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Natural attenuation of acqueous zinc in shallow soils over permafrost downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine Adit,… MacGregor, Dylan B. 2002

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NATURAL ATTENUATION OF AQUEOUS ZINC IN SHALLOW SOILS OVER PERMAFROST DOWNSLOPE OF GALKENO 300 MINE ADIT, UNITED KENO HILL MINES, CENTRAL YUKON by  DYLAN B. MACGREGOR B.Sc. (Geography), Simon Fraser University, 1998 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR THE D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF APPLIED SCIENCE in THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES D E P A R T M E N T OF CIVIL ENGINEERING We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A October, 2002  © Dylan B. MacGregor, 2002  In presenting  this  degree at the  thesis  in  partial fulfilment  of  University of  British Columbia,  I agree  freely available for reference copying  of  department  this or  publication of  and study.  his  or  her  representatives.  permission.  fNbe^r tr  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6 (2/88)  that the  may be It  this thesis for financial gain shall not  Department of  requirements  I further agree  thesis for scholarly purposes by  the  y  is  for  an  advanced  Library shall make it  that permission for extensive granted  by the  understood  head  that  be allowed without  of  my  copying  or  my written  ABSTRACT  This study investigated the natural attenuation of zinc in mine drainage at the Galkeno 300 mine site, located at the northern limit of the discontinuous permafrost zone in central Yukon Territory. The mine drainage contains -150 mg/1 Zn where it exits the mine; where these same waters enter the receiving environment of Christal Creek, the Zn concentrations have been reduced to ~2 mg/1. The research program examining this natural attenuation consisted of two phases. Phase 1 was comprised of a site investigation along with the collection of samples for chemical analyses and laboratory testing. Phase 2 consisted of laboratory characterisation and testing of samples collected during Phase 1.  The Phase 1 site investigation was carried out during summer 2000. A climate station was established to monitor precipitation and temperature during the study-period. Site water balance was monitored through the erection of two weirs; inputs exceeded outputs by and average of 16%, indicating a minor degree of dilution. Water samples collected at sites along the longitudinal mine drainage flowpath showed no temporal trends, but clearly outlined a dramatic decrease in Zn concentrations with distance from the adit. Soil samples of upper organic and lower mineral horizons were collected from within and immediately adjacent to the flowpath. Chemical analysis of aliquots of these samples clearly showed elevation of Zn concentrations in samples in contact with mine drainage; upper organic horizon samples in particular were found to contain highly anomalous Zn levels.  The Phase 2 laboratory investigation subjected the collected samples to physical and chemical characterisation, as well as batch adsorption testing and column leaching with synthetic and natural mine drainage. Batch adsorption tests showed the organic soils to have the highest Zn attenuation capacity; in particular, organic soils from the midpoint of the site (site C) were found to have the highest adsorptivity. Similar results were obtained in the column leaching and desorption tests; organic samples from site C had both the highest Zn attenuation capacity and the greatest degree of Zn retention under increasingly aggressive desorbing conditions.  Selective extractions of the collected soils showed that the oxide fraction was the repository for much of the soil zinc. In the organic soils in particular, the oxide fraction dominates the geochemical fractionation of Zn in Galkeno 300 soils. High concentrations of M n are removed from the mine drainage simultaneously with Zn; the coprecipitation of Mn-Zn oxides appears to be the dominant process of natural attenuation of Zn at the Galkeno 300 site.  iv  T A B L E OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  ii  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  iv  LIST OF FIGURES  vii  LIST OF TABLES  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  x  CHAPTER 1  1  INTRODUCTION  1.1  Statement of Problem  1  1.2  Scope and Objectives  6  1.3  Research Plan  9  1.4  Research Contributions  9  1.5  Organisation of Thesis  12  CHAPTER 2 2.1  BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW  Background information and site history and Climate  13 13  2.1.1  Physiography  13  2.1.2  Geology  16  2.1.3  Mining  17  2.1.4  Post-mining activity  18  2.2  Sulfide Mineral Weathering  20  2.3  Environmental Fate of Zinc in Mine Drainage  22  2.3.1  Physical and chemical properties of zinc  22  2.3.2  Nature of surfaces of soil particles  23  2.3.3  Mechanisms  31  of Natural Attenuation  V  CHAPTER 3 3.1  METHODS AND MATERIALS  Site Investigation  3.1.1  Temperature and precipitation monitoring  3.1.2  Flow measurement  3.1.3  Water sampling  3.1.4  Soil Sampling  3.2  Laboratory Investigation of Natural Attenuation  37 37 38 38 42 45 48  3.2.1  Physical and Chemical Characterisation of Soils  3.2.2  Batch Adsorption Test Methods and Materials  54  3.2.3  Column Leaching Test Methods and Materials  56  3.2.4  Selective Extraction Materials and Methods  64  3.2.5  Chemical Solutions  67  3.2.6  Metals Analysis  67  CHAPTER 4 4.1  RESULTS A N D DISCUSSION  Results of Galkeno 300 Site Investigation  4.1.1  Temperature and precipitation monitoring  4.1.2  Flow measurement  4.1.3  Water quality  4.1.4  Metal content of Galkeno 300 site soils  4.2  Results of Laboratory Investigation of Natural Attenuation  48  68 68 68 70 70 80 85  4.2.1  Physical and Chemical Characterisation of Galkeno 300 site soils: Results  85  4.2.2  Sorption capacities of Galkeno 300 soils using batch adsorption tests  90  4.2.3  Sorption capacities of Galkeno 300 soils using leaching column tests  97  4.2.4  Results of selective extraction of Galkeno 300 soils  CHAPTER 5 5.1  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  Conclusions  705  112 112  5.1.1  Conclusions from Galkeno 300 site investigation  112  5.1.2  Conclusions from Galkeno 300 laboratory investigation  113  5.2  Research contributions  116  5.3  Recommendations for further research  118  REFERENCES  120  APPENDIX A  WATER SAMPLE SITE LOCATIONS AND DESCRIPTIONS  129  APPENDIX B  CALCULATIONS FOR LEACHING C E L L PARAMETERS  134  APPENDIX C l WATER QUALITY DATA ORGANISED BY SAMPLING DATE  136  APPENDIX C.2 WATER QUALITY DATA ORGANISED BY SAMPLING SITE  150  APPENDIX D  SOIL M E T A L CONTENT  162  APPENDIX E  SELECTIVE EXTRACTION DATA  168  vii  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1a.  Research plan for Phase 1: Site investigation  10  Figure 1.1b.  Research plan for Phase 2: Laboratory investigation  11  Figure 2.1.  Location, topography and infrastructure of research site  14  Figure 2.2.  Distribution of permafrost in Canada  15  Figure 2.3.  Schematic diagram of tetrahedral and octahedral layers  25  Figure 2.4.  Tetrahedral/octahedral layer configurations of some clay minerals  25  Figure 2.5.  Origin of pH-dependent, or variable, charge  26  Figure 2.6.  A model humic substance structure  27  Figure 2.7.  Important functional groups present in humic substances  30  Figure 2.8.  Conceptual diagram of inner and outer sphere complexes  33  Figure 3.1.  Rectangular weir installed at Galkeno 300 adit  40  Figure 3.2.  Site map displaying physiography and mine drainage flowpaths  42  Figure 3.3.  Schematic layout of the batch equilibrium test procedure  55  Figure 3.4.  Preliminary batch test results showing equilibrium Zn concentration  56  Figure 3.5.  Schematic configuration of leaching column system  59  Figure 3.6.  Schematic of leaching cell components  61  Figure 4.1.  Precipitation measured at Elsa Y T , summer 2000  69  Figure 4.2.  Maximum/ minimum temperatures at Elsa Y T , summer 2000  69  Figure 4.3.  Flow exiting Galkeno 300 adit and entering Christal Creek  71  Figure 4.4.  Total + dissolved Zn and M n concentrations in Galkeno 300 drainage  74  Figure 4.5.  Reduction of total Zn and M n along flowpath  76  Figure 4.6.  Variation of pH with distance downstream of Galkeno 300 adit  77  Figure 4.7.  Variation of Eh with distance downstream of Galkeno 300 adit  79  Figure 4.8.  Background and flowpath Zn and M n concentrations in soils of upper organic and lower mineral horizons  82  X-ray diffraction patterns of lower mineral soils  87  Figure 4.9.  viii  Figure 4.10.  Example plots of batch adsorption data  90  Figure 4.11.  Results of batch adsorption testing of organic and mineral soils  92  Figure 4.12.  Summary of equilibrium solution pH from batch adsorption testing  95  Figure 4.13.  Summary of effluent Zn and M n concentrations and pH during duplicate leaching column tests (Tests 1 and 3) using undiluted Galkeno 300 mine water (pH 6.5) as permeant  98  Figure 4.14.  Figure 4.15.  Figure 4.16.  Figure 4.17.  Cumulative mass of zinc and manganese removed from undiluted Galkeno 300 mine water during duplicate column leaching tests  100  Summary of effluent Zn,Mn concentrations, pH, and Zn,Mn mass removed with respect to number of pore volumes of diluted (30 ppm Zn) Galkeno 300 mine water passed during column leaching  101  Column desorption test results showing effluent Zn, M n concentrations and masses released, pH 5.5  104  Column desorption test results showing effluent Zn, M n concentrations and masses released, pH 4.5  105  Figure 4.18.  Interpretation of results of separate selective extraction procedure  Figure 4.19.  Average metal proportions in exchangeable, carbonate, oxide, organic and residual fractions of organic and mineral soils from soil sample sites A , C, and E at the Galkeno 300 site  .... 107  109  ix  LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1.  Properties of humic substances  28  Table 3.1.  Influent conditions of column leaching tests  60  Table 3.2.  Metal species and reagents which selectively extract those species  64  Table 4.1.  Measured input and output discharges at Galkeno 300 site  71  Table 4.2.  Dissolved and total manganese and zinc concentrations in Galkeno 300 drainage at Site 1 and Site 11  73  Table 4.3.  Background and elevated total soil metal contents at selected sites  80  Table 4.4.  Physical and chemical properties of selected Galkeno 300 site soils  85  Table 4.5.  KF, b, and R values for Galkeno 300 batch adsorption data  91  Table 4.6.  Summary of mass of M n and Zn removed from solution by soil solids in column Tests 1 and 3, and returned to solution in Test 4  2  106  X  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author would like to express gratitude to the following organisations and individuals: • Dr. Loretta L i , for her continued guidance and support throughout the duration of this research, and for her encouragement of perseverance during the final writing phase. • Dr. Les Lavkulich, for his advice and encouragement on matters technical and logistical, and for his inspirational commentary on larger scale environmental topics. • Ms. Paula Parkinson and Ms. Susan Harper, for their valuable advice and guidance on all technical aspects of the laboratory component of this research. • Mr. Humberto Preciado, for his unflagging encouragement and support, and for the many valuable discussions we've had regarding this research and the geoenvironmental discipline. • Mr. Eric Soprovich of Environment Canada, for his efforts in guiding this project from concept into practice, and for his invaluable advice regarding sampling protocols and research site history. • Mr. Fulvio Roberti, for his encouragement and support in logistical matters at the research site. • Ms. Yvonne Bessette, for her enthusiastic support and encouragement, and for undertaking temperature and precipitation monitoring at Elsa. • The Mining Environment Research Group, for generous financial and logistical support without which the field investigation portion of this project would not have been possible. • The Northern Research Institute, for generous financial support which helped cover the costs of the field investigation. • The Northern Scientific Training Program, for financial contributions to assist with travel costs incurred during the course of this research.  I would also like to thank my parents, Linda and Bruce MacGregor, for their continuous support and for their remarkable patience. Your unflagging encouragement has helped me focus during difficult times, and your love has helped keep a bit of perspective in my life. Finally, I would like to thank Moriah Jo, my wife and my best friend, for everything: for your perpetual encouragement; for your unfailing positive attitude; for your energetic spirit; for your faith and confidence in me. Your patience and support and kindness continually reminded me of the importance of the world outside of my research. I love you!  Dylan MacGregor October 2002  1  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Statement of Problem The extraction and beneficiation of mineral resources are activities which by their very nature produce large amounts of waste material containing a high concentration of heavy metals (Morin and Hutt, 1997). Ore deposits which consist chiefly of sulphide minerals have formed in reducing environments under chemical conditions very different from those found at the earth's surface (Krauskopf and Bird, 1995); exposure of waste materials to the common surficial conditions of abundant oxygen and water leads to oxidation of contained sulphide mineralisation (Boyle, 1994). Depending on disposal practices and site characteristics, mineral industry wastes can be a major source of heavy metal flux to the receiving environment (Lottermoser and Ashley, 1998).  In particular, zinc is a common constituent of waters draining from metal and coal mine wastes and workings (Odor et al., 1998; Younger, 2000; Black and Craw, 2001; Lee et al., 2001); the environmental fate of aqueous zinc and its impact on the downstream environment is of primary concern at many existing (Morin and Hutt, 1997) and abandoned (Clark et al., 2001) mine sites. High mining-induced aqueous zinc concentrations can have negative impacts on biota that inhabit the receiving environment; both mortality and sub-lethal effects have been observed at all trophic levels across a variety of species encompassing plants, bacteria, invertebrates and fish  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  2 (Weatherley et al., 1980). In Canada, allowable concentrations of zinc in mining-related discharges are governed by the Fisheries Act in national legislation entitled the Metal Mining Liquid Effluent Regulation (MMLER) (Canada, 1977). Under M M L E R , mining-related water must contain less than 0.5 ppm of dissolved zinc to be legally discharged to surface waters.  Sulphide oxidation and the accompanying mobilisation of metals is a natural process that occurs at undeveloped mineral deposits as well as where mining of mineral resources has taken place (Fuge et al., 1994). There are a number of natural processes which act to limit the movement of zinc and other metals away from a mineral source; these processes include adsorption, precipitation and coprecipitation, and are collectively referred to as mechanisms of natural attenuation. Natural attenuation, in this context, is the removal of contaminants such as metals from an aqueous source impacted by mining through naturally existing processes and environmental conditions. Because of its ability to both dissolve metals and move particulate matter, flowing water is commonly the most important vector in transferring metals from a mineral deposit to the receiving environment. Natural attenuation mechanisms that act to reduce the metal load carried by metal-bearing surface and ground waters are thus important from the standpoint of limiting the dispersion and the environmental impacts of weathering-derived zinc and other metals (Kwong and Whittley, 1992). At some mine sites, acceptable discharge water quality is achieved through exploitation of natural attenuation mechanisms, either in isolation (Kwong and Gan, 1994; Kwong et al., 1997) or in conjunction with a constructed water treatment system (Germain et al., 1994).  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  3 Natural attenuation processes are resulting in a marked decrease in aqueous zinc concentrations at an inactive mine site in central Yukon Territory, Canada (Soprovitch, 2000). The region is at the northern limit of the discontinuous permafrost zone; the site is underlain by permafrost, which acts as a barrier to vertical infiltration of water, and groundwater flow is confined to the shallow soils of the active layer. Water measuring ~150 mg/1 dissolved zinc is issuing from the Galkeno 300 adit, at the northeast end of Galena Hill in the Keno Hill Mining District. This water flows downslope on surface and through shallow soils overlying permafrost for 1.7 kilometers before entering Christal Creek in the valley bottom. Immediately upstream of the confluence of the mine drainage with Christal Creek, zinc concentrations in the Galkeno 300 drainage were measured to be 2-3 mg/1 during the summer of 2000. Natural attenuation processes appear to be removing >140 mg/1 of dissolved zinc from the drainage of the Galkeno 300 adit. This phenomenon is at present protecting the ecology of Christal Creek and other downstream waters. Christal Creek is within the McQuesten River watershed; the McQuesten River is some of the most important habitat for chinook salmon and arctic grayling within the traditional territory of the local First Nation, the Na Cho Nyak Dun (Canada, 1995). The protection of this fisheries resource and the habitat it is dependent on is a priority for the First Nation, federal and territorial governments.  There are a limited number of possible explanations for the removal of zinc from the mine drainage over this flow path. Workers studying other mine drainage cases have found that metal removal from mine drainage can occur via sorption onto mineral (Herbert, 1997; Berger et al., 2000; Trivedi and Axe, 2000) and organic soil components (Herbert, 1997; Waybrant et al.,  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  1998; Bendell- Young, 1999), or via formation of minerals (precipitation) (Nordstrom and Alpers, 1999; Nuttall and Younger, 2000; Kalin, 2001) or incorporation into the crystal lattice of other minerals (coprecipitation) (Herbert, 1996; Lin and Herbert, 1997; Latrille et al., 2001; Lee et al., 2001). Each of these natural attenuation mechanisms has different implications with respect to bioavailability, attenuation capacity and the potential for future mobility. It is thus important not only to quantify the degree of natural attenuation occurring at a site, but also to examine the contributing factors and mechanisms of the attenuating process itself.  In the case of the Galkeno 300 drainage, attenuation via adsorption onto existing soil material would be limited in the long term by the adsorption capacity of the soil in question. In addition, changing environmental parameters could potentially cause desorption of attenuated metals; one such potential environmental change is a decrease in the pH of the mine drainage, a phenomenon that is conceivable i f acid neutralisation potential within the drainage source area is depleted (Kwong et al., 1997). The desorption of attenuated metals would result in metal flux to Christal Creek in excess of the levels exiting the Galkeno 300 adit; the attenuating process(es) would have created a new source of metals.  Alternatively, attenuation via precipitation or coprecipitation mechanisms within the Galkeno 300 drainage is not limited by a finite capacity of the substrate; precipitation will occur under favourable conditions when the components are available at sufficient concentrations (Porile, 1987). Precipitation also forms minerals which are stable under existing site environmental conditions (Krauskopf and Bird, 1995); while potentially susceptible to dissolution under  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  5 conditions of increasing acidity, the hydrated oxides commonly found in mine drainage streams are more resistant to dissolution than are carbonate minerals. In short, the details of the mechanism(s) of natural attenuation at a site are critical to an evaluation of the long term stability and environmental impact of the attenuated contaminants. Additionally, an understanding of these details would better inform waste management decisions and long term reclamation plans.  Natural attenuation of waters contaminated with hydrocarbons and other organic compounds has received much attention in recent years (Cunningham et al., 2001; Eganhouse et al., 2001). Organic contaminants often can be broken down, either biotically or abiotically, to yield end products that are much more environmentally benign (Nyer and Boettcher, 2001). Metals, on the other hand, are elements; no possibility of reducing environmental risk through degradation of stable metal isotopes exists (Eccles, 1998). Natural attenuation of water contaminated with metals from mining activities has been studied less frequently; much of the previous work has been done in the western United States (Webster et al., 1994; Berger et al., 2000) and other temperate regions (Odor et al., 1998; Black and Craw, 2001; Lee et al., 2001) and has been focused on the inorganic geochemistry of surface waters. There have been limited studies examining the role of natural wetlands in natural attenuation of mine drainage (Kwong and Vanstempvoort, 1994), though most wetland research focuses on constructed wetlands (Frankowski, 2000). The study of natural attenuation occurring under the harsh climatic conditions of the northern latitudes is very limited; the work of Kwong and others in Yukon Territory represents a large proportion of the research conducted to this point (Kwong and Whittley, 1992; Kwong et al., 1997). Studies undertaken in temperate regions have focused on  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  6 the inorganic chemistry of waters impacted by mine drainage; similarly, this work examines the chemical interactions of mine drainage with the receiving environment, but at a site located at the northern limit of discontinuous permafrost in central Yukon.  1.2 Scope and Objectives The research described in this thesis examined the natural attenuation occurring at the Galkeno 300 mine site in central Yukon with the goals of understanding the process(es) of attenuation and of gaining insight into the environmental mobility of the attenuated metal. The investigation consisted of two phases. During Phase 1, a site investigation was conducted to gather field information about the site and to collect samples for analysis and for laboratory testing. Phase 2 involved the characterisation and laboratory testing of contaminated and uncontaminated samples collected at the field site. The specific objectives of each phase were as follows. Phase 1 objectives  1. To investigate the hydrological characteristics of the Galkeno 300 adit discharge. Location of subsurface flow pathways was critical to ensure that no adit discharge was leaving the site by unknown pathways; this would effectively remove dissolved metal loads from the system and artificially inflate estimates of mass removal by attenuation processes. Measurement of flow volume inputs and outputs for the site allowed a water balance to be calculated and precipitation inputs to be estimated; this would allow a dilution factor due to precipitation to be determined, and facilitate a better estimate of metal mass removed by attenuation processes. 2. To investigate the chemical characteristics of the Galkeno 300 adit discharge. Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  7  Water samples collected throughout the field season and analysed for dissolved and total metal and nutrient contents identified the spatial and temporal nature of natural attenuation processes. These values permit the calculation of the mass of zinc removed with distance downslope of the source, as well as calculation of total metal loadings to Christal Creek. 3. To investigate the shallow subsurface and collect representative samples for laboratory analysis. Examination of the shallow unfrozen soil above the permafrost table permitted characterisation of the stratigraphy across the site. This permitted the sampling of soil material from different horizons and from different sample locations to ensure that site scale soil variability was accounted for. Samples collected form the basis of the second phase of the investigation. 4. To investigate the concentrations of zinc in soils in contact with the Galkeno 300 drainage and those adjacent to, but not in contact with, the Galkeno 300 drainage water. Background zinc levels in soils adjacent to flow are contrasted with zinc levels in contact with flow. The degree of elevation of zinc in in-flow soils allows estimates of attenuation of zinc per mass of soil that has already occurred at the site. This data provides proof positive that the soil sampled is the repository of attenuated zinc and other metals. Phase 2 objectives  1. To characterise field samples with respect to physico-chemical properties. Characterising field samples on the basis of mineralogy, carbon content, soil pH, cation exchange capacity, particle size and specific surface area will permit correlation of  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  8  attenuating behaviour of soils with specific properties. This will also permit comparison of soils at other sites with the soils examined in this study. 2. To determine the sorptive capacity of the various soils collected through batch adsorption testing. Batch adsorption tests provide an estimate of the total capacity of soil materials to attenuate zinc in drainage waters; expressed as 'mass zinc adsorbed per mass soil substrate', these data permit comparison of the levels of zinc in the contaminated samples collected in the field with the upper limit of sorptive capacity determined through batch adsorption testing. 3. To determine the sorptive behaviour of the various soils collected under zinc concentrations of field conditions in leaching column tests. Results from leaching column tests will indicate the capacity of the various soils to attenuate zinc to acceptable levels when influent zinc concentrations are representative of concentrations found in the field. These tests will remove the influence of the large chemical gradient which exists in batch adsorption tests and provide a more realistic estimate of what is actually happening at the field site. 4. To determine the retention mechanisms by which zinc is removed from the mine drainage water through selective extraction. The speciation of attenuated zinc is important when bioavailability or remobilisation are considered. Selective extraction aims to determine the geochemical speciation of the attenuated zinc and allows inferences to be made about threats posed by attenuated forms.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  9  1.3 Research Plan In order to achieve the research objectives, a research plan was developed that consisted of a plan for the site investigation phase of the research (Phase 1) as well as a plan for the laboratory phase of the research. Figures 1.1a and 1.1b depict the schematic framework of the Phase 1 and 2 research plans, respectively.  1.4 Research Contributions The natural attenuation of mining-derived metal contaminants in cold regions has been the subject of little study. This research illustrates a case study of environmental protection from metal pollution through natural attenuation at the northern limit of the discontinuous permafrost zone in Canada's Yukon Territory. The environmental processes which act to limit metal transport in shallow soils over permafrost at the study site have been identified; these findings have important implications for the development of treatment options to strip metals from mine drainage using local materials available at northern mine sites. Further, the results of this work also have implications for the management of soils contaminated by mine drainage; from a management perspective, residual contamination that is bound in stable, non-leachable materials poses minimal threat to downstream ecosystems.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  10  CO CO  U CO  o s >-  on  T3  diss ve me tai c nc entr ater ve spac  cO  ro  O  c  o o .2* (L> 'C o U cn to  •s §  <L>  De  CU  UIUI  S o  o  g  X)  x>  Q  CU  o  »  "o  surf  XI  is<L>  | CO  o a  s  « IO o  .3  H  cu  a. a  •i  E ?  s « £  OJ  o. ? j - E .3 .2 J3 => g CQ  h  to u "  g  >» ro en g ro «; .S Jd  a  o o o  m  " .S S? s 3  s  ft  = &  60 3  C O  O,  "  e p  E  CA  u  all  as E? to  3 o  C  G)  h  ^<>u  1$  >  o  so c  , a  cu  cu CA  es  • MM  IN CA  tf)  3  > C  <D  +J  co pq  CO  g  £ ro oro o  tf) ro  PQ  O  to  ro  (L)  O  CU  .5  _o o "o  ^  -3 5 . >^  ro  1)2ro o o  e ro  •is  XJ  \E3 »>  60  co  eu o o a S "uc3 cu  y E2 a  ^ • 1) JS CN  oo  U  3  «  .  to  ro S3 O J3 cu con  •3 x>  o  -5 y td 13 o cS CO  ai  x> ro  crt cn  a s  CO  13  S 2 ro co cfi q  > S  S & a O  ^  O  °  SP a C O 2 D •£!  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Chapter 1 introduces the general subject matter and outlines the position of this study within that subject matter. It also outlines previous related research and identifies the scope and objectives of this work, and details the plan for conducting this research. Chapter 2 begins with a description of the field site and relevant details thereof; it then goes on to review the theoretical work presented in the literature that forms the basis for the investigative methods chosen and the interpretations of results which have followed. In particular, the nature of soil-contaminant interaction is reviewed in some detail. Chapter 3 outlines the methods employed in Phases 1 and 2 of the investigation, and describes the equipment and materials used. Chapter 4 presents the results of both Phases 1 and 2. Discussion of both field and laboratory results is included. Chapter 5 records the conclusions that have been formed from the results of the investigation and briefly indicates the contribution of this research to the general body of knowledge. Finally, recommendations for future research are outlined.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  13  CHAPTER 2 B A C K G R O U N D AND LITERATURE R E V I E W This chapter describes the characteristics and history of the study site as well as the setting and rational for the research undertaken. Related literature on which the research design and the interpretation of results are based is reviewed; particular emphasis is placed on the composition of soil, the nature of soil surfaces and the interaction of these surfaces with aqueous zinc and other metals.  2.1 Background information and site history The research site is located 2.5 km west of Keno City in the Keno Hill Mining District (Figure 2.1). The Keno Hill mining district is centered at 63° 55' N , 135° 25' W in central Yukon, Canada. A summary of the site's physical characteristics and its historical activity will provide a basis for further discussion. 2.1.1  Physiography and Climate  The study area lies within the northeastern part of the Yukon plateau (Gleeson and Boyle, 1976). The study site occupies a northeast facing hillslope on the south side of the valley occupied by Christal Creek. The valley has the characteristic U-shaped cross-section typical of glacially scoured valleys (Bond, 1998); the topographic map in Figure 2.1 illustrates these features, as well as the study site's proximity to Keno City. Slope of the Galkeno 300 hillside generally varies between 10° and 20°, with a single local section at 25°. The lower slope has two  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  14  Yukon Territory'  135° 19.6'W  135°21.0'W  Legend; Highway Secondary road Contour  interval  100 ft.  Major contour — — > — —  Minor contour  Stream  UTM* grid line  UriA/Srw/TOTT^^  484000  UTM coordinate  Figure 2.1. Location, topography and infrastructure of research site.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  15 important areas of lower gradient, between 3° and 5°; these flats are characterised by higher accumulations of undecomposed and partially decomposed organic matter. Vegetation consists of open mature black spruce forest with willow and dwarf birch understory at higher elevations and transitions to a mixed forest dominated by black and white spruce, paper birch, balsam poplar and trembling aspen with willow and dwarf birch understory at lower elevations. Golden moss is the common ground cover across the site.  The region is located near the northern limit of the zone of discontinuous permafrost (Figure 2.2); in this zone, permafrost is widespread across a variety of terrain types, and is generally absent only on well-drained, south facing slopes that have little or no organic matter accumulated at the soil surface (Brown et al., 1981). The presence of open black spruce forest with a thick  Figure 2.2. Distribution of permafrost in Canada (adapted from Natural Resources Canada, 1995).  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  16 accumulation of organic matter is a common vegetative indicator of the presence of permafrost, and is especially common on north facing slopes; the combination of the insulating capacity of organic matter and the minimal solar energy influx due to aspect create favourable conditions for the formation and stability of permafrost (Brown et al., 1981). Permafrost prevents the downward migration of surface and ground waters; this leads to ponded water in surface depressions and lowlands, and restricts groundwater flow to the near-surface active layer (Brown etal., 1981). 2.1.2  Geology  2.1.2.1 Surficial Geology The valley occupied by Christal Creek contains a thick blanket (up to 30 m) of glacial sediment (silty sandy till and glacial outwash gravels) capped by a variably thick (up to 3 m) post-glacial accumulation of relatively undecomposed organic matter (Gleeson and Boyle, 1976). The glacial deposits quickly thin to a veneer on the adjacent slopes; the deposits on the steep valley sides have undergone varying degrees of colluviation, and bedrock blocks are commonly found mixed with the colluviated sediments. A n accumulation of dead moss and other organic matter in varying states of decomposition is present on the steep valley sides, commonly up to 30 cm in thickness. The fine grained texture of the mineral sediments present a barrier to downward migration of water; the majority of subsurface water flow moving down the steep valley sides occurs in the relatively more porous upper organic layer. While flow of water generally is parallel to slope, local scale topography commonly causes flow deviations from this line.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  17 2.1.2.2 Geology and Mineralogy of Keno Hill Ore Deposits The geology of the vein material which formed the Galkeno 300 ore deposit and of the surrounding host rock together control the chemical nature of the mine drainage, and it is useful to briefly review this geology here. The host rock is sedimentary in nature, consisting of competent quartzites and weaker schists and phyllites with minor limestone lenses (Boyle, 1965). Occasional igneous greenstone bodies occur conformably within the sedimentary package. The sedimentary rocks contain up to 10% calcium carbonate (Kwong et al., 1994), which results in the host rock having considerable neutralisation capacity. The ore bodies formed in faults where low pressure zones developed at the contact between weaker schists and phyllites and more competent quartzite or, rarely, greenstone bodies (Boyle, 1956). The vein material that made up the economic deposits consisted of galena, sphalerite and freibergite in a gangue of manganiferous siderite, quartz and pyrite. Secondary weathering products of the primary vein minerals were common, and locally carried economic concentrations of silver (Gleeson and Boyle, 1976). 2.1.3  Mining  Silver ores have been mined in the Keno Hill mining district, central Yukon Territory, since 1906 (Mayo Historical Society, 1999); large scale mining in the district ended in 1989 with the closure of United Keno Hill Mines operations (Kwong et al., 1994). The Galkeno ore body was mined by underground methods in the late 1950's and early 1960's via adits at the 300 (1160 m elevation) and 900 (950 m elevation) levels (Figure 2.1); ore was hauled by rail car to the adit  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  18 mouth to be loaded onto trucks for transport to the mill, while waste rock consisting of quartzite and phyllites with minor sulphides was dumped at the adit mouth (Roberti, 2000). 2.1.4  Post-mining activity  Following the cessation of mining in the early 1960's, economic interest in the Galkeno property waned, and no further mining activity was conducted on the property. The underground workings were connected; the workings remained dewatered as gravity drainage discharged from the Galkeno 900 adit into the muskeg adjacent to Christal Lake (Figure 2.1). Anecdotal reports (Roberti, 2000) indicate that this drainage was of neutral pH, but carried levels of dissolved metals that consistently exceeded the discharge limits specified by U K H M ' s water license (Board, 1998). In 1995, a concrete plug was installed in the Galkeno 900 adit in an effort to halt the unacceptable discharge. Since that time, drainage with unacceptable metal concentrations has continued to discharge from the Galkeno 900 adit; bypass of the plug by drainage waters is occurring, perhaps through fractures in the surrounding rock, and a conventional lime treatment plant has been installed to precipitate metals from the drainage (Roberti, 2000).  From the cessation of mining to the mid-1990's, the Galkeno 300 adit was observed to have water exiting its mouth only during periods of rapid snowmelt (Roberti, 2000). In 1997, 2 years after the plugging of the Galkeno 900 adit, small volumes of drainage were observed to constantly discharge from the Galkeno 300 adit. In 1998, the discharge was slightly greater, and again in 1999 and in 2000 the discharge volume was noted to increase (Soprovitch, 2000).  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  19 Dissolved zinc and other metals measured in grab samples taken during field examinations by government personnel showed metal concentrations up to 10 times higher than those observed at the lower Galkeno 900 adit (Soprovitch, 2000). It is possible that the plugging of the Galkeno 900 adit has caused flooding of the Galkeno workings to the 300 level. A plausible explanation for the increase in metal content of the Galkeno 300 drainage over the Galkeno 900 drainage is the dissolution of soluble secondary weathering products that had accumulated in the 40+ years since mining had taken place. Regardless of the cause, larger flows than had previously been observed, with high dissolved metal content, were exiting the Galkeno 300 adit during the period of June to August, 2000.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  20  2.2 Sulphide M i n e r a l Weathering Many ore deposit types contain sulphide minerals as the economic target and as a component of the gangue and waste rock. These minerals commonly form in reducing environments, under conditions much different chemically from those at the surface (Morin and Hutt, 1997). When sulphide minerals are exposed to oxygen and water, the sulfur component oxidises to sulfate (SO4 ") 2  and the metal cation is released into solution. This process occurs where sulphide-  bearing rocks are exposed to atmospheric conditions either naturally through erosional or tectonic forces, or through human activity such as mining. During mining, large quantities of sulphide material are exposed to atmospheric conditions; rapid weathering of the fresh sulphide surfaces commonly ensues. This, in combination with the large surfaces presented by the freshly broken rock, can lead to high rates of metal release and of acid generation.  