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Environmental risk modeling of infrasttructure projects Wang, Yugui 2005

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ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MODELING OF INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS by YUGUI WANG B.Sc, The Tongji University, 1996  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (CIVIL ENGINEERING)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 2005  © Yugui Wang, 2005  Abstract  Risk management is an important function for all civil engineering projects, especially for P3 (Public Private Partnerships) projects, which are being widely considered as a procurement method for major civil engineering infrastructure projects. One or more attributes o f the natural and man-made environmental components o f a project i n concert with the attributes o f a physical component and/or those o f an activity or a group o f activities can act as risk drivers for a risk event. The likelihood o f the event's occurrence and its quantum o f consequences G a n be dependent  on whether or not the risk drivers share the same site location, participant  responsibility, and time interval. A s modeling o f a project's environment and related risks is very important for project risk management, knowledge-based constructs for representing a project's environmental and risk views  are  needed.  These  constructs  should have  capabilities to  integrate  a  project's  environmental view with its physical, process and organizational/contractual views to ensure thorough risk identification. This thesis work explores the robustness o f constructs being developed as part o f an extended research program on risk management to represent the environmental and risk views o f a project. A comprehensive environmental component library that is applicable to c i v i l infrastructure projects is compiled by applying these constructs based on an extensive literature review and study o f actual project documents. Mitigation measures for environmental impact and risks are identified. Strategies for visualizing environmental features and associated risks are discussed and illustrated. These strategies help project participants to gain insights on the  ii  confluence of environmental properties and associated risks in time, space and by project participants. Two case studies are conducted to explore the relationship between components of the environmental breakdown structure and risk issues/events, including relevant risk event mitigation measures.  iii  Table of Contents  Abstract  .  Table of Contents  ii iv  List of Tables  vii  List of Figures  vii  Acknowledgement Co-Authorship Statement Chapter 1 Introduction  x xi 1  1.1 Research Motivation  1  1.2 Objectives  6  1.3 Methodology  7  1.4 Overview of Thesis  8  1.5 Bibliography Chapter 2 Environment and Relevant Issues - State-of-the-Art  10 13  2.1 Project Environment and Environmental View  13  2.2 Representation of a Project's Environment - Classification Schema  16  2.2.1 Industry Classification Schema  16  2.2.2 Academic Classification Schema  20  2.2.3 Observations on Current Classification Schema  23  2.3 Environmental Risks  24  2.4 Environmental Impact  26  iv  2.5 Role of IT in Environmental Issues and Visualization 2.6 Bibliography Chapter 3 Use of IT in Managing Environmental Risks in Construction Projects  30 34 42  3.1 Introduction  42  3.2 Overview of case study projects  45  3.3 Modeling the Environment  46  3.4 Knowledge Management  53  3.5 Integration with Risk Information  54  3.6 Conclusions  60  3.7 Acknowledgments  60  3.8 Bibliography  61  Chapter 4 Visualization of Construction Data  64  4.1 Introduction  64  4.2 Significance of Application of Visualization to Construction Environment  66  4.3 Visualization Technologies ..."  67  4.4 Applications of Visualization in Construction  70  4.5 Using Images to Model Environmental Risk Drivers  71  4.6 Applying Visualization Techniques for Change Order Management  76  4.7 Discussion and Conclusions  81  4.8 Acknowledgement  83  4.9 Bibliography  83  Chapter 5 Environment Modeling for Risk Management in Construction Projects 5.1 Introduction  86 86  5.2 Current Approaches for Representation of a Project's Environment  89  5.3 System Architecture for Modeling Project Environment  96  5.4 A Model of the Project Environment  99  5.5 Case Studies 5.6 Visualization of Environmental Components and Risks  105 112  5.7 Conclusions  117  5.8 Acknowledgements  118  5.9 Bibliography  118  Chapter 6 Conclusion  121  6.1 Summary  121  6.2 Contributions  124  6.3 Recommendations for Future Work  125  Appendices I  Components of Standard Environmental Breakdown Structure  II Attribute Definition of Standard EBS Entity Level Components III Mitigation Measures for Environmental Impact and Risks  127 127 132 154  vi  List of Tables  2.1 Environment Modeling in EIA Reports for Three Projects  19  2.2 Current Academic Approaches of Environment Classification  22  2.3 Works Contributive to Environmental Risk Identification  25  2.4 Works Investigating Specific Environmental Risks  27  2.5 Comparative Analysis of Visualization Techniques for Hierarchically Structured Data  33  4.1 Visualization Techniques, Working Principles and Sample Software Applications  69  4.2 Selected Properties of a Change Order  78  5.1 Environment Modeling in EIA Reports for Three Projects  91  5.2 Approaches to Environment Modeling from the Academic Literature  .....93  5.3 Attribute Definition of Environmental Components  105  5.4 Extract from Floating Bridge Project Risk Register  109  Appendix I Components of Standard Environmental Breakdown Structure  127  AII.l Attribute Definition of Physical Components at the Entity Level of Standard EBS  132  AII.2 Attribute Definition of Social Components at the Entity Level of Standard EBS  146  All.3 Attribute Definition of Economic/Financial Components at the Entity Level of Standard EBS AII.4 Attribute Definition of Political Components at the Entity Level of Standard EBS  149 152  AII.5 Attribute Definition of Regulartoty Components at the Entity Level of Standard EBS.... 153 Appendix III Mitigation Measures for Environmental Impact and Risks  154  List of Figures  3.1 Risk Drivers of Different Project Views  44  3.2(a) Environmental Breakdown Structure for Okanagan Lake Bridge Project  50  3.2(b) Attributes of "Archeological Site" Component  50  3.2(c) Specification of Attribute Values at Different Locations  50  3.3 Definition of Locations for Okanagan Lake Bridge Project  52  3.4(a) Project Risk Register for the Okanagan Lake Bridge Project..  57  3.4(b) Selection of Appropriate Mitigation Measure from Master List of Mitigation Measures.. 57 3.5 Use of Standard Templates in Defining Environmental Breakdown Structure for the Sea to Sky Highway Improvement Project  59  4.1 Risk Drivers and Events  72  4.2(a) Environmental Breakdown Structure (EBS)  73  4.2(b) Environmental Component Attribute Definitions  73  4.2(c) Attribute Value  73  4.3 Distribution in Time and Space and by Responsibility of Environmental Risk Drivers  74  4.4(a) Hemispherical Hierarchy  76  4.4(b) Focused Hemispherical Hierarchy  76  4.5 CO History in Terms of CO ID, Timing and Value of the Work  79  4.6 History of COs by Location, Time, Responsibility and Number  81  5.1 Risk Drivers and Events  88  viii  5.2 Schematic o f Partial System Architecture Linking Environmental and Risk V i e w s o f a Project with Supporting Knowledge Managament Features  97  5.3 Standard E B S - Class and Sub-class Level  101  5.4 Standard E B S - Entity Level Components o f Physical Environment  102  5.5 Attributes for Habitat and Terrestrial Habitat Component  104  5.6 Floating Bridge Project E B S - Entity Level Components  107  5.7 Drivers for Archeology Risk Issue at Floating Bridge Project  110  5.8(a) Physical Location Definition  110  5.8(b) Attributes for Archeology Site Component  110  5.8(c) Assignment o f Attribute Value for Acheology Site Component  110  5.9 Sea to Sky Highway (STS) Project E B S  113  5.10 Distribution in Time and Space and by Responsibility o f Environmental Risk Drivers  115  5.11(a) 3-D Graph Viewer  116  5.11(b) Lateral V i e w o f Distribution Graph after Rotation  116  5.12(a) Hemispherical Hierarchy  117  5.12(b) Focused Hemispherical Hierarchy  117  Acknowledgement I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. Alan D. Russell, my supervisor, for his invaluable guidance, advice and support throughout my master's program. Most of the ideas presented in this thesis were developed through numerous discussions with Dr. Russell. This thesis would not exist without his patient efforts and intelligent comments. My special thanks to Dr. Sheryl Staub-French for the stimulating discussions and her efforts in reviewing this thesis. I am sincerely grateful to Sanjaya De Zoysa for his constructive criticism and feedback on the thesis work. The time I have spent with him working on the relevant topics has been very enjoyable. To Ming'en Li, Kehui Zhang, Zonghai Han, Tanaya Korde, Paul Tawiah, fellow colleagues and friends, many thanks for your encouragement, inspiration and moral support. My experience of the master's program at UBC has been more wonderful because of you. Finally, acknowledgement is gratefully extended to my parents, brothers and sister for their everlasting support.  Chapter 1  Introduction  1.1 Research Motivation Awareness of the importance of the environment and attention to the human-induced changes to the environment has increased in recent years. The products and processes of the construction industry are considered to be significant contributors to changes in the environment. Many countries have established government authorities, and promulgated laws and regulations to oversee and assess respectively the environmental impact of construction projects. For example in Canada, the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency (Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency 2003) provides leadership in environmental matters, serves as a center of expertise for federal environmental assessment, and is responsible for the overall administration of the federal environmental assessment process. The Canadian Environmental Assessment Act is the legal basis for the federal environmental assessment process. It sets out the responsibilities and procedures for carrying out the environmental assessments of projects which involve one or more federal authorities as project participants or jurisdictions. While a construction project can have an adverse impact on the environment, the environment can also have a significant adverse impact on a construction project. One reason for this is that project participants have to comply with government regulations and mitigate all adverse environmental impacts. This can adversely affect project performance metrics such as  1  safety, cost, time, revenue, scope and quality. For example, a passing-climbing lane system, a highway twinning strategy and other mitigation measures such as wildlife underpass and overpass structures have been applied to highways and roads within Canadian Rocky Mountain National Parks (McGuire and Morrall 2000). Such measures increase project cost and construction duration. In some instances, a project can be terminated in the feasibility study phase because of the detrimental impact it is likely to have on the environment. As an example of the impact of the natural environment on a project, a second reason performance metrics are affected, consider the transportation links in southwestern British Columbia. They cross rugged, mountainous terrain and are exposed to a large number of landslide hazards, particularly rock falls and rock slides. Rock falls can cause delays, damage, injury, and death to users of these routes. For example in 1982, a rock fell on a vehicle killing a woman and disabling her father while they were delayed in traffic on British Columbia (B.C.) Highway 99. The father successfully sued the provincial Ministry of Transportation and Highways for damages after pursuing his claim to the Supreme Court of Canada for the reason that the province owes a duty of care, which ordinarily extends to their reasonable maintenance, to those using its highways (Bunce et al. 1997). The expenditures on rock slope maintenance to reduce the risks to the traveling public and minimize costs and traffic disruptions by several agencies in British Columbia amount to approximately Canadian $10 million per year (Hungr et al. 1999). A third reason for impacts on project performance revolves around the significant uncertainty that exists in the project environment throughout the project life cycle. For example, the discovery of unforeseeable contaminated soil on the jobsite is frequently experienced by project participants during site work excavation. Impacts can range from minor to more than doubling the project cost and extending the project months past its original schedule depending on size of the project  2  and ability of the project team to properly respond (Tilford et al. 2000). As a special case, environmental uncertainty existing in environmental restoration projects is extremely significant during the construction phase. This is partially due to the facts that such projects are relatively new as compared with other types of construction project and technologies used in this type of project are often innovative. The impact of uncertainty on an environmental restoration project was addressed in a study by Independent Project Analysis, Inc. where they noted that the average cost overrun is about 25% for private sector environmental restoration projects while it is nearly 50% for similar projects conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (IPA 1993). Project environmental uncertainties lead to risks. It is noticeable that the literature uses the terms risk, uncertainty and hazard interchangeably (Boodman 1977; Faber 1979; CERL 1978; Lifson and Shaifer 1982; Hertz and Thomas 1983). Al-Bahar and Crandall (1990) used "uncertainty" to represent the probability that an event occurs while they defined risk as: "The exposure to the chance of occurrences of events adversely or favorably affecting project objectives as a consequence of uncertainty". To clarify the terms related to the topic of risk, the definitions of De Zoysa and Russell (2003a) are adopted in this thesis as follows: 1.  The term risk issue is used to represent topics or keywords (e.g. short term inflation rate) of direct relevance to a project, around which uncertainty or a lack of predictability may exist, and which may result in risk events for one or more of the product, process, organizational, cost or quality views of a project and consequent uncertainty in one or more project performance measures;  2.  The relevance of a risk issue for a project at a given point in time may be assessed, in some cases, through one or more risk issue drivers;  3  3.  The term risk event corresponds to the potential variability in a project parameter (e.g. the average inflation rate during the construction phase), or one or more scenarios in which the possible states of nature that can be realized can be identified but which one will occur is not know with certainty (e.g. a slope failure occurs or not, and if it occurs, how extensive would it be);  4.  The basic project performance measures which risk issues can impact include time, cost, revenue, quality, scope and safety;  5.  Risk mitigation deals with how best to manage a risk using strategies such as redesign, alternative processes (procurement, construction, etc.), insurance, contingency allowances, contractual language, and so forth.  In this thesis, our focus is on the negative or adverse consequences of a risk event. This corresponds to the focus in industry on the downside of a risk event. In addition to risks generated separately by a project's environment, one or more attributes of an environmental component (environmental view of a project) in concert with the attributes of a physical component (physical view of a project) and/or those of an activity or a group of activities (process view of a project) can act as risk drivers for a risk event, and the likelihood of the event's occurrence and its quantum of consequences can be dependent on whether or not they share the same site location and/or participant responsibility and at the same time. The benefits associated with integrating multiple views of a project to assist with the identification and treatment of risks that are project-specific are significant and have been addressed by several authors. Russell and Udaipurwala (2004) represented a project using nine views (physical, process, organizational /contractual, cost, quality, as-built, change management, environmental, and risk) integrated within a single system. Earlier findings on this subject can be traced back to  4  a 4-view representation by Russell and Froese (1997) and a 3-view representation by Fischer and Aalami (1996). A project's environment addressed here by way of an environmental view of a project consists of not only the natural environment but also the man-made environment. Both aspects of the environment could result in project risk events separately or in concert with other project views. However, emphasis will be put on the natural environment in this thesis. Knowledge management is a flourishing area that should be integrated with risk management. Both the public and private sectors of the construction industry face the scenario that experience gained by undertaking projects can easily be lost through downsizing, resignations and retirements because knowledge within organizations that resides primarily in the minds of experienced personnel is seldom documented in a consistent and accessible way. It is also difficult even for an experienced project team, especially for an infrastructure project with significant scale and complexity, to undertake risk management without reference to useful historical data from past similar projects. Historical project data needs to be collected, structured and reused on new projects so that the cost and time of starting up new projects could be significantly reduced. Knowledge management helps to solve the foregoing problems by storing valuable experience using information technology and making it available in easily accessible form to new projects. Work in this field has been done by Leung, Chuah, and Tummala (1998); Cox (1999); and De Zoysa and Russell (2003b). As of 2005, P3 (Public Private Partnerships) are more and more being widely considered as a procurement method for infrastructure and other public service projects in Canada and elsewhere. The private sector has the capability to finance, design, construct, and maintain projects with or without their transfer to government at the end of the concession period. A key issue in this kind of procurement is the allocation of risk among different participants.  5  Environrnental risks play important role in the selection of a concessionaire under this type of procurement arrangement.  1.2 Objectives The specific research objectives for this thesis are as follows: (a) To explore the robustness of constructs being developed to represent the environmental and risk views of a project, and participate in their refinement. As modeling of a project's environment and related risks is very important for project risk management (identification, quantification, mitigation, assignment, monitoring, and capturing lessons learned), De Zoysa and Russell (2004) developed constructs to represent a project's environmental and risk views. These constructs have been developed in concert with this thesis, thus allowing for timely feedback and refinement; (b) To use the constructs developed in order to compile a comprehensive environmental component library that is applicable to civil infrastructure projects, and to identify relevant mitigation measures. This work addresses the knowledge management aspect of modeling a project's environment and identifying associated risks; (c) To conduct two case studies using current transportation projects in British Columbia, and explore the relationship between components of the environmental breakdown structure and risk issues/events, including relevant risk event mitigation measures. The advantages offered by applying knowledge management should also be tested as part of these two case studies; and, (d) To develop strategies for visualizing environmental features and associated risks and apply these strategies to assist project participants to capture environmental risk information from existing construction projects.  6  Fulfillment of these objectives will help provide robust constructs for representing a project's environmental features and for environmental risk analysis of construction projects. Pursuit of these objectives will also assist practitioners to conduct environmental risk analysis and capture the relationship between the project environment and project risks in an efficient and effective way.  1.3 Methodology To achieve the objectives set for this thesis, the following methodologies were applied: (a) An extensive literature review related to project environment, risk, knowledge management, and visualization topics was conducted. Based on this review, the benefits and disadvantages of state-of -art techniques related to these topics were analyzed and a point of departure was determined for the research work. (b) A review of environment documents for actual projects was conducted in order to ensure that the work was responsive to the realities of actual projects. As a formal procedure, the Environmental Impact Assessment requirements for a project are the expression of opinions all project participants towards a construction project. (c) Interaction with industry participants and those focusing on related topics in the academic field was carried out. The interaction approach consisted of unstructured discussion, emails, and telephone calls. Through these interactions, direct and fresh ideas were obtained. (d) Case studies on two high profile transportation projects were developed. To explore the robustness of constructs and the fresh ideas developed by the author, two rather distinct case studies were performed: Okanagan Lake floating bridge construction project and Sea to Sky highway improvement project. The environment of the floating bridge project is tightly bounded  7  whereas the highway project traverses through several jurisdictions and through urban, coastal, and mountainous regions. Use of these two case studies allows us to assess the ability of the modeling methodology in representing a finite set of components, as well as a much larger number of components that are widely dispersed across several locations.  1.4 Overview of Thesis This thesis consists of an introduction chapter and a conclusion chapter to overview the research conducted and research contributions, and four chapters in the middle (Chapter 2, 3, 4 and 5) that focus on the specific contributions made. Three appendices are attached at the end. The description of each chapter and appendix are as follows: Chapter 2 provides an extensive literature review related to topics of representation of a project's environment, environmental risks, environmental impact and role of IT in environmental issues and visualization. Chapter 3 presents the constructs for modeling environmental risks on construction projects. A brief description of the components that make up the environmental breakdown structure is presented. Two case studies provide useful examples to show how these conducts are applied in practice to model project environmental risks. A version of this chapter has been published in the Proceedings of the Construction Research Congress 2005, American Society of Civil Engineering, April 5-7, 2005. San Diego, CA. The authorship for this chapter is Sanjaya De Zoysa, Yugui Wang, and Alan D. Russell. Chapter 4 presents an innovative data visualization strategy to help users gain insights about the environmental risk issues identified in the project risk analysis process. A brief overview of existing visualization technologies is also provided in this chapter. A version of this chapter will  8  be published in the Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineering, June 2-4, 2005, Toronto, ON. The authorship for this chapter is Tanaya Korde, Yugui Wang, and Alan D. Russell. Chapter 5 focuses extensively on environment modeling and the association of environmental components with project risks. A master library of environmental components is provided in this chapter with all attributes defined. Two case studies are used to explore the richness of developed constructs. This chapter is a draft manuscript written for a journal paper. The authorship for this chapter is Yugui Wang and Alan D. Russell. Chapter 6 is a conclusion chapter which summarizes the research conducted and the contributions made. Appendix I contains all the components of a master Standard Environmental Breakdown Structure derived from literature review, study of various handbooks, and examination of documents describing the environmental characteristics of actual projects. The Standard Environmental Breakdown Structure is a hierarchical structure applied in this thesis to model a project's environment. It consists of five layers: environment, class, sub-class, entity, and subentity. Components at each level of this hierarchical structure are listed in this appendix. Appendix II contains the attribute definition of the components at the entity level in the Standard Environmental Breakdown Structure. Attributes are defined to describe the characteristics of each component. Appendix III contains a partial set of mitigation measures for environmental impact and risks. Mitigation measures for environmental issues with both certainty and uncertainty are included. '  1.5 Bibliography Al-Bahar, J. and Crandall, K. (1990). "Systematic risk management approach for construction projects." Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 116(3), 533-546. Boodman, D. (1977). "Risk management and risk management science: An overview." Paper presented at the Session of Risk Management, TIMS 23 . Annual Meeting of Institute of rd  Management Sciences, Athens, Greece, July. Bunce, C , Cruden, D., and Morgenstern, N. (1997). "Assessment of the hazard from rock fall on a highway." Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 34, 344-356. Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency (2003). "Basics of environmental assessment." http://www.ceaa.gc.ca/010/basics_e.htm (last accessed on 15 Jan.'05). CERL (1978). "Preliminary investigations of risk sharing in construction contracts." Interim Report No.88, Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, CERL, Apr. Cox, E. (1999). "Coping with the uncertainty principle: predictive project risk assessment and risk classification using a fuzzy case-based reasoning system." PC Al, 13, 37-40. De Zoysa, S. and Russell, A. (2003a). "Structuring of risk information to assist in knowledgebased identification of the life cycle risks of civil engineering projects." Proceedings of 5  th  Construction Specialty Conference of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering. Moncton, Nouveau-Brunswick, Canada. De Zoysa, S. and Russell, A. (2003b). "Knowledge-based risk identification in infrastructure projects." Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 30, 511-522. De Zoysa, S. and Russell, A. (2004). "Reuse of knowledge in risk management - gaining a competitive advantages." Proceedings of World of Construction Project Management 2004, 1 International Conference. Toronto, Canada. May 27, 2004 - May 28, 2004. st  10  Faber, W. (1979). "Protecting giant projects: a study of problems and solutions in the area of risk and insurance." Willis Faber, London, England. Fischer, M. and Aalami, F. (1996). "Scheduling with computer-interpretable construction method models." Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE, 22(4), 337-347. Hertz, D., and Thomas, H. (1983). "Risk analysis and its applications." John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y. Hungr, O., Evans, S., and Hazzard J. (1999). "Magnitude and frequency of rock falls and rock slides along the main transportation corridors of southwestern British Columbia." Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 36, 224-238 Independent Project Analysis, Inc. (IPA). (1993). "The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management project performance study." DOE, Reston, Va. Leung, H., Chuah, K., and Rao Tummala, V. (1998). "A knowledge-based system for identifying potential project risks." International Journal of Management Science, 26(5), 623-638. Lifson, M., and Shaifer, E. (1982). "Decision and risk analysis for construction management." John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y. McGuire, T., and Morrall, J. (2000). "Strategic highway improvements to minimize environmental impacts within the Canadian Rocky Mountain National Parks." Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 27, 523-532. Russell, A. and Froese, T. (1997). "Challenges and a vision for computer-integrated management systems for medium-sized constractors." Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 24, 180190.  ii  Russell, A. and Udaipurwala, A. (2004). "Using multiple views to model construction." CIB World Building Congress 2004, Toronto, Canada. 11 pages. Tilford, K., Jaselskis, E., and Smith, G. (2000). "Impact of environmental contamination on construction project." Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 126(1), 45-51.  12  Chapter 2  Environment and Relevant Issues - State-of-the-Art  While a large amount of work has been focused on environmental issues in general and on environmental health and protections in particular, little work has been focused in the literature on the linkage between the environment and construction. In this chapter, the work of others which is focused on construction and the environment are identified, summarized and evaluated as a key step in laying a solid foundation for the work described in this thesis.  2.1 Project Environment and Environmental View Seemingly starting in the 1970s, the term "environment" became widely popular and was coined as a concept particularly related to changes in the condition of regional or global surroundings. The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (2005) defines the term "environment" as: (1), the circumstances, objects, or conditions by which one is surrounded; (2) (a), the complex of physical, chemical, and biotic factors (such as climate, soil, and living things) that act upon an organism or an ecological community and ultimately determine its form and survival; (2) (b), the aggregate of social and cultural conditions that influence the life of an individual or community; and (3), the position or characteristic position of a linguistic element in a sequence. Carpenter (2001), in the context of construction, defined the environment as surroundings and their characteristics which affect human and other life forms that exist within these surroundings. He considered the environment as the existence of resources, which include both human and  13  natural resources, and their fragile quality. Based on the foregoing first and second definitions of environment and from the perspective of project management, project environment can be considered as surroundings and their characteristics which, at any phase of a project's life cycle, affect the performance of a project that exists within these surroundings. These surrounding can be both man-made and natural. Normally, they consist of physical, social, economic/financial, political and regulatory components. The environmental view of a project is considered to be an important project context dimension. Characterizing the context of a construction project through multiple views or models of a project is believed to be key to the identification and treatment of risks that are project specific. Russell and Udaipurwala (2004) defined a view as a data set which describes an abstraction of a significant facet or dimension of a project (e.g., process, product, physical or quality). Their representation of a project involves nine project views integrated within a single system, these being the physical, process, organizational/contractual, cost, quality, as-built, change management, environmental, and risk views. They considered representation, integration, interpretation and knowledge management as four central issues to this multi-view approach. The concept of views, either in explicit or implicit terms, has been pursued by a number of researchers. Fischer and Aalami (1996) developed three models, product, construction method and process models, which can be considered as three views, when they developed computer interpretable models to automatically generate realistic construction schedules. They considered the product model as WHAT to build which determines the scope of project, the construction method model as HOW to build (i.e., select appropriate construction methods and generate corresponding activities and their sequence or logic relations), and the process model as to determine WHEN activities will take place by calculating activity duration and timing and  14  project duration. Russell and Froese (1997) identified four major views which provided a useful framework for categorizing construction functions and supporting computer applications. These four major views are physical and environmental view, cost view, process view and as-built view. The physical and environmental view of the project describes what is to be built: its geometry, topology, physical systems, materials, etc., as well as the physical, economic, and sociopolitical environment in which the project will proceed (As described in this paper, the physical and environmental view was subsequently broken into two separate and distinct views: physical view representing what is to be built and where, and the environmental view representing the natural and man-made contexts in which the project will be constructed). The process view describes how the project will be constructed, who is responsible for different aspects of the work, when it will be done, and where. The cost view deals with the cost structure of individual parts as well as the overall project from various perspectives (subtrades, general, owner), and involves initial cost estimates and cost tracking throughout the construction phase. The as-built view describes what happened during the journey, why, and what actions were taken. Each of these four major views may be thought of as being comprised of a number of sub-views. Later, Russell and Chevallier (1998) added another two views, namely a quality and a change view, to this suite of four views. The quality view represents what standard must be achieved and the change view represents changes in scope. Consensus on what constitutes the complete set of views required to provide a holistic treatment of a project has yet to be achieved, in part because most researchers are focused on a subset of construction management functions. However, there appears to be consensus that at least two essential views correspond to the product and process models of a project.  15  2.2 Representation of a Project's Environment - Classification Schema Located in the interface between industry and academia, research on project environment classification schema can benefit from both industry documents and academic works. Compared to otherfieldsin construction management, work done to date in the academic domain on project environment classification schema is very limited. However, voluminous industry documents are important sources of how a project's environment is characterized in practice. 