t e r v e n i n g or extraneous v a r i a b l e s i n o r d e r t o i s o l a t e the f u l l range THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION P A G E 2 8 of the e f f e c t s of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n on the p o l i c e suggest t h a t a l l f i n d i n g s s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d c a u t i o u s l y . B a s i c e r r o r s w i t h i n e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h , the co n t i n u e d under e s t i m a t i o n of the c o m p l e x i t i e s of the p o l i c e t a s k and the assumptions made r e l a t e d t o the measurement of e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e s i n d i c a t e t h a t f u r t h e r s e r i o u s r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d . T h i s i s s u e i s f u r t h e r compounded by another dimension t h a t haunts c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s . The use o f the terms " h i g h e r education"-, " t r a i n i n g " and " p r o f e s s i o n a l development" are at times used as i f they were i n t e r - c h a n g e a b l e and were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of s i m i l a r s u b s t a n t i v e and p r o c e d u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . The next s e c t i o n of t h i s paper w i l l e x p l o r e t h i s d i m e n s i o n . THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 29 REFERENCES M . A . M a r t i n , "Issues i n Higher E d u c a t i o n f o r Canadian P o l i c e " , Canadian  P o l i c e C o l l e g e J o u r n a l , V o l . 3, No. 3, 1979. p . 18. C.W. Tenney, "Higher E d u c a t i o n Programs i n Law Enforcement and C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e " , (Washington: U . S . Government P r i t i n g O f f i c e , 1971) . p . 8. Solomon G r o s s , "Higher E d u c a t i o n and the P o l i c e : Is there a Need f o r a C l o s e r Look?" J o u r n a l of P o l i c e Sc i ence and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , V o l . 1, No. 4, 1973, pp . 447-483. John K. H a d z i k , "Col l ege E d u c a t i o n f o r P o l i c e : Problems i n Measuring Component and Extraneous V a r i a b l e s " , J o u r n a l of C r i m i n a l  J u s t i c e , V o l . 6, 1978, pp . 69-81 . Roy R. Roberg, "An A n a l y s i s of the R e l a t i o n s h i p s Among Higher E d u c a t i o n , B e l i e f Systems, and Job Performance o f P a t r o l O f f i c e r s " , J o u r n a l of P o l i c e Sc ience and  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , V o l . 6, No. 3, 1978, pp . 336-344. Tenney, p . 91 . A . G r a n t , The P o l i c e - A P o l i c y Paper (Ottawa: The Law Reform Commission of Canada, 1980), p . 23 . Donald M. B a r r y , "A Survey of Student and Agency Views on Higher E d u c a t i o n i n C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e " , J o u r n a l of P o l i c e Sc i ence  and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , V o l . 6, No. 3, 1978, pp . 345-354. N . L . Weiner , "The Educated Po l i ceman" , J o u r n a l of P o l i c e Sc i ence and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , No. 4, 1976. Grosman, pp . 31-34 . THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 30 REFERENCES - Continued 11. Bruce J . T e r r i s , "The Role of the P o l i c e " , Annals of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e , 1967, r e p o r t e d i n . C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e i n Canada, p. 74. 12. G r a n t . 13. Mark Z e l i g , " C o l l e g e E d u c a t i o n and P o l i c e Performance: A C r i t i q u e of Roberg", J o u r n a l of P o l i c e S c i e n c e and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , V o l . 8, No. 1, 1980. pp. 98-100. 14. Merlyn D. Moore, "The F i e l d of Academic - A Message", P o l i c e C h i e f , V o l . 42, No. 8, 1975, pp. 66-69. 15. J.C. F i n n i g a n , "A Study of R e l a t i o n s h i p s between C o l l e g e E d u c a t i o n and P o l i c e Performance i n B a l t i m o r e , M a r y l and", The P o l i c e C h i e f , V o l . 43, No. 8, 1976, pp. 60-62. 16. B.E. Sanderson, " P o l i c e O f f i c e r s : The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f C o l l e g e E d u c a t i o n t o Job Performance", The P o l i c e C h i e f , August, 1977, p. 62. 17. Sherman, The Q u a l i t y of P o l i c e  E d u c a t i o n , p. 86. 18. R. S t e w a r t , A. Grant & D. Dutton, " B r i t i s h Columbia P o l i c e Commission, Task  Force Report on P o l i c e T r a i n i n g " , Vancouver: The B.C. P o l i c e Commission, 1975. p. 18. 19. I b i d , p. 19. 20. R.R. O ' R e i l l y , Post-Secondary E d u c a t i o n f o r Canadian P o l i c e O f f i c e r s : The Community C o l l e g e " , (Ottawa: The Canadian P o l i c e C o l l e g e , 1977) pp. 1-8. 21. Rene J . M a r i n , " P r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of the Canadian P o l i c e m a n - Through E d u c a t i o n and T r a i n i n g - Myth or R e a l i t y " , An address to the F i f t h Annual Canadian P o l i c e T r a i n e r s ' C o n f e r ence, T o r o n t o , 1978, p. 12. THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 31 REFERENCES - Continued 2 2 . A l a n G r a n t , "Some R e f l e c t i o n s on P o l i c e E d u c a t i o n and T r a i n i n g i n C a n a d a " , C r i m i n a l Law Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 1 8 , 1 9 7 6 , p . 2 2 0 . 2 3 . G r o s m a n , p . 5 9 . 2 4 . O ' R e i l l y , p . 7 1 . 2 5 . N a t i o n a l S y m p o s i u m on H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n f o r P o l i c e O f f i c e r s . 2 6 . O ' R e i l l y , p . 6 5 . 2 7 . F i n n i g a n , p p . 6 0 - 6 2 . 2 8 . Wayne F . C a s c i o , " F o r m a n E d u c a t i o n and P o l i c e O f f i c e r P e r f o r m a n c e " , J o u r n a l o f P o l i c e S c i e n c e and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , V o l . 5 , N o . 1 , 1 9 7 7 , p p . 8 9 - 9 6 . 2 9 . D a v i d P . G e a r y , " C o l l e g e E d u c a t e d Cops T h r e e Y e a r s L a t e r " , The P o l i c e C h i e f , A u g u s t , 1 9 7 0 , p p . 5 9 - 6 2 . THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 32 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EDUCATION AND TRAINING The r e l a t i o n s h i p between e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g as a p p l i e d to the p o l i c e s e r v i c e i s c o n f u s e d . A r e p o r t p u b l i s h e d i n 1972 by the S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l of Canada s t a t e s : " T r a i n i n g of ( p o l i c e ) r e c r u i t s s hould be of a ' g e n e r a l i s t ' n a t u r e , w i t h subsequent educa-t i o n based on an i n t e g r a t e d c a r e e r d e v e l o p -ment p l a n which r e f l e c t s j o b needs and i n d i v i d u a l a s p i r a t i o n s and a b i l i t i e s . In f u t u r e , t r a i n i n g c u r r i c u l a w i l l emphasize the broad s o c i a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o p o l i c i n g and the c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e system and a l s o d e v e l o p e d u c a t i o n a l programs based on ' l e a r n i n g by d o i n g ' t e c h n i q u e s . " ! Given the c o m p l e x i t y and importance of the p o l i c e t a s k i n our s o c i e t y , c l a r i f i c a t i o n and a r t i c u l a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g and pro-f e s s i o n a l development i s mandatory. While i t may be t r u e , as Bennis has s t a t e d : "Theory w i t h o u t p r a c t i c e becomes a s c h o l -a s t i c , a v i d bunch of nonsense, and p r a c t i c e w i t h o u t any k i n d of u n d e r l y i n g d i s c i p l i n e can e a s i l y become a dumb a c t . " 2 There i s a need to address i n a s y s t e m a t i c and s u s t a i n -ed way the t h r e s h o l d q u e s t i o n s about the n a t u r e and purpose of e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g f o r the p o l i c e . THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 33 There i s l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the p o l i c e com-munity i n Canada i s engaged i n an o r g a n i z e d or system-a t i c e x a m i n a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the p o l i c e to the e x i s t i n g t r a i n i n g and p r o f e s s i o n a l development programs. Debate i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s over the p e r c e i v e d dichotomy between " p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g " and " l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n " has r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n over the y e a r s . In 1978 the N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y Commission on Hi g h e r E d u c a t i o n f o r P o l i c e O f f i c e r s i n t h e i r p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t , "The Q u a l i t y of P o l i c e E d u c a t i o n " , f a v o u r e d a " l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n " model. E i g h t of t h e i r recommenda-t i o n s are worthy of c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r Canadian p o l i c i n g . Every p o l i c e o f f i c e r s h o u l d have a b a c c a l a u r e a t e degree Higher e d u c a t i o n f o r p o l i c e o f f i c e r s s h o u l d f o s t e r b a s i c changes i n p o l i c i n g P o l i c e a g e n c i e s s h o u l d p l a c e more emphasis on r e c r u i t i n g the educated and l e s s on e d u c a t i n g the r e c r u i t e d C o l l e g e programs i n p o l i c i n g and c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e s h o u l d p r o v i d e a broad l i b e r a l a r t s background THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 34 . S p e c i a l i z e d c o u r s e s i n p o l i c i n g and c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e s h o u l d c o n s t i t u t e no more t h a n one f o u r t h o f t h e t o t a l c o u r s e work i n any p o l i c e e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m . . N a r r o w c o u r s e s on p o l i c e t a s k s s h o u l d be r e p l a c e d by a n a l y t i c and c o n c e p t u a l c o u r s e s on i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o t h o s e t a s k s . C o u r s e s on t h e l e g a l , e t h i c a l and s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e u s e o f d e a d l y f o r c e , f o r i n s t a n c e , s h o u l d r e p l a c e c o u r s e s on how t o u s e f i r e a r m s . . C o l l e g e s s h o u l d g r a n t no c r e d i t f o r c o u r s e s t a k e n a t p o l i c e a g e n c i e s and s h o u l d be c a u t i o u s a b o u t g i v i n g c r e d i t f o r l i f e e x p e r i e n c e . . C o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e s s h o u l d p h a s e o u t t h e i r t e r m i n a l t w o - y e a r p r o g r a m s i n p o l i c e e d u c a t i o n , and p r o v i s i o n s s h o u l d be made f o r a r t i c u l a t i o n b e t w e e n t w o - and f o u r - y e a r p r o g r a m s . 