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The effectiveness of constructed wetlands for treatment of woodwaste leachate Masbough, Arash 2002

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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR TREATMENT OF WOOD WASTE L E A C H A T E by  ARASH MASBOUGH B . S c , The University o f Tehran, 1995  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL F U L F I L M E N T O F THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES Department o f C i v i l Engineering Environmental Engineering Group Pollution Control and Waste Management Program We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard:  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A A p r i l 2002 © Arash Masbough, 2002  In presenting this thesis i n partial fulfilment o f the requirements for an advanced degree at the University o f British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head o f my department  or by his or her representatives.  It is  understood that copying or publication o f this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without m y written permission.  Department o f C i v i l Engineering The University o f British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date: A p r i l 26, 2002  ABSTRACT  The forest industry is one o f the most important contributors to the economy o f the province o f British Columbia. This industry supports many wood processing mills located throughout the province. Percolation o f the rainfall through woodwaste piles and log storage areas leaches natural chemicals from the wood residuals. A study was performed on a woodwaste storage site near Mission, B . C . , where a number of wood processing mills are located adjacent to the Fraser River. The objective o f this research was to evaluate the effectiveness o f surface flow constructed wetlands for treatment o f woodwaste leachate. The leachate was characterized over the period o f the study. It had very low p H (-3.5), very high and aggressive oxygen demands (5,00011,000 mg.L" B O D , and 7,000-18,000 mg.L/ C O D ) , very high levels o f tannin and 1  1  5  lignin (2,800-6,500 mg.L" ) 1  and total V F A s ( 1,800-2,800 mg.L" ), and low levels o f 1  nutrients (< 3 mg.L" N H - N , < 0.2 mg.L" N O - N , and < 4 mg.L" P 0 - P ) . Diluted 1  1  3  1  x  4  leachate was directed to six pilot-scale wetland cells, four planted with cattails latifolia)  (Typha  and two controls, during a total operational period o f 34 weeks. A s the leachate  had a very low nutrient content and p H , nutrient addition and p H adjustments were made to improve contaminant removal. After physical modifications i n the site, reductions in pollutants were consistently achieved. The average removals for B O D and C O D were in the order o f 60% and 50% respectively. O n average, up to 69% o f V F A s and 42% o f tannin and lignin contents were removed. The T h O D comparisons with C O D showed that V F A s and tannin and lignin accounted for over 60% o f C O D i n effluent and influent.  "Planted and nutrient added" cells were more effective i n B O D removal from leachate than the unplanted controls. In addition, the effluent p H values were higher for the planted cells. N o significant differences were observed i n removal efficiencies o f other targeted  pollutants between  the  six cells. Climatic conditions (i.e. precipitation,  evaporation and temperature) had a great impact on the performance o f the wetlands. In addition, acclimatization o f the wetlands increased the treatment ratios. Constructed wetlands proved effective in treatment o f woodwaste leachate. Continuous operation o f the system w i l l help to elucidate the seasonal fluctuations. Microbiological studies can also shed light on the causes o f performance variations.  Arash Masbough  11  MASc Thesis (2002)  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  ii  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  iii  List o f Tables  v  List o f Figures  vii  List o f Abbreviations  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  x  1) INTRODUCTION  1  1-1) B . C . ' s Forest Industry  2  1-2) Research Objectives  6  1-3) Project Background  7  1- 4) Research Site Description  8  2) B A C K G R O U N D STUDIES  12  2- 1) Constructed Wetlands  12  2-1-1) Different Layouts o f Constructed Wetlands 2-1-1-1)  Constructed  Surface-Flow  2-1-1-2)  Constructed  Subsurface-Flow  14  (SF) Wetlands....  16  (SSF) Wetlands  16  2-1-2) The Role o f Plants i n Constructed Wetlands  18  2- 1-3) Hydraulic Characteristics o f Constructed Wetlands  20  2-2) Leachate Control and Treatment  23  2-3) Woodwaste Leachate Characteristics  26  2- 4) U s i n g Constructed Wetlands as an Alternative for Leachate Treatment  31  3) WOODWASTE L E A C H A T E CHARACTERIZATION  35  3- 1) Methods and Materials  35  3- 1-1) Sampling Protocols  35  3-1-2) Analytical Protocols  37  3-2) Results and Discussion  40  3-2-1) p H , Temperature, Conductivity, and Solids Arash Masbough  iii  40 MASc Thesis (2002)  3-2-2) V F A s , Tannin and Lignin, C O D , and B O D , and D O  42  3- 2-3) Nutrients and Other Chemicals  48  5  3- 3) Conclusions  51  4) PILOT S C A L E TREATMENT E V A L U A T I O N  53  4- 1) Methods and Materials  54  4- 1-1) System Description  54  4-1-2) Nutrient Addition and p H Adjustment  61  4-1-3) Sampling and Analytical Protocols  62  4-2) Results and Discussion  62  4-2-1) Characterization o f Dilution Water Sources  62  4-2-2) Treatment Performance  64  4-2-2-1)  ThOD  Comparisons  4-2-2-3) Seasonal  with Measured  COD  73  Effects on Wetlands Performance  80  4-3) Conclusions  85  5) G E N E R A L CONCLUSIONS A N D RECOMMENDATIONS 87 6) REFERENCES  90  APPENDICES  98  APPENDIX A Raw Data  99  APPENDIX B Theoretical Oxygen Demand Calculations  127  APPENDIX C Climatic Data  130  APPENDIX D Seasonal Changes in Wetlands Performance  132  Arash Masbough  iv  MASc Thesis (2002)  List of Tables  P  a  g  e  #  Table 2-1 Summary o f the major roles o f macrophytes in constructed treatment wetlands  20  Table 2-2 Chemical composition o f leachate from municipal solid waste  25  Table 3-1 Sample collection, preservation and storage  36  Table 3-2 Methods and instruments used for analysis  38  Table 3-3 Frequently measured leachate characteristics (2000 and 2001)  41  Table 3-4 Concentrations o f individual volatile fatty acids (2000)  43  Table 3-5 Oxygen demand ratio comparisons  47  Table 3-6 Summary o f the measured nutrients in the leachate pool  48  Table 3-7 One-time measured components in the leachate  50  Table 4-1 Characterization o f dilution water sources (slough in 2000 and well in 2001)  63  Table 4-2a Field data, p H , and conductivity measurements for influent and effluent, 2000  65  Table 4-2b Field data, p H , and conductivity measurements for influent and effluent, 2001  65  Table 4-3a Summary o f removal performances for targeted parameters i n the pilot-scale constructed wetlands (2000)  68  Table 4-3b Summary o f removal performances for targeted parameters i n the pilot-scale constructed wetlands (2001)  69  Table 4-4a Summary o f removal performance for volatile fatty acids (C2-C6) in the pilot-scale constructed wetlands, 2000  71  Table 4-4b Summary o f removal performance for volatile fatty acids (C2-C6) in the pilot-scale constructed wetlands, 2001  71  Table 4-5 Oxygen demand ratio comparisons  73  Table 4-6a Summary o f performance for nutrients i n pilot-scale constructed wetlands, 2000  76  Table 4-6b Summary o f performance for nutrients i n pilot-scale constructed wetlands, 2001  Arash Masbough  77  V  MASc Thesis (2002)  Table A l Temperature, p H , D O , and conductivity in constructed Wetland Cells i n 2000  99  Table A 2 Solids Concentrations i n Constructed Wetland Cells i n 2000  101  Table A 3 B O D , C O D , and Tannin and Lignin R a w Data i n Constructed Wetland Cells i n 2000  110  Table A 4 Total Volatile Fatty Acids R a w Data i n Constructed Wetland Cells in 2000  113  Table A 5 Nutrients Raw Data i n Constructed Wetland Cells in 2000  116  Table A 6 Temperature, p H , D O , and Conductivity Raw Data i n Constructed Wetlands in 2001  117  Table A 7 B O D , C O D , and Tannin and Lignin Raw Data in Constructed Wetland Cells i n 2001  120  Table A 8 Total Volatile Fatty Acids Raw Data in Constructed wetland Cells i n 2001  122  Table A 9 Nutrients i n Constructed wetland Cells in 2001  125  Table B 1 Total T h O D for V F A s , 2000  128  Table B 2 Total T h O D for Tannin and Lignin, 2000  128  Table B 3 Total T h O D for V F A s , 2001  129  Table B 4 Total T h O D for Tannin and Lignin, 2001  129  Table C l Climate Normals, Abbotsford, B C , 1944-1990  131  Arash Masbough  VI  MASc Thesis (2002)  List of Figures  F a g e  Figure 1-1 B . C . exports by product groups, 1999  3  Figure 1-2 General plan of the research site  9  Figure 1-3 Wood-processing shake and shingle mills next to the Fraser River...  10  Figure 1-4 Woodwaste pile as seen from North-South direction  10  Figure 1-5 Leachate pool viewed from top of the pile  11  Figure 2-1 Contaminant removal processes i n a constructed wetland  14  Figure 2-2 Types of constructed wetlands  15  Figure 2-3 The three wetland shapes with the best hydraulic efficiencies  22  Figure 3-1 B O D and C O D changes i n leachate  44  Figure 4-1 Wetland cell cross section  54  Figure 4-2 Influent inlet, the replaced spreader pipe, and the influent control valve  55  Figure 4-3 Pilot-scale system site diagram  56  Figure 4-4 General view of the pilot scale wetland cells  57  Figure 4-5 a) The stainless steel electric pump inside the wooden shelter, b) F l o w control box: fuses, timers, and switches  58  Figure 4-6 Dosing tank cross-section and details  59  Figure 4-7 a) D r i l l i n g a well as the dilution water source replacement, b) Details of the well  60  Figure 4-8 Average p H improvement i n pilot scale cells  66  Figure 4-9 p H neutralization measurements during three different time steps using lOg.L" limestone and pure leachate  67  Figure 4-10 C O D comparisons with T h O D for V F A s and tannin and lignin  75  1  Figure 4-11 The effect of fertilizer addition on ortho-phosphate concentrations o f the cells effluent  78  Figure 4-12 Wetlands seasonal variations for B O D 5 and V F A s removal i n 2000  79  Figure 4-13 Wetland seasonal variations for C O D and tannin and lignin removal in 2000  82  Figure 4-14 Climatic data for year 2000, top: temperature and bottom precipitation  Arash Masbough  83  vii  MASc Thesis (2002)  Figure C l Temperature Data o f Abbotsford, B . C . for 2001  118  Figure C 2 Precipitation Data o f Abbotsford, B . C . for 2001  118  Figure D l Seasonal Variability in B O D in Constructed Wetlands Cells in 5  2001  120  Figure D 2 Seasonal Variability i n C O D i n Constructed Wetlands Cells in 2001  121  Figure D 3 Seasonal Variability i n Tannin and Lignin in Constructed Wetlands Cells in 2001  122  Figure D 4 Seasonal Variability i n Volatile fatty Acids in Constructed Wetlands Cells in 2001  123  Figure D 5 Seasonal variability i n A m m o n i a in Constructed Wetland Cells i n 2000  124  Figure D 6 Seasonal variability i n A m m o n i a in Constructed Wetland Cells in 2001  124  Figure D 7 Seasonal variability i n Nitrate+Nitrite in Constructed Wetland Cells in 2000  125  Figure D 8 Seasonal variability in Nitrate+Nitrite in Constructed Wetland Cells in 2001  125  Figure D 9 Seasonal Variability in ortho-Phosphate in Constructed Wetland Cells i n 2000  126  Figure D 9 Seasonal Variability in ortho-Phosphate in Constructed Wetland Cells in 2000  Arash Masbough (2002)  126  viii  MASc Thesis  List ofAbbreviations AAS  Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer(y)  APHA  American Public Health Association  BC  British Columbia  BOD  Biochemical Oxygen Demand  BOD  5  5-Day Biochemical Oxygen Demand  COD  Chemical Oxygen Demand  DO  Dissolved Oxygen  EPA  Environmental Protection Agency  FSS  Fixed Suspended Solids  GC  Gas Chromatograph(y)  HDPE  H i g h Density Polyethylene  HRT  Hydraulic Retention (Residence) Time  LC50  Lethal Concentration: 50%  NDIR  Non-Depressive Infrared Analyzer  PPE  Personal Protection Equipments  PVC  P o l y V i n y l Chloride  ReCip  Reciprocating B e d Wetlands  SF  Surface F l o w Wetlands  SSF  Sub-surface F l o w Wetlands  T&L  Tannin and Lignin  TDS  Total Dissolved Solids  ThOD  Theoretical Oxygen Demand  TOC  Total Organic Carbon  TSS  Total Suspended Solids  VFAs  Volatile Fatty Acids  VF  Vertical F l o w Wetlands  VOA  Volatile Organic Acids  VSS  Volatile Suspended Solids  Arash Masbough  IX  MASc Thesis (2002)  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I have to thank m y research advisor, Dr. K e n H a l l . H e was extremely supportive, patient, and helpful from the first moment that I started in this program. I don't remember a single day going to his office with the most complicated problems, and not leaving without a smile on m y face. H i s knowledge and wisdom were infinitely valuable during the course of this research. I would like to thank Dr. Noboro Yonemitsu in the Environmental Hydraulics Group at U B C . H e was always w i l l i n g to help. It was impossible for me to get to this point without his support. A n y student who has been involved in research in Environmental Engineering Group i n U B C knows that experiments are not possible without the support o f Susan Harper and Paula Parkinson. M y research was not an exception. A l l the instruments and equipment i n the Environmental Engineering Laboratory would have been useless without their insight. I am also thankful to the Department o f C i v i l Engineering in U B C for giving me the opportunity. Apart from intensive coarse load, they taught me how to be persistent, examining m y knowledge, as well as m y endurance. During the period o f this research I benefited from the support o f a lot o f friends. In particular Jody Addah, my friend and officemate. Not only for the fact that he helped me with filed work, but also for his support in the moments that nothing was working. I am also thankful to Wendong Tao. H e helped me with the fieldwork and analyses I want to offer m y endless thanks to my parents. Their supports during m y studies, and life have been unbelievable. A n d o f course it is difficult to say about all o f that within these lines. Finally, I should thank my life partner. Parisa always gave me the hope and reason to proceed. She also gave me all the confidence and motivation that I needed.  Arash Masbough  x  MASc Thesis (2002)  1) I N T R O D U C T I O N  In addition to sunlight and air, water is an indispensable element for most animal and plant life. A casual observation o f the world map would suggest that the supply o f water is endless, since it covers over 80% o f the Earth's surface. Unfortunately, we cannot use it directly; over 95% is i n the salty oceans, 2% is tied up in the polar ice caps, and most o f the remainder is beneath the Earth's surface. Therefore, there is only a small fraction o f the water available for human use, and it is up to humans to maintain access to sustainable sources o f clean water.  The chemicals present in water affect its quality for the end users. Most industrial activities produce considerable amount o f wastewater. Treatment and disposal o f industrial wastewater is one o f the most challenging fields i n environmental engineering practice. Because o f the great variety o f wastes produced from established industries, and the introduction o f wastes from new processes, it is difficult to select a single treatment method for industrial wastewater.  M a n y o f the industrial waste problems faced by environmental engineers can be solved by minimizing the quantities o f these materials produced and used through product substitution, waste recovery, and recycling. The next step is the introduction o f efficient and cost effective treatment processes that are suitable for treating a variety o f waste problems.  Arash Masbough  1  MASc Thesis (2002)  Control and disposal o f solid waste are other challenges for environmental engineers. Leachate control and treatment is by far one o f the most important aspects i n this area. Solid waste composition varies substantially with sources, socio-economic conditions, location, and season. Leachate formation is the result o f the removal o f soluble compounds by the non-uniform and intermittent percolation o f water through the refuse mass. Soluble compounds are generally encountered i n the refuse at emplacement or are formed by chemical and biological processes. The sources o f percolating water are primarily precipitation, irrigation, runoff, and ground water intrusion and to a lesser extent, initial refuse moisture content. Refuse decomposition due to microbial activity contributes to leachate characteristics and its potential environmental impacts (El-Fadel et al, 1997).  The quantity o f leachate generated is site-specific. It depends on water availability and weather conditions as well as the characteristics o f the solid waste, the landfill surface, and the underlying soil. The quality o f leachate is highly dependent upon the stage o f fermentation i n the solid waste, the composition o f the waste, operational procedures, and co-disposal o f the wastes (Pohland et al, 1983).  1-1) B. C. 's Forest Industry  British Columbia's forest industry is a dominant contributor to the provincial economy. In 1999, it made up over 50.3 percent or $18.6 billion o f total manufactured shipments inside the province. W o o d products accounted for 33 percent and pulp and paper products Arash Masbough  2  MASc Thesis (2002)  for 17.3 percent. B . C . has only 17 percent o f Canada's total forestland, but grows almost 40 percent o f the nations merchantable timber. In general, B . C . harvests less area annually than Ontario and Quebec, yet plants two to three times more area per year. Almost 50 percent o f all silviculture expenditures in Canada occur in B . C . ( C O F I , 2000).  A m o n g the goods-producing industries, the forest industry (a combination o f the wood products, paper allied industries and logging) is one o f the largest contributors to B . C . ' s gross domestic product. The total value o f forest products exported from B . C . in 1999 was $15.3 billion. Forest products were counted for 58 percent o f the total province's exports (Figure 1-1), (Statistics Canada, 2000).  A l l Other 10% Mineral Products  6% Machinery and 58%(i  Agriculture 4% Fish Products 3% Energy Products 10%  Figure 1-1 B . C . ' s exports byproduct groups, 1999 (Source: B.C. Stats; B.C. Origin Exports, Economics and Trade Branch, Ministry of Forests)  The B . C . forest industry accounted for 90,600 direct jobs and a further 181,200 indirect and induced jobs in 1999. The forest industry is a source o f livelihood for 271,800 British  Arash Masbough  3  MASc Thesis (2002)  Columbians and represented 14 percent o f total provincial workforce i n 1999. (COFI, 2000).  B . C . produces 48.8 percent o f the total lumber production i n Canada. The province's contribution i n pulp, paper and plywood are 28.6, 13.7, and 83.0 percent o f total production in Canada, respectively. There are close to 500 primary mills located i n B C , processing almost all o f the wood harvested in the province (65 million m i n 1998). 3  Considering the size o f the industry, it is obvious that the related environmental management measures play a very important role i n the province (COFI, 2000).  Given the dimensions and importance o f the industry, it is necessary to consider a management strategy and appropriate regulations to deal with the waste produced. Woodwaste as defined in British Columbia's Waste Management A c t includes hog fuel, m i l l ends, wood chips, bark, and sawdust. It does not include demolition waste, construction wastes, tree stumps, branches, logs or log ends (Government o f B . C . , 1996). Collection and disposal o f this waste is an immense task. There are about 50 sawmills located i n British Columbia (Bailey et al., 1999). The woodwaste from sawmills alone has been estimated at about 2.8 million bone-dry tonnes per year ( M c C l o y , 1997). The woodwaste generated from other sectors o f the industry such as chipping, panel, and other type o f mills, as well as the pulp and paper mills, must be added to this total. Moreover, a large number o f wood product storage locations including log yards and chip piles at barge loading facilities require waste management measures, particularly in connection with leachate runoff control and treatment.  Arash Masbough  4  MASc Thesis (2002)  Woodwaste is a natural product. However, i f rainwater seeps into woodwaste it can pollute the environment. Provincial and Federal guidelines provide information on woodwaste use, storage and the woodwaste leachate control. For example, management practices that are specific to woodwaste use and storage include, but are not limited to, the following (Government o f B . C . , 1996):  Only woodwaste uses that minimize the leachate and prevent water contamination are permitted. Environmental requirements common to all woodwaste uses include:  o  Woodwaste must not be used as landfill unless a permit or approval has been obtained from B . C . Environment,  o  Woodwaste deposits must not exceed a total o f 30 cm, which should be achieved by applying layers that do not exceed 15 cm per year,  o  A buffer zone o f 30 m is required between woodwaste deposit and domestic water supplies, and other sensitive water bodies,  o  Woodwaste and woodwaste leachate must not be allowed to contaminate surface or ground water,  o  Stored woodwaste should be covered to prevent leachate from forming and polluting the environment.  Arash Masbough  5  MASc Thesis (2002)  A quick look at the existing acts, regulations, and bylaws shows that the environmental hazards o f woodwaste and its leachate are more or less addressed. The growth o f woodwaste piles demonstrates that the amount o f woodwaste production i n the province is much more than the demand for its use. Conversely, having a look at the active wood processing mills in the province suggests that not all o f the regulations are practically applied. There are numerous woodwaste piles along the lower Fraser River and in the interior o f the province without any control o f leachate production or discharge.  1-2) Research Objectives  The objective o f this research was to evaluate the effectiveness o f surface flow constructed wetlands for treatment o f woodwaste leachate. The research was conducted on six constructed wetland cells located near the city o f Mission, B . C . , Canada, adjacent to the Fraser River. A leachate pool was formed at the site because o f runoff from an active woodwaste pile. Leachate was directed to wetland cells, after dilution. The fieldwork began with hydraulic and mixing improvements. The performance o f wetlands on the removal o f targeted pollutants was monitored for a total o f 34 weeks (from M a y to September, 2000 and from July to October, 2001).  