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The role of television in adult education McGechaen, Alexander 1977

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THE ROLE OF TELEVISION IN ADULT EDUCATION by ALEXANDER McGECHAEN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION In the Department of Adult Education Faculty of Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard: THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 0 ALEXANDER MCGECHAEN, 19 77 In present ing th i s thes is in p a r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree l y ava i lab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes is for scho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h is representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is fo r f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wri t ten permission. Depa rtment The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e J ati< so* 6 ABSTRACT This study examines some of the fundamental issues concerning the role of television in adult education. The nature of adult education is examined using existing theory as a basis for establishing key concepts about the processes which go into making an educational experience for adults. These c r i t e r i a are then related to existing knowledge about educational television with a view towards establishing definitions to describe the nature of ETV in adult education. The study draws a distinction between two different functions of television: f i r s t , i t s use in the formal instructional setting which is defined as educational and, secondly, i t s role in the natural societal setting which i s defined as educative. The study shows that both educative and educational television have a part to play in adult education, the latter as an integral part of the process, the former as a device for information and enrichment which at times may be associated with adult education. Educational television i s further defined as a method of adult education, a way to organize individuals for purposes of instruction. ETV is also defined as a device where i t performs one or more of the following functions: i t extends educational experiences outside the boundaries of an institution or i t acts as a source of information or enrichment within the formal instructional setting. A conceptual scheme of seven categories i s proposed to describe types of educative programs which under c e r t a i n conditions may be of use i n adult education but which are not r e a l l y an i n t e g r a l part of the d i s c i p l i n e because they are created f o r reasons other than education and do not d i s p l a y the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s necessary to be recognized as educational t e l e v i s i o n . Some issues concerning t e l e v i s i o n ' s r o l e i n i n s t r u c t i o n are discussed and anomalies i n the research are examined which have a f f e c t e d the development of theory i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n . An a l t e r n a t e approach to the study of ITV i s proposed based on the recogni t i o n that t e l e v i s i o n has a r o l e to play i n i n s t r u c t i o n as a communication device but i s not, i n i t s e l f , a complete i n s t r u c t i o n a l process. F i n a l l y , the study examines the work of various agencies concerned with educational and educative programming. The p a r t i c u l a r focus i s d i r e c t e d towards Canadian c o n t r i b u t i o n s , s p e c i f i c a l l y the work of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Some examples from outside the Canadian scene are considered as w e l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y the work of B r i t a i n ' s Open U n i v e r s i t y . The c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by the CBC to educational t e l e v i s i o n are found to be marginal, due l a r g e l y to c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by the nature of Canadian federalism which r e s t r i c t the CBC's r o l e to that of advisor and resource agency to other educational i n s t i t u t i o n s . On the other hand, CBC contributions to educative programming are significant. As an agency for mass communication i t provides a wide range of programming which serve to support i t s mandate to provide information and enrichment programs for Canadian viewers. V. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES v i i i LIST OF FIGURES i x Chapter I. INTRODUCTION 1 Background to the Problem 2 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 4 The Scope of the Study 6 The Problem. 7 Limits of the Study 8 Previous Studies 9 Procedure. . . .• 12 Sources of data 13 Plan 14 FOOTNOTES 17 I I . ROLE OF TELEVISION IN ADULT EDUCATION 20 D e f i n i t i o n of Adult Education 21 Concepts i n Adult Education 23 ETV i n Adult Education Processes 25 D e f i n i t i o n s f o r Educational T e l e v i s i o n 27 Review of D e f i n i t i o n s f o r Educational T e l e v i s i o n 30 D e f i n i t i o n f o r Educative T e l e v i s i o n 43 Summary of Terms... 47 FOOTNOTES. .' • • . 49 v i . Chapter • Page I I I . ROLE OF TELEVISION IN INSTRUCTION 52 Relationship of Learning to I n s t r u c t i o n 52 The Learning Process 53 Motivation phase 54 Apprehending phase 54 A c q u i s i t i o n phase 55 Retention phase 56 R e c a l l phase 57 G e n e r a l i z a t i o n phase 58 Performance phase 58 Feedback phase 59 . The I n s t r u c t i o n a l Process 59 Role of T e l e v i s i o n i n I n s t r u c t i o n 60 Effe c t i v e n e s s of t e l e v i s i o n f o r i n s t r u c t i o n 62 ITV and adult education 67 Process Versus Content i n I n s t r u c t i o n a l T e l e v i s i o n 70 Properties of T e l e v i s i o n 75 F i x a t i v e and d i s t r i b u t i v e properties of t e l e v i s i o n 77 Manipulative properties of t e l e v i s i o n 78 External manipulation 80 Internal manipulation 80 FOOTNOTES •• 95 v i i . Chapter Page IV. TELEVISION PROGRAMMING FOR ADULTS 103 ETV as a Method 104 ETV as a Device 107 CBC t e l e v i s i o n 107 CBC programs..... 112 Un i v e r s i t y programs 125 Open u n i v e r s i t y 136 Educative T e l e v i s i o n . . . . . 142 In s t r u c t i v e 144 News and public a f f a i r s 145 Documentaries 147 Interview programs 147 Discussion programs 148 Process demonstration 149 C u l t u r a l programs ' 149 Role of Educative T e l e v i s i o n 150 FOOTNOTES 161 r V. SUMMARY 167 CONCLUSIONS 171 IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 178 BIBLIOGRAPHY 18fy v i i i . LIST OF TABLES Table Page I. Implementation of Organized Educational Technology A c t i v i t y i n Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s to 1965 127 I I . Evolution of Courses i n the Open U n i v e r s i t y Program 138 I I I . Comparisons of I n s t r u c t i v e Programs with T o t a l Number and Hours of Programs Av a i l a b l e 154 IV. Comparison of Educative Programs with T o t a l Number and Hours of Programs A v a i l a b l e 155 V. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Educative Programs 156 VI. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Canadian and American Programs A v a i l a b l e During the viewing Week 157 VII. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Educative Programs By Time of Day 158 VIII. D i s t r i b u t i o n of I n s t r u c t i v e Programs By Stat i o n By Day and By Week 159 i x . LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Role of T e l e v i s i o n i n Adult Education 174 1 1. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION T e l e v i s i o n i s part of our way of l i f e , and so i s adult education. While one may appear to a f f e c t us more d i r e c t l y than the other, both play a s i g n i f i c a n t part i n providing us with information, s k i l l s and knowledge which a f f e c t our behaviour and, o c c a s i o n a l l y , touch the very heart of our existence as people. Sometimes the chance viewing of a t e l e v i s i o n program w i l l t e l l us something we d i d not know, show us how to do something with which we were not f a m i l i a r , or cause us to question some of our b e l i e f s . At other times, the technology of t e l e v i s i o n w i l l combine with the methodology of adult education to provide us with the same experience i n an organized and systematic way. When the l a t t e r experience 2. occurs the event becomes of interest to adult educators and i t i s their concern with the medium which is the subject of this study. Background to the Problem Mention the term "educational television" to twenty different adults and they w i l l respond with twenty different impressions of what i t i s and what i t does."*" To the average person, ETV embodies everything which is good about television. It is enrichment programs for children, fitness programs, game shows, news, documentaries, debates, " a r t i s t i c " dramas and university extension courses. Most people perceive ETV as an important activity worthy of everyone's attention, but they w i l l also admit that i t is something which they, themselves, rarely watch. The perceptions of adult educators towards ETV are no less diverse. They accept a l l the above examples and include others l i k e closed c i r c u i t televised lectures, videotape 3 recordings i n the classroom, and microteaching. Their attitudes towards ETV run the gamut from outright h o s t i l i t y from those who see television as a threat to their livelihood to unequivocal endorsement from those who see i t s potential as a tool for mass 4 education. The apparent lack of consensus among experts and laymen alike over the nature and function of educational television i s understandable given i t s development. ETV, as an institution, seems to have come into existence largely by default. Precedents 3. f o r using the mass media i n education had been set long before t e l e v i s i o n a r r i v e d as a communication medium. Canada's Farm Radio Forum, f o r example, used the medium of radio as a way of providing a n a t i o n a l adult education program f o r farmers. The l i s t e n i n g group technique, perfected i n the Farm Radio Forum, became a model f o r mass adult education which has been repeated s u c c e s s f u l l y i n many countries of the world throughout the past t h i r t y years.^ The a r r i v a l of t e l e v i s i o n brought glowing p r e d i c t i o n s from adult educators about i t s p o t e n t i a l to serve the same kinds of purposes as radio and so, l i k e the Doctrine of the S e l f - F u l f i l l i n g Prophecy, everyone believed i t to be so and i t was.*' Educators, eager to use the device, have sometimes embarked on t e l e v i s i o n p rojects without considering the r o l e which the medium would play i n the educational process. The p r o l i f e r a t i o n of case studies and testimonials supporting ETV bear witness to the lack of congruency i n approaching the study.^ On a more rigorous l e v e l , many empirical studies have been conducted over the l a s t twenty years to examine t e l e v i s i o n ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n to i n s t r u c t i o n and a s u b s t a n t i a l body of knowledge now e x i s t s to explain some of the conditions under which ETV can contribute to the learning process. On various occasions, scholars have gathered together t h i s knowledge i n attempts to develop a t h e o r e t i c a l framework f or r e l a t i n g t e l e v i s i o n to g education. Many of these t h e o r e t i c a l works w i l l be examined i n t h i s study. Each seems to have three things i n common. They a l l reveal contradictions and anomalies which exist in the research making i t d i f f i c u l t to develop a theory. Individually the findings are useful for designing and planning specific programs, but collectively the findings do not seem to relate satisfactorily to a systematic theory for the use of ETV in education. They a l l suggest the need for a broad theoretical base to assist researchers to relate their findings to education and, with 9 two notable exceptions, they a l l largely ignore adult education. This study, then, w i l l examine what is known about adult_ education, what i s known about educational television, and explain the relationship of the medium to the discipline. Definition of Terms Since accurate definitions of adult education and educational television are key issues in this study, a major portion of Chapter II is devoted to examining in great detail what has been said about these terms and seeks to propose precise definitions which relate television to the discipline of adult education. It i s important at this point, however, to establish some basic paramaters for terms used throughout the study. The term adult education precludes the examination of issues and material related to the education of children, although i t should be noted that due to the nature of the discipline i t would be impossible to exclude absolutely the latter group. Adult education has a tradition of adopting material from other disciplines including learning theory derived from studies with pre-adult groups. Where possible, however, the examination of data w i l l be restricted to that dealing s p e c i f i c a l l y with adults. It should also be noted that a clear distinction w i l l be made between adult "education" and "instruction". The terms are not used as synonyms within the discipline. Each is used to describe distinct phenomena. By the same token this distinction w i l l be extended to include the differences between "educational television" and "instructional television". The use of the term television connotes a range of meanings associated with the medium. There are basically three different kinds of distribution systems. The f i r s t is the most obvious: broadcast television, often referred to as "open c i r c u i t " or "RF" (radio frequency) broadcast. The next most common system for distributing television signals is via cable, sometimes referred to as "closed c i r c u i t " television, CATV (community antenna television), "cablevision", or "cablecasting". The third system for distribution could best be described as non-broadcast transmission and would include those instances where television equipment is used to present recorded or l i v e television programs to specific groups or individuals. This system would include videotape recording and playback for individual or group instruction. It might also include the use of television hardware for self instruction as in the case of microteaching. While this study w i l l concentrate mainly on examples drawn from the f i r s t two categories, i t should be noted here that 6. the source of distinction between the distribution systems stems from technological considerations related to the hardware involved. These technical considerations do not necessarily have any effect on the design or content of the material carried by the medium. The Scope of the Study There are three main purposes to this study. The f i r s t i s to define educational television in order to establish i t s position within the discipline of adult education. The second purpose i s to examine some of the characteristics of the medium in order to set up c r i t e r i a for evaluating i t s position within the instructional process. These factors may help in setting c r i t e r i a for the design of ETV programs for adults which reflect factors related more towards theories of adult instruction than to the peculiar qualities of the medium. Finally, with these c r i t e r i a in mind, the study examines a sampling of programs assumed to be adult education experiences. The majority of samples w i l l be drawn from Canadian experiences with ETV, spe c i f i c a l l y programs designed by or co-sponsored with, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. While many samples are available from other countries, and in fact some are cited in this study, to date l i t t l e recognition has been given to ETV in Canada except through the works of Rosen and of Thomas, two notable exceptions."^ The main object for presenting the sample 7. programs is to evaluate them using the criteria developed from the definitions. It is hoped that this approach will not only provide some historical perspective to the development of ETV in Canada, but more importantly point the way towards the development of a theoretical basis for setting evaluation criteria for measuring the role of television in adult education. It is not the purpose of this study to conduct empirical research into the effectiveness of television for instruction, but to examine a more fundamental question: is the design of so-called educational television programs such that i t provides opportunities for learning to occur in a planned, systematic manner under the management of an educational agent? The analysis should result in the development of a conceptual scheme for classifying the medium of television within the discipline of adult education. The Problem Some specific questions under consideration in this study include the following: 1. Based on existing theories in adult education and educational broadcasting, what would be an appropriate definition for educational television? 2. Does educational television have any basis in adult education theory for being called educational? 3. How can programs which do not f i t the definition be characterized? 8. 4. What role does television play in learning and instruction? 5. What is the nature of the CBC's contribution to educational television? Specific hypotheses have not been set because until the data are examined specific issues do not readily reveal themselves. The questions listed above are there to provide direction for the study. Analysis of the data may disclose more specific issues related to the central intent of the study, in which case these issues will be reported and discussed as they become apparent. Limits of the Study This study concerns itself mainly with broadcast television and its contributions to adult education. No consideration is given to school telecasts or broadcast television directed towards children which have been important contributions to the development of educational television, but which have l i t t l e or nothing to do with adult education. It should be noted that this limitation cannot be completely adhered to in the examination of research material on television's role in instruction. The majority of this research has been directed towards, or involved, pre-adult groups. What research has been done with adults will be used wherever possible. Other areas not under investigation include the contributions made by commercial networks and a l l ETV systems operated by provincial governments. These two areas would require studies of their own 9. which reach beyond the scope of this study. /' Previous Studies A review of previous research into studies concerned with educational broadcasting and adult education revealed only one study directly related to the present one. Its t i t l e was "The Use of Television i n Adult Education: Research Evidence and Theoretical Considerations", an unpublished Ph.D. thesis from the University of California, prepared by Herbert Zettl in 1966."^ The study i s now over ten years old and when compared to this one reveals the degree to which adult education has evolved towards a more precise discipline. For example, Zettl adopts a very broad definition for adult education, one which 12 he admits is "complex, amorphous and evasive". It reflected theories of adult education commonly accepted at that time which sought to include a wide range of a c t i v i t i e s as adult education, some of which had questionable v a l i d i t y as educational experiences. Zettl's definition also focused mainly on the institution's role in adult education, an approach which set administrative c r i t e r i a for judging adult education a c t i v i t i e s instead of examining adult education as a system of learning resulting from the interaction between an adult learner and an 13 adult education agent. The second major difference between the two studies l i e s in their approach. Zettl i s mainly concerned with examining the use of educational television within the institution of adult education. His concern lies with examining systems for distributing adult education to the masses and he describes practical ways for using the medium in programming. This study seeks to examine ETV's role in adult education, its position within the methodology of adult education. It examines programs assumed to be educational to see whether or not they qualify as educational experiences. Three other studies were found which relate indirectly to this study. Morrison, Faris and O'Brien concern themselves with historical developments in educational broadcasting in 14 Canada. In his M.A. Thesis, Morrison examined the development of radio education in Canada from 1929 to 1949. O'Brien's doctoral dissertation examined the historical development of the Canadian Radio League from 1930 to 1936 and Faris, in his study, assessed the evolution of the Canadian Association for Adult Education with particular emphasis on the Association's participation in the CBC Radio Forums, an early example of the use of mass media in adult education in Canada. None of these studies dealt with the use of television in adult education and, unlike the present study, none of them explore, in any depth, the more fundamental issue of whether or not educational broadcasting, be i t radio or television, has any basis in adult education theory for calling itself educational. A l l three researchers assume that the term is valid. They use i t to describe a particular variety of radio programming without necessarily addressing themselves to the issue of whether .or not i t is even an appropriate term. Only one study has been found which examines CBC t e l e v i s i o n ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n to adult education. In 1960, C o l i n Smith completed an a n a l y t i c a l survey of Federal Government contributions to adult education from 1920 to I960."'""' He devoted one s e c t i o n to CBC t e l e v i s i o n where he l i s t e d some examples of t e l e v i s i o n programming f o r adults. I t was not the purpose of h i s study to examine the CBC's c o n t r i b u t i o n i n any d e t a i l and he did not examine the broader issue of ETV's place i n adult education. Other studies on ETV to be examined i n greater d e t a i l l a t e r i n t h i s study include Campeau's selected review of research into the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of various a u d i o v i s u a l devices."^ Her review includes a s e c t i o n on t e l e v i s i o n ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n . John Ohliger's review of the mass media i n adult education also contains material on ETV."^ In a d d i t i o n , Ohliger attempts to define the term educational t e l e v i s i o n but he does not a r r i v e at a s a t i s f a c t o r y d e f i n i t i o n nor does he attempt to f i t t e l e v i s i o n into the methodology of adult education. E a r l Rosen's book ETV, Canada discusses the r o l e of t e l e v i s i o n i n adult education i n Canada. I t includes a chapter by Alan Thomas on "ETV and Adults" which represents the f i r s t major e f f o r t to describe the evolution of Canadian ETV f o r adults and to o u t l i n e a plan for i t s development as a mass educational system."^ Other studies which trace the h i s t o r i c a l development of 19 ETV include two by Robert Carlson. Both, however, deal with 12. American television and approach the subject from the standpoint of i t s potential as a mass communication system. Carlson rejects any attempt by adult educators to absorb the medium into an educational methodology which he views as too narrow an approach. Carlson objects to the approach taken by adult educators l i k e Verner who attempt to examine the role of broadcast television within the natural societal setting as well as the formal 20 instructional setting. Verner's definitions and conceptual scheme for the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of adult education processes are used in this study as a basis for examining the role of television in education. An attempt i s made to show that the global approach of educators l i k e Carlson does a disservice to the potential for television to contribute to the improvement and effectiveness of television for instruction and enrichment. The present state of research into educational television indicates a need to examine the very nature of educational television, to see whether or not i t has a place within the methodology of adult education and i f so what i t s position should be. Procedure This study uses an analytical descriptive methodology as the approach to examining the research questions. So much material exists, both in adult education and educational television that an analytical approach would serve well as a basis for integrating the material to develop a theoretical basis for evaluating the role of educational television i n adult education. 13. Once c r i t e r i a have been set, programs can be described and analysed to see whether or not they constitute educational experiences for adults. Sources of data. Data for this study has been derived from a number of sources: (i) Monographs - written by recognized scholars i n adult education and communication study. These works provide valuable theoretical material and models which are used for reference in developing the definitions and theoretical models in this study. ( i i ) Research studies - in adult education and educational television which provide data to support or question particular issues related to learning theory and characteristics of television related to adult learning and instruction, ( i i i ) Reviews of research - into adult education and educational broadcasting. Included i n this category are reviews of material on the mass media which help to add perspective to the current state of research into educational television. Reviews of research are often responsible for setting trends within the f i e l d of practice which are later reflected in the research. Reviews contribute to the development of theory by identifying new areas of research and 14. pointing out discrepancies which exist i n current research. Reviews also act as an invaluable source of program examples which are used later i n this study. (iv) Journals - from both adult education and educational broadcasting. Journals provide a forum for both practitioners and researchers to express their opinions and experiences which can be useful in determining current attitudes toward an issue which may or may not be i n turn reflected i n the research. (v) Government records and reports - which are used extensively i n the latter part of this study as a source of material on CBC television's contributions to educational television. This source includes CBC research reports, position papers from government bodies connected with the CBC, parliamentary acts, sessional papers and Commission reports. Plan. The study is organized around the questions developed in Chapter I. The questions are based on issues discussed in the background to the problem, and the review of previous studies'. Chapter I also outlines the scope and limitations for the study. Chapter II is devoted to analysing the role of television in adult education. A precise definition for adult education is given and certain fundamental concepts in the discipline are discussed as they affect the role of television. A definition i s created for educational television and i t is tested against a number of known definitions. A second definition for educative television i s developed to cover those kinds of television experiences which do not f i t into the s t r i c t definition of adult education but which s t i l l have a part to play in providing potential learning experiences for adults. Chapter III examines the role of television in adult instruction, describes the nature of adult learning and instruction and discusses the role television plays in these processes. Some fundamental issues i n the approach to studies on instructional television are discussed and some p o s s i b i l i t i e s are suggested for different approaches than those traditionally used. Chapter IV reviews a sample of television programs assumed to be educational. These programs are examined in light of the conceptual schemes developed in Chapters II and III and classified accordingly as educational or educative. The major sources of sample programs are the ETV offerings developed by, or co-sponsored with, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Other programs are also discussed but the intent here i s to record Canadian contributions to ETV. Chapter V summarizes the findings, draws conclusions, and presents recommendations for approaches to future research. The implications of the study's findings are discussed as they affect the discipline of adult education. 17. FOOTNOTES 1. Bruce H. Westley, Attitudes Toward Educational Television, Madison: University of Wisconsin Television Laboratory, 1958. see also: John R. Shepherd. The Oregon Educational Television  Project, Final Report, Stanford C a l i f . : ERIC Clearinghouse, 1963. also: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. What the Canadian  Public Thinks of the CBC, Ottawa: CBC Research Department, 1963. 2. Westley, op. c i t . , p. 46. 3. See Chapter III. The range of perceptions among educators is revealed through their definitions. 4. Robert Carlson, Educational Television in i t s Cultural and  Public Affairs Dimension: A Selected Review of Public Television as an Issue i n Adult Education, C.S.L.E.A. Occasional Paper, No. 39, Syracuse University, 1973. 5. For a discussion see: John Ohliger. Listening Groups: Mass  Media i n Adult Education, Boston University: Centre for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1967. 6. Walter C. Stone, "Plan Now For Television", Food For Thought, 9:4, January 1949. see also: "Television and Adult Education", Food For Thought, 13:1, October 1952. 7. Peggie L. Campeau, "Selective Review of the Results of Research on the Use of Audiovisual Media to Teach Adults", AV Communication  Review, 22:1, Spring 1974. Campeau explains the p i t f a l l s of using testimonials and case studies as a basis for analysing the effectiveness of ETV in adult education. 8. Robert M. Travers, et a l , Research and Theory Related to  Audiovisual Information Transmission, University of Utah, 1964. Goodwin C. Chu and Wilbur Schramm, Learning From Television:  What the Research Says, Washington: National Association of Educational Broadcasters, 1968. A.A. Lumsdaine, "Instruments and Media of Instruction", Handbook of Research on Teaching, N.L. Gage (ed.), Chicago: Rand McNally and Company, 1968. 18. John Ohliger, The Mass Media in Adult Education: A Review  of Recent Literature, New York: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education, 1968. Campeau, op. c i t . 9. The exceptions are Ohliger and Campeau. 10. Alan Thomas, "ETV and Adults", from: Earl Rosen. Educational  Television, Canada, Toronto: Burns and MacEachern Limited, 1967. 11. Herbert Lorenz Z e t t l , "The Use of Television i n Adult Education: Research Evidence and Theoretical Considerations", Ph.D. thesis, University of California (Berkeley), 1966. 12. Ibid., p. 33. 13. For more discussion, see Chapter II. 14. Terence Robert Morrison, "The Development of National Radio Education in Canada 1929-1949", unpublished M.A. thesis, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967. Ronald L. Faris, "Adult Education For Social Action or Enlightenment? An Assessment of the Development of the Canadian Association For Adult Education and i t s Radio Forums", Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto, 1971. John E g l i O'Brien, "A History of the Canadian Radio League 1930-36", Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southern California, 1964. 15. Colin H. Smith, "Federal Contributions to Education for Adults and to Certain Agencies of Cultural Diffusion: An Analytical Survey of Developments in Canada from 1920-1960", unpublished M.A. thesis, The University of Br i t i s h Columbia, 1960. 16. Campeau, op. c i t . 17. Ohliger, op. c i t . 18. Thomas, op. c i t . 19. Robert Carlson, The Creation and Development of Educational  Television as an Institution of Adult Education: A Case Study in American History, (Ph.D.) University of Wisconsin, 1968. , Educational Television in i t s Cultural and Public Affairs Dimension: A Selected Review of Public Television as an Issue in Adult Education, Syracuse University: C.S.L.E.A. Occasional Paper, No. 39, 1973. 