2.2.1 Industry Classification Schema Thefirstnon-academic source is the environmental protection publications by international organizations. From the perspective of environmentalists, these publications consider how human life impacts the environment, how to assess that the environment is improved or degraded, and how to prevent degradation of the environment. Among these publications, construction activities are considered as important factors which degrade the environment. Comments on construction activities in these publications are important for this thesis research because they are helpful for extracting environmental components impacted by construction. The way in which these publications are structured reflects the environment classification schema of these international organizations. United Nations publications Africa Environment Outlook (UNEP 2002), Caribbean Environment Outlook (UNEP 1999) and GEO Latin America and Caribbean Environment Outlook (UNEP 2000) applied the same environment classification schema and presented the impact of human activities on the atmosphere (including climate variability, climate change and air quality), biodiversity, coastal and marine environment, forest, freshwater, land, and urban areas. Discussed in Asian Environment Outlook (ADB 2001) are the  16  environmental problems encountered in Asia with construction activities as important driving forces. Asian Development Bank (Asian Development Bank  2002) presented two examples of  six-category environment classification schema. One is the classification of flora, fauna, atmosphere, water (fresh water and marine water), land/soil (surface and sub-surface) and human settlement while the other is the classification of air/climate, land/soil, water (fresh and marine water), other natural resources (biological resources, mineral include energy resources), waste and human settlement. OECD (OECD 2001) uses a two level hierarchy - with the first level encompassing two categories: natural environment and social-economic environment. The natural environment category includes climate change, ozone layer depletion, air quality, waste, water quality, water resources, forest resources, fish resources and biodiversity while the socialeconomic category consists of GDP and population, consumption, energy, transport, agriculture and expenditure. A second information source for current approaches to environmental classification schema is handbooks written by construction industry organizations. The Environmental Handbook for Transportation Operations (NYSDOT 2001) is a summary of environmental requirements for maintaining highway and transportation systems. The structure of this handbook reflects categories of maintenance activities, which include general work, highway maintenance and operations, facility-based operations and waste management. The environmental components that should be considered under each of these headings are described in detail. Although no environment classification schema per se is presented in this handbook, the environmental concerns mentioned are a significant source for identifying environmental components. Many countries and international organizations have produced manuals or directives for environmental impact assessment that are reflective of their own regulations. Consider, for example the  17  reference, Roads and the Environment - a Handbook (Tszmokawa and Hoban 1997). The environmental impact part of this handbook classifies the project environment into eleven categories: soil, water resources, air quality, flora and fauna, communities and their economic activities, land acquisition and resettlement, indigenous people, culture heritage, aesthetics and landscape, noise environment, and human health and safety. Each category has sub-categories and some sub-categories have sub-sub-categories. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) reports for individual projects are a third source of reference for project environment classification. Legislated guidelines often determine the scope of EIA studies which mostly relate to natural environmental components, economic conditions, social and health components, and cultural and heritage components (Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency 2003). An EIA report describes in detail what impact the project will have on the environment, what mitigation measures should be taken and what monitoring program should be implemented. The way in which the project environment is classified can be different in each EIA project report. Here, use is made of examples of EIA reports for three projects - two from British Columbia and one from Europe to illustrate how a project's environment is classified, as shown in table 2.1. In this table, Project 1 is the Sea to Sky highway improvement project in British Columbia, Canada (EAO 2004a). This project involves widening and straightening a 94.7 km section of highway through urban, coastal, and mountainous regions and environmentally sensitive areas. The road sections cross 67 roadside •drainage ditches, 191 creeks and streams, 7 lakes, 1 pond, 24 wetlands, and 1 estuarine tidal marsh. The highway also traverses several municipalities that profess varying degrees of support for the proposed improvements, and have different bylaws regarding construction, traffic management, etc. Project 2 is the New Fraser River Crossing project in British Columbia,  18  Table2.1 Environment modeling in E I A reports for three projects Project 1 1. Land requirements 2. First Nations interest 3. Archeological effects 4. Environmental effects 4.1 Water quality 4.2 Fisheries & aquatic resources 4.3 Wildlife & vegetation 4.4 Geochemical 4.5 Contaminated site 4.6 Air quality 5. Socio-Economic effects 5.1 Project design issues 5.2 Transportation demand 5.3 Noise 5.4 Emergency services 5.5 Recreation 5.6 Aesthetics 5.7 Economic 5.8 Land use impacts 6. Navigation 7. Permits, licenses, authorizations  Project 2  Project 3  1. Environmental effects 1.1 Fisheries & aquatic resources 1.2 Wildlife & vegetation 1.3 Contaminated site 2. Economic, social, heritage and health effects 2.1 Agricultural resources 2.2 Community and Socioeconomic effects 2.2.1 Neighborhoods 2.2.2 Transportation 2.2.3 Construction 2.2.4 Navigation 2.3 Air quality and health 2.4 Noise 2.5 Archeological resources 3. First Nations Interests 3.1 Fishing 3.2 Hunting 3.3 Gathering 3.4 Cultural heritage sites 3.5 Privacy 3.6 Noise 3.7 Air quality & health 3.8 Other community effects 4. Permits, licenses, authorizations  1. Hydrography 2. Dredging and reclamation 3. Sediment spreading and sedimentation 4. Water quality 4.1 Heavy metals & toxic substances 4.2 Waste water & hygienic water quality 4.3 Release of nutrients 4.4 Oxygen 5. Benthic vegetation 5.1 Eelgrass 5.2 Ruppia 5.3 Macro algae 6. Benthic fauna 6.1 Common mussels 6.2 Others 7. Fish 7.1 Spawning and nursery grounds 7.2 Migratory routes & distribution 8. Birds 8.1 Breeding eiders 8.2 Moulting greylag geese 8.3 Moulting mute swans 8.4 Other breeding species 8.5 Staging migrants 9. Mammals 9.1 Seals 9.2 Movement of foxes, cats and rats 10. Beach and coast 10.1 Coastal morphology 10.2 Beach & bathing water quality 11. External environment 11.1 Noise 11.2 Industrial & sanitary water 11.3 Fuel 11.4 Waste & residual products 11.5 Transportation 11.6 Groundwater  19  Canada (EAO 2004b). The Project entails approximately 13.4 kilometers of new roadway including the construction of a new six-lane tolled bridge crossing the Fraser River, new controlled access four-lane arterial roads on both sides of the. river, two overpasses and relevant road upgrades. The project is located in an urban area with several communities, including First Nations communities. Social and economic impacts are the major environmental concerns along with fisheries and wildlife habitats. Project 3 is the Oresund Fixed Link project (Oresundskonsortiet 2000) between the Swedish and Danish coasts. It is a combined railway and motorway with a length of 16.4 km consisting of an immersed tunnel, two approach bridges and a high bridge. Oresund is a strait connecting the Baltic Sea and the Kattegat/North Sea. The artificial peninsula and the artificial island constructed for connecting tunnel and bridges along with the bridge piers have a blocking effect and a potential regional impact on the water exchange in the Baltic Sea, in addition to a local environmental impact in Oresund.  2.2.2 Academic Classification Schema Work done in the academic domain on classification schema for a project's environment is valuable since there are so few references as compared with the vast literature on other aspects of construction. Among the very few works identified, nine of them are described herein. Leopold et al. (1971) proposed a matrix system as a checklist to assist in developing a uniform environmental impact statement. One axis of the matrix is for actions which cause an environmental impact and the other axis is for the existing environmental components that might be affected. A sample matrix provided involves 100 actions on the horizontal axis and 88 environmental components on the vertical axis giving a total of 8,800 possible interactions. Although the authors did not provide information on what constituted the 88 environmental components, they demonstrated the importance of identifying environmental components using a  20  reduced matrix. In this reduced matrix, they identified 13 environmental components: water quality, atmospheric quality, erosion, deposition and sedimentation, shrubs, grasses, aquatic plants, fish, camping and hiking, scenic views and vistas, wilderness qualities, rare and unique species, and health and safety. The actions of this reduced matrix consist of 9 components: industrial sites and buildings, highways and bridges, transmission lines, blasting and drilling, surface, excavation, mineral processing, trucking, emplacement of tailings, and spills and leaks. The interaction between these environmental components and actions represents the environmental impact. Although it is implicit, the interaction of environmental components and actions in this matrix model has the similar philosophy as the integration of the environmental, process and physical views of a project proposed by Russell and Udaipurwala (2004). In selecting a highway route, McHarg (1968) classified a project's environment for a proposed highway alignment into four categories. The first category deals with components directly relative to construction saving and costs. It consists of two components: topographic corridor and land value, difference of which reflects the variation of cost for different highway alignments. The second treats social values. It consists of urbanization, residential quality, historic value, agriculture value, recreation values, wildlife value, water values, and susceptibility to erosion. The third category is scenic value and the fourth is physiographic obstructions. Examples for each of these components are described by McHarg (1968). The five most valuable environment classification schemas identified in the academic literature are summarized in table 2.2. The schema of Week (1977) was developed for environmental impacts of transportation projects. He applied a "synthesis of the environmental impacts" category to present a summary of overall environmental impacts, both beneficial and adverse, which have been identified as a result of the technical studies and investigation of a  21  Table2.2 Current academic approaches of environment classification Week, T . (1977)  Wilson, F. and Stonehouse, D . (1983)  Hughes, W . (1989)  Economic environment Physical environment Cultural Biological environment Water regime Economic Plant & animal diseases Erodibility Political Human disease Woodlands Social Aquatic ecology Unique ecological areas Physical Terrestrial ecology Wildlife Aesthetic Social environment Agriculture Financial Community & tribal Social environment Legal structure Development Institutional Cultural resources Noise Technological Synthesis of environmental Utilities Policy impact Recreation Unique cultural features Aesthetic scenic areas  „ ^ . , For transportation proiect  For highway location . ,r selection J  „ , .... . „ For building project ° v  J  Marmoush, Y . (1999)  Physiography Geomorphology Sedimentology Hydrography Tides Current Waves Sediment transport Water quality Pollution source Pollution ambient levels Marine ecology Phytoplankton Zooplankton Seaweed Benthic microfauna Intertidal macrofauna Fish Shrimp Bird fauna For coastal development . ^ project r  Underhill, J . & Angold, P . (2000)  Pollution Foreign material Dust De-icing salt Exhaust output Hydrology Runoff pollution Stream flow change Disturbance effects Gust of wind Human access Noise Physical barriers to the movement of animal species Ecological habitat & corridors  For road network  22  project. The environmental classification schema of Wilson and Stonehouse (1983) originated from the master's thesis of Stonehouse (1979). They identified environmental concerns for highway location and classified them into two categories: physical environment and social environment. Detailed components were further classified for these two categories. Hughes (1989) defined the environment in terms of eleven environment factors. He defined these factors to ensure that any observable environmental phenomena may be classified into one or more generic groups of factors. He considered each of these environmental factors as being subject to degrees of variability. The extent to which these factors vary was classified in terms of their degree of definition, stability in terms of time, certainty, simplicity and ease with which they can be mitigated. Marmoush (1999) classified the major environmental aspects considered by coastal development into four categories, as shown in table 2.2. He described the^mpact of these environmental concerns which occurred both during construction and after construction. The former was considered to be short-term impact while the later was considered to be long-term impact. As compared to the others, the work of Underhill and Angold (2000) is from a very unique perspective. Instead of focusing on the environmental impact of a highway at the preliminary phase of a project as was done by other authors, they worked on how a road network causes habit loss, habit fragmentation and habit degradation and thus impacts wildlife in an intensively modified landscape during the operating phase of a road network. Their classification schema, shown in table 2.2, was used to describe the ecological impacts of extant roads upon local biota. 2.2.3 Observations on Current Classification Schema Lessons can be learned from the environment classification schemas reviewed in the previous section. A very obvious observation is that most schemas used a hierarchical structure 23  to model the environment. Although some work, such as the one of Hughes (1989) only classified the environment into several categories without any further break down, they can still be considered as a one layer hierarchical structure. It is also noted that all of the hierarchical structures used are very shallow. Most of them are less than three layers deep while only a very few of them such as the New Fraser River Crossing project (EAO. 2004b) used a four layer hierarchical structure. The third observation is that only modest consistency, at best, exists amongst the classification schemas proposed. To date, we have not found an international, national or even regional standard which can be used on a consistent basis to describe the environment of most projects. For all of the sources examined, both the classification schema and the definition of each environmental component were different, even for projects of a similar type. The fourth observation is that most of the environmental classification schemas identified are for certain types of project only. For example, Marmoush's (1999) classification is only for coastal development projects. No master library of environmental components organized in a well defined structure which is applicable to all types of infrastructure projects was found to exist. The last observation is that no emphasis has been given in the literature to the reuse of environmental experience gained on past projects for future projects. Although knowledge management is flourishing in most research domains, it seems still quiet in this corner of construction research.  2.3 Environmental Risks Risk management of a civil engineering project includes risk identification, qualification, quantification, allocation, mitigation and monitoring. Effective and thorough risk identification is thefirstand most important step of risk management, in that unidentified risks tend to cause  24  the most negative consequences for projects because of a lack of planned mitigation measures. Existing tools for identifying risks include the use of check lists, prompt lists, brainstorming, literature review, interviews and knowledge-based identification (De Zoysa and Russell 2003). A vast literature is focused on risk identification. Six sources identified as being the most relevant to environmental risk identification are summarized briefly in table 2.3. Table2.3 Works contributive to environmental risk identification Authorship Morris & Simm (2000)  Contribution to Environmental Risk Identification Appendix 5 of this book provides information to aid risk identification focusing on river and estuary issues. The information has been presented in two formats: a list that contains words or phrases likely to prompt thought or discussion around risk issues, and a number of tables listing likely hazards, consequences, impacts and possible risk mitigation measures.  Arndt (2000)  A hierarchical risk framework consisting of project phase, category, subcategory and risk layers is defined. A detailed list of risks with definitions is provided. This list contains many identified economic, political and natural environmental risk issues.  Aklncl & Fischer (1998)  Construction-specific risk factors which include natural environmental risks and economic and political environment-specific factors are described in detail with specific examples.  Tummala & Burchett(1999)  Risks for transmission construction projects are considered with respect to six categories: financial & economic, political & environmental, design, site construction, physical, and Acts of God. Twelve factors identified in the financial & economic, political & environmental, and Acts of God categories correspond to project environment risks.  Chua et al. (2003)  Five political risks and four economic risks are identified and described in detail for East Asian cross-border construction projects.  Fang et al. (2004)  45 risks in the Chinese construction market are identified from the perspective of contractors. These risks are ranked according to the importance. Many of these risks can be included in the category of project environmental risks.  How environmental risks common to projects are handled can be unique to the specific context of a project. For example, pollution is an environmental risk that occurs on most projects.  25  However, the source of the pollution and the mitigation measures can vary significantly from project to project. A lot of literature is focused on a single environmental risk and investigates the spectrum of issues relevant to that specific risk. Examples of works considered to be significant in this regard are described in table 2.4.  2.4 Environmental Impact Environmental impact is legally required to be assessed for civil engineering projects in most jurisdictions. The issue of environmental impact is always intertwined with that of environmental risks. An environmental impact issue is also an environmental risk issue if uncertainty exists. For example, contaminated soil is an environmental impact issue while an unforeseeable contaminated soil is an environmental risk issue. Mitigation measures for environmental impact can also be mitigation measures of environmental risks (i.e., they can reduce the likelihood of the risk being realized). A substantial body of literature explores environmental impact assessment methods, environmental management, environmental screening, and so on. Some of literature describes innovative mitigation measures of environmental impact over the project life cycle. These works are very helpful for environmental risk management. An Environmental Management System (EMS) is used to address a project's impact on the environment. It is a formal approach that describes the goal, policy, implementation, strategy, specific tasks, monitoring and reporting. ISO 14001 serves as the standard for developing an EMS in the ISO 14000 series. The characteristics of EMS, components of the ISO 14000 series and their application in construction are described in detail by Christini et al. (2004). Chen et al. (2000) proposed that major Chinese constructionfirmsshould obtain ISO 14001 EMS  26  Table2.4 Works investigating specific environmental risks Authorship  Risks  Description  Tilford et al. (2000)  Contamination  The cost-impact, schedule-impact, remediation approach, guidelines for mitigation and the legal framework that contractors work in are provided for unforeseen environmental contamination.  Trenter (2003)  Geotechnical risk  The natural of geotechnical risk is seen to comprise three interrelated categories: design risk, belowground contract risk and project management risk. Details for each of these categories are discussed.  Water pollution for road systems  Four possible circumstances for the dispersion of pollutants when road accidents occur are considered: surface water, ground water, natural soil, and urban soil. The risk function is computed with regard to the objective evaluation of severity of the events and to the stochastic calculation of the associated probability.  Natural hazards  The risks to close the Desert Road section of State Highway 1 in New Zealand caused by snow & ice, volcanic eruption & lahars, earthquakes, and traffic accidents were evaluated in terms of their expected frequency of occurrence, duration of road closure, economic impact and mitigation measures.  Flood hazard  Risk-based techniques from high level planning based on outline analysis to detailed designs using high resolution simulation models are applied to flood hazard management.  Rock fall & rock slide  Rock fall impact-mark mapping supplemented by documented rock fall records was used to establish a rock fall frequency. A risk analysis methodology is applied to assess the probability of loss of life due to rock fall.  Rock fall & rock slide  Magnitude-cumulative frequency relationships were derived for two corridors in BC. A risk analysis method using the slope of the magnitude-frequency relationships is outlined.  Risk of environmental restoration projects  This paper examined using both influence diagramming and Monte Carlo simulation to model the uncertainties associated with environmental restoration projects. An approach for identifying, classifying and incorporating uncertainty into standard cost estimating procedures is provided to quantify the risk of large-scale cost growth.  Benedetto and Cosentino (2003)  Dalziell and Nicholson (1999)  Sayers et al. (2002)  Bunce et al. (1997)  Hungr et al. (1999)  Diekmann and Featherman. (1998)  27  certification and integrate the concept of environmental management into construction management practice when they present a systematic approach to environmental management of pollution and/or hazards caused by urban construction projects in China. Environmental screening of projects is considered an important part of EMS. Innes and Pugh (1996) developed a standardized screening model for highway projects to evaluate the project from a variety of environmental aspects. Mitigation of environmental impact should start with the planning and design phase of a project. To a significant degree, mitigation measures taken in the planning and design phase are more effective than those that can be taken in the construction and maintenance phase of a project. This is especially true for highway projects. Being aware of this, some highway designers provide innovative design solutions that also meet rising environmental demands in a cost-effective and timely way. McGuire and Morrall (2000) presented three levels of strategic highway improvement to mitigate the unique environmental impact highways and roads have within Canadian Rocky Mountain national parks, which are also World Heritage Sites. The first level of this strategic highway improvement is the rehabilitation of existing park roads in ways to reduce terrain impacts. The second is the development of passing lanes to defer twinning of lanes. The third is the twinning of lanes. Also included in this paper are mitigation measures of fencing and animal crossing structures, addressing wildlife movement, biodiversity, and mortality as well as stream, terrain, and vegetation disturbance minimization techniques. A feature article in World Highways (2005) addressed many mitigation measures taken in the Deerfoot Trial Extension highway project in Alberta. These mitigation measures include shifting the highway alignment to avoid impacting a side channel in the Bow River, forming 30 meter wide strips as a wildlife corridor, providing wildlife underpasses and long span bridges, constructing a pond to  28  catch the sediment-laden runoff, and an environmental lighting system with minimized light pollution escaping upwards and drastically reduced glare. The third example for mitigation of highway environmental impact is taken from an article addressing rigorous environmental controls of NSW Roads (1999) between the towns of Bulahdelah and Coolongolook, Australia. This highway passes through environmentally sensitive areas of state forest, grazing country, six river crossings, a large resident fauna population, and downstream oyster-growing tourist aquatic environment. Mitigation measures for impact on all of these environment features and description of erosion and sediment control techniques are provided in this article. 1  In addition to the literature addressing global environmental impact of a project, some literature is focused on specific environmental impact issues and contains more detailed information. Steele et al. (2003) reports on a life-cycle assessment method developed to factor environmental impact into bridge engineering strategy. From an environmental perspective, they identified four aspects for bridge engineering. These are: 1. design and durability, 2. material choice, 3. maintenance, refurbishment and strengthening, and 4. adaptability, reuse, recycling and waste minimization. Dadson et al. (2002) contributed on the issue of determining the effects of the environment on the deterioration of steel bridge components. The Virginia State Climatology Office had identified six regions within the state as having different topography and climate. Using bridge inspection field data, Dadson et al. (2002) proposed a methodology using statistical analysis to determine the effects of environment in each of these six regions on mean service life estimates of paint on steel girder bridges. In this methodology, they also identified factors affecting bridge element service life. The practice of incorporating certain waste products into highway construction and repair materials, such as the use of ground tire rubber in  bituminous construction and as a crack sealer, has become more popular. Azizian et al. (2003) investigated the possible impact of these materials on the quality of surface and ground water.  2.5 Role of IT in Environmental Issues and Visualization Advances in information technology play a more and more important role in environmental issues, as they do in other fields. Most IT applications in the environmental domain achieve their goals by visualizing the environment or make environmental visualization as part of its function. This is partially because representing the environment involves huge data sets and it is not easy for users to extract information from them if they are portrayed using text and tabular formats alone. It is also because current software and hardware technologies make the visualization of such huge data set possible. Many computer-based tools, models and expert systems that combine computer graphics, simulation, artificial intelligence and other advanced information technologies have been developed for environmental modeling and understanding complex environmental processes. Wilson and Stonehouse (1983) applied a computer aided overlay technique to represent the environment of highways in order to consider the environmental impact of different highway location options. Although this is a very simple model and is not integrated with other relevant issues as compared to the technology we have today, it demonstrates the strength of computer aided overlay techniques for examining environmental issues. Rapant and Kordik (2003) applied a similar idea to integrate separately evaluated assessments of environmental risks for soil, groundwater and stream sediments in a comprehensive environmental risk assessment map. Fedra (1990) investigated the existing computer tools and methods for the assessment of environmental impacts and implemented a rule-based expert system using hierarchical checklists  30  to perform an environmental impact assessment. This system used simulation models coupled with geographical data bases and dedicated GIS functions. A Geographic Information System (GIS) is an organized collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data, and personnel designed to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze, and display all forms of geographical referenced information (ESRI 1990). It represents the real world consisting of many geographical features as a number of related data layers. These layers can be overlapped according to the requirements of users when they carrying out spatial analysis and modeling. GIS holds great potential for environment modeling, analysis, and visualization. A very substantial literature investigates using GIS as an environmental framework. Karimi and Houston (1996) grouped these applications into two general approaches: loosely coupled and tightly coupled. Current trends and future needs were discussed in their work which is very valuable for capturing the broad spectrum of integrating environmental models with GIS. The environmental simulation model and its process developed by Huang and Claramunt (2004) can be visualized, controlled and tuned through interactive steering in a 3D virtual environment. This virtual environment can also run on a web browser and allows users to assemble modeling and visualization components with flexibility (Huang 2003). In addition to the visualization capabilities incorporated in environmental modeling technologies, an enormous amount of work has been done on information visualization in other disciplines, especially in computer science. Although the techniques resulting from this work are not currently applied to environmental issues, they hold great potential for the construction domain, including the treatment of project related environment issues. Taxonomies by Qin et al. (2003) and Chi (2000) are very helpful for the implementers to grasp the key techniques of visualization, so that they can be applied to specific domains of interest. Visualization of  31  hierarchical data structures is an important category for construction projects among these taxonomies, because a lot of construction data can be structured hierarchically. For example, a hierarchical work breakdown structure is widely used for project scheduling; a project's physical component can be represented using a hierarchical structure (Russell and Chevallier 1998); and a hierarchical structure can provide a mechanism to manage knowledge about methods and resources available for constructing a particular physical component (Udaipurwala and Russell 2002). Considering the great potential for applying hierarchical structure data visualization techniques to the construction domain, several important hierarchical structure data visualization techniques are described and compared in table 2.5. Exploration of visualization techniques to cope with the sheer volume of construction management data has hardly been treated in the literature (This does not include work directed at visualizing the physical artifact to be built for purposes of constructability reasoning or workability of the methods selected for its construction (e.g. Staub and Fischer 1998)). Three works have been identified as significant precursors in this research domain. Liston et al. (2000) developed a prototype using two visualization techniques, highlight and overlay, to enable the project team to focus on the relevant information, productively interact with the information and visually relate information. The process of highlighting has two parts: the interaction that defines the task/context and the visualization of the specific project content. Highlighting involves selection of an object (building component, construction activity, etc.), highlighting of project information related to a spatial region or within a temporal region, and application of a highlighting filter. Overlaying is the process of placing one set of information onto another set of information that results in one "merged" view. Overlaying actions to be implemented can be document to document of same type (e.g., placing a Gantt chart onto another Gantt chart), object  32  Table2.5 Comparative analysis of visualization techniques for hierarchically structured data Authorship  Technique Name  Size of Data Set  Interaction  Huffaker et al. (1998)  Plankton  Large  Webbased, zoom, focus  Carriere and Kazman (1995)  Fsviz (Cone tree)  Large  Filter, zoom, focus  Dimension  Algorithm Description  3D  It is a system of nodes and links. The size of the data sel dictates an automated placement algorithm that can leverage the hierarchical nature of the data. It supports a focus function.  3D  It is a modified cone tree method consisting of nodes and links. The radii of the subcones based on the depth of the parent node in the tree. It supports a focus function.  2D  It uses a hyperbolic tree for its main display which requires that all locations be calculated in a radial fashion along an arc with respect to depth in the tree and to an interior poinl where the root node resides. It supports four other layout algorithms: leaf-based, subnode-based, range-based and density based. It supports a focus function.  3D  It maps a hierarchy graph onto the surface of a hemisphere. It then applies a projection in order to change the focus area interactively by moving the center of projection.  Wilson and Bergeron (1999) UNHIDES  Medium  Filter, zoom, focus  Kreuselerand Magic Eye Schumann (2002) View  Large  Filter, zoom, focus  Jankun-Kelly and MoireGraMa (2003) phs  Medium  Filter, zoom, focus  2D  It displays a spanning tree induced upon a visual node graph using a radial focus + context graph layout. The distortion due to focus and rotation applies to both the tree levels and the sizes of the visual nodes.  HCIL (2005)  Medium  Filter, zoom, focus  2D  It is a space-constrained technique using a 2-D space filling approach in which each node is a rectangle whose area is proportional to some attribute such as node size.  Treemap  33  to document of same type (e.g., placing a set of activities onto another Gantt chart), document to document of different type (e.g., placing a 3D model onto a Gantt chart) and object to document of different type (e.g., placing a building component onto a Gantt chart). Focusing on the execution phase of a project, Songer and Hays (2003) developed a visual framework considering a possible representation of project control data. They used the visual framework to analyze current graphical representations of several typical construction project control processes and the associated data-type represented by the graphic. Four layout strategies including scatterplot, linked histogram, hierarchical tree and treemap layouts were applied to represent cost control data in this work. Assisted by a multi-view representation of a project and the integration of these views within a single system, Russell and Udaipurwala (2000) used visual images to assess initial schedule quality in terms of accuracy and completeness and aid project management for project control. They demonstrated the effectiveness of visual images to extract information of resource distribution in time and space, identify problems encountered on a project, and assist with reasoning about productivity loss.  2.6 Bibliography Aklncl, B. and Fischer, M. (1998). "Factors affecting contractor's risk of cost overburden." Journal of Management in Engineering, 14(1), 67-76. Arndt, R. (2000). "Getting a fair deal: efficient risk allocation in the private provision of infrastructure." Ph.D. thesis, the University of Melbourne. 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I S B N : 87-89881-23-0.  