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The treatment of wood leachate using constructed wetlands Frankowski, Kevin Anthony 2000

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THE  TREATMENT  OF WOOD  USING CONSTRUCTED  LEACHATE  WETLANDS  by  KEVIN ANTHONY FRANKOWSKI B.Sc, The University of Calgary, 1994  A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of  Master of Applied Science in the F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES; DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING;  Environmental Engineering Division; Pollution Control & Waste Management Program.  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A  April 2000 © Kevin Anthony Frankowski, 2000  THE TREATMENT OF WOOD LEACHATE USING CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS KEVIN  FRANKOWSKI  DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  ABSTRACT Rainfall percolating through wood chip piles, hog fuel, and log storage areas will leach naturally-occurring chemicals from the wood. This leachate is often characterised by high carbon content, strong colour, and high concentrations of tannin and lignin, resin acids and phenolics. This can be very toxic to aquatic life, and has serious implications from an environmental discharge viewpoint. It can lead to regulatory problems for facilities operators.  Research was conducted in a series of phases at a cedar processing site near Mission, British Columbia. It was determined that cedar leachate was amenable to biological treatment. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization was performed, and combined with the data obtained from treatment screening trials, laboratory-scale constructed wetlands were designed and tested. These constructed wetlands were able to achieve a 90% reduction in toxicity and removal rates of >90% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and 80% for chemical oxygen demand (COD).  A pilot-scale program demonstrated that constructed wetlands were able to treat the cedar leachate under field conditions. Initial data obtained during winter operations produced removal rates for toxicity on the order of 50%. B O D and COD removal was slightly less. The system still needs to undergo optimization, but preliminary results indicate several factors which may yield significant improvements in system performance.  Thus, it has been demonstrated that a wetland-based biological treatment process is potentially a practical and cost-effective treatment technique for wood leachate. Unit treatment costs are much lower than other technologies; effective physio-chemical treatment techniques are 10 - 30 times more expensive, conventional biological treatments at least 6 times. Also, many of the conventional biological systems have failed to demonstrate effective treatment performance for this type of wastewater.  Kevin Frankowski  iii  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  ABSTRACT  In addition to its cost-effective performance, this constructed wetlands system operates in a passive manner. It requires minimal operational attention and infrastructure. No chemical addition or by-products handling is needed. Possible applications include the collection and treatment of wood leachate from chip piles, wood waste landfills, and hog fuel piles, and the treatment of wood extractives in stormwater runoff from log yards, dryland sorts and staging areas. This system is ideally suited for those applications which require effective, economic treatment of fluctuating runoff loads containing a broad, and often changing, spectrum of contaminants.  Kevin Frankowski  iv  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract List of Tables List of Figures List of Abbreviations / Acronyms Acknowledgements  iii vii viii ix x  1.0 Problem Formulation 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4  1  Project Context Solid Waste Storage and Disposal BC's Forest Products Industry Research Scope and Objectives  1 1 4 6  2.0 Literature Review: State of the Technology 2.1 Leachate Generation at Wood Processing Sites 2.2 Leachate Control and Treatment 2.2.1 Minimization 2.2.2 Collection 2.2.3 Standard treatment techniques 2.3 Constructed Wetland Treatment Systems 2.3.1 Basic features and design premises 2.3.2 Scope of contaminant targets 2.3.3 System effectiveness and constraints 2.3.4 Distribution and use of the technology  3.0 Research Site Acquisition & Startup 3.1 Justification of Research Focus 3.2 Site Acquisition and Legalities 3.3 Project Site Description 3.3.1 Location and Current Conditions 3.3.2 Ownership and History  9 9 11 11 12 13 16 16 18 19 21  23 23 23 24 24 26  4.0 Cedar Leachate Characterization  27  4.1 Introduction 4.2 Methods and Materials 4.2.1 Sampling Protocols 4.2.2 Analysis protocols 4.3 Results and Discussion 4.3.1 Physical parameters 4.3.2 Chemical parameters 4.3.4 Biological parameters 4.4 Conclusions  27 27 27 28 30 30 33 37 44  Kevin Frankowski  v  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  TABLE OF C O N T E N T S  5.0 Screening Trials 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4  47  Introduction Methods and Materials Results and Discussion Conclusions  47 47 48 52  6.0 Bench-scale Treatment with Microcosm Wetlands  53  6.1 Introduction 6.2 Methods and Materials 6.2.1 Test setup and conditions 6.2.2 Monitoring 6.3 Results and Discussion 6.4 Conclusions  53 53 53 55 56 60  7.0 Pilot-scale Treatment  61  7.1 Introduction 7.2 Methods and Materials 7.2.1 Design considerations 7.2.2 Construction 7.2.3 Establishment and baseline evaluation 7.2.4 Commission and operations 7.2.5 Monitoring and sampling 7.3 Results and Discussion 7.3.1 Baseline conditions 7.3.2 Performance 7.3.3 Construction and operating costs 7.4 Conclusions  61 62 62 65 68 69 70 71 71 72 78 82  8.0 General Synopsis and Recommendations  83  9.0 Literature Cited  85  Appendix A  Exclusion-of-Liability Agreements  95  Appendix B  Fraser River Flood Gauge Data  103  Appendix C  Calculation of Theoretical Oxygen Demands  105  Appendix D . l Raw Data: Leachate Characterization  107  Appendix D.2 Raw Data: Screening Trials  119  Appendix D.3 Raw Data: Bench-Scale Testing  127  Appendix D.4 Raw Data: Pilot-Scale Trials  135  Kevin Frankowski  vi  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1 Range of composition measured in municipal landfill leachates  14  Table Table Table Table  28 31 36 38  4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4  Sample collection, preservation and storage specifications Cedar leachate characterization data Concentrations of individual volatile fatty acids (C - C ) Oxygen demand ratios 2  6  Table 6.1 Performance summary for laboratory wetlands  57  Table 7.1 Pre-operational characterization of the pilot-scale constructed wetlands Table 7.2 Characterization of slough (dilution) water Table 7.3 Summary ofpilot-scale removal performance for targeted parameters Table 7.4 Removal of volatile fatty acids (C - C ) in pilot-scale wetlands Table 7.5 Summary ofpilot-scale field data Table 7.6 Summary of pilot-scale removal performance for solids and nutrients Table 7.7 Material costs for the pilot-scale constructed wetland facility Table 7.8 Cost comparisons of different leachate treatment technologies 2  6  72 73 74 74 74 76 79 80  Masters Thesis  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1 Sequence and relationship of research components  7  Figure 2.1 Wood chip barge-loading facility Figure 2.2 Schematic of multi-layer municipal landifll liner system  10 13  Figure 3.1 General plan of study site Figure 3.2 Cedar leachate pool, viewed from top of hog fuel pile Figure 3.3 Cedar shake and shingle mills alongside the Fraser River  24 25 26  Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure  4.1 Intensity of cedar leachate colour over a pH range 4.2 pH-dependant colour change in cedar leachate (note the dilutions) 4.3 Spectral response of raw leachate (UV-visible light) 4.4 Spectral response of tannic acid (UV-visible light) 4.5 Extended BOD of cedar leachate  33 35 35 35 39  Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure  5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5  Aerated batch reactors Screening trial water quality data: dissolved oxygen Screening trial water quality data: conductivity Screening trial water quality data: pH Effect of inoculants on leachate toxicity reduction  48 49 50 51 52  Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure  6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6  Schematic of the lab microcosms Cattail root mat in lab microcosm Room blank microcosm Reduction of cedar leachate toxicity in laboratory constructed wetlands Effect of influent dilution on tannin and lignin removal performance Spectral response of laboratory constructed wetland effluent  53 54 54 56 58 59  Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure  7.1 Constructed wetland pilot-scale facility 61 7.2 Schematic offield-scale constructed wetland cell 62 7.3 Lateral discharge collector 63 7.4 Unplanted control cell (viewedfrom discharge end) 63 7.5 Influent dosing tank 64 7.6 Detailed site plan ofpilot-scale facility 65 7.7 Preparation of greenfield site 67 7.8 Excavation of wetland cells 67 7.9 Levelling of backfilled soil in preparation for planting 67 7.10 Cattails ready for transplanting 67 7.11 Pump installed in locking pump shelter 68 7.12 Established vegetation in constructed wetland cell 71 7.13 Reduction of cedar leachate toxicity in pilot-scale constructed wetlands... 73  Kevin Frankowski  viii  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS / ACRONYMS The following abbreviations and acronyms have been used throughout this document:  APHA  American Public Health Association  BOD  Biochemical Oxygen Demand  CER  Controlled Environment Room  COD  Chemical Oxygen Demand  DO  Dissolved Oxygen  DOC  Dissolved Organic Carbon  DIC  Dissolved Inorganic Carbon  FSF  Free-Surface Flow wetland (see Surface-Flow wetland)  GCL  Geosynthetic Clay Liner  HDPE  High Density Polyethylene plastic  HRT  Hydraulic Residence Time  ICP  Inductively Coupled Plasma spectrometer  LC  Lethal Concentration: 50%  5 0  O&M  Operations and Maintenance  PVC  Polyvinyl Chloride plastic  RBC  Rotating Biological Contactor  SBR  Sequencing Batch Reactor  SF  Surface Flow wetland  SPE  Solid-Phase Extraction  SSF  Sub-Surface Flow wetland  TDS  Total Dissolved Solids  ThOD  Theoretical Oxygen Demand  TIE  Toxicity Identification Evaluation  TSS  Total Suspended Solids  VFAs  Volatile Fatty Acids  Kevin Frankowski  ix  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am indebted to many people for their time, knowledge, skills, and other generous contributions that they provided me during the course of this research. Without their collective support and assistance, this endeavour would not have been realized. From the beginning, Dr. Ken Hall, my graduate supervisor, was willing to listen to my grandiose plans and optimistic ideas. His exceptional, unwavering support and insightful guidance were essential to the success of this project. The intense interest, enthusiasm and boundless energy with which he approached this enterprise surpassed what I had expected from a supervisor. It was a real pleasure being one of his students. I am also indebted to Dr. Sheldon Duff, of the Department of Chemical Engineering, who took a genuine and personal interest in the project, and who contributed not only valuable time, suggestions and encouragement, but who also provided the project with additional funding when an unexpected need arose. His actions were instrumental in bringing this project to fruition and I am most grateful for all of his support and generosity. Primary funding was provided by the British Columbia Science Council, via a GREAT scholarship, and by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), via a Graduate Student Scholarship. The Network of Centres of Excellence Sustainable Forest Management (SFM- NCE) program provided some critical supplementary funding. Steve Wynnyk, in conjunction with Jack Davidson and the B C Shake and Shingle Association, provided access to the research site and offset some of the materials and construction costs. Barry Azeuedo, Wilbert Yang and Ray Rob from the provincial Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks all provided informative guidance and helpful information. M y thanks to Elizabeth Steele, who provided me with expert guidance to resources available in the Forest Alliance B C library collection. I am grateful to the University of British Columbia Civil Engineering Department for accepting me into the Environmental Engineering program and providing me with ample opportunity to develop plenty of grey hairs from all the demanding course work. Needless to say, access to the laboratory facilities which the Department provided was a fundamental part of the this project. However, the immense value in this resource resided not with the technical gadgetry, but with the very knowledgable and helpful laboratory staff. The technical guidance and support from Susan Harper and Paula Parkinson was always marvellous, as was their patience as I, once again, brought another set of smelly samples into the lab. Angelika Kama and Priscilla Yuen also provided many hours of very able assistance with both laboratory analyses and field work. Credit must be given to Harald Schrempp, who provided me with access to the Department's shop facilities and who was always willing to lend a hand or answer "just Kevin Frankowski  x  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS one more" of my many questions. A heartfelt thanks to Kelly Lamb and the front office staff for successfully guiding me through the jungle of forms, requisitions, and other administrative mazes that are a necessary evil of university life. Two industry sponsors provided support in crucial areas. EVS Environment Consultants supported this research by providing access to their ecotoxicology laboratory Jennifer Stewart kindly allowed me to set up several experiments in the Controlled Environment Rooms, despite their odorous nature. Dr. Howard Bailey and James Elphick were incredibly helpful and always had time for my questions. Their continued interest in the project was very gratifying. Envirowest Consultants Limited (ECL) generously agreed to act as my industrial collaborator for the B C Science Council GREAT award, and as a result the project benefited greatly from the ideas, enthusiasm and design experience of Ward Prystay. Finally, I need to acknowledge the immense amount of support I received from friends and family, who allowed themselves to be cajoled and/or coerced into giving up a Saturday to come and shovel gravel, dig cattails, or lay some pipe. There isn't enough space to list all you individually, but you know who you are, and I am grateful for all your support. Above all, I would like to thank my lovely wife for her vast contributions, in the form of fresh ideas, support and encouragement, hard labour, and on those frustrating days when nothing else seemed to work, her unfailing patience and understanding.  Thanks Everyone!  Kevin Frankowski  xi  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  1.0 P R O B L E M F O R M U L A T I O N 1.1 Project Context Access to sources of clean water is an essential requirement for both humans and wildlife. Unfortunately, many industrial processes produce contaminated wastewater. Many others influence nearby water quality indirectly through mechanisms such as stormwater runoff and airborne transport. As we continue to recognize ways to protect our natural resources, and as we accumulate knowledge about just how much of an integral part water plays in almost all ecosystems (National Research Council 1992), a growing recognition will occur among industry, government and the public that responsible stewardship of our aquatic resources is a major factor in the success of any integrated resource management plan.  Protection of our aquatic resources must encompass more than just controlling direct effluent discharges into our surface waters. Stormwater runoff, agricultural discharges, seepage of contaminants into groundwater aquifers, and other forms of nonpoint source pollution must also receive sufficient attention if we are to maintain sustainable sources of clean water.  1.2 Solid Waste Storage and Disposal The responsible long-term storage and disposal of any solid waste presents a suite of challenges that must be addressed by environmental engineers, facility operators and regulators. The control and treatment of leachate is foremost among these issues. Leachate is produced when water (or other liquid) percolates through a matrix of solid materials, such as crushed rock, landfill waste, or wood chips. The liquid extracts various compounds from the solid matrix and the resulting leachate contains a mixture of suspended solids and dissolved substances (Davis and Cornwell 1998; Shams and Brockway 1994). Kevin Frankowski  1  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  1.0 P R O B L E M F O R M U L A T I O N  1.2 Solid Waste Storage and Disposal  While much attention has been paid to leachate control and treatment in municipal landfills and mine tailings piles, insufficient attention has been paid to proper disposal of solid waste from the wood processing industry, which includes wood chips, process trimmings, shredded bark, and sawdust from various saws, planes, and other process machinery. This material, when stored unprotected outside and exposed to precipitation, will produce a leachate that is often characterized by a high carbon content, high oxygen demand, strong colour, an array of dissolved metals, and low levels of nitrate, ammonia and nitrogen (Borga et al. 1996; Slagle 1976; Taylor et al. 1996; Thomas 1977). Naturally-occurring compounds, such as resin acids, tropolones, flavonoids, stilbenes, tannins and lignins, and various steroids and terpenoids, are present in wood. They are used by the trees as structural glues, hormonal controls, and chemical defences against predation by insects, fungi and microbes, and are liberated by the leaching process (Eaton and Hale 1993; Laks 1991; Rowe and Conner 1979). The resulting leachate is often very toxic to aquatic and other life forms (Bailey et al. 1999; Borga et al. 1996; Cameron 1982; Eaton and Hale 1993; Inamori et al. 1991; Taylor et al. 1996).  Within a forest ecosystem, the same leachate hazard does not exist. The natural rate of tree death and degradation ensures that the fallen wood is not an environmental liability. This is due to two factors. Firstly, the forest floor supports a complex array of bacterial and fungal systems specifically adapted for degrading these organic materials. They sequester and metabolize the complex wood chemicals, rendering them into simpler, nontoxic compounds. In addition, the forest soil communities at any given location only have to deal with one, or possibly a handful of fallen trees at any given time. The wood waste generated by a mechanical processing industry far outpaces both the temporal and spatial abilities of the natural mechanisms that would normally facilitate degradation.  Hence the need for the processing industry to recognize how it has affected the naturallyoccurring treatment mechanisms and commit itself to implementing the necessary remedies. Since the rate of natural degradation is limited by such factors as temperature, nutrient availability, and oxygen supply, implementing and optimizing a solution requires Kevin Frankowski  2  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  1.0 P R O B L E M F O R M U L A T I O N  1.2 Solid Waste Storage and Disposal  attention be paid to these details. Unless properly contained and treated, this toxic runoff will flow into either the nearest stream, lake or other open aquatic environment, or it will percolate down into the groundwater aquifers. Either way, contamination of our water supplies results, and this can lead to public health concerns, degradation of dependent ecosystems, and destruction of associated natural resources (e.g., commercial and tourism fisheries) (Al et al. 1995; Schermer and Phipps 1976; Shams and Brockway 1994; Slagele 1976; Sweet and Fetrow 1975; Triton 1993).  Leachate collection and control techniques are fairly well established, largely due to advances in engineering practices for municipal landfills (see Section 2.2 for details). However many existing wood waste disposal sites fail to take advantage of the state of the art, owing mainly to their age. Many were developed prior to the full realization that something as seemingly innocuous as wood may pose an environmental threat, and therefore these disposal sites were often selected rather casually and without any implementation of liner or leachate collection systems.  Not only are collection and control measures inadequate at many of these sites, but finding a suitable treatment system can also be a problem. Developing a treatment technology specifically suited for wood leachate has received very little attention. Schermer and Phipps (1976) reported that passage through soil provided some attenuation, but the soil displayed a finite capacity for treatment and once sufficient leachate has passed through to exhaust this capacity, no more treatment was delivered. This treatment capacity began to diminish markedly over time, often in as little as 20 days under field conditions. Recycling the leachate back through the wood waste, in order to maximize naturally-occurring oxidation reactions and promote condensation of tannins into biologically-inactive precipitates, was shown to be ineffective (Schermer and Phipps 1976). In another study, Thomas (1977) reported that laboratory-scale aerated lagoons were unsuccessful at removing toxicity from cedar leachate.  Kevin Frankowski  3  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  1.0 P R O B L E M F O R M U L A T I O N 1.3 BCs Forest Products Industry  Better success might be achieved by adapting an existing treatment technology from other applications. However, this also has its problems. The treatment technologies currently available from municipal landfill practices are often economically unrealistic for wood processing sites. This is due to several reasons. Firstly, wood processing sites usually occupy a fairly extensive area, and therefore have the potential to generate large quantities of runoff. Often it is not just the chip or waste piles which generate leachate, but also the uncovered work areas, since they are usually littered with an accumulation of fine woody debris. Thus, a treatment system with a high unit treatment cost will impose a significant economic burden upon such a facility, especially i f it is located in a region which receives abundant precipitation. Secondly, the remoteness of many of these facilities severely increases the cost of installing and maintaining a complex treatment plant. Convenient access to chemical additives, availability of trained operators, and proper by-products handling also require additional consideration in these remote locales.  The scope of this problem is not insignificant. In regions where forestry is a dominant sector, wood processing facilities and their associated waste streams can represent a major source of the region's contaminant loading. Recognizing this diffuse source of pollution and responding to it in an economically and environmentally responsible manner is important. Failure to respond may result in serious environmental consequences. In addition, the increasingly stringent regulatory environment amplifies the need for industry to demonstrate due diligence. However, implementing technologies which are not fiscally realistic may result in a decrease in the industry's ability to compete in a global marketplace, resulting in the local economy experiencing undue economic stress.  1.3 BC's Forest Products Industry The forest products industry is British Columbia's largest, far out-shadowing any other sector of this province's economy. In 1998, the $15 billion industry represented over 14% of the province's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Forest products represented 46% Kevin Frankowski  4  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  1.0 P R O B L E M F O R M U L A T I O N 1.3 BC's Forest Products Industry  of BC's total manufacturing shipments. This accounted for 51% of the province's total export sales. As BC's largest industrial employer, forestry provides 15% of the province's workforce with employment (PricewaterhouseCoopers 1999).  Given the size of both the industry and the province, it is not surprising that its activities cover a very extensive geographical area. The scope of the industry is huge and the associated environmental management must be taken very seriously, especially considering how many other industries and activities are dependent upon the health of this landscape. The forest industry's processing facilities are a major feature in this management task. Close to 500 primary processing mills exist within B C and are responsible for handling most of the wood harvested each year (65.0 million m in 1998) 3  (COFI 1999). The handling, storage and eventual disposal of the waste by-products and residuals is an enormous task. The wood waste from saw mills alone has been estimated at close to 2.8 million bone dry tonnes (bdt) per year (McCloy 1997). To this total must be added the waste generated by the chipping, panel, pulp and other types of mills. Furthermore, in addition to these mills, an unknown number of storage / transportation staging areas and chip piles at various barge loading facilities also require waste management mechanisms, especially with regard to leachate / runoff control and treatment.  Compared to the industry as a whole, the cedar shake and shingle sector is small. There are only 39 mills and most of them are much smaller than facilities typical of other sectors (Ministry of Forests 1999). However, in some ways, this adds to, rather than diminishes, the problem. Unable to access the same economies of scale available to some of the other processors, much of the expensive treatment technology is simply beyond their means. Cedar is generally recognized as having more potent extractives and more toxic leachates than other commercial temperate wood species (Eaton and Hale 1993; McDaniel et al. 1989; Thomas 1977). One of the reasons why cedar is used for shake and shingles is its strong rot-resistance. This resistance is imparted by the various chemicals that the cedar tree produces as a defence against microbial and insect attack, Kevin Frankowski  5  U B C  CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  1.0 PROBLEM FORMULATION 1.4 Research Scope and Objectives  and it is these chemicals which also contribute to the high toxicity of its leachate. Thus, if cedar processors are going to address their leachate generation and runoff problems in a fiscally realistic manner, they need access to a treatment technology that is both economic and effective.  1.4 Research Scope and Objectives The intent of this research thesis was to address the issue of wood leachate and determine whether suitable control and treatment technologies are feasible. In the interests of time and funding, the scope of this research was restricted to wood waste leachate from cedar processing facilities. However, the results are likely to be equally applicable to leachates and runoff from facilities processing other wood species and operating in temperate regions other than BC. This research proposed the development and demonstration of a wood leachate treatment technology that met the objectives outlined below.  A. Performance objectives: A. 1 Provide effective treatment which reduces the acute toxicity of the leachate to the point where it no longer poses an immediate threat to aquatic life. A. 2 Through the same treatment process, reduce the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and other associated pollutants so that the treatment effluent will result in compliance with anticipated discharge regulations.  B. Design objectives: B.l  An effective treatment design which is dependable and robust.  B.2 A system which is easy to operate and requires minimal operator training or intervention. B.3  Inexpensive to implement, operate, and maintain, with a minimum of chemical additions, process monitoring, or by-products handling required.  Kevin Frankowski  6  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  1.0 P R O B L E M F O R M U L A T I O N 1.4 Research Scope and Objectives  ^Literature  Review:  Target; Assess the current state of the technology and . determine whether appropriate technologies exist! for the control and treatment of wood leachate. Unit Scale:  V  Relevant Thesis Section:  Research Site  2.0 Acquisition  and  Startup:  Target; Identify research gaps, obtain funding, secure access to an appropriate research site. Unit Scale: Relevant Thesis Section:  3.0  Leachate  Characterization:  Target: Characterize the wood leachate with respect to its ecotoxicblogy and chemistry. Unit Scale: Relevant Thesis Section: Screening  4.0  Trials:  Target: Determine whether the wood leachate was amenable to biological treatment. Unit Scale: Relevant Thesis Section: (Bench-Scale  5.0 Testing:  Target: Demonstrate the appropriateness of constructed wetlands for the treatment of wood leachate (re; Objectives A.l &A.2). M i  Unit Scale: Relevant Thesis Section:  ifrPilot-Scale  (foil  6.0  Trials:  Target: Evaluate the performance of the constructed wetland treatment system underfieldconditions (re; Objectives A.] -A.2& B.l -B.3). / Unit Scale: Relevant Thesis Section:  7.0  Figure 1.1 Sequence and relationship of research components Kevin Frankowski  7  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  1.0 P R O B L E M F O R M U L A T I O N /. 4 Research Scope and Objectives  The research was comprised of a sequence of components, as outlined in Figure 1.1. Note that each of the components depends upon the information and conclusions of its predecessor. Thus, rather than assemble this Masters thesis in the traditional manner, with one section each for Methodology, Results, and Discussion, it was more appropriate to assign each of these components an independent section. Within each of these sections, the methodology specific for that section could be discussed. Similarly, the results for each component could be presented immediately and discussed within the context of the relevant section. This provided a more logical presentation, since many of the design factors discussed in the methodologies depended on the results and conclusions of the previous component. Each of the components had sufficiently different methodologies that repetition of document content is minimal.  Kevin Frankowski  8  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  2.0 L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W : STATE O F T H E T E C H N O L O G Y 2.1 Leachate Generation at Wood Processing Sites The manner in which the trees are cut, handled, stored and milled has a strong influence on what environmental effects occur during the process life cycle. Since wood is a fairly impervious material, it is exposed to the elements for much of its storage and transportation. During handling, much of the bark is inadvertently stripped from the logs, especially in dryland sorting yards. In fact, unless specific steps are taken to minimize its buildup, most wood processing areas become underlain by a compacted layer of shredded bark and other woody debris that accumulates over time and is crushed beneath the constant traffic of yard machinery.  After being graded and sorted, raw logs are stored in piles to await processing, with little attempt to shield them from the often-substantial rains. Even in this fairly compact state, the wood will produce a toxic, extractive-laden leachate (Taylor et al. 1996). As the wood is processed into smaller and smaller pieces, their surface-area-to-volume ratio increases substantially, and this accelerates the rate at which the wood chemicals can be leached out.  Prior to entering the main process train, any remaining bark and major surface irregularities on the logs are removed by a set of debarking machines. The stripped bark, which is especially rich in wood extractives (Rowe and Conner 1979), is usually disposed of in the same manner as the rest of the process waste. As the logs are split, sawn, and / or planed during the milling process, sawdust and trimmings are produced. Even with today's thinner saw blades, the amount of sawdust produced is substantial. What to do with this waste product is a challenge that has yet to be fully resolved.  Open-air burning in beehive burners or unmodified silo burners is almost completely phased out as a legal option, due to associated air pollution, especially particulate matter Kevin Frankowski  9  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW: STATE OF THE TECHNOLOGY 2.1 Leachate Generation at Wood Processing Sites  (Waste Management Act 1996). Placing it in a municipal landfill is prohibitively expensive and not a popular option, as these landfills are attempting to conserve what limited space they still have left. Even using the material as a mulch on walking trails or in equestrian corrals is facing increased scrutiny as the effects of the leachate are being noticed on nearby vegetation. So far the most promising application seems to be using the wood waste as a fuel in electrical cogeneration incinerators, but to date there is only one approved incinerator in the whole province dedicated to using wood waste for this purpose (i.e., Prince George). Pulp mills often have cogeneration boilers into which wood waste can sometimes be fed, but the capacity of wood use in these boilers rarely exceeds the volume of wood waste produced by the mills themselves (Bob Beaty, personal communication). Some efforts have been made to develop other technologies to convert the waste wood into useful products (e.g., charcoal, activated carbon, compost and other soil amendments, cat litter), but no market / technology combination has yet emerged that can utilize the vast quantities of waste produced. In the meantime, the wood waste piles up.  The wood waste consists of only a small portion of the total wood that enters the mills. Most of it exits as processed product and is transported to market. However, even at this stage there is the potential for leachate problems. Once again, much of the wood is transported in a manner which exposes it to precipitation. Loads of dimensional lumber are increasingly being wrapped before being transported, but this is not always practical for other products. Wood chips are sometimes transported in enclosed or covered trailers, but when they arrive at either the barge-loading facility or pulp mill, they are stored in large exposed piles (Figure 2.1). Cedar shakes and shingles are tied into bundles which are then stored in large open areas. In fact,  8  Fi  ure  1  1  W o o d  P barge-loading facility  chi  during the summer it is required to sprinkle the shake and shingle storage areas with water, to reduce thefirerisk. This, of course, produces more leachate. Kevin Frankowski  10  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW: STATE OF THE TECHNOLOGY 2.2 Leachate Control and Treatment  Some wood processing facilities, in an attempt to reduce the toxicity of their runoff and prevent process chemicals such as antisapstain chemicals from entering nearby aquatic environments, covered certain sections of their work / storage areas with galvanized roofing to shield them from the rain. Unfortunately, the zinc which washed off the metals roofs increased the overall toxicity of the runoff (Bailey et al. 1999). How does one proceed when faced with a challenge such as this, where even seemingly benign materials such as metal roofing and untreated wood are contributing unacceptable levels of toxins to the receiving environment?  As with other examples of pollution control, a three-step process is required. First, the contaminant(s) of concern need to be identified, and the sources elucidated. Secondly, the production of the contaminant(s) must be minimized as much as is practical. With regards to runoff and leachate, this means minimizing the infiltration of precipitation into storage and waste piles, and subsequently, the uncontrolled release into the groundwater and open aquatic environments. However, as illustrated by the galvanized roofing example, there is often a practical limit to the extent these measures can be taken before the net benefits become compromised. The final step is to implement a treatment technique appropriate for the remaining discharges. A l l three of these steps are necessary for the comprehensive and effective management of such a situation. As with other examples of nonpoint source pollution, capturing and controlling the problem as close to its generation site as possible will secure the greatest benefits, since it reduces both the exposure time and the exposure area of the pollutant(s) to the receiving environment.  2.2 Leachate Control and Treatment 2.2.1 Minimization Usually the most desirable pollution control measure is minimizing the generation of the waste in the first place (Davis and Cornwell 1998; Gardner 1997). Less generation means less ultimate treatment capacity is required. Since the primary raw material of leachate is infiltrating precipitation (and in some cases, groundwater), leachate Kevin Frankowski  11  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW: STATE OF THE TECHNOLOGY 2.2 Leachate Control and Treatment  minimization procedures are concerned with reducing this infiltration. In the simplest terms, this may involve covering the solid waste pile with plastic tarps (Gardner 1997; Triton 1993). Another option includes placing the solid waste under a roof or similar shelter (Davis and Cornwell 1998). Large municipal landfills and similar installations use a system of daily covers (usually soil, but occasionally plastic sheeting), followed by a sophisticated, multi-layer final cover that is designed not only to prevent infiltration, but also to control gas emissions and provide structural stability to the upper surface of the landfill (Passos et dl. 199>4; US EPA 1991b; US EPA 1993). 2.2.2 Collection Even with the most sophisticated of leachate minimization systems, some leachate will be produced. Moisture present in the waste may be liberated as the wastes undergo compaction and degradation; precipitation may enter the landfill during its active life (i.e., waste placement); and moisture may leak past the final cover barriers. Therefore it is necessary to install an adequate leachate collection system. Many variants exist, but they all follow the same basic premise: prevent infiltration of the leachate into the substrate below the solid waste (and ultimately into the groundwater), and provide some means of removing the accumulated leachate.  