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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Empirical analysis of the Agricultural extension service in Western States of Nigeria as an adult education… Opeke, Raphael Olabamiji 1977

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AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE. IN WESTERN STATES OF NIGERIA AS AN ADULT EDUCATION SYSTEM by RAPHAEL OLABAMIJI OPEKE Diploma (Agric.) School of A g r i c . M.P., 1 Ibadan, 1 9 6 3 B.Sc. (Agric.) U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska, L i n c o l n , 1 9 6 7 M.A. (Extension Con't. Ed.) U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, 1 9 7 2 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION We accept t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FEBRUARY, 1 9 7 7 Raphael Olabamiji Opeke, 1 9 7 7 i n THE FACULTY OF EDUCATION In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g ree t ha t the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department o r by his representat ives. It is understood that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f th i s thes is f o r f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Aj)\JL-T £ A7l <w4 The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1 W 5 Date ABSTRACT A g r i c u l t u r e i s the primary i n d u s t r y i n N i g e r i a . About 75 percent of the people of the Western S t a t e s of N i g e r i a (Ogun, Oyo, and Ondo States) depend on a g r i c u l t u r e w i t h cocoa p r o d u c t i o n as the p r i n c i p a l f o r e i g n exchange earner. Over the y e a r s , other r e s e a r c h e r s have questioned the e f f e c t -i v eness of the A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s as a d u l t e d u c a t i o n agencies i n the country and have argued the stagnant nature of farm p r a c t i c e s among peasant farmers. The purpose of the study i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r o l e s t h a t A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s i n the Western S t a t e s of N i g e r i a should p l a y f o r farmers and r u r a l non-farm peoples. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s focused on i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the methods and techniques a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n agents use i n t e a c h i n g farmers and examines the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of such methods as c o r r e l a t e s of cocoa p r o d u c t i o n among farmers. A con c e p t u a l model based on Verner's t h e o r e t i c a l framework was used t o ev a l u a t e the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e as an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n system. The s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e d 70 e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s , 109 v i l l a g e l e v e l e x t e n s i o n agents, and 140 cocoa farmers. I n t e r -view schedules c o n s i s t i n g of s t r u c t u r e d L i k e r t s c a l e s were used to c o l l e c t data f o r the study. D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s , c o r r e -l a t i o n a l a n a l y s e s , u n i v a r i a t e and m u l t i v a r i a t e analyses of v a r i a n c e , and r e g r e s s i o n analyses were used t o examine f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g cocoa p r o d u c t i o n . The E x t e n s i o n s t a f f i n the Western S t a t e s of N i g e r i a p e r c e i v e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n as the "most important" f u n c t i o n , and e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n second. The farmers p e r -c e i v e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n of the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e as the " l e a s t important" and ranked e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n as the "most important". The most e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques r e -c a l l e d by the farmers were those techniques l e a s t used by e x t e n s i o n agents. The e d u c a t i o n a l components of the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i n the s t a t e s d i d not emerge as s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r s of cocoa p r o d u c t i o n ; even though 55 percent of the i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n t o the farmers o c c u r r e d under sys t e m a t i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s . I t was concluded t h a t A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n the Western S t a t e s of N i g e r i a d i d not p r o v i d e e f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e f o r the r u r a l people. E x t e n s i o n a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out as the most important i n the s t a t e s are not those which the farmers expected from the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e . E d u c a t i o n a l methods and techniques used by the e x t e n s i o n agents d i d not make a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the peasant farmers, and were judged i n e f f e c t i v e t o the farmers' own s i t u a t i o n . The pr e s e n t system of e x t e n s i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n tends t o r e l e g a t e the e d u c a t i o n of r u r a l farmers t o a p e r i p h e r a l purpose w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework. The study u t i l i z e d a broad p e r s p e c t i v e of the e d u c a t i o n a l process of r u r a l farmers through a g r i c u l t u r a l exten-s i o n and thereby concluded t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques based on p e r s o n a l and group c o n t a c t s are deemed the most e f f e c t -i v e by the farmers i n improving t h e i r own farm p r a c t i c e s . - .Iv --TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE . . . . . . ABSTRACT . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . . . LIST OF TABLES - . LIST OF -.FIGURES . . . . . ACKNOWLEDGEMENT . . . . . CHAPTER I - INTRODUCTION . O b j e c t i v e s of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e Background t o the Problem Statement of the Problem O b j e c t i v e s of the Study Purposes and J u s t i f i c a t i o n V a r i a b l e s . . . . . . Hypotheses . . . . . . D e f i n i t i o n of Terms . . . . References f o r Chapter I CHAPTER I I •- REVIEW OF LITERATURE T h e o r e t i c a l Framework . . . . Ext e n s i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Role Theory . . . . . . Research on Role P e r c e p t i o n s Research on Job S a t i s f a c t i o n References f o r Chapter II - V Page CHAPTER I I I ~ AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION; WORLDWIDE, U.S., AND NIGERIA -A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS . . 48 H i s t o r y of E x t e n s i o n i n U.S. . . . . . 52 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e . . . . . . 59 Phil o s o p h y , O b j e c t i v e s . . . . . . 6 1 Fu n c t i o n s of E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s . . . . . 64 Role and T r a i n i n g of the Agents . . . . . 6 6 Summary of E x t e n s i o n i n the U.S. . . . . . 69 A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n i n Western N i g e r i a . . y 69 People and Settlement P a t t e r n s . . . . . 71 H i s t o r y of E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n N i g e r i a . . . 7 4 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e . . . . . . 84 Func t i o n s of Ex t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s . . . . . 89 Summary of E x t e n s i o n i n N i g e r i a . . . . . 94 References f o r Chapter I I I . . . . . . 96 CHAPTER IV - METHODOLOGY . . . . . . 9 9 Area and S e t t i n g of Study . . . . . . 9 9 Instrument Development . . . . . . . 9 9 V a l i d i t y of the Instrument . . . . . . 106 Sampling . . . . . . . . . 1 0 7 Data C o l l e c t i o n . . . . . . . . 110 A n a l y s i s of Data . . . . . . . . I l l Conceptual Model . . . . . . . . 112 L i m i t a t i o n . . . . . . . . . 112 References f o r Chapter IV . . . . . 117 CHAPTER V - PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS. 119 A. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of E x t e n s i o n S t a f f . . . 119 Age of Respondents . . . . . . 119 Tenure of Respondents . . . . . 121 Sex of Respondents . . . . . . 123 Formal Educa t i o n . . . . . . 124 - v i -Page CHAPTER V CContinued) . . E x t e n s i o n I n - S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g . . . . 126 Farm Family S e r v i c e . . . . . . 131 B. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Farmers . . . . . 135 Age of Respondents . . . . . . 135 M a r i t a l Status . . . . . . . 1 3 5 Years of S c h o o l i n g . . . . . . 137 Farmers Cooper a t i v e . . . . . . 1 3 8 Years of Farming . . . . . . 1 3 9 S i z e of Farm . . . . . . . 141 Farm Income . . . . . . . 1 4 2 Farm Y i e l d . . . . . . . . 143 Summary of B i o g r a p h i c a l Data . . . . . 1 4 5 Role A n a l y s i s . . . . . . . 149 Role P e r c e p t i o n s . . . . . . 1 4 9 Role Performance . . . . . . 158 E x t e n s i o n Methods and Techniques . . . 163 Sources of Farm Information . . . . 169 Farmers' Contact w i t h E x t e n s i o n Agents . . 172 Farmers' L e a r n i n g from E x t e n s i o n Methods . . 1 7 4 Rating of the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s . . . 182 Job S a t i s f a c t i o n . . . . . . 186 Summary of F i n d i n g s . . . . . . 190 References f o r . C h a p t e r V . . . . . . 1 9 4 CHAPTER VI - CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . 1 9 6 Co n c l u s i o n s . . . . . . . . . 196 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r E x t e n s i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . . . 2 04 Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research . . . . 211 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . 213 . APPENDIX A - RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS . . . . 224. APPENDIX B - LETTERS . . . . . . . 247 - v i i LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of E x t e n s i o n S t a f f by Tenure . . . . Table 2 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of E x t e n s i o n S t a f f by Sex . . . . . Table 3 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of E x t e n s i o n S t a f f by Formal E d u c a t i o n Table 4 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of S e n i o r S t a f f by S p e c i a l i z a t i o n Table 5 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of Extension. S t a f f by I n - S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n .-. t Table 6 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of Sources of C o n t i nuing E d u c a t i o n f o r J u n i o r E x t e n s i o n Workers Table 7 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of J u n i o r E x t e n s i o n S t a f f Adequacy of T r a i n i n g . Table 8 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of J u n i o r E x t e n s i o n S t a f f by Number of .Farm V i s i t s Per Year . . . . Table 9 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farmers by Age Table 10 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farmers by Years of S c h o o l i n g Table 11 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farmers by _ Membership i n Cooper a t i v e Union Table 12 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farmers by Years of Farming . . . . Table 13 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farmers by S i z e of Farm . . . . Table 14 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farmers by Farm Income From Cocoa P r o d u c t i o n Table 15 - Means of Eleven B i o g r a p h i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of S e n i o r S t a f f 122 123 124 126 127 129 130 132 136 137 138 140 141 143 . 146 - - v i i i -Table 16 - Means of E i g h t B i o g r a p h i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of J u n i o r S t a f f , Table 17 - Means of Fourteen B i o g r a p h i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Farmers . . . Table 18 - P e r c e i v e d Importance of E x t e n s i o n Functions by Mean Scores Table 19 - Comparisons of S e n i o r , and J u n i o r S t a f f and Farmers on E x t e n s i o n F u n c t i o n s : A n a l y s i s of Va r i a n c e . Table 20 - S c h e f f e M u l t i p l e Comparisons of Se n i o r and J u n i o r S t a f f and Farmers on Four E x t e n s i o n Functions Table 21 - Comparison of Senior S t a f f A g a i n s t J u n i o r S t a f f on Role Performance: A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e . Table 22 - Ratings of E f f e c t i v e n e s s of E x t e n s i o n Techniques . . . . . . Table 23 - Comparisons of Sen i o r and J u n i o r S t a f f on E f f e c t i v e n e s s of Ex t e n s i o n Techniques . . . . . . Table 24 - D i f f e r e n c e s Between E x t e n s i o n Techniques Recommended and Techniques A c t u a l l y Used Table 25 - Comparisons of Senior and J u n i o r S t a f f on the Use of Techniques Table 2 6 - Farmers' Prime Sources of Information. Table 27 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farmers by Contact w i t h E x t e n s i o n Workers Table 2 8 - E x t e n s i o n Techniques R e c a l l e d and Used by Farmers . Table 29 - Cocoa P r o d u c t i o n ( T o t a l Y i e l d ) P r e d i c t e d by Demographic P r e d i c t o r s Table 30 - Cocoa P r o d u c t i o n (Per Acre) P r e d i c t e d by Demographic P r e d i c t o r s Page 147 148 151 155 156 162 164 . 166 . 168 . 170 . 171 . 173 . 176 . 180 . 181 - i x -Table 31 - E d u c a t i o n a l E f f e c t i v e n e s s : R a t i n g by Farmers and E x t e n s i o n S t a f f Table 32 - Job S a t i s f a c t i o n Scores of E x t e n s i o n S t c l f f • • • * • « Table 33 - Comparisons of Job S a t i s f a c t i o n f o r Sen i o r and J u n i o r S t a f f X . -F i g u r e 1 -LIST OF FIGURES Summary of World Approaches t o Ex t e n s i o n and Ru r a l Development F i g u r e 2 - Map of N i g e r i a showing Study Area F i g u r e 3 - Conceptual Model f o r the Study of Ext e n s i o n S e r v i c e s . . . . F i g u r e 4 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of E x t e n s i o n S t a f f by Age . . . . . . F i g u r e 5 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Years of Experience . . . . F i g u r e 6 - Respondents' P e r c e i v e d Importance of E x t e n s i o n F u n c t i o n s by Mean Scores F i g u r e 7 - Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of E x t e n s i o n Role Performance . . . . F i g u r e 8 - E f f e c t i v e n e s s Vs. R e c a l l Rate of Ext e n s i o n Techniques . . F i g u r e 9 - Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by E x t e n s i o n R a t i n g F i g u r e 10 - E x t e n s i o n S t a f f Mean Scores on Job S a t i s f a c t i o n . . . . . Page 51 100 113 120 134 152 161 178 184 188 - x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Th e s i s w r i t i n g i s a l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . For me, the a c t u a l beginning and the end of t h i s process i s d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y . However, i t i s p o s s i b l e to re c o g n i z e many i n d i v i d -\/ u a l s who have, made s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s a t v a r i o u s stages of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . I would l i k e t o express my s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e t o these i n d i v i d u a l s both i n Canada and i n N i g e r i a . In Canada The s u c c e s s f u l completion of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n would not have been p o s s i b l e without the c o o p e r a t i o n and guidance given me by my d o c t o r a l committee. I am i n debt t o them f o r a l l the i n t e l l e c t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n and wealth of experience they c o n t r i b u t e d throughout my s t u d i e s . I wish t o express my profound g r a t i t u d e t o P r o f e s s o r C o o l i e Verner, of the Depart-ment of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , who served as my major s u p e r v i s o r , and was the Chairman of my Graduate 'committee. The oth e r members of the Graduate (Committee to whom I am g r e a t l y indebted a r e : P r o f e s s o r James E. Thornton, and P r o f e s s o r John B. C o l l i n s both of the Department of A d u l t Education, P r o f e s s o r Todd Rogers, of the Department of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, and P r o f e s s o r Jack Thirgood of the F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y . I am very g r a t e f u l t o a l l of them f o r t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n t h e i r v a r i o u s f i e l d s of e x p e r t i s e . I am g r e a t l y indebted t o the F a c u l t y of Education, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r the award of a Graduate - x i i A s s i s t a n t F e l l o w s h i p from 1 9 7 4 - 1 9 7 6 , without which i t would have been i m p o s s i b l e f o r me t o complete the s t u d i e s a t t h i s time. I am p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a t e f u l t o Dr. D. McKie, D i r e c t o r , Graduate D i v i s i o n , F a c u l t y of Ed u c a t i o n , f o r the k i n d c o o p e r a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e he rendered w i t h r e s p e c t t o my f i n a n c i a l needs. My s p e c i a l thanks go to the Dean and A s s i s t a n t Dean, F a c u l t y of Graduate S t u d i e s , U.B.C, f o r the S p e c i a l Bursary award gi v e n to me t o a s s i s t my t r a v e l t o N i g e r i a t o c o l l e c t data f o r my d i s s e r t a t i o n . I cannot overlook the f r i e n d l y and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t -ance g i v e n by Mr. Lev/is Varga, of the E d u c a t i o n a l S t a t i s t i c a l L a boratory, f o r the computer a n a l y s i s of the data, and f o r t h i s I am ve r y g r a t e f u l . My s p e c i a l thank;, goes to Dr. (Mrs.) G l o r i a Smith who v o l u n t e e r e d t o e d i t the t h e s i s . IN N i g e r i a I wish t o express s p e c i a l g r a t i t u d e t o the v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s i n N i g e r i a who p r o v i d e d the t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l support f o r t h i s study. I am g r a t e f u l to Mr. J.O.A. Akinwolemiwa, the Permanent S e c r e t a r y , M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources, Western S t a t e , Ibadan, (now i n Ondo State) f o r support and approval t o use the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e as the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e t t i n g f o r the study. I a l s o a p p r e c i a t e the a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n by a l l the z o n a l , and d i v i s i o n a l c o o r d i n a t o r s and t h e i r f i e l d s t a f f . The f i e l d d ata c o l l e c t i o n would not have been p o s s i b l e without t h e i r h e l p . I owe s p e c i a l thanks t o Messrs J.A. Oshakuade, 1.0. A j a y i , Biodun - x i i i -Akinwotu, Amos Akintomide, and J.D. Atewologun a l l of Akure and I l e s h a zones. Contact w i t h farmers i n the remote areas would have been p r a c t i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e without the s p e c i a l e f f o r t s of these s t a f f . The U n i v e r s i t y of I f e , N i g e r i a , was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r my sponsorship f o r t h i s study. My s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e goes t o the V i c e - c h a n c e l l o r , the D i r e c t o r and s t a f f of I.A. R & T ( T r a i n i n g D i v i s i o n ) a l l of the U n i v e r s i t y of I f e f o r making the study p o s s i b l e . F i n a l l y , I am g r e a t l y indebted t o my w i f e Remi, and to Bukola T o y i n and to a l l members of my f a m i l y who stood f i r m l y behind me to g i v e a l l the p s y c h o l o g i c a l d r i v i n g f o r c e needed f o r the p u r s u i t of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . Dedicated To My Family - 1 -Chapter I INTRODUCTION In t h e i r attempts t o combat the e v i l s of poverty, d i s e a s e , and ignorance, e s p e c i a l l y among r u r a l f a m i l i e s , many c o u n t r i e s of the world have adopted i n v a r y i n g degree A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e as the instrument to achieve r u r a l development and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . W i t h i n the p a s t few decades, a g r i c u l t u r e has experienced an a c c e l e r a t e d r a t e of change as a r e s u l t of new a g r i c u l t u r a l technology. However, these a g r i c u l t u r a l innova-t i o n s have no v a l u e u n l e s s they get to the farmers who need them. The a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e through i t s e x t e n s i o n workers, c o n s t i t u t e s one of the p r i n c i p a l sources of d i f f u s i n g new a g r i c u l t u r a l technology to r u r a l people. T h i s study i s concerned with a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n the Western S t a t e s of N i g e r i a (comprising Ogun, Oyo, and Ondo 'States). More p a r t i c u l a r l y , i t i s concerned w i t h r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s of the s t a f f of the A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources (MANR) i n the Western s t a t e s of N i g e r i a and the cocoa farmers 'in the S t a t e s as a s i g n i f i c a n t c l i e n t system. I t i s assumed t h a t , as a r e s u l t of the g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s s e t by the o r g a n i z a t i o n and the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n which the e x t e n s i o n work i s performed, the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers should r e l a t e e f f i c i e n t l y t o other persons i n the system, and to other o r g a n i z a t i o n s and agencies. E x t e n s i o n workers of the Western State M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l a r g e p a r t of the t o t a l " extension-type" work t h a t i n f l u e n c e s the d e c i s i o n s of the farm people of Western N i g e r i a . Other agencies t h a t c a r r y out " e x t e n s i o n work" i n the s t a t e are a g r i c u l t u r a l s c h ools and i n s t i t u t e s which employ a g r i c u l t u r a l graduates t o teach v o c a t i o n a l and e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n , c o o p e r a t i v e s o c i e t i e s , u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n departments, r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s , neighbours and f r i e n d s . Mosher (1958) s t a t e d t h a t the e x t e n s i o n agent, i n d e v e l o p i n g a programme along the l i n e s of the c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t s and needs of r u r a l people, must have a reasonable competence with r e s p e c t to s p e c i f i c p r a c t i c e changes i n s e v e r a l s u b j e c t -matter f i e l d s . His c h i e f job, i n which he needs'to be a r e a l e xpert, i s to be an e f f e c t i v e t e a c h e r , a s e n s i t i v e p e r c e i v e r of community o p i n i o n and a s k i l l f u l p a r t i c i p a n t , i n , and guidance o f , community re s o u r c e u t i l i z a t i o n . D i Franco and Fenley (1958) d e s c r i b e d two aspects of r u r a l e x t e n s i o n . F i r s t , the phrase "extension p r o c e s s " might be d e f i n e d as the democratic e d u c a t i o n a l approach, c a r r i e d on under the p r e c e p t of c u l t u r a l norms, by l o c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s . Contained w i t h i n the phrase are the important phases of programme b u i l d i n g , e x e c u t i o n , and e v a l u a t i o n , together w i t h such phases as t e a c h e r - l e a r n e r techniques, determining f e l t - 3 -needs, and the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework w i t h i n which these phases operate. The second fundamental aspect of r u r a l e x t e n s i o n i s the r o l e concept, through which an i n d i v i d u a l guides h i m s e l f and h i s a c t i o n s i n s o f a r as the d u t i e s , f u n c t i o n s and o b l i g a -t i o n s of h i s p o s i t i o n are concerned, and i n terms o f , and m o d i f i e d by the e x p e c t a t i o n of those w i t h whom he i s working. When combined and understaood by an i n d i v i d u a l , p rocess and r o l e c o n s t i t u t e some of the major dimensions through which he may s u c c e s s f u l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n r u r a l development. The h i s t o r y o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n the Western S t a t e s of N i g e r i a dates back t o 1893 when the B o t a n i c a l Demonstration Garden was e s t a b l i s h e d a t Olokemeji-Abeokuta wi t h the s o l e purpose of c o l l e c t i o n of h o r t i c u l t u r a l p l a n t s and the t e a c h i n g of ornamental gardening (Fenley and W i l l i a m s , 1964). But i n s p i t e of government i n p u t and r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n between 189 3 and the mid 1950's, the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e performed more of government r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s than e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s . That i s , e x t e n s i o n agents were more prone t o e n f o r c i n g government r e g u l a t i o n s than t o p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n f o r farmers. A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n as a s e r v i c e i n the Western S t a t e s of N i g e r i a (Ogun, Oyo, and Ondo s t s t e s ) can be s a i d t o have begun i n 1921 when the u n i f i e d Department of A g r i c u l t u r e was c r e a t e d , and the School of A g r i c u l t u r e was e s t a b l i s h e d a t Moor P l a n t a t i o n i n Ibadan, the then c a p i t a l of Western S t a t e . The a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n g i v e n a t the School and the guidance - 4 -f u r n i s h e d i n the f i e l d i n growing the export c r o p s , s e t the stage f o r l a t e r expansion i n t o a c t i v i t i e s more i n l i n e w i t h e x t e n s i o n (Fenley, 1964). The A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n i t s e d u c a t i o n a l sense took on i t s p r e s e n t appearance around 1959, when more t r a i n e d a g r i c u l t u r a l p e r s onnel became a v a i l a b l e and the t h r u s t f o r independence from B r i t i s h r u l e brought many i n t e r n a t i o n a l bodies and agencies i n t o N i g e r i a to help i n the manpower development of the country. I t was under t h i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programme t h a t the United S t a t e s Government through i t s Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development (USAID) pro v i d e d t r a i n i n g programmes i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n f o r indigenous s t a f f l o c a l l y and a t the Land Grant U n i v e r s i t i e s and C o l l e g e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The Scheme (under which the author was t r a i n e d ) was e n t i t l e d " T r a i n i n g of Future A g r i c u l t u r a l Leaders" and was pioneered by P r o f e s s o r John M. Fenley. Since 1960 t h e r e has been an i n c r e a s i n g d e s i r e i n N i g e r i a t o change the nature of e x t e n s i o n work from s e r v i c e to e d u c a t i o n . However, the problems f a c i n g the e x t e n s i o n workers i n performing the e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s f o r t h e i r c l i e n t e l e are numerous. Prominent among these problems a r e : (a) inadequate i n f r a s t r u c t u r e development; (b) shortage of modern f a c i l i t i e s such as t r a n s p o r t , t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s and so on. (c) r o l e c o n f l i c t of the l o c a l e x t e n s i o n workers who must p r o v i d e both s e r v i c e and law enforcement which f u r t h e r a l i e n a t e s the farmers; and (d) the b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e of - 5 -the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources. Because of these problems, the q u e s t i o n has been r a i s e d i n some q u a r t e r s whether e x t e n s i o n i s performing i t s e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s , and i f so, f o r what s e c t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n ^ C e r t a i n o b s e r v a t i o n s c o u l d be made about the A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . F i r s t , i t i s a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . Caplow (1964) d e f i n e d an o r g a n i z a t i o n as a s o c i a l system t h a t has an exact r o s t e r of members, a programme of a c t i v i t y , and procedures f o r r e p l a c i n g members. An o r g a n i z a t i o n i s f i r s t and foremost an i n t e r a c t i o n network, thus the a c t i v i t y of one person i s p a r t l y and c o n t i n u o u s l y determined by the a c t i v i t i e s of o t h e r s . I f the f u n c t i o n s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n are to be accomplished, i t must be p o s s i b l e f o r those i n charge of c o o r d i n a t i n g the programme of a c t i v i t y t o communicate w i t h a l l p o s i t i o n s , and f o r each p o s i t i o n to communicate wi t h them. Second, the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e has most of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n . C l a s s i c a l bureaucracy a c c o r d i n g t o Weber (1947) i s c h a r a c t e r -i z e d by the f o l l o w i n g i n t e r r e l a t e d ideas: (.1) the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s founded on l e g a l a u t h o r i t y which has a c l a i m to the obedience of the members of the o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t enacts the l e g a l norm and to t h a t of the other persons w i t h i n the sphere of power of the o r g a n i z a t i o n ; (2) p o s i t i o n s are o r g a n i z e d h i e r a r c h i c a l l y , each lower p o s i t i o n being under the c o n t r o l and s u p e r v i s i o n of a h i g h e r person. Each p o s i t i o n has a d e f i n i t e sphere of competence, w i t h s p e c i f i e d t a s k s , o b l i g a t i o n s , a s p e c i f i e d - 6 -degree of a u t h o r i t y , and the means of compulsion t o enf o r c e i t s a u t h o r i t y ; and (.3) can d i d a t e s are appointed and not e l e c t e d , and appointments are based on f r e e c o n t r a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t i s a s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e governed by a system of a b s t r a c t r u l e s . O b j e c t i v e s of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t i o n a l Resources The A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n i s the main e x t e n s i o n agency of the Western Sta t e s M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources and has as i t s primary o b j e c t i v e s : 1. t o m a i n t a i n and i n c r e a s e the o v e r a l l e f f i c i e n c y of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n i n the S t a t e s , 2. t o ensure t h a t the most modern farming techniques and the l a t e s t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s are made a v a i l a b l e to farmers, 3. to p r o v i d e the l e a d e r s h i p and g e n e r a l guidance i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n t h a t w i l l b r i n g about improved l i v i n g standard i n the r u r a l farm people ( A r i b i s a l a , 1961). Background t o the Problem In terms of economic development and t e c h n o l o g i c a l advancement, the gap between the r i c h and the poor n a t i o n s i s wide and appears t o be widening. In developed c o u n t r i e s l i k e '' the U.S.A., Canada, the ^ United Kingdom and France, o n l y a sm a l l p r o p o r t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n i s engaged i n p r o d u c t i o n - 7 -/ a g r i c u l t u r e w h i l e a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n is" -engaged i n agro-business e n t e r p r i s e s which p r o v i d e c o n t i n u i n g .• yaid t o the farm and non-farm people. For example, i n the Un i t e d S t a t e s , i n d u s t r i e s r e l a t e d to a g r i c u l t u r e c o n t r i b u t e between 15 to 2 0 per cent o f the Gross N a t i o n a l Product and employ 20 to 25 per cent of the labour f o r c e . On the other hand, commodities valued a t the farm gate r e p r e s e n t o n l y 4 t o 5 per cent of the GNP, and labour i n farming amounts t o about 8 per cent of the labour f o r c e (Moore and Walsh, 1966; Kohls and Downey, 197 2). The adoption of t e c h n o l o g i e s by farmers i n these e c o n o m i c a l l y advanced c o u n t r i e s has r e s u l t e d i n a higher standard of l i v i n g f o r r u r a l people and r u r a l non-farm people. Although s e v e r a l socio-economic f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d t o the advancement of a g r i c u l t u r e i n these i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s , much of the c r e d i t i s a t t r i b u t e d to the well-developed and w e l l - o r g a n i z e d a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h , e x t e n s i o n and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o v i d e d by t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s . In c o n t r a s t , the c o u n t r i e s of A f r i c a are a g r a r i a n i n nature; the r u r a l farm people and r u r a l non-farm people of A f r i c a s t i l l e xperience h i g h r a t e s of i l l i t e r a c y , m a t e r i a l poverty, d i s e a s e and hunger a r i s i n g from the l e s s p r o d u c t i v e s u b s i s t e n c e farming. In N i g e r i a , about 7 0 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n i s engaged i n r u r a l a g r i c u l t u r e u s i n g i n e f f i c i e n t t o o l s on fragmented la n d h o l d i n g s . The key t o s o l v i n g many of these s o c i a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l problems l i e s i n p r o v i d i n g e f f e c t i v e r u r a l a d u l t - 8 -e d u c a t i o n programmes i n a g r i c u l t u r e , h e a l t h , n u t r i t i o n , b a s i c and/or f u n c t i o n a l l i t e r a c y e d u c a t i o n . Such t o t a l a d u l t educa-t i o n w i l l p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the people to a c q u i r e the necessary knowledge, s k i l l s , and a t t i t u d e s t h a t would enable them to choose and p r a c t i s e p r o d u c t i v e l y o ccupations of t h e i r c h o i c e . I t would enable them to p a r t i c i p a t e more e f f e c t i v e l y i n s o c i e t a l and community a c t i o n s and to enable them t o a d j u s t to c o n t i n u i n g s o c i a l changes. F i n d i n g s from a number of adoption s t u d i e s and r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s showed t h a t the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n has made very l i t t l e e d u c a t i o n a l impact on N i g e r i a n farmers i n terms of improving t h e i r knowledge, s k i l l s , and a t t i t u d e s towards s c i e n t i f i c farming. In other words, the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n aspect of the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s which i s extremely v i t a l t o the i n t e g r a t e d development of the r u r a l areas i n the d e v e l o p i n g countries has been n e g l e c t e d . The United Nations (FAO, 1966) r e p o r t on a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n N i g e r i a between 1965-1980 p o i n t e d out t h a t " i n the p a s t ... the f i e l d s t a f f of government a g r i c u l t u r a l s e r v i c e s i n N i g e r i a were mainly i n v o l v e d i n p a s s i n g on, and f r e q u e n t l y e n f o r c i n g government o r d e r s and i n s t r u c t i o n s to the farming community". S e v e r a l other r e s e a r c h e r s and government agencies have c a l l e d f o r a new p h i l o s o p h y o f e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s i n N i g e r i a , and a l s o f o r an an approach t h a t i s based on e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g , and l e a d e r s h i p r a t h e r than on the e x e r c i s e of a u t h o r i t y and the enforcement of government r e g u l a t i o n s . - 9 -Statement of the Problem About seventy per cent of the N i g e r i a n p o p u l a t i o n l i v e s i n r u r a l areas and p r a c t i s e s s u b s i s t e n c e farming. The Western S t a t e s (now comprising the Ogun, Oyo, and Ondo s t a t e s ) r e l y on the p r o d u c t i o n of export crops f o r t h e i r f o r e i g n exchange e a r n i n g s . While Western S t a t e s i s almost s e l f - s u f f i -c i e n t i n the p r o d u c t i o n of food c r o p s , cocoa i s the major crop. These r u r a l farmers and non-farmers f a c e numerous problems of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , r u r a l community develop-ment, c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n , home and f a m i l y e d u c a t i o n and so on. A m a j o r i t y of these farmers have no co n t a c t w i t h r u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers, and t h e i r needs i n these problem areas remain unmet. How do the v i l l a g e l e v e l e x t e n s i o n workers and t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s r egard these a c t i v i t i e s ? Are they the i d e a l r o l e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s ? How do the t e c h n i c a l j u n i o r s t a f f and the s u p e r v i s o r s of the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources (MANR) d e f i n e t h e i r own r o l e s ? What do the cocoa farmers i n the S t a t e s c o n s i d e r as important f u n c t i o n s of the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s ? How w e l l are the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s i n the Western S t a t e s performing t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e s t o the farmers, and what methods and techniques are mainly used? Are the e x t e n s i o n workers s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r job? These q u e s t i o n s form the b a s i s of t h i s study. - 10 -O b j e c t i v e s of the Study The primary o b j e c t i v e of the study i s t o determine the degree to which the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources of Western S'tates of N i g e r i a are e f f e c t i v e i n p r o v i d i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n to r u r a l farmers. S p e c i f i c O b j e c t i v e s : 1. to determine r o l e consensus between e x t e n s i o n person-n e l of the MANR, and the cocoa farmers i n Western S t a t e s w i t h regard to the r o l e t h a t . a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n should p l a y . 2. to determine r o l e performance of the e x t e n s i o n j u n i o r s t a f f and t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s and to measure the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups. 3. to determine the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques which are p e r c e i v e d as most e f f e c t i v e by e x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l and farmers. 4. to determine the i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques which are most f r e q u e n t l y used to teach farmers. 5. to determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e f f e c t i v e n e s s of farmers' l e a r n i n g of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques used. 6. t o determine how farmers and e x t e n s i o n s t a f f r a t e the e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n p r o v i d e d i n Western S t a t e s , . and to e s t a b l i s h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i r r a t i n g s and p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s . 7. t o determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x t e n s i o n personnel job performance and job s a t i s f a c t i o n . 8. to i d e n t i f y s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s i n N i g e r i a and the Cooperat i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . 9. t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s and make recommendations based on the data about the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e as an A d u l t Education System i n the Western s t a t e s . 10. t o suggest measures f o r improving the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the e d u c a t i o n a l process of the MANR based on the f i n d i n g s . Purposes and J u s t i f i c a t i o n The reasons f o r conducting the study were two-fold: 1. t o help g a i n a b e t t e r understanding of r u r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n as an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n system i n the Western States of N i g e r i a 2. t o help p r o v i d e Western N i g e r i a a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w i t h e m p i r i c a l and v a l i d i n f o r m a t i o n on which t o base d e c i s i o n s of s e l e c t i o n s t r a i n i n g , p l a n n i n g , and s u p e r v i s i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l . The study c o u l d be j u s t i f i e d on many grounds. F i r s t , the r e s u l t c o u l d be of p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s i n the Western S t a t e s , and i n N i g e r i a as a whole. Second, the study c o n t r i b u t e s t o the - 12 -knowledge on Rur a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s as an A d u l t E d u c a t i o n System, and would serve as a benchmark f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n ex t e n s i o n and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . T h i r d , the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s and the l e a r n i n g experience a c c r u i n g from t h i s study should c o n t r i b u t e to the author's own knowledge and a s p i r a t i o n s i n the f i e l d of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . V a r i a b l e s The v a r i a b l e s i n v e s t i g a t e d and analyzed i n the study are as f o l l o w s : Independent V a r i a b l e s : 1. the age of e x t e n s i o n workers and farmers. 2. tenure w i t h MANR, and tenure on ex t e n s i o n work — d e f i n e d as number of years worked w i t h MANR. 3. years of farming - as years of experience of farmers i n p r a c t i c a l farming. 4. rank of the e x t e n s i o n worker - d e f i n e d as t h e i r s t a t u s i n MANR. 5. formal education - d e f i n e d as number of years of s c h o o l i n g f o r a l l c a t e g o r i e s of respondents. 6. s i z e of the farm owned by i n d i v i d u a l cocoa farmers. 7. degree of emphasis on farmer c o n t a c t - d e f i n e d as i n s t r u c t i o n - o r i e n t e d c o n t a c t : between e x t e n s i o n agents and the farmers. 8. r o l e p e r c e p t i o n - d e f i n e d as the respondent's a c t i v i t y e x p e c t a t i o n s h e l d f o r the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources. - 13 -9. membership i n c o o p e r a t i v e s o c i e t y - whether or not an i n d i v i d u a l farmer i s a member of the Farmers' , Cooperative S o c i e t y of Western S t a t e s . 10. e f f e c t i v e n e s s of e d u c a t i o n a l techniques - how e f f e c t i v e each technique i s judged i n p r o v i d i n g maximum l e a r n i n g f o r farmers about farm p r a c t i c e s . Dependent V a r i a b l e : The c r i t i c a l dependent v a r i a b l e i s the y i e l d of cocoa per acre obtained by a farmer who used e x t e n s i o n educa-' t i o n s e r v i c e s . Research Hypotheses Two r e s e a r c h hypotheses u n d e r l y t h i s study. 1. There i s an incongruent r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r o l e p e r c e p t i o n o f the MANR Ex t e n s i o n S e r v i c e personnel and t h e i r c l i e n t system; t h a t i s , the i d e a l r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t the ex t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s should p l a y f o r r u r a l farmers as p e r c e i v e d by e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s and t h e i r v i l l a g e l e v e l e x t e n s i o n agents are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the farmers' e x t e n s i o n r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s . 2. There i s an i n t r a - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l incongruence between the r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s and r o l e performance of the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e of Western S t a t e s o f N i g e r i a ; t h a t i s , the amount of time e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s and t h e i r j u n i o r s t a f f expend on e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n s - 14 -does not r e f l e c t the r e l a t i v e importance they a t t a c h t o these f u n c t i o n s . S p e c i f i c Hypotheses 1. the r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e ' e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s w i l l be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r s u b o r d i n a t e s . 2. the r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s of e x t e n s i o n personnel w i l l be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s of the farmers. 3. the r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s of the e x t e n s i o n personnel w i l l be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r r o l e performance. 4. t h e r e w i l l be a d i r e c t and p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s and socio-economic v a r i a b l e s , e s p e c i a l l y : a) age b) educ a t i o n c) tenure (years o f experience) d) farm s i z e e) number of c h i l d r e n f) number of wives 5. The job s a t i s f a c t i o n of the e x t e n s i o n personnel w i l l be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o : a) e d u c a t i o n b) tenure c) age d) rank - 15 -6. The r a t i n g s g i v e n t o the s t a t e E x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s w i l l be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to h i g h e r socio-economic s t a t u s of both the e x t e n s i o n personnel and the farmers. A l l hypotheses w i l l be t e s t e d i n the n u l l form a t alpha = .05 l e v e l . D e f i n i t i o n of Terms The d e f i n i t i o n of terms l i s t e d here p r o v i d e a convenient r e f e r e n c e f o r the concepts which have been used, and w i l l be used i n t h i s study. Where a p p r o p r i a t e , the measure of each term w i l l a l s o be g i v e n . E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e - r e f e r s t o an o u t - o f - s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n v o l v i n g r u r a l community development, a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . J u n i o r S t a f f - are the t e c h n i c a l e x t e n s i o n personnel r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e x e c u t i o n of e x t e n s i o n programmes at the v i l l a g e or zone l e v e l . Zone - i s a geographic area under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of a s p e c i f i c number of e x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l . S u p e r v i s o r - i s an a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of e x t e n s i o n works at the d i s t r i c t s , z o n a l , or s t a t e l e v e l . A D i v i s i o n - i s one of the t w e n t y - f i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or p o l i t i c a l u n i t s i n t o which the o l d Western ,S/tate was d i v i d e d a f t e r the c r e a t i o n of the twelve s t a t e s i n 1967. O r g a n i z a t i o n - i s the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources, of Western S t a t e s , N i g e r i a and a l l i t s s t a f f . P o s i t i o n - i s the b u r e a u c r a t i c l o c a t i o n of an a c t o r or c l a s s of a c t o r s i n system o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I d e a l Role - i s a s e t of e x p e c t a t i o n s a p p l i e d to an occupant of a p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n r a t h e r than what he a c t u a l l y does. Role p e r c e p t i o n - i s the e n t i r e s et of responses or behaviour a n t i c i p a t e d and d e s i r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o a c e r t a i n r o l e . MANR - i s the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources. P r e s c r i b e d Role - i s the r o l e d e f i n e d by e v a l u a t i v e standards l a i d down by the s o c i a l system which s e t s the l i m i t s of the behaviour w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r r o l e . Role f u l f i l l m e n t - occurs whenever the r o l e performance of a r o l e occupant agrees w i t h h i s r o l e p e r c e p t i o n measured by r a t i o - e s t i m a t i o n of time a l l o t t e d t o rank-order e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n s . Role c o n f l i c t - means disagreements on the r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s among r o l e d e f i n e r s , i . e . e x t e n s i o n personnel and the farmers themselves. 'Method - r e f e r s t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d by MANR with the c l i e n t system f o r the purpose of d i f f u s i n g knowledge among them. Technique - means the r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d by the ext e n s i o n agent t o f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g among r u r a l c l i e n t e l e . - 17 -' References f o r Chapter I 1. A r i b i s a l a , T.S.B. " H i s t o r y and Present Status of E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n Western N i g e r i a " . Ibadan: MANR, Mimeograph, 1961. 2. Caplow, Theodore. P r i n c i p l e s of O r g a n i z a t i o n , New York: Harcourt Brace and World, Inc., 1964, pp. 1-70. 3. D i Franco, Joseph, and Fenley, John M. " D i f f e r e n c e s between E x t e n s i o n E d u c a t i o n and Community Development", I t h a c a , New York: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , Comparative Exten-s i o n P u b l i c a t i o n , No. 5, 1958. 4. Fenley, John M. and W i l l i a m s , S.K.T. Background f o r  E x t e n s i o n Workers i n Western N i g e r i a , Ibadan: MANR Ext e n s i o n T r a i n i n g B u l l e t i n , 1964, No. 3. 5. F.A.O. A g r i c u l t u r a l Development i n N i g e r i a 1965-1980, (Rome) 1966, p. 300. 6. Kohls, Richard L. and Downey, W.D. Marketing of A g r i c u l -t u r a l Products,. New York: MacMillan Company, 1972, Chapter 4. 7. M e l l o r , John W. The Economics of A g r i c u l t u r a l Development, It h a c a , New York: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1966, pp.356-358. 8. Moore, John R. and Walsh, Richard G. Market S t r u c t u r e o f the A g r i c u l t u r a l I n d u s t r i e s : Some Case S t u d i e s . Ames: Iowa S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966. 9. Mosher, A.T. " V a r i e t i e s of Ex t e n s i o n E d u c a t i o n and Community Development", It h a c a , New York: C o r n e l l U n i v e r -s i t y , Comparative E x t e n s i o n P u b l i c a t i o n , No. 2. 1958, p.65. 10. Verner, C o o l i e . A Conceptual Scheme f o r the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n  and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Processes f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , Monograph, A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , Washington, D.C. 1962. 