41  Chapter 3  Use of IT in Managing Environmental Risks in Construction Projects*  3.1 Introduction The  management  o f environmental  risks  (identification, quantification, mitigation,  assignment, monitoring, and capturing lessons learned) is critical for the success o f major c i v i l engineering infrastructure projects. In some instances, the realization o f such risks can lead as far as to termination o f a project, while in other instances it can have detrimental impacts on performance measures such as cost, revenue, duration, scope, and quality. While experience and knowledge gleaned on past projects is very useful i n identifying and managing risks for new projects, such expertise resides primarily in the minds o f project personnel and is seldom documented by organizations i n a consistent, accessible, and reusable manner. Therefore, it is easily lost through retirements, resignations, and downsizing. Described in this paper is work by the authors directed at developing an IT-based methodology that allows users to capture their knowledge in a re-usable format and apply it to managing environmental risks o f specific project  * This chapter formed part o f the Proceedings for the Construction Research Congress 2005, American Society o f C i v i l Engineering. A p r i l 5-7, 2005. San Diego, C A . The authorship is: Sanjaya D e Zoysa, P h D Candidate and Graduate Research Assistant, Department o f C i v i l Engineering, University o f British Columbia, dezoysa@civil.ubc.ca, Y u g u i Wang, M A S c student and Graduate Research Assistant, Department o f C i v i l Engineering, University o f British C o l u m b i a , yugui_wang@hotmail.com, and A l a n D . Russell, Professor and Chair, Computer Integrated Design and Construction, Department o f C i v i l Engineering, University o f British C o l u m b i a , adr@civil.ubc.ca.  42  contexts.  Motivation for this work stems in part from the pursuit o f alternative procurement  modes by government (e.g. Public-Private Partnerships) wherein much greater emphasis is placed on risk identification and assignment in the early phases o f a project. The authors have participated in the risk identification phase for several large scale projects, and have applied in paper-format several o f the concepts espoused i n this paper. These concepts have proved very helpful in adding structure to the process and in identifying the drivers or sources o f risk that arise from the various dimensions within and surrounding a project. What distinguishes our work from that o f others, especially in the risk modeling domain, is the attempt to integrate within a single computer environment the range o f dimensions needed to capture the essence o f a project. Typical current practice involves the use o f a risk register to catalogue the risks associated with a project (Department o f Premier and Cabinet, Tasmania 2002, H a l l et al. 2001) that are identified through processes such as brainstorming and the use o f prompt lists. The strengths o f such a tool, which is generally in the form o f an elaborate spreadsheet, lies in the ease o f use offered by its format, and its partial facilitation o f knowledge management by allowing the simple use o f a risk register from a past similar project (assuming one exists) as the starting point for the new project at hand. However, the contents o f the register have no direct connectivity to the description o f a project, which poses significant difficulties for updating as a project's definition unfolds and risk drivers change. It is our belief that characterizing the context o f a construction project through multiple views or models o f a project (e.g. Russell and Udaipurwala 2004 - 9 views, Russell and Froese 1997 - 4 views, Fischer and Aalami 1996 - 3 views) is key to the identification and treatment o f risks that are project-specific. The concept o f views, either in explicit or implicit terms has been pursued by a number o f researchers.  Consensus on what constitutes the complete set o f views  43  required to provide a holistic treatment o f a project has yet to be achieved, in part because most researchers are focused on a subset o f construction management functions.  However, there  appears to be consensus that at least two essentiahviews correspond to the product and process models o f a project. Physical components o f the project, its processes, project participants, and the components of the environment i n which the project is located in, can either on their own or in concert act as sources or drivers o f risks on a given project as shown in figure 3.1. In developing an IT-based methodology for risk management we have characterized these sources o f risk drivers through 4 project views: the Physical V i e w (what w i l l be built - the product model), the Process V i e w (how  it w i l l be procured and constructed), the Organizational / contractual V i e w (who w i l l  design and build it), and the Environmental V i e w (natural and man-made environments in which it w i l l be built). In this paper, the primary focus is on the environmental view, i.e. how we model the environment in a manner that enables knowledge re-use, and its integration with risk information modeled through a Risk V i e w in order to identify and manage environmental risks on a given project.  Environmental drivers 1 L  Physical drivers  Organizational / contractual drivers  r  Process drivers  Risk Drivers  Risk Events  Figure 3.1 Risk drivers of different project views  In illustrating aspects o f the IT-based approach for managing environmental risks, use is made o f examples from two rather distinct case studies, one a floating bridge construction  44  project, and the other a highway improvement project that spans in excess o f 90 k m . Thus, in terms o f structuring the paper, we first provide a brief overview o f the two projects, and then present details o f our approach. Information presented about the case studies have been derived from public domain documents and represents the author's interpretation o f information contained within these documents.  3.2 Overview of case study projects The environment o f the floating bridge project is tightly bounded ( M O T 2003) whereas, the highway project traverses  through several jurisdictions and through urban, coastal, and  mountainous regions ( M O T 2004). Use o f these two case studies allows us to assess the ability of the modeling methodology in representing a finite set o f components, as well as a much larger number o f components that are widely dispersed across several locations. A brief description o f the two projects follows. The 3 lane Okanagan lake floating bridge on Highway 97 serves as the first case study. It is one o f British Columbia's most congested sections o f highway having been in service for 46 years. The province is seeking a contractor to design, build, finance, and maintain a new 5 lane crossing, while operating, maintaining, and then decommissioning the existing 880m long bridge. The approach on the eastern side is adjacent to the city park o f Kelowna, while the possibility o f unearthing archaeological artifacts is a primary concern on the west side, with two unexamined archaeological resource areas being present in the area. The Sea to Sky highway improvement project in British Columbia serves as the second case study. The project involves widening and straightening a 94.7 k m section o f highway in a mountainous and environmentally sensitive area. The expansion involves 5 road sections  45  including bridges and viaducts. M o v i n g south to north, the configuration consists o f a 12.2 k m 4 lane section, a 10.5 k m 2 lane section, a 19.7 k m 3 lane section, a 9.9 k m 4 lane section, and a 42.4 k m 3 lane section. The road sections cross 67 roadside drainage ditches, 191 creeks and streams, 7 lakes, 1 pond, 24 wetlands, and 1 estuarine tidal marsh. The highway also traverses several municipalities that profess varying degrees o f support for the proposed improvements, and have different bylaws regarding construction, traffic management, etc. Throughout the construction phase, traffic w i l l have to be maintained on the existing 2 lane road (which does have some 3 and 4 lane sections already), and the desire is to minimize the number o f scheduled road closures. Our primary perspective with respect to these projects is that o f government carrying out an analysis o f project risks i n order to provide input to a value for money analysis (Akintoye et al. 2003, H M Treasury 1998) aimed at determining the appropriate procurement method, and assisting in the development o f risk allocation and mitigation strategies. A t this stage i n the project lifecycle, detailed design solutions are not available nor are construction methods known with any certainty. Based on various specialist studies commissioned by government, however, what is largely known is the spectrum o f project participants and stakeholders and their respective agendas, the likely form that design solutions w i l l take, and the environmental characteristics (natural and man-made) that w i l l shape the project.  It is noted that the  methodology described in the paper is applicable to any phase o f the project lifecycle and is equally usable by both public and private sectors.  3.3 Modeling the Environment Presently, in most parts o f the world, the environment o f large construction projects is characterized mainly from the standpoint o f carrying out Environmental Impact Assessment  46  (EIA) studies as part o f the approval process for a project. Legislated guidelines determine the scope o f these studies which mostly relate to natural environmental components, economic conditions, social and health components, and cultural and heritage components (Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency 2003). Hughes (1989) i n recognizing the implications o f the project environment on the organizational structure o f the project identifies 11 types o f environmental factors.  A m o n g these are  political  factors,  legal, financial, institutional,  technological, and policy factors i n addition to the categories that are covered by E I A studies. Other researchers (e.g. Underhill and Angold 2000, Week 1977, and Wilson and Stonehouse 1983) have explored how aspects o f the natural environment can be characterized.  To date,  however, we have not found an international, national or even regional standard that can be used to describe or model the environment o f most projects.  Based on an extensive review o f  environmental assessment reports for major projects in Canada and elsewhere, it is observed that in terms o f the classification schema and the semantics used to describe the environment for individual projects, while there can be similarities amongst projects, there are always notable differences.  From a practical point o f view, what this means is that any computer-based  structure developed for representing the environment o f projects should possess considerable flexibility, both in terms o f allowing the capture o f one or more environmental breakdown structures in order to facilitate the development o f standards at the level o f the organization while allowing tailoring o f a standard or bottom up definition o f a environmental breakdown structure for a unique project.  We also observed that most environmental descriptions used i n  practice adopt a three-level hierarchical structure, with the very odd exception being up to a maximum o f five levels.  For purposes o f developing our methodology, we have defined the project environment as the physical, social, economic / financial, political, and regulatory surroundings o f a project, thus encompassing the dimensions considered in E I A studies as well as well as other surroundings that can be o f significance for project risks. It is noted that the user is not restricted to adopting this particular classification and can readily adopt another such as a scheme used in E I A studies. However, the importance o f adopting a single, consistent classification within an organization is strongly emphasized as it is critical in ensuring the portability o f information between projects. A hierarchical structure has been adopted in modeling the environmental context to reflect actual practice and with the aim o f allowing flexibility in the level o f detail at which the environment can be represented. For example, in a preliminary assessment o f project feasibility and risks, a coarse model that makes use o f a shallow hierarchy may be used for representing the environment. A s more information becomes available regarding the project's environmental, physical and process views, and as decisions are made as to the pricing o f risks and their allocation, a more detailed and slightly deeper environmental hierarchy would be required to assist the risk management  process. A hierarchical model also facilitates inheritance and  aggregation o f properties. These are desirable for allowing the speedy setup o f an environmental model and in ensuring consistency and adherence to standard terminology, in defining the properties o f its components. However, a hierarchical representation is not devoid o f drawbacks. Difficulties can arise in ensuring that components are organized such that the collections are mutually exclusive. Additionally, deep hierarchies are not commensurate with the quality o f environmental data available, and the resources available for building up such a model. A s stated previously, a three-level hierarchy is typically used in E I A studies to model components o f the environment.  In implementing our approach,  up to  a five-level  hierarchy termed  the  48  Environment Breakdown Structure (EBS) has been used. A s demonstrated through two extensive case studies, this number o f levels provides sufficient flexibility for modeling at the level o f detail indicative o f day-to-day practice as reflected by E I A studies, while allowing the user leeway o f incorporating additional details i f desired.  Finally, i n terms o f supporting the risk  identification process, a shallow hierarchy for modeling a project's environment is preferred. Risk identification sessions normally involve a considerable number o f individuals, and visibility of as much o f the E B S structure as possible and the ability to navigate it quickly is imperative. These sessions often involve not only identifying risks as a function o f a project's environment, but often result in teasing out additional features o f the environment that are relevant to a project's risk profile. The component types in the hierarchy are described below, with examples drawn from figure 3.2(a) that shows the E B S structure for the Okanagan lake bridge project. The five component types that comprise the E B S hierarchy are: Environment: The global environment o f the project under which all other components can be defined and described.  Class: The main classes o f the environment, i n our case physical, social, political, regulatory, and economic/financial. However, the users can define classes as they see fit. Sub-class: A subset o f environmental components within a class, such as geological components within the physical environment class, and macro economic factors within the financial/economic category. . Entity: A n environmental component that can be identified distinctly from  other  components - e.g., inflation, archaeological resource, fish. Sub-entity: In some cases it might be necessary to characterize the environment in more  49  1H-[):WI H'.i :iovtii UNI WAI F-ile  " .  :t_View  ft, __ r_3 © -  its  Standards:.: ::EBS.:: iWtndow.  ^Bfl %  t i  Help  4  Environment Example Floating Bridge Project Environment  OL8E a- PHY  j  Class Physical Environment Sub-class Hydrography Bfi-HYD j 4-CREK Entity Creek Entity Lake j -i- LAKE  j \ i j  • TPGP f-GEO + BOTN * HABT  j !  4-20LGSub-class Zoology j i'AWB Entity Amphibian  i  {  j- RPTL  S j  j j  i - MAML 4-BIRD  j j  Sub-class Topography Sub-class Geology Sub-class Botany Sub-class Habitat  Entity Reptile Entity Mammals Entity Birds  j j i j  j f GULL Sub-entity California'r, j j SWAN Sub-entity Trumpete j i-FISH Entity Fish .• ATMP Sub-class Atmosphere  i  ;4-CLMT  j  i-PLUT  Attributes : Values, standard EBS Records \ Risk Issues j:; Prciect Records. |: Memo. j Path: OLBE.SCL.ACHT.ARCH. Code: if AST E Type:. J-oMB  ! j  B3--ABOG i-CMLF  j j  A-MSFT' S-ACHT  ry  Attribute Values Description Name ol resource Land area of site Creation Era Current State  Sub-class Climatology Sub-class Pollution Class Social Environment Sub-class Aboriginal Sub-class Community  Sub-class Micro Social Facto Sub-class Archeological and Entity Archeology i 3-ARCH ASTE 5ub-entit/. Archtolcg.TSTSWe' Si-ECO Class Economic / Financial Environment POL Class Political Environment -REG Class Regulatory Environment  Inherited attribute i 8/QA. I tins! YES L YES Q sqm YES L YES L JTHS  5  S-SCL  Description: jArcheotogtcai Stte  Aiilici  PatK OLBE.SCL.ACHT.ARCH.. Attribute:'Name of resource" Value Type: Linguistic ,•••  (b)  (c) Location Ranges  location Range •:• .= v•>, Value > • H i C)Qv43 23*_24»_-23»_24» D10v38 24«O0_10-24-.aCL10 D!Qv42 24*10 50-24-.10 SO DIQv45  k < Ready:.:  (a)  Cancel i  Figure 3.2 (a) Environmental Breakdown Structure for Okanagan lake bridge project; (b) Attributes of 'Archeological site' component; (c) Specification of attribute values at different locations  detail. For example, a composite inflation rate is made up o f labor rates, material rates, etc., while birds may be made up individual species such as trumpeter swan and gull. Components that make up the E B S can be further described in terms o f user-defined attributes that allow the properties of a component to be comprehensively described (see figure 3.2(b)). The risk issues that are driven by an environmental component are in most instances dependent upon the component's attribute values and not simply on the presence o f the  50  component itself. For example, bird species within the project boundary that are classified as endangered (e.g. attribute value T R U E for attribute definition endangered? at project locations x, y, z) could lead to uncertainties in project duration as bird nests encountered during construction would have to be relocated prior to the continuation o f construction. A s shown in figure 3.2(b), functionality has been provided for defining Quantitative (Q), Linguistic (L), as well Boolean (B) attributes in order to accommodate the variety o f characteristics that may be used to describe environmental components. Allowance has also been made for E B S components to be associated with project records such as photographs o f the project site, documents detailing site investigations and so forth. A s described later, associations can also be made with components o f the project risk register consisting o f a project-specific listing o f risks. In addition to defining the characteristics or attributes o f a component, the identification o f the locations at which the environmental component is present is also necessary from a risk management perspective, as the intersection o f environmental components with other project components at the same location (e.g. environmental, physical and/or process) can heighten the relevance o f a risk issue for the project. A n example would be the intersection o f the archaeological resource site at location chainage 23+_23+ that has been assigned the name DIQv43 (see figure 3.2(c)) with the activity 'clear embankment area' at the same chainage location. We use a set o f location constructs consisting o f a location set, location, sub-location hierarchy to describe either a physical project location (e.g. chainage o f a highway project) or a temporal location (e.g. step in a procedure). In implementing the methodology, the set o f location constructs defined i n the physical view (called the P C B S for physical component breakdown structure) is used to represent the locations corresponding to the physical, process, and environmental views in order to ensure consistency o f definition. The set o f locations used  51  for modeling the Okanagan lake bridge project is shown i n figure 3.3. Components o f the E B S structure are associated with project locations by way o f assigning values for component attributes that are relevant  to each project  location. For example,  six rather ill-defined  archaeological sites fall within the project corridor. Values o f attributes such as the name that has been assigned to each archeological site during environmental studies, the approximate area o f the site (measured i n square meters), and the current state o f the site, i.e. whether it is 'destroyed', 'unexplored' and so on, can be assigned to the six sites based on their location as shown i n figure 3.2(c).  Fie  Project_vtew  - OIBE  *  Standards  PCBS Window  S X  Help  Project Okanagan Late floating 6 GPRJ Location Qobal Project 23+G0_l0 Location Roadway:: (Chainage 23+00 - 23+10 23+10_50 Location Roadway:: rChainage . 23+10 - 23+50 >•••• 23+_24+_ Location Roadway: < : Chainage 23+SO - 24+00 : 24+G0_l0 Location Roadway:: Chainage < 24+00 - 24+10 24+10_50 Location Roadway:: Chainage < 24+10 - 24+50 > 24+_25+ Location Interchange: Chainage 24+SO - 25+25 2S+25J35 Location Roadway: Chainage 25+25 - 25+35 25+_28+ Location Roadway: 25+35 - 28+00 r~ 28+_29+ Location Approach Bnfaankment: Chainage 26+00 - 29+44 29+J32+ Location Ramp & Transition Span: Chainage 29+44 - 32+80 32+_39+ Location Floating Bridge: Chainage 32+68 - 39+64 38+_40+ Location Bev Deck/ TransBon Span: Chainage 38+64 - 40+12 !• 40+_45+ Location Roadway: Chaaiage 40+12 - 45+84 1  :  DRYDOCK1 Location Dryctaf&fcfr Pontoon Constr,-8ear Creek South r"DRyDOOC2 Location Drydockfor Pontoon Constr.-Kelowna City Park DRYDOCK3 Location Drydock for Pontoon Corstr. - Hghway 97 PgBout DRYDOCK4 Location Drydock for Pontoon Corstr. - Penticton : :• LAKE Location Lake i i - rCAKE Location North shore -SLAKE Location South shore J 152 Location Set Procedural Location Set Ready  Figure 3.3 Definition of locations for Okanagan lake bridge project In defining component attributes, the user has the option o f entering the definition at a higher level o f the hierarchy and allowing components at lower levels to inherit common attribute definitions. This reduces the burden  o f re-defining  attributes and also ensures  consistency. A s a further step towards bringing about the consistent use o f terminology, we  52  allow the user to build up a standard set o f linguistic values based upon common terms used within the user's organization, which can be assigned as values to linguistic variables. A s described later, standard use o f terms can greatly facilitate the encoding and re-use o f knowledge especially regarding conditions under which a risk issue is likely to be relevant for a certain project context.  3.4 Knowledge Management Knowledge management is a relatively new, yet flourishing area o f research. Effective management  o f knowledge typically  requires  a combination o f organizational, social,  technological, and managerial initiatives. The use o f information technology is therefore only a segment, albeit an important one, o f a larger strategy that is required to manage knowledge within an organization. Several authors have proposed utilizing IT in the form o f knowledgebased systems for risk management. These include a rule-based risk identification system for high voltage transmission line projects (Leung, Chuah, and Tummala 1998) and a fuzzy casebased reasoning system for risk assessment in software development projects (Cox 1999). A comprehensive analysis o f such approaches is provided i n De Zoysa and Russell (2003). While acknowledging the pioneering work carried out by previous researchers, we believe that further success depends on developing an approach that treats the environmental, physical, process and organizational/contractual context dimensions o f a project, an aspect that is not comprehensively dealt with in existing approaches. Consideration o f these project dimensions is extremely important as their attributes and likely values are the determinants o f risks that could arise on a project - i.e. it is often as important i f not more so to manage the risk drivers as compared to the risk event itself.  53  One o f the main barriers to creating a model o f the environment (as well as the other project views) in support o f risk management is the effort required to create it, particularly i f each component and its attribute definitions are to be defined anew each time a project is defined. The strategy that has been adopted to enable the re-use o f information and knowledge that is gained on a project, involves use o f two domains that are referred to as the Standards side and the Project side. The Standards side contains information that is independent o f any one project, whereas the project side contains information that is relevant to an individual project. A project's E B S structure stripped o f attribute values and location assignments can be saved as a template on the Standards side, allowing knowledge about the environmental component structure for a particular project to be stored in a re-usable format. Thus, i n executing projects in similar environments the user would extract the standard template or parts o f it and define the E B S structure for the current project. A template can describe a certain type o f environment, for example, mountainous or coastal, or refer to a specific part o f the environment such as a stream. The notion o f using standard templates is not unique to the authors, and shares parallels with the concept o f reusable ontologies (Annamalai and Sterling 2003), while also being somewhat reflective o f case-based reasoning schema (Brandon and Ribeiro 1998).  3.5 Integration with Risk Information A s described previously, the lack o f integration o f risk registers with a definition o f the project context i n current practice inhibits the identification o f risk issues that are relevant to the project context, and precludes leverage that could be gained by such integration including allowing the user the option o f viewing risks that are applicable to upcoming time windows, the distribution o f risks over project participants and so forth.  54  In developing a methodology that treats integration amongst the project views and the risk view, we duplicate for the risk view the concept o f a standards domain and a project domain. O n the standards side, a Standard Risk Issue Register ( S R R ) is used to identify a repository o f risk issues that is built up over time by a particular organization. We use the term risk issue to denote potential sources o f uncertainty or unpredictability that could generate one or more risk events. A potential risk issue is "first nation artifacts" that could create a risk event such as "discovery o f artifacts on road alignment". Realization o f this event could lead to one or more discrete scenarios depending on the significance o f the archeological find. Our treatment o f risk events in general allows for up to three scenarios corresponding to low, medium and high consequences, with associated probabilities and outcome measured in terms o f scope, time, cost, etc. Risk issues are categorized and organized as a hierarchy within the S R R that also includes details on whether the effect o f the risk issue is local (e.g. is individual work package related) or global in nature (affects many work packages or the entire project), the type(s) o f project stakeholders affected by the risk as well as the stakeholders who are best suited to manage the risk, appropriate mitigation measures, and suitable ways o f incorporating the risk into the economic analysis o f the project. A s part o f our philosophy o f allowing the user to build up knowledge, we allow master lists o f risk mitigation measures, methods for estimating likelihoods and impacts o f risk events, and methods o f incorporating the risk into the economic analysis o f the project, to be built up on the standard side o f the system. We use the concept o f risk drivers in creating associations between components o f the S R R and components o f the environmental templates in the standards domain. A component o f the environmental view, the presence o f which makes the risk issue relevant is defined as a risk driver. Risk issues that are driven by a particular E B S component can be listed as part o f the  55  encoded information o f that component. Knowledge regarding conditions under which the risk is likely to occur, expressed in terms o f the risk drivers that correspond to the attributes o f environmental components (e.g. for a bird species o f type x, is it an endangered species?), can also be encoded within the system by the user. On an individual project, we use a Project Risk Register (PRR) that contains risk issues that are relevant to the project context, such as the one shown in figure 3.4 that relates to the Okanagan lake bridge project. Figure 3.4(a) shows part o f the project risk register while figure 3.4(b) shows aspects o f the mitigation folder for the risk event 'Discovery o f Artifacts on Road Alignment.' Note that relevant performance measures affected by the event have been identified as time and scope. Other properties that can be associated with a risk event correspond to the folder names shown in figure 3.4(b). Users can choose among several modes o f use in building up a P R R as described below. The 1 st mode o f use lends itself to instances where the environmental definition is at a very coarse level or in instances when the project environment's uniqueness precludes the use o f standard E B S structures that set out a pre-defined relationship between risk issues and E B S components. In this mode the S R R is used as a mnemonic device. The user can browse through the hierarchy o f risk issues and extract risk issues that are thought to be relevant to the current project context. The user can then manually create associations between risk issues and E B S components as well as other project views such as the physical view. The 2nd mode o f use makes use o f the associations between E B S components o f standard templates and risk issues o f the S R R . A s a user builds up an environmental definition o f the project environment by copying over standard E B S templates or parts o f templates onto the project side, the risk issues that have been associated with the E B S components are  56  :Fite: :Pro)ect:View  -'  . Standards RISK  Window  Help  _ 3> X  1 BliE|tflfe|/bl&|fl|®| M ^ N & l g l ' f 1 .-Re;  L  t • --,•••«. r • il.ansg.sn Puck.-1 - - r -  TECH Category Technical Risk Issues PHY Category Enwonmertal Risk Issues s NAT Subcategory Natural Environmental Risks i CONT Issue Contaminated Sotl '- ENDG Issue Endangered Species 1 3-rou. Issue Polution  Description | Risk Dirvers j Performance measures | values Mfcgabon j Standard RIR Records j Memo] •• P  *  PRR.rfW.STAKE.FIRST ARTIF  Code [DISC  ..^Description jDiscovetv of Arriacts on RoadASo^menl  ACC Event Major accident on bridge release; - STAKE Subcategory Third Party Stakeholder Risks Ri:k Isiue Specific Ltsk I 3 FIRST Class First Nations ; Appropriate rtutigalion sliatetyes fa: 7 me ! S ARTIF Issue First Nations Artifacts .-:• Studies I f ; -OtSC Event Discovery of Artifacts on Roar Ewerrane past history of woik site Pretabiieation i s RE5ERV Issue First nations reservations s  (a)  NOISE Event Objections to construction nc i * SPCLINT Class Special Interest Group Risks a ECON Subcategory Economic Risks | 3 LAB Class Labour Market Risks \ \ S SKILL Issue SHed labor \ SHORT Event Shortage of skilled labor due i INF Class Inflationary Risks * FIN Subcategory Financial Environment S REG Subcategory Regulatory Risks i REGS Class Regulations  Appropriate mitigation strategies for: Scope  Modsyj  Modify]  Afjpropoaio (ratigafoon jfcaiegws tor.  ;  l  m E1AREG Issue EIA Regulations ORGCOHT Category Organizational / Contractual Risk 1$ rf-OIPft Issue Lackof experience of member a BANK Issue Bankruptcy of concession member FORCEMAJ Category Force Majeure  Scope •  -MftigatKfft Master List]  (b)  ~sTl : • a-•  Hedges / Guarantees v Q 8uy (Owes on volaliie prqecl r©uts (e.g mate QQbtawpicegua(anle«fromsa3plieistoiasp^ Studies  Edit  Ready;  Figure 3.4 (a) Project Risk Register for the Okanagan lake bridge project (b) Selection of appropriate mitigation measure from Master List of Mitigation Measures  automatically copied over to the P R R . The user can further augment the P R R by copying over additional risk issues from the S R R manually. In the 3rd mode o f use, we make use o f conditions specified i n terms o f the attributes o f E B S components to gain further insights as to the relevance o f the risk issue to the project context. A s described previously, a risk driver acts as the catalyst for a risk issue. However, the relevance o f the risk issue might be determined further by evaluating the characteristics o f the risk driver. For example the risk issue "bird nest relocation" would be driven by the E B S component "birds". However, the importance o f the risk issue becomes magnified when the value o f the Boolean attribute "Endangered?" o f the E B S component " B i r d s " takes on the value  57  " T R U E " . In the 3rd mode o f use, we allow conditions to be specified on the standard side that need to be met by attributes o f the E B S component for the risk issue(s) to be relevant. Once imported to the project side, and values assigned against its attributes, the user can run a check against the conditions specified for each associated risk issue. The system w i l l then match the conditions against the attribute values specified and signify risk issues that satisfy the conditions. The use o f any one or a combination o f the modes o f use described above w i l l result in the P R R containing a context specific listing o f risk issues. Use can be made o f the risk issues to then define the risk events that could potentially occur on the project. The risk events pertaining to a project such as the risk issue "Work stoppages on the western approach embankment to allow removal o f artifacts" tend to be very project specific, and we envisage only very general risk event definition w i l l be stored on the S R R as re-usable knowledge. In defining risk events for a particular project, the user armed with general risk event descriptions would examine the locations at which the components driving the risk issue are present. Considering each location separately, the user w i l l have the ability to examine other components that share the same locations. A n example would be the risk issue "archaeological artifacts" that is driven by the E B S component "archaeological artifacts" located i n Roadway chainage 23+00 - 24+50. If the process o f " B u i l d approach roadway" is also present at the same location then it is likely that risk events such as the one described could occur on the project. The ability to envision the juxtaposition o f risk issues, environmental components, and components o f other project views places the user in a position o f advantage to identify project risk events and their significance. A s shown i n figure 3.4(b), use can also be made o f encoded knowledge to select the most appropriate mitigation measure(s) for a risk event.  58  As described before, a project EBS structure such as the one for the Okanagan lake bridge project can be saved as a template on the standard side of the system along with information on the attributes that are of importance in modeling components, as well as the risk issues that are driven by the components. Similarly, the Standard Risk Register can be enhanced with risk issues that were identified during the course of the project and not previously recorded within it. Information contained within the master list of risk mitigation strategies, and information on methods of estimating the impact of risk event and of incorporating risk into the economic analysis can also be enhanced in this manner.  S-STSE  Erwironment SeatoSky Highway  =-PHY ; SHYD  Sub-class Hydrography  i f-fPGP  Sub-class Topography  ; k GEO  Sub-class Geology  j s-BOTN  Sub-class Botany  ' s-HABT  Sub-class Habitat  • :* ZOLG  Sub-class Zoology  ; s LWOG I :* ATMP  i+; Coastal Envirorareni '+ Lake Envkonment Economfc Class L-i Stream f  Sub-class Lower Organisms Sub-class Climatology  ; s-DESE  Sub-ctess Disease Control  i i PLUT  .  Sub-class Atmosphere  ; :+: CLHT  * SCL  Project  Class Physical Environment  Sub-class Pollution Class Social Environment  i ECO  Qass Economic / Financial Environment  +: POL  Class Political Enwonment  jf.