This thesis provides with a brief review o f the project background and research site description. In the next section (Chapter 2), a background literature review introduces and assesses the types and performances o f constructed wetlands as systems o f treatment for diverse wastewaters. The characteristics o f woodwaste leachate and a review o f the Arash Masbough  6  MASc Thesis (2002)  leachate control and treatment measures are presented. There are few literature sources on woodwaste leachate treatment. A s a result, the production and treatment mechanisms o f landfill leachate, as the most similar wastewater to woodwaste leachate, are discussed. In the following section (Chapter 3), the results on long-term characteristics o f woodwaste leachate on the study site are presented. Next is a description o f the pilot scale site and the different components o f the system. This is followed by presentation and discussion on the results o f the removal efficiency for targeted pollutants (Chapter 4). In the last section (Chapter 5), this thesis finishes with the conclusions based on the presented results and recommendations for further possible research.  1-3) Project Background  The research site was selected on October 1997 and permission was secured from the landowners and B . C . Shake and Shingle Association to conduct research on the woodprocessing site. The agreements were collected from the B . C . Ministry o f Environment, Lands and Parks and various other stakeholders. A particular agreement required that the bottom o f the experimental wetland cells should be protected with impermeable liners and all o f the produced effluent should be collected and pumped back to the woodwaste pile (i.e. generation point) (Frankowski, 2000).  Characterization studies were started on the site and nine sampling trials were conducted. In the mean time, bench scale studies were carried out to evaluate the feasibility o f constructed wetlands i n treatment o f the woodwaste leachate. Eight small wetlands were Arash Masbough  1  MASc Thesis (2002)  constructed using broad-leaved cattails (Typha latifolia)  planted in fish tanks. The  microcosm wetlands were placed i n a controlled environment room.  The results from the bench scale wetlands were promising. The system with 29 days H R T , achieved 93% removal in toxicity and 80% removal i n C O D . The B O D removal was as high as 94% with a H R T o f 25 days.  After the successful bench scale trials, the construction o f the pilot scale wetlands started in M a y 1998 at the research site. Six wetland cells were constructed on the site and four of them were randomly selected and planted with cattails (Typha latifolia).  Due to  necessary adaptation time, Fraser River flooding event, and financial constraints, the field trials were limited to a six-week period (October-December 1999). However, in this period, the wetland system proved to be capable o f treating this leachate. There was a need for more research to optimize the performance o f the wetlands (Frankowski, 2000).  The project was taken over i n M a y 2000. N e w research activities were started with physical improvement o f the treatment system.  1-4) Research Site Description  The research site was situated on the west side o f the city o f Mission, approximately 75 kilometres east o f Vancouver, B . C . It was located in the coastal climate region with relatively high mean annual precipitation (1563 m m per year). D a i l y mean temperatures Arash Masbough  8  MASc Thesis (2002)  varied between 2 °C in January to 17 °C in August. Daily minimum and maximum temperatures were reported as low as -1 °C and as high as 24 °C, respectively (Environment Canada, 1999).  The west side o f M i s s i o n is a rural setting with a few agricultural farms (mostly corn farms) and a few wood processing mills. The study site was adjacent to one o f the woodprocessing mills on the north bank o f the Fraser River (Figures 1-2 and 1-3).  Figure 1-2 General plan o f the research site (not on scale)  Arash Masbough  9  MASc Thesis (2002)  Figure 1-3 Wood-processing shake and shingle mills next to the Fraser River  O n the east side o f the series o f processing mills, there was a pile o f miscellaneous woodwaste generated. The pile had a diameter of approximately 200 m and was over 20 m high. Taking into account the significant precipitation and the permeable character o f the woodwaste, a considerable amount o f leachate was potentially produced (Figure 1-4).  Figure 1-4 Woodwaste pile as seen from North-South direction  Arash Masbough  10  MASc Thesis (2002)  Due to leachate flowing to the adjacent tree farm, a pool was formed on the west side o f the pile. The pool was approximately 20 m wide and 70 m long. The leachate had a very dark colour, strong sour smell, and fine bubbles were noticeable on its surface. A number of dead trees were still standing throughout in the pool and the nearby trees were clearly weakened (Figure 1-5).  Figure 1-5 Leachate pool viewed from top o f the pile  Because o f the closeness o f the pile to the Fraser River (<60 m), there was a concern about the effects o f leachate discharge to the river. The Fraser River and its tributaries comprise the world's most productive salmon river system and they have a great environmental, economic and social value in the province o f British Columbia ( C H R S , 2001).  Arash Masbough  1 1  MASc Thesis (2002)  2) B A C K G R O U N D S T U D I E S  2-1) Constructed Wetlands  Natural wetlands have been used as convenient wastewater discharge sites for as long as sewage has been collected (at least 100 years i n some locations) (Kadlec and Knight, 1996). Constructed wetlands have been recognized for several years as low cost, minimal maintenance systems that could lower the impact o f wastewater drainage on natural water bodies (Mitsch and Wise, 1998).  The first scientific research studies and pilot-scale constructed wetland wastewater treatment facilities originated in Germany at the M a x Planck Institute, where Kathe Seidel undertook detailed testing o f many aquatic plants to determine their ability to absorb and breakdown chemical pollutants. Her research first presented in 1953, proved that particular plant species had the ability to remove some pollutants. In addition, plants grown i n wastewater exhibited surprisingly varied physiological and morphological changes that aided their performance (Campbell and Ogden, 1999).  In a very general sense, understanding the function o f constructed wetlands requires us to step back in time to achieve a more basic understanding that every farmer had: plants require water and fertilizer for their growth. Wastewater essentially consists o f water, fertilizer, and organic chemicals. Wetland plants, unlike dryland plants, can grow i n  Arash Masbough  12  MASc Thesis (2002)  saturated soils and standing water, and consume several times the nutrients used by dryland crops (Campbell and Ogden, 1999).  Constructed wetlands are a designed and man-made complex o f saturated substrates, emergent and submergent vegetation, animal life, and water that simulate natural wetlands for human use and benefits (Hammer and Bastian, 1989). Natural or artificial wetlands such as marshes or swamps, with their vegetation (primarily cattails, reeds, and rushes), provide an ideal microenvironment for the sedimentation, filtration, adsorption, and bacterial decomposition o f wastewater constituents. Since natural wetlands are usually considered as receiving waters, discharges must meet applicable regulatory requirements and thus are limited to treatment o f secondary or tertiary effluents. Constructed wetlands, however, have a much broader application, having been employed to treat primary effluent, industrial wastewaters, acid mine drainage, landfill leachate, and urban runoff. In a typical design, continuously applied wastewater flows freely through parallel basins or channels with relatively impermeable bottom soil, emergent vegetation, and water depths o f 0.1 to 0.6 m (Henry and Heinke, 1996). A combination o f biological, physical, and chemical reactions are involved in contaminant removal processes in constructed wetlands (Figure 2-1) ( U S G S 1996).  Arash Masbough  13  MASc Thesis (2002)  LEACHATE  ^  :  4  P/an/s transfer oxygen to the root zone  £ F £  Treated water  Biological • .^R-...,-'-Jhl.  Chemical  Physical  Figure 2-1 Contaminant removal processes in a constructed wetland (Source: USGS, 1996)  The use o f constructed wetlands provides a relatively simple and inexpensive solution for treatment o f pollution from small communities, industries, storm water, and agricultural runoff. Experience shows that constructed wetlands provide an effective treatment alteration to conventional treatment systems especially for small communities (Vymazal, 1999).  2-1-1) Different L a y o u t s of Constructed Wetlands  Constructed wetland technology has advanced dramatically in the last ten years. N e w wetland designs have the capability o f treating high-strength wastes and functioning even in subfreezing environments. Constructed wetlands usually comprise reeds australis)  and/or bulrushes (Schoenoplectus)  (Phragmites  planted in gravel or sand. Constructed  wetlands may use horizontal or vertical flow (see Figure 2-2). Horizontal-flow wetlands Arash Masbough  14  MASc Thesis (2002)  may be o f two types: surface flow (SF) or subsurface flow (SSF). In the former, the effluent flows freely above the sand/gravel bed in which the reeds etc. are planted, and there may be patches o f open water. In the latter type, effluent passes through the sand/gravel bed (Wallace, 2001). A wide selection o f design variations exists for each o f these alternatives. In addition, these two types of wetlands can be combined with each other or with other conventional, and natural technologies to create hybrid systems that meet specific needs. Each type has advantages and disadvantages for different applications.  a) Horizontal Flow  b) Vertical Flow  Figure 2-2 Types o f constructed wetlands: a) Vertical flow b) Horizontal flow (Source: Fujita, 1998)  Arash Masbough  15  MASc Thesis (2002)  2-1-1-1) Constructed  Surface-Flow  (SF)  Wetlands  Surface-flow constructed wetlands mimic natural wetlands in that water flows principally above the ground surface, as shallow sheet flow, through a more or less dense growth o f emergent wetland plants. Four features are common to all constructed S F wetlands: an inlet device, the wetland basin, the wetland plants, and an outlet device (Kadlec and Knight, 1996).  A typical constructed S F wetland is a sequence o f sealed shallow basins containing 20-30 cm o f rooting soil with water depth o f 20-40 cm. Dense emergent vegetation covers a significant fraction o f the surface, usually more than 50%. Commonly used plants are Typha spp. and Scirpus spp., but natural assemblages o f volunteer regrowth from native seed banks are also used. Deep, open areas are added for wildlife, or to function as sedimentation basins. F l o w is directed into a cell along a line comprising the inlet, upstream embankment, and is intended to proceed across all portions o f the marsh to one or more outlet structures (Kadlec, 1995). Surface flow wetlands are well established, but their use is limited i n severely cold-climate applications when year-round treatment is required (Wallace, 2001).  2-1-1-2) Constructed  Subsurface-Flow  (SSF)  Wetlands  Constructed, S S F wetland systems treat wastewater by passing it horizontally or vertically through a permeable media planted with wetland plants. Microbial attachment Arash Masbough  16  MASc Thesis (2002)  sites are located on the surface o f media and on the roots o f the wetland plants. Although SSF wetlands have many features in common with S F wetlands, they also have a number of differences that are important during planning. The principal components o f a SSF constructed wetland are the inlet distribution system, the basin configuration, the bed media, the plants, and the outlet control system (Kadlec and Knight, 1996).  SSF beds are commonly vegetated with Phragmites plants such as Elodea canadensis  or Mariophyllum  spp. Submerged beds, populated by aquaticum,  Channels with floating leaved plants, either Eichhornia  are seen less frequently.  crassipes or Lemna spp., are also  used. The former is used in frost-free climates (Kadlec, 1995).  Freezing o f the gravel bed could occur in winter i f the weather is cold enough. The extent and severity o f freezing is strongly influenced by the amount o f snow or other insulation present. W i t h cold temperature and no snow resulting i n the worst freezing. The yearround use o f SSF constructed wetlands has proved feasible i n the permafrost zone. Vertical F l o w (VF) and Reciprocating B e d (ReCip) wetlands, which are two sub-groups of SSF wetlands, are being successfully used to treat waste previously considered "too strong". In V F wetlands, as the name implies, water flows vertically within the gravel bed. R e C i p wetland was originally developed to deal with high-strength agricultural waste. The basic process uses two gravel-filed wetland cells. Wastewater is pumped back and forth between the two cells. The alternative filling and draining o f the wetland draws atmospheric oxygen into the gravel pore spaces, enhancing oxygen transfer. Technical  Arash Masbough  17  MASc Thesis (2002)  developments in constructed wetlands allow for lower treatment costs in a variety o f previously unexplored applications (Wallace, 2001).  2-1-2) The Role of Plants in Constructed Wetlands  Plants are an integral part o f the effluent treatment processes i n constructed wetlands (Wetzel, 1993). The presence or absence o f wetland plants is one o f the characteristics often used to define the boundary o f wetlands. In Clean Water A c t o f the U S Government, wetlands are defined as "areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence o f vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions" (Mitsch and Gosselink, 1993). Thus, it is an inherent property o f wetlands, including constructed wetlands, that they are vegetated by wetland plants.  The most important functions o f the macrophytes in relation to the treatment o f wastewater are physical effects due to the presence o f the plants. The macrophytes stabilize the surface o f the beds, provide good conditions for physical filtration, prevent vertical flow system from clogging, insulate the surface against frost during winter, and provide a huge surface area for attached microbial growth (Brix, 1997). Research has shown that the plant canopy captures the contaminants by creating still regions that allow particulate material to accumulate around stems and leaves. Another effect o f plant/flow interaction is the creation o f small wakes behind plant stems. This bit o f turbulence may  Arash Masbough  18  MASc Thesis (2002)  improve the plants' uptake o f elements, or it may accelerate the uptake o f chemicals by microbial communities living on the plants' surfaces (Nepf and K o c h , 1999).  It is well documented that aquatic macrophytes release oxygen from roots into the rhizosphere and that this release influences the biogeochemical cycles i n the sediments through the effects on the redox status o f the sediments (Sorrel and Boon, 1992). The roots o f the wetland plants supply habitat for microorganisms, which are responsible for degradation o f many polluting constituents o f wastewater. For this reason, recent studies have considered maximizing the contact between wastewater and the rhizosphere (the root zone). Indeed, it is often considered the primary objective in designing these systems, especially in S S F constructed wetlands (Rash and Liehr, 1999). The metabolism o f macrophytes affects the treatment process to a different extent depending on the types o f the constructed wetland. Plant uptake o f nutrients is only o f quantitative importance in SF systems. The macrophytes have additional site-specific values by providing habitat for wildlife and making wastewater treatment systems aesthetically pleasing (Brix, 1997).  Constructed wetlands can be planted with a number o f adapted, emergent wetland plant species. Wetlands created as part o f compensatory mitigation, or for w i l d life habitat, typically include a large number o f planted species. Wetland plant species selection should consider the following: expected water quality, normal and extreme water depths, climate and latitude, maintenance requirements, and project goals (Kadlec and Knight, 1996). Table 2-1 summarizes the major roles o f macrophytes i n constructed treatment wetlands.  Arash Masbough  19  MASc Thesis (2002)  Table 2-1 Summary o f the major roles o f macrophytes in constructed treatment wetlands Macrophytes Property  Role in treatment process  Aerial plant tissue  Light attenuation => reduced growth of phytoplankton  1  Influence on microclimate => insulation during winter Reduced wind velocity => reduced risk of resuspension Aesthetic pleasing appearance of the system Storage of the nutrients Plant tissue in water  Filter effect => filter out large debris Reduced effluent velocity => increase rate of sedimentation, reduces risk of resuspension Provide surface area for attached biofilm Excretion of photosynthetic oxygen => increase aerobic degradation Uptake of contaminants  Roots and rhizomes  Stabilizing the sediment surface => less erosion Prevents the medium from clogging in vertical flow system Release of oxygen increase degradation and nitrification Uptake of nutrients Release of antibiotics  'Adopted from Brix (1997)  2-1-3) Hydraulic Characteristics of Constructed Wetlands  The design o f constructed wetlands and ponds requires multi-disciplinary input involving biological and ecological sciences, aquatic chemistry, engineering hydrology, and flow hydraulics.  The hydrologic components o f the wetland system include inflow, outflow, precipitation, evaporation and transpiration (considered together as evapotranspiration), and infiltration. Inflow and precipitation represent water inputs to the wetland system, and outflow, evapotranspiration, and infiltration represent water outputs from the wetland system. When all water inputs and outputs are measured over a given time period, a water balance can be conducted to test the accuracy o f the measurements. If measurements for a single Arash Masbough  20  MASc Thesis (2002)  hydrologic component are not available, the water balance can be used to estimate the missing values ( S R C D , 1999).  Wetland hydrology is a primary driving force influencing wetland ecology, its development and persistent. Increased demand for agricultural and domestic water supplies, the use o f wetlands i n wastewater treatment, and speculation about the effects o f climate change, have raised awareness o f the need for accurate estimates o f wetland hydrological fluxes. For most wetlands, evapotranspiration is the major component o f energy sink (Souch, et al, 1996). Optimal hydrologic effectiveness and hydraulic efficiency provide the most appropriate conditions for promoting the necessary biological and chemical processes for wastewater treatment (Persson, et al, 1999). The hydrologic characteristics o f wetlands are usually described through preparation and analysis o f a water budget. However, because o f the complex nature o f wetlands, there is a great deal of uncertainty over the hydrologic budgets and hydrologic functions o f different types o f wetlands (Arnold et al, 2001).  In the highly unsteady conditions to which most real-world constructed wetlands are subjected, constructing a meaningful residence time distribution is difficult. In flow pattern analysis, combining flow rate and concentrations can be useful for observing when masses o f tracer leave the wetland. Still, this form o f residence time distribution is dependant on the flow conditions the wetland undergoes. H i g h flow rates mask low concentrations. Tracer tests by Rash and Liehr (1999) on free water surface flow wetlands suggested that these wetlands are not subject to short-circuiting, and that the  Arash Masbough  21  MASc Thesis (2002)  nominal detention time is usually a good estimate o f actual detention times in the wetland. In general, SF wetlands are more efficient than S S F wetlands i n terms o f hydraulic efficiency.  Tracer studies also suggest that plug or continuously stirred flow conditions never occur in natural systems and the concentration-time distribution o f natural wetland systems lies somewhere between the distributions o f plug flow and fully mixed flow conditions (Wood, 1995). Furthermore, the effective volume in constructed wetlands is less than the nominal storage volume. Investigations by Persson et al, (1999) on thirteen wetland configurations and shapes showed that baffled systems (Figure 2-3a) or elongated pond shapes (Figure2-3 b) provided very high hydraulic efficiency. However, care needs to be applied i n designing elongated shapes to ensure that increased flow velocity associated with the narrower cross section does not lead to resuspension and remobilization o f settled material. Spreading the inflow across the wetland also provided a high hydraulic efficiency (Figure 2-3 c)  a)  c)  b)  Figure 2-3 The three wetland configurations with the best hydraulic efficiencies: a) baffled, b) elongated, c) spread inflow (Adopted from Persson et al, 1999)  Arash Masbough  22  MASc Thesis (2002)  2-2) Leachate Control and Treatment  Leachate occurrence is by far the most significant threat to groundwater. Once leachate reaches the bottom o f the landfill or an impermeable layer within the landfill, it either travels laterally to a point where it discharges to the ground's surface as a seep, or it w i l l move through the base o f the landfill and into the subsurface formations. Depending upon the nature o f these formations and i n the absence o f a leachate collection system, leachate has reportedly been associated with the contamination o f aquifers underlying landfills (Walls, 1975).  It is important to locate the landfills in impermeable soils well above the water table, and to prevent it from accumulating i n the landfill. Such ideal conditions are not always available, and additional precautions are frequently necessary to protect groundwater supplies from contamination.  Landfill leachate control measures include volume and composition control, treatment, and disposal. Hydraulic barriers (e.g., extraction and relief wells, gradient control wells and trenches, and collection systems are commonly used to control leachate problems. Typically, landfill boundaries (bottom, sides, and top) are covered by a clay or synthetic liner to minimize leachate formation through infiltration or groundwater intrusion. The landfill cover is designed with a sloping surface to enhance surface runoff, which is collected v i a drainage channels constructed at the surrounding edge o f the landfill. Water from precipitation or irrigation that may infiltrate past the landfill cover can be collected  Arash Masbough  23  MASc Thesis (2002)  via a leachate collection and removal system located under the cover and/or above the bottom liner. The collected leachate is generally treated either on-site and disposed o f in a nearby sewer system or, recirculated (El-Fadel et al., 1997).  Supplementary measures including clay and/or membrane covers, and liners for the landfill, a leachate collection, removal, and treatment facility, and a groundwater monitoring facility are necessary to protect receiving waters from contamination. However, these measures cannot ensure that no seepage w i l l occur. If leakage does occur, attenuation o f contaminants as the liquid passes through the soil serves as an additional barrier to surface and mostly groundwater contamination (Henry and Heinke, 1996).  