11. Weber, Max. Theory of S o c i a l and Economic O r g a n i z a t i o n s , T a l c o t t Parsons (ed) New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1947, p. 333. - 18 -Chapter I I THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK DEVELOPED FROM A REVIEW OF LITERATURE In r e c e n t y e a r s , a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n e x p e r t s , a d u l t e d u c a t o r s , s o c i a l p l a n n e r s , and r u r a l s o c i o l o g i s t s have t r i e d t o apply the t h e o r i e s of the b e h a v i o u r a l s c i e n c e s and the p r i n c i p l e s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n to the study of the educa-t i o n a l r o l e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s i n d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s . The review of l i t e r a t u r e f o r t h i s study comprises f o u r p a r t s : (a) V e r n e r 1 s t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r e v a l u a t i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e of the Cooperative E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e as an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n system forms the b a s i s f o r the study, (b) a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t h e o r i e s i n e x t e n s i o n as a b a s i s f o r d e s c r i b i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e behaviour of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources of the Western S t a t e s of N i g e r i a , (c) r o l e t h e o r i e s as a b a s i s f o r d i s c u s s i n g s o c i a l a c t i o n s of occupants of s t a t u s - p o s i t i o n s i n the M i n i s t r y , and (d) r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s on r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s and employee job s a t i s f a c t i o n i n e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s as a b a s i s f o r d i s c u s s i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s and job s a t i s f a c t i o n . S t a t i s t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among v a r i a b l e s , such as r o l e consensus, job s a t i s f a c t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t y l e s , e d u c a t i o n a l methods and i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s , and so on, however r i c h i n i n f o r m a t i o n , do not e x p l a i n what the phenomena mean s o c i a l l y . I t has been r e i t e r a t e d by some s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s t h a t e x p l a n a t i o n s must be i n terms of t h e o r y . S o c i a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s f o r i n s t a n c e cannot be used to e x p l a i n s o c i a l behaviour such as r o l e p e r c e p t i o n , u n l e s s they are c o n s i d e r e d i n terms of i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a l l other v a r i a b l e s which c o n s t i t u t e the a c t o r ' s environment. In t h i s study, t h e o r i e s and p r i n c i p l e s of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l behaviour and a d u l t educa-t i o n as they have been a p p l i e d to e x t e n s i o n t e a c h i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are used as. a b a s i s f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of -the r e s u l t s . T h e o r e t i c a l Framework In c o n s i d e r i n g t h e . E x t e n s i o n -service as an a d u l t education agency, i t i s b e t t e r to do so from the p o i n t of view of the f i v e major areas i d e n t i f i e d by Verner (1959) v i z i -f u n c t i o n , programmes, p a r t i c i p a t i o n , methods and r o l e s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to d e f i n e an agency's r o l e i n a d u l t education w i t h s u f f i c i e n t p r e c i s i o n t o be o p e r a t i o n a l l y f u n c t i o n a l without d e t e r m i n i n g how such an agency p e r c e i v e s i t s major f u n c t i o n s as a s o c i a l and l e g a l e n t i t y . Verner maintains t h a t t h i s r e s u l t s from the marginal s t a t u s which the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n f u n c t i o n holds i n most agency programmes. Kolbs and Brunner have i d e n t i f i e d the Cooperative E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e of the United S t a t e s as "the l a r g e s t and best f i n a n c e d d i v i s i o n of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n " , w h i l e Loomis and Beagle q u a l i f i e d t h i s by s a y i n g " . . . i t i s a mistake to c a l l ... ( i t ) ... an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n agency ... (for) ... the work of the E x t e n s i o n - 20 -S e r v i c e extends t o a l l age groups". T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n about e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i n the United S t a t e s i s f u r t h e r supported by the r e s e a r c h evidence t h a t there are gre a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s among ..extension personnel as t o the t r u e nature of i t s f u n c t i o n s as an e d u c a t i o n a l system. F i v e major f u n c t i o n s of the Ex t e n s i o n S e r v i c e have been i d e n t i f i e d : (1) E d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s , (2) A d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s , (3) S e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s , (4) P u b l i c r e l a t i o n s f u n c t i o n s , and (5) S t a f f f u n c t i o n s ( S a v i l l e , 1965; Kelsey and Hearns, 1963; N i e d e r f r a n k and Spurlock, 1969). E x t e n s i o n i s not l i m i t e d t o matters p e r t a i n i n g to a g r i c u l t u r e and home economics. I t can and does become i n v o l v e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s u n r e l a t e d to a g r i c u l t u r e as the Scope r e p o r t -(1958) i n d i c a t e s . T h e r e f o r e , n e i t h e r a g r i c u l t u r e nor home economics i s p i v o t a l t o what i s " e d u c a t i o n a l " . E x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n embraces those a c t i v i t i e s which can s a t i s f y any e d u c a t i o n a l needs of r u r a l a d u l t s because every such need i s r e l a t e d to a readjustment of r u r a l l i f e . Verner concludes t h a t t o t a l e d u c a t i o n a l needs of r u r a l a d u l t s i s b a s i c to the e x i s t e n c e of an e x t e n s i o n programme and by r e j e c t i n g i t as a programme f u n c t i o n , e x t e n s i o n would d e f e a t i t s own purpose of a l t e r i n g the q u a l i t y of r u r a l l i f e (Verner, 1959) . The b a s i c i d e a of borrowing from the Cooperative E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e of the Un i t e d S t a t e s t o r e o r g a n i z e the A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n Western S t a t e s of N i g e r i a i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the theory of c u l t u r a l d i f f u s i o n as - 21 -p o s t u l a t e d by Verner (.1968) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s theory, s o c i a l change i s e s s e n t i a l l y a communication or d i f f u s i o n process which i n v o l v e s the t r a n s f e r of c u l t u r e elements from one s o c i e t y t o another i n order t o s t i m u l a t e and a c c e l e r a t e growth i n the r e c i p i e n t c u l t u r e . As a p p l i e d t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , Verner suggests t h a t the d i s p a r i t y i n e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s e x i s t i n g w i t h i n and between n a t i o n s can be reduced through the d i f f u s i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l technology from the more advanced t o l e s s developed n a t i o n s . T h i s c r o s s - f e r t i l i z a t i o n process of educ a t i o n may be i n i t i a t e d by the donor, or the borrower through an i n t e r m e d i a r y a c t i o n such as by the UNESCO, or USAID and other t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s which may help to promote the i n t e r -n a t i o n a l d i f f u s i o n of s c i e n c e and technology by p l a c i n g at the d i s p o s a l of o t h e r s u s e f u l i d e a s , s k i l l s and experiences o r i g i n a t i n g elsewhere. The t r a n s f e r of a c u l t u r a l element occurs i n th r e e d i s t i n c t s t a g e s : (1) the i n t r o d u c t i o n or p r e s e n t a t i o n of the element, (2) i t s acceptance by the r e c e i v i n g c u l t u r e , and (3) the i n t e g r a t i o n o f the element i n t o the p r e - e x i s t i n g c u l t u r e . The p r e s e n t a t i o n of an element may occur by chance through i n t e r - c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t s or by d e l i b e r a t e a c t i o n on the p a r t o f i n d i v i d u a l s or governments. The acceptance of an element by a r e c e i v i n g c u l t u r e depends p r i m a r i l y upon the immediate u t i l i t y and d e s i r a b i l i t y of the element t o t h a t c u l t u r e , w h i l e i n t e g r a t i o n i s determined by the c o m p a t i b i l i t y of the element w i t h e x i s t i n g v a l u e systems and s o c i a l - 22 -o r g a n i z a t i o n s . U s u a l l y the i n t e g r a t i o n of an a c c e p t a b l e element r e s u l t s i n the m o d i f i c a t i o n of both the t r a n s f e r r e d elements and r e l e v a n t aspects of the r e c e i v i n g c u l t u r e . Elements such as m a t e r i a l s and equipment can be t r a n s f e r r e d e a s i l y i f they do not i n v o l v e b a s i c a l t e r a t i o n s i n behaviour p a t t e r n s of the r e c i p i e n t s . But any t r a i t s or m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e which n e c e s s i t a t e a l t e r a t i o n s i n e s t a b l i s h e d p rocesses, or which impinge upon a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s and values i n a c u l t u r e are u s u a l l y r e s i s t e d . Innovative i d e a s , under-l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s and techniques of i n s t r u c t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n can be t r a n s f e r r e d e a s i l y and i n many circumstances i t i s b e t t e r to t r a n s f e r j u s t the i d e a through stimulus d i f f u -s i o n and l e a v e the r e c e i v i n g c u l t u r e to develop i t s own a p p r o p r i a t e responses. E d u c a t i o n a l elements which tend to be c u l t u r e -bound i n c l u d e methods, m a t e r i a l s , or d e v i c e s and programme content, but not the ideas of e d u cating people which are d e r i v e d from u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e s governing human l e a r n i n g behaviour. An element or i t s a s s o c i a t e d t r a i t s may be r e j e c t e d a t any stage, and i n t e g r a t i o n becomes more d i f f i c u l t or i m p o s s i b l e where the r e c e i v i n g agency l a c k s a proper understanding and t r u e acceptance of the e d u c a t i o n a l i d e a , or f a i l s t o modify i t t o s u i t l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s b e f o r e d i s s e m i n a t i n g the i d e a to the people. T h e r e f o r e , the most c r i t i c a l a s pect of the r o l e of the r e c e i v i n g agency i s the c a p a c i t y t o modify (or develop through research) new forms of the borrowed technology c o n s i s t e n t w i t h l o c a l environmental and economic c o n d i t i o n s . In order to accomplish a comprehensive e v a l u a t i o n of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e as an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n agency, we need t o c o n s i d e r i t s programme a c t i v i t i e s and the methods and techniques used t o o r g a n i z e the p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r the purpose of systematic l e a r n i n g . E d u c a t i o n a l l y v a l i d programme p l a n n i n g 'according t o Verner (1959) i s t h a t conducted on the l e v e l of the i n d i v i d u a l group, f o r o n l y on t h a t l e v e l can the s p e c i f i c e d u c a t i o n a l needs be i d e n t i f i e d f u n c t i o n a l l y . In other words, ' the grassroots approach of e x t e n s i o n programme p l a n n i n g i s based on t h i s a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r i n c i p l e - t h a t i s , e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g occurs when the l e a r n i n g experience i s need-centered i n terms of the p a r t i c i p a n t ; t h e r e f o r e , l o c a l e x t e n s i o n agents need t o p l a n i n d i v i d u a l l y w i t h each group of l e a r n e r s . The s e l e c t i o n of programme content on the l o c a l l e v e l i s not enough t o ensure e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i t y . To be of e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e the programme content must be based on an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n process which p r o v i d e s systematic sequencing of l e a r n i n g experiences under an i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g i n v o l v i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l e a r n e r s , content to be le a r n e d , and the agent. I t i s o n l y under t h i s s e t t i n g t h a t l e a r n i n g i s f u n c t i o n a l , e f f i c i e n t and developmental. Approaches t o p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n through mass media communications such as r a d i o , b u l l e t i n s , TV and p o s t e r s may r e s u l t i n l e a r n i n g under n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g , but l e a r n i n g under such c o n d i t i o n s i s i n e f f i c i e n t , incomplete and r e s u l t s l a r g e l y by chance a c c o r d i n g t o Verner (1962, 1964). - 24 -These two t h e o r e t i c a l assumptions on programme, p a r t i c i p a t i o n and methods form the b a s i s f o r the d e c i s i o n to i n c l u d e the c l i e n t e l e (the farmers) i n the study. E x t e n s i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n e x t e n s i o n was d e f i n e d by Campbell and Gregg (1957) as "the t o t a l of the processes through which a p p r o p r i a t e human resou r c e s are made a v a i l a b l e and made e f f e c t i v e f o r accomplishing the purposes of an e n t e r p r i s e " . Newman (1951) s t a t e d t h a t " a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s the guidance, l e a d e r s h i p and c o n t r o l of the e f f o r t s of a group of i n d i v i d u a l s toward some common g o a l s " . He p o i n t e d out t h a t a good a d m i n i s t r a t o r enables the group t o achieve i t s o b j e c t i v e s w i t h a minimum expenditure of r e s o u r c e s and l e a s t i n t e r f e r e n c e with other worthwhile a c t i v i t i e s . C l a r k and Abraham (1959) s t r e s s e d the p r a c t i c a l v a l u e of Newman's d e f i n i t i o n o f - e x t e n s i o n - a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and r e a s s e r t e d t h a t "the essence of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s the a b i l i t y of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r to p l a n l a r g e p r o j e c t s , weld together an o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r t h e i r accomplishment, keep the o r g a n i z a t i o n f u n c t i o n i n g smoothly and e f f i c i e n t l y , and achieve the agreed upon o b j e c t i v e s w e l l w i t h i n the a l l o t m e n t of person-n e l , time and resources a v a i l a b l e and without doing a l l the work h i m s e l f " . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n f i t s i n t o the f u s i o n process theory of Bakke and A r g y r i s . The " f u s i o n p r o c e s s " theory was developed by Bakke and A r g y r i s a t the Yale U n i v e r s i t y Labour Management Centre, - 25 -through a s e r i e s of s t u d i e s i n many types of o r g a n i z a t i o n , such as a business machine f a c t o r y , e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , and r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The b a s i c elements of t h i s theory are (1) the i n d i v i d u a l and (2) the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Both s t r i v e t o accomplish c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s whether i d e n t i c a l , d i f f e r e n t and/or c o n f l i c t i n g . The f u s i o n process was thus p e r c e i v e d as the process by which the i n d i v i d u a l and the o r g a n i z a t i o n adapt t o the needs of each o t h e r . T h i s i s accomplished through two simultaneous processes ( A r g y r i s , 1964): 1. The s o c i a l i z a t i o n process - i s the process by which the i n d i v i d u a l i s made i n t o an agent of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . 2. The p e r s o n a l i z i n g process - i s the process by which the i n d i v i d u a l uses c e r t a i n aspects of the o r g a n i z a -t i o n as the agencies f o r maximizing h i s i n d i v i d u a l needs. A p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e of t h i s theory i s i n the area of personnel s e l e c t i o n , placement and maintenance. The u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e i s t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s dependent upon the extent t h a t the p e r s o n a l i z i n g and s o c i a l i z i n g processes are congruent. In a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n , f u s i o n process theory t h e r e f o r e focused on the proper i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s o f the i n s t i t u t i o n and how the i n d i v i d u a l s and the i n s t i t u t i o n s are fused together t o accomplish these o b j e c t i v e s . A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n as i t i s p r a c t i s e d i n N i g e r i a - 26 -has been i n f l u e n c e d by the Cooperative E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e of the United S t a t e s of America, The Cooperative E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i s the o f f i c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l agency of the United S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , and the extra-mural educa-t i o n a l agency of the Land-Grant C o l l e g e s of A g r i c u l t u r e and Home Economics. The Smith-Level A c t of 1914, i s the b a s i c l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d i n g the g u i d e l i n e s t h a t u n d e r l i e the exten-s i o n s e r v i c e s i n the Un i t e d S t a t e s . I t d e f i n e s the purpose of the s e r v i c e and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the F e d e r a l and s t a t e governments t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t . Kelsey and Hearne (1963) viewed the u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e toward which e x t e n s i o n work was being d i r e c t e d as more f r u i t f u l l i v e s and b e t t e r l i v i n g f o r a l l people. In t h e i r w r i t i n g on the o r g a n i z a t i o n of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s i n Western N i g e r i a , Fenley and W i l l i a m s (1964) p o i n t e d out t h a t the fundamental o b j e c t i v e o f e x t e n s i o n was to r a i s e the l e v e l of l i v i n g and income of the farming p o p u l a t i o n . In i n t e r n a t i o n a l development programmes e x t e n s i o n methods are r e c e i v i n g more and more a t t e n t i o n . The Food and A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n (FAO) of the United Nations, the O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank f o r R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and Development s t r e s s the c o n t r i b u t i o n s which e x t e n s i o n programmes can make to r u r a l development and to land use adjustment programmes. The d e f i n i t i o n of e x t e n s i o n by FAO (1962) i s phrased i n terms s u i t e d t o g u i d i n g the growth of e x t e n s i o n systems i n the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . I t envisages t h a t e x t e n s i o n i s - 27 -n e i t h e r an agency a d m i n i s t e r i n g r u r a l programmes on b e h a l f of the government, nor i s i t a law enforcement agency, but: an i n f o r m a l o u t - o f - s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e f o r t r a i n i n g and i n f l u e n c i n g farmers (and t h e i r f a m i l i e s ) t o adopt improved p r a c t i c e s i n crop and l i v e s t o c k p r o d u c t i o n , management, c o n s e r v a t i o n , and marketing. Concern i s not o n l y w i t h t e a c h i n g and s e c u r i n g adoption of a p a r t i c u l a r improved p r a c t i c e , but w i t h changing the outlook of the farmer to the p o i n t where they w i l l be r e c e p t i v e t o , and on h i s own i n i t i a t i v e c o n t i n u o u s l y seek, means of improving h i s farm business and home (F.A.O., 1962). I t i s important t o note t h a t i n each of the d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s of e x t e n s i o n , each f i n d s i t s e x p r e s s i o n i n , and i s i n f l u e n c e d by, the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g s i n v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s throughout the world. Each of them s t r e s s e s the end r e s u l t of e x t e n s i o n a c t i v i t i e s at the p o i n t of c o n t a c t w i t h farm people. T h i s i s why e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s i n the r o l e s , g o a l s , and o b j e c -t i v e s of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s are of g r e a t importance f o r p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f ^ a s t a t e e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e , and more im p o r t a n t l y why t h e r e must be a base f o r f o r m u l a t i n g p r a c t i c a l a c t i o n s a t s t a t e and n a t i o n a l l e v e l s t h a t w i l l g i v e meaning t o the people i n r u r a l areas. Role Theory T h i s study c e n t e r s on the r o l e s of e x t e n s i o n workers, and t h e r e f o r e assumes t h a t r o l e theory forms an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the t h e o r e t i c a l framework. Role theory s t i p u l a t e s t h a t every person i n every s o c i e t y or s o c i a l system occupies c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s of s t a t u s - educator, mother, e x t e n s i o n agent, and so on. With every s o c i a l p o s i t i o n , t h e r e are s o c i a l l y - 28 -p r e s c r i b e d d u t i e s or f u n c t i o n s t o be performed, r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s t o be enjoyed. There are many r o l e s w i t h i n a s o c i a l system, each i n f l u e n c e d by v a r i o u s r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s h e l d by important a s s o c i a t e s , both w i t h i n and o u t s i d e the system. The term r o l e has been d e f i n e d and used i n many ways by many authors, but t h r e e b a s i c ideas appear i n most r o l e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s . They a r e : (1) t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s e x i s t i n s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s , (2) t h a t they behave, (3) and t h a t the behaviour occurs w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o e x p e c t a t i o n s (Gross, Neal et a l . 1958). We d e f i n e r o l e then as a s o c i a l l y p r e s -c r i b e d way of behaving i n p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s f o r any person occupying a g i v e n s o c i a l p o s i t i o n or s t a t u s . A r o l e r e p r e s e n t s what a person i s supposed to do i n a giv e n s i t u a t i o n by v i r t u e of the s o c i a l p o s i t i o n he h o l d s . The a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , Ralph L i n t o n , d e f i n e d r o l e as the sum t o t a l of the c u l t u r e p a t t e r n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r s t a t u s (1945). Here, the p o s i t i o n of an a g r i c u l -t u r a l o f f i c e r or an a g r i c u l t u r a l superintendent's r o l e i n c l u d e s the a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s and behaviour a s c r i b e d by the s o c i e t y and or s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n (MANR) to any and a l l persons occupying t h i s s t a t u s . L i n t o n concluded t h a t r o l e s are le a r n e d on the b a s i s of the a c t o r ' s s t a t u s , e i t h e r c u r r e n t or a n t i c i -pated. But i t should be noted t h a t t h e r e i s no p e r f e c t consensus of o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s among r o l e d e f i n e r s . However, L i n t o n ' s d e f i n i t i o n seems t o form the b a s i s f o r r o l e concepts among s o c i o l o g i s t s . While each person i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n o c c u p i e s a r o l e t h a t i s unique to t h a t i n d i v i d u a l and h i s p o s i t i o n , i f an o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t o f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y , i t i s important t h a t t h e r e be agreement on what i s expected of i n d i v i d u a l s who occupy d i f f e r e n t r o l e s . A r o l e cannot be performed alone; i t must always have a c o u n t e r p a r t . Thus, c o n f u s i o n on the p a r t of one r o l e performer spreads t o those who are performing w i t h him, and disagreement on r o l e expecta-t i o n s r e s u l t s i n r o l e c o n f l i c t . Thus, r e s e a r c h elsewhere shows t h a t when an a c t o r p e r c e i v e s h i m s e l f i n a r o l e c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n i n which t h e r e are two incompatible e x p e c t a t i o n s (A and B), t h e r e a re f o u r a l t e r n a t i v e behaviours a v a i l a b l e by which he can r e s o l v e the c o n f l i c t . He may (1) conform t o e x p e c t a t i o n A, (2) conform t o e x p e c t a t i o n B, (3) perform some compromise behaviour which r e p r e s e n t s an attempt t o conform i n p a r t t o both e x p e c t a t i o n s , or (4) attempt t o a v o i d conformity t o e i t h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s (Gross, Neal e t al_. 1958). Research s t u d i e s on r o l e a n a l y s i s i n r e c e n t years have focused on r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l development. Reviewing l i t e r a t u r e on i n t e r -p e r s o n a l r o l e p e r c e p t i o n , Z a l k i n d and C o s t e l l o (1962) i d e n t i -f i e d and d i s c u s s e d some of the i n f l u e n c e s t h a t may a f f e c t the p e r c e i v e r and the p e r c e i v e d as f o l l o w s : A p e r c e i v e r may be i n f l u e n c e d by c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t he may not be ab l e t o i d e n t i f y , responding t o cues t h a t are below the t h r e s h o l d of h i s awareness. When r e q u i r e d t o form d i f f i c u l t p e r c e p t u a l judgement, both the p e r c e i v e r and p e r c e i v e d may respond t o i r r e l e v e n t - 30 -cues to a r r i v e at a judgement. In making a b s t r a c t or i n t e l l e c t u a l judgements p e r c e i v e r and the p e r c e i v e d may be i n f l u e n c e d by emotional f a c t o r s ; what i s l i k e d i s p e r c e i v e d as c o r r e c t . In i n t e r p e r s o n a l p e r c e p t i o n s , people w i l l weigh p e r c e p t u a l evidence coming from r e s p e c t e d (or favoured) sources more h e a v i l y than t h a t coming from other sources. A p e r c e i v e r may not be able to i d e n t i f y a l l the f a c t o r s on which h i s judgements are based. Even i f he i s aware of these f a c t o r s he w i l l not l i k e l y r e a l i z e how much weight he g i v e s them. Research on Role P e r c e p t i o n s B i b l e and McComas (1963) c a r r i e d out a study on p e r c e p t i o n s of r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and r o l e performance f o r a v o c a t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l t e a c h e r ' s p o s i t i o n i n Ohio. They found t h a t t e a c h e r s r a t e d "high" i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s by t h e i r s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s had g r e a t e r agreement on r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s than d i d t e a c h e r s r a t e d "low" by t h e i r s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . Job s a t i s f a c t i o n of the teacher was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s and to consensus on r o l e d e f i n i t i o n . They concluded t h a t teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s and s a t i s f a c t i o n were r e l a t e d to., a h i g h degree of r o l e consensus. Gross, Mason and McEachern (1958) c a r r i e d out a comprehensive study of the .school s'uperintendency .role i n Massachusetts; they d i s p e l l e d the n o t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s no complete consensus on r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s among the incumbents - 31 -of p o s i t i o n s i n a s o c i a l system. Rather, they saw the concept of consensus on r o l e d e f i n i t i o n as a v a r i a b l e among s e t s of r o l e d e f i n e r s where p e r c e p t i o n s are focused on s i n g l e r o l e d e f i n i t i o n items. A number of s t u d i e s on r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s of county e x t e n s i o n agents have been c a r r i e d out i n the United S t a t e s and a l l seemed to i n d i c a t e some l a c k of agreement between groups of r o l e d e f i n e r s w i t h regard to most important f u n c t i o n of ex t e n s i o n agents (Gross, B i b l e and Nolan, 1960; B i b l e and Brown, 1963; A b d u l l a h , 1964; and B i b l e and McNabb, 1966 and Keekens, 1957) . S e v e r a l other r e s e a r c h e r s have c r i t i c i z e d the U.S. Coopera t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e f o r not p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e f o r those who most need them (C a r l s o n , 1970). I d e a l l y , the a g r i c u l -t u r a l extension s e r v i c e should have e i t h e r equal c o n t a c t w i t h a l l members of i t s c o n s t i t u e n c y or e l s e , more c o n t a c t w i t h those c o n s t i t u e n t s who have the g r e a t e s t need f o r e d u c a t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e . Rogers and Capener (1960) noted t h a t the people making the most use of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n are a c t u a l l y those segments of the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n which have the l e a s t need f o r e d u c a t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e . In other words, e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e has not been s e n s i t i v e to the needs of the disadvantaged r u r a l people. V a r i o u s reasons have been suggested f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a l c o n t a c t . Some a t t r i b u t e d i t to the v o l u n t a r y nature of the e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d by e x t e n s i o n , w h i l e o t h e r s have a s s o c i a t e d the phenomenon wit h a h i g h c l i e n t e l e -- 32 -agent r a t i o (Hurd, 1965; Oloruntoba, 1972), In Canada, r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s and performance of the , D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s ( r e l a t i n g t o e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r r u r a l farmers) have been s t u d i e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s . Akinbode (1969) used the Rogers and Capener method of measuring the farmers' c o n t a c t w i t h the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . He found t h a t 72 per cent of B r i t i s h Columbia farmers used impersonal sources of i n f o r m a t i o n (for a l l the o v e r - a l l c o n t a c t s ) w i t h the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , w h i l e p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s accounted f o r the remaining 2 8 per cent. Thus, farmers i n B r i t i s h Columbia r e l y more on impersonal sources for t h e i r * farm e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s than on p e r s o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . His f i n d i n g s a l s o agreed w i t h other r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s which i n d i c a t e d t h a t farmers who had most c o n t a c t s w i t h the e x t e n s i o n agents belonged to the higher socio-economic c l a s s , w h ile those who d i d not have c o n t a c t s were the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a l l y disadvantaged farmers (Marsh and Coleman, 1954). In c o n t r a s t , Verner and Gubbels (1967) found among the d a i r y farm o p e r a t o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia t h a t p e r s o n a l sources of i n f o r m a t i o n were the most important from i n t e r e s t t o adoption stage, but c o n t a c t w i t h the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s accounted f o r o n l y 20 per cent of t o t a l e x t e n s i o n c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e i r c l i e n t e l e . In another study, Verner, M i l l e r d and D i c k i n s o n , (1967) showed t h a t where extension s e r v i c e has been more a c t i v e i n p r o v i d i n g farmers w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n about a g r i c u l t u r e , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a - 33 -planned and systematic programme-was a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e r e l a t e d t o the adoption of i n n o v a t i o n s . Other s t u d i e s i n Canada have focused on the educa-t i o n a l and developmental f u n c t i o n s of the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e . On the b a s i s of amount of time and e f f o r t g i v e n t o e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n s , and what agents f e e l the importance of such f u n c t i o n s should be, " p r o v i d i n g s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n on farm p r a c t i c e s " , "teaching farm p r i n c i p l e s " , " c o n s u l t a t i o n " have been ranked hi g h among ex t e n s i o n programmes, w h i l e l e a s t agreements was" shown f o r "programme a d m i n i s t r a t i o n " , and "community develop-ment". (Job, 1965; Opeke, 1972). In a s i m i l a r study McNaughton (1970) t r i e d t o measure the amount and q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l work accomplished by the A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Agent i n A l b e r t a . He concluded i n h i s study t h a t i n terms of q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l work, and the l a r g e s t number of c l i e n t e l e , that, ! s m a l l group meeting, although not used to a g r e a t extent, accomplished t h i s g o a l b e t t e r than any other technique. T h i s i s as expected because sma l l group meeting a f f o r d s the i n s t r u c t o r an o p p o r t u n i t y to d o v e t a i l i n s t r u c t i o n t o the l e a r n e r s needs and i n t e r e s t s , and a l s o a f f o r d s g r e a t e r -l e a r n e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Morehouse (196 8) s t u d i e d r o l e p e r c e p t i o n and a performance among a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n personnel i n Nova S c o t i a . H i s d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f the t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of workers he sampled agreed t h a t 'job s e c u r i t y ' , 'freedom' i n programme p l a n n i n g , the ' s a t i s f y i n g e xperience', of doing e x t e n s i o n work, the ' r e c o g n i t i o n ' they get f o r t h e i r - 34 -work, t h e i r ' o f f i c e f a c i l i t i e s ' , and the ' p r e s t i g e ' of t h e i r p o s i t i o n are important reasons why they l i k e t h e i r j o b . They d i d not l i k e the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e aspects of t h e i r job which leave them w i t h l i t t l e chance to s p e c i a l i z e i n t h e i r j o b. The A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , S u b j e c t matter S p e c i a l i s t s , and Home Economic Agents a l l r a t e d 'farm v i s i t s ' , 'demonstrations' and 'tours' very h i g h l y as important sources of i n f o r m a t i o n t o the farmers. A l l c a t e g o r i e s of h i s respond-ents f e l t t h a t they d i d not have adequate t r a i n i n g i n e x t e n s i o n m e t h o d s s u f f i c i e n t to enable t h e m t © H p e . \ E f o r m t h e i r r e q u i r e d r o l e s e f f e c t i v e l y . In c o u n t r i e s of A f r i c a , A s i a and the sub-continent, few s t u d i e s on r u r a l e x t e n s i o n have been conducted to e s t a b l i s h a q u a n t i t a t i v e estimate of the r o l e played by e d u c a t i o n i n i n c r e a s i n g the p r o d u c t i v i t y of farmers. In a study of r e l a t i o n -s h i p between l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n of farmers and t h e i r a g r i c u l -t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y i n I n d i a , P a r o l k a (1971) found t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between crop y i e l d and e d u c a t i o n . He found t h a t t o t a l v a r i a t i o n i n crop y i e l d accounted f o r by v a r i a b l e s such as adoption of improved farm p r a c t i c e s , p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , per c a p i t a l a n d h o l d i n g , and g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i s 67 per cent, out of which ed u c a t i o n alone i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r 21 per cent. P a r o l k a concluded t h a t mere l i t e r a c y of Indian farmers was not s u f f i -c i e n t but t h a t the e d u c a t i o n should be of a f u n c t i o n a l nature. Other r e s e a r c h workers i n I n d i a have a l s o s t r e s s e d t h a t s u c c e s s f u l implementation and i n t e g r a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c - 35 -a g r i c u l t u r e , f a m i l y p l a n n i n g , and h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n depend on e f f e c t i v e e x t e n s i o n and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n (Warburton, 19 71; Kosky, 196 8). In N i g e r i a , o n l y very few s t u d i e s concerned w i t h ..the problem of r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s and performance of e x t e n s i o n workers have been conducted. In n e a r l y a l l the s t u d i e s , r o l e ; p e r c e p t i o n s were a t v a r i a n c e w i t h r o l e performance, and e x t e n s i o n workers have ranked s e r v i c e and e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s very h i g h on t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s (Igbani, 1967; Akinbode, 1971, 19 72). In the same study, Akinbode a l s o concluded t h a t farmers i n Western S t a t e wanted more s e r v i c e than e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n . T h i s k i n d of f i n d i n g i s expected because i t i s the k i n d of s e r v i c e which the e x t e n s i o n agent used to o f f e r i n the p a s t . In a r e c e n t e v a l u a t i v e study on the r o l e of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n the E a s t C e n t r a l S t a t e of N i g e r i a , Nwakka (19 75) r e v e a l e d a c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n the r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s and r o l e performance of e x t e n s i o n workers i n the ECS. Although as few as 4 3 per cent of the s e n i o r and j u n i o r e x t e n s i o n s t a f f ranked " t e a c h i n g farmers" new p r a c t i c e s or a d u l t educa-t i o n as the most important job, i n p r a c t i c e , however, most of the e x t e n s i o n agents' time was spent i n the o f f i c e on a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e r o u t i n e a c t i v i t i e s , which suggests t h a t the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f i n the S t a t e p e r c e i v e d themselves as c i v i l s e r v i c e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s r a t h e r than educators or perhaps the i n s t i t u t i o n does not p r o v i d e adequate t r a i n i n g and f a c i l i t i e s t o make them f u n c t i o n as r u r a l a d u l t educators. - 36 -Opare (197 6). examined the r o l e of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and the adoption of s e l e c t e d recommended p r a c t i c e s among cocoa growers i n Ghana, and found t h a t the c o r r e c t n e s s of the growers' knowledge of the p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g the recommended p r a c -t i c e s was p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the adoption s c o r e . He concluded t h a t t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t tendency.for c o r r e c t n e s s of knowledge to be more c l o s e l y l i n k e d with adoption than w i t h formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l sources of i n f o r m a t i o n ; although both p r e d i c t farm output. In a study of " f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g farmers' response to e x t e n s i o n i n Western N i g e r i a " , Xidd (1968) found t h a t although t h e r e was good r a p p o r t between the e x t e n s i o n super-v i s o r s and t h e i r s u b o r d i n a t e s , one of the f a c t o r s impeding s t a f f performance was t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward the job. Many of the s t a f f p e r c e i v e d t h e i r job as t h a t of s u p e r v i s i n g ; t h a t i s , ^ ' a g r i c u l t u r a l o f f i c e r s s u p e r v i s e A g r i c u l t u r a l a s s i s t a n t s , who i n t u r n s u p e r v i s e f i e l d o v e r s e e r s , who i n t u r n s u p e r v i s e l a b o u r e r s , and farmers, and so on. In other words, no e f f o r t was d i r e c t e d t o the educa t i o n of the peasant farmers. Another impeding f a c t o r i d e n t i f i e d by Kidd was the f a i l u r e of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e t o meet commitments, e i t h e r i m p l i e d or a c t u a l , such as f a i l u r e to p r o v i d e adequate, t r a n s p o r t and t r a v e l f a c i l i t i e s , (or funds) and f a i l u r e to supply i n p u t s t o farmers as con t a i n e d i n government programmes. His data on farmers' response t o e x t e n s i o n work a l s o shows t h a t o n l y one-t h i r d of the sampled farmers from 26 v i l l a g e s knew t h e i r l o c a l e x t e n s i o n worker and o n l y o n e - f i f t h knew him w e l l . On a v i l l a g e b a s i s , h i s data i n d i c a t e d t h a t the e x t e n s i o n worker was known by most farmers i n 7 v i l l a g e s , by about one-half of the farmers i n 6 v i l l a g e s and by o n l y one or two farmers i n the other 13 v i l l a g e s . Most farmers who knew of an e x t e n s i o n worker f e l t t h a t he was w e l l l i k e d by the v i l l a g e r s , - they; were, however, evenly s p l i t i n o p i n i o n as t o whether he knew of t h e i r v i l l a g e problems or t r a d i t i o n s or whether he had a c t u a l l y been of help i n the v i l l a g e . O v e r a l l , Kidd concluded t h a t l a c k of access to -extension workers and t h e i r programmes and a f e e l i n g among the farmers t h a t they were i n e l i g i b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a p p r o p r i a t e groups impeded farmers' response to e x t e n s i o n work. In another study d i r e c t e d by Rogers on the "success and f a i l u r e of a g r i c u l t u r a l programmes i n 71 v i l l a g e s of E a s t e r n N i g e r i a , Hursh, R o l i n g , and Kerr (1968) i d e n t i f i e d some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of agents working i n v i l l a g e s w i t h h i g h programme success c o n t r a s t e d with agents working i n low success v i l l a g e s . Among these d i s c r i m i n a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were: agents' use of m u l t i p l e communication methods (demonstrations, f i l m s , p o s t e r s , etc.) more than agents of f a i l u r e v i l l a g e s ; agents worked s i g n i f i c a n t l y more days i n the success v i l l a g e s than i n f a i l u r e v i l l a g e s , ; agents conducted more systematic f a c e - t o - f a c e meetings w i t h v i l l a g e r s , and knew important v i l l a g e l e a d e r s . A l t o g e t h e r , the 43 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s analyzed have a m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n of .95 w i t h programme success, meaning t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n these f e a t u r e s from v i l l a g e t o v i l l a g e account f o r more than 93 per cent of the v a r i a n c e i n - 38 -response to new a g r i c u l t u r a l programmes i n these v i l l a g e s . W i l l i a m s and Alao (19 72) e v a l u a t e d the government p r o j e c t on m a i z e / r i c e i n the Western S t a t e of N i g e r i a . When farmers were asked to i n d i c a t e where they g e n e r a l l y met ex-te n s i o n workers i n t h e i r communities, a m a j o r i t y of them (36.2%), mentioned "somewhere i n the v i l l a g e " , another, f r a c t i o n (31%) i n d i c a t e d "on my farm". The data i n d i c a t e d t h a t 95.0% of a l l the farmers sampled mentioned e x t e n s i o n workers as i n i t i a l source o f i n f o r m a t i o n , w h i l e o n l y 2.0% men-t i o n e d " f r i e n d s and neighbouts and r a d i o " as sources o f i n - . formation. The b a s i c problem about these s t u d i e s i n N i g e r i a n s e t t i n g s i s t h a t w hile e x t e n s i o n agents have been probed on t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e , l e s s a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d to the q u a l i t y and type of i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g s i n which they occur. Given t h i s c o n d i t i o n , i t i s very d i f f i c u l t t h e r e f o r e to d i s t i n g u i s h between mere concern w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n dissemina-t i o n and a c t u a l commitment t o c a r r y i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n out to r u r a l farmers. I t i s necessary t h e r e f o r e to pr o v i d e a d e f i n i -t i o n o f the term a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t h a t w i l l o f f e r s u f f i c i e n t p r e c i s i o n , to serve as the b a s i s f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the phenomenon i . e . e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e , i n which we are i n -t e r e s t e d . For our purpose, a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s d e f i n e d : A d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s the a c t i o n o f an e x t e r n a l e d u c a t i o n a l agent i n p u r p o s e f u l l y o r d e r i n g behaviour i n t o planned s y s t e m a t i c e xperiences t h a t can r e s u l t i n l e a r n i n g f o r those f o r whom such a c t i v i t y i s supplemental to t h e i r primary r o l e i n s o c i e t y , and which i n v o l v e s some c o n t i n u i t y i n an exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p between the agent and the l e a r n e r so t h a t the e d u c a t i o n a l process i s under constant s u p e r v i s i o n and d i r e c t i o n . (Verner, 1962). - 39 -I t i s e s s e n t i a l t o d i s t i n g u i s h e d u c a t i o n a l p r o -c e s s from d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n whose o b j e c t i v e i s t o in f o r m through such procedures of mass communication, i n c l u d i n g b u l l e t i n s , e x h i b i t s , r e s u l t demonstrations, or news r e l e a s e s . Although l e a r n i n g may occur through i n f o r m a t i o n d i s s e m i n a t i o n , n e v e r t h e l e s s , such l e a r n i n g occurs by chance and may not be maximally e f f i c i e n t . T h i s study, then, examined the i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g under which the cocoa farmers l e a r n e d about t h e i r b a s i c farm p r a c t i c e s . Research on Job S a t i s f a c t i o n A number of r e s e a r c h e r s have i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a -t i o n s h i p between workers' p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r work s i t u a t i o n and job s a t i s f a c t i o n . In s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , C o t t r e l (1942) and Parsons (1951) c o n c e p t u a l i z e d t h a t consensus on r o l e d e f i n i t i o n s would be r e l a t e d i n a p o s i t i v e and l i n e a r manner to the s t a b i l i t y o f s o c i a l systems and to personnel g r a t i f i c a t i o n , whereas S t o u f f e r (1949) concluded t h a t such r e l a t i o n s h i p may be c u r v i l i n e a r . One important d i s t i n c t i o n must be made about job s a t i s f a c t i o n : job s a t i s f a c t i o n and job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n are not n e c e s s a r i l y o p p o s i t e s of each o t h e r . The work of Herzberg (1959, 1966), s e t a new landmark on the whole concept of employee job s a t i s f a c t i o n . Herzberg's Motivator/Hygiene Theory, a s s e r t s t h a t the f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r job s a t i s f a c -t i o n are separate and d i s t i n c t from those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r job - 40 -d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . A c c o r d i n g to t h i s theory, growth or m o t i v a t o r f a c t o r s i n t r i n s i c t o the job are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r employee job s a t i s f a c t i o n . These i n c l u d e achievement, r e c o g n i t i o n f o r achievement, the work i t s e l f , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , growth or advancement. These needs r e l a t e t o human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s -the a b i l i t y t o achieve and, through achievement, to experience p s y c h o l o g i c a l growth. The hygiene f a c t o r s t h a t are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n a c c o r d i n g to Herzberg are e x t r i n s i c t o the job. They i n c l u d e company p o l i c y and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n , i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , working c o n d i t i o n s , s a l a r y , s t a t u s , and job s e c u r i t y . Herzberg concluded t h a t m o t i v a t o r s were the primary cause of s a t i s f a c t i o n , and hygiene f a c t o r s the primary cause of unhappiness on the job. From the e a r l y 1960's, other r e s e a r c h e r s have c r i t i -c i z e d Herzberg's d u a l theory on m e t h o d o l o g i c a l grounds. Recent r e s e a r c h e r s have demonstrated t h a t emotional responses to work are r e l a t e d more d i r e c t l y t o the s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n than to i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . They c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s - such as tenure w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n , tenure w i t h the p a r t i c u l a r assignment and the respondents rank might account f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l l y l a r g e r p o r t i o n of the v a r i a n c e i n people's a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , than do t h e i r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( O ' R e i l l y and Roberts, 1975; Vroom 1964; Herman, Dunham, and H u l i n , 1975). A c c o r d i n g to these r e s e a r c h e r s , these s t r u c -- 41 -t u r a l v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l , . That i s , they have meaning only w i t h i n the context of the p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n , but are not t r a i t s of. the i n d i v i d u a l per se. More r e c e n t l y , other r e s e a r c h e r s have f o l l o w e d V i c t o r Vroom's "Preference-expectancy" theory of m o t i v a t i o n to study the v a r i a b l e s mediating i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n employee job performances and s a t i s f a c t i o n . Expectancy theory addresses the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r e f f o r t w i l l be f o l l o w e d by some i d e n t i f i a b l e outcome and can be expressed as a s u b j e c t i v e p r o b a b i l i t y . The c e n t r a l concept u n d e r l y i n g t h i s theory i s t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s m o t i v a t i o n (force) to engage i n a s p e c i f i c behaviour (action) i s a f u n c t i o n of two t h i n g s , the p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n (valance) t h a t he b e l i e v e s he w i l l d e r i v e from a s p e c i f i c outcome and h i s e x p e c t a t i o n (expectancy) t h a t the behaviour w i l l l e a d to t h a t outcome (Vroom, 1964). T h i s approach t o m o t i v a t i o n i s one which emphasises i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o examine the e x p l i c i t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the v a l u e of g o a l , and the l i k e l i h o o d of attainment of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l goals and m o t i v a t i o n s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s approach, g o a l s e t t i n g not o n l y a f f e c t s performance l e v e l s , but a l s o has a d i r e c t e f f e c t on s a t i s f a c t i o n as w e l l . Job s a t i s f a c t i o n i s seen as a monotonia c a l l y i n c r e a s i n g f u n c t i o n of the a l g e b r a i c d i f f e r e n c e between i-an i n d i v i d u a l s p e r c e p t i o n s about an outcome and h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s about t h a t outcome (Spector, 1956; F o a l , 1957; - 42 -H u l i n and Smith, 1965; Locke, 1967; and I l g e n , 1971). E l s e -where i t was p o s t u l a t e d t h a t when the s i t u a t i o n i s p e r c e i v e d as y i e l d i n g l e s s than expected, the i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l be l e s s s a t i s f i e d than when i t i s p e r c e i v e d as y i e l d i n g the same as expected. When the s i t u a t i o n i s p e r c e i v e d as y i e l d i n g more than expected, the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be more s a t i s f i e d than when i t i s p e r c e i v e d as y i e l d i n g the same as expected. (Ilg e n and Hamstra, 1972; Hamnet and Harnnett, 1974). Job or work r o l e v a r i a b l e s which have been thought to a f f e c t job s a t i s f a c t i o n have been c l a s s i f i e d i n t o f i v e job dimensions: (1) s u p e r v i s i o n , (2) the work group, (3) job content, (4) wages, and (5) promotional o p p o r t u n i t i e s (Vroom, 1964; Smith, K e n d a l l and H u l i n , 1969). T h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e s . E x t e n s i o n job c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t i n g t o these f i v e dimensions. Job s a t i s f a c t i o n and m o t i v a t o r t h e o r i e s have been a p p l i e d t o the f i e l d o f C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n a number of s t u d i e s . F i n d i n g s i n these r e s e a r c h e s showed t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s work was more important as a source of m o t i v a t i o n than were the c o n d i t i o n s surrounding the job (Clegg, 1967; M o r r i l l and M o r r i l l , 1967). A l l r e s e a r c h work on job s a t i s f a c t i o n s t r e s s e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between m o t i v a t i o n s and commitmentss to commonly approved o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and t a r g e t g o als and o b j e c t i v e s . In other words, i t i s i m p e r a t i v e f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n t o have ... w e l l - d e f i n e d g oals and o b j e c t i v e s , and to ensure t h a t these goals d e r i v e d from the needs of i t s c l i e n t system. v - 43 -References f o r Chapter I I 1. Abdullah, Fawzi M. " A n a l y s i s of the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Role of the County E x t e n s i o n D i r e c t o r i n C a l i f o r n i a " . 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"— 27. Hurd, Lorne. "What Farmers Expect of E x t e n s i o n " Proceedings of the Canadian S o c i e t y of Rural E x t e n s i o n . S i x t h Annual Meeting and Convention, November (1965) p.10. - 45 -28. Hursh, G.D. R o l i n g , N e i l s , R, and Kerr, Graham B. "Innovation i n Ea s t e r n N i g e r i a : Success and F a i l u r e of  A g r i c u l t u r a l Programmes i n 71 V i l l a g e s " Michigan S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y E ast Lansing (1968) pp. 122-150. 