3 W h i l e t h i s r e p o r t d r e w c r i t i c i s m a t a N a t i o n a l S y m p o s i u m on H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n f o r P o l i c e O f f i c e r s ^ and t e n d e d t o p o l a r i z e t h e d e b a t e i n t h a t c o u n t r y , i t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r t h i s d i s c u s s i o n as f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f t h e l a c k o f e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e r e i s a d y n a m i c and i m p o r t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g and p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . I t i s one c o n t e n t i o n o f THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 35 t h i s paper that in theory there should be a complemen-t a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p among the three and tha t they should be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a r a t i o n a l continuum tha t i s based on an i n depth unders tand ing of the p o l i c e f u n c t i o n and an a p p r e c i a t i o n of v a r i e t y of p o l i c i n g behaviours that are p o s s i b l e . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s should be measurable i f the proper ins truments are d e v e l o p e d . There i s a d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e between t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n . While the c a u t i o n o f A l f r e d North Whitehead i s a p p r o p r i a t e , t h a t : "There can be no adequate t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n which i s not l i b e r a l and no l i b e r a l educat ion which i s not t e c h n i c a l " , 5 there i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n the goals and o b j e c t i v e s of a l i b e r a l educat ion and those of t e c h n i c a l or p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g . T r a i n i n g i n v o l v e s the a b s o r p -t i o n of p r a c t i c a l and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s r e l a t e d to the performance of c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s . The o b j e c t i v e s are to p r o v i d e i n d i v i d u a l s with "how to" knowledge. These s k i l l s can be a p p r o p r i a t e l y t r a n s m i t -ted w i t h i n p r o f e s s i o n a l p o l i c e academies . L i b e r a l T H E P O L I C E AND H I G H E R E D U C A T I O N PAGE 36 e d u c a t i o n i s much more complex. I t i n v o l v e s a concern w i t h t h e o r y and p h i l o s o p h y . I t i s more concerned w i t h the u l t i m a t e q u e s t i o n s o f "why?". The e x p e c t a t i o n s from f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n c e n t e r on the s e l e c t i o n / r e j e c t i o n o r i e n t a t i o n to c o n c e p t s , t h e o r i e s and p h i l o s o p h i e s s u r r o u n d i n g a body of knowledge and s h o u l d be e t h i c a l l y n e u t r a l . I t i s apparent t h a t these d i s t i n c t i o n s have been b l u r r e d i n approaches to the development of programs f o r the p o l i c e s e r v i c e . In many i n s t a n c e s e d u c a t i o n has been reduced to an a n c i l l a r y "add on" to e x i s t i n g t r a i n i n g programs. As a whole, the p o l i c e s e r v i c e has not taken the p o s i t i o n t h a t i t i s e s s e n t i a l to have educated p o l i c e o f f i c e r s , or even t h a t h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i s r e l e v a n t to p o l i c i n g problems. While s u p p o r t f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l / t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g has been e n t h u s i a s t i -c a l l y endorsed, the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n -a l s t a n d a r d s at the e n t r y l e v e l , or as a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r i n t e r n a l p r o m o t i o n , has r e c e i v e d f o r c e f u l r e s i s t -ance from p o l i c e management and p o l i c e unions.6 I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough most of the i n i t i a t i v e s f o r h i g h e r T H E P O L I C E AND H I G H E R E D U C A T I O N PAGE 37 e d u c a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s h a v e , and t o o a l a r g e e x t e n t c o n t i n u e t o , come f r o m s o u r c e s o u t s i d e t h e p o l i c e s e r v i c e . Once a g a i n c o n f u s i o n o v e r wha t t h e p o l i c e d o , w h a t t h e y s h o u l d do and wha t t h e y a r e c a p a b l e o f d o i n g e x a s c e r b a t e s t h e i s s u e s . One a r g u m e n t r a i s e d a g a i n s t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l and t r a i n i n g s t a n d a r d s i s t h a t s u c h a move w o u l d r e d u c e t h e number o f a p p l i c a n t s t o t h e p o l i c e s e r v i c e . 7 G r o s m a n , h o w e v e r a r g u e s t h a t i n f a c t s u c h a move w o u l d h a v e t h e o v e r a l l e f f e c t o f a t t r a c t i n g more and b e t t e r c a n d i d a t e s as t h e p r e s t i g e and p r o f e s s -i o n a l s t a t u s o f t h e p o l i c e s e r v i c e i m p r o v e s . " A n y move t h a t i n c r e a s e s p o l i c e p r e s t i g e i n t h e c o m m u n i t y by t h e p r o g e s s i o n t o b e t t e r s t a n d a r d s w i l l i n e v i t a b l y l e a d t o r e c r u i t m e n t f r o m a b r o a d e r s p e c t r u m o f i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e n o t now l i k e l y t o be a t t r a c t e d t o p o l i c i n g . As e d u c a t e d r e c r u i t s a r e a t t r a c t e d and t h e p o l i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a d j u s t e d i n o r d e r t o make t h e i r wo rk c h a l l e n g i n g and r e w a r d i n g , an o v e r a l l i m p r o v e m e n t o f t h e n a t i o n s ' p o l i c e d e p a r t m e n t s w i l l r e s u l t . " ^ M a k i n g t h e u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e a r e q u i r e m e n t a t t h e r e c r u i t m e n t and s e l e c t i o n l e v e l o f a d m i s s i o n t o p o l i c e w o r k s h o u l d n o t be m i s u n d e r s t o o d . B i t t n e r o f f e r s a w i s e c a v e a t t o t h e a b o v e when he s t a t e d : THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 38 "four years of a l i b e r a l a r t s educat ion of any k ind w i l l not prepare a young man f o r p o l i c e work. I t would be a b s o l u t e l y p e r n i c i o u s to encourage the b e l i e f , e i t h e r i n the minds of new r e c r u i t s or of e x i s t i n g p e r -s o n n e l , that a B . A . i n s o c i o l o g y or p s y c h o l -ogy equips a person to do peace keeping or crime c o n t r o l . . . what the r e c r u i t m e n t of c o l l e g e graduates w i l l a c c o m p l i s h , however, i s to impel the o c c u p a t i o n i n the d i r e c t i o n of becoming a s o c i a l mechanism f u n c t i o n i n g at the l e v e l of c o m p l e x i t y , s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y commensurate with the g r a v i t y of the problems i t i s meant to meet."^ A g a i n , the c l o s e s t we can get to s e a r c h i n g out an e m p i r i c a l l i n k between h igher educat ion and performance ends with a d i s c l a i m e r and another statement of expec t -a t i o n . No evidence i s o f f e r e d . No proof put f o r w a r d . The appeal to "common sense", whi le a d m i r a b l e , and p o s s i b l y c o r r e c t , must be the s u b j e c t of a n a l y t i c a l r e s e a r c h . In order to s t r u c t u r e the framework of an i n v e s t i -g a t i v e r e s e a r c h p r o p o s a l i t i s now necessary to address the very complex q u e s t i o n of the r o l e of the p o l i c e w i t h i n modern s o c i e t y . THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 39 REFERENCES S o l i c i t o r Genera l of Canada, "The P o l i c e F u n c t i o n in our Changing S o c i e t y : The S e l e c t i o n and T r a i n i n g of the Po l i ceman" , (Ottawa: M i n i s t r y of the S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l , 1972), p . B.-Warren B e n n i s , Summary remarks , "Proceedings of the N a t i o n a l Symposium on Higher E d u c a t i o n f o r P o l i c e O f f i c e r s , " (Washington: The P o l i c e F o u n d a t i o n , 1979) p . 99. Sherman, pp . 