-REG  Class R e c t o r y Environment  OK  Ready  Figure 3.5 Use of standard templates in defining Environmental Breakdown Structure for the Sea to Sky highway improvement project Now, assume that the Sea to Sky highway project is undertaken subsequent to the bridge project. Building up the EBS and identifying the risks on this project anew would be an onerous task. However, this process is expedited with the use of standard templates built up from the  59  floating bridge project. While the projects themselves might be fairly distinct, as a whole they share several components of a similar nature such as streams, economic components, and First Nations artifacts. In building up the EBS the user can copy over standard descriptions of components such as streams as shown in figure 3.5. While actual attribute values are absent, the attributes of importance are already defined for the standard components. Information on risk issues driven by the environmental component is also present which is copied over to the project side. These risk issues can be used in building up the PRR for the project. Once the user assigns values for the attributes that are reflective of the current project, they can also be matched against the risk issue conditions to determine the relative importance of the risk issue.  3.6 Conclusions We have described an IT-based approach for managing environmental risks that makes use of a hierarchical representation of a project's environment. The methodology allows components of the environmental model to be integrated with risk information, and also facilitates the development  of standard templates geared towards knowledge  and information re-use.  Application to two full-scale projects has demonstrated the usefulness of the approach. Among areas of future research is the development of visualization strategies that allow an analysis of the spread of risks over components of the environmental and other project views including project locations and participants along with their concentration in time.  3.7 Acknowledgments The authors would like to express their appreciation for the financial support provided by The British Columbia Ministry of Transportation in the form of a grant-in-aid for research on environmental risk identification for P3 projects.  60  3.8 Bibliography Akintoye, A . , Hardcastle, C , Beck, M , . Chinyio, E . , and Asenova, D . (2003). "Achieving best value in private finance initiative project procurement." Construction Management and Economics, 21, 461-470. Annamalai, M . , and Sterling, L . (2003). "Guidelines for constructing reusable  domain  ontologies." Proceedings, Workshop on Ontologies i n Agent Systems: 2nd International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, Melbourne, Australia. Brandon, P. and Ribeiro, F. (1998). " A knowledge-based system for assessing applications for house renovation grants." Construction Management and Economics, 16, 57-69. Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency (2003). "Basics o f Environmental Assessment." http://www.ceaa.gc.ca/010/basics_e.htm (1 Nov.'04). Cox, E . (1999). "Coping with the uncertainty principle: Predictive project risk assessment and risk classification using a fuzzy case-based reasoning system." P C A l , 13, 37-40. De Zoysa, S. and Russell, A . (2003). "Knowledge-based risk identification in infrastructure projects." Canadian Journal o f C i v i l Engineering, 30, 511-522. Department  of  Premier  and  Cabinet,  Tasmania  (2002).  "Project  http://www.projectmanagement.tas.gov.au/k_base/examples/pagerisk.htm  Management." (1 Nov.'04)  Fischer, M . and A a l a m i , F. (1996). "Scheduling with computer-interpretable  construction  method models." Journal o f Construction Engineering and Management, A S C E , 22(4), 337-347. Hall, J., Cruickshank, I., and Godfrey, P. (2001). "Software-supported risk management for the construction industry." Proceedings o f the Institute o f C i v i l Engineering, 42-48, Paper 12272.  61  H M Treasury (1998). "Public Sector Comparators and Value for M o n e y . " H M Treasury, London, U.K. Hughes, W . (1989). "Identifying the environments o f construction projects." Construction Management and Economics, 7(1), 29-40. Leung, H . , Chuah, K . , and Rao Tummala, V . (1998). " A knowledge-based system for identifying potential project risks." International Journal o f Management Science, 26(5), 623-638. Ministry o f Transportation, British Columbia (2003). "Environmental Impact  Assessment  synopsis report, Okanagan lake bridge project." Ministry o f Transportation, Environmental Management Section, Victoria, B C . Ministry o f Transportation, British Columbia (2004). "Environmental assessment o f Sea-To-Sky highway improvement project." Ministry o f Transportation, Environmental Management Section, Victoria, B C . Russell, A . and Froese, T. (1997). "Challenges and a vision for computer-integrated management systems for medium-sized contractors." Canadian Journal o f C i v i l Engineering, 24, 180190. Russell, A . , and Udaipurwala, A . (2004). "Using multiple views to model construction." Proc.CIB World Building Congress, Toronto, National Research Council o f Canada. Underhill, J. and Angold, P. (2000). "Effects o f roads on wildlife in an intensively modified landscape." Environment Review, 8, 21-39. Week, T. (1977). "Environmental impact o f transportation project." Environmental Impacts o f International C i v i l Engineering Projects and Practices. Proceedings o f a session o f the A S C E National Convention, San Francisco, 1-28.  62  Wilson, F. and Stonehouse, D . (1983). "Environmental impact assessment: highway location." Journal o f Transportation Engineering, 109(6), 759-768.  63  Chapter 4  Visualization of Construction Data*  4.1 Introduction Construction project participants are confronted with the need to make high quality and timely decisions based on the information content that can be deduced from the very large data sets required to represent the various facets o f a project through its development life cycle. H o w best to extract information from large data sets is a question that fascinates researchers and practitioners alike across a number o f disciplines, including construction. One line o f inquiry deals with data visualization, which the authors believe has special appeal to the construction industry because o f its visual orientation, and because data visualization tools are directly usable by  construction practitioners  without the requirement  for expert  assistance,  a potential  impediment to the adoption o f other reasoning schema being examined by the  research  community. Described in this paper is work directed at exploring how data visualization strategies, in concert with a multi-view representation o f construction projects can aid decision making and provide valuable insights into reasons for construction performance.  Data  visualization has applicability to a broad range o f management functions, and, supported by a  * This chapter formed part o f the Proceedings o f the 2005 Construction Specialty Conference o f the Canadian Society o f C i v i l Engineering. June 2-4, 2005. Toronto, O N . The authorship is: Tanaya K o r d e , M A S c student and Graduate Research Assistant, Department o f C i v i l Engineering, University o f British C o l u m b i a , tpk08@yahoo.com, Y u g u i W a n g , M A S c student and Graduate Research Assistant, Department o f C i v i l Engineering, University o f British C o l u m b i a , yugui_wang@hotmail.com, and A l a n D . Russell, Professor and Chair, Computer Integrated Design and Construction, Department o f C i v i l Engineering, University o f British C o l u m b i a , adr@civil.ubc.ca.  64  holistic representation o f a project, important learning can take place on cause-effect relations that might otherwise go undetected and/or hypotheses on reasons for performance to date proved or disproved. The representation o f a project adopted herein involves nine project views integrated within a single system. These views are: physical, process, organizational/contractual, cost, quality, as-built, change management, environmental, and risk (Russell and Udaipurwala 2004).  Examples o f data visualization as they relate to the environmental and  change  management views are provided in the paper. In general, visualization can be defined as the art o f representing data using suitable visual formats and/or graphical images such that it simplifies and facilitates its interpretation by the intended target audience. In the construction world, there can be multiple target audiences, and the type o f visual image used may vary from one audience to another depending on their comfort with 2-D, 3-D, and more complex images. For example, while construction personnel tend to be very visually oriented, often their clients are not. Studies have revealed that the visual perceptive system o f humans is much faster than the human cognitive system. Hence humans can derive information from data better and faster i f it is presented in a suitable visual format. Data and information can be distinguished from one another, with information corresponding to the message(s) extracted from data. Interestingly, in the visualization literature, often the term information visualization is used, although the emphasis is in fact on the visualization o f data. Representing data in a visual format "makes the human brain use more o f its perceptual system for the initial processing o f any data than relying completely on its cognitive abilities"' (Geisler 1998).  A s stated by Brautigam (1996),  visualization techniques "exploit the human perceptual system" as opposed to the human cognition system. Various attributes o f the data o f interest are mapped against certain features  65  like color, size, shape, location or position thereby reducing the need for explicit selection, sorting and scanning operations within the data (Tufte 1990, Shneiderman 1994). These techniques thus tailor the data to be retrieved, such that the eye can quickly distinguish salient features o f the data before the brain begins to process it (Brautigam 1996). This helps the target audience achieve insights faster and better as to the information content o f a data set that may otherwise be concealed or not easy to comprehend from its representation in tabular or text form. For the current state-of-the-art o f computerized visualization techniques, data representation is often coupled with real time interactive tools like zooming and filtering, details-on-demand windows and setting dynamic query fields, which allow users to browse through and study the represented data. Emphasis is placed on the rapid filtering o f data to reduce the result sets (Ahlberg and Shneiderman 1993). This is called visual data exploration. Thus, visualization can be described as a two-fold process o f data presentation and data exploration.  4.2 Significance of Application of Visualization to Construction Environment Construction projects involve voluminous data sets. A project's database may contain data varying from textual form such as drawing specifications and contractual clauses, to quantitative data like number o f change orders and related properties dealing with value, timing, number or participants, etc., RFIs issued and turn around times, drawing control data, schedule information pertaining to dates and activity durations (planned and actual), weather conditions on site, and cost breakdowns. The data is generally time and location variant and originates from multiple project participants.  The sheer volume and nature o f the data pose significant management  challenges. Further complicating these challenges is the observation that construction data is  66  often poorly organized because it lacks proper grouping and sub grouping which can lead to missed opportunities to associate related data or facts. For effective management o f a project, efficient handling, monitoring and control o f all project data is essential. Buried within this data are important messages which relate to the reasons for performance to date, but extracting this information from any database, especially a poorly organized one can be very difficult (even i f a database is well organized, linkages amongst different data items may not be obvious - data visualization may in fact help one forge relevant links). A s a consequence, explaining different aspects o f construction project performance often qualifies as a classic case o f "data rich information poor" problems (Songer and Hays 2003). Thus, the massive amount o f data available to management personnel results i n information overload (Songer and Hays 2003) unless it is accompanied by a high level o f organization and accompanying reporting mechanisms. Effective visual representation schema assist the efficient scanning o f different parts o f a project's database, allowing users to instantly "identify the trends, jumps or gaps, outliers, maxima and minima, boundaries, clusters and structures i n the data" (Brautigain 1996). Exploration tools allow continuous interaction between users and the graphic displays by offering scope for "constant reformulation" o f search goals and parameters as new insights into the data are gained (Ahlberg and Shneiderman 1993). It provides a continuously updated information platform to users, thereby aiding the decision making process from  project  conception to completion o f construction, the timeline o f interest i n this paper.  4.3 Visualization Technologies Based on a literature review, it is observed that the field o f visualization has evolved tremendously from classical graphs and diagrams to the current array o f computerized interactive  67  visual aids. Over the past decade, a number o f visualization techniques have been developed and enhanced to achieve a range o f objectives and increased scope o f application. In this section the authors provide a brief overview o f the current state-of-the-art o f these techniques, their working principles and sample software applications, although this treatment is not exhaustive. Several authors have tried to classify visualization techniques using various schema. Earliest amongst these was. classification by the data type(s) that they can represent, proposed by Shneiderman (1996), who further proposed another classification framework on the basis o f the type o f user interactive tools offered by a given technique like overview, zoom and filter, details-on-demand, etc. The intent o f proposing this latter classification was to identify techniques that could fulfill a specific analytical task desired by the user. Different interactive tools offer different analytic capabilities like clustering, comparing, and identifying patterns within the data, thereby assisting users to gain deeper insights into the data. In selecting a visualization technique for a certain application, users need to resolve two predominant issues: the data type(s) the technique can represent; and, the kind o f user interaction it offers for analytic purposes. In order to satisfy both o f these fundamental  user concerns, Q i n et al. (2003) combined the two classification  frameworks proposed by Shneiderman to put forth a matrix framework (Table 4.1) where visualization techniques are situated in a cell depending upon which data type they are applicable to and what analytical tasks they offer to users for interaction. The two-dimensional classification framework shown i n Table 4.1 has data type ( I D , 2 D , 3D, Multi-dimensional, Hierarchical, Graph and Text/hypertext) as one dimension and analytical tasks (overview-query, comparison, cluster-classification, distribution pattern and dependencycorrelation analysis) as the other. 'Outlier analysis i.e. identifying outliers in a data set forms a part o f cluster classification as clusters and outliers are cross problems' (Qin et al. 2003).  68  Table 4.1 Visualization techniques, working principles and sample software applications (Qin et al. 2003) Analytical Task Data Type  Overviewquery  Comparison  Clusterclassification  Distribution Dependencypattern correlation analysis  ID  Animation; LifeLine; Line graph; Color map; Curve density plot  Pie plot; graph  Geographic map; Scatter plot; C o l o r map  Line  C o l o r map; Curve density plot  Value bar; Curve density plot; Histogram  Geographic map; Scatter plot  C o l o r map  Isogramplot  Scatter plot  C o l o r map  AViz  2D  3D  Multidimensional  V i s i b l e Human Volume rendering; Scatter plot GrandTour  Table Lens; nVision; Scatterplot Matrix; Star glyphs  Andrews Curve; glyphs  Star  WinViz; HD-Eye  GrandTour; Project pursuit, FastMap  Parallel Coordinates; InfoCrystal  Circle Segments; InfoCrystal  Scatterplot Matrix; Dimension Stacking  Hierarchical Hyperbolic view; M a g i c Eye V i e w ; Cone Tree; D i s k Tree Graph  Treemap; Information Cube  -  WebBook WebForager DA-Tu; view  NetMap  WebView  Fisheye  Text/hypertext  NetMap Perspective W a l l ; Document Lens  TileBars  InfoCrystal  TileBars; InfoCrystal  Visualization techniques and/or software applications are grouped in cells depending upon which data type they can represent and the corresponding analytical task they offer to users.  Some  visualization techniques like 'Perspective w a l l ' or 'Cone trees' are suitable for only a specific data type and a specific analytic task and hence occur only i n a single cell in the table, while other techniques like 'Colormaps', 'Scatter plots' are applicable to several data types or analytic  tasks and hence appear in several cells. For clarity, each cell is divided into two sections: the top section lists names o f specific software applications where appropriate, while the lower section contains the names o f visualization techniques. A n interesting observation made by Q i n et al. (2003) is that techniques for deeper analysis are much fewer than those for overview-query and comparison.  4.4 Applications of Visualization in Construction In carrying out the literature review on visualization techniques, the authors also undertook to identify the extent to which they have been applied to the field o f construction, with the focus being primarily on the visualization o f contruction management data as opposed to visualizing the physical artifact to be built for purposes o f constructability reasoning or workability o f the methods selected for its construction (e.g. Staub and Fischer 1998). Somewhat surprisingly, there is very little literature that addresses visualization o f construction data, either using conventional representations or some o f the more avant-garde techniques developed and advocated by computer scientists. Songer and Hays (2003) addressed the issue o f managing project control data using Treemaps and other visual aids like scatterplots and histograms. They described an iterative process o f structure-filter-communicate while considering level o f detail, density, and efficiency o f data representation. Russell and Udaipurwala (2000a) (2000b), (2002) used linear planning charts to help with assessing schedule quality and schedule updating strategies, 2-D and 3-D graphs to represent the distribution o f resources in time and space, stacked 2-D graphs to assist with explaining activity performance to date as a function o f site conditions encountered, and 3D graphs to portray problems encountered in time and space and their consequences.  70  For the remainder o f this paper, the authors treat two different phases o f a project and participant viewpoints to illustrate the types o f insights that can be achieved through data visualization. The thought processes described and accompanying images for these scenarios can be readily adapted to the exploration o f other mangement functions and project data types. For the first combination, the authors examine the client's perspective on decision making as to the most suitable procurement mode and formulation o f contractual terms. For the second, the authors examine the contractor's perspective on change order management during project execution, and possible impacts on project performance. The two examples given are illustrative of the kinds o f situations often encountered on capital projects, and which can be missed because of a preoccupation with individual items as opposed to the collection o f many items and related patterns o f occurrence - i.e. there can be a failure to see the big picture. This in turn can lead to several undesirable situations, including an underestimation o f consequences, failure to initiate corrective action in a timely way, delays, management burnout, loss o f entitlement, and loss o f reputation, to name a few.  4.5 Using Images to Model Environmental Risk Drivers The identification and management o f risks arising from a project's environmental context is vital to project success. Failure to manage such risks can lead to adverse impacts on performance measures such as cost, duration, revenue, scope, safety and quality. In extreme circumstances, it can even lead to the termination o f a project. One or more attributes o f an environmental component (environmental view o f a project) separately or in combination with the attributes a physical component (physical view o f a project) and/or those o f an activity or a group o f activities (process view o f a project) can act as risk drivers for a risk event, and the  71  likelihood o f its occurrence and quantum o f consequences can be dependent on whether or not they share the same site location and/or participant responsibility at the same time, as shown in Figure 4.1. The challenge becomes how to detect the confluence o f these attributes.  Environmental drivers  Organizational / contractual drivers  What Where When  Physical drivers  U—M Process drivers  Risk Drivers  Risk Events  Figure 4.1 Risk drivers and events A projects' environmental context is comprised o f the natural and man-made environments. Here the focus is on the natural environment. In most jurisdictions, the requirement exists to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) prior to undertaking a construction project, and a wide array o f environmental components must be examined, as illustrated i n the hierarchical  environmental breakdown  structure  ( E B S ) depicted  in figure  4.2(a).  Each  component o f this structure can be described in terms o f a number o f attributes, and depending on the presence o f these attributes and their value at a specific location, the potential for one or more risk events may result (figures 4.2(b) and 4.2(c)). Visualization techniques can be very helpful for comprehending the distribution o f environmental risk drivers in time and space and assignment o f responsibility for their management. The resulting images can be augmented by superimposing additional data in terms of the timing and placement o f physical components and related construction activities, thereby assisting in the identification, quantification, mitigation and assignment o f risks. Overviewed  72  :  Standards £ 8 5 . ;&mdow .;;Hel  Attributes- Values | standard EBS Records j Risk Issues | Protect Records) Memo I  i OL8E Environment Example Floating Bridge Project Environment Path OLBE;WY,HABTAQTH.-; • • ^ PH¥ Class Physical Environment OxfevJMILC . Oescrtfon (Mi Creek Hetwat 1 3-HYD Sub-dass Hydrography I ; & CREC Entity Creek Type p . I ( 1- MJLLC Sub-entity Mi creek i I BEARC Sub-entity Bear creek I Description Inhered.:. l Ptamed.. i Plarirjed. FENTC Sub-entity Penticton Creek s Ansa YES NO YES YES NO YES • i-lAKE Entity Lake YES NO YES j i- OKNG 5ub-en«y Okanagan Lake YES NO YES H-TPGP Sub-dass topography YES NO YES Hi-GEO Sub-dass Geology l l ' S ''Idnnccl AtlrihutL V J I U L * Wi BOTN Sub-class Botany i BHA8T Sub-class Habitat Path: OLBE.PHY.HABT.AQTH. j i-TRST Entity Terrestrial Habitat Attnbu*e:. Poten&al fot Habitat Lass I ! S-AQTH Entity Aquatic Habitat Value Type: Boolean .  '3  row Sub-dass Zoology IS ATMP Sub-class Atmosphere ffl-aMT Sub-class Ctovatology iS-PLUT Sub-dass Pollution SCL Class Social Environment t-8 A80G Sub-class Aboriginal \M CMIF Sub-dass Community Life * MSET Sub-class Micro Social Factors S ACHT Sub-class Arctieotooicai and Historic Resources 3- ARCH Entity Archeology ECO Class Economic / Financial Environment POL Class Poftlcal Environment REG Class Regulatory Environment  (a)  Actual NO NO NO NO NO  ' Actual NO NO NO NO NO  Unn  (b) Inned Values \  Location Range 4Q+„45+ 40+^45+  Class B A R Q B B B B  Eniei fictuaSValues  ; Value True  II3T  (c)  Ready..  Figure 4.2 (a) Environmental Breakdown Structure (EBS); (b) Environmental component attribute definitions; (c) Attribute value. here is current work by the authors directed at developing a detailed specification as to how best to represent various aspects of the environmental view of a project in visual form. Shown in figure 4.3 is an innovative 3-D histogram that depicts the number of environmental risk drivers in time and space and by assigned responsibility. Each of its two horizontal axes represents respectively, the project location and time, both of which are treated as intervals instead of specific instances. The interval of these location and time could be reduced or increased as necessary. The vertical axis from the origin point of the three axes represents the number of total drivers while the other two vertical axes at the end of their respective horizontal axes represent the number of drivers by responsibility (e.g. owner, consultant, general contractor) integrated across time and space, respectively.  73  Figure 4.3 Distribution in time and space and by responsibility of environmental risk drivers One common issue in risk identification is the need to know how many risk drivers exist within a specific time interval and at a specific location. This information is readily available by examining each tower shaped column in a time/location cell. The number o f organizational drivers for different project participants is represented using different colors, thereby capturing an additional dimension within the 3 - D graphs. For example, focusing on the intersection o f time T4 and location L 9 , reveals a tower shaped column with three colors: red for drivers managed by the owner, green for drivers managed by the consultant and blue for drivers managed by the general contractor (in fact for this example, a combination o f color and different shaped/sized icons is used). If precise information about these numbers is needed, they can be made to appear in a small information box as shown on the graph by briefly suspending the mouse on the  74  column o f interest. A second issue o f interest to users is the distribution o f the total number o f drivers according to time and location, with a further breakdown by project participant. This information is given on the two "side walls" o f the graph. Distributions for the number o f organizational drivers are shown in different colors while the distribution for total number o f drivers is shown by the heavy black lines. For the case when many columns exist making it difficult to scrutinize the distribution information put to the side walls, a 3-D view control box is provided so that the graph can be rotated and the required information made completely visible. Users are interested in not only how many drivers exist i n a specific time and location cell, but also the identity o f these drivers and their attributes. To get this information, users should be able to click the hyperlinked text i n the small information box being shown i n figure 4.3. This w i l l result in a separate window popping up with a hierarchical structure for drivers visualized as shown in figure 4.4(a) using the Magic Eye V i e w technique (Kreuseler and Schumann 2002), a method by which all o f the hierarchical nodes are distributed on the surface o f a hemisphere. For example, i f you click "Total: 33" in the box i n figure 4.3, a hierarchical structure with total o f 33 drivers w i l l pop up while i f you click "Owner: 9" a hierarchical structure with a total o f 9 drivers for which the owner is responsible w i l l pop up. If the responsibility for a driver is shared amongst two or more project participants, the driver w i l l be included in the count for each organization but it w i l l only be counted once in terms o f the total number o f drivers for its corresponding time and locations interval. This hemispherical hierarchy could also be rotated so that nodes o f special interest are focused on, as shown i n figures 4.4(a) and 4.4(b). B y suspending the mouse on one o f these nodes for a second, the attributes for that specific driver would pop up in a small information box giving attribute name, value, and location (e.g.  75  archeological site area within a section o f a highway corridor or potential = ' T R U E ' for habitat degradation within a stream bed).  Figure 4.4 (a) Hemispherical hierarchy; (b) Focused hemispherical hierarchy (From Kreuseler and Schumann 2002)  4.6 Applying Visualization Techniques for Change Order Management In this section, an example is provided o f the kind o f insights that data visualization can offer for the function o f change-order management from the perspective o f the general contractor or construction manager. Changes and change orders are an inevitable part o f any construction project. They can have a significant effect on a project and its participants i n terms o f productivity, and overall project performance. Further, they can give rise to contentious disputes because o f their cumulative impact on the efficient execution o f other work, and the additional load placed on management staff. Various researchers (e.g. Hanna et al. 2004, Ibbs 1997, Thomas and Napolitan 1995) i n the past have tried to quantify these impacts as well as the  76  properties o f change orders that have the most adverse consequences for performance. Interestingly, however, the subject o f change order management is seldom discussed i n the literature. The focus in this paper is on demonstrating the value o f visualization in helping to determine i f clustering o f change orders is occurring in one or more o f time and space or by project participant, which could in turn explain in whole or in part performance difficulties at different levels o f the project (e.g. trade level, overall project level). This focus forms part o f a larger ongoing research effort directed at a change order management view o f a project and its relationship with other project views. A change order may be regarded as a separate information entity that can be tracked in an information system. It has a number o f properties, including associations with components or information entities that define other project views. Some o f these properties are specified by system users, others are derived by the system based on information provided (e.g. durations). A partial list o f change order properties is provided in Table 4.2. A s indicated previously, rather than focus on the properties o f an individual change order, here the authors show how data visualization can provide a ' b i g picture' o f what is happening to a project in the way o f changes during its construction phase. A n implicit causal model underlying the images given is that the possible impact o f change orders is likely to be highest i f they are clustered simultaneously in time, space and by project participant. In presenting these images, use has been made o f an actual data set in terms o f number o f change orders (122), value, timing and location. Further, to ensure clarity o f the image, coarse definitions o f time and space have been used. Time is measured in months. In terms o f monthly count o f active C O s , a C O is counted for as many months as it is active. In terms o f its value, it is distributed uniformly over its duration. Locations have been aggregated into three: on site, off site, and both on and off site,  77  Table 4.2 Selected properties of a change order Change order (CO) property  View  CO Mgmt CO Date CO process initiated Mgmt CO Date CO approved (cancelled) Mgmt CO Duration of CO initiation/approval process Mgmt CO Reason for CO (client initiated, design error/omission, ...) Mgmt Date CO work started As-built Date CO work completed As-built Duration of executing CO work As-built CO Number of consultants involved with CO Mgmt Identity of consultants involved (e.g. Architect, structural CO engineer, ...) Mgmt CO Number of trades involved with CO Mgmt CO Identity of trades involved (e.g. GC, mechanical, electrical, ...) Mgmt Basis for payment (lump sum, unit price, time & materials, ...) CO Mgmt Base cost of CO and cost breakdown, exclusive of impact costs CO Mgmt Estimate of impact costs of CO if applicable CO Mgmt Physical component(s) of project affected by CO and locations Physical Long lead time procurement items associated with CO Physical Procurement item procurement sequence Process Association with existing schedule activities Process Number of existing activities affected Process Association with new activities as a consequence of CO Process Number of new activities as a consequence of CO Process As-built problems associated with CO As-built Identity of existing drawings revised due to CO Physical Identity of new drawings due to CO Physical Number of RFI's associated with CO As-built Identity of RFI's associated with CO As-built CO ID (identity)  Data type  Source  alphanumeric User date  User  date  User  number  Derived  alphanumeric User date date number number  User User Derived Derived  alphanumeric User number  Derived  alphanumeric User alphanumeric User numbers  User  number  User  alphanumeric alphanumeric alphanumeric alphanumeric number alphanumeric number alphanumeric alphanumeric alphanumeric number alphanumeric  User User User User Derived User Derived User User User Derived User  with the reasoning being that offsite C O ' s would not contribute to productivity loss or congestion on site. From the viewpoint o f developing visualization schema, it is observed that it is important to allow for different granularities i n the definition o f time (e.g. day, week, month),  location (individual, group o f locations, class of locations), project participants (individual, by group, by class - e.g. consultants, trades, suppliers), and so on. Figure 4.5 provides a visual representation o f the change order history o f a project in terms o f C O identity ( a simple number in this case), the months i n which it was executed, and the monthly expenditure in terms of base costs (no impact costs included). A l l the change orders executed during a month are mapped against one color to add clarity to the image. The resulting image demonstrates that most o f the change orders are clustered in the latter stages o f the project, although a significant share of the total value o f C O work was performed earlier and was associated with just a few C O s .  10094)4 10064)5  • 104)4 «0?4)5  0 114)4  •12-04  001-05  «024)5  »034>5  0 04-05  11054)5  1350000 $»,00B „  $250,000  © <->  $200,000  _>  $150,000  3  $100 AGO  m  CD  $0  Figure 4.5 CO History in terms of CO ID, timing and value of the work Figure 4.6 provides a deeper insight into the project's set o f C O s and perhaps tells a more compelling story than figure 4.5. In this image, each project participant is mapped onto its own  79  colour. The participants are stacked over one another in a predefined order. In this case we have dealt with five participants in total, three on-site trades, Trade A , Trade B and Trade C , and two fabricators, namely Fab X and Fab Y . The vertical axis represents the number o f C O s active for a specific participant in a given month (a dollar value axis could also have been used). The C O s have also been sorted according to their location along X-axis. This makes the available information easier to assimilate. A single cell in the horizontal plane o f the graph yields the project participants involved, the number o f C O s active per participant, the active month and the location o f the C O s . For instance, the arrow in the figure indicates that in the month May-05, Trade B had 7 active 'On-site' C O s . Figure 4.6 highlights one o f the challenges involved i n formulating visual images which maximize the clarity and visibility o f the data represented. For larger datasets such as this, i f vertical columns had been used, the taller columns in the front o f the image would obstruct the view o f the bars in behind, thereby hiding much o f the content o f the image. To avoid this problem, we experimented with the use o f cones and pyramids, and found the latter provided the most pleasing and useful image. For the visual images in figures 4.5 and 4.6 various C O attributes were mapped against colour and location in 3D space, thereby allowing significant insights to be derived form the C O data. However coupling the current images with interactive tools like 'zooming and filtering', 'details-on-demand windows' or setting 'dynamic query fields' would increase the scope for data analysis and provide deeper insights into the data. For example, clicking on a particular C O in figure 4.5 would pop up a 'detail-on-demand window' with C O properties selected from the list in table 4 . 