UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Autonomy and the moral agent Partridge, Yolande Mary 1976

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AUTONOMY AND THE MORAL AGENT b y Y o l a n d e M a r y P a r t r i d g e B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF EDUCATION ( D e p a r t m e n t o f F o u n d a t i o n s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE U N I V E R I S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA S e p t e m b e r , 1976 Q Yolande Mary Partridge, 1976 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e -q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t -ment o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y -i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Edur.ar.ion The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r . C anada V6T 1W5 Da t e S e p t e m b e r . 1976 ABSTRACT The d e v e l o p m e n t o f p e r s o n a l autonomy i s o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d t o b e an i m p o r t a n t o b j e c t i v e o f e d u c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l , a n d m o r a l e d u c a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r . T h i s p a p e r i s an a t t e m p t t o c l a r i f y w h a t i s meant b y t h e c o n c e p t o f p e r s o n a l " autonomy, t o j u s t i f y i t s p r o m o t i o n as a p e r s o n a l a n d e d u c a t i o n a l i d e a l , a n d t o e x a m i n e t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e -t ween p e r s o n a l autonomy a n d m o r a l a g e n c y . F o u r c o n d i t i o n s a r e f o u n d t o be n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e p o s s e s s i o n and e x e r c i s e o f p e r s o n a l autonomy: f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e , a u t h e n t i c i t y , r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n a n d s t r e n g t h o f w i l l . The p r o m o t i o n o f p e r s o n a l autonomy i s j u s t i f i e d on a t l e a s t f o u r k i n d s o f g r o u n d s : f o r i t s e x t r i n s i c v a l u e , f o r i t s i n t r i n s i c w o r t h , f o r i t s e d u c a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , a n d f o r i t s c l o s e c o n c e p t u a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e n o t i o n o f m o r a l a g e n c y . The c r i t e r i o n o f ' r e l a t i n g t o o t h e r p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t s ' i s t a k e n t o b e t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n d i s -t i n g u i s h i n g b e t w e e n o r d i n a r y autonomous a c t s a n d a c t s o f m o r a l a g e n c y . TABLE OF CONTENTS page INTRODUCTION 1 1. THE CONCEPT OF PERSONAL AUTONOMY 6 FREEDOM OF CHOICE 7 AUTHENTICITY . 12 RATIONAL REFLECTION 19 STRENGTH OF WILL 2 7 2. JUSTIFICATION OF.THE PROMOTION OF PERSONAL AUTONOMY 31 3. AUTONOMY AND THE .MORAL AGENT . 43 FREEDOM OF CHOICE AND MORAL AGENCY 48 AUTHENTICITY AND MORAL AGENCY 49 RATIONAL REFLECTION AND MORAL AGENCY 52 STRENGTH OF WILL AND MORAL AGENCY 59 OTHER PEOPLE'S INTERESTS AND MORAL AGENCY 61 CONCLUDING REMARKS 70 BIBLIOGRAPHY 74 i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o Dr. J e r r o l d Coombs f o r h i s h e l p f u l a d v i c e a n d c r i t i c i s m s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s p a p e r . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k D r . L e R o i D a n i e l s a n d Dr. C h a r l e s U n g e r l e i d e r f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e comments an d s u g g e s t i o n s . i v I N T R O D U C T I O N M o s t e d u c a t o r s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p e r s o n a l a u t o n o m y i s a n i m p o r t a n t e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e . T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p e r s o n a l a u t o n o m y i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r e s s e d b y t h o s e w h o a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h m o r a l e d u c a t i o n . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s p a p e r i s : ( 1 ) t o c l a r i f y w h a t i s m e a n t b y p e r s o n a l a u t o n o m y , ( 2 ) t o j u s t i f y t h e p r o m o t i o n o f p e r s o n a l a u t o n o m y , a n d t o e x a m i n e t h e c o n c e p t u a l c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n p e r s o n a l a u t o n o m y a n d m o r a l a g e n c y . T h e t e r m ' a u t o n o m y ' e m b o d i e s a h o s t o f m a n y d i f f e r e n t , i n t e r r e l a t e d c o n c e p t s . I n s p e c t i o n o f t h e e t y m o l o g i c a l o r i g i n o f t h e w o r d r e v e a l s t h a t t h e G r e e k w o r d a u t o n o m i a w a s c o m m o n l y a p p l i e d t o t h e c i t y s t a t e . T h e s t a t e h a d a u t o n o m i a i f i t w a s a s e l f - g o v e r n i n g , i n d e p e n d e n t e n t i t y , f r e e f r o m e x t e r n a l r u l e s a n d c o n t r o l s . We o f t e n s p e a k o f a n a u t o n o m o u s n a t i o n i n r e -f e r e n c e t o a s e l f - g o v e r n i n g c o u n t r y , a c o u n t r y t h a t h a s p o l i t i c a l i n d e p e n d e n c e b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y e c o n o m i c o r a n y o t h e r f o r m o f i n d e p e n d e n c e . W h e n w e s p e a k o f a c o l o n y g a i n i n g i t s i n d e p e n d e n c e o r a u t o n o m y f r o m a m o t h e r c o u n t r y , w e s o m e t i m e s s p e a k o f t h e d e p e n d e n t s t a t e g a i n i n g i t s f r e e d o m . ' F r e e d o m ' u s e d i n t h i s s e n s e d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l y t h e a b s e n c e o f c o n s t r a i n t f o r p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s h o w e v e r , s i n c e a s t r i c t d i c t a t o r s h i p m a y a l s o b e a f r e e c o u n t r y i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i t i s a s e l f - g o v e r n i n g , a u t o n o m o u s n a t i o n . 1 2 'Autonomy' may be u s e d i n r e f e r e n c e t o i n s t i t u t i o n s . We may s p e a k o f an autonomous s c h o o l ( e . g . a p r i v a t e s c h o o l o r a p a r o c h i a l s c h o o l , i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e - . - p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m ) , u n i v e r s i t y o r r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n . The t e r m i s a l s o u s e d i n b o t a n y t o r e f e r t o a c o n d i t i o n w h i c h r e s u l t s f r o m i n t e r n a l c a u s e s ; i t i s u s e d i n b i o l b g y y t o : re,f e r : t o , p a r t s o f t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m , f o r m e r l y t h o u g h t t o f u n c t i o n i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e c e n t r a l n e r v o u s s y s t e m . Autonomy i s a m u l t i f a c e t e d c o n c e p t u s e d i n many d i f f e r e n t s e n s e s . I n t h i s p a p e r we s h a l l f o c u s on t h a t a s p e c t o f autonomy w h i c h h a s t h e g r e a t e s t e d u c a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , a n d w h i c h may be r e -f e r r e d t o as p e r s o n a l autonomy. The c o n c e p t o f p e r s o n a l autonomy a n d t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e t e r m 'autonomy' a r e o f t e n a t t r i b u t e d t o K a n t : A man was autonomous o n K a n t ' s v i e w i f i n h i s a c t i o n s he b o u n d h i m s e l f b y m o r a l l a w s l e g i s l a t e d b y h i s own r e a s o n , as o p p o s e d t o b e i n g g o v e r n e d b y h i s i n c l i n a t i o n s . A n d no d o u b t K a n t i s t h e source^ f o r P i a g e t ' s e m p l o y m e n t o f t h e t e r m . Our a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o n c e p t o f p e r s o n a l autonomy ( h e n c e f o r t h t o b e r e f e r r e d t o s i m p l y as autonomy) goes b e y o n d K a n t ' s v i e w t h a t one i s autonomous i f he b i n d s h i m s e l f b y m o r a l l a w s l e g i s l a t e d b y h i s own r e a s o n , t o i n c l u d e t h o s e s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h one m i g h t b i n d h i m s e l f b y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f a e s t h e t i c s , e t i q u e t t e , e x p e d i e n c y . , p r u d e n c e e t c . We w i l l s e e t h a t autonomy i s c o n c e p t u a l l y c o n n e c t e d t o m o r a l a g e n c y , b u t t h a t many s i t u a t i o n s a r i s e i n w h i c h autonomy may be e x e r c i s e d o u t o f t h e m o r a l r e a l m . T h e r e o f t e n e x i s t s , among t e a c h e r s who v a l u e t h e p r o m o t i o n o f autonomy as an e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e , a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n f u s i o n o v e r w h a t autonomy e n t a i l s , a n d how i t may be p r o p e r l y t a u g h t , p r o m o t e d , d e v e l o p e d o r i n s t i l l e d . Some t e a c h e r s m i s t a k e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f s o m e t h i n g r e s e m b l i n g a s t a t e o f anom i e i n s t u d e n t s f o r t h e e x e r c i s e o f autonomy. O t h e r s o f t e n a c c e p t as f a c t t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e b e s t way t o d e v e l o p autonomy i n s t u d e n t s i s t o t r e a t them as i f t h e y a r e a l r e a d y autonomous. I n some c a s e s s t u d e n t s a r e g i v e n a c a r t e b l a n c h e t o d e c i d e f o r t h e m s e l v e s w h a t t h e y w i l l do as i f t h e a b i l i t y t o make autonomous d e c i s i o n s comes n a t u r a l l y t o t h o s e who a r e g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x e r c i s e f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e . T e a c h e r s who make t h i s a s s u m p t i o n seem t o be e q u a t i n g f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e w i t h autonomy w h i l e i g n o r i n g t h e o t h e r n e c -e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s ( s p e c i f i e d i n C h a p t e r O n e ) . C o n c e i v a b l y , an i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d r e q u i r e s o u n d s t r u c t u r e a n d f i r m d i r e c t i o n t o m e a s u r e h i m s e l f a g a i n s t b e f o r e h e i s a b l e t o r e a c h a h i g h l y autonomous l e v e l o f d e v e l o p m e n t . A n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t i n a c h i e v i n g autonomy c o u l d be i m p a i r e d as a r e s u l t o f t h e i m p o s i t i o n , o f . t o o much f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e on g r o w i n g i n d i v i d u a l s who o p e r a t e a t l o w l e v e l s o f autonomy w i t h r e g a r d t o m a k i n g a u t h e n t i c , w e l l - c o n s i d e r e d c h o i c e s . I n a n y c a s e , t h e e d u c a t o r m u s t b e aware t h a t s i n c e p e o p l e a r e n o t autonomous when t h e y a r e b o r n , a n d s i n c e many p e o p l e r e a c h o l d age w i t h o u t a t t a i n i n g v e r y h i g h l e v e l s o f autonomy, some l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h i s n o t p u r e l y m a t u r a t i o n a l i s i n v o l v e d i n b e c o m i n g autonomous. The t e a c h e r m u s t , o f c o u r s e , c o n c e r n h i m s e l f w i t h t h o s e m ethods o f t e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g w h i c h m o s t e f f e c t i v e l y e n h a n c e t h i s p r o c e s s . A l t h o u g h c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a b o u t e f f e c t i v e m e t h o d o l o g y a r e e m p i r i c a l m a t t e r s , some l i g h t may be s h e d o n them b y t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o n c e p t o f autonomy a n d t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i t s p r o -m o t i o n as a n e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e . W h e t h e r t h e w o r k o f t h e p h i l o s o p h e r c a n p r o v i d e v e r y much a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h e r o r n o t , we may be c e r t a i n t h a t v a l u a b l e e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h o n how autonomy may be p r o m o t e d i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e without;-, a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e k i n d s o f c o n d i t i o n s i n -c l u d e d a n d e x c l u d e d b y t h e c o n c e p t o f autonomy. C h a p t e r One i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e d e l i n e a t i o n o f t h o s e c o n d i t i o n s . W h e t h e r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h e p r o m o t i o n o f L a t i n , E n g l i s h grammar, a r t s a n d c r a f t s . mathemati.es or. autonomy, i t r e q u i r e s j u s t i f i c a t i o n . C h a p t e r Two i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p r o m o t i o n o f autonomy on f o u r k i n d s o f g r o u n d s : as s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s e x t r i n s i c a l l y v a l u a b l e , i n t r i n s i c a l l y w o r t h w h i l e , e d u c a t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , a n d c e n t r a l t o t h e c o n c e p t o f m o r a l a g e n c y . The c o n n e c t i o n b e -t w e e n autonomy a n d m o r a l a g e n c y i s s p e c i f i e d a t l e n g t h i n C h a p t e r T h r e e . FOOTNOTES R.F.Dearden, "Autonomy and Education," i n R.F.Dearden, P.H.Hirst and R.S.Peters (eds.), Education and the  Development of Reason, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 19 72, p.448. R.S.Peters, "Freedom and Development of the Free Man," i n James F.Doyle (ed.), Educational Judgments, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973, p. 126. Chapter 1 THE CONCEPT OF PERSONAL AUTONOMY D i f f i c u l t i e s arise i n analysing the concept of personal autonomy because ordinary usage does not provide consistent and clear-cut examples of how the term 'personal autonomy' may be applied. The following delineation of the necessary conditions of the concept i s based p a r t l y on common usage and p a r t l y on the usefulness of the definitionr.inri-thb . educational setting. Frankena describes the autonomous person as someone who i s "capable of judging, acting and think-ing on his own in art, history, science, morality, etc."''" Riesman says: The autonomous are those who on the whole are capable of conforming to the behavioral norms of t h e i r society -a capacity the anomics usually l a c k -but are free2to choose whether to con-form or not. What does i t mean to say that someone i s capable of judging, acting and thinking on his own? What does i t mean to say that someone i s capable of conforming and yet free to choose otherwise? To ask these questions i s to ask what conditions are necessary for the presence of personal autonomy. Autonomy, or s e l f - r u l e , i s i n di r e c t opposition to the notion of heteronomy, rule by others. Heteronomy 6 may t a k e t h e f o r m o f p a s s i v i t y on t h e p a r t , o f an i n d i v i d u a l a g e n t who c o u l d be s o e a s i l y c o n d i t i o n e d o r i n d o c t r i n a t e d t h a t he r a t h e r t h o u g h t l e s s l y does w h a t he i s t o l d t o do, o r b e l i e v e s w h a t he i s t o l d t o b e l i e v e - by. a d v e r t i s e r s , b y p e o p l e i n a u t h o r i t y , b y r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s , n e i g h b o u r s , am-one who i s a b l e t o i n f l u e n c e h i m . T h i s o t h e r - d i r e c t e d man t y p i c a l l y t a k e s h i s c u e s f r o m o t h e r p e o p l e n o t o n l y i n m a t t e r s o f " f a i t h a n d m o r a l s " , b u t i n i p r u d e n t i a l c o n -c e r n s as w e l l . H e t e r o n o m y c a n a l s o t a k e t h e f o r m o f n e u r o s i s o r p s y c h o s i s as i n e x t r e m e c a s e s o f R i e s m a n ' s i n n e r -d i r e c t e d person., who i s r u l e d b y i n t e r n a l i z e d ' o t h e r s ' i n s u c h a way as t o p r e c l u d e t h e u s e o f r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n . The i n n e r - d i r e c t e d p e r s o n i s h e t e r o n o m o u s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t he i s r u l e d b y f a c t o r s w h i c h , t h o u g h n o t e x t e r n a l t o h i m , a r e e x t e r n a l t o h i s own r a t i o n a l l y a n d j u s t i f i a b l y h e l d b e l i e f s . F o u r c o n d i t i o n s a p p e a r t o b e n e c e s s a r y t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e autonomous f r o m t h e h e t e r o n o m o u s person,. U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s t a t e d , a r r i v i n g a t a u t o n o m o u s l y h e l d b e l i e f s , j u d g m e n t s , d e c i s i o n s e t c . i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e 3 f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i n . t h e c a t e g o r y o f autonomous a c t s . FREEDOM OF CHOICE I n h e r e n t i n t h e c o n c e p t o f autonomy i s . t h e n o t i o n o f f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e . The f r e e w i l l p r o b l e m f r o m t h e h a r d d e t e r m i n i s t p o s i t i o n n e e d n o t c o n c e r n us h e r e . The c o n -t e n t i o n t h a t a l l a c t s h a v e c a u s e s i n no way i n t e r f e r e s 8 w i t h t h e d i s t i n c t i o n we make b e t w e e n u n a v o i d a b l e a c t s , t h e c a u s e s o f w h i c h h a v e a c o m p e l l i n g q u a l i t y , a n d t h o s e a c t s i n w h i c h n e i t h e r o v e r t n o r c o v e r t c o m p u l s i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t . When we s p e a k o f f r e e l y c h o s e n a c t s , ; we a r e s p e a k i n g o f t h o s e a c t s f o r w h i c h t h e a g e n t c a n s u p p l y r e a s o n s - r e a l r e a s o n s , n o t j u s t r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s . N o r does t h e v i e w t h a t r e a s o n s a r e c a u s e s d i s t u r b t h e d i s t i n c t i o n . A l l o u r a c t i o n s may h a v e c a u s e s ( i f r e a s o n s a r e c a u s e s ) , b u t n o t a l l o u r a c t i o n s h a v e r e a s o n s w h i c h h a v e b e e n d e l i b e r a t e d upon i n some way b y t h e a c t i o n ' s a g e n t . As B e n n a n d P e t e r s p o i n t o u t , we do n o t a t t r i b u t e t h e e x e r c i s e o f autonomy t o a nyone whose f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e i s c o n s t r a i n e d e i t h e r o u t w a r d l y o r i n w a r d l y , i . e . e i t h e r 4 o b j e c t i v e l y o r s u b j e c t i v e l y . The o b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s o f f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e i n c l u d e a l l t h o s e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a r e e x t e r n a l t o t h e a g e n t , a n d t y p i c a l l y i m p l y t h e a b s e n c e o f c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s . A p e r s o n c a n h a r d l y b e s a i d t o be ^ e x e r c i s i n g autonomy o r f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e i f i t i s demanded o f h i m a t g u n p o i n t t h a t he h a n d o v e r t h e c o n t e n t s o f h i s w a l l e t t o a t h i e f . S i m i l a r l y , a man t i e d up t o a lamp p o s t a g a i n s t h i s w i l l c a n n o t be s a i d t o be c h o o s i n g f r e e l y o r a c t -i n g a u t o n o m o u s l y i n . f a i l i n g t o r e s c u e a d r o w n i n g p e r s o n who c a l l s f o r h e l p f r o m a n e a r b y swimming p o o l . I n s u c h s i t u a t i o n s t h e o b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s f o r f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e a r e n o t s a t -i s f i e d . The a b s e n c e o f s u c h c o n d i t i o n s i s u s u a l l y more r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e i n m o s t s i t u a t i o n s t h a n t h e a b s e n c e o f s u b -j e c t i ve c on d i t i on s. 9 T h e s u b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s o f f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e i n c l u d e a l l t h o s e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a r e i n t e r n a l t o t h e a g e n t . P e t e r s c l a i m s t h e s u b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s o f f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e a r e a b s e n t i n a n y o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s : ( 1 ) i f o n e i s d r i v e n t o w a r d s a p a r t i c u l a r g o a l a s t h e d r u g a d d i c t o r a l c o h o l i c i s d r i v e n t o s e e k r e l i e f f r o m s o m e p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n o f a c u t e d e p r i v a t i o n , ( 2 ) i f o n e i s i n c a p a b l e o f w e i g h i n g t h e r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s b e f o r e d e c i d i n g o n a p a r t i c u l a r c o u r s e o f a c t i o n , a s a h y s t e r i c w o u l d b e i n c a p a b l e o f d o i n g , ( 3 ) i f o n e c a n n o t c h a n g e o n e ' s b e l i e f s i n t h e l i g h t o f n e w a n d r e l e v a n t e v i d e n c e , a s a p a r a n o i d o r a p e r s o n s u f f e r i n g f r o m o t h e r k i n d s o f o b s e s s i o n s a n d d e l u s i o n s w o u l d b e u n a b l e t o d o , ( 4 ) i f c h a n g e s i n o n e ' s b e l i e f s f a i l t o p r o d u c e c h a n g e s i n o n e ' s d e c i s i o n s , a s i n t h e c a s e o f t h e p s y c h o p a t h , ( 5 ) i f c h a n g e s i n o n e ' s d e c i s i o n s f a i l t o p r o d u c e c h a n g e s i n o n e ' s a c t i o n s , a s i n t h e c a s e o f t h e k l e p t o m a n i a c o r s o m e o t h e r k i n d o f c o m p u l s i v e . ^ G e o r g e d u M a u r i e r ' s T r i l b y O ' F a r r e l l , f o r e x a m p l e , c o u l d h a r d l y b e s a i d t o b e a c t i n g a u t o n o m o u s l y i n p u t t i n g o n m u s i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e s t h a t r e p e a t e d l y m o v e d h e r a u d i e n c e t o t e a r s , b e c a u s e , u n d e r t h e h y p n o t i c i n f l u e n c e o f S v e n g a l i , t h e s u b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s o f h e r f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e w e r e m i n i m i z e d , i f n o t a b s e n t a l t o g e t h e r . 