1-17. The P o l i c e F o u n d a t i o n , "Proceedings of the N a t i o n a l Symposium on Higher E d u c a t i o n f o r the P o l i c e " , (Washington: The P o l i c e F o u n d a t i o n , 1979) . A l f r e d North Whitehead, The Aims of  E d u c a t i o n , 1929, as quoted by , Thomas A . Reppet to , "Higher E d u c a t i o n f o r P o l i c e O f f i c e r s " , F . B . I . Law Enforcement B u l l e t i n , J a n u a r y , 1980, p . 21 . D a n i e l J . B e l l , "The P o l i c e Role and Higher E d u c a t i o n " , J o u r n a l of P o l i c e Sc i ence  and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , V o l 7, No. 4, p . 468. M i l t o n A . Loewenthal , "The C r i s i s i n C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e E d u c a t i o n : C o n s t r u c t i v e R e a p p r a i s a l or I n t e l l e c t u a l Masochism", C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e Review, V o l . 5, No. 1, S p r i n g , 1980, p . 27 . B r i a n A . Grosman, P o l i c e Command - D e c i s i o n s and D i s c r e t i o n , (Toronto : M a c M i l l a n C o . , 1975), p . 76 Egon B r i t t n e r , The F u n c t i o n s of the  P o l i c e i n Modern S o c i e t y , (New York: Jason Aronson , 1975), p . 86. THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 40 THE ROLE OF THE POLICE The r o l e o f t h e p o l i c e i n c o n t e m p o r a r y s o c i e t y i s n o t c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , d e v e l o p i n g as i t has i n t h e m i s -p e r c e p t i o n t h a t t h e p o l i c e a r e t h e s o l e g u a r d i a n s o f l a w . T h i s , c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e i d e a t h a t t h e s a f e t y and s e c u r i t y o f t h e p u b l i c a r e d e p e n d e n t upon t h e p o l i c e and t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a v o i d s t h e p r i m a r y i s s u e and d i s t o r t s t h e m y r i a d f u n c t i o n s t h a t t h e p o l i c e d a i l y p e r f o r m . The t r a d i t i o n a l e m p h a s i s on l a w and o r d e r a s t h e m a j o r p o l i c e a c t i v i t y r e d u c e s s o c i e t y ' s a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y and q u a n t i f y s e r v i c e n e e d s t h a t f a l l a p p r o -p r i a t e l y i n t h e p o l i c e r e a l m o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T r a d i t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s d e f i n e t h e p o l i c e as a l a w e n f o r c e m e n t a g e n c y . I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t t h e p o l i c e a l s o a r e i n g r a i n e d w i t h t h i s l i m i t e d p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e i r r o l e , s i n c e t h e y p e r f o r m more s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s t h a n l a w e n f o r c e m e n t f u n c t i o n s . A c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f r e s e a r c h i s d e v e l o p i n g t h a t e x a m i n e s t h e c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s o f t h e p o l i c e , 1 , 2 , 3 c h a l l e n g e s t h e i r u s e o f r e s o u r c e s 4 , 5 f 6 a n c j q u e s t i o n s t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i r c u r r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s . ^ , B , 9 W h i l e i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t c h a n g e i s THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 41 both d e s i r a b l e and n e c e s s a r y , the ques t ions remain) What do they change and how do they change? Change f o r the sake of change i s o f ten c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v e . I n t e l l i g e n t l y o r c h e s t r a t e d changes i n the r o l e and f u n c t i o n s of the p o l i c e must be based on a conceptua l unders tand ing of where p o l i c i n g i s , how i t i n t e g r a t e s i t s s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the l a r g e r s o c i a l c o n t e x t , and what adjustments are not only necessary but p o s s i b l e w i t h i n present s o c i a l and economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Koenig has i d e n t i f i e d two c e n t r a l themes that must be i n c l u d e d i n any d i s c u s s i o n of the p o l i c e r o l e . F i r s t , p o l i c i n g i s a s e r v i c e to the p u b l i c , and second, the p o l i c e have unique access to the law and to l e g i t i m i z e d f o r c e which se t s them apar t from o ther s o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies that share s i m i l a r o b j e c t i v e s . As Koenig p o i n t s o u t , "while the c o n t r o l aspect i s c e n t r a l to an unders tand ing of the p o l i c e f u n c t i o n , i t i s a means to the end of s e r v i c e , not an end i n i t s e l f " . ^ Often the p o l i c e f a i l to r e c o g n i z e t h i s important d i s t i n c t i o n . THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 42 Koenig b u i l d s on Hogarth's 1973 argument'that the p o l i c e f u n c t i o n be seen as a s o c i a l s e r v i c e i n t e g r a t e d a t the p l a n n i n g and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l w i t h the o t h e r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . In h i s paper, a l t e r n a t i v e s t o the Ad v e r s a r y System he s t a t e d : " B e i n g p a r t of a l a r g e r system, p o l i c e p o l i c y must be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e system as a whole."11 The concepts of p u b l i c s e r v i c e , s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n and l e g i t i m i z e d f o r c e are c r u c i a l t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p o l i c e as a s o c i a l agency and t o the f u t u r e d e f i n i t i o n and development o f changes w i t h i n p o l i c i n g f u n c t i o n s . I t i s w i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t t h a t t he parameters on p o l i c i n g need t o be i n t e r p r e t e d . A l d e r s o n , e t . a l . have produced the f o l l o w i n g l i s t t h a t e n j o y s acceptance as a r a n k i n g of a p p r o p r i a t e p o l i c e f u n c t i o n s . - the maintenance of law and o r d e r - the p r o t e c t i o n of persons and p r o p e r t y - t h e p r e v e n t i o n and d e t e c t i o n of crime - some d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g about whether or not to p r o s e c u t e persons suspected of crime - t o c o n t r o l t r a f f i c and a d v i s e o t h e r a u t h o r i t i e s on t h i s s u b j e c t - t o a d v i s e l o c a l and c e n t r a l government on m a t t e r s r e l a t e d t o p o l i c i n g - t o b e f r i e n d anyone who needs t h e i r h e l p - t o cope w i t h emergencies12 THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 43 T h i s r a n k i n g g e n e r a l l y c o r r o b e r a t e s the Task Force Report on P o l i c i n g i n O n t a r i o (1974) which i d e n t i f i e d s i x p r i n c i p a l f u n c t i o n s f o r the p o l i c e : (1) Response (2) R e f e r r a l (3) P r e v e n t i o n (4) P u b l i c Educa t ion (5) Crime S o l v i n g and (6) Law Enforcement .13 The r e p o r t a l s o p e r c e p t i v e l y noted a major dilemma that must be addressed in the f u t u r e . " P o p u l a r l y , the l a t t e r two have been seen to be the main components of the p o l i c e r o l e . To a l a r g e degree t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i s shared by the p o l i c e t r a d i t i o n and the o ther f u n c -t i o n s are seen to be l a r g e l y p e r i p h e r a l to " r e a l p o l i c e work". We are of the view, how-e v e r , that a f a r b e t t e r balance among the s i x f u n c t i o n s must be sought i f the P r o v i n c e s ' needs f o r crime c o n t r o l , p r o t e c t i o n of l i f e and p r o p e r t y , and peace and order are to be m e t . " 1 4 It i s becoming apparent that these f u n c t i o n s can-not be ach ieved w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s of manpower u t i l i z a t i o n nor by the c o n t i n u a l a d d i t i o n of more hardware or t e c h n i c a l s k i l l . Hasespusch has d e s c r i b e d seven s c e n a r i o s p r o j e c t -i n g the i m p l i c a t i o n s of p o l i c i n g expendi tures i n Canada based on v a r y i n g o p t i o n s i n p o l i c e manpower p o l i c i e s . 1 5 The b a s i s of these s c e n a r i o s i s a s imple THE P O L I C E AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 44 s i m u l a t i o n e x e r c i s e d e s c r i b i n g t h e t r e n d s i n c r i m e and p o l i c i n g i n C a n a d a f r o m 1962 t o 1977 and e x t r a p o l a t i n g t h e t r e n d s t o 1 9 8 4 . H i s a s s e s s m e n t i s b a s e d on t h e p o t e n t i a l c h a n g e s i n t h e number o f p o l i c e p e r s o n n e l r e q u i r e d i n t h e f u t u r e and on t h e o v e r a l l d e v e l o p m e n t o f p o l i c i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s g i v e n a v a r i e t y o f p r o b a b l e e x p e c t a t i o n s . The a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s t h a t i f c r i m e t r e n d s c o n t i n u e t o g r o w a t t h e p r o j e c t e d r a t e s and p o l i c e r e s p o n s e i n t e r m s o f a d d i n g manpower a t t h e f o r m e r r a t e , t h e e c o n o m i c i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p o l i c i n g i n C a n a d a i s s t a g g e r i n g . The p r o b l e m i s compounded by t h e f a c t t h a t many p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s and p o l i c y m a k e r s a r e b e c o m i n g more a w a r e t h a t t h e p r e v i o u s g e n e r o u s a l l o -c a t i o n s o f f i s c a l and manpower r e s o u r c e s t o p o l i c i n g h a v e n o t had a d e m o n s t r a b l e i m p a c t on l o w e r i n g c r i m e r a t e s , i m p r o v i n g c l e a r a n c e r a t e s , i n c r e a s i n g p r o -d u c t i v i t y o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e p u b l i c ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f s e c u r i t y and w e l l b e i n g . A c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f r e s e a r c h i s e m e r g i n g t h a t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i c e a c t i v i t y i s n o t e f f e c t i v e i n o b t a i n i n g i t s s t a t e d g o a l s and t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f c u r r e n t p o l i c e a c t i v i t y may n o t o f n e c e s s i t y r e q u i r e p o l i c e i n v o l v e r n e n t . 