The most common sulphide mineral is pyrite (FeS2); discussions of sulphide weathering commonly use pyrite oxidation as a model. Pyrite oxidation is modeled as occurring in two steps (Kwong and Whittley, 1992). Initially, pyrite oxidises in the presence of oxygen and water to yield ferrous iron, sulphate, and acidity: 4 FeS + 14 0 + 4 H 0 2  2  2  4 F e + 8SO4 " + 8 H . 2+  2  +  (2.1)  A second step involving the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron forms more acidity and an insoluble ferric hydroxide precipitate: 4 Fe + 0 + 10 H 0 -> 4 Fe(OH) + 8 H . 2  +  2  2  3  (2.2)  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  The overall reaction is expressed as 4 FeS + 15 0 + 14 H 0 -> 4 Fe(OH) + 2  2  2  3  8SO4 " 2  + 16H . (2.3) +  Oxidation of other sulphides is similar; sphalerite (ZnS) and Galena (PbS) oxidise according to the reactions ZnS  Zn + S0 2+  2 + 4  (2.4)  and PbS -+ PbS0 . 4  (2.5)  PbS04 is shown as undissociated because it commonly forms a solid precipitate, the mineral anglesite; this mineral often limits the concentration of lead in mine drainage waters (Krauskopf and Bird, 1995). Sulphide minerals with a 1:1 metaksulfur ratio, such as sphalerite and galena, to not generate net acidity on weathering (Kwong, 1993). As pyrite is often a principal component of mine wastes and workings, and as it is the most common source of acid generating potential (Kwong, 1993), understanding the process of pyrite oxidation lends insight into the overall problem of mine drainage. Under abiotic conditions, the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron by oxygen depicted in equation 2.2 is a slow process; this component of the overall process controls the total reaction rate and is known as the 'rate determining step' (Stumm and Morgan, 1970). However, iron oxidising bacteria, such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, are known to catalyse this step and increase the total reaction rate by several orders of magnitude (Nordstrom and Alpers, 1999b; Elberling et al., 2000). The production of acidity due to the oxidation of pyrite solubilises the metals found in other sulphide  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  22 minerals and maintains them in solution (Nordstrom and Alpers, 1999a). The environmental fate of the acidity and metals that are the products of sulphide oxidation are often controlled by buffering reactions which take place between mine drainage and the substrate (Blowes and Ptacek, 1994). As pH decreases, acidity is initially buffered by carbonate phases which dissolve rapidly and maintain a pH of > 5. If the buffering capacity of carbonate phases is exhausted, A l hydroxides and Fe hydroxides will maintain acidity levels of around pH 4.0-4.3 and pH 3.5, respectively (Blowes and Ptacek, 1994). At pH levels below 3.5, most metals remain in solution and are transported advectively to a point where acidity decreases; this dissolved metal load is often very deleterious to aquatic life in receiving waters (Stumm and Morgan, 1970).  2.3 Environmental Fate of Zinc in Mine Drainage The fate and transport of zinc in mine drainage ultimately determines its environmental impact. Aqueous zinc can be harmful to aquatic life at elevated concentrations; removal of aqueous zinc to the solid phase can mitigate the impacts that high dissolved zinc levels may pose. There are a number of mechanisms involving mineral and organic surfaces that can act to capture aqueous zinc. The environmental stability of the attenuated zinc is dependant on the nature of the attenuating mechanism; the physical and chemical properties of zinc are central to these processes. 2.3.1 Physical and chemical properties of zinc Zinc is a group lib element in the Periodic Table and has a corresponding 3d , 4s outer 10  2  electron configuration. In forming the aqueous zinc ion, the 4s electrons are transferred, 2  resulting in a +2 oxidation state. The aqueous zinc ion does not tend to form coordination  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  23 complexes due to the saturated 3d subshell and associated weak crystal field effect; as such, zinc tends to remain in solution rather than coordinating about an anion. Another aspect of the filled 3d subshell and the empty 4s subshell of zinc is a small ionic radius (0.74 A (Krauskopf and Bird, 1995)) and a weakly shielded nuclear charge. These interactions are partially responsible for the tendency to form ion pairs in solution and the instability of covalent compounds. For example, the solubility of sphalerite (a covalent compound with substantial ionic character) in water is roughly 20 orders of magnitude higher than that of copper sulphide (a covalent compound with little ionic character) (Spear, 1981). As an aqueous ion, Z n  2 +  is  coordinated by six water molecules in octahedral coordination. At neutral-to-acidic pH, zinc is not expected to form carbonate or hydroxide complexes; nearly 100% of zinc is expected to occur as the aqueous ion. Zinc does have a strong tendency to react with acidic, alkaline and inorganic compounds; because of its amphoteric nature, zinc readily forms a variety of salts such as chlorides, chlorates, sulphides and nitrates as well as organic complexes (Ohnesborge and Wilhelm, 1991).  2.3.2  Nature of surfaces of soil particles  Both organic and mineral soil components have the ability to remove aqueous zinc ions from solution. This ability arises from the nature of the surface of small soil particles- overall, these surfaces carry a net negative charge and thus attract aqueous cations to their surfaces. Soil particle size plays an important role; the specific surface area (SSA- the ratio of surface area per mass, commonly expressed in m of surface area per gram of soil (m /g)) of particles increases as particle size decreases (Sparks, 1995). The behaviour of large particles such as pebbles and  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  24 sand grains is dominated by gravitational forces (Mitchell, 1993); the SSA of particles of this size is small and little of their mass forms the actual surface where attenuation reactions can take place. The behaviour of finer particles such as silts and clays is increasingly dominated by the electrical properties of their negative surfaces (Yong and Warkentin, 1975); the fine particle size fraction is commonly referred to as the 'active fraction', where the vast majority of attenuation occurs. Of the many materials found in soils, organic matter, clay minerals and fine-grained metal oxides are thought to dominate the processes of soil-contaminant interaction (Sparks, 1995). The nature the surfaces of each of these materials is discussed briefly in the following sections. 2.3.2.1 Clay minerals  Clay minerals are a specific group of minerals which tend to occur in the clay size fraction (Sparks, 1995). As a group, clay minerals are referred to as phyllosUicates, due to the plate-like morphology of the individual mineral particles. These minerals are made up of sheets of silica tetrahedra and aluminum (magnesium, other cations) octahedra (Figure 2.3). Specific minerals are identified by the stacking of tetrahedral and octahedral sheets into layers and by the mechanisms which bind those layers together (Mitchell, 1993); Figure 2.4 illustrates the assemblage of the common clay minerals and the unique configurations of tetrahedral and octahedral sheets that define each mineral.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  25  a  b Q and f'"• = Oxygens  a  O and • « Silicons  b Q and .' ; » Hydroxyla  • Aluminums, magnesiums, etc.  Figure 2.3. A) Schematic diagram showing a) a single silicon tetrahedra, and b) six tetrahedra forming a tetrahedral layer. B) Schematic diagram showing a) a single octahedra, and b) four octahedra forming an octahedral layer. (Adapted from Sparks, 1995; after Grimm, R.E. (1968), "Clay Mineralogy").  Oxygen or Hydroxyl O  Various cations  ^^^J% Packed accordingtocharge and geometry  •cftP Repeatedtoforma sheet Octahedral  Tetrahedral Stacked in Ionic and covalent bonding toformlayers 1:1eerrH)asicunH r——^  2:1 semj-baslc untt  y  \  \  Stacked In various ways  Stacked in various ways  ^7 _ J  k  ^  ^  Kaottnite  '  wauvla^r  Halloysite  \j  ^  PyrophyBite  I  JET ]|=j[ 5 = 7  T=£ . ^  walerwns . wawr-eMo  potassium  *|  y  \j  \|'"  ^  Smectite  ^  ^  Verrrtcultte  ^/  Kite  T  "'i* |/  ^  CWortte  ^  Mixed Layer  Figure 2.4. Conceptual diagram illustrating the assemblage of clay minerals through the formation of tetrahedral and octahedral sheets, and the stacking of these sheets to form individual minerals. The stacking order and the constituents of the interlayer space together define the different minerals (from Mitchell, 1993). Clay mineral surfaces are negatively charged. This negative charge can have two components, referred to as permanent charge and pH-dependent charge. Permanent charge on clay mineral surfaces arises from isomorphous substitution; substitution of A l sheet, and substitution of M g  2 +  for A l  3 +  3 +  for S i  4 +  in the tetrahedral  in the octahedral sheet, give rise to a net negative charge  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  26 from within the mineral structure (Yong et al., 1992).The origin of pH-dependent, or variable, charge is broken or unsatisfied bonds at the edges of crystals (Sparks, 1995). Figure 2.5 uses the example of kaolinite to illustrate the origin and the variable nature of pH-dependent charge. Due to the presence of surface charge, the high surface areas that accompany small particle size, and the prevalence of clay in diverse natural environments, the clay minerals as a group play an important role in the adsorption of cationic species (Li and L i , 2000). 2.3.2.2 Soil organic matter Soil organic matter (SOM) is a complex mix of decomposing plant material, identifiable biochemical decomposition products collectively termed nonhumic substances, and a group of secondary compounds known as humic substances (Stevenson, 1994; Sparks, 1995). S O M can play an important role in the adsorption of heavy metals from an aqueous medium (Li and L i , 2001). The humic substances commonly dominate the chemical properties of a soil and are OH  .OH .  AT O  I  SI' \  OH  OH  OH  "5AI<  Al  O  OH  OH.  IX i  Al  'iX,'  I X i  OH  /  8  I  .  ,81  I— p -Posslbia breaking plane left face ^ O H  pH<S OH*  Cf^OH^OH*  pH7  pH7  pH<6  OH.  O H '  OH?  -1  H°  I O  H  ^  ^  0  I  .SI OH"  OH  „ * _ 0 ^  -SI.  VC  Right face  SI  ^  V  X  Figure 2.5. Origin of pH-dependent, or variable, charge. The kaolinite structure is used for illustrative purposes; a possible breaking plane is identified in the upper diagram. Broken bonds in the lower diagram are shown to protonate at low p H , giving a positive surface charge, and to hydroxylate at higher p H , resulting in a negative surface charge (from Yong et al., 1992).  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  27 discussed here as a model for the behaviour of all soil organic matter with respect to attenuation. Humic substances (HS) are the products of microbial decomposition of organic matter which are resistant to further microbial breakdown and are unrecognizable with respect to parent material (Yong et al., 1992). This refractory material makes up a large proportion of the organic matter present in typical soils (Stevenson, 1985); non-humic substances, which include proteins, lipids and carbohydrates, are rapidly broken down through microbial action and as such are not present in large quantities in natural or disturbed soil (Sparks, 1995). The structure of humic substances is complex and poorly understood. The conventional model of the structure of humic substances depicts a heterogeneous combination of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, lignins, waxes and proteins, arranged randomly in a three-dimensional structure, with large numbers of reactive functional groups attached to the carbon-based skeleton (Stevenson, 1994). Figure 2.6 depicts a model humic substance proposed by Stevenson (1994).  Figure 2.6. A model humic structure showing a backbone of aromatic groups with a variety of aliphatic and reactive functional groups (from Stevenson, 1985).  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  28 For purposes of classification, humic substances have been operationally divided into three categories on the basis of solubility in acid and alkali. Fulvic acids (FA's) are defined as those humic substances that are soluble in both acid and alkali. These tend to have relatively low molecular weights as shown in Table 2.1 and are readily dissolved in water. Humic acids (HA's) are defined as that fraction which is insoluble in acid but readily dissolves in alkali; H A ' s have intermediate molecular weights. The fraction of humic substances which is insoluble in both acid and alkali is referred to as humin; this material has the highest molecular weight and is the most resistant to decomposition (Theng, 1979). Table 2.1. Properties of humic substances. Adapted from Theng (1979), p. 283-287.  C(%)  o(%)  Fulvic acid  40-50  Humic acid Humin  Functional  N(%)  Soluble in alkali  Soluble in acid  Molecular weight  45-48  <4  Yes  Yes  <2000  55-60  33-36  4  Yes  No  5000- 100 000  55- >60  32-34  >4  No  No  >300 000?  groups  The ability of humic substances to bind aqueous zinc is derived from the multitude of reactive oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of HS molecules (Yariv and Cross, 1979; Stevenson, 1985). These functional groups consist mainly of carboxyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl and amino groups; the properties of each functional group govern the group's capacity to bind with aqueous zinc.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  29 Carboxyl group: The carboxyl functional group consists of a carbon atom in a chain or ring of carbon atoms that forms a single bond with a hydroxyl group and a double bond with an oxygen atom (Figure 2.7a). The hydrogen in the hydroxyl group is capable of dissociating; the carboxyl group can thus function as a weak acid, donating a proton to the soil solution (Yong et al., 1992). On deprotonation, the remaining carbon and two oxygen atoms form a negatively charged functional group (COO") which is capable of binding with positively charged ions. Deprotonation is a function of the large molecule to which the carboxyl group is attached and is pH dependent; molecules more likely to deprotonate are classified as more acidic, while those less likely to deprotonate are considered to be more basic (Yariv and Cross, 1979). Hydroxyl group: The hydroxyl functional group consists of an OH" ion bound to an aliphatic or aromatic molecule (Figure 2.7b). Aliphatic hydroxyls do not deprotonate (Yong et al., 1992) and thus form only hydrogen bonds with other molecules. On the other hand, aromatic hydroxyls will dissociate and attain a negative charge (Yariv and Cross, 1979); dissociation is pH dependent, and thus the effective activity of the aromatic hydroxyl is a function of pH. When hydroxyls are the only functional group attached to an aromatic ring, the molecule is referred to as a phenol or phenolic group, while hydroxyls attached to a chain or branched carbon structure form an alcohol. Both phenols and alcohols are common in soil humic substances.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  30 Carbonyl group: The carbonyl functional group is characterised by a carbon- oxygen double bond (Figure 2.7c) and forms a carboxyl group when joined with a hydroxyl ion. Carbonyl compounds typically have dipole moments due to a lack of symmetry in the electron sharing of the double bond (Yong et al., 1992). This asymmetry is the basis for the reactive nature of this functional group. Amino group: The amino functional group consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms (Figure 2.7d) and forms both aliphatic and aromatic compounds (Yong et al., 1992). The amino group forms an essential building block in proteins and is common in low concentrations in humic substances (Krauskopf and Bird, 1995). Although relatively rare, as indicated by the low nitrogen contents of humic substances in Table 2.1, amino groups form very stable complexes with zinc and can be important in terms of mass of zinc bound per mass of HS (Giordano, 1994).  .0  C  O-H 0—H  a) Carboxyl group  b) Hydroxyl group  o  NH  II  2  — c — c) Carbonyl group  d) Amino group  Figure 2.7. Important functional groups present in humic substances.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  31 2.3.2.3 Metal Oxides  Metal oxides, hydroxides, and oxyhydroxides (collectively referred to herein as oxides) are important soil components in terms of attenuation capacity, due to their high specific surfaces areas and high reactivity (Sparks, 1995); of the different oxide minerals, those of iron and manganese exert the greatest influence on aqueous metal concentrations in mine drainage systems. These minerals may be primary in origin, although more commonly metal oxides are secondary soil minerals, having grown from components in solution (Schwertmann and Taylor, 1989). They commonly form fine-grained coatings on other soil particles and can thus influence chemical conditions to a greater extent than their relative abundance would indicate (McKenzie, 1989; Post, 1999). Fe and M n oxides have no permanent structural charge due to isomorphous substitution; all surface charge is due to unsatisfied bonds at the edges of particles (McKenzie, 1989; Schwertmann and Taylor, 1989). Due to the very fine particles sizes common for these minerals, significant surface charge is present, which originates in the same fashion as portrayed in Figure 2.5 for kaolinite, with the exception that the pH at which protonation and hydroxylation occur varies for the different metal oxide minerals. The Fe and M n cations are redox active, with the highly oxidised forms being less soluble in natural waters; the onset of reducing conditions can cause dissolution at the oxide surfaces, a concern in the context of remobilisation of attenuated zinc (Krauskopf and Bird, 1995). 2.3.3  Mechanisms of Natural Attenuation  A range of processes can be called upon to account for the natural removal of zinc from mine drainage waters that is occurring at the Galkeno 300 site. These processes revolve around the  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  32 geochemical speciation of zinc under drainage conditions and the interactions of dissolved zinc with the surfaces of inorganic and organic soil fractions. Cation exchange, precipitation, coprecipitation and complexation are the relevant processes which have the potential to remove metals from solution. The attenuated metal species are distributed between the exchangeable, carbonate, Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxide and organic fractions. That zinc which occurs in the residual fraction is considered to be of primary origin and not environmentally available over short time periods. A n overview of the theoretical aspects of the relevant attenuation processes will set the stage for later discussion of the mechanisms operating at the Galkeno site. Cation Exchange  Cation exchange occurs when cations (e.g. Zn ) in solution replace other cations held as outer 2+  sphere complexes at the surface of negatively charged soil particles (Figure 2.8a). Cation exchange is a rapid and reversible phenomenon that occurs stoichiometrically with respect to charge (Sparks, 1995), and is considered to be a equilibrium process. The tendency for soil particles to form these outer sphere complexes with dissolved cations is dependent on the both the permanent and variable charge of the surface and, in the case of variably charged surfaces, the solution pH; the measure of this tendency is known as the cation exchange capacity of the soil. In a natural soil, the exchange sites on clay mineral surfaces will be largely occupied by protons and by Na , K , C a and M g ions (Krauskopf and Bird, 1995). When a solution bearing +  +  +  +  anomalous concentrations of zinc or other heavy metals contacts the mineral surface, replacement of the sorbed ions by heavy metal ions, or cation exchange, may occur. The degree to which heavy metals will replace sorbed ions depends on the concentration of the heavy metals  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  33 Metal  Oxygen  Figure 2.8. a) Conceptual depiction of an outer sphere complex, showing a hydrated zinc ion electrostatically bound to a negatively charged surface, b) Conceptual depiction of a monodentate inner sphere complex, showing a zinc ion bound directly to a surface oxygen with no intervening water, c) Conceptual depiction of a bidentate or chelate complex. (Adapted from Sparks, 1995; after Hayes, 1987).  in solution, the pH of the solution and the properties of the clay mineral. For ions with similar properties, those with the smallest hydrated ionic radius will be sorbed the strongest, as the positive nucleus of the ion is able to be closer to the negative clay surface (Yariv and Cross, 1979). Order of selectivity can be described for various cations on a given surface at a given pH; however, there appears to be no general statement that can be made regarding selectivity sequence across a variety of soil materials(Yong et al., 1992; Sparks, 1995).  Organic matter, clays and metal oxides have a finite cation exchange capacity that is specific to each material. Removal of heavy metals from contaminated waters via cation exchange results in accumulation of heavy metals within the attenuating soil. The long-term stability of the  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  34 sorbed metals requires that environmental conditions remain relatively constant. In particular, decreasing pH will commonly reduce the cation exchange capacity of the particle surface and release of metals may occur. The reduction in cation exchange capacity is due to a decrease in the magnitude of the negative charge on the particle surface; for each active soil material, there exists a specific pH at which the mineral surface has a net neutral character- this is known as the point of zero charge (PZC) (Yariv and Cross, 1979). If the acidity of the solution in contact with the particle surface decreases to the PZC, complete desorption of exchangeable ions will occur and a flush of metals will be released to the environment. Long term stability of adsorbed metals requires that environmental conditions remain favourable for adsorption. Precipitation  Precipitation as a mechanism of removal of dissolved solutes from solution requires concentrations approaching the solubility limit for a given solute. In waters impacted by waste from mining and milling operations of base metals, the major species which are likely to precipitate are carbonates, sulfates, sulphides, and oxyhydroxides (Kimball et al., 1994). As a mechanism for removing heavy metals from contaminated waters, the importance of the precipitation of these mineral species varies depending on the metal ion of concern and the pH of the water (Yong et al., 1992). Lead is commonly removed from contaminated waters through precipitation of anglesite (PbSC>4) and cerussite (PbCC>3) (Lazareva et al., 1995); zinc and cadmium cations, however, reach the concentrations necessary for direct precipitation in an oxidising environment only under conditions where pH remains >6 (Bradl, 1998). Under anoxic conditions, dissolved sulphate is reduced to the sulphide ion, which readily combines with  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  35 divalent metal ions to form insoluble sulphide minerals. These sulphides precipitate out of solution; if conditions remain anoxic, or if rapid sedimentation isolates the newly-formed sulphides from the atmosphere, precipitation of sulphide minerals can form a stable long term sink for heavy metals in the residual fraction of the soil. The conditions necessary for this commonly occur in wetlands where decomposing organic matter imposes a high B O D or in deep poorly mixed lakes where oxygen transport to the bottom sediments is limited (Shotyk, 1984). Coprecipitation  Coprecipitation refers to the removal of heavy metal ions from metal-bearing waters during precipitation of iron and manganese oxides, hydroxides and oxyhydroxides. At near-neutral pH, precipitation of iron, aluminum and manganese hydroxides and oxyhydroxides is known to be accompanied by coprecipitation of elements such as Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn (Karlsson et al., 1987). M n oxide formation can be accompanied by the formation of ZnMn204, a relatively stable product which can remove significant amounts of zinc from solution (Lind and Anderson, 1992); similarly, Post (1999) states that chalcophanite (ZnMn30? -3H20) is a common weathering product in many manganese-bearing base metal deposits. Fe and M n oxide precipitation is catalysed by suspended particulate matter in solution; clay mineral, metal oxide and S O M surfaces also act as catalysts for Fe and M n oxide precipitation (Yariv and Cross, 1979). Oxyhydroxides tend to coat the sediment on the perimeter of channels and in the oxidising zone of the subsurface, making the precipitate readily available to contaminated waters to enact metal removal (Jain and Ram, 1997). Coprecipitation of Zn and Cd has been shown to be the most significant process for sequestering these species in a sandy loam soil (Gong and Donahue,  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  36 1997). Similarly, Zn can be preferentially partitioned via substitution into secondary oxides and hydroxides in surface water and sediments (Carroll et al., 1998). Oxides, hydroxides and oxyhydroxides are stable under normal surface conditions and provide a safe long term sink for trace metals removed from contaminated waters. However, dissolution can also occur on exposure to reducing conditions (Sparks, 1995) and effect release of attenuated metals. Complexation  Trace metals can form complexes with organic or inorganic ligands. Complexation can arise due to deprotonation of functional groups on organic molecules as well as due to dissolved inorganic anions in solution. Organic complexation is be very diverse, consisting of mono- and multidentate metal-ligand interactions and chelation of metals by two or more ligands (Sparks, 1995) (Figure 2.8 a,b). These complexes can take place in solution or on the surface of particulate matter, as well as on or in soils and sediments. Complexes consist of covalent bonds between the cation and the functional group. The capability of the ligand to form a covalent bond arises from an unbonded pair of electrons on an atom in the ligand. Multiple atoms in the ligand with unbonded electron pairs will allow multiple covalent bonds to form; this is multidentate complexation (Yong et al., 1992) and forms complexes known as chelates. Complexation is also referred to as specific adsorption or chemisorption; the inner sphere complexes that constitute this form of attenuation are less susceptible to remobilisation than the outer sphere complexes that form during cation exchange. As such, complexation is a more robust form of attenuation and is less likely to desorb zinc and other heavy metals following changes in solution properties such as increasing acidity (Post, 1999).  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  37  CHAPTER 3 METHODS AND MATERIALS This study consists of two phases: an initial site investigation and a subsequent laboratory program. The methods of investigation for the respective phases are substantially different and will be described separately, beginning with a description of the site investigation.  3.1 Site Investigation Site investigation was initiated with a detailed reconnaissance of the site and adjacent areas; this provided the information detailed in the previous chapter under site description. Following initial reconnaissance, two controls in the form of dam/weir pairs were constructed to volumetrically estimate water inputs to and outputs from the site; one of these was placed in the mouth of the Galkeno 300 adit, while the other was positioned just above the confluence of the adit discharge with Christal Creek. Precipitation inputs, as well as temperature, were monitored at a temporary climate station to monitor possible climatic influences. Water quality was assessed at 13 discrete times during the field season through collection of samples for analysis and measurement of in situ parameters. Shallow soils at the site were collected for chemical analysis and for laboratory testing. The following describes the methods and the materials employed in the field investigation.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  38  3.1.1 Temperature and precipitation monitoring A temporary climate monitoring station was established at Elsa, Y T during the field investigation. The U K H M environmental office at Elsa was chosen as the location for the climate station for security and monitoring reasons; U K H M environmental staff agreed to take daily readings and to contact the principal researcher in the event of equipment failure or malfunction. This site is approximately seven kilometers west of the field site and is roughly the same elevation as the lower portion of the field site. The proximity of the Elsa location to the field site, the similarity of elevation and aspect between these two locations, and their location on the same larger scale physiographic feature (Galena Hill) makes the Elsa climate monitoring station an appropriate proxy for the Galkeno 300 site. Daily precipitation was measured using a Rain Gauge Type B (Environment Canada, 1992); measurements were taken by U K H M environmental staff at 9:30 am and reported to the nearest 0.5 mm. Maximum and minimum temperatures were measured by U K H M environmental staff using maximum and minimum thermometers installed in a Stevenson Screen (Environment Canada, 1992); measurements were taken at 9:30 am and were recorded to the nearest 0.5°. Gaps in data are due to staffing changes and absences of environmental staff at U K H M . U K H M staff undertook climatological monitoring because the principal researcher was not at the sampling location every day at the same time.  3.1.2 Flow measurement A n estimate of flow volumes at different locations across the study site is useful in understanding site water balance and levels of contaminant loading and attenuation. In particular, measuring  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  39 flow volumes exiting the Galkeno 300 adit provides an input volume of water that enters the downslope soil attenuation system; similarly, measuring flow volumes entering Christal Creek provides an output volume of water leaving the soil attenuation system. These input and output values, combined with estimates of precipitation and with geochemical analyses of water samples, allow calculation of the contribution of dilution to attenuation and the mass loadings to Christal Creek.  A 0.3 m sharp-crested rectangular weir with end contractions (Grant and Dawson, 1995) was constructed 2.5 m downstream from the adit mouth (Fig. 3.1). Although a V-notch weir may have been better suited to the adit discharge volume, it would require accumulating a greater head; site conditions and difficulty of dam construction favoured a lesser accumulation of water. As such, the rectangular configuration with end contractions was selected due to the minimal head required behind this style of weir for a given discharge. The weir was designed to have a drop of 30 cm- double the maximum expected depth of 15 cm flowing over the weir gate. A crude rock and earth dam was constructed with locally available materials; scrap plywood and roofing metal was used as a core, and a layer of polyethylene was placed within the fill to minimise dam permeability. Construction of the weir itself was problematic due to continuous flow from the adit; this was circumvented by building a frame with a low (5 cm) lip which could be anchored into the dam on both sides, while still allowing the adit flow to pass through the opening of the frame. A n insert containing the 30 cm rectangular opening was designed to be placed in the frame when a flow measurement was desired. This allowed the construction of the weir in mid-channel without diverting the flow. In addition, this configuration of frame-and-  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Figure 3.1. 0.3 m sharp-crested rectangular weir with end contractions installed at Galkeno 300 adit. Wellaerated, free falling nappe indicates suitability of weir to discharge volume.  insert permitted stresses on the dam to be minimised by impounding water only when a measurement was to be taken, and releasing the accumulated water by removing the weir insert following measurement. Very little leakage was observed through or around the dam or the weir insert. The weir was designed to handle flow volumes up to 15 L/s- all flows remained lower than the design level. This device allowed an accurate estimate of flow volumes issuing from the Galkeno 300 adit (Fig. 3.1). A similar 0.3 m sharp-crested rectangular weir with end contractions was installed at the bottom of the site in the ditch adjacent to the Galkeno 900 access road at the highway (Fig. 2.1). This weir was constructed in the same fashion and provided accurate estimates of flow volumes entering Christal Creek. Discharge volumes  N a t u r a l Attenuation of Aqueous Z i n c in Soils O v e r Permafrost Downslope of G a l k e n o 300 M i n e , C e n t r a l Y u k o n  41 estimated using properly configured weirs are considered to be accurate to +/-10% of actual discharge (Grant and Dawson, 1995).  Flow estimates at individual sampling sites were made using the bucket flow method (Environment Canada, 1995) where the sample site configuration permitted; otherwise, visual estimates of flow volumes were made. The bucket flow method involved capturing the flow with a graduated 20 L bucket for a fixed amount of time (usually 2 or 4 seconds, depending on site discharge and capture of flow). A n estimate of the proportion of flow captured was necessary; this is usually strongly influenced by site configuration. Where possible, the capture site was modified at the beginning of the field season to maximise captured flow, and bucket flow estimates were restricted to sites where greater than ~70% of the flow could be captured. This exercise was repeated 5 times at each sample site and the results were averaged to provide an estimate of the site flow volume on a given sampling day. Visual flow estimates are qualitative in nature and simply provide a reference for increases or decreases in flow volume relative to the previous visit to the site. These sample site flow volumes, coupled with water quality data from the same location, provide insight to levels of attenuation and contaminant loading across specific sections of the study area.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  42  3.1.3 Water sampling Water samples were taken at 11 principal sites (Fig. 3.2) along the longitudinal flow path on 10 different occasions (May 29, June 6 and 20, July 5,22 and 29, and August 4, 12,21 and 30) throughout the course of the field season; additionally, dissolved and total metal samples only  Highway Secondary road  Major contour — — — — — Minor contour Stream Contour Interval 100 tt.  Old historic road  Fbwerllne  Soil sample site  • • i l ^ k v Flowpath of adit drainage •  Water sample site  Figure 3.2. Site map displaying physiography, adit drainage flowpaths, site features and location of water and soil sampling sites.  were collected and analysed at input (adit) and output (discharge to creek) sites on June 13, June 28 and July 11 Position of samples sites was established by Global Positioning System (GPS). A brief description of each sampling site can be found in Appendix A . This sampling was done to characterise the nature of the hydrogeochemical system and to monitor changes in water quality spatially, along the longitudinal flow path, as well as temporally, over the course of the  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  43 field season. Sampling was always conducted from the lower elevations (lowest contaminant concentrations) to the higher elevations (highest contaminant concentrations). This routine was intended to minimise the possibility of cross contamination, as water containing lower concentrations of the analytes of interest were sampled first. In addition, this routine was intended to avoid changing downstream sample chemistry by disturbance due to upstream sampling. In addition, occasional grab sampling was conducted of waters peripheral to the flow path to characterise background water quality and to identify whether peripheral waters were chemically similar to the Galkeno flow, or whether the Galkeno flow was chemically distinct. A program of taking field duplicate samples, field split samples, field blanks and travel blanks was undertaken to monitor sample variability and for quality control purposes. 3.1.3.1  Sample  analysis  A l l water sample analysis was done by staff at Environment Canada's Pacific Environmental Science Centre in North Vancouver. Samples were shipped from the field site to Whitehorse by truck; from Whitehorse, the samples were couriered to the analytical lab by air. Sample analysis was conducted within seven days of sample collection via the appropriate methods from Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Clesceri et al., 1998). 3.1.3.2  Sample  description  Three principal types of water samples were collected. These were nutrient samples, dissolved metal samples and total metal samples. A l l samples were collected according to water sampling protocols outlined in Environment Canada (1995). At the time of sampling, in situ measurements of several parameters were also recorded.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  44 Nutrient  samples:  1 L high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles were labeled with date, time, sample location/number, and type of sample. These were then filled to within 1 cm of the top by submersing in flow (where possible) or by capturing flow as required. Bottles were not rinsed due to the chance of particulate matter from the rinse water adhering to the walls of the bottle. These samples were placed in coolers containing ice and shipped to analytical lab within two days of sampling. Other than keeping cool, nutrient samples were not preserved (Environment Canada, 1995). Nutrients were analysed according to procedures outlined in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater(SMWW) Dissolved  metal  (Clesceri et al., 1998).  samples:  Samples were collected by filtering water into 125 mL trace metal HDPE bottles labeled with date, time, sample location/number, and type of sample. The filtration system consisted of a 60 mL single-use syringe and a 25 mm diameter, 0.45 micron single-use filter. The syringe was filled and purged three times. A 10 mL headspace was maintained between the plunger and the water surface within the syringe and the syringe was kept vertical to minimise the possibility of contamination due to leaching of analytes from the rubber plunger. After rinsing the syringe three times, the filter was placed on the syringe and the sample container was rinsed and shaken three times with 10 mL of filtered water. The bottle was then filled with filtered water to within 1 cm of the top; the filter was removed from the syringe and the syringe refilled twice during this process. Care was taken to avoid contaminating the filter during the refilling of the syringe. Following collection, samples were placed in a cooler with ice; at the end of the sampling day,  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  45 dissolved metal samples were preserved with 1 mL concentrated trace metal grade nitric acid. Samples were shipped to the analytical lab with nutrient samples, and analysed via procedures outlined in S M W W (Clesceri et al., 1998). Total metal  samples:  125 mL trace metal HDPE bottles labeled with date, time, sample location/number, and type of sample were rinsed three times with sample and then filled to within 1 cm of the top. Following collection, samples were placed in a cooler with ice; at the end of the sampling day, total metal samples were preserved with 1 mL concentrated nitric acid. Samples were shipped to the analytical lab with nutrient samples, and analysed via procedures outlined in S M W W (Clesceri et al., 1998).  