19. Coolie Verner, A Conceptual Scheme for the Identification and  Classification of Processes For Adult Education, Chicago: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1962, p. 3. , "Fundamental Concepts i n Adult Education", Internationalas Jahrbuch fur Erwachsenenbildung, Joachim H. Knoll, Bertelsmann University, 1975. , "Definition of Terms", Adult Education: Outlines of an Emerging Field of University Study, Gale Jensen, A.A. Liverright, Wilbur Hallenbeck (eds.), Chicago: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1964. CHAPTER II ROLE OF TELEVISION IN ADULT EDUCATION One of the key issues in this study surrounds the definition of educational television. Defining the term i s like trying to catch a chameleon; every time one gets close the beast changes colour. There seems to be no consensus about the nature, structure or characteristics of the medium. A multitude of terms and descriptions have been coined to describe just about as many different kinds of programs. For instance, there i s Instructional Television, Public Television, Community Television, Cablecasting, Tele-education and so on. Because this study concerns i t s e l f with examining the role of television as a medium for educating adults, i t seems l o g i c a l to approach the issue from two d i r e c t i o n s : f i r s t , to examine the perceptions of adult educators concerning the nature of t h e i r d i s c i p l i n e and how i t r e l a t e s to t e l e v i s i o n , and then to examine the perceptions of educational t e l e v i s i o n broadcasters about the nature of t h e i r medium and whether or not they recognize i t s "educational" p o t e n t i a l . Perhaps by combining elements of both, a composite d e f i n i t i o n f o r educational t e l e v i s i o n w i l l emerge. This approach, however, i s fraught with d i f f i c u l t i e s because neither group seems to be able to agree on d e f i n i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i r respective f i e l d s l e t alone on a combined d e f i n i t i o n for educational t e l e v i s i o n . D e f i n i t i o n of Adult Education One of the best known d e f i n i t i o n s f or adult education comes from Verner who, i n 1962, stated that i t was:"*" ...the a c t i o n of an external educational agent i n purposefully ordering behaviour i n t o planned systematic experiences that can r e s u l t i n learning f o r those f o r whom such a c t i v i t y i s supplemental to t h e i r primary r o l e i n s o c i e t y , and which involves some c o n t i n u i t y i n an exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p between the agent and the learner so that the educational process i s under constant s u p e r v i s i o n and d i r e c t i o n . Recently, Verner re-defined h i s p o s i t i o n to bring i t more into 2 l i n e with the profession. His e a r l i e r statement focused more on the behaviour of the educational agent while tending to ignore i n s t i t u t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n within the a c t i v i t y . The new d e f i n i t i o n reads: Adult education i s any planned and organized a c t i v i t y provided by an i n s t i t u t i o n or other s o c i a l i n strumentality that i s intended s p e c i f i c a l l y to a s s i s t an adult to l e a r n and which i s under the immediate and continuous c o n t r o l of an i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent who manages the conditions f o r lea r n i n g i n such a way as to f a c i l i t a t e the s u c c e s s f u l achievement of the learning o b j e c t i v e s . It i s more comprehensive than h i s e a r l i e r statement because i t recognizes the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r adult education to occur i n areas other than i n the t r a d i t i o n a l educational s e t t i n g . Since the profession i s as diverse as the society i n which i t functions, t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s f l e x i b l e enough to allow f o r a l l a c t i v i t i e s which might come under the heading of adult education. We can see then, that f o r any a c t i v i t y to be c l a s s i f i e d as "educational" i t must have three basic components: (a) INTENT, (b) PLANNING, and (c) MANAGEMENT. The i n s t i t u t i o n or agent must intend to provide an experience where learning can occur. That experience must be planned out i n such a way that learning can occur and the experience must be managed continuously to ensure that the le a r n i n g o bjectives are achieved. At t h i s point i t i s important to note the d i f f e r e n c e s between "education" and " l e a r n i n g " as the terms are used i n adult 3 education. Education may be defined as: ...the c r e a t i o n and maintenance of i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g s that provide experiences i n which both information and c o n t r o l of the appropriate i n t e l l e c t u a l behaviour are syst e m a t i c a l l y and simultaneously acquired. Learning, on the other hand, i s defined as:" ...the a c q u i s i t i o n of information and the mastery of that i n t e l l e c t u a l behaviour through which f a c t s , ideas or concepts are manipulated, r e l a t e d , and made a v a i l a b l e f o r use. The d i s t i n c t i o n , then, i s quite c l e a r . The term "education" describes the framework of organization w i t h i n which the a c t i v i t y c a l l e d " l e a r n i n g " takes place. Learning, which i s more or l e s s a permanent change i n behaviour, can occur anywhere and at any-time. However, when the process becomes formalized and le a r n i n g i s c o n t r o l l e d w i t h i n a managed s i t u a t i o n , the r e s u l t i s education. This d i s t i n c t i o n i s important, because for educational t e l e v i s i o n to q u a l i f y as "education" i t must be able to impart s k i l l s and knowledge i n an i n t e n t i o n a l , systematic manner and most important of a l l , i t must possess the c a p a b i l i t y to manage the learning event. Concepts i n Adult Education In h i s conceptual scheme Verner describes the d i f f e r e n c e between the formal and informal s e t t i n g s f o r adult learning when he draws the d i s t i n c t i o n between "The Natural S o c i e t a l S e t t i n g " and "The Formal I n s t r u c t i o n a l Setting"."' An adult i n the n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g i s constantly encountering s i t u a t i o n s where he can l e a r n , but because the information and experiences are sporadic and unsystematic any le a r n i n g which does occur i n the normal course of d a i l y l i f e i s l a r g e l y the r e s u l t of chance. To i l l u s t r a t e h i s point Verner c i t e s t e l e v i s i o n viewing as an example 24. of an experience where le a r n i n g can occur i n the nat u r a l s e t t i n g . ^ He presents the argument that an adult watching t e l e v i s i o n f o r entertainment or enlightenment may be learning from the experience except that any lear n i n g which does take place i s not under the c o n t r o l of any external management and therefore cannot be regarded as education. Verner points out that even i f the producers of t e l e v i s i o n programs are able to "incorporate...a w e l l ordered and systematic presentation of material through s e q u e n t i a l l y ordered lea r n i n g tasks...they cannot provide continuous supervision and management of the tasks r e s u l t i n g from the response of the learner i n the performance of the tasks set by the program".^ While lea r n i n g w i t h i n the n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g occurs l a r g e l y i n a haphazard and uncontrolled fashion the element of chance can be minimized when the a c t i v i t y i s tra n s f e r r e d i n t o the g formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g . As Verner explains: Such a s e t t i n g comes into existence when an i n d i v i d u a l or i n s t i t u t i o n purposefully creates a s i t u a t i o n i n which the achievement of s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g by a s p e c i f i c population i s under the d i r e c t and continuing supervision of an i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent. It i s i n the formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g where the process of adult education as opposed to adult learning occurs. The process of l e a r n i n g which occurs i n the formal s e t t i n g may not n e c e s s a r i l y be any more e f f e c t i v e than i n the informal s e t t i n g , but i t i s bound to be more e f f i c i e n t because of the presence of an adult education agent to manage the lear n i n g event. These d i s t i n c t i o n s between the concepts of learning and 25. education and the difference between the settings i n which learning takes place are important concepts i n any approach to the examination of educational television. For television to qualify as education i t must be able to impart s k i l l s and knowledge in a planned, systematic manner and, most important of a l l , i t must possess the capability to manage the learning event. ETV in Adult Education Processes Besides defining the nature of adult education Verner has further contributed to the discipline by developing a "Conceptual 9 Scheme for the Classification of Adult Education Processes". He divides adult education processes into three major categories: methods, techniques and devices. The term method describes the "basic fundamental relationship that must be established in order for education to proceed".'^ It takes the form of a continuous relationship between an adult education institution or agent and an individual or group of prospective learners. A method describes the way in which potential learners are organized for learning and the key element is continuous contact between the learners and the agent who affects the direction and management of the event. Methods are further distinguished by their pattern of organization.^ There are individual methods which include as examples correspondence study, directed individual study, apprenticeship, and internship. There are group methods which include such things as a class, a discussion group, laboratory, assembly or meeting, workshops, and institutes. Finally, there are community methods whose structure 26. is determined by the social structure of the community. An example 12 would be community development. Techniques are defined as the "relationship established by an institutional agent (adult educator) to facilitate 13 learning...". Techniques are processes used by an adult educator to encourage, facilitate and manage learning. Examples would include such activities as lectures, group discussions and process demonstrations. The choice of techniques depends upon the learning objectives and the nature of the participants, both factors which fall under the management of the adult educator. 14 Finally, devices in adult education are defined as those: various mechanical instruments, audio-visual aids, physical arrangements, and materials... used by adult educators to augment the processes employed [in an instructional event] Verner is quick to point out that while devices "may enhance the effectiveness of a process, they cannot function as such independently"."'""' Educational television, then, would be classified as a device, similar to books, films, and blackboards in its ability to store and distribute information relevant to the content of a particular program, but without the capability to organize a learning event like a method or enhance the organization of the learning process like a technique. Within his category of devices Verner draws a further distinction between four different types: illustration devices, extension devices, environmental devices, and manipulative devices."^  The first two categories are relevant to this discussion. Illustrative 27. devices are, as the term implies, anything which i s used to i l l u s t r a t e or enrich the content to be learned i n an i n s t r u c t i o n a l event. Extension devices are things which are used to "extend the reach of an educational method beyond the range normally expected i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g " . " ^ Extension devices are used to transmit information or extend experiences i n an e f f i c i e n t way to a l a r g e r v a r i e t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s than are normally a v a i l a b l e to an adult education agent. Devices are, however, passive elements i n an educational e n t e r p r i s e i n the sense that they do not manage learn i n g or provide continuous opportunities f o r learners to a f f e c t the d i r e c t i o n s of the event by i n t e r a c t i n g with the i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent. D e f i n i t i o n s for Educational T e l e v i s i o n One r o l e f or t e l e v i s i o n i n adult education i s that of: an i l l u s t r a t i v e or extension device capable  of d i s t r i b u t i n g information to enrich an  i n s t r u c t i o n a l event or extending an  e x i s t i n g educational method to i n d i v i d u a l s  or groups who might not otherwise p a r t i c i p a t e  i n an educational event. A good example of t e l e v i s i o n used as an extension device can be found i n the model f o r B r i t a i n ' s Open U n i v e r s i t y which uses ,TV as a way of reaching i n d i v i d u a l s who would not normally have access 18 to educational programs o f f e r e d through t r a d i t i o n a l systems. T e l e v i s i o n i s used i n t h i s case as one of the major informational, devices and as a way of organizing part of the learner's time. The program i s supplemented with correspondence material and group meetings where p a r t i c i p a n t s have the opportunity to contact an educational agent d i r e c t l y . I t i s t h i s question of the contact between learner and agent which creates some c o n f l i c t between adult educators over the nature of t e l e v i s i o n as a device. Some f e e l that the status of TV i s somehow demeaned when i t i s c l a s s i f i e d as 19 a device. They see t e l e v i s i o n as a method and imply that by being so i t should therefore enjoy a higher status w i t h i n any conceptual scheme. The question of status i s i r r e l e v a n t i n the sense that the success of any educational event hinges on the e f f e c t i v e combination of a l l three components: methods, techniques and devices. Each i s i n t e r r e l a t e d and i t i s po s s i b l e that because of t h i s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p some confusion and overlap can occur at times. Verner himself admits that under c e r t a i n circumstances a medium l i k e t e l e v i s i o n can f i n d i t s e l f i n the paradoxical p o s i t i o n 20 of being e i t h e r a device or a method. In some instances the use of an item determines i t s status. T e l e v i s i o n , f o r example, may be a method...or i t may be a device when used i n a cla s s to provide information or i l l u s t r a t i o n . The d i s t i n c t i o n between TV as a method and TV as a device centers around the nature of i t s use with i n an educational e n t e r p r i s e . I f t e l e v i s i o n i s used as the main system f o r organizing people to learn and i f the learners have the opportunity f o r continuous contact with the educational agent to a f f e c t the organization and progress of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s then t e l e v i s i o n f u l f i l l s the function of a method of adult education. If the medium i s 29. used only to transmit information or experiences to learners without affording them the opportunity for continuous contact and feedback then the medium i s being used as a device. For instance, i f we return to the example of the Open University we can see that the organizational component of a method exists in this model to some degree. Scheduled television broadcasts are used as a way of organizing the learners, but i t is only one of the ways of organizing the participants. There i s also correspondence study, an example of Verner's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of an 21 individual method. More importantly, however, is the matter of contact between agents and learners. Because there is no direct and continuous contact between agents and learner during the television program, i t cannot be said that television i s being used as a method in this case. Instead, television is being used as an extension device to bring the classroom or the laboratory into the homes of the participants. To summarize then, television may be used as an educational method but under much more stringent conditions than i f i t were used as a device. Television may be defined as a method of adult  education when i t is used as a way of organizing adults for a  planned, systematic learning experience under the management of an  educational agent and providing opportunities for continuous contact  between agent and learner to affect the content and management  of instruction. At this point we must consider the l o g i s t i c a l problems 30. which such a definition w i l l place on the existing state of television technology. Researchers l i k e Dubin point out that the present state of technology precludes any e f f i c i e n t , large scale deployment of what he refers to as "two-way television" which would amount to the use of television as an educational 22 method. It might seem, then, that such a definition i s unreasonable except that the system is_ possible and, given time, the technology could l i k e l y overcome the problems. The main point is that ETV must be able to satisfy the criter i o n of continuous contact between agent and learner before i t can be regarded as a method of adult education. Review of Definitions for Educational Television With Verner's c r i t e r i a in mind and the definitions generated in this study i t remains to examine how other adult educators approach the issue of educational television to see what level of congruency, i f any, exists within the discipline. In his paper Mass Media and Adult Education, John Ohliger reviews a variety of definitions for Educational Television 23 collected from many different sources. His review of literature represents a f a i r attempt to deal with the issues except that he f a i l s to draw any conclusions based on these works. While he appears 24 to agree with Rosen's contention that defining ETV i s a necessary f i r s t step towards evaluating i t s effectiveness, Ohliger concludes 25 his review by s k i l l f u l l y avoiding the issue when he says: In this paper we w i l l accept in general whatever particular educators say the adult educational use of the mass media is. We are to assume, therefore, that a l l the contradictory statements which Ohliger has described are valid. Nevertheless, Ohliger's review is itself worth reviewing because i t presents examples of many different points of view concerning Educational Television. It is worth noting at the outset that while Ohliger deals with the broad issue of the mass media in his paper, the section on definitions draws most of its material from works related to Educational Television. This approach is confusing and indicates some uncertainty in Ohliger's own mind about the distinction between television and the broader area of the mass media which includes radio, newspapers, magazines, books and films as well as other forms of communication. Ohliger begins his section of definitions by weighing the pros and cons of the exercise itself. He quotes from 26 Breitenfeld who wrote: Defining the 'mass media' grows tiresome... As we continue to struggle with definitions, and to wander about the philosophic meadows, I believe we neglect the job to be done...I hope we're not defining terms when the walls come tumbling down. This argument, perhaps overstated, might have some validity except that i t rejects the most important point. Unless educators and others operating in the area have a common set of perceptions about what they are doing and why, then there can be no hope of achieving consistency in performance, design or evaluation. No one w i l l be able to know with any certainty whether or not Educational Television has any basis for being called "educational". To counter this somewhat pragmatic point of view expressed by people l i k e Breitenfeld, Ohliger draws from Rosen, who in his book Educational Television, Canada defends the 27 importance of defining terms: What is educational television? Perhaps the question seems less relevant than more basic issues regarding ETV, such as how to use i t , who shall control i t , and for what purposes. And. yet, one cannot really answer these questions without a definition of the term "educational television". It is necessary, not as an exercise in pedantry, but because various interests - Departments of Education, universities, school boards, agencies of the federal government - are involved in educational television and the administrative and legal processes of working out relationships and responsibilities among them require a degree of consensus. Rosen is one of the few Canadians to attempt a workable definition for ETV. He begins by describing the characteristics of educational 28 programming which incorporate: 1. Educational objectives, which establish the c r i t e r i a that determine subject selection, content, and instructional procedure, and that lead to developing, cumulative learning experiences, directed at specific audiences. 2. An organized subject matter to achieve those objectives, presented i n a sequence of programs. 3. A presentation that employs effective television techniques. 4. Presented at times convenient to the viewers at whom the program i s beamed, with adequate schedule and program lengths to achieve educational goals. 5. Adequate promotion and development to give viewers opportunities to hear of the programs' existence, and to l e a r n to view and use e f f e c t i v e l y . Items one and two cover methodological considerations and c l o s e l y resemble c r i t e r i a expressed by adult educators l i k e Verner. Item three, though imprecise, expresses program planning considerations and items four and f i v e mainly describe administrative considerations and techniques for d e l i v e r i n g the product. Based on these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Rosen goes on to set a 29 d e t a i l e d two stage d e f i n i t i o n f o r Educational T e l e v i s i o n : Educational T e l e v i s i o n c o n s i s t s of 1. I n s t r u c t i o n a l T e l e v i s i o n (a) "Total teaching i . A l l teaching r e l a t e d to a prescribed course i s given on TV, with or without the a i d of correspondence, notes, t u t o r i a l s , or other arrangements. i i . I n s t r u c t i o n , l a r g e l y intended f o r a d u l t s , i s given on TV with the object of bringing about changes i n information, knowledge, under-standing, s k i l l s , a p p r e c i a t i o n and a t t i t u d e s ; or f o r the purpose of i d e n t i f y i n g and s o l v i n g personal or community problems. (b) Supplementary teaching by t e l e v i s i o n Some teaching r e l a t e d to a prescribed course i s given on TV, with educational a u t h o r i t i e s conducting preparatory work, supplying a d d i t i o n a l information and follow-up work. 34. (c) Reinforcement by television Related to a prescribed course, programs containing material designed to reinforce and enrich the course, and not readily available to the class teacher. 2. General Cultural and Informative Programming Designed for those viewers, adult or child, who may seek to increase information or knowledge, or to develop powers of thought, appreciation, or criticism, or who seek to be exposed to works in the fields of drama, music, literature, and the fine arts generally. It i s important to point out here that the definitions and characteristics of ETV outlined by Rosen were adopted by the Canadian Association for Adult Education i n their Brief To The Parliamentary Committee on Broadcasting presented to the government 30 i n September of 1967. It i s significant that Rosen should coin these definitions and use them as a basis for his book.. It appears that he recognizes that one definition for ETV is not enough. There are fundamental differences between television used within the narrow confines of a formal educational system and TV used as an informal medium for mass communication. The term Instructional Television denotes a formal structure for education and Rosen further breaks down this category by describing three basic areas for i t s use. While the descriptions appear somewhat vague in certain instances they do support the need for intent and planning as necessary prerequisites for developing experiences which are educational. The definition falters, however, in the area of management. Nowhere under the 35. heading Total Teaching is i t stated that there is a need for continuous management over the event including systems for learners to respond or methods for evaluating the program's effectiveness. Item number 1 - b , Supplementary teaching, implies the need for control and learner access, but the point is not stated e x p l i c i t l y . Rosen's definition seems somewhat long and cumbersome. For instance, i s there really any difference between #1 - c and #2? Both essentially concern themselves with television's capacity to provide enrichment types of programs. Whether or not enrichment programs are directed towards specific courses or to a general audience is really irrelevant. It depends on the distribution system which is essentially a mechanical procedure having l i t t l e to do with methodological considerations. Apart from some lack of c l a r i t y , however, Rosen's definition does draw an important distinction between formal and informal types of programs. For instance, he uses the term Instructional Television which also appears i n Ohliger's review as a term coined by U.S. educators to describe formal types of ETV 31 programs. Breitenfeld states that: ITV is basically televised instruction, or the classroom format moved to a television studio with or without the usual group of students. Ohliger further points out that the "Carnegie Commission on Educational Television accepts the definition of ITV " i n the general context of formal education"". ITV, therefore, becomes a subclass 36. within the broader term Educational Television and describes formal types of programs. Balanced against this concept is the 32 opposite subclass referred to as "Public Television". As Ohliger points out The Carnegie Commission defines PTV as that which "includes a l l that is of human interest and importance which is not at the moment appropriate pr available for support by advertising, and which is not arranged for formal instruction".' It is an interesting, i f somewhat elliptical statement, but not nearly as interesting as the faux pas Ohliger himself makes 34 directly after the quote. He states that: The problem is that such distinctions [between ITV and PTV] leave out much that is educational. Where, for instance, does informal education f i t in? The answer, of course, is that i t does not f i t in anywhere. The very use of the terms informal and education is a contradiction. Education by its very nature presupposes some form of direction and management over learning. It does not seem reasonable to assume that this kind of control can exist in an informal setting. What Ohliger seems to be attempting to deal with is the type of television which might have some educational value except that i t was not specifically designed for that purpose. A researcher like Zilk attempts to deal with the distinction when he coins the terms 35 'functional' and intentional': Functional programs have a wide, but not a deep action, while intentional programs are destined to a limited audience but one which has a deeper influence. 37. The B r i t i s h Standing Committee on T e l e v i s i o n Viewing made a more concerted attempt to define d i f f e r e n c e s when i t drew up the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s "educational" and "educative". The d i s t i n c t i o n they made was as follows We are guided by a concept of education which makes i t c l e a r that we are concerned not only with the development of s k i l l s , but with personal growth i n understanding and s e n s i t i v i t y ; with enhancing the power of judgement, not with the d i f f u s i n g of judgements; i n short with the kind of education that enables men and women to enlarge and i n t e r p r e t t h e i r own experience. We describe the programs which set out to do t h i s i n a systematic way as 'educational'. Those which do so as a by-product of being ' i n t e r e s t i n g ' or 'entertaining' we p r e f e r to d i s t i n g u i s h as 'educative'. It i s i n t h i s very area where both educators and broadcasters seem to become confused. They tend to a t t r i b u t e educational value to c e r t a i n kinds of programs whose primary i n t e n t i s not to provide education. Both E a r l Rosen and A.F. Knowles recount an example from the e a r l y days of broadcasting when a U.S. radio network, appearing before the Federal Communications Commission, o f f e r e d , as an example of i t s educational broadcasting, a l i v e performance 37 of the Amos and Andy show. While the example may appear ludicrous i n i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s , the underlying sentimentality may be j u s t i f i e d to the degree that even an entertainment program might provide some opportunities for l e a r n i n g to occur even though the experience cannot be c a l l e d educational. While the 'Amos and Andy' example represents a gross i l l u s t r a t i o n of the extremes which can be reached i n order to 38. j u s t i f y programs as "educational", many educators even find the area of informal programming to be a hazy one to describe i n educational terms. For instance, Rosen includes i n his definition of educational TV "...not only formal education...but...as well, any type of program which w i l l stimulate a consciousness of 38 community, an interest i n , or understanding of one's environment". In his discussion on Public Television, Morgenstern promotes the idea that PTV "can and should be educational i n i t s pursuit of excellence, i t s tolerance of dissent, i t s delight in beauty and 39 i t s devotion to truth". A.F. Knowles reacts to any attempt towards formal definitions for formal types of TV programming by stating that " i t is of the utmost importance to Canadian developments in 40 continuing education that...an unrestricted approach be applied". 41 Carlson also defends an unrestricted approach to ETV when he says: Educational television...includes selective but constant coverage of great events...it includes serious drama, music, painting and a l l the sublime arts, including instruction as well as performance and display. It includes informational programs, both for the general public and for special groups.... It means showmanship in the best sense of the word, and a judicious admixture of entertainment.... A l l these approaches have one thing in common, they are too general to be of much' use. Using these definitions one could attribute educational values to just about any kind of program. They not only reflect a confused idea about the nature of ETV, they also reflect confusion over the very nature of education i t s e l f . 39. What then, are the alternatives? F i r s t , i t seems to be important to recognize a distinction between the terms formal and informal as they relate to the use of television i n education. The Canadian Association For Adult Education adopted a definition for ETV which recognizes i t as a formal type of learning experience. 42 They define educational programs as: ...programs that are designed to provide a continuity of program content aimed at the systematic acquisition or improvement of knowledge by members of the audience to whom such programs have been directed, and whenever possible, under circumstances such that the acquisition or improvement of such knowledge i s capable of being supervised. This quotation has an interesting and familiar ring about i t . With only a few minor changes i t might be Verner's definition for adult education. This point i s significant because i t shows an attempt being made to adopt some standard frame of reference based on a common set of perceptions among educators. It i s also interesting to note here that this definition prefaced the Association's longer more descriptive outline of ETV which Rosen used i n his work. The c r i t e r i a outlined by the CAAE are expressed elsewhere in other works. For example, Thomas, i n his a r t i c l e "ETV and Adults", which appeared as chapter four i n Rosen's book, described the 43 instructional pattern for ETV as made up of two major factors: F i r s t . . . i t demands control of time and f a c i l i t i e s in a way that has simply not existed. Second, i t demands non-broadcast contact with the adult student: before, to inform him of the time and general a v a i l a b i l i t y of the course; during, to ensure some chance.of exchange and reinforcement; and after, to provide some information that what was supposed to be learned was i n fact learned. Once again the three c r i t e r i a of intent, planning and management are reiterated as key factors i n distinguishing educational experiences from any other kind of situation where learning might occur. This kind of distinction disturbs some educators. Carlson in his review of literature on ETV launches into an emotional attack against Verner and Knowles for what he sees as their desire to reject ETV's potential for education by creating too narrow a 44 definition for adult education. At one point Carlson makes the statement: If the adult educator defines the f i e l d broadly and decides to recognize PTV as a unique method, he can ignore as ideological claptrap the attacks on i t by Verner and others for f a i l i n g to provide person-to-person interaction and an evaluation process that measures change in viewer behaviour. Verner and most of the other adult education theoreticians c r i t i c a l of PTV have become locked into a narrow framework by their unwillingness to accept PTV as an adult education method with unique approaches. They decry i t s broadcasting and journalistic values. In their commitment to their narrow definition of the f i e l d , they demand that PTV submit to such current adult education values as interaction and quantitative evaluation. They can accept PTV only as an audio-visual technique or device to be used in concert with some other overall method of adult education that, allows for their brand of interaction and evaluation. 