1 6 , 1 7 THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 45 T h e s e f i n d i n g s , c o u p l e d w i t h f u t u r e e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s w i l l f o r c e c h a n g e s i n how t h e p o l i c e t a s k i s i n t e r p r e t e d i how a g e n c i e s s t r u c t u r e t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s and how r e s o u r c e s , b o t h t e c h n i c a l and p h y s i c a l , a r e a l l o c a t e d . The a b o v e d i s c u s s i o n has been d e v e l o p e d t o demon-s t r a t e t h e c u r r e n t c o n f u s i o n and u n c e r t a i n t y t h a t e x i s t s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p r o p e r r o l e f o r t h e p o l i c e and t o e s t a b l i s h a c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h h i g h e r e d u c a -t i o n and p o l i c e p e r f o r m a n c e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . I f an a c c u r a t e r e a d i n g o f c u r r e n t t r e n d s i s p o s s i b l e i t a p p e a r s t h a t p o l i c i n g i s m o v i n g i n two g e n e r a l d i r e c -t i o n s . W h i l e t h e d i r e c t i o n s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e t h e y e a c h p o s e a s e p a r a t e s e t o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g . The f i r s t d i r e c t i o n , w h i c h w i l l be c a l l e d " T h e E n f o r c e m e n t D i r e c t i o n " i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a g e n e r a l r e t r e n c h m e n t , w i t h d r a w a l a n d / o r c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f p o l i c i n g s e r v i c e s o n t o i s s u e s o f e n f o r c e m e n t , i n v e s t i -g a t i o n and o r d e r m a i n t e n a n c e . T h i s m o d e l r e s t r i c t s p o l i c e a c t i v i t y t o r e g u l a t o r y b e h a v i o u r d e s i g n e d t o THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 46 p r o t e c t l i f e and p r o p e r t y , m a i n t a i n some semblance of order w i t h i n the complex i ty of community l i f e j enforce law and i n v e s t i g a t e c r i m e . Responses w i l l be r e a c t i v e t r i g g e r e d by occurences w i t h i n s o c i e t y r e l a t e d to c r i m i n a l b e h a v i o u r , law b r e a k i n g or order maintenance . As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r Koen ig lO concludes tha t t h i s may r e s u l t i n i s o l a t i n g the p o l i c e from the community and e v e n t u a l l y l ead to the l o s s of community s u p p o r t . S ince t h i s argument has not seen s i g n i f i c a n t suppor t i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e that the o p p o s i t e i s as r e a s o n a b l e an e x p e c t a t i o n . By l i m i t i n g the r o l e of the p o l i c e to enforcement r e l a t e d i s sues they could b e t t e r u t i l i z e s carce r e s o u r -c e s , seek more e f f e c t i v e t e c h n i c a l s t r a t e g i e s to dea l wi th a r e - d e f i n e d c r i m i n a l p o p u l a t i o n and enhance p u b l i c support by i n c r e a s e d l e v e l s of e f f e c t i v e n e s s . T h i s model shares c o n s i d e r a b l e support w i t h i n the p o l i c i n g community and has demonstrated c o n s i d e r a b l e " s t a y i n g power" i n s p i t e of accumulat ing ev idence of i t s f a i l u r e s . 1 , 2 , 9 The second model , "The S e r v i c e D i r e c t i o n " , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an expanded involvement of the p o l i c e THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 47 w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f p u b l i c o r d e r , c r i m e a n a l y s i s , c r i m e c o n t r o l s t r a t e g i e s , r e s o u r c e u t i l i z a t i o n and p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n . C r i m e c o n t r o l i s v i e w e d as a c o m m u n i t y p r o b l e m and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s s h a r e d . The p r o c e s s o f s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y i n v o l v e s p r u d e n t p l a n n i n g , j u d g e m e n t and f l e x i b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n . P o l i c i n g t a r g e t s a r e t h e p r a c t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s o f p e a c e and o r d e r . C r i m e i s v i e w e d as a s o c i a l p r o b l e m and t h e p o l i c e a r e r e q u i r e d t o wo rk w i t h i n t h e b r o a d r a n g e o f c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e s , p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , as p a r t o f an o v e r a l l t eam e f f o r t . The i n d i v i d u a l p o l i c e o f f i c e r w i l l r e q u i r e c o n c e p t u a l and s o c i a l s k i l l s b e y o n d t h o s e a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e E n f o r c e m e n t m o d e l . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e p r e s s u r e s a r e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y d r a w i n g p o l i c e a g e n c i e s i n b o t h d i r e c t i o n s . The e n s u e i n g t e n s i o n e x a c e r b a t e s t h e t o p i c u n d e r c o n s i d e r a -t i o n . S u p p o r t f o r t h e " E n f o r c e m e n t M o d e l " w h i c h i s m o s t l y i n t e r n a l l y m o t i v a t e d , i d e n t i f i e s t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s k i l l s a l o n g t h e t e c h n i c a l / l e g a l / p h y s i c a l c o n t i n u u m as t h e p r o p e r o r i e n t a t i o n f o r t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . S i n c e m o s t o f THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 48 these i n s t i t u t i o n s are c o n t r o l l e d by the p o l i c e i n t e r -v e n t i o n s from the humani t ies and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s are r e s t r i c t e d to c r i t e r i a r e l a t e d to the enforcement mode l . I f "The S e r v i c e Model" i s the a p p r o p r i a t e model f o r the f u t u r e then i t i s r e a s o n a b l y c l e a r that the e x i s t i n g r e c r u i t m e n t p r a c t i c e s (high schoo l ) and the committment to the t e c h n i c a l / l e g a l / p h y s i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n of t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s may be q u i t e i n a d e q u a t e l y s i t u a t e d to p r o v i d e the broad conceptua l and t h e o r -i t i c a l knowledge base r e q u i r e d of a p r a c t i o n e r w i t h i n the s e r v i c e mode l . There i s ev idence of a growing i n t e r e s t w i t h i n s e n i o r l e v e l s of p o l i c e management that the documented f a i l u r e s of t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s may r e q u i r e a r e - o r i e n t a t i o n of not only r e c r u i t e m e n t s e l e c t i o n and t r a i n i n g but of the o v e r a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n and s t r u c t u r e of p o l i c e management. There are two o ther major f u n c t i o n s that must be c o n s i d e r e d i n a d i s c u s s i o n of the r o l e of the p o l i c e . These f a c t o r s , p o l i c e p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m and p o l i c e unions have the p o t e n t i a l to s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e the move-ment of any p o l i c e agency i n e i t h e r of the d i r e c t i o n s i n d i c a t e d above. THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 49 Change, to have optimum e f f e c t , should be i n t e r n a l l y mot ivated and o r c h e s t r a t e d . I f i t i s no t , then i t w i l l be imposed by a v a r i e t y of e x t e r n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , government e d i c t s or s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s tha t w i l l prove to be very d i s r u p t i v e and u n s e t t l i n g f o r the p o l i c e . Koenig makes a po ignant o b s e r v a t i o n when he s t a t e s : "The p o l i c e manager who f a i l s to r e c o g n i z e (the need f o r change) and i n v o l v e o ther s o c i a l c o n t r o l agents (such as mass media , s c h o o l s , p l a n n i n g o f f i c e r s , hous ing a u t h o r -i t i e s , s o c i a l workers , community a c t i v i s t s , o p i n i o n l e a d e r s , and the p r i v a t e s e c u r i t y i n d u s t r y ) i n a communal, team approach to goa l a t t a i n m e n t , w i l l f i n d the p o l i c e mandate c o n t i n u a l l y be ing eroded by such agents in a l l cases except those few r e q u i r i n g the unique p o l i c e access to law or l e g i t i m a t e f o r c e . T h i s e r o s i o n ( a l r e a d y somewhat i n ev idence) w i l l l ead to a r e l a t i v e e l i m i n a t i o n of the p o l i c e presence , and i n f a c t to a wi thdrawal of the p o l i c e f u n c t i o n to the p o i n t where l i t t l e would be l e f t beyond c o e r c i v e c o n t r o l of i l l i c i t c i t i z e n behav ior and the apprehens ion of o f f e n d e r s . " ^ Blumberg and N i e d e r h o f f e r have suggested tha t p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n i n p o l i c i n g has become a "holy g r a i l " . 