2 and contained i n a user defined content profile. Figure 4.6 illustrates a very basic example o f such a pop-up window displaying the trade name (Trade B ) , the month o f interest  80  and the Number o f C O s associated with the trade. Further, by introducing filtering techniques, users would have the flexibility to view only data o f current interest: e.g a time window o f September-04, 'Off-site' C O s only, and work by Fab X only. Such selection and filtering capabilities help management pinpoint specific issues and help with decision making directed at resolving existing or emerging problems.  8  p  ^  ij  2  S  <p 2 8 8 ° 8 8 8 8? 8  Time (in Months)  Figure 4.6 History of COs by location, time, responsibility and number  4.7 Discussion and Conclusions A number o f challenges exist when implementing visualization techniques to represent construction data. T w o o f them are described here. First, it is important to provide a number o f visualization techniques for the same data. Different users have different preferences and capabilities for the visual format that yields the greatest insights or most information content. For  81  example, 2-D drawings are still preferred by most people working i n industry, with growing interest in 3-D model being shown in a few organizations - thus both formats should be treated. These formats should also be supplemented by being able to view simultaneously more traditional formats, such as data tables. Additionally, impediments to using visual images such as color-blindness need to be considered, and compensated for by using different shapes to represent data components instead o f just relying on colour coding. A second challenge is the loss o f interaction when moving from the screen to hard copy form. A s stated previously, interaction is a vital tool for exploring efficiently large data sets on screen using different formats, viewing angles, and so on. Effectively, the screen interactive mode should be used to explore the data in order to determine its information content and then determine which format (2-D, 3-D, colour, scaling, rotation, etc) portrays the information context most clearly. It is this image that should then be produced in hard copy format. Unfortunately, some o f the benefits o f data visualization are lost when moving from interactive to hard copy mode. In conclusion, a brief overview o f the current state-of-the-art  o f data visualization  techniques and several o f the advantages o f data visualization that relate to the perceptive as opposed  to  cognitive  processes  of  humans  is  provided.  Two  distinctly  different  decision/reasoning contexts illustrated the value that data visualization techniques offer in terms o f extracting information from the large data sets that characterize construction projects. B y combining such techniques with a holistic representation o f a project and related data, the potential exists to develop a potent tool for assisting construction management personnel and other project participants improve their decision making and their understanding o f the reasons for project performance to date. In the near term, the authors w i l l be focusing on developing a number o f causal models or hypotheses  for explaining construction performance  (e.g.  82  productivity, delays) and how aspects o f these models can be represented i n one or more visual images to assist in determining the validity o f the hypothesis put forward about performance levels achieved. Further images relevant to other management functions as they relate to quality and risk management w i l l also be explored. The most promising o f these w i l l be fully implemented and field-tested on actual projects.  4.8 Acknowledgement The authors would like to express their appreciation for the financial support provided by N S E R C Strategic Grant S T P G P 257798-02, and a British Columbia Ministry o f Transportation Grant-in-Aid.  4.9 Bibliography Ahlberg, C . and Shneiderman, B . (1993). "Visual information seeking: Tight coupling o f dynamic query filters with starfield displays." Human Factors in Computing Systems, Conference Proc. C H I ' 9 4 , 313-317. Brautigam, M . (1996). " A p p l y i n g information visualization techniques to web navigation." Thesis proposal, U C Santa Cruz, U S A . Geisler, G . (1998). " M a k i n g information more accessible: a survey o f information visualization applications and techniques." http://www.ils.unc.edu/~geisg/info/infovis/paper.html. (03 Feb.,  2005)  Hanna, A . ; Camlic, R.; Peterson, P.; and Lee, M . (2004). "Cumulative effect o f project changes for electrical and mechanical construction." J. o f Const. Engrg. & Mgmt., 130(6), 762-771.  83  Ibbs, W . (1997). "Quantitative impacts o f project change: size issues." J. o f Const. Engrg. & M g m t , 123(3), 308-311. Kreuseler, M . , and Schumann, H . (2002). " A flexible approach for visual data mining." I E E E Transactions  on Visualization and Computer Graphics, Institute o f Electrical  and  Electronics Engineers Computer Society, 8(1): 39-51. Qin, C ; Zhou, C ; and Pei, T. (2003). "Taxonomy o f visualization techniques and systems Concerns between users and developers are different." The State K e y Lab o f Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute o f Geographic Science and Resources Research, Chinese Academy o f Sciences, Beijing, China,  http://www.hku.hk/cupem/  asiagis/fall03/Full_Paper/Qin_Chengzhi.pdf (03 Feb. 03, 2005). Russell, A . and Udaipurwala, A . (2004). "Using multiple views to model construction." C I B World Building Congress 2004, Toronto, Canada. 11 pages. Russell, A . and Udaipurwala, A . (2002). "Construction schedule visualization." Proc. o f the International Workshop on Information Technology in C i v i l Engrg., 2002, Washington D . C . , U S A , 167-178. Russell, A . and Udaipurwala, A . (2000b). "Visual representation o f project planning and control data." Proc. o f the 8th International Conference ( I C C C B E - V I I I ) , Stanford University, U S A , (1): 542-549. Russell, A . and Udaipurwala, A . (2000a). "Assessing the quality o f a construction schedule." Proc. o f A S C E Construction Congress V I , 2000, Orlando, Florida, U S A , 928-937. Shneiderman, B . (1994). "Dynamic queries for visual information seeking." I E E E Software, 11(6): 70-77.  84  Shneiderman, B . (1996). "The eyes have it: a task by data type taxonomy for information visualization." Proc. o f the I E E E Symposium on Visual Languages, 1996, Los Alamitos, U S A , 336-343. Songer, A . and Hays, B . (2003). " A framework for multi-dimensional visualization o f project control data." Construction Research Congress 2003, Honolulu, Hawaii, U S A , 121-130. Staub, S. and Fischer, M . (1998). "Constructability reasoning based on a 4 D facility model." Structural Engineering W o r l d Wide, T191-1 ( C D R O M Proceedings), Elsevier Science L t d . Thomas, R. and Napolitan, C . (1995). "Quantitative effects o f construction changes on labor productivity." J. o f Const. Engrg. & Mgmt., 121(3), 290-296. Tufte, E . (1990). "Envisioning information." Graphics press, Cheshire, Connecticut, U S A .  85  Chapter 5  Environment Modeling for Risk Management in Construction Projects*  5.1 Introduction The worldwide boom o f civil engineering projects arises, i n part, from a huge demand for new and upgraded public infrastructure while at the same time increasing the pressure for funds from already overextended government budgets. Procurement modes, such as Public-Private Partnerships (P3's) which seek to maximize involvement o f the private sector, are being adopted more and more by governments around the world to reduce their allocation o f funds to such projects, while providing infrastructure to the public in a timely way. Risk management plays an important role at the procurement mode decision making phase (e.g., traditional delivery vs. P3) for the reason that both the public and private sectors need to explicitly identify the complete spectrum o f project risks and which project party is best suited to manage individual risks, so that they can be allocated in a way that maximizes value-for-money. Both the natural and man-made environments, in which a project w i l l be designed, constructed and operated are significant sources o f risk. Risk events can impact project  * This chapter is a draft manuscript prepared for submission to a journal. The authorship is: Y u g u i Wang, M A S c student and Graduate Research Assistant, Department o f C i v i l Engineering, University o f British C o l u m b i a , yugui_wang@hotmail.com, and A l a n D . Russell, Professor and Chair, Computer Integrated Design and Construction, Department o f C i v i l Engineering, University o f British C o l u m b i a , adr@civil.ubc.ca.  86  performance (cost, time, quality, scope, revenue and safety) either directly or indirectly. For example, a natural hazard such as a landslide or an unexpected contaminated underground condition can directly extend project duration and increase project cost, while a change i n government regulations during the course o f a project may require project participants to follow a more stringent environmental policy and conduct more costly mitigation measures, thereby impacting project performance. A project's context can be usefully described in terms o f nine dimensions or views: physical, process, organizational/contractual, cost, quality, as-built, change management, environmental, and risk (Russell and Udaipurwala 2004). O f particular interest at the outset o f a project for risk management are the following four views: the environmental view which treats the natural and man-made environments in which the project w i l l be executed; the physical view which treats what w i l l be built; the process view which describes how the project w i l l be procured and constructed; and, the organizational/contractual view which states who is responsible for what. One or more attributes o f an environmental view component, separately or i n combination with the attributes o f a physical view component, and/or those o f an activity or a group o f activities from the process view can act as risk drivers for a risk event, and the likelihood o f its occurrence and quantum o f its consequences can be dependent on whether or not they share the same site location and/or participant responsibility in the same time frame, as shown in Figure 5.1. In this paper, a flexible, computer-based approach for modeling a project's environment and which supports knowledge management and various project management functions, with emphasis on risk identification and management is described. The approach is applicable to any and all project types. The paper is organized as follows. A review o f past classification and modeling approaches for describing a project's environment is presented in section 5.2 along  87  Environmental drivers  Physical drivers  H  Organizational / contractual drivers  i  ^  r  Process drivers  Risk Drivers  Risk Events  Figure 5.1 Risk drivers and events  with the features desired o f a comprehensive, computer-based representation schema for modeling a project's environment and interfacing it with a range o f project management functions. This is followed i n section 5.3 by an overview description o f the system architecture adopted for modeling a project's environment, with emphasis placed on the environmental and risk views o f a project, how they are integrated, and on the role knowledge management can play in populating these views. A l s o treated  are the modeling constructs used within  the  environmental view. Contents o f a master environmental breakdown structure ( E B S ) are then presented in section 5.4. The authors believe these contents, which have been gleaned from a number o f sources to be an important contribution o f the paper.  T w o case studies are then  presented in section 5.5 to demonstrate application o f the system architecture and supporting prototype system to full scale projects.  A reality that accompanies the modeling o f actual  projects is the potentially massive scale o f the data sets required for their representation. H o w insights can be derived from such data sets through data visualization strategies is briefly described in section 5.6. Finally, section 5.7 treats conclusions o f the paper.  88  5.2 Current Approaches for Representation of a Project's Environment Carpenter (2001) defined the environment as surroundings and their characteristics which affect human and other life forms that exist within these surroundings. He stated that the environment represents both the existence o f resources (human and natural) and their easily degraded quality. From the perspective o f project management,  we consider a project's  environment as its surroundings and their characteristics which, at any phase o f a project's life cycle, affect its performance within these surroundings. W e use the notion o f an environmental view o f a project as the mechanism for capturing and representing a project's environmental context. A n environmental impact assessment (EIA) or similar study is the approach routinely used and indeed required for most civil engineering projects i n order to consider the .interaction between a project and its environment. Legislated guidelines determine the scope o f such a study which mostly relates to natural environmental components, economic conditions, social and health components, and cultural and heritage components (Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency 2003). A hierarchical structure is frequently applied to certain E I A studies as the method to model a project's environment and as a means for structuring the E I A report. Use has been made herein o f E I A reports for three.projects, two from British Columbia, Canada and one from Europe to illustrate how a project's environment is modeled in industry, as shown in table 5.1. Project 1 corresponds to the Sea to Sky highway improvement project in British Columbia, Canada ( E A O 2004a). This project involves widening and straightening a 94.7 k m section o f highway in a mountainous and environmentally sensitive area. Other details for this project are provided in the case studies section o f this paper. Project 2 in table 5.1 is the N e w Fraser River  89  Crossing project i n British Columbia, Canada ( E A O 2004b). This project entails approximately 13.4 kilometers o f new roadway including the construction o f a new six-lane tolled bridge crossing the Fraser River. Project 3 is the 0resund Fixed L i n k project (0resundskonsortiet 2000) between the Swedish and Danish coasts. It is a combined railway and motorway o f length 16.4 k m consisting o f an immersed tunnel, two approach bridges and a high bridge. Handbooks issued by individual industrial organizations are another source for how to model the environment. These handbooks (e.g. N Y D O T 2001; Tszmokawa and Hoban 1997; and A D B 2002) apply somewhat similar classification schemes as shown in table 5.1, but without great consistency. It is observed from table 5.1 that although many environmental components, such as fish and noise, are common across different projects, in terms o f the classification schema and the semantics used to describe the environment for individual projects, there are notable differences! We observe that most environmental descriptions used i n practice adopt  a three-level  hierarchical structure, with the very odd exception being up to a maximum o f five levels. It is also noted that risks that arise from the environmental components are normally hidden among voluminous documents, and are not easy to identify and assess. Typically, environmental issues are separated from risk analysis. Limited work appears to have been done by academics on project environment modeling. A m o n g the works identified, five o f them were found to be directly relevant. They are listed in table 5.2. Week's (1977) schema was developed for the environmental impact o f transportation projects and represents some o f the earliest work found. The schema o f W i l s o n and Stonehouse (1983) was applied to highway location selection considering environmental impact. Hughes (1989), in recognizing that building projects can be seen as a response to the environment  90  Table 5.1 Environment modeling in E I A reports for three projects Project 1 1. Land requirements 2. First Nations interest 3. Archeological effects 4. Environmental effects 4.1 Water quality 4.2 Fisheries & aquatic resources 4.3 Wildlife & vegetation 4.4 Geochemical 4.5 Contaminated site 4.6 Air quality 5. Socio-Economic effects 5.1 Project design issues 5.2 Transportation demand 5.3 Noise 5.4 Emergency services 5.5 Recreation 5.6 Aesthetics 5.7 Economic 5.8 Land use impacts 6. Navigation 7. Permits, licenses, authorizations  Project 2 1. Environmental effects 1.1 Fisheries & aquatic resources 1.2 Wildlife & vegetation 1.3 Contaminated site 2. Economic, social, heritage and health effects 2.1 Agricultural resources 2.2 Community and Socioeconomic effects 2.2.1 Neighborhoods 2.2.2 Transportation 2.2.3 Construction 2.2.4 Navigation 2.3 Air quality and health - 2.4 Noise 2.5 Archeological resources 3. First Nations Interests 3.1 Fishing 3.2 Hunting 3.3 Gathering 3.4 Cultural heritage sites 3.5 Privacy 3.6 Noise 3.7 Air quality & health 3.8 Other community effects 4. Permits, licenses, authorizations  Project 3 1. Hydrography 2. Dredging and reclamation 3. Sediment spreading and sedimentation 4. Water quality 4.1 Heavy metals & toxic substances 4.2 Waste water & hygienic water quality 4.3 Release of nutrients 4.4 Oxygen 5. Benthic vegetation 5.1 Eelgrass 5.2 Ruppia 5.3 Macro algae 6. Benthic fauna 6.1 Common mussels 6.2 Others 7. Fish 7.1 Spawning and nursery grounds 7.2 Migratory routes & distribution 8. Birds 8.1 Breeding eiders 8.2 Moulting greylag geese 8.3 Moulting mute swans 8.4 Other breeding species 8.5 Staging migrants 9. Mammals 9.1 Seals 9.2 Movement of foxes, cats and rats 10. Beach and coast 10.1 Coastal morphology 10.2 Beach & bathing water quality 11. External environment 11.1 Noise 11.2 Industrial & sanitary water 11.3 Fuel 11.4 Waste & residual products 11.5 Transportation 11.6 Groundwater  91  identified 11 types o f environmental factors. He proposed that the environment should be defined in a structured way and that the list o f criteria should be examined to ensure that any observable environmental phenomena may be classified into one or more generic groups o f environmental forces. Marmoush (1999) focused on establishing an environmental classification schema for coastal development limiting its usefulness for a broad range o f project types. Underhill and Angold (2000) looked at representing a project's environment from a specific perspective o f how roads w i l l impact wildlife. Environmental components for the corresponding column in table 5.2 appear, to be much different from those i n other columns for this reason. However, it provides useful information as to what environmental components should be considered from this viewpoint. In all o f the literature surveyed, minimal emphasis was placed on how representation o f the environment could be assisted by computer-based approaches, or on the interface between a model  o f the  environment  and project  management  functions.  Nevertheless, existing  classification schemas provide a backdrop for more generalized modeling o f a project's environment. The hierarchical structures used by others and the components identified are helpful for characterizing the environmental context o f a project. Based on our work on modeling a project's environment and participation in risk identification processes for actual projects, we believe that a comprehensive, computer-based representation schema for a project's environment should have the following characteristics: 1)  It should be a generic modeling structure that can be applied to most project types. A s described previously, most environment modeling schemas proposed to date are for a specific type o f project, such as a highway or coastal development project.  Table 5.2 Approaches to environment modeling from the academic literature Week, T. (1977)  Wilson, F. and Stonehouse, D. (1983)  Physical environment Economic environment Water regime Biological environment Plant & animal diseases Erodibility Human disease Woodlands Aquatic ecology Unique ecological areas Terrestrial ecology Wildlife Agriculture Social environment Community & tribal Social environment structure Development Cultural resources Noise Synthesis o f environmental Utilities Recreation impact Unique cultural features Aesthetic scenic areas  For transportation project  For highway location selection  Hughes, W. (1989) Cultural Economic Political Social Physical Aesthetic Financial Legal Institutional Technological Policy  For building project  Marmoush, Y. (1999)  Underhill, J. & Angold, P. (2000)  Physiography Geomorphology Sedimentology Hydrography Tides Current Waves Sediment transport Water quality Pollution source Pollution ambient levels Marine ecology Phytoplankton Zooplankton Seaweed Benthic micro fauna Intertidal macro fauna Fish Shrimp Bird fauna  Pollution Foreign material Dust De-icing salt Exhaust output Hydrology Runoff pollution Stream flow change Disturbance effects Gust o f wind Human access Noise Physical barriers to the movement o f animal species Ecological habitat & corridors  For coastal development project  For road network  93  2)  It should be comprised o f a range o f environmental component types so as to ensure that any observable environmental phenomena can be classified into one or more generic groups.  3)  The modeling schema should assist with the management o f environmental risks, and provide support for different stages o f risk management including the tracking o f risks throughout  the  project  life  cycle.  Current approaches  to modeling a  project's  environment see risk management as a separate function and seldom consider changes i n the environment and related environmental risks throughout the project life cycle. 4)  The approach used for modeling the environment should integrate with the physical, process and organizational views o f a project and to the extent possible, use consistent modeling constructs across all o f these views. Attributes o f environmental components can act as risk drivers in concert with attributes o f physical and process components because they share one or more o f the same physical location, the same project participants or the same time interval. Only by integrating these views, can the full range of  environmental risks be thoroughly identified.  A s well,  integration o f  the  environmental view with other project views assists with other management functions, including planning and scheduling, change management, and explaining reasons for performance to date. 5)  The modeling approach adopted should allow users to define attributes and assign attribute values for each environmental component, thus assisting with a comprehensive understanding o f a project's environmental profile and the integration o f a project's environmental, physical, process  and organizational views for risk  management.  Provision should also be made for treating other information relevant to the project's  environment, including links to multi-media information that portrays various aspects o f the environment (e.g. digital photographs), environmental regulations, etc. 6)  Knowledge management should form an integral part o f the approach adopted. Thus, reuse o f environmental knowledge gained in past projects for new ones should be facilitated. T w o important objectives o f knowledge management are to assist with the development o f a standard and consistent vocabulary, so that knowledge is transferable both amongst projects and within the organization, and to ease the burden associated with developing an initial description o f a project's environment.  7)  The knowledge management feature should be sufficiently flexible that help can be offered to users i f it is wanted, but users should be allowed to define a model o f the environment as they see fit i f help is not required or wanted.  8)  The ability to visualize environmental data should be treated to help deal with the large volume o f data involved and to assist decision makers in generating insights into the environmental features o f a project, including related risks.  9)  Extensive screen and hard copy reporting capabilities, including the ability to track changes in time should be an essential part o f the approach adopted.  The schemas reviewed in the literature seldom reflect even a subset o f the foregoing requirements, and none embodied all o f these requirements. W e have sought to address all o f them in terms o f a system architecture and a corresponding prototype system that is capable o f treating full-scale projects in order to demonstrate the usefulness and practicality o f the approach adopted.  95  5.3 System Architecture for Modeling Project Environment Figure 5.2 depicts part o f the system architecture in schematic form developed for representing the environmental and risk views o f a project in support o f an array o f project management functions (see DeZoysa et al. 2005 for more details). These views in turn link with other project views, including the physical, process and organizational/contractual views o f a project to create a holistic and integrated representation o f a project. Features o f note include the following. There are two 'sides' to the system - the Project Side where an instance o f each project view resides for the project at hand. The second side, formally called the Standards Side, is where user-defined knowledge or standards is stored (i.e. the knowledge management side o f the system). O n the Project Side, the model used for describing the project environmental view, called the Environmental Breakdown Structure ( E B S ) , takes the form o f a hierarchical model as described later, while the model used for describing the project risk view, called the Project Risk Register (PRR), also takes the form o f a hierarchical model. Parallel constructs reside on the Standards Side o f the system in terms o f a Standard E B S which is a library o f user defined templates and a Standard Risk Issue Register (SRR) which also consists o f a library o f risk issue templates. Direct access to both sets o f templates allows users to capture knowledge for future use, and for importing this knowledge for creating the E B S and P R R for a new project on the Project Side o f the system. Various modes o f use are facilitated, from direct definition o f E B S and P R R structures with no reference to any standards (Mode 1), copying o f standards structures to the project side to generate a starting point for defining the environmental and risk views o f a project (Mode 2), and lastly, some intelligence to allow the partial automation o f the identification o f potential risk issues as a function o f the environmental features for the project o f  96  interest.  In the remainder o f this section, we focus on the constructs used to model the  environmental view, both on the project and standards side o f the system. To accommodate the characteristics desired o f a comprehensive approach to modeling o f the environment and linkage with the risk management function, as already observed, use is made o f a hierarchical modeling structure. This is consistent with actual practice and provides flexibility i n the level o f detail with which the environment can be represented. For example, at the early decision making phase o f a project when broad project parameters are being examined, a detailed description o f the environment is not likely to be available and thus only a coarse representation o f its main features is possible. A s the project unfolds, and more and more detailed environmental information becomes available, the hierarchical representation o f the environment can be readily expanded. A s noted previously, i n the academic literature and i n industry practice as well, a three-level hierarchy is typically applied. In our approach, up to a five-level hierarchy structure termed the Environmental Breakdown Structure ( E B S ) has been used. A maximum o f five levels is allowed to help ensure visibility o f the model structure for purposes o f group discussion and decision making, and for ease o f navigation.  Mode 2, Association Standard Risk Issue Register  o  ••B-gXi  m CTQ ft)  Standard E B S  TO;CD  1= ,  Project Risk Register  td *  Standards Side Project Side  Cu CD  P.  so  b  £*!  X) CD  eraa fD  Mode 3. Condition  ode 1. Association  Project E B S  Figure 5.2 Schematic of partial system architecture linking environmental and risk views of a project with supporting knowledge management features  97  The five component types that correspond to the five levels that comprise the E B S hierarchy are: Environment: The global environment o f the project under which all other components can be defined and described. This is the root node. Class: The main classes o f the environment, by which various dimensions o f the project environment can be grouped or classified (e.g. physical, social, economic/financial, political and regulatory environment). Definition o f the classes is left to the model users, although a specific class structure is suggested on the knowledge management side.  Sub-class: A subset o f environmental components within a class, such as geological components within the physical environment class, and macro economic factors within the financial/economic  class.  Entity: A n environmental component that can be identified  distinctly from  other  components - e.g., inflation, archaeological resource, fish.  Sub-entity: In some cases it might be necessary to characterize the environment i n more detail. For example, a composite inflation rate is made up o f labor rates, material rates, etc., while birds may be made up o f individual species such as trumpeter swan and gull. Environmental components located within the E B S can be further described in terms o f user defined attributes and their values at specific project locations, thus allowing the properties o f a component to be described in a comprehensive manner and in a way which helps with a number o f project management functions. For example, from a risk management perspective, risk issues that are driven by an environmental component are i n most instances dependent upon one or more o f the component's attribute values and not simply on the presence o f the component itself. For example, bird species within the project boundary that are classified as endangered (e.g.  98  attribute value T R U E for attribute definition endangered? at project locations x, y, z) could lead to uncertainties in project duration as bird nests encountered during construction would have to be relocated prior to the continuation o f construction. Three types o f attribute value, Quantitative (Q),, Linguistic (L) and Boolean (B) values are provided to accommodate the variety o f characteristics that may be used to describe environmental components. Use o f a hierarchical structure facilitates inheritance o f attributes and aggregation o f attribute values allowing the speedy setup o f an environmental model and ensuring consistency and adherence to standard terminology in defining the properties o f components. In addition to defining the attributes o f a component, allowance has also been made for associations to be made between E B S components and various types o f project records and documents (e.g. photos, meeting minutes, regulations) as well as with the risk management function. The intersection o f environmental components with other project components (e.g. organizational/contractual, physical and/or process) at the same location can heighten the relevance o f a risk issue for the project. For the system prototype developed, the set o f location constructs is defined in the physical view modeling structure and associated with the physical, process and environmental views in order to ensure complete integration o f the various views. On the project side o f the system, components o f the E B S structure are associated with project locations by way o f assigning values for component attributes that are relevant to each project location.  5.4 A Model of the Project Environment Although the system architecture allows users to adopt any classification schema to model environment as they see fit, a single and consistent classification is believed to be critical to  99  ensuring the portability o f information at the very least between projects o f similar type. This is achieved by allowing the user to develop a series o f templates on the standards or knowledge management side o f the system.  Preferably, a master E B S template is first constructed (see  figure 5.3), from which subsets o f the master are extracted for projects o f specific types such as highway, bridge, tunnel, rapid transit, airport runway and water supply projects (see the left hand side o f figure 5.3). Here we discuss the contents o f a master E B S compiled from an extensive examination o f the literature, government regulations, handbooks and environmental assessment statements o f actual projects. The first level o f Standard Infrastructure Project E B S is the global environment. It is then classified into five classes as shown in figure 5.3. They are physical, social, economical/financial,  political  and  regulatory  environments.  The  physical  environment  corresponds to the natural environment in which the project is located, and it is represented using the eleven sub-classes shown in figure 5.3. The collection o f entities suggested for each o f these sub-classes is shown i n figure 5.4 - they capture the majority, i f not all, o f the natural environmental components that can accompany an infrastructure project. A s this representation is soft coded, it can be enriched and modified as desired. The social environment represents the environment created by social requirements and social activities (e.g. aesthetics and community life).  A s populated,  it  consists  o f the  seven  categories  shown  in figure  5.3.  The  financial/economic environment represents the local and national economic and financial conditions that surround the project and which have an impact on both the front-end decision making and execution phases o f a project, respectively. This class is further broken down into eleven sub-classes. The political environment represents the political atmosphere i n which the project is located. Political factors can be a significant risk source for a civil engineering project,  100  R I P C O N b.30-L:\IHf.SISWORKVOKANAGANLAKI.I3RirjGL\Mf.KGI.[)PHOJ[.C File  Project_View  _  Standards  Template  Standard £8$  Window  Help  3  X  Tree Structure  Description Standard Infrastructure Project EBS _ Standard Highway Project EBS Standard Bridge Project EBS t~l- ROOT Environment Standard Infrastructure Project EBS Standard Tunnel Project EBS El-PHY Class Physical Environment i •' Standard Rapid Transit Project EBS Sub-class Hydrography \ S W D Standard Airport Runway Project EBS Sub-class Topography Standard Water Supply Project EBS I ErTPGP iSlii&ndatd Infrastructure Project EBS | t GEO Sub-class Geology ) (fj-BOTN Sub-class Botany Sub-class Habitat ' \ ijr HABT | l*!"ZOLG Sub-class Zoology j i-LWOG Sub-class Lower Organisms \ © ATMP Sub-class Atmosphere | lii-CLMT Sub-class Climatology ) Ifl-DESE Sub-class Disease Control i IB-PLUT Sub-class Pollution B SCI Class Social Environment Sub-class Aboriginal . ' i E-ABOG ! B-CMLF Sub-class Community Life \ il-UBEV Sub-class Urban Environment ! ShMSFT Sub-class Micro Social Factors • "I \ ill-OHMS Sub-class Other Human Settlements I • El-ACHT Sub-class Archeological and Historic Resourct \ EB-'ASTH Sub-class Aesthetics S ECO Class Economic / Financial Environment Sub-class Economic Indicators i SI- ECID 1 i-MECN Sub-class Macro Economic ; ' Sub-class Market Resources j $ - MRSC Sub-class Finance I G3-FNAC j $-MKP.T Sub-class Market Potential Sub-class Agriculture i SI- AGRC Sub-class Poresty j fil- FRST I i i - TRSM Sub-class Tourism Sub-class Commerce 1 S-COMC j i-RSCS Sub-class Resources Sub-class Claims _,: 1 Itl-CLAM !