41, Carlson, quite simply, has missed the point. It is not reasonable to assume that Verner intended his definition to be so restrictive as to be narrow. On the contrary, i t can be applied to practically any situation in l i f e where learning can occur. By implying that these learning events need to be formalized Verner is not limiting the possibilities for education. Instead, he is saying that adult educators must draw upon the skills and knowledge within their discipline to create an approach in which learning can occur in a more reliable way than in the natural societal setting. It is educators like Carlson who misinterpret Verner's definition and demonstrate their inability to apply the methodology of adult education within a broader context. It is Carlson who espouses "claptrap" when he attempts to defend the indefensible. If Verner attacks television's "broadcasting and journalistic values" (and there is no evidence that he does) he is essentially criticizing the illconceived educational values which appear so often in so-called "educational" programs. Like i t or not, as an educator Carlson must accept the concepts of interaction and evaluation as important parts of any educational experience. To do less would be to reject the entire notion of education without supplying any workable alternatives. Carlson may have grounds to attack Verner's examples of ETV as out-moded and unsuited to the properties of the medium, but he must be careful not to reject the fundamental concepts in adult education. To do so would be to reject the whole need for a methodology of adult education. 42. What is most disturbing about Carlson's position paper is his attitude towards the effect of definitions like Verner's on the development of Educational Television. He contends that the application of techniques like evaluation and learner participation in programs will result in the creation of a medium 45 which will be used by educators to "norm" or placate people. ...(the) use of PTV to norm people, i t would seem, could be reasonably consistent with the philosophy of adult education and the views of PTV articulated by such advocates of the narrow approach as Coolie Verner, Eugene Johnson and especially Malcolm Knowles. Johnson's view of PTV as a two-way electronic "town meeting", with provisions for evaluation, has most of the requisites for Blakely's brave new America. It seems quite unreasonable to assume that participants who have access to the educational system will be victims of any kind of "brainwashing". It also seems unreasonable that continuous evaluation of programs will do anything but promote change and improvement in the educational design. It is interesting to see what Carlson offers as an alternative: television programs on news and public affairs designed by professional broadcasters and beamed to mass audiences who have no opportunity to react to the program or influence its design and content. The argument is ludicrous and makes his follow-up statement appear even more . 46 xronic: It may take very l i t t l e to turn a relatively benign and unique method like PTV into a dangerous audio-visual device for efforts to change behaviour. If any plan represents a potentially dangerous use of the medium i t is Carlson's, by removing the influence of adult education methodology, by placing control in the hands of a few broadcasters whose primary concern is not education, by producing programs designed for mass viewing, and finally, by removing any possible chance for direct involvement by the viewer. Carlson's whole approach has been to attempt to f i t television into education instead of defining what the nature of education is and then examining the characteristics of television to see where i t would f i t into the system. His approach seems to have led to frustration and this frustration has been vented against theoreticians like Verner. The frustration is understandable but, perhaps, mis-directed. The only error made by Carlson and others in this review is to approach the study of educational television from the standpoint of content rather than process. In other words, Carlson has singled out types of television programs and used the content as a basis for generating the assumption that subject matter is a determinant in whether or not a television program is educational. In fact, as we have seen, the criteria for judging the educational value of television have l i t t l e to do with the subject matter of any particular program. Definition for Educative Television Nevertheless, researchers like Carlson have raised a significant point. What about those informal types of television programs which may have the capacity to promote learning or may be used to provide enrichment or information within a formal instructional setting? They d i f f e r from formal educational programs insofar as their intent i s not to provide educational experience. It seems that the most appropriate term to describe these experiences i s educative. The term i s an adjective which l i t e r a l l y means "having to do with education" or "tending to educate". The term was used by the Brit i s h Standing Committee (see earlier reference) but their definition seems somewhat vague. They simply use i t to describe any television program which does not conform to their rather vague definition of educational television. 48 Henry Alter also refers to "educative" television. To him the term also describes programs •••tending to educate. The distinction [between educational and educative] is important, and is s t i l l not widely recognized. Other educators l i k e Rosen identify the style of programming but use different terms most often related to the content rather than the design of the program. In ETV, Canada, Rosen refers to non-educational programs as "General Cultural and Informative 49 Programming". Rosen's term was also adopted by the Canadian Association For Adult Education to describe programs which could be termed educative. A common thread running through a l l the terms i s the idea that such programming provides information or enrichment on a particular subject. Based on these common perceptions among educators and educational broadcasters i t i s p o s s i b l e to develop a d e f i n i t i o n f o r educative t e l e v i s i o n to be used i n t h i s study. Educative t e l e v i s i o n r e f e r s to programs  which provide some opportunity f o r learn i n g to occur but which are not  s p e c i f i c a l l y designed f o r that purpose.  Instead they are designed to provide  information or enrichment and can be  used as such w i t h i n an i n s t r u c t i o n a l  s e t t i n g . The b i g d i f f e r e n c e between educational t e l e v i s i o n and educative t e l e v i s i o n i s that the former i s concerned p r i m a r i l y with the design of i n s t r u c t i o n while the l a t t e r i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with the presentation of content. Almost any t e l e v i s i o n program can be i d e n t i f i e d as educative depending on the type of use to which i t i s put, but normally the term i s used by educators to describe program areas l i k e news and p u b l i c a f f a i r s , though even c e r t a i n kinds of entertainment programs are included when they are deemed to be "le g i t i m a t e a r t " . The purpose of educative programs i s two-fold: they can be used w i t h i n a formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g as a device to supplement and enrich i n s t r u c t i o n or they can be used to transmit information and experiences to the general p u b l i c . For purposes of t h i s study a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme has been devised which w i l l be used to i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n t types of educative programs i n t e l e v i s i o n which should help to put t e l e v i s i o n ' s r o l e i n t h i s area i n t o perspective. The scheme re l a t e s only to educative t e l e v i s i o n and not educational t e l e v i s i o n because the term "educational" describes a process, not a product. Seven major categories can be identified to describe variety of educative programs. (i) Instructive Programs - this term describes programs l i s t e d by stations themselves as "educational". They have the appearance of a formal structure by adopting a lecture demonstration type of format. Examples include programs l i k e Sunrise Semester and University  of The Air. ( i i ) News and Public Affairs - this category covers local and national newscasts plus editorial and public affa i r s programs sponsored by the TV stations' news departments, ( i i i ) Documentaries - programs which give a dramatic interpretation of social issues. They may include certain related non-fiction subjects l i k e travel programs and nature series, (iv) Interview Programs - programs designed to provide information and opinions on current events and other subjects of interest to the general public, (v) Discussion Programs - less structured interview-type programs primarily concerned with providing entertainment but which may have limited educative value depending on the subjects. 47. (vi) Process Demonstration - which includes programs like exercise or cooking shows; ones which invite audience participation, but provide no opportunities for interaction, (vii) Cultural Programs - this category includes dramatic and entertainment programs. They too, under certain circumstances, have some educative value, but the c r i t e r i a commonly used to judge their effectiveness are too imprecise. As previously mentioned their inclusion seems to be based solely on their content. The more "legitimate" the dramatic subjects, the more l i k e l y they are to be regarded as enrichment. Summary of Terms To summarize then, i t should be noted that the differences between educational and educative television revolve around the presence or absence of three factors. The f i r s t i s intent: educational television i s created on the basis that i t w i l l contribute to the systematic acquisition of s k i l l s or knowledge by a given individual or group whereas educative television is designed to provide information or enrichment which may or may not be part of an educational event. Secondly, educational television i s designed to be used either as a method for organizing learners or as a device to supplement or extend instruction whereas educative television is designed and presented as a unique experience, not as a part of an educational process. Finally, educational television includes ways for educational agents to manage the instructional experience whereas educative television is designed to be used as a one-way flow of information or experience without systems for directing and modifying the experience to meet the educational needs of the viewer. It would certainly be presumptuous at this stage to expect everyone to accept the distinction between educational and educative television and perhaps many never will. S t i l l , i t is important for adult educators to accept the difference i f television is to have any useful and measurable effect in the development of educational systems. For this study, at least, the distinction is a key element in examining the role of television in adult education. 49. FOOTNOTES 1. Coolie Verner, A Conceptual Scheme for the Identification and  Classification of Processes for Adult Education, Chicago: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1962, p. 3. 2. Coolie Verner, "Fundamental Concepts i n Adult Education", Internationalas Jahrbuch fur Erwachsenenbildung, Joachim H. Knoll, Bertelsmann University, 1975. 3. Coolie Verner, "Definition of Terms", Adult Education: Outlines  of an Emerging Field of University Study, Gale Jensen, A.A. Liverright, Wilbur Hallenbeck (eds.), Chicago: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1964. 4. Ibid. 5. see: Gale Jensen, A.A. Liverright and Wilbur Hallenbeck, Adult Education: Outlines of an Emerging Field of University  Study, Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1964. 6. Verner, "Conceptual Scheme...", op. c i t . , p. 4. , "Fundamental Concepts...", op. c i t . , p. 181. 7. Ibid., p. 181. 8. Verner, "Fundamental Concepts...", op. c i t . , p. 179. 9. Verner, "Conceptual Scheme...", op. c i t . 10. Verner, "Fundamental Concepts...", op. c i t . , p. 182. 11. Ibid., pp. .183-192. 12. Coolie Verner and Alan Booth, Adult Education, New York: Center for Applied Research in Education, Inc., 1967, p. 75. 13. Verner, "Conceptual Scheme...", op. c i t . , p. 9. 14. Verner, "Definition of Terms", op. c i t . , p. 37. 15. Ibid. 16. Verner and Booth, op. c i t . , pp. 84-86. 17. Ibid., p. 85. 18. The Open University: Report of the Vice-Chancellor, 1972, Walton Hall: Milton Keynes, 1973. 50. 19. Robert Carlson, Educational Television in its Cultural and  Public Affairs Dimension: A Selected Review of Public Television as an Issue in Adult Education, C.S.L.E.A.  Occasional Paper, No. 39, Syracuse University, 1973. 20. Verner, "Definition of Terms", op. c i t . , p. 37. 21. Ibid., p. 36. 22. R. Dubin, et. al., The Medium May be Related to the Message:  College Instruction by TV, Eugene, Oregon: Center for Advanced Study of Educational Administration, 1969. 23. John Ohliger, Mass Media in Adult Education: A Review of  Recent Literature, Syracuse University: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education, 1968. 24. Earl Rosen, Educational Television, Canada, Toronto: Burns and MacEachern Ltd., 1967. 25. Ohliger, op. cit., p. 5. 26. Mass Media/Adult Education Newsletter, No. 4, Adult Education Association. 27. Rosen, op. cit., p. 87. 28. Ibid., pp. 87-88. 29. Ibid., p. 89. 30. Canadian Association for Adult Education, Brief to the  Parliamentary Committee on Broadcasting, Toronto: Corbett House, 1967. 31. Frederick Breitenfeld, Jr., "An Analysis of the Principal Philosophies of Adult Education in Educational Television Programming For Adults", unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Syracuse University, 1963, p. 7. 32. Ohliger, op. ci t . , p. 4. 33. Carnegie Commission on Educational Television, Public Television, A Program of Action, New York: 1967, p. 1. 34. Ohliger, op. cit., p. 4. 35. Ibid., pp. 4-5. 36. Ibid., p. 5. 51. I 37. Rosen, op. c i t . , p. 87. See also: A.F. Knowles, "The Sight and Sound of Learning", Food For Thought, 20:8, April 1960. p. 353. 38. Rosen, op. c i t . , p. 66. 39. Joseph Morgenstern, "Public TV: A Power Struggle", Continuous  Learning, 6:3, May-June 1967. 40. A.F. Knowles, "Canadian Education - and Television", Continuous  Learning, 8:3, April 1960, p. 119. 41. Robert Carlson, "The Creation and Development of Educational Television as an Institution of Adult Education: A Case Study in American History", unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1968, p. 104. 42. Knowles, op. c i t . , p. 118. 43. Rosen, op. c i t . , p. 57. 44. Carlson, "ETV in i t s Cultural and Public Affairs Dimension...", op. c i t . , p. 4. 45. Ibid., p. 12. 46. Ibid. 47. Webster's Third International Dictionary, Springfield Mass: Merriam Company, 1966, p. 723. 48. Henry Alter, Of Messages and Media: Teaching and Learning  by Public Television, C.S.L.E.A. Report, Boston University, 1968, p. 4. 49. Rosen, op. c i t . , p. 89. 50. Seven categories have been chosen a r b i t r a r i l y to cover the major types of content found on television. The l i s t could be longer because the content of programming is so varied. CHAPTER III ROLE OF TELEVISION IN INSTRUCTION Once a definition has been established which describes television's role in adult education the next step is to examine its role in instruction. This procedure involves three activities: f i r s t , to establish the difference between learning and instruction, next to describe the nature of instruction and television's relationship to i t and finally, to identify some of the factors associated with television's effectiveness in instruction. Relationship of Learning to Instruction Education has been identified as an event in which an individual or group participates under the supervision of an agent to acquire certain specified s k i l l s or knowledge. Learning has been described as the internal process "through which an individual acquires the facts, attitudes, or s k i l l s that produce changes in behaviour"."'' Instruction has been defined by Gagne as "the set of events designed to i n i t i a t e , activate, and support learning in the human learner. Such events must f i r s t be planned, and secondly, they must be delivered, that is made to 2 have their effects on the learner". Verner defines instruction as a "continuing process that aims to f a c i l i t a t e learning by establishing the appropriate external conditions for learning 3 and by managing the learning situation". Instruction, then, l i k e learning, i s also a process except that the instructional process is external to the learner while learning i s an internal process leading to a change in behaviour. Gagne and Verner identify two key a c t i v i t i e s associated with instruction: design and management. Both a c t i v i t i e s are important and not exclusive. The Learning Process Learning is a complex and abstruse process. No one really knows with any certainty what actually happens when 4 learning occurs. It is possible only to observe the results which manifest themselves as changes in the behaviour of the learner. This conundrum has not restricted educators from drawing together what knowledge is available to develop a theory about learning. One of the most noteworthy theorists i s Robert Gagne who has constructed a model to describe what he calls the "processes of learning". The model identifies eight phases which occur during the act of learning and describes the processes associated with each. Motivation phase. Gagne describes the motivation phase as an all-important prelude to learning. As he points out, "in order for learning to occur, one must have a motivated individual".^ He identifies two sources of motivation. The first is that which is internal to the learner, generated from his own need to acquire knowledge or skills. It is called incentive motivation which Gagne contends "reflects the natural tendency of the human being to manipulate, dominate, and "master" his environment".'' The second form of motivation comes into being on those occasions when a learner is not internally motivated. It is necessary then to generate motivation within the learner by a process called expectancy in which the anticipation of a reward for achieving a goal acts as an enticement to encourage the learner. It is the role of the instructor to develop means for generating expectancies which will motivate a learner to begin. Apprehending phase. Once a learner has been motivated he becomes involved in the second, or apprehending phase in the learning process. Here the learner "must attend to the parts of the total stimulation that are relevant to his learning purpose". Gagne suggests that: ...the process of attention i s usually conceived as a temporary internal state, called a mental set, or simply a set. Once established, a set operates as one kind of executive control process. A set to attend may be activated by external stimulation and persists over a limited period of time alerting the individual to receive certain kinds of stimulation. Once the learner adopts the attentional set he then selects from the total stimulation those parts which are relevant to his needs. In order to be able to discriminate between relevant and irrelevant stimulation the learner practices selective perception which permits him to attend to the significant parts of the stimuli and ignore the irrelevant material. Acquisition phase. The f i r s t two phases in Gagne's model really describe the factors which help to set the stage for learning. It i s during the acquisition phase where the "essential incident of learning" takes p l a c e . G a g n e describes the essential.incident of learning as "the moment in time at which some newly formed entity i s entered into the short-term memory, later to be transferred into a "persisting state" in long-term memory"."'""'" When a learner f i r s t encounters some piece of material relevant to his needs he transfers or interprets i t by a process called coding into a form which i s meaningful to him and which can be stored in the short-term memory. As Gagne explains, "What is stored, as the result of the act of learning, i s apparently not an exact representation or "mental picture" of what was seen or heard". Coding is the way the learner interprets and stores the information in a form which is meaningful to him. The process i s both individual and impermanent. Material stored in the short-term memory w i l l distort or disappear quite quickly unless some means are achieved to convert i t into a state of long-term storage. Material can be retained longer i f i t i s coded i n certain ways, "classified 13 under previously learned concepts, or simplified as principles". As Gagne explains, coding " i n this case...may... serve the 14 purpose of making whatever i s learned more highly memorable". It is here where the instructor plays a significant part in the learning process, though Gagne qualifies his role by pointing out that although the instructor can help, the process of coding is idiosyncratic, "the learner may use his own schemes" which can often be better than those supplied to him. Retention phase. The most mysterious part in the learning process occurs i n the retention phase, the fourth level in Gagne's model. It i s during this phase that the "learned entity. ..enters into the memory storage of the long-term memory"."'" Not much is known about the peculiar characteristics of memory, but Gagne identifies three p o s s i b i l i t i e s which might explain some of i t s properties. There i s evidence which indicates that "what i s learned may be stored in a permanent fashion, with undiminished intensity over many years, as though i t were stored on magnetic tape"."'"^ There i s also evidence to suggest that some things which are stored i n long-term memory tend to "fade away" with the passage of time. After many years an individual may be able to r e c a l l significant events from his past but w i l l be unable to r e c a l l specific details connected with those events. Finally, there i s evidence that certain factors can interfere with long-term memory storage. Hunter, for example, refers to the phenomenon of "retroactive interference" which describes "a decrement in remembering which is brought about by the interpolation of some particular activity between the time of the original learning and of the remembering"."''^ If, after an i n i t i a l learning event, the learner undertakes another activity which is similar, the second activity w i l l interfere with the f i r s t causing him to confuse the two and w i l l result i n his learning less than a learner who has not encountered the impedence effect. Interference tends to obscure older memories or confuse them with newer ones, but i t is uncertain that interference occurs i n the memory process i t s e l f , or whether i t occurs in the retrieval phase when the individual attempts to recall the material stored. One thing seems f a i r l y certain: "...there is l i t t l e indication that newly learned entities take the place of 18 previously learned things because there is "no more room"". The capacity for memory storage in the human being seems to be limitless. Recall phase. For learning to occur the process must involve a phase "in which the learned modification i s recalled so i t can be exh ib i t ed as a performance. The process at work dur ing t h i s phase i s c a l l e d r e t r i e v a l . Somehow, the memory s tore i s searched and the learned e n t i t y r e v i v e d . What has been s tored 19 becomes " a c c e s s i b l e " " . As Gagne po int s out an i n s t r u c t o r can a s s i s t the l ea rner to r e t r i e v e m a t e r i a l which has been learned but i t i s important fo r the l e a r n e r h imsel f to develop 20 s t r a t eg i e s which "enable him to do t h i s h i m s e l f " . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n phase. For the l e a r n e r to simply r e c a l l what has been learned i s o f ten not enough. He may be asked to do so i n circumstances d i f f e r e n t from those i n which he f i r s t learned the m a t e r i a l and he may be requi red to apply what he 21 has learned to novel s i t u a t i o n s . In other words, he may be asked to g e n e r a l i z e beyond the l i m i t s of h i s previous l e a r n i n g . "The r e c a l l of what has been learned and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to new and d i f f e r e n t contexts i s r e f e r r e d to as the t r a n s f e r of l e a r n i n g , 22 of ten shortened to t r a n s f e r " . Performance phase. This phase of l e a r n i n g i s f a i r l y obvious . Here the l e a r n e r demonstrates what i t i s that he has l ea rned . It provides the l e a r n e r wi th the opportuni ty to demonstrate h i s knowledge and provides evidence to the i n s t r u c t o r that he has learned the m a t e r i a l c o r r e c t l y . Any c o r r e c t i o n s or mod i f i ca t ions to the process , however, occur i n the l a s t phase i n the form of " feedback" . 59. Feedback phase. Here the lear n e r receives confirmation that h i s le a r n i n g i s cor r e c t . "This "informational feedback" i s what many le a r n i n g t h e o r i s t s consider the essence of the process c a l l e d reinforcement". I t brings the le a r n i n g process f u l l c i r c l e i n that the expectancy generated "during the motivational 23 phase of le a r n i n g i s now confirmed during the feedback phase". Reinforcement i s a key element i n the le a r n i n g process and, as Gagne points out "reinforcement operates i n the human being not because a reward i s a c t u a l l y provided, but because an a n t i c i p a t i o n 24 of reward i s confirmed". Feedback provides the support f o r learning and the opportunity to modify and d i r e c t the process towards the achievement of appropriate learned behaviours. The I n s t r u c t i o n a l Process For a l l but one of the eight phases of lear n i n g Gagne describes i n s t r u c t i o n a l processes which can infl u e n c e or f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g . The exception, of course, i s the r e t e n t i o n phase which 25 i s an i n t e r n a l process of memory storage unique to each learner. Nevertheless, i n s t r u c t i o n can a f f e c t the learner's performance i n the other seven phases. For instance, the i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent can a f f e c t a learner's motivation by informing him of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . As we have seen,the r o l e of the i n s t r u c t o r i s to develop wi t h i n the learner the a n t i c i p a t i o n of a reward f o r achieving s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . An i n s t r u c t o r can a f f e c t the apprehending phase by d i r e c t i n g the learner's a t t e n t i o n and encouraging him to di s c r i m i n a t e between those parts of the lear n i n g 60. 26 experience which are relevant to his needs. By stimulating r e c a l l and providing guidance, the instructor can affect the acquisition phase and help the learner to achieve the "essential incident of learning", the point at which new material i s absorbed later to be exhibited as a change i n behaviour. To aid i n the reca l l phase an instructor can develop instructional events to enhance retention of material learned. During the generalization phase, the instructor can assist the learner to understand ways 2 of applying his knowledge "to the acquisition of new capabilities". Finally, by e l i c i t i n g performance and feedback phases which are "the occasion(s) on which the performance that represents the 28 learning outcome i s e l i c i t e d . . . " . Role of Television in Instruction Does television have a role to play i n any of these instructional events? Gagne concludes that i t does, particularly in the f i r s t three phases: motivation, apprehension and acquisition. Gagne considers that "viewing television appears to be an activity 30 which i s inherently motivating". Other adult educators agree with Gagne that television is a powerful medium for motivating people. Carlson points out that i t is an ideal way of presenting 31 issues for debate and discussion. Ohliger also makes the point 32 when he discusses television's use with listening groups. Connected with these characteristics i s the feeling expressed by scholars l i k e Gagne that television can affect attitudes to some degree. Most educators identify television's a b i l i t y to provide 61. enrichment types of programs as a useful function both within and without the formal instructional setting. Even those educators like Verner and Carlson who are polar opposites in many of their views agree on the potential for television to enrich people's lives. Neither would deny also that those types of programs provide some opportunities for learning to occur although they would not agree on the amount of learning which might take place. During the second phase of learning, called apprehending, Gagne considers that the "motion and abrupt changes which may be introduced in television programs are of particular use in 33 gaining and controlling attention". Here Gagne is pointing out that the unique properties of the medium itself play an important part in the instructional process. This area is a delicate one to examine and will be covered in greater detail later in this chapter. Gagne sees television's role in the third, or acquisition phase of learning as particularly important. Here television is able to perform a useful coding function because i t "can show pictures of actual objects of infinite variety and thus convey 34 concepts in concrete form". Television can also play an important part in organizing information, because television incorporates moving pictures and the element of motion provides a "meaningful 35 context to which the learner can relate new information". Gagne also points out the limitations of the television medium particularly in the performance and feedback phases in 62. 