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Vancouver Community College ABE student profile and use of support services Nobel, Elizabeth Violet 1996

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VANCOUVER COMMUNITY COLLEGE ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES by ELIZABETH VIOLET NOBEL B.A., University of British Columbia, 1973 Diploma, Adult Education, University of British Columbia, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Educational Studies We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard. // /I „ UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1996 © Elizabeth Violet Nobel, 1996 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DATE JUA>£<]J<5<?(, DE-6 (2/88) ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES I I ABSTRACT The s t u d y d e s c r i b e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e s was c o n d u c t e d i n t h e summer o f 19 9 3 a t t h e K i n g E d w a r d Campus, (KEC) o f V a n c o u v e r C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e . The s u b j e c t s o f t h e s t u d y w e r e s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g c l a s s e s a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l L e v e l o f t h e A d u l t B a s i c E d u c a t i o n (ABE) p r o g r a m a t t h e c o l l e g e . The p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s t u d e n t s as c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e l i t e r a t u r e , a n d t o d i s c o v e r w h e t h e r s t u d e n t s u s e d t h e s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t t h e m . A s t u d e n t s u r v e y was d e v e l o p e d a n d a d m i n i s t e r e d t o s t u d e n t s b y i n s t r u c t o r s d u r i n g c l a s s t i m e . The s a m p l e was s e l e c t e d b y t a r g e t i n g a l l P r o v i n c i a l L e v e l c l a s s e s i n s e s s i o n a t t h e t i m e t h e s u r v e y was c o n d u c t e d , a n d t h i r t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e g i v e n t o i n s t r u c t o r s i n t h e s e l f - p a c e d p r o g r a m t o b e h a n d e d o u t t o s t u d e n t s when t h e y w e r e s c h e d u l e d t o come i n . The i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was t h e n e n t e r e d i n t o t h e c o m p u t e r a n d a s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s was d o n e . When t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y w e r e c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , i t was l e a r n e d t h a t a t KEC, t h e P r o v i n c i a l L e v e l ABE s t u d e n t i s m o r e t r a d i t i o n a l t h a n n o n -t r a d i t i o n a l , t h a t i s , t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e y o u n g e r t h a n a n t i c i p a t e d , a n d t h e n u m b e r o f f e m a l e s t u d e n t s was o n l y 3.8% h i g h e r t h a n t h e ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES I I I n u m b e r o f m a l e s t u d e n t s . I t was a l s o l e a r n e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t s h a d a l r e a d y c o m p l e t e d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l b e f o r e c o m i n g t o s t u d y a t KEC, b u t w e r e s t i l l t a k i n g g r a d e t w e l v e l e v e l c o u r s e s i n o r d e r t o h a v e t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e k n o w l e d g e t o e n t e r t h e p r o g r a m s o f t h e i r c h o i c e a t V a n c o u v e r C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e o r o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s . A l t h o u g h s t u d e n t s u s e d t h e s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e m , t h e r e w e r e some d i f f e r e n c e s i n how t h e h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f s e c o n d l a n g u a g e s p e a k e r s u s e d t h e m . H o w e v e r c o u n s e l l i n g , i n p a r t i c u l a r , a l t h o u g h u s e d somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y b y s e c o n d l a n g u a g e s p e a k e r s , was u s e d b y s t u d e n t s a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l L e v e l f o r a d v i s i n g b e f o r e r e g i s t r a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n f o r p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g o r c a r e e r p l a n n i n g . As c o l l e g e s p l a n f o r t h e f u t u r e , i t has become e v e n m o r e i m p o r t a n t t o o b t a i n s t u d e n t f e e d b a c k r e g a r d i n g s e r v i c e s d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t t h e m . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s t u d e n t p r o f i l e e n a b l e s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a n d p r a c t i t i o n e r s a l i k e t o g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i r s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n a n d w h a t t h e s t u d e n t s p e r c e i v e t o b e t h e i r n e e d s . I t i s h o p e d t h a t t h i s s t u d y w i l l be t h e f i r s t o f many w h i c h w i l l h e l p t o i d e n t i f y t h e n e e d s a n d g a p s i n ABE p r o g r a m s a n d t h e s e r v i c e s t h a t a r e p r o v i d e d t o s u p p o r t t h e s t u d e n t s . ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES I V TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1 A. Purpose 1 B. Background 2 C. Rationale 3 D. Limitations of the Study 6 E. Overview of the Thesis 7 chapter I I OVERVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 8 A. Background 8 B. Needs Analysis 10 C. Serving the Adult Student 11 D. Soc i a l Issues 13 E. Professional Development 15 F. Retention and Student Success 16 6. Support Services 19 H. Summary 21 chapter I I I METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN 24 Chapter IV RESULTS 27 A. General P r o f i l e 27 B. Gender Results 34 C. Age Results 40 D. Employment Status Results 45 E. F i r s t Language 47 Chapter v. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS 53 A. Summary 5 3 B. Discussion of Findings 54 C. General Comments 64 D. Implications for Future Research . 67 E. F i n a l Comments 68 REFERENCES 7 0 APPENDIX A Student Survey 74 APPENDIX B Recommendations 78 GLOSSARY 80 ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES LIST OF TABLES V Table 4. 01 Z 1 Table 4. 02 28 Table 4. 03 28 Table 4. 04a KEC Support Services and Frequency of Use 29 Table 4. 04b KEC Support Services and Frequency of Use Library 29 Table 4. 04c KEC Support Services and Frequency of Use Learning 30 Table 4 . 05 Institutions Where Students Planned to Attend. . . 31 Table 4. 06 31 Table 4 07 Gender Versus 34 Table 4 08 Gender Versus 34 Table 4 .09 Gender Versus 35 Table 4 . 10 Gender Versus 35 Table 4 .11 Gender Versus 36 Table 4 .12 Gender Versus 36 Table 4 .13 Gender Versus 37 Table 4 . 14 Gender Versus Seeing a Counsellor. 37 Table 4 . 15 Gender Versus Why See a Counsellor 37 Table 4 .16 Gender Versus 38 Table 4 . 17 Gender Versus Learning Centre Use. 38 Table 4 . 18 Gender Versus 39 Table 4 . 19 Gender Versus 39 Table 4 .20 40 ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES VI Table 4. 21 . 41 Table 4. 22a , 42 Table 4. 22b 43 Table 4 23 . 44 Table 4 .24 Employment Status Versus Seeing a Counsellor . . . 46 Table 4 .25 46 Table 4 .26 48 Table 4 .27 48 Table 4 .28 49 Table 4 .29 50 Table 4 .30 . 51 Table 4 .31 , 52 ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES V I I ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k t h e s t a f f o f t h e K i n g E d w a r d Campus l i b r a r y a n d t h e L a n g a r a C o l l e g e l i b r a r y f o r a s s i s t i n g me w i t h f i n d i n g r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l a n d f o r p h o t o c o p y i n g a r t i c l e s so t h a t I c o u l d s c a n t h e m i n t o t h e c o m p u t e r o r h a v e someone r e a d t h e m t o me . I r e n e K i n g , i n p a r t i c u l a r , was v e r y h e l p f u l . T h a n k s a l s o t o my r e a d e r , M s . M a r g a r e t H i r s c h , a n d t o t h e s t a f f a t t h e C r a n e R e s o u r c e C e n t r e f o r r e c o r d i n g s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s as I n e e d e d t h e m . My g r a t i t u d e a n d a p p r e c i a t i o n i s a l s o e x t e n d e d t o Duane S i m p s o n who a s s i s t e d w i t h w o r d p r o c e s s i n g , a n d t o M a r g a r e t P e n n e y who h e l p e d me t o a c c e s s t h e s o f t w a r e t o d o t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . M o s t o f a l l , I t h a n k my h u s b a n d , Don N o b e l , f o r e n t e r i n g t h e d a t a f r o m t h e s t u d e n t s u r v e y i n t o t h e c o m p u t e r so t h a t i t w o u l d b e a c c e s s i b l e t o me, a n d f o r r e a d i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c a l p r i n t o u t s . ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1 A. Purpose The purpose of the study was to determine the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Adult Basic Education (ABE) students enrolled at the P r o v i n c i a l Level i n Adult Basic Education courses at the King Edward Campus of Vancouver Community College. Students at the P r o v i n c i a l Level of Adult Basic Education were chosen because i t was assumed that they had probably spent more time than other students i n the King Edward Campus (KEC) ABE program. Also, i t was f e l t that they were the group of students most l i k e l y to continue t h e i r education, and the researcher wanted to know more about t h e i r plans for the future. As part of t h i s study, a student p r o f i l e was compiled i n d i c a t i n g such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as t h e i r age, gender, f i r s t language, and t h e i r employment and r e g i s t r a t i o n status. The p r o f i l e also included information pertaining to the students' use of support services such as counselling, the l i b r a r y , and learning centre while they were on campus, and an indicati o n of plans for future education. Once the p r o f i l e was established, four c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : age, gender, employment status and f i r s t language, were cross-c l a s s i f i e d with the data gathered for the p r o f i l e i n order to determine what changes, i f any, would occur i n the r e s u l t s . ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES B. Background 2 F o r s e v e r a l y e a r s , t h e model o f a s e p a r a t e p r e p a r a t o r y ABE P rog ram has been i n use a t Vancouve r Community C o l l e g e . T h i s r e s e a r c h e l i c i t s s t u d e n t p e r c e p t i o n s about t h e ABE program and t h e s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s t h e y u s e . The a r t i c u l a t i o n framework f o r ABE i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has f o u r e n t r y l e v e l s : F u n d a m e n t a l , (g rades z e r o t o e i g h t ) , I n t e r m e d i a t e , ( g r ade n i n e and t e n ) , A d v a n c e d , (g rade 1 1 ) , and P r o v i n c i a l , ( g r ade 1 2 ) . T h i s s t u d y f o c u s e d on t h e P r o v i n c i a l L e v e l , somet imes known as C o l l e g e P r e p , because t h e r e s e a r c h e r w i s h e d t o know i f s t u d e n t s a t t h i s l e v e l had p r o g r e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e ABE f ramework , o r i f t h e y had a l r e a d y c o m p l e t e d g rade t w e l v e e l s e w h e r e . ABE s t u d e n t s a r e m o s t l y supposed t o be o l d e r a d u l t s who d r o p p e d o u t o f s c h o o l e a r l i e r i n t h e i r l i v e s . O b s e r v a t i o n s o f s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g ABE c l a s s e s by t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s was n o t t h e c a s e , and t h e s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n so t h a t more c o u l d be l e a r n e d abou t t h e s e s t u d e n t s . The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f o l d e r n o n -t r a d i t i o n a l s t u d e n t s i s i n c r e a s i n g , and t h a t t h e s u p p o r t a v a i l a b l e must meet t h e i r needs . The r e s e a r c h e r was t h e r e f o r e i n t e r e s t e d i n how t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Vancouve r Community C o l l e g e s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d a t t h e • P r o v i n c i a l L e v e l o f ABE compared w i t h t h o s e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES C. Rationale 3 The existence of an ABE student p r o f i l e at the P r o v i n c i a l Level w i l l enable service providers and instructors to better a s s i s t Adult Basic Education students by learning more about them and the types of support they need. It w i l l also provide a basis on which the i n s t i t u t i o n can plan future student services and courses for these students. The findings of t h i s study w i l l provide useful information for Student Services personnel as they d i r e c t and a s s i s t students before they reg i s t e r and while they are attending classes. As patterns are found and questions are answered, the college can move forward create solutions to the issues that emerge. Student information can be used to evaluate or develop programs and services at the college. Friedlander (1981) notes that the most important determiner of educational success i s not "who the student i s , where the student came from, or where the student i s attending college, but rather what the student does i n college." Many studies i n the United States have shown that i f students are using college services and p a r t i c i p a t i n g a c t i v e l y i n college a c t i v i t i e s they tend not to drop out and often complete t h e i r courses. The student feedback gained through t h i s study w i l l be helpful i n evaluating the services provided to them, and i n determining what should be done ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 4 d i f f e r e n t l y to make the college experience more successful for future students. The secondary school dropout rate i s approximately 30%, and the community college has become the place where many students upgrade t h e i r education, either to improve t h e i r l i t e r a c y s k i l l s , or to prepare for other programs. Non-ABE, remedial courses provided at some colleges do not always meet t h e i r needs. For those who want to take more advanced courses, a learning foundation of at least some courses i n the grade twelve equivalency curriculum i s necessary because many adults either decide to change careers due to factors such as technological change or the s h i f t from a resource-based to a service oriented economy, or because they need to pick up basic s k i l l s not gained i n school, that w i l l s t a r t them moving along a career path. Prerequisite courses are generally at the ABE l e v e l , and going back to school i s often made easier for adults who e n r o l l i n ABE programs because, i t i s believed, adequate support services are available. This study investigates i f t h i s i s true at the King Edward Campus of Vancouver Community College, where students