Leachate infiltration into the substrate is controlled through the use of impermeable liners. These liners can be constructed of a variety of materials, including synthetic membranes (made of plastics such as P V C , HDPE, CPE, or E P D M , at least 30-60 mils thick); compacted clays (with a hydraulic conductivity of no more than l x l O cm/s); or 7  geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs), which are a geosynthetic material impregnated with a layer of bentonite, or other low-conductivity clays (US EPA 1988a). It is not uncommon for an installation to use a combination of these materials in an effort to utilize of their various strengths and advantages. It is also becoming more common to include a leak detection system below the liners, to allow an appropriate response, should the containment system become compromised (Davis and Cornwell 1998; Millano and Hahn 1997; Schneck 1994; US EPA 1989). Figure 2.2 is a schematic of a typical installation.  Kevin Frankowski  12  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  2.0  L I T E R A T U R E REVIEW: STATE O F T H E T E C H N O L O G Y  2.2 Leachate Control and Treatment  Figure 2.2 Schematic of multi-layer municipal landifll liner system (not to scale; adapted from US EPA 1988a)  Since the liner system is relatively impermeable, leachate migrating downward will accumulate above it. In order to prevent the liner from being subjected to excessive hydraulic pressures, a drainage system is installed between the solid waste and the liners. This can be accomplished by a layer of course gravel, synthetic geogrid drainage tiles, or a network of perforated drainage pipes supported within a layer of coarse sand. It is usually necessary to provide a protective layer between the underdrain system and the bottom of the solid waste, to prevent any physical damage from occurring during waste placement or compaction. This is often done by placing a permeable geotexile over the drainage system and then a layer of sand (US EPA 1993). Regardless of its construction, this drainage layer should posses a hydraulic conductivity of greater than l x l O cm/s (US 2  EPA 1993). By sloping the drainage layer (> 2%), the leachate moves through it to predetermined collection points along the outside edge of the landfill. From here the leachate is conducted to a treatment system. 2.2.3 Standard treatment techniques The choice of leachate treatment techniques depends primarily upon what substance(s) are to be removed from the leachate, the target effluent concentrations, and what facilities are available or feasible for that locale. Additional considerations include the volume of leachate requiring treatment, its flow characteristics (i.e., intensity of variations on a seasonal, diurnal, etc., basis), whether any of the leachate's characteristics (e.g., low alkalinity; lack of biodegradable carbon; toxicity) make it incompatible with specific treatment methods, and what the local design experience / preferences may be. Kevin Frankowski  13  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  2.0 L I T E R A T U R E REVIEW: STATE OF T H E T E C H N O L O G Y 2.2 Leachate Control and Treatment  Much of the existing leachate treatment experience is from municipal landfill systems. Leachate from these landfills often has high levels of BOD, COD, nitrogenous compounds and various metals (Table 2.1) (Diamadopoulos et ol. 1997; Gettinby et al. 1996; Horan et al. 1997; Robinson 1999; Stroshein and Fryklind 1996). Its pH is usually acidic and insufficient alkalinity can be a problem. The primary treatment objectives are usually B O D and C O D reduction, and eventual conversion of the nitrogenous compounds to nitrogen gas. It may be necessary to adjust the pH and supplement the alkalinity, but  Table 2.1 Range of composition measured in municipal landfill leachates Parameter  Concentration  pH conductivity [uS/cm] alkalinity (as CaC0 ) hardness (as CaCC"3) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD ) chemical oxygen demand (COD) total suspended solids (TSS) total dissolved solids (TDS) ammoniacal -N nitrate -N nitrite -N ortho-phosphate -P metals: Al As Ca Cu Cd Fe Pb Ni Zn Toxicity >  3.7 960 0 500 11 20 10 590 1 < 0.1 < 0.3 < 0.5  3  5  - 11.5 - 16 800 - 22 800 - 22 800 - 57 000 - 750 000 - 700 - 45 000 - 1700 - 50 -25 - 154  1.5 - 2.7 0.0006 - 1.6 10 - 7200 < 0.005 -9.9 0.0005 - 17 < 0.5 - 2820 0.002 - 12.3 0.01 - 130 < 0.1 - 370 0.064 % - >100%  2  NOTES 1. All values reported in mg/L, unless otherwise noted. 2. Acute toxicity, reported as 96hr LC o Sources: Andreottola and Cannas 1992; Diamadopoulos et al. 1997; 5  Gettinby et al. 1996; Horan et al. 1997; Kristensen 1992; Lu et al. 1985; Robinson 1999; Stroshein and Fryklind 1996; Tchobanoglous et al. 1993  Kevin Frankowski  14  UBC  C I V I L  E N G I N E E R I N G  Masters Thesis  2.0  LITERATURE REVIEW: STATE OF T H E T E C H N O L O G Y  2.2 Leachate Control and Treatment  this is usually a simple matter of dosing the influent with slaked lime (Ca(OH) ), soda ash 2  (Na C0 ) or caustic soda (NaOH). Lime addition can also be used to precipitate some of 2  3  the dissolved metals (Horan et dl. 1997).  Some of the more common treatment methods are activated-sludge reactors, oxidation ditches, trickling filters, sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), rotating biological contactors (RBCs), membrane bioreactors, activated carbon absorption and wet-air oxidation (Diamadopoulos et al. 1997; Dollerer and Wilderer 1996; Ehrig and Stegmann 1987; Horan et al. 1997; Ince 1998; Peters 1996; Robinson 1999; Shams and Brockway 1994; Steensen 1997; Weber and Holtz 1987).  With the exception of advanced chemical oxidation and activated carbon, they are all adaptations of standard domestic wastewater treatment techniques. In fact, in situations where the volume of leachate is small relative to total plant inflow (< 5%), it may be acceptable practice to pump the untreated leachate directly into the municipal domestic wastewater treatment plant (Diamadopoulos et al. 1997; Wreford 1995). With stronger leachates, the biological processes may suffer toxicity from elevated concentrations of leachate components such as metals or certain organics (Manoharan et al. 1992; McArdle et al. 1988), in which case, process adaptations or an alternative treatment technique are needed. Many of the treatment techniques (e.g., activated carbon, wet-air oxidation) have substantial unit operating costs (McArdle et al. 1988).  Leachate from mine tailings and other waste rock is another area that has received a considerable amount of attention. This leachate is typified by high levels of dissolved metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, As and Zn being the most deleterious), often accompanied with very low pH levels (< 3.0) (Knapp 1987; Makos and Hrncir 1995; Paine 1987). Due to the acute toxicity of these metals and the low pH levels, the traditional treatment technologies used for municipal landfill leachate often suffer excessive microbe fatality and are rendered ineffective. Other techniques need to be employed. One technique is to use lime addition as a pretreatment for pH adjustment and precipitation of the dissolved Kevin Frankowski  15  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  2.0  LITERATURE REVIEW: STATE O F T H E T E C H N O L O G Y  2.3 Constructed Wetland Treatment Systems  metals (Vachon et al. 1987). Other options include using bioreactors containing populations of alkali-generating microbes, such as iron-reducing or sulphate-reducing bacteria (Kalin et al. 1991), or using a variety of constructed wetland treatment systems, which are more tolerant of the extreme pH and metals content. They employ a suite of aerobic and anaerobic mechanisms to remove the metals from the wastewater and are able to moderate the pH (Eger 1994; Frandsen and Gammons 1999; Karathanasis and Thompson 1993; Pantano et al. 1999; Thomas et al. 1999).  2.3 Constructed Wetland Treatment Systems 2.3.1 Basic features and design premises Constructed wetland treatment systems operate on the premise that certain features of natural wetlands are capable of removing contaminants from water and that these features can be replicated and optimized in an artificial wetland constructed solely for the purpose of treating wastewater. A constructed wetland mimics its natural counterpart in many respects, including the presence of aquatic vegetation, saturated (anaerobic) soils, and quiescent flow of water either through a soil or gravel substrate (i.e., subsurface-flow wetlands) or through vegetation stalks and root mats on the surface of the soil substrate (surface-flow wetlands). However, in contrast to natural systems, a constructed wetland is usually well-delineated and has a more regular shape, which allows a more predictable and controllable flow regime. In addition, in order to properly contain the wastewater and provide better control over its hydrology, constructed wetlands are usually lined with impermeable geosynthetics, although properly engineered clay liners can also be used i f no chemical incompatibilities exist with the wastewater constituents. Water depth is typically between 20 - 80 cm.  Removal of particulate matter (and any associated compounds) is achieved through settling, as a result of the quiescent flow conditions present throughout the whole system. Nutrient removal (i.e., N H , N0 ", P 0 ) is achieved as a result of microbial +  4  Kevin Frankowski  3  3  4  16  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW: STATE O F T H E T E C H N O L O G Y 2.3 Constructed Wetland Treatment Systems  communities utilizing the nutrients to meet their metabolic requirements, and thus there is usually no buildup of these compounds within the system. Similar metabolic fates await biodegradable fractions such as B O D and certain classes of organic compounds (Ellis et al. 1994). Inorganic constituents such as metals are immobilized through a combination of reductive and oxidative chemical reactions, many of which are microbially-mediated (Eger 1994).  In most cases, the macrophyte vegetation does not take up a significant amount of nutrients, organic pollutants, or metals (Albers and Camardese 1993a; Albers and Camardese 1993b; Cacadorefa/. 1996; Keller et al. 1998; Lacki et al. 1992; Mungur et al. 1997; Reed et al. 1995), but nevertheless it does play an important role in ensuring that the other components within the system are able to perform their removal functions efficiently. The primary roles of the macrophytes are to provide a physical structure for the microbial communities to adhere to, to act as a supplementary carbon source for these communities, to provide a supply of detrital organic matter (the humic material is required for various complexing reactions), and to create aerobic microenvironments in the vicinity of their roots (Cacador et al. 1996; Hammer 1997; Otte et al. 1995; Van den Berg 1998). Due to the saturated nature of wetland soils, the substrates usually have too little oxygen in them to support the growth of rooted vegetation without some provision for oxygen transport. Wetland plants overcome this oxygen deficiency in the substrate by developing extensive internal lacunae or aernchyma, which are networks of tubular channels, the function of which is to transport oxygen down to the root system and remove any gaseous respiratory by-products back up to the atmosphere (Hammer 1997). The net effect of this gas transport system is that the root network of the plant is aerobic, while the surrounding bulk sediment is generally anaerobic. Due to diffusion of oxygen out of the root tissues, a thin layer of aerobic sediment forms around each root fibre (the rhizosphere) (Armstrong et al. 1990; Hammer 1997; Otte et al. 1995). This rhizosphere is a very important contributor to the efficiency and adaptability of constructed wetland treatment systems.  Kevin Frankowski  17  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW: STATE OF THE TECHNOLOGY 2.3 Constructed Wetland Treatment Systems  2.3.2 Scope of contaminant targets Since microbial populations are the source of many of the actual removal mechanisms, the range of possible contaminant sources that constructed wetland systems can be used for is quite broad. Domestic wastewater, agricultural effluent (swine, poultry and cattle feedlots; dairy wash water), wineries, food processing effluent, greenhouse effluent, aquaculture discharges, agricultural non-point source runoff, contaminated groundwater, mine drainage, municipal landfill leachate, military / industrial chemical sites, petrochemical facilities, textile (dye) wastewaters, pulp mill effluents, and urban stormwater runoff have all been successfully treated with constructed wetlands (Best et al. 1999; Burgoon et al. 1999; Crites et al. 1988; Davies and Cottingham 1994; Eger 1994; Ellis et al. 1994; Johnson et al. 1999; Karpiscak et al. 1999; Kemp and George 1997; Knight et al. 1999; Kowalik et al. 1998; Loer et al. 1997; Maddox and Kingsley 1989; Mitchell et al. 1990; Prystay 1997; Raisin et al. 1997; Rochfort et al. 1997; Sakadevan and Bavor 1999; Sands et al. 1999; Sansanayuth et al. 1996; Scholes et al. 1998; Sikora et al. 1997; Simi and Mitchell 1999; Tanner et al. 1995; Thut 1989; US EPA 1988b). The contaminants of concern ranged from heavy loadings of conventional pollutants such as suspended solids, BOD, COD, pathogens, and nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus) to more severe pollutants such as pesticides, herbicides, acids, heavy metals, complex organics, crude petroleums, explosives residuals, chlorinated VOCs (volatile organic compounds), solvents, and hydrocarbons (Chong et al. 1999; Crites et al. 1997; Davies and Cottingham 1994; Davis 1995; Eger 1994; Johnson et al. 1999; Knight et al. 1999; Mitchell et al. 1990; Moore et al. 1999; Pardue et al. 1999; Scholes et al. 1998; Sikora et al. 1997; Tanner et al. 1995; Zoh and Home 1999).  In fact, as long as there exists a mesophilic microbial consortia which is capable of metabolizing / immobilizing a specific contaminant (or class of contaminants), there is a good chance that a constructed wetland system will be an effective treatment. This is because the wetland environment hosts all three types of microbial communities, aerobic,  Kevin Frankowski  18  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  2.0  L I T E R A T U R E REVIEW: STATE O F T H E T E C H N O L O G Y  2.3 Constructed Wetland Treatment Systems  anaerobic and facultative, usually within close proximity to one another. As long as their temperature, electron acceptor and nutritional requirements are met, most microbes have the capability to live within a wetland environment. The remaining task is to adjust the system's ecology in order to optimize the presence and functioning of the specific organisms which are performing the desired task.  2.3.3 System effectiveness and constraints Common removal efficiencies reported for properly operating constructed wetlands range from 75% to >99% for the full range of contaminants targeted (Adcock et al. 1999; Cooper 1999; Maeseneer and Cooper 1997; Makos and Hrncir 1995; Mungur et al. 1997; Tanner et al. 1995). While loading rates will depend upon the nature of the wastewater, rates as high as 512 lb BOD /acre/day [574 kg/ha/day] (with maintained removal rates of 5  >90%) have been reported (Behrends et al. 1999). As with other treatment technologies, much depends upon ensuring that the system is designed properly and is being used as intended.  The major advantages that are commonly cited for constructed wetlands include reduced costs and simpler operations and maintenance (Denny 1997; Haberl 1999; Mitchell et al. 1990). While costs will vary with locale, constructed wetlands are typically half to onetenth the cost of conventional water treatment systems, with some of this cost allocated for land acquisition (Kadlec and Knight 1996). Imaginative design can often reduce this cost even further by making use of marginal land along development edges and other existing corridors. Unlike mechanical systems, constructed wetlands have estimated design lives of 30 - 100+ years (Kadlec and Knight 1996; Webb et al. 1998). Their maintenance requirements are minimal, largely related to ensuring that the physical infrastructure is functioning as intended (e.g., inlet and outlet weirs) and, with proper design and construction, little remedial action is expected (Hammer 1997).  Since their primary energy source is the sun, with water movement usually supplied by gravity (Hammer 1997; Kadlec 1999), constructed wetlands can be designed with little or Kevin Frankowski  19  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  2.0  LITERATURE REVIEW: STATE O F T H E T E C H N O L O G Y  2.3 Constructed Wetland Treatment Systems  no need for additional sources of energy. Little or no chemical addition is required by this passive mode of treatment. By-products such as sludges, precipitates, or spent absorbents are rarely produced by wetland systems, thereby eliminating the need for costly handling procedures (Batchelor and Loots 1997; Reed et al. 1995). A major functional advantage that constructed wetlands have over most other treatment techniques is the intentional coexistence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions within the same reactor basin. The heterogeneous distribution of fine macrophyte root hairs within the bulk sediment ensures that there is a rich and complex distribution of aerobic rhizospheres within the anaerobic sediment. This patchwork facilitates those reaction cascades which need to switch between oxidative and reductive environments (e.g., conversion of ammonia to elemental nitrogen) (Hammer and Bastian 1989; Xue et al. 1999).  Since constructed wetlands are analogues of an ecotone environment, a certain amount of disturbance is necessary for their maintenance and proper functioning (Hammer and Bastian 1989). This makes them ideally suited for applications with dynamic flow rates, such as leachate and stormwater runoff management (Bastian and Hammer 1993; Kadlec and Knight 1996). Another capacity that they serve in the landscape is the dampening and desynchronization of hydraulic shock loads to aquatic receiving environments.  The primary complaint directed against constructed wetlands is the fact that they require a large area, or "footprint", per unit of treatment. The need for lower throughput or loading rates, compared to conventional systems, has also been a concern in the past, although this is becoming less of a concern with some of the more efficient systems that have been developed lately (Behrends et al. 1999; Cooper 1999). A more subtle constraint is the fact that constructed wetlands are complex systems and therefore an indepth knowledge of system ecology and a solid understanding of expected wastewater characteristics are necessary if proper design is going to be achieved and result in an effective facility which is easy to maintain and operate. It must be realized that this is a developing technology and therefore our knowledge and experience concerning certain aspects may be limited. The only way to overcome this is to design, build and operate Kevin Frankowski  20  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW: STATE OF T H E TECHNOLOGY 2.3 Constructed Wetland Treatment Systems  more of these systems in a disciplined manner, and thus gain the necessary experience to improve future designs.  It is important to realize that constructed wetland treatment systems are not the pollution control panacea that some promoters bill them. As with any other technology, they have applications for which they are suited and they rely upon proper design and application of their inherent features in order to deliver effective performance. If designed and operated properly, they can be an efficient and reliable treatment means for a large variety of contaminants. Since constructed wetlands harness some of the many reactions that take place within intricate natural wetland ecosystems, they themselves are very complex systems. Much research and operating experience needs to be accumulated before we can understand the full capabilities of these systems.  Therefore, it is a mistake to quickly group "constructed wetlands" together as a minor footnote in a description of modern water treatment technologies. There may be as much difference between the design and operation of a constructed wetland system treating acid mine drainage and a constructed wetland system removing nitrates from groundwater as there are differences between an activated sludge treatment system and an SBR plant. Closer attention to the design premises, operating conditions, and performance results will yield a better understanding of the full scope of solutions that constructed wetland systems can offer to the environmental engineering profession. This better understanding will lead to more rigorous designs, which will lead to improved performance and an increase in mechanistic knowledge, which in turn will allow this technology to be employed with more precision and confidence. It would be suboptimum engineering i f we failed to make use of such a versatile and powerful tool which is so well suited for many of the environmental contamination challenges that we are currently facing. 2.3.4 Distribution and use of the technology Constructed wetland treatment systems have been in limited use since at least the 1910's (Hiley 1990). Using natural wetlands for waste treatment and disposal, a practice that is  Kevin Frankowski  21  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW: STATE OF T H E TECHNOLOGY 2.3 Constructed Wetland Treatment Systems  no longer endorsed, goes back for as long as sewage has been collected (Kadlec and Knight 1996). However, it is only within the last 20-30 years that constructed wetland treatment systems have received the attention of a large number of researchers and a formal body of knowledge on their design and operation has begun to develop (Cole 1998; Haberl 1999). Currently over 500 constructed wetlands treatment systems are in use in Europe and more than 600 in the United States (Cole 1998). Their application in developing nations is increasing as the cost and versatility benefits are being recognized (Haberl 1999).  Today they are being used throughout the world, from the tropics (Braungart et al. 1997; Polprasert et al. 1996) to the arctic (Jokela and Pinks 1998, Pries 1994). With the necessary design modifications, they are proving to be useful in an extremely wide range of conditions. Freshwater, estuarine, and saltwater systems all have their own features which make them appropriate for specific applications (Cacador et al. 1996; Chu et al. 1998; Reed et al. 1995). They have been used by single cottages and large towns (Burgan and Sievers 1994; Schoenerkle et al. 1997). They have solved waste management problems for modern chemical plants and rural villages in developing nations (Haberl 1999; Sands et al. 1999). In Europe it is not uncommon to use them as an integral component of a treatment plant which contains more conventional unit processes such as RBCs or SBRs (Griffin et al. 1999; Robinson 1999).  No mention has been found in the literature of constructed wetland systems being used to treat wood leachate, but two other sites in western Canada are known to be currently developing systems for industrial use; Chemainus, B C and Drayton Valley, Alberta; both are Weyerhaeuser mills (EnviroLink Newsletter, October 1999; Mike Woods, personal communication).  Kevin Frankowski  22  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  3.0 RESEARCH SITE ACQUISITION & STARTUP 3.1 Justification of Research Focus As described in Sections 2.1 and 2.2, the exisiting leachate containment and collection technology was sufficiently established to address the current needs of the forest industry. Leachate treatment technologies also existed, but they failed to adequately meet the needs of the forest products industry, especially the smaller processors, specifically with regards to design objectives such as those outlined in Section 1.4 (i.e., Objectives B . l to B.3). Constructed wetlands were selected as an appropriate technology for evaluation based upon their performance in other applications. Their ability to treat a wide range of contaminants beyond the conventional targets (e.g., B O D , TSS, nutrients, pathogens), combined with their reputation for inexpensive, robust and efficient operations, gave them the greatest potential for meeting both the performance and the design objectives stated for this research.  3.2 Site Acquisition and Legalities Once the research was refined to the point of selecting constructed wetlands as the technology for further evaluation, it was necessary to acquire a research site and a source of wood leachate. After several months of inquiry, a research site was eventually located in October 1997 and permission was secured from the landowners, Steve and John Wynnyk, in conjunction with Jack Davidson of the B C Shake and Shingle Association, to conduct research on a cedar processing site.  Shortly thereafter it was learned that litigation concerning activities at that site was potentially imminent and that the research activities may have been viewed as constituting an involvement in these activities. The basic issue of the potential litigation surrounded the release of the toxic leachate into the environment (which contravened the Waste Management Act) and the fact that a pool of the leachate had collected in a Kevin Frankowski  23  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  3.0 R E S E A R C H SITE A C Q U I S I T I O N & STARTUP 3.3 Project Site Description  commercial cotton wood plantation on the adjacent property. Three months were spent garnering agreements from the B C Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, and the various other stakeholders, which established that my activities were not party to the previous activities at that site, and therefore, that neither I nor the University of British Columbia could be identified as a member of the liable parties (see Appendix A for the agreements of exclusion of liability). As part of this agreement, it was stipulated that all experimental wetland cells built at the site would be lined with impermeable liners, and that all effluent produced by these treatment wetlands would be collected and pumped back onto the cedar wood waste pile, thereby constituting a "recycle onto the work site", and not a "discharge to the environment".  3.3 Project Site Description 3.3.1 Location and Current Conditions The study site was located near Mission, British Columbia, 75 kilometres east of Vancouver, B C , Canada. This area was characterized by a marine coastal climate with CHESTER STREET  :X. ^ ^ SLOUGH  *  ^  AGRICULTURAL FIELDS  PROPERTY LINE  • z  LSON STREET  m  WETLAND CELLS >.  DOSING TANK  LEACHATE POOL  ,  v  ,  , '  *{  "  ?  v  " \  j * " O w .  \  -- WOOD MILLS  U  I  1 SCALE  "N^  MATSQUI ISLAND  .  100 m  Figure 3.1 General plan of study site Kevin Frankowski  24  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  3.0 RESEARCH SITE ACQUISITION & STARTUP 3.3 Project Site Description  mild, wet winters and cool, drier summers. Mean daily temperatures ranged between 18°C in July to 2°C in January (Environment Canada 1982).  The area was a rural setting, with several small wood processing mills (mostly cedar shake and shingle mills) located along a narrow belt on the north bank of the Fraser River (Figure 3.1). Located on 4.1 hectares, the study site had a large pile (approximately 170 m in diameter and over 20 m high) of miscellaneous untreated cedar wood waste. It ranged from sawdust and chips, to bark and off-specification shakes and shingles, and is referred to by the wood processing industry as 'hog fuel'. Since the cedar hog fuel pile (the Pile) was exposed to the elements, substantial amounts of precipitation fell upon it (approximately 1630 mm annually, with 70% occurring during October - March; Triton, 1993). Due to its absorbent nature, most of the precipitation that fell on the Pile leached through.  A pool of leachate, approximately 20 m by 70 m, had formed on the west side of the Pile and extended onto the adjacent property (Figure 3.1). The leachate was very dark in colour and often had patches of fine white bubbles visible on its surface. A very strong, rank smell emanated from the leachate pool.  Figure 3.2 Cedar leachate pool, viewed from top of hog fuel pile {note the author standing beside the pool}  There were numerous dead trees standing throughout the pool (Figure 3.2) Due to the Pile's proximity to the Fraser River (-60 m), there was concern about the effects of this leachate entering the river, which is British Columbia's most important salmon river (Fraser 1995). Directly underlying the pile was a natural aquitard consisting of silt and clay, ranging from 0.9 to 4.1 m deep. Beneath this aquitard were two aquifers, consisting predominantly of sand and sandy-clay. The top aquifer was thin and discontinuous; the lower one was at least 6.0 m thick throughout the site (Triton 1993). Kevin Frankowski  25  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  3.0 R E S E A R C H SITE A C Q U I S I T I O N & STARTUP 3.3 Project Site Description  Given the site's precipitation patterns and the size of the pile, Triton (1993) calculated a hydrologic mass balance for the pile and determined that approximately 23 000 m of 3  leachate were produced on an annual basis. Of this total volume, it was estimated that about 1 000 m entered the leachate pool and then infiltrated into the ground. The 3  remaining 22 000 m /yr penetrated the relatively thin aquitard beneath the pile and 3  entered the aquifers. Aside from when the Fraser River flooded, no overland drainage was observed from either the leachate pool or the Pile. 3.3.2 Ownership and History The area was under private ownership and parcels were leased to the various small independent wood processing facilities (Figures 3.1 and 3.3). The Pile, which was located at the west end of this stretch of mills, was started in a natural depression at the end of the property. Since few legal disposal options currently exist in B C for hog fuel, several of the small mills in the local area decided to pool their cedar wood waste in an effort to gain a sufficient quantity to enable them to either sell it as fuel to electrical cogeneration facilities or use it as a raw material for some other industrial process (e.g., charcoal production). Unfortunately, none of these enterprises were realized and the large hog fuel Pile persisted. Finally in 1999, a pulp mill in Powell River agreed to accept the cedar and burn it, along with other fuel, in their cogeneration boiler The hog fuel was then being delivered to the pulp mill via barge on an "as-requested" basis.  Figure 3.3 Cedar shake and shingle mills alongside the Fraser River (looking east from top of the Pile) Kevin Frankowski  26  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  4.0 CEDAR LEACHATE CHARACTERIZATION 4.1 Introduction Between October 1997 and December 1999, samples were periodically obtained from the cedar leachate pool and subjected to both chemical and ecotoxicological characterization. The chemical analysis work was conducted in the Environmental Laboratory of the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of British Columbia. Ecotoxicological analysis was supported by E V S Environment Consultants of North Vancouver, B C , who provided me with access to the facilities in their toxicology laboratory.  4.2 Methods and Materials 4.2.1 Sampling Protocols Accepted standard sampling protocols were followed for all sampling trips. Surface grab samples of the cedar leachate were taken as needed from the east bank of the leachate pool, adjacent to the side of the Pile (Figures 3.1). Due to site and legal constraints, the pool was only accessible from this location.  Sufficient sample volumes were collected in appropriate pre-cleaned containers to meet the needs of the analyses (Table 4.1). Each sample container was rinsed twice with sample prior to filling. Every attempt was made to collect samples with a minimum of disturbance to the sampling location. In an effort to collect representative samples, any floating debris or surface films were avoided.  A l l samples were labelled and their temperature and other parameters of interest recorded, (e.g., pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), specific conductivity). The samples were preserved as appropriate (Table 4.1) and transported immediately, without any head space. Blanks were utilized as needed. Laboratory storage was at 4°C, in the dark. A l l analyses were conducted as soon as was possible, within the holding times recommended by the various test protocols (Table 4.1).  Kevin Frankowski  27  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  4.0 C E D A R L E A C H A T E  CHARACTERIZATION  4.2 Methods and Materials Table 4.1 Sample collection, preservation and storage specifications Max.  Minimum  Holding  Sample Analysis  Container  Volume  Time  Preservation  Field  temperature, pH, DO, conductivity  50 mL  Physical  solids colour  200 mL 500 mL  HDPE HDPE  200 mL 500 mL 100 mL 500 mL 200 mL 100 mL 100 mL 50 mL 500 mL  HDPE HDPE (A) Glass HDPE HDPE HDPE HDPE Glass HDPE  refrigerate refrigerate  1 days 48 hours  refrigerate nitric acid to pH < 2 sulphuric acid to pH < 2 & refrigerate sulphuric acid to pH < 2 & refrigerate sulphuric acid to pH < 2 & refrigerate sulphuric acid to pH < 2 & refrigerate refrigerate, analyze as soon as possible 2% phosphoric acid (1 drop per mL) refrigerate, analyze as soon as possible  24 hours 6 months 7 days 7 days 2 days 28 days 7 days 7 days 7 days  refrigerate refrigerate  6 hours 5 days  2  1  Chemical  acidity / alkalinity hardness & total metals carbon (organic & total) ammonia (NH -N) nitrate + nitrite (NO "-N) ortho-phosphate (P0 -P) chemical oxygen demand (COD) volatile fatty acids (VFAs) tannins and lignins 3  x  3  4  3  4  Biological  biochemical oxygen demand (BOD ) toxicity (rainbow trout 96hr LC50) 5  1L 40 L  HDPE HDPE  NOTES  1. 2. 3. 4.  HDPE = high density polyethylene plastic refrigeration was in the dark at 4°C HDPE (A) = acid-washed HDPE container (nitric acid) as per Supelco, Inc. GC Bulletin 751G Sources: APHA (1995); Environment Canada (1990)  4.2.2 Analysis protocols Standard analysis protocols were followed in all cases (see Table 4.2 for specifics). The field parameters (i.e., temperature, DO, pH, specific conductivity) were measured in situ with the appropriate meters (Table 4.2).  The acute toxicity of the cedar leachate was evaluated using the standard rainbow trout 96-hour L C  5 0  procedure (Environment Canada 1990). In essence, a series of dilutions are  prepared from the sample and 10 rainbow trout {Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles are exposed to each sample dilution for a period of 96-hours (under standard conditions of temperature, DO, etc.). By observing how many mortalities occur in which concentrations, a calculation can be performed to determine the concentration at which 50% of the exposed test organisms will die within the 96-hour period. This "lethal concentration" is reported as the L C . 50  Kevin Frankowski  28  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  4.0 CEDAR LEACHATE CHARACTERIZATION 4.2 Methods and Materials  All other laboratory analyses were performed using the standard methodologies noted in Table 4.2. Hardness was calculated from the ICP measurements of total calcium and magnesium, as per Standard Methods (APHA 1995), because the leachate was too highly coloured to be able to see the visual titration endpoint indicators. The colorimetric analyses for COD and tannin and lignin were not affected by the colour of the raw leachate because in order to bring these values within the range of these two tests, sufficient dilutions were required which rendered the test solutions essentially colourless. Spectral response of the raw leachate was determined by spectrophotometer scans (190 820 nm), using a Spectronic Unicam UV300 UV-visible spectrophotometer. Leachate samples were diluted with distilled water as necessary to bring them within instrument range and the results were later corrected for this dilution factor. Data was downloaded to diskette and processed using Microsoft Excel. When presenting results, it is often desirable to make comparisons to standard or "typical" situations in order to provide a context for interpretation. Unfortunately, making comparisons between different leachates is fraught with uncertainty, since their compositions vary so widely (Table 2.1). Waste composition in municipal landfills differs greatly between locales, and this affects the leachate composition. Other influences such as rainfall, temperature, and landfill operating practices also play a role (Tchobanoglous et al. 1993). As a result, there is not a "typical" composition for municipal landfill leachate. Much less information is available for wood leachates, which in itself makes defining a "typical" wood leachate difficult. However, wood leachates also vary widely in their composition, although to a somewhat lesser extent than municipal landfill leachates (Cameron 1982; Schermer and Phipps 1976; Slagel 1976; Thomas 1977). Composition will depend upon a number of factors such as wood species, which parts of the tree are exposed (i.e., bark versus sapwood) and how finely divided the wood is (i.e., surface-area-to-volume ratio). For some parameters, conditions such as ambient pH or landfill age are important, yet these are not always reported.  