36 the l e a r n i n g process. In t h i s s i t u a t i o n t e l e v i s i o n seems unable: ...to require performance of the learner and to respond to t h i s performance with feedback. One cannot be c e r t a i n that the learner has learned to use the new concept he saw on the screen. In ad d i t i o n , the t e l e v i s i o n p i c t u r e cannot make i n d i v i d u a l c o r r e c t i o n s or confirmations of the learner's performance. In other words, t e l e v i s i o n has a s i g n i f i c a n t part to play i n the presentation of i n s t r u c t i o n but i t i s unable to manage the process. T e l e v i s i o n ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p to i n s t r u c t i o n , then, resembles i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the educational process. As we have seen e a r l i e r , f o r t e l e v i s i o n to be regarded as educational i t must be able to 31 e f f e c t d i r e c t and continuous management over the learning process. For ETV to be c l a s s i f i e d as an i n s t r u c t i o n a l process i t must also exert the same infl u e n c e on the learner. T e l e v i s i o n , by i t s e l f , therefore cannot be regarded as i n s t r u c t i o n but can contribute s i g n i f i c a n t l y to parts of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l process. The term " i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n " , however, i s l i k e l y to remain with us at l e a s t as a popular d e s c r i p t i o n f o r formal types of t e l e v i s i o n programs as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Chapter I I . S t i l l , i t i s important f o r the d i s c i p l i n e to understand the d i s t i n c t i o n and use the term c o r r e c t l y . E f f e c t i v e n e s s of t e l e v i s i o n f o r i n s t r u c t i o n . Many studies have been undertaken to examine the q u a l i t i e s of t e l e v i s i o n which make i t an e f f e c t i v e device i n an i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g . Scholars l i k e Travers, Lumsdaine, Ohliger, Chu and Schramm 63. have, in turn, analyzed and reported on many of these studies using them to establish certain conditions under which television 38 may help, hinder, or have no effect on learning and instruction. The results of their work have helped to form a theoretical base for explaining the role of television i n instruction and, to a great extent they have influenced the development of research into ETV by pointing out new areas for research. The purpose for including their work here is to examine how i t complements or conflicts with existing .theories of adult instruction. One of the few features which everyone seems to agree upon is television's capacity to distribute instruction effectively. For instance, Chu and Schramm conclude after an exhaustive review of ETV studies that one of the most important advantages of 39 television l i e s i n i t s capacity to: ...share a good teacher with a very large number of classes, rather than one. It can introduce a variety and quality of visual and auditory experiences and demonstrations that would be impossible for most individual classrooms to equal, but are quite feasible for a central programming service. It can carry teaching where there are no schools -for example, to remote areas or to students who are home-bound. Another important advantage of television is i t s cost-benefit factor. It is regarded as a relatively inexpensive way of 40 distributing instructional experiences to large numbers of people. These conclusions have important administrative implications for the use of television i n instruction, but do not really relate 64. to the issue of what e f f e c t the medium has on the l e a r n i n g process. There appears to be some basic agreement that t e l e v i s i o n i s an e f f e c t i v e device f o r i n s t r u c t i o n . The q u a l i t i e s of the medium which make i t so include c e r t a i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , presentation, and motivational f a c t o r s . T e l e v i s i o n seems to be able to catch 41 and hold a learner's a t t e n t i o n . It i s able to present m a t e r i a l 42 organized i n a simple and meaningful way. I t can provide cues which help the learner to d i s c e r n the important parts of the message, and i n c e r t a i n circumstances, t e l e v i s i o n i s seen to possess the c a p a b i l i t y to provide knowledge of r e s u l t s (feedback) to the learner, but only to a l i m i t e d degree and not continuously 43 as i n the formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g . One major problem with the research into ITV a r i s e s from the way i n which some researchers approach the study. Lumsdaine points out that many studies into t e l e v i s i o n ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n have developed out of attempts to explore the e f f e c t s of s p e c i f i c p h y s i c a l properties of the medium under unique conditions without n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t i n g those properties to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l 44 process. Researchers have created d e s c r i p t i v e categories based i on p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the medium which produce strange anomalies. For example, studies on the use of colour seem to ^5 i n d i c a t e that colour does not improve l e a r n i n g . At a p r a c t i c a l l e v e l t h i s f i n d i n g does not seem to make any sense. There are many instances where colour might be an important f a c t o r for 65. communicating content. Lumsdaine l i s t s some instances where colour can be important to the communication of the content, but the question of the presence or absence of colour in a l l television presentations is really not a factor which should have 46 anything to do with learning. Why these kinds of studies have been included in a theoretical model for instructional television seems puzzling u n t i l a closer look reveals an interesting h i s t o r i c a l explanation for their existence. Most of the studies on colour were undertaken during the 1950's, and early 1960's. During the 1950's colour film was not in widespread use and colour television was s t i l l in i t s infancy. The cost of producing material in colour was much greater than for black and white which gives credence to the poss i b i l i t y that economic considerations were the real motivation behind the studies. It is possible these studies were undertaken to provide a scholarly rationale for avoiding the expense of turning to colour presentation. It does not seem reasonable to assume that the mere presence or absence of colour would, in i t s e l f , affect the process of learning one way or the other. It might certainly play a part in cases where colour discrimination was an important element in a particular learning task, but as researchers l i k e Travers point out, the studies reviewed by his associates dealt with the broad issue of colour versus black and white and not with specific instances 48 where colour might play an important part in learning. The colour issue seems to have been further confused by what appears 66. to be an inappropriate i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s by the reviewers themselves. Most studies concluded that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found between learning by black and white as opposed to colour productions. Chu and Schramm, however, r e - i n t e r p r e t these f i n d i n g s to mean that the presence 49 of colour d i d not seem to improve l e a r n i n g . Such a conclusion i s , perhaps, i n c o r r e c t . A f i n d i n g of "no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e " i n d i c a t e s that the presence of colour d i d not a f f e c t the l e a r n i n g when compared with another presentation technique. Colour then, neither detracts nor improves the amount of l e a r n i n g , i t simply does not a f f e c t the process. In Chu and Schramm's work, the issue of black and white versus colour production forms one of s i x t y propositions which the authors make based on t h e i r a n a l y s i s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of research studies on ITV. They group these propositions into a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme which reveals four basic trends i n the research. There are studies concerned with the administration and d i s t r i b u t i o n of ITV programs; studies which examine the design of content i n the programs; studies which examine the properties of the medium which a f f e c t the transmission of content; and evaluative studies which examine a t t i t u d e s towards i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n . Issues surrounding the d i s t r i b u t i o n of ITV w i l l be dealt with l a t e r i n t h i s chapter and questions surrounding a t t i t u d e s towards using the medium have already been aluded to e a r l i e r . The main issues of concern here are the design of content i n t e l e v i s i o n 67. programs and the effect which the properties of the medium have on the presentation of the content. ITV and adult instruction. One of the most thorough reviews of recent research on instructional television was undertaken by Peggie L. Campeau for the Council of Cultural Cooperation of the Council of E u r o p e . T h e review covered a range of studies undertaken from 1966 to 1971 and served to supplement earlier reviews by Briggs, Campeau, Gagne and May which had covered the period prior to 1965. While the review covered a variety of audiovisual media, one of the major concerns was with television and the most interesting aspect of that research was that i t focused exclusively on material related to adult education. Using f a i r l y rigorous screening c r i t e r i a , Campeau examined reviews of " l i t e r a l l y hundreds of comparative effectiveness studies" and found no conclusive difference between 52 instructional television and face-to-face l i v e instruction. Some researchers l i k e Dubin have indicated some differences between l i v e and televised instruction and Campeau explains three of the major findings. F i r s t , when teaching methods were matched, <• face-to-face instruction was only superior to two-way instructional television, and .then only when the lecture method was used by each medium. ("Two-way" television provided students and lecturer with audio f a c i l i t i e s for exchanging questions and i n i t i a t i n g discussions, thereby approximating a " l i v e " instructional situation.) Second, one-way instructional television produced the same amount of learning as face-to-face teaching by lecture, a combination of lecture-discussion-demonstration, or discussion alone. Third, instruction by either method yielded no significant differences when the studies were grouped by the broad subject-area headings of humanities, social sciences, and science-math. In attempting to explain the clear finding that two-way television was definitely inferior to face-to-face teaching (both using lecture methods), the authors conjectured that the requirement for students and lecturer to utilize the fairly complicated technical apparatus necessary for two-way communication may have been detrimental to the effectiveness of the medium. Campeau also reported on findings by Chu and Schramm, who reviewed 207 studies using adult populations and reported a variety of inconclusive findings. Their findings indicated that ...instructional television was less effective at the college level than at the high school or grade school levels. At the college and adult level, results of 235 comparisons indicated that 176 found no significant difference between televised and conventional instruction, 29 favoured television over conventional instruction, and 30 comparisons were significant in the opposite direction. In those studies using adult participants, there seemed to be no conclusive or consistent evidence to suggest that the following variations would improve learning from television: physical variations such as size of screen, use of colour, camera angle; variations in viewing conditions pertaining to viewing angle and distance, home or school viewing, homogeneity or heterogeneity of viewing groups, permissive versus required viewing; pedagogical variations such as use of humour and animation, dramatic versus expository presentation, use of inserted questions; variations in student response mode; variations in student-teacher contact, such as two-way talk-back. 69. Campeau herself examined three experimental studies, one comparing televised and non-televised instruction, one comparing televised lectures with tape-recorded lectures and one investigating the contribution of colour to learning by 54 television. In the study comparing televised and non-televised instruction a significant difference in performance was noted between those who viewed the television program and those who did not. The researchers indicated that the former group performed better than the la t t e r . In the second study a significant difference in performance was noted between students who received lecture presentations on videotape and those who viewed l i v e televised lectures. The same study indicated "no measurable difference i n learning or information gain as a result of presentation device, size of screen, or student location in the auditorium". Students had viewed the programs on monitors with different sized screens. The third study Campeau examined concluded that colour played no significant part in the improvement of learning by television. Qualifying this finding the researchers noted that this conclusion might have resulted from the fact that learners viewing the black and white production were given verbal clues about the colours which might have been effective enough without actually showing the colours. Campeau's review serves an important purpose in that i t helps to point out the disagreement which exists in the research on instructional television. For every study which shows television 70. to be more effective than l i v e instruction there is another which contradicts the findings. While television seems to be no more effective than l i v e instruction i t also appears to be no less effective. Possibly i t is the focus of the research which has caused the confusion and not the design of the studies. Perhaps researchers in the area have chosen inappropriate ways of examining television i n an attempt to attribute capabilities to the medium which i t simply does not possess. Perhaps they have taken what is essentially a communication system and'attempted to use i t as a unique instructional technique. Process Versus Content in Instructional Television In almost a l l the comparative effectiveness studies cited, the main instructional technique used was the lecture, both l i v e and televised. At i t s best the lecture is an instructional technique designed to disseminate information e f f i c i e n t l y to large numbers of people. It i s suitable for establishing interest in the learner and as a way of introducing learning tasks to be completed using other techniques. The lecture i s appropriate for presenting material for short-term memory retention and i t s effectiveness depends to a great extent on the organization and presentation of the material. When used in the traditional instructional setting the lecture is by no means the only educational technique used. It i s a one-way flow of information and therefore not the best technique for f a c i l i t a t i n g learning. By recording or broadcasting a lecture on television one simply extends the 71. e f f i c i e n c y of the technique without n e c e s s a r i l y improving i t . T e l e v i s i o n ' s unique properties which w i l l be described l a t e r might very w e l l improve the experience but none of the studies reviewed explored t h i s facet i n an appropriate way. Instead they compare the content of the experiences without examining the nature of the medium i t s e l f . The l e c t u r e becomes the content, standardized f o r purposes of the study and i t would seem only reasonable to assume that i t s content would remain at l e a s t fundamentally the same no matter what the d e l i v e r y system. This f a c t o r might account f o r the la c k of conclusive evidence that TV i s better than l i v e l e c t u r e s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t also that the main concern i n these studies was the a c q u i s i t i o n of information. Tests compared the amount of information assi m i l a t e d by the p a r t i c i p a n t s which seems to r e f l e c t more on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the learners than on the ef f e c t i v e n e s s of the d i f f e r e n t media. For example, i n studies which examined the e f f e c t s of t e l e v i s i o n viewing on long term and short term memory i t was found that short term r e t e n t i o n was not a f f e c t e d one way or the other when the medium was used to present f a c t u a l information. Learners s t i l l demonstrated the normal phenomenon of f o r g e t t i n g . On the other hand, when material was presented which was designed to a f f e c t a t t i t u d e s , r e t e n t i o n was prolonged and opinions a c t u a l l y seemed to increase over time."^ I t appears, then, that about the only thing which.can be said i n favour of TV as an information medium i s that the nature of the medium I allows for maximum distribution and control of content to the degree that a taped lecture may be repeated over and over again to large numbers of people and s t i l l demonstrate absolute consistency i n content. S t i l l this approach does not examine the more important issue. Can television instruct? The fundamental error seems to be the assumption that television is effective in instruction when i t is the only technique used. Similarly, i t would be wrong to assume that a lecture by i t s e l f is appropriate as the sole means of instruction. A lecture i s only part of a total instructional design which would include other techniques as well as continuous monitoring of the experience through "feedback" and the opportunity for evaluation to occur to measure the degree of learning which takes place. Some ETV studies which have incorporated "feedback" systems showed a significant difference in learning although studies l i k e Dubin's showed this type of design to be less 58 effective than straight one-way systems. Dubin attributed his findings to problems connected with the complex technology involved in two-way television which in fact hindered participation and interaction between the learners and the instructor. This problem resulted from the characteristics of television and i t i s interesting to note that Dubin did not consider this problem in his research design. Instead he referred to i t in the conclusions, his primary concern having been with the content of the television program. This concern with examining the effectiveness of content in ETV programs is what seems to confuse the design and produce inconsistent and inconclusive results. Comparative effectiveness studies use the program's content as the one common factor i n both designs and the procedure may be inappropriate. For example many studies use the lecture technique as the basis for evaluation. A l i v e lecture i s compared with a televised version and the lecture technique i t s e l f becomes in a way the content. A televised lecture does not really represent an appropriate use of the television medium. A l i v e lecture is a technique which f a c i l i t a t e s learning but when transferred to television, which possesses "techniques" of i t s own, the lecture becomes the content and i t is possible that this creates a conflict between the two mediums which influences the effects of television. To compare a l i v e lecture and a recorded lecture on television i s li k e trying to compare techniques l i k e the lecture and group discussion. Both serve a useful function when used in circumstances appropriate to each, but neither technique is better or worse than the other -only different. One might assume that this conflict would not hold true when comparing a lecture with a televised lecture except that while they are basically the same, television affords the opportunity, through the use of different shots, angles, and editing effects to manipulate and change the effect of a lecture. The reason this change is not apparent might be the result of an inappropriate system for measuring the effects. For instance McKeachie in his research points out that achievement tests used in most comparative effectiveness studies failed to "measure the proficiency with which students [evaluated] visual properties of the instructional content", certainly one of the areas where a visual medium li k e television should be 59 effective. The lecture is primarily used as a technique for disseminating information verbally and tests are designed to evaluate only verbal content. In another study the researchers implied that visual presentation of subject matter might make the learning of concepts more eff i c i e n t although there is no evidence to suggest that they examined this aspect preferring instead to concentrate on verbal information as the main vehicle 60 for instruction. It i s interesting to speculate why later studies in ETV tended to concentrate so much on the acquisition of verbal information when television would seem to be much better suited for demonstrating processes. The role of the medium as a process demonstrator was identified in early studies conducted in agricultural extension, one f i e l d of study from which adult'education evolved. These studies showed that ETV was an effective device for demonstrating procedures because 61 i t could present tasks in an orderly and logical sequence. It was able to i l l u s t r a t e detail in ways not possible using 75. other techniques and i t was i d e a l f o r i l l u s t r a t i n g tasks i n v o l v i n g motion. Although many of these works took the form of case studies and testimonials which may not have exhibited the degree of s c i e n t i f i c r i g o r expected by today's standards, at l e a s t researchers were able to i d e n t i f y some important properties of ETV which gave i t the p o t e n t i a l to contribute to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l process. For instance, some studies examined the novelty e f f e c t of the new medium and found i t to be an e f f e c t i v e device f o r 62 capturing and holding a viewer's a t t e n t i o n . I t i s important to note that even a f t e r TV became a common part of North American l i f e i t s t i l l retained t h i s capacity to i n t e r e s t and motivate lea r n e r s . The extension studies also i d e n t i f i e d some other important properties of TV: s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t s a b i l i t y to present information to a wide v a r i e t y of viewers and to reach audiences 64 not r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e to i n s t i t u t i o n a l programs. Ce r t a i n advantages and l i m i t a t i o n s of the medium were predicted which were l a t e r confirmed by more rigorous r e s e a r c h . ^ Most importantly, these studies predicted a r o l e f o r TV as a "how-to-do-it" medium, a device to demonstrate and a i d i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of development of s k i l l s . Properties of T e l e v i s i o n The research studies discussed so f a r have i d e n t i f i e d c e r t a i n p e c u l i a r properties of t e l e v i s i o n which make i t a u s e f u l device i n an i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g . Edling has developed a conceptual scheme which c l a s s i f i e s and describes what he sees as three, basic properties of media: f i x a t i v e , d i s t r i b u t i v e , and 66 manipulative. He describes the f i x a t i v e property of media as that which: ...enables us to capture, preserve, and r e c o n s t i t u t e an event. I t i s no longer ephemeral. It can be "consumed" without being "used up". In e f f e c t , t h i s property permits us to transport an event through  time. The capacity to store and repeatedly r e c a l l information with absolute accuracy i s a s i g n i f i c a n t property of t e l e v i s i o n as w e l l as many other media. Edling draws a d i s t i n c t i o n between the f i x a t i v e property of media which allows for the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of information through time and the d i s t r i b u t i v e property which allows for the tran s p o r t a t i o n of information through space "simultaneously presenting each of the p o t e n t i a l l y m i l l i o n s of viewers with a v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l experience of an e v e n t " . ^ The f i x a t i v e and d i s t r i b u t i v e properties of a medium l i k e t e l e v i s i o n are s i m i l a r and obvious to the degree that they are mechanical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the medium. They both can play an important part i n the process of presenting i n s t r u c t i o n but, i n themselves, are not r e a l l y i n s t r u c t i o n a l processes. It i s i n the manipulative property where t e l e v i s i o n begins to function i n an i n s t r u c t i o n a l capacity as o u t l i n e d by t h e o r e t i c i a n s l i k e Gagne. Edling defines the manipulative property of media as that which:"" ...enables us to transform an event i n any number of ways. An event may be speeded up, slowed down, stopped, or reversed, scope may be made broad or narrow. It may be edited, resequenced, interspersed or shown simultaneously with another. It i s wit h i n the manipulative property that the s t r u c t u r e and processes of the t e l e v i s i o n medium i t s e l f contribute to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l process. F i x a t i v e and d i s t r i b u t i v e properties of t e l e v i s i o n . By and large adult educators have i d e n t i f i e d the f i x a t i v e and d i s t r i b u t i v e properties of t e l e v i s i o n as the fa c t o r s which 68 most a f f e c t the r o l e of t e l e v i s i o n i n i n s t r u c t i o n . D i s t r i b u t i o n i s a r e l a t i v e l y important f a c t o r , but to be able to screen a l e c t u r e to 10,000 people simultaneously i s , i n i t s e l f , not enough grounds to defend t e l e v i s i o n as i n s t r u c t i o n a l . A f t e r a l l , d i s t r i b u t i o n i s b a s i c a l l y only a mechanical process. It becomes a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c when i t i s used as a way f o r organizing adults to l e a r n , i n which case d i s t r i b u t i o n then becomes an important part of an educational system. Broadcast t e l e v i s i o n can organize people because i t operates under r i g i d schedules, although t h i s f a c t o r i s often c i t e d as a deterrent because prospective p a r t i c i p a n t s are unable to schedule t h e i r time to coincide with the broadcasts. T e l e v i s i o n can also reach people not normally a v a i l a b l e , people who l i v e great distances from centres providing educational programs and people who do not normally p a r t i c i p a t e i n adult programs. With the former group, t e l e v i s i o n might act as one of the few contacts they have with an educational i n s t i t u t i o n . With the l a t t e r group t e l e v i s i o n f u l f i l l s another important f u n c t i o n . It allows non-participants the opportunity to observe one part of the educational process and i n so doing encourages them to become a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s . Another property which makes t e l e v i s i o n a u s e f u l device i s i t s capacity to record and store events and information with a f a i r l y high degree of a c c u r a c y . ^ Viewers accept the information presented on t e l e v i s i o n as representing the t r u t h or r e a l i t y . The whole question of the c r e d i b i l i t y of information presented on t e l e v i s i o n i s i n many ways debatable. S t i l l there are surveys which have shown that viewers accept t h i s kind of accuracy from the medium.^ It i s l i k e l y though that t e l e v i s i o n i s as incapable as any other mass medium of presenting o b j e c t i v e , t r u t h f u l information. So many f a c t o r s a f f e c t the production, transmission, reception and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of information over t e l e v i s i o n that i t would be dangerous to assume that the content of t e l e v i s i o n i s ab s o l u t e l y accurate. One point which can be made f o r t e l e v i s i o n , however, i s that i t i s able to present information i n s t a n t l y and exactly the way i t was recorded. Manipulative properties of t e l e v i s i o n . I t i s the manipulative property of t e l e v i s i o n which provides the opportunity for the medium to a f f e c t the i n s t r u c t i o n a l process, but a 79. further distinction must be made within this category before an analysis can be made. Edling uses the term to describe the process of slowing down the content, stopping i t , speeding i t up, reversing i t , or showing i t simultaneously with another 72 production. What he seems to be describing here i s external manipulation at the presentation stage. These techniques may also be designed into a production, but the implication in Edling's scheme is that these processes occur during presentation. At the same time Edling describes manipulative properties which include editing, resequencing and interspersing content within a production. In this instance he seems to be describing the kind of internal manipulation which occurs during the production stage, during the creation of the program i t s e l f . 7 3 Both of these forms of manipulation can modify the instructional effect of a television program. Internal manipulation affects the design and construction of the program while external manipulation affects the use of the program during an instructional event. The former process is f i n i t e in the sense that once the production is complete there i s really no more internal manipulation unless the production is physically changed or revised. The variety and amount of external manipulation which can occur at the presentation stage, however, i s i n f i n i t e and can change the very character of the original production depending on how i t is used within an instructional setting. 80. External manipulation. Some research has already been reported i n t h i s study which describes the e f f e c t s c e r t a i n types of external manipulation have on the i n s t r u c t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t e l e v i s i o n . Studies reported by Campeau, Travers, Chu and Schramm have established that c e r t a i n presentation f a c t o r s a f f e c t or do not a f f e c t i n s t r u c t i o n by 74 t e l e v i s i o n . For example, screen s i z e , changes i n viewing angle, changes i n viewing distance, and c l a r i t y of the image, were f a c t o r s which could not be shown to a f f e c t the q u a l i t y or amount of lea r n i n g on t e l e v i s i o n . 7 ~ * Other f a c t o r s which could f a l l i n t o the category of external manipulation include slowing down or speeding up the image at the presentation stage. Internal manipulation. Factors which f a l l under the category of i n t e r n a l manipulation include such things as the use of colour, the use of a dramatic versus expository s t y l e i n the production, and the i n s e r t i o n of humour or animation techniques to " l i v e n up" the program. Travers and Campeau point out that these f a c t o r s cannot be shown to a f f e c t s i g n i f i c a n t l y the q u a l i t y or quantity of learning which takes place i n , . . 76 i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n programs. It would seem that the most l o g i c a l way to approach the i n s t r u c t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t e l e v i s i o n would be to examine i t s i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e to see how the medium i t s e l f communicates. The process would involve the development of a v i s u a l language which could explain the e f f e c t s of the various techniques used i n t e l e v i s i o n . The approach i s fraught with danger and apart from a few courageous attempts by scholars l i k e Peters, Slade and McLuhan l i t t l e has been done by communication researchers 77 and v i r t u a l l y none by adult educators. In f a c t , the pro p o s i t i o n that a v i s u a l language does e x i s t and that i t a f f e c t s the communication of information or concepts v i a 78 t e l e v i s i o n or f i l m i s viewed with much skepticism. The subject i s r a i s e d here not f o r purposes of drawing any conclusions but .simply to r a i s e some .issues and.outline some approaches which may prove worthy of research by adult educators. Before d i s c u s s i n g any issues surrounding whether or not a v i s u a l language e x i s t s i n f i l m and t e l e v i s i o n i t would seem appropriate to examine what l i n g u i s t s say about the nature and str u c t u r e of language and how communication systems fun c t i o n which are founded on v i s u a l elements. I t i s only r e c e n t l y that s c r i p t has been re-discovered by l i n g u i s t s as 79 a " l e g i t i m a t e mode of communicating language". Most research has concentrated on the spoken word while s c r i p t was l a r g e l y 80 "excommunicated...as nonlanguage". L i n g u i s t s ' concentration on the spoken word has been grounded i n the b e l i e f that a language remains a l i v e and develops only i n i t s ve r b a l form which i s i t s everyday use, but may stagnate i n i t s w r i t t e n form. » „ . • 81 As Martin points out: ...every w r i t i n g system i s i n some way de f e c t i v e even when f i r s t i n s t i t u t e d , and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n i t s e l f prevents the continuous r e v i s i o n that would keep the conventions of writing as well matched to the continuously changing spoken language... Linguistics, then, involves the study of two distinct communication processes: spoken language and written language. Written languages, in turn, are generally subdivided into alphabetic and non-alphabetic systems. Alphabetic languages, li k e English, are written using symbols which represent sounds while non-alphabetic systems l i k e Chinese use symbols which represent visual images. These symbols are called "characters" and are p i c t o r i a l representations of real visual images even though they have evolved over time into highly stylized symbols. Linguists l i k e Martin l i s t six categories of characters, three 82 of which are directly relevant to this discussion. The basic units of a visual language l i k e Chinese are pictographs which: ...are direct iconic representations, such as those that depict the sun, the moon, a tree, a mouth, a mountain, a well, a bow, a stream, a gate, a shel l , etc. Most characters have become highly stylized with the passage of time so that the original picture is not always obvious at f i r s t glance. Pictographs represent tangible things, but lack the v e r s a t i l i t y and richness to embody concepts. Once conceptualizing becomes an important factor i n developing a communication system, pictographs, by themselves, are incapable of handling the degree of sophistication required. To solve this problem the Chinese developed ideographs. There are two types of ideographs: simple 83. and compound. Simple ideographs depict a logical idea: three horizontal lines to represent the number three, a pointer above or below the lin e to signal the words for up and down.... Compound ideographs represent an abstract idea by combining simple graphs, as when MOON is put to the right of SUN to represent the word for 'bright'. Two TREES are put together to represent the word for 'grove'; three are combined to represent the word for 'forest'. Ideographs maintain their identity as a visual language, but extend the po s s i b i l i t y for more complex levels of communication. To translate this process of evolution into a visual language for film, the noted Russian film theorist Sergei Eisenstein drew direct parallels between the structure of the Chinese 84 ideograph and what he saw as the visual language of film. To Eisenstein, the simple act of recording an image on film produced what amounted to a kinetic pictograph, capable of,communicating simple "picturable" things and ideas. When these shots were edited together, a process which he called "montage", the result was a kinetic ideograph, a new image capable of communicating more than the sum total of the original images. He described 85 the cinematic process as that of: ...combining shots that are depictive, single in meaning, neutral i n content -into intellectual contexts and series. To carry the analogy further, Eisenstein postulated that when these montage sequences were combined to form an entire film the r e s u l t was a s e r i e s of k i n e t i c ideographs which i n turn 86 combined to depict an even higher l e v e l of meaning. The pro p o s i t i o n that a v i s u a l language e x i s t s i n f i l m and r e l a t e d media i s generally accepted by those working i n the media, but scholars i n the s o c i a l sciences are not i n c l i n e d to accept the idea. Travers, one of the most hig h l y respected scholars i n the f i e l d of i n s t r u c t i o n a l media, r e j e c t s the idea of the 87 existence of a v i s u a l language: The comparisons of p i c t o r i a l m a t e r i a l with language i s , at the best, a weak analogy. True, p i c t o r i a l sequences have been used since the e a r l i e s t c i v i l i z a t i o n s f o r the transmission of s t o r i e s , but p i c t o r i a l m a t e r i a l generally lacks the str u c t u r e which i s t y p i c a l of language. There i s no syntax of p i c t o r i a l representation; at the best, a s e r i e s of pi c t u r e s which t e l l a story represent events i n a sequence and the pi c t u r e s are organized i n a time st r u c t u r e . If p i c t o r i a l m a t e r i a l c o n s t i t u t e s a language at a l l , i t i s only at a very p r i m i t i v e l e v e l . Other t h e o r i s t s l i k e Worth tend to support Traver's f e e l i n g s except that Worth makes a f i n e , but important, 88 d i s t i n c t i o n to fu r t h e r c l a r i f y the issue. While Travers appears to be t a l k i n g about the question of str u c t u r e i n p i c t o r i a l sequences made up of s t a t i c v i s u a