1 9 However, the c o m p l i c a t i o n s have never been f u l l y examined. It i s not the i n t e n t of t h i s paper to THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 5Q e x p l o r e the q u e s t i o n of p o l i c i n g as a p r o f e s s i o n i n the sense t h a t m e d i c i n e , and law are p r o f e s s i o n s i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e to comment on the concept and the p o t e n t i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n . These are l i n k e d t o h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g t o the e x t e n t t h a t they h i g h l i g h t s o c i o l o g i c a l and i d e a l o g i c a l i s s u e s c o n f r o n t i n g the p o l i c e t o d a y . R a d e l e t , i n 1977, observed t h a t : "What i t means t o be a p r o f e s s i o n a l p o l i c e o f f i c e r i s governed by our n o t i o n of the p o l i c e o f f i c e r ' s r o l e i n s o c i e t y . I f the r o l e of the p o l i c e i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as bei n g one of crime c o n t r o l , then t h o s e departments t h a t u t i l i z e s t r a t e g i e s aimed at f i g h t i n g crime w i l l be seen as more p r o f e s s i o n a l . T h i s would i n c l u d e the a c q u i s i t i o n and use of the l a t e s t t e c h n o l o g i e s f o r crime c o n t r o l such as computers and o t h e r forms o f 'hardware'. I f , however, the r o l e of the p o l i c e i s seen t o be p r i m a r i l y o r i e n t e d towards s e r v i c e and peace k e e p i n g , then r e c o g -n i t i o n w i l l be g i v e n t o a department which develops and implements programs s t r e s s i n g t h e s e f u n c t i o n s . " 2 0 The argument proposes t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i s a q u a l i t y judgement on " s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d " and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o e x p e c t a t i o n s . While the p o l i c e community tends t o i d e n t i f y i t s e l f as " p r o f e s s i o n a l " , a g a i n s t t h i s type o f c r i t e r i a t he argument i s weak. I f THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 51 t h e i s s u e i s c o n s t r u e d as a q u a l i t a t i v e / q u a n t i t a t i v e m e a s u r e t h e n i t i s e a s y t o s e e t h a t t h e p o l i c e a r e n o t c a p a b l e o f c o p i n g w i t h c r i m e , s o c i a l p r o b l e m s o r t h e r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g demands f o r p o l i c e s e r v i c e . The o b s e r v a t i o n i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t p o l i c e h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y v i e w e d t h e i r r o l e i n s o c i e t y i n a n a r r o w and l i m i t e d " l a w and o r d e r " s c o p e and n e i t h e r i n t h e c o n t e x t n o r t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s i s n o t t h e r o u t e t o a c q u i r i n g t h e s t a t u s o f a " p r o f e s s i o n " . The p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e p o l i c e , i f i t i s t o o c c u r , m u s t be by a n o t h e r r o u t e . B e r k l e y , e t . a l . , i n 1976 s u g g e s t e d t h a t f o r an o c c u p a t i o n t o become a p r o f e s s i o n t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e r e q u i r e d : 1) an a g r e e d upon body o f k n o w l e d g e f o r e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g i n t h e f i e l d ; 2) a c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s t o v a l i d a t e c r e d e n t i a l s j 3) an e s t a b l i s h e d p r o c e d u r e f o r t r a n s f e r r i n g t h i s c e r t i f i c a t i o n t o o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s ; 4) a c o d e o f e t h i c s . 2 1 THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 52 While p o l i c i n g in Canada may share some of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , some observers argue that p o l i c i n g w i l l never become a p r o f e s s i o n unless changes are made, both i n the s t r u c t u r e of the p o l i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n ^ $ 23 and in t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of the p o l i c i n g r o l e i n s o c i e t y . 2 4 Others argue that the l a c k of l a t e r a l e n t r y i n t o the p o l i c e s e r v i c e , coupled with the l a c k of an agreed upon body of knowledge f o r t r a i n i n g and educa-t i o n , m i t i g a t e a g a i n s t the e v o l u t i o n of the p o l i c e s e r v i c e to a p r o f e s s i o n .25 While there i s a modest body of knowledge a v a i l a b l e i n the Un i t ed S t a t e s , the committment of d o l l a r s to r e s e a r c h on the p o l i c e f u n c t i o n in Canada i s i n i t s i n f a n t c y . So f a r , t h i s paper has attempted to d e f i n e p r o f e s -s i o n a l i s m and to e s t a b l i s h some c r i t e r i a to judge whether p o l i c i n g i s , or can become a p r o f e s s i o n . The paper has not addressed the q u e s t i o n whether p o l i c i n g should become a p r o f e s s i o n . E r i c k s o n p o i n t s out that in i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m has become the mode of "buying i n t o the c o n t r o l bus ines s" .26 T h i s q u e s t i o n cou ld be the s u b j e c t of a major t h e s i s . The c a u t i o n i s that one dimension of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i s THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION P A G E 53 t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s have taken an i n c r e a s i n g l y a c t i v e r o l e i n p r o v i d i n g an expert s e r v i c e and i n d e f i n i n g the needs of those be ing s e r v e d . There i s evidence that the p o l i c e s e r v i c e i s anxious to be c o n s i d e r e d a p r o f e s s i o n . In many r e s p e c t s i t c la ims to have a l r e a d y a r r i v e d . However, p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i n p o l i c i n g must be c o n s i d e r e d in r e l a t i o n to the i s s u e of cont inued p u b l i c c o n t r o l of the p o l i c e and t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h i n a democrat i c system to d e f i n e the f u n c t i o n s to be performed by the p o l i c e . Future a n a l y s i s must g ive c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the r i s k s of i n c r e a s e d p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m f o r the p o l i c e . The dangers i n h e r e n t i n p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m to narrow and s p e c i a l i z e the s e r v i c e s to be performed may have a major impact on both the v a r i e t y of s e r v i c e s p r e s e n t l y prov ided by the p o l i c e and the o v e r a l l t o t a l cos t of p o l i c i n g . T h i s c a u t i o n i s r a i s e d s i n c e the i s s u e s of h i g h e r educat ion and t r a i n i n g are a f f e c t e d by the q u a l i t y , context and d i r e c t i o n of p o l i c i n g s e r v i c e s and are i n t r i c a t e l y r e l a t e d to the i s s u e of p r o f e s s i o n -a l i s m . There i s a danger that by s t r i v i n g towards the g o a l of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m the p o l i c e community w i l l use h i g h e r educat ion and t r a i n i n g i n p u r s u i t of t h i s goa l r a t h e r than on the q u a l i t y , content and i n t e g r i t y of the s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d . THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 54 None the l e s s , to e l e v a t e peace keeping and crime c o n t r o l to the l e v e l of a p r o f e s s i o n a l v o c a t i o n i t would appear unavo idab le that those who are ass igned to such d u t i e s be f reed of a l l tasks that are not connected with i t . As B i t t n e r s t a t e d in 1971: "It i s i n c o n c e i v a b l e , or at l e a s t exceed ing ly u n l i k e l y , that t h i s f r e e i n g could be a t t a i n e d w i t h i n the framework of the present employ-ment s i t u a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s . To f r e e pol icemen to do p o l i c e work, departments must cease to be m i n i a t u r e m i l i t a r y e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , i n which the s o l d i e r s can be expected to do whatever needs do ing ."27 B i t t n e r proceeds to argue that one method to ach i eve t h i s o b j e c t i v e would be to l i m i t the d u t i e s of the p o l i c e by e s t a b l i s h i n g a l i c e n s i n g process a n a l o -gous to the c e r t i f i c a t i o n of t e a c h e r s . "In the long run the i s s u i n g of p o l i c e c r e -d e n t i a l s , l i k e the i s s u i n g of t e a c h i n g c r e d e n t i a l s , must become the f u n c t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l s . " 2 3 I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e that a number of p o l i c e t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h i n Canada, cou ld with improvements i n the q u a l i t y of programs, f a c u l t y competencies and p h i l -o s o p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n become "graduate schoo l s" f o r a "new breed" of u n i v e r s i t y educated p o l i c e o f f i c e r . THE P O L I C E AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 55 B i t t n e r p o i n t s out that whi le i t may seem prepos terous to suggest the format ion of p o s t - g r a d u a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l s f o r p o l i c e work at a time when most p r a c t i c i n g p o l i c e personne l have no more than a h i g h - s c h o o l educat ion and