The Characteristics o f leachate from landfills vary according to site-specific conditions (Table2-2). Leachates from " o l d " landfills are often rich in ammonia nitrogen due to the hydrolysis and fermentation o f the nitrogenous fractions o f biodegradable substrates, with decreases in concentrations are mainly attributed to leachate washout. A t landfills where leachate containment, collection and recirculation is practiced to accelerate decomposition o f readily biodegradable organic constituents, leachate ammonia nitrogen concentrations may accumulate to higher levels than during conventional single pass leaching, thereby creating an ultimate discharge challenge (Onay and Pohland, 1998).  Laboratory and field studies have shown that leachate organic content is microbially degradable under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. However, in light o f their very  Arash Masbough  24  MASc Thesis (2002)  variable nature, leachates may become toxic to microbial communities. For example, leachate with p H values as low as 1.5 and as high as 9.5 have been reported in the literature (El-Fadel et al., 1997). Although a rare occurrence, such extreme p H values could cause a complete inhibition to the growth o f microbial communities (e.g. methanogens), which usually grow best at p H values ranging from 6 to 8 (Zehnder et al., 1982).  Table 2-2 Chemical composition o f leachate from municipal solid waste (Source: El-Fadel et al, 1997) Concentration Range Parameter Concentration Range (mg.L- ) (mg.L- ) Alkalinity (as CaC0 ) 0-20,850 Nitrogen (Ammonia) 0-1,250 BOD ' 0 - 195,000 Phosphorus (Total) 0 - 234 Chloride 11,375 pH 1.5-9.5 COD 0 - 89,520 TOC 335,000 Hardness (as CaC0 ) 0.1 - 225,000 TVA (as acetic acid) 0 - 19,000 Iron 0 - 42,000 Phenol 0.17-6.6 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total Organic Carbon, Total Volatile acids Parameter  1  1  3  5  2  3  4  3  Analysis o f the leachate provides the basic information for selecting the treatment method. The organic strength, the B O D to C O D ratio, and the type o f volatile fatty acids 5  present are all related to the age o f landfill. Acceptance o f the leachate to the municipal treatment facility is seldom possible and on-site treatment is normally required (Henry andHeinke, 1996).  Leachates from "young" landfills ( B O D / C O D > 0.7) are i n the acid fermentation stage with high organic nitrogen. Leachates from "old", stabilized, landfills ( B O D / C O D - 0 . 1 to 0.3) are i n methanogenic stage and contain nitrogen as ammonia. Both leachates, young and old, have been successfully treated i n aerobic biological systems. Suspended growth systems, such as activated sludge, are common for B O D removal where as fixed Arash Masbough  25  MASc Thesis (2002)  film (attached growth) systems, such as rotating biological contactors are preferred for nitrification (Forgie, 1988). For the treatment o f leachate with a B O D / C O D ratio between 0.7 and 0.3, anaerobic treatment has advantages over aerobic processes. These advantages include less sludge production, reduced energy needs, and lower costs. To treat well-stabilized leachates ( B O D / C O D < 0.1) neither aerobic, nor anaerobic treatment is feasible and physical-chemical methods are needed. The variability in leachate characteristics as a landfill ages, requires flexible treatment systems. This means that over time, a combination o f aerobic, anaerobic, and physical-chemical processes w i l l be o f the most interest (Henry and Heinke, 1996, U . S . E P A , 1995, Forgie, 1988).  2-3) Woodwaste Leachate Characteristics  Untreated woodwaste disposal can cause significant pollution problems i n the receiving environment, especially i n surface water and groundwater systems. The water-soluble material dissolved from the wood is called leachate. The leachate seeps out from piles o f stored logs, wood bark, and sawmills. Odour, colour, oxygen demand and high concentrations o f metals and tannin (measured as tannic acid) are the typical characteristics o f woodwaste leachate (Phipps, 1974).  Woodwaste can have a variety o f physical and chemical adverse impacts on aquatic life, depending on its form. Woodwaste, like any organic waste, creates a biochemical oxygen demand ( B O D ) in sediments as it decomposes, and excessive amounts can reduce or eliminate the aerobic zone (Kendall and Michelsen, 1997). Arash Masbough  26  MASc Thesis (2002)  Agricultural use, storage, or land disposal o f woodwaste have the potential for generating leachate. A study on groundwater contamination by woodwaste disposal in the M i d Willamette valley region o f Oregon-U.S.A has shown that total iron and manganese were found to be far in excess o f normal or background concentrations, and were well above recommended local drinking water standards. A n initial drop i n p H (less than 5.6) and an increase in total acidity o f contaminated groundwater were anticipated due to the leaching o f volatile organic acids ( V O A ) (Sweet and Fetrow, 1975).  Woodwaste leaches and/or degrades into some compounds that can be toxic to aquatic life, such as phenols and methylated phenols, benzoic acid and benzyl alcohol, terpenes, and tropolones (Kendall and Michelsen, 1997). Woodwaste leachate, i n sufficient concentrations, can be toxic to salmonids (Phipps, 1974). Aspen leachate proved toxic to aquatic organisms at dilutions between 1% and 10% (Taylor et al, 1996). It has been characterized by amber colour, low p H (4.0), extremely high B O D (>2600 mg.L" ), and 1  high conductivity (1140 ps.cm" ). In addition, the leachate was rich i n phenols (30 mg.L" 1  '), organic carbon (2480 mg.L" ) and organic nitrogen (13 mg.L" ). The aged leachate 1  1  underwent a transition marked by a rise in p H and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, a small decline in conductivity, and a colour change from amber to black. Median acute toxicity concentrations were consistently 1% to 2% o f full strength leachate for trout and Daphnia.  Inhibition o f bacterial metabolism began at concentrations below 0.3%.  Leachate was less toxic to plant life but inhibited algal growth at concentrations o f 12% to 16%). In this study, toxicity declined abruptly when the supply o f labile toxicants was exhausted, but in certain cases, it increased again from the products o f microbial  Arash Masbough  27  MASc Thesis (2002)  metabolism. Oxygen depletion, low p H , and phenolic compounds contributed to the toxicity o f aspen leachate, but much o f the toxic effect was attributed to other, unidentified constituents.  The potential water quality degradation o f surface and ground waters from wood bark drainage is significant. It is shown that degradation results from colour, B O D , organic materials potentially toxic to fish, and odour, imparted to the water. Where the bark is stored on the land, rainwater moving through the pile carries out large amounts o f pollutant materials. The dissolved oxygen (DO) o f a stream would be seriously affected since B O D values as high as 6800 mg.L" were noted for hardwood bark when it was 1  stored wet at 37 °C for 48 days. The colour in some cases reached as high as 5500 colour units. Gas chromatographic analysis o f the liquid from the aerobic region o f the water showed the presence o f only a few identifiable simple sugars. The amounts o f these sugars were less than 5 ppm (Sproul and Clifford, 1968).  Potential contaminants that could contribute to wood leachate toxicity include metals, wood extractives, and chemicals used to control molds and fungi on freshly cut wood. Bailey et al, (1999) have analyzed the acute toxicity o f the storm water runoff from sawmills in British Columbia. They have evaluated the potential contribution o f metals to toxicity. Concentrations o f metals have been compared to available data for rainbow trout toxicity to determine potential causes o f toxicity i n the samples. They showed that this toxicity is mainly caused by some o f the divalent cation species dominated by zinc,  Arash Masbough  28  MASc Thesis (2002)  which ranged from 0.04 to 0.94 mg.L" . Other cations were present in the following 1  ranges: aluminium (< 0.01 to 0.04 mg.L" ), copper (<0.01 to 0.02 mg.L" ), cadmium (< 1  1  0.025 mg.L" ), manganese (0.006 to 2.12 mg.L" ), lead (< 0.08 mg.L" ), and nickel (< 0.03 1  1  1  m g . L ' ) . Through the measurements o f resin acids, and tannin and lignin, Bailey et al. 1  (1999) concluded that toxicity i n samples, not attributed to metals, is likely due to wood extractives, in particular tannin and lignin (53 to 108 mg.L" ), or other organic acid wood 1  extractives that co-varied with tannin and lignin. Total tannin and lignin greater than 10 mg.L" were always associated with toxicity. 1  A study by Thurlow et al. (1977) indicates the characteristics o f wastewater leached from log storage as follows: the wood and bark wastes generally consisted o f tannins, wood sugars, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), and lignin. The quality o f organics released into the water is dependent on the wood species, the amount o f bark adhering to the wood, the area o f the exposed logs, and the circulation flow o f the water. Bark contains a higher proportion o f extractives than wood and, therefore, the more bark that remained on a log, the more concentrated was the leachate that seeped out. This study also indicated that tannin and lignin often impart a yellowish-brown colour to water and that leaching rates do not differ greatly between saline and fresh water.  The constituents o f wood extractives and woodwaste leachate vary significantly depending on the kinds o f trees. In a study by Bianco and Savolainen (1997) chromatographic analysis was done to identify tannin fractions in hard and soft wood. They showed that oak tannin contains phenolic compounds (i.e. gallic and ellagic acids)  Arash Masbough  29  MASc Thesis (2002)  while acacia tannins contain vanillic acid and syringaldehyde. Spruce and fir tannin fractions did not contain identifiable major phenolic and their tannin concentrations were an order o f magnitude less than the above-mentioned woods. However, identified phenolics accounted for only a part o f the total tannins (Bianco and Savolainen, 1997). Abietic and pimaric acids are the most abundant resin acids naturally occurring in wood. The resin acid content o f the wood leachate also varies significantly within species according to tree age, tree part, growing environment, and storage conditions (Teschke, et al, 1999). In a gas chromatographic study by Becker et al. (2001) on the leaching extracts from pine wood (Pina nigra) mainly alcohols and ketones were found ( C 7 ~ C12). These substances originated from the lignite and polyose fraction o f the wood. Hemicellulose compounds are among the most dominating extractives in wood leachate (Bertaud et al., 2002, Gabrielii et al., 2000). In a study on hemicellulosic extractions from the poplar wood, xylans were found to be the most predominant component (Sun et al, 2001).  Peters et al. (1976) have studied the effect o f red cedar leachate on aquatic organisms. The study showed highest concentrations o f extractives are found i n heartwood. Heartwood extractives can be divided to two main groups, lignans and volatiles. The lignans make up to 8-15% dry weight o f the heartwood, and are polyphenolic compounds. Plicatic acid, the major lignan, is a strong organic acid. The volatile fraction, 0.5-2% dry weight o f the heartwood, consists mainly o f the tropolones, methyl thujate, thujic acid, and neutrals. The tropolones are known for their fungicidal properties. The toxicity data obtained from the laboratory bioassays indicated that under certain  Arash Masbough  30  MASc Thesis (2002)  conditions western red cedar leachate had a significant effect on the aquatic environment. The static leachate samples had a strong colour with a p H o f 4.3 and a B O D o f 715 5  mg.L" . Tropolones were found to be the primary cause o f leachate toxicity to fish. 1  In addition, Kiparissis et al. (1996) have documented that natural constituents o f wood such as planar terpenoids may contribute to the overall toxicity potential o f the wood pulp leachates. Leachate from the softwood pulp appeared to have more toxic effects on fish, than hardwood pulp.  2-4) Using Constructed Wetlands as an Alternative for Leachate Treatment  The practice o f landfilling results in a number o f potentially damaging environmental impacts, one o f which is the generation o f landfill leachate. In addition to the initial moisture content o f the solid waste and any liquid waste inputs, water may enter landfills by the ingress o f precipitation, surface water or ground water. Contact between this water and the waste generates a leachate contaminated with a range o f soluble organic and inorganic substances (Tyrrel et al, 2002).  Treatment wetlands have been successfully used for non-point sources o f pollution (i.e. agricultural and urban runoff), municipal wastewater, sludge treatment, pulp m i l l effluent, acid-mine drainage and mining waste, oil, food and agricultural industry wastewater, coal mining wastewater, and landfill leachate. They have been proved Arash Masbough  31  MASc Thesis (2002)  effective on removal o f B O D , C O D , suspended solids, nutrients, heavy metals, pathogens, disinfection by-products and also increasing p H in highly acidic influents (Rostad et al, 2000, Gerba et al, 1999, Rash and Liehr, 1999, Tarutis et al, 1999, Martin et al, 1999, Mitsch and Wise, 1998, Bulc et al, 1997, Morris and Herbert, 1997, Schreijer et al, 1997, Kadlec and Knight, 1996, Zachritz et al, 1996, Birkbeck et al, 1990, Lienardetfa/, 1990).  Landfill leachates are classified as problematic wastewaters and represent a dangerous source o f pollution for the environment due to their toxicity. Leachate is most often transported to a wastewater treatment plant, where it is treated along with municipal wastewater. Various hazardous substances in the landfill leachate can affect the biological process o f the purification. For this reason and because transport represents a risk, it is best to treat landfill leachate on site (Bulc et al, 1997).  Although effective advanced leachate treatment systems exist, some landfill operators seek alternative treatment systems, because o f their high capital costs and specialized management requirements. Land-based treatment systems are an attractive alternative for landfill operators as they utilise an existing land resource, are considered cheaper to build and operate, and do not need sophisticated management. Land-based systems may be used in conjunction with a conventional tank-based system to play a polishing role (Tyrrel et al, 2002)  Arash Masbough  32  MASc Thesis (2002)  The use o f constructed wetlands to treat landfill-generated leachate has become a treatment modality, which has received much attention over the past few years. One factor has caused heightened interest in the use o f constructed wetlands for landfill leachate treatment is the variations in quality and quantity o f leachate that is produced by different landfills. Not only does leachate composition vary day-to-day, it is also affected by regional climatologic patterns and characteristics o f the refuse including its depth and permeability. Therefore, attempts to modify traditional treatment modalities to address these variations can prove very costly (Martin et al., 1999). Because o f this inherent variability in composition, no two landfills produce the same quality o f leachate. This variability presents landfill managers with the problem o f providing cost-effective, reliable, flexible, on-site technologies for pre-treatment and on-site disposal, or off-site disposal such as direct discharge o f treated effluent into receiving waters.  Landfill leachates can contain a large variety o f hydrocarbons, including priority pollutants, phenolics, and high B O D o f many origins. Reports indicate that significant reductions o f B O D and total organic carbon ( T O C ) can be achieved b y constructed wetland treatment systems (Kadlec and Knight, 1996). In a study on low-strength leachate, the removal o f B O D (from over 50 mg.L" to less than 20 mg.L" ) and ammonia 1  1  5  nitrogen removal i n the order o f 5-6 g ammonia N / m marsh area/day was achieved 2  (Birkbeck et al., 1990). Another study, also suggested that wetlands have excellent organic carbon and nitrogen treatment capabilities (Kozub and Liehr, 1999).  Arash Masbough  33  MASc Thesis (2002)  B u l c et ah, (1997) have studied a pilot scale treatment wetland receiving landfill leachate. The influent concentrations i n this study were 1264 mg.L" for C O D , 60 mg.L" for B O D , 1  1  5  and 88 mg.L" for N H 3 - N . They showed that the constructed wetlands were efficient 1  achieving reductions in C O D (68%), B O D (46%), N H - N (81%), Fe (80%), and bacteria 5  3  (85%). B y studying the ortho-phosphate concentrations, they concluded that low phosphorus levels could limit biomass growth and subsequently the treatment efficiency. They recommended that in spring, when plant growth is accelerated, phosphorous should be added to attain greater biomass.  Arash Masbough  34  MASc Thesis (2002)  3) W O O D W A S T E L E A C H A T E C H A R A C T E R I Z A T I O N  A s described i n section 2-3, woodwaste leachate is considered "harmful" to the environment. In particular, some studies have shown that it can be toxic to aquatic life. Its toxicity was mostly related to oxygen depletion, low p H , tannin, and phenolic compounds (Bailey et al, 1999, Kiparissis et al, 1996, Peters et al, 1976, Phipps, 1974).  In order to evaluate the effectiveness o f an existing constructed wetlands system for treatment o f woodwaste leachate, the long-term characterization o f the leachate is necessary. In this study, research was restricted to woodwaste leachate from a single wood-processing site due to limitations in available time and funding. However, the volume o f the waste on the site is one o f the largest in the lower Fraser Valley. The woodwaste leachate was characterized over 34 weeks in two periods: from M a y to September 2000, and from June to October 2001.  3-1) Methods and Materials 3-1-1) Sampling Protocols  Standard sampling procedures were followed during sampling trips. Surface grab samples were taken from the east bank o f the leachate pool. Sufficient sample volumes were collected in pre-washed 1 L bottles to meet the need o f analyses. Sample containers were rinsed twice with sample before filling. Headspaces were avoided i n the bottles. A l l  Arash Masbough  35  MASc Thesis (2002)  samples were preserved according to the Standard Methods ( A P H A et al., 1998), (Table 3-1) and were carried i n coolers and placed i n storage room as soon as they were i n the laboratory. A l l samples were labelled. Temperature and dissolved oxygen o f the samples were measured i n the field at the time o f collection. Appropriate P P E (personal protection equipments) were used during sampling procedures. Laboratory storage was at 4 °C, i n the dark. A l l o f the analyses were conducted i n first opportunity considering the allowable holding times recommended by accepted protocols (Table 3-1).  Table 3-1 Sample collection, preservation and storage (Standard Methods, APHA et al, 1998) Min. Sample Analysis Container Vol. Preservation Temperature and DO pH and Conductivity HDPE' Solids HDPE 200 mL refrigerate Total Metals HDPE 200 mL nitric Acid, <pH2 Ammonia (NH -N)  HDPE  200 mL  Nitrate + Nitrite (NO "-N)  HDPE  200 mL  Ortho-phosphate (P0 \P)  HDPE  200 mL  Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD ) Total Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs) Total Tannin & Lignin Total Organic Carbon 2-methoxyphenol High Density Polyethylene  HDPE  100 mL  HDPE  IL  Glass  200 mL  Glass HDPE Glass  200 mL 25 mL 200 mL  3  x  3  4  sulphuric Acid, <pH2 and refrigerate sulphuric Acid, <pH2 and refrigerate sulphuric Acid, <pH2 and refrigerate refrigerate  Allowable Holding time in Situ 7 days 28 days 7 days 7 days 28 days 7 days  refrigerate  6 hours  2% Phosphoric acid and refrigerate refrigerate HC1, <pH2 refrigerate  7 days  5  Arash Masbough  36  28 days 28 days 28 days  MASc Thesis (2002)  Quality control measures included the use o f field and lab blanks. The field blanks were made by filling the sample bottles with distilled water (distilled water was obtained from the Environmental Engineering laboratory, U B C ) , which was exposed to atmosphere during sampling procedure. Subsequently, the field and lab blanks were pre-treated and analyzed in exactly the same manner as the samples.  3-1-2) Analytical Protocols  Except for the dissolved oxygen and temperature (field data), the chemical analyses were carried out i n the Environmental Engineering Laboratory o f the Department o f C i v i l Engineering at the University o f British Columbia. Standard analytical protocols were followed in all o f the tests. Filed parameters ( D O and temperature) were measured using portable D O meter. A l l laboratory analyses were conducted following the methods, and using the instruments summarized in Table (3-2).  Arash Masbough  37  MASc Thesis (2002)  Table 3-2 Methods and instruments used for analyses Analysis  Method  Instrument  Temperature and DO  In situ probe  YSI Model 75 DO meter  pH  pH probe  Beckman Model O 44 pH meter  Specific Conductivity  Conductivity probe  Solids  Std. #' 2540C to 2540F  Total Metals  Std. #' 3111 B  Radiometer Copenhagen Model CDM3 SCT meter Lindberg Furnace (#51828), VWR Scientific 1350FM facedair oven, and Mettler AC 100 Digital Scale A A S Varian Spectr AA220 FS  Ammonia (NH -N) 3  Nitrate + Nitrite (NO -N) x  Ortho-phosphate (P0 ~P) 3  4  Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD ) 5  Total Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs)  # 10-107-09-01 of Lachat Quick-Chem # 10-107-04-01 of Lachat Quick-Chem # 10-115-01-01 of Lachat Quick-Chem Std. #' 5220 D (Closed reflux) Std. #' 5110 B (Seeded)  Total Tannin & Lignin  Supelco Inc., GC bulletin 751 G Std. #' 5550 B  Total Organic Carbon (TOC)  Std. #' 5310 B  2 -methoxypheno 1  Method adopted from Prahacs(1986)  2  Lachat Quick-Chem 8000 Lachat Quick-Chem 8000 Lachat Quick-Chem 8000 HACH DR/2000 Direct reading spectrophotometer @ X=600nm YSI Model 50 DO meter and Fisher Scientific Model 307 Incubator Supelco Gas Chromatograph Model HPGC 5880A HACH DR/2000 Direct reading spectrophotometer @ A=700nm Shimadzu NDIR (TOC-500) 3  Hewlett Packard GC Model HP6890 (equipped with mass selector 5973 and HP 7673 autosampler)  ' Standard Methods (APHA et al. 1998) Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer Non-Disperssive Infrared Analyzer  2  3  The B O D bottles were seeded using the forest soil collected from the leachate pool banks. It was assumed that the microbial communities in the forest soil are adapted to wood extractives, including some o f the components w h i c h might be toxic to other bacteria. Thus, they were the preferred group o f microorganisms for seeding. O n l y 0.1 g (moist weight) o f soil was added to each 300 m L B O D bottle. Seeded blanks were used  Arash Masbough  38  MASc Thesis (2002)  in all B O D tests i n order to make corrections for any possible interference due to seeding. The seeded blanks constantly had an oxygen demand o f less than 1 mg.L" over time. A l l 1  samples were corrected for this background B O D . B O D samples were also highly diluted (up to 3000 times). Due to this high dilution, there was no concern about the leachate toxicity affecting the results.  