29. Ig b a n i , I . J . "The Role o f the A g r i c u l t u r a l A s s i s t a n t as p e r c e i v e d by A g r i c u l t u r a l A s s i s t a n t s and the Super-v i s o r y S t a f f o f the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n E a s t e r n N i g e r i a " M.S. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, Madison, 1967. 30. I l g e n , D.R. " S a t i s f a c t i o n with Performance as a f u n c t i o n of the i n i t i a l l e v e l of expected performance and the d e v i a t i o n s from e x p e c t a t i o n s " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Behaviour  and Human Performance, (1971) 6: 345-361. 31. I l g e n , D.R. and Hamstra, B.W. "Performance s a t i s f a c t i o n as a f u n c t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e between expected and re p o r t e d performance a t f i v e l e v e l s of r e p o r t e d performance" O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Behaviour and Human Perform-ance, (1971) 7: 359-370. 32. Job, Claude H. "A Study of the Roles of S e l e c t e d A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Agents i n B.C." M.Sc. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 1965, pp. 29-41. 33. Kelsey, L i n c o l n C. and Hearne, Cannon C. Cooperat i v e  E x t e n s i o n Work, New York, Comstock P u b l i s h i n g A s s o c i a t e s , 34. Kidd, David W. "F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g Farmers Response to Ext e n s i o n i n Western N i g e r i a " CSNRD - 30, Michigan S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , East Lansing, (1968) pp. 1-58. 35. Kosky, T..A. "Adult E d u c a t i o n i n a Developing Country" Indian J o u r n a l of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , A p r i l (1968) 29: 2-10. 36. L i n t o n , Ralph. The C u l t u r a l Background of P e r s o n a l i t y , New York, Appleton-Century C r o f t s , 1945, p. 77. 37. Locke, E.A. "The M o t i v a t i o n a l e f f e c t s of knowledge of r e s u l t s : Knowledge or g o a l s e t t i n g ? J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d  Psychology, (1967) 57: 324-329. 38. Marsh, C. Paul and Coleman, A. Lee "Communication and the Adoption of Recommended farm P r a c t i c e s " . U n i v e r s i t y of Kentucky A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment S t a t i o n , Lexington; Progress Report, No. 22, p. 15. 39. McNaughton, Gordon R. "The E d u c a t i o n a l Role of the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t " M.Sc. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 197 0, pp. 41-44. - 46 -40. Morehouse, Ralph E r n e s t . "A Study of Role P e r c e p t i o n s and Performance among A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n P e r s o n n e l " i n Nova S c o t i a " , M.Sc, T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1968. pp. 22-7 6. 41. M o r r i l l , J . Glenn and M o r r i l l , O l i v e L. "Personnel P l a t e a u i n g and M o t i v a t i o n " . J o u r n a l of Cooperative  E x t e n s i o n , (1967) 5: 15-22.. 42. Newman, W i l l i a m H. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A c t i o n : Techniques  of O r g a n i z a t i o n and Management, New York: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc. 1951. p. 1. 43. N i e d e r f r a n k , E . J . and Spurlock, D o y l . "Extension Work i n P u b l i c A f f a i r s " , F e d e r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , USDA, B u l l e t i n PA 932, 1969, p. 5. 44. Nwakka, Chuku T. "The Roles of A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S t a f f i n ECS N i g e r i a " . Ed. D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1975. p. 132-134. 45. Oloruntoba, B.S. " N i g e r i a Food Problems i n the S e v e n t i e s (70's)" Keynote Address, Proceedings of the A g r i c u l t u r a l  S o c i e t y of N i g e r i a (1972) 9: p. 12. 46. Opare, Kwadwo D. "The Role of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n the Adoption of Innovations by Cocoa growers i n Ghana" Ed. D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 197 6, pp. 67-85. 47. Opeke, R.O. " P e r c e p t i o n s of the A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s Role i n Saskatchewan". M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, 1972. 48. O ' R e i l l y , I I I and Roberts, K.H. " I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n P e r s o n a l i t y , P o s i t i o n i n the O r g a n i z a t i o n , and Job S a t i s f a c t i o n " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Behaviour and Human  Performance (1975) 14: 144-149. 49. P a r o l k a , J.S. " R e l a t i o n s h i p between L e v e l of E d u c a t i o n of Farmers and t h e i r A g r i c u l t u r a l P r o d u c t i o n " . Indian , J o u r n a l of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , August (1971) 32: 12-18. 50. Parsons, T a l c o t t . The S o c i a l System. Glencoe: The Free P r e s s , 1951. 51. Rogers, E v e r e t t M. and Capener Harold R. "The County E x t e n s i o n Agent and h i s C o n s t i t u e n t s " Wooster, Ohio A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment S t a t i o n ; Research B u l l e t i n 858, 1960, p. 4. 52. S a v i l l e , A.H. E x t e n s i o n i n Rural Communities. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. - 47 -53. Smith, P.C. K e n d a l l , Lome M, and H u l i n C.L. The Measure- ment of S a t i s f a c t i o n i n Work and Retirement. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co..1969. pp. 44-46. 54. Spector, A.J. " E x p e c t a t i o n s , F u l f i l l m e n t and Morale" •/" J o u r n a l of Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology (1956) 52: 51-56. 55. S t o u f e r , Samuel A. " A n a l y s i s of C o n f l i c t i n g S o c i a l Norms" American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review (1949) 14: 708-709. 56. United S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e : The Cooperative  E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e To-day. A Statement of Scope and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y (Washington, D.C.) 1958, p. 3 57. Verner, C o o l i e , "The Cooperat i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e as an Ad u l t E d u c a t i o n a l System" A Paper a t Seminar of A d u l t  Education and E x t e n s i o n , Madison's U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, 30th October, 1959. 58. Verner, C o o l i e , " D e f i n i t i o n " o f Terms", i n Gale Jensen "et a l . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n : O u t l i n e s o f an Emerging F i e l d of  U n i v e r s i t y Study. A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , USA; 1964. 59. Verner,. C o o l i e , and Gubbels, Peter M. The Adoption or  R e j e c t i o n of Innovations by D a i r y Farm Operators i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y . Ottawa: A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics C o u n c i l of Canada, 1967, P u b l i c a t i o n No. : 38-39. 60. Verner, C o o l i e , M i l l e r d Frank and D i c k i n s o n , Gary. A Socio-Economic Survey of the P r i n c e George S p e c i a l Sales  Area: ARDA P r o j e c t No. 49009, Report 1, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967, Vancouver, pp. 38-40. 61. Verner, C o o l i e . " C u l t u r a l D i f f u s i o n and A d u l t E d u c a t i o n " A d u l t L e a d e r s h i p , June (1968) 17: 49-93. 62. Vroom, V i c t o r . Work and M o t i v a t i o n . New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1964. 63. Warburton, J.W. "Some Thoughts about A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n I n d i a . " Indian J o u r n a l of A d u l t Education, J u l y (1971) 32: 11-12. 64. W i l l i a m s , S.K.T. and Al a o , J.A. " I n c r e a s i n g food crop P r o d u c t i o n i n the S e v e n t i e s : E v a l u a t i o n of the Maize/ Rice P r o j e c t i n Western S t a t e of N i g e r i a " Proceedings of ^/ the A g r i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y of N i g e r i a , (197 2) 9: 3 0-3 6. 65. Z a l k i n d , Sheldon S. and C o s t e l l o , T.W. " P e r c e p t i o n s : Some Recent Research and I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " . ,/ A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Science Q u a r t e r l y , (1962) 7: 218-235. Chapter I I I AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE: WORLDWIDE, THE UNITED STATES, AND NIGERIA, A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS The development of any country from an a g r a r i a n s o c i e t y t o a h i g h l y developed i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n depends on the e f f i c i e n t development and u t i l i z a t i o n of i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . As a country moves from an a g r a r i a n t o a h i g h l y i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n , fewer people w i l l be d i r e c t l y engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e . For example, of the 200 m i l l i o n people of the United S t a t e s of America, o n l y 2 percent or 4.2 m i l l i o n workers are d i r e c t l y engaged i n p r o d u c t i o n a g r i c u l t u r e , whereas about 85 per cent or 765 m i l l i o n people are engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e i n Communist China (Wortman, 1975; Kuo, 1972). S i m i l a r l y , the c o u n t r i e s of A f r i c a are a t pres e n t a g r a r i a n i n nature w i t h over 6 5 per cent of t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n t i e d to sub-s i s t e n c e a g r i c u l t u r e ( M b i t h i , 1974; U.N. Demographic Yearbook, 1970, Table 6; and Combs and Ahmed, 1971). The A g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r p r o v i d e s the b a s i c founda-t i o n f o r i n d u s t r i a l expansion through s u p p l i e s of food, raw m a t e r i a l s and l a b o u r , markets f o r i n d u s t r i a l goods, and f o r e i g n exchange earned through export of primary products. On the other hand, the development of the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r and the s o c i o -economic development of the people depend on e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t development of the r u r a l areas which are the r e -p o s i t o r i e s of la b o u r , a g r i c u l t u r a l and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . - 49 -In most c o u n t r i e s the world over, there are one or more agencies c r e a t e d by government t o take s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l and r u r a l development; and d i f f e r e n t approaches or models have been adopted f o r t h i s purpose. In the Western world, two approaches toward r u r a l development are prominent -t h a t i s , the United S t a t e s Cooperative E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e model, and the N a t i o n a l A g r i c u l t u r a l A d v i s o r y S e r v i c e (NAAS) e s t a b l i s h e d by Great B r i t a i n ( Williams, 1968, K e l s e y and Hearne, 1963). In the communist world, the " c o l l e c t i v e farm" system was adopted. For example, i n the S o v i e t Union, the C e n t r a l Committee of the Communist P a r t y of S o v i e t Union (CPSU) adopted the " C o l l e c t i v e Farm" system to t a c k l e the problem of a g r i c u l t u r a l and r u r a l development (Simush, 1976). In the case of Communist China, a new stage of a g r i c u l t u r a l development was reached i n 1958 w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n of Communes ( i . e . a number of c o l l e c t i v e s of an average of 3 0 households). These communes are being used as a b a s i c method t o o r g a n i z e mass m o b i l i z a t i o n of r u r a l labour on s o i l and water c o n s e r v a t i o n p r o j e c t s , i n l o c a l i n d u s t r i e s and t o c o o r d i n a t e economic and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s a t the l o c a l l e v e l (Bardhan, 1970, Chao, 1970). In A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s , the B r i t i s h approach to r u r a l development predominated the a g r i c u l t u r a l development p a t t e r n u n t i l the independence of most of the c o u n t r i e s when the need f o r new a l t e r n a t i v e s has been f e l t which are l e a d i n g t o a - 50 -m o d i f i c a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n . For example, the r o l e of the United S t a t e s through i t s AID programmes has been very s i g n i f i c a n t i n the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n and t r a i n i n g of manpower f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n N i g e r i a s i n c e independence i n 1960. Through t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e from USAID, most of the F a c u l t i e s of A g r i c u l t u r e i n the major N i g e r i a n U n i v e r s i t i e s now have a s s o c i a t i o n with Land-Grant U n i v e r s i t i e s i n the United S t a t e s f o r t r a i n i n g of A g r i c u l t u r a l personnel and a l s o f o r exchange of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x p e r t s . In East A f r i c a , Tanzania has i n t r o -duced the 'Ujamaa' system of r u r a l development which i s an a d a p t a t i o n of the Chinese model of communes as the b a s i c method of development (Nyerere, 1967). A summary of the d i f f e r e n t world approaches f o r r u r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l development i s d e s c r i b e d i n F i g u r e 1. Since the United S t a t e s Cooperative E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e model p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the development of a g r i c u l t u r a l and r u r a l development i n N i g e r i a , a comparison between the U.S. and N i g e r i a n a g r i c u l t u r a l setup~ serves as a • b a s i s f o r making c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations. FIGURE 1 A SUMMARY OF WORLD<t? APPROACHES TO EXTENSION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT U . S . BRITAIN C o u n t r i e s / M o d e l s N IGERIA 3 CHINA U.S.S.R. TANZANIA P r i m a r y Agency C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e NAAS MANR: E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e Communes C o l l e c t i v e F a r m i n g Ujamaa Movement 2. I s s u e and Focus R u r a l and R u r a l and R u r a l and R u r a l and R u r a l and o f A t t e n t i o n A g r i c u l t u r a l A g r i c u l t u r a l A g r i c u l t u r a l A g r i c u l t u r a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Development Development Development Develooment 3. B a s i c I d e o l o g y P a r t i c i p a t i v e P a r t i c i p a t i v e P a r t i c i p a t i v e Democracy Democracy Democracy Communism Communism 4 . Adm. P r o c e s s e s / O r g a n i z a t i o n H i g h l y H i g h l y D e c e n t r a l i z e d D e c e n t r a l i z e d D e c e n t r a l i z e d " i g h l y , . C e n t r a l i z e d H i g h l y C e n t r a l i z e d R u r a l and A g r i c u l t u r a l Development S o c i a l i s m D e c e n t r a l i z e d . P a r t i c i p a t i n g U n i t s F e d e r a l , . S t a t e s , C o u n t i e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s P r o v i n c i a l , C o u n t i e s and I n s t i t u t e s F e d e r a l , S t a t e s , and D i v i s i o n a l C o u n c i l s Communes P r o d u c t i o n -B r i g a d e s and Teams S t a t e Farms, ( K o l k h o s z ) C o o p e r a t i v e Farms (S.ovkhoz) R e g i o n a l , D i s t r i c t s and Ujamaa V i l l a a e s 6. A g r i c u l t u r a l H i g h l y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s M echanized C o o r p o r a t e Farms H i g h l y M e c h a n ized L a r g e Farms L a b o u r -i n t e n s i v e S m a l l Farms L a b o u r -i n t e n s i v e Communal Farms M e c h a n i z e d Communal Farms L a b o u r -i n t e n s i v e S m a l l Communal Farms 7. Methods E d u c a t i o n a l Based on I n d i v i d u a l / Group Needs E d u c a t i o n a l Based on I n d i v i d u a l / Group Needs E d u c a t i o n a l Based on I n d i v i d u a l / Group Needs P o l i t i c a l and P o l i t i c a l and P o l i t i c a l and E d u c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l Based on Based on Based on Mass Needs Mass Needs Communal Needs A n A d a p t a t i o n o f U . S . m o d e l A n A d a p t a t i o n o f C h i n e s e m o d e l AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE IN THE UNITED STATES H i s t o r y That form of popular e d u c a t i o n of farming people i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s now known as a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work has passed through s e v e r a l stages of development c o v e r i n g n e a r l y two c e n t u r i e s . Although many authors a s s e r t t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n had i t s beginning i n e a r l y a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s from the time of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the P h i l a d e l p h i a S o c i e t y i n 1785 (True, 1928) , o t h e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t we must t r a c e back to the year 1621 to f i n d the beginnings of the e x t e n s i o n process i n America (Fenley, 1958). In t h a t year Squanto, an Indian who v i s i t e d the e a r l y c o l o n i s t s , showed them how t o t e l l when the time was r i g h t to p l a n t c o r n , Squanto's i n s t r u c t i o n s were recorded by a Reverend B r a d f o r d , as f o l l o w s : My good f r i e n d s , the time f o r the p l a n t i n g of corn has come. The geese have l e f t the r i v e r and the bay f o r t h e i r summer home i n the n o r t h -l a n d . The r o b i n and h i s mate have r e t u r n e d from the southland and are n e s t i n g i n the t r e e s . ... The g i a n t oak has begun to u n f u r l i t s l e a v e s . By these s i g n s and many o t h e r s , my f a t h e r and my f a t h e r ' s f a t h e r have l e a r n e d to know the proper time f o r p l a n t i n g of c o rn has a r r i v e d (Fenley, 1964) . In 1771, about 150 years a f t e r Squanto the f i r s t p r e s i d e n t of the United S t a t e s , George Washington, was a s u c c e s s f u l farmer and took p r i d e i n showing h i s f r i e n d s and neighbours the p r a c t i c e s he f o l l o w e d . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of these e a r l y beginnings of e x t e n s i o n i n the U.S. l i e s not i n who s t a r t e d e x t e n s i o n , but r a t h e r i n h i s t o r i c a l f a c t t h a t - 53 -e x t e n s i o n was o r i g i n a t e d and pioneered by the l o c a l people and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Any government a c t i o n to advance e x t e n s i o n was simply a response to the expressed needs and a s p i r a t i o n s of the people f o r b e t t e r l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . I t i s worthy of note then t h a t t h i s g r a s s r o o t approach has been the p h i l o s o p h y and p r i n c i p l e upon which the Cooperative E x t e n s i o n was founded. Apart from i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t s t o extend a g r i c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n to other p r a c t i c a l farmers, organized e x t e n s i o n and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a t county, s t a t e , and n a t i o n a l l e v e l s ; .- . on a systematic b a s i s was pioneered by the v a r i o u s a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s formed throughout the country i n 1780's. By 1860, t h e r e were 941 a g r i c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s recorded i n the books of the United S t a t e s A g r i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y (True, 1929). The o b j e c t i v e s o f these s o c i e t i e s were to acquaint t h e i r members with what was being done to improve a g r i c u l t u r e , t o disseminate a g r i c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n through t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n s , news-papers a r t i c l e s , and l e c t u r e s . One of the s u c c e s s f u l methods used to accomplish these o b j e c t s was to o r g a n i z e r e g u l a r farmers' i n s t i t u t e s s i m i l a r t o the t e a c h e r s ' i n s t i t u t e s or the mechanics' i n s t i t u t e s i n Great B r i t a i n at about the same p e r i o d . At the i n s t i t u t e s , farmers made use of i t i n e r a n t l e c t u r e r s , from s t a t e c o l l e g e s and ,S,tate board of a g r i c u l t u r e , on the p r a c t i c e and s c i e n c e of a g r i c u l t u r e . Besides a g r i c u l -t u r a l and home economics s u b j e c t s d i s c u s s e d a t f a r m e r s 1 i n s t i t u t e s , the programmes o f t e n i n c l u d e d such matters as how to keep young people on the farm, r e c r e a t i o n i n the r u r a l - 54 -community, and the importance of good books and papers i n the farm home (True, 1928)., Again i t i s important to note t h a t although the s t a t e s made funds a v a i l a b l e f o r farmers' i n s t i -t u t e s , the management of the i n s t i t u t e s was l e f t t o l o c a l county r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The p r a c t i c e of county a g r i c u l t u r a l f a i r s i n the US owes i t s o r i g i n to the a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s which staged the f i r s t county f a i r i n Massachusetts i n 1811 as a r e s u l t of e f f o r t s made by a p r i v a t e a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y (Fenley, 1958). Although the f a i r was on a smal l s c a l e , i t s-set the- pace and gave the farmers the k i n d of i n c e n t i v e s i n showing t h e i r p roducts, and today, a g r i c u l t u r a l show has become an e f f e c t i v e mass media technique t o b r i n g about awareness i n the adoption process of farming e n t e r p r i s e s . C o o p e r a t i v e A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n the United S t a t e s , as i t i s known today, grew out of the need f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge to a g r i c u l t u r e i n the 19th c e n t u r y . The US Government response t o t h i s need came i n t h r e e stages (Fenley, 1964). The f i r s t stage was t o p r o v i d e f o r a formal and i n f o r m a l a g r i c u l t u r a l e ducation t o farmers, and a g r i c u l t u r a l s c i e n t i s t s . T h i s began o f f i c i a l l y w i t h the pa s s i n g of the J u s t i n M o r r i l l A c t of 1862 under P r e s i d e n t Abraham L i n c o l n which e s t a b l i s h e d the Land-Grant C o l l e g e system f o r the purpose of p r o v i d i n g l i b e r a l and p r a c t i c a l e d u c a t i o n f o r farmers and workers i n the i n d u s t r i e s and mechanical t r a d e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y the a c t p r o v i d e d : - 55 -where the l e a d i n g o b j e c t s h a l l be, without e x c l u d i n g other s c i e n t i f i c and c l a s s i c a l s t u d i e s and i n c l u d i n g m i l i t a r y t a c t i c s , t o teach such branches of l e a r n i n g as are r e l a t e d to a g r i c u l t u r e and mechanic a r t s i n such manner as the l e g i s l a t u r e s of the s t a t e s may r e s p e c t i v e l y p r o v i d e i n order to promote the l i b e r a l and p r a c t i c a l e d u c a t i o n of the i n d u s t r i a l masses i n the s e v e r a l p u r s u i t s and p r o f e s s i o n s of l i f e ... (Fenley, 1964). A l s o i n 1862 Congress s e t up and organized the United S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , i n these words: ... the g e n e r a l d e s i g n and d u t i e s of which s h a l l be to a c q u i r e and d i f f u s e among the people of the United S t a t e s u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n on s u b j e c t s connected w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e , i n the most g e n e r a l and comprehensive use of the word (Fenley, 1958). In t h i s way a g r i c u l t u r e and e d u c a t i o n were g e t t i n g c l o s e r t o g e t h e r . Along w i t h t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n farmers' i n s t i -t u t e s , a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e s independently undertook v a r i o u s forms of e x t e n s i o n work by p r o v i d i n g i t i n e r a n t l e c t u r e r s i n b a s i c s c i e n c e s to g i v e p u b l i c l e c t u r e s and l e a d farm d i s c u s s i o n s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s t a t e s where the farmers' i n s t i t u t e s were c o n t r o l l e d by the c o l l e g e s . In u n d e r t a k i n g e x t e n s i o n work i n a systematic way the a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e s were i n f l u e n c e d by two movements-for supplementary edu c a t i o n of a d u l t s . The most popular and wide-spread of these movements'was the Chautauqua system. 'This movement began w i t h the f o u n d a t i o n i n 187 4 of the Chautauqua Sunday School Assembly by Lewis M i l l e r and John V i n c e n t (True, 1928). The assembly met f o r 10 days i n August, at Chautauqua Lake i n New York. I t s programme combined i n s t r u c t i o n , r e c r e a -t i o n , and entertainment. From year to year the v a r i e t y of - 56 -s u b j e c t s of the assembly i n c r e a s e d , and i n 1833, correspondence courses were added to t h e i r programme. T h i s movement was so s u c c e s s f u l t h a t i t has become a permanent f e a t u r e of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programme of many U n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s i n North America today. An example of t h i s i s the r e g u l a r summer Chautauqua workshops or g a n i z e d by the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Depart-ment of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. The second movement t h a t had i n f l u e n c e on American u n i v e r s i t i e s was the " u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n " s t a r t e d i n England i n 1866 and taken up by Cambridge and Oxford U n i v e r s i t i e s and other e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n England and other c o u n t r i e s (True, i b i d . , 42-43). In the US, t h i s system was i n t r o d u c e d i through c i t y l i b r a r i e s , and by 1890 i t had r e c e i v e d s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n t o warrant the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the American S o c i e t y f o r the E x t e n s i o n of U n i v e r s i t y Teaching. U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n has s i n c e become a permanent arm of u n i v e r s i t i e s i n North America f o r the d i f f u s i o n of knowledge beyond the w a l l s of the classroom. The second stage of a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n the US was the a d d i t i o n of r e s e a r c h t o t e a c h i n g . As a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n began t o s h i f t from s u b s i s t e n c e to commercial farms, and as h i g h e r l e v e l s of l i v i n g began t o emerge from the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n , g r e a t p r e s s u r e s were brought to bear on p r o f e s s i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r i s t s t o p r o v i d e the needed i n f o r m a t i o n on the p r o d u c t i o n of b e t t e r and cheaper foods. To .respond to t h i s demand, the US Congress passed the Hatch A c t , of 1887 which s e t up the a g r i c u l t u r a l experiment s t a t i o n s a t the a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e s . Now r e s e a r c h was p r o v i d e d f o r and a new form of c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p r e s u l t e d f o r the c o l l e g e s and the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . In 193 5, the Bankhead-Jones Act was passed a u t h o r i z i n g money f o r a g r i c u l -t u r a l r e s e a r c h to be g i v e n t o the S e c r e t a r y of A g r i c u l t u r e ^ i n a lump sum and a f r e e hand i n i t s disbursement. Under t h i s a c t r e g i o n a l l a b o r a t o r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d and an annual a p p r o p r i a -±ion f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h was a u t h o r i z e d f o r USDA. A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n l i k e the Land-Grant 'colleges and experiment s t a t i o n s , o f f i c i a l l y came i n t o the c y c l e of a g r i c u l t u r a l development a l s o as a response t o new n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n . As i n d i v i d u a l c o l l e g e s and experiment s t a t i o n s throughout the country began to meet the demands of farmers, i t was then necessary t o f i n d a method of extending s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r a l knowledge to the farmers. The idea of "farm demonstration" which i s b a s i c to a l l e x t e n s i o n t e a c h i n g was i n t r o d u c e d by Dr. Seaman A. Knapp i n 1886, and he p e r f e c t e d t h i s i d e a f o r the c o n t r o l of the c o t t o n b o l l w e e v i l i n Texas between 1902 and 1905 (Kelsey, 1963, Fenley, 1958; W i l l i a m s , 1968). As p r e s s u r e s on the need to pass s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r a l knowledge t o farmers developed, the US Congress acted by p a s s i n g the Smith-Lever Act i n 1914, c r e a t i n g the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e - as the o f f i c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l agency of the U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , and the extra-mural e d u c a t i o n a l agency of the Land-Grant C o l l e g e s of A g r i c u l t u r e and Home Economics. The A c t d e f i n e s the purpose of the s e r v i c e and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the f e d e r a l and s t a t e governments - 58 -t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t as; ... to a i d i n d i f f u s i n g among the people of the United S t a t e s u s e f u l and p r a c t i c a l informa-t i o n on s u b j e c t s r e l a t i n g t o a g r i c u l t u r e and home economics, and t o encourage the a p p l i c a t i o n of same (that) t h e r e may be inaugurated i n connec-t i o n with the Land-grant c o l l e g e or c o l l e g e s i n each s t a t e a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work which s h a l l be c a r r i e d on i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e (Williams, 1968). Through the Smith-Lever A c t , l e g i s l a t i v e g u i d e l i n e s were pr o v i d e d whereby the county, s t a t e , and the f e d e r a l governments cooperated and c o l l e c t i v e l y p r ovided the necessary f i n a n c i a l support f o r r e s e a r c h i n a g r i c u l t u r e , t e a c h i n g of a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n i n c o l l e g e s and the d i f f u s i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l knowledge to the people o u t s i d e the c o l l e g e s . Consequent ammendments t o Smith-Lever Act expanded e x t e n s i o n to i n c l u d e home economics, edu c a t i o n f o r farm wives, and 4-H c l u b work f o r r u r a l youth, thus i n s t i t u t i n g the ' f a m i l y approach to e x t e n s i o n work' ( S a v i l l e , 1970). Canada's e a r l i e s t e x t e n s i o n e f f o r t s were i n f l u e n c e d by a c t i v i t i e s i n the USA and France where e x t e n s i o n had s t a r t e d to show tremendous e f f e c t s upon crop y i e l d s . The Dominion Department of A g r i c u l t u r e was formed i n 1867, and by 1906, the ©epartment was a l r e a d y w e l l organized and i n t h a t year inaugurated e x t e n s i o n p r o j e c t c o n s i s t i n g of s p e c i a l t r a i n s t r a v e l l i n g a c r o s s Canada, and stopping a t s p e c i f i e d p o i n t s t o e x p l a i n wheat smut and i t s c o n t r o l to farmers (Keesing, 1965). In June 1913, with the p a s s i n g of the A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n Act of Canada (Statute 1913), the Dominion - 59 -'Government p r o v i d e d f i n a n c i a l support f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n c o l l e g e s , schools and among the people. Today i n both c o u n t r i e s , . e x t e n s i o n has taken on a complex o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e which b a s i c a l l y i n v o l v e s a l l l e v e l s o f government, the u n i v e r s i t i e s , business o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and the people themselves i n c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e S t r u c t u r a l l y the U.S. Cooperative E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e system c o n s i s t s of three i n t e r r e l a t e d components: (a) r e s e a r c h branch, (b) s t a f f t r a i n i n g , and ( c ) . e x t e n s i o n branch. These three components are c o o p e r a t i v e l y c o o r d i n a t e d and administered by the three c a t e g o r i e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s (a) the county s e r v i c e s , (b) the land-grant c o l l e g e s , and (c) the F e d e r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e o f the USDA. Co n t i n u i n g r e s e a r c h i n a g r i c u l t u r e i s done by the t e c h n i c a l experts i n f e d e r a l , s t a t e and p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s as w e l l as the u n i v e r s i t i e s . Research i s a b s o l u t e l y necessary i n a l l aspects of a g r i c u l t u r e because p r e v i o u s knowledge i s ~ o f t e n rendered o b s o l e t e by new s i t u a t i o n s . S t a f f t r a i n i n g i s undertaken p r i m a r i l y by the u n i v e r s i t i e s t o produce both r e s e a r c h s t a f f and e x t e n s i o n workers. The e x t e n s i o n branch p r o v i d e s the o u t - o f - s c h o o l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s and i s the l i a i s o n between the farmers and the r e s e a r c h branch which i s the source of new i n f o r m a t i o n . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y , i n the U.S.A., there i s s e p a r a t i o n of powers and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s between the county, s t a t e and - 60 -f e d e r a l governments, The county i s the u n i t of l o c a l govern-ment and the c o u n t i e s have much more independence and more f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y than l o c a l government u n i t s i n N i g e r i a . In each county where c o o p e r a t i v e e x t e n s i o n work i s conducted, t h e r e i s a r e s p o n s i b l e county group which works; c o o p e r a t i v e l y w i t h the ..state land-grant c o l l e g e to determine e x t e n s i o n p o l i c y . Although the county e x t e n s i o n agent i s a f e d e r a l employee, h i s employment c o n t r a c t i s w i t h the s t a t e land-grant c o l l e g e , and he i s r e s p o n s i b l e to the county f o r h i s e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e . The importance of s e p a r a t i o n of the e d u c a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the county agent from other aspects o f government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has been d e s c r i b e d by Beers and Sanders i n these terms: ...the r o l e s o f county agent, and of o t h e r f u n c t i o n a r i e s i n the system have been kept q u i t e f r e e of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of tax c o l l e c t o r , i n v e s t i g a t o r or policeman, money len d e r and the l i k e ... but r a t h e r one of p e r s u a s i o n , and the p r e s t i g e of a man of knowledge, whose main business i s the commu-n i c a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n , as a teacher, f r e e of any stigma t h a t might a t t a c h t o other o f f i c i a l f u n c t i o n s (Beers and Sanders, 1963). At s t a t e s l e v e l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangement o f e x t e n s i o n may d i f f e r , but g e n e r a l l y a s e n i o r o f f i c e r of the land-grant c o l l e g e - the dean of the c o l l e g e of a g r i c u l t u r e -i s the D i r e c t o r of E x t e n s i o n i n the s t a t e . He i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c a r r y i n g out the terms of the agreement d e f i n e d between f e d e r a l and s t a t e governments f o r the conduct of the Coopera-t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . I t i s important to r e c o g n i z e t h a t the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s are separate from the departments of the - 61 -s t a t e , which a d m i n i s t e r i n s p e c t i o n and o t h e r c o n t r o l s e r v i c e s . The e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the land-grant u n i v e r s i t y but are not an agency of the s t a t e government. The three b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g the whole s t r u c t u r e of the Cooperative E x t e n s i o n System has been put s u c c i n c t l y by C l a a r : - f i r s t , i t permits a maximum amount of d e c i s i o n making c l o s e t o the p o i n t of a c t i o n , but w i t h p r o v i s i o n s f o r m a i n t a i n i n g b a s i c p a r t n e r s h i p a s p e c t s . -second, i t p r o v i d e s f o r s e p a r a t i o n between a c t i o n and e d u c a t i o n a l programmes. T h i s permits freedom from undue i n f l u e n c e by p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s or v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s . - t h i r d , e x t e n s i o n workers are s t a f f members of the l a n d - g r a n t i n s t i t u t i o n . Through t h i s a s s o c i a -t i o n they have access t o the u n i v e r s i t y ' s r e s e r -v o i r of knowledge and have a cons t a n t s t i m u l u s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l development ( C l a a r , 1966). T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e has enabled the Cooperative E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e to achieve unusual acceptance by a g r e a t many groups and agencies i n the USA which p r o v i d e a broad base of support f o r e x t e n s i o n , and a f f o r d access t o a wide range of i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s . P h ilosophy, O b j e c t i v e s and Functions The E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e was born out of a r e c o g n i t i o n of the f a c t t h a t s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h i n a g r i c u l t u r e , home economics, youth work and other r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s had a broader a p p l i c a t i o n and u s e f u l n e s s to many more people than j u s t the few i n d i v i d u a l s engaged i n farming or those a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e s ; and a l s o out of the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t p r a c t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n should be q u i c k l y extended to farmers, and non- ~ . , farmers where a p p r o p r i a t e , along w i t h encouragement to adopt such 62 -i n f o r m a t i o n . In the USA, e x t e n s i o n work i s based on the p h i l o s o p h y of h e l p i n g r u r a l people to improve themselves through action--o r i e n t e d , p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g types of e d u c a t i o n a l programmes. The o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e i s to a s s i s t people engaged i n farming, homemaking, and youth work t o u t i l i z e more f u l l y t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s and those a v a i l a b l e to them, i n s o l v i n g c u r r e n t problems and i n meeting changing economic and s o c i a l needs (Scope r e p o r t , 1958; Kelsey, 1963). As noted by the Scope .; 'Report (op. c i t . 3) Extension's f u n c t i o n i s 'education f o r a c t i o n d i r e c t e d towards h e l p i n g people to help themselves'. In performing i t s e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n , an i n t e r -n a t i o n a l study group i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the Comparative E x t e n s i o n D i v i s i o n a t C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , i n 1958 developed the f o l l o w i n g e l e v e n b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s upon which e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e r e s t s : - I t i s a p r i n c i p l e of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e to a i d , through e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s , the d i f f u s i o n among a l l peoples, of a l l a p p r o p r i a t e r e s e a r c h and p r a c t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o a g r i c u l t u r e , home economics, h e a l t h and s a n i t a t i o n , and to encourage a p p l i c a t i o n of same. - I t i s a p r i n c i p l e of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e to promote the s o c i a l , economic, and s p i r i t u a l l i f e o f a l l the people. - I t i s a p r i n c i p l e of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e to a s s i s t people to determine t h e i r own problems, h e l p them f i n d d e s i r a b l e s o l u t i o n s , and to encourage a c t i o n s . - i t i s a p r i n c i p l e of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e to f o s t e r b e n e f i c i a l changes i n the outlook of a l l people; t h i s may i n c l u d e a change i n the use of i n c r e a s e d income. - 63 -- I t i s a p r i n c i p l e of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e to encourage and a i d i n the wise use and conserva-t i o n of a l l human and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . - I t i s a p r i n c i p l e of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e to promote the use and development of v o l u n t e e r l e a d e r s and t o formulate and to c a r r y out sound exten-s i o n programmes. - I t i s a p r i n c i p l e of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e to p r o v i d e maximum o p p o r t u n i t y f o r youth and the f a m i l y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a t t a i n i n g a b e t t e r and more rewarding l i f e . - I t i s a p r i n c i p l e of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e to develop a b e t t e r understanding of and a more e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v i l l a g e , d i v i s i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l , r e g i o n a l , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s . - I t i s a p r i n c i p l e of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e t o r e a p p r a i s e p e r i o d i c a l l y i t s work i n the l i g h t of e x i s t i n g and changing c o n d i t i o n s , and through e f f e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o modify i t s programmes as w i l l meet those changing c o n d i t i o n s . - I t i s a p r i n c i p l e of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e to promote e f f i c i e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n and the development of i n s t i t u t i o n s t o i n s u r e the proper f i n a n c i n g , assembling, p r o c e s s i n g , marketing and d i s t r i b u t i o n of those commodities produced, f o r the w e l f a r e of both the consumer and the producer. - I t i s a p r i n c i p l e of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e t o m a i n t a i n the h i g h e s t l e v e l of p r o f i c i e n c y i n i t s workers, to employ the most capable and best t r a i n e d personnel p o s s i b l e , and to p r o v i d e c o n t i n u a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , and p r o f e s s i o n a l improvements ?-t h i s i s intended t o apply t o a l l e x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l , from the top a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s , through middle management, to the l o c a l or v i l l a g e workers (Fenley, 1964). These b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s serve as the c o r n e r — s t o n e s of the S t a t e s e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s - i n . the USA and Canada/ and most of the d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s of A f r i c a . - 64 -F u n c t i o n s of E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e The f u n c t i o n s of e x t e n s i o n s;ervice over the years have become so broad i n order to c a t e r f o r a l l the s o c i a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes t h a t occur i n the s o c i e t y . Although these f u n c t i o n s are sometime mutually i n c l u s i v e , they have been s y n t h e s i z e d i n t o f i v e major c a t e g o r i e s : A. E d u c a t i o n a l F u n c t i o n - which embraces t e a c h i n g and d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n r u r a l farm and non-farm people by u s i n g a democratic e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s , methods and techniques i n an atmosphere of mutual t r u s t t o b r i n g about a more or l e s s permanent change i n behaviour towards the attainment of t h e i r d e s i r e d g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s . B. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e F u n c t i o n s - c o n s i s t of making e x e c u t i v e d e c i s i o n s t h a t w i l l b r i n g about e f f e c t i v e management of e s s e n t i a l elements i n v o l v e d i n development of e x t e n s i o n or a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s such as: - p l a n n i n g ; t h a t i s , working out i n broad o u t l i n e s the things, t h a t need to be done and the methods f o r doing them to accomplish the e s t a b l i s h e d purpose; - s t a f f i n g ; t h a t i s , the whole personnel f u n c t i o n of b r i n g i n g i n the train., . the; t r a i n i n g of the s t a f f and m a i n t a i n i n g f a v o u r a b l e work c o n d i t i o n s . - d i r e c t i n g ; t h a t i s , the continuous t a s k of making d e c i s i o n s and embodying them i n s p e c i f i c and g e n e r a l orders f o r the work group. - c o o r d i n a t i n g ; t h a t i s , keeping those to whom the e x e c u t i v e i s r e s p o n s i b l e informed as t o what i s going on - 65 -through, formal and i n f o r m a l s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , - budgeting; t h a t i s , f i s c a l planning*;-accounting and c o n t r o l ( G u l i c k , 1937). C. The S e r v i c e F u n c t i o n of E x t e n s i o n - i n c l u d e s p r o v i d i n g those t h i n g s t h a t w i l l h e lp the c l i e n t e l e produce, or achieve h i s o b j e c t i v e s . I t i s simply s u p p l y i n g of i n p u t s to a g r i c u l -t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . D. S t a f f f u n c t i o n of E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e - has as one of i t s major r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o m a i n t a i n a core of competent s t a f f and s u b j e c t matter s p e c i a l i s t s . The s e l e c t i o n , t r a i n i n g and s u p e r v i s i o n of those s t a f f i s important i n any e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e . In the USA, t e c h n o l o g i c a l advancement has made c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n a t the post-graduate l e v e l almost mandatory f o r county e x t e n s i o n agents. The land-grant c o l l e g e s p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p and t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . E. P u b l i c r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n - Apart from g u i d i n g i t s own p u b l i c image, the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e has as i t s f u n c t i o n the treatment of p u b l i c a f f a i r s i s s u e s to i n c r e a s e the understand-i n g of people about the problem u n d e r l y i n g such i s s u e s , a l t e r n a t i v e courses of a c t i o n , and probable consequences or other r e s u l t s without t a k i n g a p o s i t i o n . E d u c a t i o n a l work on p u b l i c i s s u e s develops a s o c i a l c l i m a t e of awareness and i n t e r e s t t h a t can form the b a s i s f o r e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of c i t i z e n s on s o c i e t a l and community pr o b l e m - s o l v i n g , thus red u c i n g the margin of a l i e n a t e d c i t i z e n s . I t may be b e t t e r to r e f e r to such edu c a t i o n as " c i t i z e n s h i p " or what Manheim w i l l c a l l " s o c i e t a l e d u cation". In the USA these f u n c t i o n s - 66 -are performed by county e x t e n s i o n agents who work wit h l o c a l county committees to determine e x t e n s i o n programmes based on the i n t e r e s t s , and needs of the people. Role and T r a i n i n g of the Agent T r a d i t i o n a l l y the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n agent has been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r : d e v e l o p i n g and conducting the e x t e n s i o n programmes i n the county. keeping farmers informed of the l a t e s t developments and recommendations r e l a t i n g t o b e t t e r techniques of p r o d u c t i o n . a s s i s t i n g the farmers i n farm p l a n n i n g and management. b r i n g i n g back to the r e s e a r c h c e n t r e farmers* problems f o r s o l u t i o n . p r o v i d i n g other d i r e c t s e r v i c e s f o r the farmers as may be r e q u i r e d by the department of a g r i c u l t u r e , as w e l l as p r o v i d e p r o f e s s i o n a l guidance to r u r a l people i n t h e i r e f f o r t t o improve the economic and c u l t u r a l l e v e l of the f a m i l y and community. The process of c a r r y i n g out e x t e n s i o n programmes. c o n s i s t s of f o u r r e l a t e d s t a ges: community a n a l y s i s , programme development, i n s t r u c t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n . The e x t e n s i o n agent i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h community resou r c e s such as v o c a t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r e t e a c h e r s i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s , county committee on e x t e n s i o n , should j o i n t l y - 67 -analyse the community t o i d e n t i f y i n t e r e s t s , needs and problems of the people. Success depends upon thorough a n a l y s i s of the community s i t u a t i o n E x t e n s i o n programmes i d e a l l y are planned w i t h the f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the c l i e n t e l e . A good p l a n of work i s the most e f f e c t i v e way t o accomplish t e a c h i n g o b j e c t i v e s i n l i n e w i t h the o v e r a l l aims of e x t e n s i o n . The implementation or i n s t r u c t i o n i s concerned w i t h the d e s i g n and management of the a c t i v i t i e s of the farmers i n a way t h a t w i l l most l i k e l y r e s u l t i n l e a r n i n g and adopting the new i d e a . The success of the t e a c h i n g stage depends on the a b i l i t y of the agent to s e l e c t a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods, techniques, processes and devices.. "Some of the t e c h -niques developed and p e r f e c t e d i n t e a c h i n g r u r a l farmers i n c l u d e farm and home demonstrations, r e s u l t demonstrations, farm and home v i s i t s , use of b u l l e t i n s . ' and c i r c u l a r l e t t e r s , r a d i o programmes and oth e r a u d i o - v i s u a l d e v i c e s . E v a l u a t i o n i s a process of a s c e r t a i n i n g the degree t o which the programme o b j e c t i v e s are being met based on s p e c i f i c performance c r i t e r i a . One of the most h i g h l y valued functions-'of the country e x t e n s i o n agents i n the US was the t r a i n i n g of v o l u n t a r y l o c a l l e a d e r s t o a s s i s t i n c a r r y i n g out the e x t e n s i o n programmes. In 1960, l e a d e r - t r a i n i n g meetings accounted f o r 13 per cent of a l l meetings h e l d by the county agents; 4 9 per cent of these meetings were t o t r a i n l e a d e r s of a d u l t work and 41 per cent f o r l e a d e r s of youth work (Knowles, 1962). - 68 -The Coop e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n the US has made v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . In the development of methods, techniques and m a t e r i a l s , u n i q u e l y t a i l o r e d f o r the educa t i o n of a d u l t s , e x t e n s i o n agents' a c t i v i t i e s were e s p e c i a l l y o u t s t a n d i n g . I t p e r f e c t e d the techniques of home and farm v i s i t a t i o n , method and r e s u l t demonstrations as the most e f f e c t i v e instrument for, change. I t s e t the pace f o r the e n t i r e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n f i e l d i n the c o l l e c t i o n of r e l i a b l e s t a t i s t i c s ? I t s annual r e p o r t of "Extension A c t i v i t i e s and Accomplishments" stand as the most comprehensive s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n y e t a v a i l a b l e (Knowles, op. c i t . 