3.1.3.3 In- situ measurements Electrical conductivity and water temperature were measured at each sample site using a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) Model 33 meter (Environment Canada, 1995). A Hach One portable pH meter outfitted with a glass electrode with a Ag/AgCl reference junction was used to measure site pH (Environment Canada, 1995); the same meter outfitted with a YSI Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) probe was used to measure in situ ORP ( A S T M D 1498- 76).  3.1.4  Soil Sampling  In order to investigate the attenuating capacity of the soil, sampling was conducted at five locations along the longitudinal flow path (Fig. 3.2). Samples were taken for metal content analysis as well as for the purposes of laboratory testing.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  46 3.1.4.1 Sample collection  Soil samples were collected by excavating a soil pit at the selected sampling location followed by stratigraphic sampling. Site reconnaissance revealed that shallow soils across the site consisted of an upper organic horizon, consisting largely of moss in various stages of decay, and a lower mineral horizon. Five sampling locations were selected to characterise the variation in soil properties of these two horizons along the longitudinal profile of the flow path. Additionally, sites were selected such that samples could be taken from directly in the flow path, where the soil was in contact with Galkeno 300 effluent, as well as in similar soils adjacent to the flow path. In-flow samples were collected for the purposes of assessing soil zinc content and for determination of the geochemical speciation of attenuated zinc. Samples adjacent to the mine drainage flow path were collected to provide a measure of local background metal concentrations. Care was taken to ensure that samples taken adjacent to the flow path were representative of the horizon sampled within the flow path; sample sites were selected such that both sample locations had similar aspect, slope, vegetation and surficial geology, are were in close proximity to one another. Pits were excavated to the deepest depths possible, given the soil conditions and the method of excavation; permafrost and large rocks limited the depth of all pits to less than 1 m. The soil profile was logged and 1 to 5 kg samples were collected from each distinct soil horizon. 20 cm by 50 cm polyethylene bags were labeled with sample number and then filled with sample. Where large sticks, roots or rocks were present in a horizon, these were omitted from the collected sample. Moss was the predominant ground cover; both decomposed and undecomposed moss was collected separately at different locations in order to determine the role of moss in the attenuation process.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  47  In addition to soils, a set of samples of the precipitate forming at and immediately below the Galkeno 300 was collected. This precipitate resembles the deep orange ferric oxyhydroxide precipitate commonly found in mine drainage in areas of sulphide mineralisation. These samples were collected every 20 paces along the surface flow path from the adit to the downstream disappearance of surface flow into the subsurface; every 60 paces (every third sample) a duplicate sample was taken. These samples consist of approximately 100 g of precipitate which was collected for metals analysis. These samples are intended to lend insight into the contribution of this ferric oxyhydroxide precipitation to the attenuation of zinc in the surface flows along the upper portion of the flowpath. Additionally, a few samples of distinctive green filamentous algae noted at a number of different locations were also collected for total metals analysis; these algae samples were collected to assess the potential metal (primarily zinc) removal from mine drainage via bioaccumulation in the Galkeno 300 drainage. 3.1.4.2 Sample analysis  The purpose of sampling soils in direct contact with the flow as well as those adjacent to the flow is to provide a measure of metal uptake by soil; metal levels of samples collected within the flow path can provide evidence of the occurrence and magnitude of metal retention in the soil, when compared with metal levels of samples collected adjacent to the flow, which are expected to represent background metal concentrations. A n aliquot of each sample collected was sent to the Pacific Environmental Science Centre for metals analysis using the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) technique with aqua regia microwave digestion (Clesceri et al., 1998). The expectation is  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  48 that, if attenuation is occurring in soils along the flow path, samples in contact with the flow should yield higher metal contents than similar adjacent soils that have not been in contact with the flow. Duplicate samples were taken at each site of both soils in and adjacent to the flow path to facilitate estimates of field variability.  3.2  Laboratory Investigation of Natural Attenuation  The laboratory investigation phase of this project was carried out from September 2000 to September 2001. The intent of the lab investigation was to gain insight into the mechanisms of zinc attenuation that are operating in the shallow soils downslope of the Galkeno 300 adit. Specifically, the goals were 1) to determine the zinc retention capacity of the soils in question, and 2) to identify the geochemical speciation of the attenuated zinc within these soils. To achieve these goals, a number of laboratory tests and procedures were carried out. Sampled soils were characterised physically and chemically, then subjected to batch adsorption tests and column leaching tests to better understand zinc removal under various conditions, both qualitatively and quantitatively. In addition, selective extraction was performed on field contaminated samples to determine the geochemical speciation of attenuated zinc. The following describes the methods and materials employed during the different phases of the laboratory investigation. 3.2.1  P h y s i c a l a n d C h e m i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n o f Soils  Characterisation of site soils was undertaken in an attempt to correlate attenuating characteristics of the site soils with soil physicochemical properties. Recall that Galkeno 300 site soils are broadly distributed as an upper organic horizon consisting largely of moss in various states of  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  49 decomposition, and a lower mineral horizon consisting of a silty sandy till. The following properties of each were determined, where appropriate: cation exchange capacity, soil pH, specific surface area, mineralogy, and total carbon content. Particle size analysis was not conducted, as the measurement of particle size for samples of the important upper horizon is difficult to both conduct and interpret. Samples from soil sampling sites A , C and E (Fig. 3.2) were subjected to characterisation; these samples are from the lower, middle and upper regions of the site, respectively, and are thought to be sufficiently representative.  3.2.1.1 Cation exchange capacity  Cation exchange capacity (CEC) is the total number of cations that a soil material can adsorb at a given pH (Sparks, 1995); measuring the C E C of a soil provides an estimate of the capacity of a soil to exchange major ions on exchange sites for ions such as zinc from solution. The C E C of uncontaminated samples of both organic and mineral soils from the Galkeno 300 site was determined via the method of (Sumner and Miller, 1996); this method involves replacing all exchangeable cations with the ammonium cation ( N H / ) , followed by replacement of all ammonium ions with the potassium cation (K ). Measurement of the number of displaced +  ammonium ions allows a determination of the number of cation exchange sites per unit mass of the soil material; ammonium was measured by Flow Injection Analysis (Clesceri et al., 1998).  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  50  3.2.1.2 SoilpH The p H of a soil material is an important factor in determining the mobility of heavy metals such as zinc that come into contact with that soil. The pH of uncontaminated mineral and organic soil samples were measured on air dry samples sieved to <2 mm. The distilled water method of Thomas (1996) was followed; a 1:2 oven dry equivalent soil mass: distilled water ratio was used, as the organic samples were not sufficiently moistened with equal parts water and soil.  3.2.1.3 Specific surface area The specific surface area (SSA) of a soil is the area of surface per unit of mass of a given soil sample, and is related to particle size. It is an important property with regard to contaminant attenuation. Particle size constrains the external surface area of a particle; however, many soil materials can also have internal surface area that is available to participate in attenuation. Attenuation often occurs at the reactive surface of soil particles; thus, a material that has a relatively large specific surface area may make a relatively large contribution to heavy metal attenuation. The specific surface area of both organic and mineral samples were measured by the method of Sheldrick (1984a). This premise of this method is the establishment of a monomolecular layer of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME) on all internal and external surfaces of the samples; the difference in sample mass prior to and following E G M E treatment represents the mass of the monomolecular layer of E G M E . A n estimate of specific surface area is calculated from the area a monomolecular E G M E layer of the measured mass would cover.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  51 Analysis of SSA was conducted by staff at the Soil Chemistry Laboratory in the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences at the University of British Columbia.  3.2.1.4 Mineralogy  The clay mineralogy of site soils will influence to adsorption capacity of these soils. The clay mineralogy of three mineral samples, one each from sites A , C and E, was examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Organic samples were not subjected to X R D due to the low mineral content of these samples. Sample preparation was conducted as outlined in Jackson (1956). First, the samples were suspended in water and the >2 urn fraction was allowed to settle; settling velocity of a 2 um equivalent spherical diameter particle is 1 cm/42.5 minutes at 25° C (Hillel, 1998). The suspension containing a portion of the < 2 um (clay) fraction was drawn off via siphon, to a depth calculated according to the settling velocity, and the remaining material was resuspended. This settling and withdrawal process was conducted a total of three times; this is thought to remove the majority of the clay fraction from a soil sample (Jackson, 1956). The clay material was removed from suspension by centrifugation and then subjected to further treatment.  Jackson (1956) and Reynolds and Moore (1997) suggest a number of pretreatments to prepare a sample for analysis by X R D . Carbonates, organic matter and amorphous oxides contained within the clay fraction can interfere with X R D ; removal of these fractions prior to scanning improves the likelihood of obtaining unambiguous diffraction patterns. A chemical treatment is required to remove each unwanted fraction; methods provided in Jackson (1956) were employed.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  52 Carbonates were removed using a sodium acetate solution buffered at pH 5, organic matter was removed using 30% hydrogen peroxide at 80°C, and amorphous oxides were removed using the citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite method.  Following pretreatments, samples were prepared for scanning following the Glass Slide Method of Moore and Reynolds (1997). Suspensions of the treated sample and distilled water were dropped onto a clean glass slide using an eye dropper and the slides were allowed to air dry. Three slides of each sample were prepared; one was heated to 550°C for 1 hour, one was placed in a closed vessel with ethylene glycol for >24 hours, and one was untreated. A potassium saturated sample was prepared by removing half the remaining suspension to another container, saturating exchange sites with K (Jackson, 1956) and then preparing a slide. A l l four samples +  were scanned on a Siemens Diffraktometer D5000 with a voltage of 40 kV and a current of 30 mA. Each slide was scanned from 3 to 34" 29, with a step size of 0.04 ° at a rate of 2 s/step. Heated and glycol-solvated slides were scanned immediately following treatment.  3.2.1.5 Total Carbon Content Soil organic matter can play an important role in attenuation of zinc from the mine drainage water at the Galkeno 300 site; measurement of total carbon content is commonly used as an indicator of the amount of organic matter within a particular soil. Measurement of total carbon content of samples taken at sites A , C and E was done via the method of Sheldrick (1984b). This method employs the L E C O induction furnace; the principle of operation for this apparatus relies  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  53 on the quantitative measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) evolved following destruction of organic carbon and carbonate minerals under high temperature. Analysis of total carbon content was conducted by staff at the Soil Chemistry Laboratory in the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences at the University of British Columbia.  While the result of total carbon analysis may reflect a contribution arising from the destruction of inorganic minerals, this method of estimating soil organic content is acceptable in low carbonate soils and is certainly preferable to "Loss on Ignition" methods (McGill, 1976). The uncertainty introduced by an unknown contribution from inorganic carbon could be mitigated by quantitatively analysing for carbonate carbon. Subtracting the inorganic carbon result from the total carbon result would yield a better estimate of organic carbon content only if there was sufficient carbonate carbon to exceed errors introduced in both methods. In light of the acceptance of total carbon content as a proxy measurement for organic carbon content in low carbonate soils, as well as the visually identifiable high organic/ low mineral content of the important upper soil horizon, the total carbon content measurements were not corrected for the contribution of carbonate carbon.  3.2.1.6 Specific Gravity  The specific gravity of organic samples tested in leaching columns was required to calculate the pore volume contained with the packed columns. Specific gravity determination was undertaken at room temperature (23° C) according to the method set out in Lambe (1951), using a 1000 ml  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  54 volumetric flask as a pycnometer. The specific gravity of each organic sample was determined in duplicate, and the resulting values were averaged for use in determination of leaching cell pore volumes.  3.2.2  B a t c h A d s o r p t i o n Test M e t h o d s a n d M a t e r i a l s  Batch adsorption tests were used to determine sorption isotherms for zinc onto site organic and mineral soils from sites A , C and E. These isotherms allow the calculation of a distribution coefficient (Kd) with respect to zinc for both of these materials. The tests were conducted according to the guidelines set out by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (Roy et al., 1992). The following discusses the parameters selected.  Batch tests were conducted in duplicate at room temperature (23 +/- 2° C) in 50 ml polypropylene centrifuge tubes; Figure 3.3 provides a schematic representation of the batch adsorption test procedure. A 1:20 soihsolution ratio was adopted, with 2.000 g soil being agitated with 40.0 ml of dosing solution. This ratio was adopted because, in the case of the organic soils tested, the more common 1:10 soil solution ratio would not physically fit into the 50 ml centrifuge tubes with 40 ml of dosing solution. Agitation was accomplished in an endover-end rotator at 22 revolutions per minute (rpm). This speed is somewhat less than the 29 +/2 rpm suggested by the U S E P A (Roy et al., 1992), but is not considered to compromise the test results. Separation of soil from solution was accomplished by centrifuging test tubes in an International Equipment Company Centrifuge Model CS for 15 minutes at 3000 rpm (roughly  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  55 2200 G); for samples where floating material (largely organic) remained following centrifugation, test tube filters (serum filters) were employed to separate solid from liquid.  Air-dried soil, hand sieved to less than 2 mm.  Solution with specified concentration of zinc for adsorption.  Soil solution 20 parts solution, 1 part soil  1 "blank", other batches with varying concentrations C of zinc n  Blank  c,  c  2  c  3  c  4  Liquid-solid separation for determination of concentration of zinc Q adsorbed by soil particles  Figure 3.3. Schematic layout of the batch equilibrium test procedure.  Temperature of the soil-water system at the field site was 3 to 10° C; preliminary testing was done to compare the effects of conducting batch tests at 8° C (representing field conditions) vs. at 25° C (representing ambient laboratory conditions). These tests showed that equilibrium concentrations at 8 and 25° C varied little for air dry samples; these tests also showed that air drying sample material reduced the variability of equilibrium concentrations between replicate  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  56 samples (Fig. 3.4). As such, it was decided to conduct the tests at room temperature on air dry samples.  25  OOO  o 20  0 Moist Organic Soil I  o0)  ^ Dry Organic Soil  t_ 3  rs i_  CD  X>8< A  AAA  X Moist Mineral Soil  15  A Dry Mineral Soil  q.  E  10  A A 250  A  X  1  1  i  1  1  350  450  550  650  750  * A  850  E q u i l i b r i u m Z n concentration (mg/L)  Figure 3.4. Preliminary test results showing equilibrium Zn concentration for moist and air dry soil samples at 8° C and at 25° C. Initial Zn concentration = 1000 mg/L.  The initial pH of the dosing solutions was adjusted to pH 6.5. This p H was chosen through examination of the range of pH values encountered across the majority of the site during the field investigation; the lower limit of observed pH was 6.5. This value was selected as the initial p H of the dosing solution due to its conservative nature; zinc mobility tends to increase with decreasing pH, and as such the adsorption of zinc from solution is expected to be a conservative estimate of what can be expected at the site.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  3.2.3 C o l u m n L e a c h i n g Test M e t h o d s a n d M a t e r i a l s  Column leaching was conducted to better understand zinc attenuation in a flow-through configuration. While batch adsorption tests are relatively simple and can provide rapid and costeffective insight into the behaviour of a sorbent-sorbate system, the ideal conditions of the batch test likely represent a high estimate of attenuation that will actually occur in a field setting. The contact between solution and soil in the batch test provides maximum opportunity for dissolved constituents such as zinc to come into contact with favourable sorption sites on solid surfaces. In actual field situations, and in the flow-through configuration of a leaching column, the packing of soil particles, the establishment of preferential flowpaths, and the higher ratio of solid to liquid mass can, either singularly or in concert, result in attenuation phenomena that are not easily predicted from the results of batch-type experiments alone.  Column leaching was performed only on previously characterised samples of the upper organic horizon from sites A , C and E. Batch test results and soil metal concentrations (Section 4.2.1) indicate that the upper organic horizon is by far the dominant substrate for natural attenuation of zinc at the Galkeno 300 site. These factors, as well as the field observation of much greater permeability of the upper organic horizon, led to this decision to limit column leaching tests to the organic samples.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  58 3.2.3.1  Configuration  of column  leaching  system  The configuration of the column leaching system is displayed in Figure 3.5. The system consists of an elevated primary influent reservoir feeding permeant to the bottom of a vertical cylindrical leaching column. Flow passes upwards through the column; this is done to ensure uniform flow through the column by avoiding the 'fingering' of flow which can occur in columns permeated top to bottom. Effluent is transferred to an effluent reservoir via tubing, where it is discharged to an overflowing tailwater intended to maintain a constant backpressure. Flow rate through the column is controlled by a combination of the elevation of the influent reservoir and by restriction of the effluent discharge tube through the use of a screw-type hose clip. Figure 3.6 shows an expanded schematic of a leaching column. 3.2.3.2  Materials  and  equipment  used in column  leaching  system  The primary influent reservoir, the leaching cell and the effluent reservoir are constructed of acrylic (Plexiglas); the secondary influent reservoir is a polyethylene container. Tubing is made of vinyl (Fisher C-219-4); all fittings are nylon. The system has no metal surfaces in contact with the permeating fluid. Samples were collected from the effluent tube into glass test tubes and kept covered until analysed. A l l components which contact the permeating fluid were acid washed and rinsed with the permeating fluid prior to the initiation of each test. A 6-600 rpm Masterflex pump and pump controller with #16 pump heads was used to deliver permeant from the secondary influent reservoir to the primary influent reservoir.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  5 9  3.2.3.3 Column leaching test procedure The water content of the organic samples of interest was determined just prior packing of leaching cells. Conducting the leaching column tests at field water content was done to avoid changes in reactivity that can occur to organic samples on drying, as evidenced by preliminary batch test results (Fig. 3.4). Samples were hand packed into columns at the maximum possible density; hand packing was conducted due to the elasticity and water content of the organic samples. Initial attempts at mechanical compaction resulted in losses of sample water as well a lower sample densities than were achieved via the hand packing method. Leaching cells were weighed before and after packing with sample. The difference is the mass of the moist Primary influent reservoir  Screw-type hose clip  Effluent reservoir  1  Secondary influent reservoir  Figure 3.5. Schematic configuration of leaching column system. Not to scale- for illustrative purposes only.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Bottom plate  Figure 3.6. Schematic of leaching cell components. A) Exploded plan view of components of cell. B) Exploded profile view of components of cell. C) Profile view of assembled cell. Not to scale- for illustrative purposes only.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  61 sample contained within the cell; the mass of solids within each cell was computed using the predetermined water content, the final sample mass and the volume of the cell. The volume of pore space within each cell was calculated by subtracting the volume of solids (computed using the specific gravity of each sample and the mass of solids in each cell) from the total cell volume. See Appendix B for methods of calculation of water content, sample specific gravity, mass of solids and pore volume within each cell.  After the columns were packed, the system was set up. The height of the primary influent reservoir was set at the minimum height that would exceed the desired flow rate; the flow was reduced to the desired rate through the use of a screw-type hose clip on the effluent tube. The design flow rate through the columns was 10 pore volumes per day (10 pvpd). This rate was selected as a reasonable estimate of in situ flow rates observed entering soil pits excavated at the Galkeno 300 site from the upper organic horizon (Appendix A). The pump which moved permeant from the secondary influent reservoir to the primary influent reservoir was set to exceed flow rates through the columns; excess permeant delivered to the primary reservoir was returned to the secondary reservoir by way of a overflow drain (Fig. 3.6).  Effluent samples were collected for analysis from the discharging end of the effluent tube. These samples were analysed for total Zn and Mn, as well as for pH. Columns were run until effluent metal concentrations stabilized or showed evidence of stabilising.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  62 3.2.3.4 Experimental conditions of column leaching tests Four sets of column tests were run, including one replicate. Each test involved permeating three organic samples (one each from sites A , C and E) with a specific influent (Table 3.1). Each influent was chosen to allow observations on the attenuation behaviour of the soil-fluid system under different conditions. Table 3.1. Influent conditions of column leaching tests.  Test  pH  Zn (mg/I)  Mn (mg/1)  Flow rate  1  6.5  145  192  10 pvpd  2  6.5  30  40  10 pvpd  3  6.5  145  192  10 pvpd  4a  5.5  0  0  10 pvpd  4b  4.5  0  0  10 pvpd  * pore volumes per day  Tests # 1 and # 3  Tests 1 and 3 were conducted under the same conditions. The results of these two tests serve as replicates which provide a check on the experimental process. The permeant for Tests 1 and 3 was actual Galkeno 300 adit drainage, collected at the end of the field season at the adit. Prior to column infiltration, the metal content and p H of the Galkeno water was measured. The p H of the permeant was adjusted to pH 6.5, using 0.088 M Ca(OH)2. This pH adjustment was done to bring the pH in line with the lowest values observed, during the field investigation, where the adit drainage first contacts the soil material. This is considered to be conservative, as Zn mobility is higher with decreasing pH (increasing acidity); thus, adopting the low end of the  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  63 observed pH range for the permeant pH will not overestimate the attenuation factor. Ca(OH)2 was selected as the base for pH adjustment because calcium is the most common cation in the drainage, as indicated by field water quality data (Appendices C l and C.2). The minor addition of calcium was considered to have little effect on the chemical behaviour of the permeant. Test # 2 Test 2 was conducted with pH 6.5 permeant, for the reasons and in the manner outlined above. To test the behaviour of attenuation in the soil-fluid system at zinc concentrations similar to those found near the midpoint of the flow path, the Galkeno 300 drainage water was diluted to 30 mg/1 zinc. This dilution was accomplished using a solution of distilled water containing sufficient CaS04 to match the electrical conductivity (EC) of the mine drainage (-2000 pS/cm). This was done to avoid observations resulting from changes in ionic strength, rather than resulting from soil-fluid interaction. The field observations indicate that ionic strength changes little over the flowpath, and this maintenance of a background ionic strength is consistent with field conditions. CaS04 was chosen as the background electrolyte because C a  2+  and SO4 " are 2  the dominant ions in the mine drainage. Alteration of attenuating behaviour was expected to be minimised by maintaining ionic strength through these common ions. Test 4  Test 4 is more properly two sequential tests on the same samples. One concern about the attenuation which is occurring at the Galkeno 300 site is that the pH of the drainage may decrease in the future (Kwong et al., 1994); as previously mentioned, zinc mobility increases with increasing acidity, and the concern is whether the attenuated zinc could be rapidly released  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  64 to the receiving environment. Test 4 is designed as a flow-through desorption test. Samples from Test 1, with their attenuated zinc, were subjected to barren permeant of lower pH. While permeant contained no zinc or manganese, pH and ionic strength were adjusted as discussed above, using Ca(OH)2 and CaSC>4, respectively. Effluent zinc and manganese levels and pH were monitored as in previous tests.  In the first stage (Test 4a), influent pH was adjusted to pH 5.5. In mine drainage situations, acidity can be buffered at ~pH 5.5 by dissolution of iron carbonate minerals (eg. siderite) (Blowes and Ptacek, 1994). These carbonates are major components of the gangue mineral assemblage in the Galkeno ore body and as such are ubiquitous in the rocks contacting the mine drainage. Another significant buffering point with respect to mine drainage comes from the dissolution of aluminum oxide minerals at ~pH 4.5; Test 4B involved adjustment of influent pH to this level through the use of  3.2.4  H2SO4  (for the arguments regarding common ions made earlier).  Selective E x t r a c t i o n M a t e r i a l s a n d M e t h o d s  Selective extraction is a technique for determining the speciation of metals in soils and sediments. The concept of selective extraction relies on the dissolution of a particular soil metal species or group of species through the application of an appropriate chemical reagent; numerous extraction schemes have been proposed, most being variations on the principles outlined by Tessier et al.(1979). Table 3.2 outlines five possible general geochemical forms that metals in soils can take, as well as the common reagents used to extract each form.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  65 Table 3.2. Metal species and reagents which selectively extract these species (from Tessier et al., 1979). Fraction  Metal species  Treatment  Extracting reagent  1  Exchangeable  1 M MgCI , pH 7.0  25° C, 1 hour agitation  2  Carbonate  1 M NaOAc, pH 5.0 w/ HOAc  25° C, 1 hour agitation  3  Oxide  0.04 M N H O H H C I in 2 5 % (v/v) HOAc + 3.2 M NhUOAc  96° C, 6 hours with intermittent agitation  4  Organic  30 % H 0 (pH 2.0 w / H N 0 ) + 0.02 M H N 0  85° C, 2 hr intermittent agitation; 2 addition of H 0 , 3 hr intermittent agitation  2  2  2  2  3  n d  3  5  Residual*  2  2  HNO3/HCI  Complete digestion (sub-boiling) •Residual digestion in Tessier et al. (1979) is accomplished with 5:1 H F - H C 1 0 . These acids are extremely aggressive and their use requires dedicated facilities which were not available. The alternative nitric/hydrochloric acid digestion is considered a 'total recoverable metals' digestion which does not dissolve silicate minerals (USEPA, 1986). 4  The Tessier et al. (1979) method is intended to be performed in a sequential fashion, proceeding down the species listed in Table 3.2 from Fraction 1 through Fraction 5. Extractions are to be performed in centrifuge tubes; extractant and solid are to be separated following the completion of each extraction through centrifugation, and the next extraction in the sequence is then performed on the residue. As previously discussed, a fraction of the organic matter in the soils from the Galkeno 300 soils is less dense than water or than the aqueous extracting solutions; as such, separation via centrifugation is not a viable option. Considerable effort was expended in trying to devise a system for separating low density organic material from extracting solutions; however, the avenues investigated did not prove fruitful for myriad reasons, primarily involving quantitatively reserving the residue for further extraction.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  66 Several other workers (Gupta et al., 1990; Bendell-Young et al., 1992; Thomas and BendellYoung, 1998) have taken the Tessier et al. (1979) scheme and applied the extracting solutions for the individual fractions to five discrete samples. This procedure is referred to as separate or simultaneous selective extraction, as opposed to sequential selective extraction. The interpretation of results is somewhat more complicated, but is simplified in that each extraction step will also extract the metals bound in the fractions above it. For example, the oxide extraction will also liberate carbonate and exchangeable metals. This is a result of the nature of the extracting solutions; each solution is increasingly aggressive as the sequential extraction proceeds. Thus, determination of the respective metal distributions can be accomplished through subtraction of results of the preceding fractions in Table 3.2.  The method of selective extraction employed in the Galkeno 300 study was a modified Tessier et al. (1979) approach that employed a separate extraction procedure. Contaminated samples collected from within the mine drainage flowpath (sites A , C and E) were subjected to separate extractions for metals associated with the exchangeable, carbonate, oxide and organic fractions. In addition, these samples were subjected to 'total recoverable metals' digestion (USEPA, 1986) using hot nitric and hydrochloric acids. This method does not recover metals bound within the lattice of silicate minerals; however, these metals are released exceedingly slowly under environmental conditions, and this method is commonly employed to estimate  environmentally  significant metal concentrations. The other major modifcation to the Tessier et al. (1979) procedure was to repeat the application of extracting reagent until zinc recovery declined to a  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  67 minimum. This approach is recommended by Rauret et al. (1989a, b) for dealing with highly contaminated sediments.  3.2.5  C h e m i c a l Solutions  A l l laboratory solutions were prepared from reagent grade chemicals and distilled water. Zinc solutions were prepared from a stock solution of 10 000 ppm Zn in 0.5% nitric acid (HNO3); this stock solution was prepared from reagent grade zinc nitrate (Zn(N03)), and was diluted to interstocks and dosing solutions as appropriate. Zinc concentrations in solution were confirmed via A A S . Adjustment of pH was accomplished using reagent grade nitric acid and sodium hydroxide (NaOH), except where otherwise noted. Glass- and plasticware used for preparation, storage or experimental purposes was acid washed, rinsed four times with tap water and three times with distilled water and air dried, to minimise the risk of contamination arising from metals of interest on the wetted surfaces of experimental apparatus. 3.2.6  Metals Analysis  Metal concentrations in reagent solutions and in supernatant resulting from batch adsorption and leaching cell tests were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), utilising either a Varian SpectrAA 220 Fast Sequential Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer or a Thermo Jarrell Ash Video 22 aa/ae Spectrophotometer- model 957. Standard solutions were prepared from Fisher 1000 mg/1 certified reference standards, diluted to the desired concentration with 0.5% HNO3.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  68  CHAPTER 4 RESULTS A N D DISCUSSION The results of the laboratory and field investigations form the basis of the conclusions and recommendations arising from the study of Galkeno 300 adit drainage. Chapter 4 presents the results of these investigations and provides discussion about the nature and implications of the results. Results are presented in the same order as the methods discussed in the previous chapter.  4.1 Results of Galkeno 300 Site Investigation The results of the detailed site investigation carried out during the period June through August, 2000 provide valuable insight into the behaviour of the Galkeno 300 drainage system over this period and are paramount to the objectives of this study.  4.1.1 Temperature and precipitation monitoring The results of temperature and precipitation monitoring are summarised in Figures 4.1 and 4.2. As previously indicated, gaps in temperature data are due to absences of U K H M environmental staff; during these absences, precipitation accumulated in the precipitation gauge and was cumulatively accounted for in the first precipitation measurement following the absence. Absences are indicated by lack of temperature data (Fig. 4.2); lack of precipitation data (Fig. 4.1) may indicate either staff absence or lack of precipitation. The cumulative measurement of precipitation data during absences provides an estimate of total precipitation input to the field site over the period, and as such minimises the likelihood of underestimating dilution due to input of meteoric water.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Figure 4.1. Precipitation measured at Elsa Y T , summer 2000, elevation 850 m (2800 ft) asl.  I Max. temp. I Min. temp.  30 -, 25 0 20 o  1  2 15 a Q)  10  5  Date (dd/mm/yy) Figure 4.2. Maximum/ minimum temperatures at Elsa Y T , summer 2000, elevation 850 m (2800 ft) asl.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  70  4.1.2 Flow measurement Flow volume of adit drainage was measured at two points, at the Galkeno 300 adit and at a point immediately upstream of Highway 11 (Fig. 3.2), prior to discharge of adit drainage into Christal Creek; the results of this flow measurement are given in Table 4.1 and displayed in Figure 4.3. The spike in flow volume at the discharge to Christal Creek on August 4 reflects anomalously high contribution from precipitation in the preceding week (Fig. 4.1); if this discharge value is withdrawn from the data set, the remaining discharge values indicate that there is roughly 16% greater flow volume at the bottom of the site than at the adit. This increase in discharge reflects the input of base flow to the adit drainage over the catchment, and is considered to be an appropriate estimate of the degree of dilution that commonly occurs in the catchment prior to discharge to Christal Creek. The precision of the v-notch weir method of discharge measurement is considered to be +/-10% (Grant and Dawson, 1995). Approximately 70% of the flow volume followed the transect through water sample sites 11-9-6-5-3-1 (Figure 3.2).  4.1.3 Water quality Water quality at the Galkeno 300 site was characterised through in situ measurement and through chemical analysis of samples collected at the site during the site investigation. The complete analytical and in situ results can be found in the appendices. Appendix C l summarises the water quality results according to sampling date; this format is conducive to examining spatial changes in water quality on a given sampling day. Appendix C.2 summarises the water quality data on the basis of sampling site; this format allows temporal changes in water quality at a particular site to be examined. The following discussion highlights pertinent results that provide  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  71 insight into the geochemical system in place at the Galkeno 300 site; unless otherwise noted, the analytical data from August 21, 2000 will be called upon for illustration. Table 4.1. Measured input and output discharges at Galkeno 300 site, July-August 2000.  Date  Input: Galkeno 300 adit (L/s)  Output: 300 drainage @ Christal Ck. (L/s)  Output Q/ Input Q ratio  July 22,2000 July 29,2000 August 4,2000 August 12,2000 August 21,2000 August 30,2000  6.31 6.85 8.16 7.78 9.23 7.78  8.16 7.78 14.22 8.74 10.76 8.26  1 29 1 14 1 74 1 12 1 17 1.06  ____ Average 1.16* * average ratio by which downstream discharge exceeds upstream discharge, with anomalous data from August 4 factored out.  Figure 4.3. Flow volumes exiting Galkeno 300 adit and entering Christal Creek, summer 2000.