Kevin Frankowski  29  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  4.0 CEDAR LEACHATE CHARACTERIZATION 4.3 Results and Discussion  Therefore leachates usually do not provide a very useful baseline for comparison. In this report illustrative comparisons will be made between the cedar leachate and other leachates where possible. However, in an effort to provide a more meaningful context, domestic wastewater (i.e., raw sewage) will more often be used as a base of comparison. Although domestic wastewater and wood leachate have completely different sources, there are several reasons why this is still a meaningful comparison. Firstly, although domestic sewage will vary in composition with time and location, the range of this variation in much less than the range of compositional variation observed in leachates. Thus, it is possible to define a "typical" domestic wastewater (Metcalf and Eddy 1991). Secondly, a vast amount of experience has been accumulated in the characterization and treatment of domestic wastewater. Numerous environmental discharge regulations have their roots in mitigating the effects of sewage on receiving environments. Finally, many of the leachate treatment techniques are adapted from standard domestic wastewater treatment processes. This inherent commonality with domestic sewage allows it to be used as a solid base from which to compare other wastewaters and make predictions regarding their possible effects on receiving environments. It needs to be remembered, of course, that there are fundamental differences between domestic sewage and industrial wastewaters and that comparing them is not equivalent to equating them.  4.3 Results and Discussion 4.3.1 Physical parameters In addition to its dark appearance and strong smell, the leachate which collected in the pool at the base of the Pile was characterized by a very consistent set of physical parameters. Observations were conducted for more than two years and only slight variations where observed in the various aspects being monitored. No obviously discernible seasonal patterns were observed. While only assessed qualitatively, such characteristics as odour, visual appearance of the leachate, and pool size did not change appreciably over the duration of the project (with the exception of the general flooding which occurred, due to the Fraser River inundating the area during the summer of 1999 Kevin Frankowski  30  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  4.0 CEDAR LEACHATE CHARACTERIZATION 4.3 Results and Discussion Table 4.2 Cedar leachate characterization data Parameter  Units  temperature (ambient) dissolved oxygen (ambient) pH (ambient) specific conductivity  "C  Average  Std.  Dev  Methodology  n  Field  mg/L uS/cm  13.0 0.4 3.56 903  3.0 0.1 0.16 237  1 1  7 6  probe: YSI Model 55 DO Meter probe: YSI Model 55 (air-calibrated) probe: Orion Model 230A pH meter probe: YSI Model 33 SCT Meter  3.8 < 0.5 6552 960 5592 21 9 12 6508 955 5553 1000 1000 20000  n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 16 10 11 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a  1 1 1 1 1 9 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1  gentle aeration, monitored by pH & DO probes Std Mthd : # 2540F Std Mthd: # 2540B Std Mthd: # 2540E Std Mthd: # 2540E Std Mthd: # 2540D Std Mthd: # 2540E Std Mthd: # 2540E Std Mthd: # 2540C Std Mthd: # 2540E Std Mthd: # 2540E visual comparison (Helige aqua-tester) filtered (0.45um), then Helige aqua-tester filtered (0.45um), then Helige aqua-tester  0 2651 387 19 83 < 0.1 75 44 < 0.1 < 0.4 0.4 3800 < 0.1 0.96 0.17 3.24 4.0 14116 1673.7 2874.4  n/a n/a n/a  n/a 1 1  n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 0.82 0.22 0.73 n/a 4074 492.4 742.7  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 7 8 1 8 7 9  Std Mthd: # 3120B (ICP scan ) Std Mthd: # 3120B (ICP scan) Std Mthd: # 3120B (ICP scan) Std Mthd: # 3120B (ICP scan) Std Mthd: # 3120B (ICP scan) Std Mthd: # 3120B (ICP scan) Std Mthd: # 3120B (ICP scan) Std Mthd: # 3120B (ICP scan) Std Mthd: # 5310B (NDIR detector ) Std Mthd: # 5310B (NDIR detector) Lachat Quik-Chem (Method #10-107-06-01) Lachat Quik-Chem (Method #10-107-04-01) Lachat Quik-Chem (Method #10-115-01-01) Std Mthd: # 3120B (ICP scan) Std Mthd: # 5220D (closed reflux) G C re; Supelco, Inc. GC Bulletin 751G Std Mthd: # 5550B (colorimetric)  3110 5555 1.4  n/a 1847 1.0  1 9 7  Std Mthd: # 5210B; unseeded Std Mthd: # 5210B; seeded Rainbow trout 96hr LC50  Physical  mL/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L APHA C U APHA CU APHA CU  pH (at saturated DO) Solids: Settlable Total Fixed (total) Volatile (total) TSS (Total Suspended Solids) Fixed (suspended) Volatile (suspended) TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) Fixed (dissolved) Volatile (dissolved) Colour: Apparent (at ambient pH) True (at ambient pH) True (at pH >8.5)  :  Chemical  alkalinity (as CaC03) acidity (as CaC03) hardness (as CaC03) total metals: aluminum calcium copper iron magnesium nickel lead zinc dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) ammonia (NH -N) nitrate + nitrite (NO "-N) ortho-phosphate (PO ' -P) total phosphorus chemical oxygen demand (COD) volatile fatty acids (VFAs), C - C tannins and lignins (as tannic acid) 3  x  3  4  2  6  mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L  1  (because pH < 4.5) Std Mthd: # 2310B (pH titration) Std Mthd: # 2340B (calculated) 3  4  5  6  Biological  biochemical oxygen demand (BOD ) mg/L biochemical oxygen demand (BOD ) mg/L toxicity (adjusted to pH = 4.5 - 5.0) % v/v 5  5  7  8  NOTES  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  Std Mthd = Standard Methods (APHA 1995) APHA CU = APHA colour units ICP = inductively coupled spectrometer NDIR = non-dispresive infrared (Model used = Shimadzu TOC-500) Lachat Quik-Chem 8000 automated flow-injection ion analyzer GC = gas chromatograph (Model used = HPGC 5880A) BOD seed = 0.1 g of pool-side soil per 300 mL BOD bottle L C 5 0 = lethal concentration which causes mortality in 50% of test organisms  Kevin Frankowski  31  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  4.0 C E D A R L E A C H A T E C H A R A C T E R I Z A T I O N 4.3 Results and Discussion  once the floodwaters receded, conditions returned to what they had been previously). The physical parameters which were measured did not exhibit large variations either (Table 4.2). The pH of leachate in the pool was consistently around 3.5, which places it at the lower extreme of the range observed for municipal landfill leachates (Table 2.1). Even in the middle of winter, the cedar leachate was fairly warm (13°C), presumably heated by the composting occurring within Pile. The level of dissolved oxygen present in the pool was consistently less than the DO meter could reliably measure (i.e., <1 mg/L).  Compared to untreated domestic wastewater, the leachate contained a very high level of TDS and a very low level of TSS (Metcalf and Eddy 1991). Over 99% of the solids present in the leachate were dissolved solids and 85% were dissolved volatile solids (i.e., soluble organic compounds) (Table 4.2). In the context of water treatment, "solids" are defined as any matter, other than water, which is present in the liquid. In practice, this means all materials not having a significant vapour pressure (i.e., nonvolatile) when heated to 103 - 105°C, since these materials are lost during the analysis procedure (Sawyer et al. 1994). Thus, the vast majority of the contaminants present in this leachate were in a soluble form. This was reflected in other parameters such as specific conductivity. Even the colour was caused by soluble compounds, as shown by comparing the "apparent" and "true" colour values (Table 4.2). Unfortunately, this lack of suspended solids meant that very little treatment would be achieved through the use of flocculation / settling. In essence, any suspended solids which did seep out of the Pile had already been removed in the leachate pool, which acted as a settling pond, and the leachate was left with its soluble contaminants.  The leachate was highly coloured (Table 4.2), and the colour exhibited the interesting property of being strongly pH-dependent (Figures 4.1 and 4.2), which suggested that it was largely due to some form of weak acid which, as pH changed, caused a shift in its protonation, and therefore its spectral properties. Considering the leachate's source and appearance, these acids were presumably similar to some of the highly-coloured, organic acids found in pulp mill effluent. Kevin Frankowski  32  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  4.0 C E D A R L E A C H A T E C H A R A C T E R I Z A T I O N 4.3 Results and Discussion  While these organic acids represent a diverse, and to some extent, still unknown group of compounds, their colour, or more precisely, their spectral properties can sometimes be used to characterize them and gain some understanding about their composition. Since specific functional groups on molecules will have certain spectral responses, spectroscopy can be used as an identification tool. The presence of absorbance peaks  Figure 4.1 Intensity of cedar leachate colour over a pH range  at specific wavelengths is indicative of specific compounds or functional groups (Dyer 1965). The intensity of the absorbance is governed by the concentration of those compounds. (This premise is the foundation of all colorimetric analyses, including the Standard Methods for COD and tannin and lignin.) Spectrophotometer scans of the raw leachate gave very consistent results, with a very characteristic shape (Figure 4.3). The general shape is strikingly similar to that produced by a pure solution of tannic acid (Figure 4.4). The characteristic double peak is seen for many substituted organics, and the wavelengths of this pair of absorbance peaks have been used to define a "fingerprint" for a list of substituted functional groups (Dyer 1965). For both tannic acid and the raw leachate, the primary peak occurs at 210 nm, followed by a secondary peak at 278 nm. This matches most closely to the spectral fingerprint of a polyphenols compound containing a hydroxyl group (Dryer 1965). Thus, spectrophotometer scans of the raw leachate could potentially be used as a quick and inexpensive preliminary characterization tool, to help guide more detailed analyses. 4.3.2 Chemical parameters The organic acid hypothesis was further supported by the very strong acidity which was measured (Table 4.2). Since the pH was below 4.5, by definition (APHA1995) no  Kevin Frankowski  33  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  4.0  CEDAR LEACHATE CHARACTERIZATION 4.3 Results and Discussion  Figure 4.2 pH-dependant colour change in cedar leachate (note the dilutions) {left-right: pH 3.0, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0 (all 10% v/v) andpH 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10.0 (all 2% v/v)}  250 -Nov 05/99  200  Nov 12/99  § 150 |  100 50  -Nov 19/99 Nov 26/99  \  190  Dec 03/99 -Dec 10/99  290  390  490  590  690  790  Wavelength (nm)  Figure 4.3 Spectral response of raw leachate (UV-visible light).  Figure 4.4 Spectral response of tannic acid (UV-visible light). Kevin Frankowski  34  UBC  CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  4.0 C E D A R L E A C H A T E C H A R A C T E R I Z A T I O N 4.3 Results and Discussion  alkalinity was present. The degree of hardness (387 mg/L) fell within the "very hard water" classification (APHA1995). With the exception of calcium and magnesium (i.e., hardness) and iron (a common, relatively innocuous metal) and aluminum, there were low concentrations of metals present in the leachate. A previous study on this same leachate observed a similar composition in 1992 (Triton 1993) (see Appendix D . l for details). From a toxicological perspective, any trace metals which were present would have had a lower toxicity due to the high hardness of the leachate (Borgmann 1983). However, aluminum was present in high concentrations, possibly due to mobilization from the native soils by the acidic leachate. Despite the mitigating effects of hardness, aluminum concentrations could still have been sufficient to be toxic (Howard Bailey, personal communication).  Although many wood leachates are nutrient-poor, it has been reported that some wood leachates can have a sufficient nutrient supply to cause eutrophication problems in local receiving environments (Thomas 1977). The cedar leachate at this research site was very nutrient-poor. Although some ortho-phosphate (3.2 mg/L) was present, it was very little in relation to the very high organic carbon that was present (3800 mg/L); the orthophosphatexarbon ratio was only 0.0012. Even a dilute domestic wastewater will typically have an orfho-phosphatexarbon ratio at least ten times as high (Metcalf and Eddy 1991). The nutrientxarbon ratios for ammonia and nitrates were even lower. This meant that while the leachate had a very high carbon load, there were few nutrients available to supply any of the biological systems which may have been capable of degrading it. (This is in sharp contrast to many municipal landfill leachates, which have solubilized so much nitrogen from the food and other waste that the nitrogenous concentrations are high enough to be toxic to most aquatic life and may represent the primary pollutant of concern.)  Similar to landfill leachate, the C O D of the cedar leachate was extremely high (>14 000 mg/L), especially when compared to the typical COD of raw sewage (500 1000 mg/L) (Metcalf and Eddy 1991). The COD test is used to determine the total Kevin Frankowski  35  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  4.0 C E D A R L E A C H A T E C H A R A C T E R I Z A T I O N 4.3 Results and Discussion  amount of oxygen required to carry out all the oxidation reactions within a sample, without regard to the biodegradability of the compounds (Sawyer et al. 1994). While some smaller, simpler compounds, such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), may be more easily biodegraded than larger, more recalcitrant compounds such as tannin and lignin, this cannot be detected by the COD test. However, the COD measurements are important because they provide an approximation of the total carbon-load present.  VFAs are short-chain fatty acids and their size can be denoted by the number of carbon atoms they contain; the smallest V F A is acetic acid, with only two carbons (i.e., C,). VFAs are produced as by-products of certain fermentation (i.e., anoxic metabolism) processes. The leachate had very high concentrations (>1650 mg/L), and it was these abundant VFAs which were responsible for its strong smell. Examining the individual V F A concentrations (Table 4.3), the smaller compounds (e.g., acetic acid (C )) were more 2  abundant than the larger acids (e.g., hexanoic acid (C )). This is as expected, since the 6  smaller molecules are simpler and would be involved with more common, less specialized metabolic applications.  Table 4.3 Concentrations of individual volatile fatty acids (C - C ) 2  Parameter  Total ( C - C ) 2  6  Acetic acid Propionic acid Butyric acid + Iso-butyric acid Valeric acid n-Hexanoic acid  Average  6  Std. Dev.  n  1674  492  1  753 328 314 169 110  211 97 130 108 28  7 7 7 7 7  1  NOTES 1. A l l values reported in mg/L  The VFAs are a very easily degraded carbon source and their presence in the leachate provided an alternative food source for those microbial communities which may have had trouble degrading more recalcitrant compounds. The cedar leachate also had a very high concentration of tannin and lignin (>2800 mg/L), which is not surprising, considering its source. This class of compounds is noted for its resistance to biological degradation and Kevin Frankowski  36  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  4.0 C E D A R L E A C H A T E C H A R A C T E R I Z A T I O N 4.3 Results and Discussion  is also suspected as one of the primary toxicants in many wood leachates (Bailey et al. 1999; Eaton and Hale 1993).  The theoretical oxygen demand (ThOD) that these two classes of compounds represent can be calculated from their balanced oxidation reactions (see Appendix C) and this can be compared against the total oxygen demand of the leachate (i.e., COD). In this way, an estimation can be obtained for the proportion of total COD that is represented by these two classes of compounds (Table 4.4). It should be realized that while each V F A (C to 2  C ) was measured independently, this was not the case with tannin and lignin. Standard 6  Method #5550B (APHA 1995) measures the abundance of aromatic hydroxyl groups (present on tannin and lignin) and reports the concentration in terms of tannic acid. In other words, tannic acid is being used as a surrogate compound to represent what is a very large, diverse, and to some extent, still unknown group of compounds (no alternate, easily-applied analytical method was available). Thus, the ThOD calculated for tannin and lignin will only be an estimation of their actual oxygen demand, and this demand may change over time, undetected, if the concentration of the overall group remains the same but the relative concentrations of the different tannins or lignins change. This should be kept in mind when interpreting the ThOD results.  The ratio of total V F A ThOD to COD was 0.16 (Table 4.4). This means that approximately 16% of the overall COD was due to VFAs. Similarly, the ratio of the tannin and lignin ThOD to COD was 0.21. Taken together, the total ThOD of these two compound classes accounts for only 37% of the COD. From a mass balance perspective, this means that only -37% of the total oxidizable load present in this leachate was attributable to these compounds. Another 63% was due to unknown compounds. This becomes important when trying to understand and optimize a treatment process. 4.3.4 Biological parameters In contrast to COD, BOD is a measure of the oxygen demand of all the biologically mediated reactions occurring in a water sample (Sawyer et al. 1994). In a practical sense,  Kevin Frankowski  37  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  4.0 C E D A R L E A C H A T E  CHARACTERIZATION  4.3 Results and Discussion  this means that the consumption (i.e., demand) of oxygen by the microbial communities is measured under standard conditions of temperature, light, and oxygen and nutrient availability. Any compounds which are not biodegradable will theoretically not exert an oxygen demand under these test conditions, and thus the test gives a measure of the amount of oxygen that will be consumed under optimal aerobic conditions as the wastewater undergoes complete biodegradation. Of course, this assumes that the proper microbial communities (i.e., those capable of metabolizing the waste under mesophilic aerobic conditions) are present. If the water sample is lacking these organisms, they must be added ("seeded") before comparable results will be obtained.  Typical domestic wastewaters have a 5-day BOD of-200 mg/L (Metcalf and Eddy 1991). The cedar leachate sampled from the pool had a seeded 5-day B O D of >5500 mg/L (Table 4.2). This was not unexpected, given the very high C O D values discussed earlier Comparatively, there was a BOD : COD ratio of 0.40 (Table 4.4), which is within the lower end of the range typically reported for domestic wastewater (Metcalf and Eddy 1991). Thus, approximately 40% of the COD is attributable to easily biodegradable substances. Considering that cedar wood is not a readily biodegradable material, this BOD : COD ratio was Table 4.4 Oxygen demand ratios Ratio  surprisingly high. Landfill  Average Std. Dev.  n  ThOD(VFA): COD ThOD(T&L): C O D ThOD(VFA + T & L ) : COD  0.16 0.21 0.37  0.03 0.02 0.05  6 6 6  ThOD(VFA): BOD BOD:COD  0.40 0.40  0.06 0.08  6 8  leachate often has a much lower ratio, indicative of the higher proportion of recalcitrant compounds.  In the same way that the ThOD of known compounds can be compared against the total oxygen demand (i.e., COD), a comparison can be made between the ThOD of readily biodegradable compounds and the BOD. VFAs are considered to be readily biodegradable. Their ThOD, compared against the seeded BOD data gave a ThOD : 5  B O D ratio of 0.40 (Table 4.4). Thus, 60% of the biodegradable load in this leachate was due to unknown compounds. Kevin Frankowski  38  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  4.0 C E D A R L E A C H A T E C H A R A C T E R I Z A T I O N 4.3 Results and Discussion  It is interesting to note that when the BOD tests were not provided with a seed, the measured BOD was almost half of what was measured otherwise (Table 4.2, Figure 4.5). The seed used in these BOD tests was forest soil taken from the banks of the leachate pool. The theory was that the microbial communities present in a forest soil would be adapted to metabolizing wood chemicals, including some of the extractives that are toxic to other lifeforms, and thus should provide a good inoculant for the development of an appropriate microbial community. Only the equivalent of 0.1 g (moist weight) of soil was added to each 300 mL B O D bottle, thereby preventing this seed from interfering with the B O D results, either in the form of additional oxygen demand, or via providing a substantial amount of bonding sites (on clay particles, etc.) on to which various contaminants could possibly adsorb onto. Seeded blanks were used in every B O D test, and they consistently had an oxygen demand of < 1.0 mg/L (all sample results were corrected for this small background oxygen demand).  The BOD results that have been reported so far are all 5-day BOD results, the standard test length. However, this only captures a portion of the total oxygen demand of a wastewater, since some compounds will take longer than five days to metabolize, and thus will still exert an oxygen demand beyond this point. It is generally considered that by Day 20, >99% of the ultimate B O D will have been exerted (Metcalf and Eddy 1991; Sawyer et al. 1994). However, when an extended BOD test was performed on the cedar leachate, it appeared as if this pattern did not hold true for this wastewater At Day 20, the BOD exertion curve appeared to be  7000  still rising (i.e., slope > 1.0) (Figure 4.5). However, it is doubtful that this was due to a very low overall B O D kinetic rate constant (k), as might be expected for a recalcitrant industrial wastewater. 0  5  10  15  20  Figure 4.5 Extended BOD of cedar leachate Kevin Frankowski  39  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  4.0  CEDAR LEACHATE CHARACTERIZATION  4.3 Results and Discussion  Examination of the seeded data for Day 0 to Day 12 suggested a B O D reaction rate in the order of 0.5 d* , which is extremely fast; the typical rate for domestic wastewater is 1  between 0.10 - 0.17d'' (Metcalf and Eddy 1991; Sawyer et al. 1994). However, this would suggest that by Day 5, almost all of the ultimate B O D would have been exerted, and no more oxygen should be required beyond this point. From the way that the B O D exertion curve (Figure 4.5) rose steeply, reached a plateau, and then began to rise again, it implied that the ultimate B O D was actually higher than the Day 0 - Day 12 data suggested and that the microbial communities may have been switching food sources, using easily degraded sources first (e.g., the VFAs), and then switching to more recalcitrant materials, possibly the lignins or other complex organic molecules, which they continued to degrade at a slow rate over a longer time period.  In addition to possible hints about microbial community dynamics, the oxygen demand kinetics also provided us with information about the short-term behaviour of this wastewater. Since the B O D for this leachate was so high and the short-term kinetic rate constant so fast, the leachate would be expected to have a very "aggressive" oxygen demand. This was supported by the very low DO concentration of the leachate pool. It gained further anecdotal support when the fish toxicity tests were being set up. It was extremely difficult to achieve a sufficient dissolved oxygen level in the test solutions. In order to meet the requirements of the test protocols (Environment Canada 1990), it was necessary to aerate the samples at the maximum allowable rate. If the air supply ever failed, the test sample would very quickly go anoxic (and the test would have to be redone). In an aquatic receiving environment, this characteristic means that, aside from any toxicity which may be present due to its chemical composition, this wastewater would, from an oxygen supply perspective alone, impose a substantial stress upon any organisms (fish, zooplankton, etc.) which came in contact with it inside its nearfreld mixing zone.  In order to separate such stressors as oxygen demand from the question of compositionbased toxicity, laboratory toxicity tests are employed. These toxicity tests are conducted Kevin Frankowski  40  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  4.0 C E D A R L E A C H A T E C H A R A C T E R I Z A T I O N 4.3 Results and Discussion  under stringently-defined standardized conditions, including specifications ensuring that sufficient oxygen is supplied to the test organisms. The resulting conditions are such that any observable negative effects to the test organisms (e.g., zooplankton, algae, juvenile fish) are due to composition-based toxicity present in the sample.  As determined by the rainbow trout 96-hour L C test procedure (Environment Canada 50  1990), the cedar leachate had an L C  5 0  of 1.4% v/v (± 1.0) (Table 4.2). This was  consistent with what was measured over seven years earlier for this same leachate (Triton 1993) (see Appendix D.l). Toxicities reported in the literature for other wood leachates ranged from 0.48% to >100%, as measured by the rainbow trout 96-hour bioassay procedure (Cameron 1982; Schermer and Phipps 1976; Slagel 1976). Several factors may be responsible for this range in observed toxicities. Wood species has a profound effect on leachate toxicity (Schermer and Phipps 1976; Slagel 1976; Thomas 1977). Different parts of the tree also produce considerable differences in leachate toxicity, with bark and heartwood generally being the source of the more toxic leachates (Schermer and Phipps 1976; Slagel 1976). Adjusting for these various influences when comparing the variously reported toxicities is usually not possible. Whether the wood waste is of bark or heartwood origin or what species it is from may not be known, since most wood waste is very heterogeneous and has a variety of sources.  Landfill age is also a factor, as older wood waste landfills usually generate less toxic leachate (Schermer and Phipps 1976). However, the exact rate at which toxicity diminishes with landfill age is not something that is easily determined, and in all likelihood is very site-specific. Studies such as Schermer and Phipps (1976) had noted that in small, experimental wood waste landfills, leachate strength diminished rapidly, sometimes in as little as 80 days. In contrast, the composition of the leachate emanating from this Pile had changed little in more than seven years (Triton 1993) (see Appendix D. 1). Possible reasons for this contrast include differences in the pattern and total amount of rainfall, the size of the landfills, and their internal conditions. Higher internal  Kevin Frankowski  41  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  4.0 C E D A R L E A C H A T E C H A R A C T E R I Z A T I O N 4.3 Results and Discussion  temperatures and more acidic conditions may cause more pronounced degradation of the wood, thereby liberating more wood chemicals to the leaching process.  The toxicity of wood leachate may also be pH-dependent, which would further complicate meaningful comparisons between different leachates. Observations made during this research indicate that the toxicity of the cedar leachate increased with decreasing pH. Just as the colour was affected by changing pH, so may the toxicity be affected. However, separating what is pH-dependent toxicity versus what is organism stress induced solely by low pH is not easy. Various observations indicated that pHinduced stress began to occur at a pH below 4.5. Above a pH of around 6.0, the toxicity of the cedar leachate seemed to diminish markedly. However, the data is limited (see Appendix D . l ) and more rigorous testing needs to be done before this characteristic can be established with certainty.  Attempts were made to establish the identity of the toxicants through the use of toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) (US EPA 1991a), but problems were encountered because the leachate contained such high concentrations of the compounds being examined that column breakthrough occurred quickly when using the commercially available solid phase extraction (SPE) separation columns. It would be necessary to construct custom columns of a much larger size in order to collect a sufficient volume for bioassay testing.  Despite the need for more research in order to determine the exact identities of the toxicants in this leachate, it is still possible to make some preliminary conclusions concerning toxicant identity. Toxic thresholds have been established for many compounds (US EPA 1999), and these can be compared against their measured concentrations in this leachate. While copper and zinc, two trace metals reputed for their toxicity, were not present in significant concentrations, aluminum was present in sufficient concentrations to be a potential toxicant. The concentrations of the individual VFAs were also measured. However, very limited information was available on their Kevin Frankowski  42  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  4.0 C E D A R L E A C H A T E C H A R A C T E R I Z A T I O N 4.3 Results and Discussion  toxicity to fish. Acetic acid was shown to be toxic to rainbow trout above a threshold of 315 mg/L, while propionic acid had a rainbow trout toxic threshold of 67 mg/L (US EPA 1999). However, no information was provided regarding what pH these tests were conducted at or whether the toxicity of these compounds changed with pH. Assuming no pH-effects, both of these compounds were present at toxic concentrations in the cedar leachate.  It has been suggested that tannin and lignin may represent another of the major organic toxicants in wood leachate (Bailey et al. 1999). While their toxicity seems to be influenced by the species of wood they are extracted from, this class of compounds has been shown to be toxic to fish at concentrations as low as 15 mg/L (Power 1987). The concentrations measured in this cedar leachate were almost 200 times stronger than this threshold (Table 4.2). Lignans, a class of compounds similar to lignins, have been reported as having a more mild toxicity to fish (toxic threshold =60 mg/L) (Peters et al. 1976). Tropolones, an extractive found in cedar heartwood, are much more toxic (toxic threshold =0.3 mg/L) (Peters et al. 1976). Interestingly, tropolone toxicity is greatly reduced when the pH is increased towards neutrality (Slagel 1976). Since the Standard Methods analysis for tannin and lignin (Method #5550B, A P H A 1995) detects aromatic hydroxyl groups, it is unable to distinguish between tropolones and true tannin and lignin. Also, tropolones will be retained on an SPE column along with tannin and lignin and will thus travel with tannin and lignin during any TIE procedure based on SPE fractionation. Using a TIE procedure based on molecular size exclusion may assist in better separating the respective roles of these organics in the toxicity of wood leachate, since tropolones are much smaller molecules (~C - C ) than tannin and lignin (~C - >C, ). 7  14  20  00  While aluminum, tannin and lignin, possibly all the VFAs, and probably tropolones were present at toxic concentrations within this leachate, the overall toxicity of the leachate is a more complex issue than just the simple summation of these various compounds. Interactions often occur between compounds which effect their toxicity (Marking 1985). If two compounds have a greater toxicity when they are present together, compared to the Kevin Frankowski  43  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  4.0 C E D A R L E A C H A T E C H A R A C T E R I Z A T I O N 4.4 Conclusions  sum of their individual toxicities, they are considered to have a "synergistic" or "cooperative" toxicity. If the opposite is true, and the combined presence results in a decrease in toxicity, compared to the sum of the individual toxicities, this is considered an "antagonistic" interaction. Antagonism may occur, for example, if two toxic compounds form a non-bioavailable complex when present together in the same solution. It is known that many organic compounds will form chelation complexes with certain metals. Tropolones are strong chelators of iron, and possibly aluminum, and this diminishes their toxicity (Peters et al. 1976). Since the cedar leachate had high concentrations of both iron and aluminum, the measured toxicity may have been less than it could have been, had these metals been absent.  This becomes very important when trying to optimize a treatment process, since a unit process which removes only selected toxicants (e.g., metals) may fail to provide a decease in toxicity, since the net effect may be the removal of antagonistic interactions and the remaining toxicants are now able to exert their full toxic effect. In some cases, an increase in observed toxicity is even possible. A similar phenomenon may occur i f the intermediate breakdown products of some compounds are more toxic than the parent compounds. Thus, i f a treatment process is only performing a portion of the degradation cascade, the effluent may be more toxic than the influent.  4.4 Conclusions The cedar leachate from the Pile could be considered an industrial wastewater that was at least an order of magnitude stronger than raw domestic wastewater It was acidic, nutrient-poor, and had a very high, and aggressive, oxygen demand. Even when its oxygen demand was accounted for, it was still very toxic. This toxicity was unlikely caused by trace metals or ammonia, due to their low concentrations in this leachate. The exception was aluminum, which may represent one of the toxicants. Other possible toxicants include VFAs, tropolones, and tannin and lignin. Complex interactions among the many constituents of this leachate are likely, making the exact determination of the various toxicants an intricate process. Kevin Frankowski  44  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  4.0 C E D A R L E A C H A T E C H A R A C T E R I Z A T I O N 4.4 Conclusions  Most of the contaminants present were soluble organics (85% by mass), and the lack of suspended solids presented little opportunity to provide treatment via flocculation or settling techniques. The leachate's strong colour, and possibly its toxicity, were strongly pH-dependent. Substantial concentrations of VFAs and tannin and lignin were present, but these only accounted for -37% of the COD. Surprisingly, the leachate had a B O D : COD ratio similar to domestic wastewater, but this was where the resemblance ended.  Other wood leachates reported in the literature had similar characterizations, but there existed a broad enough range of reported values that it would be advisable to perform individual characterizations prior to developing any site-specific treatment and control recommendations. This is especially prudent when considering that such site-specific factors as mobilization of metals from native soils may play a very important role in a leachate's toxicity and treatability.  Further research is needed to clarify several issues surrounding the specific causes of the toxicity in this leachate. It is recommended that molecular size exclusion procedures be used in order to determine whether the organic compound toxicity resides with the smaller or larger molecular compounds (e.g., tropolones versus tannin and lignin). Establishing whether tropolones are responsible for much of the observed toxicity will greatly assist in monitoring and optimizing any treatment process. Also, the toxicity of isolated reagents such as individual VFAs, tannic acid or specific tropolones can be tested directly, thereby providing a standard against which to compare the environmental samples. These synthetic analogues of wood leachate could also be manipulated to determine how their toxicity is affected by changes in pH and how much of a role is played by antagonistic and synergistic interactions. The role of aluminum should be elucidated.  Additionally, a more detailed study of the long-term exertion of BOD would provide useful information regarding the pattern of microbial degradation and address the substrate-switching hypothesis outlined above. During the course of the long-term B O D Kevin Frankowski  45  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  4.0 C E D A R L E A C H A T E C H A R A C T E R I Z A T I O N 4.4 Conclusions  test, concentrations of various leachate components (e.g., VFAs, small and large molecular class compounds) could be monitored to see how they change, especially in relation to the B O D exertion pattern. In addition to information on degradation kinetics, this will provide valuable insights into what types of organisms are responsible for any observed biodegradation.  Kevin Frankowski  46  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  5.0  SCREENING TRIALS  5.1 Introduction The first step in the development of a biological treatment system to treat the cedar leachate was to establish whether the leachate was amenable to biological degradation. Thomas (1977) reported an inability to treat cedar leachate using laboratory-scale (45 litre) completely-mixed aerobic reactors. The reactors were seeded with biological sludge taken from an activated sludge system treating bleached kraft pulp mill effluents and had a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. Schermer and Phipps (1976) observed satisfactory treatment when the leachate was passed through a column of soil, but the treatment performance diminished quickly over time, with breakthrough occurring in a little as 20 days. This implies that the treatment was accomplished by a physical absorption-type mechanism and its capacity would be limited by the mass loading it experienced, in a manner similar to ion-exchange or activated carbon systems.  In December 1997, screening trials were conducted to determine whether any of several environmental inoculants had an ability to biodegrade the cedar leachate. Samples of macrophytes, fungi, and soil were collected from the site and used to seed small completely-mixed aerobic reactors. Changes in toxicity were monitored over time. The work was performed at the laboratory facilities of EVS Environment Consultants.  5.2 Methods and Materials In a laboratory Controlled Environment Room (CER) set at 20 °C, with a 16:8 hr (lightdark) photoperiod, thirty-two aerated batch reactors (1 L acid/acetone-washed glass jars) were set up. A concentration series was prepared from the leachate (100, 10, l%v/v, plus a distilled water blank) and distributed over eight identical sets of reactors (i.e., each set represented one dilution series).  This setup allowed three environmental inoculants, plus a non-inoculated control, to be Kevin Frankowski  47  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  5.0 S C R E E N I N G TRIALS 5.3 Results and Discussion  tested in replicate. The inoculants (pool-side soil, duckweed, and fungi) were all sampled from the field site at locations which were periodically exposed to the leachate. The biological systems they represented would have had the opportunity to adapt to the contaminants in the leachate, and therefore they all represented potential seeds specifically suited for this wastewater.  