have access to personal counselling and academic advising, a good l i b r a r y , a computer lab, and a learning centre where tutors are available to help students having d i f f i c u l t i e s with the curriculum. Many jobs now available require a greater amount of education than was needed i n the past. If, as the B.C. Labour Force Development ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 5 Board report (1995) indicates, there i s an under-representation of vocational education i n the educational system, colleges may need to adapt curriculum to meet the needs of the labour market and give students employability s k i l l s . A f f o r d a b i l i t y and accountability are concepts of an outcomes-based educational system which, i f adapted by the system, w i l l change the nature of the program mix, and could ultimately have an impact on Adult Basic Education programming. In the years to come, i t w i l l become even more c r i t i c a l to evaluate the quality of college programs, as the public's desire for accountability i n t e n s i f i e s . This study provides information about ABE students, t h e i r educational needs and some insight as to how they use the support services available at the King Edward campus. Roueche and Baker (1986) state that teaching excellence, e f f e c t i v e student management systems and administrative leadership are key elements that a l l play a part i n determining a healthy and successful college environment. In addition, information about ABE students and t h e i r use of support services from the students' perspective provides a framework for both v a l i d a t i o n and change. Developmental programs are costly, and some educators are questioning t h e i r v a l i d i t y Richardson (1987). The l i t e r a c y needs of our society are changing rapidly, and colleges are being forced to meet that challenge. I n s t i t u t i o n a l Research departments at some community colleges and i n s t i t u t e s i n B.C. are just beginning to test the preparedness of secondary school graduates, and some colleges are considering ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 6 tightening up t h e i r admission requirements. For the most part, the i n s t i t u t i o n a l research o f f i c e s have been limited to c o l l e c t i n g graduate outcomes data, but the time has come for professionals to learn more about community college students and what supports they perceive they must have access to i n order to succeed. New or d i f f e r e n t approaches to serve students may be needed. In addition, college instructors teaching i n more advanced post secondary programs need to learn more about ABE students, i n order to understand how best to help them when they e n r o l l i n vocational/technical or academic programs. Hopefully, the re s u l t s of t h i s research w i l l have an impact on decision-making regarding ABE programming and student services at Vancouver Community College and perhaps at other colleges as well. D. L imi ta t ions of the Study The study was done i n the summer of 1993. At that time of year, there are fewer students enrolled i n ABE programs, but i t was f e l t that a large enough sample of students could be found. Some of the questions on the student survey could have been more c l e a r l y worded. If so, the employment questions, for example, could have e l i c i t e d more information i f the researcher had asked students now many hours per week they were working. Students perceptions of half or f u l l - t i m e study may be d i f f e r e n t from the college's d e f i n i t i o n , so i t i s d i f f i c u l t to know for sure i f the findings regarding r e g i s t r a t i o n are accurate. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 7 The categorization of program areas on the student survey could perhaps also have been adjusted somewhat so that the "other" category on the survey would be smaller as i t was expected to be. The question about assessment did not ask students to indicate what kind of assessment they took before s t a r t i n g t h e i r courses. Due to the high number of students of English as a second language, (ESL), i t i s possible that the assessment the student took was not academic, but language-based. Despite the l i m i t a t i o n s , the study findings are both useful and informative. A questionnaire similar to the one created for t h i s study, with some alterations to make i t more general, could be administered to a l l ABE students attending classes at the King Edward Campus of Vancouver Community College. The information from such a survey, i f collected on a regular basis, could serve as a valuable planning tool for the college. E. Overview of the Thesis The following chapters contain information from the l i t e r a t u r e , a description of the methodology, a presentation of the r e s u l t s of the study, discussion of the findings, and some recommendations based on the r e s u l t s . ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES Chapter I I OVERVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 8 The l i t e r a t u r e on developmental education and high r i s k students i n the United States i s reviewed below, and some Canadian reports and papers written recently have been examined. Before discussing the l i t e r a t u r e , however, a description of the Adult Basic Education program at King Edward Campus w i l l serve as a background to my research, and provide the context. Support services w i l l be included i n thi s description. A. Background Approximately three thousand students take courses i n Adult Basic Education each year. They may begin at a basic l i t e r a c y l e v e l or at any other l e v e l determined by either an academic assessment or recent t r a n s c r i p t from a secondary school or college. The l i t e r a c y program or Fundamental Level provides a mixture of self-paced and group i n s t r u c t i o n , and, when students are able to go on to the Intermediate Level, they have a choice of classroom-based or s e l f -paced i n s t r u c t i o n . Starting at the Intermediate Level, (grade 9) the self-paced program allows students to e n r o l l for 12 to 30 hours per week. In general, each course requires at least a commitment of s i x hours per week. Nevertheless, i t i s possible for a student to take only one course for 30 hours per week should he or she wish to complete ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 9 i t q u i c k l y . Cou r se s o f f e r e d i n c l u d e E n g l i s h , M a t h , G e n e r a l S c i e n c e , and p h y s i c s and b i o l o g y a t t h e A d v a n c e d , o r g r a d e 11 l e v e l . S t u d e n t s may a l s o do n o n - c r e d i t work , c o m p l e t i n g u n i t s s u c h as r e p o r t w r i t i n g t o improve t h e i r pe r fo rmance on t h e j o b , o r Math a t t h e g rade 11 o r 12 l e v e l t o h e l p them, f o r e x a m p l e , w i t h a s t a t i s t i c s c o u r s e . The more t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s r o o m - b a s e d p rogram a l s o p r o v i d e s i n s t r u c t i o n f rom t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e , (g rade 10) t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l (g rade 12) l e v e l , bu t a w i d e r s e l e c t i o n o f c o u r s e s i s a v a i l a b l e . C o u r s e s i n c l u d e E n g l i s h , Geography , H i s t o r y , P s y c h o l o g y , E c o n o m i c s , Computer S c i e n c e , Word P r o c e s s i n g and K e y b o a r d i n g , P h y s i c s , C h e m i s t r y , B i o l o g y and M a t h e m a t i c s . S t u d e n t s a t t h e h i g h e r l e v e l s o f t e n t a k e c o u r s e s i n t h i s p rogram i f t h e y want t o c o m p l e t e t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e P r o v i n c i a l D i p l o m a w h i c h i s t h e P o s t S e c o n d a r y s y s t e m ' s s e c o n d a r y g r a d u a t i o n e q u i v a l e n t . A t p r e s e n t , s t u d e n t s i n t h e s e l f - p a c e d program r e q u i r i n g a P r o v i n c i a l D i p l o m a must t a k e some c o u r s e s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m - b a s e d p r o g r a m . R e g a r d l e s s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n l y 3% p e r y e a r o f s t u d e n t s c o m p l e t e t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h i s d i p l o m a because most c o l l e g e s a c c e p t p r e r e q u i s i t e c o u r s e s as s u f f i c i e n t b a c k g r o u n d f o r a d m i s s i o n t o t h e i r p r o g r a m s . W h i l e a t t e n d i n g c o u r s e s a t t h e K i n g Edward Campus, s t u d e n t s have a c c e s s t o a v a r i e t y o f s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s . There i s a w e l l - e q u i p p e d l i b r a r y , l e a r n i n g c e n t r e s t a f f e d w i t h p a i d t u t o r s , a s m a l l compute r ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 10 l a b , p e r s o n a l a n d c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g , a n d a n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e p r o g r a m p r o v i d i n g d i a g n o s i s a n d t u t o r i n g o f s t u d e n t s w i t h l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s . As r e p o r t e d i n t h e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e b e l o w , s u p p o r t f o r s t u d e n t s i n d e v e l o p m e n t a l / A B E p r o g r a m s i s c o n s i d e r e d c r u c i a l t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' r e t e n t i o n a n d p e r f o r m a n c e . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h i s i s t r u e a t K i n g E d w a r d Campus f o r P r o v i n c i a l L e v e l ABE s t u d e n t s w i l l a f f e c t t h e f u t u r e p l a n s o f s t u d e n t s e r v i c e s p e r s o n n e l i n a s s i s t i n g s t u d e n t s b e f o r e a n d a f t e r t h e y r e g i s t e r f o r ABE c o u r s e s . B. Needs Analysis R o u e c h e ( 1 9 7 8 ) s t a t e s t h a t f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e c o m m i t m e n t o f c o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e s t o a c c e s s f o r a l l a n d t h e o p e n a d m i s s i o n s p o l i c i e s t h a t r e s u l t e d h a v e l e d t o t h e a d m i s s i o n o f a d u l t s who w o u l d n o t p r e v i o u s l y h a v e become i n v o l v e d i n P o s t S e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . I f , as D e n n i s o n a n d L e v i n ( 1 9 8 7 ) s u g g e s t , a c c e s s i s s t i l l t h e p r i m a r y g o a l o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o l l e g e s , t h e n c o l l e g e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s s h o u l d t r y t o f i n d o u t w h a t c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e s u c c e s s o f s t u d e n t s who s t a y i n t h e s y s t e m . F u r t h e r , i n o r d e r t o j u s t i f y t h e immense p u b l i c e x p e n d i t u r e o n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , c o l l e g e s m u s t f i n d ways t o r e t a i n m o r e a d u l t s t u d e n t s a n d f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r l e a r n i n g . I n h i s a r t i c l e , R e s p o n d i n g t o C r i t i c i s m o f D e v e l o p m e n t a l E d u c a t i o n , Cohen a s k s t h e q u e s t i o n : "How many t i m e s d o we h a v e t o t e a c h t h e same p e r s o n how t o r e a d ? " ( 1 9 8 7 , p . 5 ) . T h i s i s a c o m p l e x q u e s t i o n w h i c h d e s e r v e s a n a n s w e r . K a r a b e l ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 11 (1986) said that the most c r i t i c a l p o l i c y issue facing community colleges was whether or not they should become occupational i n s t i t u t i o n s to give people a marketable s k i l l , as opposed to giving them academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s they may not be able to a t t a i n or which they may not r e a l l y need. This would be a d i f f i c u l t s h i f t for B r i t i s h Columbia colleges despite reports that indicate i t s necessity, Human Resource Development, (1993) and B.C. Labour Force Development Board, (1995), as they were created primarily to provide u n i v e r s i t y transfer programming. With the secondary school dropout rate remaining steady at 30%, and with the increasing complexity of technology i n the workplace, demand for academic education continues to be strong. Unemployment has grown from 4% i n the 1960's to 11% i n the 1990's. Unemployed persons often turn to community colleges for further education and t r a i n i n g to increase t h e i r marketable s k i l l s and job p o t e n t i a l . Consequently, Adult Basic Education programming w i l l continue to be of great importance for those students who need i t . C. Serving the Adult Student There i s a good deal of controversy about how and i f adult students with d e f i c i e n c i e s i n basic s k i l l s should be made part of the Post Secondary environment. In most parts of Canada and the United States, the term Post Secondary refers to the age of the adult learner rather than to the curriculum.he or she i s studying. Many researchers also believe that several college programs have reduced ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 12 the l e v e l of l i t e r a c y required of graduates i n order to accommodate t h e i r s k i l l l evels rather than i n s i s t i n g on e f f e c t i v e reading and writing assignments. Cohen, (1984-1985) and others contend that basic s k i l l s should be integrated throughout the curriculum. Treating developmental students i n t h i s way reduces stigma, enhances s e l f esteem, and provides d i r e c t access to regular programs. Roueche and his colleagues, on the other hand, believe that there should be a separate developmental program for such students. Roueche and Archer, (1979) contend that mandatory assessment and placement, an analysis of a student's attitude and self-image, teaching strategies which relate content to l i f e experience and career choices, and constant feedback through a student management system are some key elements which contribute to the success of ABE students. One point upon which a l l of the authors studied seem to agree, however, i s that students are leaving the secondary school system with inadequate basic s k i l l s . What should be done? Most writers i n t h i s f i e l d suggest that colleges need to provide f l e x i b l e hours and part-time learning opportunities for adult learners. Roueche, (1981-1982) even goes so far as to suggest that colleges should r e s t r i c t the number of hours an adult can study according to his or her work schedule and/or family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Carbone (1987) and others suggest that developmental students must learn to ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 13 motivate themselves and understand t h e i r learning strengths and weaknesses so as to negotiate the academic and s o c i a l systems. Others state that students must also'learn to adopt e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t methods of processing information and t r y