93-94). In the area of p u b l i c a d u l t e d u c a t i o n the r o l e o f the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e has been g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by s o c i a l changes i n the U.S. As the r a t i o between r u r a l and urban p o p u l a t i o n s h i f t e d i n favour of the l a t t e r , so d i d the composi-t i o n of e x t e n s i o n c o n s t i t u e n c y . For example, d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1957-1960 t h e r e was a decrease o f about 7.5 per cent i n the number o f farm f a m i l i e s , an i n c r e a s e o f 8 9.8 per cent i n the urban, and an i n c r e a s e of 3 8.5 per cent i n r u r a l non-farm f a m i l i e s reached i n the e x t e n s i o n programmes. The e x t e n s i o n c o n s t i t u e n c y i n 1960 was composed of 23.8 per cent farm, 20.9 per cent r u r a l non-farm, and 55.3 per cent urban people (Knowles, 1962 and Gordy, I960).. O v e r a l l , i t c o u l d be concluded t h a t the s t r e n g t h of the Cooperative E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n the Un i t e d S t a t e s l i e s i n the s e n s i t i v i t y of the government a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s t o respond t o p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m s and demands, and the f l e x i b i l i t y of the e x t e n s i o n programme to a d j u s t to new s o c i o ^ - t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes i n the s o c i e t y . Furthermore, the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e p r o v i d e s f o r e f f e c t i v e c o o r d i n a -t i o n of the e x t e n s i o n programmes. Summary Th i s reveiw has i d e n t i f i e d o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s and other e s s e n t i a l a t t r i b u t e s of the Cooperative E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e as a d u l t education system i n the United S t a t e s . They i n c l u d e : h i s t o r i c a l landmarks, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e s t r u c t u r e , development of democratic working p h i l o s o p h y and g u i d e l i n e s , and the maintenance of e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h the c l i e n t e l e . T h i s review t h e r e f o r e serves as b a s i s f o r comparing, and d i s c u s s i n g the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s i n the Western States' of N i g e r i a . AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE IN WESTERN NIGERIA The whole idea of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work i s a d i f f u s i o n of a c u l t u r e having i t s o r i g i n i n Europe, and North • America. The i d e a of u s i n g e x t e n s i o n as a r u r a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n -system has been found to have u n i v e r s a l "acceptance; however, i t s success and t o t a l i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o the host c u l t u r e w i l l r be i n f l u e n c e d by the i n t e r - p l a y of socio-economic, and tradi-^-t i o n a l f e a t u r e s of the l o c a l environment. A g r i c u l t u r a l • E x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s i n Western S-tates of N i g e r i a operate a g a i n s t a diverse' h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l background which i n f l u e n c e - 70 -i t s growth, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and i t s f u n c t i o n s . The R u r a l S e t t i n g A. N i g e r i a - N i g e r i a has an estimated p o p u l a t i o n of 65 m i l l i o n people (1963 census,) out of which about 7 5 per cent are engaged i n p r o d u c t i o n a g r i c u l t u r e . . I t i s the second l a r g e s t country i n A f r i c a i n terms of land mass, a f t e r Sudan, but the most populous country i n A f r i c a . I t o c c u p i e s an area of 356,000 square m i l e s on the west co a s t of A f r i c a , t h a t i s about t h r e e times the s i z e of Texas or about the same s i z e as B r i t i s h Columbia. The c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s are t y p i c a l l y t r o p i c a l w i t h v e r y h i g h r e l a t i v e humidity, and w i t h an annual r a i n f a l l ranging from 120 inches along the A t l a n t i c coast t o about 3 0 inches i n the extreme n o r t h . Mean temperature ranges from 65 to 85°F or 27°C. There are two d i s t i n c t seasons.; the d r y season which l a s t s from October t o March, and the r a i n y season from A p r i l t o September. Among the major e t h n i c groups are the Hausa, F u l a n i , Yoruba, Ibo, Benin, E f i k , I b i - b i o , T i v and K a n u r i , and there are about 23 0 spoken e t h n i c d i a l e c t s i n the country. B. Western S t a t e s - The Western S t a t e s of N i g e r i a (Ogun, Oyo, and Ondo States) occupy an area of about 81,244 square k i l o m e t e r s i n the south west; of N i g e r i a c o n s i s t i n g mainly of the Yoruba people. The p o p u l a t i o n was put a t 10 m i l l i o n i n 1963 of which 65 per cent l i v e i n r u r a l areas, On February 3, 1976, the West was d i v i d e d i n t o 3 new 'States of Ogun, Oyo, and Ondo S t a t e s f o r p o l i t i c a l and r a p i d economic development - 71 -purposes. Each, s t a t e i s s u b d i v i d e d i n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n s and l o c a l c o u n c i l s . Although farming i s the major economic a c t i v i t y , these s t a t e s are the most cosmopolitan, i n settlement p a t t e r n s and i n commercial e n t e r p r i s e s . Western N i g e r i a i s almost s e l f -s u f f i c i e n t i n i t s food p r o d u c t i o n , w h i l e cocoa, timber, o i l palm, rubber, k o l a , and c o f f e e are the f o r e i g n exchange earners f o r the three s t a t e s . People and Settlement P a t t e r n s The Western S t a t e s are i n h a b i t e d by the Yorubas of the southwest of N i g e r i a ; about 65 per cent l i v e i n r u r a l areas. Broadly speaking t h e r e are, i n N i g e r i a two types of r u r a l s ettlement p a t t e r n s . F i r s t l y , t here i s the compact or "nucleated" v i l l a g e found everywhere i n N i g e r i a except i n Iboland and T i v l a n d . Secondly, there i s the d i s p e r s e d or d i s c r e t e v i l l a g e o f the Ibo and T i v . In the west the dominant settlement p a t t e r n i s the compact v i l l a g e made up of a number of l a r g e compounds i n which l i v e members of a g n a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d f a m i l i e s . Among the Yorubas, t h e r e are two types of v i l l a g e o r g a n i z a t i o n or settlement p a t t e r n s . Among the s t r i c t l y p a t r i l i n e a l n o r t h e r n Yoruba of Oyo, Egba, I f e and E k i t i a l l members of the v i l l a g e o f f i c i a l l y r e s i d e w i t h i n i t s w a l l s and on the b l o c k of surrounding farmland and hamlets. The farmers here are commuters of degrees v a r y i n g from the man who v i s i t s h i s farm once monthly or weekly to s u p e r v i s e h i s sons and l a b o u r e r s to the farmer who l i v e s i n the hamlet - 12 -throughout the year, r e t u r n i n g t o the town o n l y f o r weekends, annual r e l i g i o u s f e s t i v a l s or f o r important k i n s h i p f u n c t i o n s COloko, and L l o y d 1964). Many farmers here regard the town as t h e i r home and the v i l l a g e where they work as a kind of camp or a p l a c e f o r farming which may range from 3-10 m i l e s from the towns. Among the southern Yoruba of I j e b u , the farmland extends f o r o n l y a few m i l e s from the b i g o towns which are • d i s t i n c t p o l i t i c a l u n i t s w i t h t h e i r own c h i e f s . In a l l p a r t s of Yorubaland, however, s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s are conducted i n the town, w h i l e t h e i r economic a c t i v i t i e s t i e them not o n l y to the v i l l a g e where they grow t h e i r crops but a l s o t o the town f o r commercial e n t e r p r i s e s . S o c i a l and economic c o n t a c t s among people are very c l o s e and frequent and are based on the p r i n c i p l e of communal l i v i n g . They may combine to execute commercial works such as b u i l d i n g market p l a c e s , roads, found u n i t e d s c hools and so on. Where v i l l a g e s and hemlets are more d i s p e r s e d an important market i n the d i s t r i c t makes f o r s o c i a l and economic i n t e g r a t i o n . I t not o n l y serves f o r exchange of goods but i t i s a l s o a c e n t r e f o r s o c i a l c o n t a c t s beteen persons from d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s and f o r t r a d e a s s o c i a t i o n s which cut a c r o s s v i l l a g e boundaries. L o c a l market days are important days f o r v i l l a g e l e v e l e x t e n s i o n workers t o c o n t a c t farmers i n t h e i r a r e a s , and c a l e n d e r s of market days are normally kept i n the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s ' t o guide newly a r r i v e d e x t e n s i o n ag.ents i n a • d i s t r i c t or t o serve as reminders f o r farmers' meetings. - 7 3 -Land Tenure and Farming System In N i g e r i a , as i n almost a l l A f r i c a n s o c i e t i e s , the r u l e s of t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d tenure are simple i n t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n . Among the Yoruba of Western S t a t e s , ownership of land i s e x e r c i s e d by a group which may be a town, a v i l l a g e , a compound w i t h i n a v i l l a g e or town, a c l a s s , or a f a m i l y . But the e f f e c t i v e ownership of land i s i n the hands of the f a m i l y , which i n Yoruba usage commonly r e f e r s to a man, h i s w i f e or wives, and c h i l d r e n , h i s b r o t h e r s and t h e i r wives and c h i l d r e n . The term f a m i l y i n the A f r i c a n context i s d e f i n e d by the Yoruba word e b i , meaning those who are "born to g e t h e r " (Oloko, e t a l . 1961). W i t h i n a v i l l a g e or f a m i l y every member has a r i g h t to a p i e c e of the f a m i l y land f o r use i n growing h i s food needs, e i t h e r on temporary l e a s e or where the c u l t i v a t i o n of a cash crop such as cocoa i s i n v o l v e d , he may be g i v e n a p a r c e l o f f a m i l y land as o u t r i g h t grant and thus become the' (defacto 1 , owner of such l a n d . The unappropriated v i l l a g e l a n d remains !' communal land " . The head or c h i e f of the v i l l a g e e x e r c i s e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e power over the v i l l a g e land and i t i s he who\'.makes the grant of vacant lands to members of the v i l l a g e community ( G a l l e t t i e t a l . 1956, Oluwasanmi, 1961). In r e c e n t years government has t r i e d to a c q u i r e community or v i l l a g e lands through compulsory land a c q u i s i t i o n law f o r the purpose ::b:f. e s t a b l i s h i n g l a r g e s c a l e farms. In such ca s e s , however, the government must s t i l l pay compensa-t i o n f o r ..the crops on such lan d to the v i l l a g e or the f a m i l y - 74 -to which the l a n d belongs. The farming system i n Western N i g e r i a e p i t o m i z e s the t r a d i t i o n a l mixed farming or s h i f t i n g c u l t i v a t i o n system found i n most A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s . The s i z e of a farm i s g r e a t l y determined by the number of farm hands or labour a v a i l a b l e to a farmer. The l a n d i s f i r s t p l a n t e d i n food crops f o r s u b s i s t e n c e . A f t e r the h a r v e s t i n g the l a n d i s p l a n t e d i n cocoa which i s a p e r e n n i a l crop and remains on the l a n d f o r a long p e r i o d of time. Where cocoa i s not p l a n t e d on a l r e a d y c u l t i v a t e d l a n d , the l a n d i s r e v e r t e d to bush f a l l o w o n l y to be c u l t i v a t e d i n another 2 or 3 years by the farmer, h i s h e i r s or another member of the f a m i l y or v i l l a g e . T h i s system serves as a t r a d i t i o n a l method of c o n s e r v i n g s o i l f e r t i l i t y w h i l e a t the same time i t has the adverse e f f e c t of fragmen-t a t i o n of farm h o l d i n g s i n t o uneconomic u n i t s . T h i s b r i e f o u t l i n e o f v i l l a g e o r g a n i z a t i o n and farming system i n the Western S t a t e s serves as s o c i o - c u l t u r a l background a g a i n s t which a g r i c u l t u r a l p l a n n e r s , and e x t e n s i o n workers must operate. H i s t o r y of E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n N i g e r i a The h i s t o r y and development of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n any p a r t of N i g e r i a cannot be d i s c u s s e d without a c t u a l l y going i n t o the development of a g r i c u l t u r e i n the country as a whole. The B r i t i s h gained a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l of N i g e r i a through t h e . T r e a t y of Utreche i n 1713, and the two separate r e g i o n s of n o r t h e r n and southern N i g e r i a were amalgamated by - 75 -S i r F r e d e r i c k Lugard i n 1914. N i g e r i a became independent on October 1, 1960; and on October 6, 1963, i t became a r e p u b l i c w i t h i n the Commonwealth. Although the country i s making remarkable progress toward economic development w i t h a boom i n petroleum p r o d u c t i o n which now accounts f o r about 75 per cent of the f o r e i g n exchange e a r n i n g s , n e v e r t h e l e s s the country i s not r i c h . A g r i c u l t u r e i s s t i l l the primary i n d u s t r y employing about 65 per cent of the r u r a l people who produce v i r t u a l l y a l l of the country's a g r i c u l t u r a l products on s m a l l fragmented farms of l e s s than f i v e a c r e s . The e v o l u t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n i n N i g e r i a cannot be completely d e s c r i b e d without a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of i t s c o l o n i a l h i s t o r y . The s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l education and farmers a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s i n the U n i t e d Kingdom had a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n N i g e r i a , a t l e a s t up to the time of Independence i n 1960. The. 1943 Luxmoore committee on Post-War A g r i c u l t u r a l E ducation t r a c e d the development of a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d Kingdom. I t s p e c i f i e d t h a t : ... the g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e of a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n should be (a) i n t e l l e c t u a l development, (b) an understanding of the p h y s i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l and economic p r i n c i p l e s by which the forms and p r a c t i c e s of a g r i c u l t u r e are u l t i m a t e l y determined ... and (c) t e c h n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y i n a l l matters connected w i t h the i n d u s t r y both ; p r a c t i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c ( W illiams, 1968; p. 82). The two main c a t e g o r i e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l education r e c o g n i z e d i n the United Kingdom were (1) I n s t i t u t i o n a l -- 76 -p r o v i d e d by farm i n s t i t u t e s , a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e s , and u n i v e r s i t i e s . (2) the n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l - d e r i v e d from c e n t r e s o f f e r i n g advice to farmers and those engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y , i n s t r u c t i o n a l c l a s s e s , correspondence c l a s s e s , l e c t u r e s and demonstrations, d i s c u s s i o n groups and a s s o c i a t i o n s . A g r i c u l t u r a l a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s form p a r t of the n o n - i n s t i t u -t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s though much of t h e i r development has been i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d w i t h p o l i c i e s adopted f o r the whole of e d u c a t i o n . Although the Board of A g r i -c u l t u r e was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1889, i t was not u n t i l 1919 t h a t the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e took over .the Board of A g r i - .. c u l t u r e ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c l u d i n g the country a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s . The weaknesses i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and s t r u c t u r e of a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n the U.K. b e f o r e the c r e a t i o n of the N a t i o n a l A g r i c u l t u r a l A d v i s o r y S e r v i c e (NAAS) i n 19 46 was p o i n t e d out by the P o l i t i c a l and Economic Pl a n n i n g (PEP) r e p o r t of 19 38. The c h i e f drawback of the pre-NAAS system a c c o r d i n g to the PEP r e p o r t , was t h a t the i n i t i a t i v e l a y w i t h the farmer r a t h e r than w i t h the a d v i s e r . The r e p o r t a l s o d e f i n e d e x t e n s i o n work i n Great B r i t a i n as "the f i n a l l i n k i n the c h a i n between s c i e n t i s t s and farmers which c o n s i s t s of t r a n s l a t i n g r e s u l t s i n t o simple terms and b r i n g i n g them home to i n d i v i d u a l farmers, and p a s s i n g back to the r e s e a r c h workers problems a r i s i n g a t the farming end" ( W i l l i a m s , 1968, p.85). In order to r e t a i n c l o s e l i n k s between formal a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n i n s c h o o l s and c o l l e g e s and o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l streams, the N a t i o n a l A g r i c u l t u r a l A d v i s o r y S e r v i c e (NAAS) was c r e a t e d i n 1946 as a s e c t i o n of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e . The c r e a t i o n o f NAAS ushered i n a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n Great B r i t a i n . I t s f u n c t i o n s i n c l u d e : p r o v i s i o n of f r e e a d v i c e t o the farmers on b e h a l f of the government. i t a d v i s e s owners o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d on e s t a t e management matters. i t had the important e f f e c t of d i v e r t i n g some of the a d v i s o r y e f f o r t s from l a r g e r farms t o s m a l l e r farms. NAAS began i n 1964 to arrange f o r post-graduate i n -s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r e x t e n s i o n personnel at the U n i v e r s i t y of Reading thus p r o v i d i n g the much needed o p p o r t u n i t y t o expose NAAS o f f i c e r s t o some more r e c e n t advances i n e x t e n s i o n methods, through NAAS, a g r e a t emphasis has been p l a c e d on farm management s i n c e 1950s. i t p r o v i d e s t r a i n i n g f o r a corps of s p e c i a l i s t o f f i c e r s t o ad v i s e other NAAS a d v i s e r s and s u b j e c t -matter s p e c i a l i s t s . Although the c r e a t i o n o f NAAS i n the U.K. has helped the development of a g r i c u l t u r e , major c r i t i c i s m s about the a d v i s o r y system centered on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l problems which h i n d e r i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s as an e d u c a t i o n a l system: - the s e p a r a t i o n of NAAS from the u n i v e r s i t i e s has removed the system from e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the u n i v e r s i t i e s i n p r o v i d i n g s p e c i a l i s t a d v i c e t o NAAS o f f i c e r s . the s e p a r a t i o n of the u n i v e r s i t i e s from everyday exposure to e x t e n s i o n work may w e l l e x p l a i n i n p a r t why graduate t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n e x t e n s i o n are so undeveloped, and t h i s has s u s t a i n e d the image of the u n i v e r s i t i e s as being somewhat removed from the day-by-day problems which e x t e n s i o n workers are c a l l e d t o f a c e . t h e r e have been c r i t i c i s m s t h a t NAAS a d v i s e r s are being saddled w i t h undue r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e work r e l a t i n g t o government p o l i c i e s thus devoid of e d u c a t i o n a l process and merely operate a standard c i v i l s e r v i c e p r a c t i c e (See Ar t o n Wilson's Report i n W i l l i a m s , 1968, ,p.85) . th e r e i s a l a r g e v o i d i n the p r o v i s i o n of p r o f e s s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r e x t e n s i o n s p e c i a l i s t s i n ex t e n s i o n i t s e l f . S i n ce N i g e r i a was under B r i t i s h , r u l e u n t i l • ' 1960, the s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n of B r i t i s h a g r i c u l t u r a l development and p r a c t i c e had a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on N i g e r i a n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e . The beginning of s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r e i n N i g e r i a was marked by the est a b l i s h m e n t o f a b o t a n i c a l r e s e a r c h • s t a t i o n a t Olokemeji near Lagos i n 1893 by S i r Claude Macdbnald. The s t a t i o n was l a r g e l y designed f o r the i n t r o d u c -t i o n of new economic crops from other p a r t s of the t r o p i c s and f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of indigenous ones. The o b j e c t was t o i n c r e a s e export trade i n the country ( A r i b i s a l a , 1962). T h i s venture, however, f a i l e d and had to be abandoned. In h i s account of the h i s t o r y o f e x t e n s i o n i n N i g e r i a , A r i b i s a l a noted t h a t between the beginning of the F i r s t world War and 1921 when the no r t h e r n and southern Departments of A g r i c u l t u r e were amalgamated i n t o one N i g e r i a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , the a c t i v i t i e s of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Departments were v i r t u a l l y suspended so t h a t i t was not u n t i l 1922 t h a t attempts were made to l a y down what c o u l d be c a l l e d a " p o l i c y " f o r the new ^Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . I t was then t h a t i t was decided t h a t e f f o r t s should not be d i r e c t e d o n l y t o i n c r e a s i n g the p r o d u c t i o n of export c r o p s , but a l s o to i n c r e a s i n g the p r o s p e r i t y and ge n e r a l w e l f a r e o f the farmers ( A r i b i s a l a , 1962, p. 12). I t should be noted however, t h a t the B r i t i s h never f o r m a l i z e d t h e i r c o l o n i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y . Indeed the o n l y r e c o r d of such p o l i c y ever having e x i s t e d i s a smal l p u b l i c a t i o n i s s u e d from the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e to a l l c o l o n i a l Departments of A g r i c u l t u r e a s k i n g them i n f u t u r e to p r e f a c e t h e i r Annual Reports w i t h a statement of department p o l i c y , and t h a t most of them d i d from then u n t i l the time o f independence ( C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , 1945). The departmental p o l i c y statements w i t h which Annual Reports were p r e f a c e d were remarkably u n i n f o r m a t i v e . They were mostly c o n f i n e d t o p l a t i t u d i n o u s o b s e r v a t i o n s such as • - 80 -"... the aims of the department are to improve the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y , of a g r i c u l t u r a l produce, preserve s o i l f e r t i l i t y , r a i s e the standard of l i v i n g of farmers, and so on." I t so happened t h a t these p o l i c y statements c o i n c i d e d w i t h the peak p e r i o d when government intended to i n t r o d u c e s p e c i f i c crops f o r n a t i o n a l or s t a t e economic development purposes r a t h e r than as a system of c o n t i n u i n g systematic r u r a l a d u l t educa-t i o n f o r peasant farmers. As M a s e f i e l d noted, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n from such remarks any d e t a i l e d t h i n k i n g of the p o l i c y makers s i n c e they were swayed by p o l i t i c a l , economic, s o c i a l , and s t r a t e g i c as w e l l as a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ; and the o p i n i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r i s t s was o n l y one among many sources of a d v i c e sought be f o r e d e c i d i n g on them ( M a s e f i e l d , 1972) . The h i s t o r y of e x t e n s i o n and r u r a l a d u l t education i n N i g e r i a has s i n c e f o l l o w e d the make shift-approach- : and l a c k of a c l e a r - c u t o b j e c t i v e adopted by the B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . There were no l e g i s l a t i v e a c t s or g u i d e l i n e s t o form a s o l i d f o u n d a t i o n or channels o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r e x t e n s i o n and r u r a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n as was' the tca-se i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . In s p i t e of these h i s t o r i c a l drawbacks, e x t e n s i o n 'type' work had of course been p r a c t i s e d from the e a r l i e s t days of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Departments, though not a t f i r s t under t h a t name. I t was then c a l l e d 'propaganda' or 'educa-t i o n a l 1 work and the terms 'propaganda' and 'extension' were used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y (Stockdale, 193 0). The p r a c t i c e of s u b s t i t u t i n g 'propaganda' f o r ' e d u c a t i o n a l ' work c r e a t e d many problems. One such problem i s the management of the - 81 -e d u c a t i o n a l work g i v e n t o farmers, such t h a t s c i e n t i f i c i n n o v a t i o n s were sometimes urged with too l i t t l e r e g a r d to f a c t o r s of management. The r e s u l t of such a phenomenon has r e s u l t e d i n low c r e d i b i l i t y and m i s t r u s t of e x t e n s i o n workers among farmers. Such m i s t r u s t was expressed s u c c i n c t l y by D a r l i n g : ... propaganda had been used f o r something l i k e 15 years t o encourage the farmer t o change the sowing date of h i s c o t t o n - c r o p . ... The use of i n t e n s i v e propaganda over a long p e r i o d changed the sowing date by no more than f i v e days. The l o c a l farmer had l a r g e l y ignored i t , because our a d v i c e d i d not f i t i n w i t h h i s schedule of o p e r a t i o n . T h i s i s an example of t e c h n o l o g i s t s p r o j e c t i n g a d v i c e with the best i n t e n t i o n s but m i s s i n g the mark because of ignorance of the s o c i a l and economic background ( D a r l i n g , 1969). In the e a r l y y e a r s , and u n t i l r e c e n t y e a r s , e x t e n s i o n work i n N i g e r i a has been more of ' s e r v i c e ' and ' r e g u l a t o r y ' work. The main c r u c i a l f a c t o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s was the shortage of t r a i n e d e x t e n s i o n workers a t p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l coupled w i t h a t o t a l absence of commercial agencies, p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s t o render d i r e c t s e r v i c e s to farmers. E x t e n s i o n workers have to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r these s e r v i c e s . In order to succeed i n the performance of t h i s d u a l r o l e , e x t e n s i o n workers have o f t e n t o employ the t a c t i c s of the m i s s i o n a r i e s by o f f e r i n g s e r v i c e s on the one hand, and t h a t of law e n f o r c i n g agents on the o t h e r . Other f a c t o r s t h a t compounded the problem of m a r g i n a l i t y of e x t e n s i o n education were poverty on the p a r t of the m a j o r i t y o f b u r - r u r a l populaT vtion'were , which renders them i n c a p a b l e of p a r t i c i p a t i n g • - 82 -e f f e c t i v e l y i n determining t h e i r r u r a l e d u c a t i o n a l needs, and l a c k of contingency p l a n n i n g of a g r i c u l t u r a l and r u r a l develop-ment programmes at n a t i o n a l and s t a t e l e v e l s . The People E f f o r t T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the farmers have p r a c t i s e d e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s among themselves. Among the Yoruba, v a r i o u s forms of s o c i a l c l u b s , a s s o c i a t i o n s , and r e l i g i o u s groups have been used as sources of i n f o r m a t i o n d i s s e m i n a t i o n and the t e a c h i n g of f u n c t i o n a l l i t e r a c y ; the f o l l o w i n g are s t i l l b eing used a l l over the r e g i o n the v i l l a g e c h i e f i s more cosmopolitan than h i s s u b j e c t s . Because of h i s t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e he v i s i t s the towns f r e q u e n t l y and holds meetings w i t h u r b a n i t e s and government o f f i c i a l s . He exchanges the i n f o r m a t i o n between h i s people and government o f f i c i a l s . However, the c h i e f i s not n e c e s s a r i l y more i n n o v a t i v e than h i s s u b j e c t s i n adoption of farm i n n o v a t i o n CAwa, 1976). the c h i e f has the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r i g h t s over t h e . v i l l a g e land and he thus helps farmers to a c q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l l a n d f o r farming. In the case of 'wealthy c h i e f s , they serve as sources ' of c r e d i t s f o r farm and f a m i l y f i n a n c e s . In other words, the c h i e f s perform more of s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s than e d u c a t i o n a l i n t h i s r e s p e c t . - 83 -a m o n g t h e r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s , c h u r c h e s a n d m o s q u e s a r e i m p o r t a n t p l a c e s o f m e e t i n g s f o r f a r m e r s . A n n o u n c e -m e n t s o f m e e t i n g s - 6 f ^ f a r m e r s - a n d o t h e r c o m m u n i t y ' p r o j e c t s a r e u s u a l l y c a r r i e d o u t d u r i n g s e r v i c e s i n t h e c h u r c h e s a n d m o s q u e s . _~ , t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h r i f t a s s o c i a t i o n s a m o n g t h e p e o p l e h a s b e e n a t r a d i t i o n a l m e t h o d o f s a v i n g a n d c a s h c r e d i t s f o r e m e r g e n c i e s o r a g a i n s t f u t u r e f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , s u c h a s p a y m e n t o f s c h o o l f e e s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , b u y i n g f a r m e q u i p m e n t , o r f o r s o c i a l f e s t i v a l s . T h e t h r i f t a s s o c i a t i o n i s r e f e r r e d t o a s [ e s u s u ] b y t h e Y o r u b a s . t h e r e g u l a r , , v i l l a g e m e e t i n g s e i t h e r i n t h e c h i e f ' s h o u s e , v i l l a g e h a l l o r u n d e r t h e t r e e s i s a n i m p o r -t a n t p l a c e t o d i s c u s s f a r m p r a c t i c e s , a n d f a r m p r o b l e m s . E x p e r i e n c e d f a r m e r s s h a r e t h e i r k n o w l e d g e w i t h o t h e r f a r m e r s a t s u c h m e e t i n g s , a n d e v e n c a r r y o u t p r o c e s s d e m o n s t r a t i o n s . v i l l a g e l e v e l e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s u s e t h e d a t e f o r v i l l a g e m e e t i n g s a s a n o p p o r t u n e t i m e t o r e a c h f a r m e r s . t h e p r a c t i c e o f r e n d e r i n g c o m m u n a l l a b o u r a m o n g v a r i o u s g r o u p s s u c h a s c o n g e n i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s , a n d , t h e c o n s a n g u i n e o u s ' f a m i l y h a v e b e e n a r e g u l a r s o u r c e o f c h e a p l a b o u r f o r f a r m o p e r a t i o n s , a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s u c h a s r o a d s a n d w a t e r s u p p l y . - 84 -- farms of s u c c e s s f u l farmers are used as r e s u l t demonstration p l o t s f o r other farmers, and parents teach t h e i r sons and daughters b a s i c farm o p e r a t i o n s through r e s u l t and method demonstrations techniques, the l o c a l h e r b a l i s t s i n r u r a l areas have rendered u s e f u l s e r v i c e s t o farmers i n the c o n t r o l of i n s e c t p e s t s , b i r d s , and yarm b e e t l e (Scarabaeidae~spp.). The l o c a l method of c o n t r o l l i n g r i c e - d e s t r o y i n g b i r d s . i s s t i l l the most e f f e c t i v e method^ i n the country today w h i l e s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h i n t o i t s mechanisms goes on. The e f f o r t s and i n i t i a t i v e s of the people a t the l o c a l l e v e l i n g e t t i n g a g r i c u l t u r e moving have not been surpassed by the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e e s p e c i a l l y i n the area of food crop p r o d u c t i o n . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e of E x t e n s i o n i n Western S t a t e s A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i n N i g e r i a i s a s t a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The F e d e r a l "Government M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e has no e x t e n s i o n branch and o n l y i n the l a s t two years was r u r a l development added to i t s f u n c t i o n but t h i s i s s t i l l a t the p l a n n i n g stage. E x t e n s i o n as a s e r v i c e i n Western N i g e r i a can be s a i d to have come to l i f e i n 1921 w i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the School of A g r i c u l t u r e a t Moor P l a n t a t i o n , Ibadan. The A g r i c u l -t u r a l e d u c a t i o n g i v e n at the s c h o o l f o r t e c h n i c a l v i l l a g e l e v e l e x t e n s i o n workers~throughout the ^Federation and the - 85 -guidance f u r n i s h e d i n the f i e l d i n growing the export crops, s e t the stage f o r l a t e r expansion i n t o a c t i v i t i e s more i n l i n e w i t h e x t e n s i o n . The p e r i o d , l a t e t h i r t i e s t o the middle f o r t i e s when Cap t a i n J.R. Mackie was the D i r e c t o r o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r the country saw the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n and expansion o f r e s e a r c h , e x t e n s i o n and t r a i n i n g programmes of a g r i c u l t u r a l development. Some s t r u c t u r a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r a l Departments i n N i g e r i a c o n t i n u e d from the l a t e f o r t i e s to l a t e f i f t i e s b a s i c a l l y as a r e s u l t of p o l i t i c a l changes r a t h e r than f o r e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a . These changes are s t i l l c o n t i n u i n g as the country continues t o evolve new p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s f o r economic development i n l i n e w i t h the c u l t u r e and a s p i r a t i o n s of N i g e r i a n s . The M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources (M.A.N.R.) Western S t a t e s i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l and r u r a l development i n the S t a t e s . Other government departments do share i n t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y but the i n t e r m i n i s t e r i a l c o n f l i c t s t h a t o f t e n occur i n the process h i n d e r r a t h e r than enhance e f f e c t i v e and r a p i d development. Between 1955 and 1962, and as a r e s u l t of p o l i t i c a l changes, f u r t h e r r e -o r g a n i z a t i o n of M.A.N.R. took p l a c e . More indigenous t r a i n e d s t a f f became a v a i l a b l e and the scope of a g r i c u l t u r a l s e r v i c e s expanded tremendously d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The c o n t i n u i n g growth o f the M.A.N.R. i n s i z e and manpower s t a r t e d to gi v e c o n s i d e r a b l e concern to s u c c e s s i v e governments wi t h r e g a r d to i t s e f f e c t i v e management and - 86 -a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . V a r i o u s committees were s e t up t o examine the problem. One of such committees was se t up i n e a r l y 1960 to c o n s i d e r the d e s i r a b i l i t y of t r a n s f e r r i n g the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e and the Research D i v i s i o n of the M.A.N.R. t o the U n i v e r s i t y of I f e i n l i n e w i t h American Land Grant C o l l e g e system. The committee d i d not recommend i t , but on A p r i l 1, 1971, the Research D i v i s i o n and the T r a i n i n g s e c t i o n of Ex t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n of the M.A.N.R. were t r a n s f e r r e d to the U n i v e r s i t y of I f e and c o n s t i t u t e d i n t o the I n s t i t u t e of A g r i c u l t u r a l Research and T r a i n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of I f e . In May 1974, the M i l i t a r y Governor of the then Western State set up the A f o l a b i Commission "to examine and review the programmes and a c t i v i t i e s of the M.A.N.R. and to determine the continued j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r executing those programmes and a c t i v i t i e s under a s i n g l e department of government, having regard t o the need f o r maximum e f f i c i e n c y " (P.S. Speech, 1975). The Government accepted the committee's recommendation t h a t the M.A.N.R. should remain as a s i n g l e Department of Government because of the very c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n o b j e c t i v e s and f u n c t i o n s of i t s e x i s t i n g component p a r t s . The M.A.N.R. has 8 D i v i s i o n s : (1) F o r e s t r y , (2) F i s h i n g , (3) V e t e r i n a r y , (4) Produce, (5) E n g i n e e r i n g , (6) A g r i c u l t u r a l P l a n n i n g , (7) Cocoa Development U n i t , and (8) E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n . The Ex t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e x t e n s i o n programmes w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y . The Headquarters of the M.A.N.R. was l o c a t e d a t - 87 -Ibadan up to February 3, 1976, But with the s p l i t of the o l d Western S t a t e i n t o three new s t a t e s , each s t a t e c a p i t a l now seats the various, government m i n i s t r i e s , but the a c t i v i t i e s of the th r e e s t a t e s are s t i l l being j o i n t l y c o o r d i n a t e d a t Ibadan. In August 1975, a new f i e l d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e f o r the M.A.N.R. was designed c a l l e d the zonal s t r u c t u r e (P.S. Speech, i b i d . 2-5): Zone - The s t a t e i s broken i n t o 8 geographic areas c a l l e d zones i n which the ex t e n s i o n and r e l a t e d f u n c t i o n s are administered. D i v i s i o n - The M.A.N.R. zone i s f u r t h e r broken down i n t o geographic areas c a l l e d d i v i s i o n s . D i v i s i o n s are the u n i t s of ext e n s i o n f i e l d o p e r a t i o n s . The s t a f f i n the M i n i s t r y are c l a s s i f i e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : s e n i o r s t a f f appointment r e f e r s t o those who are e i t h e r u n i v e r s i t y graduates or those with.a diploma and who have been promoted w i t h i n the rank and f i l e o f the pe r s o n n e l . U s u a l l y they have long years of p r a c t i c a l experience i n the f i e l d ' o perations. They are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l programmes a t s t a t e , zonal and d i v i s i o n a l l e v e l s . J u n i o r s t a f f r e f e r s t o the A g r i c u l t u r a l A s s i s t a n t s (AA). They are s t a f f members who have completed the two year post-secondary c e r t i f i c a t e course a t the School of A g r i c u l t u r e . The A g r i c u l t u r a l - 88 -A s s i s t a n t s are the v i l l a g e l e v e l e x t e n s i o n workers. The new zonal o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e was t o p r o v i d e an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework f o r the modern management technique of P r o j e c t Performance Budgeting System (PPBS) in t r o d u c e d i n t o the s t a t e c i v i l s e r v i c e i n 1972. In the f i e l d o p e r a t i o n s of the M i n i s t r y , the new s t r u c t u r e aims a t : e n s u r i n g e f f i c i e n t implementation and m o n i t o r i n g of the 1975-1980 Development Plan; C o o r d i n a t i o n of e f f o r t s of the v a r i o u s D i v i s i o n s of MANR, wi t h a view t o f u l l y e x p l o i t i n g the comple-m e n t a r i t y among t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s ; d e p l o y i n g s t a f f a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s on the b a s i s of major programme/projects; e n s u r i n g improved communication through r a t i o n a l i z a -t i o n of the channels of r e p o r t i n g ; . .. and e s t a b l i s h i n g c l o s e r l i n k a g e s w i t h the farmers/ fishermen and o t h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n the primary p r o d u c t i o n s e c t o r (P.S. Speech, 1975). The p r e s e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and management system of the Western S t a t e s - comprised of Ogun, Oyo and Ondo i s s a i d t o be the best i n the country and i t i s being recommended f o r adoption at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l CP.S. Speech, i b i d , p. 4) . - 89 -F u n c t i o n s of E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s The E x t e n s i o n Service, of/W,estern^states has as i t s primary f u n c t i o n the p l a n n i n g and e x e c u t i o n of the • t a t e s a g r i c u l t u r a l development programmes. Since t h e r e are.no s p e c i f i c l e g i s l a t i v e a c t s which o u t l i n e what e x t e n s i o n should do f o r the people as such, e i t h e r a t s t a t e or n a t i o n a l l e v e l , the b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s of the M i n i s t r y t h e r e f o r e derive?'' from the development programmes planned by s u c c e s s i v e governments i n the country. I t s f u n c t i o n a l s o r e f l e c t s the g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s of these v a r i o u s development plans which are u s u a l l y announced as s t a t e or n a t i o n a l annual budgets. For example, t h e r e are seven g e n e r a l s h o r t term o b j e c t i v e s f o r • Western State programme to be executed d u r i n g the 1975-1980 N i g e r i a ' s T h i r d N a t i o n a l Development P l a n : t o ensure a much higher r a t e of growth i n food p r o d u c t i o n i n terms of q u a n t i t y , q u a l i t y and v a r i e t y i n order t o m a i n t a i n g e n e r a l p r i c e s t a b i l i t y and curb i n f l a t i o n a r y t e n d e n c i e s ; to i n t e n s i f y e f f o r t s d i r e c t e d a t i n c r e a s i n g the p r o d u c t i v i t y of farmers and r u r a l d w e l l e r s w i t h a view t o narrowing the gap between urban and r u r a l incomes and hence r a i s e the standard of l i v i n g o f the people; t o a c c e l e r a t e the pace of a g r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l developments, t r a d e s and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g i n order to widen employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s > p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r s c h o o l l e a v e r s , and to improve the - 90 -base and q u a l i t y of labour f a r c e ; to t r a n s f o r m the r u r a l areas by the p r o v i s i o n o f b a s i c i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s such as feeder roads, e l e c t r i c i t y , water supply and thereby minimize r u r a l / u r b a n m i g r a t i o n ; to m a i n tain a high r a t e o f growth of the s t a t e economy c o n s i s t e n t with n a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s and t a r g e t s ; to encourage the people to undertake community development or s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s a t the l o c a l l e v e l by p r o v i d i n g token g r a n t s , m o t i v a t i o n and t e c h n i c a l advice; and to s e t i n motion the machinery f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , e x p l o r a t i o n and development of c e t t a i n n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f the s t a t e (Budget Speech, 19 75). In o r d e r to achieve these o b j e c t i v e s the M i n i s t r y c a r r i e s out s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s i n such areas as: A. Personnel T r a i n i n g T h i s i s the b o t t l e n e c k of the whole a g r i c u l t u r a l problem. There i s a shortage of hig h l e v e l manpower to gi v e dynamic and p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p i n s t a t e r u r a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . The e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s combat t h i s problem by: giv e on the job i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g courses f o r i t s s t a f f to advance to management p o s i t i o n s ; cooperate w i t h the v a r i o u s u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the t r a i n -i n g o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r i s t s ; - 91 -- secure e x t e r n a l a i d s f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l exchange i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e d ucation; maintain a systematic t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g f o r the v i l l a g e l e v e l e x t e n s i o n workers a t the School of A g r i c u l t u r e ; p r o v i d e t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r e x t e n s i o n s t a f f from other s t a t e s , and other neighbouring c o u n t r i e s i n West A f r i c a . B. Community Development P r o j e c t s The M..A.N.R. E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t s e r v i c e s f o r r u r a l community development through the f o l l o w i n g : i t develops plans f o r r u r a l employment such as the farm settlement scheme t o help a r r e s t r u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n of youth; through i t s r u r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o j e c t s , i n f r a s t r u c -t u r e development such as roads, e l e c t r i c i t y , and water are provided f o r the r u r a l areas as c o n d i t i o n s necessary f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development; p r o v i d e s s t a f f f o r other agencies who might embark on s m a l l s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o j e c t s ; - p r o v i d e s t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e t o r e s e a r c h e r s from U n i v e r s i t i e s , U n ited Nations Agencies such as F.A.O. UNESCO, who c a r r y out v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s , p r o j e c t s , and experiments i n r u r a l areas of the countr y . - 92 -C. T r a i n i n g o f Farmers The r o l e of the ex t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i n the t r a i n i n g o f r u r a l farmers has not been s y s t e m a t i c . The pre s e n t system o f te a c h i n g farmers how to c a r r y out s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s preplanned by the government can on l y dampen t h e i r enthusiasm f o r c o n t i n u i n g l e a r n i n g as l i f e - l o n g phenomenon. P r o v i d i n g a sy s t e m a t i c t r a i n i n g f o r young and a d u l t farmers on a l l aspects on l i f e t h a t c o n t r i b u t e to t h e i r imporved c o n d i t i o n of l i v i n g should be the primary f u n c t i o n of the ex t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s . The M.A.N.R. re c o g n i z e s t h i s b a s i c f u n c t i o n and make p o l i c y statement on i t . As a p o l i c y on the t r a i n i n g o f farmers and r u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers, the M i n i s t r y has s e t as i t s t a r g e t to pr o v i d e on-the-job t r a i n i n g f o r 800 ex t e n s i o n s t a f f , 750 group farmers, and 50 youth l e a d e r s w i t h i n one f i s c a l year (W.G. Report, 1975). Apart from the f a c t t h a t there i s no evidence t h a t the t r a i n i n g w i l l be e f f e c t i v e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , the M i n i s t r y has not been able to accomplish the s t a t e d t a r g e t . For ex-ample, i n 19 75-76 F i s c a l year, o n l y 418 ex t e n s i o n f i e l d s t a f f were given on-the-job i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g , w h i l e o n l y 214 group farmers on Maize/Rice P r o j e c t s were t r a i n e d . No youth l e a d e r was t r a i n e d d u r i n g the same p e r i o d . (W.G. Report, 1975 p. 50-60). A l l the t r a i n i n g took p l a c e a t the I l e s h a Farm I n s t i t u t e i n 19 75 under the new " a c c e l e r a t e d food p r o d u c t i o n " scheme. The i n s t i t u t i o n a l support f o r r u r a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was d i f f i c u l t to analyze because the M.A.N.R. does not have a - 9 3-separate budget o r money f o r e d u c a t i o n a l work 'per se'. The farmers and e x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l t h a t were t r a i n e d a t the Farm I n s t i t u t e were p r o v i d e d f o r under "General Store Account", which i s an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e accounting system under which funds were made a v a i l a b l e f o r m i s c e l l a n e o u s a c t i v i t i e s such as t r a n s p o r t f o r farmers, r e n t i n g of c h a i r s , bedding m a t e r i a l s and so on. In other words, e d u c a t i o n a l work i s regarded as marginal o r mi s c e l l a n e o u s a c t i v i t y . The most important f a c t o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s phenomenon i s the f a f t t h a t e x t e n s i o n founding f a t h e r s and the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s have not l a i d down s p e c i f i c a d m i n i s t r a t i v e g u i d e l i n e s t h a t w i l l separate e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e s from g e n e r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l s e r v i c e s w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t the M.A.N.R. has no p u b l i c a c c o u n t a b i l i t y f o r r u r a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . I f the ex t e n s i o n s e r v i c e w i l l .' f u n c t i o n as an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n system, then such r o l e s must be w e l l d e f i n e d and government a p p r o p r i a t i o n made f o r them through s p e c i f i c channels. Ed u c a t i o n of farmers must be planned and executed on a sys t e m a t i c b a s i s i n s t e a d o f making i t o n l y to c o i n c i d e w i t h o c c a s i o n a l government programmes. In s p i t e o f the M.A.N.R. shortcomings i n i t s e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e s , i t p r o v i d e s e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: farm i n f o r m a t i o n through r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s , f i l m shows i n r u r a l areas, and o r g a n i z a t i o n of annual a g r i -c u l t u r a l shows on d i v i s i o n a l bases; T h i s mass media exposure helps to r a i s e the l e v e l o f awareness o f r u r a l people about i n n o v a t i o n s i n a g r i c u l t u r e , - 94 -h e a l t h , and n u t r i t i o n , but are by no means a guarantee o f system a t i c l e a r n i n g among farmers. the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n serves as l i a i s o n between farmers and the Produce I n s p e c t i o n D i v i s i o n of the M.A.N.R., and a l s o between the s t a t e Marketing Board. The s t a t e Marketing Board o r g a n i z e s and c o o r d i n a t e s the e f f i c i e n t marketing o f farm produce, and p r o v i d e s funds f o r s u b s i d i z i n g farm i n p u t s such as i n s e c t i c i d e s and f e r t i l i z e r s , the M.A.N.R. Ex t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s a l s o c a r r y out youth work among sc h o o l l e a v e r s t o a t t r a c t them t o a g r i c u l -t u r e through the i n t r o d u c t i o n of Yound Farmers Clubs, the M i n i s t r y maintains demonstration farms where farmers can be t r a i n e d i n d i v i d u a l l y o r i n groups. The M i n i s t r y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h r e s e a r c h s t a t i o n s c a r r i e s out a g r i c u l t u r a l experiments and v e r i f i c a t i o n t r i a l s on farmers' farms i n order to make r e s e a r c h and farm p r a c t i c e more r e l e v a n t to l o c a l s i t u a t i o n s . Summary The review of the h i s t o r y , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , and f u n c t i o n s o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s i n N i g e r i a , w i t h emphasis on Western N i g e r i a serves as a b a s i s f o r comparing the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s i n N i g e r i a w i t h those o f the Uni t e d S t a t e s . Although the US Cooperative E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e has pla y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n per s o n n e l t r a i n i n g and r e o r g a n i z a -t i o n o f e x t e n s i o n i n N i g e r i a , there are no s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the - 95 -o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s of the two systems. Some of the s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s b/etween the N i g e r i a n e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s and US p r a c t i c e a re: complete absence of l e g i s l a t i v e a c t s t o set the g u i d e l i n e s f o r a g r i c u l t u r e education, r e s e a r c h and ex t e n s i o n throughout the.country, the c o o p e r a t i v e system of e x t e n s i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n between f e d e r a l , s t a t e , and l o c a l c o u n t i e s i n the U.S.A. has not evolved i n the N i g e r i a n s i t u a t i o n . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r a t t r i b u t e . ' of e x t e n s i o n i n the U.S. was hastened by the hig h l i t e r a c y r a t e , and good i n f r a s t r u c t u r e such as r u r a l e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n , roads and f i n a n c i a l c a p a b i l i t i e s of r u r a l people. In the N i g e r i a n case, the government w i l l have t o develop a l l these i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f a c i l i t i e s and r a i s e the standard of l i v i n g of people beyond s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l b e f o r e they can f u l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n the f i n a n c i n g of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s . the ^ u n i v e r s i t i e s i n N i g e r i a are autonomous i n t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s . There are no l e g a l o b l i g a t i o n s on t h e i r p a r t to p r o v i d e r u r a l e x t e n s i o n work. The l i m i t e d / r u r a l e x t e n s i o n undertaken by the u n i v e r s i t i e s i s i n i t i a t e d by i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r s i n the u n i v e r - i s i t i e s . Apart from these t e c h n i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s however, the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i n N i g e r i a i s based on the same u n i v e r s a l p h i l o s o p h y o f E x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n which i s the development of people through e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . References f o r Chapter J H The N i g e r i a n Census 1963, The 1963 N i g e r i a n Census i s o f f i c i a l l y used s i n c e subsequent census of 1970 has r e s u l t e d i n p u b l i c c o n t r o v e r s y and has been c a n c e l l e d . A r i b i s a l a , T.S.B. "Research and E x t e n s i o n work i n N i g e r i a " . Proceedings of the A g r i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y of  N i g e r i a , (1962) 1: 1-20. i b i d . pp. 12-17. Awa, Njoku E. "Methodological B i a s i n D i f f u s i o n Research Some Lessons from N i g e r i a . 