Each 1 L reactor in a dilution series was supplied with 20 g (moist weight) of one of the inoculants, with the exception of the two control sets, which were not inoculated. The batch reactors (Figure 5.1) were aerated continuously to maintain saturated DO levels. Changes in water quality (pH, DO, and conductivity) were monitored daily. After eleven days of aeration, the cultures were allowed to settle and then were poured through a 250 Lim sieve to remove any suspended material. The acute toxicity of the filtrate was determined using a modified rainbow trout bioassay (as per Bailey et al. 1999). After the toxicity results were obtained, the solutions were sieved (250 Lim) and subjected to a UVvisible spectrophotometer scan (190 - 820 nm) as described in Section 4.2, in case any general differences could be detected in spectral Figure 5.1 Aerated batch reactors  response between the various treatments.  This test matrix allowed each inoculant to be tested in a range of leachate strengths, and its performance compared against the same range of leachate dilutions which had only received aeration (i.e., the control sets). In this way, it was possible to separate reductions in toxicity that were due to degradation caused by aerobic organisms indigenous to the leachate or physical factors such as air-stripping from those reductions that were solely due to the addition of inoculant material.  5.3 Results and Discussion Monitoring of water quality in the reactors provided assurance that the desired test conditions were being maintained and that the replicate sets of reactors were performing in a similar fashion (see Appendix D.2 for raw data). With the exception of one day of Kevin Frankowski  48  UBC  CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  5.0 S C R E E N I N G TRIALS 5.3 Results and Discussion  eg  C  0 5  u cj %  S *  Si c  2 § # (1/fiLU)  UeSAXQ  pOA|OSSIQ  a  o  Tt  CU  ! s  I s  "a ~S  cu S K  H  3  TJ CO CO  C*  s  o  s I  a S a cj  I  I* •  8 * 5 -a ;— o  8 *  cj q < "a  O (1/6LU)  Kevin Frankowski  co  co  UABAXQ  OJ  o  o  POAJOSSIQ  (l/fiui)  49  o  o  usflAxo  o paAjOSSia  B 3  2  .§1 5 U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  5.0 S C R E E N I N G TRIALS 5.3 Results and Discussion  | e o u R Is  a (uia/Sn)  (iuo/sn)  AiiAjionpuoo  A||A|janpuoo  a  c  .3  u "5 5 S  s  5  3  K 5  | 8  •2  be R  i E  a o  s 11  y  K "13  e  s 3  3 (LiiD/sn)  Kevin Frankowski  (uia/sn)  AifAiionpuoo  50  A;|A|pnpuoo  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  5.0 S C R E E N I N G TRIALS 5.3 Results and Discussion  Kevin Frankowski  51  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  5.0 S C R E E N I N G TRIALS 5.4 Conclusions  insufficient aeration in the 100% reactors, DO was consistently maintained above saturation until the aeration was turned off at the end of the test (Figure 5.2). Conductivity remained largely unchanged in all treatments (Figure 5.3). In the 10% and 1% concentrations, pH rose to close to neutral in all treatments except the control sets. The 100% concentrations experienced negligible change in pH. In the control sets, pH in the 10% and 1% concentrations exhibited a gradual, and fairly limited rise, presumably indicative of the removal of volatile acids due to air-stripping (Figure 5.4). Although not measured quantitatively, the strong smell characteristic of this leachate was quite pronounced when the bioreactors were initially started, but diminished rapidly, and after a few days was hardly detectable.  After eleven days of treatment, poolside soil produced the greatest reduction in toxicity (Figure 5.5). Duckweed was also effective, but to Raw Leachate  a lesser extent. The fungal inoculants actually increased the toxicity and even their distilled water  Fungal Inoculant  Figure 5.5 Effect of inoculants on leachate toxicity reduction (using aerated 1 L batch reactors; HRT= 11 days)  controls (i.e., 0% leachate) showed toxicity. This may have been the result of toxic compounds being leached from the fungal tissues. The control series produced only a slight reduction in toxicity, indicating that aeration alone would not prove an effective treatment technique. No readily interpretable differences between the various treatments were revealed by the spectrophotometer scans (see Appendix D.2).  5.4 Conclusions Based on the above results, the cedar leachate was amenable to biological treatment. Two of the environmental inoculants tested were able to substantially reduce the toxicity beyond what was afforded by aeration alone, with pool-side soil providing the better toxicity reduction. For these reasons, pool-side soil was selected as the inoculant when the biological treatment of the cedar leachate was studied further Kevin Frankowski  52  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  6.0 BENCH-SCALE TREATMENT WITH MICROCOSM WETLANDS 6.1 Introduction Having established that cedar leachate was amenable to biological toxicity reduction, it was necessary to determine whether constructed wetlands were capable of performing this treatment. Bench scale testing of wetland microcosms inoculated with pool-side soil was performed in February and March 1998, with a repetition of these tests in April and May 1999. Water quality parameters (pH, DO, conductivity) and changes in toxicity were monitored in these batch reactors. The second set of microcosms was also used to gather more detailed data about specific parameters such as tannin and lignin concentrations. The microcosms were set up in the laboratory facilities at EVS Environment Consultants and analytical work was performed in the Environmental Laboratory at the University of British Columbia.  6.2 Methods and Materials 6.2.1 Test setup and conditions Eight small wetlands were constructed as laboratory batch microcosms (Figure 6.1) and placed in a 22°C CER. Clean 38 L glass fish tanks (25 cm x 50 cm x 30 cm deep) were provided with a 1 cm base of clean silica  \ I (  sand, upon which was placed a 4 cm thick mat of dense root fibres from  I  Broad-leaved Cattails (Typha latifolia) Emergent macrophytes (cattails)  that had been harvested from a nearby pond. A l l soil present in the root mats had been intentionally washed out during  Root mat  (with soil inoculant)  harvesting. The root mats contained no emergent vegetation, since they were Kevin Frankowski  Sand  Figure 6.1 Schematic of the lab microcosms  53  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  6.0 B E N C H - S C A L E T R E A T M E N T W I T H M I C R O C O S M W E T L A N D S 6.2 Methods and Materials  harvested prior to the spring emergence of the cattails. A l l dead stalks from the previous season's growth were trimmed away for ease of handling. The root mats were divided so as to ensure that several large tuber-like root stalks were present in each microcosm, but the majority of the mats were comprised of a dense network of very fine root hairs (Figure 6.2). On top of the root mat was placed a thin layer (<2 cm) of pool-side soil, to act as an inoculant (see Section 5.0 for discussion regarding selection of inoculant).  Two replicate concentration series (75%, 50%, and 10%o v/v) were prepared from the leachate. Randomly selected tanks each received 15 L of one these dilutions. A pair of tanks (complete with root mat, etc.) were filled with 15 L of dechlorinated city tap water each and served as replicate controls. In Figure 6.2 Cattail root mat in lab microcosm  addition, one tank with just sand, 15 L of dechlorinated water and a bubble pump served  as "room blank". Should any effects (e.g., toxicity) appear in the control tanks, this blank would allow separation of those effects caused by the cattail root mat or soil inoculant from those effects caused by materials used in construction of the microcosm or general conditions present in the test room (e.g., contaminants in the aeration supply). Gro-light tubes were placed over the microcosms, to provide simulated sunlight. Unfortunately, this rack of lights could not be connected to the room's photoperiod timer, so the microcosm wetlands received light 24 hours a day. This did not appear to have any negative effects on the cattails. Bubble circulators were installed in each tank (Figure 6.3) and adjusted to provide a slow circulation of the leachate through the batch reactor while providing the minimum possible aeration (an attempt to simulate anticipated field conditions, Figure 6.3 Room blank microcosm  where no supplementary aeration would exist).  {Note the bubble pump} Kevin Frankowski  54  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  6.0 B E N C H - S C A L E T R E A T M E N T W I T H M I C R O C O S M W E T L A N D S 6.2 Methods and Materials  When the second set of microcosms were constructed and tested (April - May 1999), all construction and conditions were the same as the 1998 setup, with the following exceptions: 1. The concentrations series was 50%, 25%, 10% v/v; 2. The CER was set to a temperature of 15°C; 3. The setup was monitored for 29 days, rather than 18 days. 4. Small subsamples were obtained from each reactor on Day 8 and Day 16. 6.2.2 Monitoring Water quality parameters (pH, DO, conductivity) were monitored regularly (see Appendix D.3 for raw data). Changes in acute toxicity were determined by occasionally taking a 500 mL subsample from each reactor and performing a modified rainbow trout bioassay using 2 fish per beaker (as per Bailey et al. 1999). In order to ensure that the fish tests met the DO levels specified by the protocol, each beaker was gently aerated. Since evapotranspiration would result in a decrease in bioreactor water level over time, the necessary small amounts of dechlorinated tap water to compensate for this were added as needed to each reactor, thereby preventing evapoconcentration of the contaminants. This is common practice in microcosm work (Howard Bailey, personal communication).  After completion of the bioreactor trials, the reactor water (i.e., "final effluent") was collected from each microcosm as part of the tear down procedure. B O D tests were performed on these samples. For the 1999 microcosms, these samples were also analysed for COD. The analytical methodologies were as described in Section 4.0.  In the 1999 microcosm experiment, the additional subsamples that were taken after eight and sixteen days were analysed for tannin and lignin, as described in Section 4.2. Spectrophotometer scans was also performed on the raw samples, in order to measure the spectral response of the reactor solution, as described in Section 4.2.  Kevin Frankowski  55  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  6.0 B E N C H - S C A L E T R E A T M E N T W I T H M I C R O C O S M W E T L A N D S 6.3 Results and Discussion  6.3 Results and Discussion Monitoring of water quality in the reactors provided assurance that the desired test conditions were being maintained and that the replicate sets of reactors were performing in a similar fashion (see Appendix D.3 for raw data). With respect to these parameters, the systems performed similarly to what was observed in the screening trial soilinoculated bioreactors (see Section 5.2); conductivity remained largely unchanged and pH became more neutral. However, the microcosms differed from the aerated bioreactors in their DO levels. Since the cattails provided less oxygen transfer than the mechanical aerators, the DO levels were lower (as low as 1.5 mg/L at the higher leachate concentrations). This did not seem to affect the cattails. Within a few days of startup, cattail shoots began to appear in all the microcosms. The plants grew very vigorously (as much as 7 cm per day) and there was little observable difference between the plants growing in the higher leachate concentrations (i.e., 75%) compared to the lower leachate concentrations (i.e., 10%). 50% 40%  Due to the spartan setup of the  30%  toxicity bioassays, the results were  20%  interpreted in a pass/fail fashion  10%  (i.e., they determined whether a  0% 5  tested concentration was toxic or nontoxic), rather than depending upon them to deliver higher  10  15  20  Treatment period (days)  25  30  1998  x1999|  Figure 6.4 Reduction of cedar leachate toxicity in laboratory constructed wetlands  resolution information (i.e., an exact L C ) . This resulted in the data being interpreted in 5 0  a conservative (i.e., worst-case) fashion. As shown by Figure 6.4, there was a steady decrease in toxicity with increasing treatment time. It should be noted that this figure incorporates data from both the 1998 and 1999 microcosms, and there were no major differences in their detoxification rates, despite the fact that the 1999 microcosm was operating 7 degrees cooler (i.e., at 15°C, rather than 22°C). The difference between the 15-day and 18-day results in Figure 6.4 is not significant, since the pass/fail nature of the data could not provide resolution as to when a particular concentration became nontoxic Kevin Frankowski  56  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  6.0 B E N C H - S C A L E T R E A T M E N T W I T H M I C R O C O S M W E T L A N D S 6.3 Results and Discussion  (i.e., the results are conservative, and the actual rate of detoxification may have had a steeper slope than these data indicate).  Combining the data from both sets of microcosms, the performance of the laboratory constructed wetlands are summarized in Table 6.1. Overall, removal performance of the monitored parameters was very good. BOD and COD %-removals compare very favourably with the performance of conventional treatment plants (e.g., activated sludge, trickling filters, RBCs) treating domestic sewage (Metcalf and Eddy 1991) and are comparable to the performance of some of the more exotic treatment techniques for treating leachate from hazardous waste landfills (McArdle et al. 1988). As could be expected, toxicity and tannin and lignin  Table 6.1 Performance summary for laboratory wetlands  experienced better removal with increased reaction times.  Average Parameter  Dev.  8-day H R T  78%  0%  15-day H R T  90%  0%  29-day H R T  93%  0%  (25 day H R T )  94%  3%  (29 day H R T )  80%  3%  8-day H R T : 10% influent  83%  1%  25% influent  67%  1%  50% influent  63%  4%  16-day H R T : 10% influent  87%  0%  25% influent  71%  0%  50% influent  67%  3%  BOD  performance seemed to be inhibited at  COD  5  T a n n i n and L i g n i n s  6.1). Since the tannin and lignin data were obtained from bioreactors  Std.  Toxicity  The tannin and lignin removal  higher influent concentrations (Table  %-Removal  operating at different influent  concentrations, it was not meaningful to compare them directly. However, since the original influent dilution factors were known, these could be used to standardize the data, based on 100% influent strength (i.e., the concentration data could be multiplied by the original dilution factors). This provided a data set which was "normalized", or corrected for dilution factors, and thus the data points could be compared directly with each other and with the constituent concentrations measured in the original raw leachate.  While each reactor continued to reduce tannin and lignin concentrations over time, those reactors that had been fed a more dilute influent were able to achieve a better overall removal (Figure 6.5). This indicates that the higher strength leachate was experiencing a Kevin Frankowski  57  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  6.0 B E N C H - S C A L E T R E A T M E N T W I T H M I C R O C O S M W E T L A N D S 6.3 Results and Discussion  a Day  8 • Day 16  §a  1500  EE  10% (a)  10% (b)  25% (a)  25% (b)  50% (a;  50% (b)  Original influent dilution  Figure 6.5 Effect of influent dilution on tannin and lignin removal performance {correctedfor dilution factor}  reduced treatment efficiency. This may be due to toxic effects of a higher leachate concentration. Another possibility is that there were not a sufficient number of microbes present that were capable of degrading all the tannin and lignin present at higher concentrations (i.e., the degradation process was operating at maximum capacity, given current population levels). Thus, with time their populations should increase, resulting in an improved treatment efficiency.  Diminished treatment performance at higher influent concentrations was also observed in the spectrophotometer results (Figure 6.6). A substantial difference is seen between the Day 8 and Day 16 results for the 25% reactors (Figure 6.6b). The 10% reactors (Figure 6.6a) show a much-reduced secondary peak (the "shoulder"), and, unlike the 25% case, a higher variation between the replicate reactors. The 50% reactors (Figure 6.6c) show less of a difference between Day 8 and Day 16, and the secondary peak is still very pronounced. Taken together with the tannin and lignin data, these results seem to indicate that more efficient performance is achieved with a more moderate influent concentration.  It is interesting to note the peaks in all three sets of the spectrophotometer results (Figure 6.6a-c) have the same general pattern as the peaks observed for the raw leachate (Figure 4.2). This indicates that the same types of compounds were present. However, the peaks from the microcosm samples are much broader than those from the raw leachate. This may be a result of many similar peaks overlapping at slightly different wavelengths, Kevin Frankowski  58  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  6.0  B E N C H - S C A L E  T R E A T M E N T W I T H  M I C R O C O S M  W E T L A N D S  6.3 Results and Discussion  Figure 6.6a Influent leachate strength = 10%  •10ADay8 10B Day 8 -10ADay16 •10B Day 16  490  190  590  690  790  Wavelength (nm)  Figure 6.6b Influent leachate strength = 25%  -25ADay8 25B Day 8 -25ADay16 -25BDay16  190  290  390  490  590  690  790  Wavelength (nm)  Figure 6.6c Influent leachate strength = 50%  -50ADay8 50B Day 8 -50ADay16 -50B Day 16  190  290  390  490  590  690  790  Wavelength (nm)  Figure 6.6 Spectral response of laboratory constructed wetland effluent (UV-visible light)  Kevin Frankowski  59  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  6.0 B E N C H - S C A L E T R E A T M E N T W I T H M I C R O C O S M W E T L A N D S 6.4 Conclusions  which would indicate that the samples from the bioreactors contain a more complex mix of compounds than what was present in the original leachate, possibly indicative of more degradation intermediaries being present. Compared to the other two sets of microcosms, the 25% reactors have a broader primary peak, comprised of several overlapping peaks (i.e., the various tips overlap, producing a broad, jagged look to the peak top) (Figure 6.6b, versus 6.6a and 6.6c). This may indicate that of the three sets of reactors, the 25% reactors have the most degradation intermediaries present. Overall, the spectrophotometer data seem to indicate that an influent strength of 25% will produce the clearest differences with changing retention time. In other words, the inherent degradation systems in the 25% reactor seemed to be operating at maximum capacity. In the 10% reactors, the influent may have been too weak to push the degradation systems to their maximum capacity and it seems that the 50% influent overwhelmed this capacity. These reactors did not produce as "tight" a response to changing conditions as did the 25% reactors and thus an influent strength of 25% was likely to yield the best results in further studies.  6.4 Conclusions Constructed wetlands were able to treat the cedar leachate. Under optimal laboratory conditions, a substantial reduction in toxicity was observed, with a 90% removal achieved in 15 days. Therefore this technology shows significant promise for fulfilling research objective A . l (see Section 1.4). The B O D and COD results suggest that this technology would also be able to meet its other the performance-based criteria (objective A.2, Section 1.4). In order to address the design objectives (B.l to B.3, Section 1.4), it was necessary to evaluate the technology under field conditions. This would also provide a more realistic setting for the evaluation of its treatment performance, including response to seasonal changes in temperature and plant growth / decomposition dynamics. Kevin Frankowski  60  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  7.0 PILOT-SCALE TREATMENT 7.1 Introduction It was demonstrated that under optimal laboratory conditions, constructed wetlands were capable of providing efficient treatment of cedar leachate, including substantial reductions in acute toxicity and BOD. However, it was still necessary to determine how this performance would translate to a larger scale facility operating under field conditions. To this end, six pilot-scale treatment wetlands were designed and constructed at the research site (Figure 7.1). These experimental cells would allow a controlled evaluation of this technology under more realistic operating conditions. Additionally, they would provide the capability for various simultaneous manipulations to be performed during process optimization.  Figure 7.1 Constructed wetland pilot-scale facility {as viewedfrom top of hog fuel pile}  Kevin Frankowski  61  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  7.0 PILOT-SCALE T R E A T M E N T 7.2 Methods and Materials  7.2 Methods and Materials 7.2.1 Design considerations Design of the pilot scale facility occurred in May 1998, with the assistance of Ward Prystay and Envirowest Consultants Limited (ECL). Based on the available literature, the lab results obtained to date, and previous design and field experience, several options were considered. The final cell design was a hybrid system which incorporated 3 basic elements (Figure 7.2); a) a small forebay, b) a planted surface-flow (SF) section (also referred to as free-surface flow (FSF) by some authors), and c) a small, unplanted subsurface flow (SSF) section just prior to effluent discharge. In the interests of promoting a simple and predictable hydrology, the cells were rectangular. Bank-full dimensions were 17.5 m long by 5.5 m wide. Longitudinal Profile  The forebay was intended to provide a  Emergent macrophytes (cattails)  small settling basin, just in case any /  20 mil PVC liner Free-surface component: backfilled native soil (4 cells planted with cattails)  Inlet bay (forflowdispersion and solids settling)  Effluent (to discharge slandpipes)  suspended solids entered the influent stream (during  Subsurface component: 40 mm washed gravel (unplanted)  Figure 7.2 Schematic offield-scale constructed wetland cell  pumping, etc.). It Length (bank-Jull): 17.5m also assisted in Width (hank-full): 5.5m  ensuring that the  influent entered the main treatment train in as evenly distributed and quiescent a fashion as possible. The majority of the treatment was expected to occur in the large surfaceflow section, where the influent would flow over the surface of the soil substrate and through the root mats and stalks of the emergent vegetation. The subsurface section, just prior to discharge, was intended as a small polishing unit, bringing the wastewater in contact with an attached biofilm community as it flowed through a gravel matrix, and Kevin Frankowski  62  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  7.0 PILOT-SCALE T R E A T M E N T 7.2 Methods and Materials  screening out any large suspended matter, such as algae or detritus, which may have been picked up during passage through the surface-flow section. A lateral effluent collection pipe would be buried near the bottom end of the gravel section and attached to the discharge pipe, which travelled through the base of the end berm.  In addition to the lateral effluent collection pipe (Figure 7.3), influent would be dispersed by a lateral spreader bar (Figure 7.4). These measures were intended to promote an even sheet-flow through the system, resulting in a basin-wide plug-flow hydrology, thereby maximizing effective reactor volume and minimizing hydraulic shortcircuiting (Persson et al. 1999). A regular bathymetry, with a flat  Figure 7.3 Lateral discharge collector (prior to gravel placement)  bottom, trapezoidal profile (side slopes =35°), and an even depth (except for the forebay) also contributed to this end. The vegetation was to be planted in lateral bands in order to ensure that flow resistance was distributed evenly across the full width of the wetland.  Figure 7.4 Unplanted control cell (viewedfrom discharge end) {Note gravel subsurface-flow section, the lateral influent spreader, and the valve-controlled influent pipe } Kevin Frankowski  63  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  7.0 PILOT-SCALE T R E A T M E N T 7.2 Methods and Materials  Due to their local availability and demonstrated ability to survive and grow in the cedar leachate, Broad-leaved Cattails (Typha latifolia ) were the emergent macrophytes selected for the surface-flow component of the cells. Design water depth was 40 cm, as measured to the top of the planting substrate. This depth would be adjustable via a swivelling elbow-type level-control standpipe (Hammer 1997). A substantial freeboard was provided, which gave the ability to subject the wetland cells to a range of water depths. At design depth, total reactor volume was 20 m . Hydraulic retention time could be 3  controlled independently in each of the six cells via separate influent valves (Figure 7.4).  Four of the six cells would be planted, thus providing two replicate sets for experimental manipulation. The other two cells would be identical in construction to the rest, with the exception of being unplanted, and would serve as a replicate set of experimental controls. This would enable the separation of those effects due to the presence of plants and specific experimental manipulations for all other effects, including leachate-soil interactions.  Cedar leachate would be pumped from the leachate pool to a dosing tank situated so as to provide sufficient head pressure to deliver the influent to the six treatment cells via gravity feed (Figures 7.5 and 7.6). Dilution water  Figure 7.5 Influent dosing tank {Note the electrical pump controls}  from a nearby slough (Figure 3.1) would also be pumped to the dosing tank, thereby allowing influent dilution strength to be controlled as desired. The mixing ratios into the tank would be governed by timer-controlled pump switches. Effluent was to be collected into a single sump and pumped back onto the Pile (Figure 7.6), as per the constraints explained in Section 3.2.  The six cells used in this research project had a total treatment capacity of 120 m at 3  design depth. With an HRT of 7 days, this would enable them to process 6 240 m /yr. 3  Kevin Frankowski  64  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  7.0 PILOT-SCALE T R E A T M E N T 7.2 Methods and Materials  DOSING TANK  Figure 7.6 Detailed site plan ofpilot-scale facility {Note: "Inoculated" = planted & inoculated}  The hog fuel pile had an estimated leachate production of 23 000 m /yr (Triton 1993), 3  which meant that this pilot-scale facility represented approximately 25% of full-scale requirements, well within the range recommended for pilot-scale studies (McArdle et al. 1988). 7.2.2 Construction Construction of the pilot-scale facility began in May 1998. By the end of June, construction of the wetland cells had been completed as per design specifications and, aside from monitoring activities, they were left alone during their establishment period (see Section 7.2.3). In the meantime, construction of the necessary piping and pumping facilities continued. Due to an unexpected need to fund the installation of electrical lines into the site, completion of construction was delayed by almost a year. This delay severely reduced that amount of time allotted for field testing. Another substantial delay was caused when the Fraser River flooded the site on June 16, 1999 (crested the banks at 5.1 m, as measured by Environment Canada's gauge station in Mission) (see Appendix B for river gauge data). The flood waters did not completely recede from the site until the Kevin Frankowski  65  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  7.0 PILOT-SCALE T R E A T M E N T 7.2 Methods and Materials  end of August. Construction was finally completed in October 1999. With the exception of the initial excavation of the basins (2 days; May 1998) and the eventual installation of the power lines and related electrical connections (3 days; March 1999), all the construction was performed by volunteer labour (i.e., Kevin Frankowski, with the generous assistance of many others - please see Acknowledgments).  After the greenfield site had been cleared (Figure 7.7) and the excavation of the wetland cells was completed (Figure 7.8), each cell was lined with 20 mil (0.5 mm) P V C . The planting substrate, native clay-loam, was backfilled to a depth of 30 cm (Figure 7.9). Perforated 100 mm P V C (Schedule 40) pipe formed the lateral effluent collector (Figure 7.3) and was connected to a swivelling discharge standpipe (non-perforated 100 mm P V C (Schedule 40)) (as per Hammer 1997). The liner penetrations were sealed with flanging and clay plugs. Washed gravel (40 mm) was used for the complete depth of the subsurface section in each cell (Figure 7.2).  Cattails were harvested by hand from local roadside ditches (with the permission of the local Public Works Engineering Department) and transplanted into four randomly chosen cells. Each cell received 120 plants, placed in 10 equally-spaced lateral rows, thus giving a planting density of about 3 plants/m . Due to logistical constraints, an extensive root 2  mat could not be harvested and transplanted with these cattails. However, each plant had at least 10 cm of a tuber-like root mass, as well as a small mat of associated root hairs (Figure 7.10), and a root mat would develop in situ over time. Immediately upon completing transplantation, each cell, with its standpipe closed, was filled with clean river water. This water would be replenished as needed during the entire establishment phase. A temporary pipeline (-400 m) was assembled between the river and the wetland cells. A portable 5.5 hp gasoline-powered pump delivered the water.  In order to deliver the cedar leachate from the pool to the dosing tank (Figures 3.1, 7.6), a pump was installed beside the leachate pool. Similarly, one was installed beside a nearby slough in order to supply dilution water to the dosing tank. A third pump was installed at Kevin Frankowski  66  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  7.0 PILOT-SCALE TREATMENT  Kevin Frankowski  67  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  7.0 PILOT-SCALE TREATMENT 7.2 Methods and Materials  the sump tank, for delivery of the final effluent back to the Pile (Figure 7.6). Due to the need for unattended and autonomous operation, electrical pumps were required. G & L 1 hp centrifugal pumps (Model NPE; 230V single-phase) were selected. Liquid-end construction was completely Type 304 stainless steel, to avoid any corrosion problems due to the low pH of the leachate. A wooden pump shelter, with a concrete floor, embedded mounting bolts, and a locking lid, was built and installed for each of the three pumps (Figure 7.11). Since they were not self-priming, each pump was also fitted with a brass foot valve.  Approximately equidistant between the slough and the leachate, the dosing tank was connected to the slough and leachate pool pumps via 30 mm polyethylene piping (-100 m for each pipeline). The dosing tank was an old 10 000 L steel tank (provided by the landowner), that had previously  Figure 7.11 Pump installed in locking pump shelter  been used to store fire control water (Figure 7.5). Mixing ratios were set via timercontrolled pump switches. A float switch inside the dosing tank signalled the switch controls when the tank needed refilling. Tank head pressure was sustained so that influent was delivered continuously to the cells (via 30 mm polyethylene piping). Every effort was made to provide all pipe runs with as straight and level a path as possible. This necessitated building several small support-ways to span some low areas. 7.2.3 Establishment and baseline evaluation Once the four wetland cells had been planted and filled with clean river water, the cattails recovered from their minor transplant shock within a few days. Water level was monitored and additional water was pumped into the cells as needed (e.g., once every month or so). Since the cells had no outflow, the only loss of water was through evapotranspiration. A l l the cells were sampled several times and analysed for nutrients, TSS, tannin and lignin, BOD, COD and toxicity. In addition, qualitative observations on the state of establishment were made several times throughout the year.  Kevin Frankowski  68  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  7.0 PILOT-SCALE T R E A T M E N T 7.2 Methods and Materials  7.2.4 Commission and operations Due to the delays encountered during construction, the resulting financial and time constraints allowed only a brief period (October - December 1999) of field trials. The experimental manipulation examined during these field trials was the effect of inoculation on treatment performance. Based upon results from the screening trials (Section 5.3) and comparisons of unseeded versus seeded B O D tests (Section 4.3.4), pool-side soil had been established as an effective inoculant. Therefore, it was hypothesized that inoculating one pair of planted cells with pool-side soil should result in improved treatment performance, relative to the other pair of planted (but non-inoculated) cells. The unplanted, non-inoculated controls were expected to provide only minimal treatment. The hypothesis further expected that over time, the set of planted, non-inoculated cells would gradually develop the necessary microbial communities and thus the differences in performance between these two cells and the two inoculated cells would eventually disappear. As soon as construction had been completed to the point of the facility being serviceable, the field trials were begun. Prior to using the dosing tank, it was thoroughly flushed out several times, to ensure that any contaminants which may have been present in the tank from prior usage would not be introduced into the treatment wetlands. Several days prior to introducing influent into the cells, two of the planted cells were randomly selected and a slurry of pool-side soil was distributed evenly throughout their central surface-flow section. Each of the two cells received 50 kg (moist weight) of the soil, or an equivalent of 2.5 g per litre of reactor volume. The microcosm results (Section 6.2) indicated that an HRT of 8 - 15 days produced a measurable removal of toxicity and the other parameters that were monitored. In order to maximize data generation, an HRT of seven days was selected for the field-scale operations. This also allowed a convenient weekly cycle in which to perform all the associated laboratory work. The influent concentration of 25% was selected based on the  Kevin Frankowski  69  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  7.0 PILOT-SCALE T R E A T M E N T 7.2 Methods and Materials  microcosm results, especially the spectrometer results (Figure 6.6), which seemed to indicate that treatment capacity was maximized at this concentration.  To reduce the shock loading effect to the wetland cells, a gradual start-up procedure was followed. Over a two week commissioning period, the leachate concentration (i.e., the mixing ratio) was increased, up to the operational concentration of 25%. The influent displaced the clean water that was previously present from the establishment phase. During the commissioning period, the HRT was gradually reduced to 7 days. At the end of this two-week period, the pilot-scale facility was experiencing the intended operational conditions and weekly monitoring began. 7.2.5 Monitoring and sampling Effluent from each cell, along with a single influent sample from the dosing tank, was sampled every week. The leachate pool and the slough were also sampled in case these data would be needed to address any unexpected results. Samples were collected in the manner outlined in Section 4.2. At each location, sample temperature, pH, D O and specific conductivity were also measured, using the same field probes as described in Section 4.2. A l l samples, including appropriate blanks, were analysed for TSS, BOD, COD, tannin and lignin, toxicity, VFAs, and nutrients (i.e., N H , N O , P0 ), using the same methods as 3  x  4  those discussed Section 4.2 (raw data is provided in Appendix D.4). With the exception of toxicity, all the analyses were performed at the University of British Columbia. Toxicity analysis was performed at the laboratory facilities of E V S Environment Consultants. Due to project financial constraints, only a limited number of toxicity tests were available.  Toxicity results were converted from L C  5 0  values to acute Toxic Unit (TU ) values, since a  this presented the data in a form more analogous to the mass-based concentrations used  Kevin Frankowski  70  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  7.0 PILOT-SCALE TREATMENT 7.3 Results and Discussion  for reporting the other parameters. Acute toxic units were calculated as per Equation (1) (Metcalf and Eddy 1991). TU=100/LC  50  (1)  According to Equation (1), samples with a TU < 1.0 are nontoxic, while those with a  TU > 1.0 are toxic. Stated another way, the TU is the dilution factor required to render a a  a  given sample nontoxic.  7.3  Results a n d Discussion  7.3.1 Baseline conditions Over the course of almost two summers of clean-water establishment, the four planted wetland cells developed a very appreciable resemblance of natural wetland ecology. The cattails produced a very healthy emergent growth and their density increased to more than 12 plants/m (Figure 7.12), a more than fourfold increase from the initial planting. 2  During the second summer the cattails developed seed heads (which were cut off prior to them maturing, to prevent the unplanted control cells from becoming seeded). Dragonflies and frogs were in great abundance. Several bird species used the area frequently, including a pair of Red-winged Blackbirds, which built a nest in one of the cells. Hundreds of tadpoles, water | boatmen and other aquatic insects were present in each cell.  