l s , Worth makes the point that when motion i s introduced, a s i g n i f i c a n t change occurs i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the q u a l i t y of communication. F i l m and t e l e v i s i o n , as k i n e t i c mediums, exert an influence over the viewer which i s a f f e c t e d by time and space. To Worth, a v i s u a l "language" e x i s t s to a degree i n f i l m because of i t s a b i l i t y to transmit meaning through symbols presented i n sequence and li n k e d by motion. Like Travers, he questions the e f f i c a c y of c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the l e v e l of communication as language, but concedes that the term "language" i s i n part u s e f u l to a d i s c u s s i o n of f i l m ' s a b i l i t y to communicate using a systematic set of symbols. Worth, however, prefers the term "semiotic" to describe f i l m i c s t r u c t u r e because "language" connotes a range of functions which he f e e l s go beyond the c a p a b i l i t i e s of f i l m . Travers summarizes h i s p o s i t i o n on v i s u a l language by saying that the issue " i s an i n t e r e s t i n g question which needs 89 to be explored s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , rather than s p e c u l a t i v e l y " . Travers' choice of the term " s p e c u l a t i v e " stems from h i s choice of source m a t e r i a l i n h i s di s c u s s i o n . He quotes e x c l u s i v e l y from a work by J.M.L. Peters who, i n 1961, wrote a book on Teaching About the Film which concerned i t s e l f p r i m a r i l y with the examination of f i l m " a e s t h e t i c s " , a term which Travers 90 d i s l i k e s , with good reason. As Peters uses the term i t r e f e r s to the study of f i l m as an a r t form and the examination of v i s u a l language i n f i l m as an exercise i n c r i t i c i s m rather than as part of the communication process i n an i n s t r u c t i o n a l device. There are then two approaches to the study of v i s u a l language: one i s to approach the subject from the point of 86. view of an a r t i s t i c experience and the other approach is to examine the process as one component in a communication system which may or may not affect instruction. The problem is that most attempts to define visual language have been made by people interested i n applying the information to the study of film and television as an a r t i s t i c or social experience instead of an 91 instructional process. The exercise has been for the most part subjective and the results speculative. The purpose of this discussion i s to explore the issue of visual language and identify aspects of the proposition which could have important implications for instructional television. As Gagne has pointed out communication is a necessary f i r s t step 92 in the process of instruction. Studies in television reviewed so far have adopted an approach that television might, or should, communicate information or concepts better than, or equally as well as, any other instructional process. To communicate presupposes the existence of some form of language either independent of or supplementary to traditional communication systems. If there i s a unique visual language then the implications for i t s use in instructional television are profound. If the language is only f u l f i l l i n g a supplementary role to traditional communication processes then the implication could s t i l l be significant, because 93 communication i s a key factor in the instructional process. One problem with conducting any systematic study into visual language is that there appears to be a lack of consensus among researchers and practitioners over the interpretation of visual symbols. Travers, for example, contends that producers, directors and educators may recognize the symbols 94 but cannot agree on their meaning. The point may not be entirely correct. Practitioners have developed quite standard 95 definitions for visual techniques used in television and film. For example there are three basic shots used in television, 96 the long shot, the medium shot and the closeup. Each shot is used not only to communicate subject matter but also to comment on the material. The long shot is normally used to establish a scene, to set the mood, or to establish a sense of perspective. The medium shot i s most often used in television because of restrictions of size. Its function l i e s between the environmental effect of the long shot and the intimate effect of the closeup. In television a medium shot normally includes 97 two people and is often referred to as a "two-shot". The closeup shot concentrates the viewer's interest on a subject and can be an extremely powerful shot. Besides the three basic static shots there are also a variety of shots involving motion. A trucking shot involves physically moving the camera right or l e f t keeping parallel to the subject or action. A dolly shot involves physical movement towards or away from a subject. A zoom shot resembles a dolly shot except that outward and inward motion i s controlled through .the lens and not by physically moving the camera. A pan shot resembles a dolly shot to some degree except that the camera only turns to follow an action rather than physically moving along with i t . The f i n a l most common shot involving motion is the t i l t where the camera moves upwards or downwards. Various camera angles are also important to the visual language. In a high angle shot the camera i s positioned up in the a i r looking down on a subject. It is often called a dominant shot because i t creates a feeling of dominance and power from the viewers point of view. In low angle shots the positions are reversed with the camera looking upwards at a subject. It creates the feeling that the object or person in the frame i s dominant but the viewer i s submissive. In a canted shot the camera is t i l t e d at unusual sideways angles making the subject appear off balance. Canted shots are used to suggest i n s t a b i l i t y , uncertainty or abnormality. The position of the camera can affect the mood of any scene. In objective shots the camera and the viewer are placed in the position of passive observers watching the action occurring in front of them. For example this type of shot i s most common in the tele-lecture technique where the subject stands or si t s facing the camera and the viewer observes the activity as i f he were s i t t i n g in the audience. Use of the subjective shot involves using the camera and the viewer as part of the subject or action within the scene. Documentaries often incorporate this type of shot by using a-hand held camera which moves with the cameraman creating the sense that the camera i t s e l f i s a person involved in the action. There are a variety of techniques used to provide transitions from shot to shot or scene to scene. The most common technique i s the cut or edit, executed on film by physically splicing together different shots while in television, cutting is purely an electronic process. A dissolve is another common technique for change where one scene or shot appears to melt or dissolve into another. In a wipe one shot appears to push or wipe the other shot out of the frame. S t i l l other examples include the fade in and fade out, techniques commonly used for opening and closing scenes where the scene begins as black and the picture fades into view or, in reverse, as the scene ends the picture fades into blackness. Titles may also be used to provide transition although their use in film a l l but ended with the advent of sound. Finally there are a variety of special effects available in film and television which serve to suggest the transmission shots. These effects include such things as keys, travelling mats and corner inserts. When parts of one picture are added to parts of another to make a new whole, the effect is termed a key. The process is d i f f i c u l t to accomplish in film requiring a complex processing system, but in television, an electronic medium, the process i s quite simple and can be produced instantly. The travelling mat effect i s an old film technique which has recently been revived in multi-image or multi-screen films. The effect i s used to present more than one image at a time on the screen and the images move and change creating an added dimension of motion. Corner inserts involve superimposing smaller images i n the corners of the screen and also serve to add another dimension to the visual image. Together, these various shots and effects make up a basic structural form in television and film which, in some ways, resembles a visual "grammar". Worth, for example, c l a s s i f i e s these basic techniques into two distinct, but interrelated forms: cademes and edemes. Cademes are the basic unit of film "which results from the continuous action of the movie camera resulting from the moment we press the start button of the camera to when 98 we release i t " . An edeme is "the editing shot.../or/... that part of the cademe which i s actually used in the film". Together, the cademe, or original shot, plus the edeme, or edited version combine to form the videme, the complete sequence or scene. It is interesting to note that the terms coined by Worth to describe these units sound very much like l i n g u i s t i c terms, a coincidence which Worth himself admits was calculated to imply an analogy between the medium and language. To use another analogy which i s , perhaps, less "jargonized" than Worth's description, the individual shots may be said to represent pictographs and, when combined, or edited together, form ideographs which communicate more than the total of the original parts. Each element affects how the program's content is communicated, and like any other form of systematic communication, these forms can be abused or misunderstood. There has never really been a determined effort to examine the influence which these visual elements have over the communication process. Early film theoreticians l i k e Eisenstein and Pudovkin were fascinated with the way i n which film communicated. Pudovkin for instance found that by randomly editing shots of various scenes and ac t i v i t i e s into a reel of film and juxtaposing them against a constant shot of an actor's face staring blankly ahead, he 99 could create stories where none consciously existed. Students viewing his film created their own story line and attributed emotions to the actor which in reality did not exist. The most startling aspect to Pudovkin's experiment was not simply the fact that viewers created a story in their own mind but that there was a high degree of consistency of interpretations among the viewers. Eisenstein wrote many treatises on film and almost a l l approached the medium from the standpoint of i t s a b i l i t y to communicate concepts, ideas, and information v i s u a l l y . H e too was concerned with examining how film techniques could be used to create a visual language based on a common frame of reference. Another theoretician, Raymond Spottiswoode, wrote a book entitled The Grammar of the Film in which he too tried to identify common communication symbols which could be used i n v i s u a l media l i k e f i l m . X U J " It i s p o s s i b l e that a v i s u a l language e x i s t s which communicates to people on a common l e v e l of perception regardless of what the content may be. Some l i n g u i s t s make the point that one of the great advantages to a v i s u a l language i s i t s u n i v e r s a l i t y . While i n d i v i d u a l s may speak i n quite d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s they are 102 s t i l l able to communicate through a common wr i t t e n language. The p r o p o s i t i o n that mediums l i k e t e l e v i s i o n and f i l m possess these q u a l i t i e s of u n i v e r s a l i t y i s not without i t s c r i t i c s . Chu and Schramm report studies i n f i l m which have shown the content to be c u l t u r e bound under c e r t a i n circumstances. They report on studies by Holmberg, Court, Marsh, Winter and Spurr which show that v i s u a l media, used i n cultures u n f a m i l i a r with 103 the language of f i l m , f a i l e d to communicate. Of t h i s group of studies Chu and Schramm report i n some d e t a i l on one by 104 Holmberg. He found that when he screened a f i l m on personal hygiene to a group of Peruvian v i l l a g e r s the experience was unsuccessful because they were unable to r e l a t e to the content. There were, for example, various enlarged closeup shots of body l i c e which the v i l l a g e r s i n t e r p r e t e d as p i c t u r e s of an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t species. Their perception of the image appeared to be c u l t u r e bound. The closeup shots made the l i c e seem unreal even though the l i c e themselves were part of the audience's experience. Holmberg concluded that those un f a m i l i a r with f i l m need some degree of i n s t r u c t i o n i n i t s language. In another study Morton-Williams observed the same type of perceptual problem showing films to a group of Nigerians although he reported that with very l i t t l e instruction the people learned to understand the f i l m . x ^ These studies indicate the possi b i l i t y of two factors at work which can affect a film's potential for communication. F i r s t , the content or subject matter of a film may be unintelligable i f i t is outside of the viewer's experience. In this sense the content of visual media may be culture bound. Secondly, the method of presenting the information may affect the viewer's comprehension. If the viewer is confronted with images which are within his experience he may s t i l l be unable to recognize or understand them i f those images are presented i n an unusual way. In other words, i f the viewer is unfamiliar with the language of the medium he w i l l be unable to perceive the content. Once a viewer can understand the language of film he can begin to deal with the content. It i s worth noting that most empirical studies on television's effectiveness in instruction have not considered the poss i b i l i t y that a visual language might exist. Instead most studies evaluated only the content of the programs which was primarily verbal transmission of information. Visual content played only a secondary role where i t was used as i l l u s t r a t i v e material to supplement the verbal content. The very choice of the tele-lecture technique indicates this bias. A few researchers lik e McKeachie .comment on the possible implications for using the visual media to transmit conceptual material, but by and large instructional programs seem to have been designed around a formula where one communication system 106 has been superimposed upon another. The point of comparison then has been the content and not the process which should have been examined. Indeed i t would seem inappropriate to compare l i v e lectures and televised lectures at a l l . To compare the two i s l i k e comparing apples to oranges: they are two different ar t i c l e s altogether and neither may be more or less effective than the other. It would seem more appropriate to approach the study of visual media like television by f i r s t examining the nature of the medium i t s e l f . If i t is possible to discover how i t communicates then i t might be possible to manipulate i t s structure to produce measurable effects. Once we have a clear understanding of how i t communicates i t might be possible to set c r i t e r i a to describe in what areas of instruction television could be best used. At the very least these kinds of studies w i l l help to reinforce Gagne's theories of the important role which visual media can play in the f i r s t three phases of learning. 95. FOOTNOTES 1. Coolie Verner, and Catherine V. Davison, Psychological Factors  in Adult Learning and Instruction, Tallahassee, Florida: Florida State University, 1971, p. 2. 2. Robert M. Gagne, Essentials of Learning and Instruction, I l l i n o i s : The Dryden Press, 1974, p. 2. 3. Ibid., p. 3. 4. Verner and Davison, op. c i t . , p. 1. 5. Gagne, op. c i t . , pp. 29-43. 6. Ibid., .p. .29. 7. Ibid. 8. Ibid., p. 31. 9. Ibid., p. 32. 10. Ibid., p. 33. 11. Ibid., pp. 33-34. 12. Ibid., p. 34. 13. Ibid. 14. Ibid. 15. Ibid., p. 36. 16. Ibid., p. 37. For further discussion see also: I.M.L. Hunter, Memory, Baltimore, Maryland: Penguin Books Inc.. 1970, pp. 249-258. 17. Hunter, op. c i t . , pp. 259-268. 18. Gagne, op. c i t . , p. 38. 19. Ibid., p. 38. 20. Ibid. 21. Ibid., p. 40. 96. 22. Ibid. 23. Ibid., p. 43. 24. Ibid. 25. Ibid., pp. 36-38. 26. Ibid., p. 31. 27. Ibid., p. 116. 28. • Ibid., p. 117. 29. Ibid., pp. 141-143. 30. Ibid., p. 141. 31. Robert Carlson, Educational Television in i t s Cultural and  Public Affairs Dimension: A Selected Review of Public Television as an Issue i n Adult Education, C.S.L.E.A. Occasional Paper, No. 39, Syracuse University, 1973. 32. John Ohliger, Listening Groups: Mass Media in Adult Education, Boston University: Centre for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1967. 33. Gagne, op. c i t . , p. 141. It should be noted that Gagne restricts his discussion to television even though similar characteristics might be attributed to film which is also a kinetic visual medium. This study w i l l include material on film based on the assumption that both mediums function in much the same way. For more discussion see footnote 84. 34. Ibid., p. 142. 35. Ibid. 36. Ibid. 37. See Chapter II, Definition for Educational Television. 38. Robert M. Travers, Research and Theory Related to Audiovisual  Information Transmission, University of Utah, 1964. A.A. Lumsdaine, "Instruments and Media of Instruction", Handbook of Research on Teaching, N.L. Gage (ed.), Chicago: Rand McNally and Co., 1963. 97. John Ohliger, The Mass Media in Adult Education; A Review  of Recent Literature, New York: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education, 1968. Goodwin C. Chu and Wilbur Schramm, Learning From Television;  What the Research Says, Washington: National Association of Educational Broadcasters, 1968. 39. Chu and Schramm, op. c i t . , p. 100. 40. Ibid., p. 100. Ohliger, op. c i t . , p. 37. Lumsdaine, op. c i t . , p. 670. 41. Chu and Schramm, op. c i t . , p. 100. 42. Ibid. 43. Ibid. 44. Lumsdaine, op. c i t . , p. 604. 45. Chu and Schramm, op. c i t . , p. 24. Lumsdaine, op. c i t . , p. 635. Travers, op. c i t . , p. 2.33. 46. Lumsdaine, op. c i t . , p. 635. 47. B.J. Fullerton, "The' Comparative Effect of Colour and Black-and-white Guidance Films Employed With and Without 'Anticipatory' Remarks Upon Aquisition and Retention of Factual Information", Dissertation Abstracts, 1956. J.H. Kanner, and D.J. Rosenstein, "Television in Army Training: Color vs Black and White", Audio-Visual Communication Review, 8:243-252, 1960. J.D. Link, "A Comparison of the Effects on Learning of Viewing Film in Color on a Screen and in Black-and-White Over Closed Circuit Television", Ontario Journal of Educational Research, 3:111-115, 1961. M.A. May, and A.A. Lumsdaine, Learning From Films, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1958. 98. A.W. Vandermeer, Relative Effectiveness of Color and Black  and White in Instructional Films, Tech Rep., SDC 269-7-28, Special Services Center, Office of Naval Research, Port Washington, New York, 1952. A.W. Vandermeer, "Color vs Black-and-White in Instructional Films", Audio-Visual Communication Review, 2:121-134, 1954. J.V. Zuckerman, "Predicting Film Learning by Pre-release Testing", Audio-Visual Communication Review, 2:49-56, 1965. 48. Travers, op. c i t . , p. 2.40. 49. Chu and Schramm, op. c i t . , p. 24. 50. Peggy L. Campeau, "Selective Review of the Results of Research on the Use of Audiovisual Media to Teach Adults", Audio-Visual  Communication Review, 22:1, Spring, 1974. 51. L.J. Briggs, P.L. Campeau, R.M. Gagne and M.A. May, Instructional  Media: A Procedure for the Design of Multi-media Instruction, A C r i t i c a l Review of Research and Suggestions for Future  Research, Pittsburgh: American Institute for Research, 1966, Monograph No. 2. 52. Campeau, op. c i t . , p. 20. 53. Ibid., p. 21. 54. Ibid., pp. 22-25. 55. Ibid., p. 23. O.S. Rich, R.D. Po l l and T.M. Williams, The  U t i l i z a t i o n of Large-screen TV to Overcome Shortages of  Classroom Space and Teaching Personnel, Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University, 1966. 56. Coolie Verner, and Gary Dickinson, "The Lecture, An Analysis and Review of Research", Adult Education, Chicago: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., Winter, 1967. 57. C.I. Howland, A.A. Lumsdaine, and F.D. Sheffield, Experiments  on Mass Communication, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1949, Chapter 7. 58. R. Dubin, et a l , The Medium May be Related to the Message:  College Instruction by TV, Eugene, Oregon: Centre for Advanced Study of Educational Administration, 1969. 99. Charlene D. Kirschner, Joseph L. Mapes and Ray L. Anderton, Doctoral Research in Educational Media 1969-1972 (2nd Edition), Stanford, California: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information Resources, Stanford Centre for Research and Development in Teaching, School of Education, Stanford University, 1975. 59. Campeau, op. c i t . , p. 24. 60. Ibid., p. 23. 61. Educational Television Research Findings, Extension Service Circular No. 514, U.S. Department of Agriculture, November, 1957. 62. Ibid. "Creative TV Farm Shows, experts reveal how agriculture television can capture viewers", National Project in Agriculture Communications, Michigan State University, 1956. 63. Gagne, op. c i t . , pp. 141-143. 64. Effectiveness of Television in Teaching Sewing Practices, U.S. Department of Agriculture Extension Service Circular 466, 1951. 65. Meredith C. Wilson and Gladys Gallup, Extension Teaching Methods: and other factors that influence adoption of agricultural and home economics practices, Federal Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Extension Service Circular 495, 1955. 66. Jack V. Edling, et a l , The Cognitive Domain: A Resource Book  for Media Specialists, Washington: Gryphon House, 1972, p. 165. 67. Ibid. 68.. Ibid. 69. Chu and Schramm, op. c i t . , p. 100. Ohliger, op. c i t . , p. 38. 70. It should be noted that use of the term "accuracy" here does not imply an accurate interpretation of events which make up the content, but means instead technical accuracy in recording the event. The distinction is important because many factors can affect the accuracy of the content. Pictures do not necessarily record the "truth". 100. 71. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, What the Canadian Pu b l i c  Thinks of the CBC, CBC Research Department, 1963, pp. 44-45. 72. Edl i n g , op. c i t . 73. Lumsdaine, op. c i t . , p. 604 i d e n t i f i e s these conditions as experimental f a c t o r s c a l l e d "media v a r i a b l e s " and " u t i l i z a t i o n v a r i a b l e s " . "Media v a r i a b l e s " i s another way of saying i n t e r n a l manipulation and " u t i l i z a t i o n v a r i a b l e s " describe the process of external manipulation. 74. Campeau, op. c i t . Travers, op. c i t . Wilbur Schramm (ed.), The Process and E f f e c t s of Mass  Communication, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1971. 75. I b i d . 76. Campeau, op. c i t . Travers, op. c i t . 77. J.M.L. Peters, Teaching About the Film, New York: In t e r n a t i o n a l Documents Service, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1961. Mark Slade, Language of Change, Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970. Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media, The Extensions of Man, Toronto: Signet Books, 1964. 78. See Travers, op. c i t . , p. 204. 79. John Lotz, "How Language i s Conveyed by S c r i p t " , Language by  Eye and by Ear, James F. Kavanagh and Ignatius G. Mattingly (eds.), Cambridge Mass: the MIT Press, 1972, p. 117. 80. I b i d . 81. Samuel E. Martin, "Nonalphabetic Writing Systems: Some Observations", Language by Eye and by Ear, James F. Kavanagh and Ignatius G. Mattingly (eds.), Cambridge Mass: the MIT Press, 1972, p. 81. 82. I b i d . , pp. 83-84. 83. I b i d . 101. 84. Sergei Eisenstein, "The Cinematographic Principle and the Ideogram", Film Form and Film Sense, (ed. and trans. Jay Leyda), New York: World Publishing Company, 1965, pp. (FF) 28-44. To draw from film theory for supportive evidence in a study about television might be grounds for criticism from those who believe the mediums to be inherentaly different. We refer here to McLuhan's distinction between "cool" and "hot" as descriptors for television and film. McLuhan uses the terms to describe the relative difference between TV and film as primary and secondary media for communication. TV is a primary source of information which people accept as part of their everyday l i f e . Its pervasive quality, then, makes i t a "cool" medium. Film, on the other hand, no longer enjoys the position of being a primary source of information and influence. McLuhan contends i t is an art form which people go to see voluntarily to participate i n an emotional experience. The content of films are not alwasy accepted as reality in the same way as television. Film, then, is regarded as a "hot" medium. For purposes of this study, we w i l l assume that given the relative difference in social importance and the technical differences which exist between the two mediums, they communicate in essentially similar ways and use basically the same techniques to convey their message. They are, after a l l , both moving pictures. 85. Ibid., p. 30. 86. Ibid. 87. Travers, op. c i t . 88. Sol Worth, "The Development of a Semiotic of Film", Semiotica, I, The Hague: Mouton and Co., 1969, pp. 282-321. 89. Travers, op. c i t . , p. 2.04. 90. Ibid., p. 1.10. 91. Peters, op. c i t . Slade, op. c i t . 92. Gagne, op. c i t . 93. Ibid. 94. Travers, op. c i t . , p. 1.12. 102. 95. See also: Gerald' Millerson, The Techniques of Television  Production, New York: Focal Press, 1969, pp. 220-278. 96. These shots may be modified to form various combinations: an Extreme Long Shot (ELS), Medium Long Shot (MLS), Medium Closeup (MCU), and Extreme Closeup (ECU). The terms are relative, depending on the discretion of the director and the limitations imposed by subject matter and size and format of the medium used. 97. Millerson, op. c i t . 98. Worth, op. c i t . , pp. 299-300. 99. V.I. Pudovkin, Film Technique and Film Acting, translated by Ivor Montagu, London: Vision/Mayflower Press, 1958, p. 168. 100. Sergei Eisenstein, "Film Language", Film Form and Film Sense, (ed. and trans. Jay Leyda), New York: World Publishing Co., 1965, pp. (FF) 108-121. 101. Raymond Spottiswoode, A Grammar of the Film, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1967. 102. Lotz, op. c i t . , pp. 121-122. John B. Carroll, "The Case For Ideographic Writing", Language  by Eye and by Ear, James F. Kavanagh and Ignatius G. Mattingly (eds.), Cambridge Mass: the MIT Press, 1972, p. 108. 103. Chu and Schramm, op. c i t . , pp. 75-77. 104. A.R. Holmberg, "Changing Communicty Attitudes and Values in Peru: a Case Study in Guided Change", Social Change in Latin  America Today, (ed.) R.N. Adams, New York: Random House, 1960. 105. P. Morton-Williams, "Cinema in Rural Nigeria, a Field Study of the Impact of Fundamental Education Films on Rural Audiences in Nigeria", Ibadan: West African Institute of Social and Economic Research, University College, 1953. 106. Campeau, op. c i t . , p. 22. 103. CHAPTER IV TELEVISION PROGRAMMING FOR ADULTS This chapter is included to review and analyse some television programs for adults i n light of the definitions created in Chapter II and concepts discussed in Chapter III. Examples are drawn from a variety of sources but no attempt has been made to l i s t a l l programs. So many valuable innovations in television have been made over the years that i t would be impossible to l i s t them a l l here. Instead, a representative sample of educational and educative programs has been selected for examination. Although the examples are drawn from various sources the main concern i n this review i s with Canadian programs, not with any intention to be parochial, but because Canadian attempts at ETV are not as widely known as some others. Scholars like Rosen and Thomas have made significant contributions to the literature with their attempts to document Canadian experiments in ETV, but on the whole, ETV in Canada has maintained a relatively low profile."'" The data have been searched for examples of television as an educational method, an educational device, and an educative device. The examples have some historical significance insofar as they demonstrate some of the trends which have occurred in educational broadcasting over the past few decades. Information has been drawn from available sources which might be subject to misinterpretation or incompleteness and therefore must be judged accordingly. Nonetheless, these examples do demonstrate the general approaches taken by adult educators and certain key institutions. ETV as a Method No examples could be found from the field of practice which would meet the criteria for educational television as a method. Many come close, particularly those projects discussed later in this chapter which were undertaken by the CBC and various universities. These kinds of projects went so far as to use television as the primary system for organizing the learners but none could f u l f i l l the criterion of providing continuous contact between the agent and the learner. Some 105. provide for l i m i t e d i n t e r a c t i o n i n the form of seminars, d i s c u s s i o n groups or personal meetings he ld a f t e r the groups viewed the t e l e v i s i o n programs. This l e v e l of i n t e r a c t i o n would l i k e l y f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g , but s t i l l could not equal the l e v e l which can be a t t a ined i n an adul t educat ion method l i k e , for example, the c l a s s where there i s pe r sona l , d i r e c t , and continuous management of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l event. Even though there are no examples of ETV as a method to be found i n the f i e l d , there are examples to be found which have been created by educat iona l researchers examining the p o t e n t i a l use for t e l e v i s i o n i n the formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g . In an e a r l i e r chapter re ference was made to a study by Dubin which examined the use o f two-way communication systems i n l i v e 2 t e l e v i s i o n product ions . Here the technology was used as a way of o rgan iz ing the l ea rner s and continuous monitor ing of the experience was achieved through the use of a " t a lkback" system where l ea rner s could communicate d i r e c t l y wi th the i n s t r u c t o r . Other examples of ETV which inc lude var ious forms of two-way communication can be found i n the work of B r e t z , Wolgamuth, Johnson, and an e a r l i e r study by the Southwestern S igna l Corps 3 T r a i n i n g Center . In these s tudies the i n s t r u c t o r s d e l i v e r e d t h e i r l e c t u r e s to a group of l ea rner s v i a t e l e v i s i o n . With a two-way audio hook-up the l ea rner s were able to ask questions and seek c l a r i f i c a t i o n from the i n s t r u c t o r dur ing the course of the l e c t u r e s . T e l e v i s i o n was the primary source of o r g a n i z a t i o n 106. for the experience and was used in such a way that interaction could occur which would affect the management of instruction. Television, then, was used as a method of adult education although, as previously noted, experiences lik e these represent 4 an unusual use of the medium. A contemporary Canadian example of an experiment in the use of ETV as a method can be found in the HERMES project sponsored by the federal Department of Communications."* HERMES is an acronym used to describe a new generation of geosynchronous communications s a t e l l i t e currently in use in North America. The s a t e l l i t e has been used by the U.S. and Canada for a variety of purposes and recently has been made available for experiments in educational broadcasting. To date ten projects have been planned, eight of which are currently underway, on a variety of subjects ranging from communication links with isolated areas to inservice professional development programs for health science personnel and teachers. The s a t e l l i t e provides the technical f a c i l i t i e s for two-way visual and sound communication between any number of locations anywhere on the continent. Most experiments to date have been sponsored by universities and government agencies which have used the system as a way to present recorded and l i v e instructional programs to various groups outside the range of existing programs. The sa t e l l i t e ' s biggest advantage l i e s in i t s a b i l i t y to provide opportunities for l i v e interaction between instructors and learners using TV as the main system 107. to organize the learners. Experimental projects lik e HERMES demonstrate the potential for ETV as a method of adult ^ education, but s t i l l i t s use i s limited by the expense involved i n using such sophisticated technology. ETV as a Device Normally ETV is used as a source of information or a way to extend an educational experience. Many examples exist in broadcast television which demonstrate these characteristics and among the contributors is the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. CBC television. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation has had strong historic ties with adult education organizations. In co-operation with the Canadian Association for Adult Education the CBC produced the Farm Radio Forum and the Citizen's Forum both influential programs for mass adult education in Canada. The CBC's commitment to education at both the pre-adult and adult levels has been limited to some extent by constitutional constraints. Traditionally, education in Canada has been the sole responsibility of the provinces, a right protected by the Bri t i s h North America Act.