10 T r i l b y c o u l d n o t s a t i s f y c o n d i t i o n s ( 1 ) , ( 2 ) , o r (3) o f P e t e r ' s a n a l y s i s . N o t o n l y was she d r i v e n t o s i n g f o r S v e n g a l i , s he was b o t h i n c a p a b l e o f w e i g h i n g t h e m e r i t s o f t h e p o s s i b l e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f h e r a c t i o n s a n d i n c a p a b l e o f u s i n g a n y i n f o r m a t i o n a s a d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r i n d e c i d i n g on a p a r t i c u l a r c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . T r i l b y d i d w h a t she was t o l d t o do a n d t h a t i s a l l s h e d i d . Q u e s t i o n s a b o u t c h a n g e s i n h e r b e l i e f s a f f e c t i n g c h a n g e s i n h e r d e c i s i o n s , as w e l l as c h a n g e s i n h e r d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g c h a n g e s i n h e r a c t i o n s do n o t e v e n a r i s e . . She f o l l o w e d S v e n g a l i . a s b l i n d l y as anyone c o u l d . P e t e r s does n o t s t a t e w h e t h e r or. n o t he i n t e n d s h i s l i s t t o be e x h a u s t i v e , b u t i t a p p e a r s t o c o v e r a l l t h o s e s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h we n o r m a l l y w i t h d r a w i m p u t a t i o n s o f m o r a l o r l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t t h e a g e n t c o u l d h a v e a c t e d o t h e r w i s e . A n a g e n t c o u l d n o t h a v e a c t e d o t h e r w i s e when h i s a c t i o n i s t h e u n a v o i d a b l e r e s u l t o f some i n t e r n a l - c a u s e . ( F r o m t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w r e a s o n s are. n o t t a k e n t o be c a u s e s . ) I n o t h e r , w o r d s , P e t e r ' s l i s t s p e c i f i e s f i v e k i n d s o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h t h e c a u s e s o f a p e r s o n ' s a c t i o n s n o t o n l y l i e w i t h i n t h e p e r s o n h i m s e l f , b u t r e s u l t i n u n a v o i d -a b l e r e s p o n s e s A c t i n g u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f h y p n o s i s , b r a i n -w a s h i n g , i n d o c t r i n a t i o n , c o n d i t i o n i n g , i n s a n i t y , a n d s o f o r t h , f a l l s w e l l w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f h i s l i s t . No d o u b t a c o m p l e t e e n u m e r a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h f a l l w i t h i n t h e s e l i m i t s w o u l d h a v e t o r e m a i n a n open 11 s e t , a l t h o u g h t h e l i s t i t s e l f a p p e a r s t o be c o m p l e t e . E v e n i f i t c o u l d be shown t o be i n c o m p l e t e , a n y a d d i t i o n t o P e t e r ' s l i s t w o u l d h a v e t o b e an e x a m p l e o f i n t e r n a l c o m p u l s i o n , t h e p r e s e n c e o f w h i c h i s , i n b r i e f , w h a t we mean when we r e f e r t o t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e s u b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s o f f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e . Numerous v o l u m e s h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n on t h e p r o b l e m o f f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e a n d on s u c h t o p i c s as w h a t i t means t o s a y .'X c o u l d h a v e a c t e d o t h e r w i s e ' ; b u t i t i s b e y o n d o u r p r e s e n t p u r p o s e s t o e x a m i n e t h i s m a t t e r f u r t h e r . O r d i n a r y u s a g e d i c t a t e s t h a t one c a n n o t a c t a u t o n o m o u s l y when p h y s i c a l l y o r m e n t a l l y c o m p e l l e d . F r e e d o m o f c h o i c e , t h e n , i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i m p l i e s t h e a b s e n c e o f r e l e v a n t f o r m s o f o b j e c t i v e a n d s u b j e c t i v e com-p u l s i o n i s a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e e x e r c i s e o f autonomy, b u t i t i s n o t a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n . I m a g i n e t h e s i t u a t i o n o f someone who t h o u g h t l e s s l y a d o p t s h i s b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , m o r a l s , e t c . f r o m t h e d i c t a t e s o f m a j o r i t y o p i n i o n i n t h e c o m m u n i t y w h e r e he l i v e s , o r f r o m t h e a d v e r t i s i n g m e d i a , o r e v e n f r o m h i s b e s t f r i e n d . When he makes a d e c i s i o n b a s e d on one o f h i s b e l i e f s o r v a l u e s , he may w e l l b e e x e r c i s i n g f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i t i s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , b u t we w o u l d h e s i t a t e t o r e f e r t o h i m as an autonomous d e c i s i o n m a k e r b e c a u s e h i s b e l i e f s a r e n o t h i s own; t h e y h a v e b e e n a d o p t e d s i m p l y b e c a u s e someone e l s e s a y s s o r a t h e r t h a n b e c a u s e t h e a g e n t h i m s e l f h o l d s them t o be t r u e . S o m e t h i n g e l s e i s n e c e s s a r y t h e n , b e f o r e we c a n c a l l a p e r s o n autonomous. P e t e r s r e f e r s t o t h e s e c o n d 12 c r i t e r i o n as a u t h e n t i c i t y . AUTHENTICITY I n d i s c u s s i n g a u t h e n t i c i t y , we w i l l d e a l f i r s t w i t h t h o s e a c t i o n s w h i c h c o m p r i s e o n e ' s o v e r t b e h a v i o r , a n d t h e n w i t h s p e c i f i c m e n t a l a c t s s u c h as c h o o s i n g a n d r e a s o n i n g . F o r an o v e r t a c t i o n t o b e d e s c r i b e d as a u t h e n t i c , i t m u s t be t h e r e s u l t o f o n e ' s own d e c i s i o n t o a c t , n o t someone e l s e ' s . P e t e r s d e s c r i b e s t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e a u t h e n t i c p e r s o n as f o l l o w s : The r u l e s w h i c h he l i v e s b y a r e n o t j u s t t h o s e l a i d down b y c u s t o m a n d a u t h o r i t y . . . . T h i s a s s e r t s p o s i t i v e l y t h a t t h e t e must be some f e a t u r e o f a c o u r s e o f c o n d u c t , w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e g a r d s as i m p o r t a n t , w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s a n o n - a r t i f i c i a l r e a s o n f o r p u r s u i n g i t as d i s t i n c t f r o m e x t r i n s i c r e a s o n s p r o v i d e d b y p r a i s e a n d b l a m e , r e w a r d a n d p u n i s h m e n t , a n d s o o n , w h i c h a r e a r t i f i c i a l l y c r e a t e d b y t h e demands o f o t h e r s . I f P e t e r s means t h a t a p e r s o n who i s e x t r i n s i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d t o p e r f o r m a c e r t a i n a c t i o n c a n n o t a c t a u t h e n t i c a l l y , t h e n he i s , I t h i n k , m i s t a k e n , A p e r s o n s e e k i n g e m p l o y m e n t , f o r e x a m p l e , p r o b a b l y a c t s a u t h e n t i c a l l y i n a p p l y i n g f o r a j o b as a g a r b a g e c o l l e c t o r , a l t h o u g h he does i t n o t f o r t h e i n t r i n s i c r e w a r d s o f t h e j o b , b u t f o r t h e r e m u n e r a t i o n ( e x t r i n s i c r e w a r d s ) he w i l l r r e c e i v e . . I f , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , P e t e r s i s h i n t i n g a t t h e n e c e s s a r y p r e s e n c e o f an i n t e r i m d e c i s i o n on t h e p a r t o f an a g e n t t o c o m p l y w i t h t h e demands o f o t h e r s b e f o r e p e r f o r m i n g an a c t i o n d i c t a t e d b y t h o s e demands, t h e n he i s p r o b a b l y c o r r e c t . T h i s i s t h e c r u c i a l p o i n t . One's a c t i o n s a r e a u t h e n t i c i f t h e y 13 a r e t h e r e s u l t o f o n e ' s own, c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n s t o a c t , b u t w h e r e a n a c t c o n f o r m s t o t h e demands o f o t h e r s , t h e a u t h e n t i c a c t i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h e i n a u t h e n t i c a c t b y a p a r t i c u l a r d e c i s i o n o n t h e p a r t o f t h e a g e n t t o c o m p l y w i t h t h o s e d i c t a t e s b e f o r e a c t u a l l y d o i n g s o . W i t h o u t s u c h a n i n t e r i m d e c i s i o n , one i s i n some s e n s e b e i n g p u s h e d a n d p u l l e d - l a b o u t b y o t h e r s , r a t h e r t h a n a c t i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y . The p o i n t a b o u t i n t e r i m d e c i s i o n s i s m o s t e a s i l y made i n c o n s i d e r i n g e x a m p l e s i n v o l v i n g o b e d i e n c e t o a u t h o r i t y . S u p p o s e M r . S m i t h a n d M r . J o n e s a r e two l a w - a b i d i n g c i t i z e n s who, i n t h e i r o b s e r v a b l e b e h a v i o r , d i f f e r v e r y l i t t l e i n t h e way t h e y o b e y t h e r u l e s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e . N e i t h e r S m i t h r o r J o n e s h a s e v e r b e e n r e m i s s i n p a y i n g h i s t a x e s , n e i t h e r e x c e e d s t h e s p e e d l i m i t on t h e r o a d s a n d h i g h w a y s , a n d b o t h a l w a y s d e c l a r e - e v e r y p u r c h c i s e t h e y h a v e made when g o i n g t h r o u g h c u s t o m s o f f i c e s a t b o r d e r c r o s s i n g s . S u p p o s e t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n S m i t h a n d J o n e s i s t h a t . S m i t h h a s made a p a r t i c u l a r d e c i s i o n t o o b e y t h e a u t h o r i t i e s b e f o r e p e r f o r m i n g h i s a c t s o f o b e d i e n c e . H i s i n t e r i m d e c i s i o n m i g h t b e t h e r e -s u l t o f any number o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . He m i g h t be c o n v i n c e d t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r r u l e p r e s c r i b e d b y t h e a u t h o r i t i e s i s a u s e f u l r u l e t o f o l l o w a n d one w h i c h he w o u l d p r e s c r i b e f o r h i m s e l f i n any c a s e . O r , he m i g h t o b e y . t h e . l a w r e g a r d l e s s o f i t s demands b e -c a u s e he b e l i e v e s t h a t he w o u l d b e c o n t r i b u t i n g t o w a r d s c h a o s a n d a n a r c h y , i f he d i d , n o t . O r , he m i g h t s i m p l y w i s h t o a v o i d t h e i n c o n v e n i e n c e o f a f i n e o r a j a i l s e n t e n c e , I n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g 14 a u t h e n t i c f r o m i n a u t h e n t i c a c t s , t h e n a t u r e o f o n e ' s r e a s o n f o r a c t i n g does n o t m a t t e r ( a l t h o u g h some r e a s o n s f o r a c t i n g a r e o b v i o u s l y more m o r a l l y p r a i s e w o r t h y t h a n o t h e r s ) . The i m p o r t a n t t h i n g i n t h e c a s e d e s c r i b e d a b o v e i s t h a t S m i t h c o n f o r m s f o r some r e a s o n o t h e r t h a n t h e s i m p l e f a c t t h a t h e i s t o l d t o c o n f o r m . I f J o n e s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , o b e y s a u t h o r i t y i n a s t i m u l u s - r e s p o n s e t y p e manner, w i t h o u t a n y a d v a n c e d e c i s i o n t o obey b e f o r e p e r f o r m i n g t h e a c t o f obe-d i e n c e i n q u e s t i o n , t h e n we c o u l d h a r d l y c a l l h i s a c t i o n a u t h e n t i c . S u p p o s e one w e r e i n d o c t r i n a t e d w i t h a c e r t a i n s e t o f b e l i e f s w h i c h l a t e r become c o n s c i o u s l y o p e r a t i v e r e a s o n s f o r p e r f o r m i n g c e r t a i n a c t s . C o u l d s u c h a c t s be c o n s i d e r e d a u t h e n t i c ? G i v e n t h e p r e s e n t a c c o u n t o f a u t h e n t i c i t y , t h e a n s w e r t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i s e m p h a t i c a l l y y e s . S u c h a c t s w o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be autonomous a c t s , b u t t h e y w o u l d h a v e t o b e c o n s i d e r e d a u t h e n t i c i f - t h e y a r e t h e r e s u l t o f a c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n t o a c t on t h e p a r t o f an a g e n t . A c o n d i t i o n e d r e s p o n s e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , w o u l d n o t be a u t h e n t i c s i n c e c o n d i t i o n e d r e s p o n s e s a r e n o t t h e r e s u l t o f o n e ' s own d e c i s i o n s . So f a r we h a v e b e e n d i s c u s s i n g a u t h e n t i c i t y i n t h o s e c o n t e x t s w h e r e t h e r e i s some q u e s t i o n as t o w h e t h e r o n e ' s o b s e r v a b l e b e h a v i o r i s , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , t h e r e s u l t , o f a d e c i s i o n t o a c t i n a p a r t i c u l a r way on t h e p a r t o f an i n d i v i d u a l a g e n t . What a b o u t u n o b s e r v a b l e " b e h a v i o r s " s u c h as a c t s o f c h o o s i n g , d e c i d i n g , j u d g i n g , r e a s o n i n g , 15 c o n c l u d i n g , e t c . ? How c a n t h e t e r m s ' a u t h e n t i c ' o r ' i n -a u t h e n t i c ' a p p l y t o t h e s e k i n d s o f a c t s ? We w i l l c o n s i d e r how t h e n o t i o n o f a u t h e n t i c i t y c o u l d a p p l y t o two k i n d s o f u n o b s e r v -a b l e a c t s : c h o o s i n g a n d r e a s o n i n g . One s o m e t i m e s comes a c r o s s t h e p o i n t o f ..view t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c r i t e r i a one u s e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h a t c h o i c e s t o make i s t h e c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g a u t h e n t i c f r o m i n a u t h e n t i c c h o i c e s . We a r e t o l d t h a t t h e c r i t e r i a one u s e s must be o n e ' s own i f a c h o i c e i s t o be c o n s i d e r e d a u t h e n t i c . I f we demand, h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e c r i t e r i a f o r m a k i n g c h o i c e s be so ' a u t h e n t i c ' as t o . b e e n t i r e l y d i v o r c e d f r o m any g r o u n d i n g i n o n e's c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e o r a c c u m u l a t e d knowledge,, we a r r i v e a t t h e e x i s t e n t i a l i s t d i l e m m a o f m a k i n g c r i t e r i o n l e s s c h o i c e s . " S i n c e we a r e a l l a t l e a s t t h e p a r t i a l p r o d u c t s (some w o u l d s a y t h e : t o t a l p r o d u c t . ) o f o u r g e n e t i c endowments a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n -f l u e n c e s , t h e w h o l e n o t i o n o f a c r i t e r i o n l e s s c h o i c e r e n d e r s t h e c o n c e p t o f a u t h e n t i c i t y b o t h v a c u o u s a n d i n a p p l i c a b l e . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be no way o u t o f t h i s d i l e m m a . F e i n b e r g a l l u d e s t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a s o l u t i on when he s a y s , "Our s t a n d a r d s must be h i g h enough t o e x c l u d e s u b t l e c o u n t e r f e i t s o f a u t h e n t i -c i t y , y e t n o t so h i g h as t o r e n d e r a u t h e n t i c i t y a n empty o r un-r e a l i z a b l e i d e a l . " b u t he does n o t s u g g e s t any c r i t e r i o n t h a t c o u l d b e u s e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h an a u t h e n t i c f r o m an i n a u t h e n t i c a c t o f c h o o s i n g . A n y c r i t e r i o n we c o u l d t h i n k o f , s u c h a s : (1) a d e c i s i o n must n o t be t h e r e s u l t o f i n d o c t r i n a t e d b e l i e f s , 16 ( 2 ) a d e c i s i o n m u s t b e d e l i b e r a t e d u p o n i n a r a t i o n a l m a n n e r b y t h e a g e n t , o r ( 3 ) t h e c r i t e r i a o n e u s e s i n m a k i n g a d e c i s i o n m u s t b e i n t e r n a l -i z e d b e f o r e i t c a n b e c o n s i d e r e d o n e ' s o w n , . i s i n a d e q u a t e . I t i s e i t h e r a n i n s t a n c e o f s o m e o t h e r n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n o f a u t o n o m y ( t h e f i r s t c r i t e r i o n r e f e r s t o f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e a n d t h e s e c o n d t o r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n ) , o r s o v a g u e ( a s i n ( 3 ) a b o v e w h e r e w e c a n n o t p r o p e r l y s p e c i f y w i t h o u t c o m p l e t e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e w o r k i n g s o f t h e m i n d , w h a t c o u n t s a s i n t e r n a l i z e d ! 2 3 c c r i t e r i a ) t h a t w e a r e l e d t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e u s e o f t h e t e r m s ' a u t h e n t i c ' o r ' i n a u t h e n t i c ' i n r e f e r e n c e t o a c t s o f c h o o s i n g , d o e s n o t a d d a n y t h i n g n e w t o t h e a c c o u n t g i v e n h e r e o f a u t o n o m y ^ t S s w e s h a l l s e e , r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n ( w h i c h i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n ) i s t a k e n t o . b e t h e t h i r d n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t o n o f a u t o n o m y . S i m i l a r l y , a c t s o f r e a s o n i n g c a n b e d e s c r i b e d o n l y m u c h t o o l o o s e l y a s a c t s o f a u t h e n t i c i t y . C o n s i d e r t h e u s e o f ' a u t h e n t i c i t y ' i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e l e c t i o n : A f o r m e r c o l l e a g u e o f m i n e , a s e n s i t i v e a n d g i f t e d a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r , o n c e a n n o u n c e d t o me t h a t a f t e r m a n y y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f r e l i g i o n h e h a d g r a d u a l l y c o m e t o b e l i e v e i n G o d . My f r i e n d h a d p r e p a r e d a n e l a b o r a t e a n d c o m p l e x r a t i o n a l e f o r h i s i m p o r t a n t n e w c o n v i c t i o n s u c h t h a t I c o u l d i j i g t d o u b t t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f h i s r e a s o n i n g s " . W h a t p o s s i b l e c r i t e r i o n c o u l d s a t i s f y t h e a t t r i b u t i o n o f a u -t h e n t i c i t y t o a c t s o f r e a s o n i n g i n s o m e c a s e s a n d i n a u t h e n t i c i t y i n o t h e r s ? We m i g h t d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h o s e w h o r e a s o n w e l l 17 a n d t h o s e who r e a s o n p o o r l y b y m a k i n g r e f e r e n c e t o s u c h p r i n c i p l e s as o b j e c t i v i t y o r l o g i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y , b u t t h e r e seems no j u s t -i f i c a t i o n f o r l a b e l l i n g s u c h c r i t e r i a as f e a t u r e s w h i c h d i s -t i n g u i s h a u t h e n t i c f r o m i n a u t h e n t i c r e a s o n i n g . I t a p p e a r s t h a t ' s i n c e r i t y ' m i g h t be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r ' a u t h e n t i c i t y ' w i t h o u t d i s -t u r b i n g t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e above p a s s a g e , b u t t h i s move w o u l d n o t p r o v i d e us w i t h any more i n s i g h t . I t w o u l d be l o g i c a l l y o d d t o s u g g e s t t h a t an a c t o f r e a s o n i n g c o u l d be i n s i n c e r e a n d r e -m a i n an a c t o f r e a s o n i n g r a t h e r t h a n r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o r d e c e p t i o n . D e s p i t e , t h e many d i f f e r e n t u s e s a n d s e n s e s o f ' r e a s o n ' , i n h e r e n t i n t h e c o n c e p t i s some k i n d o f "due r e g a r d f o r t r u t h " : . . . w h a t e v e r p a r t i c u l a r d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e f a c u l t y o f r e a s o n we may, i m p l i c i t y o r e x p l i c i t y , a d o p t ; i t seems u n a v o i d -a b l e t h a t i t w i l l be a t t e m p t e d t h e r e b y t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h i s f a c u l t y f r o m o t h e r s as b e i n g t h a t b y t h e e x e r c i s e o f w h i c h we c a n p e r c e i v e , o r a r r i v e a t , t r u t h s o f some p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o r k i n d s ; a n d t h i s k i n d o f t r u t h , o r t h e s e k i n d s o f t r u t h s , w i l l i n t u r n be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m o t h e r -Q k i n d s on. l o g i c a l c r e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l g r o u n d s . I f s e e k i n g t r u t h s i s p a r t o f w h a t 5s e n t a i l e d i n r e a s o n i n g , t h e n s p e a k i n g a b o u t t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f o n e ' s r e a s o n i n g s i n a s e n s e t h a t i s syonymous w i t h s i n c e r i t y , seems r e d u n d a n t . E v e n i f ' a u t h e n t i c ' w e r e c o u p l e d w i t h some o t h e r m e n t a l t e r m s u c h as ' b e l i e f , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o c o n c e i v e o f any c r i t