Total tannin and lignin was measured using colorimetric method (Method 5550 B , A P H A et al, 1998). In order to reduce the usage o f toxic reagents and to simplify the method with direct preparation o f the sample i n spectrophotometer tubes, the method was modified using one tenth o f the sample volume recommended in Standard Methods ( A P H A et al, 1998). Considering the high concentration o f analyte present i n samples, all samples were diluted up to 500 times. Lab blanks were used to make the standard curve and calibrate the instrument.  M i n i m u m detectable concentrations for these compounds have been reported as low as 0.025 mg.L" for tannic acid and 0.1 mg.L" for lignin i n a 1 cm cell using a 1  1  spectrophotometer ( A P H A et al, 1998). A l l standards and samples had concentrations higher than these limits. A l l o f the raw data are presented in Appendix A .  Considerable dilutions were required in order to bring the values within the measurable ranges for C O D and tannin and lignin. Thus, the possibility o f the strong leachate colour affecting results was insignificant.  Arash Masbough  39  MASc Thesis (2002)  3-2) Results and Discussion  3-2-1) pH, Temperature, Conductivity, and Solids  During the two periods o f sampling, i n spring-summer 2000 and summer-fall 2001, leachate showed consistent p H values. The p H o f the leachate had an average o f 3.5 during sampling period. This p H is in the lower limit o f the range observed in municipal landfill leachates (Table 2-2).  The leachate always had comparably higher temperatures than nearby water bodies. Its average temperature was 28.4 °C in 2000 and 20.2 °C in 2001, which was 6 to 7 °C higher than other ponds i n the area. The higher temperature can be elucidated by the high chemical and biological activities in the leachate. In addition, composting processes occurring in the woodwaste pile could potentially heat up the leachate pool. Another reason for the higher temperature is related to the dark colour o f leachate, which absorbs more solar energy compared to clear water.  Arash Masbough  40  MASc Thesis (2002)  Table 3-3 Frequently measured leachate characteristics (2000 and 2001) 2000  2001  Average (Std. Dev.) 28.4 (2.2)  n  Dissolved Oxygen (ambient)  0.3 (0.1)  13  0.4 (0.1)  14  pH  3.4 (0.1)  13  3.62 (0.2)  14  Specific Conductivity (us.cm )  1930 (122)  8  1466 (73)  15  Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)  7405 (1227)  19  7786 (1559)  15  Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)  13774 (3398)  19  12806 (1876)  15  Tannin and Lignin (as tannic acid)  4988 (1357)  19  3445 (489)  15  Total Volatile fatty Acids (C - C )  2107 (343)  15  2085 (185)  15  Parameter  1  Temperature (°C) (ambient)  1  2  6  2  9  Average (Std. Dev.) 20.2 (4.3)  n 15  Total Suspended Solids  2  33.6 17 (26.3) All concentrations are reported in mg.L" , unless otherwise noted n = number of samples  The suspended solids determination is one o f the important parameters i n treatment methods (Sawyer et al, 1994). Solids were measured during the 19 weeks period from M a y to September 2001. Leachate contained a very high level o f T D S (total dissolved solids) and a very low level o f T S S (total suspended solids) (Metcalf and Eddy, 1991). Over 99% o f the solids present in the leachate were dissolved, and up to 85% were volatile dissolved solids (see Appendix A ) . Volatile solids are generally a measure o f the organic content o f the wastewater.  Arash Masbough  41  MASc Thesis (2002)  Specific conductivity measurements can give a practical estimate o f the dissolved solids content o f the wastewater (Sawyer et al, 1994). The high level o f dissolved solids was also noticeable in specific conductivity measurements in the leachate. The average specific conductivity was 1930 ps.cnf i n 2000 and 1466 p s . c m 1  -1  in 2001.  A s mentioned above, the leachate was characterized with low level o f suspended solids and high level o f dissolved solids. Treatments through settling, flocculation, and sedimentation were not practicable options because o f the lack o f suspended solids. In other words, the leachate pool itself is acting as a sedimentation basin.  3-2-2) VFAs, Tannin and Lignin, COD, and BOD , and DO 5  Volatile fatty acids ( V F A s ) are short chain carboxylic acids. Their size is represented by the number o f carbon atoms they contain, where the smallest V F A is acetic acid with two carbon atoms (C2). Several different bacteria hydrolyse polymers such as cellulose to sugars and ferment the sugars to V F A s (Madigan et al, 1997).  The leachate contained very high concentration o f total V F A s . The average concentration of total V F A s was 2107 mg.L" in 2000 and 2085 mg.L" 1  1  in 2001. These V F A s were, to  some extent, responsible for the strong smell and acidic nature (pH ~ 3.5) o f the leachate. Measurements o f individual V F A s showed that more than half o f the total concentration was composed o f smaller molecules (e.g. acetic and propionic acid) (Table 3-4).  Arash Masbough  42  MASc Thesis (2002)  Table 3-4 Concentrations o f individual volatile fatty acids i n mg.L" (2000) 1  Volatile Fatty Acid  Average  Total (C - C ) 2107 Acetic 1073 Propionic 364 Butyric + Iso-butyric 434 Valeric 275 n-Hexanoic 175 n = number of samples 2  6  Range  1641-2829 858-1321 252-460 254-594 154-324 92-382  n  1  15 15 15 15 15 15  1  V F A s are readily biodegradable and can act as a source o f carbon for microbial communities.  The concentration o f tannin and lignin was very high in the leachate. The average T & L concentration was 4989 mg.L" in 2000 and 3447 mg.L" in 2001. These levels o f tannin 1  1  and lignin were expected considering the source o f leachate. However, they were higher than reported concentrations i n other studies (Section 2-3). This class o f compounds is highly coloured and is characterized by its recalcitrant nature. They have been reported to be toxic to aquatic life in much lower concentrations (53 to 108 mg.L" ) (Bailey et al, 1  1999).  The C O D test is used to measure the total amount o f oxygen required for oxidation o f organic compounds to carbon dioxide and water regardless o f the biological assimilability o f the substances. This test cannot differentiate between biologically oxidizable (e.g. V F A s ) and biologically inert (e.g. tannin and lignin) organic matter. However, it provides a good approximation o f the organic strength o f the wastewater (Sawyer et al, 1994). The leachate had an extremely high chemical oxygen demand with the average concentration o f 13774 mg.L" in 2000 and 12806 mg.L" i n 2001. These 1  1  concentrations are comparable with landfill leachate C O D concentrations (Table 2-2).  Arash Masbough  43  MASc Thesis (2002)  The C O D concentrations in the leachate were not constant during the sampling period. The changes can be partially related to the amount o f rainfall and temperature. A s shown in Figure 3-1, the C O D concentrations were rising as the temperature increased in the summer o f 2000 (see Appendix C , Figure 4-14). 20000 18000 16000 14000 12000 1> 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000  20000 18000 16000 14000 ^ 12000 m 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 S  3  3  OTQ  CTQ  crq  T3  13  Date •Biochemical Oxygen Demand {BOD} (mg/L) Chemical Oxygen Demand {COD} (mg/L)  Figure 3-1 B O D and C O D changes in leachate (Top: 2000- Bottom: 2001) This trend can be explained by the higher rate o f chemical and biological activities in warmer temperatures. A s the mean temperature raised, the higher activity rate, higher Arash Masbough  44  MASc Thesis (2002)  evaporation, and lower precipitation concentrated the leachate. The increase i n C O D was not significant in 2001. This can be explained by the fact that in 2001, operation was held during cooler and wetter period o f the year. Lower temperatures and higher precipitation decreased the strength o f the leachate i n 2001. A comparison between the changes in leachate strength and climatic data in Appendix C gives a more clear explanation o f these changes.  The theoretical oxygen demands (ThOD) were calculated for V F A s and tannin and lignin using balanced oxidation reactions (see Appendix B ) . These values were then compared to the measured C O D , which represents the total oxygen demand. This comparison gave an estimation o f the fractions o f total C O D that correspond to these two classes o f compounds. After the entire 34 weeks o f sampling, the average T h O D to C O D ratio was ~ 0.6. The V F A s T h O D to C O D ratio was 0.23 and T & L T h O D to C O D was 0.37. These numbers meant that about 60% o f the total C O D was due to T & L and V F A s . The remaining 40% was due to other groups o f compounds, which were not measured in this study. Other groups o f compounds accountable for C O D could be hemicellulosic compounds, pectins and resin acids (Bertaud et al, 2002, Sun et al, 2001, Gabrielii et al, 2000, Teschke et al, 1999).  B O D is defined as the amount o f oxygen required by bacteria while stabilizing decomposable organic matter under aerobic conditions. The test is widely used to determine the pollutional strength o f wastewaters in terms o f oxygen that they w i l l require i f discharged into natural water courses (Sawyer et al, 1994). Theoretically, nonbiodegradable compounds would not exert oxygen under test conditions (standard Arash Masbough  45  MASc Thesis (2002)  conditions associated with temperature and light, oxygen, nutrients, and microorganisms availability).  The woodwaste leachate had an average seeded B O D o f 7405 mg.L" (in 2000) and 1  5  7786 mg.L" (in 2001). This high level o f B O D was expected given the particularly high 1  C O D values discussed earlier. Previous study on the same leachate showed that the leachate had a very aggressive oxygen demand (i.e. B O D k ratio ~ 0.5 d" ) (Frankowski, 1  5  2000). Dissolved oxygen measurements on site supported this idea. D O concentrations were consistently below the reliable measurement limit o f the D O meter (i.e. < 1 mg.L" ) 1  During the determination o f C O D , almost all the organic matter is converted to carbon dioxide and water. For example, V F A s and tannin and lignin are both oxidized completely. A s a result, C O D values are greater than B O D values especially when significant amounts o f biologically resistant organic matter (e.g. tannin and lignin) is present. W o o d related wastes are perfect examples for their high lignin content (Sawyer et al., 1994). In comparison over the period o f sampling o f this leachate, the B O D to C O D ratio had an average o f 0.50. This ratio implies that nearly half o f the C O D was ascribed to readily biodegradable material. A s discussed before, the V F A s were theoretically accountable for almost 23% o f C O D or about half o f this readily biodegradable portion. (It is possible that the other half o f C O D consisted o f recalcitrant compounds. From the total C O D , about 37%> was calculated to be related to tannin and lignin. This was more that 70% o f non-biodegradable portion o f C O D . Table 3-5 summarizes the results o f oxygen demand ratios.  Arash Masbough  46  MASc Thesis (2002)  Table 3-5 Oxygen demand ratio comparisons  C O D ratio  Average  n  ThOD of VFAs to COD ThOD of T&L to COD Total T h O D to COD  0.23 0.37 0.60  30 34 30  B O D ratio  Average  n  2  ThOD of VFAs to BOD 0.46 30 BOD to COD O50 34_ n = number of samples Total ThOD = VFAs ThOD + T&L ThOD 1  2  In a quick comparison between the results in 2000 and 2001, it can be noticed that, the levels o f contaminants were slightly lower i n 2001, except for B O D . The greatest decline was in the concentrations o f tannin and lignin. The lower concentration o f contaminants can also be explained by the general hypothesis that the strength o f the leachate reduces as the age o f the waste increases (El-Fadel et al., 1999). The other factor affecting the contaminant concentration would be the seasonal changes. In the year 2000, the sampling was done during the warmer and dryer period (May-September). The high level o f evaporation and low precipitation raised the strength o f the leachate. In 2001, the sampling was done during a relatively cooler and wetter period o f the year (JuneOctober), which resulted in a more dilute leachate. In the case o f B O D , as the microbial activity breaks down the large molecules, more easily biodegradable compounds become available. The higher level o f B O D i n the second year can be correlated to the higher level o f readily biodegradable compounds (i.e. smaller molecules).  Arash Masbough  47  MASc Thesis (2002)  3-2-3) Nutrients and Other Chemicals  During the period o f this study, concentrations o f ammonia, nitrates and ortho-phosphate were consistently measured. Table 3-6 summarises the concentrations o f the nutrients during the two sampling periods. This leachate was also very nutrient poor. The levels o f ammonia and nitrates were extremely low. The chemical composition o f the biota requires continuous source o f nutrients to sustained growth and reproduction o f microorganisms. The carbon:nitrogen:phosphorous ratio for plants is roughly 40C:7N:1P by weight (Wetzel, 1975). There were some ortho-phosphate, ammonia, and nitrates present i n the leachate. However, comparing to the level o f the total organic carbon present ( T O C ~ 3775 mg.L" ), those levels were very low. The carbon to nutrients ratio 1  for this leachate were as low as 1C:0.0006P:0.0004N. Consequently, there were insufficient nutrients in the leachate for the microorganisms to degrade the carbon load. This is a significant difference between this woodwaste leachate and landfill leachates. There are generally very high loads o f soluble nutrients in landfill leachates (Table 2-2). Although these nutrients are a group o f primary contaminants o f concern i n landfill leachates, they also support the microbial degradation o f other contaminants.  Table 3-6 Summary o f the measured nutrients i n the leachate pool 2000  Measured Nutrient Ammonia (NH -N) 3  Average' (Std. Dev.) 2.94 (1.16)  2001  n' 15  Average (Std. Dev.) 2.29 (0.51)  n 14  Nitrate + nitrite (NO "-N)  0.14 (0.12)  15  0.10 (0.11)  14  Ortho-phosphate (P0 "-P)  4.12 (0.96)  15  0.32 (0.25)  14  X  3  4  n = number of samples Arash Masbough  48  MASc Thesis (2002)  Three metals were also measured in the leachate during a one-time trial. The total concentrations o f copper, zinc, and chromium were measured i n the leachate. Concentrations o f chromium and zinc were 41 and 156 pg.L"', respectively. The concentration o f copper was below detection limits o f the instrument (< 1 pg.L" ). 1  Although zinc does not pose threatening effects on the human body in low concentrations, it can affect aquatic life. In the study by Bailey et al, (1999), the threshold for acute toxicity o f rainbow trout has been reported as low as 14 pg.L" o f 1  zinc. That is much lower than the concentration measured in this study where average o f one time sampling trial from different locations i n the pool was 156 pg.L" (range: 1111  218 pg.L" ). 1  The concentrations o f theses three metals along with other measured parameters are summarized in Table 3-7. Some o f the data are adopted from a previous study by Frankowski (2000) on the same leachate.  A s shown in Table 3-7, the woodwaste leachate exhibited high acidity, which is not surprising-considering its low p H . O n a previous test by Frankowski (2000), this leachate had a L C  5 0  (Lethal Concentration for 50% o f organisms) o f 1.4% v/v (rainbow trout 96-  hour). The toxicity tests were conducted under defined standardized characteristics. The p H was adjusted and sufficient oxygen was supplied. In addition to the toxic effect o f some metals, part o f the toxicity o f leachate is likely due to V F A s , tannin and lignin, and some phenolic compounds (Taylor et al, 1996).  Arash Masbough  49  MASc Thesis (2002)  Tannin and lignin are considered to be a major toxicant in wood leachate i n concentrations as low as 53 mg.L" (Bailey et al, 1999). The level o f tannin and lignin in 1  this leachate was almost 100 times higher than this value. Lignans, a class o f compounds similar to lignin, have been reported to have a toxic threshold o f - 60 mg.L" . Tropolones, 1  an extractive found in heartwood, has a toxic threshold as low as 0.3 mg.L" (Peters et al, 1  1976). The Standard Method analysis used for this leachate (Method # 5550B, A P H A et al, 1998) detects aromatic hydroxyl groups and is unable to distinguish between tropolones and the tannin and lignin group o f compounds. A s a result, tropolones were an unknown fraction o f tannin and lignin concentrations. After initial detection o f phenolic compounds by gas chromatography, concentration o f one o f the phenolic compounds (2methoxyphenol) was measured in a one-time trial in this leachate. The average concentration o f 2-methoxyphenol in 10 samples collected from the leachate pool was 225 pg.L" (range: 140-270 pg.L" ). In effluent regulations o f the Province o f B . C . 1  1  (1988), the allowable concentration for "total phenol" is 200 pg.L" . The concentration o f 1  only one phenolic compound (2-metoxyphenol) i n this leachate was higher than that allowed by regulations. Table 3-7 One-time measured components in the leachate  Parameter  Concentration  1  Total Organic Carbon (mg.L') 3775 Acidity* (mg.L as CaC0 ) 2651 Copper (total, ug.L" ) <1.0 Zinc (total, ug.L"') 156 Chromium (total, ug.L" ) 41 Toxicity* (%v/v) 1.4 Rainbow trout 96 hr L C 'Average of one-time sampling trial (except toxicity) "Lethal Concentration" that causes mortality in 50% of the test organisms * Data adopted from Frankowski (2000) -1  3  1  1  2  5 0  2  Arash Masbough  50  MASc Thesis (2002)  3-3) Conclusions  The leachate investigated during this research should be considered an industrial wastewater that in some constituents was comparable to very strong landfill leachates. It was highly acidic, with an average p H as low as 3.5. The temperature o f the leachate was higher than other stagnant surrounding water bodies. It was concluded that this higher temperature was due to composting processes in the pile, high chemical/biochemical activities i n the leachate pool, and higher solar energy absorbance.  The leachate had a very high concentration o f dissolved solids. The high concentration o f dissolved solids was confirmed by high levels o f specific conductivity. However, a very small fraction o f total solids (less than 1%) was suspended. This character o f leachate made it impossible to consider flocculation, sedimentation, and precipitation as applicable parts o f treatment procedure.  The concentration o f T O C is correlated with both B O D and C O D . Levels o f T O C , C O D and B O D in the leachate were very high. Because o f this high oxygen demand, the leachate had a very low concentration o f dissolved oxygen. Significant amounts o f tannin and lignin and V F A s were present in the leachate. These two compounds accounted for about 60% o f the C O D . Further analysis w i l l be needed to clarify the remaining constituents o f the measured C O D . The B O D : C O D ratio was - 0 . 5 . This suggested that about half o f the C O D is due to easily biodegradable compounds.  Arash Masbough  51  MASc Thesis (2002)  In addition to V F A s and tannin and lignin, Leachate contained other potential toxicants. Phenolic compounds and trace metals were identified. To explain the issues surrounding the causes o f toxicity, further research in this regard is necessary.  The very low levels o f nutrients would make the treatment o f this leachate rather challenging. The ratios o f nutrients to the carbon content o f the leachate were too low. Microbial communities need nutrients for the biological degradation o f the waste.  The levels o f contaminants in the leachate were high enough that its release in the environment without proper treatment would prove harmful. In fact, it poses a serious threat to surface and ground water resources, aquatic life, and even the forestry industry. A s mentioned before, because o f leachate accumulation in the adjacent property on the site o f this research, many trees were killed or damaged.  The characteristics o f different wood leachates vary significantly. Such variations are partly related to the source o f the woodwaste (i.e. types and parts o f trees). It is desirable to perform case specific characterization studies before recommending any site related treatment and control measures.  Arash Masbough  52  MASc Thesis (2002)  4) PILOT SCALE TREATMENT EVALUATION  The study by Frankowski (2000) demonstrated that under optimal laboratory conditions, constructed wetlands are capable o f providing efficient treatment o f woodwaste leachate. However, assessment o f the long-term performance o f a pilot scale system under external and internal variations was necessary. To this end, Frankowski (2000) designed, constructed, and used six pilot scale treatment wetlands for treatment o f leachate in a three-month period. During the period o f pilot scale trials, the possibility o f the treatment was established. Constructed wetlands were capable o f providing efficient treatment o f the leachate including substantial reductions in B O D , C O D and acute toxicity (Frankowski, 2000).  The pilot scale treatment research re-started on M a y 2000. The research activities were continued with physical improvement o f the system, including hydraulic and mixing modifications. The chemical improvement o f the system was also considered. The chemical improvement measures included p H neutralization and nutrients addition. The experimental cells allowed a controlled evaluation o f this technology under "real w o r l d " operating conditions. Moreover, they gave the potential for a range o f concurrent manipulations to be executed during performance optimization.  Arash Masbough  53  MASc Thesis (2002)  4-1) Methods and Materials 4-1-1) System Description Each o f the wetland cells were a mixture o f three parts: a small front bay, a planted surface flow (SF) section, and a small unplanted sub-surface flow (SSF) section just prior to the effluent outlet. The cells had a length to width ratio greater than 3 for highest hydraulic efficiency (Persson et al, 1999). Bank-full dimensions were 17.5 m long and 5.5 m wide. The cells had a trapezoidal cross section with a side slope angle o f ~ 35° and an even depth (except for the inlet bay). The bottom o f each cell was covered with a 20 m i l (0.5 mm) P V C liner. The liner penetrations had been sealed with flanging and clay plugs. The planting substrate has been backfilled to a depth o f 30 c m (Figure 4-1).  Cattails (Typha Latifolia) Backfilled with Surrounding Soil  Influent Spreader Pipe Influent  Lateral Discharge Collector  Effluent  0.5mmP.V.C Liner Inlet Bay  40 mm Washed Gravel  Length: 17.5m Width: 5.5 m  Figure 4-1 Wetland cell cross section The front bay was intended to provide a small settling basin to prevent any suspended solids entering the system from influent. The main treatment activities were assumed to occur in the large surface flow section. In this section, influent was flowing over the  Arash Masbough  54  MASc Thesis (2002)  surface o f the soil substrate and through the root mats and stalk o f the developing plants. The subsurface flow section was intended to act as a polishing unit. In this section, wastewater was brought in contact with a biofilm layer as it flowed through the gravel matrix. A n y large suspended materials, such as algae or detritus, were screened out in this section.  