+:•• POL Class Political Environment + REG Class Regulatory Environment v  <  .1  .  >  Ready ,  Figure 5.3 Standard EBS-Class and sub-class level especially when a P3 procurement mode is adopted. For example, a change in government which can happen overnight as the result of an election might make some projects die. The political environment can be further classified into the following five sub-classes: government, military, anarchy, government authority and legal policy. The regulatory environment represents the  101  kll'CON >j jl) I MIIISISWOKKUIKANAGANI FileProjectView  Standards Standard EBS  Standard IBS Wjndow'  FJe Project_View  _a x  Window Help-  File Projertjfew _  Standards Standard EBS Window  Help  K I Holshi|4 Tree Structure Standard Infrastructure Project EBS  Tree Structure  ••  L-J j i j j I j \ ! j j  Environment Standard Infrastructure Project EBS Class Physical Environment -PHY HYD' Sub-class Hydrography j - DRNA Entty Drainage Systems CREK Entity Creek i- STRE Entty Stream RIVE Entity River {-WELL Entity Well ')•••• RSER Entity Reserviors LAKE Entity Late LAGN Entity Lagoon i-SEA Entity Sea 1CFD Entity Icefield i-GRWA Entity Groundwater RUOF Entity Runoff Water TPGP Sub-class Topography - MOTN Entity Mountain HILL Entity HII PLAN Entity Plain j ESTR Entity Estuary SHAL Entity Shallow i CANY Entity Canyon PAIR Entty Pasture l-WTLD Entity Wetland j "SAVN Entity Savanna SCRU Entity Scrubland (a) FRST Entity Forest j— TAND Entity Tundra DSET Entty Desert j-SESO Entity Seashore j BAY Entity Bay GULF Entity Gulf SRAT Entity Strait CH- GEO Sub-class Geology  Standard Infrastructure Project E B S  Sub-class Botany  j  TREE Entity Trees SHRB Entity Shrubs j 5 OWS Entity Grasses j f-FERN Entty Fern \ f—EMS. Entity Emblement AQ!C Entity Aquatic Plants j VGTD Entity Vegetation Debris $ HABT Sub-class Habitat ] TRST Entity Terrestrial Habitat \~ AQTH Entity Aquatic Habitat MCHT Ertity Marine and Coastal Habtat f '-MSRZ Emty Migration Zone fi-ZOLG Sub-class Zoology i -AMPB Entity Amphibia ; RPTL Entty Reptilia j MAM. Entity Mammalia AVES Entity Aves ;'• • ITSY Entity Ichthyology IVTB Entity Invertebrate LWOG Sub-class Lower Organisms BCTR Entity Bacteria FUG! Entty Fungai ATMP Sub-class Atmosphere  L  1  (b)  i  <  <  NUM  tei ATMP Sub-class Atmosphere AQUT Entity Lower Air Layer • UAOL Entity Upper Air Ozone Layer CLMT Sub-class Climatology i -GUTW Entty Gust of Wind Entity Tornado j-TONO l-TPON Entty Typhoon HRCM Entity Hurricane Entity Fog l-FOS FRST Entity Frost Entity Snowfall 5NFL Entty Storms f-STORM i-AVLC Entity Snow Avalanche h-RNa Entity Rainfal i FOOD Entty Flood Entity Tsunami l-TUNM DROT Entity Drought FRE1 Entity Severity of Freezing THAW Entty Thawing Cycles Entity Temperature I-TEMP Entity Relative Humidity i - H U M D ATPS Entity Atmospheric Pressure (c) S DESE Sirb-class Disease Control j~6TNC Entity Botanical Disease ZOIC Entity Zoic Disease fe -HUMN Entty Human Disease | e-PLUT Sub-class Polution | PAGM Entty Potentially Acid Generating (PAG) Material *' i • ML - Entty Metal Leachate (ML). : CNTM Entity Toxic Contaminated Site i SLWT Entty SoW Toxic Waste r-LQWT Entity Liquid waste drscharges and sewages ] BIWT Entity BtoUc Waste i DPLF Entity Dumping and Larrfiings - SCL Class Social Environment &  GEO Sub-class Geology I- SOIL Entty Soil \ ESO Entity Inland Sand CSAD Entity Coastal Sand j ROCK Entity Rock CORF Entity Coral Reef SDMT Entity SerjimenUoad I D8SF Entity Debris Ftow GPMO Entty Ground Movement i - S E S W C Entty Seismic Zone ' VLCN Entity Volcanic Active Place  Q-BOTN  L  <  hi!* Tree Structure  Standard Infrastructure Project E B S  a-ROOT  Ready  _ _  Ready.?:  iNUM  Ready  :Us2ih\. Ifllil J^SM^W^SSSSd  i"  if'  NUM ,  Figure 5.4 Standard EBS- Entity level components of physical environment 102  regulatory regime under which the project w i l l be designed, built and operated.  In total, 165  components at the entity level o f the Standard Infrastructure Project E B S have been identified to date as being relevant to infrastructure projects (see Wang 2005). Wang (2005) has also identified important attributes for each o f these 165 entity level components, many o f which are helpful for environmental risk management. Attribute definitions for three components, habitat, creek and archeology are illustrated here as examples. Five attributes have been defined for the habitat sub-class component, independent o f habitat type, as shown in figure 5.5(a). For example, area is a quantity attribute defining the area o f the habitat. The other attributes for habitat component are four Boolean attributes which describe the potential for habitat loss, habitat degradation, habitat fragmentation and the potential for bio-structure change o f habitat. If the value for one o f these four Boolean attributes is T R U E for a specific location o f a project, the potential exists for a risk event to be realized, which could take the form o f a requirement to take unplanned special precautions i n order to comply with government regulations to protect the habitat.  These attributes for habitat can be inherited to the entity components which are one  layer below the habitat component, such as the terrestrial habitat as shown in figure 5.5 (b) (see figure 5.4 (b) for the four habitat entities listed under the habitat sub-class component). The use o f inheritance facilitates consistency in the definition o f attributes as well as the speedy development o f the environment model. Users can either inherit attributes from the next highest level in the hierarchy or add new attributes at the same level as necessary. A s shown in figure 5.5(b), attribute "major wildlife species o f the habitat" is defined at the "terrestrial habitat" level while the  other  attributes  are inherited from  the  "habitat"  level.  A creek is a very  environmentally sensitive component as it has implications for habitat, pollution and many other issues which can be a source o f project risks. Thirteen attributes have been identified as being  103  relevant to characterizing the creek component as shown in table 5.3. Attribute values and their seasonal variation, when they apply, can have significant consequences for construction method selection and project planning. Ignoring one or more o f these attributes can lead to the realization of a risk event, such as wash out of bridge abutment forms during the construction phase. Other attributes o f a creek component deal with the chemical aspect which might be a risk source for pollution. Four attributes are defined for the archeology component as shown in table 5.3: the name o f the resource, the area o f the resource, the current status o f the resource (Is it destroyed or partially destroyed?) and the era when the resource was created. These attributes define the value o f the resource and how it can impact the project such as the intersection o f potential archeological areas with project locations. A l s o shown in figure 5.5 are other properties that can be associated with a standard environmental component i n the form o f Standard E B S Records (photographs, sketches, regulations) and links with risk issues identified in the Standard Risk Issue Register that apply for usage modes 2 and 3 shown i n figure 5.2. SiS3ffli2 Aitubutes | Standard EBS Records | Risk Issues | Memo I  Alrtuies |siandard£BSRscoids| Risk Issues |:Man>|  Template: Slarefatd Master Highway Protect ESS. ••• PathROOT.PHY.  Template: Standard Mastei Highway Proiec-t EBS, Path. ROOT PHY HAST  Code; |HABT Ijrpe [  Code: jTRST  Descrpoort [Habitat  . Descnptai Terrestrial HaMat  ~~  Attribute  •AttoMe-  Desarptorv  Inherited Attribute-jiCldai. HB/Q/L 3 Uj NO Q  Potential l a HaWat Loss Potential for Habitat Degradation Potential for Habitat to be Fragmentated Potential forfib-StructureChange  NO NO NO NO  e 8 8 8  Description .-IrheotedAttakte.. i Class Area YES Potential for Habitat Loss YES PotentialtoHabitat Degradation YES PotentialtoHaHat to be FragmettttedYES PotentialtoBio-Structure Charrjp YES iMajcf Wrte'SjecS'i'the Hattat] NO  8 L  (b)  (a) inherit attnbuie definition from above level  JAM.. Ur« Q sgm B S B  Add iV :lnherrt attribute detrtonfanabove level •  Add  Delete i OK  Eda Cancel  Figure 5.5 Attributes for Habitat and Terrestrial Habitat component  104  Table 5.3 Attribute definition of environmental components Components Attributes  Type  Definition  Creek  L B  The name o f creek. Whether the creek is seasonal. The P H value o f water in the creek. The highest temperature o f the water i n the creek. The lowest temperature o f the water in the creek. A list o f suspended solids. A list o f dissolved organic compound.  Archeology Site  1. Name o f the waterbody 2. Seasonal 3. P H value 4. The highest temperature  Q Q  5. The lowest temperature  Q  6. Suspended solids 7. Dissolved organic compound 8. Dissolved mineral 9. Cross section shape 10. Cross section area 1.1. Water table level 12. Water depth 13. Velocity 1. Resource name 2. Creation era 3. Site area 4. Current state  L L L L Q Q Q Q L L Q L  A list o f dissolved mineral. The cross section shape o f the creek. The cross section area o f the creek. The water table level o f the creek. The water depth i n the creek. The water velocity in the creek. What's the name o f this resource? When was it created? The area occupied by this archeology site. Is it destroyed, partially destroyed or well protected?  5.5 Case Studies To illustrate aspects in use o f the project environment modeling approach presented in the previous sections, use is made o f two rather distinct case studies, the Okanagan Lake floating bridge project and the Sea to Sky highway improvement project, both projects being in British Columbia, Canada, with the former in the interior o f the province and the latter on the coast. The geographical and environmental contexts o f the floating bridge project are tightly bounded ( M O T 2003), whereas the highway project traverses through several jurisdictions and through urban, coastal, and mountainous regions ( E A O 2004a). Use o f these two case studies allows us to assess the ability o f the modeling methodology to represent a compact and relatively small  number o f components, as well as a much larger number o f components that are widely dispersed across several locations. The existing 3-lane Okanagan Lake floating bridge was completed in 1958 and is 880 meters long with a lift span for marine traffic at the east end as well as a small fill abutment area, and a causeway at the west end. It "is the only bridge that crosses Okanagan Lake and it is an essential part o f the Okanagan regional transportation system. This key link for traffic to and from the Lower Mainland is the most congested section o f highway i n the interior o f British Columbia operating well over its capacity during peak periods with "Summer Average Daily Traffic" exceeding 50,000 vehicles per day. The province is seeking a private sector consortium to design, build, finance, and maintain a new 5 lane crossing, while operating, maintaining, and then decommissioning the existing 880m long bridge. A full risk analysis is particularly important for this project due to the choice o f a P3 procurement mode and the need for great clarity regarding the assignment o f risks. The major characteristics o f the natural environment o f this project are the lake itself with steep hills on the west side o f the lake, Kelowna City on the east side o f the lake with a city park located beside the existing bridge, and a politically savvy First Nations community on the west bank o f the lake. Archeology, fish and wildlife, lake sediment and noise constitute the major environmental concerns. The environment o f this project was modeled using the Project E B S structure shown i n figure 5.6. The physical, social, economic/financial, political and regulatory environments were initially defined by copying over relevant components from the master template o f standard templates (i.e. Standard Infrastructure Project E B S - figure 5.4). Attributes defined as part o f the standard components were automatically copied over as part o f the standards copying process. Using the copied components as the starting point, the  106  KIP!ON') i d , MillSi'-WHRKUIKANAdAN!AKlMlilDGfWll\  3(1 I HHI^.SWtlRKWKANACiANIAKIIMOMUAIR  Standards  EJ3S Wndow Help  -  3  X  E Environment Example bating Bridge Project Environment PHY Class Physical Ermonment B-HYD Sub-class Hydrography ; SCREk Entity Owk HIllC Sutervtity MI creek 8EARC Sub-entity Bear creek PENTC Sub-entity Penfctcm Creek I- LAKE Entity Late ! -OKNG Sub-ertty Okanagan Lake [-!• TP5P Sub-class Topography :-MOTN Entity Mountain  SWAN Sub-entity Trumpeter swan j § FISH Entty Fish MLFS Sub-entity Fish in Ml Creek . FLAKE Sub-entity FishtoOkanagan Lake Ei-ATMP Sub-class Atmosphere AQUT Entity tower layer* B'CLMT Stir-class Ctoatoiogy rm Entity Rainfall • TEW Entity Temperature 61 PlUT Sub-dass Pcfction ;  :  1- DDCPW Entity Dry Dock Contained Polluted Water ;• DRWTP, Enbty Dredging Polluted Water !~ML Entity Metal Leachate (ML) CNW Entity Toxic Contaminated Site SCI Class Social Erwronment 3 ABOG Sub-class Aboriginal FNTR Entity First Nation Interest - CHIP Sub-class Community Life (b) I j-NCHS Entity Norse \ RCRA Entity Recreation I SPARK Entity Parks  ?  ran Entity m HWSO Sub-entity tfl on west side lake HESD Sub-entity t i on east side late WTID Entity Wetland ; SCIP Sub-entity Scirpus Marsh and Adjacent Hablats -' SCRU Entity Scrubland ; -SESU Sub-entity Grassed and Shrub Areas on East Side Upsbpe. - FRST Entity Forest WBFT Sub^ity West Bank Forest H- GEO Sub-class Gectogy £ 5DHT Entity Sediment Load SE5HJC Entity Seismic Zone fcvBOTN Sub-class Botany TREE Entity Trees ; :-SHRB Entity Shrubs i : GRAS Entity Grasses ; '-AQTC Entity Actuate Plants - HABT Sub-dass Habitat TRST Entity Terrestrial Habitat .- AQTH Entity Aquatic Habitat i --MH.C Sutwntity Hi Creek Habitat M'ZOIS Sub-class Zoology 1  :  AHPB RPTL MAM. - BIRD  Entity Amphibian Entity Repute Entity Mammals Entity Birds  M  K K Sub-entity Ketema City Park BCPP Sub-entity Bear Creek Provincial Park - CSPW Enlty Cemeteries, Schools and Mace of Worship B MSFT Sub-class Mwo Social Factors L  PtDM Entity Population and Demography E-ACHT Sub-class Archeological and Historic Resources 6 ARCH Ertty Archeology ASTE43 Sub-entity Archeological Site OIQv 43 ASTE38 Sub-entity Archedogical Site OIQv 38 A5TE42 Sub-entity Archeotegical Site DIQv 42 ASTE45 Sub-entity Archeological Site DIQv 45 Sub-entity Arcrreokrgical Site DIQv 3 ASTE3 A5TE37 Sub-entity Archedorjcal Site DIQv 37 a-ECO Class Et««/Frnarda)Erwironm«nt Class Political Enwonment • PCX Class Regulatory Environment £ REG 1  (a)  n  mm  'Ready  MUM  Figure 5.6 Floating Bridge Project EBS- Entity level components environmental model was then edited to reflect the specific features o f the project.  For the  project at hand, a few sub-entity components were added, these being the three creeks ( M i l l Creek, Bear Creek and Penticton Creek) which are defined as sub-entities under the entity Creek. These creeks are important habitats for fish and are potential risk sources for the project. Other additions include the Archeological Site sub-entities under the Archeology entity component. Shown in figure 5.6 are all o f the components for the physical and social dimensions o f the  107  project's environment.  Once the components o f the environmental model or E B S are defined,  values and their corresponding locations can be assigned to component attributes. A  Project Risk Register for this project  environmental components  was then  developed by associating  the  modeled in the Project E B S with the physical, process  and  organizational views o f the project. Due to space limitations, a limited number o f examples o f potential risk events excerpted from the project risk register are summarized in tabular form, as shown in table 5.4. Additional information contained in the system but not shown in table 5.4 includes risk drivers, performance measures impacted, and applicable mitigation measures. To illustrate some o f the foregoing, we use the archeology risk issue as shown in figure 5.7. It illustrates how environmental components in concert with components from other views act as risk drivers for a risk issue. In this example, the sub-entity environmental archeological sites together with the  entity  component  component  First Nations interests  are  the  environmental drivers for archeology risk issues because o f the religious significance o f these sites. These sites occupy the same location as the West Bank causeway (the road alignment i n the physical view). Should an archeological site be encountered during the construction phase, very significant time and cost consequences could result. The locations for the project, as defined in the physical view o f the project, are shown in figure 5.8(a). Locations are assigned to attribute definitions and their values o f each environmental component, such as archeology site DIQv43 as shown in figure 5.8(b) and (c), where the value for the attribute, land area o f site, is assigned. Integration within a single system o f a project's  environmental, process, physical and  organizational views aids i n the identification o f relevant risk issues and related risk events and their significance through the sharing o f one or more o f the same location, time frame or project participants.  108  Table 5.4 Extract from Floating Bridge Project Risk Register SubIssue Event Category Category Physical  Geology  Sediment Load Erosion  Habitat  Terrestrial Habitat Aquatic Habitat  Social  Bridge pier becomes inclined because o f unbalanced sediment load. Safety o f bridge pier foundations impaired by erosion. Habitat not previously identified as terrestrial habitat designated as such during construction construction interrupted, compensation required. A n unexpected loss o f aquatic habitat occurs due to construction process. Unexpected loss o f valuable species due to a construction mishap interrupts construction process. Unacceptable levels o f air pollution to local residents from construction process results in order from authorities to alter the construction process.  Zoology  Fish  Atmosphere  A i r Quality  Acts o f G o d  Seismic Zone  A n earthquake occurs during construction phase creates Tsunami in lake - damages/sinks bridge.  Pollution  Toxic Contaminated Site  Unknown/unexpected contaminated materials identified during excavation phase.  Solid Toxic Waste  Unexpected waste disposal conditions imposed on treatment o f construction waste.  L i q u i d waste discharges and sewages  Pollution in runoff water from construction process for building bridge pontoons at the dry dock site exceeds allowable levels.  Spill Contamination  A n unexpected spill o f potentially toxic materials into the lake occurs during construction/operation.  Aboriginal  First Nations Interest  First Nations employment threshold requirements cannot be met.  Community Life  Noise Navigation  Archeology  Archeology  Noise level o f construction work exceeds allowable threshold, leading to reduced working hours or need for alternative methods. Navigation collision occurs under the bridge and damages bridge components. Unknown archaeological resources discovered, requiring realignment o f route or restrictions on construction area.  109  Environmental Drivers 1. Sub-entity: Archeological Sites 2. First Nations Interests Location: West bank causeway  Process Drivers 1. Road embankment construction Physical Drivers  Archeology Risk Issues  1. Road alignment Organizational Drivers 1. Owner for site investigation. 2. Concessionaire for road alignment selection and embankment construction. 3. Westbank First Nations  Project phase: Design and construction phase  Figure 5.7 Drivers for archeology risk issue at floating bridge project JO I :MIIISISW(fiWU)KANACjANL AKIilRIDdl V §^::fjle  PjrOJKt_'»1*V« _  XT-it  Standards PCJ3S Window Help  - ?X  Attributes' Values j Standard EBS Record!! Bsk Issues/Events [ Prowl Records | M e m j  SrXACHT ARCH OA'fSSr™ • DesccfAorr |bch*olsgca1 Site DIQv 43 Pari. O I K  Project Risk Example: Floating Bridge & Approachways Tfpe I r I- LSI Location Set Physical Location Set |-GPR3 location Global Project -AttnbuteVakies ==: Oe!d()Wri_ I, A A. A Aj ( 23+_24+ location Roadway: Chainage 23+00 - 24+50 ! Name of resource Y N. Y.. N. Y.. r 24+_2S+ location Interchange: Chainage 24+50 - 25+50 i Land area ol site V.. N. »' N. N. !- 25+_28+ Location Roadway: Chainage 25+50 - 23+00 : CreabonEra Y N Y„ N. N. i 2S+.29+ location Approach Bnbantaert: Chainage 28+00 • 29+44 : Cuient Stale V. N. Y . N. N. l~ 29+J2+ location Ramp & Transtion Span: Chainage 29+44 - 32+80 i Anticipated Allribute Value i 32+_39+ Location Floating Bridge- Chahaga 32+68 - 35+64 f-38+_40+ Location ElevDecMTransitlonSpan:Chainage38+64-40+12 Path; 01BE.SCI.ACHT.ARCH }•• 40+_45+ location Roadway: Chainage 40+12 - 45+84 Attribute::Land area of site r-DRYDOCK Location Orydc«kfwPcrtocmCorisUuctton VabeTjipe: Quantitative. >.,; Unit: sqm j- LAKE Location Late (both sides)  *  —  "  J  | rUAKE Location North Skte of late ^ SLAKE location South Side of late J-LS2 location Set Procedural location Set }• RDWAYJ Subproject Roadway; Chainage 23+00 - 24+50 I 1NTERCH Subproject Interchange I- R0WAY_2 Subproject Roadway: Chainage 25+50 - 28+00 i EM8AMC Subproject Approach Embankment j-RAMPJS Subproject Ramp8t Transition Span , i-BRIDGE Subproject Floating Bridge * ' i DECK.TS Subproject East Transition Span j- RDWAYJ Subproject Roadway: Outage 40+12 - 45+84 i-DRYDOCK Subproject Drydod <  J/QA  L t  p.?  (b)  P pujnvakjesfotayocatoni... Location Range Location Range 23*_24+-23.=24+  U«t  L  •:• Enter Actual Values  t,: •• >: Value: 25  OK  Cancel  (C)  Add!  Delete  Edit  •it-  Cancel.  s  Ready  HUM .  /.  Figure 5.8 (a) Physical location definition, (b) Attributes for Archeology Site component, (c) Assignment of attribute value for Archeology Site component  no  The Sea to Sky highway improvement project in British Columbia serves as the second case study. This highway links the communities from West Vancouver to Whistler, climbing from Horseshoe Bay to a spectacular mountain landscape in an environmentally sensitive area. This project is accompanied by many complex engineering and construction challenges. The project involves widening and straightening a 94.7 k m section o f highway with 5 road sections including bridges and viaducts. M o v i n g south to north, the finished configuration consists o f a 12.2 k m 4 lane section, a 10.5 k m 2 lane section, a 19.7 k m 3 lane section, a 9.9 k m 4 lane section, and a 42.4 k m 3 lane section. A l l these sections requires upgrades to address current deficiencies i n safety, reliability and mobility, and to serve future travel needs, including transportation demands during the 2010 Winter Olympics. The Province has adopted a P3 procurement mode to design, build, finance and operate this project. A s a consequence, a great deal o f effort was and is being expended on risk identification and management. The environment for this project is rather complex. The road sections cross 67 roadside drainage ditches, 191 creeks and streams, 7 lakes, 1 pond, 24 wetlands, and 1 estuarine tidal marsh. The highway also traverses several municipalities that profess varying degrees o f support for the proposed improvements, and have different bylaws regarding construction, traffic management, etc. Throughout the construction phase, traffic w i l l have to be maintained on the existing 2 lane road (which does have some 3 and 4 lane sections already), and the desire is to minimize the number o f scheduled road closures. The first outstanding environmental issue for this project is First Nations because the project falls within the asserted traditional territory o f four First Nations groups. The interest o f First Nations has to be considered within the project life cycle. Community noise is also an important issue especially during night time when the traffic is still busy. Geography is the third  in  important issue because the existing highway is notorious for falling rock and slope slides. Because the highway crosses many water systems, water quality and aquatic life are also key concerns. A Project E B S for this project was developed as shown in figure 5.9 to incorporate the full range o f environmental components. Given the focus o f this paper, only the physical and social environmental components are provided i n this figure. This Project E B S was developed by selecting and copying components from the Standard E B S and assigning values to their attributes. A s compared to the E B S for the floating bridge case study, the Sea to Sky E B S involves many more components and its complexity is obvious. Carrying out these two case studies allowed us to demonstrate  the following:  the  environmental modeling structure developed is sufficiently rich and flexible to cope with full scale projects and diverse environmental components; the notion o f developing a knowledge management facility greatly eases the burden o f developing an initial environmental breakdown structure for the most complex o f projects; the contents o f the master environmental breakdown structure developed through extensive examination o f the literature and actual project documents capture the diversity o f components that describe the natural and man-made dimensions o f a project's environment; and finally, the attributes and their values for environmental components are o f great assistance in identifying potential environmentally driven project risk events.  5.6 Visualization of Environmental Components and Risks • The complexity o f the environment i n which a large scale infrastructure project is located makes difficult  the tasks o f developing a comprehensive understanding  of a  project's  environmental features, identifying related environmental risks and quantifying their potential impact on the project. This difficulty is further compounded because o f the voluminous data sets  112  r e  tuni^ j * i j Window Help  - 8  Window. .Help  - o X  -I*  X  File Pro)8Ct_Vw \  1 BlJek teUtoiaiojo  Window  STSE Environment SeatoSky Highway Project El-PHY. Class Physical Environment - HYD Sub-class Hydrography mm Entity Drainage Systems CREK Entity Creek STRE Entity Stream RIVE Entity River LAKE Entity Lake SEA Entity Sea Entity Groundwater GRWA RUOF Entity Runoff Water TPSP Sub-dass Topography Entity Maintain - HOTN HILL Entity HI ESTR Entity Estuary WILD Entity Wetland (a) SCRU Entity Scrubland FRST Entity Forest SESO Entity Seashore -BAY Entity Bay GEO Sub-class Geology SOE Entity Sol 1LSD Entity Hand Sand CSAO Entity Coastal Sand Roa Entity Rock i cm Entity Coral Reef SDMT Entity Sediment Load D8SF Ertty Debris How GRMO Entity Ground Movement SESMC Entity Seismic Zone BOTN Sub-dass Botany TREE Entity Trees SHRB Entity Shrubs GRAS Entity Grasses , FERN Entity Fern Entity Emblement i-EHH. AQ'C 'Entity Aquati:Plants • <  l  (b)  Entity Storms j--FLOOD Entity Flood Entity Severity of Freezing J FREI Entity Thawing Cycles \ THAW |" STORM  f-HUMO Entity Relative Humidity ' ATPS Entity Attwspheric Pressure OESE Sub-class Disease Control -HUMN Entity Human Disease PLUT Sub-class Pollution ; PAGM Entity PoterWIy Add Generj;^  iliiiilliMlii  \-ML Enfty MetalLeachate(ML) f CNTM Entity Toxic Contaminated Sit SLWT Entity Solid To* Waste •:-LQWT Entity Liquid waste discharge DPIF Entity Dumping and LaraHing: SCI Oass Soda! Environment - A80G Sub-class Aboriginal FN1R Entity First Nation Interest a-CMLF Sub-dass ComminityUfe NOIS Entity Noise Y8TF Entity vibration from Traffic Entity Traffic / Transport™ C j-TTCG Enfty Community Access i-CMAC Entity Recreation i-RCRA PARK Enfty Parks Enbty Emergency Services j-EMRC i PBCH Enfty Public Health Entity Accidents and Malfunct i-ACMF ; -CSPW Entity Cemeteries, Schools ar CEVT Entity Community Events Entity Community Education S i-CEDS CSTY Entity CMC Safety i-UTLT Entity Utities Entity Space and Land Use tat SLUi BUBEV Sub-dass Urban Efftironment j CMAR Enfty Commercial Area ' EVIF Entity Environmental Infrastrui 8-M5FT Sub-dass Micro Social Factors 'MM Enfty Population and Demogi B-OHMS Sub-dass Other HunianSettremei OCAT Entity Other Construction Ad IUOS Entity Land Use in Other Setti 3 ACHT Sub-class ArcheologicaiaraiHstoi | ! HRTG Entity Heritage • - ARCH Entity Archeology ;-> ASTH Sub-dass Aesthetics \  (cj  Help.  •ARCH  LOSC  (d)  • L  |  ;  i  y  Ready  VGTD Entity Vegetation Debris i-HABT Sub-class Habitat r-TRST Entity Terrestrial Habitat j-AQTH Entity Aquatic Habitat HCHT Entity Marine and Coastal Hal I ZOLG Sub-dass Zoology l-AMPB Entity Amphibia RPTl Entity Reptita i- MAML Entity Mammalia I AVES Entity Aves 4--ITGV Entity Ichthyology 1YTB Entity Invertebrate : LWOG Sub-class Lower Organisms i-ecm Entity Bacteria FUG! Entity Fungal ATMP Sub-class Atmosphere \ AQUT Entity Lower Ar Layer I - UAOL Entity Upper Air Ozone Layer j I- CLMT Sub-dass Climatology GUTW Entity Gust of Wind Entity Fog FOG FRST Entity Frost Entity Snowfall Entity Snow Avalanche j-AVLC Entity Rainfal RNFl ;  Ii  Standarcts  ECO  4 POL E E REG  fflSC  SWT  Entity Archeology  Enfty landscape Ertty Townscape Entty S e e * Views  Class Class PifalEnvirctrront Class Re^atoryEnwonmert  < Ready •  Figure 5.9 Sea to Sky Highway (STS) Project EBS  ffi  I AjlReady 113  required to represent a project.  A s a result, members o f the project management team can  become lost or drown when confronted with so much data and information.  The ability to  visualize environmental and other related data can assist management in gaining valuable insights into the messages buried in such massive data sets. In this.section, we provide a brief overview o f ongoing work directed at developing formats and strategies for visualizing environmental data, with emphasis on the clustering o f risks driven by a project's environmental features.  While details o f a number o f formats that have been found to be useful have been  worked out, these formats have yet to be implemented in the prototype system. Figure 5.10 shows an innovative 3-D interactive histogram which can assist the project team to recognize important project environmental and risk information. In this figure, the x axis corresponds to the time interval while the y axis corresponds to location interval. (As an aside, in implementing data visualization capabilities, it is important to include the ability to define different level o f coarseness or granularity for the x and y axes - e.g. time measured in days, weeks, months, seasons and years.) The vertical or z axis sitting in the middle o f the figure, represents the number o f total drivers while the two vertical axes at the two sides is for number o f organizational drivers, which indicate the number o f drivers for which each organization is responsible. In this figure, three organizations, general contractor, consultant and owner, are used as examples. The number o f organization can be more than three and they are represented by different colors. The drivers can be drawn either from only the environmental view or from other views such as physical, process and organizational/contractual views. Four types o f information can be obtained from this interactive figure. Firstly, users can determine how many risk drivers exist in a specific time and location interval, and how many drivers for which each project participant has been assigned responsibility. For example, from  114  Location  Interval  Figure 5.10 Distribution in time and space and by responsibility of environmental risk drivers figure 5.10 we can identify that a total o f 33 drivers exist i n the time interval T4 and location interval L 9 . The owner is responsible for 9, the consultant for 11, and the general contractor for 13 o f these drivers. This detailed information appears i n a small pop up information window when a user suspends the mouse on the tower-shaped columns, as shown in figure 5.10. Secondly, information regarding the distribution o f the total number o f drivers according to time and location, with a further breakdown by project participant, can be obtained from the two "side walls" o f the graph. Distributions for the number o f organizational drivers are shown in different colors while the distribution for total number o f drivers is shown by the heavy black line. For the case that the presence o f many columns in the three dimensioned space prevents users from scrutinizing the distribution on the side wall, a 3-D view control box is provided as shown in  115  figure 5.11(a) so that the graph can be rotated and the required information made completely visible, as shown i n figure 5.11(b). Thirdly, users are provided with the information o f what drivers comprise the total set o f drivers and the set o f drivers each organization responsible for, including the hierarchical structure with which these drivers are organized. This can be achieved by clicking on the hyperlinked text in the small information box shown i n figure 5.10, which activates a separate pop up window. This window displays a hierarchical structure for the drivers, as shown in figure 5.12(a) using the Magic Eye V i e w technique (Kreuseler and Schumann 2002), a method by which all o f the hierarchical nodes are distributed on the surface o f a hemisphere.  Number Of Drivers  Chart FX Properties  rotal  General Series Axes  P  Distribution for Number Org. Drivers  of  Distribution for Number of Total Drivers  Number of Org. Drivers  Rotated view  X Angle J45 ~jj Eerapeotjve:  i*Angle: |45~Jj[| Shadows | Feted angle  OK  |  Cancel  L2  ).  (a) |  Help  1.3  \J-  L8  L9  1.10  Location Interval  Figure 5.11 (a) 3-D graph viewer; (b) Lateral view of distribution graph after rotation  For example, i f you click "Total: 33" in the box i n figure 5.10, a hierarchical structure with a total o f 33 drivers w i l l pop up while i f you click "Owner: 9" a hierarchical structure with a total o f 9 drivers for which the owner is responsible w i l l pop up. If the responsibility for a driver is shared amongst two or more project participants, the driver w i l l be included i n the count for each organization but it w i l l only be counted once in terms o f the total number o f drivers for its corresponding time and location interval. Lastly, attribute values for each o f these drivers can be  116  popped up as shown i n figure 5.12 (b) once the user rotates and focuses on the intended driver and suspends the mouse on it.  T 2  Component Attributes Value Table Name  Inherited  3  1  4  2  „ 5  3  6  4  B/q/L Location Planned Value Actual Value  5  (b)  Figure 5.12 (a) Hemispherical hierarchy; (b) Focused hemispherical hierarchy (Revised from Kreuseler and Schumann 2002)  5.7 Conclusions Described i n this paper is a comprehensive approach for modeling a project's natural and man-made environments i n support o f the functions associated with project management, with special reference to risk management. It builds on the past work o f others for characterizing the environment o f a project. Integral to the approach developed is the integration o f the environmental view o f a project with other project views such as the physical, process, organizational/contractual and risk views, and the ability to capture and reuse knowledge gained from past projects and other sources. Equally important is what should be the contents o f an environmental view. Thus, a master library o f environmental components along with examples of relevant component attributes for infrastructure projects is provided. Use is made o f two real  117  projects to demonstrate features o f the approach and its applicability and usefulness for modeling full-scale projects. H o w to extract messages from the masses o f data that describe the environmental and risk views o f a project using data visualization strategies is also discussed. Ongoing work is focused on implementing these data visualization strategies and seeking input from practitioners.  