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Simush, P.I. " D i f f e r e n c e s between Town and Country i n Lght of the Development of the S o c i a l i s t Way of L i f e , " The S o v i e t Review: A J o u r n a l of T r a n s l a t i o n s , (1976) 17: 26-46. A l s o see Comrade L . I . Brezhnev's address i n P.I. Simush, op. c i t . p. 28. 36. Sto c k d a l e , Frank (Sr.) Report on h i s v i s i t t o west A f r i c a , c.a.c. 19, C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , 1930, i n G.B. M a s e f i e l d , 1972, op. c i t . p. 63. 37. True, A.C. A H i s t o r y of A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Work i n  the United S t a t e s 1785-1923, Washington, D.C: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1928, p. 3. 38. i b i d . pp. 41-58. 39. True, A.C. A H i s t o r y of A g r i c u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n i n the  United S t a t e s 1785-1925, Washington, D.C: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1929, pp. 23-65. 40. U.N. Department of Economic and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , Demogra- p h i c Yearbook, New York: 1970, Table 6. 41. United S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e : The Cooperative  E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e To-day: A Statement of Scope and  R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , Washington, D.C 1958, p. 3 42. W i l l i a m s , Donald B. A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s i n  A u s t r a l i a , B r i t a i n and the United S t a t e s of America. London: Melbourne U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968, pp. 24-65. See a l s o A r t o n Wilson's Report of 1956 i n Donald W i l l i a m s , p. 89. 43. W.G. MANR Monthly Report, F i l e No. ILF 630/vol/XI, 1975, pp. 51-60 44. Wortman, S t e r l i n g . " A g r i c u l t u r e i n China" S c i e n t i f i c  American, June (1975) 232: 13-21. - 99 -Chapter IV METHODOLOGY Area and S e t t i n g o f Study The study was conducted i n the Western S?tates of N i g e r i a u s i n g the M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources (MANR) as the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e t t i n g f o r the study. The Western States are d i v i d e d i n t o e i g h t A g r i c u l t u r a l Zones. Since the cocoa farmers were the c l i e n t e l e s e l e c t e d f o r the study, the fou r major cocoa producing zones were s e l e c t e d as the r u r a l s e t t i n g . These zones are i n the new Ondo, and p a r t o f Oyo g t a t e s which cover an area o f about 20,000 square k i l o m e t e r s . (See F i g u r e 2). The group f o r a n a l y s i s comprised the s e n i o r e x t e n s i o n s t a f f , the v i l l a g e l e v e l j u n i o r e x t e n s i o n s t a f f , and the cocoa farmers themselves. Instrument The instruments used i n .the study were q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , and interview^'schedules:^ designed t o c o l l e c t data i n f i v e t o p i c a r e a s : r o l e of ex t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s as p e r c e i v e d by both groups of e x t e n s i o n personnel and by the farmers, methods and techniques used by e x t e n s i o n agents i n t e a c h i n g farmers and the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f each technique. - 100 -FIGURE 2 MAP OF NIGERIA SHOWING THE STUDY AREA THE NEW POLITICAL MAP OF NIGERIA SHOWING THE FEDERAL CAPITAL AND THE NINETEEN STATES Wfi\ Study Area • tftnvr Towns a. Vtft*yt* ZONES COVERED IN THE STUDY WERE: 1. • Akure 3. ;Ondo 2. E k i t i 4 . • I l e s h a - 101 -- sources of, farm i n f o r m a t i o n and techniques which cocoa farmers used to l e a r n b a s i c farm o p e r a t i o n s , r a t i n g s by both groups of e x t e n s i o n agents and by farmers t o assess the ex t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by MANR. b i o g r a p h i c a l and p e r s o n a l data d e s c r i p t i v e , of the respondents. To c o l l e c t data on r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s and performance, the technique used by Ab d u l l a h (1964) was adopted. T h i s technique focuses on the degree o f agreement among r o l e d e f i n e r s on which one, or which range of a l t e r n a t i v e s , among a s e t of a v a i l a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e f u n c t i o n s , the incumbent of a p o s i t i o n p e r c e i v e d as the most important f u n c t i o n i n h i s s t a t u s - r o l e . To determine r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s and r o l e performance, a l i s t of 50 r o l e d e f i n i t i o n items were presented i n a s t r u c t u r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r e x t e n s i o n s t a f f and 40 of the r o l e d e f i n i t i o n items were i n c l u d e d in-a s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w schedule f o r farmers. Each item has a range of response c a t e g o r i e s on a 5-point L i k e r t - t y p e i n t e r v a l s c a l e which respondents were t o respond t o as 5 = 'Vje'ry Important", 4 = 'Quite Important', 3 = 'Moderately Important', 2 = 'Some-what Important', and 1 = 'Least Important' (see instrument i n Appendix A). The 50 r o l e d e f i n i t i o n items were c l u s t e r e d i n t o the f i v e major e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n areas as f o l l o w s : E d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s (15 items) A d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s (8 items) - 102 -S e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s (12 items) P u b l i c r e l a t i o n s f u n c t i o n s C5 items) S t a f f f u n c t i o n s (10 items) E d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n - i s d e f i n e d as a c t i v i t i e s ' i n v o l v i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h , an- exten-s ione.agentaaridt. the r u r a l farm and non-farm people f o r the purpose of systematic i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t r e s u l t s i n l e a r n i n g farm p r a c t i c e s and/or r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . The content of a c t i v i t i e s need not be a g r i c u l t u r a l . For example, t e a c h i n g farmers and farm wives how to take care of c h i l d r e n . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n - i s d e f i n e d as an a c t i v i t y performed by the e x t e n s i o n agent which i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d , l i m i t e d i n scope, and d e l e g a t e d to the agent on the b a s i s of h i s h i e r a r c h i c a l p o s i t i o n i n the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e . Example: A t t e n d i n g t o c o n t r a c t o r s and other businessmen i n the o f f i c e . S e r v i c e f u n c t i o n - i s d e f i n e d as an a c t i v i t y c a r r i e d out by the e x t e n s i o n agent t o help farmers produce, and to f a c i l i t a t e the r o l e of the ..extension s e r v i c e as an arm of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e . Example: D i s t r i b u t i n g p l a n t i n g m a t e r i a l s and f e r t i l i z e r s t o farmers. P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s f u n c t i o n - i s d e f i n e d as an a c t i v i t y t h a t i n v o l v e s the treatment of p u b l i c a f f a i r s i s s u e s to i n c r e a s e the understanding of people about the i s s u e s . Example: Promo-t i n g government programmes among r u r a l people. S t a f f Related f u n c t i o n - i s d e f i n e d as an a c t i v i t y c a r r i e d out by the e x t e n s i o n agents f o r the purpose of improving t h e i r own - 103 -e f f i c i e n c y and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s and those.of other government f u n c t i o n a r i e s , and which does not i n v o l v e farmers or non-farmers. Example: Organize seminars and workshops f o r e x t e n s i o n agents and produce i n s p e c t o r s . The s t a f f f u n c t i o n comprising 10 a c t i v i t y items was not i n c l u d e d i n the r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s f o r the farmers because the f u n c t i o n i s i n s t i t u -t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d t o the M i n i s t r y s t a f f o n l y . T h e r e f o r e o n l y 40 a c t i v i t y items were on the farmers' i n t e r v i e w schedule. To determine r o l e performance the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f were asked to i n d i c a t e how much of t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l time (as a percentage of t o t a l time) was spent on each f u n c t i o n a r ea. The percentage score's oh a l l items ..under, each f u n c t i o n area were then transformed i n t o r a t i o estimates o f respondents' time spent on each e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n by u s i n g Stevens' R a t i o E s t i m a t i o n Technique (Stevens, 1951; 1966; 1968). Job S t a t i s f a c t i o n Data on job s a t i s f a c t i o n were obtained by u s i n g a m o d i f i e d Job D e s c r i p t i v e Index (JDI) f o l l o w i n g Quinn and Kahn (1967) and H u l i n (1972). Twentyfiye c h a r a c t e r i s t i c items were l i s t e d and e x t e n s i o n personnel were asked to i n d i c a t e t h e i r degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h each item;' on a 5-point < \ . ordinal . • s c a l e w i t h response range from (5) = 'Very Well S a t i s f i e d ' , t o (1) = 'Very D i s s a t i s f i e d " . (See instrument i n Appendix A ) . These items were c l u s t e r e d i n t o f i v e job dimensions: (a) s u p e r v i s i o n (5 i t e m s ) , (b) work group (5 items) (c) job content/work i t s e l f (_5 items) , (d) s a l a r y C 5 items) - 104 -and (e) promotional o p p o r t u n i t i e s (5 i t e m s ) . E x t e n s i o n Teaching Techniques A l i s t of 12 e x t e n s i o n t e a c h i n g techniques t h a t were co n s i d e r e d r e l e v a n t t o N i g e r i a n s i t u a t i o n s was" presented i n the instrument f o r the t h r e e respondent groups. E x t e n s i o n s t a f f were asked t o r a t e the ' e f f e c t i v e n e s s ' of each of these techniques i n working w i t h r u r a l farmers on a 5-point o r d i n a l ] s c a l e r anging from (5) = 'Very E f f e c t i v e ' , to (1) = 'Not a t a l l E f f e c t i v e ' . (See a l s o appendix A). The s e n i o r s t a f f were asked t o i n d i c a t e the percentage of e x t e n s i o n t e a c h i n g t h a t should be done through each technique, w h i l e the j u n i o r s t a f f were.asked to i n d i c a t e the percentage of t e a c h i n g they a c t u a l l y c a r r i e d out w i t h each technique u s i n g the Steven ratio e s t i m a t i o n technique. From the data i t was p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h any d i s c r e p a n c y between what techniques the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f p e r c e i v e d as most e f f e c t i v e and the techniques mostly used. The data on farmers' l e a r n i n g through these e x t e n s i o n techniques were obtained by a s k i n g the farmers t o i n d i c a t e the most frequent source out of s i x sources through which he r e c e i v e d i n f o r m a t i o n about h i s cocoa farm o p e r a t i o n s , and t o i n d i c a t e through which of the 12 l i s t e d techniques he l e a r n e d each of s e l e c t e d f i v e farm p r a c t i c e s t h a t are c r u c i a l t o cocoa p r o d u c t i o n . These p r a c t i c e s a r e : s p r a y i n g of chemical a g a i n s t c a p s i d p e s t s (Sahiber-g e l l a , spp, and D i s t a n t i e l l a spp,\, and b l a c k pod disea.se (Phytophytora palmevora) , These p e s t s and the fungus d i s e a s e may account f o r more than 3 5 per cent of the l o s s e s i n cocoa y i e l d . - f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n t o cocoa, weed c o n t r o l . m i s t l e t o e removal (Tapinanthus spp.) a p a r a s i t i c p l a n t which a f f e c t s the y i e l d of cocoa, fer m e n t a t i o n , a process necessary t o get good q u a l i t y cocoa beans. Each time a farmer r e c a l l e d how he a c t u a l l y l e a r n e d any of these p r a c t i c e s , the a p p r o p r i a t e technique i n the schedule was checked. I f he knew the p r a c t i c e a f t e r l e a r n i n g i t through such a technique, the technique was g i v e n an e f f e c t i v e n e s s score of 2; i f he s a i d he d i d not know i t and had . t o l e a r n i t through another technqiue i t was g i v e n a score of 1. Thus the data i n d i c a t e d the p r o p o r t i o n of farmers' l e a r n i n g t h a t o c c u r r e d through each technique and the e f f e c t i v e ness of the technique. Moreoverrthe p r o p o r t i o n of farmers' l e a r n i n g from these p r a c t i c e s t h a t o c c u r r e d through i n c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g i n a n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g and t h a t which oc c u r r e d under a systematic i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g was a s c e r t a i n e d . (Verner, 1975). The questionnaire- and the i n t e r v i e w schedule a l s o c o n t a i n e d q u e s t i o n s on s t r u c t u r a l and p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the respondents. - 106 -Face V a l i d i t y of the Instrument O r i g i n a l l y 60 e x t e n s i o n a c t i v i t y e x p e c t a t i o n items and 3 5 job s a t i s f a c t i o n items r e l e v a n t t o r u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n N i g e r i a were developed through l i t e r a t u r e review, a g r i c u l t u r a l r e p o r t s , p e r s o n a l experience,-and c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h f a c u l t y and s t a f f i n ~ . the departments of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , Commerce and A g r i c u l t u r e a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. These items were presented i n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r a t r i a l run and gi v e n t o ten judges t o f i l l out. The judges comprised graduate students i n a g r i c u l t u r e and e x t e n s i o n , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , and f a c u l t y members i n a g r i c u l t u r a l economics. A l l the ten judges responded t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . In a p i l o t run i n v o l v i n g a sma l l sample s i z e , non-parametric s t a t i s t i c s t r e a t e d f u l l y by S i e g e l (1956) c o u l d o n l y be used. T h e r e f o r e i n order to determine the v a l i d i t y of the items, "percentage c o r r e c t cut o f f p o i n t " was adopted ( R u s n e l l , 1974). Any a c t i v i t y statement which was not c a t e g o r i z e d c o r r e c t l y by 50 per cent (consensus) of the judges was e l i m i n a t e d . The same procedure was repeated among ten other judges of s i m i l a r background i n N i g e r i a to c r o s s check the v a l i d i t y of the items. On t h i s b a s i s , 50 r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n items and 25 job s a t i s f a c t i o n items met the c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n and were i n c l u d e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a l s o c r o s s - v a l i d a t e d among the N i g e r i a n judges f o r c l a r i t y on p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c q u e s t i o n s . The study was approved by the d o c t o r a l committee^' and l e t t e r s of approval were sent t o the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l -- 107 -t u r e , Western S t a t e s , and to the a u t h o r i t y of the U n i v e r s i t y of I f e , N i g e r i a f o r necessary support. The study was then d i s c u s s e d w i t h the a u t h o r i t y i n the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources and a p p r o v a l was o b t a i n e d with a l e t t e r on i n t r o d u c t i o n and c l e a r a n c e to the f i e l d c o o r d i n a t o r s (See Appendix B f o r l e t t e r s o f a p p r o v a l ) . Sampling Sampling of r u r a l farmers f o r r e s e a r c h work i n N i g e r i a and o t h e r A f r i c a n n a t i o n s p r e s e n t s formidable problems because o f l a c k o f r e c o r d s and a s t a n d a r d i z e d frame from which t o . draw the sample. E v e r e t t Rogers and o t h e r s have commented on t h i s problem: ... i n l e s s developed c o u n t r i e s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the r u r a l s e c t i o n s o f such n a t i o n s , the most important and o f t e n the most f r u s t r a t i n g problem f a c i n g the survey r e s e a r c h e r i s the absence o f r e l i a b l e frames from which to sample ... under these circumstances, c r e a t i v e sampling techniques must be used i n o r d e r to approximate a random sample which allows one to c o n f i d e n t l y g e n e r a l i z e from the sample to the p o p u l a t i o n (Rogers, A s c r o f t , and Roling, 1970) . A s t r a t i f i e d random sample of 160 farmers out of a t o t a l 56 3 t h a t c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d through the l o c a l e x t e n s i o n agents were s e l e c t e d from 12 s t r a t a i n the s t a t e s u s i n g each of the 12 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n s i n the 4 a g r i c u l t u r a l zones as a stratum. E l e v e n of these 12 d i v i s i o n s are cocoa growing areas, while one d i v i s i o n , O k i t i p u p a , i s mainly f o r rubber and o i l palm c u l t i v a t i o n . The farmers were s e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g to the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : - 108 -they must be f u l l - t i m e cocoa growers, - they must have cocoa t h a t are y i e l d i n g . - they were a l l Yorubas, t o prevent l i n q u i s t i c problems. - no absentee farmers were i n c l u d e d . The cocoa farmers i n each d i v i s i o n were co n t a c t e d through the a s s i s t a n c e of l o c a l e x t e n s i o n workers, d i v i s i o n a l and zonal o f f i c e r s , and through the help of l o c a l farmers' c o o p e r a t i v e s e c r e t a r i e s . S e v e r a l v i s i t s were made to towns and v i l l a g e s where farmers ' had been i d e n t i f i e d i n order to e x p l a i n the purpose of the study and to arrange a gen e r a l meeting w i t h the farmers i n each d i v i s i o n . E x t e n s i o n personnel who knew the farmers i n each d i v i s i o n accompanied the author on a l l v i s i t s to i n t r o d u c e the author to l o c a l l e a d e r s and farmers i n order to g a i n the farmers' support f o r the study i n the area. Meetings were then arranged w i t h farmers i n each d i v i s i o n on a s p e c i f i c appointed day. At each f i n a l g e n e r a l meeting w i t h the farmers, the ex t e n s i o n o f f i c e r s ' " a n d the author f u r t h e r e x p l a i n e d the purpose of the study t o the farmers t o a l l a y the f e a r of m i s c o n s t r u i n g the r e s e a r c h w i t h an attempt to gather i n f o r m a t i o n f o r tax assessment or tenement r a t e s . Farmers were asked t o f e e l f r e e t o ask qu e s t i o n s or r a i s e i s s u e s f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n . , b e fore the s e l e c t i o n of the-sample! A l l q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o the day-to-day e x t e n s i o n work i n the area were answered and c l a r i f i e d by the l o c a l e x t e n s i o n o f f i c e r s and/or farmers,or the c o o p e r a t i v e s e c r e t a r y who accompanied the author on each o c c a s i o n . T h i s was:, necessary to _ g a i n the farmers confidence - 109 -and support f o r the study ( K e a r l , Hadari, and Ogunfowora, 19 76). Farmers were then given numbers which were d u p l i c a t e d and from these, 14 farmers were randomly s e l e c t e d . T h i s procedure was used i n the elev e n cocoa growing d i v i s i o n s , and a l l s i x farmers t h a t c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d i n O k i t i p u p a were i n c l u d e d i n the sample. S e l e c t i n g an equal number of s u b j e c t s from each stratum a t random was thought to be a b e t t e r way of e n s u r i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s as has been demonstrated by other r e s e a r c h e r s i n r u r a l and urban s t u d i e s ( R i l e y , 196 3; S t o u f e r , 1962; and Hursh, e t . a l 1968). Once the 14 farmers from a stratum were s e l e c t e d , the i n t e r v i e w was completed on the same day to a v o i d l o s s o f s u b j e c t s or the problem of rubbing o f f e f f e c t as i d e n t i f i e d by Awa (1976). The sample s i z e was l i m i t e d by time a v a i l a b l e f o r the scope o f study, and a l s o by f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s . E x t e n s i o n S t a f f For the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f , a 50 per cent p r o p o r t i o n a t e random sample was used. The l i s t o f the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f was o b t a i n e d a t the zonal headquarters. For the s e n i o r s t a f f , those who were not a g r i c u l t u r i s t s by t r a i n i n g were e l i m i n a t e d from the l i s t because they c o u l d not respond to the e x t e n s i o n items on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . These i n c l u d e d the produce o f f i c e r s , v e t e r i n a r y surgeons and f o r e s t r y o f f i c e r s who a c t as e i t h e r zonal or d i v i s i o n a l c o o r d i n a t o r s . There were 131 s e n i o r s t a f f i n general", e x t e n s i o n and 77 of them were randomly s e l e c t e d by drawing random numbers. The j u n i o r s t a f f were - 110 -more than double the s e n i o r s t a f f . Of the t o t a l 262 v i l l a g e l e v e l j u n i o r s t a f f on the l i s t , 131 (50%) were s e l e c t e d . To i n c r e a s e the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s , and s i n c e they d i d : n o t work acro s s d i v i s i o n a l boundaries, 50% of the j u n i o r s t a f f a t zonal l e v e l were randomly s e l e c t e d through random numbers (Nwakka, 1975) . Data C o l l e c t i o n The data from the farmers were c o l l e c t e d through p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w by u s i n g the s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w schedule. Three f i e l d a s s i s t a n t s from the M i n i s t r y helped i n the data c o l l e c t i o n . They were p r o p e r l y coached i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the i n t e r v i e w . The a s s i s t a n t s worked with the author p e r s o n a l l y and were not allowed to conduct any i n t e r v i e w s e p a r a t e l y without being cross-checked. Of the 160 farmers, 140 or 87.5 per cent f u l l y responded to the i n t e r v i e w schedule. Loss of s u b j e c t s due to r e f u s a l to complete an i n t e r v i e w d i d not exceed 2 f o r any d i v i s i o n . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o r the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f were d i s t r i b u t e d p e r s o n a l l y a t the zonal and d i v i s i o n a l head-q u a r t e r s . The i n s t r u c t i o n s on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were e x p l a i n e d and s p e c i f i c dates were gi v e n to c o l l e c t them. E f f o r t s were made to f o l l o w up to ensure c o o p e r a t i o n and r e s -ponse. Of the 131 j u n i o r s t a f f , 109 or 83.2 per cent . r e t u r n e d usable q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , while 70 of the 77 s e n i o r s t a f f com-p l e t e d usable q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , thus g i v i n g a 90 per cent r e -tu r n r a t e . - I l l -Secondary Data Data were a l s o o b t a i n e d from documents of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e on p o l i c y statements on e x t e n s i o n , budgets* f o r e x t e n s i o n and farmers' t r a i n i n g which were used i n the t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n of the study. A n a l y s i s of Data The data were coded and punched on computer cards • f o r computer a n a l y s i s a t ©he UBC rcomputing c e n t r e . The UBC mvultivarianCe.. BMD':P9D,;._programmes were used f o r the computer a n a l y s i s . D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s such as means, standard d e v i a t i o n s , and C h i square were used f o r the d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a . A p p r o p r i a t e c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y ses were a l s o employed t o t e s t a s s o c i a t i o n s between p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s . A f i n a l item a n a l y s i s f o r the instrument was computed and the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of items f o r e x t e n s i o n s t a f f was .92, and f o r farmers i t was .65. U n i v a r i a t e and m u l t i - v a r i a t e analyses of v a r i a n c e were used to analyse data on f o u r of the t o p i c areas, to determine the degree of i n t e r - g r o u p and i n t r a - g r o u p r o l e consensus. Means and standard d e v i a t i o n s were used to rank-order percep-t i o n s on e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n s . The r o l e performance among , e x t e n s i o n workers .was transformed i n t o r a t i o e s t i m a t i o n . r (Stevens, 1951, 1966, 1968) and -was: r e p o r t e d as the r e l a t i v e per cent of t o t a l time on e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n s . The hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p s were expl o r e d by . ' c o r r e l a t i n g each p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e , ' with cocoa p r o d u c t i o n by - 112 -farmers, and w i t h e f f e c t i v e n e s s of e x t e n s i o n s t a f f on the b a s i s of the number of t h e i r c o n t a c t s w i t h farmers. Since Pearsonian c o r r e l a t i o n s only compare s i n g l e v a r i a b l e s , t h e i r combined e f f e c t s were analyzed to determine the amount of v a r i a b l e e x p l a i n a b l e . The data were t h e r e f o r e s u b j e c t e d to f u r t h e r stepwise r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s t o e s t a b l i s h b e s t p r e d i c t o r s of cocoa p r o d u c t i o n and e x t e n s i o n t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s . A l l t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e were r e -p o r t e d a t .05 alpha l e v e l s . Conceptual Model A conceptual model f o r the r e s e a r c h procedures f o l l o w e d throughout the study was c o n s t r u c t e d and presented i n the t e x t (see F i g u r e 3). P r a c t i c a l L i m i t a t i o n s The problems encountered i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e data c o l l e c t i o n i n A f r i c a are so formidable t h a t no s i n g l e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l approach can be regarded as the panacea f o r data c o l l e c t i o n i n r u r a l areas. R u r a l s t u d i e s u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s c a t t e r e d and remote s e t t i n g s ; p r o v i s i o n of t r a n s -p o r t and food and l o d g i n g f o r f i e l d i n t e r v i e w e r s may r e q u i r e some i n v e n t i v e n e s s . Census f i g u r e s are u s u a l l y out of date and f r e q u e n t l y u n r e l i a b l e , i f indeed they are a v a i l a b l e a t a l l . - 113 -FIGURE 3 CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR THE STUDY OF D IFFUS ION OF KNOWLEDGE BY THE EXTENSION SERVICE, WESTERN STATE, NIGERIA M.A.N.R. Extension Department Role Perception Ext. Sup Role Functions — Education — Service — Administrative — Public Relations — Staff Functions Extension Teaching Dissemination - e -Methods & Techniques J Dissemination N.S.S. ' Teaching 1 Incidental Learning Formal Instruction S.E.S. Farmers' Learning — Farm Operations Cocoa Yields Note: O = Relationships Analysed - 114 ~ Adminis/trative procedures are inadequately o r g a n i z e d so t h a t . one may spend weeks i n an attempt to f i n d an o f f i c e r i n h i s o f f i c e or t o even o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n from a government f i l e . These problems are compounded i n the r u r a l areas where o n l y meagre ' f a c i l i t i e s e x i s t . Some of the most common met h o d o l o g i c a l problems f o r s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s i n the d e v e l o p i n g world are r a r e l y encountered i n a more urban i z e d and i n d u s t r i a l i z e d environment. To d i s r e g a r d these s h o r t s-comings w i l l s.imply r e s u l t i n i n t r o d u c i n g ,/ m e t h o d o l o g i c a l b i a s t o a r e s e a r c h study i n a c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g (Awa, 1976; K e a r l , et a l . , 1976). Among the i l l u s t r a t i v e problems encountered d u r i n g ) ; t h i s survey were the f o l l o w i n g : l a c k of records from which farmers' names or l i s t s c o u l d be compiled. e x c e s s i v e t r a v e l l i n g t o towns and v i l l a g e s t o i d e n t i f y and convince farmers t o take p a r t i n the study. frequent f a i l u r e s of the M i n i s t r y t o keep promises made to farmers c o n t r i b u t e d immensely t o farmers'1' . r e l u c t a n c e to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study, .a-problem , that needed- t a c t and human r e l a t i o n on the p a r t of the l o c a l e x t e n s i o n agents and the author to over-come, f e e l i n g of f r u s t r a t i o n among r u r a l e x t e n s i o n agents about t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l and socio-economic advance-ment i n the M i n i s t r y has dampened t h e i r enthusiasm - 115 -i n responding t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and i n t e r v i e w s . Researchers w i l l have t o depend on g o o d w i l l , t a c t and a l i t t l e b i t of l u c k , and s e v e r a l follow=up v i s i t s t o ensure response t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , farmers m i s t r u s t f o r s o c i a l r e s e a r c h workers seemed to have been i n c r e a s e d s i n c e the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the tenement r a t e s i n the Western " s t a t e s . The problems h i g h l i g h t e d here are by no means unique to N i g e r i a but are common i n r u r a l areas of A f r i c a . Research-e r s v a l u e the wealth of experience t h a t i s being a c q u i r e d i n A f r i c a and the Middle East and have s t a r t e d t o assemble f o r the f i r s t time i n d i v i d u a l approaches t o r u r a l survey's i n the c o n t i n e n t . The 197 4 B e i r u t Seminar on f i e l d data c o l l e c t i o n i n A f r i c a and, the' MiddlefEast'" a s s e r t e d : ... t o t a l k about how to gather f i e l d data as i f t h a t c o u l d be .separated from the q u e s t i o n of why a study i s being made i s admitt e d l y naive. The important q u e s t i o n s i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h are m e t h o d o l o g i c a l o n l y i f methodology i s b r o a d l y d e f i n e d to i n c l u d e a l l aspects of the problem ... not simply the technology of c o l l e c t i n g and d e a l i n g with data ... hence r e s e a r c h e r s i n A f r i c a must adapt techniques p e c u l i a r l y s u i t a b l e f o r the phenomena being s t u d i e d ... i t w i l l be f u t i l e and m i s l e a d i n g t o draw from any k i n d o f r e c i p e s or formulas ... r a t h e r , they should t u r n to an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d approach unique t o the s i t u a t i o n (Kearl e t . a l . 1976). The key to s u c c e s s f u l f i e l d data c o l l e c t i o n i n N i g e r i a i s f o r the re s e a r c h e r t o have a thorough understanding of the c u l t u r a l norms of h i s s u b j e c t s and use them to achieve the r e s e a r c h purpose. I t should be r e i t e r a t e d however t h a t once the farmers agree.to p a r t i c i p a t e i n any r u r a l survey, they are e x c e l l e n t people t o work w i t h . The c o o p e r a t i o n - 116 -r e c e i v e d among the peasant farmers i n most cases surpassed t h a t r e c e i v e d from government f u n c t i o n a r i e s i n t h i s study - 1 1 7 -References f o r Chapter IV 1. A b d u l l a h , Fawzim. " A n a l y s i s of the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Role of the County E x t e n s i o n D i r e c t o r i n C a l i f o r n i a . " Unpublished Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , Madison: U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, 1964. 2. Awa, Njoku E. "Me t h o d o l o g i c a l B i a s i n D i f f u s i o n Research: Some Lessons from N i g e r i a , " C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , I t h a c a , New York. Paper presented at I n t e r n a t i o n a l Communication A s s o c i a t i o n Conference. P o r t l a n d , Oregon. A p r i l 13-17, 1976. 3. Halm, Jason. M u l t i - D i m e n s i o n a l Data D e s c r i p t i o n , UBC, BMD: P9D. May, 1975. 4. H u l i n , C h a r l e s L. "Sources of V a r i a t i o n i n Job and L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n : The Role o f Community and Job-Related V a r i a b l e s , " i n W i l l i a m , K.G. and Karlene H. Roberts (eds) Comparative S t u d i e s i n O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Behaviour, New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winson, Inc. 1972, pp. 365-383. 5. Hursh, G.D., R o l i n g , N.R. and Ke r r , G.B. "Innovation i n E a s t e r n N i g e r i a , " E a s t L a n s i n g : Department of Communica-t i o n , Michigan S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1968. 6. K i t a , S t a n l e y , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o SPSS a t UBC, September, 1975. 7. K e a r l , Bryant, e t a_l. F i e l d Data C o l l e c t i o n i n the S o c i a l  S c i e n c e s : E x p e r i e n c e s i n A f r i c a and the Middle E a s t , New York: A g r i c u l t u r a l Development C o u n c i l , Inc. 1976. See e s p e c i a l l y the summary of papers by Hadari, and Ogunfowora a t the 1974 B e i r u t Seminar. pp. 50-58. 8. Lin d s a y , P e t e r H. and Norman, Donald A. Human Information  P r o c e s s i n g , New York: Academic P r e s s , 1973. 'See the Chapter on "Measuring P s y c h o l o g i c a l V a r i a b l e s , " Appendix A, pp. 640-663. 9. Quinn, R.P. and Kahn, P.L. " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Psychology," Annual Review of Psychology, (1967) 18: 437-466. 10. R i l e y , M a t i l d a W. S o c i o l o g i c a l Research, New York: Ha r t c o u t , Brace and World, Inc. 1963. 11. Rogers, E v e r e t t M., A s c r o f t , J.A., and R o l i n g , N.G. D i f f u s i o n of Innovation i n B r a z i l , N i g e r i a and I n d i a , E a s t L a n s i n g : Department of Communication, Michigan S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1970. pp. 2-31. - 118 -12. R u s n e l l , D, "Development of an Index of Q u a l i t y f o r the P l a n n i n g of Management T r a i n i n g Programmes," ED.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974. pp. 30-50. 13. S i e g e l , Sidney. Non-parametric S t a t i s t i c s f o r the B e h a v i o u r a l Science's, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1956. 14. Stevens, S.S. "On the O p e r a t i o n known as Judgement," American S c i e n t i s t , (1966) 54:385-401 (b). 15. Stevens, S.S. "A M e t r i c f o r S o c i a l Consensus," S c i e n c e , (1966) 151: 530-541 (a). 16. Stevens, S.S. "Ratio S c a l e s of Opinion" i n D.K. W h i t l a (ed) Handbook of Measurement and Assessment i n B e h a v i o u r a l S c i e n c e s . London: Addison-Wesley, 1968, pp. 171-199. 17. S t o u f e r , Samuel A. S o c i a l Research to T e s t Ideas, New York: The Free P r e s s , 1962. 18. Verner, C o o l i e . "Fundamental Concepts i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l e s Jahrbach, e d i t e d by J.H. K n o l l , B e r l i n : Bertelsman U n i v e r s i t a t s v e r l a g , 1975. - 119 -Chapter V PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS The e f f e c t i v e n e s s and success of r u r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e as an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n system i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s are i n f l u e n c e d l a r g e l y by complex v a r i a b l e s i n h e r e n t i n the environments i n which the change agents and the c l i e n t system operate. These v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s , r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s , e d u c a t i o n a l methods and techniques used i n l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n . These v a r i a b l e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d i n order to f i n d out how w e l l the s t a f f o f the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i n the Western S t a t e s of N i g e r i a c a r r y out a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t o enhance the p r o d u c t i v i t y of cocoa farmers i n the .States. P e r s o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Respondents A. E x t e n s i o n S t a f f  Age ..About o n e - t h i r d of the s e n i o r e x t e n s i o n s t a f f were i n the age b r a c k e t of 3 6 to 4 0 y e a r s , w h i l e o n e - f o u r t h were between 41 and 45 years of age. Over o n e - t h i r d (37.1%) of the s e n i o r s t a f f were below 35 years of age, w h i l e o n l y 2.9% were above 50 years of age. In c o n t r a s t , the j u n i o r v i l l a g e l e v e l e x t e n s i o n s t a f f showed an extreme age d i s t r i b u t i o n (Figure 4). Twenty-two per cent were between 21 to 25 y e a r s , while 22.9% were between 26 to 30 y e a r s . - 120 -FIGURE 4 DISTRIBUTION OF EXTENSION STAFF BY AGE 100 95 90 85 f 80 75 f 70 _ 65 - 6 0 I 55 cu cr CD » 4 5 t > " 4 0 + cu ^ 3 5 t 30 T 25 20 15 10 5 0 22.0 4.3 'A 23,0 15.7 15.6 —V) 'A = Senior N = 70 Junior N = 109 31.4 25.7 11.0 16.5 1 6.5 5.5 1.9 7, 2.9 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 AGE (YEARS) 41-45 46-50 Over 50 NOTE: Senior Junior Mean Age 37.0 33.7 S.D. 6.83 9.21 X ' = 22.47 df = 6 P<.01 - 121 ^ T h i s i s expected s i n c e young s c h o o l l e a v e r s are normally r e c r u i t e d i n t o the j u n i o r s t a f f cadre while o n l y u n i v e r s i t y graduates c o u l d enter d i r e c t l y i n t o the s e r v i c e as s e n i o r s t a f f . The data a l s o showed t h a t 60% of the j u n i o r s t a f f were below the age of 35 y e a r s . On the other hand t h e r e were more o l d e r people i n the j u n i o r cadre than i n the s e n i o r s t a f f cadre. Only 2.9% of the s e n i o r s t a f f were over 50 y e a r s , w h i l e 5.5% of the j u n i o r s t a f f were over 50 y e a r s . O v e r a l l , there was a s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the age d i s t r i b u t i o n s of s e n i o r s t a f f and the j u n i o r s t a f f of the E x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e of Western s t a t e s 2 (x = 22.47, d . f . 6, p<.01). Although s e n i o r s t a f f were g e n e r a l l y o l d e r , however, there are more people over 50 years of age among the j u n i o r s t a f f than the s e n i o r s t a f f . Tenure Years spent i n the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e was d i v i d e d i n t o s i x c a t e g o r i e s . I t was found t h a t 50% of the s e n i o r s t a f f had worked i n the M i n i s t r y f o r a p e r i o d r anging from o to 14 y e a r s , while 56.9% of the j u n i o r s t a f f had worked f o r the same p e r i o d of time. Twenty-seven per cent of the s e n i o r s t a f f had worked f o r 15 to 19 y e a r s , while on l y 11% of the j u n i o r s t a f f f e l l i n t o t h i s c a t egory. (Table 1). There was a s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n " - o f tenure'between . s e n i o r s t a f f ' a n d j u n i o r staff with the m i n i s t r y . .The study r e v e a l e d -that more people i n the 'senior s t a f f p o s i t i o n had been i n the s e r v i c e longer than the j u n i o r s t a f f ^ 122 but note t h a t although, not s i g n i f i c a n t , there are more people w i t h longer p e r i o d of s e r v i c e i n the 'Ministry among the j u n i o r s t a f f . There was a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between age and tenure of s t a f f . Pearson-Product moment c o e f f i c i e n t s computed from the data summarized i n Table! 1 and ..Figure^ <fewere (r = .915, f o r J u n i o r ) , and (r =.814 f o r Senior) s t a f f . These c o r r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t w i t h i n both groups, there was a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between tenure and age, which i s t o be expected. Table 1 DISTRIBUTION OF EXTENSION STAFF BY TENURE WITH MANR Tenure Senior S t a f f J u n i o r S t a f f T o t a l S t a f f .NO. % , No. Q. . "o , No. o. "5 Less than 5 years 3 4.3 21 19.3: 24 13.4 5-9 years "11 15.7 30 27.5. 41 22.8 10-14 years 21 30.0 11 10.1 32 17.8 15-19 years 19 27.1 12 11.0 31 17.3 20-25 years 13 .18.6 27 24.8 40 22.3 Over 25 years 3 4.3 8 7.3 11 6.4 T o t a l 70 100 109 100 179 100 Mean 14.4 13 .1 13 .7 S.D. 6.14 8 .72 7 .43 / N o t e : x 2 = 26.96 d f = 5 P < .001 / Sex There were about the same p r o p o r t i o n s of female s t a f f i n the j u n i o r t e c h n i c a l cadre as i n the s e n i o r category, 10% and 11% r e s p e c t i v e l y . (Table 2). T h i s number of female s t a f f i n the s e n i o r cadre probably r e s u l t e d from the r e c e n t P u b l i c S e r v i c e Review Commission which gave a new grad i n g s t a t u s t o people w i t h the Higher jbiploma C e r t i f i c a t e . Table 2 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX Sex Seni o r No. S t a f f % J u n i o r No. S t a f f a "o Male 62 88 . 6 98 89.9 Female 8 11.4 11 10.1 T o t a l 70 100.0 109 100.0 The same review put more men i n t o higher t e c h n i c a l and management p o s i t i o n s than would have been the case i f onl y degree h o l d e r s c o u l d h o l d management p o s i t i o n s . A p o i n t -b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t ( rpk = -371, p<.001) was obta i n e d between sex and tenure which suggests t h a t men stayed i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e longer than women i n the M i n i s t r y . Formal Education The respondents were asked t o i n d i c a t e the formal education they had r e c e i v e d as p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e i r work. From the data i t was found t h a t a l l the j u n i o r s t a f f (100%) had o b t a i n e d the A g r i c u l t u r a l A s s i s t a n t C e r t i f i c a t e . (Table 3). T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the government p o l i c y t h a t o n l y those who had completed the two years post-secondary v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g a t the sch o o l of a g r i c u l t u r e should work a t v i l l a g e l e v e l as e x t e n s i o n workers. T h i s showed t h a t the v i l l a g e l e v e l e x t e n s i o n workers i n the Western -'States had reached a hi g h e r l e v e l of t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the E a s t e r n s t a t e s where on l y 76% had reached t h a t l e v e l (Nwakka, 1975, p. 115). Table 3 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY FORMAL EDUCATION E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l S e n i o r S t a f f J u n i o r S t a f f (Highest) No. % No. % C e r t i f i c a t e - - 109 100.0 Diploma 61 87.1 Bachelor 6 8.6 Bachelor and Diploma 1 1.4 Masters 2 2.9 T o t a l 70 100.0 109 100.0 Among the s e n i o r s t a f f , 87% had obtained the diploma 8.6% had a Bachelor's degree and o n l y 2.9%: had. r e c e i v e d the Master's degree. _ _ \ \ ' l - 125 -Although d i r e c t e n t r y i n t o s e n i o r management p o s i t i o n s depends on h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , the data suggest a n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between h i g h e r q u a l i f i c a -t i o n and tenure, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t w i t h h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n people tend to leave the M i n i s t r y . Formal education was t r e a t e d as weak o r d i n a l data, and was found to have a s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h tenure. The Jaspen's c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was r = --.404 (p < .001), meaning t h a t the high e r the q u a l i f i -c a t i o n the fewer years they remain i n the s e r v i c e of the M i n i s t r y . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t h i g h l y t r a i n e d people use the M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e as a ste p p i n g stone to b e t t e r employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s . T h i s a l s o e x p l a i n s i n p a r t why there were very few p r o f e s s i o n a l s among the s e n i o r s t a f f . There was no r e l a t i o n s h i p between age and formal t r a i n i n g r e c e i v e d by j u n i o r s t a f f (Jaspen's r = 0) . This was expected s i n c e e d u c a t i o n f o r j u n i o r s t a f f terminates a t c e r t i f i c a t e l e v e l . Age has no c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h formal e d u c a t i o n of s e n i o r s t a f f (Jaspen's r = - .190). In order to determine how adequately the s e n i o r s t a f f were prepared as p r o f e s s i o n a l e x t e n s i o n workers, they were asked to i n d i c a t e t h e i r s p e c i a l areas of study while i n u n i v e r s i t y . I t was found t h a t 88.6% d i d g e n e r a l a g r i c u l t u r e , w h i l e about 5% and 4% s p e c i a l i z e d i n animal s c i e n c e and a g r i -c u l t u r a l economics r e s p e c t i v e l y . Only one per c e n t d i d exten-s i o n education a t the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l , which means t h a t n e a r l y a l l the s e n i o r s t a f f who even had some u n i v e r s i t y education were g e n e r a l i s t s but had no s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n e x t e n s i o n o r a d u l t - 126 -ed u c a t i o n . (Table 4). Table 4 DISTRIBUTION OF SENIOR STAFF BY SPECIALIZATION S p e c i a l i z a t i o n Number Percent General A g r i c u l t u r e 62 88.6 Animal Science 4 5.7 A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics 3 4.3 Ext e n s i o n E d u c a t i o n 1 1.4 T o t a l 70 100.0 E x t e n s i o n I n - S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g The problem of p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n was f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d by ask i n g e x t e n s i o n s t a f f to i n d i c a t e whether they had had any c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n a d u l t or e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n . I t was found t h a t 9 4.3% of the s e n i o r s t a f f had no i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and onl y about 6% had some t r a i n i n g . (Table 5). S i x t y - n i n e p e r c e n t of the j u n i o r s t a f f had no i n - s e r v i c e or on-the-job t r a i n i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , while 31% s a i d they had some t r a i n i n g i n the l a s t two yea r s , but t h i s was on s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s such as p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g on food crop p r o d u c t i o n . About 11% had no form of ex t e n s i o n t r a i n i n g , w h ile 89% s a i d they had r e c e i v e d some i n d u c t i o n t r a i n i n g to r e o r i e n t them to r u r a l e x t e n s i o n . There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the - 127 -s e n i o r and .j u n i o r s t a f f w i t h r e s p e c t to t r a i n i n g i n a d u l t 2 or e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n . (X = 16.54, d.f. = 1 p<.001). Table 5 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY IN-SERVICE TRAINING IN ADULT EDUCATION I n - S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g A d u l t Edu-c a t i o n : S e n i o r No. S t a f f Q. "O J u n i o r S t a f f No. % T o t a l No. S t a f f Q. *o No t r a i n i n g 66 94.3 75 68.8 141 78.7 Have t r a i n i n g 4 5.7 34 31.2 38 21.3 T o t a l 70 100.0 109 100.0 179 100.0 2 Note: x = 1 6 .54 d . f . = 1 P< . 00.1 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note than when those s e n i o r s t a f f who s a i d they had a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t r a i n i n g were asked to mention courses they took, p r a c t i c a l l y none of them co u l d name any s p e c i f i c course. The onl y course t h a t was g e n e r a l l y mentioned was the p r a c t i c a l 'Shasha' l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g -orga n i z e d by the Western S t a t e M i n i s t r y of Economic Development. 'Shasha' i s a name of a l o c a l v i l l a g e area used as a t r a i n i n g c e n t r e f o r community l e a d e r s h i p . T h i s t r a i n i n g was u n t i l 1965, conducted a t the 'Man 0 War Bay' i n the Cameroons. Another i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g was #hat. the s e n i o r s t a f f were asked i f they belonged t o any p r o f e s s i o n a l organization,, ^ 128 Only 3% of thejn mentioned bel o n g i n g to the A g r i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y of N i g e r i a , and 1% to the World P o u l t r y Association- f, w h i l e 96% d i d not belong t o any o r g a n i z a t i o n . The m a j o r i t y of the s e n i o r s t a f f f r e q u e n t l y mentioned t h e i r membership i n t r a d e unions be f o r e they became s e n i o r s t a f f but t h i s was d i s c a r d e d s i n c e t r a d e unions are not c o n s i d e r e d •, p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t was s t a r t l i n g t o f i n d t h a t s e n i o r s t a f f c o u l d not d i s t i n g u i s h between t r a d e unions and p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . The q u e s t i o n on p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was not put to j u n i o r s t a f f s i n c e they c o u l d not belong to any p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a t the . a g r i c u l t u r a l a s s i s t a n t l e v e l . T r a i n i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n had a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i -t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h formal e d u c a t i o n . The Wilcoxon's c o e f f i c i e n t of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n t h e t a was (r = +.255, p<.031); meaning t h a t those who had h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n tended to seek t r a i n i n g i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . I t was found, however, t h a t a d u l t education t r a i n i n g had no r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h age Cr ^ = .021), tenure ( r p b = .091) and sex (Lambda r = .091). These f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t these v a r i a b l e s are not n e c e s s a r i l y p r e d i c t o r s i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . Sources of C o n t i n u i n g - e d u c a t i o n The v i l l a g e l e v e l e x t e n s i o n workers who r e p o r t e d they had some i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g were asked to i n d i c a t e the source of t h e i r t r a i n i n g and the people who taught the courses. The m a j o r i t y (7 7.1%) of the people who p r o v i d e d the t r a i n i n g were members of the M i n i s t r y . (Table 6), - 129 -Table 6 DISTRIBUTION OF SOURCES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR JUNIOR EXTENSION WORKERS Source Number Per cent S e n i o r MANR O f f i c i a l s A g r i c . Research I n s t i t u t i o n s U n i v e r s i t i e s Business or Industry 84 23 2 77.1 21.1 1.8 T o t a l 109 100.0 Twenty-one per cent of those who conducted the i n -s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g were from a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t i o n s , w h i l e only about 2% were from the u n i v e r s i t i e s . Possible explana-t i o n f o r : these r e s u l t s 'Include : either-'the\extension administrators were probably m e c h a n i s t i c i n t h e i r approach toward p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l experience and growth f o r t h e i r p e r s onnel by l o o k i n g up t o '.Ministry s t a f f f o r t h i s purpose, or t h a t the u n i v e r s i t i e s have been too a l o o f i n the p r o v i s i o n of c o n t i n u -i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r r u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers. Adequacy of T r a i n i n g The v i l l a g e l e v e l e x t e n s i o n workers were asked i f they p e r c e i v e d the t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g they r e c e i v e d i n the / School of A g r i c u l t u r e adequate f o r t h e i r j o b . E i g h t y - s i x per 130 -cent p e r c e i v e d t h e i r t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g 'Very Adequate 1 to 'Adequate', w h i l e about 13% p e r c e i v e d i t 'Somewhat Inadequate' to 'Very Inadequate'. (Table 7 ) . Table 7 DISTRIBUTION OF JUNIOR EXTENSION STAFF BY ADEQUACY OF TRAINING T r a i n i n g Number Per cent Very Adequate 56 51.4 Adequate 38 34.9 Somewhat Inadequate 9 8.3 Very Inadequate 5 4.6 I am not sure 1 0.9 T o t a l 109 100.0 I t seems to the- •author . ;: t h a t a l l the demands t h a t were f r e q u e n t l y made by j u n i o r s t a f f f o r high e r education or b e t t e r t r a i n i n g were made i n order t o advance them beyond the j u n i o r cadre and not n e c e s s a r i l y demands f o r more e f f e c t i v e e x t e n s i o n work. Those who p e r c e i v e d t h e i r t r a i n i n g inadequate were asked to i n d i c a t e the type of courses they would p r e f e r t o take i n a c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programme. A g r i c u l t u r a l economics courses such as farm management were mentioned by 42.8% of the respondents, and courses i n l i v e s t o c k improvement were mentioned by 42.8%. Another 57% of the j u n i o r s t a f f would - 131 -p r e f e r more t r a i n i n g i n e x t e n s i o n and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , w h i l e 21% would p r e f e r more t r a i n i n g i n crop improvement. Farm F a m i l i e s Served The number of farm f a m i l i e s served by one v i l l a g e l e v e l e x t e n s i o n worker i n Western N i g e r i a has not been e m p i r i c a l l y documented. In order t o p r o v i d e a bench- mark f o r t h i s , e x t e n s i o n workers were asked to i n d i c a t e the number of farm f a m i l i e s they p r o v i d e s e r v i c e f o r i n the s t a t e . The j u n i o r v i l l a g e l e v e l e x t e n s i o n s t a f f r e p o r t e d t h a t they had r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a mean of 2174.6 farm f a m i l i e s , w h i l e t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s r e p o r t e d a mean of 3 63.5 farm f a m i l i e s . The fewer number of f a m i l i e s r e p o r t e d by s e n i o r s t a f f i s under-standable s i n c e they work acr o s s boundary l i n e s . T h i s f i n d i n g came c l o s e t o the estimated r a t i o of 2500 farmers t o one ex t e n s i o n worker i n N i g e r i a by the F e d e r a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and the USAID (Oloruntoba, 1972). I t l o g i c a l l y f o l l o w s t h e r e f o r e t h a t w i t h the present a g e n t - c l i e n t r a t i o , i t i s i m p r a c t i c a b l e f o r r u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers t o p r o v i d e e f f e c t i v e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e i r c l i e n t e l e . Farm V i s i t s The ;farm v i s i t i s . a n e f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l procedure used i n r u r a l e x t e n s i o n t o teach farmers and r u r a l non-farmers. The v i l l a g e l e v e l j u n i o r s t a f f were asked t o i n d i c a t e the number of farm v i s i t s they make each year f o r the purpose of t e a c h i n g farmers. T h i r t y - o n e per cent of the respondents - 132 -r e p o r t e d between one arid99 farm v i s i t s a y e a r ' f w h i l e oyer h a l f of them C5 2 % I r e p o r t e d f r o m / 100 to 399 farm v i s i t s . About 16% s a i d they made from 400 to over 1000 farm v i s i t s . (Table 8). Under the p r e s e n t s t a t e of r u r a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e development, and the g e n e r a l complaints by e x t e n s i o n workers about l a c k of funds t o reimburse t h e i r t r a v e l l i n g allowances and mileage c l a i m s , the author found i t extremely d i f f i c u l t t o b e l i e v e the l a t t e r p a r t of t h i s r e p o r t of over 1000 v i s i t s a year, and concluded t h a t a r e p o r t e d v i s i t of over 1000 times a year i s n o t h i n g more than mere l i p - s e r v i c e . Table 8 DISTRIBUTION OF JUNIOR EXTENSION STAFF BY FARM VISITS PER YEAR Farm V i s i t s Number Per cent •1- 24 v i s i t s 15 13.8 25- 55 v i s i t s 11 10.1 56- 99 v i s i t s 8 7.3 100-399 v i s i t s 57 52.3 400-999 v i s i t s 8 7.3 1000 and above 10 9.2 T o t a l 109 100.0 Mean =329.8 .S.D. 553.63 On.the whole, a v i l l a g e l e v e l e x t e n s i o n worker i n the Western S t a t e s made an average of 330 farm v i s i t s a year. There was - no * a s s o c i a t i o n between the number of farm v i s i t s - 133 -made by an e x t e n s i o n agent and sex ( r p b = .102, p<. 