From a quantitative perspective, it was necessary to establish that Figure 7.12 Established  m  wetland cell  "clean" and would not contribute to the detrimental  vegetation in constructed  e  we  tl nds themselves, prior to introducing any leachate, were a  characteristics of the eventual influent. Water temperature varied with the weather, but it was not uncommon for it to be above 16°C, due to the shallow, quiescent nature of the cells. The pH was close to neutral, and the dissolved oxygen was close to, and occasionally even above, saturation (Table 7.1). Results for TSS, BOD and COD were Kevin Frankowski  71  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  7.0 PILOT-SCALE TREATMENT 7.3 Results and Discussion  all very low, well below any concentration that may be of concern. As might be expected in wetland water samples, some tannin and lignin were present, but again, the concentrations were low enough not to be a concern. Very few nutrients were present in the water column. No toxicity was detected in the any of the pre-operational cells, even after the 1999 flooding, which could potentially °  „ „ „, „  .  , ,  . .  Table 7.1 Pre-operational characterization oj the  have carried leachate into the cells (Table 7.1).  pilot-scale constructed wetlands Dissolved Oxygen  Average (Std.  Parameter 2  Since the slough water was going to be used as Toxicity  dilution water, to control the strength of the influent, it was necessary to characterize this as  3  Total Suspended Solids (TSS)  concentrations found in the leachate, and therefore the slough water was appropriate as a  observed between the inoculated and the non-  6.2  6  Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)  33 3.9  6  Tannins and Lignins (as tannic acid)  0.7 0.12  6  Ammonia (NH -N)  0.09 0.07  12  Nitrate + nitrite (NO, -N)  0.07 0.02  6  Ortho-phosphate (P0 "-P)  0.05 0.05  6  The field-scale constructed wetlands were  planted cells, with no significant difference  12  6  _  (Figure 7.13). Average removal was 49% for the  <1.0 0.0  6 0.7  3  capable of reducing the toxicity of cedar leachate  12  Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)  dilution water (Table 7.2). 7.3.2 Performance  3  4  NOTES  1. All values, except toxicity, reported in mg/L. 2. Sample temperature = 16°C 3. Toxicity, as determined by a 96hr rainbow trout LC50, and reported as Toxic Units (i.e., TU = 100/LC50)  inoculated treatments (Table 7.3). Even the control cells exhibited toxicity removal, but their performance was less reliable (Figure 7.13). This removal performance in the planted cells was well below what was expected (a removal rate of 75-90%), based on the lab study results (Section 6.3).  Removal of BOD, COD, and tannin and lignin was also observed, although there were no significant differences between the performance of the three different reactors (Table 7.3). Tannin and lignin removal was between 30-40%. BOD removal was on the order of 20-30%, while about 40-45% of COD was removed. The fact that a higher proportion Kevin Frankowski  72  n  11.3 1.3  4.8  well. Samples taken prior to use indicated that all parameters analysed were well below the  ' Dev.)  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  7.0 PILOT-SCALE TREATMENT 7.3 Results and Discussion Table 7.2 Characterization of slough (dilution) water Average (Std.  Parameter  Dev.)  6.1 1.6  Temperature [°C]  of COD was removed, compared to  1  BOD, is interesting. At first glance, it  n  6  suggests that recalcitrant materials  6.08 0.18  pH  Dissolved oxygen  0.3 0.2  Specific Conductivity [uS/cm]  71 12  Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)  21  Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)  247 100  Tannins and Lignins (as tannic acid)  16 5  Total Suspended Solids (TSS)  52 29  Ammonia (NH 3 -N)  1.0 0.5  (PO4 -P) 3  doesn't make sense. However, it is possible that the recalcitrant materials were being broken down into smaller, more biodegradable compounds (i.e., degradation intermediaries), thereby elevating the concentration of these materials within the reactors. If this dual supply of easily biodegradable materials (i.e., influent + within-reactor degradation intermediaries) was greater than the  0.22 0.08  processing capacity of the degradation  7.8 4.8  Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs): Total (C -C«) 2  Toxicity [TU ]  easily biodegradable material, which  0.05 0.04  Nitrate + nitrite (NO»" -N)  Ortho-phosphate  were being degraded faster than the  systems which processed these easily  <1.0 0.0  2  B  degraded fractions, then a buildup of this fraction would occur.  NOTES  1. All values reported in mg/L, unless otherwise noted. 2. Toxicity reported as acute Toxic Units (i.e., TU, = 100/LCso)  Background  Oct 29/99  Nov 05/99  |S Influent  Nov 12/99 Nov 19/99  Date  a Unplanted Control  Nov 26/99  • Planted Only  Dec 03/99  Dec 10/99  a Innoculated & Planted  Figure 7.13 Reduction of cedar leachate toxicity in pilot-scale constructed wetlands {Note: error bars = std. dev.; n = 2 for all cells and n = 1 for influent} Kevin Frankowski  73  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  7.0 P I L O T - S C A L E T R E A T M E N T 7.3 Results and Discussion Table 7.3 Summary ofpilot-scale removal performance for targeted parameters Planted  Control Average %-Removal  Average'  Average  %-Removal  Planted + Inoculated %-Removal Average  Parameter  Toxicity [TU, ]  3  Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)  Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)  Tannins and Lignins (as tannic acid)  45.2  27.7  38%  23.0  49%  23.0  49%  0.7  8.3  19%  0.6  2%  0.6  2%  1728  1139  32%  1341  21%  1234  26%  585  346  15%  454  15%  315  11%  5604  2869  3483 1644  39% 14%  43%  1388  46% 22%  3160  2102  1471  17%  866 188  491 163  43% 16%  579 186  32% 19%  516 154  39% 19%  NOTES 1. A l l values, except toxicity, reported in mg/L 2. n=7 for influent, and n=l 3 for each reactor set (except toxicity, where n=2 for influent, and n=4 for each reactor set) 3. Toxicity, as determined by a 96hr rainbow trout L C o , and reported as acute Toxic Units (i.e., T U , = 100/LC o) 5  5  Table 7.4 Removal of volatile fatty acids (C -C ) in pilot-scale wetlands 6  Influents Planted  Control Average  Average  1  %-Removal  3  Average  Planted + Inoculated  %-Rcmoval  Parameter  Average  %-Rcmoval  (Std. Dev.) (Std. Dev.) 367 14%  499  295  30%  396  11%  209  129  38%  140  40%  108  44%  236  138  -471%  189  -629%  170  137  67  1294%  77  1555%  47  -666% 1664%  111  66  37%  84  22%  32  27  24%  24  17%  89 34  31%  - butyric acid + iso-butyric acid  90 26  54 24  36% 25%  76 25  15% 20%  70 24  18% 28%  - valeric acid  24  14  -330%  18  -323%  13  -189%  25  11  757%  15  807%  12  575%  39 8  23 9  39% 23%  29 7  25% 15%  25 7  35% 20%  Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs): Total ( C - C ) 2  6  - acetic acid - propionic acid  - hcxanoic acid  16%  NOTES 1. A l l values reported in mg/L 2. n=6 for influent, and n=l 1 for each reactor set 3. %-removal was calculated for each cell, each week, and then averaged. This is more accurate than using the summarized concentration averages to calculate %-removal, since this may mask temporal variations. Hence, the removal suggested by the concentration averages may not match the reported %-rcmovals, but it will be within the range of variation (as indicated by the standard deviations reported for %-rcmovals)  Table 7.5 Summary ofpilot-scale field data Inoculated '  Control  Planted  Average  Average  Average  (Std. Dev.) 7.3  (Std. Dev.) 7.2  (Std. Dev.) 7.1  1.2  1.7  1.8  2.0  3.53 0.07  3.66 0.15  3.69 0.17  3.79 0.20  Dissolved oxygen (mg/L)  2.2 0.5  0.8 0.6  0.4 0.2  0.7 0.5  Conductivity (uS/cm)  417 45  255 86  314 57  287 54  Average'  Parameter Temperature (°C)  (Std. Dev.) 8.2  pH  2  NOTES 1. Inoculated cells were planted 2. Units as noted 3. n=7 for influent, and n=13 for each reactor set  Kevin Frankowski  74  U B C  C I V I L ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  7.0 PILOT-SCALE T R E A T M E N T 7.3 Results and Discussion  Performance calculations for B O D removal would therefore indicate a lower performance compared to COD, since the mass balance inherent in the calculation assumes no withinreactor source. Thus, this contrast between the B O D and COD data may be indicative of a two-stage process, where large compounds are broken into smaller compounds by one group of organisms, and these smaller, more available compounds are then metabolized further by another group of organisms, whose processing capacity is being exceeded. This hypothesis is supported by a comparison between the tannin and lignin data (Table 7.3), and the V F A data (Table 7.4). The tannin and lignin data had a stable removal rate similar to COD, while the VFAs had an extremely variable removal rate (note the very large standard deviations for V F A %-removal), and some weeks had effluent concentrations higher than influent concentrations (especially for acetic and valeric acids; see Appendix D.4 for specifics). The larger compounds represented by the tannin and lignin analysis were consistently being broken down, and their breakdown products were probably appearing as other classes of smaller compounds. The production rate of these smaller compounds seemed to be outpacing the system's ability to degrade them. Anoxic conditions were present in all the cells during the whole field trial period and the pH remained low (pH<4; see Table 7.5), another indication that V F A production may be occurring within the reactors. Treatment performance of the field system was not as high as what was observed for the laboratory systems. Several factors may have contributed to this. Temperatures were a lot lower in the field (6-8°C) than in the lab (15 or 22°C), and temperature is generally assumed to have a profound influence on performance (Metcalf and Eddy 1991). However, there are some indications that its influence may not be as profound for wetlands as it is for some of the more conventional processes (Wittgren and Maehlum 1997). Likely to be of much greater importance is oxygen supply. Since the cattails were in senescence during the winter, their ability to provide oxygen to the root zone was greatly diminished. It would be informative to observe how root zone oxygen status changed on a seasonal basis and what effect this had on treatment efficiency. Kevin Frankowski  75  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  7.0  PILOT-SCALE  TREATMENT  7.3 Results and Discussion Table 7.6 Summary ofpilot-scale removal performance for solids and nutrients ^LwW  infiiifiii  1 Control  Average  • a s m s Planted  Inoculated  Average  Average  Average  (Std. D e v . )  2  '  23.2  (Std. D e v . ) 12.4  (Std. D e v . )  21.6 14.4  43.5  13.2  9.5  0.7 0.4  0.4  0.4  0.2  0.4  0.4  0.3  Nitrate + nitrite ( N O " - N )  0.06 0.04  0.08 0.04  0.07 0.04  0.09 0.07  Ortho-phosphate ( P O " - P )  1.47 0.23  0.78 0.34  0.97 0.23  0.86 0.22  Parameter  T o t a l Suspended S o l i d s ( T S S )  Ammonia (NH -N) 3  x  3  4  (Std.  Dev.)  3  13.3  NOTES 1. Inoculated cells were planted 2. A l l values reported i n m g / L 3. n=6 for influent, and n= 11 for each reactor set (except T S S where n=7 for influent, and n=13 for each reactor set)  Nutrient status was likely another very important factor affecting performance. Given set conditions o f temperature and oxygen supply, total metabolic capability is limited by the number o f metabolic units (i.e., organisms) available. I f the population o f microbes which are responsible for a specific degradation is limited due to insufficient nutrients, providing optimal temperature and oxygen supply w i l l not dramatically improve performance, since these are not the limiting factors. Due to the nature o f its influent, all of the treatment cells were very nutrient-poor (Table 7.6). Thus, another important experimental manipulation would be to compare how nutrient addition affects treatment efficiency.  It is very likely that a cascade o f metabolic reactions is occurring during the degradation of the cedar leachate, and that the assemblage o f required organisms is quite complex. Various bacteria and fungi would have to be present in the right place and in the correct proportions, all performing their various specialized metabolic tasks, before optimal performance would be achieved. In addition, the macrophytes, algae, and even aquatic invertebrates would all perform necessary supporting functions. Fortunately, it is not necessary to fully understand and manage each o f these detailed interrelationships. Natural ecosystems and their analogues w i l l respond to a given set o f environmental conditions and produce the most appropriate assemblage for those conditions. Our task is Kevin Frankowski  76  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  7.0 PILOT-SCALE TREATMENT 7.3 Results and Discussion  to understand what conditions will produce the needed outcome, and then design and maintain the system accordingly. Over time, the detailed ecological intricacies will develop as necessary. In contrast to conventional systems, the result is a system which improves with age (Kadlec and Knight 1996; Webb et al. 1998). This is especially true when the desired degradation process is a complex one.  Thus, it may take some time before the ecological structure necessary for optimal treatment performance is developed in this pilot-scale system. Of course, it is still necessary to understand the system sufficiently so as to provide the appropriate conditions to allow these systems to reach their full potential. This understanding can be provided by a systematic application of specific experimental manipulations which build upon previous experience and knowledge. Therefore, because there was such a lack of background knowledge in using constructed wetlands to treat cedar leachate, it was necessary to proceed one step at a time from the base case. Rather than supplementing the system with nutrients, oxygen, and the like right from the beginning, which would have contributed little to the understanding of their respective effects, it was necessary to first establish the base case. The results from this first field season have established that the presence or absence of an appropriate microbial seed is not the overall limiting factor, despite their importance in the lab-based studies. This may be due to the fact that the native soil used in all the cells already represented a suitable seed, due to exposure to the leachate in previous years. Another possibility is that the flooding by the Fraser River during the summer of 1999 carried the appropriate microbial inoculant into all the cells. It remains to be seen whether any differences will emerge between the different reactors (i.e., inoculated versus non-inoculated; planted versus unplanted) under the more optimal summer operating conditions.  Overall, the results of the field trials indicate the constructed wetlands have the strong potential for being a viable treatment option for cedar leachate. Obviously, process optimization is required, but the preliminary results generated by this research indicate that it should be possible to develop a full-scale treatment system which meets all the Kevin Frankowski  77  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  7.0 PILOT-SCALE TREATMENT 7.3 Results and Discussion  performance objectives ( A . l - A.2) outlined in Section 1.4. With regards to the design objectives ( B . l - B.3), system robustness and dependability seem high, as evidenced by its ability to withstand several weeks of being submerged under flood waters, then be filled with high-strength, toxic wastewater, and yet still continue to survive and function. Of course, a proper assessment of the system's robustness and dependability will only be ascertained by continued monitoring. Minimal operator training or intervention (Objective B.2) is assured by the very nature of the wetland treatment mechanisms and the autonomous design of the control structures (i.e., influent and effluent pumping systems). Aside from optimization manipulations, there is little operational activity that can be done. 7.3.3 Construction and operating costs  The final objective (B.3) outlined for this research addressed the need for an inexpensive treatment system which operated with a minimum of monitoring, chemical additions, or by-products handling. By-products handling, including the treatment and disposal of sludges and/or spent absorption media often represents 50% of the annual operation and maintenance (O&M) costs for conventional treatment technologies (McArdle et al. 1988; Metcalf and Eddy 1991). Unlike these systems, constructed wetland systems generally produce no by-products, and therefore are free from this annual expense (Batchelor and Loots 1997; Reed et al. 1995). Similarly, since chemical addition is usually not part of the regular process, this supply cost is also eliminated. Regular O & M activities for constructed wetlands are quite basic, and are usually limited to monitoring and occasional servicing of basic physical infrastructure such as berms and inlet and outlet weirs (Kadlec and Knight 1996).  Aside from research monitoring costs, there were no O & M costs for this facility. However, the operational period was short. The median O & M cost reported for surfaceflow constructed wetlands operating in the United States was $400 per acre (less than $0.10/m /yr) (Kadlec and Knight 1996). Using this value, the O & M costs for the this 2  facility would be less than $50 per year.  Kevin Frankowski  78  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  7.0  PILOT-SCALE  TREATMENT  7.3 Results and Discussion  Thus, most of the cost associated with wetland treatment systems will reside in their initial construction and implementation (Kadlec and Knight 1996). However, detailed information on construction costs is quite  T a b l e 7 7  M a t e r i a l c o s t s f o r  t h e  pilot  limited in the literature, probably due to  constructed wetland facility  the large number of variables which affect  Land  these costs. This makes detailed  Excavation  e  Amount  I  difficult. Table 7.7 presents the material  p i p i n g a n d S u p p l i e s  •  i  Item  L i n e r s  . . .  sca  1  comparison for estimation purposes .  .  ooo.oo  2 0 2 4 0 0  3 5 1 60 0  Sub-total (Basic Cost): $  , j  6,540.00  costs that were incurred during , .  .,  .  Pumps  construction of this project s pilot-scale ...  r  T  ,  ,  . . .  , j ,i  2 864.00  2  j_ . i  Electrical Installation  1 1 257.00  3  facility. It should be noted that the . . .  o  »  i  •  •  •  T O T A L (w/pumps & power lines): $  installation of the electrical service into ...  .  .  ,  NOTES  this site was an exceptional expense, ,  i  i  i  ,  j £•  .  .  L a n d a c c e s s p r o v i d e db y l a n d o w n e r  2. Three 1 hp centrifugal pumps (stainless steel) 3. _ ' of 220V service, including 10kVA transformer and associated timers, switches, and connections to pumps  made necessary Only by the need tor .  20,661.00  1 5 0 0  „.  electrical pumps. These pumps were required due to the experimental nature of the facility, providing the ability to autonomously control influent strength and the fate of the effluent. In a optimized, typical full-scale installation, it would be desirable to locate the treatment wetlands such that the influent could be collected and transported via gravity alone, thus eliminating some of the most expensive items from the budget. Without the pumps and electricity, the basic materials cost for this facility was $6540 (Table 7.7). It must be remembered that this facility was intended for pilot-scale experimental use only. In order to keep costs down, all of the labour (except initial excavation and all electrical work) was volunteer. Also, since it was not intended to withstand the rigours and design life of a full-scale installation, certain aspects were modified (e.g., inlet and outlet flow control structures would normally be set into concrete, rather than just packed earthen supports). However, piping supplies represented approximately half of the materials cost (Table 7.7). In a full-scale installation, there Kevin Frankowski  79  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  7.0  PILOT-SCALE T R E A T M E N T  7.3 Results and Discussion  would be no need for so extensive a piping network as was used for the experimental facility, since there would be no need for multiple parallel cells or long-distance conveyance of pumped water. Taking these factors into consideration, it seems reasonable to estimate that a similar size facility, designed and built to full-scale standards, would cost approximately double, or about $ 13 000.  While this is only a rough estimate and ignores many of the factors which affect capital expense, it is sufficient for some very general comparisons to be made with other treatment technologies. McArdle et al. (1988) present cost information (capital and annual O & M ) for some conventional leachate treatment technologies. Assuming a design life of 20 years and given the annual O & M costs and treatment throughput rate, cost per unit treatment can be calculated (Table 7.8). The same can be done for the constructed wetland treatment system, based on the cost information presented above. Note that since the land needed for the wetland will have salvage value of at least its net present value, it is typically not included in these types of calculations (Kadlec and Knight 1996).  Table 7.8 Cost comparisons of different leachate treatment technologies Unit Capital  Technology  '  Annual  O&M  1  Treatment Cost  (S/m  3  )  Wet-air oxidation  746,000  145,000  3.67  Powdered Activated Carbon Treatment  441,000  69,000  1.83  Activated carbon absorption  115,000  67,000  1.46  Reverse osmosis  122,000  53,000  1.19  Activated sludge  326,000  32,000  0.97  Precipitation/flocculation/sedimentation  303,000  28,000  0.87  Rotating biological contactor (RBC)  183,000  23,000  0.65  13,000  50  0.11  Constructed wetlands  2  NOTES 1. Costs for all processes, except wetlands, have been converted to 1999 Canadian dollars (from 1986 US dollars), and are based on a system capacity of 25 gal/min (= 49 735 m3/yr) and a 20-year design life. Adapted from McArdle et al. (1988). 2. Wetland costs are reported in 1999 Canadian dollars, and are based upon a system capacity of 6 240 m'/yr, and a 20-year design life.  Kevin Frankowski  80  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  7.0 PILOT-SCALE T R E A T M E N T 7.3 Results and Discussion  The comparison presented in Table 7.8 is very conservative with regards to the wetland treatment system, for a number of reasons. First, the costs presented for all the conventional systems are from much larger-scale systems than the wetland system. Due to the typical economies of scale associated with these types of systems, their per-unit treatment costs would be considerably higher if they were operating at the same scale as the wetlands.  Secondly, the costs presented for the conventional systems are all unit operation costs, and therefore may not reflect the full price of the treatment train. Certain processes may need pretreatment or polishing units, depending upon the nature of the influent, and this will increase the overall costs. It is important to realize that the cost comparison presented here is solely for the purpose of comparing technology costs, without any statements being made with regards to the effectiveness of any given technology at meeting any specific treatment efficiency objectives. Based on an extensive review of the published literature, conventional biological systems (e.g., activated sludge, RBCs) have not been shown to be effective at treating wood leachate.  Finally, while it is typical to use a 20 year design life for mechanical systems, applying this same design life to a wetland system is erroneous, since constructed wetlands have a much longer design life; 50 years is considered more appropriate (Kadlec and Knight 1996), and this would further reduce the unit-treatment cost of the wetland system.  Regardless, even when viewed in such a conservative context, the wetland treatment option compares very favourably against the other leachate treatment options. While activated carbon and wet-air oxidation are probably very effective at removing many of the contaminants from wood leachate, their respective unit-treatment costs are almost 15 and 30 times greater than those for the constructed wetland system (Table 7.8). Even the R B C process, which may not be suited for treating wood leachate, has a unit-treatment cost almost 6 times higher than the wetland system.  Kevin Frankowski  81  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  7.0 PILOT-SCALE TREATMENT 7.4 Conclusions 7 A  Conclusions  It was demonstrated that constructed wetlands were able to treat cedar leachate under field conditions. Reductions in toxicity, B O D , COD and tannin and lignin content were consistently achieved. Performance of the field-scale system did not match what was observed under laboratory conditions, but this may have been due to lower ambient temperatures, decreased oxygen supply as a result of normal plant senescence, and insufficient nutrients to support the necessary microbial communities. Optimization studies are needed to address these issues. The wetland system may also need more time for full ecological maturation under operational conditions, and therefore treatment performance may improve with system age. Since optimization of this process largely centers around ecological considerations, the final outcome is unlikely to have a dramatic effect on the overall cost of the system. Therefore, general comparisons with conventional leachate treatment technologies can be made. These demonstrate that this wetland system has the potential to deliver effective treatment with a much better economy than conventional alternatives, with its unit treatment costs being at least 3 times to more than 20 times cheaper than other technologies.  Kevin Frankowski  82  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  8.0 GENERAL SYNOPSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The leachate produced by the cedar hog fuel pile could be considered a strong industrial wastewater. It was toxic, acidic, and possessed a very high, and aggressive, oxygen demand. Previous studies on similar leachates had failed to demonstrate viable, longterm treatment techniques. Using a step-wise approach, it was determined that this wood leachate was amenable to biological treatment and that constructed wetlands represented a feasible treatment technique. Laboratory-scale wetlands were able to achieve a 90% reduction in toxicity and removal rates of up to 94% for BOD and 80% for COD. Furthermore, a pilot-scale facility demonstrated that constructed wetlands were able to treat this leachate under field conditions. While treatment efficiency in the field was not on par with that observed under optimal laboratory conditions, it must be realized that this process stills needs to be optimized. Preliminary results indicate several factors that may yield significant gains in this respect.  Nutrient availability, oxygen supply, and temperature are likely the most important factors that need to be addressed. While ambient temperature is under climatic control and not realistically available for field manipulation, determining the system's sensitivity to the seasonal cycles is important from a design perspective. However, it is entirely possible that once issues such as nutrient supply are optimized, the ecological system will be under much less stress and better able to handle fluctuations in ambient conditions such as temperature. Ecological maturity is another factor which may play a role. Given sufficient exposure to chosen operating conditions, the system will produce internal adjustments in the composition of its biological communities, which may, on its own, produce considerable gains in the optimization process. Constructed wetlands possess a feature few other systems can boast of - performance usually improves with age.  Thus, the system needs to be evaluated under different seasonal conditions, preferably for more than a year, to capture a representative sampling of its inherent variability and Kevin Frankowski  83  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  8.0 GENERAL SYNOPSIS A N D R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S  determine what operating conditions need to be adjusted in order to have the field system operate closer to its theoretical capability. Further research is also needed to clarify the specific causes of toxicity in this leachate and its relationship with parameters such as pH. Several techniques, including TIEs based on molecular size exclusion, can be used. The resulting knowledge will provide critical design information.  Therefore, this research should not be considered as complete. The field monitoring only covered a span of three months, and these were during winter, when biological conditions were less than optimal. The ultimate goal should be to produce a system capable of treating the leachate at higher influent concentrations, with shorter retention times, and still yield an effluent suitable for discharge. The preliminary work is done and it has demonstrated that it is feasible for constructed wetlands to meet both the performance and design objectives originally outlined.  In a way, the "worst-case" conditions have been tackled first. The strength of the leachate, in terms of toxicity, B O D and COD, is probably much worse than the leachate or runoff produced at most wood processing sites. Also, the field results are based upon the winter operations of a sub-optimized system. From this perspective, the technology holds much promise for successfully addressing the leachate and runoff concerns that exist at other wood processing sites. The contaminants and their sources are known, and this knowledge is in the process of being refined. Collection and control technologies already exist for effective minimization and control of runoff and leachate. The final step in an effective environmental management scenario is to provide a reliable and realistic treatment technology for the remaining discharges. As shown by this research, constructed wetlands represent such a technology. They are ideally suited for applications which require distributed, autonomous and economic treatment of fluctuating loads containing a broad, and often changing, spectrum of contaminants.  Kevin Frankowski  84  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  9.0  LITERATURE CITED  Adcock, R, L. Gill, and J. Barlow. 1999. Reed beds take on industrial waste. Water 21 SeptemberOctober 1999: 50-52. Al, H.A., G.J. Evans, and B. Cox. 1995. Till liners for isolation of hazardous solid wastes. International Journal of Environmental Studies 47: 105-118. Albers, P.H., and M.B. Camardese. 1993a. Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates 1. Constructed wetlands. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry 12: 959-967. Albers, P.H., and M.B. Camardese. 1993b. Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates 2. Wetlands, ponds and small lakes. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry 12: 969-976. Andreottola, G. and P. Cannas. 1992. Chemical and biological characteristics of landfill leachate. In T.H. Christensen, R. Cossu and R. Stegman (Eds.), Landfilling of Waste: Leachate, pp. 65-88. Elsevir Applied Science. London, England. APH A (American Public Health Association). 1995. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (19th ed.). American Public Health Association. Washington, DC, USA. Armstrong, W., J. Armstrong, and P.M. Beckett. 1990. Measurement and modelling of oxygen release from roots of Phragmites australis . In P.F. Cooper and B.C. Findlater (Eds.), Advances in Water Pollution Control: Constructed Wetlands in Water Pollution Control, pp. 41-51. Pergamon Press, Oxford, England. Bailey, H.C., J. R. Elphick, A. Potter, E. Chao, D. Konasewich, and J. B. Zak. 1999. Causes of Toxicity in Stormwater Runoff from Sawmills. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry 18: 1485-1491. Bailey, Howard, personal communication. Senior Ecotoxicologist. EVS Environment Consultants. North Vancouver, BC, Canada. Batchelor, A. and P. Loots. 1997. A critical evaluation of a pilot scale subsurface flow wetland: 10 years after commissioning. Water Science and Technology 35(5): 337-343. Bastian, R.K. and D.A. Hammer. 1993. The use of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment and recycling. In G.A. Moshiri (Ed.), Constructed Wetlands for Water Quality Improvement, pp. 59-68. Lewis Publishers, London, England. Beaty, Bob. personal communication. Section Head. Emissions and Standards Section, Air Resources Branch, Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. Victoria, BC, Canada. Behrends. L.L., L. Houke, E. Bailey, and D. Brown. 1999. Reciprocating subsurface-flow wetlands for treating high-strength aquaculture wastewater. In J.L. Means and R.E. Hinchee (Eds.), Wetlands & Remidation: An International Conference (November 16-17, 1999), pp. 317-324. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH, US.  Kevin Frankowski  85  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  9.0 L I T E R A T U R E  CITED  Best, E.P., S.L. Sprecher, S.L. Larson, H.L. Fredrickson, and D.F. Bader. 1999. 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American Society of Agricultural Engineers. St. Joseph, MI, US. Burgoon, P.S., R.H. Kadlec, and M. Henderson. 1999. Treatment of potato processing wastewater with engineered natural systems. Water Science and Technology 40(3): 211-216. Cacador, I., C. Vale, and F. Catarino. 1996. The influence of plants on concentration and fragmentation of Zn, Pb, and Cu in salt marsh sediments (Tagus Estuary, Portugal). Journal ofAquatic Ecosystem Health 5: 193-198. Cameron, R.D. 1982. Toxicity ofLandfill Leachates. Environment Canada Technology Development Report EPS 4-EC-82-7. Vancouver, BC, Canada. Prepared for the Waste Management Branch of Environment Canada by the University of British Columbia. Chong, S., H. Garelick, D.M. Revitt, R.B.E. Shutes, P. Worrall and D. Brewer. 1999. The microbiology associated with glycol removal in constructed wetlands. Water Science and Technology 40(3): 99-108. Chu, H.Y., N.C. Chen, M.C. Yeung, N.F.Y. Tarn, and Y.S. Wong. 1998. Tide-tank system simulating mangrove wetland for removal of nutrients and heavy metals from wastewater. Water Science and Technology 38(1): 361-368. COFI (Council of Forest Industries). 1999. British Columbia Forest Industry Fact Book-1998. Council of Forest Industries of British Columbia. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Cole, S. 1998. The emergence of treatment wetlands. Environmental Science & Technology 32:218A223A. Cooper, P. 1999. A review of the design and performance of vertical-flow and hybrid reed bed treatment systems. Water Science and Technology 40(3): 1-9. Crites, R. W., D. C. Gunther, A. P. Kruzic, J. D. Pelz, and G. Tchobanoglous. 1988. Design Manual: Constructed Wetlands and Aquatic Plants Systems for Municipal Wastewater Treatment. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington.  Kevin Frankowski  86  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  9.0 LITERATURE CITED Crites, R. W., G. D. Dombeck, R. C. Watson, and C. R. Williams. 1997. Removal of Metals and Ammonia in Constructed Wetlands. Water Environment Research 69:132-135. Davies, T.H. and RD. Cottingham. 1994. The use of constructed wetlands for treating industrial effluent (textile dyes). Water Science and Technology 29(4): Ill-Ill. Davis, L. 1995. A Handbook oj Constructed Wetlands. U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, DC, US. Davis, M.L. and D.A Cornwell. 1998. Introduction to Environmental Engineering (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill. New York, NY, US. Denny, P. 1997. Implementation of constructed wetlands in developing countries. Water Science and Technology 35(5): 27-34. Diamadopoulos, E., P. Samaras, X. Dabou, and G.P. Sakellaropoulos. 1997. Combined treatment of landfill leachate and domestic sewage in a sequencing batch reactor. Water Science and Technology 36(2-3): 61-68. Dollerer, J., and PA. Wilderer. 1996. Biological treatment of leachates from hazardous waste landfills using SBBR technology. Water Science and Technology 34(7-8): 437-444. Dyer, J.R. 1965. Applications ofAbsorption Spectroscopy of Organic Compounds. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, US. Eaton, R.A. and M.D.C. Hale. 1993. Wood: Decay, Pests and Protection. Chapman & Hall. London, England. Eger, P. 1994. Wetland treatment for trace metal removal from mine drainage: The importance of aerobic and anaerobic processes. Water Science and Technology 29(4): 249-256. Ehrig, H.J. and R. Stegmann. 1987. Biological Processes. In T.H. Christensen, R. Cossu and R. Stegman (Eds.), Landfilling of Waste: Leachate, pp. 185-202. Elsevir Applied Science, London, England. Ellis, J.B., D.M. Revitt, R.B.E. Shutes, and J.M. Langley. 1994. The performance of vegetated biofilters for highway runoff control. Highway Pollution 1994:543-550. Environment Canada. 1982. Canadian Climate Normals: Temperature and Precipitation 1951-1980. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Environment Canada. 1990. Biological Test Method: Acute Lethality Test Using Rainbow Trout. Report EPS l/RM/9 (including May 1996 amendments). Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Frandsen , A.K. and C H . Gammons. 1999. Complexation of metals with aqueous sulfide in an anaerobic treatment wetlands. In J.L. Means and R.E. Hinchee (Eds.), Wetlands & Remidation: An International Conference (November 16-17, 1999), pp. 423-430. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH, US. Fraser, J. A. 1995. Fraser River Sockeye 1994: Problems and Discrepancies. Canada Communication Group-Publishing, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Gardner, J.M. 1997. Leachate management through minimization. Public Works 128:60-61. Kevin Frankowski  87  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  9.0 LITERATURE CITED  Gettinby, J.H., R.W. Sarsby, and J.C. Nedwell. 1996. Composition of leachate from landfilled refuse. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Municipal Engineer 115: 47-59. Griffin, R, R Jennings, and E. Bowman. 1999. Advanced nitrogen removal by rotating biological contactors, recycle and constructed wetlands. Water Science and Technology 40(4-5): 383-390. Haberl, R. 1999. Constructed wetlands: A chance to solve wastewater problems in developing countries. Water Science and Technology 40(3): 11-17. Hammer, D. A. 1997. Creating Freshwater Wetlands (2nded.). Lewis Publishers, New York, US. Hammer, D.A. and R.K. Bastian. 