^ The division of responsibility has made i t d i f f i c u l t for the Federal government or i t s agencies to pursue any kind of national education policy except in specific areas lik e vocational and technical education.^ As a Crown Corporation CBC has never been able to i n i t i a t e mass adult education programs although i t has co-sponsored specific kinds of projects l i k e the Farm Forum with other organizations l i k e the C.A.A.E. Another factor which has affected the role of the CBC in adult education programs has been the constraints imposed on the Corporation by i t s mandate to provide a variety of services to the Canadian public. Its primary responsibility has been to inform and entertain the Canadian 8 public. While education forms a part of this responsibility i t i s not the Corporation's primary objective. It is one of those institutions which adult educators l i k e Schroeder have identified as a Type III agency: that is an institution which uses adult education as "an a l l i e d function...to f u l f i l l only some of the needs which [ i t recognizes] as [its] responsibility' Consequently i t s participation in adult education a c t i v i t i e s has been marginal. It seems a characteristic of Canadian Federal government agencies that their terms of reference are very broad. For instance, in the 1967 Broadcasting Act the CBC is charged with the responsibility of providing: ...a balanced service of information, enlightenment and entertainment for people of different ages, interests and tastes covering the whole range of programming in f a i r proportion.... It i s further directed to: ...contribute to the development of national unity and provide for a continuing expression of Canadian identity.... These terms of reference are, obviously, quite general and allow for many different interpretations. The CBC mandate 109. closely resembles that of other agencies l i k e the National Film Board whose primary role i s t o : x x ...interpret Canada to Canadians and to the rest of the world. The general nature of these edicts l i k e l y results from two major factors: constitutional constraints imposed by the peculiar structure of Canadian federalism and administrative constraints imposed by the size of the organizations and the necessity for them to try to be ' a l l things to a l l people'. Farris, for instance, has made the point that once institutions reach an optimum size their p r i o r i t i e s must be compromised to some degree as they attempt to f u l f i l l a number of roles at 12 once. Even a cursory examination of the broadcasting acts and commissions reveals this trend. The 1929 Aird Commission outlined a number of responsibilities for broadcasting and with each successive act the number and variety of responsibilities increased. The Fowler Commission, in 1957, identified four major 14 responsibilities for the CBC: . . . f i r s t , to inform (news, public events, the reporting of facts); secondly to enlighten (interpretation of news, education, discussion, debate on the facts); thirdly to entertain (enjoyment, relaxation); and fourthly to s e l l goods (advertising, distribution of goods and services)... Education was recognized as only one part of the four subsections called enlightenment. In the 1967 Act, the reference to CBC's role in education formed one of fourteen statements describing areas of responsibility."''"' Section 2(i) of the act states that " f a c i l i t i e s should be provided within the Canadian Broadcasting system for education broadcasting..."."''^ The statement i s interesting not for what i t says, but for what i t does not say. There i s no indication that CBC's commitment to ETV should extend beyond the provision of the mechanical wherewithal to f a c i l i t a t e the production and distribution of ETV programs. There seems to be no implication that the CBC should take any part in i n i t i a t i n g programs. It should, instead, provide technical expertise and assist others. It should also be noted here that government policy towards educational television contains some ambiguity over the nature of the audience to be served. For the most part CBC educational television has been directed towards children."'"7 The reasons appear obvious: children are readily accessible in schools, the content i s easy to control because i t is consistent with a set curriculum, and the effects are relatively easy to measure. CBC policy towards "school broadcasting" has been f a i r l y clearly defined. As early as 1952 the CBC supervisor of School Broadcasts outlined the corporation's role as being one:"'" (a) To assist Departments of Education wishing to provide educational broadcasts to schools on a provincial or regional basis. (b) To supplement such provincial or regional schemes of school broadcasting by providing, on the national network, school broadcasts designed to strengthen national unity and increase Canadian consciousness among students; also school broadcasts dealing with subjects that are of common interest to the schools of a l l provinces. Here again CBC's role i s perceived as one of an advisor, assisting educational agencies to produce and distribute their own educational programming. The Corporation's role in adult education i s , on the other hand, not so clear. The report of the 1965 Committee on Broadcasting describes education as made up of "four distinct 19 but overlapping elements": (i) Scholastic Education - formal school and university programs - both for children and adults ( i i ) Vocational Training - directed towards adolescents and adults ( i i i ) Special Enlightenment - for people of a l l ages...to popularize and develop s k i l l s in or knowledge of specific arts, crafts, hobbies and sciences (iv) General Enlightenment - humanities, broad improvement of the mind These categories imply a clear understanding of subject areas in which CBC television can play a role but the division between a concern with adults and children seems unclear. In fact, at one point the committee recognizes i t s lack of specific policy towards adult education, but rationalizes i t s uncertainty by stating that "the omission of 'adult education' from this l i s t should not be taken to mean that we are not mindful of i t s importance, for adult education clearly covers 20 the whole spectrum". It can be seen that the CBC's natural reticence to involve i t s e l f actively in educational pursuits or to act as a leader in developing educational television stems largely from constitutional constraints placed upon i t by virtue of i t s position as an agency of the federal government "discharging 21 a national function". It recognizes that i t is not an educational body and: ...decided that i t would not provide any [educational] broadcasts, except in partnership with the constitutionally accredited education authorities. While the CBC has not been involved in many ETV experiments for adults, i t has made some significant contributions by lending i t s expertise to the production of programs and providing a distribution system to deliver them to adults in the community. CBC programs. In April of 1961, the CBC Audience Research Division released the results of a study on ETV 22 which demonstrates i t s use as an extension device. The project was co-sponsored with the Department of Slavonic Studies at the University of Toronto which designed a language course called Beginning Russian. The course consisted of 48 half-hour "television lessons" broadcast over CBLT the local CBC station. It was designed for undergraduate arts students enrolled at the University of Toronto, but members of the general public were also invited to participate. The course followed a f a i r l y traditional pattern with television acting as the main vehicle for disseminating information. 113. In addition to watching the televised lectures participants were expected to attend regular tutorial sessions designed to provide opportunities for both agent and learner to interact directly. Participants were also required to submit weekly exercises, undertake reading assignments and write examinations. It was, in other words, a modified correspondence study program. Each student was supplied with a special television study guide, a Russian grammar text and a workbook. The goal of the program was to provide "an opportunity for individuals with no previous knowledge of Russian to take the first step towards understanding the language, as well 23 as reading, writing and speaking i t " . The television program itself was used as a source of information and a device to extend the experience to as diverse an audience as possible. It should be noted that an attempt was made to use the programs for something more than an information device. During the course of each television program:^ ...viewers were invited by the instructors to repeat Russian words and phrases out loud. Furthermore, written tests were dictated now and then to let viewers guage their own progress. In other words, some attempt was made to at least give an illusion of contact between the agent and learners. Without the possibility of any direct contact however, the attempt to replicate a method of adult education could not be successful. The best that could be achieved was a form of vicarious contact which certainly could not be real or continuous. An analysis of this program by the CBC produced some results which have interesting implications for using television as an information or extension device in adult education programs. Participation in the program raised some interesting questions both from the standpoint of the numbers of participants and their characteristics. From the CBC data it is unclear as to the actual number of participants in the program. It was ostensibly designed for undergraduate arts students and it appears that there were between 135 and .200 students registered in the program. To estimate the number of participants from outside the program, the CBC used an audience projection formula which placed the number of viewers anywhere from 1100 to 4000. Their research indicated a startling dropout rate among the volunteer viewers: more than half the original audience dropped out by the midpoint 25 in the course. A profile of the regular audience indicated 26 that the majority were adults: ...only 7 per cent of regular followers were persons under the age of 20. The median age was 37 years, and 60 per cent were between the ages 30 and 49. Most regular viewers held full-time jobs, and the largest single occupational group in the audience (35 per cent) were persons in managerial and professional occupations. Over half the regular viewers had already taken university courses, and 40 per cent were university graduates. These findings tend to complement those of other researchers who have examined the characteristics of ETV viewers and found them often to be people who really do not need i t s offerings but who were inclined towards educational experiences which 27 they perceived as high status experiences. Those who dropped out of the series or were not regular viewers were 28 profiled by the CBC in the following way: [They were] (a) younger persons and single persons; (b) housewives, students and persons in the 'white co l l a r ' and 'manual' occupations; (c) persons who have never attended university; and (d) persons who could not speak a language other than English. Another important factor which affected participation was the viewers' motivation to join the program. Those who enrolled for purposes of "general intellectual curiosity" were less l i k e l y to remain in the program than those who enrolled because they could see a specific use for the language in their everyday l i v e s . Those who intended to use the language to communicate with family or friends were l i k e l y to remain loyal i n the course to the end. Another experiment in using ETV for language instruction was undertaken in 1961. The program was called Let's Speak English and was designed to provide remedial instruction in English for immigrant groups l i v i n g in and 29 around the metropolitan Toronto area. The program was co-sponsored by the CBC and M.E.T.A., the Metropolitan Educational Television Authority, a consortium of educational organizations in Toronto. The program began in October of 1961 and continued for a total of 78 sessions spaced over a 26 week period ending in April of 1962. Two half-hour sessions per week were held on Saturdays and Sundays supplemented by a review program each Wednesday morning. The television programs were produced and broadcast by the local CBC station CBLT using CBC technical f a c i l i t i e s to produce the shows and adult educators to design and appear on the programs. The programs were based on a series of English language textbooks incorporating a "mimicry-memory" technique for instructing which required learner participation in repeating common phrases and sentences supplied by the instructors. The textbook was called Let's Speak English from which the television series' name was adopted. The television programs were structured to provide information and to simulate a classroom experience. Three instructors participated, one as the central instructor appearing in most of the programs with the other two involved from time to time in presenting certain specific kinds of exercises. Six different 30 kinds of ac t i v i t i e s were used to f a c i l i t a t e instruction: The exercises in vocabulary: in which the meaning of words was taught without translation into other languages. The pronunciation d r i l l s : in which the sound of English phrases and sentences was taught. Phrases for conversation: involving instruction in the use of English idiom in everyday conversation, conveyed in the form of dramatic episodes or skits. Drills in grammar: showing the way English sentences are put together or, in more linguistic terms, demonstrating the structure of the English language. The presentation of pictures: i.e. the use of visual aids to show the meaning of words and sentences, and to convey complex linguistic meanings without translation. The use of cards: a further set of visual aids to demonstrate English accentuation and intonation. This series of programs differed from the Russian language series insofar as the television programs represented the only instructional experience. No regular opportunities were provided for participants to meet with each other or with the instructors. In fact, there seems to have been no monitoring of the learning experience. It was strictly a one-way flow of information and experience. This weakness in the program was reflected in the audience research findings which sought to examine the characteristics of the viewers. The target audience for the series was defined as "...that section of the total population aged 17 years or over, living in metropolitan Toronto, whose usual language of conversation at home was not English but some other language". According to the survey, demographic statistics placed the number of adults in this category at about 141,000 representing 32 some 30 different language groups. The TV programs sought to achieve mass appeal by attempting to cater to the entire group. The results of the CBC's research into participation rates among the entire population indicated a distribution as follows: of the 141,000 target population only about 49,000 people actually watched some part of the series. Of this group, only 17%, or 24,000 people watched the programs regularly. Another 18% were cla s s i f i e d as casual viewers who watched some, but not a l l , of the presentations. The remaining 65% saw none of the programs and many of this group were never aware of the series, despite what the CBC described 33 as "an extensive publicity campaign". The CBC researchers identified a number of factors which may have affected participation. For example, the timetable was seen by some as too rigorous and demanding despite the fact that the CBC attempted to place the programs in time periods which . were convenient and attempted to repeat programs whenever possible. The survey also pointed out that those who attempted to follow the course on their own were more li k e l y to drop out of the course than those who organized themselves into groups to view the programs. Problems also seemed to arise from the series' primary objective to appeal to a mass audience. With 30 different language groups the audience was simply too "heterogeneous to permit effective 34 instruction i n a single course". The divergent nature of the group made i t impossible for the educators to meet 119. the varying needs of p a r t i c i p a n t s who were at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of p r o f i c i e n c y i n the language. Another important f a c t o r which m i l i t a t e d against the success of the program as an educational experience was the " i s o l a t i o n of the student 35 from h i s i n s t r u c t o r s " . Unlike the Russian language course described e a r l i e r , t h i s program provided no opportunities f o r students to i n t e r a c t with i n s t r u c t i o n a l agents. It would have been impossible, therefore, f o r any reinforcement of le a r n i n g to take place. The Engli s h language project does, however, demonstrate the p o t e n t i a l f o r using t e l e v i s i o n as a device to disseminate information to large numbers of people. In 1962 the CBC produced a s e r i e s of t e l e v i s i o n > ' 36 programs f o r farmers e n t i t l e d This Business of Farming. The programs were co-sponsored by the Manitoba Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and Conservation i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n with the Un i v e r s i t y of Manitoba. The u n i v e r s i t y and the government produced the materials f o r the course, the shows were produced by the CBC i n t h e i r studios at CBWT Winnipeg and were d i s t r i b u t e d by two other a f f i l i a t e d s t a t i o n s , CKX-TV Brandon and CKOS 37 Yorkton. The program was made up of: ...a s e r i e s of f i v e d a i l y hour-and-a-half t e l e c a s t s from Monday January 15 to Friday January 19. The Monday and Tuesday programs were devoted to beef c a t t l e , the Wednesday and Thursday programs to f i e l d crops, and the Friday program to farm and home improvement. They were a i r e d i n the mornings from 10:30 a.m. to 12 noon each weekday i n the hope of reaching an estimated 15,900 120. 38 farm households and an audience of 14,500 farm operators. The purpose of the programs was to disseminate information to farmers, to appeal to as wide an audience as possible and particularly to try to reach the small farmer "who had no previous contact either with an agricultural extension department 39 or with their local agricultural d i s t r i c t office. The television series was a pilot project to evaluate the use and possible effectiveness of the medium for promoting adoption and change. According to CBC estimates approximately 15,900 farm households or about 14,500 farm operators viewed at least some of the five programs. It was estimated that there were about 22,800 farm homes in the area with t e l e v i s i o n : ^ Additionally, 1500 to 2000 farmers, or other adult members of farm households not equipped with TV sets watched some part of the series i n a farm home that did have a TV set, or in a community ha l l or elsewhere. The figures are impressive although closer scrutiny reveals that of the total number of farmers with TV sets only 4,800 watched a l l five programs, 33% of the total estimated number 41 of farm operators with television. The findings seem to indicate as well that the programs did not reach the small farmers who traditionally do not have much contact with extension agents. The study did not consider the quality or degree of learning which resulted from the series and indeed the assumption that any learning could occur from such a use of television i s tenuous. The 121. same could be said f o r the e f f e c t s which the programs may have had on adoption of innovations. As Verner and M i l l e r d have pointed out t e l e v i s i o n may prove to be a us e f u l device f o r disseminating information during the i n i t i a l stages of adoption, but the medium i n i t s e l f cannot be sa i d to be a 42 key f a c t o r i n achieving adoption. In 1964 the CBC undertook a r e p l i c a t i o n of the t e l e v i s e d programs f o r farmers. The s e r i e s , also e n t i t l e d This Business of Farming was extended to include farmers i n the three p r a i r i e provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a . There were f i v e one-hour t e l e c a s t s a i r e d during the weekday morning period. M a t e r i a l f o r the programs "was prepared by the Extension Services of the Departments of A g r i c u l t u r e of the three p r o v i n c i a l governments involved, i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n with the CBC P r a i r i e Regional Farm Department". The programs were produced by the CBC and broadcast over a network of fourteen CBC and C B C - a f f i l i a t e d s t a t i o n s covering t e r r i t o r y from eastern Manitoba to the western p o r t i o n of Al b e r t a . There 44 were f i v e programs i n the s e r i e s covering some 28 to p i c s : The f i r s t four programs i n the s e r i e s , which dealt r e s p e c t i v e l y with s o i l s and summerfallow, forage crops and pasture management, the handling and improvement of beef c a t t l e , and beef c a t t l e feeding, were t e l e c a s t to farmers i n a l l three provinces. The f i f t h and f i n a l program i n the s e r i e s d i f f e r e d i n each province: i n Manitoba i t dealt with education and farm career opportunities, i n Saskatchewan with improving the farmstead, and i n A l b e r t a with farm management. Findings from a CBC audience research study on t h i s s e r i e s tended to support f i n d i n g s from the 1962 experiment. A large number of farmers saw at l e a s t some part of the programs, but r e l a t i v e l y few followed the e n t i r e s e r i e s . Farmers i n marginal operations were l e s s l i k e l y to p a r t i c i p a t e than those with l a r g e r farms, although there was some evidence of increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n from those farmers who normally 45 remained a l i e n a t e d from a g r i c u l t u r a l Extension s e r v i c e s . It might appear to be s t r e t c h i n g the point somewhat to include these farm programs as examples of t e l e v i s i o n being used as an extension device. Nowhere i s there any evidence that these programs formed part of any educational method. Instead the programs themselves appear to have exi s t e d as the only s o - c a l l e d "educational" experience. There does not seem to have been any opportunity provided f o r d i r e c t or even i n d i r e c t contact between the " l e a r n e r s " and an educational agent e i t h e r before, during or a f t e r the experience. No p r o v i s i o n was made to provide opportunities f o r agents to d i r e c t the l e a r n i n g or re-enforce l e a r n i n g behaviours. This c o n d i t i o n then might be grounds to c h a r a c t e r i z e these programs as educative as opposed to educational experiences, because i t might be s a i d that they provided no other opportunity than that of one which tends to educate. However, r e f e r r i n g back to the e a r l i e r d e f i n i t i o n of an educational experience as one i n which three components must e x i s t : i n t e n t , planning and management, i t can be seen that in this instance the quality of intent existed in these particular programs. The earlier definition of "educative" precluded the existence of intent where a program was produced for purposes other than education. In the farm programs at least i t was the intention of the program organizers to provide what they perceived as an educational experience. This intention affected the design of the programs, created a situation where some form of planning did occur, but provided no systems to manage the experience. The result then was an example of television being used as an extension or information device. It i s significant to note that the majority of studies on co-operative programs undertaken by the CBC are not contemporary. There seems to be l i t t l e data to show the current level of CBC commitment to ETV programming. One possible reason for CBC's drop in involvement over the past few years is revealed by Faris in his study on the C.A.A.E.'s contribution 46 to radio broadcasting. He makes the point that the level of co-operation between CBC and adult education agencies lik e the C.A.A.E. appears to be a direct function of the size of each organization. Originally, CBC's involvement in educational radio was high because i t s need for programming was great and i t s administrative structure was flexible enough to accommodate the needs of special interest groups l i k e the C.A.A.E. The degree of co-operation began to drop, however, as the institutions grew. As the CBC became bigger and demands on its time more varied, its programming priorities changed. Changes in personnel and philosophy in the C.A.A.E. as well affected its priorities. The result was a parting of the ways with both institutions moving into other areas. This process of change may have affected ETV programs as well. During the early 1960's, CBC television was in a state of development where i t could afford to experiment in areas like adult education. As time progressed the corporation's responsibilities increased and became more clearly defined as an information and entertainment medium which resulted in a move away from a direct involvement with adult education activities. Another key factor which may have affected CBC's participation in adult education activities was the effect of the television medium itself on established adult education structures. This factor is particularly germane to the evolution of the Citizen's Forum programs. They began on radio and when television was introduced the programs were transformed to the new medium. With this transformation came a profound change in the nature of the audience. Participation among the traditional listening groups declined while a new 47 type of audience developed. The format of the programs themselves was altered drastically to f i t the new medium and some basic administrative changes in the Forum structure 125. occurred. For example the number and style of the discussion groups was reduced and while there was a substantial increase in the numbers of passive viewers the degree of active participation declined. In a way, the effects of the change in format of Citizen's Forum resembled the phenomenon which Verner has described in his discussion of the processes 48 involved in cultural diffusion of adult education methods. Verner proposes that a method of adult education "developed to meet a specific need in a culture at one moment in time is not always suited to the same need in the same culture 49 at a different moment in time". In other words, the change in format, style and audience which occurred when the Citizen's Forum was transferred from radio to television resulted in the demise of that program because i t no longer served the needs of its original audience in an appropriate 50 way. t The CBC has, however, maintained a consistent position as advisor and technical assistant to institutions concerned with providing educational experiences for adult populations. The corporation has provided production and distribution facilities to these organizations to assist them to achieve their goals. Examples of this kind of co-operative effort can be found in university sponsored adult education programs. University programs. Some Canadian universities have conducted interesting experiments in the use of broadcast television to extend instructional experiences in adult groups outside the formal university system. Most of these ventures have involved a co-operative effort with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation which has acted as a technical advisor to the educational institution. The hi s t o r i c a l development of university involvement with ETV broadcasts is outlined in a table extracted from an a r t i c l e by G.A.B. Moore in the Bri t i s h Journal of Educational Technology.^"'" Moore's chronology deals with the growth of educational technology i n Canadian higher education institutions. Moore uses the term "educational technology" mainly as a synonym for television and while his scheme deals with other kinds of organizations besides ETV, i t does help to put the role of broadcast television in Canadian universities into perspective with developments in other areas of educational media. Moore characterizes the evolution of ETV in Canada as a history which is "long 52 in time and short i n intensity". An examination of his chronology reveals an interesting trend in the evolution of broadcast television. He l i s t s the f i r s t university sponsored ETV broadcast as originating from the University of Toronto in 1957. There is a brief but significant effort put into broadcast television from 1961 to 1964 at which point university experiments into closed c i r c u i t TV begin to take the place 53 of broadcasting. The move away from broadcasting coincides 127. TABLE I Implementation of Organized Educational Technology Activity in Canadian Universities to 1965 Year Institution Activity 1957 Toronto 1958 Carleton McMaster Toronto 1961 Alberta Montreal Sherbrooke Toronto 1962 McGill Sir George Williams University Calgary 1963 Laval Western 1964 Ottawa New Brunswick McMaster Montreal Sir George Williams Broadcast televised instruction non-credit Co-operative film series on space technology CCTV - observation and demonstration Broadcast televised instruction -credit (French) Broadcast televised instruction -credit (French) Broadcast televised instruction -credit Closed c i r c u i t television -lecture Broadcast televised instruction Broadcast television Broadcast televised instruction -credit Controlled television experiment in Economics Broadcast televised instruction -credit (French) Extension lectures via cable television Broadcast televised instruction -credit Closed c i r c u i t television for demonstrations Established Central Instructional Media Office with responsibility for a l l instructional media 128. TABLE I (continued) Year Institution Activity 1965 British Columbia Calgary Laval Manitoba McMaster Saskatchewan (Saskatoon) Saskatchewan (Regina) Simon Fraser Toronto Waterloo York 1966 Carleton Laurentian Memorial Moncton Queens St. Francis Xavier Saskatchewan (Saskatoon) Toronto (Scarborough) Windsor Western York Closed c i r c u i t television demonstrations Closed c i r c u i t television demonstrations, lectures Closed c i r c u i t television Closed c i r c u i t television - lectures Closed c i r c u i t television - lectures Closed c i r c u i t television -demonstrations Credit courses via telephone to remote study centres Audio tutorial system in biology Closed c i r c u i t television demonstrations Closed c i r c u i t television demonstrations Closed c i r c u i t television - lectures Closed c i r c u i t television -demonstrations, lectures Broadcast television - credit (French) Broadcast television - non credit closed c i r c u i t television -lectures Broadcast television - credit (French) Closed c i r c u i t television -demonstrations Broadcast television - non credit Division of Audio Visual Services established with responsibility for a l l instructional media Closed c i r c u i t television -lectures and demonstrations Department of Communications established - closed c i r c u i t tele-vision lectures, a l l instructional media services Closed c i r c u i t television - lectures demonstrations Closed c i r c u i t television - lectures 129. TABLE I (continued) Year Institution Activity 1967 Dalhousie Memorial Simon Fraser Western York 1968 Alberta Laval McGill Montreal Waterloo 1969 Calgary Ottawa 1970 Toronto Closed c i r c u i t television in medical services Educational Television Centre established Audio Visual Centre established with responsibility for a l l instructional media Television Services Department established Instructional Aids Resources Department established with responsibility for a l l instructional media Department of Radio-Television established Service Audio Visuel established with responsibility for a l l instructional media Instructional Communications Centre established with respon-s i b i l i t y for a l l instructional media Centre des Techniques audio-visuelle with responsibility for a l l instructional media Closed c i r c u i t television - lectures and demonstrations Department of Communications Media established with responsibility for a l l instructional media Department of Communications established Instructional Media Centre established with responsibility for a l l instructional media with changes in relationship between the CBC and other institutions mentioned earlier. It tends to support Faris' thesis that changes in organizational goals within the CBC and i t s co-operative agencies resulted in a general move away from the use of broadcast television as a medium for extending educational experiences to adults in Canada. Some examples of university involvement with ETV which are of h i s t o r i c a l interest include series l i k e Decks Awash produced by the Extension Division of Memorial 54 University in Newfoundland. The objective of the series was to disseminate fisheries information to local fishermen and provide opportunities for them to exchange information and ideas with each other and the provincial extension agents. Eleven half-hour interview-discussion programs were produced in January of 1962. A second series was produced in 1963 and extended into 1964. In addition to the programs regular newsletters were mailed out to fishermen and supplemented with v i s i t s by the local extension f i e l d representative. Another example of a university sponsored ETV project was Town Talk an experiment in community development in the Thunder Bay region in 1967."'"' The project was co-sponsored with Lakehead University and incorporated a number of a c t i v i t i e s including television, hot line radio, public meetings and formal discussion sessions, designed to acquaint residents with local issues of concern, to seek their advice and encourage action to promote community change. Other examples of the use of broadcast television 131. in adult education programs can be found originating from L'Universite de Montreal and L'Universite de Sherbrooke which f i r s t offered broadcast courses for credit in 1961.