somewhat c y n i c a l to suggest that such schoo l s be e s t a b l i s h e d before the f i e l d of s tudy i s adequate ly d e f i n e d , these same r e s e r v a t i o n s would have p r o h i b i t e d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the e x i s t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l s . "The presumption that the r e s e a r c h programs and c u r r i c u l a of e x i s t i n g s choo l s have e x c e p t i o n a l l y w e l l founded r e l e v a n c e to p r o -f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e i s s imply a presumpt ion . A good d e a l of what p h y s i c i a n s , l a w y e r s , t e a c h e r s , s o c i a l workers , e t c . , s tudy i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s i s of no s e n s i b l e use and i s e i t h e r s imply f o r g o t t e n or abandoned because i t i s dated before the hard won knowledge can be a p p l i e d . Moreover , i n some p r o f e s s i o n s , such .as s o c i a l work, p r a c t i t i o n e r s without e d u c a t i o n a l c r e d e n t i a l s s t i l l abound and the posses s ion of a degree i s not yet an e n f o r c e a b l e c o n d i t i o n of employment. None of t h i s however, a l t e r s the f a c t tha t p r o f e s s i o n a l s choo l s f u n c t i o n as l e g i t i m i z i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s of the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s of the o c c u p a t i o n as a whole."29 U n t i l the p o l i c i n g community comes to g r i p s with these i s sues the p u r s u i t of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i n the i d e a l sense w i l l con t inue to be i l l u s i v e . The present s tance of the o c c u p a t i o n m i t i g a t e a g a i n s t the e v o l u t i o n of the p o l i c e s e r v i c e to that of a p r o f e s s i o n . THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 56 The o t h e r i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n a d i s c u s s i o n of the f u t u r e r o l e the p o l i c e w i l l be the p o s i t i o n t a ken by p o l i c e unions and a s s o c i a t i o n s . These bodies are becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y a g g r e s s i v e and are l i k e l y t o have s i g n i f i c a n t impact on f u t u r e changes w i t h i n the p o l i c e f u n c t i o n , the move towards p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m and the l e v e l of acceptance w i t h which the c o n t r i b u t i o n of hi g h e r e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g and p r o f e s s i o n a l development w i l l or w i l l not be embraced. In h i s r e v i e w of the f u t u r e of p o l i c i n g Brown has i n d i c a t e d t h a t management f l e x i b i l i t y and the p o t e n t i a l f o r a d a p t a t i o n and change has been l i m i t e d by the grow-i n g power of p o l i c e unions and t h a t : "For the f o r s e e a b l e f u t u r e , i t i s u n r e a l i s t i c t o expect union l e a d e r s h i p t o work e n t i r e l y f o r d r a m a t i c changej r a t h e r , one can expect t h e i r p o s i t i o n w i l l be to f u r t h e r the s h o r t -"3(1 term needs of the membership." 3 U The q u e s t i o n of the c o m p a t i b i l i t y between p o l i c e u n i o n i s m w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i s s t i l l open. While t h e r e e x i s t s o p i n i o n t h a t t h e r e i s no p l a c e i n a pro-f e s s i o n a l p o l i c e m i l i e u f o r unions or union a c t i v i t y 3 1 i t i s argued t h a t p o l i c e u nionism and p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 57 a r e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s and c a n be c o n c e i v e d as com-p l e m e n t a r y . The g o a l s o f u n i o n i s m , w a g e s , w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s and f r i n g e b e n e f i t s a r e n o t i n n a t e l y i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e g o a l s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m . As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m , o r t h e c o n c e p t o f b e i n g a p r o f e s s i o n a l , means t h a t one has m a s t e r e d a b o d y o f k n o w l e d g e , s u b s c r i b e d t o a c o d e o f e t h i c s , a c h i e v e d some f o r m o f l i c e n s i n g and has met a s e t o f m in imum s t a n d a r d s . U n i o n m e m b e r s h i p c a n be a c h i e v e d w i t h i n t h e a b o v e c r i t e r i a w i t h o u t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t b e t w e e n t h e t w o . S u p p o r t e r s o f t h i s p o s i t i o n a r g u e t h a t s o c i a l w o r k e r s and t e a c h e r s b e l o n g t o u n i o n s and t h a t t h e r e need n o t be a d e b a t e o r c o m p e t i t i o n b e t w e e n t h e c o n c e p t o f b e i n g a p r o f e s s i o n a l and a t t h e same t i m e b e l o n g t o a u n i o n . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e c u r r e n t e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t u n i o n b e h a v i o r has s y s t e m a t i c a l l y f r u s t r a t e d t h e q u e s t f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s i n t h e a r e a s o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r , a c c e l e r a t e d p r o m o t i o n , p o s i t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f h i g h e r r e c r u i t -men t s t a n d a r d s . M o s t l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n i n s t a n c e s w h e r e u n i o n s u p p o r t was f o r t h c o m i n g on t h e s e i s s u e s t h e s u p p o r t was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e THE P O L I C E AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 58 pr imary o b j e c t i v e s of u n i o n i s m , money a n d / o r b e n e f i t s . 3 2 • ne p o s i t i v e r e s u l t of t h i s o p p o s i t i o n has been i d e n t i f i e d by J e r v i s and F l u i l l e : "The p o t e n t i a l impact of the p o l i c e union movement may be g r e a t e s t i n a c h i e v i n g the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of p o l i c e management personne l to the extent tha t u n i o n i z a t i o n w i l l d r i v e a wedge between ( o f f i c e r s and c o n s t a b l e s ) . A r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r d i f f e r e n t i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s may open the door to the type of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n p r e r e q u i s i t e to the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of management i n p o l i c e agenc ies ."33 It i s a safe assumption that p o l i c e unionism w i l l con t inue to grow i n s t r e n g t h i n the decade ahead. Where e n l i g h t e n e d management e x i s t s , the labour-manage-ment r e l a t i o n s h i p can be developed to f a c i l i t a t e r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n n o v a t i o n and change. Where manage-ment i s u n e n l i g h t e n e d , i n s e c u r e l a b o u r may move to r e s t r i c t n e g o t i a t i o n s to the we l fare i n t e r e s t s of t h e i r members and f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e the s t a t u s - q u o . K o e n i g ' s c a u t i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e to t h i s i s s u e . I f the p o l i c e do not deve lop the c a p a c i t i e s to become agents of change and i f i n s t e a d become more r e s t r i c t e d THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION P A G E 59 and i s o l a t e d i n the s e r v i c e s they p r o v i d e through e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s , they w i l l become o u t s i d e r s w i t h i n the community. T h i s i s o l a t i o n may generate widespread d i s t r u s t and a n i m o s i t y that w i l l subsequent ly lead to a l a c k of support and c o o p e r a t i o n from the community. While there i s some ev idence to support t h i s p o s i t i o n i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e tha t the f u t u r e w i l l not see a p o l a r i z a t i o n of the p o l i c e i n e i t h e r of these d i r e c t i o n s but i n s t e a d , through the e v o l u t i o n of more s o p h i s t i c a t e d p o l i c e management, a more e c l e c t i c model w i l l s u r f a c e . I t i s i m p e r a t i v e t h e r e f o r e that the p o l i c e s e r v i c e become i n c r e a s i n g l y i n v o l v e d with o ther agencies i n o r d e r to ach ieve t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s , not only because of the s i m i l a r i t y of t h e i r g o a l s , but because s o c i a l c o - o p e r a t i o n and s o c i a l acceptance are c r i t i c a l . T h i s involvement w i l l r e q u i r e personne l educated and t r a i n e d at a l e v e l that promotes peer r e l a t i o n s h i p with o ther a g e n c i e s , f a c i l i t a t e s i n n o v a t i o n , f l e x i b i l i t y , i n t e g r a t i o n and promotes the g e n e r a l r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the e n t i r e p o l i c e sys tem. Higher educat ion that c o n t r i b u t e s to a b e t t e r THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 60 u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p o l i c e and s o c i e t y i s t h e r e f o r e v i t a l t o the c o n c e p t u a l development of a l l p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 61 REFERENCES 1. R i c h a r d V . E r i c k s o n , Reproducing O r d e r : A Study of P o l i c e P a t r o l Work (Toronto : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 19B2). 