288). There were a l s o no a s s o c i a t i o n s between the number of farm v i s i t s and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n (r ^ = .116, p<.226). The f i n d i n g s then suggest t h a t the l e n g t h of time the s t a f f have been w i t h the M i n i s t r y and the type of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n they r e c e i v e d on the job d i d not i n c r e a s e the number of farm v i s i t s they make to teach farmers. F i e l d Experience Apart from the b a s i c p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g , f i e l d e x perience i n r u r a l e x t e n s i o n i s an e s s e n t i a l a t t r i b u t e of an e f f e c t i v e e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s i o n . The e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s were asked to i n d i c a t e how long they had worked i n the f i e l d as j u n i o r v i l l a g e l e v e l e x t e n s i o n workers; t h i s was com-pared w i t h the f i e l d e xperience of j u n i o r s t a f f . I t was found t h a t 31% of the s e n i o r s t a f f worked l e s s than f i v e y e a r s , w h i l e 50% worked from 5 t o 10 years b e f o r e they became s u p e r v i s o r s . (Figure 5 ). Only 11.4% of the s e n i o r s t a f f worked f o r over 15 years b e f o r e advancement to a s e n i o r s t a f f p o s i t i o n . In c o n t r a s t , the j u n i o r s t a f f have more f i e l d p r a c t i c a l experience than t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s . - 134 -FIGURE . 5 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY YEARS OF EXPERIENCE - 135 -O n e - t h i r d of the j u n i o r s t a f f had worked f o r l e s s than 5 y e a r s , about 25% had worked from 5 to 14 y e a r s , while 18% had f i e l d experience of over 20 to 25 y e a r s . O v e r a l l , there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the j u n i o r and s e n i o r s t a f f w i t h r e s p e c t to f i e l d e x perience. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e when coupled w i t h inadequate p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g on the p a r t o f the e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s may c r e a t e a problem of c r e d i b i l i t y gaps between s e n i o r and j u n i o r s t a f f i n e x t e n s i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . B. The Farmers  Age The age d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f farmers i s an important f a c t o r i n l a b o u r s u p p l i e s to be c o n s i d e r e d when d e c i d i n g on the type of s e r v i c e farmers need to enhance t h e i r p r o d u c t i v i t y , s i n c e the o l d e r farmers need more h e l p than the younger ones. The study r e v e a l e d t h a t o n l y 4% of the farmers i n the s t a t e s were from 21 to 25 y e a r s , w h i l e 21% were i n the age b r a c k e t of 26 to 35 y e a r s . Over h a l f of the sampled farmers were between 36 and 50 y e a r s , while 17% were over 50 years of age. (Table 9) The h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of o l d e r men i n farming r e f l e c t s the p r e v a l e n t problem of m i g r a t i o n of young s c h o o l l e a v e r s from r u r a l areas, thus l e a v i n g the o l d e r people to farming. M a r i t a l S tatus Among the Yorubas,wives serves as a source of labour and a l s o as a s t a t u s symbol. - 136 -Table 9 DISTRIBUTION OF FARMERS BY AGE Age (Years) Number Per cent 21-25 5 4.0 26-30 11 7.7 31-35 19 13.5 36-40 23 16.4 41-45 26 18.5 46-50 32 22 . 8 Over 50 24 17.1 T o t a l 140 100.0 Mean = 4 4.2 S.D. = 10.85 The study r e v e a l e d t h a t o n l y 5% of the farmers were s i n g l e ; 94.3%' were married and on l y one farmer was d i -vorced. Of those who were married, the mean number of wives was 2.02, wi t h an;., observed range of 1 to 5 wives. There were an average of 6.20 c h i l d r e n per farmer w i t h a range of 1 to"19 c h i l d r e n . Age, wives and number of c h i l d r e n were measured d i r e c t l y and i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u -l a t e d . Age was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h number of wives (r = +.470, p<.001), and number of wives was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with number of c h i l d r e n (r= +.520 p<.001); meaning t h a t the o l d e r people have more wives, and - 137 -those with, more wives have more c h i l d r e n , The cocoa farmers of Western N i g e r i a were s i m i l a r i n these a t t r i b u t e s to t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n other West A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s (Opare, 1976). Years of S c h o o l i n g The s u c c e s s f u l use of some ex t e n s i o n methods, techniques, and d e v i c e s depends to a l a r g e extent on the l i t e r a c y r a t e among r u r a l people. L i t e r a c y r a t e among the sampled cocoa farmers was then i n v e s t i g a t e d . The study r e v e a l e d t h a t over h a l f of the sampled farmers never went to s c h o o l , 3 5% had from 5 to 10 years of s c h o o l i n g , w h i l e only 3.6% had over 10 years of s c h o o l i n g . (Table 10). Table 10 DISTRIBUTION OF FARMERS BY YEARS OF SCHOOLING Years of S c h o o l i n g Number Per cent None 1-4 years 5-10 years Over 10 years 76 10 49 5 54.3 7.1 35.0 3.6 T o t a l 140 100. 0 O v e r a l l , about 62% of the farmers were b a s i c a l l y i l l i t e r a t e , w h i l e 38% were f u n c t i o n a l l y l i t e r a t e . The mean years of s c h o o l i n g was 3.2 years which was below the > t - ,13,8 UNESCO recommendation of four years of s c h o o l i n g as a r e q u i r e -ment f o r an i n d i v i d u a l to reach f u n c t i o n a l l i t e r a c y (Rogers and Svenning, 1969). Age had a s i g n i f i c a n t n e g ative c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h years of s c h o o l i n g (r = -.306, p<:002), which i n d i c a t e s t h a t o l d e r farmers have fewer years of schooling.. Years of s c h o o l i n g i s not a p r e d i c t o r ofSnumber of.;wives (r ='-.125, p < . 1 4 5 ) . There was L \ „ . l ~ - , . . . . . . . - . . . no a s s o c i a t i o n between^ s c h o o l i n g and the number of c h i l d r e n ( r . 0 8 1 ) :' ...» .-. ' ; Farmers Cooperative About two - t h i r d s of the cocoa farmers were members of the Western S t a t e Cooperative Produce Marketing Union, while 34% were non-members. (Table 11). Table 11 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY MEMBERSHIP IN COOPERATIVE UNION Cooperative Membership Number Per cent Member 92 65.7 Non-Member 48 34. 3 T o t a l 140 100.0 The Cooperative Union e x i s t s under the M i n i s t r y of Trade and Cooperatives and the farmers' Cooperative Union has been an e f f e c t i v e method o f o r g a n i z i n g the farmers i n the s t a t e f o r more e f f i c i e n t farming and marketing of t h e i r farm produce. Membership i n the Union had a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h age (r ^  = .303, p<.002) and w i t h number of wives ( rpb = -365, p<.002), meaning t h a t o l d e r farmers tend to j o i n the c o o p e r a t i v e union and c o o p e r a t i v e members tend to have more wives. Membership i n the c o o p e r a t i v e union was s i g n i f i -c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h farm income ( rpjj = +.251, p<.002) and with y i e l d per acre (^p^ = +.201, p<.017); meaning t h a t farmers -who are union members have more farm income and feave g r e a t e r "y'ie'] per a c r e . The s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n between c o o p e r a t i v e membership and farm income and average y i e l d per acre tends t o support the government p o l i c y t o make membership i n the farmers C o o p e r a t i v e Union mandatory f o r those who are to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the new Cocoa Development U n i t p r o j e c t s i n the Western .States. Years of Farming The data from the study r e v e a l e d t h a t n e a r l y a l l the respondents have been i n farming more, .than one year... About 26% have been i n cocoa farming from . 5 to 14 y e a r s , about 30% have farmed f o r over 20 y e a r s , w h i l e 25,6% had been i n farming over 26 ye a r s . (Table 12). The mean years of farming was 20.9. Years o f farming had s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s - 140 w i t h age (r =. ,796, p^,001), and number of wives Cr =• ,396, p<,002), and c h i l d r e n Cr = .385, p^.002). T h i s means t h a t o l d e r people have been i n farming l o n g e s t , and those who have farmed f o r longer p e r i o d tend t o have more wives and c h i l d r e n . T h i s i s expected s i n c e number of wives and c h i l d r e n a re not only s t a t u s symbols among the Yorubas but a l s o are sources of human l a b o u r . The. number of years i n farming and membership i n c o o p e r a t i v e union were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d = .406, p<. 001) . Table 12 DISTRIBUTION OF FARMERS BY YEARS OF FARMING Years i n Farming Number Per cent Less than 5 years 2 1.4 5- 9 years 14 10.0 10-14 years 23 16.4 15-19 years 22 15.8 20-25 years 43 30.8 26-35 years 25 17.8 Over 35 years 11 7.8 T o t a l 140 100. 0 Mean =20.9 S.D. = 10.74 T h i s means t h a t those who have farmed f o r longer; '•' periods tend to be members of the farmers' .Cooperative Union. But years - 141 -of farming and years of s c h o o l i n g were n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d Cr = -.406, p<,001), meaning t h a t those who have farmed l o n g e s t had the l e a s t e d u c a t i o n , i t itiay be concluded . t h a t govern-ment e f f o r t s t o a t t r a c t young s c h o o l l e a v e r s t o farming i n re c e n t years may not n e c e s s a r i l y guarantee t h a t people w i t h more years of s c h o o l i n g w i l l p r a c t i c e farming than those w i t h fewer years of s c h o o l i n g . S i z e of Farm The average farm s i z e r e p o r t e d by the cocoa farmers was 9.5 acres which i s about double t h a t of t h e i r food crop c o u n t e r p a r t s which was 4.5 acres ( A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c a l Report 1971). Sixty-one per cent of the cocoa farmers operate from 5 to 10 a c r e s , 18% had l e s s than 5 a c r e s , while 16% operate farms of from 15 to over 20 a c r e s . (Table 13). Table 13 DISTRIBUTION OF FARMERS BY SIZE OF FARM S i z e o f Farm (acres) Number Per cent Less than 5 acres 26 18. 6 5-10 acres 86 61.4 11-14 acres 5 3.6 15-20 acres 13 9.3 Over 20 acres 10 7.1 T o t a l " 140 100. 0 ' "• • • Mean - 9.5 S.D. =7.92 - 142 -Farm s i z e was found to have s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r -r e l a t i o n w i t h income (r = +.522, p .001), t o t a l y i e l d (r = + .519 p .001), number of wives (r = +.419, p .001), and c h i l d r e n (r = +.334, p .002) but a ne g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h y i e l d per acre (r = -.2115, p .0111). T h i s means t h a t those farmers w i t h l a r g e r farm s i z e tend to have h i g h e r income, and h i g h e r t o t a l y i e l d , but y i e l d per acre i s reduced as farm s i z e i n c r e a s e s and farmers have more wives and c h i l d r e n . The st r o n g a s s o c i a t i o n o f farm s i z e w i t h these other v a r i a b l e s i s understandable i n t h a t the farmer needs them as important socio-economic i n p u t s i n t o farm p r o d u c t i o n . I t was a l s o found t h a t farm s i z e c o r r e l a t e s p o s i t i v e l y w i t h age (r = +.199, p .018) and membership i n the Cooperative Union (r ^  = +.190, p .02 4); meaning t h a t o l d e r farmers and union members tend to have l a r g e r farms. Farm s i z e had no c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h years o f s c h o o l i n g (r = +.074). Farm Income The farmers were asked t o g i v e the a c t u a l annual income from cocoa p r o d u c t i o n f o r 19 75. The a c t u a l income giv e n by a farmer was recorded but t h i s was l a t e r recoded i n t o seven c a t e g o r i e s . (See Table 14). The study r e v e a l e d t h a t 39% of the farmers earned l e s s than N400 a n n u a l l y from cocoa p r o d u c t i o n , while 31.5% earned between N400 to N799 per annum. Over o n e - f o u r t h o f the respondents had annual farm income of between N800 to N1499, While 1.4% earned between N1500 t o N2000 per annum. (Table 14). The c o r r e l a t i o n co-e f f i c i e n t of farm income w i t h age was (r = +.279, p .002). Farm income s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h number of wives - 143 T Cr - .+ ,451, p<,001) , and c h i l d r e n Cr =• .+.,393, p^«001). I t was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with farm s i z e Cr = +.523, p<.001). , and y i e l d Cr = +,887 , p<,001).. T h i s means t h a t as the farm income i n c r e a s e s the farmer tends t o have more wives, and more c h i l d r e n . The o l d e r farmers tend t o have more farm income. Table 14 DISTRIBUTION OF FARMERS BY FARM INCOME FROM COCOA PRODUCTION Income Number Per cent Less than N200 15 10.7 N 200- 399 40 28. 6 N 400- 499 15 10.7 N 500- 799 29 20.8 N 800- 999 15 10.7 N1000-1499 24 17.1 N1500-2000 .2 1.4 T o t a l 140 100. 0 Mean = .602. 4 NAIRA S.D. = 386.82 Note: F i g u r e s are i n N i g e r i a n N a i r a CN1 = U.S. $1.55) Farm Y i e l d The farmers were asked to g i v e the annual y i e l d of cocoa from t h e i r farms f o r the 1974 and the 1975 cocoa seasons. The a c t u a l farm y i e l d g i v e n by a farmer f o r 1974 and 1975 were added and d i v i d e d by 2 to get the average t o t a l y i e l d per year per farmer. -_144 -T h i s was then d i v i d e d by the average acreage per farm to o b t a i n the average annual y i e l d per acre per farm. The average t o t a l y i e l d per annum ob t a i n e d per farmer was 2 712 l b s . ( i . e . 1.2 long t o n s ) , w i t h an average y i e l d of 285.4 l b s . per a c r e . T h i s i s much lower than the recommended y i e l d of between 500-800 l b s . per a c r e . However, the f i n d -i n g corresponds t o a s i m i l a r f i n d i n g i n Ghana (Opare, 19 76). In order to cross-check the accuracy of the f i g u r e s r e p o r t e d by the farmers f o r t h e i r farm income and cocoa y i e l d , the average t o t a l y i e l d per annum of 1.2 tons was m u l t i p l i e d by the c u r r e n t s e l l i n g p r i c e o f N500 f o r the 19 74/75 season. T h i s c o n v e r s i o n equals N600 which corresponds w i t h the average farm income N6 02 r e p o r t e d by the farmers. The average y i e l d per annum per farmer o f 2 712 l b s . was d i v i d e d by the average y i e l d per acre o f 2 85.4 l b s . to g i v e an approximate mean acreage per farmer o f 9.5 which matches with the average of 9.5 acres r e p o r t e d by the farmers. Radio as an Information Source The farmers were asked to i n d i c a t e whether they have a r a d i o as means of r e c e i v i n g news and farm i n f o r m a t i o n . Ninety farmers or 64.3% s a i d they had r a d i o s , w h i l e 35.7% s a i d they possessed no r a d i o s . Radio p o s s e s s i o n had a s l i g h t , but s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h .income (r . = +.195, p<.21) - 145 -meaning t h a t as the farm income i n c r e a s e s the farmers tend to be i n a p o s i t i o n to possess r a d i o s as means of r e c e i v i n g news and farm i n f o r m a t i o n . However, r a d i o p o s s e s s i o n had no a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h farm y i e l d per acre (r ^ = .067). Summary of B i o g r a p h i c a l Data Sen i o r S t a f f The f i n d i n g s i n the study r e v e a l e d t h a t the s e n i o r e x t e n s i o n s t a f f was made up of d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y h i g h numbers of t e c h n i c a l p e r s o n n e l s e r v i n g i n the s u p e r v i s o r y cadre (87%), w h i l e o n l y 13% possessed p r o f e s s i o n a l u n i v e r s i t y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The p a u c i t y of p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l was f u r t h e r worsened by l a c k of s y s t e m a t i c c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programmes to up-grade the q u a l i t a t i v e a s p e c t of the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f . Only about 6% r e p o r t e d to have any form of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . The s e n i o r s t a f f had served f o r a mean of 14.4 y e a r s , and 96% belonged to no p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n (Table 15). J u n i o r S t a f f The v i l l a g e l e v e l j u n i o r e x t e n s i o n workers had a mean tenure of 13.1 years w i t h the M i n i s t r y , and t h e i r average age was 33.7 y e a r s . Although the j u n i o r s t a f f were younger i n mean age, the cadre c o n t a i n e d more o l d e r people than the s e n i o r s t a f f cadre. (Table 16). S i x t y - n i n e p e r c e n t of them had some form of c o n t i n u -i n g e d u c a t i o n i n the l a s t two years (one s t a f f member p r o v i d e d s e r v i c e f o r almost 2175 farmers)and m a j o r i t y c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g adequate f o r the job. - 146 ^ Table 15 MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATIONS AND POSSIBLE RANGES OF ELEVEN PERSONAL VARIABLES OF SENIOR STAFF CN-7 0} V a r i a b l e s Mean S.D, Observed range Age (Years) Sex: Male Female 37 .0 89% 11% 6.83 21-54 Formal Education: Diploma Bachelors Masters 87% 10% 3% Experience as J u n i o r S t a f f (years) 7.8 6.02 Experience w i t h MANR (years) 14.4 6.14 Experience as Senior S t a f f (years) 5.4 3.79 Number :o-f>:"sta-ff; s u p e r v i s e d 14.9 14.94 Number of farmers served 363.5 565.77 0- 25 1- 32 1-20 10-99 20-3000 Have t r a i n i n g i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n 6% Have T r a i n i n g i n E x t e n s i o n 89^ Belong t o P r o f e s s i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n s 4% Note: A l l percentages are to the n e a r e s t whole numbers. rv 147 -Table 16 MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATIONS AND POSSIBLE RANGE OF EIGHT PERSONAL VARIABLES OF JUNIOR STAFF (N-109) V a r i a b l e s Mean S.D. Observed Range Age (years^ Sex: Male Female 33.7 90% 10% 9.21 21- 55 Formal E d u c a t i o n 100% ( c e r t i f i c a t e ) E xperience i n Ext e n s i o n (years) Experience i n MANR (years) Number of Farmers served 9.7 13.1 7 .95 8.72 2174.6 6455.46 1- 28 1- 32 0-5000 Number of Farm v i s i t s per year C o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n ( l a s t 2 years) Yes Adequacy of T r a i n i n g 329.80 553.66 69% 1.6 0.83 •1-3000 'Very Inadequate' to 'Very Adequate' Note: A l l percentages are t o the n e a r e s t whole number. Farmers S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The • average age of cocoa farmers i n the Western _S,tates was 44,2 y e a r s . About 94,3% of the farmers were married w i t h an average of 2.02 wives, and an average of 6.2 0 c h i l d r e n per farmer. (See Table 17). - 1 4 8 Table 17 MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATIONS AND POSSIBLE RANGES OF FOURTEEN PERSONAL VARIABLES FOR FARMERS CN=140) V a r i a b l e s Mean S.D. Observed; Range Age (years) 44.2 10. 85 20- 76 No. of wives 2.02 1. 07 1- 5 No. of c h i l d r e n 6.20 4. 00 1- 20 L i t e r a c y : I l l i t e r a t e . L i t e r a t e 62% 38% Years of S c h o o l i n g 3.2 4. 09 1- 14 Years of Farming 20.9 10. 74 2- 50 S i z e of Farm (acres) 9.5 7 . 92 2- 40 Cocoa y i e l d per acre (lbs.) 286 219. 07 Cocoa y i e l d per annum (lbs.) 2712 2428. ,32 80-8960 Farm Income ( N a i r a ) * 602.44 386. ,82 60-2000 Membership i n Cooperat i v e 66% Radio P o s s e s s i o n 64% Time Devoted t o Farming 100% Mar r i e d 94% Note: A l l percentages are t o the nea r e s t whole number. * N i g e r i a n currency i s c a l l e d NAIRA = (Nl = u.s . $1.55). ^ 149 Sixty-two per cent of; the farmers were i l l i t e r a t e , w h i le 38% were f u n c t i o n a l l y l i t e r a t e . They have been i n cocoa farming f o r an average of 21 yea r s , w i t h an average annual cocoa p r o d u c t i o n of 1.2 tons, and an annual farm income of about N600.00 (.Nigerian N i a r a ) , which i s an e q u i v a l e n t of U.S. .V , $930.00. , . Role A n a l y s i s Role P e r c e p t i o n The e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s and the v i l l a g e l e v e l j u n i o r e x t e n s i o n s t a f f were compared on p e r c e p t i o n s of the r e l a t i v e importance of the f i v e major e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n areas. These a r e " e d u c a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , s e r v i c e , p u b l i c r e l a t i o n , and s t a f f f u n c t i o n s . The e x t e n s i o n personnel were a l s o compared a g a i n s t the farmers on the r e l a t i v e importance \ p e r c e i v e d of fo u r of the e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n s s i n c e the s t a f f v f u n c t i o n i s e x c l u s i v e l y concerned w i t h the 'Ministry s t a f f . (See d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of f u n c t i o n items i n Chapter I V). Each e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n area was measured on a 5-p o i n t L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e ranging from 1 = 'Of Least Importance', to 5 = 'Most Important' f u n c t i o n of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e . The mean scores and standard d e v i a t i o n s were then used t o rank\-order the r e l a t i v e importance of the f i v e f u n c t i o n s as p e r c e i v e d by the th r e e groups. In t h i s way, i t was p o s s i b l e t o determine consensus among r o l e d e f i n e r s on one hand, and gen e r a l consensus by e x t e n s i o n s t a f f a g a i n s t farmers' p e r c e p t i o n of the r o l e t h a t e x t e n s i o n should p l a y . - 150 -The f i n d i n g s from the study r e v e a l e d t h a t e x t e n s i o n s t a f f of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e , Western S t a t e s of N i g e r i a ranked a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n as the 'Most Important' f u n c t i o n of the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s , w h ile the farmers p e r c e i v e d s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n as the 'Most Important' f u n c t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n as the 'Least Important' f u n c t i o n . In c o n t r a s t , the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f ranked s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n as the 'Least Important' f u n c t i o n of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s . (Table 18) . Although both the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f and the farmers p e r c e i v e d e d u c a t i o n f u n c t i o n as 'Important', the farmers' r a t i n g of e d u c a t i o n f u n c t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r (3.9) than the r a t i n g of (3.3) g i v e n to e d u c a t i o n by the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f p<.001. I t was s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f gave lower r a t i n g s to e d u c a t i o n and s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s than the farmers. In e f f e c t , the f i n d i n g suggests t h a t the ex-t e n s i o n s t a f f deemed themselves f i r s t and foremost as ad-m i n i s t r a t o r s r a t h e r than r u r a l a d u l t educators. T h i s i s c o n t r a t r y to e a r l i e r o p i n i o n by Akinbode (19 71, p. 38). The reason f o r the low r a n k i n g given to a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e f u n c t i o n by the farmers c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d to the i n -d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s and m i s t r u s t t h a t r u r a l people may have f o r government b u r e a u c r a t i c works e s p e c i a l l y when the r e s u l t s of such works do not meet the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the people. During the f i e l d survey, there were g e n e r a l e x p r e s s i o n s of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n by farmers about the l a c k of e f f e c t i v e con-t a c t with the M i n i s t r y f o r u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n and a g r i c u l t u r a l s u p p l i e s . Table 18 RESPONDENTS PERCEIVED RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF EXTENSION FUNCTIONS AS CLASSIFIED BY MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS (a) T o t a l S t a f f Senior S t a f f J u n i o r S t a f f Farmers - (N=179) - (N-70) z (N=109) = (N=140) x .] .S.D.. Rank x . ,S.D. Rank x S.D. Rank x- 'S.D. Rank Edu c a t i o n 3.3 0.62_ 2 3.3 0.59 2 3.2 0.64 2 3.9 0.45 2 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e 3.4 0.65 1 3.4 0.54 1 3.4 0.7 5 1 2.7 0.70 4 S e r v i c e 2.9 0.68 5 2.9 0.56 5 2.9 0.80 5 4.1 0.51 1 1 i- 1 U l i— 1 1 P u b l i c R e l a t i o n 3.1 0.77 4 3.1 0.74 4 3.2 0.81 2 3.4 0.73 3 S t a f f * 3.2 0.71 3 3.2 0.68 3 3,2 0.74 2 — — — * T h i s f u n c t i o n was Ministry s t a f f . i excluded from the farmers' l i s t s i n c e i t i s mainly r e l a t e d to the (a) - See a l s o the gr a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n of p e r c e p t i o n scores f o r the 3-group (Figure 6). - 152 -FIGURE 6 RESPONDENTS' PERCEIVED IMPORTANCE OF EXTENSION FUNCTIONS BY MEAN SCORES cu U O CJ CO fl (d cu S cu o •fl td -P u o i 1 cu > •H cu u u cu 5 . 0 . 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 KEY: —S = Se n i o r S t a f f N = 70 ...-ir = J u n i o r S t a f f N = 109 -F = Farmers N ='140 1.0 Education Adminis- S e r v i c e P u b l i c S t a f f t r a t i v e R e l a t i o n EXTENSION FUNCTIONS - 153 -Farmers i n I f e and Akure d i v i s i o n s were p a r t i c u l a r l y v ery .: c r i t i c a l about the m i n i s t r y ' s f a i l u r e t o supply them wi t h p l a n t i n g m a t e r i a l s and the cash c r e d i t s t h a t were promised f o r the new p l a n t i n g of cocoa. For example,one farmer : i n Akure said y. "what i s the use of p l a n t i n g m a t e r i a l s s u p p l i e d a f t e r the p l a n t i n g season i s over?" The farmers' d e s i r e f o r s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n c o u l d be j u s t i f i e d on two grounds. F i r s t l y , i t i s the type of e x t e n s i o n a c t i v i t y they were used to r e c e i v i n g from the e x t e n s i o n agents s i n c e the i n c e p t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s i n the country. Secondly, g i v e n the inadequate i n f r a s t r u c t u r e development i n the r u r a l areas, coupled w i t h l a c k of commercial agencies to p r o v i d e adequate a g r i c u l t u r a l i n p u t s , the farmers would continue t o demand more s e r v i c e s from the government. F a i l u r e t o meet t h e i r demands under these circumstances would f u r t h e r a l i e n a t e the farmers from the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s . The f e e l i n g of a l i e n a t i o n by r u r a l people from the country's economic mainstream has a l s o been observed i n other h i g h q u a r t e r s about government p o l i c y on r u r a l development (Olatubosun, 197 2). In order to determine the magnitude of d i f f e r e n c e s between the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f and t h e i r c l i e n t s on t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s about the r o l e t h a t . e x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s should p l a y , the data on r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s were s u b j e c t e d to m u l t i -v a r i a t e and u n i v a r i a t e analyses of v a r i a n c e (Finn, 1974). Two hypotheses were t e s t e d . F i r s t l y , i t was hypothesized t h a t the r o l e p e r c e p t i o n of the e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s would be the - 154 -same as t h e i r j u n i o r e x t e n s i o n workers, . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d i n the n u l l form of ''there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between s e n i o r and j u n i o r e x t e n s i o n workers i n t h e i r r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s ' . Secondly, i t was hypothesized t h a t 'an incongru^-enfc' r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between the r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s of the MANR e x t e n s i o n personnel and t h e i r c l i e n t system. T h i s hypothesis was a l s o t e s t e d i n the n u l l form t h a t 'there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f and the farmers i n r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s h e l d f o r the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources'. A l l hypotheses were t e s t e d at the alpha - .05 l e v e l . When the s e n i o r and j u n i o r s t a f f were compared a g a i n s t farmers on p e r c e p t i o n scores on f o u r e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n s , the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s , while therewere no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between s e n i o r and j u n i o r s t a f f on the s t a f f f u n c t i o n . (See Table 19). Although the one way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e of the data r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the four f u n c t i o n s , s i n c e the two groups of e x t e n s i o n s t a f f were compared a g a i n s t the farmers, i t was necessary to determine which one among the respondent group d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the other. In order to accomplish t h i s , a m u l t i p l e comparison t e s t was c a r r i e d out u s i n g S c h e f f e ' s M u l t i p l e Comparison T e s t , The r e -s u l t r e v e a l e d .that t h e r e were.no s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences between s e n i o r and j u n i o r s t a f f on a l l the f o u r f u n c t i o n s . ^ 155 rv Table 19 COMPARISON OF SENIOR, AND JUNIOR STAFF, AND FARMERS ON EXTENSION FUNCTIONS BY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE c T T . . . U n i v a r i a t e Source of V a r i a t i o n ^ M S F (Extension f u n c t i o n s ) * ' a. E d u c a t i o n : Between group 2 40.24 129.04** <.001 Within 316 0.311 b. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : Between group 2 37.09 77.43** <.001 Wit h i n 316 0.47 9 c. S e r v i c e : Between group 2 117.23 289.83** <.001 Within 316 0.404 d. P u b l i c R e l a t i o n : Between group 2 4.81 8.22** <.004 Wi t h i n 316 0.585 e. S t a f f a : Between group 1 0.525 0.096 <.756 Wit h i n 177 0.050 Note: The M u l t i v a r i a t e F = 168.04 which f o r 4 and 313 d . f . i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l . a. T h i s f u n c t i o n was excluded from the farmers l i s t s i n c e i t i s mainly r e l a t e d t o the M i n i s t r y s t a f f . ** S i g n i f i c a n t a t .01 l e v e l . But both the s e n i o r and j u n i o r s t a f f d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the farmers, on each of the four f u n c t i o n s . (See Table 20). The two hypotheses t e s t e d on these data were thus confirmed. - 156 -Table 20 MULTIPLE COMPARISON OF SENIOR AND JUNIOR STAFF AND FARMERS ON FOUR EXTENSION FUNCTIONS BY SCHEFFE'S TEST C o n t r a s t Q. Sq. F P 1. Senior vs J u n i o r 0.204 0.025 <0.975 2. Se n i o r vs Farmer 72.433 89.538** <0.000 3. J u n i o r vs Farmer 91.803 113.483** <0.000 ** S i g n i f i c a n t at .01 l e v e l . These f i n d i n g s on r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s of e x t e n s i o n workers and the farmers d i f f e r e d from s i m i l a r works i n the United S t a t e s and Canada among r u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers (Caul, 1960; Job, 1965; and Wilkening, 1958). On the b a s i s of the- f i n d i n g the author concluded t h a t the needs of the farmers i n the Western - t a t e s of N i g e r i a were in a d e q u a t e l y served . i n the process of d e f i n i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s of the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources. The author i s a l s o i n c l i n e d to b e l i e v e t h a t the h i g h r o l e consensus among the e x t e n s i o n personnel was probably d e r i v e d from mere mechanic, r a t h e r than o r g a n i c s o l i d a r i t y among ex t e n s i o n workers. In o t h e r words, the sources of need i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , p l a n n i n g and goal s e t t i n g were from w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n r a t h e r than from the c l i e n t system. Rural a g r i c u l t u r a l - 157 -e x t e n s i o n cannot succeed as an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n system when i t s goals and p r i o r i t i e s are a t v a r i a n c e w i t h the goals and needs o f r u r a l a d u l t s . The hyp o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between r o l e percep-t i o n s and socio-economic v a r i a b l e s was t e s t e d i n the n u l l form t h a t 1 there are no r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the p e r c e p t i o n s o f respondents and t h e i r p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 1 . The n u l l h y p o t hesis was confirmed with r e s p e c t to tenure of e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s (r = .091). But the age of s u p e r v i s o r s was n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p e r c e p t i o n score (Pearson r = -.306, p<009); meaning t h a t the o l d e r the e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s become the l e s s they see r u r a l e x t e n s i o n as an e d u c a t i o n a l system. Formal e d u c a t i o n as an o r d i n a l v a r i a b l e had no c o r r e l a t i o n with p e r c e p t i o n s of the e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n (Jaspen's r = -.136, p<.261), a l s o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n had no a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h p e r c e p t i o n score of the e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n ( rpk = -119, p<.323). Ther e f o r e i t i s con-cluded t h a t formal e d u c a t i o n and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n were no pre -d i c t o r s of p e r c e p t i o n s . The age and tenure o f j u n i o r s t a f f had no a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n scores (r = -.153, p < . l l l , and r = -.174, p<.069 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . T h e r e f o r e these v a r i a b l e s were not p r e d i c t o r s of p e r c e p t i o n s among the sample p o p u l a t i o n . The p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f j u n i o r s t a f f i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n had a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h e x t e n s i o n as p u b l i c r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n - 158 -( r ^ = .183, p<.051); meaning t h a t those who had some on-the-job a d u l t e d u c a t i o n tend to see p u b l i c r e l a t i o n as an im-p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n of E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the h i s t o r i c a l p a t t e r n of r u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n N i g e r i a where-by l o c a l e x t e n s i o n workers s u b s t i t u t e 'propaganda' f o r edu-c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e ( M a s e f i e l d , 1972, p. 65). The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between farmers' p e r c e p t i o n scores and t h e i r socio-economic s t a t u s were t e s t e d . I t was found t h a t '.age of farmers had no c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h p e r c e p t i o n scores on e d u c a t i o n or s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s . The Pearson co-e f f i c i e n t of age w i t h e d u c a t i o n was (r = .126, p<..137) and w i t h s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n (r = .145, p<.085). These were not s i g n i f i c a n t , and d i d not h e l p to e x p l a i n p e r c e p t i o n s of farmers on the r o l e of E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . S i m i l a r l y the number of wives, c h i l d r e n , farm s i z e and income had no r e l a -t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e r c e p t i o n s (r = .075); meaning t h a t these v a r i -a b l e s d i d not h e l p i n e x p l a i n i n g perception.. On the b a s i s of t h i s f i n d i n g , i t c o u l d be a s s e r t e d t h a t the :perceptions of respondents on the f u n c t i o n of E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i s a complex phenomenon which socio-economic v a r i a b l e s do not a s s i s t i n e x p l a i n i n g . Role Performance An important area of r o l e a n a l y s i s i n e x t e n s i o n work i s to i d e n t i f y the degree of r o l e - f u l f i l l m e n t t h a t i s achieved by the agent, t h a t i s , the e x t e n t to which he does what he - 159 -d e f i n e s as important to h i s job. In order to accomplish t h i s a n a l y s i s , e x t e n s i o n agents were asked to i n d i c a t e how much of t h e i r t o t a l o c c u p a t i o n a l time i n percentage was devoted to each of the f i v e e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n s . Since there were 50 r o l e d e f i n i t i o n items which were c l u s t e r e d i n t o f i v e f u n c t i o n s , the percentages a s s i g n e d by respondents may be more or l e s s than one hundred p e r c e n t . T h i s was allowed to a f f o r d respondents a f r e e e x p r e s s i o n of t h e i r judgement of the s i t u a t i o n . The percentages f o r each f u n c t i o n area were then converted to a r a t i o estimate of the t o t a l time spent on ex-t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n s (Steven's r a t i o e s t i m a t i o n technique, 1951, 1966). There are f i v e steps i n v o l v e d i n the c a l c u l a t i o n . a l l percentage scores f o r the items under each f u n c t i o n were summed up. the score o b t a i n e d was d i v i d e d by the a p p r o p r i a t e number of items under each f u n c t i o n to get a weighted r e l a t i v e s c o r e . a l l the Weighted r e l a t i v e scores were summed up to r e p r e s e n t a grand t o t a l . the r e l a t i v e score f o r each f u n c t i o n area was then expressed as a r a t i o of the grand t o t a l . - mean f o r each group was then recorded as percentage o f t h e i r time devoted to each a c t i v i t y . On t h i s b a s i s i t was p o s s i b l e to examine r o l e performance of ex t e n s i o n s t a f f as a percentage of time devoted to each ex-t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n . - 160 -E x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s devoted 22% to e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r the farmers and r u r a l non-farm people^while the v i l l a g e l e v e l j u n i o r s t a f f spen ft a . s i m i l a r - p r o p o r t i o n of t h e i r time (23.8%) on the same a c t i v i t i e s . The s u p e r v i s o r s spent 27.6% on a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , while t h e i r subordinate s t a f f devoted 23.9% to a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I t was expected t h a t the s u p e r v i s o r s should spend more time on a d m i n i s t r a t i o n than the j u n i o r f i e l d s t a f f . The data f u r t h e r showed t h a t both the s u p e r v i s o r s and t h e i r subordinate s t a f f spent the s i m i l a r ."P r oP o r _ t i o n of t h e i r time on s e r v i c e , p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s and s t a f f f u n c t i o n s . (Figure 7). In order to determine the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the s u p e r v i s o r s and the j u n i o r s t a f f on r o l e perform-ance, the data were s u b j e c t e d to m u l t i v a r i a t e and u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s . Since the percentage scores add up to 100%, i t was then necessary to s u b j e c t the scores to ,a' res i n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n b e f o r e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e . The r e s u l t of the a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e on r o l e performance r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between s e n i o r and j u n i o r s t a f f i n the time devoted to four of the e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n s , but the two groups d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n time devoted to adminis-t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s . (Table 21). T h i s i s expected s i n c e super-v i s o r y p o s i t i o n c a r r i e s more a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I t i s , however, s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the v i l l a g e l e v e l e x t e n s i o n agents spent the same amount of time on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n (23.9%) as they spent on p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r r u r a l farmers. - 161 -FIGURE 7 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF EXTENSION ROLE PERFORMANCE 100% 95 • 90 85 -80 . 75 70 . 65 . 60 . 55 . 50 45 . 40 . 35 30 . 25 20 15 10 5 . 0 Ed. Adm. Serv. FUNCTIONS PR Staff Key: I I Senior W/////A Junior Functions are: Ed. — Education Adm. — Administrative Serv. — Service PR - Public Relations Staff - Staff - 162 -The c o r o l l a r y - ' i s that the ministry provides: an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i -mate f o r these r u r a l e x t e n s i o n agents which, allows them to devote t h e i r time and energy t o Ways' of becoming adminis-t r a t i v e t e c h n o c r a t s .rather than •., r u r a l a d u l t educators. Table 21 COMPARISON OF SENIOR AGAINST JUNIOR STAFF ON ROLE PERFORMANCE BY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE Source of V a r i a t i o n (Extension f u n c t i o n ) df M.S. U n i v a r i a t e F P a. E d u c a t i o n : Between group Wi t h i n 1 177 0.01 0.02 0.85 <0.357 b. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e : Between group W i t h i n 1 177 0.06 0.00 6.50* <0.011 c. S e r v i c e : Between group W i t h i n 1 177 0.01 0.00 1.92 <0.166 d. P u b l i c R e l a t i o n : Between group W i t h i n 1 177 0.01 0.00 0. 00 <0.591 e. S t a f f F u n c t i o n : Between group W i t h i n 1 177 0.01 0. 00 0. 00 <0.948 Note: M u l t i v a r i a t e F s i g n i f i c a n t a t =.5 which .05 l e v e l . f o r 5 and 173 d . f . i s not * S i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l . Although both the s e n i o r and j u n i o r p e r sonnel r a t e d e d u c a t i o n as the second most important f u n c t i o n of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e , o n l y about o n e - f i f t h of t h e i r t o t a l o c c u p a t i o n a l time - 163 -was devoted to t h i s f u n c t i o n , while about 60% of t h e i r time was devoted to i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d f u n c t i o n s ; t h a t i s , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p u b l i c r e l a t i o n and s t a f f f u n c t i o n s . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between s e n i o r and j u n i o r s t a f f i n amount of time spent on these f u n c t i o n s except time spent on a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . (p<.0.011) T h i s f i n d i n g i s supported by other o b s e r v a t i o n s and c r i t i c i s m s a g a i n s t e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s i n A f r i c a and U n i t e d S t a t e s (F.A.O., 1965; Verner, 1959). By n e g l e c t i n g the r u r a l people who produce to support the n a t i o n i n the backwoods of the country, e x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l seemed to be preoccupied w i t h attempts to advance to the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e l i t e c l a s s w i t h i n the c i v i l s e r v i c e s t r u c t u r e while they were n e g l e c t i n g the very purpose which e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e was supposed to s erve. E x t e n s i o n Methods and Techniques A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i s a u n i v e r s a l approach toward r u r a l development, but e x t e n s i o n and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n are culture-bound (Verner, 1968). A l i s t of twelve e x t e n s i o n t e a c h i n g techniques c o n s i d e r e d r e l e v a n t to N i g e r i a n s i t u a t i o n , and which are b e i n g used i n the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e , were presented i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . E x t e n s i o n workers were asked to r a t e how e f f e c t i v e they found each techmique i n t h e i r work on a 5-point s c a l e ranging from 5 = 'Very E f f e c t i v e " , to 1 = 'Not a t a l l E f f e c t i v e ' . I t was found t h a t none of the techniques was r a t e d ^ 164 ^ 'Very E f f e c t i v e ' ' i n r u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n N i g e r i a and none was scored 'Not a t a l l E f f e c t i v e . (Table 22), Table 22 EXTENSION STAFF RATING OF EFFECTIVENESS OF EXTENSION TECHNIQUES BY MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATION Techniques Senior X S t a f f S.D. J u n i o r X S t a f f S.D. D i f f e r e n c e B u l l e t i n s 2.6 1.19 2.7 1.16 .1 C i r c u l a r L e t t e r s 2.4 1. 08 2.4 1.10 .0 O f f i c e c a l l s 3.2 0.91 2.9 1.12 .3 Farm v i s i t s 4.3 0.49 4.6 0. 58 • 3 General meetings 4.1 0.74 4.3 0.70 .2 Workshops •3.5 0.81 2.7 0.92 .8 Group d i s c u s s i o n s 3.7 0.81 3.8 0.80 .1 Method demon-s t r a t i o n s 4.4 0.74 4.1 0. 88 .3 R e s u l t demonstra-t i o n s 4.1 0.79 3.9 0.96 .2 Radio t a l k s 3.4 0.84 3.2 1.02 .2 L e c t u r e s 3.4 0.82 3.2 0. 98 .2 P o s t e r s 2.9 0.89 2.9 1.15 . 0 The s u p e r v i s o r s and the j u n i o r s t a f f agreed t h a t b u l l e t i n s , c i r c u l a r l e t t e r s , workshops, and p o s t e r s were 'Not E f f e c t i v e ' i n r u r a l e x t e n s i o n work i n Western N i g e r i a . However, both the s e n i o r and j u n i o r s t a f f r a t e d o f f i c e c a l l s , group d i s c u s s i o n s , r a d i o t a l k s and l e c t u r e as 'Somewhat E f f e c t i v e ' . Farm v i s i t s , g e n e r a l meetings and demonstrations were r a t e d as ' E f f e c t i v e ' t e c hniques. The f a c t t h a t the r u r a l farmers are b a s i c a l l y i l i t e r a t e , coupled with, a shortage of t r a i n e d p e r sonnel and l a c k of m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s needed f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of r e l e v a n t and s u i t a b l e b u l l e t i n s , c i r c u l a r l e t t e r s , and p o s t e r s f o r mass d i s t r i b u t i o n c o u l d account f o r the i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s of these t e a c h i n g techniques i n the N i g e r i a n r u r a l s e t t i n g . Although the two e x t e n s i o n groups were unanimous i n the r a t i n g of these methods and techniques, the magnitude of d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups was e s t a b l i s h e d through a m u l t i v a r i a t e and u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e . (Table 23). The a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e ; were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between' s e n i o r and j u n i o r s t a f f i n t h e i r r a t i n g of e f f e c t i v e n e s s of "farm v i s i t s , lectures, g e n e r a l meetings, and workshops". T h i s c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t t h a t the v i l l a g e l e v e l e x t e n s i o n workers were not adequately t r a i n e d to use and manage farmers' l e a r n i n g under workshop technique, w h i l e t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s might see i t as a means of s h a r i n g t h e i r experience w i t h other c o l l e a g u e s r a t h e r than t e a c h i n g i l l i t e r a t e farmers. The problem of p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the twelve e x t e n s i o n techniques t o f i e l d work was f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d by a s k i n g e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s t o i n d i c a t e how much of e x t e n s i o n t e a c h i n g they t h i n k should be done through each technique i n percentage of t o t a l e x t e n s i o n t e a c h i n g . - 166 -Table 23 COMPARISON OF SENIOR AND JUNIOR STAFF ON EFFECTIVENESS OF EXTENSION TECHNIQUES BY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE 3 Source of V a r i a t i o n (Extension Techniques) df M. S . U n i v a r i a t e F P 1. B u l l e t i n s : Between group Within 1 177 1. 1. 25 38 0.90 <0.343 2 . C i r c u l a r l e t t e r s : Between group Within 1 177 0. 1. 16 19 0.14 <0.708 3. O f f i c e C a l l s : Between group Within 1 177 4. 1. 15 09 3.80 <0.052 4 . Farm v i s i t s : Between group Within 1 177 . 2. 0. 80 30 9 .25** <0.002 5. General meetings: Between group Within 1 177 2. 0. 46 51 4.74* <0.030 6.- Workshops: Between group Within 1 177 25. 0. 34 78 32.44** <0.001 7 . Group d i s c u s s i o n s : Between group Within 1 177 1. 0 . 23 65 1.89 <0.170 8 . Method demonstrations: Between group Within 1 177 1. 0. 90 69 2 .75 <0.098 9. Result demonstrations: Between group Within 1 177 1. 0. 58 81 1.94 <0.165 10. Radio t a l k s : Between group Within 1 177 1. 0. 55 91 2.76 <0.098 11. Lecture: Between group Within 1 177 2. 0. 37 85 4.71* <0.030 12. Posters: Between group Within 1 177 0. 1. 02 12 0 . 