e r i o n t h a t m i g h t d i s t i n g u i s h a u t h e n t i c f r o m i n a u t h e n t i c b e l i e f s w i t h -o u t r e f e r e n c e t o some o t h e r c o n d i t i o n o f autonomy, n a m e l y , r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n . S i n c e t h e n o t i o n s o f a u t h e n t i c i t y a n d i n a u t h e n t i c i t y a p p e a r t o be s u p e r f l u o u s i n t h e p r e s e n t c o n t e x t when u s e d t o d e s c r i b e u n o b s e r v a b l e " b e h a v i o r s " o r m e n t a l a c t s ( t h a t i s , i f 18 t h e y r e f e r t o a n y t h i n g a t a l l i n s u c h c a s e s , i t i s t o t h e p r e s e n c e o r a b s e n c e o f o t h e r c o n d i o n s o f autonomy s u c h as f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e and r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n ) , t h e n we m u s t be c o n t e n t t o r e s t r i c t o u r u s e o f t h e t e r m s i n d i s c u s s i o n s o f autonomy t o o b s e r v a b l e human a c t i o n s . E v e n i f ' a u t h e n t i c ' w e r e c o u p l e d w i t h some o t h e r m e n t a l t e r m s u c h as ' b e l i e f , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o c o n c e i v e o f any c r i t e r i o n t h a t m i g h t d i s t i n g u i s h a u t h e n t i c f r o m i n a u t h e n t i c b e l i e f s w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o some o t h e r c o n d i t i o n o f autonomy, n a m e l y , r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n . The n e x t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s w h e t h e r t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n -d i t i o n s o f f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e a n d a u t h e n t i c i t y ( w h e r e a p p l i c a b l e ) t o g e t h e r c o n s t i t u t e a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f autonomy. R i e s m a n p o i n t s o u t t h a t some o t h e r c o n d i t i o n i s r e -q u i r e d b e f o r e a p e r s o n c a n b e a t t r i b u t e d w i t h p o s s e s s i n g a u t o -nomy. He d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e i n n e r - d i r e c t e d p e r s o n f r o m t h e autonomous p e r s o n , e v e n t h o u g h t h e f o r m e r may p o s s e s s f r e e d o m 12 o f c h o i c e a n d a u t h e n t i c i t y . R i e s m a n ' s i n n e r - d i r e c t e d p e r s o n , h o w e v e r , c o n f o r m s i r r a t i o n a l l y t o t h e d i c t a t e s o f a ' c o n s c i e n c e ' t h a t w i l l n o t m o d i f y i t s demands i n t h e l i g h t o f new a n d r e -l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . I m a g i n e t h e c a s e o f a f a i r l y i n t e l l i g e n t i n d i v i d u a l who b e h a v e s n o r m a l l y i n most a s p e c t s o f h i s l i f e , b u t who c o n t i n u e s t o b e l i e v e a n d p r o f e s s t h a t t h e moon i s made o f g r e e n c h e e s e i n s p i t e o f c o n v i n c i n g e v i d e n c e t o t h e c o n t r a r y . S u c h an a c t i o n ( i . e . t h e o b s e r v a b l e a c t i o n o f p r o f e s s i n g t h a t t h e moon i s made o f g r e e n c h e e s e ) , may b e f r e e l y c h o s e n (we m u s t assume t h e a g e n t i s n o t o b s e s s e d w i t h h i s b e l i e f , a n d t h a t he h a s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e a b i l i t y t o ch a n g e h i s m i n d i n l i g h t o f 19 new i n f o r m a t i o n i n o t h e r s i m i l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s ) a n d a u t h e n t i c , b u t we w o u l d h e s i t a t e t o r e g a r d t h e a c t as t h a t o f an autonomous p e r s o n u n l e s s t h e a g e n t c o u l d s u p p l y us w i t h g o o d r e a s o n s f o r a d o p t i n g t h e v i e w t h a t t h e moon i s made o f g r e e n c h e e s e . Con-s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e u n r e a s o n a b l e , i n n e r - d i r e c t e d p e r s o n l e a d s us t o a t h i r d c o n d i t i o n o f autonomy w h i c h P e t e r s r e f e r s t o as r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n . " * " ^ RATIONAL REFLECTION The O x f o r d E n g l i s h d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s ' r e f l e c t i o n ' as t h e a c t i o n o f deep a n d s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , a n d ' r a t i o n a l ' as h a v i n g t h e f a c u l t y o f r e a s o n i n g as w e l l as e x e r c i s i n g o n e ' s r e a s o n i n a p r o p e r manner, h a v i n g s o u n d j u d g m e n t , b e i n g s a n e a n d s e n s i b l e , e t c . The t e r m ' r a t i o n a l ' comes f r o m t h e L a t i n r a t i o m e a n i n g r e a s o n . The a d j e c t i v e s ' r a t i o n a l ' a n d ' r e a s o n a b l e ' a r e o f t e n u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y i n e v e r y d a y u s a g e a n d e v e n i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s c o u r s e . P r o f e s s o r P o l e u s e s ' t h e r a t i o n a l ' s y n o n y m o u s l y w i t h 'Reason' i n h i s a r t i c l e "The C o n c e p t o f Reason.""'"^ H o w e v e r , he o p p o s e s ' r a t i o n a l ' o n l y t o ' n o n - r a t i o n a l ' , r e s e r v i n g t h e t e r m ' i r r a t i o n a l ' t o r e f e r t o p e o p l e who r e a s o n b u t who r e a s o n v e r y p o o r l y . Max B l a c k , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , u s e s ' i r r a t i o n a l ' t o mean s o m e t h i n g r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t f r o m ' u n r e a s o n -a b l e ' . " ^ B l a c k p o i n t s o u t a f i n e s h a d e o f d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two c o n c e p t s when he s a y s , "...we t a l k a b o u t an ' i r r a t i o n a l i m p u l s e ' , b u t s u r e l y n o t - o r n o t so f r e e l y - a b o u t an u n -16 r e a s o n a b l e impulse.'.' B l a c k i m p l i e s t h a t ' i r r a t i o n a l ' r e f e r s 2 0 not to poor reasoning but to the absence of rea s o n i n g . ^ In any case, i n saying that r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n i s a necessary con-d i t i o n of autonomy we are saying two things: (1) that one must have reasons for one's acts, and (2) that one's reasons must be, i n some sense, reasonable. We w i l l deal i n turn with each of these c r i t e r i a of r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n . Suppose, for instance, we meet someone who has j u s t dragged himself up twelve f l i g h t s of s t a i r s to the upper story of a large o f f i c e block, and we ask him, "Why didn't you take the elevator?". Our normal expectation i s that we w i l l be sup-p l i e d with an answer that comprises some consciously held, causally operative reason for the action such as, "The elevator was too crowded," or "I needed the exercise," or "There i s no elevator i n this b u i l d i n g . " I f , However, the response we re-ceive i s , "I don't know. I have no idea why I did that. How fo o l i s h of me!", then we might regard the action as impulsive, but we would not regard i t as autonomous. The action may have been motivated by some unconscious drive, but unconscious drives are causes of actions, not reasons for acting. Reasons are con-siderations employed as j u s t i f i c a t i o n s for performing certain actions, holding certain b e l i e f s , proving certain points, etc. That r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n requires one to have reasons for one's choices does not mean that one's reasons must be s i l e n t l y reviewed by an agent each time he performs an action. Many o f o u r a c t i o n s a r e p e r f o r m e d i n a somewhat h a b i t u a l manner. H a v i n g r e a s o n s a n d c o n s t a n t l y r e m i n d i n g o n e s e l f o f t h o s e r e a s o n s a r e two d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r s . One m i g h t n o t be c o n s c i o u s l y m i n d f u l o f t h e r e a s o n s why one g e t s o u t o f b e d as t h e a l a r m c l o c k r i n g s a t s e v e n o ' c l o c k e a c h m o r n i n g , b u t v e r y l i k e l y one c o u l d s u p p l y t h e s e r e a s o n s i f a s k e d t o do s o . R a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n r e q u i r e s t h a t one m u s t h a v e r e a s o n s f o r a c t i n g , b u t n o t t h a t one be c o n -s t a n t l y m i n d f u l o f them. T h a t a r a t i o n a l l y r e f l e c t i v e p e r s o n m u s t h a v e r e a s o n s f o r h i s a c t i o n s i s e a s i l y g r a n t e d , b u t t h e more d i f f i c u l t p o i n t t o e x p l i c a t e i s t h a t o n e ' s r e a s o n s m u s t b e , i n some s e n s e , r e a s o n a b l e . What c o u n t s as a r e a s o n a b l e r e a s o n f o r a c t i n g a n d w h a t does n o t ? To l o o k f o r someone's t e l e p h o n e number i n t h e d i r e c t o r y when y o u know t h a t he h a s no t e l e p h o n e i s one o f B l a c k ' s p a r a d i g m c a s e s o f u n r e a s o n a b l e a c t i o n v e r g i n g on t h e 18 i r r a t i o n a l . A n o t h e r i n s t a n c e o f u n r e a s o n a b l e a c t i o n m i g h t be t o c o m p l a i n t h a t someone i s u n g r a t e f u l f o r a n i n j u r y y o u 19 h a v e done h i m . I n e i t h e r c a s e t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n c e r n e d m i g h t h a v e r e a s o n s f o r w h a t he d o e s , b u t he does n o t r e f l e c t u p o n them, p r e s u m a b l y , o r he w o u l d r e a l i z e t h a t h i s r e a s o n s a r e i n a d e q u a t e . The u n r e f l e c t i v e p e r s o n we r e g a r d as a n o m i c o r i m p u l s i v e , b u t n o t autonomous. The f i r s t r e q u i r e m e n t o f a r e a s o n a b l e r e a s o n , t h e n , i s t h a t i t be d e l i b e r a t e d upon b y t h e a g e n t . O b v i o u s l y , some c o u r s e s o f c o n d u c t a r e o f s u f f i c i e n t i m p o r t ( s u c h as c h o o s i n g a r e l i g i o n , a c a r e e r , o r a home) t o r e q u i r e much more d e l i b e r a t i o n t h a n o t h e r s ( s u c h as c h o o s i n g 22 w h i c h s h i r t t o w e a r t o d a y o r w h i c h m o v i e t o w a t c h t o n i g h t ) . I n t i m e o f c r i s i s o r e m e r g e n c y h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s o f t e n no t i m e t o d e l i b e r a t e u p o n one's r e a s o n s f o r a c t i n g - no t i m e t o w e i g h up t h e p r o s a n d c o n s , no t i m e t o c o n s i d e r a l l t h e p o s s i b l e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f o n e ' s a c t i o n i n d e t a i l . The r a t i o n a l y r e -f l e c t i v e p e r s o n i s a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h o s e c a s e s i n w h i c h a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f d e l i b e r a t i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e f r o m t h o s e c a s e s i n w h i c h o n l y a minimum o f d e l i b e r a t i o n i s c a l l e d f o r . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h o u g h , t h a t one c o u l d r e f l e c t u p o n o n e ' s r e a s o n s f o r a c t i n g w i t h o u t b e i n g autonomous. U n l e s s a p e r s o n ' s r e a s o n i n g c o n f o r m s t o c e r t a i n minimum s t a n d a r d s we a r e l i k e l y t o r e g a r d h i m as i n d o c t r i n a t e d , m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d , demented, p s y c h o t i c , c o n d i t i o n e d o r w h a t h a v e y o u . The s t a n d a r d s t o w h i c h one must c o n f o r m are t h o s e o f o b j e c t i v i t y , r e l e v a n c e , l o g i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y , i m p a r t i a l i t y , e t c . One p r o b a b l y c o u l d n o t h a v e a r e a s o n a b l e r e a s o n t o p u n i s h a c h i l d f o r s t e a l -i n g a w a t e r p i s t o l j u s t t o " t e a c h h i m a l e s s o n " i f one knew t h a t he d i d n o t s t e a l i t . S i m i l a r l y , i t w o u l d n o t b e r e a s o n -a b l e t o c l a i m t h a t one o u g h t t o be d e a l t w i t h h o n e s t l y b y o t h e r s when t r a n s a c t i n g b u s i n e s s a g r e e m e n t s , b u t t h a t one n e e d n o t d e a l h o n e s t l y w i t h o t h e r s h i m s e l f . To b e r e a s o n a b l e i s t o a s s e s s b e l i e f s a n d b e h a v i o r s n o n - a r b i t r a r i l y . One's a b i l i t y t o r e f l e c t r a t i o n a l l y on o n e ' s p r i n c i p l e s , a i m s , m o t i v e s , g o a l s a n d so o n , p r e s u p p o s e s t h e p r e s e n c e o f some s e t t l e d a n d u n d i s p u t e d c r i t e r i a b y means o f w h i c h one i s a b l e t o e x a m i n e t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o r c o u r s e 23 o f a c t i o n b e i n g r e f l e c t e d upon. O f c o u r s e one c a n a s k s u c h q u e s t i o n s as "Why b o t h e r t a k i n g a l l t h e r e l e v a n t d a t a i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n when m a k i n g a d e c i s i o n ? " o r "Why b o t h e r ' • . . t r y i n g t o b e l o g i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t ? " b u t , as F e i n b e r g p o i n t s o u t , " I f we t a k e autonomy t o r e q u i r e t h a t a l l p r i n c i p l e s a r e t o be e x -a m i n e d a f r e s h i n t h e l i g h t o f r e a s o n on e a c h o c c a s i o n f o r d e c i s i o n , t h e n n o t h i n g r e s e m b l i n g r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n c a n e v e r g e t s t a r t e d . The e x i s t e n t i a l i s t c o n s i d e r s r e a s o n t o b e a t h r e a t t o autonomy on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t i f an i n d i v i d u a l becomes a s l a v e t o t h e demands o f s u c h r e a s o n a b l e p r i n c i p l e s as l o g i c a l c o n -s i s t e n c y , he becomes a mere " p a s s i v e o n l o o k e r ( s ) o f s e l f -21 p r o p e l l e d r e a s o n i n g s . " S e v e r a l r e s p o n s e s m i g h t be made t o t h i s c l a i m . F i r s t , i f a n i n d i v i d u a l c h o o s e s t o make u s e o f r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n i n d e c i d i n g on a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f h i s i n c l i n a t i o n s , he i s i n d e e d e x e r c i s i n g autonomy i n m a k i n g t h a t d e c i s i o n . T h i s r e s p o n s e i s n o t w h o l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y , h o w e v e r , s i n c e i t a t t r i b u t e s a u t o -nomy t o t h o s e a c t s w h i c h a r e n o t r a t i o n a l l y r e f l e c t e d u p o n as w e l l . S e c o n d l y , i f t h e e x i s t e n t i a l i s t w i s h e s t o e q u a t e t h e un-r e a s o n a b l e , a n o m i c c h a r a c t e r w i t h t h e autonomous p e r s o n , t h e n t h e r e w o u l d be no p o i n t i n h o l d i n g up t h e c h a o t i c c o n d i t i o n o f autonomy as a p e r s o n a l i d e a l o r an e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e . T h i r d l y , we s i m p l y c a n n o t make i n t e l l i g i b l e t h e n o t i o n o f a c r i t e r i o n l e s s c h o i c e . I f one d i d n o t make u s e o f s e t t l e d r u l e s a n d p r i n c i p l e s i n m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s a n d e x a m i n i n g b e l i e f s , o n e ' s 24 j u d g m e n t s w o u l d be a r b i t r a r y , b a s e d o n l y on w h i m o r i m p u l s e . A s t a t e o f ' c o g n i t i v e a n o m i e ' c o u l d h a r d l y be c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r -a b l e . M a k i n g u s e o f s e t t l e d p r i n c i p l e s t o g u i d e o n e ' s r e a s o n i n g i s n o t o n l y no t h r e a t t o a u t onomy, b u t a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o i t . One who e n g a g e s i n r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n t h e n , n o t o n l y h a s r e a s o n s f o r h i s a c t i o n s , b u t d e l i b e r a t e s upon them ( o r h a s a t some t i m e d e l i b e r a t e d u p o n them) i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h c e r t a i n minimum s t a n d a r d s . H i s c o n d u c t i s t y p i f i e d b y e x e r c i s i n g a n a b i l i t y t o a l t e r h i s b e l i e f s i n t h e l i g h t o f new e v i d e n c e , o r c h ange h i s a t t i t u d e s as c i r c u m s t a n c e s c h a n g e , as w e l l as t o c o n s i d e r t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f h i s a c t i o n s b e f o r e he a c t s . The r a t i o n a l l y r e f l e c t i v e p e r s o n u s e s l a n g u a g e c o r r e c t l y ; he i s o b j e c t i v e a n d does n o t make u n n e c e s s a r y j u d g m e n t s on t h e b a s i s o f i r r e l e v a n t a n d i n a d e q u a t e e v i d e n c e . He i s a b l e t o a r r i v e a t n o n - a r b i t r a r y c o n c l u s i o n s r e s u l t i n g f r o m r e f l e c t i v e d e l i b e r a -t i o n s as o p p o s e d t o t h e a r b i t r a r y whim§of t h e u n d e l i b e r a t i v e a g e n t . T h i s i s n o t t o s a y t h a t he who r e f l e c t s r a t i o n a l l y w i l l a l w a y s make t h e m o s t r e a s o n a b l e d e c i s i o n , b u t he w i l l a t l e a s t b e a ware o f w h a t t h e m o s t r e a s o n a b l e d e c i s i o n a p p e a r s t o b e . (We w i l l r e t u r n t o t h i s p o i n t i n a moment.) One may d e c i d e t o f o l l o w a whim o r an i m p u l s e i n any number o f s i t u a t i o n s , b u t an i n d i v i d u a l a c t s a u t o n o m o u s l y i n s u c h c a s e s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t he h a s e n g a g e d i n r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n b e f o r e m a k i n g a d e c i s i o n t o a c t u n r e a s o n a b l y o r i r r a t i o n a l l y i n a n y g i v e n c i r c u m s t a n c e . I f an i n d i v i d u a l d i d n o t go t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n b e f o r e d e c i d i n g t o a b a n d o n t h e e n t e r -p r i s e a n d f o l l o w a whim i n s t e a d , we w o u l d be i n c l i n e d t o c a l l 2 5 h i m a n i m p u l s i v e o r an a n o m i c c h a r a c t e r , a l t h o u g h i t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t o d e c i d e i n any p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h e t h e r one i s a n o m i c a l l y f o l l o w i n g a whim o r a u t o n o m o u s l y d o i n g s o . The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s as t o w h a t d e g r e e o f o b j e c t i v i t y o r l o g i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y i s n e c e s s a r y i n o n e ' s r e a s o n i n g s b e f o r e one c a n b e a t t r i b u t e d w i t h a c t i n g o r t h i n k i n g a u t o n o m o u s l y . A l t h o u g h i t may b e i m p o s s i b l e t o draw a m a t h e m a t i c a l l y p r e c i s e l i n e t o d i s t i n g u i s h c a s e s w h e r e r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n i s p r e s e n t , b u t o f v e r y p o o r q u a l i t y , f r o m t h o s e i n w h i c h we w o u l d s a y i t i s a b s e n t a l t o g e t h e r , i t does n o t f o l l o w t h a t t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s we n o r m a l l y make i n t h i s r e g a r d o u g h t t o b e d i s r e g a r d e d . We do n o t r e q u i r e t h a t o n e ' s b e l i e f s b e t r u e o r o n e ' s r e a s o n i n g s w h o l l y a c c u r a t e b e f o r e we a t t r i b u t e t h e p o s s e s s i o n o r e x e r c i s e o f autonomy t o h i m . What i s n e c e s s a r y i s t h a t t h e a g e n t t h i n k t h e b e l i e f s he h o l d s a r e t r u e . T h i s f o l l o w s l o g i c a l l y f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t p a r t o f w h a t i t means t o h o l d a b e l i e f i s t o r e g a r d i t as t r u e . A b e l i e f may be q u e s t i o n e d , e x a m i n e d o r s c r u t i n i z e d i n t h e l i g h t o f new e v i d e n c e o r c o n f l i c t i n g b e l i e f s , b u t i t c e a s e s t o b e a b e l i e f when i t i s no l o n g e r h e l d t o b e t r u e . An i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d s p e n d t h i r t y y e a r s . s t u d y i n g t h e p y r a m i d s o f E g y p t a n d e v e n t u a l l y a r r i v e a t an e l a b o r a t e t h e o r y a b o u t how t h e y w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d . The t h e o r y m i g h t b e f a l s e , b u t we w o u l d n o t deny t h a t t h e a g e n t h a d p r e s e n t e d us w i t h a go o d e x a m p l e o f autonomous t h i n k i n g . N e i t h e r f a l s e b e l i e f s n o r e r r o r s i n j u d g m e n t n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s t i t u t e a t h r e a t t o autonomy i n t h e way t h a t an i n a b i l i t y t o d i s t i n g u i s h w h a t m i g h t 2 6 c o u n t as a r e a s o n f o r a c t i n g f r o m w h a t w o u l d n o t c o u n t a s a r e a s o n f o r a c t i n g , c o r r e c t l y c o n s t i t u t e s s u c h a t h r e a t . I n t h e l a t t e r s o r t o f c a s e one m i g h t b e d e n i e d a t t r i b u t i o n w i t h t h e p o s s e s s i o n o r e x e r c i s e o f autonomy n o t o n l y on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n i s a b s e n t , b u t a l s o o n t h e g r o u n d s t h a t t h e s u b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s o f f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e a r e c o n s p i c u o u s l y a b s e n t . So f a r , f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e , a u t h e n t i c i t y a n d r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n h a v e b e e n d i s c u s s e d as n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e e x e r c i s e o f autonomy. Do t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , when t a k e n a l -t o g e t h e r , c o m p r i s e an e x h a u s t i v e l i s t ? C o n s i d e r a c a s e i n w h i c h a man w o u l d l i k e t o o b t a i n a d i v o r c e f r o m h i s w i f e . S u p p o s e he i s n o t c o m p e l l e d i n any way t o o b t a i n t h e d i v o r c e , b u t f r e e l y d e c i d e s t o do so f o r r e a s o n s o f h i s own a f t e r many weeks o f r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n on t h e m a t t e r . S u p p o s e he t h e n f a i l s t o a c t and s p e n d s t h e r e s t o f h i s l i f e i n m i s e r y , a l w a y s w i s h i n g he h a d a c t e d o t h e r w i s e , b e c a u s e he d i d n o t h a v e t h e i n n e r f o r t i t u d e t o c a r r y t h r o u g h w i t h h i s d e c i s i o n i n t h e f a c e o f t h e a n x i e t y c r e a t e d . . b y p u l l i n g up r o o t s . F o r p u r p o s e s o f t h e a r g u m e n t we may assume t h e r e a r e no c h i l d r e n , f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s o r o t h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s i t u a t i o n w h i c h t h e a g e n t w o u l d h a v e t o c o n s i d e r . S u r e l y we w o u l d h e s i t a t e t o s a y t h a t s u c h a p e r s o n a c t e d a u t o n o m o u s l y . T h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n b r i n g s us t o t h e f o u r t h c r i t e r i o n o f 22 autonomy w h i c h P e t e r s c a l l s s t r e n g t h o f w i l l . 