^ In 1964-65 the University of Ottawa began to offer programs by television. In 1966 Laurentian, Memorial and Moncton universities produced ETV programs along with St. Francis Xavier. Other pioneer applications of ETV can be found in work produced by Sir George Williams, McMaster, and the University of Calgary.^ One of the most ambitious experiments in the use of broadcast television as an extension device was TEVEC, an educational and research project developed in 1968 by the Continuing Education branch of the Department of Education 58 in Quebec. The aim of the project was to offer upgrading programs in French, English and Mathematics to adults in the community of Saguenay/Lac St. Jean. Besides meeting an educational need, the program was also intended to promote community development, to relate the learning taking place to the everyday lives of the adults involved in the program. The intention was to use the programs as a basis for effecting social change. TEVEC had three major components:(1) television, used to disseminate information for the courses, (2) correspondence courses, to provide continuity and reinforcement for the learning, and (3) social activation, the direct involvement of the community with the programs through meeting centres, and contact 132. with trained "social animators". Television programs were broadcast four times a week with each program lasting one and one-quarter hours. The choice of a daily schedule of programs was to provide continuity in the courses allowing participants to progress systematically through the material to be covered. Every Friday a so-called "synthesic programme" was broadcast which served to summarize 59 the material covered in the previous four days. The summary broadcasts served an evaluative function by providing the answers to quizzes held during the week's series. Participants could check their answers with the correct ones to determine their attainment of the objectives. The Friday programs also served as a forum to promote other social a c t i v i t i e s related to the project. One of the most important features of the television component of the project was the creation of "tele-clubs" as part of the educational experience. These clubs, which closely resembled the listening groups in the old Farm Radio Forum, met regularly to view the programs and discuss the issues raised. The results of their discussions were transmitted in report form to the TEVEC programmers. The reports and the responses from the programmers were published in the local newspapers as a form of "feedback" to the participants. The correspondence course component of TEVEC functioned in a slightly different way from traditional forms of correspondence study. Here i t acted only as an evaluation device where participants were supplied with questionnaires and answer sheets for the examinations conducted on the television programs. Participants completed their questionnaires, submitted them by mail to the central organization where they were marked and returned. Written materials, texts, workbooks and exercises were not really a part of the correspondence component. The social activation component was designed to permeate a l l facets of the TEVEC program. The organization of the tele-clubs not only served as an opportunity for learners to come into contact with instructional agents but also provided an opportunity for participants to meet with each other and with animators to discuss community issues of concern to a l l . In addition to the tele-clubs there were organizations set up called "repetition centres" which served as drop-in centres for adults to meet with each other and with instructional agents. Committees made up of local citizens and representatives from TEVEC were organized to coordinate the tele-clubs and the repetition centres. In a l l there were 73 local committees and four d i s t r i c t committees with a total membership of 1200 people. These committees conducted conferences and public meetings to discuss issues connected with TEVEC. The forums served as a continuing system for evaluating the program and helped to identify topics of interest to local citizens which might become the subjects for future ETV programs. As well, from these committees came the social animators who were trained as group leaders to organize and conduct the tele-clubs and repetition centres. In i t s design, TEVEC represented an effective use of television as part of an educational program. The medium was used as a way of disseminating information to adults as part of their educational experience, an experience which included continuous management by educational agents through the correspondence program, the tele-clubs and the repetition centres. The Tele'universite de Quebec is another example of university involvement in the use of television as a medium to distribute educational experiences to adults. Founded in 1972 the Tele-universite began as an arm of the University of Quebec, but later became a semi-autonomous campus within the Quebec university system supported and coordinated by representatives of the u n i v e r s i t y . ^ The Tele-universite offers three programs, "two of which are specifically aimed at teachers and the third at the general p u b l i c " . ^ The f i r s t program of professional development for teachers is called PERMAMA (PERfectionnement des MAitres en MAthematiques). It allows secondary school mathematics teachers to obtain a bachelor's degree in their subject specialty. The program began in 1972 before the university could gain access to broadcast f a c i l i t i e s so programs were distributed on videotape and screened to groups of math teachers meeting in their local schools. This procedure resulted in a strong emphasis on group meetings in a formal classroom setting with television playing the role of an information device. In total there were 70 groups of teachers involved in the PERMAMA project, each group led by a "moniteur-animateur". The animator's role was similar to that of the group leader in the TEVEC programs. He or she acted as a discussion leader not as a teacher, because in many cases the animator was himself one of the students in the program. PERMAFRA, the second program i n the tele-universite series began i n 1975 and was designed to provide professional training for primary French language instructors. It used a similar delivery system to PERMAMA with television acting as a source of information along with correspondence material and regular meetings with the animator to discuss issues connected with the courses. The Tele-universite's f i r s t attempt at broadcast television began with the third program called "Connaissance de l'homme et du milieu", a series of programs designed for the general public which dealt with the "history and philosophy of the co-operative movement worldwide, and the economic, 62 social and legal aspects of co-operatives i n Quebec...". With over 3000 co-operatives functioning in Quebec and a 136. t o t a l membership of over a m i l l i o n people i t was perceived that there was a need f o r t h i s kind of program. Written texts and correspondence materials formed the basis for the course and these materials were supplemented by, and organized around a s e r i e s of 13 t e l e v i s i o n broadcasts. In a d d i t i o n four f u l l day seminars were scheduled f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s to meet to discuss issues r a i s e d by the TV programs. L i k e PERMAMA, PERMAFRA and TEVEC, the seminars were organized and l e d by animators who were assigned to encourage and lead d i s c u s s i o n on the broader issues dealt with i n the programs and as w e l l to a s s i s t the groups to i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c l o c a l issues which r e l a t e d to the general t o p i c s . Open u n i v e r s i t y . Perhaps the most impressive contemporary example of broadcast t e l e v i s i o n being used for educational purposes i s B r i t a i n ' s Open U n i v e r s i t y . I t i s an example of ETV on a massive scale and represents a degree of commitment to the use of the medium which i s , perhaps, unparalleled. The Open U n i v e r s i t y began i n 1969 as an experiment i n distance education to provide u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l t r a i n i n g to i n d i v i d u a l s who, f o r various reasons, could not leave t h e i r jobs to attend formal u n i v e r s i t y programs. Those who e n r o l l i n the Open Un i v e r s i t y are able to receive undergraduate t r a i n i n g i n s i x subject areas: A r t s , S o c i a l Sciences, Mathematics, Ph y s i c a l Sciences, Technology, and Educational Studies. The f i r s t students were admitted to the program i n 1971 and the f i r s t graduates completed in 1972. Courses in the Open University are organized around four basic components: correspondence study, radio and television broadcasts, summer schools, and study centres. The television programs function as a primary source of information and as a device to extend instruction outside the boundaries of an institution. Participants enrolling in courses receive books, supplementary materials, and related correspondence materials which form the independent study component. A sense of formal instruction is achieved through the ETV programs broadcast regularly over BBC television and repeated on radio. In addition participants are required at some point in their studies to attend a summer session program at a local university and are also required to meet regularly with course tutors at the local study centre. The centre provides an opportunity for participants to come into contact with instructional agents as well as the chance to meet with other participants to exchange information and ideas. The amount and variety of programming undertaken by the Open University is impressive. As Table II shows, a total of 106 programs covering seven major subject areas 64 have been developed since 1972. The table shows the evolution of these courses from 1972 to 1976 and although they are more heavily weighted towards the social and physical sciences the number of courses in other areas is also impressive. One point of particular interest i s the subject which was 138. introduced in 1973 to provide post-graduate courses for participants who had completed their degrees. Its creation demonstrates a degree of commitment to continuing education which goes beyond the level of similar programs. TABLE II Evolution of Courses in the Open University Program 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 Total Arts 3 4 4 2 4 17 Social Sciences 5 2 7 4 5 23 Mathematics 4 3 3 2 1 13 Science 9 3 4 1 3 20 Technology 2 3 2 4 5 16 Educational Studies 3 3 2 - 3 11 Post Experience - 1 2 3 - 6 Total Courses: 106 What is unique about the Open University i s i t s existence as a separate educational entity, not a f f i l i a t e d to' a parent university l i k e the examples given in the Canadian model. Of course there are constitutional constraints i n Canada, discussed earlier, which preclude the development of a national education body and there are significant differences in the population base i n both countries to allow for the 139. financial means to support such an institution i n Britain. Another unique feature of the Open University i s the degree to which the various educational processes are integrated into a complete system. For instance, broadcasting, and particularly television broadcasting, i s perceived by those associated with the Open University as an information or extension device forming one equal part of a comprehensive educational methodology which includes opportunities for learners to interact with instructional agents in a formal setting. In an early publication of the Open University, Robert Rowland, Head of BBC/Open University productions presented some of the issues of concern to professional broadcasters.^ His concern centres mainly around one of the distributive properties of television: scheduling and the effects i t might have on participation and the individual's learning rate. He reports that while early research indicated that audience commitment to the programs was f a i r l y stable around the 80 per cent mark, scheduling might affect this level of participation over time. Broadcasting schedules raise two major problems: f i r s t , learners might not be able to adjust their personal schedule to meet the demands of the broadcasts and secondly, those students who f e l l behind in their correspondence study would find i t d i f f i c u l t to keep up with the course because the television programs progressed at a set rate. One possible solution to the problem was to develop some system for repeating the programs. Rowland states that in the early stages of the Open University a decision was made to broadcast the television program twice and then repeat i t a third time in a modified form over radio. At the time this a r t i c l e was written there was no clear evidence that the repetition was successfully meeting the learner's needs and he proposed more research studies into alternate forms of distribution. Many of Rowland's concerns are reinforced in a 1974 study by Bates which examined the characteristics of Open University students.^ Bates' survey indicates that while most of the participants watch most of the television programs, many do not watch a l l of them. He concludes that scheduling plays an important part in these findings indicating an inherent weakness in the use of broadcast television as a distribution system. One possible solution to the dilemma is seen in the use of videotape as a means to store programs and make them available to participants at the local study centres. Another important issue raised by Rowland relates to the fixative property of the medium. He makes the point that more efficient means must be employed to assure that modifications are made to programs identified as having weak spots. He recognizes and supports the idea of continuous revision but he is also quick to recognize the economic problems which such a plan could create. While i t is a 141. f a i r l y simple technical process to revise television programs, i t i s also very expensive. In 1976, after eight years of operation, Radcliffe re-examined the role of television in the Open University.^ He identified eight characteristics of broadcasting which play an important part in the over-all operation of the education system. Radio and television he concludes have an important part to play in delivering information and instructive experiences to the learners. Its importance, he concludes, derives from what he terms the "unique 68 characteristics" of the medium for conveying information. Here he seems to be addressing some of the issues discussed in Chapter III of this study, but regrettably he does not elaborate on the topic. Another important role of television is i t s capacity to motivate the learner and to present information in a logical and well paced manner. Further he concludes that "broadcasting i s an extremely valuable way of attracting the 69 casual viewer...motivating him to become an active learner". In addition, the television programs are regarded as valuable not only to the independent learner studying at home, but also as an instructional device to be used in the formal instructional setting. Radcliffe recognizes the importance of television's secondary use i n the form of recorded information on videotape to be used for review and enrichment. He stresses the importance of co-operation between broadcasters, program planners and adult 142. educators in the planning, development and use of ETV broadcasts. This conclusion is significant to the definition of television's role in the Open University system because i t recognizes that television " i s at i t s most effective when i t i s planned so as to complement and support other materials and a c t i v i t i e s , including, for instance, print i n various forms, group activity, and face-to-face t u i t i o n " . 7 ^ The work of Radcliffe, Rowland, Bates and others connected with the Open University demonstrates a level of co-operation between broadcasters and adult eductors which has not existed to quite the same degree in the Canadian model. There is a strong sense of commitment to the use of ETV in the Open University system, but at the same time there is a recognition of i t s limits within the total educational experience. Television functions to extend some parts of the educational institution into people's homes, but i t does not, by i t s e l f , attempt to manage the entire experience. Educative Television Even a cursory glance at current and past television fare reveals l i t e r a l l y hundreds of examples of programs which might be termed educative as defined in this study. These are the programs which, under certain circumstances may be used as part of an educational experience, but were not originally designed for that purpose and in themselves, cannot function as an educational or instructional device or method. In order not to become overcome with the number and variety of educative programs an attempt has been made to categorize them. The categories are arbitrary and perhaps not complete because they concentrate on the content of the programs instead of their design or use. The attempt here w i l l be to select representative examples of h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary interest which i l l u s t r a t e the c r i t e r i a described for educative television. Some examples, particularly in the Instructive category may seem close to generally perceived ideas of educational television. Some in the other categories may at f i r s t glance appear to be as outlandish as the example in Chapter II where broadcasters promoted the old Amos and Andy Show as an educational experience. The point to bear in mind is that the choice of these examples has been determined solely on their content and content i s the only real c r i t e r i o n which can be used to judge their "educational" merit, i t has been already established that the c r i t e r i a for an educational program depend on factors other than program content. These educative programs however, do have a part to play in adult education at certain times. They can be used to enrich an educational event or provide information relevant to the content of a particular instructional event, but they were never originally designed to be part of a formal instructional event. Another point should be stressed here as well. The organization of these programs as educative should not be interpreted as an attempt to relegate them to a position of lower status when compared to educational television. Educative programs are not less important, they are only different from educational television because their status within the educational enterprise is determined by their use not by their original design or intent. As such they do not f a l l within the direct concern of adult educators u n t i l and unless the adult educator perceives a need to use them within a particular instructional event which he has designed. He would then choose to use them in whole or in part but only after the fact and only because they relate to his need to use them for information or enrichment within a particular educational program. Use, then, determines status. If the particular program is used to provide enrichment or information i t may be regarded as an instructional device, but the TV program, in i t s e l f , is not. Instructive programs. Programs in this category have already been described as those which broadcasters themselves perceive to be their contribution to "educational" television. They often deliver information using a lecture demonstration format which resembles a televised classroom setting. These programs are created as unique experiences and are not linked to any other means to ensure that learning takes place. The two most obvious contemporary examples 145. of instructive programs are Sunrise Semester and the University of the Air, neither of which i s produced by the CBC. University of the Air began during the 1965/66 program year and was produced by CJOH, the Ottawa a f f i l i a t e of CTV. 7 1 The series was expanded to cover the entire CTV network and has operated as a national program ever since. Sunrise Semester i s produced by CBS television and is received by many households 72 in the southern portion of British Columbia. Some hi s t o r i c a l examples of other types of programs which could be called instructive are identified by Thomas in his study on "ETV 73 and Adults". One is the Live and Learn series which began in 1964 and later evolved into another series called Extensions which used university faculty as guest lecturers on a range of subjects i n the arts and sciences. News and public a f f a i r s . It is in this category where the educative offerings of broadcasters are most apparent. National and local television news programs play an important role as a primary source of information on news and current events. Public affairs programs provide a forum for more in-depth analysis of news and afford the opportunity for broadcasters to editorialize. The CBC is generally recognized as a major contributor to the development of public affairs programs. One of CBC's most significant public affairs programs was This Hour Has Seven Days which, through i t s controversial approach to news interpretation 146. and investigative reporting contributed much to popularizing 74 the idea of public affairs programming. Current examples of public affa i r s programs include shows li k e Marketplace, a half-hour program on consumer affairs and The Ombudsman which functions as a forum for individuals to a i r their grievances against personal injustices perpetrated by government agencies and industry. The Nation's Business is a program designed to allow p o l i t i c a l parties regular opportunities to present their views on contemporary p o l i t i c a l issues. Country Canada is an information and public affairs program designed for farmers. Besides these regular series the CBC also produces a number of special news programs throughout the year which deal with contemporary issues. The CBC is not the only source of public affa i r s programming. The CTV network in Canada produces programs li k e Canada, A.M. and W-5 which examine topical issues and personalities. In the United States, the Columbia Broadcasting System produces 60 Minutes and the Public Broadcasting System produces programs l i k e the MacNeil/Lehrer Report. These kinds of programs have an important part to play in presenting issues to the viewer which he may think about and possibly discuss with others. He may also learn something from them, but they are not educational programs. Their primary function is to inform and entertain. They are not designed to systematically 147. affect behaviour. Documentaries. This term is used by broadcasters to describe any form of non-fiction production and even some f i c t i o n programs which use a particular style of presentation. In fact the term "documentary" has a much more precise meaning, but to avoid a long discussion here this study w i l l accept the broadcasters.' use of the term to describe any non-fiction production. 7^ Some examples of Canadian Documentary series include programs like Living Tomorrow, Heritage and Man Alive which deal with social, p o l i t i c a l and cultural issues. The CTV network's series Witness to Yesterday is an example of an hi s t o r i c a l documentary. Other related programs in this category include the CBC series The Nature of Things, produced during the 1960's, and a more contemporary example, Science Magazine. These type of programs a l l seek to entertain and inform viewers on past, present and future developments in the physical and social sciences. Interview programs. These programs have a f a i r l y broad educative appeal. They use a structured interview style to present information and to deal with issues in a systematic way even though they are also concerned with entertaining viewers. Some example programs include Look Who's Here, a CBC production where host Max Fergusson 148. conducts interviews with i n d i v i d u a l s from a l l walks of l i f e and the Watson Report where host P a t r i c k Watson conducts in-depth interviews with Canadian p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s . Other programs include the CBC's V.I.P. s e r i e s and the CTV network s e r i e s Question Period which also deal mainly with interviews of p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s and notable people i n p u b l i c l i f e . Programs l i k e these seek to provide viewers with a broader a n a l y s i s of issues of current concern. Meet the Press, an American s e r i e s which has become an i n s t i t u t i o n over the years i s yet another example where a t e l e v i s i o n interview program i s used to present information i n a structured form to the viewing audience. Discussion programs. These are the " t a l k shows", a category which i s marginal even i n the educative sense. Programs here are produced s o l e l y f o r entertainment, but depending on the subject matter, the viewer may devote the kind of a t t e n t i o n necessary to l e a r n something. Examples of d i s c u s s i o n programs abound: there i s the Bob McLean Show, Take 30, and 90 Minutes Live on the CBC network. On the American s t a t i o n s there i s Merv G r i f f i n (CBS), Mike Douglas (CBS), and Johnny Carson (NBC). These programs are s p e c i f i c a l l y produced for entertainment and have few redeeming q u a l i t i e s as educative experiences, but are included here because under some s p e c i f i c circumstances they may o f f e r viewers some opportunity to l e a r n . Process demonstration. These programs probably exhibit the strongest characteristics of an educative type of program. While they are primarily produced as entertainment they do make some effort to demonstrate processes which might be of use to the viewer. Examples include the CBC production Mr. Chips which demonstrates procedures and techniques of woodworking designed to assist the "home handyman" and Celebrity Cooks which offers viewers the chance to observe celebrities from.all walks of l i f e preparing their favourite dishes. The Galloping Gourmet and Juli a Child are other examples of cooking programs. Physical fitness i s the subject of programs l i k e Kareen's Yoga, produced by CTV, and Shape up with Sparling, produced by NBC. The PBS network offers a very popular gardening program called Crockett's  Victory Garden produced on the campus of Boston University. The balance between the entertainment and instructive features of these kinds of programs differs greatly. Some present their material i n a more structured manner than others but they a l l may make some contribution to the viewer by assisting him to understand the procedures involved i n developing certain s k i l l s . Cultural programs. This category describes those f i c t i o n programs which are perceived by viewers to be outstanding and which not only entertain but enrich our l i v e s . Masterpiece Theatre on the PBS network i s an excellent example of this type of program. I t has brought to the a t t e n t i o n of viewers such s e r i e s as the Forsyth Saga and Upsta i r s , Downstairs which have not only entertained viewers but helped to enrich t h e i r understanding of the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l development of soc i e t y . Examples of i n d i v i d u a l programs and s e r i e s abound, fa r too many r e a l l y to even begin to describe them here. Besides, to i d e n t i f y programs i n t h i s category requires e s s e n t i a l l y an i n d i v i d u a l value judgment. Not everyone might agree on what should or should not be included on the l i s t . The purpose f o r crea t i n g t h i s broad category was to allow f o r t h i s type of i n d e f i n a b l e , i n d i v i d u a l judgment which i s known as " t a s t e " . There i s l i t t l e doubt that these kinds of programs contribute to the general development of s o c i e t y but i t i s only under s p e c i a l circumstances when they are used i n an educational event that these kinds of programs become more than entertainment. In such an instance they become an educative experience. Role of Educative T e l e v i s i o n To place the r o l e of educative t e l e v i s i o n into some kind of perspective d e s c r i p t i v e data are presented here which i n d i c a t e the amount of time which broadcasters devote i n t h e i r schedules to these types of programs. Since 9 4 . 7 % of Canadians watch t e l e v i s i o n at some time during a normal week i t seems f a i r l y c e r t a i n that the medium exerts some influence on t h e i r l i v e s . 7 ^ How much and what kind of infl u e n c e really go beyond the scope of this study, but the number and the timing of educative programs help to reveal the degree of commitment which broadcasters exhibit towards educative programming. Data for this section have been extracted from a study undertaken by the author in 1973 which examined the total number of television programs available during a typical one week period to Canadians l i v i n g in the southwestern portion of British Columbia. 7 7 The data includes programs broadcast from American stations and distributed to Canadians through local cablevision systems. At that time the southwestern portion of the province received ten television stations, three Canadian and seven American. They were: CBUT - Channel 2 (CBC television network) CHEK - Channel 6 (combined CBC and CTV a f f i l i a t e ) CHAN - Channel 8 (CTV television network) KOMO - Channel 4 (ABC television network) KING - Channel 5 (NBC television network) KIRO - Channel 7 (CBS television network) KCTS - Channel 9 (PBS television network) KTNT - Channel 11 (Independent CBS a f f i l i a t e ) KTVW - Channel 13 (Independent) It should be noted that since 1973 two more Canadian stations have been added to the service. They are the CBC French language network and CKVU, a commercial independent station on the UHF band which has replaced KTVW as Channel 13 on the cablevision service. One might assume that the appearance of two more stations would affect the viewing rate by increasing the viewer population or increasing the amount of time existing viewers devoted to televised viewing. The research indicates 78 that these assumptions are incorrect. When the number of stations increases the number of viewers does not follow suit. Instead i t seems that viewers redistribute their time in such a way as to include those programs from the new stations which they wish to watch. In this sense the inclusion of two new Canadian stations into the service may affect the data presented here by skewing the viewer rate towards Canadian programs, but i t will not affect the overall pattern of viewing or the numbers of viewers. In almost any given week Vancouver viewers have a choice of over 1580 television programs amounting to approximately 1103.58 hours of program time. Each of the 1580 programs was examined and placed into categories according to their subject: drama series, comedy series, variety shows, educative programs, and so on. For the purposes of brevity only those in the educative categories are reported here. Educative programs directed towards children were ignored because the main focus of this study was adult material. As Table III shows those programs described as "instructive" account for only 7.02% of the total number of programs being offered to adults. They account for 58.30 hours or 5.28% of the total hours of programming for the week. Combining a l l the categories except cultural programs i t can be shown in Table IV that they amount to only 36.14% of the total number of programs offered and take up only 26.36% of the total hours of program time. The distribution of these programs is shown in Table V. In Table VI the programs were then broken down to compare the relative percentage distribution of Canadian and American programs. It was found that Canadian educative series accounted for only 1.77% of programs occupying only 1.45% of the time. American instructive series accounted for 5.25% of the total programs amounting to 3.82% of the time. In total the American stations offered more programs covering more hours which i s understandable considering they outnumber Canadian stations. Table VII shows the percentage distribution of programs by time of day indicating that the majority of instructive programs appear to be offered in the morning. -A closer examination revealed that the morning programs usually occupy the time slot from 6:00 am to 7:00 am, not a particularly convenient time for adults to watch television. The balance of educative programs are distributed thinly but evenly over the entire day. Table VIII shows the distribution of instructive programs by day. The total number and hours devoted to instructive programs by a l l stations is small. The CBC offers only 9 programs per week amounting to only 5 hours of broadcast time. The offerings on the CTV network are even smaller. TABLE III Comparison of Instructive Programs with Total No. and Hours of Programs Available Number of Number of Programs Hours No. % No. % Instructive programs I l l 7.02 58.30 5. 28 Balance of programs 1469 22.98 1045.28 94. 72 Total: 1580 100.00 1103.58 100. 00 155. TABLE IV Comparison of Educative Programs with Total No. and Hours of Programs Available Number of Number of Programs Hours No. % No. I > Educative programs 571 36. 14 295. 04 26. .36 Balance of programs 1009 63. 86 808. 54 73. .64 Total: 1580 100. 