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  72 4.1.3.1 Zn and Mn concentrations in mine drainage Dissolved and total zinc and manganese concentrations at the Galkeno 300 adit (water sample site 11, Fig. 3.2) were found to be on the order of 150 mg/1 and 200 mg/1, respectively, over the course of the sampling season. At the discharge of Galkeno 300 drainage to Christal Creek (water sample site 1, Fig. 3.2), the dissolved and total zinc and manganese concentrations were, on average, 2.1 mg/1 and 0.5 mg/1, respectively, over the same time period. Table 4.2 and Figure 4.4 display dissolved and total metal concentrations at the Galkeno 300 adit and at the discharge to Christal Creek (water sample sites 11 and 1, respectively) over the period of the site investigation; the difference between total and dissolved metal concentrations indicates the amount of metal transported on particulate matter larger than 0.45 um (the pore size of the filter employed during collection of dissolved sample). Some samples indicate dissolved concentrations greater than total concentrations; the Pacific Environmental Science Centre's Inorganic Chemistry Section applies the following criteria when undertaking examination of analytical results. •  If the dissolved and total metals data are within ± 5 * Method Detection Limit (MDL), then data are deemed acceptable, and no re-analysis is required.  •  If the dissolved value is greater than the total value by a Relative Percent Difference (RPD) of less than or equal to 10%, then data are deemed acceptable, and no re-analysis is required.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  13  D4D  o  I  M  o  3  o  VO od rN fN  o o  3  rs i~ ai  e s  CN CN  *  ro  © o  oo VO  vn  s  t-;  £2  *  o  CN  rr ©  Ml  o  3  OS OS  o  r~  o  OS  es tu w> es  CN  VO  OS  rs  CN  ON  _e  '3 u  oo  ro vo vo CN  rr  ro  o  OS  o o  O r-  SO  ~  *—< '  CN m  r-~  o  in  SO  vn m  rr  VO  oo o  OS  3  VO  rr  o  i  rr'  ~*  »—<  "O  vn  ©  OS  ro ro  rr  m  rr  rr  I—1  VO  vq  :  ©  rrr  vq  o  OS  ©  vo 1—4  o  oo  o CN  »—»  o vn  O  ©  ©  ^4  CN  OS CN  o  d  d  rr  rT  >n  vn vn  ©  CN  o o  1  a  i—t  vq  rr  oo VO vq  00 ro ro CN  OS  vn  CN  oo  ,—i r~  s  3 fN  -™  rrr  CN  o  in  ^  vo  o  ,—1  rs  </3  o  O  rr  vn  m  vn ©  ©  rr  o  o  OS CN  vn  OS  in  rr ©  VO  <N  <  oo oo  oo SO  CN CN  CO  OS ro  '  o  —<  «  ~-  lo c  2  o o ro o fl  ro  1=1  ro  o c <u  £t  "5  cs  O  wo  e o  o rr  oo  00  OS  o OS  vn  00  vn  in  00  vn  00 ro d  ^«  o vn  rs  1—<  3  1-J  vo  i  O rs  m vo  ro  r—1  OS  d  CN ro  vn vo  O  ©  00  O vn vq d  ro O  *—<  OS  CN OS CN CN  O rr ©  cs IU O <u  rf OS  _o s  ro  Q.  ro  IO 0  00 0  CN  O 00 ro CN  es & >[PH la  86.4  <U  3  e N e cs  e  !-5  f-H  O  0O 0O  CN vn  o  VO. ro  vn  rr  CN  "3 o  •o B  CS  T3  >  rr  CS  vn vn  OS  vo vn  CN  VO ro  rf  3  es H  vn d  *-*  vn OS CN  O  0  es s  0  Os ro d  vn ro CN d  OS 00  I—H  0  vn rr  rt  0  rr q  ro O OS d  |S  O CN  rr rr  u s  0  CN Os CN  IN 3 O V  O vn vq  3 , O"  — :  rs  <S0  I  C  rs  0  rr  1  3  OS  5  N •o  •o >  <u >  o H  c N Hi  ca ro  1  3  '3  C  N T3  <L>  >  > O  flV  +-»  c N "ca o  H  o  a  o _3  cs  >  es IZ  u 3  74  Water sampling site 1 1 : Galkeno 300 adit 240  24-May  13-Jun  3-Jul  23-Jul  12-Aug  1-Sep  S a m p l i n g period (Day-month) j,  Hiss  M n — B — D i s s . Zn  Tnt M n  A  Tnt Zn  x  A) W a t e r s a m p l i n g site 1: Discharge to Christal Creek  O)  E, c g ra c 0) u c o o 24-May  13-Jun  3-Jul  23-Jul  12-Aug  1-Sep  S a m p l i n g period (Day-month) .  Hiss  Mn  •  Diss  Zn  T A  n  t  Mn  x  Tnt Zn  B) Figure 4.4. Total and dissolved metal concentrations in Galkeno 300 drainage, summer 2000. A) Z n and M n concentrations in flow exiting Galkeno 300 adit. B ) Z n and M n concentrations entering receiving environment (Christal Creek).  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  75  PvPD  is calculated using the following formula: RPD =  (Diss - Tot) (Diss + Tot) / 2  X 100%  The dissolved metals values (DMET) which exceed total metals values (TMET) but meet the above requirements are considered to be the result of a combination of analytical (dilution + method) error and sampling error arising from D M E T and T M E T analyses of different physical samples.  Notwithstanding the uncertainty arising from dissolved and total metal values of individual samples, the similarity of D M E T and T M E T for specific sample sites on specific dates indicates that little metal is being transported with filterable particulate material. Further, the D M E T and T M E T values clearly show the spatial changes in aqueous metal concentrations in the Galkeno 300 mine drainage.  The coincident reduction of zinc and manganese concentrations with distance along the flowpath is displayed in Figure 4.5. The results shown are for August 30,2000; results from other sampling dates (Appendix C. 1) display similar patterns. Of particular note is the removal of the majority of both zinc and manganese in the region of shallow subsurface flow; the joint decrease in aqueous Zn and M n suggests that the two metals are being removed by the same or similar processes operating under the geochemical conditions present in the shallow soil environment.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  76 250  -I []  Flowpath through water sample sites 11-9-6-5-3-1  --Q-Mn —X-Zn  i" H 0  250  500  750  1000  "I 1250  IBI—i 1500  Bl 1750  Distance f r o m Galkeno 300 adit (m)  Figure 4.5. Reduction of total zinc and manganese concentrations in adit drainage with flowpath distance (August 30,2000).  4.1.3.2 pH of mine drainage The pH of the mine drainage was found to vary spatially, and to a more limited extent, temporally; Figure 4.6 displays the pH along the main flow transect (sites 11-9-6-5-3-1, Figure 3.2) for the major sampling events. The drainage emanating from the Galkeno 300 adit was found to be generally slightly acidic, in the range of pH 5.9 to 6.8. The pH immediately decreases to a generally below pH 5.5 within the first 250 m of flow downslope of the Galkeno 300 adit; the presence of abundant orange iron oxide precipitates in this region indicate that this decrease in pH is due to oxidation of ferrous iron and release of acidity through hydrolysis, according to the general process reviewed in reaction 2.2. This acidity is consumed via reaction with soil components over the following ~1000 m, as the mine drainage flows through the shallow soils of the site. This neutralisation occurs despite the contribution of acidity due to oxidation of manganese through hydrolysis over this same section of flowpath (Fig. 4.5). The  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  77 slight decrease in pH in the final 500 m of flow is thought to reflect the influence of organic acids; the slope over this final 500 m is much reduced, the accumulation of moss is much thicker and saturated conditions prevail. It is common to find waters draining such environments showing influence of organic acidity (Bendell-Young, 1999). pH of adit drainage vs. flowpath length  0  6-Jun  - - Q. - .20-Jun  —A—5-Jul -  X - 22-Jul 1  -  0  500  1000  12-Aug —21-Aug 30-Aug  1500  Distance (m)  Figure 4.6. Variation of p H with distance downstream of Galkeno 300 adit, June-August 2000.  The temporal variation in pH throughout the period of site investigation is poorly understood, but is thought to be influenced by multiple factors, including temperature, flow volume and balance between the seasonal generation and neutralisation of acidity. Early season (June 6) pH is lower across the middle and lower reaches of the site than during other sampling periods (Figure 4.6). This is postulated to be a function of the lack of development of a thawed active layer through which acidic flows could access the neutralisation capacity of the shallow soils; little neutralisation can occur if the mine drainage flows over the frozen ground surface. Later pH  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  78 data display considerable variability, delivering mine effluent to the receiving waters with a pH ranging from 6.5 to 7.7.  4.1.3.3 Eh of Galkeno 300 drainage  Oxidation-reduction potential of Galkeno 300 waters was undertaken from July 29, 2000 on. The ORP probe was unavailable prior to this time. Figure 4.7 displays the results of this measurement, converted to conventional Eh units (mV). As with the preceding pH data, Eh results vary within a narrow range over time, and more considerably across the site. The initial rise in Eh from 0 to 250 m corresponds with the turbulent surface flow acquiring abundant oxygen via cascading over the Galkeno 300 waste rock dump. This initial increase in oxidation capacity also reflects the completion of the oxidation of ferrous iron and the consequent decrease in consumption of oxidation capacity. This peak in oxidation potential at 250 m is followed by a slow decline in Eh over the next 1000 m; this reflects subsurface flow and little opportunity for dissolution of atmospheric oxygen, as well as oxidation of reduced forms of manganese over this stretch. Eh increases sharply between ~1100 and ~1400 m, as flows return to surface, are locally turbulent, and are exposed to atmospheric oxygen. Between -1400 and 1743 m, Eh decreases again, this time likely due to the addition of copious amounts of finely divided organic matter to the flow from the thawing of permafrost in the lower reaches of the drainage, between sites 1 and 3 (Fig 3.2).  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  79 It should be noted that the oxidation potential between station 9 (250 m) and station 5 (1100 m) (Fig. 4.7) is insufficient to result in inorganic oxidation of reduced manganese. It has been shown that oxidation potentials necessary for the inorganic precipitation of manganese do not occur in nature below pH values of ~9 (Krauskopf and Bird, 1995;Sikora et al., 2000). High concentrations of manganese are removed from the mine drainage over this stretch where Eh o f a d i t d r a i n a g e v s . f l o w p a t h l e n g t h 600  ,  0  500  1000  1500  Distance (m)  Figure 4.7.  Variation of E h with distance downstream of Galkeno 300 adit, July/August 2000.  oxidising conditions prevail; purplish-black residues typical of manganese oxide minerals (McKenzie, 1989) were observed in quantity over this interval. It is most likely that bacterially mediated oxidation is responsible for the precipitation of solid manganese oxide (Harvey and Fuller, 1998; Bargar et al., 2000; Sikora et al., 2000; Stein et al., 2001), containing considerable amounts of zinc, in this region of the flow path.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  80 4.1.4 M e t a l c o n t e n t o f G a l k e n o 300 site soils  Concentrations of 29 metals (Al, Sb, As, Ba, Be, B, Cd, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Mo, N i , P, K , Se, Si, A g , Na, Sr, S, Sn, Ti, V , and Zn) were measured in soil samples collected at the Galkeno 300 site. The complete set of analytical results, along with sample location and a brief sample description, is provided in Appendix D. The following discussion focuses on the distribution of zinc and manganese in site soils.  4.1.4.1 Metal content of soils in flowpath and background samples Zinc and manganese concentrations of flowpath and background samples from sites A , C and E (Figure 3.2) are shown in Table 4.3. These samples represent soil Zn and M n concentrations in soils lower, middle and upper areas of the site, respectively. Figure 4.8 shows soil Zn and M n concentrations for the upper organic and lower mineral horizons at each site. At site E, low background levels of Zn and M n are slightly higher in the lower mineral horizon over the upper organic horizon. Mineral soils tend to have higher metal content than does plant tissue (Krauskopf and Bird, 1995); the background soils at site E conform to this tendency. Samples taken within the flowpath display 2-3 orders of magnitude greater concentrations of Zn and M n ; the scale of the figure has been truncated to provided detail at the low end. The upper organic horizon has accumulated nearly 3 fold more Zn and 18 fold more M n than the underlying mineral horizon. Recall that site E is the soil sampling site in closest proximity to the Galkeno 300 adit, and the soils here are in contact with mine drainage carrying higher concentrations of metals than are soils further along the flowpath.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  81 Table 4.3. Background and elevated total soil metal contents at selected sample sites.  Sample site  Horizon  Background Background Elevated [Mn] [Zn] (mg/kg) [Zn] (mg/kg) (mg/kg)  Elevated [Mn] (mg/kg)  A  upper organic  315  3010  1160  1210  A  lower mineral  289  277  532  482  C  upper organic  90  28600  4860  224000  C  lower mineral  237  1370  170  418  E  upper organic  156  13800  61  61300  E  lower mineral  312  4590  479  3344  Site C is located near the geographic center of the region of subsurface flow (Figure 4.5); this region is where the majority of the removal of both Zn and M n from mine drainage has been shown to occur. Soils in the flowpath at site C are in contact with moderate metal concentrations (20-30 mg/1 Zn and 15-25 mg/1 Mn). Background soil Zn concentrations (Figure 4.8) are similar to those at site E, with higher values in the lower mineral soil than in the upper organic soil. The background lower mineral horizon was also low in Mn, as at site E; however, the upper organic layer at site C contained elevated Mn. This is unexpected, as the background sample site was elevated ~2 m above the flowpath, and 15m laterally removed. Sampling equipment decontamination was carried out via scrubbing with material to be sampled before collecting the actual aliquot for analyses. Contamination is unlikely, as the background zinc is low; in addition, the field background duplicate taken at this site provides similar results (Appendix D). The high background M n value is therefore taken as representative at site C.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  82 The flowpath samples collected at site C show remarkable enrichment of both Zn and M n in the upper organic layer (Figure 4.8). On sampling, the upper organic layer was noted to be very coarse and black when wet, similar to charred wood. On drying, the sample powdered to a purplish black dust that is characteristic of manganese oxides (McKenzie, 1989). This sample was found to be nearly 3 % Zn and over 22 % Mn, by weight (Fig. 4.8). Interestingly, the lower mineral horizon within the flowpath show little elevation of Mn, despite the preponderance of M n in the overlying organic horizon. The lower mineral horizon did contain elevated zinc concentrations; this preferential uptake of zinc in the lower mineral horizon suggests that cation exchange within the mineral soil may be playing a minor role. However, it must be emphasized that the majority of zinc attenuation is occurring within the upper organic layer.  At site A , the lowest elevation soil sample site, the soils are in contact with mine drainage carrying low concentrations of Zn (0.27 - 2.0 mg/1) and virtually no M n (at or near detection (0.001 mg/1)). Background levels of zinc are very similar in both organic and mineral soils; once again, background M n in the upper organic horizon exceeds that in the lower mineral horizon. This is similar to the distribution noted at site C, although the M n concentration in the upper organic layer at site A is less than 1/3 of that at site C. The flowpath sample returned very similar M n concentrations to the background sample; this is as expected, due to the negligible amounts of manganese measured nearby during water sampling. Zn concentrations of the upper organic horizon within the flowpath are 2 orders of magnitude above background. This demonstrates that, despite the relatively low (up to 2 mg/1) concentrations of zinc in this section  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  83  SiteE  61 300  13 800 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000  Background [Zn]  Flowpath [Zn]  Background [Mn]  Flowpath [Mn]  CT CT  28 600  E  7500  o  6000  «3  SiteC  224 000  a •t  c o c  o o  4500 3000 1500  +-> Background [Zn]  Flowpath [Zn]  Background [Mn]  Flowpath [Mn]  Site A  3000 2000 1000  Background [Zn]  Flowpath [Zn]  • Upper organic horizon  Background [Mn]  Flowpath [Mn]  • Lower mineral horizon  Figure 4.8. Background and flowpath Z n and M n concentrations in soils of upper organic and lower mineral horizons at soil sampling sites E (highest elevation), C , and E (lowest elevation).  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  84 of the drainage, the near surface organics have removed substantial amounts of zinc from the flow. Flow at this site is partially on surface; the minimal contact that the drainage has with the organic material when flowing in this fashion nevertheless appears to be sufficient to allow adsorption of aqueous zinc ions to occur onto the surface organics. Mineral soils within the flowpath contain background concentrations of zinc; this indicates that transfer of aqueous zinc to the surface of mineral soil particles is not occurring. It appears that mineral soils provide little in the way of attenuation capacity at lower elevations.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  4.2 Results of Laboratory Investigation of Natural Attenuation Representative samples of Galkeno 300 site soils were collected during the detailed site investigation. Subsequently, these samples were subjected to a laboratory investigation to determine zinc adsorption capacity of the various samples as well as the mechanism(s) of zinc attenuation that are operating at the Galkeno 300 site. This investigation consisted of selective extraction procedures, batch and column adsorption experiments, as well as physical and chemical characterisation of mineral and organic samples.  4.2.1 Physical and Chemical Characterisation of Galkeno 300 site soils The soils of the upper organic horizon and the lower mineral horizon have substantially different physical and chemical properties; the following chemical and physical characteristics of these soils were assessed: soil pH, cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, total carbon content, and mineralogy. The results of the chemical and physical characterisation are presented in Table 4.4. 4.2.1.1 Cation exchange capacity  The cation exchange capacity of upper organic and lower mineral soils differed considerably. The C E C of the upper organic soils was determined to range from 131 to 180 meq/100 g. In contrast, the C E C of the lower mineral soils ranged from 21 to 54 meq/100 g. The significantly higher C E C of the upper organic soils is indicative of the adsorption capacity of this horizon.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  86 Table 4.4. Physical and chemical properties of selected Galkeno 300 site soils.  Sample site  Horizon  Soil pH  Cation Exchange Capacity (meq/ 100 g)  Specific Surface Area (g/m )  Total Carbon Content  2  (%)  Soil organic matter (%)  Specific Gravity  1.515  E  upper organic  5.09  180  144  31.85  54.9  E  lower mineral  5.11  48  76  9.75  16.8  C  upper organic  5.11  149  160  47.48  81.9  C  lower mineral  5.19  21  45  5.66  9.8  A  upper organic  4.06  131  224  47.96  82.7  A  lower mineral  5.58  54  54  7.83  13.5  Clay Mineralogy*  illite, kaolinite, vermiculitemontmorillonite, chlorite 1.514 illite, kaolinite, vermiculitemontmorillonite, chlorite 1.432 illite, kaolinite, vermiculitemontmorillonite, chlorite  in order of decreasing abundance  4.2.1.2 SoilpH The 1:2 soil water method of Thomas (1996) produced soil pH results in the range of pH 4.065.11 for upper organic soils across the site; lower mineral soil p H was found to be slightly more basic, ranging from pH 5.11-5.58 (Table 4.4). Soil pH is considered to play a minor role in the attenuation occurring at the Galkeno 300 site; the pH of the mine drainage dominates the system.  4.2.1.3 Specific surface area Upper organic soils were found to have 2 to 4 times the specific surface area of lower mineral soils. Organic samples were found to have surface areas ranging from 144 to 224 g/m , while 2  the surface areas of mineral samples were found to range from 45 to 76 g/m (Table 4.4). The 2  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  87 high specific surface area of the organic soils, in combination with the higher C E C of this upper horizon, is indicative of the relatively greater adsorptive capacity of this material.  4.2.1.4 Total carbon content Determination of a soil's carbon content permits an estimate of the proportion of the soil mass that consists of organic matter. Table 4.4 displays the total carbon content of upper organic and lower mineral soil samples, as well as the equivalent % soil organic matter. The upper organic soils range from 54.9 to 82.7% organic matter; the lower mineral soils have from 9.8 to 16.8% organic content. Carbon makes up approximately 58% of organic matter (Nelson and Sommers, 1982); thus, a soil with 58% carbon content consists 100% of organic matter.  4.2.1.5 Soil clay mineralogy The four.diffractograms (untreated, K-saturated, heated, and glycol-saturated) for samples from the lower mineral horizon at sites A , C, and E are shown in Figure 4.9. Inspection of the plots for the three samples shows that the samples are very similar in composition. The data are displayed as diffraction intensity vs. 29; d-spacings (in A) corresponding to the peaks are displayed on the top plot (sample 53b, site E). Characteristic peaks of illite (Moore and Reynolds, 1997) are present at 10.19, 5.03 and 3.35 A, and are unaltered by the different treatments. The 12.65 A peak which shifts to 15.72-16.86 A indicates the present of montmorillonite; however, this appears to be an interlayered phase, as a pure montmorillonite diffraction would shift to the 17-18 A range. In addition, the absence of 5.64 or 8.46 A reflections on the glycol-solvated scan argues against the presence of montmorillonite The small  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  88 XRD results, sample 53b, site E  0  5  10  15  20  25  30  35  2 theta (degrees)  XRD results, Sample 67b, site C  0  5  10  15 20 2 Itkfla (degrees)  25  30  35  XRD results, sample 35Adup2, site A  y  ...  \JL  I  \i*.  jW \  Ju 1  1  5  10  Healed (550 C)  Olycol sard  (1  1  I 0  Ksafd  j\J 1  1  1  15  20  25  2 theta (degrees)  Untreated 1 30  1  35  Figure 4.9. X-ray diffraction patterns of lower mineral soils from soil sampling sites E (highest elevation), C , and E (lowest elevation). Characteristic peaks are identified on the top diffractogram.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  89 14.30 A peak which remains after heating to 550° C indicates the presence of only minor chlorite; this is corroborated by the 4.75 A peak on the untreated scan. The presence of kaolinite is inferred from the strong 7.18 A peak all scans except that of the heated sample; the 3.59 A peak is also characteristic of kaolinite. A n abundance of vermiculite is inferred from the large 14.30 A peak in the glycol-saturated sample (which indicates vermiculite and/or chlorite) in combination with the collapse of the majority of this peak on potassium saturation (14.3 A peak after K-saturation indicates chlorite only). The very small peak at 4.28 A indicates the minimal amount of quartz in the sample. A l l interpretation of results is based on information in Moore and Reynolds (1997).  In summary: illite and kaolinite dominate the clay fraction of these samples, along with a phase that exhibits some swelling characteristics (although less than pure montmorillonite) and collapses to an illite structure on potassium saturation. Moore and Reynolds (1997) indicate that such phases are poorly understood, but represent either interlayered vermiculite-montmorillonite or an expandable phase with layer charge between that of the pure vermiculite and montmorillonite minerals. Minor chlorite is also present. This mix of clay minerals is to be expected, as the parent material for these soils is weathered and glacially eroded granite and metamorphosed marine sedimentary rock (Bond, 1998).  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  90 4.2.1.6 Specific Gravity of organic samples  The results of the specific gravity determination on organic samples are provided in Table 4.4. The results for sites C and E show similar specific gravity, while the specific gravity of the soil at site A is slightly lower. This reflects the lesser degree of decomposition of organic soils in the fully saturated lower portion of the site, as observed in the field and in the lab.  4.2.2  Sorption capacities of Galkeno 300 soils using batch adsorption tests  The zinc sorption capacities of mineral and organic soils from the Galkeno 300 site were evaluated using the batch adsorption test. Batch adsorption results are commonly graphically represented by a curve known as an adsorption isotherm (Kinniburgh, 1986; Roy et al., 1992; Yong et al., 1992; Krauskopf and Bird, 1995); this depicts the quantity of solute sorbed by a material as a function of either initial or equilibrium concentration of the solute remaining in the liquid phase. This relationship can be described mathematically by an adsorption equation. Kinniburgh (1986) discusses a variety of different adsorption equations; the most widely used is the Freundlich isotherm (Roy et al., 1992; Sparks, 1995; Maraqua, 2001), which takes the mathematical form q=K C  (4.1)  b  F  where q is the mass of sorbate per unit mass sorbent, K is the Freundlich constant, C is the F  concentration of the sorbate in the liquid phase, and b is another constant (Yong et al., 1992). The values of the constants are functions of the affinity of the sorbate for the sorbent, and are determined through nonlinear regression such that the curve of the Freundlich equation best fits  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  91 the batch adsorption data. The data can be displayed in terms of either initial or equilibrium sorbate concentrations (Figure 4.10); plotting mass sorbed vs. initial concentration provides a wider distribution of data and reduces the sensitivity of the model to experimental error (Li, 1999).  ^  E S  15  rg an ic 10 il  S  MbM ineral s o i l N  "S g> SJ  500  1000  1500  2000  Initial solution concentration (mg/L)  A)  Adsorption data showing mass sorbed against initial zinc concentrations.  _  15  A  rg an lc so 11 M).M in oral s o i l  SI es SI  0  500  1000  1500  2000  Equilibrium solution concentration (mg/L B)  Adsorption data showing mass sorbed against equilibrium zinc concentrations.  Figure 4.10. Example plots of batch adsorption data. A ) Plot of mass sorbed (q) vs. initial zinc concentration (C,), showing broad distribution of data. B) Plot of q vs. equilibrium concentration (C ), showing narrower e  distribution range.  Freundlich isotherms were constructed from the batch adsorption data for Galkeno 300 soils. Figure 4.11 summarises these isotherms, as well as corresponding equilibrium solution pH  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  92 values; units and scales on the horizontal and left vertical axes of the six plots are identical to facilitate visual comparison of adsorption results. In general, the Freundlich equation describes the batch adsorption data very well; both the Freundlich equation and the correlation coefficient (or coefficient of determination) are displayed on each plot for reference. Table 4.5 summarises the Kf and b values, and the correlation coefficients (R values), for each soil data set. The 2  correlation coefficient for the fit between the batch adsorption data and the fitted Freundlich isotherm is greater than 0.98 in all cases; this indicates greater than 98% confidence that the Freundlich isotherms accurately describe the observed data. Table 4.5. Summary of K , b, and R values for Galkeno 300 batch adsorption data. 2  F  Sample site  Horizon  KF  b  R  2  E  upper organic  67.31  0.76  0.99440  E  lower mineral  123.6  0.57  0.99314  C  upper organic  51.2  0.82  0.99745  C  lower mineral  141.89  0.56  0.98793  A  upper organic  76.31  0.72  0.99347  A  lower mineral  92.72  0.69  0.98928  The upper organic soils, represented in Figure 4.11 A), C), and E), showed a substantially greater capacity to remove zinc from the test solutions. Within the organic soils, the soil from site C proved to have the highest sorption capacity. Soil metal data in Table 4.3 shows that the organic soils at site C have the highest background manganese levels found in the Galkeno 300 study area; the high organic (Table 4.4) and manganese contents of the site C organic soil horizon are likely jointly responsible for the high zinc sorption capacity of these soils. Table 4.3  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  93  Figure 4.11.  Results of batch adsorption testing of Galkeno 300 organic and mineral soils, showing mass  sorbed per unit mass of soil material, and equilibrium p H , vs. initial solution Z n concentration. Batch tests were conducted at 25° C ; initial p H of all solutions was p H 6.5.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  94  also shows that the 'elevated zinc' levels at site C are the highest found at the study site; the lab evidence from the batch adsorption test suggests that the high levels of soil zinc found at site C during the field investigation are the result of the high sorption capacity of this soil material. A related observation is that the C E C of site C organic soil is not the highest at the Galkeno 300 site; this suggests that zinc sorption is occurring at least in part through specific adsorption rather than solely as a function of cation exchange. Specific complexation of zinc with manganese oxides, in site C soils to a great extent and to lesser degrees across the site, is an obvious consideration (McKenzie, 1989; Best et al., 1999; Post, 1999) and this process is likely an important mechanism of zinc removal from the Galkeno 300 mine drainage as it traverses the flow path between the mine and Christal Creek.  The lower mineral soils, represented in Figure 4.11 B), D), and F), showed a lesser capacity to remove zinc from the test solutions. Of the three mineral soils, the mineral sample from site A displayed the highest zinc sorption capacity. At site A , the C E C and soil pH are marginally higher than at sites C and E (Table 4.4); these factors could contribute to the greater observed sorption capacity of site A mineral soils. Within the mineral soils, sorption capacity is not correlated with background soil manganese levels (Table 4.3); it is postulated that mineral soil manganese may not be associated with oxide minerals and thus may not provide the additional sorption capacity typical of manganese oxides (McKenzie, 1989; Best et al., 1999; Post, 1999), and found in the upper organic horizon at the Galkeno 300 study site (Table 4.3). As the lower  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  95 mineral soils appear to play a minor role in the natural attenuation that is occurring at this site, no further explanation of the variation in zinc sorption capacities of site mineral soils was sought. Equilibrium solution p H  Equilibrium pH results for the six soils subjected to batch adsorption testing are provided in Figure 4.11 to facilitate comparison with sorption data. These equilibrium pH results are summarised on a single plot in Figure 4.12 to permit comparison of changes in equilibrium solution pH between the six tests. In general, all tests show the same pattern of initial decrease in pH followed by an approach to constant pH levels at higher initial solution zinc concentrations. This trend indicates the replacement of H ions on exchange sites with Zn ions, and the corresponding decrease in equilibrium solution pH due to increased levels of H ions in +  solution. At higher initial Z n  2 +  concentrations, virtually all of the exchangeable H on the soil +  surface has been replaced; further decrease in equilibrium pH is limited by the lack of supply of H ions. +  Between the six data sets, the most notable difference is the offset of initial pH (Cj = 0 mg Zn/1) values. This deviation from the initial solution pH (pH 6.5) is likely a function of soil acidity; the sample which produced the lowest equilibrium pH was also found to have the lowest soil pH (Table 4.3). The initial pH of the other data sets is also reflective of the relative soil acidity summarised in Table 4.3.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  96  0  200  400  600  800  1000  C, (mg Zn/1) Figure 4.12. Summary of equilibrium solution p H results from batch adsorption testing of Galkeno 300 organic and mineral soils. 'A-org' is results from organic soil at site A , 'A-min' is results from mineral soil at site A , etc. Initial solution had a p H of 6.5.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  97 4.2.3  S o r p t i o n capacities o f G a l k e n o 300 soils u s i n g l e a c h i n g c o l u m n tests  Column leaching tests were undertaken on organic samples from soil sample sites A , C and E . These tests were conducted to better understand the limits of zinc removal from mine drainage per unit mass of soil material. While batch adsorption tests provide valuable insight into this relationship, the results of batch testing may overestimate attenuation capacity of a soil material due to low soil: solution ratios and excellent contact between sorbent and sorbate. Alternatively, column leaching tests can better approximate actual field conditions; the flow-through configuration allows sorbate/sorbent ratios and degree of contact to mimic those found in the field situation.  4.2.3.1 Removal of aqueous zinc in leaching columns Two zinc removal scenarios were tested; under the first scenario (Tests 1 and 3), undiluted mine water collected at the Galkeno 300 adit was employed as the permeant. The Galkeno 300 water had a zinc concentration of 145 mg/1 and for the purposes of the experiment was considered to be the maximum zinc concentration that would be encountered by the site soils; this approach is conservative, in that some removal of zinc from Galkeno 300 mine drainage occurs prior to the mine drainage entering the subsurface. The second scenario (Test 2) employed a permeant of Galkeno 300 mine water diluted to 30 mg/1 Zn using a CaSC>4 solution with an ionic strength (2000 pS/cm conductivity) similar to that of the Galkeno 300 mine water. This Z n concentration is typical of aqueous zinc concentrations near the midpoint of the Galkeno 300 flowpath (Figure 4.5), an area where soil zinc levels indicate that zinc attenuation is high (Table 4.3).  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  98 Results of permeating columns with undiluted mine water(Tests 1 and 3)  Figure 4.13 displays the results of Tests 1 and 3. In general terms, all Test 1 results show an initial rapid increase in aqueous M n and Zn concentrations in column effluent. This is followed after ~15 pore volumes by the achievement of steady state effluent aqueous metal concentrations that are lower than influent concentrations. These general observations are supported by the results from Test 3, which show similar behaviour of approaching constant aqueous metal concentrations after ~ 15 pore volumes. The minor differences in the behaviour of the duplicate experimental results of Tests 1 and 3 are considered to result from sample heterogeneity and from uncertainty inherent to the experimental procedures employed. These differences are not considered to be indicative of different processes operating within the replicate columns.  Three important observations can be made from the isotherms in Figure 4.13. Thefirstis that there is an initial period of increase in effluent metal concentrations. This suggests that sorption of Zn and M n species to soil surfaces is occurring and that, as sorption sites become saturated, the amount of sorption decreases. The second observation is that effluent metal concentrations appear to reach a steady state in which effluent concentrations are less than influent concentrations. It is most likely that the process responsible for removing the mass differential between influent and effluent is precipitation. It is postulated that a Mn-Zn oxide precipitates within the column at a rate determined by influent concentrations as well as by redox conditions within the column. Redox conditions within the column were not characterised during this study. The third observation is that changes in pH are small in magnitude and do not display a general pattern; Figure 4.13 B) is anomalous in that, initially, effluent pH drops, stabilising at  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  99 A)  D) Test 1, Site E sample  Test 3, Site E sample 4.0 °  ...o  oo  100  p ^  m  .  /^ A - ' — ~~"  £r~ —  -A  A —  A  50  -•— Zn o - Mn pH  6 P  0  TO  2  4  6  8  10  ".3  14  16  0  5  10  15  Test 1, Site C sample V  .  . 0  p  6.8  c d) o c o o 15 +J  "  ^  —A  A  P  (0 6.6 6.4  6  E w  o  o  F)  /  +2  c  - » - Zn o Mn pH 10  3 O 3  25  Test 3, Site C sample  A  0)  20  E)  B)  E, c o  12  cr <  15  20  25  Test 3, Site A sample  a  P  p  \  —  ^  h 3.6  p  p  /  o  Zn Mn  -t>10  15  20  3.2  pH  25  Figure 4.13. Summary of effluent Z n and M n concentrations and p H during duplicate leaching column tests (Tests 1 and 3) using undiluted Galkeno 300 mine water (pH 6.5) as permeant.  A - C ) Results of Test 1. D-F)  Results of Test 3.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  100 a level slightly higher than the influent pH. Among the different soil samples, pH is not constant, but instead appears to be buffered at pH levels unique to each sample. In general, it appears that the soil materials determine the final effluent pH for each sample.  Figure 4.14 shows the cumulative mass of M n and Zn removed from the influent as a function of the number of pore volumes passed. Rates of removal are indicated by the slope of the respective line, with greater slopes corresponding to greater removal rates. It is useful to note the initial rapid removal of both M n and Zn, resulting from sorption and precipitation, followed by a lower metal removal rate attributed to precipitation alone. The most important aspect of Figure 4.14 is the depiction of continued metal mass removal from the column influent following the initial period of rapid metal removal through sorption; this continued removal suggests that the attenuation capacity of the soil system is not limited to its sorptive capacity. In the field situation, where the mine drainage encounters a much greater volume of soil, the additional attenuating capacity provided by the maintenance of conditions favourable to precipitation within the soil is substantial. Results of permeating column with diluted mine water (Test 2) Figure 4.15 A-C) displays the effluent metal concentration and pH data collected during Test 2, during which columns were permeated with mine water diluted to 30 ppm Zn. Both effluent pH and metal concentration in Test 2 show similar patterns, over a greater range of pore volumes, as those seen in Tests 1 and 3 (Figure 4.13). Due to the lower metal concentrations in Test 2 permeant, it was expected that more pore volumes would be necessary to approach  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  101  A)  D)  Test 1, Site E sample  D  E  B)  2  4  6  10  S  12  14  16  u 1— 0  E)  Test 1, Site C sample  Test 3, Site E sample  Test 3, Site C sample  600  •a  500  <i>  > o  °  E  000  400  °  300  CD 200  - • — Zn o Mn  O E o >  10  15  20  25  30  100  35  +3 «  E o  Test 3, Site A sample  10  Figure 4.14.  15  20  25  Cumulative mass of zinc and manganese removed from undiluted Galkeno 300 mine water permeant  during duplicate column leaching tests (Tests 1 and 3). A - C ) Z n , M n mass removed during Test 1. D-F) Z n , M n mass removed during Test 3.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  102  Test 2, Site E sample  0  0  10  10  20  20  30  30  Test 2, Site E sample  40  40  50  50  0  60  0  10  10  20  20  30  30  40  40  50  50  60  Pore volumes Figure 4.15. A - C ) Summary of effluent Z n and M n concentrations and p H with respect to number of pore volumes of diluted (30 ppm Zn) Galkeno 300 mine water passed during column leaching Test 2. D-F) Cumulative mass of zinc and manganese removed from permeant during Test 2.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  103 equilibrium relative to Tests 1 and 3. That effluent metal and pH trends are similar across all three tests indicates that similar processes are acting in the three columns, representing two different metal concentrations that are experienced at the site. Figure 4.15 D-F) shows the cumulative mass of Zn and M n removed from the permeant during Test 2. A rough comparison with Test 1 and 3 cumulative mass removal results in Figure 4.14 indicates that, at the number of pore volumes required to reach equilibrium effluent metal concentrations, similar masses of metal were removed. This indicates that, across the tested concentration range, metal attenuation processes within the columns were independent of concentration. Further, as in Tests 1 and 3, equilibrium metal concentrations in effluent were lower than influent metal concentrations. This once again suggests the coprecipitation of a manganese-zinc oxide as a equilibrium mechanism of attenuation. 