1989. Wetlands ecosystems: natural water purifiers? In D.A. Hammer (Ed.), Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal, Industrial and Agricultural, pp. 5-20. Lewis Publishers, Inc. Chelsea, MI, US. Hiley, P.D. 1990. Wetlands treatment revival in Yorkshire. In P.F. Cooper and B.C. Findlater (Eds.), Advances in Water Pollution Control: Constructed Wetlands in Water Pollution Control, pp. 279-288. Pergamon Press, Oxford, England. Horan, N.J., H. Gohar, and B. Hill. 1997. Application of a granular activated carbon-biological fluidised bed for the treatment of landfill leachates containing high concentrations of ammonia. Water Science and Technology 36(2-3): 369-375. Inamori, Y., K. Nishiguchi, N. Matsuo, H. Tsujibo, K. Baba, andN. Ishida. 1991. Phytogrowth-inhibitory activities of tropolone and hinokitiol. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (Tokyo) 39: 2378-2381. Ince, N.H. 1998. Light-enhanced chemical oxidation for tertiary treatment of municipal landfill leachate. Water Environment Research 70: 1161-1169. Johnson, K.D., C D . Martin, and T.G. Davis. 1999. Treatment of wastewater effluent from a natural gas compressor station. Water Science and Technology 40(3): 51-56. Jokela, J.B. and C. Pinks. 1998. Constructed wetlands for stormwater treatment in Alaska. In Proceedings of the ASCE Wetlands Engineering River Restoration Conference. Published by American Society of Civil Engineers. New York, NY, US. Kadlec, R.H. 1999. Chemical, physical and biological cycles in treatment wetlands. Water Science and Technology 40(3): 37-44. Kadlec, R.H. and R.L. Knight. 1996. Treatment Wetlands. CRC-Lewis Publishers. New York, NY, US. Kalin, M., J. Cairns and R.M. McCready. 1991. Ecological engineering methods for acid mine drainage treatment of coal wastes. Resources Conservation and Recycling 5: 265-276. Karathanasis, A.D. and Y L . Thompson. 1993. Substrate effects on metal retention and speciation in simulated acid mine wetlands. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 51: 421-429. Karpiscak, M.M., R.J. Freitas, and E. Shamir. 1999. Management of dairy waste in the Sonoran Desert using constructed wetland technology. Water Science and Technology 40(3): 57-66.  Kevin Frankowski  88  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  9.0 L I T E R A T U R E  CITED  Keller, B.E.M., K. Lajtha, and S. Cristofor. 1998. Trace metal concentrations in the sediments and plants of the Danube Delta, Romania. Wetlands 18:42-50. Kemp, M . C. and D. B. George. 1997. Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands Treating Municipal Wastewater for Nitrogen Transformation and Removal. Water Environment Research 69: 1254-1262. Knapp, R.A. 1987. The biogeochemistry of acid generation in sulphide tailings and waste rock. In Environment Canada (Ed.). Proceedings ofAcid Mine Drainage Seminar / Workshop (March 23-26, 1987), pp. 47-66. Minister of Supply and Services Canada. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Cat# En 40-11-7/1987. Knight, R. L., R. H. Kadlec, and H. M . Ohlendorf. 1999. The Use of Treatment Wetlands for Petroleum Industry Effluents. Environmental Science & Technology 33:973-980. Kowalik, P., I. Toczylowska, and A.C. Edwards. 1998. Phytoremediation by constructed wetlands: assessment of biopedological techniques for resource-efficient farming with livestock. Acta horticulturae 457: 187-193. Kristensen, P. 1992. Ecotoxicological characteristics of landfill leachate. In T.H. Christensen, R. Cossu and R. Stegman (Eds.), Landfilling of Waste: Leachate, pp. 89-105. Elsevir Applied Science. London, England. Lacki, M.J., J.W. Hummer, and H.J. Webster. 1992. Mine drainage treatment wetland as habitat for herpetofaunal wildlife. Environmental Management 16:513-520. Laks, P.E. 1991. Wood preservation as trees do it. Scottish Forestry 45:275-284. Loer, J., D. Wetzstein, J. Julik, and R. H. Kadlec. 1997. An Integrated Natural System for Leachate Treatment. In P. Cooper (Ed.), Newsletter No. 16, Specialist Group on the Use ofMacrophytes in Water Pollution Control, pp. 12-14. International Association on Water Quality. London, England. Lu, J.C.S., B. Eichenberger, and R.J. Stearns. 1985. Leachate from Municipal Landfills: Production and Management. Noyes Publications. Park Ridge, NJ, US. Maddox, J.J. and J.B. Kingsley. 1989. Waste treatment for confined swine with an integrated artificial wetland and aquaculture system. In D.A. Hammer (Ed.), Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal, Industrial and Agricultural, pp. 191-200. Lewis Publishers, Inc. Chelsea, MI, US. Maeseneer, J.De. and P. Cooper. 1997. Vertical Versus Horizontal-Flow Reedbeds for Treatment of Domestic and Similar Wastewaters. In P. Cooper (Ed.), Newsletter No. 16, Specialist Group on the Use ofMacrophytes in Water Pollution Control, pp. 14-21. International Association on Water Quality. London, England. Manoharam, R., S.C. Haper, D.S. Mavinic, C.W. Randall, G. Wang, and D.C. Marickovich. 1992. Inferred metal toxicty during the biotreatment of high ammonia landfill leachate. Water Environment Research 64: 858-882. Makos, J.D., and D.C. Hrncir. 1995. Chemistry of Cr(VI) in a constructed wetland. Environmental Science & Technology 29: 2414-2419. Kevin Frankowski  89  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  9.0 L I T E R A T U R E C I T E D Marking, L.L. 1985. Toxicity of chemical mixtures. In G.M. Rand and S.R. Petrocelli (Eds.), Fundamentals ofAquatic Toxicology: Methods and Applications, pp. 164-176. McGraw-Hill. Toronto, Ontario, Canada. McArdle, J.L., M.M. Arozarena, and W.E. Gallagher. 1988. Treatment ofHazardous Waste Leachate: Unit operations and costs. Noyes Publishers, Park Ridge, NJ, US. McCloy, B.W. 1997. History and future of sawmill wood waste disposal in British Columbia. Residue to Revenue Conference (November 4-5, 1997). Council of Forest industries of British Columbia. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. McDaniel, C.A., J.A. Klocke, and M.F. Balandrin. 1989. Major anti-termitic wood extractive components of Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana). Material und Organismen (Berlin) 24: 301-314. Metcalf and Eddy. 1991. Wastewater Engineering - Treatment, disposal and reuse (3rd ed.). Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York. Millano, E.F. and M.W. Hahn. 1997. Storage, disposal, remediation, and closure. Water Environment Research 69: 689-720. Ministry of Forests. 1999. Major Primary Timber Processing Facilities in British Columbia. Economics and Trade Branch, Ministry of Forests. Victoria, BC, Canada. Mitchell, D.S., P.F. Breen, and A.J. Chick. 1990. Artificial wetlands for treating wastewaters from single households and small communities. In P.F. Cooper and B.C. Findlater (Eds.), Advances in Water Pollution Control: Constructed Wetlands in Water Pollution Control, pp. 383 -390. Pergamon Press. Oxford, England. Moore, B.J., S.D. Ross, D. Gibson, and L. Callow. 1999. Constructed wetlands for treatment of dissolvedphase hydrocarbons in cold climates. In J.L. Means and R.E. Hinchee (Eds.), Wetlands & Remidation: An International Conference (November 16-17, 1999), pp. 333-340. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH, US. Mungur, A.S., R.B.E. Shutes, D.M. Revitt, and M.A. House. 1997. An assessment of metal removal by a laboratory scale wetland. Water Science and Technology 35(5): 125-133. National Research Council. 1992. Restoration ofAquatic Ecosystems: Science, technology and public policy. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, USA. Otte, M.L., C C . Kearns, and M.O. Doyle. 1995. Accumulation of zinc in the rhizosphere of wetland plants. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 55: 154-161. Paine, P.J. 1987. Historic and geographic overview of Acid Mine Drainage. In Environment Canada (Ed.). Proceedings ofAcid Mine Drainage Seminar / Workshop (March 23-26, 1987), pp. 1-45. Minister of Supply and Services Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Cat# En 40-11-7/1987. Pantano, J., R. Bullock, D. McCarthy, T. Sharp, and C. Stilwell. 1999. Using wetlands to remove metals from mining-impacted groundwater. In J.L. Means and R.E. Hinchee (Eds.), Wetlands & Remidation: An International Conference (November 16-17, 1999), pp. 383-390. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH, US.  Kevin Frankowski  90  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  9.0 L I T E R A T U R E C I T E D Pardue, J.H., G. Kassenga, and W.S. Shin. 1999. Design approaches for chlorinated VOC treatment wetlands. In J.L. Means and R.E. Hinchee (Eds.), Wetlands & Remidation: An International Conference (November 16-17, 1999), pp. 301-308. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH, US. Pascoe, G.A., R.J. Blanchet, and G. Linder. 1994. Bioavailability of metals and arsenic to small mammals at a mining waste-water contaminated wetland. Archives ofEnvironmental Contaminant Toxicology 27: 44-50. Passos, J.A.L., F.A. Pereira, and S. Tomich. 1994. Approaches and practises related to hazardous waste management, processing and final disposal in Germany and Brazil. Water Science and Technology 29(8): 105-116. Persson, J., N.L.G. Somes, and T.H.F. Wong. 1999. Hydraulics efficiency of constructed wetlands and ponds. Water Science and Technology 40(3): 291-300. Peters, G.B., H.J. Dawson, B.F. Hrutfiord, and R.R. Whitney. 1976. Aqueous leachate from Western Red Cedar: Effects on some aquatic organisms. Journal of the Fisheries Resource Board of Canada 33: 2703-2709. Peters, T. A. 1996. Purification of landfill leachate with membrane technology. Water Quality International 5: 23-26. Polprasert, C , N.P. Dan, and N. Thayalakumaran. 1996. Application of constructed wetlands to treat some toxic wastewaters under tropical conditions. Water Science and Technology 34(11): 165-171. Power, E.A. 1987. Effects of log storage on zooplankton andjuvenile salmonids in Babine Lake, British Columbia. M.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia. Vancouver, BC, Canada. PricewaterhouseCoopers. 1999. The Forest Industry in British Columbia -1998. Preparedybr the Forest Industry Resource Committee by PricewaterhouseCoopers Global Forest & Paper Practise. Pries, J. 1994. Wastewater and stormwater applications of wetlands in Canada. Sustaining Wetlands Issues, Paper No. 1994-1. North American Wetlands Conservation Council, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Prystay, W.A. 1997. An Assessment of Constructed Wetlands for the Treatment of Greenhouse Effluent. M.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia. Vancouver, BC, Canada. Raisin, G. W., D. S. Mitchell, and R. L. Croome. 1997. The effectiveness of a small constructed wetland in ameliorating diffuse nutrient loadings from an Australian rural catchment. Ecological Engineering 9: 19-36. Reed, S.C., R.W. Crites, and E.J. Middlebrooks. 1995. Natural Systems for Waste Management and Treatment (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill Inc. New York, NY, US. Robinson, H. 1999. Exporting waste expertise. Water 21 September-October 1999: 35-36. Rochfort, Q.J., B.C. Anderson, A.A. Crowder, J. Marsalek, and W.E. Watt. 1997. Field-scale studies of subsurface flow constructed wetlands for stormwater quality enhancement. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada 32: 101-117.  Kevin Frankowski  91  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  9.0 L I T E R A T U R E C I T E D Rowe, J. W. and A.H. Conner. 1979. Extractives in Eastern Hardwoods - A Review. General Technical Report FPL 18. Forest Products Laboratory, Forest Service, US Dept of Agriculture. Madison, WN, US. Sakadevan, K., and H.J. Bavor. 1999. Nutrient removal mechanisms in constructed wetlands and sustainable water management. Water Science and Technology 40(2): 121-127. Sands, Z., L.S. Gills, and B. Rust. 1999. Effluent treatment reed beds: Results after ten years of operations. In J.L. Means and R.E. Hinchee (Eds.), Wetlands & Remidation: An International Conference (November 16-17, 1999), pp. 273-279. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH, US. Sansanayuth, P., A Phadungchep, S. Ngammontha, S. Ngdngam, P. Sukasem, H. Hoshino, and M.S. Ttabucanon. 1996. Shrimp pond effluent: pollution problems and treatment by constructed wetlands. Water Science and Technology 34(11): 93-98. Sawyer, C.N., P.L. McCarty, And G.F. Parkin. 1994. Chemistry for Environmental Engineering (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill. New York, NY, US. Schermer, E.D. and J.B. Phipps. 1977. A Study of Woodwaste Leachate. Preparedybr Washington State Department of Ecology by Grays Harbour College. Schneck, W. 1994. Technical standards for the construction of hazardous waste landfills in Germany documented at the hazardous waste landfill site at Raindorf. Water Science and Technology 29(8): 263-277. Scholes, L., R.B.E. Shutes, D.M. Revitt, M. Forshaw, and D. Purchase. 1998. The treatment of metals in urban runoff by constructed wetlands. Science of the Total Environment 214: 211-219. Schoenerklee, M., F. Koch, R. Perfler, R. Haberl, and J. Laber. 1997. Tertiary treatment in a vertical flow reed bed system: A full scale pilot plant for 200-600 RE. Water Science and Technology 35(5): 223-230. Shams, K.R. and R.C. Brockway. 1994. Sanitary landfill leachate treatment and disposal. Public Works 125: 46-49. Sikora, F.J., L.L. Behrends, and D.F. Bader. 1997. Microcosm study on remediation of explovisescontaminated groundwater using constructed wetlands. Annals of the New York Academy ofSciences 829:202-211. Simi, A.L., and C A . Mitchell. 1999. 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Utilization of Artificial Marshes for Treatment of Pulp Mill Effluents. In D.A. Hammer (Ed.), Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal, Industrial and Agricultural, pp. 239-244. Lewis Publishers, Inc. Chelsea, MI, US. Triton. 1993. Environmental Assessment of Wynnyk Hog Fuel Storage Site. Prepared/or WynnykHog Pile Users Group by Triton Environmental Consultants Limited, Vancouver, BC, Canada. US EPA. 1988a. Lining oj Waste Containment and Other Impoundment Facilities. EPA/600/2-88/052. Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratories, Cincinnati, OH, USA. NTIS PB-89-129670. US EPA. 1988b. Design Manual: Constructed Wetlands and Aquatic Plant Systems for Municipal Wastewater Treatment. EPA/625/1-88/022. Cincinnati, OH, USA. US EPA. 1989. Requirements for Hazardous Waste Landfill Design, Construction and Closure. EPA/625/ 4-89/022. US EPA. 1991a. Methods for Aquatic Toxicity Identification Evaluations: Phase 1 Toxicity Characterization Procedures (2nded.). EPA/600/6-91/003. 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Waste Management Act. B.C. Reg. 519/95 [NOTE: includes amendments up to B.C. Reg. 171/99]. Webb, J.S., S. McGinness, and H.M. Lappin-Scott. 1998. Metal removal by sulphate-reducing bacteria from natural and constructed wetlands. Journal ofApplied Microbiology 84: 240-248. Weber, B. and F. Holtz. 1987. Combination of activated sludge pre-treatment and reverse osmosis. In T.H. Christensen, R. Cossu and R. Stegman (Eds.), Landfilling of Waste: Leachate, pp. 323-332. Elsevir Applied Science, London, England. Wittgren, H.B. and T. Maehlum. 1997. Wastewater treatment wetlands in cold climates. Water Science and Technology 35(5): 45-53. Woods, Mike, personal communication. Environmental Manager. Weyerhaeuser Canada. Drayton Valley, Alberta, Canada. Wreford, K. 1995. An analysis of the factors affecting landfill gas composition and production and leachate characteristics at the Vancouver landfill site and Burns Bog. M.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia. Vancouver, BC, Canada. Xue, Y., D.A. Kovacic, M.B. David, L.E. Gentry, R.L. Mulvaney, and C.W Lindau. 1999. In situ measurements of denitrification in constructed wetlands. Journal ofEnvironmental Quality 28: 263-269. Zoh, K.D. and A.J. Home. 1999. Removal of TNT using plants in constructed wetlands. In J.L. Means and R.E. Hinchee (Eds.), Wetlands & Remidation: An International Conference (November 16-17, 1999), pp. 357-364. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH, US.  Kevin Frankowski  94  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  APPENDIX A EXCLUSION-OF-LIABILITY A G R E E M E N T S  Kevin Frankowski  95  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  APPENDIX A EXCLUSION-OF-LIABILITY  AGREEMENTS  the south edge of the flood control dike, and the western boundary of the Site. The treatment objective of this system is toxicity reduction of the Pile's leachate. In the event that the containment integrity of this facility is compromised, action will be taken to repair the problem. If it is deemed that such integrity cannot be restored, the facility will be decommissioned and the area renamed to its original state. This will include the following: • •  All drainage ditches will be filled in with their original substrate, all associated piping and pumping will be removed, and all inputs to the wetlands will cease. The wetland cells will be excavated, and the plants and liners removed. The excavations will be filled in with their original substrate.  Upon completion of the research, the treatment plant will either be decommissioned as described above, or, if the Ministry consents, surrendered to the landowner for continued operation, at which point the landowner will assume full responsibility for the treatment facility. When we discussed the details of the project on March 17, 1998, you indicated that the Ministry would have no problems with either the project in general or the proposed configuration of the pilot-scale treatment plant (as described above), especially considering its experimental status and its role in exploring treatment solutions. You stated that since the treatment plant would be recycling leachate back into the work site, the Ministry does not consider this to represent a discharge to the environment, and as such, there is no need for a discharge permit. In order to obtain permission from the University of British Columbia to proceed with this research project, I require confirmation from the Ministry that no action will be taken by the Ministry against the University or its Board of Governors, faculty, staff, or students (including myself) as a result of any activities undertaken in connection with this research project, provided that the research project is carried out as outlined above. I would therefore be most grateful if you would confirm the Ministry's agreement to the foregoing by signing a copy of this letter in the space provided and returning it to me at your earliest convenience.  Sincerely,  Kevin Frankowski M.A.Sc. Candidate University of British Columbia  Acknowledged and agreed to by and on behalf of the Ministry of the Environment, Lands, and Parks:  Kevin Frankowski  98  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  APPENDIX A EXCLUSION-OF-LIABILITY AGREEMENTS Upon completion of the research, the treatment plant will either be shut down as described above, or given to yourself, the landowner, for continued operation. In order to properly conduct this research project, the following support is required: • Access to the Site over the duration of this research project, which is anticipated to last from October 1997 to May 2000. • Commitment from the landowners (you and John) and the BC Shake and Shingle Association of continued support of this research project for its duration. • Assistance with the construction of the wetlands, mainly in the form of excavation (i.e., machine and operator) for approximately 3 to 4 days during initial construction. As a result of supporting this project, you will receive the following: 1. Detailed laboratory analysis of the cedar leachate and corresponding data analysis and interpretation of these lab results. 2. Bench-scale testing and development of an economical biological treatment process capable of significantly reducing the toxicity of the surface cedar leachate. 3. Collaborative planning and design of a pilot-scale experimental wetlands-based treatment system. 4. Final design review and approval options available to both yourself and Jack Davidson. 5. Construction, operation, monitoring and maintenance of the pilot-scale treatment system, with periodic reporting on system performance. 6. Final copy of the resulting Civil Engineering thesis. I will also require the latitude to reveal sufficient details about the project and its findings to such parties who may require such knowledge (e.g., thesis supervisor; technical advisors; project collaborators). This privilege will also extend to disseminating written project information and results to impartial review bodies (e.g., scholarship and funding applications; thesis publication). Finally, in order to obtain permission from the University of British Columbia to construct and conduct research at this facility, 1 require your agreement to indemnify and hold harmless the University, its Board of Governors, faculty, staff, and students (including me) from and against any and all claims, actions, charges, and fines that may be brought against such parties as a result of any activities undertaken in connection with this research project. I am also seeking similar agreements from the Ministry of the Environment, Lands and Parks as well as from Scott Paper. Kindly confirm your agreement to the foregoing by signing a copy of this letter in the space provided and returning it to me at your earliest convenience. Sincerely,  Kevin Frankowski Masters Candidate UBC Civil Engineering  Acknowledged and agreed to by and on behalf of Steve Wynnyk:  Kevin Frankowski  100  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X  F R A S E R  Kevin Frankowski  R I V E R  F L O O D  103  B  G A U G E  D A T A  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X B FRASER RIVER F L O O D G A U G E DATA  Kevin Frankowski  104  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X  C A L C U L A T I O N O X Y G E N  Kevin Frankowski  O F  C  T H E O R E T I C A L  D E M A N D S  105  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  APPENDIX C  C A L C U L A T I O N OF T H E O R E T I C A L O X Y G E N D E M A N D S  o E  ou T  o  00  e J  o O  "Sb O 00 E  s  Ji  X  o o  u X  Q O  E •£?  x o o u  T -S  ,2  tP  T3  o E "oo  o ° z o o x" o II Q O  o  'I  T  s a  "So  o E  o  o af u  E  T  "So  o  o  X00 XI OO  o u  x"  u"  '5 'u I,  o •c  +  3  o  Q Q  "So  o  X  oo d  H  13  u 9  P s  2  xl  X  I  2 II  o o  o u  xi  o  "ob •c  o E "5b  o  o oo £  2 O  op  s vo r * H Q O JS t—  o 'E  o u  z  "So  oo E  Q O  •a  2  d"  E  ~5o  X  o o u_ x~  P  1  o u  3  o oo E  -3-  u  O oo S  £ _  o  2 2  "So  s  "so  s-  "oo E  o 00 E  — —  Q  d" « + X  o  8  E "So vo  "so  "oo  o o  Q  o o CN  O af  E -H oil c  II 3  o af  T  o af  e  X  H  o  o  2 2  « H  •c  Kevin Frankowski  106  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  APPENDIX D . l RAW DATA: LEACHATE CHARACTERIZATION  Kevin Frankowski  107  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D . l RAW DATA: L E A C H A T E C H A R A C T E R I Z A T I O N CM CM CO CO CO y~ CO CM LO CO in CM in m m in  m  LO LO LO LO in  CD CM OJ CO LO LO -tf CD  O) t N i -  i-  h- o co  LO ^ LO LO CD CO CO CO  to O O  o d  LO  00  CO CO CM CO n in in ^  eg CO CM CM CO CO  JI o CO  cE «| m >  -a- t •  OJ O O CO O CO o o CO LO CO CO LO LO LT) LO  0 CO CO CO LO LO CO  01  CZO CZO CZO  CD CO  CO CM CO •* O) CO T —LO rLO lO LO LO C O C O CO CO 3  o I-  CM LO LO CO  o  co  E  LO d v  to •o  CO CO  03  1*1  Q.  eco Kevin Frankowski  S 3. ~°  o o o o o o o o Q. Q_ 0 . D_  3 3 3 3  CO CO CO CO jz.cz.cz.cz o o o o co co CO cO CU CD CD CD  108  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D . l RAW DATA: L E A C H A T E C H A R A C T E R I Z A T I O N  k  CM O O CO c\| O CD O O CO LO CO to  CO O O ^ CO CD CO CM 00 O CO CO CO  IO LO LO LO  0 CO ^" 00 CO CM CO LO LO CO CD hOi OJ CD  01  o O  CO CO CM GO O  CD T3 C  CO LO LO  sit  O •  III P ^ CD CO g  sm li,  'O  CM CO O (O T LO LO LO LO t- CO CO CO CO  CM CO CM CM 00 O  ifl s o  8* 2E  N CO —s. LO ,Q> LO ^ N O it  O CD CO TCD O O iN tD ^ 'J  CO CD CO CO N ^^t  O CO Ol i - t - CO CO CM CO CO N N CO N ^ ^  O  CO S CO 00 CD O ^ LO CM ^ - i - iN O N LO ^  CO CO LO rO LO  LO CO r -  CMCO r- o CO 5? LO•LOa- LO cLOo LO LO  1T—  CO LO  O LO O CO CO TC\| C O CO O) ^ TCD LO LO CD CO CO  LO i-  CM rN tt  QJ LO LO LO LO LO LO  Q  CM CD CM T - T- i T- N CO CJ) T_ LO TJ- TJ- LO CO CO LO LO LO LO LO LO  N- T - CO CM CO CM CO LO CO O CO N O r - LO O -<* i Oj LO O O ^ T - -r-  3> Tf Tf t t  ^  S  N CO N O LO  S  i2  o o o o o o  o o o o o o  5 cj o o o b b  CO t O.  '0 o  LO LO LO LO LO LO  6 S  to fc C O 3  ,03 £ C O3  3,  CO -Q O T3  <6  o o o  LO LO LO LO LO LO CM 0J CM CM CM OO  3. H. ^ ^  rv _ co £ . y o o o o ~ o o o o ^ m  •f:S 0)0.©0.0) 0. 0. c c ffl  | « j » j S 5  cn CO CO CD com m Co J= sz s: cO O o o o o  CQ CQ CO CO (TJ  CO £ r r r A o CO CO CO CO £J ? M CD CU CD CD X X  CM CM X I _J _J _J _J "D "O  I —I —I —I "O "O  ' CO!  a CO Q to  <  Kevin Frankowski  c  <  109  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  APPENDIX D . l  RAW DATA: L E A C H A T E C H A R A C T E R I Z A T I O N  Metals Civil 599 - MASc Thesis Constructed Wetlands Project  Leachate Characterization: Metals (mg/L) Summary:  Dec 10/99  Sample Date  Raw  Dilution Factor  Ca  Sample ID Leachate - digested (a)  Data Type Diluted: Full-strength:  Leachate - digested (b)  Diluted: Full-strength:  4  4.76  Leachate - undigested (c)  Diluted: Full-strength:  1  15.13  Blank  Diluted: Full-strength:  20  Al 4  4.72  Cu 0.06  20.15  81  1 9  0  20.73  1 9  0.02  83  0  69.27  0.03  76  0  0.02  0  0.02  0  0  0  17  Data:  NOTES:  For digested samples (ie, Leachate a & b, blank), started with 500mL sample + 50 mL concentrated nitric acid and slowly boiled down to <50mL, then reconstituted to 10OmL. For undigested sample (ie, Leachate c), mixed 100mL sample + 10 mL concentrated nitric acid and submitted as i Stored in dark, at 4C Submitted to Carol Dyck (Soils Lab, 822-5965) for ICP scan (selected metals)  Ni  Mg  Zn  Pb  P  19.01  10.87  0.03  0.98  0  0.092  76  43  0  4  0  0.4  18.82  10.98  0.03  0.94  0  0.092  75  44  0  4  0  0.4  63.45  36.18  0.09  3.06  0  0.29  70  40  0  3  0  0.3  0.02  0  0.005  0.09  0.02  0.01  0  0  0  2  0  0.2  Date.. Analyzed! Technician:  Kevin Frankowski  110  Jan 2 7 / 0 0 Carol Dyck  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D . l RAW DATA: L E A C H A T E C H A R A C T E R I Z A T I O N  Metals  (cont.)  KEVIN FRANKOWSKI ICP SAMPLES JAN. 27/00 READING. PPM  STD DEV  % RSD  SAMPLE  ELEMENT  L1 L1 L1 L1 L1 L1 L1 L1 L1  AI3082 Ca3179 Cu3247 Fe2599 Mg2790 Ni231 6 P_2149 Pb2203 Zn2138  76.74382 323.42568 0.33333 304.64398 176.13575 0.40619 15.85609 -0.96257 1.4232  1.20364 0 0.08318 4.09376 3.3362 0.01017 0.20229 0.01238 0.02276  AI3082 Ca3179 Cu3247 Fe2599 Mg2790 Ni2316 P_2149 Pb2203 Zn2138  4.71586 20.15113 0.05882 1 9.00928 10.87301 0.03209 0.98396 -0.06608 0.0921  0.05333 0 0 0.19702 0.08901 0.00391 0.06545 0.01238 0  1.1309 0 0 1.03647 0.8187 12.19149 6.65183 -1 8.74258 0  AI3082 Ca3179 Cu3247 Fe2599 Mg2790 Ni2316 P_2149 Pb2203 Zn2138  73.04876 324.30731 0.12745 282.69351 165.1 1221 0.37686 14.69007 -0.91082 1.28705  0.47814 6.23394 0.01386 0.45972 1.02176 0 0.0613 0.00225 0.00347  0.65455 1.92223 10.87855 0.16262 0.61882 0 0.41 729 -0.24724 0.27021  AI3082 Ca3179 Cu3247 Fe2599 Mg2790 Ni2316 P_2149 Pb2203 Zn2138  4.76094 20.73887 0.0196 18.81837 10.98157 0.02969 0.9435 -0.03662 0.0927  0.1447 0.6339 0 0.32813 0.28974 0.00063 0.01804 0.01685 0.00143  3.03935 3.05661 0 1.74369 2.6385 2.15161 1.91271 -46.01306 1.55042  AI3082 , Ca3179 Cu3247 Fe2599 Mg2790 Ni2316 P_2149 Pb2203 Zn2138  15.12678 69.26951 0.02941 63.45201 36.17953 0.08522 3.06458 -0.1664 0.28951  0.01287 0.71244 0.01386 0.17513 0.00774 0.00391 0.04904 0.01914 0.00031  0.0851 1.02851 47.14045 0.27601 0.02139 4.59159 1.60023 -1 1.50317 0.10919  AI3082 Ca3179 Cu3247 Fe2599 Mg2790 Ni2316 P_2149 Pb2203 Zn2138  0.81599 3.77833 0.0196 3.21981 1.9157 0.0083 0.17771 0.02229 0.01676  0.00367 0 0 0.02189 0.04644 0 0.03678 0.00225 0.00031  0.45074 0 0 0.6799 2.42437 0 20.6958 10.10153 1.88562  AI3082 Ca3179 Cu3247 Fe2599 Mg2790 Ni2316 P_2149 Pb2203 Zn2138  0.01625 0 0.02941 0.01547 0 0.00498 0.09536 0.02308 0.01363  0.00551 0 0.01386 0 0.00774 0.00626 0.01839 0.00788 0.00031  33.94111 0 47.14045 0 0 125.70787 19.28472 34.13619 2.31838  L1 L1 L1 L1 L1 L1 L1 L1 L1  20X 20X 20X 20X 20X 20X 20X 20X 20X  L2 L2 L2 L2 L2 L2 L2 L2 L2 L2 L2 L2 L2 L2 L2 L2 L2 L2  20X 20X 20X 20X 20X 20X 20X 20X 20X  L3 L3 L3 L3 L3 L3 L3 L3 L3 L3 L3 L3 L3 L3 L3 L3 L3 L3  20X 20X 20X 20X 20X 20X 20X 20X 20X  BLANK 20X BLANK 20X BLANK 20X BLANK 20X BLANK 20X BLANK 20X BLANK 20X BLANK 20X BLANK 20X  Kevin Frankowski  111  1.56839 0 24.95671 1.34378 1.89411 2.50473 1.2758 -1.28671 1.59948  DETECTION LIMIT 0.0993 0 0.04159 0.06567 0.06966 0.01878 0.07356 0.04391 0.00284  QUANTITATION LIMIT  0.993 0 0.4159 0.6567 0.6966 0.1878 0.7356 0.4391 0.0284  U B C CrviL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D . l RAW DATA: L E A C H A T E C H A R A C T E R I Z A T I O N  Extended Biochemical Oxygen Demand [BODj Civil 599 - MASc Thesis  Constructed Wetlands Project  Leachate Characterization:  BOD (seeded and unseeded) (mgA)  Summary: •.—.  B0D5 (mg/L)  Unseeded Seeded  3180 5016  Bottle IO Unseeded 0.25mL Unseeded 0.50mL Unseeded 1.00 mL Seeded 0.25mL Seeded 0.50mL Seeded 1.00 mL Date: Raw Data:  BOD  ima/Li Day 5 y 3 21 00 3180 2238 311 1 2331 2625 4284 5016 4674 m NA  NA  Day 10 3324 3666  Day 12 4080 4157  Day 20 4519 5107  5538  5459  6595  NA  NA  NA  NA NA  NA NA  NA NA  Feb 16/98 Feb 18/98 Feb 23/98 Feb 25/98 Mar 05/98  •SUM  ^J::.J~~  N O T E S : Seed  = 1.27 g (moist wt.) of poolside soil per 300mL BOD bottle  Sample ID Unseeded 0.25mL  % leachate 0.08%  Unseeded 0.50mL  0.17%  Unseeded 1.00 mL  0.33%  Seeded 0.25mL  Kevin Frankowski  0.08%  Date: Bottle # Feb 13/98 Feb 16/98 Feb 18/98 Feb "Day 3" 8.79 7.04 "Day 5" 8.79 6.14 "Day 7" 8.79 "Day 10" 8.79 "Day 12" 8.79 Average 8.79 7.04 6.14 Stnd Dev 0 DOUsed . 0.00 1.75 2 65 Day 0 3 5 NA BCD 2100 3180 5.06 8.79 "Day 3" "Day 5" 8.79 3.79 "Day 7" 8.79 "Day 10" 8.79 "Day 12" 8.79 3.42 Average 8.79 5.06 3.61 Stnd Dev : 0 0.26 DOUsed 0.00 3.73 5.19 Day 0 3 5 NA BCD 2238 3111 1.02 8.79 "Day 3" "Day 5" 8.79 0.12 "Day 7" 8.79 "Day 10" 8.79 0.00 "Day 12" 8.79 0.00 Average 8.79 1.02 0.04 .-• Stnd Dev 0 0.07 . DOUsed 0.00 7.77 8.75 Day 0 3 5 NA BOD 2331 2625 5.38 8.79 "Day 3" "Day 5" 8.79 3.74 "Day 7" 8.79 "Day 10" 8.79 "Day 12" 8.79 3.42 Average 8.79 5.38 3.58 Stnd Dev "• 0 0.23 DOUsed 0.00 3.41 5.21 Day : 0 3 5 NA BCD 4284 501 6  112  23/98 Feb 25/98 Mar 05/98 5.26 4.63 6.23 5.30 5.81 5.30 5.39 4.63 6;02 5.39 5.02 ". • - • . 0.30 0.36 • 2.77 3.40 3.77 1 0 1 2 20 3324 4080 451 9 2.53 0.38 1.95 0.00 2.85 2.42 0.65 2.51 2.23 0.36 0.18 0.00 2.68 1.86 0.28 0.24 0.97 • 0.28 6.11 6.93 8.51 , 1 0 .: 1 2 20 3666 41 57 '5107 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 8.79 1 0  1.58 1.29 1.44 0.21 7.36 1 0 5538  -..  ..  _  -.  1 2 1.25 1.35 1.05 1.14 1.14 1.19 0.12 .•••7.60 ...  1  2  5459  20 0.49 0.48 0.29 0.54 0.62 0.48 .: 0.12 8.31 20 6595  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D . l RAW DATA: L E A C H A T E C H A R A C T E R I Z A T I O N  E x t e n d e d  Seeded 0.50mL  B O D  (cont.)  0.17%  8.79 8.79 8.79 8.79 8.79 .8.79 0 0.00 :0  "Day 3" "Day 5" "Day 7" "Day 10" "Day 12"  Average Stnd Dev DOUsed . Day BOD Seeded 1.00 mL  0.33%  Average Stnd Dev DOUsed Day BOD Seeded Blank # 1 Seeded Blank #2  Unseeded Blank # 1 Unseeded Blank #2 Unseeded Blank #3 Unseeded Blank #4  Kevin Frankowski  0% 0%  0% 0% 0% 0%  m.  "Day 3" "Day 5" "Day 7" "Day 10" "Day 12"  "Day 3" "Day 3"  Average Stnd Dev  "Day 5" "Day 5" "Day 10" "Day 10"  Average Stnd Dev  :.  8.79 8.79 8.79 8.79 8.79 8.79 0 0.00 . 0  m  8.79 8.79 •"8.79 0  8.79 8.79 8.79 8.79 8.79 • 0  113  1.16  1.16 7.63 3 4674 0.00  0.00 0.00 0  8.95 8.95  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 !  0 00 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 8 79 5  ••'0  8.79 •10  0 00  0 00 0  .-  5.71 6.39 . 6.05 0 48  :  8 65 8 65 8 65 0  7.65 8.53 8.09 0.62  .•  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0  0 00  7 76 7 76  ...  -  -  5.73 5.74 5.74 0 01  6.02  8.03  8.31  8.05 8.05 7.97 8.03 0.04  5.94 5.98 0,06  8.39 8.32 8.33 8.34 0.04  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D . l RAW DATA: L E A C H A T E C H A R A C T E R I Z A T I O N o  vo o  ON CN CN  o•—1 dVO  CN m cn <u *—* CN  VO u-1 cn ovo CN cn CN  cn in Ov cn ON O  VO oo .—<  00 o 00 os CN 00  00 O cn d d d  ON vo m  m oo cn —- o  m „4 m N VO cn O CN cn  d  d  d  IT)  d  CN rn  d  Q  in oo  00  CN  ON tn CN  «n  o — t CN  O CN CN  ON cn CN m' d 00 CN os oo  cn  CN  CN  m  in in  o oo m cn cn  VO  00 oo  6899.  ON o ON m d O o ON cu Q  mN O 00  oo CN  CO cn m m d d ©  m  .—i  CN m d d d  ON m CN O m CN cn d d d  cn cn o d  ON VO  o cn © d  —< C N  3  5  o  cd o\ Q g; CN £ 2 oo in crt  CN  O > «n co — cu •*r  §  ON —<  CN m vo oo m _--.cn  o d d  vo  CN CN  o  vo CN •* ©  o oo o ^ C N C N ^t; o d d  o  d  oo CN „  cn in CN CN m oo C N cn  o — vo m  n  VO  —< 00 VJ  vo O m oo r- —' — CN  ON CN cn vo 00 cn cn  00 m oo m ON m  vo  (N vo  o  VO VO m VO m  oIT)  VO  °a  -« s:  a  S  cn  cu Q PS  o  t  CN m  cn  "3-  o  O rvo  a  1 o  5  Q  * c CM N  f  e  " CIS  5  5  CS CS CA  s  Kevin Frankowski  <  =- o  a c  3  >  "2 E  T3 Q ca j £ ^ ,C3 < 2 j2 -O 2  Q  § ^ E a O cc)  C CD cu 13  60  e >> §  0 0  Q  O  J3  S H J H  g go « c? o o  6  1  u .a  •S 6 114 o 52  5  o  O  O D O  O J O <*S  U O H .. ^ <  J  PH  +  <c  BH  > H > Q Q Q O  O  O  J= J3 J3 H H H  Q O  CQ  S  O  a  O  > U  H CQ U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  APPENDIX D . l  Toxicity  RAW DATA: L E A C H A T E C H A R A C T E R I Z A T I O N  [pH-effects]  Civil 599 - MASc Thesis Constructed Wetlands Project Leachate  Raw  Characterization:  pH-effects on acute toxicity  Data:  Acute toxicity measured using modified LC50 bioassay (2 fish per 1L beaker) Temp = 15 C; minimum aeration provided, to prevent fish fatigue due to excessive turbulence pH adjusted using HCl or NaOH NOTE: a power outage caused failure of the aeration equipment -65 hr, at thereby preventing any new mortalities observed at 72 hr to be properly attributed to leachate toxicity  NOTES:  Survival PH = 8  Data:  J  Exposure Concentration  (%  0  v/v)  0/2  1 00  2/2  75  2/2  50  2/2  1  32  2/2  0/2  Blank  2/2  2/2  Comments:  period  (%  12  period  0/2  pH = 4  2/2  1  32  2/2  2/2  2/2  0/2  b  1 6  2/2  2/2  2/2  0/2  b  2/2  2/2  a  12  0/2  1/1  b  a e r a t i o n failure (due to p o w e r o u t a g e )  c  1 fish j u m p e d out of b e a k e r ( c o v e r h a d s l i p p e d o p e n )  0  v/v)  period  2/2  0/2  32  2/2  0/2  -  1 6  2/2  2/2  0/2  8  2/2  2/2  2/2  Blank  2/2  2/2  2/2  0  v/v)  0/2  period  (hrs) 72  48  1 6  2/2  0/2  8  2/2  0/2  4  2/2  0/2  -  2  2/2  2/2  0/2  -  Blank  2/2  2/2  2/2  2/2  0  v/v) 2/2  0/2  4  2/2  0/2  2  2/2  0/2  1  2/2  0/2  Blank  2/2  1  a  48  0/2  -  a  pH?) period  (hrs)  100  2/2  0/2  75  2/2  0/2  50  2/2  0/2  32  2/2  Blank  2/2  0/2 0/2  a  72  48  24  C o n t r o l F a i l u r e (due to  72  -  -  0  a  (hrs)  -  12  C o n t r o l F a i l u r e (due to  v/v)  period 24  8  Comments:  a  2/2  24  Exposure  Kevin Frankowski  -  a e r a t i o n failure (due to p o w e r o u t a g e )  a  pH = 3 .. (%  72  48  50  Comments:  Concentration  (hrs)  24  Exposure (%  1 /1  0  m a y h a v e b e e n insufficient a e r a t i o n to o v e r c o m e o x y g e n d e m a n d  a  Exposure  Concentration  -  50  1  7!  72  48  -  2/2  s""  (%  (hrs)  24  75  Comments:  Concentration  2/2  0/2  '  Exposure  pH »  2/2  0/2  0  v/v)  Comments:  (%  -  -  m a y h a v e b e e n insufficient a e r a t i o n to o v e r c o m e o x y g e n d e m a n d  a  Blank  Concentration  72  48  -  a  Exposure Concentration  (hrs)  24  -  -  -  -  -  -  pH?)  115  UBC  C I V I L  E N G I N E E R I N G  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D . l RAW DATA: L E A C H A T E C H A R A C T E R I Z A T I O N  Toxicity^ Civil 599 - MASc Thesis Constructed Wetlands Project Leachate Characterization: Acute  toxicity  (as Rainbow  Trout  96hr  LC50,  %v/v)  Summary: LC50 Sample  ID  Sample  Oct 28/97  Leacht.(pH<5.5) Leacht.(pH>5.5) Leacht.(pH>6.9) Seep- North Seep- Dwnstrm  Dec 15/97 1.74 22.36  Sample  ID  Jan 27/99 0.71  >50% >50%  >3%  >25% >100% >100% Sample  Oct 28/97  Leacht.(pH<5.5) Leacht.(pH>5.5) Leacht.(pH>6.9)  Dec 15/97 1.092 10.000  Mar 31/99 3.54  35.36  >6.25%  Slough (west) Slough (east)  Lower 95%  Date  Nov 20/98 <3%  >100% >100%  Date  Nov 20/98  Jan 27/99 0.500  Mar 31/99 2.000  25.000  Seep- North Seep- Dwnstrm Slough (west) Slough (east)  Upper 9 5 % Sample  ID  Leacht.(pH<5.5) Leacht.(pH>5.5) Leacht.(pH>6.9)  Sample  Oct 28/97  Dec 15/97 2.763 50.000  Date  Nov 20/98  Jan  27/99 1.000  Mar 31/99 6.250  50.000  Seep- North Seep- Dwnstrm Slough (west) Slough (east)  Kevin Frankowski  116  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  APPENDIX D.l RAW DATA: LEACHATE CHARACTERIZATION  *5 ~*  c  c &  Q>  C4  c s c c c  c S c c c  oj Z (U OJ ED  *Z  CO .B CD  0) 0)  °a 5ESE oE f! E ijE E E B 2j E b bE 5E E o nj to co a coJocaraco co g ca co co  1  a?  c <D  ~ —  —  W  ~  ~  ~  W  ^ CO CO  CM LO  T - o CO CO CO  ,2. cd cd  cd  cd cd cd  —  CO O  ~  W  W ^  ~  S  •^•'r^-^-cDcD  cn _  S c « 1  oe ol s- a Q. C  Sos 3 o  ~  5? o _  fell s?  5  S  N  as as  CV O LO CMLO CMoOoO S  U  Cj § !8 * i <5 as  •a v CD S  N  s .5  CO o  §1 0) *~  c a •a -o c a  •c .Eg  .co a CO  3 LJ  §s LU  S  (jE fl) oo > io O  CD  t«*.  £  O C D  c -  a: *- cj.  1  sO ^  6"- tf- 5 -  OJ CM O  O  r*-  r-»  h- r*-  Oi  ••5 Jo  io LO  Ii  5  O  : Q  Q . C0  <o  d-  LO LO  O O  O O  §4o  •"> A!  CO  NO  o wmoo  LO  5  o o CC CO  cu cu  LO LO CD  oooo o  LO O) LO CD  V A jc 3> «  x x t a ro i i ca. ex o * co to «j  CD 3 5 (D Q) CD — — _ l _ l CO CO CO  C  t S (fl  t:  u u ri ^ co «o gj g g «J  <D CD CD _ — —I —I CO CO CO  T3  C o  iii  <  a o I o  Kevin Frankowski  117  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  APPENDIX D . l RAW DATA: LEACHATE CHARACTERIZATION  Colour Civil 599 - MASc Thesis Constructed Wetlands Project Leachate Characterization:  Colour  Data: NOTES: Determined  with a Hellige  Measured  Sample Date:  Aqua-tester  only on raw leachate  (from  (APHA  Color  Leachate  Units)  Pool),  but over a range  of pH  Oct 29/99 Dilution  Measured Sample  Leachate Leachate Leachate Leachate Leachate Leachate Leachate  Pool Pool Pool Pool Pool Pool Pool  Colour  3 6 5 0 6 5 8 0 9 5 1 10 12 0  1 0 20 70 50 50 50 50  @  100%  Factor  colour  pH  ID  1 00 200 200 400 400 400 400  1 000 4000 1 4000 20000 20000 20000 20000  Oct 30/99 KAF  Date Analyzed: ! Technician:  1992 Leachate Characterization (from Triton 1993) o  o o ^ o —'  o o o o  o  cn r-~ oo  OOOCNO-tOOOOCNOO  CN  o  v  D U  <3\  U  E o  5)  J  E  J J  X  J  J  ~5b ~i5b ~olj  see  E<  g g g S S E S S S  Q g 0 o B'E  •= 12  "9 ^  S  u  0-  •a c  u  _>  o  el  3  I  c S <U O  1 s 1 s  Kevin Frankowski  o o r>. «  C/3  o ~ CO  u 3 _o 2. "o  Q S5 cn H t— 1  2 ^  u  co  s  1>. —a  co  118  CO  —3 CO  < U_ c «  13 cu  " in  -3 |  O  a c3  *CS &  °  eg  o  CA  o S .B CO O CO . s i s 6 aJB -g I N  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X  R A W  Kevin Frankowski  D A T A :  D . 