01 <0.891 Note : M u l t i v a r i a t e F = 4.88 which for 12 and 166 d.f. i s s i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l . ** S i g n i f i c a n t at .01 l e v e l . * S i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l . - 167 -The v i l l a g e l e v e l j u n i o r s t a f f were a l s o asked t o i n d i c a t e .the percentage of t o t a l t e a c h i n g they a c t u a l l y d i d through each technique i n the l a s t two y e a r s . Through t h i s procedure i t was p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h a d i s c r e p a n c y between what e x t e n s i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s p e r c e i v e d as e f f e c t i v e and what the f i e l d workers a c t u a l l y found p r a c t i c a l l y f e a s i b l e . I t was found t h a t e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s emphasized 3 0.6% of t e a c h i n g through b u l l e t i n s , c i r c u l a r l e t t e r s , r e s u l t demonstrations, . r a d i o t a l k s , and p o s t e r s ; t h e . j u n i o r s t a f f a c t u a l l y used . these techniques 27.6% of the time. (Table 24). These techniques are normally used i n a n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g , and under such a s e t t i n g , l e a r n i n g i s i n c i d e n t a l and i s r a r e l y e f f i c i e n t . The s u p e r v i s o r s emphasized a t o t a l of 69.4% t e a c h i n g through o f f i c e c a l l s i n s t r u c t i o n , farm v i s i t s , g e n e r a l meetings, workshop, group d i s c u s s i o n , method demonstration and l e c t u r e . These c o n s t i t u t e techniques c l a s s i f i e d under formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g . (See Table 24). The j u n i o r s t a f f a c t u a l l y used these techniques 72.4% of t h e i r t o t a l t e a c h i n g . T h i s means t h a t the v i l l a g e l e v e l e x t e n s i o n agents were more i n c l i n e d t o use formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g s than were a c t u a l l y emphasized by t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s . T h i s c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t t h a t the use of b u l l e t i n s , posters,and p r e p a r i n g r a d i o t a l k s m a t e r i a l s , i n v o l v e d some degree of t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g and l i t e r a r y work, which are beyond'the c a p a b i l i t i e s of the f i e l d s t a f f . - 168 Table 24 DISTRIBUTION OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EXTENSION TECHNIQUES TO BE USED AND TECHNIQUES ACTUALLY USED Techniques Se n i o r S t a f f Emphasized J u n i o r S t a f f A c t u a l l y Used D i f f e r -ence B u l l e t i n Radio P o s t e r s C i r c u l a r L e t t e r s R e s u l t demonstration Method demonstration General meeting L e c t u r e Group d i s c u s s i o n O f f i c e c a l l s Farm v i s i t s Workshop 3 .87 6.40 7.01 3.71 9.61 30.6 13.86 13 .48 5. 22. 7.85 5.91 16.28 6. 80 4.58 5.44 4.38 3.93 9.28 27. 6 11. 65 12.91 5.18 9.20 7.65 21. 55 4.25 0.71 -0.96 -2.63 0.22 0.33 2.21 0.57 -0.04 -1.35 -1.74 -5.27 2.55 69.4 72.4 Grand T o t a l 100. 0 100.0 - 169 -The author b e l i e v e s t h a t w i t h the p r e s e n t l e v e l of t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s i t would be d i f f i c u l t f o r l o c a l e x t e n s i o n workers to produce and use these techniques, a t l e a s t not e f f e c t i v e l y , and t h e r e f o r e they would probably adhere to c o n v e n t i o n a l techniques t h a t are compatible w i t h t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s . The magnitude of d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n and between groups on the use of e d t e n s i o n techniques was e s t a b l i s h e d through a one way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e u s i n g a r c - s i n t r a n s -formation. There were s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s (p<.001) between s u p e r v i s o r s and the j u n i o r s t a f f i n the use of farm v i s i t s , workshops and p o s t e r s . (Table 25). O v e r a l l , the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f i n the Western Sta t e s of N i g e r i a have shown some c o n s i d e r a b l e .disagreement i n the u.se_ of most of the e x t e n s i o n t e a c h i n g techniques i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s study. Sources of Farm Information One of the c r i t i c i s m s a g a i n s t the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s , i s t h a t they pay l i p s e r v i c e to the 'cause' of farmers' w e l f a r e and e d u c a t i o n . I t was then thought t o compare the c l a i m s of e x t e n s i o n s t a f f on the use of e d u c a t i o n a l methods i n t e a c h i n g farmers as r e p o r t e d with farmers' sources of informa-t i o n , e x t e n s i o n techniques used i n l e a r n i n g farm o p e r a t i o n s , and to t e s t the impact of such methods and techniques on cocoa p r o d u c t i o n . - 170 -Table 25 ' COMPARISON OF SENIOR AND JUNIOR STAFF ON ACTUAL USE OF TECHNIQUES BY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE Source of V a r i a t i o n U n i v a r i a t e (Techniques) df M.S. F 1. B u l l e t i n s : Between group 1 21.83 1.48 . <0.224 Within 177 14.71 2. C i r c u l a r l e t t e r s : Between group 1 0.95 0.10 <0.747 Within 177 9.25 3. O f f i c e c a l l s : Between group 1 128.62 2.85 <0.092 Within 177 45.01 4. Farm v i s i t s : Between group 1 1185.60 7.61** <0.006 Within 177 155.75 5. General meetings: Between group 1 13.76 0.23 <0.627 Within 177 58.20 6. Workshops: Between group 1 278.78 11.48** <0.000 Within 177 24.26 7. Group d i s c u s s i o n : Between group 1 76.02 3.19 <0.075 Within 177 23.76 8. Method demonstration: Between group 1 212.79 3.44 <0.065 Within 177 61.76 9. Result demonstration: Between group 1 7.25 0.18 <0.665 Within 177 38.59 10. Radio t a l k s : Between group 1 38.50 1.54 <0.214 Within 177 24.85 11. Lectures: Between group 1 0.08 0.00 <0.940 Within • 177 15.56 12. Posters: Between group 1 307.55 15.12** <0.001 Within 177 20.33 Note: M u l t i v a r i a t e F = 3.62 which f o r 12 and 166 d.f. i s s i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l . ** S i g n i f i c a n t at .01. l e v e l . - 171 -Through community development a s ^ a d u l t e d u c a t i o n method, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f sources of farm i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d a l s o pro-v i d e e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g y f o r the u t i l i z a t i o n of t o t a l community resou r c e s f o r r u r a l development (Verner, 1971). The cocoa farmers were then asked to i n d i c a t e t h e i r prime sources o f farm i n f o r m a t i o n and knowledge out of a l i s t o f s i x sources. I t was found t h a t o n l y 17% mentioned e x t e n s i o n agents, w h i l e another 16% mentioned r e l a t i v e s and neighbours as t h e i r prime sources o f farm i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s f i n d i n g was s i m i l a r to r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s among d a i r y farmers i n B r i t i s h Columbia by Verner and Gubbels (1967 , p. 38). Members of the Cooperative Union of Western S t a t e s were the most frequent sources of i n f o r m a t i o n (38%) , w h i l e r a d i o accounted f o r 25%. Two per cent mentioned e x t e n s i o n l e a d e r s , w h i l e o n l y one per cent mentioned the v i l l a g e c h i e f as sources of i n f o r m a t i o n . (Table 26). Table 2 6 DISTRIBUTION OF FARMERS BY PRIME SOURCES OF INFORMATION Sources Number Per cent Members of farmers coop. 53 37.9 Radio 35 25.0 E x t e n s i o n agents 24 17.2 R e l a t i v e s and neighbours 23 16.4 L o c a l e x t e n s i o n l e a d e r 3 2.1 The v i l l a g e c h i e f 2 1.4 T o t a l 140 100.0 - 172 -Although t h i s a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s the most fr e q u e n t sources of i n f o r m a t i o n r e p o r t e d by t h i s s p e c i f i c p o p u l a t i o n , i t does notx.evaluate the i n t r i n s i c worth of the sources. I t i s important to note t h a t the v i l l a g e c h i e f s are not n e c e s s a r i l y more i n n o v a t i v e o r sources o f farm i n f o r m a t i o n , but they are t r u s t e e s o f the v i l l a g e s and t h e i r a p p r o v a l must be secured f o r any r e s e a r c h o r e x t e n s i o n work i n the communities. Furthermore i t should be noted t h a t w h i l e 64.3% of the farmers s a i d they possessed r a d i o (see page 144) o n l y 25% of the t o t a l farmers sampled mentioned r a d i o as prime sources of farm i n f o r m a t i o n . In o t h e r words, d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n through r a d i o t o r u r a l farmers f o r the purpose o f l e a r n i n g c o u l d not be r e l i e d upon as an e f f e c t i v e method s i n c e i t c o u l d not be guaranteed t h a t those who possess r a d i o s would a l l use them to r e c e i v e farm i n f o r m a t i o n . Farmers' Contact w i t h E x t e n s i o n Agents Although 17% of the farmers mentioned e x t e n s i o n agents as sources of i n f o r m a t i o n , i t was necessary to i n v e s t i -gate how o f t e n the farmers come i n c o n t a c t w i t h these agents f o r the purpose o f l e a r n i n g . The farmers were then asked to i n d i c a t e how many times i n the l a s t year they had come i n c o n t a c t with the agents. About one h a l f o f the farmers had never come i n c o n t a c t w i t h e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s and 33.6% never saw the l o c a l e x t e n s i o n agents. (Table 27). About 40% came i n c o n t a c t w i t h s e n i o r and j u n i o r s t a f f from 1 to 5 times, while 2 2% came i n c o n t a c t w i t h - 17 3 -l o c a l e x t e n s i o n agents from 6 to 14 times ; a year. Only 2% s a i d they saw e x t e n s i o n agents more than 20 times, w h i l e no farmer saw e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s more than 10 times i n the l a s t y e a r . • T h i s study agreed w i t h s i m i l a r r e s e a r c h i n N i g e r i a by Kidd (1968, p. 22). I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the c o n t a c t s farmers have w i t h l o c a l e x t e n s i o n workers i n the 'State were t o t a l l y at v a r i a n c e w i t h the number of farm v i s i t s per year r e p o r t e d by the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f . For example, the mean number of farm v i s i t s r e p o r t e d by one v i l l a g e '. -"-• l e v e l e x t e n s i o n agent f o r the purpose of t e a c h i n g farmers was 329 v i s i t s per year, while the average number of farmers. served by one ex t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r was Table 27 363 farmers . (Table 2 7) . DISTRIBUTION OF FARMERS BY CONTACT WITH EXTENSION WORKERS Contact With J u n i o r S t a f f No. % With Senior S t a f f No. % None 47 33.6 73 52.2 1- 5 times 59 42.2 56 40.0 6-10 times 20 14.3 11 7.8 11-14 times 10 7.1 - -15-20 times 1 0.7 Over 2 0 times 3 2.1 T o t a l 140 100,0 140 100.0 Mean 3.8 S.D. 5.63 1.5 2.38 - 174 -The farmers a l s o a s s e r t e d t h a t although e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s came to t h e i r areas o c c a s i o n a l l y they had no i d e a why they v i s i t e d the area except f o r t h e i r r o u t i n e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t o u r . I r r e g u l a r farm v i s i t was supported by the summarized data i n Table 2 7 which r e v e a l e d t h a t the farmers o n l y had an average of 3.8 c o n t a c t s per year with the l o c a l e x t e n s i o n agents, and o n l y 1.5 c o n t a c t s per year w i t h e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s . These f i n d i n g s then suggest t h a t the number of farm v i s i t s to farmers r e p o r t e d by l o c a l e x t e n s i o n agents were e i t h e r i m p r a c t i c a b l e because of e x i s t i n g p h y s i c a l and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , or t h a t the l o c a l e x t e n s i o n agents simply p a i d l i p s e r v i c e to the a c t u a l t e a c h i n g aspects o f t h e i r work. In other words, i t seems t h a t the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f merely equate t h e i r l o c a l t r a v e l l i n g around the r u r a l areas w i t h s y s t e m a t i c i n s t r u c t i o n o f farm p r a c t i c e s f o r r u r a l farmers. Farmers'Learning from E x t e n s i o n Methods The twelve e x t e n s i o n techniques e v a l u a t e d by the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f were presented i n the i n t e r v i e w schedule and farmers were asked to mention how they l e a r n e d to c a r r y out the f i v e b a s i c cocoa farm o p e r a t i o n s . These were (a) s p r a y i n g a g a i n s t Black Pod d i s e a s e and Capsid p e s t s , (b) f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n , (c) weeding, (d) m i s t l e t o e c o n t r o l and (e) fermen-t a t i o n p r o c e s s . T h e i r responses were checked a g a i n s t the a p p r o p r i a t e technique l i s t e d i n the i n t e r v i e w schedule. I f a farmer s a i d he knew the o p e r a t i o n by l e a r n i n g through such a technique, a score of 2 was recorded, and i f the farmer s a i d - 1 7 5 r he d i d not knov/ i t , a score, of 1 was. entered -•> (.see appendix)". More" than one technique'may be;-used f o r any g i v e n p r a c t i c e . The twelve techniques were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s - v i z : I n c i d e n t a l Learning Techniques • comprising f i v e i n d i v i d u a l techniques, and formal I n s t r u c t i o n a l Techniques comprising seven i n d i v i d u a l t e chniques. (See Table 28) . In order to c a l c u l a t e the frequency of use, and the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the t e c h n i q u e s , f i v e b a s i c steps were i n v o l v e d : 1. The number of times a s i n g l e technique, e.g. b u l l e t i n , was used was taken and expressed as per cent of the t o t a l l e a r n i n g responses ( i n t h i s case 945) . 2. The number of 2s scored a g a i n s t a technique i n step 1 was r e g i s t e r e d as e f f e c t i v e n e s s raw score. 3. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s raw score i n step 2, was expressed as per cent of t o t a l times the technique was used. 4. The 'per technique'* base' index was e s t a b l i s h e d by d i v i d i n g the s u b - t o t a l of e f f e c t i v e n e s s raw score i n step 3 by the t o t a l number of s i n g l e techniques under each category: f o r example, index f o r ' I n c i d e n t a l Technique' was obtained by adding the e f f e c t i v e n e s s raw scores of the f i r s t 5 techniques i n Table 28 column 3 and d i v i d e d by 5, which equals 124 d i v i d e d by 5 =24.8. The 'Formal Technique' equals 400 d i v i d e d by 7 = 57.1. T h e r e f o r e the r e l a t i v e weighted e f f e c t i v e n e s s raw score = 81.9. Table 28 EXTENSION TECHNIQUES RECALLED AND USED BY FARMERS R e c a l l Rate U t i l i z a t i o n Rate E f f e c t i v e n e s s (%) Techniques No.** Q . O Raw - Score U t i l i z . Rate -r- R e c a l l Rate B u l l e t i n 5 0.5 1* 20.0 * I n c i d e n t a l l e a r n -Radio m a t e r i a l 112 11.9 16* 14.3 i n g : accounts f o r 24.8 (30%) of the Po s t e r s 28 2.9 2* 7.1 t o t a l e f f e c t i v e -C i r c u l a r l e t t e r s 1 0.1 0* 0.0 ness score per Technique Base, R e s u l t demonstration 282 29.9 105* 37.2 but f o r 45.3% of t o t a l techniques used. Method demonstration 293 31.0 270 92.2 Lear n i n g i n s y s t e -General meeting 71 7.5 33 46.5 matic i n s t r u c t i o n -a l s e t t i n g accounts L e c t u r e 74 7.8 42 56.7 f o r 57.1 (70%) of Group d i s c u s s i o n 48 5.1 36 75.0 e f f e c t i v e n e s s score per Technique Base^ O f f i c e i n s t r u c t i o n 10 1.1 0 0.0 but 54.7% of Farm v i s i t i n s t r u c t i o n 15 1.6 13 86. 6 t o t a l techniques used. Workshop 6 0.6 6 100.0 T o t a l 945 100.0 524 ** For one respondent there are 5 farm p r a c t i c e s . More than one technique may be used f o r a p r a c t i c e and v i c e - v e r s a . ^ 177 -5. The per technique score i s then expressed as per cent of r e l a t i v e t o t a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s score i . e . I n c i d e n t a l technique accounts f o r 24.8 scores out of a t o t a l of 81.9 which equals 30% CSee Table 28). On the b a s i s of t h i s a n a l y s i s , ' I n c i d e n t a l L e a r n i n g ' techniques accounted f o r 45.3% of the t o t a l techniques used i n t e a c h i n g cocoa farmers i n the Western .State w i t h a 30% e f f e c t -i v eness f o r a l l the times on per technique b a s i s . On the other hand, 'Formal I n s t r u c t i o n a l ' techniques accounted f o r 54.7% of t o t a l techniques used i n t e a c h i n g farmers, and had a g r e a t e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s score of 70% per technique f o r a l l the times. T h i s f i n d i n g r e v e a l e d a d i s c r e p a n c y between what the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f r e p o r t e d as p r o p o r t i o n s of t e a c h i n g they c a r r i e d out through these techniques, and the farmers' own e x p e r i e n c e s . (See Table 24, page 168). The e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i -sors had e a r l i e r emphasized a t o t a l of 30.6% t e a c h i n g through i n c i d e n t a l techniques and 69.4% through formal i n s t r u c t i o n s e t t i n g . The data from the j u n i o r s t a f f i n d i c a t e d they used i n c i d e n t a l techniques 27.6% of the time, and formal i n s t r u c -t i o n a l techniques 7 2.4% of the time. I t i s noteworthy t h a t none of these o f f i c i a l r e p o r t s c o r r o b o r a t e d w i t h the f i n d i n g from the farmers. In other words, i t appeared t h a t programme e v a l u a t i o n and feed-backs from the c l i e n t system ^: to a s c e r t a i n the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of e x t e n s i o n t e a c h i n g techniques were not o b j e c t i v e l y assessed as i n t e g r a l p a r t s of the e d u c a t i o n a l programmes designed f o r the farmers. (See F i g u r e 8). - 17B -FIGURE 8 EFFECTIVENESS VS. RECALL RATE OF EXTENSION TECHNIQUES 100 75 cyv —' LU cn —| L U < Si o o 50 25 + 0 'Workshop *Farm Visit *G. Discussion Lecture "Meeting "Bulletin Poster C. Letters % Office Call 'Radio 10 20 *M. Demon. *R. Demon. 30~ 4 RECALL RATE (%) COLUMN 2, TABLE 2® - 179 -I f the i n t r i n s i c value of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s to the r u r a l farmers were to be regarded as e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t , the i n t e n s i t y o f the e d u c a t i o n a l component must be of such magnitude as to have a s t r o n g impact on the farmers p r o d u c t i v i t y e i t h e r i n a b s o l u t e t o t a l y i e l d o r y i e l d per acre u n i t . T h i s c o u l d be achieved by maximizing the use of those techniques r e c a l l e d by the farmers as the most e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g techniques i n F i g u r e 8. The formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques and the i n -c i d e n t a l n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l techniques were then used with 8 v. • . o t h e r socio-economic v a r i a b l e s of farmers as independent v a r i a b l e s to p r e d i c t 'cocoa p r o d u c t i o n ' as dependent v a r i a b l e . A separate Stepwise Regression (BMD:P9D) programme was used f o r t h i s purpose. The c r i t e r i o n f o r e n t e r i n g a v a r i a b l e i n t o the r e g r e s s i o n equation was a t alpha .05 l e v e l . On per technique b a s i s , formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques were found to have a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t o t a l y i e l d ( r r=..178, p<.035), but showed no c o r r e l a t i o n with y i e l d per acre (r = .132, p<.117), and farm s i z e (r = .07). T h i s means t h a t farmers who l e a r n e d under formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g tend to have more t o t a l y i e l d . However, r e c e i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n through the i n c i d e n t a l n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l technique c o r r e l a t e d w i t h n e i t h e r t o t a l y i e l d per acre (r = -.007). The r e s u l t s o f the stepwise r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s how-ever, showed t h a t n e i t h e r the formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques nor i n c i d e n t a l techniques used by the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f emerged - 180 ^ as p r e d i c t o r s of t o t a l average cocoa p r o d u c t i o n . The number of wives per farmer accounted f o r 25.34% of the" v a r i a n c e . (Table 29) Table 29 COCOA PRODUCTION (TOTAL YIELD) PREDICTED BY EIGHT SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC PREDICTORS (STEPWISE PREDICTOR COEFFICIENTS) Independent V a r i a b l e s 2 Cum. R P Wives . 2534 0.0000 N o n - s i g n i f i c a n t P o t e n t i a l P r e d i c t o r s P a r t i a l r Age .0780 0.3643 No. of c h i l d r e n . 0665 0.4429 Years of farming .0881 0.3033 Coop, membership .1178 0.1633 Formal l e a r n i n g .1282 0.1282 I n c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g . 0322 0.7070 Radio, p o s s e s s i o n .0441 0.6122 In a g r i c u l t u r e , the u l t i m a t e index of farm e f f i c i e n c y i s the maximization of p r o d u c t i v i t y per ac r e . Although such a procedure i n v o l v e s t e d i o u s farm management, s u p e r v i s i o n and c o n t r o l of farm i n p u t s , any v a r i a b l e t h a t e n t e r s i n t o the farming e n t e r p r i s e must i n t h e . f i n a l a n a l y s i s be evaluated on t h i s b a s i s . The e d u c a t i o n a l component of the ex t e n s i o n s e r v i c e was t e s t e d on t h i s b a s i s u s i n g the same stepwise r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . The r e s u l t i n d i c a t e d t h a t income, farm s i z e , and - 181 -membership i n a. farmers c o o p e r a t i v e were p r e d i c t o r s of cocoa p r o d u c t i o n per acre (Table 30) . These v a r i a b l e s j o i n t l y ... • e x p l a i n e d . 52-.. 27%. o f the v a r i a n c e . :. The other p o t e n t i a l independent v a r i a b l e s w i t h t h e i r p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are l i s t e d i n Table 30. Table 3 0 COCOA PRODUCTION PER ACRE PREDICTED BY TEN ; V ••• SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC PREDICTORS (STEPWISE PREDICTOR^ COEFFICIENTS) Independent V a r i a b l e s Cum. R 2 P Income .2196 0.00.00 Farm s i z e . 5070* 0.001 Coop, membership . 5227 0.001 N o n - s i g n i f i c a n t P o t e n t i a l P r e d i c t o r s P a r t i a l r Age . 0316 0.7137 No. of wives .0259 0.7573 No. of c h i l d r e n .0800 0.3554 Years of farming . 0647 0.4590 Formal l e a r n i n g .0690 0.4285 I n c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g .0590 0.5004 Radio p o s s e s s i o n .1186 0.1635 * Negative p r e d i c t o r O v e r a l l , the f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the e x t e n s i o n and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n methods and techniques used by the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s i n the Western S t a t e s of N i g e r i a have not ; been e f f e c t i v e enough t o have much of an impact to be used . - 182 -as p r e d i c t o r s of cocoa p r o d u c t i o n e i t h e r on t o t a l y i e l d or on y i e l d per acre b a s i s , T h i s was h i g h l i g h t e d by the f a i l u r e t o maximize syst e m a t i c i n s t r u c t i o n among farmers. On the other hand, income generated by the farmers, farm s i z e , and member-ship of farmers i n the farmers C o o p e r a t i v e Marketing Union were the p r e d i c t o r s of cocoa p r o d u c t i o n per a c r e . T h i s f i n d i n g r e f l e c t s the r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n i n the country t h a t - farm p r o d u c t i o n e i t h e r of export crops or food crops s t i l l depends on the e f f o r t s of the peasant farmer, and h i s f a m i l y labour. I t a l s o r e f l e c t s the hig h r a t i n g and enthusiasm g i v e n by the farmers f o r r o l e d e f i n i t i o n items on s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s such as supply of c r e d i t s , l o a n s , and labour d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s . There were g e n e r a l requests by a l l the farmers f o r these s e r v i c e s throughout the r e g i o n . R a t i n g of the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s In order to p r o v i d e a balanced view o'fi how the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources has performed i t s e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n t o the r u r a l farmers,.the t h r e e respondent groups were asked to r a t e the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s on a 5 p o i n t i n t e r v a l s c a l e ranging from 5 = ' E x c e l l e n t job' to 1 = 'Poor job'. The f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t 5.7% of s e n i o r s t a f f , 17.4% of j u n i o r s t a f f , and 12.9% of the farmers thought the ex t e n s i o n s e r v i c e was doing an ' E x c e l l e n t j o b ' . Over f o r t y per cent of e x t e n s i o n s t a f f thought they are doing a 'Very * good job', whole only 11.4% of the farmers r a t e d i t as 'Very - 183 -good j o b 1 . I t i s noteworthy t h a t the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f d i d not see the s e r v i c e as 'Poor j o b ' , w h i l e 37% of the farmers thought the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e was doing a 'Poor j o b " . (See F i g u r e 9). A one-way an a l y s i s , of v a r i a n c e of the data i n d i c a t e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among the respondents' r a t i n g of the e d u c a t i o n a l work of the ext e n s i o n s e r v i c e . (See Table 31). Table 31 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS RATING BY FARMERS AND EXTENSION STAFF Source of V a r i a t i o n (Extension Rating) df M.S. U n i v a r i a t e F P E x t e n s i o n R a t i n g : Between group 2 56.050 42.58** <0.001- ' W i t h i n 316 1.316 ** S i g n i f i c a n t a t .01 l e v e l O v e r a l l , the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f r a t e d the e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d f o r farmers as a 'Good j o b ' , w h i l e the farmers gave i t a mean r a t i n g of ' F a i r j o b ' . The data on e x t e n s i o n e v a l u a t i o n was f u r t h e r sub-•jected to S c h e f f e ' s M u l t i p l e Comparison A n a l y s i s i n order t o d e t e c t where the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among respondent groups a c t u a l l y l i e . The Schef f e'.'.s M u l t i p l e - T e s t "showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between s e n i o r s t a f f and j u n i o r s t a f f i n t h e i r r a t i n g of the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e (Scheffe F - r a t i o = 0.35, p<.704). - 18:4 -FIGURE 9 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY EXTENSION RATING EXTENSION WORK RATING Key: i ' Senior Staff x =3.4 S.D.. = 0.75 w / / / / m Junior Staff x = 3.6 S.D. = 0.94 E««WWaii Farmer x =2.3 ;S..,D., = 1.42 - 185 -The farmers d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the s e n i o r s t a f f i n the r a t i n g o f e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e (Scheffe F - r a t i o = 21.44, p<.001), and there were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between farmers and j u n i o r s t a f f (Scheffe F - r a t i o = 36.21, p<.001). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between farmers 1 r a t i n g of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e and farm income, y i e l d , and age was e s t a b l i s h e d by c a l c u l a t i n g the Pearson-Product moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r these v a r i a b l e s . E x t e n s i o n r a t i n g c o r r e l a t e d w i t h farm income ( r = .183, p<.030), but no a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h age (r = .147, p<110), and c o r r e l a t e d w i t h average y i e l d per acre (r = .169, < p<.045). The evidence from these data then suggest t h a t farmers w i t h h i g h e r farm income and h i g h e r y i e l d per acre tend s l i g h t l y to p e r c e i v e the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s to be doing a 'Good job' f o r them. Age was not a p r e d i c t o r of e x t e n s i o n r a t i n g . One reason f o r t h i s f i n d i n g c o u l d be t h a t farmers who are hig h e r on the socia-economic b r a c k e t s are ab l e to b e n e f i t more from e x t e n s i o n than those down on the socio-economic l a d d e r . The hyp o t h e s i s t h a t e x t e n s i o n r a t i n g by farmers would be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to h i g h e r socio-economic v a r i -a b l e s was confirmed. The author conclude t h a t any s e r v i c e rendered to the farmers t h a t w i l l make them i n c r e a s e t h e i r p r o d u c t i v i t y and income w i l l be deemed as very good s e r v i c e ; or t h a t the b e s t e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s go to farmers who are hig h e r on the income s c a l e , w h i l e e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n f o r poorer farmers remains a t the p e r i p h e r y o f t h e i r l i v e s . E x t e n s i o n r a t i n g had no c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h years o f experience o f e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s (r = - .150, - 186 -p<.215), but was found to have c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h formal e d u c a t i o n , (Janspen's r = .227, p<:.:051) . T h i s means t h a t those w i t h h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n tend to r a t e the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d f o r farmers as a 'Good job', but f i e l d experience o f the s u p e r v i s o r s was not a p r e d i c t o r of t h e i r e x t e n s i o n r a t i n g . From t h i s f i n d i n g one c o u l d argue t h a t although h i g h e r p r o f e s s -i o n a l e d u c a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l f o r e x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l i t does not mean t h a t such s t a f f w i l l p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s deemed as good jobs by r u r a l farmers. E x t e n s i o n r a t i n g a l s o had a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h age and tenure of the f i e l d s t a f f (r = .224, p<.017, and r = 184, p<..051 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . There was no r e l a t i o n s h i p between the formal e d u c a t i o n o f f i e l d s t a f f and t h e i r r a t i n g of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d f o r the farmers (Jaspen's r = 001). The r a t i n g g i v e n to e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s by the f i e l d s t a f f c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d to t h e i r low e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l coupled w i t h the f a c t t h a t the M i n i s t r y has c o n d i t i o n e d them to r a t e i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d f u n c t i o n s as a l s o good s e r v i c e s to r u r a l farmers. Job S a t i s f a c t i o n The job s a t i s f a c t i o n of both the e x t e n s i o n super-v i s o r s and j u n i o r s t a f f was e v a l u a t e d , s i n c e t h e i r r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s and r o l e performance w i l l have an i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r morale as e x t e n s i o n workers. The job s a t i s f a c t i o n score was o b t a i n e d by a s k i n g e x t e n s i o n s t a f f to i n d i c a t e how s a t i s f i e d they were wit h 5 job dimensions. Each dimension c o n s i s t e d of - 187 r, 5 job d e s c r i p t i v e statements, and were asked to i n d i c a t e s a t i s f a c t i o n on a 5^-point s c a l e r a n g i n g from 5 = 'Very w e l l s a t i s f i e d ' t o 1 = 'Very d i s s a t i s f i e d ' ' . The mean scores and standard d e v i a t i o n s were then used as an index of s a t i s f a c t i o n with each job dimension, w h i l e the o v e r a l l mean score was used as "a . "general index of e x t e n s i o n job s a t i s f a c t i o n . (Table 32). Table 32 MEAN SCORES, STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF JOB SATISFACTION OF EXTENSION STAFF 3 Job Dimension Sen i o r S t a f f J u n i o r S t a f f X S.D. X S.D. S u p e r v i s i o n 3.6 0. 51 3 . 8 0.62 Work Group 3.5 0.50 3.8 0.46 Job Content 3.7 0.42 3.9 0.49 S a l a r y 3.1 0.62 2.8 0.74 Promotion 2.6 0.72 2.3 0.70 O v e r a l l Mean 3.3 3.3 S.D. 0.55 0.60 See a l s o a g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n of job s a t i s f a c t i o n s c o r e i n F i g u r e 10. The d i f f e r e n c e s between s u p e r v i s o r s and j u n i o r s t a f f s a t i s f a c t i o n on a l l the job dimensions were t e s t e d by m u l t i -v a r i a t e and u n i v a r i a t e analyses of v a r i a n c e . The two groups were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t on a l l the f i v e job dimensions measured. (Table 33). - 188 -FIGURE 10 EXTENSION STAFF MEAN SCORES ON JOB SATISFACTION KEY; 5.0 -S = Seni o r S t a f f N = 70 4.5 A — _ J = j u n i o r S t a f f N = 109 4.0 3.5 J w cu u o 3.0 u cn g 2 - 5 J cu a 2.0 1.5 J 1 . 0 _ j S u p e r v i s i o n Work Group - i — i — i Job S a l a r y Promotion Content JOB DIMENSIONS - 18 9 -Table 33 SENIOR AND JUNIOR EXTENSION STAFFACOMPARISON' OF . JOB SATISFACTION ' Source of V a r i a t i o n df M.S. U n i v a r i a t e P F a. S u p e r v i s i o n : Between group Within 1 177 36.50 8.37 4.36 * <0. 038 . b. Workgroup: Between group Wi t h i n 1 177 60.25 5.70 10.57 ** <0. 001 c. Job content: Between group Wi t h i n 1 177 31.42 5.51 5. 69 * <0. 018 d. S a l a r y : Between group W i t h i n 1 177 52. 55 12.26 4.28 * <0. 039 e. Promotion: Between group W i t h i n 1 177 106.19 12.66 8.38 ** <0. 004 ' Note: M u l t i v a r i a t e F = 5.7 0 which f o r 5 and 173 d . f . i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t .01 l e v e l . ** S i g n i f i c a n t a t .01 l e v e l . * S i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l . The s u p e r v i s o r s were d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r s a l a r y r a t i n g , w h i l e the j u n i o r s t a f f were d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r s a l a r y r a t i n g s and promotion o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The g e n e r a l remark" among the f i e l d s t a f f was t h a t promotion o p p o r t u n i t i e s ' were more or l e s s based on who you know i n the e l i t e c l a s s \-' r a t h e r than the work you do .in the f i e l d . T h i s n o t i o n was - 190 -borne out by the f a c t t h a t t h e r e was no c o r r e l a t i o n between the 'job content' dimension and 'promotional o p p o r t u n i t i e s ' . Pearson c o e f f i c i e n t Cr = .061), Overall", the f i n d i n g s showed t h a t both .extension s u p e r v i s o r s and t h e i r subordinate s t a f f had ;' job s a t i s f a c t i o n mean scores of 3.3 which means they were "Somewhat s a t i s f i e d " . However, the f i e l d s t a f f expressed low morale d u r i n g the f i e l d r e s e a r c h . T h i s was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s among / e x t e n s i o n s t a f f on food crop p r o j e c t s i n the States (Williams and A l a o , 1972). The f i e l d s t a f f complained about l a c k of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , non-payment of t h e i r motor c y c l e allowances, which rendered them unable t o v i s i t peasant farmers. Summary of F i n d i n g s Role P e r c e p t i o n s The e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s and t h e i r v i l l a g e l e v e l / e x t e n s i o n workers i n the Western S t a t e s p e r c e i v e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n s as the most important i d e a l r o l e of r u r a l e x t e n s i o n w h i l e they ranked e d u c a t i o n second. In c o n t r a s t , the cocoa farmers ranked s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s as the most important i d e a l r o l e and educa t i o n was a l s o r a t e d second. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between s u p e r v i s o r s and j u n i o r e x t e n s i o n s t a f f on r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s , but t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the p e r c e p t i o n s of e x t e n s i o n s t a f f compared wi t h ^ f a r m e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of the r o l e t h a t e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e should p l a y i n the S t a t e s . Role Performance There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between . e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s and j u n i o r s t a f f i n the p r o p o r t i o n of time devoted to the v a r i o u s e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n s except f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n . A l l t o g e t h e r , the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f spent over 6 0% of t h e i r time on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and i n s t i t u - -t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d f u n c t i o n s , and spent o n l y about 35% on r u r a l e d u c a t i o n and s e r v i c e to the a d u l t farmers. E x t e n s i o n Methods and Techniques The e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s emphasized 30% use of i n c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g techniques, w h i l e the f i e l d s t a f f used such techniques only 27% of the time. The j u n i o r e x t e n s i o n s t a f f i n the S t a t e s r e p o r t e d t h a t 72% of the' t o t a l t e a c h i n g was through the use of s y s t e m a t i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques, while t h i e r s u p e r v i s o r s had emphasized t h a t such techniques should be used 69% of the time. However, i t was found t h a t 45% of a l l the farmers' l e a r n i n g about t h e i r farm o p e r a t i o n s o c c u r r e d under i n c i d e n t a l techniques. Only 55% of the t o t a l l e a r n i n g by the farmers o c c u r r e d under systematic i n s t r u c t i o n a l tech-^-niques. These f i n d i n g s c o n t r a d i c t the c l a i m s made by e x t e n s i o n s t a f f i n the S t a t e s . The i n c i d e n t a l n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l technique were found to be e f f e c t i v e o n l y 3 0% of the time, while the systematic i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques had an e f f e c t i v e n e s s of 70% Techniques such as method demonstration, workshops, group d i s c u s s i o n , and g e n e r a l meetings which were found to have h i g h r a t e of e f f e c t i v e n e s s among the farmers i n Western s t a t e s were onl y used on s p o r a d i c bases r a t h e r than as systematic t e a c h i n g techniques. The farmers obtained most of t h e i r farm i n f o r m a t i o n from members of the Farmers' Cooperative Union, r e l a t i v e s , and t h e i r neighbours. E x t e n s i o n agents accounted f o r o n l y 17% of sources of farm i n f o r m a t i o n . E x t e n s i o n Rating The e x t e n s i o n s t a f f i n Western S t a t e s of N i g e r i a r a t e d the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e , given to r u r a l farmers as a 'Good job', w h i l e the farmers g e n e r a l l y r a t e d i t as a ' F a i r j o b ' . Farmers wi t h higher socio-economic s t a t u s i n the ^States tend to r a t e the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s they r e c e i v e d as a 'Good job'. The r a t i n g of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s was a l s o p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o the s t a t u s of the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f . However, ex t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s w i t h longer f i e l d experience tend to have n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources, Job S a t i s f a c t i o n G e n e r a l l y , the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f i n the S t a t e s had a . mean job s a t i s f a c t i o n score of 3.3; meaning t h a t they were 'Somewhat s a t i s f i e d ' with e x t e n s i o n work. But t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between s u p e r v i s o r s and t h e i r j u n i o r s t a f f on a l l the f i v e job dimensions measured. O v e r a l l , the f i n d i n g s r e v e a l e d a somewhat low morale among the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f ; and the f a c t t h a t t h e r e was no c o r r e l a t i o n between job - 193 r content and promotional o p p o r t u n i t i e s means t h a t these aspects of t h e i r job c o u l d not serve as m o t i v a t o r s f o r employee job performance i n the S t a t e s , 19 4 ^ - References f o r Chapter V _1. A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c a l Survey Report, 1971, i n West  A f r i c a , June 23, 1975, p. 730. 2. Akinbode, Isaac A. "Roles of the D i v i s i o n a l E x t e n s i o n O f f i c e r s " . Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of I f e , I l e - I f e , October (1971), 29-42. 3. B j e r r i n g , James H. UBC T r i a n g u l a r Regression Package. Computing Centre, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancou-v e r , Canada. 197 4. 4. C a u l , Denio Andrew. " P e r c e p t i o n s of the County E x t e n s i o n D i r e c t o r s ' A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Role i n Michigan," Unpublished Ph.D. T h e s i s , Madison: U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, 1960. 5. F i n n , A.D. A General Model f o r M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s , New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and Winston, Inc. 1974. 6. Job, Claude H. "A Study of the Roles of S e l e c t e d A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Agents i n B.C." Unpublished M.Sc. T h e s i s , Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965. pp. 29-41. 7. Kidd, David W. " F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g Farmers Response to E x t e n s i o n i n Western N i g e r i a , " CSNRD-30, Michigan S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , East Lansing, (1968) pp. 1-58. 8. K i t a , S t a n l e y . I n t r o d u c t i o n to SPSS a t UBC, Computing Centre, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 197 5. 9. M a s e f i e l d , G.B. . A H i s t o r y of the C o l o n i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l  S e r v i c e , Oxford: Clarendon Company, 1972, pp. 65-99. 10. Nwakka, Chuku, T. "The Roles of A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S t a f f i n ECS N i g e r i a , " Ed. D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1975, pp. 132-134. 11. Olatubosun, Dupe. N i g e r i a ' s Neglected Rural M a j o r i t y , Ibadan: Oxford P r e s s , 1975. 12. Oloruntoba, B.S. " N i g e r i a Food Problems i n the S e v e n t i e s (7 0's)" Key Note Address. Proceedings of the A g r i c u l t u r a l  S o c i e t y of N i g e r i a , (1972) 9: p.12. 13. Opare, Kwadwo D. "The Role of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n the Adoption of Innovations by Cocoa growers i n Ghana," Ed.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1976, pp. 67-85. - 195 -14. Rogers, E v e r e t t M. and Svenning Lynne, Mod er n i z a t i o n among Peasants; The Impact of Communication, New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and Winston, Inc, 1969. 15. Verner, C o o l i e . "The Cooperative E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e as . an A d u l t E d u c a t i o n System," ^ A Paper at Seminar of A d u l t  E d u c a t i o n and E x t e n s i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, Madison, 30th October, 1959. 16. Verner, C o o l i e , and Gubbels, Peter M. "The Adoption or R e j e c t i o n o f Innovations by D a i r y Farm Operators i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y , " Ottawa: A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics  C o u n c i l of Canada P u b l i c a t i o n No. 11. 1967, pp. 38-39. 17. Verner, C o o l i e . " C u l t u r a l D i f f u s i o n and A d u l t E d u c a t i o n " A d u l t L e a d e r s h i p , June (1968) 17:49-93. 18. Verner, C o o l i e . "Community A c t i o n and L e a r n i n g : A Concept A n a l y s i s " i n James A. Draper (ed). C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n  Canada., Toronto: New P r e s s , 1971. p. 425. 19. Welkowitz, Joan, e t . a l . I n t r o d u c t i o n to S t a t i s t i c s f o r  the B e h a v i o u r a l S c i e n c e s . New York: Academic P r e s s , 1971. 20. Wilkening, Eugene. "Consensus i n Role D e f i n i t i o n of County E x t e n s i o n Agents between the Agents and L o c a l Sponsoring Committee Members," Ru r a l S o c i o l o g y (1958) 23: 184-197. 21. W i l l i a m s , S.K.T. and A l a o , J.A. " I n c r e a s i n g food crop P r o d u c t i o n i n the S e v e n t i e s : E v a l u a t i o n of the Maize/Rice P r o j e c t i n Western S t a t e of N i g e r i a , " Proceedings of the  A g r i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y of N i g e r i a , (1972) 9: 30-36. - 196 -Chapter VI CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS N i g e r i a i s b a s i c a l l y an a g r i c u l t u r a l country. Although the country i s r i c h i n petroleum and other m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s , these are f i n i t e and e a s i l y e x h a u s t i b l e . A g r i c u l t u r a l development s t i l l remains the r e q u i s i t e f o u n d a t i o n f o r s o c i a l and economic progress of the people. One of the major i n s t i t u t i o n s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the country's a g r i c u l t u r a l and r u r a l development i s the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources o f each s t a t e government. A g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h s t a t i o n s i n N i g e r i a and i n many p a r t s of t r o p i c a l A f r i c a are now r e p o s i t o r i e s of knowledge t h a t c o u l d p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t p r o d u c t i v i t y but they have encountered c o n t i n u i n g d i f f i c u l t y i n p u t t i n g t h i s knowledge t o work. The gap between knowledge and p r a c t i c e i s u s u a l l y long, but i n some p a r t s o f A f r i c a , i t has seemed to be i n f i n i t e . Increased a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y can only be achieved by the farmers i f they adopt recommended new p r a c t i c e s t h a t are proven and backed by s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h t h a t are r e l e v a n t t o the farmers' s o c i o - c u l t u r a l m i l i e u . New farming techniques t h a t . a r e t o be i n t r o d u c e d to r e p l a c e the t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s must be based on the concept of "Appropriate Techno-logy" and i m a g i n a t i v e f u n c t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l programmes w i l l be r e q u i r e d f o r e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t t r a n s m i s s i o n of such t e c h n o l o g i e s t o the peasant farmers. - 197 -The focus of t h i s study h a s been on an;, a n a l y s i s of the r o l e s o f the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources of Western s t a t e s of N i g e r i a as an a d u l t education system. Pursuant to the t h e o r e t i c a l frame of r e f e r e n c e , which was based on Verner's Conceptual framework f o r e v a l u a t i n g "Coopera-t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e " as an a d u l t education system, the MANR's r o l e , e x t e n s i o n programme, methods, and the c l i e n t system were i n c l u d e d i n the study as r o l e c e n t r i c - f a c t o r s which combine to make the t o t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e t t i n g i n which the ex t e n s i o n workers operate. A number of i s s u e s have emerged from the study, and based on the f i n d i n g s , the author has made c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s on these i s s u e s . 1. E x t e n s i o n Foundation - "Does A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e have a l e g a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f o u n d a t i o n t h a t makes i t accountable f o r the o u t - o f - s c h o o l a d u l t education system"? The answer seems "No". In h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e r e has never been any s i n g l e l e g i s l a t i v e a c t or s t a t u t e passed i n N i g e r i a e i t h e r a t the H a t i o n a l or St a t e l e v e l t o s p e l l out, and make p r o v i s i o n f o r the s p e c i f i c and systematic f u n c t i o n s of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e a s . a d u l t education system. A l l t h a t e x i s t s a t l e a s t i n the Western .States, are sp o r a d i c d e p a r t -mental p o l i c y statements on a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o j e c t s t h a t were based on s t a t e economic i n c e n t i v e s . Moreover, documentary evidence from the M i n i s t r y r e v e a l e d t h a t the systematic i n s t r u c t i o n of the farmers engaged i n such p r o j e c t s and the c o n t i n u i n g education f o r the ex t e n s i o n agents who run such p r o j e c t s were more or l e s s c l a s s i f i e d as mi s c e l l a n e o u s . - 198 -a c t i v i t i e s . The goals and o b j e c t i v e s of the s t a t e a g r i c u l t u r a l programmes are so d i f f u s e d and sometimes ambiguous enough to permit a wide range of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . Although the g e n e r a l i t y of goals and o b j e c t i v e s widens the d i s c r e t i o n of programme a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , under such a system the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l purpose w i l l be weak. Since the e d u c a t i o n a l work competes wi t h other o r g a n i z a t i o n a l programmes i t was t h e r e f o r e concluded! t h a t ...the c r i t e r i a f o r d e c i s i o n making w i l l come from the day-to-day p r e s s u r e s of the i n f l u e n t i a l c l i e n t e l e s , thus r e l e g a t i n g r u r a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n to a marginal p o s i t i o n . 2. To what e x t e n t are e x t e n s i o n s t a f f r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s con-gruent with those of t h e i r c l i e n t e l e ? The f i n d i n g s from the study r e v e a l e d t h a t the e x t e n s i o n workers p e r c e i v e d a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d f u n c t i o n s as t h e i r i d e a l r o l e s , r a t h e r than the e d u c a t i o n of r u r a l farmers. The farmers on the other hand ranked s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s as most important and e d u c a t i o n as q u i t e important. The magnitude of i n c o n -gruence between farmer's demands and p e r c e i v e d r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the agency was s u f f i c i e n t t o conclude t h a t the c l i e n t system has been a l i e n a t e d from the r o l e d e f i n i t i o n f o r the a g r i -c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s i n Western S t a t e s of N i g e r i a . Given t h a t circumstance, the very essence of e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n as a means of improving r u r a l l i f e w i l l e i t h e r be stagnant or e n t i r e l y defeated. 3. How w e l l do e x t e n s i o n s t a f f perform t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e ? Although e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n was r a t e d 'important' by e x t e n s i o n agents, and 'quite important', by farmers, about 76% of e x t e n s i o n agents' time was spent on r o u t i n e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s . The c o o r d i n a t i o n of e x t e n s i o n methods and techniques used t o teach peasant farmers was so weak t h a t the ex t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s ' emphasis on the use of each of the twelve e x t e n s i o n t e a c h i n g techniques i n v e s t i g a t e d were at v a r i a n c e w i t h the j u n i o r s t a f f ' s a c t u a l use-of these t e c h n i q u e s . The study r e v e a l e d t h a t the j u n i o r s t a f f were more prone t o use formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques, such as demonstrations, ge n e r a l meetings, and farm v i s i t s , to teach farmers than were emphasized by t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s . The e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t a c t s made w i t h farmers were few and l i m i t e d by f i n a n c i a l and p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . 4. What are the prime sources of farm i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e to the farmers? Over o n e - t h i r d of the farmers i n Western S t a t e s of N i g e r i a r e c e i v e d farm i n f o r m a t i o n mostly.from the members of the Farmers' Coope r a t i v e Marketing Union, w h i l e e x t e n s i o n agents accounted f o r 17% of the •:,.•' i n f o r m a t i o n . The farmers l e a r n e d t h e i r farm o p e r a t i o n s through r e s u l t demonstrations, method demonstrations, and g e n e r a l meetings. Those farmers who l e a r n e d through p o s t e r s , r a d i o , and b u l l e t i n s were not s a t i s f i e d w i t h such techniques s i n c e they d i d not know how t o c a r r y out the farm o p e r a t i o n s l e a r n e d under such techniques, and hence such i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques were incomplete. Since the farmers are b a s i c a l l y i l l i t e r a t e , any t e a c h i n g techniques which must be managed by the farmers themselves o n l y r e s u l t so f a r i n i n e f f i c i e n t i n c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g . G e n e r a l l y , the l e a r n i n g experiences of the peasant - 200 -cocoa farmers have been through r e l a t i v e s , neighbours and t h e i r own p e r s o n a l e f f o r t s . 