2 7 STRENGTH OF WILL The presence of strength of w i l l i n any given s i t u a -tion depends to some extent upon the presence and strength of counter i n c l i n a t i o n s . I f counter i n c l i n a t i o n s o f f e r r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e interference with one's purposes, goals, aims and decisions, then one i s usually attributed with having determina-tion and strength of w i l l . I f one i s e a s i l y swayed by counter-i n c l i n a t i o n s , one i s said to be weak wi l l e d . The weak w i l l e d person i s closer to a state of anomie than his stronger w i l l e d counterpart since his various b e l i e f s , values, p r i n c i p l e s , i n -cl i n a t i o n s , etc. are constantly i n c o n f l i c t , as opposed to the strong w i l l e d person whose b e l i e f s , values, p r i n c i p l e s , etc. have been systematically ordered into a h i e r a r c h i c a l structure of well defined p r i o r i t i e s . The stronger w i l l e d person i s the one we often r e f e r to as the s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e d person. The more s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e one has, the stronger i s one's w i l l and the further one i s removed from a state of anomie. This i s not to suggest that the strong w i l l e d , s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e d person w i l l never experience inner c o n f l i c t . Often, i t seems that the more one engages i n r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n , the more one i s l i k e l y to experience inner c o n f l i c t . The difference between the strong w i l l e d and the weak w i l l e d person, however, i s that the strong w i l l e d person usually resolves his c o n f l i c t s and dilemmas, or 2 8 a t l e a s t comes t o t e r m s w i t h them, so t h a t a new s t a t e o f e q u i l i b r i u m r e s u l t s , e n a b l i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o make autonomous d e c i s i o n s w i t h o u t l i v i n g i n a p e r p e t u a l s t a t e o f i n n e r t u r m o i l . The w e a k e r w i l l e d p e r s o n i s l e s s a b l e t o p u t h i s b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , g o a l s , p u r p o s e s , i n c l i n a t i o n s , e t c . i n t o h i e r a r c h i c a l p a t t e r n s o u t o f w h i c h p r i o r i t i e s a r i s e . The weak w i l l e d p e r s o n i s e a s i l y s w a y e d b y whims a n d i m p u l s e s w h i c h r u n ^ c o n t r a r y t o h i s r e a s o n e d p r i n c i p l e s . "The s t r o n g - w i l l e d man," s a y s P e t e r s , " l i k e t h e i n -d e p e n d e n t l y m i n d e d man, s t i c k s t o h i s p r i n c i p l e s i n t h e f a c e o f ' 23 r i d i c u l e , - o s t r a c i s m , ) p u n i s h m e n t aridi b r i b e s ' . " We h a v e now a r r i v e d a t a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n o f p e r s o n a l autonomy; n a m e l y , t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e , a u t h e n t i -c i t y , r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n a n d s t r e n g t h o f w i l l when t a k e n a l -t o g e t h e r . The n e x t t a s k i s t o c o n s i d e r why autonomy o u g h t t o be p r o m o t e d as a p e r s o n a l o r an e d u c a t i o n a l i d e a l . 29 FOOTNOTES W i l l i a m K . F r a n k e n a , "The C o n c e p t o f E d u c a t i o n T o d a y , " i n James F . D o y l e ( e d . ) , E d u c a t i o n a l - J u d g m e n t s , L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e a n d K e g a n P a u l , 1973, p.30. D a v i d R i e s m a n , The L o n e l y Crowd, G a r d e n C i t y : L . I . D o u b l e d a y - A n c h o r , 1954, p . 2 7 8 , c i t e d i n A l a n G e w i r t h , " M o r a l i t y a n d Autonomy i n E d u c a t i o n , " i n D o y l e , op_. c i t . , p . 40. I n some s e n s e t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g o d d a b o u t r e f e r r i n g t o a u t o n o m o u s l y h e l d b e l i e f s , o r d e c i s i o n s t h a t a r e made a u t o n o m o u s l y . O v e r t a c t i o n s ( a n d i n d i v i d u a l a g e n t s ) a r e more e a s i l y d e s c r i b e d as autonomous o r n o n -autonomous t h a n m e n t a l a c t s . T h i s i s due t o t h e i n -a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f a u t h e n t i c i t y a n d ' s t r e n g t h o f w i l l ' (two n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s o f autonomy) t o m e n t a l a c t s . One way o u t o f t h i s d i f f i c u l t y i s t o s u g g e s t t h a t i n t h e c a s e o f m e n t a l a c t s t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e o t h e r two n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s o f autonomy ( f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e a n d r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n ) i s s u f f i c i e n t t o r e f e r t o them as autonomous a c t s . A n o t h e r s o l u t i o n m i g h t be t o e x -c l u d e m e n t a l a c t s f r o m t h e c l a s s o f autonomous a c t s -i n w h i c h c a s e we w o u l d s t i l l r e q u i r e some way t o d e s -c r i b e t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n , s a y , a r r i v i n g a t b e l i e f s w h i c h a r e f r e e l y h e l d a n d r a t i o n a l l y r e f l e c t e d u p o n , a n d a r r i v i n g a t i n d o c t r i n a t e d b e l i e f s . The f o r m e r s o l u t i o n seems more r e a s o n a b l e b e c a u s e s u c h a d e f i n i t i o n w o u l d be u s e f u l i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g a n d d e r i v e d a t l e a s t i n p a r t , f r o m t h e o r d i n a r y u s a g e o f 'autonomous' a n d 'non-autonomous' i n o u r l a n g u a g e . I t ' . c o u l d b e r e a s o n -a b l y a r g u e d h o w e v e r , t h a t m e n t a l a c t s a r e b o r d e r l i n e c a s e s o f t h o s e a c t s w h i c h may be c o r r e c t l y d e s c r i b e d a s ' a u t o -nomous' o r 'non-autonomous'. The f i n a l s o l u t i o n t o t h i s p r o b l e m i s e x t r a n e o u s t o t h e c e n t r a l p u r p o s e o f t h i s p a p e r . R . S . P e t e r s , " F r e e d o m a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e Free.; Man", i n D o y l e , op_. c i t . , p. 122. I b i d , pp. 122-123. G e o r g e d u M a u r i e r , T r i l b y , L o n d o n : C o l l i n s , 1953, ( o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1894. P e t e r s , op_. c i t . , pp. 123-124. 30 8. L o c . c i t . 9. J o e l F e i n b e r g , "The I d e a o f a F r e e Man", i n D o y l e , op. c i t . , p. 162. 10. L o c . c i t . 11. G.J.Warnock, " R e a s o n " , i n P a u l E d w a r d s ( e d . ) , The E n c y c l o p e d i a o f P h i l o s o p h y , New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., V I I , pp. 84-85. 12. R i e s m a n , op_. c i t . 13. P e t e r s , op_. c i t . p. 124. 14. D . P o l e , "The C o n c e p t o f R e a s o n " , i n R . F . D e a r d e n , P . H . H i r s t a n d R . S . P e t e r s ( e d s . ) , E d u c a t i o n a n d t h e  D e v e l o p m e n t o f R e a s o n , L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e a n d K e g a n P a u l , 1972, pp. 154-155. 15. Max B l a c k , " R e a s o n a b l e n e s s " , i n R . F . D e a r d e n , P . H . H i r s t an d R . S . P e t e r s ( e d . ) , op_. c i t . p . 1 9 9 . 16. L o c . c i t . 17. I f ' i r r a t i o n a l ' r e f e r s n o t t o p o o r r e a s o n i n g , b u t t o t h e a b s e n c e o f r e a s o n i n g , t h e n t h e p h r a s e ' i r r a t i o n a l i m p u l s e ' a p p e a r s t o b e r e d u n d a n t s i n c e a n i m p u l s e i s t y p i c a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e a b s e n c e o f r e a s o n i n g . 18. Max B l a c k , op_. c i t . , p.200. 19 I b i d , p . 2 0 1 . 20. J o e l F e i n b e r g , op_. c i t . , p . 166. 21. R . F . D e a r d e n , "Autonomy a n d E d u c a t i o n " , i n R . F . D e a r d e n , P . H . H i r s t a n d R . S . P e t e r s ( e d s . ) , op_. c i t . , p.459. 22. R . S . P e t e r s , op_. e x t . , p.124. 23. I b i d , p. 125. C h a p t e r 2 J U S T I F I C A T I O N O F T H E P R O M O T I O N O F P E R S O N A L AUTONOMY T h e p r o m o t i o n o f p e r s o n a l a u t o n o m y c a n b e j u s t i f i e d o n a t l e a s t f o u r k i n d s o f g r o u n d s : ( 1 ) f o r i t s e x t r i n s i c m e r i t s , i . e . t h e b e n e f i c i a l c o n s e q u e n c e o f i t s p r o m o t i o n , ( 2 ) f o r i t s i n t r i n s i c • _ m e . ¥ i £ - _ a a _ a n - i t i h f e s e n ^ t p - a r t t O i f f h i u m a m d i g n i t y , ( 3 ) a s a n e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e , a n d ( 4 ) a s c e n t r a l t o t h e n o t i o n o f m o r a l a g e n c y . T h e f i r s t t h r e e a s p e c t s o f t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f a u t o n o m y w i l l b e d e a l t w i t h i n t u r n , w h i l e ( 4 ) w i l l b e d e a l t w i t h a t l e n g t h i n C h a p t e r T h r e e . T h e f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s w h a t k i n d s o f b e n e f i c i a l c o n s e q u e n c e s t h e p r o m o t i o n o f a u t o n o m y m i g h t h a v e . Q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e a c t u a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e p r o m o t i o n o f a u t o n o m y a r e e m p i r i c a l , a n d n o t t o b e c o n s i d e r e d h e r e . H o w e v e r , t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o n c e p t o f a u t o n o m y c a n a d m i t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o r t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f c e r t a i n c o n s e q u e n c e s o f . i t s p r o m o t i o n w h i l e p r e c l u d i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o r t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f c e r t a i n o t h e r c o n s e q u e n c e s . I t m i g h t b e a r g u e d , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t t h e p r o m o t i o n 32 o f autonomy w i l l h a v e e c o n o m i c a n d m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t s i n a s o c i e t y w h e r e t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f goods depends t o a l a r g e m e a s u r e on i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e a n d r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s . P o s s e s s i o n o f t h e f o u r n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s o f autonomy i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o w h a t i t means t o h a v e i n i t i a t i v e . I t m i g h t a l s o b e a r g u e d t h a t autonomous p e o p l e a r e n e e d e d t o f o r m t h e c o r t e x o f t h e e n t i r e b o d y p o l i t i c , i f man i s t o p r o g r e s s i n a w o r t h w h i l e d i r e c t i o n a n d g a i n c o n t r o l o v e r : h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . P e o p l e a r e g e n e r a l l y a ware o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f i n c r e a s i n g p o l l u t i o n , o v e r p o p u l a t i o n , a l i e n a t i o n , i n f l a t i o n , t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f n u c l e a r w e a p o n r y a nd t h e l i k e , b u t so f a r v e r y l i t t l e h a s b e e n done t o remedy t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s . We c a n assume t h a t autonomous p e o p l e a r e b e t t e r e q u i p p e d t o s e e k s o l u t i o n s t o p r o b l e m s t h a n n o n - a u t o n o m o u s p e o p l e , s i n c e one u s u a l l y . has t o engage i n r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n i n o r d e r t o f i n d s o l u t i o n s t o p r o b l e m s . One must a l s o p o s s e s s t h e f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e a n d s t r e n g t h o f w i l l t o i m p l e m e n t t h e s e s o l u t i o n s . T h i s a r g u m e n t c o u l d be a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y d e f e a t e d , h o w e v e r , b y a d e m o n s t r a t i o n t h a t programmed r o b o t s m i g h t be b e t t e r a t f i n d i n g s o l u t i o n s t o t h e . w o r l d ' s p r o b l e m s t h a n human b e i n g s . Autonomous p e o p l e m i g h t s t i l l be r e q u i r e d as p r o g r a m m e r s , b u t i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t h e w o r l d c o u l d make do w i t h o n l y a v e r y s m a l l number o f autonomous p e r s o n s . S t r o n g e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s n e e d e d , t h e r e f o r e , i f autonomy i s t o b e p r o m o t e d on a n y l a r g e s c a l e . 3 3 A t h i r d a r g u m e n t a b o u t t h e e x t r i n s i c m e r i t s o f t h e p r o m o t i o n o f autonomy m i g h t be r e f e r r e d t o as t h e s a t i s f a c -t i o n a r g u m e n t . Few p e o p l e w a n t t o b e p u s h e d , b o s s e d , o r d e r e d a b o u t a n d s u b j e c t e d t o t h e "unknown i n c o n s t a n t , a r b i t r a r y w i l l o f a n o t h e r human b e i n g . " E v e n v e r y y o u n g c h i l d r e n f e e l i n s u l t e d a n d r e s e n t f u l i f t h e i r o p i n i o n s a r e a l w a y s d i s c o u n t e d , i f t h e y a r e t r e a t e d l i k e o b j e c t s i n s t e a d o f p e o p l e . T h e r e i s a s t r o n g s e n s e i n w h i c h i t i s n o t t h e e x e r c i s e o f autonomy w h i c h h a s t o b e j u s t i f i e d , b u t i n s t e a d , any i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h i t . G r e a t s a t i s f a c t i o n i s g a i n e d n o t o n l y i n t h i n k i n g f o r o ne-s e l f a n d m a k i n g o n e ' s own d e c i s i o n s , b u t i n b e i n g t r e a t e d b y o t h e r s as someone who i s c a p a b l e o f t h i n k i n g f o r h i m s e l f a n d m a k i n g h i s own d e c i s i o n s . The s a t i s f a c t i o n a r g u m e n t m i g h t be c o u n t e r e d b y E r i c Fromm's p o p u l a r , e m p i r i c a l c l a i m t h a t human b e i n g s a r e b a s i c a l l y a f r a i d o f e x e r c i s i n g autonomy. Fromm's p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e s i s i s t h a t f r e e d o m makes p e o p l e i n s e c u r e . P e o p l e w o u l d r a t h e r be l e d b y o t h e r s t h a n d e t e r m i n e t h e i r own d e s t i n i e s . They p r e f e r someone e l s e t o t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r them. The p o i n t i s w e l l t a k e n i f i t i s made i n r e f e r e n c e t o n o n -autonomous p e r s o n s , b u t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o c o n c e i v e o f a s t r o n g w i l l e d , a u t h e n t i c , f r e e c h o o s i n g , r a t i o n a l l y r e f l e c t i v e i n d i v i d u a l who p r e f e r s , i n g e n e r a l , n o t t o e x e r c i s e h i s autonomy. I n f a c t , b y d e f i n i t i o n , Fromm i s d i s c u s s i n g t h e n o n -a utonomous p e r s o n . As we h a v e s e e n , t h e autonomous p e r s o n i s 34 s t r o n g w i l l e d e nough t o p u t h i s j u d g m e n t s a n d d e l i b e r a t e d c o n -c l u s i o n s i n t o a c t i o n . I f Fromm's v i e w i s b a s i c a l l y an a r g u m e n t a g a i n s t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o r t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e b e c o m i n g a u t o n o m o u s , i t i s v u l n e r a b l e on a t l e a s t two c o u n t s . F i r s t , s i n c e t h e c l a i m i s e m p i r i c a l , i t c o u l d b e r e -f u t e d b y r e s e a r c h w h i c h b r i n g s t o l i g h t e v i d e n c e t o t h e c o n t r a r y . S e c o n d l y , a p o i n t n o t t o be d i s r e g a r d e d i s t h a t t h e s o u r c e s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e non-autonomous p e r s o n c a n a n d do change as autonomy d e v e l o p s . B u t t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n a r g u m e n t i s v u l n e r a b l e f r o m o t h e r p o s i t i o n s as w e l l . I f " B r a v e New W o r l d " w e r e a t e c h -n o l o g i c a l l y v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o p r e s e n t l i f e s t y l e s , t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n a r g u m e n t w o u l d b e d e f e a t e d . " B r a v e New W o r l d " does n o t a d m i t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s s a t i s f i e d c i t i z e n s . D e a r d e n p o i n t s o u t t h a t n e a r l y e v e r y human b e i n g i s an e x e r c i s e r o f autonomy t o some e x t e n t , no m a t t e r how s m a l l . " E v e n i n a c t i n g u n d e r t h e s t r i c t e s t o r d e r s , some m i n i m a l a c t i v e i n t e l l i g e n c e i s c a l l e d f o r . " ' ' " E v e n i f one l i v e d h i s e n t i r e l i f e b y f o l l o w i n g some e x t e r n a l l y i m p o s e d s e t o f r u l e s , an i n d i v i d u a l i s r e q u i r e d t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r a s i t u a t i o n he e n c o u n t e r s i s an i n s t a n c e w h e r e a p a r t i c u l a r r u l e a p p l i e s o r n o t . The u s e o f l a n g u a g e i n a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n a p a r r o t - l i k e f a s h i o n r e q u i r e s a t l e a s t some m i n i m a l a b i l i t y t o r e f l e c t r a t i o n a l l y . H o w e v e r , i t i s c e r t a i n l y w i t h i n t h e r e a l m o f p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t one c o u l d m a i n t a i n a f a i r l y h a p p y e x i s t e n c e , e v e n w i t h o u t " B r a v e New W o r l d , " w i t h o u t e x e r c i s i n g a n y t h i n g more' t h a n a v e r y m i n i m a l amount o f 35 autonomy. I f happiness i s taken as the ultimate goal of l i f e , then autonomy w i l l be valued only i n so far as i t i s instrumental i n promoting human happiness. But the "contented cow" approach can be countered by considerations which are often regarded as more important than happiness. This leads us to the j u s t i f i c a -t i on of the promotion of autonomy on the grounds that i t i s i n -t r i n s i c a l l y worthwhile. The exercise of autonomy i s commonly regarded as fund-amental to the possession of human dignity or worth. Our ap-proval of desirable modes of conduct increases i n dir e c t pro-portion to the degree to which the four conditions of autonomy are present i n an}T given circumstance. We might applaud a tenth grade student for e n r o l l i n g i n a d i f f i c u l t course i n chemistry i f several easier alternatives wereoopenttohhim,bb.ut-;wevwo.uld consider the choice to have lesser worth i f the student's free-dom of choice were li m i t e d to the extent that he i s compelled to choose only between chemistry and biology, while e n r o l l i n g i n the chemistry course would carry no merit at a l l i f such enrollment were compulsory. We regard obedience to authority; when i t i s done for a reason, as more meritorious than a con-ditioned response to a badge or a uniform. I f the reason for obedience has been thoughtfully r e f l e c t e d upon such that i t s groundings i n moral and p o l i t i c a l philosophy are clear, we would usually regard the act of obedience as possessing more worth then an act of obedience which i s f u l f i l l e d simply to 36 avoid punishment. We regard the same act of obedience as more praiseworthy when i t i s done from the exercise of strength of w i l l rather than from personal preference or i n c l i n a t i o n . To possess human dignity i s to be a person i n the f u l l sense of the word. Not a l l human beings could be f u l l y described as persons. "'Person' i n our usage i s a more precise term [than 'human being^J implying the possession of capacities (to be s e l f -2 determining and rule-following)...." To be