2  S C R E E N I N G  119  T R I A L S  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D.2 RAW DATA: S C R E E N I N G TRIALS  Monitoring Data:  p H  [ Civil 599 - MASc Thesis I Constructed Wetlands Project Screening  1  NOTES: Treatment:  Trials: Aerated  - R e p " A ' = "Door";  Control  Bioreactors  • Monitoring  Data  (pH)  R e p "B" = "Wall-  Treatment  Replicate Date  100% - A  100% - B  10% - A  10% - B  1% - A  1% - B  0% - A  0% - B  15- D e c - 9 7  3.8  3.8  3.9  3.9  4.2  4.2  4.7  4.7  16- D e c - 9 7  3.69  3.68  3.90  3.89  4.26  4.26  4.92  4.88 4.89  18-Dec-97  3.57  3.56  3.82  3.82  4.29  4.30  5.28  20-Dec-97  3.63  3.64  3.92  3.92  4.54  4.52  5.23  5.53  26-Dec-97  3.86  3.81  4.23  4.17  4.97  4.83  5.61  5.86  29-Dec-97  3.82  3.76  4.30  4.14  5.07  4.83  5.45  5.58  Treatment: Date  So/7  Treatment  Replicate 100% - A  100% - B  10% - A  10% - B  1% - A  1% - B  0% - A  0% - B  15- D e c - 9 7  3.8  3.8  4.0  4.0  4.5  4.2  5.6  5.0  16- D e c - 9 7  3.82  3.92  4.47  4.56  6.78  6.66  7.00  6.99  18-Dec-97  3.77  3.81  4.65  4.86  7.29  7.18  7.08  7.05  20-Dec-97  3.90  3.95  5.29  5.70  7.55  7.55  7.36  7.56  26-Dec-97  4.28  4.44  6.71  7.00  7.66  7.77  7.68  7.83  29-Dec-97  4.23  4.38  6.63  6.60  6.90  6.80  6.89  6.93  Treatment:  Duckweed  Treatment  Replicate  Date  100% - A  100% - B  10% - A  10% - B  1% - A  1% - B  0% - A  0% - B  15- D e c - 9 7  3.8  3.8  4.0  4.0  4.2  4.3  5.4  5.3  16- D e c - 9 7  3.74  3.70  4.18  4.16  6.02  5.49  6.27  6.40  18-Dec-97  3.67  3.66  4.47  4.51  6.64  6.67  6.50  6.41  20-Dec-97  3.73  3.74  5.43  5.90  6.82  6.92  6.77  6.74  26-Dec-97  3.98  4.02  7.06  7.10  7.10  7.27  6.88  7.00  29-Dec-97  3.94  3.99  6.57  6.55  6.64  6.63  6.42  6.46  Treatment: Date  Fungal  Treatment  Replicate 100% - A  100% - B  10% - A  10% - B  1% - A  1% - B  0% - A  0% - B  15- D e c - 9 7  3.8  3.8  4.1  4.0  4.6  4.4  6.7  5.2  16- D e c - 9 7  3.75  3.70  4.34  4.21  7.20  6.97  6.28  7.37 7.70  18-Dec-97  3.66  3.64  4.55  4.53  7.45  7.33  7.32  20-Dec-97  3.72  3.78  7.76  7.72  6.22  6.21  8.02  7.73  26-Dec-97  3.95  4.00  7.50  7.46  7.87  8.02  8.08  8.08  29-Dec-97  3.87  3.98  6.30  6.30  6.72  6.77  6.93  7.10  Kevin Frankowski  120  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D.2 RAW DATA: S C R E E N I N G TRIALS  Monitoring Data: D O  Civil 599 - MASc Thesis \ Constructed Wetlands Project  Screening Trials: Aerated Bioreactors  I  NOTES: - R e p " A = "Door"; -  T r e a t m e n t : Control  - Monitoring Data (DO)  R e p "B" = "Wall"  Treatment  Replicate Date  100% - B  100% - A 15- D e c - 9 7  0.7  16- D e c - 9 7  8.4  18-Dec-97  5.9  20-Dec-97  8.6  26-Dec-97  9.4  29-Dec-97  1.0  T r e a t m e n t : So/7  15- D e c - 9 7  9.1 6.8 10.1 8.5 0.8  10%  100% - B  100% - A 0.8  16- D e c - 9 7  9.8  18-Dec-97  6.8  20-Dec-97  9.0  26-Dec-97  7.0  9.8  10.0  9.8  10.4  10.1  11.2  9.8  10.1  2.0  2.1  0%  - B 9.4  9.8  10.0  10.0  9.8  10.1  10.2  9.6  9.6  0%  - B  9.3  6.7  10%  10% 7.4  7.8  9.8  9.8  9.9  9.4  9.6  9.8  9.8  1 0.1  9.9  10.4  9.0  9.8  8.2  7.  0%  - B 9.4  10.0  9.8  10.0  10.0  10.2  10.6  9.7  9.7 2.9  10.5  10.0  11.0  9.6  9.8  9.8  0.8  1.2  0.7  3.5  7.3  7.3  8.9  10.1  9.5  10.6  10.4  10.6  10.2  9.8  9.6  0.8  0.7  0%  - B  9.0  9.2  9.8  10.0  10.1  10.1  10.2  10.8  9.8  9.7  3.1  3.3  Treatment  100% - A  100%  15- D e c - 9 7 16- D e c - 9 7  9.4  9.7  5.7 10.5  26-Dec-97  9.6  1.7 10.4 9.6 0.5  0.7  1%  10%  10% 0.9  18-Dec-97  29-Dec-97  B  0.7  20-Dec-97  9.5 9.4 9.4 10.2 2.5  - B  0%  0% 9.1  8.7  9.2  9.8  10.0  10.0  10.0  9.5  10.0  10.8  9.2  10.6  10.0  9.9  10.0  2.4  2.9  2.4  Treatment  Replicate 100% - A  100%  15- D e c - 9 7  0.7  16- D e c - 9 7  9.6  18-Dec-97  8.2  20-Dec-97  11.1  26-Dec-97  10.0  29-Dec-97  0.6  Kevin Frankowski  1% 9.1  10.1  Replicate  T r e a t m e n t : Fungal  1% - A  - B  0.7 8.9  0.8  T r e a t m e n t : Duckweed  Date  1% 9.4  10.0  9.5  29-Dec-97  Date  1% - A  - B  7.6  Treatment  Replicate  Date  10% 1.0  B  10% 0.6 9.9 4.3  10.4 9.3 0.4  10%  - B  4.8 9.8 9.6 10.4 9.6 0.6  121  0% - A  1% - A 7.0  6.3  9.8  9.3  9.2  9.5  10.3  10.2  9.6  9.9  0.5  0.6  0%  - B  6.3  8.7  8.8  9.4  8.7  9.4  9.7  10.3  9.7  9.5  0.8  0.7  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D.2 RAW DATA: S C R E E N I N G TRIALS  Monitoring Data: Civil 599 - MASc Thesis Constructed Wetlands Project Screening Trials:  Aerated  Conductivity Bioreactors  • Monitoring  Data  (Conductivity)  NOWs"-"^ "A"»'"boc>^"RV*"B"'=*'"Wall• i  Treatment: Control  Treatment  Replicate  Date  1 5-Dec-97 16-Dec-97 18-Dec-97 20-Dec-97 26-Dec-97 29-Dec-97  100% - A 100% 1500 1400 1400 1 600 1700 1600  Treatment: Soil  Date  B 10% - A 10% 1500 220 1400 1 40 1400 1 60 1600 220 1700 1 60 1600 200  B  1% - A 220 210 200 220 260 270  0% - A 40 30 30 20 20 30  0% - B 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0  1 0  Treatment  Replicate 15- Dec-97 16- Dec-97 1 8-Dec-97 20-Dec-97 26-Dec-97 29-Dec-97  1% - B 30 30 30 20 1 0 30  10% 100% - B 10% - A 100% - A 220 1500 1500 260 1300 1500 260 1500 1500 260 1800 1500 240 2000 1500 260 1800 1700  1% - B  1% 40 20 40 50 60 80  220 260 270 200 230 270  0% - B  0% - A 40 40 50 50 60 80  20!  1 0 1 0 20 30 30 70  1  o|  20[ 30i  ol  6 9 OJ  Treatment: Duckweed Treatment  Date  Replicate 15- Dec-97 16- Dec-97 18-Dec-97 20-Dec-97 26-Dec-97 29-Dec-97  1% - A 10% - B 100% - B 10% - A 100% - A 210 210 1500 1500 230 150 1400 1300 210 230 1400 1400 180 220 1600 1600 160 250 1700 1700 1 90 300 1700 1 600  Treatment: Fungal  Date  100% 100% - A 1500 1500 1500 1700 1700 2200  Kevin Frankowski  0% 40 30 20 20 30 90  45 60 100 110 1 20 190  60 70 1 00 140 190 250  0% - B 1 0j 1 I 1 1 1 60|  1 5 1 1 1 0 1 0 50  o| ol oi  Treatment  Replicate 15- Dec-97 16- Dec-97 18-Dec-97 20-Dec-97 26-Dec-97 29-Dec-97  1% - B 35 30 20 20 30 80  B 10% 1500 1500 1400 1700 1800 1700  A  10%  B  220 270 240 190 260 330  122  0% - B  0% - A  1% 240 240 230 200 260 360  20 20 11 0 160 1 90 230  40 110 170 220 220 270  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D.2 RAW DATA: S C R E E N I N G TRIALS  Tannin and Lignin Civil 599 - MASc Thesis Constructed Wetlands Project  Screening Trials: Tannins and Llgnins (T&L) (mg/L as Tannic Acid)  Summary ( Total ThOD tor T&L) 1.24: . T&L ThOD.=  Summary:  Sample ID  Sample Date  control A 10% control B 10% Soil A 10% Soil B 10% Duckweed A 10^ Duckweed B 10°, Fungal A 10% Fungal B 10% Fungal A 0% Fungal B 0% Raw Data:  J.Sampte Date - Dec 15/97  Dec 15/97 138.35 133.01 115.12 114.58 93.75 95.62 95.35 95.35 34.19 30.98  1 72 165; 143; 142  IIIIRS^  119 118' '42; ,38'.  NOTES: Reagents:  Sample Date-  1 '  Folin phenol (0.1 mL), carbonate Sample volume was 5.0 mL  tertrate (1.0 mL) (allow 30 min for colour  development)  Dec 15/97 ("Final effluent" samples, taken during jar test teardown) Sample ID  control A 10% control B 10% Soil A 10% Soil B 10% Duckweed A 10% Duckweed B 10% Fungal A 10% Fungal B 10% Fungal A 0% Fungal B 0%  Dilution Factor  25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25  Absorbance ( 9 700 nm)  0.518 0.498 0.431 0.429 0.351 0.358 0.357 0.357 0.128 0.116  T&L  (mg/L)  138.35 133.01 1 15.12 1 14.58 93.75 95.62 95.35 95.35 34.19 30.98 Technician: KAF & Angelika  Standard (mg/L)  0 2 4 8  Std Curve slope:  Kevin Frankowski  T,  Absorbance (@ 700 nm)  0 0.191 0.370 0.750  0.0936  0.80 0.70 8 0.60 £ 0.50 f 0.40 » 0.30 < 0.20 0.10 0.00 <  123  Standard Curve y = 0.0936X R = 0.9999 2  • •  2  4 Concentration (mg/L)  6  8  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D.2 RAW DATA: S C R E E N I N G TRIALS  coomcoooj^T-cgoi  II II II II II II II II II  ^  11  OOOOOOOOCMCM  1  OOOOOOOOOi T - -r- O O O O O  I  • 5 v C\JC\i<MC\IC\IC\iOOC\JCJ CD  s E  iD )r-<-'-T-y-a>y-OOr -  o 0.0  o  Q.  o S •  r  a)  -p >p -sp -p  - r- O O  CD .5 ^  W) SO  if ? 1  *c5  OO  300 o  T - 1-  cotooooooo 5 o^ o3* r r (0(00(000 o o con'-'-d'-dc)  CO CO T - CO  3  d  C/J  s e 5  <r>  Kevin Frankowski  O -2 Q)  CO -J CO TD •o c g C O •t; C O  < CO  II  co _ co o  Q. to co 3  I<  <m IB IB< m 3 3 — CO CDCO_ CO v v g < o i i ara 01 c c OOO3 3 3 O CO CO D D LL.  l < co  CO o  1  1*1  CMOJCMCMOJCJOJCMCJCM  u  O -SB a. E  m  <0 o  o  < CQ  8 O CO 0) Q Q 11 11 CD CQ  124  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  APPENDIX D.2 RAW DATA: SCREENING TRIALS  Kevin Frankowski  125  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  D.2  RAW DATA:  SCREENING  TRIALS  0  O OllJ  0  in tn CD CO CU CM  CO  o>  —  AO  CO tn  Pr  APPENDIX  CM 0 O to z  cu; co  CD S3  <s & H CO Q  OJ c cp oj P CO a  S>  fe 2 a c/> O u  oj "D c o  10  iCO ^— c 00 6 CD co* CO i c CO OJ  G  a: 8 -S^§  1 5  3;  CD CO Co  c  •§ §. Ih at  o 8 lo 2 S  o  .co  CO  Q) -c c g  00  ^ Q  .y § C  <D T3  "  o o CM CM  Q. <  1^C3O 1 » § 55 5 T3 C . O co  "co g" "S S c o cu  § CO c bj CO co to p CO CO S ^ CQ CD C C  Si  ~- Q. OJ _ I s  ^ a co 5 CO  CD  ^ 3 ' x: «  co cu  CO C/j  < CD Q Q. Q.  0  ro .0 CO  0>  3; co co  cn qj o to 3: = a. co •2 ° '£ 3:  N  41  0  00 00  OJ CO  c oJ CO E c <-o O CO CO o  | i  %  co © w co  co CM  Q. TO C LL  T- Cu  G o <u C\i co c C <»  3  O  XI -c  C  CO  •tf  _j co m  X3 ^-  — CO CD £  •2  sCD  O  CD  i  co  CO  o  X5  •2 CO o c  u  5  —1 LL CD E  O O  CM in CD in  -  .0  t o o CO o o CO 0_ 0-  CO CO  o  CO a>  b  1.-2 i to  •S o O U Kevin Frankowski  126  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X  R A W  Kevin Frankowski  D A T A :  D . 3  B E N C H - S C A L E  127  T E S T I N G  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D.3 RAW DATA: B E N C H - S C A L E T E S T I N G  Monitoring Data [pH, D O , Conductivity]  \ Civil 599 - MASc Thesis • Constructed Wetlands Project  Water  Microcosm Monitoring Data:  : Summary  Quality  data  (pH, DO.  cond)  (Mise): Series  #1  Date of original leachate s a m p l e :  Series  J a n 30/98  #2 D a t e of original l e a c h a t e s a m p l e : D a y 0 = A p r 12/99  All tanks in a laboratory Controlled E n v i r o n m e n t R o o m ( C E R ) .  T e m p = 22 C  T e m p = 15 C P h o t o p e r i o d = 2 4 : 0 hr (Gro-lights couldn't plug into the  P h o t o p e r i o d = 24:0 hr (Gro-lights couldn't plug into the timer)  Summary  Measurement Day 1  ID  Plant  Blank  (a)  7.15  Bay_2 7.13  Plant  Blank  (b)  7.19  Day  (Setup  Measurement  01}  Day 7  timer)  wmamsmsmsii SMmsmmmmmmmMMSiMmm  SiSilllliiBMBBKK  (pH):  Sample  A p r 09/99  D a y 0 = F e b 20/98 All tanks in a laboratory Controlled E n v i r o n m e n t R o o m ( C E R ) .  D a v 1B  D a y 14  Sample  Day  Day 8  Day 1  ID  (Setup  02)  D a y 15  Dav 29  7.06  7.44  7.27  S a n d Blank  6.72  6.81  7.10  7.34  7.24  7.40  7.27  7.25  d H 2 0 Blank  6.22  6.45  6.67  6.92  7.71  7.60  10%  (a)  4.73  6.18  6.37  6.67  7.64  10%  (b)  4.82  6.30  6.60  6.24  10%  (a)  5.72  6.46  7.69  10%  (b)  5.62  6.30  7.65  7.61  50%  (a)  4.26  4.47  5.76  7.12  7.45  25%  (a)  4.12  5.90  6.77  6.36  4.53  6.71  7.63  7.66  25%  (b)  4.23  5.60  6.53  6.45  50%  (b)  4.34  75%  (a)  4.20  4.33  5.26  6.91  7.51  50%  (a)  3.86  4.37  6.15  6.28  75%  (b)  4.34  4.51  5.50  7.12  7.62  50%  (b)  3.85  4.24  6.06  6.62  7.21  7.12  7.39  7.46  7.30  S a n d Blank  Summary  (DO)  msimmiMmms: •smmmmismm.  (mg/L}: Measurement  Sample  Day 1  ID  Day_2  Day  (Setup  8.0  9.4  9.0  9.5  6.0  4.4  d H 2 0 Blank  4.4  8.4  8.4  8.6  6.0  5.7  6.1  (a)  5.1  6.8  7.4  7.4  6.0  5.5  6.6  10%  (b)  4.2  5.2  5.0  3.0  2.1  1.3  1.8  1.0  25%  (a)  5.9  2.8  3.0  2.0  6.6  3.9  0.8  4.9  25%  (b)  5.0  2.4  1 .0  5.4  4.7  1.1  0.7  0.6  50%  (a)  2.4  1.4  4.4  6.4  7.6  5.6  0.9  0.8  0.7  50%  (b)  3.2  2.0  1.5  7.4  8.7  B.1  8.0  8.5  8.7  6.8  Plant  Blank  (b)  S.2  7.6  10%  (a)  8.0  6.0  10%  (b)  7.5  5.4  50%  (a)  6.5  50%  (b)  7.8  75%  (a)  7.0  75%  (b)  conductivity)  Blank  Day 1 (a)  80  (b)  50  Pay  Day  (Setup  Day 7  2  Pay  1  Measurement  450  420  S a n d Blank  350  260  d H 2 0 Blank  220  10%  (a)  270  (b)  270  310  500  1000  1300  (a)  50%  (b)  1200  1300  1300  75%  (a)  1300  1400  1800  (b)  1300  1500  1900  30  40  70  (Setup  40  20  02}  D a y 15  D a v 29 80  60  1 50  1 50  140  (a)  390  1 80  170  140  600  500  10%  (b)  440  220  300  270  1200  1000  25%  (a)  500  300  380  400  1200  900  25%  (b)  500  350  440  350  1500  1200  50%  (a)  900  500  600  500  1600  1200  50%  (b)  900  500  600  500  70  70  500  400  260  900  Day  Day 8  240  10%  Raw  ID  350  10%  S a n d Blank  Sample  D a y 1B  80  Blank  75%  #1) D a y 14  120  Plant  50%  . 10%  {uS/cm}: Measurement  Plant  Hay 29  S a n d Blank  7.5  ID  02)  D a y 15  6.2  8.1  Sample  Day (Setup  Day 8  6.2.  (a)  (  Day 1  ID  4.8  Blank  : Summary  Sample  D a y 1B  D a y 14  Plant  S a n d Blank  Measurement  tt1}  Day 7  500  Data: N O T E S DO measured  pH  measured  Conductivity dH20 Sand  Blank Blank  ' Date measured:  with an YSI Model with  an Orion  measured = a planted  = an unplanted  Day 1  57 DO-probe.  (Model  230A,  with a YSI Model  Feb  blank  (control)  control  tank,  calibrated  each  with gel-body  33 SCT tank,  probe, filled  day  probe}  pH-meter.  calibrated  with  each  dechlorinated  with no root mat or leachate,  calibrated  just  21/98  d H 2 0 Blank  (a)  (mg/L)  layer  of sand,  and filled  with  80 50 270  5.72  8.0  water  Apr  13/99  Conductivity  8.1  7.19  dechlorinated  Day 1  Sample  (uS/cm)  7.15  (a)  (b)  the bottom  sDate m e a s u r e d ;  DO  8.2  d H 2 0 Blank 10%  pH  ID  day  water  Conductivity Sample  each  day  ID  pH  DO  (mg/L)  (uS/cm)  S a n d Blank  6.72  8.0  20  d H 2 0 Blank  6.22  4.4  220  10%  (a)  4.73  5.1  390  10%  (b)  5.62  7.5  270  10%  (b)  4.82  4.2  440  50%  (a)  4.26  6.5  900  25%  (a)  4.12  5.9  500  50%  (b)  4.34  7.8  1200  25%  (b)  4.23  5.0  500  75%  (a)  4.20  7.0  1300  50%  (a)  3.86  2.4  900  75%  (b)  4.34  7.6  1300  50%  (b)  3.85  3.2  900  7.21  8.7  30  S a n d Blank  T e c h n i c i a n : K A F (at  Kevin Frankowski  T e c h n i c i a n : K A F (at  EVS)  128  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  EVS)  A P P E N D I X D.3 RAW DATA: B E N C H - S C A L E T E S T I N G  Monitoring Data [pH, D O , Conductivity! Date measured'  Day 2  Feb 22/98 Conductivity  Sample  ID  dH20 Blank (a) dH20 Blank (b) 10% (a) 10% (b) 50% (a) 50% (b) 7 5 % (a) 7 5 % (b) Sand Blank  pH  7.13 7.24 6.46 6.30 4.47 4.53 4.33 4.51 7.12  (cont.)  Date measure* DO  (mg/L)  7.5 7.6 6.0 5.4 2.1 6.6 4.7 5.6 8.1  Day 8 Sample  (uS/cm)  120 80 260 310 1000 1300 1400 1500 40  ID  Apr pH  Sand Blank dH20 Blank 10% (a) 10% (b) 25% (a) 2 5 % (b) 50% (a) 50% (b)  .' ; •  20/99 DO  6.81 6.45 6.18 6.30 5.90 5.60 4.37 4.24  Day 7 Sample  ID  dH20 Blank (a) dH20 Blank (b) 10% (a) 10% (b) 50% (a) 50% (b) 7 5 % (a) 7 5 % (b) Sand Blank  Data measured:  Feb 27/98 pH  7.06 7.40 7.69 7.65 5.76 6.71 5.26 5.50 7.39  DO  (mg/L)  5.8 6.0 6.0 6.0 1.3 3.9 1.1 0.9 8.0  Conductivity (uS/ctnl  Day 15 Sample  350 240 400 500 1300 1300 1 800 1900 70  ID  Apr  Day 14 Sample  ID  dH20 Blank (a) dH20 Blank (b) 10% (a) 10% (b) 50% (a) 50% (b) 7 5 % (a) 7 5 % (b) Sand Blank  Mar pH  Sand Blank dH20 Blank 10% (a) 10% (b) 2 5 % (a) 2 5 % (b) 50% (a) 50% (b)  '  Dale measured;*  7.44 7.27 7.71 7.61 7.12 7.63 6.91 7.12 7.46  (mg/L)  4.8 4.4 5.7 5.5 1.8 0.8 0.7 0.8 8.5  DO  7.10 6.67 6.37 6.60 6.77 6.53 6.15 6.06  Day 18 Sample  ID  dH20 Blank (a) dH20 Blank (b) 10% (a) 10% (b) 50% (a) 50% (b) 7 5 % (a) 7 5 % (b) Sand Blank  Mar pH  450 350 500 600 1200 1200 1500 1600 70  .  Kevin Frankowski  (mg/L)  6.2 6.2 6.1 6.6 1.0 4.9 0.6 0.7 8.7  ID  Sand Blank dH20 Blank 10% (a) 10% (b) 25% (a) 2 5 % (b) 50% (a) 5 0 % (b)  - . ;  Conductivity (uS/cm)  9.0 8.4 7.4 5.0 3.0 1.0 4.4 1.5  60 140 170 300 380 440 600 600  Mav  11/99  pH  DO  7.34 6.92 6.67 6.24 6.36 6.45 6.28 6.62  (mg/L)  (uS/cm)  9.5 8.6 7.4 3.0 2.0 5.4 6.4 7.4  80 150 140 270 400 350 500 500  Technician: KAF (at EVS)  ' DO  Day 29 Sample  10/98  7.27 7.25 7.60 7.64 7.45 7.66 7.51 7.62 7.30  (mg/L)  Conductivity  Conductivity (uS/cm)  Technician: KAF (at EVS)  Date measured:  40 150 180 220 300 350 500 600  . Technician: KAF (at EVS)  06/98 DO  (uS/cm)  9.4 8.4 6.8 5.2 2.8 2.4 1.4 2.0  27/99  pH  Technician:: KAF (at EVS)  Date measure*  Conductivity  Technician: KAF (at EVS)  Technician: KAF (at EVS)  Date measured:  (mg/L)  < ;  -end...  Conductivity (uS/cm)  420 260 500 500 1000 900 1200 1200 70  Technician: KAF (at EVS)  129  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D.3  RAW DATA: B E N C H - S C A L E T E S T I N G  Tannin and Lignin  I Civil 599 - MASc Thesis • Constructed Wetlands Project  Tannins  Microcosm Monitoring Data:  .Summary  (Series  a2  Day  fi  and Ligmns  {T&L}  (mg/L as Tannic  & 16): Graph  Sample Sample  ID  A p r 20/99  A p r 28/99  3.1  Test concentrations  (a)  49.7  36.3  10%  (b)  46.4  36.9  25%  (a)  235.0  207.3  25%  (b)  240.4  209.4  50%  (a)  574.3  510.1  (b)  502.1  to 100% leachate  strength  : %-removal*  D a y 16  2874  Influent  446.0  corrected  Day 8  Category  3.9  10%  Raw  Data:  Dale:  dH20Blank  50%  Acid)  Day 8  avg/std d e v  D a y 16 "  10%  (a)  497  363!  0 83  0 87  Day 8 0.83  0.87  10%  (b)  454  369J  0 84  .0 87  0.01  0.00  25%  (a)  940  829?  0.67  0 71  0.67  0.71  25%  (b)  962  838  0.67  0.71  0.01  0.00  50%  (a)  1 149  0 60  0 64  0.63  0.67  50%  (b)  1 004  0.65  0.69'  0.04  0.03  1020 £  Data: NOTES Reagents:  Sample  S a m p l e Date.  Fotin volume  phenol  (0. ImL), carbonate  A p r 20/99  (1.0 mL) (allow  ID  1  700 nm)  T&L  (mg/L) 3.13  0.293  49.7  10%  (a)  50  0.093  10%  (b)  50  0.085  45.4  25%  (a)  100  0.220  235.0  (b)  50%  (a)  50%  (b)  development)  Absorbance (@  Factor  d H 2 0 Blank  25%  30 min for colour  ( D a y 8)  Dilution Sample  tenrate  was 5.0 mL  100  0.225  240.4  250  0.215  574.3  250  0.188  502.1  T&L  Absorbance  Standard  (@  (mg/L)  700 nm)  0  0  2  0.191  4  0.370  8  0.750  May  Standard Curve  2  4 Concentration  Sample'Date  A p r 28/99  Absorbance  Factor  ID  (@  700 nm)  T&L  (mg/L)  1  0.364  3.9  (a)  50  0.068  36.3  0.069  36.9  d H 2 0 Blank 10% 10%  (b)  50  25%  (a)  100  0.194  207.3  25%  (b)  100  0.196  209.4  50%  (a)  250  0.191  510.1  50%  (b)  250  0.167  446.0  (@  (mg/L)  Date Analyzed:' ,  T&L  Absorbance  Standard  (mg/L)  ( D a y 16)  Dilution Sample  26/99  Technician: K A F & Anqelika  M a y 26/99  Technician: K A F & Anqelika  Standard Curve  700 nm)  0  0  2  0.191  4  0.370  8  0.750  0.80 0.70 • 0.60 % 0.50  5  0  4  0  « 0.30 < 0.20 0.10 0.00 Concentration  Kevin Frankowski  130  (mg/L)  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D.3 RAW DATA: B E N C H - S C A L E T E S T I N G  Chemical Oxygen Demand [ C O D ] Civ// 599 - MASc Thesis  Constructed Wetlands Project M i c r o c o s m Monitoring Data: Summary  (Series  #2,  COD Sample ID  May  Day  Chemical  Oxygen Demand  30  teardown):  (mg/L)  corrected to 100%  12/99  (COD)  %-removal n/a  S a n d Blank  1 0  n/a  d H 2 0 Blank  1 1 7  n/a  n/a  10%  254  2537  0.82  (a)  10%  (b)  286  2861  0.80  25%  (a)  930  3721  0.74  25%  (b)  587  2348  0.83  50%  (a)  1383  2766  0.80  50%  (b)  1423  2846  0.80  Raw  (mg/L)  I n f l u e n t C O D (from Table 4.2) Average  14116  %-removal  0.80  Std. dev.  0.03  Data:  NOTES Digestion reagent was 20-900 Sample volume was 2.0 mL  Sample Date:  May  1 2 / 9 9( D a y  mg/L range,  (ie, no chloride  interierence)  3 0 - teardown)  Dilution Factor  Sample ID  without mercury  Absorbance (@ 600 nm)  COD  (mg/L) 10.0  S a n d Blank  1  0.004  d H 2 0 Blank  1  0.047  10%  (a)  1  0.102  10%  (b)  1  0.115  25%  (a)  2  0.187  2 5 %  (b)  2  0.118  50%  (a)  4  0.139  1383.1  50%  (b)  4  0.143  1422.9  116.9 253.7 286.1 930.3 587.1  LPateJnalyMSJ.  May  12/99  Technician: K A F & Angelika  Standard (mg/L) 0  0  50  0.024  150  0.060  300  0.122  600  0.240  Std Curve slope:  Kevin Frankowski  COD Standard Curve  Absorbance (@ 600 nm)  200  0.0004  300  400  Concentration (mg/L)  131  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  600  A P P E N D I X D.3 RAW DATA: B E N C H - S C A L E T E S T I N G  Biochemical Oxygen Demand  [BQD1  Civil 599 - MASc Thesis Constructed Wetlands Project Microcosm Monitoring Data:  Summary:  Biochemical  1998 Microcosms  (Series  Oxygen Demand  tl)  Sample Date: Sample ID dechlor blank # 1 dechlor blank #2 10%  # 1  1 0 % #2 50 % # 1  2.06  n/a  n/a  34.02 27.66  340 277  0.94  88.50  354  0.94  n/a 0.95 0.91  226.50  453  0.92  #2  226.50  453  0.92  blank)  0.11  75%  1998  %-removal  n/a  # 1  S a n d / room blank  NOTES  to 100%  13.52  486  75%  Raw Data:  corrected  12/99  121.50  50 % #2  N/A ( B O D  May  (BOD) (mg/L)  Influent B O D Average  5555  %-removal  0.93  n  6  Std. dev.  0.01  3.78  Microcosms (Series #1) BOD samples were not seeded, since the microcosm tanks already caontained a seeding of pool-side soil. BOD5 (seeded) of influent = 5016 mg/L Mar 25/98  Dates: Bottle Concentration:  DOf  DOi dechlor blank U 1 dechlor blank #2  10% # 1 10% #2  50 % # 1 5 0 % #2  75% # 1 75% #2  1  2 3  4  5 6 7 8  N/A (BOD blank)  9 Blk  (Rep of #3)  3a  Sand / room blank  (Rep of #4)  4a  % leachate  S.69  0  3.69  0  10 10  50 50  22.5  3.69  7.88  121.5  3.69  8.47  3.69  8.10  3.69  0  3.69  0  3.69  10  3.69  10  9.0  8.54  3.69  71.7  DOi  12.0  3.69  3.69  75  8.63  7.18  7.18  8.34  8.58 8.34  8.50  150mL/300  50mL / 300 BOD  8.61  Mar 25/98  Mar 25/98  2mL / 300  6.16 7.74  2.44  33.0  3.50  88.5  0.00  226.5 226.5 52.5 0.1  52.5 28.5  mi  BOD  DOf  0.00  0.00 0.00 8.06 8.15  3.02  2.24  11.2  6.97  3.2  7.55  34.0  DOf 6.52  0  7.14  27.7  7.25  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  3.8  N/A  0.5  N/A  30.5  N/A  35.3  N/A  BOD  0.21  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  Comparison of BOD5 for 25-day effluent from different microcosm concentrations  y = 2.7797X - 0.1365 R = 0.9295 !  o O loo.oo  Leachate Concentrations (%)  132  2.1 !  0  M a r 17/98 Date Sampled: M a r 20/98 Date Analyzed: Technician: K A F & Anqelika  Kevin Frankowski  13.5!  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D.3 RAW DATA: B E N C H - S C A L E T E S T I N G  Biochemical Oxygen Demand Summary:  1999 Microcosms  Sample ID Sand Blank dH20 Blank 10% (a) 10% (b) 25% (a) 25% (b) 50% (a) 50% (b) BOD Blank  (cont.)  (Series #2)  Sample Date: May 12/99  corrected to 100% 1 n/a 4 n/a 7 66 1 0 105 165 660 93 370 1 14 228 1 20 240 0  %-removal  n/a n/a 0.99 0.98 0.88 0.93 0.96 0.96  Influent BOD (from Table 4.2) Average %-removal Std. dev. n  5555 0.95 0.04 6  Raw Data: NOTES: BOD samples were not seeded, since the microcosm tanks already caontained a seeding of pool-side soil. Sample Date!  Mav 12/99  Sample ID Sand Blank dH20 Blank 10% (a) 10% (b) 25% (a) 25% (b) 50% (a) 50% (b) BOD Blank  (Day 30 - teardown)  Dilution Factor  3 3 3 3 20 20 20 20 1  Day 0 DO (mg/L) 8.82 8.05 7.98 7.11 8.34 8.42 8.39 8.36 8.49  Day 5 DO (mg/L) BOD (mg/L) 8.48 1 6.60 4 5.77 7 3.62 10 0.09 165 3.79 93 2.70 114 2.37 120 8.15 0  Seeded (Y/N) N N N N N N N N N  ' Date Analyzed: Mav 12/99 Technician: KAF & Angelika  Kevin Frankowski  133  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  APPENDIX D.3 RAW DATA: BENCH-SCALE TESTING —  g o E  cfl CO O :  CO  r~ o> o> o o o  CD  CD  CO 00  O  CO o j  c\i  LO LO  "?  1  I  O LO  I  LO:  i  o  I  CO  CD  I  c , E  co  A  LO CD CM  T-  CD  CO O)  OJ  o  O  T-  LO CM  O i-  o  LO CM LO  S: o  I  oo  00 LO O ) T - CM  oo 00 00 g> O) O i O CM T CM  a> o o)  <-  a. a. co < < 2  T - i co  3  CD CD -Q  I  2to  „  •S !  a  S | &  .2  °  «>  8  I  I I 1  I CO CD ii  ID  B a  .3  I* r~  ;'-.< CO  2  q>  D  CD  a E  C8  n  CD CD LL  co  CD O) CD  o  CM CM  ^ T-  CO CM  es  3 O  CO oo oo O) cn  o>  o>  0) OJ 05 TOOT OJ  CD  E2  '2 :0  e  CO  O  Kevin Frankowski  134  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  APPENDIX D.4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Kevin Frankowski  135  U B C  CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D.4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Field Monitoring Data - Summary I Civil 599-MASc Thesis I Constructed Wetlands Project I Mesocosm Monitoring Data: Summary  (Temp)  Oct 29/99 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.5 13.0  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 5 Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 2 Cell 4 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank Summary  -  0.0  Npv 05/99 6.0 4.5 5.0 5.3 4.2 4.4 6.6 9.5 4.4 0.0  Nov 12/99 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.8 16.7 8.1 0.0  Sample Date Nov 26/99 Nov 19/99 8.3 8.1 7.7 8.2 7.7 8.3 7.9 8.2 7.8 8.0 8.1 8.5 9.5 8.3 14.1 16.5 6.8 7.5 0.0 0.0  Dec 03/99 5.3 5.5 4.5 5.7 4.2 5.8 6.8 9.5 4.6 0.0  (  Sample ID Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  Dec 10/99 5.8 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.8 7.6 1 1.6 5.1 0.0 ISisiiMiilBII!  Oct 29/99 3.51 3.90 4.19 3.64 3.95 4.09 3.53 3.64  4.01 3.79 3.82 3.78 3.94 3.65 3.86 6.41 0.00  NOV 12/99 3.43 3.62 3.54 3.49 3.56 3.51 3.45 3.59 6.07 0.00  Sample Date Nov 26/99 Nov 19/99 3.54 3.68 3.66 3.70 3.60 3.69 3.74 3.61 4.18 3.95 3.72 3.69 3.47 3.53 3.47 3.40 6.06 6.11 0.00 0.00  Nov 05/99 1.9 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.6 0.3 2.0 0.4 0.2 0.0  Nov 12/99 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.5 0.2 2.5 0.3 0.2 0.0  Sample Date Nov 26/99 Nov 19/99 1.0 0.8 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.3 1.3 0.4 0.3 1.8 1.5 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0  Nov 05/99  -  0.00  (DO)  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 5 Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 2 Cell 4 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank Summary  CJ:  (pH).  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 5 Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 2 Cell 4 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank Summary  Field data (temp, pH, DO, cond)  {degrees  -  Dec 03/99  Dec 10/99 3.61 3.70 3.59 3.72 3.61 3.67 3.50 3.42 5.88 0.00  Dec 03/99 0. 2. 0. 0. 1. 0. 2 0. 0. 0  Dec 10/99 1.5 0.5 0.2 0.6 1.5 0.3 2.9 0.5 0.3 0.0  Dec 03/99 149 1 74 234 256 264 269 346 628 65.5 0  Dec 10/99 404 343 355 368 314 371 456 1040 91.4 0  3.57 3.61 3.61 3.64 3.68 3.71 3.57 3.57 5.96 0.00  {mg/L}:  Oct 29/99 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.9 0.6 0.9 2.1 0.3 -  0.0 conductivity)  Oct 29/99  Kevin Frankowski  {uS/cm}:  Nov 05/99 31 1 379 405 352 310 459 962 79.9 0  Sample Date Nov 12/99 Nov 19/99 Nov 26/99 250 245 173 275 325 152 292 335 256 264 275 343 295 1 66 289 273 231 315 445 384 410 760 752 1276 58.6 63.4 67.5 0 0 0  136  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D . 4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Field Monitoring Data Raw  Data:  NOTES: Temp & DO measured with an YSI Model 55 digital DO-probe, calibrated each field day pH measured with an Orion (Model 230A, w/gel-body probe) pH-meter, calibrated each field day\ Conductivity measured with a YSI Model 33 SCT probe, calibrated each field day  Sample Date:  Oct 29/99 Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  Temp (C) pH 8.7 3.51 8.7 3.95 4.19 8.7 8.7 4.09 8.7 3.90 8.7 3.64 3.53 8.5 13.0 3.64 {Not sampled this week}  DO (mg/L) 0.3 0.6 0.7 0.9 0.3 0.9 2.1 0.3  Conductivity (uS/cm)  Oct 29/99 Date Analyzed: Technician: Paula P  Sample Date:  Nov 05/99 Conductivity  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  Temp (C) 6.0 4.2 5.0 4.4 4.5 5.3 6.6 9.5 4.4  pH -  3 3 3 4 3 3 3 6  78 79 94 01 82 65 86 41  DO (mg/L) 1 .9 0.6 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.1 2.0 0.4 0.2  (uS/cm) -  352 379 310 31 1 405 459 962 79.9  iiDate;*AnlryS|  Nov 05/99 Technician: Paula P.  Sample Date:  Nov 12/99 Conductivity  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  Temp (C) 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.8 16.7 8.1  pH 3.43 3.56 3.54 3.51 3.62 3.49 3.45 3.59 6.07  DO (mg/L) 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.2 2.5 0.3 0.2  (uS/cm) 1 73 166 256 231 1 52 275 445 760 58.6  Date Analyzed Nov 12/99 Technician: Paula P.  Kevin Frankowski  137  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D.4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Field Monitoring Data (cont.) Sample, Date:.:  Nov 19/99 Conductivity Sample  ID  Temp  (C)  pH  8.3 7.8 8.3 8.5 8.2 8.2 9.5 16.5 7.5  Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  DO  (mg/L)  (uS/cm)  1.0 1.3 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.4 1.5 0.3 0.1  3.68 3.95 3.69 3.72 3.70 3.61 3.53 3.40 6.1 1  245 289 335 315 325 343 384 1 276 67.5  Nov 19/99 Date Analyzed: * Technician: Paula P.  Nov 26/99  Sample Date:  Conductivity Sample  ID  Temp  Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  DO  pH  (C)  54 18 60 69 66 74 47 3.47 6.06  8.1 8.0 7.7 8.1 7.7 7.9 8.3 14.1 6.8  (mg/L)  (uS/cm)  250 295 292 273 275 264 410 752 63.4  0.8 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.2 1 .8 0.3 0.2  Date Analyzed: Nov 26/99 Technician: Paula P.  Sample Date!  Dec 03/99 Conductivity Sample  ID  Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  Temp  (C)  DO  pH  3.57 3.68 3.61 3.71 3.61 3.64 3.57 3.57 5.96  5.3 4.2 4.5 5.8 5.5 5.7 6.8 9.5 4.6  (mg/L)  0.6 1.8 0.5 0.2 2.3 0.4 2.8 0.4 0.7  (uS/cm)  1 49 264 234 269 1 74 256 346 628 65.5  Date Analyzed Dec 03/99 Technician: Paula P.  Kevin Frankowski  138  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D.4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Field Monitoring Data (cont.) Sample Date:  Dec 10/99  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  Temp (C)  pH  DO (mg/L) 3.61 3.61 3.59 3.67 3.70 3.72 3.50 3.42 5.88  5 8 5 7 5 7 5 8 5 7 5 7 7 6 1 16 5 1  1 .5 1.5 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.6 2.9 0.5 0.3  Conductivity (uS/cm) 404 314 355 371 343 368 456 1 040 91 .4  Dec 10/99 Date Analyzed: Technician: Paula P.  Kevin Frankowski  139  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D . 4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Biochemical  Oxygen Demand [BQD1 - Summary  Civil 599 - MASc Thesis  Constructed Wetlands Project Mesocosm Monitoring Data:  Graph  Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) (mg/L)  Data:  Category Rain (mm/wk) % Rain Dilution:  Background  AVERAGES: influent Unplanted Control Planted Only Innoculated & Plants  Oct 29/99  Nov  Nov 05/99  1062 909 786 789  2399 1619 2129 1709  190.9 25.5 21.2  #DIV/0l 127.3 42.4  14% 26% 26%  33% 1 1% 29%  Week 12/99 NOV 19/99  1019 815 1 031 971  1800 1 290 1605 1410  Dec 03/99  Nov 26/99  Dec 10/99  2519 1484 1559 1469  1724 704 1064 1 169  1 574 1 154 1214 1 124  297.0 21.2 84.9  21.2 169.7 169.7  63.6 42.4 21.2  106.1 106.1 148.5  28% 11% 22%  41 % 38% 42%  59% 38% 32%  27% 23% 29%  STD DEV: Influent  1.8 2.6 3.5  Unplanted Control Planted Only Innoculated & Plant  %-Removal: Unplanted Control Planted Only Innoculated & Plant  50.9 0.0 84.9  20% - 1 % 5%  Summary:  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 5 Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 2 Cell 4 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Seeded Blank Unseeded Blank  Jun  09/99  Kevin Frankowski  5 8 5 9 8 3 5250 0  Oct 29/99 1044 774 804 768 804 774 1062 2988 -  -  0  Nov 05/99  1619 2039 2219 1739 1679 2399 9299 28  1 0  Sample Date Dec 03/99 Nov 19/99 Nov 26/99 Nov 12/99 851 1080 1499 659 779 1 500 1469 749 1620 1679 1034 1031 1031 1590 1439 1094 1 589 1 154 91 1 1 350 1470 1349 1 184 1031 2519 1724 1019 1 800 6299 6900 5849 3899 29 1 4 26 1 1 1 0  140  0 0  1 0  UBC  1 1  Dec 10/99 1229 1 079 1 1 39 1289 1019 1229 1 574 4499 1 8 1 0  CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D . 4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Biochemical Oxygen Demand [BOD1 Raw Data:  NOTES: Seed was 0.1g (moist wt) of pool-side soil per 300 mL bottle (weighed using the water suspension method)  Sample Date:  Jun  09/99  Sample ID  Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Seeded Blank Unseeded Blank  ("Background" samples, taken prior to any influent input) Dilution Factor  1 1 1 1 1 1 3000 1  Day 0 DO (mg/L)  8 9 8 8 9 8  5 4 8 8 7 8 8 0 7 9  Day 5 DO (mg/L)  3.3 1.5 3.9 5.8 2.0 0.1 6.2 8.0  BOD  (mg/L)  5 8 5 3 8 9 5250 0 0  Seeded (Y/N)  N N N N N N  N N  Jun 10/99 Date Analyzed Technician: KAF & Angelika  Sample Date-  Oct 29/99 Dilution Sample ID  Factor  Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Seeded Blank Unseeded Blank  120 1 20 1 20 1 20 1 20 120 120 600 1  Day 0 DO (mg/L)  9 2 9 2 9 2 9 2 9 2 9 2 9.2 9 2 9.2  Day 5 DO (mg/L)  0.5 2.5 2.5 2.8 2.8 2.8 0.4 4.2 9.0  BOD  Seeded (Y/N)  (mg/L)  1 044 804 804 774 774 768 1 062 2988 0 0.2  N N N N N N N N N  : Date.An'aryllSl  Nov 04/99 Technician: KAF & Priscilla  Sample Date  Nov 05/99 Sample ID  Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Seeded Blank Unseeded Blank  Dilution Factor  600 600 600 600 600 600 3000 15 1 1  Day 5 DO (mg/L)  Day 0 DO (mg/L)  8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8  8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8  BOD  5.9 5.4 6.0 6.1 5.1 4.8 5.7 6.9 8.0 8.7  Seeded (Y/N)  (mg/L)  1739 2039 1679 1619 2219 2399 9299 28 1 0  Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N  Nov 12/99 Date Analyzed Technician: KAF & Priscilla  Kevin Frankowski  141  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D . 4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Biochemical Oxygen Demand (cont.) Sample Date:  Nov 12/99 Sample ID  Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Seeded Blank Unseeded Blank  Dilution Factor  1 20 120 120 1 20 1 20 1 20 1 20 3000 30 1 1  Seeded  Day 5 DO (mg/L)  Day 0 DO (mg/L)  BOD  1 1 0 0 2 0 0 6 7 7 8  8.8 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.4 8.8 8.8  7 2 2 2 3 2 3 7 4 7 6  (Y/N)  (mg/L)  851 911 1 031 1 031 779 1 031 1019 6299 29 1 0  Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N  Date Analyzed. Nov 12/99 Technician: KAF & Priscilla  Sample Date:  Nov 19/99 Sample ID  Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Seeded Blank Unseeded Blank  Dilution Factor  Day 5 DO (mg/L)  Day 0 DO (mg/L)  300 300 300 300 300 300 300 1500 3 1 1  BOD  5 4 3 3 3 3 2 4 2 8 8  8.8 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.8 6.8 8.2 8.8  2 3 4 9 8 5 8 2 0 0 7  Seeded (Y/N)  (mg/L)  1 080 1 350 1 620 1 470 1 500 1 590 1 800 6900 1 4 0 0  Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N  Nov 19/99 Date Analyzed' Technician: KAF & Priscilla  Sample Date:  Nov 26/99 Dilution Sample ID  y  Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Seeded Blank Unseeded Blank  ..1  1  BOD  (mg/L)  (mg/L)  300 300 300 300 300 300 600 1500 1 2  Seeded  Day 5 DO  Day 0 DO  Factor  9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 8.8 9.3 9.3  4 3 4 0 3.7 4.8 4 4 4 5 5 1 5 4 6 6 8 4 8 9  (Y/N)  (mg/L)  1 499 1 589 1679 1349 1469 1439 2519 5849 26 1  b  Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N  Date Analyzed Nov 26/99 Technician: KAF & Priscilla  Kevin Frankowski  142  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D . 4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Biochemical Oxygen Demand (cont.) Sample Date:-  D e c 03/99  Dilution Sample ID  1 50 1 50  Cell 1 Cell 2  1 50 1 50  Cell 3  Cell 4 Cell 5  375 750 3 1  Seeded Blank  1  Unseeded Blank  BOD 5.2  9 6 9 6 9 6  1.9 2.7  9 6  4.6 2.3  9 6  8.4  9 6 9 6 7 4  5.0 4.4 3.5  9 8  9.0  Seeded (Y/N)  (mg/L) 659 1 1 54 1 034  1.7  9 6 9 6  1 50 1 50  Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  Day 5 DO (mg/L)  Day 0 DO (mg/L)  Factor  1 184 749 1 094  1 724 3899 1 1 1 1  Y  Y Y Y Y  Y Y Y Y Y N  Dec 03/99 Date Analyzed' Technician: K A F & Priscilla  Sample Date:,  Dec  10/99 Dilution  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2  Day 0 DO (mg/L)  Factor  Day 5 DO (mg/L)  BOD  9 0 9 0  4.9 5.6  1 229 1019  Y Y  300 300  9 0 9 0  4.9 5.4  1 079  Y  1 1  300 300  1 139 1 229  Y Y  4.7 4.8 3.0  1 289 1 574 4499  1.0  1 8  Y Y Y  8.3 8.8  1 0  Y N  Cell 3 Cell 4  300  9 0  5.2  Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  300 375 750 3  9 9 9 7  0 0 0 1  9 0 9 1  Cell 5  Seeded Blank Unseeded Blank  Seeded (Y/N)  (mg/L)  Y  : Date Analyzed  Dec 10/99 Technician: K A F & Priscilla  Kevin Frankowski  143  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  APPENDIX D.4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  cocD^finoocoincn  CO  CO CJ 0 0 CO 0 CD 10 CO 0 CO r CO co  CO CO CO CO T00 CO CIJ 0 OJ CO OJ CO CO  0  cn m  0^  T— CO CM co r- a> •* CO > CJ CO in o CM  CO CO i n  ^9 •.0  0 CO CD O) CM  •tf  CO in CO  1—  1—  j o ^ i n f O c O ' - N m a  o  T  O  M  D  o  i  r  A  i  ICMCMCOCOCOCO^-i-  n  CM  53  ^0  s i n i n s n o s c o n jT-CMCMcocomcoinco 53r-cM-<i-coocMcocnco -i-OJCMCMCMCVlincO  m  CO CM CO i n CD  CO in  o  M - o o t t C D T - r - r - c o 1C MC M 1- T incocococo m -a- r~ ^t- m co 00 i n  C> CM  CJ CM  r-  cooocoocooocooo  •*9 -9 0^ in c i nn CO CM  in  CO O CM CO  CO CO CO r - r~ CO CO r-  —icnococooocMcocom oSCMr-COOi-COCOOCM S J ^ C O C O T T co  CO T - co T - CM OJ  00 CO CO •f— 0 " t CM CO  CD  i  Q  r-  O O f- m r-  CO CO CO 0 0 CO i n  CO O CO O  in in CM 00  T—  <J  •o c to  Q c Q>  I (J  a> TCO CO CM yCO OJ  r~  O  •C  r-. OJ 00 0 CO CO y-  rT—  CO  0  oj CO O)  CM  T—  *-  ^0 0^ 0 CO r-  co  O  T "  0  ^9 ^9  0 ) CO  0 CO o> co i n CM CO  O N CM CO CO CO  co  ojc\i-'-cococoh~-»-co  #1  0^ 0 "  0) T—  O m  r-co'-cor-cocO'* r- T - CO CO  1-  CM CO CM  o c o n o s s s o o co n in co t- co m int-i-ojr-r-cooj •<t CD co in -"j- r» co  CM T - m ^ CM CO  CO  •* 0  .0  cn CO co  T-  T-  a  s n co N co r-~ co co _|CDC0C0C0C0CDC0C0 gjcocncocnr-cnr^in  *  to to  T—  in in  CM CO  co  CO  CM  CJ  Q  i i  w  c  8 -S o g .9 fc> | I O  E Q  a <- .