4.2.3.2 Release of attenuated zinc from leaching columns  Following the conclusion of sorption tests, a stepped desorption test was undertaken on the undisturbed column used in Test 1 using 2000 |xS/cm CaSG*4 solution, initially adjusted to pH 5.5 (Test 4a). These conditions simulate a decrease in Galkeno 300 drainage pH, a condition which may arise following the exhaustion of calcium/magnesium carbonate buffers (Blowes and Ptacek, 1994). Under reducing conditions, mine drainage can be buffered at pH 5.5 through the dissolution of iron carbonate (siderite), which is why pH 5.5 was chosen as the initial pH of the desorption test. A further permeant pH reduction to pH 4.5 (Test 4B) was instituted after zinc release under pH 5.5 conditions stabilised at a low, near constant rate. Following consumption of siderite buffering capacity, mine drainage is commonly buffered at pH 4-4.5 through the  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  104 dissolution of aluminum hydroxide phases (Blowes and Ptacek, 1994); the second permeant pH value was selected on this basis.  Figure 4.16 A-C) shows the metal concentrations in Test 4a effluent. Metal concentrations declined rapidly in all three columns until 4-5 pore volumes of permeating solution were passed. Following this initial period of rapid metal release, effluent zinc and manganese concentrations declined at a markedly slower rate, indicated by the lower slopes of the curves in Figure 4.16 A C) at later pore volumes. A l l trials in Test 4a were terminated between 15 and 19 pore volumes; the uniformity of the latter portions of the curves in Figure 4.16 A-C) suggest that conditions of kinetic equilibrium had been achieved in each column. Higher rates of M n release from the site A sample, as indicated in Figure 4.16 C), are likely to due the large amount of M n removed from the permeating solution during Test 1. Figure 4.14 C) displays the anomalous M n uptake of this sample. Rationale for the behaviour of this particular sample was not investigated. Figure 4.16 D-F) shows the cumulative metal mass stripped from soil columns in Test 4a. These graphs indicate that rates of metal release were slowly declining, but remained significant at the termination of Test 4a; as Table 4.6 shows, substantial proportions of attenuated metal were released during Test 4a.  During Test 4b, permeant acidity was increased to pH 4.5. Figure 4.17 shows effluent metal concentrations and cumulative mass of Zn and M n removed from the leaching columns. In all three samples, Zn displayed uniform release from soil solids with effluent concentrations decreasing with increasing numbers of pore volumes passed. M n behaviour varied from constant  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  105  Test 4 A , Site E sample  0  2  4  6  8  10  12  14  Test 4 A , Site E sample  16  18  20  0  2  4  6  8  10  12  14  16  18  20  Pore volumes Figure 4.16. A - C ) Summary of effluent Z n and M n concentrations with respect to number of pore volumes of p H 5.5 passed during column desorption Test 4a. D-F) Cumulative mass of zinc and manganese removed from column during Test 4a.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  106  Test 4B, Site E sample  10  20  30  Test 4B, Site E sample  40  50  0  10  20  30  40  50  D)  O  0  0  5  10  10  15  20  20  25  30  30  35  40  40  50  3  0  0  5  10  10  15  20  20  25  30  30  35  40  40  50  Pore volumes Figure 4.17. A - C ) Summary of effluent Z n and M n concentrations with respect to number of pore volumes of p H 4.5 passed during column desorption Test 4b. D-F) Cumulative mass of zinc and manganese removed from column during Test 4b.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  107 Table 4.6. Summary of mass of M n and Z n removed from solution by soil solids in Tests 1 and 3, and returned to solution in Test 4; values in brackets are percentages of Test 1 totals. Mass sorbed (mg)  Sample Site  Testl  Mass released  Test 3 (for comparison)  (mg)  Test 4a  Test Test 4 4b total  E  182  255  85 (47%)  32  C  403  64(16%)  37  101 (25%)  A  557  411 366  157 (28%)  76  232 (42%)  E  260  339  120 (46%)  73  193 (74%)  C  529  577  105 (20%)  36  141 (27%)  A  276  462  84 (30%)  42  126 (46%)  117(64%)  release rate in the Site C sample (Figure 4.17 B) to rapid initial release followed by a low, uniformly declining rate of release. Again, at the termination of Test 4b after 35 to 48 pore volumes, significant masses of M n and Zn were being released; Table 4.6 displays the amount of total attenuated metal that was released in Test 4.  Test 4 simulates exposure of soil with attenuated zinc and manganese to increasingly aggressive solutions approximating the conditions which could be encountered during exhaustion of acid buffering capacity in a mine drainage setting. The design of the experiment was such that the samples in question were instantaneously exposed to solutions an order of magnitude more acidic; this is in all likelihood responsible for the rapid initial release of metals depicted in Figure 4.16. However, notwithstanding considerations of rates of release, Test 4 clearly indicates the potential for release of attenuated Zn and M n from these soils under conditions of increasing acidity. Of note is the lower rates of removal and total attenuated metal release associated with the Site C sample; after the passage of over 55 pore volumes of increasingly aggressive  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  108 permeant, approximately A of attenuated metal was remobilised. When compared with the l  metal remobilisation from Sites A and E (Table 4.6), it becomes obvious that Site C soils are an important geochemical barrier to aqueous metal movement through the soil system at the Galkeno 300 site.  4.2.4  Results of selective extraction of Galkeno 300 soils  As outlined in Chapter 3.2.4, low density organic matter within the Galkeno 300 soils necessitated that the individual stages of the selective extraction procedure be carried out on individual samples. The method of interpreting the results of the separate selective extractions is outlined in Figure 4.18; successive extractions are increasingly aggressive and destroy not only the target fraction but also those fractions removed by the preceding extractions. In the case of extraction #4 (the organic extraction), destruction of the oxide fraction is accomplished in the final step of the extraction when a reducing agent is added to dissolve any oxide solids that may have formed during the oxidation of the organic matter (Tessier et al., 1979).  Extraction # Exchangeable  1 2  Carbonate  ,1,1,1,1 T ¥ T H  Reducible  3  Organic  5 Exchangeable fraction = #1 Carbonate fraction = #2 - #1 Reducible fraction = #3 - #2 Organic fraction = #4 - #3 Residual fraction = #5 - #4 Figure 4.18.  Method of interpretation of results of separate selective extraction procedure. Each successive  extraction removes an additional fraction of metal from the soil solids.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  109  Figure 4.19 shows the averaged results of duplicate extractions performed on organic and mineral samples collected at sites A , C and E; the absolute values used to generate those fractional proportions are provided in Appendix E. Figure 4.19 clearly shows that, in the surface organic horizons across the Galkeno 300 site, soil Zn is dominantly associated with the oxide and organic fractions. Exchangeable Zn constitutes 9.5-15% of total organic soil Zn; carbonate Zn is present only in Site C organic samples, which display the greatest degree of Zn accumulation (see Table 4.3). Zn in the residual fraction was not detected for any organic samples. In contrast, and as expected, all mineral samples displayed significant soil Zn associated with the residual fraction; the proportion of residual Zn is lowest in the Site C samples, which has the highest total Zn levels. The Site C mineral samples also displayed the highest proportion of organic bound Zn of the mineral soils, with soil Zn distributed equally between the organic and oxide fractions. The oxide fraction was important at Sites A and E as well, with 32 and 47% of total Zn, respectively.  The results from the Site C samples will be used for the purposes of further discussion. As Table 4.3 indicates, Site C organic samples approach 3%, by mass, of contained zinc. Visually, these samples consisted of a gritty, purplish black matrix in a skeleton of organic matter. Manganese oxides are typically purplish black in colour- the matrix of the Site C organic soils likely consists of these manganese-zinc oxides which have coprecipitated from the mine drainage. The geochemical conditions across the Galkeno site do not favour inorganic M n oxide precipitation; it is therefore most likely that the precipitation process is microbially mediated  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Ill (Harvey and Fuller, 1998; Bargar et al., 2000; Sikora et al., 2000; Stein et al., 2001).The anomalous soil metal concentrations and the dramatic decrease in aqueous M n concentrations along the mine drainage flow path, together with the selective extraction results, indicate that the formation of Mn-Zn oxide coprecipitates is the most important process causing the removal of zinc from the Galkeno 300 mine drainage along its longitudinal flow path.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  112  CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  Field and laboratory investigations undertaken to examine the shallow soils and mine drainage of the Galkeno 300 site provide insight into the environmental fate of aqueous zinc carried by the Galkeno 30 adit discharge. The following discussions outline the conclusions of this study and the broader scientific context into which it fits. In addition, recommendations for further investigation are proposed.  5.1  CONCLUSIONS  The discussion of conclusions is best undertaken by examining first the conclusions arising from the site investigation, and secondly the conclusions arising from the laboratory investigations.  5.1.1 Conclusions from Galkeno 300 site investigation The Galkeno 300 site investigation provided the physical and geographical framework for the broader study as a whole. Water sampling during summer 2000 and subsequent chemical analysis confirmed the removal of zinc from Galkeno 300 mine drainage along the 1.7 km flowpath between the adit and Christal Creek. This sampling also indicated where most of the zinc removal was occurring along this flowpath. Climate monitoring confirmed that precipitation inputs did not provide sufficient dilution to explain the decrease in aqueous concentrations; discharge monitoring of the drainage at Galkeno 300 adit and at Christal Creek  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  113 confirm that, on average, 16% of adit discharge volume is added via precipitation and baseflow. This degree of dilution falls far short of accounting for the decrease in aqueous zinc concentrations along the flowpath. The lack of observed surface and subsurface water inputs to the Galkeno 300 drainage, in combination with the precipitation and discharge monitoring, confirm that processes other than dilution are responsible for the attenuation of zinc from the Galkeno 300 drainage. In addition, observations of permafrost in soil pits supports the model of a frozen, impermeable surface at the base of the active layer which restricts Galkeno 300 drainage to shallow depths.  Chemical analysis of soils collected within and adjacent to the Galkeno 300 drainage show elevated Zn and M n concentrations in those soils in contact with mine drainage . In particular, the upper organic horizon demonstrated particularly anomalous levels of Zn and Mn, indicating that this horizon was the repository for much of the attenuated zinc. Visual observation of M n oxides in collected samples correlated with the highest measured zinc soil concentrations; the conclusion that M n oxides play a significant attenuating role in the Galkeno 300 drainage was confirmed during the laboratory investigation via selective extraction.  5.1.2 Conclusions from Galkeno 300 laboratory investigation The Galkeno 300 laboratory investigation provided an assessment of the physical and chemical properties of Galkeno 300 site soils and observed the interactions of these soils with natural and synthetic mine drainage solutions during specific laboratory procedures. Batch adsorption  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  114 testing demonstrated that the organic soils have a substantially higher adsorption capacity; in particular, site C samples containing high M n concentrations had the highest adsorption capacity of all samples tested. These results clearly indicate that site C organic soil should be the primary candidate for material to be tested further for use in a mine drainage treatment system.  Column leaching tests confirmed that site C organic soils are the best substrate tested for the removal of zinc from natural and synthetic mine drainage; in addition, column testing indicated that a dynamic equilibrium process such as precipitation or coprecipitation was contributing to Zn removal from permeant. This lends additional support to the conclusion that M n and Zn coprecipitation in the form of oxides provides an important control on Zn fate and transport in the Galkeno 300 drainage. Column desorption under conditions of decreasing pH demonstrated rapid initial release of Zn followed by an approach to equilibrium release rates at much lower concentrations. Total Zn released during desorption ranged from 27 to 74% of that removed during initial leaching tests; once again, soils from site C perform the most favourably, showing the lowest release of attenuated Zn of all samples tested. Initial rapid release of Zn under conditions of decreasing pH is likely an artifact of rapidly altered laboratory conditions; in the field setting, a decrease in pH is most likely to be gradual and as such would not trigger the rapid release observed in the lab. Notwithstanding the differences between field and laboratory conditions, the equilibrium release rates achieved in the column desorption result in aqueous Zn concentrations that are well above acceptable limits. The possibility of long term release of attenuated Zn cannot be ignored under conditions of increasing acidity.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  115 The selective extraction testing indicated the importance of the oxide and organic soil fractions in regulating zinc fate and transport in the Galkeno 300 drainage. In the surface organic soils, these two fractions contain over 80% of all soil Zn in all samples assessed. Of note is the dominance of the oxide fraction for the site C sample; this location had by far the highest soil Zn concentrations, which makes the dominance of the oxide fraction that much more remarkable. The large decrease in aqueous M n concentrations in the Galkeno 300 drainage indicates that the formation of M n oxides is occurring under present environmental conditions in substantial amounts. Under near surface oxidising conditions, these newly formed precipitates are geochemically stable, and are unlikely to release structural zinc unless reducing conditions are prevalent for an extended duration. The exchangeable and carbonate Zn fractions, which are most susceptible to release under minor changes in environmental conditions, are relatively insignificant; that soil Zn is found dominantly in the oxide and organic fractions provides a greater measure of protection to the downstream receiving environment.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  116  5.2  R E S E A R C H CONTRIBUTIONS  Results of this study are of value to case of the specific site studied, to other cases of mine drainage in permafrost regions, and to the broader body of scientific knowledge. These contributions are outlined as follows.  1. Better understanding offate and transport of Zn in Galkeno 300 drainage  a) The present study has quantified the mass flux of water and dissolved species from the Galkeno 300 adit to Christal Creek. In doing so, the measure of environmental protection achieved through natural attenuation of Zn in the shallow subsurface has been determined. This information may be useful for long term reclamation plans or waste management decisions. b) The surface organic soils occupying the Galkeno 300 flowpath have been shown to be the repository of attenuated zinc. Speciation of attenuated zinc has been determined via selective extraction, and geochemical stability has been inferred from that speciation. c) The presence of high concentrations of dissolved manganese in the mine drainage appears critical to the natural attenuation of zinc at this site.  2. Application to similar mine sites in permafrost  regions  a) Significant accumulations of partially decomposed organic material are common in permafrost regions. This research has demonstrated that this type of organic  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  117 material can play an important role in the fate and transport of metal species in mine drainage. Consideration of the locally available organic material when designing reactive walls or infiltration beds may be cost-effective; where permafrost restricts the downward infiltration of mine drainage, the organic material in the active layer can act in the fashion of a reactive barrier, b) Where M n is present in mine drainage in significant quantities, removal of heavy metals may be enacted by altering conditions to favour Mn-oxide precipitation. Consideration of bacterial mediation in this process is important.  3. Broader scientific context  a) Natural attenuation of metals in northern regions is little reported in the scientific literature. This work describes a case study of natural attenuation of zinc in mine drainage setting in the discontinuous permafrost zone which will add to the small body of work on this subject. b) The identification of the importance of M n oxide precipitation within the Galkeno 300 system is an unusual example, as the high aqueous M n concentrations found at the study site are not commonly observed.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  118  5.3  RECOMMENDATIONS FORFURTHER RESEARCH  In the context of the Galkeno 300 site, there are a number of points that may merit further consideration. 1.  Site conditions in winter  The current study investigated the Galkeno 300 site during summer 2000. Geochemical behaviour of the system during the winter is largely unknown. Measurement of winter flow volumes exiting Galkeno 300 adit and entering Christal Creek should be undertaken; at the same time, sampling should be undertaken to assess winter water quality. 2.  Site conditions during freshet  The current study caught the falling limb of the spring freshet hydrograph. Monitoring of the early freshet (rising limb of the hydrograph) would allow an assessment of whether mine drainage and associated dissolved metals accumulated as ice during the winter. If this occurs, the spring thaw may result in a flush of high concentrations of dissolved metals that have not been intimately in contact with the soil substrate. Water quality during the early freshet should be monitored. 3.  Geochemical  modeling  Consider evaluating the long term scenario using a computerised geochemical model such as PHREEQC. Consider effect of long term increase in acidity on attenuated zinc. 4.  Investigate likelihood ofARD onset  At this time, it is unclear whether the Galkeno300 drainage will become increasingly acidic with time. The pH of the mine drainage is likely the single most important factor in the  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  119 natural protection of the receiving environment. A comprehensive investigation into the acid-generating and neutralizing capacities of the mine workings and waste rock will give a better feel for this important parameter. 5.  Use of soils in treatment facilities  Consideration should be given to using soils from site C (or similar) in some form of treatment facility, either in situ or ex situ. The potential for these soils as a substrate for constructed wetlands should be investigated, as should their use as part of a conventional treatment system (perhaps in a pretreatment role).  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Table A l . Influent conditions of column leaching tests.  Site name  Site#  Easting*  Northing*  Galkeno 300 adit Sinkhole near Pole 500 Seep near Pole 500 Seep @ road piezo Seep 5 Seep 8 Old road at ROW crossing Seep 6+120 Old road seep RHS limit Old road seep LHS limit 300 drainage at Christal Creek  11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1  482704 482983 482986 483512 483461 483442 483672 483755 483817 486847 483977  7088589 7088604 7088601 7088721 7088576 7088491 7088333 7088296 7088047 7088079 7088356  •Universal Transverse Mercator grid, Zone 8V  Sample site descriptions Galkeno 300 adit (site 11, Fig. 3.1.3.1): Flow exits Galkeno 300 adit and crosses waste rock dump before cascading over the edge of the dump. At adit mouth, flow is somewhat channelised and up to 20 cm deep. A short distance downstream, flow fans out to cover a wide area rarely deeper than 2-3 cm. Flowpath is marked by abundant yellowish orange to dark reddish orange iron oxide precipitate, miscellaneous wood and metal debris from mining operations and pebblesized angular waste rock. Precipitate was actively forming over the course of the field season.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Appendix A 130 Sinkhole near Pole 500 (site 10, Fig. 3.1.3.1): This site marks the downstream limit of surface flow from adit. Water flowing parallel to power line right-of-way (ROW) is completely captured by a hole in the ground 20 m west of Pole 500. Flow to this point has been over the disturbed surface of the ROW, up to 3 cm deep; recent orange precipitate is evident over entire flowpath to this point. Surficial material is angular bedrock blocks with a matrix of angular bedrock chips, sand and silt, covered with a thin layer of organic rich soil (loam). Some grasses growing in flow.  Seep near Pole 500 (site 9, Fig. 3.1.3.1): This site is 4 m south of 'Sinkhole near Pole 500 ' , 1 5 m  east-southeast of Pole 500, and marks the emergence of adit drainage that had percolated into the shallow subsurface upslope. No precipitate whatsoever was noted to have formed from the water exiting the ground at this location; during the mid- to late summer, an abundance of filamentous green algae was noted to be growing in the flow. Flow is spread out over 3 to 5 m, rarely greater than 3 cm deep. A comparison of the water quality between this site and the adjacent 'Sinkhole near Pole 500' site testifies to the capacity of the subsurface materials to attenuate transported metals.  Seep @ road piezo (site 8, Fig. 3.1.3.1): Cut bank seepage pools in roadway 300 m north of R O W on Upper Old Road to a depth of 4 cm. During early June, flow spilled over downslope edge of road; by mid-June, entire flow was seeping into road surface. Road surface was covered with leaf litter; no sediment, filamentous green algae or orange precipitate was noted at this site.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Appendix A 131 Seep 5 (site 7, Fig. 3.1.3.1): Seepage from cut bank pools on Upper Old Road and flows over downslope edge 156 m north of ROW. Minor filamentous green algae noted at this site; during early June, large ice remnants on road were observed to have been stained by green algae. Recent fine sand and silt is present on bed of flow and there is no evidence of orange precipitate. Willows and grasses are common in the 2-3 cm deep flow.  Seep 8 (site 6, Fig. 3.1.3.1): Seepage from numerous places in the cut bank of the Upper Old Road coalesces to form a 5-8 cm deep channelised flow on the upslope (west) side of the road 75 m north of ROW. The bed of this flow is marked by leaf litter and by midsummer was coated with a similar green filamentous algae as observed at 'Seep near Pole 500'; no orange precipitate was evident. Willows and grasses grow in the flow, which does not flow over the road but rather seeps into the road surface at a local depression.  Old road at ROW crossing (site 5, Fig. 3.1.3.1): Channelised flow incised into moss flows around willow and dwarf birch; grasses growing on margins of flow are common. Flow varies from 10 to 40 cm deep and forms a series of 20 to 60 cm-wide branching channels. No sediment, orange precipitate or green filamentous moss is evident here. The flow above and below this site follow the Lower Old Road. The road is likely an early wagon trail in use during the early days of mining in the district and remains at present a topographic low that captures the adit drainage flow. The flow at this site appears to be the downstream expression of the flow at 'Seep 8'.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Appendix A  132  Seep 6+120 (site 4, Fig. 3.1.3.1): The flow here averages 4 cm in depth and occupies a welldefined channel, which is partially incised into the moss layer and has formed a bed of compact silt and fine sand. There is evidence of old orange precipitate in the bed sediment, but no recent precipitation has occurred and the grasses, moss and willows in the flow are unstained by oxide formation. No filamentous green moss is evident. This flow is the downstream expression of the flow at 'Seep 5' and represents the downstream limit of adit discharge flow prior to entering the recently excavated ditches on the lower slope of the study site. Immediately below this site, the flow encounters a 1.2 m drop where aeration likely occurs.  Old road seep RHS limit (site 3, Fig. 3.1.3.1): The flow at this site occupies the remnants of an old road that connects to 'Old road at ROW crossing'.  The flow is on surface between these two  sites, flowing spread out across the road through moss, grasses, willow and dwarf birch. No sediment, precipitate or green algae are noted along this entire flowpath. Significant flow likely occurs through the top layers of moss that are highly permeable.  Old road seep LHS limit (site 2, Fig. 3.1.3.1): This flow exits the subsurface 2m down the bank of a small thermokarst depression situated immediately above the Galkeno 900 access road. Fine sand, silt, and partially decomposed organics are deposited where the flow reaches the base of the depression where it forms a small thermokarst lake and a miniature delta. No precipitate or green filamentous algae are present at this site. The depression has formed by the local melting of permafrost and will continue to enlarge until caving of the banks is sufficient to insulate the remaining permafrost from further decay. This flow originates at 'Old road at ROW crossing' and enters the subsurface shortly thereafter.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Appendix A 133  300 drainage at Christal Creek (site 1, Fig. 3.1.3.1): The flow here occupies an incised channel into the recent floodplain of Christal Creek. The site is 20 m above the confluence of the Galkeno drainage with Christal Creek; water quality here determines the contaminant loading to the creek and defines the attenuation factor attributed to the flowpath downstream of the Galkeno 300 adit. No precipitate or green filamentous algae are present. Fine sand, silt and organics appear to have been deposited by the Galkeno flow; this sediment is originating largely from the erosion occurring in the recent ditching on the lower slopes above the highway.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Appendix B  134  APPENDIX B CALCULATIONS FOR LEACHING C E L L PARAMETERS Sample calculations for water content, specific gravity, the mass of solids in a leaching cell and the pore volume of a packed leaching cell. Water content  Moist sample placed in weighed container, weighed to give total soil mass: (container mass + moist soil mass) - container mass = total soil mass (My). Oven dry sample at 105° C for at leastl6 hours. Weigh container + dry sample. Calculate mass of water and mass of solids: (container mass + moist soil mass) - (container mass + dry soil mass) = mass of water (M\y) (container mass + dry soil mass) - container mass = mass of solids (Ms). Finally, calculate water content (W): W =M / M . w  Specific  s  Gravity  The specific gravity of organic samples was required to calculate the volume of pore space in a packed leaching cell. These determinations were conducted following the method of Lambe (1951); this method is based on quantitative measurement of volumetric displacement of water by a known mass of soil particles. A 1000 ml volumetric flask was used as a pycnometer. The formula used for the calculation of specific gravity is G = ( W G T ) / W - W I +W s  S  S  2  where G is specific gravity, Ws is the mass of oven dried soil, G j is the specific gravity of water at the temperature of the test, Wj is the mass of the soil, the pycnometer and water to the appropriate volume (1000 ml), and W2 is the mass of the pycnometer and the appropriate volume of water (1000 ml) without soil. s  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Appendix B 135 Leaching Cell Volume  Volume of a cylinder (V) = n (d/2) H 2  Leaching cell: H = 5.69 cm; d = 10.1 cm V = TC * (10.1 cm/2) * 5.69 cm = 456 cm 2  3  Mass of solids in leaching cell  Determine water content (W) of sample. Determine mass of empty leaching cell (Mc). Pack cell with moist soil; weigh again to determine mass of cell + moist soil Determine mass of moist soil in cell:  (MC+T).  MC+T - M c = M T  Since M T = Mw + Ms, W = M / Ms and W * Ms = Mw , then the equation w  M = (W * M ) + M = (1 + W) * Ms T  s  s  can be used to determine the mass of solids in the leaching cell. Pore volume of leaching cell  The volume of the leaching cell that is not occupied by soil solids is known as the void space, the pore space or the pore volume. This is a useful quantity to know; the volume of permeant passing through a leaching cell can be usefully characterised in terms of number of pore volumes. Given the total volume of a leaching cell (VT) and the volume of a packed cell occupied by soil solids (Vs), the pore volume (Vy) is easily calculated from the relationship V =V +V . T  v  s  The quantity V T is known from measurements of the leaching cell. The volume of solids can be calculated from the mass of the solids and the specific gravity of those solids using M *G =V . s  s  s  From this result, it is a simple matter to determine the pore volume using V -V =V . T  s  v  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Appendix C l APPENDIX C l  136  WATER QUALITY DATA ORGANISED BY SAMPLING  DATE  Organisation of results of water quality sampling by sampling date allows easy examination of changes in water quality spatially. The following data is organised such that the data from the main flowpath (sites 11-9-6-5-3-1, Figure 3.1.3.1) is presented to the left side of the tables, in order of increasing distance of sampling site from adit. Thus, reading values from left to right in this section of the table is analogous to moving from the adit down the hillside to the creek in the valley bottom. Remaining data, including quality control results, is presented at the right side of each table; the vertical break in the tables separates the two subsets of data.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Appendix C . 1  OldRd. Qmlkno JOOmdJt  May 29-00 Site*  11  Acidity to pH 4,5 Acidity, total Alkalinity, total  pH FR NFR  6  i « 213 136  , <  3  1 < 8  4  45.6  31.3  0.3 0.02 671.4  0.05 <  0.05  0.370  0.094  0.005 <  0.005 <  0.05 <  0.05 < 5.76 1530 368 <  0.005 005  0.3 0.02  0.05 <  0.05 <  0.092  0.009  0.005 < 0.05 <  6.32 1470 5 <  7.56 1170 5 <  _•  GFAA (dissolved); Se < GFAA (total): Se < WRWfr'* *•-< Hardness, Ca+Mg Hardness, total ICP, dissolved Al Sb As Ba Be B Cd Ca Cr Co Cu Fe Pb Mg Mn Mo Ni P K Se Si Ag Na Sr S Sn Tt V Zn /CP, Total Al Sb As Ba Be B Cd Ca Cr Co Cu Fe Pb Mg Mn Mo Nl P K Se  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001  <  0.001  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001  <  0.001  570.4  714.6  652.0  1,077.0  947.3  952.S  0.20 0.16 0.05 <  0.06 < 0.10 < 0.05 < 0.020  0.12 0.32  <  < <  <  0.05 < 0.005 0.003  0.023 0.003  0.05 0386  0.01 < 0.315  170.2 0,031 0.182  214.2 0.010 0.032 <  0.005 1S.3  0.066 < 1.492 <  0.05 < 35.3 155.2 0.01 1.47  0.05 43.7 68.6 0.01 0.73 0.3 1.0 0.23 5.S5 0.01  0.7 0.7 0.45  see 0.02 1.5  < < <  0.222 319.2 0.05 < 0.002 < 0.01 < 124.4  0.22 0.32 0.06 0.006 0.003 0.0B  <  <  si  Ag Na Sr S Sn Ti V Zn  <  <  1.7 0.464 307.5 0.05 < 0.002 < 0.01 < 67.6  6.48 0.16 0.08 < 0.260 0.003 0.03 <  0.029 0.163  0.022 < 0.047 <  0.006  0.108 <  22.6  10.8, <  0.12 36.5  0.06 < 48.0  o.e  75.3 0.01 < 0.82 0.6 2.4  0.40  0.18 <  3.97  19.2 0.01 < 2.4  0.06 < 0.002 0.01 136.4  TIC TOC P04  <  0.347 229.2  0.02 1.6 0.231 345  < < <  <  0.401 175.6  156.6 0.01 < 1.57 06  6.4 0.5 0.010  822.4 829.1  0.004  < -  0.512 336  <  0.01 < 0.035 < 265.8 0 007 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 0.05 < 45.8 24.53 0.01 < 0.34 < 0.3 < 1.4 0.05 * 5.79 0.01 < 1.8 0.539 295.8 0.05 < 0.002 < 0.01 < 38.1  0.06 < 0.09 < 0.06 < 0.023  0.05 < 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.O21 0.004 0.01 < 0.005 < 260.8 0.005 0.005 < 0 005 c 0.024 0.05 < 41.6 0.067 0.01 < 0.02 < 0.1 * 1.1 0.05 < 4.69 0.01 < 1.7 0.479 236.1 0.05 < 0.002 < 0.01 < 3.94  0.004 0.01 0.006  267.2 0.006  242.0 0.011  0.008 <  0.006  0.008 <  0.006  0.008  0.01 < 0.37 < 0.3 < 1.5  0.01 < 1.9 0.562 324.2  0.05  < <  0.05  <  0.05  0.05 < 0.009  0.05 0.036  0.005 <  0.005  0.005 008  0.05 < 0.002 0.005 <  0.05  <  7.3 1460 171 < --„•¥-  0.05  5.26 1010 5  7.62 1310 44 <  <  0.001 <  <  0.001  <  < < <  0.05 < 3.64 0.01 < 1.3  0.05 0.05 0.05 0.042 0.003 0.01 0.005  510.3  972.2  637.1  0.05 008  <  <  0.01 < 0051  0.01 0.064 15S.1 0.009 0.011 0.005  0.01 0.010 261.9 0.005 0.005 0.005  0.005 < 0 005  0.05 29.1 0.235 0.01 0.02 0.1 0.7 0.05  <  0.05 < 49.1  159.3 0.05 0.002 0.01  0.272  0.903  21.50 0.06 0.09  <  9.82 0.01 < 0.22 0.1 1.2 0.05 526 0.01 < 1.9 0584 292.76  < < <  <  0.655 0.001  0.05 0.002 0.01  0.117  0.062 40.8  0.06  0.10  42.2 0.064 0.01  44.2 1.04 0.01 0.07  <  239.5  <  35.32 0.01 3.0 0.443 159.4 0.06  <  0.06  < <  0.002 0.01  0.842 0.08  3.42  1.65  < <  <  Watmrttmp. fC)  0.001  <  0.001  m  548.4 551.8  0.3 < 3.5 0.16 < 2.61 0.01 <  0.1 < 0.9 0.05 4.26 0.01 < 1.8 0.524 261.5 0.05 < 0.002 < 0.01 < 8.555  ••• 0.05 0.05 < 0.05 <  0.03 0.005 0.01 < 0.005 < 282.4 0.011 < 0.005 0.005 < 0.019 005 < 49.4 0.002 0.01 < 0.02 < 0.1 < 1.1 0.07 < 3.97 0.01 < 1.9 0.497 265.5 0.05 0.002  < <  o.ot < 0.048  <  MM 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.038 0.003 0.01 0.005 171.4 0.005 0011 0.005 0.439 005 29.3 0.197 0.01 0.02 0.1 0.7 0.05 3.31 0.01 1.3 0.319 158.5 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.998  28.6 0.08 0.12 0.808  <  0.01 0.084  0.001 0.12 0.023 208.2 0.039  0.025 < 4213  0.006  0.074  0.014  53.7  0.06 <  0.08  51.9  27.9  47.0  44.4 0.01 0.38  1.212 0.01 0.08 2.0  11.4 0.01 < 025  208.7 0.06 0.002 0.01  0.01 < 300  0.161  <  1.1 0.274 <  8.9 17.6  5.2 <  2.71 0.01  0.140 <  0.52  <  0.10  10.98 0.01 <  15.3 ' 3.8  0.09  0.3 3.6  1.9 0.06  0.08  0.029  0.08 43.03 0.01 3.2 0.456 156.1  <  0.08 1.09 0.10  31.3  1.78  20.7  13.7 4.5  18.3 4.9  0.039  0.016  0.008  9.4 17.7 1.02  hifmiiiiffll  Field parameters: PH Spec, cond (uS/cm) Ctmd. (uS/cm)  <  0.006 0.006  2.3 0.600 318 <  7.54 850 1760 "99  158.5  0.3  4.2  0.001  0.028 0.003  0.012 <  1.9  001 < 0.02 <  0.06  0.030  0.06  0.01 < 0.36  0.13 0.07  0.031  <  < <  0.05 < 27.4 42.41  0.08 <  0.055 293.7 0.007 <  <  < <  0.018 0.05 < 44,4 0.632  3.57 0.06  0.018 203.4  0.02 0.1  0.005  28.7  0.01 <  <  < < <  0.05 < 0.002 < 0.01 < 31.8  0.091 0.004  <  «  1.1 0.288 204.8 < < <  7.82 1360 5  909.7  0.05 < 0.018 0.004  < <  <  0.05  908.9  005 < 0.026 0.002  0.005 0.443  <  866.9 903.8  0.05 < 0.018 0005  < <  3.30 0.01 13 0.317  <  0.05 < 0.05 <  283.5 0 005 0 005  <  0.001  0.12 < 0.08 <  171.7 0.005 0.006  0.353 180.9 0.05 < 0.002 < 0.01 <  <  910.0  <  <  4 39.6  "*~  0.001  548.6 551.8  i <  0.05 <  0.001  0.005 < 180.7 0.006 < 0.005 0.005 <  0.005  0.05 < 0.185  <  0.242 < 0.005 <  0.08  12.3 5.1 0.004  0.4 0.03 513.4  <  0.08  2.6 5.3 0.002  0.3 0.01 853.3  0.9 0.02 855.6  0.002 0.01  13.3 0.7 0.17 <  0.3 0.02 6549  0.3 0.02  <  0.01 <  8.7 12.9  6 67.7  0.001  0.05 < 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.022 0.003  4.85 0.01 1.7 0.484  15 53.2  1 <  0.001  586.3 587.3  0.06  55 0.5  948.0  0.038 0.005  S—p Wny 900 Rd.  2  0.4 0.03  0.06 <  38.3  <  47 46.9 <  UIS Limit  4  490.3  0.278 < 0.01 < 77.1  8  <  1.1  0.08 < 6.12  i  S—p • * ItO  <  0.022  0.01 < 0.040 <  47.6 26.07  5 1070  0.042 0.05 32.6 . 0.001 0.01 0.02 0.1 0.8  <  7.55 840 1350 969  7.51  910  0.06 0.06 0.06  0.004  0.06 <  0.005 < 0.05 <  0.001  7  4 38.3  0.5  < <  ,  Road Piuo  SMpS  1  0.02 522.0  771.5 <  300 drmlnagm at Christal Ck  1 <  62  1.7  6.61 1.BS0 40  5  3.3  0.07 968.9  0.05 <  Old fid. S—pRHS Umit  2.7  10  0.047  S—pQ OkfRd. ROW Xing  140  0.21 1.070.0  B r " " " " ' < Nitrate Nitrite < P <  SNfll  9  <  ClF S04  Samp nr. Pol* 500  2.54 6.27 1700 971  0.05 4.94 1592 833  0.24  1.14  3.16  3.23  5.59 1570  7.14 1331  626  725  6.97 1054 814  7.33 692 521  0.29 686 1590 839  1.86  0.04  2.27  4.6 1123 822  7.3 1493  7.33 1474  3.05 669 007  782  833  471  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope o f Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  138  Appendix C l OldRd.  OtttRcL S—pRHS Limit (dup.)  OURA AT ROW Xing  June 6-00 Site*  7  Acidity to pH4.5 Acidity, total Alkalinity to pH 4.5  1 « 50 31.6 <  F  0.07 < 1240  S04 Br Nitrate Nitrite P ^ pH FR NFR Spec. Cond.  0.005 0.05 8.19 1.960  5.62 1600  0.3 0.O2 1100  0.01 1165 0.05 • 0.192 0.005 • 0.05 < 6.40 1600  0.05 • 0.111 0.005 0.05  0.05 0.059 0.005 0.05  1370  1270 2750 1430  7.45 1390  S3  GFAA (dissolved): Se GFAA (total):  0.05 0.013 0.005 0.05  < <  fin  Ba Be B Cd Ca Cr Co Cu Fe Pb Mg Mn . Mo Ni P K Se Si  4.29 0.03  AQ  Na Sr S Sn Ti V  0.2J « 0.27 OO .S • 0.016 0.003 0.01 • 0.436 206 0.015 • 0.012 • 0.050 • 0.005 • 0.05 • 41.6 93.7 0.01  0.27 • 5.50 0.02  0.05 • 0.10 • 0.05 • 0.022 0.005  0.05 0.05 0.05 0.027 0.005  300.2 0.005 0.005 • 0.005 • 0.005 0.05 • 51.3 18.2 0.01 0.27 • 0.2 ' 1.4 0.05 • 6.26 0.01  264 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.021 0.05 48.1  0.05 0.002  0.O5 0.002  0.05 0.002  0.28 0.31 0.21 0.008 0.003 0.09 0.396 190 0.030 0.136 0.005 39.7 OO .B • 42.6 201  2.61 • 0.26 0.05 • 0.064 0.003 0.01 • 0.450 211 0.016 • 0.008 • 0.072 « 2.47 • 0.05 • 43.6 102  0.05 • 0.OS • 0.05 • 0.022 0005 0.01 • 0.031 • 296 0.005 • 0.005 • 0.005 • 0005 0.05 < 51.5 18.5 0.01 '  0.49 4.46 0.03  0.28 ' 9.48 0.02 •  0.05 • 6.25 0.01 •  vZn HHi  ICP, Total Al Sb  B Cd Ca Cr Co Cu Fe Pb Mg Mn Mo Ni P K Se Si Ag Na Sr S Sn Ti V Zn  0.05 0.005  0.05 0.002  •  0.5 0.02 1080 0.05 < 0.004 0.005 < » 5.37 1410 5 1540  0001 < . P ' ? ? , ' , , , '  <  n  0.17 0.34 0.11 • 0.006 0.003 0.09 • 0.388 192.0 0.035 0.137 0.005 35.7 ' 0.05 42.1 191 0.01 1.72  7.16 1490 114 < 1620  1 < 66 0.5  4  1 < 15 46.1  1 4 35.1  0.4 0.02 1000  0.2 0.02 61D  0.05 < 0.215 0.005 < 0.05 <  0.05 0.013 0.005 OO .S  7.44 1390 657 < 1540  7.45 1160 5 1370  ;  H.i'diM"-.s C;i*Mg H.ii.lncii. luliil ICP, dissolved Al  0.05 < 0.306 0.005 < 0.05 <  8  0.05 5.00 0.01 273 0.05 0.002 0.01 4.14 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.027 0.005  288 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.036 0.05 49.2 0.027 O.01 0.02 0.1 0.05 5.16  278 0.05 0 002 0.01 4.43  0.05 0.05 0.05 0.026 0.004 0.01 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.05 43.5 0.001 0.01  0.05 4.26  0.05 0.002  0.05 0.05 0.05 0.120 0.008 0.01 0.005 264 0.O06 0.005 0.005 1.47 • 0.05 46.7 0.390  0.05 4.29  262 0.05 0.006 0.01 1.45  i  —  P,'°°! ,"  -~~T.