both self-determin-ing and rule-following i s what i t means, very loosely, to be autonomous. I f 'to be a person' can be loosely equated with 'to be autonomous', then the moral p r i n c i p l e of respect for persons (to which a l l other moral p r i n c i p l e s appear to be related) be-comes loosely synonymous with respect for autonomy. To show re-spect for others i s to take t h e i r behavior seriously and to assume that i t i s r a t i o n a l i . e . that reasons rather than r a t i o n a l i z a -tions can be supplied by the agent for i t . Part of what i t means to have respect for oneself i s to engage i n purposive behavior without undue dependence on others. Downie and T e l f e r d deal at length with the notion of respect for persons i n t h e i r book Res-pect for Persons i n which the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the moral p r i n c i p l e and tbe._s_Qtidi£^oris.;b£_£ra , r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n and strength of w i l l are discussed, a l b e i t 3 sometimes using d i f f e r e n t terminology. B.F.Skinner and other behaviorists hold that the dis-t i n c t i o n we make between human beings and persons, between 3 7 a c t s w h i c h a r e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f g r e a t e r a n d l e s s e r d e g r e e s o f human w o r t h a n d d i g n i t y , i s a d i s t i n c i o n we s h o u l d n o t make s i n c e a l l b e h a v i o r i s g e n e t i c a l l y a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y d e t e r m i n e d . From t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w t h e e l e m e n t s o f human v o l i t i o n a r e e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y d e t e r m i n e d t o o . One c a n n o t e s c a p e t h e c o n t r o l o f f a c t o r s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e o n e ' s b e h a v i o r w h e t h e r t h o s e f a c t o r s a r e d e l i b e r a t e l y d e s i g n e d b y o t h e r s o r r a n d o m l y d e t e r m i n e d b y f o r c e s w h i c h a r e l e s s a p p a r e n t . Some k i n d s o f c o n t r o l s r e s u l t i n b e n e f i c i a l c o n s e q u e n c e s a n d some do n o t . I n s t e a d o f b r a n d -i n g a l l c o n t r o l as w r o n g , w h i c h i s n o n s e n s e anyway, s a y s S k i n n e r , we s h o u l d s i m p l y e l i m i n a t e t h o s e f o r m s o f c o n t r o l w h i c h h a v e a v e r s i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s a n d e n c o u r a g e t h o s e f o r m s o f c o n t r o l w h i c h a r e b e n e f i c i a l . ^ S k i n n e r ' s a r g u m e n t c a n be d e f e a t e d i n a t l e a s t two w a y s . F i r s t , e v e n i f e v e r y t h i n g , i n c l u d i n g t h e e l e m e n t s o f human v o l i t i o n , i s e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y d e t e r m i n e d , we f i n d i t v e r y u s e f u l t o make d i s t i n c t i o n s among d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f b e h a v i o r s d e p e n d i n g on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d . We f i n d i t u s e f u l t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h o s e a c t s w h i c h a r e r a t i o n a l l y r e f l e c t e d u p o n , f o r i n s t a n c e , a n d t h o s e w h i c h a r e n o t , e v e n i f we b e l i e v e t h a t an a g e n t c o u l d n o t h a v e a c t e d o t h e r w i s e u n l e s s t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f h i s a c t i o n w e r e d i f f e r e n t . We u s e s u c h d i s t i n c t i o n s as b a s e s f o r p r a i s i n g a n d b l a m i n g , f o r e n c o u r a g i n g a n d d i s c o u r a g i n g c e r t a i n k i n d s o f b e h a v i o r s t h a t we c o n s i d e r t o be more b e n e f i c i a l o r d e t r i m e n t a l t h a n o t h e r s . I f t h i s means t h a t human d i g n i t y a n d h e n c e autonomy, a r e t o be v a l u e d 38 f o r t h e i r b e n e f i c i a l c o n s e q u e n c e s i n t h e l o n g r u n ( e x t r i n s i c as o p p o s e d t o i n t r i n s i c m e r i t ) , l i t t l e g r o u n d h a s b e e n l o s t , a n d t h e c a s e f o r t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p r o m o t i o n o f autonomy on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t i t i s e x t r i n s i c a l l y w o r t h w h i l e h a s b e e n s t r e n g t h e n e d . The p o i n t h e r e i s t h a t we do n o t r e q u i r e 'X c o u l d h a v e a c t e d o t h e r w i s e ' t o mean 'even i f a l l t h e c i r c u m -s t a n c e s - o f t h e s i t u a t i o n h a d b e e n e x a c t l y t h e same, X c o u l d h a v e a c t e d o t h e r w i s e ' i n o r d e r t o c o n t i n u e m a k i n g t h e u s e f u l d i s t i n c t i o n s we h a v e made i n t h e p a s t . S e c o n d l y , i f a l l b e h a v i o r i s a m a t t e r o f r e s p o n d i n g t o s t i m u l i o r s e t s o f s t i m u l i , w h i c h a r e s i m p l y r e s p o n s e s t o o t h e r s e t s o f s t i m u l i , t h e n t h e w h e e l s o f d e s t i n y a r e a l -r e a d y i n m o t i o n , a n d we a r e a l l t h e pawns o f f o r c e s b e y o n d o u r s e l v e s . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f any new s t i m u l u s i n t o t h e s y s t e m ( t h a t i s n o t a l r e a d y a r e s p o n s e w i t h i n t h e s y s t e m f r o m some o t h e r s t i m u l u s w i t h i n t h e s y s t e m , a d i n f i n i t u m ) , i s l o g i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . What w i l l be w i l l b e . The p e r p e t u a t i o n o f t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w h a s t h e u n h a p p y c o n s e q u e n c e . o f d e s t r o y i n g m o t i v -a t i o n a n d i n i t i a t i v e e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h o s e d u t i e s we w o u l d r a t h e r n o t p e r f o r m . "Why s h o u l d n ' t I , " one c o u l d s e n s i b l y a s k , " g i v e up b e h a v i n g r e s p o n s i b l y a n d m e r e l y f o l l o w my i n c l i n -a t i o n s ? " E v e n i f f r e e w i l l does n o t e x i s t i n any m e t a p h y s i c a l s e n s e , i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e w h e t h e r m e t a p h y s i c s c a n o f f e r any v i a b l e d i r e c t i o n f o r human c o n d u c t . S k i n n e r a l s o s u g ' g e s t s , i n B e y o n d F r e e d o m a n d D i g n i t y , 39 that we should concentrate on making better environments i n -stead of better men."' Surely Skinner regards men as part of the t o t a l environment - as p o t e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e s t i m u l i . I f this i s so, we are improving the environment for everyone by im-proving i n d i v i d u a l persons. One of the most important j u s t i f i c a t i o n s of the pro-motion of autonomy from the educator's point of view l i e s i n the fact that there i s a close conceptual connection between what i t means to be educated and what i t means to be autonomous The notion of autonomy i s l o g i c a l l y connected to the concept of education. Two conditions are generally recognized i n philos ophy of education as necessary conditions of the concept "ed-ucation." The conditions are (1) d e s i r a b i l i t y and (2) know-ledge. "Educating people suggests developing i n [them] states of mind which are valuable and which involve some degree of knowledge and understanding."^ Since the l o g i c a l connection between autonomy and education i s made through the knowledge condition of education, the d e s i r a b i l i t y factor w i l l not be discussed, although the interested reader might be referred to at least two sources which explore this avenue i n d e t a i l . ^ What does i t mean to say that knowledge i s a necessary condition of education? Obviously, i f a person possesses a s k i l or a knack i n a p a r t i c u l a r area, no matter how valuable a knack i t i s (such as an a b i l i t y to crochet, or to grow b e a u t i f u l roses), some additional condition i s required before we would 40 Q h a v e s u f f i c i e n t g r o u n d s f o r c a l l i n g t h a t p e r s o n e d u c a t e d . The e d u c a t e d p e r s o n must a l s o p o s s e s s a c e r t a i n amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The r o s e g a r d e n e r w o u l d h a v e t o h a v e d e t a i l e d i n -f o r m a t i o n a b o u t d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f r o s e s , o p t i m u m c o n d i t i o n s f o r g r o w t h , a n d t h e e f f e c t s on g r o w t h p a t t e r n s p r o d u c e d b y v a r y i n g c l i m a t i c c h a n g e s , s o i l c o n d i t i o n s , e t c . The mere p o s s e s s i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h o u g h , i s a l s o i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r someone t o be c o r r e c t l y d e s c r i b e d as an e d u c a t e d p e r s o n . An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e f a c t s w h i c h c o m p r i s e o n e ' s r e p e r t o i r e o f i n f o r m a t i o n on r o s e s w o u l d a l s o be r e q u i r e d , i . e . w h a t i s n e e d e d i s a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e ' r e a s o n - why' o f t h i n g s . P e o p l e who h a v e g a i n e d a n u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f t h e ' r e a s o n - why' o f t h i n g s w i t h r e g a r d t o grow-i n g r o s e s a r e d e s c r i b e d as k n o w l e d g e a b l e i n b o t a n y , o r i n t h a t b r a n c h o f b o t a n y i n w h i c h t h e r o s e g r o w e r s p e c i a l i z e s . P r o f e s s o r Coombs makes c l e a r w h a t i s meant i n t h i s c o n t e x t b y ' k n o w l e d g e ' : I t s h o u l d . b e c l e a r t h a t ' k n o w l e d g e ' as P e t e r s i s u s i n g t h e t e r m , does n o t mean mere i n f o r m a t i o n . To h a v e k n o w l e d g e i s , a t t h e l e a s t , t o h a v e a t r u e b e l i e f a n d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e v i d e n c e w h i c h w a r r a n t s i t . H a v i n g k n o w l e d g e , t h e n , i n v o l v e s h a v i n g r a t i o n a l b e l i e f , s u p p o r t e d b y r e a s o n s . The i m p o r t a n t p o i n t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n autonomy a n d e d u c a t i o n i s t h a t h a v i n g b e l i e f s u p p o r t e d b y r e a s o n s , w h i c h i s an i n h e r e n t p a r t o f t h e k n o w l e d g e c o n d i t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n , i s c e n t r a l t o t h e t h i r d c o n d i t i o n o f autonomy , 41 that of r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n . The connection between the. r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n condition of autonomy and the knowledge condition of education might be strengthened by pointing out that the possession of true b e l i e f s without an understanding of the evidence which warrants them, would count more as i n -doctrination than education. Indoctrinated b e l i e f s can count neither as knowledge nor as autonomously held b e l i e f s . A r r i v -ing at b e l i e f s which are r a t i o n a l l y r e f l e c t e d upon, presupposes the absence of any physical or mental state which might i n t e r -fere with the r e f l e c t i v e process. The condition of freedom of choice then, as well as r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n , i s l o g i c a l l y con-nected to the concept of education. Since the notion of auth-e n t i c i t y applies only to autonomous actions where these might be distinguished from unobservable "behaviors," strength of w i l l appears to be the only condition of autonomy which we can sensibly suggest has no connection with the knowledge condition of education. The promotion of personal autonomy has been j u s t i f i e d , so far, on the grounds that i t has b e n e f i c i a l consequences both for individuals and for the human race i n general, on the grounds that i t i s basic both to the notion of human dignity and to the moral p r i n c i p l e of respect for persons, and also on the grounds that autonomy i s basic to the concept of education. Another argument i s that the promotion of autonomy i s j u s t i f i a b l e on the grounds that autonomy i s conceptually connected to moral agency. In Chapter Three the nature of the connection between moral agency and the conditions of autonomy w i l l be examined i n d e t a i l . 42 FOOTNOTES R.F.Dearden. "Autonomy and E d u c a t i o n , " i n R.F.Dearden, P . H . H i r s t and R.S.Peters (eds.), E d u c a t i o n and the  Development o f Reason, London- R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1972. p.460. R.S.Downie and E l i z a b e t h T e l f e r d , R e s p e c t f o r P e r s o n s , London: George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1969, p.35. I b i d . B . F . S k i n n e r , Beyond Freedom and D i g n i t y , New York: A l f r e d A.Knopf, 1971, p.43. I b i d , p.20. P . H . H i r s t and R . S . P e t e r s , The L o g i c o f E d u c a t i o n , London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1970, p.13. See P . H , H i r s t and R . S . P e t e r s , op_. c i t . , o r see R.S.Peters,"What i s an E d u c a t i o n a l P r o c e s s ? " i n R . S.Peters ( e d . ) , The concept o f E d u c a t i o n , London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l L t d . , 1967. pp. 1-23. T h i s a n a l y s i s o f the knowledge c o n d i t i o n o f ed-u c a t i o n c l o s e l y f o l l o w s t h a t o f R. S . P e t e r s i n "What i s an E d u c a t i o n a l P r o c e s s ? " , op_. c i t . , pp. 6-9. J e r r o l d R.Coombs, " C o n c e r n i n g the N a t u r e o f M o r a l Competence," Yearbook, I I , 1975, p.7. C h a p t e r 3 AUTONOMY A N D T H E MORAL A G E N T T h e r e i s o n e s e n s e o f t h e w o r d ' m o r a l ' i n w h i c h i t i s u s e d a s t h e o p p o s i t e o f ' i m m o r a l ' . I n t h i s s e n s e ' m o r a l ' i s u s e d " t o m a k e a p p r a i s a l s a b o u t t h e a c t i o n s o r c h a r a c t e r o f p e r s o n s . " " ' " T h e o t h e r s e n s e i n w h i c h ' m o r a l ' i s u s e d i s t h a t s e n s e i n w h i c h m o r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h e r e a l m s o f a e s t h e t i c s , p r u d e n c e , s c i e n c e , a n d s o f o r t h . F o r o u r p u r p o s e s , t h e w o r d ' m o r a l ' i s u s e d i n t h i s s e c o n d s e n s e , a n d ' m o r a l a g e n t ' i s t a k e n t o m e a n o n e w h o i s m o r a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s a c t i o n s . T h e o p p o s i t e o f m o r a l a g e n t i n t h e s e n s e i n w h i c h w e a r e u s i n g i t i s n o n - m o r a l a g e n t . I t s h o u l d b e c l e a r t h a t i m m o r a l b e h a v i o r b e l o n g s t o t h e r e a l m o f m o r a l a g e n c y . T h e n o n -m o r a l a g e n t i s o n e t o w h o m t h e n o t i o n o f m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l t y d o e s n o t a p p l y e i t h e r b e c a u s e : ( 1 ) h i s a c t i o n d o e s n o t f a l l w i t h i n t h e m o r a l s p h e r e ( e . g . d e c i d -i n g t o w e a r r u n n i n g s h o e s r a t h e r t h a n b r o w n o x f o r d s ) , o r ( 2 ) h i s a c t i o n f a l l s w i t h i n t h e m o r a l s p h e r e b u t t h e a s c r i p t i o n o f m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y d o e s n o t a p p l y t o h i m b e c a u s e o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f o n e o r m o r e e x c u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s . T h e t a s k o f C h a p t e r T h r e e i s t o s p e c i f y s o m e o f t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s o f m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e r e b y o u t l i n i n g t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n a u t o n o m y a n d m o r a l a g e n c y . F e i n b e r g m a k e s 4 3 44 t h e s t a t e m e n t , " M o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , I d a r e s a y , i s a s u b j e c t 2 a b o u t w h i c h we a r e a l l c o n f u s e d . " T h i s c h a p t e r i s an a t t e m p t t o r e d u c e some o f t h a t c o n f u s i o n . F e i n b e r g u s e s s e v e r a l e x a m p l e s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e t r u t h w h i c h u n d e r l i e s h i s s t a t e m e n t i n t h e a r t i c l e " P r o b l e m a t i c Re-3 s p o n s i b i l i t y i n Law a n d M o r a l s . " T h e r e i s a g e n e r a l p r e s u p p o s i -t i o n , c l a i m s F e i n b e r g , i n f a v o r o f t h e v i e w t h a t m o r a l r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y , c o u l d n o t e v e r b e w h o l l y a m a t t e r o f l u c k . A f t e r a l l , l u c k i s a m a t t e r o f c h a n c e a n d , t o s u g g e s t t h a t one c o u l d be m o r a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a c h a n c e a c t i o n i s t o m i s u n d e r s t a n d t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e a s c r i p t i o n o f m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s d e p e n d e n t t o some e x t e n t on c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a r e e x t e r n a l t o t h e a g e n t , a n d t h e n a t u r e o f t h o s e c o n d i t i o n s c a n s o m e t i m e s b e a m a t t e r o f l u c k . Con-s i d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n : One man s h o o t s a n o t h e r a n d k i l l s h i m , a n d t h e l a w h o l d s h i m r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e a t h a n d h a n g s h i m . A n o t h e r man w i t h e x a c t l y t h e same m o t i v e s a n d i n t e n t i o n s , t a k e s c a r e f u l a i m a n d s h o o t s a t h i s enemy b u t m i s s e s b e c a u s e o f a l a s t m i n u t e movement o f h i s p r e y o r b e c a u s e o f h i s own b a d e y e s i g h t . The l a w c a n n o t h o l d h i m r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d e a t h b e c a u s e he h a s n o t c a u s e d o ne: b u t , f r o m t h e m o r a l p o i n t o f v i e w , h e , i s o n l y l u c k i e r t h a n t h e h a n g e d m u r d e r e r . I s t h e s e c o n d man as m o r a l l y b l a m e w o r t h y as t h e f i r s t ? B o t h men a r e o b v i o u s l y m o r a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i n t e n t i o n t o k i l l , b u t t h e f i r s t man i s m o r a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a c t u a l l y k i l l i n g , w h e r e a s t h e s e c o n d i s n o t . We c a n n o t s p e a k o f m o r a l 45 r e s p o n s i b l i t y f o r a k i l l i n g i f t h e r e h a s b e e n no k i l l i n g . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e s h o o t e r w i t h t h e p o o r e y e s i g h t a p p e a r s t o b e a r a l i g h t e r b u r d e n o f m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a n t h e h a n g e d m u r d e r e r , a n d t h i s l i g h t e r b u r d e n i s w h o l l y a m a t t e r o f c h a n c e i n some e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n . The p o i n t i s o f c o u r s e d e b a t a b l e . Some w o u l d h o l d t h a t b o t h men a r e e q u a l l y m o r a l l y b l a m e w o r t h y , b u t t h a t we m i g h t a d v o c a t e d i f f e r e n t p u n i s h m e n t s f o r them on u t i l i t a r i a n g r o u n d s . The c a s e f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f a f o r t u i t o u s e l e m e n t i n a s c r i p t i o n s o f m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s somewhat l e s s d e b a t a b l e w h e r e i n n e r s t a t e s a r e c o n c e r n e d . F e i n b e r g p o i n t s o u t t h a t " r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r one's own i n n e r s t a t e s . . . w o u l d i n some c i r c u m s t a n c e s b e w h o l l y a m a t t e r o f l u c k . " ^ C o n s i d e r t h e f o l l o w -i n g s i t u a t i o n : ...a m o r a l a g e n t i s c a l l e d t o a c c o u n t b y h i s own c o n s c i e n c e . The q u e s t i o n b e -f o r e t h e i n n e r c o u r t i s ... r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r some p a s t i n t e n t i o n , w h i c h may o r may n o t h a v e i s s u e d i n e f f e c t u a l a c t i o n . Sup-p o s e t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t s h a v e b e e n c e r t i f i e d b y t h e i n n e r c o u r t : t h e i n t e n -t i o n i n q u e s t i o n was t o s l a p S m i t h i n t h e f a c e ; i t was f o r m e d i n t h e a g e n t ' s m i n d as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f (1) h i s r a t h e r u n u s u a l s e n s i v i t y t o r e m a r k s o f a c e r t a i n s o r t s t e m m i n g i n t u r n f r o m a b a s i c i n s e c u r i t y a n d l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e , ( 2 ) a s l i g h t l y a b -n o r m a l d i s p o s i t i o n t o s t r o n g a n g e r a t t r i b u t -a b l e t o a h y p e r a c t i v e a d r e n a l s y s t e m , (3) a s t o m a c h d i s o r d e r s u f f i c i e n t l y d i s a g r e e a b l e t o p u t h i m o n edge a n d weaken h i s s e l f c o n -t r o l , a n d (4) h i g h l y p r o v o c a t i v e a n d d e l i b e r -a t e l y a b u s i v e r e m a r k s b y S m i t h . The q u e s t i o n i s w h e t h e r a n d t o w h a t e x t e n t t h e a g e n t i s m o r a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s i n t e n t i o n t o s l a p S m i t h i n t h e f a c e . One 46 o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e i n t e n t i o n , t h e a g e n t ' s u n u s u a l s e n s i t i v i t y , i s a n a s p e c t o f t h e man's c h a r a c t e r f o r w h i c h we w o u l d n o r m a l l y h o l d h i m m o r a l l y r e s p o n s -i b l e . B u t t h e o t h e r c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s a r e e x t e r n a l t o t h e a g e n t . They b e l o n g e i t h e r t o h i s b o d y ( s t o m a c h d i s o r d e r a n d h y p e r a c t i v e a d r e n a l s y s t e m ) o r t o someone e l s e ( S m i t h ' s a b u s i v e r e m a r k s ) . We w o u l d f a c e a v e r y d i f f i c u l t t a s k i f we t r i e d t o s p e c i f y how much m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h e a g e n t c o u l d r i g h t -f u l l y assume f o r h i s i n t e n t i o n t o s l a p S m i t h . "As a c o n s e q u e n c e , t h e p r e c i s e d e t e r m i n a b i l i t y o f m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s a n i l l u s i o n . " ^ The q u e s t i o n t h e n a r i s e s as t o w h e t h e r t h e p r e c i s e d e t e r m i n a b i l i t y o f m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s a n i m p o r t a n t i s s u e . P o s s i b l y i t i s n o t . A f t e r a l l , o n e ' s m o r a l r e c o r d : . . . c a n be u s e d f o r any v a r i e t y o f p u r p o s e s -as a b a s i s f o r s e l f - p u n i s h m e n t , r e m o r s e , o r p r i d e , f o r e x a m p l e : b u t a p e r s o n c a n a v o i d p u t t i n g i t t o t h e s e f u r t h e r u s e s , l e a v i n g g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s i m p l y a m a t t e r f o r t h e r e c o r d . G i v e n t h e f a c t t h a t we a r e n o t o m n i s c e n t b e i n g s , p e r h a p s t h e p r e c i s e d e t e r m i n a b i l i t y o f m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s i m -p o s s i b l e , b u t s u c h a s t a t e o f a f f a i r s does n o t p r e v e n t us f r o m m a k i n g b o t h u s e f u l a n d j u s t i f i a b l e a t t r i b u t i o n s o f m o r a l a g e n c y u n d e r c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s a n d r e f r a i n i n g f r o m d o i n g s o u n d e r o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s . The p r e s e n c e o r a b s e n c e o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f autonomy a r e h i g h l y r e l e v a n t c o n s d e r a t i o n s i n m a k i n g s u c h d i s t i n c t i o n s . M o r a l w o r t h h a s t o do w i t h a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s w o r t h 47 as a p e r s o n i n some v e r y f i n a l s e n s e . M o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " i s t o b e l i a b l e n o t t o o v e r t r e s p o n s e s , b u t t o a c h a r g i n g 9 a g a i n s t o n e ' s r e c o r d as a man." When we s a y t h a t an a c t i o n i s m o r a l l y p r a i s e w o r t h y o r b l a m e w o r t h y , we do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t i t s a g e n t s h o u l d be r e w a r d e d o r p u n i s h e d ( c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e u t i l i t y v a l u e o f p u n i s h m e n t as w e l l a s t h e m o r a l j u s t i f i -c a t i o n f o r r e w a r d a n d p u n i s h m e n t w o u l d c o u n t as r e l e v a n t h e r e ) , b u t s i m p l y t h a t t h e a c t adds t o o r d e t r a c t s f r o m t h e a g e n t ' s f i n a l w o r t h as a p e r s o n . By way o f i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c o n -n e c t i o n b e t w e e n autonomy a n d m o r a l a g e n c y , J o h n W i l s o n p r o v i d e s us w i t h some i m p o r t a n t i n s i g h t s . He e q u a t e s t h e m o r a l a g e n t w i t h one who i s m o r a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s a c t i o n s , i . e . one who a c t s i n t e n t i o n a l l y as w e l l as one who i s r a t i o n a l . " * " ^ To a c t i n t e n t i o n a l l y i s t o d e l i b e r a t e l y f o l l o w a r u l e , n o t j u s t t o a c t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h i t . ^ I t i s t o b e m o r a l l y e d u c a t e d , n o t j u s t m o r a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d . W i l s o n e x p l a i n s t h e n o t i o n o f r a t i o n a l i t y as f o l l o w s : The d e g r e e t o w h i c h an a c t i o n o r a b e l i e f a r e [ _ s i c ] r a t i o n a l i s c o n n e c t e d w i t h how f a r t h e y a r e r e a l l y o u r own: t h a t i s , how f a r t h e y a r e t h e r e s u l t o f f a c i n g f a c t s a n d r e s p o n d i n g f r e e l y , r a t h e r t h a n c o m p u l s i v e l y , t o them. I n s o f a r as o u r a c t i o n s a p p r o x i m a t e t o mere r e a c t i o n s o r r e f l e x movements, a n d o u r b e l i e f s t o s e t s o f w o r d s w h i c h a r e m e r e l y p a r r o t t e d o r a c c e p t e d s o l e l y o n a u t h o r i t y , t o t h a t e x t e n t we f a l l away f r o m a c t i n g a n d t h i n k i n g as m o r a l a g e n t s . We c a n s e e t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f autonomy a r e c l o s e l y 48 c o n n e c t e d w i t h w h a t i t means t o be a m o r a l a g e n t . C l e a r l y , one c a n n o t a c t i n t e n t i o n a l l y u n l e s s one h a s f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e . One c a n n o t a u t h e n t i c a l l y f o l l o w a m o r a l r u l e , as o p p o s e d t o s i m p l y a c t i n g i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h i t , u n l e s s t h e r e i s m o r a l a g e n c y . One c a n n o t f a c e t h e f a c t s a n d a c t a c c o r d i n g l y u n l e s s one i s r a t i o n a l l y r e f l e c t i v e t o some e x t e n t , a n d s u r e l y one c a n n o t a c t a t a l l u n l e s s one h a s t h e s t r e n g t h o f w i l l t o do s o . Some e l a b o r a t i o n on t h e s e p o i n t s i s n e c e s s a r y t o c l a r i f y t h e c o n n e c -t i o n b e t w e e n autonomy a n d m o r a l a g e n c y . We w i l l now s e e how t h e f o u r n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s o f autonomy a p p l y t o t h e m o r a l a g e n t . FREEDOM OF CHOICE AND MORAL AGENCY I t seems f a i r l y o b v i o u s t h a t w h e r e f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e i s l a c k i n g , s o i s m o r a l a g e n c y . P a r t o f w h a t i t means t o a c t m o r a l l y i s t o a c t i n t e n t i o n a l l y , t h a t i s , t o p o s s e s s some d e g r e e o f f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e , o t h e r w i s e one i s n o t a c t i n g i n t h e f u l l s e n s e o f t h e w o r d a t a l l , b u t r a t h e r one i s b e i n g a c t e d u p o n , o r r e a c t i n g . I t i s l o g i c a l l y o d d , o r a t l e a s t c o u n t e r - i n t u i t i v e , t o a p p l y any a s p e c t o f t h e c o n c e p t o f m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y u n l e s s f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e i s p r e s e n t . I f p h y s i c a l o r m e n t a l c o m p u l s i o n s i g n i f i e s i n a n y p a r t i c u l a r c a s e o f r i g h t d o i n g o r w r o n g d o i n g , t h e i m p u t a t i o n o f m o r a l a g e n c y i s c h a n g e d t o n o n - m o r a l a g e n c y . A b a n k t e l l e r c a n n o t b e h e l d m o r a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g i v i n g t h e b a n k ' s money away i f t h i e v e s demand a t g u n p o i n t t h a t s he do s o , o r i f she i s s u f f e r i n g f r o m some m e n t a l d e l u s i o n b y w h i c h she i s c o m p e l l e d t o s l i p a n e x t r a S.100 49 t o e v e r y c u s t o m e r who comes t o h e r w i c k e t . I n c o u r t s o f l a w , u n l e s s t h e s i t u a t i o n i s one o f s t r i c t l i a b i l i t y , p e o p l e a r e o f t e n e x c u s e d f o r t h e i r a c t s i f t h e y c a n show t h a t a t t h e t i m e t h e c r i m e was c o m m i t t e d , t h e y w e r e a c t i n g u n d e r some f o r m o f p h y s i c a l o r m e n t a l c o n s t r a i n t . L e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n s u c h c a s e s i s o f t e n d i m i n i s h e d b e c a u s e m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s d i m i n i s h e d . W i l s o n p o i n t s o u t t h a t " m o r a l w o r d s a r e a l l t i e d 13 down, i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , t o t h e n o t i o n o f i n t e n t i o n . " We do n o t make a p r o m i s e i f someone i s h o l d i n g a gun a t o u r b a c k s o r d e r i n g us t o u t t e r t h e w o r d s ' I p r o m i s e ' . A p r o m i s e h a s t o be made f r e e l y a n d i n t e n t i o n a l l y . "The p o i n t h e r e ^where f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e i s a b s e n t ] i s t h a t my m o r a l r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y i s d i m i n i s h e d , b e c a u s e my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r w h a t h a p p e n s i s d i m i n i s h e d ; w h a t h a p p e n s i s n o t s o m e t h i n g t h a t I ( f r e e l y ) d o . " 4 AUTHENTICITY AND MORAL AGENCY The p o i n t t o be e m p h a s i z e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f a u t h e n t i c i t y a n d m o r a l a g e n c y i s t h a t one c a n n o t a c t a u t h e n t i c a l l y o r i n a u t h e n t i c a l l y i n t h e m o r a l r e a l m w i t h o u t f i r s t b e i n g a m o r a l a g e n t . I n C h a p t e r One t h e t e r m s ' a u t h e n t i c ' a n d ' i n a u t h e n t i c ' w e r e shown t o a p p l y t o o v e r t b e h a v i o r s o n l y , r a t h e r t h a n m e n t a l a c t s . A u t h e n t i c i t y was t a k e n t o r e f e r t o an i n t e r i m d e c i s i o n on t h e p a r t o f an a g e n t t o p e r f o r m a c e r t a i n a c t i o n . P e r h a p s t h e m o s t we c a n s a y a b o u t t h e n o t i o n o f a u t h e n -t i c i t y i n r e g a r d t o a c t s o f m o r a l a g e n c y i s t h a t one m u s t a t 5 0 l e a s t b e l i e v e t h a t one i s d o i n g the r i g h t t h i n g because i t i s the r i g h t t h i n g t o do, o r one must at l e a s t b e l i e v e t h a t one i s d o i n g the wrong t h i n g w h i l e w i l f u l l y d i s r e g a r d i n g what i s r i g h t , b e f o r e an a c t can q u a l i f y as an a u t h e n t i c a c t . Agency o f any k i n d seems t o r e q u i r e t h a t one behave i n t e n t i o n a l l y , t h a t one p o s s e s s awareness, p a r t i c u l a r l y s e l f -awareness. An agent does n o t s i m p l y 'go t h r o u g h the m o t i o n s ' . M o r a l agency i m p l i e s the p o s s e s s i o n o f agency i n g e n e r a l , w i t h the added r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t one must p o s s e s s awareness o f m o r a l i s s u e s . The p o s s e s s i o n o f m o r a l agency i m p l i e s such c o n d i t i o n s as h a v i n g an awareness o f r i g h t and wrong, r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t ' I ought' i s d i f f e r e n t from ' I l i k e ' , and h a v i n g some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f m o r a l r u l e s . C l e a r l y , one cannot a c t a u t h e n t i c a l l y i n the m o r a l r e a l m ( i n the way t h a t a u t h e n t i c i t y i s d e s c r i b e d above) u n l e s s one i s a l r e a d y a c t i n g as a moral agent. Our aim h e r e , i s n o t to d e f i n e the concept o f m o r a l agency i n as much d e t a i l as we have d e f i n e d the concept o f p e r s o n a l autonomy, b u t o n l y t o show the c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n between the c o n d i t i o n s o f autonomy and what i t means t o be a m o r a l agent. I t might be emphasized a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t 'moral agent' i s t a k e n t o r e f e r t o one who i s m o r a l l y r e s p o n s -i b l e f o r h i s a c t i o n s . A s c r i p t i o n s o f m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a re an n o r m a l l y made whenAagent i s a t t r i b u t e d w i t h p o s s e s s i n g e i t h e r m o r a l p r a i s e w o r t h i n e s s o r m o r a l b l a m e w o r t h i n e s s . The n o t i o n o f m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s a l m o s t always a p p l i c a b l e i n m o r a l l y hazardous s i t u a t i o n s , b u t r a r e l y i n m o r a l l y innocuous ones. I n some s i t u a t i o n s , i m p u t a t i o n s o f m o r a l p r a i s e w o r t h i n e s s 51 o r b l a m e w o r t h i n e s s a r e w i t h d r a w n w h e r e a u t h e n t i c i t y i s a b s e n t . C o n s i d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e : . . . i f a p e r s o n d i s t r i b u t e s s w e e t s t o c h i l d r e n i n a f a i r a n d e q u i t a b l e manner, we c a n no d o u b t s a y t h a t he i s ' a c t i n g j u s t l y ' : b u t i f we l e a r n t h a t h i s o n l y r e a s o n f o r d o i n g t h i s i s t h a t h e i s f r i g h t e n e d o f w h a t t h e c h i l d r e n ' s p a r e n t s w i l l s a y i f h e d o e s n ' t do i t , t h e n we s h o u l d s a y t h a t he i s n o t a c t i n g o u t o f a b e l i e f i n j u s t i c e , b u t o u t o f f e a r : a n d c e r t a i n l y t h a t h e i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a j u s t man. I f t h e a c t was n o t p e r f o r m e d f r o m a d e s i r e t o a d h e r e t o t h e p r i n c i p l e o f j u s t i c e , t h e a c t i s n o t m o r a l l y p r a i s e w o r t h y , a l t h o u g h t h e r e may b e some u t i l i t y v a l u e i n p r a i s i n g a c t s w h i c h a p p e a r t o b e j u s t w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y a r e a u t h e n t i c . The q u e s t i o n t h e n a r i s e s a s t o w h e t h e r t h e a c t i s m o r a l l y b l a m e w o r t h y . We may r e g a r d i t as s y m p t o m a t i c o f a l o w l e v e l o f m o r a l d e v e l o p m e n t , o r we may r e g a r d t h e p e r s o n c o n c e r n e d as c o w a r d l y , b u t we w o u l d p r o b a b l y n o t r e g a r d h i m as m o r a l l y b l a m e -w o r t h y u n l e s s h e w e n t o u t o f h i s way t o m i s r e p r e s e n t h i m s e l f as a j u s t p e r s o n , p r e t e n d i n g h e was a d h e r i n g t o a p r i n c i p l e t o w h i c h he was n o t r e a l l y a d h e r i n g a t a l l ( i n w h i c h c a s e h e w o u l d b e r e -g a r d e d as a u t h e n t i c a l l y d i s h o n e s t ) . I m p u t a t i o n s o f m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a r e n o t a l w a y s w i t h d r a w n h o w e v e r , when a u t h e n t i c i t y i s l a c k i n g . I n f a c t , we o f t e n h o l d p e o p l e m o r a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s w h e r e a u t h e n t i c i t y i s a b s e n t , b u t c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y b e e x p e c t e d t o b e p r e s e n t . I f J o h n J o n e s f a i l s t o c o n s i d e r w h e t h e r a c t i o n X i s r i g h t o r w r o n g , a n d i f a c t i o n X o c c u r s i n some 52 m o r a l l y h a z a r d o u s s i t u a t i o n , we m i g h t h o l d J o n e s m o r a l l y r e s -p o n s i b l e f o r f a i l i n g t o a c t a u t h e n t i c a l l y i n t h o s e s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h he c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be e x p e c t e d t o do s o . F o r e x a m p l e , i f J o n e s w e r e t o engage i n a n t i - r a c i s t m a r c h e s s i m p l y b e c a u s e " i t ' s f u n " , o r b e c a u s e "my b u d d i e s m a r c h " , n o t o n l y w o u l d we w i t h o l d m o r a l p r a i s e f r o m J o n e s , b u t we w o u l d p r o b a b l y b l a m e h i m f o r f a i l i n g t o c o n s i d e r t h e s e r i o u s m o r a l i n j u s t i c e i n -v o l v e d i n r a c i s m . I n c a s e s l i k e t h i s , a u t h e n t i c i t y a n d m o r a l a g e n c y a p p e a r t o b e v e r y c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d . I n s i m i l a r c a s e s s u c h as t h o s e i n w h i c h a n a g e n t d e c e i v e s h i m s e l f a n d r a t i o n a l -i z e s h i s b e h a v i o r , c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f w h e t h e r o r n o t a n a c t i s a u t h e n t i c f e a t u r e p r o m i n e n t l y i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r a n a c t i s m o r a l l y p r a i s e w o r t h y o r m o r a l l y b l a m e w o r t h y . T h i s i s c l e a r l y an a r e a w h e r e much w o r k r e m a i n s t o b e b e done. RATIONAL REFLECTION AND MORAL AGENCY M o r a l v i e w s a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m s c i e n t i f i c b e l i e f s . T h e y a r e t y p i c a l l y e x p r e s s e d i n v a l u e s t a t e m e n t s , n o t f a c t u a l o n e s . They may be s u p p o r t e d b y f a c t u a l s t a t e m e n t s b u t t h e y a r e n o t f a c t u a l s t a t e m e n t s t h e m s e l v e s . No number o f f a c t s c a n e v e r " p r o v e " t h a t k i l l i n g i s w r o n g i n t h e same way i t c a n b e p r o v e n t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r swimming p o o l h o l d s 75,000 g a l l o n s o f w a t e r . T h i s does n o t mean t h a t m o r a l v i e w s a r e w h o l l y a r b i t r a r y how-e v e r , o r t h a t one m o r a l v i e w i s a s g o o d a s a n y o t h e r . A m o r a l v i e w t h a t i s b a s e d on p r e j u d i c e , f a l s e e v i d e n c e a n d m u d d l e d t h i n k i n g i s h a r d l y t o be commended as one b a s e d on r a t i o n a l 53 r e f l e c t i o n , i m p a r t i a l i t y a n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r o t h e r s m i g h t b e . I f one i s c o m m i t t e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r m o r a l v i e w one h o l d s c e r t a i n b e l i e f s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e w o r t h w h i l e n e s s o f i t . The b e l i e f s on w h i c h s u c h a commitment i s b a s e d , s a y s T r i g g , l i k e s c i e n t i f i c b e l i e f s o r any o t h e r k i n d o f b e l i e f s , c a n be e i t h e r t r u e o r f a l s e . " ^ Some commitments a r e o b v i o u s l y b e t t e r s u p p o r t e d t h a n o t h e r s d e p e n d i n g on t h e o b j e c t i v e t r u t h o r f a l s i t y o f t h e b e l i e f s w h i c h u n d e r l i e t h e commitment. Though t h e m o r a l r e l a t i v i s t p o s i t i o n h o l d s t h a t t h e r e i s n o s u c h t h i n g as t h e o b j e c t i v e t r u t h o r f a l s i t y o f a m o r a l b e l i e f , a b r i e f e x a m i n a t i o n o f some a s p e c t s o f v a r i o u s r e l a t i v i s t p o s i t i o n s may h e l p t o t h r o w some l i g h t on t h e p l a c e o f r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n i n a c t s o f m o r a l a g e n c y . One r e l a t i v i s t p o s i t i o n h o l d s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l j u d g m e n t s a b o u t t r u t h a r e 'wrong' i f t h e y a r e c o n t r a r y t o t h o s e o f t h e m a j o r i t y i n t h e s o c i e t y . T r i g g p o i n t s o u t t h e i n c o h e r e n c e o f t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w b y s a y i n g t h a t s o c i e t y i s n o t s o m e t h i n g w h i c h e x i s t s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , b u t i s i n s t e a d , an a s s o c i a -t i o n o f many i n d i v i d u a l s . " ^ S i n c e a t some p o i n t t h e t h o u g h t s o f an i n d i v i d u a l o r a few i n d i v i d u a l s m u s t p r e c e d e t h e t h o u g h t o f t h e s o c i e t y as a w h o l e , i t seems f o o l i s h t o d e f i n e t r u t h i n t e r m s o f w h a t a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t y t h i n k s i s t r u e . The s u b j e c t i v i s t h o l d s t h a t w h a t i s t r u e f o r one i n -d i v i d u a l i s t r u e f o r h i m , a n d w h a t i s t r u e f o r a n o t h e r i s t r u e f o r h i m . N e i t h e r i s w r o n g e v e n t h o u g h t h e i r p o s i t i o n s a n d b e l i e f s may d i r e c t l y c o n t r a d i c t e a c h o t h e r . The s u b -54 18 j e c t i v i s t may a l s o b e a c o n c e p t u a l r e l a t i v i s t . C o n c e p t u a l r e l a t i v i s m i s t h e v i e w t h a t one i s i n c a p a b l e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g a s y s t e m o u t s i d e o ne's own p a r t i c u l a r s e t . H e n c e , one i s s u p -p o s e d l y i n c a p a b l e o f p a s s i n g j u d g m e n t on t h e t r u t h o r f a l s i t y o f t h e b e l i e f s o f someone f r o m a d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t u a l s y s t e m . I t i s p o s s i b l e , h o l d s t h e c o n c e p t u a l r e l a t i v i s t , t o e n t e r i n t o a n o t h e r c o n c e p t u a l s e t , b u t o n l y b y i n t e r n a l i z i n g t h e b e l i e f s a n d c o n c e p t s o f t h e new c u l t u r a l mode, n o t b y s t u d y i n g i t f r o m t h e o u t s i d e . The a r g u m e n t i s t h a t when one i n t e r n a l i z e s t h e b e l i e f s a n d c o n c e p t s o f t h e new c u l t u r a l mode t h e t r u t h o f t h a t mode becomes a p p a r e n t . I f i t does n o t become a p p a r e n t , one h a s n o t r e a l l y e n t e r e d i n t o t h e new c o n c e p t u a l s e t , i n w h i c h c a s e one i s i n c a p a b l e o f p a s s i n g j u d g m e n t on t h e t r u t h o r f a l s i t y o f t h e b e l i e f s