A lateral effluent collection pipe (perforated 100 m m P V C pipe) was buried in the bottom o f the gravel section, which was connected to a swivelling discharge pipe (100 m m P V C pipe). The design depth was 40 cm. The level o f the wastewater in the cells was controlled using the swivelling pipe. A t the design depth, the volume o f each cell was 20 m . H R T was controlled separately for each cell using the influent valves. More sensitive valves were installed downstream to the old valves in order to have a more controlled inflow (Figure 4-2). During the experiment, the effluent was discharged i n another separate pipe installed in the cells' surrounding ditch and then collected in the sump (Figure 4-3).  Figure 4-2 Influent inlet, the replaced multi-port inlet, and the influent control valve  Arash Masbough  55  MASc Thesis (2002)  Influent was distributed across the width o f the cells through multi-port inlets. The spreader pipes together-with the appropriate length to width ratio o f the cells provided the best hydraulic efficiency with minimum short circuits and dead spaces. Optimal hydraulic efficiency provides the most appropriate conditions for promoting necessary biological and chemical processes involved in wastewater treatment (Persson et al, 1999). The previous spread pipes were replaced by a set o f new and more robust pipes (Figure 4-2).  Figure 4-3 Pilot-scale system site diagram (Not on scale)  Arash Masbough  56  MASc Thesis (2002)  Four o f the six cells had been randomly chosen and planted. The remaining two cells were identical in construction to the others with the exception o f remaining unplanted (Figure 4-4). The unplanted cells were serving as experimental controls. The results from those cells provided an opportunity to define the effect o f plants on the treatment performance. Due to their local availability and demonstrated capability to survive i n the leachate, broad-leaved cattails (Typha latifolia)  had been selected as the emergent plants.  Each o f the four cells was planted with 120 cattails with an approximate o f three plants per m . The vegetation had been planted in lateral bands in order to ensure that the flow resistance was dispersed evenly across the width o f the cells (Frankowski, 2000).  Figure 4-4 General view o f the pilot scale wetland cells (as seen from top of the woodwaste pile)  The leachate was too strong for treatment in the wetlands without prior dilution. A dosing tank was used to provide sufficient dilution using nearby sources o f water. The tank was Arash Masbough  57  MASc Thesis (2002)  located in a higher elevation than cells i n order to supply enough hydraulic head for the influent to flow into the cells. Leachate was transferred from the pool to the dosing tank via an electric pump installed next to the pool. A similar pump was installed beside a nearby slough to provide the dilution water. A third pump was installed at the sump in the surrounding ditch to transfer the effluent back to the pile. G&L® l h p centrifugal pumps (Model N P E , 230 V , single phase) were used. They were equipped with brass foot valves in order to supply the initial prime. The intake of the pumps was made completely o f stainless steel, which prevented them from corrosion. This was necessary considering the low p H o f the leachate. Pumps were protected from climatic effects using wooden shelters with concrete floors (Figure 4-5a).  Arash Masbough  58  MASc Thesis (2002)  The capacity o f the dosing tank was -10,000 L . The dilution water and leachate were delivered to the tank v i a 30 m m P V C pipes. The influent was flowing continuously to the cells through 30 m m P V C pipe, and was evenly distributed between them. Dilution ratios were adjustable using timer-controlled pump switches (Figure 4-5b). In addition, the influent level in the tank was maintained using a floating switch. In order to provide the necessary mixing o f the leachate and the dilution water, a small fish tank air pump was added to the system on M a y 2000. The air was pumped near the influent outlet o f the tank. Figure (4-6) shows the details o f the dilution tank.  From Leachate Pool  Fuses, Switches and v Timers X . Box  Dilution Water Source  Floating Switch  o  o  o|  o  o<P  Influent (to Cells)  e  0>$  O  Figure 4-6 Dosing tank cross-section and details  A nearby slough was used as the source o f dilution water in the first season o f sampling (2000). In the second season, due to lack o f precipitation and some construction activities on the dyke road, there was not enough water available in the slough. O n June 2001, a 12  Arash Masbough  59  MASc Thesis (2002)  m-deep well was drilled as a substitute source of dilution water (Figure 4-7a). Casing was installed at the top 3 meters o f the well. The rest o f the depth was protected with perforated pipe (screening). The same pump was used to deliver the well water to the dosing tank. Figure 4-7b shows the details o f the drilled well.  To the Pump Ground Level 3 . 6  Casing __2 Water Table  .5 11  Screening  Foot Valve  Figure 4-7 a) Drilling a well as the dilution water source replacement (top)b) Details o f the well (right) (dimensions in m)  River Bed  Previous microcosm study suggested that an H R T o f 8 to 15 days results i n a considerable amount o f pollutant removal in the constructed wetlands (Frankowski, 2000). The H R T i n the cells was controlled with the amount o f inflow. Because o f the transportation and lab work cycle convenient, an H R T o f seven days was maintained throughout the research.  Arash Masbough  60  MASc Thesis (2002)  4-1-2) Nutrient Addition and pH Adjustment  A s discussed in section 3-2, the level o f nutrients and nutrient to carbon ratio were very low in the leachate. In an attempt to compensate for this lack o f nutrients, phosphorous and urea were added to two o f the planted cells. O n the last week o f June 2000, slow release fertilizer pellets were added to cells #2 and #4 (Figure 4-3). The pellets contained 17% total phosphorus weight ratio (Sterling, 1997). The fertilizers were put i n meshed bags and were placed along the width o f the cells. Each bag contained 0.5 kg o f fertilizer and a total o f 2.5 k g was used for each cell. In the first week o f July 2001, 2 k g o f a different type o f fertilizer (Organico®) in meshed bags was added to each o f the cells #2 and #4 i n order to balance the nitrogen content o f the cells. The weight composition o f Organico® fertilizer was 20% total N (9% from polymer coated urea), 4% P2O5, and 10% K 2 O . The nutrient levels were measured inside and in the effluent o f the cells in order to estimate the amounts utilized throughout the fertilized cells.  To consider the possibility o f neutralization o f the p H , 5 k g Dolomite® soil conditioner was added to cell #4. It contained 53% calcium carbonate and 4 1 % magnesium carbonate. The neutralization effect o f the soil conditioner on the leachate was investigated i n the lab before application.  Arash Masbough  61  MASc Thesis (2002)  4-1-3) Sampling and Analytical Protocols  Sampling was conducted for a total o f 34 weeks during two separate periods (MayT  September 2000 and June-October 2001) on a weekly basis. Effluent samples were collected from the outlet o f each cell using the swivelling pipe. A single influent sample was collected from the outlet o f the dosing tank. Leachate and dilution water source (i.e. slough in 2000 and well in 2001) were also sampled to measure any seasonal variations. Samples were collected following the same manner discussed in Section 3-1. Temperature and D O were measure at each sampling location using the meter described in Section 3-1.  In addition to temperature and D O , all samples and lab and field blanks were analysed for p H , specific conductivity, B O D , C O D , tannin and lignin, V F A s , and nutrients (i.e. ammonia, nitrate and nitrite, and ortho-phosphate). T S S was measured only in 2000. A l l the analytical protocols were identical to the ones discussed in Section 3-1.  4-2) Results and Discussion  4-2-1) Characterization of Dilution Water Sources  A n important step in this experiment was to determine the influence o f the dilution water on the influent characteristics. In particular, it was necessary to ascertain that the dilution Arash Masbough  62  MASc Thesis (2002)  water sources (i.e. slough i n 2000 and.well i n 2001) d i d not contribute to the pollutant character o f the influent. Therefore, all appropriate analyses as mentioned i n sections 3-21 and 3-2-2 for the leachate were carried out for these sources. The results o f dilution water source characterization are summarized i n Table 4-1.  Table 4-1 Characterization o f dilution water sources (slough i n 2000 and w e l l i n 2001)  Slough  Parameter  Average (Std. Dev.) 20.8 (2.0) 1  Temperature (°C) (ambient)  n  2  9  Well Average (Std. Dev.) 10 (1.2)  n 3  Dissolved Oxygen (ambient)  2.1 (0.4)  13  2.8 (0.3)  3  pH  6.18 (0.2)  13  6.35 (0.17)  10  Specific Conductivity (us.cm" )  126 (7)  8  257 (27)  10  Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)  12 (6)  19  2.0 (2.0)  13  Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)  131 (31)  19  24 (25)  8  Tannin and Lignin (as tannic acid)  17 (7)  18  1.0 (1.0)  14  Total Volatile Fatty Acids (C - C )  30.1 (22.5)  15  26.0 (22.1)  15  Ammonia (NH -N)  0.2 (0.2)  15  0.2 (0.1)  14  Nitrate + nitrite (NO " -N)  0.08 (0.06)  15  0.08 (0.10)  14  Ortho-phosphate (P0 "-P)  0.11 (0.08)  15  0.14 (0.36)  14  1  2  6  3  x  3  4  Total Suspended Solids  2  Arash Masbough  49 17 (65) All concentrations are reported in mg.L", unless otherwise noted n: number of samples  63  _  -  MASc Thesis (2002)  Concentrations o f most chemical constituents measured were at least an order o f magnitude less than that o f the leachate. Both dilution water sources had a p H well above six. Consequently, these sources were appropriate to reduce the strength o f the leachate.  4-2-2) Treatment Performance  The pilot-scale constructed wetlands were capable o f increasing the p H o f the leachate. A s mentioned before, the dilution water sources had a p H value greater than 6. However, due to their low buffering capacity, the influent (diluted leachate) still had a very low p H . The average p H o f influent was 3.9 in 2000 and 4.3 i n 2001 (Table 4-2a, 4-2b). Plants in surface flow wetlands have a major role i n p H improvement. Photosynthetically active macrophytes generate oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the water causing an increase in water p H (Wood, 1995). During this study, reactors were able to increase the p H up to 2 units. The planted cells performed better in increasing p H than the unplanted cells (Figure 4-8). Such a result was expected considering the effect o f photosynthetic activity o f the plants on the water p H . Adaptation o f the wetlands also had a noticeable effect on p H improvement. A s it can be seen in both sampling seasons (Figure 4-8), after a few weeks o f initial habituation, the p H starts to increase more rapidly i n planted cells.  Arash Masbough  64  MASc Thesis (2002)  Table 4-2a F i e l d data, p H , and conductivity measurements for influent and effluent, 2000 Effluent Influent Nutrient added Control Planted Average Parameter Average Average Average (Std. Dev.) (Std. Dev.) (Std. Dev.) (Std. Dev.) 2  Temperature (°C)  20.4 (1.7)  21.4 (1.7)  21.3 (1.9)  21.3 (1.8)  pH  3.91 (0.18)  4.60 (0.26)  4.78 (0.71)  5.51 (0.65)  1.1 (0.2)  0.6 (0.2)  0.6 (0.2)  582 (390)  415 (113)  466 (77)  Dissolve Oxygen (mg.L" ) 1  Specific Conductivity (us.cm" ) 1  '  0.6 (0.2) 425 (110)  These cells were planted Temp: n = 9 for influent, and n = 18 for each reactor set pH and DO :n = 13 for influent, and n = 26 for each reactor set Conductivity: n = 8 for influent, and n = 16 for each reactor set 2  Table 4-2b F i e l d data, p H , and conductivity measurements for influent and effluent, 2001 Effluent Influent Planted Nutrient added Control Average Parameter Average Average Average (Std. Dev.) (Std. Dev.) (Std. Dev.) (Std. Dev.) Temperature (°C)  12.2 (2.0)  13.3 (4.9)  14.0 (3.2)  14.3 (3.0)  pH  4.33 (0.30)  4.77 (0.28)  4.89 (0.39)  5.10 (0.54)  1.5 (0.9)  0.4 (0.4)  0.3 (0.1)  0.4 (0.3)  692 (280)  593 (173)  605 (181)  597 (179)  Dissolve Oxygen (mg.L" ) 1  Specific Conductivity (us.cm" ) 1  These cells were planted Temp: n = 14 for influent, and n = 28 for each reactor set pH and DO: n = 14 for influent, and n = 28 for each reactor set Conductivity: n = 15 for influent, and n = 28 for each reactor set 2  Arash Masbough  65  MASc Thesis (2002)  6.50  % 5.00  Cell Influent ——A — Average implanted — • — Average nutrient added and planted — / K — Average planted  D a t e  Figure 4-8 Average p H improvement in pilot scale cells (top: 2000, bottom: 2001) (note: averages are between two identical cells over time)  Because o f the higher buffering capacity o f the source o f dilution water i n 2001 (i.e. well), influent had a higher average p H than the previous year (Table 4-2a, 4-2 b). During the second period o f treatment trials (2001), leachate neutralization capability o f the soil conditioner (Dolomite®) was measured in the lab using pure leachate. The lab results Arash Masbough  66  MASc Thesis (2002)  showed that p H in the leachate started to rise up as soon as it came to contact with the soil conditioner (i.e. in a few seconds). Then, as the soluble, outer layer was dissolved, the p H became stable. Meanwhile, a large amount o f the soil conditioner (almost 80% o f the weight) remained insoluble after 10 minutes (Figure 4-9). It was concluded that the conditioner is capable o f increasing p H without dissolving rapidly, so it can stay in the cells for a long period. Measuring the remaining weight o f the soil conditioner located in cell #4 showed that 25% o f the 5 kg was used up after 2 weeks. During a stage from end o f August to beginning o f September 2001 (Figure 4-8), the p H increased noticeably because o f this base addition.  0  5 Time (min)  10  Figure 4-9 p H neutralization measurements during three different time steps using 10 g.L" limestone (Dolomite®) and pure leachate 1  Arash Masbough  67  MASc Thesis (2002)  Wetlands are generally excellent sediment traps (Kadlec, 1995). During the first season o f this study (2000) total suspended solids were reduced from 32.1 mg.L" in influent to 1  an average o f 24 mg.L" in effluent (Table 4-3a). Specific conductivity measurements 1  indicated that dissolved solids were partially removed in the cells (Table 4-2a, 4-2b). Considering the relatively high conductivity o f the dilution water sources (specially i n the well water, 2001, Table 4-1), it can be concluded that a portion (21 to 37%) o f the dissolved solids in the influent was inorganic and thus very hard to remove through biological processes.  Table 4-3a Summary o f removal performances for targeted parameters i n the pilot-scale constructed wetlands, 2000* Influent  Effluent  Control Planted Nutrients Added Average ' Average %-Removal Average %-Removal Average %-Removal 2  Parameter  (Std. Dev.) (Std. Dev.)  (Std. Dev.)  (Std. Dev.)  (Std. Dev.)  (Std. Dev.)  (Std. Dev.)  Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD )  1702 (532)  769 (299)  55% (17%)  832 (273)  51% (17%)  642 (259)  62% (12%)  Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)  3221 (1112)  1609 (533)  50% (24%)  1928 (436)  40% (25%)  1591 (530)  51% (21%)  Tannin and Lignin (as tannic acid)  978 (444)  569 (159)  42% (22%)  675 (197)  31% (26%)  570 (212)  42% (18%)  Total Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs)  499 (142)  244 (149)  51% (25%)  323 (172)  41% (24%)  163 (138)  69% (24%)  22.6 (12.5)  _  25.0 (9.2)  _  5  Total Suspended Solids (TSS)  32.1 24.3 (32.1) (9.9) n = 19 for influent, and n = 38 for each reactor set These cells were planted * All values reported in mg.L"'  -  -  2  Arash Masbough  68  MASc Thesis (2002)  Table 4-3b Summary o f removal performances for targeted parameters in the pilot-scale constructed wetlands, 2001* Influent  Effluent  Control Planted Nutrients Added Average' Average%-Removal Average%-Removal Average%-Removal  2  Parameter  (Std. Dev.)  (Std. Dev.)  (Std. Dev.)  (Std. Dev.)  (Std. Dev.)  (Std. Dev.)  (Std. Dev.)  Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD )  3465 (1631)  1414 (760)  59%. (12%)  1442 (668)  63% (11%)  1393 (772)  60% (16%)  Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)  3980 (1513)  2827 (1219)  29% (15%)  2632 (1031)  34% (16%)  2973 (1253)  25% (23%)  Tannins and Lignin (as tannic acid)  1160 (638)  771 (313)  44% (21%)  769 (276)  40% (21%)  797 (303)  40% (32%)  707 399 44% (513) (235) (43%) n = 15 for influent, and n = 30 for each reactor set These cells were planted * All values reported in mg.L"'  435 (186)  38% (55%)  439 (241)  37% (56%)  5  Total Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs)  2  Treatment wetlands are efficient users o f external carbon sources, manifested by excellent reductions i n B O D and C O D (Kadlec, 1995). Removal o f B O D was observed throughout the experiments. B O D removal had an average o f 52-63%. The removal in "planted and nutrient added" cells was better than other cells i n year 2000 (Table 4-3a). In general planted cells showed marginally better removal efficiencies than unplanted ones i n 2001 (Table 4-3b).  Percentage reductions for C O D were lower than B O D . During the two stages o f performance evaluations, C O D was removed with an average o f 25-51%. The removal efficiencies were lower in 2001. In the case o f C O D , there was no definable difference between the three groups o f reactors (Table 4-3a, 4-3b).  Arash Masbough  69  MASc Thesis (2002)  In both sampling periods, a higher proportion o f B O D was removed compared to C O D . This can be explained by the fact that easily biodegradable materials (i.e. V F A s ) are used up by microbial communities faster than recalcitrant materials (i.e. tannin and lignin). A s the microbial communities utilize the readily biodegradable sources o f carbon, the amount o f B O D decreases faster.  Dissolved oxygen levels i n treatment wetlands are normally low (Knight et ah, 1993). In the pilot scale study, the dissolved oxygen level was consistently lower than 0.5 mg.L" . 1  Considering the very high levels o f oxygen demand in the influent, low dissolved oxygen values were expected. In the absence o f free oxygen gas, anaerobic respiration is an alternative catabolic process to aerobic respiration. A lower amount o f carbon is degraded during anaerobic respiration (Kadlec and Knight, 1996).  Total tannin and lignin removal rate was i n the range o f 31-44%. In the case o f tannin and lignin, there were no significant removal differences amongst different wetland cells. This demonstrated that the microbial communities that developed in the substrate (water and sediment) o f unplanted cells were also capable o f contaminant degradation.  V F A s were reduced throughout the treatment process. The reduction rate o f V F A s was in the range o f 37-69%. The relatively high removal rate o f V F A s was supported with noticeable p H improvements through the cells (Figure 4-8). Tables 4-4a and 4-4b summarize the removal o f the individual fatty acids.  Arash Masbough  70  MASc Thesis (2002)  Table 4-4a Summary o f removal performance for volatile fatty acids (C2-C6) i n the pilotscale constructed wetlands, 2000* Influent  Effluent  Average  Control Average %-Removal  Planted Average %-Removal  Nutrients Added' Average %-Removal  (Std. Dev.)  (Std. Dev.)  (Std. Dev.)  (Std. Dev.) (Std. Dev.)  (Std. Dev.)  Total VFAs: (C - Ce)  499 (142)  244 (149)  51% (33%)  323 (172)  41% (59%)  163 138  69% (61%)  acetic acid  215 (69)  90 (60)  58% (42%)  107 (71)  50% (33%)  47 (46)  78% (75%)  Propionic acid  85 (21)  39 (23)  54% (42%)  55 (27)  35% (29%)  21 (23)  75% (77%)  butyric + iso -butyric acid  110 (31)  64 (38)  42% (36%)  89 (45)  19% (12%)  48 * (37)  56% (48%)  valeric acid  52 (25)  25 (20)  52% (45%)  42 (26)  19% (11%)  20 (19)  62% (59%)  37 26 30% 30 (28) (42%) (43) (33) 'n = 19 for influent, and n = 38 for each reactor set These cells were planted  19% (21%)  27 (43)  27% (38%)  Parameter 1  2  hexanoic acid  (Std. Dev.)  2  Table 4-4b Summary o f removal performance for volatile fatty acids (G2-C6) in the pilotscale constructed wetlands, 2001* Influent  Effluent  Average  Control Average %-Removal  Average  %-Removal  Nutrients Added Average %-Removal  Parameter 1  Planted  2  (Std. Dev.)  (Std. Dev.)  (Std. Dev.)  (Std. Dev.)  (Std. Dev.)  (Std. Dev.)  (Std. Dev.)  Total VFAs: (C - C )  707 (513)  399 (235)  44% (43%)  435 (186)  38% (55%)  439 (241)  38% (56%)  acetic acid  216 (225)  114 (74)  47% (49%)  122 (68)  44% (51%)  117 (18)  46% (29%)  97 (85)  57 (45)  41% (31%)  58 (39)  41% (33%)  64 (49)  34% (36%)  butyric + iso -butyric acid  220 (149)  126 (64)  43% (24%)  131 (55)  40% (22%)  123 (58)  44% (34%)  valeric acid  95 (87)  56 (66)  41% (46%)  69 (51)  28% (32%)  77 (44)  19% (26%)  79 46 42% 55 (67) (60) (51%) (56) n=15 for influent, and n=30 for each reactor set These cells were planted * All values reported in mg.L  30% (46%)  58 (57)  27% (41%)  2  6  propionic acid  hexanoic acid  2  -1  Arash Masbough  71  MASc Thesis (2002)  A s it was expected, there was a slightly better removal o f smaller V F A s (i.e. acetic and propionic) comparing to larger ones (i.e. valeric and hexanoic) i n planted cells (Table 44a, 4-4b). There was likely production o f V F A s i n the anoxic conditions presented i n the wetland cells. A s larger molecules (tannin and lignin, hemicellulose) were broken down.  Lower dilution was applied in the second period o f the study. Consequently, a higher strength influent was applied to the cells i n the second stage o f trials (year 2001). The concentration o f B O D i n 2001 was twice as high as that in 2000 (Table 4-3a, 4-3b). Other parameters o f the influent (i.e. C O D , tannin and lignin, and B O D ) were also considerably higher i n the second year o f experiments. The percentage o f removals for B O D increased, proving the wetlands could handle higher levels o f easily biodegradable material. O n the other hand, the removal rate for C O D declined. U p to a limit, wetlands provide more treatment i f the detention time is increased (Kadlec, 1995). Lower removal rate for C O D was because o f the fact that microbial communities need longer retention times to break down the more recalcitrant material in the leachate. Despite the higher strength o f the influent in 2001, the H R T remained equal to one week. To provide optimal removal, we would have to either reduce the hydraulic loading rate or increase the H R T .  The low B O D to C O D ratio may be due to the high cellulose and V F A s content o f the treated water (Morris and Herbert, 1997). In this study, the overall B O D to C O D ratio was 0.7 for influent and 0.47 for effluent (Table 4-5). These ratios also support the fact  Arash Masbough  72  MASc Thesis (2002)  that there was higher B O D removal within the wetlands and that greater recalcitrant portion o f C O D passed through the system.  