2. George L . K e l l i n g & David F o g e l , " P o l i c e P a t r o l - Some Future D i r e c t i o n s " , i n A l v i n W. Cohn (ed.) The F u t u r e of P o l i c i n g ( B e v e r l y H i l l s : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1978)7 pp . 151-182. 3 . Egon B i t t n e r , The F u n c t i o n s of the  P o l i c e i n Modern S o c i e t y (New York: Jason Aronson , 1975) . 4. The Task Force on P o l i c i n g i n O n t a r i o , The P o l i c e are the P u b l i c and the P u b l i c are  the P o l i c e , r e p o r t to the S o l i c i t o r General of O n t a r i o , 1974. 5. W . T . McGrath and M . P . M i t c h e l l , ( e d s . ) , The P o l i c e F u n c t i o n i n Canada, (Toronto Methuen, 1981) . pp. 77-84. 6. Curt T . G r i f f i t h s , John F . K l e i n and Simon N. V e r d u n - J o n e s , C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e i n  Canada, ( B r i t i s h Columbia: But terworth and C o . , 1980), p p . 43-82 . 7. Ronald G. L y n c h , The P o l i c e Manager, (Boston: Holbrook P r e s s , 1978), pp. 291-314. 8. B r i a n A . Grosman, P o l i c e Command - D e c i s i o n s and D i s c r e t i o n , (Toronto : Macmi l lan Co. , 1975), pp. 47-58 . 9. Alan G r a n t , The P o l i c e - A P o l i c y  Paper , (Ottawa: The Law Reform Commission of Canada, 1980), pp. 33-56 . 10. D a n i e l J . K o e n i g , The Future of  Canadian P o l i c i n g , unpubl i shed m a n u s c r i p t , ( V i c t o r i a , B . C . , 1982), p . 73. THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 62 REFERENCES - Cont inued 11. John H o g a r t h , A l t e r n a t i v e s to the Adversary System, unpubl i shed m a n u s c r i p t , (T or onto : 1973), P a r t V, p . 7. 12. J . C . A l d e r s o n , "The P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e - o f the B r i t i s h P o l i c e " , i n J . C . A lderson and P h i l i p John Stead ( e d s . ) , The  P o l i c e We Deserve , (London: Wolfe P u b l i s h i n g L t d . , 1973), p p . 39-54. 13. Task Force on P o l i c i n g i n O n t a r i o , pp . 17-19. 14. I b i d . , p . 17. 15. Burkhard Hasenpusch, "Some S c e n a r i o s on P o l i c i n g i n Canada i n 1984", Canadian  P o l i c e C o l l e g e J o u r n a l , V o l . 3 , No. 4, 1979, pp . 316-341. 16. J . A . B l a k e , "The Role of P o l i c e i n S o c i e t y " , i n W . T . McGrath and M . P . M i t c h e l l , ( e d s . ) , The P o l i c e F u n c t i o n i n Canada, (Toronto : Methuen, 1981) . pp. 77-84. 17. K o e n i g , pp. 54-64 . 18. I b i d . , p . 69 . 19. Abraham S. Blumberg and A r t h u r N i e d e r h o f f e r , (eds . ) The Ambivalent Force  P e r s p e c t i v e s on the P o l i c e ( I l l i n o i s : The • r y d e n P r e s s , 1976), pp . 16-17. 20. Lou i s A . R a d e l e t , The P o l i c e and the  Community, ( T o r o n t o : C o l l i e r M a c m i l l a n , 1977), p . 54. 21. George E . B e r k l e y , e t . a l . . I n t r o d u c t i o n to C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e , P o l i c e ,  C o u r t , C o r r e c t i o n s , (Boston: H o l b r o o k , 1976), r e p o r t e d In ~ C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e i n Canada, p . 72. THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 63 REFERENCES - Continued 22. Grosman. 23 . G r a n t . 24. B i t t n e r . 25. G r i f f i t h s , K l e i n , V e r d u n - J o n e s , C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e i n Canada, pp . 71-73 . 26. R i c h a r d V . E r i c k s o n and P a t r i c i a M. Baranek, The O r d e r i n g of J u s t i c e , (Toronto : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 19B2), p . 232. 27 . B i t t n e r , The F u n c t i o n s of the P o l i c e i n Modern S o c i e t y , p p . 52-62. 28. I b i d , p . 75-76 . 29 . I b i d , p . 79-80 . 30. W . J . Brown, "The Future of P o l i c i n g i n Canada" i n The P o l i c e F u n c t i o n i n Canada, W.T . McGrath and W7P~. M i t c h e l l , l e d s . J , (Toronto : Methuen, 1981), p . 253. 31 . Dennis F o r c e s e , " P o l i c e Unionism: Employee-Management R e l a t i o n s i n Canadian P o l i c e F o r c e s " , Canadian P o l i c e C o l l e g e  J o u r n a l , V o l . 4, 1980, p p . 79-129. 32. Hervey J u r i s , "The I m p l i c a t i o n s o f P o l i c e Union i sm", Law and S o c i e t y Review, V o l . 6, No. 2, 1971, p p . 231-45. 33. Hervey A . J u r i s and Peter F e u i l l e , "The Impact of P o l i c e Unions - Summary Report" i n The Ambiva lent Force - P e r s p e c t i v e s on the  P o l i c e , Abraham S. Blumberg and A r t h u r N i e d e r h o f f e r ( e d s . ) , ( I l l i n o i s : The Dryden P r e s s , 1976), p . 390. THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 64 CONCLUSION T h i s t h e s i s has examined c u r r e n t knowledge on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , the changing r o l e of the p o l i c e and p o l i c e performance . I t has argued , with an acknowledged b i a s , that i f there i s to be a s y s t e m a t i c r e d e f i n i t i o n of r o l e s j f u r t h e r advancement towards the goa ls of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m } the e s t a b l i s h m e n t w i t h i n p o l i c e agencies of i n t e g r a t e d human systems and s u s t a i n e d r e a l i s t i c a t t e n t i o n to p o l i c i n g i s s u e s , h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n requirements f o r p o l i c e personne l w i l l need to become mandatory. While i t has been demonstrated that h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i s by no means a panacea, indeed h i s t o r y demonstrates that i t has o f ten been used as a p l a c e b o , i t may be p l a u s a b l y argued that e f f e c t i v e s o l u t i o n s to the problems c o n f r o n t i n g contemporary p o l i c i n g w i l l r e q u i r e i n d i v i d u a l s not only d i s c i p l i n e d by the r i g o r s of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l achievement but committed to a process of problem a n a l y s i s at a conceptua l l e v e l . High s choo l d ip lomas f o l l o w e d by a l i m i t e d amount of t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g supported by p r a c t i c a l exper ience i s THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION no l o n g e r adequate i f the at a c o n c e p t u a l l e v e l w i t h d e f i n i t i o n of t h e i r f u t u r e PAGE 65 p o l i c e expect to p a r t i c i p a t e o t h e r s o c i a l a g e n c i e s i n the development. While the case f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g e d u c a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r e n t r y i n t o the p o l i c e s e r v i c e can be s u b s t a n t i a t e d by p h i l o s o p h i c a l and l o g i c a l argument, t h e r e i s a p r e s s i n g need to e s t a b l i s h a s u p p o r t i n g body of e m p i r i c a l d a t a . L i m i t e d s t u d i e s conducted i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r i n t h i s paper have r e p o r t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance between p o l i c e o f f i c e r s w i t h and w i t h o u t u n i v e r s i t y backgrounds. These s t u d i e s tend t o su p p o r t the p o s i t i o n t h a t o f f i c e r s w i t h u n i v e r s i t y degrees are b e t t e r performers than those w i t h o u t , however, both the c r i t e r i a and the i l l u s i v e n a t u r e of the v a r i a b l e s u t i l i z e d have r e s u l t e d i n d a t a t h a t are at bes t weak. W i t h i n Canada, e f f o r t s t o document and e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t s of the h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l achievements of p o l i c e o f f i c e r s on performance have been s p o r a d i c and u n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y conducted. While t h i s may be due i n p a r t t o the r e a s o n a b l y u n i f o r m e d u c a t i o n a l r equirements THE P O L I C E AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 66 at the r e c r u i t m e n t l e v e l (high s c h o o l diploma) and the s i m i l a r i t y of r e c r u i t and post-employment t r a i n i n g across the n a t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e that the e x p l a n a t i o n l i e s e l sewhere . U n t i l r ecen t years there has not been a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p o p u l a t i o n of p o l i c e o f f i c e r s e n t e r i n g the p o l i c e p o p u l a t i o n i n Canada with c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y c r e d e n t i a l s . The absence of such a p o p u l a t i o n has m i t i g a t e d a g a i n s t i n t e r e s t or e f f o r t to deve lop r e s e a r c h programs des igned to t e s t f o r a r e l a t i o n s h i p between e d u c a t i o n a l achievement and p e r -formance . However, w i t h i n r e c e n t y e a r s , the l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n a l achievement of r e c r u i t s upon entry i n t o the p o l i c e s e r v i c e ) the o p p o r t u n i t i e s and encouragement f o r cont inued advanced e d u c a t i o n and the q u a l i t y and l eng th of post employment p r o f e s s i o n a l development programs have advanced to the degree that i t may now be p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y d i s c r e e t p o p u l a t i o n s of p o l i c e o f f i c e r s w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n that possess the advanced academic c r e d e n t i a l s tha t w i l l permit a comparat ive examinat ion of t h e i r e f f e c t s on such q u e s t i o n s . I f such p o p u l a t i o n s are now a v a i l a b l e i t must be r e c o g n i z e d that the v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d i n a t tempt ing to THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 67 d e t e r m i n e t h e e x i s t