to a l t e r previously established attitudes about t h e i r own p o t e n t i a l and sense of s e l f worth. Goertzel, Gordon and Keeley, (1992) i n a report on retention of ABE students, indicated that non-traditional adult students are often contending with such problems as affordable housing, personal and family d i f f i c u l t i e s , low s e l f esteem, health or childcare problems, and the need to f i n d immediate employment. They also indicate that adults e n r o l l i n g i n Adult Basic Education programs seem to need increased self-esteem, personal empowerment, support to continue school, and If people take advantage of the support services available they tend to stay i n class and f i n i s h t h e i r courses. Students need to f e e l empowered i n t h e i r community as well as i n the classroom, and often have u n r e a l i s t i c expectations about what they can achieve i n a short time. Gaps are often found between s k i l l l evels and expectations. Twenty-seven percent of the students registered used the support services. Of those who stayed on i n the second term, 50% used them. D. S o c i a l Issues Another premise regarding the provision of Adult Basic Education ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 14 programming i s that the increased opportunity for further education w i l l provide some upward mobility for those students. To a great extent, colleges are the only i n s t i t u t i o n s that serve the economically disadvantaged. McGrath and Spear, (1987) i n t h e i r a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "The P o l i t i c s of Remediation", contend that rather than providing equal opportunity for a l l , colleges are channelling people into the same lower class jobs as t h e i r parents. Moreover, they think that colleges are ins u l a t i n g u n i v e r s i t i e s from non-t r a d i t i o n a l students. Although educators can construct a supportive environment for non-traditional students creating educational effectiveness, i t i s not possible to break down class structures. Zwerling (1976) regards colleges as a kind of mechanism to keep the poor i n t h e i r place while giving those lower class students the i l l u s i o n of progress. If t h i s i s true, then students should perhaps be taught about class consciousness to raise t h e i r awareness. Cohen (1977, p. 78) writes that "Progress toward equality does not redress inequality of condition". Individual mobility i s always possible, but those who believe Adult Basic Education w i l l change the structure of society are naive. Cohen puts i t rather nicely: "The universal o b l i g a t i o n i s not to be s o c i a l revolutionaries, humanity modifiers, educational agency brokers, or the purveyors of c e r t i f i c a t e s of ever-lower value that give people the i l l u s i o n that they have learned. It i s to teach." (1977, p. 81) ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 15 E. Professional Development The success of developmental programs i s p a r t i a l l y dependent upon the help of volunteers. Nearly a l l models include t u t o r i n g services and peer counselling. Some programs even use peer teachers who work successfully with ABE classes despite not being college-trained, Goertzel, Gordon, and Keeley (1992). Disagreement exists as to whether or not to use volunteer or peer instru c t o r s and tutors or q u a l i f i e d professionals. Boylan (1985), i n the t h i r d r e v i s i o n of the statement on under-preparedness written for the National Association of Developmental Education, emphasized the importance of professional service providers. He states that perhaps some of the lack of success of under-prepared students may be a t t r i b u t a b l e to poor teaching. Proponents of the increased usage of volunteers i n the f i e l d of Adult Basic Education argue that cost savings j u s t i f y the practice. In B r i t i s h Columbia, some Adult Basic Education programs use a combination of professionals and volunteers. The key issue i s that those involved i n t h i s f i e l d require adequate professional development. In the Platform for Excellence, (Washington State Community College Board of Education 1983), the concept of resource sharing and the promotion of professional growth are shown to help to increase the status of developmental education i n colleges. Roueche and Baker (1986) support the practice of recognizing superior teachers as one component of a.successful developmental program. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 16 F. Retention and Student Success Once developmental students have been admitted, what are the advantages of keeping them i n school and providing ways to encourage t h e i r success? Graduate outcomes are being used as a measure of accountability. Some administrators contend that r e t a i n i n g such students i s good for college revenue, because, although ABE programs are costly to provide, many students continue on i n other career programs at the college. If t h i s i s so, support services for students should play a major role i n a s s i s t i n g students who might otherwise drop out. Friedlander (1981b) learned that students who do not take advantage of supplementary programs and support services complain that such services are available at inconvenient times, or they just can't take the time to use them. Goertzel, Gordon and Keeley, (19 92) found that students who did not drop out of the ABE program tended to use the support services, although factors such as low s e l f esteem, personal and family d i f f i c u l t i e s , or health or childcare problems influenced t h e i r a b i l i t y to stay i n class. Twenty-seven percent of the students registered used the support services. Of those who stayed on i n the second term, f i f t y percent used them. Self esteem ratings rose from s i x t y - f i v e to seventy-two percent to i n the second term. Eisner and Ames, (1983) viewed student services as needing to be i n three categories: i n s t i t u t i o n a l , such as admissions; s i t u a t i o n a l l y -based services, such as childcare and special i n t e r e s t ; or ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 17 developmental services such as support services to re-entry women. This i s a rather t r a d i t i o n a l way of viewing student services which may need to be re-examined as more women students are enrolled. Garcia, (1995) contends that i f the services i n the second of t h i r d categories above are often deemed not to be ess e n t i a l and are the f i r s t to go during periods of f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t . If we recognize that community college enrollment r e f l e c t s a microcosm of the d i v e r s i t y i n society, we may need to reconsider what services are es s e n t i a l , and, as i s indicated by the results i n t h i s study and i n others, the enrollment of women i s r i s i n g and t h e i r needs w i l l have to be addressed. As well, the ethnic d i v e r s i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y at King Edward Campus, must be considered when planning for the future at Post Secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s . The r e a l i t y might be, colleges w i l l probably re t a i n more students i f t h e i r programs are f l e x i b l y structured and delivered on both an in d i v i d u a l i z e d or lecture-based format according to the learning styles of the students. Full-time, lock-step programs are harder for most adults to take because they generally cannot commit a l l of t h e i r energies to fu l l - t i m e study. In "Going Back to College: Some Differences Between Adult Students and Tr a d i t i o n a l Students", (Iovacchini, H a l l , and Hengstler 1985), the authors outline several differences between t r a d i t i o n a l students and older adult learners. Women and socio-economically disadvantaged people are the fa s t e s t growing populations from which students are coming and t h e i r needs and desires are d i f f e r e n t . As well as f l e x i b l e scheduling, they ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 18 often require other support such as childcare, f i n a n c i a l aid, counselling, tutoring, and so on. Although such support i s often costly to fund, i t i s well worth the e f f o r t . In an interview with (Enright, Enright and Cohen 1988), Cohen indicates that remediation and learning assistance should be central to the mission of a college. There should be an equal commitment to. developmental education as well as to academic learning. Roueche and Baker (1986) outlined several factors which contribute to student retention and success such as excellent teaching, administrative support, strong leadership at a l l lev e l s of the college organization, rewards for academic achievement and a sophisticated student management system. They state very c l e a r l y that developmental students must be p r o f i c i e n t i n basic s k i l l s before they enter the college programs for which they are preparing. If students are not making progress, they are discontinued. Roueche and Baker (1986) contend that t h i s approach to developmental education obtains good r e s u l t s . Friedlander's (1981a) study has shown that few students take advantage of developmental resources i f i t i s l e f t up to them to volunteer. Colleges must therefore take steps to help them succeed, because providing access i s not enough. Recently, s p e c i f i c curriculum about student success has been widely used i n many colleges. The course i s either accredited, or seminars are offered on a volunteer basis by interested instructors. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 19 6. Support Services Lit e r a t u r e on student services i s quite sparse, but there are some in t e r e s t i n g issues nonetheless. There i s a regular process for surveying students, for example, i n the San Francisco Community College D i s t r i c t . Similar data to that which were gathered for th i s study was collected, though the student population surveyed i s much broader than the groups of students looked at i n t h i s study. The data analysis i s used by the d i s t r i c t i n i t s program planning and evaluation. Douzenis (1994) conducted a review of The Community College student experiences questionnaire as i t was applied i n Tennessee and found i t to be very e f f e c t i v e . Most of the research on the cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of college students relates findings that are consistent with those i n t h i s study. Two-thirds of the students surveyed were women, and one-quarter were representative of ethnic minorities. Most studied f u l l time, worked as well, and spent only 6 hours or less on campus engaging i n other college a c t i v i t i e s . Other recent data on the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of college students i n the US are also a v a i l a b l e . For example, Kates (1993) found that 61% of women received f i n a n c i a l aid compared to 55% of the student population. She also found that enrollment of older students i s increasing. If t h i s i s so, colleges w i l l need to develop supports for older students such as childcare, and assessment of pr i o r learning i n response to the assumption that they are e n r o l l i n g non-traditional students. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 2 0 There i s some debate about counselling versus advising by either faculty, students, or clerk/advisers at community colleges. Russell (1969) believes that only counsellors should advise students because they are s p e c i a l l y trained to deal with the other issues that in e v i t a b l y surface during some advising sessions. He contends that i t i s too costly to t r a i n students or f a c u l t y to do an appropriate job of advising because students leave the i n s t i t u t i o n , and faculty have too many other duties and often show a marked lack of interest i n advising. Counsellors are people oriented, they have no vested interest i n a p a r t i c u l a r program; They are interested i n the mental health of the student and i n her or his academic progress. They spend t h e i r day counselling and do not have to plan lessons, teach, or mark assignments. The counsellor's allegiance i s to the student and not to a department. If a personal problem comes up, a counsellor i s trained to deal with i t . Counsellors are also f a m i l i a r with aptitude and other tests which help students make decisions about t h e i r career or other aspects of t h e i r l i f e . Poison (1994) believes that adviser/clerks should monitor student progress throughout the term, help them set goals, and be available during evenings and weekends. However i t i s done, a l l are i n agreement that counselling/advising services are needed by students, either to help them overcome personal d i f f i c u l t i e s and plan careers, or to help them adjust to the new world they enter after they become educated, Zwerling (1992). ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 21 In a study that compared day and evening college students and t h e i r use of support services, (Reisman and Zemmin, 1983), the order of reasons why students used counselling whether they were day or evening students was: 1. academic advising, 2. career planning, 3. job placement and 4. personal. Regardless of why students use counselling services, (Crockett, 1984) indicates the benefits of e f f e c t i v e academic advising to be: attainment of t h e i r educational/career objectives; achievement of GPA consistent with t h e i r a b i l i t i e s ; great l i k e l i h o o d of remaining i n school; s a t i s f a c t i o n with the educational process and the development of a p o s i t i v e attitude toward the i n s t i t u t i o n ; and the development of a meaningful relationship with the adviser. "The variables which impact p o s i t i v e l y on retention can be generally categorized as s o c i a l and academic integration; student i n s t i t u t i o n a l " f i t " ; and student development including career and l i f e planning and course placement and selection." (Tinto 1975, 1987: Pascarella 1982, 1986; Crockett, 1984). Pre and post admission counselling given to an experimental group of students i n a study conducted by Seidman (1991) found that over time, student performance and retention improved. H. Summary The l i t e r a t u r e indicates two schools of thought regarding how best to meet the needs of adult learners d e f i c i e n t i n basic s k i l l s ; but no matter how i t i s done, adults should have the opportunity to ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 22 continue t h e i r education at whatever l e v e l they require, and the community college should uphold i t s mandate to provide access by permitting enrollment at any l i t e r a c y l e v e l , and by providing adequate support services. The l i t e r a t u r e also indicates that providing access i s only the beginning of a continuum of services that contributes to student development and retention. Despite the varying opinions about how developmental programs should be structured, research tends to favour a separate developmental program rather than immediate student integration into regular programs. According to the l i t e r a t u r e , non-traditional students, who are older than twenty-file and more l i k e l y to be female, make up most of the population of students coming back to school for upgrading. The kinds of support services that they need range from childcare and women's centres, to counselling and tutoring. According to the l i t e r a t u r e , i f students took advantage of the services, they tended to be more successfully both s o c i a l l y and academically. The d i v e r s i t y of the population, and the tenancy toward surviving on a low income meant that students described i n the l i t e r a t u r e also took advantage of f i n a n c i a l aid opportunities. Other important considerations for these students were f l e x i b l e hours of study that would f i t i n with t h e i r work schedules, and part-time, not f u l l -time study. Although a very clear picture of the developmental student, her or ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 2 3 his c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and her or his support requirements, ABE P r o v i n c i a l Level students at the King Edward Campus of Vancouver Community'College do not e n t i r e l y conform to i t . The findings from t h i s study, discussed i n d e t a i l l a t e r , provide, from a Canadian perspective, a portrayal of the uniqueness of a p a r t i c u l a r group of ABE students. Hopefully, t h i s group i s representative of the students at the Pro v i n c i a l Level of ABE i n B r i t i s h Columbia. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES Chapter 1 1 1 METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN 24 Because of f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t , student services, a valuable support to i n s t r u c t i o n , are often the f i r s t to be reduced. The large population of both ABE and ESL students on campus has always been used as a rationale for maintaining services at t h e i r current l e v e l . The researcher f e l t that more information about the use of support services used by a sample of students on campus would help the college to make decisions about the l e v e l of student services and the program planning related to developmental students. The survey which the students f i l l e d out was created by the researcher. The purpose of the questions was to discover the demographics of the sample, t h e i r r e g i s t r a t i o n status, t h e i r l e v e l of employment, grade l e v e l upon entry, and whether they paid t h e i r own t u i t i o n . Subsequent questions asked about support services available at the King Edward Campus to f i n d out i f they were used, why, and how often. The survey was conducted before the end of the term, and there was no time to pretest i t . As discussed e a r l i e r , the wording of some questions did create some ambiguities, but the design of the survey, for the most part, was adeguate. One hundred twenty-two questionnaires to be administered i n class were d i s t r i b u t e d to instructors teaching at the P r o v i n c i a l Level. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 25 They were f i l l e d out by 111 students at the time when they were handed out. Instructors were given the choice of when, during class time, to have students f i l l out the survey. Students i n the self-paced program f i l l e d out the survey when they dropped i n at t h e i r scheduled time. Thirty out of t h i r t y - s i x questionnaires were completed by students i n that program, and eighty-one out of eighty-six were completed by students i n regularly scheduled classes. Questionnaires were completed on a voluntary basis, and the i n d i v i d u a l responses remained anonymous. (See Appendix A.) F i l l i n g out the questionnaire took approximately ten to f i f t e e n minutes. The response rate was 90%, 111 out of 122 surveys d i s t r i b u t e d , and the sample was representative of students enrolled i n the Pr o v i n c i a l Level of ABE i n the summer of 1993. The exact number of students registered at that l e v e l was estimated to be approximately 150 to 200 at that time. As students i n the self-paced program were included i n the study, and as they r e g i s t e r by hours per week and not by courses, i t was not possible to determine the exact number of students registered at the Pr o v i n c i a l Level of ABE when the study was conducted. Data c o l l e c t e d included: demographic; r e g i s t r a t i o n status; f i n a n c i a l a i d required; length of time attending classes at KEC; use and frequency of use of support services; student comments about t h e i r preferred i n s t r u c t i o n a l delivery method; assessment; ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 2 6 i n s t i t u t i o n s where students plan to.go and programs which they plan to attend. Once the data was compiled, the f i e l d s of age, gender, employment status and f i r s t language were cross-tabulated with the exception of the information about attendance at counselling workshops and course delivery questions. The chi squared test of si g n i f i c a n c e with a 0.05 l e v e l with one degree of freedom was used to calculate the significance of difference when the c r o s s - c l a s s i f i e d data was analyzed. The study also e l i c i t e d students' views about i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e l i v e r y methods for ABE courses, and why they preferred one over another. Currently, two in s t r u c t i o n a l delivery models are used, and students are often required to do an academic assessment before they take ABE courses. In much of the l i t e r a t u r e , assessment before entry, and student support services are said to contribute to student retention and success. While t h i s study does not measure success, the findings demonstrate whether or not students use the various support services, and i n what way. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES Chapter IV RESULTS 27 A. General P r o f i l e F i f t y , or 48.1% of the students who responded regarding gender were male, and f i f t y - f o u r , 51.9% were female. That i s a much more even r a t i o than expected. Table 4.01 shows the age d i s t r i b u t i o n . Table 4.01 Age Di s t r i b u t i o n n=104 Variable Number Percent <20 21 20.2% 20-25 40 38.5% 25-30 22 21.2% 30-40 16 15.4% 40-50 3 2 .9% >50 2 1.9% Almost 80% of the students at th i s l e v e l are between 18 and 30 years of age. Twenty percent are under 20, while almost the same number are over 30, with the majority being between 2 0 and 25. For t y - f i v e percent of the students responded that English was t h e i r f i r s t language, and 54.5% were speakers of English as a second language. Of the second language speakers, 30% were Chinese language speakers and 24.5% spoke a variety of other languages. Table 4.02 shows the grade completed by the students before they ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 28 came to the King Edward Campus. The "other" category includes those below grade 8, and those with some college or u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g . Table 4.02 Grade Completed n=110 Grade Number Percent 12 57 51.8% 11 21 19.1% 10 13 11.8% 9 3 2.7% 8 1 1.9% Other 15 13.6% Just over half of the students surveyed had already completed grade 12, and of those who had not, 31.9% had completed at least grade 10 before they came to the college. Table 4.03 shows the length of time students had been enrolled at King Edward Campus at the time of the survey. Table 4.03 Enrollment Time n=108 Time Number Percent <6 months 45 41.3% 6-12 months 30 27.5% 12-24 months 13 11.9% >2 years 20 18 . 3% Approximately sixty-nine percent had been there for at least one year, and 30.2% had been there longer than that. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 29 More than 27% of the students were employed part time and 12.8% were employed f u l l - t i m e . Almost 60% were not employed. Si x t y - s i x percent of the students were feepayers and 33% were funded by the Adult Basic Education Student Assistance Plan. 1% received other funding. Almost 62% of the students considered themselves to be registered f u l l - t i m e and 38.2% of the students said that they were registered part-time. Tables 4.04a-b-c, below shows the KEC support services and how often the students i n the study used them. Table 4.04a KEC Support Services and Frequency of Use: Counselling n=109 Before Registration 45 41 . 3% Monthly 10 9 . 2% Seldom 2 1. 8% Never 52 47 .7% Table 4.04b KEC Support Services and Frequency of Use: Library n=109 Daily 26 23.9% Weekly 39 35.8% Monthly 27 24.8% Never 17 15.5% ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 30 Table 4.04c KEC Support Services and Frequency of Use: Learning Centre n=109 Daily 21 19.3% Weekly 34 31.2% Monthly 23 21. 1% Never 31 28.4% Of those who said they used counselling services, 9.3% went for personal reasons, 24% for career planning, 50% said they went for other reasons, and 16.7% indicated that they saw a counsellor for a l l of those reasons. 43.1% used the computer lab i n the l i b r a r y and 5 6.9% did not. Almost 75% of the students surveyed were enrolled i n classroom-based i n s t r u c t i o n and 14% were i n self-paced classes. Approximately 11% were enrolled i n both kinds of classes. Comments on the preferred mode of i n s t r u c t i o n a l delivery w i l l be shared l a t e r , but as most of the subjects at the Pr o v i n c i a l Level are delivered i n a classroom-based format, the results are somewhat skewed. Almost 58% of the students took an assessment before they enrolled i n classes, 42.5% did not. Over 27% said that they wanted to attend Langara college, 7.6% intended to e n r o l l i n programs at the City Centre campus of VCC, and 16.2% were continuing to study at KEC. Table 3.05 below shows ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 31 where students planned to go after they completed t h e i r ABE courses. Table 4.05 Insti t u t i o n s Where Students Planned to Attend n=93 BCIT 13 12.4% Langara 29 27 . 6% SFU 3 2.9% UBC 8 7 . 6% VCC City Centre 8 7 . 6% VCC KEC 17 16.2% Other Colleges 15 14.3% Twelve students, 11.4%, indicated that they did not intend to attend another post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n . Table 4.0 6 shows the programs students were planning to attend. Table 4.06 Program Choices n=93 Arts 13 14% Business 14 15% Computer 6 6.5% Health 9 9 . 6% Sciences 26 28% Technical 4 4.3% Other 21 22 . 6% The "other" category included programs l i k e radiography, kenistheology, architecture, transportation, and various other programs. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 32 As explained e a r l i e r , students have two choices of i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e l i v e r y i n the ABE program. However, most of the P r o v i n c i a l courses are only available i n the classroom-based environment. That i s why most of the students i n the study, 74.8%, preferred that type of i n s t r u c t i o n a l delivery. 14% of the students surveyed were i n self-paced classes only, and 11.2% were enrolled i n courses i n both areas. Their reasons for choosing one i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e l i v e r y over another are summarized below, and, although these res u l t s are somewhat skewed, i t i s i n s i g h t f u l to know why one delivery method i s preferred over another. The comments also seem to j u s t i f y having both delivery methods available to students. Those who chose classroom-based in s t r u c t i o n f e l t that they needed structure and the d i s c i p l i n e of attending classes regularly. Some students considered the qu a l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n to be better i n a classroom environment, but commented that they could s t i l l take advantage of the t u t o r i a l support available i n the learning centre. Some simply said that the courses they wanted were not available i n the self-paced format. Others said that they wanted to be taught by a teacher, and that there was more interaction, which they f e l t aided t h e i r learning. Many students f e l t that they could not motivate themselves, and that r i g i d timelines for completing assignments and keeping pace with others was b e n e f i c i a l to t h e i r learning. In fact, some students said that they l i k e d the competitiveness of classroom-based i n s t r u c t i o n . ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 33 Those who p r e f e r r e d s e l f - p a c e d i n s t r u c t i o n remarked t h a t t h e y a p p r e c i a t e d t h e f l e x i b l e h o u r s , and , i f t h e y were h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t , t h e a b i l i t y t o spend more t i m e on i t was h e l p f u l . Some s t u d e n t s s t a t e d t h a t t h e y c o u l d g e t t h r o u g h c o u r s e s f a s t e r o r s l o w e r by g o i n g a t t h e i r own s p e e d . Those w i t h c h i l d c a r e i s s u e s a l s o p r e f e r r e d t h e s e l f - p a c e d f o r m a t , and some s t u d e n t s f o u n d t h e c o m p e t i t i v e s t r u c t u r e d e n v i r o n m e n t t o o s t r e s s f u l . F o r some s t u d e n t s , b e g i n n i n g t h e i r ABE c o u r s e s i n t h e s e l f - p a c e d e n v i r o n m e n t h e l p e d them t o g a i n c o n f i d e n c e so t h a t t h e y e v e n t u a l l y f e l t l e s s t h r e a t e n e d by c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n . As t h e i s s u e o f a ssessment f o r d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t u d e n t s e n t e r i n g t h e c o l l e g e s came up f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , s t u d e n t s were a s k e d i f t h e y d i d an a s sessment upon e n t r y . The f a c t t h a t 57.5% d i d do an a s se s smen t shows t h a t i t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r t h o s e who have been away f rom an e d u c a t i o n a l , e n v i r o n m e n t f o r some t i m e t o be c o r r e c t l y p l a c e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l e v e l o f t h e i r s k i l l s . A l t h o u g h s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t r a n s c r i p t s a r e a c c e p t e d , i f t h e y a r e o u t d a t e d , an a s se s smen t i s n e c e s s a r y . A weakness i n t h e way t h e q u e s t i o n on t h e s u r v e y was worded means t h a t i t i s no t known f o r s u r e w h e t h e r s t u d e n t s d i d an ABE o r and E n g l i s h Language a s s e s s m e n t . I t i s a l s o n o t known i f t h e second l anguage s p e a k e r s t o o k ESL c o u r s e s b e f o r e e n t e r i n g t h e ABE p r o g r a m . Now t h a t t h e p r o f i l e o f t h e ABE s t u d e n t has been e s t a b l i s h e d , i t i s t i m e t o see what changes i n t h e r e s u l t s , i f any , o c c u r when g e n d e r , ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 34 age, employment status and f i r s t language are considered. B. Gender Results Table 4.07 shows the gender versus age r e s u l t s . Of the females, 83% were under 30, as were 76% of the males. Table 4.07 Gender Versus Age n=104 Age Females Percent Males Percent <20 12 11.5% 9 8.7% 20-25 19 18.3% 21 20.2% 25-30 14 13.5% 8 7 .7% 30-40 7 6.7% 9 8.7% 40-50 1 1% 2 1.9% >50 1 1% 1 1% Table 4.08 shows gender versus r e g i s t r a t i o n . Table 4.08 Gender Versus Registration n=108 Variable Part-time Full-time Total Male 21 30 51 19% 27% 47 .2% Female 20 37 57 18% 34% 52.8% The numbers are f a i r l y similar, but more females consider themselves to be registered f u l l - t i m e than males. Table 4.09 shows gender versus t u i t i o n . ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 35 Table 4.09 Gender Versus Tuition n=104 Variable Feepayer ABESAP Other Total Male 33 14 0 47 32% 15% 0% 45.2% Females 35 21 1 57 33.7% 20.2% 1% 54 . 8% As noted i n the table above, more women are using the Adult Basic Education Student Assistance Plan, but there i s l i t t l e or no difference i n how they pay t h e i r t u i t i o n . Table 4.10 shows gender versus employment. Table 4.10 Gender Versus Employment n=107 Employment Females Percent Males Percent Part-time 15 14% 14 13.1% Full-time 6 5.6% 7 6.5% Unemployed 36 33 . 6% 29 27 .1% The difference here i s that more of the females are unemployed. S t a t i s t i c s for f u l l and part-time are gender equal. Also, part-time employment started at about 6 hours per week as a student aid, but there i s no indicati o n from the study as to the hours per week worked by each student. Although some student did comment about how many hours per week they worked, they were not asked to do so, making the amount of part-time work impossible to discern. Table 4.11 shows the gender differences i n the grade completed vari a b l e . As the table indicates, more women than men had ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 36 completed grade 12 before coming to KEC. Table 4.11 Gender Versus Grade Completed n=108 Grade Females Percent Males Percent 12 31 27.8% 24 22.2% 11 9 8.3% 12 11.1% 10 7 6.5% 6 5.6% 9 2 1.9% 1 .9% 8 1 .9% 0 0% Other 7 6.5% 8 7.4% Although the numbers for women are higher, the difference i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . It i s int e r e s t i n g to note that more students responded to t h i s question, and the o v e r a l l r a t i o of females to males i s s l i g h t l y higher. Table 4.12 shows gender versus enrollment time. Table 4.12 Gender Versus Enrollment Time n=107 Time Females Percent Male Percent <6 months 23 21.5% 21 19 . 6% 6-12 mo. 17 15 .9% 13 12.1% 1-2 yrs. 5 4 .7% 8 7.5% >2 yrs. 12 11.2% 7 6.5% >4 yrs. 0 0% 1 .9% When the data for gender and f i r s t language were compared, i t was found that more of the Chinese students were males. Other differences were less noticeable. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 37 Table 4.13 Gender Versus F i r s t Language n=108 Language Females Percent Males Percent English 26 24% 23 21.3% Chinese 15 13.9% 18 16.7% Other 16 14.8% 10 9 . 2% Table 4.14 Gender Versus Seeing a Counsellor n=107 Frequency Females Percent Males Percent Monthly 4 3.7% 6 5. 6% Before Reg. 24 22 .4% 21 19 . 6% Seldom 2 1. 9% 0 0% Never 27 25.2% 23 21.5% Below are the findings regarding the reason people went to see a counsellor. It i s noteworthy that both men and women c i t e d "other" as 50% of t h e i r t o t a l number. What the other reasons are, are not known. Table 4.15 Gender Versus Why See a Counsellor n=54 Reason Females Percent Males Percent Personal 4 7.4% 1 1.9% Career Plan 4 7.4% 9 16.7% Other 14 25 .9% 13 24.1% A l l of Above 6 11.1% 3 5.6% The f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n t h i s category was found when examining gender and l i b r a r y usage, with a l i k e l i h o o d r a t i o of .02. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 38 Table 4.16 Gender Versus Library Use n=107 Frequency Females Percent Males Percent Daily 13 12 .1% 13 12 .1% Weekly 27 25.2% 11 10.3% Monthly 10 9 . 3% 16 15% Never 6 5 . 6% 11 10.3% Males use the l i b r a r y less frequently, although the o v e r a l l usage of both groups i s almost the same. In addition, fewer females d i d not use the l i b r a r y at a l l . As you w i l l note by examining the table below, d a i l y use of the Learning Centre i s about equal, but women use the Learning Centre more frequently. Again, of those who do not use i t at a l l , more are male. Table 4.17 Gender Versus Learning Centre Use n=107 Frequency Females Pe rcent Males Pe rcent Daily 10 9 . 3% 11 10 .3% Weekly 19 17 . 8% 14 13 . 1% Monthly 14 13 . 1% 9 8 . 4% Never 13 12 . 1% 17 15 .9% No s i g n i f i c a n t difference was found i n computer lab use. Of those who said they did not use the computer lab, 55% were women compared to 45% of the men. 33.3% of the women did assessments before s t a r t i n g t h e i r courses compared to 23.8% of the men. It i s possible to speculate that women may have been out of school f o r a ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 39 longer period of time, and that i s why they needed to do assessments more frequently than men, but there i s no conclusive proof of t h i s . Table 4.18 Gender Versus College n=92 I n s t i t . Females Percent Males Percent BCIT 8 7.7% 5 4.8% Langara 11 10.6% 18 17 .3% SFU 2 1.9% 1 1% UBC 5 4.8% 3 2.9% vcc-cc 6 5.8% 2 1.9% VCC-KEC 7 6.7% 9 8 .7% Other 11 10.6% 4 3 BCIT, UBC, SFU VCC City Centre and "other" i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l be e n r o l l i n g more women than men i f these students follow through with t h e i r plans. However, more men plan to e n r o l l at Langara and continue at KEC. The results i n the table below have a sign i f i c a n c e of .01. Table 4.19 Gender Versus Program n=92 Program Females Percent Males Percent Arts 7 7 .6% 6 6.5% Business 9 9.8% 5 5.4% Computer 1 1.1% 5 5.4% Health 8 8.7% 1 1.1% Sciences 9 9.8% 16 17.4% Tech. 1 1 . 1% 3 3.3% Other 15 16.3% 6 6.5% ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 40 According to t h i s data, women are choosing business health and arts programs while males are choosing sciences, computer, and technical programs. In the "other" category, 71% are female. The females chose such other programs as: court reporting, t r a v e l agent, transportation and customs, and biotechnology. Males, on the other hand, chose other programs such as: economics, architecture, commerce, and telecommunications. C. Age Results Forty-nine percent of the students under 30 were attending f u l l -time. Sixty percent of the students under 30 were paying t h e i r own fees. This i s i n t e r e s t i n g because only 66% of the students o v e r a l l were feepayers. Most of the feepayers were between 20 and 25. The age versus t u i t i o n findings have a s i g n i f i c a n t difference of 0.01. The results are shown i n the table below. Table 4.20 Age Versus Tuition n=100 Count <20 20-25 25-30 30-40 40-50 >50 Total Payer 19 27 14 7 0 0 67 19% 27% 14% 7% 0% 0% 67% ABESAP 2 11 6 9 2 2 32 2% 11% 6% 9% 2% 2% 32% Other 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 1% The use of ABESAP i s consistent across a l l categories. The employment figures for those between 20 to 25 are very low, i n d i c a t i n g that those paying t h e i r own fees were not necessarily ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 41 employed. Sixteen and one-half percent were not employed, 6.8% were employed f u l l - t i m e , and 15.5% were employed part-time. Of those under 30, 43.7% were not employed, 9.7% were employed f u l l -time, and 27.2% were employed part-time, where n was equal to 103. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of difference was .02. When age and language were compared, 44.2% of the sample whose f i r s t language was not English were under 30, while 35.6% of English speakers were i n that category. Students under 20 were less l i k e l y to have completed grade 12 than those between 20 and 30. The table below shows grade completed versus age. Table 4.21 Age Versus Grade Completed n=104 Count <20 20-25 25-30 30-40 40-50 >50 Total Gr 12 9 24 13 6 0 1 53 8 . 6% 23% 12.5% 5.7% 0% 1% 51% Gr 11 7 9 3 1 0 0 20 6.7% 8 .7% 2.9% 1% 0% 0% 19 .2% Gr 10 3 2 2 4 1 0 12 2.9% 1. 9% 1.9% 3 . 8% 1% 0% 11.5% Gr 9 0 2 1 0 0 0 3 0% 1.9% 1% 0% 0% 0% 2.9% Gr 8 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 1% Other 2 3 3 4 2 1 15 1.9% 2 .9% 2 .9% 3.8% 1.9% -1% 14.4% The age of the student did not have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the length of time the students were enrolled, although about half of ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 42 the older students had been attending classes for more than a year while only 27.7% of the younger students had done so. The use of counselling services versus age d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y (.02) Table 4.22a below shows the results for t h i s f i nding. Table 4.22a Age Versus Seeing a Counsellor n=103 F. <20 20-25 25-30 30-40 40-50 >50 Total Pre-Reg 10 17 10 4 0 1 42 9.7 16.5% 9 .7% 3.8% 0% .9% 40.8% % Monthly 1 5 0 4 0 0 10 .9% 4.9% 0% 3 . 8% 0% . 0% 9.7% Seldom 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 0% .9% .9% 0% 0% 0% 1.9% Never 10 17 11 7 3 1 49 9.7 16.5% 10. 6% 6.8% 2.9% .9% 47 . 6% % The reasons for v i s i t i n g a counsellor varied depending upon the age of the person. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 43 Table 4.22b Age and Why See Counsellor n=51 Count <20 20- 25 25-30 30 -40 40-50 >50 Total Personal 0 2 0 2 0 0 4 0% 3.9 % 0% 3 . 9% 0% 0% 7 . 8% Career 0 8 2 2 0 0 12 0% 15 . 7% 3 .9% 3 . 9% 0% 0% 23.5% Other 10 8 6 2 0 0 26 19 . 6 % 15. 7% 11. 8% 3. 9% 0% 0% 51% All/Abov 1 4 1 2 0 1 9 e 1. 9% 7.8 % 1.9% 3 . 9% 0% 1.9% 17 . 6% Half of the students under 20 saw a counsellor for other reasons, and, although they might be considered to be the group who would need to do some career planning, none of them chose that response. Most of those who sought career planning were between 20 and 25. The "other" category was also high for students between 20 and 30. Students from most age brackets saw a counsellor for a l l of the reasons l i s t e d . The 20 to 25 age group uses the l i b r a r y consistently and frequently, as the table below indicates. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 44 Table 4.23 Age Versus Library Use n=103 Count <20 20-25 25-30 30-40 40-50 >50 Total Daily 4 8 8 3 1 1 25 3.9% 7 . 8% 7 . 8% 2 .9% 1% 1% 24 . 3 Weekly 10 14 5 6 0 1 36 9.7% 13 . 6% 4.9% 5.8% 0% 1% 35% Monthly 4 11 6 3 1 0 25 3.9% 10 .7% 5.8% 2.9% 1% 0% 24.3% Never 3 7 2 4 1 0 17 2.9% 6 . 8% 1.9% 3.9% 1% 0% 16.5% The results for learning centre use are sim i l a r . The 20 to 25 age group are the largest group of the students, 38.5% and they use the Centre the most, and more often than others. The data regarding computer lab use i s consistent with patterns to date, except that although most age groups are s p l i t evenly as to using the lab or not, i n the under 20 category, 6 students 28.6% do, and 15, 71.4% do not. Twelve, or 60% of the students under 20 did assessments while 19 out of 30 or 47.5% of the 20-25 age group did as well. Those i n the youngest age group not only needed academic assessments, but, as indicated e a r l i e r , they also had a low rate of high school completion. The age of the student does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t his or her program choice. As i n the o r i g i n a l p r o f i l e , the majority of students are planning to e n r o l l i n arts or sciences, and the d i s t r i b u t i o n i s f a i r l y consistent across the age groups. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 45 D. Employment Status Results The most s i g n i f i c a n t results here are found when employment i s compared with r e g i s t r a t i o n , with a significance of .00002. Out of 109 students who responded to th i s question who were employed part-time, 10, or 9%, are enrolled part-time, and 20, or 18.3%, are enrolled f u l l - t i m e . Of those who are employed f u l l - t i m e , 13, or 11.9%, are registered part-time and 1 or .9% i s registered f u l l -time. Of those who are not employed, 19, or 17.4%, are part-time students and 46, or 42.2%, are registered f u l l - t i m e . It was presumed that unemployed students would be more l i k e l y to attend f u l l - t i m e , but, the fact was that twice the number of people employed part-time were carrying a f u l l - t i m e course load. Of those part-time employees who saw a counsellor, 10, or 9.3%, saw a counsellor before r e g i s t r a t i o n and 17, or 15.7%, did not see a counsellor at a l l . Of those employed f u l l - t i m e , 3, or 2.8%, saw a counsellor before r e g i s t r a t i o n and 10, or 9.3% did not. Of the unemployed, 32, or 29.6%, saw. a counsellor before r e g i s t r a t i o n and 24, or 22.2%, did not. The table below shows the frequency and use of counselling services according to employment status. The l i k e l i h o o d r a t i o here i s .009. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 4 6 Table 4.24 Employment Status Versus Seeing a Counsellor n=108 Status Monthly Pre-reg. Seldom Never Total P-T 1 10 2 17 30 .9% 9.3% 1.9% 15.7% 27 . 8% F-T 0 3 0 10 13 0% 2.8% 0% 9 . 3% 12% Unemp. 9 32 0 24 65 8 . 3% 29 . 6% 0% 22 .2% 60 .2% One of the employed students saw a counsellor other than before r e g i s t r a t i o n , while 9 unemployed students said that they saw a counsellor monthly. More unemployed people used counselling services, but 9, or 23.7%, sought for career planning and only 4 out of 13, or 29.8% employed people did likewise. Below are the res u l t s of the e f f e c t of employment status on l i b r a r y use. The significance rating i s .02. Table 4.25 Employment Versus Library Use n=108 Status Daily Weekly Monthly Never Total P-T 7 10 9 4 30 6.5% 9.3% 8.3% 3.7% 27 . 8% F-T 1 5 1 7 14 .9% 4.6% .9% 6.5% 13% Unemp. 18 24 17 5 64 16 . 7% 22 .2% 15 .7% 4.6% 59 . 3% Only 5 out of 64 unemployed students are not using the l i b r a r y at a l l compared to 11 employed students. Daily and monthly usage are about equal, with weekly being the most frequent. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 47 The Learning Centre i s not used quite as frequently, and 25%, or 16 out of 64 of the unemployed students do not use i t at a l l . Eleven out of 63 unemployed students are not planning to attend another i n s t i t u t i o n or stay at King Edward Campus. This means that 12 out of 104 respondents to t h i s question, or 11.5% do not plan to continue t h e i r education. Out of the 2 6 students who planned to take sciences, 8 were working part-time, 6 were working f u l l - t i m e and 12 were not employed. Ten unemployed students planned to e n r o l l i n arts programs and 9 i n business programs. The "other" category includes 13 of the unemployed. People who are unemployed are frequently choosing un i v e r s i t y transfer courses. Of those who are working, more are choosing programs i n business, health, and other areas, but the majority of students o v e r a l l are choosing univ e r s i t y transfer programs. E. F i r s t Language As the table below indicates, more of the second language speakers are f u l l - t i m e students. This trend i s p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable among Chinese speakers. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 48 Table 4.26 F i r s t Language Versus Registration n=110 Language Part-Time Full-Time Total English 24 26 50 21.8% 23.6% 45.5% Chinese 8 25 33 7.3% 22.7% 30% Other 10 17 27 9 .1% 15.5% 24.5% As the following table indicates, most second language speakers paid t h e i r own fees, while about half of the English speakers were paying for t h e i r t u i t i o n and approximately half were not. The sig n i f i c a n c e of t h i s finding i s .002. Table 4.27 F i r s t Language Versus Tuition n=106 Language Feepayer ABESAP Other Total English 25 22 1 48 23.6% 20.8% .9% 45.3% Chinese 30 3 0 33 28.3% 2.8% 0% 31.1% Other 15 10 0 25 14.2% 9.4% 0% 23.6% As a large percentage of the feepayers were second language speakers, the assumption was that more of them would be employed compared to the English speakers. • In fact, t h i s was not the case. Table 4.28 shows the r e s u l t s . ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 49 Table 4.28 F i r s t Language Versus Employment Status n=109 Language Part-Time Full-time Unemp. Total English 11 8 28 47 10 .1% 7 . 3% 25.7% 43 .1% Chinese 11 2 20 33 10 . 1% 1. 8% 18.3% 30 . 3% Other 10 2 17 29 9.2% 1. 8% 15.6% 26 . 6% The majority of the students employed f u l l - t i m e were English speakers. When f i r s t language was compared with grade completed, the res u l t s indicated that 28, or 84.5% of the Chinese speakers had completed grade 10 or better. For the English speakers, the percentage was s l i g h t l y lower, at 80%. In the "other" category 85.2% came to the King Edward Campus with grade 10 or more completed. This i s consistent with the o v e r a l l percentage which i s 82.7%. Chinese speakers tended to use counselling services more than other ESL speakers or English speakers. Of those who used counselling services, 24 out of 33, or 72.7% were Chinese speakers, 15 out of 27', or 55.6% were speakers of various other languages, and 18 out of 49, or 36.7% were English speakers. This trend continued as the other responses regarding the usage of support services were examined. F i f t y percent of the students saw a counsellor for reasons other than personal counselling or career planning. Only s l i g h t l y more of the second language speakers sought assistance ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 50 with career planning while the same was true of requesting counselling for personal reasons. Of those who used counselling for both career planning dealing with personal issues and for other reasons, the second language speakers chose t h i s category only s l i g h t l y more often than English speakers, 16 out of 64, or 25%, 2 out of 24 or 8.3% for Chinese speakers and 3 out of 14, 21.4% were second language speakers. These numbers made up 44.4%, 22.2% and 33.3% of the t o t a l number i n each group. English speakers tended to use the l i b r a r y weekly or monthly, while second language speakers used the l i b r a r y d a i l y or weekly. The table below shows the results for each grouping. Table 4.29 F i r s t Language Versus Library Use n=109 Language Daily Weekly Monthly Never Total English 5 17 15 13 50 4.6% 15.6% 13.8% 11.9% 45.9% Chinese 10 12 8 3 33 9.2% 11% 7 . 3% 2 . 8% 30.3% Other 11 10 4 1 26 10% 9.2% 3.7% .9% 23.9% It i s noticeable that 13 out of 50, or 26% of the English speakers did not use the l i b r a r y at a l l , compared to only 4 out of 59 or 6.8% of second language speakers. Table 4.30 shows Learning Centre usage among the three groups. As expected, second language speakers used i t consistently and frequently, and, as with usage of the l i b r a r y , a larger percentage ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 51 of English speakers did not use the Centre at a l l , and, they were more i n c l i n e d to use the Centre weekly or monthly rather than d a i l y . Table 4.30 F i r s t Language Versus Learning Centre n=109 Language Daily Weekly Monthly Never Total English 3 19 10 18 50 2 . 8% 17.4% 9.2% 16.5% 45 .9% Chinese 7 10 8 8 33 6.4% 9.2% 7 . 3% 7 . 3% 30.3% Other 11 5 5 5 26 10 . 1% 4.6% 4.6% 4 . 6% 23.9% Of the 28.4% who do not use the Learning Centre at a l l , 58% are English speakers, 26% Chinese, and 16% other language speakers. Even i f one adds the second language speaker percentages, the t o t a l of 42% i s s t i l l much lower than the 58% of English speakers who do not use the Learning Centre. Of the 43.1% of the students who use the computer lab, 27% are English speakers, 43% are Chinese and 30% are other second language speakers. This indicates that more of the second language speakers are taking advantage of the computer lab for word processing or other a c t i v i t i e s . Of the 57.5% who did assessments upon entry, 42.6% were English speakers, 34.4% were Chinese speakers, and 23% were other second language speakers. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 52 The choice of i n s t i t u t i o n for further study showed l i t t l e d ifference from the o v e r a l l picture. However, the programs chosen by second language speakers were not consistent with the o v e r a l l findings. The table below shows where the differences occurred. Table 4.31 Program Versus F i r s t Language n=93 Program English Chinese Other Arts 8 3 2 8 . 6% 3.2% 2 .2% Business 5 7 2 5.4% 7.5% 2.2% Computer 6 0 0 6.5% 0% 0% Health 3 0 6 3.2% 0% 6.5% Sciences 10 9 7 10.8% 9.7% 7.5% Technical 2 1 1 2.2% 1.1% 1.1% Other 11 5 5 11.8% 5.4% 5.4% Total 45 25 23 48.4% 26.9% 24.7% No second language speakers chose the computer category, and no Chinese speakers chose health programs. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 53 chapter v. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS A. Summary What has been learned from t h i s study i s that at the King Edward Campus of Vancouver Community College, students taking P r o v i n c i a l l e v e l (college prep) courses are a diverse population. Most of them are under 30 and speak English as a second language. Many are unemployed, or employed only part-time, yet very few take advantage of f i n a n c i a l aid. The majority are female, but the difference i n the number of males and females i s s l i g h t . Approximately half of the students have graduated from high school, but they are taking high school equivalency courses. Most of them are f u l l - t i m e students, which contradicts the assumption that students doing upgrading are non-traditional. Most students have been at the college for under a year, and they have decided for what programs they are preparing. They have also chosen the i n s t i t u t i o n s i n which the programs are offered. A large number of the students use the support services such as the l i b r a r y and learning centre which are d i r e c t l y related to i n s t r u c t i o n , but second language speakers use them more frequently. Less than half of the students have used counselling services except before r e g i s t r a t i o n . ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 54 Gender, Age and employment status do not change the o v e r a l l r e s u l t s very much, but trends emerged which could have an impact on future planning at Vancouver Community College. Moreover, the high proportion of second language speakers enrolled at the P r o v i n c i a l Level of ABE use support services d i f f e r e n t l y . They are also comparatively younger and have a higher grade l e v e l when s t a r t i n g to take ABE courses. B. Discussion of Findings The information regarding the grade which students had completed before coming to study at KEC was most int e r e s t i n g . Those most l i k e l y not to have completed grade twelve were under twenty years old, but more than half of the students had completed grade 12 and 80% of them had completed grade ten, regardless of t h e i r f i r s t language. This supports the viewpoint that students are most l i k e l y coming to take the prerequisite courses that w i l l q u a l i f y them for the program of t h e i r choice, rather than to obtain a s p e c i f i c c r edential. Only 12 students, or 11.4% of the students indicated that they did not intend to attend another Post-Secondary i n s t i t u t i o n a f t e r completing t h e i r upgrading. This may mean that some students f e l t that they could get a job with a grade 12 equivalency, but the number of students who generally complete the P r o v i n c i a l Diploma or the GED i s about 3% per year at the King Edward Campus. Rivers and Associates, (1992) indicated that from September, 1989 to December, 1991, ten colleges awarded only three-ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 55 hundred P r o v i n c i a l Diplomas. students studying at t h i s l e v e l of Adult Basic Education probably never p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the fundamental or intermediate l e v e l ABE courses. The students who seemed to have been involved with the ABE program for the longest time were older and few i n number, being just over 18%. As Most of the students are entering the ABE program with a higher degree of proficiency, they are more l i k e l y to complete t h e i r prerequisite courses within a year or so, regardless of t h e i r native language. Young people are being increasingly pressured to complete t h e i r schooling, and i t i s surprising that for so many, a grade 12 education did not appear to meet t h e i r needs. Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s that students did not take the right courses i n high school and needed to pick up the prerequisites l a t e r . It i s therefore quite clear that students are not generally wanting a credential for grade twelve equivalency as they rarely need one before moving on to post secondary programs. The grade l e v e l of the students upon entry indicates that students at the higher levels of ABE could perhaps be picking up t h e i r prerequisites i n remedial programs at colleges where the program i n which they intend to e n r o l l l a t e r i s offered because they are not completing high school, but picking up knowledge that they need to enter the programs they have chosen. However, the students have chosen to take ABE rather than remedial courses. One explanation for t h i s may be that the format for the ABE courses i s d i f f e r e n t than that of many remedial courses. ABE courses are often ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 56 structured i n such a way that they are longer and provide more i n s t r u c t i o n a l and seminar hours. While t h i s may work well for some students, i t may be holding back others. Given the results that indicate that most students are planning to take u n i v e r s i t y transfer courses, i t i s recommended that the administration at KEC consider o f f e r i n g remedial courses along with un i v e r s i t y transfer courses which would allow students committed to the academic stream to complete t h e i r studies i n a more timely and e f f i c i e n t manner. The results of t h i s study indicate c l e a r l y that the h i e r a r c h i c a l format of the ABE program a s s i s t s students to enter the ABE program at any l e v e l , but does not g u a l i f y many students as high school graduates. One year i s probably the maximum that any student wants to spend i n upgrading courses, as indicated by the enrollment time data i n table 4.03. ABE students are generally quite focused, and are w i l l i n g to spend the necessary time to upgrade t h e i r s k i l l s so that they can move on to other programs, but i t i s unlike l y that they have the time to commit to a prolonged period of upgrading. It i s recommended that the college structure t h e i r ABE courses so that exit points into other career programs can be f a c i l i t a t e d at a l l levels of the ABE framework. Gender res u l t s were d i f f e r e n t from the data available i n the Rivers (1992) and ABE Student Outcomes P i l o t Project (1994) reports. It i s true that i n t h i s study there were more female students, but the ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 57 difference was only f i v e percent between the number of female and male students, whereas i n the ABE Student Outcomes P i l o t Project, (1994), there were sixteen percent more females than males. The difference i n the Rivers study (1992) was twelve percent. It must be kept i n mind, however, that the survey used i n t h i s study was administered to Pro v i n c i a l Level students only, and there may be more female students enrolled i n other ABE l e v e l s . Nevertheless, even though the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women i s said to be increasing at community colleges, t h i s does not appear to be a major factor i n the P r o v i n c i a l Level of ABE at the King Edward Campus. The majority of women were either under 20 or between 25 and 30, and there are more males i n the 20 to 25 age range. According to the responses on the questionnaire, . more women than men are studying f u l l - t i m e . This finding i s at variance with what the l i t e r a t u r e suggests i n that one would suppose that the females would need to come to school part-time i f they were caring for children. It must be remembered, however, that most of the participants i n the sample were under 30 years of age. It appears that most of the women i n thi s group either had made arrangements for children to be looked after, or few of them had children, and, although more women use the Adult Basic Education Student Assistance Plan to pay for t h e i r t u i t i o n , many of them continue to pay t h e i r own fees. However, more of the females are unemployed which i s consistent with the l i t e r a t u r e . This may account for the higher number of females using ABESAP to pay for t u i t i o n . However, ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 58 the s t a t i s t i c s for f u l l and part-time employment are almost gender-equal. Also, part-time employment started at about 6 hours per week as a student aid, but there i s no indicati o n from the study as to the hours per week worked by each student. Although some students did comment about how many hours per week they worked, they were not asked to do so, making the amount of part-time work impossible to discern. Although there was l i t t l e gender difference when students were asked when they saw a counsellor, women tended to seek personal counselling while men c i t e d career planning more frequently. It i s noteworthy that both men and women cit e d "other" as 50% of t h e i r t o t a l number. What the other reasons are, are not known. Irregardless, more than half of the students did not use the counselling services at a l l , and i f they did, they were mostly seeking advice before r e g i s t r a t i o n . Although they consistently use the support services provided for them, those services are sometimes, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the case of counselling, not used to t h e i r f u l l p o t e n t i a l . It i s not clear why t h i s i s so. Time does not seem to be a factor. Students need to be made aware of the value of the services to them so that they w i l l take advantage of them more often. It i s recommended that counselling services be advertised more f u l l y both i n t e r n a l l y and externally, and that the information provided contain material pertaining to the value of counselling as i t relates to success i n education. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 59 The f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t gender difference was found when examining gender and l i b r a r y usage, with a l i k e l i h o o d r a t i o of 0.02. Males use the l i b r a r y less freguently, although the o v e r a l l usage of both groups i s almost the same. In addition, fewer females did not use the l i b r a r y at a l l . Daily use of the Learning Centre i s about equal for both genders, but women use i t more frequently. Again, of those who do not use i t at a l l , more are male. No s i g n i f i c a n t difference was found i n computer lab use. Of those who said they did not use the computer lab, 55% were women compared to 45% of the men. 33.3% of the women did assessments before s t a r t i n g t h e i r courses compared to 2 3.8% of the men. It i s possible to speculate that women may have been out of school for a longer period of time, and that i s why they needed to do assessments more frequently than men, but there i s no conclusive proof of t h i s . The B r i t i s h Columbia Institute of Technology, the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Simon Fraser University, the City Centre Campus of Vancouver Community College and "other" i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l be e n r o l l i n g more women than men i f the students i n the study follow through with t h e i r plans. However, more men plan to e n r o l l at Langara and continue at the King Edward Campus. According to the programs data, women are choosing business, health and arts programs, while males are choosing sciences, computer and techn i c a l programs. In the "other" category, 71% are female. The females ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 60 chose such other programs as: court reporting, t r a v e l agent, transportation and customs, and biotechnology. Males, on the other hand, chose other programs such as: economics, architecture, commerce, and telecommunications. The o v e r a l l results for age are similar to the findings of the ABE Outcomes P i l o t Project, (1994), and with the study done by Rivers & Associates for the Human Resources Development Project, (1992). This contradicts the l i t e r a t u r e i n that ABE students are generally expected to be older or non-traditional students. Almost half of the students under 30 were attending f u l l - t i m e . Sixty percent of the students under 30 were paying t h e i r own fees. This i s i n t e r e s t i n g because only 66% of the students o v e r a l l were feepayers. Most of the feepayers were between 20 and 25, the age group with the lowest number of students employed. A s i g n i f i c a n t difference of 0.01 i s found when age i s crossed with the way students pay t u i t i o n . Very few students at t h i s l e v e l have used the f i n a n c i a l aid available to them. Of the 66% who paid t h e i r own fees, 60% were under 30. At the same time, of the 32% who used the Adult Basic Education Student Assistance Plan to pay t h e i r t u i t i o n , 19% out of 32% were also under 30. A s i g n i f i c a n t difference of 0.02 i s achieved when age and employment are compared. Of those under 30, 28 out of 29 students were part-time employees, and 10 out of 13 were employed f u l l - t i m e . ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 61 For t y - f i v e out of sixty-one students who were unemployed were under 30 where n was equal to 103. The use of counselling services versus age d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y (0.02). Thirty-seven out of 42 students or 88% of the students who saw a counsellor before r e g i s t r a t i o n were under 30, while at the same time, 38 out of 49, or 7 7.6% of the students who chose not to see a counsellor were also under 30. Students at t h i s age l e v e l are using the counselling support either for advising, or not at a l l . I f , as the l i t e r a t u r e indicates, students need counselling support, why are they not taking advantage of i t ? The reasons for v i s i t i n g a counsellor also varied depending upon the age of the person. The most surprising r e s u l t was that no students under twenty chose career planning as a reason for going to see a counsellor. The response i n the "other" category was higher than expected, but as the other reasons were not defined by the students, we don't know what they are. It i s recommended that further study of the use of counselling services be undertaken so that as the way students use the service becomes known, they can be restructured to better meet the needs of the students. It i s also recommended that the college establish a mentoring support program to encourage more contact with counselling. ABE students at the Pr o v i n c i a l l e v e l are at a very c r i t i c a l point i n t h e i r education, and the l i t e r a t u r e indicates that those who take advantage of support services benefit most. Although t h i s study did not look at ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 62 a t t r i t i o n or student success, i t i s apparent that the students surveyed did not have enough involvement with Counselling Department s t a f f . The high proportion of second language speakers studying i n the ABE program at the P r o v i n c i a l l e v e l impacts strongly on the re s u l t s of the study. More of the second language students were f u l l - t i m e , and more of them paid t h e i r own fees. In fact, the si g n i f i c a n c e of the f i n d i n g regarding payment of fees i s 0.02. The Chinese language speakers, i n p a r t i c u l a r , used next to no f i n a n c i a l a i d . More of the English speakers were employed f u l l - t i m e , and yet more of them used f i n a n c i a l aid. Therefore, employment status did not have a bearing on whether or not students paid t h e i r own t u i t i o n . The native language of the person made l i t t l e difference i n the grade completed res u l t s , although more of the second language speakers had completed grade 10 or better. When the usage of support services was examined, i t became apparent that the Chinese and other second language speakers were the most consistent users. It i s noteworthy that of those who did not use the l i b r a r y at a l l , only 6.8% were second language speakers while over 26% spoke English as t h e i r f i r s t language. As expected, second language speakers also used the l i b r a r y more frequently than t h e i r English-speaking peers. The same trend continues i n the re s u l t s for computer lab use, although the frequency of use was not ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 63 measured. Although most of the students who said they did assessments before beginning t h e i r ABE program were second language speakers, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to know i f they were r e f e r r i n g to ABE or English as a Second Language (ESL) assessments. There were no surprises i n the choice of i n s t i t u t i o n s of English versus second language speakers, but program choices did d i f f e r . No second language speakers chose the computer category, and no Chinese speakers chose health programs. This may be e n t i r e l y coincidental, or due to c u l t u r a l preferences. Due to the high proportion of second language speakers at the Pr o v i n c i a l Level of ABE, i t i s recommended that adjunct courses for ESL students providing both ESL content and ABE curriculum be i n i t i a t e d . M. Gardener, (1995), indicated that ESL students showed an i n t e r e s t i n t h i s kind of i n s t r u c t i o n a l o f f e r i n g . ESL combined s k i l l s programs have addressed t h i s to some extent by combining p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g with content vocabulary, but ABE adjunct courses for those planning to enter university transfer or techn i c a l programs would be a useful addition to the King Edward Campus program mix. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 64 C. General Comments College administrators are beginning to r e a l i z e that although community colleges are primarily teaching i n s t i t u t i o n s , research o u t l i n i n g student a c t i v i t i e s and perceptions, along with outcomes data, can be of great value. The re s u l t s of t h i s study indicate that for whatever reason, a large number of young people are not taking suitable courses i n the school system. They are coming to the King Edward Campus to gain prerequisite courses that w i l l enable them to continue along a career path they have chosen, primarily on t h e i r own. The students are focused; they know what they need to learn and where they w i l l go a f t e r the foundation courses are completed. These students are devoting most i f not a l l of t h e i r time to t h e i r upgrading. Although they consistently use the support services provided for them, those services are often, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the case of counselling, not used to t h e i r f u l l p o t e n t i a l . It i s not clear why th i s i s so. Time does not seem to be a factor. Students need to be made aware of the value of the services to them so that they w i l l take advantage of them more often. Many students value a general education as i s evidenced, to some degree, by the fact that most of them are planning to take u n i v e r s i t y transfer courses. It appears that they have a clear idea of the next step aft e r upgrading, but do not f e e l the need to ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 65 do career planning or explore where the employment opportunities e x i s t . It i s recommended that curriculum incorporating career exploration into the ABE program be developed. This would bring counselling s t a f f with the expertise required into d i r e c t contact with more students. Vancouver has a m u l t i - c u l t u r a l community, and the college has a large ESL d i v i s i o n , so i t i s not surprising that many of the ABE students are second language speakers. Knowing t h i s to be the case, the maintenance of support services such as the Learning Centre and l i b r a r y have proven to be of great value to them. Also, i n view of the number of students who planned to attend Langara, a re-examination of the program mix at King Edward Campus might lead to the provision of a broader program p r o f i l e , including u n i v e r s i t y transfer courses. That kind of program mix would allow students who needed to upgrade i n mathematics, for example, to take University Transfer Level English or Psychology. Or, students upgrading t h e i r sciences could get started on components of the nursing curriculum. If, however, i t i s not desirable to change the program mix at the King Edward Campus, a partnership arrangement with Langara College that would allow for f l e x i b l e , i n t e r - r e l a t e d programming might be the answer. Very few of the students i n the study chose to go on to programs at the Cit y Centre campus. It i s recommended that programs there be ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 6 6 aggressively marketed to King Edward Campus students, and that prerequisite courses i n ABE be offered at City Centre to encourage students to enter programs there. The r e s u l t s of the study indicate that students want to spend no longer than one year upgrading. Program planners need to f i n d ways for them to learn what they need to learn within that timeframe. The i n c l u s i o n of applied academics into the ABE curriculum i s a step i n the right d i r e c t i o n , as long as i t does not e n t i r e l y replace e x i s t i n g curriculum. As shown i n the ABE Student Outcomes P i l o t Project, (1994), most students want to either get a job or improve t h e i r employment si t u a t i o n . I n s i s t i n g that students move through a h i e r a r c h i c a l framework of ABE courses before they go on to further study w i l l not work. If a higher l e v e l of education i s needed to function successfully i n today's society, then a way must be found to provide students with the knowledge they need i n as short a time as possible. As the l i t e r a t u r e indicates, support services are of value to ABE students. The perceived lack of need for counselling services by many of the students i s unusual, and the findings of the study d i d not contribute much knowledge about why students are not using the counselling service to i t s f u l l p o t e n t i a l . It may be that those students have a perception that counselling i s there only for those i n trouble. If so, then t h i s idea needs to be changed so that students w i l l more w i l l i n g l y take advantage of the benefits that ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 67 counselling services can provide to them. Also, how so many-English speakers could manage without using the l i b r a r y i s a mystery. Gender issues were not prominent i n t h i s study although there were more female students; but as more women enter ABE programs, t h e i r support needs w i l l have to be considered. D. Implications for Future Research Although t h i s study has some weaknesses, i t provides a framework for future research. A student information questionnaire, not unlike those mentioned i n the l i t e r a t u r e review, i s being implemented at i n s t i t u t i o n s across the post-secondary system through the leadership of the ABE outcomes Steering Committee. That work could be broadened to include more analysis of support service usage, gender issues, f i r s t language implications, and the e f f e c t of employment status and other factors such as the usage of support services on the completion rate of students. The ABE Student Outcomes study i s also examining the reasons why students leave programs, and determining i f they come back. It would be worthwhile to follow up on the subjects of the study, to see i f students did i n fact e n r o l l i n the programs at the i n s t i t u t i o n s where they planned to go. If and why students at other levels of the ABE program use support ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 68 services may d i f f e r according to the self-esteem of the student or for other reasons. It would be p a r t i c u l a r l y useful to know i f the frequency and reasons for using counselling services would be the same for students at a l l levels i n the ABE program at the King Edward Campus. Students at other levels of ABE may use f i n a n c i a l aid d i f f e r e n t l y too. E. F i n a l Comments This study shows that at present, there are more t r a d i t i o n a l than non-traditional students enrolled i n ABE programs at the King Edward Campus. It would be useful for program planners to know i f that trend w i l l continue or change, and why older students are not doing upgrading at the higher levels of ABE. Although t h i s study was conducted i n the summer of 199 3, l i t t l e has changed from a student perspective since then, and the information i s s t i l l relevant. Adult students, whatever t h e i r age, gender, employment status or f i r s t language, are accessing college programs, the purpose of which i s to give them the foundation of knowledge they need to a s s i s t them i n further study i n other programs. Adult Basic Education bridges the gap between the past and what i s to be, and students are crossing that bridge and continuing on. How successful they are when they move on i s yet to be discovered, and should be explored. Although we know from the ABE Student Outcomes data that the student p r o f i l e established i n t h i s study i s s i m i l a r to that of students throughout the province at a l l levels of ABE, ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 69 what are the differences? Are there as many second language speakers i n ABE programs at other colleges? Further research would provide that information. It i s hoped that t h i s study w i l l be the f i r s t of many which w i l l help to i d e n t i f y the needs and gaps i n ABE programs and the services that are provided to support the students. This study has provided some answers, but there are s t i l l many questions which have not been addressed, some of which have been referred to above. In a student-centred i n s t i t u t i o n , student voices must be heard so that planning can be e f f e c t i v e . ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 70 REFERENCES Boylan, H.R. (1985). Under-preparedness: A reinte r p r e t a t i o n of the problem and some recommendations for resolution. (Position Paper No. 1). Chicago: New Directions Task Force, National Association for Developmental Education. Carbone, G i l b e r t J. (1987). Academic support services for developmental and high-risk students i n community colleges. New Directions for Community Colleges, 15 (1), 23-31. Cohen, Arthur M. (1984-1985). "'Helping ensure the r i g h t to succeed': An ERIC Review." Community College Review, 12 (3), 4-9. Cohen, Arthur M. (1977). The Social Equalization Fantasy. Community College Review, 5. (2), 74-82. Cohen, Arthur M. (1987). Responding to Cr i t i c i s m s of Developmental Education. New Directions for Community Colleges, 15 (1), 3-10. Cohen, Arthur M. and Brawer, Florence B. (1981-1982). Transfer and A t t r i t i o n Points of View. Community and Junior College Journal, 52 (4), 17-21. Cohen, Arthur M. and Brawer, Florence B. (1986-1987). The Collegiate Curriculum. Community College Review, 14 (3), 13-20. Crockett, D. S. (1984). Advising S k i l l s Techniques and Resources. Iowa City, Iowa: The ACT National Centre for the Advancement of Educational Practices. Dennison, John D. and Levin, John S. (1988). Goals of Community Colleges i n Canada, A 1987 Perspective. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 18 (2), 49-63. Douzenis, Cordelia. (1994). The Community College Student Experience Questionnaire: Introduction and Application. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 18 (1), 261-268. Eisner, P. and Ames, W. C. (1983). Redirecting Student Services. G. B. Vaughan and Associates. In Issues for Community College Leaders i n a New Era, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Enright, Gwyn and Cohen, Arthur M. (1988). Developmental Education and the L i b e r a l Arts: An Interview with Arthur M. Cohen. Journal of Developmental Education, 12 (2), 16-18. Friedlander, J. (1981-1982). Should Remediation Be Mandatory?: An ERIC Review. Community College Review, 9. (3), 56-64. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 71 Friedlander, J. (1981a). Educational A b i l i t i e s and Success of Students Enrolled i n Community College L i b e r a l Art Courses. Los angeles: Center for the Study of Community Colleges. Friedlander, J. (1981). Why Don't Poorly Prepared Students Seek Help? Community/Junior College Quarterly Of Research and Practice, 6 (1), 29-38. Friedlander, J. (1981b). Clark County Community College Students: Highlights of a Survey of Their Backgrounds, A c t i v i t i e s , Ratings of S k i l l s , Use of Support Services, and Educational Attainments. Los Angeles: Centre for the Study of Community Colleges. Friedlander, J. (1991). The Quality of Students' Educational Experiences at Santa Barbara City College. Santa Barbara: Santa Barbara City College. Garcia, Mildred. (1995). Engendering Student Services. New Directions for Community Colleges, 23 (1), 29-37. Gardener, M. (1995). Planning ESL Programs for New Canadians: An ESL Goal Survey for B.C. Community Colleges. Unpublished paper. Goertzel, C , Gordon, D., and Keeley, M. (1992). Towards the ABE Promised Land: Creating a Successful Learning Environment By Examining Retention Rates: F i n a l Report. Philadelphia: Lutheran Social Mission Society. Iovacchini, E r i c V., Ha l l , Linda M. and Hengstler, Dennis D. (1985). Going Back to College: Some Differences Between Adult Students and Tr a d i t i o n a l Students. College and University, 61 (1) 43-54. Karabel, Jerome. (1986). Community Colleges and Social S t r a t i f i c a t i o n . New Directions for Community Colleges, 14 (2), 13-30. Kates, Erika. (1993). Access To Higher Education Project F i n a l Report. Northhampton Ma.: Smith College. Luvaas-Briggs, L. (1984). Integrating Basic S k i l l s with College Content Instruction. Journal of Developmental & Remedial Education, 7 (2), 6-9. McGrath, Dennis and Spear, Martin B. (1987). The P o l i t i c s of Remediation. New Directions for Community Colleges, 15 (1), 11-21. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 72 M o r g a n , D. A . ( E d . ) - ( 1 9 7 2 ) . The t w o y e a r c o l l e g e s t u d e n t a n d s t u d e n t p e r s o n n e l s e r v i c e s : A r e p o r t o f a s y m p o s i u m h e l d J u n e , 1 9 7 1 , R o c h e s t e r O f f i c e o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n a n d W e l f a r e . 43 p p , E D 0 6 2 9 7 8 . M o s s , J u d i t h . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . The s t u d e n t i n f o r m a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e as a m a n a g e m e n t t o o l f o r c o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e p l a n n i n g . New D i r e c t i o n s f o r C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e s , 14 ( 4 ) , 1 3 - 2 5 . N o e l L . a n d L e v i t z R . , ( E d s . ) . How t o S u c c e e d w i t h A c a d e m i c a l l y U n d e r p r e p a r e d S t u d e n t s : A C a t a l o g o f S u c c e s s f u l P r a c t i c e s . A i m s , I o w a : A m e r i c a n C o l l e g e T e s t i n g P r o g r a m . P a s c a r e l l a , E . T . ( E d . ) . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . S t u d y i n g S t u d e n t A t t r i t i o n . (New D i r e c t i o n s f o r I n s t i t u t i o n a l R e s e a r c h N o . 3 6 ) . San F r a n c i s c o : J o s s e y - B a s s . P a s c a r e l l a , E . T . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . A p r o g r a m f o r R e s e a r c h a n d P o l i c y D e v e l o p m e n t o n S t u d e n t P e r s i s t e n c e a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l L e v e l . J o u r n a l o f C o l l e g e S t u d e n t P e r s o n n e l , 27 ( 2 ) , 1 0 0 - 1 0 7 . P o i s o n , C h e r y l J . ( 1 9 9 4 ) . " L o o k whose c o m i n g t o s c h o o l : t h e N o n t r a d i t i o n a l s t u d e n t i s t h e new s t u d e n t " . A d u l t L e a r n i n g ( 6 ) , 2 1 - 2 2 . R i v e r s & A s s o c i a t e s , ( 1 9 9 2 ) . A r e p o r t p r e p a r e d f o r t h e Human R e s o u r c e s D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t . V i c t o r i a : M i n i s t r y o f A d v a n c e d E d u c a t i o n , T r a i n i n g a n d T e c h n o l o g y . R o u e c h e , J o h n E . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . L e t ' s G e t S e r i o u s A b o u t t h e H i g h R i s k S t u d e n t . C o m m u n i t y a n d J u n i o r C o l l e g e J o u r n a l , 49 ( 1 ) , 3 2 - 3 5 . R o u e c h e , J . E . ( 1 9 8 1 - 1 9 8 2 ) . T r a n s f e r a n d A t t r i t i o n P o i n t s o f V i e w : D o n ' t C l o s e t h e D o o r . C o m m u n i t y a n d J u n i o r C o l l e g e J o u r n a l , 52 ( 4 ) , 1 7 , 2 1 - 2 3 . R o u e c h e , J . E . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . B e t w e e n a R o c k a n d a H a r d P l a c e : M e e t i n g A d u l t L i t e r a c y N e e d s . C o m m u n i t y a n d J u n i o r C o l l e g e J o u r n a l , 54 ( 7 ) , 2 1 - 2 4 . R o u e c h e , J o h n E. e t a l . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . A c c e s s w i t h E x c e l l e n c e : T o w a r d A c a d e m i c S u c c e s s I n C o l l e g e . C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e R e v i e w , 12 ( 4 ) , 4 - 9 . R o u e c h e , J . E . a n d A r c h e r , P . F . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . E n t r y L e v e l A s s e s s m e n t i n C o l l e g e . C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e R e v i e w , 6. ( 4 ) , 1 5 - 2 7 . R o u e c h e , J . E. a n d B a k e r , G. A . (19 8 6 ) . The S u c c e s s C o n n e c t i o n : E x a m i n i n g t h e F r u i t s o f E x c e l l e n c e . C o m m u n i t y , J u n i o r a n d T e c h n i c a l C o l l e g e J o u r n a l , 56 ( 5 ) , 4 7 - 5 6 . ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 7 3 Roueche, J. E. and Clarke, D. L. (1981). Compensatory Education: Toward a H o l i s t i c Approach. Community College Frontiers, 9 (2), 35-40. Roueche, S. D. and Roueche, J. E. (1982). Literacy Development: Foundation for General Education. New Directions for Community Colleges. 10 (4), 31-37. Russell, N. K. (1969). Academic Counseling A Counseling Centre Function. Washington D.C: The American Personnel and Guidance Association. o f f i c e of Education U.S. Department of Health and Welfare. Terenzini, P. T. , and Pascarella E. T. (1980). Student/Faculty Relationships and Freshman Year Educational Outcomes: A further Investigation. Journal of College Student Personnel, 21 (6), 521-528 . Tinto, V. (1975). Dropouts From Higher Education: A t h e o r e t i c a l Synthesis of the Recent Literature. A Review of Educational Research, 45 89-125. Tinto, V. (1982). Limits of Theory and Practice i n Student A t t r i t i o n . Journal of Higher Education, 53 (6), 687-700. Tinto, V. (1987). Leaving College: Rethinking the Causes and Cures of Student A t t r i t i o n . Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Vancouver Community College, Office of I n s t i t u t i o n a l Research. (1994). ABE Student Outcomes Report, (1994 P i l o t Project) V i c t o r i a : Ministry of Advanced Education, Training and Technology. Washington State Board for Community College Education. Olympia. "Platform for Excellence: A Review and Projection of Basic S k i l l s , Developmental and Learning Support Education". Task Force Reports from the Learning Assistance Support System Project. (ED238499). Zwerling, S. M. (1976). Second Best: The C r i s i s of the Community College. New York: Magraw H i l l . Zwerling, Steven M. (1992). F i r s t Generation Adult Students: i n Search of Safe Havens. New Directions for Community Colleges, 20 (4), 45-54. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 75 Employed: Yes No part-time f u l l - time F i r s t language 1. Before you came to KEC, what grade i n school did you complete? 2. How long have you been taking ABE courses at KEC? 3. How many courses are you taking right now? 4. If you are i n the CCA program, how many hours per week are you registered for? 5. If you are i n the CCA program and also taking CF courses, what courses are you taking i n each program? ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 76 6. Do you see a counsellor at KEC? Yes No How often? Please check: weekly monthly before r e g i s t r a t i o n 7. Do you see the counsellor for personal counselling, career planning, other reasons? Specify: 8. Have you attended counselling workshops on any of the following? (Please check): stress management test anxiety health issues other 9. How often do you use the Library? d a i l y weekly monthly 10. Are you receiving assistance through the IEPA Program? Yes No 11. Do you use the Learning Centre? How often? d a i l y weekly monthly not at a l l 12. Have you used the student Computer Lab i n the Learning Centre? Yes No ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 7 7 13. Are you attending the classroom-based or self-paced classes? or both? Why? 14. Did you do an assessment before you started your ABE program? Yes No 15. Are you planning to be registered i n another program at KEC, Langara, or City Centre within the next six months? Yes No If yes, please name the program you are hoping to enter, or for which you have applied, i . . e , Arts, Sciences, Nursing, Diesel Mechanic etc. 16. Do you plan to attend another college, BCIT, or a un i v e r s i t y within the next six months. Where? What program? ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 78 Appendix B Recommendations 1. It i s recommended that the administration at KEC consider o f f e r i n g remedial courses along with university transfer courses which would allow students committed to the academic stream to complete t h e i r studies i n a more timely and e f f i c i e n t manner. 2. It i s recommended that the college structure t h e i r ABE courses so that e x i t points into other career programs can be f a c i l i t a t e d at a l l l e v e l s of the ABE framework. 3. It i s recommended that counselling services be advertised more f u l l y both i n t e r n a l l y and externally, and that the information provided contain material pertaining to the value of counselling as i t r elates to success i n education. 4 . I t i s recommended that further study of the use of counselling services be undertaken so that as the way students use the service becomes known, they can be restructured to better meet the needs of the students. 5. It i s recommended that the college e s t a b l i s h a mentoring support program to encourage more contact with counselling. 6. I t i s recommended that adjunct courses f o r ESL students providing both ESL content and ABE curriculum be i n i t i a t e d . ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 7 9 7. I t i s recommended that curriculum incorporating career exploration into the ABE program be developed. 8 . I t i s recommended that programs there be aggressively marketed to King Edward Campus students, and that prerequisite courses i n ABE be offered at City Centre to encourage students to enter programs there. ABE STUDENT PROFILE AND USE OF SUPPORT SERVICES 80 GLOSSARY ABE: Adult Basic Education, Fundamental through P r o v i n c i a l levels or l i t e r a c y through grade 12 equivalency. Developmental Education: synonym for Adult Basic Education used primarily i n the United States. ESL English as a second language Remedial Education: support/review courses intended to upgrade s k i l l s . Support Services: l i b r a r y , counselling, t u t o r i a l s , learning assistance program, Learning Centre. T r a d i t i o n a l Student: student aged 18 to 24 

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