\  P:,°P'„„  i  0.05 0.10 0.05 0.019 0.005 0.01 0.063 294 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.05 51.0 11.6 0.01 0.22 0.2 1.3 OO .S 5.56 0.01  0.15 < 0.10 < OO .S < 0,031 0.004 0.01 < 0.055 238 0.012 * 0.011 < 0.005 < 0.005 0.05 < 42.5 59.9 0.01 <  0.05 • 0.05 • 0.05 ' 0,020 0.005 0.01 • 0.012 ' 263 0.005 < 0.005 • 0005 • 0.062 0.05 • 47.8 0.755 0.01 •  0.05 0.05 0.05 0.026 0.004 0.01 0.005 247 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.013 0.05 43.7 0.002 0.01  0.17 • 3.84  0.05 • 4.58  0.05 4.25 0.01  0.05 0.002  0.05 0.003  0.05 ' 0.002  0.14 0.09 • 0.05 • 0.031 0.004  10.8 • 0.05 • 0.05 • 0.219 0.004 0.03 • 0.028 • 295 0.010 ' 0.005 0.056 13.2 0.05 51.9 1.10 0.01 0.06 0.5 2.8 0.05 21.2 0.01  0.05 0.05 005 0.026 0.004 001 0.005 240 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.055 0.05 43.2 0.003 0.01  33.4 0.05 0.14 1.04 0.002 0.14 0.027 330 0.048 0.041 0.096 63.8 0.18 70.4 1.71 0.01 0.11  2.34 0.06 0.05 0.066 0.004 0.01 0.061 282 0.005 0.005 0.016 2.75 OO .S 50.6 12.6 0.01  0.05 4.22 0.01  OO .S 60.5  0.05 B.95 0.01  0.05 0.003  0.05 1.37 0.12 2.92  6.56 1404  6.52 1327  231 0.005 0.005 • 0.005 0.005 0.05 • 42.0 61.3 0.01 • 0.49 0.4 3.3 0.16 • 3.73  245 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.361 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.027 0.004 0.01 0.005 242 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.025 0.05 43.4 0.001 0.01 0.02 0.1 09 0.05 4.24  TIC TOC PCM Field parameters:  Spac. cond. (uS/cm) Cond. (uS/cm)  5.69 1620 1050  5.12 1471  5.73 1590  6.57 1534  4,84 1530  667 1333  8.56 1404  Natural Attenuation o f Aqueous Z i n c in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope o f Galkeno 300 M i n e , Central Y u k o n  Appendix C l  139 QxftflfloJM  June 13-00  «"  Site#  11  Acidity to pH 4.5 Acidity, total Alkalinity, total ClF S04 Br Nitrate Nitrite P ll^lllllll  pH FR NFR Spec. Cond. GFAA (dissolved): Se < GFAA (total): Se Hardness. Ca+Mg Hardness, total ICP, dissolved Al Sb As Ba Be B Cd Ca Cr Co Cu Fe Pb Mg Mn Mo Ni P K Se SI Ag Na Sr S Sn Tl V  0.001  <  0.001  <  605.1  9S3.2  0.31  <  0.32  <  0.09  <  0.05 0.05 0.005  0.08  <  0,01  1.373  <  0.005 308.6 0.005  0.019  «  0.119  <  0.005  0.076  <  0.005  31.7 0.05  0.766 <  0 05  39.5  52.2  186.4  0.549  0.01 <  0.01  1.78  0.02  1.0  <  0.1  <  0.05  08 0.37  t.0  4.66  4.74  0.03 <  0,01  1.6  2.1  0.254  0.579  392  293.5  0.05  <  0.05  0.003  <  0.002  0.01 <  001  139.9  2.95  0.49 0.27  27.09 <  O.OS  0.16  0.13  0.006  0.778  0.002  0.002  0.08  0.14  1.12  0.031  144.5  306.0  0.031  0.046  0.108  0.029  0.066  0.092  30.1  56.9  0.13  0.13  33.2  61.3  188.1 0.01  1.69 <  1.37  2.8  0.7  4.3 <  3.74 0.03  0.01 0.11  0.8 0.46  0.06 40.6  <  0.01  1.3  3.3  0.210  0.637  381  <  0.05  0.094  177.2  ICP, Total Al Sb As Ba Be B Cd Ca Cr Co Cu Fe Pb Mg Mn Mo NI P K Se Si Ag Na Sr S Sn Tl V Zn  0.001  1,217.2  0.003  <  0001  w985.6i  0.009  <  "III  0.06  252.6 <  0.06  0.002  0.977  0.01  0.09  151.9  4.42  TIC TOC P04 Field parameters: Wtortomp. CC)  3.1  PH Spec. cond. (uS/cm)  5.7S  6.75  1741  1364  1010  800  Cond. (uS/em)  3.5  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Appendix C l  I 4 0 OMRd. Samp RHS Umtt  OMfidAT ROW Xing  June 20-00  Oalhano 300 gang* {analytical blank)  300 drahtaga at Christ*! CM  Site* Acidity to pH 4.5  •  Acidity, total Alkalinity to pH4.5 Alkalinity total — ( 0.1  Cl001  0.05  <  0.30  Nitrate Nitrite  <  P  <  0.005 < 0.05  <  5.49  PH FR NFR Spec. Cond.  0.05  0.05  0.42  0.29  0.25  0.05 < 0.41  0.005  0.005  <  0.OO5 <  0.005 <  O.OOS  <  0.005 <  0.005 <  0.005  <  0.05  0.05  <  0.05 <  0.05 <  0.05  <  0.05 <  0.05 <  0.05  <  7.24  6.48  5.19  1760  1700  1590  <  5  101 1830  24  <  1630  <  1,600 45 1,680  5  5  1750  1830  <  0.25 <  5.8  5.08 1640  0.05  7.62 1560  1720  0.05 < 0.002  0.05  <  0.05 <  0.09  7.37  7.61  1310  1410  69 < 1770  mry'srsrz GFAA (dissolved): Se  0.5  1040  1160 <  Br  0.01  0.01  5  9S8  1434  1298  <  1820  0.05  <  0.05  0.40  0.011 0.005 0.05 iiiiifii 7.31 10 5 1940  htP.^+J,. ^' A <  0001  <  0.001  0.001  <  0.001  <  0.001  <  0.001  <  0.001 <  0.001  <  0.001  <  0.001  <  0.001  <  0.001  0.001  <  0.001  <  0.001  <  0.001  <  0.001 <  0.001  *  0.001  <  0.001  GFAA (total): Se  1,161.5  Hardness, total ICP,  791.4  577.7  Hardness, Ca+Mg  1210.0  M999.0 S 1098.8  1048.S  904.3  974.6  10667  907.3  979.9  xmmmmmmmmmmmmmMm 994.4 1023.9 1075.9 < 0.4 1202.4  1124.1  1099.4  0.4  *  ^^^^  MM  dissolved  Al  0.39  Sb  0.34  Ba  0.05 < 0.007  Be  0.003  As  0.23  0.05  0.31  0.10 0.O5  0.05 0,012 0.004  0.06  <  0.05 <  0.05  0.05 <• O.OS <  0.05 < 0 OS <  0.05  0.027  0.029  0.06 < <  0.017 0.005  0.006  0.005  0.05 0.094  «  0.005 <  < <  O.OS 0.O5  0.026  0.015  0.024  0.005  0.004  0.008  <  0.0O2 0.0O1  0.01  <  0.01  0.021  <  0.005  343.6 0.005  < <  0.1 0.005  0.006 <  327.1 0 005 < 0005 <  0.005  <  0.005  0.005 <  0.005 <  0.005  <  0.005  0.005 <  0.005  0.017 0 05  0.01 0.027  Ca  173.3 0.024  245.7 0.019  321.4 0.005  <  0.00S <  0.005 <  0.005  314.6 0.012 <  0.105  0.009  0.005  <  0.005 <  0.005 <  0.005  0.096  0.081  0.005  <  0.005 <  24.7 <  Fe <  <  0.005  0.05  0.05  Mg  35.2  43.2  47.7  Mn  176.3  Pb  0.05  0.005  337.6  <  266.1  0.083  305.7  0.005 <  0.005  <  0.039  0.016  0.429  <  0.05 <  0.05 <  0.05  0.06 <  46.1 0.004  51.3  50.7  49.9  0.316  0.031  0.05 <  0.05  <  50.3  52.8  <  16.8  0.178  124.5  20.1  0.01  0.01  0.01  0.01 <  0.01 <  O.01  NI  0.30  0.03 <  0.02 «  0.02  0.67  0.1 <  O.I <  0.1  0.4  0.2 <  0.7  0.9  1.7  1.1 0.05 < 5.92  1.65  1.43  1.0  0.8  K  07  0.05 6.46  Se  0.35  1.0 0.33  Si  4.71  6.01  Ag Na  0.02  0.01  1.6  1.9 0.424  2.1 0.599  377  S Sn  <  Ti  <  V  396  <  0.9 0.05 < 5.86  5.07  0.01 <  0.05  0.01 <  0.01  0.01  1.9  2.0  2.3  0.537  0.568  0.454  267.6  284.1  0.05  0.05  <  0.05 <  0.05 <  0.05  0.002  <  0.002 <  0.002 <  0.002  0.01  0.01  0.01  0.01 <  0.01  124.3  40.8  0.02 < 9.87  1.59  2.08  1.17  0.06  <  5.15  2.2  0.007  0.05  0.20 <  4.63  0.609 299.5  370.7  0.05 <  0.002 141.4  Zn  0.9  0.03 0.226  Sr  0.2 *  <  66.2 0.01  0.01 <  Mo P  1.153  •  <  0.01  <  0.01  0.32  0.03  <  0.02  0.1  <  0.1  1.0  <  0.1  0.05  <  0.05  5.19  <  0.05  0.01  <  0.01  2.2 0.629  <  0.001  0.01 <  372.5 0.05 <  0.05  0.002 <  0.002  0.01 <  0.01  45.0  14.6  56.2  0.3  350.2  0.05 < 0.012 < 0.01  0.1 0.043  0.01 <  2.1 0592  385 <  0.05  0.063  0.01 <  001  Cu  0.01 0.005  <  O.OS 0.05  0.580  Cr Co  0.01 < 0.005 <  0.05  0.05 < 0.O5 <  1.616  <  0.01 <  0.05 <  0.14 0.05 <  Cd  B  0.009 <  0.21 <  0.11 <  0.05 0.006  <  0.01 0.038  ICP, Total Al  0.77  0.30  Sb  0.35  0.34  0.14  As  0.11  0.06  0.06  0.011 0.004  0.022 0 005  Ba  0.006  Be  0.003 0.06  0.06 <  0.01  0.01  Cd  1.470  0.512  0.035  Ca  158.5  224.0  318.4  0.013  0.006  <  0006  < <  B  Cr  0.024  Co  0.123  Cu  0.100  0.075  0.006  Fe  26.8  0.008  0.006  Pb  0.15 <  0.06  0.06  Mg  35.7  45.4  Mn  165.9 <  Mo  0.016  120.1  0.01 <  0.01  *  <  13.71  0.06  0.07  0.06 <  0.06 <  <  0.21  0.06 0.06  0.16 <  <  006  <  0.06 0.001 0.001  0.391  0.024  0.066  0.O34  <  0.005  0.004  0.003  0.005  0.005  0.005  <  O.01  0.06  0.01  0.01  0.01  <  0.01  0.015  0.061  0.082  0.021  <  0.008  261.5  314.4  326.3  <  0.1  0.006 <  0.006  0.019  282.2 0.009 <  0.006 <  <  0.006  0.006 <  0.006  0.016  0.014 <  0.006 <  <  0.011  0.006  0.006  <  0.006  0.034  <  0.006  0.012  23.9  <  0.006  0.06  0.07  <  54.4  53.2  46.2  49.2  52.1  20.5  1.160  0.001  0.650  58.6  *  1.344  0.01  <  0.01  <  0.01  <  0.012  0.714  0.06 < 553 0.01  0.06 55.3  17.64 <  0.006 0.006 0.007  2.69  0.06 <  0.01  «  0.06  267.1  <  <  0.06  0.006  0.01 <  0.06 <  0.01  <  0.08  0.028  311.7  <  0.53  0.12 0.06 <  0059  0.011  <  2.23  0.06 <  0.009 < <  0.191 <  0.1  0.01  <  0.01 0.02  Ni  1.57  1.33  0.03 <  0.02  0.04  0.54  0.04  <  P  1.0  0.8  0.3 <  0.1 <  0.1  1.0  0.4  0.3 <  0.1  <  K  o.e  1.1  1.4  1.4  0.6  2.7  1.7  1.7  1.2  <  0.1  Se  0.36  0.27  0.32  0.06 < 6.54  0.06 < 7.07  0.06 < 4.65  0.32  0.06 0.054  0.1  0.15 <  0.06 <  0.06  <  0.06  24.02  4.65  8.96  5.62  <  0.06  0.01  0.01 <  0.06  Si  4.38  5.64  Ag Na  0.03  0.02  0.01  1.5  1.7  2.1  1.8  2.7  2.1  2.2  2.2  <  0.1  Sr  0.227  0.436  2.0 0 668  0.633  0.530  0.528  0.457  0.637  0.646  <  0.001  334  362  364.5  334.1  279.8  240  353  375.9  341.2  S Sn  <  Ti  <  V  <  0.06  0.01 < 136.6  Zn  <  0.002  0.06  0.O6  0.002  0.002  0.01  0.01  123.8  37.4  <  <  0.01  <  0.06 < 0.034 <  <  0.01 8.67  <  0.01  <  0.06  «  0.002  0.06 <  0.506  <  0.01  0.04  <  1.40  2.38  0.06 < 0.002 0.01 < 49.3  0.01  <  0.01  <  0.01  0.15  0.06 <  0.06  <  0.06  0.074  0.014  <  0.002  0.01  <  0.01 40.6  <  13.1  0.01 0.052  TIC TOC PQ4  ;  • • • H i l l Field parameters: Water tmp. (V) P« Spec. cond. fuSJcm) Cond. tuSJctn)  Natural Attenuation o f Aqueous Z i n c in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope o f Galkeno 300 M i n e , Central Y u k o n  ixC.l  Itl GaftanoMO mdit  June 28-00  11  Site #  Old Rd. i * « p RHSOmtt  s •apt* 120  4  SOOdrainag* at ChrtstMl C*  3  1  Acidity to pH 4.5 Acidity, total Alkalinity, total  m  ClF S04 "  Bl  JiJ:i  Nitrate Nitrite P  iillilliiftii  fill PH FR NFR Spec. Cond. GFAA  (dissolved):  Se  <  0.001  <  0.001  <  0.001  <  0.001  <  0.001  <  0.001  <  0.001  GFAA (total): Se Hardness, Ca+Mg Hardness, total  0.001  632.0  1120  1,110.0  1,090.0  1,260.0  1140  1,110.0  1,100.0  mm ICP,  dissolved 0.39  <  0.05  <  0.05  <  0.05  Sb  0.40  <  0.05  <  0.05  <  0.05  As  0.08  <  0.05  <  0.05  <  Ba  0.007  0.030  0.034  0.120  Be  0.003  0.005  0.005  0.005  Al  0.07 <  B Cd  1.800  Ca  176.0  Cr Co Cu Fe Mg Mn Ni  0.005  <  0.005  <  0.005  <  0.005  <  0.005  <  0.005  0 005  <  0.005  <  0.005  0024  0.091  0.05  <  0.05  468  60.5  184.0  0.132  <  0.536 <  0.05 66.4  0.05 68.1 0.5  0.0  0.01 <  0.01  0.01 <  1.72  0.04  0.02  <  0.02  0.1 <  0.1  <  0.1  1.1  0.7  1.1  <  0.001  *  4.76  0.001  <  0.01  1.3  0.001  <  4.98  5.20  0.03 <  Ag Na Sr  325.0  <  0.8  Si  0.01 0.005  0.126  K <  <  335.0  0.032  P Se  <  0.01 0.005  0.076 <  <  Mo  <  349  26.100 <  Pb  0.01 < 0.015  0.05  4.34  0.01 <  0.01  0.001 0.01  1.5  2.2  2.1  2.1  0.245  0.684  0.645  0.632  375  365  308  319  S <  0.05  <  0.05  <  0.05  <  0.05  Ti  <  0 002  <  0.002  <  0.002  <  0.002  V  <  Sn  Zn  0.01 < 158.0  0.01 <  0.01 <  0.01  13.6  1.9  2.29  /CP, Total Al  0.95  LOG  <  0.06  Sb  0.42  <  0.06  <  0.06  As  0.20  <  0.06  0.06  0.13  Ba  0.008  0.047  0.310  0.489  Be  0.004  0.005  0.005  0.005  0.07  B Cd  1.51  Ca  168.0  <  0.01 < 0.017 < 340.0  16.40 <  0.06  0.01  0.06  0.01  0.01  309.0  343.0  Cr  0.023 <  0.006  <  Co  0.128 <  0.006  <  0.008  0.015  Cu  0.101  0.008  <  0.008  0.066  Fo  29.2  Pb  0.14  Mg  37.6  <  179.0  Mn <  Mo  0.01  <  1.3  P  <  0.8  K <  Se  0.06 <  0.08  57.5  53.4  0.165  0.1  0.01  0.01  0.04 <  1.75  Nl  0.1 < 1.2  0.001 <  0.001  0.009  0.023  1.74 <  0.006  36.5 <  64.7 1.3 <  1.8  0.1  7.04  0.001  0.01 0.05  0.02  2.7  0.5 <  0.06  <  5.00  0.001 28.60  SI  5.05  Ag  0.03  Na  1.5  Z1  1.9  2.9  0.238  0.662  0,613  0.704  356  331  335  295  Sr S <  Sn  <  0.06  <  0.003  Tl <  V  0.01  <  150.0  Zn  0.01  <  0.01  <  0.06  <  0.06  0.030  <  0.002  0.524  0.01  <  0.01  0.07  1.82  3.94  14.30  <  0.01  0.06  TIC TCC P04  rr v  . Field parameters: Watortomp. CC)  •.  ... •  • 3.1  1.8  6.3  i 3.5  5.75  720  6.64  6.75  Spec. cond. (uS/tm)  1741  1680  1576  1364  Cond. (uS/cm)  1010  940  1000  800  pH  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Appendix C l  Old Rd. S—pRHS Limit  Old M. AT ROW Xing  July 5-00  100 dralnag* © OvHOt  S—p at RorndPtrnm  S—pt*  Qang*(ttotd dup- Ok 300 mdU)  120  Srte# Acidity to pH 4.5 Acidity, total Alkalinity topH4.5  31.2  • 0.01 1150 0.DS  0.33 0.005 0.0S  <  . 0.01 1030  0.05  0.05  0.33 < 0.005  0.25 : 0.005  <  ,674  . 0.01 S50  <  0.05  < 0.002 < 0.005  0.05  0.05  <  0.05  < 0.002 • 0.005  " ~ js  <  0.05  0.002 • 0.005  0.05  6.15  7.44  7.37  1670  1540  1270  • 6 > 0.01 1130  • 0.01 943  0.05  < 6 < 0.01 1140  e  0.05  <  0.05  <  7.53 1450 646 1570  1805  0  0.3 0.33  0.40  < 0.05  0.08 0.012  0.004 0.511  179.0  225  0.123  <  0.05  < 0.005  0.075  < 0.005  Si Ag Na Sr S Sn Ti V  0.05 47 135.1  15.4 < 0.01  45.2  0.081  < 0.001  0.01  « 0.01 < 0.02 < 0.1 0.4  <  1.78  1.31  0.28  <  1.3  0.8  0.2  < 0.1  0.8  1.1  1.4  0.S  4.8  6.94  5.8  0.03  0.02  < 0.01  1.7  1.7  2.1  0.247  54.3  56.2  < 0.01  214.76 < 0.01  < 0.05  0.005  <  41.0  < 0.05  320 0008  < 0.005  <  < 0.005  0.032  0.038 27.5  0.008  < 0.01 < 0.005 343.1 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005  0.016  0.033  0.07 < 0.05 < 0.05 0.022 0.005 < 0.01 < 0.005 269.1 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 0.006 < 0.05  0.029  0.005  < 0.01  < 0.01  1.230  < 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.05  0.025  0.011  0.003 0.07  0.07 0.13 < 0.05  0.434  0.02  0.01  4.29 0.01  2.5  2.3  5.44 <  0.663  386  357  319  268  < 0.05  < 0.05  < 0.05  < 0.002  « 0.002  < 0.002  < 0.01  < 0.01  < 0.01  < 0.002 < 0.01  < 0.05 < 0.002 0.01  4.24  1.711  -  118.37  ICP, Total Al Sb As Ba Be B Cd Ca Cr Co Cu Fe Pb Mg Mn Mo Ni P K Se Si Ag Na Sr S Sn Tl V Zn  0.43  0.33  0.2  0.009  0.07 1.210  0.490  172  211  0.018  0.009  * 0.01 0.012  0.022  0.03  0.006  0.005  « 0.01 < 0.006  308  324  268  < 0.006  < 0.006  < 0.006  < 0.006  < 0.006  0.01  0.078  < 0.006  < 0.006  < 0.006  32.1  < 0006  < 0.006  0.105  0.025  < 0.06  < 0.06  55.3  47.4  0.06  <  36.7 194 0.01  0.00  < 0.06  43.1  52.9  0.093  0.005  < 0.01  « 0.01  < 0.01  0.27  < 0.02  < 0.02  15  120 <  0.01 1.28  2 1.4  0.9 0.7 0.001 5 0.04 1.5 0.241 377  < 0.06 < 0 002 < 0.01 158.0  0.2  1 <  < 0.1  1.2 0.001  6 0.02  < 7.15 < 0.01  < 0.1  1.2 0.001  <  0.6 0.001  S.14  <  0.001 4.93  < 0.01  < 0.01  1.6  2.0  2.4  2.1  0.417  0.654  0.722  0.589  351  336  332  268  < 0.06  < 0.06  < 0.002  < 0.002  < 001  < 0.01  119 37  37.5  < 0.06 0.005 < 0.01 4.05  < 0.06 < 0.002 < 0.01 1.690  0.2 0.11  < 0.05  3.04  1130  < 0.05 0.12 < 0.05  < 0.05 « 0.05 < 0.05  0.025  0.006 0.014  328  347 0.006  < 0.005  < 0 005  < 0.005  < 0.005  * 0.005  < 0.005  < 0.05  < 0.05  55.3  57.9  < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 0.054 < 0.05 59.4  16.1  0.16  < 0.01  < 0.01  32.2  < 0.01 0.35  0.31  0.3  0.2  < 0.1  0.9  1.3  1.2  0.04  5.02  6.12  5.17  < 0.01  < 0.01  < 0.01  2.3  2  0.465  0.643  330  0.678  361  347  < 0.05  < 0.002  < 0.002  < 0.01  < 0.01  < 0.01  37.7  40.8  13.10  0.22 0.12  < 0.06  < 0.05 0.004  2.43  0.71  0.15  < 0.06 < 0.08  < 0.06  0.016  0.077  0.005  0.006  < 0.01 0.05  0.005 < 0.01  0.083  282.0  0.012  310  326  < 0.006  < 0.006  < 0.006  0.008  < 0.006  < 0.006  < 0.006  0.041  < 0.006  < 0.006  3.45  < 0.06  0.1 B7  < 0.01  0.32  < 0 02  0.4  0.4  0.8  0.1  1.8 0.001  <  505  1 0.001  9.68 <  001  2.1  2.1  0.451  0.626  324  330  < 0.06  < 0.06  < 0.002 36.7  54.5  « 0.01  0.45  < 0.01  < 0.06  15.6  32.800  < 0.01  0.06 53.9  < 0.01  <  1.2  <  51.5  0.70 0.43 0.19 0.008 0.003 0.07 12 172 0.021 0.122 0.054 32 0.08 38.7 191.000 < 0.01 1.81 1.4 0.7  0.043  0.01  0.653 315 < 0.06 O.013 0.01  42.000  0.001  6.2 < 0.01 2.1  0.081 <  <  < 0.01 13.4  005  4.62 0.03 1.6 0.246 394 < 0.05 0.006 < 0.01 149  2.2  < 0.05  <  0.28 0.39 0.1 0.014 0.003 0.07 1.23 178 0.027 0.122 0.044 27.600 < 0.05 41 216.25 , 0.01 1.78 1.3 0.9  < 0.01  0.082  0.006  0.05  614.6 1287.5  0.03  0.005 < 0.01  295  0.001  24.1 < 0.01 3.3 0.697 300 « 0.06 0.458 0.05  1110  1150  0.005  < 0.06 0.07 0.451 0.005 0.07 0.012 309 0.025 0.018 0.055 28.1 < 0.06 59.1 0.919 < 0.01 0.05 0.8 2.9 <  1630  1050.0  0.027  < 0.01 0.052  <  5.01 2000 57 1873  1740  13.1  < 0.01 < 0.006  0.054  0.121  <  0.005  < 0.01  0.05 7.52 40  4.08 0.01 2.3 0.564 300 < 0.05 < 0.002 0.01 2.12  < 0.06 < 0.06 < 0.06  0.039  0.021  0.004  0.004  <  0.12  < 0.06  < 0.06  0.005  < 0.06 < 0.08 < 0.08  < 0.08  0.24  0.73  <  36.3  0.05  <  1720  0.06 0.05 « 0.05 0.106 0.006 < 0.01 < 0.005 305.5 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 0.643 < 0.05 54.0 0.385 < 0.01 < 0.02 « 0.1 0.9  0.494  0.629  402  < 0.05  0.05  <  • 0.01 1320  0.50 0.239 < 0.005 < 0.005  7.02  Hardness. Ca+Mp, Hardness, total  ICP, dissolved Al Sb AS Ba Be B Cd Ca Cr Co Cu Fe Pb Mg Mn Mo Ni P K  0.05  0.34 0.005  0.22 . 0.005 <  < 0.01 1110  <  0.001  4.9 0.03 1.5 0.241 373 < 0.06 < 0.002 < 0.01 154.8 12.1 = 0.5 c 0.002  TtC TOC PQ4 Field parameters: Wattrfrmp. CC) PH Spec. cond. (uSfcm) Cond. (uSfcm)  5.39  6.06  6.77  5.02  6.41  6.77  1721  1785  1451  1627  1800  1721  1939 1100  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Appendix C l  143 July 11-00  OtdRd.ar ROWXlng  CiAarra 300  Site* Acidity to pH 4.5 Acidity, total Alkalinity, total  WEI ClF sot Br Nitrate Nitrite P PH FR NFR Spec. Cond.  }^ y  GFAA (dissolved): <  Se  0.001  i  <  0.001  <  0.001  <  0.001  «  0.001  <  0.001  <  0.001  GFAA (total): Se  0.001  •A Hardness, Ca+Mg  684.9  116.2  1.075.1  995.9  Hardness, total  ,371.1  1.137.6  1.083.6  1002.3  ICP, dissolved Al  0.25 <  Sb  0.44 <  As  0.08 <  Ba  0.05 0.05 « 0.05 «  0.004  0.05  0.05 < 0.006  0.01  0.02  0.05 0.137  0.046  0.004  0.07  B  0.11  0.05  0.033  0.003  Be  0.06  0.006 <  0.01  1.170  0.027  0.019  Ca  198.6  350.3  337.9  307.9  Cr  0.031  0.016  0.037  0.013  Cd  0.126 <  Co Cu  0.018  Fe  0.005  0.013 <  0.011  30.445  0.008  0.041  0.05 «  0.05  008  45.8  58.6  56.1  Mn  208.4  0.2  0.2  < 0.01  < 0.01  Mo Ni  2.03  P  1.5  K <  Se  0.1  Sr S <  Sn Ti  <  V  < 0.01  0.05  0.03  ot  0.1 1.0  1.3  1.5  0.001 <  0.001 <  5.40 < 0.01  6.03  0.02  IS  2.1  24  0.678  0.656  475  390  377  0.05 <  0.05 <  0.05 <  0.013  2.3 0.582 283.16 0.05  0.027  < 0.01 163.9  0.001 4.11  < 0.01  0.275  0.002  Zn  0.554  0.6  0.O3  Ag Na  0.06 55.1  0.001 < 5.17  si  <  0.74  < 0.01  0.02 0.05  «  0.005  0.022  0.067  Mg  Pb  0.008  0.012 0.03  0.02 13.1  4.6  1.875  ICP, Total Al  0.58  0.26 0.06 <  0.06 <  0.06  0.08  0.047  0.6  0.015  0.014  001  0.08  0.43 0.15  Ba  0012  0.062  Be  0.013  0.015  0.08  0.01  B  <  19.29  1.60 0.06 <  Sb As  <  0.06  Cd  1.12  0.03  0.01  0.022  Ca  182.2  337.6  310.8  337.1  <  0.006  0.029  0.006  <  0.006  0.027  0.016  <  0.006  0.072  0.043  Cr  0.007  Co  0.137  Cu  0.040  Fe  33.6  Pb  0.10  0.06  0.09  Mg  42.7  57.8  53.6  65.1  Mn  190.8  0.3  0.2  <  Mo Ni P  2.5 <  0.06  0.01 <  0.01  1.88  0.04  1.2  K  <  <  0.1  <  <  1.219  0.01 < 0.02  <  1.3  1.1  < 0.06  0.09  0.01  0.08  0.1  1.3  0.9 < 0.00  Se  37.819  0.3  3.2 <  4.93  7.45  Ag  0.04  0.01  Na  1.8  2.4  2.2  0.259  0.674  0.628  0684  298  289.3  Sr  373  S <  Sn  <  V  008 <  0.01 150.9  Zn  <  318  0.06 < 0.003  Ti  5.92  0.001  Si  29.3  0.01 <  0.01 3.0  0.06 <  0.051  0.011  0.03  0.02  13.1  43  0.06 0.650 0.09 3.47  TIC TOC PCM Field parameters:  wwtvnp.  CO  3-1  pH  5.75  Sptc. cond. (uS/cm)  1741  Cond. (uS/ctn)  1010  6.76  6.75  1731  1364  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Appendix C l  Iff  OURtLAT ROWXIng  Qalkano  July 22- 00 Site*  MOdnhmg* QChrUtal  Sump Ml Road Phio  SaapB  < 1 57  ' 1  41 .a < 5 < O.S 1260.6  . 0.5 1344.1  F S04 Br Nitrate Nitrite  . 5 c 0.5 1146.9  • 5 < 0.5 850.4  > 5 < 0.5 984  4 <  < 1 11  • 5 . 0.5 1110.7  2  < t  < 1  5 47.1  49 3.7  < 1 2.6  < 5.1 < 0.51 1058.9  . 0.5 830.7  Qalkano OaragaB (field blank)  11  < i  t  15 602  4  Qalkmo Oingi4 (field dupllcata Oh 300adlQ  OldRd. SaapLHS Until  Saapt* 120  8  7  11  Acidity to pH 4.5 Acidity, total Alkalinity to pH 4.5  P  OURd. StepRHS  < 0.01 • 0.5 0.05 0.0  < <  „.„_^._4„  PH~"  2.6 5.63 1930  " "  rn  7.57 1340  6.20 1700  7.17 1710  7.35 1540  1610  1740 1054 1134.7  765 768.3  946  1033.1  1287.5  951.1  1118.8  < 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.05 0.019  < 0.05 0.09  < 0.05 < 0.05  0.005 < 0.01 < 0.005  0.14 < 0.05 < 0.05 0.078 0.005 < 0.01 < 0.005  < 0.05 0.03 0.005 < 0.01 0.077  238.4 < 0.005  292.8 < 0.005  322.2  < 0.05 0.013 0.005 < 0.01 0.01 278.1 < 0.005  < < < <  « 0.005 < 0.0005 0.434 < 0.05  Hardness, Ca+Mg Hardness, total  mm  S 1390  NFR Spec. Cond.  3.0 7.72 1480 636 1560  7.44 1230  33  1440  1750  913.3 928.2  1162.5 1183  6.29 1700 < 5 1710  < 5 < 2  I  1088.6 1168.4  ICP, dissolved 0.3 0.46  Al Sb As  0.06 0.012 0.010 0.06 0.854 183.6  Cr Co Cu Fe Pb  0.053  0.020  0.129 0.012 29.095 < 005  0.009 0.094  Mg Mn  40.4 206 < 0.01  Se SI  <  1.74 1.2 0.8 0.001  0.005 0.02 0.566 250.1  < 0.005 < 0.05 51.3 130.8 < 0.01  0.001  4.2 0.02  2.1 0.24 377 < 0.05 0.016 < 0.01 155  Sr S Sn Ti V Zn  < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.0005 < 0.05  <  < 0.05 0.008 < 0.01 125.1  55.5 0.167 0.01  < <  0.02 0.1 1  0.001 7.16  <  0.001  2.5 0.651 359.9 < 0.05 < 0.002 0.02 4.36  < 0.002 0.03 36.521  0.005 0.005 0.0005 0.05 41.3  < 0.02 < 0.1 0.4 < 0.001  < 0.02 0.1 0.8 < 0.001 3.66 « 0.01  < 0.05 < 0.002 < 0.01 1.466  0.009 0.005 0.005 0.0005 0.05  < < < <  55.5 14.04  0.429 < 0.01  2 0.43B 242  < < < <  52.2  < 0.001 < 0.01  3.92 < 0.01  5.93 0.01  0.02 2.6 0.66 407.1 < 0.05.  2 0.479 452  < 0.005 < 0.005 0.011 < 0.05  56.4 12.8  6.6  0.04  Ag Na  < 0.05 0.039 0.007 < 0.01 0.009 336.6 < 0.005  < 0.01 0.24 0.3 0.7  1.48 1 1.2 <  0.08 < 0.O5  < 0.05 0.013 0.007 < 0.01 0.025 329.1  Ba Be B Cd Ca  Mo Ni P K  0.17 0.15  0 0.39 < 0.05 0.014  2.1 0.52 288.96 « 0.05 < 0.002 0.01 1.67  53.1 0.147  < 0.01 0.29 0.2 1.1 <  0.005 0.005 0.0005 0.05  0.001  « 0.01 0.03 < 0.1 0.2 < 0.001 4.96 < 0.01  6.19 < 0.01 2.1 0.624  2.3 0.447  0.07 0.05 < 0.05 0.048 0.007  < 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.05  < 0.01 0.011  < 0.01 < 0.005  0.01 0.04  < 0,01 < 0.005  367.2 < 0.005  308.8 < 0.005  338 0.025  « 0.005 < 0.005 0.419  < 0.005 < 0.005 0.87 < O.OS  <• 0.1 < 0.005 < 0.005  0.072 0.004  < 0.05 59.7  51.7 0.149  0.15 0.16 < 0.05 0.024 0.007  < < < <  58.9 12.83 < 0.01  < 0.02 0.1 0.8 < 0.001 5.56  « 0.02 < 0.1  0.28 0.3  < 0 01 2.6  < 0.01  0.2 =  0.001  2.2 0.522 319 < 0.05 < 0.002 < 0.01 0.315  0.702 391.3 < 0.05  418.6 < 005 < 0.002 < 0.01 38.733  290.2 < 0.05 < 0.002 < 0.01 9.161  1.73 0.08  < 0.06 < 0.06  < 0.06  < 0.06  < 0.06  * 0.06  0.013 0.004 < 0.01  0.106 0.005 002  0.254  0.015  < 0.006 312.9  < 0.002 0.02 11.80  <  « 0.005 0.007 < O.OS < 0.1 0.012 < 0.01 < 0.02 < 0.1  1.3  3.98  0.05 005 0,05 0 001  < 0,001  0.005 0.005 0.0005 0.05  < 0.01  0.3 < 0.01  < < < <  0.001  7.53 0.02 2.5 0.685 409 < 0.05 0.003 0.03 37.265  < 0.1 < < 0.05  0.001  < 0.01 < 0.1 < 0.001 0.13 < O.OS < 0.002 < 0.01 0.O19  ICP, Total Al Sb  0.37  As  0.18 0.007 0.003  Ba Be B  0.020  Cu  0.018  Fe Pb  34.4  <  Mo  1.73  Ni  1.29 0.7  1.1  P K  0.6 <  Se  0.001 4  Si Ag Na  < 0.008  < 0.006  0.271  < 0.06 53.2 12.39 < 0.01 0.24 0.2 1.1  0.001  <  < 0.006  0.001  0.072 312.5  246 0.009  297 0.009  < 0.008  < 0.006  < 0.008 0.043  0.033  < 0.06 49.8 0.166  < 0.06 44.4  < 0.01  < 0.01  < 0.02  < 0.02 < 0.1  < 0.1 1.1 <  < 0.006  <  0.001  <  4.27  15.4  < 0.01  < 0.01 2.7  0.002  < 0.06 0 005 <  « 0.01 146.6  0.01 119.5  2.2 0.578 291 < 0.06  <  0.002  <  0.01  0.003 < 0.01  33.872  1.9 0.454 237 < 0.06  0.54 267 < 0.06  < 0.002  0.274  < 0.01 i <LH  0.03 2.34  -  P04  12  < 0.5 0.046  4.2 0.5 < 0.002  2.9 2.6  13.2 2.2  < 0.002  0.007  5.8 < 0.002  6.11 1924 1110  5.37 1812 1090  6.64 1532 1000  7.98 1595  7.26 1338  7.3  TIC TOC  <  0.01 2.2 0.612 320.8  < 0.06 0.01 3^.724 """HIT"'  21.9 4.2  11.1 2.3  0.430  0.061  7.38 1394  6.94 1634  < 0,006  0.009  288.9 < 0.006  < 0.1 < 0.008  < 0.006  < 0.006  < 0.006  0.02  < 0.006  < 0.008 < 0.006  56.8 0.318  < 0.01  < 0.01 0.04  < 0.01  <  0.001  <  0.001  <  10.15  13.60  < 0.01 2.4  < 0.01  0.389 262.81 < 0.06  0.635 310.9 < 0.06  0.006  <  0.112 0.02  0.02  1.3  16.4 2.2 0.32  0.002  2.6 0.554 291 < 0.06 0.214  7.6  < 0.06  51.1 11.890  0.001  4.28  < 0.01  < 0.006 < 0.06  < 0,1 0.01  < 0.01  < 0.01  0.23 0.2 1  < 0.02 < 0.1 < 0.1 <  < 002 0.3 1.7  < 0.01 2.4  0.066 <  0.009 < 0.01  12.762 < 0.06  0.2 1.4  0.005  0.027  54.5 0.502  0.4 0.001  < 0.06 < 006  0.018 0.005 * 0.01  46.4 0.134  8.27 <  5.9 < 0.06  0.03 < 0.1  0.3 1.3 0.001  5.36 < 0.01  2.3 0.621 334.9 < 0.06  0.3  2.1  6.61  0.06  < 0.06  0.1 < 0.06  0.036  0.016 < 0.06  54.1  0.6  < 0.01  1.7 0.424 369.9  <  < 0.008  < 0.006  0.01 2.34  < 0.06  0.004 0.03  318.6 < 0.006  0.009 < 0.006  12.66 < 0.01  < 0.01 0.03  07  241.9  < 0 006  6.92 < 0.06 « 0.06  3.90  0.007  < 0.008  0.7  0.002  0.001  0.005 0.01  14.507 < 0.06 56  0.03 < 0.01  < 0.06  V  < 0.006  0.27 0.004 0.03  0.064  5.72  1.6  Ti  < 0.006 < 0.006  8.31 < 0.06 < 0.06  0.026 0.004 < 0.01  287.9  < 0.008 < 0.006  1.1 <  0.231 379  Sr S Sn  Zn (  0.076  < 0.006 0.08 0.08 < 45.7 41.6 194.9 119.8 0.01 < 0.01  Mg Mn  < 0.01 < 0.006  0.029 304.5  21B.9 0.016  0.121  < 0.06  0.04 0.005  0.005 < 0.01  0.505  0.041  Cr Co  0.02  0.011 0.003 0.01  0.766 177.3  < 0.06 < 0.06  < 0.06  0.14  0.1 < 0.06  < 0.06  0.09  Cd Ca  < 0.06  < 0 06  0.12 0.24  0.4  <  0.001 6.3  < 0.06  < 0.01  < 0.01  2.3 0.594 322.5 « 0.06  < 0.1 0.002 < 0.06 < 0.06  < 0.002  0.002  < 0.01 32 236  0.02  13.2 3.8  2.2 2.9  0410  < 0.002  0.001  " "M~-  < 0.5 < O.S 0.023  Field parameters: Watar tamp. CC)  pu Spac. cond. (uS/cm) Cond. (uS/cm) Flow (m 3&) Flow (Us) A  0.052 6.31  7.05 1269  6.64 1532 1000  0.062 8.16  Natural Attenuation o f Aqueous Z i n c in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope o f Galkeno 300 M i n e , Central Y u k o n  Appendix C l  145  Qalktmo 300  July 29' 00  S—p nr.  *  mdn  Site*  Po1  11  Old Rd. AT ROW Xing  ** '  500  S  p  Oid Rd. S—p RHS Limit  JOOdrmlnagm Q Chrttfl Ck.  Sinkhob nr. Poh 500  S—p S  10  7  5  3  1  4  2  < 1 208 2.2  < 1 56 4.9  < 1 7 60.6  < 1 4 48.7  < 1 7 80.6  < 1 259 < 0.5  < 1 60 42.7  < 1 8 62.5  < 1 5 48.3  < 1 14 63  < 1 204 2.4  < 5 < 0.5 1410  < 5 < 0.5 1070  < 5 < 0.5 1040  < 5 < 0.5 977  •= 5 < 0.5 1050  < 5 < 0.5 1340  <  <  < "'3.0 < 0.1 < 0.3 < 3.0  <  ClF S04  < 5 < 0.5 1440  < 5 < 0.5 1270  < 5 < 0.5 1140  < 5 < 0.5 948  < 5 « 0.5 712  < 5 « 0.5 880  Br Nitrate Nitrite  < 3.0 < 0.10 < 0.3 < 3.0  <  <  <  <' 3.0 < 0.1 < 0.3 < 30  < < < 0.3 <  ^  3.0 0.40 < 0.3 < 3.0  PH* ~ " FR NFR Spec. Cond.  596 2,110 75 1,940  5.92 1920 7 1880  Hardness, Ca+Mg Hardness, total  680 1.370  733 1170  :  ICP, dissolved Al Sb As Ba Be B Cd Ca Cr Co Cu Fe Pb Mg Mn Mo Nl P K Se Si Ag Na Sr S Sn Ti V Zn  3.0 0.30 « 0.3 < 3.0  llllllilil ~"*6.40 1710 < 5 1760 997 t070  3.0 0.20 < 0.3 < 3.0  B 7.54*""" ESS  1460 45 1580  1100 < 5 1135  7.77 1390 959 1530  868 894  738 741  919.7 924.6  ""*V!6T*~*  3.0 0.1 3.0  "< ' 3.0 « 0.10 « 0.3 < 3.0 5.19 2070 38 1900  1270  0.08 0.1 < 0.05 0.015 0.006 < 0.01 0.029 313 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.05 52.4 14.8 < 0.01 0.22 0.2 0.9 < 0.001 5.3 0.01 2.6 0.584 392 < 0.05 < 0.002 < 0.01 31.8  0.1 0.06 < 0.05 0.029 0.006 < 0.01 < 0.005 279 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.05 46.3 0.148 < 0.01 < 0.02 < 0.1 0.7 < 0.001 4.78 0.02 2.4 0.530 286 < 0.05 < 0.002 0.02 3.48  < 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.05 0.019 0.004 < 0.01 < 0.005 229 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 0.012 < 0.05 40.1 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.02 < 0.1 0.5 < 0.001 4.23 < 0.01 1.9 0.437 245 < 0.05 < 0.002 < 0.01 1.48  < 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.05 0.066 0.005 < 0.01 < 0.005 282 0.007 < 0.005 < 0.005 0.515 < 0.05 52.5 0.416 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.1 0.9 < 0.001 3.89 < 0.01 2.1 0.532 312 < 0.05 < 0.002 < 0.01 1.65  0.05 0 31 < 0.05 < 0.001 0.002 0.04 0.725 167 0.042 0.114 < 0.005 14.1 < 0.05 41.0 207.0 < 0.01 1.56 0.8 0.4 < 0.001 3.71 0.02 1.1 0.246 477 < 0,05 < 0.002 < 0.01 155  ICP, Tola! Al Sb As Ba Be B Cd Ca Cr Co Cu Fe Pb Mg Mn Mo Ni P K Se SI Ag Na Sr S Sn Ti V Zn  0.36 0.34 0.41 0.31 < 0.06 0.19 0.012 0.008 0.004 0.004 0.1 0.02 0.506 0.769 235 195 0.073 0.02 0.135 0.013 0.014 0.088 39.2 < 0.006 0.08 < 0.06 49.8 46.1 130 204 < 0.01 < 0.01 1.34 1.89 0.7 1.2 0.9 < 0.001 < 0.001 4.90 6.06 0.03 0.02 1.9 1.5 0.274 0.43 427 393 < 0.06 < 0.06 0.002 0.003 < 0.01 > 0.01 151.0 120  0.13 0.11 < 0.06 0.022 0.005 < 0.01 0.029 324 0.009 < 0.006 < 0.006 < 0.006 < 0.06 58.1 14.2 < 0.01 0.27 0.1 1.2 < 0.001 5.81 < 0.01 2.5 0.617 357 < 0.06 < 0.002 < 0.01 32.7  1.05 < 0.06 < 0.06 0.064 0.005 0.01 < 0.006 303.0 < 0.006 < 0.006 < 0.006 1.44 < 0.06 53.2 0.224 < 0.01 < 0.02 < 0.1 1.3 < 0.001 5.65 < 0.01 2.4 0.573 296 < 0.06 0.028 < 0.01 3.86  < 0.06 < 0.06 < 0.06 0.023 0.004 < 0.01 < 0.006 224 < 0.006 < 0.006 < 0.006 0.019 < 0.06 41.3 0.003 < 0.01 « 0.02 < 0.1 0.6 < 0.001 4.27 < 0.01 1.8 0.42 228 < 0.06 < 0.002 < 0.01 1.440  8.72 < 0.06 < 0.06 0.271 0.004 0.04 < 0.006 294 0.008 < 0.006 0.031 16.3 0.09 56.9 0.71 < 0.01 0.03 0.8 1.8 < 0.001 15.4 « 0.01 2.5 0.539 281 < 0.06 0.291 0.03 2.41  0.66 0.42 0.17 0.014 0.004 0.09 0.756 188 0.065 0.124 0.02 32.3 0.10 44.3 196 0.01 1.81 1.2 1 0.001 5 0.03 1.5 0.266 412 0.06 0.010 0.01 148  TIC TOC P04  9.9 < 0.5 < 0.002  4.5 0.5 < 0.002  3.1 2.2 < 0.002  3.1 6.22 3585 2080 265 464 0.055 6.85  6.3 7.75 4570 2900 530 729  4.2 7.72 4847 2900 335 534  <  <  <  < <  \2  14.5 2.3 0.013  11.5 6.4 < 0.002  20 4.7 0.72  3.0 0.40 < 0.3 < 3.0 7.27 1730 67 1800  30 0.40 < 0.3 < 3.0  »™ . „ ,  "  '*  7.58 1600 130 1720  7.56 1480 no value 1620  4  9  3.0 0.4  < 0.3  <  < 0.3 3.0  <  3.0 0.3  <  7.6  1590 148 1720  3.0  <  "."Ji IISIE 5.82 1950 7 1880  l"S wmmmmmmmmmmmmmMmmmmmmmmm 635 1010.0 1180 992 1060 753  0 0.23 < 0.05 0.003 0.002 < 0.01 0.513 221 0.019 0.010 0.052 < 0.005 < 0.05 43.9 135.0 < 0.01 1.14 0.5 0.7 < 0.001 5.47 < 0.01 1.4 0.404 434 < 0.05 < 0.002 < 0.01 122  0.2 0.42 0.08 0.007 0.004 0.10 0.802 201.0 0.070 0.149 0.005 33.5 0.05 43.2 211.00 0.01 1.72 1.0 0.8 0.001 4.5 0.04 1.4 0.261 480 0.05 0.004 0.01 161  QmrwgaB (IMddup. S—p nr. Pol* 500)  6  < 1  P  S—p « • f 20  Ga/Aanv QmraguA (OmUdup. S—p t*120)  9  AciditytopH 4.5 Acidity, total Alkalinity to pH 4.5  260 5.0  OtdRd. S—p LMS Limit  <  <  <  < <  1.1 0.5 < 0.002  1090  0.11 0.13 < 0.05 0.036 0.006 0.02 0.086 320 0.028 0.019 0.018 0.013 0.14 51.0 13.3 0.01 0.29 0.2 1.5 < . 0.001 5.71 0.02 2.6 0.578 429 < 0.05 0.028 0.02 36  1200  ^  996  1080  1200  0.1 0.1 < 0.05 0.037 0.007 < 0,01 0.010 375 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 0.117 < 0.05 59.4 0.279 < 0.01 < 0.02 0.1 0.7 < 0.001 5.4 0.02 2.7 0.695 369 < 0.05 < 0.002 0.02 11.10  0.05 < 0.05 < 0.05 0.061 0.006 < 0.01 < 0.005 307 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 0.993 < 0.05 54.5 0.163 < 0.01 < 0.02 < 0.1 0.7 < 0.001 4.44 < 0.01 2.3 0.564 363 < 0.05 < 0.002 < 0.01 0.497  < 0.05 0.06 < 0.05 0.23 < 0.05 < 0.05 0.040 0.011 0.005 0.003 < 0.01 0.01 0.019 0.53 338 226 0.04 0.009 0.024 •= 0.005 0.073 < 0.005 0.133 < 0.005 0.08 < 0.05 52.5 45.6 0.255 136 < 0.01 < 0.01 1.18 0.05 < 0.1 0.5 1.1 1.2 < 0.001 < 0.001 4.91 5.69 < 0.01 < 0.01 2.5 1.3 0.612 0.419 393 459 < 0.05 < 0.05 0.004 0.011 < 0.01 < 0.01 10.1 129  2.69 1.4 0.11 < 0.06 < 0.06 < 0.06 0.061 0.086 0.005 0.005 0.03 0.01 0.016 0.07 339 342 0.01 0.01 < 0.006 0.008 0.015 0.025 4.0 1.76 < 0.06 < 0.06 58.1 59.5 0.350 12.1 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.03 0.29 0.1 < 0.1 1.4 1.3 < 0.001 < 0.001 8.05 8.47 < 0.01 < 0.01 2.4 2.6 0.633 0.630 368 323 < 0.06 < 0.06 0.043 0.076 < 0.01 0.01 10.7_ 36.3C0  8 < 0.06 < 0.06 0.257 0.005 0.03 < 0.006 314.0 0.013 0.009 0.02 12.900 0.06 57.9 0.351 < 0.01 < 0.02 0.5 1.7 < 0.001 14.80 < 0.01 2.6 0.564 295 < 0.06 0.253 0.03 0.825  2.61 < 0.06 < 0.06 0.086 0.005 0.03 0.015 336 < 0.006 0.006 0.026 3.83 0.06 57.3 0.337 < 0.01 0.04 0.1 1.4 < 0.001 8.4 < 0.01 2.5 0.624 322 < 0.06 0.078 0.01 10.6  10.4 2.1 0.026  14.8 2.3 0.066  12.8 3.8 1.900  14.8 2.3 0.075  2.5 6.51 1718 980 235 434  4.2 6.71 1387 830 107 306  2.5 6.51 1718 980 235 434  •IBS  0.33 0.36 < 0.06 0.011 0.004 0.01 0.506 236 0.024 0.015 0.088 < 0.006 < 0.06 50 130.00 < 0.01 1.35 0.7 1.2 < 0.001 5.1 0.02 1.9 0.432 395 < 0.06 < 0.002 < 0.01 120 3.4 0.6 < 0.002  mum!  Field parameters: PH S/MC. cond. (uSJtm) Cond. (uS/oml ORP(mV) Eh (mVJ <t»kV) Flow (LAI  2.8 7.89 1547 890 250 449  4.7 6.5 1220 740 267 466  4.4 7.04 798 480 98 297 0.06 7.78  6.9 7.7 7.69 7.31 4339 3485 2800 2300 not measured 335 534  6.3 7.75 4570 2900 530 729  Natural Attenuation o f Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope o f Galkeno 300 M i n e , Central Y u k o n  Appendix C l  146  Qalkmno (OldRd. OldRd. Oalkarm S—p LUS S—p RMS fi Christal S—pat Limit nr. Old Rd. AT Slnkhol* nr. S—pLHS (flalddiip. S—p 1 ROW Xing Limit Ck. dupllcmtm) mdlt Palm 800 Pol* 500 S—p 8) S—p* RoadPiato S—p $ Limit * 120 dupllcmtm) Qalkmno OarwgmA [JOO  300 rim-nag*  Aug 4- OQ Site # Acidity to pH 4.5  S~P  OattanoJOO 11  9  < 1  5  6  < 1  Acidity, total  250  211  54  10  Alkalinity to pH 4.5  S.l  1.8  5.7  65.4  Cl-  < 5  < 5  F  < 0.5  < 0.5  S04  1288  1230  Br  <  2.6  Nitrate Nitrite P  <  0.10  <  2.6  2.0  0.2 0.41  Sb < 0.05  Be B Cd Ca Cr Co  2.8  <  0  < 5  < 5  < 5  < 5  < 5  < 5  < 5  * 0.5  < 0.5  < 0.5  < 0.5  < 0.5  < 0.5  989  989  777  < 0.5 903  < 0.5  792  •  2.8  <  2.6  0.40  <  0.1  < 0.26  < __ _.  2.8  <  2.6  2.6  0.17  0.27  < 0.05  0.09 < 0.05  < 0.05  <  203.0 0.031  215  0.024 318  0.011 262 0.012  < 0.005 210 < 0.005  < 0.005 267 < 0.005  0.007  < 0.005  < 0.005  0.009 0.068  < 0.005 0.011  < 0.005 0.584  <  < 0.05 38.7  < 0.05 46.8  <  197.00 < 0.01  132.6 < 0.01  1.78 1.1  1.2 0.7  K  0.6  0.S  0.001  <  0.06 50.2  56.0 18.56  0.339  0.004  0.02 0.04  < 0.01  < 0.01 0.28 < 0.1  0.3 0.6 0.001  < 0.05  5.5  1.2 0.07  0.010  0.330 0.01  < 0.02 < 0.1  < 0.02 < 0.1  0.5  0.8  < 0.05  < 0.05  2.6  <  2.6  0.49 < 0.26 <  2.6  "s* " 7.2T  <  2.6  0.50 < 0.26  1740  <  0.47 < 0.26  2.6  <  2.6 <  0.1  < 0.26 2.6  6 87  _ 7.49 _ __  1250  1340  < <  2.6 0.1  < 0.26 2.8  <  m  7.37 1440  <  <  1090 2.6  2.6  1250  2.8 0.55  <  < 0.26 2.8  ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ Pilil|§§||§|§ 7.69  <  0.1 < 0.26  7.40 1400  •  2.6 7.27 1750  0.13  < 0.05 0.15  < 0.05 0.09  < 0.05 < 0.05  < 0.05  0.10 0.07  < 0.05  < 0.05  0.07  < 0.05  0.05  < 0.05  < 0.05  < 0.05  < 0.05  < 0.05  0.20 < 0.05  0.005  0.052  0.009  0.069  0.089  < 0.05 0.118  0.01 0.04  0.011  0.011  0.02 0.074  < 0.01 < 0.005  0.010 < 0.01  0.012 < 0.01  0.013  < 0.005 317  0.51  < 0.01  0.05  <  J.-  <  < 0.01  0.011  < 0.05 0.060  2.6 5.51 2070  0.010 0.01  0.023  2.8 0.34  < 0.26  7.68 1280  < 0.05  1100  <  0.1  2.8 7.52 970  1270  < 076  0.19  45.3  58 45.7  < 5  0.013 < 0.01  <  7 n a  793  0.01 0.503  0.05 46.8  60.3  < 0.5  < 0.05  < 0.005 < 0.05  7  51.5  < 5  < 0.05  < 0.005  7  7  2 < 1  601  7.57 1340  < 0.005 < 0.005  13 58.9  10  1  < 0.5  0.010  0.009 0.065  2 < i  < 5  0.09 0.708  0.023  4 < 1  855  0.004  Nl P Se  46.3  0.015  < 0.005  <  56  1.3  0.012  <  Mo  237  81.1  0.003  0.005  Ms Mn  2.8  8  8 < 1 9  < 0.5  < 076  6.30 1890  0.39 < 0.05  49.6  7  10 < 1  < 0.05 0.048  32.9  Fe Pb  <  5.69 1930  0.127  Cu  2.6  1 < 1  < 5  0.35 < 0.26  <  5.98 2,060  Al  <  0.52 < 0.26  < 0.26 <  pH FR  As Ba  « 5 < 0.5 1090  3 < 1 5  0.697  0.031  0.011  0.011  0.012  < 0.01 < 0.005  < 0.01 < 0.005  < 0.01 0.053  0.042  0.042  229 < 0.005  315 0.021  < 0 005  267 0.008  325 0.014  306 < 0 005  0.128 0.005  0.015 0.024  < 0.005 < 0.005  < 0.005 0.006  < 0.005 < 0.005  < 0.005 < 0.005  < 0.005  < 0.005 < 0.005  < 0.005  0.304 < 0.05  2.00 < 0.O5  0.534  203  332  14.1  0.068 0.07  0.05 45.9  69.4 13.84  198.7 < 0.01  < 0.05 45.3  52.6  0.03  0.018 < 0.01  0.298 0.02  1.74  0.32  < 0.02  0.04  1.1  0.1 1.7  < 0.1 < 0.1  < 0.1 1.1  < 0.05  < 0.05  0.5 <  0.061  0.001  0.10  56.0 0.216 < 0.01  < 0.05 46.7 0.327 0.01  < 0.02 < 0.1  < 0.02 < 0.1  0.7  0.8  < 0.05  < 0.05  < 0.005 2.24 < 0.05 59.1 0.292 < 0.01 < 0.02 < 0.1  0.023 < 0.05 53.0 13,92 < 0.01 0.22 0.1 0.8  0.9 < 0.05  < 0.05  6.48  5.19  4.29  3.66  4.82  4.72  3.63  4.94  5.46  Afl Na  0.03 1.7  002  0.01  < 0.01  0.01  < 0.01  0.03  < 0.01  0.01  < 0.01  < 0.01  < 0.01  < 0.01  2.1  2.8  2.1  1.9  2.3  1.7  2.1  2.5  2.2  2.5  2.4  2.1  0.02 2.5  Sr  0.277  0.411  0.82  0.568  0.415  0.472  0.654  0.366  0.603  0.470 255  Ti  399 < 0.05 < 0.002  0.585 296  0.614  S  0.277 402  V Zn  < 0.01 157  4.6  SI  Sn  393  350.1  < 0.05  < 0.05  < 0.002  < 0.002  < 0.01  199  259  < 0.05  < 0.05  < 0.002 0.03 1.37  < 0.01  0.03 30.9  129.8  260 < 0.05 0.015 4.82  0.007 < 0.01  3.95  360.6  < 0.05  < 0.05 0.028  < 0.002  1.49  < 0.01 •153.1  3  3.85  6.18  < 0.01 35.2  232  293  < 0.05 < 0.002  < 0.05 0.016  0.03 4.76  < 0.01 6.39  < 0.05  < 0.05  < 0.002 0.02 0.715  0.005 0.01 1.44  301.1 < 0.05  0.590 358.7  < 0.002  < 0.05 < 0.002  < 0.01 0.719  0.03 33.1  ICP, Total Al Sb  0.36  As  0.14  Ba  0.006  Be  0.003  B Cd Ca  0.36 0.33 0.06 0.021 0.011 0.02 0.280  < 0.06  6.75  0.98  < 0.06  7.33  5.00  17.1  0.88  < 0.06  < 0.06  < 0.06  < 0.06  0.38  0.09  < 0.08  < 0.06  < 0.06  < 0.08  < 0.06  < 0.08  < 0.06  < 0.06  < 0.06  < 0.06  0.09  < 0.06  < 0.06  < 0.06  < 0.06  < 0.06  0.07  < 0.08  0.019  0.176  0.240  0.179  0.487  0 087  0.011  0.006  0.004  0.004  0.004  0.013  < 0.01 0.012 241.0  0.02 0.021  0.04 0.014  0.08 0.018  0.01 0080  < 0.006  332 0.013  312.0 0.012  0.02 0.007 274  < 0.006  0.007  0.019  2.20  < 0.06  0.029  0.097  0.021  0.012  0.004 < 0.01  0.003 < 0.01  < 0.01 0.036 317  0.014 282.0  < 0.006 202  0.221 0.004  0.007 0.003  0.005  0.03 0.009  0.07 0.699  < 0.01 0.076  279  192.2  340 < 0.006  Cr  0.015  < 0.006  < 0.006  < 0.008  Co  < 0.006  0.012  < 0.006  0.009  < 0.006  < 0.006  < 0.006  < 0.006  3.26 < 0.06  < 0.06  50.5  37.6  < 0.08 51.5  c  Ti  0.06  0.015  13.7  27.2 44.3  0.647  203.22  0.515  < 0.01  < 0.01  < 0.02  0.03  3  0.2  0.2  1.2 < 0.08  < 0.06  1.38  2.5 0.647  0.002 0.01  0.004 < 0.01  3  1.7  1 7  < 0.08 47.8  0.062  0.023  10.0 < 0.06  12.98  0.050  57.0 0.569  < 0.01  < 0.01  < 0.01  0.29  < 0.02  0.03  16.300 < 0.06 57.1 0.600  0.014  0.039  < 0.008  0.017  0.056  0.021 0.010  10.3  36.6  1.14  < 0.08  < 0.08  < 0.06  52.2  59.6  60.2  0.560  128  13.19  < 0.01  < 0.01  c 0.01  < 0.01  0.03  0.03  0.05  0.30  0.9  0.5  0.3  < 0.1  0.4  1.6  0.3 < 0.06  1.7  1.7  1.5  2.5  1.4  < 0.06  < 0.06  < 0.06  < 0.06  < 0.06  7.70  4.31  13.6  14.60  11.0  < 0.08 26.1  1.8  0.2  < 0.01  < 0.01  < 0.01  < 0.01 *  8.18  4.36  * 0.01  < 0.01  < 0.01  0.03  < 0.01  < 0.01  2.2  1.8  2.3  1.5  2.4  2.3  2.3  2.5  2.2  3  2.4  0.573  0.403  0.539  0.253 413  0.665  0.396  0.655  0.600 299  0.526  0.630  197  < 0.06 0.069  < 0.06  0.01  < 0.01  < 0.002  263 < 0.06 0.203  0.001  <  0.01  0.06  367.5 < 0.06  0.007  0.030  252 < 0.08 0.005  325.2 < 0.08  < 0.06  259 < 0.06  0.504  0.026  0.08 1.66  0.02  0.02  0.02  0.02  5.18  103  1.16  2.02  7.28  6.69  6.84  6.79  1378  1974  2138  1500  920 104 303  1370  1290  2.11  0.01  3.9  17.2 3.1  12.7  20.8  8.2  6.1  0.100  0JD14  0.516  3.6  3.2  3.9  8.1  7.09  7.73  7.81  1994  1719  1365  1000 184  810  383  502  <  0.01  369.1  0.151  < 0.01  1.350  0.684 < 0.06  0.227  37.200  4.96  298 < 0.06  7.67  0.176  153.5  0.02  31.9  2.5 < 0.002  Watartamp, CC) pH Spac. cond. (uS/cm) Cond. fuS/em) ORP(mV) Eh (mV) (eak'd) Fhw(m*3/a) FkwQJa)  0.6  0.6  0.077 0.06  59.3 0.01  < 0.06  < 0.1  <  348  0.012  319 0.026  < 0.06 13.4  268  357.2 < 0.06  < 0.001  < 0.008  1.X  53.8  < 0.02  0.014 < 0.008  0.06  < 0.01  < 0.01  c  0.023 < 0.06  0.3  6.92  Sn  0.143  < 0.01  Si  0.476 416.8 0.06 0.008  0.3  57.8 17.24  135.9  Ag  0.009  0.081  6.28  37.9  Field parameters:  8.83  2368 1370  2117  1310  1180 316.9 515.9  303  0.091 14.22  664 1914  1743  2138  1080  1020  1290  0.091 14.22  Natural Attenuation o f Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope o f Galkeno 300 M i n e , Central Y u k o n  HI  Appendix C. 1  Oarwga B Oarage C (Samp O OURd. 3oodralnaga Oatkeno (OtdR±Saap Q Old Rd. (timid ROW nr. OM Rd. Seep nr. PHSUmlt Xktg tpitt duplicate mdh Seep PoleSOO Setp 1ROWXIng UmttRMS UO Pole SeepSRoadFlen Samp*QaregeA (Trip blank) dupllcata) 300adtt) Gk Cattano  Saapaf  GattmoMO  Auq 12-00  Cft.  