i n t h a t s e t . The a r g u m e n t i s c i r c u l a r a nd w o u l d seem t o i m p l y t h a t t h e s t u d y o f s o c i o l o g y a n d a n t h r o p o l o g y i s 19 u s e l e s s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o n c e p t u a l r e l a t i v i s t p o s i t i o n " t r u t h becomes a c o n s e q u e n c e o f b e l i e f o r commitment a n d n o t 20 a r e a s o n f o r i t . " One i n c l u d e s o r e x c l u d e s e v i d e n c e f o r o r a g a i n s t a c e r t a i n b e l i e f t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e e v i d e n c e meshes w i t h o n e ' s c o m m i t m e n t s . Some p h i l o s o p h e r s h o l d t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s 21 o f r e a s o n i n g . R e l i g i o u s r e a s o n i n g a n d s c i e n t i f i c r e a s o n i n g , f o r e x a m p l e , a r e l i k e two d i f f e r e n t games a n d t h e r u l e s o f one c a n n o t a p p l y t o t h e r u l e s o f t h e o t h e r . I f we t a k e t h i s p o s i t i o n t o i t s l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n we w o u l d be f o r c e d t o a d m i t t h a t t h e r e i s no f u n d a m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a j u s t i f i a b l e m o r a l b e l i e f a n d a s a t i s f y i n g s u p e r s t i t i o n o r e v e n an i l l u s i o n . Y e t we know 5 5 t h e r e i s a b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e a n d t h e d i s t i n c t i o n we make b e t w e e n j u s t i f i a b l e m o r a l b e l i e f a n d s a t i s f y i n g m i s c o n c e p t i o n s i s f a i r l y c ommonplace. The r e l a t i v i s t ' s p o s i t i o n on t h e n o n - e x i s t e n c e o f any u l t i m a t e , a b s o l u t e t r u t h o r r e a l i t y n e e d n o t d i s t u r b t h a t d i s t i n c t i o n any more t h a n t h e h a r d d e t e r m i n i s t p o s i t i o n c a n d i s t u r b t h e d i s t i n c t i o n we make b e t w e e n c o m p u l s i v e a c t s a n d r e a s o n e d c h o i c e s . When we s p e a k o f one m o r a l v i e w b e i n g b e t t e r t h a n a n o t h e r , we do n o t mean t h a t i t i s more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f some m e t a p h y s i c a l a b s o l u t e , b u t t h a t i t i s more i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f i m p a r t i a l i t y , r e l e v a n c y , l o g i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y , c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r o t h e r s , a n d so f o r t h . F o r an a g e n t t o be a c t i n g m o r a l l y he m u s t be a c t i n g f o r a c o n s c i o u s r e a s o n . T h i s r e a s o n , s a y s W i l s o n , "must a l s o 22 be c a u s a l l y o p e r a t i v e : i t must n o t be a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n . " U s i n g t h e s u b j e c t o f c a n n i b a l i s m as an e x a m p l e , W i l s o n makes t h e p o i n t a s f o l l o w s : Thus a man m i g h t n e v e r e a t human b e i n g s , be a b l e t o g i v e e x c e l l e n t r e a s o n s why e a t i n g them was w r o n g , a n d t h i n k t h a t t h e s e r e a s o n s w e r e w h a t i n f l u e n c e d h i s b e h a v i o r : y e t i t m i g h t s t i l l be t r u e t h a t w h a t r e a l l y s t o p p e d h i m e a t i n g p e o p l e was some u n c o n s c i o u s f e e l i n g o f g u i l t o r t a b o o . We c o u l d i n d e e d s a y i n one s e n s e t h a t w h a t he d i d , c o n s i d e r e d b y i t s e l f , was r a t i o n a l : t h a t i s , t h a t r e a s o n s c o u l d be g i v e n f o r i t . B u t i n a more i m p o r t a n t s e ^ s e he w o u l d n o t b e a c t i n g r a t i o n a l l y . What i s t h e o b j e c t i o n t o c a l l i n g someone a m o r a l a g e n t who u s u a l l y r a t i o n a l i z e s h i s b e h a v i o r , o r who, p e r h a p s , does n o t r e f l e c t on h i s a c t i o n s v e r y much a t a l l , p r o v i d e d he c o n s i s t e n t l y a c t s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e m o r e s o f t h e s o c i e t y 5 6 i n w h i c h he l i v e s ? I f he r e f r a i n s f r o m s t e a l i n g , l y i n g , m u r d e r -i n g , b r e a k i n g p r o m i s e s a n d so o n , t h e n i s n ' t i t i r r e l e v a n t , one m i g h t a s k , w h e t h e r he e n g a g e s i n r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n . The p o i n t i s t h a t i f one r e f r a i n s f r o m t a k i n g someone e l s e ' s p r o p e r t y b e c a u s e one h a s b e e n c o n d i t i o n e d i n some way t o r e f r a i n f r o m s u c h b e h a v i o r , one i s n o t r e f r a i n i n g f r o m s t e a l i n g b u t o n l y f r o m t a k -i n g someone e l s e ' s p r o p e r t y . ' S t e a l i n g ' , l i k e o t h e r m o r a l t e r m s , i n v o l v e s t h e n o t i o n o f i n t e n t i o n a l i t y w h i c h i n t u r n i n v o l v e s f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e , a u t h e n t i c i t y , some d e g r e e o f r a t i o n a l r e f l e c -t i o n a n d e v e n t h e ' s t r e n g t h o f w i l l ' t o p e r f o r m t h e a c t o r we w o u l d n ' t c a l l i t s t e a l i n g . " . . . i f i n t e n t i o n a l i t y i s r e q u i r e d f o r m o r a l a c t i o n , t h e n we c a n n o t make p e o p l e a c t m o r a l l y . " W h e t h e r t h e e l e m e n t o f m o r a l l a n g u a g e u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s s t e a l i n g , k i n d n e s s , meanness o r m u r d e r , t h e c a t e g o r y o f m o r a l a g e n c y u s u a l l y does n o t a p p l y t o p e o p l e i n whom r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n i s l a c k i n g ( u n l e s s i t c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be e x p e c t e d t o b e p r e s e n t ) . Where m o r a l l a n g u a g e i s u s e d , some m i n i m a l amount o f r a t i o n a l r e f l e c -t i o n i s c a l l e d f o r on t h e p a r t o f t h e u s e r o f s u c h l a n g u a g e , b e -c a u s e t o c a l l s o m e t h i n g 'good' o r 'bad' o r ' r i g h t ' o r 'wrong' p r e s u p p o s e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c r i t e r i a f o r m a k i n g t h a t j u d g m e n t ; b u t , w h e r e m o r a l l a n g u a g e i s u s e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y , some m i n i m a l amount o f r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n i s a l s o c a l l e d f o r o n t h e p a r t o f t h e p e r s o n b e i n g j u d g e d . An a c t o f m o r a l a g e n c y m u s t h a v e c a u s a l l y o p e r a t i v e r e a s o n s w h i c h d i r e c t i t , b u t t h i s i s n o t t o s a y , o f c o u r s e , t h a t any c a u s a l l y o p e r a t i v e r e a s o n w i l l do. A n e m p l o y e r may e x e r c i s e f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e i n d e c i d i n g t o t r e a t h i s e m p l o y e e s j u s t l y 57 and, l e t us assume, he i s p e r f e c t l y f r e e t o c a r r y o u t w h a t e v e r a c t i n g j u s t l y m i g h t i n v o l v e i n h i s p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n ( e . g . w i t h r e g a r d t o d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w a g e s , a d e q u a t e w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , company p e n s i o n schemes a n d o t h e r b e n e f i t s ) . L e t us a l s o assume t h a t h i s d e c i s i o n t o be j u s t i s a u t h e n t i c , t h a t i s , r e s u l t i n g f r o m a d e s i r e t o a d h e r e t o t h e p r i n c i p l e o f j u s t i c e f o r i t s own s a k e , r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l y b e c a u s e i t w i l l make h i m more p o p u l a r w i t h t h e w o r k e r s t o do s o . The p r e s e n c e o f f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e a n d a u t h e n t i c i t y a r e n o t e nough h o w e v e r , t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r w i l l a c t as a m o r a l a g e n t . He must a l s o a t t e n d t o t h e f a c t s o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r c a s e . H i s d e c i s i o n s a b o u t w h i c h e m p l o y e e s a r e t o r e c e i v e t h e h i g h e s t wages a n d t h e m o s t b e n e f i t s must be c o n s i s t e n t a n d i m p a r t i a l . I n o t h e r w o r d s , f o r h i s d e c i s i o n s t o be c o n s i d e r e d a c t s o f m o r a l a g e n c y , t h e y m u s t be b a s e d on c o n f o r m i t y t o t h e r u l e s a n d p r i n c i p l e s o f r a t i o n a l r e -f l e c t i o n w h i c h may be d e s c r i b e d l o o s e l y a s : (1) s t i c k i n g t o t h e l a w s o f l o g i c , (2) u s i n g l a n g u a g e c o r r e c t l y , a n d 25 (3) a t t e n d i n g t o t h e f a c t s . I f one r e g a r d s a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n as m o r a l l y c o r r e c t , he must a l s o r e g a r d i t as m o r a l l y c o r r e c t f o r a n y o n e i n l i k e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , o t h e r w i s e he i s n o t b e i n g c o n s i s t e n t o r i m -p a r t i a l . " F o r a r e a s o n t o be a g ood m o r a l r e a s o n , i t must p o i n t t o some f a c t s i n t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d w h i c h make i t r e a s o n a b l e t o commit o n e s e l f t o a u n i v e r s a l i z a b l e r u l e . " B e i n g r a t i o n a l a n d r e a s o n a b l e , h o w e v e r , does n o t i m p l y t h a t one s h o u l d c o l d l y 5 8 d i s r e g a r d e m o t i o n s i n a r r i v i n g a t m o r a l b e l i e f s o r i n a c t i n g u pon them. " B e i n g r a t i o n a l o r r e a s o n a b l e . . . does n o t mean d i s -r e g a r d i n g o n e ' s f e e l i n g s , b u t t r y i n g t o a s s e s s , g u i d e o r d i r e c t them i n some c o h e r e n t w a y . ^ I t w o u l d b e i n c o r r e c t t o s a y t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n i s a l w a y s a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n o f m o r a l a g e n c y , b e c a u s e we o f t e n h o l d p e o p l e m o r a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a c t s o f w r o n g d o i n g i n c a s e s w h e r e t h e y f a i l t o r e f l e c t r a t i o n -a l l y , b u t c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be e x p e c t e d t o do s o . S u p p o s e I t a k e s i x y o u n g c h i l d r e n o u t f o r a canoe r i d e down a f a s t f l o w -i n g r i v e r . S u p p o s e a l s o t h a t t h e c a n o e o v e r t u r n s a n d t h e s i x c h i l d r e n drown. I f I was s o u n r e f l e c t i v e t h a t I f a i l e d t o c o n -s i d e r t h e f a c t s t h a t n o n e o f t h e c h i l d r e n c o u l d swim, none h a d l i f e j a c k e t s , t h e c a n o e was t o o s m a l l f o r s e v e n p e o p l e , a n d t h e r i v e r was t o o t r e a c h e r o u s f o r c a n o e i n g , t h e n , a l l t h i n g s b e i n g e q u a l , I w o u l d b e m o r a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s i x d e a t h s on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t I d i d n o t e x e r c i s e p r o p e r r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n . " O n l y b e c a u s e man h a s t h e c a p a c i t y t o r e a s o n a b o u t h i s c h o i c e s c a n he b e s a i d t o s t a n d u n d e r a c o n t i n u i n g o b l i g a t i o n 2 8 t o t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r them." I n so f a r as a p e r s o n i s i n c a p a b l e o f r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n ( e . g . v e r y y o u n g c h i l d r e n a n d p e o p l e who a r e m e n t a l l y i l l ) we do n o t h o l d h i m m o r a l l y b l a m e -w o r t h y f o r h i s a c t i o n s , b u t i n so f a r as a p e r s o n i s c a p a b l e o f r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n b u t f a i l s t o e x e r c i s e t h i s c a p a c i t y he i s m o r a l l y c u l p a b l e f o r a c t s o f w r o n g d o i n g . The p r e s u p p o s i t i o n e x i s t s t h a t one h a s an o b l i g a t i o n t o t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r 59 one's a c t i o n s u n l e s s a r e l e v a n t e x c u s i n g c o n d i t i o n i s a p l i c -a b l e . One o f t h e p r o b l e m s w i t h e x c u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h o u g h , i n b o t h l e g a l a n d m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i s t h a t t h e r e does n o t seem t o be a g r e a t d e a l o f a g r e e m e n t as t o w h a t f a c t o r s g o v e r n one's c a p a c i t y t o c o n t r o l o n e ' s b e h a v i o r . T h i s p r o b l e m c a n n o t be s o l v e d e i t h e r b y t h e p h i l o s o p h e r o r b y t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t a l o n e . E a c h n e e d s t h e h e l p o f t h e o t h e r . We h a v e s e e n t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n h a s t h e q u a l i t y o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e v a l u e o f m o r a l l y p r a i s e w o r t h y a c t s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t i s p r e s e n t i n a n y g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . I t s p r e s e n c e a l s o i n t e n s i f i e s t h e m o r a l b l a m e w o r t h i n e s s o f a c t s o f w r o n g d o i n g . T h a t i s why p r e m e d i t a t e d m u r d e r i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be more w i c k e d t h a n m u r d e r i n g someone i n a f i t o f t e m p e r . The a b s e n c e o f r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n i n s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e i t c o u l d be p r e s e n t a l s o h a s t h e e f f e c t o f i n t e n s i f y i n g t h e m o r a l b l a m e -w o r t h i n e s s o f a c t s o f w r o n g d o i n g . We c a n s u m m a r i z e t h e w h o l e s i t u a t i o n b y s a y i n g t h a t e i t h e r t h e p r e s e n c e o f r a t i o n a l r e -f l e c t i o n o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h an a g e n t c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be e x p e c t e d t o engage i n r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n i s a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n o f m o r a l a g e n c y . STRENGTH OF WILL AND MORAL AGENCY I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t someone may r a t i o n a l l y h o l d w h a t he b e l i e v e s t o be a m o r a l l y p r a i s e w o r t h y b e l i e f , b e f r e e t o a c t u p o n i t , a n d y e t f a i l t o do s o , a l t h o u g h t h i s i s s u e i s s t i l l s e r i o u s l y c o n t e n d e d among p h i l o s o p h e r s . Some w r i t e r s 6 0 h o l d t h a t i f one d o e s n o t p e r f o r m a c e r t a i n a c t i o n when f r e e t o do s o , t h e n i t r e a l l y makes no s e n s e t o s a y t h a t h e b e l i e v e s a c t i o n X t o be t h e b e s t t h i n g t o do. A t l e a s t two r e s p o n s e s c a n b e made t o t h i s c l a i m . I f ' b e s t ' i s t a k e n t o mean ' r i g h t ' , t h e n we a r e l e d t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i t makes no s e n s e t o t a l k a b o u t a nyone a c t i n g i m m o r a l l y . I f we c a n n e v e r do a n y t h i n g we b e l i e v e t o b e w r o n g , t h e n c l e a r l y t h e c o n c e p t s o f m o r a l a g e n c y an d m o r a l r e s o n s i b i l i t y a r e v a c u o u s . I f , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , ' b e s t ' i s t a k e n t o mean e x p e d i e n t , a d v a n t a g i o u s , g r a t i f y i n g , p l e a s u r e -a b l e , e t c . , t h e n t h e p o i n t i s s i m p l y t h a t m o r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e s o m e t i m e s i g n o r e d i n f a v o r o f e g o - c e n t e r e d a i m s - a common-p l a c e c o n t e n t i o n . I t i s b e y o n d o u r p r e s e n t p u r p o s e s t o e n t e r i n t o a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s i s s u e . S u f f i c e t o s a y t h a t any c o n t e n t i o n t h a t we c a n n o t k n o w i n g l y do a n y t h i n g w r o n g i s , a t t h e v e r y l e a s t , c o u n t e r - i n t u i t i v e . I n any c a s e , o u r n o r m a l e x p e c t a t i o n i s t h a t u n l e s s c e r t a i n e x c u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e a p p l i c a b l e , o r u n l e s s t h e s a c r i f i c e r e q u i r e d i s t o o g r e a t i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e amount o f g o o d w h i c h m i g h t a c c r u e f r o m i t , p e o p l e s h o u l d a c t u p o n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s t o do w h a t i s r i g h t a n d a v o i d w h a t i s h a r m f u l . I f t h e y f a i l t o a c t i n s u c h c a s e s , we r e g a r d them as c o w a r d l y , w e a k - w i l l e d , l a z y , o r e v e n m o r a l l y b l a m e w o r t h y i f s u f f i c i e n t h a rm r e s u l t s f r o m t h e n o n - a c t i o n i n q u e s t i o n , p r o v i d e d some s u p e r e r o g a t o r y d e e d i s n o t r e q u i r e d t o p r e v e n t t h e e n s u i n g harm. S t r e n g t h o f w i l l i s a l s o r e q u i r e d t o p u t m o r a l l y 61 b l a m e w o r t h y d e c i s i o n s i n t o p r a c t i c e . T h i s s o u n d s o d d b e c a u s e t h e n o t i o n o f s t r e n g t h o f w i l l u s u a l l y c a r r i e s f a v o r a b l e c o n n o t a t i o n s w i t h i t , b u t a l l we mean b y s t r e n g t h o f w i l l i n t h e c o n t e x t o f m o r a l a g e n c y i s t h e a b i l i t y t o p u t t h o u g h t a n d d e c i s i o n i n t o a c t i o n - w h e t h e r t h e a c t i o n i s m o r a l l y p r a i s e w o r t h y o r n o t . S t r e n g t h o f w i l l , t h e n , i s a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f m o r a l a g e n c y e x c e p t o f c o u r s e , i n c a s e s w h e r e i t i s a b s e n t b u t c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y b e e x p e c t e d t o b e p r e s e n t . OTHER PEOPLE'S INTERESTS AND MORAL AGENCY So f a r we h a v e b e e n u n a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e a u t o -nomous p e r s o n f r o m t h e m o r a l a g e n t , e x c e p t i n t h o s e c a s e s i n w h i c h we a t t r i b u t e m o r a l a g e n c y t o someone i n whom a u t h e n t i c i t y , r e f l e c t i o n o r s t r e n g t h o f w i l l a r e l a c k i n g b u t c o u l d r e a s o n -a b l y be e x p e c t e d t o be p r e s e n t . Whereas t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e f o u r c o n d i t i o n s we h a v e d i s c u s s e d c o m p r i s e s b o t h a n e c e s s a r y a n d s u f f i c i e n t l i s t i n t h e c a s e o f autonomy, t h e l i s t i s f a r f r o m s u f f i c i e n t l y e x h a u s t i v e i n t h e c a s e o f m o r a l a g e n c y . Some p h i l o s o p h e r s h a v e p u t f o r w a r d t h e v i e w t h a t t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f autonomy n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f m o r a l g o o d n e s s on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t one c a n n o t f u l l y a b i d e b y t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n w i t h o u t b e i n g a m o r a l l y p r a i s e w o r t h y a g e n t . They c l a i m t h a t t h e r e i s a s t r o n g c o n -n e c t i o n b e t w e e n j u s t i c e , a d h e r e n c e t o t h e p r i n c i p l e o f w h i c h i s p a r t o f w h a t i t meams t o be m o r a l l y p r a i s e w o r t h y , a n d i m p a r t i a l i t y , a d h e r e n c e t o t h e p r i n c i p l e o f w h i c h 62 i s p a r t o f w h a t i t means t o be r a t i o n a l l y r e f l e c t i v e . A l a n G e w i r t h t r i e s t o p o i n t o u t t h a t autonomy i m p l i e s m o r a l g o o d -n e s s when h e s a y s : I f . . . t h e s e l f i n q u e s t i o n i s r e g a r d e d as h a v i n g t o meet c e r t a i n r a t i o n a l r e q u i r e -m e n t s , t h e n autonomy can b e p o s i t i v e l y a n d i n d e e d n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e d t o m o r a l g o o d -n e s s b e c a u s e t h e s e requirements a r e a l s o t h e c r i t e r i a o f m o r a l i t y . G e w i r t h ' s p o s i t i o n i s , I t h i n k , a l i t t l e t o o c o n f i n i n g . A l t h o u g h we e x p e c t p e o p l e t o b e r a t i o n a l l y r e f l e c t i v e t o some s i g n i f i c a n t d e g r e e b e f o r e we a r e w i l l i n g t o s a y t h a t t h e y a r e a c t i n g as a utonomous p e r s o n s , we do n o t r e q u i r e t h a t an a u t o -nomous p e r s o n m u s t a c t i m p a r t i a l l y o r u n s e l f i s h l y , a l t h o u g h i n f a i l i n g t o do s o he may b e a c t i n g as a m o r a l a g e n t . I t i s o f t e n s a i d t h a t m a s t e r m i n d s b e h i n d c r i m i n a l o p e r a t i o n s a r e n o t o r i -o u s l y a u t o n o m o u s , a n d we w o u l d h a v e l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y c o n c e i v -i n g o f a c a s e i n w h i c h we w o u l d w a n t t o c a l l a n i n d i v i d u a l a u t o n o m o u s , y e t be q u i t e c e r t a i n t h a t he was a c t i n g i m m o r a l l y . I m a g i n e a h i g h l y i n t e l l i g e n t , f r e e l y a c t i n g , a u t h e n t i c a n d r e -f l e c t i v e i n d i v i d u a l who i s t h e m a s t e r m i n d b e h i n d an i n t e r n a t i o n -a l l y o p e r a t e d , u n d e r g