£ 0  Kevin Frankowski  Q Q  Lo  C  TJ  o s  « cc  E  o s  5 I  c  8  =CO <CL B c "co T - i n c o c o w ^ - £  - = = u0 51 cra o C= == = D CU CD (D e » • S o O O O O O O O J C O  144  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D.4  RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Chemical Oxygen Demand [COD1 Raw  Data: NOTES: Digestion reagent was 20-900 mg/L Sample volume was 2.0 mL  Sample Date:'  Jun  09/99  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  Standard (mg/L)  without mercury (ie, no chloride  Std Curve slope:  interference)  ("Background" samples, taken prior to any influent input) Dilution Factor 1 1 1 1 1 1  Absomance (@ 600 nm) 0.011 0.017 0.016 0.008 0.012 0.013  100  0.057  -  COD  (mg/L) 28.4 43.9 41.3 20.7 31.0 33.6 14728.7  L Date Analyzed: _ Technician:  Jun 18/99 Anqelika  COD Standard Curve  Absorbance (@ 600 nm) 0 25 50 1 00 200  Sample Date:  range,  0 0.010 0.018 0.038 0.078  50  0.0004  100  150  Concentration  (mg/L)  Oct 29/99 Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  Standard (mg/L)  Dilution Factor 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8  Absorbance (@ 600 nm) 0-112  -  COD  6.047 0.053 0.058 0.056 0.058 0.052 0.196  f Date Analyzed: Nov 04/99 Technician: KAF & Priscilla  -  -  COD Standard Curve  Absorbance (@ 600 nm)  0 50 150 1000 1500  0  3000  0  Std Curve slope:  0.0002  0  500  1000  1500  Concentration  {no standards this week; slope value from Nov 05/99 used)  Kevin Frankowski  (mg/L) 1866.7 783.3 883.3 966.7 933.3 966.7 1733.3 6533.3  145  UBC  2000  (mg/L)  C I V I L  E N G I N E E R I N G  Masters Thesis  APPENDIX D.4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Chemical Oxygen Demand (cont.) Sample Date:*  Nov 05/99  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  Dilution Factor  Absorbance ( @ 600 nm) 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 4  COD  0.315 0.368 0.286 0.270 0.368 0.463 0.551 0.015  0 50 100 200 400 800  0 0.023 0.040 0.083 0.163 0.341  0.35 at u c  5  0.0002  y = 0.0004x  0.30  Ft = 0.9993  0.25  2  0.20  S °-  5 Std Curve slope:  F.'Date Analyzed: Nov 10/99 Technician: KAF & Priscilla  COO Standard Curve  Absorbance (® 600 nm)  Standard (mg/L)  Sample Date:  (mg/L) 5250.0 6133.3 4766.7 4500.0 6133.3 7716.7 18366.7 250.0  •  1 5  0.10 0.05 0.00  200  400 Concentration  (mg/L)  Nov 12/99 Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  Standard (mg/L) 0 50 100 250 500 750 1000  Dilution Factor 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 8 2  Absomance (@ 600 nm) 0.212 0.208 0.369 0.311 0.193 0.402 0.380 0.371 0.009  COD  0 0.004 0.024 0.060 0.118 0.174 0.243  Kevin Frankowski  Date Analyzed: Nov 16/99 Technician: KAF & Priscilla  COD Standard Curve  Absorbance (@ 600 nm) 0.25  y = 0.0002x Ft = 0.9979  o 0.20 u  2  2  0.15  *  § o.io  n *  Std Curve slope:  (mg/L) 1781.5 1747.9 3100.8 2613.4 1621.8 3378.2 6386.6 12470.6 75.6  0.05 0.00  0.0002  200  400 Concentration  146  600 (mg/L)  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D.4 R A W DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Chemical Oxygen Demand (cont.) iple Date:  Nov  19/99  Dilution Factor  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  Standard (mg/L)  0 50 1 00 250 500 750 1000 1500  5  COD  (mg/L) 1716.7 2033.3 2425.0 2250.0 2225.0 2366.7 5666.7 18958.3 383.3  Date Analyzed: Nov 22/99 Technician: KAF & Priscilla  COD Standard Curve  Absorbance (@ 600 nm)  Std Curve slope:  Sample Date:  2 2 2 2 2 2 4 50 2  Absorbance ( @ 600 nm) 0.206 0.244 0.291 0.270 0.267 0.284 0.340 0.091 0.046  0 0.011 0.032 0.066 0.124 0.182 0.247 0.352  0.40 0.35 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00  y = 0.0002x R  = 0.9979  2  500  0.0002  1000  Concentration  (mg/L)  Nov 26/99  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  Standard (mg/L)  0 150 300 500 1 000 1500  Std Curve  Kevin Frankowski  slope:  Dilution Factor  4 4 4 4 4 4 8 25 1  Absorbance (@ 600 nm) 0.285 0.287 0.297 0.276 0.279 0.280 0.250 0.167 0.072  COD  (mg/L) 4523.8 4555.6 4714.3 4381.0 4428.6 4444.4 7936.5 16567.5 285.7  Dec 01/99  Technician: KAF & Priscilla  COD Standard Curve  Absorbance (@ 600 nm)  0 0.042 0.083 0.134 0.249 0.376  C6ate Analyzed:^  0.40 0.35 8 0.30 n 0.25 | 0.20 » 0.15 < 0.10 0.05 0.00  y = 0.0003x R  2  = 0.9985  500  0.0003  1000  Concentration  147  (mg/L)  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  APPENDIX D.4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Chemical Oxygen Demand (cont.) Sample Date:.  Dec 03/99  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  Standard (mg/L) 0 300 500 1 000 1500  Dilution Factor 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 25 1  Absorbance ( @ 600 nm) 0.098 0.181 0.154 0.180 0.100 0.163 0.120 0 0.110 0.056  COD (mg/L) 2008.2 3709.0 3155.7 3688.5 2049.2 3340.2 4918.0 1 1270.5 229.5  Dec 06/99 Date Analyzed:1_ Technician: KAF & Priscilla  COD Standard Curve  Absorbance (@ 600 nm) 0 0.076 0.133 0.237 0.366  0.40 0.35  y  0.30  Ft  = 2  0.0002x =  0.9978  0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00  Std Curve slope:  Sample Date:  500  0.0002  1000  Concentration  (mg/L)  Dec 10/99 Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  Standard (mg/L) 0 300 500 1000  Dilution Factor 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 25 1  Absorbance COD (mg/L) (@ 600 nm) 4298.2 0 196 3179.8 0 145 3684.2 0 168 4320.2 0 197 3706.1 0 169 4035.1 0 184 4868.4 0 1 1 1 0 14035.1 0 128 258.8 0.059  COD Standard Curve  Absorbance (@ 600 nm) 0 0.064 0.115 0.229  Date Analyzed. Dec 13/99 Technician: KAF & Priscilla  0.25 „  u  5  0 1 5  °  0.10  JQ  y  0.20  Fl  =  0.0002X =  2  0.9992  < 0.05  Std Curve slope:  Kevin Frankowski  400  0.00  0.0002  0  148  Concentration  600  800  (mg/L)  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D.4  RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Total Suspended Solids [TSS1 Civil 599 - MASc Thesis  Constructed Wetlands Project Mesocosm Monitoring Data:  Total Suspended  Solids  (TSS)  (mg/L)  mmmmamms,  mmmmmmmmmmtmmmma^mmummm  Summary: Sample  ID  Cell 1 Cell 5 Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 2 Cell 4 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  Jun  4.3  Oct 29/99 33.6 15.6 54.4 9.6 26.0 30.8 29.2 26.0  -1.0  0.4  09/99  4.3 14.4 1.4 8.0 7.0 2.3  Sample  Nov 05/99  Nov 12/99 3.6 16.8 7.6 5.6 6.0 12.0 12.4 16.8 104.4 0.0  14.4 14.0 7.2 9.2 11.2 20.8 14.0 62.7 0.0  -  Date  Nov 26/99 7.6 9.2 22.8 6.4 12.8 5.6 12.0 12.0 43.2 0.0  Nov 19/99 165.6 2.8 3.2 2.8 3.2 7.2 50.8 8.0 42.0 -1 .2  Dec 03/99 4.4 8.4 16.0 8.4 33.2 10.0 12.0 14.8 25.2 -2.8  Dec 10/99 8.8 10.8 8.0 7.2 1 1.2 8.4 14.0 50.8 32.0 -0.4  H H B H B B i ^ M B B i ^ H I  Raw Data:  NOTES: Vacuum-filtered  through  Tare: filter paper Dry: dried  @ 550 C until constant  TSS  = Total Suspended  FSS  = Fixed  VSS  = Volatile  Solids  Suspended  weight  (at least  weight  microfibre  for at least  (at least  filter (effective  retention  1 hour, then cooled  = 1.5 um).  to room  temp,  in  2 hrs), then cooled  to room temp,  in  dessicator.  1 hr), then cooled  to room temp,  in  dessicator.  dessicator.  Solids  (i.e., approximates (i.e., approximates  inorganic  matter)  organic  matter)  ("Background" samples, taken prior to any influent input) Vol  Sample  glass  Solids  Suspended  Jun 09/99  934-AH  boat are pre-fired  @ 105 C until constant  Fired: fired  "T'SarnDle Date:"  a Whatman  and weighing  Filtered (mL)  ID  Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  210 213 214 218 208 212 210 210  Tare  (g)  1.6742 1.7031 1.7127 1.7176 1.8700 1.6925 1.7328 1.6727  Dry  Fired  (g)  1.6751 1.7046 1.7130 1.7181 1.8730 1.6942 -  1.7337 -  1.6725  (g)  TSS  1.6743 1.7031 1.7127 1.7176 1.8714 1.6931 1.7328 1.6724  FSS  (mg/L)  4.3 7.0 1.4 2.3 14.4 8.0 4.3 -1 .0  (mg/L)  VSS  3.8 7.0 1.4 2.3 7.7 5.2 -  4.3 0.5  -  -1.4 • Date Analyzed:! Technician:  Sample Date:  (mg/L)  0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.7 2.8 0.0  Jun 10/99 Anqelika  Oct 29/99 Vol Sample  ID  Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  Filtered (mL)  250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250  Tare (g) 1.6764 1.7092 1.7096 1.1204 1.1323 1.5496 1.5505 1.5492 -  Dry  -  1.7263  (g)  1.6848 1.7157 1.7232 1.1281 1.1362 1.5520 1.5578 1.5557 1.7264  Fired  (g)  1.6802 1.7124 1.7107 1.1246 1.1331 1.5507 1.5533 1.5527 1.7264  TSS  FSS  (mg/L)  33.6 26.0 54.4 30.8 15.6 9.6 29.2 26.0 -  0.4  (mg/L)  VSS  (mg/L)  15.2 12.8 4.4 16.8 3.2 4.4 11.2 14.0 0.4  18.4 13.2 50.0 14.0 12.4 5.2 18.0 12.0 0.0  Nov 02/99 Date Analyzed. Technician: KAF & Priscilla  Kevin Frankowski  149  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D.4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Total Suspended Solids (cont.) ifSlffgleiDatel  Nov 05/99  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  Vol Filtered (mL) 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 1 50 250  Tare (g)  -  •  1.6890 1.7050 1.7114 1.7137 1.6983 1.7009 1.7275 1.7566 1.6686  TSS (mg/L)  Fired (g)  Dry (g) -  1.6913 1.7085 1.7142 1.7173 1.7001 1.7061 1.7310 1.7660 1.6686  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  6898 7065 7126 7149 6989 7029 7289 7599 6682  FSS -  (mg/L)  VSS (mg/L) -  9.2 14.0 1 1.2 14.4 7.2 20.8 14.0 62.7 0.0  -  3.2 6.0 4.8 4.8 2.4 8.0 5.6 22.0 -1 .6  6.0 8.0 6.4 9.6 4.8 12.8 8.4 40.7 1.6  Date Ana vzed Nov 08/99 Technician: KAF & Priscilla  " ''ISamoleDate:  Nov 12/99 Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  Vol Filtered (mL) 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250  Tare (g) 1.6772 1.6916 1.7076 1.7086 1.7212 1.7067 1.7103 1.7629 1.7354 1.6742  Dry (g) 1.6781 1.6931 1.7095 1.7116 1.7254 1.7081 1.7134 1.7671 1.7615 1.6742  Fired (9) 1 6773 1 6920 1 7079 1 7099 1 7237 1 7067 1 7108 1 7644 1 7522 1 6741  TSS (mg/L) 3.6 6.0 7.6 12.0 16.8 5.6 12.4 16.8 104.4 0.0  FSS  (mg/L) 0.4 1.6 1.2 5.2 10.0 0.0 2.0 6.0 67.2 -0.4  VSS (mg/L) 3.2 4.4 6.4 6.8 6.8 5.6 10.4 10.8 37.2 0.4  „Date Analyzed: Nov 15/99 Technician: KAF & Priscilla  SlTmDle Date:  Nov 19/99 Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  Vol Filtered (mL) 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250  Tare (g) 1.6765 1.6983 1.7137 1.7188 1.7200 1.7074 1.7091 1.7381 1.7649 1.6758  Dry (g) 1.7179 1.6991 1.7145 1.7206 1.7207 1.7081 1.7218 1.7401 1.7754 1.6755  TSS (mg/L) Fired (g) 1 7128 165.6 1 6979 3.2 1 7133 3.2 7.2 1 .7192 1 7193 2.8 1 7072 2.8 50.8 1.71 1 1 1.7386 8.0 1.7695 42.0 1.6757 -1 .2  FSS  (mg/L) 145.2 -1 .6 -1 .6 1.6 -2.8 -0.8 8.0 2.0 18.4 -0.4  VSS (mg/L) 20.4 4.8 4.8 5.6 5.6 3.6 42.8 6.0 23.6 -0.8  Nov 24/99 Date A n a l y s t Technician: KAF & Priscilla  Kevin Frankowski  150  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  APPENDIX D.4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Total Suspended Solids (cont.) Sample Date.  Nov 26/99  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  Vol Filtered (mL) 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250  Tare (g) 1.6772 1.6981 1.7176 1.7206 1.7205 1.7092 1.7124 1.7399 1.7668 1.6772  Dry (g) 1.6791 1.7013 1.7233 1.7220 1.7228 1.7108 1.7154 1.7429 1.7776 1.6772  Fired 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  (a)  6778 6996 7199 7212 7214 7096 7132 7415 7719 6772  FSS (mg/L)  TSS (mg/L) 7.6 12.8 22.8 5.6 9.2 6.4 12.0 12.0 43.2 0.0 r  SampleJJate; i  VSS (mg/L)  2.4 6.0 9.2 2.4 3.6 1.6 3.2 6.4 20.4 0.0  5.2 6.8 13.6 3.2 5.6 4.8 8.8 5.6 22.8 0.0  Dec 01/99 .Date'AnalyzeiJ:! Technician: KAF & Priscilla  Dec 03/99 Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  Vol Filtered (mL) 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250  Tare (g) 1.6763 1.6770 1.7150 1.7215 1.7213 1.7065 1.7100 1.7406 1.7659 1.6982  Dry (g) 1.6774 1.6853 1.7190 1.7240 1.7234 1.7086 1.7130 1.7443 1.7722 1.6975  Fired (9) 1.6766 1.6821 1.7165 1.7223 1.7225 1.7068 1.7108 1.7426 1.7682 1.6971  TSS (mg/L) 4.4 33.2 16.0 10.0 8.4 8.4 12.0 14.8 25.2 -2.8  FSS (mg/L) 1.2 20.4 6.0 3.2 4.8 1.2 3.2 8.0 9.2 -4.4  VSS (mg/L) 3.2 12.8 10.0 6.8 3.6 7.2 8.8 6.8 16.0 1.6  P Date Analyzed:  Dec 03/99 Technician: KAF & Priscilla  Sample Date:.  Dec 10/99 Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  Vol Filtered (mL) 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250  Tare (g) 1.6782 1.6976 1.7169 1.7205 1.7204 1.7080 1.7108 1.7369 1.7652 1.6781  Dry (g) 1.6804 1.7004 1.7189 1.7226 1.7231 1.7098 1.7143 1.7496 1.7732 1.6780  Fired (g) 1.6791 1.6990 1.7172 1.7212 1.7214 1.7083 1.71 17 1.7449 1.7682 1.6780  TSS (mg/L) 8.8 11.2 8.0 8.4 10.8 7.2 14.0 50.8 32.0 -0.4  FSS (mg/L)  VSS (mg/L)  3.6 5.6 1.2 2.8 4.0 1.2 3.6 32.0 12.0 -0.4  5.2 5.6 6.8 5.6 6.8 6.0 10.4 18.8 20.0 0.0  Dec 10/99 Date Analyzed: Technician: KAF & Priscilla  Kevin Frankowski  151  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D . 4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS o c o c o o c n c M c o c o m c o o o i t r m i D c o o c v m m ^ m - ' a - i n c D c o CM  CO -sj" Tco co oj i CD LO LO LO  c o c o t - w t o i n c D S CDOOCMCDLOCDI-OTCMCM'<t'<t'*'*COt--  r~ in C M n n N  CM CD CM CM CM  00 T i - CM i -  in co in in CM CM  CO s CD co  co co co  oi r» o CO CO  c O L O C M ^ o i i o n i o cocncocNcocncoo ^ l O C O S L O C O S ' co  I co o o <u Q  05 cn <o Cvl > o  cn  CO CO i - r~ CO CM  0  CM CO  T—  Tf  O O CO CM O N CO CD T— c o c o c o  i - CO CM  co cn co CM oo r-~ o r-~ in r~ co  co c n CO CM S  35  co o 4 c o •>- i n m i oo CM co  o 5 c  cn cn in o  T-  co oo co co o oo co o co co CD  O O CM CM  >CM > i - -<t  cn co  T-  co  co T ^ CM 00 CD CD CD  o c n o a > i - C M c o c o o L O ^ t c o c o O ' - L r ) ^  co o oo CM T - T -  •2 a G  0)0 s  o|  s  oococo-tfmoocDin O S O l T - L O C O f r co co oo r- co o co •i- co  .CO  s-  E CD ca c n « 25 o > o  TtcDCDOr-OJOCM COOCOCOT-TfCMic o t c o c o c o c o o i CO  i - in •>* Tco  Q  > o  .§. T3 C co w .c 5 c  cn cn 35 CM  O  O  CM  OJ  o  CO  CO  i n co m co co  T-  T-  CM  CO CO CM  oi m s r t CD CO  CO T - 00 i— oo I CO CD r~ oo CD rcnl 23 o o o o o o obi  o  O  i5  T- CO CD CD O TlO S CO 00 CD o d o o o o  1 s  'S >  o o CO co  o CO  m  CO  3 f S  3  -a  o  z> a.  1 S  ~ c  UJ  P CO  a.  O oj) o -2o O J  _ »„ s o  •2 H-  Kevin Frankowski  CO CO co co  £  n 2 o Q. £ o CO C =) a. £ C  152  •p o s  CO m  CO  </) =  o  c o c o CM t  —  £  1 o i 1 lj i m O_ O O O O O O - J C O  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D.4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Tannin and Lignin Raw  Data:  NOTES: Reagents: Folin phenol (0.1mL), carbonate tertrate (1.0 mL) (allow 30 min for colour development) Sample volume was 5.0 mL  Sample Date:  May  19/99 ("Background" samples, taken prior to any influent input) Dilution Factor  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  1 1 1 1 1 1 500  0 2 4 8  Absorbance (@ 700 nm) 0 0.191 0.370 0.750  Std Curve slope:  0.0936  Standard (mg/L)  Absorbance ( @ 700 nm) 0.038 0.075 0.071 0.057 0.054 0.062 -  0.674  T&L (mg/L) 0.41 0.80 0.76 0.61 0.58 0.66 3600.43  Date Analyzed:' May 26/99 Technician: KAF & Anqelika  T&L Standard Curve 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00  y = 0.0936X Ft = 0.9999 2  2  4 Concentration  Sample Date:  Jun 09/99  ("Background" samples, taken prior to any influent input) Dilution Factor  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  1 1 1 1 1 1 500  0 2 4 8  Absorbance (@ 700 nm) 0 0.173 0.339 0.661  Std Curve slope:  0.0832  Standard (mg/L)  Absorbance ( @ 700 nm) 0.055 0.076 0.065 0.065 0.051 0.067 0.610  T&L (mg/L) 0.66 0.91 0.78 0.78 0.61 0.81 3665.87  Date Analyzed^ Jun 21/99 Technician: KAF & Anqelika  T&L Standard Curve  Concentration  Kevin Frankowski  6 (mg/L)  153  (mg/L)  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  \  APPENDIX D.4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Tannin and Lignin (cont.) IgSarnpigdattg  Oct 29/99  Dilution Factor  Sample ID  500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500  Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  Standard (mg/L) 0 2 4 8  Absorbance (@ 700 nm) 0 0.156 0.312 0.633  Std Curve slope:  0.0789  Absorbance (@ 700 nm) 0.100 0.050 0.053 0.055 0.064 0.060 0.161 0.491  T&L  (mg/L) 633.7 316.9 335.9 348.5 405.6 380.2 1020.3 3111.5  Date Analyzed: Nov 04/99 Technician: KAF & Priscilla  T&L Standard  Curve  Concentration  SarnpieWatel  (mg/L)  Nov 05/99 Absorbance (@ 700 nm)  Dilution Factor  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  T&L (mg/L)  -  100 100 100 1 00 1 00 100 500 5  0 2 4 8  Absorbance (@ 700 nm) 0 0.164 0.322 0.646  Std Curve slope:  0.0808  Standard (mg/L)  0.577 0.708 0.529 0.491 0.724  714.1 876.2 654.7 607.7 896.0 1038.4 3545.8 15.4  0.839 0.573 0.249  Date Analyzed: Nov 10/99 Technician: KAF & Priscilla  T&L Standard  Concentration  Kevin Frankowski  154  Curve  (mg/L)  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D.4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Tannin and Lignin (cont.) Sample Date:  Nov  12/99  Dilution Factor  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  Standard (mg/L)  0 2 4 8  Absomance (@ 700 nm) 1 00 0.164 100 151 1 00 288 1 00 263 1 00 163 307 1 00 536 100 230 500 5 0.133  T&L  (mg/L) 250.4 230.5 439.7 401.5 248.9 468.7 818.3 1755.7 10.2  t .Date Analyzed:) Nov 16/99 Technician: KAF & Priscilla  T&L Standard Curve  Absorbance (@ 700 nm)  0 0.141 0.278 0.514  0.0655X  = 0.9968  0.0655  Std Curve slope:  Concentration  Sample Date:  Nov  19/99  Dilution Factor  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  Standard (mg/L)  0 2 4 8  Std Curve slope:  Absorbance (@ 700 nm) 0.352 100 100 0.448 100 0.518 0.528 1 00 0.528 1 00 0.550 100 0.595 100 0.472 500 0.171 5  T&L  (mg/L) 463.2 589.5 681.6 694.7 694.7 723.7 782.9 3105.3 1 1.3  Date Analyzed: Nov 24/99 Tecnnician: KAF & Priscilla  T&L Standard Curve  Absorbance (@ 700 nm)  0 0.163 0.309 0.603  ^ ^ r ^ * * " ^  y = 0.076X  R = 0.9991 2  ^  ^  ^  "  ^  0.076  Concentration  Kevin Frankowski  (mg/L)  155  (mg/L)  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  APPENDIX D.4  RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Tannini and_Lignin (cont.) Sample Date:  Nov 26/99  Dilution Factor  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  Standard (mg/L) 0 2 4 8  Absorbance (@ 700 nm) 0.502 1 00 0.489 100 0.570 100 0.518 100 0.517 1 00 0.477 100 0.837 1 00 0.422 500 0.254 5  Absorbance (@ 700 nm) 0 0.142 0.313 0.607  T&L (mg/L) 659 642 749 680 679 626.8 1099.9 2772.7 16.7  0.0761  0.70 o u c  2  3  0.60  y = 0.0761 x  0.50  R  2  = 0.9991  0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00  2  4 Concentration  Sample Date:  Dec 01/99  Technician: KAF & Priscilla  T&L Standard Curve  5 Std Curve slope:  BBatffAnalyzed:  (mg/L)  Dec 03/99 Dilution Factor  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  Absomance (@ 700 nm) 0.170 100 0.290 1 00 100 0.269 100 0.300 0.183 100 0.295 100 0.392 100 0.218 500 0.217 5  0 2 4 8  Absorbance (@ 700 nm) 0 0.138 0.264 0.504  Std Curve slope:  0.0639  Standard (mg/L)  T&L (mg/L) 266.0 453.8 421.0 469.5 286.4 461.7 613.5 1705.8 17.0  Date Analyzed _ Dec 06/99 Technician: KAF & Priscilla  T&L Standard Curve  Concentration  Kevin Frankowski  156  (mg/L)  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  *  A P P E N D I X D.4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Tannin and Lignin (cont.) Sample Date:-  Dec 10/99  Dilution Factor  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  Standard (mg/L)  0 2 4 8  Std Curve slope:  Absorbance (@ 700 nm) 0.343 100 0.281 100 0.305 100 0.344 1 00 0.311 1 00 0.336 1 00 0.421 1 00 0.319 500 0.309 5  T&L  (mg/L) 560.5 459.2 498.4 562.1 508.2 549.0 687.9 2606.2 25.2  ;?D^ Anaivz^51J 7  T&L Standard  Absorbance (@ 700 nm)  Curve  0 0.131 0.274 0.473  0.0612  Concentration  Kevin Frankowski  Dec 13/99  Technician: KAF & Priscilla  157  (mg/L)  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D.4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Nutrients - Summary Civil 599 - MASc Thesis  Constructed Wetlands Project  Mesocosm Monitoring Data:  Summary  Nutrient (NH3, NOx, P04, VFAs)  (NH3):  Sample ID  May 19/99  Cell 1 Cell 5 Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 2 Cell 4 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 1.9 -  09/99 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 -  Oct 29/99  -  -  Nov 05/99  Sample Date  Nov 12/99 0.0 0.6 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.1 0.1 0.9 0.0 0.6 0.0 1.4 0.9 1.6 1.1 1 .0 0.9 0.0 0.0  Nov 19/99 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.4 0.5 0.5 1.8 0.9 0.0  May  Cell 1 Ceil 5 Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 2 Cell 4 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  Nov 26/99 Dec 03/99 1.0 0.1 0.9 0.9 0.3 0.0 1.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 1 .0 0.4 0.0 0.0 2.1 0.7 0.4 0.1  MmmmBsmmmmsmmmsmtR  (NOx):  Sample ID  Summary  Jun  -  Summary  19/99 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.07 0.12  Jun  09/99  Oct 29/99  Nov 05/99 0.12 0.10 0.11 0.13 0.10 0.03 0.12 0.05 0.03  0.65 -  Sample Date  Nov 12/99 0.15 0.13 0.14 0.14 0.26 0.14 0.14 0.15 0.12 0.08  Dec 10/99 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.0  mmmmmm  Nov 19/99 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.01 -0.01  Nov 26/99 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.07 0.02 -0.01  Dec 03/99 0.09 0.07 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.01  Dec  10/99 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.08 0.03 0.00  Nov 19/99 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.2 0.9 1.1 1.4 3.1 0.2 0.1  Nov 26/99 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.0 0.9 1.1 1 .7 2.9 0.3 0.1  Dec 03/99 0.4 0.4 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.8 1.2 2.3 0.1 0.0  Dec 10/99 1.2 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.8 0.9 1.3 3.1 0.2 0.0  Nov 26/99 335 358 384 343 528 378 554 1529 4 2  Dec 03/99 1 54 1 63 234 252 303 312 345 911 2 3  Dec 10/99 451 378 415 417 322 368 465 1 560 8 2  (P04):  Sample ID  May  Cell 1 Cell 5 Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 2 Cell 4 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  19/99 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 3.4 -  Jun  09/99 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.7  Summary (Total  Cell 1 Cell 5 Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 2 Cell 4 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  19/99 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A  Nov 05/99 0.9 1.3 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.7 3.7 0.3 0.1  -  Sample Date  Nov 12/99 0.4 0.3 0.7 0.7 0.3 0.6 1.5 2.7 0.2 0.0  smmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmsmmmmBmmmmmmm  VFAs):  May  Oct 29/99  -  -  —r-rr MMMmmmmMmiimMm  Sample ID  (mg/L)  Jun  09/99 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A  Oct 29/99 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A  Nov 05/99 0 518 607 723 550 472 808 2523 8 3  Sample Date  Nov 12/99 188 1 59 310 349 1 80 267 612 1528 1 6 4  Nov 19/99 1 94 347 338 382 314 406 212 1 983 9 0  NOTES: NH3, NOx, P04. each 5 mL of undiluted sample was acidified to pH < 2 using sulphuric acid, then stored in frtdge until Paula analyzed (using Lachat Quick-Chem 8000 automated flow-injection ion analyzer) N0x = N02 + N03 VFAs: each 1 mL of undiluted sample was preserved with 1 drop of 2% phosphoric acid, then stored in fridge until Paula (using HPGC 5880A gas chromatograph, as per Supelco, Inc. GC Bulletin 751G) Total VFAs = C1Jq C6  Kevin Frankowski  158  analyzed  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  APPENDIX D.4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Nutrients Raw  Data:  Sanple Date:  May 19/99 AH  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  AO  3  PO  x  0 0 0 0 0 0  15 16 13 19 16 16  0 0 0 0 0 0  -  4  (mg/L)  (mg/L)  (mg/L)  0.04 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.05  06 07 06 12 07 05 -  1 85  0 65  -  -  -  3.41 -  -  Date Analyzed: May 27/99 Technician: Paula P.  Sample Date  Jun  09/99 AH  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  A O  3  (mg/L) -0.016 0.027 0.042 0.027 0.040 0.055  PO  x  -  4  (mg/L)  (mg/L) -  0.20 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02  -  -  -  4.71 -  -  Jun 23/99 Technician: Paula P.  Date A n a l y f l U  Sample Date:  Oct 29/99 AH  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  AO  3  PO  x  -  4  (mg/L)  (mg/L)  (mg/L)  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  Total VFAs (mg/L) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A  Date Analyzed Technician: Paula P.  Kevin Frankowski  159  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D . 4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Nutrients (cont.) j  Sample Date:  Nov 05/99  Sample ID  Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  AH  AD  3  (mg/L) 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 -0  85 98 62 55 10 39 59 04 01  FO  x  (mg/L)  4  (mg/L)  0.970 1.290 0.980 0.910 1.060 1.720 3.700 0.340 0.130  -  0.130 0.100 0.100 0.120 0.1 10 0.030 0.120 0.050 0.030  Total VFAs (mg/L) 0.000 549.633 606.562 472.234 518.055 722.694 808.192 2523.140 7.931 3.055  Date Analyzed: Nov 08/99 Technician: Paula P.  Sample Date:,  Nov 12/99  AH  Sample ID  3  (mg/L)  0.00 -0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.12 0.87 1.06 0.88 -0.03  Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  AD  FO  x  (mg/L) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  150 260 140 140 130 140 140 150 120 080  4  (mg/L) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0  410 330 660 550 270 730 490 660 160 040  Total VFAs (mg/L) 188 3 1 0 179 8 3 8 309 632 266 976 1 58 5 8 6 348 973 61 1 5 6 8 1528 199 15 6 9 7 4 159  Date Analyzed: Nov 17/99 Technician: Paula P.  Sample Date:  Nov 19/99  AH  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  3  (mg/L)  0.46 0.42 0.63 0.52 0.54 0.77 0.45 1 .79 0.85 -0.03  AD  x  (mg/L)  0.047 0.040 0.035 0.021 0.042 0.035 0.020 0.030 0.007 -0.009  FO  4  (mg/L)  0.874 0.894 1.238 1 .134 1.003 1.158 1.360 3.099 0.223 0.054  Total VFAs (mg/L) 194.290 313.704 337.554 405.593 346.712 382.001 212.464 1983.341 9.481 0.000  Dec 03/99 Date Analyzedi Technician: Paula P.  Kevin Frankowski  160  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D . 4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Nutrients (cont.) Sample Date:  Nov 26/99  AH  Sample ID  Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  AO  3  (mg/L)  1.00 -0.04 0.29 0.32 0.88 1.00 0.98 -0.03 2.07 0.35  PO (mg/L)  x  4  (mg/L)  1.034 0.919 1.210 1.107 1.216 1.049 1.743 2.922 0.262 0.054  0.069 0.062 0.061 0.064 0.061 0.054 0.046 0.067 0.022 -0.009  Total VFAs (mg/L) 334.958 527.553 384.181 378.1 13 357.857 342.584 553.829 1529.353 3.806 1.691  Dec 03/99 Date Analyzed: Technician: Paula P.  Dec 03/99  Sample Date:  AH  Sample ID  Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  AO  3  (mg/L)  0.09 0.04 0.00 -0.04 0.90 0.09 0.37 -0.04 0.72 0.09  PO (mg/L)  x  4  (mg/L)  0.392 0.860 0.659 0.789 0.428 0.734 1.165 2.338 0.135 0.026  0.086 0.058 0.050 0.046 0.074 0.052 0.048 0.064 0.057 0.008  Total VFAs (mg/L) 154.439 303.053 233.899 31 1 .604 163.026 252.444 344.648 910.699 1.916 2.637  Dec 10/99 Date Analyzed Technician: Paula P.  Dec 10/99  Sample Date:  AH  Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  3  (mg/L)  0.10 0.07 0.04 -0.02 -0.02 -0.02 0.35 0.40 0.58 0.00  AO  PO (mg/L) 4  x  (mg/L)  1.167 0.812 0.889 0.918 0.872 0.981 1.316 3.087 0.181 0.045  0.053 0.061 0.051 0.048 0.057 0.052 0.054 0.075 0.034 0.000 r  Kevin Frankowski  161  Total VFAs (mg/L) 451.222 322.039 415.494 367.999 377.801 416.970 464.590 1560.258 7.669 1.789  Dec 16/99 Date Analyzed: Technician: Paula P.  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D.4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Volatile Fatty Acids [VFAsl - detailed data Civil 599 - MASc Thesis  Constructed Wetlands Project Mesocosm Monitoring Data:  VFA  data (detailed) lilliiiiilllli*  Summary  (Total  Concentrations: Sample  Jlllilllllllillilillillils llllllllii  VFAs): Sample  ID  Nov  Cell 1 Cell 5 Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 2 Cell 4 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  05/99  Nov  518 607 723 550 472 808 2523 8 3  12/99 1 88 1 59 310 349 1 80 267 612 1528 1 6 4  Nov  19/99 1 94 347 338 382 314 406 212 1 983 9 0  Date  Nov  26/99 335 358 384 343 528 378 554 1 529 4 2  Dec 03/99 1 54 1 63 234 252 303 312 345 91 1 2 3  Dec 10/99 451 378 415 417 322 368 465 1 560 8 2  26/99 1 60 1 76 1 72 1 55 1 96 1 84 287 731 4 2  Dec 03/99 72 85 11 7 1 28 155 153 1 80 451 2 3  Dec 10/99 212 1 82 200 202 1 60 1 66 242 688 7 2  26/99 76 81 92 75 171 88 1 22 297 0 0  Dec 03/99 31 35 51 54 66 71 69 191 0 0  Dec 10/99 88 82 86 86 69 86 95 285 1 0  wmmtmammmmmmmmm ^ ^ ^ ^ mmmmmm Summary  (Acetic):  Concentrations: Sample  Sample  ID  Nov  Cell 1 Cell 5 Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 2 Cell 4 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank Summary  05/99 258 303 375 276 218 413 993 5 3  Nov  12/99 91 69 1 46 1 72 90 1 30 289 652 4 3  Nov  Nov  12/99 40 36 68 69 39 58 1 36 330 1 0  Nov  Date  Nov  (Proprionic):  Concentrations: Sample  19/99 57 1 55 1 29 1 65 1 32 181 4 994 4 0  ID  Cell 1 Cell 5 Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 2 Cell 4 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  Kevin Frankowski  Sample Nov  05/99 11 2 11 6 1 35 11 3 1 08 1 55 476 1 0  162  19/99 62 86 89 93 92 1 04 91 389 0 0  Date  Nov  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  APPENDIX D.4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Volatile Fatty Acids (cont.)  Sample Date  %-removal:  Sample ID Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell  Nov  05/99 36% 25% 11 % 32% 42%  Nov  12/99 69% 74% 49% 43% 71 % 56%  Nov  Nov  05/99 37% 27% 9% 33% 47%  Nov  12/99 68% 76% 50% 4 0% 69% 55%  Nov 19/99 -1 469% -4123% -3432% -4423% -3516% -4837%  Nov  05/99  Nov  12/99 70% 73% 50% 49% 71 % 57%  Nov  1 5 3 6 2 4  Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell  1 5 3 6 2 4  Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell  1 5 3 6 2 4  Kevin Frankowski  Dec  03/99 55% 53% 32% 27% 12% 1 0%  Dec  10/99 3% 1 9% 11 % 1 0% 31 % 21 %  Nov 26/99 44% 39% 40% 46% 32% 36%  Dec  03/99 60% 53% 35% 2 9% 1 4% 1 5%  Dec  10/99 1 3% 25% 1 7% 1 6% 34% 31 %  Dec  03/99 56% 50% 27% 23% 5% -2%  Dec  10/99 6% 1 3% 1 0% 9% 27% 9%  Sample Date  %-removal:  Sample ID  Nov 26/99 40% 35% 31% 38% 5% 32%  Sample Date  %-removal:  Sample ID  19/99 9% -63% -59% -80% -48% -91 %  28% 25% 1 3% 27% 31 %  163  19/99 32% 5% 2% -3% -2% -1 5 %  Nov 26/99 37% 34% 24% 39% -40% 28%  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D . 4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Volatile Fatty Acids (cont.) Summary  (Butyric  Concentrations:  +  iso-butyric):  Nov 05/99  Sample ID  Cell 1 Cell 5 Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 2 Cell 4 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  -  87 1 09 125 95 84 1 30 560 0 0  Summary  Sample Date  Nov 12/99 31 27 54 57 30 44 99 259 5 0  Nov 19/99 44 64 75 72 64 76 67 326 0 0  Nov 12/99 1 4 1 5 22 27 12 1 8 48 1 82 5 1  Nov 19/99 3 1 2 1 3 1 5 5 1 3 1 6 1 42 2 0  Dec 03/99 25 28 41 44 53 58 59 1 78 0 0  Dec 10/99 87 80 82 98 66 82 86 288 0 0  Dec 03/99 1 4 2 4 5 5 5 8 22 0 0  Dec 10/99 33 7 20 4 4 6 9 206 0 0  (Valeric):  Sample Date  Concentrations:  Nov 05/99  Sample ID  Cell 1 Cell 5 Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 2 Cell 4 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank Summary  Nov 26/99 61 63 77 78 1 23 68 97 276 0 0  -  34 45 46 36 36 62 346 2 0  Nov 26/99 8 7 9 8 4 7 0 11 6 0 0  I l g l i l i l iiiiiiiillt  (Hexanoic):  Sample Date  Concentrations:  Sample ID  Cell 1 Cell 5 Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 2 Cell 4 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Blank  Kevin Frankowski  Nov 05/99 -  26 34 42 29 27 48 1 49 0 0  Nov 12/99 1 2 1 1 20 23 8 1 7 40 1 04 0 0  Nov 19/99 28 29 32 36 21 31 36 1 32 4 0  164  Nov 26/99 30 30 33 27 32 30 47 1 09 0 0  Dec 03/99 1 2 1 3 21 22 24 25 29 68 0 0  Dec 10/99 31 27 28 27 23 28 32 94 0 0  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D . 4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Volatile Fatty Acids (cont.) %-removal:  Sample ID  Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell  Nov 05/99 33% 1 6% 4% 27% 36%  %-removal:  Sample ID  Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell  Nov 05/99 45% 27% 26% 41% 42%  %-removal:  Sample ID  Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell  Kevin Frankowski  Nov 05/99 45% 30% 1 3% 40% 44%  Sample Date  Nov 12/99 69% 73% 45% 42% 70% 5 5%  Nov 19/99 34% 4% •12% -8% 4% •14%  Nov 12/99 70% 69% 54% 43% 75% 61 %  Nov 19/99 84% 2 3% 21% 2% 70% 1 5%  Nov 12/99 72% 72% 50% 44% 80% 59%  Nov 19/99 20% 1 7% 1 0% 0% 42% 12%  Nov 26/99 38% 35% 21 % 20% •27% 30%  Sample Date  Nov 26/99 -1 974% -1714% -2198% -1886% -1 0 1 1 % -1 736%  Sample Date  165  Nov 26/99 36% 36% 29% 43% 31% 35%  Dec 03/99 57% 52% 30% 25% 1 0% 1 %  Dec 10/99 0% 7% 5% 1 3% 23% 5%  Dec 03/99 -73% 70% 51 % 42% 43% 36%  Dec 10/99 -255% 29% -1 1 5% 57% 60%| 35%  Dec 03/99 59% 54% 28% 2 3% 15% 14%  Dec 10/99 3% 1 8% 1 2% 1 5% 28% 1 4%  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D . 4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Toxicity - Summary Civil 599 -MASc  Thesis ~"~  Constructed Wetlands Project Mesocosm Monitoring Data:  Acute toxicity (as Rainbow Trout 96hr LC50)  Summary:  TOXIC UNITS Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 5 Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 2 Cell 4 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  LC50 Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 5 Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 2 Cell 4 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Lower 95% Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 5 Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 2 Cell 4 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough Upper 95% Sample ID Cell 1 Cell 5 Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 2 Cell 4 Cell Influent Leachate Pool Slough  Jun 14/99 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1,0  Sep 29/99 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0  141.4  Jun 14/99 >100% >100% >100% >100% >100% >100%  Sep 29/99 >100% >100% >100% >100% >100% >100%  0.71  Jun 14/99 . -  Sep 29/99 . -  0.5  Jun 14/99  Kevin Frankowski  . 1  Sep 29/99 . -  Sample Date Oct 29/99 Nov 05/99 44.6 22.6 22.6 24.2 24.2 22.6 44.7 54.6 151.3 1.0  Sample Date Oct 29/99 Nov 05/99 <3.125% 4.42 4.42 4.13 4.13 4.42 2.24 1.83 0.66 >100% Sample Date Oct 29/99 Nov 05/99 . 3.125 3.125 3.628 3.628 3.125 1.6 1.46 0.469  Sample Date Oct 29/99 Nov 05/99 . 6.25 6.25 4.698 4.698 6.25 3.125 2.297 0.93  166  Nov 26/99  Dec 03/99 21.1 22.6 22.6 22.6 22.6 22.6  45.6 115.5 1.0  Nov 26/99  Dec 03/99 4.74 4.42 4.42 4.42 4.42 4.42  2.19 0.87 >100%  Nov 26/99  Dec 03/99 4.157 3.125 3.125 3.125 3.125 3.125  1.6 0.5  Nov 26/99  Dec 03/99 5.405 6.25 6.25 6.25 6.25 6.25  3 1.5  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  APPENDIX D.4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  CO CO CO ^- CO -<fr  s  N  II  II  n  II  q  N  il  II  il  q  T- q  co  CO C O CO C O N II II II II II  I  cog . 3  3 5  p •  p -5 o  p  •sP  T -  I -^000000  . ^ O O O O O O ^ O O O O O O ^" O  A  A  A  A  o  A  A A  .  ci  P  at  O  &n CO  o  O  O  O  O CO  ^ .2  o  A  o  A A  O  Q  O  CO O  O  O  O  O  O  s  08  p  O)  a  in  I -9>  CO SP  S A  000000  IS co a  o  .2 5 is sS sS sS 5  co  A  |8  s .§ S co c *-  o  c .5 o o f  <o ° - ~ CO o  I  A  .c co .2 5  .c .<o .2 .c  e  o  UO O  O  CO  ~  O  O  O TO  is  5 ,2  =tfc  S •o  Q . CO  CO 3  •2 & £  CO  1-  CM CO  CM CO  LO CO  "CD "CO "5 "o3 ^5 ^5 O O O O O O  O  O  O  LO CD  O  O  O  [E  Kevin Frankowski  167  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D.4  RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  r*- r-; r*- q r»_ -<t -<t -<t u i ^j-' il il il 11 il n  r-; r-; TJ-'  il  CX»  •<*  h-"  -il JI,  T3 TJ 03 0)  CO 10 3 3  10 3  c  c  3  c 3  3  CO CO CO 3 3 3  CO 3  c  c  3  rz c  3  3  TJ OJ  "55 to w  3  co > JO  g  CO LO LO LO 00 LO CJ) CM OJ CM Q l CM CO ,A ,A ,A CO T -  CD  5S a) _  co  CD  CD  1£  Q. C CO LO LO LO CO CO OJ CM CM CM CM  (fl  T-  T-  Y-  CD  "  ,  CO CO CO CO CO  c  S? to _ Ol  £  S.  oi S ,  CI) J C  f  CO Q ^CSJ^-^j-rf^J-^rCM  Ul  LO  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  •c .co  vO --9 s 59 cr- o"- cr- 6 O O o o LO CM LO LO LO LO LO CM CM OJ OJ CM CM  59 CO  > "co ^  2  CO  co m  to O  CO CO CO CO CO CD  co  co O  •9 *  V  O) o  o  CO  O  o> o  T-  1-  Q) cj  •c .SS .CO  £  5-- 5- 5^ 5- 5- 5s  CD  L.  O % «  s  s  s  co i n ^ 6  LO LO LO LO LO CO CM CM CM CM OJ  o °  CO CO CO CO CO  VP  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  iIS-  CO Q_  CM CO  = c  LO CO •  —  a> co .c C)  _  m CO a —s 03  o —J co :Q|  m Kevin Frankowski  168  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  APPENDIX D.4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  O  CV  o  ^  (A 3  U)  C  o  (A <l) 3 3 ^ T>  <- c\j CO  V) V) (O 3 3 3  TD T3 T>  <u to to co co co to P  C  ,9 O  "  C D  C D  C D  C D  C 3  CO  >  uo o o o o o o uo uo LO un LO  Oj co  C 3  xo. x a xa xo. x a xa CM CM W  C:  W  W  ! J LO CD CD CD CD CD  £ s> § 8 $5  o. c 5o CO  If  LO  _  CD  is §  fell l i s  iB R CD a  —  S  CO  CD  §  CO CO CO CO CO  CC  1  cS  ...  CD  =>  vS o  as  o  *r  x- o  ^  o  t  o  o  o  - C .CO .Co  .c  cj  $  C D L O L O L O L O L O L O  '  8 «  c . ^ C M C V J C J C U O J C J  §  a2 o *  g r a c d c d c o c D C D c d  1 1 "5 o  o  o  S< S=  Cj  5= Q) CO C3 P )  o  0  o  s  o  s« s« CO CO  o -c S o  o O  o  o  o  o  OJ  CO  ^  IC  o  to to §  a: -  CD  a  CD Q_ CD  2  6  = 1" O  CO CO CO CD CO  CO  CO  o oooo o  —J CO  .0 Kevin Frankowski  169  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D.4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Spectrophotometric Response Spectrophotometer Response -  Field Cells (Monitoring: HRT #2)  160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20  \  Ji\ 1  X  fl  0  190  290  390  490  590  690  790  Wavelength (nm)  Spectrophotometer Response -  Field Cells (Monitoring: HRT #3) 160 140 j 120 I § 100 / ! jtl  <  80 60  C\\  40 20 0 190  290  390  490  590  690  790  Wavelength (nm)  Spectrophotometer Response -  Field Cells (Monitoring: HRT #4)  190  290  390  490  590  690  790  Wavelength (nm)  Kevin Frankowski  170  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D.4 RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Spectrophotometric Response (cont.) Spectrophotometer Response -  Field Cells (Monitoring: HRT #5)  190  290  390  490  590  690  790  Wavelength (nm)  Spectrophotometer Response -  Field Cells (Monitoring: HRT #6)  190  290  390  490  590  690  790  Wavelength (nm)  Spectrophotometer Response -  Field Cells (Monitoring: HRT #7)  <  190  290  390  490  590  690  790  Wavelength (nm)  Kevin Frankowski  171  U B C CIVTL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  A P P E N D I X D.4  RAW DATA: PILOT-SCALE TRIALS  Spectrophotometric Response (cont.) Spectrophotometer Response -  Field Cells (Baseline Assessment) 0.5 • Cell 1  I  0.3  •Cell 2  I " Ni? 0  Cell 3  2  0.1  •Cell 4 • Cell 5  190  290  390  490  590  690  790  Wavelength (nm)  • Cell 6  Spectrophotometer Response -  Field Cells (QA/QC Replicates) [Celll, Nov 12/99]  50 40 Rep. 1  1 20 <  Rep. 2  10  190  290  390  490  590  690  790  Wavelength (nm)  Kevin Frankowski  172  U B C CIVIL ENGINEERING  Masters Thesis  

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