AT  Site*  11  Acidity to pH 4.S Acidity, total Alkalinity to pH 4.5  274 72  ClF S04  « 5 « 0.5 1450  Br Nitrate Nitrite  < « 0.1 - 0.3 «  P  6  9  « 1 215 22  «,  - 5 - 0.5 1380  < 5 « 0.5 1190  3  *  3  - 0.3 *  72  3  pH FR NFR Spec. Cond. Hardness, Ca+Mg Hardness, total  013 1.320  <  3  - 0.1 < 0.3 3  3  11 57.4  « 1 5 537  - 5 « 0.5 1000  < 5 - 0.5 847  < - 0.1 - 0.3 *  6.44 1710 7 1790  7.31 1460 so 1650  1030 1100  1090 1100  1  3  <1  53  0.4  5.83 5.93 2.000 1930 66 * S 1.MO 1910  5  3  3  < < 0.1 « 0.3 < 7.43 1250 • 5 1440  10  -1 246  8 906  < OA  < 5 - 0.5 955 3  3  « * 0.1 < 0.3 «  < 5 < 0.5 1440  3  8  4  2  1 56 61.7  « 1 7 16.3  « 1 12 66.9  .1 6 559  .1  5 0.5 1160  - 5 < 0.5 808  - 5 < 0.5 1060  < 5 < 0.5 980  < 0.1 « 0.01 - 0.5  * 5 < 0.5 845  < 0.05 0.002 « 0.005 * 0.05  < < 0.1 - 0.3 <  5.29 - 10 - 5 - 2  7.41 1270 - 5 1450  7  <  3  <  « 0.1 < 0.3 3  3 0.5 0.3  3  «  3  4.80 2080 B2 1920  722 1720 sa I860  6.78 1160 49 1350  1290  ICP, dissolved  3 25 * 0.45 0.42 0.07 < 0.05 0.003 0.009 0.002 0.005 0.07 « 0.01 0.600 0562 177.4 242 0.25 0.250 0.115 < 0.005 O.005 0.07S  Al Sb As Ba Be B Cd Ca Cr Co Cu Fe Pb Mg Mn Mo Ni P K Se Si Ag Na Sr S Sn Ti V Zn  34.S3 •<  • < * •  -  < 3  B Cd Ca Cr Co Cu Fe Pb Mg Mn Mo Ni P K Se Si Ag Na Sr S Sn Ti V Zn  •  < < S  0.8 * 3 6 0.03 1.6 0269 401 < 0.06 « 0.002 * 0.01 153.0  ,.,..,m.,...., | .. i. M M  13.4 < 0.5 < 0.002  0.13 SS.3 0.410 0.02 0.07 < 0.1  .2  1.7 0.26 5.61 0.01 2.7 0.640 320 < 0.05 0.033  « 0.05  6.1 0.01 25 0597 369 - 0.05 * 0.002 0.01 29  1150 1160  703 1550  1050.0 1140  791 798  <  *129om  0.32 02 1.3 < 0.06 7.07 < 0.01 3 0.668 356 • 0.06 0.013 < 0.01 32.4  0.083 0.9  < 0M 49.7 138  0.01 2 « S 1.3 - 3 9 0.03 1.9 0.445 387 < 0.06 0.025  3.6 0.7 < 0.002  32 2.4 < 0.002  - 0.05 0.024 - 0.001 < 0.01 - 0.005 2SS < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 - 0.005 « 0.05 47.2 0.0OB - 0.01 - 0.02 « 0.1 0.6  - 0.05 < 0.05 « 0.05 0.061 0.006 < 0.01 « 0.005 359 « 0.005 - 0.005 - 0.005 0.510 < 0.05 62.0 0.520 « 0.01 « 0.02 < 0.1 1.2 * 0.05 4.15 - 0.01 2.3 0.627 3030  - 0.05 * 0.002 « 0.01 1.68  « 0.05 « 0.002 - 0.01 1.60  « 0.06 - 0.06 < 0.06 0.026 0.005 < 0.01 * 0.006 268 < 0.006 - 0.006 < 0.006 * 0.006 « 0.06 49.2 - 0.001 < 0.01 < 0.02 * 0.1 0.8 - 0.08 4.70 - 0.01 2.1 0526 282 - 0.06 < 0.002 - 0.01 1.760  453 • 0.06 - 0.06 0.158 0.005 0.02 < 0.006 314 •> 0.006 - 0.006 0.012 8.52 < 0.06 60.6 0.619 < 0.01 0.03 0.3 1.7 * 0.06 10.7 - 0.01 2.5 0.607 301 < 0.06 0.157 0.02 1.87  13.9 3J 0.026  13.1 46 « 0.002  21.6 36 0.282  2.5 7.42 1420 810 154 353  2.9 7.01 1335 770 227 426  2.7 726 1534 880 56 255  0.70  341 0 008 « 0.OO6 - 0.006 0051 - 0.06 60.1 16.5 < 0.01  - 0.05 « 0.05  « 0.05 4.48 « 0.01 0.9 0.500 244  0.01 6.40  0.13  0.036  2  0.027 344 0.041 • 0.037 0.024 0 000  * 0.08 0.026 om < 0.01 0.035  « 03  0.009 39.1 0.06 44.4 203 0.01  < 0.05 : 0.1 0.07 0.056 '• 0.006 0.03  0.13  < 3 0.39 022 0.18 < 0.06 0.005 0.029 0.004 0.004 0.10 0.02 0.673 0554 193.0 229  0.5 0.148  TIC TOC  <  OS  ICP, Tolml  Al Sb As Ba Be  • 03  0.05 53.4 142.0 0.01 - 0.01 1.00 1.9 5 < 5 1.0 2.5 « 3 7.0 53 0.03 001 0.8 0.9 0.48 0.244 405 427 « 0 05 0.05 < 0.002 0.002 * 0.01 0.01 164 133 0.05 41.1 116.00  0.05 0.15 < 0.05 0 017 0 006 « 0.01 0.029 32t « 0.005 - 0.005 < 0.005 « 0.005 < 0.05 54.2 16.1 * 0.01 0.27 0.2  637 S40  « 0.06 - 0.06 0.061 0.006 « 0.01 0.007 322.0 < 0.006 * 0.006 * 0.006 1.03 < 0.06 56.4 0.438 * 0.01 « 0.02 - 0.1 u - 0.06 8.71 < 0.01 2.5 0.650 311 * 0.06 0.021 • 0.01 644  «5 052 <  0.05 0.003 0.004 • 0.01 0.675 204 8.630 0.101 0.O08 < 0.005 •« 0.05 47.0 202 0.01 7 7 < <  OS  0.05 0.05 0.03 1 0.281 453 . 0.05 « 0.002 « 0.01 144  * 3 0.42 0.07 0.005 0.004 0.07 0.674 194 05 0.129 - 0.006 26.0 0.07 44.6 204 * 0.01 2 < 6 05 - 3 9 0.03 1.6 0266 404 < 0.06 < 0.002 « 0.01 134 3.2 0.7 * 0.002  <  3  0.5 < 0.3 <  * 0.05 < 0.05 0.08 0.061 « 0.001 0.03 0.100 334 0.054 0.042 0.037 0.052 0.13 537 18.1 0.02 0.39 0.1 1.9 023 5.71 0.01 2 0.605 374 0.05 0.047 0.01 33.1  1.18 0.14 « 0.06 0.076 0.007 « 0.01 0.083 360 - 0.006 0.011 < 0.006 155 < 0.06 64.1 18.06 * 0.01 0.37 05 1.6 - 0.06 851 0.02 25 0.731 371 - 0.06 0.034 0.01 39200  < 0.05 < 0.05 - 0.05 0.004 0.005 - 0.01 < 0.005 243 < 0.005 « 0.005 - 0.005 - 0.005 < 0.05 44.6 0.004 « 0.01 - 0.02 « 0.1 0.1 - 0.05 3.98 « 0.01 2.6 0.364 276 . 0.05 < 0.002 * 0.01 4.63  0.53 < 0.06 < 0.06 0.061 0.005 < 0.01 - 0.006 2520 « 0.006 - 0.006 « 0.006 0.646 - 0.06 49 0.334 < 0.01 « 0.02 - 0.1 0.5 « 0.06 5.19 * 0.01 2.7 0.402 255 - 0.06 0.019 < 0.01 5.1  3  H  f t 1210 1230  0.15 0.13 « 0.05 0.08 0.008 * 0.01 0.019 380 0.012 0.013 * 0.005 0.087 < 0.05 58.4 0.S74 < 0.01 004 « 0.1 1.1 < 0.05 5.33 0.03 3 0.688 337 - 0.05 0 008 0.04 9.15  8.73 • 0.06 - 0.06 0.198 0.006 0.03 0.016 355 « 0.006 - 0.006 0.058 13 > 0.06 605 0.83 < 0.01 0.05 0.4 15 - 0.06 14.8 « 0.01 2.9 0.701 328 < 0.06 0.188 003 10.1  3  3  3  3  IPIPiffllllllS V " ' 751 1480 130 1620  H  l  i  i 891 897  i  H  B  5  «, 6. 53.8  « 1 < 0.5  « - 0.1 - 0.3 «  7.44 1560 329 1740 •  624  3 0.7 « 0.3  7.60 1460 345 1630  Cafltano  Galliano  OMRA SaapLHS Lira*  H B 0.5 0.5  ^  3  < 1 265 5.1  - 5 * 0.5 994  < 5  3 * - 0.1 - 0.3 3 <  7.34 1460 46 16S0  593 2010 66 1970  904.0 914  592 1300  < 0.05 « 0.05 < 0.05 0.026 0.006 •< 0.01 - 0.005 314 - 0.005 « 0.005 - 0.005 < 0.005 * 0.05 51.5 < 0.001 « 0.01 < 0.02 < 0.1 0.8 - 0.05 4U 0.01 2.4 0561 267 « 0.05 < 0.002 0.01 1.94  < 0.05 - 0.05 < 0.05 0.041 0.004 « 0.01 0.011 286 < 0.005 0.013 < 0.005 0.051 < 0.05 46.4 < 0.001 < 0.01 * 0.02 « 0.1 1.2 « 0.05 4.64 < 0.01 2.5 0.533 300 * 0.05 0.005 * 0.01 5.46  < 3 0.41 * 005 « 0.001 0.003 0.06  3  995 999  2.24 - 0.06 - 0.06 0.147 0.005 0.01 < 0.006 300 - 0.006 < 0.006 « 0.006 S.440 < 0.06 57.4 0.366 - 0.01 - 0.02 0.2 1.1 - 0.06 7.70 < 0.01 2.4 0.591 310 « 0.06 0.069 0.01 0.633  « 0.06 0.06 « 0.06 « 0.001 - 0.001 < 0.01 • 0.006 < 0.1 « 0.006 < 0.006 < 0.006 0.008 - 0.06 - 0.1 « 0.001 « 0.01 « 0.02 « 0.1 - 0.1 « 0.06 < 0.06 < 0.01 * 0.1 < 0.001 « 0.06 - 0.06 < 0.002 < 0.01 < 0.002  - 0.06 « 0.06 « 0.06 0028 0004 < 0.01 < 0.006 263 - 0.006 < 0.006 < 0.006 0.019 - 0.06 48.7 •< 0.001 < 0.01 « 0.02  0.76 < 0.06 < 0.06 0.083 0.005 * 0.01 0010 328 - 0.006 < 0.006 * 0.006 1.106 * 0.06 57.1 0.443 < 0.01 < 0.02  < 0.1 05 « 0.06 4.65 * 0.01 2.1 0521 758 - 0.08 * 0.002 * 0.01 1.75  « 0.1 15 * 0.06 6.87 * 0.01 25 0.659 308 « 0.06 0.023 < 0.01 6.54  - 0.5 < 0.5 « 0.002  12.7 4.4 - 0.002  140 32 0.032  2.9 7.01 1335 770 227 426  25 7.42 1420 810 (54 353  15.1 2 0.035  5.4 5.8 0.022  185 2.5 0.239  14.4 35 0.081  32 729 705 410 164 363  3.1 728 1224 710 255 454  2.0 7.4S 1635 920 11C 315  2.1 6.95 1560 880 74 273  3  3  i  < 0.05 - 0.05 < 0.05 0.002 « 0.001 0.01 0.005 0.1 0.005 0.006 - 0.005 < 0.005 - 0.05 « 0.1 < 0.001 « 0.01 « 0.02 * 0.1 - 0.1 - 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.01 0.1 < 0.001 - 0.05 « 0.05 < 0.002 < 0.01 < 0.002  < 0.5 1440  < < 0.1 < 0.3 *  < 0.05 0.08 < 0.05 0.086 0.065 « 0.01 - 0.005 275 - 0.005 - 0.005 - 0.005 1.020 « 0.05 49.9 0.280 « 0.01 < 0.02 « 0.1 0.7 « 0.05 4.01 - 0.01 1.7 0 509 260 « 0.05 « 0.002 < 0.01 0.660  < « <  11  « 1 It 57.4  0.575 171 « 0.3 0.091 * 0.0OS 35.1 < 0.05 40.3 216 « 0.01 2.7 < 5 0.3 « 5.2 0.02 0.8 0236 430 « 0.05 < 0.002 - 0.01 164  3  « 3 040 0.17 0.006 0.004 0.10 0.686 197 < 0.3 0.147 0.011 40.1 « 0.08 450 208 < 3 * 5 0.8 < 3 7  0.01  003 1.7 0261 411 « 0.06 - 0.002 * 0.01 157 11.9 « 05 < 0.002  n  Field parameters:  Watarfmp CC) PH Spac. cond (uSAxn) Cond. (uS/cm) ORP(mV) F)ow(m*3/t) FbwfUa) 7.78 3.0 5.94 2005 11SO 120 319 Eh (mV) fcafca)  2.9 7.37 1751 1010 280 479  5.1 S.27 1923 1180 335 534  0.06  69 6.19 1891 1220 27 226  ».74  n/a iVa tVa iVa iVa n/a  0.089  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Appendix C l  OmrmgmB Qatktno OldRd. Gmtkmrn (FMddup. OmragmD Slnkhol* A blank) Sinkholrnr. (Fiald (FtmUdupPol* SCOnr.S**p*t120 SmmpLHS (FHM Pol* 900) Samp dup1*110) a**pt)  OldRd. OldRd. AT 300 mm Palm tOO S—pl ROW Xing Umtt  JOOtfrainega  Cattano  Aug 21-00 Site*  tojM4.5 <  S04  13  < 25 « 0.01 1263  < 25 < 0.01  1375  0.05  Nitrite  < 0.005 < 0.05  <  0.005  0.24  P  0.13  1B90 ID 1890  Hardrwas, Ca+Mg Hardneaa, total  748 1,495  628.4  ICP, dlMMolvtd Al Sb  •  24 0.48 0.10  As Ba  037 «  23  39.15  Pb Mg  0.05  i  48.4 228 50  Mn Mo Ni  -  0.01  < 025 «  < 0.01 0025 321.6  0.05  0.01 0-24  3.40  P K  *  Sa  «  si  2.9 5.0 < 8  0.8 2.5 8.8  2.5  0.03 1.8 0296  0.02 14 0.473  S Sn  443  4163  < 3 0.40  Sb  Cd Ca  43.400 0.1 47.X  Pb Mg Mn  220.7 0.01  *  Mo  0.01  4.00  Ni P  *  5 1.0  K * 3  Sa  5 0.03  Ag Na  1.5  S Sn Ti  m v l v m m m m  426  3823  164.7  0.004 < 0.01 139.9  < 0.5 , < 0.002  0.06  «  521 < 0.01 2.5 0479  0.06 0.007  *  0.01 31.586  337 > 0.06  14.41  0463 25206 0.13 604 0412 - 0.01  <  0.23 « 0.005 0.05  *  0.0S  <  <  53 8.9 < 24 < 0.01 1261 0.03  <  0.05 0.44  0.5 * 0.005 0.05  6593  97B.4  750.2  1100.4  966  < 0.4  674.6  1070  1263.3  1036.3  755.2  1115  970  < 0.4  1315.3  < 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.05  * 0.05 « 0.05  < 0 005 < 0.005 * 0.005 0.719 < 0.05 59.5  2.5  0.0S4 0.006  0.008 0.003  0.03 0.073 307.8  - 0.01 « 0.003 22S3 - 0.005  •  0250 0.143 0 005  *  0.05  • 0.01 2.6  - 0.1 1.2 « 0.05  «  < 0.005 005  1.5 0.265 398.4  - 0.002 - 0.01 1.47  « 0.002 « 0.01 148.35  0.061  1649 < 0.06 0.08 0 488  « 3 038 142 0419  0.005 0.08 0.014  0.005 029 0473  321.8 0.034  188.3 « 003  1160 281 480  4604  0.02 24.941  2.4 008 < 0.06 0.092 0.006 0.02 0453 332.4  < 0.05 '•™ 'v'™ ™ ' ' -*  328  64.3 1.145  434  0.60  <  *  3  < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.05 < <  * 0.08 « 0.06 - 0.06  * 0.06 * 0.06  « 3 0.43  4.57 « 0.06  <  *  0.0X 0.006 « 0.01 « 0.006  0.020 344.8 0007  2832  0437 7.17  52.2 0.022  0.01  7  < 0.06 11.71  « 0.06 447  - 0.06 « 0.06  0.03  *  < 0.01  < 0.01  -  0.012  0.08  «  0.01  *  0.01  2.7  2.4 0.384  0.703  233.45  3504 0.08  0.080  0.007  *  006  0.01  049 11.78  043  < 0.01  0.01  1.4  2.7  0273  0.723  410  355.1  «  < 0.002 < 0.01  0.005 < 041  0.148 041  - 0.002 < 0.01  9215  2.108  133  74  18.5  132 33  0.007  61.1 1746 0.01 031 03  0.06  *  1.3 < 0.06 6.94 2.7 0.667 3*6.1 0.06  0.143 0.01  0409 « 0.01  1X2  9486  X.875  - 0.5 * 0.5  3.B 0.7  164 1.7  4.9 23  < 0.002  0.071  0.185  0.010  6.9 635 1813  2.2 7.74 1573  1170 87.1 286.1  890 952 2942  3.0 0.668  21.1 24 0.731  04 0.134  2.7 0.096  6 0,015  1.7 0.182  1.9 7.74  4.0 7.X  3.9 6.79  8.9 635  973  1517  1813  2.4 7.46 1564  1.4 741 1229  22 7.74 1573  2.9 7.45 1439  n/a rVa  1676 940 174 373  580 200 399  BOO 254 2244  1170 67.1 268.1  690 172.4 371.4  680 2274 4264  890 952 2942  830 332 2542  (Va nta nfa  * 0 002  0.101 « 0 06  0.3 14  - 3 6.00  < 0.008 < 0408  006  3  0.07 < 0.06  2.997  < 0.06 622 0.655 •  « 8 1.0  277 * 0.06  29.048  0.01  44.6 202.14  < 0.1 0.001  3224 « 0.006 0.019  0.046 7.71 032  2.1 0479  0.027 0.006 • 0.01 0.029  3553  0.061 724  -  <  0.016 0.147  < 0.06 < 0.1 0.004  < 0.06 4.11 «  1904  0.012  0.16  - 0.06 0.139 0.007 0.02 0.017  < 03  < 0.006  0.01  0.01  0.76 0.014 0.004 0.16 0.635  0.1 0.012 0.026  - 0.006 « 0.008 0.034 - 0.06  « 0.06 60.6 0.61  0.01  0.009  0.013  0.058 0.06  « 0.06 0.002 - 0.001 < 0.01 < 0.008  * 0.06 9.41  - 0.01 1632  2.S 6.15 041 34 0.588  *  * 0.06 0.138 0.008 0.02  - 0.1 0.1  •  *  443 < 0.06  « 0.02  008  5.18 001 2.7 0.683  02 1.0 0.1  < 0.06 0.012 0.004 > 0.01  « 0.1 1.4  <  3 SO 0.03 1.6 0270  16.98 < 0.01 028  « 0 08 - 0.06  0.03  0.01  2.5  0.02 - 0.1 0.9 <  0.005 0.005 0005 0.05 54.1  * 0.002 - 0.01 28.350  - 0.02  24  • <  59.6 0.4 < 0.01  207.9 « 0.01 32 « 5 0.7 «  « 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 0.087 « 0.05  376.4 - 0.05  02 14  0.656 322.8  0.139  < 0.002 0.01 T.984  0.06  1.4  0.530  0.018 0.004 < 0.01 0.029 3174 « 0.005  3392 < 0.05  * 0.1 0.3  0.268 407  * 0.01 0.013 248.8  * 0.002 - 0.01 14B.9]  02 1.6  0.859  0.05 8.82 198  < 0.05 • 0.05 < 0.05  408.8 - 0.05  026  3  0.006 0.004  - 0.05 0.052 0406  - 0.005 17.76 « 0.05 44.7  0.05 0.01 0.1 0.001  0.06 * 0.05  * 0.002 < 0.01 0.004  46.1 0.038 0.01  « 0.1 0.003 * 0.01 < 0.02  1091.7  0.07 « 0.05  022 0.01  486 0.01 24 0.580  0.05  0.005 0.005 0.OO5 0.005 0.05  1016.8  1130.8  - 0.002 0.02 2.13  81.4  199.83  4.99 < 0.01 24 0.651  « 0.0O8 231.0  046  * 0.1 1.2 <  * < < <  0.05  1820  1116.8  277 « 0.05  < 0.006  0.031  132  0.05  0.001 0.001 0.01 0.005 0.1  036  «  1780  - 0.002 - 0.01 8 20  < 0.008  0.12  <  « < < < <  « 230  6.46 1770 24  3314 « 0.05  * 0.006  34.694 0.09  0.009 « 0.005 0.016 * 0.05 62.7  - 0.05 < 0.05 * 0.05  11  741 1640 327  < 0.002 0.02 2.S  < 0.006  0.068  0.561 0.05 2.68  0.342 226 « 0.05  < 0.006 0.142  - 0.01  1692 960 2614  0.547 297.97 005  «  0.05 3.88 0.02 3.5  0.05  < 0.01  23 726  535 0.02 3.8  0.03  <  «  0.034 0.006 > 0.01 * 0.005 300 « 0.005  0.014 « 0.01 * 0.02  < 0.1 0.8  0.1 030  * 0.005 < 0.005 • 0.005 0.081 * 0.05 56.3 0.415 < 0.01 < 0.02  • 0.02 < 0.1  14 2.S 4.8  0.033  432 0.004 0.01  «  0.03 029 02  0.049 0.006  6.49 1990  6.96 < 10 < 5  0.07  - 0.01 0.011 348  •< 0.005 * 0.005 < 0 005 * 0.05  513 9.483  * 5 04  < 0.06 25.47  1.7 0.012  0.12  44 203.1  • 0.06 2230  22 0.018  0.083  «  1 * 3  134  0.055 0.040 0.052  132  0.529 * 0.01 « 0.02  294.56 * 0.06  0.09 0.08 « 0.05  0.05 0.568 192  < 3  0.446 044  0.08  0.007 0.003  1.3  1.659  0.10 0.05  3.2  299.18 < 0.08  0.11  039  0.9 24  24 0.643  7.48  1060  0.07  13.9  « 0.5 « 0.002  0.05  0.018 < 0.005  <  172 1880  ,  - 0.01 0.07  4.6  64  0.18  0.05  <  « 2  - 0.002 0.01 0.B21  0.002 < 0.01 4.439  0.05  < 0.005 « 0.05  < 0.005  «  0.05  1490  295 « 0.05  0.035 0.027  0.01  «  1770  290 < 0.05  0.036 317.4  <  0.05 0.47  « 0.002 < 0.005 0.05  «  1123  1380  4.25 - 0.01 2.5 0.614  0.006  0.793 < 0.06 60.1  *  0.05  • 2 < 0.01  1375  1810  4.43 < 0.01 2.7 0.577  0.008  1.5 0.10 0.01  0.681  0.05  < 0.06  « 0.1  0.2 13 « 0.06  2.7  <  < 0.06 0.408 0.005 0.06  0.04  0.32  1.7  •  13.4  TIC TOC  0.01  0.481  « 0.1 0.9  0278  <  7.17  0.286 439 0.08 0.005 < 0.01  V 7-  62.4 17.35  8 0.02  « 0.005 1.510 < 0.05  0.008  0214 0.06  •  3 < 5 1.4 * 3  Si  Sr  < 0.008  0.095 « 03 < 0.06 53.1 151.08  0.05  55.1 0.218 < 0.01 * 0.02  0.020  0.43 « 0.005  «  < 20 < 025  * 0.5  1840  .  0.006 < 0.01 « 0.005 327  3274  0.05  1.00  < 0.1 0.03  1340 « 3  0.008 < 0.01 < 0.005 316 < 0.005 0.011  «  - 0.008 * 0.008  < 0.01 881  11X  1.3  7.81 1810 Z85  0.007 < 0.01  3294 0.026  0.013  Cu Fa  0.006 * 0.01 0.027  « 10  < 0.01  6  13 74.3  230 2.2  6.94 12O0 17  <  - 0.08 - 0.06 0.061 0.006 « 0.01  - 20  4  «,  7.21 1890 137  1020 1600  0.48 009  5 493  « 001 < 0.05  «  10  < 1  346 1950 304  <  * 0 002 0.03 4,10  13 74  • 0.1  <  - 0.05 < 0.05 0.096  0.05  7 23.B  * 0.01 1263  < 0.005  * 0.05  \2  < i  - 25  125 0.124  < 0.05 < 0.05 0.087  '  2  « 1  L  0.11  - 0.005 - 0.005 0.039 * 0.05  8  < 1  1.4  *  < 0.05 < 0.05 0.044  025  < 0.03  0.164  Co  1017 1023  0.640 323.6 « 0.05  < 0.06 0.028  2404  201.8 < 0.03  Cr  1054.9 1082.6  6.24 002 3.1  3752 * 0.05 * 0.002 0.027 26.582  < 3 0.37  022 « 0.08 0.009 0.013 0 005 0.004 0.01 0.10 0.602 0422  As Ba Be B  0.05  3.7 0.SS8  0.05 * 0.05 « < 0.002 * 0.002 < 0.01 « 0.01 135.87 16732  ICP, Total Al  1440  < i  Umtt  4  44 49.3  1339  * 0.005 > 0.05  1540 918 1630  7  Saapf*  02  0.23  « 0.005 < 0.09  Road P l a n  230 3.8  0.05  1600 22 1700  6.17 0.02  7.5  Ag Na Sr  Ti V Zn  «  <  7.67  * 0.02 0.1  02 0.9  12  0.0S  7.45  58.4 0.247 < 0.01  55 17.23 -  < 0.25  0.008 329.5 « 0.005  0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005  0.05  524 149.8 < 0.01  0.05  7.48  0.17 0.18  - 0.05 0.015 0.007  « < *  992  ^^^^  1028 1105.8  0.007 0.012 0.004 0.003 0.10 < 0.01 0.S5B 0.S9 218.0 244 0.48 0.430 0.019 0.159 0.079 0.005  Ba B Cd Ca Cr Co Cu Fa  0.05  - 0.005 < 0.05  6.44 1790 29 1S20  0 05  « 2.5 < 0 01  1033  0.35  0.05  2,170 74 2,010  «  0.37  541  PH FR NFR Spoc Cond.  < 0.01  SMpS  10  < 1  6 76.1  « 20  0.05  < 0.005  1.25  6 50 8  1DB4  *  0.365 * «  < 1  009  20 0.25 1,490  <  3  < 1  8 543  224 22  Br Nitrate  5  < i 53 8.4  27* ill  OerepwC  Ck. 1  6  « 1  Acidity, total  PCM  SMtpRHS  0  11  Aridity to pH 4.5  Alkalinity CtF  Saapnr.  Field para me t e n :  WBtmrmmp.fC) pH Sp*e. luSAan) Cond. (uSAxn) EhORP(mV) (mV) (emtio 3.1  5.1  629  5.X 1891  2051 cond 1190 110 309  0.0673  9.23 (m^afi)  Fbw(Ua)  FKJW  •Vm  0.07S 10.78  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Oaflkano  Appendix C l  [41 OURd. DM Old MAT ROW Xing tupUmtt  Aug 3040 SJtef  Acidity to pH 4.5 < Acidity, total Alkalinity t o p " * s  ClF S04 Br Nitrate Nitrite P  0.361  0.268  0.354  0.133  ooee  < 0.005  < 0.005  < 0.005  < 0 005  < 0.005  H FR NFR  594  613  694  7.57  2.17D  2000  1720  1490  28  237  Spec. Cond.  2.030  2 1 1640  P  6?  Hardness, Ca+Mg  741  Hardness, total  1.155  ICP, distotvtd Al Sb Aa Ba Be B Cd Ca Cr Co Cu Fe Pb Mg Mn Mo Ni P K Se SI Ag Na Sr S Sn  1830  1960  S22ESZ 11597  8484 1357.8  430 005  7.74  1610  1460  11  34  105  1620  1990  1920  1400  1760  1650  1020  776 4  1153 9  8664  1120  1030  1020  1498  1217.5  872  1130  1030  006  <  014  <  DOS  005  <  005  005  <  005  <  DOS  • 00  «  005  <  005  <  005  0033  < 0.005  < 0.005  < 0.005  < 0.005  0 061  < 0.005  < 0.005  < 0.005  < 0.005  0.018  0.007  0.019 <  005  <  005  <  0.010 006  0.01  < < 0.005 316  0.005  < 0 005  0162  < 0.005  0029  < 0.005  < 0,005  0.005  « 0.005  < 0.005  0020  < 0.005  < 0.005  0.005  < 0.005  < 0.005  0.08  0.005  0.46  < 0.005  < 0.25  < 0.05  < 0.05  59.6  63.8  54.2  0.442  4.14  21.56 <  < 0.005 0.018  < 0.005 005  < 0.05  <  0.093 O.OS  «  005  <  1.25  59.9  483  581  489  57,8  58.2  0002  0.439  228 1  4 01  0 014  0421  0158  < < 0.1  09 < 0.05  < 0.05  < 0.05  5.56  4.75  686  0.01  0653  <  0.01  0.01 0.02  09  26  0.871  0.554  <  4.14  < 0.01  3.1  0.01 0.02 < 0.1 11 . < 0.05 <  <  0.01  2.4  0.598  <  0.01  4.2  < 5 08 <  2.50  1  74.1  62  281  59.7  443  < 0.05  < 0.05  < 0.05  < 0.05  < 0.05  3  23 666  258 O10  < 0.002  < 0.01  < 000 .1002  3817  205  < 0.002 < O .01 1.45  3  3 5 1.2 < 3  0.76  < 0.06  1.78  < 0.002 < 0.01 38.7S9  < 0.002 < 0.01 139.54  0.89  0.018  0.006  0.004  295  < 0.006  < 0.006  < 0.006 0 012  0315 < 0,06 564  < 0.06 499  < 0.006  < 0.006  < 0.006  < 0.006  < 0.008  < 0.02  < 0.02  < 0.02  04  < 0.1  < 0.1  4.45  < 0.01  < 0.01  2.1  3  25  2.2  2.3  0468  0665  0639  0537  0.579  421  392  295  264  291  < 0.08  < 0.06  < 0.06  < 0.06  < 0.06 0.063 < 0.01  3 57  1.98  1.55  87  18.9  IS  23  1.3  26  2.3  45  37  0 002  0 013  0169  0.041  0 018  014  3.0  49  2  1.4  08  13  634  508  7.38  7.65  741  7.28  2057  1901  1582  1591  1452  1323 730  1160  890  880  790  275  218  141.1  1751  282  474  417  340.1  374 1  0.012  0.006  57.1  0.007 < 0.06  3.602 < 0.06 S6.5  0.188 < 0.01  < 0.01  < 0.02  < 0.02  1.183 < 0.06 61.1  0.489  0.084. : 0.3 < 0.06 52.6 150.59  < 00.1  < 0.06  < 0.06  < 0.06  < 0.06  6.65  < 0.06  6.26  7.13  < 0.01  < 0.01  < 0,06  < 0.06  < 0.01  < 0.01  11B0  < 0.006  < 0.006  1.4  1.6  S3  < 0,006  « 0.006  21.52  6.47  0.02  < 0.01  0.3  0.007  < 0.006  0.1  0.03  < 0.002  243.5  < 0.006  < 0.01  < 0.06  7,00  0.008  0.592  345 < 0.006  3.65  56.9  0.01  0.079 < 0.006  < 0.06  0.488  037  0.011  3.73  0 31  5.34  207.2  < 0.06  < 0.01  9.79  < oooe < 0.006  0004  1  : 0.01  < 0.006  < 0.01  < 0.06  < 0.001  240 4  0229  1.3  0 006 < 001  < 0.006  < 0.01  < 0.06  0084  < 0.001  0 009  19 08  1.5  < 0 01 0600  0.063  351.3  < 0.01  < 0.06  0008 oaa  0.01 < 0.006  < 0.006  2.4  1.01  < 0.06  0.007  24 71  7.39  0.081  268  135 4  0.002 < 0.002 0.01 < 1.48 0.01 0.002  33  425 < 0.05  0.12  < 0.006  < 0.01  < 0.01 0.002  < 001  3S.B9  75.5 < 0.05  < 0.06  0.012  < 0.01  < 000.2002  < 000.0 02 2  165 3  565 < 0.05  < 0.08  312.7  0.086  O.OS  0.01  1.5  0.494  < 0.06  5.00  0 005  63 < 0.05  <  < 0.06  0 018  < 0,01  67.3 < 0.05  0.023  0.01 2 .1 0.721  < 0.06  3342  62.7  146 22  205  <  < 0.06  3156  SIB < 0.01  0.6  < 0.06  < 0.008  « 0.01  0.01  2.5  6.9  < 0.06  < 0.01  < 0.06  <  1.2  < 2.5  6.65  < 0,06  < 0.006  0.3  28  < 0.05  < 0.002  < 001  <  0.01 3.1  < 0.06  < 0 01  < 0.06  0 .001 0.07  0661  1.3  < 0.05  4.15  152,21  <  < 5  < 0.08  0 027  001  0 .01 0.1  31  1.82  002  450  0.01  0.592  0.01  2  0394  1.1  < 005  0.3  < 0.08  0 583  0.010  0.05  0.01  0.38  < 0.06  001  < 0.006  0.01  4.55  <  < 0.06  0.005  0 013  735 < 0.05  <  < 0.05  5.09  0.01 0.02  < < 0.1  0.021  < 0 06  0 005  0084  0634  0.1  0.7  < O.OS  <  282.3 < 0.25  < 0.06  0005  0159  2.1  <  0.01 < 002 < 0.1 0.8 <  0.1 0.001 0.01 0.02 0.1 0. 1 0.05  < 0.05  0.006  0.21  oooe  239.7  0. 12 417  0.01  0.03  0.05  404.2  < 0.06  0005  < 03  06  <  005  313  < 0.06  0003  < 0.06  < 0.1  1.1  002  2  005  0.3  003 0294  < 0.01  < 0.05 608  0.05  < 0.002  0 .01 0.35  330  4225  < 001  «  0.1  0.004  00.707 .001  <  < 0.005  52.2  <  <0.091 0001  3S2  0229  0.01 0.02 < 0.1 11  0.007  0.01  < < ODDS  0.01  0.042  0.006  < 0.005  59.8  <  0.005  0.053  3.4  0020  359  <  0.001 0.001 0.01  0.07  < 0.005  622  0.091  17.7  < 0.05  152.8  0.029  168  0.33  < 0.05  50  0.047  _  0.09  < 0.05  0.350 < 0.005 005  01  < 0.01  <  065  0.437 *  0 016  V Zri  < 0.05  2664  347.5 < 0.005  < < 0.005  0005  < 0.002  < 0.05  3663  0.01  < < 0.005  1432.3  0.05  231 2  36  928.1  0.05  309  <  1339.8  0.05  < 0.005  1.7  1030  005  285  0 452  0.4  005  < 0.005  381.8  0.2  2000  1271.8  0.05  0.01 0 017  0.01  1900  1030  <  0.01 0.078  0.29  1620  0.4  <  0.01  <  2  <  0.01 0.005  <  005  89  006  0.01 0O24  <  1770  166  006  0008  < 0.005  6.12 2 020 35  7.41  10  1460  5  005  0058  038  < 0.06  < 0 007  < 0.06  453  005 005  0044  020  0.292  005  < 0004  039  09  < < 0.014  0 .002 001  5  005 0.007  001  < 3  « 0037  600  225  015 005  008  2.50  48.2  013  044  0 004  1.2  0.007  3 70 < 0006  <  0.353 < 0.005  v  0.005  s  Ti  Field parameters: Water tamp. CC) pH c. cond. (uSAsm) Cond. (uS/cm) ORP (mV) Eh (mV) (calc'd) Flow (m*3/s) Flow (Us)  7 74  1260  73  0.054  0.01  OS  7 34  1760  78  0.005  139 96  TIC TOC PQ4  7.42  2190  169  0 028  35  209  7.85  53  1470  0.008  003  < 03  5.94  7.98  0.044  025  0592  < 0.005  oooe  0270  011  0.38  < 0.005  0037  257.3  300  < 0.002  0.004 0654  V Zn  0.201  0 012 0.01  n  ICP, Total Al Sb As Ba Be B Cd Ca Cr Co Cu Fe Pb Mg Mn Mo NI P K Se Si Ag Na Sr S Sn  <  1413  < 0.005  1300 1480  0.05  1000  0 416 < 0.005  7.7 < 5  926 1120 11211. 030  1208 6  036  0 371 < 0.005  0.02  26 0.684  0395 244 56 < 0,06 < 0.002  < 0.06 0.033  < 0.06 0.005 < 0.01 3 079  388.6 < 0.06 0.025  < 0.06 0.061  < 0.002  < 0.06 0.01  0.058 : 0.01 34.641  0.01 139.4  29 4 228 4  0.06  00825  7,78  826  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Appendix C.2  150  APPENDIX C.2 WATER QUALITY DATA ORGANISED BY SAMPLING SITE Organisation of results of water quality sampling by sampling site allows easy examination of changes in water quality over the sampling period. Data is organised with early sampling results on the left and later results on the right. Reading across the table from left to right is analogous to moving through time from early to late summer.  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Appendix C.2  Site 11- Galkeno 300 adit  Jut-29  Aup-04  Aurf 12  Aua-il  Aup-30  Acidity to pH 4.5 Acidity, total Alkalinity, total  Br 0047  Nitrate Nitrite  0 005  pH FR NFR Spec. Cond. !~."  2.0CO •!  GFAA (dissolved): Se GFAA (total): Se Hardness, Ca+Mg Hardness, total  570 4  653  1.077.0  1.270  012 0.32  0.17 034  005 • 005 0003  011 0 006  605.1 1.217.2  577.7 1.181.3  6320 1.280 0  616 1.2B7  6843 1,371.1  825 679  039  03  0.40 008  040 008  0 25 044  03 0.48 O08  0.007 0.003 0.07 1.600 1780  0.012 • 003 007 1.230 179 0 0033  0.06 0 004  680  699  813  748  741  1.370  1.359  1.320  1.495  1.155  25 0 42  2.5 048  0.07  0 10 0 007 0004  ICP, dissolved Al Sb As  <  Ba Be B Cd Ca  005 0 386 170 2  Cr Co Cu Fe Pb Mg Mn  <  Mo Ni P K  <  Se Si  <  <  0.031 0162 0.005  *  18.3 0.05 < 35 3 1552 001 < 1.47 0.7 0.7 0001 < 3.68 OQ2 1.5 0.222 318.2  Ag Na Sr S Sn  < < <  Ti V Zn  039 034  oooo  0007 • 003 008 1.816 173 3 0 024  0003 009 0.3B6 1920  0003 006 1.373 177.2  0.033 0.137  0.019  0.005 35 7 003 42.1 191  «  0 01 < 1.72 1.0 07 0 001 429 003  003  0.119  <  1.5 0.277 387  0.05 < 0002 < 0.01 < 124  031 0 32 0.09  003 < 0.002 001 <  0 076 31.7 005 395 1884  0.105 0 096 <  001 1.78 1.0 08 0 001 466 DOS 1.6 0254 392 0.03 0003 0.01 140  *  24.7 008 < 352 1763 0.01 < 1.63 1.0 0.7 0.001 < 4 71 003 16 0 228 377  < <  005 * 0 002 * 0 01 < 141  0 032 0.128  0123  0.076 26.100 0 05 < 468 184.0  0038 27.5 005 < 41 0 214 76 0.01 < 1.78  0 01 * 1.72 1.1 08 0 001 4.76  1.3 0.8 0.001 < 48  003 1.5 0 245 373 005 0.002 0 01 158  < <  0.2 0 42 0.06 0 007  0003 007 1,170 198 8  0 012 0 010 008 0854 183.8  0031  0.053  0.070  0 126  • 129  0.149 • 003  0 018 30 445 0 05 < 458 2084 0.01 203  0.012 29 095 005 404 208 0.01 1.74  1.5 12 08 0.6 0001 < 0.001 < 5 17 4.2 004 002  003 1.; 0 247 402  1.5 0 275 475  0.05 < 0 002 < 001 < 150  0 05 < 0002 0.01 184  2.1 024 377 005 < 0018 0.01 155  0004 010 0802 201.0  02 < 0 41 005 0 003 0 004  0003 0 002 007 0600 177.4  009 0706 203 0 0031 < 0 127 0.003 <  025 0.115 0005 34 83 003 41.1 218 00  010 0659 2180 0 49 0 159 0005  333 • OS 432 21100  329 006 < 468 197.00  0.01 1.72 1.0 08 0.001  001 < 1.78 1.1 < 06  0 01 290 5 « O.S  001 340 5.0 0.8  0.001 < 46 003 < 1.7  0.001 < 53 O01  0.001 66 0.03 1.8  45 0 04 1.* 0261 480 003  0 277 399 0 05 *  0 004 001 161  0002 < O01 < 157  08 0 244 427 0 OS < 0002 < 0.01 164  39 IS DOS 494 22150  0298 443 005 0.002 0 01 168  ICP, Total Al Sb As  022 0.32 O.OS  Ba Be  0.006 0.003  B Cd  0.08 0 401  Ca Cr  175.6 0029 0.163  Co <  Cu Fe  0008 22.6  <  012 36.5  Pb Mg <  Mo Ni P K Se  <  Si Ag Na Sr S Sn Ti V  016 0006  0003 009  0 002 006  0398  1.12  ISO 0O30  144 5 0.031  0.138 0.OO5 397 006 42 6  156 8  Mn  201  0.01 <  0.01  1.57 0B  1.78  OB  1.0 08  0.001 3.97  0.001 448  002 1.8  <  0231 345 0.06  < <  0QQ2 0.01  049 0 27  0 28 0.31 0 21 0008  <  <  035 011 0 008 0 003  0.95 042  073 043  056 043  0.37 04  036 0 41  3 * 0.36  0.20 0.008 0004  0.2 0 005 0.004  013  0.18  019  0.14  0012 0013  0.007 0.003  0.006 0004  008  007  0.07  008  009 0.766  01 • 769  177.3 • 041  195 • 073  0121  0135 0014  0.138 0 009  0148 0 009  0 013  0.159 0.007  392 006  37.1 006  39 1 006  43 400 01  45.0 0 01  461 204  37.1 199  444 203  47.30 2207  0 01  0 01  2  100  0.77  1.470 1583  1.51 168 0  0024  0023  172 0 016  1.12 182.2 0043  0.108 0 068  0123 0100  0.128 0101  0 121 0.054  0137 0040  30.1 013  268 0.15  29.2 014  336  332 188.1  357 165 D  37.8 179 0  32.1 0.06 387 194  1908  001 137 OS 07 0.001  <  <  001 < 1.57  0 01  10 08 0 001 <  1.3 08 0 001  <  <  1.75  3 74  4 38  SOS  003  0.03  003  1.6 0 277  1.3 0.110  003 1.5  407 O.OS  <  <  0003 001  < <  381 008 0002  1.5 0 227 334 0 06 <  <  0.002  0.01  <  0 01 <  1.210  0.10 427  001 < 2 1.4 0.7  <  0.001  <  s 004  0238 356 008 0003  < <  0 01  <  0 016 344 0 08 < 41.6 1949  8.4  TIC <  TOC P04  05 0.010  17,1  189  2  0.03  1.6  1.6  0 241 377  0 259 373  0.231 379  009 < 0002 001 <  0 06 < 0033 OOI •  0.06 0002 001  003 1.5 0 274 427 008 0003 DDI <  <  OS 0 008  <  <  <  0 002  <  0002  7.3  <  05 0 046  99 05 < 0002  193 0 •5 «  0.3  1.73  0.04  11.7 05  0 822 201 8  1 88  1.5  32 05  010  0 673  0.01  ...  *?  • 10  0680 188  0.01  0.001 490  022 • 009 0004  • DOS 0.004  0.01 <  1.2 09  3 < 040  oooa 0 003 01  0 01 <  1.1 1.2 09 08 0 001 < 0.001 4.93 4  3 039 016  <  <  5 < 08 0 001 <  5 08 0 001  0592 209 03  48.2 225 001  5 < 10 0 001  5 09 0 001 5.00  6  6  5  003  003  16  1.5 0 286  3  003 1.6 0292 453 006  439 006 0 005 0.01  0.002 0 01  149  153  165  168  13.2  13.4  13.4  05 0 005  05 0002  0.5 0002  0 01 <  0.002 0 01  0003 D11  <  1.5  • 265 401 006  0.20 0 005  003 < 0164  0.03 0 245 402 0.06 < 0 004 <  300 039  17.7 <  05 0 002  Field parameters: Water temp. fC)  254  pH Spec. cond. (uS/cm) Cond. (uS/cm) ORP (mV)  6.27  29 5.89  1700 971  1820 1050  3.1  33  31  5 75 1741 1010  600 1880 980  5.75 1741 1010  2.3 59 1939 1100  31 575 1741 1010  2.9  30 6.83  8 22 3585 2060  2368  765 464  Eh (mV) (calc'd) Flow (m*3/s) Fhw(Us)  11  611 1924 1110  0032 6 31  0OS5 665  30  31  30  594  629  634  1370  2003 1160  2051 1190  2057 1190  121 320 • 062 816  120 319 O.OS 7,78  110 309  83 282  0 0675 923  006 7.78  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Appendix C.2  52 Site 9- Seep nr. Pole 500  U»Y-29  JurvOS  Jun2 -0  JuUJS  181  217  195  Ju-l72  Aur)4>4  Ju-i29  Auo1 -2 Auo2 -1 1 <  Acidity to pH 4.5 Acidity, total  140  Alkalinity, total  2.7  1.3 <  Cl-  1.7  OS <  F  0 07  S04 Br '" 1  «  >  Nitrate  GFAA  09  1.7  2 <  0 07 <  001 <  001 <  968.9  1240  1210  1240  009  0 05 <  005  0370  07  <  042  0.05  5 < 05 < 1260 8  <  2.6 <  033  0 43  211  213  22  IB  22  5  5  Auo3 -0  1 *  1  224  200  22  5  47  1.3  1.7  05  05  0.5  0 OS  0.5  1270  1230  1300  1379  1444  30  26  0.40  0.52  3 <  0005 <  04  0 383  B264  005 0.361  (dissolved):  0 001 < ooot <  Se GFAA (total): Se  0X1  <  0 001  0 001  <  0 001  Hardness, Ca+Mg  714.8  BBS  7S1.4  Hardness, total  947.3  1020  1210 0  758 1184  ICP,  1.9  51 <  208  6  838  733  7233  824  1287.9  1170  1165.2  1290  8484 1357 8  dissolved 020  Al Sb  018  As  0 05  Ba  0023  Be  • 003 001  B  021  023  <  027  039  005 <  DOS <  0 016  0 012  0011  0 014  0003  0 012  0.003  0004  0.004  0005  O002  0 010  0 01  002  0.01  0.588  0913  0503  221  215  <  0 01  0.05 31<  0.01 <  Cd  0.438  0 580  0.511  Ca  2142  208  245.7  225  Cr  0.010  0019  0 019  Co  0.032  0.012  0.009  Cu  0066 009  Pb  «  0.023  0.052  0.065  005  0 05  005  005  <  0 05  <  B3.7  Mo  0 01  Ni  073  1.01  1.43  P  03  OS  oa  t.31 08  K  10  1.0  1.0  11  43.2 124.5 0 01  47  51.3  43 9  135.1  130.8  135.0  0 01 <  0 01 <  001  4S3 1328 *  1.48  001 < 1.2  1  1.2  0.9 <  0 001  0012  0005  0004  0 01 <  001  0 01  0502  059  0S54  242  244  2573  0250  0 430  0 270  0005  0 019  0033  0.078  0079  0081  03 <  0 25  DOS  534  52.8  90  142.0  149.8  1528  0 01  0.01  2.9  35  0.01 < 5 <  12  1.2  oo7.0 ot <0 001 7.5  0 001  0 001  < O001  950  801  58  68  547  93  002  0.02  002  002 <  001  002  003  002  1.7  18  1.9  1.7  2  1.4  2.1  09  1.8  Sr  0464  0 414  0 424  0434  0 479  0404  0411  048  0473  405  416 3  307.S  Ti V  <  0.05  <  0032  0 01 <  388  398  329  005  <  0 01 <  005  1  0007  <  0 01 <  452  0 05 < 0002 0 01  <  <  005  <  005 <  <  0002  <  0002 <  0.01 <  0.01  678  104  124 3  118 37  125.1  Al  848  281  0.30  0.24  012  Sb  0 18  As  006 <  026 05 <00.6 00.6 <  Zn  393  434  005 0008  001 <  122  129 B  5  S <  10 <  025  005 <  005  19  07 <  1 1 ..5 4 0.7 0  0012  0005  0.01  0002  0.001 <  <  0009  909  Sn  <  <  <  430 038 005  Si  S  0001  <  <  0.009  2.5 0 37 009  Ag Na  Se  <  oote  0009 <  0.01 <  0.001  0.01 <  <  68.6  <  009 <  0.009  Mn  0 001  045  0.05 <  0010  0.094  3 <  039  0.0Q5 <  143.7 .492  <  <  0 005 <  0009  0.005 0 075  Mg  41.6  0.020  DOS  0 005 <  00 .50 00 .05 < 009  023  250.1  0016 <  • 061  * <  014 <  006  033  0 05  0 315  Fe  028  0  0.27 <  690 001  17 .  0452  422,3  005  <  005  0 002 < 0002  <  0 002  005 < 001 < 133  0 01  001  135 87  139 98  ICP, Total 034  0.33  034  0.24  031  0.06 <  008  038 < <  3 *  3  3  033  032  037  0 06 <  0 06 <  038  00s <  006  Ba  0260  0.084 0  0.011 <  0009  0011  0012  0.021  0020  0.013  001S  Be  0.003  0003  0004  0004  0.003  0004  0011  0004  0003  003  001  001  0.01  002  002  002  001  Cd  0 347  0.490  0 512  0.490  0505  0506  0 280  0.954  0602  Ca  229 2  211  224 0  211  2189  239  242  229  240 8  0005 0  Cr  0022  Co  0.047  0008  Cu  0108  0072  B  D.01B  10.8  Pb  0 08 <  Mg  480  0.09  753  102  Mo  0  < 1.07  P  O.S  OB  K  24  001  082 01  0 001  <  948 002  Sr S  0009  • 06  008  oa  0.7  08 <  1.1  1.2  12  OKI <  5.64  8  002  002 <  3B2  351  Zn  77.1 13 3  <  008  <  0 069 «  005  0002  <  001 <  <  0.01  <  114 40  0.7 0.17  11 .  0108 <  123 8 3.5  *  07  352  <  001  OD  338  001  1359 *  134  1.8  008  001  <  313  130 <  0 083  0012 0 06  0.08  <  0.01 <  49  «  sn  0. 0.1 17  0 424  0002 11937  0001  369.9  006  <  0 005 001  <  116.5 42  06  0.8  0.5  0002 *  0 002 <  0 002 <  0001  1.44  <  60S  0001 < 7  002  03 < 0.036  1.29  1 . 000 11 1 <  0.01  0006 0.069  «  498  119 8 <  003 < <  1.28  0 41T  18 .  457  120 0 01  1.7  0 278  P( •  0.068  0 008 <  0 436  V  T(  0 076  008 < 431  <  002 0013  0.006 <  0 431  TI  TIC  0.01  0016 O020  0.078  0 512  Sn  u  <  1.33  2.4  Na  0.06 120 1  <  1.5<  IS 2 001  0.006 < 454  0 001  Si Ag  0009 0022  0079 <  436  Mn  Se  0.013 0.018  247 <  Fe  Ni  001 <  002  497  53.1  138  151.06  45 03 0.002  1241 33 03 0013 <  3 5 1.2  00.01 <  0001  S  8  003  002  387  120  001  14  1.3  416 8 006  14822 <  9  393  0 01  51B  5 <  19  0008  03 008  3  0.445  <  001  0064  <  2  1.8  <  0005028 03  0478  006  0  006  19  0032  03  0015  09 <  0 43  OOI  003 <  0 06 <  001  001  239 7563  «  0.001 7.00 002 2.1  017.  0468  008 <  008  0025  0004  0  0 01 « 129 38  42S461  421  <  006  001 <  001005  1399  1354  68  24  0.7 *  05  1.3  0.002 <  0 002  0013 * "1  1  1  Field parameters: Water temp. (°C) pH Spec. cond. (uS/cm) Cond. (uS/cm) ORP (mV) Eh (mV) (calc'd)  009  OB  3fl  28  44  63  34  51  51  49  4 64  512  5.2  539  5.37  7.79  3 81  5 27  536  508  1562  1471  1873  1721  1812  4570  2117  1923  1891  1901  833  BOO  990  1090  2600  1310  1180  1160  1180  530  354  335  281  275  729  553  534  480  474  900  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Appendix C.2  153 Site 10- Sinkhole nr. Aug 04  Aug-12  Aug-21  Aus-30  259  237  246  230  241  0.5  1.3 «  0.5  35  45  5 *  5 *  5  1.4  2.6  0.5 <  0.5 *  0.5  02  0.15  1440  1339  Jul-29  Pole 500  Acidity to pH 4.5 Acidity, total Alkalinity, total  *  1 <  <  waaaaawam aF  -  S04  1410  Br Nitrate Nitrite P  <  "Hardness — "— Ca+Mg 1  2.6 <  3 <  1494  125  *  0.05  054 *  0.1  0.124  •  03 «  026 <  0.3 *  0.005  «  0.005  <  3.0 -  2.6 <  3 «  005  <  005  6.19  551  4.80  5.98  55  2070  2070  2080  1950  2190  38  48  62  304  78 -~90  <  pH FR NFR  1270  3.0 < 0.10  ^^^^^^^^  — « ™ »  1270  snn 1 1.4  6B5.6 ••  •  Hardness, total  0.089  •as  •  ICP, dissolved  Al Sb As Ba Be B Cd Ca Cr Co Cu Fe Pb Mg Mn Mo Ni P K Se Si Ag Na Sr S Sn Ti V Zn  0.13 0.51  68.5 <  051  0.52  25 039  0.05 *  0.05  0.05 «  0.05  0.005 0.01  0.003  0.007  0508  0.004  0.003  0.004  0.01  0.05 0.568  0.65 231.2 0550  0.05  «  0.001 0.002 0.04  <  0.04 «  0.725  0.6B7  0575  187  203  204  0.042  0.042  8.630 «  192 0250  0.114  0.126  0.191  0.143  0.005 «  0.005  0.006  14.1 <  0.005  0.05 <  005 «  0.05  41.0  459  207.0  198.7  14.1 <  *  •  0.01 <  0.01  156  1.74  0.44  0.06  0.005  *  0.05  <  0.005  152  21.56 <  47.0  44  202  203.1  1.1 0.5 0.001 <  < 05 0.05 «  48.3 *  0.01 4.2  5 <  5 05  0.8 2.5  -  2.50  3.71  3.95  0.05  45  0.02  0.03  0.03  0.03  5.30 0.03 2.1 0.294  1.1  1.7  1  15  0.246  0.277  0281  0265 398.4  477  402  453  445  *  0.05 *  0.05 <  0.05 «  0.05  *  <  0.002 <  0.002 «  0.002 *  0.002  <  051 <  0.01 *  «  0.05 228.1  0.01 2.6  0.4  055  0.162  *  0.01 «  05 0.001 *  3.70  <  0.01 <  153.1  155  144  0.01 «  0.05 0.002 0.01  146.35  165.3  ICP, Total  At Sb As Ba Be B Cd Ca Cr Co Cu Fe Pb Mg Mn Mo Ni P K Se Si Ag Na Sr S Sn Ti V Z n ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ TIC TOC P04  0.66 « 0.42  0.09  0.07  1.52  021  0.007  0.005  0.019  0008  0.003  0.004  0.005  0.003  0.09 0.756  0.07  0.07  029  0.09  0.699  0.674  0575  0.600  188  1922  194  1865  2072  0.065 « 0.124  ORP (mV)  «.  0.5 <  05 0.143  0.02  0.015 *  325  272  0.10  0.129 0.006  0.03  0.5  0.142  26.0 0.07  0.08  0.143  0.12  0018  132  385 021  0.60  44.3  44.3  44.6  435  475  196  203.22  204  19993  22123  0.01  «  1.81 12 < 1 0.001  "  0.01  «  0.01  «  001  <  3  2  3  5  5 •<  5 <  1 0.001 «  05 3 <  0.01 3  1  S 05  3  «  3  5  7  9  7  700  0.03  0.03  0.03  0.03  0.03  1.5  1.5  1.6  1.4  2.4  0266  0253  0.266  0268  0291  412  413  404  407  453  0.06 < 0.010 0.01 148  0.06 < 0.007 <  «  0.01 < 153.5 25 0.6 0.003 <  95  006 * 0.002 0.01 < 154 32 0.7 0.002  6.9  0.06  <  0.06  0.012  <  0002  0.01  *  163.2 44 0.6 0.134 <  6.9  001 165.7 4.3 05 0.002  7.69  6.99  6.19  655  11 8.18  4339  1974  1891  1813  1962  1370 44.1  1220 27  67.1  -22.5  243.1  226  266.1  1765  2800  Cond. (uS/cm) Eh (mV) (calc'd)  3 0.38  0.17  S.9  Spec. cond. (uS/cm)  3 « 0.38  0.004  11  pH  0.42  0.014  05 0.002  Field parameters: Watertemp.(°C)  3 <  3 0.38  1170  1420  Natural Attenuation o f Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope o f Galkeno 300 M i n e , Central Y u k o n  Appendix C.2 I5H Site 8- Seep at Road Plezo  JurvOB  Juv20  68 0.5  107 22.2  juwa  Jt*22  Acidity to pH 4.5 Acidity, total Alkalinity, total  Aup«4  e  <  55 05 < OS 002 855 8  ClF S04 Br Nitrate Nitrite P  < <  005 < 0.002  < <  0005 < 005 <  PH FR NFR Spec. Cond.  <  3 28 1010 3 < 1140  0.5 < 002 < 1060 005 < 0004 0005 < 0.05 <  <  68 05  2 0 01 1170  <  6  005 0.29 0005 005  <  ^^^^ 5.37  7.24  1410 5 < 1540  1780 5 1820  < 1130 0.01  11  mmm < <  0 05 <  0.22 < 0.005 < < 005 <  5 <  5 <  5 <  0.5 < 792  0.5 < 808 <  26 <  28 <  0.37 0.26 <  0.50 0.26 < 26 <  3 < 07 < 0.3 < 3 <  Auo-30  1 <  1 < 7 16.3  0.5 < 8307  26 <  Auo-21  7 239  5  01 0 01  04 002 857  005  005 < 005 05 0.002 < 0.005 < 0.005 005 < oos 7,34  84 1310 5 1440  667 1250 8 1347  6.78 1160 49 1350  694 1200 17 1380  905 1080  913 3 9282  750 767  791 798  750 2 753  2  8884 872  0.2 < 011 <  0.05 < 0.05 0.05 <  009 < 006 <  005 005  0.05 < oooa  005 0014 0004  531 1650 <  9 10  Auo-12  5 1700  <  1260 11 1400  GFAA (dissolved): Se GFAA (total): Se Hardness, Ca+Mg Hardness, total ICP, Al Sb As Ba Be B Cd Ca Cr Co Cu Fe Pb  <  0 001 <  0 001 <  0 001  <  0001 «  0 001 <  0 001  iwmmfflfflfflBm 3103 837.1  770 837  9944 1202.4  012 008  0 15  0 21 0.14 009 0026 0005 0 01 0.063 314 6  dissolved  Mg Mn Mo Ni P K Se Si  <  <  < <  <  <  Ag Na Sr S Sn Ti V Zn  < <  ICP, Total Al Sb As Ba Be B Cd Ca Cr Co Cu Fe Pb  005 < 0026 0002 0 01 < 0064 158.1 0 009  005 < 0031 0 004 001 * 0.055 238 0 012 0011 0011 0 005 < 0 005 < 0005 < 0005 < 009 < 005 425 27,4 4241 599 001 < 0.01 < 0.49 038 03 03 33 33 016 017 3 84 2.81 0 01 0.01 1.1 1.7 0266 0.382 290 204 8 0 05 * 0.05 < 0002 0 003 0 01 ' 0 01 < 36.7 31.6  013 <  <  < < < <  Mg Mn Mo Ni P K  <  Se Si Ag Na Sr S Sn Ti V Zn  <  0.14  0.06 <  J?.91——.—— Field parameters: Water temp. (°C)  pH Spec. cond. (uS/cm) Cond. (uS/cm) ORP (mV) Eh (mV) (calc'd)  52.1 588 001 054 04 1.7 015 465  373 001 1.7 0.383 279  0 01 2.'l 0.457 353  0.05 0 002 0.01 354  0.06 0.002 001 493  207 0.039  1.0 * 147 0038  166 46 1123 821  32 484 1530 ago  < < < <  < < <  0.01 0.052 295 0006 QOOS 0005 0 009 0.05 553 322  05 87 0O28 *  14 31 1649 910  0.05 <  0.05  0.09 < 0.05 < 0009 0 011  0.05 0.05 < 0004 0005  <  0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.005 < 2781 229 < 0005 < 0.005 < < 0005 < 0.005 « < 0005 < 0.005 < < 5E-04 < 0005 < 005 < < 0.05 < 53 1 43.3 0.147 0016  00Q3  0.01 < 0.01 00D3 0.005 < 243 2293  0.01 0017 266.4 0.020  0.005 < 0.005  0029 < 0.005 0020 < 0.005 0 005 0018 < 005 < 005 < 432 489 0004 0 014 001 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 01 < 0.01 0.01 002 005 035 0.03 < 0.02 < 0.02 < 01 < 03 < 0.1 OS 01 06 009 0.001 < 0 001 < 0.05 * 0.05 < 0.12 4 17 502 4.96 3.65 3.98 388 0Q2 < 0.01 < 001 001 < 0.01 0.01 23 28 35 2.3 23 0 447 0.366 0.384 0342 0394 0465 228 265 330 2902 232 278 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.05 446 0 004  0  0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.2 < 0.1 0.1  2  < *  0.05 < 0002 < 0.01 * 37.7  *  0 21  2822 0009 0014 0006 0 008 006  0.002 < 0 01 < 31.3  <  0.05 < 0.027 0.013 0.005 0005  582  158 5 231 0008 0005 0 008 < 0 005 0006 * 0.005 < 0.014 < 0005 < 008 < 0 05 < 279 42.0 444 61.3 001 < 0 01 < 038 049 03 0.4 36 33 0.10 016 2,71 001  <  682 001 067 04 1.7 0.20 515 001 2.3 0434 385 005 0 012 0 01  016 0.06 0 024 0005 001 0.061  ^ ^ ^ ^ TIC TOC  0 012 0 008 0 005 0.003 008 507  0.07 009 0 08 < 0 05 < 0 028 0 031 0 003 0004 001 < 001 « 0064 0057  1,1 0274 JOB 7 < < <  0.10  0.05 < 0.05 * 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.05 0 002 * 0.002 0.002 < 0.002 < 0.023 0 02 < 0.01 0 01 0.03 < 0.01 33 9 161 478 463 28  0.22 < 012 <  <  <  008 515 32 800  < < <  <r < <  0.06 0.06 <  0.53 < 0.06 <  0.06 < 0.06 < 0.06 < 0.06 * 0.018 0013 0.019 0 061 0 004 0005 0011 0005 001 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 005 0.007 0.012 < 0.006 < 282.0 241.9 2410 2520 0006 0009 < 0 008 < 0.006 < 0 008 < 0006 < 0006 < 0.006 < 0006 < 0 008 < 0006 < 0.006 < 0 646 0 006 0 018 0077  <  < < <  0.06 < 0.06 <  <  0.01 < 0.45 04 < OB 0001 < 505 001 2.1 0 451 324  0 08 < 46.4 0134  0 06 < 47.8 0 050  0.01 < 003 < 01 < 04  0.01 0.02 01 03 008  0001 < 4 28 < O01 < 24  0389 26281 0 08 < 0 06 < 0008 0002 0 01 < 001 « 36.7 B02S 08 8.1 0 002 <  37 502 1627 960  4 31 0 01 23 0 396 252 0.06 0.005 0.01  1.3 7.6 0002  0 011  40 7.0  IB 7.05 1269 710  31 879 1530 870  0.06 0.06 <  017 0.06  0.06 < 0012 0004  0.06 0 01 0.004 001 0.01 < 0006 0.006 < 2404 2310  0.006 < 0.006 0.006 < 0.006 0.006 < 0.006 0058 0 181 008 < 0.06 < 0.06 48.8 49 461 0334 0.051 0038 0 01 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.03 < 002 0.02 01 < 03 04 05 0 06 < 0.06 « 0.06 411 401 519  01 . <  0.01 < 27 0402  0.1  001 < 2.4 0384 233 45  255 0.06 < 0.06 < 0 007 0.019 001 < 0.01 < 2.9B7  SB 0 022  54  74 8 0 015  31 728 1224 710 253 454  1.4 761 1228 680 2276 4286  0.01 26 0395 244.58 0.06 0.005 0.01 3079 87 58  mil 24 7 56 1213 890 202 401  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Appendix C.2  155 Site 7. Seep 5  Uay-29  Jun-06  Jun-20  JuWH  Jut-22  Jul-29  Auo-04  Aug-12  47  50  73  64  57  60  56  56  AuO-21  Aun-30  44  52 61.6  Acidity to pH 4.5 Acidity, total  U_ c\F S04 Br Nitrate Nitrite P  < < <  < <  5 < 0.5 < 1100  30 0.40  «  26 0.40  0.005 < 005 <  26 < 0.47 026 < 28 <  848 1700 101 1830  7.02 1720 144  7 17 1710 105  1760  1790  10239 1124.1  1050.0  10331 11188  0.05 0.05 0.05 0 015 0004 001 0063 327.1 0005 0 005 0005 0 005 0.05 503 16.6 001 <  O.OS 0.05 < 0.12 0.09 0.05 < 0,05 < 0 025 003 0 005 0005 001 < 0 01 0 082 0077 326 322.2 oooe 0009 0005 < 0.005 0005 < 0,005 0005 < 0.0005 005 < 0.05 555 57.9 1404 161 001 « 0.01 031 029 02 02 13 1.1 0001 < 0001 * 6.12 6 19 001 < 001 2 2.1 0643 0 624 418 8 381 005 < 005 < 0 002 0002 < 0 01 < 001 40.8 38 733  < <  2 001 1130  005 0242 0005 005  005 0308 0 005 0.05  <  005 0 41  < <  7.16 1490 114  1480 171 1600  Spec. Cond.  