5. Are the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f s u i t a b l y t r a i n e d t o work e f f e c t i v e - ^ l y as a d u l t educators? The answer appears "No". There i s a g e n e r a l shortage of e x t e n s i o n personnel p a r t i c u l a r l y among the s u p e r v i s o r y cadre. The m a j o r i t y of the few s t a f f a v a i l a b l e (87%) are s u b - p r o f e s s i o n a l personnel who lack./; adequate t r a i n i n g i n e x t e n s i o n , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , and the r e l e v a n t s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . Moreover, t h e r e i s a t p r e s e n t no s y s t e m a t i c i n - s e r v i c e or c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programme i n the M i n i s t r y s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to p r o v i d e the b a s i c e x p e r t i s e needed f o r r u r a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . The i n s t i t u t i o n i t s e l f does not make s p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n f o r the t r a i n i n g of r u r a l farmers on a systematic b a s i s , r a t h e r , t r a i n i n g of farmers has been c l a s s i f i e d more or l e s s as m i s c e l l a n e o u s f u n c t i o n . Under such a system, the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e cannot p r o v i d e e f f e c t i v e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n f o r r u r a l farmers, and non-farmers. The e d u c a t i o n a l component of the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e as i t i s now cannot have s u f f i c i e n t impact on peasant farmers to be used as p r e d i c t o r of farm p r o d u c t i v i t y . The i n t r i n s i c worth, p l a n n i n g and management of r u r a l a d u l t educa-t i o n w i l l have to be d r a s t i c a l l y improved,/and i n t e n s i f i e d e f f o r t s need to be mounted to get such ;,: f u n c t i o n a l education t o the peasant farmers. 6. How do e x t e n s i o n s t a f f and t h e i r c l i e n t s r a t e the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d f o r r u r a l people? G e n e r a l l y the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f have r a t e d the r u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d . f o r the farmers as a good, job, w h i l e 60% of the farmers have r a t e d i t from f a i r to poor job. In e v a l u a t i n g e x t e n s i o n work, one cou l d e i t h e r judge performance a g a i n s t a c r i t e r i a s et by the agency and the c l i e n t s , or judge i t a g a i n s t , t h e standard of performance of e d u c a t i o n a l programmes i n s i m i l a r communities. In the prese n t circumstance where the demands of the c l i e n t s are a t v a r i a n c e w i t h the p e r c e i v e d r o l e s and r o l e performance of the e x t e n s i o n agents, i t i s concluded t h a t e x t e n s i o n s t a f f e v a l u a t i o n of t h e i r job performance was not based on ac c u r a t e feedback from t h e i r c l i e n t e l e . The farmers were g e n e r a l l y d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by the M i n i s t r y . In order t o improve the present s i t u a t i o n , the e d u c a t i o n a l needs of the farmers i n the S t a t e s must be thoroughly assessed, and systematic i n s t r u c t i o n and s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d to improve t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d . 7. How s a t i s f i e d are the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f with" t h e i r job? G e n e r a l l y the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f i n Western S t a t e s are reasonably s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r job. However, no s t a f f member was very w e l l s a t i s f i e d ' , and both s u p e r v i s o r s and j u n i o r s t a f f were not s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r promotional o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and s a l a r y g r a d i n g s . There seemed to be a f e e l i n g of low morale among the e x t e n s i o n workers i n the .State. The o l d e r s t a f f have more s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r work group than the younger s t a f f . 8. What are the f a c t o r s impeding e x t e n s i o n work? The study has i d e n t i f i e d a number of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s which a f f e c t the success and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of e x t e n s i o n - 202 -i n the S t a t e . They i n c l u d e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o t t l e n e c k s w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y i t s e l f , and a l s o i n t e r m i n i s t e r i a l c o n f l i c t s . Most of the t r a d i t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e channels of business t r a n s a c t i o n s are not keyed to r a p i d and e f f i c i e n t d e l i v e r y of e d u c a t i o n a l and m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s to f i e l d s t a f f and r u r a l farmers. Frequent f a i l u r e to keep promises made to the farmers has f u r t h e r aggravated the d i s t r u s t f o r e x t e n s i o n workers by r u r a l farmers. Shortage of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , e f f i c i e n t v e h i c l e maintenance, and unmanageable agent-farmer r a t i o are the major o b s t a c l e s impeding e f f e c t i v e r u r a l e x t e n s i o n work. On the b a s i s of r e s u l t s from this study, the author concluded t h a t : there i s no l e g a l instrument t h a t makes the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t u r a l resources of Western S t a t e s of N i g e r i a p u b l i c l y accountable f o r the a d u l t edu-c a t i o n of r u r a l farm and r u r a l non-farm people, the f a c t t h a t there i s no s y s t e m a t i c budgeting o f money, and a l l o c a t i o n of p h y s i c a l resources f o r the e d u c a t i o n of r u r a l a d u l t s have f u r t h e r r e l e g a t e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n to a marginal p o s i t i o n i n the h i e r a c h y of f u n c t i o n s of the M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources. the e x p e c t a t i o n s of cocoa farmers i n the s t a t e s were not what the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f i n the s t a t e s c o n s i d e r e d the most important f u n c t i o n s , and e x t e n s i o n s t a f f spent most of t h e i r time on i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d f u n c t i o n s . sex o f e x t e n s i o n s t a f f seemed not to be a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n c a r r y i n g out farm v i s i t s to teach farmers. I f e x t e n s i o n s t a f f were to c a r r y out adequate and e f f e c t i v e farm and home v i s i t s , both male and female e x t e n s i o n workers should be motivated to do so, and adequate p r o v i s i o n o f resources should be made f o r t h i s purpose. e x t e n s i o n t e a c h i n g methods and techniques t h a t were most e f f e c t i v e among r u r a l farmers were those l e a s t used by ex t e n s i o n s t a f f . Techniques based on group and p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s such as method demonstration, group d i s c u s s i o n , and farm v i s i t s were the most e f f e c t i v e . The use of such techniques should be maximized. farm s i z e was a n e g a t i v e p r e d i c t o r o f cocoa p r o d u c t i o n per ac r e . As the farm s i z e i n c r e a s e s , y i e l d per acre decreases i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the farmers c o u l d not e f f i c i e n t l y manage the farms p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e the farms are on fragmented h o l d i n g s . - s i n c e membership i n the farmers' c o o p e r a t i v e union was a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r o f cocoa p r o d u c t i o n , both the s t a f f and members of the c o o p e r a t i v e unions should be i n c l u d e d i n the p l a n n i n g , and d e l i v e r y of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n > s e r v i c e s i n the S t a t e s . The i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s among the c o o p e r a t i v e members p r o v i d e u s e f u l a d u l t education forum which should be u t i l i z e d f o r e f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n o f r u r a l a d u l t s e s p e c i a l l y the cocoa farmers. - 204 -I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r E x t e n s i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i n Western'States of N i g e r i a no doubt has played major r o l e i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l and r u r a l development o f t h e ^ S t a t e . I t has a l s o p r o v i d e d t r a i n i n g , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e g u i d e l i n e s f o r other s t a t e s i n the country. However, t h i s study r e v e a l e d t h a t i f the M i n i s t r y w i l l have t o continue t h i s l e a d e r s h i p r o l e , i t must address i t s e l f to major p h i l o s o p h i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n c o n s i s t e n -c i e s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study. The fundamental o b j e c t i v e of the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n Western N i g e r i a i s t o r a i s e the g e n e r a l l e v e l of l i v i n g and income of the farming p o p u l a t i o n through e d u c a t i o n a l process t h a t w i l l u l t i m a t e l y r e s u l t i n socio-economic development of a l l the people. But development w i l l not occur by simply t r a n s p l a n t -ing from e x t e r n a l sources p r o j e c t s based on s t a t e or n a t i o n a l economic i n c e n t i v e s . I t w i l l occur i f developmental p l a n n i n g and programmes are based on adequate p r o v i s i o n f o r f u n c t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l processes and i n p u t s which w i l l equip both the c l i e n t system and the change agents i n the e f f e c t i v e s e l e c t i o n of s t r a t e g i e s t h a t w i l l combine s o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s from w i t h i n the r e g i o n s and communities concerned. Any extension's p h i l o s o p h y , o b j e c t i v e s and goals should be c l e a r , not only to i t s personnel but to the people-t h a t i s , those t h a t i t i n t e n d s t o a i d , a s s i s t , t o execute programmes j o i n t l y worked out by mutual agreement. The m i n i s t r y must undertake to formulate fundamental and g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s f o r r u r a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . I t must a l s o secure •• 2 05 -a d m i n i s t r a t i v e means^endschains f o r accomplishing these o b j e c t i v e s . Farmers i n Western N i g e r i a are b a s i c a l l y i l l i t e r a t e and are s c a t t e r e d i n the remote p a r t s of t h e ^ S t a t e . The i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l development of r u r a l areas i s inadequately developed. Lack of good a l l seasons roads, e l e c t r i c i t y , and water l i m i t the type of farm, h e a l t h and environmental education t h a t can p r e s e n t l y be p r o v i d e d . Absence of these f a c i l i t i e s a l s o l i m i t s the use of c e r t a i n e d u c a t i o n a l methods and techniques t h a t c o u l d be used to teach r u r a l people. I f r u r a l e x t e n s i o n s t a f f are to perform t h e i r f u n c t i o n s e f f e c t i v e -l y , they must possess adequate p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g , and r e g u l a r p r o v i s i o n must be made a v a i l a b l e to them f o r c o n t i n u i n g improvements i n the c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e , and psychomotor domains of l i f e - l o n g e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . On t h i s b a s i s the author makes the f o l l o w i n g recommendations: 1. The nature of e x t e n s i o n work demands an i n t e r -d i s c i p l i n a r y approach i n the t r a i n i n g of i t s p e r s o n n e l . The p a u c i t y of p r o f e s s i o n a l personnel t h a t now e x i s t s i n the m i n i s t r y coupled w i t h l a c k of systematic on-the-job t r a i n i n g f o r the m a j o r i t y of e x t e n s i o n p e r sonnel can only worsen the problem of e x e c u t i v e c a p a c i t y i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i n the S t a t e s . I f the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources would be c o n s i d e r e d as ah a d u l t education system, i t needs the p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the f i e l d t o p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l and r u r a l development. That i s - indeed,' the p o i n t . I t i s recommended t h a t as a matter of top p r i o r i t y , the M i n i s t r y should embark on massive r e t r a i n i n g programmes f o r i t s exten-s i o n p e r sonnel t o equip them w i t h the r e q u i s i t e p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e needed f o r the day-to-day implementa-t i o n o f r u r a l development programmes. Since the M i n i s t r y c o n t r o l s the re c r u i t m e n t and t r a i n i n g programmes f o r the j u n i o r e x t e n s i o n workers, e f f o r t s should be made to make the content of t h e i r t r a i n i n g f i t requirements t h a t would best serve the needs and i n t e r e s t s of r u r a l people. More emphasis should be p l a c e d on s u b j e c t s such as a d u l t education methods, community development, so as to r e o r i e n t the v i l l a g e l e v e l e x t e n s i o n workers toward commitment and f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e s • t o r u r a l development. 2. The M i n i s t r y should i n v o l v e a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h e r s i n the -States i n a process of thorough assessment of the farmers' needs, and problems so as to make new a g r i c u l t u r a l t e c h n o l o g i e s a p p r o p r i a t e t o the needs, i n t e r e s t s , and a s p i r a t i o n s of the peasant farmers. 3. The study r e v e a l e d t h a t one ex t e n s i o n worker i n the S t a t e p r o v i d e s s e r v i c e f o r an average of 2175 farm f a m i l i e s . I t i s p r a c t i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r f i e l d s t a f f t o e f f e c t i v e l y p r o v i d e f o r the needs of so many farmers. There should be an a c c e l e r a t e d i n c r e a s e i n the number of t r a i n e d t e c h n i c a l j u n i o r s t a f f i n order t o s o l v e the problem of l a c k of c o n t a c t between farmers and e x t e n s i o n workers. The presen t m e a g r e r f a c i l i t i e s make i t i m p o s s i b l e or c r i p p l e farm v i s i t s by e x t e n s i o n agents, l e t alone the i n t r i n s i c v a l u e of the e d u c a t i o n a l work. - 207: -Since the m a j o r i t y of rura,l people are i l l i t e r a t e and l i v e i n remote p a r t s of the country they c o u l d not be reached by newspapers. There i s a complete absence of farm magazine i n n a t i v e languages, t h e r e f o r e r a d i o c o n s t i t u t e s f o r many the o n l y source of i n f o r m a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n . The study a l s o r e v e a l e d t h a t farmers l e a r n e d mores farm news from r a d i o than from e x t e n s i o n agents. In other words, r a d i o i s very o f t e n s t i l l the o n l y l i n k w i t h the o u t s i d e world f o r those l i v i n g i n remote areas, and f o r those, who because of d i f f e r e n t geographic and c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s , l i v e f a r away from a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , c u l t u r a l and e d u c a t i o n a l c e n t r e s . On t h i s b a s i s , the author concluded t h a t the present farmers' r a d i o programmes broadcast twice a t n i g h t s d u r i n g the week i s inadequate and i n e f f e c t i v e . Radio and t e l e v i s i o n can d i s s e m i -nate knowledge, but without e s p e c i a l l y d evised feed-back mechanisms the educator cannot know who a c t u a l l y r e c e i v e s the message, or how they r e a c t t o i t s i n c e r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n are more or l e s s " b l i n d media". The one-way nature of r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g does not p r o v i d e f o r r e s o l v i n g misunderstanding which may appear i n the process of d e l i v e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , and i t cannot answer q u e s t i o n s t h a t are not a n t i c i p a t e d b e f o r e t r a n s m i s s i o n of the programme. I t i s a l s o important f o r a d u l t educators who r e l y on r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g as a t e a c h i n g technique to know t h a t r a d i o cannot s u p e r v i s e l e a r n e r s ' a c t i v i t i e s , nor c o n t r o l and v e r i f y p rogress made by them. Because i t i s aimed u s u a l l y a t l a r g e audiences, the pace of i n s t r u c t i o n , the g r a d a t i o n of - 20 8 -d i f f i c u l t m a t e r i a l , , the amount of m a t e r i a l d e l i v e r e d i n one programme u n i t must take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the a b i l i t y of an average l e a r n e r . In other words, b r o a d c a s t i n g cannot take care of i n d i v i d u a l needs of the student. Because of the nature of r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g as a t e a c h i n g technique, the author recommends :that t h e r e 1 b e an immediate e v a l u a t i o n of the present farmers' r a d i o programmes t o determine among other t h i n g s , the audience size that listens to the programmes, the adequacy of p a c i n g , r e a c t i o n of farmers to the programmes, and the e f f e c t i v e prime time f o r b r o a d c a s t i n g . The l o c a l r e d i ' f f u s i o n s t a t i o n s or programmes can be used more e f f e c t i v e l y f o r e ducating farmers and r u r a l non-farmers by p r o v i d i n g more programmes f o r red f f u s i o n broad-c a s t i n g , and s i n c e the farmers have no chance of t u n i n g to other s t a t i o n s (on r e d i f f u s i o n boxes) the chances of r e c e i v i n g the farm programmes on the r a d i o i s g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d . 4. The p r o p o s a l to ban women from e n t e r i n g the t e c h n i c a l f i e l d s t a f f cadre should be r e p e a l e d . T h i s p o l i c y w i l l not be j u s t i f i e d by any r e s e a r c h or contingency p l a n . By Yoruba c u l t u r e any - h e a l t h and n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n taught to farmers' t wives should-be taught by female s t a f f of the M i n i s t r y . To ignore t h i s suggests t h a t the s t a t e government has concluded not to p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f o r farm f a m i l i e s . The M i n i s t r y cannot develop the farmer i n i s o l a t i o n from h i s f a m i l y , s i n c e t o do t h i s i s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the c u l t u r e and t r a d i t i o n of the people. The whole community i s a s u p p o r t i v e s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l system, and any e d u c a t i o n a l work must have as the b a s i s of p l a n n i n g a l l the community r e s o u r c e s , and c u l t u r a l norms as g u i d e l i n e s f o r i t s o p e r a t i o n , 5. In order t o a m e l i o r a t e the problem of c o n t a c t s w i t h farmers, and the r e f u s a l of women to work i n r u r a l v i l l a g e s , i t i s recommended t h a t the M i n i s t r y should e s t a b l i s h "Mobile Farmers'" schools s i m i l a r t o "Knapp School" i n the United S t a t e s i n the e a r l y p a r t of t h i s c e n t u r y . The mobile s c h o o l s (which w i l l be some well*-equipped v e h i c l e s ) w i l l be used t o go to v i l l a g e s by e x t e n s i o n workers and the home economic agents w h i l e they operate from the d i v i s i o n a l headquarters. A s i m i l a r f a c i l i t y p r o v i d e d by the USAID i n the m i d - s i x t i e s should be r e v i v e d and expanded. We kiust endeavour t o . reach the r u r a l people both a d u l t s and youths. The use of mobile schools w i l l even make s u p e r v i s i o n of f i e l d s t a f f more e f f e c t i v e s i n c e t h e i r i t i n e r a r y c o u l d be c e n t r a l l y c o n t r o l l e d and or monitored. I t w i l l a l s o encourage some degree of c o m p e t i t i o n among the f i e l d workers t o get t o t h e i r c l i e n t s . T h i s i s the onl y way the M i n i s t r y and any agency charged w i t h r u r a l development c o u l d have any impact on the l i f e of the people. Emphasis should be p l a c e d on the use of group and p e r s o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques and d e v i c e s . 6. The budgets f o r f i n a n c i n g the educ a t i o n o f farmers and on-the-job c o n t i n u i n g education of e x t e n s i o n s t a f f should be separated from the m i s c e l l a n e o u s account. E d u c a t i o n of r u r a l people on a l l aspects of t h e i r l i f e should be an i n t e g r a l ' p a r t of s t a t e budget a l l o c a t i o n system. T h i s w i l l serve as a ? - 210 -m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r s t o farmers, r u r a l non-farmers, and f i e l d s t a f f a l i k e t o c o n t i n u o u s l y seek sources of new i n f o r m a t i o n , 'and t o serve as,arn. i n c e n t i v e f o r adoption of recommended p r a c t i c e s . 7. The M i n i s t r y should make i t a p o l i c y t o i n v o l v e the u n i v e r s i t y s t a f f i n p r o v i d i n g e f f e c t i v e and expanded out-reach programmes f o r r u r a l people i n the country. The present , system t h a t makes each i n s t i t u t i o n operate almost i n i s o l a t i o n should be improved i n order to p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c r o s s - f e r t i l i z a t i o n of i d e a s . 8. F i n a l l y , the author recommends t h a t e x t e n s i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n should be more e f f e c t i v e l y d e c e n t r a l i z e d . The present zonal s t r u c t u r e seems*'.' to be s e l f - d e f e a t i n g i n t h a t n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n personnel are made to c o o r d i n a t e , p l a n and a d m i n i s t e r programmes ' which they themselves are l e a s t q u a l i f i e d to formulate. There are too many experienced and hard-working personnel on s e n i o r t e c h n i c a l grades. These o f f i c e r s should be gi v e n immediate r e c o g n i z e d post-graduate t r a i n i n g i n l o c a l u - n i v e r s i t i e s or abroad w i t h f u l l pay. T h i s w i l l g i v e them i n t r i n s i c m o t i v a t i o n t o b e t t e r serve the s t a t e , than t o keep them i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e t h a t P.an onl y f r u s t r a t e t h e i r human p o t e n t i a l s and a s p i r a t i o n s . 9. The M i n i s t r y should r e i n s t a t e the annual i n - s e r v i c e seminars f o r i t s f i e l d s t a f f . T h i s should be d e c e n t r a l i z e d to d i v i s i o n a l or zonal l e v e l s t o p r o v i d e - ongoing c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e x t e n s i o n workers of a l l c a t e g o r i e s . - 213} -Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research A review of the r e s u l t s o f t h i s study r a i s e s ques-t i o n s t h a t need to be i n v e s t i g a t e d . What i s the most r e a l i s t i c and p r a c t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e number of farmers t h a t an e x t e n s i o n agent can v i s i t i n one month under our pr e s e n t system of fragmented land h o l d i n g s ? T h i s needs to be thoroughly researched on an experimental b a s i s so as to provide the b a s i s f o r manpower development and a l l o c a t i o n of p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s . The p r e s e n t agent-farmer r a t i o i s simply not f e a s i b l e f o r e f f e c t i v e agent-farmer c o n t a c t s . What are the v a r i o u s o p e r a t i o n s t h a t farmers must c a r r y out i n t h e i r communities? What k i n d o f knowledge and s k i l l s are needed f o r such o p e r a t i o n s ? Answers to these q u e s t i o n s should then p r o v i d e as b a s i s f o r c u r r i c u l u m development i n the schools o f a g r i c u l t u r e and a l s o serve as a b a s i s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e channels f o r making farm s u p p l i e s a v a i l a b l e to farmers are too clumsy and i n e f f e c t i v e , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t farmers u s u a l l y get t h e i r s u p p l i e s a f t e r the p l a n t i n g or r e q u i r e d time. The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e process should be s t u d i e d e m p i r i c a l l y w i t h a view to c u t downi.on the over-l a p p i n g and unnecessary d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t s , and human and p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s . The average cocoa y i e l d i n the s t a t e i s below "expected". E i t h e r the recommendation of the M i n i s t r y i s econ o m i c a l l y u n r e a l i s t i c or the farmers l a c k c o r r e c t knowledge - 212 -to achieve such r e s u l t s . There i s a need t o i n v e s t i g a t e what can be expected from an acre of peasant farm. 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"Innovation i n E a s t e r n N i g e r i a " . E a s t L a n s i n g : Department of Communication. Michigan S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1968. Igbani, I . J . The Role of the A g r i c u l t u r a l A s s i s t a n t as p e r c e i v e d by A g r i c u l t u r a l A s s i s t a n t s and the s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f of the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n E a s t e r n N i g e r i a " . M.S. T h e s i s , Madison: U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, 1967. - 223 -Job, Claude H, "A Study of the Roles of Selected A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Agents i n B,C," M,Sc, T h e s i s , Vancouver: University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965. Keesing, Paul B. "A Study of P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n Canada" Unpublished M.Sc. T h e s i s , Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965. McNaughton, Gordon R. "The E d u c a t i o n a l Role of the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t " . M.Sc. T h e s i s , Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970. Nwakka, Chuku T. "The Roles of A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S t a f f i n ECS of N i g e r i a " , Ed.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975. Opare, Kwadwo D. "The Role of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n the Adoption of Innovations by Cocoa growers i n Ghana", Ed.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976. Opeke, R.O. "P e r c e p t i o n s of the A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' s Role i n Saskatchewan". M.S. T h e s i s , Saskatoon: U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, 1972. R u s n e l l , D. "Development o f an Index of Q u a l i t y f o r the Planning of Management T r a i n i n g Programs", Unpublished Ed.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974. - 224 -APPENDIX A Research Instrument For Data C o l l e c t i o n - 225 -QUESTIONNAIRE FOR EXTENSION STAFF - SECTION I I n s t r u c t i o n : E x t e n s i o n A c t i v i t y E x p e c t a t i o n s E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e perform many f u n c t i o n s f o r r u r a l farmers and r u r a l non-farmers. The purpose of t h i s study i s to o b t a i n from you how you see the importance of such e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n s , and what p r o p o r t i o n of your o c c u p a t i o n a l time i s devoted t o such f u n c t i o n s . Below are 50 a c t i v i t y items each r e f l e c t i n g c e r t a i n areas of e x t e n s i o n work. For each item, we would l i k e you to p r o v i c e TWO i n f o r m a t i o n . 1. Rate the importance you attached t o each a c t i v i t y by p l a c i n g a number from 1 t o 5 i n the f i r s t space behind the statement. Where: 5 = 'very important' 4 = 'quite important' 3 = 'moderately important' 2 = 'somewhat important' 1 = ' l e a s t important' 2. In the second space behind the statement, a s s i g n a 'percentage' out of 100% t h a t r e p r e s e n t the p r o p o r t i o n of your time on e x t e n s i o n devoted t o such a c t i v i t y . Example: P r e p a r i n g P r o d u c t i o n f o r e c a s t 3 5% . i . e . i t i s 'moderately important' and 5% of the time was devoted t o such a c t i v i t y . NOTE: THERE IS NO RIGHT OR WRONG ANSWERS DO NOT w r i t e your Name on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A l l i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n are c o n f i d e n t i a l and w i l l be used f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h o n l y . - 226 -SECTION I - ALL RESPONDENTS Ex t e n s i o n A c t i v i t y E x p e c t a t i o n s ID No. 1. Teaching farmers how to use improved farm p r a c t i c e s . 2. Teaching farmers how to p l a n and operate t h e i r farm programmes. . 3. Hold i n g group meetings w i t h farmers t o d i s c u s s farm problems. . 4. Conducting method demonstrations on farmers' farms. 5. Teaching farmers how to prepare c a l e n d a r of work f o r farm a c t i v i t i e s . . 6. S e l e c t i n g and t r a i n i n g e x t e n s i o n l o c a l l e a d e r s . . 7. Teaching i n d i v i d u a l farmers t o prepare farm budgets and keep farm r e c o r d s . . 8. Hel p i n g t o determine e d u c a t i o n a l needs of r u r a l people. 9. Prov i d e f o r a d u l t b a s i c education (e.g. r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g ) to the people who need i t i n the community. 10. Teaching s h o r t courses on home-making f o r r u r a l women. 11. Teaching farmers how t o b u i l d storage c r i b s and s i l o s . 12. Conducting t r a i n i n g programmes on f a m i l y l i v i n g f o r farm and non-farm wives. - 22 7 -13. Teaching farmers how to c o n t r o l weeds i n t h e i r farms. • 14. Organize farmers' wives i n t o s m a l l d i s c u s s i o n groups on home-making. . 15. Teaching r u r a l people how to improve farm water and sewage d i s p o s a l . . 16. V i s i t i n g farms t o c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n on p r e v a i l i n g posts and d i s e a s e s . . 17. W r i t i n g and r e p l y i n g t o o f f i c i a l l e t t e r s . . 18. P r e p a r i n g p r o d u c t i o n f o r e c a s t . . 19. C a r r y out crop enumeration on government a c q u i r e d land. 20. W r i t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l r e p o r t s . . 21. P r e p a r i n g vouchers and paying s a l a r i e s and wages. . 22. P l a n n i n g and e v a l u a t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n programmes i n the d i s t r i c t . . • 23. A t t e n d i n g t o c o n t r a c t o r s and other businessmen i n the o f f i c e . . 24. S e c u r i n g e x t e n s i o n m a t e r i a l s f o r the use of f i e l d over-s e e r s . . 25. E n l i g h t e n farmers on t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h produce i n s p e c t o r s . . 26. D i s t r i b u t i n g p l a n t i n g m a t e r i a l s and f e r t i l i z e r s t o farmers. 27. H e l p i n g farmers t o o b t a i n help from other agencies i n the community. . - 228 -28. Performing the r o l e of "salesman" f o r i n f o r m a t i o n and ideas from the M i n i s t r y . . 29. H e l p i n g farmers and non-farmers on how t o o b t a i n loans and c r e d i t s . . 30. H e l p i n g farmers t o f i n d market f o r t h e i r l o c a l food c r o p s . . 31. H e l p i n g farmers i n c o n s t r u c t i n g storage c r i b s . . 32. A s s i s t farmers to o b t a i n h e l p i n p l a n n i n g and b u i l d i n g farm houses. . 33. P r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and he l p f o r farmers and non-farmers on how t o b u i l d a r t i s a n w e l l s . . 34. P r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on produce r e g u l a t i o n s f o r r u r a l produce buyers. . 35. A s s i s t i n g farmers t o f i n d labour f o r t h e i r farm works. 36. Prepare r a d i o and TV t a l k s . . 37. Make press r e l e a s e on e x t e n s i o n programmes. . 38. P r o v i d i n g people i n the d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n about government p o l i c y and on r u r a l development. . 39. V i s i t i n g and g i v i n g t a l k s to hig h s c h o o l students i n the community about a g r i c u l t u r e . . 40. Promoting government programmes among r u r a l people. . 41. Working on committees sponsored by MANR and other o r g a n i -z a t i o n s . - 229 -42. W r i t i n g a r t i c l e s and pamphlets f o r the use of l o c a l e x t e n s i o n workers. . 43. Accompanying s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s on f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n t o u r of the d i s t r i c t . . 44. Take s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s t o i n s p e c t e x t e n s i o n p r o j e c t s i n the d i s t r i c t s . . 45. A t t e n d i n g meetings w i t h other c i v i l s e r vants to d i s c u s s M i n i s t r y Programmes. . 46. Attend workshops and seminars f o r e x t e n s i o n agents and animal h e a l t h agents. . _____ 47. Organize workshops and seminars f o r e x t e n s i o n agents. 48. Organize workshops and meetings f o r animal h e a l t h agents. 49. A s s i s t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h e r s i n conducting e x p e r i -ments and surveys. . 50. D i s c u s s i n g farm p r a c t i c e s and problems wi t h s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s . - 2-30 -SECTION I I - EXTENSION STAFF ONLY (Senior and Ju n i o r ) I n s t r u c t i o n : The purpose here i s to p r o v i d e some i n f o r m a t i o n on the degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n you have on v a r i o u s aspects of ext e n s i o n work. Below are 25 items. For each item a s s i g n a number from 1 to 5 i n the space behind i t , t h a t d e s c r i b e s your s a t i s f a c t i o n . Where: 5 = 'very w e l l s a t i s f i e d ' 4 = 'well s a t i s f i e d ' 3 = 'somewhat s a t i s f i e d ' 2 = ' d i s s a t i s f i e d ' 1 = 'very d i s s a t i s f i e d ' Example: Choosing A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n as a c a r e e r . 4 i . e . 'well s a t i s f i e d ' NOTE: THERE IS NO RIGHT OR WRONG ANSWERS. - 231 -JOB SATISFACTION ITEMS: 1. The way your work i s being s u p e r v i s e d . 2. The amount of c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n to you by your s u p e r i o r o f f i c e r s . 3. The freedom you get i n p l a n n i n g and exe c u t i n g your work. 4. The r e c o g n i t i o n you get f o r work done. 5. The way complaints and gr i e v a n c e s are being handled by the s u p e r i o r o f f i c e r s . 6. The a t t i t u d e of other e x t e n s i o n workers toward r u r a l e x t e n s i o n work. 7. Your r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s u p e r i o r o f f i c e r s . 8. Your r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h other e x t e n s i o n o f f i c e r s i n the c i r c l e . 9. The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d i s c u s s i n g and p l a n n i n g e x t e n s i o n work w i t h other e x t e n s i o n workers. 10. The h e l p you r e c e i v e from co-workers on p e r s o n a l problems. 11. The way other e x t e n s i o n workers h e l p you i n your work. 12. The methods and procedures f o r p l a n n i n g and e v a l u a t i n g your e x t e n s i o n work. 13. Methods and techniques of t e a c h i n g farmers. 14. Your achievement as r u r a l e x t e n s i o n worker. 15. Choosing a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n as a c a r e e r . 16. Your s a l a r y . 17. The way your s a l a r i e s and wages are being p a i d . - 232 -18. The f i n a n c i a l b e n e f i t s you r e c e i v e from e x t e n s i o n work. 19. Your s a l a r y compared w i t h other government workers of the same e d u c a t i o n a l s t a n d i n g . 20. Your f r i n g e b e n e f i t s and allowances compared wi t h other government workers of l e s s e d u c a t i o n a l s t a n d i n g . 21. The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r your e d u c a t i o n a l advancement. 22. The promotion you get. 23. The s t a t u s as e x t e n s i o n worker. 24. The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r g e t t i n g promotion i n the e x t e n s i o n d i v i s i o n . 25. The amount of i n f o r m a t i o n you get r e g a r d i n g promotional o p p o r t u n i t y . - 233 -SECTION I I I (Junior s t a f f only) FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY NOTE: To help us i n the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the date we need the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . (Please answer a l l q u e s t i o n s ) . 1. Tenure: A. How many years have you been working i n the e x t e n s i o n d i v i s i o n ? 2. Tenure: B. How many years have you been w i t h the MANR? 3. Sex: Male Female 4. Your age: What i s your age? 5. Formal e d u c a t i o n : (check h i g h e s t completed) C e r t i f i c a t e Diploma 6. No. of farmers: What i s the t o t a l number of farmers t h a t you p r o v i d e s e r v i c e f o r ? 7. T r a i n i n g : How adequate do you c o n s i d e r your t r a i n i n g f o r your work (check one). 1. Very adequate 2. Adequate 3. Somewhat inadequate 4. Very inadequate 5. I am not sure 8. Competence: I f you c o n s i d e r your t r a i n i n g inadequate what area of t e c h n i c a l competence do you d e s i r e - 234 -improvement? (Example: Farm Management, Ex t e n s i o n methods, L i v e s t o c k improvement, a d u l t e d u c a t i o n techniques, e t c . ) . L i s t : 9. Contact w i t h farmers: For the purpose of t e a c h i n g farmers on s p e c i f i c farm p r a c t i c e s , how many farm v i s i t s do you make i n a year? (Give exact or approximate f i g u r e ) . 10. C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n : Have you attended any i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g courses i n the l a s t two years? 1. No 2. Yes I f yes, where d i d the m a j o r i t y of people who conducted the course come from or t h e i r a f f i l i a t i o n ? 1. Senior MANR o f f i c i a l s 2. A g r i c . Research I n s t i t u t i o n s 3. U n i v e r s i t i e s 4. Business or Industry - 23 5 -SECTION I I I (Senior s t a f f only) FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY To help i n the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the da t a we need the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . (Please answer a l l q u e s t i o n s ) . 1. Tenure: How many years have you been working i n the s e n i o r s u p e r v i s o r y p o s i t i o n (give a c t u a l f i g u r e ) . 2. How many years have you been wi t h MANR? 3. F i e l d E x p e r i e n c e : How many years d i d you work as j u n i o r e x t e n s i o n worker i n the f i e l d ? 4. Age: What i s your age? 5. Sex: 1. Male 2. Female 6. Formal edu c a t i o n (check the h i g h e s t completed). 1. C e r t i f i c a t e 2. Diploma 3. Bachelor's Degree 4. Bachelor and Post-graduate Diploma 5. Master's degree 7. Span: What i s the t o t a l number o f s t a f f under your s u p e r v i s i o n ? 8. Farm F a m i l i e s : Approximately how many farm f a m i l i e s are under your s u p e r v i s i o n ? 9. S p e c i a l i z a t i o n : In what area of a g r i c u l t u r e d i d you s p e c i a l i z e ? L i s t : - 236 -10. A d u l t E d u c a t i o n : Have you had any t r a i n i n g i n a d u l t education? 1. No 2. Yes I f yes, l i s t courses taken. 11. Have you had any t r a i n i n g i n extension? 1. No 2. Yes I f yes, l i s t type of course (Example: I n d u c t i o n course, post-graduate i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g e t c . ) . 12. P r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n : Which p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n do you belong to? L i s t : - 237 -SECTION IV - EXTENSION STAFF (Senior and Ju n i o r ) EXTENSION METHODS AND TECHNIQUES We would l i k e to know from your work experience how you see the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c e r t a i n e x t e n s i o n t e a c h i n g methods and t e c h n i q u e s . Below are 12 ex t e n s i o n t e a c h i n g techniques. Rate each one a c c o r d i n g t o how e f f e c t i v e i t has been f o r you i n r u r a l e x t e n s i o n work by a s s i g n i n g a number from 1 t o 5 i n the space p r o v i d e d . Where: 5 = very e f f e c t i v e 4 = e f f e c t i v e 3 = somewhat e f f e c t i v e 2 = not e f f e c t i v e 1 = not a t a l l e f f e c t i v e Example: C i r c u l a r L e t t e r s 1 i . e . not a t a l l e f f e c t i v e . 1. B u l l e t i n s 2. C i r c u l a r l e t t e r s 3. O f f i c e c a l l s 4. Farm v i s i t s 5. General meetings 6. Workshop 7. Group d i s c u s s i o n 8. Method demonstration 9. R e s u l t demonstration 10. 11. 12. Radio t a l k s L e c t u r e P o s t e r s USE OF EXTENSION TECHNIQUES (Senior s t a f f only) I n s t r u c t i o n : Consider a l l e x t e n s i o n t e a c h i n g s and d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t you c a r r i e d out i n the l a s t two y e a r s . What p r o p o r t i o n of your t e a c h i n g or i n f o r m a t i o n d i s s e m i n a t i o n was done through each technique l i s t e d below. A s s i g n a percentage of t h a t t e a c h i n g done by u s i n g each of these techniques. Note: Percentage.must add up to 100% Example: % of t e a c h i n g was by r a d i o t a l k s . 1. % by b u l l e t i n s 2. % by c i r c u l a r l e t t e r s 3. Q. by o f f i c e c a l l s 4. % by farm v i s i t s 5. Q. "o by g e n e r a l meetings 6. Q. by workshops 7. % by group d i s c u s s i o n s 8. o. "O by method demonstration 9. Q. "O by r e s u l t demonstration 10. Q. "5 by r a d i o t a l k s 11. o, "o by l e c t u r e 12. o. x> by p o s t e r s % TOTAL - 239 -USE OF EXTENSION TECHNIQUES (Senior s t a f f only) I n s t r u c t i o n : Consider a l l e x t e n s i o n techniques t h a t you use i n t e a c h i n g and d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n to farmers. What p r o p o r t i o n of t e a c h i n g r u r a l farmers would you emphasize to be c a r r i e d out under each technique. A s s i g n a percentage of t o t a l t e a c h i n g to be done through each technique i n the space i n f r o n t of each technique. Note: Percentage must add up to 100% Example: of t e a c h i n g should be by r a d i o t a l k s . 1. Q. *o by b u l l e t i n s 2. Q. "O by c i r c u l a r l e t t e r s 3. Q. "O by o f f i c e c a l l s 4. Q. *o by farm v i s i t s 5. Q, "5 by g e n e r a l meetings 6. Q. "5 by workshops 7. Q, "O by group d i s c u s s i o n 8. O, *o by method demonstration 9. Q, "O by r e s u l t demonstration 10. O, O by l e c t u r e 11. O, "5 by p o s t e r s 12. Q. X) by r a d i o t a l k s o. "O TOTAL - 240. -EXTENSION AGENTS' CONTACT WITH FARMERS I n s t r u c t i o n : As a s u p e r v i s o r we would l i k e t o know what emphasis you t h i n k should be pl a c e d on e x t e n s i o n agents' p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s : w i t h farmers f o r the purpose of t e a c h i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s or r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . Rate t h i s statement on a 5-point s c a l e below i t . Statement: In r u r a l e x t e n s i o n work, p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s w i t h farmers by the v i l l a g e l e v e l e x t e n s i o n workers i s (check a p p r o p r i a t e p o i n t ) . Very Moderately Important Somewhat Least important important important important - 241 -SECTION V OVERALL STATE OF THE ART OF EXTENSION SERVICES ( A l l Respondents) How would you r a t e the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s provided by the MANR? Below i s a 5-point s c a l e w i t h words t h a t may d e s c r i b e how you see the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e g i v e n to the farmers. P l a c e a c i r c l e around a number on the s c a l e t h a t d e s c r i b e s you o p i n i o n . Statement: In my o p i n i o n I b e l i e v e t h a t the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e g i v e n t o the farmers i s (check one). E x c e l l e n t Very good Good F a i r Poor job job job job job - 242 -INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR FARMERS I n t r o d u c t i o n : My name i s (Give name) , and I am a student a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (that i s i n Canada). I am about t o ask you f o r i n f o r m a t i o n concerning your cocoa farm o p e r a t i o n s f o r r e s e a r c h purposes as we d i s c u s s e d a t the meeting. A l l i n f o r m a t i o n you p r o v i d e w i l l be t r e a t e d i n co n f i d e n c e and w i l l not be used f o r any other purpose. We w i l l not ask f o r your name so t h a t no one e l s e can know what you s a i d . I n s t r u c t i o n : Your l o c a l e x t e n s i o n agent from the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources has some a c t i v i t i e s t h a t he must perform f o r farmers and r u r a l non-farmers. The purpose of t h i s i n t e r v i e w i s t o o b t a i n informa-t i o n from you how important you see these a c t i v i t i e s and how do you l e a r n about them from your l o c a l . e x t e n s i o n agents. For each a c t i v i t y t h e r e i s a p o s s i b l e 5 p o i n t s represented by these tokens (money). 1 = Least important and 5 = Most important a c t i v i t y . Read out each a c t i v i t y item t o the farmer and l e t him a s s i g n a number t h a t d e s c r i b e s h i s p e r c e p t i o n of the importance. The same procedure would be used whenever i n t e r v a l measurement i s needed. - 243 -SECTION I I - FARMERS ONLY Sources of Farm Information: 1. The f o l l o w i n g are p o s s i b l e sources of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r your c u r r e n t farm p r a c t i c e s . Which i s the most frequent source of i n f o r m a t i o n on your farm (1-7; 1 = Most frequent source, 7 = Don't know how I heard i t ) . 1 - E x t e n s i o n agent 2 - R e l a t i v e or neighbour 3 - Member of farmers c o o p e r a t i v e 4 - L o c a l e x t e n s i o n l e a d e r 5 - From the v i l l a g e c h i e f 6 - Radio 7 - Don't know how I heard i t - 244 -METHOD AND TECHNIQUES OF LEARNING FARM PRACTICES (farmers). Methods or techniques of l e a r n i n g farm p r a c t i c e s . What method was used to teach you any of these farm o p e r a t i o n s by your e x t e n s i o n agent? Farm Operations Cn 0 C •rH •H cu -P N 0 (0 fi •H Cn -p -P -r) rH c cu fi >i •H •H rH CU (d -P -P e u U 0) CQ u Qu CU •H cu Ul PH a E x t e n s i o n Techniques: 1. Method demonstration 2. General meeting 3. B u l l e t i n 4. Radio t a l k s 5. R e s u l t demonstration 6. L e c t u r e 7. P o s t e r s 8. Group d i s c u s s i o n 9. I n s t r u c t i o n i n o f f i c e c a l l s 10. C i r c u l a r l e t t e r s 11. Farm v i s i t i n s t r u c t i o n 12. Workshop E f f e c t i v e n e s s of L e a r n i n g : Do you know how t o c a r r y out the o p e r a t i o n as a r e s u l t of the t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g from t h i s technique? No = 1, Yes = 2 I n s e r t code number a g a i n s t technique Vs o p e r a t i o n . - 245/-SECTION I I I - QUESTIONNAIRE FOR FARMERS Background and farm e x p e r i e n c e : 1. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n number 2. M a r i t a l s t a t u s (check one). 1. s i n g l e 2. m a rried 3. d i v o r c e d 4. widowed ' 3. Age: What i s your age? 4. Number of wives: How many wives do you have? 5. Number of c h i l d r e n : How many c h i l d r e n do you have? 6. Years i n farming: How many years have you been farming 7. S i z e of farm: What i s the s i z e of your farm? (acres) 8. Time devoted to farming: How much time do you devote to farming? 1. F u l l time farming (60% of time or more) 2. P a r t time farming (40% of time or l e s s ) 9. Formal e d u c a t i o n : How many years of s c h o o l i n g d i d you complete? 10. Cooperative membership: Are you a member of the cooper t i v e s o c i e t y ? 1. No 2. Yes 11. Income: What i s your annual income from a g r i c . product - 246 -12. Income: What i s your annual income f r o n Non-Agric 13. Net Income: 14. Y i e l d : What i s the y i e l d f o r your crop f o r 1974 l b s . What i s the y i e l d of your crop f o r 197 5 l b s . 15. Do you have a r a d i o ? 1. No 2. Yes SECTION I I : Contact w i t h E x t e n s i o n Agents Contact w i t h V i l l a g e l e v e l j u n i o r e x t e n s i o n agents: How many times i n a year do you come i n c o n t a c t w i t h the j u n i o r e x t e n s i o n agents f o r the purpose of l e a r n i n g or d i s c u s s i n g your farm p r a c t i c e ? times. (See code 1-8) Contact w i t h E x t e n s i o n S u p e r v i s o r s How many times i n a year do you come i n c o n t a c t w i t h the e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s f o r the purpose o f l e a r n i n g or d i s c u s s i n g your farm p r a c t i c e ? times. (Same code 1-8) - 24? -APPENDIX B L e t t e r s 250 U n i v e r s i t y O T v v i s c o n s i n - M a c i i s o n DEPARTMENT OF CONTINUING AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION 276 Teacher Education Building, 225 North Mills Street, 263-4640 208 Agriculture Hall, 1450 Linden Drive, 262-1361 120 Home Economics Building, 1270 Linden Drive, 262-2660 112 Teacher Education Building, 225 North Mills Street, Departmental Office, 263-2422 Madison, Wisconsin 5370S March k, 1977 Dr. P. A . L a r k i n , Dean F a c u l t y o f G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia 2075 Wesbrook Mai 1 V a n c o u v e r , B . C . , CANADA Dear Dean L a r k i n : The t h e s i s o f Mr. Raphael 0 . Opeke, wh i ch he has p r e p a r e d as p a r t i a l f u l f i l l -ment f o r h i s E d . D . d e g r e e , a r r i v e d Monday. A p p r e c i a t i n g the t i g h t s c h e d u l e under w h i c h such e x a m i n a t i o n s a r e h e l d , I t o o k the m a n u s c r i p t w i t h me t h i s week w h i l e t r a v e l i n g . Upon r e t u r n i n g t o t h e o f f i c e t o d a y , I am h a s t e n i n g to s h a r e w i t h you my judgment c o n c e r n i n g i t . j f ound t h i s m a n u s c r i p t t o be v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g r e a d i n g and c e r t a i n l y i n f o r m a -t i v e . Mr. Opeke has s e l e c t e d a v e r y b road p r o b l e m , as d e f i n e d by the t e n o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e s t u d y and t h e many i ndependen t and dependen t v a r i a b l e s , w h i c h he has a t t e m p t e d to a n a l y z e . The m a n u s c r i p t does p r e s e n t a u s e f u l body o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t he a d u l t e d u c a t o r and more s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h e e x t e n s i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n t he w e s t e r n s t a t e o f N i g e r i a . The somewhat d e t a i l e d a n a l y -s i s o f t h e h i s t o r y , o r g a n i z a t i o n and f u n c t i o n s o f e x t e n s i o n o f v a r i o u s c o u n -t r i e s , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r emphas i s on t h e U .S .A . and t h e w e s t e r n s t a t e o f N i g e r i a , s h o u l d p r o v e v a l u a b l e t o p e r s o n s t e a c h i n g i n t r o d u c t o r y c o u r s e s i n E x t e n s i o n and A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . The same o b s e r v a t i o n would a p p l y t o h i s Rev iew o f L i t e r a t u r e . The Rev iew o f L i t e r a t u r e on t h e o r y , e x t e n s i o n a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n r o l e s - a n d j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i s f a i r l y c o m p r e h e n s i v e . However, I am somewhat c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e o r y i s not r e l a t e d more c l o s e l y t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f methodo logy f o r h i s s t u d y , t he a n a l y s i s o f h i s d a t a , and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r on C o n c l u s i o n s and Recommendat ions . The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e wh i ch he d e v e l o p e d f o r h i s f i e l d r e s e a r c h has o b v i o u s l y r e c e i v e d a l o t o f a t t e n t i o n . Mr. Opeke has p r o f i t e d by the judgment o f t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r s and t h e a c a d e m i c i a n s , a s a r e a c t i o n p a n e l , c o n c e r n i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t he q u e s t i o n s and the s c a l e s wh i ch he has u s e d . A p p r o p r i -a t e s t a t i s t i c s have been used i n a n a l y z i n g h i s d a t a . The f i n d i n g s have been p r e s e n t e d i n a c l e a r and c o n c i s e fo rm i n h i s m a n u s c r i p t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t he n a t u r e o f t he s t u d y , t h e number o f v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d , and l i m i t e d d a t a f r om r e s p o n d e n t s d i d not a f f o r d the r i g o r o u s t y p e o f t e s t i n g o f h y p o t h e s e s w h i c h one wou ld l i k e t o s e e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e p e r s o n p l a n s t o p u r s u e a c a r e e r i n r e s e a r c h . P o s s i b l y t h i s i s not Mr. O p e k e ' s major p r o f e s s i o n a l o b j e c t i v e . 254 PUBLICATIONS Opeke, R.O. and Oshungbohun, M.O., The level of contacts  the farmers have with Extension Workers and the effective- ness of such contacts., Departmental Monograph, School of Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria, 1968. Opeke, R.O., Effective communication i s our need., Agric. News., Vol. XII, No. 1, 1973. 1-5 Opeke, R.Q., The Role of Rural Extension Workers in  Agricultural Development, Paper presented at CRIN Research Seminar, Ibadan, September 5, 1973. 

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