5.8 Acknowledgements W e gratefully acknowledge financial support for this work by N S E R C Strategic Grant S T P G P 257798-02, Decision Support System and Knowledge Management Concepts for the Construction Industry, and the British Columbia Ministry o f Transportation Grant-in-Aid, Assessing P3 Risk Management for Public Sector Projects. The project team consists o f A l a n Russell, project leader, Sanjay DeZoysa, P h D candidate  and graduate research  assistant  responsible for developing the risk and environmental modeling constructs and supporting system architecture, Y u g u i Wang, M A S c student and graduate research assistant, responsible for validating the environmental modeling constructs, developing a master environmental model template, conducting case studies on actual projects and visualizing environmental data, Asad Udaipurwala, P h D candidate  and graduate research  assistant,  a key participant  in the  development o f the overall prototype system as well as with the process view, and W i l l i a m Wong, senior programmer responsible for development and maintenance o f the prototype system.  5.9 Bibliography Asian  Development Bank (2002). "Handbook on environment  statistics."  Development  Indicators and Policy Research Division, Economics and Research Department, A s i a n Development Bank.  118  Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency (2003). "Basics o f Environmental Assessment." http://www.ceaa.gc.ca/010/basics_e.htm (1 Nov.'04).  Carpenter, T. (2001). "Construction in a fragile world." Environment, Construction, and Sustainable Development, V I . Edited by T. G . Carpenter. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2001.  DeZoysa, S., Wang, Y , and Russell, A . D . (2005). "Use o f IT in Managing Environmental Risks in Construction Projects." Proceedings for the A S C E Construction Research Congress, A p r i l 5-7, 2005, San Diego.  Environmental Assessment Office ( E A O ) (2004a). "Sea to Sky highway improvement project assessment report." http://www.eao.gov.bc.ca/epic/output/html/deploy/epic_document_l 92  _18995.html (16 Feb. '05)  Environmental Assessment  Office  ( E A O ) (2004b). " N e w Fraser River Crossing project  assessment report." http://www.eao.gov.bc.ca/epic/output/html/deploy/epic_document_214  _19086.html (16 Feb. '05)  Hughes, W . (1989). "Identifying the environments o f construction projects." Construction Management and Economics, 7(1), 29-40.  Kreuseler, M . , and Schumann, H . (2002). " A flexible approach for visual data mining. " I E E E Transactions  on Visualization and Computer Graphics, Institute o f Electrical  and  Electronics Engineers Computer Society, 8(1): 39-51.  Marmoush, Y . (1999). "Environmental management o f coastal development, state o f Kuwait." Water science Technology, 40(7), 47-53.  119  Ministry  of  Transportation,  British  Columbia  ( M O T ) (2003).  "Environmental  Impact  Assessment Synopsis Report, Okanagan Lake Bridge Project." Ministry o f Transportation, Environmental Management Section, Victoria, B C .  N e w Y o r k Department o f Transportation ( N Y D O T ) (2001). "Environmental handbook for transportation operations." N Y S D O T Environmental Analysis Bureau ( E A B ) , N e w York.  Russell, A . and Udaipurwala, A . (2004). "Using multiple views to model construction." C I B World Building Congress 2004, Toronto, Canada. 11 pages.  Tszmokawa, K . , and Hoban, C . (1997). "Roads and the environment- a handbook." The W o r l d Bank technical paper N o . 376. The W o r l d Bank, Washington D . C .  Underhill, J. and Angold, P. (2000). "Effects o f roads on wildlife i n an intensively modified landscape." Environment Review, (8) 21-39.  Wang, Y . (2005). "Environmental Risk Modeling o f Infrastructure Projects." M A S c . thesis, Department o f C i v i l Engineering, the University o f British Columbia.  Week, T. (1977). "Environmental impact o f transportation project." Environmental Impacts o f International C i v i l Engineering Projects and Practices. Proceedings o f a session o f the A S C E National Convention, San Francisco, 1-28.  Wilson, F. and Stonehouse, D . (1983). "Environmental impact assessment: highway location." Journal o f Transportation Engineering, 109(6), 759-768.  Oresundskonsortiet (2000). "Environmental impact o f the construction o f the Oresund Fixed L i n k . " M a y 2000. Printed by: Fihl Jensen. I S B N : 87-89881-23-0.  120  Chapter 6  Conclusion  6.1 Summary A project's environment is surroundings and their characteristics which, at any phase of the project life cycle, have a direct impact on project performance. These surroundings can be both man-made and natural, and relate to the physical, social, economic/financial, political and regulatory surroundings. Characterizing the context of a construction project through multiple views or models of a project plays an important role in identifying and treating environmental risks that are projectspecific. The environmental and physical components of the project, along with its processes and project participants, can either on their own or in concert act as sources or drivers of risks. For these reasons, modeling of the environment for the purpose of risk management is significant for construction projects. These research motivations are described in Chapter 1 along with research objective, methodology and thesis overview. A thorough literature review is necessary and an effective way to understand and evaluate current approaches for representing a project's environment. The most valuable works identified from such a search are described in Chapter 2. A working definition of project environment is given in the beginning of this chapter to clarify the scope of the research. The notion of an environmental view and other views of a construction project are described to help the reader  121  understand how this concept assists with the approach adopted for environmental risk modeling as described in Chapters 3, 4 and 5. Valuable observations from environment modeling approaches used both in the industrial and academic domains are presented and they form an important foundation for part of the approach developed in this research. Other aspects of the literature search dealt with environmental risks, environmental impacts and mitigation measures, and approaches to data visualization, which could prove useful for dealing with the large volumes of data required for representing a project. Chapter 3 presented the constructs developed for representing and integrating the environmental, risk, physical, process and organizational views of a project for the purpose of environmental risk management. These constructs are based on an IT-based methodology that allows users to capture their knowledge in a re-usable format and apply it in managing environmental risks for specific project contexts. In the computer-based methodology developed, a hierarchical representation structure that allows inheritance and aggregation of user-defined properties is used to model the environment. User-defined hierarchical environmental models for different project types (e.g. coastal highway, bridge, dam, etc.) can be stored as templates on the knowledge management side of the computer system. Risks are modeled through a structure termed the Standard Risk Issue Register (SRR) on the knowledge management side of the system, and the Project Risk Issue Register (PRR) on the project side of the system. Both of them are also organized as hierarchies. The SRR serves as an organization's repository of riskrelated knowledge gained over time. Components of the SRR can be associated with components of the environmental templates on the knowledge management side. For a specific project context, the user builds up the representation for the environment on the project side of the system, using as applicable the standard templates on the knowledge management side of the  122  system. Accompanying this process, risks can be simultaneously added to the Project Risk Register (PRR), which is a project specific repository of risks, either from environmental component associated risks on the knowledge management side or from manual risk identification due to the integration of environmental, process, organizational and physical views. Two case studies are briefly applied to these constructs in this chapter to illustrate the philosophy of these constructs. As seen from Chapter 3, the data for risk drivers identified for a specific project can be numerous and the diverse attributes of each driver make the data sets even more complex. Presented in a traditional format such as table or in text mode, it is hard for a project team to extract information quickly and to gain the insights necessary for effective management. Visual representation of data holds great potential for reducing both communication difficulties between data sets and project teams and communication difficulties among project team members. Chapter 4 investigates current visualization techniques, especially those which have already been applied to construction management data. It also includes some important visualization techniques which are not currently applied to but hold great potential for the construction field. An interactive 3-D histogram is provided in this chapter to visualize four dimensions of risk information. This innovative 3-D histogram depicts the number of environmental risk drivers in time and space and by assigned responsibility. A hierarchical risk structure is visualized in a focus + content method and combined with this 3-D histogram by linking. Attributes of each risk driver are also linked to the visualized hierarchical structure. This visualization scheme presents data pertaining to environmental risks in effective formats which facilitate decision making, risk identification, and choice of mitigation measure.  123  Chapter 5 focuses on illustrating and validating aspects o f the IT-based approach for managing environmental risks. B y applying the constructs developed in Chapter 3, a master library o f environmental factors is established and attributes are defined to describe the characteristics o f these environmental factors on the knowledge management  side. The  environmental profile o f two projects, one for the Sea to Sky highway project and one for the Okanagan Lake floating bridge project, are developed. Identifying risk issues and associated risk events that arise from the environmental profile is demonstrated for the floating bridge project. Application o f the constructs developed in Chapter 3 to these two case studies demonstrates that the constructs are sufficiently 'rich' that they can be used to represent what one needs to know about the environment for purpose o f project management, and i n particular, risk management.  6.2 Contributions Contributions resulting from this thesis are: 1.  A structured literature review is provided in Chapter 2 with observations. This literature review identifies the most important works related to project environment. Both researchers and practitioners working on this topic or relevant topics can benefit from this literature review.  2.  A comprehensive master library consisting o f 165 environmental factors is developed, which treats most i f not all o f the environmental factors associated with infrastructure projects. Relevant mitigation measures  for these environmental factors are also  included. 3.  Attributes are defined for each o f the environmental factors to describe their characteristics. These attributes are important for environmental risk identification i n  124  that it is the value of the attribute that acts as a risk driver. These attributes are also helpful for project practitioners to understand why these environmental factors are important for project performance. 4.  The robustness of the constructs developed to represent the environment is explored by applying them to two rather distinct case studies. These constructs have proved to be sufficiently rich to model the complete spectrum of environmental components and related risks encountered on infrastructure projects.  5.  Visualization strategies for environmental risks have been explored. These strategies have the potential to provide project practitioners with an effective way of capturing environmental risk information quickly. They also demonstrated the potential to reduce communication difficulties encountered amongst project participants.  6.3 Recommendations for Future Work The research in this thesis has lead to several areas for future work, as follows: 1.  A methodology should be developed for applying the environmental factors and attributes defined for them to generate an environmental impact assessment statement. Not all environmental issues are uncertain and relevant to project risks. However, certain environmental factors are also need to be mitigated and project performance can also be impacted by them. IT technologies are seldom used in environmental impact assessment procedure, and knowledge gained from the past projects is seldom structured for re-used for future projects. A system with such characteristics is needed by industry.  125  2.  Strategies for visualization o f project environment data in a generic way are still needed. The strategies developed in this research for visualization o f environmental risks should be extended to embrace all o f environmental risk management, environmental impact assessment, and environmental management.  3.  A risk library with identified environmental risks that can be stored on the knowledge management  side  needs  to  be  established.  Association o f these  risks  with  environmental factors on the knowledge side should also be affected so that this can be applied to future projects. 4.  A more comprehensive set o f mitigation measures o f both environmental risks and environmental impacts need to be identified.  126  Appendix I Components of Standard Environmental Breakdown Structure Environment Project Environment  Class Physical  Sub-Class Hydrography  Entity  Sub-Entity  Drainage Systems Creek Stream River Well Reservoirs Lake Lagoon Sea Icefield Groundwater Runoff Water  Topography  Mountain Hill Plain Estuary Shallows Canyon Pastures Wetlands Savannas Scrubland Forest Tundra Desert Seashore Bay Gulf Strait  Geology  Soil Inland Sand Coastal Sand Rock Coral Reef Sediment Load Debris Flow Area Ground Movements To be Continued 127  Continued Environment  Class  Sub-Class  Entity  Sub-Entity  Seismic Area Volcanic Active Area Botany  Trees Shrubs Grasses Fern Emblement Aquatic Plants Vegetation Debris  Habitat  Terrestrial Habitat Aquatic Habitat Marine and Coastal Habitat Migration Zone  Zoology  Amphibia Reptilia Mammalia Bird Fish Invertebrate  Lower Organisms  Bacteria Fungi  Atmosphere  A i r Quality Upper A i r Ozone Layer  Climatology  Gust o f Wind Fog Frost Snowfall Rainfall Severity of Freezing Thawing Cycles Temperature Relative Humidity Atmospheric Pressure Storms Snow Avalanche Floods Drought Tornado Typhoon Hurricane Tsunamis To be Continued  128  Continued •Environment  Class  Sub-Class Diseases Control  Entity  Sub-Entity  Botanical Disease Zoic Disease Human Disease  Pollution  Potentially A c i d Generating ( P A G ) Material Metal Leachate ( M L ) Toxic Contaminated Site Solid Toxic Waste Liquid Waste Discharges and Sewages Biotic Waste Dumping and Landfdlings  Social  Aboriginal  First Nation Interest  Community Life  Noise Vibration from Traffic Traffic / Transportation Congestion Community Access Recreation Parks Emergency Services Public Health Accidents and Malfunctions Cemeteries, Schools, Place o f Worship Community Events Community Education Service Civic Safety Utilities Space and Land Use Impact (Surface and Sub-surface)  Urban Environment , Commercial Area Slums Environmental Infrastructure Micro Social Factors  Population and Demography Social Instability Wealth Distribution  Other Human  Other Construction Activities  Settlements  Land Use in Other Settlements  Archeological and Historic Resources  Heritage  Aesthetics  Landscape  Archeology Site Townscape To be Continued 129  Continued Environment  Class  Sub-Class  Entity  Sub-Entity  Scenic Views and Vistas Economic / Economic Indicators Financial  GDP CPI Private and Government Consumption Special Construction Index  Macro Economic  Monetary Inflation Economic Growth Foreign Exchange Rate and Reserves Capital Movement Restriction  Market Resources  A / E / C firms Client or Owner Relationship Competition Construction Materials Skilled and Unskilled Workers Labor Cost/ Productivity Construction Equipment Logistics  Finance  Medium and Long Term Financing. Tax and Nontax Incentives  Market Potential  Market Volume Bidding Project Volume  Agriculture  Agriculture Land Reserve Agriculture Operations Aquaculture  Foresty  Economic Loss Due to Deforestation  Tourism  Tourism Boom  Commerce  Trade  Resources  Natural Resources Residential and Community Property Offices and Public Buildings  Political  Claims  Third Party Claims  Government  Political Continuity Enforceability of Contract Government Incentives  Military  Military Occupied Area Military Restriction  Anarchy  Strike Riot Terrorist A c t C i v i l Strife and Armed Conflict To be Continued 130  Continued Environment  Class  Sub-Class  Entity  Sub-Entity  War Government Authority Legal Policy  Federal Government Authority Province Government Authority Local Government Authority Procedure for Bidding and Design Approval Livable Region Strategic Plan Labor and Strike, Repatriation Restriction.  Regulatory  Regulatory Change  Permits, Licenses and Authorizations Changes in Regulations, Rules, Guidelines Formulated and Programs Taken.  N e w Regulatory  N e w Regulatory  131  Appendix II Attribute Definition of Standard E B S Entity Level Components  Standard  Environmental Breakdown Structure  is  classified  into  physical,  social,  economic/financial, political, and regulatory classes. Attribute definition for entity level components in each o f these classes are listed from Table A I I . l to Table A I L 5. The letter L , B or Q represents that the attribute is either linguistic, boolean or quantity respectively. The letter I represents that this attribute is inherited from upper level.  Table A I L 1, Attribute definition o f physical components at the entity level o f Standard E B S .  Components  Attributes  Type  Definition  Drainage System  Name o f the Waterbody  L,I  The name o f drainage system.  L  L,I L,I  The drainage system is used for waste water, water supply for the purpose o f irrigation or drinks, or other purpose. Whether the drainage system is seasonal used or all year round used The P H value o f water i n the drainage. The highest temperature o f the water in the drainage. The lowest temperature o f the water in the drainage. A list o f suspended solids. A list o f dissolved organic compound.  L,I L  A list o f dissolved mineral. The cross section shape o f the drainage.  Q  The cross section area o f the drainage.  Q Q  The water table level o f the drainage. The water depth in the drainage.  Role o f the Drainage System Seasonal P H Value The Highest Temperature The Lowest Temperature Suspended Solids Dissolved Organic Compound Dissolved Mineral Cross Section Shape Cross Section Area Water Table Level Water Depth  B,I Q,I Q,i Q,i  132  Velocity Creek <  Stream  River  Name o f the Waterbody Seasonal P H Value The Highest Temperature The Lowest Temperature Suspended Solids Dissolved Organic Compound Dissolved Mineral Cross Section Shape Cross Section Area Water Table Level Water Depth Velocity Name o f the Waterbody Seasonal P H Value The Highest Temperature The Lowest Temperature Suspended Solids Dissolved Organic Compound Dissolved Mineral Cross Section Shape Cross Section Area Water Table Level Water Depth Velocity Name o f the Waterbody Seasonal P H Value The Highest Temperature The Lowest  Q L,I  The water velocity i n the drainage. The name o f creek.  B,I  L,I L,I  Whether the creek is seasonal. The P H value o f water in the creek. The highest temperature o f the water in the creek. The lowest temperature o f the water in the creek. A list o f suspended solids. A list o f dissolved organic compound.  L,I L  A list o f dissolved mineral. The cross section shape o f the creek.  Q  The cross section area o f the creek.  Q Q Q L,I  The The The The  B,I  L,I L,I  Whether the stream is seasonal. The P H value o f water in the stream. The highest temperature o f the water in the stream. The lowest temperature o f the water i n the stream. A list o f suspended solids. A list o f dissolved organic compound.  L,I L  A list o f dissolved mineral. The cross section shape o f the stream.  Q  The cross section area o f the stream.  Q Q Q L,I  The The The The  B,I  Whether the river is seasonal. The P H value o f water in the river. The highest temperature o f the water in the river. The lowest temperature o f the water in the  Q,I Q,I Q,I  Q,l Q,l Q,i  Q,l Q,I Q,i  water water water name  water water water name  table level o f the creek. depth in the creek. velocity in the creek. o f Stream.  table level o f the stream. depth i n the stream. velocity i n the stream. o f river.  133  Temperature Suspended Solids Dissolved Organic Compound Dissolved Mineral Cross Section Shape Cross Section Area Water Table Level Water Depth Velocity N W  e  l  l  Reservoir  a  m  e  o  f  t  h  e  Waterbody Seasonal P H Value The Highest Temperature The Lowest Temperature Suspended Solids Dissolved Organic Compound Dissolved Mineral Cross Section Shape Cross Section Area Water Table Level Water Depth Ground Level Name o f the Waterbody Seasonal P H Value The Highest Temperature The Lowest Temperature Suspended Solids Dissolved Organic Compound Dissolved Mineral Geometric Shape Area Water Table Level  L,I L,I  river. A list o f suspended solids. A list o f dissolved organic compound.  L,I L  A list o f dissolved mineral. The cross section shape o f the river.  Q  The cross section area o f the river.  Q Q Q L,I  The The The The  B,I  L,I L,I  Whether the well is seasonal. The P H value o f water in the well. The highest temperature o f the water i n the well. The lowest temperature o f the water i n the well. A list o f suspended solids. A list o f dissolved organic compound.  L,I L  A list o f dissolved mineral. The cross section shape o f the well.  Q  The cross section area o f the well.  Q Q Q L,I  The water table level o f the well. The water depth in the well. The ground level where the well is.  B,I  Whether the reservoir is seasonal. The P H value o f water in the reservoir. The highest temperature o f the water i n the reservoir. The lowest temperature o f the water in the reservoir. A list o f suspended solids. A list o f dissolved organic compound.  Q,I QJ Q,l  Q,I Q, I Q,i L,I L,I L,I L Q Q  water water water name  table level o f the river. depth in the river. velocity in the river. o f well.  The name o f reservoir.  A list o f dissolved mineral. The shape o f the reservoir. The area o f the reservoir. The water table level o f the reservoir.  134  Water Depth Bank Level Lake  Name o f the Waterbody Seasonal P H Value The Highest Temperature The Lowest Temperature Suspended Solids Dissolved Organic Compound Dissolved Mineral Geometric Shape Area Water Table Level Water Depth Bank Level  L  a  g  0  0  n  Name o f the Waterbody Seasonal P H Value The Highest Temperature The Lowest Temperature Suspended Solids Dissolved Organic Compound Dissolved Mineral Geometric Shape Area Water Table Level Water Depth Bank Level  g  e a  Name o f the Waterbody Circulation Pattern Current Velocity Tide Table M a x i m Wave Height  Q Q L,I B,I Q.I Q,l Q,i L,I L,I L,I L Q Q Q Q L,I B,I Q,i Q,i Q,I L,I L,I L,l L Q Q Q Q  The water depth in the reservoir. The ground level at the top o f the bank o f the reservoir. The name o f lake. Whether the lake is seasonal. The P H value o f water i n the lake. The highest temperature o f the water i n the lake. The lowest temperature o f the water in the lake. A list o f suspended solids. A list o f dissolved organic compound. A list o f dissolved mineral. The shape o f the lake. The area o f the lake. The water table level o f the lake. The water depth in the lake. The ground level at the top o f the bank o f the lake. The name o f lagoon. Whether the lagoon is seasonal. The P H value o f water in the reservoir. The highest temperature o f the water i n the lagoon. The lowest temperature o f the water i n the lagoon. A list o f suspended solids. A list o f dissolved organic compound. A list o f dissolved mineral. The shape o f the lagoon. The area o f the lagoon. The water table level o f the lagoon. The water depth in the lagoon. The ground level at the top o f the bank o f the lagoon.  L  The name o f the sea.  L  The The The The  Q L Q  circulation pattern o f the sea. average velocity o f the current. tide table for the sea. maxim wave height i n a year.  135  Icefield  Ground Water  Runoff Water  Sea Level Rising Name o f the Waterbody Area Deflate Rate Ice Depth Hardness o f Ice Name o f the Waterbody Seasonal P H Value The Highest Temperature The Lowest Temperature Suspended Solids Dissolved Organic Compound Dissolved Mineral Geometric Shape Area Water Table Level Water Depth Water Velocity Water Pressure P H Value Suspended Solids Dissolved Organic Compound Dissolved Mineral Area Water Velocity Infiltration Rate  Mountain  Hill  Name Average Altitude Summit Altitude Length Slope o f Fall Surface Stability Surface Erodibility Name Average Altitude Summit Altitude Slope o f Fall Surface Stability  Q L  The average sea level rising per year. The name o f the icefield.  Q Q Q Q L,I  The area o f the icefield. Deflate Rate o f Icefield per Year The thickness o f the ice. The hardness o f the ice. The name o f ground water at the location.  B,I Q,i Q,i  Whether the ground water is seasonal. The P H value o f water. The highest temperature o f the water.  Q,i  The lowest temperature o f the water.  L,I L,I  A list o f suspended solids. A list o f dissolved organic compound.  L,I L  A list o f dissolved mineral. The shape o f the ground water. The area o f the ground water. The water table level o f the ground water. The water depth o f the ground water. The ground water velocity. The pressure o f the ground water. The P H value o f water. A list o f suspended solids. A list o f dissolved organic compound.  Q Q Q Q Q Q L L L Q Q Q L,I Q Q Q Q B B L,I Q Q Q B  A list o f dissolved mineral. The area where the runoff water impact. The runoff water velocity. The infiltration rate for the runoff water to infiltrate i n the soil. The name o f the mountain. The average altitude o f the mountain. The altitude o f summit. The length o f the mountain. The average slope o f fall o f the mountain. Whether the surface layer is stable. Whether the surface can be easily eroded. The name o f the hill. The average altitude o f the hill. The altitude o f summit. The average slope o f fall o f the hill. Whether the surface layer is stable.  136  \  Plain  Estuary  Shallows  Canyon  Pasture  Wetland  Savanna  Scrubland  Forest  Surface Erodibility Name Average Altitude Area Surface Erodibility Name Average Altitude Area Geometric Shape M a x i m Width Minimum With Surface Erodibility Name Average Altitude Area Geometric Shape Surface Erodibility Name Length Average Width M a x i m Width M i n i m u m With Average Depth M a x i m Depth M i n i m u m Depth Surface Erodibility Name Average Altitude Area Geometric Shape Enclosure Name Average Altitude Area Geometric Shape Name Average Altitude . Area Name Area Geometric Shape Average Scrub Height Name Area Species Diversity  B  Whether the surface can be easily eroded. The name o f the plain. The average altitude o f the plain. Q The area o f the plain. Q B Whether the surface can be easily eroded. The name o f the estuary. L,I The average altitude o f the estuary. Q The area o f the estuary. Q L The geometric shape o f the estuary. The maxim width o f the estuary. Q ' The minimum width o f the estuary. Q B . Whether the surface can be easily eroded. The name o f the shallows. L,I The average altitude o f the shallows. Q The area o f the shallows. Q L The geometric shape o f the shallows. B Whether the surface can be easily eroded. The name o f the canyon. L,I The length o f the canyon. Q The average width o f the canyon. Q The maxim width o f the canyon. Q The minimum width o f the canyon. Q The average depth o f the canyon. Q The maxim depth o f the canyon. Q The minimum depth o f the canyon. Q B Whether the surface can be easily eroded. The name o f the pasture. L,I The average altitude o f the pasture. Q The area o f the pasture. Q L The geometric shape o f the pasture. B Whether the pastures has enclosure. L,I  Q  The The The The The The The The The The The  Q B  The name o f the forest. The area o f the forest. Whether there are diverse species.  L,I Q Q L L,I Q Q L, I Q L  name o f the wetland. average altitude o f the wetland. area o f the wetland. geometric shape o f the wetland. name o f the savanna. average altitude o f the savanna. area o f the savanna. name o f the scrubland. area o f the scrubland. geometric shape o f the scrubland. average height o f the scrub.  137  Tundra  Desert  Seashore  Bay Gulf Strait  Soil  Inland Sand  Coastal Sand  Rock  Coral Reef Sediment Load  Forest degradation  B  Name Average Altitude Area Freeze-up Name Average Altitude Area Surface Stability Name Average Width M a x i m Width M i n i m u m With Surface Erodibility Name Area Name Area Name Length Average Width M a x i m Width M i n i m u m With Topsoil Depth Top Bedrock Level Water-Solubility Area Depth Sand Quality Sand Color  L,I  Area Depth Sand Quality Sand Color Adverse M i n i n g Impact Rock Layer Area Rock Layer Depth Rock Hardness Rock Color Area Bleach Sediment Area Sediment Depth Firmness  Q Q L L B  Q Q L L,I Q Q B L,I Q Q Q B L,I Q L,I Q L,I Q Q Q Q Q Q B Q Q L L  Q Q Q L Q B Q Q B  Whether the forest has degradation. The name o f the tundra. The average altitude o f the tundra. The area o f the tundra. The period o f freeze up in a year. The name o f the desert. The average altitude o f the desert. The area o f the desert. Whether the surface layer is stable. The name o f the seashore. The average width o f the seashore. The maxim width o f the seashore. The minimum width o f the seashore. Whether the surface can be easily eroded. The name o f the bay. The area o f the bay. The name o f the gulf. The area o f the gulf. The name o f the strait. The length o f the strait. The average width o f the strait. The maxim width o f the strait. The minimum width o f the strait. The depth o f topsoil. The level o f top o f bedrock. Whether it's water soluble. The area o f the sand source. The depth o f the sand source. Is the sand quality good, bad or medium? The color o f sand. The area o f the sand source. The depth o f the sand source. Is the sand quality good, bad or medium? The color o f sand. Whether there is any adverse impact i f mine the sand from coastal sand source. The area o f the rock layer. The depth o f the rock layer. The hardness o f the rock. The color o f the rock. The area o f the coral reef. Whether the coral reef is bleached. The area o f sediment. The depth o f the sediment. Whether the sediment is firm enough.  138  Debris Flow Area Ground Movement  Period  L  The period i n a year debris flow occurs.  Land Subsidence  B  Whether the land can subside.  Seismic Area Volcanic Activity Area  Seismic Zone  B B  Whether it is located within seismic zone. Whether there are any existing volcanic activities. The number o f endangered species o f trees existing i n the location.  Trees  Shrubs  Grasses  Existing Volcanic Activities Number o f Endangered Species Number o f Project Threatened Species Number o f Threatened Endangered Species A l i e n Invasive Species Degradation o f Mangroves Number o f Trees Need Transplant Number o f Endangered Species Number o f Project Threatened Species Number o f Threatened Endangered Species A l i e n Invasive Species Shrub Area Number o f Endangered Species Number o f Project Threatened Species Number o f Threatened Endangered Species A l i e n Invasive Species  Q,I  Q,I  The number o f project threatened species of trees which need to be mitigated.  Q,i  The number o f project threatened endangered species o f trees which need to be mitigated.  B,I  Whether it's possible to induce alien species o f trees to invade. Whether there w i l l be Mangroves degradation. The number o f trees which need to be transplanted because o f the project. The number o f endangered species o f shrubs existing i n the location.  B Q Q,l  Q,l  The number o f project threatened species of shrubs which need to be mitigated.  QJ  The number o f project threatened endangered species o f shrubs which need to be mitigated.  B,I  Whether it's possible to induce alien species o f shrubs to invade. The area o f the shrubs. The number o f endangered species o f grasses existing in the location.  Q Q,I  Q,I  The number o f project threatened species o f grasses which need to be mitigated.  Q,i  The number o f project threatened endangered species o f grasses which need to be mitigated.  B,I  Whether it's possible to induce alien species o f grasses to invade.  139  Ferns  Emblement  Aquatic Plants  Vegetation Debris Terrestrial Habitat  Area Number o f Endangered Species Number o f Project Threatened Species Number o f Threatened Endangered Species A l i e n Invasive Species Number o f Emblement Species List o f Emblement Species Area o f Emblement Number o f Endangered Species Number o f Project Threatened Species Number o f Threatened Endangered Species A l i e n Invasive Species Vegetation Debris Disposal Area Habit Loss Habitat Degradation Habitat Fragment  Aquatic Habitat  Structure and Characteristic Change Area Habit Loss  Q,i  The area o f the grasses. The number o f endangered species o f ferns existing i n the location.  Q,i  The number o f project threatened species of ferns which need to be mitigated.  Q,i  The number o f project threatened endangered species o f ferns which need to be mitigated.  B,I Q  Whether it's possible to induce alien species o f ferns to invade. The number o f emblement species.  Q  The name list o f the emblement species.  Q  The area o f the emblement  Q,i  The number o f endangered species o f aquatic plants existing in the location.  Q,i  The number o f project threatened species o f aquatic plants which need to be mitigated. The number o f project threatened endangered species o f aquatic plants which need to be mitigated.  Q  Q,i  B,I B Q,i B,I B,I B,I B,I  QJ B,T  Whether it's possible to induce alien species o f aquatic plants to invade. Whether there is vegetation debris disposal. The area o f the habitat. Whether there is habitat loss because o f the project. Whether there is habitat degradation because o f the project. Whether the habitat is fragmented by the project. Whether the project w i l l change the biological structure and characteristics o f the habitat. The area o f the habitat. Whether there is habitat loss because o f  140  Structure and Characteristic Change  B,I  Area  Q,I  the project. Whether there is habitat degradation because o f the project. Whether the habitat is fragmented by the project. Whether the project w i l l change the biological structure and characteristics o f the habitat. The area o f the habitat.  B,I  Whether there is habitat loss because o f  Habitat Degradation Habitat Fragment  Marine and Coastal Habitat  Habitat Loss Habitat Degradation Habitat Fragment  Migration Zone  Structure and Characteristic Change Area Migration Species Name Area Loss  Amphibia  Reptilia  Migration Zone Degradation Migration Zone Fragment Structure and Characteristic Change Number o f Endangered Species Number o f Project Threatened Species Number o f Threatened Endangered Species A l i e n Invasive Species Number o f Endangered Species  B,I B,I  B,I B,I B,I  Q L B B B B,I  Q,I  the project. Whether there is habitat degradation because o f the project. Whether the habitat is fragmented by the project. Whether the project w i l l change the biological structure and characteristics o f the habitat. The area o f the migration zone. The name o f the migration species in the zone. Whether there is migration area loss because o f the project. Whether there is migration zone degradation because o f the project. Whether the migration zone is fragmented by the project. Whether the project w i l l change the biological structure and characteristics o f the migration zone. The number o f endangered species o f amphibia existing i n the location.  Q,I  The number o f project threatened species of amphibia which need to be mitigated.  