4-2-2-1) ThOD  Comparisons  with Measured  COD  The T h O D s were calculated for V F A s and tannin and lignin i n both influent and effluent using balanced oxidation reactions (Appendix B ) . These values were then compared to the measured C O D , which represents the total chemical oxygen demand. This comparison gave an estimation o f the fraction o f total C O D that correspond to these two classes o f compounds. It also provided a qualitative estimate o f the utilized fraction o f tannin and lignin and V F A s during the treatment process. Table 4-5 summarizes the T h O D to C O D ratios over two sampling seasons for influent and effluent. Table 4-5 Oxygen demand ratio comparisons  Influent  Average  ThOD ofVFAstoCOD ThOD ofT&L to COD Total ThOD to COD BOD to COD  0.25 0.35 0.60 0.70  1  Effluent  1  2  Average  ThOD of VFAs to COD ThOD ofT&LtoCOD Total ThOD ' to COD BOD to COD Total ThOD = VFAs ThOD + T&L n: number of samples  0.24 0.40 0.64 0.47 ThOD  n  2  60 68 60 68  n 60 68 60 68  Chemically and biologically inactive substances are not easily altered or removed, and so they pass through the system in wetlands (Kadlec, 1995). A s shown in Table 4-5, the T h O D to C O D ratio for tannin and lignin was slightly higher i n the effluent compared to the influent. A s discussed before i n section 3-2-2, tannin and lignin contain large,  Arash Masbough  73  MASc Thesis (2002)  recalcitrant molecules that are not easily biodegradable. This was the main reason that a larger fraction o f C O D remained in the effluent. The T h O D to C O D ratio for V F A s almost stayed the same in influent and effluent. A s previously mentioned, this could be due to the possible production o f V F A s i n the cells.  Figure 4-10 shows that the seasonal changes o f C O D were consistently followed by changes i n total T h O D . In other words, the difference between total T h O D and C O D during the sampling periods for both influent and effluent remained constant. A s T h O D s were calculated using the V F A s and tannin and lignin results, the three sets o f measurements are i n good agreement. Tannin and lignin and V F A s accounted for over 60% o f the C O D i n both influent and effluent. The remaining compounds contributing to C O D were not identified or measured in this study. A s discussed i n section 3-2-2, those compounds could be hemicellulosic compounds, pectins and resin acids (Bertaud et al, 2002, Sun et al, 2001, Gabrielii et al, 2000, Teschke et al, 1999).  Arash Masbough  74  MASc Thesis (2002)  a) COD Comparison with ThOD for Cell Effeluent (2000)  c) COD Comparison with ThOD for Cell Effluent (2001)  3000  6000  000  d 4000 If 2000  1000  E  2 u. 2 ^  <-i  SJ  > C cro  — 1  Date Date b) COD Comparison with ThOD for Cell Influent (2000)  d) COD Comparison with ThOD for Cell Influent (2001)  5000  10000  4000  8000  _j 3000 E  ^  ^6000  2000  E  4000  1000 0  2  P i  2  OJ p  N» OJ  Date  1  CTQ  1  H i - ~ Measured Chemical Oxygen Demand •• - Total ThOD for VFAs - A — Total ThOD for T&L - • — Total ThOD for VFAs + T&L  Figure 4-10 C O D comparisons with T h O D for V F A s and tannin and lignin: effluent (a and c) and influent (b and d) during two evaluation periods (average values for all 6 cells)  4-2-2-2) Effects of Nutrients on Treatment Performance  It is important to note that the quantity o f nutrients, play a key role i n the contaminant removal performance o f a wetland. In general, in lack or absence o f molecular oxygen (i.e. inside the wetland cells), other oxidized inorganic compounds (e.g. nitrate or nitrite)  Arash Masbough  75  MASc Thesis (2002)  should be present as electron acceptors to support microbial degradation (Metcalf and Eddy, 1991). The capability o f wetlands to remove nutrients has been discussed in most studies o f constructed wetlands (Gopal, 1999, Bavor et al, 1995, Kadlec, 1995, Wood, 1995). In particular, those have shown that: 1) phosphorus removal occurs v i a sorption and plant uptake; and 2) nitrogen removal is through plant uptake, nitrification, denitrification, and sorption processes. The rates o f nutrient removal processes depend on the concentrations o f the nutrients present and indicate that at low levels, removal does not occur. In fact, due to very low levels o f nutrients in the cells i n this research (Table 4-6a , 4-6b), nutrient supplement was considered rather than its removal. Reduction o f food sources can result in the destruction o f microbial communities (Gopal, 1999). Kadlec and Knight (1996) suggest that an N to P mass ratio o f 7.2 is required for bacterial mass. A s noted in Table 4-6, not only the level o f the nutrients was low i n the wetlands, but also the N to P ratio was much lower than 7.2.  Table 4-6a Summary o f performance for nutrients in pilot-scale constructed wetlands, 2000* Influent  Effluent  Average  Parameter  2  Control Average  Planted Nutrients added Average Average  1  (Std. Dev.) (Std. Dev.) (Std. Dev.) Ammonia (NH -N) 3  Nitrate + nitrite (NO " -N) x  Ortho-phosphate (PO "-P) 3  4  (Std. Dev.)  0.3  0.2  0.2  0.1  (0.3)  (0.3)  (0.2)  (o.i)  0.21  0.25  0.24  0.21  (0.09)  (0.10)  (0.10)  (0.10)  0.75  0.38  0.54  0.75  (0.20) (0.21) (0.32) These cells were planted n = 15 for influent, and n = 30 for each reactor set * All values reported in mg.L"  (0.73)  2  1  Arash Masbough  76  MASc Thesis (2002)  Table 4-6b Summary o f performance for nutrients in pilot-scale constructed wetlands, 2001* Influent  Effluent  Average  Parameter  2  Control  Planted Nutrients added  Average  Average  1  (Std. Dev.) (Std. Dev.) (Std. Dev.) Ammonia (NH -N) 3  Nitrate + nitrite (NO " -N) x  Average (Std. Dev.)  0.3  0.2  0.5  1.4  (0.3)  (0.2)  (1.3)  (0.3)  0.07  0.06  (0.07)  (0.04)  0.09 (0.14)  (0.06)  Ortho-phosphate (PO "-P)  1.19 0.63 0.68 (0.96) (0.37) (0.29) These cells were planted n = 15 for influent, and n = 30 for each reactor set * All values reported in mg.L" 3  4  0.06  1.17 (0.68)  2  1  A lack o f phosphorus can limit biomass growth and subsequently the treatment efficiency. When the plants growth is accelerated (i.e. in spring), phosphorus should be added to wetlands in order to attain greater biomass (Bulc et al., 1997). A s mentioned before, nutrient sources were added to two o f the planted cells (# 2 and # 4) i n June 2000 and July 2001. The level o f nutrients inside the cells was measured. In the first year, one week after applying the fertilizer pellets, the level o f ortho-phosphate increased to 2.2 mg.L" inside the cells. However, the effluent o f those two cells had lower concentration 1  (average o f 1.6 mg.L" after fertilizer addition). The difference between these two 1  concentrations (~ 0.7 mg.L" ) was the amount o f phosphorus utilized over one H R T . The 1  level o f phosphorous stayed higher in the effluent o f those two cells until the entire soluble fraction o f the pellets were depleted (Figure 4-11). In year 2001, the pellets were added almost in the beginning o f operation period. A s a result, the concentration o f phosphorous increased constantly throughout the operation period, (Figure 4-11).  Arash Masbough  11  MASc Thesis (2002)  P 0 Concentrations in 2001 4  > C  > .C  rj ^  03 ,g  00 .g  00  o o  o  o  Date ••-  Avg. Cells  •Avg. Fert.  •Avg non Fert.  Figure 4-11 The effect o f fertilizer addition on ortho-phosphate concentrations o f the cells effluent  Partly because o f nutrient addition i n 2000, the removal ratio for B O D and V F A s for both "nutrients added" cells increased considerably in comparison to the other cells (Table 43a and Figure 4-12). This showed that, although the desirable N to P ratio was not satisfied, the efficiency o f biological degradation in the cells improved with the addition  Arash Masbough  78  MASc Thesis (2002)  of phosphorous alone. There was not an explicable difference i n removal ratio o f tannin and lignin between these cells (# 2 and # 4) and "planted only" cells. This was attributed to the low biodegradability o f these compounds. BOD  5  3500 -i  • Influent  B Unplanted Control  • Planted Only  • Nutrient Added & Planted  Figure 4-12 Wetlands seasonal variations for B O D and V F A s removal in 2000 5  (Note the increased efficiency in nutrient added cells after fertilizer addition)  In addition to phosphorous bearing pellets, a different type o f fertilizer, which contained urea, was added to cells # 2 and # 4 in 2001 in order to achieve the desirable the N to P  Arash Masbough  79  MASc Thesis (2002)  ratio. A s a result, the levels o f nitrogen ammonia both inside the cells and i n their effluent increased (Table 4-6b). In spite o f this, no significant treatment improvement was noticed in those cells during the second evaluation period. The urea fertilizer had a very high solubility and disappeared from the meshed bags i n less than two weeks.  It should be mentioned that the removal efficiency o f cell # 2 significantly dropped after a 2-week shock-loading incident i n 2001. The shock loading resulted from a temporary malfunction o f the dilution water (well) pump. Consequently, pure leachate was pumped to the cells for two weeks. It affected the general performance o f the system and its negative effect persisted for a few weeks thereafter (Appendix D ) . Although including those data reduced the average removal ratios o f the system, these problems may occur in the "real world", and they were not excluded from the calculation.  4-2-2-3) Seasonal  Effects on Wetlands  Performance  Wetland hydrology is a primary driving force influencing wetland ecology, its development, and persistence (Souch et al, 1996). However, little attention has been paid to the seasonal variations in the concentration o f the wastewater and the effects o f climate changes on wetlands (Gopal, 1999). Surface flow wetlands respond to rain and evapotranspiration (Kadlec, 1995), and therefore, these should not be ignored in the performance evaluation process. The performance evaluation in this research includes nearly three seasons in two stages (from spring to fall). The climatic data (temperature and precipitation) were obtained during the two assessment episodes. Figures 4-12 and 4-  Arash Masbough  80  MASc Thesis (2002)  13 graphically summarize detailed seasonal changes o f wetlands' treatment performance for targeted pollutants are i n year 2000. The graphical presentation o f treatment performance i n year 2001 is summarized in Appendix D . Likewise, the climatic changes for the same periods are summarized in 2000 are presented i n Figure 4-14 for year 2000 and i n Appendix C for 2001. Precipitation and evapotranspiration influence the water budget and cause unpredictable flow o f wastewater through the wetland (Rash and Liehr, 1999). During hot summer days o f July and August with minimal rainfall (Figure 4-14), there was almost no outflow from the outlet o f the cells. Although the strength o f the influent was reduced (i.e. more dilution applied), effluent quality o f the system decreased considerably during that period. The main reason was the high amount o f evaporation, since wetlands have a large surface area to depth ratio. The concentration o f the wastewater in the cells increased to a level that the system was no longer capable to carry out the desirable treatment. D r y and hot weather affected the system during two periods i n 2000 (mid-June to mid-July and end o f July to mid-August, Figures 4-12,13,14) and second half o f August 2001 (Appendix C , Figures C l , 2 and Appendix D , Figures D 1,2,3,4). Moreover, in two points during the treatment period (Second half o f July 2000, Figure 4-14, and end o f July 2001, Appendix D ) , the dilution water pump malfunctioned due to technical problems. This resulted i n periods o f pumping pure leachate into the cells. These shock loadings affected the performance o f the system and the recovery lasted a few weeks. The relationship between climatic changes and wetlands performance can be noticed with a quick look at the related Figures (Appendix C , D ) .  Arash Masbough  81  MASc Thesis (2002)  COD 7000 -i  T&L 2500 - i —  I Influent  • Unplanted Control  • Planted Only  • Nutrient Added & Planted  Figure 4-13 Wetland seasonal variations for C O D and tannin and lignin removal i n 2000 (Error bars represent standard deviations between two identical cells)  Arash Masbough  82  MASc Thesis (2002)  Temperature (2000) 30.0  i  OO 1  C3  P  Ol  ON  ho  •Mean Temperature •  i —  K> ~-J  o  i  E.  un  p  on  un  &  f»  oo 5* &,  un  S  i—. i—.  U) J  J*-  era  Date • Maximum Temperature  to  O ,  i  c oo  > c  00  OJ i  > > i  c  c  CTQ  UO  00 T3  I  00  • Minimum Temperature  Precipitation (2000) 40.0 30.0 o ••s 20.0  10.0  •May  •May  •May  M Oh  oo i  3  Ol <—i  C 13  1—.  KJ  <—i  c B  OJ  c B  5;  <—I  c  O  -J  c_  Date  0J  -Aug  oo  1  > > c e  00  0Q  ^1  J>  >  e oo  > c  00  I  00 ft  T3  00 ft 13  * — Precipitation (mm)  Figure 4-14 Climatic data for year 2000, top: temperature and bottom precipitation  Arash Masbough  83  MASc Thesis (2002)  Wetlands require an adaptation period to reach a stationary state. This period includes vegetative aerial fill-in, root and rhizome development, litter development, and microbial community establishment. Therefore, a newly constructed treatment wetland would be expected to require many months, including at least one year to stabilize (Kadlec and Knight, 1996).  Operation o f the studied constructed wetlands had been started about six months before the beginning o f this study. Due to limited time and other logistical constrains, it was not possible to run the wetlands on a year-round basis. A s a result, wetlands were out o f operation for a few months during the study period. Therefore, a new habituation phase was started in the beginning o f each evaluation period (i.e. M a y 2000 and June 2001). Still the performance o f the wetlands improved due to partial adaptation during the 4 to 5 months o f operation. In the last few weeks o f each assessment period, the treatment efficiency increased significantly (Figures 4-12, 4-13, and Appendix D ) . A much better performance o f the wetlands would be expected during a continuous, year-round operation as compared to the intermittent situation i n this study.  A brief comparison between the results o f this study and the previous study on the same system (Frankowski, 2000) shows that the treatment performance has increased in this research. In best cases, average B O D , C O D , tannin and lignin, and V F A s removal were 49%, 32%, 46% and 4 3 % respectively and p H never passed over 3.8. Several factors may have contributed to this. The monitoring o f wetland performance was conducted during  Arash Masbough  84  MASc Thesis (2002)  the colder season (October to December 1999). Average temperatures were much lower in that period (6-8°C) relative to temperatures in this study (20-22°C). Temperature has a significant effect on the biological treatment processes (Metcalf and Eddy, 1991). A s mentioned above, the habituation o f wetlands increases the treatment efficiencies. A s the microbial and macrophytes communities were developed, the system was expected to improve over time. The first result o f the better-developed macrophytes was noticeable p H improvements. In the prior study, p H o f the effluent rarely increased to a value above four. In this study, effluent p H had an average o f ~ 5.0. Thus, the wetland conditions were favourable to a broader range o f microbial communities and their activities. A s the wetland conditions got closer to optimal, the cells promoted removal. This resulted in 5% to 20% higher removal efficiencies in this study.  4-3) Conclusions  Treatment o f woodwaste leachate under field conditions was established in this research. Constant increase o f p H was observed. Reductions o f B O D , C O D , tannin and lignin and 5  V F A s were consistently achieved. Closer to neutral p H , along with higher mean temperatures during the warmer period o f year, favoured microbial activities. This resulted in better removal efficiencies as compared to the previous study on the same system. A n important reason for treatment improvements was the habituation o f the wetlands. Still, the wetlands need even more time for full ecological maturation under continuous operational conditions.  Arash Masbough  85  MASc Thesis (2002)  The treatment performance o f "planted cells" was better i n the case o f p H improvement. Addition o f nutrients to planted cells favoured the treatment efficiency o f the wetlands. Taking into account the lack o f nutrients in the leachate, it is feasible to consider continuous nutrient addition in order to supply sufficient food source to microbial communities. However, the desirable N to P ratio should be satisfied in order to obtain the optimum results.  Hydrological conditions o f the field (i.e. temperature, evaporation, and precipitation) had a great impact on the treatment performance. In hot and dry summer days, the concentration o f the contaminants clearly increased i n the effluent and there was almost no wastewater flowing out from the outlets. This meant that all o f the volume o f inflow evaporated and contaminants were remaining inside the cells. Although the wetlands may have been functioning properly, as the wastewater was concentrated inside the cells, removal ratios decreased. Proper dilution along with shorter H R T (i.e. higher flow rate) may lessen this impact.  Arash Masbough  86  MASc Thesis (2002)  5) GENERAL CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  The woodwaste leachate studied in this research should be considered a strong industrial wastewater, which is harmful to the environment. It was acidic, and had a very high oxygen demand. A t least half o f this oxygen demand was due to readily biodegradable compounds that supported the biological treatment option for the leachate.  A limited number o f studies have evaluated the characteristics o f different leachates from wood and woodwaste. However, none has demonstrated a feasible and continuing treatment method for wood leachate.  Constructed wetlands were capable o f woodwaste leachate treatment i n an earlier study by Frankowski (2000). They were chosen because o f their low cost, low monitoring requirements, and high flexibility. The pilot-scale constructed wetlands systems were established as an effective treatment system for woodwaste leachate. After initial hydraulic/mixing modifications in the site, persistent increase i n p H , and decrease in B O D , C O D , tannin and lignin, and volatile fatty acids concentrations were observed during the period o f this study.  The emergent plants proved effective for treatment improvements. The level o f p H increased more in planted cells compared to unplanted ones. The positive effects o f plants, such as photosynthesis (which was accelerating the rise i n pH), oxygen transfer  Arash Masbough  87  MASc Thesis (2002)  through the root mass, and creation o f larger surface area for microbial attachment, enhanced the treatment effectiveness. O n the other hand, unplanted cells were still effective i n pollutant reduction. This showed that the substrate soil and the water column above it could support the development o f microbial communities responsible for biological degradation o f the contaminants without the existent o f the plants.  Taking into consideration the low level o f nutrients in the leachate, nutrient addition enhanced the treatment ability o f the system. A s expected from the very high levels o f carbon i n the leachate, nutrients were undoubtedly a limiting factor in the microbial degradation process. In general, very low levels o f nutrients and oxygen in the wetland cells (i.e. the lack o f electron acceptors) certainly had a negative effect on the treatment efficiency.  Climatic changes and removal fluctuations were related. Higher temperatures improved the treatment ability and yet, high evaporation concentrated the wastewater in the cells and reduced the system efficiency.  The treatment effectiveness o f the cells increased in the last few weeks o f each investigation period. This proved that a longer exposure time would increase acclimatization o f the whole system and hence its treatment efficiency.  Continuous, year-round operation o f the system can help to attain robust results under different climatic conditions. The constant function o f the wetlands also gives them the  Arash Masbough  88  MASc Thesis (2002)  opportunity to develop the required acclimatization without suffering from the impacts o f the intermittent operation. Hydrological studies and a water balance calculation i n the wetland cells would be beneficial in elucidating the performance fluctuations. Microbiological studies would also assist to understand the causes o f treatment vacillation.  A n investigation o f the limiting factors is needed to assess the treatment capabilities o f constructed wetland systems for treatment o f woodwaste leachate. Possible continual addition o f nutrient sources (i.e. nitrogen and phosphorous) with the desirable ratio theoretically w i l l increase the ability o f microorganisms to biodegrade the targeted pollutants. 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Parkin (1994) Chemistry for Environmental Engineers (4 ed.), M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company. N e w York, U . S . A . th  Arash Masbough  94  MASc Thesis (2002)  Schreijer, M . , R. Kampf, S. Toet, and J. Verhoeven (1997) The Use o f Constructed Wetlands to Upgrade Treated Swage Effluents Before Discharge to Natural Surface Water i n Texel Island, the Netherlands, Pilot Study, Wat. Sci. Tech. 35:(5): 231-237. Sorrel, B . K . and P. I. B o o n (1992) Biogeochemistry o f Billabong Sediments, II Seasonal Variations in Methane Production, Freshwater  Biol. 27: 435-445.  Souch, C , C . P. Wolfe, and C . S. B . Grimmond (1996) Wetland Evaporation and Energy Partitioning: Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, J. of Hydrology,  184: 189-208.  Sproul, O. J., and A . S. Clifford (1968) Water Quality Degradation by W o o d Bark Pollutants, Water Resource Centre Publications N o . 5. 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(1993) "Constructed Wetlands: Scientific Foundations are Critical", in Constructed Wetlands for Water Quality Improvement, G . A . M o s h i r i (Ed.), Lewis Publishers, London, England.  Arash Masbough  96  MASc Thesis (2002)  Woods, A . (1995) Constructed Wetlands in Water Pollution Control: Fundamentals to Their Understanding, Wat. Sci. Tech. 32:(3): 21-29. Zachritz, W . H . , L . L . Lundie, and H . W o n g (1996) Benzoic A c i d Degradation by Small, Pilot-Scale Artificial Wetland Filter ( A W F ) Systems, Ecological  Engineering,  7:105-116.  Zehnder, A . J. B . , K . Ingvorsen, and T. Marty (1982) Microbiology o f Methane Bacteria, In Anaerobic Digestion, (D.E. Hughes, ed.), Amsterdam: Elsevier Biomedical Press, pp.45.  