e n c e and n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p may be o f s u c h c o m p l e x i t y t h a t an a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e a g g r e g a t e a d e q u a c y o f e f f o r t s t o i d e n t i f y and q u a n t i f y s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s w i l l p r o v e t o be a d i f f i c u l t t a s k . None t h e l e s s , i f a r e l a t i o n s h i p c a n be demon-s t r a t e d b e t w e e n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and p e r f o r m a n c e on a v a r i e t y o f v a r i a b l e s , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , t h e n f u r t h e r r e f i n e m e n t s and more s o p h i s t i c a t e d s t u d i e s c a n f o l l o w . The A m e r i c a n s t u d i e s r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r h a v e had some s u c c e s s i n l i n k i n g a number o f p e r f o r -mance v a r i a b l e s t o p o l i c e o f f i c e r s t h a t p o s s e s s h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l c r e d e n t i a l s . T h e s e v a r i a b l e s ( l e s s t i m e o f f f o r s i c k n e s s , f e w e r p u b l i c c o m p l a i n t s , h i g h e r j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n ) , w h i l e t h e y a r e n o t d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o p r i m a r y p e r f o r m a n c e c r i t e r i a , do s u b s t a n t i a t e an a r g u m e n t t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p may e x i s t b e t w e e n e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t and p e r f o r m a n c e . A d i r e c t i o n f o r r e s e a r c h t h a t c o u l d p r o v i d e a d d i -t i o n a l k n o w l e d g e f o r i m m e d i a t e u t i l i z a t i o n w o u l d be t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t and s t r e s s r e l a t e d p r o b l e m s w i t h i n p o l i c i n g . I f i t can be a s s u m e d t h a t (1) d e p r e s s i o n , (2 ) m a r i t a l f a i l u r e , (3 ) THE P O L I C E AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 68 a l c o h o l i s m , (4) d i s c i p l i n a r y o f f e n c e s and (5) j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n a r e v a r i a b l e s t h a t i m p a c t on j o b p e r f o r -m a n c e , t h e n a r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m d e s i g n e d t o d e t e r m i n e i f v a r i a t i o n s e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e s e i n d i c e s and e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t w o u l d be m o s t e n l i g h t e n i n g . F rom a n o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e , i f a r e l a t i o n s h i p c a n be d e m o n s t r a t e d b e t w e e n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t and r o l e p e r c e p t i o n among p o l i c e o f f i c e r s , t h e n an i m p o r -t a n t t o o l f o r m a n a g i n g f u t u r e c h a n g e w i t h i n t h e p o l i c e p r o f e s s i o n w i l l become a v a i l a b l e . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t l o w e r l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t r e l a t e t o r o l e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e " e n f o r c e m e n t " s t y l e o f p o l i c i n g and t h a t h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t r e l a t e s t o r o l e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e " s e r v i c e " s t y l e o f p o l i c i n g , i f c o n f i r m e d , w o u l d p e r m i t r e c r u i t i n g p r a c t i c e s t o become t o o l s t o s h a p e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p o l i c e a g e n c i e s i n d i r e c t i o n s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h b r o a d e r s o c i a l p o l i c y . The q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n t h i s p a p e r h a v e s i g n i f i c a n t i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e f u t u r e o f p o l i c i n g . W i t h t h e e x p e c t a t i o n o f c o n t i n u i n g r e s t r a i n t w i t h i n t h e e c o n o m y , i n c r e a s i n g c r i m e r a t e s and more c o m p l e x l e g a l THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 69 and s o c i a l f a c t o r s , a l t e r n a t e s t r a t e g i e s f o r the u t l i z a t i o n of p o l i c i n g r e s o u r c e s w i l l be r e q u i r e d . Whi le the scope of t h i s study has not prov ided d e f i n i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s , the a n a l y s i s conducted i s c o n t r i b u t i n g to that o b j e c t i v e . There i s a p r e s s i n g need to e s t a b l i s h a comprehensive Canadian data base upon which f u t u r e a n a l y s i s and p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s can be made. As an example, there i s a need to know: (1) the number and percentage of i n d i v i d u a l s wi th c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y backgrounds now w i t h i n the p o l i c e s e r v i c e j (2) the deployment p a t t e r n s of p o l i c e members w i th c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y backgrounds; (3) the number and types o f reward programs or i n c e n t i v e s that e x i s t f o r the p a r t i c i p a t i o n in or comple t ion of c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y programsj (4) the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e / i m p a c t of c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y achievement on promot iona l o p p o r t u n i t i e s j (5) the v a r i e t i e s of i n f l u e n c e / s u p p o r t / r e s i s t e n c e generated by p o l i c e unions on c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y achievement . THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 70 F i n a l l y , t h i s t h e s i s has attempted to set the s tage f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h to determine not only how e d u c a t i o n a l achievement can f a c i l i t a t e the improvement of p o l i c e performance , but how i t can se t the stage f o r p o l i c i n g to assume a more important and p r o - a c t i v e r o l e i n s o c i a l r e s e a r c h and p l a n n i n g on i s sues r e l a t e d to cr ime and j u s t i c e w i t h i n our n a t i o n . THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 71 B I B L I O G R A P H Y 1. Alderson, 3.C. "The Principles and Practice of the Bri t i sh Police." in Alderson, J . C . & Stead, J . P . , (eds.) The Police We Deserve. London: Wolfe Publishing Co. , L t d . , 1973. 2. Anderson, R .E . "Paths to Professionalization." The Police Chief, August 1970, 48-51. 3. Asburn, Franklin G. and Payton E . Ward. "Education and Training: The Moment of Truth." Police Chief. July 1973, 40-41. 4. Balboni, Alan. "A Cal l for Evaluation of Police Education Programs." Police Chief. August 1977, 42-43. 5. Barry, Donald M. "A Survey of Student and Agency Views on Higher Education in Criminal Justice." Journal of Police Science and  Administration. Vol 6, No.3, 1978, 345-354. 6. Beckman, E r i k . "Police Education and Training: Where Are We? Where Are We Going?" Journal of Criminal Justice. Winter 1976, 315-322. 7. B e l l , D. "The Post-Industrial Society: The Evolution of an Idea." Survey, 1971, 72(2), 102-168. 8. B e l l , Daniel J . "The Police Role and Higher Education." Journal of Police Science and Administration. Vo l . 7, No. 4, 1979, 467-475. 9. Bennis, Warren. Summary remarks, "Proceedings of the National Symposium on Higher Education for Police Officers". Washington: The Police Foundation, 1979. 10. Berkley, George E . Introduction to Criminal Justice, Police, Courts, Corrections. Boston: Holbrook Press, 1976. 11. Bittner, E . The Functions of the Police in Modern Society. Rockville, Md.: National Institute of Mental Health, Centre for Studies of Crime and Delinquency, 1970. 12. Botkin, James, W., Elmandjra, Malde and Malitza, Mircea. "No Limits to Learning - Bridging the Human Gap." A Report to the Club of Rome, New York: Pergamon Press L t d . , 1979. 13. Blake, J . A . "The Role of the Police in Society." in McGrath, W.T. & Mitchel l , M.P. (eds.) The Police Function in Canada. Toronto: Methuen, 1981, 77-84. THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 72 14. Blumberg, A . S . , & Niederhoffer, A. (eds.) The Ambivalent Force -Perspectives on the Police. I l l i n o i s : The Oryden Press, 1976. 15. Brown, W.J. "The Future of Policing in Canada, in The Police Function in Canada. McGrath, W.T. & Mitchel l , M.P. , (eds.) Toronto: Methuen, 1981. 16. Bri t i sh Columbia Police Commission. Task Force on Police Training. Vancouver: The Commission, 1975. 17. Brown, Lee P. 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"An E s s a y : P o l i c e Educat ion and T r a i n i n g - A Foundat ion f o r Change." C r i m i n a l Law B u l l e t i n . 8 , May 1972. 78 . Levens, B . , & Dut ton , D .H. "Domest ic C r i s i s I n t e r v e n t i o n : C i t i z e n s ' Requests f o r S e r v i c e and the Vancouver P o l i c e Response" . Canadian P o l i c e C o l l e g e J o u r n a l , 1977, J_, 2 9 - 5 0 . 7 9 . Loewenthal , M i l t o n A . "The C r i s i s i n C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e E d u c a t i o n : C o n s t r u c t i v e Reapp ra i sa l o r I n t e l l e c t u a l Masochism?" C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e Review. V o l . 5 , No. 1, 1980, 2 5 - 4 1 . 8 0 . Lynch, Ronald G. The P o l i c e Manager. Bos ton : Holbrook P r e s s , 1978. THE POLICE AND HIGHER EDUCATION PAGE 77 81. Lynch, Gerald W. "The Contributions of Higher Education to Ethical Behavior in Law Enforcement." Journal of Criminal Justice. 4, Winter 1976, 285-290. 82. Marin, Rene J . 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