S 0.5 1070  03 002 1100  liililillillliilillil Pllllllllllll 7.3 PH FR NFR  6 < 5 < 0.01 < OS « 1140 1110.7  03 002 948 6  1620  0.005 005  005 < 0.34  GFAA (dissolved): Se G F A A (total): Se  Hardness, total  ICP, dissolved Al Sb As Ba Be B Cd Ca Cr Co Cu Fe Pb Mg Mn Mo Ni P K Se SI Ag Na Sr S Sn Ti V Zn  < <  <  < < < < <  <  < <  < < <  ICP, Total Al Sb As  0.05 0.08 0.05 0.018 0005 0.01 0.051 2635 0005 0 005 0 005 0005 0.05 491 962 OOI 022 0.1 12 005 526 0 01 19 0564 292.76 005 0002 0.01 28 7  1011  < <  <  < < < < <  <  < <  < < <  357 006 0 06 < 0 091 0 004  Ba Be  0.01 0.055 2937 0007  B Cd Ca Cr Co  Si Ag  <  TIC TOC P04 Field parameters: Water temp. (°C) pH Spec. cond. (uSfcm) Cond. (uS/cm) ORP (mV) Eh (mV) (calc'd)  23 0600 316 006 0140 0.01  0005 0005 0.005 0005 005 510 116 0 01 < 0 22 02 1.3 0.05 556 0.01 < 1.9 0582 326 005 oooa 001 < 301  234 0.06 0.05  <  001 0 081 <  0 01 < 0.25 03 1.9 006 < 10 98 001 <  Mo Ni P K Se  0.O5 * 010 0.05 < 0.019 0005 0 01 • 063 294  0068 0004  0.012 < 0025 4.213 006 < 51.9 11.4  Cu Fe Pb Mg Mn  Na Sr S Sn Ti V Zn  943  9100 972.2  Hardness, Ca+Mg  282 •005  <  0 005 < 0016 275 0.05 < 506 126 0 01 < 0.23 03 17 005 < 895 0 01 < 2.1 0 572 292 O.OS • 093 001 298  153 36  80 42 0161  029 666 1590 839  3.9 657 1534 910  < <  032 02 1.1 005 592 0.01 2.1 0592 3725 005 0 002 0 01 450  1150  2.23 012 0.06 < 0 066  2.43 0.15 0.06 < 0.077  0.005 0 01 0 082 314.4 0.008 < 0006  0008 0.01 0.063 310 0006 < 0006 < 0 041 343  0 012 269 008 553 17 64 0 01 032 0.3 1.7 006 896 0.01 22 0 637 375 9 0.06 0074 001 40 8 54 25 0093  08 65 1673 910  0 06 < 539 15 6 0.01 < 032 0.4 16 0001 < 968 0 01 < 21 • 626 330 0.06 < 0081 0.01 < 42 000 66 29 0.101  1.2 6 41 1800 990  —  1.73 • 06 • 06 <  0.3 30  « *  1050.0 1140  979 4 1036.3  0.05 0.15 0.05 0052 0.011 002 0074 332 0042 0015 0 024 0068 0 07 694 13 84  0.05 0.05 0.08 0061 0 001 003 0100 334 0054 0.042 0037 0052 0.13 537 18.1  003 032 01 1.7 010 6 18 0 01 2.1 0654 3608 005 0026 001 < 352  002 039 01 1.9 023 371 0.01 2 0 605 374 0.05 0 047 0 01 33 1  011 010 0.09 0054 0008 003 0073 307.8 0055 0 040 0052 0085 012 51.2 9483 003  0.11 < 0.13 0.05 < 0036 oooe 002 0086 320 0 028 0 019 0 018 0013 014 510 13 3 001 029 0.2 1.3 0 001 3 71 002 26 0 578 429 0.05 0028 002 < 39  1,4 011 0 06  «  0 006 0.015 < 1 76 0.06 < 595  2.8 894 1634 940  7,22 1720 58 I860  1.00 0.43 < 0005 < 005 Vis ^ 7.21 1690 137 1810  1074.7 1154 8  1090  0008 < 001  23 0 061  0.26 < 28 <  0.3 3  1010.0  -  0 003 001 < 007 342 001 <  11.1  3 0.5  1605  0 081  22 0612 3208 0.06 < 0066 001 < 37.724  <  7.27 1740 27  0005 0.01 0.072 3125 0006  12 86 0.01 < 03 03 13 0 001 < 8 27 001 «  25 0 01 1263  7.27 1730 67 1800  0 084  234 0 08 < 541  5 0.5 1160  12.1 0.01 029 01 1.4 0001 806 001 24  <  < <  < < <  096 009 006 0 061 0 005  1.18 0.14 0.06 < 0076 0.007  001 0 078 340 0 006 0 014  0.01 0063 360 0.006 < 0.011 <  0006 1.30 008 593 1298  0.006 1.55 006 < 641 1808 0.01 < 0 37 0.3  0.01 0.29 03 1.6 ooe 7.70 001 7.4  16 0.06 8.31 0.02 26 0 731 371 0.08 0034  029 02 19 OX 535 002 36 0547 297 97 005 0 061 002 24 941  2.4 008 0.06  <  <  < < < < <  <  < <  0 01 39 200  104 2.1 0026  12.7 23 0024  151 2 0035  13 3 2,7 0 086  7,7 7.31 3485 2300 335 534  4.5 884 2138 1290 200 399  32 7 29 705 410 164  24 7.46 1564 890 172.4 371,4  013 0.15 005 0 037 0.007 0,01 0.076 366 3 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0 05 561 4 01 0.01 0.35 03 1.1 0,05 6 06 002 2.1 0.654 73 5 0.05 0.002 0 02 35 89  082 •07 <  <  0.22 001 026  0 665 397.5 0,06 •030 001 37.200  393  1153.9 1217.5  0,006 0 031  02 1.6 006 941  0.05 0 371 0.005 005  1760 73 1920  • 092 0006 002 0053 332.4 0.006  326 0.08 61.4  0.6 0,01 1249  |§|||§§742 §S  iz —  001 25 0658 3229 008 0080 0 01 29 048  0630 368 0.06 < 0 043 001 < 36.300  <  < <  < <  0.06 0063 0009 0 01 0.084 351.3 0.009 0O32 0.014 1.16 0.06 635 21.52 0.01 04 03 1.5 0.06 7.42 0,01 26 0 712 396 0.06 0.033 0.01 365  2 ooes  39 7.45 1736 1030 153 352  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Jun-OS  Usy-29  Jun-20  JuMK  71  81  Jul-29  JU-22  Auo-04  Auo-12  54  53  Auo-21  Auo-30  Site 6- Seep 8  Acidity, total  62  Alk.vinity total  33  I  t  1 <  Acidity to pH 4.5  60  <  09  1  54  56  * -  *'  1 <  <  1 < S3  39  "4  "6  ~~ ' 03  ClF  0.02 <  S04  971.4  03  <  0.01  <  2 <  1165  0.01 < 1150  <  0.06  <  0.05  *  0.05 <  Nitrite  <  0 005  <  0.005  <  0.005 <  P  <  0.05  <  0.05  <  0.05 < ~*  Br Nitrate  0 094  FR <  NFR Spec. Cond.  0.192  6 <  0.01 < 1160  029  5  <  0.5  <  0.05 <  26  *  0.30  025 0.005 <  5 < 0.5 <  30 < 0.30  0.20  <  26  <  5 <  5 <  0.5 <  0.5 <  1090  1140  1148.9  1190  26 <  3 <  0.35 <  0.3 <  05 0.01 1279.1 <  0.05  0.3 <  0.005  <  0.005  3 <  0 05  <  0.05  0.1  0.28 <  25 0 01 1263 0.05 0.37  0.269  30 «  2.8 <  632  840  58  6.16  820  640  630  044  644  J 894  1470  1600  1720  1670  1700  1710  1690  1710  1790  1720  5 < 1570  5  <  5 *  1680  0.05 < i  5 < 1766  1830  5  <  1740  5 < 1780  5  7  29  237  1663  1750  1820  1830  - "1  GFAA (dissolved): <  Se GFAA (total):  0001  <  0001  0001  <  i H H H I i Hardness. Cn+Mrj  652 0  H.itd'ii'ss total  0528  AS, I  961  1030  •«  1120  1134,7  0.05  0.07  0.17  010  0.13  0.15  •  •  1 7  •  1' I ?  •• I-  0.08  0.05  005  017  0.06  0.1  0.19  015  016  0.14  • 6  '1  lilltll  ICP, dissolved Al  0 06 <  0.05  Sb  0 10  010  <  005 <  0.05 <  0.05  0.05  0.05 <  0.05 <  0.05 <  0.05  Ba  0020  0022  0.017  0 025  0013  0015  0015  O017  0 015  0.037  Be  0 004  0.005  0005  0005  0 007  0008  0013  0.006  0.007  0006  <  As  005  <  0 05  <  <  0.01 <  0.01  0.01  0.01 <  0.01 <  0.01 <  0.01  Cd  0035  0028  0 027  0.032  0 025  0.029  0.024  0029  0025  O 024  Ca  265 8  300.2  321 4  320  3291  313  316  321  3215  361 8  <  B  0 01 <  0.01  <  0.01 <  <  0 007 <  0005  «  0.005  0.008 <  0.005  <  0.005  0 005 < 0,005 <  0.005  <  0.005  Co  <  0 005 <  0 005  <  0 005 <  0005 <  0.005  <  0.005  0 005 < 0.005 <  0.005  <  0.005  Cu  <  0005 <  0 005  <  0 0D5 <  0005 <  0.005  <  0.005  0 005 < 0.005 <  0.005  <  0.005  Fe  <  0005 <  0005  <  0.005 <  0005 <  Pb  <  005 <  005  <  0.05 <  Cr  0.0005  <  0.005  0005 <  0.005 <  0005  0 05 <  005  <  005  009 <  0.05 <  0 05  Mg  45.8  51 3  47.7  582  584  52.4  560  542  Mn  24 53  18.2  20.1  15 4  128  14 8  18 98  16 8  a62.2  17.23  359  001 <  0 01 <  001 <  001 <  0 01  001  001 <  001  001  Ni  034  0 27  0.30  0.28  0 24  0 22  026  0 27  0.24  P  03  02  02  02  03  02  03  02  02  K  14  1.4 '  09  1.4  07  09  06  1.2  0.9  0 001 <  0001 <  <  Mo  <  Se  0001  «  0001  <  0.001 <  0 001  6.26  646  694  001 <  OOI <  <  0 001  0 001  0.01 0.29 0.2 09  <  617  0001 668  7.18  S3  646  61  0 01  002  0 01  001  0.01  1.9  2.1  2.1  28  26  28  28  37  36  Sr  0539  0 819  0 599  0683  066  0584  082  0597  0 598  0.655  S  2956  337  370.7  357  407.1  392  3501  369  375 2  74.1  <  001 <  0001  <  05  1.8  Si Ag Na  5.79  <  <  0.016  55  <  OOS <  005 <  0 05  *  005  0.05 <  0.05 <  0.05  <  0 002 <  0.002 <  0002  <  0002  0002 <  0.002 <  0.002  0 01 <  0 01 <  0.01  001  003  0 01  349  40.8  383  31.8  30.9  29  008 <  0.08 <  Sn  <  005  <  0.05  <  Ti  <  0002  <  0 002  V  <  001 < 36.1  Zn  002  003 < 36.521  <  0.01  0.05 <  0 027 < 26 562  0.002 001 25 666  ICP, Total Al  0.06 <  Sb  009  005 006  0.14  012  006 01  0.13 <  0.06  011  <  0.06  <  0 13 013  0.06 <  008 <  025  258  0.06  010  0.06  <  0.08  0 06 <  0.06 <  0.06  0.06  Ba  0 023  0 022  0022  0021  002  0022  0029  0028  0028  01  Be  0.004  0 005  OODS  0005  0005  0005  0 012  OOOS  0006  0006  0 01  0.01  001  002  0012  0029  0029  O027  0027  0.08 <  As  001  B  <  Cd  0040  Ca  287.2  Cr  0008 <  005  OOI  <  <  0 01 <  0.031  0035  <  0.01 < 0038  OOI < 0035  306  304 5  324  317  341  0008 <  0006 <  0.008  0009  0 015  0008 <  0.008  0.018  0006  0.006  <  0008 <  0.006 <  0.006  0 010  298  318.4  0 005 <  0 01 <  329 8  334.2  Co  0.006 <  OOOS  <  0.005 <  0036 <  Cu  OD06 <  0005  <  0.006 <  0 008 <  0008  0.006  <  0006 <  0.008 <  0.008  Fe  0 006  0005  <  0006 <  0 008 <  0006  0.008  <  0008  0.091  0 214  Pb  006  005  <  008 «  006  0.08  <  Mg  476  51.5  544  529  532  581  S7.B  801  82 4  62.7  Mn  2807  18 5  20.5  15  12.39  142  17,24  169  17 39  1908  Mo  0 01  0.01 <  0.01  0.01  001  0.01  0.01  0 06 <  <  0.01 <  <  0 08 <  0.01 <  006 <  0.01 <  006  Ni  0 37  0 28  032  027  024  0 27  03  032  032  P  03  0.2  03  02  0.2  0.1  02  02  02  1.5  K  0.001  Se Si  6 12  Ag  001  Na  1.9  1.4 0 001 6.25 0.01 1.9  1.4 0  0 0 1  1.2 *  654 0 01 < 20  0.001 <  1.1  1.2  12 0.001  001  001  23  2.9  25  3  2.7  3  • 668  0.681  0.665  358  382.3  392  <  0.01 <  0.817  0.668  0654  0.621  0.617  347  364 5  338  3349  357  357,2  006  0.05  008 <  0.08 <  006  008  0002  0002  0 002 <  0002 <  0002  0002  001  001  0 01 <  001 <  001  0 01  33 672  327  383  Zn  3"  TIC  2.8  19  TOC  S3  33  P04  0002  0.025  37.4 22  15  001 <  892  324 2  <  0.4 0.001  5.81  0 562 <  031  661  S  V  0.06  7.15  Sr  Tl  1,3 0001  3 156 <  0 001  0 647  Sn  1.3 < 0 001 <  0.006  0.001  20  <  <  37.5 33  <  0 08 < 0002 001 < 31.9  39  29  2.5  2.7  26  2.2  25  0009 <  0 002 <  0002 <  0002 <  0002 <  707 0.01 <  0.06 < 0.013 001 < 32.4  32  7.17 0.01  9.79 0.01  006  0.06  0.007  0.086  001  0.01  31586  24 71  46  67  24  2.2  26  0.002  0 018  0169  Field parameters:  Water temp. (°C) pH Spec. cond. (uS/cm) Cond. (uS/cm) ORP(mV) Eh (mV) (calc'd)  15  7.3  42  29  2.3  2  06  559  573  59  608  864  7.72  709  7.37  7.28  7.36  892  1750  1785  1532  4647  1994  1751  1692  1582  880  980  990  1000  2900  1180  1010  960  890  335  317  280  262  218  534  518  479  461  417  826  1.1  3B  024 1570  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Appendix C.2  /57 Site 5- Old Rd. AT Jun-06  May-29  ROWXInq <  Acidity lo pH 4.5  ,  1 < 8  Acidity, total Alkalinity, total  S04  03  02  002 771.3  001 778  JuMI  JuKB  Jui-22  JJ-29  1 <  0 383  438  OF  Jun-20 t  14  7  7  7  42 5  37  49 0  606  2 001  < <  1000  6 0.01  Aur*04  1  Aug-12  Aug-21  Aug.30  11 57.4  a 543  7 73.8  ,  1 * 10 654  <  S <  5  5 <  5  <  0.5 < 084  0.5 948  0.5 < 855  0.5 1000  1030  04  25 0 01  0.01 1044  1094  Br Nrtrate  0.002  O092 0005  Nitrite  0.40 • 026 •  0.005  0.35  0 354 0.005  0.005  7.57  pH FR NFR Spec Cond.  1490 15B0  1494  BBS 894  910 919  1650  1700  1640  GFAA (dissolved}: GFAA (total): Se Hardness, Ca+Mg  822 4 829 1  Hardness, total ICP,  1048 5 1068 7  907 014  1060.5  1075.1  1067.9  1.083.6  1069 ton  008  0.06  . ~ im*m 1090 1100  1120 1121.1  1054 1062.69  dissolved  Al  <  005 <  009  Sb As  <  003 <  <  0 03 <  005 005  0.021 0004  Ba  < <  0027  006  <  0 05 005  < <  0027 0 006  0 005 001  0.05 0.05  0.05 <  0.05  011  <  005 009 0048  0.05 < Q039  0.05 0.05  0.1 < 0 07 <  003  <  0 06 < 0.05 *  0.05  0.05  0029  005 0044  0008  0 007 0.01 <  0006 0.01  0048 0 010  0.05 0.044  0029 0006  Be B  <  0 01  001  <  0.01  002  Cd  <  0.005  0005  0009  <  2606  264 0005  3378 0.005 <  0.005 343.1  0 019 3379 0037  Ca Cr  0.005  Co  < <  0.005 OOOS  0.005  0.005  <  Cu  *  0 009 0 024  0005 0021  0 005 0039  < <  005  009  005  <  41.6 0087  48 1  49.0  0.028  1.153  0 061 0.01  Fe Pb  <  Mg Mn Mo  <  001 <  Nl P  < <  002 01  0.1  01  1.1  09  <  005  005 < 568  <  469 0 01 <  005 500 001  001 <  Si Ag Na Sr  0.01 < 0 03 <  1.1  K Se  0.01 < 002  S Sn Ti  < <  V Zn  <  <  0.005 0.005 0.005  0013 0.022 0041  005  006  343  561  22 0609  0.629  2391  273  005 0002  005 0002 0 01  2995 005  *  319 009  0002 < 0 02 < 9 87  0.002 0.01 424  001 < 394  4 14  <  0 01 < 25  19 0.568  0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 <  <  279 0.005 0.005  0187  0012 0 007 OOOS  0041  0.005  0.005  0 037 0 024  0.005 0.005  0.005 0.005  0068 0 08  0090  0039  013 555  005 564  0.019 005  502 002 0.04  0.1 <  0.1 07  803 001  5.93 001  24 0658  25 0851  377  3599  0.001 478 002 < 24 0530  0 05 < 0 002 <  002 48  0.01 0.005 347.5  0 339  0.001 <  005 0 027  0.01 0006 329.5  0.01 0.02  0 001  002 4.38  286 005 0002 002 < 348  0008  002 0027 344  0.148  <  0.007  0 01  001 < 0.02 < 1  0066 OOOB  003  0 011 262  0.005 0011 < 0.005 0.05 005 < 46 3 555  15  0001 544  1.7 0 479  3366  02  0.1 < 09  <  0 009 < 0.005  002 < 005 01  002  0.1  0.05  0.1 < 12  0.410 0 02 <  59 B  0 247 001  007  0 229 0.01 0.02  0.02 0.1  0.1 1.7  0.1  1.2  1.1  0.07 519  0.28  0.05  0.05  981  001  001 2.7 0640  5.24 002  5.56 0.01  31 0 640  31 0 671  320  323B  21 0566 260 005 < 0015 0.01 462  0.05 0035  62  0.05 0.002 < 003 <  001 840  4 10  0.05 0002 001 3617  ICP, Total Al  006  '  005  1.17  <  0.06  014  1.03  2.20  070  Sb  008  <  005  <  0 06  <  0.06  <  0 06  <  0.06 <  0.06  0.06 <  0.06  <  048 0.06  <  005  <  0 06 <  0.06  <  0 06  <  0.06 <  0.06  0.06 <  0.08  <  0.06  <  Ba  0.06 < 0022  Be  0.004  8 Cd  001  <  0.01  0 008  *  Ca  242 0  0 005 2S8  Cr  0011  <  0005  Co  0006 0.006  0005  0117 006  0036  42.2  492  Mn  0 084  0.027  Mo  001  001  As  Cu Fe Pb Mg  0027 0 005  0005 005  Ni P  002 0.1  002  K  1.1  1.2  01  Se  006  0.05  Si  489  516  <  00S9  0.039  0047  004  0064  0097  0 061  0.081  0005  0.006  0015  0.OO5 0.01  0.009  0.004  0.005  0.006  0.01  0.01 < 0.014  0.01 0007  0.005 0.01  310 8  287.9  0006 303 0  <  0008  <  0006 <  0006  0006 <  0.006  0.006 <  0.006  <  0008  <  0.006 <  0006  0 006 < 0.006  0.012 <  0.006  0020  <  0.006  0.008  0 006 < 0.006 0271 1,44  0.006 <  0.008  OOOS  <  0.006  328  103 006  0.793 <  0 315 0.06  0006  <  1 344 <  0.06  <  1.180 < < <  0.06 < 553  536  498  932  02  0093 <  0.01  003  <  002  01 1.4  <  006  <  0 01 20 0578  2.1 0 633  001  278  334 1  008  005  006  *  <  01 <  Ti  0002  0.002  0034  V  0 01  001  002 01  002 < 01 *  0.02  0.02 <  0.02  0.1  0.2 < 1.36  0.1 1.3  1.5  1.3  0.06 <  0.06  010  0.06  671  521  534  001  29B 008 0 011  0 01  0.01  002  342  443  867  405  43  TIC  12.3  89  7.8  51  39  2.6  °™  0 002  0 061  564 0229  043B  Zn  PQ4  0.06 59.1  0 515 0.01 <  2.2 0 828 <  <  564  0.012  0.01  009  332  505  0006  0 224  592  24  0.06 <  327,5 <  0.01 <  514 0 01 <  0.06  322.0  0166  1.1  0722  0.08 <  2820  0.006 3127  0 01  12 0001  0.06 0.005  TOC  0.006 <  03 006  001  7.07 <  OOOS < 0.105  332  0.01  <  < <  0.01 < 0.006  1.7 0 484 239 5  Sn  0.01 0.008  <  Na S  <  <  <  < *  0.06 0.047  0.01  324  0 01 0 01  0.21 0.06  0 011 311.7  Ag Sr  0 28  1.1 0.001  1.3 *  538 0 01 < 2.2 0.578 291 0.06 < 0.003 0.01 <  0001 969  B.1B  0.01  0.01 *  24 0573  2.2 0.573  296 0.08 0028 0.01  268 0.06 < 0.069 0.01 <  3 743  388  498  10.5  13.2  14 3  2.1 0002  2.2 0 007  23 0013  17,2 3.1  0.01  0.01  0 278 < <  <  25 0650 311 0.06  139 33  0.100  < <  0.1  <  <  0.01 0.02 0.1  0.01  0.01  25 0 679  2.5 0 638  337 <  0.021 O.01 644  001 0.04  293  0.06  0.06  0.002  0.006  0.01  0.01  4439  3 57  139  18.9  1.7  2.3  0012  awl  Field parameters: 25  1.9  798  7.69  7,73  7,42  1595 900  1547  171B  7.74 1676 .  ORP (mV)  690 250  1000 1B4  1420 BID  Eh (mV) (calc'd)  449  383  Water temp. (°C) pH Spec. cond. (uS/cm) Cond. (uS/cm)  1.14  40  1.8  33  7.14  666  7,2  683  1331  1479  1573  725  880  sao  1580 910  32 6 78 1833 950  2.1  28  32  1.4 765 1591  154  940 174  880 141,1  353  373  340.1  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  158 Site4- Seep 6 * 120  Jut-29  May?  Aug-0<  Acidity to pH 4.5 Acidity, total  ClF S04 Br Nitrate  0185  0213  Nitrite  0.005  0 005  pH FR NFR Spec. CondGFAA  (dissolved):  GFAA (total): <  Se  0.001  <  0.001  <  0 001  <  0001  <„ 's- " ' Hardness, Ca+Mg  BBSS  903  Hardness, total  9038  920  ICP,  1120  1075 9 1099 4  1110  1140  .1162 .1376  1162.5 1183  1180  1002  1200  1018  1210 1230  005 0.O5  007 0.05  0.05 <  0.05  DOS < 0037  0.1 <  005  015  <  005  <  0.1 <  0.05 0 05 < 0069  013  <  005  *  005 006  <  oooa o.ot 0 019 390  i  dissolved < <  0.05 < 0.05 <  0.05  <  0.05  <  005 <  0 05 <  Sb  0.05  <  005  <  As  <  0 05 *  005  <  *  005 < 005 *  0 05 < 0 05 <  Al  0.018  0020  0.05 0024  0.004  0005 0 01 <  0006 0 01  0005 0 01 <  Ca  281.9  0012 283  0021 343 8  0 015 349  Cr  0 005 <  0005  0005  0005 <  Ba Be <  B Cd  0 01 < • DID  <  0030  003 0 006  0033 0 004  001 0 014  0 01 < 0O27  347 0005  0048 0007 0 01  0 007 001 <  0 010 001 <  0011  0010  3503  367.2  375  0 013 315  0.016 <  0005  0005  0021  Co  <  0 005 <  0005  <  0.005  0 005 <  0005 <  0.005 <  0005  0.005 <  0 003  Cu Fe Pb  <  0005  <  0.005 0 031  0005 0.054 0 03 < 59.4  0005  0.005 0 117  0.008 < 0304  005 528  0.005 < 0.091 005 < 80 5  0011 < 0.067  Mg  0 005 < 0.016 0.05 < 444  Mn  0832  0 755  0.178  0132  <  <  Mo Ni  <  P K Se  0 01 <  002  002  01 < 0.9 0.05 <  <  428 0 01 < 1.8 0524 261.5  S < <  Sn Ti V  <  001 <  <  Si Ag Na Sr  0062 005 478  005  <  0.002 001 <  »-  0.1  <  1.1  0 01 < 0.03 0.1  016  001 < 004 01 <  1.0  1.1 0001 <  0.03 < 458  0.03 5 19  0 01 < 1.9  0 01 < 22  320 0 01 < 2.2 0684  0.1 < 1.2 0.001 < 5.17 001 < 22 0.678  0559 277  0629  005 < 0002 < 001 <  005 0 002 0.01 <  0002 001 <  9 78  14 6  13 6  10 8 005  053 DOB  363  3502  0 01 < 004  347  005 <  005 * 0004 0.01 * 1310  005 < 586 02  0419 005 587  005 < 564  03  0279  0 01 <  001  0 01  0 05 < 01  0.02  002  01  01 *  1,3 0.001 <  08  07  005 < 528 0.298 002 < 004  0 001 < 34  2.1 0678  001 26 0702  002 < 2.7  390  391.3  540 001 <  005 < 0 013 < OOI 131  0695 0 05 < 0.002 002 < 11.10  11.80  0008  0 006  0 01 < O011  0.01 0.011  348  348  0012 < 0 013 <  0005 <  0.005  0 005 <  0.005  0005 < 0 067 005 <  0 005 < 0 081 005 < 563  0.005 0.081  0 415  0 415  584 0.574 0 01 < 0 04 <  0.01 < 002 < 0.1  1.1 005 <  1.1 0.05 <  0.8 005  482 0 01  533 0.03  499 0 01 <  22 06O3  3 0 688  293  369  005 0.002 002  003 < 0016 0.01 839  0.05 005 0049  <  0.1 <  0001 556  *  0.05  003 * 0 049  0.1  *  0.01 0.02  <  0.1  <  0.05 499  0.8  2.9 0 651  337 005  005 563  0.01 29 0 651  331 8 <  005  <  0006 < 0 04 < 915  0002 0.01 829  < <  331 a 005 0002 001 829  ICP, Total Al Sb  <  As  <  0 05  <  108 006 <  006  0.08 <  0.71  160  360  006  008 <  006 006  0.06 <  0 06 <  269 008 > 0.08 <  6 28  673  433  008 <  0.08 <  006  <  009  <  006 <  0.09 <  453 006 0.06  Ba  0 219  0034  0047  0043  0062  0.106  0 066  0 176  0 198  0138  0.138  Be  0 004  0.005  0005  0005  0 013  0005  0.005  0006  0006  0.008  0.006  0 03 <  B  0 028  Cd Ce Cr <  Co Fe  <  Pb  <  Mo Ni P  <  Se SI  <  Ag Na  <  Sn Ti  002  003  002  002  0.021 332  0.016 355  0020 3448  O020  339  0007  0007  0 013  O013  0006 < 0008 <  0006  0007  0 006  001  «  0 006 <  0008  0008  0 008  0013 < 0007 <  0006 0 006  •  0008 <  0006  0.016  0025 40  0062 100  0058  1.2  0 030 5.9  0.05  *  0714 0.06  008 <  0.06 <  2,3 006  553  57.5  545  0191 0 01  0.165  0197  0 01 006  <  05  <  0.1  005 <  006  21.2  562  0.01  0 05  1.74  001 < 0.04 < 01  004  12  1.2  <  0608 278  S  003 0016  3166  0007  30  Sr  002 0015  0.006  2.8  K  0 01 003 337.6  0 006 <  <  1,10  Mn  001 < 0.012 326  0 010 <  51.9  Mg  0.01 < 0017 340.0  0 005 0058 13.2  Cu  0.01 0 021 3263  295  <  0393  0 001 < 7.04  002 0.1 <  006 <  0.09 <  006  57,8  545  581  570  606  606  0.3  0.502  0350  0569  001 < 0.04  01  01 1.3 0.001  1 0.001 <  13  02 < 1.4  006  0001 <  6.2  7.45 0 01  1015 001 <  003 0.4  005 0.4  000 02  0.08 02  1.8  006 <  0.06  13 6  14 8  001 <  001  21  24  24  26  25  29  0674  0 633  0653  O.701  341 2  331  315  318  0635 310 9  323  3252  328  006 0014  006 < 0030  006 < 0.013  008 <  0.01 < 14 30  0.06 <  IB <  *  0 01 <  006  0 01 2.7  27 0 703 350 8  0703 <  3508 006  006 < 0176  006 0188  0.01  0.03  002  003  0 01  0 01  13 1  002 11.19  001  134  10 7  103  101  9215  9.215  mmmm  14.7  165  185  18 5  34  2.5  1.7  17  0239  0 182  0.182  11.0  98  11 6  16.4  4  41  30  2  2.2  2.3  0 265  0002  <  0.08 11.71  O07B  13  <  008 11.71  0112  13.1  0 599  1.8 <  0051  12.1  00 -  001  0.653  0 03 <  P04  0 61  0 01  2.1  006  60.6  061  001  001  Zn  TOC  0.01 <  006  0.83  1.7 <  8.47  7.17 <  OOI <  0 682  V  TIC  001 < 003  001  <  001  13  008 <  0 01 004  0.037  0037 7.17  0 06 <  2.2 0 646  001  <  0 01 <  344B  0148  0.14B  Field parameters: Water temp. (°C) pH Spec. cond. (uS/cm) Cond. (uS/cm) ORP (mV) Eh (mV) (calc'd)  2.0 6 67  12 7.3  18  28  73  6 78  2.0 7.41  631  1333  1636  7.20 1680  6.77  1493  1721  782  750  900  940  990  1731 980  1707 960  1718 960  004  2.6  25  235 434  21 82  22  2.2  7.45  7.74  1014  1635  2.0  1573  1080 104  920 116  690 932  7.74 1573 890  303  315  2942  952 2942  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Appendix C.2  a  IDI Site ]• Old Rd. Seep RHS Limit  May-29  Acidity to pH 4.5 Acidity, total Alkalinity, total  4  4  31.3  351  ClF S04  05 003 522.0  Br Nitrate Nitrite P  0 05 < oooa 0005 < 0 05 <  0 05 0.013 0 005 •OS  7.51 910 5 « 1070  7.41 1210  < <  pH FR NFR Spec. Cond.  <  Jun-13  JurvOS  5 1370  < < < <  t  JuH»  Jul-22  ,  <  4 29  20  02 < 0.02 <  Jun-78  Jun-20  1 < 4  2 < 0.01 < 648 4  2 0 01 B484  • OS 0.002 0.005 005  « < < <  005 0 002 0005 005  737 1310 5 < 1434  737 1310 5 1434  4 31,2 t  <  6 < 0.01 < 850 005 0.002 0.005 005  < < < <  Auo-04  Aug. 12 <  4 48.7  3 49 6  1 5 53.7  5 < 0.5 <  5 0.5 601  5 0.5 647  < <  26 0.1 0.26 26  3 0.1 0.3 3  <  jm-29  ,  ,  4 43 9  t  5 < 0.5 < 850.4  712  2.6 0.1 0.255 2.6  30 0.1 0.3 30  < * < <  t  < < < <  7.37 1270 5 < 1430  7.44 1230 5 < 1390  im 5 < 1135  7.54  7,52 970 5 ' 1135  858 861.4  765 768 3  738 741  . 663 668  0.05 < 0.05 <  0.05 0.05  0.17 0.09 0.05 0.023 0.011 0.01 0.005 210 0.005 0005  AUD-30  Aue-21  < <  743 1280 5 1440  1 6 508  <  , 7 543 04 001 920  20 001 1033  005'  005 < 0.25 0.005 < 0 05 <  013 0.005 005  7 45 1540 918 < 1630  7.7 1300 5 1480  liiiiSSISilili GFAA (dissolved):  <  Se GFAA (total):  • 001  < <  Se Hardness, Ca+Mg Hardness, total ICP, Al Sb As Ba Be B Cd Ca  0001  <  0.001  <  0 001  <  0001  <  0 001  <  0.001  904 3 907 3  9043 907.3  1,1100 1,110.0  837 840  1017 1023  926 030  dissolved < < *  <  < < <  < < < <  Se si Ag Na Sr S Sn Ti V Zn  < < <  0 05 < 0 05 < DOS < 0 022 0003 001 < 0 005 < ISO 7 oooa 0005 0005 0042 005 326 0 001 0 01 0.02 0.1 OB 005 364 0 01 1.3 0353 lao.s 005 0.002 0 01 0272  ICP, Total Al Sb As  < < < <  < * < * «  < < <  005 005 005 0O2S 0004 0 01 0005 246 0 009 0005 • 005 0005 0 05 435 0001 0 01 0.02 0.1 00 005 4 2B 0.01 17 0463 244 005 0002 001 0364  005 005 005  < < *  < < < < < <  < < <  Ca Cr Co Cu Fe Pb  0005 0 005 0 005 0055 •OS  Mg Mn Mo Ni P K Se Si Ag Na Sr S Sn Ti V  TIC TOC _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  < < <  005 005 005 0029 0 005 001 ooos 286 1 0.005  < < <  0005 « 0005 < 0016 •05 * 46 1 • 004 < « <  '  D06 0 07  <  <  0 06  <  < <  < < <  < < < <  < <  < * <  0028 0 004 001 < 0006 < 267,1 0.006 < 0.006 0.006 0 012 008  < <  008 0 07 0 08  07 0 001 4.98 0 01  0.07 < O.OS < 0.05 < 0.022 0.005 0.01 < 0.005 < 269.1 0.005 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.006 0.05 452 0 001 0.01 0.02 0.1 0.4 0 001 4.29 001  21 0.645 308 005 0.002 001 1.9  23 0494 268 0,05 0.002 0.01 1.711  0.06 < 0.06 < •OB <  0.028 0004 001 < 0 006 < 267,1  0.310 0005 001 < 0 01 < 3090 0008 «  oooa ooos oooe 0 012 0 08  0 01 002 01 09 005 4.22 0.01 1.7  0 01 002 0.1 OB  0 01 002 01 08 0 06  1.40  0.05 0 05 < 0.05 < 0034 0 005 001 < 0.005 < 3350 0005 < 0.005 < 0 005 < 0024 005 66 4 0.0 001 002 Ol  < < <  462 0 001  001 0 372  <  001 19 0.537 2676 < 003 0 002 001 < 1.59  46.2 0.001  008 465 001 IB 0530 279 8 •06 • 002 0 01  < < <  < ooos < 0 005 < 0 016 OOS < 46.1 0004 • 01 0.02 01 < 07 005 < 507  432 0003  0460 238 005 0003 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  0.05 005 0.05 0029 DOOS 001 0005 2861 0.005  0 01 0.02 0.1 0.7 0.05 507 0 01 1.9 0 537 267 6 005 0002 0 01 1.59  0028 0004 0 01 < OOOS < 240  Ba Be B Cd  PQ4  <  0.001 794 795  586.3 587.3  Cr Co Cu Fe Pb Mg Mn Mo Ni P K  Zn  0001  463 001 18 0330 279.8 008 0.002 0 01  < < < <  < < < < <  < < <  mmmm  67 12.9 0005  82 65 0002  5.7 0 010  66 37 0010  316 6 97 1054 614  20 658 1404 790  5.1 7.2 1434 880  51 7.2 1434 880  0006 0006 < 0 023 0.06 < 534 01 0.01 < 002 < 0.1 < O.S 0 001 ( 500 0.01 < 19 0613 335 008 < 0 002 < 0.01 < 182  0.06 < 0.06 < 0,08 <  0.05 < 0.019 0.005 0.01 * 0.005 < 2384  2 0438 242 O.OS < 0.002 < 0,01 < 1.466  0.05 < 0.019 0.004 0.01 < 0.005 < 229 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.012 0.05 < 401 0 01 0.01 < 0.02 < 0.1 < 0.5 0.001 < 4.23 0.01 19 0.437 243 0.05 < 0.002 < 0.01 1 48  0.06 < 0.06 < 0.06 <  0,06 < 0,06 < 0.06 <  0.005 < 0.005 < 0,005 * 0.0005 0.05 < 413 0 001 0.01 < 0.02 * 0.1 < 0.4 0 001 < 3.92 0.01 <  < <  0.05 0.05  <  0.05 0.024 0.001 0.01 0,005 258 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.O5 472 0006 0.01 0.02 0.1 0.6 0.05 4.48 0.01 09 0500 244 0.05 0.002 0.01 1.68  < < <  < -= 0.005 < 0.011 < 0.05 < 38.7 0004 0.01 < 0.02 < 0.1 < 0.5 0.05 < 4.29 0.01 < 19 0 415 199 0.05 < 0.002 < 0.03 < 1.37  0,06 <  0.06 0.06  <  < <  <  < < < <  000 0.05 0.05 0 087 0006 0.01 0,005 316 0 005 0.011 0.005 1.510 0.05 551 0 218 001 002 01 09 005 443 001 27 0.577 290 0.05 0.002 0 01 0 921  1441  <  <  005 0.05 005 0 028 OOOS 0.01 0.005 285 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.007 005  < < <  52.2 0032 0.01 0.02 0.1  <  < < < < <  < <  09 0.05 4,75 0.01 26 0.554 281 0.05 0.002 0.01 2.05  0.08 006 0.06  <  0.06  0.06 < 0026 0.03 0.026 0023 0 021 0004 0004 0003 0 005 OOOS 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0,01 < 0.01 0.006 < 0.006 < 0.006 < 0.008 < 0.006 224 26B 268 246 202 0006 0 009 < 0.006 < 0.006 < 0.006 0 01 < 0 006 < 0.006 < 0.006 < 0.006 0006 < oooe < 0.006 < 0.006 * 0.006 0025 0 043 0.019 0.009 < 0.006 0.06 < 0.06 0.06 < 0.06 < 0.06 « 37.6 47.4 44 4 41 3 492  0,06 0406 0005 0.06 0.036 317.4  0.029 0005 001 0,006  0035 0.027 0063 2S.20B 013 608  0.006 0.006 0.008 0012 0.06 499  0 612 0.01 007 09 28 0.06 22.30  0004 0.01 0.02 0.1  0.01 28 0 643 299 IB 0.06 0446  0.01 22 0 537 264 0.06  0005 0.01 002 0.1 0.6 0 001 493  0002  0.003 <  * < <  0.01 < 0.01 * 002 < 0.02 < 01 < 0.1 < 0.7 06 < 0001 < 0.001 < 427 4.27 0 01 < 0.01 < 001 < 1.8 2.1 1.9 0454 042 0 589 237 228 268 0 06 < 006 < 0.06 « 0 002 < 0002 < 0002 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 001 < 1690 1534 1.440  9 se 0.002 <  12 36 0.002 <  6.3 6 84  55 6 77  1576 1000  1451 900  55 728 1338 830  11,5 64 0.002  0.06 < 0.08 <  0.001 < 0.001 0.01 < 0.01 0.02 < 0.02 0.1 < 0.1 0.8 06 0.06 < 0.06 4.70 436 0.01 < 0.01 1.6 2.1 0 403 0.526 197 262 0 08 < 0.06 0002 < 0.002 001 < 0.01  <  < <  <  26B  1 0.06 445  1.350  1.760  004 1850  0.002 0.01 196  12.7 62 0.014 <  131 46 0.002  13 0 3.0 • 668  15 45 001B  29 7.01 1335 770 227 426  40 7.35 075 580 200 399  06 7.41 1452 790 175.1 374.1  Field parameters: Water temp. CC) H Spec. cond. (uS/cm) Cond. (uS/cm) ORP(mV) Eh (mV) (calc'd) P  47 65 1220 740 267 466  38 7.81 1365  110 303 502  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  /GO  Appendix C.2  Site 2-Old Rd. Seep RHS Limit  Br Nitrate  0.18  Nitrite  0.OO5  31  GFAA (dissolved): Se GFAA (total): Se BOB S OOO 7  Hardness. Ca+Mg Hardness, total ICP,  984 BBS  992 998  691 1029  697  1030  968 670  1030  dissolved  Al  <  005 <  0.05  0.05 <  * <  005 < 0 05 <  0.05 <  005  0.05 < 007  0.05 0.08  007  Sb  0.05 <  0 05 <  005 <  0.05  0.05  005  0.086  0 034  0058 0008  As  003  Ba Be <  B Cd  <  Ca Cr Co Cu Fe Pb  0005 0 01 <  0.072 0.004 0.01 <  0005 < 2B2.4  0.005 < 30S.B  0061 0006 0.01 « 0.005 <  0.005 <  0.005 <  0005 < 0005 <  0.005 < 0.005 «  0.005 « 0.005 <  <  0 01B 005 < 4B4  Mo  <  0.002 001 <  Nl  <  002 <  P  *  01 < 1.1  K Se  007 < 3S7  Si  001 <  0.149 0.01 * 0.02 < 0.1 <  0.993 0.05 < 54.5 0.163 0.01 < 0.02 <  OOOS < OOOS <  0.005 0.005  0.005 0009  0005 < 2.00 0.05 <  0.005  0.005 0016 0.05  0.005 1.25 0.05  527 0 014  58.2 0.158  001  0.01  002 01  0.02  1.2 005  0.8 0.05  486  4.55  1.920 0.05  56.0  49.9  0.216 0.01 <  0.280 0.01 <  0.02 <  0.02  0.1 <  0.1 <  0.1  0.7  0.7  0.7  0 001 <  0W1 < 4.44  0.05 < 4.72  0.05 4.01  0.01 <  0.01 0.005 316 0.005 0.005  0.1  0.01  0 01  1.9  2.2  2.3  2.5  1.7  26  28  Sr  0.497  0.522  0584  0 585  0.500  0.5B0  0592  S  319 0.05 <  383  296  260  277  63  0.05 <  0.05 <  0.05  0.05  0.002 < 0.01 <  0.002 < 0.01  0.002 < 0.02 <  0.002 0.01  0.05 0.002  0.002  0.315  0.497  0.715  0.660  002 2 13  001 1.01  Ag Na  Sn  <  265.5 005 <  Ti V  <  0.002 <  <  001  <  OD4B  Zn  0.01 <  0.01 <  oooe  275  0.2 3.98  005  0.01 0.005 300  317  0011 <  Mg Mn  0012 0 055 0.01 < 0.01 0 005 < 0.005  307  < <  0.87 005 < 51.7  0.089  0.05  0.05  0.01  ICP, Total 1.62  0.06 <  7.33 0.06 <  0.06  <  8 0.06 <  2.24  Sb  0.08  0.08  0.06  AS  <  6 92 0.06 <  0.06 <  0.06 <  0.06  0.06  0.06  0 035 0 006  0.089 0.005  Al  Ba  0.254  0.257  0.240  0.147  Be  0.004  0.005  B Cd Ca  0.03 0.008 <  0.03 0.006 314.0  0.004 0.04  0.005 0.01  0.014 < 312.0  0.008 309  312.9  0.01 0.006  0.01  2832  0.006 309  0.009 0 006  0.013  0.012 <  0.006  0009  0.006  0.009  0.019 <  0.006  0.006  0.006  Cu  0.02  0.02  0.023 <  0.006  0.006  Fe  12.762 0.06  12.900  16.300  5 440  0.006 0034  Cr <  Co  <  Pb  0.08 *  3.65 0.06  0.06 < 57.1  0.06 57.4  0.06 52.2  57. t  0 022  0.188  Mg  56.6  57.9  Mn  D318  0 351  0600  0368  0.01 <  0.01 *  0.01 <  0.01  0 01  0.01  0.02  0.03 < 0.9  0.02  0.02  0.02  0.2  1.7  1.1 0.06  0.1 1.4  0.1 1.1  0.06  0.06  4.87 0.01  6.65  < <  Mo Ni P K Se  «  Si <  Ag Na Sr S Sn  <  002 < 0.3 1.7 0 001 <  0.5 1.7 0 001 <  0.06 <  13 60  1480  14.60  0.01 <  0.01 <  0.01 <  770 0.01  26  25  2.4  21  2.4  0 584  0.600  0 591  291  295  299 0.06 <  310 0.06  0 579 277  0.592 337  0.06 <  0.06 <  0.08  <  0.069 0.01  0.002 0.01  <  mmm  2.106  Ti  0.214  0.253  0.227  V Zn  0.02  0.03  0616  OB25  0.02 1.16  163  132  12 8  37  14 4  13 2  49  36  38  14 5  33  33  TIC TOC  0.01  2.6 0554  0.08 0.061 0.01  M i l 169 29  P04 Field parameters: Water temp. CC) pH Spec. cond. (uS/cm) Cond. (uS/cm) ORP (mV) Eh (mV) (calc'd)  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Appendix C.2  IGI Site 1- 300 drainage at Christal Ck Acidity to pH 4.5 Acidity, total  Jun-13  Jun-20  Jun-28  JuMS  Jul-11  jm-22  ClF S04  < <  pH FR NFR Spec. Cond.  4 383  8 402  04 003 490.3  02 002 867  0.05 < 0.038 0.005 < 0 05 < T.5S 840 1350 sea  5  < <  S 59.2  2 0.01 8983  <  6  0.01 943  <  < < <  005 0059 0005 005  < 005 0.09 f OOOS < 005  005 < 0.002 < 0.005 < 005  7.51 1270 2750 1430  781 1410 95B 1298  7,53 1450 S46 1570  AcifHM  Jut-29  ,  c  ^.I^JJrl^^Ji^Liiiii^i^ijjj.jit  Br Nitrate Nitrite P  Jun48  MSY-29  Aufl-12  Auo-21  AUD-30  ,  t  6 82.5  7 80.6  8 81.1  6 90.6  6 76.1  6 < 0.8 < 981  5 < 0.5 « 880  5 « 0.5 < 793  5 * 0.5 < 955  2.5 0.01 992  0.1 < 0.3 < 30 <  30 « 0.1 < 0.3 < 30 <  2.6 « 0.1 < 0.26 < 26 * •• J" 1  7.72 1480 636 1560  7.77 1390 959 1530  7.68 1280 501 1429  946 951.1  9197 924.6  859 864  , 6 95.2  llilllil 0.6 0.03 950  3 < 005 005 0.1 0.23 0.133 OOOS 0.3 < 0.005 3 < 005 OOS , « « llilll 7.60 7.67 7.96 1460 1440 1470 345 1020 169 1600 1630 1620  GFAA (dissolved}: Se GFAA (total):  <  Se  0 001 <  0001 <  0 001  <  0 001  <  0.001  < 0001  0 001 <  0 001 <  0001  <  0 001  <  0X1  < 0001  B9BS6 ill  Hardness, Ca+Mg Hardness, total  5488 551.8  ICP. dissolved Al Sb As Ba Be B Cd Ca Cr Co Cu Fe Pb Mg Mn Mo Ni P K Se Si Ag Na Sr S Sn Tt V Zn  005 < 005 < 005 < 0 042 0.003 0 01 0005 < 171.7 OOOS 0 006 0 005 0443 005 291 0 233 001 * 002 •1 0.7 0 001 330 0 01 < 1.3 0 317 159 3 003 0OQ2 0 01 < 0903  ICP, Total Al Sb As Ba Be B Cd Ca Cr Co Cu Fe Pb Mg Mn Mo Ni P K Se Si Ag Na Sr S Sn Tl V Z/J  <  <  <  ,  TIC TOC PQ4  857  21.50 008 009 0655 0 0O1 0.09 0 018 2034 0 031 0030 0062 40.6 010 442 1.04 001 0.07 19 42 0001 35 32 0 01 30 0 443 159 4 008 0842 0.08  < < <  < < < < < <  < < * <  < < <  334 oos < 014 1.04 0002 014 0027 330 0048 0 041 0098 638 018 70 4 1.71 0 01 < 011 34  «  ^  005 005 0 05 0120 0 008 0.01 0.005 264 0008 OOOS 0005 1.47 0 05 467 0390 001 002 01 09 0 001 429 001 1.8 0.499 282 005 0008 001 1.4S  974 6 979 9  9932  SB 0001 < 605 0 01 < 38 0687 257 005 < 1 37 012 2.92  O.OS OOS 005 0094 0 005 0 01 0 005 3066 0005 OOOS OOOS 0 788 005 32 2 0349 0.01 002 01 1.0 0001 4.74 001 21 0 579 293 5 0.05 0 002 0 01 2.95  27 09 008 0.13 0 778 0.002 014 0O31 306 0 0046 0029 0092 589 0.13 61.3 1.89 001 011 28 43 0 001 ' 406 0.01 33 0 637 2528  < OOS < 0 03 < 0.05 0094 0005 < 0.01 < ooos 3057 < 0.005 < 0005 < 0003 0 429 < 003 51 3 0 318 001 < 002 < 01 0.9 < 0 001 493 0 01 2.0 0568 254.1 < 005 < 0002 001 208  1371 < 009 < 006 0 391 0003 006 0 015 261.5 0 019 0 016 0034 23.9 007 49.2 0650 < OOI 0.04 1.0 2.7 < 0 001 24 02 < 001 2.7  008 < 0 977 009 4 42  0 528 240 0 06 0 506 004 238  1120 1140  965.2 991.2  9959 10023  < OOS 0.06 0.05 < 005 < 0.05 < 0.05 < 0030 0.106 0.006 0005 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0 015 < 0 005 349 305,5 < 0005 < 0.005 * 0.005 < 0.005 < < OOOS < 0.005 0 001 0.643 < 005 < 0.05 605 54.0 0 132 0.385 < 0 01 « 0.01 < 004 < 0.02 0.1 < 01 < 1.1 0.9 < 0001 < 0001 < S20 4.06 < 0 01 0.01 22 2.3 0684 0.564 300 365 < OOS < O.OS < < 0002 < 0.002 < 001 0.01 13 6 2.12  1 08 006 < 006 0 047 OOOS * 001 0 017 3400 < 0006 < OOOS < 0 006 1.74 < 008 < 57.5 0165 < 001 < 004 < <  <  01 12 < 0 001 7.04 < 001 2.1 0 682 331 < 006 0030 < 001  131 0.06 0.07 0.451 0.005 0.07 0.012 309 0.025 0.018 0.055 28.1 0.06 59.1 0.919 0.01 0.05 0.8 2.9 < 0 001 24.1 < 0.01 3.3 0.697 300 < 0.06 0.458 0.05 304  <  «  < <  <  0.14 < 011 O05 < 0.05 < OOS < 0.05 < 0137 0.07B OOOS 0.005 0.01 < 0.01 < oooe < 0.005 < 3079 292.8 0 013 * 0.005 0 009 < 0.005 < 0 008 < 0.0005 < 0 74 0.434 008 < 0.05 < 551 52.2 0.429 0354 0 01 < 0.01 < 003 < 0.02 < Ol 0.1 « 1.0 0.8 0001 < 0001 « 411 3.68 0.01 < 002 < 23 2.1 OSB2 0.52 283 16 288.96 005 < 0.05 < 0 012 < 0.002 < 003 0.01 < 1 875 1.67  O.OS  1150 1160  1060 1070  0.05 < 0.05 < 0.066 0.005 0.01 < 0.005 < 282 0.007 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.515 0.05 < 52.5 0.416 0.01 0.01 < 0.1 < 0.9 0 001 < 3.69 0.01 < 2.1 0.532 312 0.05 < 0.002 0.01 < 1.65  0 27 < O.OS < 0.05 < 0.060 0.010 0.01 < 0.005 < 267 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.584 0.05 < 46.6 0.330 0.01 < 0.02 < 0.1 < 0.6 0 001 < 3.66 0.01 < 2.3 0.472 259 0.05 < 0.007 < 0.01 < 1.49  0.05 < 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.061 0.006 0.01 < 0.005 < 359 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.510 0.05 < 62.0 0.520 0.01 < 0.02 « 0.1 < 1.2 0X1 < 4.15 0.01 < 2.3 0.627 3030 O.OS < 0.002 < 0.01 < 1.60  8 72 0.06 < 0.06 < 0.271 0 004 0.04 0.008 294 0.008 < 0.006 0.031 16.3 0.09 < 009 651 56.9 0.71 1.219 001 0.01 < 008 0.03 13 0.8 1.8 32 2.1 0.001 < 0 001 < 0001 < 293 15.4 15.4 001 < 0.01 < 0.01 30 2.7 2.5 0 684 0.54 0.539 289.3 267 281 doe < 0.06 < 0.06 0.291 0650 0.274 0 00 003 0.03 234 2.41 3 47  6 75 0.06 < 0.06 < 0.221 0.004 003 0.009 < 279 0.006 < 0.009 < 0.023 13.7 0.06 < 53.6 0.647 0.01 < 0.03 0.6 1.7 0001 < 13.4 0.01 2.3 0.539 263 0.06 0.203 0.02 2.11  453 18 89 182 0.06 < 0.06 0.06 < 0.06 0.08 < 0.06 0.466 0.091 0.156 0.005 0.005 0.006 0.02 O.OS 0.01 0.006 0.014 < 0.006 314 321.8 295 0.006 0.034 0.007 0.006 0.033 < 0.006 0.012 0.068 < 0.006 34.694 3.73 8.52 0.08 0.09 < 0.06 643 56.9 60.6 0.619 1.145 0.488 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.07 < 0.02 0.03 0.3 1.3 0.1 3.2 1.4 1.7 • 001 0 001 < 0 X 1 10.7 25.47 6.47 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 2.5 3 2.3 0.607 0.859 0.579 294.56 291 301 0.06 < 0.06 < 0.06 0.157 0.561 0.063 0.05 < 0.01 0.02 1.87 266 1.55  19 29 0 06 < 008 < 06 0014 008 0022 < 337.1 0029 0 027 * 0 072 37.819  8 31 006 < 0.06 < 0.27 0.004 003 0.008 < 297 0009 0.008 < 0.033 14.507 0 06 < 56 0.7 < 0.01 < 0.03 0.6  0.05 0.05 0.05 0.096 0.008 0.01 0.005 327 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.718 0.05 59.5 0.529 0.01 0.02 0.1 1.2 0X1 4 25 001 2.5 0.614 295 0.05 0.002 0.01 1.47  1020 1020  OX < OX < 005 0.054 OOOS < 0.01 < 0.005 309 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0005 0.437 < OU 59.9 0.439 < 0.01 < 0.02 < 0.1 1.1 < 0.001 4.14 < 0.01 2.4 0.598 59.7 < 0.05 < 0.002 < 0.01 1.45  . •-  89 17.8 052  10 8 65 220  323 7,33 892 521  31 6S2 1327 770  12.2 49 088  162 41 0 7B3  21 9 42 0 430  20 47 072  206 61 0 518  216 38 0 282  21.1 20 0 731  - -| 23 37 014  57 7.38 1394 870  44 704 706 480 98 297 008 7.78  61 7,26 1379 920 104 303 0.091 14.22  2.7 7 26 1534 880 58 255 0065 8 74  39 6.79 1517 900 25.B 224 8 0.075 10 76  1.3 7.26 1323 730 294 22B4 00623 826  Field parameters: Wafer remp. fC) pH Spec. cond. (uS/cm) Cond. (uS/cm) ORP (mV) Eh (mV) (calc'd) Fhw(m*3/s) Flow (Us)  35 6.75 1364 800  48 7.7 1296 790  63 727 1502 1010  67 689 1496 960  35 675 1364 BOO  0062 816  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Appendix D  162  APPENDIX D SOIL METAL CONTENT The following data are the results of ICP analysis of total soil metal content for samples collected from the Galkeno 300 site during summer 2000. Sample location and a brief description of each sample, including a description of the sampling site, sampling depth, and a description of the sample itself are noted for each sample. U T M coordinates provide grid references for sample locations.  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J  H  I  E  1  ^  o  i  |  l  o  § o  -5 ^  3.  s £  S  e ^ e ^ - e ^ -  5  ,  !•  s  1  §  &  S  •§ •§  ; a  fr  6  i 1 € I 1 Ii n l[« j j a I I 11 I l l s 3  *• s § S E S S  fc  •§  • i i  fill  § „ 5 f igfsf? 5 1 j § i&is - 1 s- s 2 1 - i l l is i £ I a1  •§  1  I f r o  „  g^ 45  <  O <~l  + .ss 3  O 1  t .= 3  S 3 + •-  0  <  S 0  e + •=  <  O 00  + .a 3  2g, I  '-5  2 + -  <  o  +  +  ^  M"  ^  r?  oo o\ T o "o Oa C  oo ^ T _a> o 0. C  o o  Q ©  u "o  4) "o  C  S  s  s  <M  » <  « « M <  <M  Appendix E  168  APPENDIX E SELECTIVE EXTRACTION DATA The following data are the results of the selective extraction procedure performed on organic and mineral soil samples collected at the Galkeno 300 study site. Absolute Zn values (mg/kg) for each fraction extracted are provided to categorise the magnitude of metal contained within the respective soil fractions; proportional Zn values (%) are provided to illustrate the relative importance of each fraction with respect to the total soil metal levels.  Table E l . Absolute selective extraction results.  Resid Org Ox C03 (mg/kg) (mg/kg) (mg/kg) (mg/kg) Exch (mg/kg) Site A - org Site A - org Site A - min Site A - min  0 0 179  1510 1007 7  1781 2417 108  Total mass Zn (mg/kg)  0 0  581 604  3872 4028  33  326  177  0  89  0 0  29  286  Site C - org Site C - org  0  1803  20350  1288  2318  25760  0  0  20485  1205  2410  24100  Site C - min  271  558  638  0  128  1594  Site C - min Site E - org  202  775  0  109  1550  0  465 5947  6372  0  1841  14160  Site E - org  0  6595  5115  0  1750  13460  Site E - min  1692  308  2615  0  513  5128  Site E - min  1369  1065  2181  0  456  5072  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  Appendix E  169  Table E2. Proportional selective extraction results.  Resid%  Org%  Ox%  0  39  46  0  15  Site A - org  0  25  60  0  15  Site A - min  55  2  33  0  10  Site A - min  62  0  31  0  10  Site C - org  0  7  79  5  9  Site C - org  0  0  85  5  10  Site C - min  17  35  40  0  8  Site C - min  13  30  50  0  7  Site E - org  0  42  45  0  13  Site E - org  0  49  38  0  13  Site E - min  33  6  51  0  10  Site E - min  27  21  43  0  9  Site A - org  C03 %  Exch %  Natural Attenuation of Aqueous Zinc in Soils Over Permafrost Downslope of Galkeno 300 Mine, Central Yukon  

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