r o u n d o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e p u r p o s e o f w h i c h i s t o p r o m o t e t h e s a l e o f n a r c o t i c s t o c h i l d r e n . We w o u l d p r o b a b l y w a n t t o s a y t h a t s u c h an i n d i v i d u a l i s s u f f i c i e n t l y r a t i o n a l l y r e f l e c t i v e t o b e r e g a r d e d as a utonomous r a t h e r t h a n a n o m i c , s i n c e he h a s t o t h i n k a b o u t w h a t he i s d o i n g i n a way t h a t someone who m e r e l y f o l l o w s i m p u l s e s does n o t . T h i s k i n d o f e x a m p l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f p e r s o n a l autonomy 6 3 does n o t n e c e s s i t a t e t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f m o r a l g o o d n e s s . H o w e v e r , o n c e an autonomous a c t i s p e r f o r m e d i n o t h e r p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t s a n d f o r t h e s a k e o f o t h e r p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t s , i t becomes a m o r a l l y p r a i s e w o r t h y a c t . I f J o h n J o n e s g i v e s $5000 t o a C r i p p l e d C h i l d r e n ' s F u n d b e c a u s e i t w i l l r e s u l t i n h i s h a v i n g t o p a y l e s s i n c o m e t a x , t h e a c t m i g h t b e autonomous b u t i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t we w o u l d r e g a r d i t as an a c t o f m o r a l a g e n c y s i n c e i t i s n e i t h e r m o r a l l y p r a i s e w o r t h y n o r m o r a l l y b l a m e -w o r t h y . I t w o u l d , o f c o u r s e , be m o r a l l y p r a i s e w o r t h y i f i t w e r e done f o r t h e s a k e o f c r i p p l e d c h i l d r e n . To t a k e a n o t h e r e x a m p l e , i f J o h n J o n e s g o e s t o A f r i c a t o w o r k i n a l e p e r c o l o n y s i m p l y b e c a u s e d o i n g s o e n h a n c e s h i s r e p u t a t i o n a s a m i s s i o n a r y , t h e a c t w o u l d h a r d l y b e c o n s i d e r e d m o r a l l y p r a i s e w o r t h y u n l e s s h i s r e a s o n s f o r g o i n g t o A f r i c a i n c l u d e d a s i n c e r e d e s i r e t o h e l p l e p e r s . The p o i n t made h e r e i s t h a t m o r a l l y p r a i s e w o r t h y a c t s a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m n o n - m o r a l a u tonomous a c t s b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y a r e p e r f o r m e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h w h a t h a p p e n s t o b e ( o r i s t h o u g h t t o b e ) i n o t h e r p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t s . What o f m o r a l l y b l a m e w o r t h y a c t s ? We u s u a l l y a t t r i b u t e m o r a l b l a m e w o r t h i n e s s t o p e o p l e who f a i l t o a c t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t s when t h e y c o u l d be r e a s o n a b l y e x p e c t e d t o do s o . We w i l l now t u r n b r i e f l y , t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f m o r a l b e l i e f s . W i l s o n h o l d s t h a t i t i s p e r f e c t l y p o s s i b l e t o h o l d a m o r a l b e l i e f t h a t i s n o t d e f e n d e d b y r e f e r e n c e t o p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t s , 64 b u t he p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g v e r y o d d a b o u t 30 d o i n g s o . He c l a i m s t h a t a m o r a l b e l i e f t h a t does n o t r e l a t e t o p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t s r e m a i n s a m o r a l b e l i e f p r o v i d e d i t f u f i l l s t h e f o l l o w i n g f i v e c r i t e r i a : (1) I t m u s t be f r e e l y h e l d . (2) I t m u s t be r a t i o n a l i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e r e a r e c a u s a l l y o p e r a t i v e r e a s o n s f o r h o l d i n g s u c h a b e l i e f . (3) I t m u s t be i m p a r t i a l . (4) I t m u s t be p r e s c r i p t i v e . (5) I t m u s t be o v e r r i d i n g i . e . t a k e p r e c e d e n c e o v e r 31 o t h e r k i n d s o f b e l i e f s . W i l s o n ' s a r g u m e n t i s t h a t a b e l i e f w h i c h f u l f i l l s t h e s e f i v e c o n d i t i o n s b u t d o e s n o t r e l a t e t o p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t s i s a m o r a l b e l i e f b u t n o t a r a t i o n a l one. H i s a r g u m e n t i s c o n f u s i n g b e c a u s e he u s e s ' r a t i o n a l ' i n a t l e a s t two d i f f e r e n t s e n s e s . When he s a y s t h a t a b e l i e f w h i c h does n o t r e l a t e t o p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t s c a n b e a m o r a l b e l i e f b u t n o t a r a t i o n a l one he i s n o t u s i n g t h e w o r d ' r a t i o n a l ' t o r e f e r t o a b e l i e f f o r w h i c h c a u s a l l y o p e r a t i v e r e a s o n s a r e i n e f f e c t as he d o e s i n ( 2 ) a b o v e. I n s t e a d , u s e o f t h e t e r m ' r a t i o n a l ' i n t h i s c o n t e x t r e f e r s t o a m o r a l v i e w w h i c h i s s u p p o r t e d b y r e a s o n s r e l a t i n g t o p e o p l e ' s 32 i n t e r e s t s . W i l s o n u s e s t h e e x a m p l e o f a n a r t l o v e r who h o l d s t h a t t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f w o r k s o f a r t i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n 33 s a v i n g human l i f e . I f t h e a r t l o v e r s u p p o r t s h i s v i e w w i t h t h e 6 5 c o n t e n t i o n t h a t a r t w o r k s a r e j u s t so b e a u t i f u l t h e y s h o u l d be p r e s e r v e d e v e n i f d o i n g so c o s t t h e l i f e o f e v e r y human b e i n g , W i l s o n w a n t s t o h o l d t h a t h i s v i e w i s a m o r a l one ( t h o u g h n o t r a t i o n a l ) p r o v i d e d t h e a r t l o v e r h o l d s i t f r e e l y , h a s c a u s a l l y o p e r a t i v e r e a s o n s f o r h o l d i n g i t , a n d means i t t o be i m p a r t i a l , p r e s c r i p t i v e a nd o v e r r i d i n g . I f we a c c e p t W i l s o n ' s p o s i t i o n , we a r e c o m m i t t e d t o a l l o w i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t one who h o l d s t h a t t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f p o s t a g e s t a m p s o r m a c h i n e guns o r n u c l e a r weapons i s more d e s i r a b l e t h a n t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f human l i f e , h o l d s a m o r a l v i e w p r o v i d e d i t i s p r e s c r i p t i v e , o v e r r i d i n g , e t c . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o b e c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s a g r e e m e n t among p h i l o s o p h e r s as t o w h a t c o n s t i t u t e s a m o r a l v i e w a n d w h a t does n o t . Our a i m i s n o t t o s o l v e t h a t p r o b l e m , b u t o n l y t o show how autonomy i s a n e c e s s a r y , t h o u g h n o t a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n o f m o r a l a g e n c y . The n o t i o n o f b a s i n g one's d e c i s i o n s on c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f how t h o s e d e c i s i o n s r e l a t e t o o t h e r p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t s h a s b e e n u s e d as an e x a m p l e o f a n o t h e r a c c e p t a b l e n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n o f m o r a l a g e n c y . A c t s o f m o r a l a g e n c y a r e b a s e d o n v a r i o u s m o r a l r u l e s a n d p r i n c i p l e s s u c h as f r e e d o m , j u s t i c e , r e s p e c t f o r p e r s o n s ( m o r a l p r i n c i p l e s ) , a n d r e f r a i n i n g f r o m l y i n g , k i l l i n g o r s t e a l i n g w i t h o u t g o o d r e a s o n ( m o r a l r u l e s ) . M o r a l p r i n c i p l e s a r e g e n e r a l l y u p h e l d on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t t h e y a r e i n p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t s w h i l e m o r a l r u l e s a r e j u s t i f i e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y a r e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f m o r a l p r i n c i p l e s . D i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s 66 when a m o r a l r u l e ( e . g . r e f r a i n f r o m l y i n g ) i s r e g a r d e d as a s e l f - e v i d e n t t r u t h i n d e p e n d e n t o f p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t s . The e x a m p l e o f K a n t ' s s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t i t i s a l w a y s w r o n g t o l i e r e a d i l y comes t o m i n d . To u s e a w e l l - k n o w n a r g u m e n t , s u p p o s e madmen w i t h m a c h i n e guns come t o t h e d o o r a s k i n g w h e t h e r we a r e h a r b o r i n g a p a r t i c u l a r i n n o c e n t s t r a n g e r i n o u r b a s e m e n t . Ought we t o l i e ? K a n t s a y s n o , t h e m o r a l l y p r a i s e w o r t h y a g e n t does n o t l i e , b u t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o make s e n s e o f t h i s p o s i t i o n u n l e s s one t o o k t h e r u l e u t i l i t a r i a n p o i n t o f v i e w t h a t i n t h e l o n g r u n p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t s a r e b e s t s e r v e d b y e v e r y o n e a d o p t -i n g t h e maxim 'Never t e l l a l i e ' . To a d o p t a maxim o r r u l e o f thumb a n d s t i c k t o i t r e g a r d l e s s o f how p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t s a r e b e s t s e r v e d seems c l o s e r t o f a n a t i c i s m t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e . T h e r e a r e , o f c o u r s e , numerous p r o b l e m s r e l a t i n g t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t s . I f w h a t p e o p l e n e e d a n d w h a t p e o p l e w a n t a r e n o t synonymous, does ' p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t s ' r e f e r t o w a n t s , n e e d s , some c o m p r o m i s e b e t w e e n t h e two, o r does t h i s v a r y w i t h c i r c u m s t a n c e s ? Who h a s t h e r i g h t t o d e c i d e w h a t a n o t h e r p e r s o n r e a l l } ^ n e e d s ? I n many s i t u a t i o n s s h o r t and l o n g t e r m i n t e r e s t s m i l i t a t e a g a i n s t e a c h o t h e r . S h o u l d e a c h p e r s o n ' s i n t e r e s t s c o u n t e q u a l l y , o r s h o u l d some p e o p l e ' s i n -t e r e s t s c o u n t more t h a n o t h e r s ? M o s t o f t h e m o r a l d i l e m m a s p e o p l e f a c e o v e r i s s u e s l i k e a b o r t i o n , c a p i t a l p u n i s h m e n t , o r c i v i l r i g h t s a r e t h e r e s u l t o f e i t h e r d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n w h a t i s i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f one p a r t y a n d w h a t i s i n t h e 6 7 i n t e r e s t s o f a n o t h e r , o r c o n f u s i o n a n d c o n f l i c t o v e r t h e w h o l e i s s u e a b o u t w h a t i s i n p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t s a n d w h a t i s n o t . We e n c o u n t e r a l l k i n d s o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n d p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m s when e n g a g i n g i n m o r a l d e l i b e r a t i o n . The a c t u a l j u d g m e n t s we make, h o w e v e r , may be d e f i n e d as m o r a l j u d g m e n t s o r j u d g m e n t s f r o m t h e m o r a l p o i n t o f v i e w i f t h e y : . . . a r e j u d g m e n t s o f a c t i o n s b a s e d o n a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f how p e o p l e a r e t o b e t r e a t e d , how t h e i r i n t e r e s t s a r e t o w e i g h a g a i n s t o n e ' s own. The p o i n t o f m a k i n g a m o r a l j u d g m e n t i s t o a d j u d i c a t e a c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t , t y p i c a l l y human i n t e r e s t s . Were o u r i n t e r e s t s n e v e r i n c o n f l i c t t h e r e w o u l d b e no o c c a s i o n f o r m a k i n g m o r a l j u d g -m ents o r h a v i n g m o r a l p r i n c i p l e s . 68 FOOTNOTES 1. J e r r o l d R.Coombs, " C o n c e r n i n g the N a t u r e o f M o r a l Competence," Yearbook, I I , 1975, p.9. Z. J o e l F e i n b e r g , " P r o b l e m a t i c R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n Law and M o r a l s , " Doing and D e s e r v i n g , P r i n c e t o n : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970, p.37. 3. I b i d , pp.25-37. 4. I b i d , pp.31-32. 5. I b i d , p.34. 6. I b i d , p.36. 7. I b i d , p.37. 8. I b i d , p.30-31. 9. I b i d , p.30. 10. John W i l s o n , Norman W i l l i a m s , and B a r r y Sugarman, I n t r o d u c t i o n t o M o r a l E d u c a t i o n , Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1967, pp.45-52. 11. I b i d , p.53. 12. I b i d , p.52. 13. I b i d , p.46. 14. Loc. c i t . 15. I b i d , p.58. 16. Roger T r i g g , Reason and Commitment, Cambridge: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973. S i n c e the p o i n t s o f v i e w r e f e r r e d t o are p r e s e n t e d r e p e a t e d l y t h r o u g h o u t the book, no page r e f e r e n c e i s c i t e d . 17. Loc. c i t . 69 1 8 . Loc. c i t . 1 9 . Loc. c i t . 2 0 . I b i d , p . 2 3 . z l . I b i d . z 2 . Wilson.. op_. c i t . , p . 5 1 . 2 3 . Loc. c i t . 2 4 . I b i d , p. 4 7 . 2 5 . I b i d , p. 7 6 . 2 6 . I b i d , p. 9 8 . 2 7 . I b i d . p . 1 1 4 . 2 8 . Wolff, P a u l , In Defence of Anarchism, New York: Harper and Row^ 1 9 7 0 , p . 1 2 . 2 9 . Alan Gewirth, " M o r a l i t y and Autonomy i n Education," i n James F.Doyle (ed.) Educational Judgments, London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1 9 7 3 . p. 4 1 . 3 0 . Wilson, op_. c i t . pp. 7 9 - 8 2 . 3 1 . I b i d , p. 7 7 . 3 2 . I b i d , p p . 7 8 - 7 9 . 3 3 . I b i d , p p . 7 9 - 8 0 . 3 4 . Coombs, op_. c i t . , p. 9 . CONCLUDING REMARKS We h a v e s e e n t h a t t h e p o s s e s s i o n a n d e x e r c i s e o f p e r s o n a l autonomy i n c l u d e s t h e p o s s e s s i o n a n d e x e r c i s e o f f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e , a u t h e n t i c i t y , r a t i o n a l r e f l e c t i o n a n d s t r e n g t h o f w i l l . The p r o m o t i o n o f p e r s o n a l autonomy may be j u s t i f i e d on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t i t i s e x t r i n s i c a l l y w o r t h -w h i l e , i n t r i n s i c a l l y v a l u a b l e , e d u c a t i o n a l l y i m p o r t a n t , a n d s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e e x e r c i s e o f m o r a l a g e n c y . A n i n t e r e s t i n g p h i l o s o p h i c a l q u e s t i o n w h i c h a r i s e s f r o m o u r d i s c u s s i o n i s w h e t h e r a n d t o w h a t e x t e n t , i t i s more d e s i r a b l e t o b e an autonomous m o r a l a g e n t ( b u t a n i m m o r a l one) t h a n a n o n - a u t o n o m o u s , n o n - m o r a l a g e n t . P e t e r s makes a n i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t t h a t H e g e l a n d o t h e r s h a v e made b e f o r e h i m when he s a y s t h a t some p h i l o s o p h e r s r e g a r d p u n i s h -ment ( a s o p p o s e d t o r e h a b i l i t a t i v e t r e a t m e n t ) a s a c r i m i n a l ' s f u n d a m e n t a l r i g h t , t h a t i s , as a t r i b u t e t o h i s m o r a l autonomy. O t h e r s h a v e r e p u d i a t e d t h e r e f o r m a t i v e a p p r o a c h b e c a u s e t h e y f e e l t h a t i t t r e a t s t h e p e r s o n who h a s t h e c a p a c i t y t o make h i s own r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s as i f he w e r e a l u n a t i c o r a c h i l d . One m i g h t j u d g e f r o m s u c h a comment t h a t i t i s more d e s i r a b l e , b e c a u s e i t i s more i n a c c o r d w i t h human d i g n i t y , t o be a w i c k e d m o r a l a g e n t t h a n a non-autonomous a g e n t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , s u c h a p o i n t o f v i e w w o u l d p r o b a b l y be o f l i t t l e c o m f o r t . 70 71 t o someone who p l e a d s 'Not G u i l t y ' o n t h e g r o u n d s o f i n s a n i t y i n c r i m i n a l c o u r t i f he i s f o u n d g u i l t y a n d p u n i s h a b l e as a t r i b u t e t o h i s autonomy. O t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g p h i l o s o p h i c a l q u e s t i o n s a r i s e f r o m t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f autonomy a n d m o r a l a g e n c y . I t i s w i d e l y r e -c o g n i z e d t h a t a c e r t a i n amount o f i n d o c t r i n a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d when t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n who h a v e n o t y e t r e a c h e d t h e age o f r e a s o n t o a b i d e b y c e r t a i n r u l e s f o r t h e i r own p r o t e c t i o n a n d t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f o t h e r s . Sometimes s u c h i n d o c t r i n a t i o n i s n o t r e g a r d e d as r e a l i n d o c t r i n a t i o n i n t h e s t r i c t s e n s e o f t h e w o r d , s i n c e i t i s n o t i n t e n d e d t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s c a p a c i t y t o r e a s o n f o r h i m s e l f l a t e r on. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i f we c a n j u s t i f y i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h t h e f r e e c h o i c e o f a f o u r y e a r o l d t o p l a y i n t h e t r a f f i c on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t h i s c h o i c e w o u l d o b v i o u s l y p u t h i m i n t o a p o t e n t i a l l y h a r m f u l s i t u a t i o n , c a n we j u s t i f y i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e f r e e c h o i c e s o f r e l a t i v e l y n o n - a u t o n o m o u s a d u l t s on t h e same g r o u n d s ? The a n s w e r t o t h i s q u e s t i o n , i f t h e r e i s an a n s w e r , i s w o r t h y o f e x p l o r a t i o n a n d w o u l d h a v e f a r r e a c h -i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s i n t h e a r e a o f p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y . Of more i m m e d i a t e i m p o r t a r e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f autonomy a n d m o r a l a g e n c y . How t h e p r o m o t i o n o f autonomy a n d m o r a l e d u c a t i o n may be m o s t e f f e c t i v e l y c o n -d u c t e d i s l a r g e l y a n e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n u p o n w h i c h l i g h t i s shown 3 t h r o u g h t h e r e s e a r c h o f s u c h p e o p l e as L a w r e n c e K o h l b e r g . T h i s i s n o t t o s a y t h a t p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n a l y s i s i s u s e l e s s t o t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r w i t h o u t m a s s i v e s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s 72 t o a n s w e r t h e e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n s w h i c h p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n a l y s i s r a i s e s . I f t e a c h e r s a r e made aware o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f a u t o -nomy as w e l l as t h o s e o f m o r a l a g e n c y a n d t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e -tween t h e two c o n c e p t s , t h e r e a r e means a n d m e t h o d s a t e a c h e r m i g h t e m p l o y i n f o s t e r i n g autonomy a n d m o r a l a g e n c y - means and methods w h i c h m i g h t be d i c t a t e d b y common s e n s e u n t i l s u c h t i m e s as c o n c l u s i v e s c i e n t i f i c d a t a i s a v a i l a b l e . B u t t h e t e a c h e r must f i r s t b e v e r y c l e a r a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i d e a l he i s t r y i n g t o p r o m o t e . Many t e a c h e r s r e f r a i n f r o m e n g a g i n g i n h o n e s t d i a l o g u e w i t h s t u d e n t s b e c a u s e t h e y seem t o make t h e e x i s t e n t i a l i s t e r r o r o f e q u a t i n g a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n a c r i t e r i o n l e s s c h o i c e w i t h an i n d o c t r i n a t e d c h o i c e , o r some o t h e r k i n d o f c o m p e l l e d c h o i c e . O f c o u r s e t h e r e i s a l w a y s t h e t e n d e n c y t o p r o m o t e o n e ' s own b e l i e f s i f one i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r o m o t i n g t r u t h b e c a u s e , a s we m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , p a r t o f w h a t i t means t o h o l d a b e l i e f i s t o r e g a r d t h e b e l i e f as t r u e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , p a r t o f w h a t i t means t o h a v e a "due r e g a r d f o r t r u t h " i s t o v a l u e t h e means b y w h i c h one j u s t i f i a b l y a r r i v e s a t a c e r t a i n b e l i e f as much a s , o r more t h a n , t h e b e l i e f i t s e l f . 73 FOOTNOTES !. S.J.Benn a n d R . S . P e t e r s , S o c i a l P r i n c i p l e s a n d t h e D e m o c r a t i c S t a t e , L o n d o n : " G e o r g e A l l e n a n d U n w i n LEST, 1959, p. 210. 2. L o c . c i t . 3. See, f o r i n s t a n c e , K o h l b e r g ' s " S t a g e s o f M o r a l D e v e l o p m e n t as a B a s i s f o r M o r a l E d u c a t i o n , " i n C M . B e c k , B. S . C r i t t e n d o n a n d E . V. S u l l i v a n ( e d s . ) , M o r a l E d u c a t i o n : I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y A p p r o a c h e s , T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1971. pp. 2 3 - 9 2 . 74 BIBLIOGRAPHY B a i e r , K u r t . 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