00 1103. 58 100. .00 TABLE V Dis t r i b u t i o n of Educative Programs Sat. Sun. Mon. Tue. Wed. Thu. F r i . Instructive * Nos. 7 18 21 20 16 15 14 Hrs. 4.0 11.00 9.60 11.05 8.05 8.05 6.55 News/ Nos. 22 19 46 46 39 39 44 Public A f f a i r s Hrs. 6.83 5.83 20.50 19.58 17.49 16.49 19.83 Documentaries Nos. 6 2 4 5 6 4 Hrs. 3.00 1.00 3.00 2.50 2.00 2.00 Interview Nos. 3 4 7 17 4 8 8 Hrs. 1.5 4.0 3, 50 3.16 2.00 4.00 5.00 Process/ Nos. — 6 5 4 9 2 Demonstration Hrs. 3.00 2.50 3.50 4.00 1.00 Discussion Nos. 1 21 21 22 18 18 Hrs. 1.50 17.33 15.58 18.00 19.00 7.5 *Number of programs scheduled during the day. +Total number of hours for da i l y programming. £ TABLE VI Percentage Distribution of Canadian and American Programs Available During the Viewing Week Total Number of Programs Total of Number Hours No. % No. % Instructive A 28 83 1.77 5.25 16.00 42.30 1.45 3.82 News and Public Affairs c A 56 199 3.53 12.58 31.58 75.00 2.86 6.78 Documentary-Series C A 14 13 0.86 0.81 7.50 6.00 0.67 0.54 Interview C A 14 37 0.87 2.32 7.50 15.66 0.58 1.07 Process Demonstration C A 19 7 1.19 0.43 10.50 4.00 1.11 0.35 Discussion C A 46 - 55 2.90 3.40 24.00 55.00 2.16 4.97 Total: 571 35.91 '295.04 26.36 * Denotes Canadian programs + Denotes American programs TABLE VII Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Educative Programs By Time of Day Morning Afternoon Evening Total Week's (6am-12am) (12am-6pm) (6pm-lam) Programming No. t 0 No. 7c No. % No. Instructive * ,c 10 0. 63 12 0. 75 6 0. 37 28 1. 77 + A 38 2. ,40 19 1. 20 32 1. 64 83 5. 25 News/ C __ 5 0. 31 51 3. 22 56 3. 22 Public A f f a i r s A 85 5. ,37 22 1. 38 92 5. 82 199 12. 58 Documentaries C 8 0. .50 3 0. 18 3 0. 18 14 0. 86 A 2 0. .12 1 0. 06 10 0. 63 13 0. 82 Interview C 2 0. .12 10 0. 63 2 0. 12 14 0. 86 A 24 1. ,51 5 0. 31 8 0. 50 37 2. 32 Process/ C 7 0. ,44 12 0. 75 — — — 19 1. 19 Demonstration A 5 0, .31 1 0. 06 1 0. 06 7 0. 43 Discussion C 26 1, .64 20 1. 26 — — — 46 2. 90 A 14 0. .88 16 1. 01 24 1. 51 55 3. 40 *Denotes Canadian programs +Denotes American programs TABLE VIII Distribution of Instructive Programs By Station By Day and By Week Stat. Sat. Sun. Hon. Tue8. Wed. Thu. F r i . Total By Week % CBUT (2) Nos. Hrs. 3 2.00 5 2.50 1 0.50 9 5.00 0.57 0.45 CHEK (6) Nos. Hrs. 3 2.00 2 1.00 2 1.00 2 1.00 1 0.50 1 0.50 11 6.00 0.69 0.54 CHAN (8) Nos. Hrs. 1 1.00 1 0.50 1 0.50 1 0.50 2 1.00 1 0.50 7 4.00 0.44 0.36 % Canadian Sub- . Nos. t o t a l Hrs. 1.70 1.35 KOMO (4) Nos. Hrs. 2 1.00 2 1.00 2 1.00 1 0.50 1 0.50 8 4.00 0.50 0.36 KING (5) Nos. Hrs. 1 0.50 2 0.55 2 0.55 2 0.55 2 0.55 2 0.55 11 3.25 0.69 0.29 KIRO (7) Nos. Hrs. 1 0.50 1 0.50 2 0.55 1 0.50 1 0.50 1 0.50 7 3.05 0.44 0.27 KCTS (9) Nos. Hrs. 2 2.00 10 5.00 11 7.00 8 A.50 6 4.00 6 3.00 43 25.50 2.72 2.32 KTNT (ID Nos. Hrs. 3 1.50 1 0.50 4 2.00 0.25 0.18 KVOS (12) Nos. Hrs. 1 0.50 2 1.00 2 1.00 2 1.00 2 1.00 1 0.50 10 5.00 0.63 0.45 KTVW (13) Nos. Hrs. 1 0.50 1 0.50 0.06 0.04 Total By Day Nos. Hrs. 7 4.00 18 11.00 21 9.60 20 11.05 16 8.05 15 8.05 14 6.55 111 58.30 7.02 5.28 KCTS, the PBS a f f i l i a t e in Seattle, Washington, offers a substantial amount of time in comparison, but that situation is to be expected considering their evolution and h i s t o r i c a l commitment to alternate educative types of programming. While educative types of programs s t i l l form a major proportion of television fare scholars l i k e Thomas point out that one should not forget that the main role for broadcast television 79 is to entertain people and act as an advertising medium. Nevertheless, more research into the nature and effects of educative television might certainly provide some useful data for adult educators. This kind of research, however, should not be based on the assumption that these types of programs offer educational experiences for adults. It is possible that they do exert considerable influence in their own way by acting as a source of information or enrichment. It i s possible that the techniques used by program producers to convey their messages may affect viewers in general and predictable ways. The main point to remember with educative programs is that they exist as unique experiences and are produced for reasons other than promoting .learning. They may have a part to play in adult education i f adult educators choose to use them but they are not by themselves an adult education experience. 161. FOOTNOTES Alan M. Thomas, "ETV and Adults", from: Earl Rosen. Educational  Television, Canada, Toronto: Burns and MacEachren Limited, 1967. R. Dubin, et a l , The Medium May be Related to the Message:  College Instruction by TV, Eugene Oregon: Centre for Advanced Study of Educational Administration, 1969. R. Bretz, "Simultaneous Audio-video Feedback for the ITV Teacher", N.A.E.B. Journal, 26, 1967, pp. 88-92. D. Wolgamuth, "A Comparative Study of Three Techniques of Student Feedback in Television Teaching: the effectiveness of an e l e c t r i c a l signal feedback system", N.D.E.A. T i t l e VII Project No. 435, Washington D.C." U.S. Office of Education, 1961. F.C. Johnson, "Feedback in Instructional Television", Journal  of Communication, 10, 1960, pp. 140-146. Southwestern Signal Corps Training Centre and Camp San Luis Obispo, Cal i f . , "Instructor-student Contact in Teaching by Television", Training Evaluation and Research Programs, Part IV, Training Research Programs, 1953. See Chapter II, pp. 29-30. "Resumes of HERMES Communications Experiments", Ottawa: Department of Communications, 1977. British North America Act, Section 93: 1-4, March 29, 1867. see also: A.F. Knowles, "Notes on a Canadian Mass Media Policy", Continuous Learning, 5:6, Nov.-Dec. 1966. Canada, Technical and Vocational Training Assistance Act, Revised Statutes of Canada, III, Chap. D-l/G-5, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1970. Canada, Broadcasting Act, 16-17 Elizabeth II, Chapter 25, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1968, 2 ( g ) ( i ) ( i v ) , p. 204. Wayne L. Schroeder, "Adult Education Defined and Described", Handbook of Adult Education, Robert M. Smith, George F. Aker and J.R. Kidd (eds), New York: The Macmillan Company, 1970, p. 37. 162. 10. Canada, Broadcasting Act, 1968, op. cit. 11. Alexander McGechaen, "The Role of the National Film Board in the Development of Adult Education Programs in the Province of British Columbia: 1942-1970", unpublished M.A. thesis, The University of British Columbia, 1971, pp. 8-9. 12. Ronald L. Faris, "Adult Education For Social Action or Enlightenment? An Assessment of the Development of the Canadian Association For Adult Education and its Radio Forums", Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto, 1971. 13. Canada, Report of the Royal Commission on Radio Broadcasting, Ottawa: King's Printer, 1929. 14. Canada, Report of the Royal Commission on Broadcasting, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1957, p. 44. 15. Canada, Broadcasting Act, 16-17 Elizabeth II, Chapter 25, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1968. 16. Ibid. 17. J. Miedzinski, "The Status of Canadian Educational Television", Educational Instructional Broadcasting, January 1967, p. 4. 18. R.S. Lambert, "The National Advisory Council on School Broadcasting", Canadian Education, June 1952, p. 3. 19. Canada, Report of the Committee on Broadcasting, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1965, Chapter 16. 20. Ibid., p. 272. 21. Lambert, op. cit., p. 3. 22. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Beginning Russian: A  Study of the Audience to a Televised College Course in the  Russian Language, Ottawa: CBC Research Department, 1961. 23. Ibid., p. 21. 24. Ibid., 25. Ibid., p. 34. 26. Ibid., p. 35. 163. 27. Bruce H. Westley, Attitudes Toward Educational Television, Madison: University of Wisconsin Television Laboratory, 1958. see also: John R. Shepherd. The Oregon Educational Television  Project, Final Report, Stanford C a l i f . : ERIC Clearinghouse, 1963. also: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. What the Canadian  Public Thinks of the CBC, Ottawa: CBC Research Department, 1963. 28. Beginning Russian, op. c i t . , p. 34. 29. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Let's Speak English, An  Experiment in Adult Educational TV Designed to Teach English  to Beginners, With a Report on the Audience Reached and i t s  Reaction to the Program, Ottawa: CBC Research Department, 1967. 30. Ibid., p. 39. 31. Ibid., p. 11. 32. Ibid., p. 54. 33. Ibid. 34. Ibid., p. 58. 35. Ibid. 36. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Educational Television For  Farmers: A Study of Audience Reactions to a Televised Course  of Instruction For Farmers i n Manitoba, Ottawa: CBC Research Department, 1962. 37. Ibid., p. 3. 38. Ibid., p. 10. 39. Ibid., p. 5. 40. Ibid., p. 10. 41. Ibid., p. 15. 42. Coolie-Verner and Frank W. Millerd, Adult Education and the  Adoption of Innovations by Orchardists in the Okanagan Valley  of B r i t i s h Columbia, University of B r i t i s h Columbia: Department of Agricultural Economics, 1966. 164. 43. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, This Business of Farming:  A Study of Reaction to a Televised Course of Instruction For  Farmers in the Prairie Provinces of Canada, Ottawa: CBC Research Department, 1965, p. 1. 44. Ibid., p. 2. 45. Ibid., pp. 286-297. 46. Faris, op. c i t . 47. Canadian Association for Adult Education, "Has TV Helped Citizen's Forum", Food For Thought, 17:5, February 1957. 48. Coolie Verner, "Cultural Diffusion and Adult Education", reprinted from: Adult Leadership, June 1968. 49. Ibid., p. 5. 50. It should be noted that Citizen's Forum is not a "method" of adult education. It i s , rather, a program. Nevertheless the change in the character of Citizen's Forum affected i t s acceptance in a similar fashion to that described by Verner. 51. G.A.B. Moore, "The Growth of Educational Technology in Canadian Higher Education", British Journal of Educational  Technology, 1:3, January 1972. 52. Ibid., p. 33. 53. One notable exception is a program by St. Francis Xavier University in 1966. 54. "Communications-Television", Continuous Learning, 4:1, Jan./Feb. 1965. 55. Lois Wilson, "Town Talk - an experiment in Community Development and Adult Education", Continuous Learning, 7:12, March/April 1968, pp. 86-88. 56. Moore, op. c i t . , p. 34. 57. Ibid. 58. Francine Gaudray, Multi-Media Systems, Munich West Germany: International Central Institute for Youth and Educational Television, 1970. Marion Royce, Continuing Education for Women in Canada: Trends  and Opportunities, Monographs in Adult Education, No. 4, Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 1969. 165. 59. Gaudray, op. c i t . , p. 25. 60. J.S. Daniel and M. Umbriaco, "Distant Study in French Canada: The Tele-universite", Teaching at a Distance, 4, Britain: The Open University, November 1975, pp. 8-13. 61. Ibid., p. 9. 62. Ibid., p. 11. 63. The Open University: Report of the Vice-Chancellor, 1972, Walton Hall: Milton Keynes, 1973, p. ix. 64. Data extracted from: The Open University: Report of the Vice Chancellor, 1972, Walton Hall: Milton Keynes,, 1973. The Open University: Report of the Vice Chancellor, 1973, Walton Hall: Milton Keynes, 1975. 65. Robert Rowland, "Some Thoughts on the Use of Broadcasting in the Open University", Teaching at a Distance, 4, Britain: The Open University, February 1975, pp. 61-65. 66. Tony Bates, "Survey of Student Use of Broadcasting", Teaching  at a Distance, 5, Britain: The Open University, March 1976, pp. 45-52. 67. John Radcliffe, "The Contribution of Broadcasting to Continuing Education", Teaching at a Distance, 6, Britain: The Open University, June 1976, pp. 46-55. 68. Ibid., p. 53. 69. Ibid., p. 54. 70. Ibid. 71. Thomas, op. c i t . , p. 61. 72. Current examples of programming are selected from programs available to viewers in the southwestern portion of British Columbia. Local programs may di f f e r in other parts of Canada. I 73. Thomas, op. c i t . 74. A.F. Knowles, "Notes on a Canadian Mass Media Policy", Continuous Learning, 5:6, Nov./Dec. 1966. 166. 75. For a more detailed discussion about documentary film see: Alexander McGechaen, "The National Film Board: A Retrospective", Educational Broadcasting, 6:3, May/June 1973, pp. 19-20. 76. Statistics Canada, 1972 Survey of Selected Leisure Time  Activities, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1972. 77. Alexander McGechaen, "Adult Participation in the Mass Media", submission to: Adult Education in B.C., Vancouver: Adult Education Research Centre, University of British Columbia, 1973. 78. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, What the Canadian Public  Thinks of the CBC, Ottawa: CBC Research Department, 1963. 79. Alan Thomas, "Audience, Market and Public, An Evaluation of Canadian Broadcasting". CHAPTER V SUMMARY This study has sought to examine what are believed to be some of the fundamental issues surrounding the role of educational television in adult education. In Chapter II a definition of adult education was. .given to set the basic parameters for examining ETV. A number of key concepts in adult education were also discussed to show the difference between adult learning as a formal activity and adult learning within the natural societal setting. The distinction was extended to include the conceptual differences between education, learning, and instruction. Next, Verner's conceptual scheme for classifying adult education processes was discussed with particular emphasis placed on the three major categories of methods, techniques, and devices and their relationship to the process of adult education. Educational television was then defined as a device and as a method of adult education. These definitions then formed the basis for analyzing a number of existing definitions for ETV gathered from various sources. The purpose of the analysis was to test the v a l i d i t y of existing definitions and the s t a b i l i t y of the definitions created for this study. The accuracy of definitions in this study was important to any further analysis. A dilemma was found to exist between the role of television i n the formal instructional setting and i t s role as a medium for mass communication which l i k e l y could result in learning. To unravel the dilemma a further definition was created for educative television to describe the medium's role as an informal educative device from which adults might learn. Seven major categories of educative television were constructed to describe programs which in themselves might provide opportunities for adults to learn but which were not specifically designed for that purpose. Next some important issues were discussed concerning the role of television i n instruction. The processes of learning and instruction were identified to show the relationship between each: learning as a process of internal change in behaviour and instruction as the external process which directs and affects learning. Gagne's eight phases in the learning process 169. were discussed and related to activities in the instructional process. Gagne's perception of the role of television in instruction was analyzed based on his learning model. A variety of studies and reviews of studies on television's effectiveness for instruction were then examined. These included some early studies with adult groups which were of historical interest, and reviews by Travers, Lumsdaine, Chu and Schramm which are classics in the field of communication study. To focus on adult instruction the work of Ohliger and more recently Campeau were also examined. Some issues surrounding the nature of research into ITV were identified and discussed including the effect which comparative effectiveness studies have had on the evolution of theory in instructional television. The characteristics of television were examined using Edling's scheme to show the difference between the fixative, distributive and manipulative properties of the medium and a modification was proposed to the manipulative category to facilitate a more precise system for identifying internal and external factors which may affect the way in which television communicates. Some issues surrounding the existence or non-existence of a visual language were also discussed. It was proposed that a visual language might exist which could affect television's capacity to communicate and, in turn, might affect its performance as an instructional device. The proposition was raised not for purposes of drawing any conclusions but to raise the poss i b i l i t y of another approach to the study of ETV which might be more appropriate to i t s role as a device to enhance instruction as opposed to i t s role as a unique means for managing the entire instructional process. Television program offerings for adults were then examined in light of the definitions and issues discussed earlier in the study. The focus of interest here was on Canadian programs, spe c i f i c a l l y the work of the CBC, although some examples were drawn from outside the Canadian scene. Examples of ETV's use as a method of adult education were d i f f i c u l t to find. For the most part television was used as a method in experimental studies although one notable innovation from a f i e l d outside of adult education was identified in the current HERMES s a t e l l i t e projects sponsored by the federal government Department of Communications. Although the projects to date are s t i l l experimental, the s a t e l l i t e affords the opportunity to use broadcast television i n the future as a method of adult education. A number of examples were identified where ETV was used as an information or extension device. CBC contributions were discussed as well as examples generated by Canadian universities. To compare the design and management of these programs a section was devoted to Britain's Open University which represents one of the most comprehensive adult education programs using television to date. Examples of educative 171. programs were presented using the classification scheme developed for this study. The focus here was again on Canadian programs although some from the U.S. networks were also discussed because the pervasive nature of U.S. television makes these programs available to most Canadian viewers. To indicate the degree and proportion of educative programs available to viewers, a section was devoted to providing descriptive statistical data to show the number of programs available, their proportion when compared to the entire b i l l of fare, and the amount of program time devoted to educative programming. CONCLUSIONS A number of conclusions might be drawn based on the original questions under investigation as well as some additional issues which have come to light during the course of the analysis. In this study, an appropriate definition for educational television involves the recognition that for an event or activity to be termed "educational" i t must exhibit the qualities of intent, planning and management over the instructional process. The primary focus of the experience must be to facilitate learning, the instruction should be designed in such a way that the content is presented in an appropriate form and there must be some kind of management over the instructional activities to ensure that learning i s taking place and that the learning is appropriate to the objectives. Based on these precepts then, i t was found that under certain circumstances television can f u l f i l l an educational function. This state occurs when TV is used as a way to organize learners, when i t i s used as the primary source for delivering instruction and when there are opportunities provided for direct and continuous management over the event by an instructional agent. Under these conditions television was found to function as a method of adult education. The formal definition, created for this study, states that: Television may be defined as a method of adult education when i t i s used as a way of organizing adults for a planned, systematic learning experience under the management of an educational agent and providing opportunities for continuous contact between agent and learner to affect the content and management of instruction. Further analysis revealed that such conditions exist rarely in the f i e l d due largely to technological and financial restraints imposed upon the medium. Nevertheless, conditions can exist which allow television to behave as a method of adult education and, i n time, i t may become more commonplace. It was found that under normal conditions television does not really satisfy a l l the requirements of a complete educational experience. Instead, i t acts as one means to inform, extend or enrich instruction within another educational method. In this case television plays the part of an education or instructional device, a part which may be highly significant to the success of the enterprise, but which is not, in itself, a complete educational process. In this role television may be defined as: an illustrative or extension device capable of distributing information to enrich an instructional event or extending an existing educational method to individuals or groups who might not otherwise participate in an educational event. When television is used as a device within the instructional setting i t exhibits the qualities of intent and planning: the program is created specifically for instructional purposes and the design of its content reflects a concern for presenting material in a way which complements the instruction. For a graph illustration of the relationship between TV as method and as device see Figure 1. The ability to be able to create the definitions for this study and observe them relating to existing program areas seems to indicate that there is some basis in adult education theory for stating that under certain circumstances television may be referred to as educational. Certainly at the superficial level ETV exists because both adult educators and laymen believe i t to be a legitimate medium. The problem with these global attitudes is that they do not afford the kind of precision necessary to distinguish between television as i t is used for educational purposes and television used for Figure 1. 174. Role O f Television in Adult Education E D U C A T I O N A L T V M E T H O D intent planning management D E V I C E inform extend enrich E D U C A T I V E T V I N S T R U C T I V E N E W S & P U B L I C AFFAIRS D O C U M E N T A R I E S I N T E R V I E W P R O G R A M S DISCUSSION P R O G R A M S PROCESS D E M O N S T R A T I O N C U L T U R A L P R O G R A M S 175. something e l s e . Much i s assumed about the power of t e l e v i s i o n to i n f l u e n c e the i n s t r u c t i o n a l process even though research into i t s r o l e i n learning and i n s t r u c t i o n reveals many anomalies which r a i s e serious questions about i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . What seems f a i r l y c e r t a i n i s that t e l e v i s i o n can be a powerful motivating force and anything which can a f f e c t t h i s most important f i r s t step i n l e a r n i n g i s worthy of consideration. I t seems that t e l e v i s i o n may also play an important part i n gaining and holding a learner's a t t e n t i o n , so he may begin the process of l e a r n i n g . T e l e v i s i o n also has an important part to play i n helping a learner to absorb and i n t e r p r e t new information to be learned. I t seems f a i r to say that ETV appears to have a s i g n i f i c a n t part to play as an a i d to i n s t r u c t i o n . Another important concern of t h i s study was how to handle t e l e v i s i o n programs which di d not f i t w i t h i n the s t r i c t d e f i n i t i o n of educational t e l e v i s i o n but which exhibited some of the q u a l i t i e s associated with ETV. To resolve the issue a d i s t i n c t i o n has been made between educational and educative with the l a t t e r term used to describe those kinds of programs which tend to educate. The term educative t e l e v i s i o n r e f e r s to: programs which provide some opportunity for l e a r n i n g to occur but which are not s p e c i f i c a l l y designed f o r that purpose. For a graphic i l l u s t r a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between educative and educational TV see Figure 1. 176. Educative programs run the gamut from those which pretend to be educational by providing information which may be presented i n a systematic manner but which provide no opportunities f o r managing the event to those types of programs which concern themselves e x c l u s i v e l y with entertainment and make no overt or covert pretense to provide i n s t r u c t i o n of any kind. In t h i s study seven categories were created to describe d i f f e r e n t types of content i n educative programs: i n s t r u c t i o n , news and pu b l i c a f f a i r s , documentaries, interview programs, di s c u s s i o n programs, process demonstrations, and c u l t u r a l programs. The l i s t could be longer, but these categories are used to describe the major content areas i n educative programming. It i s probable that viewers watching these types of educative programs do l e a r n something from them. The question, of course, which i s l a r g e l y unanswerable, i s how much and to what degree do people l e a r n from educative programs? I t i s almost impossible to assess. The primary function of these programs i s to provide entertainment or information, not education. The information may or may not be presented i n a format which demonstrates some consideration f o r designing i n s t r u c t i o n and l i t t l e or no regard i s given to provide opportunities or systems for managing the event. Nevertheless, these programs do have a pervasive e f f e c t . Many people watch them and are l i k e l y influenced by them i n one way or the other. The power and 177. effectiveness of educative programs as unique experiences is not really at issue here. They may be profoundly effective in communicating information. They may also spark ideas or develop awareness in the viewer. They are not, however, educational. They do not, in themselves, instruct and i f learning occurs from watching them i t does so by chance and not in a systematic way. There is a place for educative television within the methodology of adult education, not as an integral part of the methodology but as a form associated with i t . For example, there is no reason why an instructor cannot use any television program as an i l l u s t r a t i v e device to provide information or enrichment. When he does so he uses i t as a device to enhance the learning, even though the original intent of the producers was not to provide instruction.. Use then, can determine status, but i t s t i l l cannot change the program's position from educative to educational. An educational program is produced for the express purpose of contributing to an educational event. By creating the distinction between educative TV and educational TV and by placing one form of the medium within the conceptual scheme of adult education and the other outside the scheme does not imply that one form should hold higher status than the other, or that one form should be ignored in favour of the other. One is not necessarily better than the other or more important than the other, only different. The distinction 178. is made so that adult educators and educational broadcasters may recognize the fundamental differences between the intent, the design and the distribution of the two forms. It is more a question of territory than pedagogy. There is a fundamental difference between the two forms and one lends i t s e l f more readily to the process of adult education than the other. This is not to say that adult educators should divorce themselves from any concern with educative television. It i s important that adult educators understand what this role i s and approach i t s use accordingly. Educative television i s locked into i t s own form. It i s content oriented and can really never change. Educational television, on the other hand, begins with the assumption that i t s form and design w i l l be affected by the intention to assist in the process of education. There is a conscious attempt to promote learning which affects the. design of the program and i t s use. Educative television does not possess this conscious attempt to promote learning. The producer's concern is with the content of his program, how i t i s shaped to present i t s message in the most dramatic or expedient manner. If later the content of the program becomes relevant to the content of a particular instructional event i t may be used as an i l l u s t r a t i v e or enrichment device. It did not, however, begin that way and cannot, therefore, exist as an educational program. The f i n a l question to be considered is the role of CBC television and its contributions to ETV in Canada. As the study has shown the CBC's role in the development of ETV has been marginal. It has undertaken a number of projects on its own and in cooperation with universities and adult education agencies like C.A.A.E. It has, because of constitutional constraints, functioned largely as an advisor providing production and distribution facilities but not the leadership which has been characteristic of some other agencies like the BBC in Britain and the PBS network in the United Stat es. j The CBC cannot really be faulted for its activities in educational television because its mandate to provide education has been limited and overshadowed by its primary role as a national broadcasting agency with a variety of duties to f u l f i l l . It has, however, demonstrated a leadership role in its capacity to produce educative programs. Its tradition of providing information and enrichment programs is really second to none. Its reputation as a producer of non-fiction programs, documentaries, news, and public affairs programs has been long recognized. These kinds of programs certainly contribute to the general enlightenment of Canadian viewers but are really only indirectly related to adult education. The CBC, therefore, may be regarded not as an adult education institution but as a mass media instrument which from time to time contributes to adult education. IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH It i s customary f o r t h i s s e c t i o n of a d i s s e r t a t i o n to be devoted to a consideration of general areas for future research. Educational t e l e v i s i o n i s a subject which lends i t s e l f e a s i l y to t h i s kind of g l o b a l approach because i t permeates so much of our l i v e s and a f f e c t s us i n so many ways. The attempt here, however, w i l l be to i d e n t i f y some s p e c i f i c areas worthy of consideration which, perhaps, have not been pursued i n great d e t a i l before. Over the past twenty years much valuable research into ETV has been conducted using pre-adult l e a r n e r s . The n a t u r a l i n c l i n a t i o n might be to c a l l f o r more of the same using adult groups, a procedure which might not be i n the best i n t e r e s t s of adult education. The immense v a r i e t y of adult learners and the diverse nature of i n s t i t u t i o n s s e r v i c i n g t h e i r needs make i t d i f f i c u l t to follow a s t y l e of i n v e s t i g a t i o n which assumes a r o l e f o r t e l e v i s i o n as a mass education t o o l . The main focus of ETV research appears to have centred around comparative e f f e c t i v e n e s s studies to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p of TV to other forms of i n s t r u c t i o n . These kinds of studies create a dilemma because they assume that t e l e v i s i o n i s , i n i t s e l f , an i n s t r u c t i o n a l process, an assumption which may be fundamentally i n c o r r e c t . If we can assume that t e l e v i s i o n plays an important r o l e i n c e r t a i n aspects of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l process and l i t t l e 181. or no part in others then future studies can be freed to explore those areas which i t can affect and ignore the dilemma of attempting to j u s t i f y the medium as a unique instructional process affecting a l l phases of learning. To explore ETV's role as a motivator and presenter of information may result in more success and a more reasonable recognition of i t s usefulness. It i s , after a l l , primarily a communication medium and to r e s t r i c t studies to examine those features may prove to be more useful in the long term. More research i s needed to examine certain properties of television which make i t a useful device for communicating information and experiences. There i s really no further need to explore television's fixative and distributive properties except possibly to document new technical innovations as they are developed. It is already an established fact that TV is capable of storing and distributing information with a great degree of efficiency. What is needed are studies to examine those properties which make television an effective communicator. It i s the manipulative properties of television which need further study, particularly the effects of internal manipulation on TV's capacity to convey i t s message. One route open to researchers i s to determine whether or not television and i t s sister medium, film, actually do possess the qualities of language which affect their a b i l i t y to communicate. F i r s t , such a proposition must be presented 182. in a way which would be understandable and. acceptable to both adult educators and television people. Then the proposition must be tested rigorously. If in fact a language of television does exist then the medium may be in a position to exert a more direct and measurable control over certain parts of the instructional process. Given that communication is the fundamental building block upon which a l l learning and instruction are b u i l t , then mediums li k e television and film may be found to possess more power than i s presently recognized. At the very least, the documentation of such a language may help to show i n what ways and to what degree TV affects viewers. 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