Q,I  The number o f project threatened endangered species o f amphibia which need to be mitigated.  B,I  Whether it's possible to induce alien species o f amphibia to invade. The number o f endangered species o f reptilia existing i n the location.  Q,I  141  Mammalia  Bird  Number o f Proj ect Threatened Species Number o f Threatened Endangered Species A l i e n Invasive Species Number o f Endangered Species Number o f Proj ect Threatened Species Number o f Threatened Endangered Species A l i e n Invasive Species Number o f Endangered Species Number o f Project Threatened Species Number o f Threatened Endangered Species A l i e n Invasive Species Migration Table  Fish  Number o f Endangered Species Number o f Project Threatened Species Number o f Threatened Endangered Species A l i e n Invasive  QJ  The number o f project threatened species of reptilia which need to be mitigated.  QJ  The number o f project threatened endangered species o f reptilia which need to be mitigated.  B,I  Whether it's possible to induce alien species o f reptilia to invade. The number o f endangered species o f mammalia existing in the location.  QJ  QJ  The number o f project threatened species o f mammalia which need to be mitigated.  QJ  The number o f project threatened endangered species o f mammalia which need to be mitigated.  B,I  Whether it's possible to induce alien species o f mammalia to invade. The number o f endangered species o f birds existing i n the location.  QJ  QJ  The number o f project threatened species o f birds which need to be mitigated.  QJ.  The number o f project threatened endangered species o f birds which need to be mitigated.  BJ  Whether it's possible to induce alien species o f birds to invade. The migration table shows the migration period o f each species o f birds. The number o f endangered species o f fish existing i n the location.  L QJ  QJ  The number o f project threatened species of fish which need to be mitigated.  QJ  The number o f project threatened endangered species o f fish which need to be mitigated.  BJ  Whether it's possible to induce alien  142  Species Migration Table  Invertebrate  Bacteria  Fungi  A i r Quality  Upper A i r Ozone  Number o f Endangered Species Number o f Project Threatened Species Number o f Threatened Endangered Species A l i e n Invasive Species Number o f Endangered Species Number o f Project Threatened Species Number o f Threatened Endangered Species A l i e n Invasive Species Number o f Endangered Species Number o f Project Threatened Species Number o f Threatened Endangered Species A l i e n Invasive Species Temperature Humidity Gaseous Pollutants Suspended Particulate Matter Odors Greenhouse Effect  L Q,I  Q.I  Q.I  B,I Q,I  species o f fish to invade. The migration table shows the migration period o f each species o f fish. The number o f endangered species o f invertebrates existing in the location. The number o f project threatened species of invertebrates which need to be mitigated. The number o f project threatened endangered species o f invertebrates which need to be mitigated. Whether it's possible to induce alien species o f invertebrates to invade. The number o f endangered species o f bacteria existing in the location.  Q,i  The number o f project threatened species o f bacteria which need to be mitigated.  Q,i  The number o f project threatened endangered species o f bacteria which need to be mitigated.  B,I  Whether it's possible to induce alien species o f bacteria to invade. The number o f endangered species o f fungi existing in the location.  Q,i  Q,I  The number o f project threatened species of fungi which need to be mitigated.  Q,l  The number o f project threatened endangered species o f fungi which need to be mitigated.  B,I  Whether it's possible to induce alien species o f fungi to invade. The temperature o f the air. The humidity o f the air. The name o f gaseous pollutants in the air. The name o f suspended particulate matter in the air. The odors o f the air. Whether there is any gas emission with  Q Q L L L B  Fog  Gas Emission Ozone-depleting Substances W i n d Speed W i n d Direction Visibility  Frost  Frost Period  Snowfall  Annual Average Snowfall  Layer  Gust of Wind  Snowfall Period  Rainfall  Severity of Freezing Thawing Cycles Temperature  Relative Humidity  Month with Maximum Snowfall Snowfall in Maximum Snowfall Month Annual Average rainfall Month with M a x i m u m Rainfall Rainfall in M a x i m u m Rainfall Month Month with M i n i m u m Rainfall Rainfall in M i n i m u m Rainfall Month Severity of Freezing Start Time End Time Average Temperature in Jan Average Temperature in Jul Average Annual Temperature Average Annual Relative Humidity M a x i m u m Annual Relative Humidity M i n i m u m Annual Relative Humidity  B Q L Q L  greenhouse effect. Whether there are any ozone-depleting substances in the upper air zone. The velocity o f the wind. The direction of the wind. The visible distance in the fog. The period in a year during which there is frost.  Q  The average snowfall in a year.  L  The period in a year during which there is snowfall. The month i n a year in which it has maximum snowfall.  L  Q  The snowfall i n the month which has maximum snowfall.  Q  The average rainfall in a year.  L  The month in a year in which it has maximum Rainfall. The rainfall in the month which has maximum rainfall.  Q  L Q  The month in a year in which it has minimum rainfall. The Rainfall in the month which has minimum rainfall.  L  In what degree is it frozen?  L L Q  The start time o f the thawing. The end time o f the thawing. The average temperature in January.  Q  The average temperature in July.  Q  The average temperature in a year.  Q  The average annual relative humidity in a year.  Q Q  j  The maximum relative humidity in a year. The minimum relative humidity in a year.  144  Atmospheric Pressure  Storm Snow Avalanche Floods Drought Tornado Typhoon Hurricane Tsunamis Botanical Disease  Zoic Disease  Human Disease  Potentially A c i d  Annual Average Atmospheric Pressure M a x i m u m Annual Atmospheric Pressure M i n i m u m Annual Atmospheric Pressure Annual Storm Period Annual Avalanche Period Annual Flood Period Drought Existing Annual Tornado Period Annual Typhoon Period Annual Hurricane Period Hurricane Zone Tsunami Zone Invasion o f A l i e n Disease Disease Name Infector Name Contagion Means Susceptible Species Invasion o f A l i e n Disease Disease Name Infector Name Contagion Means Susceptible Species Invasion o f A l i e n Disease Disease Name Infector Name Contagion Means Susceptible Species Volume  Q  The average annual atmospheric pressure in a year.  Q  The maximum atmospheric pressure in a year.  Q  The minimum atmospheric pressure i n a year.  L  The period in a year during which there is storm.  L  The period i n a year during which there is snow avalanche. The period in a year during which there is floods. Whether drought is existing. The period in a year during which there is tornado. The period i n a year during which there is typhoon. The period in a year during which there is hurricane. Is the location i n the hurricane zone? Is the location i n the tsunami zone? Whether there are alien disease invading?  L B L L L B B BJ  L,I L,I  U  B,I L,I L,I LJ L,I B,I  U U U L,I Q,I  The name o f the disease. What species are the infectors? H o w the diseases are. What species are susceptible to these diseases? Whether there are alien disease invading? The name o f the disease. What species are the infectors? H o w the diseases are. What species are susceptible to these diseases? Whether there are alien disease invading? The name o f the disease. What species are the infectors? H o w the diseases are. What species are susceptible to these diseases? The volume o f the potentially acid  145  Generating ( P A G ) Material  generating material.  Metal Leachate ( M L ) Toxic Contaminated Site  Solid Toxic Waste Liquid waste discharges and sewages  Biotic Waste Dumping and Landfillings  L Q,i L L  The name o f potentially acid generating material. The volume o f the metal leachate. The name o f metal. The name o f the contaminated site.  Toxic Material Name Contaminated Volume Contaminated Area  L  What's name o f the toxic material?  Q  The volume o f the contaminated material.  Q  The area o f the contaminated area.  Volume Recyclable  Q,l B  The volume o f the solid toxic waste. Is this solid toxic waste recyclable? The volume o f the liquid waste discharges and sewages.  Name Volume Name Site Name  Volume  Q,i  L i q u i d Name Recyclable Volume Waste Name  L B  Volume  Q,i  Q,i L  What's the name o f the liquid? Is this liquid waste recyclable? The volume o f the biotic waste. What's the name o f the biotic waste? The volume o f the dumping and landfillings.  Table A I L 2, Attribute definition o f social components at the entity level o f Standard E B S .  Components  Attributes  Type  Definition  First Nation Interest  First Nation Name Interest Description  L L  The name o f the first nation. The description o f the first nation interest.  Noise  Noise Level  Vibration from traffic  Frequency  Q Q  Vibration Swing  Q  The level o f the noise. The frequency o f the vibration from traffic nearby. The vibration swing o f the vibration from traffic nearby. The table o f rush hour i n a day in this community.  Traffic / Transportation Congestion  Community Access  L Rush Hour Average Waiting Time Per k m i n Rush Hour  Q  Average waiting time per k m in rush hour in this community.  Community Severance  B  Whether the project w i l l create a barrier to movements between different parts o f  146  Recreation  Parks Emergency Services Public Health  Accidents and Malfunctions Cemeteries, Schools, Place o f worship  Community Events  Recreation Activities  L  Area Occupied  Q  Average Number of People Attended Name o f Park Area  Q  Availability  Utilities  Q B  The area occupied by the recreation activities. Average number o f people who attend these recreation activities simultaneously. The name o f the park. The area occupied by the park. Whether the emergency service is available in this community? ' Is the emergency service efficient? Is there any existing epidemic? What's the frequently occurred disease?  Efficiency Existing Epidemic Frequently Occurred Disease Frequency o f Accidents and Malfunction  B B L L  What's the frequency o f accidents and malfunction?  Area  Q  Age  Q  Important Event Date  L  The area occupied by the cemeteries, schools and place o f worship. What's the age o f the cemeteries, schools, and place o f worship? The important event data in this community. Whether the community has professional training program which can be available to the project.  Community Education Professional Training Service C i v i c Safety  L  previously integral units like residential communities, farms or golf courses. What are the recreation activities?  Safety Drink Water Availability Drink Water Price Industrial Water Availability Industrial Water Price Electricity Power Availability Electricity Price Gas Station Gas Price Telephone Line Telephone Rate Internet Cable  B  B  Is it safe enough in this community?  B  Is drink water available i n this community? What's the price o f drink water? Is industrial water available i n this community? What's the price o f industrial water?  Q B Q B Q B Q B Q B  Is electricity power available in this community? What's the price o f electricity? Is there gas station i n this community? What's the price o f the gas? Is telephone line available in this community? What's the price o f the telephone call? Is internet cable available in this  147  Space and Land Use Impact (Surface and Sub-surface)  Internet Cable Rate T V Cable T V Cable Rate Degradation o f Soil Structure  Slums Environmental Infrastructure  Population and Demography Social Instability  Land Reclamation  B  Area  Q  Population Density Area Population Density Availability o f Sewage Facility Availability o f Sanitation Facility Availability o f Solid Waste Management Emissions and Waste Discharge  Q Q Q B B  Is there any sanitation facility?  B  Is there any solid waste management program?  B  Local Population  Q  Is there any emissions and waste discharge? What's the local population?  Instability  B B  Desertification  Wealth Distribution  Uniform  Other Construction Activities  Construction Project Name Type o f Construction Activity Start Date o f the Construction Activity End Date o f the Construction Activity Name o f Settlement Type o f Settlement Area  Land Use in other Settlements  B  Is T V cable available in this community? What's the price o f T V cable service? Whether the soil structure w i l l be degraded by space and land use. Whether there is desertification due to the space and land use. Whether there is any soil loss due to the space and land use. Whether there is land reclamation. The area occupied by the commercial area. What's the population per square meter? The area occupied by the slums. What's the population per square meter? Is there any sewage facility?  Soil Loss  Commercial Area  Q  community? What's the price o f internet cable service?  Q B B B  L  Is there any unstable social factors? Is the wealth distributed uniformly in the society? The name o f the construction project nearby. What type o f projects is it?  L  The start date o f the project nearby.  L  The end date o f the project nearby.  L  The name o f the settlement nearby.  L  What type is this settlement? The area occupied by this settlement.  L  Q  148  Heritage  Resource Name Creation Era Site Area Current State  Archeology Site  Resource Name Creation Era Site Area Current State  Landscape Townscape Scenic Views and Vistas  Evaluation o f Landscape Evaluation o f Townscape Evaluation o f Scenic and Vistas  L L  L  What's the name o f this resource? When was it created? The area occupied by this heritage. Is it destroyed, partially destroyed or well protected? What's the name o f this resource? When was it created? The area occupied by this archeology site. Is it destroyed, partially destroyed or well protected? Is it an excellent, good or bad landscape?  L  Is it an excellent, good or bad townscape?  L  Are they excellent, good or bad scenic and vistas?  Q L L L Q L  Table A I L 3, Attribute definition o f economic/financial components at the entity level o f Standard E B S .  Components  Attributes  Type  Definition  GDP CPI Private and Government Consumption  G D P Value CPI Value  Q Q Q  The G D P value for this economic area. The C P I value for this economic area. Annual private consumption amount i n this economic area.  Q  Annual government consumption amount in this economic area.  L  The name o f the special index for construction economics.. The value o f the special index.  Annual Private Consumption Annual Government Consumption  Special Construction Index Monetary Inflation  Economic Growth  Foreign Exchange Rate and Reserves  Name o f Index Value o f Index Current Annual Inflation Rate Current Monthly Inflation Rate Current Annual G D P Growth Rate Current Monthly G D P Growth Rate  Q Q  Current Foreign Monetary Reserves Exchange Rate  Q  Q Q Q  Q  The current annual inflation rate in this economic area. The current monthly inflation rate i n this economic area. The current annual G D P growth rate in this economic area. The current monthly G D P growth rate in this economic area. The amount o f current foreign monetary reserves. The foreign exchange rate.  149  Capital Movement Restriction A / E / C firms client or owner relationship competition  Construction Materials  Skilled and Unskilled Workers  Labor Cost/ Productivity  Construction Equipment  Logistics  Restriction Description Average A r c h i . Tender Number / Project Quality o f Architecture Average Eng. Tender Number / Project Quality o f Engineer Average Contr. Tender Number / Project Quality o f Contractor  L  Availability o f Material Quality o f Material Availability o f Unskilled Workers Quality o f Unskilled Workers Availability o f Skilled Workers Quality o f Skilled Workers Average Skilled Labor Cost/ Productivity Average Unskilled L / Cost Productivity  B  Q  The average ratio o f labor cost versus productivity for skilled workers.  Availability o f Construction Equipment Quality o f Construction Equipment Efficiency o f Constr. Material Logistics Efficiency o f Con. Equipment  B  Are the construction equipments available at the local market?  L  What's the quality o f the construction equipments available?  B  Is the logistics system efficient for procurement o f construction material?  B  Is the logistics system efficient for procurement o f construction machinery?  Q  L Q  L Q  L  L B L B L Q  ,  The description o f the restriction o f capital movement by government. The average ratio o f architecture tender number versus project number. The assessment o f architecture firm. Is it good or not so good? The average ratio o f engineer tender number versus project number. The assessment o f engineer firm. Is it good or not so good? The average ratio o f contractor tender number versus project number. The assessment o f contractor firm. Is it good or not so good? Can all o f the construction material be procured at local market? D o the materials have good quality? Are the unskilled workers available at the local market? What's the quality o f the unskilled workers available? Are the skilled workers available at the local market? What's the quality o f the skilled workers available? The average ratio o f labor cost versus productivity for skilled workers.  150  Medium and Long Term Financing  Tax and Non-tax Incentives  Market Volume Bidding Project Volume Agriculture Land Reserve Agriculture Operations  Aquaculture  Logistics Ability for M e d i u m Term Financing A b i l i t y for Long Term Financing Tax Incentives Non-Tax Incentives Current Market Volume Bidding Project Volume Area for Agriculture Land Reserve Impact o f Pesticides Nitrogen Phosphate Fertilizers Impact Impact o f Dense Livestock Number o f Aquarium  Trade Natural Resources (coal, oil, gas, wind power, etc.)  Residential and Community Property  Offices and Public Buildings  Is it very difficult, difficult or easy to obtain medium term financing?  L  Is it very difficult, difficult or easy to obtain long term financing? What tax incentives the government issued for financing? What non-tax incentives exist for financing? H o w many projects are available for construction?  L  Q Q Q  L. L  H o w many projects are available for construction through bidding process? The area for agriculture land reserve which is a limited source. What's the impact o f pesticides used by agriculture operations? What's the impact o f Nitrogen Phosphate Fertilizers used by agriculture operations?  L  What's the impact o f dense livestock?  Q  The number o f aquarium in this area.  Q  The amount o f economic loss because o f the deforestation.  Annual Tourist Population Increase Rate  Q  The annual tourist population increase rate in the area where the project is.  Market Flourish Natural Resources Availability Natural Resource Supply Structure Price o f Natural Resources  B B  Is the local market flourishing? Are there any natural resources in this area? What are the available natural resources in this area? What's the price o f these natural resources? What's the name o f the property?  Economic Loss due to Lost Value Deforestation Tourism B o o m  L  Name o f Property Property Owner Property Value Name o f Building Owner o f Building Building Value  L L L L Q L L Q  Who is the owner o f the property? What's the value o f the property? What's the name o f the building? Who is the owner o f the building? What's the value o f the building?  151  Third Party Claims (Such as claim due to remediation)  Name o f Claimant Amount Claimed Reason for C l a i m Result  L Q L L  The The The The  name o f the claimant. amount the claimant claimed. reason for claim. result o f the claim.  Table A l l . 4, Attribute definition o f political components at the entity level o f Standard E B S .  Components  Attributes  Type  Definition  L  Political Continuity  Political Continuity  Enforceability o f Contract  Contract Enforceability  Government Incentives  Government Incentives for Construction  L  The assessment o f the government and governmental policy's continuity. Is it good, normal or bad? The assessment o f the enforceability o f contract in the society. Is it good, normal or bad? What are the government incentives for construction industry?  Military Occupied Area  Area  Q  Military Restriction Occurrence Frequency Occurrence Frequency Occurrence Frequency  L  Occurrence Frequency Existing War  Military Restriction Strike Riot Terrorist act C i v i l Strife and Armed Conflict War Federal Government Authority  Name o f Authority  Impact o f Authority Name o f Authority Province Government Impact o f Authority Authority Local Government Authority  Name o f Authority  Impact o f Authority Procedure for Bidding Description o f and Design Approval Procedure Livable Region Description o f  L  Q  The area occupied by the military i n the area where the project is. What the restriction the project has from military? The average times o f strikes i n a year.  Q  The average times o f riots in a year.  Q  The average times o f terrorist act in a year.  Q  The average times o f civil strife and armed conflict in a year. Whether there is existing war.  B L  What's the name o f this authority?  L  What impact w i l l this authority has on the project? What's the name o f this authority? What impact w i l l this authority has on the project?  L  What's the name o f this authority?  L  What impact w i l l this authority has on the project? Description o f bidding and design approval procedure stipulated by the law. The description o f the regional strategic  L  152  Strategic Plan Labor and Strike, Repatriation Restriction  Plan Description o f Related Juristic Rules  L  plan which is important for project plan. The description o f related juristic rules for labor and strike, repatriation, and restriction o f these issues.  Table A I L 5, Attribute definition o f regulatory components at the entity level o f Standard E B S .  Components  Attributes  Type  Definition  Permits, Licenses and Issuing Authorizations  Permit Name Permit Issuing Authority License Name License Issuing Authority Authorization Name Authorization Issuing Authority  L L  The name o f issued permit. The authority which issued the permit.  L L  The name o f issued license. The authority which issued the license.  L  The name o f issued authority.  L  The authority which issued the authority.  L  The description o f the changes in regulations, rules, guidelines and programs.  L  The description o f new regulatory.  Changes in regulations, rules, guidelines formulated and programs taken.  Description o f Changes  N e w Regulatory  Description o f N e w Regulations  153  Appendix III Mitigation Measures for Environmental Impact and Risks Note: 1, This table contains some of mitigation measures for some environmental impact and risks. It neither contains the full list o f mitigation measures for each issue, nor does it contain the full list o f environmental impact and risks. 2, This table contains the name o f the environmental issues, the description o f environmental issue, whether they affect part o f the project (local) or overall project (global), i n which project phase they w i l l affect a project, what performance measures they w i l l affect a project, and their mitigation measures.  NO.  ENVIRONME  DESCRIPTION OF  LOCAL/  PROJECT  N T A L ISSUE  E N V I R O N M E N T A L ISSUE  GLOBAL  PHASE  PERFORMANCE MEASURES AFFECTED  Assess the potential for acid Potentially 1  Acid Generating ( P A G ) Material  Preconstruction investigation; minimize rock  generating material. A c i d generating  excavation; reuse P A G material for  material can adversely affect freshwater and marine systems.  MITIGATION MEASURES  Local  Normally, it results from (i) blasting  Construction, Maintenance  Time, Cost, Safety  construction; shortcrete final rock cut surface; encapsulate it and treat any groundwater leachate generated from it;  and exposure of rock cut faces and (ii)  disposed o f to designated site.  disposal o f surplus rock. Metal leachate loading, such as A l u m i n u m and Copper loadings,  Conduct a surface water monitoring  resulting from blasting and exposure 2  Metal  of rock cut faces can impact sensitive  Leachate ( M L ) waterbodies. The severity o f impact depends on the loading levels, physical pathways and the sensitivity o f  Local  Construction, Maintenance  program; preconstruction investigation; Time, Cost, Safety minimize rock excavation; shortcrete final rock cut surface; collect and treat runoff; line ditches with lime.  receptors. To be Continued  154  Continued ENVIRONME NO.  N T A L ISSUE  DESCRIPTION OF E N V I R O N M E N T A L ISSUE  LOCAL/  PROJECT  GLOBAL  PHASE  PERFORMANCE MEASURES  MITIGATION M E A S U R E S  AFFECTED Detailed peak flow estimation and detailed design; evaluate all the results from both  Design,  Problems associated with flood and 3  Flood  insufficient design for flood  Local  mitigation.  Construction, Safety, Cost, Time Maintenance  rainfall-based methods and regional data methods to finally estimate a suitable design flow based on the reliability o f input data, past events, historic high flow records, and professional experience. Construction dams as necessary.  Constructing new infrastructure or changes to existing infrastructure such Downstream 4  Channel Processes  as highway, bridge and culvert can potentially alter downstream channel processes by increasing channel  Design, Local  Construction, Safety, Cost, Time assessment o f the impact resulting from Maintenance  erosion, increasing overbank flow, and  Detailed investigation and design; downstream channel processes.  increasing bedload movement in alluvial channels.  Hydraulic 5  Connectivity  Improper hydraulic connectivity  Permeable embankment; use o f retention  between upslope and downslope areas  ponds and constructed wetlands to attenuate Design,  of the construction site can cause serious erosion and other damages to infrastructure. Proper connectivity  Local  runoff rate from impervious area.  Construction, Safety, Cost, Time Specifically for highway: direct highway Maintenance  runoff to bio-filtration swales along the road  measures have to be adopted to reduce  side thus ensuring water quality to lowland  adverse impacts.  areas; and use o f porous asphalt pavement. To be Continued 155  Continued  NO.  5  ENVIRONME N T A L ISSUE  Hydraulic Connectivity  DESCRIPTION OF E N V I R O N M E N T A L ISSUE  LOCAL/  PROJECT  GLOBAL  PHASE  ponds and constructed wetlands to attenuate  of the construction site can cause serious erosion and other damages to  Design, Local  infrastructure. Proper connectivity  Construction, Safety, Cost, Time Specifically for highway: direct highway Maintenance  adverse impacts.  areas; and use o f porous asphalt pavement.  embankment; marine sediment  Sedimentation  transport dynamics at proposed barge-  Open-bottom culvert; adequate erosion protection; berm drain outlets on cut batters Design, Local  major cut batters; timber windrows act as sediment barriers.  problems.  (DSC)  The impact on structure due to unexpected change i n soil strata  could be designed to tail out into adjacent  Construction, Safety, Cost, Time vegetated areas and disperse run off at nonMaintenance erosive velocities; reduce the steepness o f the  sedimentation can also induce  Conditions  runoff to bio-filtration swales along the road side thus ensuring water quality to lowland  loading facility sites. Creek  8  runoff rate from impervious area.  measures have to be adopted to reduce  Erosion and  Differing Site  AFFECTED  between upslope and downslope areas  foundations and at the road  7  MITIGATION M E A S U R E S  Permeable embankment; use o f retention  structures, at the base o f abutments or  Strata Succession  MEASURES  Improper hydraulic connectivity  Erosion at the inlet and outlet o f  6  PERFORMANCE  Local  Construction, Maintenance  Detailed site investigation; avoid locating the Safety, Cost, Time structure at the area where unexpected change in strata can easily happen.  Risk that the subsurface geology differs from the assumptions made in the initial design and cost estimation  Local  Construction  Safety, Cost, Time Detailed site investigation.  stages o f the project. To be Continued 156  Continued  NO.  9  ENVIRONME  DESCRIPTION OF  LOCAL/  PROJECT  N T A L ISSUE  E N V I R O N M E N T A L ISSUE  GLOBAL  PHASE  Contaminated Soil  PERFORMANCE MEASURES AFFECTED Monitoring construction activities especially  A n y contaminated soil which is found existing at the original construction  MITIGATION MEASURES  Local  Construction  site during construction.  Safety, Cost, Time the excavation o f the original ground and replacing any contaminated soil found.  Highway runoff contains the contaminated water due to winter maintenance (mainly road salt) and the  Removal o f roadside soils which have  continued use o f the roadway where 10  Highway  deposits o f a wide variety o f products  Runoff  are placed on the road surface from  received runoff for a number o f years and Global  Maintenance  Safety, Cost  therefore may be contaminated. Sediment basins that capture all run-off and prevent it  passing vehicles. The runoff flows  from flowing into local waterways.  along highway ditches, which may be directed to streams or lakes without treatment.  Craft a dangerous goods spill response plan; appoint an environmental emergency  Spillage o f fuels, oils and chemicals 11 Spillage  through vehicular accident during project life cycle.  Global  Construction, Maintenance  Safety, Cost  response officer; construct sediment basins as necessary to capture spillage polluted runoff and prevent it from flowing into local waterways.. To be Continued  157  Continued  NO.  ENVIRONME  DESCRIPTION OF  LOCAL/  PROJECT  N T A L ISSUE  E N V I R O N M E N T A L ISSUE  GLOBAL  PHASE  PERFORMANCE MEASURES  MITIGATION MEASURES  AFFECTED Construction o f barrier walls at selected locations with ongoing management o f  12 Debris Torrents  The occurrence o f debris torrents can damage or destroy the infrastructure.  Local  Construction, Time, Cost, Scope, debris torrent risk through continuation o f progressive alert program; inlet gratings; Maintenance Safety high flow culverts; debris basins; protective structures and creek channelization works.  13  Bedload Movement  14 Earthquakes  The frequent conveyance o f channel material during significant flow  Local  events. Infrastructure destroyed by earthquakes.  Global  Construction, Maintenance A l l Phases  Cost and Safety  Maintaining a stable flow regime consistent with natural conditions.  Time, Cost, Scope, N e w earthquake resistant design and Safety  construction; retrofit existing infrastructures. Application o f conservative design standards; attention to, or alteration of, drainage regimes during design; appropriate hydraulic and hydrologic analyses; localized redirection o f drainage away from scour-  This risk can arise from global (slip) .15 Slope Stability  failure, undercutting (scour) o f slopes by water, or total collapse o f structures due to failure of underlying soils.  Local  Construction, Time, Cost, Scope, susceptible areas; weak or soft soils Maintenance  Safety  identified during geotechnical investigation and treated during construction; temporary shoring o f slopes, using techniques such as soil anchoring, shotcrete, mesh, temporary retaining walls and other methods; smooth blasting techniques in the tunnel. To be Continued 158  Continued  NO.  ENVIRONME  DESCRIPTION OF  LOCAL/  PROJECT  N T A L ISSUE  E N V I R O N M E N T A L ISSUE  GLOBAL  PHASE  16 Rock Fall  Problems associated with rock fall from rock cut.  Local  Construction, Maintenance  PERFORMANCE MEASURES  MITIGATION MEASURES  AFFECTED Cost, Safety  A program o f rock slope stabilization; innovative construction practice. Relocate project location away from sloughing snow area; design steep rock and  17  Snow  A n avalanche w i l l block, impair or  Avalanche  destroy the  infrastructure.  Local  Construction, Maintenance  Time, Cost, Safety  soil cuts that tend to slough regularly thus reducing the likelihood o f larger accumulations o f snow affecting infrastructure. M i n i m i z e construction areas; use suitable construction time window; manage  Wildlife 18 Habitat and Vegetation  interactions between project personnel and  Wildlife habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation due to a project. The  Local  removal o f vegetation.  Construction, Maintenance  Time, Cost  wildlife; minimize the duration o f construction; re-vegetate with native species; create rock pile habitat; verifiably survey rare and sensitive species; compensate for loss o f rare ecosystem habitat.  Fisheries and aquatic habitat loss, Fisheries and fragmentation and degradation due to 19 Aquatic Habitat a project.  Local  Construction, Maintenance  Time, Cost  Compensation for loss o f rare ecosystem habitat; careful planning and early design changes in combination with a reduced project scope. To be Continued  159  Continued  NO.  ENVIRONME  DESCRIPTION OF  LOCAL/  PROJECT  N T A L ISSUE  E N V I R O N M E N T A L ISSUE  GLOBAL  PHASE  PERFORMANCE MEASURES  MITIGATION MEASURES  AFFECTED M i n i m i z e quantities handled on stockpiles and transferred between construction  A i r quality degradation due to exhaust  equipment; minimize the time that surface  output, dust, Greenhouse Gases 20 A i r Quality  ( G H G s ) and emitted air contaminants Global from construction material  Construction, Maintenance  Cost, Safety  areas are exposed; water or cover exposed surfaces and stockpiles; cover the load o f haul/dump trucks; ensure that opacity levels  manufacturers.  from exhaust are within acceptable levels; and assess air quality near residences.  21 Ground  Ground movement due to demolition, Local pile driving, and forced ramming.  Use static crushing; chemical breaking; Construction  Time, Cost  hydraulic/ static press in pile equipment; electric machine, static compacting. Concentrate the noisiest activities (e.g., rock drilling, pile driving) within the shortest daytime construction period; possible application o f noise shed, noise-control earth  Noise exposures at sensitive locations 22 Noise  including the noise from both construction and operation activities.  Global  Construction, Maintenance  Cost, Safety  berms, and noise barriers; construction scheduling measures that minimize noise impacts on local residents; quiet construction material (e.g., open-graded asphalt for highway); operation control (e.g., low speed zone o f a highway). To be Continued  160  Continued  NO.  ENVIRONME  DESCRIPTION OF  LOCAL/  PROJECT  N T A L ISSUE  E N V I R O N M E N T A L ISSUE  GLOBAL  PHASE  PERFORMANCE MEASURES  MITIGATION MEASURES  AFFECTED Use detours to provide a by-pass route  23  Traffic / Transportation  around construction areas; schedule  The impact o f traffic disruptions and traffic jams during the construction  Local  Construction  Safety, Cost, Time construction works to avoid times when traffic volumes are higher, including seasons,  phase.  day-of-week and hours o f the day. Consult and work closely with key ;  stakeholders and community advisory groups Community 24 Access (Connectivity)  Potential impacts on current road access to, from and across the  Local  community by a project.  Construction, Maintenance  to ensure that adverse impacts are identified Cost, Safety  and design features are developed to provide safe pedestrian, cyclist and vehicular movement to, from and across the community.  25 Archaeology  26  Adverse impact on the archaeology and heritage site.  First Nations  The adverse impact o f First Nation's  Interest  interest on a project.  Local  Design, Construction  Cost, Time  Thorough investigation; change o f project locations; compensation measures. Specific and directed consultation program;  Local  A l l Phases  Time, Cost, Scope participation in the project by First Nations; stakeholder consultation program. Investigate and predict any changes o f  Changes in 27 Regulations  Changes i n environmental regulations. Global  Construction, Maintenance  Cost, Time, Scope  environment regulations attributable to a project; scrutinize how change to be handled in contractual language.  161  

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