Arash Masbough  97  MASc Thesis (2002)  APPENDICES  Arash Masbough  98  MASc Thesis (2002)  APPENDIX A Raw Data Table A l Temperature, pH, DO, and Conductivity in Constructed Wetland Cells in 2000 Temperature (°C): Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 5 Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 2 Cell 4 Cell Influent Leachate Pool  Jul 06/00 21.5 21.0 21.5 22.0 22.0 22.0 21.0 27.0  Jul Jul 13/00 27/00 19.5 20.0 20.5 22.0 19.5 21.0 19.0 21.0 19.0 21.5 20.0 22.0 19.0 20.0 26.0 27.0  Aug Aug Aug Aug 03/00 10/00 17/00 24/00 24.0 18.0 24.0 23.0 23.5 19.0 23.5 22.0 23.0 17.0 23.0 22.0 23.0 18.0 23.0 22.0 23.5 18.0 23.5 22.0 24.0 16.5 24.0 21.0 23.0 18.0 23.0 20.0 30.0 25.0 30.0 31.0  Aug 31/00 22.0 21.0 22.0 22.0 21.0 20.0 20.0 29.0  Sep 08/00 23.0 22.0 22.0 22.0 22.0 21.0 20.0 31.0  pHj Sample Jun Jun Jun Jun Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Sep ID 09/00 15/00 22/00 29/00 06/00 13/00 27/00 03/00 10/00 17/00 24/00 31/00 08/00 Cell 1  4 13 4 83 4 47 4 33 4 51 4 82 4 52  4 66  4 46  4 81  4 35  4 45  Cell 5  4 61 4 54 5 00 4 60 4 22 4 49 5 01 4 72  4 93  4 86  4 99  4 21  4 50  Cell 3  3 98 4 88 4 27  4 10 4 08 4 23 4 44 4 35  4 46  4 49  4 42  4 54  4 42  Cell 6  4 48 4 34 4 53 4 38 4 35 4 51 5 26 5 66  5 83  6 15  6 03  6 12  5 98  Cell 2  5 73 4 08 4 54 5 29 5 34 5 22 5 59 6 05  6 23  6 38  5 97  5 87  5 66  Cell 4  4 55 4 93 4 66 4 68 5 00 5 06 6 06 5 83  5 89  6 38  6 12  6 12  5 98  3 67 3 66 3 88 4 15 3 97  4 03  4 09  4 03  4 08  3 95  Leachate 3 30 3 29 3 32 3 18 3 25 3 42 3 54 3 31 Pool  3 50  3 46  3 36  3 45  3 36  6 43  6 18  6 01  6 26  6 15  Cell 3 71 3 68 3 87 Influent  Slough  Arash Masbough  6 05 6 01 6 29 5 83 5 97 6 27 6 50 6 40  99  MASc Thesis (2002)  Summary DO (mg.L") 1  Sample Jun Jun Jun Jun Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Sep ID 09/00 15/00 22/00 29/00 06/00 13/00 27/00 03/00 10/00 17/00 24/00 31/00 08/00 Cell 1  0.4  0.7  0.6  0.8  0.4  0.6  1.0  0.5  0.4  0.5  0.4  0.3  0.4  Cell 5  0.4  0.7  0.7  0.5  0.9  0.8  1.0  0.5  0.4  0.5  0.6  0.7  0.6  Cell 3  0.5  0.8  0.5  0.7  0.7  0.6  0.9  0.4  0.4  0.4  0.7  0.8  0.7  Cell 6  0.8  0.5  0.4  0.4  0.5  0.6  0.9  0.5  0.3  0.5  0.8  0.8  0.8  Cell 2  0.6  0.6  0.4  0.9  0.6  0.8  0.9  0.4  0.5  0.4  0.8  0.9  0.8  Cell 4  0.8  0.6  0.5  0.4  0.6  0.7  0.8  0.6  0.4  0.6  0.7  0.7  0.7  Cell Influent  1.5  1.4  1.3  1.5  1.0  1.1  1.1  1.0  0.8  1.0  0.9  0.9  0.9  Leachate 0.3 Pool  0.3  0.2  0.3  0.3  0.3  0.4  0.2  0.1  0.2  0.2  0.2  0.2  Conductivity (uS.cm") 1  Sample Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Sep ID 13/00 27/00 03/00 10/00 17/00 24/00 31/00 08/00 Cell 1  584  306  368  410  495  457  409  123  Cell 5  509  286  383  489  505  490  479  349  Cell 3  490  492  404  328  457  468  479  608  Cell 6  490  492  404  328  457  468  479  608  Cell 2  456  375  317  484  350  420  468  519  Cell 4  434  287  341  494  364  354  388  752  Cell 515 Influent  262  404  463  446  483  560  1523  1924  2090 2041  Leachate 1721 1792 1943 Pool Slough  Arash  Masbough  123  116  120  124  100  122  129  1940 1991 136  135  MASc Thesis (2002)  Table A2 Solids Concentrations in Constructed Wetland Cells in 2000 (mg.L ) 1  Sample Date:  Sample Date:  Arash  Masbough  May 04/00 Sample ID  TSS (mg/L)  FSS (mg/L)  VSS (mg/L)  Cell 1  -  -  -  Cell 2  22.5  1.0  21.5  Cell 3  30.5  2.5  28.0  Cell 4  74.7  16.7  58.0  Cell 5  45.0  10.0  35.0  Cell 6  20.5  1.5  19.0  Cell Influent  -0.4  2.0  -2.4  Leachate Pool  8.0  0.8  7.2  Slough  58.4  12.4  46.0  Blank  1.2  1.2  0.0  Sample ID  TSS (mg/L)  FSS (mg/L)  VSS (mg/L)  Cell 1  -  -  -  Cell 2  25.0  -34.0  59.0  Cell 3  20.0  2.0  18.0  Cell 4  18.0  4.0  14.0  Cell 5  26.0  3.0  23.0  Cell 6  35.0  12.0  23.0  Cell Influent  -5.0  -14.0  9.0  Leachate Pool  17.0  6.0  11.0  Slough  9.0  4.0  5.0  Blank  2.0  0.0  2.0  May 11/00  101  MASc Thesis (2002)  Sample Date:  Sample Date:  Arash  Masbough  May 16/00 Sample ID  TSS (mg/L)  FSS (mg/L)  VSS (mg/L)  Cell 1  26.5  4.0  22.5  Cell 2  16.0  1.5  14.5  Cell 3  16.0  3.0  13.0  Cell 4  13.5  2.5  11.0  Cell 5  26.0  2.5  23.5  Cell 6  22.0  3.0  19.0  Cell Influent  29.0  9.5  19.5  Leachate Pool  10.5  1.0  9.5  Slough  7.0  2.0  5.0  Blank  0.0  -0.5  0.5  Sample ID  TSS (mg/L)  FSS (mg/L)  VSS (mg/L)  Cell 1  27.0  5.0  22.0  Cell 2  40.5  7.5  33.0  Cell 3  28.0  2.5  25.5  Cell 4  29.5  4.0  25.5  Cell 5  39.5  4.0  35.5  Cell 6  25.5  5.5  20.0  Cell Influent  42.5  9.5  33.0  Leachate Pool  28.5  5.0  23.5  Slough  51.5  18.5  33.0  Blank  0.5  0.5  0.0  May 23/00  102  MASc Thesis (2002)  Sample Date:  Sample Date:  May 31/00 Sample ID  TSS (mg/L)  FSS (mg/L)  VSS (mg/L)  Cell 1  10.5  1.0  9.5  Cell 2  29.0  3.5  25.5  Cell 3  24.5  3.5  21.0  Cell 4  30.0  3.5  26.5  Cell 5  29.0  5.0  24.0  Cell 6  21.0  2.0  19.0  Cell Influent  18.0  2.5  15.5  Leachate Pool  15.0  2.0  13.0  Slough  22.0  3.5  18.5  Blank  0.0  0.5  -0.5  Jun 09/00 Sample ID  Arash  Masbough  TSS (mg/L) FSS (mg/L) VSS (mg/L)  Cell 1  -  -  -  Cell 2  36.0  1.5  34.5  Cell 3  21.0  1.0  20.0  Cell 4  19.5  0.5  19.0  Cell 5  32.0  2.0  30.0  Cell 6  26.5  2.5  24.0  Cell Influent  12.5  1.0  11.5  Leachate Pool  18.0  3.0  15.0  Slough  15.0  1.5  13.5  Blank  -0.5  -2.0  1.5  103  MASc Thesis (2002)  Sample Date:  Jun 15/00 Sample ID  TSS (mg/L)  FSS (mg/L)  VSS (mg/L)  Cell 1  13.0  1.5  11.5  Cell 2  45.5  3.5  42.0  Cell 3  24.5  1.5  23.0  Cell 4  22.5  3.0  19.5  Cell 5  36.5  7.0  29.5  Cell 6  16.5  0.0  16.5  Cell Influent  36.0  3.0  33.0  Leachate Pool  15.0  0.0  15.0  Slough  21.0  3.0  18.0  Blank  -1.0  -1.0  0.0  Sample Date: Jun 22/00 Sample ID TSS (mg/L)FSS (mg/L) VSS (mg/L)  Arash  Masbough  Cell 1  42.5  4.5  38.0  Cell 2  19.5  2.0  17.5  Cell 3  19.0  1.5  17.5  Cell 4  31.5  6.5  25.0  Cell 5  42.0  7.5  34.5  Cell 6  28.5  4.0  24.5  Cell Influent  87.5  6.5  81.0  Leachate Pool  23.0  4.0  19.0  Slough  46.5  7.0  39.5  Blank  2.0  1.5  0.5  104  MASc Thesis (2002)  Sample Date:  Sample Date:  Arash  Masbough  Jun 29/00 Sample ID  TSS (mg/L)  FSS (mg/L)  VSS (mg/L)  Cell 1  41.0  2.0  39.0  Cell 2  18.0  1.5  16.5  Cell 3  25.5  2.5  23.0  Cell 4  30.0  3.5  26.5  Cell 5  28.0  4.0  24.0  Cell 6  22.0  2.0  20.0  Cell Influent  14.5  1.5  13.0  Leachate Pool  15.5  3.0  12.5  Slough  10.5  3.5  7.0  Blank  1.0  0.5  0.5  Sample ID  TSS (mg/L)  FSS (mg/L)  VSS (mg/L)  Cell 1  27.5  1.5  26.0  Cell 2  19.5  2.0  17.5  Cell 3  22.5  2.0  20.5  Cell 4  -  -  -  Cell 5  23.5  0.0  23.5  Cell 6  23.0  2.5  20.5  Cell Influent  25.5  2.5  23.0  Leachate Pool  112.0  4.5  107.5  Slough  16.0  2.0  14.0  Blank  1.0  0.5  0.5  Jul 06/00  105  MASc Thesis (2002)  Sample Date:  Sample Date:  Arash  Masbough  Jul 13/00 Sample ID  TSS (mg/L)  FSS (mg/L)  VSS (mg/L)  Cell 1  26.5  -1.5  28.0  Cell 2  21.0  4.0  17.0  Cell 3  15.0  0.0  15.0  Cell 4  15.0  1.5  13.5  Cell 5  24.5  2.5  22.0  Cell 6  12.5  0.5  12.0  Cell Influent  63.0  4.0  59.0  Leachate Pool  37.5  7.0  30.5  Slough  39.5  15.5  24.0  Blank  0.0  -0.5  0.5  Sample ID  TSS (mg/L)  FSS (mg/L)  VSS (mg/L)  Cell 1  19.5  3.0  16.5  Cell 2  22.5  3.0  19.5  Cell 3  44.0  4.5  39.5  Cell 4  21.5  6.5  15.0  Cell 5  41.5  10.0  31.5  Cell 6  18.0  4.0  14.0  Cell Influent  24.0  5.5  18.5  Leachate Pool  47.5  12.0  35.5  Slough  23.5  10.5  13.0  Blank  0.0  1.0  -1.0  Jul 27/00  106  MASc Thesis (2002)  Sample Date:  Sample Date:  Arash  Masbough  Aug 03/00 Sample ID  TSS (mg/L)  FSS (mg/L)  VSS (mg/L)  Cell 1  24.0  3.0  21.0  Cell 2  18.0  0.0  18.0  Cell 3  18.0  1.5  16.5  Cell 4  14.5  2.5  12.0  Cell 5  25.5  6.0  19.5  Cell 6  17.0  3.0  14.0  Cell Influent  16.0  2.5  13.5  Leachate Pool  67.0  12.5  54.5  Slough  33.0  8.0  25.0  Blank  2.5  2.0  0.5  Sample ID  TSS (mg/L)  FSS (mg/L)  VSS (mg/L)  Cell 1  26.5  2.0  24.5  Cell 2  19.5  3.5  16.0  Cell 3  4.0  -2.0  6.0  Cell 4  16.0  1.5  14.5  Cell 5  24.0  5.0  19.0  Cell 6  0.0  4.0  -4.0  Cell Influent  16.5  0.5  16.0  Leachate Pool  32.0  3.5  28.5  Slough  57.5  12.5  45.0  Blank  0.0  -0.5  0.5  Aug 10/00  107  MASc Thesis (2002)  Sample Date:  Aug 17/00 TSS Sample ID (mg/L)  Sample Date:  VSS (mg/L)  Cell 1  6.0  0.5  5.5  Cell 2  9.0  1.0  8.0  Cell 3  11.0  1.0  10.0  Cell 4  6.0  3.0  3.0  Cell 5  13.0  3.5  9.5  Cell 6  21.5  4.5  17.0  Cell Influent  25.0  7.5  17.5  Leachate Pool  60.5  14.5  46.0  Slough  140.5  106.0  34.5  Blank  1.0  1.0  0.0  FSS (mg/L)  VSS (mg/L)  Aug 24/00 TSS Sample ID (mg/L)  Arash Masbough  FSS (mg/L)  Cell 1  37.5  11.5  26.0  Cell 2  27.5  5.5  22.0  Cell 3  15.0  1.0  14.0  Cell 4  14.0  3.5  10.5  Cell 5  17.0  6.5  10.5  Cell 6  22.0  3.0  19.0  Cell Influent  19.0  3.5  15.5  Leachate Pool  30.5  5.0  25.5  Slough  19.5  12.5  7.0  Blank  -0.5  -0.5  0.0  108  MASc Thesis (2002)  Sample Date:  Arash Masbough  Aug 31/00 Sample ID  TSS (mg/L)  FSS (mg/L)  VSS (mg/L)  Cell 1  18.5  4.5  14.0  Cell 2  16.5  2.5  14.0  Cell 3  33.0  3.0  30.0  Cell 4  17.0  2.0  15.0  Cell 5  21.0  3.0  18.0  Cell 6  24.0  3.0  21.0  Cell Influent  122.7  20.0  102.7  Leachate Pool  34.0  5.5  28.5  Slough  270.5  150.5  120.0  Blank  2.0  0.5  1.5  109  MASc Thesis (2002)  Table A3 BOD, COD, and Tannin and Lignin Raw Data In Constructed Wetland Cells in 2000 BOD , (mg.L- ) 1  5  04Sample MavID 00  11May00  Cell 1  Masbough  23Mav00  31May00  1650  1680  420  09Jun00  15Jun00  22Jun00  29Jun00  06Jul00  539  540  1139 990  630  1139 1230  Cell 5  660  570  630  660  420  180  689  Cell 3  630  810  150  120  780  780  1289 1110 1499 1320  Cell 6  510  750  720  960  720  300  1019  870  1229 1080  Cell 2  330  630  540  1620  150  120  899  540  749  Cell 4  390  690  720  1020  660  180  509  780  1079  Cell Influent  1620  2160  1620  2100  1170  720  1859 1560 1799 1680  Leachate 6450 Pool  6300  6150  7200  4950 5250 6749 7350 8399 8550  8  12  4  10  12  3  28  13Jul-  27; Jul-  00  00  0310Aug- Aug00 00  17Aue00  24Aue00  31Aug00  08Sep00  Slough  Arash  16Mav00  9  11  13  15Sep- Average 00  1170 540  600  690  1080  960  930  899  -  922  1260 630  615  630  870  900  870  569  424  714  1410 1110 720  780  960  1110  990  1199 1224  1170 870  360  405  630  690  570  419  374  718  930  540  405  285  480  690  750  869  749  637  1020 780  435  465  630  600  600  509  399  637  1800 1560  840  1080 1800 1950 1620 2999 2399  1702  7650 7350 9000 7500 8550 9450 8700 7799 7349  7405  110  840  947  MASc Thesis (2002)  COD, (mg.L ) -1  Jun Sample May May May May May Jun Jun Jun ID 04/00 11/00 16/00 23/00 31/00 09/00 15/00 22/00 29/00 Cell 1  Jul 06/00  2588 2450  1225  500  1213 2037.5 2075.0 1250 1787.5 2525.0  Cell 5  1313  900  1075 2113  1250 1607 775  Cell 3  1163  1275  1463 2100  1925 3472 1913 2338 2587.5 2412.5  Cell 6  1200  1238  1238 2300 2038 2183 1488 1825 2037.5 2075.0  Cell 2  850  1063  950  Cell 4  638  1150  1263 2463 2250 1429 500  Cell 3225 3525 2925 Influent  1813 2263 1131 1163 1450 1312.5 1537.5 1825 1875.0  2775 3000 4484 2600 3075 3000.0 3025.0  Leachate 12125 11125 11000 8000 6875 9921 9813 1537514187.516312.5 Pool Slough  Jul 13/00  178  Jul 27/00  135  Aug 03/00  155  148  140  123  73  108  Aug 10/00  Aug 17/00  Aug 24/00  Aug 31/00  Sep 08/00  2622.7  1124.0 1459.9 1975.0  2400  1975.0 2012.5  1675.0  2661.5  1098.2 1498.7 1600.0 1562.5 2000.0 1912.5 1137.5  2803.6 2325.6 2002.6 1837.5  2025  100.0  Sep AVERAGE 15/00 -  1822  962.5  1528  2112.5 2037.5 2775.0 2912.5  2183 1673  2661.5  1343.7  1304.9 1362.5 1912.5  1775.0 1512.5 1300.0  2054.3  1653.7  1343.7 1237.5  1562.5 1725.0 1912.5 2050.0  1500  2080.1  1279.1 1408.3 1425.0 1337.5 1575.0 1487.5 3237.5 3212.5  1691  3410.9  1292.0 2403.1  3221  1950.0  1425  2525  987.5  2875.0 3675.0 5225.0 6200.0  16731.3 14793.3 17506.5 14875.0 16187.5 17250.0 16000.0 18125.0 15500.0 113.7  Arash  115.0  Masbough  103.4  118.9  117.5  125  147.5  111  162.5  115.0  210.0  13774 131  MASc Thesis (2002)  Total Tannin and Lignin (mg.L") 1  Sample Mav May May May May Jun Jun Jun Jun Jul ID 04/00 11/00 16/00 23/00 31/00 09/00 15/00 22/00 29/00 06/00 Cell 1  668  779  545  621  338  426  883 1016.1  Cell 5 316.76252.07 217  346  495  1177 431  274  808 732.7  Cell 3 292.61250.41 349  317  698  698  707  500  951 1023.0  Cell 6 225.85 349.92 102  450  647  1026 457  365  847 981.6  Cell 2 177.56 76.29  325  422  285  1019 479  219  658 732.7  Cell 4 176.14213.93 292  422  651  704  254  323  340  Cell 693.18407.96 651 Influent  570  922  1177 842  535  978 1168.2  Leachate 2642 3325 Pool  3720 3288 5482 2862 3651 5485 5806.5  Slough  -  6.53  4271 4  23  18  27  18  4  13  -  12.8  Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Sep Sep 13/00 27/00 03/00 10/00 17/00 24/00 31/00 08/00 15/00 AVERAGE 121.1 477  734  864  420  561  586  329  1610  646  363.2 365  640  743  399  336  934  535  383  513  370.5 938  945  916  710  838  982  1156  995  718  816.0 617  668  974  613  671.7  760  623  431  612  704.6 536  104  706  805  623.7  411  898  489  509  610.2 565  684  782  656  790.4 1078 1099 1317  609  595.6 737  1008 1451  905  919.2 1354 1326 2346  978  5447.9 5326 6527 6260 5190 6603.5 6517 6516 5847  4988  16.8  Arash Masbough  17  23  21  18  21.7  112  22  22  17  17  MASc Thesis (2002)  Table A4 Total Volatile Fatty Acids Raw Data in Constructed Wetland Cells in 2000  Total Volatile Fatty Acids (mg.L ) 1  Sample May May May May May Jun Jun Jun Jun Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug ID 04/00 11/00 16/00 23/00 31/00 09/00 15/00 22/00 29/00 06/0013/0027/00 03/00 10/00 17/00 Cell 1  -  .0  442  493  237  108  118  251  351  399 409  138  0  168  220  Cell 5  261  66  186  144  169  284  211  267  288  473  643  133  162  188  258  Cell 3  220  142  301  172  419  171  568  595  491  538  567  486  249  213  313  Cell 6  168  112  138  252  459  663  411  399  352  360 449  156  44  195  90  Cell 2  31  35  118  54  27  521  214  152  115  202 250  91  0  20  321  Cell 4  96  152  216  297  361  381  108  411  247  0  239  27  36  92  76  Cell 526 Influent  409  474  576  591  590  593  619  588  545  726  197  294  355  400  Leachate 2311 1876 1822 1867 2135 2175 1894 1879 1995 2413 2523 2829 2505 1641 1741 Pool Slough  0  6  17  12  27  46  0  41  11  21  48  45  50  57  70  Acetic Acid (mg.L") 1  Sample May Mav May Mav ID 04/00 11/00 16/00 23/00 Cell 1 168 275 Cell 5 93 68 55 87 Cell 3 33 99 14 Cell 6 61 88 Cell 2 13 45 Cell 4 74 45 35 128 Cell Influent 261 128 196 285 Leachate Pool 1091 858 1018 1056 Slough 0 6 10 8 Blank 0 0 0 0  Arash Masbough  Mav 31/00 87 80 140 154 10 122  Jun 09/00 39 91 51 285 177 67  Jun Jun Jun Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug 15/00 22/00 29/00 06/00 13/0027/00 03/00 10/00 17/00 28 54 133 179 183 75 90 97 44 84 188 188 52 46 93 108 127 194 186 193 221 226 136 144 134 135 127 123 109 132 133 45 8 15 15 81 48 80 14 49 56 18 122 7 116 71 55 6 11 31 9  241  254  162  131  141  949 13 0  1061 945 1011 1141 1321 1151 1177 1167 19 15 11 18 19 22 26 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  28 0  34 0  226  113  259  287  269 305  87  MASc Thesis (2002)  Propionic Acid (mg.L" ) Sample May May May May May Jun Jun Jun Jun Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug ID 04/00 11/00 16/00 23/00 31/00 09/00 15/00 22/00 29/00 06/00 13/0027/00 03/00 10/00 17/00 Cell 1  -  -  102  61  53  13  21  27  59  69  75  23  -  33  46  Cell 5  60  16  41  -  42  44  18  14  42  71  87  26  41  45  54  Cell 3  43  34  64  -  79  24  92  84  80  83  89  61  48  40  47  Cell 6  36  37  48  -  83  114  52  54  52  55  60  15  -  6  4  Cell 2  4  12  24  -  2  87  31  16  17  31  23  15  -  -  63  Cell 4  24  43  55  -  65  29  2  46  32  -  21  1  3  7  5  Cell Influent  89  103  101  -  106  101  97  110  99  91  112  35  67  78  77  Leachate 423 Pool  342  -  -  369  317  275  252  288  378  375  460  405  406  436  Slough  0  -  0  0  3  3  -  2  0  2  4  5  5  5  7  Blank  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  (Butyric + iso-butyric) Acids (mg.L' Sample May May May May May Jun Jun Jun Jun Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug ID 04/00 11/00 16/00 23/00 31/00'09/00 15/00 22/00 29/00 06/0013/0027/00 03/00 10/00 17/00  Arash  Cell 1  -  -  112  120  55  35  31  66  -  102  95  27  -  34  53  Cell 5  58  29  -  64  31  101  61  76  106  144  152  38  24  28  54  Cell 3  54  57  85  125  117  64  156  155  -  156  171  104  44  32  81  Cell 6  39  -  -  119  133  122  121  124  128  115  122  40  24  141  33  Cell 2  -  19  32  39  12  149  63  46  31  59  65  23  -  -  85  Cell 4  18  52  67  124  104  75  38  120  89  -  74  11  -  25  34  Cell Influent  105  106  -  166  110  107  105  124  122  -  146  40  -  -  109  Leachate 511 Pool  395  478  496  394  345  280  254  292  421  451  588  455  554  594  Slough  0  -  4  4  4  4  -  2  0  0  3  4  18  6  6  Blank  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  Masbough  114  MASc Thesis (2002)  Valeric Acid (mg.L") 1  Sample May May May May May Jun Jun Jun Jun Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug ID 04/00 11/00 16/00 23/00 31/00 09/00 15/00 22/00 29/00 06/00 13/0027/00 03/00 10/00 17/00 Cell 1  -  -  28  38  27  16  14  42  66  49  29  12  -  5  15  Cell 5  25  10  20  25  2  48  30  38  57  69  66  16  2  1  9  Cell 3  22  19  32  46  56  33  77  76  75  78  73  46  2  1  27  Cell 6  18  9  23  45  60  90  52  59  63  58  59  19  11  17  20  Cell 2  3  4  16  14  3  72  29  24  18  31  39  24  -  1  33  Cell 4  4  21  1  45  47  35  19  60  55  -  45  9  7  14  15  Cell Influent  71  31  30  61  74  81  74  86  79  69  80  20  15  31  50  154  177  191  300  294  302  270  273  292  320 324  307  315  324  Leachate 280 Pool Slough  0  -  0  0  6  19  -  23  0  0  22  15  0  19  20  Blank  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  Hexanoic Acids (mg.L") 1  Sample May May May May Mav Jun Jun Jun Jun Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug ID 04/00 11/00 16/00 23/00 31/00 09/00 15/00 22/00 29/00 06/0013/0027/00 03/00 10/00 17/00  Arash  Cell 1  -  -  32'  -  15  5  25  62  -  -  24  -  -  3  4  Cell 5  25  12  4  -  13  -  58  93  -  -  140  -  3  1  7  Cell 3  14  21  -  27  0  50  94  -  -  1  125  4  2  14  Cell 6  13  -  -  -  29  52  60  39  -  -  64  26  1  10  11  Cell 2  5  -  -  -  -  36  11  17  -  -  54  -  -  -  14  Cell 4  4  -  19  -  23  176  43  69  -  -  30  -  3  7  7  Cell Influent  1  42  49  64  60  46  91  40  -  -  83  15  5  45  24  Leachate Pool  -  127  148  124  123  157  92  92  -  -  223  277  166  359  382  Slough  0  -  4  0  0  0  -  0  0  -  0  0  1  0  2  Blank  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  Masbough  115  MASc Thesis (2002)  Table A5 Nutrients Raw Data in Constructed Wetland Cells in 2000 NH (mg.L ) 1  3  Sample May May May May May Jun Jun Jun Jun Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug ID 04/00 11/00 16/00 23/00 31/00 09/00 15/00 22/00 29/00 06/0013/00 27/00 03/00 10/00 17/00 Cell 1  -  -  0.2  0.3  0.1  -  0.0  0.0  0.9  0.81 0.47 0.16 0.11  0.12  0.23  Cell 5  0.0  0.0  -  0.0  -  -  0.0  0.0  0.5  0.7  0.4  0.1  0.1  0.1  0.1  Cell 3  0.0  0.0  -  -  0.0  -  0.0  0.0  0.7  0.7  0.4  0.4  0.2  0.2  0.2  Cell 6  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.3  0.0  0.1  0.7  0.71 0.39 0.14 0.13  0.11  0.10  Cell 2  0.0  0.0  -  -  -  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.3  0.4  0.3  0.3  Cell 4  0.0  0.0  -  -  -  -  0.1  0.0  0.5  -  0.17 0.11 0.06  0.11  0.11  Cell Influent  0.1  0.1  0.5  0.7  0.2  -  0.0  0.2  0.7  0.7  0.4  0.0  0.1  0.1  0.1  Leachate 2.3 Pool  1.7  2.0  1.9  1.6  2.7  2.2  2.8  5.1  5.6  3.2  3.2  3.7  2.7  3.3  0.3  0.2  0.1  Slough  0.1  0.6  0.2  0.0  0.4  0.2  0.2  0.1  0.2  0.1  0.5  0.1  0.3  0.3  0.2  Blank  -  -  -  -  -  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  NO x (mg.L ) 1  Sample May May May May May Jun Jun Jun Jun Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug ID 04/00 11/00 16/00 23/00 31/00 09/00 15/00 22/00 29/00 06/0013/0027/00 03/00 10/00 17/00 0.11  0.14  0.14  0.20 0.12 0.20 0.41 0.38 0.24 0.16 0.32  0.32  0.39  Cell 5  0.30 0..084 0.08  0.20  0.19  0.19 0.16 0.20 0.32 0.39 0.24 0.15 0.35  0.35  0.39  Cell 3  0.20  0.12  0.11  0.14  0.18  0.19 0.22 0.25 0.34 0.35 0.18 0.13 0.38  0.33  0.34  Cell 6  0.25  0.11  0.13  0.19  0.17  0.14 0.19 0.22 0.35 0.37 0.21 0.17 0.37  0.39  0.40  Cell 2  0.14  0.10  0.12  0.17  0.14  0.18 0.15 0.15 0.28 0.31 0.15 0.15 0.31  0.43  0.45  Cell 4  0.15  0.12  0.12  0.14  0.18  0.23 0.13 0.18 0.34  0.16 0.18 0.30  0.32  0.39  Cell 0.32 Influent  0.10  0.11  0.18  0.13  0.14 0.18 0.20 0.26 0.27 0.16 0.11 0.30  0.35  0.31  Leachate 0.42 Pool  0.11  0.15  0.16  0.14  0.08 0.21 0.18 0.24 0.31 0.14 0.00 0.00  0.00  0.00  Slough 0.05  0.08  0.17  0.17  0.08  0.06 0.10 0.09 0.14 0.13 0.08 0.00 0.00  0.00  0.00  -  -  -  -  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  0.00  0.00  Cell 1  -  Blank  Arash  Masbough  -  -  116  -  MASc Thesis (2002)  PQ (mg.L ) 1  4  Sample May Mav Mav May May Jun Jun Jun Jun Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug ID 04/00 11/00 16/00 23/00 31/00 09/00 15/00 22/00 29/00 06/0013/0027/00 03/00 10/00 17/00 Cell 1  -  -  1.0  0.8  0.3  0.1  0.2  0.3  0.4 0.455 0.596 0.415 0.364 0.470 0.514  Cell 5  0.3  0.2  0.2  0.2  0.2  0.3  0.2  0.2  0.7  0.4  0.5  0.3  0.3  0.4  0.6  Cell 3  0.3  0.3  0.4  0.4  0.5  0.2  0.5  0.5  0.5  0.6  1.1  1.3  1.2  1.1  1.3  Cell 6  0.4  0.4  0.4  0.4  0.4  0.8  0.3  0.3  0.3  0.4  0.5  0.4  0.4  0.4  0.4  Cell 2  0.2  0.3  0.3  0.2  0.0  0.5  0.2  0.2  0.2  0.5  1.2  1.4  1.2  1.7  2.6  Cell 4  0.2  0.3  0.4  0.4  0.5  0.1  0.2  0.3  0.3  -  1.9  1.7  1.4  1.3  2.3  Cell Influent  0.9  1.0  0.9  1.2  0.8  0.8  0.6  0.7  0.6  0.7  0.9  0.4  0.5  0.7  0.7  ^eachate 3.6 Pool  3.2  3.7  3.4  2.9  3.9  3.1  3.7  3.9  4.2  4.5  5.2  4.9  5.6  6.1  Slough  0.2  0.2  0.2  0.1  0.1  0.1  0.1  0.2  0.2  0.1  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  _  _  _  _  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.2  Blank  Table A6 Temperature, pH, DO, and Conductivity Raw Data in Constructed Wetlands in 2001 Temperature (°C): Sample Jun Jul Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Sep Sep Sep Oct Oct ID 20/01 04/01 11/01 18/01 25/01 01/01 09/01 16/01 23/01 30/01 07/01 14/01 25/01 05/01 12/01 Cell 1  0.0  0.0  16.0  16.0  15.5  16.5  15.0  17.0  15.0  9.0  7.5  Cell 5  8.0  17.0 15.0 15.5  16.5  16.0  16.0  16.0  17.0  16.5  16.0  15.0  7.5  7.0  11.0 16.0 14.5 15.2  16.0  16.0  16.0  15.0  17.0  14.5  17.0  15.0  9.5  7.0  Cell 6  7.5  16.5 15.0 15.0  14.5  16.2  16.2  15.5  17.0  13.5  15.5  14.3  8.5  7.0  Cell 2  9.0  18.0 15.0 15.6 16.0  16.5  16.5  15.5  16.5  15.0  16.5  14.5  9.0  8.5  9.0  16.0 15.0 15.5  15.5  16.0  16.0  16.0  17.0  14.5  15.5  15.0  9.0  8.0  7.0  14.0 12.5 13.0  12.0  13.7  13.7  12.0  14.0  13.0  11.0  14.2  11.0  10.0  11.5 14.0 20.0 20.0 22.0  23.0  23.0  22.5  24.0  23.0 27.0 20.8  16.5  15.5  Cell 3  Cell 4  -  -  Cell Influent Leachate Pool  Arash  Masbough  -  15.5 15.0 15.0  117  MASc Thesis (2002)  £H: Jul Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Sep Sep Sep Oct Oct Sample Jun ID 20/01 04/01 11/01 18/0125/01 01/01 09/01 16/01 23/01 30/01 07/01 14/01 25/01 05/01 12/01  -  4.62 4.78  4.61  4.56  5.19  4.81  4.61  5.08  4.40  4.39  4.70  4.41  -  4.62 4.85 4.82 4.94  4.70  4.86  5.00  5.11  4.73  4.46  4.52  4.66  5.14  5.53  -  4.45 4.80 4.77 4.92  4.56  4.57  4.98  5.02  4.97  4.99  4.53  4.45  4.71  4.72  Cell 6  4.01 4.66 5.03 4.90 4.91  5.00  5.87  5.69  5.04  4.89  5.84  4.65  4.92  4.86  4.99  Cell 2  4.05 4.31 4.70 4.71 4.94  4.71  4.79  6.27  5.62  5.42  5.71  4.97  5.45  5.47  4.89  Cell 1  -  Cell 5 Cell 3  -  Cell 4  -  4.50 4.90 4.77 5.05  5.01  4.83  5.82  5.66  5.65  6.22  4.74  4.89  5.12  4.71  Cell Influent  -  4.16 4.20 4.15 4.64  4.44  4.38  4.65  4.61  4.41  4.44  4.09  4.01  4.01  4.02  Leachat e Pool  -  3.35 3.58 3.43 3.73  3.51  3.36  3.78  3.45  3.89  3.65  3.68  3.64  3.98  3.67  Well  -  6.46  6.34  -  6.78  6.26  6.20  6.29  6.31  6.18  6.27  6.37  -  -  -  DO ( m g . L ) 1  Sample Jun Jul Jul Jul Jul Aue Aug Aug Aug Aug Sep Sep Sep Oct Oct ID 20/01 04/01 11/01 18/01 25/01 01/01 09/01 16/01 23/01 30/01 07/01 14/01 25/01 05/01 12/01  Arash  Cell 1  -  0.0  0.0  0.4  0.3  0.6  0.6  0.3  0.6  0.2  0.2  0.3  0.3  0.4  0.3  Cell 5  -  0.1  0.2  0.2  0.2  2.3  0.3  0.3  0.4  0.3  0.3  0.5  0.3  0.4  0.5  Cell 3  -  0.0  0.2  0.3  0.3  0.5  0.3  0.3  0.7  0.2  0.2  0.3  0.3  0.4  0.3  Cell 6  -  0.2  0.1  0.3  0.3  0.4  0.4  0.3  0.7  0.3  0.3  0.4  0.3  0.5  0.4  Cell 2  -  1.1  0.1  0.4  0.3  1.8  0.4  0.3  0.5  0.3  0.3  0.2  0.3  0.4  0.2  Cell 4  -  0.6  0.2  0.3  0.3  0.2  0.3  0.3  0.5  0.4  0.4  0.4  0.4  0.5  0.4  Cell Influent  -  3.1  1.0  2.0  2.1  2.8  3.2  0.7  1.1  1.2  1.2  1.1  0.5  0.5  1.1  Leachate Pool  -  0.5  0.2  0.6  0.6  0.4  0.4  0.4  0.2  0.3  0.3  0.5  0.4  0.5  0.5  Masbough  118  MASc Thesis (2002)  C o n d u c t i v i t y (uJS.cm"') Sample Jun Jul Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Sep Sep Sep Oct Oct ID 20/01 04/01 11/01 18/01 25/01 01/01 09/01 16/01 23/01 30/01 07/01 14/01 25/01 05/01 12/01 Cell 1  -  435  590  537  490  497  420  464  493  834  797  622  657  Cell 5  -  687.0 644  561  591  553  462  530  205  561  552  927  756  444  378  Cell 3  -  600.0 632  572  610  553  563  489  441  433  482  711  686  651  623  Cell 6 1036.0 626.0 634  604  591  494  264  448  420  474  357  824  711  577  516  Cell 2 978.0 1087.0 783  748  788  732  76  639  530  527  522  906  778  707  666  Cell 4  671.0 657  588  588  537  504  464  352  380  391  927  755  602  600  Cell 1390.0 581.0 582 Influent  549  669  551  508  449  410  540  594  1257 777  799  729  -  -  Leachate 1345.01513.0 1380 1437 1473 1482 1632 1400 1397 1513 1489 1504 1553 1441 1433 Pool  Arash  Masbough  119  MASc Thesis (2002)  Table A7 BOD, COD, and Tannin and Lignin Raw Data In Constructed Wetland Cells in 2000 BOD , (mg.L- ) 1  5  Jun Jul Sample ID 20/01 04/01 Cell 1 Cell 5 1979 Cell 3 1883 Cell 6 1219 1625 Cell 2 1099 3239 Cell 4 1961 Cell influent 5959 3779 Leachate Pool 10139 8984 Well 3  Jul Jul Jul 11/01 18/01 25/01 1433 974 3153 1535 1043 3255 1541 1103 2961 1541 896 3459 1703 1382 3201 1523 782 4747 3749 2909 9597 10859 6989 0 0 0  Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Sep 01/01 09/01 16/01 23/01 30/01 07/01 1337 1109 869 490 1247 963 1289 1007 608 446 1208 1134 1361 1055 899 497 833 984 863 593 608 425 860 747 1637 1241 1088 493 1028 1023 1139 1115 751 428 644 756 2759 3269 1574 1029 1949 1980 6719 7949 6449 6644 5339 7050 2 0 3 2 3 3  Sep 14/01 2549 2789 1979 2033 1817 2153 6734 7679 3  Oct 05/01 1298 782 1433 1355 1283 1100 3629 7409 8  Oct 12/01 1598 779 1304 1238 533 1325 4439 7199 2  COD, (mg.L') Sample ID  Jun 20/01  Jul 04/01  Jul 11/01  Jul 18/01  Jul 25/01  Aug 01/01  Aug 09/01  Cell 1  0  -  -  1825  2550  2200  2050  Cell 5  0  5100  3050  2350  2500  2125  1125  Cell 3  0  4600  3025  2425  2600  2200  2450  Cell 6  6395  4600  2975  2375  2475  1800  1825  Cell 2  5879  6850  3775  3325  3625  3325  3075  Cell 4  0  5250  3050  2450  2600  2150  2025  Influent  10788  5375  3225  2725  4150  3100  2475  Leachate Pool  10659  18063  12000  11813  12438  12813  13563  Well  -  25  -  -  -  -  -  Cell  Arash  Masbough  120  MASc Thesis (2002)  Sample ID  Aug 16/01  Aug 23/01  Aug 30/01  Sep 07/01  Sep 14/01  Sep 25/01  Oct 05/01  Oct 12/01  Cell 1  2100  1525  2100  2150  4850  4475  3050  3200  Cell 5  1875  1450  2375  2550  5925  3825  2800  1875  Cell 3  1800  1725  1650  1875  3950  4425  3025  2875  Cell 6  1575  1450  1800  1625  4325  4250  2700  1300  Cell 2  2925  1925  1850  1975  3550  3675  2975  2975  Cell 4  1925  1475  • 1238  1675  4325  3825  2700  2725  2600  2725  2525  3350  6563  6563  4725  5625  Leachate 12563 Pool  11125  10125  13125  14125  14438  12750  12500  3  -  28  28  80  10  18  Cell Influent  Well  3  Tannin and Lignin (mg.L") 1  Sample ID  Jun 20/01  Jul 04/01  Jul 11/01  Jul 18/01  Jul 25/01  Aug 01/01  Aug 09/01  Cell 1  -  -  -  614  913  702  496  Cell 5  ' -  1322.65  856  776  934  690  453  Cell 3  -  1050.10  876  863  964  644  853  Cell 6 1380.31 1042.08  909  819  792  545  368  Cell 2  731.66 1935.87  1026  1056  1255  719  1056  1216.43  878  859  827  621  485  Cell 2316.60 1138.28 Influent  927  776  1259  687  658  Leachate 4305 Pool  4228  3117  3691  3515  3289  4135  _  0  0  0  1  0  Cell 4  Well  Arash  Masbough  -  0.00  121  MASc Thesis (2002)  Sample ID  Aug 16/01  Aug 23/01  Aug 30/01  Sep 07/01  Sep 14/01  Sep 25/01  Oct 05/01  Oct 12/01  Cell 1  452  415  669  542  1261  1036  1116  967  Cell 5  411  216  734  671  1665  559  486  450  Cell 3  504  427  575  528  1180  651  905  899  Cell 6  406  367  546  392  1137  816  632  620  Cell 2  724  321  573  488  1083  727  882  881  Cell 4  470  352  481  397  1117  702  706  620  Cell Influent  555  489  728  791  2511  1983  1320  1258  2842  2897  3131  3167  3578  3151  3744  3  2  1  3  3  3  Leachate 2912 Pool Well  2  2•  Table A8 Total Volatile Fatty Acids Raw Data in Constructed wetland Cells in 2001 Total Volatile Fatty Acids (mg.L') Sample Jun Jul Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Sep Sep Sep Oct Oct ID 20/01 04/01 11/01 18/01 25/01 01/01 09/01 16/01 23/01 30/01 07/01 14/01 25/01 05/01 12/01 Cell 1  -  0  0  203  364  605  531  282  248  399  308  784  865  375  752  Cell 5  -  458  539  510  436  433  298  104  106  427  394  702  719  223  103  Cell 3  -  561  493  466  450  637  465  337  269  263  334  683  666  458  437  Cell 6  866  495  448  430  473  345  49  218  272  328  79  650  738  398  323  Cell 2  920 1195 432  583  585  704  557  497  197  225  172  395  430  294  450  573  325  295  556  361  363  260  157  132  97  702  544  292  446  Cell 2039 517 Influent  744  449  361  473  564  295  109  476  577  1616 1106  716  558  Cell 4  -  Leachate 1978 1963 2078 2194 2322 2224 2408 2017 Pool Well  0  Arash Masbough  3  71  23  0  56  0  122  23  1827 1987 2312 2111 1763 1942 2153 32  51  42  13  19  24  6  MASc Thesis (2002)  Acetic Acid (mg.L") 1  Sample Jun Jul Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Sep Sep Sep Oct Oct ID 20/01 04/01 11/01 18/01 25/01 01/01 09/01 16/01 23/01 30/01 07/01 14/01 25/01 05/01 12/01 Cell 1  -  -  -  4  15  32  29  20  19  29  18  57  48  35  47  Cell 5  0  35  19  20  36  31  18  5  8  26  22  53  34  17  -  Cell 3  0  36  5  2  30  38  33  23  18  17  21  47  42  35  26  Cell 6  38  33  4  31  34  22  2  14  22  25  3  47  34  24  22  Cell 2  53  76  6  10  40  53  41  36  14  12  6  35  12  9  27  Cell 4  0  35  5  10  28  21  21  13  7  9  5  45  28  14  28  Cell 153 Influent  36  44  24  10  20  28  16  4  34  40  125  102  55  7  Leachate 145 Pool  909  173  195  193  190  222  157  161  141  203  193  140  139  168  Well  0  3  5  2  0  4  0  2  3  5  3  2  2  2  -  Blank  0  0  0  2  1  2  1  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  0  Propionic Acid (mg.L") 1  Sample Jun Jul Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Sep Sep Sep Oct Oct ID 20/01 04/01 11/01 18/01 25/01 01/01 09/01 16/01 23/01 30/01 07/01 14/01 25/01 05/01 12/01  Arash  Cell 1  -  -  -  9  16  13  10  8  7  11  6  21  18  12  45  Cell 5  0  22  19  13  15  12  6  1  3  11  8  24  16  6  4  Cell 3  0  20  16  12  13  13  11  7  5  4  5  15  17  12  10  Cell 6  41  20  6  13  14  8  1  5  7  9  -  19  14  10  8  Cell 2  38  42  22  17  20  23  16  15  4  7  7  14  13  8  10  Cell 4  0  26  15  10  11  7  6  4  2  3  1  17  12  5  9  Cell Influent  72  19  19  18  15  16  11  8  4  12  15  47  13  18  19  Leachate 72 Pool  7  66  67  71  65  75  57  53  54  67  57  40  47  55  Slough  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  -  -  1  -  -  -  5  -  Blank  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  Masbough  123  MASc Thesis  (Butyric + iso-butyric) Acids (mg.L") 1  Sample Jun Jul Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Sep Sep Sep Oct Oct ID 20/01 04/01 11/01 18/01 25/01 01/01 09/01 16/01 23/01 30/01 07/01 14/01 25/01 05/01 12/01 Cell 1  -  -  -  17  26  27  24  18  16  28  22  47  34  -  -  Cell 2  52  68  32  30  31  35  30  26  10  13  10  29  30  22  30  Cell 3  0  32  -  25  25  -  30  22  18  -  24  43  43  29  29  Cell 4  0  30  23  19  23  25  27  20  11  -  7  40  34  23  31  Cell 5  0  23  24  -  22  26  21  8  -  28  28  44  23  -  -  Cell 6  53  27  22  22  26  22  -  13  -  21  7  44  33  28  24  Cell Influent 108  28  _  27  29  35  27  _  _  _  36  95  34  _  51  Leachate Pool 96  132  101  102  116  110  109  114  92  121  118  103  98  126  131  Slough  0  0  9  2  0  8  0  -  -  4  5  -  -  -  -  Blank  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  Valeric Acid (mg.L") 1  Sample Jun Jul Jul Jul Jul Aue Aue Aug Aug Aug Sep Sep Sep Oct Oct ID 20/01 04/01 11/01 18/01 25/01 01/01 09/01 16/01 23/01 30/01 07/01 14/01 25/01 05/01 12/01  Arash  Cell 1  -  -  -  8  10  12  9  7  8  12  10  22  74  6  15  Cell 5  0  7  11  11  9  11  9  5  4  13  14  12  70  4  4  Cell 3  0  15  15  14  13  13  13  10  9  9  11  22  22  11  16  Cell 6  23  12  11  12  12  11  4  7  8  10  6  9  68  13  11  Cell 2  22  33  17  17  16  19  16  15  7  8  7  1  21  14  16  Cell 4  0  15  14  12  12  12  12  10  7  6  6  38  35  12  15  Cell Influent  41  12  13 .  12  12  15  12  8  5  13  15  36  72  18  24  Leachate 45 Pool  40  44  42  50  46  40  47  33  53  42  40  45  52  48  Slough  0  0  -  0  0  0  0  -  -  1  -  -  -  5  -  Blank  0  2  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  Masbough  124  MASc Thesis (2002)  Hexanoic Acids (mg.L") 1  Sample Jun Jul Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Sep Sep Sep Oct Oct ID 20/01 04/01 11/01 18/01 25/01 01/01 09/01 16/01 23/01 30/01 07/01 14/01 25/01 05/01 12/01 Cell 1  -  -  -  3  5  37  34  3  -  -  5  10  -  3  7  Cell 5  0  4  34  40  5  6  5  2  -  7  7  7  -  2  2  Cell 3  0  8  36  39  8  36  7  5  5  5  6  10  10  5  6  Cell 6  19  7  46  8  7  6  3  4  4  -  -  11  -  5  -  Cell 2  19  20  10  42  10  11  10  8  4  5  4  -  9  6  7  Cell 4  0  9  9  8  37  7  6  5  4  -  -  -  -  5  6  Cell Influent  34  9  47  8  7  9  35  9  -  7  9  20  -  8  11  Leachate 37 Pool  32  31  32  35  34  36  29  26  29  33  30  29  26  29  Slough  0  0  -  0  0  0  0  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  Blank  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  Table A9 Nutrients in Constructed wetland Cells in 2001 NH (mg.L ) 1  3  Sample Jun Jul Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Sep Sep Sep Oct Oct 20/01 04/01 11/01 18/01 25/01 01/01 09/01 16/01 23/01 30/01 07/01 14/01 25/01 05/01 12/01 ID  Arash  Cell 1  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.2  0.2  0.2  0.2  0.2  0.1  0.2  0.0  0.3  0.7  0.3  0.4  Cell 5  0.0  0.5  0.4  0.3  0.2  0.2  0.2  0.2  0.0  0.0  0.1  0.6  0.6  0.1  0.1  Cell 3  0.0  0.4  0.5  0.3  0.5  0.3  0.3  0.2  0.1  0.1  0.0  0.2  6.8  0.5  0.4  Cell 6  0.0  0.4  0.5  0.3  0.3  0.1  0.0  0.1  0.0  0.1  0.0  0.3  0.5  0.3  0.1  Cell 2  0.0  1.0  0.7  0.5  0.9  0.6  0.8  0.6  0.1  0.1  0.0  5.8  4.2  1.6  0.7  Cell 4  0.0  0.4  0.9  0.6  0.3  0.2  0.2  0.1  0.0  0.0  0.0  12.8  4.7  0.5  0.3  Cell Influent  0.0  0.3  0.3  0.2  0.1  0.1  0.2  0.1  0.0  0.0  0.2  1.1  0.4  0.1  0.7  Leachate 0.0 Pool  2.9  2.5  2.2  2.3  2.5  3.4  2.3  2.3  1.1  2.0  2.1  2.2  2.0  2.4  Well  0.0  0.2  0.0  0.2  0.0  0.2  0.0  0.2  0.2  0.2  0.3  0.3  0.3  0.2  0.2  Blank  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.4  0.1  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  Masbough  125  MASc Thesis (2002)  NOx (mg.L ) 1  Sample Jun Jul Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Sep Sep Sep Oct Oct ID 20/01 04/01 11/01 18/01 25/01 01/01 09/01 16/01 23/01 30/01 07/01 14/01 25/01 05/01 12/01  -  Cell 1  -  0.00  0.02 0.00  0.00  0.07  0.05  0.08  0.07  0.05  0.08  0.05  0.12  0.08  Cell 5  -  0.14 0.12 0.03 0.00  0.00  0.09  0.07  0.03  0.10  0.06  0.12  0.06  0.06  0.06  Cell 3  -  0.12 0.13 0.03 0.00  0.00  0.05  0.03  0.06  0.06  0.05  0.06  0.04  0.16  0.80  Cell 6  0.15  0.12 0.11 0.02 0.00  0.00  0.06  0.03  0.05  0.06  0.05  0.10  0.00  0.11  0.06  Cell 2  0.26 0.09 0.13 0.03 0.00  0.00  0.06  0.03  0.09  0.06  0.05  0.05  0.00  0.07  0.05  0.13 0.13 0.02 0.00  0.00  0.06  0.03  0.04  0.05  0.05  0.10  0.00  0.06  0.06  Cell 0.22 Influent  0.12 0.09 0.02 0.00  0.00  0.03  0.03  0.03  0.10  0.08  0.07  0.00  0.19  0.09  Leachate 0.32 Pool  0.09 0.08 0.00 0.00  0.00  0.00  0.11  0.22  0.22  0.09  0.00  0.00  0.28  0.08  Well  0.00  0.18 0.21 0.03 0.00  0.00  0.00  0.28  0.03  0.02  0.04  0.03  0.23  0.03  0.07  Blank  0.00  0.00 0.00 0.07 0.00 -0.03 -0.01  0.01  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  Cell 4  -  P0  (mg.L ) 1  4  Sample Jun Jul Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Sep Sep Sep Oct Oct ID 20/01 04/01 11/01 18/01 25/01 01/01 09/01 16/01 23/01 30/01 07/01 14/01 25/01 05/01 12/01  Arash  Cell 1  -  0.0  -  0.6  0.6  0.6  0.0  0.3  0.4  0.5  0.4  1.4  1.2  0.8  0.9  Cell 5  -  0.7  0.6  0.6  0.6  0.6  0.5  0.6  0.1  0.6  0.5  1.6  1.2  0.5  0.5  Cell 3  -  0.6  0.6  0.6  0.6  0.6  0.9  0.5  0.4  0.4  0.5  1.1  1.2  1.0  0.9  Cell 6  1.1  0.6  0.6  0.6  0.6  0.5  0.6  0.4  0.3  0.4  0.3  1.4  1.0  0.7  0.6  Cell 2  2.7  1.1  1.1  1.2  1.2  0.9  0.9  0.9  1.0  1.2  1.0  1.9  1.7  1.0  0.7  Cell 4  -  0.7  0.8  0.8  0.7  1.0  0.9  0.8  0.6  0.7  0.6  3.7  2.3  1.1  1.0  Cell Influent  3.2  0.6  0.8  0.8  0.6  0.9  0.5  0.4  0.2  0.7  1.0  3.2  1.0  2.4  1.5  Leachate 3.0 Pool  2.9  3.1  3.3  3.3  3.7  3.7  3.2  3.2  2.9  3.4  3.5  3.5  3.5  3.5  Well  0.0  0.2  0.1  1.4  0.0  0.1  0.0  0.1  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.1  0.0  0.0  0.0  Blank  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.1  0.0  0.0  0.1  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  Masbough  126  MASc Thesis (2002)  APPENDIX B Theoretical Oxygen Demand Calculations APPENDIX B.l Theoretical Oxygen Demand Calculations Fatty A c i d s (general form): C H + i C O O H n  Acetic A c i d :  2 n  CH COOH + 20 - • 2 C 0 + 2 H 0 M W = 60.06 g/mol and M W o f 0 = 32.0 g/mol Therefore T h O D = 1.07 mg 0 per 1 mg o f acetic acid 3  2  2  2  2  2  Propionic A c i d : C H C O O H + 3 . 5 0 - » 3 C 0 + 3 H 0 M W = 74.09 g/mol and M W o f 0 = 32.0 g/mol Therefore T h O D = 1.51 mg 0 p e r 1 mg o f acetic acid 2  5  2  2  2  2  2  Butyric A c i d :  C 3 H 7 C O O H + 5 0 -> 4 C 0 + 4 H 0 M W = 88.12 g/mol and M W o f 0 = 32.0 g/mol Therefore T h O D = 1.82 mg 0 p e r 1 m g o f acetic acid 2  2  2  2  2  Valeric A c i d :  C 4 H 9 C O O H + 6 . 5 0 -> 5 C 0 + 5 F f 0 M W =102.15 g/mol and M W o f 0 = 32.0 g/mol Therefore T h O D = 2.04 mg 0 per 1 mg o f acetic acid 2  2  2  2  2  Hexanoic A c i d : C H , , C O O H + 8 0 -> 6 C 0 + 6 H 0 M W = 116.18 g/mol and M W o f 0 = 32.0 g/mol Therefore T h O D = 2.20 mg 0 per 1 mg o f acetic acid 5  2  2  2  2  2  Tannin and L i g n i n (uses tannic acid as surrogate) Tannic A c i d :  C 6 H 0 6 + 66 0 - » 76 C 0 + 26 H 0 M W = 1701.28 g/mol and M W o f 0 = 32.0 g/mol Therefore T h O D = 1.24 mg 0 per 1 mg o f acetic acid 7  5 2  4  2  2  2  2  2  Arash  Masbough  127  MASc Thesis (2002)  Table Bl Total ThOD for V F A s , 2000 Sample ID  Mav 04/00  Mav 11/00  Mav 16/00  Mav 23/00  Mav 31/00  Jun 09/00  Jun 15/00  Cell 1 Cell 5 Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 2 Cell 4 Cell Influent Leachate Pool  0.00 134.91 48.30 400.46 0.00 331.08 257.06 749.39  0.00 121.50 226.86 183.92 60.47 240.52 637.88 2740.91  664.13 279.08 467.44 240.35 176.63 328.30 708.93 2640.30  0.00 225.98 322.16 401.54 100.54 452.89 869.68 2687.57  360.99 238.69 654.35 717.74 42.64 563.11 899.54 3166.57  168.21 443.80 273.33 995.10 816.64 708.94 884.88 3182.58  200.80 372.68 894.60 670.03 329.41 211.29 929.71 2748.75  Sample ID Jun 22/00 Jun 29/00 Cell 1 Cell 5 Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 2 Cell 4 Cell Influent Leachate Pool  440.50 490.57 967.82 643.63 247.24 686.03 930.53 2671.96  Jul 06/00  Jul 13/00  Jul 27/00  Aug 03/00  Aug 10/00  Aug 17/00  579.89 710.73 802.52 551.04 303.92 0.00 775.79 3339.04  591.67 1050.38 834.92 716.72 410.59 383.58 1105.37 3755.99  188.05 195.21 794.52 240.25 132.74 45.52 291.16 4286.78  0.00 213.87 317.96 76.55 0.00 51.28 397.54 3672.39  223.17 239.54 270.00 337.94 18.26 134.55 546.43 3051.86  308.43 351.43 448.14 146.90 477.28 125.03 617.74 3236.27  534.67 460.49 738.28 555.66 170.72 397.40 839.57 2739.61  Table B2 Total ThOD for Tannin and Lignin, 2000 Sample May May Mav Mav Mav Jun Jun Jun Jun Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug ID 04/00 11/00 16/00 23/00 31/00 09/00 15/00 22/00 29/00 06/0013/0027/00 03/00 10/00 17/00 Cell 1  -  -  829  967  677  770  Cell 5  393  313  269  430  614  Cell 3  363  311  433  394  Cell 6  280  434  126  Cell 2  220  95  Cell 4  219  Cell Influent  861  419  528 1097 1261 150 592  911  1072  522  1461 535  341  794  922  495  866  866  621 1181 1270 460 1164 1173 1137  882  558  803  1273 567  453 1052 1219 1013 766  830  1209  761  404  524  354  1265 595  271  817  910  875  666  130  876  1000  266  362  524  808  874  401  422  -  757  702  849  971  814  506  808  708  1144 1461 1046 664 1214 1450 739  915  1251 1802 1123  878  315  1003 910 451  453  Leachate 3280 4128 5302 4617 4081 6806 3553 4533 6810 7208 6763 6611 8103 7771 6443 Pool  Arash  Masbough  128  MASc Thesis (2002)  Table B3 Total ThOD for V F A s , 2001 Sample Jun Jul Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Sep Sep Sep Oct Oct ID 20/01 04/01 11/01 18/01 25/01 01/01 09/01 16/01 23/01 30/01 07/01 14/01 25/01 05/01 12/01 Cell 1  599  1041  917  441  377  612  504  1220 1446 542  1150  Cell 2  1474 1895 767 1094 919  1089  871  779  313  371  296  565  514  730  Cell 3  • -  885  937  910  713  1076  731  537  433  426  544  1083 1067 705  710  Cell 4  -  900  582  510  976  592  595  441  269  208  163  1123 902  492  719  Cell 5  -  683  956  922  657  679  482  178  163  688  648  1065 1230 338  188  1430 768  890  674  735  554  89  351  415  500  140  1006 1268 643  505  Cell 3131 805 1260 727 Influent  621  791  985  489  183  747  906 2472 1684 1100 1004  Cell 6  -  -  -  -  756  Leachate 3057 2980 3129 3259 3507 3340 3539 3095 2720 3112 3444 3125 2719 3042 3304 Pool  Table B4 Total ThOD for Tannin and Lignin, 2001 Sample Jun Jul Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Sep Sep Sep Oct Oct ID 20/01 04/01 11/01 18/01 25/01 01/01 09/01 16/01 23/01 30/01 07/01 14/01 25/01 05/01 12/01 Cell 1  -  Cell 5 Cell 3  -  -  762 1133 871  616  561  516  831  672  1566 1286 1386 1200  -  1642 1062 963 1160 856  562  510  269  912  833  2067  694  603  -  1304 1087 1071 1196 800  1059  626  530  714  656  1464  808  1123 1116  558  Cell 6  1714 1294 1128 1017 984  677  457  504  455  678  487  1412 1013 785  Cell 2  908 2403 1273 1312 1558 893  1311  899  399  712  606  1345  903  1095 1094  1510 1089 1066 1027 772  602  583  437  597  493  1386  871  876  Cell 2317 1413 1151 963 1563 853 Influent  817  689  607  904  982  3117 2462 1639 1562  Cell 4  -  769  769  Leachate 4305 5249 3870 4582 4364 4083 5134 3615 3529 3597 3887 3931 4441 3912 4648 Pool  Arash  Masbough  129  MASc Thesis (2002)  APPENDIX C Climatic Data  Figure C l Temperature Data of Abbotsford, B.C. for 2001 (Source: Environment  •  45.0 40.0  •  35.0  •  30.0 a o  25.0  B 'S,  20.0  •  * •  10.0 5.0  'm\  0.0  <^ , ^  *  - •* J°  J°-  <  •  15.0  V  Canada, 2001)  •  • :  •  ; • J°  J>  c& . c&  ^  0  *  0  *  Day Precipitation (mm)  Figure C2 Precipitation Data of Abbotsford, B.C. for 2001 (Source: Environment  Arash  Masbough  130  Canada, 2001)  MASc Thesis (2002)  Table Cl Climate Normals, Abbotsford, BC, 1944-1990 (Environment Canada 1999) Jan  Feb  Apr  Mar  Jun  May  Jul  Aug  Sep  Nov  Oct  Dec  Year  Temperature Daily Maximum (°C)  5.4  8.4  10.9  13.9  17.4  20.4  23.2  23.6  20.5  14.9  9  5.7  14.4  Daily Minimum (°C)  -1  0.7  1.7  3.8  6.5  9.4  10.9  10.9  8.5  5.1  2.2  -0.5  4.9  Daily Mean (°C)  2.2  4.6  6.3  8.8  12  14.9  17.1  17.3  14.5  10  5.6  2.6  9.7  Extreme Maximum (°C)  17.7  20.6  22.8  29.7  36  34.7  37.8  36.3  37.5  29.3  20.6  18.2  Extreme Minimum (°C)  -21.1  -18.9  -12.8  -4.4  -2.2  1.1  2.2  3.3  -1.7  -7.5  -16.7  -20  0  0  0  0.1  2.1  6.6  20.2  21.5  5  0.1  0  0  56  489.6  378.9  361.7  274.7  189.1  98.1  48.9  43.8  109.3  247.9  371.2  480  3093  Above 5 °C  16.8  30.6  57.2  116.4  215.9  298.5  374.3  380.7  285.7  156.7  51.1  20  2004  Below 0 "C  29.7  7.1  1.5  0  0  0  0  0  0  0.2  5.3  26.2  70  Rainfall (mm)  174.2  151.1  139.1  113.3  89.2  66.7  50.7  53.1  85.4  156.2  215.7  191.5  1486.2  Snowfall (cm)  26.3  12.8  5.5  0.3  0  0  0  0  0  0  5.8  23.9  74.6  Precipitation (mm)  201.4  163.5  144.6  113.8  89.2  66.7  50.7  53.1  85.4  156.2  221.8  216.6  1562.9  Extreme Daily Rainfall (mm)  78.2  83.1  76.2  59.9  53.8  49.5  70.1  44.2  53.7  83.3  95  89.6  Extreme Daily Snowfall (cm)  49.8  26.4  33  3.8  0  0  0  0  0  1  31.8  43.8  Extreme Daily Precipitation (mm)  89.7  83.1  76.2  59.9  53.8  49.5  70.1  44.2  53.7  83.3  95  89.6  Month-end Snow Cover (cm)  2  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  5  28  28  31  30  31  30  31  31  30  31  29  28  357  15 *  14  11  7  7  10  18  166  0  0  0  0  15 *  19  0  1  5  16  Deeree-Davs Above 18 °C Below 18 "C  Precipitation  Davs With Maximum Temperature >0°C Measurable Rainfall  16  16  16  Measurable Snowfall  5  3  2 17 *  16  14  11  7  7  10  15  20  21  174  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  *  *  3  Measurable Precipitation 19 Freezing Precipitation  1  17 *  Fog  4  3  1  *  *  *  1  3  5  7  3  5  34  Sunshine (Mrs)  N  N  N  166.4  203.9  216.9  287.6  254.5  182.3  N  67.9  N  N  Station Pressure (kPa)  101.02  100.96 100.84 100.96 100.99 100.95 101.01 100.91 100.94 101.04 100.85 100.97 100.95  0.6  0.67  0.71  0.82  1.02  1.24  1.4  1.43  1.26  1  0.77  0.65  83  84  85  86  86  86  87  90  91  90  86  85  74  67  61  58  58  58  56  56  59  67  73  76  Speed (km/h)  12  12  11  11  10  9  8  8  8  9  11  12  Extreme Hourly Speed (km/h)  72  80  71  80  56  45  48  53  56  89  76  80  Direction  S  S  SW  S  S  S  S  E  S  S  S  SE  Extreme Gust Speed (km/h)  121  137  103  121  84  68  64  63  80  145  113  121  Moisture Vapour Pressure (kPa) Rel. Humidity - 0600L (%) Rel. Humidity - 1500L (%)  0.96  Wind  Arash  Masbough  131  10  MASc Thesis (2002)  5N  8 IS  rn  'I  <3  1 ^  Figure D6 Seasonal variability in Ammonia in Constructed Wetland Cells in 2001  -  Arash  Masbough  Avg Cells — • - — A v g Fertilized  136  A  Cell Influent  MASc  Thesis  (2002)  Figure D7 Seasonal variability in Nitrate+Nitrite in Constructed Wetland Cells in 2000 0.50  0.00 -I  1  '  N  0  <  , ~  o  3  J  j  1 J  a *<  1  >  p  3 ><  1  —  j  '  a  , J  >  .  , H  -  3  >-<  3  .  1 O  O  .  ,  1  ,  ,  ,  ,  '  N>  NO  ON  '  '  ^ -  —  3-  CTQ  3  0Q  r  1  o\  C CTQ  Date - •» - Avg. Cells — • — - A v g . Fert. — * — C e l l Influent  Figure D8 Seasonal variability in Nitrate+Nitrite in Constructed Wetland Cells in 2001 0.30  NO  ON  .V  ©  -U  —  '  oo  era Date  era  cro  i  —  ~  OO  <Jt  1 3  <  •  7 3  • - - Avg Cells — • — A v e g Fertilized — * — C e l l Influent  Arash  Masbough  137  MASc  Thesis  (2002)  Figure D9 Seasonal Variability in ortho-Phosphate in Constructed Wetland Cells in 2000  Figure D10 Seasonal Variability in ortho-Phosphate in Constructed Wetland Cells in 2001  - • • - Avg Cells — • — A v e g Fertilized  Arash  Masbough  138  A  Cell Influent  MASc  Thesis  (2002)  

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